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UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 
GENERAL LIBRARY 



I 



GALEN C. HARTMAN 
LIBRARY FUND 



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» I 



4 



WITH JOHN BULL 
AND JONATHAN 



T. WERNER LAURIE'S 
RECENT 



{III 



JUNGLE TRAILS AND JUNGLE 
PEOPLE, Travel, Adventure, and 
Ofatervation in the Far East. By 
Castar WHrrMKV. itf s. net. 



THE BURLESQUE NAPOLEON. 

Being the Story of the Life and King- 
thtp of Jerome Napoleon Bonaparte, 
youngest brother of Napoleon the 
Great. By Philip W. Skkcsant 
B.A., Author of "The Courtships of 
Catherine the Great." Fully illos- 
trated. Demy 8vo. los. tf d. neL 



THIRD PRINTING 

THE COURTSHIPS OP CATH- 
ERINE THE GREAT. By 
Phiup W. Sbbgbant, B.A (late 
Scholar of Trinity College, OzfordX 
Illustrated. Demy 8vo, doth gilL 
lot. M. net. 



WITH JOHN BULL 
AND JONATHAN. 

Reminiscences of Sixty Years of an 
American's Life in England and in 
I the United States 



By JOHN MORGAN RICHARDS 

Prtiiitnl tf lit Amtruan Stilly » Ltl&it 1901 . 190* 




LONDON: T. WERNER LAURIE 

CLIFFORD'S INN. FLEET STREET 

1905 



5;\^d;boh:^ 






lb 
RbSb 

nob 



Mi Rights Rturoid 



c'-ncl 



TO MY 

RELATIVES AND FRIENDS 

I 
ON 

BOTH SIDES THE ATLANTIC 



Foreword 

In putting on record my reminiscences of life on both 
sides of the Atlantic I do so from a British-American point 
of view. I have not attempted to give advice to " pilgrims " 
about to visit England, or the United States. There are no 
descriptions of climate and scenery of either country, nor 
statistics as to population, heights of mountains, lengths and 
breadths of rivers and lakes, miles of railway, average rain- 
fall, hours of sunshine, or ^ vital statistics " of any kind ; nor 
do Politics enter into any of my observations. 

My narrative concerns my own personal experiences in 
both countries, covering a period of sixty years, thirty- 
eight years of which — 1867- 1905 — have been spent in 
England. I was bom in 1841, and my early life, until 1867, 
was passed in the United States. My wish has been to give, 
in pleasant outlines, sketches of those with whom I have 
had social or business relations, how we fared together, and 
apart 

The contrasts that are made as to Methods of life, both 
Social and Commercial, are not to be regarded other than as 
my own personal views, and have no further authoritative 
importance. 

I have placed myself really in the position of one 
answering questions, which I believe to be of general in- 
terest In my estimate of the importance of such questions 
I may have been greatly mistaken, and fallen short of my 
aim and desire in the value of my replies. 

JOHN MORGAN RICHARDS. 



Stbrphill Castlb, Islb of Wight, 
October 1905. 



fAOS 



Contents 

CHAPTER I 

1841 

Birth and Parentage — The inevitable Genealogical Tree — An- 
cestors on both Sides — Their Settlement in the States — 
My Mother's Death — Village Life of an American Minister 
— ^A Donation Party — Early Friends — First School Ex- 
periences — Sports and Pastimes — The Dame's quaint 
Punishments — '' Boys and Girls, turn your Heads " — Begin 
Life on a Farm — Hard Work — Rejoin my Father — Fly 
from *' Yellow Jack" to a Slave Plantation — Life amongst 
Slaves in Mississippi — Removal to New Orleans 



CHAPTER II 

My Father goes to England — I take his Library and effects to 
New York — My Furst Warehouse Engagement — Manage a 
Branch at Boston, and marry — ^Join the Firm of Demas 
Barnes, and travel — In U.S. and Canada — I canvass 
the Confederate States — Instructions for a Journey in 
California — "Create a Sensation" — My Mustang Ponies 
— Bankers and Credit — Novel Identification — Return to 
New York — The Firm of Demas Barnes and the Partners 
—The Beecher-Tilton Affair . . . . .16 



CHAPTER III 

I get tired of Travellinfi^ — Resume my Road Work for a brief 
Time — Engaged by Mr Van Duzer to represent his Firm 
in England — The s.s. Russia — Cunarders in 1867 — ^Reach 
Liverpool, and train for London — ^The Langholm Hotel — 
Look around on Sunday — Settle down to Work — A Copy- 
right Claim — My First Law-suit — My Wife rejoins me — 
Madame Tussaud's — ^Visit America — Partnership dissolved 
— Begin Business on my own Account . . .30 



Contents 



CHAPTER IV 



rAGB 



Proprietary Business and Advertising — English Editors and their 
Advertising Columns — Sale of Plantation Bitters — A Cute 
American— River Scenery^ — ^A Puzzling Advertisement — 
Advertising Fireworks — Taxing Proprietary Articles — 
Pirating English Medicines — ^A New Fascination — Mr 
Lever's View — United States for Machiner^-*England for 
Cabinet Work — American Boots and Shoes • •46 

CHAPTER V 

My New Business — The First Introduction of American Cigarettes 
and Smoking Tobacco into England— The Richmond Gem 
— The Quaker and the Cigarette — Forcing the British Sale 
— A Great Tobacco Combination — Removal to Holbom 
Viaduct — Interesting Neighbourhood — The Smithfield 
Martyrs — Here John Bunyan died — Burial-place of Captain 
John Smith — Bad Debts — Street Language — Forms of 
Address — English Proprietary Articles in the United 
States — Advanced Pharmacy — The Diamond Match 
Company ....... 66 

CHAPTER VI 

Dr Joseph Parker — Personal Acquaintance and Friendship — My 
Father's Visit and Death — ^Thursday Morning Services-^ 
Henry Ward Beecher's Visit to London — Colman's Mustard 
— Dr Parker's Lectures in the United States— Controversy 
arises — Lecture Tour abbreviated — Dr Parker's Letters — 
Plymouth Church — I join the Diaconate of City Temple 
— Dr and Mrs Parker's Silver Wedding — Presentation of 
Gifts — Dr Parker's Commandments for Men of Business • 79 

CHAPTER VII 

English Holiday-making — Our Visits with Dr and Mrs Parker — 
Mrs Parker's Illness and Death — ^The Doctor's Grief— He 
is Heart-broken — Continues his Ministry — His last Holiday 
with us-^IUness and Death ..... 98 

CHAPTER VIII 

Home Life — Dr Parker and Pearl — Illustrated Letters— My 
Daughter Pearl's early Life — ^A Mimic — Her Studiousness 
— Reads Thackeray — Effect of Toole's Acting and others 

— Her First Book — Her First Play Education of my 

Sons— Dorothy — Her Marriage . .111 



Contents 



CHAPTER IX 



9AQU 



First Visit to a Theatre — ''Romeo and Juliet" — A morning Call 
— Tenants and Rent-collecting in New York— My early 
Acquaintance with Mr Joseph Jefferson the Actor — Edwin 
Forrest — F. B. Conway — Dan Bryant — ^The London Stage 
in 1867-68 — Mrs Dallas Glvn — Her Gifts and Death — ^An 
Experience at Steinway H^ul — Racers through London • 124 

CHAPTER X 

Cost of Living in the States and in England — ^American and 
English Hotels—The Question of Servants and of Clerks 
— ^A dainty English Clerk v, A smart American — House- 
keeping Expenses and Servants-— Cab and Bus Fares-^ 
Education in the United States and Great Britain — Food — 
The American Society — American Charities in London-^ 
Applicants for Relief — ^A Benevolent Fund — Stranded in 
London— National Monument to the Queen — New Year 
Calls — Tipping . . . . .138 

CHAPTER XI 

TJU Academy — Scheme of Academy Crowns — London Forty 
Years ago — Footsteps of the Martyrs — Middle Row dis- 
appears — Opening of the Viaduct— Alterations in Build- 
ings and Streets — Railways — Baron Grant and Leicester 
Square — ^Athletics — English the better Oarsmen — Field 
Sports — Mr Cooke of Leeds— The Isle of Wight— Steephill 
CasUe ........ 159 

CHAPTER XII 

Walking and Driving Tours in England — Widows as Publicans — 
Young America in England and Young England in the 
United States — ^The Alien American — An " Unnaturalised 
Alien," — Firms of Americans in London — Continental 
Experiences — A visit to Canada — Holland — Railway Travel- 
ling — Porters and Porters ..... 173 

CHAPTER XIII 

Revisiting America — ^The Changes apparent — In Ships crossing 
the Atlantic — Improved Roads— Sky-scrapcrs--Servants — 
Hours of Labour changed — Merchants seen by Everybody 
— ^Travelling Facilities — Tyranny of Hackmen— Charity 
Collections — Eating, Drinking, and Smoking — American 
Women — The Stage Yankee-Questions of Accent and Pro- 
nunciation .....•• 187 

zi 



Contents 



CHAPTER XIV 



FAGK 



Social Amenities in American Clubs — Jonathan a Man of Business 
—^The Fashion in Vehicles — English in Clothes, Walking- 
sticks, Umbrellas, and Hats — Liveries creeping in — Dust- 
bins — ^Tomatoes on the Table — "Chicken Food" — Renting 
Houses — Public Undertakings — What John Bull owes to 
Jonathan — The Toast Master — ^The Seasons . . 204 

• 

CHAPTER XV 

Popularity of Americans in England — Episcopacy in the States 
— National Distinctions — Prince of Wales' Visit — American 
Public Men in England— Story of Mark Twain— The East- 
Enders of New York — Relief of the Poor and the Sick — 
"Wake up, England" — Mail-carrying, Old and New — ^The 
Pony Express — Sunday Observances . . 220 



CHAPTER XVI 

The Times and The Standard as Publishers — The Encyclopadia 

Sritannica and English Uteraiure Half-a-million spent 

in advertising — Company Promoting — Savings Banks in 
United States — Cheque System — The Waldorf Astoria 
— United States Officials — Divorce Laws in America — 
English and American Women — A great Snowstorm . 235 

CHAPTER XVII 

Commercial Monopolies — ^The Presidential Platform, 1904 — No 
Loyal or Patriotic Toasts at Banquets in the States — " Our 
Beggar Pedlar Bouncer is in " — Mock Auctions and Barkers 
— Camp Meetings — Story by Sir John Millais — Mr Birch 
and his Work — Mrs Jemima Luke — Conductors on Railways 
— ^Art of Criticism — Luck — Precedents . . . 254 

CHAPTER XVIII 

Solicitors, Barristers, and Attomeys-at-Law — Bills of Costs — 
Judges in England and United States — Medical Men — Fire 
Brigades — Management of Street Traffic — Bank of England 
— General Post Office — Holidays — Waste caused in England 
— Bicycles and Tricycles — Freemasons — Clubs — ^The Sphinx 
Club— Circulating Libraries — The Times Book Club- 
Patents — Motors ...... 268 

CHAPTER XIX 

1905 . 
Afterwords — Gathering up the Threads .... 286 

xu 



List of Illustrations 



Author ........ 

Rev. James Richards, D.D. — grandfather ; Thomas Beals, 



Frontispiece 



Banker— grandfather (mother's side) 



Ming page 2 



The Brothers Field. Taken at Stockbridge, Mass., in i860, 
for their Aunt, Mrs Abigail Field Beals, of Canandaigua, 
New York. Reading from left to right, Henry M. 
Field, Cyrus W. Field, Jonathan Field, David Dudley 
Field, Matthew Field, Stephen J. Field . 

Rev. James Richards, D.D. ; Mrs Elizabeth Beals Richards 
(from a marble bust taken, 1840) 

John Morgan of Aurora, New York (from an oil painting) ; 
Morgan Hall, Auburn Theological Seminary . 

Main Street, Pen Yan, New York ; Bird's Eye View of 
Canandaigua, New York ..... 

First Presbyterian Church, Morristown, New Jersey, 1797- 
1847 : Public School, Canandaigua, New York 

John Morgan Richards at New Orleans, La. (aged 12); 
Cayuga Lake, Aurora, New York 

Edward Cowles Richards; Mrs Elizabeth Beals Richards 
(from a pencil drawing, 1845) .... 

Demas Barnes, Merchant, New York ; William Porter 
Ward, Merchant, New York .... 

Main Street, Penn Yan, New York ; Brent Good 

Joseph Parker — Drawn in the firelight in the study at 
'^Tynehouse," Haropstead, 1888, by Maude Porter . 

Rev. Dr Parker ; Mrs Parker ; Rev. Henry Ward Beecher 
and Mrs Beecher on the Guildford Coach, June 1886 . 

ziu 



8 
10 

12 
16 
18 

26 
28 

82 

86 



List of Illustrations 

Cyrus W. Field (Atlantic Cable) ; Rev. Dr Joseph Parker, 

1875 ...... facif^gfi^^^ 

Rev Dr Parker at the Zoological Gardens, May 1902 ,, 102 

Facsimiles of Dr Parker's Letters to Pearl Richards . page 112 

Pearl Richards (aged 5) .... f<^cingpage 112 

Mrs Craigie at Lancaster Gate . . ,, 122 

Pearl Mary Teresa Craigie . . . ,, 116 

Stage favourites in America in the Sixties and after . j, 126 

Stage favourites in London in the Seventies and after „ ^3P 

Miss Glyn as Cleopartra, 1853 (from a crayon drawing by 

Solomon) . . . . . . • »» i34 

Ventnor, Isle of Wight, looking East Photo by Broderick 

Ryde ........ 170 

Steephill Castle, Isle of Wight . . . ,, 172 

Coaching Party from Steephill Castle, August 1905 . ,,176 

National Bank of North America, New York . „ 190 

Steamer Pilgrim passing under Brooklyn Suspension Bridge, 

East River, New York .....,, 194 

Margaret Wilson, the Puritan Martyr, by C. B. Birch, A.R.A. ,, 262 

■ 

- Facsimile of Drawing by Phiz, 1879 — Mrs John Morgan 

Richards .......,» 292 

Cartoon by F. C. G. of the Author as President of the 

Sphynx Club ...... Endpaper 



ziv 



With John Bull and Jonathan 



CHAPTER I 
1841 

Birth and Parentage — The inevitable Genealogical Tree — Ancestors on 
both Sides— Their Settlement in the States— My Mother's Death — 
Village Life of an American Minister — A Donation Party — Early 
Friends — First School Experiences — Sports and Pastimes — The 
Dame's quaint Punishments — " Boys and Girls, turn your Heads " 
— Begin Life on a Farm — Hard Work — Rejoin my Father — Fly 
from ^* Yellow Jack" to a Slave Plantation — Life amongst Slaves 
in Mississippi — Removal to New Orleans. 

Writers of fiction and romantic history have a 
licence in the method of introducing their heroes and 
heroines which cannot be allowed to the biographer. 
In the works of the former class, questions of parent- 
age, birth, and family history may be settled without 
minute genealogical research. Not so, however, the 
biographer: he is bound by conventions to account 
for his progenitors, however tedious the recital, by 
relating the *' truth," which is oftentimes "stranger 
than fiction." 

My family is of English origin. An ancestor on 
my father s side was a native of Lichfield, Stafford- 
shire, who left England in the reign of Queen Anne, 
and, after serving against the French in Canada, 
settled in the State of Connecticut. 



1 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

My grandfather, James Richards, was in the fourth 
generation, being the son of James, who was the son 
of James, the son of Samuel, the original settler. He 
was bom in New Canaan, Connecticut, 1767, and was 
the eldest of nine children. His father was a farmer, 
and his mother's maiden name was Ruth Hanford. 
She was a woman of vigorous intellect and of uncom- 
promising faithfulness in questions of social duty. 
Children were then subjected to their parents, whom 
they loved not less, but feared much more, than they 
do now. Her son James was accustomed to say **his 
mother governed her family" of nine children ''with 
her eye and forefinger." 

My grandfather James Richards entered Yale Col- 
lege in 1789. He was afterwards licensed to preach in 
the western district of Fairfield, Conn., by the Presby- 
terian Association, 1793. Subsequently he preached 
at Ballston, New York, and at Sag Harbour and 
Shelter Island, New York State. He married Caroline 
Cowles of Farmington, Conn. She survived her hus- 
band a little more than four years, and died at Auburn, 
New York. 

She was great-aunt to Commander William Sheffield 
Cowles, recently acting as naval attache to. the 
American Embassy in London, who married Miss 
Anna Roosevelt, sister of the President of the United 
States. 

In 1794 my grandfather was called to the pastoral 
charge of the Presbyterian Church at Morristown, 
New Jersey, and was installed in 1797, and in 1805 
was elected Moderator of the General Assembly of 



i 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

the Presbyterian Church. Afterwards, in 1809, he 
accepted an invitation from the First Presbyterian 
Church in Newark, New Jersey. Finally, in 1823, 
he accepted a professorship at Auburn Theological 
Seminary, New York. He died 2nd August 1843. 

On my mother's side my grandfather was Thomas 
Beals, who was born in Boston, Mass., and settled in 
Canandaigua, Ontario Co., New York, October 1803. 
His ancestor was John Beals, who emigrated from 
Hingham, near Attleboro, Norfolk, England, in 1638. 
He came over with his wife, five children, and two 
servants in the sailing ship Diligent. There were 133 
others from the same village on board ship, nearly all 
of whom settled in Hingham, Mass. 

Thomas Beats was a man of marked attainments, 
combined with great industry and energy. He estab- 
lished the Ontario Savings Bank in 1832, and after- 
wards " The Thomas Beals Bank," locally known as 
the *' Bee Hive." A sign hung over the bank 
entrance representing this emblem of industry and 
savings. He became Treasurer of the Church and 
Schools and various Corporations of the County, was 
U.S. Pension Agent, and acted as financial adviser 
and banker to the trading people and farmers of the 
district. He erected several blocks of buildings, 
built two large hotels, was interested in all move- 
ments for the benefit of the town, and was greatly 
respected. He died at Canandaigua in 1864, in his 
eighty-second year. 

Thomas Beals' sister Lydia, a noted beauty, 
became the second wife of the Rev, Dr Lymao 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

Beecher, the father of the Rev. Henry Ward Beecher. 
Speaking of her, Mr H. W. Beecher wrote she was 
" the possessor of great personal beauty, a cultivated 
and intellectual mind, polished manners, and rich in 
all social acquirements. Her religious awakening 
. . . assumed the character of a religion solemn, 
inflexible, vigorous, and sombre." 

My grandmother Beals was a Miss Abigail Field, 
daughter of Captain Timothy Field, who came from 
Guildford, Connecticut, with her brother, to reside in 
Canandaigua, and was married to Thomas Beals. 

Her brother, the Rev. Timothy Field, became first 
pastor of the Congregational Church in that village. 

This Grandmother was aunt to Cyrus W. Field of 
Atlantic cable fame ; Stephen J. Field, Chief Justice 
of the U.S. Supreme Court at Washington ; David 
Dudley Field, jurist of New York ; and of Henry M. 
Field, editor of The New York Evangelist, a traveller 
and an author, who is still living at Stockbridge, 
Mass. 

She was also great-aunt to the present David J. 
Brewer, Associate Judge of the United States Supreme 
Court, Washington. Thus the singular coincidence 
was presented, that both uncle and nephew were 
associate judges, sitting together on the same Bench, 
in the highest court of justice in the land — the one 
being "jj^ years of age and the other 52. 

A daughter of David Dudley Field resides in 
England. She is the widow of the late Sir Anthony 
Musgrave, G.C.M.G., Governor of Queensland 
1883-8. 



I' 



3' 

B> ^ u 



SI I 3 






I 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

My father, Dr James Richards, was the youngest 
son. He was originally destined for the Church ; but 
after completing his early education at Union College, 
Schenectady, New York, declared his preference for 
the law, and entered upon the necessary studies in the 
office of Judge Henry W. Taylor at Canandaigua, 
New York. 

As nothing is supposed to happen save the un- 
expected, James Richards, the young law student, 
who had no intention at that time of entering the 
ministry, became acquainted with Elizabeth Beals. 

She was the fifth daughter of Thomas Beals, an 
educated and attractive young woman, deeply imbued 
with sound religious convictions ; and was currently 
reported to have vowed that she would never marry 
anyone but a clergyman. 

Her influence soon produced a change in my father's 
projects, and he determined to give up law and be- 
come a minister. There was no difficulty in this ; and 
Dr Richards, then a professor of Auburn Theological 
Seminary, welcomed his son as a student After 
three years he was licensed to preach. 

In the autumn of the same year, Dr Richards of 
Auburn officiated at the marriage of his son to 
Elizabeth Beals. For many years, long after the 
death of the bride, one sentence of Dr Richards' ad- 
dress to the youthful couple was remembered and 
quoted. He said to them : " God bless you, my 
dears. Remember that love is as necessary after, 
as before, marriage." 

My father soon after accepted a call to the Presby- 

S 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

terian Church of Aurora, a lovely village on the 
shores of Cayuga Lake. This call was the more 
acceptable because there lived here Mr Christopher 
Morgan, whose son John, was in previous years, a 
schoolmate and close friend of my father. 

While residing here my mother gave birth to my 
elder brother James ; and two years afterwards my 
father s good friend, John Morgan, died. By his will 
10,000 dollars was left to my father's church, and 
2000 dollars for the purchase of a parsonage. These 
were very substantial reasons for my father and 
mother, on my birth, i6th February 1841, naming 
me after their deceased and generous friend John 
Morgan. 

My Father soon after transferred his ministry to 
the church at Penn Yan, Yates County, New York. 
Here mother gave birth to my two sisters, Caroline 
Cowles and Anna Beach. At this period my mother s 
health seriously declined, and her death soon after- 
wards took place. 

Her life at Penn Yan may be gathered by extracts 
from letters, which she wrote to her parents and 
sisters, that have been preserved. There are con- 
stant references to her increasing illness, and to visits 
from medical men, whose services were always ren- 
dered gratuitously, as the custom was with regard to 
the wives of all ministers. 

There are slight glimpses of home life — ^sewing 
parties, and of the entertainment of friends, relatives, 
and ministers. There is one reference to the loss of 
a double fee for the marrying of two couples at a 

6 



J 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

place eleven miles distant through the hxisband's 
absence from home, and the expression of a regret, 
as though the fee would have been welcome. 

Two other references recall the strictness of prin- 
ciples in the early days of Puritanism. A discussion 
arose as to the propriety of sending out invitations to 
parties seven days in advance — one friend objecting 
because " his thoughts became so much distracted that 
the sermons on the Sabbath did him no good " ; the 
second question was as to the conduct of those suffer- 
ing from any infirmity. Here is the problem : "Mrs 

goes out a great deal, not for exercise, but to 

visit She does not walk a step while in the house ; 
she reclines on a sofa or sits in a rocking-chair. Dr 

and Mr take her in their arms as they 

would a child, and carry her out of doors, and place 
her in the carriage. ... How she can consent to 
such things is more than I can account for. 
Mamma says that if a wise Providence had so 
afflicted her that she could not go about, as other 
people did, she would be resigned to her fate, and 
stay at home. I presume this is the language of 
many hearts." 

These extracts outline the unalluring incidents of 
their daily life. 

In order to provide for the oversight of my brother, 
my sisters, and myself, and at the same time super- 
intend the affairs of the house, my father, after the 
funeral of mother, engaged an excellent housekeeper. 

I was sent with my brother to a Dame's school near 
at hand, and as this was the first school we attended 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

the event was regarded by both of us as one of con- 
siderable importance. There were not more than 
twenty boys and girls there, and we were taught in 
classes according to age. 

At this school the mistress had quite an original 
way of punishing recalcitrant scholars. Boys were 
made to stand on the entrance porch wearing a girl's 
sun-bonnet while the mail stage-coach passed. Upon 
one special occasion I was suffering this punishment 
when Judge Ellsworth, a Member of Congress for the 
county, who had a son in the school, passed by on 
the coach, to my great discomfiture. 

If a boy had been excessively naughty a more 
serious punishment was inflicted. The culprit was 
placed across the knees of the mistress, who, calling 
out " Boys and girls, turn your faces to the wall ! " 
spanked the offender with a rule. 

Among my earliest school friends was Stewart 
Ellsworth, son of Judge Ellsworth, who afterwards 
became a major-general in the United States army, 
and served during the American Civil War. He 
visited me in London some years ago. 

After the lapse of two years my father took for his 
second wife Sarah Wisner. She was the daughter of 
Mr Henry A. Wisner, a distinguished lawyer of the 
town, and a descendant of Henry Wisner, who was 
a delegate to the Convention for forming the con- 
stitution of the State of New York. 

This event was almost immediately followed by a 
call, which was accepted, to the pastorate of a church 
at Morristown, Morris County, New Jersey, which 

8 



From an Oil Pai 



NOBOAK BALI.. ADBDBK 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

Dr Richards, my grandfather, had aforetime filled, 
and we at once removed to that town. 

As soon as we were settled my father placed my 
brother and myself in the Morris Academy — a 
partially-endowed and excellent local school. There 
were about 120 boys and girls there, and the manage- 
ment was in the hands of a Principal, Mr Isaac A. 
Blauvelt, whose wife had charge of the girls' depart- 
ment The usual curriculum was enforced ; and here, 
in my eighth year, I was placed in the Latin class. 

Amongst the many boys here, with whom we be- 
came very friendly, only one or two are now living — 
with one of whom, George Voorhees, a successful 
merchant in the town, I have held correspondence 
from the time of leaving school to the present day. 

While at this school James and I suffered much 
from a pleasant custom which existed, known as ''A 
Donation Party." This was held once a year at the 
Pastor's house, and was attended by members of the 
church and congregation, and other friends, who came 
laden with gifts intended to supplement the pastor's 
salary. No one in the family was exempted from the 
kind attentions of the visitors, and the gifts, for the 
most part practical, included eggs and butter, flour, 
vegetables, loads of firewood, poultry, joints, groceries, 
and clothing. These last mentioned caused the suffer- 
ing to which I alluded. The clothing was in most 
instances second-hand — suits which other boys had 
outgrown ; dresses of the previous season, a trifle 
out of fashion in colour or style ; and what was 
donated had to be worn, lest the donor receive 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

offence. My father, however, was exempt from any 
humiliation on this score. He was so tall that no 
garment worn by anyone else in the town would fit 
him ; and, although my stepmother was not altogether 
exempted, the chief burden of shame, James and I 
considered, fell upon us. The clothes which came to 
us were, of course, those which had been worn at 
school by our fellow-pupils, and had been carefully 
put aside by the parents against Donation Day. 

I shaU never forget upon one occasion appearing 
at school in a pair of second-hand trousers, and 
being at once accosted by other boys. ** Hello! 
John Morgan," they cried out, " I guess you've got 
on Dick S.*s trousers. Ha! ha!" 

Upon another ''Donation" occasion I was presented 
with a cap and top-boots — all were new. The cap 
was so large that I had to place a thick lining of 
cotton wool inside the head band to keep it on my 
head. The boots were several sizes beyond my 
measure. I was greeted at school with some words 
of chaff regarding the cap — the boots were at once 
hailed as ** canal boats," all to my complete undoing. 
I absolve the good friends who sent these gifts from 
any motives other than utter kindness, but they 
lacked the instinct to understand "boys." 

James was more obtrusively pugnacious than I, 
and when they began upon him he armed him- 
self with a leaden sling, and gave notice that he 
would let fly at any boy who jeered him. One of 
the bigger lads, relying upon his superior years 
and strength, commenced chaffing him, and at once 

lO 



Main Street, Pbsn- Van, Nei 



Bird's Eve View op Canandaioua, Nhi 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

received a blow which cut through the skin of his 
head. This came to the knowledge of the Principal, 
who put a stop at once to the annoyances to 
which we were subjected. 

At the very first of these Donation parties held 
in Morristown my stepmother was presented with 
a silk dress which had been worn by one of the 
ladies of the congregation. This she wore on the 
following Sunday, .and while standing in the vesti- 
bule warming her hands and feet over the register 
before going inside, the previous owner stepped up 
to her, and raising the hem of the gown, said : " Wal, 
Mrs Richards, I think IVe seen that dress before." 
There was a titter among those present ; but my mother 
replied with great composure: " You certainly showed 
good taste," and then passed to her seat in church. 

After two years my father left Morristown through 
ill health, which led to the members of our family 
being scattered. James, my two sisters, and I went 
to live with our grandparents at Canandaigua, who 
now assumed all responsibility for the maintenance 
of my brother and myself as well as my two sisters. 
No words can fitly describe their unselfish, devoted, 
and tender care of us. My sisters remained under 
their roof for some years — after my brother and 
myself were settled in life, and earning our own 
living. My stepmother with my two stepsisters, 
who were born at Morristown, returned to Penn 
Yan, to her mother's house. 

Giving up his ministry, my Father went to reside 
at Princeton, New Jersey, the site of the present 

II 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

University, where he remained for about a year, 
and then obtained a professorship in the Planters' 
College, Port Gibson, Mississippi. 

My Grandfather at once sent James to the 
Canandaigua Academy and sent me to a district 
public school. 

As in England, so in the United States, there is 
a particular sport common to youth in every season 
of the year. Beginning with the winter months — 
November, December, and January we had skating 
and tobogganing — but the latter sport in my days 
had the simple name of "sliding downhill." Both 
boys and girls engaged in these sports, and in 
skating the girls were always more graceful and 
more expert than the boys. Nearly every skater 
then, was able to execute upon the ice, many of the 
fantastic and skilful figures which have since become 
well known to professional skaters, and are now 
shewn by amateurs at skating rinks — which, by the 
way, is of American introduction to England. In 
the spring we had baseball and top and marble 
playing. In summer-time fishing, swimming, and 
ball-playing were enjoyed to the utmost. Neither 
football nor cricket was known to us. 

My grandfather held the opinion that out-of-door 
work should be regarded as a part of education, and, 
in pursuance of that principle, at the end of twelve 
months, arrangements were made for both of us to 
learn some of the principles of farming. 

My brother James and I were sent to separate 
farms in the village of East Bloomfield. These farms 



13 



:, CAHANPAiaDA, BEW Y 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

were three miles apart, and eight miles from Canan- 
daigua. In the State of New York the usual farm- 
holding was 1 60 acres, and this was the extent of 
the land worked by the farmers to whom my brother 
and I were sent. We received no wages, but had our 
board and "keep." We were most kindly treated 
as members of the family. I had to take a share 
in all the "chores" throughout the day. Rising at 
five o'clock in the morning, I had to assist in milking 
the cows, grooming, feeding, and watering the horses, 
and many other jobs about the place. We sat down 
to breakfast at 6.30 a.m. — taking that meal by 
candle-light in winter time ; had dinner at noon ; and 
a tea-supper at six o'clock ; then, after further work, 
went to bed at nine in the evening. In the spring, 
summer, and autumn months I found variations of 
work in the fields. In winter-time there was threshing 
of grain, corn shelling, feed cutting (hay and straw 
and roots, for horses and cattle). I had to share in 
attending " market " with eggs, butter, and poultry ; 
and exchange them with storekeepers for household 
requirements. 

Nor was this all, because there was a maple sugar 
bush of 300 trees on the farm ; and I was taught how 
to tap the trees in spring so as to draw off the liquid 
sugar, and boil this in the sugar-house until formed 
into a marketable article. 

In the winter months I attended school at East 
Bloomfield village, two miles from the farm. 

In the evenings the wife of the farmer was good 
enough to read aloud to us. Among other works 

13 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

thus read was Mrs Beecher Stowe's famous book, 
" Uncle Tom's Cabin," and I remember that we 
never heard, at any one time, quite enough of that 
remarkable story. Our sympathies were strongly 
aroused in favour of the slaves, and subsequently 
I had the opportunity of becoming acquainted with 
a slave estate where no cruelties were ever inflicted 
upon the slaves. 

At this work I continued two years, from my 
eleventh to my thirteenth birthday ; and I wonder 
how boys of the present day would like a similar 
course of work and instruction to prepare them for the 
business of life. 

In 1853 my brother and I rejoined my father at 
Port Gibson, Mississippi, where we entered as 
students in the college of which my father was a 
professor. This involved a journey of upwards of 
1600 miles, and the descent of the Ohio and Missis- 
sippi Rivers from Cincinatti, Ohio, to Grand Gulf, 
Miss. — a river voyage of seven or eight days, in 
terrible heat, with mosquitoes galore, and water 
to drink that no brute or dumb animal on the farm 
we had just left would touch. The drinking of this 
water to a Northerner was equivalent to a " bid " for 
fever and ague and other ills. However, we sur- 
vived the heat, mosquitoes, and the foul water. 

After the lapse of a year yellow fever broke out, 
and we were driven out of Port Gibson into the 
interior, away from the Mississippi River, to a slave 
plantation called ''Woodbine." There were about 
300 negroes on the estate. Here my brother and I 

14 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

had horses and ponies placed at our disposal, and 
under the guidance of older boys we quickly learned 
to ride and shoot. We greatly enjoyed our visits to 
the negro quarters, and their songs, music, and 
dancing. Our shooting was nothing more serious 
than the killing of wild ducks, wild pigeons, and 
squirrels ; but we soon became quite expert in the 
use of the gun. Coming fresh from the reading of 
" Uncle Tom's Cabin," I can bear my testimony to 
the fact that there was neither cruelty nor torture 
practised at this large plantation. 

At the end of four months my father received a call 
to the pastorate of the second Presbyterian Church in 
New Orleans, which he accepted. 

My brother then left, and was entered as a student 
of Princeton College, New Jersey ; while I accom- 
panied my father to his new charge. 



IS 



CHAPTER II 

My Father goes to England — I take his Library and Effects to New 
York — My First Warehouse Engagement — Manage a Branch 
at Boston, and marry — Join the Firm of Demas Barnes, and 
travel — In U.S. and Canada — I canvass the Confederate States 
— Instructions for a Journey in California — ** Create a Sensation" — 
My Mustang Ponies — Bankers and Credit — Novel Identification 
— Return to New York — The Firm of Demas Barnes and the 
Partners — The Beecher-Tilton Affair. 

In 1855 "^y fether resigned the pastorate of the 
church at New Orleans, and proceeded to England 
for the benefit of his health, leaving me in charge 
of friends. Towards the close of his absence he 
decided to return to America via New York instead 
of New Orleans, and I received instructions to pack 
his library, some 3000 volumes, and all other personal 
effects, and join him in New York. As I was then 
only in my thirteenth year I was very proud of this 
commission, which I carried out without any hitch. 
I remember that I bought suitable cases, packed the 
whole of them, arranged freight terms by steamer, 
and conveyed them to New York, a voyage of 1500 
miles, reaching that city on 4th July 1855. After 
meeting my father at the house of my uncle, Edward 
Cowles Richards, in New York my future career 
was discussed and settled. I was given the choice 
of continuing my studies at school, and then following 
my brother's example by entering college, as he had 

16 



T NKW ORLBAKB, U. AGE I 



Caivoa Lahe, Adbi 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

done, or training for a commercial life, and I decided 
upon the latter course. The responsibility of the 
maintenance of my brother and myself was from this 
period assumed by my uncle. He was my father's 
senior by ten years, had no children, and during 
the greater part of his life had engaged with great 
success in the importation of woollen goods from 
England and the Continent; but at this time had 
retired from business, with a high character for hon- 
ourable dealing as a merchant, and as a land-owner. 

His great kindness to those members of his family 
who had any claim upon his sympathies, or who bore 
the surname of Richards, and his unwearied benefi- 
cence on their behalf, stands unrivalled. He died 
25th February 1880 at New York, in his seventy- 
fourth year, and was buried at Auburn. He lived 
to see many of those whom he assisted in early life 
rise to honourable positions. 

Within four weeks of my arrival in New York I 
entered upon my first engagement as an office-boy 
and general clerk, in an agricultural implement and 
seed warehouse ; for which my previous farming ex- 
perience had to a certain extent prepared me. The 
salary at first was but $2.50 (los.) a week. My 
Uncle Edward kindly supplemented this sum with 
sufficient to find me food and clothes. After the 
first year I was fortunately able to obtain a salary 
I could live upon ; and after my sixteenth year had 
never again to ask pecuniary aid. I remained in this 
warehouse five years, and in i860, in my nineteenth 
year, was appointed by the firm to manage a branch 
B 17 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

of their business in Boston, and while so occupied 
the Civil War broke out While in Boston I had 
the happiness of meeting with Laura Hortense 
Arnold, the third daughter of Captain Seth Harris 
Arnold of East Boston, who became my wife on 
31st December 1863. Captain Arnold came origin- 
ally from Mahone Bay, Shelburne County, Nova 
Scotia, and my wife, who was bom there, was 
brought thence when she was three years old. Her 
grandfather on her mother's side was the Honourable 
Peter A. Spearwater, who represented Shelburne 
County, in the Colonial Parliament at Halifax for 
twenty-five years. During the year and a half of our 
acquaintance she paid visits to members of my family 
in Connecticut, and in New York. We were married 
at Boston. I was then twenty-three years of age. 

We remained in Boston for a year after our mar- 
riage, and in 1864 returned to New York, where 
I entered the service of Messrs Demas Barnes & 
Co., a firm occupying a very high position in the 
mercantile world. I had been acting for them in 
Boston for upwards of three years, on commission 
terms, as an adjunct to other business in which I was 
engaged. They formed an opinion that they could 
employ my whole time, and proposed a permanent 
post and salary. Mr Demas Barnes was a very re- 
markable man of business, possessed of untiring in- 
dustry, and amazing shrewdness, who had the rare 
gift of inspiring all about him with confidence, and 
winning their devotion. 

The second day after my new engagement a short 

18 



Mrs. Elizabeth Beals Richards 



I 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

journey in Canada was arranged for me ; after which 
I was directed to visit every town in Pennsylvania, 
Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, and Missouri — the journey 
to occupy three months, 

Mr Barnes said to me : " Stop at every town in 
these States on the line of railway where there is 
a church spire, a bank, and a newspaper office." I 
carried no samples, only a catalogue containing a 
price list of about looo articles in which the firm 
dealt * I passed from town to town by rail ; but 
when the next town was at a considerable distance 
• I travelled by night, and so economised my time. 
Wherever I stopped I always lodged at first-class 
hotels — "Commercial Hotels" were unknown in 
America. The firm had no fixed allowance per day 
for their travellers, but liberal out-of-pocket expenses 
were paid. I remember Mr Barnes saying to me : 
*' The firm does not wish to make money out of your 
economies, nor may you make profit out of travelling 
expenses. You are expected to render a careful 
account of all expenditure." My expenses averaged 
about $8.00 a day, including railway fares. There 
are no second or third class travelling facilities in 
the United States, other than on emigrant trains. 
We were allowed Pullman cars and sleeping berths if 
we travelled at night. This journey was regarded 
as a successful one. 

During the following two years, journeys of a 
similar character were arranged for me, upon each 
of which I found my experience ripening ; and these 
continued until I had travelled the whole of the 

19 



•• 



• « 



>v 



f 



r 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

United States, from Maine to Georgia, over and 
over again. 

At the close of the war — ^which lasted from 1861-65 
— I was in Louisville, Kentucky, and received a 
telegram from Mr Barnes to proceed at once through 
the Confederated territory of Nashville and Chatta- 
nooga and Memphis, in Tennessee. These towns 
had been laid under restrictions of travel during the 
war, but were once more opened to Northern travellers. 
I was authorised to use my own discretion in dealing 
with the customers I might discover. Most of the 
old firms were in existence, with which the firm had 
done business in one form or another, though many 
of the previous proprietors had either been killed, or 
wounded during the war. The dealing with new 
men required much caution and discretion. I was 
the first Northerner in our business who had ap- 
peared among them to advertise in their newspapers. 
I was regarded with some suspicion at first, but I 
never had anything unpleasant said to me ; the re- 
putation of the house which I represented was quite 
sufficient to disarm suspicion, and on such a footing 
satisfactory business was possible. The orders which 
I took were important, and the newspapers gave ex- 
cellent terms for space, and expressed themselves well 
pleased to again receive Northern support for their 
journals. My work comprehended a good deal more 
than selling goods. The advertisements had to be 
revised and adapted. Separate and careful accounts 
of the same had to be kept. This involved much care 
and attention. 



30 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

Throughout 1865 I was continually travelling, ten 
months being so occupied out of the twelve. 

In February 1866 Mr Barnes requested me to 
undertake a journey to California, on the Pacific 
coast, and although this would involve an absence 
of a year I immediately accepted the engagement 
At the same time I told him that, upon a great 
journey such as he proposed, I thought I should feel 
more content, and accomplish better results for the 
firm, if my wife were allowed to accompany me. 
Without a moment's hesitation Mr Barnes said: 
" Engage passages for yourself and wife at our ex- 
pense ; we will pay all the cost." This is only 
one out of many instances which I might quote in 
illustration of the goodness of heart which regulated 
the conduct of Mr Barnes. In all business matters 
he was exact and strict, and his instructions were 
models of perspicuity, full of shrewd observation, 
and exhibiting a grasp of every detail, which was 
never at fault. 

In illustration of what I say, the following were 
my instructions upon setting out upon this journey 
— omitting only a few details about the prices, and 
percentages, and credits, upon several classes of 
articles ; and the names of places I was to visit : — 

** Nbw York, 7<M February 1866. 

**You will please proceed to California by first 
steamer, stopping on the Isthmus of Panama one 
week. . . • Your first business is to advertise in all 
good family papers possible. Avoid all mining, 

ai 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

scientific, and agricultural journals. Rely princi- 
pally upon religious, secular, and literary weeklies. 
It will hardly pay to advertise in many dailies. San 
Francisco and Portland, Oregon, are particularly im- 
portant as emanating centres. Contract for twelve 
months on best terms you can — longest settlements 
possible — probably about three months. Make 
arrangements with some house in San Francisco to 
receive your duplicate contracts. Examine newspaper 
vouchers, and pay the accounts on date due. In all 
advertisements say 'Sold by all dealers.' Grant no 
favours, advertise no man ; we expect all dealers to 
sell our goods, hence the majority cannot be alienated 
for the benefit of a few. In making newspaper con- 
tracts please remember you are not limited in adver- 
tising to any amount of dollars. * Create a sensation.' 
"The Pacific coast is without many railways, and 
has to rely upon rivers and waggon roads for trans- 
portation, hence the season has much to do in 
determining time to visit the different places. You 
will arrive in San Francisco 20th March. After 
getting everything organised and under weigh, visit 
following towns (a list of which was given), subject 
to such changes as we may advise later. Advise me 
by telegraph once a month, and by letter twice a 
month. — With best wishes, etc." 

In this careful and thoughtful manner, out of his 
large experience, he gave me the wisest counsel at 
his command. My wife and I went by steamer as 
directed, disembarked at Aspinwall, and did business 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

there and at Panama, occupying seven days, and 
caught the s.s. Golden City, on which we sailed for 
San Francisco. The trip, including the time spent 
on the Isthmus, occupied exactly twenty-eight days. 
This was the ordinary course of the mail service 
before the Pacific Railway was constructed. My 
introductory work in San Francisco occupied a 
month. When arranging my long road journey into 
the interior I came to the conclusion that I should 
waste a great amount of time by waiting for the mail 
stage-coach over my routes, and decided, on my own 
responsibility, to purchase a pair of mustang ponies 
and a suitable four-wheeled vehicle of sufficient ca- 
pacity to carry my advertising materials and my 
assistant. This was soon accomplished. I found 
my wife a good home with a private family in San 
Francisco, and started. The principal banking busi- 
ness on the coast at that period was not done with 
banks, but with Wells, Fargo & Co., Express Agents, 
who had offices in every town on the Pacific coast, 
and the only currency was gold and silver. I carried 
a letter of credit upon which I could draw on San 
Francisco for any amount I required, so that it was 
only necessary for me to carry about with me sufficient 
for my daily needs. 

My methods of identification at the express offices, 
when any question was raised, was to bare my right 
arm, and exhibit my name, which was tattooed thereon. 
This was original, but never failed to satisfy the most 
sceptical cashier with whom I had to deal. 

Now to return to my journey. I drove the mustang 

23 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

ponies myself, and covered during my tour with them 
over 2600 miles. I carried out, as closely as possible, 
the instructions laid down in Mr Barnes' letter. This 
really meant visiting every town and mining camp 
from San Diego to Fraser River. I had many 
interesting experiences : was often obliged to get 
shelter for the night in the most primitive of inns ; 
sleep on the floor in a room with a dozen miners 
and teamsters ; partake of food of coarsest description, 
badly cooked; bar-rooms open all night; drunken 
men quarrelling, and sometimes shooting at one 
another — in fact, " roughing it " as rough as is possible 
to imagine. The roads were good. I followed the 
stage routes as far as possible, and tried always to 
get at night to one of their stations to sleep — if I 
could not manage a town or camp. The Alkali dust 
was something fearful to face. I wore linen overalls 
and jackets, above my woollen clothing to protect my- 
self, and to be presentable when making business 
calls. 

Northern California in 1866 was a wilderness in 
contrast with the condition of things to-day. Even 
then the larger towns, both in California and Nevada, 
were well laid out, and had many fine buildings, 
churches, and shops, warehouses, hotels, and flourish- 
ing newspapers. The gold discovery and the rush 
to this El Dorado was in 1849. This was seventeen 
years later. The journey was an important one from 
a business standpoint. Mr Barnes had not in the 
least over-estimated the harvest that was possible to 
be secured for his firm. After reaching Portland, 

24 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

Oregon, and putting the ponies to feed and rest for 
a time, I sold them and my "Concord buggy" to 
a jobmaster for only ;^io less than I paid for them. 
I had driven them, on the average, twenty miles a 
day. Before starting, the ponies had been well 
seasoned, and, I think, came from a travelling circus. 
I accomplished the journey in one-third less time than 
was possible by mail-coach, and at less expense — no 
mishap occurred to buggy, ponies, or myself. I carried 
a six-chambered revolver in my belt, as was the custom 
with all men driving on the road or engaged in min- 
ing, and this I never had the least occasion to use. 
Once the weapon was jerked from my belt, while 
standing in a saloon, by a miner, and was pointed 
at a man with whom he was quarrelling. No firing 
took place, however, and the revolver was returned 
to me. 

From Portland, Oregon, we took steamer to Victoria, 
in British Columbia ; then across Puget Sound to 
Olympia and Seattle, in Washington territory; back 
to Portland ; thence by steamer to San Francisco, 
cleared up all business ; and took steamer to New 
York, via Panama and Aspinwall, making no stop, and 
arrived in New York twenty-one days after starting. 

I was complimented on the success of my journey, 
and awarded a generous advance in salary. 

At the period of my joining the firm of Demas 
Barnes & Co., who carried on business at 21 Park 
Row, New York, the place was known as the United 
States Medicine Warehouse, and the firm were pro- 
prietors of, or agents for, or had upon sale, all the 

as 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

principel proprietary medicines of the day, foreign 
and domestic There were also departments for the 
sale of druggists' sundries, for perfumery, and for 
fancy goods. 

The firm consisted of Demas Barnes and William 
Porter Ward ; but at the time I left, in 1867, 
there were five partners, with a branch under the 
name of Barnes, Ward & Co. trading at New 
Orleans; and another branch trading as Barnes, 
Henry & Co. in Montreal, Canada. In the partner- 
ship there were Messrs Barnes & Ward, Mr John 
F. Henry, Amos G. Torrey, and Brent S. H. Good. 

I am bound to mention that this firm was an ex- 
ceptionally interesting one in consequence of the 
unique personality of the founder, and the remarkable 
talent he was able to gather about him as partners 
and workers — the firm not merely buying or manu- 
facturing goods to be sold at a trading profit ; jDut the 
transactions of each day bringing into exercise the 
best mental effort and genius of those concerned. 

Mr Demas Barnes, the head of the firm, was a 
self-made man — a strong character at every point. 
In personal appearance he was above medium height, 
stood very upright, possessed piercing, resolute, deep- 
set eyes, and high forehead. In his manner he was 
always conciliatory, if not plausible ; and especially 
courteous and agreeable to those in his employ. He 
was prompt in deciding questions submitted to him 
of every character, and was rarely found in error 
on a business point, while his acumen was really 
phenomenal. On coming to a decision he was not 

26 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

easily turned away. He was a very industrious man, 
and an early riser: he was frequently at his desk 
writing letters at five o'clock in the morning. He 
made a rule to receive as few calls as possible at 
his office, on social or political matters. All such ap- 
pointments were fixed by him at his private residence 
before breakfast, or after dinner. Correspondence 
by dictation or the use of typewriting machines was 
entirely unknown then, and so was the use of the 
telephone. All letters of instruction to his travellers 
he took upon himself, and wrote with his own hand. 
I remember that upon one occasion when I went 
into his room to see him he was so fatigued that he 
said : "I do not wish to call down any judgment 
upon myself, but I could almost hail with delight if 
my right arm were paralysed, so that I could escape 
the necessity of further writing, I am so tired." AH 
the same, when away from New York travelling, 
he found time to correspond with newspapers on 
topics of the day ; and wrote several books upon his 
travels at home and abroad. Work was rest to him, 
and he never absented himself from the office will- 
ingly. Two of his books which were published were 
entitled, respectively, "From the Adantic to the 
Pacific," and " In Search of Summer Breezes in 
Northern Europe." 

Mr Demas Barnes, after his election to Congress, 
became part proprietor of The Brooklyn Eagle, one 
of the most successful daily papers in the state of 
New York. After his retirement from commercial 
life in 1870 he started The Brooklyn Argus, a daily 

27 



With John Bull and Jonathan 



morning and evening paper. This was never a 
financial success, though the enterprise and energy 
he threw into the work astonished the most experi- 
enced newspaper proprietors in the country. 

One incident in proof of this may be mentioned. 
During his proprietorship of The Argus the so-called 
confessions of Mrs Theodore Tilton in reference to 
the Rev. Henry Ward Beecher were made by her. 
The MS. was brought to Mr Barnes at ten o'clock 
one night. He at once gave directions that the 
paper should not be put to press until he gave the 
word. Repairing to the residence of one of his 
leader-writers he roused him from sleep by throwing 
gravel at his bedroom window. A short conference 
followed. Mr Barnes told him what he had had 
offered to him, and the price put upon the MS., and 
asked what he should do. ** Accept," was the laconic 
reply. He hurried back to his office, and set the 
compositors to work, and next morning the startling 
story was telegraphed from The Argus, throughout 
the United States and to Europe. This was the 
beginning of the Beecher-Tilton controversy. 

By a singular coincidence, when in 1886 Mr 
Barnes came over to England, Henry Ward Beecher 
and his wife were passengers by the same vessel. 

The Argus was not a financial success. Mr 
Barnes, though editor, did not secure the loyal ser- 
vice of his writers. They were too independent, 
and he w^as unable to control or guide them. In 
his newspaper enterprises he was so keen that, at 
the age of fifty, he mastered all the details of the 

28 






BBEKT eOOD, 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

work, the mechanical methods, as well as composing, 
imposing, and the laying on and taking off the sheets. 
He frequently set up certain paragraphs which he 
wanted kept secret until publication, and dropped them 
into the forme himself. He sold his shares in The 
Eagle when he started The Argus ; but subsequently, 
thoroughly discouraged with his experience as a pro- 
prietor and editor of a daily paper, he sold The Argus 
for a mere song, which was then incorporated with 
another paper in Brooklyn, which is still in existence. 
His pecuniary loss was enormous at the time ; but 
by a singular turn of fortune the buildings which he 
purchased for the production of The Argus became 
of greatly enhanced value, owing to their proximity 
to the City Hall and Law Courts ; and upon selling 
the property he more than recouped his loss on the 
newspaper venture. 

Mr William Porter Ward was to some extent a 
protege of Mr Barnes, as he joined the firm, in the 
first place, as one of the office staff. Recognising in 
him the supreme quality of mastership of detail, not 
only in stock keeping and purchasing, but in all 
matters of finance and accounts, he was glad to 
make him a partner, and to share with him the re- 
sponsibility of success. He said to me upon one 
occasion when in London, Mr Ward could manage 
the Bank of England. 






29 



CHAPTER III 

I get Tired of Travelling — Resume my Road Work for a brief Time— 
Engaged by Mr Van Duzer to represent his Firm in England — 
The S.S. Russia — Cunarders in 1867 — Reach Liverpool, and 
train for London — The Langham Hotel — Look around on Sunday 
— Settle down to Work — A Copyright Claim — My First Law-suit 
— My Wife rejoins me — Madame Tussaud's — Visit America — 
Partnership dissolved — Begin Business on my own Account 

Having now reached my twenty-sixth year, I became 
quite tired of travelling, which involved long absences 
from home, so I sought an interview with Mr Barnes 
in reference to my future position. I explained to 
him that I had been travelling five years, and had 
visited all important places in Canada and the United 
States in the interests of his firm, and that I desired 
to have a post assigned me in the advertising depart- 
ment at headquarters. He listened attentively to 
what I said, declared that he sympathised with my 
wishes, but pointed out that there was no vacancy 
in the establishment where I could be suitably placed, 
and he promised that if I would be patient, the time 
would come when I should get a position in the office, 
and an interest in the business also. I therefore 
resumed my road work. 

On returning from my next journey one of the 
partners told me that Mr S. R. Van Duzer, a well- 
known wholesale druggist in New York, with a branch 

30 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

business in London, England, had called that day 
to ask if they had anyone they could recommend, 
as an advertising and sales manager, for his English 
branch, who could sail at once. My name was men- 
tioned. Mr Barnes was consulted upon the question ; 
then I was interviewed by Mr Van Duzer ; the result 
was that I was engaged to go to London immediately. 
Terms were embodied in a provisional agreement, 
and I sailed with Mr Van Duzer for England, 13th 
November 1867, on the Cunard s.s. Russia^ which 
was at that time considered the greyhound of the 
Atlantic 

The best Atlantic passage of thirty years ago was 
made by the City of Berlin, which reached Queens- 
town from New York, in October 1875, in seven 
days, fifteen hours — the distance being 2820 miles. 
This record was beaten in 1882 by the Alaska^ which 
covered the same distance in six days, twenty-three 
hours. 

Here I must pause a moment to mention that ten 
days prior to my sailing for England, my wife gave 
birth at Boston, Mass., to her first-born child, after- 
wards christened Pearl. 

An ocean voyage to England at that time was 
regarded as quite an event. The travellers were few, 
and limited to those seeking health in another climate, 
and men engaged in business. The voyager for 
recreation or pleasure was an exception. I remember 
the scenes in the Cunard Dock, New York, when 
we embarked. Members of parting families seemed 
overcome with grief and apprehension. Now, although 

31 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

moist eyes and a stray tear are witnessed, smiles and 
cheers predominate, and people entrust their most 
precious of human treasures, their best beloved, to 
strongly-made ships, experienced and skilful captains, 
with a feeling of confidence, which is a great relief 

The steamer Russia was a very different class of 
vessel to those of the present day. The first-class 
dining-saloon was in the after-part of the ship. There 
were no state-rooms much above the water-line, no 
music-room, nor lounge, nor smoking-room. Those 
who wished to smoke had to go on deck, near the 
smoke-stack for warmth, or go into the " Fiddle," a 
deck-room amidship. There were coils of rope here, 
and hard wood benches, and not more than ten 
could enter at a time. 

On the voyage there were about sixty saloon pas- 
sengers. The food was wholesome, and the service 
excellent, but no attempt was made at an elaborate 
menu. There were no electric bells to call the 
stewards to your room ; no light in state-room, except 
a fixed lamp set in the partition, and controlled from 
outside. Stewards were called by shouting. No 
steering by machinery — the enormous steering-wheel 
being hand-worked by two seamen. No speaking- 
tubes — the orders ** Port " or '* Starboard ** were 
passed by word of mouth to the man at the helm — 
and sails were spread to supplement the steam power. 

We reached Liverpool on the morning of the tenth 
day from New York. Proceeding to the railway 
station. Lime Street, we booked at once for London. 
At that time luggage was placed on the roof of the 

32 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

carriage in which one travelled. There was then a 
six hours* journey to London. 

On arrival we drove to the Langham Hotel, 
Portland Place, at that time the principal hotel in 
London, and favoured with the largest American 
patronage. The hotel, however, was not to be 
compared in appointments or service with any large 
hotel of any important city in America, or with the 
"Langham" itself of to-day. All the guests were 
lighted to bed with candles. The halls, staircases, and 
quarters were bitterly cold, and there was no heat- 
ing apparatus of any kind. There were grate fires 
in the reception and reading rooms. I never re- 
membered to have suffered from cold to the same 
extent indoors ; the chilliness of the atmosphere went 
right to the bones. The coffee-room would compare 
favourably with the chief dining-room of a Boston 
or New York hotel at that day. In the street at 
night I was astonished at the brilliancy of the public 
houses ; I had never before seen such miles of plate- 
glass and such blazing gas chandeliers in any part of 
America. The four-wheeled cabs and hansoms were 
exactly of the type of the present day, except for 
the addition of rubber tyres now. 

Next morning I was curious to discover what an 
English breakfast was like. Before ordering, I 
watched other guests settling down to that meal. 
I was interested to find that there was no variation 
in the order given — coffee (or tea), with toast, bacon 
and eggs, was the cry of each. The eggs were 
brought in either poached on the bacon, or in cgg- 
c 33 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

cups, with the shells unbroken, not broken into a 
glass as was the invariable practice in America, I 
was astonished to see the egg thus eaten out of the 
eggshell. On asking for ice water, I was informed 
"no ice supplied." 

That beverage is an absolute essential in every 
part of the United States, and is immediately served 
at each meal — a jug of ice water is always sent 
to your hotel bedroom in answer to the first bell 
you ring. In contrast with the urgent thirst 
habit which prevails in America, one ceases to be 
thirsty in England, and rarely cares to drink except 
with meals. I doubt if the average Englishman 
drinks a gallon of water, pure and simple, in a whole 
year. I am not able to give the reason, but pos- 
sibly the moisture of the climate allays thirst. An 
American lady, the wife of an Englishman, told me 
this year [1905] that her father could not be persuaded 
to visit England because he had heard that ice water 
was never served in hotels unless expressly ordered, 
and the ice charged for as an "extra." 

Iced champagne is an American innovation ; no 
one in England served wine iced twenty years ago. 
I have known Americans decline iced champagne 
during this period as "not English." To-day this 
is the universal custom. 

Another surprise was the sideboard, on which were 
placed huge joints of cold meats of every kind, and 
I noticed that some of the guests, after eating their 
eggs and bacon, finished up with a slice of cold meat, 
either by helping themselves, or pointing out to the 

34 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

carver the particular cut which they wanted. There 
was also oatmeal porridge for all who liked. Of 
bread there were only two kinds — white and brown ; 
while in America there were never fewer than four 
or five, including hot biscuits and Johnny cake, and, 
in the winter months, there would be buckwheat cakes 
and fried hominy. I soon followed the lead set me, 
and ordered bacon and eggs. I am bound to say I 
liked the breakfast, and, so far as breakfast food is 
concerned, became an Englishman at once, and have 
remained one. 

I sauntered early out, and found my way to West- 
minster, looking with strange delight on the Abbey, 
the Houses of Parliament, and the Bridge. On this 
walk I learned my first lesson as to the difference 
of dress on each side of the Atlantic. I was wearing 
a soft-felt hat and a military cloak, instead of a top 
or stiff* - brimmed hat, and a tight - fitting topcoat. 
People eyed me curiously, and made comments. 

We attended the Tabernacle at Newington Butts 
for morning service, and were able to hear the simple 
oratory of the Rev. Charles Spurgeon, and were thrilled 
with the force of delivery which he displayed. There 
was not the slightest apparent attempt to produce 
a studied effect. 

In proof of the immense popularity of this preacher, 
30,000 copies of his sermons were sold weekly during 
his lifetime ; and in 1905 20,000 copies of his books 
and sermons were still sold every week. 

In the evening I went to hear the Rev. J. M. 
Bellew at Bloomsbury Chapel, who had a consider- 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

able reputation at the time as a pulpit orator ; but I 
considered that Spurgeon had by far the better pulpit 
manner, and was a more interesting preacher. 

As soon as the shops were opened on Monday 
morning I bought a bowler hat and topcoat, and 
found that my appearance did not attract any further 
special attention. 

Mr Van Duzer and I proceeded early to his ware- 
house in Holbom. I carefully went through the 
books, and at the end of a week he asked me my 
opinion. I replied : " If it is your pleasure I will 
complete the provisional agreement as originally con- 
templated." This was done, and at the end of thirty 
days I was left in full charge of the business. Mr 
Van Duzer then gave me full freedom of action to 
conduct an active advertising campaign, and soon 
after he sailed for New York. 

Mrs Richards and our daughter Pearl joined me 
three months later. 

At the end of two years I had acquired a partner- 
ship, with a-third interest in profits : that was accord- 
ing to the agreement at the start, and was contingent 
upon certain results being accomplished. 

The style of the firm now became Van Duzer 
and Richards. 

That people in London are quick to discern differ- 
ences in dress was again amusingly illustrated by a little 
adventure Mrs Richards and I had. At Easter 1868 
we paid a visit to the famous exhibition of Madame 
Tussaud, then located in the Portman Rooms, Baker 
Street There was an enormous crowd of visitors, 

36 



< 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

and I noticed that, as we passed along, people pointed 
and talked, and there was a good deal of laughing. 
I did not suspect at first that we were the object 
of their curiosity. But the interest and excitement 
continued from roona to room, so I asked the door- 
keeper what was exciting the curiosity and mirth 
of the people. He at once replied : " The lady is 
wearing a green veil over her hat and face, which, 
in London, is just equivalent to shaking a red rag 
in the face of a bull, and suggests that you are members 
of the Fenian Association." This was about the time 
of the Fenian outbreak in London ; and we decided 
to retire from the building, for fear of provoking 
something more serious. 

I must not omit to mention the little coffee shops on 
some of the thoroughfares, where I saw, for the first 
time, food being cooked in the front window in plain 
sight, the food emitting supposed savoury odours 
likely to whet the edge of one's appetite. I refer to 
the fried fish and cook shops, in which fried fish, eels, 
pork chops and onions, sausages and potatoes, and 
batter pudding, were thus exhibited, simmering in 
hot grease. Little tin labels would be displayed on 
the several metal dishes inscribed as follows : — 
''Sausage and Plain, 2d. Sausage and Chips, 
3d." etc. etc. — the "plain" and "chips" meaning 
potatoes baked or fried. Then there were the shops 
for "cooked meats," where a carver in white apron 
and cap was waiting to serve customers with slices of 
cold ham, beef and tongue — ^all sold by weight. This 
enabled one to take home to his own table cooked and 

37 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

carved meat, just as one would call at the baker's 
for a loaf of bread or cake. Many small families, 
having limited cooking arrangements, send out joints 
of meat and meat-pies, also pudding^s and tarts, pre- 
pared for the oven in their own pans and basins, 
to be baked at the baker's shop, a small fee being 
charged I also came across the ** Muffin and 
Crumpet" man canvassing in residential streets in 
London, attracting attention by ringing at intervals 
a little " tea-bell," and shouting '* Hot Muffins and 
Crumpets!" The foregoing are London institutions 
which exist to-day. All were new and strange to 
me. 

In Boston, Mass., many families send out to the 
public baker the pots of beans and brown bread, to be 
baked for their standard Sunday morning breakfast. 

I had to come to London to see milk served at 
residences by a milkman or woman, walking, wearing a 
wooden yoke on the shoulders, with an eight-gallon tin 
can suspended from each end — the costume of the 
milkman being the old-fashioned flowing white cotton 
smock, with the collar and cuff and shoulder portion 
gathered in pleats. Then there were to be seen goats 
and asses led about to residences of certain customers, 
and a half pint or more milked direct from the 
creatures — meaning "the real thing; no adulteration." 
This was for delicate infants, and prescribed by the 
family doctor. 

In London I first saw the Royal Arms, with 
the words *' By Special Appointment," emblazoned 
over the shop entrances of those holding Royal 

38 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

Warrants. I was not prepared to see, but I did 
see in Portland Road, the following : — " Purveyor of 
Asses' Milk to the Royal Family." 

I soon observed the friendly terms existing between 
the London omnibus driver and conductor, who 
always address each other as " Bill." If Driver 
" Bill " wished to communicate with Conductor " Bill," 
he swishes the lash of his whip to the rear of the bus, 
and lightly touches " Bill," who stands mounted on the 
" monkey-board." This ** board " has been abandoned 
since the introduction upon all London omnibuses of 
the spiral staircase to the roof in place of a ladder, and 
"garden-seats" in place of the old "knife-board." Now 
all passengers sit facing the horses instead of sideways. 
The box-seats alongside of the driver are also with- 
drawn. Conductor "Bill " mounts the steps, and 
shouts : " I say. Bill." These messages to and fro are 
not always intelligible to the passenger. I heard an 
amusing explanation given by the driver to a passenger 
on the following message being shouted to him : — 
" Woman on horseback." Whereupon the driver gave 
the whip to his steeds. " What does he mean ? " said 
the passenger. " Well you see, sir, that lidy who just 
got down gave Bill a half-a-sovering for a sixpence." 

Taking up the business of an omnibus driver would 
seem to be a life appointment in London ; and once 
in the front seat, a driver very rarely abandons the 
reins again. In the old style of bus there were 
two seats provided on each side of the driver for 
passengers, and these were always regarded by 
strangers as the best seats for viewing London, as 

39 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

well as hearing the most amusing accounts of men, 
women, and things from the driver. An American 
visitor in such a position is always impressed by the 
pleasant chatter which he hears, and the entire 
absence of oaths, or any kind of swearing. The 
drivers are very fond of chaffing one another as they 
draw up side by side in a block ; or they make un- 
pleasant remarks about some fellow-driver's handling of 
the reins. As the fashion of the bus changes, so will 
the character of the language used. Thus one would 
say : " Hallo ! old Garden Roller ! " — being a refer- 
ence to the garden-seats with which all the busses 
are fitted. The reply would probably be : " Oo yer 
getting at ? " or " Wodder you think ? " An angry ex- 
pression which I have often heard is : " Cum orf hit!" 
While others expressive of contempt have been : " 'E 
ain't no class!" and "Corl 'im a gent!" 

Our first home in London was a furnished house 
near Kennington Gate, and here we resided until 
January 1869. In 1870 I took the lease of a house 
in Upper Woburn Place, Tavistock Square, for a 
dwelling. During our residence here three sons were 
bom : Edward Cowles, in 1870, who died in his second 
year ; John Morgan, and Nelson. 

During the first three or four years of our residence 
in London we made few English acquaintances, but 
some of our American friends and relatives were 
frequently passing through London, and called. I 
gave my whole time, early and late, to the work, in 
which I was greatly interested. 

Almost the first American visitor to come was Mr 

40 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

Brent Good, a member of the firm of Demas Barnes 
and Co. He spent two or thrfte weeks in London. 
Since that visit Mr Good has crossed the Atlantic 
sixty times, and has been a constant visitor, up to 
the present *year. We have had a most happy 
social and business association for many years. In 
1872 Mr and Mrs Demas Barnes came over to 
England on their first visit, when he renewed a 
proposition previously made in several letters, that 
I should rejoin him in business in New York. 

I had quite a flood of visitors in 1873, which in- 
cluded Mr and Mrs Barnes once more. This year, 
soon after the death of our son, Mrs Van Duzer invited 
my wife, Pearl, and myself to pay them a visit in New 
York, which we accepted, this being our first sight 
of America since 1867-8. 

The London business continued to improve from 
year to year, and about 1875, as the result of negotia- 
tions with Mr Van Duzer, I renounced my interest 
in the goodwill and partnership upon certain terms ; 
and taking newly-built premises at the corner of 
Great Russell Street and Charlotte Street, Blooms- 
bury, called Great Russell Buildings, began business 
in my own name. 

When I first began to advertise in England, any 
novelty in the way of presenting one's business was 
then, as now, regarded as desirable, and I was desirous 
of making an experiment which I had some con- 
fidence would be successful. This was soon after 
the death of Artemus Ward, the American humorist 
who had contributed a series' of articles to Punchy 

41 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

which were afterwards collected in a small volume, 
published by Mr J. Camden Hotten of Piccadilly. 
I wrote to Mr Hotten, and asked permission to 
make extracts from some of Artemus Ward's articles 
as an advertisement pamphlet, and explained that 
I wanted to cut freely from the chapters, and inter- 
leave the same with advertisements of the proprietary 
articles in which I was interested. His reply to 
my letter was in the following words: — "You have 
my hearty consent to do exactly what you have 
stated in your letter." Upon this I proceeded, and 
possibly exceeded what Mr Hotten intended. I 
printed two whole chapters of Artemus Ward — ^his 
visit to the British Museum and to the Tower of 
London — and also gave extracts from several of the 
other articles. I went to press with the pamphlet 
to the extent of over 100,000 copies, which I pro- 
ceeded to distribute amongst the public. To my 
surprise, within a week of issue I received a letter 
from the solicitors of Mr Hotten, calling upon me 
for damages, and insisting that I should immediately 
withdraw the pamphlet from circulation. After a 
vain attempt to see Mr Hotten I compromised the 
matter by paying ;^50 as damages and destroying 
such of the pamphlets as had not been circulated. 
Mr Hotten founded these proceedings upon the fact 
that, while I asked only for permission to make ex- 
tracts, what I had really done was to quote two 
entire chapters. Since then I have acted more 
cautiously. 

Within a year after this incident I was waited 

42 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

upon by a firm of advertising agents, who made 
proposals to me for a certain space in a selected 
list of English, Irish, and Scottish papers, the con- 
dition of acceptance being that there was to be a 
uniform price throughout all the papers. The posi- 
tion of each advertisement was clearly stated, and 
the space they were to occupy, and a contract em- 
bodying these points was drawn up and signed. 
At the end of the quarter, on presenting their account, 
I found that they had inserted the advertisements 
in all of the cheap and unimportant papers, and had 
omitted to do so in papers named of large circulation 
and important standing. The price agreed upon 
being an average one, I considered that I was right 
in refusing to pay until the advertisements had ap- 
peared in each of the mediums agreed upon, a clause 
being inserted in my agreement to this effect, and 
that there should be no exemption unless publication 
of that particular newspaper had ceased. I was 
immediately served with a writ, and by representing 
I was a stranger, and likely to leave the country, 
a lien was placed on my banking account. The 
manager of the London and Westminster Bank told 
me what had taken place, but courteously informed 
me that he would, nevertheless, continue to honour 
my cheques. By giving bonds, however, I had the 
order removed within twenty-four hours. At the 
trial of the action the matter was referred by the 
judge for examination of the papers, and eventually 
I was ordered to pay contract price for every paper 
in which the advertisement appeared, notwithstanding 

43 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

the proviso that the appearance in any one was de- 
pendent upon the same advertisement appearing in 
all, which, the referee held, was what the plaintiff 
could not possibly carry out I therefore paid con- 
tract price for what was inserted, and the law costs. 
These were the only two instances which occurred 
in my advertising career, during thirty-eight years, 
in which I had any dispute with an owner of a 
copyright, or an advertising agent. 

This firm of agents were quite unknown by adver- 
tisers, and ceased to exist more than thirty years ago. 
My relations with advertising agents in England have 
been of the most satisfactory character. My first 
business was done through Mr Richard Crossley in 
1867. On his death, two years later, his son, Mr 
Charles R. Crossley, succeeded him — a man of my 
own age ; and Messrs Crossley & Co. have placed 
the chief part of my newspaper advertising to this 
day. 

My experience has been that it is unwise to yield 
to any temptation in the way of very low prices, and 
offers of exceptional advantages, offered by firms 
whose standing will not bear the test of careful refer- 
ences and inquiry : in the case of agents with small 
capital, and printers with insufficient means, the result 
is nearly always disappointing. The least delay in 
payment to the papers causes the advertisement to be 
left out by the publisher ; and in printing, if workman- 
ship and paper are not up to sample and agreement, 
they are unable to bear the loss involved by a return 
of goods, and beg for mercy. 

44 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

The very reasonable practice of the advertiser, to 
turn to good account any event of the day, whereby 
to bring into further notice any speciality, has amus- 
ing illustration in September 1905 at the conclusion of 
the Treaty of Portsmouth between Russia and Japan. 
The pen manufacturers from every corner of the earth 
addressed samples of their wares to the Plenipotenti- 
aries, each hoping that his particular handiwork might 
be immortalised as the pen that was mightier than the 
Fal* Eastern sword. High diplomacy has happily 
proved equal to the task of contriving a way out of 
the difficulty by using Quills, 



45 



CHAPTER IV 

Proprietary Business and Advertising — English Editors and their Ad- 
vertising Columns — Sale of Plantation Bitters — A Cute American 
— River Scenery — A Puzzling Advertisement — Advertising Fire- 
works — ^Taxing Proprietary Articles — Pirating English Medicines 
— A New Fascination — Mr Lever's View — United States for 
Machinery — England for Cabinet Work — American Boots and 
Shoes. 

To more clearly explain the nature of the business 
which I had surrendered, and was now taking up 
on my own account, I should state that this was 
what is known as a Proprietary one — the results of 
which depended upon the intrinsic merit of the article, 
real usefulness, and publicity. My chief training in 
the United States was the preparation of advertise- 
ments, and the issue of advertisement literature 
as belonged to the publication department of such a 
business. Following out this experience, I set to 
work in London on a poster for wall space, and 
devised the first sixteen -sheet double demy poster 
ever seen in England in connection with a proprietary 
article. My next work was to endeavour to bring 
London and Provincial newspapers to allow display 
advertisements such as were appearing in American 
journals, and to give further facilities to large 
advertisers. This was a difficult task, and a sad 
disappointment, so strongly were the newspaper pro- 
prietors ensconced behind the barriers of what they 

46 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

considered to be the proper and seemly method of 
English advertising. The Illustrated London News 
was the first to grant the privilege of inserting an 
illustrated advertisement with blocks. No daily paper 
would at that time accept "copy" which they did 
not first edit, and in some important papers no ad- 
vertisement was accepted without prepayment being 
made. In The Times the form of setting up an 
advertisement was subject to many restrictions. A 
repetition of the same words line after line would 
not be received, but the reg^ation was insisted upon 
that each such line should be followed by explana- 
tory matter. No two lines exactly alike could ap- 
pear in any advertisement, even though a column in 
length, and costing ;^20 per insertion. In illustra- 
tion, if you wanted a column advertisement about 
cocoa, as soon as the word appeared in a line there 
must follow different explanatory or descriptive words, 
as "Grateful, Comforting." Nothing whatever in 
the way of display was allowable. Enormous changes 
have occurred since this time, as The Times, as well 
as all other London journals, morning and evening, 
now admit display blocks of the largest and boldest 
character, and know their value. The old-fashioned 
system was regelated by the conservative taste of 
the editor; and not with a view to fall in with the 
wishes of the advertiser. Now that policy is exactly 
reversed. The wishes of the advertiser regfulate the 
character of the display made in the advertising 
columns. In conjunction with another American 
firm I believe I was the first to engage a full ad- 

47 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

vertisement column in a single issue of a London 
daily, and a whole back page of several London 
weeklies. I do remember that Messrs Pears, Bryant 
and May, and Epps did occupy the back pages of Punch 
occasionally. This was no novelty in the United 
States at that day, nor is this now in England. Full 
pages in both dailies and weeklies are in constant 
evidence. 

A great deal depends upon the way in which an 
article is advertised whether the object desired is 
attained. An amusing illustration of this came under 
my own notice. A friend lost his umbrella at church, 
and advertised in the usual way, saying the finder 
would be rewarded ; but this was quite a failure : the 
umbrella was not forthcoming. Taking the advice 
of a journalist, he advertised again, but in a different 
form. The new advertisement read as follows: — ** If 
the gentleman who was seen to take a silver-handled 

umbrella from St Church on Sunday attaches 

any value to the Christian character he has hitherto 
borne, he will return the article immediately to No. 

Street. He is known." Within three days 

twelve umbrellas were sent to his house, several with 
notes — apologising for the inadvertence. 

Before the early seventies, in the United States, 
posters in colours or of large dimensions were almost 
unknown, and the only coloured posters which I can 
remember were those issued by the managers of 
circus companies. Commercial posters rarely ex- 
ceeded a two-sheet double demy, with words in black 
letters on a white ground. There was then no system 

48 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

of protected stations, and posting was done with the 
knowledge that possibly the poster would be covered 
up within twenty -four hours. Posting was then 
usually done at night, to avoid the possibility of 
encountering an opponent. 

A common form of posting in the United States 
was called ** Gutter Snipes." These were composed 
of narrow strips of paper, from two to three feet in 
length, which would be found in a morning lining the 
gutters the entire length of Broadway from the 
Water-works to the Battery. 

The Bill posters of England at that time were 
greatly in advance of those practising in the United 
States. The "Snipes" in the gutter would probably 
disappear about midday ; but before that hour every 
foot passenger, and everyone riding along the 
thoroughfare, would have read, and remembered 
what was advertised. 

London hoardings at the present day exhibit picture 
posters which have been designed by many of the 
most eminent painters of the day, including a number 
of Royal Academicians ; at the same time, the fact 
should be borne in mind that these pictures were 
not originally intended for advertisements. Many of 
the large protected hoardings in London thorough- 
fares measure from 300 to 400 feet in length. In 
fact, as soon as ever a new building site is taken, or 
a street improvement is entered upon, an advertise- 
Qient contractor will at once secure the hoarding 
space to let to advertisers ; and the contract is usually 
based upon a fixed price per sheet per week. 
D 49 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

" Art " in advertising is, therefore, a correct expres- 
sion to use in describing the artistic work carried out 
in the advertisements which cover street hoardings. 
The showcards also which are seen in shop windows 
bear the hall mark of high artistic merit. I have 
never seen in the United States, or in any city upon 
the Continent, any posters which can compare with 
the artistic elegance of those which are displayed 
upon hoardings in the streets of the metropolis. 
This survey also includes shop windows, hotel walls, 
omnibuses, street cars, railway approaches, and rail- 
way stations. The art of designing a poster is worthy 
of the highest gifts of a modern painter. 

Bill-posting contractors of the present day now form 
an important section of the advertising trade, and 
have a very large capital invested in the business. 

The income derived by omnibus and tramway 
companies from their advertising spaces forms a 
large part of their revenue, and swells the dividends 
paid to the shareholders. 

At the present moment search is being made for 
some metal other than iron for display signs which 
would be lighter for the omnibuses to carry. 

In the street Omnibus traffic there is room for great 
improvement in the indication of routes which they 
carry on their sides. London is probably the only 
city in the world which gives the names of public- 
houses as the starting - places and termini of these 
public vehicles : the Angel, Mother Red Cap, 
Elephant and Castle, and Swiss Cottage are only a 
few which may be quoted as examples in point. 

so 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

Much amusement is often enjoyed by strangers at 
hearing the manner in which conductors shout out 
the names of well-known places : thus the Bank is 
always " Benk," Westminster is " Minster " or 
"Habbey," and Victoria Station never anything 
else but "Toria." 

As to the value of Advertising, an interesting illus- 
tration recurs to mind. When in the service of 
Demas Barnes & Co. I was among other things 
advertising and selling ** Plantation Bitters," which 
is a specific for fever, ague, and other ills arising 
from climatic influences. I was in Boston at the 
time, and, having full liberty in the matter of adver- 
tising, I ordered column and half-column advertise- 
ments in all the principal daily and weekly papers 
in the city, and the neighbourhood. This was kept 
up for a month, and I remained on the spot to watch 
the result, all the time canvassing the trade to obtain 
orders. At the end of the month I was so discouraged 
by what orders came in that I wrote to Mr Barnes, 
telling him that, as all my previous experiences ap- 
peared to be contradicted by orders in this case, I was 
of opinion that the article advertised was not likely to 
be successful ** Down East," and suggested that I 
should cease advertising. This happened to be in 
the beginning of July, and the answer I received from 
Mr Barnes was practically in the following words : — 
"You will please renew the advertisements, taking 
double the amount of space in every medium now 
under contract in Boston. Please also arrange with 
the authorities having charge of the illuminations on 

51 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

the evening of Independence Day on Boston Common, 
to be allowed to display three large pieces containing 
the name of the article you are advertising, at an 
expense of j^iso to ;^200. I am in no way dis- 
couraged by what you have accomplished. In about 
four weeks the State of Massachusetts will require 
'Plantation Bitters.'" 

His prediction was absolutely correct, and I was 
able before the month was out to take important 
orders from all the leading houses in the trade ; and 
was welcomed by certain establishments where a 
month previously I had almost had the door closed 
in my face. 

This article was first largely advertised throughout 
the United States in the fall of 1861, and rapidly 
became the success of the day, because of the enormous 
amount of placarding given to the cabalistic characters 
'*S — T — 1860 — X," which was a description of the 
medicine. Those strange letters and figures stared 
upon the people from wall and fence and tree, in 
every leading town throughout the United States. 
They were painted on the rocks of the Hudson River 
to such an extent that the attention of the Legislature 
was drawn to the fact, and a law was passed to 
prevent the further disfigurement of river scenery. 
Naturally, comment and inquiry arose, and people 
were invited to make guesses as to what the letters 
and figures meant. The result was that newspapers 
teemed with attempted solutions, some of which were 
very amusing. Thus one was "Started Trade in 
i860 with $10," but no one hit upon the correct 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

solution. The fact was that the basis of Plantation 
Bitters was " St Croix Rum," and the casks in which 
this rum was imported were marked " S — T " for 
** Saint"; then the year of importation i860 — and 
then " X," the last letter of the word " Croix " — which 
meant that it was St Croix Rum of the vintage of 
i860. That was a device of Mr Barnes to advertise 
the mixture and puzzle the people. 

No article at that period ever received the same 
amount of publicity and achieved so gigantic a sale. 
"Plantation Bitters" was billed in the Sutlers' de- 
partments in all the armies of the North, and implicit 
faith grew up in the specific. The outlay on advertis- 
ing was enormous, but the results were prodigious. 
In a single year the sale ran up to thousands of 
dozens. The Bitters were placed in corrugated dark 
autnber glass bottles, resembling the old plantation 
log cabin ; and the labels and printed matter sur- 
roimding the botdes were the special work of 
Mr Barnes. In fact, every word which was written, 
every advertisement used, and every showcard pro- 
duced, were under his direction, or suggested and 
revised by him. This illustrates the thoroughness 
with which he entered into the business which fell 
into his hands. 

The Government of the United States was not 
slow to appreciate the importance of the trade which 
had grown up in the proprietary medicines, and during 
the Civil War a stamp tax was levied on all advertised 
medicines which produced a large income, and was 
continued imtil 1884. In that year a committee [of 

53 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

which Mr Brent Good, of the firm of Demas Barnes, 
was a member] succeeded in inducing the Congress 
to abolish the impost ; but a similar tax was imposed 
during the Spanish War, which was abolished when 
the campaign terminated. All proprietary articles, 
as well as perfumery, were included in the list of 
articles so taxed. 

Proprietors were allowed, contrary to English 
regulations, to get up designs of their own for 
stamp duty, which, of course, had to be adapted to 
the size of the article sold. The stamp used by the 
firm of Messrs Demas Barnes bore his own portrait, 
names of the various articles controlled, and was 
printed on bank-note paper, being engraved by the 
American Bank-note Company. The Government 
received a fee of looo dollars (;^20o) for engrav- 
ing the plate, but made no charge for printing. 

Many popular English medicines were imitated 
and sold in the United States at this time, having 
a forged English stamp thereon. I personally called 
the attention of the Board of Inland Revenue at 
Somerset House to this fact, and furnished them 
with examples of the counterfeits so used. The 
reply I received was that the matter did not concern 
the English Board of Revenue; that if the pro- 
prietors of such forged articles were interested they 
should take action, and the Board would thereby be 
protected. One medicine so pirated was HoUoway's 
Ointment and Pills. The sale became very large, and 
the original proprietor has now lost his sole control 
of the copyright in America. 

S4 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

In the United States there is no prejudice against 
the advertising of medicines ; but at one time, in 
England, there was an apparent misconception as to 
the value of proprietary articles which are advertised ; 
many holding the opinion that the advertisement 
sells the article, and not the merit of the medicine. 

Those who have been engaged in advertising 
campaigns know that nothing is more wasteful, or 
would lead more quickly to financial ruin, than a 
large expenditure upon a worthless article. No 
proprietary article has any lasting value, nor en- 
riches the inventor, unless possessing undoubted 
merit, and which, in a marked degree, accomplishes 
the purpose stated. No single purchase would repay 
the proprietor of an article, but the renewed 
purchases after use ; and the recommendation of 
those who have bought once, creates the demand, 
and ensures success. This is the history of every 
patent medicine and proprietary article of renown 
in the United States and Great Britain. 

Out of the thousands and tens of thousands of 
proprietary articles issued in different parts of the 
world, there are said to be really less than looo 
which are successful ; and possibly those upon which 
great fortunes have been made may be counted 
upon the fingers of both hands. 

The method of judging the value of a new 
invention is, having made a certain outlay on 
advertising, to mark the indications of results in 
various directions, and if they are not up to a 
particular standard, then the result is not satis- 

55 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

factory— cither the public do not require the article, 
or the advertising has not been properly arranged. 
Misplaced efforts of the latter class would enrich the 
newspaper proprietor and printer, but beggar the 
owner of the article. Things which are most largely 
advertised are usually well worth buying. 

An expert would undertake to definitely pronounce 
as to the success or failure of any article advertised 
provided the following facts were submitted to him : — 
Evidence as to the actual merits ; the advertisement 
which is being placed ; the extent of advertising ; the 
papers used ; the districts covered ; the actual amount 
of money expended during the first three months; 
a correct list of each sale effected ; and the total of 
actual sales at the end of three months. Though 
the result might appear to contradict every possibility 
of success, an expert would not be led to any false 
conclusion. I should be glad if advertising could be 
reduced to an exact science. 

After an experience of over fifty years I consider 
that advertising as a profession is the most fascinat- 
ing form of speculation in existence. Instead of 
scouring the columns of the morning paper for the 
latest Stock Exchange news, or the finsd betting, you 
can speculate upon the deliveries from the postman's 
bag, and sum up the result of your advertising. 
These always vary in their character, and are never 
for two days alike. In the experience of many 
advertisers the result for a week may turn out so 
small that one is almost driven to the conclusion 
that the public believed one had retired from 

56 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

business, and yet on the eighth day an avalanche 
of orders may descend upon the firm. Occasionally, 
after doubling and trebling the advertisement orders, 
the first month's returns would suggest that you 
were killing the article, and yet after that the harvest 
comes — perhaps. 

I remember a good story told upon one occasion 
by Mr W. H. Lever of Sunlight Soap fame. After 
an enormous struggle with the public by advertising, 
Mr Lever has landed himself at Port Sunlight, 
probably the most successful man of the day in this 
particular line of business. Soon after commencing 
his advertising scheme, and occupying large spaces 
in the newspapers, which were attracting much 
attention and with satisfactory results, he found upon 
his counting-house desk one morning, a telegram 
signed with a name he did not recognise, asking 
him for half-an-hour's interview the next day, as 
he wished to consult him upon a very important 
question. The request was so unique that he 
resolved to give the man an interview, and he 
replied in the affirmative, fixing the hour of one 
the next day. 

Mr Lever was then in the habit of occupying a 
workman's cottage, near the works for his own 
convenience, during the week, his private residence 
being at Bolton ; and he and his wife spent from 
Monday to Friday in the cottage at Port Sunlight. 
This place was only partly furnished. The draw- 
ing-room windows were fitted with curtains to make 
people believe that the room was occupied, but was 

57 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

used as a receptacle for empty boxes. The only 
furnished rooms were the breakfast-room, a bedroom, 
and the servant's room. At one o'clock Mr Lever 
went to the cottage for lunch, and in the course of 
the meal the door bell rang, and the mysterious 
stranger was announced. He was at once shown 
into the drawing-room, amongst the empty packing- 
cases, and word was given that Mr Lever would 
see him in a few moments. After apologising 
for keeping him waiting, Mr Lever invited him 
to state as briefly as possible what his business was. 
The stranger had a very melancholy expression on 
his face, and evidently the appearance of the drawing- 
room had caused this, as he had only a packing- 
case to sit upon. In reply he managed to blurt out 
this sentence : " Mr Lever, how soon after a man 
begins to advertise ought he to expect handsome 
results? I have been advertising now for six 
months, and nothing has happened, except a demand 
from the printer and the newspaper, for payments 
of their bills." Treating the question half seriously, 
and to have another jest with him, Mr Lever replied : 
"We have been advertising for a very considerable 
time ; look around this room and see the condition 
we are in, and we are still waiting for orders to 
come." The effect of his reply was of so crushing 
a nature that Mr Lever took pity on his visitor, 
and added : '' After all, I cannot give you any data. 
If you have a good article, go on advertising, ad- 
vertising, advertising ; printing, printing, printing ; 
and paying, paying, paying." 

58 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

To make a comparison of the effect of advertising 
in the United States and Great Britain is very diffi- 
cult Great Britain had a population of 41,609,091 
souls in 1 90 1, and possesses 9500 newspapers, 
besides journals and magazines, in which to advertise. 
The United States contained a population of 
76,000,000 souls in 1900, and 23,265 newspapers. 
I consider that advertising in Great Britain should 
produce as prompt and satisfactory results, in pro- 
portion, as in the United States. 

With regard to the advertising of an English 
article in the United States, or an American article 
in England, many points have to be considered. 
After an experience of nearly forty years, and 
possessing exact knowledge with regard to all 
American articles introduced into this country, either 
by means of advertising or other processes, I am 
convinced that no American article can succeed 
in Great Britain in any direct competition with an 
English article of the same character, quality, and 
price. The American articles which have succeeded 
in Great Britain are not great in number, and in 
every instance with which I am acquainted have 
contained some element of originality and superiority 
which contrasted favourably for them with the 
English article, or were entirely new in idea and 
purpose. 

Take, for example, American furniture, which has 
been largely imported into this country on account 
of cheapness. With the exception of roll-top desks, 
letter-file cabinets, and rocking-chairs — all of which 

59 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

were novel and also new ideas — nothing has suc- 
ceeded. Advertising American sideboards, sofas, 
and the like have been condemned as dear at any 
price, and their exportation has yielded a loss to 
the shippers. The reason for this is that they 
could not compare, in quality and finish, even with 
the cheapest British-made articles. American furni- 
ture is glued where it ought to be morticed, and 
nailed where screws should be used, and nothing 
whatever carefully finished, except the portion visible 
to the eye. The wrong side of any piece of furniture 
is seldom even planed, and shows plainly the teeth 
of the saw. 

A surprising success, however, has been made in 
this country with American boots and shoes. This 
may seem contradictory to my statement already 
made about the superiority of English products. 
The machinery which is employed in boot and shoe 
making by all the large manufacturers in Great 
Britain is of American invention. The machine 
boot-making industry in the United States is 
very large and important, and the Americans, when 
they discovered that English boots were being made 
with the help of American machinery, attempted 
to sell their completed footgear in this country. 
At first the experiment was tried in a very small 
way ; but the success was immediate and enormous, 
and for the reason that much neater shaped 
boots and shoes, and better-fitting articles, were 
produced. There is no longer any necessity for 
a person in this country, however unshapely the 

60 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

natural foot may be, to imagine that he cannot be 
fitted with ready - made boots. The American 
Company supplies every size of boot and shoe, with 
such minute gradations that ''made to order" is no 
longer necessary. The best-fitting and best- working 
boots and shoes now worn in England are of 
American make. 

Since writing the foregoing, I find that the English 
Consul at Boston, Mass., enters his protest in his 
annual report (1904) against the large importation 
of American boots into England. "That England 
should import in one year from Boston alone," he 
says, "530,015 pairs of boots and shoes, of a value 
of ;^239,097, whilst Scotland took 59,334 pairs, 
valued ;^26,526, and Ireland 82,549 pairs, of a value 
of ;^27,446, is a matter for the consideration of the 
British shoe industry. Why cannot this demand 
be supplied by British manufacturers?" 

American labour - saving inventions have always 
been successful in England, either as applied to 
domestic use, tools for mechanics, printing processes, 
or agricultural machinery. American sweets, canned 
fruits, vegetables, salmon, have had an enormous 
sale. 

An American visiting England for the first time 
is always impressed with the admirable quality and 
handsome finish of every article of furniture, from the 
Windsor kitchen chair to the most delicate inlaid cab- 
inets, ornamental tables, or secretaires. In the matter 
of sideboards, no country in the world can produce such 
examples of the beautiful as the early English side- 

61 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

board and cabinet — and the history of English furni- 
ture will prove this. 

On my first visit to The Times offices, when I was 
courteously shown over the premises by Mr Moberly 
Bell, opening the door of the machinery department, 
with a wave of the hand he exclaimed : " All 
American ! " 

The growth and improvement in regard to news- 
papers during the period under review are pheno- 
menal. The only London evening newspaper in 1867 
and 1870 was The Echo, which was the first to be 
brought out at the price of a halfpenny. There was 
a serious struggle for existence at first, and the 
strongest possibility of a failure, until Mr Albert 
Grant came to the rescue. At that time he was 
considered a financial king, and the capital he ad- 
vanced caused a rapid rise in the circulation of the 
paper until a position was secured. After a fitful 
life The Echo ceased publication this year — 1905. 
There are in London to-day four evening penny 
papers, and three halfpenny papers, and all have 
important circulations. There are six halfpenny 
daily papers, all well supported, both as to circulation 
and advertisement income. The Daily Mail leads 
the way. The Express, Leader, Chronicle, Daily 
News have more recently entered the field, the last 
two being penny papers for many years previously. 

Another class of publication has come into being 
during the last ten or fifteen years with which the 
advertiser has to reckon, and with advantage to him- 
self and the publisher. The circulation of such penny 

63 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

journals as Tit - Bits, Answers, M.A.P., T. P's 
Weekly, and others, have become enormous, and 
command the highest rates for advertisements. The 
popularity of this class of publication seems boundless. 
Mr T. P. O'Connor, M.P., was the founder of, and 
is the editor of, both M.A.P. and T. P's Weekly, and 
has turned to most profitable account his remarkable 
journalistic genius and his wealth of ideas in Mainly 
About People {M.A.P.). The amount of literary 
work Mr O'Connor can accomplish week by week, 
and yet give attention to his Parliamentary duties, 
is one of the marvels of English journalism and 
authorship. Mr O'Connor is an Irishman who has 
had an American experience and training — and then, 
too, he has married an American lady. Mrs O'Connor 
has won distinction in many branches of journalism, 
and as author-actress as well. As a reader of the 
plantation negro dialect she is without a rival. I had 
the pleasure of hearing her read from Thomas Nelson 
Page's "Massa Chan," at the residence of the late 
Dr Parker at Hampstead, on the occasion of a large 
reception given to Henry Ward Beecher during his 
last visit to England. The praise she received upon 
that occasion would have delighted the author. All 
her work has been taken up and accomplished from 
pure love, and as recreation and pastime. 

In illustrated journalism in 1867 Tke Ilhistraied 
London News had no rival. On the breaking out 
of the Franco-German War the Graphic appeared, 
and soon became a popular success. Then came 
Black and White, The Pictorial World, the several 

63 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

illustrated ladies' papers, The Sketch ; and, more re- 
cently; we have the Sphere and Tatler, both of the 
latter under the wise editorship and direction of Mr 
Clement Shorter, than whom there is no more accom- 
plished and able editor of illustrated journalism living. 
Mr Shorter had previously the editorial management 
of the Illustrated London News, the proprietors of 
which started The Sketch, which was projected by 
him. He, therefore, took up the The Sphere and 
Toiler with ripe experience. Many said, as new illus- 
trated papers appeared, " they cannot live " ; " there 
is no field or demand for another." The actual ex- 
perience is that, while nominally they are rivals, they 
really assist each other. The invention of the ** pro- 
cess block," by which means photographs can be 
reproduced, has so enlarged the facilities for accurate 
illustration that the public demand is insatiable for 
views, and descriptions of events, places, and peoples, 
that all these papers have very large and important 
circulations, and vie with each other to produce the 
best and most for the " nimble sixpence." Thousands 
of families subscribe to three and four of these papers 
weekly. The growth and extension of the monthly 
magazines and reviews, religious and class weeklies 
of every description, have also advanced with giant 
strides during* the last fifteen years. 

Of American daily newspapers, the price is usually 
two cents, or five cents for special Sunday editions. 
The Sunday editions of American newspapers issued 
in chief cities are gigantic collections of news and 
literary matter, illustrations and advertisements. 

64 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

I recently spread upon the floor the separate sheets 
of a New York Sunday World, and found by me^ure- 
ment that it covered 363 square feet, and, of course, 
printed upon both sides — making an issue of 528 
columns of 18 inches each. 

Sunday editions of The London Daily Telegraph 
and Daily Mail were attempted a few years ago, 
but were discontinued after a very short run in 
answer to adverse public opinion. 

The London newspapers are themselves large 
advertisers. " Largest circulation in the world " is 
a phrase to be seen on huge posters everywhere. 
They also take up important spaces in the advertis- 
ing columns of their contemporaries when wishing 
to attract attention to some new feature of their 
publication. 

The provincial press of Great Britain rivals London 
in the enterprise and importance of its daily news* 
papers. In great centres — like Liverpool, Birming- 
ham, Manchester, Bristol, Newcastle-on-Tyne, Leeds, 
Glasgow, Edinburgh, Belfast and Dublin, etc — 
papers are issued of the highest class, and cannot 
be ignored in any advertising campaign. Nearly all 
have offices in London, with private wires and tele- 
phones connecting with headquarters, and are as con- 
venient of approach for business and news purposes 
as though visited in the towns where they are 
published. 



65 



CHAPTER V 

My New Business — ^The First Introduction of American Cigarettes and 
Smoking Tobacco into England — The Richmond Gem — The 
Quaker and the Cigarette — Forcing the British Sale — A Great 
Tobacco Combination — Removal to Holbom Viaduct — Interesting 
Neighbourhood — The Smithfield Martyrs — Here John Bunyan 
died — Burial-place of Captain John Smith — Bad Debts — Street 
Language — Forms of Address — English Proprietary Articles in 
the United States — ^Advanced Pharmacy — ^The Diamond Match 
Company. 

After the dissolution of partnership with Mr Van 
Duzer I commenced business on my own account in 
April 1876 with one of the proprietary articles 
formerly owned by Van Duzer & Richards, which 
came to me in the course of settlement, and to this 
article was shortly afterwards added others. I 
also became the purchasing agent in London of all 
English goods for the firm of John F. Henry & Co. 
of New York ; and in 1877 I undertook the sale and 
exclusive agency for Great Britain and the British 
colonies of J. F. Allen & Co., the Virginia manu- 
facturers of American cigarettes and smoking tobaccos. 
At that time there was not a single American cigar- 
ette sold in this country, so I am responsible for 
the introduction to this country of American cigarettes, 
and had for nearly ten years the entire control of the 
product of Messrs Allen & Ginter, and for a con- 
siderable period the branch of Messrs J. R. Duke 

66 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

and Co. Although considerable advertising was at 
once resorted to, and travellers were employed to 
call upon retail tobacconists, I found the cigarettes 
made no headway; and the "Richmond Gems" 
were absolutely refused, though they were the pro- 
duct of an eminent Virginian firm. The smoking 
of cigarettes of any sort or kind was extremely 
limited ; in a few shops in localities frequented by 
foreigners one could buy a packet of *'Caporal'* or 
" La Ferm6," also Egyptian and Turkish brands 
of a few sorts — but Englishmen did not then 
care for cigarettes. The trade in them and their 
popularity is at the present time almost beyond 
computation. 

But I was determined not to be beaten, and as a last 
resort I conceived the plan of offering to purchase a 
tobacco dealer's licence for every chemist in the United 
Kingdom who would place the American cigarettes 
on their counters, and undertake their sale. In a 
short time this proposition turned out highly success- 
ful, and the chemists themselves were greatly pleased 
with the result ; and then the retail tobacconists, who 
had turned their backs upon us suddenly awoke to 
the fact that the American cigarettes were appreciated 
and required in this country, and they had no choice 
but to stock and sell the Richmond Gem Cigarettes. 
As soon as the retail dealers came to this conclusion 
I decided to give them the utmost support possible 
by advertising, and in this I was backed up by the 
firm in Virginia. 

Just at that time we produced as a poster and 

67 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

showcard the now well-known old Quaker smoker, 
wearing a broad-brimmed hat, who very soon made 
acquaintance and won his way to the hearts of all 
British smokers. This was copyrighted for Great 
Britain and the United States, and to-day remains 
the principal trade mark of the various brands of 
tobacco manufactured by Messrs Allen & Ginter, 
the Richmond Gem Tobacco and Cigarette Manu- 
facturers. Every kind of ingenious method was 
employed to advertise their goods, and experts have 
admitted that no advertising was better done or 
with a more satisfactory result. The first welcome 
given to these cigarettes did not come from the 
west, but the east of London, and dealers in the 
west doggedly refused to take up the sale. There- 
upon a tobacco shop was rented at the Piccadilly 
comer of the Circus, and styled ** The Ole Virginny 
Tobacco Shop." The windows were dressed in the 
most attractive form, and in a very short time the 
brand became the fashion. Then the cigarettes 
crept into the hotels, clubs, and public-houses, and 
everybody began to demand the Richmond Gem 
Cigarettes and Tobacco. 

Allen & Ginter held the monopoly of American 
cigarettes for perhaps two years, but at the end of 
that time the demand for cigarettes became so enor- 
mous that every tobacco manufacturer in the United 
States entered the market, and began turning out 
cigarettes, shipping them to England. English manu- 
facturers began the manufacture also. At the present 
time the cigarette industry exceeds that of all manu- 

68 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

factured tobacco, and the rivalry created by the sale 
caused the creation of that important amaJgamation 
known as the "American Tobacco Co." and the 
** Imperial Tobacco Co." 

This business, so lucrative and so extensive, I 
regret to say, was lost to me and those interested 
with me without a farthing compensation, although 
I had introduced and created the demand for the 
cigarette in Great Britain. When the American 
Tobacco Co. was formed, all the important cigarette 
manufacturers in the United States, with agencies in 
England, were included, and they elected to conduct 
the business for the future in their own name, on 
their own premises, and with one staff, to represent 
the whole of the members, under one manager. Since 
that day the Imperial Tobacco Co. of Great Britain 
has absorbed the combined American companies, and 
the capital runs into some millions of money. At 
first the cigarettes were all hand made; but the 
great demand stimulated the inventive genius of 
America, and now all cigarettes are made by patented 
machinery, under various American patents. 

I was associated in this tobacco business with my 
brother-in-law, Mr Henry K. Terry, and as soon 
as the business became important, separate premises 
were rented, in which the business was carried on. 
The fret and worry of this business were enormous, 
on account of the wearisome restrictions with which 
every dealing with a dutiable commodity is sur- 
rounded. 

The general increase of my special business in 

69 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

proprietary articles at length became larger, and I 
was obliged to remove from Great Russell Street to 
more capacious premises at No. 46 Holborn Viaduct ; 
and at that time quite three-fourths of the buildings 
in that locality were unoccupied. Prior to the con- 
struction of the Viaduct, vehicles had to descend a 
steep road on Holborn Hill, cross Farringdon Street, 
and ascend the steep face of Snow Hill, to gain the 
level of the city in Newgate Street 

This was the road traversed by the martyrs on their 
way from the old Fleet Prison in Farringdon Street 
(now covered by the Memorial Hall) to Smithfield, 
where they were burned at the stake. The exact spot 
of martyrdom in Smithfield is now marked by a red 
pillar-box for the posting of letters, on the north side 
of the market opposite St Bartholomew's Hospital. 
Here Anne Askew, Rogers, Bradford, and Philpot 
suffered death with many others. My new premises 
stand on what was called Snow Hill, where, 300 
years ago, one John Strudwick, a grocer, kept a 
shop, in whose house John Bunyan died, and from 
here the procession passed to his burial in the 
Bunhill Fields, where he was laid in the vault of 
his host. 

At the east end of the Viaduct stands the Church 
of St Sepulchre, where Captain John Smith lies 
buried, the lover of Pocahontas; and on the right 
hand is the New Sessions Court, on the old site of 
Newgate. 

Dr Parker's City Temple is almost opposite my 
premises on the Viaduct. 

70 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

Speaking of trading in Great Britain, such as I 
have experienced : — I am not, of course, familiar with 
the course of all trades, but I can with pleasure bear 
my testimony to the honourable character of that 
trading with which I have come in contact. In the 
thirty-eight years I have been trading in London I 
have not lost jC^oo by bad debts. There are com- 
mercial agencies which make inquiry into the stand- 
ing of a tradesman who would do business with you ; 
and cautious people can also refer to bankers as to 
monetary position, or obtain references when dealing 
with new firms, and the credit system is less abused, 
in my experience, by default, than I have found else- 
where to be the case. 

Where a firm is believed to have made a success 
in a particular line of business, applications are fre- 
quently made from various people, anxious to improve 
their financial position, who are full of ideas and in- 
ventions which, they declare, would yield great fortunes 
if the firm would only take them up. 

I have been interviewed by several, who have 
looked furtively round my office, and asked if I were 
sure no one would be able to overhear our conversa- 
tion. Then, when assured no one could possibly hear 
what passed, they have told me of some poor formula, 
or process of manufacture, utterly worthless, in bated 
breath, as if they were divulging a great State secret. 
Occasionally a professional man has honoured me 
with his confidence, and been tortured while he spoke 
lest I should pierce his anonymity, and ruin his reputa- 
tion by disclosing that he was engaged in anything so 

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mercenary as trade! In no single instance have I 
ever had anything placed before me, under such 
circumstances as I have described, that I could enter- 
tain for a single moment, and I think I have been 
able, in every instance, to satisfy my interviewer that 
his proposal was impracticable, if not silly, and con- 
tained nothing new or important 

Since removing to the Viaduct an interesting plan 
in connection with luncheon has been adopted among 
a group of Americans who are engaged in kindred 
pursuits. This began with fifteen or more lunching 
daily at the Holburn Viaduct Hotel from i to 2 p.m. 
For their exclusive use Messrs Spiers & Pond have 
set apart in the coffee-room a large table, which has 
been for twenty years known as *'the American 
Round Table " ; and here, Americans resident in 
London regularly lunch together, with their friends. 
During this period I have met at that Round Table 
nearly every important advertiser and advertisement 
agent in England, and many from the United States, 
and from all parts of the Continent. This Round 
Table forms a very pleasant rendezvous for those 
having mutual interests, and an opportunity for ex- 
changing views and finding new friends. 

The table is now so well known that no surprise 
is caused by former guests sending from all parts of 
the Continent telegrams addressed to **The Round 
Table, Viaduct Hotel, London," and timing their 
arrival for the luncheon hour. 

One hears of Americans being strongly criticised 
as to their manners at hotel tables and elsewhere. 

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Well-bred Americans are as careful and particular as 
well-bred Englishmen, or the well-mannered of any 
country. If 100,000 English were to pass through 
New York and Boston every year, doubtless among 
that number, visiting hotels and popular restaurants, 
would be found occasionally, both men and women 
whose table manners could be improved. One must 
not expect an entire community to be precise and 
exact in every detail of politeness. I was told the 
other day of a foreigner at an American restaurant, 
who, on taking his seat at a table, and while giving 
his order to the waiter, in rather peremptory language, 
meantime proceeded to tuck the end of his table- 
napkin under his chin. The waiter, being a little 
irritated by his manner, suddenly jerked the napkin 
from the man's neck, saying : **l beg pardon, sir, 
your order was for a lunch, not a shave." 

Forty years ago swearing in the United States on 
the part of boys and adults in all classes, was alto- 
gether shocking; but now, as in England, swearing 
is "not good form," or rather "the very worst form." 
English labourers and mechanics, as they walk 
along the streets, interlard their conversation with 
such words as " bloody fool " and " bloomin' idyit," 
but rarely anything stronger. A lady who walked 
within ear-shot of a number of workmen and 
labourers, from the Marble Arch to Lancaster Gate 
one evening, heard the words "bloody" and "bloomin*" 
uttered over sixty times. These are not refined expres- 
sions, but they are a great improvement upon the too 
frequent use of an oath. Even street boys and errand 

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lads do not swear in London ; and an American 
friend, walking with me in the Strand, at a time when 
the evening papers were being published, remarked, 
with some surprise : •* Why, London newsboys wear 
shoes, and comb their hair"; and he added: "Bus- 
drivers wear silk hats, and gloves, and the conductors 
say 'thank-you.'" These were new experiences for 
him. 

Americans have frequently asked me by what rule 
a man may tell when one in England should be 
addressed as " Mr," and when as " Esq." in writing 
to a private gentleman. The difference is one of 
compliment only ; but it is an established custom that 
private gentlemen, and those commercially and pro- 
fessionally occupied, shall be addressed as *' Esq." 
Men in the "services," or holding titles, prefix or 
affix such titles to their names, not only upon their 
visiting cards, but painted or stamped upon their 
trunks and cases : such a practice is both proper and 
convenient, so that their precise position is disclosed 
at a glance. 

The fact is an important one to remember, that the 
profit of the London Telephone service in 1894 was 
;^93,ooo; while the whole profit of the Post Office 
department, which included telegraphs and parcel post, 
was practically ;^5,ooo,ooo. 

The inventor of the Post-Card was Dr Emmanuel 
Hermann, Councillor of the Austrian Ministry of 
Commerce, who first suggested the idea. His pro- 
posal was at once adopted by the Austrian Post- 
Office, when the price for the card was fixed at less 

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than a half-penny. The number of words was limited 
to twenty ; but this was very soon increased. 

The question of cab fares is always a fruitful source 
of annoyance and trouble in London. All fares are 
supposed to be regelated by law ; but in practice this 
is entirely ignored. A passenger can insist upon 
being carried two legal miles for one shilling, but 
he is not likely to attempt this twice. A stranger 
taking a cab in London will be sure to have ascer- 
tained beforehand, from a friend, the fare he ought 
to pay. If the Cabman would only accept his legal 
fare courteously, I am sure he would find his takings 
at the close of the day much more satisfactory than 
at present Possibly, however, a Cabman will never 
reach the point of contentment, however the fare may 
be arranged. I am sure many people would volim- 
tarily add a ''tip " if cabby asked no more than his 
legaJ fare. 

Here let me again briefly refer to the subject of 
International Trading. All English proprietary articles 
seeking a sale in the United States, owing to enormous 
import duties, cannot approach the consumer on equal 
terms with the home manufacturer. Few, therefore, 
of the great manufacturers of branded goods of any 
kind, have attempted a serious advertising campaign in 
America. Among the British successes Pears' Soap, 
Worcester Sauce, Crosse & Blackwell, Huntley & 
Palmer, Peak, Frean & Co., and Liebig's Extract may 
be named. 

The price of these articles in the United States 
would be nearly double the price charged in Great 

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Britain, and they do not come into competition, to 
any extent, with what Brother Jonathan offers. What 
may happen when '^John Bull" establishes factories 
in America is another question. 

Of products of "Advanced Pharmacy" mention 
must be made of the ready recognition on the part of 
tH^e medical profession of Great Britain of the im- 
proved method of preparing drugs for accurate dis- 
pensing, which has been introduced by American 
manufacturing chemists and pharmacists. Apart from 
such preparations as have been introduced by me, 
mention should be made of the exceptional and 
elaborate formulae issued by such well-known American 
firms as Messrs Burroughs, Wellcome & Co., Seabury 
and Johnson, Parke Davis & Co., Fairchild Bros., 
Foster, John Wyeth & Sons, M'Kessor & Robbins, 
and others. I think I may claim to be the first to get 
the ear and support of the profession, and hospitals, 
for American digestive ferments — prepared from 
Pepsin and Pancreatine — ^also for American Extract of 
Malt In 1880 Mr Silas Mainville Burroughs called 
upon me in Great Russell Street with a letter of intro- 
duction. He was a handsome young fellow, of about 
thirty years of age, blonde of complexion, with fine, 
pale blue eyes. He was full of enthusiasm as to 
his purpose to establish the products of Messrs John 
Wyeth & Sons of Philadelphia, with whom he had 
been long associated. He rented a little office of two 
rooms on the first floor of Great Russell Street Build- 
ings, and, with samples in hand, began a canvass 
among the London doctors and hospitals without 

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With John Bull and Jonathan 

delay. He had a magnetic personality, and the items 
he had to offer were new and important. He suc- 
ceeded from the very first, at the end of a year 
taking quite large premises at Snow Hill, and adding 
a factory for the manufacture of a malt extract and 
beef wine and iron. He travelled constantly, making 
friends and customers. He was joined later by Mr 
Henry S. Wellcome, also a young man of experience 
and ability, and the firm became Burroughs, Wellcome 
and Co., and they then removed to the premises at 
the top of Snow Hill, corner of the Viaduct, with 
a new and important factory at Wandsworth, sub- 
sequently removed to Dartford, Kent. Mr Burroughs 
and I were warm personal friends from the day of his 
arrival. He was having a holiday at Cannes in 1895, 
took a severe cold, through some inadvertence, and 
died suddenly of pneumonia. He lived to see the 
seed sown by him blossom into success, but not the full 
development which has been reached by his surviving 
partner. The twenty-fifth anniversary of the estab- 
lishment of the firm was held in July of the present 
year. 

In my observations concerning American industries 
which have gained a footing in Great Britain I must 
mention the Diamond Match Company of Maryland, 
which erected a gigantic plant and works near Liver- 
pool some years ago. There was an immediate 
demand for these cheap, excellent matches, which 
were produced by automatic, novel, and patented 
machinery at prices that could not be equalled by 
British manufacturers. Four years ago this business 

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was acquired by Messrs Bryant & May, the eminent 
match manufacturers of this country. The result of 
this is that the united industries of these two great 
concerns control the market for every description 
of matches, from the ** Patent Safety " to Wax Vestas, 
with intermediate lines of every conceivable form of 
match. Quite recently I had the pleasure of going 
over these works, and inspecting the manufacture of 
matches. Passing from one machine to another, I soon 
discovered on the polished brass plates attached to 
the "almost human" machines the familiar names 
"Salem, Ohio," "Cleveland, Ohio," "Chicago, 111." 
"Yes," said the manager; "they are all American." 
I timidly asked: "How many matches do you produce 
per day?" "Exactly eight times the number of the 
population of the United Kingdom" was the reply. 
"Eight matches for every human being!" 



78 



CHAPTER VI 

Dr Joseph Parker — Personal Acquaintance and Friendship — My Father's 
Visit and Death — ^Thursday Morning Services — Henry Ward 
Beecher's Visit to London — Colman's Mustard — Dr Parker's 
Lectures in the United States — Controversy arises — Lecture Tour 
abbreviated — Dr Parker's Letters — Plymouth Church — I join the 
Diaconate of City Temple — Dr and Mrs Parker's Silver Wedding 
— Presentation of Gifts — Dr Parker's Commandments for Men of 
Business. 

Although I was the son and the grandson of Pres- 
byterian ministers, by early habit and inclination, 
and also by youthful constraint, an attendant at 
religious services, I cannot say that I had in early 
life any decided leaning to one special form of religi- 
ous worship. While quite a little boy I attended two 
services on the Sabbath in my father's church. These 
were in the morning and afternoon : early in the 
evening I was sent to bed. When I went to reside 
with my grandfather I found he was a strict Sab- 
batarian, and never would allow of any domestic 
work being done unless most urgent, so I had to fall 
in with his wishes. But when I began my travelling, 
I think that I became less observant of attendance 
at church on the Sabbath. On coming to London, 
however, this feeling passed away after a time. 
As I was not specially interested in any particular 
branch of the Christian Church I was at first content 
to accompany my American visitors to such places 

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With John Bull and Jonathan 

of worship as they most desired to visit. The most 
popular preachers in London amongst Americans from 
1867 to 1872 was certainly the Rev. Charles Spurgeon 
and Rev. Newman Hall, and I must have taken be- 
tween these years several hundreds to hear those 
ministers preach. 

I was but rarely asked to accompany visitors to 
hear the Church of England clergy. The visitors 
to St Paul's Cathedral, Westminster Abbey, and other 
historic churches seemed only anxious to see the 
edifice, the marvellous painted windows, and the 
memorials to the illustrious dead. If I were asked to 
name the clergymen of the Established Church best 
known to Americans in the seventies, I would answer 
Dean Stanley, Archdeacon Farrar, the Dean of 
Rochester, Rev. Charles Haweis — all of whom are now 
deceased. To-day I would mention Bishop Weldon, 
late head-master of Harrow, and Archdeacon Sinclair 
of St Paul's Cathedral. Both of these eloquent and 
distinguished clergymen have a very large acquaint- 
ance with Americans, and are greatly appreciated 
and beloved by them. 

The most popular preachers in New York in the 
seventies were Henry Ward Beecher, Rev. Dr John 
Hall, Rev. Dr Thompson, Rev. T. De Witt Talmage, 
Rev. Dr G. B. Cheever, Rev. Dr Stephen H. 
Tyng, and Rev. Dr T. L. Cuyler. 

During the summer of 1873 ^V attention was 
attracted to an article in TAe New York Evangelist^ 
which was written by the Rev. Dr Theodore L. 
Cuyler, describing visits to London churches, and 

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With John Bull and Jonathan 

very strong expressions were used in praise of the 
preaching of the Rev. Dr Joseph Parker, Services 
wtte being temporarily held at the Cannon Street 
Hotel, as the Poultry Chapel, of which he was pastor, 
had been sold to the Corporation of the City of 
London, and the trustees had only then completed the 
purchase of a plot of land from the Corporation, on the 
Holborn Viaduct, for the erection of what is now 
called the City Temple. 

The Sunday following the reading of the article 
I went to the Cannon Street Hotel in the morning, 
but was disappointed to find that the Doctor was 
taking a holiday, and that the services would only 
be resumed the last Sunday in September, when he 
would preach there in the morning, and at Exeter 
Hall in the evening. I took special care to be present 
at that evening service. By going early I was able to 
obtain seats for my wife, myself, and three friends 
near to the platform, on the ground floor, so that 
I could judge for myself whether Dr Cuyler had 
over-praised Dr Parker's eloquence and power. 
There was a small table on the platform, by 
which the Doctor sat, with a deacon on each 
side of him. When service began I watched the 
Doctor closely. Dr Cuyler said, in the course of 
his article: "You will see in him a man with a 
head like a lion, with a voice that could roar like 
a lion, but which could be lowered to the gentlest 
whisper, and yet the whisper could be heard in any 
part of the hall" I tested this for myself, and found 
that the description was absolutely correct His 

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personality was remarkable ; his appearance most 
striking— enormous head and broad forehead. At that 
time he wore his hair very long, and had full beard, 
leaving upper Up and upper part of chin clean shaven ; 
hair and beard raven black. He wore no gown, only 
a plain black frock coat and black tie. 

I noticed particularly that he had a small and 
shapely hand. He began, I think, with a short in- 
vocation — " Lord, abide with us, for it is toward even- 
ing, and the day is far spent " — which was followed by 
the giving out of a hymn. After reading in the most 
impressive manner the first two lines — 

*' Hail, Thou once despisH Jesus, 
Hail, Thou Galilean King »— 

he said : ** This is not a funeral hymn — it must be 
sung with fire." The whole congregation, being over 
3000 persons, took up the singing with great hearti- 
ness. There was not a word spoken in the sermon 
which he delivered that I did not follow with the 
closest attention and delight, and I afterwards never 
failed to attend the service there, generally accompanied 
by five or six others. 

Dr Parker delivered his sermons extempore, and 
the notes he carried into the pulpit could be written on 
a visiting-card — just a few " Feathers for Arrows," 
as he called them. Did this mean that he could preach 
three sermons a week without previous preparation ? 
Certainly not He was a deep student. Every subject 
of discourse was settled definitely in his mind. 

He once told me he had frequently to reply to 

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J ORB F II PAUEER. 

■ tht ^firelight in the SIndg at " Tgarhume," Hatnptl'ad, IS-VH, by 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

brother ministers who would say : " How easy and 
simple, Dr Parker, is ^^«r work: thirty minutes' sermon, 
Thursday; two thirty-minute discourses on Sunday. 
No sermon- writing," The irony of his answer was 
in the tone of voice in which he would say: " Go thou 
and do likewise," 

His final word at the finish of a sermon was always 
delivered sharp and abrupt, with a rising inflection: 
he then would slowly close the Bible. 

At the conclusion of an invocation or prayer his 
habit always was to make a pause of a few seconds 
before pronouncing "Amen." This was most im- 
pressive. 

He spoke such words as " God " — " Jesus Christ " 
— "No" — "Yes" — "Nothing" in a way to give 
more value to each word than any speaker I have 
ever heard. 

His Bible-reading at services never exceeded a 
dozen verses, but the reading was remarkable, com- 
manding the attention of everyone. 

Dr Parker never cared to see anyone in his private 
vestry before any service. He wished to be quite 
alone for half-an-hour or more before preaching. He 
never hurried or rushed to his work. 

I was present at the laying of the corner-stone of 
the City Temple by the Rev. Thomas Binney, and 
at the dedication service by Rev. Professor W. Lind- 
say Alexander, D.D., of Edinburgh. 

In the new building I rented a pew holding seven 
people on the ground floor, where I was only distant 
five pews from the pulpit I did not make the per- 

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With John Bull and Jonathan 

sonal acquaintance of the Doctor and his wife until 
several months after the opening of the City Temple, 
although we attended the services regularly, and 
occasionally the Thursday morning service also. I 
had, however, learned much concerning him from 
others. He was the son of a Northumbrian stone 
mason, a rugged, dogmatic old Puritan, stern of 
manner and of thought — one who lived hardly, and 
was righteous. His son inherited many of these 
traits, united with an irrepressible industry, which 
never would admit fatigue. His life was one long 
devotion to the service of his Master. 

In 1874 my father paid me a visit, and, naturally, 
accompanied me to the City Temple upon the first 
Sunday of his being in London, and I took him 
into the vestry, and introduced him. Then visits 
were interchanged between us. He came to my 
house in Upper Woburn Place, and my wife and 
I called upon him and Mrs Parker in the Quadrant, 
Highbury. This was approaching the time for the 
summer holiday, and Dr Parker invited my father 
to preach for* him on one Sunday in August at 
the City Temple. The week before this Sunday 
came my father left London on a visit to Scotland. 
I took him to Euston Station ; and received a post 
card from him the next morning, dated Melrose, in 
which he said he had just visited the Abbey, should 
spend the night at Melrose, and go forward to 
Abbotsford in the morning, and proceed thence to 
Edinburgh in the evening. The following morning, 
however, I read a paragraph in The Daily Telegraph 

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stating that a clergyman, answering my father's de- 
scription, and with letters in his pocket bearing his 
name, had met with an accident at the Waverley 
Station, and that he had been conveyed to the 
Royal Infirmary at Edinburgh. A few hours later 
I received a telegram from the house surgeon stating 
that my father had died. 

I left London immediately with my wife for 
Edinburgh; and the only particulars that I could 
obtain with respect to die accident were that he 
was seen by one of the porters at the Waverley 
Station crossing the track, and judging by the 
position in which he was found, the supposition was 
that he caught his foot in a rail, and pitched head 
first against a stone buttress, which fractured his 
skull. He died within two hours, without having 
spoken a word. 

Dr and Mrs Parker were abroad at this time ; but 
both telegraphed their condolences to us, and upon 
their return were the first to call and express their 
sympathy. 

My fathers body was removed to America, and 
was finally interred at Auburn, New York, in the 
same cemetery and plot, where his mother and 
father are buried. 

From this time until his death, in 1902, there 
never passed one week, without my seeing or hear- 
ing from Dr Parker. The Doctor was pleased, in 
the course of time, to honour me with his confidence 
in a marked degree, as though he recognised in me 
some quality which satisfied his judgment, that I 

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With John Bull and Jonathan 

could be trusted in business questions quite apart 
from those relating to his church. He was not 
only a bom preacher, but possessed a marvellous 
grasp of sound practical knowledge upon the affairs 
of the day. I often consulted with him regarding my 
own affairs, always getting the most practical help. 

In 1886 the Rev. Henry Ward Beecher and his 
wife came to England, on the invitation of Dr and 
Mrs Parker to pay them a visit, and he was also 
under an engagement at that time to Major J. B. 
Pond to deliver a course of lectures in Great 
Britain. The first lecture was to be delivered in 
the City Temple, and on the Sunday previous Dr 
Parker made reference to his presence, and made 
a slight allusion to the matter of the Beecher-Tilton 
controversy, in which the Doctor declared Mr Beecher 
had been entirely exonerated, and remarked that Mr 
Beecher deserved their warmest sympathy for having 
been laid under such a dense cloud of suspicion. 

Calls were made from the congregation for Mr 
Beecher, whereupon he went into the pulpit, and 
said : '' I must immediately disclaim what Dr Parker 
has just said, that during the months or year of the 
controversy to which he has referred I was in 
any condition of doubt or gloom or unrest. My 
friends may have "been ; but my spirits were never 
checked, my night's rest never disturbed, and I can 
truly say that I never felt in the smallest degree 
but that in the end I should be entirely exonerated." 

I have often heard Dr and Mrs Parker say how 
greatly cheered they were by Mr Beecher's visit, 

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With John Bull and Jonathan 

and astonished at his wonderful powers and vitality ; 
and that his amusing companionship had greatly 
delighted them, and they were very reluctant to part 
when the time came for Mr Beecher and his wife 
to return to New York. They remained in England 
three months, and during the first month of the 
lecture tour Dr and Mrs Parker accompanied them 
to every important place where Mr Beecher had to 
lecture. Dr Parker was with him on the platform 
of every place where he lectured in London. 

I remember Mrs Parker telling me an amusing 
story of an occurrence on the first day of the arrival 
at their house in Hampstead. On sitting down to 
dinner that day, Mr Beecher said to her : " Mrs 
Parker, I want you to tell me what mustard you 
use in this family." She was very much surprised 
at such a question, and replied : " Well, Mr Beecher, 
do tell me why you want to know, because I cannot 
answer without consulting the cook." He said : 
** Consult the cook, then, because I cannot eat a 
mouthful until my question is answered." The cook 
was at once questioned, and forthwith came the 
answer: "Colman's." **Very well," said Mr Beecher, 
"then I will proceed with my dinner; but all the 
way up from Liverpool, at every railway station, 
and on every hoarding near the track, I read the 
legend : * Colman's Mustard is the best' That decided 
me that I must prove the truth of that assertion on 
the first occasion that I dined in London." 

During ten or fifteen years I had many interests 
in which Dr Parker was concerned — notably in the 

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* 

publication of The Fountain, The Daisy Family 
Story Paper, and afterwards The Christian Chronicle. 
Upon one occasion we were joint owners of The 
Citizen, a well-known city weekly, for forty-eight 
hours. Immediately after the purchase of that 
paper a city merchant, desiring to become the 
owner, offered a handsome addition to what we 
had paid, and the copyright was at once handed 
over without our having published a single number. 
Amongst other traits I found Dr Parker to be 
one of the most correct and punctual men I ever 
met with. He never broke an engagement except 
from physical inability. His working powers were 
marvellous, and his industry never tired. During 
the thirty-three years of his London ministry he 
issued many volumes of sermons, wrote several 
novels, published all the volumes of the '' People's 
Bible" and the "People's Prayer- Book," and he was 
constantly writing for the press, or reviewing books, 
while at the same time conducting an enormous 
private correspondence. In the matter of book 
publishing and the author's prospect he once 
said that when about to issue his first book, when 
his manuscript had been accepted, and he was in 
high expectation of results in the way of copies 
sold, he began to make up a list of those to whom 
he was personally known, all of whom were certain 
to purchase at least one copy. The total list ran 
to several hundreds. Alas! for human calculation, 
he found that all his friends did not subscribe, and 
was unable to trace a dozen copies to their patronage. 

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With John Bull and Jonathan 

In telling this, he remarked that, both as preacher 
and author, he had put his trust in the great public, 
adding: "Do not rely upon the patronage of a set 
or of individuals. Look to your work ; the public will 
find you if the work is worthy." 

Dr Parker's labour was without end, because he 
was in great request for the op>ening of bazaars, the 
laying of corner-stones, and preaching sermons at 
the opening of new chapels and school-rooms, in all 
parts of the country. Then he had frequently the 
far more difficult duty of presiding over conferences 
of ministerial brethren; or at meetings held upon 
questions of great social importance. 

In the City Temple he renewed the Thursday 
morning services previously held by him in the 
Poultry Chapel, and carried these on for thirty years 
— ^to the close of his life. His service furnished an 
admirable opportunity to strangers who wished to 
hear him when they visited the Metropolis. After 
the public services anyone who so desired might 
have an interview with him in the vestry, but he 
always insisted upon these being brief. I have met 
in his vestry during the last twenty-five years of 
his ministry many of the most disting^uished men 
of the day, in every department of life, and from 
nearly every country in the world. 

Upon one occasion a gentleman entered the vestry, 
and asked him to be so good as to fix a day when 
he would give him a two hours' interview for a con- 
versation on a most important matter, in which Dr 
Parker would be interested. " Never," said the Doctor 

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With John Bull and Jonathan 

impressively, to his visitor's astonishment. "Why 
not ? " he asked. " I could never be interested in 
anything which required two hours to tell. I am 
perfectly certain whatever you want to communicate 
can be told in fifteen minutes. That is the utmost 
time I can spare, and you can begin now if you are 
ready." The visitor, however, resented the limita- 
tion, and retired. 

There were so many of this class of visitors that 
the Doctor had an electric wire placed under the 
mat at his table in the vestry where he sat, which 
communicated with a bell in the outer vestry, and 
whenever that bell was heard the sexton would enter 
with the Doctor's hat and coat, or intimated that 
some other visitor was waiting an interview, and 
so the ''bore," male or female, was checkmated. 

In one of his books he writes : " One of the plagues 
of a minister's life is that people will use so many 
words in talking to him; they think they shall be 
heard for their much speaking. In my early ministry 
I used to take down in shorthand the wordy speeches 
of one most persistent bore, and I found that he used 
eighteen words where six were enough. If ever I 
were rash enough to ask him how he was, he would 
say : ' Well, sir, in regards of that, you touch a rather 
delicate point, for as I was saying, no longer back 
than yesterday, when we put things together, and 

consider what sort of weather ' And so on, until 

my poor patience utterly gave way, and if I had not 
been a minister I should have slain him with a 
frown." 

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With John Bull and Jonathan 

Yet he had plenty of patience with anyone who 
had a really genuine tale to tell, but he seemed in- 
tuitively to detect the simple bore. 

At his own residence he was the soul of hospitality, 
and would enter into the sport of the occasion with the 
ardour and simplicity of a child. He was possessed 
of a wonderful fund of stories, and told them in the 
quaint manner of a native of the country in which they 
originated. 

Although Dr Parker had paid several visits to 
the United States on pleasure, not until 1887 did 
he finally assent to the oft*repeated suggestion that 
he should deliver a series of lectures in the States, 
and he then entered into an agreement with Major 
James B. Pond to deliver fifty lectures in the course 
of three months in the principal cities and towns. 
These were to begin at New York, and extend as 
far west as Chicago ; and, crossing into Canada, de- 
liver fix or six in that country. The subjects were 
to be secular, and the Doctor selected " Gladstone," 
and one entitled "Clocks and Watches." His first 
public app>earance was to be in the Academy of 
Music, Brooklyn, where he was to deliver a promised 
eulogy upon the Rev. Henry Ward Beecher. This 
he had written out very carefully, and committed to 
memory, so that upon delivery he did not use any 
notes. The Doctor left the MS. with me, with in- 
structions that upon receipt of a telegram that the 
eulogy was delivered the MS. should be sent to The 
Christian World for publication in London. This 
was done. 

91 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

Dr Parker was invited to deliver this eulogy in the 
following words by cable : — 

*' Plymouth Church grateful for sympathy. Invite 
you to deliver eulogy. All expenses of journey 
and visit of Mrs Parker and yourself paid by 



us." 



In America a serious controversy broke out over 
this lecture, because Major Pond insisted that this 
should be treated as oi^ of the course to be de- 
livered, and the cost deducted from the sale of 
tickets received. 

The Doctor delivered about thirty lectures, when 
the constant travelling, at the most killing time of 
year, coupled with the worry he suffered from the 
newspaper controversy, decided him to return to 
England at once, and take up again his work at 
the City Temple in January 1888, instead of in 
March as he had previously intended. He preached 
in Plymouth Church on the Sunday morning before 
he sailed ; but to the surprise of the congregation 
he left the pulpit the moment he had finished his 
sermon, and declined to see anybody or receive 
anyone. He preached the sermon because he had 
promised to do so; but he felt so offended at the 
tone adopted by the Press and some of the members 
of the church, that he determined not to meet any 
member of the congregation, or do anything more 
than what he had promised. 

With regard to this visit, a few extracts from his 
letters to me will give the view he entertained of 
this unfortunate dispute : 

9a 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

Everett House, 29M August 1887. 

• •■••• • • •• 

Fourteen reporters first day, ten to-day. Everybody most kind. 
Shall be glad to escape N.Y. More taken out of me in one day than 
in a month at home. 
• .•■•••••• 

You know how large and true is the love we send, so I conclude 
with a monogram and a blessing. 

J. P. 

Everett House, N.Y., 4M October, 

We have been almost overwhelmed with kindness, yet we long, long, 
long to see how old London looks, and we long to meander in the fragrant 
neighbourhood of the Viaduct. I am quietly endeavouring to abbreviate 
my tour. . . . This is our thought and our hope. ... I cannot conceive 
the circumstances under which I would settle here, even if I had an op- 
portunity. Think of exchanging London for Brooklyn 1 
. . . In bonds indissoluble, 

Yours, 

Joseph Parker. 

Buffalo, N.Y., z<^h October 1887. 

. . . Your sunshine-letter came, and rejoiced us like a jubilee at cold 
Toronto. It is just possible we may go to some restful place in England 
in early December. . . . The long, long journeys, and then an exciting 
lecture, are too much for me. ... A month's rest in England will be 
invaluable to me. ... I write in furious haste, but with the double love 
of E. J.— J. P. 

West Hotel, Minneapolis, Minn., \%th November 1887. 

Pity me so &r away from home I I really do feel lonesome. I long 
for home. I preach in Plymouth Church on 4th December, and they 
give me a reception during the week. ... I cannot write the particulars 
about Plymouth Church, but you will know all when we meet Every- 
thing is more than satisfactory. 

I can settle here (in America) on an income of £yxo (pounds) a 

year easily made I But I 

won't. 

The opportunities I have had are simply astounding, and as for kind- 
ness — call it infinite. Our best love to you both. I did think Laurie 

93 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

would have written me one line, but princes, dukes, and belted earls 
quench such sparks as a dissenting preacher. Lord pity us I. . . 
. . . Longing, longing, longing. 
O, so wearily. 

Ever in heartiest love, 

Yours, 

J. P. 

EvsRSTT House, Union Square, New York. 
4tk December^ 1887. 

Some of your newspaper countrymen have been scalping me in 
open day, and telling lies about twice as big as America. They 
said I charged a fee, or received a fee, for my eulogy. A bigger lie 
was never invented since the serpent conferred with Eve in the 
fragrant Garden of Eden. On the contrary, I received 100 dollars 
less than I was actually out of pocket 1 The Eulogy Committee, vindi- 
cated me in the best possible manner, and afi^ my vindication (I 
could not beford) I gave the whole sum I received towards the fund 
for erecting the monument, so I have had the pleasure of delivering 
the eulogy, and paying every penny of our united expenses. I do 
not ^i^iKplain, I only «rplain. . . . But the newspapers can lie I At one 
hotel Mrs Beecher was sent away when she called, with the explanation 
that I could not see her because I was ^ at prayer " I Another reporter 
says he called upon me, and found me playing dominoes, whereas 
I do not know one domino from another. Yes ; they can lie. ... On 
arriving at home I shall need the assurance that I have sotne friends 
somewhere, and that assurance will find its way back to America. 
Please blame only the right parties, viz. : the infrimous newspaper 
reporters and interviewers, and hangers-on. The gentlemen of America 
have been true, and kind, and noble. 

Our love, our true love, our growing love, to you and yours. 

J. P. 

In 1892 I was invited to join the diaconate of 
the City Temple, which I did. 

Dr Parker was an extremely charitable man, and 
dispensed large sums of money from his private purse, 
as well as from funds placed at his disposal, to persons 
in circumstances of need. As a judge of character 

94 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

he was rarely at fault, and on a second or third 
appeal being made to him by the same person, 
if there were the slightest variation in the story, he 
detected the imposture at once. Once, in reference 
to an applicant who had disappointed him, he used 
the following words : — " Keep her at the utmost dis- 
tance, she is a consummate beggar. How many 
sovereigns and half-sovereigns she has had from 
here (the City Temple) I dare not inquire." 

In May 1894, on the conclusion of twenty-five 
years' ministry in the City Temple, opportunity was 
taken to present Dr and Mrs Parker with suitable 
gifts, as marks of the public appreciation of his 
ministry. To Dr Parker was presented pulpit robes, 
a cheque for 1000 guineas, and a portrait in oils 
by Mr Robert Gibb, R.S.A., which now hangs in 
the vestry of the City Temple. These gifts were 
accompanied by an album containing the autographs 
of the donors. The presentation to Mrs Parker, 
which consisted of a beautiful diamond brooch, was 
made by me. Dr Parker, in responding upon this 
occasion, observed : " I am touched especially by the 
words of my long- tried friend, Mr Richards, con- 
cerning my wife. The diamonds are of great value, 
their radiance is indisputable, but I am here, after 
thirty years' experience and observation, to say that 
the radiance of the diamonds is eclipsed and quenched 
by the glory of the life they are intended to adorn." 

This presentation is duly recorded on a tablet in 
the vestibule. 

His pulpit jubilee was celebrated 19th July 1898, 

95 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

and the services were attended by enormous crowds 
of people. 

One of the most remarkable booklets which Dr 
Parker wrote was the result of many talks we had 
together upon business, and business methods. This 
was originally intended for private circulation, but 
was subsequently published by the well-known firm 
of Messrs Hazell, Watson & Viney, to whose 
courtesy I am indebted for the quotation following. 
The work was entitled " Successful Business ; How 
to Get it, Keep it, and Make the Most of it," and 
closes with the following : — " Ten General Command- 
ments for Men of Business " : — 

1. Thou shalt not in any wise boast, brag, bounce,, 
or bluster, or the wise man will hold thee in low 
esteem. 

2. Thou shalt not permit thy wife to be living 
at the rate of ;^200 a year when thy business is not 
yielding more than ;^I99 ; nor shalt thou withhold 
from her the business information which, as an help- 
meet, she is entitled to receive. 

3. Thou shalt not mock the unsuccessful man, 
for he may be richer in his poverty than thou art in 
thy boasted abundance. 

4. Thou shalt not carry the counting-house into 
the domestic circle, nor in any wise spoil the children's 
hour by recapitulating the bankruptcies of the day. 

5. Thou shalt not hob-nob with idle persons, nor 
smoke with them, nor encourage them, nor approve 
their evil life. 

96 



\ 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

6. Thou shalt not keep company with an un- 
punctual man, for he will certainly lead thee to 
carelessness and ruin. 

7. Thou shalt not forget that a servant who can 
tell lies /or thee, may one day tell lies to thee. 

8. As to hours of slumber and sleep, remember 
the good old rule : 

"Nature requires five, 
Custom gives seven, 
Laziness takes nine. 
And wickedness eleven. 

9. Neither a borrower nor a lender be, but give 
where well-bestowed, right cheerfully. 

10. Be honest in copper, and in gold thy honesty 
will be sure. 

These are the commandments truly, which will 
ensure success in business. 



97 



CHAPTER VII 

English Holiday-making — Our Visits with Dr and Mrs Parker — 
Mrs Parker's Illness and Death— The Doctor's Grief— He is 
Heart-broken — Continues his Ministry — His last Holiday with 
us — Illness and Death. 

The method of taking summer holidays in England 
was one of the first things which interested me, as 
being in such strange and marked contrast with the 
American habit. Across the Atlantic, on setting out 
for a holiday, the town house would be shut up, 
locked, and no caretaker left in the place. The 
family would migrate to the countryside or the 
seaside, and engage rooms, with full board, at a 
hotel or boarding-house at a fixed price per week, 
and remain away during June, July, and August, 
when the air of the city is at greatest heat — ^the 
head of the family taking an occasional run to town 
on business. 

I soon found out that in England, except amongst 
the richer classes, a fortnight or three weeks was the 
customary length of a summer holiday; and the 
system involved negotiations being carried out with 
the keepers of seaside lodgings, or at farmhouses 
at the countryside — the prices varying according to 
the location and the character of the accommodation. 
A fixed price was paid for the rooms, all food supplies 
being reg^ated on a separate basis, or the food 

98 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

could be purchased by the visitors, and a small charge 
made for cooking and serving. This plan means 
that you are practically carrying out your ordinary 
home life in lodgings, or in furnished houses. Not 
infrequently families of six or eight persons were 
to be found who considered their position very 
satisfactory with only one sitting-room and three 
or four bedrooms. 

The seaside hotels in England forty years ago 
were more of them constructed on the scale and 
plan of those at Newport, Narragansett Pier, Long 
Branch, Manhattan Beach, Saratoga, or in the 
White Mountains. Many of these hotels have ac- 
commodation for I coo guests, and at the inclusive 
price of $2. 50 to I6.00 per day. There are English 
seaside hotels of the present day that will take 
300 guests, and at fixed tariff, from 15s. a day. 

The lodging-house system exists in London, and 
in all large towns in England; but the boarding- 
house system is distincdy limited, though in many 
cases one hears of extremely desirable and comfortable 
establishments of that kind. At all these places 
there are discomforts of a more or less serious 
character. 

The amusements and diversions at English resorts 
are not of the social character of those in the United 
States. Families keep together, and there is very little 
attempt to form new acquaintances or join other 
families in bathing, promenades, or driving. Even- 
ing amusements are quiet, and " early to bed " rules 
prevail. 

99 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

Many of our summer holidays were passed with 
Dr and Mrs Parker in visititlg notable places in 
England. I remember upon one occasion, while 
staying together in the Isle of Wight, Dr Parker 
said to me : "I wish to give you and your wife a 
holiday with us, but the invitation can only be 
accepted upon one condition. You are to place 
youreelves unreservedly in our hands ; you are to 
have no responsibility of any kind whatever. This 
will be a holiday at Lake Windermere ; but you are 
not to have anything to do with choosing the hotel, 
your room, ordering your meals, or planning any 
excursions, walks, or drives. I want you to be 
relieved for one whole week of having to make 
any suggestion to anybody on earth. Your usual 
holidays which have come under my observation 
have been taken up with making arrangements for 
other people. Will you come?" 

" Enthusiastically — ^yes," was my reply. 

These were the same words which he had used 
himself upon one occasion when accepting an invita- 
tion under similar circumstances from me. A more 
enjoyable ten days' holiday could not have been 
experienced by anyone in the world. We were 
taken to see everything of interest in the Lake 
District — the Wordsworth country. Nothing was 
omitted, and the journey was the more enjoyable 
because I really had no responsibility of any kind. 

Dr and Mrs Parker always took their holidays 
together, and the Doctor never left London for the 
country on a preaching excursion for one day, upon 



lOO 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

which she did not accompany him. So constantly 
were they in one another's society that Mrs Parker 
told me that the only written communication which 
had ever passed between them was a post card 
written in shorthand which he sent to her at 
Sunderland, at the time of the death of her mother. 
On this occasion she was obliged to go alone, because 
Dr Parker had a preaching engagement which he 
felt he could not postpone. 

The last visit which they paid together to Mrs 
Richards and myself was at Norris Castle, East Cowes, 
Isle of Wight. They were with us two weeks in 
September, which were delightfully spent ; and so far 
as human foresight could foretell, they left us in 
absolutely perfect health for their journey home to 
Hampstead — he to recommence his work at the City 
Temple, on the first Sunday of October. 

Three weeks after their return Mrs Parker was 
declared to be very seriously ill — but there was no 
danger, so the medical men declared. A surgical 
operation was performed, for the removal of a 
malignant growth, which was declared to be entirely 
successful, and her prompt recovery was anticipated. 
Her symptoms changed from better to worse, and 
on 27th January 1899 she died. I became ac- 
quainted with the sad fact by receiving a wire from 
the Doctor in the following words : — 

" She is not here : she has risen*' 

I immediately went to his house at Hampstead, 
and on being admitted went up to his study. He 
was sitting in a chair in front of the fire, almost bent 

lOI 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

double : he was crushed by the sorrow which had 
fallen upon him. / 

He saw me enter the room, but did not sp>eak a 
word. Then he rose, and taking me by the hand, 
led me in silence to the darkened room in which the 
body lay, and remained for a few moments — no 
words were spoken. 

He led me out of the room and to the door ; with 
a hand-clasp we parted. 

During Mrs Parkers illness, which lasted two 
months, I saw her repeatedly, and she always spoke 
to me in terms of hope about her recovery. Over 
and over again she said : " Never mind what the 
doctors say, or any personal expressions you may 
hear, I think I shall get well." 

The medical men held a consultation, after which, 
on 14th December 1898, I received a telegram from 
her in these words : ** Gready better ; splendid night " ; 
and a letter from Dr Parker, in which he told me 
that Mrs Parker's recovery was assured. On the 
last occasion of my seeing her she said : '' I am not 
in any pain." 

In my opinion, if she realised the fatal character 
of her illness, she was afraid the announcement would 
have a serious effect upon Dr Parker, and was not 
prepared herself to tell him. 

The funeral service was held at the house — " Tyne- 
house," Lyndhurst Gardens, South Hampstead — the 
Rev. Principal Vaughan Pryce, President of New 
College, officiating. Many ministerial and lay friends 
were present. Mrs Parker was buried in a plot of 

102 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

ground in Hampstead Cemetery, and at his request I 
wrote the following inscription, which appears upon 
the monument : — 

**t£o tbe Acmotfi of 

EMMA JANE PARKER 

Bom, June 20th, 1846. 

Ascended, January 27th, 1899. 

For more than 34 years the loving and devoted wife of 

Joseph Parker, Minister of the City Temple, London. 

Gratefully erected by the Church and Congregation. 

'Purer, dearer. 
With eyes clearer 
On the Home shore."* 

The concluding lines were quoted from her own 
poem, " Perchance," published in a volume entitled 
" Summer Sonnets," and issued during her last 
illness. 

Dr Parker was, of course, present at the funeral 
in the cemetery, but never visited the grave after- 
wards. Her death broke his heart, but not the 
purpose of his life ; and what she would have wished 
him to do was the after inspiration of every act of 
his life. He would say : "I have come to see you 
because I know sAe would have wished me to do 
so" ; or : "I will go there because I know she would 
have me go." Behind all this was the resignation 
of despair. He prayed morning and evening ever 
afterwards that he might die ; and his prayer was 
shortly answered. 

103 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

In the meantime he went on with his ministerial 
work — " She would have wished this," he continually 
said to me. 

The following summer Dr Parker came to visit 
us at Old Park, near Ventnor, and again in 1900 
he visited us at Steephill Castle, Ventnor, and 
finally in the following summer, 1901, 

Dr Parker was gifted with a high sense of humour, 
and greatly delighted his friends on many occasions 
by telling stories in the dialect of the people where 
they originated : thus he told tales in the North- 
umbrian tongue, and he was equally at home with 
those of Irish, Scottish, or Welsh origin, and in some 
degree had mastered the American accent. He had 
an enormous fund of amusing stories, and, whether 
new or old, his manner of telling them was the 
feature of such entertainment. One can repeat the 
stories, not the genius in telling them. 

No one who was present at the time in Steephill 
Castle can ever forget the jest under cover of which 
he left the dining-room one evening when we were 
sitting rather late. " Let me tell you an Irish story," 
he began ; and those present became silent at once. 
"There was an Irish priest, upon one occasion, 
preaching in a village church to the peasants, and 
he spoke thus at the conclusion of a sermon on the 
virtues and wisdom of St Patrick." Here he adopted 
a broad Irish brogue, and continued : ** * Now, my dear 
children, where shall we put St Patrick? Shall we 
put him where the sapphire river rolls around the 
throne of the Almighty ? No ; we will not put him 

104 






With John Bull and Jonathan 

there. Shall we put him where the golden light 
plays around the golden city ? No ; we will not 
put him there. Shall we put him in a boat sailing 
over the golden lake when the angels are calling? 
No ; we will not put him there.' For the fourth time 
he demanded in a loud voice: * Where shall we 
put St Patrick?' Then at that moment a peasant 
called out : ' Well then, shure, you can put him here, 
for I'm going.'" And with a bow the Doctor rose, 
and retired to his bedchamber, leaving those present 
convulsed with laughter. 

Dr Parker was much sought after by the leading 
men of the day, and he was in the habit, where 
possible, of inviting them to the Thursday morning 
service at the City Temple. Upon one occasion 
the subject he announced was : " What has the Pew 
to say to the Pulpit?" He called upon Mr Glad- 
stone, in view of this service, with whom he had 
been upon most friendly terms, to arrange the date. 
Upon returning from Harley Street, Dr Parker told 
me that Mr Gladstone had promised to attend, and 
that on leaving he said : " Now, Mr Gladstone, I 
have to announce this from the pulpit, so may I 
consider it as such a definite engagement as you can 
give?" To this Mr Gladstone replied: "Nothing 
but the inevitable will prevent." 

Mr Gladstone duly attended the service, and opened 
the discussion, which was regarded as one of the 
most important services ever held in the City 
Temple. 

Amongst other visitors to the City Temple, on 

los 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

similar occasions, were the great Earl of Shaftesbury 
and Dean Stanley. 

The names of these and other visitors were signed 
in the pulpit Bible, which is now enclosed in a glass 
case, and stands below the pulpit. 

Soon after the visit of Mr Gladstone he and his 
wife accepted an invitation to a garden party at Dr 
Parker's residence, Daleham Gardens, Hampstead, 
where the venerable statesman met a distinguished 
company of clergymen, ministers, and laymen. A 
similar party was given during the visit of Mr Beecher, 
when there was also an important gathering. Mr 
Gladstone soon afterwards invited Dr and Mrs 
Parker, and the Rev. H. Ward Beecher and Mrs 
Beecher, to breakfast with him in Downing Street 

Mrs Parker was a lady of many accomplishments, 
and a devoted helpmeet. In Dr Parker's work of 
preparation at home, and in the execution of many 
labours at the Temple, she was his comrade and 
his right hand. She was the leader of his choir, and 
an excellent singer herself; and, as an excellent 
stenographer, she took down in shorthand many 
hundreds of his sermons, and wrote them out for 
the Press. More than all this, she sympathised 
with him in many whims and fancies, and indulged 
him to the "utmost of his bent" in the harmless 
amusements of the day. One of these was that of 
mind telegraphy, or the directing of the thoughts 
of a third person, and, assisted by his wife, he con- 
stantly practised this power upon his friends or 
visitors. He would agree with Mrs Parker that, 

1 06 






> W i ■■ 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

when a certain person would sit down at lunch or 
dinner with them, they would concentrate their 
will power in one direction upon him ; and he has 
declared to me that, whenever they adopted this 
plan, they were always successful. One instance he 
told me of related to a visit paid him by Professor 
Newth, who was well known for his antipathy to 
Mr Gladstone. After Dr and Mrs Parker had 
exercised their will power over him with special 
regard to Mr Gladstone, they were immensely 
amused to hear him all at once ask the Doctor a 
question regarding that statesman. 

In the holidays of 1902 he said he was afraid of 
the trip across the Solent. So the holiday was spent 
in a visit to Mrs Burnett Smith, "Annie Swan" 
(the well-known writer). He invited me to visit 
him there, but pressure of business engagements 
prevented me, to my great regret 

In May 1902 Dr Parker, on the invitation of Mrs 
Richards, accompanied her to the Zoological Gardens 
in Regent's Park, and, at her request, was photo- 
graphed standing by the lion's cage. This is, I 
believe, the last photograph taken of Dr Parker. 

At that time he frequently complained of not feeling 
up to the mark : he suffered from shortness of breath 
and a pressure upon his chest, which often took him 
when speaking ; nor could he walk far without feeling 
fatigue, which was entirely contrary to his usual ex- 
perience. The fact is well known that he used to 
walk from his house in Hampstead, a distance of four 
miles, to the City Temple on Thursday morning and 

107 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

on Sunday, allowing himself plenty of time, and 
taking a bath in the vestry before entering the 
pulpit 

Before his last holiday he announced that he should 
take up his usual work at the City Temple on the 
first Sunday in September 1902, and that he would 
make the experiment of preaching on the previous 
Thursday to test his voice and strength. During 
the last three or four months before the holidays 
he invariably arranged with a brother minister or 
one of his deacons to sit near the pulpit, and if 
they noticed a certain sign, to come to the pulpit 
and continue the service — he was afraid of a 
collapse. 

So far as his personal appearance was concerned 
he showed little sign of weakness or illness, though 
there was loss of weight and vigour. His manner 
towards those about him was as cheerful and cordial 
as ever. 

I saw him after the morning service of Thursday, 
25th September 1902, and took my leave of him, as 
I was sailing on the following Saturday for a short 
visit to New York. In taking my hand at parting 
Dr Parker said, in a voice full of emotion : ** God be 
with you. I shall not say good-bye." 

I was only a fortnight in America, and during that 
time learned from the newspapers that the Doctor 
preached on Sunday morning and evening, 28th 
September, and again on the Thursday morning 
following, but that on the next Sunday, although 
no notice had been given by him, he failed to appear 

X08 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

at the City Temple in the morning. Then the fact 
became known that he was seriously ill, and doubts 
were at once published as to whether he would ever 
enter the pulpit again. 

I returned to England on 25th October, and im- 
mediately wrote to him to know how he was; in 
reply I received a private message to go to see 
him at once. I found him sitting in an arm-chair, 
his legs stretched out in front of him. He put out 
both his hands to welcome me, and said : '' I cannot 
rise." He was much interested to hear about my 
visit to the States, and asked many questions about 
mutual friends. So far as his voice was concerned, 
he spoke firmly and without effort. I said : " Tell 
me how you really feel. Are you in pain.^" He 
replied: ''Yes; in terrible pain at times, but at the 
present moment I am free from pain ; but I am sure 
my case is beyond medical relief, and I am glad this 
is so. I have finished all my work in this world, 
and I am chiefly thinking of what is going on up 
there! I long to go." I spoke to him cheerfully, 
but not lightly, of his ailments. I left after the lapse 
of half-an-hour. I had spoken to him of his brave 
attempt to resume his work during the previous 
month, and he remarked : '' I was determined to do 
so, even if I fell on the pulpit stairs." He alluded 
with considerable feeling to an invitation sent him 
by the Bishop of Ripon to use his marine residence 
if he so desired. He also said that he was thankful 
The Times newspaper had published his letter on 
the Education Act, but added : '' I shall never know, 

109 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

on this earthy what the result of this educational 
controversy will be." 

This was my last interview with him. I received 
daily bulletins as to his health until his death, 28th 
November 1902. He was buried in the same plot 
of ground at Hampstead where his wife lay. 



no 



CHAPTER VIII 

Home Life — Dr Parker and Pearl — Illustrated Letters — My Daughter 
Pearl's Early Life — A Mimic — Her Studiousness — Reads Thackeray 
— Efifect of Toole's Acting and Others — Her First Book — Her 
First Play — Education of my Sons — Dorothy — Her Marriage. 

In 1880 we removed to Porchester Terrace, Hyde 
Park, to a house named by me *' Sandyhook," of which 
I had taken a lease of twenty-one years. This was a 
charming residence, with gardens in front and rear, 
and ivy covering porch and windows. Here my 
second daughter and youngest child was born — 
Dorothy Christine. My family then consisted of 
Pearl, my eldest daughter ; John Morgan, Nelson, 
and Dorothy. 

Dr Parker took a deep interest in Pearl from a very 
early age. He was especially fond of children, and 
he delighted in their ideas. Much to Pearl's amuse- 
ment, Dr Parker occasionally wrote illustrated notes 
to her, of which the two following in fac-simile are 
samples. 

These gave infinite pleasure to my daughter, and 
have been preserved with care. At a later date Dr 
Parker wrote of her : *' How did she begin the world 
of letters? I can tell you. She has always been a 
devotee of the family ink-horn, and early she went 
in even for printers' ink. Probably I was the first 

III 









gh^<<**'-*'*«*^ur,. ^# ^%^ ^ A M*ea^ yAt^ Jw0i^ 





MAtutJ^i^ e^ 0^^ jnus^^ 





1 



With John Bull and Jonathan^ 

editor who received and printed the writings of 
Pearl Richards. Do you wonder, then, that I feel 
upon my face a sheen of reflected glory ? " Dr Parker 
delighted to show his friends the copy of her first 
book of any size — " A Study in Temptations," which 
she inscribed : '* To my first Reviewer, Dr Joseph 
Parker, the first also to encourage my childish at- 
tempts at literary composition ; the first to prize 
work which was only remarkable for its gigantic 
intentions." 

Pearl from early infancy manifested traits which 
indicated a faculty for literary composition. As a 
child she was a keen observer of those about her, 
and imitated their peculiarities of speech and manners. 
She was a born mimic, inheriting this faculty from 
her mother ; while through my ancestry she grew 
up with perhaps unusually strong religious instincts, 
manifested in early womanhood by the constant 
analysis of the serious problems of life. 

Upon one occasion, in a Congregational Church 
where the Holy Communion was to be celebrated 
the preacher requested those who desired to com- 
municate to sit on the right-hand side of the church 
and non-communicants on the left. To this she made 
the strongest objection, because in her mind she 
could not disassociate the division from the separation 
of the sheep and the goats. 

Her mother and I were always interested to note 

the keenness she possessed in observing occurrences 

that were in any way unusual, and we allowed her 

to follow out the little plans she formed for amuse- 

u 113 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

ment As she was our only child for some time, she 
invented imaginary companions to whom she told 
stories by the hour. She was also fond of dressing up, 
and acting plays of her own improvisation. As she 
grew older her powers of mimicry were still further 
developed ; and on returning from her daily walk 
in the park or the streets, she greatly amused her 
Mother by imitating the voices of people she had 
casually seen, actually quoting snatches of the dia- 
logues she had heard ; the upbraiding of one another 
by poor people, threats used by mothers to their 
children, or tender words spoken by sweethearts. 
Strange words were caught up in this way, and re- 
peated innocently in the very tone of voice used, and 
accompanied with the facial expression of those who 
had uttered them. 

A few intimate friends who heard and saw these 
child actings were greatly surprised, and urged her 
Mother to check these manifestations, which she in 
her better wisdom declined to do. 

She became the natural leader in all gatherings of 
children of her own age, and even older than herself. 
Their games were always those which she suggested, 
and taught to those who were ignorant of thqir 
character. She instilled into each the enthusi- 
asm and merriment with which she was liberally 
endowed; and the greatest joy always pervaded 
the children's parties in my house, while she be- 
came the chosen favourite of every party given by 
friends. 

In this way she passed from age to age in chiM- 

"4 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

hood. When the time came for the appearance of a 
governess she entered upon her lessons with en- 
thusiasm, and her Mother never had to say to her: 
"Go and study your lessons." The appetite to learn 
grew in strength as she advanced in years. She 
petitioned me and her mother to indulge in fresh 
studies, and not to reduce the number of those which 
were set her. She was educated in London, Boston, 
and Paris — chiefly by tutors. 

Her progress was such as to occasionally cause 
embarrassment and surprise, to her teachers. One 
lady gravely confided to her mother the fact that the 
girl knew "the whole of" Thackeray, and read him 
in school-hours, and she did not think Thackeray 
was an author any girl of thirteen ought to be allowed 
to read. As a matter of fact, no restriction was 
placed upon her reading, and although she read, no 
doubt, every work of fiction she could find, she also 
read a g^eat deal of history, poetry, and philosophy. 
She had a love of Picture Galleries and Museums, 
and went constantly to the National Gallery and the 
British Museum. 

She became an excellent musician, and developed 
a sweet voice of great flexibility. 

At an early period she indulged her cosmopolitan 
instincts by inducing her nurse to place her on the 
table in the nursery, and wheel the table from side 
to side, while she stretched cords across the room 
to hooks in the walls, and, attaching small pulleys, 
drew little parcels towards herself from all quarters 
of the globe. 

"5 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

As soon as she was capable of writing with ease 
she indulged in the composition of fiction — and this 
took a singular turn. She wrote for the maid-servants 
letters to their sweethearts, and the unconventionality 
of these missives often led to quarrels and misunder- 
standings between the lovers. It is possible that her 
ironic humour was scarcely soothing to the vanity of 
an adored police sergeant. 

The dramatic instinct was so strong that she en- 
treated me to buy a toy theatre for her, with pasteboard 
figures representing the characters ; and she would 
invent the story to fit the drama, making little speeches 
for each character as she pushed them on to the stage. 
This love of the theatre, I should confess, she may 
have inherited from me. 

A governess at the school she attended told my 
wife in great alarm that Pearl was in the habit of 
sitting on a table, with the girls around her, crying 
with laughter, at her imitations of the men and 
women she had met in the street. 

When in her ninth year Pearl was presented to 
the late General U. S. Grant. The occasion was 
this. After the term of his second Presidency of the 
United States ended, he made the grand tour of 
Europe, and coming to London, a reception was 
held at the house of Mr John Welsh, the United 
States Minister. Mrs Richards and I were invited; 
but neither of us could attend, and, to her great 
delight, Pearl was entrusted with a bouquet of roses, 
cornflowers, and lilies, to present to the General. 
This was accomplished in a very graceful manner^ 

ii6 



•V 



J 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

and General Grant rewarded her with a soldier's 
hearty thanks. 

A curious experience befell my wife, myself, and 
Pearl on our first visit to Paris in 1869. The novelty 
of our surroundings was delightful, and we were quite 
fascinated with the city. 

Pearl was then a child of three years, and we were 
assured, before starting, that there was no necessity 
for our taking a nurse specially to look after her. 
We, however, were rudely awakened from our con- 
fidence at dinner-time. This was at table dhSte, in 
the hotel. Walking into the dining-room, we were 
stopped by the Manager, who politely informed us 
that a child was not allowed to dine with the adults 
in the public dining-room. I was at first rather 
indignant, but quickly saw the reasonableness of the 
prohibition. The manager suggested that we should 
leave our daughter in the care of the femme de 
chambrey which we did, and then proceeded to our 
meal. We felt that this course would be very in- 
convenient, to be separated at each meal, and the 
difficulty was solved by removing to a private hotel. 
Here the Manageress informed us that there was a 
Spanish nurse in want of an engagement stopping 
in the hotel, and we engaged this young woman at 
once. She had been in the service of the Queen of 
Spain, who was then living with her son, the Prince 
of Asturias, in her own mansion near the Arc de 
Triomphe; and here the nurse on several occasions 
took Pearl to play with the Prince, who afterwards 
became King of Spain under the title of Alfonso XII. 

117 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

On the first occasion I took her to the theatre, 
which she had expressed a longing to attend, the 
play was "The Steeple Chase;" or, "Toole in Pig- 
skins," with John L. Toole playing the part of 
"Tittums." To my astonishment, before he had 
been on the stage thirty minutes, she began to cry, 
and made such a disturbance that I was obliged to 
take her out. Toole appeared as a guest in a hotel 
very much neglected. He was continually ringing the 
bells, putting his head out of the door, and shouting 
out to the servants for first one thing — ^his boots, then 
hot water, and finishing up each demand with the ex- 
clamation : " Oh, this does make me so wild ! " Pearl 
took the matter too seriously, and sympathised with 
the actor so sincerely as to be completely overcome 
with anguish. 

Upon another occasion, when I took her to the 
Haymarket to see Mr and Mrs Kendal in " Pygmalion 
and Galatea," a similar experience befell me, my 
daughter being overcome by Pygmalion's appeal 
to the statue to return to life. She soon forgot the 
sorrow of her experiences, however, and up to her 
tenth year there was scarcely a week passed in which 
she did not attend an afternoon performance at one or 
other of the theatres, accompanied by a nurse. I re- 
member taking her myself to see the late Joseph 
Jefferson in " Rip Van Winkle " at the Princess 
Theatre, and her appreciation of that marvellous 
actor was not less sincere than my own. 

As a child she went frequently on voyages to and 
fro the United States, and accompanied me often on 

ii8 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

my journeys to France, Germany, and elsewhere. 
Then she has visited friends in England, Scotland, 
and Ireland. 

Her taste for describing foreign places and char- 
acters is due to the fact that her earliest impressions 
were formed, no doubt, travelling ; and although her 
life, since she was sixteen, has been mostly spent in 
England, she has lived a great deal abroad, and in 
many parts of the world. It is quite certain that she 
has never drawn any scene, or presented any situa- 
tion, or analysed any type of temperament, except 
through the light of absolute personal knowledge and 
observation. 

Her first professional literary work was journalism 
and art criticism, which she began soon after her 
marriage, at nineteen, with Mr Reginald Walpole 
Craigie, in February 1887. 

Mrs Craigie devoted herself with great assiduity 
to the serious composition of literary work, and her 
first published book was entitled : '' Some Emotions 
and a Moral." It was published in her twenty- 
third year. When this was ready for publication 
she refused all help in obtaining a publisher, 
and insisted that whatever she wrote should re- 
ceive no other help towards publication, than the 
merit there was in the composition. The MS. 
was first offered by her to Messrs Macmillan, 
and in returning this with a kind note, they sug- 
gested that the title of the book should be altered, 
and that the last chapter should be revised, when 
they would be glad to become the publishers. 

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With John Bull and Jonathan 

This she declined to do, and the MS. was next 
offered to Mr Fisher Unwin, who accepted the work 
for his Pseudonym Library. At first, Mr Unwin has 
since told me, he felt a little nervous as to the result; 
but a week after the publication he wrote Mrs Craigie, 
saying: "Your book is a success for both author and 
publisher." Since that time, with one or two excep- 
tions only, Mr Fisher Unwin has published all her 
works. 

The first play she wrote was "Journeys End in 
Lovers Meeting" — a proverb, which was performed 
at Daly's Theatre by Miss Ellen Terry, Mr Forbes 
Robertson, and the late William Terris, and was 
greatly commended. Miss Ellen Terry bought the 
copyright, and has many times since appeared therein, 
both at the Lyceum Theatre, London, and when on 
tour in the United States. 

"The Ambassador," her next play, was produced 
at the St James's Theatre, under the management of 
Mr George Alexander, in 1899. The success of the 
piece is well known, and the play is now famous as 
having enjoyed the longest run of any piece pro- 
duced by Mr Alexander at the St James's Theatre. 

Another highly successful play was " The Bishop's 
Move," in which Mr Arthur Bourchier gave a most 
touching and impressive performance of the old 
French Bishop. Her one-act play "A Repentance," 
which was as generously praised as it was curiously 
misunderstood, is considered by many one of her best 
dramatic works. It was first produced at the St 
James's Theatre, and especially performed at Caris- 

120 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

brooke Castle during the reign of the late Queen. 
It has since been translated into Italian, Spanish, 
and French. Possibly its subject — the first Carlist 
War — was not sufficiently local for the average 
London play-goer. 

The question as to the education of my sons 
occupied my thoughts and those of Mrs Richards 
very much during their infancy. They were first 
taught to read and write at home. Then, when old 
enough, they went to Mr Wilkinson's school in 
Orme Square, and two years later to Appuldur 
Combe School, in the Isle of Wight, recently pur- 
chased by a French religious community. The school 
buildings were previously the residence of the Earl 
of Yarborough — a most attractive place. After two 
years they were entered at Eastbourne College, 
and remained there until they went up to Cambridge. 
My eldest son entered Trinity College, Cambridge, 
and my second Trinity Hall, and each remained 
the full term prescribed. On leaving Cambridge 
both, from choice, entered my business establish- 
ment, and after the preliminary training had been 
gone through, my firm having been turned into a 
limited liability company, they became directors, 
and obtained an interest in the company. 

In my boyhood I was very fond of reading a series 
of books called the *' RoUo Books," written by Jacob 
Abbot, a clergyman, and a distinguished writer of 
juvenile books. The " RoUo Philosophy " was re- 
garded as perfect teaching for little American boys. 
The series included such topics as "At Work," "At 

I2X 



» 



• 



• 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

Play," ** Vacation," and "At School"; and the Philos- 
ophy included the subjects of Water, Air, Fire, and Sky. 
In 1862, on one of my visits to New York, I purchased 
a set of these volumes, and returned with them as 
a present to my sons. I explained my early interest 
in them, and their great popularity among school lads 
of my day, and suggested that the books should have 
an early reading. I soon discovered that neither 
of my boys cared for them, and said frankly they were 
not interesting to them. I said ''Lend the books to 
some of your schoolfellows." The result was the 
same — they would not read them. I was puzzled 
to know why not. The best answer I could get 
was that the method was too simple, lacked fire, 
and they thought them weak stuff. The teaching 
of the American boy is quite as robust as the English, 
age for age : I had to conclude that forty years had 
wrought changes, and perhaps my favourite RoUo 
Books were now read and appreciated by much 
younger boys than in the days I refer to ; that tame 
adventures in which some highly moral truth was 
developed were not interesting. The boy of the 
present day preferring the "adventures" and the 
" moral " in stronger, and separate, doses. 

Nelson Richards married in 1898 Dorothy Bishop, 
daughter of our neighbour, Captain Edgar Bishop ; 
they have two sons, Arnold and James ; but my eldest 
son remains a bachelor. 

In October 1902 my daughter Dorothy was married 
to Mr George W. Y. Prendergast, eldest son of 
General Sir Harry Prendergast, V.C, G.C.B, 



122 



Mrs. Craicie at Lancaster Gate. 



» • 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

Directly after marriage she proceeded with her hus- 
band to Scutari, Albania, where he held the post 
of British Vice-Consul, and Charge d'Aflfaires at 
Cettinge. Taken ill in 1903, he obtained leave of 
absence, and on his way to England was obliged 
to loiter for a while at Mentone, where he died in 
January 1903, leaving one son, born in August 1902, 
named Jeffrey. 



123 



CHAPTER IX 

First Visit to a Theatre — '* Romeo and Juliet " — ^A morning Call — ^Tenants 
and Rent-collecting in New York — My early Acquaintance with Mr 
Joseph Jefferson the Actor — Edwin Forrest — F. B. Conway — 
Dan Bryant — The London Stage in 1867-68. — Mrs Dallas Glyn — 
Her Gifts and Death — ^An Experience at Steinway Hall — Racers 
through London. 

From my earliest years I had a very unusual 
inclination to visiting theatres, and went as often 
as possible. The first playhouse I ever visited was 
the St Charles' Theatre in New Orleans, when in 
my twelfth year, when I was taken to see *' Romeo 
and Juliet." Mr Charles Pope, a popular young 
actor in the Southern States, took the part of 
Romeo, and the part of Juliet was taken by Miss 
Julia Dean. A curtain-raiser preceded the drama, 
entitled "The Morning Call." This was only a 
duologue, in which Pope and Julia Dean took part, 
and, to the disappointment of friends who took me 
to the theatre, I was more interested in **The 
Morning Call" than I was in Shakespeare's great 
drama. I indulged my love of the theatre so much 
that, while yet a boy, I had witnessed the perform- 
ances of nearly every popular player of the day, 
and most of the important productions of all play- 
wrights. On first entering upon work in New York, 
my uncle, Mr Edward Cowles Richards (to whom 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

I have already referred as a large real estate owner 
in New York), employed me to collect his rents, 
which I did in the evening, after work hours. The 
rents were drawn chiefly from monthly tenants. 
From a list I have preserved I find I had upwards 
of sixty people to call upon every month. Some 
of the people occupied single floors in tenement 
houses, while others occupied an entire house. 

Amongst the latter was a house in East Twelfth 
Street, New York, which was in the occupation of 
Mr Joseph Jefferson, the famous actor, who at that 
time was fulfilling an engagement at Laura Keene's 
Theatre in New York, as Asa Trenchard in ** Our 
American Cousin." Mr Jefferson nearly always 
detained me when I called for the rent to have 
a little conversation with him, and I was never loth 
to stay. Upon one occasion, after a summer holiday, 
he told me he had been amongst the Kaatskill 
Mountains, the scene of Washington Irvings story 
which he had dramatised ; and also at an old Dutch 
farmhouse in Paradise Valley, foot of Pocono 
Mountain, in Pennsylvania, and that he had been 
trying to learn to speak the Knickerbocker Dutch, 
as he intended, after the run of "Our American 
Cousin," to produce, if possible, the play of "Rip 
Van Winkle " ; in which character he made his life- 
long success on both sides of the Atlantic. To 
illustrate his proficiency in the study of the Dutch 
dialect he sang for me, in the presence of his wife, 
the famous Dutch drinking song, and also spoke 
the well-known toast: ** Here's good health; your 






With John Bull and Jonathan 

family's good health : may you all live long, and 
prosper," which I must have heard a long time 
before any public audience. 

During one of my calls he explained that he 
should not introduce the dog "Schneider" in the 
coming play, and gave a reason which I do not 
remember. But I have since read that he gave the 
following reply to the inquiry, "Why not have the 
dog in the play ? " : — " I dislike realism in art. 
Shakespeare tells us : ' Hold the mirror up to 
Nature,' which means : * Don't hold Nature up, but 
a reflection of the thing.' " When asked : "Why do 
you not refuse the cup which Gretchen offers you 
at the end of the play?" he answered: "Should *Rip' 
refuse the cup the drama would at once become 
a temperance play. It would take all the poetry 
and fairy-tale out of it." He added later : "It would 
be a deception to announce a play and preach a 



sermon." 



By a singular coincidence, about fifteen years later, 
when Jefferson came to London for a second visit, 
he rented for a time Tavistock House, Tavistock 
Square, once the residence of Charles Dickens, which 
was nearly opposite my own residence in Upper 
Woburn Place. 

Another actor who was a tenant on the Richards 
estate in New York was Mr F. B. Conway, an 
English actor of distinction, who, with his wife, were 
both playing in the company of Mr Edwin Forest, 
at Niblo's Garden, New York. Mr Forest was 
said to be the cause of the Astor Place riots, when 

126 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

Mr W. C. Macready made his first appearance in 
New York — he being charged with having caused 
Edwin Forest on his first appearance at Drury Lane 
Theatre to be hissed. Probably the charge was 
wholly untrue, as each actor was highly esteemed 
by his own countrymen, and the Americans thought 
fit to resent what they fancied was an insult offered 
to their countryman. On Mr Macready leaving the 
theatre a riot occurred, which was only quelled by 
the interference of the police and military. Mr 
Conway was a large and powerful man, but not quite 
so robust in appearance as Mr Forest, and so he 
was especially chosen by Mr Forest to play second 
part to him. Conway, on entering upon the stage, 
always had a good reception, but Forest was in- 
variably received with greater enthusiasm. 

Mr Conway, I remember, was not quite as prompt 
in money matters as Mr Jefferson, and I rarely ob- 
tained what was due either on my first or second call. 
At last my uncle told me, as the rent was in consider- 
able arrears, I was to tell him that, unless the rent 
were paid, he must vacate the premises — ^the house 
having been taken upon a monthly rental. I am 
bound to admit that when the time came to deliver 
the message I did so with considerable hesitancy, and 
with difficulty delivered the whole message. He, 
however, was not in the least perturbed, and was 
most polite, and seemed greatly amused. He gave 
me his answer in his best stage manner, which I have 
never forgotten. Rising from his chair, he stood 
in front of me, and said, with an arm upraised : " Tell 

137 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

Mr Richards that in my profession we are oft in 
affluence to-day, and as poor as Job's turkey to-morrow; 
but if you will do me the honour of calling to-morrow 
morning I will see that the money is placed in your 
hands." Then he waved a farewell with his hand, 
and left the room, as if he were retiring from the 
stage. 

In this particular instance the actor kept his word, 
and when I called the next morning he tendered 
me the money with smiles, and in his most courteous 
manner, 

Another of my uncle's tenants was Dan Bryant, an 
Irishman by birth, but a naturalised American citizen. 
He was the head of the most successful minstrel 
troupe in the United States, and became very pros- 
perous. My uncle said to him when he came about 
the tenancy : " Mr Bryant, I am quite willing to let 
you this house, and, of course, I know what your 
business is, and I hear on all sides that this is very 
lucrative, but after all I must have a reference." 
I heard this conversation myself. Dan replied : *' Re- 
ference ! — ^there will be no reference from me. I will 
put up the good substantial 'soap' for the whole 
year's rent in advance." 

This was, of course, satisfactory, and as long as 
he remained, there was no question as to the rent 

In going through these experiences I acquired the 
best possible training for the future that was before 
me, in teaching me the various ways of approaching 
people, engaged in various businesses. 

This was another of the causes which led me to 

ia8 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

become greatly interested in theatres, and seeing 
the most eminent actors and actresses performing. 

So I was led, soon after my arrival in London, 
to visit the New Queen's Theatre in Long Acre, 
where I saw for the first time Henry Irving and 
John L. Toole, Lionel Brough and Charles Wyndham, 
in " Dearer than Life." The leading lady upon that 
occasion was Miss Henrietta Hodgson, now Mrs 
Labouchere. 

Soon after I found my way to the Hay market 
Theatre, where Buckstone was playing, and Miss 
Madge Robertson, now Mrs Kendal, was the leading 
lady. The play was **A Wife well Won." 

I soon found out that there was a second piece 
at the theatre, and that by following this device 
I could attend two theatres the same evening, 
admission after nine being half price. Into this I fell 
very readily, but was not altogether satisfied with 
the broken performance. 

At that time Ben Webster was lessee of, and 
playing at, ih^Adelpkt Theatre in " No Thoroughfare." 
In his company was the charming Fechter, George 
Belmore, Henry Neville, and John Billington — Mrs 
Alfred Mellon as leading lady. 

At the Princess Theatre I saw "The Colleen 
Bawn," with Dion Boucicault and his gifted wife. 
Miss Agones Robertson, both of whom I had seen 
act in New York. At the Prince of Wales Theatre 
was Miss Marie Wilton, Mr S. B. Bancroft (now Sir 
Squire Bancroft), and Mr Hare. The Robertson 
comedies were drawing the town. Mr Bancroft's 
I 129 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

fine impersonation of Jack Poyntz in " School " lingers 
in my memory. I can yet hear his inimitable manner 
in giving the reply to Farintosh, who offers him 

his snuff-box, and asks : ** Do you ?" " Yes, / do 

everything'^ 

Again I was present at the first performance of 
Henry Irving in his first important engagement 
with Mr Bateman, the American manager who took 
the Lyceum Theatre for the purpose of introducing 
his daughters Kate and Isabel ; but this was only a 
moderate success. Mr Irving played the part of 
Landry Barbau in "Fanchette," and Jeremy Diddler 
in ** Raising the Wind," and Jingle in " Pickwick." 

Mr Bateman had thoughts at that time of re- 
linguishing theatrical work, but was offered by Mr 
Wills "The Bells," which he accepted, Henry Irving 
playing the part of Mathias, and for this remarkable 
performance of his, he became famous. This really 
marked the commencement of his great career. 

I visited the Gaiety Theatre to see Byron s play 
of " Uncle Dick s Darling," which had enjoyed a good 
run. Mr J. L. Toole took the part of Uncle Dick ; 
and apart from the interest excited in his impersona- 
tion of the character, and his great reputation in Eng- 
land, I was anxious, in view of his impending visit 
to the States, to learn what an American thought 
of Mr Toole's probability of success in the States. 

Mr Toole's early appearance in America was not 
entirely successful, but he remained for a year, visiting 
all principal cities. It was thought that he had made 
a mistake in selecting Albery s play," Wig and Gown," 

X30 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

as his opening play in New York. The New York 
Herald called it a tedious and uninteresting play, 
and added: "But not one who knew Toole that 
would not have exchanged a thousand hours of " Wig 
and Gown" for one of "Artful Dodger." 

He revised his programme, and appeared afterwards 
in the plays which had won for him such fame in 
Great Britain, and was most thoroughly appreciated. 

Both Mrs Craigie and her mother were my constant 
companions at these performances, and at all my 
visits to theatres — Mrs Craigie being at that time 
from seven to eight years of age. 

In the early seventies a number of the popular 
actors and actresses from the United States visited 
England, and I had the opportunity of witnessing 
the performances of John S. Clarke, Edwin Booth, 
John E. Owens, Charles R. Thorne, Stuart Robson, 
Mrs John Wood, and others. 

Mr J. S. Clarke played a long engagement at 
the Strand Theatre. His appearance in Dr Pan gloss 
in the " Heir-at-Law" was a g^eat triumph. Mrs 
John Wood was also playing at St James's Theatre, 
and drew the town in her fine impersonation of 
" Pocahontas, the Gentle Savage." Mr John E. Owens 
had made an enormous success in America as Solon 
Shingle in the play called "The People's Lawyer," 
but in London, at the Adelphi Theatre, he was unable 
to excite much laughter. Owens in the course of the 
play was called as a witness in the case in which 
'* A Barl of Apple Sass " was in dispute, and the fun 
of the piece was supposed to begin upon his entering 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

the Court, and familiarly addressing the Judge : " Wal, 
Squire, how dew do you do ? " — adding that he wished 
to give evidence in the " Bar'l of Apple Sass " case. 
The whole point, however, failed, as an English 
audience did not understand what really a ''Barl 
of Apple Sass " meant,* At the back of the Judge's 
chair there was a painting of the Goddess of Justice, 
with eyes blindfolded. Solon Shingle, looking at 
the figure, remarks : 

" Say, Judge, is that lady behind you with the sore 
eyes any ways related to you, sir ? " 

Finally, when the case was proceeding, he took 
a great hunk of tobacco out of his cheek, which he 
placed on the side of the witness-box while he gave 
evidence, and the act, instead of exciting laughter, 
rather disgusted the audience. After four or five repre- 
sentations the piece was withdrawn, and Mr Owens 
returned to the United States a disappointed man. 

Charles R. Thorne and Stuart Robson appeared 
at the Gaiety in Boucicault's " Led Astray," and with 
success. During this engagement the Theatre Stalls 
were first advanced to ids. 6d., and Dress Circle 
to 7s. 6d., and soon after this advance was adopted by 
the principal London theatres. About forty years 
ago the only music halls of any standing were the 
Alhambra in Leicester Square, and **Westons" in 
Holborn. About this time the attractions of ** Evans' 
Supper- Rooms," in Covent Garden, were on the wane. 

The story of the Alhambra illustrates the remark- 
able improvement which has taken place in the music 

^ A Banrel of Apple Sauce. 
133 



■ 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

halls, within the memory of living man, not only 
in the size and beauty of the place and the splendour 
of the ballets and other scenes presented, but also the 
advance in public taste for good singing and acting, 
and in the conduct and manners of the audiences. 
There are those still living who remember witnessing 
occurrences in the Boxes which would not be tolerated 
at the present day. In 1867 there were only twelve 
theatres of importance ; there are now forty-six. 
This enormous growth means the greater popularity 
of theatrical representations, and further, to the in- 
creasing influx of visitors from the Provinces, America, 
and all quarters of the Globe. The fact is well 
known that these strangers are great supporters of 
theatres. 

A similar growth is evidenced in the present number 
and character of metropolitan hotels; the steady 
increase in their number has served to raise their 
style and character until they can compare with the 
best and noblest to be found in the United States 
or upon the Continent of Europe. 

During our residence in Porchester Terrace my 
wife and I became acquainted with Miss Isabelle 
Dallas Glyn, who in her day had been a most suc- 
cessful actress, and had taken leading parts in many 
engagements with Charles Kemble, by whom she was 
designated '*the English Rachel," and received the 
highest encomiums from Macready and Phelps. In 
the height of her career she was married to Mr 
Dallas, a Times critic ; but differences ensuing, they 
were separated, and at the time we knew her she 

133 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

had given up acting, and was limiting her work to 
readings, and giving lessons in elocution. I introduce 
her name in these recollections because of her very 
interesting career as an actress ; and of the entertain- 
ing faculty she had of talking on theatrical subjects, 
which I was always interested to hear. Most of her 
stories were of the golden era of English theatricals, 
rather than of the younger actors and actresses, and 
she had a never-failing supply of tales and anecdotes 
which she was very fond of relating. My wife be- 
came much attached to the dear old lady, and she 
was a constant visitor to my house, and remained so 
until her death, 19th May 1889. 

One week before she died she called me to her 
bedside, and pointed to two pictures on the wall. 
One was a mezzotint of herself as Cleopatra, and the 
other a line engraving of Sheridan. She said : " I 
want to present these pictures to you, for you to 
remember me by when I am dead." And she insisted 
that her servant should remove them from the wall, 
and carry them to my cab, at that same visit. This 
happened at 13 Mount Street, Grosvenor Square. 
I hesitated to accept such valuable pictures, but 
nothing would serve to dissuade her from her pur- 
pose. She had a long illness, and being unable* to 
read or give lessons her resources became much 
reduced, and only during the last year of her life she 
received a Royal Bounty. The Royal Literary Fund 
also ministered to her wants ; and during the last two 
months a fund was started by Sir Henry Irving and 
Miss Ellen Terry, which secured many comforts for 

»34 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

her up to the time of her death, in her sixty-eighth 



A week before her death she told Mrs Richards 
she would very much like to see Canon Farrar, to 
which he gladly assented. He asked her if she had 
any « fear of death, and her answer was: "If I have 
had the courage to live, why should I be afraid to 
die ? " 

At that time an American lady was visiting us, 
and expressed a great wish to see her, and she gave 
her consent to. this. At the interview Miss Glyn 
said to her : " Madam, my greatest successes in life 
have been death scenes." 

At her funeral in Kensal Green there was a large 
attendance of professional and private friends, and 
Canon Fleming was amongst the mourners. 

Upon two occasions only have I been induced to 
enter into speculative public entertainments. One 
was the giving of a series of readings by Miss Glyn 
in Stein way Hall, and another was the giving of 
monologue entertainments by Mr Stephen Massett. 
My wish was to revive interest in their public careers, 
but the results were not satisfactory. 

During my long residence in London there is little 
wonder that I have received hundreds of letters 
of introduction from people in all parts of the United 
States. Many of these have, of course, asked for 
nothing more than the usual courtesies between 
residents and strangers who had the same birthplace ; 
and I could not estimate now the number of parties to 
whom I have acted as cicerone to the sights of London ; 

135 



•»•. 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

or to the number of my visits to the Tower, the 
British Museum, St Pauls Cathedral, Westminster 
Abbey, and Madame Tussaud's — always a favourite 
visiting-place for Americans. 

Occasionally, however, I have been sorely tried 
to get into a few hours all that an American friend 
demands. Upon one occasion a gentleman called 
upon me, in a cab, and addressed me in the following 
terms : — ** I have only got three hours before I must 
leave by train for Liverpool. I have never been in 
London before, and want you to jump into my cab and 
take me to see all that is possible in that time " — add- 
ing when he saw my look of surprise : "A friend of 
mine rendered me a similar service the previous day 
in visiting the attractions of. Paris." I took on, 
and actually raced him at full speed through the Royal 
Academy, which was open at the time, the British 
Museum, the Tower of London, and the National 
Gallery, besides pointing out places of interest in 
the thoroughfares along which we drove. He ex- 
pressed himself as thoroughly satisfied, and at the 
close of the run effusively thanked me, adding that he 
knew London as well as I did. His method of 
inspecting a picture gallery was to stop at the entrance 
of a room and take a sweeping glance all round, over 
the four walls, then gallop off to the next room. 
On some occasions, I am bound to say, I have pre- 
ferred a visitor of this sort to those who, in their desire 
for detail, have exhausted my patience even in looking 
upon such a relic as the block, on which the head 
of Lady Jane Grey was cut off. 

136 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

I remember one visitor who, after a tour of inspec- 
tion round the Tower, grasped my hand, and said : 
** I suppose, John, that this is a genuine show — no 
•Barnum's Museum* about this?" I was happy to 
assure him that he had at last seen a perfectly 
genuine and historical show. 



«37 



^mmm^^^- 



CHAPTER X 

Cost of Living in the States and in England — ^American and English 
Hotels — The Question of Servants, and of Clerks — ^A dainty 
English Clerk v, A smart American — Housekeeping Expenses 
and Servants — Cab and Bus Fares — Education in the United 
States and Great Britain — Food — ^The American Society — 
American Charities in London — ^Applicants for Relief — ^A Be- 
nevolent Fund — Stranded in London — National Monument to 
the Queen — New Year Calls — ^Tipping. 

When I had settled to come to England in 1867 I 
made inquiry as to the comparative cost of living in 
Boston and New York, with the cost in London. 
This was somewhat difficult of accomplishment, as 
at that period comparatively few Americans, other 
than those who travelled for business or health, came 
to England, and even those who did come were 
limited in numbers, and had no housekeeping ex- 
perience. 

In this year, 1905, the computation, however, has 
been made that 200,000 American tourists will visit 
England and the Continent. The charges at the 
Langham (1867) averaged for a single man, having a 
small bedroom, and taking his three meals in the coffee- 
room, £1 a day. One was charged separate prices 
for room, light, fire, and attendance ; and one penny 
per sheet of notepaper or envelope, notwithstanding 
that both would bear the advertisement of the hotel. 
In Boston or New York a hotel of similar standing at 

138 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

that date, such as the Fifth Avenue Hotel in New 
York, and the Revere House in Boston, would charge 
5 dollars (;^i) a day for everything, no extras what- 
ever, and meals served from 6 a. m. to 12 p.m. In 
other words, a visitor could eat four times a day if he 
chose, and the price charged would remain practically 
the same. There would be no allowance for meals 
taken elsewhere, and there were no extras of any 
kind — writing-paper and envelopes were freely distri- 
buted in all reception-rooms. This latter fact, being 
known to outside people, was frequently taken ad- 
vantage of, and they would not hesitate to enter a 
hotel and conduct their correspondence without pay- 
ing anything for the privilege. 

The greater privacy of the hotels in England 
greatly impressed me, as no '* loungers," or "sitters'* 
^ as they are called in America, are allowed to frequent 

them. Many persons use American hotels to meet 
friends, read the newspapers, and generally to pass 
time which would otherwise hang heavily upon their 
hands, as in a club, for which they would be called 
upon to pay a subscription. Such a thing as being 
met at the door by a porter in livery and asked 
his business, whom he wished to see, is unknown on 
the other side of the Atlantic. The doors stand 
wide open, and the bars, corridors, and halls are 
thronged with visitors, and outsiders alike. No ques- 
tioning of any sort as to the right to be there takes 
place. Under these circumstances there are persons 
who will venture to walk into the dining-rooms and 
take their chance of obtaining a lunch, or a dinner 

139 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

free. This is checked as much as possible by the 
training of a man unknown to English hotels. At 
the entrance to every hotel dining or coffee room 
stands a man of well-trained memory, who takes your 
hat, if you have one, and umbrella or walking-stick, 
but gives you no check or number, and, even if several 
hundred are present, will hand you on your coming 
out your proper hat, umbrella, or walking-stick with- 
out any mistake whatever. Such a man, having a 
particular guest pointed out to him, can at once tell 
whether he is a paying guest or not, and a mistake 
is rarely made. A tip of lo cents will reward this 
attendant for the care of your belongings. 

A bathroom with hot and cold supply attached to a 
suite of rooms was unknown in an English hotel in 
1867 ; only the public bathroom existed, for the use of 
which a fee was charged. At the present time every 
luxury known is provided in British and Continental 
hotels. I noticed at first that the majority of people 
had baths brought into their rooms, with large cans of 
hot or cold water — most visitors preferring a sponge 
bath in this way. Bathrooms attached to bedrooms 
in hotels were not common in the United States 
forty years ago. 

Another difference noticeable between the personal 
habits of English and American men consists in the 
practice of shaving — the former carry their own shav- 
ing apparatus with them, and shave themselves each 
morning; but the latter have that done for them in 
the barber s shop, which is an important depa^^ment in 
every American hotel. There is much resort made 
to the barber's shop in America, and generally his 

140 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

place is one of the largest rooms in the administra- 
tion department. In the largest hotels there are 
twenty or more chairs always in use, with as many 
barbers in attendance, and at a busy time a visitor 
has to take his turn. For a shave the fee charged is 
25 cents (is.), and if haircutting were added to the 
shave there would be charged a further fee of 25 
cents. 

Attached to the barber's department is the boot- 
cleaning establishment, for the luxury of which a fee, 
varying from 10 cents to 15 cents (sd. to 7^.), 
is charged. The place is fitted up with comfortable 
arm-chairs, and one may read his paper or smoke a 
cigar while the shining-up operation is carried out. 
Boots are not usually left outside the bedroom door 
on retiring. In the boot-cleaning department the work 
is thoroughly done for the extra fees. 

Mr Ralph Waldo Emerson relates, in one of his 
essays, that an Englishman told him that when he 
inquired in a New York hotel for the " Boots " he 
was shown across the street, and had found Mungo 
in his own house dining on roast turkey — adding, the 
Londoner had said, the best thing he knew of the 
country was that a man can have meat for his labour. 

In 'England the fees for Shaving, Hair Cutting, 
and Shampoo are each sixpence in well-appointed 
hair -dressing shops; in very smart establishments, 
double these fees. For Boot Cleaning and " Shining " 
one penny and twopence per pair is charged. 

The fact is noticeable that not every man avails him- 
self of the services of the barber and the shoeblack 
each morning. This probably accounts for the con- 

14X 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

trast between an American and an Englishman at the 
beginning of the day, and the smarter turn-out of 
the latter. I could not help being attracted by the 
clean-shaven faces of the English, and their smartly- 
polished boots and tidy appearance — and this was 
the rule even with clerks in England. The average 
American forty years ago would only shave three 
times a week, and his boot--cleaning often would be 
left until towards evening, when on his way home. 
There is, however, a great improvement noticeable 
now, and the better class of American shows as much 
attention to his clothing and personal appearance as 
the most fastidious Britisher. 

In the matter of housekeeping expenses I am 
bound to say that there are ways of living very 
cheaply in London ; but if you were to consider the 
cost as a whole, with a house and one or two servants, 
the expense would equal that of any important city 
in the United States. 

Servants* wages are less in England than in 
America ; but an English servant would not perform 
as many duties as are required in an American family. 
Across the Atlantic a cook in a small family, is ex- 
pected to do the entire laundry work ; but in England 
she would not be asked to do anything of the kind, 
and allowance has to be made her for her own wash- 
ing, and beer money as well. 

In London the charges for conveyances — cab, 
omnibus, and rail (third class) — are very much cheaper 
than in New York. Car and omnibus fares in New 
York are lo cents (sd.) for any distance, and railway 
travelling averages 5 cents (2i-d.) a mile. Cab fares 

14a 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

or hack hire averages 1 1.50 (6s.), and from that 
up to 10 dollars for a journey of four or five miles. 
As a result of this exorbitant cab and hack hire, the 
majority of people when travelling have their luggage 
sent on by express carriers, at a fixed price of 35 cents 
per package, and use the cars and omnibuses to and 
from railway stations, or steamboat landing. 

With regard to food — meat, vegetables, and fruit 
are all cheaper in the United States, as also are milk, 
butter, and cheese. The work of the laundry is 
cheaper than in England for all household and 
personal linen, the labour being performed by labour- 
saving machinery. Another method in America is to 
contract for the laundry work being done by a laundry 
company. In quite a large family I knew the 
contract was at I250 (;^5o) a year. 

In New York the average office-boy clerk would 
have a beginning salary of 1 1.50 (6s.) a week, which 
would be increased to I2.50 or I3 (8s. or 12s.) a week 
before the end of one year's service if he is bright 
and smart. Salesmen, book-keepers, and department 
managers are all well paid, and have, on the average, 
larger salaries than men doing similar work in 
England. I was, entering upon business in London, 
struck with the appearance of some employees. The 
junior clerks or book-keepers came to their office work 
in top-hats, and often carrying a walking-stick. When 
asked to go on some errand, one of them, I remember, 
would immediately proceed to wash his hands, brush 
his hair, put on his gloves, and take stick in hand 
before starting, wasting several minutes in preparation. 

Should a direction be given to a junior clerk in 

H3 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

a New York office in my day he would be off in 
double quick time, without any thought about gloves 
or walking-stick. The ordinary clerk there goes to 
business ready to begin work without any of the 
accessories necessary to his English prototype. A 
young fellow would be greatly prejudiced in his work 
at New York if he ever appeared at business wearing 
a top-hat, and carrying a cane. He is required to 
keep up his pace in every department to which he 
may succeed. 

There is much more time allowed in England over 
a clerk's meals. In America a clerk is allowed half* 
an-hour for his midday lunch ; in England he has 
a full hour. There is no time allowance for afternoon 
tea in New York or other cities, but fifteen or twenty 
minutes are consumed over tea in many London 
offices. In New York work begins at 7.30 a.m. ; 
in London 8.30 a.m. or 9 a.m. Closing time is 5.30 
P.M. in New York, and 6 p.m. in London ; while 
closing time on Saturday is 5 p.m. in New York, 
and 2 P.M. in London. A clerk in England will 
spend from is. to is. 6d. upon his lunch; in the 
United States he is able to get a satisfactory lunch for 
from 6d. to lod. This meal must be got through 
with great speed by the American, which is the origin 
of the term **a quick lunch." Nothing in the form 
of intoxicants is ever taken during business hours 
by the American youth, and, indeed, he has no wish for 
any : his drink is a choice of tea, coffee, or iced water. 
This may account for the greater activity of the 
American lad. The boy who smokes is altogether 

144 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

a modern innovation in the United States, and the 
smoking of cigarettes and pipes was much rarer forty 
years ago, than now. I have noticed on my recent 
visits that nearly all young fellows, from fourteen years 
upwards, now smoke a pipe or cigarettes, but never 
in business hours either there, or in England. Forty 
years ago the non-smoking habit may be illustrated by 
my own case, as I never formed the habit of smoking 
until I was upwards of thirty years of age. 

No American family until quite recently placed 
beer, wine, or spirits on their dinner or lunch table ; 
and rarely does any youth indulge habitually in 
any of these beverages. At the same time, there 
is no doubt whatever that intemperance is one of 
the greatest evils from which America suffers. The 
method of drinking is more insidious from the habit of 
bar-drinking. Four, five, or six young fellows go 
up to a bar, and one stands treats to the others until 
the treating has gone all round. In this respect 
I consider that the English youth shows greater 
firmness in resisting invitations than his American 
cousin. I know that frequently the head of a family, 
though having neither wines nor spirits on his table, 
will stop at some bar to have a drink before reaching 
home for lunch or dinner. Furthermore, the American 
habit was to drink spirits neat, and take a g^lp of 
water afterwards. 

Over the sea if a man calls for brandy or whisky 
he will never have the spirit measured out to him, 
as is the case in this country, but the bottle of spirit is 
placed before him, and he helps himself, which is 

K 145 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

a dangerous custom, as he is tempted to take a far too 
large dose. 

At a bar like that of the Fifth Avenue Hotel in New 
York, at which fifty men could stand up at one time, 
the price of. an ordinary drink like whisky and soda 
would be 25 cents (is.), while a mixed drink like 
a cocktail, or julep, would be anywhere from 25 cents 
to 40 cents (is. 8d.). All drinks are iced to freezing 
point summer or winter. I never had seen soda 
water, or effervescing water of any kind, drunk with 
spirits until I came to England. 

The cost of an education in the United States in 
^ the sixties and seventies was far less expensive than in 
England. The public school system is based upon 
the principle of the best possible educational ad- 
vantages at most nominal charges. Excellent private 
day-schools and boarding-schools charge half as much 
as the same class of schools in England. A middle 
class day-school, inclusive of boys' fees, for a year 
of four terms of ten weeks each, with no extras, would 
cost 25 dollars, while an English school possessing 
similar advantages would cost ;^io. At an American 
boarding-school for middle-class boys £40 a year 
would be charged, and this would include everything 
to be desired in the way of food and tuition, with 
laundry, and all school-books. 

There-are now, and were then, of course, exceptional 
schools in the United States where the fees are very 
large indeed ; but this is caused by some unusual 
circumstance, and is intended to make the pupils more 
select. Under ordinary circumstances, the highest 

146 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

fees at any boarding-school within my knowledge was 
400 dollars a year (;^8o), but in England similar 
advantages would cost ;^I50. 

There are endowed schools in the United States 
which compare with Eton, Harrow, Rugby, and 
Winchester; but the fees are less. At colleges the 
fees are one-half as compared with English uni- 
versities. 

While in England, the educational expenses have 
not advanced during my residences here, but I am 
able to say, on the authority of a correspondent who 
has investigated the subject, that in the United States 
a girl costs nearly three times as much to send to 
an important school as even twenty years ago/ 
Vassar College declared this year (1905) an increase of 
100 dollars in the yearly rate, and others have followed 
this course in the charges for tuition, board, and 
rooms. Besides the actual fees, a new order of things 
in the way of equipment is developing. The million- 
aire's daughter sets up an establishment, bringing her 
own riding and driving horses, and fine dogs, for which 
board is found in the vicinity of the college. The 
shopping excursions are quite as likely to include a 
motor, as an ink-bottle. Her spare hours are spent 
riding, driving, golfing, playing tennis, and running 
an automobile, for which elaborate and costly outfits 
are provided for each amusement Her rooms are 
elegantly furnished ; no longer the bare little chamber 
with a worn carpet, a deal chair, and an iron bedstead, 
but a suite crammed with pictures, statuary, rich rugs, 
couches, and artistic drapery. At certain of these 

147 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

establishments for young ladies ;^500 may be put 
down as the minimum annual expense. Precisely the 
same conditions exist in reference to the select schools 
for boys and young men. 

Students, both men and women, of limited means 
from New England colleges and high schools fre- 
quently employ their summer holidays by acting as 
table waiters during the '' season " at the hotels at 
White Mountains and other resorts, doing the pre- 
scribed work with ability and cheerfulness. They 
get their board and certain fees, which go to supple- 
ment their income for educational expenses. Employ- 
ment bureaus are connected with nearly all the 
universities, where young men may register their 
names for any kind of work they may be willing to 
undertake in spare hours — even to look after heating 
apparatus in private houses ; or shovelling snow to 
clear paths in winter, thus getting exercise as well 
as dollars. 

With regard to the charities organised and carried 
on in London for the relief of distressed Americans 
I can speak with absolute knowledge. I remember at 
a banquet of Americans held last year (1904) Mr 
Choate, the American Ambassador, asked the question : 
" Have any of you present ever seen a stranded 
American.^" The query was received with roars 
of laughter. This laughter was provoked by the 
image at once raised of the average American who 
applied to the American resident for a donation, 
always with the same ostensible object of paying 
his fare back to the States. During my long re- 

148 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

sidence in London I have had visits from certainly 
I GOO men and women who claimed to be dis- 
tressed " stranded Americans." Many of them were 
utterly unworthy of assistance, their distress arising 
entirely from idleness, or in consequence of leaving 
America to come here without any credentials or 
means of maintaining themselves, relying, as one 
poor fellow once said to me : *' I supposed any good, 
smart American would find plenty of work to do in 
London." A great factor of introducing to this country 
poor and unfriended Americans has been the cattle 
trade. Cattle-boats coming from the United States to 
London will allow any able-bodied man, any applicant 
almost, however indigent he may be, to go on board 
and look after a certain number of cattle for a free 
passage and food. On reaching London docks the 
man is sent adrift without wages, and as empty-handed 
as when he left the shores of America. Were these 
men willing to work no amount of human application 
and diligence would secure work for them. These 
men know nothing of the character of the work 
expected from them. They cannot compete with the 
dock labourer either in strength or method, and 
they inevitably come to grief. The America Colony 
in London has assisted many of these cattle boatmen 
to return to the United States — and with this result, 
to see the same men turn up again later, under exactly 
the same circumstances, not having profited by their 
previous experience. I have been applied to half- 
a-dozen times by the same identical persons, who 
have been lucky to get steerage passage home, paid. 

M9 



^ 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

During the last five years a society has been 
formed to raise a benevolent fund for the assistance 
of those who deserve help. Mr F. C. Van Duzer, 
London, is the hon. secretary — the bankers to the 
fund, Messrs Seligmann Bros. Any native of America 
in distress may apply for assistance, and his case 
will be most prompdy and carefully inquired into. 
Resident Americans who are subscribing to the fund 
may refer to the secretary any applicant for aid. 
" Frauds " will not be assisted. During the twelve 
months, August 1 903- 1 904, many pathetic cases were 
relieved by the almoners of the fund. 

There is also another class of Americans who 
become stranded in London, who, perhaps, have been 
well connected in the United States, and who, on 
arriving here, have had a certain amount of funds 
with them. These people, by extravagance or indul- 
gence, have wasted their substance. They usually, 
in the first place, apply to the Embassy or the 
Consul, to American bankers or merchants in busi- 
ness, and if any of these classes will start a sub- 
scription for them then they will search the directory 
for every American name they can find, to whom 
application is made. 

Dining on one occasion with the Deputy Consul- 
General, who had filled that important office for 
over forty years, in reply to my question as to 
how many of those who had sacredly promised 
on reaching home to refund the advance made to 
them had fulfilled their promise, he said : ** Not 
one had; but on one occasion a sum of los. 6d. 

150 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

was returned by a poor woman whom I had once 
assisted." 

In my own experience I may safely say that I 
have sheaves of little scraps of paper with addresses 
and promises to pay amounts varying from ;^i to jCSf 
which would suffice, if they could be cashed, to found 
several Sunday school libraries. 

Before the establishment of the Benevolent Fund 
I adopted the plan of assisting only such applicants 
as would permit a cable being sent to their relatives 
or friends in the States, asking funds to be cabled 
to my care. In few instances would the applicant 
allow this, urging they did not want to distress their 
friends, or did not wish them to know of their help- 
less condition. " But," I would reply, ** you are 
perfectly willing that I, a total stranger, should know 
this, and ask me to contribute to your necessity, and 
this is the only method by which I will assist you." 
I did not make many loans upon these stringent 
conditions, probably for the reason, in most cases, 
that the funds of friends in the United States had 
been well worked upon before they came to me 
at all. 

I remember one instance of a widow and her two 
daughters who came with a very pitiful tale. I asked 
them if no one in the United States would come to 
their assistance if they knew of their condition. They 
said they had an uncle in New Jersey who they 
believed would respond. They were very reluctant 
that a cable should be sent to him, but assented. 
So I wired these words: ''Cable sixty pounds for 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

desperate necessity, and passage home/' This was 
signed by one of the daughters. I forwarded the 
message, and told them to call next morning for the 
reply. As a matter of fact, the reply came the same 
night ; and I took this to their lodgings, where 
they were apprehensive of being turned out on 
account of the arrears which they owed. The answer 
I handed to them was in the following terms : — " Have 

cabled sixty pounds. Apply Bank." I scarcely 

ever remember witnessing such expressions of joy 
and relief in my life. They sent a message down 
to the landlady to have her bill ready by eleven 
o'clock next morning ; and the ladies returned home 
by the first ship. This was the only instance of a 
satisfactory response coming to any message to 
relatives sent by me. 

The Annual Report of the American Society 
Benevolent Fund for 1905 has just been issued by 
Mr F. C. Van Duzer, the Hon. Secretary, and this 
shows that no fewer than 700 distressed Americans 
applied for relief. From this number 118 were found 
unworthy of assistance, and put upon the Black 
List; 126 made a second call on being told 
that proofs, which they alleged they had, must be 
produced to confirm their statements ; 462 were 
assisted in various ways ; and a total of ;^8o was 
refunded to the Society, contributed by 27 different 
individuals, which is very pleasant to record. 

In 1895 ^^^ American Society in London was 
established. The declared object of the Society was 
the promotion of patriotic and social life among 

153 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

Americans residing in London. Dinners were to 
be given on Washington's Birthday, 4th July, Thanks- 
giving Day, and any citizen of the United States was 
eligible for election by the general committee. At 
the preliminary meeting, held at the United States 
Consulate in March 1895, the Society was formally 
constituted, and the following gentlemen elected to 
form a permanent committee : — 

Ex-officia — the American Ambassador, the Ameri- 
can Consul - GeAeral, the United States Military 
Attache, the United States Naval Attache, Benjamin 
F. Stevens, Chairman ; Henry S. Wellcome, Vice- 
Chairman ; H. B. Chamberlain, Hon. Secretary and 
Treasurer. Members of Committee — Poultney Bige- 
low, Frank S. Blake, Frank E. Bliss, George H. 
Boughton, Walter H. Burns, R. Newton Crane, 
Roland R. Dennis, John A. Ferguson, Thomas L. 
Field, John G. Meiggs, George A. Mower, Howard 
Potter, James R. Roosevelt, Ballard Smith, Colonel 
James L. Taylor, Frederick C. Van Duzer, Henry 
White, and John Morgan Richards. 

The lines of the Society were modelled upon those 
of the New England Society, and the Southern 
Society of New York. 

The inauguration banquet took place at the Cafe 
Royal, Regent Street, 19th April 1895, with the 
American Ambassador, the Hon. Thomas F. Bayard, 
in the chair. This Society has greatly prospered, and 
has now a large membership. The banquets which 
are given are regarded as important events ; and a new 
chairman is elected each year from the governing 

153 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

committee. I had the honour of being elected chair- 
man in 1 901 -2. The Society has been the means 
of promoting good will and friendship not only 
amongst Americans, but between them and English 
representative men who have been invited to the 
banquets, and there are many Englishmen affiliated 
members. The American Ambassador for the time 
being is always the chief guest. 

The following copy of a toast list at the 4th July 
banquet, 1897 — ^^^ Diamond Jubilee Year of H.M. 
the Queen — will give an excellent example of the 
proceedings : — 

THE QUEEN 
Proposed by the Chairman. 

THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES 
Proposed by the Giairman, R. Nbwton Crane, Esq. 

OUR AMBASSADORS 

Proposed by the Right Rev. the Bishop of New York 
Response by His Excellency the American Ambassador, 

the Hon. John Hay, 

and 

His Excellency the Hon. Whitelaw Rbid 

(Special American Ambassador to the Queen's Jubilee). 

THE DAY WE CELEBRATE 

Proposed by the Hon. Alex. W. Terrell, 

{ex United States Minister to Turkey). 

Response by the Rev. Dr Milburn, 

(Chaplain of the United States House of Representatives). 

THE COMMUNITY OF ENGLISH-SPEAKING PEOPLES 

Proposed by the Hon. A. E. Stevenson 

{ex Vice-President of the United States). 

Response by the Right Rev. the Bishop of Albany. 

154 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

THE CHAIRMAN 

Proposed by J. L. TayLOR, Esq. 

(Vice-chairman of the American Society in London). 

Response by the CHAiRBfAN. 

At these banquets held during the last ten years 
the most distinguished men in every department of 
English and American Society have been present. 

Numerous efforts have been made to establish in 
London an American club, with club premises and 
an organisation on the lines of the best English clubs 
— ^thus far, such efforts have not been successful. 

In 1 90 1, when a public subscription was opened 
in London towards a national monument to the late 
Queen Victoria, the committee of the American 
Society addressed a letter to Lord Esher, the hon. 
treasurer of the fund, suggesting that Americans 
might be allowed to subscribe. The following reply 
was received by the hon. secretary, Mr F. C. Van 
Duzer : — 

•' Dear Sir, — I have laid before the King the sug- 
gestion, which you were good enough to make, that 
the American Society should be allowed to add a 
contribution to the fund for the Memorial to Queen 
Victoria, and it is needless for me to say that His 
Majesty was touched by the spirit in which the offer 
was made on behalf of many who, though not subjects 
of the Crown, are united to us by blood and by ties 
of friendship. 

"In accepting, with gratitude, the proposal of the 
American Society, may I be allowed to add that the 

155 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

Memorial will, in all probability, assume a form which 
would permit of a clear designation for all time of 
the offering made in memory of the Queen by the 
citizens of the United States? — Yours faithfully, 

" ESHER." 

The subject was promptly taken up by an appeal 
issued in the following terms : — 

''There is practically a unanimous feeling that 
Americans resident in London, citizens of the great 
Republic of the West, and descendants of Great 
Britain's first colonists, would be gratified to have 
the privilege of joining in this memorial, in order 
to demonstrate in some fitting manner the affection 
and reverence they have always felt for that unique 
and illustrious personality which, to the loss of the 
whole world, has recently passed away. It is be- 
lieved that all Americans who have lived in Great 
Brilain during the reign of Queen Victoria will desire 
to associate themselves with this tribute to her 
memory, for by her wise administration of domestic 
and foreign affairs, they have not only been protected 
in their persons and accorded equal liberties and 
privileges with her subjects, but have been given 
the largest encouragement for the practice of their 
professions and the development of their business 
interests. A committee will at once be formed in 
America to receive subscriptions from our fellow- 
countrymen there, it having been made manifest, 
from the widespread sympathy expressed throughout 

156 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

the United States with Great Britain in the national 
loss she has sustained, as well as from the universal 
testimony to the goodness and graciousness of the 
late Queen, that a number would gladly embrace an 
opportunity of subscribing to a fund such as is out- 
lined above." 

I think ;^2000 and over was subscribed. The 
National Monument is embraced in the great work 
now (1905) proceeding in St James's Park. 

Forty years ago the ist of January, New Years 
Day, was observed throughout the United States 
as "the Ladies' at Home Day," and every lady 
expected her gentlemen friends to pay their respects 
to her upon that day. Calls began at 11 a.m., and 
went on until 10 p.m. The blinds of the house 
would be drawn, the gas lighted, and callers always 
appeared in evening dress. Every drawing - room 
would have a table set out with wine, cake, and 
light refreshments ; and, while the calls were of the 
most formal character, we were expected to wish 
the hostess '*A Happy New Year." Afterwards 
men would boast of having made 300 or 400 calls 
in the day. On such an occasion men who had 
not been very prudent at the beginning would find 
themselves gready embarrassed before their calls were 
finished. 

This custom has been practically abandoned now. 
The custom now prevailing is to fasten a card-basket 
to the door knob, ' so that callers simply drop their 
cards into the basket, and pass on. Whether this 

157 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

reform is due to the gentleman or the lady I do not 
know, but the ist of January no longer demands 
the social observances of former years. 

In 1867 the sending of New Year cards, Christmas 
cards, and Easter cards was unknown in the States, 
but since that year the custom has grown up, and 
is now popular in America* 

The question of ** tipping" both in England and 
abroad, which has grown to such great dimensions 
as to threaten the curtailments of many social pleas- 
ures, and increase the cost of many resources of 
civilisation, is too large to discuss in a book of 
reminiscences merely. I can only put on record the 
fact which is within my own experience, that the 
**tips" given very readily a few years ago for 
real services rendered at hotels, restaurants, railway 
stations, and on board steamers have now become 
a tax. Domestics, and upper servants, porters, 
waiters, and stewards make impertinent remarks, if 
the gratuity tendered does not come up to the in- 
flated notion they possess of what a "tip" should 
be. Americans themselves, by ostentatious gifts to 
the servants and employes of their friends, are much 
to blame for the state of affairs in question. Those 
merely passing through the country can make one 
tip go a long way. They might reconsider their 
liberality if they were residents or employers. 



158 



CHAPTER XI 

The Academy — Scheme of Academy Crowns — London Forty Years ago 
— Footsteps of the Martyrs — Middle Row disappears — Opening 
of the Viaduct — Alterations in Buildings and Streets — Railways — 
Baron Grant and Leicester Square — ^Athletics — English the better 
Oarsmen — Field Sports — Mr Cooke of Leeds — The Isle of Wight 
— Steephill Castle. 

The association which I had with the late Dr Parker 
in certain newspaper ventures, excited my further in- 
terest in literary journals, which I was in the habit 
of reading from week to week ; and particularly in 
reviews of books. Therefore in 1894 I became 
proprietor of The Academy, a weekly journal devoted 
to book reviews, and the consideration of interesting 
literary questions, under the editorship of Mr C. Lewis 
Hind. There are points about the history of this 
journal which are of great interest. Mr John 
Murray founded the paper in 1869, and Dr Apple- 
ton became the first editor. Matthew Arnold and 
Arthur Hugh Clough were contributors to the first 
number which appeared. At Dr Appleton's death, 
in 1879, Mr C. E. Doble succeeded to the editorial 
chair, and two years later he was followed in that 
post by Mr J. S. Sutherland Cotton. Under his 
editorial care for sixteen years The Academy flourished, 
and became an organ of the highest modern scholar- 
ship. Amongst other contributors were Professor 

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With John Bull and Jonathan 

Huxley, William Morris, Professor Tyndall, Walter 
Pater, Mark Pattison, Robert Louis Stevenson, Mr 
Andrew Lang, and others. 

In order to increase the interest in this paper I 
offered in 1897, 1898, and 1899 prizes of icx> 
guineas and 50 guineas for the two best books of the 
season, the scheme being termed " Academy Crown- 
ing," and the readers of the journal voting the awards. 
Thus in 1897 Mr Stephen Phillips was awarded 
the 100 guineas for his volume of poems, includ- 
ing '* Marpessa" ; and Mr William Ernest Henley re- 
ceived 50 guineas for his "Essay on the Life, 
Genius, and Achievement of Burns." In 1898 Mr 
Sidney Lee received 50 guineas for his Life of 
Shakespeare ; Mr Maurice Hewlett 50 guineas 
for " The Forest Levers " ; and Mr Joseph Conrad 
a similar sum for '* Tales of Unrest." For 1899 
there were so many competitors selected that six 
sums of 25 guineas were awarded, and these 
were taken by Mr W. B. Yeats for "The Wind 
among the Reeds " ; to Miss Gwendoline Keats for 
"On Trial"; Mr Hilaire Belloc for " Danton : a 
Study"; Mr G. M. Trevelyan for "England in 
the Age of Wycliffe " ; Mrs Garnet for her transla- 
tion of the novels of Turgenieff; and Mr H. G. 
Graham for "The Social Life of Scotland in the 
Eighteenth Century." That this scheme was greatly 
appreciated, was evidenced by the letters received 
from the authors. 

In 1900, however, the scheme was abandoned for 
a system of wider interest, in which amateur authors 

x6o 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

were encouraged by liberal awards, to contribute 
essays, on general and miscellaneous subjects to the 
journal. 

Under Mr Hind's editorship the contributors in- 
cluded many of the best -known names in every 
department of English literature. This was note- 
worthy and interesting work. 

In 1903, becoming the purchaser of the Times' 
publication Literature^ I incorporated that journal 
with The Academy, but, in February 1905, I sold 
the copyrights to Sir George Newnes, under whose 
direction the title " Literature " has been dropped, 
and the original name of ** Academy" alone pre- 
served. 

During my proprietorship there was only one 
change in the editorial department, Mr Hind 
being succeeded after seven years by Mr W. 
Teignmouth Shore, who conductea the paper until 
the final transfer was made. 

The present owner has, of course, created a new 
staff for the conduct of the journal. 

When I came to London in 1867 the Holborn 
Viaduct, on which is my present business establish- 
ment, was not constructed. 

In the centre of High Holborn there was still 
standing Middle Row, comprised of a number of 
almost disreputable houses and shops, greatly to 
the hindrance of locomotion — a blot upon the 
highway, bearing strong proof of the folly of that 
authority which suffered so strange a blot to exist 
where the city authority exercised no jurisdiction. 
L 161 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

The Middle Row was removed, and the Viaduct 
was opened on 6th November 1 869, and on that occa- 
sion my ambition to distinguish myself was so great 
that I stood against the barricade at the Hoi born 
side for a long time, awaiting the lowering of the 
bars, that I might be one of the first to walk over 
the new Viaduct upon the day of opening. Not 
satisfied with that achievement, I also mounted an 
omnibus which crossed, and sat beside the driver, 
to whom I suggested that he should get himself 
photographed sitting upon the bus, and sell the 
pictures to such of his passengers as shared the 
front seat with him, as a souvenir of the occurrence, 
and this he told me on subsequent occasions had 
turned out a profitable venture to him. The official 
portion of the ceremony was performed by H.R,H. 
the Prince of Wales 

The Queen, in 1873, unveiled the equestrian statue 
of the late Prince Consort which now stands upon 
the west end of the Viaduct. 

Many great improvements have also been made 
in this neighbourhood, forming portions of the great 
scheme for remodelling the whole of the metropolis. 
Blackfriars Bridge was in course of construction in 
1867, and so also was the Thames Embankment. 
The Bridge was opened in November 1869, and the 
northern portion of the Embankment in July 1870. 

In the matter of street buildings which have been 
improved, I remember how the Holborn Casino was 
changed into the Holborn Restaurant, and the old 
supper - rooms, and dancing-hall became a famous 

162 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

dining-place and hostelty. The Ai^le Rooms, in 
the neighbourhood of Piccadilly Circus, have disap- 
peared, and also the Cremome Gardens at Chelsea. 

Shaftesbury Avenue has been wholly constructed 
in my time, all the improvements of Piccadilly Circus 
carried out; and the thoroughfare widened and im- 
proved at Hyde Park Corner, where for so many 
years the old Duke of Welling^ton sat his horse on 
the top of an arch. 

The sweeping changes now going on in the con- 
struction of the new road from Holborn through 
Kingsway and Aldwych to the Strand mark the 
era of ifar-reaching improvements, which will be 
carried out in due course when this one is completed. 

The Metropolitan Railway Underground System 
has been fully organised, and one of the attractive 
sights to American visitors has been a journey on 
the Inner Circle. 

One visitor said Americans ''will not des^nd to 
a train ; we prefer to ascend- — ^hence our elevated 
railway." All the same, in 1905, New York has a 
subway tube service twelve miles in lengfth. 

Cleopatra's Needle I saw set up on the Embank- 
ment, after the adventurous voyage, so fatal to a 
number of English sailors, through the Bay of 
Biscay. This is a noble monument, a gift to the 
nation realised by the generosity of Sir Erasmus 
Wilson. 

Leicester Square in 1867 was nothing better than 
a receptacle for rubbish, and within a miserable iron 
fence, enclosing an open space, the dilapidated 

163 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

equestrian statue of George I. was the butt for all 
the practical jokes of fast youths. 

Mr Albert Grant saw his opportunity for doing a 
good deed, and to him the metropolis is indebted for 
possessing at the present day, one of the prettiest 
open spaces in London. He bought up the interests 
of all the owners, laid out the space as garden 
ground, with winding paths, flowers, and shrubs, and 
adorned the whole with the figure of Shakespeare, sur- 
rounded with the busts of the eminent men who, at 
various periods, resided in the square, or the immedi- 
ate neighbourhood. I remember well the day ap- 
pointed for the formal opening. This was to have 
been the gracious work of the Prince of Wales, now 
King Edward ; but Mr Grant, who at the time had 
bought a title of ** Baron," had the misfortune to oc- 
cupy a considerable amount of space in the news- 
papers owing to his connection with the Emma 
Mine, — the Califomian Eldorado as many hoped, 
and the public favour was withdrawn from him : 
officials and distinguished persons in art, literature, 
and politics, were absent, and the occasion was with- 
out glory. Notwithstanding the gift of the square, 
the public of London turned their backs upon the 
Baron. 

In the world of athletics, the first international 
event I witnessed was the boat race, between the 
students of Harvard and Oxford, from Putney to 
Mortlake, upon the Thames, which took place in 
1869, and resulted in the defeat of Harvard. I saw 
the race from the river-bank near Hammersmith. 

164 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

For about half the race Harvard led, and people 
shouted : ** They will win " ; but as they passed where 
I stood the shout was changed to : " They are pumped." 
This was the first occasion I ever heard that word 
applied to the state of collapse into which the 
American champions had fallen. 

Since that time I have witnessed many international 
contests of every kind between the universities, in 
the course of which the Americans have occasionally 
come off triumphant. In rowing, however, the point 
is generally conceded that the English crews are 
decidedly the better oarsmen. 

When I was a boy, and living in the State of 
Mississippi, I was, as all American lads, very fond 
of horse riding and shooting, and had many oppor- 
tunities of indulging the taste : and, being much about 
fields and woods, I was regarded as by no means an 
indifferent shot for a youngster. But for many years 
before coming to England, these exercises had been 
almost entirely abandoned. In the year 1890, how- 
ever, I found an agreeable opportunity for testing 
my skill in both arts — riding and shooting. This 
came to me through making the acquaintance of Mr 
Alf Cooke of Leeds, who was the head of the largest 
printing works in Yorkshire, and who rented from 
the Earl of Londesborough a shooting of 1 500 acres 
of land at Scoreby, near York, some distance from 
his own residence, Weetwood Hall, near Leeds. Mr 
Cooke was a man who had enjoyed a remarkably 
successful career, and was wholly a self-made man, 
and while a great worker at his business found 

165 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

opportunity to set aside certain days of the week 
during the shooting season to indulge in field sports 
in the society of invited friends, and share his spare 
time with them. On my first visit I was rather 
reluctant to join the party with guns — all practised 
shots — until I had had the opportunity of testing my 
latent powers. This opportunity was given me, and 
I quickly discovered that what I learned as a boy 
was not altogether lost, and though by no means a 
crack shot, I was able to acquit myself fairly well. 
For nearly ten years in succession, up to the period 
of his death, I uninterruptedly enjoyed a visit to Mr 
Cooke's place every shooting season for sport 
amongst the partridges and pheasants. I will own, 
however, to a few lessons at the Shooting School at 
Willesden. 

My American friends will, I am sure, be glad 
to read further details of the sport I had, because 
the American method is of an entirely different 
character. 

I generally travelled with my host from London 
on the Friday night, and we spent Saturday in the 
fields shooting. During my repeated visits we 
became fast and intimate friends, and I had the 
greatest appreciation of his generous hospitality. 
The shooting parties were composed of noteworthy 
and stalwart Yorkshiremen, who greatly enjoyed 
days spent in the coverts, or on the moors. The first 
party in which I was included numbered eight guns, 
and I was in doubt, considering the character of the 
fields over which we were to shoot, whether I could 

x66 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

keep up with the rest. The ploughed land and the 
beetroot and potato vines made walking very heavy, 
and the soil clung in heavy masses to one's boots ; 
but I am glad to say that, although considerably 
fatigued by the luncheon hour, I was quite keen to 
resume the shooting, and continued in my place until 
the close of the day's programme. Notwithstanding 
the weather, on every occasion when I joined a 
shooting party I was able to hold my own to the 
finish. 

Sportsmen's "kit," or outfit, deserves a word or 
two. The Englishman, while certainly approving 
the newest and smartest of morning clothes and 
evening dress of all descriptions, has a great contempt 
for a new shooting or riding costume, a new gun- 
case, saddle, or boots. Some method of introducing 
a touch of antiquity into these essentials has been 
discovered, and with best results, as one's "outing" 
clothing must wear out in time. However, the tailor, 
gunsmith, and saddler must have proved equal to 
the occasion, for one rarely meets the "spick-and- 
span " costume which figures in illustrations in books 
and newspapers. 

The same conditions apply to golf and motoring 
outfits. The English tourist suit, of the large-check 
pattern, with breeches and long stockings, familiar 
to readers of Punch, and caricatured in American 
illustrated journals, is as rarely seen nowadays as 
the " old times " enormous diamond pin ostentatiously 
displayed in the shirt front of the supposed "rich 
American. " 

167 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

The plan pursued on these shooting expeditions 
was the one common to all throughout England for 
both partridge and pheasant shooting. All dogs 
are kept to the rear, and only come to the front to 
find the fallen bird In pheasant shooting the guns 
are stationed at different points, and beaters are sent 
out to drive the birds forward. In every covert 
shooting there is one position which is called "the 
hot comer," near which, after the woods have been 
thoroughly beaten, the guns take up positions in the 
open. I have frequently seen men who could drop 
two birds at a time, with right and left hand shots. 
Sport such as this cannot fail to be enjoyed 
thoroughly. 

In partridge shooting the fields are "walked up,'* 
a line is formed by the sportsmen, and a gamekeeper 
at right and left. At a signal given all steadily move 
forward, separated by forty to fifty feet. The birds, in 
coveys of ten to twenty, rise on hearing the footsteps. 
They may rise from any point, and those guns get 
the chance that are in range; but it is not unusual 
for a very keen sportsman to "wipe the eye" of the 
"next in line" comrade, and drop the bird seen at 
longer range — on the outside line, next the head 
gamekeeper. 

Lunch wa^ usually taken in the gamekeeper's 
cottage ; and if the shooting areas were far apart 
Mr Cooke always arranged for a brake to convey 
the party from one portion of the estate to another. 

In the United States the system of shooting quail, 
partridges, prairie chickens and the like, is to " shoot 

1 68 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

over dogs." Parties divide up, arranging the area 
each will work. More often men go out singly with 
a dog, letting a boy, or g^uide follow, to carry game. 
"Pointers and setters" are well trained in America. 
The eastern and middle States are now too densely 
populated and built over to encourage sportsmen, 
one must go to the Southern States, the Far 
West, or the wild Adirondack region of New York 
State for important game of any kind. Shooting 
and fishing clubs of large membership flourish in 
all favourable localities. Shooting, however, as a 
popular pastime has not the same attraction in the 
United States for gentlemen, which prevails in 
England. 

In 1900— on the last occasion of my visit to 
Yorkshire — Mr Cooke was in failing health, and rode 
with the shooting party on a well-trained pony, which 
allowed him to shoot from the saddle ; but his friends 
were saddened to see the change which had taken 
place in their host. He died in 1901, after a long 
and painful illness. 

Mr Cooke was a remarkable man. He was one 
of three boys bom in Leeds of humble parentage — all 
of whom achieved wealth by their own industry, and 
attained good positions. I refer to the late Colonel 
North, and Mr Sampson Fox. Mr Cooke became 
Mayor of Leeds, and at the time of his death was 
an alderman, and chairman of the great waterworks 
committee, and other public trusts of Leeds. 

He was a very witty man in conversation, and had 
the activity and buoyancy of a boy up to the period 

169 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

of his last illness, and was greeted respectfully by 
every class of people with whom he came in contact. 

I attended his funeral in the churchyard of St 
Chad's, Headingley, Leeds. The churchyard was 
crowded with people, all anxious to show their 
esteem and regard for the deceased. 

I have often been asked why it is that in 
London, where there are so many American visitors, 
there should not be an American newspaper which 
would give in detail, questions and occurrences 
specially affecting American people. Several ex- 
periments have been made in this direction, and not- 
ably The New York Herald^ which gave to Americans 
and Britons alike a New York risum^ every morning 
for something like a year. This proved to be an 
entire failure as to financial results, and was with- 
drawn. 

Several Anglo-American weekly papers have at- 
tempted to g^t hold of the reading public in this 
country, but, with the exception of The American 
Register y without great success. In Paris, how- 
ever, The New York Herald publishes a Paris 
edition, which has now attained the position of a 
fine property ; and is the only instance on record 
where an American daily paper has prospered and 
rewarded the projectors. Americans are of opinion 
that all really important events are covered by the 
news given by the London daily papers, and there 
are also stock quotations and money market details 
which are ample for all necessary purposes. 

I have made very few journeys in England in 

170 



♦ . % 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

pursuit of business — ^such travelling as I have enjoyed 
having been exclusively for pleasure and sight-seeing, 
though in the course of my thirty-eight years' re- 
sidence I have probably visited every place of note 
or importance. Nearly all our summer holidays 
have been spent in the Isle of Wight, which I was 
first induced to visit in consequence of a call made 
upon me by the editor of an Isle of Wight newspaper, 
who laid before me an illustrated edition of his paper 
containing views of the sea-front at Ventnor, and 
of the Downs behind. His eloquent descriptions of 
the delights of the fragrant island were not to be 
resisted, and I decided to pay a visit, to see for 
myself whether the praise bestowed on the island 
was just, or exaggerated. In May 1873 the visit 
was made, and I found that every expectation which 
had been made as to climate, scenery, and general 
delight with the place, was more than realised ; and 
though we once spent a summer in Scotland, and 
other holidays at Eastbourne, Folkestone, Lowestoft, 
and Brighton, we never found any district which 
so fully came up to our requirements and wishes 
as the Isle of Wight; and this has practically been 
our summer home for more than thirty years. We 
usually engaged a furnished house in Ventnor for 
several months at a time. Our favourite home for 
several summers was at Rock Cottage under the care 
of our good friends, Mr and Mrs Thomas Gibbs. 

In 1899 I rented from Lord Ampthill the property 
known as Norris Castle, in East Cowes, which over- 
looked the harbour and the Solent. We went into 

171 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

residence in August, and remained there until the 
end of November. 

During this year the Prince of Wales met with 
an accident to his leg, and spent nearly the whole 
summer on board the Osborne in Cowes harbour — the 
Queen being in residence at Osborne — and because of 
the presence of Her Majesty and the Prince, at the 
same time this was probably the most interesting 
period ever known in the Isle of Wight 

The following year I rented "Old Park," the well- 
known estate of the late William Spindler, Esq., 
which is situated between St Lawrence and Niton, 
a charming and delightful residence, with beautiful 
gardens and ornamental grounds overlooking the 
Channel, and about ten miles west of the Needles. 

In 1903 I bought Steephill Castle, an estate near 
Ventnor, having rented the Castle for three seasons 
previously ; finding the place exactly suited to our 
wishes I was glad of the opportunity to purchase. 

Years ago the late Queen Victoria and the Prince 
Consort were constant visitors to the grounds, and sat 
on the South Terrace, now the Victoria Terrace ; and 
here later came the unfortunate Empress of Austria 
to reside for a season. The Empress' room, on the 
ground floor, was her favourite apartment. 

On the estate is a cottage built by the Earl of Dysart 
when Governor of the Isle of Wight, 1792 ; and I have 
recently restored this interesting, ivy-embowered struc- 
ture. Steephill Castle itself was designed by Sanderson, 
who was the architect responsible for the restoration of 
the Henry VII. Chapel in Westminster Abbey. 

17a 












CHAPTER XII 



Walking and Driving Tours in England — ^Widows as Publicans — ^Young 
America in England and Young England in the United States — 
The Alien American — An " Unnaturalised Alien** — Firms of 
Americans in London — Continental Experiences — A Visit to 
Canada — Holland — Railway Travelling — Porters and Porters. 

In 1883 I enjoyed the privilege of a pedestrian 
tour in England with my old friend, Mr W. P. Ward 
of New York — one of the original partners of Demas 
Barnes & Co. We began by walking from London 
to Oxford, which occupied us four days. The follow- 
ing year I went upon a similar tour with Mr Ward 
in North Wales. Starting from Llandudno we 
ascended Snowdon, the highest mountain in Wales, 
and after descending, walked to Bangor. 

Previously, in 1872, I took a walking tour round 
the Isle of Wight with Mr F. C. Van Duzer, the 
son of my partner at that time. Starting from 
Ventnor, we made the tour of seventy miles in a 
little over four days. 

In 1888 I took my first driving tour, which was from 
London to Leamington, the route lying through 
Warwickshire, Worcestershire,' and Great Malvern ; 
returning through South Wales, Bristol, Gloucester, 
Somersetshire, Oxfordshire to London. The run 
was through a notable country, the associations 
historical, and the whole experience was most agree- 

»73 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

able. My son Nelson was with me on this journey. 
The vehicle we used was a light dogcart, and we 
generally covered from twenty to thirty miles a day. 
This was the first opportunity I had in England of 
renewing my Califomian experiences. 

In 1889 I took another route, this time driving 
through the Thames Valley to Oxford, and then 
through Berkshire and Herts back to London — 
making a tour of 200 miles. One amusement we 
had on this tour was the making a collection of the 
names of all the public-houses which we passed, the 
result being somewhat amusing in character. The 
number of ''White Harts," "Red Lions," "White 
Swans," " King s Heads," I dare not record. 

I have introduced the subject of these drives 
and walking tours, which were not eventful, that I 
might refer to the wonderful country roads and foot- 
ways which one traverses in almost every part of 
England, in marked contrast with the distincdy 
rough driving and walking, one must exf>erience in 
nearly all sections of the United States. The 
English roads everywhere are like an American 
trotting race-course, and at all seasons of the year. 
" The wayside inns " and hostelries of England have 
been described by many able writers, and I only 
wish to confirm all that has been said in their 
favour — a hearty welcome, simplicity, and comfort 
of the old-fashioned type. The traveller's reward 
is assured, whether calling at noonday, or for the 
dinner, bed, and breakfast. One is also glad to 
escape the " menu " card, and leave everything to 

174 









With John Bull and Jonathan 

the judgment of " mine host/* The tap -room and 
bar is a feature of all countryside inns, and one 
hears amusing if not instructive conversation. 

One extraordinary circumstance attracted my atten- 
tion in my walking and driving tours — namely, that 
at nearly every inn and public-house at which we 
stopped the house was conducted by a woman, and 
in many instances by a widow and her daughters. 
Upon questioning my friends after my return, the 
general opinion was expressed that the fact disclosed 
the fatal effect of a constant tippling on the part of 
the husband, the wife not readily falling into that 
bad habit 

I have often been asked as to the possibilities 
likely to follow when a young American comes 
to London with a view to acquiring a knowledge 
of business, and ultimately establishing himself in 
England. Long observation has led me to the con- 
clusion that an American's chances are by no means 
favourable in any line of business. American friends 
have frequently urged me to take their sons into my 
employ as clerks or travellers, and in no instance 
has the trial resulted in a satisfactory way. The 
whole conduct and habit of business in England, are 
entirely different from what is current in America. 
The currency differs, the methods of the people 
differ ; and the conduct of men is entirely dissimilar 
to what is observable in the United States. American 
youths are submissive enough, but greatly fail in the 
matter of reverence for their elders, and for those 
who are really set in authority. They have no in- 

»7S 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

tention to be discourteous or rude» in the slightest 
degree, yet they invariably seem to be regarded by 
Englishmen as too full of ''bounce.'* In my judg- 
ment, tact and good manners are good capital, and 
are as important as a good banking account 

These very differences apply with the same urgency 
against the prospect of a young Englishman succeed- 
ing in the United States. The Briton's dignity and 
manner are apt to suggest to an American employer 
that he has not got any *'go in him." To my mind, 
foreigners of all countries have an excellent chance 
of succeeding in America if they are quick to adapt 
themselves to the requirements of the country. 
Englishmen and foreigners generally will succeed 
in the United States as merchants, traders, farmers, 
and labourers. The climate and general air of 
freedom in the States seems to stimulate them to 
put forth their best energies. 

The present population of the United States is 
set down at 70,000,000, which includes 30,000,000 
born of almost every foreign country, and the major 
number have become naturalised American citizens 
— a process which is easily gone through — but in my 
opinion very few Americans setded in England ever 
become naturalised citizens. 

About fifteen years ago I was offered the honour 
of being elected a member of one of the City Com- 
panies of London, and when I received the papers 
relating to membership I discovered that I was not 
eligible unless I first became a naturalised citizen of 
Great Britain, and took the oath of allegiance. This, 

176 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

however, I was reluctant to do, and, therefore, my 
name was withdrawn. I am, therefore, in this curious 
position — I cannot vote for any Member of Parlia- 
ment, nor hold any public office other than in local 
parochial matters such as a School Board or a Board 
of Guardians of the district in which I reside — but I 
am not excused from paying in full all rates and 
taxes. My disqualification to vote for a parliamentary 
candidate is continually being thrust before me ; but 
rarely have I ever received one more absurdly igno- 
rant than the last, which came to hand under date 
19th August 1905, which reached me at Steephill 
Castle. The objection is taken by one whose 
name I mercifully conceal. There are two ob- 
jections, and the second is : " That you are an uh- 
naturalised alien ! " Even now some men insist, 
with Dogberry, to be written down "an ass." The 
non-naturalisation has, however, certain advantages, 
because I cannot be called upon to serve upon any 
juries other than a coroner's jury. I have been 
summoned on a great many juries, but have always 
been excused because I am an alien, and a man 
must, by law, be tried by a jury of his countrymen. 
But I have never encountered any difficulty in con- 
sequence of my non-naturalisation, and certainly my 
experience proves that equal justice in law is meted 
out to the native born, the naturalised, and non- 
naturalised alike. 

When I came over in 1867 there were not ex- 
ceeding a dozen firms of American origin, including 
the American banking houses. To-day thm-e are many 

M 177 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

hundreds engaged exclusively in American manu- 
factures and productions. The principal American 
banking houses to which visitors from across the 
Atlantic brought letters of credit to this country in 
1867 were Messrs Brown, Shipley & Co., Messrs 
Barings & Co., Messrs George Peabody & Co., 
Messrs Jay Cooke, M'CuUoch & Co. Messrs George 
Peabody have been succeeded by Messrs J. S. 
Morgan & Co. Mr George Peabody, besides being 
a banker, was also a well-known philanthropist. 
Many years before his death Mr Junius S. Morgan 
became his partner, and succeeded to the business. 

The second time I visited Paris was immediately 
after the fall of the Commune, when the Napoleonic 
dynasty had ended. Many of the chief buildings 
were in ruins, and I examined them with a consider- 
able amount of interest as relics of a fallen monarchy 
and the crime of an ignorant section of the people. 
In 1 87 1 the firm of Van Duzer & Richards established 
a branch office in Paris, and for two or three years 
succeeding I made monthly visits there in connection 
with the branch, and this continued until the dissolu- 
tion of our partnership. I also paid several visits to 
Hamburg, where a branch agency of Van Duzer 
existed, and travelled on business in Holland and 
Belgium ; and the only pleasure trip I took for several 
years^-other than visits to Paris — was one with Mrs 
Richards by steamer to Rotterdam, and through 
Holland up the Rhine on to Hamburg, returning by 
steamer direct to London Bridge. 

My impressions of what a foreign country was like 

17S 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

were realised on visiting Paris — ^and I have found this 
to be the case with nearly all Americans. I do not 
think they are prejudiced in England, for this is not 
a strange land, because they hear their own tongue ; 
but when they cross the Channel they hear for the 
first time a foreign tongue, and mark foreign customs, 
which are a great contrast to what they see or hear 
either in England or America. 

A short stay in Rotterdam taught me how unjust I 
had been in my estimate of the Dutch by my ac- 
quaiijLtance with a Dutchman who was employed in 
the same warehouse in New York in which I was 
first employed. He was thoroughly Dutch in all 
his ways, well educated, and could speak English, 
but was spoken of and looked upon by the American 
working staff as someone quite inferior because he 
came from Rotterdam. My knowledge of geography 
had failed to impress me with the importance of that 
seaport, but when I saw for myself the grand streets 
and stately public buildings, the busy quays and 
crowded warehouses, I felt inclined to write to my 
former comrade, and beg his pardon for having be- 
littled him as not having seen anything grand or 
important until he reached New York, the Empire 
City. 

My travelling in England has never been in any 
way extensive, though I have paid single or several 
visits to most of the cities and centres of industry in 
the United Kingdom. I consider that the con- 
veniences for travellers and the conveniences for 
travelling in England surpass those which we possess 

179 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

in the United States. The comfort found in first, 
second, and third class passenger carriages; the 
tidiness and smartness of railway stations ; the civilities 
of the officials ; the absence of all loungers and loafers 
at the stations — all these are far in advance of the 
experience obtained in the United States. English 
railway fares are reasonable, and having three classes 
of fares people can economise if they wish to do so 
and without loss of time. 

I am not prepared to support the opinion which I 
have frequently heard, that only fools ride first class, 
and that a third-class carriage is as comfortable as the 
first — the difference existing in one's imagination only. 
Personally, I consider a first-class carriage extremely 
comfortable and luxurious, and a third-class carriage 
I consider distinctly uncomfortable if the full com- 
plement of passengers is inside, which is fixed at 
ten ; while in the first class the maximum is six. The 
accommodation in third-class carriages has greatly 
improved during the past few years on some lines ; 
a few having been guilty of the extravagance of 
.providing cushioned sides and backs. Americans 
must have the credit of being the first to introduce 
into England the Pulman car, the dining-car, and a 
new heating system. But the new method of heating 
is not popular, passengers preferring the old-fashioned 
comfort of iron foot warmers, which are simply tubes 
of hot water. Sleeping-carriages have been adopted 
on the lines of railway to the north and west, of 
England, and on all lines where the journey occupies 
upwards of eight hours. This also is an American 

x8o 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

invention. Americans travelling in England often 
complain that they cannot get a drink of iced 
water in a Pulman carriage in England, and that 
newspapers and periodicals and pop - corn are 
not offered for sale during journeys. These, which 
the American considers essentials, can only be ob- 
tained at the stations. All Americans are favourably 
impressed with the excellent character of the refresh- 
ment-rooms on British railways, and the appearance 
of the railway stations, as compared with the very 
inferior character of what they see on American lines 
of railway, particularly in the matter of obtaining 
drinks, or quick lunches. The dining-car on the 
American railway has almost effected the abolition 
of the station restaurant or luncheon bar. There is 
a noticeable feature on English railways which always 
excites admiration, and that is the care and attention 
given to the little station gardens, which often display 
a high appreciation of horticulture. Another point 
which is very noticeable in England is that all railway 
officials in every department wear uniform, which is 
not the case in the United States. English railway 
porters are the most obliging creatures the world has 
ever produced, and for a small " tip " save the traveller 
from the burden and anxiety of having to look after 
his luggage. 

In contrast with this, I may mention what happened 
to me in the United States in 1902. I arrived at a 
station called Morristown, in St Lawrence County, 
New York, by a ferry-boat from Brockville, in Canada. 
The railway station was some forty yards from the 

x8z 



ith John Bull and Jonathan 

landing-stage, and I had seven pieces of luggage, all 
small, for convenience of handling. The whole seven 
could have been placed inside an American "Saratoga" 
trunk. When the boat reached the landing I turned 
to a '*boy" I thought was a porter, but who really 
was a boatman, and said to him : '^ I should like my 
things taken to the railway platform." His reply was : 
" I guess you will have to take them yourself, then." 
As the day was hot, I wondered whether I should 
be able to find someone to carry them for me. 
Going up to the Stationmaster, I told him what I 
wanted, and to my surprise he confirmed the boat- 
man's remark, that there was no one there to handle 
passengers' luggage. Next, I went to an express 
office in the station, and asked the clerk in charge 
if he could g^ve me any assistance, to which he 
replied : " Yes ; I will send a man for them if you 
will pay 25 cents a package." I expressed my readi- 
ness to do so, whereupon he shouted up to a lazy- 
looking fellow : " Bill, here's a man with seven grip 
sacks left on the boat landing, bring them here in a 
hurry." The result was quite satisfactory, and I had 
my luggage safely stowed on board my train for an 
expenditure of about 6s., for doing which any English 
railway porter would have accepted 6d. 

I must here refer to the occasion of my visit to 
Canada. It was to pay a flying visit to Senator 
George T. Fulford, residing at Brockville. Senator 
Fulford and family have spent a portion of each year 
in London since 1892, and my firm acts as his agents 
in a very important business. Our relations with 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

him and his charming family have grown into those 
of a warm personal character. I need not say how 
delighted I was to pay this visit and enjoy the splendid 
hospitality that was tendered to me. Fulford Place, 
built of granite in the style of a huge Italian Mansion, 
faces the St Lawrence River. I arrived on a perfect 
sunshiny day in October, and had the great pleasure 
of a cruise in my host's yacht up to Alexandra Bay 
and the Thousand Islands. Other excursions by 
land were taken. Every possible delight that kind- 
ness could suggest was secured to me, and the forty- 
eight hours at my disposal were too quickly spent. 

In America you do not always hear a " Thank you " 
even when tips are given. I have had to bribe 
porters with large fees, when I have asked them to 
do something out of their ordinary routine, and help 
me in or out of a train with my hand luggage. I 
should explain, however, that the average American 
traveller does not encumber himself with hand luggage 
of any kind : he '' checks " his luggage from one station 
to his destination, and can obtain the same upon 
arrival by giving up his duplicate check to an express 
man, who goes through the train before reaching any 
large town, and for is. per package will deliver your 
luggage in any part of the city or town to which 
you are going. 

To explain the American system of luggage check- 
ing, about which I am often asked, I append an exact 
reproduction of the official metal check which a 
passenger receives for each piece of luggage taken 
by all lines of the railways. The large check is 

' 183 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

affixed to the handle of the trunk or Ix^ by slipping 
the end of the leather strap through the loop. The 
duplicate is retained by the passen- 
ger until he claims his luggage at 
the terminus, or is surrendered to 
the Express Delivery Company, 
whose representative " boards the 
train " before reaching the terminus, 
and from each passenger takes in- 
structions for delivery to hotel, or 
residence, or for transfer to another 
railway, giving Express Company 
checks in exchange for the railway 
voucher. A charge of 25 cents to 
35 cents is made to deliver such 
pieces of luggage within city or town 
limit The baggage check illustrated 
is one used by the Boston and Albany 
and New York and New Haven Railway. This check 
ing system is more convenient and safe, both for pas- 
sengers and railway companies, than the pasted label 
method employed in 
England. Another 
advantage is that, if 
you do not wish to 
immediately claim 
your luggage at the 
terminus, no time is 
wasted in taking 
what you have to a cloak-room. The check en- 
sures the passenger's luggage being taken care of 
184 



Lcata Mftata A ScMtk OcMt Balhnir. 



PortMBouth Harbour to 

London Bridge 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

till called for and the "duplicate" produced. For 
the information of Americans who have not English 
railway experience I here add a reduced copy in 
fac-simile of the paste label as used in Great Britain 
on all lines of travel. 

Many Americans coming to this country express 
surprise that at railway stations passengers are con- 
tent to have their luggage simply labelled, and that 
being done, feel confident that their luggage will be 
properly carried and delivered up to the owner at the 
station where they will alight, the passenger holding 
no receipt or voucher of any kind. In practice, the 
loss of luggage is extremely rare in England, and 
the claiming of luggage by unauthorised persons is 
also a rare occurrence. Personally, I have never lost 
an article in this way, nor had anything miscarry, 
and I never failed to secure afterwards any article 
which had been unintentionally left on the platform, 
or an umbrella casually left in the train. 

The same degree of safety also attaches to articles 
left in London cabs or in theatres. Whether employees 
are more honest than in America I do not know, but 
the fact remains that articles left behind in vehicles 
and places of amusement are nearly always restored 
by application being made in the proper quarter. 

With regard to English hotels in town or country, 
Americans are always favourably impressed with the 
manner of their reception on arrival ; the attention 
which is paid to the pleasantness of the rooms ; the 
courtesy of the servants ; and the absence of the rush 
and indifferent methods at most of the American 

i«5 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

hotels. The English hotel proprietor, either in person 
or by proxy, makes a certainty that any guest arriving 
shall have every attention shown, a hearty welcome, 
and be made at home. Pains are taken also to 
identify a guest, so that if a friend calls they can 
recognise the person wanted without a number. 



iS6 



CHAPTER XIII 

Revisidng America — ^The Changes apparent^-In Ships crossing the 
Atlantic — Improved Roads— Sky-scrapers — ^Servants — Hours of 
Labour changed — Merchants seen by Everybody — Travelling 
Facilities — ^Tyranny of Hackmen — Charity Collections — Eating, 
Drinking, and Smoking — ^American Women — ^The Stage Yankee 
— Questions of Accent and Pronunciation. 

Between the years 1867 and 1905 I have crossed 
the Atlantic forty times. In a previous chapter I 
have described the characteristics of the Russia, one 
of the Cunard Line upon which I travelled when I 
first came to England* The great advance made in 
sea-going vessels is as remarkable as that of any 
other great improvement in travelling made upon 
land. This has not been a rapid development, nor 
has the saving in time which has been effected been 
as marked as the size and luxurious appointments of 
the vessels employed in the transatlantic service. 
Personally, I have always given the preference to 
the Cunard Company, and, with three exceptions 
only, have always travelled by that line. Upon two 
occasions I have gone by the White Star Line, and 
once by the old National Line, on the s.s. Spain. 
Between the Russia of 1867 and the Campania of 
1902 the improvements referred to are really won- 
derful, including the introduction of the Marconi 
apparatus on these ships; and the publication of a 
daily paper on board, containing the latest news, 

187 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

appears to crown all that can be desired on these 
fine vessels. 

I have already referred to the plain and substantial 
food supplied on the earlier vessels, but now every 
delicacy which is in season will be found, with ample 
supply of fruit for dessert. The wines are of every 
brand known on the market The third-class menu 
is also generous in the extreme. 

I had again brought to my notice the unique 
opportunity the Atlantic voyage offers for character 
study. Whether the ship's company may number 
ICO or 500, there will never fail to appear "the 
life of the ship," in the person of some very energetic, 
good-looking young lady, wearing a jaunty hat, white 
shirt waist and navy-blue short skirt, and tan boots, 
ready for a deck promenade in all weathers. She will 
explore the engine-room, or sit as near the ship's 
bows as it is possible to get; take part in all deck 
games ; oblige with a song in the music-room ; pass 
the plate for collection on the evening of the inevitable 
" Ship Concert " ; and generally interest herself in all 
that is going on. This performance soon attracts 
the male counterparts of this young lady, to the extent 
of three or four, who roam the ship in her glad 
company, each endeavouring to rivsd the other in 
their devotion. Then there is always the passenger 
who crosses every year ; has " the best room in the 
ship ; " best seat at the table ; best attendance from 
the stewards ; special dishes served to his luncheon 
or dinner, and in a quiet way will tell you that he is 
allowed by the owners and captain to *' run " the ship. 

188 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

He IS seemingly oblivious to the fact that there 
are at least a dozen *' best rooms," all regelated by 
the printed rates " according to accommodation," open 
to first come, first served ; that seats at table are 
allotted by the saloon steward in a fair manner, 
and usually according to priority of booking and 
the class of room occupied. " Attendance " is a matter 
understood by everyone. 

And then there is the very select family party, with 
deck-chairs grouped together in a sheltered position, 
conscious of their reserved superiority. Speaking to 
a juvenile member of one of these groups, a bright 
little girl, I ventured to ask her name. She said : 

" My name is . Mamma says we are the nicest 

people on the ship." 

The shorter voyages of the present day curtail to 
a large extent the acquaintance and good fellowship 
among passengers that used to occur in the old days. 
People, however, become friendly, and pass the time 
most agreeably. The individual, however, is respon- 
sible as to whether he will enjoy himself, or be bored 
to death, finding fault, and wishing himself on land. 

One of the latest advantages conferred by the 
Marconi wireless messages is to hold conversation 
with other vessels at sea. These may be more than 
ICO miles apart, and out of sight, yet messages are 
exchanged, frequently between three vessels at a time 
during a space of twelve hours ; and messages from 
land to land are daily received. 

While changes which I have described have been 
going on in London, my surprise was very great to 

189 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

notice the changes which had been effected in the 
United States in 1902. These were more especially 
noticeable in New York. When I first left the 
States the only communication between up-town 
and down-town was, by horse railways and omnibuses 
Now there are no longer any horse omnibuses or 
horse cars, the latter having been superseded by 
electric tramways, and the former by what is known as 
" Elevated railways," and Tube subway service. The 
paving of the streets has also been vastly improved, 
and there is now scarcely one thoroughfare in New 
York where formerly the pavement consisted of 
cobble-stones, or square blocks of stone, which has 
not been now relaid on the Macadam system. Thus 
the old method of constructing roads without a bed, 
and adjusting with balancing cement — which resulted 
in streets where the traffic was enormous becoming 
as uneven as the waves of the sea — ^has now been 
superseded by a modem method, where the asphalted 
surface presents a perfectly level area on which to 
travel. By the new method there has been overcome 
the effect of the winter frost, which usually penetrated 
to a depth of a foot or 18 inches, and brought 
about a very irregular surface ; but now, by digging 
down and making a bed, the frost produces no effect 
upon a road properly constructed on the European 
plan. 

The improvements in public buildings have been 
very great ; while merchants, warehouses, and private 
dwellings show an equally great advance. The 
great '' sky-scrapers " — one quite new one, the 

190 



HAIIOKAL BUm OF HOBCil AHKIICA, HEW I 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

" Times Building," runs up to a height of 362 feet 
above the pavement, with sixty feet foundation, and 
the whole structure contains thirty-one floors — are 
served by electric express lifts, which go through 
to certain floors without stopping. On Manhattan 
Island "sky-scrapers" were almost necessary on 
account of the limited area for building ground and 
the demand for business premises and offices, so 
that no course was possible to meet commercial 
requirements, unless every inch of ground was occu- 
pied to the full limit of safety, as to the height of 
buildings. 

The hotel accommodation had grown as rapidly 
as in London, and was as grready improved. As 
in London, so also in New York, vast numbers 
of well-to-do families, who would prefer a private 
residence, reside in hotels, owing to the great servant 
difficulty. Residential flats or "Apartment Houses" 
(as they are preferably called in New York) have 
become the residences of thousands who formerly 
would rent a house. Probably this mode of house- 
keeping is adopted to a greater extent in the United 
States than in London. Living in hotels to avoid 
the "servants" problem is also on the increase in 
New York. Good domestic servants in the United 
States are hard to obtain, and ask extravagant 
wages. So great is the demand for them that per- 
sons engage without a reference or asking for a 
character, and servants leave without asking for a 
character, and without giving notice. The monthly 
wages in 1902 for cooks in a private family would 

191 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

average $40 (;^8); for housomaids, $20 (;^4); and 
for parlour - maids, $25 (;^5). Men - servants 
obtained the following wages : — butlers $50, (j^io) ; 
coachmen, $40 (;^8); and footmen, $25 (£5)- All 
these classes of servants are foreigners, and as a 
rule are badly trained, and come out to America 
without experience — their one qualification being 
usually, that they are strong and healthy. They 
quickly learn the routine of domestic service. An 
American-born woman of the white race is rarely 
found acting as a servant in any house. I have 
heard an American lady say that she had enjoyed 
in England nothing so much as the civility of ser- 
vants, whether in hotels or private houses. *' Why," 
said she, " they say ' Thank you ' when you have not 
given them anything." 

I found that the hours of work in merchants' ware- 
houses and professional offices had been reduced in 
number. As a boy, I was expected to be at work 
by 7.30 A.M., and left at 6 p.m. Now the hours 
are from 8.30 or 9 in the morning to 5 in the 
afternoon. But there still remains an atmosphere 
of bustle and hustle about a place of business, as if 
you were expected to move quickly and take up the 
least possible time over any particular duty. 

The London practice of making appointments 
with persons whom you wish to see or visit is 
rarely adopted in American cities. This would 
result in an enormous waste of time in the States. 
Every man of business in New York can be found 
at his place during office hours, and instead of us- 

193 



# « 



« 
I 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

ing a private room the members of the firm sit 
where they can be seen by everyone entering 
the premises, and persons will approach the one 
wanted without giving a thought as to causing any 
interruption : he walks right up, in spite of others 
persons being before him. Personally, I condemn 
this practice altogether, and instead of showing a 
democratic and independent feeling in doing so, 
exactly the reverse is exhibited ; but when I have 
called attention to the matter, the only answer I have 
received has been : " Well, this is not London — this 
is New York." But I do not wish to be understood 
as saying that no opportunity is given for private 
conversation with the head of the firm either on 
commercial or private affairs. The ordinary caller, 
I mean, will not hesitate to press in if he can see 
the man he is in search of ; will approach him without 
any hesitation whatever ; and can only be prevented 
by some special regulation. . But, of course, there 
are establishments where private offices do exist, 
and where the principal is more secluded ; and the 
value of the private room is gradually being recog- 
nised as giving better facilities for business in many 
respects. 

There is no improvement, however, in the casual 
and off-hand manners of railway servants or hotel 
attendants ; and, to do them justice, I do not think 
they intend to be rude— only they have not learned 
the true way of politeness. 

The parks in New York I found to have been 
gready improved, and now Central Park and River- 
N 193 



% 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

side Drive (which at my last visit were only in a 
partial state of completion) have developed in such 
a way as to bear comparison with the parks and 
drives possessed by the finest cities in the world. 

The pedestrian traffic is now facilitated by the 
Elevated Railway, the Tube, and the Brooklyn Bridge ; 
by street cars and ferries, crossing north and east, 
and rivers, to Staten Island Ferry. 

Another great improvement which I noticed was 
in the character of the wharves and landing-stages 
used by the great steamship companies* These are 
all built of wood resting on piles driven into the 
bed of the river ; and as the tide rises and falls the 
largest vessels go alongside, and load or unload, not- 
withstanding there is a fall of about six feet at every 
turn of the tide. The hours of departure for vessels 
are reg^ated by the depth of water at Sandy Hook 
Bar at the entrance to the harbour, and not by the 
state of the water in the north and east rivers. 

The Custom House regulations have only been 
slighdy improved, and while a Customs' examination 
is made of passengers' luggage from foreign ports 
a reasonable amount of property is allowed to enter 
duty free. Notwithstanding this remission, strangers 
and Americans greatly complain of the method of 
examining trunks, after the required declaration has 
been made by every traveller as to the number of 
packages he has, and the value of their contents, 
and that he does not carry anything for purposes 
of trade, but only for gifts to relatives and friends. 
This statement has to be made before leaving the 

194 




ns for 

leatres 
an in- 

in v.-r*-c ^ * - ficence 

ted in 
irts of 
)ndon ; 
upon 
No 
is any 
h the 
Ladies 
gentle- 
tbeir 
head- 
great 
ess, as 
.0 the 
of the 
would 
)twith- 
ur -r '- endent 

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Kc -' • - _ i must 

jv -^ •^-- :-• _ _ . there 

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ij; ' *^ -•- - .-^ ' to the 

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V /^ -r.^ _ 'uce to 

it 



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. "1 









With John Bull and Jonathan 

ship in the presence of Custom House officers, who 
board the vessel off the quarantine point The 
examination of the baggage does not commence until 
every piece has been placed on the landing-stage, 
in sections marked by letters of the alphabet cor- 
responding to the first letter of the owner's surname. 
When the luggage has been passed, and the duties 
leviable paid, you are at liberty to remove your 
property, and forward by express delivery, at i s. each 
package ; or you may charter a private conveyance, 
for which you have to pay not less than 5 dollars 
nor more than 10 dollars to any spot within the limits 
of the city. The majority of people adopt the ex- 
press system of despatching their luggage, 2Lnd then 
proceed to their homes or hotels by the Elevated 
Railway, rather than submit to the exorbitant charges 
of hackmen, and travel by a private vehicle. There 
is no such system in New York analogous to that 
which exists in London with regard to articles left 
in public vehicles, and there is very little probability 
of anything left behind in a public vehicle ever being 
restored. No one is ever so foolish as to put an 
umbrella or walking-stick under a bundle of rugs, and 
send the whole by public express, as there could 
be no reasonable hope of their being delivered in 
the same condition. 

On attending a church service on Easter Sunday 
1890 I was much impressed with the contrast 
between a similar service in England in a neigh- 
bourhood of similar character. The pews of a 
New York church are upholstered in a luxurious 

195 



I 

1 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

manner, costly carpets cover the floors of pews and 
aisles, the pulpit stairs and platform, and give the 
whole the aj^pearance of a grand drawing-room 
arranged for a concert, or an entertainment of some 
kind The school-rooms and lecture-room attached 
to the churches are also beautifully carpeted and 
decorated, and furnished with comfortable chairs. 
On that Easter Sunday I visited two of the fashion- 
able churches in Fifth Avenue, New York, and was 
told by friends who were well informed that the 
floral display on the altars and in other portions of 
the church represented an ouday of 5000 dollars 
(j^iooo). Before quarrelling with such a lavish dis- 
play, the question should be asked as to what sum the 
Easter offerings reached. I asked this question, and 
was told that in each of the churches I visited they 
would be not less than 10,000 dollars (;^200o). These 
siuns were collected on the plates which were handed 
round A millionaire, who was a churchwarden, 
handed the plate round to the pew in which I sat, 
and so g^eat was the accumulation of bank-notes 
that he had to keep one hand upon the top of 
the pile to prevent them from being blown away. 
Among the contributions I noticed 5 -dollar and i co- 
dollar notes. These large sums so collected were at 
the disposal of the Rector or Vicar for charitable 
purposes, and he acted as almoner for his congrega- 
tion. There was no interference with his discretion 
as to the bestowal or refusal of alms to anyone, and 
all requests for help were forwarded to the senior 
clergyman in charge, he imdertaking the serious 

196 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

responsibility of inquiring into all applications for 
help which were received. 

The demands made by the public for Theatres 
and Music halls, I found, had been met by an in- 
creased supply, and on a similar scale of magnificence 
to those which were more recently constructed in 
London. • The prices of admission to all parts of 
New York theatres are much lower than in London ; 
and no rule prevails as to dress, excepting upon 
occasions when Grand Opera is presented. No 
tips are expected by the attendants, nor is any 
charge made for programmes. Visitors reach the 
theatres by tramcars or the railway service. Ladies 
wear their hats as a matter of course, and gentle- 
men go direct from business, and wearing their 
office dress. Ladies do not remove their head- 
gear, wherever they may be sitting; but great 
numbers of men do attend 'in evening dress, as 
in London. There is no line drawn as to the 
wearing of dress in any particular portion of the 
theatre, and to exclude a soldier in uniform would 
be regarded as an outrage; but the negro, notwith- 
standing that he is now a free and independent 
citizen, would not be admitted into the stalls or 
dress circles of a theatre in North or South : he must 
get his theatrical experience from the gallery, there 
not being any pit in an American theatre. The 
advantage of the democratic method of attending 
theatres in the United States is largely to the 
advantage of the proprietors of theatres, and the 
more moderate charges which are made conduce to 

197 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

the same end. A man and his wife may go to a 
theatre and occupy stalls there at a cost, including 
conveyance to and from, of not more than 6s. each. 
At some of the theatres, by signifying your wish 
at the box office, you will obtain tickets at a charge 
which will include you being sent for, and taken 
home, after the performance in a cab. 

London Hansom cabs were in use in New York 
to a considerable extent in 1902 ; the minimum fare 
for any distance was i dollar. One can scarcely take 
a cab to pay a visit or make a business call under 
an ouday of 3 dollars or 4 dollars ; hence com- 
paratively few can enjoy the luxury of a cab where 
fares are regarded somewhat in the light of extor- 
tion. If measured distances and reasonable fares 
were charged, the patronage extended to them would 
be as extensive as in London. 

The habit of taking supper after leaving the theatre 
prevails in New York as in London, and practically 
the same menu is met with in both cities. Of course, 
in New York the oyster is the ever-prevailing dish, 
and this is the most popular item at all restaurants 
and refreshment bars. A man will order six or a 
dozen oysters without any further addition to his meal. 
The oyster in London is not cooked, as in the 
States. There is no item of food which can be cooked 
in so many different ways. In England they only eat 
the oyster raw ; while in the States the oyster is 
roasted in the shell, broiled, fried, or stewed. The 
best oysters can be had from a halfpenny to a penny 
each, but, of course, in a fashionable restaurant or 

198 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

hotel, a considerable addition is made for cooking and 
serving. 

I observed no difference in the habit of bar- 
drinking, nor in that of drinking ''between drinks" 
instead of with meals. Mint juleps, cocktails, plain 
whisky, and brandy taken almost neat, are the 
popular beverages, and in many instances they are 
taken much too frequently. The wine most favoured 
at dinner is champagne, and the United States are 
said to be the largest buyers in the world ; and they 
are also the largest buyers of Havana cigars, smoking 
tobacco which they produce themselves. There is 
also an important industry carried on in the manu- 
facture of " domestic cigars," which possess a tobacco- 
leaf cover, and inside prepared cabbage leaves. 
There is an important tobacco and cigar industry 
carried on at Key West. When I was a boy a 
cigar costing lo cents (5d.) was considered an ex- 
travagance even for a man of good position to smoke ; 
but now the same class buy cigars which cost 40 cents 
(is. 8d.) and 50 cents (2s. id.). 

Americans are frequently described, and rightly so, 
as extravagant in the matter of personal indulgence. 
On the other hand, many are careful and prudent, and 
manage their affairs with commendable prudence, like 
many men in every part of the globe. In London 
you frequently hear, when a great charity is in need 
of exceptional assistance, or a sale is about to take 
place of some famous painting or rare article of value : 
" Please introduce me to some rich American." Now, 
Americans are not richer than, nor nearly so rich as, a 

199 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

wealthy man in England, nor are they so numerous. 
If there is any difference between the two classes, the 
more prudent man is the Englishman, because, as a 
rule, he limits his expenditure to his means ; while an 
American does not hesitate to spend his capital in 
order to carry out his own wishes as to mode of 
living, or to accomplish what he and his family may 
desire to carry out. In England men are spoken of 
as having so much per annum ; in America they are 
spoken of as being worth so many millions of dollars, 
and very rarely indeed is a man spoken of by his 
income. An American will spend the whole of his 
income without any hesitation if, for social or other 
reasons, his purpose would be served. An English- 
man, as a rule, with those with whom he is intimate, 
will plainly make known his circumstances in a 
perfectly natural and honest way. •* Oh ! " he will say, 
" I have only got ;^500 a year." But wild horses would 
not drag out of an American any admission of that 
character. He would never be identified with a fixed 
income until he was connected with a post the 
emolument of which was known. The Englishman 
by his openness gains the greater credit, and he is 
not led into expenses which he cannot afford, and he 
is not asked to participate in entertainments and 
functions, which are beyond his means. If urged to 
do so, he will frankly remind you of the state of his 
finances. 

American women are more indulged than English 
women, because they eclipse English women in their 
ability to inspire their husbands; and they are also 



200 



•IT? 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

more extravagant in their personal expenditure, but 
in this particular they are encouraged by their 
husbands. Many Americans who are quite indifferent 
as to their own indulgence in the matter of dress, 
amusements, or carriages will cheerfully support the 
fancies and foibles of the female members of their 
families. In all matters of pleasure-making, amuse- 
ments, and travelling the American woman sets the 
pace. 

The passion for travel between the two countries 
during the last twenty-five years has become so great 
that the better class of Americans have all paid visits 
to England, and no one in society would admit 
that a visit was the first, being paid to England. 
Notwithstanding the English familiarity now with 
the genuine American, his appearance, speech, and 
manners, he is still represented upon the stage as 
wearing short trousers, a '* goatee" beard, long hair, 
and a curled-up slouch hat ; and he must begin nearly 
every sentence with the words : " Say, stranger ! " 

As an illustration, the following will give an idea of 
what such a Yankee is expected to say on his opening 
a conversation with a Briton : — ** Say, stranger ! have 
you seen a yaller dog, with a tail an inch, an inch and 
a half, or two inches long, about a mile, a mile and a 
half, or two miles off?" Needless to say, an 
American is able to conduct a conversation, even 
with an unknown person, without beginning with : 
"Say, stranger!" 

The nearest approach to a real American character 
in a play that I have seen produced in London was 

20 1 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

called "The Colonel," and the title r6le was played 
by Charles Coghlan. He had the correct American 
accent without exaggeration. In this connection 
I may say that Mr Buckstone, when playing the 
part of Asa Trenchard in " Our American Cousin " 
— a character created by Joseph Jefferson — ^accent- 
uated his words so that it was in no way 
creditable to the fine acting of that distinguished 
actor. There are some Americans who become 
offended if you tell them they have an accent and 
speak in some degree with a nasal sound ; but to deny 
the imputation is to prove ignorance of the chief 
characteristic of their native country. Why should 
not an American be satisfied with his accent in the 
same way as is a Briton, a Frenchman, a German, 
or any other foreigner } I have had persons complain 
to me, that, on going into shops in Regent Street 
and in the Strand, assistants serving had given them 
a price in dollars, and asked them if they had any- 
thing cheaper in New York. On their asking how 
they knew they were from New York, the answer 
was : "By your accent," and they appealed to me to 
know in what way their voice was different from the 
native-born English. 

I have never been mistaken for an Englishman in 
England, though I have resided here thirty-eight 
years, but on my visits to the United States I have 
invariably been taken for an Englishman by persons 
who did not know the contrary, and I did not think 
this an offence in either case. 

An American lady told an assistant in a Regent 

202 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

Street shop after making a purchase : "I want the 
goods sent right on now " ; whereupon the assistant 
laughed. The lady, always ready for an argument, 
asked why she laughed ; and an amusing discussion 
ensued upon the proper pronunciation of the word 
''now," the assistant courteously insisting that the 
American lady had said " neouw" — a word not unlike 
that which describes the musical note of a cat's 



"meow." 



The city of Paris is pronounced very differently by a 
Frenchman and an Englishman. An American simply 
cannot say ** Paris" with a French accent Another 
phrase by which an American is at once detected is 
that of " Hurry up," instead of " At once," or " Make 
haste." An American lady says: "What do you 
want for that gold watch ? " An English lady would 
say : "How much ? " or " What is the price ? " 

Finally, we come to the word "guess," which no 
American can give up and no Englishman ever 
adopt. 

The phrase "Having a good time" is totally 
different in meaning from the standpoint of America 
and England. In America the phrase usually sug- 
gests a large party, and as many practical jokes as 
possible introduced : they do not invariably think that 
a courteous and quiet time can be " A good time." 



203 



CHAPTER XIV 

Social Amenities in American Clubs — ^Jonathan a Man of Business — The 
Fashion in Vehicles — English in Clothes, Walking-sticks, Um- 
brellas, and Hats — Liveries creeping in — Dust-bins — Tomatoes 
on the Table — "Chicken Food"— Renting Houses— Public Un- 
dertakings — What John Bull owes to Jonathan— The Toast Master 
— The Seasons. 

In previous chapters I have referred to a few points 
of difference between the domestic and social ameni- 
ties of life in New York and London ; these I now 
propose to go into more fully, and with the utmost 
fairness to Jonathan and to John Bull Social points 
do not vary considerably in the two cities. Invita- 
tions to lunch, to dinner, and to week-end visits are 
amongst the ifirst courtesies and civilities offered to 
strangers on both sides of the Atlantic. Club life in 
both cities is practically the same, though the condi- 
tions of life cause very considerable variations in club 
rules and regulations. In New York a member of a 
club may invite a stranger to make use of his club for 
a fortnight, and enjoy all the privileges of a member, 
paying for what he may require, and having access to 
every department of the club ; whereas in London one 
cannot return or reciprocate this advantage, not but 
that the members would wish to do so, but in London 
with a club of large membership, and a large usage 
of such privileges, a club would be unworkable. In 
New York, Americans do not use clubs to the same 

204 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

extent as gentlemen do in London, because there are 
not so many men of leisure who can spare time to 
read the papers, meet their friends, or conduct their 
correspondence in a club. In other words, Americans 
are first of all men of business ; and a club is regarded 
as an indulgence and a recreation. 

One of the first things which happens to a stranger 
on his arrival in New York, after delivering his 
letters of introduction, is to get put up at a club. 
If the club privileges are desired for more than two 
weeks there is no difficulty in getting another member 
of the club to renew the nomination for a further time. 

The last time I visited New York, during the first 
three days, I had cards of invitation to no less than 
five clubs — the "Union League," the "New York 
Yacht Club," the " New York Club," the " Univer- 
sity Club," the " Metropolitan Club," and the " Play- 
goers' Club." Any one of these I could use as 
freely as the clubs to which I belong in London, 
and I could, moreover, even invite a friend to lunch, 
or dine with me. 

The American revisiting his country, after a sojourn 
of several years in London, will immediately notice 
a marked improvement in the character of the public 
buildings. But this is not all ; in the conveniences 
and attributes of private and social life he will mark 
many advances and improvements. The American 
one-horse buggy, and trotting buggy, so valued for 
driving in Central Park, look like mere toys, and 
the very reverse of a comfortable vehicle to drive 
in. But there are now to be seen substantial-look- 

ao5 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

ing private carriages and dog-carts» landaus and 
broughams, which are nearly all either imported from 
England, or built on English models. And the follow- 
ing of English fashions does not end with the private 
vehicles now in daily use ; the clothes worn, the 
hat, the walking-stick, and the umbrella are invari- 
ably, amongst the well-to-do classes, English, or 
copied from English patterns. 

At the same time, the English visitor cannot fail 
to notice that the carriages and other vehicles in 
daily use are not turned out with the smartness which 
is customary in London. A wash-up three times a 
week would be as often as the ordinary coachman 
would give his carriage. There are exceptions, how- 
ever, but they are always in the case of very smart 
people, who employ English coachmen and grooms. 
Neither are the public omnibuses and cars, which 
are in constant use, washed daily, as in London. In 
country places this absence of washing is more 
noticeable than in the cities. 

Country people are rarely found who will take the 
trouble to have their vehicles washed daily, and kept 
smart and clean. The condition of the roads has, no 
doubt, a great deal to do with this. In the spring 
and autumn of the year, the mud is so deep and sticky 
that owners of vehicles appear to get no satisfaction, 
or reward for frequently washing up. As a boy, when 
on the farm, the " carry-all " which was used to take 
all the family to church on Sunday was never washed 
more than twice during the season, and such a thing 
as oiling or polishing the harness was never heard of — 

206 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

and I noticed that the same practice prevailed on my 
last visit, three years ago. 

In 1867 liveries for male servants — coachmen and 
grooms — ^were the exception ; now the practice is 
general. White male servants within the house is 
the universal rule amongst the wealthy, but previously 
the male servants were usually negroes. In the 
houses in New York where I visited white servants 
were always to be seen, and liveries were as smart 
and up to date as in London. 

Much has been said by English visitors against 
the abominable habit of placing the dust -bins on 
the footway. Every house, even in the most fash- 
ionable streets, is required to place the dust and 
house refuse in some kind of receptacle on the foot- 
path, and these vary in character from a closed bin 
to an open flour barrel, to be emptied into dust-carts, 
which collect the refuse in the morning between the 
hours of eight and ten. One can imagine the 
nuisance created on a windy day ; but on all other 
days this lining of the footways with dust receptacles 
is a disgrace to the city. The carts are not covered 
over, and, as the coal universally used in New York 
produces an enormous white ash, this is caught up 
by the air as each dust- box is emptied into the cart, 
and blown over the street in every direction. The 
London system of closed dust-bins and covered dust- 
carts could very easily be adopted in New York ; but 
to the present day the filthy open boxes and open 
carts are to be seen, even in the best residential streets 
of the city. 

207 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

Everyone has heard of American sweets, and 
almost the first inquiry of a visitor from the States 
is for a candy shop; their contempt for what are 
called English sweets can only be expressed in strong 
language. For the last twenty years, however, the 
American taste has been met by their own country- 
men, who have established depots for the sale of 
every description of American candy, and in several 
cases have extended their stores to the supply of 
other American dainties. Candy, I may mention, is 
the generic term for all kinds of candy-sugar sweets. 
The products in England, as apart from sweets, would 
be served with dessert. 

When I first came to England the vegetable known 
as the tomato was only regarded as a prolific vine, and 
I have seen such vines used as a centrepiece for the 
dining-table. The use of the tomato as a vegetable 
is entirely an American innovation, and, I am happy 
to say, as popular now in this country as the United 
States. Soon after my arrival in England I spent 
a week-end at a gentleman's seat in Kent, and in 
walking through his garden saw, to my delight, some 
fine tomatoes growing. I said : ''I should like to 
have some for dinner, as I have never seen them put 
on the table in England as a food." My host ex- 
pressed surprise that anyone could eat such veget- 
ables, but he said that some of them should be 
served at dinner. When we sat down to that meal 
I noticed that a covered dish had been placed in 
front of me, which, upon examination, proved to be 
two large tomatoes — ^but they had been boiled, and 

208 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

were, therefore, not eatable. Tomatoes in the States 
are sliced, and eaten cold, grilled, or sliced up and 
stewed with bread crumbs. English cooks, I am 
glad to say, have since learned all these methods of 
preparing the tomato for table. 

English people have also become very partial to 
many American cereal foods, and I believe that there 
is more oatmeal from the States consumed in England 
than there is of Scotch. Quaker Oats is now a 
standard oatmeal in Great Britain. 

Canned com and beans are also popular here, 
though when they were first placed on my own table 
I could hardly persuade an English friend even to 
taste them ; while the servants dubbed them " chicken 
food," and utterly refused to eat them. At the 
present time they have been converted to their use 
— even to an extravagant extent, if they get the 
chance. 

The cold storage system has enabled a vast pro- 
portion of the population in London to be supplied 
with fruits from California ; and the supplies of beef 
and mutton are looked for, with the regularity of 
delivery from the home counties. 

An American coming to London to settle is rather 
staggered to find that if he wishes to take an unfur- 
nished house, either in town or country, he cannot get 
one by the month or year; he is expected to hire 
by lease of seven, fourteen, or twenty -one years, 
and to assume all responsibility for decorations, re- 
pairs, rates, and taxes; whereas a furnished house, 
apartments, or flats may be rented by the week, 
o 209 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

The fact is important to remember that, unlike the 
process in the States, there is no summary process by 
which to dispossess a tenant at short notice. In New 
York, where rents are payable every month or quarter 
in advance, a tenant can be dispossessed in three 
days, and the contents of the house put on the foot- 
way if the rent is not paid ; but the landlord can- 
not hold the furniture for his rent In England, 
however, a tenant having a lease, if he be obstinate, 
atid has recourse to all the tricks of law, can hold 
on without paying any rent for full twelve months. 
Therefore a landlord, before granting a lease, will 
insist upon having very satisfactory references as to 
ability to pay, and he has a legal lien upon the furni- 
ture if the rent is not paid, as well as rates and taxes. 

A freehold property in the most eligible and fashion- 
able part of London can hardly be found. Nearly 
the whole of the west end is held by ground landlords, 
and upon leases varying from 99 to 999 years — ^the 
former term being the usual rule. Quite recently, on 
the Westminster and Bedford estates, a large number 
of leases for the term of ninety-nine years have fallen in. 

The statement is generally believed that when 
this property falls into the lap of the landowners they 
are never unreasonable in the matter of renewing 
the leases, though, as a matter of course, after a period 
of ninety-nine years, the property must have greatly 
increased in value. 

Freeholds in the city of London are equally difficult 
to get hold of upon lease. 

The gas and water supplies are controlled by 

310 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

private companies in England, and the monopoly 
has become of enormous value to the original 
shareholders. An effort is now being made in 
London to acquire the water supply, and this will 
probably be accomplished by a public trust 

In 1867 the Telegraphs in Great Britain were in 
the hands of private companies, and were not taken 
over by the Post Office until 1870. The Post Office 
authorities immediately reduced the rates to a uniform 
charge of i s. for twelve words, including the address. 
This charge was shortly after reduced to 6d, 

The Telegraph service in England is now justly re- 
garded as being as nearly perfect as such an institution 
can possibly be made ; and even in rural districts, with 
the arrangement for prepaid replies, the system is 
altogether in advance of America. 

The telephone was first introduced into England 
by private companies in 1880. At the present 
time the Government and the National Telephone 
Company work together upon an equitable basis, and 
adopt the same rate of traffic. Americans complain 
that the London telephone service is not to be com- 
pared with that of New York: with this opinion, 
having tested both systems, I quite agree. The 
chief difference consists in the fact that in the States 
the clerks put you on the exchange with a subscriber 
more quickly than in England ; but telegraphy in 
England is far more complete and rapid. 

The American system of District Messengers was 
first of all Jonathan's invention, and was transplanted 
to London very successfully in 1 894 ; but progress is 

an 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

handicapped by having to pay a royalty to the 
Government through the Post Office department 

In 1888 a theatrical friend of mine in New York, 
wishing to show me how swift the service was, sent 
a messenger boy to me in London to deliver a letter 
and bring back an answer ; and, with instructions to 
"make time," the boy left the ship at Queenstown, 
and travelled with the mails overland, and returned 
in the same way, only spending about six hours in 
London^ and the messenger accomplished the double 
journey, as nearly as I remember, in seventeen days. 
As a souvenir of this trip, I had the boy photographed 
in front of my business premises. 

This long distance messenger service has since 
been frequently utilised by merchants and others, 
having personal delivery made in the United States — 
messengers being despatched from London to New 
York, Chicago, San Francisco, and other cities with 
the most complete success. 

Englishmen, on first visiting the Empire City of 
the United States, which is built upon an island with 
a river on either side, have remarked the strangeness 
of the fact that there should not be a passenger steam- 
boat service round Manhattan Island — something after 
the character of the Thames Steamboat Service — calling 
at various piers on the north and east rivers. I can 
only suggest that the lack of this accommodation 
arises from the circumstance that the waterside is 
in most instances too far removed from residential 
centres ; and would on that account necessitate the 
use of omnibuses or tramcars to reach one's destina- 

2xa 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

tion, and the steamboat would not, therefore, be more 
economical of time* 

The streets of New York being built at right 
angles to one another, every great thoroughfare has 
a tram service north, south, east and west, and the 
greatest saving of time is attained by using this 
method of transit. 

Pleasure steamers of immense size ply on the north 
and east rivers and Long Island Sand, so that there 
is no difficulty in getting full views of New York 
and the harbour from these steamers. Ferry-boats 
are employed to cross from New York to New Jersey 
shore on the north river, and to Brooklyn and 
Williamsburgh on the east river. 

Then, again, there is Brooklyn Bridge to facilitate 
the traffic. This bridge is justly regarded as one 
of the great engineering achievements of the nine- 
teenth century, and, when completed, people imagined 
that the traffic by the ferry-boats would cease; but 
this has not turned out to be the case, as the ferry- 
boats continue to be well patronised, and with the 
opening of the Bridge an enormous population has 
been brought from New York to Brooklyn. So 
much is this the case that Brooklyn is now frequently 
called the " Dormitory of New York." Rents, though 
considerable enough, are cheaper in Brooklyn than 
in New York, which is, no doubt, one cause of the 
exodus, but in many parts of the former city the air 
is more pure than in the older city. 

Speaking of Brooklyn, in the days of his greatest 
popularity Henry Ward Beecher not only preached 

ai3 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

at Plymouth Church, Brooklyn, but resided also in 
that delightful suburb ; and the story is current that 
if the boat had started from either side, and the pilot 
saw Ward Beecher approaching, he would reverse 
the engines, and return to the pier for him — and such 
was the general respect in which he was held that 
no passenger ever raised his voice in protest against 
the delay. These American ferry-boats are very 
extraordinary vessels, being very broad, and having 
flat bottoms, and are capable of accommodating on 
board the largest vehicles which are seen in the 
streets. The ladies' cabin and the gentlemen's cabin 
are so distinguished by signboards ; but, as a matter 
of practice, all men frequent the ladies' cabin, and 
the only gentlemen who venture into their specially 
allotted cabin are those who wish to smoke. But if a 
lady presents herself in the ladies' cabin when full the 
nearest gentleman will always give up his seat to her. 
American public dinners do not differ from the 
character of those in England except in one particular, 
the office of Toast-master. This functionary is always 
a great surprise, and the cause of much amusement, 
to Americans in London, when they hear his voice 
for the first time at a public dinner. In the United 
States the chairman who presides at the banquet 
acts as his own toast-master ; but I am bound to admit 
that a toast-master is of great assistance to the 
chairman, regelating the progress of the feast, giving 
the chairman opportunity for conversing with his 
friends, and preparing the company for his reception 
when he rises to speak. 

314 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

At a civic banquet in the Egyptian Hall of the 
Mansion House, usually a private affair given by 
the Lord Mayor, or at one held in the Guildhall, 
which is always official, the Toast-master always 
appears ; and amongst other quaint ceremonies is the 
passing round of the "Loving Cup" after the Lord 
Mayor has first of all drunk to the company. 

The dinners given by the various City Companies 
are almost invariably held in their own halls, many of 
which are remarkably handsome chambers, and in 
the matter of entertainment nothing could be more 
lavishly hospitable. Several of the chief Companies 
give to each guest souvenirs, which take the form 
usually of the particular "trade" after which the 
company is named. In this way cloth is distributed, 
elegant boxes filled with choice sweets, packets of 
playing-cards, needles, and gold and silver articles. 
On the occasion of the presentation of the freedom 
of the Playing-Card Makers Co. to Andrew Carnegie 
this year, he was presented with a collection of 
playing-cards from the earliest times to the present in 
a magnificent casket, and each gruest received two 
packets of playing-cards of a special design. As a 
curious fact, I may mention that only in a few ex- 
ceptional instances do the members of the Company 
follow the trade from which the Company is named. 
The sums of money at the disposal of these com- 
panies are known to be large, but no statements of 
account are ever issued to the public. The property 
chiefly consists of land in the city bequeathed by 
members in past times, which has now become of 

ais 



I 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

immense value. Lavish as they are in their hospi- 
tality the companies are not less generous in their 
gifts, and of late years they have spent many 
thousands of pounds in the cause of education, and 
in aid of hospitals, in the support of technical schools, 
and in teaching the rudiments of important trades 
in a scientific manner — thus reviving the first cause 
of their existence in ages gone by. 

One of the most interesting banquets I have at- 
tended in London was that given in 1874 by my 
cousin, Cyrus W. Field at the "Star and Garter," 
Richmond, in celebration of an anniversary in connec- 
tion with the laying of the Atlantic Cable. The ban- 
quet was honoured with the presence of many of those 
most interested in Telegraphy, from all parts of 
Europe and America. Mr Field was fortunate also in 
being able to include among his g^uests Lord Kelvin 
and Sir John Pender, Members of the Parent Anglo- 
American Cable Company; also Captain Anderson, 
who commanded the Great Eastern, the ship which 
carried and paid out the Cable. The great feature 
of the evening was the exchange of Cable Messages, 
despatched and received at the table, from every 
part of the world. Proper electrical instruments and 
connecting wires were fitted up at a table beside 
the host. 

Soon after the completion of the Atlantic Cable 
in 1866, when Her Majesty conferred the honour of 
a baronetcy upon Mr Curtis Lamson and Mr Daniel 
Gooch, Directors of the Anglo Cable Company ; and 
knighthood upon Professor Thompson, the distin- 

216 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

g^ished scientist ; and Captain Anderson, commander 
of the Great Eastern, Lord Derby informed the 
chairman of the Company that the name of Mr 
Cyrus Field was omitted in the distribution of 
honours solely because it might appear that it 
encroached upon the province of his own govern- 
ment, and he would feel himself unable to accept. 

The use of the Cable for news — private messages 
and commercial purposes between Great Britain and 
the United States — soon enabled the Company to 
revise their tariff charges. In the year 1867 the 
minimum cost of a cable message was £\o for 
five words, including the address. Since that period 
the cost was once reduced to 6d. per word, but at 
the present time the charge is is. per word to 
New York. 

Having briefly outlined many of the different 
methods of accomplishing the same object practised 
in New York and London, let me now briefly sum- 
marise what Jonathan has done for John in the 
amelioration of the daily life of the people, in aid 
of labour, by invention of appliances; and in the 
saving of time and trouble in divers ways. I chronicle 
these lest London may forget. 

These include many agricultural implements which 
greatly diminish the labour of the field; printing 
presses and methods of preparing type ; tramways, 
which facilitate locomotion; air brakes; messenger 
boys; typewriting machines for the educated; sew- 
ing machines for mothers and daughters ; safe deposit 
banks ; cheap clocks and keyless watches ; Yale locks ; 

2x7 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

cash registers ; canned goods of all kinds ; scientific 
dentistry; the electric light telephone, gramophone^ 
and kodak which gives an additional charm to 
travellers abroad, and to stay-at-homes with their 
families. In one respect Jonathan has made a failure 
— ^he has not been able to convince John of the 
merits of rye whisky, and when Jonathan's sons 
come to England they are not long in discovering 
the greater merits of English, Irish, and Scotch 
whiskies. In the cases recited Jonathan has done 
a goodly work, and John by adopting his inventions 
acknowledges his obligation in a patriotic manner. 

With regard to the observance of the fashionable 
season in England and the States there is a great 
difference of time. In America families remain at 
home from the end of October to the middle of 
January, and in the latter part of that month they 
begin to repair to the Southern States, Florida, and 
North Carolina. Many also go to the Bahama and 
Bermuda Islands, returning home at Easter. 

In London the season begins in May, and goes 
on to July, when the end arrives with the close of 
racing ; and the difference of climate is, no doubt, the 
cause of the change in these periods on the two sides 
of the Atlantic. The race meetings in England are 
far more fashionable functions than in the United 
States. There are no races in America which can 
compare with Ascot or Goodwood, as an occasion 
for the assembling of the fashionable world; while 
the Derby has lost none of the popularity always 
characteristic of the day — but then the concourse 

2X8 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

which assembles is not a fashionable one. Other 
attractive movements are the Grand National Steeple 
Chases at Liverpool, the St Leger at Doncaster, 
and the chief races at Newmarket. All these have 
neither lost their distinction nor their interest during 
the past century. I have been present at one time 
or another with American friends, at each of these 
functions. 

In the United States I do not think there is any 
sporting event which can compare in public interest 
with the Oxford and Cambridge boat race, Henley 
Regatta, or the array and fashion gathered together 
at a university cricket match, or at the university 
sports. The Eton and Harrow cricket match at 
Lords, which lasts two days, will attract 20,000 
spectators each day, composed of the most fashion- 
able folks from all parts of England, and tradition 
seems to require that even old Etonians and 
Harrorians should put in an appearance. 



219 



CHAPTER XV 

Popularity of Americans in England — Episcopacy in the States— National 
Dbtinctions — Prince of Wales' Visit — ^American Public Men in 
England— Story of Mark Twain— The East-Enders of New York— 
ReUef of the Poor and the Sick— ** Wake up, England"— Mail- 
carrying, Old and New — The Pony Express — Sunday Observ- 
ances. 

The question has often been asked me whether 
Americans are popular in England, and my answer 
to-day is quite different from that which I should 
have made in 1867- 1870. I do certainly consider 
that Americans have won their way to exceeding 
popularity amongst the English people, and there 
is no social function of distinction or privilege at 
which they would not be welcome guests. 

No American would fail to appreciate the dis- 
tinctions between classes which exist in England, 
though they may wonder sometimes at their exist- 
ence. Take, for instance, the respective positions 
held by the clergy of the Church of England and 
by ministers of ail other denominations. A Non- 
conformist minister, of the highest standing and 
the greatest reputation, would not at any public 
function be allowed to take precedence of a curate 
of the Church of England There being no Es- 
tablished Church in the United States, a Noncon- 
formist minister is regarded as occupying exactly the 

220 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

same social position, and as being of equal standing 
in every respect, as a clergyman of the Episcopalian 
Church, where the worship and ritual correspond 
to that of the Established Church of England. I 
am bound to admit, however, so far as the question 
of fashion in religion is concerned, that the Episco- 
palians in the States, so far as they can, do regard 
themselves as a little better than their Baptist or 
Methodist neighbours. 

For instance, as an illustration, let me say that 
a man like Mr Rockfeller, who is a Methodist and a 
great capitalist (who has contributed thousands to 
establishing Methodist institutions and the building 
of churches), would not be invited to take part in 
an assembly of Episcopalians where bishops, deans, 
and canons would be present 

In England, however, at the greatest of Court 
functions, like the presentation to the King and 
Queen, an American of good social position would 
be admitted after he has gone through the pre- 
scribed regulations which are customary on such 
an occasion. 

American ladies are very much to the fore in Eng- 
land in the matter of hospitable entertainments, and 
take a leading part in charitable organisations, quite 
apart from what is done by those who have married 
into the aristocracy. Anglo-American marriages 
have ceased to cause any especial excitement; they 
occur daily — chiefly among the titled and professional 
classes. 

921 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

The essential differences existing between Great 
Britain and the United States lie in the funda- 
mental characteristics of the two nations. In America 
titles for individuals do not exist, and, therefore, there 
are no privileged classes. Nor are there any corpora- 
tions in the English sense of that term. Wanting a 
landed aristocracy, beggary is very limited. Having 
no endowed Church, religious rivalries and jealousies 
have no existence, and the government of the States 
is cheap and efficient. By the universality of educa- 
tion, self-respect is discoverable in the humblest 
classes, and all alike are animated with a boundless 
spirit of enterprise. 

The King, when Prince of Wales, paid a visit to 
the States in i860, at which time I was in my first 
situation in New York, and a general holiday was 
given upon the day of his reception, which I per- 
fecdy well remember, even to the spot I occupied 
on the footway in Broadway. The royal cavalcade 
went along the Fifth Avenue to the great hotel set 
apart for his use and that of his suite. 

When the Prince was about to leave England 
the fact of a visit to Washington, the capital of 
the United States, was not settled ; but in order 
to secure the Prince, President Buchanan, who 
in 1853 had been United States Minister to Great 
Britain, wrote a private letter to the late Queen, 
asking that the Prince might pay a visit to White 
House, and the following was Queen Victoria's 
reply : — 

32a 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

Buckingham Palace, 

22nd June i860. 
To President Buchanan. 

My Good Friend, 

I have been much gratified by the feelings which prompted 
you to write to me inviting the Prince of Wales to go to Washington. 
He intends to return from Canada through the United States, and it will 
give him great pleasure to have the opportunity of testifying to you in 
person that your feelings are fiilly reciprocated by him. He will thus 
be able at the same time to mark the respect which he entertains for the 
Chief Magistrate of a great and powerful State and kindred nation. The 
Prince of Wales will drop all royal state on leaving my dominions, and 
travel under the name of Lord Renfrew, as he has done when travelling 
on the continent of Europe. The Prince Consort wishes to be kindly 
remembered to you. 

I remain. 

Your very good friend, 

Victoria R. 

On- the occasion of the Prince's visit I remember 
that the streets were magnificently decorated, and a 
grand public reception was given to him, while the 
most enthusiastic expressions of welcome were shouted 
by everyone in his honour. At that time — ^he was 
only in his nineteenth year — he was a beardless 
youth. He drove about New York in an open 
carriage, without escort of any kind, and in a second 
carriage were the chief members of his suite. With 
the Prince there rode, the British Ambassador to the 
States, and the Duke of Newcastle, who attended 
him from England. He very graciously accepted 
invitations to private receptions and balls, and there 
are numbers of ladies now living in the States 
whose chief claim to distinction arises from the fact 
that they danced with the Prince of Wales, on 

233 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

his visit to America upon this occasion. His bear- 
ing was exceedingly dignified throughout his visit, 
yet without the slightest trace of hauteur; and his 
speeches upon all occasions showed that he was 
thoroughly in sympathy with his surroundings; and 
that he enjoyed seeing all that came under his 
notice. 

The young bloods of New York were not slow to 
mark the cut of his coat, and what is there known 
to the present day as the " Prince Albert frock coat " 
is the distinctive title of the ordinary frock coat worn 
now in England ; while many elderly gentlemen took 
serious notice of the whiskers, and length of hair, 
worn by the Duke of Newcastle, and established 
therefrom their standard for the fashion of wearing 
their hair. 

During my thirty-eight years' residence in Eng- 
land, my good fortune has given me the privilege 
of seeing and hearing most of the public men as- 
sociated with arts or science, with literature or politics, 
who have visited this country from the States. None 
of those men who have been recognised as leaders 
have been disappointed with the reception which 
they have met with in England. 

Nearly all the Ministers and Ambassadors sent to 
England from the United States have been, with 
one exception in my recollection, professional men 
— ^lawyers representing the larger number. Distinctly 
literary men have been honoured by representing 
their country as Minister or Ambassador to Great 

324 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

Britain. Amongst the latter may be mentioned John 
Lothrop Motley and Mr Russell Lowell. Once at a 
banquet to which Literature was responded to by Mr 
Anthony Hope Hawkins, the well-known novelist, 
he said, "in America they took their literary men 
seriously. They made them Ambassadors. Nothing 
of that sort happened over here. He was not airing 
a personal grievance, but merely representing his 
trade." 

Amongst the literary Americans whose works have 
been received with the greatest appreciation, and who 
have also undertaken lecture tours, was Mark Twain, 
who most reluctantly consented to deliver three 
lectures at the Hanover Square Rooms in 1874. 
At each lecture a crowded house greeted him. I 
have never seen these lectures in print; but I re- 
member that they greatly pleased all who heard 
them. His method and manner were wholly original. 
He came upon the platform, on which were simply 
a chair and table, but he made use of neither one 
nor the other. Before commencing his lecture he 
held his hands together, and stooped over the front 
of the platform ; then he paced backward and for- 
ward the length of the platform quite half-a-dozen 
times without speaking. He then advanced to the 
front of the platform, so that his feet were over 
the edge, and I felt inclined to utter a word of 
warning, as I was sitting in the front row ; but this 
would have been unnecessary, for when he began 
to speak his manner was most deliberate, and I 
p 225 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

could see that he had perfect control of the meet- 
ing. The lectures were mostly humorous, and yet 
when he turned from story-telling to descriptions of 
scenery — "The Sandwich Islands" was the subject 
of the lecture — the audience could not quite realise 
whether he were serious or joking. I can only re- 
member now one story which he told. This was a 
description of a thunder-storm at Honolulu. He said 
that the clouds assumed the blackest appearance in 
the east. He was at the time driving in a Sandwich 
Island cart. The cart was divided into two parts by 
planking, the rear half being usually devoted to the 
transport of luggage. The seat was on the central 
division. Perceiving by the black cloud that the 
rain was about to fall heavily, seeing the flashes of 
lightning, and hearing the roll of the thunder, he 
roused the pony, and managed to keep exactly in 
front of the storm, although when he got to the 
end of his journey he found the rear portion of his 
cart was filled with water. After telling the story he 
kept perfectly still for a moment ; but no one laughed. 

With regard to the clothing of the natives, he said 
he did not see much difference, as all could be obtained 
anywhere from milliners' shops ; but what they mosdy 
wore was a smile. 

Meeting him at a public dinner, certainly twenty 
years after the delivery of these lectures, I asked 
him if he would tell those present the Sandwich 
Island thunder-storm story, and he assured me he 
could not remember a word of it, nor could he 

226 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

remember even after I had prompted him as to the 
point of the story. This was at a banquet given by 
the Authors' Society, on which occasion Mr Mark 
Twain was the guest of the evening, 

I have frequently been asked what sort of a 
population exists in New York city which would 
come nearest to those living in Shoreditch and 
Whitechapel. There are precisely such classes in 
New York, but they are not Americans by birth — 
they are comprised of a number of various nationalities 
who have come from all parts of the world thinking 
to better their fortunes in the States. They come 
chiefly from Ireland, Germany, Russia, Italy, and 
other foreign countries. These people are to be 
found in the districts known as the Bowery, Centre 
Street, Chatham Street, and the sides of both the 
north and east rivers, and they largely correspond 
to the people of Shoreditch and Whitechapel in 
London. The members of one nationality entering 
the United States will in some form or another 
attempt to renew many of the customs, the mode ot 
life, and the amusements which they have left behind 
them in the old world, but none of these foreign 
nationalities — except the Germans — have succeeded 
to any extent in establishing their old life upon any 
enduring footing. The Germans have built a new 
Fatherland, and the lager beer gardens flourish 
on quite as large a scale as they are found in the 
old Fatherland. 

The Chinese and Japanese emigrants are in a 

aa7 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

decided minority in the eastern states; whereas in 
California and the mining districts they form the 
chief source from whence labour is obtained. They 
are industrious and prudent, and engage in any 
kind of hard work in the field, or in the house 
act as domestic servants. The laundries on the 
Pacific coast are almost entirely in the hands of the 
Chinese. 

The system of Relief for the Poor and Destitute is 
ample ; but the wards of Hospitals and Poorhouses 
are not occupied by Americans, but almost wholly 
by the foreign immigrant. No American would ever 
allow any member of his family, however remote the 
relationship, to become a charge up>on any charity ; 
such a thing would be regarded as a great disgrace, 
though there is no law compelling their maintenance 
at the hand of a relative. 

The instinct in an American's breast is overpower- 
ing not to allow anyone bearing his name to become 
a pauper. All institutions of this class are maintained 
entirely by taxation, and such a thing as a Charity 
Banquet to raise funds for charitable purposes — like 
is done in England — is nowhere adopted in any part 
of the United States. Charity Balls, however, are 
popular. Of course, all public institutions receive 
charitable bequests and voluntary gifts ; but appeals 
are not made on any recognised plan ; and the issue 
of begging letters in support of them to the un- 
limited extent which is done in England never occurs. 
Refuges of various kinds are maintained by unsolicited 

238 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

private subscriptions ; and are not erected and estab- 
lished unless properly endowed. 

Organisations similar to those existing in this 
country for the Protection of Children, and for the 
Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, exist in the United 
States, and are entirely supported by voluntary 
contributions. The columns of all the newspapers 
would be searched in vain to find a single charitable 
appeal, in the form prevalent in England. 

After the return of the Prince of Wales from his 
tour of England's Colonial Possessions, 1901, upon 
the first occasion of his returning thanks for his public 
reception in the Guildhall, he uttered the three words 
which made that occasion famous : "Wake up, Eng- 
land ! " said he ; and these words crystallised the 
experience he had gone through, which taught him 
that if England intended to march in the van of 
progress she must throw off all lethargy and sloth, 
and '' wake up " to the adoption of modern, and new 
methods in order to maintain her supremacy. She 
is almost likely to slip behind her daughter Colonies 
and the United States. 

In the matter of minor Engineering Works for many 
years England has been beaten, in point of time, in 
construction of bridges and similar undertakings. 
English workmen dislike to " hurry up " ; and a foot- 
ball match would take them away from the most 
important order for engineering work ever obtained 
by their masters. Nor have Englishmen advanced as 
" Universal providers" in the same way as Americans 

929 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

and Germans have. Not only are foreign travellers 
gathering the world's orders, but their employers are 
adapting their productions to the tastes of their cus- 
tomers more readily than the English. Many most 
important building Contracts in London have recently 
been assisted by American firms — notably the *' Savoy 
Hotel *' and the gigantic Hotel Ritz — the work is done 
in conjunction with English Builders. The failure of 
British Ag^culture might have been prevented by 
a better application of methods and the utilisation 
of modern inventions to the work of the farm, not- 
withstanding the burdens upon the land. 

Working days are lost to the nation by the over- 
indulgence of her workmen in holidays. Saturday is 
a national holiday — almost wholly ; and Monday is 
taken to recover from indulgence. This tendency to 
slothfulness runs through all the trades of the coimtry ; 
and shopkeepers are affected in similar fashion, be- 
cause they open later and close earlier. This is the 
real cause of English imports advancing so seriously 
upon the value of her exports. 

One of the most pronounced illustrations of 
American enterprise is furnished by the improvements 
effected in her Mail-Carrying system. In 1867, when 
I left America, the railway coup was the connecting 
of California and Oregon with Missouri, and the 
mails (which did not proceed by sea and the Isthmus 
of Panama, occupying twenty-two days) were trans- 
mitted by overland mail-coaches and riders. An 
illustration of this was given by Buffalo Bill in his 

930 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

Wild West Show at Earl's Court a few years ago. 
This service was carried out by rough-riders carry- 
ing the mails across the continent, a distance of 3000 
miles, in about sixteen days. 

'^ The Pony Express," known as the Central Over- 
land California and Pike's Peak Express Co., was 
organised in i860 to convey letters and news from 
St Joseph, Missouri, to Sacramento and San Francisco 
(across the Bay) California, between which points 
there was no railway or telegraph line. On 3rd April 
i860 the express was opened by a rider leaving^ each 
terminus, and the work was carried on for sixteen 
months. The charge originally made for each letter 
of half ounce or under was 5 dollars, reduced 
afterwards to $2.50 per half ounce — ^the United 
States postage of 10 cents to be paid in addition. 
Although they took as much as 10,000 dollars a trip, 
and received in the course of the whole period 
500,000 dollars, there was lost by the projectors and 
founders 20,000 dollars. The original projectors 
were Messrs Russell Majors & Waddell, who were 
engaged as express agents in western overland 
transportation. 

The regular United States overland mail was served 
by mail and passenger coaches, which occupied nine- 
teen days on the journey to a telegraph station, east 
of Rocky Mountains, then St Joseph, Missouri. The 
Pony Express was organised, without Government 
aid, to carry letters and dispatches the same distance, 
about 1 900 miles, over mountains, in ten days, and the 

331 



i 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

projectors hoped after the organisation was running 
to do the journey in eight days. By calling at Genoa, 
Canon Valley, the express delivered despatches which 
the telegraph forwarded to the Pacific cities, and thus 
abridged communication in that direction by two 
days. The calculation for the work was based upon 
the employment of 300 ponies and 150 riders, with 
stations every twenty miles apart 

The Pony Express was greeted with great en- 
thusiasm by the people of Canon Valley, which 
previously had only enjoyed a semi-monthly mail 
during winter. 

With respect to the first express in the opposite 
direction from St Joseph, the first journey occu- 
pied less than ten days, and brought 285 letters, 5 
private telegraph despatches, and a large summary 
of news. This feat was greeted with unbounded 
enthusiasm, and the adventures of certain of 
the riders were told in the columns of the news- 
papers. 

On the 13th April i860 the new Pony Express 
carried 13,000 letters. This express service was run 
weekly. Soon after being organised the Pony Ex- 
press was found able to beat the news carried by the 
overland mail-coach by nine days. 

The rules laid down by the company for the observ- 
ance of their riders are probably unique in the history 
of any such undertaking in the world. They were as 
follows : — 

I. You must sign the pledge, 

339 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

2. You must not use profane language. 

3. You must not get drunk. 

4. You must not gamble. 

5. You must not beat the p)onies cruelly. 

6. You must not do anything incompatible with 
the conduct of a gentleman. 

The postage was 5 dollars for each letter weighing 
half-an-ounce or under. This was afterwards reduced 
to $2.50 (ids.). 

Riders were required to ride seventy-five miles west 
one day, and return next day with the east-bound 
mail. 

Buffalo Bill's ride was from Red Buttes, in Wyoming 
territory, to Three Crossings, in Nebraskam — a journey 
of 116 miles. 

The railway, which terminated the use of the 
express, was made by the Central Pacific Railway 
and the Union Pacific, and was not completed until 
1869. The loss sustained to the organisers of the 
express was made up to them subsequently, by grants 
of land along the line of railway, which more than 
compensated them for their loss. 

New York and London are practically alike in 
the matter of Sunday observance and attendance at 
church services. The Week-End holiday is greatly 
appreciated in both cities. Younger members of 
families go out for the day, and the heads of families 
attend church. 

There are entertainments on the Sunday for 
members of the theatrical and other professions 

233 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

who are engaged throughout the week, just as there 
are in London. 

The holiday-ofiaker in the States is orderly and 
well-behaved ; but the observance of Sunday partakes 
largely of the custom of the mother country, of what- 
ever nationality. 



^34 



CHAPTER XVI 

The Times and The Standard as Publishers — The Encychpadia 
Britannica^ and English Literature — Half-a-million spent in 
Advertising — Company Promoting — Savings Banks in United 
States — Cheque System — The Waldorf Astoria — United States 
Officials — Divorce Laws in America — English and American 
Women — A great Snowstorm. 

Amongst the army of advertisers who have ex- 
ploited Great Britain I must make special reference 
to the work of those whose labours resulted in the 
issue of the tenth edition of the Encyclopedia 
Britannica; an important Atlas; a first-class Dic- 
tionary; and the fifty years of Punchy which were 
advertised under the auspices of The Times ; and the 
twenty volumes of ''Famous Literature'' advertised 
by The Standard. These undertakings were mam- 
moth in their character, in the cost of producing the 
volumes themselves, and in the payments made to 
literary men for their preparation. Perhaps the most 
startling feature of all was the outlay on adver- 
tisements to effect their sale to the British public 
The whole of these works were exploited by two 
Bostonians, Messrs Hooper & Jackson, and they 
stood behind the screen as the actual promoters of 
the several undertakings ; while The Times and The 
Standard allowed their newspapers to be the medium 
of communication with the public. The advertise- 
ment outlay in connection with their publications 

>S5 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

during the last few years must have amounted to 
no less a sum than half-a*million sterling ; and as all 
the works were a success, the libraries, private and 
public, in Great Britain were enriched with these 
volumes at a cost of not less than two and a half 
millions of money, and the profits upon the sales must 
have been enormous, both to the proprietors and 
to the newspapers, which had fostered the sales. 
The whole business, however, is not one which 
can be contrasted with the ordinary transactions 
between advertisers, and newspaper proprietors ; the 
difference being due to the extreme ability and skill 
shown by the owners of the books which were issued, 
and the impression they were able to make upon the 
proprietors of these two Conservative newspapers so 
as to secure the influence of their powerful names. 

In all my advertising experience I have never 
seen better use made of position, space, and type 
than that firm achieved for themselves in the announce- 
ments of their books. The Encyclopedia Britannica 
was, of course, the greatest triumph, as this comprised 
a set of thirty-seven volumes. When completed, each 
subscriber became responsible for a minimum of £^Z 
up to ;^48, according to the binding. The terms 
upon which the purchase was made — that of monthly 
or deferred payments — was a startling proposition to 
the book-buyer ; and the tempting bait thus held out 
accomplished the object in view, and secured sub- 
scriptions ; and I have been assured that the de- 
faulters in connection with the different payments 
were moderate in the extreme. 

936 



r 

I 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

In carrying out the publication and issue of these 
books there was a staff organised of probably 500 
persons. No cost was spared in securing the 
very best staff of Editors and Writers, in the pre- 
paration of the advertisements ; and of men who were 
authorities on the methods of display and of type. 
Some of these were Americans brought over for the 
purpose, and others were found in London. 

The English publishing trade is said to have 
suffered in consequence of the drain made up)on the 
pockets of book-buyers to pay for these standard 
works. 

The Display Advertisements allowed by The Times 
and Standard had a good deal to do with paving 
the way for the appearance of blocks and the per- 
manent display of advertisements of articles of mer- 
chandise, which had been previously forbidden. 

In the provision of Savings Banks there is a 
marked difference in the customs prevailing in England 
and the States. There are no Government savings 
banks in America, similar to the Post Office savings 
banks of Great Britain. There are plenty of Banks, 
however, well and honestly conducted ; but they are 
private speculations without any Government guar- 
antee. I cannot recall the failure of any Savings 
Bank in the United States. At periods of great 
financial excitement runs upon certain of these banks 
have taken place, but in die end greater confidence 
even than before has been rep)Osed, in these well- 
managed and excellent institutions. 

In relation to the question of Banks, I might here 

«37 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

very properly refer to the Cheque system which pre- 
vails throughout the United States in the matter 
of withdrawing money from banking institutions. 
English cheques which are crossed and marked '' not 
negotiable " can only be collected through a bank, and 
are never payable over the counter. Thus the payer 
and the payee are amply protected against any loss in 
the event of a cheque being improperly dealt with ; or 
any attempt being made to do so. This system of 
crossing Cheques I have had the greatest difficulty in 
explaining to American friends, who have received such 
cheques, and on presenting them at the bank counter 
have been refused cash, even when payable to bearer 
— the two lines drawn across the face of the cheque 
being the bar to any such transaction. 

The only protection for the cheque in America 
is making the cheque payable to the order of the 
payee, and he will be unable to obtain cash at the 
counter unless he is personally identified, or can get 
someone known at the bank to place his name below 
that of the payee, with the words " Endorsement 
correct." 

The English system, I am bound to say, is really 
the better for all parties, because less trouble is caused 
to the public and the bankers when once understood. 

A crossed cheque may be payable to the order 
of John Smith, and a man known to the bank cashier 
to be John Jones would write John Smith on the 
back of the cheque in front of him, and the cheque 
would be cashed without the slightest hesitation 
whatever. 

938 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

An important point of the English method in con- 
nection with Banks is that Cheques payable only 
through a bank must have the endorsement in exact 
accord with the name of the payee appearing on the 
face of the cheque, A cheque may be payable to 
Adolphus Clark, and the man's real name may be 
Adolphus W. Clark, and known to be so by the 
bankers ; therefore, if the cheque is not endorsed 
exactly as is written by the payer, it would be re- 
turned with the words " Endorsement irregular " 
thereon, and the signature must be made correct 

The promotion of public companies by means of 
advertised prospectus assumed enormous proportions 
between the years 1880 and 1900. The history of 
many of these undertakings, some prosperous and 
others utter failures, are so well known to the public 
that it is not my purpose to particularise ; but it is not 
surprising that I should, among others, have been 
often invited to take an interest in some of these 
attractive investments which were offered to the public. 
I had, early in my life, made it a rule not to take 
an interest in any business which I did not thoroughly 
understand; I had always been able to find invest- 
ments for any surplus moneys I might have which 
would come under that ruling. I did, however, make 
an exception, when the invention of the writing tele- 
graph was brought to my notice about the year 1890. 
I had seen the practical working of the instruments, 
and had the strongest possible endorsements by 
eminent electricians that the system was practical, and 
could be adopted for commercial purposes. The late 

239 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

Duke of Marlborough, who was an expert electrician, 
took a very serious interest in the invention, and 
came to my office personally, where the machines 
were set up, and was prepared to take an important 
interest in the formation of a company. So also were 
several other gentlemen of reputation and financial 
position. The formation of a company had got 
to a point when it seemed almost a certainty that 
a large sum of money would be paid to me and one or 
two others who had the option and control of the 
patents, when, like a thunderbolt, came the discovery 
that the English patents had been anticipated, and 
that no protection could be given to the holders of the 
invention in this country. So the matter came to 
a sudden and irrevocable end. Fortunately, my in- 
vestment in the matter was quite nominal, and really 
no money was lost. Upon another and later occasion, 
the well-known company promoter, Mr Ernest Terah 
Hooley made an offer of ;^ 1,000,000 for the good- will 
and trade marks of one of the properties which was 
owned in the United States, and for which I was the 
British agent. This matter was under consideration for 
a few months ; but the American owners ultimately de- 
clined to sell and that matter came to an end. Still 
later, an American invention known as the Blaisdell 
Paper Pencils was brought to me, with patents fully 
protected, and also machinery in readiness to manu- 
facture. Thinking well of it, I invested a considerable 
sum of money, as also did several of my friends, and it 
was ultimately offered to the public, and successfully 
floated. It was found, however, that the cost of pro- 

340 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

ducing the pencils had been greatly under-estimated, 
and that the pencils which we, in order to compete 
with other lead pencils in the market, would have 
to sell at id. and 2d. each, cost to manufacture 
something like a is. each. Of course, this meant 
a failure, and after every effort was made to reduce 
the cost of the pencils and to continue the sale at a 
profit, it became necessary to abandon the effort to 
continue the manufacture. The company was liqui- 
dated and wound up, and a substantial loss, of course, 
had to be faced by those who had invested in it. 
I am bound to say that a more useful and convenient 
pencil for all purposes than the Blaisdell has never 
been manufactured and sold in this or any other 
country, but the cost of production has rendered it out 
of the question to manufacture them on the large 
scale to compete with the existing supplies of pencils 
both of English and foreign make. I certainly blame 
myself for not having more thoroughly tested the 
statements which had been made as to the cost of 
manufacturing these pencils. It is the old story of 
the sanguine inventor having no real knowledge of 
practical matters of business. With these experi- 
ences, I am not likely to4)ecome personally interested 
in the promotion or development of any invention 
which is outside my own knowledge in every detail. 
All the same, I have the satisfaction of knowing that, 
in each of the foregoing promotions, they were en- 
tirely genuine, and that they were not capitalised be- 
yond their value and dividend- earning capacity had 
it been possible to work and develop them on the 

Q 241 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

lines that were intended when the prospectus was 
issued. 

The Water Supply of the chief cities of the United 
States is carried out on the same principle as in 
England, though in no case is there any restriction 
as to the quantity used. Every house has a con- 
stant supply direct from the mains ; and cisterns do 
not exist, even for holding a reserve in case of a 
mishap to the water mains. Everyone using the 
supply can turn off the water at the main in case 
of need, and this frequently becomes necessary in the 
winter owing to the freezing of water pipes. In 
order to avoid freezing, every householder, however, 
has learned by experience that the best prevention 
is to allow the water to be kept slowly running day 
and night The occurrence of a water famine in 
New York is of infrequent occurrence, notwithstand- 
ing the enormous waste which is continually going on. 
The supply is obtained from Croton Lake, which is 
twenty miles from New York, and the water is 
inexhaustible. This lake is owned by the city of 
New York ; and the owners of all house property 
must pay the water rate : never the tenant. 

In 1902 I found that the latest, as well as the 
largest and most perfectly-equipped. Hostelry in the 
United States had been opened. This was the 
Waldorf Astoria, and I stayed there for one week. 
I had a bedroom, with bathroom attached, at an in- 
clusive charge of 10 dollars per day, without refresh- 
ments, but no extras. I was completely surprised 
with the size and magnificence of the hotel and 

a42 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

the appointments. There was accommodation for 
2500 guests, and the employees numbered several 
hundreds. The method for securing comfort and 
happiness was perfect. There is no hotel in London 
or Paris carried on upon the same plan. Every 
party on arrival is conducted to the Public Bureau, 
and one of the party must sign the register and 
give the number of guests, before the key of his 
rooms is handed to him, and a servant directed to 
show the rooms. The hotel is sixteen storeys in 
height, and every floor is under the separate manage- 
ment of a Manageress, who has at her command three 
or four Call-boys; and she sits at a desk directly 
opposite the lifts, so that she commands the whole 
situation. Persons coming to the floor, either by 
the staircase or lift, cannot get to their rooms 
without her knowledge, and after the rooms are left 
the keys are deposited with the floor Manageress. 

The room assigned to a Guest consists of a bed- 
sitting-room, furnished with a writing-table, chairs, 
and easy-chair, as well as the usual bedroom furni- 
ture. On looking at the table I noticed there was no 
stationery, pens, or ink, so touching the electric bell, 
a Call-boy answered, and I pointed out to him what 
I wanted. He was back within three minutes with 
the articles I required. Then I discovered that the 
electric light was exactly where I could not sit to 
write, so I rang the bell again, and when the Call-boy 
appeared I told him the difiiculty I was in. The boy 
disappeared, but in a very few minutes an electrician 
came with an electric lamp having a coil of 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

flexible tube, which he connected with a wall bracket 
which he fitted up immediately ; carrying the wire to 
the exact position desired, and in less than five minutes 
the shaded lamp stood in the proper place upon the 
table, the light switched on, and everything in order. 

Another system which prevails in all American 
hotels, and which might well be adopted in some 
of the large west-end hotels, is the method of dealing 
with Visitors calling to see guests. For this particular 
purpose there is a separate Bureau. The name of 
every guest is alphabetically arranged in front of the 
person in charge of the department. You inquire 
for the one you want, and your card is at once sent 
by pneumatic tube to the Manageress of the floor 
where the one wanted is lodging, and a Call-boy takes 
the card to him at once. If you are out, which is 
seen in a moment by the key being in place, then 
the card is sent back, with the word "Out" written 
thereon. All the reception - halls may be looked 
through if the Visitor may chance to be in, but there 
is no bawling of the name from room to room as in 
London. 

Another marvellous adjunct is the rapid Lift system. 
There are a dozen of these, which work separately ; 
each having a special man iii charge — the whole 
directed by a Conductor. As you approach he waves 
his hand to one of the lifts, and you enter. Then 
no words are wasted with the lift man — you say 
" third " or ** fourth " or " fifteenth," according to the 
particular floor you want. 

The use of the Telephone is remarkable, and the 

344 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

system has been brought to a high state of perfection. 
This instrument is not only much used for local pur- 
poses in New York, but is fitted up in such a way, 
with long-distance attributes, that you can communi- 
cate immediately with Boston or Philadelphia, Chicago 
or St Louis. This would be a distance of 1 500 miles, 
and the fee would be very moderate. 

On my last visit to New York I found that the 
sale of Spirits and Wine on Sunday is entirely for- 
bidden at open bars. You may order wine at your 
hotel with meals, and be served ; but if a stranger 
wishes for a drink he must sit down to a table, and 
order a sandwich with his liquor, or he would not 
be served. I have been told by experts in discover- 
ing secret passages, that those who are well enough 
known can find access to private bars at most of the 
hotels, where the restriction about the sandwich is 
not literally observed — but I never sought one of 
these bars myself. 

The remark is generally made by Americans who 
have visited London, how very admirable the choice 
has been of the men who represent the Commercial 
interests of the United States as Consul or Consul- 
General. This appointment is greatly sought after 
as one of the greatest importance. During the thirty- 
eight years under review I have been personally 
acquainted with all the occupants of these posts in 
London, as well as the members of the Staff. The 
Deputy Vice-Consul, Major Frigout, has held that 
office from 1 867 to 1905. Whoever the Consul-General 
has been he has retained the services of the Major ; 

a4S 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

which is the highest possible testimony to the ability 
with which he discharges his onerous duties. 

The post of American Minister was held in 1867 
by Mr Charles Francis Adams of Massachusetts ; 
the Ambassador since July 1905 has been Mr 
Whitelaw Reid. Mr Joseph H. Choate held the 
appointment for six years — being two years longer 
than any previous Minister or Ambassador since Mr 
Adams. 

I have often been questioned as to the operation 
of the Divorce Laws of the United States, and of the 
remarkable facilities which seem to prevail, enabling 
disappointed married folk, to dissolve the nuptial 
knot at short notice. The fact is that the divorce 
laws differ in every state of the Union. In some of 
them the conditions are difficult, and hedged about 
as seriously as they are in England ; while in certain 
States a slight basis of incompatibility would answer 
every requirement of the State law. A residence of six 
weeks in the State is made sufficient to put the law 
in motion to secure relief, and some of the States are 
very lax in their rules, as to notice to the defendant 
There can be no doubt that gross injustice is often 
caused by the laxity of the legal rules ; and the fact 
is known that President Roosevelt at the present 
time has the subject under very serious consideration, 
and that he is anxious to have one law for the whole 
of the States, which shall be just and merciful in 
operation. The plea of adultery, unlike the English 
law on the point, is equally available for man or 
woman ; cruelty not being coupled with adultery, on 

146 






With John Bull and Jonathan 

the part of the man, in the United States. In England 
a separation may be obtained for adultery on the part 
of a man, or for cruelty, or both, or for non-support ; 
but divorce can only be obtained on the ground of 
adultery with legal cruelty. This legal cruelty may 
take the form of threatening the life — not actual 
violence — or keeping back the necessaries of life. 
Those who have carefully considered the question 
all round, consider that the English law of divorce as 
it is now administered is really just, and no one has 
ever yet proposed a reform of the English law. 

In the United States a not unusual occurrence is 
to find hastily-divorced people reconsidering their 
position, and remarrying; nor is it unusual for di- 
vorced persons afterwards to meet at dinners and 
other social functions without difficulty or restraint. 

I heard quite recently of a man, whose wife had 
divorced him, meeting her six months afterwards 
on an Adantic steamer bound for England, both still 
unmarried. On reaching Liverpool the man pro- 
cured a special licence; and they were remarried, 
proceeded to London together, and have been living 
in agpreement ever since. 

Another subject which has caused a great deal 
of remark and criticism has arisen in regard to 
American Women — particularly those having large 
fortunes — who marry into families of the aristocracy 
in England, frequently for no other reason than 
to secure a title and a money settlement. In such 
cases no opportunities have occurred for study- 
ing each other's character, and there can be little 

«47 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

wonder at differences subsequently arising. I do 
not think that American men feel specially flattered 
that the wealthy women of their own country are 
anxious to marry English husbands on such grounds 
as I have mentioned. At all events, whatever ad- 
vantages an American husband may be able to offer 
his wife, a title is not one of them ; but American 
men are, in the majority of cases, more thoughtful, 
considerate, and indulgent than English or Con- 
tinental husbands, and more ready to allow their 
wives to take the lead in such social functions as 
interest them, and bring them into friendly rivalry 
with other women of the same nationality. 

American women residing in London with their 
husbands have always been well received. They 
have earned a distinct reputation for the smart- 
ness of their sayings in conversation, and they 
have perhaps more vivacious manners than English 
women. There would be great difficulty in finding 
an American woman who would be prepared to 
take a back seat ; and if she were placed in one, 
no long time would elapse before she would march 
into a front one. 

Those women from the States who have won their 
way to distinction or fame in the theatrical or 
musical world are very popular in general society ; 
their adaptability and amiability are possibly the 
result of their cosmopolitan education. 

In a lecture recently given in London by an 
American, she remarked that she was frequently 
asked if American girls were sent to England for 

248 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

education. Her answer was that they were, because 
** England had much to give for their spiritual and 
physical betterment. A less personal outlook, mental 
poise, calmer nerves — only environment, could ac- 
complish these. If the English and American tem- 
perament could be rolled into one, the combination 
would be unequalled." Another lady on the same 
occasion declared that ''the matrimonial alliance 
between Great Britain and the United States was 
often spoken of vulgarly as a union of titles and 
dollars. In the large majority of cases, however, 

there were no titles, and not enough dollars to talk 
about." 

In my opinion, American girls can never rival the 
English in physical exercises and field sports, although 
a few American ladies have recently achieved con- 
siderable success at lawn tennis, golf, and hockey. 
Still, the English have a better physical development, 
and, what is still more to the point, less nerves. 
What is known as the American headache does not, 
so far as my observation has gone, attack the British 
Maiden or Matron to the same extent as those of the 
United States. Probably the true ground of this is 
that Americans of the gentler sex, are less careful 
in the selection of diet, and take less exercise, than 
those of the British Isles. 

One thing I cannot overlook is the difference 
between American and English children. The pre- 
cocity of American children is noticed, not because 
they are brighter or more clever than English children, 
but arises from the fact that their parents allow them 

349 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

to assemble with their elders, and do not place them 
under the discipline and restrictions of English youth. 
This is not to the advantage of children in the States. 
The " Buster Brown " small boy would not be appre- 
ciated in England. 

"Tall Talk," as it is sometimes called, is not 
practised by Americans to the same extent as 
formerly. People realise that the "discount" taken 
off an extravagant story reduces its value below the 
real truth. The English habit is to state facts ac- 
curately, unless it be the weight of a fish caught, or 
the number of brace of birds shot at the opening day 
of a " shoot." I have known both Americans and 
English to sometimes ** waver a little " when giving 
the circulation of a newspaper ! 

In the matter of conversation, however, there can 
be no doubt whatever that American ladies eclipse 
their British sisters in brilliant talk, in the piquancy 
of their observations, and in their astonishing com- 
mand of slang. In regard to the latter, it is 
nothing unusual in England to hear American girls 
introducing innocent English slang into their con- 
versation ; while the English now just as frequently 
catch at and adopt humorous American phrases. 
The most taking expressions of society are readily 
taken up by young ladies on each side of the Atlantic 
A woman of education, however, on either side en- 
tirely avoids any approach to coarseness. 

I have observed in my long residence in England 
that upon the advent of American families the women 
more readily adapt themselves to English customs 

150 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

than the men ; and though this may be unpatriotic 
to say, yet the truth is that the longer the residence 
in England the greater becomes the attachment to 
the mother country. 

During the first year of my residence in London 
my wife and I were living in Upper Woburn Place. 
This was in the early spring, when the weather was 
foggy, chilly, and wet, day after day, producing a most 
desponding feeling, and keeping us completely house- 
bound, and we could scarcely see across the road. 
However, to get a change I took a Hansom, and my 
wife and I were driven slowly into the heart of the 
city. There was gloom on every hand ; pedestrians 
slowly pacing the side paths ; vehicles more slowly 
crawling along the streets. Just as we reached the 
Mansion House the fog lifted, and disappeared, just 
like the raising of the curtain at a theatre, upon a 
brilliant scene. Sunshine flooded the streets and 
buildings, and my wife, turning her head to the left, 
read aloud the words on the fa9ade of the Royal 
Exchange: ''The Earth is the Lord's, and the fulness 
thereof." *'That is true," she exclaimed, "and, there- 
fore, I am content to stay in London." 

The nearest approach to an American winter which 
I ever experienced in London was in 1882, when a 
terrific snowstorm raged over the metropolis. Wind 
and snow mercilessly fought together, until in all the 
principal thoroughfares, like Regent Street, the Strand, 
and Oxford Street, on the one side or the other, the 
drifted snow stood in banks eight or ten feet in height. 
Every vehicle was withdrawn, not only on the* day 

«5i 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

of the storm, but upon the following day also, and 
only with the greatest difficulty could one get from 
one part of London to another. Weeks elapsed 
before the snowstorm wholly disappeared, because the 
whole had to be carted away, and deposited in the 
parks, on all waste ground, or thrown into the Thames 
from the Embankment London at that time was 
not prepared to cope with such an emergency, 
and had not such an army of scavengers as she now 
possesses. 

As soon as any traffic could be carried on cabs 
(four-wheelers) appeared with two horses driven tandem 
fashion, and they were quickly followed by Hansom 
cabs with the same outfit Omnibuses required the 
assistance of three or four horses to get along the 
streets, even at a very slow pace, and fares were 
doubled and quadrupled, in every direction. 

The loss to the shopping community and to the 
proprietors or lessees of the theatres and music halls 
was immense. At one theatre which opened doors 
at this period four people were counted in the stalls. 

There was one American in London at this time 
who was the owner of a cutter (known as a sleigh 
in England)— and this was "Pony" Moore, the pro- 
prietor of the Moore and Burgess Minstrels. He 
created immense excitement in all parts of the metrop- 
olis by driving the cutter through Regent Street, 
Bond Street, Piccadilly, and in Hyde Park, where he 
met with a right royal reception. This cutter he had 
imported ten years previously, and kept in his stables, 
awaiting a favourable opportunity for use. This came 

a52 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

at last, but, of course, his triumph only lasted for a 
few days. 

Snow does fall to a certain extent in many parts 
of England every winter, and interferes frequently ] 

with railway and road traffic ; but so far as London 
proper is concerned the interference is only a question 
of a few hours as a rule — the storm of 1882 was 
altogether exceptional. 



«S3 



CHAPTER XVII 

Commercial Monopolies— The Presidential Platform, 1904— No Loyal or 
Patriotic Toasts at Banquets in the States—" Our Beggar-Pedlar 
Bouncer is in " — Mock Auctions and Barkers — Camp Meetings — 
Story by Sir John Millais— Mr Birch and his Work— Mrs Jemima 
Luke — Conductors on Railways — Art of Criticism — Luck — 
Precedents. 

Probably no organisation and combination of men 
has created greater surprise in England amongst 
commercial men than the operations of Com- 
mercial Monopolies. The question of their very 
existence formed part of the platform of the Demo- 
cratic party in the United States, as well as that 
of the Republican section, at the last Presidential 
Election in 1904. Their respective views were set 
forth in the following terms : — 

The Democratic Platform 

Trusts and Unlawful Combinations. — We recognise that the gigantic 
trusts and combinations designed to enable capital to secure more than 
its just share of the joint products of capital and labour, and which have 
been fostered and promoted under Republican rule, are a menace to 
beneficial competition and an obstacle to permanent business prosperity. 
A private monopoly is indefensible and intolerable. Individual equality 
of opportunity and free competition are essential to a healthy and per- 
manent commercial prosperity, and any trust or monopoly tending to 

* destroy these by controlling production, restricting competition or fixing 

prices, should be prohibited and punished by law. We especially 
denounce rebates and discrimination by transportation companies, as 
the most potent agency in promoting and strengthening these unlawful 

f conspiracies against trade. 

'54 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

The Rspxtbucan Platform 

Anti-trust Laws enforced. — Laws enacted by the Republican party 
which the Democratic party &iled to enforce, and which were intended 
for the protection of the public against the unjust discrimination or the 
illegal encroachment of vast aggregations of capital, have been fearlessly 
enforced by a Republican President, and new laws insuring reasonable 
publicity as to the operations of great corporations, and providing addi- 
tional remedies for the prevention of discrimination in freight rates, have 
been passed by a Republican Congress. 

The President was elected on the basis of the 
" Anti-trust Laws " being enforced. This formed 
the strongest plank in his platform, and as he re- 
ceived the largest number of votes, ever cast at a 
Presidential Election, the will of the American people 
has been pronounced upon the question. 

In the States a man does not usually make a settle- 
ment upon his wife at marriage, in whatever position 
of life they may move. An American would resent 
any such suggestion being made to him by the 
parents of his intended bride. A father who was 
in a position to do so would of his own accord say : 
'' I shall allow my daughter so much per annum " ; 
but he would not enter into any bond to that effect, 
nor allow any investment to be made in trust for that 
purpose. He would consider his promise as sufficient, 
and the fulfilment as morally binding upon him. Nor 
does the father ask his future son-in-law, to make any 
settlement upon his daughter. His consent to the 
marriage would be difficult to obtain if the man were 
not in some substantial way of business, and in a 
position to maintain a wife — not on the scale of what 
the parents were then living, but on that upon which 

^5S 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

they commenced life themselves. Every encourage- 
ment is given to make people self-dependent, and the 
parents would not be expected to contribute towards 
the maintenance of those married, save under excep- 
tional circumstances arising after marriage. 

At public dinners in the United States Toasts are, 
of course, given ; but the health of the President is not 
an established rule, nor that of the Army and Navy, 
nor the Houses of Congress. At the end of a banquet 
the usual custom is to sing " Home, sweet home." 

Hawkers and Pedlars are allowed to ply their 
trades in the public streets. They usually sell 
eatables of all kinds — ^fruit, ice-cream and nuts. So 
long as they do not obstruct the footway they are 
not interfered with. These men may stand on one 
spot all day long if they choose ; and men are allowed 
to use a small hand -cart, upon which to carry the food 
they sell, and they may sell hot cakes and potatoes. 
Until the last few years they were allowed to enter 
the largest warehouses, banks, and offices quite un- 
restricted, and peddle stationery and jewellery, and 
canvass for books or pictures ; but this became such a 
nuisance by the interference caused to business, that 
merchants universally adopted a plan to keep them out. 
This was to suspend a large placard at the entrance to 
the place of business, on which was printed in large 
letters : 

-OUR BEGGAR AND PEDLAR BOUNCER 

IS IN" 

This was an effectual cure. 

256 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

Another privilege allowed to pushing shopkeepers 
in districts where cheap goods are sold is to hold 
mock auctions for the disposal of clothing, jewellery, 
and watches. The man who stands at the door of 
the shop is called a ''barker/' because, in addition 
to calling out his master's wares, he utters a growl 
like a dog to attract the attention of passers-by. 
The "barkers" become very proficient, and appear 
to be possessed of lungs as powerful as a church 
organ. 

Out-of-door preaching on Sunday or week-day is 
of very rare occurrence ; but, in the summer, enormous 
camp meetings are held in country places, where 
religious meetings are held continually for weeks at 
a time, the promoters and worshippers living under 
canvas. I am not able to say that camp meetings 
are very seriously taken by any class of the com- 
munity ; and they are generally regarded as pleasant 
holiday picnics. 

A Town- Crier is unknown in the United States. 
There is no opening for the services of such a per- 
sonage, and all lost goods are forthwith advertised. 
There is no official proclamation made by Criers, even 
of the election of a new President : the fact is 
announced by newspapers. 

During my residence in London I have had the 
pleasure of meeting many of the most celebrated 
artists and sculptors of the day. What is called 
"Show Sunday," which comes before the opening 
of the Royal Academy, is generally the occasion 
when artists and sculptors send round invitations to 
R 257 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

friends and dealers to inspect the work which they 
have prepared for exhibition, and on these occa- 
sions highly interesting parties are given in the 
studios. 

Upon one occasion, through the good offices of Mr 
C. B. Birch, A.R.A., the sculptor, I had the pleasure 
of being present at a banquet held by the Royal 
Academicians at the Old Ship Inn, Greenwich. Sir 
John Millais, the President, was in the chair, and he 
was surrounded by the leading Academicians of the 
day. There was an entire absence of formality 
which was pleasant to notice. The chairman smoked 
a short briar-wood pipe after the loyal toasts had been 
given ; and his example was followed by many of the 
R.A.'s present. Upon this occasion I had the rare 
opportunity of hearing from the artists themselves a 
relation of their experiences in the struggle to secure 
a footing in the art world. 

The chairman told in graphic lang^uage the story 
of his early life. He said when he first began the 
practice of his art, his mother was keeping the home 
together, and, as their means became very restricted, 
she obtained his reluctant consent to put in their 
front window a card with the words " Lodgings to 
let" thereon, as there was one room which was 
unoccupied. His consent was given about a fort- 
night before Show Sunday. Having completed two 
pictures, he invited such friends as he knew, and also 
some dealers, to see them. Three o'clock in the 
afternoon of Show Sunday came, and no visitors had 
appeared ; but at four a gentleman arrived, and asked 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

to see the pictures. He examined them carefully, but 
showed no particular interest, though when about to 
leave he asked for pen, ink, and paper, and permission 
to sit down that he might write a memorandum. 
After doing this he got up, and after remarking that 
he had left an address inside the book which lay on 
the table, and if the pictures were not sold before 
*' sending-in " day, he should like to hear from Millais, 
he took his departure. Upon opening the book he 
found inside a cheque for 200 guineas, signed " John 
Ruskin." There were also a few lines in high terms 
of praise of the work, and asking the privilege of 
being allowed to purchase the pictures for the sum 
he had enclosed. He was so overcome with his 
good fortune that he sank down on the chair, and 
did not recover himself for several moments. When 
he did, however, the first thing he thought of was the 
notice in the front room window, and dashing in, he 
tore down the objectionable notice, and then hastened 
to his mother to receive her congratulations. He 
assured his brother Academicians that he had never 
mentioned the circumstance in public before, and he 
added that from that day, he had not known any of 
the pinching distress in the matter of rent-paying or 
domestic expenses which he had previously endured. 
Yet, at that period, he had never received more than 
;^I5 for any work of his. 

At this same dinner a song was sung by Mr Vicat 
Cole, R.A. (who was constantly addressed by his 
fellow Academicians as " Old King Cole " ). The 
song was of a convivial character. 

359 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

The Old Ship is famous as the scene of many im- 
portant Ministerial White-bait dinners, and, in the 
season, was also noted for the fish dinners which were 
served there — eight or ten different kinds of fish being 
cooked in as many different ways, and served with 
vegetables, and plenty of good wine. 

In 1889 a large bazaar was organised on behalf of 
the British and Foreign Sailors* Society, to be held at 
the Cannon Street Hotel, and the ladies of the City 
Temple were asked to take part therein At the 
time, Mrs Richards conceived the idea that if we 
could obtain a good portrait of Mrs Jemima Luke, 
the authoress of the beautiful hymn, '* I think when 
I read that sweet story of old," signed by her, and 
obtain a facsimile of the words in her own handwrit- 
ing, they would form an interesting feature of the sale. 
Mrs Luke's father was one of the founders of British 
and Foreign Sailors* Society. I agreed, and my wife 
thereupon set upon the task of finding out the dis- 
tinguished lady's address. This was, however, no 
light task, and after many inquiries and much pursuit, 
the real address was found only a week before the 
day for opening the bazaar. She was then residing, 
as she is now, at Newport, Isle of Wight. My wife 
posted off there, was admitted to see Mrs Luke, who 
was then in her eighty-second year, and obtained from 
her permission to have her portrait on sale, and she 
gladly wrote down the famous words in her own hand- 
writing for reproduction and sale. The result was most 
satisfactory, and a great sale of portraits and hymns 
took place. 

260 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

This particular Hymn had been more particularly 
brought to our notice by the fact that two little 
American girls once sang the words very sweetly 
at the morning service in the City Temple. The 
children also sang the same hymn at the bazaar in 
the Cannon Street Hotel, when they received great 
applause. 

The fact is singular that there also resides at 
Newport the author of another child's hymn, which, 
though not so popular as Mrs Luke's, has, neverthe- 
less, been sung in every Sunday school of England 
and the United States: "There's a place for little 
children, above the bright blue sky." 

About the same time these little American girls 
sang at the City Temple there came to London two 
small African boys, under the care of a missionary, 
to sing, with a view of raising funds to erect a school 
for native children in Natal. These lads heard the 
American girls sing Mrs Luke's hymn, and immedi- 
ately set to work to learn the same hymn, and after- 
wards sang the same with great effect in the City 
Temple, and throughout England. 

Amongst the trifling differences of custom in every- 
day things which attracts attention on arrival in 
England is the varying method of despatching a 
train. In the States, the conductors who have charge 
of trains give the cue to the passengers by calling out 
" All aboard," and not in a too polite tone of voice. 
But the signal is well understood, and there is no 
loitering upon the platform after the words are heard. 
In England, however, the guard calls out : " Please 

261 






4 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

take your places." The difference illustrates the 
temper of the people in both nations. 

Mr Birch, who was my host at the Academy dinner 
at the Ship, executed a bust of Dr Parker, the cost 
of which was defrayed by private subscription, mainly 
through the efforts of Mrs Richards. This was de- 
clared to be, by all who knew the Doctor, an excellent 
portrait, and a thorough work of art. This now 
stands in the vestibule of the City Temple, having 
been bequeathed to the deacons and trustees by Dr 
Parker. Mr Birch also sculptured a bust of Mrs 
Richards, which members of the family and friends 
regard as an excellent likeness. 

In 1890 Mr Birch exhibited in the Academy a 
model in plaster of Margaret Wilson, the Puritan 
Martyr who was fastened to a stake in the River 
Solway, and drowned by the rising tide. 

The story is so interesting and pathetic that I offer 
no apology for telling it. 

In the reign of James II. of England, nth May 
1685, two women, Margaret Maclachlan and Margaret 
Wilson, the former an aged widow, the latter a 
maiden of eighteen, suffered death for their religion 
in Wigtonshire. They were offered their lives if 
they would consent to abjure the cause of the 
insurgent Covenanters and attend the Episcopal 
worship. They refused, and were sentenced to be 
drowned. They were conveyed to a spot where 
the Solway overflows twice a day, and were fastened 
to stakes forced in the sand between the high and 
low water mark. The elder sufferer was placed near 

262 



Life tilt Figiirt in MarbU, by C. B. Birch, A.S.A. 






With John Bull and Jonathan 

to the advancing flood, in the hope that her last 
agonies might terrify the younger into submission. 
The sight was dreadful. But the courage of the 
survivor was sustained by an enthusiasm as lofty as 
any that is recorded in martyrology. She saw the 
sea draw nearer and nearer, but gave no sign of 
alarm. She prayed and sang verses of the Psalms 
till the waves choked her voice.* After she had 
tasted the bitterness of death she was, by a cruel 
mercy, unbound, and restored to life. When she came 
to herself, pitying friends and neighbours implored 
her to yield. " Dear Margaret, only say : * God save 
the King ! ' " The poor girl, true to her stern theology, 
gasped out : " May God save him, if it be God's 
will!" Her friends crowded around the presiding 
officer. "She has said it; indeed, sir, she has said 
it." ** Will she take the abjuration ? " he demanded. 
" Never ! " she exclaimed. " I am Christ's ; let me 
go!" And the waters closed over her for the last time. 
The name of Margaret Wilson, in the churchyard 
at Wigton, appears in the appendix to ** Cloud of 
Witnesses " : 

"• Murdered for owning Christ supreme, 
Head of His Church, and no more crime, 
But her not owning Prelacy, 
And not abjuring Presbytery, 
Within the sea tied to a stake, 
She suffered for Christ Jesus' sake." 

The subject — a painful one — became, in the hands 
of Mr Birch^ a masterpiece of exalted heroism 

263 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

in the moment of death, and as such was greatly 
admired by all critics. I gave the talented sculptor a 
commission to execute the work life size in marble, and 
in little over a year he completed the statue, which 
I regard as one of my most precious possessions. 

Mr Birch died quite suddenly ten years ago. Had 
he lived he would, no doubt, have greatly advanced 
his reputation as a sculptor of refined taste. 

One of the most interesting visits I ever paid to 
the Ro)ral Academy and to the New Gallery was 
in the company of a well-known painter of Biblical 
subjects. He took the greatest pains to point out 
to me the most telling points in the best paintings 
of both galleries, and laid down for my instruction 
the principles of correct art criticism, which I had 
never before properly appreciated. This knowledge 
alone enables one to distinguish between meritricious 
work and the creation of genius. 

Of American writers and novelists a long roll of 
distinguished names confront me, both men and 
women, with an international reputation, and with 
as large a public interested in their works in this 
country as in their own land. To particularise would 
be invidious. The works of American poets, his- 
torians, biographers and essayists, writers of fiction, 
dialect stories, humorous works — ^all of such as have 
achieved renown in their own country have been 
equally appreciated in England. International 
Copyright Laws, happily, have passed for protec- 
tion. During my proprietorship pf The Academy^ 
I had often the pleasure of hearing American 

264 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

authors express high appreciation of English literary 
criticism. 

The expressions **Good Luck" and "Bad Luck" 
fall very glibly from the tongue, but they represent no 
principles which have any existence in fact ; they have 
no meaning as determining the source of success or 
failure. Change the phrases into "good work" and 
"bad work," and you have a substantial explanation 
of " good " and " bad " luck. 

Some people apparently fail in everything which 
they undertake, and others seem to prosper in every- 
thing which they enter upon. There is no mystery 
about either success or failure. I have never had a 
complaint made to me of "bad luck" but that, after 
hearing details, I could trace the cause of failure. 
Some men have, unfortunately for themselves, got the 
word " unlucky " attached to their character, and are 
consequently handicapped in every one of their under- 
takings beforehand, and feel unable to make the great 
effort necessary to ensure success. Men who have 
this reputation find a difficulty in obtaining a remuner- 
ative appointment, because they are perpetually faced 
with the proverb : " Never have anything to do with 
unlucky men." 

The truth is that an unlucky man is one who is 
entirely responsible for his own bad luck. If nerve, 
energy, and exertion had been brought to bear upon 
his work there would have been no failure. I am 
not speaking of those who have been unfortunate 
through ill-health, or unexpected cares and respon- 
sibilities being cast upon them — I refer more 

265 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

particularly to those who admit that they have had 
chances in life, but that bad luck pursued them, and 
nothing good happened. 

On the lines of non-success and failure I place as 
the most serious of reasons — assuming that there 
exist the qualities of insight and intelligence — ^un- 
punctuality, vacillation, or indecision ; and lack of 
concentrated industry and perseverance. The un- 
punctual man is simply impossible, and no amount 
of excuses can redeem this fault. '' Talking through 
your hat," with vagfue, indefinite answers, always 
exasperates, to the prejudice of one's proposition. 
Indolence, and no continuity of purpose, will ex- 
plain many a failure. 

Another point to be remembered in connection 
with success or failure is the mistaken policy of 
people who will not undertake any work which is 
not congenial, or work in which they are not inter- 
ested. A man out of employment must take the 
first respectable work which is offered him, and not 
many days will elapse before something more suitable 
to his abilites will come in his way. The waiting 
for things to turn up, and doing nothing meanwhile, 
is the cause of disaster to thousands. 

The subject of precedents frequently hinders suc- 
cessful business operations from being brought to a 
successful completion. You can rarely escape from 
a difficulty by following precedents. Because a thing 
which has been proposed has not been done before, 
merchants frequently decline really good and sub- 
stantial business. An American, on the other hand, 

266 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

is always ready to consider any business proposition, 

whether there is a precedent for the transaction or 

not. He will decide the matter upon the question 

of merit alone, and not upon the ground that his 

grandfather did, or did not do, a similar thing before 

him. 

I am able to record, however, several remarkable 

successes of Englishmen in becoming Universal Pro- 
viders, and in the Establishment of ** Stores " and 
Co-operative Trading for which there was no pre- 
cedent until they set the example. " John Bull " has 
certainly eclipsed " Jonathan " in one branch of 
trading with which I have been associated. American 
and British Proprietors have good reason to appre- 
ciate the enterprise* and genius of Jesse Boot, of 
Nottingham, by whose wise judgment and untiring 
devotion to work 350 chemist's shops of the highest 
class have been established in Great Britain for the 
dispensing of Pure Drugs at popular prices and the 
distribution of all wares belonging to a Chemist' 
business. How was this accomplished ? The 
answer is, by a personality ! a master mind for 
organisation ! But it is ^' Boots, Limited," a public 
Company ; yes ! there is, however, but one Manag- 
ing Director ! The One Man authority : the triumph 
of personal direction — unhampered by a " Board ' 
and a ** Committee." Other chemists' organisations 
of suitable character with important branches exist 
in England, but Mr. Boot was the pioneer — just as 
William Whiteley was the original Universal Pro- 
vider. 

267 



CHAPTER XVIII 

Solicitors, Barristers, and Attorneys -at-Law — Bills of Costs — Judges in 
England and United States — Medical Men — Fire Brigades- 
Management of Street Traffic — Bank of England — General Post 
Office — Holidays — Waste caused in England — Bicycles and Tri- 
cycles — Freemasons — Clubs — The Sphinx Club — Circulating 
Libraries— 7*A« Times Book Club— Patents — Motors. 

In England there are two branches of the law, repre- 
sented by Solicitors and Barristers; whereas in the 
United States there is only one branch. The solicitor 
in the States is usually styled Attorney and Counsellor- 
at-law, and he not only prepares the case, but re- 
presents the plaintiff or defendant in court. What 
usually happens, however, is this. Two or more 
Attorneys form a partnership, and they select from 
amongst themselves the one who will best represent 
the firm by pleading in open court, the consulting 
partner seeing the clients and their witnesses, and 
preparing the brief. 

In England the barrister is the only one who 
pleads in the High Courts, and the solicitor prepares 
the case for him. The barrister does not directly 
see the client himself, until he appears in court. So 
carefully are cases prepared that not unusually a 
barrister has a brief handed to him only a few minutes 
before the case is called, and by his experience in 
examining briefs he is able at once to master the 
contents, and to grasp the points, and proceed without 

268 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

difficulty. This duplicating of legal services adds, of 
course, to the expenses of legal proceedings. An 
important case would always involve the briefing of 
a senior as well as a junior counsel, and when there 
are two or three parties to a suit each must be re- 
presented by Counsel, senior or junior. 

In the United States the Attorney carries the whole 
business through all the courts. Wigs and gowns 
are not worn. 

In rendering the Bill of Costs in the States, 
attorneys do not present them in detail, but put 
down one sum for the whole business. Frequently, 
in important cases, a retaining fee is paid to the 
Attorney, but credit is given for this when making 
up the final account 

Many of my American legal friends have been 
much amused at seeing an English solicitor's bill of 
costs, setting forth every interview had, and every 
letter written, at 6s. 8d. — whole pages of fool- 
scap being taken up with the setting out of these 
items. 

In the United States Judges are not appointed for 
life ; and there is no pension upon retirement, the period 
of service being limited to fifteen years. In England 
a Judge selects his own time for retiring, and receives 
a pension. A judge of the Supreme Court of New 
York receives from 10,000 to 15,000 dollars a year, 
the sum varying according to the particular district in 
which he sits. Those sitting for the city and county 
of New York have the largest salaries. A judge 
of the High Court in England receives a salary of 

269 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

;^5cxx>, and upon retirement a pension amounting 
tp ;^25oo, a yean 

In reference to the practice of Medicine in England, 
no man may style himself a '' doctor" unless he has 
passed the examinations prescribed by the Royal 
College of Physicians and Surgeons. Surgeons, as 
a rule, prefer to be called *' Mr.," and, therefore, rarely 
take the M.D. degree. Prosecutions frequently take 
place of unauthorised persons styling themselves 
'' doctors." In England no one can obtain the 
degree of M.D. who has not gone through a proper 
course of study and hospital experience; but in the 
United States there is no difficulty about obtaining 
this degree, nor is there any objection to any man 
calling himself ''doctor," if he thinks fit to do so. 
A great many retail chemists in the States call them- 
selves Doctors ; and there is no law to prevent chemists 
prescribing. 

A man may also set up as a chemist and druggist, 
and act as an apothecary, without holding any degree 
whatever. But, notwithstanding this, chemists' shops 
are well conducted, and more elaborately fitted up 
and appointed, than Chemists' shops in England. 
Silver-mounted showcases, marble floor and counters, 
are usual fittings ; and the owners have studied 
properly, and understand the proper methods of dis- 
pensing. They are responsible in law for any evil 
result following upon their mode of prescribing or 
dispensing medicine. 

In 1 87 1 I made the acquaintance of Dr James 
Edmunds, F.R.C.S. London, and he became our 

270 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

family physician and devoted friend, and has so con- 
tinued to this day. What we owe of gratitude to 
Dr Edmunds for his professional skill and services 
and warm friendly interest in our welfare, at all times 
and in all ways, I cannot express in words. Dr 
Edmunds has retired from active practice, and has 
removed from London to Brighton, but still attends 
upon old patients and friends when possible. His 
plan was always to suggest methods to "keep well," 
and he was never a doctor who believed in much 
coddling, nor was he disposed to order narcotics or 
spirits. He was loth to recommend sea -voyages, 
winters in Egypt, or the Riviera. His sound practi- 
cal advice was " Get well at home," where favourable 
conditions are under your own control, such as good 
beds, warmth, food, sanitation, quiet, and nursing. 
** But change of air.^" "Yes; when you are well, 
and fit to travel, and can put up with the self-denials 
involved in all journeys and the life in hotels." Dr 
Edmunds has not " Luke " for his surname ; but he 
is known as "The Good Physician," to hundreds of 
American and English families. 

Another variation upon an accepted practice in 
England is that Members of both Houses of Con- 
gress in the States are paid a per diem salary. 
A Senator receives 5000 dollars per annum, and a 
Member of Congress 5000 dollars. In addition they 
are allowed mileage expenses. Members of both 
Houses do not now enjoy the privilege of "franking" 
letters through the Post Office. 

Members of the British Houses of Parliament 

271 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

enjoy no allowances or privileges of this kind what- 
ever, A Member of Parliament in England may be 
elected for any constituency for which he chooses 
to stand, and he decides for himself whether this shall 
be his own county or borough, or any other more 
distant. As an example, Mr Gladstone always selected 
what was considered the most difficult constituency, 
in order that he might in this way streng^then the 
political party to which he belonged, knowing that 
he could really get in through any constituency he 
chose. In 1880 he chose to put up for Mid- Lothian, 
in the south of Scotland, a strong Tory centre, and 
which was sure to return a Conservative Member 
unless a powerful opponent came forward. Mr T. P. 
O'Connor, an Irishman, residing in London, has 
represented North Liverpool for a great many years ; 
and this is the case with many of the most prominent 
members of the House of Commons. They become 
identified with important constituencies, and repre- 
sent them year after year, probably only paying a 
visit to their constituents, and making a speech, once 
in the twelve months. 

Members of Parliament in England may be un- 
seated if proof is given that they have directly or 
indirectly been guilty of bribery amongst the voters 
whom they represent The employment of vehicles 
for which payment has to be made is illegal, though 
many voters may reside at a considerable distance 
from the polling booth. All carriages and other 
vehicles then made use of on the day of election, 
must be lent free of cost by friends of the cause. 

27a 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

Another curious matter which differs from the 
practice in the United States is that, a voter may 
cast his vote for a Member of Parliament in as many 
different constituencies, as he pays rates and taxes. 
A Londoner may have one vote in the suburb in 
which he resides, another in the city where he 
carnes on business ; and yet others in more distant 
places where he happens to pay the rent and the 
taxes. 

Any Candidate is allowed to employ and pay 
a Parliamentary agent to act for him, send out 
circulars, and solicit votes, but he must not make 
any nionetary payment to a voter, or promise any- 
thing of the kind. Treating at public-houses at 
election time is also prohibited by law. Legitimate 
election expenses include the cost of Halls for meet- 
ings. But this is well known : that any independent 
candidate for Parliamentary honours is afforded 
ample opportunities of influencing an election by 
the subscriptions and donations he is asked for, on 
behalf of all sorts of local schemes for raising money 
for bazaars, charities, hospitals, and athletic sports. 

The Fire Brigade service in London I once 
believed to be as perfect, or more perfect, than any 
other in the world. But my faith has been rudely 
shaken by the declarations of Dr Edward Atkinson, 
who ranks as one of the greatest experts on pro- 
tection from fire living in the States. I shall quote 
from a statement made by him to a representative 
of The Evening Standard and St James's Gazette, 
which appeared on 3rd August. He has studied 
s 273 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

the question of protection from loss of life and 
property by practical observation ; and upon his 
advice several precautionary measures were taken 
for the better security of the art treasures in the 
National Gallery, Trafalgar Square. A further im- 
provement he suggests is the substitution of ''wire 
glass for ordinary glass in all the upper windows." 
This is as important for use in Private houses and 
factories as in Art galleries and Museums. He says : 
** I have seen it made red-hot on one side, while 
cold water was played on the other without causing 
a break. As a fire protection this glass is as good 
as a brick wall." Appliances in England, he declares, 
''are mere toys" compared to those in use throughout 
the States. He did not see, on his last visit, "a 
single stand-pipe in any street." " In America the 
stand-pipe runs to the highest floor of the loftiest 
building, and is so constructed that the engine can 
be connected without a minute's delay. No hose is 
needed, and water is thrown on to every floor." Fire 
protection in factories throughout England" he 
considers "inadequate." Since the system he re- 
commends has been adopted in the States, " not one 
life has been lost in any of the factories." Improved 
methods of protection from fire are greatly needed 
in London. 

Up to within the last forty years, in the United 
States, the whole Fire Department in cities and towns 
was entirely voluntary, and only became a duly- 
organised body with the creation of the steam fire- 
engine, which, I believe, was an American invention. 

274 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

At the Communal insurrection in Paris, when that 
delightful city was set on fire in more than a score 
of places at the same time, there was no steam fire- 
engine to be found, • One had never been seen by the 
Parisians, and the first used in Paris was sent over 
from London, when the Communists had been 
suppressed. 

As a young man in new York, I remember that 
to belong to a Fire Company, or a Hook and Ladder 
Company, was as popular as volunteering in 
England, and the major number of young men of 
the best families were members of one company or 
another. The Engine- House and the Hook and 
Ladder Shelters were used as Clubs, and members 
would go there to talk and smoke, and wait for the 
alarm signal. Both forms of these fire appliances 
were drawn by ropes, every member of the company 
assisting to drag, and the expenses were raised by 
private subscriptions. With the invention of the 
steam fire-engine came the creation of the Public 
Fire Department, which is under the control of the 
city of New York, and is maintained out of the 
rates. The chief engineer of the Fire Department, 
Harry Howard, I can remember, became the idol 
of the youth of New York. His career was a re- 
markable one. He had been left an orphan at an 
early age, and was cared for in the first instance 
by some city charity, and when he grew up attracted 
attention by the successful manner in which he 
rescued a number of persons from burning buildings, 
winning for himself a reputation for fearlessness and 

275 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

courage second to none. At his death he had a 
public funeral, which was attended by the entire 
Fire Brigade of New York, 

The management of the London Street Traffic by 
the police has been a subject of frequent, and always 
complimentary, remark by visitors from all parts of 
the world, and only recently an inspector of the 
police force of New York was despatched to 
London to study the method which is in force. 

As a boy, I can remember that in New York 
there was no Rule of the Road in existence, and 
omnibuses would bolt across the street in front of 
a carriage, dray, or private equipage. The principle 
adopted was for everyone to drive as they liked, 
the result being an absolute block in the streets for 
hours at a time, which the police were unable to 
unravel. Upon one occasion our American Am- 
bassador, Mr Bayard, wrote a letter to the Press of 
England complimenting the authorities on their 
management of the Street Traffic, and he spoke of 
the method adopted as illustration of the power of a 
policeman's uplifted hand. '* No word was spoken," 
he remarked. *'A constable raises his hand, and 
the traffic in one direction was immediately stopped. 
Any breach of the signal given resulted in the 
offender being summoned before a magistrate, and 
fined, and, if the driver of a licensed vehicle, upon 
a repetition of the offence, the licence would be 
cancelled. So admirable a system is to the interest 
and advantage of the whole travelling community." 

The Bank of England is always an object of great 

276 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

interest to all American visitors, and I believe this 
is the only bank anyone has the least curiosity to 
visit An order to view is easily obtained, and the 
visitor is shown the whole process of issuing bank- 
notes, and the various methods adopted in a great 
banking institution. At the close of his visit the 
stranger will probably boast that he has seen more 
gold, and more value represented by bank-notes, 
than ever in his life before. If, when a cheque is 
presented, the question is asked : " How do you wish 
this cheque cashed, in notes or gold ? " and the reply 
is *' Gold," the sovereigns are never counted, but 
shovelled into a scale, weighed out, placed in a bag, 
and handed over. So accurate is the weighing that 
no mistake is ever made. In the course of his 
journey the Visitor will be shown a comparatively 
small bag of gold, and will be courteously informed 
that if he can carry the bag across the room he 
may become the owner for his pains, yet no one 
has ever been able to carry the bag far enough to 
establish a claim to possession. At another point 
a bundle of bank-notes is placed in the stranger's 
hand, with the announcement that the bundle re- 
presents ;^ 1,000,000 of money, so that for a few 
seconds the stranger has really been a millionaire, 
without the burden of any further responsibility after 
leaving the precincts presided over by the "Old 
Lady of Threadneedle Street." The bank is guarded 
at night by a Lieutenant of the Guards and a number 
of Guardsmen. 

The Postal System in England deserves the highest 

277 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

possible commendation for accuracy and promptness 
and the rarity of a failure in delivery. Since my 
residence in England commenced, the Telegraph and 
Telephone services have been acquired by the Service, 
and the parcel post has been established — all of them 
being carried on at as reasonable a cost as is consistent 
with the administrative outlay. The only omission in 
the Parcel Post system — which is included in that 
of the United States — is that in England the Post 
Office will not C.O.D. This system, which is found 
to be of great utility in the States, has been carefully 
and experimentally considered in England, and, no 
doubt, will in time be adopted One great source 
of objection is that raised by Provincial Traders, who 
consider that the system would divert the small 
trading upon which they rely to large houses in the 
cities. In the States, if the receiver of the parcel 
does not pay on the tender of the parcel, the goods are 
not handed over. 

With regard to the matter of Holidays, Americans 
are greatly surprised with their frequency, and con- 
sider that they are far too numerous. I do not share 
this opinion. The legalised Bank Holidays are Good 
Friday, Easter Monday, Whit Monday, the first 
Monday in August, Christmas Day, and 26th De- 
cember. These six holidays as an aggregate are not 
really too numerous, but the difficulty arises when 
to each of these holidays an extra day or two is, by 
universal custom, added. For instance, with regard to 
Good Friday, most of the large city warehouses and 
public institutions will close from the Thursday to the 

278 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

following Tuesday, and even longer occasionally. 
Factories are shut down for a week, and the same 
thing recurs at August and Christmas. The belief 
is that the indulgence of the people generally at these 
periods causes absence from work really extending 
through many weeks. The wages paid at factories 
stop, of course, during these prolonged holidays, and 
debt is incurred which cripples the work-people for 
a long time after they return to their usual employ- 
ment 

In the United States the great holidays are Decora- 
tion Day, 30th May ; New Year's Day ; Lincoln's 
Birthday, 12th February; Washington's Birthday, 
22nd February ; Independence Day, 4th July ; Labour 
Day, 5th September ; Thanksgiving Day, usually the 
last Thursday in November; and Christmas Day. 
These are two more in number than are enjoyed in 
England and Ireland ; but the consequences are not 
the same, because work is resumed on the day follow- 
ing a holiday with almost exact regularity, so that 
there is no loss of wages following through the indul- 
gence of the workers, as is the case in England. 

When I first came to England Bicycles and 
Tricycles had not been invented. The Bicycle 
gradually rose to an unprecedented popularity, being 
taken up by men, women, and children in every 
rank of life. The tricycle had a very short popular 
existence, and this year (1905) both vehicles are 
gradually dropping out of popular esteem, and they 
are not in demand by one-tenth what they were 
ten years ago. I never became a successful cyclist, 

279 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

though I was one of the first to purchase a tricycle 
— one of those popularly known as a " H umber." 
At that time the only fault the machine had was 
the risk the rider ran in descending a hill, which 
made the probability of a spill over the handle- 
bar not at all unlikely, unless you could carefully 
balance yourself. But improvements followed in 
rapid succession, and to-day the makers maintain 
their high reputation for both bicycles and tricycles. 
On one Bank Holiday I set out for a long day in 
the country, and came to utter grief at Richmond 
Hill, which is only six miles from the Marble Arch. 
One knee was so badly scarred by my fall that I 
had to call a four-wheeler, put the tricycle on the 
roof, and so was driven home in disgrace. 

A few days later, having recovered, I rode my 
tricycle to Harrow, accompanied by a medical friend. 
We rode well on the outward spin, but returning, 
coming down Harrow Hill, my companion just 
happened to touch the hub of my machine, and I was 
made to repeat the gymnastic feat I accomplished 
at Richmond Hill, and had to repeat the course 
I previously took, in order to reach home. I have 
never mounted any cycle since. 

I should admit that from boyhood I never considered 
I ever had any Engineering ability, and I was regarded 
as one so utterly devoid of mechanical knowledge as 
to be unable to sharpen a blacklead pencil. I do not 
think I am quite so helpless as that; but upon one 
occasion Professor Fowler, the phrenologist, examined 
my bumps at a lecture he gave at the City Temple, 

aSo 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

and declared that whatever other gifts I might possess 
mechanical genius was not one of them. The Professor 
was right. 

While Bicycles and Tricycles have largely retired 
from public favour, the Motor car has certainly become 
established in public use in a most remarkable 
manner. Probably no single invention of so costly 
a character— for motor cars in England cost from 
£250 to ;^2000— has ever before attained such enor- 
mous popularity. Even wealthy people have practically 
emptied their stables, and sold their carriages, preferring 
Motor Broughams for daily use, and large Cars for road 
travel. For the future, I believe that the inventive 
genius of the manufacturers in the several foreign 
cotmtries where they are now made, will shortly put on 
the market a car, which will not exceed the cost of 
an ordinary carriage. 

The Motor vehicle is not only used in England 
as a private carriage, but is rapidly becoming a public 
convenience of the day. About the streets the Motor 
Bus is fast supplanting the omnibus with horse power. 
As trade vehicles they have appeared in large numbers, 
and motor engines on the roads have met with the 
distinct approval of many classes as a great convenience. 
The great Omnibus companies are gradually altering 
their plant for motor power, and the same may be said 
of almost every description of public vehicle, including 
Tramcars. 

There are so many Freemasons in all parts of the 
world that I have frequently been questioned by 
members of the brotherhood as to the extent of the 

281 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

Order in the States. As to numbers, I believe there 
are, according to Grand Lodge returns, upwards of 
1,000,000 Masons in the States. I joined the Order in 
1872, and since then have had many American Masons 
as personal guests, or as guests of the Lodges to which 
I have belonged. A Masonic banquet is not a feature 
in the United States, and the habit of holding one 
following a meeting of the lodge is unusual. This, 
however, is invaribly the custom in England. 

Amongst London Clubs there are a large number 
which are partly social and partly literary. These 
have no Club-houses of their own, and only meet 
upon certain fixed occasions. This is the case with 
the New Vagabond Club, the White Friars, the 
Sphinx, and others. 

Amongst many associations in London formed 
amongst Commercial men for mutual assistance and 
the interchange of ideas, one of the most interesting 
is the Sphinx Club, which was founded in October 1904 
by twenty gentlemen connected with the advertising 
profession, and their allies — newspaper proprietors, 
publishers, and advertisers. I had the honour of 
being elected the first president. A monthly dinner 
is held, after which a debate upon a given subject 
connected with the profession takes place. One of 
these was ''What is Advertising?" which gave rise 
to an important and valuable discussion. Other 
topics of a kindred character have been taken at 
the club dinners. At the banquet held in May at 
the Hotel Cecil members had an agreeable surprise 
at the hands of that prince of cartoonists, Mr F. 

28a 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

Carruthers Gould, who presented to each a copy 
of an Egyptian scroll, in which, while gently carica- 
turing, he also idealised and immortalised, a few of 
the prominent members of the Club. 

The system of Circulating Libraries in London and 
other parts of England is well carried out, and all 
of them are well supplied with up-to-date literature, 
while the subscriptions are really moderate. A firm 
known as Mudie's is the most prominent and best 
known, and from this library the vast majority 
of country libraries are supplied. The business done 
by circulating libraries has greatly diminished since 
the establishment of rate-aided Public Libraries and 
by the reduction in price of popular fiction. Prior 
to 1 890 nearly all novels were issued in three-volume 
sets, the published price being 31s. 6d. This put 
the purchase of such works quite out of the reach 
of ordinary readers, and the Libraries not only 
became the best customers of the publishers, but 
frequently determined the success or failure of a new 
work. If the Libraries declined to buy, the book 
was almost certainly doomed to be a failure. All 
this, however, has now been changed, and at the 
present day 6s. is the publishing price of books 
by the most popular authors, and this is practically 
reduced to 4s. 6d. by the net figures charged by 
retail booksellers. As a result, people now buy 
books, where previously, they borrowed from a 
library to read only. This should also be noted, 
that books published originally at 6s., after their 
first popularity is passed^ are issued in cheap editions 

283 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

of IS. 6d, and even at is. — well bound — ^while many 
standard works, of which the copyrights have expired, 
may be bought at 4^. or 6d. 

While these pages have been passing through the 
press, The Times^ which is ever in the van of literary 
progress, has announced a new scheme for a lending 
library in conjunction with the issue of their journal. 
This is called '' The Times Book Club/' and affords 
every subscriber to their paper the opportunity of 
reading the latest published works in every depart- 
ment of art, drama, philosophy, poetry, travels 
and science, on demand without charge. Three 
books may be had at a time ; they may be changed 
every day ; and after being read be purchased at half 
the published price. A finely-appointed depot is 
opened in the west end, and the enterprise is worthy 
the genius of the great paper. 

The Book- Lovers' Library is also a flourishing 
institution with a reasonable subscription and con- 
venient facilities. Boots Limited have added a lend- 
ing library to their other departments, and have scored 
a great success in obtaining the patronage of book 
readers in all localities where their stores are situated. 

What were called the " Yellow Backs " have almost 
disappeared, and the new cheap editions are issued 
bound in cloth, and sold at the lowest prices. Even 
authors of the present day find their works saleable 
at these low figures, and while they are glad of 
the large circulation which they obtain, have to 
admit a loss of income as a result of this form of 
trading. 

284 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

The fact is not generally known that a Patent 
can be obtained in England upon any article, whether 
a new invention or otherwise. No inquiry or test 
is made of any kind. You simply say to the clerk 
you wish to patent a certain invention, and they 
issue a Patent, and take your fee, which is no 
guarantee whatever as to the validity, because an- 
other may have anticipated yours. The fees, fortun- 
ately, for this supposed patent are most moderate. 

In the United States a Patent is not granted 
until after submission to the examiners, and search 
made as to similar patents, and no Patent is granted 
unless there is proof that the invention is new, 
novel in principle, and that principle never antici- 
pated. Such a Patent is at once of great value if 
the invention is valuable, because protection is at 
once ensured from infringement But in England 
the value or insignificance of a Patent can only be 
ascertained after an action at law with another 
claimant, which is a very expensive transaction. 



aSs 



CHAPTER XIX 

Afterwords — Gathering op the Threads 

In this closing chapter of my reminiscences I have 
left many friends and relatives in business and at 
home doing their appointed work with all their 
might, with all their heart Many are still living 
and labouring as before, and the consecrated life flows 
on, like a stream descending from a mountain, only 
occasionally ruffled by a projecting rock or jutting 
crag, pressing forward to the sea. 

I have spoken of my sainted mother's death and 
burial. She now lies in the Beals burial plot at 
Canandaigua, whither her body was removed in 1863. 

The last journey my dear father took, by sea and 
land, was to visit me, and he met his death by a 
strange accident at Edinburgh. Of this I have 
spoken. 

My Father married for his third wife Mrs Helen 
Lawrence Franklin, widow of George Franklin, and 
a descendant of the Lawrence family of Flushing, 
Long Island. She survived my Father twenty-eight 
years, and died in 1902, leaving one son, the child of 
her first marriage. He adopted legally the name of 
Richards, and is a practising lawyer in New 
Hampshire. 

In reviewing the years of my business life in 

286 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

London, justice compels me to refer to those who 
have been actively engaged with me, and to whose 
loyal service I am deeply indebted. My office staff 
from the very beginning have, in the majority of 
cases, proved most efficient, and in several cases have 
developed exceptional gifts, showing great devotion 
to the furtherance of my plans^ and so advanced the 
interests of my firm. 

A member of my staff who joined me in 1886 was 
my uncle, Mr Thomas Spencer Beats, my mother's 
brother. The late Mr Beals, in consequence of a 
business disaster in the States, caused by no neglect 
of his own, urgently requested me to take him into 
my office, and in his sixty-fifth year, with his wife 
and daughter, crossed the Atlantic to take up my 
work in the old country. He came over in 1886, 
entered upon his new duties with great zest, carried 
them out with the utmost ability and punctiliousness ; 
was never absent except on two occasions when ill, 
took very moderate holidays, and died after seventeen 
years' faithful service, at the age of eighty-three, 19th 
March 1904. His whole career of work in London 
was a remarkable performance. 

In addition to American agencies, I have for twenty 
years been the English representative of two eminent 
manufacturers in Belgium — viz. Ch. Delacre et Fils 
and L. Ecckelaers of Brussels — and my personal 
relations with these gentlemen have always been 
delightful to me, and their hearty appreciation of 
Anglo-American methods has been a matter of satis- 
faction — ever evincing a keen interest to advance 

287 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

with the times; never seeking for a precedent, or 
fearing an innovation. 

Other firms have entrusted their business agencies 
in England to me, and our relations have nearly 
always ripened into warm friendship with their 
principals, and I am glad to say that no firms which 
have placed their business in my hands have ever 
withdrawn from me ; and I have never been associated 
with a failure in their interests. This may be ac- 
counted for by their talent and skill in suggesting 
a course of procedure, rather than following my own 
initiative. Still, in many cases I acted entirely on my 
own responsibility, and without any limitations being 
placed upon my actions. 

My old friend and first employer, to whom I have 
made frequent reference, Mr Demas Barnes, became 
a Member of Congress before I left the United States. 
He died in New York on ist May 1888. During 
his Congressional term he was active in procuring 
Legislation for the construction of the Brooklyn 
Bridge, and was a Member of the first Board of 
Trustees. He also advocated the building of the 
new Post Office in New York, as well as other large 
works of a similar kind. He was a Director of 
the Long Island Railway, and of several Insurance 
Companies, and was prominently connected with many 
Philanthropic and Charitable Institutions. He left 
a fortune of several millions. His first wife, who was 
with him on his first visit to me, died; and he re- 
married. He had one daughter by his first marriage 
— Miss Cora Barnes, and one daughter by his second 

288 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

wife — Miss Mildred Barnes. Mrs Barnes was married 
in 1892 to Mr William Henry Bliss, a prominent 
Lawyer an4 District Attorney of St Louis, Mo., 
and who afterwards removed to New York. These 
ladies frequently visit this country, and are among 
my dearest friends. 

One of the most important successes achieved by 
Mr Demas Barnes in i860 was by forming a partner- 
ship with Mr P. H. Drake, and trading as P. H. 
Drake & Co. This firm was established to continue 
and enlarge a business originally started in the town 
of Binghamton, State of New York. Mr Drake was 
one of the most genial of men, and I have* spent many 
pleasant hours with him, both in New York and 
London. He died in 1883. His only daughter is 
Mrs Arthur Duane of New York, and, like the 
daughters of Mr Barnes, has always kept in touch 
with me and my family, and with feelings of mutual 
regard. 

With regard to partners, Mr Demas Barnes always 
held that no partnership could be successful where 
each partner did not combine talent with capital. 
He was certainly fortunate in his own partnerships. 
Mr John F. Henry ultimately became the successor 
of the firm of Demas Barnes, having upon Mr 
Barnes' retirement purchased the stock and goodwill 
of the whole of the business, with the exception of the 
proprietary articles, which he reserved as his own 
private property. This was in 1873. Mr Henry 
continued the business, and took in two partners, but 
in February 1876 the firm went into liquidation. 
T 289 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

Mr W. P. Ward and Mr Brent Good, with whom I 
was so pleasantly associated in my early days, have 
both carried on business associations with me up to 
the present time ; and each of them spends a portion 
of each year travelling in England and upon the 
Continent. 

My brother-in-law, Mr Henry K. Terry, with 
whom I was associated in the tobacco enterprise, left 
England soon after the Tobacco Trade Amalgama- 
tion, and settled in Richmond, Virginia — ^afterwards 
removing to Minnesota, where he now resides. 
Mr John F. Allen, and Mr Lewis Ginter, the 
founder of the " Richmond Gem," and other brands 
of American cigarettes and tobaccos (Allen & 
Ginter), both died at Richmond, Virginia, within 
the last ten years. 

Mr S. R. Van Duzer, under whose auspices I came 
to England in 1887, died at Newburgh, New York, 
in 1904. I saw him upon two occasions only after 
the dissolution of partnership, in 1872. His son, 
Frederick C. Van Duzer, has conducted and managed 
the business, first as partner with his father, and 
latterly as the surviving partner, and has for many 
years been one of my best friends. 

With regard to those of my relatives whose names 
I have introduced into these reminiscences, I must 
place on grateful record a few facts concerning 
them. 

. My brother James, after leaving college, entered 
upon the study of the law. He received the degree 
of LL.B. from the University Law School, taking 

• 290 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

a further course of two years in the Columbia Law 
School under Theodore W. Dwight, LL.D., receiv- 
ing the same degree and the further honour of LL.M. 
after having delivered the Alumni address a year after 
graduating, and in due course was admitted a member 
of the Bar in New York. He began practising Law 
at once, continuing in practice from 1863 to 1898. 
At first in partnership with Mr C. N. Bovee, the well- 
known author and Philosophical writer, and from 1874 
to 1898 was associated with the eminent Law firm 
of Coudert Brothers of New York. 

The special Branch to which he gave his attention 
was the Law of Real Property. In 1897 he was 
elected President of the Dwight Alumni Association 
of the City of New York, succeeding in that office 
Justice Morgan J. O'Bryan of the Appellate Division 
of the Supreme Court of the City of New York. 

Leaving the States, he has travelled considerably 
through Europe, enjoys excellent health, and is a 
constant visitor at Steephill Castle. He married 
three years later than I did. His wife died five 
years ago, leaving no family ; and he now enjoys 
complete rest from professional labours, and finds 
in the pursuits of a country gentleman, with occa- 
sional excursions into literary work, that solace and 
happiness which he deserves. 

My sister Caroline married Mr Edmund C. Clarke 
of Naples, a lake village about eight miles from 
Canandaigua, New York. She has one son and three 
daughters. All of them are living. 

My sister Anna married Mr A. A. Cummings of 

291 



• •* 



P 



With John Bull and Jonathan 

San Francisco, who died while on a visit to me in 
1894, since which time she has made her home 
with me. 

My stepmother, after a number of years, died at 
Jackson, Michigan. 

My sister Elizabeth became the wife of Mr Justice 
J. T. Marean of the Supreme Court of the State of 
New York. Their home is in Brooklyn, New York, 
and they are in the enjoyment of leisure and means. 
They have crossed the Atlantic many times, always 
visiting me, and meeting together on terms of mutual 
affection and interest. 

My sister Julia died when she was three years 
of age. 

My wife is an established favourite with all classes. 
Her heart is ever open to the appeal of the ** unlucky." 
She facetiously observed upon one occasion : " There 
are two classes of letters addressed to me, the contents 
of which I know by heart as soon as I read the open- 
ing sentence. One begins : * Knowing your kind 
heart' — ^she is a woman who wants me to visit her, 
and see her seventeen children. A second com- 
mences : * Forgive an utter stranger for troubling you ; 
if you knew my distress' — ^she is a lady who wants 
me to lift a mortgage on her house of ;^300." 

Occasionally, in her goodness of heart, she has been 
led into undertakings of great difficulty. Upon one 
occasion, in 1879, she received from Hablot K. 
Browne (*' PAiz "), the well - known illustrator of 
Dichens' works and others, a portfolio full of 
sketches, which he asked her to show her friends, 

292 


















B OF pr*w:ho bi " rHiz," 1879. 



< 



k' ' 



With John BuH and Jonathan 

who might purchase A few. She was unsucces^ul 
*in this, and aiter a certain time had elapsed he wrote 
a pleasant note, asking for the return of the portfolio^t 
jexpressmg the hope that they were not thrown on 
the dust-heap. 

/On the opposite page is a £aicsimile of his letter, 
sketch, and autograph. 

In^my own family circle there has for nrany years 

been only "one vacant chair." My daughters have 

known sorrow; and still face their daily duty with 

h^rpic faith. 

, My sons are at my right hand with me in business. 

My wife has counselled and supported me in the 
most difficult and the most sad experiences of my life ; 
all my joys have been shared with her. We both 
are blessed with wonderful health and cheerful tem- 
peraments. Personally, I am both active and energetic, 
continuing in my business from preference, and desire. 

To odier comrades and beloved ones whom I have 
loved, and from whom I have parted, with deep 
reverence J adopt the language of St Paul the 
Apostle: ** And what shall I more say? for the time 
would fail me to tell of Gideon, and of Barak, and 
of Samson, and of Jephthab." 

For myself I also use a Scriptural expression : 
"What shall I render unto the Lord for all His 
ibenefits ?*" 

'' Tlie Now is an atom of Sand, 

And the Near is a perishing Clod, 
But Afar is as Fairyland, 
And BEYOND is the Bosom of God" 

293 



• • 



• 



• 






• 



Index 



Academy, 159, 161, 364 
^' Academy crowning," 160 
Accent and pronuncisitiony 202 
Advanced phannacy, 76 
Advertising, 46 et seq. 

— fireworlo, 52 

— in England and United States, 

59 

— hatf-a-million spent in, 236 
Advertisement, a puzzling, 52 
Albany, Bishop o^ 154 
Alexander, George, 120 
Alexander, Rev. Prat W. L., 83 
Alfonso XI le, 117 

Alien American, the, 177 
'* Alien unnaturalised," 177 
Allen & Co, J. F^ 66, 290 
Allen & Ginter, 66, 68, 290 
Alterations in buildings and streets, 

162 
American, a cute|, 51 ^/ m^. 

— cigarettes, introduction into 
England, 66, 67 

— colony in London, 149 

— extract of malt, 76 

— Round Table, Holbom Viaduct 
Hotel, 72 

— society, 1 52 

— Tobacco Co., 69 
Ampthill, Lord, 171 
Anaerson, Captain, 216 

Annie Swan (Mrs Burnett Smith), 

107 
Answers^ 63 
Appleton, Dr, 159 
Arnold, Laura Hortense, t8 

— bom at Mahone Bay, N.S., 
18 



Arnold, Matthew, 159 
Arnold, Captain Seth 
Art of criticism, 264 
** Artful Dodger," 131 
Artemus Waird, 41 
Aspinwall, 22^ 2$ 
Astor Place nots, 126 
Athletics, 164 
Auburn Theological 

3>5 



is. 18 



Seminary, 



Bad debts, 71 
Ballston, New York, 2 
Bancrofts. B., 129 
Bank of kngland, 276 
Bank holidavs, 278 
Bankers and credit, 23 
. "^ Barl of Apple Sass," 131 
Barnes, Henrv & Co., 26 
Barnes, Ward & Ca, 26 
Bateman, Kate and Isabel, 130 
Beals, Elizabeth, 5, 6 
-* John, 3 ; emigratedfrom Higham, 
Northcote, England, 3 

— Lvdia, 3 

— Thomas, 3, 5 ; established the 
Ontario Savings Bank, 3 

— Thomas Spencer, 287 
•* Bee Hive," 3 

Beecher, Rev. Dr Lyman, 3 

— Rev. Henry Ward, 4^ 28, 63, 80, 
86, 87, 106, 213 

Beecher-Tilton affiur, 28, 86 
Bell, Moberly, 62 
" Bells, The," 130 
Bellew, Rev. J. M., 35 
Belloc, Hilaire, 160 
Belmore, George, 129 



a9S 



Index 



Benevolent Fund, American Society, 

151,152 
Bill of costs, 269 
Billington, 129 
Binney, Rev. Thomas, 83 
Birch, C. B., A.R.A., 258, 264 
Bishop, Dorothy, 122 
Black and IVJuU, 64 
Blaisdell Paper Pencils, 240 
Blauvelt, Isaac A., 9 
Bliss, WiUiam Henry, 289 
Bolton, 57 

Boot, Jesse, genius o^ 267 
Boots' Library, 284 
Boots and shoes, American, 61 
Boston, 18, 51 
Boucicault, Dion, 129 
Bovee, C. N., 291 
Brewer, Chief-Justice, 4 
British Museum, 136 
Brooklyn Argus, 27 ei seg. 

— Ea^U, 27, 29 
Brougn, Lionel, 129 
Browne, H. K. (" Phis "), 292 
Bryant, Dan, 128 
Buchanan, President, 222 
Buffalo Bill at Earl's Court, 230 
Bunyan, John, 70 
Burroughs, Wellcome & Ca, 76 
Byron, H. J., 130 

Cab fores in London, 75, 142 

— in New York, 198 

Cable message in 1867, cost of, 217 
California, instructions for journey 
to, 21 

— Northern, of 1866 contrasted 
with to-day, 24 ; and Pike's Peak 
Express to. 230 

Campania^ 187 

Canandaigua, 3-5, 11-13, 291 

Carnegie, Andirew, 215 

Charity collections in New York, 

196 
Charities in London, American, 

148 
Cheever, Dr G. B., 80 
Cheaue system, 238 
Chicken food, 209 



Children, discipline of, 2 

Choate, Joseph H., 148, 246 

Ckrisiian CkromcU, 88 

CkrisUan World, 91 

CkromcU, 62 

Cigarettes, forcing British sale, 68 

Circulating libraries, 283 

CitiMen, 88 

City ofBerUn, 31 

City Temple, 78 et se^, 

— Thursaay morning services, 

84 
Civil War, 18 

Clarke, Edmund C, 291 

Clarke, J. S., 131 

Clough, Arthur Hugh, 159 

Clubs, 282 

Coghlan, Charles, 202 

Cole, Vicat, R.A., 259 

" Colleen Bawn," 129 

Colman's Mustard, 87 

" Colonel, The," 202 

Commercial Hotels unknown in 

United Sutes, 19 
Company promoting, 239 
Conrad, Joseph, 160 
Conway, F. B., 126, 127 
Cooke, Alf, of Leeds, 165, 169 
Cost of living in United States and 

England, 138 
Cotton, J. S. Sutherland, 159 
Coudert, Brothers, 291 
Cowles, Caroline, 2 
Cowles, William, Sheffield, 2 
'' Create a sensation," 22 
Cross & Blackwell, 75 
Crossley & Co., Richard, 44 
Cummings, A. A., 291 
Cunarders in 1867, 31 
Custom-House regulations, 194 
Cuyler, Dr T. L., 80, 81 

Daih Mail, 62, 65 

Daify News, 62 

Daily TeUgrapk, 65, 84 

Daisy Family Story Paper, 88 

Dean, Julia, 124 

" Dearer than Life," 129 

Delacre et Fils, Charles, 287 



296 



Index 



Demas Barnes & Co., i8 et seq.y 41 , 

54, 173 . 
Democratic platform ,254 

Derby, Lord, 217 

Diamond Match Company of 

Maryland, 77 
Dickens, Charles, 126 
Divorce Laws in United States, 246 
Doble, C. £., 159 
** Donation Party, A," 9 
Dormitory of New York, 213 
Drake, P. H., 289 
Duane, Mrs Arthur, 289 
Duke & Co., J. R.,66 
Dust-bins, 207 
Duzer, S. R. Van, 30, 36, 41, 66, 

ijo, 152, 155 
Dwight, Theodore W., LL.D., 

291 
Dysart, Earl of, 172 

ECCKBLAERS, L., 287 

Echo, The, 62 

Edmunds, Dr James, F.R.C.S., 

270 
Education in United States, 146 et 

seg. 
Ellsworth, Judge, 8 

— Stewart, 8 
Emerson, R. W., 141 
Encychpadia Britantdca, 235, 236 
England in age of Wycliffe, 160 

— for cabinet work, 59 

English editors and advertising 
columns, 46 

— proprietary articles in United 
States, 75 

Episcopacy in United States, 220 

Esher, Lord, 156 

Evans' Supper-Rooms, 132 

Evening Standard^ 273 

Express i 62 

Extracts from Dr Parker's letters, 

93»94 

Fairchild Brothers, 76 
Fairfield, Conn., 2 
" Famous Literature," 235 
"Fanchctte," 130 



Farrar, Archdeacon, 80, 135 
Fascination, a new, 56 
" Feathers for Arrows," 82 
Fechter, Charles A., 129 
Fenian outbreak in London, 37 
" Ferm^, La,» 67 
Field, Abigail, 4 

— Cyrus W., 4, 216 

— David Dudley, 4 

— Henry M., 4 

— Stephen J., 4 

— Captain Timothy, 4 
— ^ Rev. Timothy, 4 
Field sports, 165 et seq. 
Fire brigades, 274 et seq. 
Firms in London, American, 177 
Fleming, Canon, 135 

" Forest Lovers," 160 

Forest, Edwin, 126, 127 

Forms of address, 74 

Foster, John Wyeth & Sons, 76 

Fountain^ The^ 88 

Fowler, Professor, 280 

Fox, Sampson, 169 

Franco-German War, 63 

Franklin, Mrs Helen Lawrence, 286 

Fraser River, 24 

Freemasons, 281 

" From the Atlantic to the Pacific," 

27 
Fulford, Senator George T., 182 



Garnet, Mrs, 160 

Genealogical tree of Richards' 

family, 2 et seq. 
General Post Office, 377 
Genoa, Canon Valley, 231 
Gibb, Robert, R.S.A., 95 
Ginter, Lewis, 290 
Gladstone, Mr and Dr Parker, 105 

— and electioneering, 272 
Glyn, Isabelle Dallas, 133 

— receives Royal Bounty, 134 

— gifts and death of, 135 
Gooch, Daniel, 216 

Good, Brent S. H., 26, 41, 54, 290 
Gould, F. Carruthers, 283 
Graham, H. J., 160 



297. 



Index 



Grant, Albert, 63 

— and Leicester Square, 164 

— General U. S., 1 16 
Great EasUm^ 216 
Graphic^ 63 
Guildford, Conn., 4 

*' Gutter Snipes," 49 

Hall, Dr John, 80 

— Rev. Newman, 80 
Hanford, Ruth, 2 
Hare, John, 129 

" Having a good time," 203 
Hawkins, Anthony Hope, 225 
Hay, John, 154 
" Heir-at-Law,** 131 
Henley, William Ernest, 160 
Henry & Co., John F., 26, 66, 289 
Hermann, Dr £., inventor of 

post card, 74 
Hewlett, Maurice, 160 
Hind, C. Lewis, 159, 161 
Hodgson, Henrietta (Mrs Labou- 

chere), 129 
Holbom Viaduct, removal to, 70 
Holidays in England, 98 

— in United States, 279 
Holland, 179 

Hollowa/s Ointment and Pills, 54 

Hooley, Ernest Terah, 240 

Hooper & Jackson, 235 

Hotels of London and America 
compared, 33, 138 

Hotten, J. Camden, 42 

Housekeeping expenses and ser- 
vants, 142 

Howard, Harry, 275 

Huntley & Palmer, 75 

Huxley, Professor, 160 

Iced champagne an American in- 
novation, 34 
Identification, novel, 23 
Illustrated London News, 47, 63, 

64 
Imperial Tobacco Co., 69 

Importation of American boots, 61 

''In search of summer breezes in 

Northern Europe ,'' 27 



Independence Day, illumination in 

Boston, 52 
Irving, Washington, 125 

— Sir Henry, 129, 134 

— as Mathias in the *^ Bells," 130 
Isle of Wight, 100, 171 

Jefferson, Joseph, 118, 125, 127, 
202 

— in London, 126 

Jonathan, what John Bull owes to^ 

211 et seq. 
Judges in England and United 

States, 269 

Kaatsrill Mountains, 125 
Keats, Gwendoline, 160 
Kelvin, Lord, 216 
Kemble, Charles, 133 
Kendal, Mr and Mrs in " Pygma- 
lion and Galatea," 118 

" Ladies' At- Home Day," 157 
Lake District — the Wordsworth 

country, 100 
Lamson, Curtius, 216 
Lang, Andrew, 160 
Langham Hotel, 33 
Lectder, 62 
Lectures by Dr Parker in United 

States, 87 
Lee, Sidney, 160 
Lever, W. H., 57 
Liebig's Extract, 75 
Literature, 161 

Liveries adopted in America, 207 
Liverpool, 32 

Londesborough, Earl of, 165 
London forty years ago, 161 
Louisville, Kentucky, 20 
Lowell, Russell, 225 
" Luck," 265 
Luggage checking in America, 183, 

184 
Luke, Mrs Jemima, 260 

Macready, W. C, 127, 133 
Mail-carrying, old and new, 230 
et seq. 



398 



Index 



M'Kessor & Robins, 76 

Manhattan Island, 191, 212 

M.A.P., 63 

Maple sugar tapping, 13 

Marconi wireless messages, 189 

Marean, Mr Justice J. T., 292 

Mark Twain, 225 et sea. 

Marlborough, Duke of, 240 

'' Massa Chan,'' 63 

Massett, Stephen, 135 

Medical men, 270 

Mellon, Mr Alfred, 129 

Middle Row disappears, 162 

Milbum, Dr, 154 

Millais, Sir John, 258 

Mock auctions and barkers, 257 

Monopolies, commercial, 254 

Montreal, 26 

Morgan, John, 6 

" Morning Call, The," 124 

Morris William, 160 

Morristown, New Jersey, 2, 8 

Motley, John Lothrop, 225 

Motors, 281 

Murray, John, 1 59 

Musgrave, Sir Anthony, G.C.M.G., 

4 
Mustang ponies, 23 

National Gallery, 136, 274 

Nelson, Thomas, 63 

New Year calls, 1 57 

New York, Bishop of, 154 

New York Evangelists 4, 80 

New York Herald, 170 

New York Sunday World, 65 

Newark, New Jersey, 3 

Newcastle, Duke of, 223 

Newnes, Sir George, 161 

Newth, Professor, 107 

Nevada, 24 

Neville, Henry, 129 

" No Thoroughfare," 129 

Norris Castle, East Cowes, loi, 171 

Oarsmen, English the better, 165 
O^Bryan, Judge Morgan J., 291 
O'Connor, T. P., 6%, 272 
Old Park, estate of, 172 



tt 



tt 



Ole Virginny Tobacco Shop, 
The," 68 

Our American Cousin," 125, 202 
Owens, John £., 131 

Panama, 21, 23, 25 

Parker, Dr Joseph, 63, 70, 81 etseq. 

— anecdote of, 104 

— imitation of dialects, 104 

— and Mr Gladstone, 105 

— mind telegraphy, 106 

— illustrated letter to Pearl, 112 

— bust of, by C. B. Birch, A.R.A., 
262 

Parker, Mrs, presentation to, 95 

— death of, loi 

— epitaph, 103 
Patents, 285 
Pater, Walter, 160 
Pattison, Mark, 160 
Peak, Frean & Co., 75 
Pears' Soap, 75 
Pender, Sir John, 216 

Pen Yann, Yates County, 6, 1 1 
" People's Bible," 88 
" People's Lawyer," 131 
" People's Prayer-Book," 88 
Phillips, Stephen, 160 
Pictorial World, 64 
Pirating English medicines, 54 
'' Pocahontas, the Gentle Savage," 

" Plantation Bitters," 51 etseq. 
Plymouth Church, Parker incident 

m,92 
Pope, Charles, 124 
Port Gibson, Mississippi, 12, 14 
Port Sunlight, 57 
Portland, Oregon, 22, 24, 25 
Portsmouth, treaty of, 45 
Precedents, 266 
Presidential election, 1904, 254 
Prendergast, George W. Y., 123 

— Sir Harry, V.C, G.C.B., 123 
" Prince Albert Frock coat," 224 
Prince Consort, statue of, 162 
Princeton, New Jersey, 11, 15 
Process blocks, 64 

Pryce, Rev. Vaughan, 102 



299 



Index 



Proprietary business and adver- 
tising, 46 
Pseudonym Library, 120 
Public undertakings, 211 
Punch, 41, 48, 167, 235 

Quaker and the cigarette, the, 68 
Queen Victoria, national monument 
to, 155 

— letter of, to President Buchanan, 
223 

Racers through London, 136 
Railways, 163 

— travelling, 180 

— conductors, 261 
Reid, Whitelaw, 1 54, 246 
Richards, Anna Beach, 6 
Richards, Caroline Cowles, 6 
Richards, Dorothv Christian, in 
Richards, Edward Cowles, 16, 124 
— ^ character and death of, 17 
Richards, Dr James, Professor at 

Auburn Theological Seminary, 2 

— died in 1843, 3 
Richards, Dr James, 5 

— at Union College, Schenectady, 5 

— marries Elizabeth Beals, 5 

— accepts call to Aurora, 6 

— transfers ministry to Pen Yann, 
Yates County, 6 

— death of Mrs Richards, 6 

— marries Sarah Wisner, 8 

— accepts call to Morristown, New 
Jersey, 8 

— resigns through ill health, 1 1 

— professor at Planters* College, 
Port Gibson, Mississippi, 12 

— removes to New Orleans, 15 

— goes to England, 16 

— visits Dr Parker, 81 

— dies in Edinburgh, 85 
Richards, James, LL.B., 290 
Richards, John Morgan, family of 

English origin, i 

— birth of, 6 

— school life, 7 

— Morris Academy, 9 

— first school experiences, 9 



Richards, John Morgan, fuming 
at East Bloomfield, 12 

— life on a farm, 13 

— enters college at Port Gibson, 
Mississippi, 14 

— superintends removal of father's 
library, 16 

— taken charge of by Uncle 
Edward, 17 

— first warehouse engagement, 17 

— appointed to manage brandi at 
Boston, 18 

— enters service of Demas Barnes 
& Co., 18 

— sets out for England, 31 

— first impressions of London, 35 

— acquires partnership, 36 

— starts business in own name, 
66 

— first law-suit, 43 

— personal acquaintance and 
friendship of Dr Parker, 81 

— ^joins the Diaconate of City 
Temple, 94 

— visits Paris, 1 17 

— education of sons, 122 

— first visit to a theatre, 124 

— walking and touring in England, 

173 

— Continental experiences, 179 

— revisiting America, 187 
Richards, Pearl (Mrs Craigie), 

birth of, ^i 

— as a mimic, 113 

— marries Reginald W. Craigie, 
119 

"Some Emotions and a Moral," 
119 

— *• Journeys end in Lovers Meet- 
ing," 120 

— "The Ambassador," 120 
Richards, Samuel, original settler 

in America, 2 
Richmond Gems, 67, 68, 290 
"Rip Van Winkle," 118, 125 
Ripon, Bishop of, 109 
River scenery, disfigurement o^ 52 
Robertson, Agnes, 129 
— Forbes, 120 



300 



„^ ^ 



Index 



Robertson, Madge (Mrs Kendal), 

129 
Rochester, Dean of^ 80 
Rockfeller, Mr, 221 
** Romeo and Juliet," 124 
Roosevelt, President, 246 
— Anna, 2 
Rotterdam, 179 
Royal Academy, 136^ 264 
Ruskin, John, 259 
Russell Majors & Waddell, 231 

Sacramento, 231 

Sag Harbour and Shelter Island, 2 

" St Croix Rum," 53 

Stjame^s Gazette, 273, 

St Joseph, Missouri, 231 

St Paul's Cathedral, 80, 136 

San Diego, 24 

San Francisco, 22, 23, 231, 292 

Savings banks in England and the 

States, 237 
Scoreby, near York, 165 
Seabury & Johnson, 76 
Seasons in London and America, 

218 
Seligmann Brothers, 150 
Servant problem, 191 
Shore, W. Teignmouth, 161 
Shorter, Clement, 64 
Sinclair, Archdeacon, 80 
Sketch, 64 
Sky-scrapers, 190 
Slave plantation, life on a, 14 
Smith, Captain John, burial-place 

of, 70 
Smithfield martyrs, 70 
Snowstorm of 1882, great, 251 
Social amenities in American clubs, 

204 
Socisd life of Scotland in the 

Eighteenth Century, 160 
Solicitors, barristers, and attor- 

neys-at-law, 268 
Spanish War, 54 
Spearwater, Hon. Peter A., 18 
Sphere, 64 

Spindler, William, 172 
Spurgeon, Rev. Charles, 35, 80 



S.S. Russia, 31 etseq., 187 

" S— T— 186a— X," 52 

Stamp tax on proprietary medicines, 

53 
Standard, 235, 237 

Stanley, Dean, 80 

Stage m 1867-68, London, 129 

Stage Yankee, the, 201 

Steephill Castle, 172, 291 

Steinway Hall, experience at, 135 

Stevenson, A. £., 154 

— Robert Louis, 160 

Stockbridge, Mass., 4 

Stowe, Mrs Beecher, 14 

Stranded Americans, 149, 150 

Street language, 73 

— Traffic, management of London, 
276 

" Study in Temptations, A," 113 

" Successful Business," 96 

" Summer Sonnets," 103 

Sunday editions of American news- 
papers, 64 

— observances, 233 

T. P.'s Weekly, 63 

** Tales of Unrest," 160 

Talmage, Rev. T. De Witte, 80 

TatkTyt^ 

Taylor, Judge Henry W., 5 

— J. L., 155 

Tenants and rent-collecting m 

New York, 125 
Terrell, Hon. Alex. W., 154 
Terry, Ellen, 134 
Terry, Henry K,, 69, 290 
Thackeray, W. M., 115 
Thompson, Rev. Dr, 80 
Tilton, Mrs Theodore, 28 

— Beecher-Tilton affair, 28, 83 
Times, The, 47, 62, 109, i6r, 235, 

237 
Times Book Club, The^ 284 

" Tipping in England," 158 

Tit-Bits, 63 

Toast-master, the, 214 

Tobacco combination, a great, 69, 

290 

Toole, J. L., 118, 129, 130 



301 



Index 



Torrey, Amos G., 26 
Tower of London, 136 
Travelling expenses » 19 
— facilities, 194 
Trevelyan, G. M., 160 
Turgenieff, Ivan S., 160 
Tussaud, exhibition of Madame, 

36, 136 
Tyndall, Prof., 160 
Tyng, Rev. Dr S. H., 80 



" Uncle Dick's Darling," 130 
" Unde Tom's Cabin ,|' 14, 15 
United States medicine ware- 
house, 2^ 
— for machinery, 60 
-^ officials, 246 



Vassar College, 147 
Vehicles, the fashion in, 206 
Viaduct, opening of the, 162 
Victoria, British Columbia, 25 
Village life of an American minis- 
ter, 6 
Voorhees, George, 9 

" Wake up, England," 229 
Waldorf Astoria, 242 



Ward, William Porter, 26, 29, 173, 

290 
Webster, Ben, 129 • 

Weldon, Bishop, 80 
Wells, Fargo & Co., 23 
Welsh, John, 116 
Westminster Abbey, 80, 136 
White Star Line, 187 
Widows as publicans, 175 
"Wife well Won, A," 129 
" Wig and Gown," 130 
Willesden, shooting school at, 166 
Wilson, Sir Erasmus, 163 
Wilson, Margaret, 262 
Wilton, Marie, 129 
" Wind among the Reeds, The," 

160 
Windermere, Lake, 100 
Wisner, Henry A., 8 
Wisner, Sarah, 8 
Women, American, 200 
— and English, 247 et seq, 
"Woodbine" slave plantation, 14 
Wood, Mrs John, 131 
Worcester Sauce, 75 
Wyndham, Charles, 129 



Yale College, 2 
Yeats, W. B., 160 



502