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From the collection of the 

o PreTinger 

San Francisco, California 

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Accepted for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103 
Act. Oct. 3. 1917. Authorized Jan. 2S. 1921. 


3 | t 29 '40 


VOLUME 17, No. 1 
New Series 



Utanwfitn Ardjrnlngtnil 


Incorporated March 23, 1903, for the purpose of advancing the study 
and preservation of Wisconsin antiquities 



Dr. H. W. Kuhm 


Dr. L. S. Buttles T. L. Miller Kermit Freckman 

H. W. Cornell W. E. Erdman 


Geo. A. West Dr. S. A. Barrett 

W. K. Andrews 
Dr. W. H. Brown 
Col. Marshall Cousins 
Rev. F. S. Dayton 
W. S. Dunsmoor 
Arthur Gerth 
J. G. Gregory 
O. J. Halvorson 
P. W. Hoffman 
J. J. Knudsen 


M. F. Hulburt Dr. E. J. W. Notz 

Paul Joers Louis Pierron 

A. P. Kannenberg E. F. Richter 

Dr. A. L. Kastner M. C. Richter 

Dr. Louise P. Kellogg Jos. Ringeisen, Jr. 
R. J. Kieckhefer Paul Scholz 

Mrs. Theodore Koerner E. E. Steene 
Marie G. Kohler M. S. Thomson 

W. C. McKern R. S. Van Handel 

C. G. Schoewe G. R. Zilisch 


G. M. Thome 

917 N. Forty-ninth Street, Milwaukee, Wis. 


Charles E. Brown 
State Historical Museum, Madison, Wis. 



STATE SURVEY Robert R. Jones, J. J. Knudsen, A. P. Kannenberg, 
M. F. Hulburt, W. E. Erdman, D. A. Blencoe, Kermit Freckman, 
V. E. Motschenbacher, G. E. Overtoil, 0. L. Hollister, J. P. 
Schumacher, Rev. Chr. Hjermstad, F. M. Neu, M. P. Henn, H. F. 
Feldman, P. B. Fisher, V. S. Taylor. 

MOUND PRESERVATION C. G. Schoewe, Dr. Louise P. Kellogg, 
T. L. Miller, Dr. E. G. Bruder, Mrs. W. J. Devine, R. B. Halpin, Dr. 
L. V. Sprague, Mrs. H. A. Olson, Prof. R. S. Owen, A. H. Griffith, 
A. W. Pond, R. S. Van Handel, G. L. Pasco, W. S. Dunsmoor. 

PUBLIC COLLECTIONS Dr. S. A. Barrett, C. E. Brown, N. C. 
Behncke, H. L. Ward, Rev. F. S. Dayton, Prof. J. B. MacHarg, 
Prof. A. H. Sanford, Rev. P. B. Jenkins, W. M. Babcock, H. R. 
Holand, Miss Marie G. Kohler, Rev. A. J. Muench, Dr. P. 
H. Nesbitt. 

MEMBERSHIP G. M. Thorne, Paul Joers, N. E. Carter, Dr. W. H. 
Brown, H. A. Zander, Louis Pierron, Paul Scholz, W. K. Andrew, 
Paul W. Hoffmann, A. W. Buttles, Clarence Harris, A. E. Koerner, 
Carl Baur, W. Van Beckum, Karl Aichelen, Dr. C. J. Heagle, Paul 
Boehland, E. R. Guentzel. 

ter Holsten, D. S. Rowland, M. S. Thomson, Col. J. W. Jackson, 
Prof. A. H. Sanford. 

PUBLICITY W. C. McKern, M. C. Richter, Victor S. Craun. 


BIOGRAPHY Rachel M. Campbell, Dr. E. J. W. Notz, E. F. Richter, 
G. R. Zilisch, Paul Joers, Arthur Gerth. 

FRAUDULENT ARTIFACTS Jos. Ringeisen, Jr., Geo. A. West, 
E. F. Richter, W. C. McKern. 

PROGRAM Dr. L. S. Buttles, H. W. Cornell, Mrs. Theo. Koerner, 
E. E. Steene. 

PUBLICATIONS C. E. Brown, Dr. A. K. Fisher, W. E. Erdman. 

Kastner, R. J. Kieckhefer, L. R. Whitney, J. G. Gregory. 

LAPHAM RESEARCH MEDAL Dr. S. A. Barrett, Geo. A. West, 
Dr. A. L. Kastner, C. E. Brown, C. G. Schoewe, M. C. Richter. 


Life Members, $25.00 Endowment Members, $500.00 

Sustaining Members, $5.00 Annual Members, $2.00 

Institutional Members, $1.50 Junior Members, $ .50 

All communications in regard to The Wisconsin Archeological Society should 
be addressed to Charles E. Brown, Secretary and Curator, Office, State Historical 
Museum, Madison, Wisconsin. Contributions to The Wisconsin Archeologist should 
be addressed to him. Dues should be sent to G. M. Thorne, Treasurer, 917 N. 
49th Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 


Vol. 17, No. 1, New Series 


Aboriginal Uses of Shell, 

Herbert W. Kuhm 1 

Stone Discs, Gerald C. Stowe. - 9 

Archeo- and Ethno-Conchology, 

H. J. Boekelman.. _ 13 

Literature on Wisconsin Shell Heaps and Artifacts, 

Lorraine C. Alfred.. . 20 

Archeological Notes . 22 

Stone Discs 1 Frontispiece 



Published Quarterly by The Wisconsin Archeological Society 

New Series 

Herbert W. Kuhm 

Scattered throughout a wide range of archeological 
literature one finds mention, in random sentence or casual 
paragraph, of aboriginal uses of shell or of shell objects 
of aboriginal workmanship. 

The intent of this paper has been to consolidate these 
isolated references into a study source of this specific phase 
of aboriginal culture in Wisconsin. 

From the very nature of shell, being destructible in 
character, shell relics are rarely preserved from remote 
periods, and it is only by reason of their inhumation with 
burials that they appear among antiquities at all. 

With reference to the age of shell relics, W. H. Holmes, 
in a treatise on "Art in Shell of the Ancient Americans," 
states that "specimens obtained from the mounds of the 
Mississippi valley have the appearance of great antiquity, 
but beyond the internal evidence of the specimens them- 
selves we have no reliable data upon which to base an esti- 
mate of time. The age of these relics is often rendered 
still less certain by the presence of intrusive interments." 

The abundance of lakes and streams in Wisconsin, teem- 
ing with mollusks, served as a source of supply of shell for 
the Wisconsin aborigines. Weapons, traps or nets were 
not necessary in the capture of mollusks; a stone to break 
the shell sufficed for all purposes. So man in his most 
primitive condition must have resorted to mollusks for the 
food which they afforded. In fact, clams were so major 
a part of the food supply of these ancient people that many 
writers refer to them as the "Clam Eaters." 


wooden spoons, but still surviving among modern tribes as 
a special spoon for administering a sacred drink in the 
Medicine Dance. 

Shown also are tanged spoons of shell, those from the 
Lake Winnebago focus being notched varieties, while those 
from the Grand River focus remain unnotched. They are 
worked Unio shells, each spoon being equipped with a spatu- 
late tang whereby it was attached to a handle. In instances, 
the tangs were notched, probably as an element of decora- 
tion. Spoons of this type are characteristic for all Upper 
Mississippi culture sites in the eastern half of Wisconsin, 
but are unknown for the Mississippi Uplands area. 

Writing of the Winnebago cooking and eating utensils, 
Dr. Paul Radin (Eth. Ann. 37, "The Winnebago Tribe"), 
states: "With regard to the kind of cooking and eating 
utensils used in the old days, there exists even among the 
Indians themselves considerable difference of opinion. Ac- 
cording to some, their ancestors never used wooden uten- 
sils, mills, spoons or plates, but utilized shells of various 
kinds or other natural objects suitable to their needs. For 
dishes and spoons of various kinds and sizes, shells were 

Dr. Barrett's "Ancient Aztalan" illustrates a shell 
spoon that was once used by the aborigines inhabiting that 
prehistoric site. 

Although carefully shaped spoons have been found in 
some of the adjacent areas, no special shaping, however, 
appeared on any of the lighter clam shell spoons found at 

The bivalved shells, when used as domestic utensils, do 
not present a great variety of form, alterations consisting 
chiefly in carving out a kind of handle or tang, by which 
device hot food could be eaten without danger of burning 
the fingers. This tang was produced by cutting away por- 
tions of the anterior and basal margins of the shell, leav- 
ing the salient angle projecting. The margin which was 
presented to the lips in eating or drinking was sometimes 
rounded and polished, while the outer edge of the ladle was 
occasionally ornamented with notches. Usually fashioned 
from Unio shells, these spoons, cups and ladles were used 
for dipping up food and drink. 

Aboriginal Uses of Shell 

Shells also were employed as containers for pigment, 
that is, as "paint cups." 

2. Shell Implements 

Aboriginal implements of shell include hoes, scoops, 
fleshers, saws, knives, gouges, celts or scrapers. In these 
uses, shell played a more important role in aboriginal do- 
mestic life than is generally accorded, ranging in use from 
hoes and celts for agricultural work to game dressers, clay 
and wood shapers and for gouging out charred wood in 
the fashioning of dug-out canoes. 

The first white explorers of the Atlantic seaboard found 
many of the early American Indfan tribes cultivating their 
maize, beans and squash with primitive agricultural ap- 
pliances fashioned from unworked shells lashed to rude han- 
dles. The large, firm valves of clam shells were most fre- 
quently used. 

Many such shell hoes were used at Aztalan, for the 
Milwaukee public museum expedition recovered from the 
Aztalan site in the course of its excavations all told one 
hundred and seventeen of these hoes, including fragments 
which were unmistakably remains of these implements. 

Continuing in the words of Dr. Barrett : "Each of these 
perforated shell hoes was made from the halves of the 
heavy, ribbed bivalve, Quadrula undulata, Barnes, the large 
species of river mussel, still found in considerable abun- 
dance in the Crawfish river. This species was formerly very 
abundant here, if we may judge from its prevalence in the 
refuse pits and elsewhere at this site. This is a thick and 
heavy shell which grows to a much larger size than do the 
other species of mussels which also occur abundantly in 
this stream. 

"Each of the hoes made from the coarser, ribbed spe- 
cies was carefully perforated and in most instances there 
was, near the hinge of the shell, a notch, quite evidently 
used in binding the shell to the handle in hafting. This 
notch varied considerably in depth, but was wholly absent 
in only three of the specimens. 

"The exact method of hafting these Aztalan shell hoes 
is a matter of speculation as was also the angle at which 
the shells were set to the handle. It was quite evident, how- 


ever, that they were bound to a wooden handle in such a 
manner as to make a very serviceable implement. 

"That shell hoes were much used at Aztalan may be 
judged from their prevalence at the site and from the 
amount of wear shown by the cutting edge in a great many 
instances. They were doubtless used as an agricultural im- 
plement in tilling corn and other crops and may well have 
served in the excavating of holes for the posts of which the 
stockade was built." 

Exhibited at the Milwaukee museum is a perforated 
shell hoe, bound to a wooden handle, which in all probability 
shows the method of hafting these agricultural implements. 
It is fashioned after the manner of a very unique specimen 
of shell hoe found in a rock shelter in Arkansas by workers 
of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. 
The dry condition of the shelter had perfectly preserved the 
complete specimen, with its original wooden handle and its 
thong lashings. 

W. H. Holmes maintains that the great majority of the 
scraping implements obtained from mounds, graves and 
shell heaps are simply valves of Unio or clam shells, unal- 
tered except by use. 

As scoops or gouges they were used in making dug-out 
canoes, the burnt portions of fired logs being gouged out 
with shell scoops. 

In the making of pottery, unaltered shells were employed 
by the aboriginal potters to shape and smooth the coiled 

Notched shell implements include graters, saws and 
knives. Exhibited in the Milwaukee museum is a notched 
Unio shell, with serrated lip; it apparently served the prac- 
tical purpose of a scraper or grater. 

With it is a shell used as a knife in the preparation of 
food. Knives were simply sharpened bivalve shells. Such 
implements were used for scraping and digging as well as 
cutting. Besides their use in preparing food and in dress- 
ing game, Holmes further attributes the use of shell knives 
"in human butchery, as weapons for war and the chase, and 
in the bloody work of scalp-taking and torture." 

Serrated, that is, artificially toothed shells, were used as 
saws. Dr. Barrett suggests that these sharp-edged shell 

Aboriginal Uses of Shell 

implements may have been used as saws to cut shell into 
desired shapes. 

The Indians of Wisconsin also employed mussel shells 
to prepare deerskin for tanning. Shell fleshers were used to 
clean the inner surface of the hide of all shreds of fiber and 
meat. The survival from aboriginal to historic times of the 
practice of thus using shells is not at all astonishing, for 
they served the purpose well. 

Utilitarian implements of shell must of necessity include 
fishing appliances, such as shell hooks, fish lures of shell and 
fish sealers. 

To scale their fish, the aborigines often used mussel 
shells, very practicable for this purpose because of their 
sharp edges. 

Nicolas Perrot, who visited the large village of the 
Outagamie at Green Bay, in 1665, found these early Wis- 
consin Indians scaling their fish with mussel shells. (Wis. 
ArcheoL, Vol. 20, No. 1.) 

In catching fish, shell was used as a gorge hook, which 
consisted of a spike of shell fastened at its middle to the 

Fish effigies, fashioned from Unio shell, were employed 
as fish lures. Each lure had two perforations. A line was 
attached to the upper perforation, placed marginally near 
the point of maximum convexity of the effigy's back. A 
short segment of line with a sinker and feather fluff was 
fixed to the ventral perforation. Then the effigy was bobbed 
up and down by the Indian fisherman to attract large fish 
within spearing distance. 

Alanson Skinner, in his "Material Culture of the Mas- 
coutens, or Prairie Potawatomi," describes the use of fish 
lures of shell as follows: 

"In the month of February, the fishermen chopped holes 
in the ice and set up tipis over them. The fisher lay on the 
ice under his shelter, and angled with a fish carved from 
shell, weighted so that it would sink. This was attached by 
a short line to a short stick held in the hand. By manipulat- 
ing the stick the lure was made to move naturally, while 
with the other hand the spear was held in readiness. When 
a fish approached sluggishly to seize the bait, the line was 
drawn toward the fisherman, and the fish allowed to follow 
within thrusting range, when the fisherman speared it." 


The Menomini and Ojibwa, or Chippewa, similarly used 

mechanical fish lures of this type, according: to Skinner. 

3. Shell Tempering of Pottery 

In certain foci or variants of aboriginal Wisconsin cul- 
tures, pulverized shell was added today as a pottery temper. 
This was, in fact, a characteristic of the Grand River and 
Lake Winnebago foci of the Upper Mississippi culture phase. 

In his notes on "Aboriginal Pottery," W. H. Holmes as- 
serts that the favorite tempering materials were the pow- 
dered shells of moHusks. 

The shells were pulverized in mortars or by means of 
such devices as were at hand. Tempering served a useful 
purpose during the drying and baking of the day. Pure 
day has a tendency to shrink and crack in drying, and the 
coarse particles of tempering material counteract this tend- 
ency by interfering with the parting movements and im- 
peding the progress of the cracks, whereas in a fine-ground 
paste, the flaw would, when once started, continue through 
the wafl of the vessel in a direct fine without interference. 

The presence of foreign partides in the day served in 
the distribution of the heat in firing and in the subsequent 
use over fire. 

Further discussing shell tempering in "Ancient Pottery 
of the Mississippi Valley* 9 (Eth. Ann. 4), Holmes says the 
tempering material employed was usually a moderately fine- 
ground day, tempered in a great majority of cases with 
pulverized shells. In many of the vessels the partides are 
large, measuring a fourth to even one-half of an inch in 
width, but in the more elegant pots the shell has been re- 
uUced to a iin^% powder* 

Older vessels that have lain long imbedded in wet soil 
have the shell tempering leached out; this may also have 
been accomplished by the use of liquids and boiling when 
being used by the aborigines. Newer vessels and those in 
better drained soil show the tempering to better advantage 
for study. 

Stone Discs 


Gerald C. Stowe 

Mr. A. P. Kannenberg, archeologist of the Oshkosh Pub- 
lic Museum, while carrying on excavation work in an ancient 
shell heap on Lasleys Point on the shore of Lake Winne- 
conne, found 67 peculiar, problematical, round-flat, chipped 
stones known to archeologists as discs. All were found in a 
single day's work. This site in which the excavation work 
was carried on is situated midway between the barn and 
house near a chicken coop on the~Serstead farm located on 
the highest elevation on what is historically known as Las- 
leys Point. The chickens in their industrious search for 
food and for the lime of the clam shells exposed this shell 

Shell heap is a term applied to deposits of refuse result- 
ing from the consumption of shell fish as a food by the early 
Indians. Kindred deposits, known ordinarily as "kitchen 
middens," accumulate on all inhabited sites, and are among 
the most widely distributed and permanent remains left 
by primitive peoples. For these reasons, and because they 
necessarily contain examples of almost every variety of 
the durable handiwork of the peoples concerned in their 
accumulation, they are of the highest value to the student 
of prehistoric remains. In the waste resulting from the con- 
sumption of shellfish on this particular site clams of the fol- 
lowing species were found : Lampsilis gracilis, Lampsilis rec- 
tus, Lampsilis tuberculata, Symphynota complanata, Sym- 
phynota costata (a very large species), Quadrula trigona, 
Quadrula plicata, Quadrula coccinea, Anodonta lewesii, Quo- 
denta grandis (gigantia), and many more species. There 
are at least a half dozen such shell heaps on this farm, most 
of which have been disturbed and scattered by the plow. 
Since the occupancy of this country by white men, the de- 
struction of these deposits has gone forward with great 
rapidity. Some have been used as fertilizer, many located 
on low land, have been covered over by water where artificial 
dams have raised the water level and many have been de- 
stroyed by amateur archeologists in a search for artifacts, 


all resulting in the loss of much valuable archeological data 
and material. 

The shell heaps of the southern states are of greater 
size and depth than those of Wisconsin. The shell heaps on 
the Serstead farm, most of which have been disturbed by 
the plow, are shallow, ranging from one foot to three feet 
in height and twelve feet to thirty feet in diameter. Some 
of these larger shell heaps are approximately homogenous 
but show evidences of stratification with layers of earth 
and other refuse intercalated with the shells. The cultural 
contents of the shell heaps, used as middens, furnish a valu- 
able record of the arts and industries and customs of the 
primitive people concerned in their accumulation. Ordinary 
implements of stone, bone, shell, metal and pottery are em- 
bedded with the shells. 

The occupants of the Serstead farm have, from time to 
time, picked up broken potsherds, arrows, a few bone arti- 
facts and many stone objects, including the peculiar round, 
chipped stones described in this article. All were found near 
and around this exposed shell heap formation. The imme- 
diate vicinity for some distance along the lake front has 
been the site of a number of ancient villages as evidenced 
by the large amount of archeological material unearthed 
from time to time by the people living here. 

During the excavation work carried on in this shell heap, 
all the soil was carefully sieved and inspected. Besides the 
major find of the 67 chipped stones, many decorated frag- 
ments of pottery of the Winnebago and Woodland cultures 
were unearthed. The Winnebago culture type of pottery is 
that type which is tempered with crushed clam shells and 
the Woodland culture is grit tempered with crushed granite. 
Many chipped stone artifacts of various types and some 
worked bone implements were also found. 

As to the use of these chipped stones only vague sug- 
gestions and ideas have been set forth. The discs found in 
this deposit were all obtained within a radius of eight feet. 
All have a very definite shape and are of about the same 
weight, which lends plausibility to the theory that these 
artifacts had a very definite use. 

They are made from flat, round, or oval granite, basalt, 
gabbro, limestone, sandstone, or other hard rock pebbles. 

Stone Discs 11 

They measure from 2" to 3%" in diameter and %" to 
in thickness. The majority are approximately round, others 
being- slightly oval in form. All are chipped from the outer 
edges toward the middle, giving a sharp edge all the way 
around in some, mothers the sharp chipped edge only goes 
three-quarters of the way around, leaving a flat edge be- 
tween. The middle portion on both sides is unflaked in most 
cases. Several specimens have been chipped from small con- 
coidal sections of round boulders. These only have one 
chipped edge. 

Many archeologists would identify these artifacts as 
scrapers, others would call them discs, but the chipping is so 
irregular and crude that there is no definite cutting edge 
such as a scraper or disc would have. This theory of their 
use, therefore, is discarded. The theory of their use as 
"throwing stones" seems to be the most reasonable. After 
a careful study of the stones, their shape, workmanship and 
weight, we have come to the conclusion that they are iden- 
tical with those described by Julian H. Steward in the 
"American Anthropologist," Vol. 30, No. 2, April, 1928, page 
314. His theory is that they were used as "throwing 

If the flat circular stones are held in the hand, the fore- 
finger and thumb encircling the stone, a firm grip can be 
secured for throwing. The unchipped end serves as an ex- 
cellent hold for the tip of the forefinger; even if sharply 
chipped all the way around, the edge does not hinder throw- 
ing since it is not sharp enough to do any harm to the 
fingers. The stones being flat, fly with the sharp edge fore- 
most, thus creating a formidable, dangerous weapon in the 
hands of an expert marksman. Such missiles could be used 
for the stunning and killing of small game. The weight of 
the stones, which range from 1/4 pound to one pound, is 
sufficient to make them effective missiles. 

The large number of these stones found while digging 
in the refuse shell heap adds weight to the theory of their 
use as throwing stones. Used as such weapons, many would 
have to be carried due to the number of "misses" en- 
countered in hunting. It might require several or a number 
to dispatch an animal. The fact that all were recovered 
from a small area would appear to indicate that they were 


placed in the shell heap to be later used when needed. Many 
other similar stones have been found by Mr. Kannenberg 
and the writer on the ploughed fields of the Serstead farm. 
In the spring and summer of 1937 more research work in 
this vicinity is to be carried on by the Oshkosh Public Mu- 
seum and which undoubtedly will cast more light on the 
subject of these stones. 

During work carried on at Butte des Morts, six miles 
southeast from Lasleys Point, several similar stones were 
unearthed; this indicates the widespread use of these arti- 

This suggestion of their use as "throwing stones" is not 
given as an opinionated assertation, but purely as a very rea- 
sonable, plausible theory. No more definite statement can 
be made of this archeological find until experts have care- 
fully studied and passed judgment upon them. 

Archeo- and Ethno-Conchology 13 


The Study of Man's Use of Shells 

H. J. Boekelman 

It might appear as a rather bold step to present to those 
scientists engaged in the study of man, a new science at this 
late date, in this specialized field. The name which the 
writer has taken the liberty of affixing to this particular 
field of research is not new. It is making use of this prefix 
in an attempt to crystallize a movement which appears to 
have been under way in the minds of many scientists during 
the past 50 years, especially in Europe, and to a much lesser 
degree in America. If this subject can be accomplished the 
writer will feel amply repaid for his efforts along these lines. 

As is indicated by the name, this science, using Con- 
chology as a basis for the classification of the shells and 
their probable original habitat, has as its primary aim the 
assisting of Archeology and Ethnology in solving various 
perplexing problems. 

The reasons why more attention has not as yet been given 
to this subject become clearer upon a closer study of the 
facts involved. 

First. At first sight it would not appear to be a very fruit- 
ful field due to lack of material. A compilation of the work 
already accomplished shows the error of such judgment. 

Second. The lack of trained men, of this type. Arche- 
ologists and Ethnologists are usually unfamiliar with Con- 
chology, while Conchologists specialize in their particular 
field of effort. 

However, every once in a while some individual appears 
to have become interested in both subjects at the same time, 
and has written in more or less detail upon some particular 
phase of them. While each article has its particular value, 
the greatest results undoubtedly will be derived from a gen- 
eral synopsis of all the information contained therein. The 
scope of this paper is entirely too limited to attempt at the 
present time any such effort, and the author fully appre- 
ciates its limitations in this regard. 


It is a well-known fact that many of man's so-called earli- 
est inventions have been found, upon a closer examination, 
to be due simply to his observation of some natural object, 
which he made use of first in its original condition, and later 
on modified or imitated, thus gradually surrounding himself 
with these various articles to improve his conditions of 

The first use of mollusks undoubtedly would have been 
as a source of food supply, furnishing as they do, among 
other substances, the highly valuable salt and iodine mate- 
rial so necessary to the existence of life. This instinctive 
urge of eating shellfish is not singular to man; it has been 
reported from among other primates, the chimpanzees, for 
example, which periodically make trips to the coast for this 
purpose. Foxes, too, are known to eat mollusks, and many 
birds do the same as well as fishes and other animals. 

Although the writer believes that man has utilized this 
source of food since his earliest day, the concrete proof of 
such an assertion in the form of shellheaps from the earliest 
periods is lacking. But would it not appear likewise reason- 
able to explain this evident lack of definite examples more 
to the fact of his being nomadic, and therefore not remain- 
ing long enough on one spot to accumulate masses of shells, 
rather than to his not having made use of shellfish as food? 

Whatever the cause, although shellheaps have now been 
reported from almost every country of the world, the earliest 
dated ones appear to be of the Aurignacian type along the 
European, African, and Asia Minor shores of the Mediter- 
ranean, with preliminary reports from along the Nile river 
and down along the shores of Lake Tanganyika. The shell- 
heaps from the rest of the world would appear, from our 
present state of knowledge, to belong to more recent periods, 
i. e., Azilian, Neolithic, and even Bronze and Iron Ages down 
to present-day times in a few out-of-the-way corners such 
as Tierra del Fuego, Andaman Islands, etc., where we still 
find the natives living this mode of life. 

It would appear, therefore, that this mode of utilizing 
shellfish as a main source of food supply by man represents 
roughly a period between that of man's subsistence by 
means of hunting and of his development of agriculture, al- 
though it overlaps at times at both ends. 

Archeo- aad Ethno-Conchology 15 

It is the firm belief of the writer, in which several others 
concur, that Archeo-Conchology, when used in the sense of a 
comparative study of the shells found in the different types 
of shellheaps throughout the world, together with the other 
fauna! remains, will materially assist toward formulating a 
chronology of these various deposits. From independent 
studies already made locally by various scientists along 
these lines, it is quite evident that we have here a clue, pro- 
vided sufficient material be examined in the various coun- 
tries. Denmark, Portugal, New England, Florida, Brazil, 
Guiana, Japan, and China, where some work has already 
been done along these lines show in certain types of shells 
distinct changes in their shapes .and sizes. The oyster is 
one of the most prevalent types to show such a change. 

A comparative study of the types of shells consumed 
by the various occupants of the shellheaps should likewise 
throw some light upon the origin of these extinct people. 
Although the belief is rather widely spread that primi- 
tive man ate more or less anything in the way of food, cer- 
tain indications do not always bear out this idea. A study 
of the shellfish consumed by three Australian tribes living 
along the same coast of Queensland, with a similar supply of 
varieties of shellfish, indicates that they do not consume the 
same type of shellfish, although each tribe has individual 
names for all of the species. The Andaman Islanders, on the 
other hand, eat certain varieties of shellfish wh'ch the 
Australians evidently consider unfit as food. Likewise, cer- 
tain shells are taboo to the women from the Andaman 
Islands, some to the married, others to the unmarried ones. 
We also have the case of the Mya arenaria or soft shell 
clam. It is found in the Japanese shellheaps, and in those 
of the west and east coasts of the United States, but no 
report has as yet been found by the writer of its presence 
in the European shellheaps, although found living along the 
coasts and utilized today as bait for fishing purposes. 

To come down to our present day civilizations, we find 
the same condition of affairs. Most Europeans refuse to eat 
the soft shell clam, while Americans are very fond of them. 
Against which Europeans (the Latin races) consider snails 
a great delicacy, whereas most Americans actually abhor 
the idea of eating them. 


The writer is led to believe that the food habits of a 
race are among the ones most difficult to change, and if so, 
how much more difficult must it have been during pre- 
historic times when there did not exist the rapid means of 
transmitting new ideas and transportation of food supplies 
which we have at our command today ? 

We next arrive at the use that man has made in his 
daily life of shells as tools, then as ornaments. In this phase 
we make use of Archeo-Conchology in the case of the extinct 
races and Ethno-Conchology for the living types. 

An examination of any of our large museum collections 
with this idea of shell articles in mind is quite a surprise 
to most people. Unluckily this material is scattered very 
widely. Were it possible to bring together all these articles 
under their respective types, the story shown would, in the 
writer's opinion, illustrate man's original source of develop- 
ment of many of his most useful tools and ornaments. The 
scope of this paper is entirely too limited to even take up 
one of these in detail. But, we believe it of some interest to 
at least point out just a few uses, whose origin would appear 
to have been modelled after a shell. 

Spoons, trumpets, clothing (in New . Guinea and the 
west coast of Panama) , money, religious symbols (male and 
female phallic emblems due to primitive man's belief in 
their respective resemblance to the male and female sexual 
organs) , tweezers (to remove surplus hair) , bailers for boats, 
containers for water and for cooking purposes, chisels, axes, 
amulets, paint cups, as a source of dye supplies (purple), 
ornaments, such as pendants, bracelets, rings, necklaces, 
anklets, etc. By comparing the various types of any of these 
articles, say necklaces for example, the entire evolutionary 
process of development from the natural shell (such as a 
Dentalium not requiring any workmanship for stringing) 
or next shells with a hole roughly knocked through them, 
down to the most delicately worked beads manufactured 
from pieces of the shell, and exquisite gold reproductions 
(among the Incas, Egyptians, etc.) can be traced, throwing 
considerable light upon the type of culture attained by the 
respective peoples making them. 

It might be well to mention at this point that ornaments 
made of shell at one time occupied relatively the same posi- 

Archeo- and Ethno-Conchology 17 

tion in the mind of primitive man that precious stones rep- 
resent to the mind of present day civilized man. In the 
former case its value would necessarily increase with the 
distance from its place of origin, just as ours increases with 
its relative natural scarcity. Our jewelry stores are there- 
fore but a link in this evolutionary chain, beginning with 
shells as its source. 

The study of these types of prehistoric shell ornaments 
offers us a most illuminating point to trace out the prehis- 
toric trade routes of the world. In Egypt, a study made by 
the writer indicates that the Egyptians, according to the 
types of shells found in their tombs, secured 66% from the 
Red Sea, 3% from the Mediterranean and 31% from fche 
Nile river. Rather striking, when one considers that they 
had to carry the shells from the Red Sea across 200 miles 
of burning deserts. In the Sahara desert we again find 
among Neolithic remains many species of Red Sea shells 
together with a few Mediterranean species, although the 
former had to be carried over 1,000 miles as compared to 
some 200 miles for the latter. In America I will only quote a 
few examples. Among the Moundbuilders of the Mississippi 
valley and up into Canada we find several species of sea 
shells (Oliva, Marginella and Pyrula) brought from the 
Gulf of Mexico, probably via the Mississippi river, and in a 
cave discovered along the Delaware river in the state of 
Pennsylvania a Conus ternatus which is only to be found 
on the Pacific coast of Central America, over 3,000 miles dis- 
tant. If the material already collected of this description 
could be carefully examined by Conchologists much valuable 
information pertaining to these long lost trade routes could 
undoubtedly be secured with most interesting results. 

It likewise appears to the writer that it is possible 
through this line of research to procure considerable data 
pertaining to the so often discussed problem of whether 
man's many inventions were devised in widely separated 
parts of the globe, or as the other school maintains, each 
time at one particular place and distributed by diffusion. 
Studies along these lines embracing the use of shells as 
money, horns, or trumpets, and for the extraction of purple 
dyes, have already been started by various writers. While 
they show almost a world wide distribution, the data as yet 


secured is still too fragmentary in most cases to attempt to 
draw definite conclusions. 

The writer wishes to point out a very interesting and in- 
triguing phase of this science pertaining to the study of the 
use of shells as arrowheads, spearheads, etc. Such use has 
been reported from a Neolithic cave in North Africa, and 
from shell heaps along the coast of Texas, a specimen (ar- 
row head) from this locality being in the possession of the 
writer. Reports have likewise been made of such use in cer- 
tain islands of the Pacific Ocean, where shell, due to its 
great available supply, has played an almost dominant role 
in the daily lives of the natives, although, peculiar to relate, 
not in the form of shellheaps. Undoubtedly such material 
has often been overlooked, having been mistaken by ex- 
plorers as being broken pieces of shell and thrown away. 
It would be very interesting to secure further information 
on this point from other deposits in various sections of the 

While much has been written upon the subject of shell- 
heaps as likewise notations on the use of shell by man, the 
primary efforts have naturally been directed during these 
explorations towards the artifacts, although in recent years 
much greater attention has been devoted to the faunal re- 
mains. But how often do we find in the reports the stereo- 
typed statement, "all animal remains belong to living spe- 
cies" without attaching a list of these animal remains? It 
is the hope of the writer that those engaged in such ex- 
plorations may be induced to furnish him with such itemized 
lists, even if they be not published in their reports. If not 
of immediate value, they may some day throw considerable 
light upon certain points related to the general problem of 
the study of mankind. 

In closing I believe it may be interesting to give the 
reader a general outline of the work accomplished along this 
line of research. 

The writer, in his efforts to lay a foundation for future 
workers has, in four years' time, been able to get together 
6,000 typewritten pages of literature, bibliography, ab- 
stracts, and translations, the latter alone amounting to 500 
pages from the French, German, Spanish, Portuguese, and 
Japanese. Together with this material, classified by coun- 

Archeo- and Ethno-Concholo7y 19 

tries, a system of maps of each country has been started, 
upon which are placed numbered pins designating the shell- 
heap sites. 

To study the possible variation of the shells, a system 
of drawers has been secured in which are being stored the 
specimens of the shells found in the various deposits. This 
material is thus made permanently available at Tulane 
University for present and future study, a matter of con- 
siderable importance to future workers, as so many shell 
heaps have already disappeared due to man and nature. 

This science offers so many specialized lines of research 
that it has been impossible, due to lack of space, to more 
than touch upon a few of the outstanding ones. (Reprinted 
from circular.) 



Lorraine C. Alfred 

At the request of Charles E. Brown, secretary of the 
Wisconsin Archeological Society, I have prepared this brief 
article on the papers and items relating to Wisconsin shell- 
heaps and artifacts which have appeared in past issues of 
The Wisconsin Archeologist, with the hope that it may 
prove in some wise helpful to workers in the field of local 

Mr. Publius V. Lawson, a former very active member 
of the state society, was the first writer to contribute a 
paper on this subject. In the issue of October, 1902 (V. 2, 
No. 1), he contributed a paper bearing the title "Clam Eat- 
ers and Their Shellheaps in Winnebago County." This was 
the first description of the Lasleys Point shellheaps which 
Mr. Gerald C. Stowe mentions in his paper printed else- 
where in this issue (V. 17, No. 1, N. S.), and which he and 
Mr. Kannenberg have been excavating. Mr. Lawson men- 
tions 18 shellheaps as being located on this farm. He also 
briefly describes others formerly located on the shore of 
Little Butte des Morts Lake at West Menasha and at Ger- 
mania in Marquette County. 

In a monograph, "Summary of the Archeology of Win- 
nebago County," published in 1903, Mr. Lawson describes 
shellheaps located on Indian sites at Sills Creek, on Little 
Lake Butte des Morts, in Menasha Township, others at Rich- 
ter's Landing, at Piacenza and at Lasleys Point on Lake 
Winneconne (V. 2, Nos. 2 and 3). 

In another survey report, "The Archeology of the Lake 
Koshkonong Region," Mr. A. B. Stout and Mr. H. L. Skav- 
lem give descriptions of shellheaps at and near the foot of 
this large lake, and a cache of three large conch shells found 
there in 1842. 

Shellheaps occurring on various village sites along the 
Rock River between Beloit and Lake Koshkonong are de- 
scribed in a report on "Indian Village and Camp Sites of 
the Lower Rock River Valley," published in 1929 by C. E. 
Brown and T. T. Brown (V. 9, No. 1). 

Literature on Wisconsin Shell Heaps 21 

In 1910 Mr. Brown contributed a paper on "Notes on 
the Occurrence of Bone, Shell, Hematite and Lead Imple- 
ments in Wisconsin" (Vol. 9, No. 1). In 1913 the same 
writer published another paper on "The Occurrence of 
Marine Shells on Indian Sites in Wisconsin" (V. 12, No. 2), 
describing some of the large Gulf Coast univalves found in 
caches and with Indian burials in various parts of eastern 
Wisconsin. Some of these had been cut for use as vessels 
or ladles. Several of these large shells are in the museums 
at Madison and Milwaukee. 

In 1922 Alanson Skinner reported on three fish-shaped 
shell pendants found in some explorations conducted by 
J. A. Jeske and T. L. Miller at JCingston, in Green Lake 
County, and on an animal-shaped pendant in the Green Bay 
collection of Mr. John P. Schumacher of that city (N. S., 
V. 1, p. 19, 1922). These are mentioned by Dr. H. W. Kuhm 
in a monograph on "Wisconsin Indian Fishing, Primitive 
and Modern" (N. S., V. 7, No. 2, 1928). They are believed 
to have been fish lures. The author notes the presence of 
fresh water shells and snail shells on many old Indian sites 
in the state. 

From these and other records which the State Society 
possesses it may be stated that among the shell artifacts 
now in Wisconsin collections are beads of cylindrical, disc 
shaped and other forms, pendants, gorgets, fish lures, per- 
forated hoes, knives, scrapers, celts, fish sealers, pottery 
smoothers, discs, counters or dice, ladles, vessels and cut 
valves of clam shells. 



While examining some dirt brought to the surface of one of two 
mounds on the site of the Beaver Dam Boy Scout Camp Shaginappi, 
Mr. Albert H. Andorfer, a collector and member of the Society, made 
two interesting finds. One is a copper fish hook, two and one-half 
inches long and of heavy construction, not round but flattened on both 
sides, and with a remarkably sharp point. At the place where a line 
would be fastened there are two grooves about a sixteenth of an 
inch apart. The other discovery was a large flint arrowhead two and 
one-half inches long, with a bevel extending only along the left side 
of the blade. 

Camp Shaginappi is located on Lake Winnebago, a short distance 
from Calumet or Pipe Village. 

The first edition of a new pictorial bulletin of archeological data 
and facts to be known as the "National Archeological News" is sched- 
uled to come off the press on March 1. Mr. Gerald B. Fenstermaker, 
well known amateur archeologist of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, will be 
the editor, and it will be published by the Conestoga Publishing Com- 
pany of Lancaster. The publication, to be issued monthly, will 
contain illustrations and descriptive material prepared by the editor, 
relative to the artifacts and culture of the eastern prehistoric and 
historic Indians of both the Algonquin and Iroquoian families. The 
subscription price for one year will be $2.00. 

A miniature group exhibit of the Cayapa Indians of Ecuador, South 
America, has been placed on display at the Milwaukee Public Museum. 
Dr. S. A. Barrett, director of the museum, lived for 15 months among 
the Cayapas, studying their culture and customs for the Museum of 
the American Indian, New York City. According to Dr. Barrett, the 
exhibit is the only one in the country of a South American Indian 
tribe in its native environment. 

One of the last clay pipe factories, which once flourished in France, 
has closed. It was founded in 1825, furnished clay pipes for most 
of the nations of the world, and at the peak of its production (1895) 
was producing nearly 9.000.000 pipes a year. One of the molders, on 
the subject of the industry's decline, said, "The workman has forsaken 
the clay pipe for a briar it is not so fragile ." Archeologists will 
recall the many broken and fragmentary clay pipes yet to be found 
on many of the Indian camp and village sites of the state and the 

A limited edition of a book containing a compilation of biographi- 
cal sketches and photographs of Indian personalities of interest, en- 
titled "Indians of Today," with a foreword by the Hon. Charles Curtis, 
has been published by the Indian Council Fire, 108 N. Dearborn Street, 
Chicago, Illinois. Copies are available at $2.50 each. 

The museum of the Langlade County Historical Society, housed in 
the public library at Antigo, now has a well-catalogued and labeled 
collection of more than 500 items of historical and archeological in- 
terest. The Historical Records Survey of the Federal Writers' Projects 
of Wisconsin performed the work of arranging and recording this 
representative local collection. 

Archeological Notes 23 

Madeline Kneberg, holder of B.A. and M.A. degrees from the Uni- 
versity of Chicago and formerly associated with the head of the 
anthropology department there, will be curator of the Beloit College 
Logan Museum and head of the anthropology department during the 
absence of Professor Paul H. Nesbitt, who is studying at the Uni- 
versity of Chicago. Miss Kneberg won a wide reputation by disprov- 
ing the theory that human hair could be used as a racial criterion. 
After months of painstaking research she proved definitely that the 
theory was false. 

Noted for his work in preserving historical and archeological land- 
marks in Milwaukee, Supervisor Frederick Heath was recently elected 
an honorary member of The Wisconsin Archeological Society. 

The Wisconsin Archeological Society and the Milwaukee County 
Historical Society, with the assistance of the Milwaukee County Board 
of Supervisors, plan to mark appropriately the sites of eight of the 
most important Indian villages of the city and county. 

The Works Progress Administration Jias been asked to help make 
metal markers inscribed with descriptive legends to be placed on these 
sites of former Indian habitations. Markers will also be prepared 
for five main trails that were used by Indians and early settlers in 
coming to Milwaukee. They are the Sauk trail from Green Bay, the 
Green Bay trail (inland from the lake), the Chicago, Waukesha and 
Mukwonago trails. 

Four Indian mounds located on private property north of E. 
Capitol Drive and east of N. Richards Street will also be marked. 
Efforts are being made by the archeological and historical societies 
to have the county park board buy the land on which the mounds are 
located to preserve them. 

The Folklore Section of the Wisconsin Guide, Federal Writers' 
Project, has published a book, Wisconsin Place Name Legends. This 
contains about thirty Indian place legends, a number of which have 
not before appeared in print. Only one hundred copies were issued. 
Most of these have been placed in Wisconsin public libraries. A 
volume of Wisconsin Circus Lore is being prepared for publication. 

Hoi. u 

April, war 


The Joint Meeting 

Water Monster Inhabited Waters 

Unusual Banner Stones 




Accepted for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103 
Act, Oct. 3, 1917. Authorized Jan. 28, 1921. 

VOLUME 17, No. 2 

New Series 




Utaronam Arrfjrolngtral Smrirtg 

Incorporated March 23, 1903, for the purpose of advancing the study 
and preservation of Wisconsin antiquities 



Dr. H. W. Kuhm 


Dr. L. S. Buttles T. L. Miller John J. Knudsen 

H. W. Cornell W. E. Erdman 


Geo. A. West Dr. S. A. Barrett 

W. K. Andrews 
Dr. W. H. Brown 
Col. Marshall Cousins 
Rev. F. S. Dayton 
W. S. Dunsmoor 
Kermit Freckman 
Arthur Gerth 
J. G. Gregory 
O. J. Halvorson 
P. W. Hoffman 


M. F. Hulburt Dr. E. J. W. Notz 

Paul Joers Louis Pierron 

A. P. Kannenberg E. F. Richter 

Dr. A. L. Kastner M. C. Richter 

Dr. Louise P. Kellogg Jos. Ringeisen, Jr. 
R. J. Kieckhefer Paul Scholz 

Mrs. Theodore Koerner E. E. Steene 
Marie G. Kohler M. S. Thomson 

W. C. McKern R. S. Van Handel 

C. G. Schoewe G. R. Zilisch 


G. M. Thorne 
917 N. Forty-ninth Street, Milwaukee, Wis. 


Charles E. Brown 
State Historical Museum, Madison, Wis. 



STATE SURVEY Robert R. Jones, J. J. Knudsen, A. P. Kannenberg, 
M. F. Hulburt, W. E. Erdman, D. A. Blencoe, Kermit Freckman, 
V. E. Motschenbacher, G. E. Overton, O. L. Hollister, J. P. 
Schumacher, Rev. Chr. Hjermstad, F. M. Neu, M. P. Heim, H. F. 
Feldman, P. B. Fisher, V. S. Taylor. 

MOUND PRESERVATION C. G. Schoewe, Dr. Louise P. Kellogg, 
T. L. Miller, Dr. E. G. Bruder, Mrs. W. J. Devine, R. B. Halpin, Dr. 
L. V. Sprague, Mrs. H. A. Olson, Prof. R. S. Owen, A. H. Griffith, 
A. W. Pond, R. S. Van Handel, G. L. Pasco, W. S. Dunsmoor. 

PUBLIC COLLECTIONS Dr. S. A. Barrett, C. E. Brown, N. C. 
Behncke, H. L. Ward, Rev. F. S. Dayton, Prof. J. B. MacHarg, 
Prof. A. H. Sanford, Rev. P. B. Jenkins, W. M. Babcock, H. R. 
Holand, Miss Marie G. Kohler, Rev. A. J. Muench, Dr. P. 
H. Nesbitt. 

MEMBERSHIP G. M. Thome, Paul Joers, N. E. Carter, Dr. W. H. 
Brown, H. A. Zander, Louis Pierron, Paul Scholz, W. K. Andrew, 
Paul W. Hoffmann, A. W. Buttles, Clarence Harris, A. E. Koerner, 
Carl Baur, W. Van Beckum, Karl Aichelen, Dr. C. J. Heagle, Paul 
Boehland, E. R. Guentzel. 

ter Holsten, D. S. Howland, M. S. Thomson, Col. J. W. Jackson, 
Prof. A. H. Sanford. 

PUBLICITY W. C. McKern, M. C. Richter, Victor S. Craun. 


BIOGRAPHY Rachel M. Campbell, Dr. E. J. W. Notz, E. F. Richter, 
G. R. Zilisch, Paul Joers, Arthur Gerth. 

FRAUDULENT ARTIFACTS Jos. Ringeisen, Jr., Geo. A. West, 
E. F. Richter, W. C. McKern. 

PROGRAM Dr. L. S. Buttles, H. W. Cornell, Mrs. Theo. Koerner, 
E. E. Steene. 

PUBLICATIONS C. E. Brown, Dr. A. K. Fisher, W. E. Erdman. 

Kastner, R. J. Kieckhefer, L. R. Whitney, J. G. Gregory. 

LAPHAM RESEARCH MEDAL Dr. S. A. Barrett, Geo. A. West, 
Dr. A. L. Kastner, C. E. Brown, C. G. Schoewe, M. C. Richter. 


Life Members, $25.00 Endowment Members, $500.00 

Sustaining Members, $5.00 Annual Members, $2.00 

Institutional Members, $1.50 Junior Members, $ .50 

All communications in regard to The Wisconsin Archeological Society should 
be addressed to Charles E. Brown, Secretary and Curator, Office, State Historical 
Museum, Madison, Wisconsin. Contributions to The Wisconsin Archeologist should 
be addressed to him. Dues should be sent to G. M. Thorne, Treasurer, 917 N. 
49th Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 


Vol. 17, No. 2, New Series 



Dr. J. J. Davis, Taggart Brown 25 

Water Monster Inhabited Lakes of Wisconsin, 

Dorothy Moulding Brown 27 

Unusual Banner Stones, George A. West _ 32 

The Contemporary Scene in Wisconsin, 

Louise P. Kellogg 34 

The Joint Meeting Program 38 

Archeological Notes _ _ 43 

Dr. J. J. Davis .Frontispiece 


UtarottHin Ardjeolngtat 

Published Quarterly by The Wisconsin Archeologlcal Society 


VOL. 17 No. 2 

New Series 


Taggart Brown 


Dr. J. J. Davis of Madison, one of the oldest members 
of The Wisconsin Archeological Society, died in his room 
at the University Club on Friday, February 26, 1937, at the 
advanced age of 84 years. 

Dr. Davis was at the time of his death curator of the 
herbarium of the University of Wisconsin. He was one of 
four surviving members of the first graduating class from 
the University of Illinois. 

Since 1910 Dr. Davis had devoted his time to botany, as 
the curator of the herbarium. Before that he was a prac- 
ticing physician in Racine for many years. In 1894 he was 
president of the Wisconsin Medical society and in 1905 
president of the Racine Physicians and Business Men's 
Association. He was also a former president of the Wis- 
consin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters. His wife 
was the former Anna Margaret Snyder of Racine. She died 
at Madison 10 years ago. 

A daughter, Marguerite, Madison, and a son in Iowa 
survive Dr. Davis. 

Active, Vigorous 

After the death of his wife he moved to the University 
Club. Members knew him as a familiar figure in a corner 
of the reading room in a big chair, poring over the daily 
newspapers, a black skullcap on his head. 

Active and vigorous in spite of his years, Dr. Davis 
made two or three field trips each year, questing for speci- 
mens. Colleagues considered him an outstanding botanist, 


one of the world's greatest authorities on plant parasites. 
Friends told The State Journal that Dr. Davis was putting 
the finishing touches on a scientific paper he had been work- 
ing on for the past four years. 

One of 20 Graduates 

Dr. Davis received his degree at Illinois in 1872, along 
with 19 other graduates. At that time the university's en- 
rollment was 381 students, 53 of them women. Dr. Davis 
was a member of Delta Tau Delta, first fraternity organized 
at the Illinois school. After getting his degree, he went to 
Hahneman Medical college, Chicago, completing his course 
there in 1875. 

In Dr. Davis' undergraduate days the whole of the 
University of Illinois was housed in one building containing a 
men's dormitory, chapel, art gallery, and laboratory in addi- 
tion to the regular classrooms. This building was blown 
down in 1878. 

Dr. Davis knew Dr. Philo R. Hoy of Racine, one of Wis- 
consin's pioneer archeologists, and through his acquaint- 
ance with him also acquired an interest in Wisconsin 
archeological problems. When The Wisconsin Archeological 
Society was organized in 1903 as an incorporated state 
society he became one of its members, and at different 
times during the succeeding years he served on some of its 
standing and special committees. He also presided at at 
least one of the annual Joint Meetings which The Wisconsin 
Archeological Society and the Academy have been holding 
for many years. Although always busy with his botanical 
researches Dr. Davis found great pleasure in handling and 
admiring a finely shaped arrowpoint or a highly polished 
stone axe or hatchet. These brought back to him fond 
memories of some he had himself collected and treasured 
during his own boyhood. In late years when he sometimes 
visited the State Historical Museum he would linger for a 
moment before an exhibition case where such specimens 
were displayed and perhaps briefly discuss them with a 

The passing of this outstanding Wisconsin scientist will 
be regretted by many of the older members of The Wiscon- 
sin Archeological Society who knew Dr. Davis well. 

Water Monster Inhabited Lakes of Wisconsin 27 


Dorothy Moulding Brown 

In Wisconsin Indian Place Legends, a booklet recently 
published by the Folklore Section of the Wisconsin Federal 
Writers' Project, there are a number of aboriginal legends 
connected with the Wisconsin and Rock Rivers and Lakes 
Winnebago, Koshkonong, Green, Thunder, and other lakes 
in which water monsters figure more or less prominently. 
No one knows how old some of these myths may be. 
Doubtless, mos&oi them go back into the past for a hundred 
years, several' hundred years, or an even longer period of 
time. All of our Wisconsin tribesmen appear to have firmly 
believed that in the many lakes and water courses in their 
tribal domains and hunting grounds all over Wisconsin 
there were present animal water demons of a very fierce 
and destructive nature. 

Some of these mythical water monsters were huge 
snakes, great turtles, monster fish, bears, beavers, or pan- 
ther-like animals, the latter often known by the name of 
water spirits. 

These water animals lived in dens or lairs at the bottoms 
of lakes and streams and the very superstitious red men 
believed them responsible for many of the water phenomena 
such as storms on water, waterspouts, rapids, and whirl- 
pools. They were responsible for the overturning of birch- 
bark or dugout canoes and for the drowning of swimmers. 
Such victims were often carried down by the water mon- 
sters into their dens and there devoured or imprisoned, 
their bodies to be later released. Such beliefs are still cur- 
rent among many Indians in Wisconsin. 

In passing by or over waters believed or known to be 
inhabited by these water spirits, Indian canoemen paused 
to cast handfuls of kinnikinnik, or Indian tobacco, upon 
their surfaces to quiet and obtain the good will of these 
denizens. Such strange proceedings have been mentioned 


by early French fur traders and other travelers and were 
also told to other white men by the Indians themselves. 

Among other lakes and streams not already mentioned 
which these water monsters were known to inhabit were 
Lac du Flambeau, the Chain o' Lakes at Waupaca, Shawano 
Lake, Okauchee Lake, Poygan Lake, and Devils Lake. Ac- 
cording to the Chippewa Indians an evil spirit lodges in the 
waters of Manitowish River, hence its name. 

The water panthers, called by the Winnebago, Wakteci, 
have been described as huge, long-tailed animals with horns 
on their heads, large fiery eyes, and powerful jaws and 
claws. At night they came out on the river or lake banks. 
"Only a few Indians have ever seen them and some persons 
have become demented by seeing them." 

When Earthmaker created the world he thrust four of 
these water spirits through it to keep the globe from re- 
volving and to quiet it. 

On the north shore of Lake Mendota, opposite Gover- 
nors Island at Madison, is a known Indian den of a group 
of these underwater panthers. They have been held re- 
sponsible for a number of drownings which have taken 
place here in recent years of both Indians and white men. 

These water spirits do not always remain at this station ; 
some of them roam about the lake searching for possible 

It is believed that at Mendota originated the Madison 
legend that for some unknown reason Lake Mendota must 
each year possess the bodies of drowned white persons. Some 
of these were reported to have been students of the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin. On old Indian who makes more or less 
of a business of finding the bodies of drowned persons is said 
to have recovered several here. 

The tale is told of a monster fish that lives in the deep 
water off Maple Bluff. This fish is supposed to be an 
Indian who at one time killed, roasted, and ate a spirit 
raccoon which he and another native had hunted, following 
its tracks from the northern shore of Lake Monona. For 
this rash act this unfortunate Indian, venturing into the 

Water Monster Inhabited Lakes of Wisconsin 29 

water because of a great thirst whick came upon him, was 
transformed into a huge fish. 

On still dark nights this monster disports itself in the 
water below the Bluff and may be heard beating its war 
drum and singing its war song. For years no Indian of the 
early Winnebago Tenney Park village, known as Cheedah, 
would venture very near this place at any time. Those who 
did nearly always met with some accident. 

In Wisconsin Indian legendary lore "the powerful thun- 
derbirds" and the water spirits were often at war with each 
other. Devils Lake obtained its evil name Tawahcunchuk- 
dah Sacred Lake from a battle of this nature which once 
took place here. The Thunderers shot their "arrows" 
(thunderbolts) down into the water and the water spirits 
threw great columns of water and jagged boulders into 
the air to combat their enemies. Thus the rocky bluffs 
surrounding this beautiful lake were rent and tumbled 
about as they now are. 

A young Indian hunter who ventured near was promised 
a reward by the water spirits if he would shoot and kill 
some of the Thunderers, but the Thunderers also promised 
him a reward if he would destroy some of the water mon- 
sters. Not wishing to offend either spirit band, the young 
hunter wisely departed from the scene. 

In Potawatomi and Winnebago Indian days a terrible 
water monster in the form of a fish ranged over the whole 
course of the Rock River, from the vicinity of present Beloit 
to the foot of Lake Koshkonong. 

In the early spring the presence of this terror was 
known by the manner in which he had, in a mad rage, 
broken up the ice in the stream. Some Indians believe that 
he still occasionally reappears in his old haunts along this 

A Menomini legend of Sturgeon Bay tells of two Indian 
girls who, while playing on the sands, were lured down into 
the waters of the Bay by a big hairy snake. Their father 
found their footprints on the sandy shore and guessed what 
had happened to his daughters. With the help of Manabus 


and the Thunderers the girls were released from the wig- 
wam of the monster and safely returned to their sorrowing 

In Lake Winnebago there lived a very large fish, prob- 
ably a sturgeon, with a large appetite for moose, elk, and 
deer. It caught these in the channel of the lake inlet and 
devoured horns, hide, hoofs, and all. One day some Win- 
nebago found this large fish floating on the surface of the 
water; it was dead. Searching for the cause, they found 
the branching antler of an elk protruding from its side. 
The fish swallowed the elk but had been unable to digest 
the antler. 

Inhabiting Lake Koshkonong was a water monster of 
great power and terrible form. Two Indian boys once set 
out on this lake in canoes. The canoes were capsized and 
later the bodies of the boys were found floating in the lake. 
There was white clay in their ears and nostrils, a sure 
Indian sign that the water monster had caught and drowned 

At Green Lake "more than a thousand years ago" a 
Sioux war party which had come by canoe to attack the 
Winnebago villages was destroyed by water spirits friendly 
to the Winnebago. The latter caused the canoes to be 
caught in a large whirlpool which they created and to be 
sucked down into the lake. Thus the Winnebago villages 
were saved. 

A huge serpent formed the bed of the Wisconsin River 
by wriggling down from the forests of Northern Wisconsin 
toward the Mississippi River. All other serpents fled be- 
fore this monster. The large serpent in his course burst 
through walls of solid rock forming the Wisconsin Dells. 

In Thunder Lake a Thunder bird is imprisoned by a 
water spirit who vanquished him during a struggle while 
the bird was trying to carry him away. The bird is still 

In a lake near Peshtigo is the den of a great white bear, 
the king of all bears. This lake, the Indians believe, is the 
window of a nearby mountain. Through this window the 

Water Monster [nhabited Lakes of Wisconsin 31 

bear observes what is going on in the world and keeps an 
eye on his enemies, the Thunderers. 

At an Indian crossing of the Chain o' Lakes at Waupaca, 
there formerly lurked a water monster who caught unwary 
Indians who were fording the stream. 

Many other legends of the lakes and streams of Wis- 
consin are as interesting. Spirit bears are believed to den 
up some of the large springs on the Menomini Indian Res- 
ervation. Flames may arise from these if their bear resi- 
dents are provoked by poking tree trunks or limbs into the 
water or throwing in sticks or stones. 

Offerings of tobacco, implements, and animal bones were 
formerly made by the Indians to the denizens of some of 
these springs. 

The reverence which some Wisconsin Indians still have 
for the waterspirits and thunderbirds and the myths con- 
cerning them is indicated by the presence of figures repre- 
senting them on beadwork pouches and bags, on wooden 
pipestems and on other articles of aboriginal manufacture 
and use. 

Charles E. Brown published a paper on the "Sacred 
Springs" of Wisconsin in 1928 and George Overton one on 
"The Sacred Springs of the Lake Poygan Region." Both 
contain information bearing on the subject of this paper. 



Geo. A. West 

There are several groups or classes of prehistoric articles 
of stone, many of them of wide distribution, the purposes 
and significance of which are not fully determined. They 
are often referred to as "ceremonials," an inappropriate 
term since there is no certainty that the objects were used 
ceremonially. These groups of objects have been variously 
named from their form or supposed use, but until their 
use is definitely known, it seems safer to assign names sug- 
gested by form only. This plan has become quite general 
and "boatstones, cache disks and blades, cones, cupstones, 
discoidals, boatstones, spools, and tubes are well-known ex- 
amples. As our knowledge increases and uses become known, 
more appropriate names will be suggested. 

The bannerstone group is exceedingly varied in form, 
but certain characteristics are ever present in their shape, 
of such a nature as to suggest the use of the term "banner- 
stones" in classifying them, The dominating features are 
the axial perforations and the extension of the body into 
two wing-like projections. Among the various forms are a 
two-bladed axe with broad wings, suggesting those of the 
butterfly or bird. Nothing is known of their use or the 
significance attached to them. The perforation would seem 
to indicate that they were mounted on a handle of some 
kind. Their use is supposed to have been for ceremonial 
purposes, and as they are too fragile for v/eapons or tools, 
it is suggested that the bannerstone was the symbol of 
ancient bird myth. 

The distribution of bannerstones is quite general 
throughout the Mississippi Valley and the Great Lakes 
region. These objects are of stone usually selected for its 
fine grain and attractive color. Much skill is displayed in 
their manufacture. They are rare compared with the great 
numbers of Indian artifacts found here. 

Unusual Banner Stones 33 

Two unusual bannerstones were found on the northeast 
quarter of Section six, Town of Hammond, St. Croix County, 
Wisconsin, on the farm of Michael Dillon in 1891 or 1892. 
Passing across a part of Mr. Dillon's farm was what is 
known as a "dry run" or waterway, which formerly drained 
a lake three or four miles east of his farm. The year they 
were found, high water caused this run to assume the pro- 
portions of a quite large river for some time ; the angle of the 
abutments to a bridge crossing the run forced the water 
against the bank of the stream, resulting in the water wash- 
ing out the banks for a distance of fifteen or twenty feet 
back from the bridge. The Dillon boys found these objects 
in the spring, below the washout, after the water had sub- 
sided, and until sent to the wrifer, they have been in the 
possession of M. E. Dillon, attorney at law, Ashland, Wis- 

The larger one is six inches long, made of greenstone, 
well polished, and unique in having the edge of each blade 
formed into two scallops. It is large and skillfully made. 

The smaller one is nearly five inches long, of banded 
slate, well-polished, of the same general form as the larger 
one. All along its upper edges are tally marks. It is 
peculiar also in having a ridge on one side outside of and 
parallel to the axial perforation, while on the opposite side 
it is perfectly flat. 

These unusual examples are now in the collection of Mr. 
Joseph Ringeisen of Milwaukee. A description of the "Ban- 
ner Stone Ceremonials of Wisconsin," by Charles E. Brown, 
is published in The Wisconsin Archeologist, Volume 10, 
No. 4. 



Louise P. Kellogg 

At the last census (1930) Wisconsin was credited with 
a population of nearly 3,000,000, of whom over 2,500,000 
were native born. This indicates that the assimilation of 
Wisconsin's large foreign colonies has proceeded rapidly. 
Significant facts in this respect are the decline of foreign 
language newspapers and of foreign speaking churches. In 
the Methodist denomination, for example, the German Con- 
ferences have been abandoned, and the German Methodist 
churches are uniting with their neighbors, the English 

One significant element of the population is Indian, com- 
prising 11,548 chiefly on reservations in Shawano, Ashland 
and other northern counties. 

Wisconsin has been for the century since its organiza- 
tion as a territory (1836) preponderantly agricultural and 
rural. Now, however, industry has overtaken the agricul- 
tural interests as is indicated by an urban population of 
one and a half million, slightly in excess of the rural group. 
Those employed in industry exceed those in agriculture by 
45,000. This indicates a shifting of the population to the 
large cities of the Lake Michigan terrain, where Kenosha, 
Racine, Milwaukee, and even Sheboygan, and Manitowoc 
have become heavily industrialized. A second area of this 
type is in the Lake Winnebago-Fox River Valley, where the 
waterpower of the lower Fox has been used for mills, chief- 
ly paper making. The upper Wisconsin furnishes a third 
area of industrial enterprises. 

Our three million people have evolved for themselves a 
government of a modern democracy. Aside from the usual 
executive, legislative and judicial departments of govern- 
ment a series of permanent administrative commissions 
touch Wisconsin life in nearly every department. Farmers 
are served by the Department of Agriculture and Markets ; 
nearly all counties have a county agent, who gives advice 
on all phases of farm life. The Four H clubs serve to keep 
the young people on the farms and each year the university 

The Contemporary Scene in Wisconsin 35 

provides a farm week of entertainment and education. The 
Industrial Commission serves labor in much the same way. 
It was originally created to enforce labor laws. In 1911 
the administration of the Workmen's Compensation act was 
added to its duties. It maintains public employment of- 
fices in the principal cities of the state ; supervises appren- 
ticeship, wage collection and analyzes and publishes indus- 
trial statistics. 

Wisconsin's penal and charitable institutions, eighteen 
in number, are under the Board of Control, appointed by the 
governor. The Tax Commission was one of the earliest of 
these administrative boards, having functioned for about 
forty years. The Public Service Commission, originally or- 
ganized to regulate railways, now has regulatory charge of 
all public utilities, of their securities, of all transportation 
and motor carriers. 

One of Wisconsin's resources consists of its natural 
beauty and scenery, which attracts thousands of tourists 
every season. The Conservation Commission is appointed 
to care for wild life, game and fish ; it also has charge of 
the state parks, now fourteen in number, and of the four 
state forests, set aside to preserve and increase the wood- 
lands. Important in this respect are the building and up- 
keep of roads, which have an especial commission for the 
highways of the state. Wisconsin's resorts are chiefly in 
the northern lake districts, but Lakes Geneva and Delavan, 
the Four Lakes of Madison, and the Oconomowoc lake dis- 
trict west of Milwaukee attract thousands of visitors and 
summer residents. One such resource appears neglected, 
the beauty and grandeur of the upper Mississippi cannot 
be reached by steamboats and is but little known. 

Education is considered a state function in Wisconsin, 
and its urban and rural school systems are cared for by an 
elected state superintendent and his aids. The system is 
crowned by the State University, which ranks among the 
leading universities of the nation, nine teachers' colleges 
prepare the personnel of the educational system; while ex- 
tension work directed by the university and adult education 
under the Board of Vocational Education gives every in- 
habitant of the state a chance for intellectual improvement. 


The free Library Commission was one of the first agencies 
to provide traveling libraries for the more sparsely settled 
portions of the state ; while the legislative reference library 
was a creation of a Wisconsin educator. A library school, 
connected with the university, gives professional training. 
The state (law) library and the Historical Society are main- 
tained by the state for these respective interests. 

One cultural interest which does not receive aid from 
the state is religion. As required by the state and federal 
constitution there is a complete separation of church and 
state. None the less the church in its many branches has 
penetrated to every part of the state and has left its mark 
on all its inhabitants. The Roman Catholic and Lutheran 
churches have largely been the gift of foreign immigrants ; 
while the Baptists, Congregationalists, Methodists, Protest- 
ant Episcopalians, Presbyterians and a number of smaller 
sects are functioning throughout the entire state. Art, 
music and drama are also free of state direction. Milwau- 
kee has an excellent Art School, while museums abound in 
nearly every city, and an annual exhibition is held. Mil- 
waukee Germans long maintained a theater; but with the 
rise of the "movie" theaters local talent has declined or been 
absorbed. Athletitc sports, both summer and winter, are on 
the increase, especially the winter skiing tournaments, ice 
boating, skating, and the game of curling. Golf links are 
to be found near every large city; the many lakes afford 
opportunity for yachting and interstate regattas are held 
each summer. The football and basketball contests of the 
schools attract thousands of spectators. Motoring is the 
most universal of pastimes and the "Friends of Our Native 
Landscape" have a flourishing Wisconsin chapter, that vis- 
its and conserves the beauty of the out-of-doors. 

Thus the life of Wisconsin people is very largely insti- 
tutionalized. Industry, agriculture, education and amuse- 
ments are community interests. Art, drama, music and re- 
ligious services are shared by great numbers. Even health 
and illness are controlled by state and local agencies. Hos- 
pitals are numerous throughout the state and the Wiscon- 
sin Memorial hospital at the university is open to patients 
throughout the state. The care of the unfortunate, the 

The Contemporary Scene in Wisconsin 37 

deaf, blind and crippled children are receiving scientific 
oversight and cures. 

One of the latest interests of the state, as well as of the 
nation, is security. Wisconsin has the first Employment 
Insurance law in any state. Mothers' pensions have been 
in operation for some time, and now Old Age Pensions are 
being introduced. A teachers' contributory pension law 
has been in operation for some years. The state employees, 
for whom there is an efficient civil service, have not yet 
received retirement allowances. 

Wisconsin's state motto, adopted in 1851, is "Forward," 
on the dome of her fine capitol building is a gilded statue 
of "Forward" and the people of the state pride themselves 
on being progressive. Wisconsin's face is turned to the 
future, while thoroughly grounded in its past. Wisconsin 
was discovered by the French over three centuries ago; 
belonged to the empire of France until 1763 ; was part of the 
British Empire for two more decades, and remained a fur 
trade preserve under British influence for thirty more. In 
1816 two American forts began the period of military occu- 
pation, which extended another score of years. As a ter- 
ritory for twelve years (1836-48) population poured into 
its borders from America and Europe. In 1848, still a 
pioneer community., Wisconsin attained statehood. During 
the Civil War Wisconsin furnished 90,000 soldiers to the 
Union Army. After the Civil War business and lumbering 
began on a large scale, and the state's resources were merci- 
lessly exploited. With the turn of the century a measure 
of conservation began both for nature and man. With new 
appreciation of the community interests in contradistinction 
to individualism Wisconsin now prepares to go forward in 
co-operation and conservation to a brilliant future. 



The Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, 
The Wisconsin Archeological Society and the Wisconsin 
Museums Conference held a Joint Meeting at the Milwaukee 
Public Museum, Milwaukee, on April 9 and 10, 1937. The 
program of the two days' meeting follows: 



The Milwaukee Public Museum 
9:00 to 10:00 o'clock 

Opening Session 

Meeting in the Museum Trustees Room 
10:00 o'clock 

Address of welcome. Mr. George A. West 

President of the 
Board of Trustees of The Milwaukee Public Museum 

Announcements of business sessions and 
appointment of committees' 

Following the general opening session the program of the meeting 
proceeded in two sections, running concurrently in different rooms and 
designated as Section A and Section B respectively. 

Section A 

Meeting in the Museum Trustees Room 
10:15 to 12:30 o'clock 

1. Indian uses of shell. Herbert W. Kuhm, Milwaukee. 10 minutes. 

2. The Fort Atkinson Museum. Zida C. Ivey, Fort Atkinson. 10 

3. Wooden vessels of the Wisconsin Indians. Charles G. Schoewe. 
10 minutes. 

4. Middle and Lower Mississippi Valley pottery. Louis S. Buttles. 
10 minutes. 

5. Miniature slides for schools and museums. John B. MacHarg, 
Appleton. 20 minutes. Illustrated. 

6. Wisconsin joins the ranks of earliest inhabited areas in America. 
Alonzo W. Pond, St. Croix Falls. 15 minutes. Lantern slides. 

Program of the Joint Meeting 39 

Section B 

Meeting in the Museum Lecture Hall 
10:15 to 12:30 o'clock 

7. Carterius tenosperma Potts, a fresh-water sponge new to Wiscon- 
sin. James R. Neidhoefer, Marquette University. 15 minutes. 
Lantern slides. 

8. Blood supply of the tympanic membrane of the Frog (Report on 
work done on Grant-in-Aid for Research allotted by the Academy 
in 1936). Paul L. Carroll, Marquette University. 15 minutes. 
Lantern slides. 

9. The distribution of Sculpins (Cottidae) in Lake Michigan. Hilary 
J. Deason, University of Michigan. (By title.) 

10. Honey in the "Primitive Physic" of John Wesley. H. A. Schuette, 
University of Wisconsin. 20 minutes. 

11. The relation of Mohawkian facies to the Wisconsin Arch. Carl 
A. Bays, University of Wisconsin. 10 minutes. Lantern slides. 

12. A new species of Receptaculites from the Silurian of Wisconsin. 
W. H. Twenhofel, University of Wisconsin. 5 minutes. Lantern 

13. Conquering the Frozen North; or The Romance of mining gold 
near the Arctic Circle. Rufus M. Bagg, Appleton. 45 minutes. 
Lantern slides. 


Section A 

Meeting in the Museum Trustees Room 
2:00 to 4:15 o'clock 

14. A fourteenth century battleaxe unearthed in upper Michigan. 
Hjalmar R. Holand, Ephraim. 10 minutes. 

15. The archeology of Washington Island. Alton K. Fisher, Milwau- 
kee. 15 minutes. 

16. The Winnebago culture focus. A. P. Kannenberg, Oshkosh. 10 

17. A French Trader's burial plot. A. P. Kannenberg. Oshkosh. 10 

18. A cache of Ohio blue flint blades. Ralph Buckstatf, Oshkosh. 10 

19. Proposed removal of French inhabitants from Wisconsin, 1816- 
1820. Louis P. Kellogg, Madison. 15 minutes. 

Section B 

Meeting in the Museum Lecture Hall 
2:00 to 4:15 o'clock 

20. A new Wisconsin meteorite. Rufus M. Bagg, Appleton. 10 min- 
utes. Lantern slides. 


21. Insoluble residues of the Mohawkian series. Laurence F. Dake 
and Carl A. Bays, University of Wisconsin. 10 minutes. Lantern 

22. The bottom sediments of Lake Monona. W. H. Twenhofel, Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin. 15 minutes. Lantern slides. 

23. Recent drainage changes in Jackson County. Ira A. Edwards, 
Milwaukee Public Museum. 10 minutes. Lantern slides. 

24. A Juncus new to North America. S>. C. Wadmond, Delavan. 5 

25. Photosynthesis of aquatic plants at different depths in Trout Lake, 
Wisconsin. W. M. Manning, C. Juday, and M. Wolf, University 
of Wisconsin. 15 minutes. Lantern slides. 

26. The growth of the large-mouthed black bass in the waters of 
Wisconsin. George W. Bennett, University of Wisconsin. 15 
minutes. Lantern slides. 

27. Observations on the distribution of cultural features on the Miss- 
issippi delta fringe. V. C. Finch, University of Wisconsin. 15 
minutes. Lantern slides. 

Business Meeting 

Meeting in the Museum Trustees Room 
4:30 o'clock 

The Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters held its 
annual business meeting at this time. Members of the several com- 
mittees and of the Council were present. Applications for member- 
ship and also for the Grant-in-Aid for Research were acted on at this 

Tour of the Milwaukee Museum 

4:30 o'clock 

The Museum had undergone marked changes in the last three 
years during the government project work, so arrangements were 
made for a conducted tour, lasting about an hour. 

Academy Dinner 

Held in the Green Room, Hotel Schroeder 
6:00 o'clock 

The dinner was informal and was open to all members of the 
three societies, and to all non-members who wished to attend. 

Evening Lecture 

Held in the Lecture Hall, Milwaukee Public Museum 
'8:00 o'clock 

Program of the Joint Meeting 41 

Gadgets and Galaxies 

Joel Stebbins and Albert E. Whitford, Astronomers of the Wash- 
burn Observatory. Demonstration and lantern slides. 


Section A 

Meeting in the Museum Trustees Room 
10:00 to 12:30 o'clock 

28. Electoral suffrage in Wisconsin. John G. Gregory, Milwaukee. 
15 minutes. 

29. Spenser as an historian in prose. Rudolf B. Gottfried, University 
of Wisconsin. 15 minutes. 

30. University of Wisconsin genesis. Ruth J. Shuttleworth, Madison. 
10 minutes. 

31. Jefferson County cemetery lore. Victor S. Taylor, Lake Mills. 
10 minutes. 

32. Wisconsin circus lore. Dorothy M. Brown, Madison. 10 minutes. 

33. Cave legends. Victor S. Craun, Milwaukee. 10 minutes. 

34. The Wisconsin Guide, Federal Writers Project. Charles E. Brown, 
Madison. 10 minutes. 

35. The last French Traders of Butte des Morts. George Overton, 
Butte des Morts. 15 minutes. 

36. Recently discovered Mogollon culture in southwest New Mexico. 
Paul H. Nesbitt, Beloit. 15 minutes. 

37. Indian mounds at Horicon and vicinity. Wilton E. Erdman, 
Horicon. 10 minutes. 

38. Types of Pioneer Stories and Songs. Albert O. Barton, Madison. 
15 minutes. 

39. The Wisconsin Historical Records Survey. J. E. Boell, Madison. 
10 minutes. 

40. The Federal Art Project. Charlotte M. Partridge, Milwaukee. 
10 minutes. 

Section B 

Meeting in the Library Club Rooms 
10:00 to 12:30 o'clock 

41. Co-ordinating meteor observations by radio. Edward A. Halbach, 
Milwaukee. 15 minutes. Lantern slides. 

42. Celestial photographic photometry with small cameras. Lynn 
Matthias, Milwaukee. 15 minutes. Lantern slides. 

43. Amateur telescope making by high school students. M. J. W. 
Phillips, Milwaukee. 15 minutes. Lantern slides. 


44. The American elm as a source of capric acid. H. A. Schuette, 
University of Wisconsin. 10 minutes. 

45. The characteristics and composition of the seed oil of the hack- 
berry. Raymond G. Zehnpfennig (Introduced by H. A. Schuette), 
University of Wisconsin. 15 minutes. 

46. Seasonal variations in the needle oil of the White Spruce, Picea 
glauca (Moench) Voss. [Picea canadensis (Miller), P. alba 
(Link)] H. N. Calderwood, University of Wisconsin. 15 minutes. 
Lantern slides. 

47. The present status of Dane County prairie flora. Frank W. Gould, 
University of Wisconsin. 10 minutes. 

48. The root systems of some Wisconsin prairie plants preliminary 
report. Charles F. McGraw, University of Wisconsin. 15 minutes. 

49. Dynamics of some prairie plants in Juneau County, Wisconsin. 
J. Walter Thomson, University of Wisconsin. 15 minutes. Lan- 
tern slides. 

50. Baranowice, an estate in Polish Silesia. Loyal Durand, Jr., Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin. 15 minutes. Lantern slides. 


No formal program of papers was planned for the afternoon. 
Members of the three societies followed their own plans for this time. 
The Museum was open from 1 to 5 o'clock for visitors. Miss Partridge, 
Director of the Layton School of Art and the Layton Art Gallery, and 
also State Director of the Federal Art Project, entertained members 
of the three societies at the Art Gallery. 


The meetings of Section A were especially well attended, from 
50 to 75 persons being present at each meeting. Mr. Geo. A. West 
presided, Mr. Charles E. Brown acting as secretary of these sessions 
of archeologists, museologists, writers and artists. A resolution favor- 
ing the permanent preservation of Garlic Island in Lake Winnebago 
and of the Eulrich garden beds near Neenah, introduced by A. P. 
Kannenberg, was adopted. 

Archeological Notes 43 



February 15, 1937. Dr. H. W. Kuhm presiding:. There were fifty 
members and visitors in attendance. Secretary Brown announced the 
election to membership of Conrad F. Oakland and Robert B. Hartman, 
Milwaukee, and Walter Jackola, Commonwealth, annual members and 
of John Peter Knudsen, Jr., Milwaukee, a junior member. All had 
been regularly elected at the Directors' meeting held at Hotel 
Aberdeen earlier in the evening. The Central Section, American 
Anthropological Association, would meet at Iowa City, Iowa, on April 
16-17. This meeting and a meeting of the Milwaukee County Historical 
Society to be held at the City Club, Milwaukee, on February 28; all 
members were requested to attend. 

The program of the meeting consisted of a lecture on "Winter 
Customs of the Indians" by Mr. G. M. Thorne. It was very interesting 
and was discussed by the Messrs. Geo. A. West, John G. Gregory, Dr. 
A. L. Kastner, H. 0. Zander, R. B. Hartman, C. E. Brown and other 
members. Exhibits of snowshoes, snow snakes, ice arrows, whip tops 
and other specimeus were made. 

Mr. Wilton E. Erdman told of the survey work being carried on 
by himself in the Horicon Lake region in Dodge County. Mr. Brown 
reported that field notes had been received from Merrill P. Henn, 
Union Grove, and A. G. Saunders, Ontario. Mr. Walter Bubbert 
spoke of the proposed Kettle Moraine State Park in Waukesha and 
Washington counties. At the close of the meeting exhibits were made 
and discussed by the Messrs. G. R. Zilisch, Walter Bubbert, C. F. 
Oakland, Merrill P. Henn and Dr. L. S. Buttles. 

March 15, 1937. Annual meeting, Dr. H. W. Kuhm presiding. 
About one hundred members were in attendance. The Secretary 
announced the election to honorary membership of Dr. P. L. Scanlan, 
Prairie du Chien, and the death at Madison of Dr. J. J. Davis, an old 
member of the Society. Dr. P. L. Scanlan, a Wisconsin historian of 
note, and author of a new book on Prairie du Chien history, spoke 
briefly in appreciation of the honor conferred upon him by the Society. 

Mr. Joseph Ringeisen, Jr., reported on the work done by the 
Frauds Committee and Dr. L. S. Buttles presented a report of the 
Program Committee. Treasurer G. M. Thorne read his annual report 
which was accepted. An auditing committee consisting of the Messrs. 
Dr. A. K. Fisher, C. G. Schoewe and W. C. McKern was appointed. 

Secretary Brown read the report of the nominating committee 
(Messrs. T. L. Miller, Geo. A. West and Joseph Ringeisen, Jr.) ap- 
pointed to nominate officers for the ensuing year. This report re- 
nominating all of the officers of the previous year was accepted. 
There were no other nominations and the Secretary was ordered to 
cast a ballot for their election. This was done and these officers 
declared elected. 

Mr. Walter Bubbert gave an interesting illustrated lecture on 
"Indian Uses of Shrubs and Trees" describing the numerous uses 
made by the Wisconsin tribes of the roots, bark, buds, flowers, leaves, 
fruits and nuts as food, medicines, charms, dyes and in woodworking, 
etc. Various members and guests participated in the discussion which 


Mr. Frederic Heath exhibited a series of large plaster casts pre- 
pared by the Milv/aukee Art Project, WPA, for the marking of the 
Sauk, Waukesha and Chicago trails at Milwaukee. These were 
greatly appreciated by the members. 

Exhibits of Indian stone and copper implements were made by G. 
R. Zilisch, H. O. Zander and Paul Scholz. 

A list of the officers elected at this annual meeting appears on 
one of the front pages of this issue of The Wisconsin Archeologist. 

The annual joint meeting of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, 
Arts and Letters, The Wisconsin Archeological Society and the Wis- 
consin Museums Conference will be held at the Milwaukee Public 
Museum on Friday and Saturday, April 9 and 10. 

Members and guests of the three state societies are cordially 
invited to attend the meeting. Two concurrent sections will be held 
for the reading of papers. Section A for the presentation of papers 
on archeology, history, literature and the social sciences. Section B 
for the presentation of papers on astronomy, botany, chemistry, 
genetics, geology, mathematics, physics, etc., and the several applied 
sciences. Mr. Charles E. Brown, president of the Wisconsin Museums 
Conference, acted as director of the meetings of Section A on Friday 
morning and afternoon. 

The Central Section, A. A. A. and the Society for American 
Archaeology will hold a Regional meeting at Iowa City, Iowa, on 
April 16 and 17. The committee on State Archeological Surveys, 
National Research Council, will probably hold its last meeting at this 
time. Its work will be taken over by the Society for American 
Archeology. At this Iowa City meeting an invitation will be extended 
to the societies to hold their 1938 meeting at Milwaukee. 


The first issue of the National Archeological News published by 
Gerald B. Fenstermaker, editor, at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, on March 
1, 1937. This issue contains interesting articles on "Snow Snake," a 
Double Burial, a Thunderbird Effigy, Little Stone Dolls, Indian Bead 
Standards and others. We extend to the editor our best wishes for 
the success of this magazine. 

The January, 1937, issue of American Antiquity, quarterly review 
of American archeology published by the Society for American 
Archeology, at Milwaukee, contains interesting papers on New World 
Man, The Occurrence of Coiled Pottery in New York State, Culture 
Influences from Ohio in New York Archeology by Wm. A. Ritchie, 
and a Suggested Projectile Point Classification. 

The University of Minnesota Press has published "Norwegian 
Emigrant Songs and Ballads" by Theodore C. Blegen, superintendent, 
Minnesota Historical Society, and Martin B. Rudd, professor of Eng- 
lish, University of Minnesota. More than fifty emigrant songs and 
ballads, some with music, are published. "This is a unique contribu- 
tion to folk literature and social history." 

ir . NO. 3 


Karrnaman Cache 

Interstate Park Bison Bones 

Horicon Mounds 




Accepted for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 110S 
Act, Oct. 3. 1917. Authorized Jan. 28. 1921. 


VOLUME 17, No. 3 

New Series 





Incorporated March 23, 1903, for the purpose of advancing the study 
and preservation of Wisconsin antiquities 



Dr. H. W. Kuhm 


Dr. L. S. Buttles T. L. Miller John J. Knudsen 

H. W. Cornell W. E. Erdman 


Geo. A. West Dr. S. A. Barrett 

W. K. Andrews 
Dr. W. H. Brown 
Col. Marshall Cousins 
Rev. F. S. Dayton 
W. S. Dunsmoor 
Kermit Freckman 
Arthur Gerth 
J. G. Gregory 
O. J. Halvorson 
P. W. Hoffman 


M. F. Hulburt Dr. E. J. W. Notz 

Paul Joers 

A. P. Kannenberg 

Dr. A. L. Kastner 

Louis Pierron 
E. F. Richter 
M. C. Richter 

Dr. Louise P. Kellogg Jos. Ringeisen, Jr. 
R. J. Kieckhefer Paul Scholz 

Mrs. Theodore Koerner E. E. Steene 
Marie G. Kohler M. S. Thomson 

W. C. McKern R. S. Van Handel 

C. G. Schoewe G. R. Zilisch 


G. M. Thome 
917 N. Forty-ninth Street, Milwaukee, Wis. 


Charles E. Brown 
State Historical Museum, Madison, Wis. 



STATE SURVEY Robert R. Jones, J. J. Knudsen, A. P. Kannenberg, 
M. F. Hulburt, W. E. Erdman, D. A. Blencoe, Kermit Freckman, 
V. E. Motschenbacher, G. E. Overton, O. L. Hollister, J. P. 
Schumacher, Rev. Chr. Hjermstad, F. M. Neu, M. P. Heim, H. F. 
Feldman, P. B. Fisher, V. S. Taylor. 

MOUND PRESERVATION C. G. Schoewe, Dr. Louise P. Kellogg, 
T. L. Miller, Dr. E. G. Bruder, Mrs. W. J. Devine, R. B. Halpin, Dr. 
L. V. Sprague, Mrs. H. A. Olson, Prof. R. S. Owen, A. H. Griffith, 
A. W. Pond, R. S. Van Handel, G. L. Pasco, W. S. Dunsmoor. 

PUBLIC COLLECTIONS Dr. S. A. Barrett, C. E. Brown, N. C. 
Behncke, H. L. Ward, Rev. F. S. Dayton, Prof. J. B. MacHarg, 
Prof. A. H. Sanford, Rev. P. B. Jenkins, W. M. Babcock, H. R. 
Roland, Miss Marie G. Kohler, Rev. A. J. Muench, Dr. P. 
H. Nesbitt, R. N. Buckstaff. 

MEMBERSHIP G. M. Thome, Paul Joers, N. E. Carter, Dr. W. H. 
Brown, H. A. Zander, Louis Pierron, Paul Scholz, W. K. Andrew, 
Paul W. Hoffmann, A. W. Buttles, Clarence Harris, A. E. Koerner, 
Carl Baur, W. Van Beckum, Karl Aichelen, Dr. C. J. Heagle, Paul 
Boehland, E. R. Guentzel. 

ter Holsten, D. S. Rowland, M. S. Thomson, Col. J. W. Jackson, 
Prof. A. H. Sanford. 

PUBLICITY W. C. McKern, M. C. Richter, A. 0. Barton, Victor S. 


BIOGRAPHY Rachel M. Campbell, Dr. E. J. W. Notz, E. F. Richter, 
G. R. Zilisch, Paul Joers, Arthur Gerth. 

FRAUDULENT ARTIFACTS Jos. Ringeisen, Jr., Geo. A. West, 
E. F. Richter, W. C. McKern. 

PROGRAM Dr. L. S. Buttles, H. W. Cornell, Mrs. Theo. Koerner, 
E. E. Steene. 

PUBLICATIONS C. E. Brown, Dr. A. K. Fisher, W. E. Erdman. 

Kastner, R. J. Kieckhefer, L. R. Whitney, J. G. Gregory. 

LAPHAM RESEARCH MEDAL Dr. S. A. Barrett, Geo. A. West, 
Dr. A. L. Kastner, C. E. Brown, C. G. Schoewe, M. C. Richter. 


Life Members, $25.00 Endowment Members, $500.00 

Sustaining Members, $5.00 Annual Members, $2.00 

Institutional Members, $1.50 Junior Members, $ .50 

All communications in regard to The Wisconsin Archeological Society should 
be addressed to Charles E. Brown, Secretary and Curator, Office, State Historical 
Museum, Madison, Wisconsin. Contributions to The Wisconsin Archeologist should 
be addressed to him. Dues should be sent to G. M. Thome, Treasurer, 917 N. 
49th Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 


Vol. 17, No. 3, New Series 


A Cache of Ohio Chert Disks 

Ralph N. Buckstaff 45 

Wisconsin Joins Ranks of Oldest Inhabited Areas in America, 

Alonzo W. Pond.._ 51 

Indian Mounds at Horicon and Vicinity, 

Wilton E. Erdman -_. 55 

Superstitions and Their Derivations, 

VictorS. Taylor 62 

Dwight Foster Historical Museum, 

Zida C. Ivey 67 

Archeological Notes 71 

Karmaman Cache Frontispiece 

Plates Page 

1. Disk Forms in Karmaman Cache 46 

2. Bison Bones in Interstate Park Excavation .. . 52 



Published Quarterly by The Wisconsin Archeological Society 


VOL. 17 No. 3 

New Series 


Ralph N. Buckstaff 

The forty-one specimens of chert disks described in this 
paper are now in the Archeological collection of the Osh- 
kosh Public Museum. I am indebted to Father Francis Day- 
ton of New London for the history of the finding of this 
cache which is as follows : 

It was found on the farm of Mr. Albert Karmaman, 
son of Chas. Karmaman, June 12, 1929, in the N. E. ^ of 
Section 2, Township of Caledonia in Waupaca County, Wis- 
consin. The field is sandy and has long been cultivated. 
Mr. Karmaman said: "I was following the plowman, a Mr. 
Borchard, whose plow turned over several flints. I picked 
them up and then dug down a few inches in the sandy soil 
and found a cache of 43 beautifully cut stone blades. They 
nearly filled a bucket. I gave the neighbors three of them." 

He showed thirty-nine of them to Father Dayton who 
acquired two for the New London Public Museum. Event- 
ually they were sold to a second party, Mr. St. George. 
These and the ones given to the neighbors were purchased 
by R. N. Buckstaff and turned over to the Oshkosh Public 

Father Dayton personally visited the site, found some 
chipped fragments, and saw the spot where the disks were 
found. A careful study of the surrounding field convinced 
him there was no village site near there. The cache was 
located three hundred feet from the little stream called 
'Totters Mill" down which, one and one-half miles, is Lake 
Cincoe, a bayou lake of the Wolf River in the famous cut-off 



Vol. 17, No. 3 

country. He thinks the cache was brought up the river and 
hidden in the sandy field for safekeeping. The spot no 
doubt was marked in some manner. The owner in some 
way failed to retrieve his property, perhaps because of an 
accident to himself or the removal of the landmark. 

Disk Forms in Karmaman Cache 

Plate 1 

The disks were piled in the form of a pyramid and oval 
in outline. The stones were all laid lengthwise. 

These artifacts are made from chert of Devonian for- 
mation, which, according to Mr. C. E. Brown, comes from 
the Wyandotte Cave district in Indiana, forty miles west 
of Louisville, Kentucky. 

. The blades are bluish-grey in color and blending in some 
places into a brownish tint. Some are a shade darker and 
a few show fossil formations. 

The stones show, according to Mr. A. P. Kannenberg, a 
pressure flaking. This chipping is coarse and large in the 

A Cache of Ohio Chert Disks 47 

central part of the disks. The edges show much finer work- 
manship, are thin and quite sharp. 

The work on them is very uniform and most symmetrical 
and all are leaf -like in outline. None of the specimens show 
evidence of any reworking, rather that of a finished piece. 

The grain of some of the chert has caused unequal 
chipping and this gives these disks a warped appearance 
when seen edgewise. One shows a decided curve towards 
the point, others are very flat. 

I have divided the forty-one specimens into eight groups 
according to the characteristics of each disk. Group I : Has 
four specimens. These are leaf -like and oval in shape and 
pointed at either end. The sides are well rounded and uni- 
form in curvature. The widest part, 3*4 to 3% inches, is in 
the center of the stone. The lengths are nearly equal, being 
from 51/4 to SiV inches. The average thickness is l /% inch. 
The weight 7 to 8 ounces each. They are 3/5 as wide as 

Sp. Wt. Length Width Thickness 

No. Oz. Inches Inches Inches 



4 16/32 

3 8/32 




5 12/32 

3 12/32 




5 12/32 

3 12/32 




5 14/32 

3 8/32 


Group II: Six specimens shaped like those of Group I. 
Leaf-like and oval. Sides more rounded. Ends less pointed. 
These are a little wider in width, ranging from 3% to 4&. 
The average length is over 5^4 inches. They weigh from 
7 to 10 ounces each. The thickness varies from 13 to if 

Sn. Wt. Length Width Thickness 

No. Oz. Inches Inches Inches 



5 24/32 

3 28/32 




5 14/32 

3 30/32 




5 12/32 

3 26/32 




5 8/32 

3 24/32 




5 16/32 

3 20/32 




5 16/32 

4 2/32 


Group III : These four specimens are ovate in shape, the 
widest parts being from 3% to 3 J /2 inches. These are some- 


what narrower than those in Group II. The bases of these 
are more rounded than the pointed apex. The lengths vary 
from 5H to 6% inches. The thickness is a little over i/ 2 
inch. The weight of each specimen is from 7 to 10 ounces. 

gp. wt. Length Width Thickness 

No. Oz. Inches Inches Inches 



5 17/32 

3 10/32 




5 17/32 

3 4/32 




6 4/32 

3 16/32 




5 28/32 

3 10/32 


Group IV: The five disks of this lot are leaf -like and ob- 
long in shape with the ends bluntly pointed. They are oval 
in outline. The lengths vary from 5% to 6% inches, their 
widths from 3 to 3& inches. Three of the specimens are 
1/2 as wide as long and two 3/5 as wide as long. They weigh 
from 7 to 9 ounces each. The thickness from 16 to H inches. 

Sp. Wt. Length Width Thickness 

No. Oz. Inches Inches Inches 




3 14/32 




5 20/32 





5 20/32 

3 2/32 




6 4/32 

3 8/32 




6 12/32 

3 8/32 


Group V : The seven specimens of this group are ovate in 
shape and differ from those in Group III in that the base 
as well as the apex is pointed. The length varies from 5M 
to 6if inches. Their widths range from 3& to 3% inches. 
The outlines of these disks are not as uniform as those in 
the preceding groups. They weigh from 8 to 12 ounces 
each. The thicknesses vary from M to % inches. The 
ratio of width to length is i/. 

Sp. Wt. Length Width Thickness 

No. Oz. Inches Inches Inches 



6 2/32 

3 28/32 




6 4/32 

3 28/32 




6 4/32 

3 24/32 




6 16/32 

4 8/32 




6 10/32 

3 24/32 




6 4/32 

3 18/32 




6 4/32 

3 20/32 


Group VI : In these seven leaf -like ovate disks the widest 
part is nearer the base than those in Group III and the 

A Cache of Ohio Chert Disks 49 

bases are more rounded. The outline is less uniform. The 
lengths vary from 5% to 61/2 inches. Widths range from 
3V2 to 41/8 inches. They weigh from 9 to 12 ounces each. 
The ratio of the width to the length is %; in the widest 
specimen it is %. The thickness averages a little more 
than !/> inch. 










6 2/32 

3 20/32 




5 24/32 

3 26/32 




5 20/32 

3 16/32 




6 17/32 

4 4/32 




6 4/32 

3 19/32 




6 10/32 

<3 12/32 




6 8/32 

3 28/32 


Group VII: The four leaf -like disks of this group are 
more than half as wide as long. Specimen number 23 is 4/5 
as wide as long. The points at both ends are quite blunt. 
They range in length from 5if to 7 inches. The width is 
from 3M to 4M inches. Their weights are eleven and twelve 
ounces each. The average thickness is & inches. 











6 8/32 
6 9/32 
6 16/32 
5 26/32 

3 30/32 
4 8/32 
4 8/32 
4 13/32 

18/32 . 

Group VIII : These three leaf -like disks have well rounded 
sides and rather sharp pointed ends. Specimen 4 is 7% 
inches long and 4& inches wide. Number 22 is 7 inches 
long and 3M inches wide. Number 10 of this group is 6*4 
inches long and 3& inches wide. Their average thickness 
is more than 1/2 inch. The width to the length of these 
stones is about 1/2 

Sp. Wt. Length Width Thickness 

No. Oz. Inches Inches Inches 

4 11 724/32 4 6/32 18/32 
10 9 6 8/32 318/32 17/32 
22 12 7 3 25/32 19/32 

The blanks in Groups II, V, and VI are greater in num- 
ber than those in the other lots. These various shaped 


disks of these classes were probably more commonly used 
than those of the others. The specimens in Father Day- 
ton's collection belong to Group VII. 

The definite shapes of the various disks in the different 
groups would indicate a particular purpose for their use; 
it hardly seems probable all of these forms were used for 
agricultural purposes unless it was for particular needs in 
this field. The fine workmanship and symmetrical outline 
points to a possible ceremonial usage for these chert disks. 
This cache is the first of its kind to be found in this locality. 

Wisconsin Joins Ranks of Oldest Inhabited Areas in America 51 


Alonzo W. Pond 

Scientists are puzzled by the discovery, at Interstate 
Park, Wisconsin, of a double-pointed copper awl and two 
flint arrow heads associated with the bones of extinct bison 
in the bottom of a peat swamp possibly ten thousand or 
twelve thousand years old. Only a few years ago weapon 
points of chipped flint were found at Folsom, New Mexico, 
with the bones of extinct bison and were acclaimed the old- 
est type of tools on this continent. Since then other tools 
have been found in the southwest associated with the bones 
of mammoth, musk ox, ground sloth and camel. The recent 
find in Wisconsin would indicate that the oldest inhabitants 
of America were skilled metal workers as well as artists 
in stone. The discovery may cause scientists to revise their 
opinions as to the time prehistoric animals became extinct 
and it may indicate a new route by which prehistoric man 
spread over North America. 

The unusual piece of copper is ten and a half inches long. 
It is round in cross section and tapers at each end to a 
fine, delicately sharp point. It was found at the bottom of 
a peat deposit at the lower end of Mountain Meadow on the 
Wisconsin side of Interstate Park. Much of the copper, in- 
cluding one point, is encased in peat impregnated with cop- 
per sulphate and other metal salts. The exposed parts of 
this interesting artifact are bright despite the centuries it 
has been buried in the peat. The copper seems to have 
acted as a focal point for the deposition of metal salts, of 
copper, iron and sulphur, all of which are present in the 
region. The fine hammer marks and little flecks of free 
silver, typical of the native copper of this region, show 
definitely that the metal salts around the piece did not 
I result from the action of the swamp waters on the imple- 



Vol. 17, No. 

The discovery is the result of work being done by CCC 
Co. 633 in Interstate Park, Wisconsin. While digging a 
trench through Mountain Meadow for the location of a 
water pipe, the CCC enrollees found several large bones at 
a depth of three to four feet in the peat. As superintendent 
of the project my attention was called to the discovery at 
once. I suspected that the bones were prehistoric and gave 
instructions that any further discoveries should not be re- 
moved until they could be photographed in place. A few 
days later I asked my senior foreman, Mr. H. S. Kunsman, a 
geologist, to take the bones to the University of Minnesota 
for identification. He returned with the information that sci- 
entists in Minneapolis identified the bones as those of bison, 
probably the extinct species, bison occidentalis, but that posi- 
tive identification depended upon finding the skull and hom 
cores which are much larger in the extinct bison than in the 
modern species. In their opinion the find warranted further 
excavation since positive identification would extend the 
known range of either species and give valuable data con- 
cerning the Grantsburg lobe of the Keewatin ice sheet. Ac- 

Bison Bones in Interstate Park Excavation 

Plate 2 

Wisconsin Joins Ranks of Oldest Inhabited Areas in America 53 

cordingly I secured permission from the Wisconsin state 
park authority, Mr. C. L. Harrington, and my FCW su- 
periors to conduct a paleontological excavation. 

Excavations were continued systematically over an area 
fifteen feet by twenty feet and extended over five foot 
squares as additional bones were found on the edges of the 
excavation. It was during these carefully supervised ex- 
cavations that the hammered copper, double point, was found 
forty inches below the grass roots between water worn 
stones. Since its discovery over three hundred bones of the 
bison have been found in this location. These include part of 
the skull and the horn cores, identifying element of the 
bison skeleton. These horn cores re larger in all measure- 
ments than the type specimen measurements given by the 
National Museum and identify the bones definitely as those 
of the extinct bison. 

The Mountain Meadow in which these were discovered 
is a peat formation to a depth of four feet at some points 
and deeper at other points. The bones are located at the 
northwest corner of the Meadow close to the opening be- 
tween the (north and south) outcroppings of trap rock. 

It has been suggested that the present Mountain Meadow 
is a Pre-Cambrian valley re-excavated and then plugged at 
the west end between the trap outcrops forming a post 
glacial lake which gradually filled with peat. Spots of coarse 
sand occur throughout the peat, but these do not form ex- 
tended layers. The floor of the excavation at this point is 
trap rock and covered with boulders. 

The bones and teeth of bison (all parts of the skeletons 
of young and old individuals) are found in the peat among 
the boulders near the bottom of the deposit, varying from 
three feet below the grass roots to almost four feet. All 
bones found have been surrounded by peat, although in some 
cases only a few inches of peat lay between the bones and 
the bottom. 

None of the bones show evidence of being stream trans- 
ported and there is no evidence that they have been handled 
by man. Some scratches or rather shallow indentations 
which do not break or cut the surface of the bone are prob- 
ably caused by the shovel which struck them while they 


were in the "soft, spongy-like state" characteristic of wood 
and similar material preserved in this peat. Further search 
in this area may reveal bones definitely marked by man. 

Beaver-gnawed branches, butternuts, wood with bark on 
and similar vegetable materials are all well preserved in the 
peat here. Also scattered among this material are bits of 
charcoal. While the bones and other objects have not been 
carried far by water it is possible that they have been dis- 
associated and mixed in a flood and backwash eddy. In that 
case the material may be camp refuse tossed into the old 
swamp or flooded in from a nearby camp site. 

The discovery is the first in Wisconsin to definitely asso- 
ciate flint projectile points and hammered native copper 
implements with the bones of any extinct animals. 

Indian Mounds at Horicon and Vicinity 55 


Wilton E. Erdman 

The effigy mounds of Wisconsin have long mystified 
national and international archeologists. Our pioneers were 
perplexed when confronted with the many odd topographical 
soil presentations before them. Some construed them to 
be the work of the ancestors of the modern Indian, while 
others interpreted them to be the handicraft of a far, re- 
mote, prehistoric race. The modern student and archeologist 
must coordinate the evidence and facts as found in mounds 
and surface sites with common sense, realism, and good 
judgment. Positive statements regarding the mound 
builders cannot be made unless there is tangible, concrete 
proof and material. 

Brief History of Horicon 

The first narrator regarding the confines and environs 
of the present City of Horicon was Satterlee Clark, who 
portaged from the Fond du Lac River to the Rock River in 
1830 en route to Madison by canoe. He says:* 

"Two rows of lodges extended several rods north 
from a point near where the C. M. & St. P. 
bridge now spans the river. The population of 
White Breast Maunk-shak-kah, in Winnebago 
was about two thousand, including bucks, squaws, 
and papooses. On the night of Sept. 2, 1830, I 
slept in this village presided over by White Breast 
on the East Bank of Rock River where Horicon 
now stands. I was in company with White Ox to 
an Indian settlement at the head of Lake Kosh- 

"Yes, they buried their dead above the ground. 
Along the banks of the river could be seen the last 
resting-places of many good Indians. When one 
of the number died, a rude platform was con- 
structed of poles and brush, six or seven feet from 
the ground. The corpse, being placed in an old 

'History of Dodge County, Western Historical Society, Chicago, 1880, page 477. 


canoe covered with bark and hermetically sealed 
with tamarack gum, was then deposited upon the 
platform, and the last sad rites were over." 

For the proper perspective, it might be mentioned that 
Mr. J. P. Brower is generally recognized as the first white 
settler of Dodge County and came there with his family to 
establish a home in March, 1838, at Waushara or Fox Lake. 
Many Spanish, French, and English fur traders, of course, 
had traveled the Rock River in Dodge County before Mr. 
Brower, but since they were as nomadic as the Indian, they 
cannot be termed true settlers. In 1838, Gov. Hubbard of 
New Hampshire purchased 500 acres of land south of Lake 
Street and East of Rock River in the city of present Hori- 
con; his grant was the first in this locality and the site 
became known as Hubbard's Rapids. Horicon means "clear 
or pure water" in Horicon Indian tongue and Ruttenber, in 
Tribes of the Hudson River, page 41, 1872, says of these 
Indians that they were a part of the Mahican or Mohican 
group. Wm. Larrabee, one of the earlier Horicon residents, 
named it Lake Horicon after the lake now called Lake 
George in the state of his nativity, New York, and after 
the Horicon Indians who once lived on its shores. Caleb 
Northrup in 1845 is credited with being the first settler 
in Hubbard Township; Joel Doolittle is credited with being 
the first white settler in Horicon in 1845; and the village 
charter was granted by the Wisconsin State Legislature on 
March 29, 1855, and from then on Horicon became a muni- 

First Survey of Mounds at Horicon 

Dr. Increase A. Lapham surveyed the Horicon Region in 
1851, although his treatise was not published until 1855. 
Many pioneers had observed mounds in the vicinity of Hori- 
con before him, but Dr. Lapham was the first to make a 
chart and systematic survey. In his own words, he states:* 

"The most extended and varied groups of an- 
cient works and most complicated and intricate are 
at Horicon. Plate 37 represents the principal 
groups immediately below the town, but does not 

*Antiquities of Wisconsin, Smithsonian Institution, 1855, pages 55 and 56. 

Indian Mounds at Horicon and Vicinity 57 

include all in this vicinity. They occupy the high 
bank of the river on both sides. There are about 
two hundred ordinary round mounds in this neigh- 
borhood and all, with two exceptions, quite small. 
The two large ones, on the west side of the river, 
have an elevation of twelve feet, and are sixty-five 
feet in diameter at the base. The others are from 
one to four or five feet high. In several of them 
we noticed very recent Indian graves, covered with 
slabs or stakes, in the usual method of modern In- 
dian burial. They belong to the Potawatomies." 

Numerous sketches have been drawn of the mounds sur- 
rounding the Horicon Region in later years. Yet many 
earth formulations have been probably lost to the student 
through the cultivation of the fields by the White Man. 

Known Tribes of the Horicon Region 

Historically, four Indian tribes are known to have defi- 
nitely resided at Horicon. They are as follows : 

1. Winnebago. 

Satterlee Clark mentions that the Winnebago 
had a village at Horicon with White Breast pre- 
siding, called Maunk-shak-kah, in 1830 with a 
population of 2,000. Straggler Winnebago occu- 
pied various sites in and around Horicon up to 
as late as 1890. 

2. Potawatomi. 

Mrs. De Beers writes (about 1845) that "the 
place was wild but beautiful. On its eastern 
bank near the old depot lay scattered along a 
number of mounds. The first night I ever stayed 
there it was dreary enough. The Indian ponies 
were grazing around the house all night and their 
bells kept up a constant tinkling. They called 
themselves Potawatomies or Menomonees, and 
seemed ashamed to be called Winnebago, as the 
latter were considered by the Whites to be much 
more cruel than the former. We could distinguish 
the Winnebago by their red blankets, while the 


other wore white or blue." (History of Dodge 
County, Pen Pictures, 1880, p. 480.) 

3. Menomonee. 

Mrs. De Beers intimates that Menomonee re- 
sided at Horicon as previously quoted. 

John Hustis, founder of Hustisford, 9 miles 
south of Horicon, says that the Menomonee occu- 
pied the east side of the Rock River and the Win- 
nebago the west, on the present site of Hustis- 
ford. (John Hustis, founder of Hustisford in 
1838, History of Dodge Co., 1880, p. 410.) 

At Watertown, Wis., 1837, Luther A. Cole 
says that the Winnebago Indians occupied the 
west side of Rock River and the Potawatomi oc- 
cupied the opposite bank. 

This shows that these tribes used the Rock 
River waterway and established camps at de- 
sirable points. 

4. Sac or Sauk and the Fox. 

Dr. Lapham says that "the celebrated Sauk 
Chief, Black Hawk, formerly had his residence 
at this point (Horicon), where the several 
sources of the Rock River run into the Lake at 
various points, and their united waters discharge 
at Horicon. (Antiquities of Wis., Smithsonian 
Institution, 1855, pages 55 and 56.) 

The Sac and Fox tribes became firmly united 
prior and during the famous Black War of 1832. 

5. Sioux. 

Originally the Sioux occupied the State of Wis- 
consin as far east as Lake Michigan. Outside of 
the Winnebago tribe, which was a branch of the 
Sioux, we have no eye witnesses or written record 
applicable to Horicon, or to show that they lived 

Indian Mounds at Horicon and Vicinity 59 

6. Kickapoo and others. 

There is a vague possibility that the Kickapoo 
and other Indians may have lived at Horicon, but 
there is no positive written record that the author 
has been able to find that substantiates these 

All of these tribes mentioned may have contributed more 
or less to the construction of the many mounds in or around 

Resume of Effigy Mound Culture as Disclosed by the 

Milwaukee Public Museum upon Excavation of 

the Nitschke Mounds in 1927.* 

(3 miles N. W. of Horicon) 

1. Builders used no cradle boards. 

2. Animals were frequently buried with the bodies. 

3. Altars were often made during mound construction for 
ceremonial purposes. 

4. Clay and pebble cists were often erected in the mounds. 

5. Pottery pipes were found with burials. 

6. Grit or stone tempered, cord-imprinted pottery buried. 
(Lake Michigan Ware Characteristics.) 

7. No evidence of White Man's influence with those re- 
sponsible for mound erections. 38 mounds were exca- 
vated out of a total of 62. (Absence of trade articles.) 

8. No copper found with the burials. 

9. Bone harpoon points, bone needles, and awls interred 
with the skeletons. 

10. Only about a dozen arrowpoints were found with the 
burials. (Mostly triangular and of stone.) 

11. Fluted stone axe distribution seems to coincide with 
the distribution of these mounds. 


12. The mound erections to all appearances antedate 
the period of Jean Nicolet's entrance to Wisconsin in 

Horicon Built upon Indian Mounds and Graves 

The student of history must remember that Horicon, of 
the present, was built upon the prehistoric mounds that 
Dr. Increase A. Lapham carefully surveyed in 1851. Fre- 
quent building excavations over the past 60 years have dis- 
closed many Indian burials that were on Dr. Lapham's Chart 
of Mounds and also some that were not listed. In 1906, 
when the Firehammer lumber yard was destroyed by fire 
and rebuilt, an Indian skeleton was discovered with a cat- 
linite pipe while building a new foundation for a mill to 
house lumber machinery. When George Gohl and Jake 
Toering were digging a basement for a garage on the 
Geo. Gohl property, about 1927, on S. Hubbard St. on the 
bank of Rock River, they brought to light a burial. When 
Ed. Firehammer spaded his garden one summer, some arm 
bones and ribs came to the surface. When Mr. Henry 
Matthes leveled his land on Mill St. in 1885, a half dozen 
skeletons were disclosed. When Tom Monolis excavated 
the basement of his pool hall and lunch room in 1925, three 
skeletons rolled down upon him. The burial of a young girl 
in Schoenwetter's gravel pit, 200 feet south of the Catholic 
Church, was brought to light in 1914 (Reported by H. A. 
Discher, Vol. 4, No. 1, Wis. Arch., C. E. Brown 1925). Ex- 
cavations in the future will provide, without a doubt, more 
evidence of these prehistoric remains. 


Many have attributed the construction of effigy mounds 
to the Winnebago. Some descendants of Winnebago have 
even stated that their forefathers built mounds. The 
evidences at Horicon do not directly substantiate who built 
the effigy mounds located there, but to all indications, at 

Indian Mounds at Horicon and Vicinity 61 

present, they supercede Winnebago occupancy of the terri- 
tory. Historically, and from legendary lore, we cannot 
entirely eliminate the claims of the Winnebago. The only 
plausible theory is that the Sioux with Algonquian influences 
and other intrusions from Ohio and the south are responsible 
for the noted and mysterious works so long debated. 

In a century or two hence, we may have only a written 
record of our predecessors in Wisconsin. The earth monu- 
ments so plain one hundred years ago, may vanish from 
our midst by the encroachment of a continued rapid civiliza- 
tion and progress. Aztalan, as depicted by Dr. Lapham in his 
memorable visit in 1850 and survey, has been reduced from 
a prominant one or two foot surface demarcation to an 
ordinary grain field. If our future continues to ignore the 
past, we have little to offer on the surface for archeology. 
Unless the citizens and scientists preserve these fast vanish- 
ing monuments, little will remain for the children of the 
future to examine, study, and substantiate what has trans- 
pired. The Wisconsin Archeological Society has strived to 
preserve all mounds possible but it is also the duty of every 
citizen of the state to assist. 



Victor S. Taylor 

The area in southern Wisconsin centered by Jefferson 
County provides an interesting study in superstitions, their 
derivations and the national characteristics exhibited in 
each. "Ghost towns," like Aztalan, scores of early-day ceme- 
teries now abandoned, all provide "fuel" to the supply of 
tales of the supernatural, the psychic and the mysterious 
which any section of the country with a hundred years of 
history behind it owns in a large measure. 

It appears that many superstitions that we have regarded 
as the mental children of our grandparents were their inter- 
pretations, or were derivative, from Indian folklore. Just 
north of the row of summer cottages on the north shore of 
Rock Lake, in Jefferson County, stands a home remodeled 
from a rather shambling two room house known as the 
"Haunted House." Why it was haunted or who haunted 
it nobody knew, but running down the legend we came 
upon the fact that the earliest settlers in that section said 
the Indians maintained that the spot was accursed. Again 
why? Desultory excavations have found human bones in 
refuse heaps. They may have been the bones of prisoners 
executed by the captors then again they may have been 
the bones of victims of human sacrifices in a religious ritual 
discredited and feared by the contemporary Indian. Today 
we only know that the place is the site of a "haunted house" 
but the story of the uneasy ghostly tenant is lost in a 
maze of years and Indian legend, antedating white settle- 
ment. We only know it is "haunted." 

Aztalan has an eerie air about it, probably due to the 
fact that as a village it faded for the white man as cen- 
turies before it had died with a prehistoric race. Old timers 
at Aztalan recall almost innumerable "spooky" happenings 
some of them most obviously derived from old Indian 
legends, like the perennial tale of the broken-hearted Indian 
maiden who drowned herself when grief became too acute to 
bear. Of late the old Baptist Church, built in 1847 and re- 
paired and "restored" several times since then, but now 

Superstitions and Their Derivations 63 

again in disrepair, has an active reputation of being haunted. 
What ghosts could fill its battered pews the very earliest 
settlers in Jefferson County notorious figures like the mem- 
bers of the Fighting Finch family supplicants when the 
locusts threatened to devour everything in the early fifties- 
mourners when the bodies of Civil War victims came home 
to rest. The "haunting," according to the most general in- 
formation, consists of "lights" being seen passing from win- 
dow to window at night, and the occasional clang of the 
historic old bell, cast in Croydon, England, and shipped to 
America by sailing vessel in the forties. Age begets an 
intimation of the supernatural. Therein probably lies the 
secret of the haunting of the Aztalan church, but whether 
they will publicly admit it or not, Aztalan residents, par- 
ticularly those whose family history has centered in that 
section for a century or less, do not relish visiting the 
church at night, nor do they favor another restoration of 
the building as a house of worship. 

The early white residents of Aztalan unconsciously 
brewed a blend of superstition with the Indian lore of their 
new home site crossed with the down-east Yankee spook 
and hex ideas from New England or New York state. One 
of the superstitutions is never pass a cemetery with a 
newly made grave in it at night. Unused to his new abode, 
the spirit of the deceased wanders about, sometimes for- 
getting his new home site, and forces one to guide him back 
to his grave. As a reward, he points out a site for your 
grave and you will occupy it within a year from the date. 
That superstition may be found in New York state, but 
Wisconsin Indians have one which parallels it. 

National and racial characteristics have played no small 
part in supplying us with ha'nts, spooks, banshees, hexes 
and spitzbooms and tales of accursed sites and people. The 
old cemetery just west of the Van Camp condensery at 
Watertown abounds in these legends, hold-overs chiefly from 
the days of the first French and Irish colonization, when 
the burial ground was a Catholic cemetery. Later a cholera 
epidemic forced the use of the cemetery as a general bury- 
ing ground, and the withdrawal of the papal blessings may 
have resulted in some of the bizarre tales told about this 
old burying ground. Behind all the narratives is clearly 


discernable the functionings of the active "superstitionings" 
of the French and Irish minds. 

Grave robbers of the period following the Civil War were 
responsible to a great degree for the growth or perpetuation 
of the fear of cemeteries and their reputation for being 
haunted by unhappy or malicious ghosts. Stealing cadavers 
from graves under cover of the night was a lucrative busi- 
ness at one time. But "stage business" to frighten away the 
curious who had heard sounds or seen lights was necessary, 
and many famous ghosts actually were grave robbers moan- 
ing and gesturing in the requisite white sheet that every 
well-dressed ghost owns as formal attire. Particularly 
plentiful in these "ghost" tales is the area from Watertown 
north to Juneau in Dodge County, for along what is now 
State Highway 26 are located many of the cemeteries which 
were the sites of the depredations of the plundering ghouls. 

Because many of the now abandoned burial plots along 
Highway 30 east of Johnson Creek hold the bones of many 
of the early settlers who died under tragic circumstances, 
fanciful stories and legends abound about these cemeteries 
being haunted. One cemetery holds the remains of almost a 
dozen drivers of lead wagons from the southwest, near 
Platteville, to Milwaukee. These men died in a cholera epi- 

Occasionally a real mystery is encountered. Such is the 
story or rather lack of a definite story concerning the 
abandonment of the old Catholic church and cemetery in the 
section known as "The Island" between Lake Mills and Hub- 
bleton. This church was one of the early Catholic churches 
in that area and served a congregation of Irish, German and 
French, with the third nationality much in the minority. 
Communicants were all farmers in the rich farm area in 
which the church was centrally located. Something hap- 
pened something so mysterious that just what it was is 
known only by descendants of the original communicant 
families and that something involves an item or items so 
personal to them all that not one of them will discuss it. The 
importance of the mysterious happening can best be judged 
from these facts most of the families left the Catholic 
church, a most unusual procedure ; the Catholic church offi- 
cially closed the structure and forbade services to be held 

Superstitions and Their Derivations 65 

in it, and Catholic clergymen were forbidden to bury any- 
one in the church's cemetery. Add to this fact that where a 
husband or wife had been buried in the cemetery prior to 
the closing of the church, survivors were nine times out of 
ten not buried beside their spouse when they died. Instead 
they were buried in other cemeteries, whether they had 
remained Catholics or not. A third generation now lives on 
the farms whose families originally formed the congrega- 
tion of this mysterious church. If they know its story, it's 
too vital a personal secret to be discussed, but they have 
boarded up the windows of the building, keeping from pub- 
lic gaze the interior, its altar still bedecked for service, but 
with some of the candlesticks fallen as if knocked down in a 

The only story concerning the abandonment of this 
church is bizarre indeed and is more than likely untrue, at 
least in most part. It is said that the body of a member of 
one of the original parish families had been returned from 
the west for burial. No surviving members of the family 
lived in the section, and the undertaker placed the body in 
the church at night without informing any of the congre- 
gation. (The church is a considerable distance from any 
farm house.) Now the next day there was to be a confirma- 
tion in the church, and before the members of the parish 
could be informed of the body in the building, they de- 
scended on the church for the confirmation rites, and were 
aghast, if not downright terrified, on finding the body of a 
stranger in the church. What should they do? Postpone 
the confirmation until the burial of the unknown? Had he 
died in the good graces of the church? Nobody knew, not 
even the undertaker who supplied all the information he 
could, saying that money had been sent him from the west 
to conduct the burial. Here the story ceases to follow the 
line of the plausible. It was decided to remove the body for 
the confirmation services. Some opined that the casket 
looked as if it had been buried for a brief time before. 
When the body was carried from the church one of the 
handles became loose, and the bearer fell and broke his leg. 
The confirmation, however, was reputedly held and the body 
returned to the church to wait its final rites a day later. 
That night a terrific thunderstorm came up and the church 


was hit by a cold bolt of lightning. Next morning it was 
found that the casket had been destroyed by the bolt and 
the body burned or blackened by it. Hastily it was buried in 
another coffin in the church cemetery, allegedly without the 
rites of the church. The story reaches a weird climax by 
stating that sometime later a scarlet fever epidemic took 
the lives of all the new communicants plus the lives of the 
bearers when the body was taken from the church. But 
that story, as satisfying as it may be to the admirers of 
the weird and bizarre, has many loopholes. It doesn't ex- 
plain why so many families left the Catholic faith, for in- 
stance nor does it tie up with the fact that the grounds, 
as well as the exterior of the building, have always been 
kept in a state of good repair. Here is the real mystery 
mystery that transcends a fantasy of the bizarre and super- 
natural yet a mystery of a more over-powering gloom than 
fancy concocts. Buried with the dead of at least two genera- 
tions, and locked in the breasts of a living third generation, 
may be the secret, but here is a mystery that is a mystery. 
Pioneer groups brought many forms, or derivative forms 
of witchcraft with them to their new Wisconsin homes. The 
Germans had the "spiritists" believers in mental telepathy, 
second sight, transmigration of souls the Yankees had 
their fortune tellers and spiritualists. Old German women 
who could "hex" found their counterpart in Indian medicine 
men and the knowledge of healing herbs owned by Indian 
squaws. Yankee or Irish women with the "second sight" 
told by the position of tea leaves in a cup or by the color of 
the moon what fate held in store for the curious. It wasn't 
conscious legerdemain or intentional hocus-pocus. It was 
sincerely believed in by the perpetrators. Similarly, the 
negro element, later in its advent than most of the other 
racial groups to this section, brought with it its traditional 
and overwhelming veneration or fear of the supernatural, 
and immediately cast traditional legends in new locales- 
legends seized upon by the other racial groups, given their 
individual interpretation, and assimilated without question 
as a story of the countryside. 

Dwight Foster Historical Museum 67 


Zida C. Ivey 

The formation of a public museum at Ft. Atkinson had 
been attempted by several organizations prior to 1933 and 
abandoned as being impractical and impossible of accom- 
plishment. It had long been the wish of the D. A. R. Chap- 
ter to found such a museum to house relics that had con- 
nection with the development of the community which had 
its beginning in 1836 when Dwight Foster built a log cabin 
on the bank of the Rock River near where the old fort stood 
and moved his family from the east to the new country. 
His daughter, Mary, was the first white child born in the 
settlement and his granddaughter, Mrs. Charles Wor- 
cester, and her husband, made the beginning of the museum 
possible. They gave the first ten thousand dollars toward 
the building of the public library building and later Mrs. 
Worcester gave as a memorial to her mother the necessary 
money to build a children's wing onto the library with a 
provision that one room in the building be used for a 

In the spring of 1933 the D. A. R. approached the writer, 
a descendant of one of the pioneers of Wisconsin, and asked 
her to take charge of the project of starting a museum. 
Not having training for museum work she felt incompetent 
to undertake the work, but after persuasion and assurance 
of the co-operation of the D. A. R. she consented and went 
to work at once to get the museum started. All during the 
summer of 1933 search was made for show cases which 
could either be had as gifts or loans. Old discarded cases 
were brought out and repaired and in October the work 
of collecting began. Because of the previous failures to make 
a museum grow, the work was somewhat discouraging for 
many months. There were always people to say, "Oh, it 
can't be done. It has been tried before." The sympathy of 
the local editors was first secured and every week an item 
appeared regarding the museum which kept it in the public 
mind at least. Through much telephoning and many per- 
sonal visits to people known to have relics, things began to 


come into the museum. Whenever anything was received 
it was written up for the papers. These articles usually 
served to remind people of something they had that might 
be put on display. From time to time lists suggesting things 
that were acceptable were published. Receipts were given 
for loans which helped to establish faith that the museum 
would be managed on a business basis. 

On February 22, 1934, to celebrate the formal opening 
of the museum to the public, as well as to commemorate 
Washington's birthday, the D. A. R. sponsored a special 
loan exhibit. The library board offered the use of an extra 
room at that time and the two rooms were filled with beau- 
tiful and interesting things. This exhibit was held open for 
a week, free to the public. At the end of that time many 
things were left as temporary loans and which have in many 
instances been given to the museum since. 

The first year the museum was kept open one day a week 
during the winter months, closing for the summer. The 
work of the director, however, went on just the same and 
when the place was re-opened in September, many things 
had been added to the collection. For two years the director 
gave her time without pay. At the end of that period the 
museum became a part of the library, under the manage- 
ment of the library board which is under city jurisdiction. 
The director was put on the pay roll and still conducts the 
museum work with even more enthusiasm than when she 
took it in charge. 

There is now no doubt but that the museum is a perma- 
nent institution. Its present problem is what to do for more 
room. It won't be long when one room will not take care of 
the relics accumulating. That it has been a worthwhile 
project has been evidenced many times the past year. It has 
been the source of material for students in both high school 
and university for theme subjects; for those giving radio 
talks on local history, for grade school classes who visit the 
place in a body to hear a talk on some chosen subject, and an 
author of note has found necessary information there to use 
in a forthcoming novel which will have early Wisconsin as 
its background. During the Centennial in the summer of 
1936 the museum co-operated with the merchants in putting 
on street window displays. Most of the windows were 

Dwight Foster Historical Museum 69 

planned at the museum and the lists, kept by the director 
whenever special loan exhibits were held, together with 
names of people owning the antiques, was used as a means 
of locating wanted material for these displays. The relics 
at the museum were loaned out for windows and accurate 
record kept of their whereabouts and then the room was 
refilled with special displays of metal ware: pewter, brass 
and copper, with a room given over to glass and china. It 
furnished a window display at Madison of "first things" dur- 
ing its Centennial celebration and also sent a display to the 
Milwaukee State Fair of early dairy equipment for the Agri- 
cultural Building. In this collection was the first model 
churn made by the Cornish and Curtis Co., later the Cor- 
nish, Curtis & Green Mfg. Co., which eventually was taken 
over by the Creamery Package Company. Among some of 
the most valued possessions of the museum are many "first 
things." There is the first post office, a little square, four 
legged table with small drawer used by Dwight Foster to 
take care of the mail, he being the first postmaster. Also the 
pair of lovely pewter candlesticks used in his cabin belong 
to the museum, the gift of his granddaughter, Mrs. Wor- 
cester. Mrs. F. W. Hoard loaned the postoffice after having 
recovered it from some people who took it to Oregon. There 
is an old street lamp used before the days of electric lights 
and the ladder used by the lamp-lighter ; the lever that blew 
the whistle of the grist mill and the key to the mill which 
was one of the very first industries of Ft. Atkinson ; china 
bought at the first F. A. Store, lamps, pottery, Indian relics, 
wreaths of many kinds, early machines, one a knitting ma- 
chine invented and manufactured here at Ft. Atkinson by 
a pioneer in the knitting machinery manufacture, Thomas 
Crane; different types of sewing machines, typewriters, 
spinning wheels and reels, furniture, baby carriages, doll 
buggies, old kitchen equipment, books and documents, Gov- 
ernor Hoard's cradle, Civil war relics, the editorial desk of 
the first editor, together with copies of early issues of Ft. 
Atkinson papers, maps, guns, birds mounted by the pioneer 
naturalist, Thure Ludwig Kumlien, who lived at Lake Kosh- 
konong and collected specimens of flowers, insects and birds 
for not only museums of the United States, but also for 
many of Europe. One thing that attracts perhaps as much 


attention as anything particularly that of "old timers" 
is a collection of photographs of people instrumental in build- 
ing Ft. Atkinson and its industries, and stereoptican views 
of early Ft. Atkinson streets, buildings and people, also their 

It is a source of deep satisfaction to those instrumental in 
promoting museum work to know that at last the museum's 
permanency is assured. Every Saturday, its open day, 
there are many visitors, for it is not a museum that is kept 
sealed up, away from the sight of those who would like to 
visit it. In summer it attracts many tourists who register in 
the out-of-town guest book. Last summer people from New 
York City to California and from Florida to the Saskatche- 
wan signed the book. A family from England dropped in, as 
did a man on his way with an airplane expedition to explore 
the Lost City of the Incas. All of which makes us feel that 
while we are only a small dot on the Wisconsin landscape, 
we are at least on the map, and that a fitting memorial to 
the founders of Ft. Atkinson has been established. 

Archeological Notes 71 



May 17, 1937. The last meeting of the Wisconsin Archeological 
Society before its regular summer adjournment was held in the trustee 
room of the Milwaukee Public Museum. President H. W. Kuhm pre- 
sided, Dr. L. S. Buttles acting as secretary. A brief report of the 
directors meeting held earlier in the evening at dinner at Hotel 
Aberdeen was presented. The support of the Directors and members 
for Bill No. 390 S. introduced in the State legislature by Secretary 
Brown and providing for a state appropriation of $7,500 for the pub- 
lication of the Wisconsin Guide, a Federal Writers' Project tourist 
guide book, had been requested. Mr. Brown was the state director of 
this important project and to which members of the Society had given 
much valuable assistance since its organization in November. 1935. 
This Guide would consist of a series of essays on archeological, his- 
torical, folklore and folkways, conservation and other subjects and of 
descriptions of tour routes, illustrated with numerous photographs 
and maps. Its printing and distribution would be in the hands of the 

Mr. Walter Bubbert had presented a report on the proposed Kettle 
Moraine State Park, planned by the State Planning Board, and now 
receiving the consideration of the State Legislature. This extensive 
park would be located in Waukesha, Washington. Sheboygan and other 
counties. This report was again presented by Mr. Bubbert. 

The report of the special committee appointed to audit the books 
of Treasurer Thorne was accepted and ordered placed on file. 

The program of the meeting was an excellent and authoritative 
address by Mr. John G. Gregory on "The French and Indian Fur Trade 
at Milwaukee." The speaker dealt extensively with the operations 
of the traders Solomon Juneau, Vieau, Kinzie, Beaubien and others 
located here. 

Members were requested to send to Secretary Brown for filing 
reports of their summer's field work and findings. 

The American Museums Association held its annual convention in 
the historic and beautiful city of New Orleans on May 3 to 5. 

At this meeting Mr. Brown spoke on "The Educational Work of 
Historical Museums" and Mrs. Dorothy Moulding Brown on "The 
Collection and Use of Wisconsin Folklore." Among other Wisconsin 
museum men and women in attendance at this important meeting were 
Mr. Henry L. Ward, Green Bay; W. E. Dickinson, Kenosha, and Robert 
A. Elder, Wausau. Meetings of the convention and its sections were 
held at the Louisiana State Museum, New Orleans Art Museum, Tulane 
University and Hotel Roosevelt. 


Alonzo W. Pond is lecturing on archeological subjects in various 
states. Robert A. Elder is visiting British museums with a Brooklyn 
museum party. Charles E. Brown is supervising the repair of several 
groups of Indian mounds on the campus of the University of Wiscon- 
sin. Rev. Christian Hjermstad has located some Indian petroglyphs 
on the Lemonweir river. Dr. S. A. Barrett has brought to Milwaukee 


as an educational exhibit a group of Wisconsin Chippewa. Chief 
Yellow Thunder has returned from his Southern lecture trip and is 
again stationed at the Winnebago Indian village at Wisconsin Dells. 
Wilton E. Erdman is pursuing his archeological investigations at 
Horicon, and Arthur P. Kannenberg in Winnebago County. Investi- 
gations are being continued at Interstate Park, St. Croix Falls. 
Members are requested to file reports of their survey and other field 
work with Secretary Brown. Morgan H. Stafford, Newtonville (Bos- 
ton), has acquired eight fine silver trade crosses which were once in 
the Payne Collection at Springfield, Illinois. Four are of the double 
barred form. Madeline Kneberg is the curator of the Logan Museum, 
Beloit College, during the absence of Prof. Paul H. Nesbitt, who is 
studying at the University of Chicago. 

At Antigo the Langlade County Historical Society has installed a 
museum in the library building. 


The June issue of the National Archaeological News, published at 
Lancaster, Pennsylvania, Gerald B. Fenstermaker, editor, contains ar- 
ticles on "Illinois Research," by Q. D. Thurber; "Good Luck Hunting 
Charms," by Mr. Fenstermaker; "The Age of Man," by J. 0. Kinna- 
man, and others as interesting. 

Prof. Warren K. Moorehead is soliciting additional subscriptions 
for copies of his report, "The Susquehanna Expedition of 1916." Its 
cost is $2.45 a copy. It is being published by The Andover Press, 
Andover, Massachusetts. 

Dr. Peter L. Scanlan has published a book, "Prairie du Chien: 
French, British, American." This book was prepared by its author 
as a result of 14 years of personal research. Intimate study has been 
made of the local records and state records at Madison and of other 
historical records at St. Louis, Quebec, Washington and other cities. 
The introduction to this valuable book is written by Dr. Louise P. 
Kellogg. She says of the book: "We can unhesitatingly recommend 
it as authoritative, reliable and thorough. It fills a lacuna in Wis- 
consin history and it should be in every public library in the state and 
in every private library that cares for Wisconsiniana. Publisher, 
George Banta Publishing Company, Menasha, Wisconsin. Dr. Scanlan 
was recently honored by the Wisconsin Archeological Society by being 
elected an honorary member. 

The University of Chicago Press has published a report, "Redis- 
covering Illinois," being a description of archaeological explorations 
in and around Fulton County. Its cost is $2.15, postpaid. In 1925 the 
University of Chicago began to unravel the prehistory of the ancient 
groups whose rich remains occur in mound groups and village sites 
scattered profusely over the region. In three years of intensive sur- 
vey and careful excavation in central Illinois, clear evidence of six 
distinct cultural manifestations were obtained. Two of these were 
previously unknown the "Black Sand" and the "Red Ochre" cultures. 
These represent the oldest recognized inhabitants of the state, possibly 
of the Middle West. Another, the Hopewellian, represents the highest 
cultural advance north of Mexico. These and other cultures are de- 
scribed, the method of exploring Indian sites and determining chro- 
nology explained. Not only are individual sites described, but they are 
combined into local groups or communities and their relationship in 
time, space, and culture to other groups in the Mississippi Valley is 
shown. Fay-Cooper Cole and Thome Deuel are the joint authors of 
this valuable and fully illustrated 295 page report. 

Archeological Notes 73 

The University of Chicago Press has also published several other 
new books: The Tarahumara, an Indian tribe of Northern Mexico, by 
Wendell C. Bennett and Robert M. Zingg ($4.00). This is an important 
ethnological study. Tepoztlan, a Mexican Village, by Robert Redfield 
($3.00). Mitla: Town of the Souls, by Elsie Clews Parsons ($4.15). 
A vivid and human account of the round of life of the Zapotec village 
in Mexico, near the famous ruins of the same name. Yuman tribes 
of the Gila River, by Leslie Spier ($4.00). It deals with the life and 
culture of the little-known Yuman-speaking tribes of Southern Ari- 
zona, primarily the Maricopa. 

A Black Civilization, by W. Lloyd Warner, is a social study of an 
Australian tribe, Harper & Brothers, New York. 

Rhythm for Rain, by John Louw Nelson. For ten years the author 
lived among the Hopi Indians, observing and analyzing all that he 
saw. Out of the wealth of his experience has come a book which 
should take its place as the most authoritative in its field. Houghton 
Mifflin Co., Boston. 


One of the last of the clay pipe factories, which once flourished 
in France, has closed. 

It was founded in 1825, and in 1895 was producing nearly 9,000,000 
pipes a year and employing a staff of 500. 

When it closed recently the personnel numbered but a half dozen 
molders and a few other workmen, while the output had dwindled to 
almost nothing. 

Millions of pipes formerly went to England, but as one of the 
molders said sorrowfully: 

"The workman has forsaken the clay pipe for a briar it is not so 
fragile. Others have given up a pipe altogether. 

101. U feptomter. 103f jj^ 4 


A Large Silver Cross 

Lemonweir Petroglyphs 

Indian Lover's Leaps 




Accepted for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103 
Act, Oct. 3, 1917. Authorized Jan. 28, 1921. 

VOLUME 17, No. 4 

New Series 





Incorporated March 23, 1903, for the purpose of advancing the study 
and preservation of Wisconsin antiquities 



Dr. H. W. Kuhm 


Dr. L. S. Buttles T. L. Miller John J. Knudsen 

H. W. Cornell W. E. Erdman 


Geo. A. West Dr. S. A. Barrett 

W. K. Andrews 
Dr. W. H. Brown 
Col. Marshall Cousins 
Rev. F. S. Dayton 
W. S. Dunsmoor 
Kermit Preckman 
Arthur Gerth 
J. G. Gregory 
O. J. Halvorson 
P. W. Hoffman 


M. P. Hulburt 
Paul Joers 
AT P. Kannenberg 
Dr. A. L. Kastner 
Dr. Louise P. Kellogg 
R. J. Kieckhefer 
Mrs. Theodore Koerner 
Marie G. Kohler 
W. C. McKern 
C. G. Schoewe 

Dr. E. J. W. Notz 
Louis Pierron 
E. F. Richter 
M. C. Richter 
Jos. Ringeisen, Jr. 
Paul Scholz 
E. E. Steene 
M. S. Thomson 
R. S. Van Handel 
G. R. Zilisch 


G. M. Thome 
917 N. Forty-ninth Street, Milwaukee, Wis. 


Charlei]S> Brown 
State Historical Museum, Madison, Wis. 



STATE SURVEY Robert R. Jones, J. J. Knudsen, A. P. Kannenberg, 
M. F. Hulburt, W. E. Erdman, D. A. Blencoe, Kermit Freckman, 
V. E. Motschenbachjer, G. E. Overton, O. L. Hollister, J. P. 
Schumacher, Rev. Chr. Hjermstad, F. M. Neu, M. P. Henn, H. F. 
Feldman, P. B. Fisher, V. S. Taylor. 

MOUND PRESERVATION C. G. Schoewe, Dr. Louise P. Kellogg, 
T. L. Miller, Dr. E. G. Bruder, Mrs. W. J. Devine, R. B. Halpin, Dr. 
L. V. Sprague, Mrs. H. A. Olson, Prof. R. S. Owen, A. H. Griffith, 
A. W. Pond, R. S. Van Handel, G. L. Pasco, W. S. Dunsmoor. 

PUBLIC COLLECTIONS Dr. S. A. Barrett, C. E. Brown, N. C. 
Behncke, H. L. Ward, Rev. F. S. Dayton, Prof. J. B. MacHarg, 
Prof. A. H. Sanford, Rev. P. B. Jenkins, W. M. Babcock, H. R. 
Holand, Miss Marie G. Kohler, Rev. A. J. Muench, Dr. P. 
H. Nesbitt, R. N. Buckstaff. 

MEMBERSHIP G. M. Thome, Paul Joers, N. E. Carter, Dr. W. H. 
Brown, H. A. Zander, Louis Pierron, Paul Scholz, W. K. Andrew, 
Paul W. Hoffmann, A. W. Buttles, Clarence Harris, A. E. Koerner, 
Carl Baur, W. Van Beckum, Karl Aichelen, Dr. C. J. Heagle, Paul 
Boehland, E. R. Guentzel. 

ter Holsten, D. S. Rowland, M. S. Thomson, Col. J. W. Jackson, 
Prof. A. H. Sanford. 

PUBLICITY W. C. McKern, M. C. Richter, A. 0. Barton, Victor S. 


BIOGRAPHY Rachel M. Campbell, Dr. E. J. W. Notz, E. F. Richter, 
G. R. Zilisch, Paul Joers, Arthur Gerth. 

FRAUDULENT ARTIFACTS Jos. Ringeisen, Jr., Geo. A. West, 
E. F. Richter, W. C. McKern. 

PROGRAM Dr. L. S. Buttles, H. W. Cornell, Mrs. Theo. Koerner, 
E. E. Steene. 

PUBLICATIONS C. E. Brown, Dr. A. K. Fisher, W. E. Erdman. 

Kastner, R. J. Kieckhefer, L. R. Whitney, J. G. Gregory. 

LAPHAM RESEARCH MEDAL Dr. S. A. Barrett, Geo. A. West, 
Dr. A. L. Kastner, C. E. Brown, C. G. Schoewe, M. C. Richter. 


Life Members, $25.00 Endowment Members, $500.00 

Sustaining Members, $5.00 Annual Members, $2.00 

Institutional Members, $1.50 Junior Members, $ .50 

All communications in regard to The Wisconsin Aroheological Society should 
be addressed to Charles E. Brown. Secretary and Curator, Office, State Historical 
Museum, Madison, Wisconsin. Contributions to The Wisconsin Archeologist should 
be addressed to him. Dues should be sent to G. M. Thorne, Treasurer, 917 N. 
49th Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 


Vol. 17, No. 4, New Series 


Petroglyphs at the Mouth of the Lemonweir River, 

Charles E. Brown 75 

A Large Silver Cross _ 79 

Botched Chipped Arrow and Spearpoints Classified -. 81 

Indian Lover's Leaps in Wisconsin, 

Dorothy M. Brown.. _ _._ 84 

Wood and Juneau County Mound Groups, 

Robert B. Halpin 88 

The Illinois State Archeological Society, 

G. M. Thorne 90 

George S. Parker 91 

Mihi Shrines, 

Mary E. Marsh _ 93 

Petroglyphs at the Mouth of the Lemon weir_ Frontispiece 

Plate Page 
1. Petroglyphs on the Rock Wall at the Lemonweir River 76 

Petroglyphs at the Mouth of the 
Lemonweir River 

ahr Bltarnuaiu ArrhniUuual 

Published Quarterly by The Wisconsin Archeolofical Society 


N ' 4 

New Series 


Charles E. Brown 

On Saturday, September 4th, the writer visited a series 
of Indian petroglyphs located at Golden's Resort, on the 
bank of the Wisconsin river, at the mouth of the Lemon- 
weir river. This locality is about five miles east of Lyndon, 
in Juneau County, Wisconsin. Rev. Christian Hjermstad of 
New Lisbon, The Wisconsin Archeological Society's active 
investigator in this county, called the writer's attention to 
these rock sculptures in a letter written on June 17, 1937. 

Mr. Leo Golden, proprietor of this attractive isolated 
resort, took the writer and his party down the rather steep 
walk to the river bank to see the carvings. These are cut 
into the surface of a weathered gray sandstone wall of a 
picturesque rocky bluff at an elevation of about thirty feet 
(up a slope) from the water's edge of the Wisconsin river. 
At a distance of about ten feet above the sandy floor of the 
rock surface on which the picture writing is in view, a nar- 
row rock canopy protrudes from the rock wall, making a 
sort of rockshelter of the site. The bluff rises to an esti- 
mated height of about sixty feet above the river below. 
About forty of the Indian characters cut into the wall are at 
the present time undecipherable as to their significance. The 
seven crude animal-shaped figures appear to be intended to 
represent a fish, deer or elk, thunderbird, heron or crane, 
buffalo, lizard, and deer or antelope. 

The deer measures 5% inches in length and is 4% inches 
high. A tree-like protuberance on top of its head probably 


Vol. 17, No. 4 


Petroglyphs at the Mouth of the Lemon weir River 77 

represents its antlers. Several diagonal markings are on its 
body. The fish is a rather faint carving and is 4% inches 
long and its body IVs inches wide at its widest part. The 
thunderbird is a crude representation of these mythical 
birds such as is sometimes seen on Indian implements, pipe- 
stems, etc. Its height is S 1 /^ inches and its wingspread 4 

The heron or crane is 8 inches high and its body 1*4 
inches wide. The buffalo figure is 7 inches long and 4 inches 
high. Its measurement from the bottom of its rear legs to 
the tip of the long curved tail is 6% inches. The body of 
this animal also bears a number of diagonal stripes. The 
lizard-like animal with a curved body is 7 inches long and 
31^ inches high. 

These petroglyphs, which may be prehistoric, have been 
known to an old settler of the vicinity, Mr. Golden informed 
the writer, for about 80 years and to his father before him. 
The several photographs of the rock taken by Mrs. Brown 
give a good idea of this interesting locality. While the 
writer was making sketches and measurements of the carv- 
ings she was busy with her camera. Taking satisfactory 
pictures was difficult because of the slope and the narrow 
floor area at its top. 

The weathered gray surface of the sandstone rock was 
green in places with moss and lichen and stained red in 
others by the iron deposits above. It is said, that in former 
years some of the animal figures showed traces of having 
been painted with this iron ore. Whether they were or not 
cannot now be determined with certainty. 

A measurement taken with a steel tape showed the 
length of the rock surface covered with Indian carvings to 
be twelve feet. The height of this surface was from 1% to 
S 1 /^ feet. Most of the carvings are quite definite, but some 
are now rather faint. Here, as at most other petroglyph 
localities located in southern Wisconsin to date, the white 
man initial cutter has left his marks mutilating some of the 
pictures and hieroglyphs. As some of this was done years 
ago it is difficult in some instances to determine which are 
the original Indian and which the recent rock carvings. 

The antelope or young deer is 12 inches long and 12 
inches high. Of these animal representations, the large deer 


or elk and the buffalo are the best ; the fish is the most poor- 
ly cut. 

A curious figure in this display of petroglyphs is the one 
resembling an inverted tree with seven branches. There are 
seven cross-shaped carvings, one being of the sawbuck form. 
Crowfoot-shaped figures are three in number. A carving 
directly above the thunderbird figure may be an uncom- 
pleted or mutilated figure of the same character. 

Some of these carvings are at the present time nearly 
one-half inch deep, others are more shallow and faint. These 
carvings in the rock surface may have been cut with a 
pointed stone tool or the sharp edge of a stone. Some may 
have been rubbed into the rock. Other cutting or rubbing 
tools may also have been employed. 

Another group of petroglyphs is cut into the top and one 
side of a large weathered sandstone boulder lying about 2i/-> 
feet from the base of the rock wall containing the petro- 
glyphs above described. This boulder measures 7 feet in 
length and is 4^4 f ee t wide at its widest part. The surface 
occupied by the petroglyphs is 6 feet long and 2y% feet wide. 
Most of these carvings are deeply cut and are quite well 
preserved. They have not been mutilated by visitors to the 
site. There are no animal figures among these carvings ; all 
are vertical, horizontal and diagonal lines or cuts, most of 
them arranged in various characters or combinations. No 
casts were made of either the carvings on the wall or rock 
during this visit to the Golden site. 

Other Indian petroglyphs have been located in recent 
years for The Wisconsin Archeological Society near Friend- 
ship, at Disco, New Lisbon, West Lima, and in other places 
in the state. These are on the walls of caves and rockshel- 
ters and on rock walls or bluffs. Some of these the society 
is attempting to preserve to the public. Residents of Wis- 
consin who know of the location of others are requested to 
report them to the society in order that they may be visited, 
photographed, and described. 

A Large Silver Cross 79 


A large silver cross dating back to the period of the 
British-American fur trade in the old northwest has been 
added to the collections of the State Historical Museum. 

This cross is ll 1 /^ inches and its cross arm 7% inches 
long. Charles E. Brown, director of the museum, says that 
it is the largest example of this class of Indian jewelry 
which he has obtained or examined in half a lifetime of 
collecting of Indian white man-made aboriginal jewelry. The 
nearest approach to it in size is another large cross in the 
museum which is only 8% inches long and was found at 
Green Bay. A large cross found on the site of Fort Snelling, 
Minn., in 1887, and very much like the foregoing in shape, 
is 10% inches long. 

The big cross which the museum now has is reported to 
have been found with Indian burials near Marquette, Michi- 
gan^ It is made of sheet silver, the ends of the four cross 
arms being attractively ornamented and escalloped. Both 
surfaces are engraved. In the center of the cross is an oval 
with an engraved picture of a trading canoe with a sail and 
propelled by two canoemen. 

Stamped on the surface are the initials of the silversmith 
who made it, "P. H.," and the word "Montreal." 

Many of these silver crosses have been found with Indian 
interments or obtained from Indians in Wisconsin, Minne- 
sota, Michigan, and New York, but most are of small or 
medium size, from li/2 to 3 inches. A few are double-barred. 
They were made for the Indian trade by silversmiths in 
Montreal, Albany, Detroit, and other eastern cities and 

These crosses were carried in the stocks of nearly all 
of the fur trading posts in the northwest. During the 
French period they were mainly made of brass and copper 
and were later superseded by silver crosses. They continued 
in favor for over a century. The large silver crosses had 
little or no interest as religious symbols to the Indians who 
received them from the traders for peltry and other goods. 


They were treated as mere ornaments, the chiefs and other 
owners wearing them on ceremonial or dress occasions. 

All have a silver ring or loop by means of which they 
were suspended from the neck of their savage owners. The 
museum has quite a collection of these crosses of all sizes, 
to which it is constantly making additions. 

Mr. Brown, as secretary of The Wisconsin Archeological 
Society, has printed a monograph describing these and many 
others found in Wisconsin. 

At present this latest recovered silver cross has no peer 
among those known to be in American museums. (The 
Capital Times, August 27, 1937.) 

Notched Chipped Arrow and Spearpoints Classified 81 


The Missouri Archeologist issue of June, 1937, published 
by the State Archeological Society of Missouri, contains a 
paper by J. Allen Eichenberger entitled, "Notched Chipped 
Implements Classified." It is illustrated with two figures, 
eight charts, and a plate. It is an attempt to classify the 
numerous forms of chipped flint arrow and spearpoints. 

"The writer's efforts, in this paper, have been confined to 
the classification as to the pattern of the notched, chipped 
implements. It is his belief that a descriptive classification 
such as this should be worked out for all of the more com- 
mon forms, together with another concerning the technique 
of fashioning. If then, from these two classificatory sys- 
tems, a series of types related to the various cultural groups 
could be set up, it would seem that greater progress could 
be made in deciphering America's prehistory. 

"While the writer has endeavored to study patterns 
from the entire United States, he realizes that the majority 
which have come under his observation are from the states 
of Missouri and Illinois. It is quite possible that type varia- 
tions have been omitted. For this reason criticism is invited. 
Only through such may be developed a chart which will in- 
clude all of the more important patterns." 

In his classification of notched points, the writer places 
them under eight type groupings which he illustrates in two 
charts (Nos. 1 and 2). In these the points are arranged 
chiefly according to the character of the base, notch, and 

Type Definitions 

Fish Tail Type. His first type he designates by this 
name. Fish Type might have been a better name, since he 
describes the type as "easily distinguished by its fish-like 
appearance." The various associated forms vary according 


to the shape of the blade and the depth of the indentation at 
its base. The so-called Folsom Point belongs with this type. 
All forms are shown in his Chart No. 3. 

Round Notch Type. This name is given because the 
notches are somewhat circular or semi-circular in form. 
"Possibly the simplest provision for hafting is that of the 
Round Notch Type. While some of these points are very 
nicely made, the majority are of medium or poor quality, 
generally being devoid of specialized features. Occasionally 
points are found with notches quite deep and round, having 
concave bases and edge smoothing." 

Question Mark Type. This name is used "because of the 
resemblance of its notch to the question mark. Only barb- 
less forms are included, those having barbs being classified 
as Shank Type." 

Shank Type, Barbed. This type "has many variations" 
which the writer illustrates in his Chart No. 5. The notches 
in nearly all of these points are fairly deep and somewhat 
diagonal. The bases of the stems are straight, concave, or 

Stem Type, Barbed. "A barbed point ceases to be classi- 
fied as Shank Type, Barbed, when the width of the stem 
is in no place greater than the neck." Some of the points 
included under this type, according to the writer's Chart 
No. 6, have vertical notches, truncated barbs, and straight 
bases. Another group has pointed, triangular stems, tri- 
angular notches, and pointed barbs. 

Narrow Notch Type. "Points of this type are distin- 
guished by their narrow, slanting (oblique) notch." These 
are leaf shape points with diagonal notches. The bases are 
straight, concave, or convex. Because of their symmetrical 
pattern and fine workmanship these forms are highly prized 
by collectors. They are depicted in his Chart No. 7. 

Stem Type. In this group are included all of the forms of 
stemmed points which have shoulders, but no notches or 
barbs. Among them are some graceful and attractive forms. 
They are depicted in the writer's Chart No. 7. 

Notched Chipped Arrow and Spearpoints Classified 83 

Shank Type. These, the writer explains, resemble very 
closely the Shank Type, Barbed points, but lack the barbs. 
No chart of these is presented. 

Recording a Collection 

In the closing chapter of his paper, the writer says: 
"Many fine collections of Indian relics are practically value- 
less from a scientific standpoint because of the fact that no 
record has been kept of the place or conditions of finding. 
First of all, each piece should be numbered with waterproof 
ink, either directly on the artifact or upon a square of ad- 
hesive tape attached thereto. These numbers should then be 
recorded in a notebook in which all available information 
should be recorded." The writer suggests that on the rec- 
ord sheets abbreviations be used to designate the types of 

Abbreviations Specialized Features 

Fish Tail F.T. Beveled to left Bl 

Round Notch . ...R.N. Beveled to right Br 

Question Mark Q.M. Serration . S 

Shank Type, Barbed.-Sk.B. Edge smoothing Es 

Stem Type, Barbed Sm.B. Fluted one surface .___F1 

Shank Type .. ___Sk. " Fluted, both surfaces J--F2 

Stem Type Sm. 

Narrow Notch N.N. 

Wisconsin collectors may wish to procure a copy of the 
Missouri Archeologist containing Mr. Eichenberger's clas- 
sification of chipped points. Address the editor, J. Brewer- 
ton Berry, Columbia, Missouri. 



Dorothy Moulding Brown 

There are in different parts of Wisconsin a number of 
bluffs and high hills from the tops of which, according to 
local Indian legends, Indian maidens have at one time or 
another leaped to their destruction. 

The most widely known of these legends is one from 
which the village of Maiden Rock, in Pepin County, on the 
Upper Mississippi river, takes its name. Of this lover's 
leap, a number of accounts have appeared in poetry and 



Wenona was the beautiful daughter of Red Wing, a 
Dakota chief, whose village was at the base of the Missis- 
sippi river bluffs. 

Her aged father would not listen to her pleadings for 
permission to wed her young lover. He was a member of 
an alien tribe whom the Dakota hated fiercely and with 
whom they were almost constantly at war. Red Wing said 
that he would rather kill his daughter than have her be- 
come the wife of a brave of the Chippewa nation. He threat- 
ened to have his warriors track down and kill the Chippewa 
lover, as he had selected for her husband, Chief Kewaunee, 
an old man of the Dakota tribe. 

While White Eagle waited for Wenona on the top of 
the high bluff, her father was arousing his warriors to hunt 
down the hated Chippewa. Wenona fled to warn him of his 
danger. White Eagle was overjoyed to see his loved one. 
She told him that she had pleaded with her father to be 
allowed to become his wife and had failed, that her father 
had betrothed her to old Chief Kewaunee, and that he was 
now sending his warriors to kill him. 

As White Eagle was entreating her to flee with him to 
his own people, the Dakota warriors ascended the bluff and 
surrounded the lovers. A deadly arrow shot by one of 
the Dakota pierced the heart of White Eagle and he fell at 
Wenona's feet. Gathering his body in her arms she held 

Indian Lover's Leaps in Wisconsin 85 

him while his life blood gushed away. Wenona went to the 
edge of the bluff and cast herself from its edge down to the 
rocks below, preferring to go to the spirit world with her 
lover rather than to share the wigwam of Kewaunee. 

Her father, who really loved her, recovered her crushed 
body from the rocks. He mourned her loss until the end of 
his life. In remembrance of Wenona's sacrifice a bluff and 
a village on the Upper Mississippi today bear the name of 
Maiden Rock. 

From Viroqua, in Vernon County, a similar legend of 
love's sacrifice is told. 

Viroqua was a beautiful Winnebago girl. She was so 
very lovely that all of the young Winnebago braves of the 
neighboring villages wished to make advances to her. 

But Viroqua's heart had long been given to a young 
white settler of one of the valleys in the vicinity. He was 
a hunter and trapper of proven prowess and he loved the 
Indian maiden beyond all else he possessed in the world. 
The two managed to meet, and time strengthened their love 
for each other. They might have eloped, but the Yankee, a 
very upright man, approached the girl's father asking her 
hand in marriage. His suit was refused by the old man, 
who had at some time or another suffered some injury or 
indignity from the whites. Viroqua also pleaded with her 
father, but to no avail. Thereafter she was closely watched 
by her relatives so that no further meetings between the 
two lovers were possible. In the meantime, her stern parent 
planned for her union with one of the older braves of the 
Indian village. 

After enduring this heart-breaking captivity for weeks, 
and being unable to communicate with her lover, Viroqua 
one day managed to flee the Winnebago camp. Making her 
way to the top of one of the high bluffs in the vicinity, she 
cast her fair body from its top and was instantly killed. 

The young trapper, learning of her death, recovered her 
body, and buried Viroqua near his log cabin, where in his 
loneliness he could always commune with her spirit. 

Legends have grown up around Rib Mountain at Wau- 
sau, a great quartzite hogsback, now a state park, which is 


the highest officially measured point in Wisconsin. Once 
it was part of a mountain system, older than any other in 
the world. It rises 1,940 feet above sea level, 640 feet above 
the surrounding peneplain. Its slopes are covered with huge 
angular quartzite blocks. Here some of the early Wisconsin 
Indians obtained quartzite rock for stone axe and imple- 
ment shaping. The hill was a sacred place and was watched 
over by a powerful spirit, Wakanda. Wakanda insisted on 
the observance of certain regulations by the Indians en- 
gaged in quarrying the rock. All quarry holes were to be 
carefully covered before leaving, and no Indian could bear 
away more rock than he himself actually required for use. 

When people failed to abide by these, his wishes, the 
thunder rumblings of this spirit were heard. Few dared to 
cross him ; when they did, terrible accidents generally came 
to them. 

It is related that long ago Pitanowe (Dawn), a Menomo- 
nie girl, climbed to the top of this mountain. This she did 
despite the wishes and warnings of her parents and rela- 
tives. She had been told that on this rocky eminence was a 
spirit dwelling place, and she was very curious to see it. 
When she failed to return, a party of Indians set out to 
search for her. Halfway up the mountain they found her 
crushed body where, it was believed in her fright, she had 
jumped from the crest. 

In Bear Creek Valley, in the southeastern corner of Rich- 
land County, there is a high rocky bluff. One day a girl 
from a Kickapoo camp in the valley climbed to the top of 
this bluff to obtain a view of the distant Wisconsin River 
Valley into which Bear Creek flows. While she was enjoy- 
ing the view she heard a noise in the woodlands behind her ; 
and almost immediately a party of hostile Sioux Indians was 
upon her. They had come in full war paint to attack and 
plunder the valley village. When the frightened girl saw 
them she ran to the edge of the bluff pursued by the war- 
riors. Running along the margin of the bluff she hoped to 
make her escape down the side by a path that she knew, 
but the Indians closed in on her with shouts and war cries. 
Having to choose between death or captivity she accepted 
the former fate and jumped over the edge of the cliff. Her 

Indian Lover's Leaps in Wisconsin 87 

cries and those of her pursuers alarmed her village and the 
Sioux did not attack its inhabitants. 

A few miles north of Friendship, in Adams County, is 
Roche a Cris, a rock 225 feet in height, whose craggy sides 
give it the appearance of a ruined castle. Many other pic- 
turesque rock mounds are in this region. Some of the best 
known are Mt. Morris, Liberty Bluff, Petenwell Peak, Dorro 
Couche, and Mosquito mound. A local legend of Roche a Cris 
states that an Indian girl, Tacatconiwinga, the daughter of 
a local Winnebago chief, and her Indian lover, Wanktcoga, 
jumped to their deaths from the top of this precipitous 
rocky mound. It seems that her father had objected to the 
attentions of the young brave and" endeavored to separate 
the lovers. Thus they had sought to be forever together in 
the spirit world. 

Just south of Lynxville, a few miles north of Prairie du 
Chien, in Crawford County, is a river bluff from which a 
pretty Winnebago girl is reported to have leaped to her 
death rather than to wed in the Indian style a man whom 
she disliked. This sad event, according to a local legend, 
took place about three-quarters of a century ago. Today 
her grave rests upon the top of this bluff where mourning 
relatives buried her. 

In Peninsula State Park, in Door County, is Eagle Cliff. 
Here, too, an Indian girl is said to have cast herself down 
upon the rocks below. Other legends locate similar tragic 
Indian deaths at the Blue Mounds, in Dane County, and at 
the Platte Mounds, in Grant County. 

From a rock at Wisconsin Dells a heart-broken girl, dis- 
carded by her lover for another sweetheart, sought solace 
by jumping into the Wisconsin river and drowning. Thus 
today we associate the name "lover's leap" to these various 
bluffs and hills. 

It is interesting to speculate on the choice of this custom 
of marriageable Indian girls taking their lives in this ro- 
mantic manner, when the stab of a knife, the bite of a rattle- 
snake, or drowning in a nearby stream or lake might have 
brought the same ending. Wisconsin is not alone in its pos- 
session of these legendary "lovers' leaps" they exist in 
equal numbers in other states. 



Robert B. Halpin 

Dr. Alphonse Gerend, now a resident of Deer Isle, Maine, 
has filed with the records of The Wisconsin Archeological 
Society some surveys of mound groups in Juneau and Wood 
counties made by him while practicing medicine at Milla- 
dore, Wisconsin. 

One of these, located in the northern part of Juneau 
County, is a continuous line of fifty small round mounds ex- 
tending in a northeast and southwest direction and for a 
distance of 1,600 feet. A short distance south of the center 
of this remarkable line of conical earthworks is a straight 
linear mound about 175 feet long and less than 20 feet wide. 

A rather compact group at Ross Lake, in Wood County, 
consists of nineteen conical, an oval, and a dumbbell-shaped 
mound. South of these are two conical and an oval mound, 
and north of them eight conical mounds and a tapering 
linear mound about 300 feet long. Two other small mound 
groups are at Ross Lake, one consisting of two round, an 
oval, and a curved (horn-shaped) mound, and the other of 
three oval mounds. 

The Mano Mound Group in Wood County consists of a 
scattered cluster of ten round mounds of various sizes, the 
largest about 50 feet in diameter. In their midst, dividing 
the group, are two straight, narrow linear mounds about 725 
feet in length. These are located on an Indian village site. 

A group at Five Mile Creek consists of six oval mounds, 
a tapering linear mound about 240 feet long and to the east 
of the latter a scattered group of twenty round and one oval 
mound. The largest of the round mounds is about 40 feet 
in diameter. Another group near this creek consists of an 
irregular line (650 feet) of round mounds and near its mid- 
dle a bear effigy. 

Wood and Juneau County Mound Groups 89 

These several mound groups by their character bear a 
general resemblance to other large groups platted for the 
society some years ago by H. E. Cole and H. A. Smythe in 
Adams County and by Ira M. Buell in Juneau County. 

Dr. Gerend, one of the original members of The Wiscon- 
sin Archeological Society, has been a contributor for many 
years to Wisconsin archeological and ethnological history. 
An archeological collection made by himself and his brother, 
John Gerend, is in the Sheboygan Public Library and a 
valuable Potawatomi Indian collection in the State Historical 
Museum. Dr. Gerend began his collecting of archeological 
specimens on the once rich Black .River Indian village site 
south of Sheboygan, on the Lake Michigan shore. On the 
archeology of this region he has published several papers. 
His ethnological and historical researches were done among 
the Potawatomi and Winnebago in Wood County, and the 
Potawatomi in Forest County. 



G. M. Thome 

On May 12, 1937, a group of persons interested in arche- 
ology, met at the Dickson Mounds in Lewistown for the pur- 
pose of organizing a State Archeological Society. This was 
accomplished. The purposes of the society are to promote 
the study of archeology in the State of Illinois, to promote 
and encourage scientific research, and to serve as a bond be- 
tween the individual archeologists and collectors in the 

The society plans to hold several meetings each year in 
various parts of the state, at which meetings all members 
are privileged to present papers. A journal devoted to Illi- 
nois archeology will be published semi-annually and dis- 
tributed free to all members. 

The society will hold its fall meeting in Peoria, Illinois, 
on October 9th and 10th in the chapel at Bradley Polytech- 
nic Institute. On Saturday morning from 10 to 12 there 
will be a display of collections in the chapel. In the after- 
noon papers will be read and business discussed. For Sun- 
day morning a field trip will be planned. 

The officers of the Illinois Society are: Dr. John B. 
Ruyle, Champaign, president ; Claude U. Stone, Peoria, C. W. 
Hudelson, Normal, and B. W. Stephens, Quincy, vice-presi- 
dents; Byron Knoblock, Chicago, Dr. Don Dickson, Lewis- 
town, Irwin Peithman, and Dr. Bruce Merwin, Carbondale, 
directors; Floyd Barloga, Peoria, treasurer; Harry B. 
Wheaton, Clinton, editor, and Donald E. Wray, Peoria, 

The new state society has the best wishes of The Wis- 
consin Archeological Society for its success. 

State archeological societies are now organized in Ohio, 
Michigan, Missouri, and Minnesota. We hope to soon learn 
of the organization of others in Indiana and Iowa. 

George S. Parker 91 


Col. George S. Parker, Janesville member of the state 
advisory board of the Wisconsin Division, American Auto- 
mobile Association, died July 19th at a Chicago hospital 
after an illness of several weeks. 

Other advisory board members and the staff of the Wis- 
consin Division will especially mourn the passing of this 
enthusiastic AAA member and worker who, while a com- 
parative newcomer to the organization, was one of its 
greatest boosters in the last few years. 

A world traveler, Mr. Parker contributed a series of 
articles on a South Seas cruise to The Wisconsin Motor 
News, a series which achieved wide interest. 

Mr. Parker died at 73 years of age, 46 years after he 
quit his telegrapher's key to patent and manufacture foun- 
tain pens which he eventually introduced to far corners 
of the world. It was in 1891 he founded his company with 
W. F. Palmer, and the company grew from a small shop to 
become one of the leading manufacturers of pens and pencils. 

As soon as the firm had a market firmly established in 
the United States, Mr. Parker became virtually a mission- 
ary of its extension to other parts of the world. He made 
five trips abroad, selling pens and bestowing them among 
high personages in various capitals of the world. 

He was welcomed among the merchants and bankers of 
Shanghai and Hong Kong. The Japanese, eager to expand 
native manufacture of occidental devices, soon had their 
own pen factories. A continental trade in Parker pens was 
projected from headquarters in England. 

Mr. Parker enjoyed seeing strange new scenery. On 
trips to remote ports he customarily carried a black bag 
full of fountain pens. Travelers who followed him into these 
little-known corners of the world were amazed to come upon 
swarthy or yellow-skinned natives using a much-cherished 
fountain pen which had been made in a Wisconsin city of 
about 20,000 inhabitants. 

The king of Siam once received from Mr. Parker a costly 
jeweled pen. Subsequently the king's brother was enter- 


tained at the Parker mansion, "Stonehenge," on the Rock 
river, north of Janesville. 

Mr. Parker retired in 1927 from the company he had 
built but returned in 1933 to take over the chairmanship of 
the board, a position which he held at the time of his death. 
A son, Kenneth, is president. (Wisconsin Motor News.) 

Mr. Parker was quite deeply interested in American 
archeology and was a life member of The Wisconsin Archeo- 
logical Society. He was a liberal contributor to its research 
funds and in past years attended some of its meetings and 

Mihi Shrines 93 


Mary E. Marsh 

In a paper published in the June and July, 1937, issues 
of the Journal of the New York Botanical Garden, W. H. 
Camp describes some Mihi Indian altars and sacrificial cus- 
toms encountered and observed during botanical explora- 
tions conducted by him during a winter in Oaxaca, Mexico. 

In the course of this field work he visited the Mihi moun- 
tain village of Ayutla which he describes. "Ayutla wa* 
once the principal place of the Mihi tribe and still is an im- 
portant center of trade. It was market day and for the last 
hour we had been passing the people of this race going 
home along the trail. The men were dressed in white and 
the women mostly in gay skirts and vividly colored blouses. 

"The houses of the Mihi towns of this region are not 
packed together as are those of the Zapotecs and Mixtecs 
that I know. The Mihis are a strictly agricultural people 
and feel the need of open space about them. From a dis- 
tance their homes look neat, but in reality they are little 
more than hovels and are dirty, as are mud-walled huts the 
world around. Travelers only occasionally come to Ayutla, 
so the tourist trade is small. 

"Beyond Ayutla the mountains become more rugged and 
the trail climbs upward to another pass. On the sides of the 
canon out of which we toiled, I found the natives planting 
maize. The line between starvation and survival in these 
hills is finely drawn. The population is at a standstill, hav- 
ing forced the soil to its ultimate production. If ten infants 
are born in a village in any year and only two adults die, 
eight of the children starve to death. A woman who raises 
three out of twelve of her children has done marvelously. 
I have been asked why these people do not move. The 
answer is easy: There is no place. They were driven into 
these hills by more dominant and warlike tribes, such as the 
Zapotecs, who have taken all of the better lands. The Mihis 
have dug themselves in on the mountain sides and are liter- 


ally clinging to the cliffs in their struggle to keep alive. 
This thing is true, for I saw them planting maize on slopes 
which my inclinometer showed were more than 65 from 
the horizontal. They plow with oxen where a goat would 
hardly dare to graze, and where the oxen cannot go, the 
brush is cut and burned. Then, in the ashes of these fires, 
they clamber about with long, pointed sticks, probing the 
rocks for pockets of earth enough to plant a few maize 

"The wash of the summer rains takes such a toll on the 
scanty soil of these badly eroded lands that many of the 
plots must be 'rested' for a period of five to fifteen years, 
or until the vegetation comes back and a little humus has 
again accumulated. Such are the agricultural methods of 
the Mihis. 

"On the other side of the pass was the village of Tama- 
zulapa. This Mihi town, scattered as are the rest, is perched 
beside a series of springs on the rim of the canon of the Rio 
Tlahuitaltepec. I had heard of an altar on the top of Zempoa- 
Itepetl, but was not prepared to find it still in use. The 
thing was a crude affair, made with irregular stone piled 
into such a shape that one might suspect that it was a fire- 
place. The entire top of this peak was covered with turkey 
feathers. There was no evidence of fire ever having been 
built at the altar, but the place was sprayed with blood. It 
was the altar where the primitive Mihis perform their 
ancient ritual of blood sacrifice. 

"From this locality the author ascended to the summit 
of the mountain. There is no higher place in all the south 
of Mexico. We were on the top of Zempoaltepetl. Here, on 
the very top of the backbone of the range which unites the 
two continents of the western hemisphere, was the main 
altar of the Mihi tribesmen. The other had been only the 
subsidiary place of worship. Here was the same crude arc 
of stones, but larger. Here were the same vessels, but of 
more intricate design, one being a most curious three-holed 
copal (incense) burner. All around was a deep carpet of 
turkey feathers and over the altar were great splotches of 
blackened blood. Beside the altar I found the holder for the 
sacred tapers and on it cigarettes and bits of native offer- 

Mihi Shrines 95 

ings. At various places on the top of the great rock I found 
other evidence of pagan ritual proofs of recent worship in 
a religious ceremony of a people more ancient than the 
Aztecs or the Mayas. 

"While Daniel and I were searching for a few flowering 
specimens of this rarity, we heard humans coming up the 
trail. It was a man and his wife on their way to the upper 
altar, carrying a few parcels and a basket in which was a 
live rooster. They were too poor to afford the sacred turkey 
and so they were offering the best they had. Daniel stopped 
them and talked for a while, but they understood so little 
Spanish and he so little Mihi that the conversation was brief. 
Daniel was all for returning so that I could photograph the 
ceremony, but I declined. 

"The mountain cloud was swirling around us as we put 
our plants into press and it was not long before I heard a 
lusty crowing on the heights above us. Evidently the 
rooster was doing his best to make the ritual a successful 
one. Soon there was a gurgled squawk, then silence and I 
knew his blood was trickling over the altar of an ancient 
god. We continued on our way, and as we neared the lower 
place of sacrifice, we heard voices speaking in the guttural 
tongue of the Mihis. 

"The trail swung near, and through the dense mist we 
could discern two men armed with sharp machetes, holding 
their sacrificial turkey above the altar while its warm blood 
spattered over the stones. They were so intent that they 
did not immediately notice us, but as we approached to 
within a few yards they paused, looking puzzled and irri- 
tated, and glanced at us with impatient faces as though to 
watch our movements. Beside them were the containers for 
the sacred food and the specially prepared mezcal and 
tepache. They had already imbibed deeply of these potent 
alcoholics and were approaching a state of religious fervor 
during which it is well for a stranger not to be around. So, 
after a hasty glance and mental cataloguing of the mate- 
rials of the ceremony, Daniel and I quietly proceeded on 
our way. The Mihis, apparently relieved, continued their 


"I am frankly sorry I have no photographic record of 
this ceremony, but in my own way of thinking, there has 
been too little regard for the feelings of primitive peoples 
and their rites. These men and their families were starving 
and theirs was a prayer for rain; for rain on the maize; a 
prayer for life itself. Therefore, had I interfered, violating 
the sanctity of their Mihi ritual by asking them in Spanish 
only Mihi may be spoken at the altar to hold a long pose 
while I worked, a panic might have seized them lest their 
crop should later fail as a consequence. I have seen the 
explosive anger of these hill men. Even when sober many 
of them resent being photographed, and their present emo- 
tional state was not one to be tampered with. They are 
quick with their machetes, and one seldom recovers from 
the wound, for the favorite thrust of these cerranos is a 
curving slash which disembowels the victim. Feeling as I 
did about intrusion in their ritual, I could scarcely blame 
them for an attack born of fear, and I was in no mood to 
face either a pair of intoxicated, angered Mihi tribesmen or 
their resentful friends, aroused in the countryside through 
which I must return. 

"The blood of the sacrificial animal as it squirted and 
dribbled in crimson clots over that pagan altar was to me a 
thing symbolic a part of the timelessness of those long- 
forgotten yesterdays; of hopes lost in the twilight of the 
past; of pagan Mexico, stark and still primitive. I think 
that I am the only outsider ever to witness this ceremony." 


Vol. 18, No. 1, New Series 


Costumes of the North American Indians, 

Robert B. Hart man __ 1 

Archeologist, Antiquarian and Company, 

Alexander C. Guth__ _ 10 

Indian Earthworks of the Four Lakes Region, 

Madge Yohn 14 

Legends of the Wisconsin Hills, 

Dorothy M. Brown 17 

The West Texas Cave Dwellers _. 25 

Ontario Pictographs. 28 

Reconstructed Mandan Village Lodge __ 29 

Archeological Notes ._ 30 

QJtj? Wisconsin Arrljeolngiat 

Published Quarterly by The Wisconsin Archeological Society 

VOL. 18 New Series No. 1 


Robert B. Hartman 

The costume of the North American Indian in his native 
state was one of simplicity in style and suggestive of con- 
venience, in which there was very general uniformity among 
the tribes and nations of the continent. There were different 
styles or grades of dress, but these were, in general, every- 
where nearly or substantially the same ; commencing with a 
simple article of apparel, and passing through various styles 
and grades to the completely clothed body, as the inclemency 
of the weather or other circumstances might demand. 

Alanson Skinner says: "The picture which the word 
'INDIAN' conjures up in most of us is that of a tall, dark, 
astute man wearing a splendid trailing headdress of eagle 
feathers, a buckskin shirt ornamented with the scalps of his 
enemies and leggings and moccasins of leather. Indeed we 
are accustomed to seeing pictures of the purchase of Man- 
hattan Island by the Dutch, in which the natives are all 
represented in this picturesque garb, which, as a matter 'of 
fact, is the costume worn only by the Sioux and other tribes 
of the Western plains and is as foreign to the Indians of 
the Woodlands as can be imagined. The elaborate eagle 
feather headdress was unknown to all Delaware, Mohegan, 
and Iroquois tribes. Shirts were also a minus quantity. Most 
of the Indians (in these tribes) went naked to the waist, 
wrapping a skin about the upper part of the body in. cold 

In discussing the personal adornment of men, it must 
be remembered that in former times each costume generally 
had special significance. 


Under the more or less general term of Eastern Wood- 
land Indians are included the Narragansets, Pequots, Mohe- 
gans or Mohicans of the Southern New England states, the 
Delawares or Lenni-Lenape of New Jersey and Pennsyl- 
vania, the Nanticokes of Delaware, the Powhatan confed- 
erated tribes of Virginia, and the Shawnees of Kentucky. 
In the summer, the men wore a breechcloth, leggings, and 
moccasins of buckskin, and the women dressed in a short 
skirt open at the side, and buckskin moccasins and leggings. 
Both sexes went nude above the waist during warm weather, 
but wore capes, robes, and mantles of skins with the fur or 
hair on during the winter, and buckskin arm coverings re- 
sembling leggings. Many of their garments and ornaments 
were highly decorated with designs worked in dyed moose 
hair, dyed porcupine quills, and wampum. In almost every 
case the designs used by these tribes were floral and were 
patterned after the every-day leaves, flowers, ferns, and 
grasses of their land. According to Mr. A. Hyatt Verrill, 
very often one tribe borrowed a moccasin type from some 
neighboring tribe, and frequently the moccasins of one tribe 
would differ in design and pattern according to locality. The 
majority of the eastern Woodland tribes used moccasins 
gathered to a tongue on the instep, and the same type of 
footwear was worn by the Northern New England Woodland 
Indians, the Abanaki, Micmac, Malecite, Penobscot, and Pas- 
samaquoddy. Most of the snowshoes in use today are of the 
Micmac or Abanaki pattern and many are still made by the 
Maine Indians for the sporting trade. 

The Iroquois federation or the six nations which con- 
sisted of the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, Sen- 
ecas, and Tr.scaroras also used snowshoes, which were 
broader in proportion than those of the eastern Woodland 
tribes, and had upturned toes similar to the snowshoes of the 
more western tribes. 

The men's costume consisted of a tunic-like coat reach- 
ing nearly to the knees, a breechcloth, and long leggings 
handsomely beaded, and worn with the seam in front. The 
moccasins of deer or moose hide are usually with the uppers 
gathered to a single seam in front, though the Hurons, Mo- 
hawks, and Oneidas, as a rule, prefer the form in which the 
uppers are gathered to an instep piece or tongue. The typi- 

Costumes of the North American Indians 

cal Iroquois headdress was a cap covered with short curling 
feathers and with one or more eagle feathers rising from 
the center, although some of the men wore upstanding 
roaches of hair. Across their shoulders and about their 
waists, the men wore sashes of yarn woven in handsome 
patterns, often combining beads with the yarns. Garters 
of similar weave were tied about the legs just below the 

The women's costume consisted of a decorated piece of 
skin or cloth belted skirtwise about the waist, and an over- 
dress of lighter material covering the upper portion of 
the body and extending halfway down the skirt. Leggings, 
beautifully beaded and with the seam in front, were worn ; 
and on the feet were moccasins like those of the men. In 
cold weather both sexes wore fur robes. As ornaments both 
men and women used silver rings, earrings, and bracelets, 
while the women's dresses were often laden with silver disks 
or brooches. In bead work, quillwork, and moose-hair work 
the Iroquois showed highly artistic taste and great skill. 

The Sauk and Foxes, Kickapoos, Menominees, Peorias, 
Potawatomies and Winnebagos are known collectively as the 
Western Woodland Indians. Several patterns of snowshoes, 
often obviously copied from their neighbors, were in use. 
Their hair was worn long, or, in the case of some warriors, 
was shaved clean with the exception of a braid or scalp- 
lock at the back and an upstanding bristly crest from fore- 
head to nape of neck. The typical headdress was a broad 
band of otter skin with beaded decorations, while the shaven- 
headed men were fond of artificial crests or roaches made 
of turkey beards or deer hair. 

The men's costume varied with the different tribes. From 
the earliest Colonial days cloth was adopted in place of the 
original skin garments. The upper portion of the body was 
covered by a shirt of buckskin or cotton cloth; about the 
loins was a breechcloth of blue cloth often beaded ; leggings 
of deerskin fringed along the seams, or of blue cloth deco- 
rated with ribbon work, covered the limbs. One-piece buckskin 
moccasins gathered to a single seam in front were worn, 
although among the more northern tribes the type with 
the tongue was used. The men wore about the waist a 
gorgeous belt of magnificent beadwork ; garters of beadwork 


were fastened just below the knees, a beaded pouch with 
ornamented straps was slung across the shoulders. At times 
a deerskin coat was added. This was cut in white man's 
fashion, and was often elaborately fringed, beaded, and 
decorated. Buffalo robes, richly painted, and blankets were 
used in cold weather. 

Paul Radin, in discussing the clothing of the men of the 
Winnebago tribe, tells us that: "The men's garments ob- 
tained in Wisconsin consisted of leggings of ribbon-worked 
cloth, or of plain buckskin. Some of the latter were made 
skin-tight, with a broad flap fringed at the edge. The dec- 
orated flap of the cloth and the fringe of the buskskin were 
worn outside." 

The breechcloth was of three pieces, a strip of plain, 
cheap material, supported at each end by a belt, and had two 
beaded broadcloth flaps falling over the front and rear. 

Shirts of cloth or buckskin were beaded about the collar, 
over the shoulders, and down the front over the chest, and 
were often fringed along the seams of the sleeves, and at 
the shoulders. In addition, beaded garters were worn outside 
the leggings below the knees. 

The women's costume consisted of a waist of skin or 
cloth decorated with silver brooches, a decorated strip of 
skin or of red or blue cloth fastened skirtwise about the 
waist, and short leggings of red or blue cloth or buckskin 
often beautifully worked with ribbon or beads. Over this 
costume, in cold weather, was worn a robe of cloth heavily 
beaded and ornamented. Her headdress was a beaded square 
of cloth wrapped about the hair, which was done up in a 
roll or club and hung down the back. The hair wrapping 
was held in place by a woven beadwork band to which were 
fastened long bead streamers that reached almost to the 
ground. The patterns were mostly angular, but in the case 
of quillwork and bead embroidery, flowing lines and conven- 
tionalized plant forms are abundant and typical. 

The shirt worn by the Winnebago women in former times 
seems to have been similar, except as to length, to that worn 
by the men, but the leggings were characteristically differ- 
ent. These consisted of a straight piece of buckskin folded 

Costumes of the North American Indians 

around itself so as to leave no free flap. The upper part had 
a cuff. There was no flap at the bottom falling over the 
moccasin, as in the case of men's leggings. 

The most typical Southeastern Indians were the Musk- 
hogean, in which are included the Creeks, the Alibamu, and 
Koasati, Choctaws, Houmas, Seminoles, Chickasaws, Chero- 
kees, Uchees, Chitimachas, and Catawbas. The ancient cos- 
tume of the men consisted of a breechcloth and moccasins 
during the summer, and robes of skins, native textiles or 
featherwork for winter. During the summer the women 
wore a rectangular garment of fabric or skin belted about 
the loins like a skirt, and at times a similar strip passing 
under one arm and over the other. In winter, they wore 
robes like those of the men, together with deerskin moc- 

The Seminole men wear short tunics, voluminous skirts 
or kilts, soft high moccasins gathered to a single seam along 
the instep, and heavy turbanlike headdresses of cloth dec- 
orated with feathers. Woven garters are worn, and broad 
belts are fastened about the waist. The women wear skirts 
and short waists of gaily colored trade cloth, beadwork and 
woven sashes, beadwork hair ornaments, an abundance of 
bead necklaces and other jewelry, and moccasins like those 
of the men. 

The Indians of the plains are divided into four groups : 
1. The Southern Sioux, 2. Plains Nomads, 3. Desert Nomads, 
4. Pueblos. In the first group are included the lowas, Otos, 
Omahas, Poncas, Osages, Kansas, Quapaws, Santees, Sisse- 
tons, and Wahpetons. 

In general, the costumes worn by the men and women 
of these tribes varied more or less in detail, but as a whole 
were a sort of cross between the costumes of the Western 
Woodland tribes and the far western plains Indians. The 
men's shirts, breechcloths, and leggings were of the Wood- 
land type, and the war shirts with fringes and scalp-locks, 
and war bonnets of eagle feathers were borrowed from more 
western neighbors. In their moccasins these tribes showed 
the widest variation. The majority were of the hard-soled 
plains type, but many were made with flaps like the soft 
moccasins of the Western Woodland Indians, and like these 
were decorated with floral designs. 


Among the Omaha women soft moccasins made in one 
piece were worn, and these had large flaps in front. The 
Osage and Quapaw women used a unique type of soft, one- 
piece moccasin with a single seam down the center of the 

Dwelling in portions of the same general territory occu- 
pied by the Southern Siouan group, but particularly along 
the Texan border were the Village Indians of the Plains. 
Among these were the Pawnees, Wichitas, Caddos, and Ari- 
karas of the Caddoan linguistic stock. Their costumes, aside 
from those of the Caddos, were very similar to the nomadic 
plains' tribes; the men's dress consisted of a soft tanned 
skin shirt, a breechcloth, long leggings, and moccasins. 

The women wore skin gowns reaching from shoulders 
to ankles and having short open sleeves, together with short 
leggings and moccasins. Both sexes wore buffalo robes in 
winter and later trade blankets. 

The costumes of the Caddos were very distinct, being 
similar to those of the southeastern tribes. Later they 
copied the costumes of the Delawares. The Caddos used the 
soft, one-piece moccasin of the eastern woodland tribes. 
These tribes decorated their garments, pouches, and other 
articles with elaborate beadwork, quillwork, and painting. 

The tribes grouped together as the true plains Nomads 
inhabited the territory from Nebraska to Canada, and from 
Northern Texas to the Rocky Mountains. They are the 
Comanches, Kiowas, Apaches, Blackfeet, Assiniboins, Crows, 
Teton Sioux, Cheyennes, and Arapahoes. Ordinarily these 
Indians wore one or more eagle feathers or a tuft of feathers 
and beadwork, attached to the hair on back of the head, 
while at times they wore fur or skin hoods or caps decorated 
with beadwork, feathers or antelope or bison horns. The 
men wore a short shirt with heavily fringed sleeves, a short 
breechcloth, heavily fringed leggings, or leggings with broad 
flaps at the sides, and hard-soled low moccasins. Mr. Lowie 
states: "So far as I know, an eye shade of raw-hide has 
been noted only by W. T. Reynolds (writing in 1868), but 
since other Plains tribes had such visors there is nothing 
improbable in their occasional use by the Crow." The 
woman's dress consisted of a long buckskin gown with short, 

Costumes of the North American Indians 

wide, fringed sleeves, short leggings, and moccasins, or in 
some tribes leggings and moccasins in one piece. 

All of the garments were beautifully made and elabo- 
rately decorated. These tribes were skilled in the arts of 
quillwork, beadwork, scalp-lock work, and painting. In their 
patterns the figures were all angular, usually geometric, al- 
though conventionalized figures of horses, buffalo, birds, and 
other creatures, as well as tepees, and human figures 
abounded. The women's dresses were often loaded down 
with elk teeth, beadwork, and silver ornaments; the men's 
costumes, especially their ceremonial costumes, were fre- 
quently so covered with beads and scalp-lock trimmings that 
the foundation material was invisible. 

The Paiutes formerly wore caps, which consisted of a 
little buckskin affair tied under the chin with strings. The 
remainder of their costume often consisted of a string 
around the waist from which was suspended front and rear a 
cloth of buckskin reaching halfway to the ground. Others 
wore a fringed shirt and fringed leggings. A garment of 
rabbit skins was most serviceable in winter. Flax, or a 
plant closely allied to it, also grew wild all over Arizona and 
New Mexico, and was used for garments. Cotton was grown 
by many of the Pueblos and is still cultivated by the Mokis, 
who made a sacred blanket from it. It is a finely woven white 
blanket, with a broad red stripe transversely at each end. 
It is worn by women in the ceremonials. 

The Moki women wear moccasins only in the ceremonials, 
or on some state occasion, or when traveling. "Previous to 
the seventeenth century," says Bandilier, "the aboriginal 
dress (in this region) consisted largely of cotton sheets, or 
rather simple wrappers, tied either around the neck or on 
the shoulder or converted into sleeveless jackets. Of the 
fibre of the Yucca, the Zuni Indians made skirts and kilts. 
Of rabbit skins, very heavy blankets were made." 

The Northern Puebloans of New Mexico, nearer to a 
game region, dressed in buckskin. But still, even when cot- 
ton was unobtainable for whole garments, they sought to 
secure cotton scarfs and girdles woven in bright colors, 
which were used for belts as well as for garters. Leggings 
of buckskin were worn in winter only and then mostly by 


the Northern Pueblos. The moccasin was made of two kinds 
of leather, the uppers of deerskin, and the soles of buffalo 

The dress of the Amerinds manifested great poverty; 
the most decent costume consisted of a shirt of deerskin. 
Large moccasins were worn in winter. The women wore 
dresses of rabbit skins. In the latter we recognize the same 
twisted skin garments that are still used, or were a few 
years ago, by the Pai Utes and Mokis. 

Southern Utah women wore conical caps of wicker-work, 
like a bowl upside-down, except that they had a little point 
on top. The women's garment was of buckskin, open at the 
sides, and bound around the waist by a buckskin sash. There 
was also a great amount of buckskin fringe. The feet were 
bare except in cold weather, when moccasins were worn. The 
younger women wore a narrow band around the brow com- 
posed of two buckskin strings, covered with porcupine quills, 
which were interwoven to hold them together. The men 
often wore a headdress of feathers which stood straight up 
around the crown. 

The dress of the Indians of the Pacific coast, in what is now 
the states of Oregon and Washington, usually consisted of 
but a single garment, which was a loose cloak or mantle in 
one piece reaching nearly to the feet. This was tied loosely 
over the right or left shoulder, so as to leave the arms at full 
liberty. In winter, however, they sometimes made use of 
an additional garment, which was a kind of hood, with a hole 
in it, for the purpose of admitting the head, the garment 
falling over the breast and back as low as the shoulders. 
This was bordered at the top and bottom with fur, and only 
worn when going out in the cold. The garments of the 
women did not vary essentially from those of the men ; their 
mantle having holes in it for the purpose of admitting the 
arms and being tied closely under the chin, instead of over 
the shoulders. The chiefs dressed in more costly apparel, 
and in a manner to distinguish them from the common 
people of the tribe. 

The northwest coast people, except in the far north and 
in the interior, generally go summer and winter with bare 
feet and legs. They are not accustomed to land travel and, 

Costumes of the North Amer can 'ndians 

therefore, need less protection for their feet than do the 
Indians living inland. The cold months are also wet months, 
and untanned leather soon becomes water soaked and of 
doubtful value as foot covering. The men of the coast were 
accustomed to go about in summer entirely devoid of cloth- 
ing. For ceremonial occasions and in the cold weather of 
winter, they wore a robe of skins or woven fibre. This was 
rectangular and was wrapped around the body under the left 
arm and over the right shoulder, hanging to the knees. Many 
of these robes were made of sea-otter skin. Waterproof 
mats, cut like a poncho with a hole in the center for the 
head, were worn by both men and women in wet weather. 
Hats were worn by the men when iix their canoes at sea. 

The women had aprons of shredded bark tied around the 
waist and falling to the knees. Except on rare ceremonial 
occasions, these garments were not laid aside. Ordinarily, 
the woman also wore a garment made of cedar bark which 
covered her from her shoulders, where it was fastened about 
her neck, to her ankles. A girdle was worn with this, con- 
fining it to her waist. She also wore tight bands about her 
ankles, and bracelets, nose and ear rings. In the north the 
Tsimshian, Haida, and Tlingit women had their lower lips 
slit and a piece of wood inserted. 


Beckwith, Hiram W. The Illinois and Indiana Indians. No. 27 of the 
Fergus Historical Series. 

Dellenbaugh, Frederich S. The North Americans of Yesterday 
G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1901, p. 143. 

Goddard, Pliny Earle Indians of the Northwest Coast. (Curator of 
Ethnology American Museum of Natural History.) 1924, pp. 81, 


Haines, Elijah M. The American Indian Pub. by Mas-sin-na-gan 
Co., 1888. 

Lowie, Robert H. The Crow Indians. 

Radin, Paul The Winnebago Tribe Eth. Ann. 37. 

Skinner, Alanson The Indians of Greater New York The Torch 
Press, 1915, p. 20. 



Alexander Carl Guth 

Of the activities of the first member of the firm of 
Archeologist, Antiquarian and Company, little need be said 
at this time. His special field of activity is so well recognized 
and known that it needs no elaboration. Of the second mem- 
ber of this firm ; namely, Mr. Antiquarian, little more need 
be said as his specialty is also well known. His interest in 
antiquity dates for many years back. So this article will 
concern itself especially with the silent member of the firm, 
the "And Company." He goes by the name of "Mr. Archi- 
tectologist." A few words concerning his make-up and per- 
sonality will not be amiss since he is such a retiring sort of 
a fellow. His interest, too, lies in the antiquities of the past, 
but his is a specialized group. Structures of all kinds and 
types come under his close scrutiny. He makes a specialty 
of those whose erection precedes the Civil War. He is inter- 
ested in their date of erection, style or type of architecture, 
and historic background. In this case his province, if it may 
be so called, lies within the borders of the state of Wiscon- 
sin. His speciality is indeed one which is closely allied to man 
because by a study of the habitation of man of past genera- 
tions one gets a better insight of his habits and customs 
of living. Much more might be said of this interest of Mr. 
Architectologist, but there must be an end to this article. 
A few brief words will describe the means and methods he 
uses to record his finds. He usually sallies forth equipped 
with a camera, a sketch pad, a note book, and perchance a 
foot rule. And so he is armed to the teeth ready to do and 

For the purpose of organizing the study of the older 
buildings in such a way that the investigation may be sys- 
tematic and thorough, only one type of structure will be 
hereinafter considered. This will therefore pertain to the 
early day Inns, the structures which dotted the lower one- 
half portion of the state during the stage coach days. 

Archeologist, Antiquarian and Company 11 

The first stop will be made at Salisbury, which is on the 
main highway as it wanders on to Mukwonago. Here is 
located the Martin Inn (1841), a structure which is typical 
of most of those which will be hereafter described. In fact, 
a general description of these Inns will not be amiss right 
now. Strange as it may seem, each and every one of them 
is three stories in height. The first stories contain the 
typical tap room, living room, large dining room, and over- 
sized kitchen. The second stories are subdivided into a 
myriad of bedrooms, with nary a closet or bathroom. Poor 
dirty souls. And the third floors are usually taken up with 
an immense ballroom. These ballrooms invariably have 
vaulted ceilings which extend well up into the roofs. On 
each side of the ballrooms and on tKe low sides of the vaults 
there are always to be found a number of small bedrooms, 
sometimes as many as ten or twelve. These are just large 
enough to contain a bed and a chair. What the purpose of 
these bedrooms was remains more or less of a mystery. 
Briefly, this is a description which is typical of any one of 
these Inns. Each of them, however, has some outstanding 
feature; constructional or otherwise, which will now be 
elaborated upon. 

So to get back to the Martin Inn here is to be found a 
circular staircase which is a perfectly marvelous piece of 
construction. It winds it way upwards from a point imme- 
diately inside of the main entrance in the first story, and 
continues to turn gracefully until it reaches the ballroom 
floor. This is such an excellent piece of work that many a 
modern day craftsman could well profit by a visitation to 
the premises and a study of the essentials. This staircase 
is built entirely of black walnut. As for the rest of the struc- 
ture, this is carried out in a characteristic colonial fashion 
with windows, doorways, cornices, and general roof treat- 
ment, all reminiscent of the best of colonial work of the 
eastern sea board states. The building is constructed entire- 
ly of wood and is almost a derelict today. 

A little further along, on the same highway, is the Jesse 
Smith Cobblestone Inn (1842). Built of stone from the 
neighboring fields, it stands in unique contrast with the rest 
of the Inns herein described. The front has a majestic two- 
story porch arrangement reminiscent of the old south. This 


structure, too, has its strong individual point of interest 
which is the floor of the ballroom. As far as is known, this 
is the only structure in the state which has a spring dance 
floor. The construction of this floor is very near three feet 
in height and is built up entirely of oak struts, beams, tim- 
bers, and so forth, all held together with wood dowels. The 
floor arrangement is constructed so that it is entirely in- 
dependent of the rest of the construction of the house. This 
is done so it can come and go as it pleases. It must have 
been a real joy to dance on a floor of this kind. As for the 
rest of the Inn, the description of the Martin Inn fits it 
quite well. 

On Highway 19, as it wanders through the village of 
Okauchee, one passes the Okauchee House. This was built 
in 1839 by one named Israel O'Connell. Much of the 
general description of the Martin Inn concerning the ar- 
rangement of the three floors may be applied to this one 
also. The unusual feature of this Inn, however, is the con- 
struction of the exterior walls and some of the cross par- 
titions. Instead of the usual stud arrangement, 3"x6" oak 
timbers were placed horizontally and flatwise, one on top of 
the other, from the sill around the building to the under- 
side of the roof. No nails were used in this construction, the 
timbers being doweled together every sixth course. As far 
as has been learned this is the only building of this type 
of construction in the entire state. It is indeed a young lum- 
ber yard. The rest of the building is quaint and unique, with 
wide floor boards of varying widths, hand made hardware, 
hand blown ripple glass, and a large oven in the basement. 

The next structure to be considered is the Wade Inn. 
This is situated at exactly the half point mark between She- 
boygan and Fond du Lac, at Greenbush. The description of 
the Martin Inn and of the Okauchee House tallies with that 
of this Inn. The exterior is probably a little bit more elab- 
orate, especially so because of an unusual and large double 
deck porch arrangement which occurs along the front of 
the building. If the readers of this article were all archi- 
tects, they would be advised to visit this last named Inn. 
This is because there is not another structure in the entire 
state where such beautiful free flowing mouldings abound. 
At the doorways, around the windows, at the frieze board, 
and on the cornices, these mouldings are to be found. Grace- 

Archeologists, Antiquarium and Company 13 

ful to the Nth degree and all hand made, if you please! 
This is an exceptionally large structure, and it seems hardly 
incredible to believe that the lumber and labor bill for its 
erection and construction amounted to less than $500.00, but 
this actually was the case, and all this occurred in 1849 when 
the Inn was erected. 

And so the work of Mr. Architectologist goes on and on. 
The foregoing is but one type of structure. Consider how 
many more there are. Churches, Mills, Covered Bridges, 
Houses, old Fort Buildings, and then one can readily realize 
there can be no end to his investigational work. His re- 
search must be careful and accurate and thorough, because 
it has been found frequently that when he has gone back 
for a second investigation of the 'structure, the same has 
disappeared in that it has been torn down or destroyed by 
fire. Then, too, frequently these structures get into the 
hands of a builder who remodels the same according to his 
whims and fancies, or those of his unappreciative clients. 

Beginning with the year 1937 many communities are ob- 
serving their centenaries. This means that they have 100 
years back of them and just as sure as two and two are 
four, it is prophesied that a study and appreciation of the 
heritages of the past will be a fashionable one. It is to be 
regretted that this was not the case sooner. However, better 
late than never. 

And so Time marches on. 



Madge Yohn 

For The Wisconsin Archaeological Society, Charles E. 
Brown, its secretary since 1903, has made a recount of the 
number and classes of prehistoric Indian mounds formerly 
located on and near the banks of Lakes Mendota, Monona, 
Wingra, Waubesa, and Kegonsa. 

Mr. Brown's count shows a total of 1,040 mounds about 
these lakes, nearly half of which are still in existence. The 
number of mound groups on and near the shores of Lake 
Mendota, the Society's surveys and records show to have 
been 40 ; on and near Lake Monona, 17 ; at Lake Wingra, 18 ; 
at Lake Waubesa, 43 ; at Lake Kegonsa, 26. On and near the 
banks of Lake Mendota there originally existed 278 Indian 
earthworks; on Lake Monona, 160; on Lake Wingra, 148; 
on Lake Waubesa, 189, and on Lake Kegonsa, 111. 

Surveys and investigations of ancient Indian earthworks 
about the Madison lakes were begun in 1906. Dr. Arlow B. 
Stout, now chief of the laboratories of the New York Botani- 
cal Gardens and then a student at the University of Wis- 
consin, made a survey of some of these neglected local 

Interests Others 

This important undertaking was completed by Mr. 
Brown when he came to Madison in 1908. The interest of the 
late Dr. W. G. McLachlan of McFarland was enlisted and he 
engaged in the survey of the Lake Waubesa and Lake Ke- 
gonsa groups. This was a large undertaking for men who 
were busy in other fields of work, but it was successfully 

Reports of the archeological history and landmarks of 
the five lakes were prepared by Mr. Brown and Dr. Mc- 
Lachlan and published by The Wisconsin Archeological So- 
ciety in 1912- 1922. Mr. Brown also devoted his attention 

Indian Earthworks of the Four Lakes Region 15 

to the preservation and marking of many groups and ex- 
amples of the Indian mounds of the Four Lakes region. This 
work was begun at a field meeting of the Society held here 
in 1910. 

Our State Leads 

Nowhere in Wisconsin or in any similar region in the 
entire country are there now preserved so many prehistoric 
earthworks of the mound-building Indians as there are about 
the city of Madison. There are about 250 of these. The 
Society, the regents of the university, the local D. A. R. 
chapter and former members of the Society, such as the late 
W. W. Warner and Thomas E. Brittingham, have provided 
metal tablets for all of these significant landmarks. 

Easy to Reach 

The preserved Indian mounds of geometrical and animal 
form are all readily accessible to the citizens of Madison 
and most of them are within easy walking distance of the 
residence districts. Some are in the university Arboretum; 
some in Henry Vilas park; some on the Pleasure Drive and 
on the Edgewood Academy grounds on the shore of Lake 
Wingra. Others are on the university campus and on Eagle 
Heights ; others in Hein's Woods, on the Blackhawk Country 
Club course, at Fairhaven, at West Point, and in Morris Park. 
Others lend interest to Burrows Park on the shore of Lake 
Mendota and to the State Hospital grounds. 

Lamentable Loss 

A fine group of effigy mounds is in Forest Hill cemetery. 
Others are in Hudson and Elmside Parks on the Lake Mon- 
ona shore in East Madison. The only local mound groups 
of former importance and great interest, which it was found 
impossible to save to the public and posterity, were those 
in the Fuller Woods, on the east shore of Lake Mendota, 
and those in Frost's Woods on the southeast shore of that 
lake. Their loss, Wisconsin archeologists will always regret. 
Every effort was made to preserve them. A fine group in 
McConnell's Woods on the Waubesa Beach shore of Lake 
Waubesa now seems doomed to meet the same fate. 




Of the animal shaped mounds for which southern Wis- 
consin is famous, no finer examples are found anywhere than 
about the Madison lakes. Some of these are intended to 
represent the bear, panther, lynx, wolf, fox, deer or elk. 
Others are outlined in the form of a turtle, wild goose, or 
duck, the thunderbird and other birds and animals. 

Every year hundreds of tourists from adjoining and 
other states come to Madison to see them. The annual sum- 
mer session excursions of the University of Wisconsin, con- 
ducted by the State Historical Museum since 1911, have 
made the ancient Indian monuments of Madison familiar to 
educators and students from all over the United States. 

(Reprinted from "All Around the Town," Capital Times, 

Legends of the Wisconsin Hills 17 


Dorothy Moulding Brown 

Indian myths and legends are connected with many hills, 
bluffs, and mounds in Wisconsin. Some of these are iden- 
tified with the deeds of the Manitou, the Great Spirit, some 
with the activities of thunder birds or other spirit-beings, 
and some with the undertakings of men. 

I shall mention only a small .number of them in this 
paper. Maiden Rock on the Upper Mississippi and other hills 
and mounds in Wisconsin which figure in Wisconsin Indian 
legendary lore as "lovers' leaps" have been described by 
the writer in a previous issue of The Wisconsin Archeologist. 

At Madison, on the south side of Lake Mendota, within 
the limits of the present village of Shorewood is Eagle 
Heights, a wooded hill. The greater part of this hill is 
owned by the University of Wisconsin. On its top are three 
prehistoric Indian mounds, one of conical and two of linear 

In the early thirties this hill was known to the local Win- 
nebago as Shohetaka, meaning "horse hill." This eminence 
was a sacred place, or shrine, to which the local Indians 
went to fast and dream and to receive the "blessings" (magic 
power) of a spirit horse which on misty days was to be 
seen in the hazy clouds rising above the hill. This horse did 
not always remain in a stationary position, but was some- 
t ; mes seen to move and was heard to whinny. 

Fox's Bluff, an eminence on the north shore of the same 
beautiful lake, was in those days known by the Winnebago 
to be a roosting place of the Thunderbirds, or Thunderers, 
on their long nights from their nesting places on the 
high mountains on the shore of Lake Superior. Their pres- 
ence on this hilltop was known to the Indians, living on the 
other shores of the lake, by the bright flashes of lightning 
that could be seen in that direction. By counting these the 
redmen knew about how many Thunderers there were in 


that particular flight. These lightning- flashes came and went 
as the birds opened and shut their eyes. When the entire 
sky was lighted at the same time it was a sign that all of 
the Thunderers were awake. This hill was also a place of 
sanctity, and only a few Indians dared to approach it. 

Blue Mound, a famous hill, at the western boundary of 
Dane County, is located twenty-four miles west of Madison, 
on the old Military Road built in 1835 from Green Bay to 
Prairie du Chien. There are two of these mounds, the West 
Blue Mound in Iowa County, 1,716 ft. in elevation, and the 
East Blue Mound in Dane County. Near the base of the 
former nestles the village of Blue Mounds, the earliest 
settled locality in Dane County (1826). The West Blue 
Mound is a landmark which can be seen from a distance of 
fifty or more miles. 

David Dale Owen, the geologist, wrote of the Blue 
Mounds in 1839 : 

"These isolated and towering mounds, so conspicuous a 
feature of the landscape of Wisconsin, are evidence of the 
denuding action to which, under the crumbling hand of time, 
the surface of our globe is continually subjected, and which 
the more durable siliceous masses of these hills of flint have 
been enabled to partially resist." 

These peaks, originally known as the "Smokey Moun- 
tains," take their name from the bluish or smoky haze 
which is often seen surrounding the summit of the larger 

The Winnebago Indians, who camped and hunted in the 
prairie and woodland region near these mounds in the twen- 
ties and thirties of the last century, believed that the Blue 
Mound was a favorite retreat of Wakanda, the Earthmaker. 
Upon the top of this mound he often seated himself to ponder 
over his work of creation and to view the activities of his 
children, the redmen. When thus engaged, he smoked his 
great pipe, the clouds of smoke rising from its bowl en- 
shrouded the top of the mound. When these smoke clouds 
spread out evenly over the crest of the peak, Earthmaker 
was in a peaceful humor, but when they rose straight up- 
ward he was restless or angry. 

Legends of the Wisconsin Hills 19 

Part way down the slope was Wakanda's spring, and near 
it were outcroppings of flinty rock from which Indian ar- 
rows and axes were shaped. Here he often sat throughout 
the years while the Indians were still inhabiting this region. 
Since they have left it, he no longer visits Blue Mound, but 
the smoke clouds may yet be seen, a reminder of his former 

Big Hill, on the east bank of the Rock River at Beloit, 
now a county park, is associated with the waring Sauk 
Indian chief, Black Hawk. 

Here in 1832, retreating up the valley of the Rock River 
before the pursuing Illinois militia, he and his force of war- 
riors are said to have camped for a night. The spirit of the 
renowned old warrior, the Rock River Winnebago said, 
haunted the hill after the white settlers came to the valley. 

On the east bank of the Wisconsin River, across the 
stream from the villages of Prairie du Sac and Sauk City, 
near the river road leading northward from Bridgeport (the 
Dane County entrance to the Sauk bridge) to Okee, is a 
picturesque dome-shaped hill, known as Fortification Rock. 
This name it has obtained from the fort like outcropping 
of limestone rock on its crest. Here, it was formerly sup- 
posed, the Sauk chieftain, above mentioned, made his stand 
and fought the Wisconsin and Illinois militia on July 22, 
1832. The battle, known as Wisconsin Heights, was fought 
before his retreat across the Wisconsin River. As a matter 
of fact, the real battle took place on the river bluffs a mile or 
more south of this place (south of Bridgeport) at a point 
now marked with a granite monument by the Madison 
Daughters of the Revolution. But the local Black Hawk 
legend of his association with Fortification Hill is hard to 

Sinsinawa Mound, near Hazel Green, in the southern part 
of Grant County, is another eminence which has an Indian 
legend associated with it. The name, "jinawe" in the Algon- 
quian tongue means "rattlesnake" and is said to have been 
given to it long ago because of its being, like many other 
hills and bluffs in southern Wisconsin, once infested with 


these poisonous reptiles. The chief of the snakes once in- 
vited them to a council at this place, many came, and a dance 
followed the gathering. At this dance a certain group of 
snakes were the best dancers because they wore rattles at 
the ends of their tails to accompany them. They were highly 
commended by the leaders of the council for their perform- 
ance. This made them so proud that they ever after wore 
their rattles. Other serpents became their enemies. This 
aroused their fighting spirit and thereafter they were always 
ready for a quarrel with anyone. By the Winnebago, the 
rattlesnakes were considered to be the messengers of Wa- 
kanda and were seldom molested by them. Because of its 
many snakes, Sinsinawa has acquired its sinister name. 

Wild Cat Mound, a few miles north of Merrimac, a town 
on the bank of the Wisconsin River in Sauk County, is a most 
picturesque elevation because of its dome-shaped form and 
the circles of ground pine and cedar trees which dot its 
slopes and crest. The highway passes near it. This mound 
the Winnebago called Pesheu, a wild cat. 

Identified with it is the Indian story of Rabbit, who, meet- 
ing Wild Cat one day, made a derisive remark concerning 
his wrinkled face. Wild Cat, after considering this remark, 
felt deeply insulted and went to seek revenge. 

Rabbit was a lively fellow and running about made so 
many trails that Wild Cat became confused and Rabbit 
reached his hole in safety. But Rabbit was not satisfied with 
having outwitted his enemy. He started out again, singing 
a song as he went, and Wild Cat, who was waiting for him 
behind a bush, grabbed him, saying, "You should have 
known enough to let well enough alone." That was the end 
of Rabbit. 

Wild Cat Bluff may have harbored many wild cats in 
Indian days, the bluff and the surrounding region are wild 

In the rugged mountains of the Penokee Iron Range 
near Hurley in Iron County, in the former domain of the 
Chippewa Indians, were the reputed nesting places of the 
Thunderers (wassamowin lightning makers). 

Legends of the Hills of Wisconsin 21 

From these huge birds the Indians obtained their first 
knowledge of fire, which they kindled with fire-sticks. These 
mythical birds were the most powerful of the animal deities 
of the Indians of the woodlands and of the plains. When the 
weather was stormy they flew about high in the heavens. 
When they flapped their great wings, one heard the crashes 
of thunder, when they opened and closed their eyes flashes 
of lightning were seen. Some carried lakes of water on their 
backs, these slopped over and caused downpours of rain. 
Their arrows, or thunderbolts, were the eggs which they 
dropped in their flight. These shattered the rocks and set 
fire to the forests and prairies. 

A Chippewa Indian hunter, who was carried away to his 
nest by a Thunderer, saved his life by killing one of the 
young birds and flying back to earth in its feathered hide. 

In the Smoky Mountains, a wild and rugged region in 
the southwestern part of Bayfield County, was the home of 
Winneboujou (Nenebozho), the fabled hero of the Ojibwa 
Indians. This all-powerful manitou was a blacksmith, and 
had his forge on the flat top of the highest mountain. Here 
he shaped the native copper of the Lake Superior region into 
useful implements for his Indian children. Much of his work 
at his forge was done at night, and the ringing blows of his 
great hammer could be heard throughout the Brule Valley 
and Lake Superior region. The fire of his forge reddened the 
sky. When he was not busy at his forge he was away hunt- 
ing or seeking other adventures. Many stories of the ex- 
ploits of this giant manitou have been told by the Chippewa 
and other Wisconsin Algonquian tribes. 

Mt. Nebo, at Viola, in Vernon County, is an Indian spirit- 
haunted hill. On its top were Indian mounds and graves. At 
De Soto, on the bank of the Mississippi River, is Winneshick 
Bluff, dedicated to the memory of the important Winnebago 
chief of that name, a place his spirit is reputed to still visit. 

Silver Mound in Jackson County was the site of extensive 
Indian quartzite quarrying. Here, in prehistoric and early 
historic time, the Indians quarried the white quartzite for 
the manufacture of spades, hoes, knives, and other imple- 


ments. Hundreds of old quarry pits are on its wooded top. 
Implements made of this material are found on Indian sites 
all over south and central Wisconsin. 

A myth which grew up in connection with this mound 
was that the Indians obtained silver here. This myth at- 
tracted the attention of the French explorer, Pierre Charles 
Le Suer, who in 1699 brought from France a number of ex- 
pert miners to search for this ore. Their mining was with- 
out result. Many other white prospectors, from that early 
day to this, have tried to locate these "lost" Indian silver 
mines. The debris of their attempts may be seen on every 

The Menomini, Chippewa, Potawatomi, and Ottawa have 
myths and legends about Thunder Mountain in the north- 
eastern part of Oconto County, near the Marinette County 
western boundary. This mountain is a few miles northeast 
of a little settlement called Mountain. To this high hill the 
Indians have given the name Che-quah Bikwaki, or Thunder 
Mountain (che-quah), being the native name for the Thun- 
derbirds who built their nests on its crest. In these nests 
they laid two eggs and waited until their young were 
hatched. These Thunderers were the implacable enemies of 
the great serpents and water monsters which infested many 
Wisconsin lakes. A pond on the top of Thunder Mountain 
was once the place, or abode, of one of these serpents. One 
day, while this huge snake was sunning himself on its banks, 
a Thunderer, flying overhead, discovered his presence and 
attacked him. The two struggled for a long time, fighting 
back and forth over the top of the hill. 

The Thunderer would carry the serpent high in the air, 
but the serpent, struggling, would bring the Thunderer back 
to the pond. An Indian hunter, who came up at this time, 
was requested by each combatant to assist him by shooting 
the other. Each promised him a reward. The bewildered 
hunter, not knowing which one to assist, closed his eyes 
and let fly an arrow. He wounded the Thunderer, who, weak- 
ened by the shot, was thus overcome by the serpent. He 
was taken under the hill and is still there, a captive of the 
serpent. When he now and then tries to escape his prison, 
fearful rumbling noises are heard on this mountain. 

Legends of the Wisconsin Hills 23 

On the Peshtigo River is Little Hill, or Little Moun- 
tain. The Menomini Indians long ago gave to it the name 
Wauchesah. Surrounding it is a region of small forest open- 
ings and barren plains. The Thunderers, flying from their 
homes in the north, set these plains afire and keep the region 
burned over. Near this hill there is a lake, which the In- 
dians believed to be its window. In this lake there lives a 
great White Bear, the king of all bears. Through his window 
he observes what is going on in the world. From this lake 
he occasionally sallies forth into the forests to meet the 
other bears of his tribe, always keeping a watchful eye open 
for his hereditary enemies, the Thunderers. 

Biwabik is the Chippewa Indian name for Iron Mountain 
in Dodge County, given it, it is said, because the Manido 
here obtained some of the metal for his thunderbolts 

On the bluffs of the St. Croix river in Interstate Park, 
near St. Croix Falls, is the great stone face (Old Man of 
the Dalles), a representation of an Indian head sculptured 
by nature in the limestone rock. This Indian head, some of 
the Chippewa explain, is the face of the Great Spirit keep- 
ing a watchful eye over their enemies, the Dakota or Sioux, 
with whom the Chippewa were at war for several hundred 
years. Raiding parties of Sioux from Minnesota as late as 
1861 crossed the St. Croix River near this point to attack 
Chippewa camps. 

Mount Trempealeau, on the Mississippi River, at the 
mouth of the Black River, obtained its name from its unique 
situation, "Mont-trempe-1-eau," the mountain that stands in 
the water. It rises in the form of an oval cone or natural 
pyramid, from a base 80 rods long by 40 wide to about 300 
ft. high and is entirely surrounded by water. It contains 
an extensive den of yellow rattlesnakes, from which they 
swim in the spring, and to which they return in the same 
way in the fall."f 

"Trempealeau Mountain, 'Hay-Nee-Ah-Chah' or 'Soak- 
ing Mountain' to the Winnebagos, rises from the shimmer- 
ing backwaters of the Mississippi as the most interesting 
single feature of the park (Perrot State Park). First seen 


by Father Louis Hennepin in 1680, Trempealeau Mountain 
has served as a landmark for Mississippi voyageurs for 
nearly 250 years. In 1685 Nicholas Perrot and a party were 
thrusting their way through the wilderness to establish a 
fur trading post among the Sioux Indians when they were 
overtaken by bad weather at this place. Here they took up 
winter quarters and remained until 1686."* 

Having given offense to Wakanda this "Soaking or Sink- 
ing Mountain" was believed to be slowly disappearing be- 
neath the waters of the Mississippi. 

f 1. Wis. Hist. Colls., p. 114. 

* 2. Wisconsin's Scenic State Parks. 

The West Texas Cave Dwellers 25 


United States Department of the Interior National Park Service, 
Santa Fe, N. M. 

Sante Fe, Dec. 4 Mystery that still surrounds the origin 
and life of a vanished race of aboriginal Americans - - the 
West Texas Cave Dweller Indians may be solved by exten- 
sive archeological investigations that would follow estab- 
lishment of the proposed Big Bend National Park in Texas. 

Preliminary work in the area has brought to light many 
artifacts used by these people, such as projectile points, 
stone handaxes and hammerstones, but there is as yet no 
clue that would indicate from where the race came or where 
it went whether it was exterminated by hostile tribes, or 
whether it became merged into other racial groups. 

The West Texas Cave Dwellers have been called "Basket- 
makers," and have been grouped, by some research authori- 
ties, with the true Basketmakers of Arizona and Utah. They 
may have been connected with the Patarabueyes, who were 
settled in the sixteenth century at the mouth of the Conchos 
River, where now is Presidio, Texas. Another theory is that 
they may have been descendants of extremely ancient in- 
habitants of the Guadalupe Mountains in Texas and New 
Mexico, and further north around Clovis and Roswell, New 

Over 300 sites have been found in the area of the pro- 
posed National Park that may shed some additional light on 
the life and habits of these people. Excavation of these sites 
will be a long and tedious undertaking requiring a number 
of years. The National Park Service, it was said at Regional 
headquarters here today, does not contemplate such exten- 
sive work until after the park has become established. Pres- 
ent research in the area is being confined to surface collect- 
ing of artifacts, and exploratory work in some of the caves 
in the Big Bend State Park. 

A report on the preliminary work, made by Erik K. 
Reed, Assistant Archeologist of the National Park Service, 


states that "there are many points of striking similarity be- 
tween the West Texas Cave Dwellers and different other 
peoples the Lipan Apache, the Patarabueyes of Jumanes, 
and the Basketmakers of the Southwest. But one cannot 
safely link them at all strongly with any of these groups." 

"It is perfectly possible, the Reed report adds, "that the 
West Texas, or Big Bend Cave Dwellers, were descendants 
of the very early inhabitants of the Guadalupes, and also 
possible that the folk who lived in the El Paso pueblos and 
manufactured crude polychrome pottery were a branch of 
the cave people become sedentary and relatively civilized 
under Puebloan influence from the Mimbres-Chihuahua 
basin. But there is very little that specifically suggests 
either of these, and not enough is known of the details of 
the Guadalupe and El Paso cultures to enable us to pass 
judgment even tentatively." 

The West Texas Cave Dwellers, it has been established, 
lived from the Pecos to El Paso. Specimens of their work, 
found in the proposed park area, include sandals, matting, 
wooden implements, and basketry. These are being pre- 
served in a temporary museum building the CCC has con- 
structed in the Basin of the Chisos Mountains. 

These early Western Texans, Reed says, not only lived 
in caves but probably also in crude brush shelters. They 
had very little agriculture, made no pottery, but wove good 
blankets and twilled matting. Their sandals were roughly 
woven of yucca leaves. For defensive purposes and in hunt- 
ing, they used the atl-atl, or dart-thrower, a wooden con- 
trivance the length of the arm which propelled the dart with 
great force, but not with the accuracy that was to come with 
the bow they later used. They also employed the curved 
throwing club in hunting small game. 

"They have been called Basketmakers and grouped with 
the true Basketmakers of Arizona and Utah as one people," 
the report continues, "but this is not quite justifiable. The 
Basketmakers, the West Texas Cave Dwellers, and the Ozark 
Bluff Dwellers all have many points of similarity, but are 
nevertheless separate entities. They are all on about the 
same level of cultural development, at a stage that many 
cultures pass through; they have in common a number of 

The West Texas Cave Dwellers 27 

artifact-types which also occur in other cultures, prehistoric 
and historic ; in short, these three groups are representative 
of the general type of culture which has occurred in many 
places, its remains disappearing in most cases. There is no 
need to suppose that these three peoples spoke the same 
language, were more closely related than any other widely 
separated groups of aboriginal Americans, or were even 
contemporary, although all this is perfectly possible." 

Reed offers the conjecture that the West Texas Cave 
Dwellers inhabited the region "from fairly early times" 
down to about the fourteenth century, when, presumably, 
they were overrun by the Lipan Apaches and vanished into 
the mountains of Coahuila, Mexico, or perhaps became the 
Patarabueyes, who lived on the present site of Presidio, 



On August 1, 1910, Col. Howard Greene of Milwaukee 
and a party were traveling by canoe in the Rainy Lake Re- 
gion, Ontario, Canada. On Irving Island, Kasakokwog Lake, 
they found some Indian pictographs. We believe that a rec- 
ord of the finding of these should be preserved. 

Col. Greene has three photographs of these pictographs 
in a typewritten report of this expedition. One pictograph 
not mentioned in his brief description of these was an hour- 
glass-shaped figure near the smoking figure mentioned. Some 
other unidentified markings were near these. Members of 
this party were Col. Greene, Dr. Ernest Copeland, Wm. P. 
Marr, Wm. MacLaren, Charles F. Ilsley, Clay Judson, Howard 
T. Greene, Carl Greene and Frederick Hansen. 

"The navigating course was easy, following the shore of 
Irving Island, then following Coleman Island until 1 o'clock, 
when we stopped near the end of the island for a lunch of 
beans, rice, hardtack and tea. 

"In passing close to the cliffs at one point in Irving Island 
Cope found marks of hands in red paint, reaching from near 
high water mark about eight feet up. He called the others. 
On further investigation we found figures of a bull moose 
and calf and an Indian smoking, all of which were photo- 
graphed and a picture taken of the cliff. It was the most 
curious thing we saw during the day." 

Reconstructed Mandan Village Lodge in North Dakota 29 


Reconstruction of the Slant Village, a former Mandan 
Indian community on the junction of the Missouri and Hart 
rivers in North Dakota, is being done by the State Histori- 
cal Society of North Dakota, in cooperation with the National 
Park Service and the WPA. This village, located on a bluff, 
contained 68 earth lodges and was surrounded by a fortifica- 
tion of upright logs and a moat. The Mandans occupied it 
to the end of the 18th century. 

Approximately six of the lodges have been restored at 
this writing. 

The location of this site is unique in that it is the only 
one known not on level ground. 

The framework of the Mandan lodge is of logs, willow 
matting, and straw (the Indians used grass, of course, in 
place of straw). 

One of the lodges in the restored group is a ceremonial 
house. It is eighty-four feet in diameter, and stands in the 
center of the site with the other lodges facing it. 

(Hobbies, October, 1932.) 




September 20, 1937 President Dr. H. W. Kuhm presiding. Thirty- 
five members and guests were present. It was announced that at the 
meeting of the Board of Directors and Advisors, held earlier in the 
evening, there were elected as annual members Byron W. Knobloch, 
La Grange, Illinois, and Dr. Leslie L. Cooke, Chicago. Dr. Eugene 
Schoeffel, Chicago, was elected a life member. The deaths during the 
summer months of Dr. Frank G. Logan, Chicago, and Col. George S. 
Parker of Janesville, were greatly deplored. 

Secretary Brown had furnished a preliminary report on archeo- 
logical field work conducted by various members of the Society and 
several co-operating Wisconsin institutions during the summer months. 
Three groups of Indian Mounds on the University of Wisconsin cam- 
pus had been repaired and restored with the help of a Works Progress 
Administration crew. The repair of the mounds in Aztalan Mound 
Park would soon be undertaken. 

Mr. Frederic Heath reported that experiments in the casting of 
the metal tablets to be used in marking the Milwaukee Indian trails 
were being carried on at the Milwaukee Vocational School. 

Messrs. Joseph Ringeisen, Jr., and H. G. Zander suggested the 
members be invited to display Indian implements of certain specific 
types at future meetings of the Society. This matter was referred 
to the Program Committee for consideration. 

The lecture of the evening was an illustrated talk on "Glimpses 
of an Earlier Milwaukee" by Dr. Herbert W. Kuhm and Mr. Paul W. 
Hoffman, who have made a hobby of gathering quaint and unusual 
pictures of old Milwaukee. Both the lantern slides and the talks were 
highly interesting and instructive. 

October 18, 1937 President Kuhm conducted the meeting. Secre- 
tary Brown announced the election of Mr. Alexander C. Guth, Mil- 
waukee, as an honorary member of the Society. Mr. Guth had won 
distinction by his work as director of the Wisconsin Federal Historic 
Buildings Survey. He reported that the work of repairing the mounds 
in Aztalan Mound Park was proceeding very satisfactorily under the 
immediate supervision of Mr. Robert P. Ferry of Lake Mills. It was 
also announced that Mr. Ferdinand Hein of Madison had presented 
to the Society an Indian effigy mound located in Hein's Woods near 
the Pheasant Branch suburb, near Madison. Mr. Walter Bubbert had 
furnished a map sketching the boundaries of the proposed Kettle 
Moraine State Park and had requested the Society to assist by locating 
the Indian landmarks within its bounds. Field work in Interstate 
Park at St. Croix Falls had been completed with good results. 

Mr. Robert B. Hartman gave a lecture on "The Costumes of the 
North American Indians," illustrated with a fine series of stereopticon 
slides and with specimens of clothing loaned by the Milwaukee Public 
Museum. This lecture was enthusiastically received by the members 
and visitors present. 

Dr. Buttles, chairman of the Program Committee, announced that 
Mr. A. P. Kannenberg would lecture at the November meeting on the 
excavation of the Lasley Point Indian Mounds at Lake Winneconne. 

Archeological Notes 31 

Mr. Bubbert spoke on the plans for the proposed Kettle Moraine State 
Park. Mr. Chas. G. Schoewe announced the death cf the Sioux Indian 
Amos One Road in South Dakota. He had been well known to Mil- 
waukee members of the Society. Exhibits of specimens were made 
by Feveral members. 

November 15, 1937 Dr. H. W. Kuhm, presiding, Dr. L. S. Buttles 
acting as secretary. 

Dr. Buttles, chairman of the Program Committee, announced that 
at the December meeting Mr. Victor S. Craun would present an illus- 
trated lecture on "An Archeological Trip Through the Caves of North 
America." At the January meeting the film "Mishakwut," depicting 
the life of the Wisconsin Indians, would be presented by Mr. E. W. 
Cooley. Dr. Barrett and Mr. McKern both endorse this film highly 
as being true of the customs and costumes of the Indians. 

Mr. Arthur P. Kannenberg, archeolcgist of the Oshkosh Public 
Museum, presented a lecture on the "Excavation of the Lasley Point 
Mounds at Lake Winneconne." Mr. Kannenberg illustrated his talk 
with some fine specimens of painted earthenware vessels, serrated shell 
spoons and earthenware dippers. A large audience of members and 
friends was on hand to hear this most interesting lecture. Quite 
a number of the members of the Society had visited the site cf Mr. 
Kannenberg's investigations during the summer. Four round mounds 
excavated up to that time were each of a different character struc- 
turally. One contained layers of clam shells, another some interesting 
internal rock works and a third a covering of boulders. Other mounds 
in this group await excavation next year. 

Mr. Alfred L. Bcerner of Milwaukee was elected a member of the 
Society at the recommendation of Mr. Frederic Heath. At the meet- 
ing cf the Board of Directors, held earlier in the evening, Mr. Walter 
L. Bubbert presented a report on the landscaping cf Aztalan Mound 
Park. Secretary Brown reported en the condition cf a preserved 
mound at Taylor Lake in the Waupaca Chain o' Lakes regirn ?nd on 
the ccnclusicn of the mound repair work at Aztalan Mound Park. 

The annual and regional meetings of the American Anthropological 
Association, American Folk-lore Society and Society for American 
Archaeology will be held on December 28-30 at Yale University, 
New Haven, Connecticut. 


Dr. Ralph Linton, formerly at the University of Wisconsin, is now 
a member cf the faculty at Columbia University, New York. Mr. John 
J. Knudsen, a former Milwaukee member cf the Wisconsin Archeo- 
logical Society, has been appointed chief field inspector of the Federal 
Housing Projects with headquarters at Washington. 

Mrs. Gregg Montgomery of Madiscn is installing the historic house 
museum in the Governor Nelson Dewey homestead at Cassville, in 
Nelson Dewey State Park, for the Wisconsin Conservation Depart- 
ment. This promises to be one of the interesting museums of this 
nature in Wisconsin. Mrs. Lillian Kohl will be in charge of the or- 
ganization cf a city museum to le housed in the public library at 

Mr. Frederic Heath has been one of the moving spirits working 
for the organization of a historical museum to be located in the old 
court houre building at Milwaukee. This undertaking has the ap- 
proval cf Mayor Hoan and of the Milwaukee County Historical So- 
ciety. Mrny other citizens are also interested. 


Dorothy Moulding Brown of Madison is lecturing on folk-lore and 
historical subjects before educational institutions and civic organiza- 
tions in various parts of Wisconsin. During the past several years 
this lady conducted the state folk-lore survey for the Federal Govern- 
ment which was very successful in its results. Four books were pub- 
lished by this project, copies of which have been placed in many Wis- 
consin and other libraries and universities. 

Mr. Alonzo W. Pond is lecturing on archeolcgical subjects in Wis- 
consin and other states. His lectures have always been of exceptional 
interest and have been greatly appreciated wherever they have been 
delivered. Several other members of the Wisconsin Archeological 
Society are lecturing before societies in their home towns and else- 

After two years of devoted service Secretary Charles E. Brown has 
resigned as State Director of Federal Writers' Projects. These proj- 
ects originally included the Writers' Project and the Historical Rec- 
ords Survey. A Folk-lore Survey was merged with the former. In 
closing his Federal labors Mr. Brown wishes to express his grateful 
thanks to the many members of the Wisconsin Archeolcgical Society, 
Wisconsin Folk-lore Society, Wisconsin Historical Society and Wis- 
consin Museums Conference, for their generous and helpful assistance. 


Mr. Alonzo W. Pond has published a very interesting illustrated 
guide book, "Interstate Park and Dalles of the St. Croix," copies of 
which may be purchased from him at his home at St. Croix Falls, 
Wisconsin. Its cost is fifty cents. Chapters in this guide tell of the 
Pot Holes and Reck Formations, Roads and Trails, The Boat Trip, 
The Hatchery, Animals, Birds and Wild Flowers, Prehistoric Indians, 
The Park in Winter, The CCC Camp and History of Interstate Park. 
It is a booklet which every member of the Society will wish to possess. 

A new book describing Wisconsin scenic and historic landmarks, 
"Alluring Wisconsin," has been published by Mr. Fred L. Holmes of 
Madison, the well known author of several interesting and instructive 
books. The publishers are E. M. Hale and Company, Milwaukee. 
"This is a good book for Wisconsin people to read in their arm chairs 
as a substitute for a vacation tour that may be difficult to arrange. 
It is an invaluable bock to tuck in your bag when you set out with 
camera and car to have your fill of Wisconsin's endlessly varied beauty 
etched against her glamorous and adventurous history." It will be 
read by many a Wisconsin fireside this winter. Its numerous illus- 
trations add to the charm and interest cf this book, whose, price of 
$2.00 places it within the reach of all of our friends. 

A new book that will interest many book lovers is entitled "Tombs, 
Travel and Trouble," the author being Lawrence Griswold, an Amer- 
ican archeologist. This book is a very interesting account of the 
author's adventures and experiences en various archeological expedi- 
tions in Yucatan, Honduras, Panama, Columbia, Brazil, Mindoro, 
Komado and other countries and islands. In the course of his travels 
Mr. Griswold had most exciting adventures with cannibals, head hun- 
ters, poisonous snakes, and had other disagreeable experiences. His 
book is well illustrated; it is one which Wisconsin archeologists will 
wish to read. Published by Hillman & Curl, Inc., New York. Cost 

A very interesting report, "Archeolcgical Investigations on Bayou 
Macon in Arkansas," by Harry J. Lemley and S. D. Dickinson, is pub- 

Archeological Notes 33 

lished by the Texas Archeological and Paleontological Society. The 
pottery vessels and an effigy pipe shown in its several plates are very 
interesting. The "Range of the Bison in Wisconsin" is the title of an 
instructive paper by A. W. Schorger, published in the Transactions 
of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters. The pres- 
ence of bison pictographs in a La Crosse County cave is noted. 
"Glimpses of Historical Areas East of the Mississippi River" is the 
title of a report printed by the National Park Service. It is a very 
useful publication. Southwestern Lore, the official publication of the 
Colorado Archaeological Society, Gunniscn, Colorado, contains inter- 
esting papers by F. Martin Brown, John C. McGregor, Pearle R. Casey 
and E. B. Renaud. 

Emerson F. Greenman is the author of a report on "The Younge 
Site: An Archaeological Record from Michigan," published by the 
University of Michigan Press. It is a very informative report and 
well illustrated. Philip N. Youtz, Director, has published a report on 
"Museums of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences." These are 
the Brooklyn Central Museum and the Brooklyn Children's Museum. 
It is a report of their condition and progress during the year 1936. 
Two interesting 1937 bulletins of the Bureau of American Ethnology 
are "Ancient Caves of the Great Salt Lake Region," author, Julian 
H. Steward and "Journal of Rudolph Friederich Kurz," translated by 
Myrtis Jarrel and edited by J. N. B. Hewitt. The latter is an account 
of Kurz experiences among fur traders and Indians on the Mississippi 
and Upper Mississippi Rivers, 1846 to 1852. 

The October, 1937, issue of The Louisiana Historical Quarterly, 
New Orleans, contains a number of papers of interest to historians. 
The September issue of the National Archaeological News, Lancaster, 
Pennsylvania, has interesting short papers and other material. The 
April-June and July-September, 1937, issues of the American Journal 
of Archaeology, published by The Archaeological Institute of America, 
are exceptionally fine issues of this very valuable journal. 

A paper, "Preliminary Notes on the Siouan Family," by Paul 
Weer, was printed in the Indiana History Bulletin. Henry C. She- 
trone published a paper on "Nicotiana: An Ethnologic, Historic and 
Literary Novelty," in the Ohio State Archaeological and Historical 



Medicine Rock 

Indian Cave Legends 

Heim Effigy Mound 

Butte Des Morts 

Barbed Axes 




Accepted for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1108 
Act, Oct. 3, 1917. Authorized Jan. 28, 1921. 


VOLUME 18, No. 2 

New Series 




Incorporated March 23, 1903, for the purpose of advancing the study 
and preservation of Wisconsin antiquities 



Dr. H. W. Kuhm 


Dr. L. S. Buttles T. L. Miller John J. Knudsen 

H. W. Cornell W. E. Erdman 

Geo. A. West Dr. S. A. Barrett 

W. K. Andrews 
Dr. W. H. Brown 
Col. Marshall Cousins 
Rev. F. S. Dayton 
W. S. Dunsmoor 
Kermit Freckman 
Arthur Gerth 
J. G. Gregory 
0. J. Halvorson 
P. W. Hoffman 


M. F. Hulburt 
Paul Joers 
A. P. Kannenberg 
Dr. A. L. Kastner 
Dr. Louise P. Kellogg 
R. J. Kieckhefer 
Mrs. Theodore Koerner 
Marie G. Kohler 
W. C. McKern 
C. G. Schoewe 

Dr. E. J. W. Notz 
Louis Pierron 
E. F. Richter 
M. C. Richter 
Jos. Ringeisen, Jr. 
Paul Scholz 
E. E. Steene 
M. S. Thomson 
R. S. Van Handel 
G. R. Zilisch 


G. M. Thorne 
917 N. Forty-ninth Street, Milwaukee, Wis. 


Charles E. Brown 
State Historical Museum, Madison, Wis. 



STATE SURVEY Robert R. Jones, J. J. Knudsen, A. P. Kannenberg, 
M. P. Hulburt, W. E. Erdman, D. A. Blencoe, Kermit Freckman, 
V. E. Motschenbacher, G. E. Overton, 0. L. Hollister, J. P. 
Schumacher, Rev. Chr. Hjermstad, F. M. Neu, M. P. Henn, H. F. 
Feldman, P. B. Fisher, V. S. Taylor. 

MOUND PRESERVATION C. G. Schoewe, Dr. Louise P. Kellogg, 
T. L. Miller, Dr. E. G. Bruder, Mrs. W. J. Devine, R. B. Halpin, Dr. 
L. V. Sprague, Mrs. H. A. Olson, Prof. R. S. Owen, A. H. Griffith, 
A. W. Pond, R. S. Van Handel, G. L. Pasco, W. S. Dunsmoor. 

PUBLIC COLLECTIONS Dr. S. A. Barrett, C. E. Brown, N. C. 
Behncke, H. L. Ward, Rev. F. S. Dayton, Prof. J. B. MacHarg, 
Prof. A. H. Sanford, Rev. P. B. Jenkins, W. M. Babcock, H. R. 
Holand. Miss Marie G. Kohler, Rev. A. J. Muench, Dr. P. 
H. Nesbitt, R. N. Buckstaff. 

MEMBERSHIP G. M. Thorne, Paul Joers, N. E. Carter, Dr. W. H. 
Brown, H. A. Zander, Louis Pierron, Paul Scholz, W. K. Andrew, 
Paul W. Hoffmann, A. W. Buttles, Clarence Harris, A. E. Koerner, 
Carl Baur, W. Van Beckum, Karl Aichelen, Dr. C. J. Heagle, Paul 
Boehland, E. R. Guentzel. 

ter Holsten, D. S. Rowland, M. S. Thomson, Col. J. W. Jackson, 
Prof. A. H. Sanford. 

PUBLICITY W. C. McKern, M. C. Richter, A. 0. Barton, Victor S. 


BIOGRAPHY Rachel M. Campbell, Dr. E. J. W. Notz, E. F. Richter, 
G. R. Zilisch, Paul Joers, Arthur Gerth. 

FRAUDULENT ARTIFACTS Jos. Ringeisen, Jr., Geo. A. West, 
E. F. Richter, W. C. McKern. 

PROGRAM Dr. L. S. Buttles, H. W. Cornell, Mrs. Theo. Koerner, 
E. E. Steene. 

PUBLICATIONS C. E. Brown, Dr. A. K. Fisher, W. E. Erdman. 

Kastner, R. J. Kieckhefer, L. R. Whitney, J. G. Gregory. 

LAPHAM RESEARCH MEDAL Dr. S. A. Barrett, Geo. A. West, 
Dr. A. L. Kastner, C. E. Brown, C. G. Schoewe, M. C. Richter. 


Life Members, $25.00 Endowment Members, $500.00 

Sustaining Membrs, $5.00 Annual Members, $2.00 

Institutional Members, $1.50 Junior Members, $ .50 

All communications in regard to The Wisconsin Aroheological Society should 
be addressed to Charles E. Brown, Secretary and Curator. Office, State Historical 
Museum, Madison, Wisconsin. Contributions to The Wisconsin Archeologist should 
be addressed to him. Dues should be sent to G. M. Thorne, Treasurer, 917 N. 
49th Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 


Vol. 18, No. 2, New Series 


Medicine Rock, 

Edith Medbery Fitch 35 

The Heim Effigy Mound, 

Charles E. Brown... 39 

Butte Des Morts Explorations, 1935-1936, 

Arthur P. Kannenberg and Gerald C. Stowe 42 

The Champlain Valley Archaeological Society 53 

Big Eagle Cave Mystery (Cave Legend), 

VictorS. Craun 55 

Wisconsin Indian Cave Legends, 

Dorothy Moulding Brown _ 59 

Additional Barbed Stone Axes, 

Charles E. Brown __ _ 63 

Archeological Notes _ ._ 65 

Medicine Rock, Near Forest City, South Dakota Frontispiece 

Near Forest City, South Dakota 


Published Quarterly by The Wisconsin Archeological Society 

VOL. 18 New Series No. 2 


Edith Medbery Fitch 

For more than a hundred years a limestone boulder in 
South Dakota, near Forest City, has been an object of in- 
terest and speculation because of peculiar markings on its 
broad, flat surface, resembling impressions of hands and 
feet. Various ideas regarding their significance and origin 
have been advanced. Scientists who have examined them 
recently, believe them to be petroglyphs, the work of Indians 
who inhabited the country centuries ago. 

The stone, known as Medicine Rock, lies in a pasture on 
the side of one of the foothills of the Missouri River. Until 
the completion of the highway bridge at this point, it was 
far enough removed from the usual routes of travel to pro- 
tect it from serious injury. The improvement of National 
Highway No. 212, between Minneapolis and Belle Fourche, 
now makes it easily accessible to careless tourists who fail 
to appreciate its historical significance, and some damage has 
already been done. Steps are being taken by the Potter 
County Historical Society to build a steel fence around it to 
keep the vandals out. 

Medicine Rock was first mentioned by Atkinson & O'Fal- 
lon in their Journal of July 12, 1825. The description is rea- 
sonably accurate: 

Maj. O'Fallon & Gen. Atkinson obtained 2 Indian 
horses & rode % of a mile back to the hills in rear of our 
position to look at the impression of foot-steps in a rock, 
we found the impression of three tracks of the foot of a 
common sized man. The first near the- upper edge of the 


rock is made by the right foot & is about an inch deep 
at the heel & making a full impression of the whole track 
with full impression of the five toes % of an inch deep 
the next track is of the left foot & about 3% feet from 
the first, impression full and deep as the first the next 
footstep of the right foot is not visible but at about 6 
feet from the second track an impression is again made 
by the left foot as deep & plain as the others, this is 
near the lower edge of the rock which is of itself about 
11 feet by 9, lying at an angle of about 30 degrees of 
elevation the length lying up and down the hillside. 
There are several other marks of hands and feet, etc., 
these appear to have been recently made by slight 
scratches by the Indians, except the impression of a hand 
which appears deep and full but has been newly scratched 
over by Indians."* 

The three footprints and the hand are still deep and full. 
The newer scratches mentioned have been obliterated by 
time. Two weathered depressions, one at the upper and one 
at the lower end of the rock, resemble the claws of a large 
animal and may have been worked over to make them more 
lifelike. The position of the prints inspired a legend of un- 
known authorship which circulated among the pioneer 
settlers of Potter County fifty years ago. 

In the days long, long ago, they said, when the stone 
was soft like the bars along the Missouri, an Indian girl 
was chased across it by a huge animal, leaving the impres- 
sions of her bare feet in the plastic limestone. In her 
flight she stumbled and pressed her right hand in the ce- 
ment-like mud. The great tracks of the pursuing animal also 
remain to bear witness to the truth of the story. 

This legend may have been derived from an old Indian 
folk tale. Other petroglyphs picture the bodies of women 
inside the carcasses of buffalo, indicating that the victim was 
swallowed by the animal. However, Indians of the Cheyenne 
Agency are not familiar with the tale. 

The idea that the stone was once soft and that the marks 
are impressions of hands and feet seems to have been enter- 

*Journal of the Atkinson-O'Fallon Expedition, in North Dakota 
Quarterly, Vol. IV, No. 1, Oct., 1929. 

Medicine Rock 37 

tained in the early years of white occupation of the territory. 
Atkinson & O'Fallon speak of them as "impressions," and 
in 1873 Mrs. Custer wrote this naive account of her visit 
to the rock: 

"We encamped that night near what the Indians call 
'Medicine Rock/ my husband and I walked out to see it. 
It was a large stone, showing on the flat surface the im- 
press of hands and feet made ages ago before the clay 
was petrified. The Indians tied bags of herb medicine on 
poles about the rock, believing that virtue would enter 
into articles left in the vicinity of this proof of the mar- 
vels and miracles of the Great Spirit. Tin-cans, spoons, 
and forks, that they had bought at the Agency, on 
account of the brightness of the metal, were left there 
as offerings to an unseen God."* 

Although the geological history of the rock is now well 
established, the fallacy that it was once soft is still a popu- 
lar notion. 

Dr. W. H. Over, Director of the South Dakota University 
Museum, regards Medicine Rock as "most probably a glacial 
boulder of Trenton limestone and suggests the possibility 
that it may have been formed on the bed of the deep sea in 
Wisconsin or in that region, millions of years ago." 

Dr. E. P. Rothrock, State Geologist of South Dakota, 
adds "that it was deposited in its present position by lowan 
or early Wisconsin ice, as the drift in this part of the state 
is older than the last Wisconsin sheet." 

At the Centennial of the Atkinson-O'Fallon Peace Ex- 
pedition, celebrated at the rock in 1925, Shield Eagle, of the 
Two Kettle tribe of the Dakotas, gave an Indian version of 
the markings on the rock. He said that in ancient times a 
wise man, inspired by the Great Spirit, engraved the hand 
and footprints on the stone to remind the Indians that they 
were in the care of God. They looked upon the rock as an 
oracle that, when proper prayers were offered, would direct 
them to the best hunting grounds or to places of safety in 
time of war. 

* Boots and Saddles, by Elizebeth Custer, Page 85. 


Alan Fielder (Long Road), long a trusted and efficient 
government worker, says that it was never an object of 
worship by the Indians but was regarded as an evidence of 
the permanence and power of the Great Spirit. He remem- 
bers how his mother, when in its vicinity, used to go to the 
rock and offer prayers for the safety of her children from 
disaster and disease. Through it she believed that she could 
reach the one God who alone could help her. So far as he 
knew, he said, the markings had no special significance. It 
was well understood that artistically inclined Indians had 
pecked them into the limestone boulder by means of flint. 
He does not believe it was done by medicine men. 

The Heim Effigy Mound 39 


Charles E. Brown 

Another Wisconsin effigy mound has been permanently 
preserved by being dedicated to The Wisconsin Archeological 

Madison, Wisconsin, July 8, 1937. 

Mr. Charles E. Brown, 

Secretary, The Wisconsin Archeological Society, 

Madison, Wisconsin. 

Dear Mr. Brown : 

On August 21, 1915, you wrote to me in regard to the 
Indian mound located in my wood lot northeast of the 
new Middleton highway number twelve. In that letter 
you stated that you had made a careful survey of the 
earthwork and you enclosed a detailed tracing of it. You 
also said in your letter: 

"I was very much pleased to find this remarkable 
ancient Indian earthwork in such excellent condition. 
No finer example of prehistoric Indian sculpture in 
earth exists anywhere about Lake Mendota. I trust, 
therefore, that you will prevent any digging into it by 
relic hunters and do everything possible to secure 
its permanent preservation. 

"In case this woodland is ever cut up into acreage 
tracts or lots for summer homes, I would suggest that 
you cause this mound to be preserved in a small pub- 
lic oval, or, if this is not possible, compel its future 
owner to preserve it by inserting such a provision in 
the deed." 

On July 3, 1937, a plat called Heim's Woods was re- 
corded in the office of the register of deeds for this 
county. This is a plat of the wood lot above mentioned. 
I am enclosing a copy of it for the files of The Wisconsin 
Archeological Society. As agreed between you and my 


attorney, Leon E. Isaacson, a plot of ground in which the 
mound is located has been dedicated to The Wisconsin 
Archeological Society. 

It gives me a feeling of satisfaction to give this 
mound to your society and to know that it will be pre- 
served for the future. 

I want to thank you personally for the suggestion 
contained in your letter of more than twenty years ago. 
I still have your letter and also have a clipping from the 
Milwaukee Sunday Sentinel of August 29, 1915, which de- 
scribes the mound in detail and publishes your tracing 
of it. Undoubtedly, when you wrote the letter, you 
thought you were looking a long away ahead in predict- 
ing that "summer homes" would some day be located on 
the above property. Little did we then think that in 
about twenty years permanent homes would be built in 
this area. 

Very truly yours, 

Ferdinand J. Heim. 

This effigy, representing probably a fox or wolf, was 
surveyed by the writer wth the assistance of Professor W. B. 
Cairns of the University of Wisconsin and Mr. Albert 0. 
Barton, present register of deeds of Dane County, on August 
20, 1915. It is located in a woodland adjoining the new Madi- 
son to Middleton state highway. It is near Pheasant Branch 
settlement and not far from the Lake Mendota summer re- 
sort settlement called Middleton Beach. 

It is the effigy of an animal with a pointed nose, erect 
pointed ears, a quite long body, slightly curved tail, and 
sturdy legs. No effigy just like it is in any of the groups 
now or formerly existing about Lakes Mendota, Monona, or 
Wingra at Madison. Its body, from the tip of its nose to 
its tail, is 97 feet in length, and its tail about 50 feet in 
length. The greatest width of its body is 16 feet. Its legs 
are each 38 feet long. Its body is 3 feet high at its highest 

At the October 18, 1937, meeting of the Board of Direc- 
tors of The Wisconsin Archeological Society the gift of the 

The Heim Effigy Mound 41 

Helm effigy mound was unanimously accepted by the direc- 
tors. Mr. Heim's generosity and interest was recognized by 
his election as a life member of the society. 

In an interview with him on September 8, 1915, Mr. Heim 
stated that when his father acquired this land, in 1848, the 
Winnebago Indians still camped on it and upon the adjoin- 
ing farms. A favorite camp ground was on the Lake Men- 
dota shore on the present Magnus Swenson estate. The 
number of Indians which he remembers as camping in this 
vicinity was from thirty to fifty. They lived in wigwams 
and existed by hunting, trapping, and fishing. They were 
great beggars, stopping at the farm houses at all times for 
food supplies. His father was obliged to erect rough fences 
about his hay mows in the Middleton Beach marsh to pro- 
tect them against the foraging Indian ponies. 

A few stone axes and a large number of flint arrowpoints 
were found in cultivating the land on the edge of the marsh. 
An oval mound formerly located here, just beyond the effigy 
mound, was leveled. 

The Indian trail from Madison to Pheasant Branch ran 
across the Heim and adjoining farms. Groups of Indians 
were continually passing over this trail on foot and on Indian 


Arthur P. Kannenberg and Gerald C. Stowe 

Butte des Morts (French) Nas-pah-gua-ti-noh (Meno- 
mini), Hill of the Dead (English). 

Butte des Morts was the first county seat of Winnebago 
County. It is situated in Township 19 North, Range 15 East, 
Section 24, Town of Winneconne. It is on the northwest 
corner of Lake Butte des Morts, on the highest point of 
land bordering the lake. This elevation had been a per- 
manent village site for centuries before the coming of the 
white men. Proof of this is found in the different strata 
of the soil, as each strata designates a different era of settle- 
ment. When the first white men arrived, the elevation was 
occupied by the Sauk and the Fox Indians (called "Renards" 
by the French). The Grignon and Porlier trading post was 
established here in 1818 and flourished for many years. Sev- 
eral of the present business establishments which were suc- 
cessors to this trading post are still doing business in the 

In a series of interesting excavations carried on by Arthur 
P. Kannenberg, Curator of Archeology of the Oshkosh Pub- 
lic Museum, and Gerald C. Stowe, in the fall of 1935, in the 
spring of 1936, and again in the fall of 1936, many valuable 
archeological specimens have been unearthed. 

Principal among these have been the bone, shell, pottery, 
and stone implements which were found on the properties of 
E. E. Meeleus, Sidney Ruby, R. B. Anger, Arthur Stein and 
Albert Berg. 

The work of excavation was carried on by the sieving 
method. All the earth dug up was sieved in a handshaker 
sieve of %" mesh. In this way all small objects were re- 
covered. For smaller objects such as beads, a %" wire 
screen sieve was used. 

The soil at Butte des Morts is very mellow and is made 
up of three strata. The top layer consists of from 2 to 3 
feet of black, sandy loam; beneath that is a compact clay 
layer ; and 1 foot to 31/2 feet beneath that is a hard, coarse, 
sharp grit, white and yellow sand. 

Butte Des Morts Explorations 43 

In the first or top black loam layer a general run of 
archeological artifacts are found. Most abundant are the 
bone, shell and antler specimens. Their excellent state of 
preservation is due in great part to the large amount of 
lime in the soil deposited by the clam shells, with which the 
soil is literally filled; every shovelful contains some. The 
neutralizing of the acidity of the soil by the lime of the clam 
shells helps in the preservation of bone and antler materials. 
The presence of so many clam shells in the soil of the village 
site indicates that these early Indians were fishermen as well 
as hunters. 

The soil is one vast intermingling of fireplace pits, refuse 
pits, burials, ashes, bones of fish, birds and animals, pottery 
fragments tempered with shell, sand or disintegrated granite, 
clam shells and shell ornaments, antlers, and bone, stone and 
copper implements. 

Not only is the soil a vast intermingling of artifacts and 
archeological material, but there is no definite order in which 
they are found. A fireplace or any other domestic village 
necessity may be found in a layer above a skeleton or above 
some other domestic feature, such as a fire-place pit, or 
refuse pit. Four such layers of village occupancy were found, 
indicating four or more different epochs of settlement here. 
It stands to reason that the people of one settlement would 
not deliberately dig a refuse pit over one of their buried 
dead, but people of different tribes would do this not know- 
ing where the burials were located. 

The following is a compiled list and description of the 
various features and artifacts found during the two years 
research. It will not be necessary to elaborate on each par- 
ticular feature and find; it will suffice to just dwell on a cer- 
tain few of the more important or rare artifacts, some of 
which have previously been considered as foreign to this 
locality. It is planned to elaborate on these foreign artifacts 
in a later descriptive article. 


A great variety of potsherds were found. Some show 
the construction and decoration of the Upper Mississippi 
culture phase. These are shell-tempered and are decorated 
by means of horizontally parallel incised lines, dots, scallops 


and notches on the rims ; several specimens show finger-nail 
impressions for decorations. The Lake Michigan phase of 
the Woodland culture is represented by grit-tempered pot- 
tery decorated by means of finger-nail impressions, and 
parallel lines, dots and patterns effected by the use of cord 
and fabric. There is a specimen of Iroquois-like pottery in 
the Oshkosh Public Museum collection, according to Mr. 
W. C. McKern of the Milwaukee Public Museum, which is 
reported to have been found in Winnebago County. Other 
Iroquois artifacts have been found from time to time, includ- 
ing two pipes, one in the Oshkosh Museum, the other in the 
C. T. Olin collection. 

Some very odd and peculiar pottery fragments have been 
found, including handles and objects which might be classed 
as work tools for making pottery. These odd potsherds will 
have to be examined by experts to definitely determine their 

One of the most interesting and rare finds, although not 
of pottery, was a compact mass of clay worked full of 
crushed clam shells for tempering, found in a refuse pit with 
many pottery fragments. This mass of clay evidently was 
worked to the right consistency for pottery clay by some an- 
cient craftsman and crushed clam shells were added as a 
tempering medium. The Indian used what clay was needed 
for the pottery vessel, then threw the rest in the refuse pit, 
later to be unearthed. When this mass of clay was uncov- 
ered, an ambroid-acetone solution was applied with a paint 
brush to harden the mass so that it could be removed intact. 
This unusual specimen now forms part of the permanent 
exhibit of 'Tottery in the Making" in the Oshkosh Public 

A total of five pots of various types were found during 
the series of excavations carried on ; all were of the Upper 
Mississippi Culture, tempered with clam shells. 

Pot No. 1, which is the largest, was found in a broken 
down condition in a fire-place pit on the Meeleus cottage site, 
at Butte des Morts. Its dimensions are as follows : diameter 
18", height lli/ 2 ", neck 11", mouth 10", rim li/ 2 " wide. The 
rim is almost horizontal. This pot shows traces of the 
original carbon on its outer surface. The outer edge of the 
rim is decorated with diagonal incised lines. The outer por- 

Butte Des Morts Explorations 45 

tion of the pot is decorated with straight parallel lines from 
the neck to the shoulder, where the decorations stop. About 
two-fifths of the original pot was found, and the rest recon- 
structed by the Milwaukee Public Museum. The ware is clas- 
sified as of the Lake Winnebago focus, Upper Mississippi 

Pot No. 2, the second largest pot found, is 15%" in di- 
ameter, 9%" high, 10" neck, 9i/ 2 " mouth, 11/4" rim. It has 
an almost horizontally flaring rim and is decorated with in- 
cised lines and dots running in six parallel lines beneath the 
rim for a distance of five and one-half inches, then inter- 
rupted for a short distance by large, deep cross lines. Below 
these is a series of straight parallel lines running down to 
the greatest diameter of the pot. This is also a Lake Winne- 
bago focus vessel. 

Pot No. 3, measuring 9" in diameter, 7V&" in height, 
neck, 7" mouth and with two small handles near the 
neck, is a rather rare type because of the handles. About 
14 of this superfine globular pot was found in a deep refuse 
pit in 1935 on the R. B. Anger cottage site in Butte des 
Morts. It has been skilfully reconstructed by the Milwaukee 
Public Museum. It has a slightly flaring rim which is dec- 
orated to some extent both inside and out. It is very artis- 
tically marked with a series of four parallel lines, some- 
what separated, with five slanting lines and two dotted lines 
between. Beneath the handles are V-shaped lines which are 
dotted and straight. This pot is also assigned to the Lake 
Winnebago focus. Evidently the handles were used for sus- 
pension over a fire since some of the original carbon is still 
clinging to the bottom of the pot. It seems unbelievable 
that so flimsy a vessel could stand the required strain and 
the heat of the fire. The base is generally the thinnest por- 
tion of the vessel. 

Pot No. 4, a very interesting and rare type of dipper, was 
unearthed in a fragmentary condition in 1935 on the R. B. 
Anger cottage site. It has been reconstructed by the authors. 
This rare specimen has a long, round, flat handle with a 
small perforation near its middle. Evidently a leather thong 
was put through it for suspension. The measurements of 


the dipper are: height S 1 /^", diameter 2%", neck 2", mouth 
li/ 2 ", handle 2%" long by 1%" wide. Up to the present time 
this dipper is the only known specimen found in Wisconsin 
which has a long, perforated, flat handle. Other dippers 
found in this state have short, round handles. There are no 
decorations on the specimen. The mouth is ^4" above the 
handle; the base is twice as large as the mouth and has a 
flat bottom slightly rounding upward to the sides. It is shell 
tempered and evidently belongs to the Upper Mississippi cul- 
ture phase. The wide, flat handle is of very rare occurrence 
in the northern Mississippi Valley, according to McKern. 

Pot No. 5 is a small, dark-colored vessel, one-fifth of 
which was found and the rest reconstructed by A. P. Kan- 
nenberg and Gerald C. Stowe. It is 4 1 /^ // high, 5" in diameter, 
neck 3V", and mouth 3%". It has a few decorations on the 
outer edge of the rim, is shell tempered, and belongs to the 
Upper Mississippi Culture. 

The style and type of pottery found illustrates the utmost 
in artistic skill and design of the early Indian craftsman. 
Many other large pottery fragments were found, including 
some very large, interesting rim pieces showing a variety of 
designs. Several excellent handled pieces were also un- 
earthed which show the various construction methods of 
handle making, some are wide and rather thin, others are 
thick and round. The flat ones are usually decorated with 
lines, others with knobs or an tier- tip indentations. 

Many very fine pottery vessels have been discovered in 
Winnebago County, especially in the vicinity of Butte des 
Morts and along the west shore of Lake Winnebago, where 
many of the important Winnebago Indian villages are located. 
These pots are now in the Milwaukee Public Museum, the 
Oshkosh Public Museum and the State Historical Museum 
at Madison. It is hoped that within the coming years many 
more specimens will be uncovered. 


Bone, shell, antler and horn objects served primarily 
practical rather than ornamental purposes. Some of these 
found were used as ornaments, but more of them were used 

Butte Des Morts Explorations 47 

as tools. Since these materials served such an indefinite 
variety of uses, both utilitarian and ornamental, only a brief 
description will be given for the most part. 

1. Utility purposes: 

A. Bone awls (bone and antlers) 

B. Harpoons 

C. Spoons (horn) 

D. Bone scrapers 

E. Bone celts 

F. Bone stone-chipping- tools 

G. Bone and antler arrowheads 
H. Bone draw shaves 

I. Bone needles 

J. Bone mat needles 

K. Bone daggers 

L. Bone gouges 

2. Bone objects for decorative purposes: 

A. Beads 

B. Squaw dice 

C. Ceremonial objects 

D. Gorgets 

E. Decorated bones 

Bone, antler and shell objects were in widespread use in 
Wisconsin at the time of the coming of the first white men, 
all three materials being easily shaped and constantly sup- 
lied by the chase. 

Objects such as awls, needles and perforators were most 
extensively used, judging from the abundance in which they 
were found. These tools were used for the sewing of buck- 
skin, birch-bark baskets, canoes and containers. 

Many bone awls were found, some in perfect condition, 
others broken, ranging from 3 to 6 inches in length. The 
most perfect specimen of this type found was a combina- 
tion awl and needle. It is five and one-half inches long with 
a hollowed out cavity two and three-quarter inches long ex- 
ending back from the tip. It is three-sixteenths inch wide 
it its widest opening. The end of this object is broken away; 
it may have had a rounded end. From a careful study of this 
>mbination tool it is evident that in sewing with sinew, the 


sinew thread was placed in the V-shaped groove, and the 
point was forced through thei material in regular shuttle 
style. When the tool was drawn out, the thread remained. 
This process was repeated over and over again until the 
sewing was finished. Thus the tool served a double purpose 
that of punching holes in the leather or bark, and that of 
carrying the thread through at the same time. 

Several flat, double-pointed needles, four to six inches 
long, all broken, were found. They were used in netting the 
babiche on snowshoes and in making rush mats, bags and 
containers. Several broken needles were found which were 
used for sewing the cat-tail flag mats of which the wigwam 
covers were made. They are flat, thin needles, about 12 
inches long, about one-half inch broad, and are perforated 
near the center. They are sharp at one end and blunt at the 
other. These needles were made out of the larger ribs of 
deer and bear. 

The most beautiful bone object found on Butte des Morts 
hill unquestionably was a superfine bone needle, unearthed 
in 1936 on the E. E. Ruby cottage site. Dr. S. A. Barrett, 
Mr. W. C. McKern and Dr. Ralph Linton examined this 
needle and proclaimed it a very fine specimen. McKern be- 
lieves it to be of southeastern origin, and that it may have 
been used as a pin for fastening garments or blankets. The 
specimen is 10 inches long, and has a carved handle 2 inches 
long with a flange at its base. It is one-half inch wide at its 
widest part and is slightly curved with a remarkably sharp 
point; it is one-fourth inch thick from flange to tip, and 
evidently was made from the rib of some large animal, pos- 
sibly elk or moose. The handle part is flat and less than one- 
eighth inch thick. 

Six bone dagger-shaped awls were found, averaging from 
three to five inches in length. These are made from the 
joint bone in the leg of the deer, are carefully shaped and 
polished, and fit the hand perfectly. The fingers fit the joint 
socket of the bone, giving the hand a firm grip. 

Twenty-nine similar bone dagger-shaped awls were found 
in the so-called ' 'Sacred Springs," probably offered as sac- 
rifices by the prehistoric Indians. These springs were lo- 
cated on the James Frear farm in Tustin, Wisconsin, on 

Butte Des Morts Explorations 49 

Lake Poygan, but are now covered by the lake. All are in 
the Oshkosh Public Museum. 

A series of bone tools was found which were evidently 
used as chisels and gouges, probably used in the making of 
such wooden implements as mortars, dug-out canoes and 
dishes. Others were used as beaming tools to scrape the 
hair and flesh from hides. These tools were made from the 
flat pelvic and shoulder bones of the deer and bear. 

One beaming tool, or draw-shave, is eight and one-fourth 
inches long and the shaft narrows down toward the center. 
One end is two inches wide; the other, one and one-half 
inches. The general shape of this exceptional specimen is 
that of an elongated figure eight*- The cutting edge is on 
both sides of the flattened middle. In using this beamer a 
hide was placed over a log, the Indian sitting astride of it 
gripping the tool in both hands and using it like a modern 
draw shave to scrape the hair and flesh from the hide. The 
Indians on the Menomini Reservation use a tool similar to 
this but made of wood with an iron cutting edge inserted 
in the middle. 

The best chisel found is a specimen seven and three- 
quarter inches in length and one and one-half inches wide 
at the cutting edge, with a handle four and one-half inches 
ong. Not only is this chisel an excellent specimen, but 
everal twisted cord marks worn deep into the bone handle 
make it still more interesting. Evidently the handle was 
wrapped with cord, and the constant use this tool received 
caused the cord impressions in it. 

The antler tips found were probably used for chipping 
flint arrowheads. At least a dozen antlers from deer and 
Ik were found which exhibited crudely cut-off tips that 
ere evidently used as flakers. Other antler tips had been 
orked down to sharp points and hollowed out for the in- 
sertion of a shaft to be used as arrowheads. Such arrow- 
heads were used both for game and in warfare. In Illinois 
several human cranial and other bones have been found 
pierced by this type of arrowhead. 


Various artifacts made of shell, such as spoons, dishes, 
discs and fish effigies, were found. A perfect fish effigy, 


measuring 3 inches in length and seven-eighths inch in 
width at its widest point, was unearthed in a refuse pit in 
the fall of 1935. Fish shapes made out of clamshells were 
evidently used as lures for big fish in the winter ice fishing. 
The Indian would cut a hole through the ice, erect a shelter 
to shield him from the wind and dangle the fish effigy about 
four or five feet beneath the surface. As large fish ap- 
proached the decoy, they were speared or harpooned. 

Three perfect shell spoons were unearthed, two showing 
scallops. Each spoon has a small hole through the bottom 
for fastening to a handle. Many other broken pieces were 
found, showing various forms of decorations on the edges. 
About one-half dozen shell discs were also found. These 
measure approximately one inch in diameter and are nearly 
round in shape. Their use is problematical. 


Among the copper artifacts found were two small winged 
arrowheads, one-half dozen awls, several beads and many 
fragments. Very few copper artifacts were found in con- 
sideration of the amount of excavation work done, and those 
found were small pieces, showing that the Indians in this 
locality used bone and stone to a greater extent in manu- 
facturing utilitarian and ornamental artifacts. 


Several silver brooches, buttons and one buckle were 
found in 1935. During the fall of 1936 a complete Indian 
skeleton was uncovered, lying in a six-inch deep clay pit, 
three feet below the grass line. The skeleton, that of a 
female, was lying prone on its back with legs straight and 
hands lying on the pelvis. An otter skull, which may have 
been all that remained of a medicine bag, was found on the 
ribs and found near this was a perfect buffalo-horn spoon 
three inches in length and one-half inch wide. It is curved 
and hollowed out nearly to the tip end of the handle, where 
there is a small outflanging. The iron handle of a dagger, 
and some kind of an object resembling a snuff box or patch 
box, was also found near the otter skull. 

Butte Des Morts Explorations 51 

Many beads, glass, Venetian, wampum and several of 
copper, were found near the otter skull, around the skele- 
ton's head, and a great many were also found around the 
bones of the feet, showing that the moccasins were bead 

Found in a small area around the otter skull were also 
many silver and brass articles. A silver brooch measuring 
one and one-half inches in diameter with four hallmarks 
(I. M.) forming a square on its outer edge. The largest 
brooch measured two and one-half inches in diameter with 
a center opening of one and one-quarter inches. It has one 
hallmark (R. C.) near the inner edge. 

Seven small silver crosses, all fancy, were found, the 
bottom section of each broken off, making them look like a 
four-leaf clover, the crosses were broken in half to make 
double the number of ornaments to wear. Near the head 
six silver ear bobs or pendants were found, and near the 
hands a small brass ring. 


A great number of stone artifacts were found, including 
all types of arrowheads, but mostly triangular, a great 
number of small snub-nosed scrapers, squaw dice, discs, 
drills, knives, anvil stones, hammer stones, one hoe and one 
corn mill. 

By far the greatest number of triangular arrowheads 
were found in refuse pits. Our theory for this is that the 
triangular points were set loosely in the arrow shaft. When 
shot into fish, animals or birds, and as the shaft was with- 
drawn, the point remained within the animal. When the 
animal was cleaned, the waste was thrown into the refuse 
pit and in most cases the triangular arrowhead remained 
with the waste material. This may explain why, during 
the sieving of a refuse pit, so many of these arrowheads 
were found. It is the theory of McKern that the triangular 
point is the characteristic projectile point of the Mississippi 
culture pattern, including the Upper Mississippi phase en- 
countered at Butte des Morts and that the notched and 
stemmed arrowheads were characteristic of another, the 
Woodland culture pattern. 



Three types of burials have been found in the excava- 
tion work carried on at Butte des Morts, namely bundle, 
flexed and extended. 

One skeleton was found lying at an odd angle, with arms 
doubled under the body and an arrowhead lying beneath the 
ribs on the right side. Found beside this burial was a bone 
knife, part of which was lost. This was found on the E. E. 
Meeleus cottage site. Most of the burials found were evi- 
dently the last burials interred on Butte des Morts Hill. 
They were unquestionably made just previous to the com-, 
ing of the first white settlers, and some even after that 
period, as evidenced by the fact that European artifacts 
were found buried with the dead. 


That cannibalism was practiced at Butte des Morts in 
the early days is evidenced by the finding of human bones 
in fireplaces and in refuse pits. Disarticulated skeletal re- 
mains of two small infants were found in one refuse pit. 
Human finger bones were found in a fireplace and two 
cracked arm bones from which the marrow had been taken, 
and several fragments of skull bone were found in a refuse 
pit. One piece of human bone found in a fireplace was 
partly burned. In the S. D. Mitchell collection there is an 
ulna bone which has been converted into a dagger or punch. 
This was found in the Sacred Springs at Tustin, and may 
have been made by Indians living in the neighborhood of 
Butte des Morts. 

The Champlair Valley Archaeological Society 53 


The Champlain Valley Archaeological Society was or- 
ganized in the summer of 1936 to conduct archaeological in- 
vestigations in the Champlain Valley and its drainage, to 
publish the results of this work, and to co-operate with local, 
state and national organizations in furthering the knowledge 
of the aboriginal occupation of the Northeastern United 
States. The Society also desires to work with local amateur 
collectors in arousing public interest in the former inhabi- 
tants of the Champlain Valley. 

Membership is open to all persons interested in the 
archaeology of the Champlain Valley in particular and 
American archaeology in general, and who desire to be kept 
informed of the recent work in this area and to see that 
intelligent research is carried on covering the artifacts, rites, 
customs, beliefs and preservation of evidences of the abo- 
riginal occupants of the area bordering on Lake Champlain. 
The annual dues to the Society are one dollar ($1.00) for all 
members. Dues are payable any time after the annual meet- 
ing each year and entitle the member to all publications of 
the Society and a seasonal pass to the Fort Ticonderoga 

The annual meetings are to be held alternate years in 
the Robert Hull Fleming Museum of the University of Ver- 
mont, Burlington, Vermont, and at Ticonderoga, New York. 

The collections of the Society are to be displayed both 
at the Fort Ticonderoga Museum, and at the Robert Hull 
Fleming Museum. 

The Society plans to issue at least one bulletin on its 
field work each year. The money derived from membership 
dues is to cover the costs of the Society's publications. 

The Society has been given a house on the lake shore at 
Fort Ticonderoga as headquarters and here will be housed 


the Society's library which is available for study and re- 
search to all members. 

The Society has issued its first bulletin (December, 1937) 
describing "A Rock Shelter at Fort Ticonderoga," by John 
H. Bailey, archaeologist. This is well written and well illus- 
trated. "This shelter was discovered in September, 1936, 
by several members of the Champlain Valley Archaeological 
Society and subsequently excavated by them." 

Big Eagle Cave Mystery 55 


(Cave Legend) 
Victor S. Craim 

Around Big Eagle Cave, Richland County, the fabric of 
mystery has been woven by Indian legend. Here, even today, 
baffling mysteries confront the experienced explorer and 
adventurer. They concern the numerous caves that honey- 
comb the region covering a large portion of Richland County. 
Most of these are small, yet some are hundreds of feet long 
with ceilings far above one's head, and some, like the Big 
Eagle Cave, are filled with beautiful calcite deposits, pre- 
senting a marvelous display of stalactites, stalagmites, and 

According to Big Eagle Cave legend, the entire populace 
of the Winnebago village was lost in its mysterious laby- 
rinths, and their skeletons and artifacts lay strewn over the 
floor, yet it is questionable whether any white man has ven- 
tured into these challenging realms to learn the culture of 
this vanished tribe. One can only question the reality, yet, 
a survey of the region, corellated with history, would lead 
one to believe that there is some truth in the legend. 

In the far, dim past of this tribe, so long ago that the 
exact time has been lost to memory, three Indian youths 
left this village one day to hunt deer in the hills so the 
legend begins. When they failed to return for two days, 
Great Eagle, the chief of the tribe, sent a band of warriors 
to follow their trail, fearing that the boys might have been 
captured by hostile Sacs. The trail led to the head of a 
deep ravine and ended at the mouth of a cave, into which 
the trail entered but from which it failed to emerge. Two 
or three braves made rude torches and entered the yawning 
black cavern, leaving the others without. When they also 
failed to return, and the evening sun was fast sinking, the 
braves outside impatiently called down to them, but re- 
ceived no answering shout. As the callers strained to listen, 
they were perplexed and amazed to hear, very faintly, as 
though it came from the ends of the earth, the "Death Song" 
of an Indian. It was weirdly beautiful, far beyond any- 
thing they had ever heard. 


So incongruous a thing startled them and very soon, as 
it continued, their perplexity grew into uneasiness. What 
could it mean? Of the remaining eight, six grasped their 
weapons and darted into the cave. They, too, did not return. 
But the sun was all but gone in the west and to the straining 
ears of the waiting pair came only the faint and strangely 
magnificent "Song of the Indian's Death." Their uneasiness 
increased; by the time the evening shadows were creeping 
into the ravine, it had ripened into an unearthly fear. Back 
they hurried to the camp of Great Eagle, an ever increasing 
terror in their breasts. 

Next day Great Eagle himself led 100 braves to the cave. 
The main body stayed without, while thirty warriors and 
five torch bearers cautiously slid into the great black hole. 
Very soon their lights had disappeared, as did all sound of 
them, and to the call of those without came answering echoes 
and the plaintive notes of the "Song of Death." 

In desperation Great Eagle formed his men in a human 
chain, hand clutching hand. The first man led them cour- 
ageously into the cavern. He had gone but a short distance 
when the second man suddenly realized that his hand, which 
but a moment before had held that of the leader, was clutch- 
ing nothing! Quickly he reached forward, but as quickly 
the hand of the third man lost the hand of the second. 
There had not been a sound of a fall or of any violence. In 
terror the remaining human chain drew back out of the 
cave. Great Eagle held a council. 

Perhaps what a hand could not hold a stout rope could, 
Great Eagle reasoned, as he tied the end of a stout rope most 
securely around the waist of a volunteer. He was to jerk 
the rope as he proceeded in, and to be pulled out by the 
men on the outside as soon as his jerking ceased. In he 
went. He had not gone far when his jerks on the rope 
ceased. As quickly as lightning the men hauled in the rope. 
But there came out of the cave only an empty loop, tied 
just as it had been when put around the man. The man 
had vanished. There was not a mark on the rope. A ghostly 
terror settled upon the people in the ravine, the stark silence 
broken again by the strains of the "Song of Death." 

Big Eagle Cave Mystery 57 

Great Eagle forbade anyone going near the cave, an 
edict needing no enforcing, except for the foolhardy few, led 
by too curious a spirit, who dared to investigate, never to 

Now, after many moons there came from the forest a 
man, the like of whom had never been seen before. His 
skin was pale and soft, his hair white and silken; a great 
white beard reached to his waist. He was blind and under- 
stood not the tongue of the Winnebago, nor was he under- 
stood by them. He was led by an Indian boy of ten sum- 
mers, with a longing, far-away look in his eyes, too old for 
his years. This Indian boy looked like one of those who 
had first gone into the cave even "the mother claimed him 
for her own but the boy maintained that he came from a 
tribe far to the northwest. This boy also served as the old 
man's interpreter. 

It was soon evident that this strange man with long 
beard was a great healer with powers far beyond those of 
any local medicine man. In a comparatively short time, be- 
cause of his unusual skill, power, and kindness, he was 
called "The Great Healer" by the Winnebagoes, and was 
revered by everyone. 

One day Great Eagle told the Great Healer, through the 
boy, his interpreter, of the Indian "Song of Death." 
"Lead me to this cave," said the blind healer. 

And Great Eagle led him to the ravine, all the people 
following and forming a great semi-circle about the mouth 
of the cave. Not a sound disturbed the forest as all eyes 
watched the Great Healer and his youthful guide walk 
slowly and deliberately down in the darkness. Again there 
came the "Song of Death," but louder now and closer it 
seemed, so that the leaves of the trees stirred to and fro 
to its rhythm. All the warriors in the assembly nervously 
fingered their weapons. 

The footsteps of the two going into the cave finally died 
out and, with a suddenness that filled the ravine with an 
alarming silence, the "Song of Death" stopped. Then, faint- 
ly at first, but gradually louder, the sound of footsteps came 
from the cave, until after an endless waiting, the lone figure 
of the Great Healer issued from the cave. His eyes were 
closed and a beautiful, calm and serene smile delicately 


touched his lips. He stopped, lifted his face and arms 
toward the sun, whose slanting evening rays filtered down 
through the leaves, and in an unknown tongue he sang the 
"Song of Death" while he walked slowly and deliberately 
toward the river, the people following. At the river's edge 
he stepped into a canoe, and without a paddle the canoe 
swung into the river, carrying the Great Healer away 
no one knew where. 

Several days later, a brave, bolder than his companions, 
ventured into the silent cave. To the amazement of his com- 
rades, who had tried to prevent his entrance, he came out 
again saying that he had followed the cavern until it became 
so low that he would have been forced to crawl had he gone 

With another companion he again entered and this time 
the two crawled on hands and knees until they reached a 
gigantic room. After lighting a torch their light revealed 
the skeletons of hundreds of Indians, lying face downward 
with arms outstretched toward a gigantic throne formed in 
the far wall. The great throne was empty. In terror the 
two Indians returned to the outer light and told their story. 

Great Eagle and his council surmised that the cave was 
sacred to some great spirit, and decreed that the cavern en- 
trance be closed with dirt and rocks. After a few genera- 
tions even the story of the cave was lost, save by a certain 
few story-loving warriors of the forest. 

Wisconsin Indian Cave Legends 59 


Dorothy Moulding Brown 

There are in Wisconsin a considerable number of caves 
and other recesses to which local Indian legends are attached. 
Some of these are of aboriginal origin, while some others 
are quite certainly the fabrications of early or recent white 
settlers of these regions. Whether of Indian, white, or of 
uncertain origin, these tales have become a part of the folk- 
lore of the localities where these caverns, rockshelters, and 
fissures exist. A small number of these tales have found 
their way into print, chiefly in the newspapers of nearby 
towns ; others have never been published. All appeal to the 
interest of tourists and other visitors to these rural neigh- 

Black Hawk's Cave 

At Madison, on the shore of Lake Mendota just beyond 
the location of the University of Wisconsin summer session 
tent colony, is a small cave known for many years as Black 
Hawk's Cave. The name came from the belief that in the 
month of July, 1832, the noted Sauk chief, Black Hawk, dur- 
ing his memorable retreat over the present site of Madison 
to the Wisconsin river, hid in or visited this cavern. This 
is of course a mere myth, as the old warrior and his fleeing 
Indian band were being too closely pursued by the military 
to seek even temporary security in any cave. 

But this legend persists despite the efforts of local his- 
torians and others to discredit it. The cave is entered from 
the water and every year curious persons approach it by 
boat and enter it, believing that it once harbored the Sauk 
Indian patriot of pioneer days. 

All along the line of Black Hawk's famous Black Hawk 
War retreat, from the Four Lakes region to the Wisconsin 
and on to the Mississippi River (where on the Bad Axe 
battlefield, August 2, 1832, his force was all but annihilated) 
stories and legends about this chieftain have come into 
existence in the past one hundred years. There are springs 
at which he is supposed to have quenched his thirst, heights 


from which he watched his pursuers or directed his fleeing 
band, places where he erected hastily constructed "forti- 
fications," or secreted loot, or held conferences with traders 
or friendly settlers. Nearly all are mere myths. 

At Wisconsin Dells was a tree in whose branches he is 
supposed to have hidden at the time of his capture. In 
another tree at Prairie du Chien he is said to have secreted 
himself during an escape from Fort Crawford, where he 
had been a prisoner. The constriction of the rock walls of 
the Wisconsin Dells at the Narrows is also known as Black 
Hawk's Leap so-called from a fanciful belief that here he 
had jumped the Wisconsin River, from bank to bank. The 
local folktales concerning these Black Hawk "landmarks," 
despite their falsity, will endure for many years to come. 

Similar legends and stories occur at different places in 
the Rock River and Lake Koshkonong regions, along the 
line of the march of Black Hawk's band into Wisconsin, from 
the present site of Beloit to the Horicon Marsh region. 

Blue Mound Cave 

A large cave at the big Blue Mound west of Madison 
on Highway 18 was, according to the Winnebago Indians, 
once an abode of the powerful Indian spirit, Earthmaker. 
Here he reposed when not engaged in smoking his great 
pipe and day dreaming on the top of the Mound. Here he 
also quarried and shaped stone for the making of axes and 
other stone implements for his Indian children. When thus 
engaged the earth shook and the entire region resounded 
with the thunder of the blows of his great hammer as he 
crushed the rock. 

Blue Mound Cave is a long, narrow, curving cave with 
a number of chambers. Its total length is given as 250 
feet, its average width as 5% feet, and its average height as 
5 feet. Its geological formation is Galena limestone. 

Silver Mound Cave 

A small cave or rockshelter at the head of a small valley 
at Silver Mound, the well known site of prehistoric and 
early Indian quartzite quarrying near Black River Falls in 

Wisconsin Indian Cave Legends 61 

Jackson County, was believed by some of the old Winne- 
bago of this part of the state to be or to have been the den 
of a huge catamount or wild cat. This powerful spirit ani- 
mal few Indians ever saw, but many recognized his huge 
footprints in the snow in the winter time as he wandered 
from valley to valley and from rocky mound to mound. This 
great cat was supposed to be the spirit guardian of the 
mythical silver deposits believed for over two centuries to 
be in this mound and for which white men have for many, 
many years fruitlessly dug and quarried. 

From another mound, at a safe distance from Silver 
Mound, the French trader and explorer, Pierre Charles Le 
Suer (1693-1699), hunting for mineral sources, is supposed 
to have watched hostile Indians, bearing away from Silver 
Mound, bags containing what he thought from its glitter, to 
be silver ore. These Indian mines he is supposed to have 
later returned to explore with a group of miners whom he 
brought from France. They found no silver. 

Indian Treasure Cave 

In the files of The Wisconsin Archeological Society is a 
manuscript prepared some years ago by Mr. Paul A. Seifert, 
then a resident of Gotham, in Richland County, describing 
the contents of a cave which years before he found in the 
Wisconsin River bluffs near the mouth of the Pine River, 
near the location of the "lost" town of Richland City. 

In exploring these bluifs Seifert found the opening of a 
cave which he later entered and, after considerable difficulty, 
found a chamber containing Indian skeletons, bones of re- 
cent and extinct animals, pottery vessels, stone and copper 
implements and jewelry. Seifert was an Austrian and had 
been a student in a European university. In Austria he had 
a friend, an "archaeologist" by the name of Von Wolfgang, 
to whom he sent Indian relics from the sites at Richland 
City. To him he wrote of his great discovery and per- 
suaded him to visit Richland City. Of this visit Wolfgang 
is reported to have later published an account in a Vienna 
newspaper. Seifert would not permit him to remove any of 
the buried treasure. The discoverer is supposed to have 
later closed the entrance of the cave by blasting the rock. 


A number of interested persons from Richland Center, 
Watertown, Monroe, Wyocena, and other towns have since 
tried to relocate the Seifert mystery cave and its treasures, 
but have not succeeded in doing so. Mr. Seifert died some 
years ago. Wisconsin archeologists have never placed any 
credence in this report of the treasure cave. Not far from 
this cave was another cave known as Bogus Bluff Cave, and 
supposed to have been the workshop retreat of a group of 
counterfeiters dispersed by U. S. Secret Service men in the 
seventies of the past century. Its location is also now ob- 
scured by a rock fall. 

Other Cave Legends 

Indian legends are also connected with Eagle Cave near 
Richland Center, with Bear Cave near Boscobel, also 
with some of the caves in the Apostle Islands in Lake Su- 
perior. Numerous other caves in our state have pioneer 
stories and legends of lost or hidden treasure, of counter- 
feiters, of lost men, of kidnapped children, of hermits, and 
of reptile and animal inhabitants. Although but of legendary 
character, all should be preserved as a part of the folklore 
of Wisconsin. 

Additional Barbed Stone Axes 63 


Charles E. Brown 

In the April, 1930, issue of The Wisconsin Archeologist 
we described and illustrated the barbed stone axes in the 
collection of Mr. M. E. Hathaway of St. Johns, Michigan. 
These sixty specimens of a rather peculiar and rare type 
of grooved stone axe were all collected from a rather lim- 
ited area in southern Michigan, from the counties of Clinton, 
Ionia, Ingham, Shiawassee, Gratiot, Montcalm, Saginaw, 
Eaton, Kent, Isabella, Mecosta, Wexford and Missaukee. Of 
these barbed axes Mr. C. V. Fuller, the well known arche- 
ologist of Grand Ledge, stated that more had been collected 
in Clinton County than in any other of the counties men- 
tioned. Of those in the Hathaway collection twenty-seven 
had been collected in this county. 

Mr. Fuller had some fifteen of these barbed axes in his 
own collection. Less than a hundred are in Michigan collec- 
tions. So far as is known, none had been found in any other 
state. The distinctive features of these barbed axes are 
their pointed triangular polls and the prominent projections, 
or "barbs," above and below their handle grooves. Their 
blades are broadest below the groove and taper to a rounded 
cutting edge. 

Since the above mentioned article describing these 
unique axes was printed, our attention has been directed to 
another Michigan collection which contains an interesting 
group of them. Mr. W. F. Hunter, an archeologist residing 
at Rosebush, Michigan, has sent photographs and pencil 
drawings of specimens in his collection ; he has eleven or more 
of them. These are from Mecosta, Isabella and Montcalm 

His specimens do not vary in form from those in the 
Hathaway collection. They are made of a variety of stone 
- mica schist, greenstone, hornblende and granite. His 
largest specimen is 13 inches long, 4 inches wide at its widest 
part, and weighs 4*/2 pounds; his smallest is 9 inches long, 
21/2 inches wide and weighs 2 pounds and 5 ounces. Some 


other specimens have been shortened by the re-sharpening 
of their blades, in some instances perhaps, after being 
broken in use. None of these axes were found with burials. 

We shall be pleased if we may learn through collectors 
of the finding of any of these barbed axes in Ohio, Indiana, 
or Illinois. Possibly some specimens may have been found 
in Michigan counties not mentioned in this article. 

Archeological Notes 65 



December 20, 1937. President Dr. H. W. Kuhm presiding. Fifty 
members and visitors were in attendance. Secretary Brown announced 
the election as annual members of Mr. Alfred L. Boerner, Milwaukee; 
Mrs. Zida C. Ivey, Fort Atkinson, and Mr. H. A. Smythe, Madison. 
He stated that Mr. Walter Bubbert had reported on the condition of 
the Indian mounds in State Fair Park at West Allis and had read a 
letter from Mr. Charles L. Hill of the State Department of Agriculture 
and Markets promising that their condition would be attended to. At 
the request of Mr. Bubbert, a resolution was ordered drafted request- 
ing Attorney General Loomis to support at the hearing of the Federal 
Trade Commission at Washington the request of Station WIBL at 
Stevens Point for evening broadcasting facilities. Mr. Bubbert had 
also reported on the Madison meeting of the National Youth Congress 
which he attended. 

Mr. McKern explained the aims and purposes of the Society for 
American Archeology. This organization was not, he said, in any 
way competing with state archeological societies. 

The program of the evening consisted of a lecture by Mr. Victor 
S. Craun on "The Caves of the United States." It was an excellent 
address, beautifully illustrated with stereopticon slides of many of the 
large and interesting caves of the country. 

Mr. Fred L. Holmes' book, "Alluring Wisconsin," and Dr. P. L. 
Scanlan's book, "History of Prairie du Chien" were discussed and 
recommended to members of the Society for reading. 

January 17, 1938. President Kuhm in the chair. The election as 
annual members of Marguerite Davis, Madison; Mrs. Park Wooster, 
Racine, and Mr. Hezikiah Cattson, Milwaukee, was announced. The 
Board of Directors of the Society had decided to accept the invitation 
of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters to join with 
it in a Joint Meeting to be held at Ripon College, Ripon, on April 8 
and 9. 

Mr. Elliott W. Cooley exhibited a motion picture film illustrating 
the "Life and Customs of the Menomini Indians of Wisconsin." This 
was greatly enjoyed by the fine audience present. Appropriate Indian 
music accompanied the exhibition of the films. 

Mr. H. O. Zander exhibited a group of copper implements. Included 
were some fraudulent copper artifacts. He illustrated the manner of 
the fabrication of the latter. 

Seven members of Boy Scout Troop No. 131 were present at this 
meeting. These young men were especially interested in Indian lore. 
They had made their own Indian costumes and equipment. The Society 
was pleased to have them present at this meeting. 

The International Congress of Sciences of Anthropology and Eth- 
nology will meet at Copenhagen, Denmark, on August 1-6, 1938. It is 
expected that a large number of American archaeologists and eth- 
nologists will attend this congress. An interesting program is being 


The Milwaukee County Historical Society held its monthly meeting 
at the Woman's Exchange at Milwaukee on Wednesday evening, Janu- 
ary 19, 1938. Mrs. Dorothv Moulding Brown of Madison delivered an 
address on "Wisconsin Folklore." She spoke very interestingly of the 
collection, preservation and use of Wisconsin folk tales, songs and cus- 
toms and entertained her audience with numerous examples of the 
folklore of the lumberjacks, rivermen, Indians, pioneers, sailors and 
racial groups of the state. A group of stories and legends of the In- 
dians and pioneers of early Milwaukee were especially interesting. 
Mrs. Brown urged the need of collecting and preserving for use simi- 
lar material relating to the life and customs of the aborigines and 
early settlers of the city and county. There is at present a country- 
wide interest in the use of folklore and folkways material in folk 
drama and folk festivals. 

Before the meeting the Society held its monthly dinner in the Ex- 
change restaurant. Mr. Frederick Heath is the president and Mrs. 
Belle Blanding the corresponding secretary of the Milwaukee County 
Historical Society. Mr. Alexander C. Guth is the chairman of its pro- 
gram committee. 

The Fifth Annual National Folk Festival, sponsored by the Wash- 
ington Post Folk Festival Association, will be held at Washington, 
D. C., on May 6-8, 1938. Last year's festival was held at Chicago. It is 
not yet certain whether any Wisconsin groups will participate in the 
1938 festival. Mrs. Dorothy Moulding Brown is the chairman of the 
state committee. 


Mr. George A. West of Milwaukee, veteran Wisconsin archeologist 
and a member of the Board of Directors of The Wisconsin Archeolo- 
gical Society and of the Board of Trustees of the Milwaukee Public 
Museum, died on Thursday. January 20, after only a few days' illness. 
Thus ended very abruptly the long career of scientific and public serv- 
ice of a Wisconsin archeologist widely known throughout our country 
for his investigations and publications. Archeologists and museologists 
from several states attended his funeral. A memorial meeting for Mr. 
West will be held by The Wisconsin Archeological Society at the 
Milwaukee Public Museum, at Milwaukee, on Monday, February 21. 

Mr. William E. Snyder of Beaver Dam died on November 10, 1937, 
as the result of an automobile accident. He was the owner of valuable 
archeological, ethnological and natural history collections. He was a 
former member of The Wisconsin Archeological Society. Some of his 
specimens are reported to be in the museum in the Beaver Dam Public 

Mr. Alonzo W. Pond has removed from St. Croix Falls to Milton 
Junction, Wisconsin. He is engaged in lecturing in different cities in 
Wisconsin and other states. The January 14 issue of the Jefferson 
County Union contained a brief description of the archeological collec- 
tion of Mr. Paul F. Fisher of Fort Atkinson, a member of the Wiscon- 
sin society. The Milwaukee Journal published a short illustrated de- 
scription of the collection of Mrs. Arthur G. Aplin of Milwaukee, the 
daughter of the late H. R. Denison, a former member. 

Mrs. Zida C. Ivey, its curator, is making a determined effort to 
secure for the Museum Department of the Dwight Foster Public Li- 
brary, Fort Atkinson, the valuable Lawton archeological collection of 
that city. 

Archeological Notes 67 


The Rochester Museum of Arts and Sciences has published an Indian 
pictorial map of New York State which is particularly well designed 
and informative. It was prepared from data compiled by Arthur C. 
Parker, historian, and drawn by Mrs. Walter Henricks, cartographer. 
On this attractive map are depicted leading events in the states' Indian 
history and interesting items of the folklore and customs of its Iro- 
quois inhabitants. Its border contains portraits of Iroquois leaders 
and pictures of Iroquois and other vessels, weapons, ornaments and 
problematical artifacts. 

The Department of Anthropology of the University of California, 
Berkeley, has published two bound pamphlets, "Culture Element Dis- 
tributions: VI Southern Sierra Nevada," and "Culture Element Dis- 
tributions: VI Oregon Coast," both by H. G. Barnett. Both are valu- 
able and very helpful publications. Southwestern Lore, the official 
publication of the Colorado Archaeological Society, December. 1937, 
issue, contains a paper on "Pictographs and Petroglyphs of Colorado 
V," by E. B. Renaud; C. T. Hurst has written of "The Gunnison Col- 
lection VI" of Mimbres vessels. Both papers are illustrated. The 
Sixth Report of the Pennsylvania Historical Commission, 1931-1934, 
Harrisburg, contains a report on the progress of the Archaeological 

The Geographical Review, January, 1938, contains a paper by 
Isaiah Bowman on "Geography in the Creative Experiment," which is 
of exceptional interest. Published by The American Geographical So- 
ciety, New York. The American Journal of Archaeology, October-De- 
cember, 1937, issue, contains among other fine papers one on "Excava- 
tions at Corinth, 1936-37," "Excavations at Troy, 1937," and "The 
Origin of the Roman House." All are finely illustrated. The November, 
1937, issue of the National Archaeological News, published at Lan- 
caster. Pennsylvania, has among others, papers by James A. Branegan 
on "Chemistry and Science in Prehistoric America," "Pipes from 
Mounds in Adams Co., Illinois," by B. W. Stephens; and "Susque- 
hanna Rock Carvings," by G. B. Fenstermaker. 

From Dr. Warren K. Moorehead we have "A Report of the Susque- 
hanna River Expedition." This expedition was conducted in the inter- 
ests of and sponsored by the Museum of the American Indian, Heye 
Foundation, New York City. This expedition, 1916, conducted re- 
searches along the course of the river in New York, Pennsylvania and 
Maryland. In the course of this reconnaissance some 90 or more col- 
lections were examined. It is a very interesting report which Dr. 
Moorehead, the director of the expedition, has compiled. Published by 
the Andover Press, Andover, Massachusetts. 

Vol. la 

April, 193B 


No. 3 

George Arbor West 
Native Copper Spearpoints 

Fluted Stone Axe 

Legends of Wisconsin Springs 

Archeological Publications 




Accepted for mailing at special rate of postage provided for In Sec. 1108 
Act, Oct. 3, 1917. Authorized Jan. 28, 1921. 

VOLUME 18, No. 3 

New Series 





Incorporated March 23, 1903, for the purpose of advancing the study 
and preservation of Wisconsin antiquities 



Dr. L. S. Buttles 

T. L. Miller 


E. E. Steene 

Dr. A. K. Fisher 

A. P. Kannenberg 

W. E. Erdman 


Dr. S. A. Barrett 

Jos. Ringeisen, Jr. 

W. K. Andrew 
Dr. W. H. Brown 
Walter Bubbert 
H. W. Cornell 
Rev. F. S. Dayton 
Kermit Freckman 
Arthur Gerth 
John G. Gregory 
R. B. Hartman 
Frederic Heath 


Rev. Chr. Hjermstad 
P. W. Hoffmann 
M. F. Hulburt 
Zida C. Ivey 
Paul Joers 
Dr. A. L. Kastner 
Dr. Louise P. Kellogg 
R. J. Kieckhefer 
J. J. Knudsen 
Mrs. Theo. Koerner 

Marie G. Kohler 
Dr. H. W. Kuhm 
W. C. McKern 
Louis Pierron 
A. W. Pond 
E. F. Richter 
C. G. Schoewe 
Paul Scholz 
R. S. Van Handel 
G. R. Zilisch 


G. M. Thome 
917 N. Forty-ninth Street, Milwaukee, Wis. 


Charles E. Brown 
State Historical Museum, Madison, Wis. 



STATE SURVEY Robert R. Jones, J. J. Knudsen, A. P. Kannenberg, 
W. E. Erdman, D. A. Blencoe, Kermit Freckman, V. E. Motschen- 
bacher, G. E. Overton, O. L. Hollister, J. P. Schumacher, Rev. 
Chr. Hjermstad, F. M. Neu, M. P. Henn, H. F. Feldman, V. S. 

MOUND PRESERVATION C. G. Schoewe, Dr. Louise P. Kellogg, 
T. L. Miller, Mrs. W. J. Devine, Dr. L. V. Sprague. Mrs. H. A. 
Olson, Prof. R. S. Owen, A. H. Griffith, A. W. Pond, R. S. Van 
Handel, G. L. Pasco. 

PUBLIC COLLECTIONS Dr. S. A. Barrett, C. E. Brown, N. C. 
Behncke, H. L. Ward, Rev. F. S. Dayton, Prof. A. H. Sanford, 
W. M. Babcock. H. R. Holand, Miss Marie G. Kohler, Dr. P. H. 
Nesbitt, R. N. Buckstaff. 

MEMBERSHIP G. M. Thome, Paul Joers, N. E. Carter, Dr. W. H. 
Brown, H. A. Zander, Louis Pierron, Paul Scholz, W. K. Andrew, 
Paul W. Hoffmann, A. W. Buttles, Clarence Harris, A. E. Koerner, 
Dr. C. J. Heagle, E. R. Guentzel. 


D. S. Rowland, Prof. A. H. Sanford. 

PUBLICITY W. C. McKern, M. C. Richter, A. 0. Barton, Victor S. 


BIOGRAPHY Rachel M. Campbell, Dr. E. J. W. Notz, E. F. Richter, 
G. R. Zilisch, Paul Joers, Arthur Gerth. 

FRAUDULENT ARTIFACTS Jos. Ringeisen, Jr., E. F. Richter, 
W. C. McKern. 

PROGRAM Dr. L. S. Buttles, H. W. Cornell, Mrs. Theo. Koerner, 

E. E. Steene. 

PUBLICATIONS C. E. Brown, Dr. A. K. Fisher, W. E. Erdman. 

Kastner, R. J. Kieckhefer, L. R. Whitney, J. G. Gregory. 

LAPHAM RESEARCH MEDAL Dr. S. A. Barrett, Dr. A. L. Kastner, 
C. E. Brown, C. G. Schoewe, M. C. Richter. 


Life Members, $25.00 Endowment Members, $500.00 

Sustaining Members, $5.00 Annual Members, $2.00 

Institutional Members, $1.50 Junior Members, $ .50 

All communications in regard to The Wisconsin Archeological Society should 
be addressed to Charles E. Brown, Secretary and Curator, Office, State HistoricaJ 
Museum, Madison, Wisconsin. Contributions to The Wisconsin Archeologist should 
be addressed to him. Dues should be sent to G. M. Thorne, Treasurer, 917 N. 
49th Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 


Vol. 18, No. 3, New Series 


George Arbor West _ 69 

A Copper Spearpoint, 

Walter Holsten _ _.. 73 

A Fluted Stone Axe, 

William K. Andrew 75 

A Toothed Shank Copper Spearpoint, 

Charles E. Brown _ ___ .77 

Legends of Wisconsin Springs, 

Dorothy M. Brown _ 79 

Recent Archeological Literature 87 

Meetings. _ 90 

Copper Spearpoint With Staple .._ Frontispiece 

Figure Page 

1. Fluted Stone Axe. _ . 76 

Copper Spearpoint with Staple 

Walter Holsten Collection 
Milwaukee Public Museum Photograph 


Published Quarterly by The Wisconsin Archeologlcal Society 

VOL - 18 New Series 


Mr. George Arbor West, a life member and former pres- 
ident of The Wisconsin Archeological Society, died at his 
home at Milwaukee after only a very short illness, on Thurs- 
day, January 20, 1938. He was at the time of his death a di- 
rector of the Society and a member of the Board of Trus- 
tees of the Milwaukee Public Museum. It was at his home 
at Milwaukee, on February 28, 1903, that The Wisconsin 
Archeological Society was organized. He was for thirty- 
five years one of its most active and devoted members, one 
of its board of directors and a member of its most important 
committees. In those years he published many papers and 
some monographs on Wisconsin archeology in The Wiscon- 
sin Archeologist. Other important papers and monographs 
appeared in the yearbook and bulletins of the Milwaukee 
Public Museum. For his achievements and contributions to 
archeological knowledge The Wisconsin Archeological So- 
ciety honored him with the Lapham Medal, he being the 
first of its members to receive this award. 

At the time of Mr. West's death The Milwaukee Journal 
printed the following tribute to his distinguished services as 
a scientist and educator: 

George Arbor West 

"A long career of service and diversified interests ended Thursday 
night with the death of George Arbor West, veteran member of the 
public museum board and the Milwaukee Auditorium board, at Co- 
lumbia hospital. Mr. West, who was 79, had been ill only a few days 
with pneumonia. He was removed to the hospital from his home at 
2828 W. Highland Blvd., Wednesday. 

"The Rev. John Lewis, pastor of Calvary Presbyterian Church, will 
conduct funeral services at 2 P. M. Monday at the West home. Burial 
will be in Forest Home cemetery. 



Vol. 18, No. 

"School teaching, archeology, authorship, legal practice, scientii 
expeditions and financial advisement were combined with public of 
in his life story, which began with his birth, January 13, 1859, ii 
Raymond, Racine county. 

"After being graduated from McMynn's academy in Racine, 
taught for three years in rural schools. In 1881 he was el< 
register of deeds of Racine county, continuing for six years. Then h< 
moved to Milwaukee to study law with Quarles, Spence & Quarle 
He practiced law with that firm for several years. 

Ranged the World for Science 

Mr. West's archeological interests took him to Yellowstone natioi 
park in 1889 with the United States geological survey. Later he madt 
extensive studies in the Great Lakes region and in almost every pai 
of the United States. He also visited Stonehenge, England, on 
half of the British museum. 

"The high light of Mr. West's scientific expeditions was his tri] 
to Nicaragua in 1900 in the interests of the Nicaragua canal projt 
Mr. West for three months traveled up the Segovia river with 

"Politically Mr. West was a Republican. He served a number 
terms on the state central committee and was its chairman from 1911 
to 1920. He was adviser to the late Gov. E. L. Philipp. 

"Mr. West was one of the organizers of the Chicago-Milwai 
Good Roads association, forerunner of the present concrete highwaj 
between these cities. He had been a member of the public museui 
board for 32 years, 30 years as president, and of the Milwai 
Auditorium board since its formation 25 years ago. 

"He also was a life member of the Wisconsin Historical society, 
member of the Wisconsin Academy of Science, Arts and Letters, 
charter member of the Wisconsin Automobile association and of the 
Milwaukee Real Estate board. He was a thirty-second degree Masoi 

"With Mr. West as one of the founders, the Wisconsin Archeologi- 
cal society had its beginning at a meeting in his home in 1903. 

Enriched Museum Here 

"His archeological collections have found their way into museums 
At the public museum here are his aboriginal pipe collection and his 
collection of artifacts, primitive objects artificially made. His col- 
lection of aboriginal perforators is in the state historical museum 

"On several occasions Mr. West was honored by public testimony 
meetings in Milwaukee. Among them was his golden wedding anni- 
versary, celebrated in 1930 with his wife, Edith Richards West whoi 
he married in Raymond, Wis., December 20, 1880. 

"Mrs. West, who survives him, is an authority on ceramics. Othei 
survivors are two daughters, Mrs. Jean West Spencer of Kansas Cit] 
and Miss Grace Ann West of Milwaukee. 

Tribute Is Paid 

"In tribute to Mr. West, Dr. Samuel A. Barrett, director of 
public museum, said Friday: 

" 'His death is an irreparable loss to the community, to the Mil- 
waukee public museum, to the many organizations with which he 
so intimately connected, and to the scientific world at large.' 

George Arbor West 71 

"Mr. West's service to conservation was stressed by the Nature 
Club of Milwaukee, which pointed out that he 'gave more than lip 
service to conservation' by his work for the kettle moraine." 

On Monday evening, February 21st, The Wisconsin 
Archeological Society held a Memorial Meeting for George 
A. West in the trustee room of the Milwaukee Public Mu- 
seum, at which many members of the Society, members of 
the Milwaukee museum board, museum staff, city officials 
and friends of the deceased archeologist were present. 
President Dr. H. W. Kuhm presided at this meeting, at which 
addresses in appreciation of Mr. West's services as a scien- 
tist and educator were delivered by Dr. Samuel A. Barrett, 
Secretary Charles E. Brown and Mr. John G. Gregory. 

A set of memorial resolutions was read by Mr. W. C. 
McKern : 

West Memorial Resolutions 

WHEREAS, our esteemed and loved companion and 
friend, George Arbor West, has departed this life ; and 

WHEREAS, his active interest in Wisconsin archeology 
over a period of many years, as manifested in his leadership 
among collectors and students, and culminating in his found- 
ing and unfailing loyal support of this, the Wisconsin 
Archeological Society, has served to define and foster the 
best interests of archeology in Wisconsin ; and 

WHEREAS, his collections, his contributions to knowl- 
edge in scientific research and the many published reports 
covering the results of this research, his unstinted services 
in various organizations dedicated to the furthering of edu- 
cation and the advancement of science, and his wide per- 
sonal acquaintance and co-operation with fellow students 
throughout the nation, have earned for him the respect and 
admiration of his many associates in this larger field of his 
activities, and 

WHEREAS, the long and intimate association and fel- 
lowship which we, his brothers in this Society, have shared 
with him, and the high regard and love we bore him, render 


it fitting that we place on record our appreciation of that 
fellowship, and our sorrow at its termination, therefore be it 

RESOLVED, that the Wisconsin Archeological Society 
record its sense of sorrow and loss sustained in the death 
of this member, its founder, co-worker and friend, whose 
accomplishments, services, and personal fellowship will ever 
be held in grateful remembrance by his former associates, 
and be it further 

RESOLVED, that a copy of these resolutions be trans- 
mitted by the Secretary to surviving members of the de- 
ceased's family, with an expression of the Society's deep 
sympathy with the bereaved in this trying hour. 

President H. W. Kuhm, 
Secretary Charles E. Brown. 

February 21, 1938. 

At the time of his death Mr. West had completed the 
writing of a monograph on the chipped flint implements of 
the United States. This is to be later printed by the Mil- 
waukee Public Museum. The Wisconsin Archeological So- 
ciety is considering the founding of a George Arbor West 
memorial award to be conferred on its members for note- 
worthy contributions to Wisconsin archeology. A testi- 
monial meeting in his honor was held by the Society on 
November 19, 1934. 

A Copper Spearpoint 73 


Walter Holsten 

A very interesting native copper spearpoint recently 
came into the possession of the writer through an exchange 
with Mr. Joseph Ringeisen, Jr., the well-known Milwaukee 
collector of Indian implements. This is a spearpoint of the 
socketted form, with a long leaf-shaped blade and with a 
flat back. Two views of it are shown in the frontispiece of 
this issue of The Wisconsin Archeologist. 

Since the day of the veteran colFector of Wisconsin native 
copper implements, Frederick S. Perkins of Burlington, a 
number of copper points of similar form with small copper 
rivets still in place in their sockets have been found. Some 
of these are in the collections of the Milwaukee Public Mu- 
seum and the State Historical Museum. In one specimen 
the rivet was made of meteoric iron instead of copper. The 
writer's point is remarkable in that it has a copper staple 
in its rivet hole instead of a rivet. It is, Wisconsin archeolo- 
gists say, the first specimen with such a feature which has 
been found. The staple is plainly shown in the illustration 
referred to. It was driven through the rivet-hole and into 
the wooden shaft, then bent and the other end driven into 
the shaft. Thus the point was probably pretty firmly se- 
cured. A wrapping of sinew, rawhide or fiber cord may 
have been wound about the shank of the point and the shaft. 

Of the acquisition of this unique specimen Mr. Ringeisen 
has written to Mr. C. E. Brown: 

"A young man, seeing the specimens of Indian artifacts 
I am displaying in my show window, came in and told me of 
a copper spear that he knew of, with a pin in its socket. 
From him I learned where this specimen was, and the fol- 
lowing Sunday, October 31, 1937, I drove out to the locality. 
When the finder showed it to me you can imagine my sur- 
prise when I saw the staple in its socket. Needless to say I 
bought it. This is the first copper point having a staple 
instead of a pin or rivet in the socket that has been found 
in Wisconsin. 


"This specimen was found by William Greller on his farm, 
situated about three miles north of Ashippun, on the Lime 
Ridge Road. This place is in section 6 and 7, Town 9, Range 
17, Ashippun Township, Dodge County, Wisconsin." 

This spearpoint is 6% inches in length, and one inch in 
width where the blade joins the socket. It weighs about 
one-eighth of a pound. 

Other Notable Coppers 

In the writer's collection at Lake Mills, Wisconsin, are 
three other very notable copper implements. One of these 
is a copper gouge measuring 14% inches in length. It is 
1% inches wide at the cutting edge and % of an inch wide 
at its pointed extremity. It weighs 3^ pounds. It is of an 
elongated triangular shape, the edges flattened and the 
lower surface concave. It is heavily and beautifully cor- 
roded. This specimen was found near Oxford, Marquette 

A fine copper pike, tapering to a point at either extrem- 
ity, and square in section, measures 17 inches in length. 
It is % of an inch in thickness at its middle. One pointed 
tip is slightly injured. It weighs 21/2 pounds. It comes 
from Royalton Township, Waupaca County. It was found 
by Robert Carrol in June, 1917. 

The third specimen is a copper harpoon 12% inches long. 
It tapers to a point at either end and is circular in section. 
It is % of an inch in diameter at its middle. At a distance 
of about 2% inches from one pointed end there is a sharp 
barb about an inch in length. It weighs about a quarter of 
a pound. This record harpoon was described in a previous 
issue of The Wisconsin Archeologist. It comes from St. 
Lawrence Township, Waupaca County. It was found by 
Ivan Nielson while cutting oats on his farm, August 15, 1930. 
It caught in the sickle bar and stopped the machine. 

Mr. Brown has examined and pronounced all of these 
large copper implements to be prize pieces. 

A Fluted Stone Axe 75 


William K. Andrew 

This exceptionally fine and perfect fluted stone axe was 
found on an open field sixteen miles southeast of Green Bay, 
at approximately the boundary line of Kewaunee and Mani- 
towoc counties. This field is on the bank of the headwaters 
of the south fork of the Two Rivers. 

The axe is fashioned of a beautiful dark granite and 
weighs six and three-fourths pounds. It is 11 inches in 
length, 41/2 inches in width, 2% inches in thickness, and 
with a 2% inch cutting edge. The poll has a convex surface, 
having a distinct flat % inch strip running from the top 
to the center. The diagonal handle groove is 1% inches 
wide and % of an inch deep. It is smoothly finished and 
shows considerable friction from the haft mountings. The 
back of this axe has a decided center ridge with a groove 
along either side of it for the insertion of wedges to tighten 
the thongs which secured it to the helve. 

In the center of both surfaces of the blade of the axe 
there is a projecting 14 inch ridge with beveled surfaces on 
either side and which extends to within one inch of the 
cutting edge. On one side of the blade there are five hori- 
zontal flutes and three on the opposite side. As seen in the 
illustration there are three distinct diagonal flutes. These 
are evidently some form of tally or property marks as they 
seem to have been cut into the surface after the axe was 

The cutting edge is very sharp and has been carefully 
polished for a distance of one inch back from the edge. The 
axe is very symmetrical and was made by an expert, who 
not only had an, eye for symmetry but was a fine craftsman, 
first in selecting a fine and durable stone and then planning 
and fashioning so perfect and beautiful an implement. 

The study of an artifact such as this one gives one many 
speculative moments : Where did this Indian craftsman find 
suitable material? How many stones did he reject? Where 
did he begin with his plan of design? I would venture that 
he first roughed out the blade to detect possible flaws in the 
stone, then roughed-out the handle groove and possibly the 



Vol. 18, No. 3 

. Fluted Stone Axe 

Figure 1 

poll. Then came the tedious task of smoothing- the poll 
and grooved surfaces followed by the smoothing and rubbing 
down of the blade to leave the ridges on either side; the 
flutes were a companion process. Finally came the sharpen- 
ing and polishing of the cutting edge. The axe is now ready 
for haf ting. 

While only a few words and a few moments are re- 
quired to describe so beautiful an aboriginal artifact, we can 
only conjecture the days, weeks, maybe months of time 
spent in patiently chipping, pecking, smoothing and polish- 
ing before the product was completed. 

Fine collections of these Wisconsin fluted stone axes, and 
containing some beautiful examples, are in Wisconsin mu- 
seums and some private collections. Editor. 

A Toothed Shank Copper Spearpoint 77 


Charles E. Brown 

Of this rather rare type of copper spearpoint less than 
one hundred specimens have been found in Wisconsin. 
Twenty-two specimens are in the Hamilton and Perkins col- 
lections in the State Historical Museum, in the Milwaukee 
Public Museum and a few others in other museums and 
private collections. Of the specimens known to the writer 
Waupaca County has furnished ten, Calumet and Shawano 
counties four each, Portage and Dodge counties three each, 
Marquette, Waukesha, Washington, Outagamie, Milwaukee 
and Waushara two each, and Green Lake, Walworth, Door, 
Sheboygan, Manitowoc, Adams, Fond du Lac, Dane, Ozaukee, 
Langlade and Eau Claire each a single specimen. This ap- 
pears to indicate a somewhat restricted range in the distri- 
bution of copper points of this interesting type. 

These so-called toothed-shank points have lanceolate or 
leaf -shaped blades and a stem or tang with toothed or ser- 
rated edges. The serrations are fairly large with notches 
between them. Their function, of course, is to enable the 
point to be securely tied to a wooden shaft. The blades of 
these points nearly always have a median ridge which ex- 
tends from the tip of the point to the end of the tang or the 
base of the blade. The number of teeth cut in the tang 
varies from two to six, the smallest points (from 2 to 3% 
inches) have from two to four. 

In 1904, when the writer published a monograph on The 
Native Copper Implements of Wisconsin,* the largest known 
specimen of this type of spearpoint was 9!/2 inches in length. 
A number of others measured from 71/2 to 8 inches in length. 
The smallest was less than 2 inches long. The average size 
appeared to be 4% to 5 inches. 

The largest specimen of toothed-tang spearpoint now 
known was recently found at Fairchild in Eau Claire Coun- 
ty, in northwestern Wisconsin. This large and well made 
point is 11% inches long. Its blade is 1% inches wide at 
its widest part and \% at its base. The stem or tang is 

"The Wis. Archeologist, v. 3, No. 2. 


about 1% inches long, rounded at its end, and has five teeth 
or serrations on each edge. It was a formidable blade. 

It is probable that these toothed-shank spearpoints were 
hunting weapons and attached to long or short lance shafts. 
A small number of chipped flint spearpoints with stems hav- 
ing a number of notches have been found in Wisconsin. In 
New England slate points with multiple notches occur. 

None of the Wisconsin specimens are known to have ac- 
companied burials in mounds or graves. 

Legends of Wisconsin Springs 79 


Dorothy Moulding Brown 

In the July, 1928, issue of The Wisconsin Archeologist, 
Mr. George Overton and Mr. Charles E. Brown published 
two papers describing some of the known so-called "sacred" 
or Indian shrine springs of Wisconsin, Mr. Overton de- 
scribing three which were located on the shore of Lake 
Poygan and Mr. Brown two located at Beaver Dam. To the 
Indian spirits supposed to inhabit these springs offerings of 
animal bones, pottery, stone and bone implements, orna- 
ments, clam shells and pipe bowls^had been made at some 
time in the past. Other similar springs have since been lo- 
cated, some of these near trails where passing hunters might 
cast a knife or some other cherished possession into their 
waters to obtain a "blessing," to secure the good will of its 
resident deity, or to avoid some unpleasant happening or 

An abundant supply of fresh water was as important to 
the redman as it is today to his white successors. One or a 
number of good springs were in the vicinity of or at the 
location of every early Indian village or camp. It was but 
natural that myths, legends and stories and superstitious 
customs should become attached to some of these woodland 

A few years ago Mr. Charles E. Brown was taken by 
Uncle John V. Satterlee, the old sage of the Menomini In- 
dian Reservation in Wisconsin, to view some mounds and 
other Indian landmarks at a short distance from Keshena. 
Among many other places of interest which they visited 
was a woodland spring. This spring, surrounded by forest 
trees, was in a neglected condition, partly filled with oak 
leaves and tree limbs. Because of this debris its water was 
of a brownish or dark color. This spring was one of a num- 
ber which the old Menomini believed to be the den of a spirit 
bear. Mr. Satterlee stated that two Indians once visited this 
spring. One of them, a young man, on being told of the 
bear in the spring, laughed and refused to credit what he 
thought an idle superstition of his people. Procuring a long 


sapling pole he poked it into the bed of the spring for 
nearly its whole length and began to jab it about. His ac- 
tion angered the sleeping bear. A great flame shot up from 
the water and in a few seconds burned off nearly every 
shred of clothing from the body of the tormentor. He fled 
in terror from the site. No one has since cared or dared 
to molest Owa'sse. 

The Blue Spring 

Palmyra, in Jefferson County, was a village in the nine- 
ties rather famous for its medicinal springs located on the 
north and west shores of Spring Lake. In a creek bottom, 
a short distance southwest of the town, was located the once 
widely known Blue Spring, visited annually by large num- 
bers of tourists and other visitors. It was once exploited as 
a medicinal spring and had been walled-in with a tub made 
of stout planks and a platform erected on one edge to enable 
visitors to gaze down into its depths. The waters of this 
large circular spring were of a heavenly blue color and un- 
like those of any other known spring in the state. 

In early days of white settlement in Wisconsin a band of 
Prairie Potawatomi camped on the wooded slopes of the 
creek bottom near this spring. According to a legend ob- 
tained from a descendant of one of these early Indian fam- 
ilies, the Indian head of this band had two daughters. They 
were twins and so much alike in face and form that one 
could not readily be distinguished from the other. The 
young women were very fond of each other, assisting one 
another at their daily tasks, and together taking part in all 
of the games and festivities of the camp. They were in- 
separable and both dreaded the coming of a time when one 
or the other would be wooed by some brave and borne away 
as his wife to some other village. One day one of the girls 
left the family wigwam while the other sister was asleep. 
When nightfall came and she had not returned, her parents 
became worried and a search was made for the missing 
girl. This was without result. Days passed and she did 
not come back. The remaining twin sorrowed greatly over 
her lost sister. She would not be comforted. Daily she 
searched for her in the woodland and in the creek bottom. 

Legends of Wisconsin Springs 81 

Half crazed with grief she one day wandered to the edge of 
the spring, and kneeling on its rim she gazed down into its 
clear waters. In its depths she saw the image of a girl. 
This she thought to be that of her lost twin. Not wishing 
to be again separated from her, she cast herself into the 
spring and was soon swallowed by its waters. Now, the 
twin sisters were once more united and in a spirit world. 
From that day on, says this little legend, the spring took on 
its beautiful sky blue color. 

A summer resort real estate development has created an 
artificial lake Blue Spring Lake in this creek valley, caus- 
ing the extinction of the noted Blue Spring. The creek 
which rises here is a branch of the Scuppernong River. 
The name of the locality is Blue Spring Park. 

The Mystery Spring 

A few miles northeast of Black River Falls in the town 
of Komensky, Jackson County, is the Mystery Spring. This 
is in the dark recesses of a narrow gorge leading to Mor- 
rison Creek. It is "some distance below where the bridge 
on Highway 54 crosses that stream. Beneath an overhang- 
ing rock the water gurgles forth from a fissure and spreads 
out over the top of a flat table-like rock that is about hip 
high. In the top of this hard impervious rock a triangular 
basin has been cut out, from which the water can be dipped 
with a pail. An old Winnebago Indian, who some twenty 
years ago dwelt in this vicinity with his wife, gave this ex- 
planation of the origin of the basin : "Yes, all Indians know 
it is there, but no Indian do it. When old Indian fathers 
first came to this country many, many long winters ago, 
they find it just like it is now, and no Indian ever do it, and 
no Indian never know who it was. Some people must have 
lived there long before Indians come." Another Winnebago 
tribesman has since remarked: "Wah-kun-dah he made it 
for his children." 

"An old trail passes the foot of the rock and one but 
needs to bend the back to drink of the pure cold water. A 
few feet away a little brook ripples past and farther on 
rushes on to join the 'Father of Waters/ The secret of the 
spring is in safe keeping. The towering trees know it not, 


for it was there when they first sprouted. The mute un- 
speakable rock alone bears unmistakable evidence that some 
one chiseled the basin on its top."* 

The Red Spring of Mission Lake 

Mission Lake, also called Preachers Lake, is located on 
the Stockbridge Reservation in Shawano County. The lake 
has a reddish or rusty color and is about forty acres in 
extent. A boiling spring, the Red Spring, was on its shore 
and supplied this lake with water by an underground 

The pagan Indians say that a powerful spirit living in 
the lake or the spring turned the waters to a rusty color. 
This spirit the Stockbridges are supposed to have offended 
or abused. It colored the water so that it was of no use 
to them. "This spirit either moved away or was killed by 
some Thunderer." 

The Indian name for the lake is Ma-qua-kohnick may- 
pay-saw, meaning "red colored water lake." The name 
given to the Red Spring is Ma-kieg-oh-mon-nip, "red spring." 
This information was furnished by John V. Satterlee in 

Castalia Spring 

In the Menomonee River valley, at Wauwatosa, adjoin- 
ing Jacobus Park, is this spring which for many years sup- 
plied bottled spring water to certain Milwaukee homes and 
offices. There is a story about this spring going back 
to days before its water became a commercial product. Some 
Indian children were one day playing in its vicinity. In 
their play the thought came to one of the older girls that 
it would be good fun to walk through the waters of the 
spring. This the others agreed to. Sitting on the green 
bank they removed their moccasins. Led by the oldest 
girl, in a line and singing, the children entered the water 
and walked over the face of the spring. All went well until 
the youngest child at the end of the line of waders reached 

Black River Falls Journal, Nov. 15, 1925. 

Legends of Wisconsin Springs 83 

the center, there without any warning its little body sank 
in the muck at the spring's bottom. Hearing the child's 
cry the older children grasped its arms and saved its head 
and shoulders from sinking into the ooze. With difficulty 
they extricated the little one and saved its life. The Indian 
explanation of this near tragedy was that a spirit which 
had taken this spring for an abode was offended by the 
trampling of so many feet through the water and thus nearly 
revenged itself on one of the children. Happy white children 
now play in this county park, knowing nothing of this hap- 
pening of a hundred or more years ago. 

Madison Springs 

At the base of Maple Bluff, at Madison, was the spring 
which figures in the well known local legend of the unfor- 
tunate Indian who killed and ate the spirit raccoon. Unable 
to afterward quench his terrible thirst at this spring, he 
entered the waters of Lake Mendota and there perished. 
At Merrill Springs, also on the shore of this lake, is the 
Indian "Wishing Spring," which Indian folk are supposed 
to have once visited to obtain "blessings." University stu- 
dents and others now drink from it, making a wish as they 
do so, and which they hope may come true. Nearby, in a 
small lake shore park and surrounded by a circular stone 
wall, are the long well known Merrill Springs. At Nakoma, 
on the west side of Lake Wingra, is the Do-gee-rah Spring, 
taking its name from the pre-pioneer Winnebago camp once 
located here. This spring, located on the Nakoma road, is 
now improved with a stone masonry setting. This is one of 
the springs, according to an Indian belief, through which 
the spirits of animals entered the spirit world. 

In the University of Wisconsin Arboretum on the south 
shore of Lake Wingra are three springs separated from 
each other by only short distances. One of these was sup- 
posed to possess medicinal virtues and was never used for 
ordinary purposes. It was a spirit spring. 

Blue Mound Spring 

A crystal clear spring on the eastern slope of Blue Mound 
at the western boundary of Dane County, is associated with 


the local legend of Earthmaker. When seated on the top 
of the Mound and smoking his great pipe he now and then 
visited this welcome rill to quench his thirst.* The sur- 
roundings of this spring are flinty boulders and outcrops. 
This locality about the Wakanda Spring has long been a 
favorite resort of picnickers visiting the Mound. 

*Wis. Archeologist, v. 18, No. 1, 18-19. 

Vita Spring 

This Beaver Dam spring is now included in Vita Spring 
Park. It has interesting history and legendary lore. 

"This spring was known to the red men of the forest, 
as the 'healing spring.' Much-kaw, the great medicine chief 
of the Winnebagoes, continued to visit this spring as long 
as he lived. He died in about the year 1860, at the great 
age of 120 years. In talking about this spring, he said, 
so long ago as he could remember, it had been known 
to the Indians as a 'healing spring'; that long years ago 
there had been contentions between his tribe and the Pota- 
watomies for the possession of it for medicine water and a 
hunting ground, it being a resort for wild animals, especially 
in times of great drought."* 

In clearing out this spring human and animal bones, 
deer and elk horns, stone implements and other specimens 
were found. 

*Wis. Archeologist, v. 7, No. 4, n. s., p. 216. 

Seven Sacred Springs 

Fontana, at the western end of Lake Geneva, takes its 
name from a number of beautiful springs located here. All 
of these are on the site of the early Potawatomi village of 
Chief Big Foot (Maungzet) . The best known and most at- 
tractive of these are the so-called "Seven Sacred Springs" 
on the beautiful club house grounds of the Big Foot Golf 
and Country Club. Chief Simon Onegassum Kahquados, the 
Potawatomi leader who dedicated these springs at a special 
ceremony held in connection with the Lake Geneva Centen- 
nial, on June 27, 1931, said that they were sacred to the 

Legends of Wisconsin Springs 85 

water spirits and made the customary tobacco offering to 
these spirits on their surfaces. A descriptive metal tablet 
was placed near the largest spring. 

Little Pickerel's Spring 

At Milwaukee the Potawatomi Indian village of Little 
Pickerel, whose Indian name is given as Kenozhaykum, was 
located on and near present West Wisconsin Avenue, be- 
tween present Fourth and Fifth Streets. In 1841 about one 
hundred Indians lived here. A fine spring of clear water 
located here, on or near the site of the present Schroeder 
Hotel, was known to some of the early white settlers as 
Little Pickerel's Spring. He is reported to have been rather 
particular about its use, saying that it was the gift of Wi'saka 
(culture hero) to his people. Wi'saka taught the Potawa- 
tomi how to make clay vessels, what roots, seeds and fruit 
to gather and how to prepare them for food. He instructed 
them how to construct their wigwams. He brought the 
buffalo, bear, deer and other animals. A tablet at the en- 
trance of the Schroeder Hotel marks the site of this village 
and its spring. 

A spring at the foot of the lake bank in Juneau Park 
was also resorted to by the early Potawatomi Indians of 
Milwaukee. Makesit, or "Big Foot," is said to have been the 
chief of a camp or village located on the bluff. This spring 
was located a short distance north of the present North- 
western depot. In the nineties this became a favorite foun- 
tain of numerous visitors to this Lake Michigan shore park. 
Railroad men were fond of the water. An Indian visitor 
of this time spoke of the spring as a "lost spring," it had 
wandered away from its fellow springs to lose itself in the 
waters of the great lake. 

Noted springs of those years were the Silver Springs, one 
of which is in present Kletzsch Park, near the Milwaukee 
River, north of the city. An old Indian, when asked about 
them by the late Charles Bertram, pointed to some large 
silver brooches on his leather belt and said, "like those." 


The Waukesha Waters 

Indian stories and legends were also connected with some 
of the famous Waukesha springs of the Waukesha Water 
resort days of the gay nineties. Visitors then came from 
all parts of the country to drink of the healing waters of 
these springs, as their Indian precedents had done for many 
years before. 

N. B. In several previous issues of The Wisconsin 
Archeologist the writer has published the myths and legends 
of the lakes, streams, caves, hills and bluffs of Wisconsin. 

Recert Archeological Literature 87 


Courtesy of W. C. McKern, Editor, American Antiquity 


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ciety, 294 pp., fully illustrated, cloth bound, Indianapolis, 1937. 
Price $5.00 (while they last). 

Mason, J. Alden, Further Remarks on the PreColumbian Relationships 
between the United States and Mexico. Texas Archaeological and 
Paleontological Society, Bulletin 9: 120-129, Abilene, 1937. 

Mathiassen, Therkel, The Eskimo Archeology of Greenland. Smith- 
sonian Report for 1936 (Publication 3436), pp. 397-404, 3 plates, 
Washington, 1937. 

McGregor, J. C., Winona Village (Arizona). Museum of Northern 
Arizona, Bulletin 12, 54 pp., 32 figs., Flagstaff, 1937. Price 75 

McGregor, J. C., How Some Important Northern Arizona Pottery 
Types were Dated. Museum of Northern Arizona, Bulletin 13, 
20 pp., 14 figs., Flagstaif, 1938. Price 50 cents. 

Mera, H. P., Chupadero Black-on-White. Laboratory of Anthropology, 
Archaeological Survey, Technical Series Bulletin 1: 1-4, 7 photo- 
graphic prints, Santa Fe, 1931. 

Mera, H. P., and W. S. Stallings, Jr., Lincoln Black-on-Red. Labora- 
tory of Anthropology, Archaeological Survey, Technical Series 
Bulletin 2: 1-2, 4 plates, Santa Fe, 1931. 

Mera, H. P., Wares Ancestral to Tewa Polychrome. Laboratory of 
Anthropology, Archaeological Survey, Technical Series Bulletin 2: 
1-12, 3 plates, Santa Fe, 1932. 

Mera, H. P., A Proposed Revision of the Rio Grande Glaze Paint Se- 
quence. Laboratory of Anthropology, Archaeological Survey, 
Technical Series Bulletin 5: 1-12, Santa Fe, 1933. 

Mera, H. P., A Survey of the Biscuit Ware Area in Northern New 
Mexico. Laboratory of Anthropology, Archaeological Survey, 
Technical Series Bulletin 6: 1-22, 3 maps, 1 chart, Santa Fe, 1934. 

Mera. H. P., Observations on the Archaeology of the Petrified Forest 
National Monument. Laboratory of Anthropology, Archaeological 
Survey, Technical Series Bulletin 7: 1-24, Santa Fe, 1934. 

Pennsylvania Historical Commission, Archaeological Survey, 1931- 
1934 (Pennsylvania). Sixth Report, Pennsylvania Historical Com- 
mission, pp. 31-34, Harrisburg, 1937. 

Reed, Clyde T., A Carankawa Fire Implement (Texas). Texas Archeo- 
logical and Paleontological Society, Bulletin 9:218-221, 1 plate, 
Abilene, 1937. 

Ritchie, William A., A New Archaeological Culture in New York. 
Museum Service 10, No. 9: 206-208, Rochester: Rochester Museum 
of Arts and Sciences, 1937. 

Recent Archeological Literature 89 

Steward, Julian H., Petroglyphs of the United States. Smithsonian 
Report for 1936 (Publication 3474), pp. 405-425, 12 plates, 7 figs., 
Washington, 1937. 

Toulouse, Joseph H., Jr., Excavations at San Diego Mission, New 
Mexico. New Mexico Anthropologist 2, No. 1: 16-18, Albuquer- 
que: University of New Mexico, 1937. 

Wheeler, S. M., A Fremont Moccasin from Nevada. The Master Key 
12, No. 1:34-35, Los Angeles: Southwest Museum, 1938. 

Woods, Margaret S., Talus Unit No. 1 at Chaco (New Mexico). South- 
western Monuments, pp. 321-323, National Park Service, October, 


Cotter, John L., The Occurrence of Flints and Extinct Animals in 
Pluvial Deposits near Clovis, New Mexico, Part IV: Report on 
Excavation at the Gravel Pit, 1936. Proceedings, Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 89: 1-16, 1937. 

Jenks, Albert E., Minnesota's Browns Valley Man and Associated Bur- 
ial Artifacts. American Anthropological Association, Memoirs, 49, 
50 pp., 8 plates, 5 figs., 1937. 

Ray, Cyrus N., More Evidence Concerning Abilene Man (Texas). 
Texas Archeological and Paleontological Society, Bulletin 9: 193- 
217, 7 plates, Abilene, 1937. 

Renaud, E. B., Folsom and Yuma Points, Texas Archeological and 
Paleontological Society, Bulletin 9:74-88, 1 plate, Abilene, 1937. 

Witte, A. H., Buried Middens in the Floodplain of the Little Wichita 
River (Texas). Texas Archeological and Paleontological Society, 
Bulletin 9:222-226, 1 plate, Abilene, 1937. 



George A. West Memorial Meeting 

February 21, 1938. Dr. H. W. Kuhm presided at this meeting of 
The Wisconsin Archeological Society which was held in the Trustee 
Room of the Milwaukee Public Museum. One hundred and fifty mem- 
bers of the Society and personal friends of the late George Arbor 
West were present. 

Dr. Samuel A. Barrett, director of the museum, read a digest of 
the work done by the deceased during his many years close con- 
nection with the Milwaukee Public Museum. He showed a collection 
of lantern slides illustrating his archeological investigations in Amer- 
ica, England, France and Egypt. He exhibited a set of the museum 
publications of which he was the author. 

Secretary Charles E. Brown gave a talk on the activities of the 
departed life member in the founding of The Wisconsin Archeological 
Society, and of the work done by him during the thirty-five years of 
its history to promote its aims and objects. He paid a tribute to him 
as an educator and scientist. He exhibited many issues of The 
Wisconsin Archeologist to which Mr. West had contributed articles 
and monographs. 

A set of resolutions on the death of Mr. West were read by Mr. 
W. C. McKern. These the Board of Directors had adopted. 

Mr. John G. Gregory, himself a charter member of the Society, 
also paid a high tribute to his friend as a scholar, investigator and 
educator. In memory of Mr. West an exhibit of Indian pipes was 
made by the Messrs. Charles G. Schoewe and Herman 0. Zander. 
Mr. W. K. Andrew exhibited a fine fluted stone axe. 

A.fter the close of this meeting, a business meeting was called by 
President Kuhm. Secretary Brown announced the election by the 
Board of Directors of the following annual members: Harold R. Bul- 
lock, Oshkosh; August W. Derleth, Sauk City; R. T. Lawton, Fort 
Atkinson, and Frank J. Kotlewsky, Milwaukee. Mrs. Mary V. Brugger 
of Fond du Lac had been elected an honorary member in recognition 
of the gift of her son's archeological collection to the Fond du Lac 

It had been proposed to found a George A. West Award for arche- 
ological research and other noteworthy services to Wisconsin arche- 
ology. This matter had been referred to the Lapham Research Medal 
Committee for consideration. A nominating committee, consisting of 
the Messrs. Ringeisen, Schoewe and Scholz, had been appointed to 
nominate officers for the ensuing year. The proposed acquirement 
of the Lawton collection by the Fort Atkinson museum had received 
the approval of the directors. Dr. Kuhm reported that Dr. A. K. 
Fisher would deliver an illustrated address at the March meeting. 

Annual Meeting 

March 21, 1938. President Kuhm conducted the annual meeting 
of the society. Secretary Brown made a report of the business trans- 
acted at the Director's meeting held earlier in the evening. New 
members elected were: L. P. Jerrard, Winnetka, Illinois; Mrs. R. G. 

Meetings 91 

Staerkle, Milwaukee; Robert G. Daland, Milton, and the Kenosha His- 
torical and Art Museum, W. E. Dickenson, curator. A letter of ap- 
preciation had been received from Mrs. George A. West and Miss 
Grace West. Announcements of the coming Joint Meeting at Ripon 
College, and of the Central Section, A. A. A., and Society for Ameri- 
can Archeology, to be held at Milwaukee, were made. 

Mr. Ringeisen made a report of the work done by the Frauds 
Committee. Treasurer Thorne presented his annual report. Mr. 
Craun and Mr. Schoewe were appointed to audit the treasurer's ac- 
counts. Mr. Ringeisen presented the report of the nominating com- 
mittee, which was accepted. There being no other nominations these 
officers were regularly elected. (See list of the new officers in the 
front pages of this bulletin.) President Kuhm, on retiring from his 
office, thanked Secretary Brown, Treasurer Thorne and other officers 
for their services. On the motion of Mr. Ringeisen a vote of thanks 
was extended to him for his own active services as president. 

Dr. Kuhm called President-elect Dr. L. S. Buttles to the chair to 
preside over the rest of the meeting. Dr. Alton K. Fisher gave a 
very interesting lecture on "Mortuary Customs," giving an account 
of the development of burial customs of the peoples of the world from 
the Palaeolithic Period to the present. This he illustrated with a fine 
collection of lantern slides. In the discussion which followed the 
Messrs. McKern, Kuhm, and the president and others participated. 

Exhibits of interesting Indian artifacts were made by the Messrs 
Ringeisen and W. K. Andrew. President Buttles spoke of the im- 
portance of making exhibits at the meetings of the Society. The 
Messrs. Pierron, Scholz and Schoewe were appointed to make an ex- 
hibit at the April 18th meeting. 


10L IB Ho. 4 


Russian Archeo-Conchology 
Life and Customs of Navajo Women 

Kentucky Copper Hoard 

Myths and Legends of Wisconsin Waterfalls 
Historic American Buildings Survey 




Accepted for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103 
Act. Oct. 3. 1917. Authorized Jan. 28. 1921. 

, Utarnttam 

Incorporated March 23. 1903, for the purpose of advancing the study 
and preservation of Wisconsin antiquities 



Dr. L. S. Buttles 


T. L. Miller E. E. Steene Dr. A. K. Fishei 

A. P. Kannenberg W. E. Erdman 


Dr. S. A. Barrett Jos. Ringeisen, Jr. 


W. K. Andrew Rev. Chr. Hjermstad Marie G. Kohler 

Dr. W. H. Brown P. W. Hoffmann Dr. H. W. Kuhm 

Walter Bubbert M. F. Hulburt W. C. McKern 

H. W. Cornell Zida C. Ivey Louis Pierron 

Rev. F. S. Dayton Paul Joers A. W. Pond 

Kermit Freckman Dr. A. L. Kastner E. F. Richter 

Arthur Gerth Dr. Louise P. Kellogg C. G. Schoewe 

John G. Gregory R. J. Kieckhefer Paul Scholz 

R. B. Hartman J. J. Knudsen R. S. Van Handel 

Frederic Heath Mrs. Theo. Koerner G. R. Zilisch 


G. M. Thorne 
917 N. Forty-ninth Street, Milwaukee, Wis. 


Charles E. Brown 
State Historical Museum, Madison, Wis. 



STATE SURVEY W. E. Erdman, Robert R. Jones, A. P. Kannenberg, 
D. A. Blencoe, Kermit Freckman, V. E. Motschenbacher, G. E. 
Overton, O. L. Hollister, J. P. Schumacher, Rev. Chr. Hjermstad, 

F. M. Neu, M. P. Henn, H. F. Feldman, V. S. Taylor, M. F. 

MOUND PRESERVATION C. G. Schoewe, Dr. Louise P. Kellogg, 
T. L. Miller, Mrs. W. J. Devine, Dr. L. V. Sprague, Mrs. H. A. 
Olson, Prof. R. S. Owen, A. H. Griffith, A. W. Pond, R. S. Van 
Handel, G. L. Pasco, W. S. Dunsmoor, Walter Bubbert, Louis 

PUBLIC COLLECTIONS Dr. S. A. Barrett, C. E. Brown, N. C. 
Behncke, H. L. Ward, Rev. F. S. Dayton, Prof. A. H. Sanford, 
W. M. Babcock, H. R. Holand, Miss Marie G. Kohler, Dr. P. H. 
Nesbitt, R. N. Buckstaff. 

MEMBERSHIP Dr. H. W. Kuhm, G. M. Thorne, Paul Joers, N. E. 
Carter, Dr. W. H. Brown, H. A. Zander, Paul Scholz, W. K. 
Andrew, Paul W. Hoffmann, A. W. Buttles, Clarence Harris, A. E. 
Koerner, Mrs. Zida C. Ivey, E. R. Guentzel, Mrs. Theo. Koerner. 

Prof. A. H. Sanford, Col. J. W. Jackson, Walter Bubbert. 

PUBLICITY W. C. McKern, M. C. Richter, A. 0. Barton, Victor S. 


BIOGRAPHY Rachel M. Campbell, Dr. E. J. W. Notz, E. F. Richter, 

G. R. Zilisch, Paul Joers, Arthur Gerth. 

FRAUDULENT ARTIFACTS Jos. Ringeisen, Jr., E. F. Richter, 
W. C. McKern, C. G. Schoewe. 

PROGRAM Dr. A. K. Fisher, H. W. Cornell, E. E. Steene. 
PUBLICATIONS C. E. Brown, Dr. A. K. Fisher, Dr. H. W. Kuhm. 

Heath, Dr. A. L. Kastner, R. J. Kieckhefer, L. R. Whitney, J. G. 
Gregory, Walter Bubbert, Louis Pierron. 

LAPHAM RESEARCH MEDAL Dr. S. A. Barrett, Dr. A. L. Kastner, 
C. G. Schoewe, M. C. Richter, H. W. Cornell. 


Life Members, $25.00 Endowment Members, $500.00 

Sustaining Members, $5.00 Annual Members, $2.00 

Institutional Members, $1.50 Junior Members, $ .50 

All communications in regard to The Wisconsin Aroheological Society should 
be addressed to Charles E. Brown, Secretary and Curator, Office, State Historical 
Museum, Madison, Wisconsin. Contributions to The Wisconsin Archeologist should 
be addressed to him. Dues should be sent to G. M. Thorne, Treasurer, 917 N. 
49th Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 


Vol. 18, No. 4, New Series 


Archeo-Conchology in the Union of Soviet Socialistic Republics, 

Henry J. Boekelman __ _ 93 

The Life and Customs of Navajo Women, 

Lillian D. Hartman 100 

Kentucky's Ancient Copper Hoard, 

Fain White King... __ _ 108 

Myths and Legends of Wisconsin Waterfalls, 

Dorothy M. Brown 110 

Historic American Buildings Survey, 

Alexander C. Guth 121 

Archeological Notes 127 

Potato River Falls... _ __ Frontispiece 

Plate Page 
1. Kentucky Copper Hoard 109 


Published Quarterly by The Wisconsin Archeological Society 


VftT 18 No. 4 

VOL> " New Series 


Henry J. Boekelman 

Curator Department of Archeo- and Ethno-Conehology, 
Louisiana State Museum, New Orleans 

Many times during the past ten years of research in the 
field of archeo- and ethno-conchology (the use of shells by 
extinct and extant races) I have cast longing glances upon 
the huge area designated under the name of Russia in our 
former geographies, now known as the USSR. Represent- 
ing approximately one-sixth of the land area of the globe 
and lying between Europe and Asia Minor on one side, India 
to the south and China and Japan to the east, it represented 
a complete blank insofar as my files on archeo- and ethno- 
conchology are concerned. For that matter I might say 
it still will until many Soviet articles have been read and 

I have been able to prepare world distribution maps 
which, by means of numbered map tacks, illustrate the uses 
among various cultures of different shell objects such as 
food (represented by shell heaps), trumpets, knives, con- 
chological purple dye industries, spoons, money, containers, 
etc., etc. Numbered index cards contain the accompanying 
data, authority and publication. But insofar as these objects 
are concerned, the USSR territory has remained almost 
an entire blank, although to date over 3,000 articles and 
books have been examined. My files now contain 30,000 

typewritten pages and 10,000 index cards. 



Vol. 18, No. 4 

It is quite possible, however, that a lack of knowledge of 
the Soviet language played an important role in this dearth 
of data from this particular territory. Fortunately this year 
I was introduced to a highly educated Russian, Mr. Orest 
Meykar, now living in New Orleans, and to interest him in 
my line of research. He was so kind as to translate my last 
letter in which I explained to the scientists at the head of 
the Academy of Sciences of the Union of Soviet Socialistic 
Republics, my utter lack of information pertaining to the 
use of shells in their huge territory and the importance of 
such data to the archeologists of the rest of the world. The 
attached translation of the answer, which I owe to Mr. Mey- 
kar, is interesting from several viewpoints. As is usually 
the case in scientific research, while it answers the main 
question of whether any such shells have been found in the 
Soviet territory, it raises many others to further intrigue 
the research worker. 

1st. It is quite plain from this letter that the importance 
of the numerous shells found in archeological sites beginning 
with the Paleolithic down to the most recent period, by the 
Soviet scientists, is well recognized by them. 

The various papers already published on the subject in 
the USSR indicate, I believe, their growing interest in this 

2nd. We note, perhaps, as is already shown in other parts 
of the world, that during each culture period certain types 
of shells predominate. In other words, it appears quite prob- 
able that a chronology based upon the different types of 
shells utilized in various periods will, when worked out, pro- 
duce a conchological chronology which should coincide with 
the present day used stone artifact chronology. While there 
may develop some slight discrepancies between the two in 
certain isolated instances, they should closely follow each 
other in their general broad outline. 

(1) For two very comprehensive studies on the use of this monetary cowry see: 
The Use of Cowry-shells for the Purposes of Currency, Amulets, and Charms, 
J. Wilfrid Jackson, Vol. 60, Part III of Memoirs and Proc. Manchester Literary 
& Phil. Soc., 1916. Mu&chelgeld Studien by Dr. Oscar Schneider, Dresden, 

(2) The Metallic Cowries of Ancient China (600 B. C.) by Prof. Terrien de 
Lacouperie, Journ. Roy. Asiatic Soc., Vol. XX, pp 428-439. - - ' 

Russian Archeo-Conchology 95 

3rd. If the statement has been correctly translated (and 
Mr. Meykar assures me that it has) and is confirmed by 
further correspondence that extinct species of shells have 
been found associated with human remains, it will be the 
first time, to my knowledge, of such a find. Many reports 
have been made at various times and from different parts 
of the world, of the finding of extinct species of shells (non 
fossil I mean, naturally) associated with man, but invariably 
upon closer examination of the material were proven incor- 
rect. Such, however, does not apply to mammals; in our 
paleolithic European, or certain American early sites where 
the now extinct mammoth, as an illustration, has been found 
associated with human remains. But all shells reported 
appear to belong to species still living. Hence the importance 
of this alleged finding of such extinct shells, regarding which 
I sincerely hope to secure additional information in the near 

4th. Another interesting point is the statement that 
finds of shells in the Neolithic period are too numerous to 
take up in detail in the letter. However, without additional 
information, it is not possible to deduce from this statement 
if it is meant that shells were used to a greater extent during 
the Neolithic as compared with the Paleolithic, or that the 
former sites in the USSR are more numerous than the latter 
and hence appear more frequently in the current written 

5th. The reported finds of the cowry shells (Cypraea 
moneta), the so universally used monetary shell in Asia and 
Africa, is extremely interesting. I have been carrying on a 
search of the use of this shell (1) and have been able to trace 
its use back as far as the Neolithic age in Egypt, Algeria, 
India and Tonkin, China. Reports from China clearly indi- 
cate that when the Chinese entered the territory now com- 
prising that country they found the aboriginals using this 
shell as a monetary unit, another possible indication of its 
use during the Neolithic period. In fact, the Chinese symbol 
for this cowry shell W pei appears as a part of many 

(3) In a personal letter to the author from I. Yawata, 1937 Anthrop. Inst. Tokyo. 

(4) Huam History by G. Elliot Smith, 1929, pp. 298-300. 



Vol. 18, No. 4 

written Chinese characters indicative of money, wealth, 
tribute, taxes, etc., etc., all words closely related to the root 
term of money. Amongst the earliest forms of Chinese cop- 
per coins appear the imitation cowry coins. (2) However, 
peculiar to relate, although this shell is reported as living 
on the Riu-Kiu Islands, so nearby Japan, it has not been 
reported as having been found in any Japanese shell heaps 
of the Neolithic or later periods, (3) although other species 
of cowries have been found. The statement of the finding 
of these cowries in Siberia, imitated in bronze, is very inter- 
esting, particularly so after bearing in mind such an imita- 
tion in China. We well know that amongst the earliest gold- 
en objects found in Nubian graves are reproductions of this 
self -same cowry. (4) Reproductions of the shell made from 
silver, gold, carnelian, green glaze, and blue glaze have been 
reported by W. M. Flinders Petrie (1914) in Egypt from the 
prehistoric period to the Roman. 

The shell has been found in Indian graves in the United 
States and Canada (5) but regardless of the conclusions 
arrived at by Mr. J. Wilfrid Jackson in his study of these 
finds (6), I am inclined to believe that they represent the 
post Columbian period. I would, however, as yet except from 
this statement the at one time much discussed find by Mr. 
Clarence B. Moore of five pierced money cowries (C. moneta) 
in Alabama (7). I do not believe that it has yet been abso- 
lutely established that these specimens are post Columbian. 

There now still remains the most important part of the 
work, which is to collect the numerous reported finds of 
shells in the USSR, tabulate and correlate these findings 
with the many relating ones from other parts of the world 
which I have been able to accumulate during the past ten 
years. This study should throw some most interesting light 
upon the many waves of migration originating in Asia, and 
likewise open up to our eyes trade routes along which these 
shells were carried. Either or both means of transportation 
quite probably account for the at times widely distributed 

(5) Cowry Shells from Archeological Sites in Ontario by W. J. Wintemberg In 
Amer. Anthrop., Vol. 26, No. 1, 1924, pp. 119-120. 

(6) The money Cowry (Cypraea moneta L.) as a Sacred Object among North 
American Indians by J. Wilfrid Jackson, Vol. 60, Pt. II, Mem. & Proc. 
Manchester Lit. & Phil. Soc., 1916, pp. 1-10. 

(7) Aboriginal Site on Tennessee River, C. B. Moore, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phil. 
Ser. XVI. II, 1915. 

Russian Archeo-CoHchology 97 

myths relating to certain shells, and uses made of a similar 
type of unworked or worked shell for an identical purpose, 
such as tweezers, knife, spoon, container, trumpet, etc. In 
some cases, however, the evidence appears to point more 
strongly towards an independent discovery of the same type 
of unworked or worked shell for a similar usage. The oppor- 
tunity of endeavoring to clarify this most interesting phase 
of man's development is, perhaps, one of the most intriguing 
phases in the study of archeo-conchology. Shells, due to 
their apparent uninterrupted usage by man since his first 
appearance as such on the earth, offer in my opinion one 
of the best methods of approach to the ultimate solving of 
this perplexing question of diffusion versus independent 
discovery. Such findings thereupon correlated with the al- 
ready intensively studied stone, bone, wood and clay arti- 
facts should ultimately give us a more complete picture of 
his culture evolution than will ever be possible to obtain 
without their inclusion in our present records. 

The field is so enormous in extent that many workers 
will be required to carry the study forward. Perhaps this 
attempt of mine to focus the attention of the Soviet scien- 
tists onto this subject may result in the work being inten- 
sified in their territory. If so it will represent an untold 
benefit to the future development of archeo- and ethno- 
conchology, by adding to the uncompleted distribution maps 
we have started. 

Another interesting news item emanating from the 
USSR is contained in the form of a child's reading primer 
(1) which I had translated by Mr. Meykar, and is now placed 
on public exhibit in the Archeo- and Ethno-Conchology dis- 
play in the Louisiana State Museum. The primer teaches 
the Soviet school children the evolution of a container. Be- 
ginning with the use of the cupped human hand, it next 
illustrates the use of an unworked valve of a bivalve shell 
as being the first step in the development of an artificial 
container. The story then continues through the various 
types of containers, ending with the present day glass ob- 
jects. Nearly 100,000 visitors have seen this most interest- 
ing exhibit. 

(1) The Clay (Pottery) Necks by State Dept. of Publications, Young (Red) Guard 
Publications, Moscow, 1931. 



Vol. 18, No. 4 

In closing I wish to point out that our own country offers 
just as many possibilities along these lines. What is needed 
are voluntary archeo-conchologists to engage in this branch 
of archeology. To such I beg to offer any possible assistance 
which lies in my power to give them. Our files are open to 
their inspection and study. I also wish to give my sincere 
thanks to the officials of the Louisiana Works Progress Ad- 
ministration and Mr. James J. Fortier, President of the 
Louisiana State Museum, and his board of directors for their 
splendid co-operation in my efforts along this line. Without 
such the progress made to date would have been but a frac- 
tion of what it has been. 



Universitietskaya naberejnaya, 3 

Dec. llth, 1937, No. 59/64 

To the Supervisor of dept. of Archeo- and Ethno-Conchology, State 
Museum of Louisiana, Henry Boekelmen. 

Much esteemed colleague: 

In reply to your inquiry regarding the presence of shells in archeo- 
logical excavations in the territory of USSR, we herewith inform you 
of the following: 

There exist a great number of shells, from various localities and 
associated with the various periods, found during the course of archeo- 
logical discoveries in the territory of USSR, utilized in various ways 
and of species still living as well as of the extinct kinds. 

To our sorrow, there are, however, no compilations of all the re- 
ported finds of shells of the USSR. All the information on their dis- 
coveries is in the form of separate references in many articles and 
reports of individual excavations and finds. 

On discoveries of the paleolithical epoch we refer you to the recent- 
ly published in Kiev, in the magazine "Quartenary Period" (edition 
of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences), of an article by Pidoplichka 
on the discovery of shells in paleolithic sites of the Ukrainian SSR (in 
Ukrainian language). 

Another article by the same author, in Russian, is being printed in 
No. 5 of our journal "Soviet Archeology" (edition of this Institute). 
In the same number is being printed an article by S. N. Bibikov on 
the use and ways of preparation for food of shells in late-paleolithic 
sites in Crimea. 

Amongst earlier discoveries it is worthwhile to refer to the finds 
of small drilled circles of mother-of-pearl of shells Unio sp. They are 

Russian Archeo-Conchology 99 

in our museum. They come from paleolithic site of Borshevo, on the 
river Don, former province of Voronezh (excavations by S. H. Zamia- 

tin, 1922). 

Devon fossils, Spirofer, used as decorations (dyed with red ochre), 
are found in paleolithic, late, orignac, sites of Gagarino and Kostenki, 
in the same province and the same museum. 

Much more numerous are the discoveries of the neolithic epoch, 
which it will be impossible to enumerate in this letter. 

We also should mention the recently published investigation of 
Prof. B. L. Bogayevsky, "Shell in the ornamentation of decorative 
ceramics of Tripolia and China" (edition of State Academy of History 
of Material Culture). 

Another interesting discovery is the presence of Cypraea moneta 
shells in the Minusin district (Eastern Siberia); they were often imi- 
tated in bronze. 

The journal "Soviet Archeology," where the above articles are in- 
cluded, will be sent to you immediately upon its publication. 

Your publications, and especially the bibliographic materials, are 
of great interest to us, and we will be greatly indebted to you if you 
can furnish them to us in exchange for publications of our Institute. 

In conclusion we express our regrets for the delay of this answer 
to your letter, caused by the fact that the Supervisor of the Archeo- 
logical Dept. was on an expedition, as a result of which we were un- 
able to make all the necessary inquiries. 

(signed) Director, academician 
V. V. Struve 

Learned Secretary 
S. M. Abramson. 



Lillian D. Hartman 

The Navajos have never been extensive weavers of cot- 
ton, but as soon as they obtained sheep the handling of the 
fleece and the spinning of wool became one of the principal 
occupations of the women. The implements and the weav- 
ing process look simple, but the setting up and stringing of 
the loom and the technique required to make a fine, smooth, 
firm rug are, in fact, intricate, demanding a skill only learned 
in childhood and with years of practice by a person of su- 
perior craft intelligence. 

The brilliant red of the Mexican Army uniforms was 
very attractive to the Indian women and was the cause of 
their inventing a new kind of blanket yarn Bayeta. These 
uniforms were unraveled and retwisted by the Indian women 
in order to make the yarn harder and finer and to gain 
greater richness of color. These were the finest rugs made 
by the Indian women. Only an expert dealer can distinguish 
these from the Bayetas which were later made from English 
and Spanish baize. James Wharton traces the history of 
these baizes. They were manufactured in England for the 
export to Spain, then exported to Mexico and brought by 
the Spaniards to New Mexico as an article of trade with the 

Sumac leaves and twigs, the flower of the goldenrod, 
roots of the dock weed, the ashes of the juniper twigs, the 
powdered bark of the black alder and the boiled roots of the 
mountain mahogany are used either singly or together for 
the desired colors. Aniline dyes which save much tedious 
labor produced terrible results in the hands of the untutored 
Indian women. The traders, unable to sell blankets made 
thus, have discouraged this practice. But, meanwhile the 
Navajo women, who had seen the bright stocking yarns and 
the Germantown zephyrs while in exile at Fort Sumner, 
began to use the Germantowns, thus saving themselves the 
labor of dyeing and spinning ; and producing a smoother and 
finer rug. Most of the women have refinements of their 

Life and Customs of the Navajo Women 101 

own as well as secrets that they never reveal. This accounts 
for the irregularities and the variety of color that one sees 
in their blankets. 

Contrary to the usual custom whereby the women weave 
the patterns for the rugs, in their heads, many of them copy 
from the framed sand-paintings, which are made by artists 
allowing colored sand to sift through their fingers in a most 
regular manner. The result is a composition of symbolical 
figures in the softest shades of black, blue, yellow, white, 
red, and pink on a pale tan background. The art, a beautiful 
and unusual one, is evanescent ; for this reason there is con- 
siderable interest on the part of the whites to preserve this 
transitory art. 

Information of the purpose and function of sand-paint- 
ings is very difficult to get, as the medicine-men are very 
reluctant to explain. But the primary purpose of a sand- 
painting is to summon the spirits of the gods. If a sick 
man dreams more than once about seeing a snake or a bear, 
he goes to a hatali and has him make a sand-painting of 
these deities and to pray to them for him. They sprinkle 
white corn meal over the pictures for the men and yellow 
meal for the women, as an offering, and beg the gods to 
forgive them and help. 

The spirits come down and look at the sand-painting to 
see if it is made right, and if so they are pleased and remain. 
If a mistake is made they are offended and go away, and 
the patient does not get well. When the perfect picture 
is finished, the patient is seated in the middle of it and the 
hatali invokes the spirits of the gods present to forgive 
the sick man and stop troubling him. Then he touches the 
feet of the deity in the painting with his eagle-plume wand 
and applies it to the feet of the patient, and so on up his 
body, wiping out each part in the picture as he goes. 

Then as the devils are driven out at the patient's mouth 
and he rises up and goes outside, the painting is gathered 
up hastily and taken east and poured carefully to the north. 
Removing the painting of the deities who have afflicted the 
sick man removes the sickness, and the cause of the sick- 
ness. That is why sand-paintings are made and destroyed. 
Under the watchful eye of the medicine-man the women 


are permitted to take part in the drawing of the sand- 

One of the most interesting ceremonies is the Kin-nahl- 
dah or womanhood ceremony. With the aid of the relatives 
and a medicine-man the young girl is dressed in her best 
clothing. The family jewelry is placed about her neck and 
her hair hanging loosely is tied in the middle with a sacred 
buckskin. Her mother puts her to work at the grinding 
stone, at which she grinds all the corn meal that is needed 
for the four day rite. While she is doing this her mother 
and other people give her orders, to bring in wood, or to 
fetch a goat or wait on someone. In this way she is taught 
to be energetic and helpful. Early in the morning she is 
asked to run as fast as she can North, South, East, and 
West, to make her a good runner. During these four days 
she may not eat any sweet things or anything with too much 
salt in it. She may not drink too much water, and she must 
not scratch herself. All these taboos are to help make her 
beautiful and industrious. The fourth morning her men 
relatives dig a large hole in front of the house and keep a 
fire in it. Toward the evening when the fire dies down to 
coals the women line the hole with corn husks. The young 
girl places a small quantity of mush in the center, this heart 
is later given to the medicine-man. Around the heart the 
rest of the mush is placed. She is then seated in the hogan 
in front of the door. All through the night the medicine- 
man sings the twelve hogan songs and the other singers 
chant lucky songs about the increase of horses, sheep, 
jewelry, and flexible goods. The young woman must remain 
awake all night to avoid bad luck. Early in the morning 
her mother brings her a ceremonial basket of water with a 
yucca root in it to wash her hair. At daylight she rushes 
out of the hogan to the east with the boys following her. 
But they let her win the race; if anyone went ahead of 
her he would become old before she did. Her mother has 
gathered as many blankets as she could and laid them on 
top of each other in front of the hogan. The girl then lies 
face down on the pile with her arms outstretched. Her 
mother has chosen a friendly and pleasant, married woman 
who is to mould and press her body. She presses her all 
over with the flat of her hands ; from her face to her feet. 

Life and Customs of the Navajo Women 103 

This is to make her beautiful and give her a nice disposition. 
Arising she throws the blankets one by one to the people 
who own them. The women then uncover the corn cake 
and she cuts out the heart to give to the medicine-man 
while the rest is distributed to the guest and singers. 

The hogan is the movable center of the life of the Navajo. 
By custom the hogan will be located on the range tradi- 
tionally occupied by the wife's clan. The word for home in 
the Navajo language is "Sih-Rahn," but their common 
phrase, "my Mother's Place," is quite as expressive. For 
the wife and the mother is the focus not only of the family 
but of the economic life as well. The matriarchal system, 
with the communal use of the Fand, as practiced by the 
Navajo, is an almost equilateral system; in which there is 
to speak, a veritical division of authority, duty and property, 
between husband and wife and between groups of clan rela- 
tives on either side. The married man belongs to his wife's 
place and if widowed or divorced returns to his mother's 
home. The single man belongs at his mother's home. He 
does not return to his father because he has no home except 
where his wife is. 

The Mother-in-law Taboo has its origin in the tale of an 
old Indian Woman who sought to enrich herself through 
the dowry paid to her by the husband of her daughter. She 
set herself to make trouble between the young people and it 
was not long before the young man returned to his own 
people. Five other courtships took place with the same 
results. When the son of the chief wanted to marry the 
girl his father desirous of his son's happiness warned ham 
that the mother would make trouble. Calling a council, all 
agreed that a Mother-in-law and a Son-in-law should not see 
each other. The men and women believed that if a Mother- 
in-law saw her Son-in-law she would go blind and he would 
fall ill and die. The conservative Navajo's belief in this 
taboo is still strong, while the more modern ones think it is 
too much trouble to be hiding behind blankets or trees if 
one of them sees the other coming. 

When the commercial buyers of sheep come through the 
country the women bring in their own lambs for sale and 
make their own bargains. Even though the husband's and 


the wife's and the children's sheep are herded together for 
convenience, the personal ownership of the band is kept 
clear by earmarks. 

With the establishment of Indian Courts on the reserva- 
tion, the agent now applies the white man's law. Conse- 
quently inheritance is just the opposite of the old tradition; 
on the wife's death the husband inherits the wife's property, 
and on the death of the husband the wife receives the hus- 
band's property. 

All the traditions agree in giving leadership to the men 
on the basis of prowess in war and personal influence at- 
tained by oratory. It seems probable that the Navajo 
woman is more influential now than in former times because 
her importance as the chief sheep-owner and the weaver of 
blankets by which she has for some time past supported 
the family. The Navajo man used to bring in the meat and 
furs, and as the defender of the family, had a superior posi- 
tion. He is no longer a hunter; often he cannot farm for 
the lack of arable land and water supply ; his horses are of 
small value and consume the feed that is needed for the 
sheep and goats. Nevertheless he is the head of the family, 
spokesman for them all, both among his tribe and in doing 
business with the government. The women are permitted 
to take the part of female impersonators in some of the 
dances, but no woman ever attains the position of a 
medicine-man. Women are almost exclusively the weavers 
but occasionally a medicine-man will pride himself on being 
a fine blanket maker. 

As the young men come back from the schools, where 
they and their school-girl wives have acquired many new 
ideas of family responsibility, these old time divisions are 
somewhat blurred, and the man, whenever he can earn 
money and acquire sheep or cattle or land for farming, takes 
a larger share than before in the support of the children 
and the divisions of the duties with his wife. 

At the local council meetings, which are well attended, 
as the Navajo like gatherings and news, each man and 
woman is dressed in his best. Temperature makes no dif- 
ference in Navajo styles. The women, no matter how high 
the thermometer may be, wear brilliantly patterned Pendle- 

Life and Customs of the Navajo Women 105 

ton blankets, soft and woolly, some with long fringes. The 
men, though their knees or elbows may be fringed with 
wear, never omit their four-gallon hats. The men and 
women wear all the whiteshell, abalone, and turquoise they 
can produce, either their own or borrowed from the stay-at- 
homes. The women wear blouses made of black velvet lined 
with red calico. These are also highly embroidered. The 
silver-coin buttons so widely worn are made by sinking a 
die face-up in a piece of iron and hammering dimes or quar- 
ters into it. The silver bracelets and belts show excellent 
workmanship. Turquoise is worn by both men and women, 
even though it may be only a small bead worn in the hair. 
The women's skirts, in checks or stripes, measure ten yards 
or more at the hems. The width of these skirts is very 
efficient in driving sheep. When lifted at the side they 
undulate in a determined way, catching the eye of the sheep 
and the whole flock goes forward. Also, when the wearer 
sits down they furnish protection from sand and prickers. 

The usual routine of the day for the women is chopping 
wood for the fires, making meals, sweeping out the hogan, 
and giving attention to the motherless lambs who need spe- 
cial care. If she has time to spare she will be found at her 
loom, or sitting out-of-doors with the herds in sight, carding 
wool or washing it for future dyeings. 

During the corn season the women make a corn confec- 
tion called "green corn macaroon." When the women husk 
the corn they lay aside the light green inner leaves, placing 
them aside so they do not accumulate sand or dirt. A thin 
batter is made of the milky kernels and a small amount is 
put on a curved corn husk. Another husk is placed on top 
of it, and held secure by lapping back the pointed tips. They 
are placed in a shallow hole ; sand is shoveled over them, and 
the hot coals distributed on top. After three hours, the 
husks come out golden brown in color and solid where they 
had been soft before. They are slightly sweet, and the 
flavor is between baked and parched corn. They are so com- 
pletely satisfying that after eating one you feel as though 
you do not need food for a day at least. They are stored 
away for the winter, when they are cracked up and boiled 
for a staple dish. 


Here is a description of the "Squaw Dance or War 
Dance." As night comes on, a small fire is lighted at the 
dancing ground, and while the horsemen gather around it, 
the chorus sings the traditional tribal songs. After that the 
singers can improvise at will, and they make up lots of jokes 
about the girls. The queen, holding aloft the sacred "Rattle 
Stick," carries it out and starts the "First Night Dance." 
Dressed in their best and laden with jewelry the debutants 
follow their "Queen." The girls choose a partner from the 
assembled crowd of young men and boys, by seizing his 
blanket or coat on the left side. An attempt to escape with- 
out dancing, and especially without paying for that honor, 
the customary forfeit being fifty cents or a dollar, will bring 
all the women to their aid. The crowd of married men, 
ineligibles, and mothers sitting on the blankets before the 
fire derive great amusement from watching the grabbing of 
partners, and the attempt to escape without paying too 

The Wedding or Basket Ceremony is as follows : After 
the gifts are agreed upon and a date set, the girl's people 
build near them a hogan for the young couple. The boy's 
family sit down on the north side of the new hogan and the 
girl's people on the south. The groom takes his place of 
honor, north of a line drawn from the door to the west side. 
Then the father of the girl brings her around the south side 
and seats her at the right of the groom. The girl pours 
water over the hands of her future husband while he washes 
them, and he pours water over her hands for the same pur- 
pose. A ceremonial basket with food in it is placed in front 
of the couple over which the father sprinkles yellow corn 
pollen; the pollen is for happiness. After the ceremonial 
sampling of the food in the basket the young couple invite 
the guests to partake of the meal. 

Although the Basket Ceremony is legal, many of the 
young women insist upon a civil ceremony to protect them 
from a Navajo divorce and prevent the husband from taking 
plural wives. If she desires a divorce, and was married by 
the civil ceremony, she must go to the county seat and 
engage a lawyer at great expense. But if married by the 
Indian ceremony, they can separate by mutual agreement 
of the parents. Among the Navajo neither men nor women 

Life ard Customs of the Navajo Women 107 

remain unmarried. In 1929 there was an excess of 1800 
females over males, and it may be that this tends to increase 
the number of plural wives. 

In the recent years old taboos and old marriage customs 
are fading away, just in proportion as the young Indians 
go to school, fall in love and marry, under the auspices of 
teachers rather than by family arrangement. 

The gulf between the primitive, pastoral Navajo living 
by the old traditions, and the young Navajos trained in 
Government and missionary schools, is enormous and hardly 
to be bridged in sixty years of contact with white civilization. 


Reichard, Gladys The Spider Woman 

Coolidge, Dane The Navajo Indians 

Coolidge, Mary Roberts The Navajo Indians 

Gillmore, Francis Traders to the Navajo 

Wetherill, Louisa Wade Traders to the Navajo 



Fain White King 

"Gold, Gold, Gold in the earth, lots of Gold, the earth 
is full of it," so exclaimed Earl Ferguson, a farmer living 
south of Columbus, Kentucky, when he uncovered the pre- 
historic wealth oif copper which had been buried hundreds 
of years ago, with an old man, in a small mound, overlook- 
ing the Mississippi River. 

His disgust was evident when he rushed to the nearby 
town, had one of the solid copper beads cut into pieces and 
tested, for gold nuggets, to find that, "The stuff was cop- 
per." He had uncovered the greatest find ever made in this 
Kentucky of prehistoric copper. 

When Wm. S. Webb, former teacher of physics, Univer- 
sity of Kentucky, came to Hickman County several years 
ago and paid Dennis Walker the unheard-of price of twenty 
dollars for one plain pottery water bottle, with a slight 
pointed protuberance on the top, to add to his personal col- 
lection, he caused much activity along this line. Walker has 
since "Dug" several hundred pieces which he now owns. 

The price paid for one piece of pottery soon became pub- 
lic in Hickman County, many of the able bodied men secured 
"probes" and went to work. Earl Ferguson saw a small 
mound on a ridge, probed into it and by the way the mound 
bottom was solid, he was sure there was something in it. 
He used his shovel and soon had a total of six hundred and 
nineteen solid copper beads, five solid copper axes, two spear 
points, flint arrow points and other stone tools uncovered. 
All of this find came from a small "hole" about three by 
four feet. 

We were advised of the copper, and at once Mrs. King 
and I made an investigation. Fortunate for Science and 
posterity, the disturbance had been slight. We at once made 
our plans to take our crew of men to the site. We made a 
survey, staked off the mound, in our usual five foot square 
method, which method we have employed for several years. 

Kentucky's Ancient Copper Hoard 


Fay W. King Collection 

The entire mound was excavated, two, additional flint points, 
an iron ore paint stone and several other objects excavated. 
An interesting charred woven fibrous strip eleven inches 
wide, eight feet seven inches long was found at the feet of 
the burial, and many other interesting facts that have been 
recorded in our scientific notes for the use of Science and 
the unborn generations. 



Dorothy Moulding Brown 

It was the belief of the old time Indians of Wisconsin 
that the waterfalls which occur in some of its streams were 
the creations of powerful spirit beings. Some falls were 
the dwelling places of spirits, the water forming a curtain 
to hide their secret medicine-making and incantations from 
the eyes of men. Nenibozho, hero-god of the Chippewa of 
the Old Northwest, constructed the waterfalls in Northern 
Wisconsin to prevent the beavers, upon whom he was wag- 
ing war, from obstructing the flow of some of the rivers. 

In the mythology of the Winnebago the waterfalls, like 
the springs, lakes, streams and rapids, were associated with 
the water-spirits. The knowledge of and the care of such 
places was within the province of their Water-spirit clan. 
"Water was one of the immaterial possessions of the Water- 
spirit people/' Water was sacred to them as it also was to 
the Wolf clan of this tribe. Tobacco and other offerings 
were made to these spirits at their dens or retreats. Ulysses 
S. White, a Winnebago, gives the Indian name for a water- 
fall as nee-ho-har-nee-la and says that falls were the homes 
of Water-spirits. John V. Satterlee, aged savant of the 
Menominee Indians, gives their name for a waterfall as 
nay-pay or pa-pay-nan-no. Rough rapids were named pak- 
qua-tick, meaning " where water falls." Falls were some- 
times spoken of as "talking waters," they were hallowed 
shrines, from the spirit "voices" in the falling water the 
Indian received inspiration and encouragement. The Chip- 
pewa name for a waterfall is ka-ka-bi-ka. Another name 
sometimes used in speaking of a waterfall is pangissin, 
meaning "it falls." In their home country in Northern Wis- 
consin are some of the most beautiful and interesting water- 
falls in the state. 

Indian fairy-folk, commonly spoken of as "Little In- 
dians," frequented the vicinity of waterfalls. The Chippewa 
name them as Munidogewazas, or "little manitou men." 
Sister M. Macaria, St. Marys School, Odanah, in a recent 

Myths and Legends of Wisconsin Waterfalls 111 

letter to Charles E. Brown (May 24, 1938) mentions these 
fairy-folk. "These little men roam about near bodies of 
water. Bad River Falls in the Bad River is one of their 
favorite haunts, Marble Point is another, and the Apostle 
Islands (Lake Superior) are one of their main "stomping 
grounds." They may be seen from a distance, but to ap- 
proach them is an impossibility. These little men give 
great power if dreamed about." An old Chippewa, traveling 
years ago over the trail from the Lac Court Oreille coun- 
try to Lake Superior, saw a gathering of these puckwidjinees 
near the base of a waterfall. They were dressed like Indians, 
apparently holding a council. He very wisely did not at- 
tempt to approach them. 

The Miami Indians, who in 1670-71 had a village on the 
Fox River near Portage, Wisconsin, had a legend, recorded 
by C. C. Trowbridge:* 

"Very many ages ago one of the Tshingwuzau, Young 
Thunder or son of the Thunder, went to the falls of Niagara 
for the purpose of destroying the Munetoo that reigns in 
that tremendous work of nature, but after a very long and 
severe conflict he was overpowered, made prisoner, and re- 
mains there to this day." His brothers, ten in number, 
armed with war clubs set out to rescue the captive Thunder 
Spirit. They were half birds, half men. They came upon 
a Miami hunter. Him they transformed into a shape similar 
to their own and he accompanied them. Arriving at the 
waterfall they attacked the Monetoo, an immense horned 
black serpent, at the entrance of his cave, but the blows of 
their war clubs had little or no effect on him. The Miami 
hunter then tried his club on the monster and killed him. 
The great noise of the water, caused by the death struggle 
of the monster, caused him to be carried for a great distance 
where he fell to the earth unconscious. The Thunders re- 
vived the fallen Indian. They removed the head and horns 
of the monster and went away. They searched in vain for 
their prisoner brother. They thanked the Miami for his 
assistance and changed him to his former shape. He re- 
turned to his village where he told of his adventure and was 
ever after esteemed as a great warrior. 

*Meearmeer Traditions, Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, 1938, 
pp. 72-73. 


Wisconsin Waterfalls 

Such myths, legends and stories as it has been possible 
to obtain from Indians and other sources about the many 
beautiful waterfalls in Wisconsin are interesting and de- 
serve to be recorded for the use of students of Wisconsin 
Indian folklore and folk ways. 

Big and Little Manitou Falls. These waterfalls are 
located in Pattison State Park 12 miles south of the City of 
Superior in Douglas County. "The Black River at this point, 
flowing northward to Lake Superior, breaks over the trap 
rock ledge in a series of two falls, the first or Little Manitou 
Falls, about 30 feet in height, the second, Big Manitou Falls, 
plunging into a mountain gorge with a sheer drop of 165 
feet. This beautiful park was the gift to the State of Mr. 
Martin H. Pattison, a former member of The Wisconsin 
Archeological Society. This largest and most beautiful 
waterfall in Wisconsin is dedicated to the Great Spirit, 
Gitchee Manido, and was, according to the Chippewa In- 
dians, one of his greatest creations. "Out of its thundering 
waters," writes Fred L. Holmes,* came the voices which 
held Indians in superstitious awe. No altar of Nature could 
have a more artful setting to inspire its visitors with venera- 
tion. Against such natural wonders the early missionaries 
among the Indians had to contend." 

"Waters of the Black River, approaching the falls, seem 
to sense the compelling mystery of the fearful plunge and 
hurry faster as each step of the precipice is neared. On the 
crest of the brink the waters roll and toss, but momentarily 
are transformed into a white spray that turns more vapor- 
ous down the glide. The receiving basin seethes and foams 
like a boiling cauldron. The gorge below is very narrow for 
a short distance and the walls are twisted forms indicating 
volcanic origin."* 

In this foaming cataract several spirits lived. Some- 
times, say the Indians, one could hear their voices or their 
war songs above the roar of the Falls of the Great Spirit. 

Alluring Wisconsin. 

Myths and Legends of Wisconsin Waterfalls 113 

Woe to those who in years past paid no heed to the warnings 
or commands of these spirit voices. The "Little People," 
puckwidjinees, have also been seen near this waterfall. 

Little Manitou Falls. A mile of winding Black River 
separates Little Manitou from Big Manitou Falls. Interfalls 
Lake, a fine body of water surrounded with a forest of white 
and Norway pine, lies between them. Several fine rapids 
are in the stream below the lake and between its inlet and 
Little Manitou Falls. Big Manitou falls over the rocks in 
a very long sheet of white water, Little Manitou is separated 
into two sheets of tumbling water by a great rock surface 
between. The Little Manitou, like its sister falls, is also 
sacred to the Great Spirit. In its vicinity the Chippewa 
deity Nenibozho (Winneboujou) sometimes rested when on 
his hunting expeditions. Because of his custom of resting 
here, the two parts of this 35 foot fall are sometimes re- 
ferred to as the "blankets of Nenibozho." 

Copper Falls. This waterfall located in Copper Falls 
State Park is described and illustrated in a recent folder 
issued by the Wisconsin Conservation Commission. "Four 
miles from the city of Mellen in Ashland County is located 
an area containing one of the most remarkable series of 
cascades, waterfalls and gorge scenery in the Lake States 
Region. For years Copper Falls has been known as a recre- 
ational place. 

The Bad River, rising on the divide between the Missis- 
sippi and St. Lawrence watersheds, flows north into Lake 
Superior. At the point where this stream breaks over the 
Kee-wee-newan trap ledge occurs this series of waterfalls. 
Here the river plunges into a most scenic gorge, only to be 
joined a short way down by the sheer plunge of waters from 
Tylers Fork, flowing into the Bad River from the east. The 
principal falls on the Bad River, because of the copper col- 
ored rocks which flank it, has long been known as Copper 
Falls ; the spring fed falls and cascades on Tylers Fork are 
known as Brownstone Falls. The river has carved its way 
through the solid wall to form a last bit of rocky grandeur 
before it flows out into the more gently sloping plains be- 
low." Copper Falls is 40 feet and Brownstone Falls 30 feet 


high. The waters of the Bad River are of a deep coppery 

Copper Falls has been a resort of Indian people for at 
least several centuries. Indian arrow points and pieces of 
worked native copper are reported to have been found on 
camp sites in its vicinity. The Indians have a legend that 
the color of the stream and of both waterfalls is due to the 
blood of warriors who fell in an early conflict between the 
Dakota and the invading Chippewa. It does not explain how 
the stream could have retained its color for at least three 
hundred years. Here, according to another Indian belief, 
was one of the sources of the copper which Nenibozho (Win- 
neboujou), the giant mythical blacksmith, used in his forg- 
ing of implements for his red children. 

A little story of Brownstone or Tyler Falls is that an 
Indian girl, Nessobagak (Clover), was seen by a windigo 
(giant). He wished to possess the maiden. One day he 
pursued her through the forest. She fled before him until 
she could travel no more. Seeking a hiding place she went 
behind the waters of this fall. There he could not smell her 
or reach her and she escaped. The fall was called by her 

Amnicon Falls. "One of the most beautiful spots in Wis- 
consin is Amnicon Falls in James Bardon Park, fourteen 
miles south of Superior, where the Amnicon River spills a 
silvery cascade down the stairsteps it has carved in living 
stone" (Milwaukee Journal). The Amnicon, a narrow rib- 
bon of white water at this place, follows a rather tortuous 
course over the pitted rock, then falling over a low rock wall 
to a lower level. Pine trees and a pine forest are here. 

The name Amnicon is derived from the Chippewa word 
aminikan, meaning spawning ground. This stream was one 
of those up which Amik, the spirit beaver, tried to escape to 
avoid the culture hero, Nenibozho (Winneboujou). When 
prevented from ascending the Brule River Amik tried the 

Fred L. Holmes has written of this waterfall, "The vol- 
ume of water is small but the sight of the white mist of 
many hues above a channel of immutable rocks pleases the 
eye and stirs the imagination." 

Myths and Legends of Wisconsin Waterfalls 115 

Davis Falls. This waterfall is in the Pike River near 
Amberg in Marinette County. It is a turbulent cascade with 
rock surroundings that are very rugged and picturesque. 
The Pike River (Kinoje) is a tributary of the Menominee 
River and flows in a southeasterly direction to reach that 
Wisconsin-Michigan boundary stream. West of Amberg it 
forks, these forks having sources in the northwestern cor- 
ner of Marinette County. 

The late Potawatomi chief, Simon Kahquados, furnished 
this legend about Davis Falls. An Ottawa Indian hunter 
once found himself on the banks of the Kinoje. He had 
wandered far in his hunting and the close of the day was 
approaching. He was very tired from his walking in the 
brush. He knew that he was a long way from his camp and 
he believed himself lost. He sat down on the rocks near the 
river bank. He had not rested long when he heard a voice 
speaking to him. It came from the waterfall. It was a 
friendly manido addressing him and giving him directions 
where to go to reach his home and friends. When he had 
rested he took the advice of this water-spirit and found a 
forest trail by means of which he returned safely to his 
home. The manido was Kinoje the Pike, a water deity. 

Potato River Falls. This attractive waterfall is located at 
Gurney on the Potato River, in Iron County. This is a more 
or less fan-shaped or spreading fall, the water flowing over 
a terraced rock incline. In midsummer this scenic wonder 
is at its greatest beauty. The water is thin and veil-like and 
the rockwork setting makes the scene a very impressive 
one. A Chippewa Indian gave this little legend of Potato 
Falls. Nenibozho was hungry after a long tramp. He called 
upon the trout in the stream to provide him with food. They 
turned a deaf ear to him and would not respond. Nenibozho 
became angry. He wove a net of bark fibre which he 
weighted with stones and spread over these rocks in the 
hope that he might catch some of these inhospitable fish. 
But the wily trout pouring down the stream in large num- 
bers soon tore his net to shreds. All escaped and the hero- 
god went hungry. The waterfall is the remnants of Neni- 
bozho's seine. 


Hardscrabble Falls. This attractive waterfall tumbles 
down a rocky incline in the wild and rugged hardscrabble 
area of Barron and Rusk Counties in northwestern Wiscon- 
sin. It is the least known of our falls. This region has been 
proposed for preservation as a state park. "Besides swift 
running streams and unusual rock formations, there are 
many acres of virgin maple forest, with an unspoiled floor 
covered with wild flowers and ferns." In past years Indian 
fairy folk or "Little Indians" have been seen by Chippewa 
Indians near this waterfall. It has been said that these 
dwarf aborigines were the first to discover and make use 
of the red pipestone found at various places in the Barron 
quartzite range and that from them the Chippewa people 
learned of the quarry locations. In some of these places 
Indian hunters have heard the noise made by their stone 
hammers when parties of these little folk were engaged in 
quarrying the stone for pipe and ornament making. 

Rock Falls. Off Highway 141 (the route from Manito- 
woc to Green Bay) near Maribel in the northwestern corner 
of Manitowoc County are the Rock Falls of Devils River. 
These are low but beautiful falls, the water flowing in a 
cascade over terraces of limestone strata. Some of the rock 
has cracked into blocks. Pretty pools are below the cascade. 
The singing water, the stone terraces and the growth of 
birch and other trees on the river bank make this a Wis- 
consin beauty spot well worth visiting. Devils River, or 
Spirit River, the former Potawatomi residents of this region 
remember as the scene of some of the exploits of Wisaka. 
This fall he constructed and here he planned and dreamed 
of an undertaking that would benefit his Indian children. 
His singing is heard in the water to this day. 

Waterfalls of the Wolf River 

Bear Trap Falls. This interesting small waterfall is lo- 
cated a short distance north of Keshena on the West Branch 
of the Wolf River on the Menominee Indian Reservation. 
A description of this fall was written by Charles E. Brown 
after he visited this locality August 27. 1928. "At this 
pretty spot, now a tourist picnic ground, a clear spring fed 

Myths and Legends of Wisconsin Waterfalls 117 

stream flows over a low wall of red granite rock which is six 
or seven feet high. The locality in the forest is very attrac- 
tive. The stream at the falls is narrowed by the rock out- 
crop which extends out from the shore to a width of only 
about 25 feet. The water in tumbling over the rock wall 
outlines in white water the quite perfect form of a white 
bear having a length of about 12 feet. This image can be 
seen at all times of the day but shows best at dusk or in the 
early morning. 

"Naturally there is an Indian legend to explain the pres- 
ence of this likeness of bruin in the waterfall. According 
to the Menominee, a big bear in approaching this spot saw 
an Indian fishing in the stream below. Not wishing to be 
seen by him he entered an opening in the rock wall of the 
waterfall. After going into this opening for a short distance 
he was unable to proceed farther or to retreat and was im- 
prisoned there. The Indian in going to the. fall saw the form 
of the "spirit bear" outlined in the white water. The rock 
wall at the falls gives forth a hollow sound. This to the In- 
dians appears to confirm the impression that there is a cave 
there. One old Indian informed us that if one wishes suc- 
cess in fishing in this stream it is well to at first make a 
tobacco offering to the spirit bear of Bear Trap Falls." 

Rainbow Falls. Of the several interesting waterfalls 
along the course of the turbulent Wolf River on the Menom- 
inee Indian Reservation, Rainbow Falls is generally conceded 
to be the most beautiful. Phebe Jewell Nichols has given 
a brief description of this fall in a recent booklet. "Rainbow 
Falls is one of the Great Spirit's Talking Waters. It is about 
three miles south of the village of Neopit. To see to best 
advantage the famous scintillations, rainbow-like because 
of the rock formations under the falls and the peculiar 
light-and-shadow producing environment of dense evergreen 
forest, walk down the curving thickly treed shoreline as far 
as possible and look up and back to the magnificent waters, 
tossing their prismatic spray down into the foaming eddies, 
spreading out and flowing on around immense rocks, mossy 
logs, ancient rock-rooted trees with a sort of ageless potency 
and serenity, you will feel unmistakably in the presence of 
majesty. Perhaps you will sense the mystery which only the 


forest knows . You may think of how, before the white 
man came, Indians sought this waterfall, beat their resonant 
prayer drums, meditated, listened for the Voice, and went 
away the better for the soul-sinewing moments in this 

Big Eddy Falls. Mrs. Nichols has also given a good de- 
scription of this Wolf River waterfall and of the Menominee 
Indian belief concerning it. This is quoted in part. "Huge 
granite rocks border the falls, lie in flat emergence at the 
edge of the shores and rise in the midst of the powerful 
water or jut out over it. You may walk out upon these rocks 
and stand in the very center of the wonder, and magic and 
music which is the charm of Big Eddy. Everywhere is the 
great voice of the falls, of a deep sonority, over-toned with 
the lyric delicacy of the splashing foam which fades away 
into the faint rippling of the eddies. 

"In sharp contrast to the immense ageless boulders and 
the mighty vociferous waters is the wide and gentle green- 
sward which stretches from the neighboring wooded slopes 
to the bank above the falls. Smooth and lawn-like it wears 
the expression of a specially 'prepared place/ The Indians 
will tell you about the greensward on moonlight nights. 
They will tell you that there the spirits of joyous children 
come to dance and play when the moon is high, that they 
scamper on the cool grass and flit out onto the rocks, dip 
their dainty feet into the spray, and laugh and sing. There 
are Indians who will tell you they have seen them. And 
many will tell you they have heard their tinkling voices." 

Sullivan Falls. Near this Wolf River waterfall a Menom- 
inee Indian hunter one night saw "fireballs" floating about in 
the darkness. Regarding them as evil things he left the 
locality as quickly as he could. One followed him for some 
distance into the forest but did him no harm. 

Smoky Falls. Mr. Holmes gives a brief description of 
this waterfall. "Smoky Falls is a little Niagara a lovely 
place to stop for an hour or more. The green waters are 
tossed into a mist which the sun changes into rainbows." 

*Tales From An Indian Lodge. 

Myths and Legends of Wisconsin Waterfalls 119 

To this place, according to a Menominee Indian belief, the 
hero-god Manabus in old times often came to smoke his 
great pipe. From this legend the waterfall takes its name. 
Sometimes a flock of ducks would fly from the bowl of the 
pipe. An Indian who chanced to observe this one day put 
the pipestem in his own mouth but only troublesome mos- 
quitoes emerged from the bowl. They were so voracious that 
they nearly caused his death before he escaped from them. 

Keshena Falls. This low but attractive waterfall of the 
Wolf River is at the Keshena entrance to the Menominee 
Reservation. A monster black hairy snake once lived in the 
deep water of the river below this fall. One day an Indian 
girl went to get some water from the stream. When she 
dipped her bark bucket in the water she was seized by this 
water monster and carried away to his den. Her father 
learned of her kidnapping by this demon and went to an 
Indian shaman for help. This man provided him with a 
powerful medicine which enabled him to go beneath the 
water and rescue his daughter from the den where she was 
imprisoned. She was unhurt and her parents and relatives 
rejoiced at her safe delivery. This legend was told to 
Charles E. Brown years ago by the late Reginald Oshkosh, 
who then had a refreshment and souvenir booth near the 

The Indian village of Keshena and this waterfall take 
their name from Keshi' ne (Josette), who was born about 
1830 and succeeded Shu' nien ("Silver") as chief of the Me- 
nominee. The name Keshi' ne signifies "the swift-flying," and 
originated in a dream of his father, who, in a vision, thought 
he saw the air filled with eagles and hawks. These were 
representations of the Thunder phatry and were flying swift- 
ly by.* 

Another story of Keshena Falls was collected by Alanson 
Skinner and John V. Satterlee. 

"Old Campau, when a boy, fasted to see what the gods 
had in store for him. He lived with his parents on a side 
hill opposite Keshena Falls (Kakap' akato), and there he 
fasted for eight days. On the eighth night, the sacred under- 

*14 Ann. Kept. Am. Bureau of Ethnology, pt., 1, p. 


neath monsters who live under the center of the falls ap- 
peared to him and their chief spoke to him, 'Look yonder 
and you will see your reward for fasting.' 

"It seemed to the youth that he could see the whole earth 
lying clear before him and he bent his steps to the rock the 
monster indicated, walking over the ice. When he arrived he 
found the sacred kettle which looked as bright as a coal of 
fire, but the appearance of the kettle has changed since then. 
It is a bear kettle from the god beneath, which he feeds 
from when a sacrifice is made to the powers below. 

"On the ninth day of the fast, the god told Campau, who 
was then very hungry, to go a short distance and there he 
would find what the gods had granted him. He obeyed, and 
at the spot he found and killed a large bear and made sacri- 
fice and then called his companion and ate the flesh. The 
sacred kettle was hidden at first as it was too great and 
sacred to be shown about. 

"When the faster was asleep, he heard the chief of the 
powers below singing to him and he received instructions 
concerning his duties toward the powers. He had to fill the 
kettle with whiskey to sacrifice to them. In the spring, when 
the maple sugar was first made, he had to fill it with sugar, 
for the underneath bears like sweets as much as those on 
earth. When the offerings were ready he had to call his 
friends and give a feast in honor of his guardians and at 
this feast he would sing : 

'All of the chiefs (of the powers below) 
Have given me to know.' 

"Spring sacrifices are still made in the kettle by descend- 
ants of the original owner."* 

"In swamp-holes, lakes and rivers, under waterfalls, and 
in lonely hills may be found stray horned snakes, bears, 
panthers, and, in modern times, dogs, hogs and horses. "J 

*Anthrop. Papers, Am. Mus. of Nat. Hist., V. XIII, p. 486. 
^Material Culture of the Menomini, p. 53. 

Historic American Buildings Survey 121 


Alexander C. Guth 

The releasing of another group of initials in the daily 
press hardly causes a ripple amongst the rank and file of 
newspaper readers, but those of the more inquisitive turn 
of mind will find something here worth while investigating 
further. And so we find HOLC, AAA and HABS rather 
an intriguing display of letters. With the former, we will 
not concern ourselves. But not so with HABS. These letters 
stand for Historic American Buildings Survey. It is a nation- 
wide project, sponsored by the Department of Interior at 
Washington. Perhaps right here a word from Secretary 
Ickes will help clarify matters a bit. Here is his statement : 

"The Historic American Buildings Survey is an im- 
portant step forward in the conservation of our national 
historic resources. The type of shelter devised by mankind 
in every age and climate is an expression of the life of the 
people. In the United States, the adobe hut, the cliff dwell- 
ing of the agricultural Indian, the tepee of the nomad, the 
log cabin of the pioneer, the cottage, the farmhouse in the 
country, the city dwelling, each expresses eloquently the 
culture and mode of life of the original tenant or owner. 

"The churches and missions of the Franciscans and 
Jesuits of the South and West, the churches of the Russians 
in Alaska, the meeting houses of the Puritans in the East 
and Middle West, the colleges, hospitals, mills, warehouses, 
shops and other buildings of use in the community all belong 
to a chapter of the Nation's history. Unfortunately, a large 
part of our early American architecture has disappeared. 
It is inevitable that the majority of structures will at some 
time outlive their ultimate usefulness. And it admittedly 
is impracticable to preserve all buildings or sites associated 
with events of incontestable historic importance. 

"It is possible, however, to record in a graphic manner 
and by photography, before it is too late, the exact ap- 


pearance of these buildings and their surroundings. This 
is the purpose of the Historic American Buildings Survey. 

"The buildings considered have been selected for measur- 
ing and photographing in the approximate order of their 
historic and architectural importance in their districts. The 
record is made as a form of insurance against loss of data 
through future destruction, and also as a contribution to the 
study of historic architecture." 

And so we all lined up in mass formation behind Presi- 
dent Roosevelt's pet idea of giving 1000 architects some- 
thing to do. Modernists, secessionists, plagiarists, were all 
represented in this motley crowd and for once they all laid 
down their cudgels. All was peace and harmony. 

When it was announced by the press that Uncle Samuel 
would head up a project for the measuring and recording 
of the old and historic structures of the country there was 
joy in the heart of many an architect. For years practically 
every architect had dreamt of the day when he might devote 
some of his "surplus time and energy" to the measuring up 
of an old structure to which he rather took a fancy. He 
was keen about making a set of measured drawings of it 
to place in his archives so that he might mull over them 
when so moved by the muses. But alas, and alack, it seemed 
this time would never come. But when Uncle Samuel said 
he was going to do this, everyone knew the project would 
go through with alacrity, and so it has. The work of 
measuring up and recording structures in the Historical 
American Buildings Survey has progressed now to the point 
of completion. It has indeed been a varied and worth-while 
experience, for the architects and draftsmen who partici- 
pated in it. Many of these individuals never before made 
a measured drawing, obtained a profile of a moulding in 
the field, or did any investigating. These activities were 
new and strange to them. It is to be recorded that all of 
them received a lot of benefit out of the survey, profiting 
by the contact with old work and receiving much inspira- 
tion for their work in the future. 

There was nothing mysterious or mythical about the 
work. The men were recruited from the unemployed ranks 

Historic American Buildings Survey 123 

of a profession in extreme need of employment. These 
architects and draftsmen were divided into groups or squads 
headed up by a leader who himself participated in the work 
of measuring and drawing. The assigned building was at- 
tacked most systematically. The entire exterior was accu- 
rately measured up including all details, profiles and every- 
thing else of interest. While this was going on, the interior 
was worked up in a similar manner. Ultimately, a com- 
plete set of drawings one is almost compelled to say work- 
ing plans was made of the entire structure. So much so, 
that should a building now be destroyed, it could easily be 
reproduced from these drawings. No restoration was at- 
tempted. If, in a Greek Revival structure, a Mid- Victorian 
fireplace was later added, both were measured up as if they 
were better bed fellows than they are. 

Many and varied were the experiences gained in the field. 
As a rule people were very courteous and helpful. They 
got into the spirit of the work splendidly. In many cases 
the tenants of the houses measured put themselves out 
at length to dig up data and historical facts. Of course, it 
is recollected that now and then a door would be slammed 
in our faces, but this was completely forgotten when a dear 
old lady invited the squad to dinner. Many a bottle of wine 
was brought into play to help ease up a long cold morning. 
So it should be realized that the innermost man did not 
suffer in this survey. 

Reminiscing further, the day is recalled when the local 
fire department was called out to set up its extension ladders 
so that the cupola of the village church might be more con- 
veniently measured. The day is also remembered when the 
boys came out of the basement of an old inn with eyes pop- 
ping out of their heads. They had found that the old struc- 
ture was framed with black walnut timbers bearing the 
marks of the adze. And when the plaster tumbled down 
on the heads of a squad on another project and revealed 
the twigs or branches of trees interlaced and interwoven 
to form a base for the plaster there was real joy in the 
camp. It was a commonplace day if handmade nails, wood 
pegged construction, handmade mouldings, and other an- 
cient attributes did not project themselves into the picture. 


The discovery of a spring dance floor was an event. Its 
independent construction so the rest of the building would 
not "spring," bore much investigating and resulted in many 
drawings. This terpsichorean freak of another day was 
indeed a novelty. 

Another rare innovation was a huge vault on which a 
house was built. Apparently the ground was shaped in the 
form of a semi-circular mound. With this as a form a stone 
vault was constructed. The earth was then excavated from 
beneath the vault. This resulted in a basement. On this 
the walls of the house in turn were erected. What a novelty ! 

While investigating a wood siding house, a peep was 
taken at the construction thereof. Here was a real dis- 
covery. It was found to be a solid brick house overcoated 
with siding. The brick burned on the site had proved to be 
too soft. It would not withstand the ravages of the elements 
and so, to keep the walls from crumbling or washing away, 
boarding was placed over the entire outside of the house. 

It is recalled that in one locality a log house was located. 
This had a trap door in the floor which led to a tunnel. 
This tunnel was about 100 feet in length and widened out 
considerably at its ending. At this latter place was dis- 
covered, when the tunnel was first explored in the 90's, a 
group of 5 human skeletons in seated and reclining posi- 
tions. Further investigation revealed the fact that the 
owner of this log house was a great abolitionist. He was 
part of that great underground railroad which harbored so 
many slaves in the north during the days of the rebellion. 
So it is surmised that these human skeletons were those of 
slaves who had been harbored and then completely for- 
gotten in this underground cell. 

One good minister had to be sold on the project. He 
was most wary and wholly unresponsive. A seemingly end- 
less discussion took place. The president of his board of 
trustees even warned him to be wary of those smart young 
architects. It developed later that this minister was con- 
cerned because he believed that we (the architects) were 
withholding something from him. Possibly we had a book 
to sell or would solicit his constituency after he had con- 

Historic American Buildings Survey 125 

sented to the measuring of his church. It was a laughable 

In the city of Ripon is a representative old type struc- 
ture which was included in this survey. It is the Republican 
School House which marks the birthplace of the political 
party of that name. It is a small type structure, one story 
in height and rather modest in its way. It is typical of 
the best traditions of the early colonial work found in the 
eastern seaboard states. This is a real heritage of the past 
and the people of Ripon are to be commended for preserv- 
ing it. 

The groups were encouraged to use their cameras and 
many a beautiful picture was procured which was eventually 
enlarged to the required 5x7" size. 

Then, the gathering of the historical data presented 
another angle. Files were pored over in historical society 
headquarters, old citizens were interviewed and many a clue 
was run down which often proved to be based on mere 

Working with the organization was an advisory group. 
The members of this were appointed by the local chapter 
of the American Institute of Architects. Included were 
curators of historical societies and historians, as well as 
architects who had a special interest in this work. These 
individuals were of material assistance in guiding the policy 
of the survey. 

The structures included in this survey were those which 
were erected prior to the Civil War period. What happened 
after that or during the darkest days of the American art 
and architecture was of little consequence. The bulk of the 
material was gathered from the waning days of the Colonial 
period, through the post Colonial and the Greek Revival 
periods. Structures of every type and kind were also in- 
cluded, such as mills, covered bridges, churches of wood, 
stone and brick, and, quite naturally, houses constructed of 
all types of materials. 

It is of interest to record that all the material gathered 
in the survey has been or will be sent to the Congressional 
Library at Washington. Here it will be properly catalogued 


and placed in such order that it may be available at all times 
to any inquisitive soul. Those interested, whether indi- 
viduals or educational institutions, may procure at a nominal 
sum, copies of the photographs of the historical articles or 
prints from the drawings. Thus this great educational 
movement is made available to posterity. 

Archeological Notes 127 



April 18, 1938. President Buttles in the chair. The Auditing Com- 
mittee presented its report. A resolution offered by Mr. Louis Pierron 
requesting the Milwaukee County Board of Supervisors to create an 
outdoor museum in the Upper Milwaukee River region was approved. 
Mr. Erwin Burg, Mrs. Mary Juneau, Milwaukee, and Mr. Harry Han- 
cock, Jr., Shullsburg, were elected annual members of the Society. 
The program for the Central Section, American Anthropological As- 
sociation, and Society For American Archaeology meeting was an- 
nounced. Mrs. R. B. Hartman gave a talk on "The Life and Customs 
of the Navajo Women." She exhibited a number of blankets and rugs 
made by this tribe. At the close of the meeting exhibits were made 
by Paul Scholz, Charles G. Schoewe and Francis Kettewsky. 

May 16, 1938. This meeting was held in the Trustee Room. Mil- 
waukee Public Museum. Dr. L. S. Buttles, president, conducted the 
meeting. Mr. Walter Bubbert gave an interesting talk on "Marking 
Indian Trails in Milwaukee County." Mr. Frederic Heath and Mr. 
Louis Pierron assisted in the discussion of this valuable educational 
undertaking. Mr. W. C. McKern presented a report on the program 
of the recent joint meeting of the Central Section, and Society For 
American Archaeology. 

At the Directors' meeting, held at the Aberdeen Hotel earlier in 
the evening, Mrs. Robert E. Friend, Milwaukee, and Rev. Peter John- 
son, St. Francis, were elected members of the Society. Resolutions 
adopted by the city council of Lake Mills favoring the creation of a 
national park at Aztalan were read. These were approved and given 
to Dr. S. A. Barrett for his consideration. Secretary Brown announced 
that a WPA crew were engaged in repairing the Heim Effigy Mound 
located near Pheasant Branch at Madison. During the summer this 
work crew will also repair other mounds located in Vilas, Hudson, 
Elmside and Olbricht city parks at Madison. Members were asked to 
assist in the archeological surveys and researches to be conducted 
during the summer months. 

The annual Joint Meeting of The Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, 
Arts and Letters, The Wisconsin Archeological Society, and the Wis- 
consin Museums conference was held at Ripon College, Ripon, on Fri- 
day and Saturday, April 8th and 9th. The archeologists, historians and 
museists presented their papers in one program. Those participating 
were W. E. Hazeltine, Geo. L. Pasco, S. M. Pedrick, Ripon; Nile G. 
Behncke, R. N. Buckstaff, A. P. Kannenberg and Geo. E. Overton, 
Oshkosh; Dorothy M. Brown, C. E. Brown and A. O. Barton, Madison; 
Zida C. Ivey, Fort Atkinson; W. E. Dickenson, Kenosha; Albert H. 
Griffith, Fisk; Gregg Montgomery, Waunakee, and John G. Gregory, 
Alexander C. Guth and Robert B. Hartman, Milwaukee. All furnished 
very interesting papers. Secretary Charles E. Brown presided at the 
Archeological-Museum Section meetings. The Academy meeting was 
held in another hall. Both meetings were well attended. The annual 
dinner of the Joint Meeting was held at the College dining room on 
Friday evening. On Friday afternoon a reception was tendered the 
members of the societies in the Faculty Club Room, Lane Library. 

The Central Section, American Anthropological Association and 
The Society For American Archeology held a joint meeting at the Mil- 


waukee Public Museum on Friday and Saturday, May 13th and 14th. 
The Wisconsin Archeological Society and the Museum staff acted as 
hosts to the visiting anthropologists. Forty very interesting papers 
were presented at the morning and afternoon meetings. Members of 
The Wisconsin Archeological Society who presented papers were Earl 
H. Bell, Charles R. Keyes, Charles E. Brown, and W. C. McKern. Dr. 
S. A. Barrett gave an illustrated lecture on Friday evening on "Maya 
Ruins and Restoration Work Conducted by the Carnegie Institution 
of Washington." Dr. A. L. Kroeber, of the University of California, 
was the speaker at the banquet held at Hotel Schroeder. Many mem- 
bers of The Wisconsin Archeological Society attended the meetings. 


The Wisconsin Archeological Society is repairing the Heim effigy 
mound and improving the land in the surrounding small park located 
on the Madison-Middleton road near Pheasant Branch. If possible, a 
tablet will be erected at this mound in the late summer or autumn. 

The County Board of Supervisors of Jefferson County has approved 
the resolution of the Lake Mills city council favoring the establish- 
ment of a Federal Park at Aztalan. Mr. Victor S. Taylor, city clerk 
of Lake Mills, deserves credit for reviving this important project, also 
urged by The Wisconsin Archeological Society, to purchase this land 
and restore this great prehistoric walled city. 

The Wisconsin Archeological Society has adopted a resolution pre- 
sented by Mr. Louis Pierron asking the Milwaukee County Board of 
Supervisors to create an "outdoor museum" in the Upper Milwaukee 
River Region north of the City of Milwaukee. This would include the 
Teller Mound Group, a mound, planting ground and site in Kletzsch 
Park and other Indian landmarks in that vicinity. 

The purchase of a farm on the north shore of Jordan Lake, Adams 
County, by the Kraft-Phenix Cheese Corporation for a recreation 
ground for its Wisconsin and Illinois employees will, we trust, be the 
means of preserving a group of a bird effigy and other mounds located 

Members of The Wisconsin Archeological Society have been asked 
to assist in a preliminary archeological survey of the region to be in- 
cluded in the projected Kettle Moraine State Park. The Society will 
be grateful to those of its Milwaukee, Sheboygan, Waukesha, Fond du 
Lac, Manitowoc and other members if they will visit this region as 
often as possible during the summer and gather all possible informa- 
tion concerning its mounds, sites, burial places, and other archeological 
features. Local collections should be studied. Information is particu- 
larly desired from Washington, Waukesha, Sheboygan and Fond du 
Lac counties. Copies of field notes should be sent to Secretary Brown 
for record and future report. 


A series of finely illustrated folders, descriptive of the scenic 
beauties and historic landmarks in the various state parks, are avail- 
able to Wisconsin citizens and tourist visitors through the Wisconsin 
Conservation Commission at Madison. It is worthy of note that groups 
of Indian mounds are preserved in Devils Lake, Wyalusing, Merrick, 
Perrot and Nelson Dewey Homestead state parks. Archeologists visit- 
ing these parks should make a point of seeing these mounds. 

Archeological Notes 129 

August Derleth, of Sauk City, a member of The Wisconsin Arche- 
ological Society, has added greatly to his fame as a writer by the pub- 
lication of a new historical novel bearing the title "Wind over Wiscon- 
sin," and printed by Charles Scribner's Sons. This book, the theme 
of which is the Black Hawk war of 1832, has received high praise 
from literary critics. "For a young man he was born in 1909 Mr. 
Derleth has written a good deal. Poetry and fiction flow easily from 
his facile typewriter, and so do historical novels, a field that he culti- 
vates in the spirit of Copper and Scott. Not for him is the realism and 
surrealism of a hard-boiled age; he sees the Wisconsin of bygone days 
with the eyes of romance." His story of this conflict is "dressed in 
the soft, sentimental coloring of prose poetry." His book "will stand 
as a monument to Wisconsin by Wisconsin's young and prolific writer." 

The Wisconsin Folklore Society has sponsored the publication of 
a booklet, "Flower Lore and Legends," for the interest and use of the 
flower lover. In it are recorded the interesting myths, legends and 
stories, etc., of many of our common garden flowers. Many interest- 
ing facts and fancies about garden flowers, now almost forgotten, are 
recorded in this attractive booklet. CosfrSO cents. Copies may be ob- 
tained through C. E. Brown, 2011 Chadbourne Avenue, Madison. 

A book, "Prehistoric Antiquities of Indiana," written by Eli Lilly, 
president of the Indiana Historical Society, has been published by 
that society. "It is devoted to a description of the more notable 
earthworks, implements and ceremonial objects left in Indiana by our 
predecessors, together with some information as to their origin and 
antiquity, and the prehistory of Indiana." This book is illustrated 
with numerous full page plates of mounds and other earthworks and 
implements, ornaments and pottery. A bibliography of Indiana archae- 
ology at the end of the book is most useful. The opening chapter on 
the origin and antiquity of the American Indian is especially well 
written and interesting. This book is a fine contribution to Indiana 
archaeology. We congratulate its author on its production. 

The first issue of the Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of 
Illinois has appeared. It is an excellent publication of 32 pages, with 
two illustrations. Interesting papers in this first issue are by Dr. John 
B. Ruyle, Byron W. Knoblock, George Collins, C. W. Hudelson, Charles 
Harris, Fay-Cooper Cole, Donald E. Wray, Irwin Peithman and B. W. 
Stephens. Dr. Ruyle, Champaign, is the president, Henry B. Wheaton, 
Clinton, the editor, and Donald E. Wray, Peoria, the secretary of The 
Illinois State Archaeological Society. 

The Missouri Archaeologist, April, 1938, issue, contains an illus- 
trated paper on "The Kirksville Site" written by Charles Fairbanks 
and another on "Pottery Types from Pulaski County" by Franklin 
Fenenga. This bulletin is published at Columbia, Missouri. J. Brewton 
Berry, Columbia, Missouri, is the editor. 

The June issue of The Oklahoma Prehistorian contains an article, 
"The Grand River Survey," written by Charles W. Grimes, the annual 
report of the Oklahoma State Archaeological Society, and archaeologi- 
cal notes of interest to members of the society. Dorothy Field Morgan, 
Tulsa, is the secretary of the Oklahoma Society. 

The June issue of Southwestern Lore, the bulletin of the Colorado 
Archaeological Society, Gunnison, Colorado, contains articles on "Basket 
Maker and Pueblo Sandals," by Gordon C. Baldwin; "The Southwestern 
Affiliations of Tarahumara Culture," by Robert M. Zingg; "The Nation 
That Vanished," by Pearle R. Casey, and "The Gunnison Collection 
VII," by C. T. Hurst. 

The May and June issues of Museum Service, published by the 
Rochester Museum of Arts and Sciences, Rochester, New York, are 
both very interesting numbers, well illustrated. 

, 1938 


Painted Pottery 
Kettle Moraine State Forest 
Legends of Wisconsin Rocks 




Accepted for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103 
Act. Oct. 3, 1917. Authorized Jan. 28. 1921. 

VOLUME 19, No. 1 

New Series 




, Wtarattmn 

Incorporated March 23, 1903, for the purpose of advancing the study 
and preservation of Wisconsin antiquities 



Dr. L. S. Buttles 


T. L. Miller E. E. Steene Dr. A. K. Fisher 

A. P. Kannenberg W. E. Erdman 


Dr. S. A. Barrett Jos. Ringeisen, Jr. 


W. K. Andrew Rev. Chr. Hjermstad Marie G. Kohler 

Dr. W. H. Brown P. W. Hoffmann Dr. H. W. Kuhm 

Walter Bubbert M. F. Hulburt W. C. McKern 

H. W. Cornell Zida C. Ivey Louis Pierron 

Rev. F. S. Dayton Paul Joers A. W. Pond 

Kermit Freckman Dr. A. L. Kastner E. F. Richter 

Arthur Gerth Dr. Louise P. Kellogg C. G. Schoewe 

John G. Gregory R. J. Kieckhefer Paul Scholz 

R. B. Hartman J. J. Knudsen R. S. Van Handel 

Frederic Heath Mrs. Theo. Koerner G. R. Zilisch 


G. M. Thorne 
917 N. Forty-ninth Street, Milwaukee, Wis. 


Charles E. Brown 
State Historical Museum, Madison, Wis. 



STATE SURVEY W. E. Erdman, Robert R. Jones, A. P. Kannenberg, 
D. A. Blencoe, Kermit Freckman, V. E. Motschenbacher, G. E. 
Overton, O. L. Hollister, J. P. Schumacher, Rev. Chr. Hjermstad, 

F. M. Neu, M. P. Henn, H. F. Feldman, V. S. Taylor, M. F. 

MOUND PRESERVATION C. G. Schoewe, Dr. Louise P. Kellogg, 
T. L. Miller, Mrs. W. J. Devine, Dr. L. V. Sprague, Mrs. H. A. 
Olson, Prof. R. S. Owen, A. H. Griffith, A. W. Pond, R. S. Van 
Handel, G. L. Pasco, W. S. Dunsmoor, Walter Bubbert, Louis 

PUBLIC COLLECTIONS Dr. S. A. Barrett, C. E. Brown, N. C. 
Behncke, H. L. Ward, Rev. F. S. Dayton, A. H. Sanford, W. M. 
Babcock, H. R. Roland, Miss Marie G. Kohler, Dr. P. H. Nesbitt, 
R. N. Buckstaff. 

MEMBERSHIP Dr. H. W. Kuhm, G. M. Thorne, Paul Joers, N. E. 
Carter, Dr. W. H. Brown, H. A. Zander, Paul Scholz, W. K. 
Andrew, Paul W. Hoffmann, A. W. Buttles, Clarence Harris, A. E. 
Koerner, Mrs. Zida C. Ivey, E. R. Guentzel, Mrs. Theo. Koerner. 

A. H. Sanford, Col. J. W. Jackson, Walter Bubbert. 

PUBLICITY W. C. McKern, M. C. Richter, A. 0. Barton, Victor S. 


BIOGRAPHY Rachel M. Campbell, Dr. E. J. W. Notz, E. F. Richter, 

G. R. Zilisch, Paul Joers, Arthur Gerth. 

FRAUDULENT ARTIFACTS Jos. Ringeisen, Jr., E. F. Richter, 
W. C. McKern, C. G. Schoewe. 

PROGRAM Dr. A. K. Fisher, H. W. Cornell, E. E. Steene. 
PUBLICATIONS C. E. Brown, Dr. A. K. Fisher, Dr. H. W. Kuhm. 

Heath, Dr. A. L. Kastner, R. J. Kieckhefer, L, R. Whitney, J. G. 
Gregory, Walter Bubbert, Louis Pierron. 

LAPHAM RESEARCH MEDAL Dr. S. A. Barrett, Dr. A. L. Kastner, 
C. G. Schoewe, M. C. Richter, H. W. Cornell. 


Life Members, $25.00 Endowment Members, $500.00 

Sustaining Members, $5.00 Annual Members, $2.00 

Institutional Members, $1.50 Junior Members, $ .50 

All communications in regard to The Wisconsin Aroheological Society should 
be addressed to Charles E. Brown, Secretary and Curator, Office, State Historical 
Museum, Madison, Wisconsin. Contributions to The Wisconsin Archeologist should 
be addressed to him. Dues should be sent to G. M. Thorne, Treasurer, 917 N. 
49th Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 


Vol. 19, No. 1, New Series 



Painted Pottery of the Winnebago Culture, 

Ralph N. Buckstaff 1 

Kettle Moraine State Forest, 

Louise N. Waters _ 4 

Legends of Wisconsin Rocks, 

Dorothy Moulding Brown 7 

Saskatchewan Dust-bowl Artifacts, 

Charles E. Brown.. 14 

An Ornamented Copper Knife _. 16 

Totem Poles and Totemism, 

Robert B. Hartman.. . 17 

Winnebago Painted Potsherds _. Frontispiece 


'Milwaukee Public Museum Photo" 

HtHnmatn Arrljeolngtat 

Published Quarterly by The Wisconsin Archeological Society 


VOL. 19 No. 1 

New Series 


Ralph N. Buckstaff 

A large amount of pottery was uncovered in the course 
of excavating mounds, by A. P. Kannenberg, Gerald C. 
Stowe, Harold Bullock, and myself, all members of the Osh- 
kosh Public Museum staff. These excavations were made 
on the west shore of Lake Winneconne, Winnebago County, 
Wisconsin, one mile north of the Village of Winneconne. 
This material was taken from mounds number 5, 6. These 
pieces, when found, were covered with dirt. Upon our re- 
turn from the field all specimens were sorted and washed. 
During this process one piece was discovered to be painted. 
We now kept a sharp lookout for more of this material, with 
the result that fragments of many different pots were iden- 

The descriptions of these specimens are as follows: 

Two of the fragments have the same ground color, choco- 
late. Black paint of some kind has been applied to the outer 
surface. The decorations consist of lines of the natural 
colored pottery without paint of any kind having been ap- 
plied. Fragment 8/2111 shows a single strip whose width 
is 4 mm. Specimen No. 3/2111 has two parallel lines averag- 
ing 4 mm. in width, the dark space between being a little 
wider; the total breadth of the entire decoration being 13 
mm. The design consists of two light stripes on a black 
surface. The color of the interior specimen 3/2111 is differ- 
ent from number 8/2111, being somewhat more grey. 



Louise N. Waters 

Development of a vast new wildwood recreational area 
85 miles long is now under way in southeastern Wisconsin, 
to be known as the Kettle Moraine state forest. It will 
stretch like a giant serpentine from northern Sheboygan 
county through portions of Fond du Lac, Washington, Wau- 
kesha, and Jefferson counties, and will end in northwestern 
Walworth county. At the nearest point it will pass within 
20 miles of Milwaukee. 

This new outdoor playground will include practically all 
of the chain of picturesque hills and watered valleys known 
to geologists as the Wisconsin terminal moraine the giant 
pilings of an age-gone glacier. 

Nucleus of this recreational region is the present Kettle 
Moraine state forest, 800 acres of tree-crested hills some 15 
miles southeast of Fond du Lac. Acquisition and develop- 
ment of this vast area stretching a distance equal to that 
between Chicago and Milwaukee, or between New York and 
Philadelphia is made possible by the Wisconsin legisla- 
ture's authorizing the expenditure by the Wisconsin Con- 
servation Department of $75,000 annually to acquire the 
necessary lands. 

Immediate development plans call for the purchase of 
some 5,000 acres at both the north and south ends of the 
hill-chain, and the acquisition of interlying lands yearly until 
the entire strip for 85 miles becomes one continuous forest 
park, with hiking trails, bridle paths, campgrounds, picnic- 
grounds, with more than twenty lakes and many streams 
headwaters of many eastern Wisconsin rivers for fishing, 
swimming, and boating, and facilities for winter sports. 

The area will be large enough to accommodate thousands 
of visitors, and yet will allow room enough for lovers of 
nature and solitude to enjoy many spots far from high- 
ways and crowds. 

Kettle Moraine State Forest 

To increase further the facilities for outdoor recreation 
in eastern Wisconsin, the Wisconsin Conservation Depart- 
ment has announced plans for a series of shore developments 
on Lake Michigan. 

It is planned to enlarge greatly the extent of Terry 
Andrae state park, a lakeside sand-dune and forest area of 
92 acres to the south of Sheboygan, one of the most popular 
public parks in the state. And to complete the developments 
for eastern Wisconsin there are projected two more state 
forest parks on Lake Michigan, one south of Kenosha, one 
extending from Racine almost to South Milwaukee. (Wis- 
consin Motor News, May, 1938.) 

All members of The Wisconsin 'Archeological Society have 
been requested to visit this proposed extensive state forest 
park region as frequently as possible during the summer 
and autumn months and to assist the State Society in gath- 
ering all possible information concerning its Indian pre- 
history and history. Members located in the cities of Two 
Rivers, Manitowoc, Sheboygan, Fond du Lac, Milwaukee, 
Waukesha, Oconomowoc, Whitewater, Watertown, West 
Bend, and Hartford are particularly requested to lend their 
aid in locating within this region such archeological fea- 
tures as village and camp sites, planting grounds, former 
sugar camps, burial places, mounds, fords and trails. Local 
collectors should be visited and a record of their collections 
made. Old settlers should be interviewed concerning the 
recent Indian history of the region. Copies of all field notes, 
maps and photographs should be filed with Secretary 
Charles E. Brown, at Madison. Full credit will be given 
in future reports and articles to all members and corre- 
spondents of the society who participate in these explora- 
tions and researches. 

The Kettle Moraine Region, from Fond du Lac and She- 
boygan counties southward to Walworth county, is one of 
fine forests, streams, lakes, tamarack swamps, marshes, 
wooded hills, peaks, ranges and kettles. A number of im- 
portant rivers have their headwaters there. The Wisconsin 
Archeological Society, through its past surveys and investi- 
gations, already possesses a considerable body of informa- 
tion concerning this region. It desires to be in a position 


to assist the state with all possible archeological and his- 
torical information. All members have therefore been urged 
to assist in this important quest. Secretary Brown has him- 
self made a number of visits to the Kettle Moraine country 
during the summer. 

Legends of Wisconsin Rocks 


Dorothy Moulding Brown. 

"A long time ago there were no stones on the earth. 
The mountains, hills and valleys were not rough and it was 
easy to walk on the ground swiftly. There were no small 
trees at that time. All the bushes and trees were tall and 
straight and were at equal distances apart, so that man 
could travel through without having to make a path for 

"There was a large buffalo who roamed over this land. 
He had power to change everything into different forms. 
He got his power from the water. This power would be his 
as long as he drank from the water at a certain place. 
There was a large mountain over which the buffalo used to 
roam. The buffalo liked this mountain, so one day he asked 
it if it would like to be something else besides a mountain. 
The mountain said it would like to be turned into something 
that no one would want to climb over. The buffalo said, *I 
will change you into a hard mountain which I will call a stone. 
You will be so hard that no one will want to break you, and 
your sides will be so smooth that no one will want to climb 
you.' " 

So the mountain was changed into a large stone. The 
buffalo told the stone that it could change itself into any- 
thing so long as it remained unbroken. 

In this part of the land there were no men, only buffaloes 
lived there. Men lived on the other side of the mountain who 
were cruel. One day the buffalo thought that he would like 
to go on the other side of the mountain and see man. He 
wanted to make friends with him so that he would not kill 
buffaloes. There in a wigwam he found an old woman and 
her grandson. He became very friendly with them. When he 
left he took them with him to the land of the buffaloes. 
The boy wanted to be a swift runner, and the buffaloes soon 
taught him to run so swiftly that no one could keep up 
with him. The old woman was changed into wind, so she 
could follow her grandson wherever he went. The boy stayed 


with the buffaloes until he grew to be a man. Then he was 
permitted to return to his own people. Here he became the 
leader of the hunters of the tribe. 

One day the chief told him to go and hunt buffaloes. 
The hunters had -never succeeded in killing any of these 
animals. He was promised that if he succeeded in killing 
any of them that he would be adopted as the chief's son, and 
become chief in his place when he died. So he went on the 
hunt and soon left his hunting party far behind. He climbed 
the mountain and pursued the buffaloes. They ran, but he 
kept up with them and killed many of them. 

When the great buffalo saw what the hunter and his 
followers had done he became very angry. He went to the 
stone and asked him to punish the killers. The stone said: 
"I will ask the trees to entangle themselves so that it will 
be difficult for man to travel through them. Then I will 
break myself into many pieces and scatter myself all over 
the land so that the swift runner and his followers can not 
run over me without hurting their feet." 

So the stone broke itself into many pieces and scattered 
itself all over the land, so that when the swift runner and 
his followers tried to run over the mountain the stones 
cut their feet and the bushes scratched and bruised their 
bodies. This is the Indian's story of why there are so many 
stones and rocks all over the earth. 

In the mythology of the Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin 
the origin of rocks is thus accounted for. Nenibozho was 
the eldest of four brothers born of an earth mother the 
second of these being Chipiapoos, a gentle and beloved spirit, 
the third Wabesho, and the fourth the villain, Chakekenapok. 
All possessed great magic powers. Chakekenapok, on being 
born, caused the death of his mother. Because of this bloody 
deed, Nenibozho pursued his brother, and fighting him all 
over the world, finally overcame him. The widely scattered 
parts of his body are the great rocks and masses of flint 
which are found wherever these brothers fought. 

The Menomini have a myth of the first rock. The daugh- 
ter of Nokomes, the Earth, is the mother of the hero-god 
Manabush, wno is also the Fire. Flint (Fire) grew up out 
of Nokomes, and was alone. Flint made a bowl and dipped 
it into the earth ; slowly the bowlful of earth became blood. 

Legends of Wisconsin Rocks 

The blood became Wabus, the Rabbit. The Rabbit grew 
into human form, and in time became man, and thus was 
Manabush formed. 

Manabush na cl enemies, the anamaqkiu, who dwelt be- 
neath the earth. To combat them he shaped a piece of flint 
into an axe. While he was sharpening it on a rock, the rock 
made peculiar sounds, Ke ka, ke ka, ke ka, ke ka,goss, goss, 
goss, goss. He understood that this signified that he was 
alone in the world, he had neither a father, mother, brother, 
nor sister. This is what the flint said to him while he was 
rubbing it on the rock. 

Indian Head Rocks 

Throughout Wisconsin are many interesting and fan- 
tastic rocks and rock formations which owe their form to 
glacial action, to erosion by wind, water and weather, to de- 
composition and other natural causes. The fantastic, curious 
and mysterious character of these rock landmarks impressed 
the Indian. In the course of centuries myths, legends, and 
stories became connected with many of them. 

Among these are a small number of sculptured rocks 
which resemble the head of an Indian. Of these the most 
widely known is the so-called "Old Man of the Dalles," which 
is located in Interstate Park, and from an eminence over- 
looks the Dalles of the St. Croix River. A Chippewa Indian 
legend concerning this giant stone face explains that it is 
the head of the Great Spirit Gitche Manido. He is supposed 
to be guarding the welfare of his Chippewa children by 
keeping a watchful eye on their hereditary enemies, the 
Dakota or Sioux in Minnesota. Three-fourths of a century 
ago war parties of the latter were still occasionally crossing 
the St. Croix to attack Chippewa camps in Wisconsin. 

An Indian Head rock similarly overlooks the Yahara 
River from the U. S. Soldiers' Hospital grounds on the north 
shore of Lake Mendota, at Madison. This head of Wakanda, 
the local Winnebago believed, was engaged in protecting the 
former villages from the attacks of war parties of their 
hated enemies, the Illinois. Another Indian Head rock pro- 


jects from a high rocky bluff south of the Twin Bluffs, lo- 
cated west of New Lisbon on the highway running from 
this town to Tomah, and a fourth is in Door County. This 
also is believed to represent an Indian deity. 

On the west bluff of Devil's Lake, near Baraboo, are the 
Great Stone Face, and near it the Turk's Head. Devil's 
Lake, called Ta-wah-cun-chuk-dah (Sacred Lake) by the 
Winnebago Indians, was to them a water of mystery, the 
abode of water demons, wa-kja-kee-ra. All of its fantastic 
rocks now named Balanced Rock, Cleopatra's Needle, Ele- 
phant Rock, and Devil's Doorway are associated with the 
former worship of these malevolent water spirits. 

The Wisconsin Dells 

Among the scenic wonders of the famous Dells of the 
Wisconsin River at Wisconsin Dells are many attractive 
rocks and rock formations which the former Winnebago in- 
habitants of this region knew well, and concerning at least 
some they had beliefs and superstitions. Among these, Stand 
Rock at the head of the upper Dells is of particular interest. 
An Indian tale of this landmark tells that here a young 
Indian once undertook to prove his love for a maiden by 
leaping across the chasm between the bluff edge and the 
Rock. His leap was good, he cleared the chasm, but leaping 
too hard, he fell and slid over its surface and over its edge, 
and was crushed on the rocks below. His loved one and 
friends buried the unfortunate lover. 

Harry E. Cole recorded the legend that " there was a 
superstitious belief among the youthful Indians that good 
luck would follow the newly married if they spent their 
honeymoon in the secluded cavern known as Squaw's Bed 
Chamber, just west of Stand Rock."* 

High Rock, Chimney Rock, Twin Sister Rocks, Sturgeon 
Rock, Frog's Head, Rattlesnake Rock, Giant's Shield, Alliga- 
tor's Head, Steamboat Rock, Toadstool, and Hornet's Nest 
are among the many interesting rock sculptures of the Wis- 
consin Dells. A stone face, Black Hawk's Head, commemo- 
rates the flight of the Sauk Indian patriot leader, Black 

* Baraboo, Dells, and Devil's Lake Region. 

Legends of Wisconsin Rocks 11 

Hawk, to this region in 1832, after the disastrous defeat of 
his band of warriors at the Battle of Bad Axe on the banks 
of the Mississippi. 

Indian Council Rocks 

A large grey granite rock known as the Council Rock 
formerly stood near Wyocena in what is now the center of 
County Trunk C, the highway leading from Madison to 
Wyocena and Portage. It was about 7 feet high and from 
12 to 15 feet square. Its top showed evidence of its use as 
a hearth for Indian fires. Its destruction was begun in the 
70's by road builders blasting parts of it away. About this 
stone monument the Winnebago' Indians of present Colum- 
bia County are said to have met in former years in occa- 
sional council. It became more or less of an Indian shrine, 
the Indians contending that it was placed here by Earth- 
maker for their use. Several trails centered at this rock, 
which was in an oak forest. In 1861, a meeting of settlers of 
the surrounding region was held here to encourage enlist- 
ment of men in the Union Army. At Tomah another Indian 
council rock is preserved. 

Natural Bridges 

Near Leland, in Sauk County, is the largest of three 
natural bridges in Wisconsin. "The bridge is an arch with 
a 35 foot span. It is 25 to 35 feet high. It is of sandstone, 
its form due to weathering, the removal of grains of sand 
by the wind and blocks of sandstone by gravity. Below the 
arch of the bridge is a cave 7V& feet high and 25 feet long."* 
An Indian legend of this bridge thus explains its origin. 
A hunter became very fond of We-pah-ma-ke-le, the Rain- 
bow. He marveled at the beauteous colors of its raiment, 
and he wished it to be always near his humble wigwam. It 
came and went. One day, by a ruse, he succeeded in fasten- 
ing it down to earth where its ends touched the ground. 
To his great grief he found the next morning that the bright 
spirit had released itself and gone. Only a colorless stone 
arch remained where it had been. 

* Physical Geography of Wisconsin. 


At Rockbridge, in Richland County, is another natural 
bridge. "The arch spans a stream which has cut under a 
rock bridge. The bridge is of sandstone and its form is due 
to weathering. The arch is 10 to 12 feet high, with a span 
of 15 to 20 feet."* The same story has been told of this 
bridge with the variation that the rainbow spirit in appre- 
ciation of the hunter's adoration bore him away with her 
to the sky world. The stone arch is a commemorative monu- 
ment of his love. 

Near Mt. Vernon, in Dane County, standing near the rock 
tower known as the Devil's Chimney, is a small natural 
bridge. It has a span of 8 feet, and its arch is only 6 feet 
high. According to a former old settler the Winnebago In- 
dians of the Sugar River region regarded both of these 
natural wonders in the forest with superstitious dread. The 
sandstone rock was used in smoothing arrowshaf ts and other 
wooden implements which they made. 

Other Rock Monuments 

Near Readstown, in the Kickapoo Valley, stands Five 
Column Rock, one of the natural wonders of the Driftless 
Area in southwestern Wisconsin. It resembles a huge table 
and consists of a thick limestone cap rock which is sup- 
ported by five sandstone columns, all but one of which are 
cone shaped in form. Some Winnebago Indians have said 
this rock is the table or bed of Wakanda, the Earthmaker, 
others ascribe its origin to a certain Indian giant who for- 
merly lived in this fertile valley. He erected it to show his 
superhuman strength. Monument Rock, near Viroqua in 
the same valley, was thought to be a giant transformed to 
stone by the Great Spirit. This rugged monument is 35 to 
40 feet high. It is nearly twice as wide at its top as at its 

Spirit Stones 

In a paper, Wisconsin Spirit Stones, published in The 
Wisconsin Archeologist in 1908, Mr. Charles E. Brown de- 
scribed some of the principal Indian spirit stones or manitou 

* Physical Geography of Wisconsin. 

Legends of Wisconsin Rocks 13 

rocks located at different places in the state by the side of 
Indian trails or in the vicinity of present or former aborig- 
inal sites. All were native shrines and interesting myths 
and legends are connected with all of them. Among these 
were the so named Pipe of the Manitou, located at the head 
of Lake Chetac, in Sawyer County ; the War Stone or Wheel 
of War, on an island in the same lake ; the Rain Stone stand- 
ing on the edge of the Lac Court Oreille Chippewa Reserva- 
tion; the Medicine Rock on the Lac du Flambeau Reserva- 
tion, and the Spirit Rock on the old Military Road on the 
Menomini Reservation. In 1921, he published another paper 
describing additional spirit rocks, among which were the 
Potawatomi Spirit Stone located at a place called Big Stone, 
on a road leading from Wabeno fo Soperton in Forest Coun- 
ty, and the Winnebago Corn Mill, formerly located on Black 
Wolf Point on the Lake Winnebago shore in Winnebago 
County.* The two stones, The Pipe of the Manitou and the 
Potawatomi Stone, are now both preserved in the State His- 
torical Museum at Madison. 

A spirit stone bearing a resemblance to a large animal 
and which is in the possession of John Mike, a Winnebago 
Indian residing near Hatfield, north of Black River Falls, 
is also described in The Wisconsin Archeologist, "My stone 
animal was kept by my great grandfathers. My grandfather 
kept it, beginning in 1809, until his death. The animal is 
helpful to the members of our families. We ask it for 
strength and power and wild game. He replies by giving 
us these and power. He gives us these through his spirit." 
Tobacco offerings were made to this effigy.* 

A Chippewa manitou rock from the shores of Chequa- 
megon Bay, Lake Superior, and now preserved in the mu- 
seum of Northland College at Ashland, was described by 
Lucy R. Hawkins in the same publication in 1927.* Publius 
V. Lawson gave an account of other Indian rocks in his mono- 
graph, The Winnebago Tribe.* In her booklet, Tales from 
an Indian Lodge, Phebe Jewell Nichols tells the story of the 
now disintegrating Menomini spirit rock. 

The Indian rocks and rock shrines of Wisconsin are de- 
serving of greater public interest and attention than they 
are now receiving. 

* See T^e Wisconsin Archeologist. V. 7, No. 4; V. 20, No. 3; V. 2, No. 3, N. S. ; 
V. 6, No. 3. N. S., and V. 6, No. 3. 



Charles E. Brown 

A letter received from D. J. McKillop, of Regina, Sas- 
katchewan, contains some interesting information concern- 
ing archeological conditions in the new "dust-bowl" in the 
province of Saskatchewan in western Canada. In this re- 
gion recent continued wind erosion has excavated and laid 
bare numbers of old Indian village sites and stone workshops. 
Here on these broad plains the buffalo grass was once at its 
best, affording grazing for large herds of buffalo. Here 
were grain fields of vast extent which once yielded a 285 
million bushel wheat crop. Here was the "bread basket" 
of all Canada. 

Since 1932, when blowing from the west these "black 
blizzards" began, the grain crop yield has diminished each 
year, until in 1937 it had been reduced to only fifteen mil- 
lion bushels. The top of the once fertile soil was blown 
away, exposing the debris of numerous former Indian vil- 
lage sites. At this time 500,000 people, or half the people 
of the province, are receiving government relief. Only six 
inches of rain have fallen this year. 

In this vast territory, bigger than Germany, Mr. McKil- 
lop, in the course of his archeological collecting, has sought 
out every productive site within 500 miles of his home, 
searching the Indian terrain and also purchasing specimens 
from the farmers. He says, "If one can forget the misery 
among the farmers and hie oneself to a blown-out field, 
one may see as high as the sites of 75 former camp fires ex- 
posed with the fire-reddened rocks of tepee hearths, char- 
coal and burned earth, the buffalo bones and bone fragments, 
the places where arrow and knife manufacture was carried 
on, and specimens of the finished and unfinished and re- 
jected tools of the Indian lying about and twinkling in the 
clean sand." 

From such localities as these Mr. McKillop has collected 
"Seventy tin Winchester cigarette boxes full of extra select 
arrows, spears, scrapers, drills, knives and celts, thirty boxes 

Saskatchewan Dust-bowl Artifacts 15 

of rougher and less perfect specimens, and several packing 
cases full of flaked and pecked stone tools, such as axes, 
hatchets, hammers, etc. In this collection are 4,000 perfect 
arrow and spearpoints, 5000 less perfect specimens, and 3500 
scrapers, probably the largest collection of these to be seen 

"The Canadian Government is fast sealing up these 
seared fields under rehabilitation efforts, and is being aided 
by natural sealing by the Russian thistle, so that the relic 
fields are nearing exhaustion. My collection will be the most 
comprehensive one to be seen anywhere in this region." 

"The most interesting feature of these Saskatchewan 
artifacts is the fine quality of the flint in use by the ancient 
arrowmakers, the glacial boulder flint producing all the 
colors of the rainbow, the material having come originally 
from the Canadian Mineral Shield. With a box of these flint 
artifacts before one, one may revel in the color and luster 
of the material and the artistic excellence of the specimens." 

"The Canadian Mineral Shield in northern Manitoba in 
the process of cooling and pouring its miasmic colored oxides 
into fissures and dykes, and then pressured by millions of 
tons weight-cooled, faulted, and finally was sheared off by a 
glacier a mile thick. The top of the mineral field was carried 
and pushed into southwestern Saskatchewan and a little 
way into Montana. When the ice sheet paused and melted 
glacial streams formed and were bedded down with boulders. 
A proportion of these boulders are flint-covered with hard 
scoria secreting within the loveliest grain and color." 

"The next scene in the drama is the arrival of the Span- 
iards in America the liberation of their horses and the 
spread of wild horses throughout the West. The Sioux 
learned to ride and came up into the treeless North following 
the buffalo herds. The women learned to select the flint 
boulders and the braves made arrows on the sandy promon- 
tories near water courses. They liked the color and quality 
of the flint and delighted in the making of artistic missies 
and tools from the rainbow." 

The disturbance since 1932 of the Saskatchewan plains 
by the "black blizzards" has brought to light these abundant 
records of their manner of life and their craftsmanship. 



Mr. Byron L. Knoblock, the well known La Grange, Illi- 
nois, archeologist, recently brought to the Milwaukee Pub- 
lic Museum for examination and photographing a large na- 
tive copper knife. This fine specimen measures 12% inches 
in length and weighs 8 ounces. The blade is TVs inches long, 
1-JJ inches wide at its base, and the handle 5 inches long and 
1 inch wide where it unites with the blade. The handle 
tapers to its end where there is a flattened knob. The back 
of the knife is nearly straight from its rounded point to 
near the end of the handle. 

The blade of this knife is ornamented near its base with 
four small rectangular punch marks arranged in pairs. The 
nearest pair is within about l 1 /^ inches from the base of 
the blade. The second pair is about % of an inch beyond the 
first pair. Knives ornamented with punch marks are rare, 
only a few having been found. 

This copper knife belongs to the form classed as handled 
knives. This handle could be wound with cloth or fur or 
some other wrapping. Most other knives are provided with 
a pointed or other tang for insertion into a wooden or bone 

The Knoblock specimen was found near Woodworth 
Lake, Mecosta County, Michigan. Its owner is preparing to 
publish a book on "Banner Stones of North America," which 
will be illustrated with over one hundred plates of the ban- 
ner stones in many public and private collections. 

Totem Poles and Totemism 17 


Robert B. Hartman 

To anyone visiting the Milwaukee Public Museum a 
glance at the magnificent totem pole outside the front en- 
trance and the shorter pole in the building must certainly 
arouse an interest and desire to know more about the Indian 
people and the methods used in the manufacture of these 

The Northwest Coast Indians jnade their living primarily 
from the sea. It happens that travel by land in this region 
is practically impossible because of the high mountains 
which as a rule come right down to the water's edge. On 
the west side of these mountains an abundance of rainfall 
is received, and this, together with the favorable climatic 
conditions, has created an ideal condition for the growth of 
vegetation. Consequently this region is covered with im- 
mense forests of evergreens. The straight shafts of the 
cedars rise from two hundred to three hundred feet in 
height and make everything else in the forest seem small 
in comparison. The Indians were inspired by these lords of 
the forest, and over a period of time developed a distinctive 
art, that of turning these giants into totem poles. The poles 
are carved and painted with symbolical figures, and are gen- 
erally placed in front of their houses. They represent 
heraldic shields, family escutcheons, and a true geneological 
record. To the average person they appear grotesque be- 
cause they humanize animal forms. The Indian believed that 
through sympathetic magic the animal gave to man such 
traits as strength, courage, and cunning, which the animal 
possessed, and in this manner the poles were used to illus- 
trate that psychology. 

These Indians, having an abundance of time on their 
hands, became very proficient in wood carving and the 
handling of wood products. In olden times, before contact 
with the White man, from whom they received metal wood 
working tools, they used wood, bone, slate, and horn instru- 
ments for carving. Cedar wood is soft, straight, and fine 


grained, and together with the wood obtained from large 
alders made a fine medium for carving purposes. The art 
takes the form of painting and carving in the round and in 

The totem poles were built to suggest a combination of 
ideas. Animals were selected as symbolical mediums for 
this purpose. Therefore, having this in mind as a key, the 
poles may be generally interpreted. As a rule whenever an 
animal is represented, one will find erect ears placed above 
the eyes on an otherwise human face. Birds are indicated 
by beaks and fish by gills or fins. The raven, eagle, and 
hawk may be distinguished by the shape of the beak; 
straight for the raven, curved for the eagle, and curved 
until the tip touches the mouth or chin for the hawk. The 
beaver is represented in full by large incisor teeth, a stick 
held in the mouth by the fore paws, and a flat scaly tail. 
A large mouth full of teeth, a protruding tongue, and large 
paws represent the grizzly bear. The killer whale is sym- 
bolized by a dorsal fin and a blow hole. A vaulted forehead 
upon which three crests are cut, signifies the shark. The 
sculpin has, in addition to gills, two spines over its mouth. 
Among the supernatural beings represented one sees a cir- 
cular face resembling a hawk indicating the moon, a bird 
bearing off a whale, a mythical thunderbird, and a water 
monster in a number of different forms similar to the bear 
or beaver. 

The main crest of the family generally is placed at the 
top of the pole. There may be two, three, or four of the man 
and wife and these may also occupy the bottom and middle of 
the pole. These are joined and the remaining space is filled up 
by stock objects such as frogs. When animals are desired to 
represent the family ancestors they are shown with human 
faces and are distinguished with difficulty. 

All of the various tribes erected monuments near the 
burial place of the more influential members of the tribe. A 
wooden carving representing the principal crest of the fam- 
ily was usually used. Recently stone worked monuments 
have more or less taken the place of the wooden ones. 

Totemism is said to have arisen from nature worship and 
ancestor worship. The Indians first named themselves after 
natural objects, and then confused the objects with their 

Totem Poles and Totemism 19 

ancestor of the same name, reverenced them as they already 
reverenced their ancestor. Other authorities take exception 
to this theory and find an explanation in the primitive belief 
in human descent from beasts, birds, and even from inani- 
mate objects. Still another authority indicates that totem- 
ism goes far back into the dawn of history. Instances of its 
practice have been found all over the world. It is man's most 
primitive religion and his earliest form of large-scale social 
organization. The religion was a fundamental one and close- 
ly woven into the everyday life of the people. It had its un- 
written but inviolable taboos. Therefore, the church and the 
state were united. The fundamental principle of the totemic 
system was embodied in the law^that no man could take a 
partner in marriage from any of the totems or sub-totems of 
his own even though the woman was no blood relation and 
even a total stranger. Most of the tribes on the Coast were 
divided into two general groups or totems, the Raven and 
the Wolf (in some localities the Eagle and the Bear) . Both 
of these totems were divided into sub-totems. For the Raven 
the sub-totems were the Frog, Goose, Beaver, Owl, Sea Lion, 
Salmon, and Crow. The Wolf group was divided into the 
Bear, Orea, Shark, Whale, Puffin, and the Porpoise. A man, 
of a humble sub-totem, could work his way up the social 
scale by acquiring wealth, usually in the form of blankets or 
fishing rights. As the members of his family increase, other 
sub-totems may be incorporated with it, and it may become 
a totem. After it has reached equilibrium, dissolution sets 
in and it gradually disappears. 

In closing I wish to emphasize that the Indians did not 
worship the totem poles as idols of animal gods. They never 
prayed to a totem animal. They will say that the animal is 
their ancestor and endow it with supernatural powers ; but 
animal worship and totemism are two different things. 
Therefore, as we stand and look, these poles take on a deeper 
meaning for us all. 


1 Emma Franklin Estabrook Givers of Life Published by Marshall Jones Com- 
pany, Boston, Mass. 

2 Francis Knapp and Reta Louise Childe The Thlinkets of Southeastern Alaska- 
Published by Stone and Kimball, 1896. 

3 Pliney Earle Goddard Indians of The Northwest Coast American Museum of 
Natural History, N. Y., 1924. 

4 D. R. Barton Natural History The Magazine of the American Museum of 
Natural History, February, 1938, p. 149. 



Sromter, 103B 


Pottery Spoons and Dippers 

Indian Tree Myths and Legends 

New Wisconsin Museums 




Accepted for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103 
Act, Oct. 3, 1917. Authorized Jan. 28, 1921. 

VOLUME 19, No. 2 

New Series 




Incorporated March 23, 1903, for the purpose of advancing the study 
and preservation of Wisconsin antiquities 



Dr. L. S. Buttles 


T. L. Miller E. E. Steene Dr. A. K. Fisher 

A. P. Kannenberg W. E. Erdman 


Dr. S. A. Barrett Jos. Ringeisen, Jr. 


W. K. Andrew Rev. Chr. Hjermstad Marie G. Kohler 

Dr. W. H. Brown P. W. Hoffmann Dr. H. W. Kuhm 

Walter Bubbert M. F. Hulburt W. C. McKern 

H. W. Cornell Zida C. Ivey Louis Pierron 

Rev. F. S. Dayton Paul Joers A. W. Pond 

Kermit Freckman Dr. A. L. Kastner E. F. Richter 

Arthur Gerth Dr. Louise P. Kellogg C. G. Schoewe 

John G. Gregory R. J. Kieckhefer Paul Scholz 

R. B. Hartman J. J. Knudsen R. S. Van Handel 

Frederic Heath Mrs. Theo. Koerner G. R. Zilisch 


G. M. Thome 
917 N. Forty-ninth Street, Milwaukee, Wis. 


Charles E. Brown 
State Historical Museum, Madison, Wis. 



STATE SURVEY W. E. Erdman, Robert R. Jones, A. P. Kannenberg, 
D. A. Blencoe, Kermit Freckman, V. E. Motschenbacher, G. E. 
Overton, O. L. Hollister, J. P. Schumacher, Rev. Chr. Hjermstad, 

F. M. Neu, M. P. Henn, H. F. Feldman, V. S. Taylor, M. F. 

MOUND PRESERVATION C. G. Schoewe, Dr. Louise P. Kellogg, 
T. L. Miller, Mrs. W. J. Devine, Dr. L. V. Sprague, Mrs. H. A. 
Olson, Prof. R. S. Owen, A. H. Griffith, A. W. Pond, R. S. Van 
Handel, G. L. Pasco, W. S. Dunsmoor, Walter Bubbert, Louis 

PUBLIC COLLECTIONS Dr. S. A. Barrett, C. E. Brown, N. C. 
Behncke, H. L. Ward, Rev. F. S. Dayton, A. H. Sanford, W. M. 
Babcock, H. R. Holand, Miss Marie G. Kohler, Dr. P. H. Nesbitt, 
R. N. Buckstaff. 

MEMBERSHIP Dr. H. W. Kuhm, G. M. Thome, Paul Joers, N. E. 
Carter, Dr. W. H. Brown, H. A. Zander, Paul Scholz, W. K. 
Andrew, Paul W. Hoffmann, A. W. Buttles, Clarence Harris, A. E. 
Koerner, Mrs. Zida C. Ivey, E. R. Guentzel, Mrs. Theo. Koerner. 

A. H. Sanford, Col. J. W. Jackson, Walter Bubbert. 

PUBLICITY W. C. McKern, M. C. Richter, A. 0. Barton, Victor S. 


BIOGRAPHY Rachel M. Campbell, Dr. E. J. W. Notz, E. F. Richter, 

G. R. Zilisch, Paul Joers, Arthur Gerth. 

FRAUDULENT ARTIFACTS Jos. Ringeisen, Jr., E. F. Richter, 
W. C. McKern, C. G. Schoewe. 

PROGRAM Dr. A. K. Fisher, H. W. Cornell, E. E. Steene. 
PUBLICATIONS C. E. Brown, Dr. A. K. Fisher, Dr. H. W. Kuhm. 

Heath, Dr. A. L. Kastner, R. J. Kieckhefer, L. R. Whitney, J. G. 
Gregory, Walter Bubbert, Louis Pierron. 

LAPHAM RESEARCH MEDAL Dr. S. A. Barrett, Dr. A. L. Kastner, 
C. G. Schoewe, M. C. Richter, H. W. Cornell. 


Life Members, $25.00 Endowment Members, $500.00 

Sustaining Members, $5.00 Annual Members, $2.00 

Institutional Members, $1.50 Junior Members, $ .50 

All communications in regard to The Wisconsin Aroheological Society should 
be addressed to Charles E. Brown, Secretary and Curator, Office, State Historical 
Museum, Madison, Wisconsin. Contributions to The Wisconsin Archeologist should 
be addressed to him. Dues should be sent to G. M. Thome, Treasurer, 917 N. 
49th Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 


Vol. 19, No. 2, New Series 



Prehistoric Winnebago Culture Pottery Spoons and Dippers, 

Arthur P. Kannenberg 21 

New Wisconsin Museums, 

Ruth J. Shuttleworth 25 

Indian Tree Myths and Legends, 

Dorothy Moulding Brown 30 

An Enigmatic Copper Artifact, 

Gerald C. Stowe 37 

Saving the Lasley Point Mounds, 

Walter Bubbert 42 

Archeological Notes _ 44 

Earthenware Dippers Frontispiece 

Plate Page 

1. Copper Harpoon _. 40 

Oshkosh Public Museum 

Published Quarterly by The Wisconsin Archeologicnl Society 

New Serie. 


Arthur P. Kannenberg 

In excavation work at Butte des Morts, Winnebago 
County, Wisconsin, in 1936, the writer uncovered the frag- 
ments of what later proved to be a small pottery utensil 
with a long flat handle. 

During the past year, 1937, the Archeological Depart- 
ment of the Oshkosh Public Museum carried on excavation 
work on an extensive Winnebago Indian village site. This 
site is located on the east shore of Lake Winneconne and 
about a mile north of the town of that name. 

This plot of ground has produced during the season's 
research, approximately one thousand pounds of pottery 
sherds, all shell tempered. Of these fragments it was dis- 
covered that some of the pieces were from broken dippers 
and spoons. Through the courtesy of Mr. W. C. McKern 
and the Milwaukee Public Museum these utensils were re- 
constructed. Descriptions of the five dippers and two spoons 
follow : 


No. 21/2111. In general outline it appears like a pipe 
with a short stem. Its overall length is 7.6x3.9 mm. wide, 
the bowl is oval in shape and is 3.7x2.9 mm. with a depth of 
2.8 mm. Its color is a deep chocolate brown. The handle 
with its reconstructed part is 2.8 mm. The rim shows a 
slight scallop and has an angular edge. The outside surface 


is not smooth, the handle of this dipper is almost on a line 
with the base, the walls are straight both in and outside. 

No. 22/2111. Has an overall length of 9.5 mm., the width 
of the bowl on the outside is 3.6 mm., the bowl is oval in 
shape, slightly flattened on each end, the inside dimensions 
of the bowl are 4.5 by 3 mm. and its depth 2.5 mm. The 
edge of the rim is plain and rounded, the sides slant inward 
toward the rounding base. 

The handle as reconstructed is 4 mm. long, the top is level 
with the rim of the bowl. 

The outside of this dipper is somewhat smoother than in 
specimen No. 21. 

The color is a decided reddish brown. 

No. 23/2111. This specimen has an overall length of 
11.5 mm., its width is 6.5 mm. The opening at the top of 
the bowl is considerably smaller than its middle portion, 
both in width and length; the side being 5.6x4.2 mm. with 
a depth of 4 mm. The opening, as in the other two, is oval 
in shape. The edges are rounded and its sides show a de- 
cided recurve. The handle is almost on a line with the top 
of the bowl of the dipper, it has a length of 3.9 mm., with 
an average thickness of 1.8 mm., its end being rounded off 
bluntly. The modeling is very crude and shows many ir- 
regularities. The color is a dark brown. 

No. 24/2111. This piece has an overall length of 8.8 mm. 
The opening is nearly circular in shape and is 4.3x4.7 mm. 
The depth of the bowl is 3.5 mm. The edge is rather flat 
and notched all around. The original and restored part of 
the handle measures 2.5 mm., its average width is approxi- 
mately 1.3 mm. The handle is perforated with a .2 mm. 
hole. The sides curve slightly inward towards the top. The 
outside shows a rather crude workmanship. Its color is a 
light chocolate shade, the handle is just below the rim of 
the bowl. About fifty per cent of the original dipper was 

No. 25/2111. This particular dipper has an overall 
length of 11.2 mm., the opening of the bowl is 5.5x6.4 mm., 

Spoons and Dippers 23 

and a depth of 2.9 mm. The edge on one side shows a 
slight dip, the outside edge is rough and has several well 
defined flutings which were probably made with the tips of 
the fingers by running them obliquely across the surface. 
About one-third of this dipper was found, its color is a red- 
dish brown; the handle is on a level with the top of the 
bowl. This specimen is now in the possession of the Mil- 
waukee Public Museum. 

No. 26/2111. Is typically a spoon with an overall meas- 
urement of 12.2 mm., its bowl is oval in shape and is 6.3x5.6 
mm. wide and long. It has a rounding but smooth edge. Its 
depth is 2.1 mm. The handle is complete and measures 5.5 
mm. in length and has an average width of 1.5 mm.; it 
tapers gently towards the end and is rounded abruptly, a 
small hole is drilled or pressed through .8 mm. from the 
edge. The color of the original part is yellowish. It shows 
much finer workmanship than the preceding specimens. The 
handle turns slightly upwards from its base to the end. 

No. 27/2111. Another spoon has an overall length of 9 
mm. The bowl is oval in shape, its width and length being 
4.3x3.5 mm., its shallow depression being 1.2 mm. The 
original and restored handle is diamond shape in section, 
the width near its base is 1.4 by 1 mm. The outside surface 
shows a large protuberance at the base of the bowl near 
the handle. Its color is a dark reddish brown. The handle 
extends out at an elevation above the top of the bowl. 

No. 28/2170. This specimen is a pitcher-like utensil and 
is 7.5 mm. high by 6 mm. in width near its base and tapers 
upwards to the neck, which is approximately 4.2 mm. across 
the opening. The sides flare outward slightly from the neck 
to the top edge. The opening is round in outline, 4x4.2 mm. 
The entire rim is notched and somewhat flat. It has a flat 
4.8 mm. long handle, .6 mm. thick and 2.9 mm. wide in its 
widest part. There is a perforation through the center 
of the handle, the hole being .2 mm. in diameter. The outer 
edge of the handle is notched. It extends straight out from 
the side of the vessel. The fragments of this specimen were 
found at Butte des Morts in 1936, by the writer. 


These dippers may have been patterned after a gourd 
with one side of its widest part cut away. No two of these 
specimens are alike in any respect. They appear to be the 
handiwork of different Indian potters. So far as is known, 
these utensils are the only ones of this class uncovered or 
found in Wisconsin. 

EDITOR'S NOTE. A small cup or ladle formerly in the Rudolph 
Kuehne collection at Sheboygan is now in the Kohler collection at 
Kohler. It was obtained from the Black River sites (Terry Andrae 
State Park), south of Sheboygan. It is described and illustrated in 
The Wisconsin Archeologist, v. 1, No. 4. This small vessel, with a 
body bearing cord impressions, seems to bear some relationship to 
the dippers described by Mr. Kannenberg. 

New Wisconsin Museums 25 


i < . 

Ruth J. Shuttleworth 
Secretary, Wisconsin Museums Conference 

In the past year a number of new museums have come 
into existence in Wisconsin, and others, previously organized, 
have found permanent or temporary homes in residences 
and other buildings in the cities where they exist. A num- 
ber of others are in process of organization in cities where 
there are no other public museums at present. 

At Superior the Douglas County Historical Society is 
preparing to install its historical and anthropological collec- 
tions in the A. A. Roth residence, which has been donated 
to the Society by the family of its former owner. This 
museum, now in place in the corridor of the county court 
house, is intended to be a community institution. "The idea 
is to preserve as many exhibits as possible which have con- 
tributed to the development of Superior and Douglas County. 
The Society particularly hopes to show, through exhibits, 
how the various nationalities, such as the Scandinavian, 
German, Finnish and others, have influenced the commu- 
nity through the culture of their native lands. A typical 
Swedish kitchen is one of the objects they have in mind. 
John A. Bardon, regarded as Superior's outstanding author- 
ity on early history, has contributed many specimens for 
the museum and has furnished considerable historical data 
explaining various present exhibits. Co-operating with the 
Society are the city council, the county board and the Works 
Progress Administration." 

Mr. Gerald C. Stowe, a University of Wisconsin alumnus 
who received his training in museum work at the Oshkosh 
Public Museum and the State Historical Museum, and who 
is also a member of The Wisconsin Archeological Society, has 
been appointed director of the Superior public museum. 
There is also a museum in the State Teachers' College at 


At Baraboo the Sauk County Historical Society has pur- 
chased the fine Jacob B. Van Orden residence for its future 
home, and will there install its archeological and historical 
collections which have been in storage for a number of 
years. These original collections were assembled by the late 
Mr. Harry E. Cole, a former president and leading spirit of 
the society, and others, and installed in cases and on the 
walls of several basement rooms in the county court house. 
There these exhibits remained, contributing to the educa- 
tion and recreation of local school children and other visi- 
tors, until county demands for additional office room neces- 
sitated the museum's removal. Once an effort was made to 
acquire for the society and its museum one of the historic 
Ringling homes then given to the city by a member of the 
famous local circus family, but this plan failed because of 
the non-approval of the then city council. 

In the historic Governor Nelson Dewey farmstead resi- 
dence in Nelson Dewey State Park at Cassville, on the banks 
of the Mississippi river, several rooms have been refurnished 
with furniture once owned by the governor. Several cases 
of museum specimens are exhibited for the entertainment 
of the visitors. Cassville citizens donated some of the speci- 
mens and furnished funds for the purchase of others. The 
work of locating and gathering the specimens was done by 
two workers of the former Folklore Project, WPA, at Madi- 
son. This museum project was supervised by the State His- 
torical Museum for the Wisconsin Conservation Department. 

At Watertown the historic Harvey Richards octagonal 
three-story residence has been acquired by the Watertown 
Historical Society and has become a historical house mu- 
seum already quite widely visited and appreciated. This 
very interesting early building, of an architectural type of 
which there were only a small number of other buildings in 
the state, stands on an eminence overlooking the historic 
Rock river and its old Indian and pioneer ford. 

This building has become one of a notable chain of his- 
toric house and building museums extending diagonally 
across Wisconsin from Green Bay to Portage and on to 
Prairie du Chien. Included are the Tank Cottage (1776) 

New Wisconsin Museums 27 

and Fort Howard Hospital (1816) at Green Bay ; the Eleazar 
Williams ("Lost Dauphin") house overlooking the Fox river 
at South De Pere; the Charles A. Grignon residence near 
Kaukauna (1838-39) ; the Governor Doty Loggery at Nee- 
nah ; the Solomon Juneau house at Theresa ; the old Indian 
Agency House (1830) at Portage; the Hercules L. Dous- 
man home (Villa Louis, 1843) at Prairie du Chien and the 
recently restored Fort Crawford Hospital building in the 
same town. 

At Sturgeon Bay a museum building of interesting 
Norse architectural design is in course of erection. This 
undertaking the Door County Historical Society and its very 
active president, Hjalmar Rued Holand, are sponsoring. 

At Milton Junction the first Goodrich tavern, built in 
1839, has become a museum of pioneer relics. There is a 
likelihood that the old Milton House (1845), owned and 
managed for many years by the same family, will also come 
to museum uses. 

The Milwaukee County Historical Society is planning for 
a future home, library and county museum to be housed 
probably in the old, now vacant Milwaukee court house. 
Mr. Frederic Heath, the well-known Milwaukee historian and 
president of the society, and others are active in sponsoring 
this plan. In Milwaukee the old A. C. Blatz home will house 
a future children's museum. This will be under the man- 
agement of the Milwaukee Public Museum. 

At Beaver Dam a museum is being installed in a down- 
town building by the Beaver Dam Historical Society. 

Other museums are in process of formation at Wausau 
and Menasha. At Prairie du Chien the excavation of the 
site of the first Fort Crawford, on the grounds of the Dous- 
man home, will eventually result in an interesting outdoor 

The recent gift to The Wisconsin Archeological Society 
by Mr. Ferdinand Heim, of Madison, of a small area of 
woodland located on the road to Pheasant Branch, west of 


Madison, and containing a fine prehistoric Indian effigy 
mound of the rare wolf type, has brought into existence a 
third state archeological park (Heim Mound Park). The 
other two are Man Mound Park near Baraboo and Aztalan 
Mound Park near Lake Mills. These three outdoor museums 
are all owned and managed by The Wisconsin Archeological 

As Mr. Charles E. Brown, veteran secretary of the So- 
ciety, pointed out in an address delivered to its present offi- 
cers and members at a meeting held at the Milwaukee Mu- 
seum on November 21, 1938, there were in 1901-1903, when 
the society was organized, only two public museums of im- 
portance in Wisconsin. One of these was the Milwaukee 
Museum and the other the State Historical Museum at 
Madison. The Society, in advertising the aims and objects 
of its organization, set as one of these the organization of 
additional public museums in the state. How well that un- 
dertaking was carried out is shown by the existence of a 
full hundred museums in the state today, of nearly every 
possible kind. Members of the Society were and are active 
in the organization and management of nearly every one of 
these. For years most of these museums had as their cura- 
tors or directors a member of the Society, and which is still 
largely the case. Many members, including such former ac- 
tive archeologists as Henry P. Hamilton, George A. West, 
William H. Ellsworth, Mrs. Emma House, W. A. Titus, H. L. 
Skavlem, A. C. Neville, Charles Bertrand and W. P. Clarke, 
presented their collections to local museums. Others, who 
could not afford to do this, made it possible for local mu- 
seums to purchase their accumulations of archeological and 
ethnological material, and these were thus preserved to stu- 
dents of Wisconsin archeology and Indian history. Several 
members are operating private museums from which the 
public also benefits. 

In 1935, Secretary Brown proposed to the State WPA 
offices at Madison the organization of a state museum proj- 
ect. Plans for its service to state museums were drawn by 
him. This project was approved and came into existence. 
As no appropriation was made the project, when approved, 
could give only advisory assistance to museums when re- 

New Wisconsin Museums 29 

quested. This was done, and many of the smaller museums 
given helpful aid. The larger museums at Milwaukee, 
Green Bay, Oshkosh, Madison and others had museum WPA 
projects of their own. Now (1938) a statewide museum 
WPA project to aid Wisconsin museums is being organized 
under the direction of Dr. S. A. Barrett, a valued member 
and officer of the Society. 

Thus, after thirty-five years since its organization as a 
state society, the members of The Wisconsin Archeological 
Society may take great pride in what it has accomplished in 
that period of years in increasing the number of museums 
in Wisconsin and in contributing to their educational riches 
and general welfare. Many museum articles and notes have 
been printed in past issues of The Wisconsin Archeologist. 



Dorothy Moulding Brown 

Trees of many different native species were venerated by 
the Woodland Indians because of the very numerous uses 
which they made of their wood, bark, foliage, roots, seeds, 
nuts, fruits, resin and sap. The forest trees provided them 
with food, medicine, dyes, cordage, fabrics, with material for 
the construction of wigwams and other buildings, canoes, 
traps, and numerous implements, weapons, utensils, musical 
instruments, pipes, games and toys. Their villages were some- 
times protected with wooden stockades built of tree trunks. 
Burials were made by some tribes on wooden platforms or in 
canoes fastened in the branches of trees and also in hollow 
tree trunks. The Potawatomi protected some of their graves 
with logs. The Chippewa erected wooden shelter houses over 
some of theirs. Some of the Winnebago, a hundred years 
ago, protected some of theirs with pickets. Rude wooden 
' 'fences" surrounded some of the Indian planting grounds. 
From wooden platforms in these gardens Indian hunters 
or boys protected the crops against the onslaughts of hun- 
gry birds and marauding animals. Deposits of flint blades 
and sea shells were made beneath the roots of trees. Tall 
wooden poles bearing spirit offerings stood in some villages. 
The old Menomini placed the skulls and bones of bears which 
they had killed and eaten in the crotches of trees to keep 
them out of the reach of dogs. If they were gnawed or 
otherwise mistreated the bear spirits would be offended and 
ill luck would befall the hunters. The Mascouten believed 
that the small cedar trees of southern Wisconsin were the 
spirits of Indian dead. If these were cut down, uprooted 
or burned the dead suffered. 

Tree trunks were sometimes cut or blazed to serve as 
guide posts for travelers. 

Tree Myths and Tales 

According to an old Chippewa tale the pine tree is sacred 
to the memory of Winnebozho because it once saved the life 
of the hero-god. He had had a violent quarrel with the water 

Indian Tree Myths and Legends 31 

spirits and these underground monsters determined to 
drown him. One day they suddenly caused a flood to arise 
and to cover the entire earth. To save his life Winnebozho 
climbed to the top of a tall pine tree. By the use of his 
magic powers he caused the tree to grow, and although the 
waters rose higher and higher, the god was always just out 
of their reach. After twelve days the water spirits, failing 
to kill him, caused the waters to subside. Winnebozho then 
descended, and with the help of the otter, mink and muskrat, 
he re-created the world. 

In Sawyer County, in northwestern Wisconsin, in the 
region now occupied by the artificial Chippewa Lake, the 
former location of a Chippewa village known as The Post, 
Che-ne-me-le-ke, the powerful thunderbird in a great rage 
once set fire to and burned a large forest area. "There is a 
point of land in this part of the country that the Indians 
call Pa-qua-a-wong, meaning a forest destroyed by the great 
thunderbird. It is now almost barren. The timber which 
was once upon it having been destroyed by lightning, the 
storm bird destroyed this forest to show its wrath, that they 
might profit by the lesson." 1 The burning of some other 
forest regions in recent years is believed by some Chippewa 
to be due to the raids of flights of Thunderers. 

Certain trees were believed by Indian folk to be the homes 
of tree spirits, supernatural beings possessed of powers for 
good or evil, and whom they had no wish to offend. An old 
Indian once incurred the anger of these tree beings. One 
day this man left his village and went into the forest to cut 
some lodge poles. In the midst of the forest he found an 
aspen thicket. The young trees were tall and straight and 
exactly suited his purpose. He cut into the trunk of one 
of these. The sap which flowed from the cut was red, it 
was blood. He became frightened and ran from the spot. 
As he fled the trees raised their roots and tripped him, and 
he fell again and again. Some tried to catch or to stop him 
as he became more and more frightened and ran on and on. 
He finally reached a little clearing in the woods. Half dead 
from fright he fell to earth and rested here. He built a 
little fire and crouched beside it. All through the long night 
the great forest trees stretched out their arms and tried to 

1 Early Life Among the Indians, Benjamin Armstrong. 


seize him. They shrieked and groaned and made other 
frightful noises. It was a terrible experience for the old 
man. The next day a rescue party of young men found the 
old man by the embers of his fire. They carried the stricken 
man back to his village where "he was sick a long time." 

Trees sometimes punished even such powerful deities as 
the god Earthmaker. According to a Winnebago myth, Wa- 
kanda once killed a deer and was roasting some of its meat 
over a fire. While he was doing this some nearby trees began 
to sing. This irritated Wakanda and he shouted to them 
to be quiet. He did this several times, but the trees paid 
no attention to him. They continued to sing and more 
loudly than before. This made the god very angry, and 
leaving his meat he arose and struck one of them. His arm 
caught in a crotch, and despite his struggles to free it, the 
big tree held him fast. He then struck a blow with his 
other arm, and this the tree also caught and held. While he 
was thus a prisoner in the grasp of the tree, some wolves 
came along and ate all of his meat. The tree afterwards 
released Wakanda. 

Another story is told of an old Indian lady well known 
in her village for her good deeds. The Indians were collect- 
ing maple sap and she was trying to get her share. Although 
she had tapped a number of maple trees her bark buckets 
contained very little of the fluid. While she was in the forest 
a voice spoke to her from the trunk of one of the trees. 
This tree spirit told her that he would reward her for her 
goodness. Following the instructions of this mysterious 
voice she went to the tree on the following day and on its 
trunk found a lump of congealed sap. With this she scored 
the inside of her sap-boiling kettle near its rim. Thereafter, 
no matter how little sap there was in her kettle, it always 
boiled up to the mark she had made near its rim. So the 
good old lady always had an abundant supply of sweet maple 
sap, the gift of the tree spirit. 

Winnebozho once had a rather disagreeable adventure 
in a hollow tree. One day, when he happened along, he found 
Raccoon, the trickster, seated on the top of a tall dead tree. 
Raccoon called to him and began to make fun of him, re- 
minding him of his failure to accomplish this or that. Win- 
nebozho soon tired of these taunting remarks and climbed 

Indian Tree Myths and Legends 33 

the tree trunk in pursuit of his tormentor. Raccoon quickly 
slid down the hollow trunk and Winnebozho went down after 
him. The hero-god thought that he would now catch the 
mischief maker, but Raccoon made his escape by a limb hole 
part way down the trunk. Winnebozho tried to climb back 
to the top of the tree, but the wood was slippery and there 
were no hand or foot holds. He was trapped. Exerting all 
of his great strength he began to rock the trunk back and 
forth. After much exertion it broke from its roots and 
fell to the ground. Winnebozho, much shaken by the fall, 
crawled out. Raccoon had fled, but Winnebozho could hear 
his tormentor laughing loudly somewhere in the thick 
woods. * 

The "Little Indians" or fairies also often made their 
homes in hollow trees. From these places they went forth 
to hunt, fish or to dance in the forest glades. 

Manitou and Trail Trees 

In the early days of French history in the Old Northwest 
there is reported to have stood in Northern Michigan a 
manitou or spirit tree which the Indians venerated, and 
from whose branches they suspended little offerings of pieces 
of colored cloth. This may have been the same tree which 
Henry R. Schoolcraft mentions, a large mountain ash in the 
vicinity of Sault Ste. Marie which the Indians worshipped. 2 
The existence of similar trees has not been recorded from 
the Wisconsin side of the boundary. At Milwaukee, north 
of the city and a short distance beyond Kletzsch Park, there 
stands in a grassy pasture a very large elm tree. The "Big 
Elm" has a circumference, according to a measurement 
taken by Mr. Louis Pierron of Milwaukee, of 15 feet and 7 
inches, and is approximately 5 feet in diameter. This tree, 
long a landmark of this vicinity, is near the intersection of 
the Green Bay and Good Hope roads. Its distance from the 
center of either highway is about the same 150 feet. The 
particular interest of this tree monarch is that it stands on 
the line of the old Milwaukee to Green Bay Indian trail. 
According to several former old settlers of the city this tree 
was in the forties and fifties and later a favorite halting 
place (tabinoon mi tig shelter tree) for groups of Menom- 

2 American Indian, Rochester, 1851. 


inee and Potawatomi Indians moving north or south along 
the old trail. This tree, and the small strip of pasture in 
which it stands, the city or county should own and preserve. 

In the City of Milwaukee, near the intersection of West 
Wells and North Thirteenth Streets, there is reported to 
have stood in the middle 1830's a large beech tree upon the 
trunk of which there was cut an Indian figure with a bow 
in one hand and an arrow in the other. The arrow pointed 
to the south toward the Menomonee river and the bow to 
the north toward the Milwaukee river. This tree was a 
landmark on an Indian trail. It was destroyed in the im- 
provement of this part of the city. 3 

At Madison a line of tall spruce trees on the western 
shore of Lake Monona marks a portion of an old Indian trail 
running from the old Indian fording place at the foot of the 
lake early known as the "Grand Crossing" through present 
Waunona (formerly Hoboken and Esther Beach) toward 
Turvill bay and on toward Lake Wingra. These are said to 
have been planted about three fourths of a century ago to 
mark this trail by an old German gardener employed by 
William J. Anderson, former owner of a part of this land. 
In the same city a hickory tree stands on a street corner 
near the West Side high school. It once marked the inter- 
section of two Indian trails. One of these leads from the 
Lake Wingra shore northward to Lake Mendota and the 
other from the western bay of Lake Monona in a north- 
westerly direction toward Pheasant Branch. On the north 
shore of Green Lake several trail trees are reported as along 
the course of a former trail which extended through Law- 
sonia, the grounds of the former Victor Lawson estate. 

Black Hawk Trees 

Two Wisconsin trees are identified with legends concern- 
ing the Sauk Chief Black Hawk. "Visitors to Prairie du 
Chien are shown a tree in whose branches the rebel Indian 
chief, Black Hawk, is said to have secreted himself. This 
legend has no foundation in fact. After his uprising Black 
Hawk had no opportunity of visiting Prairie du Chien until 
he was brought there as a captive. Then he was at once 

3 The Wisconsin Archeologist, v. 15, No. 2, p. 104. 

Indian Tree Myths and Legends 35 

placed in the guardhouse at Fort Crawford." 4 The most 
common version of this local legend was that he sought to 
hide in this tree during an escape which he made from the 
guardhouse during his confinement at the Fort. That also 
is discredited. The old tree is now destroyed. 

In Lyndon Township, in Juneau County, northwest of the 
Wisconsin Dells, there was a large tree in whose branches 
Black Hawk and The Prophet are reported to have concealed 
themselves after their flight to this region after the defeat 
of the Sauk chief's band at the Battle of Bad Axe at the 
Mississippi river, in 1832. "An Indian boy in going along 
the trail, saw a foot in the tree and informed the friendly 
Winnebagoes, of which his people were a part and they came 
to the tree and captured Black Hawk and The Prophet." 5 Old 
settlers and their descendants in this locality believed this 
incident to be true. 

The Treaty Elm or Council Tree 

This great tree was located on Riverside Point, at the 
mouth of the Neenah Fox river in the City of Neenah. "It 
was of immense size and girth and towered above all the 
surrounding forest and could be seen from points from 5 to 
8 miles distant. Such was its prominence as a landmark 
that it was for many years used as a guide by sailors and 
steamer pilots on the lake Winnebago. In 1890, in widening 
the river, both the tree and point were cut away. It was 
beneath this monarch of the forest that Four Legs, a Win- 
nebago chief, undertook, in 1815, as had the Fox Indians 
a century previous, to halt all boatmen and exact tribute. 
To a convoy of soldiers under Gen. Leavenworth making up 
the rapids on their way to the Mississippi, he made the his- 
toric remark that "the lake was locked." At this the General 
is said to have raised his rifle with the reply, "But I have 
the key." To this the prudent old chief replied, "Then you 
may pass through." 6 Beneath the wide spreading branches 
of this tree Four Legs, Wild Cat (Pesheu), Black Wolf and 
other chiefs of lesser note of the Lake Winnebago villages 
are said to have gathered in council. A section of this tree 

4 Historic Trees in Wisconsin, Wis. Magazine of History. 

5 Letter of L. N. Coapman to Dr. Louise P. Kellogg, Jan. 10, 1938. 

6 The Wisconsin Archeologist, v. 2, Nos. 2 and 3, pp. 58-59. 


made into a table top was formerly in the log cabin home 
erected on Doty Island by James Duane Doty, governor of 
Wisconsin in the years 1841-1844. 

The Nation of the Three Fires' Tree 

This story of a confederacy of three tribes was told by 
Peter D. Sahpenaiss (Yellowbird), an old Potawatomi In- 
dian formerly residing at Carter, Wisconsin. "All tribes of 
Indians were having wars, one after another. The Chippewa 
tribe was nearly all kill, and the Ottawa Indians was the 
same nearly all kill, likewise the Potawatomies was nearly 
all kill. The Sioux Indians and Sacs Indians and many other 
tribes were killing the Ghippewas, Ottawas and Potawat- 

"The first came was the Chippewa old man was going 
through the country weeping as he walks. He come to a 
big wonderfully looking tree and he stop and set down by 
the roots and a few moments he hear somebody crying com- 
ing straight to him and he saw an old man. This was Ot- 
tawa Indian which he lost his family. Was kill by some 
other tribe of Indians. Third, the other, came too later on. 
He was crying, weeping. He also came to this wonderful 
looking tree which those two old mens was sitting by the 
roots. This was Potawatomie, who lost all his family, all 
his sons and daughters and wife was murdered by some 
other tribes of Indians. 

"Then they organized together and they started wars to 
fight other nations and were more greater and powerful. 
These three tribes were Chippewa, Elder Brother; Ottawa, 
Second, and Potawatomie, the Youngest. They organized 
as they were brothers, which is called United Nation." 

Closing Words 

This is the last of a series of eight articles prepared by 
the writer on the Indian myths, legends and stories of Wis- 
consin streams, lakes, springs, waterfalls, hills, bluffs, caves, 
rocks and trees. 

An Enigmatic Copper Artifact 37 


Gerald C. Stowe 

The early explorers who came to the New World, includ- 
ing Cartier, Allouez, Champlain, De So to, Hereot, Raleigh, 
Coronodo and others, all reported back to their respective 
countries that the strange new people they encountered 
were using weapons, ornaments, and various utilitarian tools 
and implements fashioned from native copper, most of which 
depicted a very high degree of artistic ability. 

Some of the Spanish explorers and soldiers of fortune 
learned from the Indians that in some localities there were 
fabulously rich deposits of an orange-red ore, thinking they 
were describing gold, many of these bold soldiers of fortune, 
including Coronodo, made futile searches for it over the 
North American Western Plains. What they found was 
not gold, but copper, worth far more to the early Indian 
craftsman. Gold was much too soft to be used for utilitarian 
purposes and they that had it in Mexico and other localities 
used gold for the arts and crafts. 

The early French contemporaries of the Spanish who 
came in contact with the natives, which they now called In- 
dians, found that the use of copper was far more extensive in 
and about the Great Lakes Region, especially around Lake 
Superior and in Wisconsin, where the greater number of 
copper articles have been found. 

The Indians of other regions in North America traded 
for the copper of the Superior Region, the further the trade 
extended the more valuable the copper became, until in dis- 
tant places from the supply it was used mainly for jewelry, 
especially solid and rolled beads. 

In the Lake Superior Region, especially in Wisconsin, 
near the source of supply the aborigines used copper for 
every conceivable purpose, arrow and spear heads, axes, celts, 
adzes and spuds, for awls, needles, punches, fishhooks, 
knives, pikes, jewelry, and a host of other things. 

The early Indians in their industrious search for copper 
found it in two forms, drift copper which occurs in various 
sizes in ancient glacial drift, and in veins in rock. 


In several places in Northern Wisconsin and Michigan 
have been found ancient trenches and pits dug into glacial 
drift rich in copper. At other places where copper occurs 
in veins, extensive mines covering great areas have been 
located, especially on Isle Royal in Lake Superior. To wrest 
the copper from the earth the Indians built huge fires on 
the copper bearing rock and then suddenly chilled it with 
water; concrete evidence of this is indicated by the great 
number of fire burnt stones much cracked in the manner 
that sudden changes of temperature only can accomplish 
with hard igneous rock. 

They used various methods in working the copper into 
shape; if the pieces of copper were small, especially chips 
of copper, they wore or ground them to shape by use of 
sandstone. The other method was by pounding the larger 
pieces of copper into shape by the use of stone hammers and 
mauls. In shaping it in this manner the copper became very 
hard through excessive pounding; to overcome this they 
heated the article and then suddenly chilled it, thus making 
it soft and more ductile, and thus they were able to shape 
it in its final form. They did not temper their articles as is 
sometimes thought, but the incessant pounding made the 
copper hard enough to hold an edge and point for some time. 
The Indians used three different main processes in making 
artifacts namely: (1) Silhouette and outline, (2) cut out 
or incising, and lastly, (3) pounding to shape; all the proc- 
esses being done without melting or smelting of the copper 
in any manner or form. 

"However, since early French and Jesuit explorers made 
no mention of the mining of copper, it is probable that the 
pits had been neglected and forgotten at that time." 1 

"Father Allouez in 1665 found that the savages regarded 
copper and the region where it was found with the awe 
and respect due the Divinity." 2 

The great variety of implements, ornaments and sym- 
bolic or ceremonial objects of copper are strikingly impres- 
sive from viewpoints both of industrial activity and the 
high degree of artistic achievement. 

1 Foster. John Wells, Pre Historic Races of the U. S. of America, 

p. 264 (Chicago, 1881). 

2 Beauchamp Metallic Implements of the New York Indians pp 


An Enigmatic Copper Artifact 39 

The general trend of artifacts found in graves or on 
surface finds follow a similar basic trend of composition; 
that is, artifacts for a specific purpose usually are all alike 
in construction lines, varying as to size, weight and shape 
somewhat, but not deviating to any great extent. But the 
exception to this rule occurs intermittently and there comes 
to light some new type of implement, the probable use of 
which is obscure and given much to theory by leading 

One such is a harpoon-like implement, spear shaped with 
a well developed, large thick socket. Since a spear is a 
weapon consisting of a harder penetrating head attached to 
a long shaft of wood designed to be thrust, thrown or 
launched from the hand and used for the hunt or warfare, 
this unusual copper piece could have been used in a like 

Then again according to its shape, which likens it to a 
pike pole tip, it may have had an altogether different use, 
but what use would an Indian have for a pike pole, they ran 
no logs down the streams in prehistoric times. 

This unique copper artifact, harpoon-shaped without the 
customary barb which is characteristic of the harpoon, 
makes its category fall closer to a spear or lance. It is 6% 
inches long, l%o inches wide at the socket opening, which is 
4 inches long, tapering to a point which extends for the 
short distance of 2% inches on the extremely thick, blunt 

The short blade gives it a lance-like appearance, but the 
Indians had no use for lances in the wooded regions of Wis- 
consin at this time and where this copper piece was found, 
It was unearthed a few miles west of Crandon, Wisconsin, 
by a farmer while ploughing his land. Several years later it 
was purchased by the author and remains in his collection. 

Lances were first used by the Plains Indians after the 
advent of the horse brought to the New World by the early 
Spanish explorers. The horses escaped from the Spanish, 
ran wild and the Indians caught, tamed and rode them. At 
this time the Indians became aware of the superiority of 
iron and steel for spears, arrowheads and lance heads, and 
the Indian first used a lance then with the use of a horse. 
Some of the Plains Indians still fashioned lance heads of 

Plate 1 

An Enigmatic Copper Artifact 41 

copper and some made them of flint even after the use of 
iron became almost universal amongst them. 

Since this copper artifact was found 12 inches below 
the surface, we can conclude that it was used and lost many, 
many years before any European set foot on American soil, 
so the lance theory has no plausible substantiating back- 

The blade is but 2% inches long and its peculiar feature, 
which raises much of the controversy, is its asymmetrical 
shape. A spear or lance head widens out on the blade after 
leaving the socket opening, it then runs to a point in a 
mid line with the flat side of the weapon, but not so with 
this implement. Extending forward from the edges of the 
socket part, one side of the blade extends straight from it, 
has no shoulder-like projection peculiar to a spear head, the 
other side has a well pronounced shoulder. The blade part 
on the flat side of the socket opening has a slight drop of 
nearly one quarter of an inch on one side only, somewhat 
like a low step. 

This copper has the socket, place of insertion for the 
shaft part of wood much like that of a spear, but it is some- 
what more solidly constructed and longer. The opening is 
1% inches by % inch on the open side and extends for 4 
inches. When you consider that the whole implement is 
but 6*4 inches long, it has a socket which is two-thirds of 
its entire length. 

The blade is extremely dull on the knife edges, whereas 
with a spear the edges are rather sharp. The weight of this 
copper piece is a trifle over half a- pound, being rather 
heavy for its length. The implement is in a well preserved 
state, having deep erosion cavities in some places where 
the copper has oxidized. 

Several noted Wisconsin archeologists, including Mr. 
Brown, of the Wisconsin State Historical Museum, Madison, 
and Mr. A. P. Kannenberg, archeologist of the Oshkosh Pub- 
lic Museum, Oshkosh, have placed this copper artifact in a 
class all by itself. They have never seen one similar to it 
in all their years of contact with archeological specimens in 
their own museums and other noted museums of the country. 



Walter Bubbert 

Summary of talk given before Winneconne Business Men 
at supper in the city hall on October 27, 1938 

The previous speakers from the Milwaukee Public Mu- 
seum 1 pointed out that your unique group of 50 mounds is 
of scientific importance and an important connecting link in 
the archeological chain of events. 

Your area is not new to me, for a year ago Mr. A. P. 
Kannenberg, of the Oshkosh Museum, showed several of us 
the Lasley Point mounds. My interest in the area has since 
been aroused, and during the past summer when I was 
WPA foreman at the Kenosha Art and Historical Museum, 
I continued to think out possibilities in your lake region. 

It is well to view this area you being business men as 
an important bit of hidden wealth. It is work that produces 
wealth. As in an unpolished diamond, it is the work that 
produces wealth. Here you have this renters property on 
none too productive farm land that is having difficulty meet- 
ing the tax obligations of the community. Other farm land 
in similar difficulties makes it difficult for your county to 
produce adequate tax monies. Then why not do as some 
farmers have look around for another cash crop to supple- 
ment your county treasury so as to support your necessary 
community services? 

Look upon the tourist and recreation business as the 
new cash crop. It is the fourth or fifth most important 
business in this state. Annually it brings $250,000,000 into 
your Wisconsin. Why shouldn't the traveling upstate tour- 
ist coming from the population centers be encouraged to 
stop off and view this rare Indian site? 

Thus people who play and loaf about in their vacations 
and on weekends make up one of the most important busi- 
nesses hereabouts. Its future development has untold pos- 
sibilities. With the New Deal in the form of the security 
act, more pensioners and shorter hours of labor, the people 

Dr. S. A. Barrett and W. C. McKern. 

Saving the Lasley Point Mounds 

will have more time. Not only that, but with convenient 
and speedy bus, auto and rail facilities into this area, people 
will get here quicker. With some farm land being no longer 
suitable or necessary according to successful farming stand- 
ards, it is well to replan Winnebago county with the view 
of also adjusting itself to a more steady source of income 
from blighted areas. The recreation business is the partial 
answer to strengthening your tax roll. 

By means of sound planning the assistance you can get 
from the state planning board and WPA, you can develop 
a county park. If necessary, look upon it as a self liquidat- 
ing works project and charge admission to defray the costs. 
Private interests at Eagle Cave in Wisconsin charge admis- 
sion. Even Prairie du Chien makes a profit by charging 
admission to its Villa Louis house. In several states south 
of here private capital and initiative housed worthy Indian 
mounds, charged admission and made a profit. So work pro- 
duces wealth. 

While some of you may have been disillusioned because 
your neighboring city is using most of the available county 
funds to build a magnificent court house, don't be satisfied 
to regard it as being the early bird that catches the worm. 
Remember it is the ten o'clock hawk that caught the six 
o'clock bird that caught the four o'clock worm. 




September 19, 1938. President Dr. L. S. Buttles presiding. There 
were forty members and visitors in attendance. The secretary an- 
nounced the election of Mr. C. A. Babbe, Cashton, and of Mr. Ted 
Merrell, Superior, as members. Announcement was made of the pur- 
chase by the state of several thousand additional acres of land for the 
Kettle Moraine state forest park; the preservation of a group of In- 
dian mounds on the Jordan Lake farm in Adams County of Mr. C. 
H. Kraft, of the Kraft-Phenix Cheese Corporation, Chicago; the prob- 
able destruction of Indian mound groups and sites on the Upper Wis- 
consin river through the proposed erection of waterpower dams; the 
repair of the Heim effigy mound with WPA help and the resolutions 
adopted by the city council of Lake Mills and the Jefferson county 
board, urging the Federal acquirement of the Aztalan enclosure site 
for park purposes. At Winneconne, the excavation of mounds on the 
Lasley farm site was progressing under the direction of Mr. Arthur 
P. Kannenberg, archeologist of the Oshkosh Public Museum. A reso- 
lution adopted by the Central Section, American Anthropological 
Association, thanking the Society for its assistance in making its Mil- 
waukee meeting the success that it was, was read. 

The program of the meeting consisted of a talk given by Dr. 
Alton K. Fisher on "Some Problems Regarding Prehistoric Popula- 
tion," and another by Mr. W. C. McKern on "Recent Work Outside 
the State Which Relates to Wisconsin Archeology." Both were very 
interesting and instructive and were followed by discussions in which 
a number of the members participated. It is expected to publish both 
addresses in The Wisconsin Archeologist. At the close of the meeting 
Mr. H. 0. Zander exhibited a stone adze from a Wisconsin site and 
a large stone spud from Tennessee. 

October 17, 1938. President Buttles presiding. Sixty members 
and guests were present. Secretary Brown announced the election to 
membership by the board of directors of new members: Mr. Ray- 
mond Roberge, Tomahawk; Mrs. Fred Bills, Oshkosh; Herbert 
Neuschwander, Hustisford, and William Willoughby, Jr., Westfield, 
New Jersey. The last two were junior members. Mr. Arthur P. 
Kannenberg spoke of the impending purchase of the Adams lands, 
near Winneconne, by another farmer, and explained that this would 
result in the destruction of the Lasley Mounds, in the investigation 
of which he had already spent two summers. He asked the assistance 
of the Society, if possible, in avoiding this calamity and securing the 
preservation of the mounds and the site in a state or county park. 
On this 60 acre tract of woodland and brush land are located a large 
group of mounds, cairns, plots of garden beds and corn hills, caches, 
pits and other interesting archeological features which it was de- 
sired to investigate. After the matter had been discussed by the 
Messrs. Dr. S. A. Barrett. W. C. McKern, Dr. Buttles, Walter Bubbert, 
Ralph N. Buckstaff, Milton F. Hulburt, Charles E. Brown, and other 
members, and the desirable preservation of the tract as an archeolog- 
ical park approved by the meeting. President Buttles, on the motion 
of Mr. Charles G. Schoewe. appointed a committee consisting of the 
Messrs. Buckstaff, Hulburt. McKern. Bubbert, and Kannenberg. to 
consider the possible acquirement of the land and preservation of its 
prehistoric Indian works. 

Archeological Notes 45 

Rev. Mr. Leland R. Cooper delivered an address on the excavation, 
with WPA and other assistance, of the site of the first Fort Crawford 
at Prairie du Chien. This interesting talk he illustrated with lantern 
slides, showing the progress of the excavation, and with numerous 
specimens of military and other material obtained from the floors of 
the various rooms of this early American frontier fort. The outlines 
of the walls and rooms were being preserved and the specimens would 
be shown in a building remodeled for museum purposes. Mr. Schoewe, 
Dr. Barrett, and others discussed the interest of this archeological 
and historical project. The thanks of the meeting were given to the 
speaker for his interesting talk. 

Mr. L. W. Buker gave a talk on an Indian cave shelter excavated 
by himself at Edgmont, South Dakota, and exhibited the stone and 
other implements obtained during this excavation. Mr. Paul Scholz 
exhibited a collection of flint scrapers of various forms and a very 
small native copper knife, and Mr. Ringeisen several stone celts, pot- 
sherds, a piece of native copper, and other specimens collected by him- 
self during improvements made by WPA Workmen in Lincoln Park, the 
old Lindwurm site on the Upper Milwaukee river, at Milwaukee. Dr. 
Fisher, chairman of the program committee, reported on the programs 
of future meetings. 

November 21, 1938. President Buttles conducted the meeting. 
Forty-five members and visitors were present. The election to mem- 
bership of Miss Marjorie Bullock, Oshkosh; Mr. Dean Swift, Edger- 
ton, and Mr. John P. Barr, Camp Douglas, was announced. Mr. 
McKern and Mr. Bubbert reported on a dinner meeting which they 
had attended at Winneconne with Dr. Barrett on November 3rd. At 
this meeting with county board members, city officials of Oshkosh and 
other Winnebago County cities and others, the preservation of the 
Lasley Mounds and site in a county park was considered. The three 
men spoke in behalf of this preservation plan and of the future edu- 
cational value of such a park to the citizens of the county. Secretary 
Brown announced that on November 14th and 15th he had gone to 
Oshkosh and spoken at meetings of the Rotary Club. County Park 
Commission and the Winnebago County Archeological and Historical 
Society in furtherance of the same undertaking. Good progress was 
being made by Messrs. Buckstaff and Kannenberg in advancing this 
undertaking toward a successful end. 

Mr. H. 0. Zander introduced the matter of the participation of 
members of the Society in the coming hobby show at the Milwaukee 
Auditorium. It was considered to be too late to arrange a suitable 
archeological exhibit for the present show. President Buttles appointed 
the Messrs. Hartman, Zander and Schoewe a committee to consider 
the installation of an exhibit at the Spring hobby show at the Boston 

The evening's program consisted of a talk given by Secretary C. 
E. Brown on "The Charter Archeologists of The Wisconsin Archeolog- 
ical Society." In this address he gave brief descriptions of the about 
one hundred men who organized the Society in the years 1901-1903, 
of their collections, archeological researches, lectures and publications, 
and the assistance given by them to Wisconsin museums then in 
existence and the organization of others. He paid a high tribute to 
these men and to those who in the succeeding years had been active 
in laying the foundations for the Society's success. Mr. John G. 
Gregory. Mr. 0. L. Hollister. Mr. Lee R. Whitney, Mr. Gustav R. 
Zilisch. and Mr. Charles A. Koubeck, surviving charter members, fol- 
lowed Mr. Brown with interesting talks. 

Halvor Lars Skavlem 

Problems in Physical Anthropology 

Triangular Arrowpoints 




Accepted for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103 
Act, Oct. 3. 1917. Authorized Jan. 28, 1921. 

VOLUME 19, No. 3 

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JitarottBttt Arrlfr0l0gtral 


Incorporated March 23, 1903, for the purpose of advancing the study 
and preservation of Wisconsin antiquities 



Dr. L. S. Buttles 


T. L. Miller E. E. Steene Dr. A. K. Fisher 

A. P. Kannenberg W. E. Erdman 


Dr. S. A. Barrett Jos. Ringeisen, Jr. 


W. K. Andrew Rev. Chr. Hjermstad Marie G. Kohler 

Dr. W. H. Brown P. W. Hoffmann Dr. H. W. Kuhm 

Walter Bubbert M. F. Hulburt W. C. McKern 

H. W. Cornell Zida C. Ivey Louis Pierron 

Rev. F. S. Dayton Paul Joers A. W. Pond 

Kermit Freckman Dr. A. L. Kastner E. F. Richter 

Arthur Gerth Dr. Louise P. Kellogg C. G. Schoewe 

John G. Gregory R. J. Kieckhefer Paul Scholz 

R. B. Hartman J. J. Knudsen R. S. Van Handel 

Frederic Heath Mrs. Theo. Koerner G. R. Zilisch 


G. M. Thome 
917 N. Forty-ninth Street, Milwaukee, Wis. 


Charles E. Brown 
State Historical Museum, Madison, Wis. 



STATE SURVEY W. E. Erdman, Robert R. Jones, A. P. Kannenberg, 

D. A. Blencoe, Kermit Freckman, V. E. Motschenbacher, G. E. 
Overton, O. L. Hollister, J. P. Schumacher, Rev. Chr. Hjermstad, 

F. M. Neu, M. P. Henn, H. F. Feldman, V. S. Taylor, M. F. 

MOUND PRESERVATION C. G. Schoewe, Dr. Louise P. Kellogg, 
T. L. Miller, Mrs. W. J. Devine, Dr. L. V. Sprague, Mrs. H. A. 
Olson, Prof. R. S. Owen, A. H. Griffith, A. W. Pond, R. S. Van 
Handel, G. L. Pasco, W. S. Dunsmoor, Walter Bubbert, Louis 

PUBLIC COLLECTIONS Dr. S. A. Barrett, C. E. Brown, N. C. 
Behncke, H. L. Ward, Rev. F. S. Dayton, A. H. Sanford, W. M. 
Babcock, H. R. Holand, Miss Marie G. Kohler, Dr. P. H. Nesbitt, 
R. N. Buckstaff. 

MEMBERSHIP Dr. H. W. Kuhm, G. M. Thome, Paul Joers, N. E. 
Carter, Dr. W. H. Brown, H. A. Zander, Paul Scholz, W. K. 
Andrew, Paul W. Hoffmann, A. E. Koerner, Mrs. Zida C. Ivey, 

E. R. Guentzel, Mrs. Theo. Koerner. 

A. H. Sanford, Walter Bubbert. 

PUBLICITY W. C. McKern, M. C. Richter, A. 0. Barton, Victor S. 


BIOGRAPHY Rachel M. Campbell, Dr. E. J. W. Notz, E. F. Richter, 

G. R. Zilisch, Paul Joers, Arthur Gerth. 

FRAUDULENT ARTIFACTS Jos. Ringeisen, Jr., E. F. Richter, 
W. C. McKern, C. G. Schoewe. 

PROGRAM Dr. A. K. Fisher, H. W. Cornell, E. E. Steene. 
PUBLICATIONS C. E. Brown, Dr. A. K. Fisher, Dr. H. W. Kuhm. 

Heath, Dr. A. L. Kastner, R. J. Kieckhefer, L. R. Whitney, J. G. 
Gregory, Walter Bubbert, Louis Pierron. 

LAPHAM RESEARCH MEDAL Dr. S. A. Barrett, Dr. A. L. Kastner, 
C. G. Schoewe, M. C. Richter, H. W. Cornell. 


Life Members, $25.00 Endowment Members, $500.00 

Sustaining Members, $5.00 Annual Members, $2.00 

Institutional Members, $1.50 Junior Members, $ .50 

All communications in regard to The Wisconsin Archeological Society should 
be addressed to Charles E. Brown, Secretary and Curator, Office, State Historical 
Museum, Madison, Wisconsin. Contributions to The Wisconsin Archeologist should 
be addressed to him. Dues should be sent to G. M. Thome, Treasurer, 917 N. 
49th Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 


Vol. 19, No. 3, New Series 


Halvor Lars Skavlem, 

Charles E. Brown _ 47 

Problems in Physical Anthropology in Wisconsin, 

Alton K. Fisher 50 


Martha B. Watkins 56 

Silver Indian Trade Cross 58 

Triangular Arrowpoints, 

Charles E. Brown. 59 

Pipestone 64 

Kitchen Archaeology 66 

Archeological Notes. _. _ 67 

Silver Trade Cross .Frontispiece 

Plate Page 
1. Triangular Arrowpoints 60 

George FUskerd Collection 


Published Quarterly by The Wisconsin Archeological Society 

VOL ' 19 New Series N ' 3 


Charles E. Brown 

Halvor L. Skavlem, veteran Wisconsin archeologist, died 
on Thursday, January 5th, at his Janes ville home. He was 
ninety-three years of age. Mr. Skavlem, known throughout 
the United States for his investigations of the art of Indian 
flint implement manufacture, became a member of The Wis- 
consin Archeological Society in about the year 1908. At 
this time, with Dr. Arlow B. Stout, then a student of the 
University of Wisconsin, he undertook a survey and in- 
vestigations of the Indian remains and history of Lake 
Koshkonong. The results of this survey were published by 
the Society in an illustrated report, "The Archeology of Lake 
Koshkonong." Of this report Mr. Skavlem himself wrote 
the section devoted to a description of the Indian village 
sites on its shores. 

From that time he continued his archeological studies. 
With the then young Alonzo Pond as his assistant he en- 
gaged in an archeological survey of Rock Lake at Lake Mills 
and conducted other investigations near Indian Ford, at 
Af ton and elsewhere in Rock County. In 1914 he published 
in The Wisconsin Archeologist an article describing the 
"Indian Hill Mounds," a large and interesting group of round 
and linear earthworks located at the mouth of the Catfish 
river near Indian Ford and Fulton, and another article de- 
scribing "The Popplow Cache," a hoard of flint disks un* 
earthed near Lake Koshkonong in 1912.* In these years he 
often spoke at meetings of the Society and participated in 

* The Wisconsin Archeologist, Vol. 7, No. 2. 


some of the programs of its annual joint meetings with the 
Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, of which he was also a 

Mr. Skavlem was the owner of a large farm on the north- 
west shore of Lake Koshkonong and at his summer cottage 
home located here archeologists and naturalists from all 
parts of Wisconsin and from other states gathered for visits 
and conferences during his residence there from April to 
November. Located on this Carcajou farm there is an 
Indian village site. From this site he made a large collec- 
tion of Indian implements, ornaments and village refuse 
which he presented to the State Historical Museum at Mad- 
ison. In the past twenty years this fine collection has proved 
an inspiration and help to hundreds of archeologists and 
students. The last known chief of a Winnebago village 
located at Carcajou was the noted White Crow of the Black 
Hawk War period (1882) , To the memory of Kaw-ray-kaw- 
saw-kaw Mr. Skavlem erected a boulder marker on the site 
of his village, he himself chiseling the inscription on its 

In the year 1912 Mr. Skavlem began a serious study of 
the methods employed by the Indians in the manufacture 
of flint arrow and spearpoints and of stone axes and celts. 
After studying all of the very fragmentary literature then 
available on the subject of aboriginal flint working he set 
to work to duplicate with their own primitive tools the arti- 
facts found on the village site located on his own farm. In 
this undertaking he was very successful. Examples of his 
stone art are in Wisconsin and other museums to whom he 
presented them. In an illustrated monograph, "Primitive 
Methods of Working Stone. Based on Experiments of Halvor 
L. Skavlem," published by the Logan Museum of Beloit Col- 
lege, in 1930, Alonzo W. Pond has given a fine account of 
Mr. Skavlem's achievements in this field of anthropological 

In these years the writer and Mr. Skavlem made a visit 
to the Chippewa river region in Rusk County to conduct 
some preliminary archeological investigations. In the party 
was a man of Indian blood who wished to know of the man- 
ner in which the Indians of northern Wisconsin had made 
their flint arrowpoints. He had made inquiries of old Indians 

Halvor Lara Skavlem 49 

whom he knew, but without being able to obtain any reliable 
information. Some thought that they had been made by a 
"little bug" that stirred up little whirlwinds of dust in dusty 
places. This man was astonished when Mr. Skavlem told 
him that he would himself make an arrowhead for him. 
When the party reached Flambeau P. 0. at the mouth of 
the Flambeau river, Mr. Skavlem procured a piece of beef 
bone which he whittled to a blunt point. No flint was avail- 
able so he broke into pieces with a stone hammer a beer 
bottle which happened to be lying near by. Seated on the 
steps of the local tavern boarding house he fashioned glass 
arrowheads for an interested audience of Indians and half 
breeds which soon appeared. Later during the progress of 
the party down the Chippewa, people came for miles across 
country to meet the arrowmaker. The news of his presence 
had gone before. In that region the fame of his exploits 
continues to this day although his name has been forgotten. 

Mr. Skavlem also possessed a rare knowledge of the 
geology, plant and animal life of his home region. In- 
vestigators in these natural science fields also frequently 
visited his Lake Koshkonong cottage home. He was often 
referred to as the "John Burroughs of Lake Koshkonong." 
His library in his Janesville home was a large and valuable 
one. He was a great reader and in his reading and studies 
kept up well with the progress of natural science and anthro- 

His grandparents were pioneer Scandinavian settlers of 
the Town of Newark, Rock County. Here he was born on 
October 3, 1846. In 1873 he married Dunnil Ommelstad of 
Plymouth and in 1880 moved to Janesville. On December 19, 
1938, Mr. and Mrs. Skavlem celebrated their 65th wedding 

Mr. Skavlem held during his life several public offices 
in Rock County. He served as its sheriff and as a member 
of its county board of supervisors. He was a member of 
several Wisconsin historical and scientific societies. Archeol- 
ogists, historians, museists and biologists throughout Wis- 
consin mourn the passing of this "grand old man." Dur- 
ing the years of a long and busy life many young investiga- 
tors have received help and real inspiration from him. 



Alton K. Fisher 

It was generally believed until recently that the Amer- 
ican Indians were a homogeneous people a racial unit which 
showed but slight physical variation within its bounds. 
Less than 20 years ago a widely known American archeol- 
ogist said that he believed studies of prehistoric Indian skele- 
tons would show little physical variation among the various 
culture groups and therefore would be of little value in the 
solution of archeological problems. 

The last 15 years, however, have seen great advances in 
American archeology. Great quantities of cultural and 
physical anthropological specimens have been collected. 
Studies of the skeletal material have been and are being 
made, and although the results of these studies are not yet 
conclusive, they indicate strongly that the numerous pre- 
historic Indian groups had varying physical peculiarities 
which now may become useful in helping to solve some of 
the problems in American archeology. 

Sufficient work has already been done to show that the 
American Indian population was not homogeneous. The 
present available evidence indicates that in prehistoric times 
North and South America were populated over many cen- 
turies by successive migrations from Asia. Apparently all 
of these immigrants were members of that most numerous 
of human stocks the Mongoloid. 

Within the Mongoloid stock itself there is a great range 
of variation which has given rise to numerous sub-groups, 
and which makes it possible to distinguish an Eskimo from 
a Chinese, a Pottowatomie from a Japanese, a Siamese from 
a Magyar. Probably many of the migration waves which 
came to prehistoric America were distinct and different 
Mongoloid sub-groups. Very likely many of these sub- 
groups differed from preceding and succeeding waves in 
physical, linguistic, and cultural characteristics. These peo- 
ple spread over the western world, some of them perma- 

Problems in Physical Anthropology in Wisconsin 51 

nently establishing themselves in certain localities, while 
others settled down for only a short time and then were on 
the march again. 

The migrations over the new land were slow, sometimes 
almost imperceptible. Throughout the centuries these jour- 
neys took them from one end of the continent to the other 
and sometimes part way back again. 

Causes for these movements of the population may have 
been a changing food supply, a search for more desirable 
country, pressure from hostile neighbors, or a combination 
of these and other factors. 

Those people who settled permanently in isolated locali- 
ties developed a culture which* in many cases was their 
original culture modified by the demands of their new 
environment. Their isolation often permitted the standardi- 
zation of their physical characteristics. Those people who 
moved about or were in contact with migrating people fre- 
quently had their cultural and physical characters modified 
through their relations with their new associates. 

All of these factors operating through many thousands 
of years produced a distinct cultural and racial evolution in 
the New World. The problem which faces anthropology is 
the development of an exact history of this evolutionary 
process and a description of the mechanisms through which 
the changes occurred. All of the component sciences of 
anthropology are required in the solution, and of these 
sciences physical anthropology is not the least. 

A few of the questions in problems of prehistory which 
physical anthropology helps to answer are : Who were these 
people ? What did they look like ? Whom were they related 
to? Where did they come from? Who were their ancestors ? 

These are good questions, too, in a discussion of the pre- 
historic population of Wisconsin. Answering these ques- 
tions about the Wisconsin area, however, is more difficult 
than for many other parts of the country. The reason is 
to be found in the geographical peculiarities of the region. 

Wisconsin is on the western edge of the woodland area, 
and it is on the eastern edge of the great American plains. 
Wisconsin is at the head of the Mississippi valley and it is 
not far from the southern limits of the Canadian barren 


The St. Lawrence river and the Great Lakes provide an 
excellent route for travel between Wisconsin and the eastern 
part of the country. As a result, many eastern tribes jour- 
neyed to Wisconsin over that waterway, some of them mak- 
ing their homes here, and others soon moving on to the south 
and west. The Mississippi river provides a highway from 
the Gulf of Mexico to Wisconsin, and its tributaries connect 
it to lands lying at the feet of the Rocky and Allegheny 

Is it any wonder, then, that Wisconsin should contain 
the remains of many cultures and peoples existing at one 
time or another within a radius of a thousand miles? 

Some of these cultures and peoples were contemporaries ; 
others were not. Sometimes the contemporaries lived close 
together, and in other instances hostilities kept them sepa- 
rate. Sometimes succeeding peoples dwelt upon the camp- 
sites of their predecessors, casting their refuse upon already 
ancient rubbish heaps, and burying their dead in already 
occupied cemeteries. Sometimes a people selected sites for 
their villages which had never been used prior to their 
arrival and were never used again after their departure. 

This state of affairs would seem to be confusing, and the 
student of anthropology often finds it so. But there are 
advantages. The sites occupied by but a single group yield 
materials which enable the archeologist to reconstruct the 
culture of that group, and the associated cemeteries produce 
the skeletons which enable the physical anthropologist to 
determine the physical characteristics of the people. Sites 
occupied by several groups of people give clues which make 
it possible to determine the sequence of their occupancy. 

To the physical anthropologist perhaps the first and most 
important question concerning the prehistoric population of 
Wisconsin is: What did the people look like? Obviously, 
the only way the question can be answered is by a careful 
study of the skeletons of the people under consideration. 

A problem now arises. Where can an adequate supply 
of skeletal material for study be obtained? Scientific insti- 
tutions, such as museums and universities, send archeo- 
logical expeditions into the field to get anthropological data 
and specimens. But the funds available for this type of 
work are usually limited and as a result the skeletal collec- 

Problems in Physical Anthropology in Wisconsin 53 

tions in these institutions are not as adequate as they 
might be. 

There is, however, another source of material. There 
are great numbers of amateur archeologists in the country 
who have made small private archeological collections. Often 
these collections contain one or more skulls and occasionally 
other parts of the skeleton. What a welcome addition these 
specimens would make to already existing but scant osteo- 
logical collections! 

In the private collection these bones do not usually form 
part of a series of studied specimens. Their scientific value 
is thus nil and their worth as decorative pieces is ques- 

If amateur archeologists were only aware of how much 
they could further the study of our prehistoric population 
by contributing specimens to institutions where research is 
carried on, it is probable that their interest in science might 
impel them to make the worthwhile sacrifice. Then, too, 
if these archeologists by avocation were aware of the im- 
portance and great need of prehistoric skeletons, they would 
take especial care to preserve for study not only the skulls 
but ALL parts of any skeleton found. They would be im- 
pelled by their interest in archeology to urge others who 
find ancient human bones in farming, engineering, and other 
occupations to preserve these specimens for study, for they 
are the last record this world shall ever have of a now 
vanished people. When an unattractive prehistoric bone is 
carelessly tossed aside, or idly ground into dust, a page is 
actually torn from the history of the human race. 

After studying prehistoric skeletons and determining 
what the people looked like, an attempt is made to tell who 
they were. Physical characteristics will usually establish 
racial affinity without much difficulty, but it is necessary 
to exchange data with the archeologist who has studied 
the cultural manifestations of this same people before a 
reasonably accurate identification can be made. Having suc- 
ceeded in this, we now have a moderately complete descrip- 
tion of the bodies, customs, and material culture of the peo- 
ple under study. 

It often happens that we are interested in knowing more 
about a people than details of their appearance, the mode 


of their existence, their implements or their clothes. We 
want to know whom they were related to and where they 
originally came from. These questions bring new problems, 
but the solution requires the same technique used in answer- 
ing the other questions. Again it is necessary to study the 
skeletons and cultural detritus from large numbers of pre- 
historic village sites not only from Wisconsin but from all 
over the continent and some day, perhaps, from all over 
the world. 

By making maps of the distribution of the various racial 
groups we can learn the geographical areas which they occu- 
pied. By a similar treatment of cultural data it is possible 
to learn much of the distribution of culture traits. If the 
available information is complete and extensive enough it 
may be possible actually to trace out the routes of migration. 

If careful stratigraphic studies are made of habitation 
sites all over the continent it will be possible to learn much 
of the time sequence of the population groups. It is interest- 
ing to note that tree ring studies in the Southwest have 
made it possible to give definite dates to sites occupied there 
in prehistoric times. Similar studies are being made for 
Wisconsin but the results have not yet been published. 

The origin of the American Indians and their racial inter- 
relationships are broad questions. Their host of sub-ques- 
tions are not necessarily more simple to answer, but must 
be solved before it is possible to approach the larger issues 
intelligently. Archeological research in Wisconsin alone can- 
not determine the origin of the American Indian, nor de- 
termine the physical characteristics of all American Indians. 

The job in Wisconsin at the moment is to discover (1) 
what the Indians who lived here looked like (2) who they 
were (3) when they lived here. Before the other problems 
related to prehistoric populations can be solved, archeo- 
logical work in the various parts of the country must be 
completed. Prehistoric culture distribution is being worked 
out for Wisconsin with considerable success. Little progress 
has been made so far in determining the relative periods in 
which successive culture groups flourished, although re- 
cently obtained data is beginning to point the way. At 
present we know little about the personal appearance of 
prehistoric Indians in this region, largely because an ade- 
quate supply of material has not been available. 

Problems in Physical Anthropology in Wisconsin 55 

How can this condition be remedied ? A closer co-opera- 
tion between amateur archeologists and recognized scientific 
institutions will help tremendously. And it must be remem- 
bered that accuracy is vastly important in scientific work. 
Not only is it important to study a skull or skeleton, but it 
is equally important to know exactly where the specimen 
came from, exactly what the nature of the burial was, ex- 
actly what kind of pottery and artifacts were associated with 
the burial, and any other pertinent data. 

Accompanied by such information, the skull or skeleton 
becomes a scientific specimen. Lacking this information it 
becomes a sophomoric relic. 



Martha B. Watkins 

The publication in the December, 1938, issue of The Wis- 
consin Archeologist of a paper on "Indian Tree Myths and 
Legends," contributed by Dorothy M. Brown, brings to mind 
another Wisconsin tree having Indian associations. This 
large oak tree, designated by the pioneer Norwegian settlers 
of the Town of Newark, Rock County, as the "Indi-Eiken" 
or "Indian Oak," stood by the side of a fine spring near a 
passing well-worn Indian trail. Both the spring and the 
tree are now gone. 

This tree and its surroundings are briefly described by 
Halvor L. Skavlem in his book, "The Skavlem and 6de- 
gaarden Families," a genealogical record and pioneer his- 
tory of these pioneer families, published in 1915. "It was a 
very large dead-looking tree, there being but a shell of the 
outside left for two-thirds around, the inside being rotted 
and burned out. 'Our Folks' claimed that there was evi- 
dence of its having been used by the Indians as a fireplace 
more than once." A fire built in the hollow of its trunk was 
sheltered from the wind and burned longer and gave forth 
more heat than if built in the open. 

This tree stood at a distance of about "forty rods" from 
the Skavlem house. It was a place where the Winnebago 
Indians traveling over this trail halted for rest and refresh- 
ment. Mr. Skavlem's grandfather, Halvor Aae, once had 
occasion to go to the spring in the dusk of the evening to 
get a bucket of water. "As he reached down into the 'water 
hole' to fill his bucket he noticed two men by a little fire 
they had kindled in the hollow side of a large tree near by. 
He greeted them 'good evening' in the Norwegian language. 
Receiving no reply he concluded to go over and investigate 
a bit. They proved to be two blanket Indians cooking some 
meat on a forked stick." As other redmen passing back and 
forth over this old pathway stopped at the tree and spring 
the big oak obtained the name of "Indi-Eiken," which mem- 
bers of the Skavlem family and other early Norwegian 
settlers gave to it. Among other Indians who halted here 

Indi-Eiken 57 

is said to have been the noted Winnebago chief Spotted Arm 
(Mau ha kee tshump kaw) who had a village in the 1830's, on 
the Sugar River. 

This trail, of which Mr. Skavlem gives a rather detailed 
description, ran towards the present site of Orfordville and 
on to the Sugar river. In his book Mr. Skavlem names the 
Indian chiefs of the Rock river Winnebago villages of this 
period and gives the location of their villages. 

There are in various parts of Wisconsin other trees with 
present or former Indian associations, the interesting history 
of which should be collected and recorded while there is still 
the opportunity to do this. 



The large and fine Indian silver cross shown in the 
frontispiece of this issue of The Wisconsin Archeologist is 
in the collection of George Flaskerd of Minneapolis, a mem- 
ber of the Minnesota Archeological Society. It is the second 
largest specimen of these Indian trade ornaments as yet 
found in Wisconsin or Minnesota. Its owner gives its dimen- 
sions as length 10% inches, width 7 inches and thickness 
1/32 of an inch. 

Its roulette ornamentation is crude but interesting. This 
cross was found in 1889 by Geo. Oakes on the Fort Snelling 
Reservation, near Minneapolis, Minnesota. In several past 
issues of The Wisconsin Archeologist, Wisconsin silver and 
other trade crosses are described. The attention of the 
society should be called to others or to any other noteworthy 
Indian silver ornaments which may be found. 

See The Wisconsin Archeologist, Vol. 9, No. 4 and Vol. 17, 
No. 4, New Series. 

Triangular Arrowpoints 59 


Charles E. Brown 

The recent examination of a small box of unnotched 
triangular arrowpoints obtained during the excavation of 
an Indian site at Butte des Morts, Winnebago County, Wis- 
consin, by Mr. Arthur P. Kannenberg, for the Oshkosh Pub- 
lic Museum, showed triangular points of a considerable 
variety of form. All were of small size, thin and well chipped. 
All but two or three were made of flint, the others being 
made of quartzite. A study of these and similar points in 
Wisconsin collections has prompted an attempt at a simple 
and useful classification of triangular arrowpoints and such 
as may prove useful to collectors throughout the state. Many 
thousands of such points have, been found in Wisconsin. 

Class A 

Unnotched triangular points with three sides of equal 
or nearly equal length (equilateral triangles). They are 
generally of small size and from one-half inch to one and a 
quarter inches in length. Most are thin, a few are diamond 
or lenticular in section. 

Form 1. With three straight edges. This is the com- 
monest form of triangular arrowpoint and is distributed 
pretty well over the length and breadth of the state. 

Form 2. Similar to the foregoing but with the two sides 
serrated or saw toothed. Not a common form. 

Form 3. With two straight sides and a concave base. 
A fairly common form. 

Form 4. With straight sides and angular indented base. 
Rare form. 

Form 5. Similar to the foregoing but with the base 
rather deeply concave, forming barbs. A rare form. 

Form 6. With concave sides and base. A common 



Vol. 19, No. 3 

Form 7. With straight sides and a convex base. A 
fairly common form. 

Form 8. With convex sides and base. A fairly common 

Form 9. With convex sides and straight base. A fairly 
common form. 


Plate 1 

Class B 

Unnotched triangular points with long sides and a narrow 
base (isosceles triangle). Length from 1^4 to 2 or more 
inches. Thin and generally well chipped. 

Form 1. With straight sides and base. Common form, 
quite widely distributed. 

Triangular Arrowpoints 

Form 2. Similar to the foregoing with serrated or saw 
toothed sides and a straight base. Uncommon form. 

Form 3. With the sides straight and a concave base. 
Not common. 

Form 4. With sides and base concave. Not common. 

Form 5. With convex sides and a straight base. Not 

Form 6. With convex sides and base. Not common. 

Class C 

Notched triangular points. Long slender points. Called 
"Aztalan Points." 

Form 1. With round or square notches on the sides near 
the base. 

Form 2. Similar to the foregoing but with a round or 
square notch in the base. 

Form 3. Sides with two notches, base notched. Rare 

Fine specimens of these three forms have been found 
on and near the site of the enclosure at Aztalan, on the 
Crawfish river, in Jefferson County. Very few have been 
found elsewhere. In the Buffalo Lake and Lake Puckaway 
regions in Wisconsin numerous quartzite triangular points 
have been found on some village sites. 

In Recent Archeological Literature 

A mass of information concerning triangular flint arrow- 
points, their uses and distribution has been published. A 
few references to such points which have appeared in recent 
archeological reports may be quoted. 

Dr. Warren K. Moorehead in "A Report of the Susque- 
hanna Expedition," Andover, 1938, mentions the finding of 
large numbers of the very large Algonkin triangular points 
on the mainland. "On Great Island the triangular with 


equilateral sides predominates. The fine isosceles triangular 
point of the later Iroquois, made of the finest translucent 
flint, is found here and there, and especially where Iroquois 
pottery fragments predominate. The older Andaste tri- 
angular points recovered from fire pits are not so fine." 
(Archeology of the West Branch in Pennsylvania.) 

John F. Bradley, archaeologist, describes and figures six 
triangular points of broad based forms found in a rock- 
shelter at Fort Ticonderoga. (Bulletin of the Champlain 
Valley Archeological Society, December, 1937.) 

Donald A. Cadzow, archeologist of the Pennsylvania His- 
torical Commission, in "Archeological Studies of the Sus- 
quehannock Indians of Pennsylvania," Harrisburg, 1936, 
says : "Like their linguistic relatives to the north and south 
the Susquehannocks favored the triangular stone arrow- 
point." Those which he illustrates have both straight and 
concave bases, some have concave or convex sides. 

William A. Ritchie, in his description of "A Prehistoric 
Fortified Village Site at Canandaigua, N. Y.," says : "Prob- 
ably all of the projectile points were used as arrows, the 
javelin and spearpoint never yet appearing in this horizon. 
They are uniformly thin, finely flaked, and predominately 
triangular in shape, with slightly concave bases. The 
length range is from %" to 2%", but only two are over 
134" long. These reposed among the bones of human skele- 
tons." Some were broken. "Many of the latter were no 
doubt discarded at the village where new points were refitted 
to replace those broken in the hunt." This was a Seneca 
site. (Rochester Museum of Arts and Sciences, 1936.) 

In a report on "A Unique Prehistoric Workshop Site," 
in Meredith Township, Delaware County, N. Y., Mr. Ritchie 
illustrates a number of triangular points. Some of these 
have concave curved and others indented bases. (Rochester 
Museum of Arts and Sciences, April, 1938.) 

W. J. Wintemberg in his report on the Roebuck Pre- 
historic Village Site, Grenville County, Ontario, says : "A 

Triangular Arrowpoints 

few of the stone points are of the triangular type generally 
called "war points." (Bulletin No. 83, National Museum of 
Canada, 1936.) 

Emerson F. Greenman in his report on "The Younge 
Site" in Lapeer County, Michigan, mentions the finding of 
triangular unnotched and notched points. (Michigan Mu- 
seum of Anthropology, No. 6, 1937.) 

"An Analysis of the Fort Ancient Culture" shows tri- 
angular arrowpoints with a narrow base, and those with 
serrated edges to be among the culture determinants for 
the Fort Ancient Aspect of the Fort Ancient Culture. (Mich- 
igan Museum of Anthropology, Ann Arbor, March, 1935.) 

Waldo R. Wedel in "An Introduction to Pawnee Archaeol- 
ogy," Nebraska, says : "Triangular unnotched points appear 
to be the rule at the earlier sites. They are seldom more 
than 11/4 inches long or more than % of an inch wide, quite 
thin and generally of good workmanship." (Bulletin 112, 
Bureau of American Ethnology.) 

In his paper "Stone Art," published in the 1891-92 
Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, Gerard Fowke 
describes nine forms of triangular points and gives their 
distribution as then known. 



Pipestone, Minnesota. Pipestone today, a hustling city 
of nearly 4,000 souls, nestles down in the southwestern cor- 
ner of the state of Minnesota ; the county bordering- on South 
Dakota on the west, and twenty miles to the south is the 
Iowa line. Four railroads and three trunk highways make 
the city highly accessible from all directions. 

The Government Indian Training School with 250 pupils 
is located here on the reservation adjacent to the city. Pipe- 
stone also possesses a handsome Harmon Playfield with a 
large Municipal swimming pool, the city having been desig- 
nated in the Harmon Foundation award, as one of the 52 
outstanding cities in its class in the United States. 

The city of Pipestone is 1,738 feet above mean sea level. 
The soil of the farm land in the county is rich in fertility. 

The history of Pipestone differs entirely from that of all 
other points in America. 

While the early Red Man fought always to hold that 
which he rightly claimed as his own ; while white men set- 
tlers were murdered, scalped; while blood flowed unstint- 
ingly between savage, warring tribes; there was ever one 
place where peace pervaded ; where all tribes gathered under 
the benediction of the Great Spirit; where they could meet 
around the Council Fires, smoke the Peace Pipe, and carve 
the soft red rock from the Sacred Quarry, which they truly 
believed was the flesh of their fathers. 

It was here along the stream known as the Pipestone, 
its beautiful precipice and cataract unmarred by the white 
marauders, where were still to be seen the hallowed tracks 
of giant birds which had rested on the ledge of Red Rock 
on the edge of the Coteau des Prairies ; where lingered the 
shadows of the mystic Three Sisters, giant glacial boulders ; 
and where later the Great Spirit hatched out of an egg, in 
a clap of thunder, the first man, from whom all succeeding 
tribes of Red Men emanated it was this sacred spot, his 
Garden of Eden that the Indian most jealously guarded. 

Pipestone 65 

George Catlin, the first white man to succeed in reaching 
the forbidden ground, came here in 1836. Near the present 
site of St. Peter, Catlin and his guide were met by a band of 
Sioux Indians who warned them that white men were not 
permitted to trespass on their sacred ground and that to 
proceed farther would endanger their lives. They pleaded 
that the red stone was a part of their flesh, and that it would 
be sacrilegious for white man to touch it or take it away. 

Catlin, however, pressed on, and upon his arrival wrote : 
'The rock on which I stand to write is the summit of a prec- 
ipice 30 feet high, extending two miles in length and much 
of the way polished as if a liquid glazing had been poured 
over its surface. Impressed deeply in the solid rock are the 
footsteps of the Great Spirit, where he once stood. A few 
yards from us leaps a beautiful stream from the top of the 
precipice into a deep basin below, and on the surface of the 
rocks are various marks and their sculptured hieroglyphics, 
their wakans, totems and medicines." 

The Nicollet Expedition 

Six explorers under the command of John N. Nicollet, 
all in the employ of the Government, and known as The 
Nicollet Expedition, visited the Pipestone quarries two years 
later, in 1838. Their three day camp site was marked by 
the carvings of their initials in the rocks on the upper ledge. 
This spot has since been appropriately marked with a bronze 
tablet, placed there by the Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution. Catholic Daily Tribune, Dubuque, la. Courtesy of 
Sister M. Macaria Murphy, Odanah, Wis. 



There is little doubt about the antiquity of mankind in 
Europe, Asia, and Africa, where tons of crude tools, weapons, 
bones of extinct animals, kitchen middens, rock carvings, 
and paintings attest a long line of ancestors who dwelt in 
caves. But America can boast not one cave culture unques- 
tionably 2,000 years old. 

While there's much work to be done before researchers 
will be able to say without argument that the Americas 
were occupied by men 20,000 years ago, still all indications 
at present, including the new find of four primitive cultures 
in the Palos Verdes hills of California, point to human occu- 
pation much earlier than the usual 2,000 years allowed by 
conservatives. Twenty-eight feet below the level of dunes 
Southwest Museum researchers found clam shells, mortars, 
pestles, arrowheads and playthings. 

From isolated diggings all over North America, circum- 
stantial evidence of cultures older than 2,000 years is accu- 
mulating. There are the Folsom and Yuma spear-points, 
for example, found embedded in the bones of extinct bison 
and mastodon; there is Prof. A. Jenks' Minnesota-man; 
"Jerry," the Sauk Valley-man of Henry Retzek ; the find of 
ancient relics near Santa Barbara, the Vero-man of Florida, 
and the pre-Indian throwing sticks, baskets and sharpened 
stones found by Carnegie Institution diggers in Oregon last 

Long have archaeologists neglected the study of human 
history in North America, choosing more prolific sources 
elsewhere. But any day now, readers may expect to hear 
a final decision on whether ancient man is to be granted 
American citizenship. (Christian Science Monitor) 

Archeological Notes 67 


The American Anthropological Association, American Folklore 
Society and Society for American Archaeology held annual and re- 
gional meetings at the Commodore Hotel, New York City, Decem- 
ber 27-30, 1938. 

Dr. J. P. Ruyle, president of the Illinois State Archaeological 
Society, has brought for the consideration of The Wisconsin Archeo- 
logical Society a proposal to organize a federation of Mississippi Val- 
ley archaeological societies. 

Col. Fain White King has been appointed research director of the 
Division of Archaeology of the Department of Conservation of the 
Commonwealth of Kentucky. We offej our congratulations. 


Mr. J. W. Curran, its editor, has published in The Sault Daily Star, 
Sault Ste. Marie, Canada, a very interesting series of articles on the 
early Norse discovery and exploration of North America. 

The Southwest Museum, Los Angeles, California, announces the 
appearance of the second publication of the Frederick Webb Hodge 
Anniversary Publication Fund. This is entitled "Inca Treasure as 
Depicted by Spanish Historians," author Dr. Samuel Kirkland Lothrop. 

The University of California Press, Berkeley, California, announces 
the publication of a volume, "Essays in Anthropology in Honor of 
Alfred Louis Kroeber." In it "are thirty-six essays, on a variety of 
anthropological subjects, by anthropologists in this country and 
abroad, in appreciation for the scholar and affection for the man." 
The Press has also printed a book, "Singing for Power," by Ruth 
Murray Underbill. It tells of the song magic of the Papago Indians 
of southern Arizona. Cost $2.00. 

Arizona Archeological and Historical Society, Arizona State 
Museum, Tucson, The Kiva, Vol. 4, No. 2, November, 1938. Contains 
a paper on The Southern Athapascans, Grenville Goodwin. 

Colorado Archaeological Society, Gunnison, Colorado, Southwestern 
Lore, Vol. 4, No. 3, December, 1938. Contains a paper by E. R. 
Renaud, The Snake Among the Petroglyphs from North-Central 
Mexico, and other papers. 

Fulton, William S., Archeological Notes on Texas Canyon, Arizona, 
Contributions from the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foun- 
dation, Vol. XII, No. 3, 1938, New York. 

Jenness, Diamond, The Sarcee Indians of Alberta, Bulletin 90, 
Anthropological Series No. 23, National Museum of Canada, Ottawa, 

Nesbitt, Paul H., Starkweather Ruin, a Mogollon Pueblo Site in the 
Upper Gila Area, and Affiliative Aspects of the Mogollon Culture, 
Logan Museum Publications, Bulletin No. 6, Logan Museum, Beloit 
College, Beloit. Fifty plates. 


Ritchie, William A., Certain Recently Explored New York Mounds 
and Their Probable Relation to the Hopewell Culture, Research Records 
of the Rochester Museum of Arts and Sciences, No. 4, Rochester, 
New York, 1938. 

Speck, Frank G., Montagnis Art in Birchbark, a Circumpolar Trait, 
Indian Notes and Monographs, Vol. XI, No. 2, Museum of the American 
Indian, Heye Foundation, New York. 

Stirling, M. W., Historical and Ethnographical Material on the 
Jivaro Indians, South America, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of 
American Ethnology, Bulletin 117, Washington, D. C., 1938. 

Webb, William S., An Archaeological Survey of the Norris Basin in 
Eastern Tennessee, Bulletin 118, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of 
American Ethnology, Washington, D. C., 1938. 

10 * rtl > 1939 j^ 4 


Chief Oshkosh Relics 
Aboriginal Skin Dressing 
Lake Winnebago Legends 




Accepted for mailing at special rate of postage provided for In Se<\ 11 o:: 
Act, Oct. 3. 1917. Authorized Jan. 28, 19'.' I 

VOLUME 19, No. 4 

New Series 





Vol. 19, No. 4, New Series 


Chief Oshkosh Relics, 

Ralph N. Buckstaff _____ ..... _____________ ..... _________ 69 

Indian Spirit Tree and Spring, 

Arthur P. Kannenberg ________ ...... -------------------- 71 

Aboriginal Skin Dressing, 

Herbert W. Kuhm ________ ........ _____ ....... ---------- 7(i 

Legend of Island Park, 

Nile J. Behncke _____________________________ ....... -1~ 00 

How the Stars Were Brought Back to the Valley, 

Nile J. Behncke ...... _________________________ _______ '> 

The Milwaukee Hobby Show, 

Robert B. Hartman ..... _______________________________ 05 

Archeological Notes ...... ___________ ........ _______________________ 08 

Chief Oshkosh Relics-- Frontispiece 

Oshkosh Public Museum 


Published Quarterly by The Wisconsin Archeological Society 

19 New Series N - 4 


Ralph N. Buckstaff 

Since the opening of the Oshkosh Public Museum we have 
been interested in collecting objects formerly in the posses- 
sion of the noted Menominee Chief Oshkosh after whom the 
city was named. 

These pieces no doubt were obtained by him through pur- 
chase, gift or trade from the white men. 

In 1931 the writer bought from Reginald Oshkosh a num- 
ber of his grandfather's belongings. These, together with a 
number of other gifts donated by interested citizens, form 
the present collection of Chief Oshkosh material. 

In the following paragraphs these articles, now on dis- 
play in the Oshkosh Public Museum, are described. 

An American Flag: This flag measures five feet eight 
inches in width and nine feet ten inches in length, and was 
hand made. The blue field is three feet seven inches by four 
feet two inches. The thirty-one crudely cut stars have five 
points each. They are arranged in five horizontal rows, the 
middle one having seven stars and the remaining rows six 
stars each. This would place the making of the flag be- 
tween the years 1848 and 1850. The stripes measure five 
and a quarter inches wide and the greatest portion of the 
bottom one is missing. The frayed and ragged condition of 
the flag indicates that it had hard usage. 

Two Presidential Medals: This description of these is 
taken from The Wisconsin Archeologist, Volume XVI, num- 
ber four, November, 1936. 


"One of these was given to the Chief at the treaty held 
at Butte des Morts in 1848, and was issued by President 
James K. Polk, in 1845. It weighs three ounces, is two 
inches in diameter and is three-sixteenths of an inch in 
thickness. The other is a silver peace medal given to this 
noted Menominee Chief at the treaty of Prairie du Chien 
in 1828. It was issued by President John Quincy Adams 
in 1825, and weighs four ounces, is two and three-eighths 
inches in diameter and is one-eighth inch in thickness." The 
profiles of the two presidents are shown in relief on one side 
of each of the medals. 

Glass Beads : When the Menominee Indians traded some 
of their territory to the white men, they received as part 
payment a bundle of glass beads. Those in the Oshkosh 
collection consist of nine strands varying in length from 
thirty-one to forty-five inches. The cylindrical, opaque, 
white beads are eleven-sixteenths to fifteen-sixteenths of an 
inch long and five thirty-seconds of an inch in diameter. 
The hexagonal glossy black beads are three thirty-seconds 
of an inch in length and three thirty-seconds of an inch in 
width. These strands are looped and tied with red ribbon. 
A necklace consisting of elks' teeth and glass beads is 
another interesting item once belonging to the Chief. It is 
made of twenty-three elks' teeth, each tooth being separated 
from the next by two green glass beads. Of these beads 
twenty-two are transparent and twenty-six opaque. 

Large Bear Trap: This trap, used by the Chief, 
measures twenty-one inches across. It is very rusty and of 
no practical use now. The jaws of the trap are gone but the 
two springs on either side remain. 

Fire Iron : This iron, used by the Chief, was made of a 
file bent in a loop at both ends so it could be held firmly 
between the closed fingers. Each end of the loop was also 
bent in a circle so as not to injure the palm of the hand. 
The striking edge of this iron shows a great deal of wear. 
Its size 'is one and one-half inches wide and three-sixteenths 
of an inch long. A piece of flint and a small portion of punk 
complete this equipment. The three articles were kept in a 

Chief Oshkosh Relics 71 

bag made of two different colors of cloth; the red pieces 
have black polka dots and the blue center has small white 
marks. The bag is closed with a drawstring. 

Epaulette: All that is left of an army uniform, given 
the Chief by an officer at Fort Howard, is an epaulette 
measuring two and three-fourths by five and three-fourths 
inches. The only button on the epaulette is hemispherical 
in shape and has an eagle with outspread wings and a shield 
on its breast bearing the letter I. Twelve small and seven- 
teen large tassels complete the decorations of this shoulder 

All the foregoing articles were collected from time to 
time by the writer. 

Pipe : The Chief's pipe, given to the museum by Ernest 
Oshkosh, measures thirty-seven and one-half inches overall 
in length. The wooden stem is of ash two inches wide, five 
to seven-sixteenths of an inch thick and thirty-two and one- 
half inches long. The pipe is made of catlinite. The base is 
four and seven-eighths inches long and one inch in diameter ; 
its front is painted. The bowl is conical in shape, two inches 
high, one and one-half inches across the top and seven- 
eighths of an inch wide at the base. The opening for the 
tobacco is eleven-sixteenths of an inch in diameter. The end 
of the pipe, where it is joined by the stem, is inlaid with 
three lead bands. The first is seven-sixteenths of an inch 
wide and the other two are three thirty-seconds of an inch 
wide. These last two strips of lead are one-eighth of an inch 
apart. The second band is joined to the wider at four places, 
while the outer strip is connected to the second at two places. 
The base of the pipe has been broken close to the bowl and 
has been mended with lead. 

Daguerreotype: The daguerreotype of the Chief was 
presented to the museum by Mrs. Harriet H. Whitney 
Lewis. The picture itself measures two and one-half inches 
by two and seven-eighths inches and is set in a tooled leather 
case three and one-fourth inches by three and three-fourths 
inches in size. In a letter the donor explains that Oshkosh 
was reluctant about having his picture taken, but he did 


so after her father had posed for his. The stovepipe hat 
worn by the Chief was adorned with a pair of red sus- 
penders and on the crown was placed a coonskin cap. These 
items may plainly be seen in the photograph. Mrs. Lewis 
adds that Oshkosh was highly pleased with the daguerreo- 
type after he saw it. 

Goblet, Decanter, Brass Kettle, and Wooden Spoon: 
These articles were donated by Mrs. Emma Owen. 

The goblet is made of clear glass with flaring sides. Its 
height is four and seven-eighths inches and the top has a 
diameter of two and seven-sixteenths inches. Somewhat 
below the top the sides are octagonal in form, and the pat- 
tern resembles the flute type described in Ruth Webb Lee's 
book on American glass. 

The decanter, like the goblet, is made of clear glass. 
Its height is eight and one-fourth inches and the diameter 
in the widest part is four inches. The neck is encircled by 
two heavy glass rings. The mouth is also surrounded by a 
heavy rim of glass. The stopper is hollow and cone shaped 
with a narrow neck. The mouth, bottom and sides show 
many scratches. 

The brass kettle is five and three-fourths inches high 
and eight inches across the top and has flaring sides. This 
cooking utensil was said to have been used by the Chief in 
cooking herbs for his medicines. 

The wooden spoon is 20 inches long and made of maple. 
Its bowl measures six and one-half inches by five and three- 
fourths inches, the depth is one and three-sixteenths inches. 
The handle is fifteen inches long and seven-sixteenths inches 
thick. It has two triangular perforations whose apices 
point towards the middle of the handle. The center is 
rectangular, two inches by one and one-fourth inches. This 
part of the spoon is decorated with a carved flower of five 
petals set in a stippled background. The outer edges of the 
handle, as well as the triangular openings, are outlined with 
a small groove. The handle is terminated by a knob one and 
five-eighths by one and one-eighth inches. This is carved 
with a four petal flower set in a stippled background. 

Chief Oshkosh Relics 73 

Mrs. Henry Barber donated the Chief's earthenware rum 
jug. This stands nine and one-fourth inches high, is grey 
in color and has about a gallon capacity. The neck is very 
short, the top flat and broad. 

Mr. A. C. McComb donated the remains of the knife. 
The handle is missing and the blade is very rusty ; it meas- 
ures one and one-half inches wide and five and three-fourths 
inches long. This knife is said to have been used by Oshkosh 
in the war against Black Hawk in 1852. 

Mr. William Stude has given the museum a knife whose 
blade is seven and five-eighths inches long. On this blade 
is the imprint Lamson Goodnow & Co., S. Falls Works. 
The handle is of wood five and one-half inches in length; 
the end is in the form of a hook. The sheath is of leather, 
machine sewed. Its decoration consists of two short and 
one long row of round metal studs three-eighths and five- 
eighths of an inch in diameter. The Chief carried this knife 
wherever he went. 

The collection is arranged in a large frame, in the center 
of which is an oil painting of the Chief, painted by Miss 
Agnes Wainwright of Green Bay as a WPA Art Project. 
Chief Oshkosh is shown wearing a buffalo head dress, which 
is now the property of the American Museum of Natural 


The collection from an archeological view tells some- 
thing of the Chief's social life in its adaptation to the white 
man's way of making fire, his use of spirits, and his method 
of trapping. 

His Indian instinct is shown by the possession of an elk 
tooth necklace and glass beads, both of which are prized 
greatly by the red man. 

The loyalty of the Chief to the government is evidenced 
by the frequent displaying of the American flag, which shows 
much wear. 

The relics from a historical view are of great importance 
to the community because of their former ownership by 
Chief Oshkosh. 



Arthur P. Kannenberg 

About a quarter of a mile northwest of Blacksmith Shop 
Lake, in the southeastern corner of the Menorninee Indian 
Reservation, in Shawano County, Wisconsin, a large oak tree 
stands at the base of a hill, and beside a very active spring. 
The tree is about three feet in diameter. 

In the spring of the year 1910 the writer and John V. 
Satterlee of Keshena first visited this tree and the spring. 
The spring was then about six feet across. It was located be- 
neath the roots of the tree with a boiling bubbling center 
and a clean sandy bottom, was crystal clear and the water 
icy cold. 

On the occasion of this visit to this locality "Uncle" John 
approached the spring in a very cautious manner. Taking a 
pole about eight feet in length he stood on the brink of the 
spring with one foot and braced himself by resting the other 
on a leaning stump. He thrust the pole down into the center 
of the spring where it disappeared from sight. After about 
forty seconds the pole was cast out again for its full length. 
It shot up with such force as to suggest that it might have 
been thrown by a catapult. 

"Uncle" John then exclaimed, "Wah! the underground 
spirits are angered by our intrusion. We had better hurry 
away before any harm comes to us." He said that it was the 
custom of the pagan Indians who chanced to pass this spot 
to make a sacrifice offering to the spirit in the spring, of 
tobacco, maple sugar or of any choice object which they 
had on their persons at the time. It was known that Indian 
treaty hiedals, money and other valuables had thus been 
offered to appease the anger or gain the good will of the 

! Carved in the trunk of the tree was the face of an In- 
dian; This carving, done many years ago, was supposed to 
represent the face of the spirit guardian of the spring. 
"Both the tree and the spring are still in existence. A 
visit: to the site under the guidance of "Uncle" John would 
be very interesting. Although a devout member of the 

Indian Spirit Tree and Spring 75 

Catholic church, this fine old man has a great respect for the 
deities of his pagan Indian tribesmen. 

The stories of other spirit-inhabited Wisconsin springs 
have been published in a paper contributed by Dorothy 
Moulding Brown to a recent issue of The Wisconsin 
Archeologist.* On the Menominee Reservation are several 
other springs believed by superstitious redmen to be spirit 
abodes. The belief in water spirits was widespread among 
Wisconsin tribes. In the Oshkosh Public Museum are many 
Indian artifacts recovered from springs. 

*V. 18, No. 3, N. S., pp. 79-86. 



H. W. Kuhm 

Leather was an important commodity to the aborigines. 
Thrown entirely on their own resources in their struggle for 
existence, they learned to shelter themselves in lodges made 
of skins, and to clothe themselves in the tanned skins of 

Leather was cut and sewn into various types of clothing, 
as shirts, mantles, leggings, skirts, hoods and moccasins. 
It could also be fashioned into such utensils and implements 
as bags, quivers, shields, drums and rattles. In strips it 
served as thongs. By some tribes it was even fashioned 
into boats. 

Due to "grease-burn," untanned hides did not keep over 
summer. Insects further took their toll of furs and robes 
unless these had been prepared by tanning. So the 
aborigines, of necessity, became skillful and adept in the art 
of dressing skins. 

The skins of animals, by dressing, were modified so as 
to arrest the proneness to decomposition which characterizes 
unprepared skins, and to give them greatly increased 
strength, toughness, and pliancy, with insolubility and un- 
alterability in water. 

In the early Spanish narrative of Gomara, written nearly 
four centuries ago, the writer speaks of the American In- 
dians and the buffalo, which in those days roamed over a 
wide region from the Rocky Mountains to near the Atlantic 
in prodigious numbers. "Of them they eat, they apparel, 
they shooe themselves ; and of their hides they make many 
things, as houses, shooes, apparel, and ropes; and of their 
calves-skinnes, budgets (buckets), wherein they drawe and 
keepe water." (Gomara, in Hakluyt, Vol. Ill, p. 382, 1554.) 

It will help us to obtain a more adequate conception of 
the amount of work on peltries by our Wisconsin aborigines 
alone to consider for a moment the great number and variety 
of animals whose skins were converted into leather in this 

Mention of aboriginal skin dressing invariably recalls 
to mind the deer, bear and beaver, but in order to properly 

Aboriginal Skin Dressing 77 

appraise the industry under consideration, a list of the 
animals whose skins are known to have been used by our 
Wisconsin aborigines is apropos. 

Included thus are the bay lynx or wild cat, the Canada 
lynx, the gray wolf, the red fox, gray fox, the fisher; the 
pine martin or American sable, the weasel, the mink, the 
wolverine; the American badger, the common skunk, the 
American otter, the black bear, the raccoon; the bison or 
American buffalo; the moose, the American elk or wapiti; 
Virginia deer, common mole, fox, red and gray squirrel; 
chipmunk, gopher, woodchuck, American beaver, muskrat, 
porcupine, opossum, and jack and cottontail rabbits. 

Small quadrupeds, such as foxes and weasels, were 
skinned by stripping the entire animal through its mouth 
without making a single cut in the skin. 

Birds were opened at the breast, and the body taken out 
through this small hole ; the head, wings and legs being cut 
off at the neck and joints. 

Ducks were frequently skinned by cutting the skin 
around the head and the outer joints of the wings and legs, 
and stripping it off. The skins were then cleaned by sucking 
out the fat and chewing them. 

In 1862, F. V. Hayden, in his "Contributions to the 
Ethnography and Philology of the Indian Tribes of the Mis- 
souri Valley," wrote: "The animals inhabiting the Dakota 
country, and hunted by them for clothing, food, and for the 
purposes of barter, are buffalo, elk, black-and-white-tailed 
deer, big-horn antelope, wolves of several kinds, red and gray 
foxes, a few beaver and otter, grizzly bear, badger, skunk, 
porcupine, rabbits, muskrats and a few panthers in the 
mountainous parts. Of all those just mentioned, the buffalo 
is the most numerous and most necessary to their support. 
The skin is used to make their lodges and clothes. In the 
proper season, from the beginning of October until the first 
of March, the skins are dressed with the hair remaining on 
them, and are either worn by themselves or exchanged with 
the traders." 

In the early days the Indians hunted to satisfy their 
own wants; later, in addition to their own needs, for the 
purpose of supplying the traders. 

As a slight index of the extent of the early fur trade, 
I quote Marston, who recorded that in the winter of 1819- 


1820, "the traders, including the peltries received near Fort 
Edwards, collected of the Sauk and Fox Indians during this 
season, nine hundred and eighty packs. They consisted of 
2,760 Beaver skins; 922 Otter; 13,400 Raccoon; 12,900 Musk 
Rat; 500 Mink; 200 Wild Cat; 680 Bear skins; 28,600 Deer. 
Whole number, 60,002." 

To comprehend the process of aboriginal tanning it is 
helpful to observe, initially, the progressive steps in modern 
tanning, where the methods of procedure are as follows: 

1. Salted or dried hides are soaked to make them pli- 
able, washed to remove blood and dirt, and the extraneous 
flesh taken off with a flesher, an instrument like a drawing 
knife, sharp on one edge and dull and smooth on the other. 

2. The cleaned hides are then placed in a vat of lime 
water for a few days, which opens the pores, loosens the 
hair, and combines with the oily matter in the hide to form 
a soap, a process referred to as saponification. Putrefaction 
softening is also resorted to for the removal of hair. 

3. The hides are then rubbed down with the smooth 
side of the flesher, the hair removed, and the skin made as 
pure and clean as possible, thus rendering it porous for the 
reception of tannin. 

4. The hides are then suspended in a series of tan-pits, 
in which the water is increasingly charged with tannic acid, 
until the hide is converted into leather. 

5. After rinsing, the hides are scoured. I wish to em- 
phasize that the whole operation up to this point is merely 
a modern elaboration, through machinery and chemicals, of 
the earlier aboriginal hand processes. 

6. The subsequent processes of drying, oiling, sweating 
and pressing are varied with the uses of leather. 

The problem of removing the hair without impairing 
the hide, of introducing some antiseptic substance within 
the texture, the breaking up of the fibrous tissue, and the 
rendering of the hide to make it as pliable as possible were 
solved by the aborigines and merely adapted and elaborated 
upon by their modern successors. 

Aboriginal Skin Dressing 79 

The aboriginal artisans of leather craft were, for the 
most part, women, for in aboriginal times, the division of 
labor between the sexes was strongly fixed by custom : the 
men were busy in the more strenuous pursuits of hunting, 
fishing, and warfare; the dressing of skins, like the work of 
cultivating the garden beds, the weaving of textiles and 
baskets, and the making of pottery, was the specific work 
of the women. 

In order that we may better comprehend the significance 
of her part, let us follow an aboriginal woman through the 
task of dressing a skin. With a sharp flint flake for a knife, 
she carefully removes the skin of the slain animal, fleshes 
the hide, then dresses it with brains ; smokes it, curries it, 
and breaks it with implements of stone and bone. 

In time various tribes came to have procedures of skin 
dressing peculiar to themselves. 

For a fine description of the tanning process of the 
Winnebago tribe of Wisconsin we are indebted to Alanson 
Skinner, who, in his "Anthropological Papers," Part II, pages 
289-290, records: 

"After the skin has been removed, the hair is scraped 
from it. During this process the skin is hung over an 
obliquely inclined surface. The beaming tool is then grasped 
in both hands and pushed away from the user against the 
grain of the hair over the skin where it lies on the smooth 
surface of the stick or log. This process is the same as that 
followed by the Northern Ojibwa and Eastern Cree. 

"The next step is to stretch the skin on a square, up- 
right frame. A fleshing tool is then brought to bear, al- 
though the beamer is often made to answer this same pur- 
pose. When the skin has been fleshed, it is soaked in a 
mixture of deer brains and water. No grease is added. This 
preparation is kept in liquid form in a pail and lasts for 
some time. After remaining in the brain fluid for a time, 
the skin is taken and thoroughly washed. Then it is taken 
by the tanner who is always a woman and dried. 

"While the skin is drying, it is rubbed with a wooden 
spatula to make it flexible. It is now ready for the last step 


"For this process it is first sewed up into a cylindrical 
shape, and the upper end is tied together to form a bag. 
By this closed upper end it is suspended over a shallow hole 
from a stick driven obliquely into the ground at an angle 
of about 45 degrees. In the hole a fire is built with dried 
wood. The open lower edge of the skin bag is pegged or 
fastened to the ground about the edge of the hole." 

In Bulletin 86, of the Bureau of Ethnology, Frances 
Densmore records the Chippewa (Ojibwa) method of skin 
dressing : 

"Otter or other small skins were prepared as follows: 
the skinning was started at the hind quarter, the hide being 
drawn forward and the head left on the hide. This was 
then stretched on a frame. A long frame, as for an otter 
hide, would have two pegs near the corners at the wide end, 
these pegs being put through the hide, then the frame, and 
then the hide again, to keep it taut. 

"When dry the hide was removed from the frame, this 
being the form in which the hides were sold to the traders. 
If the hide was to be used for a medicine bag it was not 
turned and put on the frame, but dried right side out, 
stuffed with dry grass. 

"A deer hide was spread on the ground and sheared with 
a sharp knife; it was then soaked in clean water for two 
days, or for a night, after which the rest of the hair was 
scraped off with an instrument consisting of an iron blade 
set in a handle. The hide was spread on a log which was 
braced against the root of a tree. 

"In tanning a deer hide the flesh next to the hide was 
removed by laying the hide over the top of a post so it 
hung down loosely all around. Four cuts were then made in 
the fleshy tissue, where the hide rested on top of the pole. 
Beginning at these cuts, the tissue was worked loose by 
means of a bone implement, and entirely removed. This 
implement was made of the leg bone of a moose. It was 
fastened to the upper arm of the worker by means of a 
thong, enabling her to use it more easily. The brains of 
the deer were rubbed on the hide to soften it, as the hide 
had very little oil in it." 

The usual method of dressing buffalo, elk and other large 
pelts was by immersing them for several days under a lye 

Aboriginal Skin Dressing 81 

from wood ashes and water, according to Otis T. Mason, in 
the United States National Museum Report for 1889. 

After soaking in this lye solution, the hair could be 
readily removed, when they were stretched upon a frame, 
or upon the ground with stakes or pins driven through the 
edges into the ground, where they remained for several 
days, with the brains of the animals spread over them, and 
at last finished by "graining" by the squaws, who used a 
sharpened bone, the shoulder blade or other large bone of 
the animal, sharpened at the edge, somewhat like an adze, 
with the edge of which they scraped the fleshy side of the 
skin, bearing on it with the weight of their bodies, thereby 
drying and softening the skin and fitting it for use. 

Smoke Curing of Skins 

Many skins went through another process, which gave 
them a greater value and rendered them more serviceable 
that is, the process of smoke-curing. 

For this, a small hole was dug in the ground, and a fire 
built in it with rotten wood, so as to produce a great quan- 
tity of smoke without much blaze, and several small poles 
of the proper length stuck in the ground around it, drawn 
and fastened together at the top, around which the skin 
was wrapped to form a tent, generally sewed together at the 
edges to secure the smoke within it. In this the skins to 
be smoked were placed, and in this condition the tent stood 
a day or two inclosing the smoke. By this process the skins 
acquired a quality which enabled them, despite being wet 
many times, to dry soft and pliant. 

Smoking also served to color the skins. They were dried 
over smouldering fires of dry willow for yellow color and 
green willow for brown; 

Referring to the smoke coloring of deer hide, Densmore, 
in "Chippewa Customs," states that "if several hides were 
to be smoked, they were sewed together in such a manner 
that they formed a conical shape. A hole was dug about 
18 inches in diameter and 9 inches deep. Over this a frame- 
work was constructed that resembled a small tipi frame. 
The hide was suspended over this framework and drawn 
down over it, the circle of cloth around the lower edge of 


the hide being a little larger than the circumference of the 
hole, so that it could be spread on the ground and held down 
by heavy sticks laid flat on the ground. A fire had pre- 
viously been made in the hole, dry corncobs being used for 
the purpose. This fire smolders slowly, the smoke giving 
to the hide the golden yellow color. The hide is almost 
white before being colored in this manner." 

The Act of Greasing 

In the act of greasing the hide, animal brains were used. 
Sometimes the liver of the animals, which had been care- 
fully retained for that purpose, was used in place of animal 
brains. On occasion, warm meat broth is known to have 
been used. 

When deer brains were scarce, fish oil was used as a sub- 
stitute in some instances. (Wis. Archeo., N. S. Vol. 7, No. 2, 
p. 98 " Wisconsin Indian Fishing Primitive and Modern.") 

Immediately after skinning a deer, the Indian cut open 
its head and procured the brains. To keep from spoiling, 
if not used immediately, the brains were partly cooked, later 
soaked and squeezed by hand until reduced to a paste. 

Preparing Buckskin 

Immediately after the animal was killed, the skin, hav- 
ing all the hair scraped off, was stretched tightly on a frame. 
It was left until it became dry as parchment, then rubbed 
over with the brains of the animal, which imparted oil to it. 
It was then steeped in warm water, and dried in smoke, two 
women stretching it all the while it was drying. It was 
then again wetted and wound tightly around a tree, from 
which it was then taken, smoked and drawn by the women 
as before. When nearly dry, it was rubbed with the hands, 
as in washing, until it was soft and pliable; then it was 
ready for use. 

Following is another aboriginal method of rendering a 
hide sufficiently soft and pliant: a twisted sinew, about as 
thick as one's finger, was fastened at each end to a post or 
tree, about five feet from the ground. The hide was put 
through this and twisted back and forth. 

Aboriginal Skin Dressing 83 

Skin Dressing Implements 

To remove the hide of a slain animal the aborigines used 
knives of stone and copper, and, after the advent of the 
white man, trade knives of iron. 

Fleshers and Scrapers 

Among the Sioux, the hides were stretched and dried 
as soon as possible after they were taken from the animals. 
When a hide was stretched on the ground, wooden pins were 
driven through holes along the borders of the hide. While 
the hide was still "green," i. e., fresh, the women scraped 
it on the under side by pushing a flesher over its surface, 
thus removing the superfluous flesh. The flesher was formed 
from the lower bone of an elk's leg, which had been made 
thin by scraping or striking. The lower end was shapened 
by striking, having several teeth-like projections. 

A withe was tied to the upper end, and this was secured 
to the arms of the women, just above the wrist. 

When the hide was dry the women stretched it again 
upon the ground, and proceeded to make it thinner and 
lighter by using another implement, the scraper, which they 
moved toward them after the manner of an adze. 

The scraper was formed from an elk horn, to the lower 
end of which was fastened a piece of stone or, in more 
recent times, a piece of iron, for a tip or blade. 

In reference to the use of these scrapers by the Indian 
tanners, George Overton, in his article on "The Indians 
of Winnebago County," (W 7 is. Archeo., N. S. Vol. 11, No. 3), 
states : "The Indians were very skillful tanners. A part of 
their process required the use of scrapers. A very large 
number of flint scrapers of different sizes were used, but all 
had one end rounded off from a flat side, making a cutting 
edge. I have been told that some of our most skillful tan- 
ners of today use an exactly similar tool, and Dr. M. R. Gil- 
more is quoted as having seen this type of implement so 
used by the Sioux." 

Skin dressing implements of the Sioux are described in 
Maximilian's Travels, as follows: 


"They had killed a large elk, the skin of which the women 
were employed in dressing. They had stretched it out, by 
means of leather straps, on the ground near the tent, and 
the women were scraping off the particles of flesh and fat 
with a well-contrived instrument made of bone, sharpened 
at one end, and furnished with little teeth like a saw, and 
at the other end with a strap, which is fastened around the 
wrist. The skin is scraped with the sharp edge of the in- 
strument until it is perfectly clean. Several Indians have 
iron teeth fixed in this bone. In another tent the women 
were dressing skins, either with a pumice-stone or with the 
toothed instrument described before." ("Travels in the In- 
terior of North America." 1843.) 

A drawing by Bodmer, reproduced by Maximilian on page 
151 of the work cited, represents a small group of skin tipis, 
of the type mentioned in the narrative. The bone implement 
mentioned by Maximilian is being used by the women to 
remove particles of flesh from the skin of the recently killed 
elk, the implement belonging to the well-known type which 
was extensively used throughout the region. It was formed 
of the large bones of the leg of the buffalo, elk, or moose. 
Many old examples are preserved in the National Museum 
at Washington, D. C. 

An aboriginal skin dressing tool, found in the excavations 
of Aztalan, Jefferson county, Wisconsin, by the Milwaukee 
public museum expedition in 1919, is described by Dr. S. A. 
Barrett as follows : 

"The section of rib shown in plate 62, Figure 7, has both 
its edges worked off, as if from use as an implement. This 
may perhaps be a portion of a skin dressing tool. Such skin 
dressing tools made of ribs are usually longer ; this one, how- 
ever, shows burning at one end, which would account for 
its present length." ("Ancient Aztalan." Milw. Pub. Museum 
Bulletin, Vol. XIII, p. 288, 1933.) 

Densmore, in "Chippewa Customs," mentions an odd 
bone implement used in skin dressing, stating: 

"Another method of softening a small flat hide was to 
rub the fur side with a bone implement called odjic'iboda' 
gun. This implement was the thigh bone of the deer, bear, 
or other large animal. The bone had an opening in it, 
through which the hide was pulled back and forth. If there 

Aboriginal Skin Dressing 85 

was a little rough place in the hide, they 'erased' it by 
rubbing on the inside with a small, smooth bone." 

Skin Lodges 

By reason of the roving disposition of the northern 
tribes, especially the plains Indians west of the Mississippi, 
it was not possible for them to erect and maintain per- 
manent villages. So the skin-covered lodge came to serve 
them as a shelter easily and quickly raised and readily trans- 
ported from place to place as requirements and desires made 

The temporary, quickly-raised shelters of the Ojibwa 
were described by Tanner, who learned to make them from 
the people with whom he remained many years. Referring 
to a journey up the valley of the Assiniboin, he wrote: "In 
bad weather, we used to make a little lodge, and cover it 
with three or four fresh buffalo hides, and these being soon 
frozen, made a strong shelter from wind and snow." (Tan- 
ner, John. 1883.) 

Maximilian, Prince of Wied, writing in his narrative of 
1883, gives an excellent description of the skin-covered tipi 
of the Sioux: 

"The tents of the Sioux are high pointed cones, made of 
strong poles, covered with buffalo skins, closely sewed to- 
gether. These skins are scraped on both sides, so that they 
become as transparent as parchment, and give free admis- 
sion to the light. At the top, where the poles meet, or cross 
each other, there is an opening to let out the smoke, which 
they endeavor to close by a piece of the skin covering of 
the tent, fixed to a separate pole standing upright, and 
fastened to the upper part of the covering on the side from 
which the wind blows. The door is a slit, in front of the tent, 
which is generally closed by another piece of buffalo hide, 
stretched upon a frame." 

Skins of the elk and deer were evidently used as cover- 
ings for the conical tipi of the native tribes living in the 
upper Mississippi Valley about the middle of the eighteenth 
century, according to Bushnell. Farther west, beyond the 
timbered country, where buffalo were more easily obtained, 
their skins were made use of, and covered the shelters of 


tribes by whom they were hunted. (Bulletin 77, Bureau of 
American Ethnology, "Villages of the Algonquin, Siouan 
and Caddoan Tribes West of the Mississippi.") 

General Atkinson, who visited the Yankton Sioux in 1825, 
wrote of their skin-covered lodges : "They cover themselves 
with leather tents, which they move about from place to 
place as the buffalo may chance to range." 

The Hind Expedition visited the Plains Cree during the 
summer of 1858, and Henry Youle Hind recorded : 

"The Plains Crees, in the day of their power and pride, 
erected large skin tents, and strengthened them with rings 
of stones placed around the base. These were twenty-five 
feet in diameter." 

"While living in the vicinity of the Minnesota, the vil- 
lages and camps of the Cheyenne," writes Bushnell, "un- 
doubtedly resembled those of the Sioux of later days: the 
conical skin-covered lodge. The conical skin lodge of the 
Cheyenne resembled that of the other plains tribes, and 
they must in earlier times, when buffalo were so numerous 
and easily secured, have been rather large and commodious 

Maximilian, who visited the Blackfeet during the sum- 
mer of 1833, has left a very concise and interesting account 
of the appearance of their skin tents: 

"The leather tents of the Blackfeet, their internal ar- 
rangement, agree, in every respect, with those of the Sioux 
and Assiniboin. The tents, made of tanned buffalo skin, 
last only for one year; they are, at first, neat and white, 
afterwards, brownish, and at the top, where the smoke is- 
sues, black, and, at last, transparent, like parchment, and 
very light inside." 

A painting of a Piegan camp was made in 1833 by Karl 
Bodmer, who accompanied Maximilian. It depicts clearly 
the many skin lodges forming the encampment, with some 
of the Indians wrapped in highly decorated buffalo robes. 
Some of the skin lodges are decorated, adorned with painted 
figures, but the majority are plain. 

Maximilian describes one skin lodge, that of a Blackfoot 
chief, as being between 40 and 50 feet in diameter, very 
clean and well decorated. Writing of another skin lodge of 
the Hidatsa, he states: "The white leather tent was new, 

Aboriginal Skin Dressing 87 

spacious, and handsomely ornamented with tufts of hair 
of various colors, and at each side of the entrance, finished 
with a stripe and rosettes of dyed porcupine quills, very 
neatly executed." This must have been a beautiful example 
of the buffalo-skin tipi. 

Maximilian records that the skin tents of the Sioux were 
generally composed of fourteen skins, the average number 
of persons occupying each being ten. 

Stansbury describes a magnificent example of the tipi 
of the plains tribes, observed by him in 1855, and it is one 
of the largest of which any record has been preserved. "It 
was made of twenty-six buffalo hides, perfectly new, and 
white as snow, which, being sewed together without a 
wrinkle, were stretched over twenty-four new poles, and 
formed a conical tent of thirty feet diameter upon the 
ground, and thirty-five feet in height." 

Arranging the skin covers of several tipis in such a way 
as to form a single shelter, to serve as a ceremonial lodge, 
was the custom of many tribes. 

In sewing the skins to form the covering of lodges the 
aboriginal tent makers used sinew-thread, taken from the 
tendon that runs along the buffalo's backbone. This sinew 
could be shredded into any desired thickness. The women 
punched holes along the edge of the skin with bone awls, 
and either pushed the sinew-thread through the holes with 
pointed sticks or bones, or drew it through with bone or 
copper needles. The sinew was used wet, and, when it had 
hardened, became well-nigh indestructible. 

Skin Garments 

Early explorers found the American aborigines comfort- 
ably habited in frocks or shirts of dressed skins. With 
needle of bone, thread of sinew and scissors of stone or na- 
tive copper, the Indian women fashioned the dressed skins 
into articles of clothing. 

Skin garments of the early American Indians are thus 
quaintly described in Wood's "New England Prospectus:" 

"These skinnes they convert into very goode leather, 
making the same soft. Some of these skinnes they dress 
with haire on and some with the haire off. The hairy side 


in winter they weare next their bodies, and in warme 
weather they weare the haire outwards. 

"They have a sort of mantel made of mose (moose) 
skinnes, which beast is a great large Deere so bigge as a 
horse. These skinnes they commonly dress bare, (i. e., re- 
move the hair) , and make them wondrous white. And man- 
tels made of Beares skinnes is an usuall wearinge among 
the natives that live where the Beares due haunt. 

"They make skinnes of Mose skinnes, which is the prin- 
cipal lether used to that purpose. They make shoes of deere 
skinnes very handsomely and commodious, and of such deere 
skinnes as they dress bare, they make stockings (leggings) 
that comes within their shoes. 

"A goode well-grown deere skinne is of great account 
with them, and it must have the tail on, or else they account 
it defaced. This, when they travell, is raped about their 

"In dressing all manner of skinnes, which they do by 
scraping and rubbing, afterward painting them with antique 
embroydering in unchangeable colors." 

The most primitive materials used as clothing by the 
Chippewas were tanned hides, which were used for making 
garments, according to Densmore in "Chippewa Customs." 
Densmore further states : 

"In early times, the clothing of a woman consisted of a 
single garment made of two deerskins, one forming the 
front and the other the back of the garment, the two parts 
being fastened together at the shoulders and held in place 
by a belt. To this were added moccasins and leggings. One 
deerskin was enough for making a single garment worn by 
a child. 

"The usual costume worn by the men consisted of breech- 
cloth, moccasins and leggings. A man's leggings were rather 
tight and did not flap at the sides. A woman's leggings were 
wider. A muskrat skin, tanned with the hair on it, was 
worn as a 'chest protector' by men on hunting expeditions 
and was occasionally worn by women. This, as well as rab- 
bit skin, was placed inside moccasins to make them warmer. 
A fillet of fur, decorated in various ways, and with a strip 
of fur hanging from it, was worn as a head covering in 
former years." 

Aboriginal Skin Dressing 

Rabbit skins were tanned dry, without removing the hair, 
and were cut in strips, after which they were woven, after 
the manner of the netting on snowshoes, into blankets. These 
were alike on both sides and very thick. Rabbit skins were 
also sewed together in patches to make blankets. 

Rabbit skins were hung by the Chippewa women on 
bushes for several days so that part of the soft fur could 
be blown away by the wind, leaving the firmer hair intact. 
Hides prepared in this way were used inside a cradle board 
and inside children's moccasins ; they were also used in the 
making of children's caps. 

Skin Boats 

Townsend, writing of the Kansa Indians of 1834, stated : 
"The canoes used by the Indians are mostly made of buffalo 
skins, stretched, while recent, over a light framework of 
wood, the seams sewed with sinews, and so closely as to be 
wholly impervious to water. These light vessels are re- 
markably buoyant, and capable of sustaining very heavy 

Lewis and Clerk, in 1804, encountered several hunting 
parties of the Arikara. "We were visited by about thirty 
Indians; they came over in their skin canoes, bringing us 

"Bull-boats," made of frames of wood with buffalo skin 
coverings, were once extensively used by the tribes of the 
Missouri Valley. 

Among the miscellaneous uses of tanned skins by the 
aborigines would be included the stiff buckskin quivers used 
to carry arrows ; the shields of tanned leather ; rawhide har- 
ness; parchment bags and medicine bundles; ceremonial 
headdresses, rattles and drums. 



Nile Jurgen Behncke 

Out of the traditions of the past there issues an Indian 
legend which has as its setting the shores of Lake Winne- 
bago and the island, known as Island park, situated in Asy- 
lum Bay. 

It is the story of the virgin spirit queen one of the few, 
from among the many colorful Indian myths, since lost to 
us, which the living traditions of our aboriginal predecessors 
have preserved. 

Many years ago according to the legend at a time 
then already age-shrouded in Indian memory, there dwelt 
on an island at the foot of the lake, an old chieftain and his 
only daughter, Wau-we-te (Spirit Queen). 

This old chief was deeply revered by his people for the 
profound knowledge he evidenced in his leadership of them. 

Although his tribesmen abided on the mainland shore 
of the lake, the ancient sage was ever insistent upon re- 
maining with his daughter alone on his island and never 
allowed any of his followers to set foot upon its shores. 

At each new moon he would guide his bark canoe to the 
mainland and at night, before the council fire, with the vil- 
lage old men gathered around him, would reveal to them 
the mandates of the mighty Manitou (God) as these had 
been imparted to him in the visions that came to him during 
his nightly vigils at his island home. 

Never, on these occasions, had he brought with him his 
daughter, Wau-we-te. No other eyes but his had beheld her 
charms. Save for the old fellow's occasional allusions to 
her loveliness, absolutely nothing was known of her among 
the tribesmen. Her very existence might have been a fig- 
ment of his visionary dreams and so she soon came to be 
regarded by her people as a sort of semi-mortal wood nymph 
a mysterious spirit, who perhaps exercised some potent 
influence on their destiny. Strange tales were whispered 
about, concerning her, especially among the women of the 
tribe. There were many who remained of the opinion that 
she was in reality the old man's daughter but these believed 

Legend of Island Park 91 

that he had plighted her to be the bride of the mighty Mani- 
tou, and it was for this reason that no one was ever per- 
mitted to behold her. Others averred that she was a strange 
wild creature who consorted with the wood gods and that the 
butterflies were her children. 

After many moons of prosperity and plenty had passed 
on in the eternal cycle of the seasons, the old man's life was 
ebbing to its close. 

The season was Indian summer time. Glistening mists 
floated over the lake and the trees on the shore were draped 
with gleaming frost fronds. It is a time particularly potent 
with religious significance. 

Early one morning, the old man arose and looked over 
the lake. He saw the pale gold of first dawn spill its sheen 
on the shining, mist-veiled water. As the blazing face of 
the sun emerged from beyond the eastern horizon and suf- 
fused the whole surface of the lake in its crimson splendor, 
he believed he beheld reflected in the water the face of 
mighty Manitou, who then appeared before him, and in a 
mighty voice spoke to him. The old chief knew, then, that 
his time had come to journey to the happy hunting ground 
of his people. 

On the opposite shore, sentinel braves, their keen eyes 
piercing the haze of morning mist, could dimly discern 
smoke signals issuing from the island of their chief. These 
were interpreted as a summons for the wise men of the tribe 
to journey to the island. And so, for the first time, the 
tribesmen set foot on the mysterious locality and for the 
first time beheld the beautiful Wau-we-te. 

The tribal sages having gathered around his couch, the 
old man imparted to them his last words of wisdom. When 
the sun had passed into darkness, he said, his spirit would 
leave him and journey to the hereafter land. 

When the sun had three times passed into darkness, a 
horde of evil spirits would come from the southland and 
attempt to carry off Wau-we-te. Mighty Manitou, however, 
would destroy them and Wau-we-te would be left to rule 
in his stead. This, he said, was the message of Manitou. 

When the shadows of dusk had driven the sun westward 
to be engulfed by the shades of night, the old chief died 
and so the first of his prophetic utterances had materialized. 


After the sun had three times more repeated its blazing 
course through the heavens, came the promised invasion. 
However, Wau-we-te, forewarned by her father's prophecy, 
had already departed from her island home, and so was not 
apprehended. And as foreordained, mighty Manitou sent 
a terrific tempest which lashed the waters of the lake into 
a turbulent frenzy. Thunder roared as countless thrusts of 
livid lightning pierced the darkness and struck here and 
there in a hundred places in the thrashing water and on 
the wave-lashed shore. Only the camping ground of the 
Indians was excepted from this onslaught. 

When the next day broke bright and clear, no vestige 
of the island remained. It, together with its invaders, had 
been completely engulfed in the waters of Winnebago. It 
was then that Wau-we-te revealed to her tribe that Manitou 
had appeared to her on the preceding night and instructed 
her to lead her people northward along the shore of the 
lake, where she would again find her island, for he had lifted 
it out of the water and carried it away to be deposited in this 
safer location where it would remain forever secure from 

Here, for many moons, dwelt the Spirit Queen and her 
people in security and peace, for, like her father, Wau-we-te 
ruled her tribe with sagacity and gentleness, so that no strife 
or avarice were known to them. Though many braves sought 
her favor, legend has it that she remained unwedded until 
the end of her days, for she was the earthly consort of the 
great Manitou. 

For many generations after her death, offerings were 
brought to her grave on the island and the place was called 
"Island of God" by the Indians. 

It is related in tradition that after her death hatred, 
avarice, selfishness and war came into the world. 

How the Stars Were Brought Back to the Valley 93 


Nile Jurgen Behncke 

This story was told to the writer years ago by an old 
man who lived at the foot of High Cliff at the northeast end 
of Lake Winnebago. 

In the beginning, the stars were the lanterns of the 
night. They gave light by which the Good Spirits of the 
Night Growing Season worked ripening the corn and rice. 
The lanterns helped them find the fields helped them to 
pass through the rows of corn without breaking them. 

Among the Good Spirits there was a bad spirit one 
who was lazy one who wanted to sleep. He knew that if 
the lanterns were gone the Good Spirits could not work- 
therefore he would not have to work. So he stole the lan- 
terns, put them into a bag and hid them under a large rock 
in the lake. When he had finished he gave a sigh of relief 
and prepared for a long sleep. 

That night it was dark the next night it was dark, and 
so on night after night for a long time. 

The good night growing spirits could not find the fields 
could not make the plants grow and ripen winter seemed 
to be coming, the crops were dying the Indians feared 
famine and hunger, they begged that the lanterns be 

At last one night a Dream Spirit came to one of the 
Indian Maidens, telling her where the lanterns were hidden. 
It told her that with the help of a brave strong youth she 
could again bring back the lanterns. She searched for a 
youth, and after days found one brave enough to go into the 
lake. So on the following morning, as the sun was casting 
its first rays of light on the western shores, the maiden and 
youth went to the foot of the great stone cliff bravely the 
youth walked into the waters they closed over him time 
passed the sun crossed the heavens as darkness descended 
the maiden's hopes were almost gone she feared the youth 
had failed she was about to leave when she saw the waters 
part and the youth staggering forward with his heavy load. 


She was happy, for she knew that the return of the stars 
meant food for her people. She greeted the youth with a 
loud cry of joy. This wakened the evil spirits, who in turn 
wakened the lazy night growing spirit. In great anger he 
rushed from his cave to stop the return of the star lanterns. 
He pursued the youth and maiden up the hill. The youth 
was tired and the load heavy. He could not struggle long 
so the maiden tried to drag the bundle of stars up the cliff. 
As she climbed, the bundle grew lighter and lighter. But 
just as she reached the top, the evil spirit grabbed her. Her 
one thought was to save the lanterns she threw the bundle 
from her over the cliff it opened it was filled with the 
silken seeds of the milkweed. 

The Gods were watching the god of the wind quickly 
came and with his breath blew the seeds out over the lake 
they sailed away, higher and higher, until they were lost in 
the blue of the night. 

The youth and the maiden were sad for they thought that 
all of their work had been in vain but alas, as they looked 
heavenward, there again glowed the stars and they knew 
that the Great One had changed the milkweed seeds to 

The Milwaukee Hobby Show 95 


Robert B. Hartman 

At the December, 1938, meeting of The Wisconsin 
Archeological Society it was voted by the members present 
to join the Hobby Council and to participate in the annual 
Hobby Show to be held at the Boston Store, Milwaukee, on 
January 14-21, 1939. President Dr. L. S. Buttles appointed a 
committee of three members, consisting of Messrs. Robert 
B. Hartman, Chairman, W. C. McKern, and Herman 0. Zan- 
der, to arrange for the Society's participation in the exhibi- 

At the January meeting of the Hobby Council, held at 
the Milwaukee Y. M. C. A., the Society joined the Council 
and made the application for a booth at the show. The 
Boston Store offered space for the show on the sixth floor 
of its large West Wisconsin Avenue building. It constructed 
booths, loaned show cases and provided police protection for 
the exhibits of the different participating societies. No 
admission fee was charged and the public was invited to 
attend the show through appropriate newspaper advertise- 
ments and items. 

The booth assigned to The Wisconsin Archeological So- 
ciety measured 20x10 feet in size, and was centrally located. 
Its furniture consisted of two locked showcases, a table and 
a chair. In making our exhibit we received the finest of 
co-operation from the Boston Store management. All of 
the exhibits were insured. The show was supervised by a 
fine young man, Mr. W. M. Reed, who also conducted tours 
of visitors through the exhibits several times every day. 

The Committee wishes to express its thanks to the va- 
rious members of the Society who loaned archeological col- 
lections and specimens and freely gave their time to con- 
ducting and explaining the exhibits. The following mem- 
bers ably assisted at the booth: Mrs. Theodore Koerner, 
Messrs. Walter Bubbert, G. M. Thorne, Kermit Freckman, 
Arthur Gerth, Louis P. Pierron, and Dr. William H. Brown. 
Public acknowledgment was given to Mr. Joseph Ring- 
eisen, Jr., Mr. Herman 0. Zander and Mr. Charles G. 
Schoewe for the loan of interesting collections. 


It is estimated that between nine and ten thousand people 
visited the show during its continuance. From among these 
numerous visitors we secured the addresses of many per- 
sons interested in Wisconsin archeology, and some of whom 
may become possible future members of the Society. Sec- 
retary Brown sent literature, copies of The Wisconsin 
Archeologist and membership blanks for distribution to in- 
terested visitors. 

The exhibit of the Society consisted of stone implements, 
copper artifacts and pottery. The show case at the front 
of the booth was approximately 14 feet in length. On its 
top shelf, left to right, were displayed seven fraudulent arti- 
facts: a serrated obsidian spearpoint, a birdstone, banner- 
stone, an alligator-shaped stone effigy, a stone fishhook, and 
a copper spearpoint. The purpose of showing these was to 
acquaint visitors with the existence in the Society, of a com- 
mittee to detect and investigate fraudulent Indian relics, and 
to discourage their manufacture and sale. On the remainder 
of this shelf were two small arrowpoints, 35 Wisconsin 
"Woodland" arrowpoints, and five Wisconsin "Hopewellian" 
points, eight "Upper Mississippi" points, and ten "Middle 
Mississippi" points. On the second shelf were exhibited a 
hoe blade of the "Middle Mississippi" type, a discoidal of 
the type once in use by the prehistoric "Middle Mississippi" 
and "Upper Mississippi" Indians, a fluted stone axe, an 
anvil stone, five native copper implements (spearpoints, 
knives and an awl), five end scrapers of the kind used by 
the "Woodland" group, and three scraper-knives of the 
"Hopewellian" type. At the extreme right were a series of 
potsherds, a partially mended vessel and a completely re- 
stored vessel. This pottery was of the "Woodland" type. 

On the bottom shelf, left to right, were six celts or un- 
grooved axes of the "Upper Mississippi" and "Middle Mis- 
sissippi" culture group; two grooved axes ; a flat mortar and 
muller used by the Pueblo Indians of the Southwest, a 
grooved hammer or maul, and five grooved axes of the 
"Woodland" type. A framed cache of fifty-three "turkey 
tail" blue hornstone points was suspended in the center of 
the rear wall of the booth. 

At the left of the booth was another showcase set across 
a corner. In this case were displayed six wooden bowls and 

The Milwaukee Hobby Show 97 

four wooden ladles made by the Forest Potawatomi Indians 
of northeastern Wisconsin. On the opposite side of the 
booth a long table with chair was placed crosswise against 
the other corner to balance the exhibit. On the table was 
archeological literature for distribution to visitors. 

The exhibit was in every way very successful. By means 
of it the work and meetings of The Wisconsin Archeological 
Society received a large amount of very favorable and help- 
ful publicity. 




December 19, 1939. President L. S. Buttles presiding. The busi- 
ness conducted at the directors' meeting held earlier in the evening 
was briefly reported on. Mr. H. M. Davis, Juneau, Alaska, had been 
elected an annual member of the Society, and the State Teachers' 
College, Oshkosh, an institutional member. Mr. Walter Bubbert had 
reported on the destruction of two linear mounds on the University 
of Wisconsin campus in the construction of men's dormitories. This 
act the directors deemed entirely unwarranted. Secretary Brown had 
been instructed to write to President Dykstra, the Regents, the State 
Architect, and the Wisconsin Conservation Commission, expressing 
the Society's displeasure. Dr. Alton K. Fisher gave a very interesting 
talk on "Problems in Physical Anthropology in Wisconsin." Mr. W. C. 
McKern followed with an equally interesting address on "Archeological 
Problems in Wisconsin." Both addresses were discussed by the mem- 
bers in attendance. 

January 16, 1939. President Buttles conducted the meeting. The 
election as annual members of V. S. Jackson, Beaver Dam, and Ed- 
ward Pieschel, Manitowoc, was announced. The deaths of Mr. H. L, 
Skavlem, veteran archeologist, Janesville, and of Dr. Warren King 
Moorehead, Andover, Massachusetts, both old and valued members of 
the Wisconsin Society, on January 5th, were reported. Governor Julius 
P. Heil was elected an honorary member of the Society. Mr. Robert 
B. Hartman reported on the plans for the Milwaukee Hobby Show. 
Mr. Arthur P. Kannenberg gave a very interesting talk, illustrated 
with lantern slides, on "Excavations at Lasleys Point, Lake Winne- 
conne, in 1939." In connection with this address an exhibit of seven- 
teen trays of stone, bone, horn, shell, copper and earthenware imple- 
ments from this rich site was made. These were loaned by the Osh- 
kosh Public Museum. Many members took part in the discussion 
which followed. 

February 20, 1939. President Buttles in the chair. Dr. H. W. 
Kuhm acted as secretary. The election as annual members of Mary 
Ann Pripps, Harvey Seibel, Arthur L. Peck, Milwaukee, and Robert 
S. Zigman, Madison, was announced. A report of the business con- 
ducted at the directors' meeting was given. President Buttles had 
appointed Dr. H. W. Kuhm, H. W. Cornell and T. L. Miller to serve 
as a nominating committee and report at the annual meeting on 
March 20th. Mr. R. B. Hartman presented a report on the success 
of the Society's participation in the Milwaukee Hobby Show, held at 
the Boston Store, January 14-21. Dr. J. P. Ruyle, President of the 
Illinois State Archeological Society, Champaign, Illinois, had explained 
the proposed work and program of the now being organized Federa- 
tion of Mississippi Valley Archeological Societies. The Society had 
decided to affiliate itself with the Federation. Miss Mary Ann Pripps 
then presented a talk on "Explorations of the University of New 
Mexico Field Party in Jemez Canyon, New Mexico." Her address was 
very interesting and was illustrated with motion pictures of unusual 
interest and quality. 

Archeological Notes 99 


Dr. Warren King Moorehead, archeologist of national distinction, 
died in Boston, Massachusetts, on Thursday, January 5th. He had 
been for a number of years a director of the Department of Archeology 
of Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts. Last June he retired 
from this position. He was a Past President of the Central Section, 
American Anthropological Society, and during its continuance an 
active member of the Committee on State Archeological Surveys of 
the National Research Council, Washington, D. C. He conducted 
during the years of a long and busy life, archeological investigations 
in many states in Arkansas, Georgia, Illinois, New York, Pennsyl- 
vania, Maine, and others, making important contributions to archeo- 
logical knowledge, and was the author of numerous books, pamphlets 
and reports to be found in libraries in every part of the country. 

Dr. Moorehead was probably acquainted with a larger number of 
American professional and amateur archeologists than any other 
archeologist in the country. His publications and addresses inspired 
in thousands of young men and women throughout the country an 
interest in American archeology. Some of these have now become 
leaders in this great field of scientific research and investigation. 

When the Wisconsin Archeological Society was founded he was one 
of its firm friends. He attended meetings of anthropological societies 
held at Milwaukee and Madison, where he was well known. The Ohio 
State Archeological and Historical Society has published an account 
of his life and activities. We also \vish to deposit a palm on the bier 
of a greatly beloved American anthropologist. 

Col. Marshall Cousins died at Madison, on Tuesday, February 28, 
1939, of injuries suffered as a result of being hit by an automobile. 
Colonel Cousins had been prominent in both military and banking 
affairs. He was a native of Eau Claire. He served, one term as a 
member of the state legislature, and was a bank officer in his home 
city for twenty years. He served with a Wisconsin regiment in the 
Spanish American war and gained the rank of major in service in 
Puerto Rico. During the World War he organized and commanded 
the Sixth Wisconsin Regiment, until discharged for disability while 
training in Texas. Under Governor E. L. Phillip he was appointed 
State Banking Commissioner. That office he held for five years. All 
through his life Col. Cousins w^as interested in state history. He was 
for years a member of the Wisconsin Archeological Society. He was 
President of the Wisconsin Historical Societv at the time of his death. 

The Logan Museum, Beloit College, has published a particularly 
valuable and finely illustrated report. Prehistoric Habitation Sites in 
the Sahara and North Africa, by Alonzo W. Pond, M. A. This book 
gives a comprehensive description of the work conducted in Africa 
by Mr. Pond during the years 1925 to 1930 for the Logan Museum. 
During these years the author conducted investigations and studies 
of various habitation sites in the Sahara and the coastal and interior 
regions of Tunisia and Algeria, with rich results. "From the data 
made available, it seems certain that the North African field was a 
foundation head of the Paleolithic cultures, from which as a center 
influences moved over into Europe." The author says: "In the prep- 
aration of this paper approximately 70 000 tools of flint and bone, 
in addition to some 700.000 rejects (flakes, blades, etc.), have been 
handled many times. The material, including the Chapius collection, 
comes from a large part of North Africa, ranging through the Sahara 


from the Niger to the Mediterranean, and from the Department of 
Oran through Tunisia. Some material from the Libyan Desert is also 
included." The rich collection of mollusca made from the shell heaps 
or escargotieres by Mr. Pond, was studied and described by Dr. 
Frank C. Baker of the University of Illinois, and the mammalian 
remains by Dr. Alfred S. Romer of the University of Chicago. The 
text of this valuable monograph is profusely illustrated with photo- 
graphs of the material collected during these extensive investigations. 
We congratulate Mr. Pond on the success of his investigations and 
on his fine report of their character. We are proud of his member- 
ship in the Wisconsin Society. 

The Douglas County Historical Society Museum at Superior was 
opened to the general public on Monday, February 27th, by its Director. 
Mr. Gerald C. Stowe. Excellent descriptions of its collections of In- 
dian, pioneer, military, marine, lumbering and racial history material 
appeared in both the Superior and Duluth newspapers. This museum 
is already beginning to work with the local schools, and is receiving 
the assistance of many individuals and local organizations. Its very 
active director is receiving the congratulations of many friends at 
home and throughout the state for what he has accomplished in in- 
stalling this most important of northern Wisconsin museums in its 
new home in so short a period of time. Wisconsin friends are cor- 
dially invited to visit the Superior museum. 

Secretary Brown has been honored by being appointed the Wis- 
consin representative of the National Advisory Board of the National 
Gallery of the American Indian, Radio Citv, New York This national 
organization is sponsoring and encouraging American Indian art. 

Four interesting papers in this issue of The Wisconsin Arcbeologist 
are contributed by three members of the staff of the Oshkosh Public 
Museum Mr. Nile J. Behncke. its director; Mr. Ralph N. Buckstaff. 
one of its curators, and Mr. Arthur P. Kannenberg, archeologist. 

At Janesville an opportunity presents itself of acquiring the old 
post office building and converting it into a municipal museum. Local 
organizations might unite in bringing this about. Janesville needs a 
good museum, the city is rich in historical, anthropological and natural 
history collections. 


Baldwin, Gordon C., Prehistoric Textiles in the Southwest. The Kiva 4, 
No. 4: 15-18, Tucson, Arizona: Arizona Archaeological and His- 
torical Society, January, 1939. Price lOc. 

Berry, Brewton, J. E. Wrench, Carl Chapman, and Wilber Seitz, 
Archeological Investigations in Boone County, Missouri. The 
Missouri Archeologist 4, No. 3: 3-36, Columbia Missouri, Sep- 
tember, 1938. 

Brand, Donald D., Aboriginal Trade Routes for Sea Shells in the 
Southwest. Yearbook of the Association of Pacific Coast Geog- 
raphers 4: 3-10, Cheney, Washington, 1938. 

Archeologicul Notes 101 

Candela, P. B., Blood Group Determinations upon Minnesota and New 
York Skeletal Material. American Journal of Physical Anthro- 
pology 23, No. 1: 71-78, July-September, 1937. 

Chapman, Kenneth M., The Pottery of Santo Domingo Pueblo, A 
Detailed Study of its Decoration. (Southwest.) Memoirs of the 
Laboratory of Anthropology 1, pp. i-xiv, 1-192, 79 plates, Santa 
Fe, 1936. Price $4.00. 

Douglass, A. E., Southwestern Dated Ruins, Part 5. Tree Ring Bulle- 
tin 5, No. 2, October, 1938. Price 50c. 

Fulton, William Shirley, Archeological Notes on Texas Canyon, Ari- 
zona. Museum of the American Indian. Heye Foundation, Con- 
tributions 12, No. 3, 22 pp., 24 plates, New York, 1938. 

Heizer, Robert F., Some Sacramento Valley-Santa Barabara Archeo- 
logical Relationships. Ths Masterkey 13, No. 1: 31-35, Los An- 
geles: Southwest Museum, January, 1939. 

Hewett, Edgar L., Pajarito Plateau and its Ancient People. The 
University of New Mexico Press, 1938. Price $4.00. 

Holden. W. C., Blue Mountain Rock Shelter. (Texas.) Texas Archeo- 
logical and Paleontological Society, Bulletin 10: 208-221, 3 plates, 
Abilene, 1938. 

Hrdlicka, Ales. Skeletal Remains from Northern Texas. Texas Archeo- 
logical and Paleontological Society, Bulletin 10: 169-192, Abilene, 

Jackson, A. T.. Fire in East Texas Burial Rites. Texas Archeological 
and Paleontological Society, Bulletin 10: 77-113, 8 plates, Abilene, 

Kirkland. Forrest, A Description of Texas Pictographs. Texas 
Archeological and Paleontological Society, Bulletin 10: 11-39, 8 
plates, Abilene. 1938. 

Lotrich, Victor F.. Pendants from the San Francisco River, New 
Mexico. The Colorado Magazine 26, No. 1, 1938. 

Meleen. Elmer E., A Preliminary Report of the Mitchell Indian Vil- 
lage Site and Burial Mounds. (South Dakota.) Archaeological 
Studies, Circular 2: 1-33. 13 figs., Vermillion, South Dakota: Uni- 
versity of South Dakota Museum, December, 1938. 

Mera H. P.. The "Rain Bird." A Study in Pueblo Design. (Southwest.) 
Memoirs of the Laboratory of Anthropology 2, 113 pp., 48 plates, 
Santa Fe, 1937. Price $3.50. 

Over, W. H., Notes on the "Moundbuilders" of South Dakota. Archaeo- 
logical Studies. Circular 2: 35-36, Vermillion, South Dakota: Uni- 
versity of South Dakota Museum, December, 1938. 

Poteet. Sybil. The Occurrence and Distribution of Beveled Knives. 
(Texas.) Texas Archeological and Paleontological Society, Bulle- 
tin 10: 245-262, 2 plates, Abilene, 1938. 

Ray. Cyrus N.. The Clear Fork Culture Complex. Texas Archeological 
and Paleontological Society, Bulletin 10: 193-207, 2 plates, Abilene, 

Reiter, Paul, The Jemez Pueblo of Unshagi, New Mexico; with notes on 
the earlier excavations at "Amoxiumqua" and Giusewa, Parts 
I-II. School of American Research. Monograph 1, Nos. 4-5, 211 


pp., 23 plates, 24 figs.. Santa Fe: University of New Mexico 
Press, 1938. 

Smith, Victor J., Carved Rock Shelter. (Texas.) Texas Archeological 
and Paleontological Society, Bulletin 10: 222-233, 2 plates, Abilene, 

Walker, Edwin F., A Cemetery of Prehistoric Indians in Pasadena. 
The Masterkey 13, No. 1: 5-8, Los Angeles: Southwest Museum, 
January, 1939. 

Wedel, Waldo R., The Direct-Historical Approach in Pawnee Arche- 
ology. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collection 97, No. 7 (Pub. 
3484): 1-21, 6 plates, Washington, 1938. 

Wedel, Waldo R., Hopewellian Remains Near Kansas City, Missouri. 
Proceedings, United States National Museum 86, No. 3045, pp. 
99-106, 6 plates, Washington, 1938. 

Willoughby, Charles C., Textile Fabrics from the Burial Mounds of 
the Great Earthwork Builders of Ohio. Ohio Archaeological and 
Historical Quarterly 47, No. 4: 273-286, 2 figs., Columbus: Ohio 
Archeological and Historical Society, 1938. 


Of the 38 volumes of The Wisconsin Archeologists, 20 volumes were 
published in the old series and 17 in the new series. Most of the 
quarterly numbers are in print and may be secured by addressing 
Charles E. Brown, Secretary, State Historical Museum, Madison, Wis- 
consin. Price, 60 cents each. 

A table of contents of all publications to and including Volume 7, 
New Series, may be obtained from the secretary. A list of publications 

for the last eight years, Volumes 8-18, New Series, can also be ob- 
tained from him.