This Volume is for REFERENCE USE ONLY THE ; WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST VOLUME 15 1916 PUBLISHED BY THE WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGICAL'SOCIETY MILWAUKEE O 2* *2 * PKldic.l JM* a 240530 COMMITTEES STATE SURVEY Ellis B. Usher, L. R. Whitney, G. R. Fox, C. E. Brown, Dr. S. A. Barrett, Dr. Louis Falge, H. L. Skavlem. MOUND PRESERVATION Prof. Albert S. Flint, Prof. L. B. Wolfenson, Mrs. E H Van Ostrand, P. V. Lawson, J. M. Pyott, B. F. Faast, T. L. Miller, R. P. Ferry, Dr. N. P. Hulst, C. W. Norris, G. L. Dering, B. O. Bishop, R. S. Owen, Grant Fitch, G. H. Squier, Ghas. Lapham, Rev. J. H. Huhn, W. W Gilman, Dr. A. F. Heising, Dr. F. C. Rogers. PUBLIC COLLECTIONS Henry L. Ward, Prof. A. H. Sanford, Dr. G. L. Collie, Mrs. Jessie R. Skinner, C. L. Fortier, Mrs. E. C. Wiswall, H. P. Hamilton, J P Schumacher, Hon. Emil Baensch, W. W. Warner, B. H. Brah, Most Rev. S. G. Messmer, Dr. Frederick Starr, Dr. \V. C. Daland, H. H. Schufeldt, Jr., Dr J J. Davis, R. H. Becker, Col. G. Pabst, Mrs. Mary J. Wilmarth, Hon. A. J. Horlick, F. H. Lyman, W. P. Clarke, Dr. W. H. Brown. MEMBERSHIP Jos. Ringeisen, B. W. Davis, Rev. L. E. Drexel, Paul Joers, O. L. Obermaier, W. A. Phillips, Miss Julia A. Lunn, L. R. Gagg, A. Crozier, A Gerth, W. A. Wenz, C. G. Schoewe, W. H. Vogel, Miss Minna M. Kunckell, A. W. Pond, E. C. Tagatz, W. A. Kraatz, A. H. Quan, J. V. Berens, Miss Emma Richmond, A. T. Newman, H. O. Younger, Thomas Bardon, W. H. Zuehlke, Prof. F. G. Mueller. PRESS John Poppendieck, Jr., A. O. Barton, E. R. Mclntyre, R. H. Plumb, Miss Mary E. Stewart, A. G. Braband, H. A. Smythe, Jr. MAN MOUND Jacob Van Orden, Dr. W. G. McLachlan, Miss Jennie Baker. SESSIONS These are held in the Lecture Room in the Library-Museum Building, in Milwaukee, on the third Monday of each month, at 8 P. M. During the months of July to October no meetings will be held. MEMBERSHIP FEES Life Members, $25.00 Sustaining Members, $5.00 Annual Members, $2.00 All communications in regard to the Wisconsin Archeological Society or to the "Wisconsin Archeologist" should be addressed to Charles E. Brown, Secretary and Curator, Office, State Historical Museum, Madison, Wisconsin. TABLE OF CONTENTS Vol. 15, No. 1 ARTICLES Page Outagamie County Antiquities 1 Archeological Notes 23 ILLUSTRATIONS lometah Frontispiece Page Map of Outagamie County Facing Plate Page 1. Mosquito Hill 4 2. "Cave" Burial Place 3. Village Site at Leeman 4. Garden Beds at Leeman 5. Large Stump on the Garden Beds 6. Ne-sou-a-qouit, a Fox Chief 20 COMMITTEES STATE SURVEY Dr. S. A. Barrett, Dr. Louis Falge, H. L. Skavlem, L. R. Whitney, G. R. Fox, C. E. Brown. MOUND PRESERVATION Prof. L. B. Wolfenson, Mrs. E. H. Van Ostrand, Prof. A. S. Flint, B. F. Faast, J. M. Pyott, Mrs. Jessie R. Skinner, Rev. L. E. Drexel. PUBLIC COLLECTIONS Dr. Geo. L. Collie, Henry L. Ward, W. W. Warner, H. P. Hamilton, B. W. Davis, Mrs. E. C. Wiswall, F. H. Lyman. MEMBERSHIP W. A. Phillips, H. O. Younger, C. G. Schoewe, Paul Joers, O. L. Obermaier, Miss Minna M. Kunkell, Carl Baur. PRESS A. O. Barton, John Poppendieck, Jr., R. K. Coe, Miss Mary E. Stewart, E. R. Mclntyre. MAN MOUND H. E. Cole, Miss Jennie Baker, H. A. Smythe, Jr. FRAUDS G. A. West, John Evans, W. H. Ellsworth. SESSIONS These are held in the Lecture Room in the Library-Museum Building, in Milwaukee, on the third Monday of each month, at 8 P. M. During the months of July to October no meetings will be held. MEMBERSHIP FEES Life Members, $25.00 Sustaining Members, $5.00 Annual Members, $2.00 All communications in regard to the Wisconsin Archaeological Society or to the "Wisconsin Archeologist" should be addressed to Charles E. Brown, Secretary and Curator, Office State Historical Museum, Madison, Wisconsin. TABLE OF CONTENTS Vol. 15, No. 2 ARTICLES Page Archaeological History of Milwaukee County, Charles E. Brown.... 25 ILLUSTRATIONS Joseph Ringeisen, Jr Frontispiece Page Map of Milwaukee Showing Indian Sites 26 Facing Plate Page 1. Jones Island 40 2. Juneau Mounds 50 3. Lapham Park Mounds 58 4. Dr. Increase A. Lapham 60 5. Shermans Addition Mounds 64 6. School Section Mounds -. 68 7. Teller Mounds 72 8. Portion of Trowbridge- Carey Group 76 9. Implements Found in the James Gravel Pit 80 10. Indian Fields Mounds 84 11. Indian Prairie Mounds 88 Figure Page 1. Winnebago Street Effigy 56 2. Sherman Street Effigy 59 3. Buck Mounds 67 4. Indian Fields Enclosures 78 5. Intaglio at Indian Prairie 87 COMMITTEES STATE SURVEY Dr. S. A. Barrett, Dr. Louis Falge, II. L. Skavlem, L. R. Whitney, G. R. Fox, C. E. Brown. MOUND PRESERVATION Prof. L. B. Wolfenson, Mrs. E. H. Van Ostrand, Prof. A. S. Flint, B. F. Faast, J. M. Pyott, Mrs. Jessie R. Skinner, Rev. L. E. Drexel. PUBLIC COLLECTIONS Dr. Geo. L. Collie, Henry L. Ward, H. P. Hamilton, B. W. Davis, Mrs. E. C. Wiswall, F. H. Lyman, A. T. Newman. MEMBERSHIP W. A. Phillips, H. O. Younger, C. G. Schoewe, Paul Joers, O. L. Obermaier, Miss Minna M. Kunkell, Carl Baur. PRESS A. O. Barton, John Poppendieck, Jr., R. K. Coe, Miss Mary E. Stewart, E. R. Mclntyre. MAN MOUND H. E. Cole, Miss Jennie Baker, H. A. Smythe, Jr. FRAUDS G. A. West, John Evans, W. H. Ellsworth. SESSIONS These are held in the Lecture Room in the Library-Museum Building, in Milwaukee, on the third Monday of each month, at 8 P. M. During the months of July to October no meetings will be held. MEMBERSHIP FEES Life Members, $25.00 Sustaining Members, $5.00 Annual Members, $2.00 All communications in regard to the Wisconsin Archaeological Society or to the "Wisconsin Archeologist" should be addressed to Charles E. Brown, Secretary and Curator, Office, State Historical Museum, Madison, Wisconsin. TABLE OF CONTENTS Vol. 15, No. 3. ARTICLES Page Indian Remains in Waushara County, Geo. R. Fox and E. C. Tagatz 113 Archaeological Notes 168 ILLUSTRATIONS Gilbert Lake Frontispiece Facing Page Archaeological map of Waushara County 114 Facing Plate Page 1. Washout at Pearl Lake 2. Protheroe Group 122 3. Spirit Stone at John's Lake 126 4. Woodworth and Silver Cryst Groups f 130 5. Head of White River near Wautoma 134 6. Walker Group 7. Schmudlach Group 8. Copper Implements, O. J. Weiss Collection 146 9. Potter Group. 10. Whistler Group and Enclosure., 156 11. Two Conical Mounds, Weyneth Group 160 12. Krushki Group 166 Figure Page 1. Club shaped Mound, Spaulding Group '. 139 2. Island Group, Lake Washburn 151 3. Conical and Linear Mound, Pine Lake 156 COMMITTEES STATE SURVEY Dr. 's. A. Barrett, 'Dr. LOUJS Falge, H. L. Skavlem, L. R. Whitney, .G. R. Fox, C. E. Brown. MOUND PRESERVATION Prof. L. B. Wolfenson, Mrs. E. H. Van Ostrand, Prof. A. S. Flint, B. F. Faast, J. M. Pyott, Mrs. Jessie R. Skinner, Rev. L. E. Drexel. PUBLIC COLLECTIONS Dr. Geo. L. Collie, Henry L. Ward, H. P. Hamilton, B. W. Davis, Mrs. E. C. Wiswall, F. H. Lyman, A. T. Newman. MEMBERSHIP W. A. Phillips, H. O. Younger, C. G. Schoewe, Paul Joers, O. L. Obermaier, Miss Minna M. Kunkell, Carl Bauer. PRESS A. O. Barton, John Poppendieck, Jr., R. K. Coe, Miss Mary E. Stewart, E. R. Mclntyre. MAN MOUND H. E. Cole, Miss Jennie Baker, H. A. Smythe, Jr. FRAUDS G. A. West, John Evans, W. H. Ellsworth. SESSIONS These are held in the Lecture Room in the Library-Museum Building, in Milwaukee, on the third Monday of each month, at 8 P. M. During the months of July to October no meetings will be held. MEMBERSHIP FEES Life Members, $25.00 Sustaining Members, $5.00 Annual Members, $2.00 All communications in regard to the Wisconsin Archaeological Society or to the "Wisconsin Archeologist" should be addressed to Charles E. Brown, Secretary and Curator, Office, State Historical Museum, Madison, Wisconsin. TABLE OF CONTENTS Vol. 15, No. 4 ARTICLES Page Grant County Indian Remains, Charles E. Brown and Albert 0. Barton 177 Cassville Mounds and Sites, Charles E. Brown and Leopold E. Drexel 193 A Copper Banner Stone, W. A. Titus 198 The Koshkonong Pilgrimage... 200 Archeological Notes 207 ILLUSTRATIONS Copper Banner Stone Frontispiece Facing Plate Page 1. Osceola Bluff Group 180 2. Grant River Group No. 1 : 186 3. Grant River Group No. 2 192 4. Mounds in Schumeyer Bluff Group 198 5. Schumeyer Bluff Group 204 Figure 1. Riverside Park Mounds.... . 194 lometah Menominee Chief THE WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Quarterly Bulletin Published by the Wisconsin Archeological Society Vol. 15 MADISON, WIS., MARCH, 1916 No. 1 OUTAGAMIE COUNTY ANTIQUITIES George R. Fox PHYSIOGRAPHY Outagamie county, embracing an area twenty-four miles from north to south and twenty-seven miles from east to west, lies on the plain scooped out by the Green Bay glacier. Largely flat land or rolling prairie, the only elevations are the Mosquito hills near New London, the scattered sand dunes, either morainic or swept up by the floods that fol- lowed the melting of the ice, and the limestone ledge which cuts across the county. This ledge has more to do with determining the topography of Outagamie, than any other cause. Starting a little to the east of the center of the north boundary line, it runs a little west of south until the township of Center is reached ; it then makes an abrupt turn and runs west until between Horton- ville and New London, where it again turns to the south leaving the county near its southwest corner. All the sandy part of the county is found to the west of this great backbone. The soil is sand, sandy loam or black mucky loam on a sand base. The land lying to the east and southeast of the ledge is heavy soil, clay (both red and blue) and good black earth. The limestone ledge is also a watershed. Into the county from the north, near its northwest corner, sweeps the Wolf, a stream which in any country save the United States would MAP INDEX The numbers refer to the numbering of the map and of the text descriptions 1. Mounds 2. Ochre Pit 3. "Indian Field" Camp Site 3a. Cemetery 4-9. Camp Sites 9. Oval Mound 10. Burial 11. Burials 12. Cemetery 13. Camp Site 14. Camp Site 14a. The "Cedars" Site 15. Village Site and Burials 16. Garden Beds and "Mounds" 17. Burial 18. Camp Site 19. Camp Site 20. Group of "Mounds" 21. Burial 22. Garden Beds 23. Village Site 24. Corn Field 25. Camp Site 26. Mounds 27. Implement Cache 28. Camp Site 28a. Implement Cache 29. Camp Sites and Graves 30. Cemetery 31. Camp Site and Cemetery 32. Implement Cache 33. Graves 34. Garden Beds 35. Corn Field 36. Camp Site and Corn Field 37. Camp Site 38. Village Site 39. Village Site (Questationing?) and Garden Beds 40. Village Site 41. Garden Beds 42. Burials 43. Garden Beds 44. Camp Site and Garden Beds 45. Garden Beds 46. Camp Sites 47-52. Camp Sites 53. Cemetery and Corn Field Map of Outa The numbers refer to the ni 1 County s in the index and text. Outagamie County Antiquities be bearing on its bosom the floating caravansaries of trade. The natural course of this stream should be to the southeast to join at once the Fox River which it does meet much farther down. But here, between the two, is the stone ledge. The Wolf is forced to make a great sweep to the west, meandering for miles through lowlands and marshes ere it finds the bride it is seeking in the Fox at Big Lake Butte des Morts. Tribu- tary to the Wolf in the county, both coming from the north, are the Embarrass and Shioc rivers, both rather shallow but both still put to a commercial use in the carrying of logs from the woods to the mills. Southeast of the great divide is the Fox river which enters the county at about the center of its south boundary and flowing northeast, leaves the county at its eastern side some six miles north of the south boundary line. The Wolf is a placid, yet swift flowing stream, free from rapids or falls while the Fox is a turbulent torrent for almost its entire course through the county. There could have been hardly a mile, in the early days, where the Fox ran smoothly between its high banks. At Kaukauna began the Grand Kakalin rapids, probably quite uniting with Ko-ne-me-shia (dodge water), the Menom- inee name for the rapids at Little Chute. Only a short dis- tance above these began the Grand Chutes at Appleton. From Lake Winnebago to Green Bay the river drops 166 feet. The Fox receives no tributaries in the county nor are there any streams above the size of creeks in the county southeast of the limestone ledge, save the Fox. Thus the size of the stream, its turbulent course, and the want of any save land transportation precluded the establishment of large aborig- inal communities along the Fox. This country must have been exceedingly attractive in the days when the French first beheld it. The high banks draped in green shrouds of oak, elm and aspen, with an oc- casional pine crowding in, could not but present a very pleasing picture to the eye as the journey led around the sweeping bends. Outagamie county is on the borders of Father Dablon's "earthly Paradise," in fact part of it w r ould be included therein. 4 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 1 In the Relation of 1670-71 Dablon tells of the trip he took through this region with Father Allouez: "If the country of this Nation somewhat resembles an earthly Paradise in beauty, the way leading to it may also be said to have some likeness to the one depicted as leading to Heaven. For scarcely has one proceeded a day's journey up the river from the head of the Bay des Puans when he finds three or four leagues of rapids to contend with. * After accomplishing this journey (through the rapids) which is equally rough and dangerous, we enter, in compensation for all these difficulties over- come, the fairest land possible to behold in every direction prairies only as far as the eye can reach, but by a river which gently winds through it and on which it rests the traveller to paddle his canoe. The region of forests and mountains (the high banks of the Fox?) is passed when one arrives here and nothing but little grove-planted hills present themselves at intervals. * * * Nothing but elms, oaks and other similar trees are seen here." (Jes. Rel., v. 55, p. 191.) ARCHEOLOGY AND HISTORY From an archeological viewpoint Outagamie county is one of the very poorest counties in the southern half of Wiscon- sin. Not only are the evidences of aboriginal occupation which it contains few in number as compared to those of adjoining and other counties but of those which do occur but few or none are of much greater antiquity than the period of French occupation, and many are of much more, or quite recent date. The presence of so comparatively small a number of extensive village sites and the absence of earthworks must be largely due to the fact that there were but a small num- ber of places favorable to the establishment of permanent villages. But three streams of any size, the Fox, Wolf and Embarass, flow through the county. There are no lakes. The area southeast of the limestone ridge already described was covered with a hardwood forest with a heavy soil and must have been a wet, unhealthy region for the greater part of the year. A considerable portion of the land north- west of the Wolf river is so low and flat that even at the pres- ent day it is uninhabited. Even the region along the Fox, in the county, offered but few ideal locations for permanent Indian villages. The Green Bay shore, not far distant, and the extensive lake regions in the adjoining counties of Winnebago, Waupaca and Calumet offered greater induce- ments for aboriginal settlement, and in these regions both archeological and historical evidence show the Indian camps Mosquito Hill From village site on the Wolf River Plate 1 Outagamie County Antiquities and villages to have been numerous. It would appear that for the inhabitants of these regions Outagamie county was more or less of a hunting ground. During the period of French exploration and trade the Fox river valley from Green Bay to Little Lake Butte des Morts was occupied by the Outagamie or Fox Indians. In her excellent paper on "The Fox Indians during the French Regime" (Proc. W. H. C., 1907) Dr. Louise P. Kellogg gives a very interesting account of this Wisconsin tribe. They called themselves Musquakie and were known to the French as Renards. In 1656, the Fox were among the tribes en- camped at Green Bay, a region which they are supposed to have reached by coming around the southern end of Lake Michigan. During the winter of 1605-06 they established a large village on the Wolf. The exact site of this village has been in dispute and has been located by historians on this river in both Waupaca and Outagamie counties. The writer believes it to have been situated near Leeman on the Wolf river, in this county, where there are extensive evidences of former Indian occupation. The village was visited by the French trader and explorer, Nicholas Perrot. He found that it contained six hundred bark-covered wigwams. Father Allouez visited it in 1670 and there founded the mission of St. Mark. The manner of life of the Fox was that common to other Wisconsin tribes during that period, the men de- voting themselves to hunting and warfare and the women to the cultivation of their fields, the dressing of skins, the weaving of matting and other domestic employment. Allouez's last mention of the village was in 1678. This village the Indians abandoned and removed to the Fox river, probably in about the year 1680. At this time they had a village on the shore of Little Lake Butte des Morts. They were a nation of firebrands. "In addition to their disposition to be constantly at strife with their neighbors, they had conceived a hatred of the French because of the aid which the latter gave to the Chippewa and others by furnishing fire arms, and because they gathered the various tribes for the purpose of destroy- ing the Foxes. "The proposal to exterminate them was seriously considered in the French councils, and their destruction would earlier have been attempted but for the pleas interposed by Nicholas Perrot. Their character is briefly described by Charlevoix (Shea, trans., v. 305, 1881) when he says they infested with their robberies and filled with their murders not only the neighborhood of the Bay [Green Bay], their natural territory, but almost all the routes communicating with the remote colonial posts, as well as 6 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15. No. 1 those leading from Canada to Louisiana. Except the Sioux, who often joined them, and the Iroquois, with whom they had formed an alliance, all the nations in alliance with us suffered greatly from these hostilities." (Handbook Am. Ind., pp. 472-73.) The story of the Fox Wars is a long one. Between the years 1689-98 they were in open or secret rebellion against the French. Several expeditions sent against them in 1712 and later were unsuccessful until the traditional destruction of their village at Little Lake Butte des Morts and the follow- ing battle at Big Butte de Morts. Their final expulsion from the Fox to the Wisconsin valley was not accomplished until 1733. The bravery of the Fox warriors was proverbial. In 1728 their number was estimated at 200. The lands left by the Fox in the Lower Fox river valley were occupied by the Menominee, who occupied camps and villages on both the Fox and Wolf rivers in Outagamie county. Some of these are described in the body of this publication The principal centers of Indian occupation in this county were about the present cities of Appleton and Kaukauna on the Fox, and about New London, Shiocton and Leeman on the Wolf. Of mounds the county can boast of but three which are indisputably genuine. There are no effigy mounds within its bounds, it being the only county in the southern half of the state wholly lacking in examples of these remark- able prehistoric monuments. An interesting feature of the archeology of the county are the so-called garden beds, or Indian planting grounds, which are found in no fewer than six localities on the banks of the Wolf river. These consist of parallel rows of beds arranged in plots, the beds being separated from one another by sunken paths. Some of these were probably in use several centuries ago. The Indian corn fields differ from the garden beds in that they consist of numbers of small hillocks, irregularly disposed. The Indian implements found in Outagamie county are flint arrow and spear points, perforators, scrapers and knives, and stone axes, celts, hammers, and other classes of stone tools and weapons, none of which differ particularly in form from those recovered in the surrounding counties. A num- ber of stone and pottery pipes have also Been found on camp sites and in graves. Copper implements do not appear to be particularly numerous. Some of the more interesting of Outagamie County Antiquities these are described elsewhere in this monograph. The most valuable copper implement found is a beautiful corroded copper pike at present in the collection of Mr. Henry P. Hamilton, at Two Rivers, Wisconsin. This specimen is 28J inches in length and three-fourths of an inch in diameter at the thickest portion, at the middle, whence it tapers toward the extremities. One end is pointed and the other furnished at its tip with a small claw-like projection. This pike, which is one of the largest copper implements found in Wis- consin, weighs 2% pounds. It comes from an Indian site near the Embarrass river, in Maple Creek township. Cutting into the northeast corner of Outagamie county is the Oneida reservation. This is no longer a governmental division, the area being now divided into towns, one of which is attached to Outagamie county, the other to Brown county. The Indians are now full-fledged citizens. The establishment of this reservation was due to the persuasive tongue of the "Pretender," Eleazar Williams. It would appear from the records that the older and wiser Oneida opposed moving from New York state but some of the more venturesome visited the site and in 1846 the greater portion of the tribe, having sold their lands in New York, came to Wisconsin. The reservation was established by the treaty of February 8, 1838, 66,000 acres of land being set aside for the use of the Oneida, who then numbered about 1,500. At present there are about 2,200 on what was the reservation. But the white farmers are now invading these lands, buying the Indians' holdings and before many years have passed the majority of the Oneida will probably be crowded off this territory. The archeological researches in preparation for this mono- graph were conducted by the writer with the assistance of the Messrs. Harvey 0. and Frank B. Younger of Appleton, during the years 1911-1913. In the body of this publication credit is given to other persons who have contributed to the Wisconsin Archeological Society notes and other information which have proved of value in conducting these surveys. WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 1 ANTIQUITIES The Fox River Region There are two principal archeological centers on the Fox; one being located at Kaukauna at the foot of the Grand Kakalin rapids and the other at the upper end of the Grand Chute, comprising the region from what is now Appleton to Doty's Island in the adjoining county of Winnebago. The few archeological sites in Outagamie county at this point, are probably directly connected with those about Little Lake Butte des Morts. On both sides of this lake, and on Strobe's Island in the north end of the lake, are numerous camp sites. It was to the west of this lake, which is but a widening of the Fox after it leaves the falls below Lake Winnebago, that the second historic Fox Indian village was located. About a mile from the southern end on the west shore stood the famous "Hill of the Dead," from which the lake takes its name. Two low conical mounds (No, 1) are lo- cated not far from the northern end of the lake, on its eastern shore. These appear to be located in the N. E. \ of sec- tion 10, town of Menasha. Neither exceeds one foot in height. They are a considerable distance apart. These antiquities are mentioned because they indicate the location of the most settled region. Those that follow are but minor locations. On the S. E. J of section 33 (No. 2), town of Grand Chute, near a spring, was a pit where the Indians in the early days, according to Mr. Strobe, an early settler, resident on Strobe's Island, obtained the ochre em- ployed by them in facial adornment. At a spot which must have been the head of the Grand Chute rapids, bearing the local appellation of "Indian field," is an extensive camp site (No. 3). The tract is not large, but comprises a flat space next the river, the banks of which, on both sides are abrupt clay cliffs. Fragments of Indian pottery vessels are scattered through the grass. This site extends from the S. E. J of section 34, a part of the city of Appleton, into section 2 of Menasha township, Winne- bago county. An Indian cemetery (No. 13) was located a short distance northeast of this site, on the east bank of the 'Cave" Burial Place in Ledge Hortonia Township Plate 2 Outagamie County Antiquities Fox river. At this point was located the Indian spirit stone which the Jesuit Fathers Allouez and Dablon in their religious zeal caused to be cast into the stream. "At the Fall of these Rapids we found a sort of Idol which the Savages of that region honor * * * to thank it for aiding them to escape, on the way up, the dangers of the waterfalls occurring in the stream, or else, if they have to descend, to pray for its assistance on that perilous voyage. It is a rock shaped by nature in the form of a human bust, in which one seems to distinguish from a distance, the head, the shoulders, breast, and more particularly, the face which passersby are wont to paint in their finest colors. To remove the cause of idolatry we had it carried away by main force and thrown to the bottom of the river, never to ap- pear again." (Jes. Rel., v. 55, p. 193.) Below Appleton and above Little Chute, Indian camp sites are to be found on almost every tract of level land. Mr. John H. Glaser reported the existence of three of these to the Wisconsin Archeological Society, in 1906 (Nos. 4, 5, and 6). They are situated on the north bank of the Fox, in section 19, not in "section 9," of Grand Chute township, as recorded in "A Record of Wisconsin Antiquities." At Telulah Springs, in the S. E. J of section 25, in the city of Appleton, the Indians frequently camped in the early days of settlement. This camp site (No. 7) extended into section 36. To the northeast, a half a mile down river, also on the N. W. y of section 30, on top of the hill, is another camp site (No. 8). Many flint arrow points and stone hammers have been gathered from this place. On the S. E. y of the S. \V. y of section 20, T. 21, N. R. 18 E., a fraction of which town lies in Buchanan" township, is an oval mound (No. 9). It lies some distance back from the river, on a high bank having a .deep ravine on its south side. This mound overlooks the ravine and is 16 feet long and 8 feet wide. It has been excavated but without results. A great oak tree, known to the pioneers as the "Council oak" because the Indians met beneath it to consider their tribal affairs, was located on the S. W. y of section 19, town of Grand Chute. This place is now called Potato Point. As the Indian camped all along the river it was natural that he should make its banks his burying ground also. Burials are discovered at frequent intervals. In the spring of 1914 the high water of the river washed away the clay from the bank at "Oak Grove," on the north side of the stream, and exposed a skeleton (No. 10). No implements 10 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST , Vol. 15, No. 1 were found with this interment. This site is just east of the city limits of Appleton. On the south side of the river in Appleton, in the digging of post holes, two skeletons (No. 11) were found. A grooved stone axe was found with these interments. Mr. Moses Ladd states that what is now the site of the Commercial National Bank, of Appleton, or a place very near that spot, was also the site of an Indian cemetery (No. 12). He was a member of an Indian band that camped at the mouth of the ravine which now lies just west of the foot of Pearl Street (No. 13). They also camped (No. 14) just north of Appleton, in the E. y^ of Section 23. Mr. P. V. Lawson locates the site of Cedar Point, the "Cedars," (No.l4a) the place at which the treaty with the Menominees was concluded in 1836, at a point across the river from Kimberly. This would be in about the center of section 20 and near the town line between Vanderbroek and Grand Chute. Mr. Moses Ladd confirms this location. He pointed out to the writer this spot and many other places nearby where he and his fellow Menominees had camped in those days. lometah (A-ya-ma-tah), or Fish Spawn, was the chief of Menominee Indian villages located at Little Chute and Little Kakalin. He was a brother of Tomah. lometah was born on the Menominee River in 1772 or 1776 (authorities differ as to the exact date). In 1833 he removed from Green Bay to Kakalin. He is spoken of as an honest and peace-loving chief. He participated with other members of his tribe in the war of 1812-15. lometah was the principal chief in the treaty made at Washington in 1831, and a signer of the treaties made at Green Bay, in 1832, and at Cedar Point, in 1836. He died near Keshena, in 1865. A portrait of lometah, painted by Samuel M. Brooks, hangs in the State Historical museum, at Madison. Mr. Ladd states that the Menominee had a town at Kaukauiia in the first part of the last century. This village was located on the east side of the Fox river opposite Kau- kauna (see map 18 B. E., pt. 2, pi. CLXXI). As this was an important trading station, all of the tribes in this section of the state were certain to be represented in the camps at Kaukauna. Outagamie County Antiquities 11 Indian cemeteries and single burials have been discovered in various places along the Fox river in Kaukauna. Mr. Erskine E. Bailey of Little Rapids reported to the Wisconsin Archeological society, in 1902, that about four years previous to that date, when he was acting as the for- man of a crew of men engaged in excavating for the dry dock at the third Government lock, he disinterred four Indian burials. These burials were made in shallow pits or pockets, the dead having been placed in them in a sitting posture. Each pit was covered with a flat limestone slab. A heap of earth, about three feet high, covered all of the pits which were separated from one another by only short distances. A sketch prepared by Mr. Bailey for the Society indicates that there were eighteen or more of these burial pits. With one of the burials four copper implements were found and with another the bones of a dog and several flint arrow points. Indian burials (No. 15) are reported to have been found beneath "mounds" said to have been located on the Grignon Flats. In 1913, while the foundation pits for the Thilmany paper mill were being dug, one of these "mounds" (No. 28) was removed and bones found. Another alleged "mound," existing near that just mentioned, was pointed out to the writer while conducting investigations at this place. This is a gigantic irregular heap of earth of natural origin. It may contain burials, but bears no resemblance to an Indian tumulus. In fact there were never any Indian mounds on this site. The burials disinterred here by relic hunters and others were all simply Indian burials, heralded through the press as "Indian mounds." A letter addressed to the Society by the Thilmany Pulp and Paper company (Feb. 19, 1913) states that no Indian earthworks were disturbed by them. Only a few human and animal bones were found. A "Group of conical and oval mounds" (No. 16) was re- ported to the Society, in 1905, as existing "on the hill above the second lock at Kaukauna." (A Record, p. 363.) A search revealed them on top of the bluff. They are the remains of Indian garden beds rather than mounds. That someone con- sidered them to be tumuli is proven by the pits dug into each bed. There are only a few of these and the length now visible is very small, the portions missing having been re- 12 WISCONSIN ARGHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 1 moved, it is stated, by persons who made "use of the black earth for filling in yards, for flower beds and cemetery lots." In character these beds and the paths between them are similar to those found elsewhere in Wisconsin. According to Mr. W. H. Elkey a burial accompanied by two large copper spearpoints was found in a gravel pit one mile east of Kaukauna (No. 17). A large number of other copper implements have been collected about Kaukauna. Workmen on the flats and about the quarry frequently pick up pieces. THE WOLF RIVER REGION Vicinity of New London New London, a part of which lies in Outagamie county, was in early days of Wisconsin history a favorite camping ground of the Indian tribes. The chief of the Menominee village at this place is said to have been Tomah, or Thomas Carron, a principal chief of his tribe. He was born at Old Carron's village at Green Bay, in about the year 1752. In 1804 he became practically the head of his tribe. With a number of his warriors he participated in 1812 in the capture of Fort Mackinaw from the Americans. He also accom- panied Proctor and Dickson in the attack on the fort at Sandusky. Tomah is described as being a very handsome man, an extraordinary hunter, an excellent speaker and pos- sessing many noble traits of character. He died at Mack- inaw in 1817 or 1818. A. J. Lawson states that about one thousand Menominee were located about the present site of New London when the first settlers appeared (W. H. C., v. 3, p. 478). The settlers remember ,that the Indians camped along the south side of the Wolf in that city and on the point of land formed by the junction of the Wolf and the Embarrass (No. 18). The site of another camp (No. 19) was at a spring near the corner formed by sections 19, 20, 29 and 30, town of Hortonia. The several groups of Indian mounds mentioned by Stephen D. Peet as existing at New London, save one group, of a doubtful character, were all on the Waupaca county side of the Waupaca-Outagamie county line. Outagamie County Antiquities 13 In the early days of settlement a row of what were called "Indian mounds" (No. 20) were visible to the east as the road to New London was followed from the southeast. They lay in New London between the road and the Wolf river. They have long disappeared. Mrs. F. 0. Messenger one of the first settlers of that vicinity, who furnished the infor- mation, did not know their exact location nor was she posi- tive of their exact character. The sandy region southeast of New London, and the ledge at its back, running nearly west through sections 28, 29 and 30, is prolific in Indian implements. Many flint points, stone hammers and quite a few trade axes have been collected here. On the N. W. J4 f section 29, in an open cave just beneath the top of the ledge, an excavation was made some years ago and an Indian skeleton found. (No. 21). Just above the same burial place on the top of the limestone ledge, was formerly an extensive plot of garden beds (No. 22). These were erroneously reported to the Wisconsin Archeological Society as an Indian cemetery (Wis. Archeo., v. 10, p. 181). Mr. F. 0. Messenger, former owner of the farm on which these garden beds were located informed the writer that during the early years of his farming in this vicinity, a band of Indians visited this ledge. They stated that they had never been there before but they had come to see if the place was as described to them by their fathers, and to see if the deer and the bear still came down in the same places the older men had stated. Neither the name of the tribe nor the habitat of the visitors could be learned. The incident appears to indicate that no great age can be attached to the Indian remains in this vicinity. It is about a mile from this place to the Wolf river and nearly all the way the land is low and subject to overflow. From this section a tongue of sand shoots out and reaches to the Wolf. On the Wolf end of this tongue is an extensive village site (No. 23) with fragments of pottery more than ordinarily in evidence. It is possible that this sand ridge was used in reaching the Mosquito Hills which lie just to the north. These hills are three in number, Big Mosquito, Little Mosquito, and a third unnamed hill. They are lo- cated on sections 17. and 18 with portions projecting into other sections, especially 8 and 9, town of Liberty. 14 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 1 These hills, but Mosquito (Big) in particular, rising sharp- ly 200 feet above the river, were landmarks affording a view over considerable areas. As would naturally be expected the Indian had utilized them. To the west and south of the foot of Big Mosquito was originally a large tract of land covered with corn hills (No. 24). These have now disap- peared. To the north, near a creek proceeding from an old spring, are indications of a camp site (No. 25). On the top of the hill are two of the three genuine mounds in Outagamie county (No. 26). They lie on the south side on the extreme edge of the ledge overlooking the Wolf river valley to the south. About the middle of the last century Mr. Riggs of Apple- ton had the contract for getting out timbers for the locks then being constructed along the Fox river. The finest timber to be found was growing on the top of Mosquito hill. It was very tall, large and in every way suited to the purpose of forming the huge, long square timbers which formed the lock walls. He had a crew getting the lumber out and while working a tree fell and killed one of the work- men. As he was a foreigner without friends or relatives, they decided to bury him on the hill and sent to Hortonville for a wooden box for the coffin. The top of the hill is covered with only a very thin layer of soil and they could find no place to inter the body until they thought of the mounds. One of these they opened and therein found the skeleton of an Indian. He had been buried in a sitting posture and was facing the south. He appeared to have been killed by a shot from a gun, the back of his skull being broken. The bones of the redman were removed and the body of the white man buried in their place. The remains of the white man was subsequently removed by relic hunters. Located just to the north of these two mounds is a crooked linear earthwork. It is very probable that this is a ridge formed by white men moving back the thin surface covering of the rock when engaged in constructing a road to reach the summit. It is, however, of the same height and general appearance as other simila specimens of Indian workman- ship and as it lies behind the mounds, (in fact, if it consists merely of scrapings from the rock some of them must have been hauled over the two mounds). t) sr w M Outagamie County Antiquities 15 Mr. Charles F. Carr states that a prominent Indian, Iron Walker was "buried on the west end of the highest portion of Mosquito Hill." His grave "was opened about 30 years ago and some fine copper implements secured." These are thought to have been presented to the State Historical Society. "The portion of the hill in which he was buried is now entirely gone having been blasted away for the quarry- ing of stone" (Some Indian Chiefs Who Reigned Over New London, 1911). Little Mosquito Hill lies to the north of Big Mosquito and it too was used by the Indians. On this hill was found an interesting cache (No. 27) of native copper implements, the present whereabouts of which are unknown. In a paper read before the Milwaukee Natural Science Association some years ago, Mr. Edward S. Perkins, a son of E. C. Perkins, the late noted Wisconsin collector of stone and metal implements, gave the following report of the find- ing of this cache. "About sixteen years ago , Mr. John E. Murray, while quarrying limestone near Hortonville, Outagamie county, cut away the forest trees, then removed the stumps and boulders and a foot of earth overlying the stone, and came upon slabs ol limestone in place. Each slab was five inches thick and between them was a quantity of earth which the men shovelled oil. Between the third and fourth layers of rock they unearthed a fine lot of beautiful copper implements of rare forms and fine workman- ship." Owing to the dispersion of the Perkins collection informa- tion concerning the nature of the implements contained in this cache is not obtainable. In A Record of Wisconsin An- tiquities this cache is listed as found in Hortonia township. The Hills are in the town of Liberty. The quarry mentioned is on the top at the northwest corner of Little Mosquito Hill. A camp site (No. 28) is reported as existing on the west side of this hill, on the S. E. % of section 8. From the hills sand dunes stretch to the east and along the tops of these runs what appears to have once been an Indian trail. A cache of flint arrowpoints (No. 29) was found in plowing in a field in about the middle of section 15, town of Liberty. There is said to have been enough of these to "fill a peck measure." 16 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 1 Vicinity of Stephensville From a point about a mile north of Hortonville, and south of the Wolf river, the sand ridge extends to the northeast, to the Bear Creek at Stephensville. All along this ridge, in the sand and among the rocks, are found Indian graves and camp sites (No. 29). On the N. W. J4 of section 25, town of Hortonia, is a spring and indications point to this place as the former location of a workshop and kiln (No. 29) for the making of pottery. Clay is at hand, as are sand and water. Over the ground are scattered partly disintegrated pottery fragments and the soil is black with charcoal and ashes. This area of blackened earth is confined closely to the vicinity of the spring. East of thik spot on either section 25, of Hortonia or section 30, of Ellington township, is the site of an Indian cemetery (No. 30). Another camp site and cemetery (No. 31) are situated on the S. W. y of section 30, town of Ellington. Here was found a perforated stone disk measuring about four inches in diameter. This is reported to have been presented to Law- rence University, at Appleton. In his monograph entitled, "The Implement Caches of the Wisconsin Indians" (Wis. Archeo., v. 6, no. 2, p. 63) Mr. Charles E. Brown gives the following description of a cache, or hoard (No. 32), of flint and quartzite implements found in this region: "A cache of similar pieces, six in number, was found in section 18, Ellington township, Outagamie county. Accompanying them were seven flint and quartzite spearpoints. The hornstone implements in this hoard are of special interest because, contrary to the general rule in such cases, they differ greatly in sizo and to some extent in outline also. The smallest measures only about 3| inches in length and \\ inches in width at the widest part. The largest is of the very extraordinary size of 9^ inches and measures 3| inches in width at the middle of the blade. The remainder range from 4 to 6 inches in length, and from about \\ to 2^ inches in width at their middles. Five have the tang of the somewhat triangular shape indicated in Plate 5. Two are provided with a pronounced shoulder and one of these has an indented tang, an unusual feature. The large specimen and one other are in the H. P. Hamilton collection and the remainder in the collection of Mr. F. M. Benedict at Waupaca." The blue hornstone knives described by Mr. Brown are broad, leaf-shaped blades provided at one extremity with a Outagamie County Antiquities 17 short, angular or rounded tang. Blades of this form are farniliarly known to Wisconsin collectors as "turkey tail" points. The Benedict collection was recently purchased by the Milwaukee Public Museum. Vicinity of Shiocton Shiocton was the site of the location of an early Menominee village. Present residents of Shiocton state that according to a tradition of the descendants of these Indians members of their tribe who died of a scourge (small pox?) at Green Bay two hundred years ago were brought to this vicinity and buried in a "mound," located on what is now the E. J^ of section 20 of Bovina township (No. 33). A large number of skeletons have been taken from this place. The high water frequently exposes human bones. This "mound" lies in dense scrub on the bank of the Wolf. It is marred and pitted by the marks of shovels and spades, and its appearance is that of a simple burying ground rather than a mound. A short distance to the north, in a wood on the edge of a slough, is a tract of well preserved garden beds (No. 34). These are on the N. W. J4 of section 20, town of Bovina. On the tongue of land between the Wolf and the Shioc rivers, Mr. C. P. Riggs, who has engaged in lumbering here years ago saw a large number of corn hills (No. 35). This location is on sections 16 and 21. On the Allender place on the West J/ of section 16 where the Wolf cuts the sand bank, is an Indian camp site. (No. 36) from which numerous stone and other implements have been collected. Indian corn hills are reported to have formerly occurred here in a pine forest (Wis. Archeo., v. 10, No. 4). A recent camp site (No. 37) is located on the N. E. y of sec- tion 34 of Bovina township. Another (No. 37a) is situated OIL a high bluff, on the west side of the Wolf, in the north central part of section 8, of Bovina township. A large village site (No. 38) lies for a half mile along the Wolf and a large bayou which flows into it from the north. This is situated on the N. W. J/4 of the N. W. J^ and on the S. W. J4 of the N. W. of section 9. Numerous stone 18 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 1 celts and flint arrow and spearpoints have been collected here. So far as known no copper implements have been found. Potsherds and flint chips and fragments occur on the surface of the soil. Vicinity of Leenian Of all of the old Indian village sites on the banks of the Wolf river in Outagamie county that located at Leeman, in the S. W. J f section 4, in the town of Maine, is the most extensive and important. At present the area on this site (No. 39) covered by garden beds alone is between ten and twenty acres. Information obtained from the neighboring farmers shows that before this land was placed under modern cultivation these beds extended to the north, south and west of the present location. This old planting ground is remark- able in that these remains of Indian cultivation cover an area equal to, if not surpassing that of any similar planting ground as yet described from this state. A fine hardwood grove stands upon the beds. On those in the northwest portion of the area are a number of large pine stumps. One of these has a diameter of 9 feet. Numer- ous cache pits, presumably used for the storing of provisions, occur, especially on the northeast portion of the site. A short distance southwest of the garden beds is the roughly pentangular enclosure shown in the accompanying plate. The earthen walls are about 6 feet in width and of an average height of one foot. The area enclosed is about three- fourths of an acre. The dimensions of this enclosure are shown in the plate. The earthen wall probably formed the base (when this village site was occupied) of a wooden stock- ade. Can this be the site of "Questatinong," the great village of the warlike Outagamie, which was visited by Father Allouez, in 1670, and where he established the mission of St. Mark? This question the writer hopes to consider in a separate paper. This site is on the west bank of the Wolf. On the opposite side of the river is another village site (No. 40). To the south, on the N. W. J4 of section 9, are two groups of garden Large stumps on garden beds at Leeman Plate 5 Outagamie County Antiquities 19 beds (No. 41), one at present overgrown by a pine grove and another by a willow thicket. On the Len Hulburt place on the east side of the river, in the south half of section 9, several Indian skeletons (No. 42) have been disinterred in a sandy ridge. In this same section, on the extreme southwestern por- tion, is a group of garden beds (No. 43). These are peculiar in that they occupy a very narrow ridge between the Wolf on the east and a low swamp on the west. Evidently the ridge had once been much wider for the beds extend up to the very edge where the bank drops abruptly to the water. As the river makes a large bend here, it throws the full force of its current constantly against this clay wall, and is rapidly wearing it away. It will not be many years before it will have eaten through and will pour some of its waters into the marsh. Cache pits (more than 10 in number) are here in evidence. On a high bank of the river, in the S. W. \i of section 16, there was formerly another group of garden beds (No. 44). Evidence of the former existence of an Indian camp at this place is indicated by the presence of flint flakes, potsherds and fireplace stones. Following along the side of a sandy knoll is what appears to be the remains of a trail. A few flint flakes were found along it, among the grass roots. Another group of beds is situated on the N. E. y of section 28. The beds are (No. 45) overgrown with a mass of almost impenetrable underbrush. Two camp sites (No. 46) occur further down stream both on the S. E. y of the same section, but nearly a mile apart because of the twisting of the river. The one farthest down stream is at a point where now stands a small saw mill. Both are on the east bank of the Wolf. Other Locations From the present inhabitants of the towns hereafter men- tioned, information was obtained concerning the sites where the Indians camped since the whites settled on the lands. Being recent most of these sites are unmarked by the pres- ence of flint rejectage, fragments of pottery or other of the usual distinguishing marks of camp life of an earlier period. 20 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 1 They were occupied at a time when the Indians no longer practiced the ancient arts of the potter or stone worker. In fact, roving bands of red men camped on these sites not later than from forty to fifty years ago. J. H. Glaser reports the location of an Indian camp (No. 47) site on the N. E. J4 of section 15, town of Greenville. A small brook flows through this part of the section and the ground is high. A camp site (No. 48) is located on Duck creek, on the S. E. J4 f section 1, town of Center. In the N. W. J4 of section 16, of the same township, is another spot (No. 49) where the Indians camped. This is situated on the bank of a small brook. Half a mile to the south on the bank of this brook fragments of skeletons (No. 50) were uncovered in digging a ditch through a gravel knoll. This location is on the S. W. y of section 16, town of Center. F. S. Hyer reported the presence of a mound (No. 31) near Medina Junction. This is recorded as in Dale township. Medina Junction is in the town of Clayton, Winnebago county, and the mound may be in that region. A search near the Junction in Outagamie county failed to reveal it (See Wis. Archeo., v. 7, no. 1, p. 18). Medina Junction is in the marshy valley of the Rat river. This stream here reaches a width of twenty feet in some places and a depth of one foot, but the valley through which it flows is from one to three miles or more in width. To the north of the Rat river marsh, on sections 29, 31 and 32 of the town of Greenville, Outagamie county, is a large island, known as Norwegian island. This island is gravelly and high, and early settlers state that Indians camped (No. 51) upon it and that a trail crossed it. In a gravel pit on the high land bordering the marsh on the east several Indian burials were unearthed. This loca- tion is in section 3 of Clayton township. On the Fred Zeimer place in the S. W. l / of the S. E. J4 of section 29, of Maple Creek township, the presence of a camp site (No. 51) is indicated. On this farm were found a copper chisel 8 J^ inches long and 1J4 inches wide, weighing nearly one pound, and a white flint spearpoint 5% inches in length. On a ridge opposite the mouth of Maple and Bear Ne-sou-a-quoit Fox Chief Plate 6 Outagamie County Antiquities 21 creeks, which unite before flowing into the Embarass river, is an Indian cemetery (No. 52). There is also on this ridge the remains of a former Indian corn field which covers about an acre of ground. Both are in the N. W. J^ of the S. W. Y of section 22, of Maple Creek township. These latter sites were investigated for the Wisconsin Archeological Society by Mr. John H. Glaser, in 1913. Doubtless there are on the banks of the Embarass between this point and the north county line some other evidences of former In- dian residence which it has not yet been possible to locate. TRAILS. The Jesuit Relations mention the existence of trails or portages past the rapids of the Fox. There was a trail on each side of the stream. Mr. Moses Ladd, a Menominee Indian born in Green Bay ninety years ago and who grew up on the Fox river, knew the trails on both banks. According to Mr. Ladd, the trail from Green Bay to the Wolf river struck across the county just north of Seymour and came to the Wolf in the neighborhood of the upper Red Banks in the town of Navarino, Shawano county. This trail first touched the Wolf near what is now Leeman. A trail also ran down the east bank of the Wolf from Leeman toward Shiocton, and probably on from the region about Stephensville to Little Lake Buttes des Morts, where stood the historic Outagamie (Fox) village. Traces of this trail are still visible on the sand dunes along the river north of Shiocton. Traces of a trail on the north side of the Wolf running from the Mosquito Hills east toward Stephensville may still be seen. It kept to the tops of the sand hills a mile to the north of the river. 22 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15. No. 1 ARCHEOLOGICAL NOTES Mr. George R. Fox of Appleton is engaged in installing the historical, archeological and other collections of the Chamberlin Memorial Museum, at Three Oaks, Michigan. The founders and patrons of this promising museum are our friends, Mr. and Mrs. E. K. Warren of Evanston, Illinois. Prof. Melvin R. Gilmore, curator of the State Historical Museum, at Lincoln, Nebraska, has succeeded Mr. Herbert R. Fish as curator of the State Museum at Bismarck, North Dakota. At the meeting of the Society held at Milwaukee, on January 17, Mr. H. L. Skavlem of Janesville gave a talk on "The Carcajou Village Site," which is situated on the west shore of Lake Koskonong and from which interesting and important collections have been made. Secretary Brown delivered an address in which he described the mound groups formerly located on the west side of the city. Mrs. Eugene S. Turner of Port Wash- ington and Dr. Eben D. Pierce of Trempealeau were elected members of the Society. At the meeting held on February 21, Dr. S. A. Barrett de- livered an illustrated lecture on "The Hopi Indians." Mr. E. K. Warren of Evanston was elected a sustaining and Mr. Walter H. Wisgrove of Apple- ton, an annual member. A new memoir (No. 80) entitled "Huron and Wyandotte Mythology," by C. M. Barbeau, has been issued by the Canada Department of Mines, Ottawa. This publication is one of 415 pages and eleven plates. Dr. Antonio Carlos Simoens da Silva of Rio Janeiro, Brazil, a well- known archeologist and ethnologist of that country, was a recent visitor at the museums at Milwaukee and Madison. . A bill introduced in Congress by Congressman William Kent at the re- quest of the American Civic Association provides for the care and develop- ment of our national parks by a separate government bureau to be created for this purpose. This is to be known as the National Park Service and to be under the charge of a director to be appointed by the secretary of the interior. This, bureau is to "have the supervision, management, and control of the several national parks, national monuments, the Hot Springs Reservation in the State of Arkansas," and such other national parks, monuments and reservations as may hereafter be created. The support of those in sympathy with this measure is requested. Mr. Richard Herrmann of the Herrmann Museum of Natural History at Dubuque, calls the Society's attention to an Indian flute bound to the slide of which is a bird-shaped object resembling in form one of the so- Archeological Notes called bird stones. Mr. Olgar P. Olson of Argyle has favored the Society with ,a drawing of a copper awl or pike found on section 13, Fayette township, La Fayette county. It is fifteen inches in length but is bent through being struck by the plow. The annual meeting of the Iowa Forestry and Conservation Association was held at Ames, Iowa, on February 2. This organization "stands for the idea that the natural endowments of the state [including its antiquities] should not be destroyed." The annual joint meeting of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, Wisconsin Archeological Society, Wisconsin Natural History Society and Wisconsin Mycological Society will be held at Madison, on April 13 and 14, during the Easter recess of the University. All members of the Wisconsin Archeological Society are urged to attend this year's meeting. Titles of papers to be presented should be addressed to the Secretary. Joseph Ringeiscn, Jr., President of The Wisconsin Archeological Society THE WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Quarterly Bulletin Published by the Wisconsin Archeological Society Vol. 15 MADISON, WIS., JULY, 1916 No. 2 ARCHAEOLOGICAL HISTORY OF MILWAUKEE COUNTY Charles E. Brown Indian History The Indian history of Milwaukee County is of a very fragmentary character, our knowledge of the customs of its early aboriginal inhabitants being gleaned chiefly from short descriptions and notes occurring in papers and narratives published in the Wisconsin Historical Collections and in the several histories of the city and county. The earliest Indian occupants of the present site of Milwaukee were very probably Winnebago this tribe being displaced after many years, perhaps several centuries of occupation, by the migrating Algonquian tribes who were in possession of the land at the dawn of local history. Mr. John Rave, an old Winnebago Indian and one of the historians of his people, whom the writer interviewed in 1911, stated that according to a tradition of his particular family, his people, a branch of the Winnebago formerly known as the "Lake People," once inhabited the shores of Lake Michi- gan in the vicinity of Milwaukee. This was before the coming of white man and before other strange tribes had intruded upon them. If this tradition is worthy of credence it is more than probable, as archaeologists have long sus- MAP INDEX The numbers refer to the numbering of the map and text descriptions. 1. Onautissah's Village 21. 2. Michigan Street Site 22. 3. East Water Street Camp 23. 4. Wisconsin Street Enclosure 24. and Effigy 25. 5. Lake Shore Camp Sites 26. 6. Juneau Mounds 27. 7. Brady Street Mound 28. 8. Lake Park Mounds 29. 9. Kenozhaykum's Village 30. 10. Buttles Mound 31. 11. Grand Avenue Mound 32. 12. Twenty-first Street Mound 33. 13. Lime Ridge Village Site 34. 14. Hawley Mounds 35. 15. Winnebago Street Effigy 35a. 15a. Mill Street Mounds 36. 16. Lapham Park Mounds 42. 17. Sherman's Addition Mounds 43. 18. Sherman Street Effigy 44. 19. Beaubian Street Effigy 45. 19a. North Avenue Mounds 20. School Section Group Richard Street Mounds Humboldt Mounds "Fond du Lac Avenue Effigy Teller Group Pauschkenana's Village Walker's Point Mounds The Runner's Village Buck Mounds Mitchell Park Village Site National Avenue Effigy Trowbridge- Carey Mounds Chase Mounds Deer Creek Village Indian Fields Hull Mounds Distillery Hill Burials Muskego Avenue Village Spring Grove Mounds Indian Prairie Story Burial Menomonee Valley Camp Sites Map of Milwaukee Showing location of Indian mounds, village sites and trails. Archaeological History of Milwaukee County 27 pected, that the Winnebago or several Winnebago clans, were the builders of the numerous earthen burial and symbolic mounds once located at Milwaukee and the occupants of the old stone age village sites in their vicinity. The tribes which in later days re-occupied these same sites were none of them mound-building tribes. History indi- cates that a small number of the Winnebago either remained in the vicinity of Milwaukee or returned in later days to live with the other tribes in their villages, and share in the benefits of the Indian trade. We are informed that in 1743 two lodges of Fox Indians were located at "Meloaky" and ten at"Chicagou." (17 Wis. Hist. Colls., p. 437). These Indians had probably retreated to these localities at the conclusion of the long continued wars of their tribe with the French (1680-1712?). It must not be supposed that these Fox were then the only Indians on the present site of Milwaukee. The Pottawatomi and mem- bers of other Wisconsin tribes had villages there. Lieut. James Gorrell, a British officer stationed at Green Bay, mentions in his Journal under date of August 21, 1762, that: "A party of Indians came from Milwacky and demanded credit, which was refused, as they properly belonged to Mishimakinac and did not touch at this place, I desired them to go there and make their complaint, and they would be redressed. They promised me to come to this place to trade in the spring. I made them a small present, and told them if they did they should be well treated and not imposed on." (1 Wis. Hist. Colls, pp. 35-36.) "This", says the then editor of the Wisconsin Historical Collections, in a footnote, "is the earliest notice, it is believed, of Milwaukee, and indicates that there was then, 1762, quite an Indian town, with an English trader residing there." Gorrell, in a table of the Indian tribes dependent on Green Bay for articles of trade, mentions "Milwacky" as being in- habited by "Ottawas, etc." Elsewhere he says that there were 100 of these Indians at "Milwacky" and Little Detroit. The Milwaukee Indians were visited by agents of Pontiac, who appear to have succeeded in gaining any affection which these Indians may have possessed for the British. From the "Recollections" of the noted Wisconsin fur trader, 28 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 2 Augustin Grignon, we learn that it was a part of the plans of Pontiac's conspiracy that the capture of the British fort at Green Bay should be undertaken by the Milwaukee Indians. A wampum belt painted red as a sign of war was sent by the latter to the Menomini Indians at Green Bay, being borne to its destination by Wau-pe-se-pin, or the Wild Potato. The Menomini, through the wise counsel of Chief Old Garron refused to join in this undertaking and remained friendly to their British masters. This was in 1763. (3 W. H. C., p. 226). "Col. Arent Schuyler De Peysler, who commanded the British post of Michillimackinac from 1774 till the autumn of 1779, in a volume of miscellanies, in which he recorded the substance of a speech delivered by him at the Ottawa town of L'Arbre Croche, on the shores of Lake Michigan, on the 4th of July, 1779, speaks of "those runegates of Milwakie a horrid set of refractory Indians." (1 W. H. C., p. 35.) In the same speech, in another connection, he alludes to one, " 'Wee-nip-pe-goes', a sensible old chief at. the head of a refractory tribe" probably referring to the Milwaukee band. Sig-e-nauk, called by the French Letourneau or Blackbird, a Milwaukee chief, is mentioned as giving the British much trouble in 1777. He was suspected of having formed an alliance with the Spanish on the lower Mississippi (7, W. H. C., p. 406). In 1775, after several others had failed, Wisconsin's peerless border ranger and soldier, Charles De Langlade, journeyed to Milwaukee to induce the Indian residents to attend a grand council of the Northwest tribes at L'Abre Croche called to assist the British in the Revolutionary W r ar. "He talked to them awhile without any apparent favorable results, when he concluded to resort to his knowledge of Indian habits and customs. He built a lodge in the midst of the village, with a door at each end, had several dogs killed, and the dog-feast prepared; then placed the raw heart of a dog on a stick at each door. Then the Indians partook of the feast, when De Langlade, singing the war song, and marching around within the lodge, as he passed one door he bent down and took a bite of the raw heart and repeated the same ceremony as he passed the other an appeal to Indian bravery, that if they possessed brave Archaeological History of Milwaukee County 29 hearts themselves, they would follow his example, and accompany him to war. They could not resist this ancient and superstitious custom; and so one after another joined in the war song and tasted the dogs' hearts, till all became followers of De Langlade, and he lead them forth to the grand council at 1'Arbre Croche." It is probable that De Langlade's performance took place in the Indian village once located at the mouth of the Milwaukee River. The surrender shortly after the council of the British Lieut. Gov. Hamilton to Col. George Rogers Clark made unavailable the Indian expedition which set out from Mackinaw for his relief. A document in the Canadian archives, dated 1796, calls attention to the fact that great preparations are said to be on foot among the Milwaukee Indians to take the warpath against the Sioux. An Indian census taken by Indian agent John Bowyer of the Green Bay agency in 1817, states that: "The Indians at Millwakee are composed of Renigadoes from all the tribes around them (viz), the Sacques, Foxes, Chippewas, Menominies, Ottawas, Winabagoes and Potawatomies, estimated at three hundred warriors. (19 W. H. C., p. 471). Samuel A. Storrow mentions the Pottawatomie village at Milwaukee, which he visited on August 29, 1817. It was of small size. The English name of the chief was "Old Flour." (6 W. H. C., p. 175). By this name he refers to Onautissah, whose English name, is said to have been "The Flower." In 1818 definite limits were prescribed for the several Indian agencies in the Middle West, the Indians at Mil- waukee being attached to the Chicago agency. (20 W. H. C., p. 48). Mrs. Mary Ann Brevoort Bristol, whose father, Major Brevoort, was the Indian agent at Green Bay in 1822, states that she remembers well: "When Milwaukee was a wilderness, the Indians coming from there to the Green Bay Agency on foot, clothed in the skins of wild animals. They came for ammunition, blankets, etc., and I was often called to the council chamber to smoke the pipe of peace, with my four brothers . . . and to listen to their speeches." (W. H. C., p. 303). 30 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 2 In 1824 the Green Bay agency again reported the number of Indians residing at Milwaukee at three hundred. Andrew J. Vieau, Sr. gives the information that: "In the winter of 1832-33, the small pox scourge ran through the Indian population of the state. Father [the trader, Jacques Vieau] and his crew were busy throughout the winter burying the natives, who died off like sheep with the foot-rot. With a crooked stick inserted under a dead Indian's chin they would haul the infected corpse into a shallow pit dug for its reception and give it a hasty burial. In this work,"and in assisting the few poor wretches who survived, my father lost much time and money; while of course none of the Indians who lived over, were capable of paying their debts to the traders. This winter ruined my father almost completely; and in 1836, aged 74 years, he removed to his homestead in Green Bay." (9 W. H. C., p. 225). Indian fur-traders reaped a steady harvest in their trade with the Milwaukee natives. "From 1760 to 1765, Alexander Henry, a native of New Jersey, visited Milwaukee as a trader; Mr. Lottridge of Montreal sent a clerk here in the Spring of 1763; in March of the same year French and English traders visited Milwaukee, remaining several months." (West. Hist. Co., Hist, of Mihv., p. 56). The earliest fur-trader located at Milwaukee of whom there is much information is said to have been Alexander Laframboise, who came from Mackinaw and who was among the Milwaukee Indians as early as 1785. He afterwards sent a brother to manage the business which failed and the post is said to have been closed in about the year 1800. At about this time another trader established a post at Mil- waukee, employing as clerk Stanislaus Ghappue. This post either failed or was abandoned in about 1805. At about this time, Jean B. Beaubien established a post. This trader was born at Detroit. He entered the fur-trade as a clerk for Joseph Bailly at Grand River, where he was located in 1808. Later he removed to Milwaukee, where in 1814 the Pottawatomie unsuccessfully planned to murder him and steal his goods. About 1818 he was removed to Chicago by the American Fur Company. About 1804 or 1805 Laurent Fily was sent to Jacob Franks from Green Archaeological History of Milwaukee County . 31 Bay to Milwaukee to carry on a summer trade with the Indians. He was befriended, and protected against the Indians by Match-e-se-be, or Bad River, a brother of the local chief Onautissah. James Kinzie was sent to Milwaukee with a stock of goods by the American Fur Company. Hypolite Grignon also wintered there as a trader in about the year 1818. (3 W. H. C., pp. 291-92). Jacques Vieau went to Mackinaw from Montreal as a voyager for the Northwest Fur Company in 1793. In 1795 he was appointed an agent for the company and es- tablished posts on the west shore of Lake Michigan at Kewaunee, Manitowoc, Sheboygan and Milwaukee. At Milwaukee he was met at the mouth of the river by a large number of Pottawatomies and a smaller number of Sac, Fox and Winnebago. He had a good stock of goods and erected a log dwelling and warehouse on the south bank of the Milwaukee River on the present site of Mitchell Park. Jean Baptiste Mirandeau did blacksmithing and other work for him. Vieau remained at Milwaukee during the winter and returned to Green Bay in the spring leaving a clerk in charge of his business. His wife was the daughter of a Menomini chief, Puch-wau-she-gun. Vieau died at the age of ninety-six years at Fort Howard, July 1, 1852. Solomon Juneau, the founder of Milwaukee, who had worked for Vieau at Green Bay, came to Milwaukee in 18J8 first as his clerk and then as agent. In 1820 he married Vieau's daughter Josette. In 1822 he removed from the trading post on the Menomonee River to a combination dwelling and storehouse located near the present intersection of East Water and Wisconsin streets. Here he carried on a profitable trade with the Indians and acquired great in- fluence over them. His trading post was: "A rude structure of unhewn trees. It faced the south and had been formerly surrounded by a stockade for pro- tection against Indians. At the eastern end a shed was attached." (Wheeler's Chronicles of Milwaukee, p. 57). Later finding this establishment insufficient to accommo- date his increasing trade, he erected a large frame house. Ju- neau died at Shawano, Wisconsin, November 14, 1856. He was buried at Keshena, his remains being afterwards removed 32 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 2 to Milwaukee. It has been said of this great friend of both the Indians and of the early white settlers of Milwaukee that: ''Perhaps no Indian trader ever lived on this continent for whom the Indians entertained a more profound respect." (Hist, of Milw., p. 19). After the establishment of Juneau's trading post on the east side of the Milwaukee River, Jacques Vieau "reopened a post at the old place on the Menomonee," as agent for Michael Dousman of Chicago. Later he traded at Mil- waukee for Daniel M. Whitney of Green Bay. (15, \V. 1 1. G., p. 459). While an agent of the American Fur Company Vieau sustained intimate relationships with John Jacob Astor, Ramsay Crook and others of its members. ' The removal of the Milwaukee Indians took place in 1838. "Among other notable things done this year, was the removal of the Indians west of the Mississippi, which occurred in the month of June. They were collected at the old Indian fields, near the Layton House [opposite Forest Home Cemetery], where they were fed at the expense of the government, until preparations could be made, teams procured and supplies collected in compliance with the treaty, made at Chicago in 1833. The contract was given to Jacques Vieau, who was compelled to press into the service, every available team in the country, in order to accomplish their removal. This removal cleared the country of all the Pottawatomies and Menomonees, with the exception of the Shawano band, and a few who, on account of intermarriage with the Creole French, were permitted to remain at Theresa, Horicon and other places along Rock River. (Pioneer Hist, of Milw., pp. 146-247). Small bands or groups of Indians continued to return from time to time and camped for short periods of time at various places about the city, for many years afterwards. Milwaukee is said to be derived from the Algonquian word Milioke, meaning "good earth" or "good country." Milwaukee a Center of Archaeological Interest Milwaukee has been since the earliest days of its settle- ment the center of archaeological interest in the state. Dr. Increase A. Lapham, the distinguished pioneer antiquarian whose labors in this field have done so much to Archaeological History of Milwaukee County 33 encourage an interest in systematic archaeological re- search not only in Wisconsin but throughout the entire Middle West, came to Milwaukee in 1836. His early home was located on Third street between Chestnut and Poplar streets, and later, on Poplar between Third and Fourth streets. He had had previous acquaintance in Ohio with prehistoric and other Indian earthworks which knowledge was undoubtedly of assistance to him here. At various points along the Milwaukee River bluffs were interesting groups of Indian mounds the locations of which he soon discovered. He was by profession a civil engineer and while running the lines for new streets in the city he encountered groups of Indian mortuary and other earthworks. Some of these latter he decided were constructed to represent animals. Of these mound groups, with the assistance of various friends he made surveys and detail drawings. As opportu- nity offered he extended his researches beyond the limits of Milwaukee and before he had been a resident of the city for a year he published in the Milwaukee Advertiser an account of a large turtle-shaped mound which he found in Prairie Village, now Waukesha. This appears to have been the first published description of a Wisconsin effigy mound. Through his articles in local and other papers and his occasional talks and lectures Dr. Lapham thus early created a popular interest in the prehistoric and modern Indian remains of the state. The manuscript copy of one of his lectures, delivered by him before the Young Men's Asso- ciation of Milwaukee, on January 16, 1857, at the Free Congregational Church, is in the writer's possession. In "A Geographical and Topographical Description of Wisconsin," published by Dr. Lapham at Milwaukee, in 1844, he gives a brief account of the character of Wisconsin antiquities. This little volume has the distinction of being the first book ever printed in this state. In 1855 he published as a Smithsonian contribution to knowledge, his very valuable work, "The Antiquities of Wisconsin". The expenses of his surveys in preparation for this publication were borne by the American Antiquarian Society of Worcester, Massachusetts. For his services he neither asked or received compensation. His investigations extended from the Lake Michigan shore west to the Missis- 34 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 2 sippi River and from the state line as far north as Lake Winnebago and Green Bay. In the preface of this work he says: "My office has been to fulfill the duties of the surveyor, to examine and investigate the facts, and to report them as much in detail as may be necessary, leaving it to others with better opportunities, to compare them and to establish in connection, with other means of information, such general principles as may be legitimately deduced." His book gained for him a reputation which extended over two continents. Mr. W. H. Canfield of Baraboo, Prof. S. T. Lathrop of Beloit and others aided him with plats and information for which he has given to them due credit in his book. Dr. Lapham continued his researches up to the date of his death in 1875. Of the numerous mound groups which Lapham found at Milwaukee not a single trace now remains. In re-describing some of these in this bulletin we are largely dependent upon the matter contained in his original descriptions and noted upon his maps. For the preservation of this data present residents of the city owe to him a lasting debt. On February 9, 1877, several years after the death of Dr. Lapham, there was organized at Milwaukee with a view to perpetuating his work, The Lapham Archaeological Society. The organization meeting was held at the Newhall House. The founders of this society were the Messrs. Geo. H. Paul, C. T. Hawley, James MacAlister, Geo. W. Peckham, H. H. Oldenhage, Charles Mann, A. B. Geilfuss, A. Hardy, S. G. Lapham, C. A. Leuthstrom, John Johnson, James G. Jenkins, Newton Hawley, Dr. F. H. Day, W. T. Gasgrain, E. B. Northrup, W. M. Lawrence, and Dr. S. Sherman. Mr. Geo. H. Paul acted as president and Mr. Seneca G. Lapham as secretary of the meeting, the Messrs. Hawley, MacAlister and Hardy being appointed a committee to draw up a constitution and by-laws. At a second meeting held on February 14, 1877, the following permanent officers were elected: Geo. H. Paul, president; S. G. Lapham, recording secretary and treasurer; C. T. Hawley, corresponding secretary; H. H. Oldenhage, curator; Geo. W. Peckham, James MacAlister and Charles Mann, executive committee. Archaeological History of Milwaukee County 35 Among the early members of the society were Mrs. John Hiles, Mrs. S. S. Merrill, R. C. Spencer, Theodore D. Brown, Rev. E. R. Ward, Dr. N. A. Gray, Moses Strong, L. M. Wyatt, Dr. John A. Rice, G. H. Raskins, Charles J. Hustis, Geo. Gordon and Thos. A. Greene. Among its corresponding members were Dr. P. R. Hoy, Henry Lapham, Horace Beach and C. B. Stone. The Misses Mary J. and Julia A. Lapham were honorary mem- bers. The society held frequent meetings during the years 1877 at which papers were read and subjects of archaeological interest discussed. Explorations were conducted by its members at Racine, Milwaukee, Lake Koshkonong and other places in the state. It passed out of existence in the follow- ing year. The Wisconsin Archeological Society, which in recent years has accomplished so much for the cause of American archaeology by properly organizing and systematizing archaeological research in Wisconsin, was organized at Milwaukee, June 12, 1899, as the Archaeological Section of the Wisconsin Natural History Society. Its organizers were the Messrs. L. R. Whitney, W. H. Ellsworth, 0. J. Habhegger, and the writer. Mr. C. H. Doerflinger was its first director, being succeeded by Mr. L. R. Whitney. The section increased rapidly in membership and in October 1901 the first number of "The Wisconsin Arch- eologist" was published. On March 23, 1903, its work having already won state-wide recognition, the section sepa- rated from the parent society and organized the Wisconsin Archeological Society. On . April 3 of the same year the Society was regularly incorporated under the laws of the state. Mr. Henry A. Crosby of Milwaukee became its first president. Other officers elected at this time were Mr. George A. West, Mr. Rolland L. Porter, Mr. P. V. Lawson, Mr. W. H. Ellsworth and Mr. H. P. Hamilton, vice-presi- dents; Mr. L. R. Whitney, treasurer and Mr. Charles E. Brown, secretary. The number of its charter members was about one hundred, residents of various sections of the state, these including nearly all archaeological students of prominence in Wisconsin. Among these were a number of former members of the Lapham Archaeological Society. 36 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 2 In the past thirteen years this society, which is now acknowledged to be one of the most active state organiza- tions of its character in the United States, has been engaged in creating an intelligent popular interest in the historical and educational importance of Wisconsin antiquities. Surveys and explorations have been conducted by its members in many unexplored sections of the state and the results published and widely circulated among students, libraries, and educational institutions. Particular attention has been given to securing the preservation of representative groups of Indian earthworks and other evidences of aboriginal occupation. Other presidents of the Society to date have been the Messrs. Geo. A. West, W. H. Ellsworth, 0. J. Habhegger, 0. L. Hollister, Arthur Wenz and Ellis B. Usher. Its present presiding officer is Mr. Joseph Ringeisen, Jr. Fourteen volumes of the Wisconsin Archeologist have now appeared. A more complete history of the Wisconsin Archeological Society may be found in volume 3 of Mr. Ellis B. Usher's work "Wisconsin, Its Story and Biography," published in 1914. Local Collections The collections of the Milwaukee Public Museum contain a considerable number of aboriginal stone, copper and other implements collected from village sites, graves, mounds and other places now or formerly located within the county. Many of these were presented years ago by members of the Wisconsin Natural History Society. Some of these speci- mens are on exhibition and others in the reserve collections of the museum. A recent addition to the archaeological collections of this institution is the G. A. West collection of aboriginal pipes, of about 600 specimens, some of which were collected in Milwaukee County. Of the privately owned archaeological collections in Mil- waukee County the most important is undoubtedly that of Mr. Joseph Ringeisen, Jr. In perfecting it its owner has spent a large amount of both time and money. This collec- tion is especially rich in fine series of stone gorgets and other ornaments, discodials, and ceremonial objects such as bird Archaeological History of Milwaukee County 37 stones, banner stones, and boat stones. The collection of bird stones may be said to embrace nearly every known type as well as some not to be seen in other collections in the country. The flint implements, grooved stone and fluted axes, celts, adzes, gouges, hammers, stone balls, hoes and spades in this collection are all of surpassing interest and many of them of great beauty of workmanship. There are a number of fine caches of flint implements as well as a large number of other flint implements of all classes. Not a few of the specimens in this collection were also collected from Milwaukee Countv sites. In 1907 there was disposed of to the Logan Museum of Beloit College by its owner, the W. H. Ellsworth collection of about one thousand specimens of stone axes, celts, gouges, adzes, hammers, spuds, spades and other classes of the heavier stone implements in the assembling of which its owner had spent a number of years. This collec- tion was at the time of its sale unquestionably the finest private collection of its character in the Northwest. The W. H. Elkey, another large and valuable collection, soon after also passed into the keeping of the Logan Museum. In" both of these collections Milwaukee County was repre- sented by numbers of specimens. Another collection, made by Dr. Fisk H. Day, of Wauwatosa, was after his death taken to Michigan and there finally disposed of, it is reported to a dealer in Indian relics, and its contents scattered to the four winds. Being assembled in an early day this collection is said to have consisted very largely or almost wholly of ma- terials collected within the limits of the county and perhaps largely in the Menomonee Valley near Wauwatosa. Other Milwaukee collections of interest and importance to the student of local archaeology are those of the Messrs. W. H. Ellsworth, W. A. Phillips, W. H. Vogel, Arthur Gerth, C. G. Schoewe, Arthur Wenz, 0. L. Hollister, 0. J. Habhegger, L. R. Gagg and L. R. Whitney, all of these gentlemen being members of the Wisconsin Archaeological Society. Other collections are those of Mr. C. A. Koubeck, H. A. Kirchner and H. R. Dennison. All of these collections contain a few or many specimens from sites within the county. Many of the more interesting of the specimens contained in these cabinets have been described by the 38 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 2 writer and others in monographs, articles and notes pub- lished in previous issues of the Wisconsin Archeologist. Of the copper implements in the Milwaukee Museum, which were collected in the county, some of the most inter- esting were described in an article written by the writer and which appeared in the first number of the Wisconsin Arch- eologist, published in 1901. Among others not described at that time there may be mentioned: Two copper awls found in an Indian grave south of the city, probably in Layton Park, and presented by Mr. J. P. Rundle; a small socketted copper harpoon, a rather rare type of implement, found on the Lisbon Plank road near Wauwatosa, donated by Mr. Carl Thai; a copper spearpoint and crescent found on the banks of the Kin- nickinnic River, in 1892, and given by Mr. C. A. Reed; a copper axe from a mound near Forest Home Cemetery, and two copper axes weighing nearly two pounds each, taken from a mound on the Green Bay road ten miles north. of Milwaukee. The exact location of this mound has never been ascertained. A leaf-shaped copper implement obtained in 1892 on the banks of the Kinnickinnic, was donated by Mr. Wm. Frankfurth. In the museum collections there are two fine specimens of the rather rare long-bitted stone axes specimens of which have been obtained from only a very limited area in eastern Wisconsin. One of these was found at Milwaukee and the other at New Coeln. This last specimen is 11^ inches long and weighs about six pounds. There is also a very good specimen of the rather rare oval axes. This is said to have been found on the south side of the city. A steatite pipe, presumably intended to represent a turtle, was obtained near the site of the House of Correction. A Micmac pipe of black chlorite was also found in the city. Other implements in the museum are mentioned elsewhere in this bulletin. The museum collection of Indian crania from Milwaukee County is small. In it are two skulls from an Indian burial place formerly located at the northeast corner of Walnut street and Island avenue, presented by H. Voigt and A.. Toellner, and another found in a grave while excavating for a store at 445 Milwaukee street, between Wisconsin and Oneida streets. Archaeological History of Milwaukee County 39 In the museum at Milwaukee Downer College there is a fine discoidal made of "variegated quartz of a light brown color." Its diameter is 3f inches. .It is \ inch thick at the edge, each side being excavated. Its center is perforated. This specimen was found at Milwaukee and is figured by Dr. I. A. Lapham in his Antiquities of Wisconsin. His figure does not do justice to its beauty. In the History of Milwaukee published by the Western Historical Company there is figured a large pottery vessel said to have been found "near Milwaukee." "It would hold about seven quarts, wine measure." Nothing further is known of this vessel. In the collection of M-r. W. H. Vogel is a peculiar stone celt found on Grand avenue. The lower portion of its blade is elevated above the remainder of the implement. A bird stone in the Ringeisen collection was found one half mile north of Keippers park, in Granville township. A long-bitted axe was found near Silver Springs P. 0. Its length is 11 inches and its weight 4 pounds. In the H. P. Hamilton collection there is a copper spearpoint found in Greenfield township. A large flint ceremonial knife was found in Layton Park by S. P. Croft, while grading, in 1892. This is now in the Logan Museum. It is 11 \ inches in length and 1| inches wide at its base. At the same time there was unearthed a cache or deposit of six blue hornstone knives of the familiar "turkey-tail" pattern. A fine polished stone celt was brought up by a dredge from the bottom of the Menomonee River, near the 26 street crossing. An obsidian knife about 3 inches in length was found on an Indian site near the Kinnickinnic River south of Forest Home cemetery. This material does not occur nearer Wisconsin than the Rocky Mountains, and it is probable that this specimen found its way to Milwaukee County in the course of trade with tribes west of the Mississippi River. A small copper axe was found on the bank of the Milwaukee River about one mile south of Silver Springs P. O. In the vicinity of this place there was also obtained a small perforated discoidal of pyrite or marcasite. Its edge was encircled by a narrow groove. 40 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 2 A large marine shell (Busycon perversum) was found in grading streets in the Sixth Ward, in Milwaukee. This on the authority of Dr. Lapham. Its length was 12J inches. Thousands of other Indian implements have been found on the site of Milwaukee since the day of settlement but only a comparatively small number of these have been preserved in public and private collections. Most of the others have been lost, broken or carried away to other states by their owners. It is to be regretted that a careful collection from some of the many Indian sites now occupied by the City of Milwaukee could not have been made when the opportunity offered and the results preserved in the local public museum. A collection of this character would to-day be an object of interest and instruction to thousands of visitors. Elsewhere in this publication other Milwaukee County artefacts are described in connection with the sites from which they were obtained. INDIAN EVIDENCES Milwaukee (East Side) 1. Onautissah's Village. Maps of early Milwaukee show a long, narrow tongue of land extending along the shore of Lake Michigan from the vicinity of the foot of present Huron street to the old mouth of the Milwaukee River, a distance of one and one-fourth miles. On the west this sandy peninsula was bounded by an extensive marshy area embracing nearly the whole of the present Third Ward and by the waters of the Milwaukee River. On James S. Buck's map, showing the city as it appeared in 1835 and 1836, this peninsula is shown to have been overgrown from end to end with trees. Its width is there given as 150 feet. On this peninsula, at a point about 500 feet south of the present harbor entrance, on land now forming a part of Jones Island, was situated an Indian village whose inhabitants were largely Pottawatomie with a sprinkling of Chippewa. Their rush matting and bark covered lodges were scattered over the sands. In their midst was for for some years after Archaeological History of Milwaukee County 41 1784 the log cabin of Alexander Laframboise, a fur trader from Mackinaw. Concerning this most important of the several Milwaukee Indian villages local historians have failed to preserve but a small amount of information. Very little is known about the manner of life of its aboriginal inhabitants. Their number is reported to have been at different times from 200 to 500. Dr. Enoch Chase stated that the "aboriginal lakeside loiterers" at Milwaukee numbered at" times as many as two thousand. Among these were Pottawatomi, Winnebago Chippewa and Menominee. (West. Hist. Co., Hist, of Milwaukee, p. 179). The Indian inhabitants of Onautissah's village subsisted largely upon fish (sturgeon, trout and whitefish), such wild animals large and small as inhabited the land and marshes, on roots, wild fruits and wild rice. There were burial places connected with the village other than the Huron street cemetery elsewhere described. Some of these graves were opened in 1858 and 1859 by Mr. C. P. Cornillie and his brother. These particular graves were located about 300 feet north of the mouth of the old harbor. "The conflicting currents of the new and old harbors at that time washed over the land exposing the graves, also the bones of wild animals and other refuse." The chief of the Milwaukee harbor village was Onau- tissah or Onaugesa. The late Mr. Daniel W. Fowler prepared an account of this old chief, which he read at a meeting of the Old Settlers Club and which was afterward printed in the Milwaukee Sentinel. This paper is here reprinted in part: King of the Pottawatomies "0-nau-tis-sah, head chief and so-called 'King of the Pottawatomies,' was born, it is claimed by Mr. Peter Vieau, at or near the present city of Milwaukee about the middle of the Eighteenth century. He was one of three brothers, all of whom had great influence among the Pottowatomie and Menominee Indians who then lived in and about Milwaukee. The name 0-nau-tis-sah is translated as meaning 'silver sand,' and it is claimed for this spelling that it more nearly expresses the true orthography of the word than 0-nau-ge-sah, as it has been heretofore spelled. 42 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 2 The father of the subject of this sketch was a Potta- watomie-Menominee Indian, whose name is said to have been Che-ko-tau, (The Leader.) The father of Che-ko-tau, it is said, was a Chippewa named 'Mo-zau-maun.' The exact meaning of the name cannot be given, but it is said to relate to 'high birth.' "Chekotan's sons, of whom we have knowledge were 0-nau-tis-sah (Silver Sand), Match-i-si-pi (Bad River) and 0-taw-we-yo (Yellow Body). The latter was the youngest of the three brothers. Onautissah, it is stated, lived in and about Milwaukee all his life until his removal to Council Bluffs with his tribe in 1837 or 1838. He is supposed to have been about 88 years of age at his death, which occurred within a short time after his removal from Milwaukee. When he left here he was so feeble that he could not walk without assistance. "The exact date when he came into the chieftainship is not known, but Augustin Grignon says that he was a chief as early as 1785, to his knowledge, and lived in Milwaukee. No wars that he waged against either whites or other Indian tribes are on record. He is described as speaking very fair English and French for an Indian, was about six feet tall and weighed upwards of 200 pounds. He had a large head and a broad forehead and was a man of dignified manners and deportment, temperate in his habits. It is said that he never indulged in intoxicating liquors to excess. His wife, a Pottawatomie woman, bore him two daughters and a son. The son's name was Mis-si-non-is-see (The Powerful Man). He was born in the present limits of the Seventh ward in 1828. If all accounts were true, he was a sad scapegrace, and his end is not known. The daughters both died young. "Onautissah's royal mansion was a two-room bark wig- wam, which stood just north of the present line of Biddle street in the Seventh ward, at its intersection with Van Buren or Cass, in a one-acre clearing. Footpaths leading to the lake and down the bluffs showed that they went there to get water for domestic purposes. After the advent of the whites, it is said, he embraced civilization so far as to furnish his wigwam with a four-post bedstead and some wooden chairs. "Matchesipi, his brother, was his grand councillor and chief of state, and had his wigwam a short distance away from the royal residence, where he acted as watchman over the root cellars in which corn, pumpkins, potatoes, squashes and wild rice were stored. These cellars were mainly supplied by the contributions of the chief's loyal subjects, who cultivated corn and vegetables quite extensively on the hills to the westward of Muskego avenue and elsewhere within the present limits of Milwaukee. Archaeological History of Milwaukee County 43 "The Winnebagoes are said to have attempted to despoil the storehouses of 0-nau-tis-sah, and when caught they were often punished for their offenses by being tied hand and foot and left lying on the ground for several hours, the sport of the younger members of the population, who jeered them without mercy. "Matchesipi and his brother, Onautissah, were nominally Catholics, and despised the arts of the medicine men of their people. They were both hospitable and charitable, and looked with disfavor upon drunkenness and debauchery. Matchesipi was the Bismarck of the Milwaukee Pottawa- tomies, and beside the name of Matchesipi he bore the name of Missaubic-inini (The Iron Man), a name given him by the Indians and not by the white men. He died in Muk- wonago in 1837. "Only one of these renowned chieftains of the Pottawa- tomies was destined to be buried in the place of their nativity. This was 0-taw-we-yo (Yellow Body) who died in Milwaukee in 1836. and was interred in the Indian burying ground which was located in the present Fifth ward. "The chief of the Mukwonago band of Pottawatomies was See-boi-a-sem (Corn Stalk.) He died there in 1833. 0-taw- we -yo had married his daughter. "It is said that in 1828 the Sioux Indians crossed the Mississippi at Prairie du Chien and made war upon the Pottawatomies. Cornstalk and Yellow Body and the Mukwonago band were on the frontier, so to speak, and first met the shock of the invaders. It is said that the Mil- waukee chieftains supplied a strong force of fighting men to cooperate with the Mukwonago warriors. They slew 100 of the hated Dakotas with small loss, and captured seventy-five or eighty prisoners and as many ponies. They brought the prisoners in triumph to Milwaukee, where Onautissah generously set them free and sent them out of the country on foot, retaining the ponies for his own use and that of his brother Matchesipi. "Onautissah, wore a large silver medal, the insignia of chieftainship, which he received from his father, who had it from the government after the Revolutionary war. After his death at Council Bluffs, this medal fell into the hands of Louis Vieau in Kansas, and may still be in the possession of his descendants. "There is a tradition that the Chippewas, Menominees, Ottawas and Pottawatomie were driven westward from an Eastern home by the Iroquois about 500 years ago, and that before that they were all one people. This kinship among them may account for the selection of Silver Sand's grand- daughter, a Chippewa Indian, and of Silver Sand himself, a Menominee Indian, for chiefs by the Pottawatomies. 44 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 2 "There were several petty chiefs of the Pottawatomies who held sway in Milwaukee county. Poh-quay-gee-gum ruled over the lime ridge band, who lived on the lime ridge near Twenty-fourth street, and those streets east and west of it, in the Sixteenth ward. Pemano, also called Peshano in the histories, a petty chief of the Kinnickinnic band at one time, afterward joined Cornstalk at Mukwonago where he was next in rank. Matchesipi, Silver Sand's prime minister and chief of police, died at Mukwonago while attending a council, from the effect of a stroke of paralysis. "The man most feared was old Pauschke-nana, the medi- cine man and all-round sorcerer, who lived for many years in the neighborhood of the intersection of National and Sixth avenues. He is said to have been a loathsome creature, and was quite generally hated. "Kenshay-kum (the Pickerel) is mentioned by different historians as a petty chief appointed by Onautissah to rule the troublesome Indians in his neighborhood. "All those mentioned were subject to Onautissah, the head chief, who seems to have been a man of ability. He proved himself an orator at the grand council held in Milwaukee in September, 1822, when the government was trying to ex- tinguish the Indian title to the lands in this neighborhood. Some 500 or 600 Indians were gathered at the council place, which was in the upper part of the Seven I h ward, near the Biddle street line. Indian Agent Dixon represented the government at the council. There were present, besides twelve Menominee and Pottawatomie chiefs, Solomon Juneau, Jacques Veau, Charles Vieau, the interpreter and Peter Veau, then a lad of 8 years of age. The council had continued for three days, and Dixon had induced eleven of the twelve chiefs to sign a stipulation to cede their tribal domain to the government. Onautissah alone refused to sign. Dixon being wearied with his obstinancy, started to walk out of the council in anger, but the old chief called him back, announcing that he had something important to say. Dixon attempted to resume his seat on the stump from which he had risen, but lost his balance and fell to the ground, whereat the assembled Indians raised a mighty yell. After order was restored, Onautissah arose and said: ' 'Father, listen. Three days before this grand council assembled I had a dream in which his Satanic majesty appeared and said to me: "0, king of the Pottawatomies you are doomed to the eternal fires. Look beyond there and see that opening in the ground. You must descend into that abyss:" I replied: "As you request and command, so shall I do." I advanced into the abyss, tomahawk in hand, and there I beheld "Kitchi-menan-quet Mash-ki-ki," that is "bad medicine," (burning brimstone.) I walked along Archaeological History of Milwaukee County 45 about two hours toward a beautiful mansion which I beheld in the distance. No Kitch-i-mo-kom-on-ag (Big Knife people) in this country could^build such a house, so large and beaut.iful it was. --^i 1 'I had my tomahawk in my hand, and at last I came to the door of that mansion. I looked all around and could see the smoke issuing from the windows. I took my toma- hawk and struck three jj times on the door. His majesty from the inside cried out:j 'Who goes there?' " ' "Open the door," I cried. " ' "I cannot," said his majesty, "until you give me your name." " ' ''I will. My name is Onautissah, king of the Potto- watomies." " ' ''What do you want here, Onautissah, king of the Pot- tawatomies?" he asked. ' 'My reply was: "I was sent down here and I want to come in." " ' "No," he answered. "There is no place for you here, king of the Pottawatomies." " 'I said: "Open the door and let me prove your state- ment." " 'At last he unlocked the door and opened it. "Now," said he, "0, king of the Pottawatomies, you doubted my word, and you have the privilege of seeing for yourself." I stooped down, looked in and beheld there myriads of people, sitting in chairs, suffering, moaning, burning. Onautissah bent down and looked as far as he could through the smoke and flames, and saw in the distance a golden chair, mounted on a platform. The chair was trimmed with the richest silks and velvets. "Why," said I, "your majesty did not tell me the truth. There is one vacant chair over there suitable for me." He said: "You are too worthy to sit in that chair, it is reserved for one less worthy than yourself. You can't have that chair. It was made and reserved for a particular friend of mine, Dixon, the agent, and he is entitled to it. Go at once, go instantly, Onautissah, king of the Pottawatomies," and he slammed the door in my face. " 'I have hastened here to-day to tell you that he is waiting patiently for you to go there and take the seat, and hopes that you will not disappoint him any longer.' "Onautissah slowly resumed his seat, but a great uproar followed among the assembled Indians, and Dixon again arose and remarked in a disgusted way 'Sold by !' and walked away holding the arm of Juneau. He saddled his horses and left that night for Green Bay." 46 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 2 Wheeler says of Onautissah: "He is a Menomonee, with respectable red and white connections at Green Bay and who delights in a breech- clout and Chinese vermillion. According to our best author- ities, however, this aboriginal settlement (that al the mouth of the river) was founded by Sacs and Foxes, and 0-nau-ge- sa, was a renegade whose superior craft and eloquence won upon the strange tribe, and they, in accordance with Indian customs, allowed him to usurp the position of chief. What fragments of history bear his reflection are highly laudatory of his kind disposition and worthy character." (Chronicles of Milw., p. 6), "He was the head war chief of the Milwaukee band, and was when too old succeeded by his son, Kow-o-sett or Kow- o-sott, who was acting chief when the whites came, and who died at Theresa, Dodge County, in August 1847. Onautissah died at Council Bluffs, in 1838, aged 112 years. (Pioneer Hist, of Milw., p. 149). "The Milwaukee band of Indians were very fond of racing and indulged in this sport fully as often as their white brethren of to-day. The race course was a broad strip of hard, sandy beach near the mouth of the old river. "The races at this point, on ponies, not horses, were kept up until the advent of the Anglo-Saxons. They were exhibi- tions of speed, horsemanship, equestrian feats, battle atti- tudes and the physical prowess of the riders. The races to test speed were generally short but swift and spirited. The other exhibitions consisted of riding on the side, rump, neck and almost under the horse; in a standing or crouching posture; in jumping from one horse to another while the animals were speeding at a wild rate; in leaping to the ground and back to the horse while the animals were on a run, and in performing various maneuvers with spears or poles. The manner in which both horses and Indians thus performed was remarkable indeed, Solomon Juneau declaring that before the warriors were demoralized by whisky, the equestrian exhibitions which he witnessed the first year he was in Wisconsin surpassed in horsemanship and physical training, anything he had ever seen or read of. "Although greatly degenerated, the few races had by the Indians after the whites came were said to be interesting and exciting in the extreme. The aborigines had no horse- trots, the racing was to test the running qualities. The dress used by the riders was occasionally fantastic, but not elaborate, as clothing was a burden that interfered seriously with the gymnastic performances. The horses, which were ridden without saddles of course, were ponies, and smaller than the trained and race-horses of the present day." (West. Hist. Co., Hist, of Milw., p. 219). Archaeological History of Milwaukee County 47 2. Michigan Street Site. An Indian camping ground was situated along the edge of a high bluff formerly located along the line of present Michigan street. This bluff ex- tended in a westerly direction from Huron street to present East Water street. Lying south of the foot of the bluff was the extensive so-called Juneau marsh already mentioned in connection with the Milwaukee harbor village. The bluff was covered with a thicket of bushes and scattered black, burr and white oak trees. Numerous springs had their origin in this bluff. The writer is indebted to Mr. Henry W. Bleyer, a pioneer and member of the Old Settlers Club of Milwaukee County, for information concerning this Indian encampment, which in his youth he frequently visited. It was here that the Indians of the surrounding region gathered once a year, in the spring or early summer, to exchange furs with Solomon Juneau and other traders. At such times their wigwams were scattered in small groups along the whole length of the bluff and ravine from the foot of present Huron street to near the northeast corner of Michigan street and Broadway. These annual gatherings were made the occasion of dances, ceremonies and of games such as pony racing, and shooting with the bow. These took place for the most part on the firm ground at the base of the bluff, between present Michi- gan and Huron streets. On the top of the bluff, near the present location of the Third Ward school house, at the intersection of Huron and Gass streets, at an elevation of about fifty feet above the marsh, was located an Indian burial place of some thirty or more graves. The greater number of these were laid out in quite regular north and south rows with a narrow path between them. These graves were constructed in the following manner. The remains of the dead were placed in a shallow grave which was afterwards closed or slightly mounded over with earth. At the end of each grave was placed a forked stake several feet in height across which was placed a stout pole. Against this pole, on either side, one end embedded in the ground, were placed split shakes or rjuncheons thus forming an A shaped covering which served to shed the rain and in a measure to prevent the graves disturbance by dogs or wild animals. At the head of each 48 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 2 grave was an upright pole usually from four to six feet in height, to the upper end of which strips of blanket or colored cloth were fastened. Burials were made in this cemetery up to as late as 1840. Indian graves were also located in various places along the top of the Michigan street bluff. Some of these were disturbed in after years in the erection of buildings on the blocks between Wisconsin ind Michigan streets. Andrew J. Vieau remembers that in 1823 the marsh was flooded and the home of countless waterfowl. In later years it became a quite dry meadow and was the grazing ground of great droves of Indian ponies. (11 W. H. C., p. 227). When the pioneer settlers located at Milwaukee (in the thirties) thfs marsh was largely under water. Of two quite large islands in it, both located south of Huron street, the most northerly was known as Duck Island. Mr. Bleyer states that the land on and at the base of the bluff then abounded in such small game as rabbits, squirrels, prairie chickens, quail and wild turkeys. At the time of the great flights of passenger pigeons hundreds of these were killed here by throwing sticks into the small trees and shrubs. 3. East Water Street Camp. Indians also camped along the line of the bluff which extended from what was once known as Mud Point, a short distance below where the present foot of Huron Street meets the Milwaukee River northward along the line of present East Water Street. This was in the thirties. Samuel Freeman's Guide, published in 1851, states that: "There were some 200 Indians, principally of the Potta- watomie tribe tented in wigwams, erected a short distance apart" from the location where the United States hotel once stood, at the northeast corner of Huron and East Water streets, to the present location of St. Marys Catholic Church, at the corner of Broadway and Biddle streets. Mr. Albert T. Fowler, a Milwaukee pioneer, informed the historian James S. Buck, that in 1883 Indian corn hills were to be seen upon the narrow strip of mud situated between the then Milwaukee River bayou, afterwards River Street, and the river, (Pioneer History of Milwaukee, v. 1, p. 153). Archaeological History of Milwaukee County 49 4. Wisconsin Street Enclosure and Effigy. This oval earthwork is described as having been located on the city block enclosed by present Wisconsin and Mason and Broadway and Milwaukee streets. It is reported to have occupied nearly the entire block, the earthen wall being "about the height of a man's shoulders." Neither of the latter statements are worthy of credence. This block has a length on Wisconsin of 254 feet and on Broadway of 360 feet. The enclosure was undoubtedly much smaller and the greatest elevation of the wall not over 3 to 3^ feet. "It was nearly razed by Geo. D. Dousman, in 1835, and the annihilation was completed the following year by the Olin Brothers." (West. Hist. Co., Hist, of Milw., p. Ill, Fig. 2). The Wells building and the Miller block occupy the Wisconsin street frontage of this site. A "man mound" is reported to have been "razed when Wisconsin street was graded in the Spring of 1836" (Ibid, p. Ill, fig. 3). It is said to have been 150 feet long. The rather crude illustration given of this effigy indicates that it was very probably intended to represent a bird rather than a human figure. Its bent wings and divided tail were re- sponsible for this erroneous conclusion. Its exact location on Wisconsin Street cannot be learned. Lapham appears not to have encountered either of these earthworks since he makes no mention of them. 5. Lake Shore Camp Sites. It is evident that in stone age times and perhaps later Indian camps were located in various places on the tops of the high bluff overlooking Lake Michigan from Wisconsin street to as far north as Lake Park. These bluffs have been for many years occupied by the fine residences of wealthy citizens of Milwaukee. Mr. Charles Askew of Madison, who in his boyhood (1843) resided in Milwaukee, informed the writer that on the ground near his former home, north of the intersection of Mason and Marshall streets evidences of a stone age camp were once to be seen. In his father's garden, located on the edge of a ravine draining into the lake through present Juneau Park, numerous flint and fragments and h'earth stones were scattered about. Here he collected flint arrow- points, stone celts and axes and other implements. 50 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 2 6. Juneau Mounds. Lapham's plat of these earth- works is reproduced in Plate 2. His survey of them was made in 1884. They were situated at the intersection of Broadway and Johnson streets. The group consisted of an oval mound, two effigies of the panther type, a small triangular mound with small pro- jections, or wings, probably intended to represent a bird, and an oval enclosure. The oval mound had diameters of 17 and 27 feet. Within 40 feet of it was the first of the two panther effigies. This mound was 88 feet in length. The second panther effigy was about 135 feet in length. At the time of Lapham's survey a small house had been built upon its tail near the middle and the adjoining portion of the tail removed. This effigy was peculiar in having a small rounded projection at the extremity of its tail. These effigies were situated "on high ground near the edge of a hill or bank, their heads toward the south, legs toward the bank, and their general direction obliquely towards the edge of the bank." The small mound lay about 10 feet east of the extremity of the tail of the largest effigy. Lapham in his survey notes gives its greatest diameters as 24 and 40 feet. The oval enclosure, which Lapham describes but does not figure in his plate, was situated in Broadway on the east side of its intersection with Juneau avenue. Its diameters were 31 and 44 feet. The wall of earth was 9 feet wide and one foot high. From the base of the high land upon which these mounds were situated, westward to the bank of the Milwaukee River, for a distance of several blocks, the land was low and marshy and was known in the early days of Milwaukee as the "Bayou." 7. Brady Street Mound. The writer was informed by Mr. Henry Smith, the well known Milwaukee alderman, that a large conical mound was formerly situated near the east end of Brady street. It stood near the edge of the lake bluff and gradually disappeared with the caving away of the bluff. This caving he described as due to the cutting of the surrounding forest trees and the wash of the lake waters at the base of the clay bluff. Juneau Mounds Plate 2 Archaeological History of Milwaukee County 51 This mound was about 40 feet in diameter at its base and 5 feet high. Mounds or graves are also reported to have existed in the vicinity of the First Ward school but no exact infor- mation concerning them is obtainable. 8. Lake Park Mounds. A group of conical burial mounds was once located on the present site of Lake Park. Only one of these remains the others having been destroyed in grading a portion of the land when it was being prepared for park purposes. The last mound of the group is located at a distance of about 200 feet southeast of the street rail- way entrance to the park, at the foot of Newberry boulevard, and about 130 feet south of the head of a small park ravine. It is marked with a fine metal tablet erected by the Board of Park Commissioners at the request of the Wisconsin Archeqlogical Society, in 1910. This mound is at the present time about 40 feet in diameter and about 2 feet high. On and about it a number of young ash, elm and maple trees have been planted. Mr. Carl Bodenbach, who best remembers the Lake Park mounds, informed the writer that other burial mounds were formerly situated east and southeast of the mound described. Some were near the spot where the present stone bridge crosses a ravine and others south of these. The largest mound of the group was situated several hundred feet east of the marked mound. It was located about 300 feet west of the lake bluff drive and nearly the same distance south of a ravine leading to the lake shore. This mound is said to have been about 50 feet in diameter and five or more feet high. Undoubtedly there was a village site connected with these mounds but of this the writer has not been able to find traces. Others remember to have picked up flint arrow- points in the fields at this place before the land was purchased for park purposes. In the writer's boyhood the land now occupied by the park was widely known as Lueddemanns-on- the-Lake and was a much favored spot for the holding of Sunday school and other picnics. 52 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 2 Milwaukee (West Side) 9. Kenozhaykum's Village. This Pottawatomie vil- lage was located at the base of a steep wooded bluff about sixty feet in height, which extended from across the present Grand Avenue in a general north and south direction about midway between Fourth and Fifth Streets. There were in 1841 about 100 Indians in this village, oc- cupying more or less permanent wigwams constructed of wat- tle work. Along the base of the bluff, on either side of the village, between what are now Wells and Sycamore streets, and between the village and the extensive marsh on the east, were the planting grounds where squash, melons, corn and other Indian products were grown. Describing this locality James S. Buck in his "Pioneer History of Milwaukee" (p. 62) says: "All that portion of the Fourth Ward bounded by the Menomonee on the south, Spring street (now Grand Avenue) on the north, and to a point midway between Fourth and Fifth streets, on the west, where the hills commenced, was a wild rice swamp, covered with water from two to six feet in depth, in fact impassable marsh. There was a small island near the corner of Second and Clybourn streets, upon which was a large elm tree. All else was a watery waste. At Spring street the ground commenced to harden and from there to Chestnut, with the exception of West Water, from Spring street to Third, (which was also marsh) the whole was a swamp, upon which grew tamaracks, tag alder, and cedar in abundance." Andrew J. Vieau, Sr. stated that: "The Spring street flat, from the river back to the border- ing highlands, the Indians had under quite excellent cultiva- tion. There was scarcely a grub to be seen in the entire field." "On the west side of the Milwaukee, on the Spring street flat, opposite Juneau's place, the chief was Kenozhaykum (Lake Pickerel)." (11 W. H. Colls., p. 228) The late Rev. Johannes Bading remembered that in 1854 there were a few Indian wigwams on what is now Fifth street, between Grand Avenue and Sycamore street. Archaeological History of Milwaukee County 53 It appears from other writers that the Indian wigwams occupied both the top and the base of the bluff, which was known in early days as "Menomonee Hill." An Indian cemetery was located on this hill. 10. Buttles mound. Mr. H. R. King informed the writer (March 28, 1907) that an Indian burial mound was located at the west approach of the State street bridge. This was excavated in an early day by Mr. Anson. W. Buttles, an early settler of Milwaukee. No information concerning the results of his exploration could be obtained. Mr. Buttles has been dead for some years. 11. Grand Avenue Mound. A conical mound was situated in an early day on the then J. H. Rogers property, on the south side of Grand avenue between Thirteenth and Fourteenth streets, in the present Fourth ward. It was located on the east side of a ravine leading to the Menomonee River. Lapham locates this mound on his "Map of Ancient Works in the Vicinity of Milwaukee." The late Mr. John W. Dunlop, an early settler, informed the writer, that while in the employ of Mr. Rogers, in 1843, he and a hired man undertook the exploration of this Indian earthwork. It was then, as nearly as he could remember, about 25 feet in diameter and about 5 feet high at its highest part, at its middle. At its base they found a quantity of Indian bones, fragments of a pottery vessel, several stone celts and a number of flint arrowpoints. The land was after- wards plowed over and all traces of the mound obliterated. The mound was constructed of surface soil. 12. Twenty-first Street Mound. This round mound, the former presence of which Lapham also notes on his map, was located south of Grand avenue (formerly known as Spring street) near present Twenty-first street, on the bluffs overlooking the Menomonee Valley. This was in later years the site of the old Catholic cemetery. Since the writer's boyhood this region has been greatly altered by grading and has been long occupied by residences. No other data con- cerning this mound or the date of its destruction is obtain- able 54 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 2 13. Lime Ridge Village Site. On the high, once wood- ed bluffs along present Clybourn street between Twentieth and Twenty-sixth streets, and overlooking the Menomonee valley, there was up to as late as the year 1841, a Pottawato- mie Indian village. According to the late Peter J. Vieau, a son of Milwaukee's early fur-trader, this was in his boyhood the largest Indian village at Milwaukee. He often visited the village which up to 1835 and 1836 consisted of 250 bark covered wigwams. In 1841 it is reported to have had 100 inhabitants. Connected with this village were quite exten- sive gardens and corn fields. According to Andrew J. Vieau (11 W. H. G., 228) the chief of this large village was Poh- quaygeegun (Bread). Of him, nothing further is known. These bluffs were known in the early days of settlement as the "Lime Kiln Ridge." Such was their height that from them an unobstructed view of the wide expanse of marshy river valley extending from opposite this point eastward to the union of the Menomonee with the Milwaukee river could be obtained. On the property between Glybourn street and Grand avenue (the site of this early Indian village), now occupied by streets and residences, Indian burials have been occasionally disturbed and stone and iron implements found. In an interview published in the Milwaukee Sentinel, January 10, 1904, Peter J. Vieau states that in about the year 1820 John Kinzie had a log cabin on the Lime Ridge about half a mile east of the Indian Village. He was a trader for the American Fur Company. "He traded with the Indians there and got to be a good deal of a nuisance by selling them liquor. My father had the good will of the Indians who had villages at Mukwonago, Muskego, and at Racine, and traded with them. About the time of my birth (1820) he made complaint to the officers of the American Fur Company that Kinzie was breaking the laws of the territory by selling liquor to the Indians, and the company sent agents to investigate. The result was that Kinzie got notice to vacate the place, and he did so in October, 1821. His log trading post was plainly visible from my father's house across the valley." The Vieau trading post was located on the present site of Mitchell park. The Lime Ridge village is located on a map drawn by Morgan L. Martin, in August 1833, and Archaeological History of Milwaukee County 55 reproduced in the 1906 Proceedings of the Wisconsin Historical Society. 14. Hawley Mounds. Near the middle of Block 283, in the Sixteenth Ward, several hundred feet northwest of the intersection of Wells and Twenty-fourth streets, on property then belonging to the Hawley estate there was formerly located an effigy mound of the common panther type. According to Dr. Lapham's measurements of this effigy, made by him on November 7, 1874, with the assist- ance of Miss Nellie Hawley, and a plat 'of which is now in the writer's possession, this effigy was about 85 feet in length and 22 feet in width at its middle (across the body). It was a trifle over 3 feet in height. Upon it were an oak stump and several trees. The earth employed in the construction of this mound was thought to have been obtained from a field west of the mound. The high wooded land upon which it was located overlooked a low, swampy tract some blocks in extent immediately south of the corner of Wells and Twenty- fourth streets. This mound was excavated on May 8, 1877 by the members of The Lapham Archaeological Society, of Milwaukee. Among those present and assisting were the Messrs. Geo. H. Paul, Dr. Geo. W. Peckham, Prof. H. H. Oldenhage, Prof. A. Hardy, Prof. James MacAlister, Mr. C. T. Hawley, Mr. Newton Hawley, Ex-Alderman Johnson, Mr. Edward Barber, Mr. J. C. Grombie, a number of ladies of the Science Glass, and others. Transverse trenches 2 feet in diameter and 18 feet long were dug through the middle of the figure and extending to a depth of one foot below the base of the mound. Except a small collection of animal bones, whicn were afterwards pronounced to be those of a dog, and a fragment of a stone chisel, nothing was obtained. A brief account of this investigation was published in the Milwaukee Sentinel of May 9, 1877. Mr. Newton Hawley presented a report of the results at a meeting of the Society. Lapham's map shows what appears to be a second panther effigy a short distance west of this one. There were two or three burial mounds located on Block 269 adjoining this block on the north. Dr. Frederick G. Rogers remembers 56 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 2 one of these to have been located on the Kavelage place, on the north side of Cedar street between Twenty-fourth and Twenty-fifth streets. It was destroyed when the house was built, in 1890 or 1891. Dr. Charles D. Stanhope in- formed the writer that a number of effigy and other mounds were once located on a hillside between Twenty-third and Twenty-fourth and Cedar and State streets. Of these he and Mr. W. M. Lawrence, a former principal of the Fourth Ward school, made a survey. The plat made from these field notes has been lost or destroyed. Fig. 1 15. Winnebago Street Effigy (Figure 1). Lapham gives a figure of a bird effigy which was located on "Block No. 120, Second Ward" (Antiquities of Wis., pi. VII, No. 3). This is the triangle block enclosed by Vliet, Winnebago and Tenth streets and now occupied by stores and other buildings. This effigy is shown to have represented a bird with drooping wings. Its head was directed towards the south. The length of its body including the head is shown to have been 34 feet, the distance from tip to tip of its wings was about 95 feet. Lapham gives the length of the wings as 60 feet (p. 17). His plat of this mound was made in May 1850, previous to the publication of his book, which bears the date 1855. His daughters, the Misses Mary J. and Julia A. Lapham, assisted him in taking the measure- ments. It is said that he published an account of this mound in Woodworth's Youth's Cabinet, in 1850. Lapham's map of 1836 to 1852 shows a conical mound and what appears to be an effigy located a short distance north of the bird effigy. Buildings have long occupied these sites. 15a. Mill Street Mounds. In some unpublished Mil- waukee notes Dr. Lapham gives a sketch and brief descrip- Archaeological History of Milwaukee County 57 tion of a panther and a linear mound located on Block 114 between Eighth and Ninth and Mill and Vliet streets. The effigy extended in a northeasterly and southwesterly direction across the northern half of the block. The linear lay on the western side and within a few feet of the tail of the effigy, which it paralleled as to direction. About half of this mound lay in Mill street, now Central avenue. The effigy was. the larger of the two mounds. Lapham says of these mounds: "The earth composing them is of a light colored sandy clay with small pebbles while the soil and subsoil around them is of a reddish color, and is free from sand and pebbles- being a loamy clay. These works are now (1850) nearly destroyed. Their position can be traced through a garden by the lighter color of the materials." Buildings have long occupied this site. 16. Lapham Park Group (Plate 3). This group of twelve mounds consisted according to Lapham's Plate VI of three oval and two short parallel sided linear mounds, a bird and a turtle and five panther effigies. His plate is a copy of a sketch made by him in 1836. Lapham states that: "These works were in 1836, covered with a dense forest. The oblong, at a in the plan, appears to have been the 'observatory,' being in a very conspicuous place, from which may be seen all the works, while in the opposite direc- tion there is presented a magnificent view of the valley of the [Milwaukee] river, and the bay of Lake Michigan, now called Milwaukee Bay. It is eighty-three feet long, twenty wide, and four in height. Two of these mounds were opened, but produced nothing beyond the fragment of a bone, and a slight admixture of carbonaceus matter near the original surface. They were composed of the same tough, reddish, sandy clay that constitutes the adjacent soil. There were two natural elevations or mounds near these works, and upon the summit of one was a small 'winged mound.' The other though the largest was apparently not occupied by the aborigines." (Antiq. of Wis., p. 16). His plate shows this group of mounds to have been located between Galena street and Reservoir Avenue and Fifth and Sixth streets, in the Second Ward. This locality is about one block east of Lapham (formerly known as Schlitz) Park. 58 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 2 Mr. Henry Smith of Milwaukee in a communication directed to the writer some years ago, says regarding this locality : "The mounds were situated north of a ravine that extended from Tenth street in an easterly direction south of Galena street and ran out on Cherry street, at its intersection with Sixth street. The banks 'of the ravine east from Eighth street were bold and steep, the north bank being the highest, and would bring the mounds between Sixth and Seventh street and the south one-half of Block 201 and the north one-half of Block 102, including all of Galena street. From that point there was a good view of the valley. They could not be well situated north of Walnut street and west of Sixth street, as that was flat ground, and too far north of the bold front of the ravine. Part of the Froedert Bros, malt house and elevator rest on thirty feet of filling. This will give an idea of the height of the ravine banks." According to Lapham's plate the lengths of the panther effigies were about 100, 100, 156, 162, and 212 feet. The turtle effigy measured about 155 feet in length. The bird had a wingspread of about 100 feet. The oval mounds were about 30 and 60 feet and the linear mounds about 50 and 75 feet in length. All of these interesting earthworks had disappeared many years before the writer came to know this locality. They were destroyed in the growth of the city. 17. Sherman's Addition Mounds (Plate 5). These mounds are thus described by Lapham: "In that part of the city known as Sherman's Addition, we first found mounds of undoubted animal forms. One of these (Plate IV. Fig. 2) is on ground covered by the corn hills of the present race of Indians, who occupied the lands in this vicinity down to a very late period. It may be con- sidered as a rude representation of a wolf or fox guarding the sacred deposits in the large though low mound im- mediately before it. Both these are of so little elevation as to be scarcely observed by the passerby; but when once attention is arrested, there is no difficulty in tracing their outlines. The body of the animal is forty-four feet, and the tail sixty-three feet in length." (Antiq. of Wis., pp. 16-17). His figure shows these mounds to have been located on Block 33. Maps of the City of Milwaukee show this block Lapham Park Mounds Plate 3 Archaeological History of Milwaukee County 59 to be the one bounded by Reservoir avenue and Sherman and Hubbard streets. Lapham's survey of these mounds was made in 1848. According to his figure the effigy mound was about 130 feet in length. The burial mound adjoining it had a diameter of about 57 feet. On its top an Indian provision cache had been dug, presumably by the Indians who camped in the river bottom below the bluff. Mr. Henry Smith informs the writer that just north of the location of these mounds was .the mouth of th*e great ravine that had its source west of Fourth street near Locust street. They were on the west side of its mouth. This ravine had in it a running creek as long as the surrounding Fig. 2 forest existed and up to as late as 1848. He recollects that when the C. M. & St. P. R. R. roadbed near these mounds was being graded many human skeletons and flint imple- ments were disturbed. The earth was carried down as far as Galena street for filling for the roadbed. 18. Sherman Street Effigy (Figure 2). Lapham gives a figure of this mammal effigy in his Plate VII, Fig. 2. He says of it: "A more graceful animal form was found on block No. 36. It may be regarded as a representation of an otter. Length of head and neck twenty-six feet; body, fifty feet; tail, seventy feet. Its direction is a little south of west." (p. 17). Its location on block 36 of Sherman's addition would place this mound on the block bounded by First and Second streets and Sherman street and Reservoir avenue. This location is about three blocks east of the Lapham Park group and two blocks west of the Sherman's Addition mounds. The Mirwaukee River is about three blocks distant. 60 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 2 Mr. Smith says of this locality: "The lay of Block 36, part of Block 37 and all of the north half of Block 35 presented a bold front south and gave a commanding view of the Milwaukee River Valley, an ideal place for the location of an Indian mound." 19. Beaubian Street Effigy. A mound of the panther type was located, according to Lapham (Antiquities of Wisconsin, Plate VII, No. 1) on "Lot 88, Beaubian Street, Second Ward." Beaubian street is now Garfield avenue and this location is now in the Sixth Ward. Nothing further is known of this mound. It is probable that it was situated somewhere east of the great ravine already mentioned. 19a. North Avenue Mounds. On this map Dr. Lapham shows by means of several dots the location of several mounds which are reported to have formerly existed on and adjoining the land occupied by the C. M. & St. P. R. R. North Milwaukee roundhouse. They were situated south of North avenue and about two blocks east of Kilbourn Park. One of these mounds was a panther effigy. 20. School Section Group (Plate 6). Lapham thus describes this mound group: "Proceeding up the [Milwaukee] river, we find the next works on the" School Section between the plank road from Milwaukee to Humboldt and the river. (See Plate VII, No. 4). They consist of three lizard [panther] mounds, and four of the oblong form, occupying a high level plateau completely covered with the original forest trees*, (p. 17)." This location was east of present Humboldt avenue and south of Clarke street. The track of the Milwaukee and La Grosse Railroad (now the C. M. & St. P. R. R.) passed between the mounds and the river bank, which at this place was fifty feet high. Lapham's survey of this group was made in November, 1849. The three panther effigies were about 130, 130 and 135 feet in length respectively. The largest of the linear and oval mounds was about 60 feet in length. Lapham also shows one conical (burial) mound but does not mention it in his description. The river bank near the mounds was 50 feet high. Dr. Increase A. Lapham Plate 4 Archaeological History of Milwaukee County 61 21. Richard Street Mounds. An effigy, probably of the common panther type, and a conical mound are located by Lapham on his map. He gives no description of these earthworks, which were situated on the top of a large hill formerly located just north of the intersection of Wright and Richard streets, in the Thirteenth Ward. Several blocks west of this hill was a creek which drained a large marshy area which extended from this point in a northwesterly direction to beyond present Burleigh street. Near the head of the creek and on the edge of the marsh was a beaver dam the presence of which Lapham notes. According to Mr. Henry Smith the creek flowed down a ravine leading to the Milwaukee river. It crossed Third street near Clark "running in a zigzag manner southeasterly to the center of Block 2 at the intersection of Garfield and Hubbard streets" and then continued on to the river. 22. Humboldt Mounds. According to Lapham's map these mounds, which were conical in form, were located on the west side of the Milwaukee river east of Humboldt avenue and between what are now Auer and Keefe avenues. Sit- uated directly north of these mounds was the early Mil- waukee river settlement known as Humboldt. The family of Rev. G. E. Gordon formerly possessed some Indian implements obtained from some of the mounds of this group. 23. Fond du Lac Avenue Effigy. A bird effigy is described as having been located "on the west side of what is now Fond du Lac Avenue (West Historical Co., History of Milwaukee, p. 111). The location is very indefinite. It is thought that this mound must have been situated on the edge of a large tract of marshy land near the union of Fond du Lac avenue with present Twenty-seventh street, in the Nineteenth Ward. This tract of marshy land was drained by a creek which flowed in a general southwesterly direction to the Menomonee river. The figure of this effigy was that of a bird with a divided tail. It is quite evident from this figure that it is merely a reproduction of a sketch and that it was not platted according to measurement. 62 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 2 24. Teller Group (Plate 7). This group of Indian earthworks was described by the late Mr. G. H. Doerflinger, and the writer in January 1900; in the Bulletin of the Wisconsin Natural History Society (V. 1, No. 1). Its presence was made known to the Archaeological Section of that Society, in May, 1899, by Mr. Edgar E. Teller, in whose honor it was afterwards named. The Teller group was located on the south side of the Milwaukee River, about one-half mile beyond the then northern limits of the City of Milwaukee, in the N. E. J of the S. E. i of section 5 of Milwaukee Township. The Port Washington road was about one-third of a mile west of the mounds, and the Milwaukee Cement Co. quarries were located a short distance to the east of them. The mounds were situated west of and close to the brink of a ravine, about 200 feet wide at its widest part, and through which in the spring and early summer a creek flowed northward into the Milwaukee River. The general elevation of the tree covered pasture land surrounding the mounds was about 18 feet above the ravine, 36 \ feet above the river and 17 feet above the Port Washing- ton road. There were in this group five large effigy mounds of the common panther type and a single oval mound. (See Plate 7). The dimensions of the effigy mounds were: No. 1. Length 162 feet, width of the body 27 feet. No. 2. Length 122J feet, width of the body 25 feet. No. 4. Length 119 feet, width of the body 24 feet. No. 5. Length 136 feet, width of the body 21 feet. Effigy No. 6, which was located at a distance of about 400 feet north of the other mounds of the group, had lost a con- siderable portion of its tail in the grading of the right-of- way of a railway spur track leading to the cement mills. The oval mound (No. 3) was 55 feet long and 22 feet wide. This last mound was excavated on June 25, 1899, by a party of members and friends of the society. It was found to be constructed of black loam mixed in places with what appeared to be sand and charcoal. The only objects found during its exploration were an unfinished or rejected arrow point made of while chert and a small fragment of human Archaeological History of Milwaukee County 63 bone. These were found very near the top of the mound and may have been carried in with the earth used in its con- struction. In the original report of the Teller group the presence of "twenty-seven smaller tumuli of approximately circular or oval outline" about the larger mounds is noted. All of these, as expressed by some members of the section at the time of the preparation of the report, were afterward proved to be elevations caused by the falling of trees in the original forest. Mr. Frank Blodgett, a local civil engineer, was employed by the Society to make the survey and to prepare the plat and detail plans of the mounds which accompany the above mentioned report. The property upon which the Teller mounds were located has in recent years been secured by the City of Milwaukee for use as a public park. When the writer and Dr. E. J. W. Notz visited this locality in the year 1914 some of the effigies had been partly removed by persons desiring the black earth for use on lawns and in gardens and the others badly mutilated. No trace of a stone age village site was found near these mounds the surrounding lands never having been under cultivation. On the lands on the opposite bank of the river a few flint and other implements have been collected. Other Evidences of Indian Occupation. Where the Essex flats now stand, at the northeast corner of Ninth and Wells streets several Indian burials were disturbed and a number of stone implements found some years ago. A grooved stone axe made of reddish granite, obtained on the site of this burial place in 1886, is how in the Milwaukee Public Museum. Other Indian graves are said to have been located on the property of the late Mr. James Kneeland, on the south side of Grand avenue between Tenth and Eleventh streets. In 1877 an Indian grave situated on the edge of a ravine at the foot of Seventeenth street was disturbed by graders engaged in the grading of Clybourn street. In this grave was found a human skeleton in a sitting posture the bones being surrounded by a mass of tree roots. With it were found a small copper trade kettle, a bone-handled knife, 64 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 2 two circular silver earrings and some stone implements. The kettle, one earring and the bone handle of the knife are in the possession of Dr. Frederick C. Rogers of Oconomowoc. A Mr. Thomas Carroll, broke the knife and took the blade and one earring. Mr. Charles Tesch informed the writer that in about the year 1875 a band of Winnebago Indians had a summer camp on the bluff in what was long known as Tesch's woods (Park Hill subdivision) overlooking the Menomonee river and present site of the West Milwaukee railroad shops. In working a gravel pit at the western end of this bluff two Indian crania were unearthed. From Mr. Christian Widule, an old settler, the writer learned that in about the year 1850 a Winnebago Indian camp was located near the present intersection of Sixteenth and Vliet streets. About two blocks east of this place was a chain of marshy ponds known as Cannon's ponds. Be- tween the camp and the ponds was a strip of woodland. The white residents of this district visited the camp each Sunday to see the Indian lacrosse and other games and dances. Mr. Herman Hirsch reports that on Vliet street, between Seventh and Eighth streets, was a hill known as the Green hill. From an Indian camp site on this hill he collected flint arrowpoints and other stone implements in his boyhood, in about the year 1875. A similar site was then located on Winnebago street between Tenth and Eleventh streets. Evidences of flint working were abundant on this site. This is the site of the bird effigy located by Dr. Lapham and elsewhere described. Mr. Hirsch states that in about the year 1875 some Oneidas and Pottawatomies were encamped near the present intersection of Tenth and Cherry streets. This was a favorite Indian camp ground. In the year 1836 and later an Indian corn field was located between Third and Fourth and Chestnut and Poplar streets. Undoubtedly there was an Indian camp in the vicinity. This locality is within half a block of the Milwaukee River. Some years ago Indian graves were disturbed by graders in the northeast corner of the city block located near the intersection of Walnut street and Island avenue. These burials were made at a depth of from 2 to 2J feet below the 2 > Archaeological History of Milwaukee County 65 surface of the soil. The crania are preserved in the Mil- waukee Public Museum. Lapham mentions that an Indian camp was located in this vicinity. Mr. August Krueger reported to Dr. E. J. W. Notz, a member of the Wisconsin Archaeological Society, in 1907, that in the years 1849 to 1850, a Menomonee Indian camp of twenty or more wigwams was located on Seventeenth street between Vine and Brown streets. An Indian burial place was located on a hill formerly located north of Burleigh and near Fourteenth street. Mr. William Zuerner here unearthed Indian bones and implements. Milwaukee (South Side) 25. Pauschkenana's Village. This Pottawatomie vil- lage was situated near the intersection of Sixth and National avenues and in the Fifth Ward, on the South Side of Mil- waukee. This place was formerly known as Walkers Point. Andrew J. Vieau, Sr. stated that there were no planting grounds connected with it. The occupants were known to the pioneer settlers as "wild" Indians and spent much of their time in pony racing, gambling, drinking, fighting and like pleasures. The village is said to have been still in existence in 1841, or several years later. Vieau thus describes the "Walker-point rogues," 1832. "The Indians were principally Fottawattomies. Those who were at what came afterwards to be called Walker's Point, on the south shore of Milwaukee river, were con- siderably intermixed with Sacs and Winnebagoes. They were lazy fellows, as a rule, and preferred to hunt and fish all summer long, to cultivating corn. They were noted players of the moccasin game and lacrosse, and given to debauchery. In the winter time, these fellows scattered through the woods, divided into small hunting parties, and often Walker's Point was practically deserted. But in the summer, there was a large settlement here, the bark wigwams housing from a thousand to twelve hundred Indians of all ages and conditions." "The Walker Point chief of my day was Pauschkenana (The Ruptured). He was a short, thick-set, ugly looking fellow, with a vicious disposition and a broken nose, in which latter was inserted a piece of lead to keep the cartilage in position. He was much feared by the rest of his band, 66 WISCONSIN ARGHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 2 as he pretended to be a sorcerer. He died about 1830. When my father came to Milwaukee (1795) the grandfather of this chief was the head man of the village." (W. H. C., V. XI, p. 111). James S. Buck, Milwaukee historian, says: "There was an old Indian cemetery at the extreme end of the old Point, which was graded off in 1838, I doing the work for D. S. Hollister to make room for a warehouse. A large quantity of relics were taken from the graves, con- sisting of beads, silver ornaments, brass and copper utensils, coins, etc. (Pioneer Hist, of Milw., p. 40). On page 97 of the same publication he says: "Mr. (Solomon) Juneau informed me that in 1838, the lower marsh from Walker's Point to the mouth of the river, was hard ground and used by the Indians as a race ground for their ponies. 26. Walker's Point Mounds. Dr. Lapham says of these: "At Walker's Point were several circular mounds and lizard [panther] mound?, now  dug away in the process of grading streets. One of them, exhibited in section* was examined during the excavation, and found to be composed of whitish clay, of uniform texture and appearance. The blue, yellow and red clays, found abundantly in the country, all assume a whitish color upon e-xposure at the surface; and it is, therefore, not difficult to account for the difference in the color of the clay composing this mound, without resulting to the improbable conjecture that it was brought from a great distance. The several layers of soil, brown subsoil, and blue clay run uninterruptedly under the mound, showing that it was built upon the natural surface. (See Fig. 7.) No excavation had been made, and no relics of any kind were found in it. Indeed, the animal-shaped mounds have never been found productive in ancient relics or works of art. It was probably for purposes other than the burial of the dead, that these structures were made." (Antiq. Wis., pp. 15-16). In some unpublished notes of Dr. Lapham's he says that there were eight circular mounds "near the northwest corner of Walker's Point Addition." On block 22 of Walker's Point he found a lizard (panther) and an oblong Archaeological History of Milwaukee County (17 (linear) mound. These were located northwest of the inter- section of Virginia and Grove streets. The head of the effigy was directed toward the street corner its body extend- ing toward the northwest. The linear mound was- a short distance behind this mound. Its general direction was northeast and southwest. 27. The Runner's Village. According to Andrew J. Vieau, Sr., a petty Pottawatomie chief, Palmaipottoke (The Runner) had, in about 1823, a small village "between Walker's Point and the Menomonee." (W. H. C. XI, p. Fig. 3 228). This location is very indefinite. An examination of the earliest maps of Milwaukee show that the site of this village may have been located on land across a marsh situated directly west of Walker's Point. Nothing further is known of this village. 28. Buck Mounds (Figure 3). A brief description and diagram of this group of mounds is given by James S. Buck, in his "Pioneer History of Milwaukee," published in 1876. (pp. 99-100.) "There were also upon that part of the south side, lying between Elizabeth (now National Avenue) and Park' streets Fourth and Eighth avenues, originally eight mounds or tumuli, about twenty feet in diameter at their base, and twelve feet in height, arranged in the following manner:" These have long since disappeared. Dr. Lapham also locates this group of conical (burial) mounds on his map (Antiq. Wis., pi. III). He shows them 68 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 2 to be on the south instead of on the north side of the Wau- kesha Plank road, now National Avenue. Buck's sketch, doubtless made from memory, is too con- ventional to be correct. Doubtless their arrangement was much more irregular. 29. Mitchell Park Village Site. The present attract- ive city park, known as Mitchell Park was in early days the site of an Indian village. On the top of these bluffs over- looking the present great Menomonee Valley manufacturing district, once a broad expanse of marsh and water, was located a stone age Indian village of which local history gives no account. The presence of this site was detected and reported by Mr. 0. L. Hollister, a member of the Wis- consin Archeological Society, in the year 1902, at a time when the land, then being added by the city to the park, was about to be improved. This addition lay between 17th and 18th avenues and between South Pierce and the valley bluffs, and now forms the southern half of the park. In rambling over these fields, which may have been tilled for half a century, Mr. Hollister found flint chips and other unmistakable evidences of early aboriginal residence. He thereafter devoted much of his leisure time to its examina- tion and has thus been able to assemble therefrom in the course of several years a fine study collection of stone arte- facts embracing nearly all of the commoner and a few of the more unusual types. Mr. Hollister has very kindly furnished to the writer, (April 29, 1916), a series of excellent pencil drawings and notes on the various classes of stone implements collected by himself from this site. These include a re-sharpened and a "pebble" axe, a good grooved axe of a common type and a wedge-shaped implement with a battered poll and broken cutting edge. There are several hammer stones of irregular 'form whose flat worn faces indicate that they may have been employed in pulverizing some substance. Several stone spalls have a sharpened edge and were probably employed as knives or scrapers. An unfinished celt shows plainly the marks of its rough flaking and the beginning of the pecking process by which it was to have been dressed into shape. A hammer stone has slight depressions or "finger-holds" on School Section Mounds Plate 6 Archaeological History of Milwaukee County 69 its two sides. Rude stone and flint scrapers and knives are of several types. The arrowpoints in the collection include specimens of the leaf-shaped, triangular, notched, barbed, serrated, asymetric and other classes. Several perforators, and a number of knives and blanks are in the collection. One of the most interesting of the finds made by Mr. Hollister was made, in 1909, on the northwest slope of the portion of the river bluff upon which was once located the Vieau Indian trading post. Here he noticed a few fragments of flint implements and in excavating on the spot with his jack-knife uncovered a large number of additional fragments. These proved to the bases and points of what he determined to have been no less than thirty-six arrowpoints, which had been cached or secreted by their Indian owner in the side of the bluff. Just previous to this time this side hill was used by the International Harvester Company, in demonstrating the climbing power of their gasoline traction engines, and by some of these the destruction of this cache was accomplished. These points are thin in section and of very fair workman- ship. Their bases are square, indented and rounded. The point on the Mitchell Park site at which indications of Indian occupation were the most plentiful was that upon which the Vieau memorial log cabin has in recent years been erected by the Milwaukee Old Settlers Club. Here the scattered, burned and broken stones from wigwam fireplaces and the chips, flakes, spalls and other rejectage of the Indian flint worker were most abundant. Dr. E. J. W. Notz, Mr. H. R. Dennison, the writer and others have also col- lected archaeological specimens from this village site. Of the Jacques Vieau fur-trading post, which was located at the base of this bluff from 1795 to 1834, information has been given in the introductory chapter on Indian history. 30. National Avenue Effigy. This emblematic earth- work is also described by James S. Buck: "In Elizabeth street, now National avenue, above Twenty- fourth avenue was a gigantic lizard [panther], at least two hundred feet in length, upon it stood oak trees three feet in diameter. All traces of this have long since disappeared." 70 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 2 In a foot note he adds: "This fine specimen of the artistic skill of that singular race known as Mound Builders, stood in what is now National avenue, which is crossed in a transverse direction from northeast to southwest, its head was to the southwest, but the main part of its body, including the legs were in the avenue. It was discovered by the writer in June, 1838, while engaged in conveying the material for the construction of the center portion of the dwelling now known as the residence of the late Col. William H. Jacobs." (Pioneer Hist. Milw., p. 156, 1890). As nearly as can be determined this panther was located opposite the site of old National Park, a famous race course and picnic ground of some years ago, but now occupied by city residences. 31. Trowbridge-Carey Mounds (Plates 8 and 9). This group of mounds because of its distance from the more thickly settled portion of the South Side and because of the character of the land upon which these earthworks were located, was never known to more than a comparatively small number of persons. It was situated on the J. C. James property, formerly known as the Carey tract, lying between National and Greenfield avenues and between 33d and 35th avenues and partly upon the adjoining Trowbridge property. The land was rather hilly and rough. To the east of Green- field avenue the land is said to have been formerly low and swampy. On the National avenue front of the property was a large gravel pit. West of the mounds the land sloped gradually to a tract of low land which was partly under cultivation and partly covered with brush. Through this lowland, which is said to have been once a pond, a small creek flowed, which drained into the Menomonee valley to the east. Here also were the remains of a beaver dam. When this locality first became known to the writer, in about the year 1900, nine mounds of the original group of about seventeen still remained. These were low and incon- spicuous. Of the nine mentioned six were conical (burial) mounds, one a straight linear and two effigies of the well- known panther type. The conical mounds were of the following dimensions : No. 4. Diameter 18 feet, height 1 foot. No. 5. Diameter 35 feet, height 3i feet. Archaeological History of Milwaukee County 71 No. 6. Diameter 50 feet, height 2 feet. No. 7. Diameter 28 feet, height 2f feet. No. 8. Diameter 40 feet, height 3 feet. No. 9. Diameter 40 feet, height 1J feet. The linear mound was 50 feet in length with a uniform width of 12 feet. It was 1 i feet high. The exact dimensions of the effigy mounds could not be ascertained since both had lost a considerable portion of their tails, which extended across Greenfield avenue and on to the lots on the opposite side of the road. All of these mounds were on land over- grown with trees and brush. On the edges of two of the conicals (Nos. 6 and 7) were growing oak trees from one foot to 16 inches in diameter. Conical mound No. 8 was excavated by the writer with the assistance of the Messrs. 0. L. Hollister, W. G. Ehlhardt, Dr. E. J. W. Notz, Paul Joers and Hans Sauer, members of the Wisconsin Archeological Society, and others, on October 27, 1907. It was found to have been constructed of soil similar to that of the surrounding surface (top soil and clay), with the exception of a small pocket of gravel near the middle. This last began a few inches beneath the surface and extended nearly to the mound's base. Previous to our exploration this mound had been dug into by others. A small excavation about 3 feet across at the top had been carried down to within a few inches of the base of the mound when the digging was discontinued. Our own digging was carried down into the undisturbed clay beneath the mound. Midway between the center and .the western edge of the mound, at a depth of 14 inches beneath the top, was found a human skull lying on its side and facing the north. A few inches west of it was the lower jaw bone and other bones. A leg and a collar bone lay on the south side of the skull. This interment, it was evident, was of the class of mound burials known as bundle, or bone burials, the bones having probably been removed from a temporary burial place and here interred when this mound was erected. About midway between the center and the northern edge of the mound on about the same level as the other burial, a few scattered human bones were also found. These were not accompanied by a skull. All of the bones in both interments were in a poor state of preservation. Elsewhere in the mound small quan- 72 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 2 titles of charcoal and a few potsherds were obtained. These may have been carried in with the earth during the mounds construction. Mound No. 5 was also excavated. A deep pit had been dug into its center by others. In enlarging this pit the Messrs. F. H. Williams, H. Sauer and Dr. Notz encountered a burial between the north side and the center of the mound at a depth of about 18 inches beneath the top. This con- sisted of a skull lying face downward and near it, the arm and leg and a few smaller bones. Several feet northwest of it were a jaw and other bones. No vertebrae were found with either group of bones. Large lumps of charcoal were found beneath the center of the mound on the edge of the earlier excavation. Mound No. 4 was excavated but without any indications of burials being found. All of these mounds were built of black and other soil obtainable in their vicinity. South of the effigies, on the Trowbridge property, there formerly were, it is stated, other mounds. Dr. Lapham, in his unpublished notes, says that four conical mounds were located near the Trowbridge home. A small conical mound was in the yard. Four other conical burial mounds were formerly situated on the site of the James' gravel pit. Capt. George W. Barber, formerly of the National Sol- diers' Home, at Milwaukee, has given the following descrip- tion of these mounds: "They are situated upon a swell of land from 20 to 100 rods distant from what was once a shallow pond or lake. The land occupied by the lake has been partially drained within a few years and is now a meadow. All [of these mounds] have been explored. I have taken bones from two of them, and have been told that pottery and bones were found in the other two. I have one good skull from No. 2, and leg bones, vertebrae, ribs, &c., from No. 1. No account of these mounds has ever been published, to my knowledge. Nos. 3 and 4 have been entirely obliterated for purposes of cultivation. No. 2 has been dug into. No. 1 is fast being undermined to obtain gravel for the streets of Milwaukee. For two years past I have watched with sad interest the destruction of this grand monument of a decayed race, and secured the bones as they were exposed. It now presents a perpendicular section, running nearly through the center, \ \ Teller Mounds Plate 7 Archaeological History of Milwaukee County 73 of which a photograph might easily be taken. A maple and a red oak tree grew upon the mound, each 18 inches in diameter. I assisted in taking out of No. 1 the fragments of three skulls, and other bones of three skeletons. The skulls, vertebrae, and hip bones of each skeleton were on about the same level, and in a space not more than 15 inches square. In one case the crown of the skull was downward, and the top on a level with the hip-bones. This position at first puzzled me, but I suppose the body was buried in a sitting posture, and the superincumbent weight of the earth, as it settled and the flesh decayed, turned the top of the head downward by the side of the body, and it continued to descend until it reached the level of the hips. The faces, judging from the position of the legs, were toward the west. The bodies were not inclosed. One skull was quite well preserved, but the other bones were considerably decayed." (Smithsonian Report, 1881). The linear mound, No. 3, was investigated but without results. By the permisson of Mr. Carey James, the writer was present when the removal of the burial mound, No. 9, was undertaken in the course of the enlarging of the gravel pit. It was removed with plows and scrapers, the writer and the foreman supervising the work. No burials or other indications save a small quantity of charcoal were found. In the Carey gravel pit a number of Indian burials were disturbed at different times by workmen. Some of these were accompanied by stone and copper implements. In 1904, or 1905, two fine bird stone ceremonials, a rolled copper bead and a copper awl, six inches in length were found with one of these burials. The birdstones are described and figured in The Wisconsin Archeologist (V. 8, No. 1). They are now in the Elkey collection in the Logan Museum, at Beloit College. The larger of the two is made of grey slate ornamented with darker bands and measures 5% inches in length. When found it showed traces of having been treat- ed with what appeared to be vermillion paint. The smaller specimen, about 3^ inches in length and \Y% inches in height at its middle, is fashioned out of a hard black stone. Its base is not perforated. The tail is represented by a short upward projection. Both specimens have large eye (or ear) disks which stand prominentlv forth from the head. 74 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 2 The following information concerning the discovery of a remarkable series of stone and copper implements in the Carey gravel pit is furnished by Mr. W. A. Phillips, a mem- ber of the Wisconsin Archeological Society: "The gravel pit is from 8 to 15 feet in depth. While engaged in removing gravel at a 12 foot level on or about February. 19, 1913, Emil Klingbeil, an employee of J. C. James, noticed human bones protruding from a large section of the upper soil which had become dislodged, and during the night had fallen to the level at which he was at work. Upon a closer examination of this earth he found some small pieces of copper which proved to be beads, some triangular flint arrowpoints and a fragment of a large flint ceremonial knife together with the bones of two or three human skele- tons. The bones with the exception of a skull and a femur were in a poor state of preservation and could not be saved. He then started to dig and in a short time unearthed about fifty copper beads, from J to f inches in diameter and globular in form; three tubular copper beads If, If and 2J inches in length respectively; a few bone beads; a copper pike square in section and 11 \ inches in length; a copper spearpoint of rather unusual form 7J inches in length; nine triangular flint arrow r points, and parts of nine flint ceremonial knives. "The attention of other workmen and teamsters was attracted by Klingbeil's digging and in the mad scramble to secure relics some of the most interesting specimens became broken and scattered. Some were trampled into the gravel and lost. I have succeeded after considerable effort in recovering and adding to my collection the following articles: Necklace of 53 copper beads having a total length of 18 inches. Copper pike 1 1 J inches long and %$ inches square at its middle. It tapers to a point at one extremity the other having a chisel edge f of an inch in width. Copper spearpoint 1\ inches in length. Its base is f of an inch in width and it tapers to a paint. Copper awl 5 inches in length. White flint ceremonial knue 11 inches in length. White flint ceremonial knife 11 inches in length and 3J inches in width at the widest part of the blade. It was broken in two and has been restored. This and the fore- going specimen are both finely chipped. Flint ceremonial knife lOf inches in length. Made of a poorer grade of material than the foregoing. It is thicker and not so well chipped. White flint ceremonial knife 10| inches in length. Only the base and point of this once fine specimen were obtained. Archaeological History of Milwaukee County 75 The missing central portion I have restored with plaster of paris= Ivory white flint ceremonial knife 8J inches in length, well chipped. 15 Triangular flint arrowpoints. 4 Bone and one shell bead. Another ceremonial knife, 13 f inches in length was found by Gus Grams, a teamster. This and a similar knife, 9J inches long, secured by me from another teamster, Jack Koepsel, are now in the Milwaukee Public Museum. Both are described in the Wisconsin Archeologist, Volume 13, No. 4. All of the flint implements are more or less coated with a reddish discoloration resembling paint. Whether they were so treated by their aboriginal owners or discolored by some mineral in the soil it is difficult to decide. Two of them were apparently broken when buried with their owner as the broken ends show the same discoloration. The copper pike appears to be of more recent manufacture, as indicated by its character and condition, than the other copper pieces. It is possible that the various implements found accom- panied two or more burials made at intervals of many years. There were indications in the pit of at least two graves, each about two feet in depth, at the surface from which the earth became detached. However, the evidence obtainable on these points is of such a contradictory nature that it is rather difficult to form a definite conclusion as to the probable age of these burials. Mr. Phillips has since disposed of these specimens to Mr. E. F. Richter, a local collector. Some of the lot and the two knives in the collection of the Milwaukee Public Museum are shown in Plate 9. The Carey property showed some indications of having been the site of a stone age camp or village. In digging about the edges of the pit in previous years both the writer and Mr. C. A. Koubeck, a Milwaukee collector, found the burned and broken stones of old Indian fireplaces. From a spot lying between the two effigy mounds already described (from which the sod had been removed) and 33d avenue, the writer collected a considerable number of flint chips and fragments. Similar evidences of flint working were also also found in the vicinity of Mound No. 9. 76 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 2 When Mr. Elisha Trowbridge settled on the lands adjoin- ing the Carey tract on the south, in 1837, the Indians camped in this locality. Both William and Henry Trowbridge, sons of the pioneer, remember the Indian corn hills at this place. From the Trowbridge place a quite large number of stone axes, celts, flint implements, pieces of copper and other specimens have been collected by members of the family, and by other persons. 32. Chase Mounds. On his map, Lapham locates a group of burial mounds a short distance west of the Kin- nickinnic River, near the center of the S. E. i of section 32, or the N. E. J of section 5. (Antiq. of Wis. pi. III.) A comparison of Lapham's map (1836-52) with the Buck and Chase map of 1835-36, shows that these mounds must have been situated north of Horace Chase's residence of that time and a brook tributary to the Milwaukee-Kinnickinnic River marshes. This would place their former location a short distance either north or south of present Greenfield avenue. There were at least five conical mounds in this group. 33. Deer Creek Village. When the first settlers arrived at Milwaukee an Indian encampment was located south of the mouth of Deer Creek in present Bay View. But little is known of this early village whose inhabitants were probably Pottawatonres. Mr. Henry W. Bleyer, the Milwaukee pioneer and historian, states that the Indians also camped north of the mouth of the creek. In this section of the city Indian burials and implements were found during the construction of streets and buildings. Evidences oi former Indian occupation have also been found on the lands on the west side of the creek. Mr. Andrew Schwab informed the writer (August 13, 1903) that a large number of flint arrowpoints had been found in the garden of a Mr. Chris. Beck, near the intersection of Kinnickinnic and North- western Avenues. 34. Indian Fields Mounds and Village Site (Plate 10). These were located in the part of the city now known as Layton Park. They are thus described by Lapham: "The ancient works about Milwaukee are most numerous at a place near the small creek called the Kinnickinnic Portion of Trowbridge-Carey Group Plate 8 Archaeological History of Milwaukee County 77 [now the Kinnickinnic River], and on lands known as the Indian Fields. They are chiefly in section twelve, township six, and range twenty-one, town of Greenfield. When the country was first settled (in 1836), the place was destitute of trees, and exhibited signs of recent Indian occupancy, and cultivation. The creek borders it on the south and west, and an extensive swamp on the north and east. The fields lie at a considerable elevation above the bottom- lands of the creek, and are much broken and uneven in surface. The soil is loose, sandy or gravelly, and could be easily worked with the rude instruments of the aborigines; which may have been an inducement for selecting this spot. The subsoil is gravel to an unknown depth. The Milwaukee and Janesville plank [Hales Corners] road passes through the fields and the wooded land adjoining has been adopted on account of its gravelly soil, undulating surface, and beautiful forest trees, as the site of a cemetery for the city, named appropriately the 'Forest Home.' About fifty circular mounds, and four or five of the lizard [panther] form, have been found here. Some of these can yet be traced although the plough has made sad havoc with most of them. Two of the latter class were here associated in a manner not observed elsewhere in the State. One is two hundred and and fifty feet in length." (Antiq. Wis., p. 13-14). Some of these mounds were located in the grounds now occupied by the cemetery and were destroyed in its prepara- tion. Others were situated on the south side of Layton Avenue (the road to Hales Corners) and between it and the Kinnickinnic River, in present Layton Park. Some of these were destroyed ir the early cultivation of this land and otners in later years, in the grading of the land. There appear to have been several distinct groups of these mounds, but little can be said of them as no one now appears to know mucn about them. These mounds were located on land formerly owned by Mr. Geo. 0. Tiffany. On this land was an interesting earthwork of the class known to archaeolo- gists as enclosures. Lapham made a survey of this earthwork in 1851. (See Fig. 4, No. 3.) It was horseshoe-shaped, with a double wall or embank- ment, the open side resting near the top of the bank. Large trees grew upon and near it. Its north and south diameter was about 115 feet and its east and west diameter about 135 78 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 2 feet. The outer embankment, which was broken in two places, was separated from the inner wall by distances of from 9 to 15 feet. The width of both walls was in places from 3J to 5 feet. They were 1J feet in heignt. Within the enclosure were several irregular shallow depressions. At the foot of the bank below the opening of the enclosure were several large springs the water from which flowed into the river. The bank was 8 feet high. This enclosure may have been used for the presentation of Indian ceremonies. So far as could be ascertained no Fig. 4 indications of a stockade of temporary buildings or of other evidences of occupancy were found during its destruction. A beaver dam was located in this vicinity. Lapham states that: "Further up the creek, on the west side, north of the plank road [Layton Avenue] and not far from some very large mounds are three similar works (enclosures), except that they are not on the immediate bank of the creek. Two of them are represented in Fig. 4, Nos. 1 and 2. This inclosure is about one hundred feet long, and thirty wide, in its greatest dimensions. The opening at d appears to have been caused by the washing away of the earth by the rain that fell within the inclosure. The walls were nine feet wide and one foot high." (Antiq. of Wis., p. 15). These were on land then, or later, owned by Reynolds Bros. No trace of them or of the mounds now exists. Mr. John Haug states that he carefully excavated one burial mound situated on the "right" bank of the creek in this locality. Its diameter was 15 feet and its height 6 feet. It was constructed of black soil. On the north side of the Archaeological History of Milwaukee County 79 mound he found a skeleton in a good state of preservation and probably of an intrusive character. The skull, which rested on the bones of the left arm, faced to the north. At the base of the mound were the bones of several different skeletons and with them a number of ornamented potsherds and several pieces of copper ore. Arrowpoints and other stone implements were scattered through the mound. (Evening Wisconsin, May 28, 1885.) On a small tract of culti-vated land located on the north side of Layton avenue and between the creek and the C. & N. W. R. R. tracks, flint chips, flakes and fragments, fireplace stones, potsherds, arrowpoints, flint and pebble hammer stones and celts have been found by the writer and other members of the Wisconsin Society. Some of these are in the local collections of Messrs. 0. L. Hollister and C. A. Koubeck. On August 6, 1905, a small human skeleton, which had already been partly exposed, was removed from a small gravel pit on a knoll east of the creek and but a short distance north of the road. Its bones were somewhat scattered indicating that they may have been buried after the flesh had left them. On the cultivated lands lying south of the road and west of the creek (E. f, S. W. J, Sec. 12) scattered indications of flint working and of wigwam sites were also found. Such indications were formerly also found on the lands on the south side of the Kinnickinnic, south of Forest Home cemetery. 35. Hull Mounds. Dr. Lapham says: "A few rods east of the cemetery [Forest Home] on the land of Mrs. Hull may be seen a remarkable excavation, surrounded by part of the earth thrown from it. (See Plate IX, Fig. 1.) It has four sloping ways or entrances, one of them very much elongated; and the reader will not fail to discover in its general figure that of a lizard [panther] mound reversed." (Antiq. Wis., p. 15). When the writer came to know this region, in about the year 1898, every trace of this intaglio effigy and of the burial mounds once located near it, had long since disappeared, the intaglio through the opening of a gravel pit on the property. Mr. Walter B. Hull, a nephew of the former owner, who was 80 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 2 interviewed at about that time, stated that there originally were six small conical mounds on this tract. These were situated a few yards east of the old cemetery fence and a short distance south of the southern margin of the gravel pit. Several, he said, had been dug into some twenty-five years previous by unknown persons. So far as he was able to learn this digging was barren of results. Lapham's figure shows the intaglio effigy to have been about 150 feet in length. A few flint arrow and spear points and several grooved stone axes were found in the field, near the mounds. Some of these were, in 1898, in Mr. Hull's possession. This tract has since been added to Forest Home cemetery. 35a. Distillery Hill Burials. Several Indian burials were disturbed, according to a report made to the Society, in May, 1907, by Dr. Joseph Quin, in working a gravel pit on the former site of the old T. O'Neil distillery, overlooking the Kinnickinnic River, at the south end of llth avenue, just south of where it crosses Windlake avenue. These were unaccompanied by implements or ornaments of any kind. This locality is but a short distance east of the site of the old Hull farm, mentioned in the previous paragraph. 36. Muskego Avenue Village. . In the early days of settlement a Pottawatomie village was located on the side and at the base of a hill a short distance northeast of the junction of the present Muskego and Forest Home avenues. This location is directly north of Forest Home cemetery and is connected with the Indian Fields site. The village was bounded on the north and east by a swamp of considerable extent. Connected with this village there were quite exten- sive planting grounds. "Amiable [Amable] Vieau says that they [the Indians] had extensive fields of corn near Milwaukee when he was a boy and he remembers watching for coons in a cornfield near Forest Home cemetery. These more modern cornfields were plainly visible to the early settlers. The hillc were never in regular order, but heaped here and there, a few feet apart, about as forest trees spring up. The business of corn planting was at- tended to by the squaws. The "bucks" never plant or gather. The manner of cultivating was to scrape wide 33 n * 3 P Q. S. SS? rt> _O n .S C r* 3' Archaeological History of Milwaukee County 81 heaps for the hills. These were from 3 to 5 feet across and about 12 to 15 inches in height. In these same hills the corn was planted year after year, thus making the hills as marked and solid as any natural hillock or depression. That this was the mode adopted by the last Indian inhabitants of Milwaukee was well known to the first settlers .... (West. Hist. Co., Hist, of Milw., 1881, pp. 115-116). Mr. Edward Wiesner, an old settler whio came to Milwau- kee in 1835, stated that at that time there were two distinct Indian villages in this locality, one being situated on the north and the other on the south side of the present Forest Home avenue, with a trail running between them. According to Andrew J. Vieau, Sr., Oseebwaisum (Corn- stalk) was the chief of a band of 150 or 200 Pottawatomie Indians whose village was situated on the banks of the Kinniekinnic River (W. H. Colls., v. XI, p. 228). This village was very probably the one located at the Indian Fields, Granville Township 37. Brown Deer Camp Sites. Several Indian camp sites are located on the upper Milwaukee River, near Brown Deer. One of these is situated on the Mooney farm in the N. W. J of section 1, near the edge of the bank of the stream. In a cultivated field on this farm there were found at several points scattered hearth stones, the white fragments of decomposed clam shells, and considerable numbers of flint chips and fragments. A broken arrowpoint and frac- tured pebble hammer stone were also found. The fragments of decomposed clam shells probably indicate the presence of hidden refuse pits. From the small amount of refuse found on this site it may be concluded tnat the camp once located here consisted of not more than two or three wigwams at most. On the Knebel place in the same quarter section, and adjoining the above on the south, is a site giving more abundant evidence of camp life. This site occupies aboat an acre of ground beginning at the north line of the farm and extending back from the river bank to the farm house and barn some distance away. The soil is sandy and as it had been cleared at the time of the writer's visit, on Novem- 82 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 2 her 8, 1907, of all vestiges of recent cultivation the various evidences of aboriginal occupation were Dlain^y exposed to view. At six or seven places in this field were found groups of burned and broken stones from Indian fireplaces, these and tiny bits of charcoal marking the locations of former wigwams. About these habitation sites and elsewhere in this field were numerous flint chips, flakes, fragments and nodules of the same material. Some of the latter showed upon their edges plain evidence of tneir use as hand hammers qr pecking tools. Among this refuse a flint knife and several arrowpoints were found. There were no pottery fragments, nor had any been found by the boys of the family who have picked up many flint arrowpoints in this field which has been under cultivation for a number of years as a truck garden. A third camp site was located on the edge of a field lying between the road to Brown Deer and the south bank of a creek which here flows into the Milwaukee River. This farm is known as the Kneiop place and is in the S. l /2 of the N. W. Y of section 12. Here were found scattered stones from Indian fireplaces and small numbers of flint chips and fragments. The indications found appear to show that not more than two or three wigwams were located here. Numerous arrowpoints have also been coHected. Indications of a smaU camp and workshop site also exist on the Hyer place just east of Brown Deer (N. W. }4 Sec. 12). These are on the edge of a field which is here elevated but a few feet above the low land bordering the river. The Menomonee Indians are said to have camped on this and adjoining lands in 1840 and for several years later. Indications of several Indian camp sites have also been found along the east fork of the Menomonee River between Granville and the town line. In Cyrus Thomas' "Catalogue of Prehistoric Works," a group of mounds is reported as located near Schwartzburg (now North Milwaukee). No such group has ever existed there. Archaeological History of Milwaukee County 83 Milwaukee Township 38. Fish Creek Camp Site. At Fish Creek (Section 4), in the northeastern corner of this township, some stone circles are reported to have formerly existed in what are now cultivated fields lying south of the creek and not far from the shore of Lake Michigan. These circles, or ovals, are said to have been constructed of stones, probably picked up on the surface of the fields or on the lake shore. It is thought that they may have been laid about the bases of Indian wig- wams as supports against the force of the wind. All traces of these had disappeared when the writer and others visited this locality in 1903. In early days of settlement, small bands of Indians fre- quently camped in this locality. A few stone implements have been collected along the lake shore bluffs. 39. Pickerel Run Village Site. Evidences of an early Indian village site occur on the lands bordering the east shore of the Milwaukee River for some distance to both the north and south of a small stream tributary to the river and known as Pickerel Run or Indian Creek. This site is located in sec- tions 7 and 18 and extends westward following the curve of the river into section 12 of Granville Township. It was first visited on November 8, 1903, by a party consisting of the Messrs. H. A. Crosby, Arthur Wenz, Rowland Russell and the writer. This locality is one of the most picturesque on the upper waters of the Milwaukee River and appears to have been in every respect well chosen for the location of an Indian village. On the cultivated lands especially of the Edward Bradley and John Kuettemeyer farms and on the Henry Kopf farm, the latter situated in the N. W. % of section 7 of Granville Township about one-half mile east of Brown Deer, large numbers of flint implements of all of the commoner classes, and occasional grooved stone axes, celts, chisels, gouges, gorgets, pipes and other stone implements and ornaments have been collected in past years. Mr. H. P. Hansen, the tenant on the Bradley farm, Mr. Kuettemeyer and Mr. Kopf had small collections of these in 1903. In the course of several visits which the writer made to this locality he was able to find on the fields on this site the 84 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 2 usual abundant indications of Indian residence consisting of large numbers of flint flakes and fragments, blanks, broken arrowpoints, hammer stones, pottery fragments, portions of animal bones and hearth stones. On November 14, 1903, Mr. H. P. Hansen, while working in a gravel pit on the Bradley farm, unearthed the well pre- served bones of a human skeleton and several flint imple- ments which probably accompanied this burial. In another cultivated field, occupying low level land in the S. E. J/ of the S. E. Y of section 18, the writer and others found nearly equally abundant remains of Indian occupation. In 1903 and for some years afterward the river lands between this site and the Bradley site were still overgrown with trees and brush. It is probable that these lands when cleared and cultivated also yielded evidences of Indian camp life. 40. Smith Caches. On a prominent ridge on the Charles Smith farm, near a large basswood tree, there were formerly located according to its owner, some thirty or more circular pits, believed to have been provision caches. These were but short distances apart. They measured about 3 feet across at the surface and were from 2>^ to 3 feet deep. All had become partly filled with decaying leaves and soil. All were destroyed several years previous to November 8, 1907. The Smith place is on the west side of the Mil- waukee River, in the S. W. y of section 7. Mr. Smith reported to the writer that in the Milwaukee River, in the N. W. J of Section 18, the Indians had built a fish trap. It was constructed of boulders and ran diag- onally across a shallow place in the stream. 41. Good Hope Village Site. Directly east of Good Hope P. 0., on the C. W. Bertram farm and farms adjoining it on the south, on the west bank of the Milwaukee River, in the N. E. l /i of section 19, there are to be seen in the cul- tivated fields the scattered indications of a former village site. Flint rejectage and hearth stones are found everywhere on the surface of the soil. Many of the latter were, on October 7, 1906, also to be seen in a stone heap collected on the top of the river bank, on the edge of one of the fields. From this site Mr. Bertram has made quite a representa- tive collection of materials consisting of a considerable num- Indian Fields Mounds Plate 10 Archaeological History of Milwaukee County 85 her of flint implements, stone axes and celts, some of them in various stages of completion, stone gorgets, a conical copper point, a copper spear of the socketed form and other specimens. When Mr. Werner Bertram, the father of the collector, came to this section of the county, in about the year 1843, there was located on this site a Menominee Indian camp. It consisted of quite a number of bark-covered lodges, one of these having been located at a distance of about 250 feet west of Mr. C. W. Bertram's house. The trail to Green Bay is said to have formerly crossed these lands. 42. Spring Grove Mounds and Garden Beds. On the J. W. Jaeger place, known as Spring Grove, on the west bank of the Milwaukee River, in the S. E. } of section 19, is a group of three oval mounds and the small plot of Indian garden beds. This land is located opposite the Sunny Point turn of the river and the old race to the former Hermann mill. The river bank is quite hign ind steep. The land was formerly overgrown with trees, most of which have now been cleared away. When the writer first became acquainted with this place on June 29, 1907, two small summer resort cottages had been erected on the river bank. Within 80 feet of the second of these was the first and largest mound of the group. Its diameters were 35 and 30 feet and its height at its middle about 3 feet. This mound had been excavated several years before my visit by a son of Mr. Jaeger. He dug into it from the top in the course of his digging, unearthing the bones of two human skeletons. Mound No. 2 was situated about 240 feet beyond the last. Its diameters were 18 by 12 feet. It was then undisturbed. Mound No. 3 was about 150 feet beyond No. 2. It had been mutilated by relic-hunting vandals. Mr. Jaeger, whom the writer met at this time, promised the restoration and preservation of both mounds- About 140 feet west of Mound No. 2, in the woods, was a small plot of Indian garden beds. The width of this patch was about 80 and the length of the longest rows about 32 feet. The beds were in places no longer very definite and were overgrown with shrubs and tall weeds. The general direction of the beds is northwest. The beds are from 3 to 86 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 2 4 feet wide and from 4 to 6 inches high and the paths between them 2f to 3 feet apart. 43. Indian Prairie Village Site and Mounds (Plate 11). Perhaps the most interesting old Indian site on the upper Milwaukee River was located at a point in sections 29 and 30, known to the early white settlers of the vicinity as Indian Prairie and in later days as Bender's Prairie. Dr. Lapham, who made an investigation of the Indian remains at this place, in May, 1850, has published a descrip- tion and survey of them. (Antiq. of Wis., pp. 17-20, Pis. VIII and IX.) The locality was one most favorable for Indian occupation. It was a fine level plain elevated, accord- ing to his notes from 12 to 30 feet above the river and marshy low land, in part prairie and* the remainder occupied by a rather dense woodland. Its eastern boundary was the Milwaukee River. On the north was a long narrow ravine with steep banks and on the south a tract of low and marshy land and a similar ravine. Both ravines lead to the river, a creek flowing through each. The Indian earthworks located at Indian Prairie consisted of twenty-two conical mounds, two linear mounds, two bird effigies (which Lapham refers to as crosses), five intaglio effiges and four small enclosures. Of the conical or round mounds the greater number were scattered over the prairie overlooking the river, a small number being in the woods. These mounds were from 2 to 4 feet high and from 10 to 54 feet in diameter at their bases. The two most prominent, situated near the middle of the prairie, their bases almost touching, were each 8 feet high and 53 feet in diameter. A short distance southwest of these large tumuli and lying almost side by side, their tails pointed towards these mounds, were four intaglio effigies. Lapham's diagrams show these to have been very likely intended to represent the very common panther type of effigy mound. They differed from the ordinary effigy mounds in being dug out of the soil instead of constructed upon it. The earth taken from the excavations had been heaped up about the edges of the outlines possibly with the idea of giving greater prominence to the figure. (See Figure 5.) A sixth intaglio of similar outline, but lacking the long tail, was located on the edge of Archaeological History of Milwaukee County 87 the woods near the northern end of the prairie. Just to the south of this intaglio Lapham noted "four small circular enclosures, about thirty feet in diameter, the ridge [of earth surrounding them] having no great breadth or elevation. One circle surrounded a cavity two feet deep, in which was growing a basswood tree (Tilia americana) of large size." Two linear mounds about 70 and 75 feet in length were located in the woods near the marsh beyond the southern end of the prairie. Beyond these at the southern extremity of the group of earthworks, the larger on a point between the marsh and ravine, were two of the common form of bird effigies with outspread wings. The larger of these was 166 Fig. 5 feet in length with a wingspread of 141 feet. The width of its head, Lapham gives as 22 feet. A number of the burial mounds have been excavated. One of these was investigated by John Haug, a former teacher in St. Joseph's school, at Milwaukee. (See Evening Wisconsin, May 28, 1885.) This mound was the southern of the two largest tumuli. In the digging he was assisted by several laborers. In it he found a large number of partly decomposed human bones and a "large quantity of broken pottery." Ashes and charcoal were found mixed with the soil of which this mound had been built. Mr. J. W. Jaeger is also reported to have opened several of the burial mounds formerly existing at Indian Prairie but without results other than the finding of a few Indian bones. The most southern of the two linear mounds was dug into by the two sons of Mr. J. H. Bender who found therein the bones of four skeletons which Mr. Bender caused to be re-buried. No implements were found during this digging. On October 19, 1902, a party of members of the then Archaeological Section of the Wisconsin Natural History 88- WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 2 Society and including tne writer visHed the Indian Prairie site. At this time only a few of the original group of mounds were found to be still in existence. An east and west high- way leading to the river, known as "Bender's road," crossed the land. The few conical mounds remaining were located on property known as Highland Springs, then owned by a Mr. A. Schorse of Milwaukee. These had been long under cultivation. In an adjoining cultivated field were the two prominent mounds described by Lapham. The height of these had been reduced from 8 to about 3J feet but their outlines were still quite distinct. Mr. Amos Buttles, a pioneer resident of Milwaukee town- ship, in a letter addressed to the writer (December 16, 1904) stated that in 1846 and 1847 a camp of Menominee Indians was located at Indian Prairie. Mr. J. H. Bender, who pur- chased and settled on this land in 1851, stated that small numbers of the same tribe camped on the river bank near the mounds at that time. When Lapham was engaged in mak- ing his survey he found at the Prairie that it had been a habit of these recent Indian occupants to bury their own dead in the mounds. On one mound he found "three graves but lately formed. They were secured from the ravages of the wolves and other animals by logs of wood held in their places by four stakes." The logs were laid in the form of a low pyramid. Lapham found at Indian Prairie, and on the lands both to the north and south of the two ravines, plots of Indian corn hHls. A plot of garden beds was located about the large bird effigy at the southern extremity of the site, the beds extending over its body. The beds consisted of broad, parallel ridges averaging about 4 feet in width, the paths between them being about six inches in depth. In the cultivation of the fields at Indian Prairie many Indian stone implements have been found and burials occasionally disturbed. A copper spud obtained here by Mr. John Haug is in the Milwaukee Public Museum. In recent years a burial was unearthed from a gravel pit just south of and adjoining the site of the old Bender grist mill at the northern end of Indian Prairie. Indian Prairie Mounds Plate 11 Archaeological History of Milwaukee County 89 44. Stewart Farm Village Site. This farm is located east of the Green Bay road and north of Mud Creek, in the E. J of section 31. Here and on the opposite side of the creek were to be seen the usual indications of a stone age village sUe when last visited by the writer and others, on October 7, 1906. Many interesting archaeological specimens have been found on this site. Some of these are, or were, in the collection of Mr. Joseph Ringeison, Jr., at Milwaukee. 'An Indian skeleton was obtained from a gravel pit on this property. Mud Greek is a tributary of the Milwaukee River. Indications of an Indian camp site also exist on lands bordering the west bank of the Milwaukee River, in the S E. J of section 31 and the N. E. \ of section 5. A local collector, Mr. Louis Allerding nas, or had, a large number of implements which he found in these fieMs. Another stone age camp site was located on the land known as Lindwurm at the bend of the Milwaukee River east of the Port Washington road. Mr. Ringeisen has a pebble hand hammer and flint blank from this site. Wauwatosa Township 45. Story. Quarry Burial. This burial was disinterred in March, 1896, in the working of the well-known Story Bros, limestone quarry, then located just west of the western limits of Milwaukee. The quarry was situated just south of the Blue Mound road, in the N. E. J of the S. E. \ of section 26, and overlooked the Menomonee Valley. A communication received by the writer from Mr. W. E. Story (October 3, 1903) gives the information that this grave, the only one found on this location during fifteen years of quarrying, was disturbed "by using dynamite in the earth above the stone to loosen the same." The skull and bones were found by the workmen after the explosion, having rolled down the bank. The skull and thigh bones of this skeleton and sixty-one rolled copper beads and a copper axe found with them, were presented to the Milwaukee Public Museum by A. L. and W. E. Story. The grave is said to have been located about five feet below the crest of the quarry hill. 90 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 2 A brief account of this burial was published in the Mil- waukee Sentinel of March 20, 1896. 46. Menomonee Valley Camp Sites. These sites, of which there were a number, were located at intervals along the top of the high, once thickly wooded bluffs on the north side of the Menomonee River beginning in the vicinity of the old Gettleman brewery in the N. E. J of section 26 and extending westward into the S. ^ of section 22, within the limits of Wauwatosa. Several small creeks empty into the river in this region. The most westerly of these has its origin in the N. E. J of section 16 and flows in a general southeasterly direction through sections 15 and 22 and into the valley. In the N. E. J of section 22, it passes through a tract of land now occupied by streets and residences and formerly known as the Pabst farm where there were indica- tions of a camp and workshop site. Mr. L. R. Whitney, Mr. E. J. W. Notz and Mr. H. A. Kirchner have made small collections from this site, consisting of flint arrow and spear- points, stone celts and spherical stones and other specimens. The other creek had its origin in a large spring called the Ne-ska-ra, formerly located on a farm property owned by G. D. Dousman, immediately west of present Washington Park, in the N. W. J of section 23. This region is now occupied by residences. From this place the creek flowed in a general southeasterly direction to the Vliet Street road and down a small ravine into the Menomonee Valley. The spring just mentioned was, according to J. M. Wheeler, a favorite stopping place of the early Indians who continued to camp in its vicinity for many years and up to as late as 1850, or later. It was a halting place on the journey from Waukesha (Prairie- ville) to Milwaukee. On another tract of land formerly owned by Mr. Dousman on the south side of the present Vliet Street road was an Indian cornfield. James S. Buck gives the follow- ing description of it in his "Pioneer History of Milwaukee:" It is "upon the farm once occupied by Mr. G. D. Dousman, southwest quarter of section twenty-three, Town seven, Range twenty-one, in Wauwatora. This was originally the claim of Miss Almira Fowler (afterwards Mrs. B. F. Wheel- ock); and in the winter of 1836 I camped upon it, cut five acres of timber, split the rails lo fence it, and put up a good block house for Wheelock. Archaeological History of Milwaukee County 91 The timber was heavy; and when that and the thick coating of leaves was removed, rows of cornhills were plainly visible; and to our astonishment we saw a ditch at least 1000 feet in length, running north and south, upon the east side of which these rows rested, while upon the west, they ran parallel with it, and oak trees were standing in that ditch that were three feet in diameter, whose consecutive rings would indicate an age of at least one thousand years. No modern field was laid out with more regularity than this. Below is a rough sketch of this old cornfield. Those upon the east or right hand represent the rows with their ends resting upon the ditch, and those upon the west, or left hand, those that were parallel with it. These hills were as well defined as though made the pre- vious year." With our present knowledge of the great irregularity of all old Indian cornfields, we find it difficult to believe that this one was as regular as described by Mr. Buck. If sucn a ditch as that described ever existed it is the first instance of the kind on record in Wisconsin. Mr. H. A. Kirchner, a collector residing near Washington Park, has in his cabinet a considerable number of flint implements and a few grooved axes, hammer stones and other implements collected from the camp sites along the Menomonee bluffs. A fluted stone axe was found near the Gettleman brewery. Another fine stone axe of the same character, now in the W. H. EUsworth collection, in Beloit College, was found by some workmen engaged in digging a trench at the western limit of Washing- ton Park. 47. Hart Mounds. This appears to have been the only group of mounds located in Wauwatosa Townsnip. According to in f ormation given to the writer, in May 1903, by the late Dr. Fisk H. Day, a former resident of Wauwatosa, and pioneer arcnaeologist, this group of three burial mounds was situated on property formerly owned by a Mr. T. W. Hart, in the N. E. J of the S. W. i of section 21. This location is on the north bank of the Menomonee River, opposite the present County buildings, and within the limits of Wauwatosa. The largest mound in the group, Dr. Day stated, was about 75 feet in diameter and about 12 feet high. Upon it were several trees and a large stump. Not far f rom it were two 92 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 2 smaller mounds. A diagram prepared by Dr. Day for the writer, shows that the larger mound, when explored, was found to have been constructed of alternate layers of black soil and yellow sandy loam. In the upper layers of soil were found the "badty decomposed" bones of two Indian skele- tons, probably intrusive burials. These were on either side of the center of the mound, within a short distance of each other, but on different levels, one being interred several feet below the other. In the gravel bed at the base of the mound and at a depth of about 12 feet below its apex, the bones of another skeleton were found. About it were pieces of charcoal. Elsewhere in this mound there was found a piece of sheet copper about two inches in width which was rolled in a coil. In a paper read at a meeting of the Lapham Archaeological Society, held at Milwaukee, in April 1877, Dr. Day, gave a description of the skull of the latter skeleton. (Milwaukee Sentinel, April 9, 1877.) This skull was also described by the archaeologist, J. W. Foster, at the Dubuque meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. The following additional information concerning the Hart mounds is extracted from a letter addressed to the writer (December 2, 1904) by Mr. J. D. Warren of Wauwatosa: "The graves mentioned in your communication were opened by Dr. F. H. Day, Bert Warren and myself. They were in a mound located about three hundred feet south of Kenyon street and four hundred feet west of Western av., S. W. I of Sect. 21, on ground now known as the [C. M. & St. P.J railroad gravel pit. The railroad people have worked in from the south and hauled away the grounds to the depth of perhaps twenty feet so there is nothing remain- ing of the old burial place at this time. There were two mounds, one about twenty feet in diameter at its base and from four to six feet high in the center. The other, the larger one, was, I judge, from forty to fifty feet in diameter at its base and from ten to twelve feet high. An oak tree some eighteen inches in diameter stood on the south slope of this mound. We opened the large mound finding quantities of bones but in a decayed condition. We found no implements whatever. There was a noticeable quantity of charcoal in the hard soil around the bones. The skulls were face down and on or between the leg bones, near the feet. I remember that Dr. Day's explanation of this was that the Archaeological History of Milwaukee County 93 bodies were placed on the ground in a sitting position and that the legs extended at right angles with the trunk then the trunk bent forward and down on the legs. This exploration was [made in] about the year 1870-1871. Some years after this, say in about 1880, when the gravel had been taken away up to this point and had caved off a fresh section of the mound, I made a visit there and secured the upper part of a skull and jaw bone." Indian camp sites are indicated in several places along the Menomonee River in this vicinity. They have yielded the usual hearth stones, flint chips and fragments, and occasional pebble hand-hammers and arrowpoints. 48. Underwood Creek Camp Sites. In cultivated fields on both banks of Underwood Creek, in the N. J of section 20, scattered evidences of Indian camp and work- shop sites were found. Underwood Creek, which rises beyond the western limits of Wauwatosa Township, flows in a general northeasterly direction to the Menomonee River. 49. Lyon Cache. According to Mr. W. A. Phillips, a cache of 250 chipped flint implements was found in about the year 1875, beneath a large flat rock on a farm then owned by Moses Lyon, in the N. W. J of this section. 50. Butler Camp Site. Mr. Francis Bell, an early settler, reported to the writer (October 7, 1906) that a Menominee Indian camp was located on the Menomonee River in section 6, east of Butler, in 1841. Some Indian graves were located on the Wetzel farm on the west side of the Menomonee, in the S. E. J of section 6, about one-half mile east of Butler. Flint implements, several stone axes and celts and other Indian materials collected at tnis place on the John Hilgen and other farms were formerly in the collections of Mr. W. H. Elkey and Mr. Louis Vonier, of Milwaukee. Dr. F. H. Day also obtained a number of specimens in this vicinity in the 70's. 51. Honey Creek Camp Site. On the banks of Honey Creek in the N. W. i of section 33, indications of an Indian camp site 'were found by the writer on October 18, 1903. 94 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 2 This site is said to have been occupied in an early day by a band of Menominee and in later years by Pottawatomi and Winnebago Indians. Numbers of flint arrow and spear- points and a few stone axes and celts have been found here in past years. Both Mr. John M. Wheeler and his son, Mr. M. J. Wheeler, had small collections of these. An Indian corn field about two acres in extent was formerly located in a bend of the creek between the north and south road, now known as Greenfield avenue, and the creek bank. When Mr. Wheeler settled on the adjoining land, in 1862, the corn hills were still in evidence. The last traces of these he destroyed when building a residence for his son on this site. On the edge of the corn field and running in a north and south line were three pits or caches for the storing of corn. They were located on sandy soil on the higher land above the creek. The largest of these was about 7 feet in diameter and 3 feet in depth. They were wattled up with willow twigs, dry leaves being packed in between the wattling and the sides of the pit. Mr. Wheeler estimated that the largest would hold about fifteen bushels of shelled corn. Greenfield Township 52. State Fair Park Mounds and Camp Site. These mounds are located in the State Fair park, in the thriving village of West Allis. The three mounds originally constituting this group were arranged in the form of a triangle, the most western mound being situated about 105 feet east of the west boundary fence of the park, and the northern mound about 250 feet to the southwest of the so-called Manufactures building. They were 35, 40, and 45 feet in diameter re- spectively and varied in height from 2J to 3 feet. They were separated from one another by distances of 40, 50 and 80 feet. From them the land sloped gradually south- ward to the bank of Honey Greek, the mounds being ele- vated but a few feet above the creek bottom, the nearest (eastern) mound being about 295 feet north of the waters edge. The land on which the mounds were located was formerly a grove of hardwood timber, only a portion of which still remains on the southern side of the creek, in Archaeological History of Milwaukee County 95 the southwestern corner of the grounds. Mr. N. N. and his sister, Miss Bashna Cornwall, who have resided almost within sight of the mounds for many years remember that there was formerly a fourth tumulus in the group. This .was destroyed in the constructing of the Chicago and North- western Railway spur track to the grounds. This line is situated just outside of the western fence and about 115 feet to the west of the nearest mound. These mounds are said to have been about 5 feet in height in 1840, when the Rev. Lucius Doolittle, an Episcopal clergyman, opened one of them by means of a trench dug across it and uncovered a complete skeleton and several (brass?) kettles. The bones were reburied only to be again and again disturbed by curiosity seekers. The other mounds suffered a like lamentable fate so that little definite or reliable information in relation to their contents may now be obtained. Mr. Stutley I. Henderson of West Allis, who dug into some of these mounds in his boyhood days, re- members to have taken several skulls and a quantity of bones from one of them. Honey Creek, a tributary of the Menomonee River, was in 1902 about ten feet in width in this locality. The traces of the action of water then indicated that the stream was formerly much larger and probably in certain seasons navi- gable for Indian canoes. The proximity of a mineral spring in the grove and the general character of the location pointed to this site as the location of a former aboriginal camp. The Indians had, however, generally left the section before 1838. The mounds were surveyed and platted on October 26, 1902, by the Messrs. Rolland L. Porter, 0. L. Hollister, H. A. Crosby, Philip Wells and the author, representing the Wisconsin Archeological Society. A brief description of them written by Mr. Wells was printed in the Milwaukee Sentinel of October 28. At this time a portion of the rough field lying between the mounds and the creek and west fence was being graded and the removal of the sod disclosed the fact that this was a stone age village site. From this small graded portion there were collected by the writer and his associates up to as late as the year 1908 large quantities of flint chips, flakes and 96 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 2 fragments, hearth stones, a number of flint arrow points, scrap- ers and perforators of common forms, a quantity of potsherds, fragments of animal bones, a bone awl and other specimens. The potsherds collected here are tempered with crushed rock and are nearly all devoid of ornamentation. One rim piece is marked with linger prints. On February 6, 1903, the Society appointed Mr. James A. Sheridan to enter into negotiations with the State Board of Agriculture with a view to securing the permanent preser- vation of the mounds. This was finally accomplished by Mr. Harry A. Crosby, then president of the Society, who appeared before a session of the board and received its promise of their future protec- tion. Shortly after this agreement had been entered into by the members of the Board one of the three mounds (the most westerly) was destroyed by G. W. Harvey, then superintendent of the grounds, to secure material for sur- facing the race track. The wholly unwarranted action of this officer raised a storm of protest to which he offered a rather weak apology exonerating, the State Board and Secre- tary True of all blame in the matter. (Letter, Milwaukee Sentinel, May 26, 1903). Later x in the year the writer with the aid of several workmen and a team restored the other mounds to their original height by filling the excavations made by explorers with the earth thrown from them. The Board caused each mound to be enclosed with posts support- ing an iron railing. On September 15, 1910, Milwaukee Day, the Wisconsin Archeological Society caused a fine bronze marker to be placed on the larger of the two mounds. The dedicatory address was delivered by Mr. Charles A. A. McGee, then district attorney of Milwaukee County. The tablet was unveiled by Miss Jean West, a daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Geo. A. West. Mr. Laurens E. Scott of Stanley, a member of the State Board, accepted it for the Board and the State. (See Wis. Archeo., V. 9, No. 3). 53. Beloit Corners Burials. In the collections of the Milwaukee Public Museum are a series of five fine copper crescents and a large copper axe which are labelled as having been obtained from a "mound" in section 17, Green- Archaeological History of Milwaukee County 97 field Township. These are described in the Wisconsin Archeologist (V. 1, No. 1, p. 12). They are of the common canoe-shaped form. The largest is 10 and the smallest 2| inches long. In the same collection there is a fine flint ceremonial knife which was also found here. This specimen was formerly in the collection of the late noted collector, Mr. F. S. Perkins of Burlington. He bought it from Dr. F. H. Day of Wau- watosa in 1878 and sold it to the museum in 1885. Its length is nearly 15 inches and its greatest width 3J inches. The material of which it is made is a salmon colored flint. It weighs 15 ounces. According to a letter written by Mr. Perkins (March 23, 1898): "It was obtained in 1877 by men who were hauling earth from an excavation [since ascertained to have been a gravel pit] 12 or 15 feet deep, on the farm of Peter Leser, in the SW. I of Section 17, in Greenfield township, Milwaukee county. With it were found a considerable number of copper smd several flint implements and the bones of eight human beings, which had been buried in an upright position." On July 28, 1903, the writer and Mr. Valentine Fernekes visited this locality and by the careful questioning of old residents the following additional information was obtained. The gravel pit (not mound) from which all of the above specimens were obtained is located on the farm formerly belonging to one Peter Leser, but now occupied by Mr. Charles Miller, in the S. W. i of the S. E. } of section 18, and not in the S. W. \ of section 17 as stated by Mr. Perkins. The gravel and sand pit, which has not been worked to any extent for many years and of which a trace can still be seen, is about 100 feet west of Mr. Miller's house, which stands on the west side of the Beloit road. This locality is about one mile southwest of Beloit Corners and about one and one fourth miles southwest of the deoot at West Allis. Root Creek lies but a short distance directly east of the Miller farm and is crossed' by the Beloit road not far from the old pit. In addition to the implements now in the Milwaukee museum there are said to have been found in the pit a quantity of copper beads, several stone axes and other im- 98 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 2 plements. Their present whereabouts is not known. The skulls found at the time were placed, it was stated, in a hollow purposely left in the foundation of the large barn on the place and where it is possible they still remain. Mr. F. M. Wright a collector residing near West Allis formerly had a notched flint spearpoint which was found on the Leser farm. This specimen measured 8| inches in length and 2 J inches in width at its widest part, at its middle. Franklin Township 54. Root River Camp Sites. In Franklin Township evidences of early Indian occupation have been found chiefly along the banks of the Root River. The writer and Dr. E. J. W. Notz, on October 8, 1907, made an examination of the fields and farms on both banks of this stream in Section 33, Greenfield Township and sections 3, 4, and 10, of Franklin Township but without results. No camp sites or other archaeological remains were located in the region investi- gated. A few flint arrowpoints and an occasional stone celt or axe have been found along the river banks. Mr. John W. Evans, a member of the Society has reported (August 3, 1903) the existence of a camp site on the Fueger farm on the east side of the Root River, in the S. \ of the S. E. \ of section 27. On his father's farm there was in the early days of settlement a plot of Indian corn hills. This farm was situated in the N. E. \ of section 34, on the east bank of the river. A camp site was also located on the Beck farm on the same bank of the river near the Milwaukee-Racine county line, in the S. \ of section 34. Here, when a boy Mr. Evans collected his first arrowpoints. Mr. Geo. A. West reported (September 21, 1903) that during the past twenty-five years at least half-a-dozen Indian burials have been removed from a gravel pit on a farm at Howards Prairie formerly belonging to a Mr. Daniel Brewer. With these were found a large number of bone beads, two socketted copper arrowpoints, broken flint implements and several pottery vessels one of which was in fragments. This place is on the west bank of the river, in the N. W. \ of section 34. Archaeological History of Milwaukee County 99 Dr. Notz found indications of a camp site about a small pond on the Bruss and Walters farms in the N. \ of section 1. From this site he collected a broken celt, flint arrowpoints and other implements. Lake Township 55. Austin Burials. Indian burials have in past years been occasionally unearthed, It is reported, in a gravel pit on the S. Austin place. This place is located west of the old Chicago Road, in the N. E. J of section 17. Oak Creek Township 56. Oak Creek Mounds. Dr. Lapham gives the follow- ing description of these, which were situated within the present limits of the village of South Milwaukee. "Between Racine and Milwaukee we found a single mound, which was six feet high, and the remains of one or two more about half a mile below the place where the main road crosses Oak Creek. This mound was more than usually steep on its sides, and may consequently be supposed to be of recent origin, time not having levelled it down as much as those of greater antiquity. A mound that had been removed several years since, disclosed a number of skeletons of human beings and an earthen cup said to hold about a pint." (Antiq. of Wis., p. 11). Dr. P. R. Hoy quotes Lapham's description of the large mound. (Who Built the Mounds, p. 24, 1886). Lapham's location would place its former situation somewhere between the present South Milwaukee depot and Oak Creek. 56a. Rawson Mound. Mr. 0. L. Hollister reported to the Society, in 1904, that a single conical mound was formerly located on the Rawson property, at South Milwaukee. It was situated in a woodland on the south side of Rawson avenue. In excavating this burial place Indian bones were disinterred. This land now forms a part of the. village of South Milwaukee, being located between the C. & N. W. R. R. and Oak Creek. 57. Oak Creek Camp Sites. Evidences of aboriginal occupation are not as plentiful along the banks of Oak 100 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 2 Creek as one might expect them to be. On November 4, 1907, the writer and Dr. E. J. W. Notz in the course of an examination of lands on its banks found indications of a former Indian camp and workshop site on the Welbes' farm, between the Nicholson Road and the C. & N. W. R. R. tracks, in the S. W. J of section 10. Such indications as there were had been scattered by the cultivation of the field which was situated on the north side of the creek. They were found only on the more elevated parts of the field and consisted of flint nodules, numerous chips, blanks, broken and rejected and several perfect arrowpoints, and a pebble hammerstone. No potsherds or hearth stones were collected. The farmer's sons have found a grooved stone axe and a considerable number of flint arrowpoints on this land. The flint in use here was largely of a white or grayish white color. A brown chalcedony blank and a flake of the same material were among the materials collected. On the opposite (south) side of the creek a number of chips of white flint and a single flint blank were obtained. 58. Lake Shore Camp Sites. On the high bank over- looking Lake Michigan, in the S. W. \ of fractional section 13, are indications of an Indian camp site. These were found in a cultivated field on the north side of a small ravine. Flint chips, flakes, spalls and nodules were fairly plentiful over a small area. A simple blank and an arrowpoint were recovered. The flint which had been chipped here was largely of a white or grayish-white color and of a fair quality. This locality is about one-half mile north of the manufactur- ing village of Carrollville. About one mile south of South Milwaukee another camp site was located. This was on the banks of a small ravine which enters the lake near the north line of section 14. On the south bank of this ravine and east of the lake road in a cultivated field hearth stones and the rejectage of the Indian arrowmaker. were particularly plentiful when the writer examined this site on August 12, 1905. Archaeological History of Milwaukee County 101 Summary According to present records the total number of all classes of aboriginal earthworks in Milwaukee County was 217. Of this number 169 were located within the present limits of the City of Milwaukee, 109 on the south, 47 on the west and 13 on the east side. Forty-eight were situated in other parts of the county. An idea of the distribution, classes and grouping of these Indian monuments can be had from the following table of mound groups. The names employed are those used in designating these groups in the text of this bulletin. MOUND GROUPS En- Oval Conical Linear Name closures Mounds Mounds Mounds Effigies Total Wisconsin Street 1 j 2 Juneau : 1 3 4 Brady Street 1 1 Lake Park 4(?) 4 Buttles 1 1 Grand Avenue 1 1 Twenty-first Street 1 1 Hawley 3(?) 2 5 Winnebago Street 1 2 3 Mill Street 1 1 2 Laphain Park 3 2 7 12 Shermans Addition 1 1 2 Sherman Street 1 1 North Avenue 1 1 Beaubian Street 1 1 School Section 1 4 3 8 Richard Street 1 1 2 Humholt 2 2 Fond du Lac Avenue 1 1 Teller 1 5 6 Walkers Point 8 1 1 10 Buck 8 8 National Avenue 1 1 Trow bridge-Carey 14 1 2 17 Chase 3 5 Indian Fields 4 ;')() 3 4 61 Hull 6 1 7 Spring Grove 3 3 Indian Prairie 4 22 2 7 3f> Hart ;? 3 State Fair Park 3 3 Oak Creek 3(?) a Rawson : 1 i Totals 10 7 1 10 14 46 217 102 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No 2 Oi the total number of earthworks, 10 were enclosures of large or small size, 7 were oval, 140 conical, 14 linear and 46 effigy mounds. Of the enclosures, one was approximately circular in form. This, the largest of the Milwaukee County enclosures, was that once located on the site of Wisconsin street. The smaller enclosures at Indian Fields, now Layton Park, were both single and double enclosures. The four enclosures at Indian Prairie were of the character generally classed as hut rings. It is believed that these latter were the sites of wig- wams which had collapsed, or been removed. The enclosure in the Juneau group was oval in form. Of the 147 oval and conical earthworks nearly all were probably erected for buria 1 purposes. The largest number of these in any one place (50), were in the groups at Indian Fields. At Indian Prairie there were 22, and in the Trow- bridge-Carey group 14. Several mound groups, the Buck, Chase, Lake Park, Humboldt, Hart, State Fair Park and Oak Creek groups, were composed entirely of mounds of this character. In most of the Milwaukee County groups, how- ever, they occur in association with effigy and linear mounds. These burial mounds were of various diameters and heights. The number of linear earthworks (14), is surprisingly small. All but two, which were of tapering form were straight linears with parallel sides. None of them approach in length the large linear earthworks located in other sections of southern Wisconsin. Of the Milwaukee County linears, the longest, each about 75 feet in length, were those in the Lap- ham Park and Indian Prairie groups. The size of the three known to exist at Indian Fields is not known. Of the 46 effigy or animal-shaped mounds in the Milwau- kee County groups, 25, or half of the total number, were effigies of the form known as the "panther type," and thought to represent that animal. But few of these appear to have had very prominent heads being of the sub-type to which one Wisconsin archaeological investigator has- referred as the "monkey-wrench" form. Several had a knob or small protuberance at the extremity of the tail, a feature of not uncommon occurrence among panther effigies in southern Wisconsin. Several other variations, such as the Archaeological History of Milwaukee County 103 up-curved tails are not met with in the Milwaukee County examples. Of t!ie other effigies, 6 were intended to represent birds and one, probably the turtle. The remaining effigies are of uncertain identification. The largest of the psnther mounds were one in the Lapham Park group, which measured about 212 feet in length, and that described by Buck as being located on National avenue and which was "at least two-hundred feet in length." Fourteen other effigies of this fo r m were from 100 to 162 feet long. Of the bird effigies several had straight, outstretched, and several curved wings, and two of them divided taUs. Milwaukee is one of only five localities in the state where intaglio effigies have ever been found, the others being Pewaukee, Ft. Atkinson, Theresa and Baraboo. Of the Milwaukee intaglios, five were located at Indian Prairie and one at Mrs. Hulls' at Indian Field . All but one, that at Indian Prairie, appear to have been intaglios ot the panther type. These intaglios, as already exp-ained, are tne reverse of trie effigy mounds, being excavated out of the soil instead of erected upon it. All of the archaeological evidence at hand appears to show Milwaukee to have been occupied for a long period of time previous to the arrival of the intruding Indian tribes and ol the arrival on its shores of the first wnite men, by a numerous Indian population. Their villages were located, as testified to by the mounds and numerous evidences of their industries found at these places, on some of the most favored nignlands on the banks of the three streams, the Milwaukee, Menomo- nee and the Kinnickinnic, which here unite and enter Lake Michigan. The Pottawatomi and Menomini occupied some of these same sites when they located in this region. As is shown by the data presented elsewhere in this publi- cation corn was grown at a number of tne ] ater Indian viPage sites. The existence of these p ] anting grounds is known both from the descriptions given by Milwaukee historians and through the finding of p ] ots of corn hil's by Dr. Lapham and other investigators. It is very probable that other vegetable products were also cultivated at some of the villages. Plots of garden beds were located on the Jaeger place on the west bank of the Milwaukee River, at a place known as Spring Grove, and at Indian Prairie. 104 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. '2 The principal Indian trails leading from Milwaukee were those known as the Chicago, Sauk or Lake Shore, Green Bay and the Waukesha trails. Their courses are shown on the map in this bulletin. Andrew J. Vieau describes the Sauk trail as running from Milwaukee to the Chippewa Indian village at Saukville, thence to the mouth of the Sheboygan River and Manitowoc Rapids and from the latter olace northwest to Green Bay. From the mouth of the Sheboygan to the Rapids it ran "sometimes on the beach and again on the high land, for fifteen or sixteen miles." It was very crooked. "The time occupied in traveling from Green Bay to Milwaukee was four days, either by foot or by French train, the distance being estimated at 125 miles." The other trail from Green Bay was by way of the east shore o f Lake Winnebago to Fond du Lac, thence to Watertown, and Waukesha and into Milwaukee by the way of the Kilbourn road. (II, W. H. G., 229-30.) On the east side of Milwaukee the Sauk trai 1 is said to have passed the present location of the Colby and Abbott building and proceeded from thence to North Point. According to Horace Chase, an early settler of Milwaukee, the Chicago trail lead from the site of the Vieau trading post along the Menomonee bluffs to Walkers Point. This trail passed over the present C. M. & St. P. R. R. cattle yards and crossed the Menomonee at about 13th street. Here it turned up the hill and united with the Green Bay trail. (Pioneer Hist, of Milw., p. 40.) At the Menomonee crossing there was an old tamarack pole bridge. Mr. M. D. Cutler, who came to Milwaukee in 1834, is quoted as saying that the Green Bay trail especially was worn to a depth of about twenty inches tnrough long continued use. (West. Hist. Co. Hist, of Milw., p. 48.) Peter Van Vechten states that a guide sign to the Green Bay-Chicago trail was an Indian figure carved into the trunk of a beech tree which stood near the present corner of \Vells and Thirteenth streets. This figure held a bow in one and an arrow in the other hand. "The arrow pointed to the Mcnomcnee Fiver and the bow to the Milwaukee, The trail separated at this point. The one to the east led to the Milwaukee 1- iver at V, iscon c in streei, where ,Anton Le Claire had built a log cabin in 1800, and at all times kept bavteaux, Mackinaw boats and Archaeological History of Milwaukee County 105 canoes to ferry people over. The trail to the south crossed the Menorrrnee at about Thirteenth rtreet. Parties who wi hed to go down to the mouth of the river, where the Jimeau settler~ent wa c , including Pottowatomies, Menomonee c , and some Sioux, would go down the ea^t side of the river from Le Claim's place or ride on the river." Mr. Milton B. Potter, a pioneer resident of Wauwatosa, informed the writer that the Waukesha trail followed the Menomonee River to its junction with Underwood Creek and then continued westward across the country until it again struck the creek. There were other trails of which there is less information notably one leading from Milwaukee to the early Indian village at Mukwonago, in Waukesha County. Another trail lead from the head of present Wisconsin or Michigan street in Milwaukee down the lake shore to the village at the mouth of the Milwaukee River. From East Water street it probably followed the Michigan street bluffs. Another trail connected the villages on the Kinnickinnic with the Chicago trail, and anothei with the Milwaukee-Mukwonago trail. Laterals probably connected all of the early camp and village sHes with the main trails. Closing Remarks The collection of data in preparation for tnis publication was undertaken by the author in the year X899 and continued until his removal from Milwaukee to Madison, in 1908. After that time it was taken up again and pursued as time and opportunity permitted. As every trace of most of the early mound groups known to Dr. Lapham, and particularly those once situated along the Milwaukee River, had been destroyed and the sites occupied by streets and buildings, the task of accurately re-locating and obtaining additional information concerning them, presented numerous difficul- ties. Only a very small number of persons who knew of some of these early prehistoric Indian monuments are still alive. To the kind interest of the Miss Julia A. Lapham, who placed her father's notes and letters in the author's hands, and to the several early settlers of Milwaukee who assisted in other ways, he is particularly indebted. In the body of the publication credit is given to the various members and friends of the Wisconsin Archeological Society who assisted in the conducting of the necessary investigations. TEXT INDEX Page General Description 113 Indian Remains 118 Pearl Lake Camp Sites ' 118 McKinley Camp Site 118 Funk's Lake Camp Site 119 Protheroe Group 119 Round Lake Camp Site 121 Lake Koosle Camp Sites 121 Wilson Lake Camp Site 122 The Main Trail 122 McNulty Camp Site 123 Silver Lake Camp Sites 123 Wild Rose Camp Sites and Garden Beds 123 Norwegian Lake Camp Sites 124 Mount Morris Camp Sites and Mounds... :.... 124 Porter Lake Camp Sites and Garden Beds 126 John's Lake Camp Sites 123 Wautoma Camp Site 127 Silver Lake, Marion Township 128 Woodworth Group 128 Silver Cryst Group '. 129 Miller Group 130 Booth Group 130 Southern Silver Mounds 131 Storke Mounds 131 Egan's Lake Camp Sites 132 Pickerel Lake Camp Site 132 Head of White River 132 Walker Group 133 White River Group, Enclosure and Caches 133 Richford Camp Site 135 Ebert's Garden Beds 135 Ebert's Group 135 Schmudlach Group ; 135 Langseth Group 136 Potter Group 137 The Hancock Lakes 137 Hancock Lakes Camp Sites 138 Spaulding Mounds 139 Bohn Mounds 140 Whistler Group and Enclosure 140 Pine Lake Group 143 Sand Lake Camp Site 143 The Northern Region 144 Cornell Group 144 Millard Smith Group 145 112 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 3 Weyneth Group 146 Krushki Group and Enclosure 146 Lake Huron Group and Enclosure 148 Town House Mounds 148 Weber Mounds and Pits. 149 Island Group 150 Macywski Mounds 152 James Evans Lake Camp Site 152 Spring-water Groups : 152 Gilbert Lake Camp Sites : 153 Gilbert Lake Mounds 153 Mud Lake Group and Camp Site 154 Pine Lake Groups 155 Group "A" 156 Group "B" 156 Group "C" 156 Group "D" 157 Pine Lake Cache 157 Brooks'. Mound ". 158 Hanawalt Mounds 158 Twin Lake Mounds 158 Wilson Group 159 Button Mound and Caches 160 Saxeville Camp Site 161 Pine River Camp Site and Cemetery 161 Poysippi Camp Site and Cemetery 161 Auroraville Mounds and Camp Sites 162 Tustin Menominee Village 162 Summary 163 Village and Camp Sites 163 Garden Beds 163 Enclosures 164 Mounds 164 Cemeteries ! 165 Implements 166 Results of the Survey 166 Gilbert Lake THE WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Quarterly Bulletin Published by the Wisconsin Archeological Society Vol. 15 MADISON, WIS., OCTOBER, 1916 No. 3 INDIAN REMAINS IN WAUSHARA COUNTY Geo. R. Fox and E. C. Tagatz General. Geographical. Speaking for manmade Waushara County, it can be said to be perfect. Eighteen miles in width by thirty-six in length, less one quarter of a mile in a strip on the western end, it is a perfect rectangle. This area is di- vided into eighteen towns, each a perfect township of six by six miles, save the three westernmost towns which have lost, on account of a correction line, the above mentioned strip from their six western sections. Because of this per- fection, each town being made up of only one -township, range and town numbers are superfluous. Physical. This county appears to consist of two great plains separated by a mountain chain. The whole area is sculptured by the ice ages which deposited over it great quantities of sand. In the east are level lands now filled in with silt and muck, which lie about the western end of Lake Poygan. In the west is the great level, open prairie land, once the the favorite hunting ground of the Indian, now the greatest potato producing region in the state. Here, too, are found farms rivaling in size those of the west, stretching away into the distance almost as far as the eye can search, and covered with waving rye or the dark green of the low growing tuber. 114 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 3 Separating these level spaces is a broad chain of morainic sand hills and dunes, some rising to quite respectable heights. These extend in a southwesterly and northeasterly direction, lying at the northern side of the county close to the eastern town of Bloomfield and on the southern line extending into the town of Coloma. This range of dunes comprises about one half of the area and it is among these hills that the poorer farming sections of the county are located. The rougher portions of the county are in the northern area, the hills to the south breaking up into gentle slopes and open valleys. It is in this northern section that great numbers of kettle (or pot-) holes are encountered, being especially numerous in the neighborhood of Gilbert Lake'. Many of these holes reach a depth of more than one hundred feet and while most of them are dry some have small ponds at their bottoms. Their slopes are so steep as almost to preclude any possibility of cultivation, yet many farmers are grading them down, assisted by nature, with the foliage and vegeta- tion stripped from the soil, great quantities of sand and silt are washed into the depressions. Occasionally, among these glacial droppings are found level plains and valleys, those about Silver Lake, and near Mt. Morris being the more notable of the smaller ones. In the north, is the largest of these valleys lying almost entirely within Oasis Township. This was once a large interglar-ial lake with its opening to the southwest. All of its waters having long ago poured away, the only reminder of the great sheet of past ages being the beautiful gem, Lake Huron. This area is the "Great" or "Big Prairie" of the early settlers and the Indians, who, within its boundaries had located one of their largest and most important village sites. It is to be regretted that the naming of the lakes of Waushara County was not systematized. Because no one gave to each a distinguishing appellation, .the name in common use by the people living near each lake, has in time become fixed as its designation. This has bred con- fusion. There are several lakes of the same name. For in- stance: Fish Lake, the largest lake of this name is located in Hancock and Deerfield Townships. The second largest is east of Wautoma between the towns of Marion and Mt. MARQUETTE CO. V Large Village Sites P Caches Archaeological Ma C Camp Sites S Spirit Stones Waushara County B Cemeteries E Enclosures X Garden Beds M Mound Groups Indian Remains in Waushara County 115 Morris. A third Fish Lake is situated in section 10, town of Rose. There are two Pine Lakes, one in Hancock and one in Springwater Township. Two Silver Lakes exist with a dis- tance of only seven miles between them. A third lies on the southern boundary of Coloma. The best known lake of this name, now sometimes called "Silver Cryst," after the resort on its banks, is in the town of Marion. The other, also a summer resort, is in Springwater. Two Pickerel Lakes are found. One is at the village of Mt. Morris, the other in the town of Dakota. There are two Deer Lakes, one in Hancock and one in Marion. Also two (or more) Mud Lakes, one in Marion, one in Springwater. A third, very small, is on section 10, town of Rose. But most peculiar, there are also two Hill's Lakes. One lies in Mt. Morris, the other in Marion. Because of this duplication of names, in the reading of the descriptions of the Indian remains of the county frequent reference to the accompanying map will be found to be helpful. Drainage. The soil of Waushara County being sand and sandy loam it has small need for streams to carry away sur- plus water. The only stream of size is the Fox River which cuts across the southeastern corner of the county just north of Berlin, flowing for only three miles in this political division. There are several smaller streams, most of which carry a sufficient volume of water to float log drives, but hardly enough for canoes. In fact, so rapid are most of them, that it is probable that they were little, if ever, used by the In- dian. Of these, the Mecan River, rising in Richford Township and flowing from its northwesternmost section through to the southeastern one, and the White River, passing through the towns of Wautoma and Dakota, are affluents of the Fox. The other two streams of size, the Pine River and Willow Creek, empty into Lake Poygan. Both of these, while nar- row and of small volume are impounded at numerous points on their course and made to labor for their passage. The Pine probably, by underground seepage, is the means whereby the lakes of the town of Springwater are kept fresh and clean. Willow Creek performs a like office for the many other lakes in the towns farther south. 116 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 3 It may be noted that while the map shows streams as flowing from Silver Lake (Springwater Township) and Egan's Lake complete circuits of these bodies of water can be made without discovering these outlets. All of the lakes in this county are supposed to have underground water courses which carry away their surplus waters. It is also interesting to note that the four northwestern towns have no watercourses, even brooks being lacking, save one tiny one on the western border of Plainfield. The crowning beauty of Waushara County is its lakes. It is doubtful if another area of like size can be found con- taining so many charming bodies of water. None are large but each one is a liquid jewel. Almost without exception these lakes lie among high sandy dunes. No low land or marsh mars their shore lines. The water is clear and sweet and of a beautiful greenish tint. By reason of the general beauty, of their natural settings, Pearl Lake, Lake Huron and Long Lake are the peers of all of the lakes in the county. All of the lakes abound in fish. Bass are particularly numerous and in many of the lakes can be seen swimming near the shore. Some of those observed were upwards of twenty inches in length. Pickerel are found in some lakes; and in Fish Lake, town of Hancock, some weighing as high as 24 pounds have been taken. The streams abound in brook trout: While the streams and lakes are full of fish, game birds are found throughout the woods and fields. Quail can be heard calling every night and morning, and partridges are still numerous. Indian Inhabitants. Waushara County formed a part of a large tract of land in central Wisconsin ceded by the Menominee Indians to the U. S. Government, in October 18, 1846. By a treaty held on May 12, 1854, they were as- signed to their present reservation on the Wolf River, in Shawano County. The Indians camping in Waushara County when the first white settlers made their appear- ance were of this tribe with some Chippewa and Winne- bago. Route. Our survey party started from Neshkoro in Mar- quette County, a town situated near the southern border of Waushara County. From it entrance was made through sec- Indian Remains in Waushara County 117 tion 33, town of Marion, then northeast through the vil- lages of Glen Rock, Spring Lake, and Lohrville to Red Granite. Red Granite is now the largest town in the county and is a live, prosperous city, dependent however, upon the granite works for its existence. From Red Granite, our route was northward to Pearl Lake, and from there to Funk's, Hill's, Round, Koosle and Wilson lakes and then north- ward to the Pine River in section 26, town of Springwater. From this point we proceeded westward to Silver Lake and to the village of Wild Rose, thence southeast by Norwegian Lake to Pickerel Lake and Mt. Morris; southwest to Porter and John's Lakes into Wautoma; then south to the junction of both branches of the White River, east to Fish and Silver Lakes; south to Deer, Hill's and Egan's Lakes; westward again passing a second Pickerel Lake to Richford village; northwest to the head of the Mecan and to the north passing Potter's Lake to Fish Lake. From the latter we moved west passing Pine Lake and to Hancock; northward passing Sand Lake to Plainfield village; east to Waterman or Plain- field Lake and on past Smith and Shumway Lakes to Lake Huron; north to Lake Washburn in Portage County, and then to Almond Village. From here it was found expedient to go by rail to Wautoma where a visit was made to the White River Mill Pond, five miles west of that city. Returning by rail to Almond, we traveled southeast to Fish Lake in the town of Rose; then eastward passing James Evan's Lake to Gilbert Lake; north via Mud Lake to Pine arid east past Hanawalt and the Little Twin Lakes to Twin Lake and south to Long Lake. From Long Lake we went south to the Pine River valley passing through the villages of Saxeville, Pine River and Poysippi; then south to Auroraville and southeast to the Fox, our reconnaissance ending at Berlin. Our traveling was with a horse and wagon over rather heavy sandy roads, the total distance covered in this manner being 179 miles. This does not include the visits to points outside the bounds of the county or the visit to the White River Mill Pond which was reached by team from Wautoma. Nor does it include the walking about the lakes nearly one half of which were entirely encircled by ourselves in the course of our work. Starting at Neshkoro, inquiries were made of residents all along the road, but none could give information of the loca- 118 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 3 tion of any aboriginal remains. Even about Spring Lake no traces of Indian occupation could be learned of or found. It is possible however that such remains may exist in the neighborhood. Just over the county line from Neshkoro, in the sandy road a flint arrow point was found. But no aboriginal evidences were located along the road to, or near Red Granite. INDIAN REMAINS Pearl Lake Camp Sites The first indications of Indian occupation were found at Pearl Lake. This is a very attractive sheet of water lying wholly within section 30 of the town of Leon. Huge sand hills shelter its pleasant waters. Some of these dunes slope gently to the shore, others drop abruptly to the water's- edge. The water is clear and pure. The shores are well wooded. At the eastern end, on the southeastern quarter of the section, is an extensive camp site. Flint flakes and frag- ments and broken pottery were scattered in profusion over the white sand. The potsherds were quartz tempered. Great numbers of fireplace stones were found. Many were still in their original position^. Indications point to there having been between twelve and twenty lodges here. No evidence of Indian occupation was found on the south or west shores of the lake. On the north side two camp sites were located. One on the S. W. M of the N. W. y of the section. The other lies half a mile farther east on a sloping, sandy beach, on the S. W. y of the N. E. J. The first location is in a small gully. At the hea t d of this ravine the storms of the spring of 1914 made a great cut, washing out the light sandy soil to a depth of thirty feet. McKINLEY CAMP SITE While proceeding north from this lake to Funk's and Hill's Lakes, Mr. Geo. McKinley gave information of a locality which was a favorite camp ground of the Indians during Indian Remains in Waushara County 119 pioneer days. In the '50's of the last century such use was made of a sandy level spot somewhat elevated above and on the southeast side of a small stream flowing east from section 12, town of Mt. Morris. The camp site was in the N. E. J4 f this section. Mr. McKinley has quite a number of flint implements and a copper, spearpoint all of which were gathered here. The copper is of the common ridged-back form, 3% inches in length. FUNK'S LAKE CAMP SITE Funk's Lake is not large nor very attractive. Its shores are shorn of trees and planted in rye and potatoes. They are not high. It is of a deep green color and is connected by a marshy estuary with Hill's Lake which lies less than one quarter of a mile to the west. This lowland does not quite reach Hill's Lake, however, for a sand bar several feet high has been thrown up at the eastern end of the larger lake. On the high neck between the two, of gravelly loam, evi- dence of an Indian camp site was found. This site extended to both lakes. It is on the S. W. J4 of the N. E. y of section 2, town of Mt. Morris. Search along the north side of this lake failed to reveal any further indications of aboriginal occupation and the south shores were too low. PROTHEROE GROUP (Plate 2) Hill's Lake is about a mile in length from east to west. Its shores are well wooded and it is famed for the fishing which it affords. At about the middle of the north side, on the N. W. l /i of section 2, of Mt. Morris Township, is an extensive village site, and a group of mounds. Mr. Thos. Protheroe, Sr., an old settler on whose place these remains are located, states that this shore of the lake was a great Indian camping ground in the days when the whites first settled in this region. He has seen hundreds of Indians come and camp here for a short time. The usual evidences of former Indian camp life occur here in great numbers. 120 WISCONSIN ARCIIEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 3 The mounds are constructed of sand and the elements are gradually levelling them. The highest in the group does not exceed two feet. With the exception of two conicals, all are linears or- ovals. On nearly all of them large trees are now or were at one time, growing. At present there are thirteen uninjured or partially re- maining, mounds. Mound No. 2 is the only mound of pe- culiar shape in the group. This has a slight knob or projection at one extremity. As all of the mounds are built of sand this may be due to a very old slide of this material. No. 1 is cut at its east end by a garden fence. Nos. 11, 12 and 13 lie partly in a grove and partly in a hay field. Of Nos. 11 and 13 but small portions remain. Of Nos. 12 and 1 a sufficient portion remains to give a good idea of their size and shape. Nos. 4 and 10 are conical mounds. No. 4 has been exca- vated and only its circumference remains. Nothing was found in it. The sizes of the mounds are: No. 4. Conical 23 feet in diameter. No. 10. Conical 24 feet in diameter, height 1J^ feet. No. 8. Linear 106 feet long. Width 18 feet at west end, 15 at east. No. 1. Oval 40 feet by 20 feet wide. No. 2. Linear 42 feet long, 12 feet wide. No. 3. Oval 35 feet long, 12 feet wide. No. 5. Oval 30 feet long, 17 feet wide. No. 6. Oval 31 feet long, 17 feet wide. No.- 7. Linear 50 feet long, 14 feet wide. No. 9. Oval 36 feet long, 12 at east end, 18 at west end. No. 12. Oval 27 feet long, 20 feet wide at fence. Other mounds were formerly located in the cultivated fields to the west of those now remaining. Of these hardly a trace can now be seen. Here too, stood a "fort" described as consisting of four long connected walls. From the num- ber of similar structures encountered on other sites, it seems probable that this was simply another enclosure. (Note. For the purpose of this report a "linear" is defined as a mound whose length is to its breath as greater than 3 is to 1. An "oval" is a mound whose propor- ions are as 3 to 1 or less.) Indian Remains in Waushara County 121 ROUND LAKE CAMP SITE A short distance north of Hill's Lake is a group of three lakes. They are situated in Springwater Township. Of these, Round Lake, lying wholly in section 35, is by far the most attractive. Its north shore is very high and abrupt but the east shore is a fine table of sand. Here, in about the center of the section, were found potsherds, quartz tempered, and other indications of an Indian camp site. A large nodule of quartzite, weighing about 20 pounds was found. Plainly evident on its surfaces, were the abrasions caused by the flaking away with a stone hammer of leaflike portions. LAKE KOOSLE CAMP SITES In contrast to the above described lakes, Koosle and Wil- son lakes are swampy and somewhat repellant. Between the two at one point, and at several places about Wilson Lake are evergreen swamps of small extent. The shores are not as sandy as are those of some of the other lakes. On the neck between the two lakes, on a sandy knoll with an elevation of 10 feet and a width at its narrowest point of about 300 feet, is an extensive village site. Quartz flakes predominate among the rejectage of the Indian arrowsmith. The neighboring farmers state that great numbers of flint points, drills, scrapers, etc. have been found here. This loca- tion is the S. E. % of section 27, Town of Springwater. At the southeast end of Lake Koosle, on N. E. J4 of sec- tion 35, are a dozen or more fireplaces, near which nany fragments of pottery were found. These are on the farm of Mr. W. Gabrilsky. The first settlers in this vicinity found on the S. E. J section 26, a large open tract well cleared of trees. This spot was used as a camp and planting ground by Indians, but of what tribe could not be learned. This area comprised about 40 acres. No archaeological evidence of its former use as a camp site was found. Mr. Frank Inda, who resides on the N. W. y of section 25, has a number of Indian implements, all picked up in the immediate neighborhood. He reports having found and 122 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 3 disposed of several copper implements. When visited by ourselves he had in his possession three of these and several pieces of "float" copper. The former were a small spear- point three inches long, and a crude copper celt weighing two pounds. The best specimen of the lot was a socketted spear point 11 J/2 inches in length. This was found in the road in the course of highway work in this section. On the south bank of the Pine River, on the N. E. J4 of section 25 of Springwater township, Mr. Inda reports the existence of a camp site. WILSON LAKE CAMP SITE West of the village site between Wilson and Koosle Lakes, on the southwest side of Wilson Lake, in the N. E. y of the S. W. % of section 27, is a site, from which large fragments of pottery were collected. These exhibit "cord-wound pad- dle" markings. The section of a rim piece was ornamented with impressions apparently produced with a piece of cord. At various places below the rim were small round holes, these extending about half way through the sherd. But few pottery fragments of any size were found on camp sites in Waushara County. With the above exception, those encountered were very minute. Either the sandy soil has a tendency to still further disintegrate the sherds or the materials employed by the Indian potters in this region were of such a n'ature as to make the vessels of a very fragile char- acter. THE MAIN TRAIL Mr. R. F. McNulty, whom we met, shortly after leaving ttiese lakes, furnished information concerning one of the main trails of the county. This had its beginning somewhere in the Big Prairie, probably near Plainfield and ran a little south of east to Wild Rose crossing just south of where the railway depot now stands. From here it followed the same direction to Silver Lake running along the south side then straight east for four or five miles. This old trail was used as the line for the first road save for a few places east of Sil- ver Lake. Here on sections 33 and 34, town of Springwater, Indian Remains in Waushara County 123 the old Indian pathway is still to be seen cut to the depth of a foot into the -soil. From the northwest corner of Leon Township the trail ran southeast to Sand Prairie, in the vicinity of Red Granite in Warren Township. McNULTY CAMP SITE Several fireplaces were described by Mr. McNulty. These he had plowed out in a field on the S. E. % of section 28, north of a small unnamed lake. He is the owner of an 'iron spearpoint found near this vil- lage site and of a copper arrow point found near Silver Lake, in the southern part of section 29. SILVER LAKE CAMP SITES Silver Lake lies at the meeting point of four sections of Springwater Township. Its shores are high but not hilly. The lake is shallow, especially at its eastern end. A circuit of the shores of the lake was made but no evidence of aboriginal occupation found. Two ideal spots for Indian camp sites were found, one on the east in a beautiful open grove now in use as a picnic ground, and a high spot near a spring at the western end. A subsequent conversation with Mr. Hart of Wild Rose, who has spent fifty years of his life here, devel- oped the fact that Silver Lake was a favorite resort of the Indians and that their principal camp sites were at the east end, in the N. W. % ol section 33 and at the spring at the west end, in the N. E. y section 32. WILD ROSE CAMP SITES AND GARDEN BEDS At Wild Rose the large camping grounds, according to Mr. Hart, were at the east end of what is now the millpond, on the N. W. y of section 30, town of Springwater. The Indians camped on both banks of the Pine River. A mile and a half to the north, where is now located the State fish hatchery, and where there are a number of springs was another site much favored by the redmen. This place is in the S. E. J4 of section 24, town of Rose. 124 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 3 Near the former site on the southeast side of the Pine River, is a small group of garden beds. These are in a grove and are nearly obliterated. Their direction was nearly north and south. The beds measured had the following dimensions : Bed 3 feet wide, path 1 J/ feet wide. Bed 4 feet wide, path 2 feet wide. Bed 5 feet wide, path 2 feet wide. Bed 3 feet wide, path 2 feet wide. NORWEGIAN LAKE CAMP SITES Southeast of Wild Rose, distant about three miles, and wholly on section 5, town of Mount Morris, lies Norwegian Lake. This sheet of water is club-shaped with the large end to the east, and is far from beautiful. Nearly all of its shores are marshy ; at the western end is a fair sized tamarack swamp. A short distance back from the water are high hills and good rolling land. It is on these locations that Indian camp sites are found. There were at least two of these, nearly a mile apart. One is at the northwest end of the lake, in the S. W. J4 of section 5 and the other on the northeast side, in the S. E. ^ of section 5. So many flint chips were found at this latter place that Mr. Marvin Thompson characterized it as a workshop site. Great numbers of flint implements have been found about this lake, as well as many pieces of copper. Mr. Torge E. Thompson, whose home is at the west end of the lake, has a large collection containing also some copper implements, all collected in this region. Mr. Thompson was not at home at the time of our visit and his cabinet could not be inspected. On the site on the S. E. J^ f section 5, Mr. Carl Johnson found two steel knives. MOUNT MORRIS CAMP SITES AND MOUNDS Nearly three miles southeast from the western end of Norwegian Lake is the village of Mount Morris, lying at the eastern end of Pickerel Lake, a narrow, marshy body of water, partly formed by a dam in the village. Overlooking the little town is Mount Morris, one of the highest locations Indian Remains in Waushara County 125 in Waushara County. It is of such a height that from its summit, Berlin lying 30 miles to the southeast can be seen. It is a landmark seen for miles in all directions. Under its protecting shadow the Indian appears to have thrived. Where the stream from the north empties into the lake, on the N. W. J^ of section 16, town of Mount Morris, is a long sandy finger with a creek on one side, the lake on the other. On this sandy point many Indian arti- facts have been collected from a camp site. A short distance southeast, on the north side of the lake, Mr. Walter Alfson, while digging a post hole found a cache or hoard of flint arrow points some years ago. On the south side of this lake, on the S. E. J4 of section 16 is another camp site. This lies on a grassy tableland near the water. Back of it to the south is what is locally known as a "race track" mound. It is an oval ring of earth enclosing a small open space. Its long direction is northwest and southeast, with a length of 66 feet and a width of 32 feet. The embankment has a width of 10 feet at the sides and 12 feet at the ends leaving the inner, open space 12 feet in width by 42 feet in length. It closely resembles a similar Indian earthwork reported by the 1913 survey as situated on the south shore of White Clay Lake, in Waupaca County. Forty rods southwest of this enclosure formerly stood a group of mounds. These have nearly all been destroyed in plowing but a few, standing in the roadway and on the fence line, can still be traced. They appear to have been oval in shape. One was 20 feet wide and extended into the culti- vated field. Only 16 feet of it remain. The other mounds were 34 feet long and 16 feet wide and 38 feet long and 15 feet wide respectively. They are quite close to each other. These mounds are on the S. E. J4 of section 16, Mount Morris Township. Evidence was found of the location of a camp site on the N. E. J4 of section 21. On the N. W. }/ of section 22 there formerly stood a good sized conical mound. Cultivation has obliterated it. Three mounds were reported as being on the banks of Little Lake and the creek near it. They were not located though a search for them was made. On the N. W. J4 of sec- 126 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 3 tion 22 a copper spearpoint 9 inches in length was found some years ago. This was disposed of by Mr. Torge E. Thompson, its owner. \ - PORTER'S LAKE CAMP SITES AND GARDEN BEDS Southwest of Mt. Morris, three miles distant, is Porter's Lake, a small body of water situated in sections 20 and 29 of the town of Mount Morris. High land lies at the south- west end of the lake, and a swamp at the northeast extrem- ity. On the bench above the beach in the first named lo- cality, on a point which juts out midway of the shore line, is a camp site. This is in the S. W. % of the N. W. l / of sec- tion 29. On the northeast % of the N. W. % is a thumb which constricts the lake into two nearly equal parts. Here appears to be another camp site. Just back of it, on high level land, now a grove, are a few indistinct remains of garden beds. They run nearly east and west. On the south side of the beds are three cache or storage pits. JOHN'S LAKE CAMP SITES (See Plate 3.) One mile southeast of Porter's Lake is John's Lake, a clear, clean looking body of water lying partly in four sec- tions. At the north end are a number of fine springs. This lake takes its name from Sitting John, an Indian who for- merly lived here. His camp was near the south end of the lake on the west side on what is known as Indian Hill. Its exact location is in the S. W. J4 of the N. E. y of section 32, town of Mount Morris. Another camp site is at the northeast end of the lake near the springs. It is in a stately grove, on the S. W. % of the S. W. Y of section 28. On the east side near the southern end of the lake, on the top of a high bluff dropping sheer to the lake, is a third site. To the rear of this site, in a clump of trees, are faint traces of Indian cultivation. At the front of this camp site is a huge red granite boulder, towering far above the lake. It is at the extreme edge of w o Indian Remains in Waushara County 127 the bluff and is ten feet in height. From its position and shape, as well as traces of Indian regard for it still remem- bered by the settlers, there can be little doubt of its having been a spirit stone (shrine). Several copper implements have been found in the vicinity of John's Lake. In the road running along the north side of the lake Mr. Andrew Seising found a copper spearpoint 5 inches in length. Mr. Louis Bell found a copper celt in a field a short distance northwest of the lake. He also found a copper spear about 20 rods west of the springs at the north camp site. Near these springs he dug up some years ago, an old flintlock gun badly rusted and corroded. WAUTOMA CAMP SITE From John's Lake our route led west to Wautoma. Here on the north side of the mill ponds, is a fairly large camp site. This is on the N. E. % of section 34, town of Wautoma. On this site was found a stone pestle, two inches in diameter at the butt, tapering to a blunt point at the other end and with a length of 18 inches. It is smoothed but not polished and made of grey sandstone. It is in the possession of Mr. 0. J. Weiss of Wautoma. Mr. Weiss has a collection of more than 1000 pieces, be- tween 40 and 50 of which are copper implements. These are nearly all arrow and spearpoints, none of them of small size. Mr. Weiss does not collect copper beads or fish, hooks or other small articles. The smallest piece which he has is 2J/ inches long. He has several spearpoints from 8 to 9 inches in length. His entire collection is made up of pieces found in Waushara County. On exhibition in his showcase he has four copper imple- ments, a knife 6 inches long, two spearpoints of the same length and a third 5 inches in length. A mile and a half south of the city, where two branches of the White River unite, on the N. E. J^ of section 10, town of Dakota, a camp site was found on an open sand hill on the south side of the stream. 128 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 3 Silver Lake, Marion Township Three miles southeast of Wautoma lie the twin lakes, Fish, and Silver. Between the two is a narrow sand ridge, at its widest place not over 10 rods in width. This neck is cut by a tiny channel making the two lakes virtually one. Fish Lake has high shores but is rather marshy, reeds growing nearly all around it and even over a large portion of the lake itself. Silver Lake, or Silver Cryst as it is now called, is a well known summer resort, the northern shore being bordered with cottages. Its shores are high but not hilly and it is hemmed in by thick woods, the trees being nearly all pine. The one record of the occurrence of mounds on this lake is found on page 429 of Vol. 5, Nos. 3 and 4 of the Wisconsin Archeologist: "Wautoma Township." "Group of 7 or 8 mounds on the north side of Silver Crest Lake, 3 miles from Wautoma." Silver and Fish Lakes are not in Wautoma but in Marion Township save a small portion of Fish Lake which lies on the south Yi of section 31, town of Mount Morris. And instead of 7 or 8 mounds on the north side, there are 27 in three groups, 38 in all about the lakes in five groups and 3 single mounds. On the northwest shore of Fish Lake on the farm of J. J. Jarvis, on the S. W. l /i of section 31, town of Mount Morris, is a single oval mound. It lies about 20 rods from the lake on a ridge among a multitude of kettle holes. All of the other mounds and mound groups are in the town of Marion. WOODWORTH GROUP (Plate 4.) On the point running east between Fish and Silver Lakes are three mound groups and where the point leaves the hills is a large camp site. This latter lies on the N. W. J4 of section 6, town of Marion, and is strongly in evidence on Indian Remains in Waushara County 129 the southwest side of Fish Lake. It probably extends through to Silver Lake for many flint artefacts have been collected there. The Woodworth group is one of 8 mounds. It is located on the southwest side of Fish Lake and extends in a direct south line toward Silver Lake. Its last mound overlooks the roadway. All of the mounds of this group with the excep- tion of No. 6 have been excavated by relic hunters by dig- ging the usual hole in the top. The work appears to have been thorough if not of a commendable character, some of the pits being five and six feet in depth and eight to ten feet across. The mounds lie on a table above Fish Lake, the' first mound being on the very edge of the drop to the water, some fifteen feet below. The mounds are conicals of the following sizes: Height in feet. *>. 1 Conical Diameter in feet. 32 2 Conical . .. 15 3 Conical 16 4 Conical 24 5 Oval 15 by 22 6. Conical 15 7 Conical 16 8. Conical 15 SILVER CRYST GROUP (Plate 4.) Two hundred feet southwest of the last mound of the pre- ceding group lies the first mound of the Silver Cryst group, group No. 4 on the plate. This mound is the largest of those about these lakes, and is the beginning of a line of earthworks paralleling the north shore of Silver Lake. Every mound of this group has been explored with the spade and shovel (a pick was not necessary as they are built of sandy loam). They lie on a long sand ridge, fully thirty feet above the lake. For convenience each mound about these two lakes was given an individual number. The first of this group is No. 9. The dimensions of the mounds, from 9 to 21 are given below. 130 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 3 No. Diameter in feet. Height in feet. 9. Conical 43 8 10. Conical 30 5 11. Conical 13 2 12. Conical : 21 2]/ 2 13. Conical 28 5 14. Conical 18 2 15. Conical '. 15 16. Conical 18 17. Conical 13 18. Conical.. 13 19. Oval 22 long 14 wide 20. Linear 55 long 10 wide 21. Linear 40 long 13 wide 1 Both the Woodworth and Silver Cryst groups are on the S. E. \i of the N. W. \i of section 6. MILLER GROUP Eighty rods west of the last group, lies the Miller group. Two mounds of the six forming it, lie on the high sand dune immediately above Silver Lake. One of these, an oval mound, measures 18 x 24 x 40 feet and the other, a conical, is 24 feet in diameter. The others are to the northwest across the road on a sloping hill side. Two of these are conical mounds 14 and 16 feet in dia- meter, one an oval 32 feet long and 13 feet wide and one a linear 50 feet long and 17 feet wide. These are closely grouped. BOOTH GROUP On the S. W. K of the S. W. M of section 6, is the Booth group. The public higway along the Silver Lake shore passes through and over the mounds of this group which are somewhat scattered. The mounds that remain undis- turbed lie in a jungle of prickly ash and other shrubs and were very difficult of measurement. Four of the mounds are linear in form and are 36, 42, 50 and 55 feet long, the widest being 18 feet wide. Two are conical mounds 15 and 29 feet in diameter. Southwest of this group on the N. W. y of section 7, on the lake front, is a camp site extending into section 8. Indian Remains in Waushara County 131 SOUTHERN SILVER MOUNDS At the southeast end of Silver Lake in a hardwood grove, in the N. E. % of the S. W. y of section 8, is a single oval mound 35 feet long and 15 feet wide. A short distance northeast is a second oval 30 feet long by 12 feet wide. Farther to the northeast, on the east side of the southeast arm of the lake are two mounds. One, a conical, is 17 feet in diameter and one foot high and the other, an oval, 35 feet long 19 feet wide and 2 feet high. These lie in a pine grove across the road from the lake. The road runs along the terrace just above the water. Both have been excavated and are located on the S. E. J4 of the N. W. M of section 8. STORKE MOUNDS There is no dearth of lakes in this part of Waushara Coun- ty. Half a mile southeast of Silver Lake are found two more. Of these Deer Lake, the smaller, is less than a quarter of a mile in diameter. It is separated from Hill's Lake, which is of good size, half a mile wide and three quarters of a mile long, by a high sandy and stony ridge. The lakes lie in depressions with hills all about, a very high one lying "on the east side of Hill's Lake. On the narrow strip between the two, is a camp site. This is on the east side of Deer Lake, on the S. W. y of the S. E. Y of section 8. Fireplace stones, pottery and flakes were found here. North of this site, on the very summit of the ridge, are the two Storke mounds, neither over a foot in height. One mound is a conical 25 feet in diameter. The second, within a few feet of the shore of Hill's Lake, is a linear 40 feet in length with a width of 13 feet. The conical mound lies 260 feet northwest of the linear. Neither mound has ever been disturbed. Only one trail of this region is known and that closely fol- lowed the north shore of Silver Lake. It was much- used by the early settlers. Where were its beginnings and its endings is not known. 132 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 3 EGAN'S LAKE CAMP SITES One mile south of Hill's Lake lies Egan's or Daly's Lake. This is located at the corner of four sections. It is nearly round and over half a mile in diameter. It lies in a great pocket in the sand and gravel, which is rolled into great ridges, especially at its eastern side. On the west side the approach to the shore is somewhat gentler, especially about the center. Here, in a natural amphitheatre, is a camp site. Great quantities of flint flakes and fragments of pottery are found here. The latter is of two grades, a light red ware, very thin and a second kind, very dark and much thicker. Both are quartz tempered. A small triangular arrowpoint with sharply nicked edges was also found. This site is on the N. E. J4 of section 20 and extends north into section 17. On this site is a large granite boulder of which the Indians may have made some use. PICKEREL LAKE CAMP SITE Six miles west of Egan's is Pickerel Lake, another beau- tiful though small body of water. At the northwest corner of this pond is a small camp site. The potsherds found here are distinguished by the coarse character of the fragments of granite with which the clay and sand was mixed. The average size of these pieces of stone was a quarter of an inch in diameter. This site is on the S. E. y of section 22, town of Dakota. Head of White River (See Plate 5.) Five miles west of Wautoma, is the head of White River. This was probably once a small pool, but a dam was put in, raising the water and creating a sizeable lake. At present the dam is gone and the White River Pond is back at nearly the old level. It is a rough jagged body of water, filled with weeds and dead brush and trees; broken trunks and gnarled stumps project above the surface. On the south and west Indian Remains in Waushara County 133 sides the hills which surround it drop directly to the water. On the north they recede, leaving a broad high shelf between them and the shore. On this shelf at the northeast corner of the lake, and along the north bank of the west branch of the White River are two groups of mounds. The first group lying along the river, is the larger. WALKER GROUP (Plate 6.) This mound group is in a wood with much undergrowth, but lies beside and is visible from the road. It is located in the N. W. ^ of the S. W. J of section 30, town of Wau- toma, on land owned by Mr. Walker, a resident of Wautoma. The mounds are in two parallel rows, running northwest and southeast and are nine in number. Three are conicals, the remainder, ovals and linears. No. Dimensions in feet Height in feet. 1. Linear 48 long 13 wide \ 1 A 2. Oval 33 long 12 wide 2 3. Oval 34 long 12 wide 3 4. Oval 35 long 13 wide 1^ 5. Linear 44 long 14 wide 2 6. Conical 16 diameter 1 7. Conical.... 16 diameter \ l /i 8. Oval 21 long 10 wide 1 9. Conical 19 diameter \ 1 A WHITE RIVER GROUP, ENCLOSURE AND CACHES Eighty rods northwest of the former group is the second, containing four mounds. The road, which runs through this group mutilates two of them. These, a linear, and a conical, lie partly in the wheel track. Enough remains to show that the former mound was 36 feet long and probably 10 feet wide with a height of \}4 feet. The other was 15 feet in diameter and one foot high. An oval mound near the last was 31 feet long and 11 feet wide, with a height of two feet. 134 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 3 A tapering mound north of the oval is 55 feet in length. At the narrowest end, the southeastern, it measures 14 feet across. At the other extremity it measures 22 feet. There appear to be two projections extending from each corner of the western end, these being 5 feet in length. They are very low, not over 6 inches high at any point and may be merely earth slips. This mound is 3 feet high. This group is in a woodland like that in which the Walker group is located. Across the road from the tapering mound and 100 feet farther west, lying just above the mill pond and with one side in the wheel track, are the remains of an earthen en- closure. Its long diameter, parallel to the pond, and nearly north and south, is 60 feet. Enough of it remains to show that its width was over 30 feet. The walls are from 8 to 10 inches high and 7 feet wide. At a few places on the inside, excavations can still be seen showing where the dirt was obtained to construct the wall. Three hundred feet east of this enclosure is a large cluster of pits occupying a space 45 feet long by 37 feet wide. The diameter of each is from 6 to 8 feet. One, partially investi- gated, was over two feet in depth. In this series are 14 pits, or possibly 16 as one pit 18 feet in length may be really three connecting pits. On the very edge of one pit is growing a black oak thirty inches in diameter, and on another pit is found a white oak measuring two feet through. South of these pits and 300 feet nearer the shore, on a point, are six more pits of the same size as those of the first series. These pits are probably caches used by the Indians for the storage of food. On the north side of the outlet to the mill pond on a sandy flat, is a camp site. This is on N. E. y of the S. E. y of section 25, town of Deerfield. The enclosure, the pits and the White River mound group are on the S. E. J4 of the N. E. J^ of section 25, town of Deerfield. At the western end of the pond, southwest of the lake, is the grave of Big John, local Indian chief of some distinction. This is on the N. E. J of the S. W. K of section 25. Other Indians were buried near here. Head of White River near Wautoma Plate 5 Indian Remains in Waushara County 135 RICHFORD CAMP SITE Near the village of Richford, on the south bank of the mill pond, is a small camp site. Its location is on the north half of section 21, town of Richford. EBERT'S GARDEN BEDS Two miles northwest of Richford, on the farm of Mr. Eberts was formerly a large plot of Indian garden beds. The rows were very distinct. The plot was about half a mile from the river in a small valley between two sloping hills. The beds have now disappeared. These were on the south half of section 8, town of Richford. One mile farther on, and lying at the headwaters of the Mecan River, long shallow ponds, known locally as "The Head of the Mecan," are several large mound groups. The mounds are all conicals, and one group, the Schmudlach, is one of the few large groups remaining in the state which has not been dug over by relic hunters. Not a mound of this group has been disturbed. EBERT'S GROUP On the S. E. ^ of the N. W. y of section 8, just north of the wagon road and nearly 40 rods from the Mecan River lies a compact group of fifteen mounds, named for the gentleman on whose farm they are found and who kindly assisted in the survey of this group and of the Schmudlach group. These mounds have been plowed over several times but are yet very distinct. Mr. Eberts states that originally they were from 2}^ to 3 feet in height; they are now from 6 to 12 inches high. All are conical in form the largest being 23 and the smallest 8 feet in diameter. SCHMUDLAGH GROUP (Plate 7.) 400 feet southwest of this group, on the same quarter sec- tion as the preceding, are 21 mounds arranged in three rows. They lie on top of a ridge between two deep ravines. 136 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 3 The level land between the two is covered by the conicals. All are very distinct and finely shaped. Should permission ever be obtained from Mr. Schmudlach for a systematic investigation of them, results of value might be obtained. They are not extraordinary as to diameter or height. . No. Diameter Height No. Diameter Height 1. 14 feet 1 Y 2 feet 12. 14 feet 1 Y 2 feet 2. 21 feet 3 feet 13. 19 feet 1 feet 3. 20 feet 2 feet 14. 17 feet l^feet 4. 21 feet 2 feet 15. 10 feet l^feet 5. 20 feet 2^ feet 16. 13 feet 1 Yz feet 6. 19 feet 2 ^ feet 17. 16 feet 1 feet 7. 20 feet 1 Y 2 feet 18. 21 feet 1 feet 8. 16 feet 2 feet 19. 15 feet l^feet 9. 23 feet 2 Yz feet 20. 20 feet l^feet 10. 17 feet 1 feet 21. 16 feet 2 feet 11. 16 feet \Y2 feet LANGSETH GROUP Half a mile beyond the Schmudlach series, to the west and north, and on the north side of the Mecan, on the neck between the stream on the east and the west, for the Mecan here makes a huge oxbow, is the third group at the head of the Mecan. It consists of 13 members, all of good size and height. This is the most prominent in this respect of the four groups in this region. This group is on the N. W. y of the N. W. 34 of section 8. The tumuli lie on an elevated table x of sandy loam and appear to have been constructed of the same material. We are greatly indebted to Mr. Lang- seth for his assistance in the work of measuring them. Part of the mounds of this group have been excavated and two have been plowed over. The largest is 25 feet in diameter and 3 feet high and the smallest 15 feet in diameter and 1J/2 feet high. These mounds were very close together, only a few feet separating each from its neighbor. There are indications in a cornfield to the north of more mounds but the field has been so lotig under cultivation that the traces were too meagre to admit of their inclusion. Just west of this group on the bench above the Mecan is an extensive village site. An arrow made of quartzite picked up here is peculiar in that it is chipped only on one side. Indian Remains in Wayshara County 137 POTTER GROUP (Plate 9.) The fourth and last group of the series in the vicinity of the head of the Mecan, is located on N. E. J4 of the N. E. J4 of section 6, being as are all the groups, in Richford Town- ship. This is nearly one mile north of the Langseth group and about half a mile from the Mecan. The mounds lie at the southeastern end of a small lake, called Potter, as it, as well as the mounds, are on the farm of a man of that name. Mr. Potter assisted in the survey of this group, which lies in a grove of fir trees. It has been protected by the owner and only three mounds, Nos. 1, 12 and 13 have been dug into. The road passes very close to the mounds which are visible from it. This group consists of 13 conical mounds of the following sizes: No. Diameter Height No. Diameter Height 1. 23 feet 4 feet 8. 19 feet 1 foot 2. 15 feet 1 feet 9. 17 feet 1 foot 3. 15 feet 1 feet 10. 14 feet 1 foot 4. 15 feet 1 Y* feet 11. 10 feet l^feet 5. 16 feet 1 ^ feet 12. 23 feet 4 feet 6. 18 feet l^feet 13. 19 feet 2 feet 7. 12 feet 1 feet No copper implements have been found near this place but much "float" copper has been found. The only copper im- plements which, so far as known have been collected in the region of the head of the Mecan were found by Mr. Ebert in the vicinity of the Ebert group. They were two small copper arrows. The Hancock Lakes Four miles north of Potter Lake are the Hancock Lakes, a group with an aggregate length of four miles. Beginning at the little town of Hancock which lies at the western end of Pine Lake, their order is, first, Pine or Hancock Lake lying wholly in section 11 of the town of Hancock, and hav- ing a length of three fourths of a mile, second, Deer Lake, a round body one fourth of a mile across, lying just to the 138 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 3 south of the bar between Pine and the next lake in line, the third. This is Fish Lake, with a length of nearly two miles. At its widest point it is only a quarter of a mile across and at one place, the Narrows on section 13, the distance from one bank to the other is not more than three rods. The fourth lake is called Round, and the fifth and last, Crooked Lake, is half a mile long. The lakes are supposed to be part of the headwaters of the White River, but this cannot be definitely known for in common with the majority of Waushara lakes, they have no visible outlets. The soil being sandy the subsoil drainage keeps the water wonderfully clear and pure. All of these lakes are well stocked with fish, pickerel weighing up to_ 24 pounds being caught in Fish Lake. This series of lakes are separated by only narrow, sandy ridges, i It would be a simple matter to connect them with canals, but unfortunately they are not all at the same level. The drainage being southeast, they descend in a series of steps. Pine Lake is 6 feet higher than Fish Lake the next below it. HANCOCK LAKES CAMP SITES These lakes were the seat of a large Indian population. Even after the coming of the whites, the red man continued to camp about these shores. Assemblyman O'Connor states that the two favorite spots for the location of camps were the neck between Pine and Fish Lakes, in the S. E. J^ of sec- tion 11, the S. W. y section 12, and the western end of Pine Lake where Hancock Village now stands, in the S. W. % of section 11. Traces of camp sites were found on the low sandy, shelv- ing shores at the narrows, on the N. E. J4 of section 13. The south shore of Fish Lake is high, from 30 to 50 feet above the water, especially at the eastern end. At the western extremity it is not so high. A village site was located on -the south side of the lake on the N. W. l /i of sec- tion 13. The north shore of this lake has a gentle slope and this as well as both shores of Pine Lake are exceptionally well suited for the location of camps. They are wooded and it is difficult to make investigations. All these locations are in the town of Hancock. ' o 05 i o Q, * Indian Remains in Waushara County 139 SPAULDING MOUNDS (Figure 1.) The principal aboriginal remains about these lakes are the mounds, which are arranged in four groups and three solitary mounds. The number of mounds are greater here than at any other point in the county, though in early days before the land was placed under cultivation the number of these in the region about Long Lake and the other lakes in the northeastern part of Springwater Township may have been greater. Figure 1 The first, named after Mr. M. Spaulding, the owner of the farm on which it is located, consists of but two mounds with a solitary mound an eighth of a mile northwest of it. These mounds are in a grove northeast of Round Lake and north west of Crooked Lake, on the N. W. % of section 17, Town of Deerfield. They are well preserved but indistinct, per- 140 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 3 haps because of the sandy soil of which they are made. "A" is a linear, sixty feet in length, 16 feet wide at the east end and 17 at the west. Its long direction is east and west. Its height is 2 feet 3 inches. Fifty-two feet south of the west end of the linear is the second member "B", a club-shaped linear 150 feet in length. Its direction is northwesterly and southeasterly. At the narrowest extremity it is four feet wide and at the other it is 21 feet in width. It has an elevation of two feet at its highest point. Both mounds lie on the summit of a sandy ridge extending along the north shore of the lake, and are almost in the roadway. Forty rods to the northwest, south of the country road, and on the S. W. y of N. E. y of section 18, lying close to the edge of a hill, is a single linear. It lies just above Round Lake and not far from Fish Lake. Its length is 54 feet and its width 15 feet. It is 2 feet high. BOHN MOUNDS One mile west of the Spaulding mounds, on the N. E. y of the N. E. y of section 13, town of Hancock, are the two Bohn mounds. The outlines of these are far from distinct, and while one seems to approach the bear type of- effigy the probabilities are that it is a simple linear whose sandy con- tent has slipped in places giving the appearance of limbs. Its length is 57 feet with a varying breath of 13 to 17 feet. It is 2 feet high. A club-shaped linear, has been partly destroyed by the construction of a road and a cultivated field, into which it extends. The remaining portion has a length of 50 feet, its greatest width being 24 feet. Its height is 1 3/2 feet. These mounds lie at the top of the sandy incline stretching up from the shore of Fish Lake and are just northeast of the Narrows. They are 99 feet apart. WHISTLER GROUP AND ENCLOSURE (Plate 10.) The largest group of mounds in Waushara County lies at the southwest end of Fish lake and extends northwest and Indian Remains in Waushara County 141 north between it and Pine Lake. It is situated on the ridge between Deer and Fish Lakes, and nearest the latter. At the eastern extremity of the series, the mounds lie imme- diately above the water, at an elevation of about 15 feet. Very few of this group of 70 mounds have ever been excavat- ed. All are overgrown with a vicious growth of burr oak and pine saplings, making accurate platting almost impossi- ble. Mounds 31 to 37 inclusive are in a potato field. For a short distance from the eastern extremity of the series the mounds lie in a double row, but this shortly be- comes a single line which continues until the bend to the north is taken. Here is a large well scattered group. 'These are on a table 15 feet above and 50 feet from Pine Lake. The general direction of the first named row is southeasterly and northwesterly. With the exception of six mounds, all are conical in form. These six are ovals, nearly all of which lie near the eastern end of the rows. The first two mounds are low ovals. The sizes of the mounds are: No. Diameter Height No. Diameter Height 1. Oval 31 by 16 ft. 1 ft. 27. Conical 17 ft. 2 ft. 2. Oval 30 by 13 ft. 1 ft. 28. Conical 15 ft. 1 ft. 3. Conical 13 ft. 1 ft. 29. Conical 13 ft. 1 ft. 4. Oval 23 by 17 ft. 2 ft. 30. Oval 26 by 15 ft. 2 ft. 5. Conical 18 ft, 2 ft. 31. Conical 23 ft. 23^ ft. 6. Conical 18 ft. 2 ft. 32. Conical 21 ft. 2 ft. 7. Conical 14 ft. l-H ft. 33. Conical 14 ft. \y 2 ft. 8. Conical 14 ft. i ft. 34. Conical 6 ft. 1 ft. 9. Conical 17 ft. 3 ft. 35. Conical 16 ft. i-H ft. 10. Conical 14 ft. \y^ ft. 36. Conical 16 ft. 2 ft. 11. Conical 19 ft. \.y% ft. 37. Conical 15 ft. 1 ft. 12. Conical 20 ft. i ft. 38. Conical 19 ft. 2 ft. 13. Conical 12 ft. i ft. 39. Conical 18 ft. 13^ ft. 14. Conical 20 ft. 2^ ft. 40. Oval 27 by 12 ft. 1^2 ft. 15. Conical 18 ft. 1^2 ft. 41. Conical 19 ft. 1 ft. 16. Conical 16 ft. \y 2 ft. 42. Conical 17 ft. \y% ft. 17. Conical 15 ft. i ft. 43. Conical 15 ft. i ft. 18. Conical 19 ft. i ft. 44. Conical 22 ft. 2 ft. 19. Conical 21 ft. 23^ ft. 45. Conical 16 ft. 23^ ft. 20. Conical 17 ft. 2 ft. 46. Conical 18 ft. \ 1 A ft. 21. Conical 18 ft. \Yi ft. 47. Conical 24 ft. 2% ft. 22. Conical 17 ft. 13^ ft. 48. Conical 17 ft. 1^2 ft. 23. Conical 17 ft. l^ ft. 49. Conical 19 ft. 1^2 ft. 24. Conical 15 ft. 1 ft. 50. Conical 19 ft. 2 ft. 25. Conical 16 ft. 2 ft. 51. Conical 18 ft. 23^ ft. 26. Conical 16 ft. l.M ft. 52. Conical 17 ft. 2 ft. 142 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 3 No. Diameter Height No. Diameter Height 53. Conical 22 ft. 23. 6ft. 62. Conical 20 ft. l/^ ft . 54. Conical 18 ft. 1} 6 ft. 63. Conical 21 ft. \\\ ft 55. Conical 24 ft. 2 ft. 64. Conical 27 ft. 2 ft 56. Conical 25 ft. 2 ft. 65. Conical 18 ft. \^A ft 57. Conical 25 ft. 3}> 3ft. 66. Conical 22 ft. l/^ ft . 58. Conical 16 ft. \\ 67. Conical 19 ft. 1 ft 59. Conical 17 ft. 1> 6ft. 68. Conical 20 ft. l tt . 60. Oval 28 by 23 ft. 1 }> ft. 69. Conical 15 ft. 1 ft . 61. Conical 19 ft. \\ ft. 70. Conical 12 ft. 1 ft , The mounds are on the N. W. J4 of the N. W. M of sec- tion 13, the S. W. J of the S. W. J4 of section 12 and the S. E. J4 of the S. E. J4 of section 11, town of Hancock. The most interesting Indian earthwork in the county, is a double enclosure. This lies between the southeastern end of the series of mounds just described and Fish Lake. It consists of two perfectly preserved "race course" embank- ments one lying within the other. The outer enclosure is nearly a rectangle with rounded corners. The walls which form it are uniformly one foot in height, and 8 feet wide. Its greatest length is 120 feet with a greatest width of 82 feet, both measurements being from the outside of the walls. The walls of the inner inclosure are of the same height as the outer and have a width of 8 feet, leaving the inner space 10 by 40 as the inner enclosure measures 26 feet in width and 56 feet in length. The clear space outside the inner walls and inside the outer embankment is 24 feet wide at each end, and 20 feet at the sides. Brush and young trees grow densely over the site and these measurements may not be strictly accurate. It is possible therefore that the inner space might be of the same size as the outer. This enclosure is on the N. W. % of the N. W. M of section 13, town of Hancock. We owe particular thanks to Assemblyman O'Connor and Mr. Edward O'Connor for their valued assistance in obtain- ing information of the antiquities of this region and for their help in making the survey. It is. to be hoped that through their interest steps can be taken by the Wisconsin Archeolog- ical Society looking toward the permanent preservation of this interesting enclosure. f O 0, s~ * , 0- 0- . Schmudlach Group Plate 7 Indian Remains in Waushara County 143 PINE LAKE GROUP At the northeast corner of Pine Lake and cut through by the highway, is a rather compact group of eight conical mounds, four on each side of the road. These are on sandy soil but all appear to have been constructed of black dirt. They are larger than any in the other group and appear to be better constructed. Three of the mounds have been mutilated, two having been cut up and the dirt used for road material. These, with the others on the north side of the road, are in a dense thicket. In one a human skull was found by Mr. Severson of Hancock. At the time of our visit, a tibia, portions of a rib and other bones lay on the soil. On one was found a black flint blank and on another a quartzite arrow point. Flakes and fragments of pottery were found scattered all through the mound. All of the mounds appear to be conical in form. To the north of this group is a cornfield and appearances point to there having been other mounds there. The mounds are from 19 to 36 feet in diameter and from 1 to 3 feet high. They are in the N. E. y of the S. W. M of section 11, Hancock Township. At the west end of Pine Lake in Hancock Village, on a lot belonging to Mr. 0. G. Hubbard, who has carefully pre- served it, is an oval mound. It lies on a lawn near South Lake Street. Its length is 31 feet, its width 20 feet and its height of about 1 J/ feet. It is 15 feet to the east of Mr. Hub- bard's residence. This mound is in the N. W. )4 of the S. W. Y of section 11. Another mound is reported as existing in a field on the southwest shore of Pine Lake on the S. W. M of section 11. SAND LAKE CAMP SITE Two miles north of Hancock is a rather large lake located largely on section 36, but small portions of it extend into sections 35, 25 and 26. Indians are reported to have camped about it within recent times. No one knows of the presence of any mounds anywhere near the lake. As a thunderstorm was approaching, and the lake is far from the road, no at- tempt was made by ourselves to approach it. 144 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 3 Mr. A. Mory who resides north of the lake, has in his possession a small copper celt. It is 3 inches long, \Y^ inches wide and from one half to one quarter of an inch thick. It is very smoothly rubbed and has the appearance of hav- ing been lost by Indians only a short time before it was found. The Northern Region This portion of the report deals with the regions of Wau- shara County from which there have been reported the. greater number of the county records mentioned in a Record of Wisconsin Antiquities. These are located in the row of townships stretching along the northern boundary of Wau- shara County. From the first of these, Plainfield, no evi- dence of Indian occupation was reported save a possible camp site on the S. W. % of section 7. This may be just over the line in Adams County. Of the next town east, Oasis, the Record says, "Group of four conical mounds on the eastern shore of a lake about 1 ^ miles east of Plainfield on the N. E. y of the S. E. Y^ Sec. 18, T. 20 N.; R. 9 E. Reported by H. L. Reynolds." "Group of mounds on the southwest side of Lake Huron, on the 0. A. Crowell place, S. W. Y^ Sec. 18. Reported by F. P. King, Sept. 1905." CORNELL GROUP The first paragraph of the foregoing is correct except that a fifth mound was found. This group, which is named for Mr. J. A. Cornell, who owns the farm on which the mounds are, is arranged with one exception in a row running southeast from the edge of the bluff above Waterman or Plainfield Lake. They are on high level land and are well defined al- though three have been plowed over. All but one are con- icals and 18, 19 and 20 feet in diameter respectively and from one to one and one half feet high. The oval mound measures 18 by 27 feet and is one foot high. Indian Remains in Waushara County 145 A short distance north of the group, on the sandy shore of the lake evidences of a camp site were found. This is on the S. E. M of the N. E. M of section 18, town of Oasis. MILLARD SMITH GROUP Two miles southeast of this site, on the south shore of Smith, a very small lake, is the remains of an interesting mound group. Four mounds can still be traced, one being nearly perfect, and three partially destroyed. The mound closest to the lake is fully 400 feet from the water. The group is near the highway on the flat level land, for this section is a part of the so-called Big Prairie. In this some- what scattered group are two linears, one conical and one club-shaped linear. The latter is in the worst condition of any mound in this region. The tapering extremity of this mound extended into the field where the plow destroyed it. The now remain- ing portion is 53 feet in length and 19 feet wide at the widest point where the mound has been cut into, the dirt being taken for use in road improvement. This mound as well as the conical and linear mound to the south of it lies partly on the highway. Dirt has been removed from these last two for the same purpose. The club-shaped mound was built of black sandy loam and had a height of nearly two feet. Portions of bone were found in the side of the mound but these might have been animal bones for some had the appearance of having been broken to obtain the marrow. The conical mound was 28 feet in diameter, and two feet high. The part not removed has been plowed over, a like fate having overtaken the linear near it. The linear lies in a direction nearly east and west. It was 64 feet long, 15 feet wide and 1 J/2 feet in height. The best preserved mound of the group, a linear, lies on the north edge of a field, and a very small part of it extends into the plowed land. Its direction is northeasterly and south- westerly. Its length is 90 feet, its width 13 feet at the south- west and 16 feet at the northeast extremity. Its elevation is 2 feet. The Millard Smith group is in the S. E. J4 of the N. E. M of section 21, town of Oasis. 146 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 3 Across the road from this group and an eighth of a mile farther west, in a small gully washed out by the heavy rains, Mr. Currier found an Indian pottery vessel. It was damp and fragile and fell to pieces when he attempted to remove it. WEYNETH GROUP (See Plate 11.) The second item quoted from the Record, plainly refers to this group. Instead of being situated in the S. W. Y of section 18, it is in the N. W. y of the S. W. \ of section 22. This group is a very prominent one, the mounds all being large and high. It consists of four mounds all of which have been dug into. The largest and most important has literally been cut in two. The mounds are on the summit of the high land above Lake Huron. Lake Huron is a wonderfully attractive body of water, very clear and pure and free from weeds or other marine growth. Nor are the shores marshy; some have fine sandy beaches, others are composed of fine gravel. The lake is nearly round, one half a mile across and is a favorite resort for the neighboring farmers. Of the mounds, three lie very close together in a south- easterly and northwesterly line. The fourth is 193 feet east of the most southern of the others which are arranged in a line. All are conical in form, their basal diameters being 24, 29, 32 and 42 x 47 feet. They are from 2J/ to 6 feet high. KRUSHKI GROUP AND ENCLOSURE. (Plate 12.) The largest mound group near Lake Huron is situated at its southeast corner in the pasture and dooryard of Mr. Krushki. Four mounds of this group have been completely destroyed and as no traces of them now exist they are not shown on the plat, which shows 16 earthworks. Counting these four and a number of mounds which have been plowed over but can still be traced in a hay field south of the road and which were not inspected because the hay was still un- cut, the original group must have consisted of about 30 Copper Implements, O. J. Weiss Collection Plate 8 Indian Remains in Waushara County 147 mounds. According to one of the neighboring farmers one of the mounds in the field was an "elephant" mound. He insisted that a long proboscis, as well as a tail could be traced. But, as no effigies occurred among the remaining mounds of this group, the presence of an effigy is very doubtful. This group is located on the N. W. J f the S.E. J4 of section 22. Of the sixteen mounds, fourteen are conicals. The remaining two are club-shaped linears, lying nearly parallel, in an east and west direction. No. 15 is 198 feet long, six inches high at the east end which has a width of 6 feet and lJ/ feet high at the west end which is 15 feet in width. The road cuts into the south edge of the mound at its east end. No. 16 is undisturbed. It is 256 feet in length, 18 feet across the widest part of the club, the east end where it is 2 1 / 2 feet in height. At the western extremity it is 7 feet wide and 6 inches high. With two exceptions, the conical mounds are all well pre- served. Four of these are in the roadway and of two, Nos. 12 and 13, a portion has been removed in road building. No. 3 is in a hog yard. All of the others are in a park-like grove. No. 7 is nearest to Lake Huron, being 250 feet from the edge of the pocket in which the lake lies. The sizes of the conical mounds are: No. Diameter Height No. Diameter Height 1. 38 38. 24 \Y 2 2. 21 1H 9- 23 2 3. 30 2 10. 28 \Y 2 4. 23 1 11. 30 2Y 2 5. 12 Y 2 12. 25 2 6. 25 \Y 2 13. 34 2 7. 28 1 14. 31 2 Near this group, on its north side, and lying at the south- east corner of the lake just south of a big gully, is part of an enclosure. One side and both ends are well preserved, but the other side has disappeared probably from the wash of the surface drainage as it is located on a low slope. The walls that remain are 11 feet wide, and from 6 to 10 inches high. The length of this earthwork whose direction is nearly north and south, was 160 feet and its width was about 57 feet. 148 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 3 LAKE HURON GROUP AND ENCLOSURE A quarter of a mile north of the Krushki group is an- other series consisting of three well-formed tumuli. They are on the top of the bluff, here nearly fifty feet in height, in a patch of second growth timber. Two are near the lake and 49 feet apart, the other is 108 feet to the rear of the nearest mound. They and the enclosure just described are on the S. W. % of the N. E. y of section 22. Their diameters are 15, 21 and 30 feet and their elevations from 2^ to 3J/2 feet. All have been dug into. One was excavated by Mr. John Berens of Wild Rose who furnished information as to its contents which were of an unusual character. When the lower level of the structure was reached a "very disagreeable odor" was encountered. At about the center of the mound was found the remains of a stout pole standing up- right, apparently firmly embedded in the .underlying soil. About it were charcoal and ashes and many fragments of bone. The enclosure near this group is in good condition. One end lies on the edge of the bluff facing Lake Huron; the other, the southeastern, has an opening either intentional or one caused by erosion for there is a slight. slope from the summit of the ridge in a southeasterly direction. The walls were uniformly 6 feet wide and 6 inches high. The length of the enclosure is 85 feet and the width 53 feet. It is rectangular in form with rounded corners. Within the walls is a shallow trench following entirely around them. It appears that the dirt in the walls was obtained from this ditch. Shallow trenches are also found outside of the walls. TOWN HOUSE MOUNDS A quarter of a mile east of the Krushki group and on the south side of the road just east o'f the Oasis town house, are two mounds. They are on the S. E. y of the S. El Y of section 22. One is a club-shaped linear, while the other, a conical mound, is 400 feet southeast of the first mound. This has not been disturbed, and is 28 feet in diameter and Indian Remains in Waushara County 149 three feet high. The linear has a height of 2 J^ feet. It is 173 feet long. At the tail end, the western extremity, its width is 7 feet; at the club, 28 feet. Its direction is northwest and southeast, and is in plain sight from the road. WEBER MOUNDS AND PITS From Lake Huron a trip was made north into Portage County, it being desired to visit the mound groups reported as being located near Lake Washburn, or Almond Lake as it is now known, for the purpose of making a survey of them. These are recorded in the Record: "Almond Township. "Two parallel effigies on the southeastern shore of Lake Washburn on the S. E. y, N. W. %, Sec. 32. "Large group of effigies with small elliptical inclosure on the island in this lake." "Reported by H. L. Reynolds, Jr." There was no difficulty in finding these locations. The mounds referred to in the first item are on the land of a Mr. Weber. Of the two mounds one has disappeared, lying as it did immediately in the road. The remaining mound touches the edge of the roadway and some dirt has been removed from it for use in road construction. This is a club-shaped- linear earthwork. Its total length is 333 feet and its direc- tion east and west. It lies in a thicket of scrub oak and other brush but is very distinct, being well formed and over one foot in height for the greater part of its length. It is highest at the west or widest end, its height being 3J^ feet. At this point its width is 24 feet. The two mounds lay nearly parallel to and within a few feet of each other. North of the club-shaped mound and near the lake, nearly destroyed by a private road, is a small conical mound one foot high and 10 feet in diameter. The existence of this mound has not been previously reported. Scattered about through the dense thicket which lies be- tween the linear mound and the lake are a large number, probably more than 30, for so dense was the brush that it was not possible to count them, of excavations or pits. 150 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 3 Some are of large size and nearly square. They resemble cellar holes and in shape approach those found along the west shore of Lake Winnebago south of Oshkosh and described by P. V. Lawson as feasting pits. These at Lake Washburn are not as large as the Winnebago pits. It may be that they are the work of white men, but they are so irregular, and so scattered, and as there appears to be no reason why whites should make them, this is deemed improbable. No information concerning them could be secured. ISLAND GROUP (Fig. 2.) Strictly speaking, there is no island in the lake, but there is a high sandy plot of land at about the middle of the north side, which is separated from the north shore by a narrow piece of marshy low land. It is possible that at seasons of very high water, this land may become an island. But the residents about the lake did not recognize it as such, and some difficulty was experienced in locating this "island." Of the "effigy" mounds and the enclosure, little remains. The island was, at the time of our visit in use as a potato and a rye field. The enclosure has disappeared, and of its size nothing is known. Of the mounds, five can still be distin- guished. None of these were effigies. No. 1 was a tapering linear. Most of the tail is gone but what remains measures 90 feet in length with a width of 32 feet at its broadest extremity. This mound overlooks Lake Washburn. Mounds No. 2, 3 and 4 are linears, and No. 5 is conical in form. Their dimensions are: No. 2. 51 by 23 feet. No. 3. 75 by 25 feet. No. 4. 40 by 19 feet. No. 5. 30 feet in diameter. Due allowance should be made in these measurements for the scattering of the earth by the plow. The present height of each of these mounds is about one foot. All about among the group were found potsherds, flint flakes, fireplace stones, broken bones and other evidence of Indian Remains in Waushara County 151 the former existence of an Indian village. Two small arrow points and a rude stone pestle were found here. The village 86 I Island Group, Lake Washburn Figure 2 site and mound group are on the S. W. J of section 29, possibly extending into sections 30 and 32, of the town of Almond. 152 WISCONSIN ARCIIEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 3 MAGYWSKI MOUNDS After a night spent at Almond, a small 'village east of Lake Washburn, our trip was resumed, a return being made to Waushara County. Our route led southeast to Pine, Twin, Long and Gilbert Lakes. In the town of Rose in- formation was received of a small mound which formerly stood on a hill in about the center of section 15. It has dis- appeared. It is reported to have been oval in form. One mile north of this mound, is a series of three conical mounds. These have been plowed over and at the time of out visit were in a rye field. Mr. Macywski furnished the information concerning them. They are of uniform size with a diameter of 16 feet and a height of 3 feet. They lie in the shape of a triangle, and are situated at the southeast corner of Fish Lake, on the N. E. J4 of the S. E. J4 of section 10, town of Rose. Fish Lake is a quarter of a mile in diameter, being nearly circular in shape. Just west of it lies Mud Lake and beyond it Devils Lake. On the narrow ridge between the two last is a single conical mound. It is in the S. E. J4 of the N. W. }/ of section 10. On the low level ridge between Mud and Fish Lakes a camp site was located. JAS. EVANS'S LAKE CAMP SITE A camp site was also found on the north shore of Jas. Evan's Lake. It is the N. W. % of the S. W. Y of section 16, town of Springwater. Springwater Groups Of all the towns of Waushara County which are listed in the Record as containing mounds, the largest number are re- ported from the town of Springwater. Mounds are there reported to exist on the east side of Pine Lake; on the west and southwest side of Twin Lake; on the west and north sides of Gilbert Lake; north of Mud Lake, and on the west, north, south and southeast shores of Long Lake. Potter Group Plate 9 Indian Remains in Waushara County 153 GILBERT LAKE CAMP SITES Gilbert Lake, over a mile long, lies among sand hills. Those along the south shore are pitted for nearly the entire distance from east to west with kettle holes making it im- possible for any extensive camp or village to . have been situated there. No signs of Indian life were found along the south shore of this lake; On the north side the shores are high and abrupt. On the S, W. J4 f section 11 is a natural amphitheatre and here many indications of a former Indian camp site were found. Half a mile west of this place at the mouth of a ravine overhung on the west by a large hill, is a second camp site. This is on the S. W. J4 of the S. E. J4 of section 10. GILBERT LAKE MOUNDS The Record reports mounds as existing on the north shore of Gilbert Lake in section 10. These were not found. Mr. A. G. Peterson, who is farming this part of section 10, assisted in the search for them. It is possible that they are examples of the very low conical mounds common to this region and, being hidden by the rank vegetation about the lake, escap- ed notice. A "Group of three conical mounds on the west shore of Gilbert Lake," was found to consist of four mounds, two being ovals and two small conicals. The oval mounds were explored by Mr. J. W. Brooks and a Mr. Bailey. Mr. Brooks states that human bones and flint points were found in each. The two oval mounds were located, but, probably because of the dense, rank growth of brush and other vegetation, the two conicals were not found. Mr. Brooks states that they were situated near the ovals, and were not over a foot high, and of small diameter. Mr. Brooks last saw them several years ago. The Gilbert Lake group lies on the top of a knoll, 40 feet above the lake. This knoll comes to a'point at the lake front, a small ravine lying to the east and another, a large one, on the northwest side opening through to the Pine River low 154 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 3 lands. The north branch of the Pine flows about a mile west of Gilbert Lake, but has no visible connection with it. The two ovals lie side by side but are not exactly parallel to one another the northeast ends, those nearest the lake, lying much closer to each other than the southwest ends. They are 150 feet from the water. They are nearly of the same size. Both are 2 feet high. One is 34 feet in length 15 feet wide at its southwest end and 19 feet at its northeast end. From the northeast end two peculiar protuberances project, which run out for 7 feet diagonally from each corner. They are very slight eleva- tions not over six inches in height at any point. It is proba- ble that these protuberances are due to earth slides or other causes and were not a part of the original outline of the mound. However, it was deemed best to include them in this description. They are 4 feet wide where they unite with the mound. The other is 29 feet long and 14 feet wide. The two mounds are nearly parallel to each other, their extremi- ties being 17 and 28 feet apart. These mounds are in the S. W. J4 of the N. E. 34 of section 15, town of Springwater. A copper spearpoint 4 inches long was found on the south- west corner of Gilbert Lake. On the north shore, in section 11 a grinding stone was obtained. Both of these are in the collection of Mr. J. V. Berens of Wild Rose. MUD LAKE GROUP AND GAMP SITE At the east end of Gilbert Lake is a marsh which, after a quarter of a mile broadens into a clear pond called Mud Lake. This is practically a part of Gilbert Lake for it is en- circled by the same chains of hills, kettle holes to the south, and a high ridge to the north. It is at the eastern extremity of this ridge that the mounds, reported as a "Group of 30 or more mounds on the north bank of Mud Lake," are lo- cated. They are in the S. W.Ji of the S. W. ^ of section 12. The mounds, for the most part, are strung out in a single east and west line. They are distinctly disappointing being very low, and nearly obliterated by the elements. Nor are their outlines perfect; they do not appear to have ever been so. Nearly all are from 6 to 12 inches in height. They are Indian Remains in Waushara County 155 from 4 to 23 feet apart. Only one tumulus is in any way prominent and that is only 2 feet high. Five have on their tops pits dug by local relic hunters. The group consists of 36 mounds, all conicals save one, which is oval in form. These mounds are from 10 to 19 feet in dia- meter, and the highest 1 J/ feet in elevation. At the east end of Mud Lake and just south of the east end of the row of mounds is the most extensive village site observed during the Waushara County survey. It is on the S. W. y of section 12 and on the N. W. % of section 13. The soil of the low sandy hills is littered with flakes, pot- tery and fireplace stones. Pine Lake Groups A mile and a half north of Gilbert Lake is Pine Lake, a very clear and charming body of water. On nearly all sides save the east, the cultivated fields extend to the edge of the high bank above the water. The reports of the early settlers and the extensive groups which remain show that this was one of the principal Indian habitats of the county. The cultivation of the soil has destroyed a large number of mounds. Mr. J. W. Brooks, whose farm is at the east end of the lake, states that in the early days he plowed over mounds in nearly every field and that every little way for the entire distance around Pine Lake, was a small group. The mounds are referred to by the Record as a "Group of conical and effigy mounds on east shore of Pine Lake, on the J. W. Brooks farm/on sections 1 and 2". The several groups are separated from each other by distances of from 300 to 600 feet. There are no effigies the mounds being linears, ovals and conicals. All that remain are on the east half of section 2. The bank here is a level bench 30 feet above the water. The mounds are in a beautiful grove, kept for use as a picnic ground by Mr. Brooks. At the southeast corner of the lake is a single conical 15 feet in diameter and 6 inches high. It is probable that there were other mounds in the fields to the northeast and to the southwest. In grading a few years ago, to the north- 156 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 3 east, where the road now runs, Indian bones were plowed up. GROUP "A" An eighth of a mile north of the single conical is the first group. It is west of the road, and between it and the lake. The mounds are in the brush. One mound, a linear, has been cut at one extremity by the road and its exact length cannot be determined. Thirty-six feet of it remain. One conical has been excavated. The four conical mounds are from 15 to 18 feet in diameter, the highest being 2 feet high. The linear mound is 52 feet long and 12 feet wide. The oval mounds have diameters of 36 and 12 feet. GROUP "B" The distance north from group "A" to the first mound of group "B" is 270 feet. The three conicals in this group are 12, 18 and 18 feet in diameter and the tallest 1J^ feet high. One oval mound is 10 x 21 and the other 16 x 24 feet in dia- meter. One conical has been explored. GROUP "C" (Figure 3.) The distance between group "B" and this group is 485 feet. This group consists of a large conical mound 3^ feet high and 26 feet in diameter, which has been opened, and a large linear earthwork. The linear lies northeast of the conical, Figure 3 Indian Remains in Waushara County 157 and its direction is northeast. It is the most prominent and finest mound in point of size and general condition, in Waushara County, and is 234 feet in length, 16 feet wide and 21/2 feet high. Along its northwest side for the full length and at various places along the southeast side, are depressions from which the earth used in its construction was obtained. At its southwest end is a projection which turns to the north and is 9 ^ feet in length with a width at the mound of 8 feet. The projection at the northeast end turns in an- opposite direction, or south, and runs 9 feet beyond the mound. It is 12 feet wide where it joins the mound. At various points on this mound are pits made by persons who have attempted explorations. Mr. Brooks states that nothing was found during this digging. It is to be hoped that being its owner, he will make provision for the permanent preservation of this mound. GROUP "D" Six hundred feet northwest of the conical mound of Group "C" is the first mound, a conical, of Group "D." Three mounds comprise this group, lying on a northwesterly and southeasterly line, parallel with the lake front, and about 75 feet from the water. A conical mound is 16 feet in diameter and one foot high and two oval mounds 32 by 14 and 41 by 24 feet in size and 1H feet high. As before mentioned, other groups of mounds, now des- troyed, were formerly distributed at short intervals especi- ally along the north shore of the lake. PINE LAKE CACHE At the west end of Pine Lake, a cache of flint arrowpoints was plowed up a few years ago. It is said that when placed in a bushel basket, they more than half filled it. It is also reported that Indian mounds were formerly located near the shore of a small lake west of Pine Lake, probably the small lake that is part of the Pine River. They were in the S. W. of section 3. 158 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 3 BROOKS' MOUND From Pine Lake it is but a short distance east to Twin Lake. Between the two and a little to the south is a twelve acre pond known as Hanawalt Lake. This has high shores and mounds were located near it. It is probable from Mr. Brooks' remembrances that mounds were located between the three lakes. One large mound, 4 feet high, and 50 feet in diameter was located on the shore of Twin Lake, in the N. W. J of the N. W. y of section 1. It was excavated by Messrs. Brooks and Bailey. Nine skeletons supposedly buried in a sitting pos- ture were disinterred. With them were found several flint spearheads and an iron kettle. Several copper implements have been found on sections 1 and 2, on Mr. Brooks' farm. , HANAWALT MOUNDS Southwest of Hanawalt Lake, and 150 feet from it in a grove are two mounds, one oval and one linear in form. The oval lies across the direction of the linear which runs north- west and southeast. The linear is 20 feet wide at its south- east end and only 14 feet at the northwest end. Its length is 76 feet. The oval measures 39 by 15 feet. Both mounds are quite prominent, being 2^ feet high. They are in the S. E. of the S. E. of section 2. TWIN LAKE MOUNDS The Record records the existence of "Mounds on the west shore of Twin Lake/' and "Mounds on the southwest shore of Twin Lake." Speaking of the former location, it is probable that the mounds on Mr. Brooks' farm are there referred to the one just described as having contained nine skeletons. All have now disappeared. Of the second group, no trace could be found. Inquiry from the old settlers in this region, Mr. Brooks, Mr. Bar- rington and Mr. Wilson were unproductive. None knew of Indian Remains in Waushara County 159 such a group. Nor did our investigations reveal them. It is possible that the mounds south of Hanawalt Lake are meant, for they are located southwest, though at a distance of half a mile, from Twin Lake. WILSON GROUP South of Twin Lake, distant one mile, is Long Lake, two miles in length. This is a very clear lake and its shores are of the same general character as those of the other three large lakes of this region. The Record reports the presence of "Mounds on the west and northwest shores of Long Lake." The group on the west shore is that located on the farm of Mr. Wilson, in a grove south of his house. The road cuts the west edge of the group which is located on a flat, 40 feet above the water, but rather far back from the edge of the bluff. Mr. Wilson remembers that years ago the In- dians occasionally camped here. There are five mounds in the group of which two conical mounds have been exca- vated. An oval mound is partially destroyed. It lies in the roadway and the wheeltrack has cut off the west end. The three oval mounds are arranged in a line extending northwest and southeast. Each is within 15 feet of the next. The nearest conical mound is 77 feet northeast of the largest oval. The oval mounds measure 14 x 22, 14 x 27, and 18 x 34 feet respectively and are from one to 2 feet high. The conicals are 12 and 22 feet in diameter. The highest is only 2 feet high. Forty rods northwest of this group, in what is now a rye field, there formerly was a conical mound 16 feet in diameter and 2^ feet in height. The plow has destroyed it. This was located in the N. E. J of the S. W. y of section 12. The group is in the S. W. J of the S. E. y of section 12. Both are in the town of Springwater, as are all the locations described about Gilbert, Pine, Twin, Mud and Hanawalt Lakes. Just across the arm of the lake from this group, on the same quarter section, on a sloping, sandy shore, is an Indian camp site. From this site, over the top of the hill to the south, runs a trail, which comes out on a level plain, sandy and low, 160 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 3 half a mile distant from the first site. Here is another large camp site and in the N. W. J4 of the N. E. y of section 13. As no other mounds were known to exist on this end of the lake by Mr. W. L. Wilson, who has lived here all his life, and on whose land those described are found, it is probable that the group and the single mound described, are those referred to by the record as, "Mounds on the west and northwest shores of Long Lake." BUTTON MOUND AND CACHES No other mounds are found about this lake, save one, an oval 17 by 29 feet in size and 2 feet high, located in a scrub- oak wood. It is a long distance back from the lake on land covered with boulders. It was explored by Mr. L. A. But- ton on whose land it is. Nothing was found, though several large stones were found to be component parts of the mound. It is located on the S. E. J4 of the N. E. y of section 7, town of Saxeville. The major portion of Long Lake is situated in that town. The Record notes the presence of "Mounds on the south and southeast shore of Long Lake." Search was made for these but they were not found. Inquiry of the owner of the lands brought the information that there were mounds there, or he supposed they were mounds for there were shallow holes on the hills 10 rods south of the lake shore and 20 rods west of the road which skirts the east end of the lake. These were found and proved to be caches or storage pits. There are three groups, none large. One group, for example, lying on a prominent knoll consists of six pits arranged in the shape of a diamond. They average five feet across and are from one to one and a half feet in depth. Near these caches are what appear to be the remains of a plot of Indian corn hills. In the sandy soil they had little chance to remain and are nearly obliterated. These pits and corn hills are in the S. E. K of the S. E. 1/4 of section 7, town of Saxeville. A copper spearpoint was found by Mr. Button on his farm and subsequently disposed of to W. A. Radley of Rural. Indian Remains in Waushara County 161 SAXEVILLE CAJMP SITE From Long Lake, we journeyed southward. At the village of Saxeville, a small place in section 30, town of Saxeville, inquiries were made which established the fact that within the memory of the older inhabitants. Indians had camped along Pine Creek in this section. No Indian remains were found. PINE RIVER CAMP SITE AND CEMETERY Following the valley of the Pine southeast from Saxeville an Indian camp site was found on the N. W. y of section 32, town of Saxeville. This is near a spring. An old Indian cemetery is reported to exist on a hill on the N. W. 14 of section 26 and the N. E. y of section 27. This hill is on the main trail which ran northwest through the county. It passed through Auroraville and northwest to Pine River and Saxeville. At Saxeville a branch ran north to Pine and Long Lakes. Here it must have branched to the south for it entered Sand Prairie near Red Granite. The main road northwest from Auroraville follows the line of the old trail. POYSIPPI CAMP SITE AND CEMETERY Two miles southeast of Pine River we examined some alleged mounds which proved to be sand hills. In 1903, Mr. F. M. Benedict reported the existence of an Indian camp site at Poysippi. From it he collected a consid- erable number of potsherds then in his collection. Information was obtained of an Indian cemetery which is located on the S. W. y of the S. E. J of section 7, town of Poysippi. This is on the side of a very rocky hill and is overgrown with a mass of intertwined hazel and other bushes. Indian burials have been made here in recent years. 162 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 3 AURORAVILLE MOUNDS AND CAMP SITES No further Indian records were obtained until Auroraville was reached. Mr. F. Clark, a pioneer in this section, fur- nished information of the local antiquities and their loca- tions. Three mounds, now obliterated, were located on the S. E. J4 of the S. E. J4 of section 6. Two were just north of the highway, which here runs east and west for a quarter of a mile, and one was south of it. Northwest of these mounds, distant a quarter of a mile, was a site where the Indians made pottery, mixing broken clam shells with clay. This was on the S. W. }4 of section 6. Just north of the present cemetery, on the same section as the other locations, was another mound. Mr. Clark assisted in excavating it. No human bones or implements were found. East of the village on the south bank of Willow Creek, in the N. W. Y of section 8, there was once a row of conical mounds. The exact number could not be learned. Indian garden beds were once located on both sides of Willow creek for a mile northwest and a mile east from Auroraville. They occurred even on the tops of hills. Their general direction was nearly north and south. All of these locations were in the town of Aurora. Inquiries made in sections 33 and 34 failed to discover the several groups of mounds mentioned as existing "on the north bank of the Fox River in the southeast corner of the Township." It is possible that they may occur farther to the east near the Winnebago County line. The Fox, in Waushara County flows through low lands, marshy and swampy, with an oc- casional sand hill near the stream. If there are any mounds in this region they are probably located at a considerable dis- tance from the water. TUSTJN MENOMINEE VILLAGE Louis B. Porlier reports the location of a Menominee In- dian village at Tustin, on the northwest shore of Lake Poygan, between 1830 and 1848 (XV. W. H. C., p. 445). Two Conical Mounds, Weyneth Group Plate 11 Indian Remains in Waushara County 163 SUMMARY. VILLAGE \ND CAMP SITES The total number of evidences of this class in Waushara County is 49. These are found principally along two lines running north and south through the county. The first hypothetical line is in the western part of the county, ex- tending from the Mecan River north through Fish Lake to Plainfiejd and Huron Lakes. The second, which contains by far the greater portion of antiquities of this county, is the hill and lake region extending through the central portion. More than 40 of the camp sites are in this area. Of the entire number of village sites located, the greater number are of minor importance. Others exhibited traces of occupancy by considerable populations for long periods of time. Of these there are nine of which seven may be said to be very large and important. The two least extensive of the nine are the village site on Hill's Lake in Springwater Township, and the one at Auroraville. Of the other seven, three are on the western line, namely the site at the head of the Mecan, the Fish and Pine Lake site and the region about- Lake Huron. Of the three on the other line the most important is located in the Gilbert, Pine and Long Lake region in Spring- water Township. The other two are the Mt. Morris site and that at Silver Cryst. The seventh location is at the White River Mills, on a line between Silver Cryst and Fish Lakes and about equally distant from each. This last is at the west- ern edge of the dune and morainic hill region. These large sites are designated by a "V" on the map of the county. GARDEN BEDS Signs of aboriginal cultivation were few in number, nearly all having disappeared. This is accounted for by the light unstable soil found throughout the regions formerly frequent- ed by the Indian. Only one plot of any extent was located, that at Wild Rose, and these beds are now very indistinct. 164 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 3 ENCLOSURES In Waushara County there still exist at least five "en- closures." A sixth, now destroyed, was formerly situated on the shore of Hill's Lake. Of the five remaining, three are in perfect condition. Of the others, one has lost one side, a wheel track cutting across it. The causes of the partial destruction of the other, at Lake Huron, is not known. The dimensions of the Waushara County enclosures are here given: Length Width of wall. Proportion of length to breadth Mt. Morris . 66 by 32 feet 10 to 12 feet 2 White Mills 60 by 39 feet 7 feet 3 Fish Lake (outer) 120 by 81 feet 8 feet 3 Fish Lake (inner) 56 by 26 feet 8 feet 2 Lake Huron "A" 160 by 57 feet 11 feet 3 Lake Huron "B" 85 by 53 feet 6 feet 3 In the case of most of these, slight depressions, lying alongside the ridges, were observable. From these came the dirt used in forming the ridges. All the enclosures have the long diameter pointing to the body of water near which they are found. In only one, "B" at Lake Huron, was there more than a suggestion of an opening found, but in this instance the larger part of the eastern end was devoid of the earthern ridge. Of all the Waushara enclosures, the most interesting is that on Fish Lake. This is the one with the concentric embank- ments. Both are well defined and, save for the dense thicket of second growth timber in which they lie, very easily traced. All these enclosures are noticeable for their rectangular outlines, which however are rounded off at the corners. All were very evenly constructed as to width of wall, but this width varied greatly in the different enclosures, not even being inversely in proportion to the size of the ring. From a study of these enclosures made in the field, it would appear that they mark the sites of council houses, or of other buildings. The earthern ridge is probably what remained of the dirt heaped up at the bottom of the logs of the side walls, to hold them erect, a practice common among Indian Remains in Waushara County 165 Indians. With the decay or destruction of these wooden buildings, the earth, under the influence of rain, frost and wind, would gradually spread and assume the form of an em- bankment. CONICA.L MOUNDS By far the greater number of the mounds of this region are conical in form. While many single specimens were found and a few small groups, fully four-fifths were located in three large groups or areas. These areas are the Mud Lake region, the Fish and Pine Lake locality and those at the head of the Mecan. Over one half of all the conicals are in the last two regions; and it should be noted that with these oc- cur very few ovals or linears. The average conical mound is small, about 16 feet in diameter with an average height of less than two feet. The highest conical mound is on the northwest shore of Silver Cryst. It is 8 feet in height. Near- ly all of these mounds save those at the Head of the Mecan have been excavated. Little is known of their former con- tents. OVAL MOUNDS Forty-seven oval mounds were located. Of these some, noticeably those in the large group at Fish Lake, are merely misformed conicals. It is probable that many if not all of the ovals recorded are tumuli. The two at Gilbert Lake contained buiials. The largest oval mound in the county is in the Hill group, being 40 by 20 feet in size. The highest, 3 feet high, is on the north shore of Silver Cryst Lake. LINEAR MOUNDS There are seventeen earthworks of this class in the county. Not all are of uniform width. Many have a slight taper. One in point is a mound on Lake Huron in the Smith Group. This is the second largest linear in the county, being 90 feet in length. At one end its width is 16 feet, at the other 13. The diminution is gradual, there not being the noticeable jog such as is found in club-shaped linears described below. 166 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 3 The largest straight linear, 234 feet long and 16 feet wide is in the Brooks' group. This also the largest of all mounds in the county with the exception of the club-shaped linear in the Krushki group. Its greatest width is 28 feet. The length of the club-shaped linear in the Weber group is 333 feet. The question as to the significance of the club-shaped linears is closely connected with that of the origin and pur- pose of the linear mounds. Some archeolo'gists now contend that the many linear earthworks are conventionalized effigies. This seems most plausible for several intermediate stages, of which the club-shaped linear would be one, can be traced. CEMETERIES Few Indian cemeteries have been found in this county. The absence of these may be accounted for by the character of the soil. Sand and sand loam, the main constituents of Waushara soil, make surface burial easy. The bodies of the dead would therefore be placed at some little depth. Mod- ern cultivation, which is almost invariably responsible for the discovery of prehistoric remains would not therefore bring them to light. In light soil the plow is not permitted to cut deep; subsoil tillage is not desired. IMPLEMENTS A wealth of copper implements has been found in the Waushara sands. More than 500 pieces of large size have been collected. No one was found who knew anything of the discovery of the copper discs' which are listed -in the Smithsonian Collections as from this county. Numerous flint and other stone implements have been collected but few of these have as yel found their way into public collections in Wisconsin, a loss to the state which present residents of the county should remedy. Results of the Survey In this county a total of 332 mounds have been located all of which save 11, which were located by settlers, still remain. Indian Remains in Waushara County 167 One entire group has disappeared and the number of mounds it contained is not known. Forty-nine camp and village sites, 2 spirit stones, 6 enclosures, 4 tracts of garden beds and 2 cemeteries were found. To these should be added one camp site and 8 mounds reported on at Lake Washburn in Portage County. Several groups of caches and other minor archeological features were also found. While linear and oval earthworks are found in the greatest numbers on the eastern or morainic line of location, the 'west- ern is not without representatives. Of the club-shaped linear mounds Waushara County contains a number of specimens. Unfortunately some of these have been mutilated and their original lengths can only be approximated. There are four perfect specimens, two in the Krushki, one in the Town Hall groups on Lake Huron and one at Fish Lake. These mounds present an appearance more than club like. A better description of them would be, that they are oval mounds with tails attached. The prominent end does not taper gradually into the tail. Note those at Fish Lake, the Town Hall and the Lake Washburn mounds. The largest mound of this character in the county is in the last named group. It is 256 feet long; its companion, paral- leling it, is 198 feet in length. The Town Hall mound is 173 feet long. 168 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 3 ARCHAEOLOGICAL NOTES On September 4, Labor Day, a joint meeting of the Madison members of the Wisconsin Archeological Society and of the Sauk County Historical Society was held at Devils Lake state park. On this occasion a fine bronze marker, the gift of Vice-president H. E. Cole of Baraboo, was un- veiled on the large bird effigy mound located at Kirkland on the south- eastern shore of the lake. Mr. William Dawson of Madison delivered the unveiling address which was of a most interesting character. The tablet was unveiled by Miss Izero Virginia English of Baraboo, who recited an appropriate poem when removing the flag with which it was covered. Mr. F. B. Moody of Madison, a member of the State Conservation Commis- sion, accepted the marker in behalf of the state. Other speakers were Mr. Cole, Dr. Milo M. Quaife, superintendent of the State Historical Society, Mrs. G. W. Dexheimer of Fort Atkinson, Rev. Mr. Stanley E. Lathrop and Secretary Brown. Mr. Brown and Mrs. Dexheimer appealed to the members of the societies represented at the meeting to assist in urging the purchase by that city of the interesting intaglio mound located at Fort Atkinson. An illustrated leaflet, printed by Mr. Cole, descriptive of the geology history and archaeology of the Devils Lake region was distributed among those present at the meeting. About one hundred persons were in attendance, among whom were in addition to the speakers: Prof. A. S. Flint, Mrs. Jessie R. Skinner, Mr. and Mrs. W. P. Morgan, Mrs. E. C. Wiswall, Mrs. B. H. Dengel, Mr. J. R. Heddle, Mr. and Mrs. Rufus B. Smith, Mrs. C. W. Bird, Mr. 0. D. Brandenburg, Prof, and Mrs. S. H. Goodnight, Prof, and Mrs. F. D. Crawshaw and Mr. and Mrs. O. C. Gillett, of Madison; Misses Emma and Grace Richmond, Lodi; Miss Minna M. Kunkell, Milwaukee; Mr. G. W. Dexheimer, Fort Atkinson; Mr. and Mrs. L. \Vright and Mrs. N. H. Winchester, Reedsburg; Mr. and Mrs. John Fabry, North Freedom, Mr. and Mrs. L. H. Palmer, Mr. V. S. Pease and many others from Baraboo. The bird effigy which the societies have marked is a nne specimen of its class, with bent wings and a forked tail. A plat of it was made by the pio- neer antiquarian, William H. Canfield of Baraboo, in about the year 1875. The length of its body is about 115 feet and its wingspread about 240 feet. A portion of the tip of one wing was destroyed when the hotel at Kirkland was erected some years ago. As this mound is visited each year by thousands of persons its marking has long been desired. Mr. Cole is deserving of the thanks of all members of both societies for his great generosity in providing this fine marker, which is mounted on a concrete base. . At this year's State Fair a quite extensive exhibit of agricultural products of school and industrial work was made by the Indian people of seven Wis- Archeological Notes 169 consin Indian reservations, and of Indian schools located elsewhere in the state. It was of a very creditable character and was in charge of Mr. J. W. Dady of Red Cliff. The present total Indian population of Wisconsin is 10,142. The per- centage of Indians of full blood is 55 and of mixed blood 45. There are 2,791 children of school age of whom 2,000 are attending school. Members are requested to acquaint their friends and others who may be interested, with the character of the publications of the Wisconsin Archeological Society, the titles of these and the prices at which they may be purchased of the Secretary. Many persons who may not be able to become members may nevertheless desire to add to their libraries the publications describing the Indian history and antiquities of their particu- lar county or of other counties. Their value is well known. If present members Mill undertake to thus advertise our publications the finances of the Society will no doubt be greatly assisted. In a circular letter issued shortly after his recent election President Joseph Ringeisen of Milwaukee called attention to the^ desire of the Exe- cutive Board to greatly increase the present membership of the Society. With this letter .there were enclosed several application blanks to be used in securing new members. Among the present members who have al- ready deserved the thanks of the society for thus assisting are the Messrs. W. A. Phillips, H. 0. Younger, L. R. Whitney, Dr. E. D. Pierce, and Mrs. E. C. Wiswall. We trust that during the autumn and winter months a large number of additional new members may be secured through the assistance of our friends located throughout the state and in other states. Each member should feel it a duty to secure at least one new member. Mr. George R. Fox, until recently curator of the historical museum of the Nebraska Historical Society, has been appointed curator of the Cham- berlain Memorial Museum at Three Oaks, Michigan, recently founded by Mr. and Mrs. Edward K. Warren, honored members of the Wisconsin Archeological Society. Mr. Fox has also been made director of the Warren Foundation, which controls a large forest and broad stretch of sand dune country, which is to be preserved to the people of that state. We are informed that the City of Fort Atkinson has contributed $300.00 toward the $500.00 required for the purchase and permanent preserva- tion in a public park of the famous intaglio effigy mound located on the Rock River road just outside of the city limits. Other organizations and individuals have contributed smaller amounts and the whole amount of- money required will probably soon be obtained. This action of the city was taken in by Mayor Hagar and the city council in response to a united request of the local D. A. R. and other prominent citizens and of the Wis- consin Archeological Society, State Historical Society and Sauk County Historical Society. Mrs. G. W. Dexheimer of Fort Atkinson is deser ing of great praise for her activity and interest in bringing this about. It is proposed to erect a fine metal'marker on the mound. 170 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 3 This intaglio is the last existing example of eleven similar aboriginal monuments formerly located at Milwaukee, Pewaukee, Theresa, Baraboo and Fort Atkinson. It is in the shape of a "panther" but is excavated out of the soil instead of being constructed upon it. It was discovered and first described by Dr. I. A. Lapham in his Antiquities of Wisconsin, pub- lished in 1855. A description of the Wisconsin intaglios and of the efforts previously made to secure the preservation of the Fort Atkinson example is given in the January, 1910, issue of the Wisconsin Archeologist. At the ^isconsin State Fair (September 11-16) an exhibit illustrating the work of its various departments was made by the State Historical Society in connection with the exhibits of the University of Wisconsin, in the new grandstand building. In this exhibit a new mound map of Wisconsin prepared by the Wiscon- sin Archeological Society, sets of its publications and some Indian stone and metal implements from the collections of the State Historical Museum were also shown. Although the first ever made by the State Historical Society this exhibit was a great success being visited by hundreds of friends and of other visit- ors. Recently elected members of the Wisconsin Archeological Society are Mr. Sydney C. Jackson, Sister M. Fedelia, Mr. John R. Heddle, Miss Louise P. Kellogg, and Mrs. B. H. Dengel of Madison; Dr. H. L. Tilsner, Mr. Fred Swenson, Mr. William Haertel, and Mr. Louis Allerding of Mil- waukee; Mr. W. A. Bucholtz, Appleton; Mr. Alfred Jungmann, West' Allis; Mr. Edward Herziger, Thiensville and Mr. N. E. Carter, Elkhorn. During the month of October the regular monthly meetings of the So- ciety, discontinued during the summer months, will be resumed. Meet- ings will lie held in the trustee room in the Milwaukee Public Museum on the evening of the third Monday of each month. State members are requested to so time their visits to Milwaukee as to be able to attend at least one of these meetings.. Interesting archaeological materials intended for exhibition at any of these meetings may be sent in the care of President Ringeisen. The annual University of Wisconsin summer session excursion to the archaeological and historical sites about Lake Mendota occurred on July 15, 115 students participating. Secretary Brown conducted the excursion, . being assisted by Professor Albert S. Flint, and Miss Louise Phelps Kel- logg. For the information of summer session students a new illustrated leaflet describing the Indian history and remains of Lake Wingra was issued. For this there was a large call but few copies remaining on hand at the session's close. The Secretary is informed by Commissioner F. B. Moody that the new Point Lookout road to be built in Marquette state park will be so Archeological Notes 171 constructed as to wind in and out among the remarkable "procession" of linear and other Indian mounds on the ridge crest overlooking the Mississippi River. It can thus be readily viewed by automobile tourists and other visitors to the park. One of these interesting earthworks was marked with a metal tablet during the State Assembly held by the Society at Prairie du Chien, in September 2930, 1911. During the summer visits were made to Madison by Mr. and Mrs. J. M. Pyott and Mr. and Mrs. W. R. Folsom, both of Chicago. They were taken by the Secretary to view some of the fine groups of Indian mounds about the local lakes. Both gentlemen have been members of the Society for a number of years. Mr. H. E. Cole and Mr. H. A. Smythe, Jr. have been conducting some further investigations in Adams County. Mr.' Ira M. Buell has been mak- ing re-surveys of the antiquities at the state line, near Beloit. At Carcajou on the Lake Koshkonong shore, Mr. H. L. Skavlem has placed a huge boulder on the village site of the noted Wisconsin Winne- bago chief Kau-ray-kaw-saw-kaw (White Crow) and with his own hands carved thereon a memorial inscription to this friend of the early white settlers. It is proposed to dedicate this monument by an automobile pilgrimage to the lake, during October, of members and friends of the Wisconsin Archeological Society from Madison, Janesville, Beloit and Fort Atkinson. Copper Banner Stone, Jos. Ringciscn, Jr. Collection THE WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Quarterly Bulletin Published by the Wisconsin Archeological Society Vol. 15 MADISON, WIS., DECEMBER, 1916 No. 4 GRANT COUNTY INDIAN REMAINS Charles E. Brown and Albert 0. Barton In August, 1911, with Mr. R. W. Winterbotham as an associate, we undertook an examination of that part of Grant County lying between Platteville and Potosi and as far south as Dickeyville and the mouth of the Platte River. The principal streams in this region are the Platte and Little Platte Rivers, the latter stream uniting with the former in section 17 of Paris Township. Both flow in a general southerly and southeasterly direction to the Mississippi. Both are fed along their entire course by numerous creeks or * 'branches" as they are here called. We were informed that in the early days of settlement the region between the present site of Platteville and the Platte River was largely a prairie, the region west of the river and between it and the Mississippi being rough and densely wooded. Today the lands lying west of Platteville and between the Platte, Rivers are largely under cultivation fine farms occupying the river valleys and uplands. Except along the Mississippi there were no large Indian villages, the region being largely occupied by roving bands of Indians engaged in lead mining. The Platte Rivers were not navigable by canoe for more than a short distance above their mouths at any time. Having no previous acquaintance with this archaeologic- ally unexplored region and almost no clues upon which to begin work several days were devoted by ourselves to inter- viewing early settlers and others who were likely to possess 178 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 4 information of a helpful nature. During this time we were able to examine the collections of Mr. Charles Grindell and Mr. David Gardner of Platteville, the two principal collec- tors of archaeological materials. Both collections are of small size that of Mr. Grindell consisting very largely of chert implements purchased by him from the finders. Of these only a few and a single grooved stone axe of ordinary form were obtained in the region of our investigations. These were from the vicinity of Rountree Branch at Platteville. The remainder of the collection came from sites near Hazel Green and Sinsinawa in a region lying between that examined by ourselves and the Illinois state line. Some of these pieces are elsewhere referred to. Mr. Gardner's specimens came from an Indian camp site on the Gardner farm near Platteville. A small number of stone axes and celts and chert imple- ments have also been found by others in Platteville, these being recovered during the grading of streets, the cultiva- tion of gardens and the erection of buildings. The region appears to be rather poverty stricken in both the- number and variety of the Indian implements found. Copper implements are of rare occurrence. The stone orna- ments and ceremonial forms found elsewhere in southern Wisconsin appear to be almost unknown here. Of trade materials made of iron, or of other materials, none were seen by ourselves. In conducting our researches we had to contend with all of the difficulties which generally beset explorers in a region of whose topography they have no personal knowledge. The nature of the work and to a certain extent the character of the country made it necessary that we travel largely on foot, which we did carrying with us our shelter tent, survey- ing instruments, mess kits and provisions. Following the banks of the streams was often a matter of difficulty be- cause of the absence of roads, and the swamps and brush and weed overgrown bottoms made wide detours often necessary. Quite steep ridge sides had occasionally to be climbed to learn something of the nature of the country on the other side or ahead. Of a large number of persons interviewed but very few could furnish any information or clues of value. Indian cemeteries and mounds reported to us frequently proved Grant County Indian Remains 179 to be tree falls, old mining dumps or natural elevations. Some fields which we traversed, which might have shown signs of Indian occupation, were occupied by farm crops or by grassy pastures. The weather wa$ hot and sultry and the country roads very dusty, these adding to our discom- forts. After conducting researches in other parts of Wisconsin where well marked village and camp sites are to be found on the banks of every stream we could not but be disappointed with the very meagre evidences of this character found along the Platte Rivers. Along the Mississippi in the region in- vestigated evidences of early Indian occupation are much more common on both the bottom lands and ridge crests. A small number of sites of which we did not learn until too late to be visited remain to be reported on by future explora- tion parties. INDIAN EVIDENCES AND HISTORY Platteville Township Winnebago Camp Site. In an early day the Winnebago Indians camped on a spring branch on the old Rountree farm, now occupied by a part of the city of Platteville. A trail led from this place up the branch to the Little Platte River. Potawatomie Camp. In 1851 or 1852 when the Potawa- tomie Indians were being removed by the Government from Wisconsin to their Kansas reservation, they camped for several days on the Dubuque road near the southwest limits of Platteville (S. W. J, S. W. y of Sec. 15). There are said to have been about 800 of these people in the camp. They had wigwams with them and travelled in government wagons. Platteville Cache. A cache or hoard of a large number of chert blanks was found in an early day in what is now Carter's Addition to the city of Platteville. It was dis- turbed by a Mr. Bell in clearing land for the location of a brickyard. There are reported to have been nearly two bushels of these blanks. 180 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 4 This information was given to Mr. James W. Murphy of Platteville, our informant, by Mr. Christopher Bell, son of the finder. No further data concerning this deposit is ob- tainable. Rountree Branch Camp Site. Indications of an Indian camp site were found on a piece of cultivated land located on the south side of Rountree Branch (S. W. % Section 16) and between it and the road to Dickeyville. The attempt to locate traces of Indian occupation along the banks of the Branch, a tributary of the Little Platte, was futile be- cause part of the land was not under cultivation at the time of our visit. The part lying within the city limits of Platteville is now occupied by streets and houses. Loomis Camp Site (N. W. J, N. W. J, Sec. 16). On the G. F. Loomis place on the Potosi road indications of a camp site were found. This place lies on the bank of the Little Platte River just beyond the Platteville city limits. The camp site is indicated in a cultivated field. The indications of Indian industry found here consist of scattered flakes and fragments of the local gray chert, fragments of cord-marked earthenware and hearth stones. A few chips of flint of a pinkish color were also noted. Mrs. Loomis has a small stone celt of ordinary form and two well chipped chert knives which were found on this site. Cordes Lead Diggings. The Indians mined lead on the Cordes farm in Section 16. This land is located on the south side of Rountree Branch and is now within the Platteville city limits. The Indian lead workings at this place consisted of burrows dug into the base of the hill near the waters edge. This information was obtained from Mr. J. D. Gardner of Platteville. Junction Camp Site (N. E. J, Section 17). On the top of a point of land just west of Platteville a few broken arrow- points and blanks, numerous chert flakes, chips and frag- ments and scattered stones from Indian hearths were found in a small cornfield. The chert employed in implement making on this site was largely that obtainable in the lime- stone deposits of this section of Grant County. A few chips and flakes of a fine reddish and of a bluish gray chert foreign to this locality were also obtained. / v\^ '* " - I , I I 125 Osceola Bluff Group Plate 1 Grant County Indian Remains 181 The narrow point of land upon which these evidences were found is hemmed in on one side by the valley of Rountree Branch and on the other by the valley of a spring brook. It is elevated from 75 or 80 feet above the adjoining low- lands. Bell Lead Diggings (N. E. J^, Section 17). According to Mr. Gardner, Indian lead diggings were also formerly lo- cated on the Bell property on Rountree Branch, where the Big Jack mine was afterwards located. This place is almost directly opposite the point of land upon which is located the camp site just described. Doubtless the Indians camped there while gophering for the ore. Mr. Joshua Woodhouse, an early settler, was clearing the land for the erection of a lime kiln when he found an Indian dump upon which large trees were then growing. This was before 1860. In the hill- side near it were burrows or tunnels from which the refuse rock and earth had been thrown. Slight evidences of these still remain. From the dump Mr. Woodhouse "sluiced out" lead to the value of about one hundred dollars. Gardner Camp Site (W. J^, Sec. 21). An Indian camp site is located on the Gardner farm about 1^ miles southwest of Platteville. This place is located on a spring creek, now dry, tributary to the^ittle Platte. A large number of flint implements have been found on this place. Mr. David Gardner, a resident of Platteville, is the owner of a considerable number of these which he per- mitted us to examine. These show quite a range of form but do not differ from the classes of such implements found else- where in southern Wisconsin. Some of the knives and spear- points are of quite large size, and of fine workmanship. The largest implement, a knife made of light brown chert, is 7^2 inches long. Several knives and points are made of light brown quartzite a particular quality of this material which does not occur in situ within less than one hundred miles of this region. Not a few other specimens are made of chert which is credited by archeologists to Illinois sources. A single bevelled chert spearpoint occurred in this collecton. Little Platte Camp Site. We made an examination of the valley of the Little Platte River beginning at the city quarry about \Y^ miles northeast of Platteville and continuing 182 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15. No 4 down to what is known as the "Backbone" not far from the mouth of Rountree Branch. Our search was but poorly re- warded. Over a greater part of the distance no traces of Indian occupation were found. The stream itself is narrow from 30 to 50 feet wide. It flows between high sloping banks which at the time of our visit were largely under cultivation, with here and there a few acres of pasture land with a few scattered trees. At several places along the bank are limestone exposures'. In some of these are narrow veins of grayish chert identical in character with that found on some of the local camp sites. The widest of these veins are several inches thick. Scattered chert chips and fragments and a few small fragments of pottery were found in a cornfield on the east bank of the Little Platte River, in the N. E. y of the S. W. Y of Sec. 9. Nearly all of the chert appeared to be that obtainable near this locality. Several chips of a reddish chert were found. From a field on the opposite side of the river (S. E. Y of Sec. 8) a few chert arrowpoints have been collected. Young Branch Camp Site (N. E. J, S. E. M Sec. 7). Indications of chert-working occur in a cultivated field on the top of a high bluff on the east side of Young Branch near its junction with the Little Platte. Some chert arrow- points have been found here and in the valley below by boys from the farms in the vicinity. > The Branch is a small stream, at the time of our visit only about 30 feet wide, with high hills on either side. We were taken to see some supposed Indian mounds in a hillside pasture on the Ed. Steinhoff place on the opposite side of the stream. These proved to be only tree falls. A few arrowpoints have been picked up on the cultivated lands on this farm. Tufa Falls Furnace. An Indian smelting furnace was formerly located on the point of a ridge at the place known as Tufa Falls, on a branch of Blockhouse Creek, near the center of Section 32. This primitive furnace is said to have consisted of a hopper-shaped hole lined with stone and hav- ing stone grates upon which the lead ore was heaped and covered with burning wood. A hole in the side of the Grant County Indian Remains 183 hopper furnished a draught. The melted lead dropped into the hopper. Mr. J. W. Murphy of Platteville furnished this informa- tion. The Indian miners are reported to have transported their lead by canoe, wrapped in blankets, to the mouth of the Big Platte where it was purchased by the traders. They were very careful not to disclose the locations of their diggings. Harrison Township Whig Hollow Camp. We traversed the valley of Whig Hollow, through which courses a small stream tributary to the Little Platte, but could learn of the location of no arche- ological evidences in that locality. Arrowpoints, presumably lost during early Indian hunting or other expeditions, have beer found in the cultivated fields on the ridge-tops above the valley. This narrow valley is a very beautiful one. The ridge sides except for an occasional small clearing are still clothed with groves of walnut and other trees. The Branch, a clear, spring-fed stream, courses through the valley being crossed and recrossed by a rough wagon road. At intervals along this valley small houses and barns are found on the ridge side or near its base. Corn fields of small extent are in the valley near these dwellings. During the summer of 1912 a party of Winnebago In- dians camped at the mouth of the Branch. There were three young men and their wives and one old Indian in this party. They were engaged in gathering root and herb medicines which they sold to the white inhabitants of the district. They lived in bark and rush covered wigwams. These Indians are reported to have come from the vicinity of Lancaster. Little Platte Camp Site. Indications of a stone age camp and workshop site were found in a gently sloping pasture on the eastern bank of the Little Platte River, at the base of a high ridge, at a distance of about one-half mile below the mouth of Whig Hollow. The evidences of Indian occu- pation in this field were more plentiful than on any other site visited by our party since leaving Platteville. Chert refuse was very plentiful among the grass roots and in a 184 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 4 number of runnels worn into the surface of the field by water pouring down from the ridge side above during wet weather. Among this refuse of the arrowmakers several chert flake scrapers of the common form, the tangs and points of broken arrows, chert blanks, and numbers of hearth stones were found. Several of the blanks were about 4 inches in length. The hearthstones were of limestone and were burned to a red color by the action of fire. The chert employed here almost entirely was of the gray variety occurring in the local limestone. Chips and flakes of some dark-bluish gray and pinkish chert weie also found, these indicating by their presence that the inhabitants had trade intercourse with distant tribes or camps, probably in Illinois. Along one side of this camp site is a rivulet which has its source in a fine spring on the ridge-side. The presence of this spring probably had much to do with the location of a camp at this place. This rivulet flows into the river. Beyond it is a tract of cultivated bottom land in which, however, no traces of Indian occupation were found. Hemming in this site on its north side is a narrow strip of land overgrown with young trees. The river bank along the front is elevated from 20 to 25 feet above the water, which at this point is quite deep. Along a portion of this frontage is a fringe of young trees. On the opposite side of the stream are many acres of bottom lands at present overgrown with a jungle of young trees, shrubs and tall weeds. The camp site as at present exposed is less than two acres in extent and about 400 feet wide near the river bank. We were informed that this site is on land owned by one John Reisic. Potosi Township Osceola Bluff Group (Section 10, Plate 1.) A group of mounds is .located on the crest of a ridge known locally as Osceola Bluff, at a distance of slightly over one mile south of La Fayette, the C. B. & Q. R. R. station, near Potosi. This wooded ridge fronts on the river road, and on this side is quite steep. Near its top are limestone rock exposures which are nearly perpendicular, and which would make very difficult and indeed impossible, an ascent from this side. Ascent to the crest is gained by the tongue at the western end Grant County Indian Remains 185 of the ridge. The top of the ridge is also very rocky the stone being exposed in places and elsewhere covered with a few inches or several feet of soil. It was overgrown at the time of our visit on August 5, with sumac and other brush and a small number of trees. We had no means of correctly esti- mating the height of this ridge. It must be 500 feet high at least above the river bottom lands. From its top a beautiful view is obtained over the Grant and Mississippi river bottom lands to the Mississippi and the Iowa bluffs beyond. A view up the river can be had as far north as Wyalusing and down the river as far as Dubuque. This view repays one for the rather arduous climb. The mounds, nine in number are conical in form and from 1 to 3 feet in height. All appear to be built of black soil, which, as there is and probably never was, sufficient soil on the crest, had to be carried from places on the ridge side or from the bottoms below, a task requiring a large amount of time and labor. The character of this group may be learned from the accompanying plat. The two largest of the mounds are 25 and the two smallest 17 feet in diameter. Between the main group and the single conical on the point of the crest a possible linear mound is indicated. The present elevation and outline of this mound is now too indefinite for accurate determination of its char- acter. Nearly all of these mounds have been dug into by local curiosity seekers. The location of these earthworks is such that even in their present mutilated condition unless wantonly destroyed they should persist for centuries. Osceola LaFayette Village Sites and Mounds (Sec. 10). In a sandy field at the base of and across the road from Osceola Bluff are evidences of an Indian camp site. These are largely confined to the higher land along the western edge of the field at a distance of about 500 feet from the base of the bluff. On a knoll in the southwest corner of this field fire- place stones, potsherds, broken chert blanks, and refuse of the arrowmakers were scattered about in profusion. Be- tween this field and the C. B. & Q. R. R. right-of-way is another field, at the time of our visit occupied by a cornfield. In this field but little evidence of aboriginal occupation was found. On the opposite side of the track and between it and the bank of Grant River is a narrow strip of sandy land, in 186 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 4 many places not over 75 feet in width in which traces of Indian life and industry were most numerous. This site extends from this place along the track toward La Fayette station for nearly one-half mile. Small portions of it are under cultivation. Everywhere on this tract indications of stone age camps are very numerous. From the chert refuse it was determined that most of the material which was of a gray color had been obtained by the natives from local sources. Some blue hornstone, probably procured in In- diana or Illinois, brown chalcedony from points west of the Mississippi and other finer grades of chert obtainable in Illinois, were observed among the refuse. These evidences were most numerous on a piece of land from which sand had been hauled for use at Potosi. Pottery fragments were especially common here. On this particular field several conical mounds are reported to have been formerly located. Traces of them could still be seen. These were excavated by Potosi parties, human remains being found in each. Several burials made in ordinary graves were also exposed here in digging sand. Large numbers of chert implements and a few stone celts have been recovered by collectors here and elsewhere on^this site. Grant River Camp Sites (Sees. 11, 14, and 24). In various fields lying between the C. B. & Q. R. R. right-of-way and the bank of Grant River camp sites were located. One of these was near track section post No. 6, and another near the mouth of a creek tributary to the Grant, in Section 14. In some fields grain was being grown and in these no observa- tions could be made. The chert refuse to be found along the edges of some of these fields cut by the right-of-way told the story of the past location of camps there. The quality of the chert found on these places was the same as that obtained on the site near La Fayette. The Grant is here a very pretty stream its banks being fringed in places with tall rows of willows and other trees. The wooded Mississippi bottom lands beyond have been and are still the retreats of raccoons and other small animals, and wild fowl. Fish of many species are numerous in the river, sloughs and small lakes. Cedarbrook Mound (S. ^, Sec. 24). On the top of a ridge overlooking the Grant and Mississippi bottoms a single Grant River Bluff Group No. 1 Plate 2 Grant County Indian Remains 187 linear mound is located. This ridge top is occupied by the John Flagel farm, formerly known as the Cedarbrook farm. The mound is 95 feet long and has a uniform width of 8 feet. It is located in a pasture and is not very conspicuous being only from 1 to 1J/2 feet high. It is crossed near one extremity by a farm road. The other was hidden in a sumac thicket. No other earthworks were found on this ridge-top whch is almost entirely under cultivation. A cave on the side of this ridge is thought to be an old Indian lead mine. The front of this bluff along the railroad track is precipitous and rocky. Potosi Lead Diggings. The Indians mined for lead on the ridge sides and elsewhere at Potosi. Lumps of melted lead were formerly occasionally found by boys on the ridge tops. According to several old settlers of this vicinity the method which j,hey frequently employed in smelting the ore was to heap up wood placing the lumps of galena between the layers. These were then burned the melted lead drop- ping into an excavation beneath. Pickel Camp Site (Sec. 25). On the Pickel farm on the north side of the mouth of the Big Platte River, at the southern base of Cedarbrook Bluff is the site of an early Indian camp. The usual evidences of such occupation are found on a bench of elevated land at the base of the bluff. Large numbers of chert points and other chert implements have been found here in cultivating the land. This bench is separated from the river by a broad stretch of low and swampy land a large portion of which is under cultivation. In recent years the Winnebago occasionally camped in num- bers in the river valley at and near this place. Grant River Bluff Groups (Sec. 6 (?) ) Plates 2 and 3. The most imposing of the mound groups located by ourselves in this region is on the top of a bluff on the north side of Grant River and between it and the C. B. & Q. R. R. line, which passes along at the foot of its western side. This bluff we estimated to rise 400 or more feet above the river bottoms. Mr. John Kading is the owner of the farm on its crest. It is located about two miles north of La Fayette (Potosi) station. 188 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 4 One group of six mounds is located near the point of the bluff. Four of these are linear and two are conical mounds. Their dimensions (in feet) are: No. 1. Linear, 18 x 66x2 No. 2. Conical, 25x2^ No. 3. Conical, 25x2^ No. 4. Linear, 18 x 65 x 2 No. 5. Linear, 18 x 42 x 1 % No. 6. Linear, 18 x 40 x \Y 2 All are in a good state of preservation. They are in a grove of oak trees. Group No. 2 is located at a distance of about 800 feet west of Group No. 1. It consists of a total of 16 linear and conical mounds the greater number of which are separated from one another by only short distances. The dimensions of the mounds in this group are: No. 1. Linear, 26 x 90 x No. 2. Linear, 19 x 77 x No. 3. Conical, 41 x 3 No. 4. Conical, 34 x 3 No. 5. Conical, 40 x 6 No. 6. Conical, 45 x 6 No. 7. Conical, 48 x 7 No. 8. Conical, 45 x 6 No. 9. Conical, 21x1^ No. 10. Conical, 19 x No. 11. Conical, 24x2 No. 12. Conical, 29 x No. 13. Linear, 18 x 80 x No. 14. Linear, 18 x 70 x 2 No. 15. Conical, 37 x 4 No. 16. Linear, 22 x 66 x These mounds are located partly in a grove of oak trees, and partly in a pasture. The linear mound at the western extremity of the group extends into a grain field. We were informed that there were formerly other mounds beyond this one but there appear to be no present indications of this. Conical mounds -No. 5, 6, 7 and 8 are especially fine examples of this class of mounds. The mounds appear to have been built of clay soil which is procurable in the surrounding fields. An attempt has been made to excavate all of these mounds Grant County Indian Remains 189 by digging holes into their tops. Some of the mounds in both groups are very near the edge, from 3 to 25 feet, of the bluff. Paris Township Schumeyer Village Sites (Sec. 30). % On the Schumeyer place, on the opposite side of the Big Platte, lying directly east of the C. B. & Q. R. R. crossing of the river, is located an Indian village site. The land along this side of the stream is elevated, sandy, and quite level, affording a good location for a camp. The river bank is from 20 to 30 feet high in places. In the sandy soil about the Schumeyer house and barns and on several knolls in the fields beyond chert chips and fragments, fireplace stones and bits of earthenware are scattered about. At the edge of a road entering the yard an Indian fireplace was exposed. The rough limestone frag- ments with which it was lined were burned to a reddish color. Numerous flint arrow and spear points are said to have been found in the fields. The chert in use here is similar to that already described from the sites along Grant River. Schumeyer Bluff Group (Plates 4 and 5). This group of fifteen mounds is located on the crest of a narrow ridge on the Schumeyer place, and which bounds the farm on the west. This bluff consists of two eminences united by a long narrow lower ridge, or saddle. The mounds are on the southern eminence. Of the mounds 14 are conical and one is linear in form. They are in a grove of oak trees and are surrounded by a jungle of tall weeds, vines and shrubbery. All except one or two have been dug into by local relic hunters. All appear to have been built of clay soil, probably obtained at the Platte River bank not far away. The most prominent of the conical mounds is 35 feet in diameter and must have been originally about 5 feet high. The others are from 15 to 21 feet in diameter and from !}/ to 2}^ feet high. The linear mound, a fine specimen, is 81 feet in length 17 feet wide and about 1J/2 feet high. We learned that the ravisher of some of these mounds was a Mr. Hart. He is reported to have found skulls and bones but no implements 190 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 4 in some of them. His work and that of the other relic hunters operating in this vicinity was of such a character that probably nearly all could be re-excavated with some profit to archeological science. Indian Creek Camp Site In the early days of settlement of this region the most important Winnebago Indian village was in the valley of Indian Creek, a tributary to the Platte River. McLean Mounds Indian "mounds" are reported to be located on the crest of a ridge on the Henry McLean and adjoining Hamilton and Meyers places, in the N. W. % of Sec. 12 (?) near the junction of Blockhouse Creek and the Little Platte. Mr. John Heiman excavated some of these earthworks (he called them graves) about 40 years ago, and found a few glass beads and arrowpoints. In recent years another was excavated by a local school teacher who ob- tained an Indian skull. Arrowpoints are occasionally found in the cultivated fields along Blockhouse Creek. This information was obtained from John Heiman, Geo. Hoadleyv J W. Murphy and others. Potosi Road Camp Site (N. E. J, Sec. 18) Evidences of a former Indian camp site were located among the stubble in a recently harvested grain field on the Liebfried farm on the north side of the Potosi road. The condition of this field did not permit of a very careful examination of its surface. We learned that a small number of chert arrowpoints had been found here. Chert chips were scattered about here and there on the surface of the field. Most of these proved to be flaked from material obtained from the local sources. ADDITIONAL DATA The following additional information concerning archae- ological evidences in the southwestern part of Grant County was obtained from various friends and other interested per- sons. An enclosure is, or was, located on the old Speeker farm on the west side of Sinsinawa Creek, in Section 34 of Hazel Grant County Indian Remains 191 Green Township. This earthwork is said to be elliptical in form, about 30 or 40 feet in length and of half that diameter at its middle. There is a tradition among settlers of this region that it was used as an Indian dance ground. A short distance north of the enclosure was located an old Indian smelting furnace. This was on the old Rogers farm, on the east side of Sinsinawa Creek, also in Section 34. In the S. W. J4 of Section 34, on the boundary ridge be- tween Wisconsin and Illinois, are a number of conical burial mounds. These are on the east side of Sinsinawa Creek. Mounds are also said to exist on the west side of the creek opposite this place. This information was obtained by Mr. Barton from Mr. Richard Goodell, Mr. C. L. Harper and others. Other mounds and camp sites are reported to occur near Hazel Green. Mr. Charles Grindell of Platteville has in his collection a considerable number of chert arrow and spear points and knives from the Sinsinawa region. Other Indian implements found in this valley are in a collection owned by Mr. Carlinson at the Empire Hotel, at Hazel Green. A bird effigy is said to be located in a pasture on the John Kelley place, Burr Oak Farm, on a branch of Boise Creek, in the N. W. % of Section 28, Potosr'T ownship. Mounds are also located on the same creek on the M. Cogan estate, in the N. % of Section 29. This information was furnished by Mr. J. W. Murphy. According to Mr. J. B. Wagner of Dickeyville the Indians formerly mined lead at a place known as Gibraltar, on the north side of Indian Creek, near its junction with the Big Platte River, in Paris Township. Mounds were formerly located on the crest of a ridge, in Section 1 of Platteville Township, on the road from Platte- ville to Arthur. An enclosure is said to be located in the S. Y^ of Section 19, on the Little Platte River, in the same township. These are reported by Mr. J. W. Murphy. Mounds are said to exist on a ridge near the Potosi road crossing of the Big Platte River. These are on the Likens place southeast of the river, in Harrison- Township. Evidences of an Indian camp site exist in a field, on a projecting point near the J. McKelvey farm on Boise Creek, in the S. W. J4 of Section 17, at a distance of about 3 miles northwest of Potosi. Many chert and other implements have been found here. This site is in Potosi Township. 192 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 4 REMARKS Although a large amount of archaeological field-work has been conducted in past years in Grant County it has not yet been found possible to attempt the publication of a complete report of its Indian antiquities. Nor will this be possible until a further appropriation for survey and exploration work can be obtained from the state. In order to publish a com- plete and accurate report a re-examination of nearly every section of this large county must be made. This will lequire a very large amount of labor in the field and office. An ex- amination of the published records of this county will show that of its Indian village sites, cemeteries, planting grounds, trails and other features of its archaeological history but little is known, early investigatoi s paying but little or no attention to any evidences but the mound groups. The earliest description of a group of mounds in the county appears to have been made by R. C. Taylor, who in 1843 published in the American Journal of Science and Art a description of a group of mounds at Muscoda on the Wis- consin River. Daniel McLeod afterwards published a de- scription of the same group in his "History of Wiskonsan" (1846). Jared Warner's description and figure of the famous "elephant" mound appeared in the Smithsonian Report of 1872. Moses Strong, Jr. made surveys of a considerable number of mound groups in Wyalusing, Bloomington, Mill- ville, Woodman, and Waterloo townships, descriptions of which were printed in the Smithsonian Report for 1876. In 1889, P. W. Norris, J. D. Middleton and Prof. Cyrus Thomas conducted archaeological investigations in Bloom- ington, Cassville and Muscoda townships the results of which were published by the latter in the 12 Annual Report of the American Bureau of Ethnology. Other Grant County groups were described by Rev. S. D. Peet in the American Antiquarian and in his "Prehistoric America" (Vol. 2). In 1880, C. K. Dean published in the Wisconsin Historical Collections the results of the excavation of a mound at Bos- cobel. Mr. W. W. Gilman, a member of the Wisconsin Archeological Society, in 1903 and 1906, furnished data concerning the mound groups located in Millville, Boscobel and Waterstown townships. Mr. W. H. Elkey also assisted G \~($ \ J / s \ * W" "^ 10 Grant River Bluff Group No. 2 Plate 3 Cassville Mounds and Sites 193 with data concerning evidences of aboriginal occupation in Waterstown and Potosi townships. In 1909, plats of some of the groups at the mouth of the Wisconsin River were prepared by C. E. Brown with the assistance of the late Senator Robert Glenn and Rev. L. E. Drexel. In the fol- lowing year Senator Glenn furnished the Society with a map showing the locations of all of the mound groups and other aboriginal remains on his extensive lands at the mouth of the Wisconsin. These are now included in Marquette State Park, the magnificent public recreation reservation which he labored so devotedly to establish. Some idea of the great archaeological riches of Grant County may be obtained from the fact that up to the time of the publication in 1906 of "A Record of Wisconsin An- tiquities" no fewer than forty-one groups of mounds and seven solitary mounds had been described or reported on from Grant County. CASSVILLE MOUNDS AND SITES Charles E. Brown and Leopold E. Drexel While at Cassville, Grant County, during the month of November, 1909, an investigation of Indian remains located at and in its immediate vicinity, was undertaken by the writers. This data it has not before been convenient to publish. It is now printed for the benefit of members and friends of the Wisconsin Archeological Society. Evidences Winnebago Camp. In the year 1857 a camp of Winnebago Indians was located on the shore of the Wisconsin River between the site of the old saw mill and Furnace Branch, at Cassville. Here Mr. J. B. Ortschied, an old settler, found a number of heaps of clam shells, the remains of former feasts of the Indian inhabitants of this site. These were of small 194 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 4 size. A few glass trade beads were also collected here by the same gentleman. In investigating this site we found at the place known as Kleinfelter's Park chert chips and frag- ments and other evidences of a stone age camp site. Riverside Park Mounds (Figure 1) In Riverside Park at Cassville, on the bank of the Mississippi River, are a small bird effigy and a linear mound. The bird effigy lies entirely within the park and the linear mound partly within the park and partly on the adjoining Craig place, a portion of one end Fig. 1 having been destroyed by the fiouse which is built upon it. The near wing of the effigy is within 80 feet of the river bank which is here about five feet high. This effigy is 83 feet in length and its wingspread 112 feet. Its width below the wings is 20 and its width at the extremity of the expanded tail 28 feet. This effigy is the only mound of its class which we located at Cassville. It is a common type in other parts of the state. The linear mound lies about 18 feet al- most directly behind it. Thirty-three feet of one extremity of this mound are in the park. It appears to have been of a nearly uniform width of 18 feet. Both mounds are low. Gassville Mounds and Sites 195 While at Cassville we endeavored in our conversations with residents of the village to create an interest in the permanent preservation and marking of the bird effigy. Its location is favorable and this should be done. Oakey's Hill Group. These mounds are on the tongue of a steep bluff known as Oakey's Hill, rising in the rear of the Catholic church, at Cassville. On the crest of this bluff the three linear mounds composing the group are disposed of in an irregular line, one behind the other. The most northerly of the mounds is 120 feet in length and 20 feet in width. It is about 2^ feet high. Forty-two feet beyond it is the second mound which is of the same dimensions and height. The third mound lies 63 feet in the rear of the last. This mound is 93 feet long and of the same width and height as the other two. The crest of the ridge at the location of this mound is only about one hundred feet wide. On its western side th slope of the bluff is gradual down to the ra- vine road leading to Cassville. We have no particular sug- gestions to offer in regard to the choice by the prehistoric In- dians of this elevated and narrow bluff crest for the erection of a group of earthworks. Other groups or solitary mounds have been located in similar situations along both the Missis- sippi and Wisconsin Rivers in this state. Oakey Mound. On the crest of Oakey's Hill at a distance from the group just described, we also found a solitary linear mound. The general direction of this mound was east and west. One extremity lay within 20 and the other within 50 feet of the edge of the bluff. This mound was 100 feet long and 30 feet wide, its width being exceptional for this region. The crest of the hill at this place is sparsely wooded. This locality is about one-fourth of a mile north of the C. B. & Q. R. R. rock crusher, in the E. J^ of Section 28. Geiger Group. In a piece of pasture land belonging to the Geiger Estate (Fract. Sec. 29), on the bank of Jacko Slough, at Cassville, is a group of two linear and three conical mounds. They are quite closely grouped. The two linears are each 120 feet long and have a uniform width of 20 feet. Of the three burial mounds one is 18 and two are 20 feet in diameter. 196 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 4 These mounds were all still in good condition at the time of our visit having happily escaped the fate of many of the other Indian earthworks in this region. A few, probably two or three, other mounds belonging to this group are re- ported to have extended north from this pasture on to the adjoining grounds of the pickle factory. The C. B. & Q. R. R. right-of-way adjoins on the east the land upon which this group of mounds is located. Jacko Slough Camp Site. On the James Finley farm (S. Y^ Sec. 27), south of Gassville, between the C. B. & Q. R. R. tracks and Jacko Slough, groups of burned stones marking the sites of several former Indian wigwams were found. Chips and fragments of chert were scattered over the suiface of the ground in their vicinity. This chert was identical with that occurring in quantity in veins in the Galena lime- stone about Cassville. Right-of-Way Croup. Scattered along the right-of-way of the G. B. & Q. R. R. south of Cassville, in the S. % of Section 27 (?), some of them cut in two by the railroad tracks, an irregular line of nine conical mounds was en- countered. On one side of the right-of-way at this place is the Newman and on the other the Beinard farm. The length of this line of mounds from one end to the other was about 600 feet. Eight of the nine mounds were 30 feet in diameter at their bases and one 25 feet. The highest was 3}/ feet high. All had been badly or somewhat mutilated. Several appeared to have "been excavated by relic hunters. It is probable that all of these mounds are now destroyed. At the time of our visit in 1909 the right-of-way had been burned over by the railroad company thus plainly marking the outlines of the mounds. These mounds were said to have been part of a once larger group extending from this point to beyond the railroad crossing. This is only one of a number of mound groups which this Mississippi Valley railroad has destroyed in the course of the improvement of it line in this and other Wisconsin counties. Gravel Pit Group. On the edge of the G. B. & Q. R. R. gravel pit, between the railroad right-of-way and Jacko Slough, was a group of six conical mounds. They were Cassville Mounds and Sites 197 located in a meadow belonging to this railroad and have in past years been under cultivation. It is probable that all have now been destroyed in the enlarging of the gravel pit. Some other mounds of the same character lying to the south- west of these have been destroyed in the Company's exca- vations for gravel. Nothing could be learned of their con- tents. At the time of our visit these mounds were overgrown with tall grass and weeds. One, the largest, measured 40 feet in diameter at its base, another 35 and the remaining four each 25 feet. They were from 1^ to 2J^ feet high. Rem- nants of one or two other mounds could be seen on the right-of-way southeast of these. This mound group is lo- cated in the N. Y% of Fractional Section 35. Remarks According to James H. Lockwood the Fox Indians had in the year 1816 a large village where Cassville now stands. This was called Penah (Turkey). These Indians in common with some other Wisconsin tribes, traded at Prairie du Chien (W. H. Colls., II, p. 131). Other groups of mounds, which we did not reach are re- ported in "A Record of Wisconsin Antiquities" to be lo- cated on the Dewey (Newberry) farm, from one to three miles north of Cassville. These were located in 1890 by P. W. Norris for the Bureau of American Ethnology. He also reported the existence of two lines of earthworks on the Mississippi bluffs three miles north of the city, the ex- istence of a large circular mound and a stone cairn "near Cassville" and of a group of effigy, circular and elongate mounds two miles south of Cassville. These groups are described and two of them figured by Prof. Cyrus Thomas in the 12 Annual Report of the Bureau. 198 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 4 A COPPER BANNER STONE (See Frontispiece) W. A. Titus Centuries ago, when the waters of Lake Winnebago covered much of what is now Fond du Lac city, it is probable that the surrounding region was the favorite camping ground of the aboriginees. Villages were found on the southern shores of the lake of the Winnebago by the earliest French explorers, and these 'showed evidences of long occupation. That the primitive tribes who, at some remote period, oc- cupied the region around Lake Winnebago were well ad- vanced in some of the elements of civilization is evidenced by the many beautifully formed implements and weapons of copper, chipped flint, and polished stone that have from time to time been excavated by plow or pick in what now com- prises the counties of Fond du Lac, Winnebago and Calumet. While it is how generally believed that the natives who did this more artistic class of work were the ancestors of the tribes found here by the first white men who visited the region, there is no positive proof that such is the case. The mere fact that these carefully made implements were in use by the natives at the time of the first explorations, is not conclusive, for it is a well known fact that prehistoric implements are often used by modern tribes who dig up or find on the sur- face these ancient objects and adapt them to th3ir own uses. The extent and .variety of the aboriginal copper objects found in the Winnebago region is striking. The Hamilton collection of copper relics at Two Rivers is probably the largest of its kind in the world, and many of these speci- mens came from the three counties named above. The ex- cellent collections in the Milwaukee Public Museum and the State Historical Museum at Madison likewise show a pre- ponderence of specimens from the eastern or northeastern part of Wisconsin. It is only three years ago that the large cache of copper spears and pikes, consisting of 21 specimens, was found at the corner of Hickory and Poplar Streets in Fond du Lac, while workmen were excavating a cellar. This is the last - Mounds in Schumeyer Bluff Group Plate 4 A Copper Banner Stone 199 find reported from this vicinity until the discovery of the unique specimen which will be described in this article. On August. 1st, 1916, James McCabe, a local contractor, who was constructing a sewer through Clinton Street in the extreme northwestern part of the city, noticed a peculiar shaped object shoveled from the trench about 400 feet north of Scott Street. Examination showed that it was of copper and shaped somewhat like the two bladed battle axe of an- cient or medieval times. Each cutting edge measured about five inches, while the distance between the two edges at the median line was likewise five inches. Through the center, an eye or hole for the handle had been neatly punched. This orifice was nearly round and about % inch in diameter. The implement had been fashioned from a plate or flake of native copper nearly half an inch thick at the center, but hammered out very thin on either side as it approached the edge of each blade or bit. The whole outline showed a re- markable symmetry, although slightly rough on the edges from the hammering or from corrosion. This weapon or ceremonial was found fully six feet below the surface, the entire soil above it except the top six inches, being lake sand such as is washed up by the waves. That this was once a part of the lake shore line is certain, but the six inch deposit of vegetable mold on top of the beach sand makes it likewise certain that the shore line receded many ages ago, and the process has been going on steadily until the lake is now fully a half mile distant at its nearest point. Two theories are possible, one, that the specimen was lost on the lake beach or in the waters of the lake centuries ago, and was gradually buried beneath the sand by wave action. The other, that this article was buried to the depth of six feet by its aboriginal owner. The first hypothesis means a very remote antiquity, the second, that it may have happened any time prior to 1830 which is about the date when the .last Indian village in this region was deserted. The specimen was purchased from Mr. McCabe by G. R. Moore of Janesville, a dealer in antiquities. It is now in the collection of Mr. Joseph Ringeisen, Jr., the well-known Milwaukee collector. He has very kindly furnished the photograph from which the cut shown in the frontispiece of this issue of the Wisconsin Archeologist was made. From an examination of this plate it will be seen that this speci- 200. WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 4 men duplicates in form some of the slate and cannel coal banner stones which have been found in the Ohio Valley. In the collection, of Mr. Henry P. Hamilton gf Two Rivers, Wisconsin, are two copper banner stones. Both of these are of the "butterfly" type, the wings having straight edges, whereas the Ringeisen specimen has crescent shaped wings or blades. They are also of smaller size. THE KOSHKONONG PILGRIMAGE On Sunday, October 15, one of the most interesting out- door gatherings ever held on the shores of historic Lake Koshkonong was held on the extensive Carcajou farm of the well known Wisconsin naturalist and archeologist, Mr. Halvor L. Skavlem, near Sumner, on its western shore. To attend this meeting over three hundred automobilists and others made pilgrimages to the lake from Janesville, Beloit, Milton, Edgerton, Stoughton, Cambridge, McFarland, Ft. Atkinson, Lake Mills, Madison, and other nearby and distant towns and villages. But for the unfavorable weather which prevailed in many parts of both Jefferson and Dane counties during a portion of the morning it is estimated that one thousand or more persons would have been in attendance. As it was, a procession of some twenty-five automobile loads of people which was to have come to the meeting from Madison alone was cut down by the early rain to only six cars filled largely with members of the Wisconsin Archae- ological and State Historical Societies. Much to the de- light and surprise of these motorists from a distance the roads, despite the rain, were found to be in an excellent condition and the overland journey over country highways, red and yellow with the color of the autumn foliage, was greatly enjoyed by all. The particular occasion for the Koshkonong pilgrimage was the unveiling of an imposing boulder marker to the memory of the redoubtable Wisconsin Wihnebago Indian Chief, White Crow, an early "faithful friend" of the white settler, the site of whose populous village of about 1200 Indians in 1832 occupied about a mile of the attractive Carcajou shore line. His was one of a considerable number The Koshkonong Pilgrimage 201 of similar aborigihal encampments which, in the dim and distant past, or in the early days of the settlement of Wis- consin territory, have been situated for longer or shorter periods of time and struggled through a hard existence on nearly every prominent point on Koshkonong's hospitable shores. Mr. Halvor L. Skavlem, who was chiefly responsible for the Koshkonong gathering and on whose extensive lakeland farm it took place, well and widely "known throughout Southern Wisconsin as an archaeologist, historian, and natur- alist, is a man of imposing presence and address. "The sage of Koshkonong" as some of his numerous friends refer to him, is of Norse parentage, a product of the early Nor- wegian settlement of Rock Prairie, in Rock County. Six feet or more in height in his stocking feet, with gray hair, a full beard, and kindly blue eyes, he is a typical reproduc- tion in stature and character, of his viking ancestors. His broad knowledge of the sciences he owes- to his own industry and to the inspiration which he received in his boyhood in his association with such pioneer scientific investigators as Thure Kumlien, the early noted Swedish naturalist of Lake Koshkonong, Dr. Increase A. Lapham, Dr. Philo R. Hoy, and others. For many years an authority on the geology, botany, ornithology, and archaeology of this part of Southern Wis- consin, he has been the means of encouraging many others and particularly young men desiring to tread these paths of knowledge. On these subjects he has published a large number of articles and papers. In recent years he has likewise become, through his personal knowledge and re- searches, a historian, especially of the early Rock Prairie and Koshkonong Norwegian settlements. His recent gene- ology of the Skavlem family in America is rich in the pioneer and recent history of his race. Mr. Skavlem is perhaps the oldest living member of the Wisconsin Academy of Arts, Sciences and Letters, was one of the founders of the Wisconsin Archaeological Society, and a member, for years, of the Wisconsin Natural History Society and the State Historical Society. In recognition of his broad historical knowledge and valu- able contributions to the State Historical Museum, he was last year made an honorary life member of the latter organ- 202 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 4 ization, an honor awarded by that society to but few in- dividuals during the sixty years of its activities in Wisconsin. His circle of personal friends is very wide and ever increasing. During his lifetime he has counted among these such men as Governors Hoard and Peck, Dr. Reuben Gold Thwaites, Hon. Rasmus B. Anderson, and many other Wisconsin men of national prominence. Many sections of the state have produced men who attained a deserved prominence in scien- tific fields but none have been more greatly beloved for their character than Halvor L. Skavlem of Janesville and Lake Koshkonong. The Unveiling Ceremonies The interesting ceremonies attending the unveiling of the White Crow Memorial were held at about 2 o'clock on a pretty rock-faced point having a background of a screen of trees' and located within a short distance of the Skavlem and Richardson cottages. On either side of the huge boulder monument, flying from their staffs, were a United States and a Wisconsin Indian feather flag. Around this monument, grouped on the greensward in a large circle, were the audience. The brief unveiling address was de- livered by Mr. Charles E. Brown of Madison, present secre- tary of the Wisconsin Archeological Society and chief of the State Historical Museum. The following is his address. "We are gathered today at the cordial invitation of our good friend and fellow worker in the field of Wisconsin archaeological history, Mr. Halvor L. Skavlem, to do honor to the memory of a noted Wisconsin Winnebago chieftain of the Black Hawk War time, known to history as Kau- ray-kaw-saw-kaw, or the White Crow. This boulder monument to White Crow Mr. Skavlem has himself provided and the inscription on its stone face he has carved with his own hands. It is located on the site occupied in 1832, and for how many years before that date we do not know, by his village. Mr. Skavlem first became interested in White Crow and the site of his village in 1906 when, with Dr. Arlow B. Stout, he began a systematic survey and exploration of the In- The Koshkonong Pilgrimage 203 dian antiquities and history of this great lake. This task was completed in the year 1908 and the results published by the Wisconsin Archaeological Society. Messrs. Stout and Skavlem located in their archaeological survey of Lake Koshkonong a total of 481 Indian mounds. Of this number 152 were located on the east and 324 on the west side of the lake. Of these 309 were conical or burial mounds and the remainder, or 172, linear or embankment- shaped earthworks and effigy or animal-shaped mounds. Of these groups of Indian earthworks the most extensive are the Taylor House group located at Taylor's Point and the so-called Koshkonong, Noe Springs and Kumlien groups, all on the west shore. The Altpeter group on the north shore and the Gen. Atkinson group located near Hoard's Hotel on the east shore of the lake. Stone age or recent Indian village sites are located in the vicinity of nearly every one of these mound groups. The most important of these are those located at Carcajou, Crabapple Point, Noe Springs, Taylor's Point, and Tay-e- he-dah on the west shore of the lake. At Altpeter's on the north shore, where was situated in 1830 the village of the Chief White Ox, and near Hoard's Hotel (where was Man- Eater's Village, in 1831) and at Bingham's Point, both on the eastern shore of the lake. Of these village sites the most extensive, and undoubtedly the richest from an archaeological standpoint, is the Carcajou or White Crow's, upon which we now stand. Its history extends back undoubtedly for several hundred years before the appearance of the first white settlers in this region. From its surface during the past 50 years in which it has been under cultivation, thousands of stone, bone, clay, antler, shell, and metal implements have been collected. Since the year 1906 a systematic collection of these has been made from the old wigwam sites, burial places, and refuse pits on the Carcajou farm by Mr. Skavlem, assisted by myself. This collection, now numbering thousands of specimens, has been presented by him to the State Historical Museum at Madison where it is soon to be installed. It is unquestion- ably the largest and most important collection of its character ever made from an old Indian village site in Wisconsin. From it a very complete idea may be gained of the customs, 204 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No 4 industries, religion and commerce of its inhabitants from stone age days to the time of the coming of the fur traders. As Mr. Skavlem is to present to you in his talk, which is to follow my own, an account of this village site and of White Crow, its last chief, I shall not go further into this subject at the present time. The plan of erecting commemorative monuments to the important Indian chiefs of Wisconsin history has but re- cently received consideration. To the best of my knowledge but three such monuments have as yet been erected. The first marker of this nature was that erected several years ago by the Sauk County Historical Society to the prominent Winnebago war chief, Yellow Thunder, near his burial place, not far from the city of Baraboo. A second monument was erected by the Manitowoc County Historical Society to Chief Mexico, or Th,e Wampum, on the site of his early village at ManitowocT Rapids. The third is the imposing statue of Chief Oshkosh recently erected in the Wisconsin city which bears his name. There are numerous other Wisconsin chiefs equally de- serving of commemorative monuments and it is to be hoped that other individuals, societies, and communities will take upon themselves the duty of marking these. In concluding these brief introductory remarks I wish to thank the friends who at request have come from Madison, Janesville, Beloit, Milton, Ft. Atkinson, Cambridge, Edger- ton, and more remote points to honor this occasion and our friend, Mr. Halvor L. Skavlem, whose guests we are today. Personally I bring to him in the 70th year of his active life, the greeting of our co-workers of the Wisconsin Archae- ological Society, in every part of Wisconsin." At the conclusion of this address and amid the applause of the large audience the covering of the tablet was removed by two pretty young women, the Misses Richardson, twin daughters of Mr. and Mrs. Richardson of Janesville. The monument is a gray and pink granite boulder about seven feet long and four feet wide and bears on its face the chiseled legend, in large letters: "Site of Kaw-ray-kaw-saw- kaw's (White Crow's) Village, 1832." Mr. Skavlem, the principal speaker on the program, gave a very complete and interesting history of the life of Chief White Crow, detailing his services as a principal guide to t f s C5J 33 = HOLLOW 13 TM I CK ET IS Schumeyer Bluff Group Plate 5 The Koshkonong Pilgrimage 205 Col. Henry Dodge, afterwards the first governor of Wiscon- sin territory, and his company of lead-mine rangers during the trying period of the Black Hawk War; of his delivery at the Blue Mounds stockade fort of the Hall girls, captured by the raider in his progress through Illinois and of his early visit with a company of other prominent chiefs to New York and Washington on his way to interview the President. He also quoted the early descriptions given by Satterlee Clark, Mrs. Kinzie, and Dr. Lyman C. Draper of this chief and his Koshkonong village. A description was also given by him of White Crow's daughter, known as "The Washington Woman" and who afterwards became the wife of the prom- inent Wisconsin Winnebago war chief, Yellow Thunder. Professor Rasmus B. Anderson, prominent as a literary man and historian, the next speaker, related some enjoy- able reminiscences of his family's experiences with local Indians during his boyhood life in the early Norwegian settlement known as Koshkonong. Mr. Frank B. Fargo of Lake Mills spoke of the great proficiency acquired by his friend, Mr. H. L. Skavlem, as a maker of Indian stone implements. This he had accomplished with the aid of rude implements of the red man and with a view to demonstrating the time and processes required in their manufacture. His valuable contributions to the pub- lic knowledge of Lake Koshkonong antiquities would be ap- preciated by coming generations of Wisconsin people. Mr. Lee R. Whitney of Milwaukee, one of its officers, bore to Mr. Skavlem and his audience the greetings of the members of the Wisconsin Archaeological Society. He re- lated some interesting incidents of the able assistance given by him during recent archaeological field work in the Green Lake region. Reception After these exercises an informal reception was held on the porch and lawn of the Skavlem cottage in which all of the visitors participated. Here, on several tables, were displayed a large collection of the representative stone and metal artefacts collected by Mr. Skavlem from the site of White Crow's village and another collection illustrating Mr. 206 , WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 4 Skavlem's prowess as a maker of Indian arrowpoints and stone axes. The neighboring old stone club house of the famous Carcajou Shooting Club, an organization dating back to the old "canvas back" days, was also thrown open to visitors, many of whom availed themselves of the privilege of visiting its sacred interiors. Within its walls it is said former Gov- ernor George W. Peck told many of his choicest stories. Among the numerous persons in attendance at the Carca- jou unveiling were: Mr. and Mrs. R. B. Owen and family, Mr. and Mrs. W. A. Oppel and family, Mr. and Mrs. Gil- bert Smith, Mr. C. E. Brown, Mr. T. T. Brown, Mr. Charles N. Brown, Prof. R. B. Anderson, Mr. and Mrs. W. P. Morgan, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Pearson, Jr., all of Madison, Mr. Robert Brown of Rockdale, Dr. and Mrs. Amundson of Cambridge, Mr. and Mrs. Frank B. Fargo and Mrs. C. D. Cheney of Lake Mills, Mr. L. R. Whitney of Milwaukee, Mr. W. Atwood of Milton, Mr. and Mrs. Vietch and daughter, Mrs. Olson, Mr. and Mrs. H. L. Hoard, Mr. and Mrs. Soli, and Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Jensen of Ft. Atkinson, R. L. Heald of Stoughton, Mr. Edward Skavlem of Edgerton, and Mr. Louis Skavlem of Janesville. Charles E. Brown. Archeological Notes 207 ARCHEOLOGIAL NOTES Through the interest and activity of Mr. Arthur H. Parker and others there has just been organized the New York State Archaeological Associa- tion, with headquarters at the State Museum, at Albany. It is under- stood to be one of the plans of this new organization to organize chapters throughout the state. Among the first of these to organize is Lewis H. Morgan Chapter, of Rochester, New York, named in honor of the noted American scientist, whose home was in that city. The president of this chapter is Mr. Alvin H. Dewey, its vice-president, Mr. John G. O. D'Olier; its treasurer, Mr. Edward D. Putnam and its secretary, Mr. E. Gordon Lee. Of these gentlemen Mr. Dewey is well known to us, having been for some years a member of the Wisconsin Archeological Society. The chapter has already thirty or more members. According to its constitu- tion "The object of this Chapter shall be to promote historical study and intelligent research covering the artifacts, rites, customs, beliefs and other phases of the life of the aboriginal occupants of New York State up to and including contact with the whites. To preserve the mounds, ruins and other evidences of these people and to cooperate with the State Asso- ciation in effecting a wider knowledge of New York State archeology and help secure legislation for needed ends." Both the new Association and its chapter are welcomed by the Wiscon- sin Archeological Society. A recent visitor at Madison was Dr. Mitchell Carroll of Washington, D. C., the general secretary of the Archaeological Institute of America. At this time the holding of a national meeting of American archaeological societies was discussed with him by Secretary Brown. There are now archaeological societies in a number of states and a national meeting to which all could send representatives would undoubtedly do much for the cause of American archaeology. It is possible that in the near future an Illinois state archaeological society may be organized. Mr. J. M. Pyott, Mr. W. R. Folsom and other Chicago members of the Wisconsin Archeological Society are among those likely to be interested in this movement. Mr. W. H. C. Elwell of McGregor has presented to the Society a set of blue-prints of the three extensive groups of Indian earthworks included within the limits of the proposed Mississippi River National Park on the Iowa shore. These fine groups include effigy, linear and numerous burial mounds. In mentioning the Milwaukee collections in the recently issued "Archae- ological History of Milwaukee County" its author failed to mention those of the Messrs. Paul Joers and D. L. Obermaier, members of the Society. Mr. Obermaier's collection contains a considerable number of native copper and flint and Mr. Joer's collection of flint and other implements. 208 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 15, No. 4 Newly elected members of the Society are Rev. F. S. Dayton, New London; Dr. H. L. THsner and Mr. John B. Zaun, Milwaukee; Mr. George G. Morris, Madison and Hon. Henry Rollmann, Ghilton. Addi- tional members are desired in every part of Wisconsin. Present members are requested to aid in enlisting these. It is a matter for congratulation to the citizens of Wisconsin that Mount Trempealeau, known to the French voyageurs as La Montagne Qui Trempe dans VEau [the mountain that steeps itself in the water] has finally been secured for the site of a State Park. The success of the plan for the preservation of this interesting historical spot has been at- tained primarily through the untiring energy of Dr. Even D. Pierce of Trempealeau, the cooperation of the State Historical Society, and the generosity of Mr. John A. Latsch, a prominent citizen of Winona, Minne- sota. The title to a tract of land embracing approximately 400 acres has been secured by Mr. Latsch, and the final steps toward the completion of the transfer to the State are being taken. Trempealeau Mountain was the seat of the French trading post established by Nicolas Perrot in 1685, and in 1731, under Rene Godfrey sieur de Linctot, the French erected a fort in the same vicinity. Thus the State comes into possession of a park famous not only for its natural beauty but for its significance as a historic landmark. In the establishment of this new state park several interesting groups_of Indian mounds are preserved. Dr. Pierce is a member of the Society.