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Full text of "The witness of the stars"

. - 



ALGOM A 

DIOCESAN 

CLERICAL 

LIBRARY. 





ERQM THE LIBT^R^ OF 

I f RIMTY COLLEGE 



THE 



WITNESS OF THE STARS 



BY THE 

REV. ETHELBERT W. BULLINGER, D.D. 



"HE telleth the number of the stars ; 
He giveth them all their names." 

(Ps. cxlvii. 4. R.V.) 



Xonfcon: 

PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR 
7, ST. PAUL S CHURCHYARD, E.G. 

1893 



85 
ss 

&7C 



LONDON : 
KYRE AND SPOTTISWOODE, 

Her Majesty s printers. 
DOWNS FAKK ROAD, HACKNEY, N. 



Ht478 

JUfJ 1 1993 



PREFACE. 



SOME years ago it was my privilege to enjoy the ac 
quaintance of Miss Frances Rolleston, of Keswick, and 
to carry on a correspondence with her with respect to 
her work, Mazzaroth : or, the Constellations. She was 
the first to create an interest in this important subject. 
Since then Dr. Seiss, of Philadelphia, has endeavoured 
to popularize her work on the other side of the At 
lantic ; and brief references have been made to the 
subject in such books as Moses and Geology, by Dr. 
Kinns, and in Primeval Man; but it was felt, for many 
reasons, that it was desirable to make another effort 
to set forth, in a more complete form, the witness of the 
stars to prophetic truth, so necessary in these last days. 

To the late Miss Rolleston, however, belongs the 
honour of collecting a mass of information bearing on 
this subject ; but, published as it was, chiefly in the 
form of notes, unarranged and unindexed, it was suited 
only for, but was most valuable to, the student. She 
it was who performed the drudgery of collecting the 
facts presented by Albumazer, the Arab astronomer 
to the Caliphs of Grenada, 850 A.D. ; and the Tables 

drawn up by Ulugh Beigh, the Tartar prince and 

a 2 



IV PREFACE. 

astronomer, about 1450 A.D., who gives the Arabian 
Astronomy as it had come down from the earliest 
times. 

Modern astronomers have preserved, and still have 
in common use, the ancient names of over a hundred 
of the principal stars which have been handed down ; 
but now these names are used merely as a convenience, 
and without any reference to their significance. 

This work is an attempt to popularize this ancient 
information, and to use it in the interests of truth. 

For the ancient astronomical facts and the names, 
with their signification, I am, from the very nature of 
the case, indebted, of course, to all who have preserved, 
collected, and handed them down ; but for their inter 
pretation I am alone responsible. 

It is for the readers to judge how far my conclu 
sions are borne out by the evidence ; and how far 
the foundation of our hopes of coming glory are 
strengthened by the prophecies which have been 
written in the stars of heaven, as well as in the 
Scriptures of truth. 

For the illustrations I am greatly indebted to 
Jamieson s Celestial Atlas, 1820; Flammarion sL 7oz7s; 
Sir John W. Lubbock s Stars in Six Maps, 1883 ; and 
to the late Mr. Edward J. Cooper s Egyptian Scenery, 
1820. For the general presentation and arrangement 
of the Constellations I am responsible, while for the 



PREFACE. V 

drawings my thanks are due to my friend Miss Amy 
Manson. 

It is the possession of " that blessed hope " of 
Christ s speedy return from Heaven which will give 
true interest in the great subject of this book. 

No one can dispute the antiquity of the Signs of 
the Zodiac, or of the Constellations. No one can 
question the accuracy of the ancient star-names which 
have come down to us, for they are still preserved 
in every good celestial atlas. And we hope that no 
one will be able to resist the cumulative evidence that, 
apart from God s grace in Christ there is no hope for 
sinners now : and apart from God s glory, as it will be 
manifested in the return of Christ from Heaven, there 
is no hope for the Church, no hope for Israel, no 
hope for the world, no hope for a groaning creation. 
In spite of all the vaunted promises of a religious 
World, and of a worldly Church, to remove the effects 
of the curse by a Social Gospel of Sanitation, we 
are more and more shut up to the prophecy of Gen. iii. 
15, which we wait and long to see fulfilled in Christ 
as our only hope. This is beautifully expressed by 
the late Dr. William Leask : 

And is there none before ? No perfect peace 
Unbroken by the storms and cares of life, 

Until the time of waiting- for Him cease, 
By His appearing to destroy the strife ? 
No, none before. 



VI PREFACE. 

Do we not hear that through the flag- of grace 
By faithful messengers of God unfurled, 

All men will be converted, and the place 
Of man s rebellion be a holy world ? 

Yes, so we hear. 

Is it not true that to the Church is given 

The holy honour of dispelling night, 
And bringing back the human race to heaven, 

By kindling everywhere the Gospel light ? 
It is not true. 

Is this the hope that Christ the Lord will come, 

In all the glory of His royal right, 
Redeemer and Avenger, taking home 

His saints, and crushing the usurper s might ? 
This is the hope. 

May the God of all grace accept and bless this 
effort to show forth His glory, and use it to strengthen 
His people in waiting for His Son from Heaven, even 
Jesus which delivered us from the wrath to come. 

ETHELBERT W. BULLINGER. 

August 3U/, 1893. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



* All are drawn to the same relative scale, except Plates VI., 
VIII., XIV., and XXV., which are enlarged; while Plates 
III., XI., XVIII., XIX., XX., XXI., XXVI., XXX., and XL., 
are slightly reduced. 

PLATE FACING PAGE 

I. VIRGO, The Virgin 29 

II. Coma, The Desired - - - 35 

III. Centaurus, The Centaur (reduced) - 40 

IV. Bootes, The Coming One - 42 
V. LIBRA, The Scales - 45 

VI. Crux, The Cross (enlarged) - 48 

VII. Lupus or Victima, The Wolf or Victim - 51 

VIII. Corona, The Crown (enlarged) - - 53 

IX. SCORPIO, The Scorpion - - 54 

( Serpens, The Serpent - -j 
1 Ophiuchus, The Serpent Holder - 

XL Hercules, The Mighty One (reduced) - - 59 

XII. SAGITTARIUS, The Archer - - 63 

XIII. Lyra, The Harp - - 67 

XIV. Ara, The Altar, or burning pyre (enlarged) - 68 
XV. Draco, The Dragon cast down - - 72 

XVI. CAPRICORN US, The Goat - - - 76 

( Sagitta, The Arrow - * 

XVII. Aquila, The Eagle I 8 1 

[ Delphinus, The Dolphin \ 
f AQUARIUS, The Water-bearer - } 

II H Pisces Australis, The Southern Fish] ( reduced ) - * 4 

XIX. Pegasus, The Winged Horse (reduced) - - 89 

XX. Cygnus, The Swan (reduced) - _ 90 

VVT / PISCES, The Flshes\ , 

XXL lTheBand . _j (reduced) - - 92 



Vlll 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PLATE FACING PAGE 

XXII. Andromeda, The Chained Woman- - 101 

XXIII. Cepheus, The Crowned King 103 

XXIV. ARIES, The Ram 105 
XXV. Cassiopeia, The Enthroned Woman (enlarged) - 108 

XXVI. Cetus, The Sea Monster (reduced) - 113 

XXVII. Perseus, The Breaker - 116 

XXVIII. TAURUS, The Bull - - 121 

XXIX. Orion, The Glorious One - - 126 

XXX. Eridanus, The River (reduced) - 1 30 

XXXI. Auriga, The Shepherd - 134 

XXXII. GEMINI, The Twins - - 138 

XXXIII. Lepus, The Hare or The Enemy - - 141 

xxxiv > Canis maj " or> The D 8 ( Sirius ) \ i 43 

^ Canis minor, The Second Dog (Procyon) - J 

XXXV. CANCER, The Crab 148 

XXXVI. Ursa minor, The Little Bear - 152 

XXXVII. Ursa major, The Great Bear - 155 

XXXVIII. Argo, The Ship - 160 

XXXIX. LEO, The Lion - 164 

f Hydra, The Serpent} 

XL. ( Crater, The Cup \ (reduced) - - 167 

ICorvus, The Raven-} 

XLI. A Planisphere of the Heavens - 204 



ENGRAVINGS. 



PAGE 

Part of the Zodiac in the Temple of Esneh - - 21 

The circular ALTAR in the sign now called LIBRA - - 199 
The Scorpion and the Lamp ; from an Euphratean Boundary 

Stone - 200 

Ditto, from an Euphratean Seal - - - 201 

The Ptolemaic Constellation of the Claws - 202 



THE 

WITNESS OF THE STARS. 



more than two thousand five hundred years the 
world was without a written revelation from God. 
The question is, Did God leave Himself without a wit 
ness ? The question is answered very positively by the 
written Word that He did not. In Rom. i. 19 it is 
declared that, " that which may be known of God is 
manifest in them ; for God hath showed it unto them. 
For the invisible things of Him from the creation of the 
world are clearly seen, being understood by the things 
that are made, even His eternal power and Godhead ; 
so that they are without excuse." But how was God 
known? How were His "invisible things," i.e., His 
plans, His purposes, and His counsels, known since the 
creation of the world ? We are told by the Holy Spirit 
in Rom. x. 18. Having stated in v. 17 that " Faith 
cometh by hearing and hearing by the Word (#/*, the 
thing spoken, sayings) of God," He asks, " But I say, 
Have they not heard ? Yes, verily." And we may ask, 
How have they heard ? The answer follows " Their 
sound went into all the earth (?$) and their words 
(#/*ra, their teaching, message, instruction) unto the 
ends of the world (fawpbi)" What words ? What 
instruction ? Whose message ? Whose teaching ? 
There is only one answer, and that is, THE 

S. 1005. A 



2 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

HEAVENS! This is settled by the fact that the 
passage is quoted from Ps. xix., the first part of which 
is occupied with the Revelation of God written in the 
Heavens, and the latter part with the Revelation of God 
written in the Word: 

This is the simple explanation of this beautiful Psalm. 
This is why its two subjects are brought together. It 
has often perplexed many why there should be that 
abrupt departure in verse 7 " The law of the LORD is 
perfect, converting the soul." The fact is, there is 
nothing abrupt in it, and it is no departure. It is 
simply the transition to the second of the two great 
Revelations which are thus placed in juxtaposition. 
The first is the Revelation of the Creator, El, 7tf, in 
His works, while the second is the Revelation of the 
Covenant Jehovah, PIJT, in His Word. And it is note 
worthy that while in the first half of the Psalm, El is 
named only once, in the latter half Jehovah is named 
seven times, the last being threefold (Jehovah, Rock, 
and Redeemer), concluding the Psalm. 

Let us then turn to Ps. xix., and note first 

The Structure * of the Psalm as a whole. 

A | 1-4-. The Heavens. 

B | -4-6. " In them " (DflJ) the Sun. 
A | 7-10. The Scriptures. 

B \ 11-14. "In them " (DPlS) Thy Servant. 

* For what is meant by "Structure," see A Key to the Psalms, by the late Rev. 
Thos. Boys, edited by the present author, 7, St. Paul s Churchyard. Price Five 
shillings. 



THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 3 

In the Key to the Psalms, p. 17, it is pointed out that 
the terms employed in A and B are astronomical,* 
while in A and B they are literary. Thus the two 
parts are significantly connected and united. 

Ewald and others imagine that this Psalm is made 
up of two fragments of separate Psalms composed at 
different periods and brought together by a later 
editor ! 

But this is disproved not only by what has been said 
concerning the structure of the Psalm as a whole, and 
the interlacing of the astronomical and the literary 
terms in the two parts, but it is also shown by more 
minute details. 

Each half consists of two portions which correspond 
the one to the other, A answering to A, and B to 
B. Moreover, each half, as well as each corresponding 
member, consists of the same number of lines ; those in 



* Viz., in ,4 (verses 7, 8), 

" Converting," from Q- iJ* , to return, as the sun in the heavens. 
"Testimony," from "ply, to repeat, hence, a -witness, spokeu of the sun in 

Ps. Ixxxix. 37. 

"Sure," |X> faithful, as the sun. (Ps. Ixxxix. 37.) 
"Enlightening," from ji^, to give light, as the sun. (Gen. i. 15, 17, 18 ; 

Isa. Ix. 19; Ezek. xxxii. 7.) 
In JB (verses n, 12, 13), 

"Warned," from -|nT> to make light, hence, to teach, admonish. 

"Keeping," from ~|O^>, to keep, observe, as the heavens. (Ps. cxxx. 6; 

Isa. xxi. II.) Or as the heavenly bodies observe God s ordinances. 
" Errors," from njt!>> to w inder, as the planets. 
" Keep back," 1 a{yn> hold back, restrain. 

"Have dominion over," from ^jpn, to rule. Spoken of the sun and moon 
in Gen. i. 18. " The sun to rule the day," &c. (Ps. cxxxvi. 8, 9.) 

A 2 



4 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

the first half being, by the casura, short, while those in 
the last half are long (or double). 

A I 1-4-. Eight lines 1 r 

>I4 lines. 
B | -4-6. Six lines J 

A I 7-10. Eight lines 1 r 
!/i o- r f 14 lines. 

B I 11-14. Six lines J 

If we confine ourselves to the first half of the Psalm* 
(A and B, verses 1-6), with which we are now alone 
concerned, we see a still more minute proof of Divine 
order and perfection. 



A& B 



The Structure of A and B. 
i. The heavens. 



D | 2. Their testimony : incessant. (Pos.) 
E | 3. Their words inaudible. (Neg.) 
D | 4-. Their testimony : universal. (Pos.) 
| -4-6. The heavens. 

Here we have an introversion, in which the extremes 
(C and C) are occupied with the heavens; while the 
means (D, E and D) are occupied with their testimony. 

The following is the full expansion of the above, 
with original emendations which preserve the order of 
the Hebrew words and thus indicate the nature of 
the structure : 



* The other half of the Psalm is just as perfectly arranged. For example, there 
are six words used (verses 7-9) to describe the fulness of the Word of God, and they 
are thus placed, alternately : 

F | Two feminine singulars. (Law and Testimony. ) 

G| One masculine plural. (Statutes.) 
F\ Two feminine singulars. (Commandment and Fear.) 
G \ One masculine piura!. (Judgments. ) 



THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 



what is audible 



a j The heavens 
b | are telling 

c | the glory f of God : 
c \ and the work of his hands 
b | is setting forth \ 
a \ the firmament. 

d | Day after day 

e | uttereth || speech, 
d | And night after night 
e | sheweth knowledge. 

f | There is no speech (what is articulate) 
g | and there are no words ; i 
g j and without being audible, J 
f | is their voice (what is articulate). 

h | Into all the earth (as created) 

i | is their line ^[ gone forth ; 
h | And into the ends of the world (as inhabited) 

i | Their sayings. 

j | For the sun He hath set a tent (an abode) in them ; 
1 | and he as a bridegroom (comparison) 

is going forth from his canopy, (motion : its 
rising) 
/ | he rejoiceth as a mighty one (comparison) 

m | to run his course. (Motion : its rapid course.) 
n | From the end of the heavens T 

o | is his going forth, J e " ress 

o | and his revolution - 

n | unto their ends : J 

j | and there is nothing hid from his heat (i.e., from him *). 



* From ^)D, to cut into, or grave, heuce, to write. It has the two senses of 
our English erb tell, which means to count, and also to narrate. The first occur 
rence is Gv.ii. xv. 5, " Tell (~ibp) trie stars, if thou be able to number (isp^) 
them." Gen. xxiv. 66, "The servant told Isaac all things that he had done." 
Ps. Ixxi. 15, "My mouth shall show forth ("igDS tell of, R.V.) thy righteousness 
and thy salvation all the day ; for I know not the numbers (J")WsD * the 
accounts ] of them," i.e., all the particulars. 



6 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

Surely there is something more referred to here than 
a mere wonder excited by the works of the Creator ! 
When we read the whole passage and mark its struc 
ture, and note the words employed, we are emphatically 
told that the heavens contain a revelation from God ; 
they prophesy, they show knowledge, they tell of God s 
glory, and set forth His purposes and counsels. 

It is a remarkable fact that it is in the Book of Job, 
which is generally allowed to be the oldest book in the 

f From 153, to be heavy, weight, the context determining whether the weight 
spoken of is advantageous or not. The first occurrence is Gen. xii. 10, " The famine 
was grievous (153) in the land." The next, xiii. 2, " Abram was very rich 
(133)-" It is often applied to persons who are of weight and importance, hence, 
glorious and honourable. It is used of the glory of the Lord, and of God Himself, 
as we use Majesty of a person. See Isa. iii. 8 ; iv. 2 ; xi. 10 ; xliii. 20 ; Hag. ii. 8 ; 
Ex. xvi. 7 ; xxiv. 1751 Sam. iv. 21 ; Pss. xxvi. 8 (honour) ; Ixiii. 3. 

J From TJ3, to set before, to set forth, to shew. First occurrence, Gen. iii. n, 
"Who/0/a thee that thou wast naked." Ps. xcvii. 6, "The heavens declare His 
righteousness " ; cxi. 6, He hath shewed his people the power of his works. " 

This is the English idiom for the Hebrew Day to day." The ? is used in 
its sense of adding or superadding to, as in Isa. xxviit. 10, ly 1 ? )^, "precept to 
precept ;" i.e., precept after precept, line after line. Gen. xlvi. 26, "All the souls 
that came with Jacob " (ipffh, to Jacob ; i.e., in addition to Jacob. So here, " Day 
to day ;" i.e., Day in addition to day, or, as we say, Day after day). 

|| From ]>33, to tell forth, akin to ^33. to prophesy, from root to pour forth. 
Lit., here, poureth forth discourse. Ps. cxlv. 9, "abundantly utter." 

H Their line, 1p, i.e., their measuring line. By the figure of metonymy the 
line which measures is put for the portion or heritage which is measured, as in many 
other places. See Ps. xvi. 6, "The lines are fallen unto me in pleasant places ; yea, 
I have a goodly heritage." (See also Ps. Ixxviii. 55, &c.) Here, it means that 
"Their measuring line has gone forth unto all the earth (|HK) " j i.e., All the 
earth inherits this their testimony (i.e., has this testimony for its heritage), and to the 
ends of the world (bjfl, the inhabited world} their instruction has gone forth. 
With this agrees, in sense, the LXX. here, and Rom. x. 1 6, which each has <t>86yyos, 
a sound, or voice ; i.e., a sound in relation to the hearer, rather than to that which 
causes it. The meaning of the passage is, "All the earth has their sound or testi 
mony as its heritage, and the ends of the world hear their words. " Symmachus has 
J5x*> a sound, or report. 

** non means that which is hot* and is a poetical name of the sun itself. 



THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 7 

Bible,* if not in the world, that we have references to 
this Stellar Revelation. This would be at least 2,000 
years before Christ. In that book the signs of the 
Zodiac and the names of several stars and constella 
tions are mentioned, as being ancient and well-known. 
In Isa. xl. 26 (R.V.) we read : 

" Lift up your eyes on high, 
And see who hath created these, 
That bringeth out their host by number : 
He calleth them all by name; 
By the greatness of His might, 
And for that He is strong in power, 
Not one is lacking." 

We have the same evidence in Psalm cxlvii. 4. (R.V.) 

" He telleth the number of the stars ; 
He giveth them all their names." 

Here is a distinct and Divine declaration that the 
great Creator both numbered as well as named the stars 
of Heaven. 

The question is, Has he revealed any of these names ? 
Have any of them been handed down to us ? 

The answer is Yes ; and that in the Bible itself we 
have the names (so ancient that their meaning is a little 
obscure) of Ash (Bty, a name still connected with the 
Great Bear), Cesil (S DJ), and Cimah (H^3). 

They occur in Job ix. 9 : " Which maketh Arcturus 
(R.V. the Bear), Orion, and Pleiades, and the chambers 
of the south." (Marg., Heb., Ash, Cesil, and Cimah.) 

Job xxxviii. 31, 32: " Canst thou bind the sweet 
influences (R.V. cluster) of the Pleiades (marg., the 

* Job is thought by some to be the Jobab mentioned in Gen. x. 29, the third in 
descent from Eber. 



8 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

seven stars, Heb. Cimah), or loose the bands of Orion 
(marg. Heb. Cesil) ? Canst thou bring forth Maz- 
zaroth (marg., the twelve signs. R.V., " the twelve 
signs ": and marg., the signs of the Zodiac) in his season? 
or canst thou guide Arcturus with his sons (R.V., the 
Bear with her train ; and marg., Heb., sons)." * 

Isa. xiii. 10 : . . . " The stars of heaven and the con 
stellations thereof." . . . 

Amos v. 8 : " Seek him that maketh the seven stars 
(R.V., the Pleiades) and Orion." 

Then we have the term " Mazzaroth," Job xxxviii. 
32, and " Mazzaloth," 2 Kings xxiii. 5. The former in 
both versions is referred to the Twelve Signs of the 
Zodiac, while the latter is rendered " planets," and in 
margin, the twelve signs or constellations. 

Others are referred to by name. The sign of 
" Gemini," or the Twins, is given as the name of a 
ship : Acts xxviii. n, bumcwpu (i.e. Castor & Pollux). 

Most commentators agree that the constellation of 
" Draco," or the Dragon (between the Great and Little 
Bear), is referred to in Job xxvi. 13 : " By His Spirit He 
hath garnished the heavens ; His hand hath formed the 
crooked serpent (R.V. swift. Marg. fleeing or gliding. 
See Is. xxvii. i ; xliii. 14)." This word " garnished " is 
peculiar. The R.V. puts in the margin, beauty. In 
Ps. xvi. 6, it is rendered goodly. " I have a goodly 
heritage." In Dan. iv. 2, it is rendered, " I thought 

* Note the structure of this verse : 

A | The seven stars, 

B | Orion, 
A | The twelve signs, 

B \ Arcturus. 



THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. Q 

it good to show," referring to " the signs and wonders " 
with which God had visited Nebuchadnezzar. It ap 
pears from this that God " thought it good to show " by 
these signs written in the heavens the wonders of His 
purposes and counsels, and it was by His Spirit that 
He made it known ; it was His hand that coiled (/ in) 
the crooked serpent among the stars of heaven. 

Thus we see that the Scriptures are not silent as to 
the great antiquity of the signs and constellations. 

If we turn to history and tradition, we are at once 
met with the fact that the Twelve Signs are the same, 
both as to the meaning of their names and as to their 
order in all the ancient nations of the world. The 
Chinese, Chaldean, and Egyptian records go back 
to more than 2,000 years B.C. Indeed, the Zodiacs 
in the Temples of Denderah and Esneh, in Egypt, 
are doubtless copies of Zodiacs still more ancient, 
which, from internal evidence, must be placed nearly 
4,000 B.C., when the summer solstice was in Leo. 

Josephus hands down to us what he gives as the 
traditions of his own nation, corroborated by his re 
ference to eight ancient Gentile authorities, whose 
works are lost. He says that they all assert that 
" God gave the antediluvians such long life that they 
might perfect those things which they had invented in 
astronomy." Cassini commences his History of Astro 
nomy by saying "It is impossible to doubt that astro 
nomy was invented from the beginning of the world ; 
history, profane as well as sacred, testifies to this 
truth." Nouet, a French astronomer, infers that the 
Egyptian Astronomy must have arisen 5,400 B.C. ! 



10 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

Ancient Persian and Arabian traditions ascribe its 
invention to Adam, Seth, and Enoch. Josephus asserts 
that it originated in the family of Seth ; and he says 
that the children of Seth, and especially Adam, Seth, 
and Enoch, that their revelation might not be lost as 
to the two coming judgments of Water and Fire, made 
two pillars (one of brick, the other of stone) , describing 
the whole of the predictions of the stars upon them, and 
in case the brick pillar should be destroyed by the flood, 
the stone would preserve the revelation (Book i. chs. 13). 

This is what is doubtless meant by Gen. xi. 4," And 
they said, Go to, let us build us a city and a tower 
whose top may reach unto heaven." The words, " may 
reach" are in italics. There is nothing in the verse 
which relates to the height of this tower. It merely 
says D?to$l iBW 1 ), and his top with the heavens, i.e. with 
the pictures and the stars, just as we find them in 
the ancient temples of Denderah and Esneh in Egypt. 
This tower, with its planisphere and pictures of the 
signs and constellations, was to be erected like those 
temples were afterwards, in order to preserve the reve 
lation, " lest we be scattered abroad upon the face 
of the whole earth." 

This is corroborated by Lieut. -Gen. Chesney, well 
known for his learned researches and excavations among 
the ruins of Babylon, who, after describing his various 
discoveries, says,* " About five miles S.W. of Hillah, 
the most remarkable of all the ruins, the Sirs Nimrond of 



* General Chesney allowed the late Dean Goode to copy the passage, among 
other matters, from his private MS. The Dean quotes it in his Warburtonian 
Lectures (2nd Ed., Note I. to Sermon IV., p. 170-1). 



THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. II 

the Arabs, rises to a height of 153 feet above the plain 
from a base covering a square of 400 feet, or almost 
four acres. It was constructed of kiln-dried bricks in 
seven stages to correspond with the planets to which 
they were dedicated : the lowermost black, the colour 
of Saturn ; the next orange, for Jupiter ; the third red, 
for Mars ; and so on.* These stages were surmounted 
by a lofty tower, on the summit of which, we are told, 
were the signs of the Zodiac and other astronomical 
figures ; thus having (as it should have been translated) 
a representation of the heavens, instead of a top which 
reached unto heaven. " 

This Biblical evidence carries us at once right back 
to the Flood, or about 2,500 years B.C. 

This tower or temple, or both, was also called 
" The Seven Spheres" according to some ; and " The 
Seven Lights," according to others. It is thus clear 
that the popular idea of its height and purpose must be 
abandoned, and its astronomical reference to revelation 
must be admitted. The tower was an attempt to 
preserve and hand down the antediluvian traditions ; 
their sin was in keeping together instead of scattering 
themselves over the earth. 

Another important statement is made by Dr. Budge, 
of the British Museum. f He says, " It must never be 
forgotten that the Babylonians were a nation of star- 
gazers, and that they kept a body of men to do nothing 
else but report eclipses, appearances of the moon, sun- 
spots, etc., etc." 

* Fragments of these coloured glazed bricks are to be seen in the British Museum, 
f Babylonian Life and History, p. 36. 



12 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

11 Astronomy, mixed with astrology, occupied a large 
number of tablets in the Babylonian libraries, and 
Isaiah, xlvii. 13, refers to this when he says to Babylon, 
Thou art wearied in the multitude of thy counsels. 
Let now thy astrologers (marg. viewers of the heavens), 
the star-gazers, the monthly prognosticators stand up. 
The largest astrological work of the Babylonians con 
tained seventy tablets, and was compiled by the com 
mand of Sargon of Agade thirty-eight hundred years 
before Christ ! It was called the Illumination of Bel. " 

" Their observations were made in towers called 
" ziggurats" (p. 106). 

" They built observatories in all the great cities, and 
reports like the above [which Dr. Budge gives in full] 
were regularly sent to the King" (p. no). 

" They were able to calculate eclipses, and had long 
lists of them." " They found out that the sun was 
spotted, and they knew of comets." " They were the 
inventors of the Zodiac" (?). There are fragments of 
two (ancient Babylonian) planispheres in the British 
Museum with figures and calculations inscribed upon 
them. " The months were called after the signs of the 
Zodiac " (p. 109). 

We may form some idea of what this "represen 
tation of the heavens " was from the fifth " Creation 
Tablet," now in the British Museum. It reads as 
follows : 

" Anu [the Creator] made excellent the mansions [i.e. the 
celestial houses] of the great gods [twelve] in number 
[i.e. the twelve signs or mansions of the sun]. 
The stars he placed in them. The lumasi [i.e. groups of 
stars or figures] he fixed. 



THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 13 

He arranged the year according- to the bounds [i.e. the 

twelve signs] which he defined. 
For each of the twelve months three rows of stars [i.e. 

constellations^ he fixed. 
From the day when the year issues forth unto the close, 

he marked the mansions [i.e. the Zodiacal Signs\ of 

the wandering- stars \\.e.planets~\ to know their courses 

that they might not err or deflect at all." 

Coming down to less ancient records : EUDOXOS, an 
astronomer of Cnidus (403 to 350 B.C.), wrote a work 
on Astronomy which he called Phainomena. ANTIGONUS 
GONATAS, King of Macedonia (273-239 B.C.), requested 
the Poet ARATUS to put the work of EUDOXUS into the 
form of a poem, which he did about the year 270 B.C. 
ARATUS called his work Diosemeia (the Divine Signs). 
He was a native of Tarsus, and it is interesting for 
us to note that his poem was known to, and, indeed, 
must have been read by, the Apostle Paul, for he 
quotes it in his address at Athens on Mars Hill. He 
says (Acts xvii. 28), " For in Him we live, and move, 
and have our being; as certain also of your own 
poets have said, For we are also his offspring."* 
Several translations of this poem have been made, 
both by CICERO and others, into Latin, and in recent 
times into English by E. Poste, J. Lamb, and others. 
The following is the opening from the translation of 
Robert Brown, jun. : 

" From Zeus we lead the strain ; he whom mankind 
Ne er leave unhymned: of Zeus all public ways, 
All haunts of men, are full ; and full the sea, 
And harbours ; and of Zeus all stand in need. 
We are his offspring : and he, ever good and mild to man, 

* TOU -yap Kai ytvos tcrpfv. 



14 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

Gives favouring- signs, and rouses us to toil. 

Calling- to mind life s wants : when clods are best 

For plough and mattock: when the time is ripe 

For planting vines and sowing seeds, he tells, 

Since he himself hath fixed in heaven these Sig-ns, 

The stars dividing- : and throughout the year 

Stars he provides to indicate to man 

The seasons course, that all things duly grow," etc.. etc. 

Then ARATUS proceeds to describe and explain all 
the Signs and Constellations as the Greeks in his day 
understood, or rather misunderstood, them, after their 
true meaning and testimony had been forgotten. 

Moreover, ARATUS describes them, not as they were 
seen in his day, but as they were seen some 4,000 
years before. The stars were not seen from Tarsus 
as he describes them, and he must therefore have 
written from a then ancient Zodiac. For notwith 
standing that we speak of " fixed stars," there is a con 
stant, though slow, change taking place amongst them. 
There is also another change taking place owing to 
the slow recession of the pole of the heavens (about 
50" in the year) ; so that while Alpha in the con 
stellation of Draco was the Polar Star when the Zodiac 
was first formed, the Polar Star is now Alpha in what 
is called Ursa Minor. This change alone carries us 
back at least 5,000 years. The same movement which 
has changed the relative position of these two stars 
has also caused the constellation of the Southern Cross 
.to become invisible in northern latitudes. When the 
constellations were formed the Southern Cross was 
visible in N. latitude 40, and was included in their 
number. But, though known by tradition, it had not 
been seen in that latitude for some twenty centuries, 



THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 15 

until the Cape of Good Hope had been discovered. 
Then was seen again The Southern Cross depicted by 
the Patriarchs. Here is another indisputable proof as 
to the antiquity of the formation of the Zodiac. 

PTOLEMY (150 A. D.) transmits them from HIPPARCHUS 
(130 B.C.) " as of unquestioned authority, unknown 
origin, and unsearchable antiquity." 

Sir William Drummond says that " the traditions 
of the Chaldean Astronomy seem the fragments of a 
mighty system fallen into ruins." 

The word Zodiac itself is from the Greek zS<a/co<, 
which is not from z, to live, but from a primitive 
root through the Hebrew Sodi, which in Sanscrit means 
a way. Its etymology has no connection with living 
creatures, but denotes a way, or step, and is used of the 
way or path in which the sun appears to move amongst 
the stars in the course of the year. 

To an observer on the earth the whole firmament, 
together with the sun, appears to revolve in a circle 
once in twenty-four hours. But the time occupied 
by the stars in going round, differs from the time 
occupied by the sun. This difference amounts to 
about one-twelfth part of the whole circle in each 
month, so that when the circle of the heavens is 
divided up into twelve parts, the sun appears to move 
each month through one of them. This path which 
the sun thus makes amongst the stars is called the 
Ecliptic* 



* Besides this monthly difference, there is an annual difference ; for at the end of 
twelve mouths the sun does not come back to exactly the same point in the sign 
which commenced the year, but is a little behind it. But this difference, though it 



l6 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

Each of these twelve parts (consisting each of 
about 30 degrees) is distinguished, not by num 
bers or by letters, but by pictures and names, and 
this, as we have seen, from the very earliest 
times. They are preserved to the present day in our 
almanacs, and we are taught their order in the 
familiar rhymes : 

" The RAM, the BULL, the heavenly TWINS, 
And next the CRAB, the LION shines, 

The VIRGIN and the SCALES ; 
The SCORPION, ARCHER, and SEA-GOAT, 
The MAN that carries the Water-pot, 

And FISH with glittering- scales." 

These signs have always and everywhere been pre 
served in this order, and have begun with ARIES. 
They have been known amongst all nations, and in 
all ages, thus proving their common origin from one 
source. 

occurs every year, is so small that it will take 25,579 years for the sun to complete 
this vast cycle, which is called The precession of the Equinoxes ; i.e., about one 
degree in every 71 years. If the sun came back to the precise point at which it 
began the year, each sign would correspond, always and regularly, exactly with a 
particular month; but, owing to this constant regression, the sun (while it goes 
through the whole twelve signs every year) commences the year in one sign for only 
about 2, 131 years. In point of fact, since the Creation the commencement of the 
year has changed to the extent of nearly three of the signs. When Virgil sings 

" The White Bull with golden horns opens the year," 

he does not record what took place in his own day. This, is another proof of the 
antiquity of these signs. 

The Ecliptic, or path of the sun, if it could be viewed from immediately beneath 
the Polar Star, would form a complete and perfect circle, would be concentric with 
the Equator, and all the stars and the sun would appear to move in this circle, never 
rising or setting. To a person north or south of the Equator the stars therefore rise 
and set obliquely ; while to a person on the Equator they rise and set perpendicularly, 
each star being twelve hours above and twelve below the horizon. 

The points where the two circles (the Ecliptic and the Equator) intersect each 
other are called the Equinoctial points. It is the movement of these points (which 
are now moving from Aries to Pisces) which gives rise to the term, " the precession of 
the Equinoxes. 



THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. IJ 

The figures themselves are perfectly arbitrary. 
There is nothing in the groups of stars to even sug 
gest the figures. This is the first thing which is 
noticed by every one who looks at the constellations. 
Take for example the sign of VIRGO, and look at 
the stars. There is nothing whatever to suggest 
a human form ; still less is there anything to show 
whether that form is a man or a woman. And so 
with all the others. 

The picture, therefore, is the original, and must have 
been drawn around or connected with certain stars, 
simply in order that it might be identified and asso 
ciated with them ; and that it might thus be remem 
bered and handed down to posterity. 

There can be no doubt, as the learned Authoress of 
Mazzaroth conclusively proves, that these signs were 
afterwards identified with the twelve sons of Jacob. 
Joseph sees the sun and moon and eleven stars 
bowing down to him, he himself being the twelfth 
(Gen. xxxvii. 9). The blessing of Jacob (Gen. xlix.) 
and the blessing of Moses (Deut. xxxiii.) both bear wit 
ness to the existence of these signs in their day. And 
it is more than probable that each of the Twelve 
Tribes bore one of them on its standard. We read in 
Num. ii. 2, " Every man of the children of Israel shall 
pitch by his own STANDARD, with the ENSIGN of their 
father s house " (R.V. "with the ensigns of their fathers 
houses"). This "Standard" was the Degel (^.7) on 
which the " Sign " (Hltf, Oth) was depicted. Hence it 
was called the " En-sign" Ancient Jewish authorities 
declare that each tribe had one of the signs as its own, 

S. 1005. B 



i8 



THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 



and it is highly probable, even from Scripture, that four 
of the tribes carried its " Sign " ; and that these four 
were placed at the four sides of the camp. 

If the Lion were appropriated to Judah, then the 
other three would be thus fixed, and would be the same 
four that equally divide the Zodiac at its four cardinal 
points. According to Num. ii. the camp was thus 
formed : 



EAST. 

ISSACHAR JUDAH 

(Cancer). The Lion 

(Leo). 



ZEBULON 
(Virgo). 



LEVI 

The Scales 
(Libra). 



J -S r 
S c H 
> 2 t 



BENJAMIN EPHRAIM and MANASSEII 

(Gemini). The Bull 

(the two horns of Taurus). 

WEST. 

If the reader compares the above with the blessings 
of Israel and Moses, and compares the meanings and 
descriptions given below with those blessings, the 



THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. IQ 

connection will be clearly seen. Levi, for example, 
had no standard, and he needed none, for he kept 
" the balance of the Sanctuary," and had the charge 
of that brazen altar on which the atoning blood out 
weighed the nation s sins. 

The four great signs which thus marked the four 
sides of the camp, and the four quarters of the Zodiac, 
are the same four which form the Cherubim (the 
Eagle, the Scorpion s enemy, being substituted for the 
Scorpion). The Cherubim thus form a compendious 
expression of the hope of Creation, which, from the 
very first, has been bound up with the Coming One, 
who alone should cause its groanings to cease. 

But this brings us to the Signs themselves and 
their interpretation. 

These pictures were designed to preserve, ex 
pound, and perpetuate the one first great promise and 
prophecy of Gen. iii. 15, that all hope for Man, all 
hope for Creation, was bound up in a coming Redeemer ; 
One who should be born of a woman ; who should first 
suffer, and afterwards gloriously triumph ; One who 
should first be wounded by that great enemy who 
was the cause of all sin and sorrow and death, but 
who should finally crush the head of " that Old 
Serpent the Devil." 

These ancient star-pictures reveal this Coming 
One. They set forth "the sufferings of Christ and 
the glory that should follow." Altogether there are 
forty-eight of them, made up of twelve SIGNS, each 
sign containing three CONSTELLATIONS. 

These may be divided into three great books, each 

B 2 



20 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

book containing four chapters (or Signs) ; and each 
chapter containing three sections (or Constellations). 

Each book (like the four Gospels) sets forth its 
peculiar aspect of the Coming One ; beginning with the 
promise of His coming, and ending with the destruction 
of the enemy. 

But where are we to begin to read this wondrous 
Heavenly Scroll ? A circle has proverbially neither 
beginning nor end. In what order then are we to con 
sider these signs ? In the heavens they form a never- 
ending circle. Where is the beginning and where is the 
end of this circle through which the sun is constantly 
moving ? Where are we to break into this circle ? 
and say, This is the commencement. It is clear that 
unless we can determine this original starting point 
we can never read this wondrous book aright. 

As I have said, the popular beginning to-day is with 
ARIES, the Ram. But comparing this Revelation with 
that which was afterwards written " in the Volume of 
the Book," VIRGO is the only point where we can in 
telligently begin, and LEO is the only point where we 
can logically conclude. Is not this what is spoken of 
as the unknown and insoluble mystery "The riddle 
of the SPHINX " ? The word " Sphinx " is from opfyyw, 
to bind closely together. It was therefore designed to 
show where the two ends of the Zodiac were to be 
joined together, and where the great circle of the 
heavens begins and ends. 

The SPHINX is a figure with the head of a woman 
ad the body of a lion ! What is this but a never- 
ceasing monitor, telling us to begin with Virgo and 



THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 



2,1 




22 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

to end with Leo ! In the Zodiac in the Temple of 
Esneh, in Egypt, a Sphinx is actually placed between 
the Signs of Virgo and Leo, as shown in the illustration 
on the preceding page. It is a tracing from the draw 
ing of Signer Bossi, executed on the spot, under the 
direction of the late Mr. Edward J. Cooper, in 1820. 

Beginning, then, with VIRGO, let us now spread out 
the contents of this Heavenly Volume, so that the eye 
can take them in at a glance. Of course we are greatly 
hindered in this, in having to use the modern Latin 
names which the Constellations bear to-day.* Some 
of these names are mistakes, others are gross per 
versions of the truth, as proved by the pictures them 
selves, which are far more ancient, and have come 
down to us from primitive times. 

After the Revelation came to be written down in 
the Scriptures, there was not the same need for the 
preservation of the Heavenly Volume. And after the 
nations had lost the original meaning of the pictures, 
they invented a meaning out of the vain imagination 
of the thoughts of their hearts. The Greek My 
thology is an interpretation of (only some of) the 
signs and constellations after their true meaning had 
been forgotten. It is popularly believed that Bible 
truth is an evolution from, or development of, the 
ancient religions of the world. But the fact is that 
they themselves are a corruption and perversion of 
primitive truth ! 



* It is exactly the same with the books of the Bible. Their order and their 
names, as we have them in the English Bible, are those which man has given them, 
copied from the Septuagiut and Vulgate, and in many cases are not the Divine names 
according to the Hebrew Canon. 



THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 23 

We will now give the contents of this Heavenly 
Volume of Divine Revelation, and afterwards proceed 
to develope it, explain it in detail, and compare it with 
the same truth which was afterwards written down in 
the Scriptures. 



first :fi$oofc. 

THE REDEEMER. 

(His FIRST COMING.) 
"The Sufferings of Christ." 

CHAPTER I. 

THE PROPHECY OF THE PROMISED SEED OP THE WOMAN. 

VIRGO (The Virgin. A woman bearing a branch in her right hand 
and an ear of corn in her left*}. The Promised Seed of the 
woman. 

I. COMA (The Desired. The woman and child}. The Desired 
of all nations. 

2. CENTAURUS (The Centaur with two natures, holding a spear 
piercing a victini). The despised sin offering-. 

3- BOOTES (a man walking bearing a branch called ARCTURUS, 
meaning the same). He cometh. 

CHAPTER II. 

THE REDEEMER S ATONING WORK. 

LIBRA (The Scales). The price deficient balanced by the price 
which covers. 

I. CRUX, The Cross endured. 

2. LUPUS, or VICTIMA, The Victim slain. 

3. CORONA, The Crown bestowed. 



24 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

CHAPTER III. 

THE REDEEMER S CONFLICT. 

SCORPIO (The Scorpion) seeking- to wound, but itself trodden 
under foot. 

I. SERPENS (The Serpent struggling- with the man). 

2. O-PHI-U-CHUS (The man grasping- the serpent). The 
struggle with the enemy. 

3. HERCULES (The mighty man. A man kneeling on one knee, 
humbled in the conflict, but holding aloft the tokens of victory, 
with his foot on the head of the Dragon). The mighty 
Vanquisher seeming- to sink in the conflict. 

CHAPTER IV. 

THE REDEEMER S TRIUMPH. 

SAGITTARIUS (The Archer}. The Two-natured Conqueror 

going" forth " Conquering and to conquer." 

i. LYRA (The Harp}. Praise prepared for the Conqueror. 

2. ARA (The Altar}. Consuming fire prepared for His ene 
mies. 

3. DRACO (The Dragon}. The Old Serpent the Devil, cast 
down from heaven. 



Scconb ffiooft. 

THE REDEEMED. 

THE RESULT OF THE REDEEMER S SUFFERINGS. 

CHAPTER I. 

THEIR BLESSINGS PROCURED. 

CAPRICORNUS (The fish-goat}. The goat of Atonement slain 
for the Redeemed. 



THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 25 

I. SAGITTA (The Arrow), The arrow of God sent forth. 

2. AQUILA (The Eagle), The smitten One falling. 

3. DELPHINUS (The Dolphin], The dead One rising- again. 



CHAPTER II. 

THEIR BLESSINGS ENSURED. 

AQUARIUS (The Water- Bearer).- The living- waters of blessing- 
poured forth for the Redeemed. 

I. PISCIS AUSTRALIS ( The Southern Fish), The blessings be 
stowed. 

2. PEGASUS (The Winged Horse). The blessings quickly 

coming-. 
3. CYGNUS (The Swan), The Blesser surely returning 



CHAPTER III. 

THEIR BLESSINGS IN ABEYANCE. 
PISCES (The Fishes). The Redeemed blessed though bound. 

i. THE BAND bound, but binding- their great enemy Cetus, 
the sea monster. 

2. ANDROMEDA (The Chained Woman), The Redeemed in 
their bondage and affliction. 

3. CEPHEUS (The King), Their Redeemer coming- to rule. 



CHAPTER IV. 
THEIR BLESSINGS CONSUMMATED AND ENJOYED. 

ARIES (The Ram or Lamb). The Lamb that was slain, prepared 
for the victory. 

I. CASSIOPEIA (The Enthroned Woman). The captive delivered, 
and preparing for her husband, the Redeemer. 

2. CETUS (The Sea Monster). The great enemy bound. 
3. PERSEUS (The Breaker}. Delivering- His redeemed. 



26 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 



THE R E D E E M E R. 

(His SECOND COMING.) 
"The glory that should follow." 

CHAPTER I. 

MESSIAH, THE COMING JUDGE OF ALL THE EARTH. 

TAURUS (The Bull}. Messiah coming to rule. 

I. ORION, Light breaking forth in the person of the Redeemer. 

2. ERIDANUS (The River of the Judge). Wrath breaking- forth 
for His enemies. 

3. AURIGA (The Shepherd}. Safety for the Redeemed in the 
day of that wrath. 

CHAPTER II. 

MESSIAH S REIGN AS PRINCE OF PEACE. 

GEMINI (The Twins). The twofold nature of the King. 

I. LEPUS (The Hare), or THE ENEMY trodden under foot. 

2. CANIS MAJOR (The Dog}, or SIRIUS, the coming- glorious 

Prince of Princes. 
3. CANIS MINOR (The Second Dog}, or PROCYON, the exalted 

Redeemer. 

CHAPTER III. 

MESSIAH S REDEEMED POSSESSIONS. 

CANCER (The Crab). The possessions held fast. 

i. URSA MINOR (The Lesser Bear}. The lesser sheepfold. 
2. URSA MAJOR (The Great Bear). The fold and the flock. 
3. ARGO (The Ship}. The redeemed pilgrims safe at home. 



THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 27 

CHAPTER IV. 

MESSIAH S CONSUMMATED TRIUMPH. 

LEO (The Lion), The Lion of the Tribe of Judah aroused for 
the rending- of the Enemy. 

i. HYDRA (The Serpent}. That old Serpent the Devil, de 
stroyed. 

2. CRATER (The Cup}. The cup of Divine wrath poured out 
upon him. 

3. CORVUS (The Crow, or Raven}. Birds of prey devouring him. 



Such are the contents of this wondrous book that 
is written in the heavens. Thus has God been 
speaking and emphasizing and developing His first 
great prophetic promise of Gen. iii. 15. 

Though for more than 2,500 years His people had 
not this Revelation written in a book as we now 
have it in the Bible, they were not left in ignorance 
and darkness as to God s purposes and counsels ; nor 
were they without hope as to ultimate deliverance from 
all evil and from the Evil One. 

Adam, who first heard that wondrous promise, 
repeated it, and gave it to his posterity as a most 
precious heritage the ground of all their faith, the 
substance of all their hope, the object of all their desire. 
Seth and Enoch took it up. Enoch, we know, pro 
phesied of the Lord s coming, saying, " Behold the 
Lord cometh with ten thousands of His saints to 
execute judgment upon all" (Jude 14). How could 
these " holy prophets, since the world began," have 
recorded their prophecies better, or more effectually, 



28 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

or more truthfully and powerfully, than in these star- 
pictures and their interpretation ? This becomes a 
certainty when we remember the words of the Holy 
Spirit by Zacharias (Luke i. 67-70) : 

" Blessed be the Lord God of Israel ; 
For He hath visited and redeemed His people, 
And hath raised up a horn of salvation for us 
In the house of His servant David ; 

As He spake by the mouth of HIS HOLY PROPHETS 
WHICH HAVE BEEN SINCE THE WORLD BEGAN." 

The same truth is revealed through Peter, in 
Acts iii. 20, 21 : " He shall send Jesus Christ, which 
before was preached unto you ; whom the heaven 
must receive until the times of restitution of all 
things, which God hath spoken by the mouth of all 
HIS HOLY PROPHETS SINCE THE WORLD 
BEGAN." 

These words have new meaning for us, if we see 
the things which were spoken " since the world began," 
thus written in the heavens, which utter speech (i.e. 
prophecy), and show forth this knowledge day after 
day and night after night, the heritage of all the earth, 
and their words reaching unto the ends of the world. 

This Revelation, coinciding as it does in all its 
facts and truths with that afterwards recorded " in 
the Volume of the Book," must have had the same 
Divine origin, must have been made known by the 
inspiration of the same Holy Spirit. 

We now proceed to compare the two, and we 
shall see how they agree at every point, proving that 
the source and origin of this Divine Revelation is one 
and the same. 



VIRGO. 2Q 



Ebc Jfirst 

THE REDEEMER. 
(His FIRST COMING.) 

" The Sufferings of Christ." 

First Book is occupied with the PERSON of 
the Coming One. It covers the whole ground, and 
includes the conflict and the victory of the Promised 
Seed, but with special emphasis on His Coming. 
The book opens with the promise of His coming, and 
it closes with the Dragon cast down from heaven. 

CHAPTER I. 

THE SIGN VIRGO. 
The Promised Seed of the Woman. 

HERE is the commencement of all prophecy in 
Gen. iii. 15, spoken to the serpent : " I will put 
enmity between thee and the woman, and between 
thy seed and her seed : it shall bruise thy head, and 
thou shalt bruise His heel." This is the prophetic 
announcement which the Revelation in the heavens 
and in the Book is designed to unfold and develope. 
It lies at the root of all the ancient traditions and 
mythologies, which are simply the perversion and 
corruption of primitive truth. 

VIRGO is represented as a woman with a branch in 
her right hand, and some ears of corn in her left hand. 
Thus giving a two-fold testimony of the Coming One. 



30 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

The name of this sign in the Hebrew is Bethulah, 
which means a virgin, and in the Arabic a branch. 
The two words are connected, as in Latin Virgo, 
which means a virgin; and virga, which means a 
Branch (Vulg. Isa. xi. i). Another name is Sunbnl, 
Arabic, an car of corn. 

In Gen. iii. 15 she is presented only as a woman; 
but in later prophecies her nationality is defined as 
being of the stock of Israel, the seed of Abraham, the 
line of David; and, further, she is to be a virgin. 
There are two prominent prophecies of her and her 
seed : one is connected with the first coming in in 
carnation, Isa. vii. 14 (quoted in Matt. i. 23). 

" Behold, a virgin shall conceive and bear a son, 
And shall call his name Immanuel." 

The other is connected with His second coming, 
leaping over the sufferings and this present interval of 
His rejection, and looking forward to His coming in 
glory and judgment, Isa. ix. 6, 7 (quoted in Luke ii. u 
and i. 32, 33) 

"For unto us a child is born, 
Unto us a son is given ; * 

And the government shall be upon His shoulder; 
And His name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, 
The Mig-hty God, The Everlasting- Father, The Prince 

of Peace. 
Of the increase of His government there shall be no 

end. 



* Here, the fact of His humiliation, together with this long period of His rejection, 
is leaped over, and the prophecy passes on at once over at least a period of 1893 
years to this "glory which should follow." 



VIRGO. 31 

Upon the throne of David, and upon His kingdom, 

To order it, and to establish it 

With judgment and with justice 

From henceforth even for ever. 

The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this." 

It is difficult to separate the Virgin and her Seed 
in the prophecy ; and so, here, we have first the sign 
VIRGO, where the name points to her as the prominent 
subject ; while in the first of the three constellations 
of this sign, where the woman appears again, the name 
COMA points to the child as the great subject. 

Virgo contains no stars, viz., one of the ist mag 
nitude, six of the 3rd, ten of the 4th, etc. 

ARATUS thus sings of them : 

"Beneath Bootes feet the Virgin seek, 
Who carries in her hand a glittering- spike. , , . 
Over her shoulder there revolves a star 
In the right wing, superlatively bright; 
It rolls beneath the tail, and may compare 
W T ith the bright stars that deck the Greater Bear. 
Upon her shoulder one bright star is borne,f 
One clasps the circling girdle of her loins,:}: 
One at her bending knee ; and in her hand 
Glitters that bright and golden Ear of Corn.|| 

Thus the brightest star in VIRGO (a) 51 has an ancient 
name, handed down to us in all the star-maps, in which 
the Hebrew word (HpV) Tsemech is preserved. It is 



* e, Al Mureddin. f 0, Zavijavah. % The star now marked S. 

The star || The star o, Al Zimach. 

H The stars are known by Greek letters and sometimes by numbers, &c. 
Alpha (o) denotes a star of the first magnitude ; Beta (>, the second, and so on. 
This plan was originated by Bayer in his Uranometria, 1603. The star Alpha, as 
seen in the New Great Equatorial Telescope recently set up at Greenwich, is now 
discovered to be really a double star, though it had hitherto always appeared to be one. 



32 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

called in Arabic A I Zimach, which means the branch. 
This star is in the ear of corn which she holds in her 
left hand. Hence the star has a modern Latin name, 
which has almost superseded the ancient one, Spica, 
which means, an ear of corn. But this hides the great 
truth revealed by its name A I Zimach. It foretold the 
coming of Him who should bear this name. The same 
Divine inspiration has, in the written Word, four times 
connected it with Him. There are twenty Hebrew 
words translated " Branch," but only one of them 
(Tsemech) is used exclusively of the Messiah, and this 
word only four times.* Each of these further connects 
Him with one special account of Him, given in the 
Gospels. 

(l.) Jer. xxiii. 5, 6 

" Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, 
That I will raise unto David a righteous BRANCH 

(i.e., a Son), 
And a KING shall reig-n and prosper." 

The account of His coming as King is written in the 
Gospel according to Matthew, where Jehovah says to 
Israel, "Behold thy KING." (Zech. ix. 9; Matt, 
xxi. 9.) 

(2.) Zech. iii. 8." Behold I will bring forth my 
SERVANT the BRANCH." In the Gospel accord 
ing to Mark we find the record of Jehovah s servant 
and His service, and we hear Jehovah s voice saying, 
" Behold my SERVANT." (Isa. xlii. i.) 

(3.) Zech. vi. 12. " Thus speaketh the LCRD of 
hosts, saying, Behold the MAN whose name is the 

* Jcr. xxxiii. 15 being only a repetition of Jer. xxiii. 5. 



VIRGO. 33 

BRANCH." In the Gospel according to Luke we 
behold Him, presented in " the MAN Christ Jesus." 

4. Isa. iv. 2. " In that day shall the BRANCH of 
JEHOVAH be beautiful and glorious." So that this 
Branch, this Son, is Jehovah Himself ; and as we read 
the record of John we hear the voice from heaven 
saying, " Behold your GOD." (Isa. xl. 9.) 

This is the Branch foretold by the star A I Zimach 
in the ear of corn. 

The star 3 is called Zavijaveh t which means the 
gloriously beautiful, as in Isa. iv. 2. The star e, in 
the arm bearing the branch, is called Al Mureddin, 
which means who shall come down (as in Ps. Ixxii. 8), 
or who shall have dominion. It is also known as Vin- 
demiatrix, a Chaldee word which means the son, or 
branch, who cometh. 

Other names of stars in the sign, not identified, are 

Subilah, who carries. (Isa. xlvi. 4.) 

Al Azal, the Branch. (As in Isa. xviii. 5.) 

Subilon, a spike of corn. (As in Isa. xvii. 5.) 

The Greeks, ignorant of the Divine origin and 
teaching of the sign, represented Virgo as Ceres, with 
ears of corn in her hand. 

In the Zodiac in the Temple of Denderah, in Egypt, 
about 2000 B.C. (now in Paris), she is likewise repre 
sented with a branch in her hand, but ignorantly ex 
plained by a false religion to represent Isis ! Her 
name is called Aspolia, which means ears of corn, or 
the seed, which shows that though the woman is seen, 
it is her Seed who is the great subject of the prophecy. 

S. 1005. C 



34 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

Passing to the three constellations anciently as 
signed to the sign Virgo, we come to what may be 
compared to three sections of the chapter, each giving 
some further detail as to the interpretation of its 
teaching. 



i. COMA (The Woman and Child). 
The Desired of all Nations. 

The first constellation in Virgo explains that this 
coming " Branch " will be a child, and that He should 
be the " Desire of all nations." 

The ancient name of this constellation is Comah* the 
desired, or the longed for. We have the word used by 
the Holy Spirit in this very connection, in Hag. ii. 7 : 
" The DESIRE of all nations shall come." 

The ancient Zodiacs pictured this constellation 
as a woman with a child in her arms. ALBUMAZARJ 
(or ABU MASHER), an Arabian astronomer of the 
eighth century, says, " There arises in the first 
Decan,J as the Persians, Chaldeans, and Egyptians, 
and the two HERMES and ASCALIUS teach, a young 
woman, whose Persian name denotes a pure virgin, 
sitting on a throne, nourishing an infant boy (the boy, 
I say), having a Hebrew name, by some nations called 

* From nn3, which occurs only in Ps. Ixiii. I, "my flesh longeth for thee." It 
is akin to 1n to desire. Ps. xix. 10 ; Is. liii. 2 ; Hag. ii. 7 ; etc. 

f A Latin translation of his work is in the British Museum Library. He says the 
Persians understood these signs, but that the Indians perverted them with inventions. 

J The constellations are called Decans. The word means a part, and is used 
of the three parts into which each sign is divided, each of which is occupied by 
n constellation. 



VIRGO: (COMA). 35 

IHESU, with the signification IEZA, which in Greek 
is called CHRISTOS." 

But this picture is not found in any of the modern 
maps of the stars. There we find to-day a woman s 
wig ! It appears that BERENICE, the wife of EUERGETES 
(PTOLEMY III.), king of Egypt in the third century B.C., 
when her husband once went on a dangerous expedi 
tion, vowed to consecrate her fine head of hair to Venus 
if he returned in safety. Her hair, which was hung up 
in the Temple of Venus, was subsequently stolen, and 
to comfort BERENICE, CONON, an astronomer of Alex 
andria (B.C. 283-222), gave it out that Jupiter had 
taken it and made it a constellation ! 

This is a good example of how the meaning of 
other constellations have been perverted (ignorantly or 
intentionally). In this case, as in others, the transition 
from ancient to more modern languages helped to 
hide the meaning. The Hebrew name was COMA 
(desired). But the Greeks had a word for hair, C6-me. 
This again is transferred to the Latin coma, and 
thus " Coma Berenices " (the hair of Berenice) comes 
down to us to-day as the name of this constellation, 
and gives us a woman s wig instead of that Blessed 
One, "the Desire of all Nations." 

In this case, however, we are able to give absolute 
proof that this is a perversion. 

The ancient Egyptian name for this constellation 
was Shes-mi, the desired son ! 

The Zodiac in the Temple of Denderah, in Egypt, 
going back at least 2,000 years B.C., has no trace of 
any hair, but it has the figure of a woman and child. 

c 2 



36 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

In our illustration we have given a copy of this very 
ancient picture, and not the wig of hair ! 

We have been permitted to trace it from a work 
on Egyptian Scenery by the late eminent astronomer, 
Edward J. Cooper, of Markree Castle, co. Sligo, 
who visited that Temple in the year 1820 with an 
Italian artist, Signor Bossi. The original drawing from 
which our tracing is made (and enlarged) was drawn 
by Signor Bossi on the spot, before it was taken to 
Paris in 1821.* We thus have before us the exact 
representations of one of these star-pictures at least 
4,000 years old. 

Even Shakespeare understood the truth about this 
constellation picture, which has been so long covered 
by modern inventions. In his Titus Andronicus\ he 
speaks of an arrow being shot up to heaven to the 
" Good boy in Virgo s lap" 

The constellation itself is very remarkable. Others 
contain one or two stars of the first or second magnitude, 
and then a greater or less variety of lesser stars ; but 
this is peculiar from having no one very bright star, but 
contains so many stars of the 4th and 5th magnitudes. 
It contains 43 stars altogether, ten being of the 4th 
magnitude, and the remainder of the 5th, 6th, etc. 

It was in all probability the constellation of Coma 
in which " the Star of Bethlehem " appeared. There 
was a traditional prophecy, well-known in the East, 

* It appears that MM. Saulnier, fils, and Lelorrain arrived while Signor Bossi was 
engaged in copying it, but concealed their design to remove it. The King of France 
paid ^6,250 sterling for it. It has since been copied, and lithographs have been 
published. 

f Act IV., Scenes. 



VIRGO: (COMA). 37 

carefully preserved and handed down, that a new star 
would appear in this sign when He whom it foretold 
should be born. 

This was, doubtless, referred to in the prophecy 
of Balaam, which would thus receive a double fulfil 
ment, first of the literal " Star," and also of the person 
to whom it referred. The Lord said by Balaam 
(Num. xxiv. 17), 

" There shall come * a star out of Jacob, 
And a sceptre shall rise out of Israel." 

Thomas Hyde, an eminent Orientalist (16361703), 
writing on the ancient religion of the Persians, quotes 
from ABULFARAGIUS (an Arab Christian Historian, 1226- 
1286), who says that ZOROASTER, or ZERDUSHT, the 
Persian, was a pupil of Daniel the Prophet, and that he 
predicted to the Magians (who were the astronomers 
of Persia), that when they should see a new star 
appear it would notify the birth of a mysterious 
child, whom they were to adore. It is further stated 
in the Zend A vesta that this new star was to appear 
in the sign of the Virgin. Some have supposed that 
this passage is not genuine. But whether it was 
interpolated before or after the event, it is equally 
good evidence for our purpose here. For if it was 
written before the event, it is evidence of the prophetic 
announcement; and if it was interpolated after the 
event it is evidence of the historic fact. 

The Book of Job shows us how Astronomy flourished 



* I.e., come forth (as in the R.V.). At, as the preposition ft is rendered in 
Gen. iii. 24. "There shall come forth a star at or over the inheritance or possessions 
of Jacob," thus indicating the locality which would be on the meridian of this star. 



38 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

in Idumea ; and the Gospel according to Matthew 
shows that the Persian Magi, as well as others, were 
looking for " the Desire of all nations." 

New stars have appeared again and again. It was 
in 125 B.C. that a star, so bright as to be seen in 
the day-time, suddenly appeared. It was this that 
caused HIPPARCHUS to draw up his catalogue of stars, 
which has been handed down to us by PTOLEMY 
(150 A.D.). 

This new star would show the latitude, passing at 
that time immediately overhead at midnight, every 
twenty-four hours ; while the prophecy would give 
the longitude as the land of Jacob. Having these 
two factors, it would be only a matter of observation, 
and easy for the Magi to find the place where it 
would be vertical, and thus to locate the very spot 
of the birth of Him of whom it was the sign, for 
they emphatically called it " His Star." There is 
a beautiful tradition which relates how, in their 
difficulty, on their way from Jerusalem to find the 
actual spot under the Zenith of this star, these Magi 
sat down beside David s " Well of Bethlehem " to 
refresh themselves. There they saw the star reflected 
in the clear water of the well. Hence it is written 
that " when they saw the star they rejoiced with 
exceeding joy," for they knew they were at the very 
spot and place of His appearing whence He was 
to "come forth." 

There can be little doubt that it was a new star. In 
the first place a new star is no unusual phenomenon. 
In the second place the tradition is well supported by 



VIRGO: (COMA). 39 

ancient Christian writers. One speaks of its " sur 
passing brightness." Another (IGNATIUS, Bp. of An- 
tioch, A.D. 69) says, " At the appearance of the Lord 
a star shone forth brighter than all the other stars." 
IGNATIUS, doubtless, had this from those who had 
actually seen it ! PRUDENTIUS (4th cent. A.D.) says that 
not even the morning star was so fair. Archbishop 
Trench, who quotes these authorities, says " This 
star, I conceive, as so many ancients and moderns 
have done, to have been a new star in the heavens." 

One step more places this new star in the constella 
tion of COMA, and with new force makes it indeed 
11 His star " the " Sign " of His " coming forth from 
Bethlehem." Will it be "the sign of the Son of Man 
in heaven " (Matt. xxiv. 30) when He shall " come 
unto " this world again to complete the wondrous 
prophecies written of Him in the heavenly and earthly 
Revelations ? * 

Thus does the constellation of COMA reveal that 
the coming " Seed of the woman " was to be a child 
born, a son given. 

But He was to be more : He was to be God and 



* It ought also to be noted that in the preceding year there were three conjunctions 
of the planets Jupiter and Saturn, at the end of May and October, and at the begin 
ning of December. Kepler (1571-1631) was the first to point this out, and his calcu 
lations have been confirmed by the highest authorities. These conjunctions occurred 
in the sign of PISCES : and this sign, according to all the ancient Jewish authorities 
(Josephus, Abarbanel, Eliezer, and others), has special reference to Israel. The con- 
junction of Jupiter and Saturn, they hold, always marked the occurrence of some 
event favourable to Israel; while Kepler, calculating backwards, found that this 
astronomical phenomenon always coincided with some great historical crisis, viz. : 
the Revelation to Adam, the birth of Enoch, the Revelation to Noah, the birth of 
Moses, the birth of Cyrus, the birth of Christ, the birth of Charlemagne, and the 
birth of Luther. 



40 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

man two natures in one person 1 This is the lesson 
of the next picture. 



2. CENTAURUS (The Centaur). 
The Despised Sin-offering. 

It is the figure of a being with two natures. 
Jamieson, in his Celestial Atlas, 182,2, says, " On the 
authority of the most accomplished Orientalist of our 
own times, the Arabic and Chaldaic name of this 
constellation is HD." Now this Hebrew word Bezeh 
(and the Arabic A I Beze) means the despised. It is 
the very word used of this Divine sufferer in Isa. liii. 3, 
" He is DESPISED (i"!p3) and rejected of men." 

The constellation contains thirty-five stars. Two 
of the ist magnitude, one of the 2nd, six of the 3rd, 
nine of the 4th, etc., which, together with the four 
bright stars in the Cross make a brilliant show in 
southern latitudes. 

The brightest star, a (in the horse s fore-foot), has 
come down to us with the ancient name of Toliman, 
which means the heretofore and hereafter, marking Him 
as the one " which is, and which was, and which is to 
come the Almighty" (Rev. i. 8). Sir John Herschell 
observed this star to be growing rapidly brighter. It 
may be, therefore, one of the changeable stars, and 
its name may be taken as an indication of the fact 
that it was known to the ancients. 

Another name for the constellation was in 
Hebrew, Asmeath, which means a sin-offering (as in 
Isa. liii. 10). 



VIRGO: (CENTAURUS). 41 

The Greek name was C/iciron, which means the 
pierced, or who pierces. In the Greek fables Cheiron 
was renowned for his skill in hunting, medicine, 
music, athletics, and prophecy. All the most dis 
tinguished heroes of Greece are described as his pupils. 
He was supposed to be immortal, but he volun 
tarily agreed to die; and, wounded by a poisoned 
arrow (not intended for him) while in conflict with 
a wild boar, he transferred his immortality to Pro 
metheus ; whereupon he was placed amongst the 
stars. 

We can easily see how this fable is the ignorant 
perversion of the primitive Revelation. The true 
tradition can be seen dimly through it, and we can 
discern Him of whom it spoke, the all-wise, all- 
powerful Teacher and Prophet, who "went about 
doing good," yet " despised and rejected of men," 
laying down His life that others might live. 

It is one of the lowest of the constellations, i.e. 
the farthest south from the northern centre. It is 
situated immediately over the Cross, which bespeaks 
His own death; He is seen in the act of destroying 
the enemy. 

Thus these star-pictures tell us that it would be as 
a child that the Promised Seed should come forth and 
grow and wax strong in spirit and be filled with 
wisdom (Luke ii. 40) ; and that as a man having 
two natures He should suffer and die. Then the 
third and last section in this first chapter of this 
First Book goes on to tell of His second coming in 
glory. 



4^ THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

3. BOOTES (The Coming One). 
He cometh. 

This constellation still further develops this won 
drous personage. 

He is pictured as a man walking rapidly, with a 
spear in his right hand and a sickle in his left hand. 

The Greeks called him Bo-o-tes, which is from 
the Hebrew root Bo (&03, to come), meaning the coming. 
It is referred to in Ps. xcvi. 13 : 

" For He cometh, 

For He cometh to judge the earth ; 
He shall judge the world in righteousness, 
And the people with His truth." 

It it probable that his ancient name was Arcturus * 
(as referred to in Job ix. 9), for this is the name of 
the brightest star, a (in the left knee). Arcturus means 
He cometh. f 

The ancient Egyptians called him Smat, which 
means one who rules, subdues, and governs. They 
also called him Bau (a reminiscence of the more 
ancient Bo), which means also the coming one. 

* The ancient name could not have been Bootes ! though it is derived from, and 
may be a reminiscence of the Hebrew. 

f ARATUS calls him A rctophylax, i. e. , the guardian of Arctos, the flock of the 
greater fold, called to-day the Great Bear : 

" Behind, and seeming to urge on the Bear, 
Arctophylax, on earth Bootes named, 
Sheds o er the Arctic car his silver light." 

By some moderns he is mistakenly called The Waggoner. Hence the allusion of 
Thompson : 

" Wide o er the spacious regions of the North, 
Bootes urges on his tardy wain." 

This perversion scarcely does justice even to human common sense, as waggoners 
do not use a sickle for a whip ! 



VIRGO: (BOOTES). 43 

The star p (in the spear-head) is named A I 
Katurops, which means the branch, treading under foot. 

The star (just below the waist on his right 
side) is called Mirac, or Mizar, or Izar. Mirac 
means the coming forth as an arrow ; Mizar, or Izar y 
means the preserver, guarding. 

The star TJ is called Muphride, i.e. who separates. 

The star (in the head) is named Nekkar, 
.i.e. the pierced (Zech. xii. 10), which tells us that 
this coming judge is the One who was pierced 
Another Hebrew name is Merga, who bruises * 

This brings us back again to Gen. iii. 15, and 
closes up this first chapter of the First Book (VIRGO). 
It shows us the Person of the Promised Seed from the 
beginning to the end, from the first promise of the 
birth of the Child in Bethlehem, to the final coming 

* The constellation is a very brilliant one, having 54 stars, viz., one of the 1st 
magnitude, six of the 3rd, eleven of the 4th, etc. 

The constellation of the Canes Venatici (the Greyhounds}, i.e., the two dogs 
(Asterion and Chara), which Bootes holds by a leash, is quite a modern invention, 
being added by Hevelius (1611-1687). The bright star of the 3rd magnitude in 
the neck of Chara, was named " Cor Caroli" (the heart of Charles] by Sir Charles 
Scarborough, physician to Charles II., in honour of Charles I., in 1649. This is a 
good example of the almost infinite distance between the ancient and modern names. 
The former are full of mysterious significance and grandeur, while the latter are 
puerile in the extreme, almost approaching to the comic! e.g. , the Air Pump, the 
Painter s Easel, the Telescope, the Triangle, the Fly, the Microscope, the Indian, 
the Fox and Goose, the Balloon, the Toucan (or American Goose), the Compasses, 
Charles s Oak, the Cat, the Clock, the Unicorn, &c. The vast difference can be at 
once seen between those designed by the ancients and those added by astronomers iu 
more recent times. 

These new constellations were added, 22 by Hevelius (1611-1687); an( i *5 by 
Halley (1656-1742). They were formed for the purpose of embracing those stars 
which were not included in the ancient constellations. This shows that the old 
constellations were not designed, like the modern ones, merely for the sake of enabling 
astronomers to identify the positions of particular stars. In this case all the stars 
would have been included. The object was exactly the opposite! Instead of the 
pictures being designed to serve to identify the stars, only certain stars were used 
for the purpose of helping to identify the pictures ! 

This is another important proof of the truth of our whole argument. 



44 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

of the great Judge and Harvester to reap the harvest 
of the earth. This was the vision which was after 
wards shown to John (Rev. xiv. 15, 16), when he says, 
" I looked; and behold a white cloud, and upon the 
cloud one sat like unto the Son of Man, having on 
His head a golden crown, and in His hand a sharp 
sickle. And another angel came out of the temple, 
crying with a loud voice to Him that sat on the 
cloud, Thrust in thy sickle and reap ; for the time 
is come for Thee to reap ; for the harvest of the 
earth is ripe. And He that sat on the cloud thrust 
in His sickle on the earth ; and the earth was reaped." 

This is the conclusion of the first chapter of this 
First Book. Here we see the woman whose Seed is 
to bruise the serpent s head, the Virgin-Born, the 
Branch of Jehovah, perfect man and perfect God, 
Immanuel, " God with us," yet despised and rejected 
of men, and yielding up His life that others may 
have life for evermore. But we see Him coming after 
wards in triumphant power to judge the earth. 

This is only one chapter of this First Book, but it 
contains the outline of the whole volume, complete in 
itself, so far as it regards the Person of the Coming 
One. Like the Book of Genesis, it is the seed-plot 
which contains the whole, all the rest being merely 
the development of the many grand details which 
are included and shut up within it. It is only one 
chapter out of twelve, but it distinctly foreshadows 
the end even " the sufferings of Christ and the glory 
which should follow." 



LIBRA. 45 



CHAPTER II. 

THE SIGN LIBRA. 

The Redeemer s Atoning Work; or The Price deficient 
balanced by the Price which covers. 

IN the first chapter of this book we saw that this 
Coming Seed of the woman was, among other things, 
to give up His life for others. 

The second chapter is going to define and develope 
the manner and object of this death. 

The name of the Sign, together with its three 
constellations and the names of the stars composing 
them, give the complete picture of this Redemption. 

The Sign contains 51 stars, two of which are of the 
2nd magnitude, one of the 3rd, eight of the 4th, etc. 

The Hebrew name is Mozanaim, the Scales, weighing. 
Its name in Arabic is A I Zubena, purchase, or redemp 
tion. In Coptic, it is Lambadia, station of propitiation 
(from Lam, graciousness, and badia, branch}. The 
name by which it has come down to us is the Latin, 
Libra, which means weighing, as used in the Vulgate 
(Isa. xl. 12). 

Libra contains three bright stars whose names 
supply us with the whole matter. The brightest, a (in 
the lower scale), is named Zuben al Genubi, which 
means the purchase, or price which is deficient. This 



46 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

points to the fact that man has been utterly ruined. 
He is "weighed in the balances and found wanting." 

" None of them can by any means redeem his brother, 
Nor give to God a ransom for him ; 
For the redemption of their soul is costly, 
And must be let alone for ever/ 

(Ps. xlix. 7, R.V.) 

" Surely men of low degree are vanity (Heb. a IreatK], 
And men of high degree are a lie ; 
In the balances they go up ; 

They are altogether lighter than vanity " (Heb. a breath}. 

(Ps. Ixii. 9, R.V.) 

This is the verdict pronounced and recorded by this 
star Zuben al Genubi. 

Is there then no hope ? Is there no one who can 
pay the price ? 

Yes ; there is " the Seed of the woman." He is not 
merely coming as a child, but He is coming as an 
atoning sacrifice. 

He is coming for the purpose of Redemption ! He 
can pay the price which covers ! Hence in the upper 
scale we have another bright star with this very 
name Zuben al ChemaliTHE PRICE WHICH 
COVERS ! Praised be God ! " They sang a new song, 
saying, Thou art worthy ... for Thou wast slain, and 
hast redeemed us to God by thy blood." (Rev. v. g.) 
This is the testimony of $, the second brightest 
star ! It has another name, al Gubi, heaped up, or high, 
telling of the infinite value of this redemption price. 
But there is a third star, y, below, towards Centaurus 
and the Victim slain, telling, by that and by its name, 
of the conflict by which that redemption would be 



LIBRA. 47 

accomplished. It is called Zuben Akrabi or Zuben 
al Akrab, which means the price of the conflict ! 

There is, however, some reason to suppose that 
Libra is a very ancient Egyptian corruption, bringing 
in human merit instead of Divine righteousness ; " the 
way of Cain " instead of the way of God. In the more 
ancient Akkadian the months were called after the 
names of the signs,* and the sign of the seventh month 
is 1 the sign that we now call Libra. The Akkadian 
name for it was Tulku. Tul means mound (like dhul 
and duty, and ku means sacred; hence, Tulku means 
the sacred mound, or the holy altar, f 

Not only is the name and its meaning different, but 
the teaching is infinitely greater and more important, if 
we may believe that the original picture of this sign was 
not a pair of scales, but the representation of a holy 
altar. This would agree still better with the three con 
stellations which follow. 

The names of the stars would also be more appro 
priate, for it is the Sacrifice of Christ which they 
foreshadowed, and here it was that the price which 
covered was paid, and outweighed the price which 
was deficient. What that price was to be, and how 
it was to be paid, and what was to be the result in 
the Person of the Redeemer, is set forth in detail in 
the three sections of this chapter by the constellations 
of The Cross endured, The Victim slain, and The Crown 
bestowed. 

* See quotation from Dr. Budge, on page 12. 

f And certainly the symbol by which it is still known -^- is more like the top of 
an altar (See Ara, Plate XIV.) than a pair of balances, to which we can trace no 
resemblance whatever. See Note in the Appendix. 



48 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 



i. CRUX (The Cross). 
The Cross Endured. 

The Hebrew name was Adorn, which means cutting 
off, as in Dan. ix. 26 : " After threescore and two 
weeks shall Messiah be cut off." The last letter of 
the Hebrew alphabet was called Tau, which was 
anciently made in the form of a cross. The ancient 
Phoenician was ^ ; the ancient Hebrew, as found on 
coins, was X and -\- ; the Aramaic, as found on 
Egyptian monuments, was a transition p or |~>, which 
passed into the present square Hebrew character M. 
This letter is called Tau, and means a mark; espe 
cially a boundary -mark, a limit or finish. And it is the 
last letter, which finishes the Hebrew alphabet to 
this day. 

The Southern Cross was just visible in the lati 
tude of Jerusalem at the time of the first coming of 
our Lord to die. Since then, through the gradual 
recession of the Polar Star, it has not been seen 
in northern latitudes. It gradually disappeared and 
became invisible at Jerusalem when the Real Sacrifice 
was offered there ; and tradition, which preserved its 
memory, assured travellers that if they could go far 
enough south it would be again seen. Dante sang 
of " the four stars never beheld but by the early 
race of men." It was not until the sixteenth century 
had dawned that missionaries and voyagers, doubling 
the Cape for the first time, and visiting the tropics 
and southern seas, brought back the news of " a 



LIBRA: (THE CROSS). 49 

wonderful cross more glorious than all the constellations 
of the heavens." 

It is a small asterism, containing only about five 
stars, viz., one of the 1st magnitude, two of the 2nd, 
one of the 3rd, and one of the 4th. Four of these are 
in the form of a cross. 

Long before the Christian Era this sign of the 
Cross had lost its true meaning, and had been per 
verted in Babylon and Egypt as it has since been 
desecrated by Rome. The Persians and Egyptians 
worshipped it. The cakes made and eaten in honour 
of the Queen of Heaven were marked with it. This 
heathen custom Rome has adopted and adapted in 
her Good Friday cakes, which are thus stamped. But 
all are alike ignorant of what it means, viz., " IT 
IS FINISHED." 

In Egypt, and in the earliest times, it was the 
sign and symbol of life. To-day, Romanists use it as 
the symbol of death! But it means life! Natural 
life given up, and eternal life procured. Atonement, 
finished, perfect, and complete ; never to be repeated, 
or added to. All who partake of its benefits in 
Christ now, in grace, by faith " ARE made nigh by the 
blood of Christ" (Eph. ii. 13), and of them Jesus 
says, " He that heareth my voice, and believeth on 
Him that sent me HATH everlasting life, and shall 
not come into judgment ; but IS PASSED from 
death unto life" (John v. 24). So perfect and com 
plete is the work which Jesus finished on the Cross 
that we cannot seek to add even our repentance, 
faith, tears, or prayers, without practically asserting 

S. 1005. D 



50 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

that the work of Christ is not finished, and is not 
sufficient ! 

The Hebrew names of this constellation Adorn and 
Tau rebuke our Pharisaic spirit, which is the relic 
and essence of all false religions, and points to the 
blessed fact that the Sacrifice was offered " once 
for all," and the atoning work of Redemption com 
pletely finished on Calvary. 

" Tis finished ! the Messiah dies ! 

Cut off" for sins, but not His own ; 
Accomplished is the sacrifice, 

The great redeeming- work is done." 

In the ancient Egytian Zodiac of Denderah this 
first Decan of LIBRA is represented as a lion with 
his tongue hanging out of his mouth, as if in thirst, 
and a female figure holding a cup out to him. Under 
his fore feet is the hieroglyphic symbol of running 
water. What is all this but " the Lion of the tribe 
of Judah " brought down " into the dust of death," 
and saying "I am poured out like water . . . my 
strength is dried up" (Ps. xxii. 13-18): "I thirst" 
(John xix. 28): "and in my thirst they gave me 
vinegar to drink" (Ps. Ixix. 21)? 

The Egyptian name of this Lion, however, points to 
his ultimate triumph, for it is called Sera, that is, victory! 

This brings us to 

2. LUPUS OR VICTIMA (The Victim). 
The Victim Slain. 

Its modern name is Lupus (a wolf), because it looks 
like one. It may be any animal. The great point 



LIBRA: (LUPUS OR VICTIMA). 51 

of this ancient constellation is that the animal has been 
slain, and is in the act of falling down dead. 

Its Greek name is Thera, a beast, and Lycos, a 
wolf. Its Latin name is Victima, or Bestia (Vulg. 
Gen. viii. 17), which sufficiently indicates the great 
lesson. This is confirmed by its ancient Hebrew 
name, Asedah, and Arabic Asedaton, which both mean 
to be slain. 

More than 22 of its stars have been catalogued. 
None of them are higher than the 4th magnitude ; 
most of them are of the 5th or 6th. 

True, He was " by wicked hands crucified and 
slain," but He is slain here by the Centaur, i.e. by 
Himself! To make it perfectly clear that it was His 
own act (without which His death would lose all 
merit), He uttered those solemn words: "I lay down 
my life for the sheep. . . . No man taketh it from 
me, but I lay it down of myself. I have power to 
lay it down, and I have power to take it again " 
(John x. 15-18). He " offered Himself without spot 
to God." "He put away sin by the sacrifice of 
Himself" (Heb. ix. n, 26). 

In the ancient Zodiac of Denderah He is pictured 
as a little child with its finger on its lips, and He is 
called Sura, a lamb ! In other pictures He has, besides, 
the horn of a goat on one side of His head. All this 
pointed to one and the same great fact, viz., the de 
velopment and explanation of what was meant by 
the bruising of His heel ! It meant that this Promised 

D 2 



52 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

Seed of the woman should come as a child, that He 
should suffer, and die upon the Cross, for 

" He was brought as a lamb to the slaughter ; 
And as a sheep before her shearers is dumb ; 
SO HE opened not his mouth." 

(Isa. liii. 7.) 

Hence, the constellation prefigures a silent, willing sacri 
fice Christ Jesus, who, " being found in fashion as a 
man, humbled Himself, and became obedient unto 
death, even the death of the Cross" (Phil. ii. 5-8). 



3. CORONA (The Crown). 
The Crown Bestowed. 

" Wherefore God also hath highly exalted Him, 
and given Him a name which is above every name, 
that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow." 

This is what is foreshown by this concluding section 
of the second chapter. Each chapter ends with glory. 
As in the written Word of God, we frequently have the 
glory of the Second Coming mentioned without any 
allusions to the sufferings of the First Coming, but we 
never have the First Coming in humiliation mentioned 
without an immediate reference to the glory of the 
Second Coming. 

So here, the CROSS is closely followed by the 
CROWN ! True, " we see not yet all things put under 
Him, but we see Jesus ... for the suffering of 
death crowned with glory and honour (Heb. ii. 9). 

Yes, " the crowning day is coming," and all heaven 
shall soon resound with the triumphant song, " Thou 



LIBRA: (CORONA). 53 

art worthy, ... for Thou wast slain and hast re 
deemed us to God by Thy blood " (Rev. v. 9). 

The shameful Cross will be followed by a glorious 
crown, and " every tongue shall confess that Jesus 
Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father." 

"Mighty Victor, reign for ever, 

Wear the crown so dearly won ; 
Never shall Thy people, never 

Cease to sing- what Thou hast done. 
Thou hast fought Thy people s foes; 
Thou wilt heal Thy people s woes ! " 

The Hebrew name for the constellation is Atarah, 
a royal crown, and its stars are known to-day in the East 
by the plural, Ataroth ! 

Its Arabic name is A I Iclil, an ornament, or jewel. 

It has 21 stars: one of the 2nd magnitude and 
six of the 4th. It is easily known by the stars 6, 0, 
a, 7, S, and 6, which form a crescent. 

Its brightest star, a, has the Arabic name of A I 
Phecca, the shining. 

Thus ends this solemn chapter of LIBRA, which 
describes the great work of Redemption, beginning 
with the Cross and ending with the Crown. The 
Redeemer s work of Atonement is most blessedly set 
forth, and He alone is seen as the substitute for lost 

sinners. 

"What wondrous love, what mysteries 

In this appointment shine ! 
My breaches of the law are His, 
And His obedience mine." 



54 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

CHAPTER III. 

THE SIGN SCORPIO. 
The Redeemer s Conflict. 

WE come now right into the heart of the conflict. 
The star-picture brings before us a gigantic scorpion 
endeavouring to sting in the heel a mighty man who 
is struggling with a serpent, but is crushed by the 
man, who has his foot placed right on the scorpion s 
heart. 

The Hebrew name is Akrab, which is the name 
of a scorpion, but also means the conflict, or war. It 
is this that is referred to in Ps. xci. 13 : 

"Thou shalt tread upon the lion and adder. 
The young- lion and the dragon shalt thou trample 
under feet." 

David uses the very word in Ps. cxliv. I, where he 
blesses God for teaching his hands to war. 

The Coptic name is Isidis, which means the attack of 
the enemy, or oppression; referring to " the wicked that 
oppress me, my deadly enemies who compass me 
about " (Ps. xvii. 9). 

The Arabic name is A I Akrab, which means 
wounding him that cometh. 

There are 44 stars altogether in this sign. One 
is of the ist magnitude, one of the 2nd, eleven of the 
3rd, eight of the 4th, etc. 




^S^fSW: 



IX. SCORPIO (the Scorp.on) 



SCORPIO. 55 

The brightest star, a (in the heart), bears the 
ancient Arabic name of Antares, which means the 
wounding. It is called by the Latins Cor Scorpii, be 
cause it marks the scorpion s heart. It shines omin 
ously with a deep red light. The sting is called 
in Hebrew Lesath (Chaldee, Lesha), which means the 
perverse. The stars in the tail are also known as 
Leshaa, or Leshat* 

The scorpion is a deadly enemy (as we learn from 
Rev. ix), with poison in its sting, and all the names 
associated with the sign combine to set forth the malig 
nant enmity which is " set " between the serpent and 
the woman s Seed. 

That enmity is shown more fully in the written 
Word, where we see the attempt of the enemy (in 
Exod. i.) to destroy every male of the seed of Abraham, 
and how it was defeated. 

We see his effort repeated when he used Athaliah 
to destroy " all the seed royal" (2 Kings xi.), and how 
" the king s son " was rescued " from among " the 
slain. 

We see his hand again instigating Haman, "the 
Jews enemy," to compass the destruction of the whole 
nation, but defeated in his designs. 

When the woman s Seed, the virgin s Son, was born, 
we are shown the same great enemy inciting Herod to 
slay all the babes in Bethlehem (Matt, ii.), but again he 
is defeated. 

* Antares seems also to have been known as Lesath. 



56 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

In the wilderness of Judaea, and in the Garden of 
Gethsemane the great conflict is renewed. " This is 
your hour and the power of darkness,"* He said to His 
enemies. 

The real wounding in the heel was received at the 
Cross. It was there the scorpion struck the woman s 
seed. He died, but was raised again from the dead 
" to destroy the works of the devil." 

To show us this ; to prevent any mistake ; to set 
forth the fact that this conflict only apparently ended in 
defeat, and that it did not really so end, we have the 
first two constellations belonging to this sign presented 
in one picture ! Indeed, the picture is threefold, for it 
includes the sign itself (as shown on the cover) ! 

If these pictures had been separated, then the 
conflict would have been separated from the victory ; 
the deadly wound of the serpent s head from the 
temporary wound in the Victor s heel. Hence, three 
pictures are required, in which the scorpion, the serpent, 
and the man, are all involved, in order to present at 
the same time the triumphant issue of the conflict. 

Hence, we must present, and consider together, the 
first two sections of this mysterious chapter. 

i AND 2. SERPENS AND OPHIUCHUS. 

The Struggle with the Enemy. 

Here, Serpens, the serpent, is seen struggling vainly 
in the powerful grasp of the man who is named 
0-phi-u-chus. In Latin he is called Serpentarius. 

* Luke xxii. 53 : comp. Col. i. 13 and Eph. vi. 12. 



SCORPIO: (SERPENS AND QPHiucHus). 57 

He is at one and the same moment shown to be 
seizing the serpent with his two hands, and treading 
on the very heart of the scorpion, marked by the deep 
red star Antares (wounding). 

Just as we read the first constellation of the 
woman and child Coma, as expounding the first sign 
VIRGO, so we have to read this first constellation 
as expounding the second sign LIBRA. Hence, we 
have here a further picture, showing the object of 
this conflict on the part of the scorpion. 

In Scorpio we see merely the effort to wound 
Ophiuchus in the heel ; but here we see the effort of 
the serpent to seize THE CROWN, which is situated 
immediately over the serpent s head, and to which 
he is looking up and reaching forth. 

The contest is for Dominion ! It was the Devil, 
in the form of a serpent, that robbed the first man 
of his crown ; but in vain he struggled to wrest it 
from the sure possession of the Second Man. Not 
only does he fail in the attempt, but is himself 
utterly defeated and trodden under foot. 

There are no less than 134 stars in these two 
constellations. Two are of the 2nd magnitude, four 
teen of the 3rd, thirteen of the 4th, etc. 

The brightest star in the Serpent, a (in the neck), 
is named Unuk, which means encompassing. Another 
Hebrew name is Alyah, the accursed. From this is 
Al Hay (Arabic), the reptile. The next brightest star 
is (in the jaw), named, in Arabic, Cheleb, or 
Chelbalrai, the serpent enfolding. The Greek name, 



58 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

Ophiuchus, is itself from the Hebrew and Arabic name 
Afeichus, which means the serpent held. The brightest 
star in Ophiuchus, a (in the head), is called Ras al 
Hagus (Arabic), the head of him who holds. 

Other Hebrew names of stars, not identified, are 
Triophas, treading under foot; Saiph (in the foot* of 
Ophiuchus), bruised; Carnebus, the wounding ; Megeros, 
contending. \ In the Zodiac of Denderah we have a 
throned human figure, called Api-bau, the chief who 
cometh. He has a hawk s head to show that he is 
the enemy of the serpent, which is called Khu, and 
means ruled or enemy. 

All these combine to set before us in detail the 
nature of the conflict and its final issue. That final 
issue is, however, exhibited by the last of the three 
constellations of this chapter. The Victor Himself 
requires a whole picture to fully set forth the glorious 
victory. This brings us to 

3. HERCULES (The Mighty Man). 
The Mighty Vanquisher. 

Here the mighty one, who occupies a large portion 
of the heavens, is seen bending on one knee, with 
his right heel lifted up as if it had been wounded, 

* In 1604 a new star appeared in the eastern foot of Ophiuchus, but disappeared 
again in 1605. 

f There is an ancient Greek fable which calls Ophiuchus ^Esculapius, the son of 
Apollo. Having restored Hippolytus to life, he was everywhere worshipped as the 
god of health, and hence the serpent entwined around him is, to this day, the symbol 
of the medical art ! This, however, is, doubtless, another perversion of the primitive 
truth that the Coming One in overcoming the serpent, should become the great healer 
of all the sorrows of the world, and cause all its groanings to cease. 



SCORPIO: (HERCULES). 59 

while his left foot is set directly over the head of the 
great dragon. In his right hand he wields a great 
club, and in his left hand he grasps a triple-headed 
monster (Cerberus}. And he has the skin of a lion, 
which he has slain, thrown around him.* 

In the Zodiac of Denderah we have a human 
figure, likewise with a club. His name is Bau, 
which means who cometh, and is evidently intended 
for Him who cometh to crush the serpent s head, 
and " destroy the works of the devil." 

In Arabic he is called Al Giscale, the strong one. 

There are 113 stars in this constellation. Seven 
are of the 3rd magnitude, seventeen of the 4th, etc. 

The brightest star, a (in his head), is named 
Ras al Gethi, and means the head of him who bruises. 

The next, /3 (in the right arm-pit), is named 
Kornephoms, and means the branch, kneeling. 

The star K (in the right elbow) is called Marsic, 
the wounding. 

The star x (in the upper part of the left arm) is 
named Ma asyn, the sin-offering. 

While 01 (in the lower part of the right arm) is 
Caiam, or Guiam, punishing; and in Arabic, treading 
under foot. 



* Cerberus^ or the serpent with three heads, was placed by Hevelius (1611-1687) 
by the side of Hercules. Bayer had previously placed the apple branch in his hand. 
This was symbolical of the golden apples of Hesperides, which he obtained by killing 
this three-headed hydra, by whom they were guarded. In our picture these are com 
bined, and a bow nnd quiver added from other ancient authorities. 



OO THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

Thus does everything in the picture combine to 
set forth the mighty works of this stronger than the 
strong man armed! 

We can easily see how the perversion of the truth 
by the Greeks came about, and how, when the true 
foreshadowings of this Mighty One had been lost, the 
many fables were invented to supply their place. 
The wiser sort of Greeks knew this perfectly well. 
ARISTOTLE (in his Metaphysics, x. 8) admits, with 
regard to Greek mythology, that religion and philo 
sophy had been lost, and that much had been 
" added after the mythical style," while much had 
come down, and " may have been preserved to our 
times as the remains of ancient wisdom." Religion, 
such as it was (POLYBIUS confesses), was recognised 
as a " necessary means to political ends." NEANDER 
says that it was " the fragments of a tradition, which 
transmitted the knowledge of divine things possessed 
in the earliest times." 

ARATUS shews the same uncertainty as to the 
meaning of this Constellation of Hercules. He says : . 
"Near this, and like a toiling man, revolves 
A form. Of it can no one clearly speak, 
Nor what he labours at. They call him simply 
The man upon his knees : In desperate struggle 
Like one who sinks, he seems. From both his 

shoulders 

His arms are high-uplifted and out-stretched 
As far as he can reach ; and his right foot 
Is planted on the coiled Dragon s head." 

Ancient authorities differ as to the personality of 
Hercules, and they disagree as to the number, nature, 
and order of what are sometimes called "the twelve 



SCORPIO: (HERCULES). bi 

labours of Hercules." But there is no doubt as to 
the mighty foretold works which the woman s Seed 
should perform. 

From first to last Hercules is seen engaged in 
destroying some malignant foe : now it is the Nemean 
lion ; then it is the slaying of the boar of Erymanthus ; 
again, it is the conquest of the bull of Crete ; then the 
killing of the three-headed hydra, by whose venom 
Hercules afterwards died. In the belly of the sea 
monster he is said to have remained "three days 
and three nights." This was, doubtless, a perversion 
of the type of Jonah, introduced by LYCOPHRON, who 
(living at the court of PTOLEMY PHILADELPHIA, under 
whose auspices the Hebrew Scriptures were trans 
lated into Greek) would have known of that Divine 
miracle, and of its application to the Coming One. 
Bishop Horsley believed that the fables of the Greek 
mythology could be traced back to the prophecies 
of the Messiah, of which they were a perversion 
from ignorance or design. This is specially true of 
Hercules. In his apparently impossible tasks of over 
throwing gigantic enemies and delivering captives, 
we can see through the shadow, and discern the pure 
light of the truth. We can understand how the 
original star-picture must have been a prophetic repre 
sentation of Him who shall destroy the Old Serpent 
and open the way again, not to fabled " apples of 
gold," but to the "tree of life" itself. He it is who 
though suffering in the mighty conflict, and brought 
to His knee, going down even to " the dust of death," 
shall yet, in resurrection and advent glory, wield His 



62 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

victorious club, subdue all His enemies, and plant 
His foot on the Dragon s head. For of Him it is 
written : 

"Thou shalt tread upon the lion and adder; 
The young- lion and the dragon shalt Thou trample 
under foot." (Ps. xci. 13.) 

" Come, Lord, and burst the captives chains, 

And set the prisoners free; 
Come, cleanse this earth from all its stains, 

And make it meet for Thee ! 
Oh, come and end Creation s groans 

Its sighs, its tears, its blood, 
And make this blighted world again 

The dwelling-place of God." 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE SIGN SAGITTARIUS. 

The Redeemer s Triumph. 

THIS is the concluding chapter of the first great 
book of this Heavenly Revelation ; and it is occupied 
wholly with the triumph of the Coming One, who is re 
presented as going forth " conquering and to conquer." 
The subject is beautifully set forth in the written 
Word (Ps. xlv. 3-5) : 

" Gird Thy sword upon Thy thigh, O most mighty, 
\Gird Thy self ~\ with Thy glory and Thy majesty, 
And in Thy majesty ride prosperously, 
Because of truth, and meekness, and righteousness; 
And Thy right hand shall teach Thee terrible things. 
Thine arrows are sharp in the heart of the King s 

enemies ; 
Whereby the people fall under Thee." 



SAGITTARIUS. 63 

John, in his apocalyptic vision, sees the same 
mighty Conqueror going forth. " I saw (he says) a 
white horse, and He that sat on him had a bow, . . . 
and He went forth conquering and to conquer " 
(Rev. vi. 2). 

This is precisely what is foreshadowed in the 
star-pictured sign now called by the modern Latin 
name Sagittarius, which means the Archer. 

The Hebrew and Syriac name of the sign is 
Kesith, which means the Archer (as in Gen. xxi. 20). 
The Arabic name is Al Kaus, the arrow. In Coptic 
it is Pimacre, the graciousness, or beauty of the coming 
forth. In Greek it is Toxotes, the archer, and in Latin 
Sagittarius. 

There are 69 stars in the sign, viz., five of the 
3rd magnitude (all in the bow), nine of the 4th, etc. 

The names of the brightest stars are significant : 

Hebrew, Nairn, which means the gracious one. This 

is exactly what is said of this Victor in the same 

Psalm (xlv.), in the words immediately preceding the 

quotation above (verse 2) : 

" GRACE is poured into Thy lips ; 
Therefore God hath blessed Thee for ever." 

Hebrew, Nehushta, the going or sending forth. 

We see the same in the Arabic names which have 
come down to us : Al Nairn, the gracious one; Al 
Shaula, the dart; Al Wanda, who comes forth ; Ruchba 
cr rami, the riding of the bowman. 

An ancient Akkadian name in the sign is Nun-ki, 
which means Prince of the Earth. 



64 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

Again we have the picture of a Centaur as to his 
outward form, i.e. a being with two natures. Not 
now far down in the south, or connected with His 
sufferings and sacrifice as man ; but high up, as a 
sign of the Zodiac itself, on the ecliptic, i.e. in the 
very path in which the sun " rejoiceth in his going 
forth as a strong man." 

According to Grecian fable, this Sagittarius is 
Cheiron, the chief Centaur; noble in character, 
righteous in his dealings, divine in his power. 

Such will be the coming Seed of the woman in 
His power and glory : 

" The sceptre of Thy king-dom is a right sceptre. 
Thou lovest righteousness, and hatest wickedness; 
Therefore God, Thy God, hath anointed Thee with the 
oil of gladness above thy fellows." 

(Ps. xlv. 6, 7.) 

In the ancient Zodiac of Denderah he is called 
(as in Coptic) Pi-maere, i.e. graciousness, beauty of the 
appearing or coming forth. The characters under the . 
hind foot read Knem, which means He conquers. 

This is He who shall come forth like as an arrow 
from the bow, " full of grace," but " conquering and 
to conquer." 

In all the pictures he is similarly represented, 
and the arrow in his bow is aimed directly at the 
heart of the Scorpion. 

Thus ARATUS sang of Cheiron: 

" Midst golden stars he stands refulgent now, 
And thrusts the scorpion with his bended bow." 



SAGITTARIUS: (I.YKA). 65 

In this Archer we see a faint reflection of Him 
who shall presently come forth, all gracious, all wise, 
all powerful ; whose arrows shall be " sharp in the 
heart of the King s enemies." 

" God shall shoot at them with an arrow ; 
Suddenly shall they be wounded. 

So they shall make their own tongue to fall upon them 
selves ; 

All that see them shall flee away. 
And all men shall fear, and shall declare the work of 

God; 

For they shall wisely consider of His doing. 
The righteous shall be glad in the LORD, and shall trust 

in Him ; 
And all the upright in heart shall glory." 

(Ps. Ixiv. 7-10.) 
"Christ is coming! let Creation 

From her groans and travail cease ; 
Let the glorious proclamation 

Hope restore, and faith increase. 

Christ is coming, 
Come, thou blessed Prince of peace." 

This brings us to the first of the three constella 
tions or sections of this chapter, which takes up 
this subject of praise to the Conqueror. 



i. LYRA (The Harp). 
Praise prepared for the Conqueror. 

11 Praise waiteth for thee, O God, in Zion " 
(Ps. Ixv. i). And when the waiting time is over, 
and the Redeemer comes forth, then the praise shall 
be given. " We give Thee thanks, O Lord God, the 
Almighty, which art, and which wast, because thou 

S. 1005. 



60 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

hast taken to Thee Thy great power, and didst reign " 
(Rev. xi. 17, R.V.). " Let us be glad and rejoice and 
give honour unto Him " (Rev. xix. 7). The Twenty- 
first Psalm should be read here, as it tells of the 
bursting forth of praise on the going forth of this 
all-gracious Conqueror. 

" The King- shall rejoice in Thy strength, O LORD ; 
And in Thy salvation how greatly shall He rejoice! . . . 
Thine hand shall find out all Thine enemies ; 
Thy right hand shall find out all that hate thee. . . , 
Their fruit shalt Thou destroy from the earth; 
And their seed from among- the children of men. 
For they intended evil against Thee ; 
They imagined a mischievous device which they are not 

able to perform, 
Therefore shalt thou make them turn their back (Heb. 

Margin, "set tJicm as a bntt"^), 
When Thou shalt make ready Thine arrows upon Thy 

string s 

\_And shoot thcni\ against the face of them. 
Be thou exalted, LORD, in thine own strength ; 
SO WILL WE SING AND PRAISE THY POWER.". 

(Ps. xxi. i, 8, 10-13.) 

Beautifully, then, does the harp come in here, 
following upon the going forth of this victorious^, 
Horseman. This Song of the Lamb follows as 
naturally as docs the Song of Moses in Ex. xv. I : 
" I will sing unto the LORD, for He hath triumphed 
gloriously." 

its brightest star, a, is one of the most glorious 
in the heavens, and by it this constellation may 
be easily known. It shines with a splendid white 
lustre. It is called Vega, which means He shall be 
exalted. Its root occurs in the opening of the Song 



SAGITTARIUS : (LYRA). 6/ 

of Moses, quoted above. Is not this wonderfully 
expressive ? 

Its other stars, (3 and y, are also conspicuous stars, 
of the 2nd and 4th magnitude. is called Shelyuk, 
which means an eagle (as does the Arabic, A I Nesr) ; 
y is called Sulaphat, springing up, or ascending, as 
praise. 

In the Zodiac of Denderah, this constellation is 
figured as a hawk or an eagle (the enemy of the 
serpent) in triumph. Its name is Fent-kar, which 
means the serpent ruled. 

There ma)^ be some confusion between the Hebrew 
*$}, Nesher, an eagle, and "lib p, Gnasor, a harp ; * but 
there can be no doubt about the grand central truth, 
that praise shall ascend up " as an eagle toward 
heaven," when " every creature which is in heaven, and 
on the earth, and such as are in the sea, and all that is 
in them," shall send up their universal song of praise: 
"Blessing, and honour, and glory, and power, be 
unto Him that sitteth upon the throne and unto the 
Lamb for ever and ever. Amen" (Rev. v. 13, 14). 

And for what is all this wondrous anthem of 
praise? Listen once again. " Alleluia f: Salvation, 
and glory, and honour, and power, unto the Lord our 



* In our picture we have combined the two great thoughts, taking the harp from 
a picture dug up at Ilerculaneum, and adding an eagle soaring up with it. 

f This is the first time that the word "Alleluia" occurs in the New Testament, 
and it is praise for judgment executed. 

Where is its first occurrence in the Old Testament? In Ps. civ. 35, where we 
.have the very same solemn and significant connection : 

" Let the sinners be consumed out of the earth, 
And let the wicked be no more. 
Eless thou the LORD, O my soul, 
HALLELUJAH (Praise ye the Lor.n)." 

E 2 



68 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

God; for TRUE AND RIGHTEOUS ARE HIS 
JUDGMENTS. . . . And again they said Alleluia " 
(Rev. xix. 13). 

With " that blessed hope " before us, 

Let no HARP remain unstrung-; 
Let the coming- advent chorus 

Onward roll from tongue to tongue, 

Hallelujah, 
" Come, Lord Jesus," quickly come. 

This brings us to 

2. ARA (The Altar). 
Consuming Fire Prepared for His Enemies. 

Here we have an altar or burning pyre, placed 
significantly and ominously upside down ! with its 
fires burning and pointing downwards towards the 
lower regions, called Tartarus, or the abyss, or " outer- 
darkness." 

It is an asterism with nine stars, dt which three 
are of the 3rd magnitude, four of the 4th, etc. 
It is south of the Scorpion s tail, and when these 
constellations were first formed it was visible only on 
the very lowest horizon of the south, pointing to the 
completion of all judgment in the lake of fire. 

In the Zodiac of Denderah we have a different 
picture, giving us another aspect of the same judg 
ment. It is a man enthroned, with a flail in his 
hand. His name is Bau, the same name a.s 
Hercules has, and means He cometh. It is from 
the Hebrew fc^D (Boh], to come, as in Isa. Ixiii. i: 

" Who is this that cometh from Edom, 
With dyed garments from Bozrah." 



SAGITTARIUS: (ARA). 69 

This is a coming in judgment, as is clear from 
the reason given in verse 4 : 

" For the day of vengeance is in Mine heart, 
And the year of My redeemed is come. 
And I looked, and there was none to help ; 
And I wondered that there was none to uphold; 
Therefore Mine own arm brought salvation, 
And My fury, it upheld Me." 

(Isa. Ixiii. 4, 5.) 

The completion of judgment, therefore, is what is 
pictured both by the burning pyre and the Coming 
One enthroned, with his threshing instrument. 

In Arabic it is called A I Mugamra, which means 
the completing, or finishing. The Greeks used the 
word Ara sometimes in the sense of praying, but 
more frequently in the sense of imprecation or 
cursing. 

This is the curse pronounced against the great 
enemy. This is the burning fire, pointing to the 
completion of that curse, when he shall be cast into 
that everlasting fire " prepared for the devil and his 
angels." This is the allusion to it written in the 
midst of the very Scripture from which we have 
already quoted (p. 66), Ps. xxi., where we read in 
verse 9 (which we then omitted) : 

"Thou shall make them as a fiery oven in the time 

of Thine anger: 

The LORD shall swallow them up in His wrath; 
And the fire shall devour them." 

This brings us to the final scene, closing up this 
first great book of the Heavens. 



70 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 



3. DRACO (The Dragon). 

The Old Serpent, or the Devil, cast down from 
Heaven. 

Each of the three great books concludes with 
this same foreshowing of Apocalyptic truth. The 
same great enemy is referred to in all these pictures. 
He is the Serpent; he is the Dragon; "the great 
dragon, that old serpent, called the Devil and Satan " 
(Rev. xii. 9). The Serpent represents him as the 
Deceiver; the Dragon, as the Destroyer. 

This First Book concludes with the Dragon being 
cast down from heaven. 

The Second Book concludes with Cetus, the Sea 
Monster, Leviathan, bound. 

The Third Book concludes with Hydra, the Old 
Serpent, destroyed. 

Here, at the close of the First Book, we see not 
merely a dragon, but the Dragon cast down ! That 
is the point of this great star-picture. 

No one has ever seen a dragon ; but among all 
nations (especially in China and Japan), and in all 
ages, we find it described and depicted in legend 
and in art. Both Old and New Testaments refer 
to it, and all unite in connecting with it one and 
the same great enemy of God and man. 

It is against him that the God-Man " the Son 
of God goes forth to war." It is for him that the 



SAGITTARIUS: (DRACO). 71 

eternal fires are prepared. It is he who shall 
shortly be cast down from the heavens preparatory 
to his completed judgment. It is of him we read, 
" The great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, 
called the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the 
whole world : he was cast out and his angels with 
him. And I heard a loud voice saying in heaven, 
Now is come salvation, and strength, and the 
kingdom of our God, and the power of His Christ ; 
for the accuser of our brethren is cast down " (Rev. 
xii. 9, 10). 

It is of him that David sings : 

" God is my king 1 of old, 

Working 1 salvation in the midst of the earth . . . 
Thou brakest the heads of the dragons in the waters. 
Thou brakest the heads of leviathan in pieces." 

(Ps. Ixxiv. 12-14.) 

Of him also the Spirit causes Isaiah to say, "In 
that day, shall this song be sung in the land of 
Judah"; 

" In that day the LORD, with his sore, and great, and 

strong sword, 

Shall punish leviathan the piercing (R.V. swift) serpent, 
Even leviathan that crooked serpent; 
And he shall slay the dragon that is in the sea." 

(Isa. xxvi. i ; xxvii. i.) 

This is exactly what is foreshadowed by this 
constellation of Draco. Its name is from the 
Greek, and means trodden on, as in the Scptuagint of 
Ps. xci. 13 : " The dragon shalt thou trample under 
feet," from the Hebrew Tt, Dahrach, to tread. 



72 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

In the Zodiac of Denderah it is shown as a 
serpent under the fore-feet of Sagittarius, and is 
named Hcr-fent, which means the serpent accursed! 

There are 80 stars in the constellation ; four 
of the 2nd magnitude, seven of the 3rd mag 
nitude, ten of the 4th, etc. 

The brightest star, a (in one of the latter coils), 
is named Thuban (Heb.), the subtle. Some 4,620 
years ago it was the Polar Star. It is manifest, 
therefore, that the Greeks could not have invented 
this constellation, as is confessed by all modern 
astronomers. It is still a very important star in 
nautical reckonings, guiding the commerce of the 
seas, and thus " the god of this world " is repre 
sented as winding in his contortions round the pole 
of the world, as if to indicate his subtle influence 
in all worldly affairs. 

The next star, /3 (in the head), is called by the 
Hebrew name Rastaban, and means the head of the 
subtle (serpent}. In the Arabic it is still called A I 
Waid, which means who is to be destroyed. 

The next star, y (also in the head), is called 
Ethanin, i.e., the long serpent, or dragon. 

The Hebrew names of other stars, not identified, 
are Grumian, the subtle; Giansar, the punished enemy. 
Other (Arabic) names are Al Dib, the -reptile; El 
Atkik, the fraudful ; El Asieh, the bowed down. 

And thus the combined testimony of every star 
(without a single exception) of each constellation, 



SAGITTARIUS: (DRACO). 73 

and the constellations of each sign, accords with 
the testimony of the Word of God concerning the 
coming Seed of the woman, the bruising of His 
heel, the crushing of the serpent s head, " the suffer 
ings of Christ, and the glory which should follow." 

" From far I see the glorious day, 
When He who bore our sins away, 
Will all His majesty display. 

A Man of Sorrows once He was, 

No friend was found to plead His cause, 

As all preferred the world s applause. 

He groaned beneath sin s awful load, 
For in the sinner s place He stood, 
And died to bring- him back to God. 

But now He waits, with glory crowned. 
While angel hosts His throne surround, 
And still His lofty praises sound. 

To few on earth His name is dear, 

And they who in His cause appear, 

The world s reproach and scorn must bear. 

Jesus, Thy name is all my boast, 

And though by waves of trouble tossed, 

Thou wilt not let my soul be lost. 

Come then, come quickly trom above, 
My soul impatient longs to prove, 
The depths of everlasting love." 



74 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 



Seconfc Boofc, 

THE REDEEMED. 

The Result of the- Redeemer s Sufferings. 

T N the First Book we have had before us the 
work of the Redeemer set forth as it concerned 
His own glorious person. In this Second Book it 
is presented to us as it affects others. Here we 
see the results of His humiliation, and conflict, and 
victory "The sufferings of Christ" and the bless 
ings they procured for His redeemed people. 

In Chapter I. we have the Blessings procured. 
In Chapter II. their Blessings ensured. 
In Chapter III. their Blessings in abeyance. 
In Chapter IV. their Blessings enjoyed. 



CHAPTER I. 

THE SIGN CAPRICORN US (The Sea Goat). 
The Goat of Atonement Slain for the Redeemed. 

IT is most noteworthy that this Second Book 
opens with the Goat, and closes with the Ram : 
two animals of sacrifice ; while the two middle 



CAPRICORNUS. 75 

chapters are both connected with fishes.* The 
reason for this we shall see as we proceed. 

Both are combined in the first chapter, or 
"Sign" of Capricornus. 

In all the ancient Zodiacs, or Planispheres, we 
find a goat with a fish s tail. In the Zodiacs of 
Denderah and Esneh, in Egypt, it is half-goat and 
half-fish, and it is there called Hu-penius, which 
means the place of the sacrifice. 

In the Indian Zodiac it is a goat passant tra 
versed by a fish. 

There can be no doubt as to the significance 
of this sign. 

In the Goat we have the Atoning Sacrifice, in 
the Fish we have the people for whom the atone 
ment is made. When we come to the sign 
" PISCES " we shall see more clearly that it points 
to the multitudes of the redeemed host. 

The Goat is bowing its head as though falling 
down in death. The right leg is folded under 
neath the body, and he seems unable to rise with 
the left. The tail of the fish, on the other hand, 
seems to be full of vigour and life. 

The Hebrew name of the sign is Gcdi, the kid 
or cut off, the same as the Arabic Al Gcdi. CAPRI 
CORNUS is merely the modern (Latin) name of the 
sign, and means goat. 



* There is a fish tail here. The third Decan of CAPRICORNUS is a fish 
(Delphiniis). There is again a fish (Piscis Australis) in the next sign (AQUARIUS), 
and then the following sign is PISCES, or the Fishes. So that the Redeemed 
Multitudes are presented throughout this Second Book. 



76 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

There are 51 stars in the sign, three of which 
are of the 3rd magnitude, three of the 4th, etc. 
Five are remarkable stars, a and in the horn and 
head, and the remaining three, y, 3, and e, in 
the fishy tail. The star a is named Al Gedi, the kid 
or goat, while the star S is called Deneb Al Gedi, 
the sacrifice cometh. 

Other star-names in the sign, not identified, are 
Dabih (Syriac), the sacrifice slain; Al Dabik and Al 
Dehabeh (Arabic) have the same meaning; Ma asad, 

the slaying; So? ad al Naschira, the record of the 
cutting off. 

Is not this exactly in accord with the Scrip 
tures of truth ? There were two goats ! Of " the 
goat of the sin-offering" it is written, "God hath 
given it to you to bear the iniquity of the congre 
gation, to make atonement for them before the 
LORD" (Lev. x. 16, 17): of the other goat, which 
was not slain, " he shall let it go into the wilder 
ness " (Lev. xvi. 22). Here is death and resur 
rection. Christ was " wounded for our transgressions, 
and bruised for our iniquities." " For the transgres 
sion of MY PEOPLE was He stricken" (Isa. liii.). 
He laid down His life for the sheep. 

In the first chapter of the First Book we had 
the same Blessed One presented as "a corn of 
wheat." Here we see Him come to " die," and 
hence not abiding alone, but bringing forth " much 
fruit" (John xii. 24). The living fish proceeds from 
the dying goat, and yet they form only one body. 



CAPRICORNUS. 77 

That picture, which has no parallel in nature, has 
a perfectly true counterpart in grace ; and " a great 
multitude, which no man can number," have been 
redeemed and shall obtain eternal life through the 
death of their Redeemer. 

It is, however, not merely the actual death which 
is set before us here. The first chapter in each 
book has for its great subject the Person of the 
Redeemer in prophecy and promise. The last chapter 
in each book has for its subject the fulfilment of that 
prophecy in victory and triumph, in the Person of the 
Redeemer : while the two central chapters in each book- 
are occupied with the work which is the accomplish 
ment of the promise, presented in two aspects the 
former connected with grace, the latter with conflict. 

Thus the structure of each of the three books is 
an epanodos, having for its first and last members 
the Person of the Redeemer (in "A" in Prophecy; 
in "A" in Fulfilment], while in the two central 
members we have the work and its accomplishment 
(in "B" in grace; and in " jB " in conflict}. 

It may be thus presented to the eye : 

The First Book. 

A | VIRGO. The Prophecy of the Bruised Seed. 
B | LIBRA. The work accomplished (in grace) . 
B | SCORPIO. The work accomplished (in conflict). 



A 



SAGITTARIUS. The fulfilment of the promised 
victory. 



78 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

The Second Book. 

CAPRICORNUS. The Prophecy of the Promised 
Deliverance. 

D AQUARIUS. Results of the work be 
stowed (in grace). 
D PISCES. Results of the work enjoyed 

(in conflict). 

ARIES. The Fulfilment of the Promised De 
liverance. 

The Third Book. 

TAURUS. The Prophecy of the coming Judge 
of all the earth. 

F GEMINI. The Redeemer s reign (Grace 

and Glory). 
F CANCER. The Redeemer s possession 

(safe from all conflict). 
E | LEO. The fulfilment of the promised Triumph. 

Hence in CAPRICORNUS we must look for the pro 
phecy of this Coming Sacrifice. As a matter of fact 
it did actually point out the time when the Sun 
of Righteousness should arise, and " the Light of 
the World " appear. For when this Promised Seed 
was born the Sun was actually in this sign of Cap- 
ricornus ! "The fulness of time was come," and 
"God sent forth His Son TO REDEEM them 
that were under the Law" (Gal. iv. 4). The Sun 
was really amongst those very stars A I Gedi, the 
kid, and Dcncb Al Gedi, the sacrifice cotneth when this 
willing Sacrifice said, " Lo I come to do Thy will, 
O God." The nights were at their darkest and 



CAPRICORNUS: (SAGITTA). 79 

their longest when Jesus was born. The days began 
immediately to lengthen when He, " the true light," 
had come into the world.* 

Astronomers confess that the perverted legends 
of the Greeks give but " a lame account " of this 
sign, " and it offers no illustration of its ancient 
origin." 

Its ancient origin reveals a prophetic knowledge, 
which only He possessed who knew that in u the 
fulness of time " He would send forth His Son. 

We now come to the three constellations which 
give us three pictures setting forth the death of this 
Sacrifice and of His living again. 

i. SAGITTA (The Arrow). 
The Arrow of God sent forth. 

It is not the Arrow of Sagittarius, for that has 
not left his bow. That arrow is for the enemies 
of God. This is for the Son of God. It was of 
this that He spoke when He said, in Ps. xxxviii. 2 : 

" Thine arrows stick fast in me, 
And Thy hand presseth me sore." 

He was " stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted, 
He was wounded for our transgressions" (Isa. liii. 
4, 5). He was "pierced," when He could say 
with Job, " The arrows of the Almighty are within 
me " (vi. 4). 

* When we come to the last chapter of this book we shall see that the 
Sun was in the sign of the other sacrificial animal, ARIES, at the very hour of the 
Crucifixion. And ARIES sets before us the victory of "the Lamb that was slain." 



80 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

Here the arrow is pictured to us in mid-heaven, 
alone, as having been shot forth by an invisible 
hand. It is seen in its flight through the heavens. 
It is the arrow of God, showing that Redemption 
is all of God. It was "the will of God" which 
Jesus came to do. Not a mere work of mercy for 
miserable sinners, but a work ordained in eternity 
past, for the glory of God in eternity future. 

This is the record of the Word, and this is 
what is pictured for us here. The work which the 
arrow accomplishes is seen in the dying Goat, and 
in the falling Eagle. 

There are many other stars in the heavens in 
a straighter line, which would better serve for an 
arrow. Why are these stars chosen ? Why is the 
arrow placed here ? What explanation can be given, 
except that the Revelation in the stars and in 
the Book are both from the inspiration of the 
same Spirit ? 

There are about 18 stars, of which four are of 
the 4th magnitude. Only y and % are in the same 
line, while the shaft passes between a and |3. 

The Hebrew name is Sham, destroying, or desolate. 

2. AQUILA (The Eagle). 
The Smitten One Falling. 

Here we have an additional picture of the effect 
of this arrow, in the pierced, wounded, and falling 
Eagle, gasping in its dying struggle. And that 



CAPRICORNUS: (DELPHINUS). 81 

pierced, wounded, and dying Saviour whom it repre 
sents, after saying, in Ps. xxxviii. 2, " Thine arrows 
stick fast in Me," added, in verse 10 : 

" My heart panteth, My strength faileth Me, 
As for the light of Mine eyes it is gone from Me." 
(See also Zech. xiii. 6.) 

The names of the stars, all of them, bear out 
this representation. The constellation contains 74 
stars. The brightest of them, a (in the Eagle s 
neck), is a notable star of the ist magnitude, called 
A I Tair (Arabic), the wounding. The star (in the 
throat) is called A I Shain (Arabic), the bright, from 
a Hebrew root meaning scarlet coloured, as in Josh, 
ii. 1 8. The star y (in the back) is called Tarared, 
wounded, or torn. 8 (in the lower wing) is named 
Alcair, which means the piercing, and e (in the tail), 
A I Okal, has the significant meaning wounded in 
the heel. 

How can the united testimony of these names 
be explained except by acknowledging a Divine 
origin ? even that of Him who afterwards foretold 
of the bruising of the Virgin s Son in the written 
Word ; yea, of Him " who telleth the number of 
the stars and giveth them all their names." 

3. DELPHINUS (The Dolphin). 
The Dead One Rising again. 

This is a bright cluster of 18 stars, five of 
which are of the 3rd magnitude. It is easily dis 
tinguished by the four brightest, which are in the 
head. 

S. 1005. F 



82 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

It is always figured as a fish full of life, and 
always with the head upwards, just as the eagle 
is always with the head downwards. The great 
peculiar characteristic of the dolphin is its rising 
up, leaping, and springing out of the sea. 

When we compare this with the dying goat and 

falling eagle, what conclusion can we come to but 

that we have here the filling in of the picture, and 

the completion of the whole truth set forth in Ca- 
pricornus ? 

Jesus " died and rose again." Apart from His resur 
rection His death is without result. In His conflict 
with the enemy it is only His coming again in glory 
which is shown forth. But here, in connection with 
His people, with the multitudes of His redeemed, 
Resurrection is the great and important truth. He 
is "the first-fruits of them that slept"; then He, 
too, is here represented as a fish. He who went 
down into the waters of death for His people ; He 
who could say " All thy waves and thy billows are 
gone over me" (Ps. xlii. 7), He it is who rises up 
again from the dead, having died on account of the 
sins of His redeemed, and risen again on account of 
their justification (Rom. iv. 25). 

This is the picture here. In the Persian plani 
sphere there seems to be a fish and a stream of 
water. The Egyptian has a vessel pouring out 
water. 

The ancient names connected with this constella 
tion are Dalaph (Hebrew), pouring out of water; 



CAPRICORNUS : (DELPHINUS). 83 

Dalaph (Arabic), coming quickly; Scalooin (Arabic), 
swift (as the flow of water); Rotaneb or Rotaneu 
(Syriac and Chaldee), swiftly running. 

Thus, in this first chapter of the Second Book 
we see the great truth of Revelation set forth ; and 
we learn how the great Blessings of Redemption 
were procured. This truth cannot be more elo 
quently or powerfully presented than in the language 
of Dr. Seiss : 

"This strange goat-fish, dying- in its head, but living in its 
afterpart falling as an eagle pierced and wounded by the 
arrow of death, but springing up from the dark waves with 
the matchless vigour and beauty of the dolphin sinking under 
sin s condemnation, but rising again as sin s conqueror de 
veloping new life out of death, and heralding a new spring 
time out of December s long drear nights was framed by no 
blind chance of man. The story which it tells is the old, old 
story on which hangs the only availing hope that ever came, 
or ever can come, to Adam s race. To what it signifies we 
are for ever shut up as the only saving faith. In that dying 
Seed of the woman we must see our sin-bearer and the atone 
ment for our guilt, or die ourselves unpardoned and unsanctified. 
Through His death and bloodshedding we must find our life, 
or the true life, which alone is life, we never can have." 

" Complete atonement Thou hast made, 
And to the utmost farthing paid 

Whate er Thy people owed : 
Nor can His wrath on me take place, 
If sheltered in His righteousness, 
And sprinkled with the blood. 

If my discharge Thou hast procured, 
And freely in my room endured 

The whole of wrath divine, 
Payment God cannot twice demand, 
First at my bleeding Surety s hand, 

And then again at mine. 

F 2 



84 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

Turn, then, my soul, unto Thy rest ; 
The merits of Thy great High Priest 

Have boug-ht thy liberty ; 
Trust in His efficacious blood, 
Nor fear thy banishment from God, 

Since Jesus died for thee." 



CHAPTER II. 

THE SIGN AQUARIUS (The Water Bearer). 

Their Blessings Ensured, or the Living Waters of 
Blessing Poured Forth for the Redeemed. 

THE Atonement being made, the blessings have been 
procured, and now they can be bestowed and poured 
forth upon the Redeemed. This is the truth, whether 
we think of Abel s lamb, of patriarchal sacrifices, 
the offerings under the Law, or of that great Sacrifice 
of which they all testified. They all with one voice 
tell us that atonement made is the only foundation 
of blessing. 

This was pictured and foreshown in the heavens 
from the beginning, by a man pouring forth water 
from an urn which seems to have an inexhaustible 
supply, and which flows forth downwards into the 
mouth of a fish, which receives it and drinks it 
all up. 

In the ancient Zodiac of Denderah it is the same 
idea, though the man holds two urns, and the fish 
below seems to have come out of the urn. The 



AQUARIUS. 85 

man is called Hupei Tirion, which means the place 
of him coming down or poured forth. 

In some eastern Zodiacs the Urn alone appears. 

This agrees with its other names Hebrew, Deli, 
the water-urn, or bucket (as in Num. xxiv. 7) ; the 
Arabic Delu is the same. 

There are 108 stars in this Sign, four of which 
are of the 3rd magnitude. Their names, as far as 
they have come down to us, are significant. 

The star a (in the right shoulder) is called Sa ad 
al Melik, which means the record of the pouring forth. 

The star <3 (in the other shoulder) is called Saad 
al Sund, who goeth and returneth, or the pourer out. 

The bright star 8 (in the lower part of the right 
leg) is well-known to-day by its Hebrew name Scheat, 
which means who goeth and returneth. 

The bright star in the urn has an Egyptian 
name Mon or Meon, which means simply an urn. 

Aquarius is the modern Latin name by which 
the sign is known. It has the same meaning, the 
pourer forth of water. 

Can we doubt what is the interpretation of this 
sign ? The Greeks, not knowing Him of whom it 
testified, were, like the woman of Samaria, destitute 
of that living water which He alone can give. They 
therefore invented some story about Deucalion, the 
son of Prometheus ; and another, saying he is Gany- 
?ncde, Jove s cup-bearer 1 But, as an astronomer 
says, "We must account otherwise for the origin of 
this name ; for it is not possible to reconcile the 



86 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

symbols of the eleventh * sign with Grecian mytho 
logy." No ! we must go further back than that, 
and not cramp our vision, and distort the Scriptures, 
by confining our thoughts to " the Church." The 
Church is nowhere seen in these Signs, as she is 
nowhere revealed in the Old Testament. This we 
shall enlarge on when we come to the sign Pisces. 
Meanwhile we must read the witness of the stars 
as if there had been no Church ! 

Christ is first. Yea, He is all in all. The 
Scriptures testify of Him ; and the very stars in this 
Sign tell of His going away and His coming again. 
These prophetic signs have to do with Him, with 
the Atonement He wrought, with the conflict He 
endured, with the blessings He secured, with the 
victory He shall win, and the triumph He shall 
have. For it is written : 

" He shall pour the water out of His buckets, 
And His seed shall be in many waters, 
And His king- shall be higher than Agag, 
And His kingdom shall be exalted." 

(Num. xxiv. 7.) 

It tells of that glorious day when 

" A King shall reign in righteousness ; 
And princes shall rule in judgment ; 
And a MAN shall be as an hiding place 

from the wind, 

And a covert from the tempest ; 
As RIVERS of WATER in a dry place." 

(Isa. xxxii. I, 2). 

* The eleventh, because everyone begins to reckon from ARIES, and not as 
we have done from VIRGO, as shown by the riddle of the Sphinx. See page 20. 



AQUARIUS. 87 

It speaks of that glorious time when Israel shall 
be restored, and their "eyes shall see the King in 
His beauty " ; when the peace of Zion shall be no 
more disturbed, " but there the glorious LORD will 
be unto us a place of broad rivers and streams " 
(Isa. xxxiii. 17, 20, 21). Then 

"The wilderness and the solitary place shall be glad 

for them; 

And the desert shall rejoice, and blossom as the rose, 
For in the wilderness shall waters break out, 
And streams in the desert." (Isa. xxxv. I, 6.) 

" I will open rivers in high places, 
And fountains in the midst of the valleys ; 
I will make the wilderness a pool of water, 
And the dry land springs of water." (Isa. xli. 1 8.) 

" Fear not, O Jacob, My servant ; 
And thou, Jesurun, whom I have chosen, 
For I will POUR WATER upon him that is thirsty, 
And floods upon the dry ground ; 
I will pour My Spirit upon thy seed, 
And My blessing upon thy offspring. 
Thus saith the LORD the King of Israel, 
And his Redeemer the LORD of hosts." 

(Isa. xliv. 2, 3, 6.) 

This is the meaning of the Sign. The MAN 
Christ Jesus, who was humbled in death will yet 
be seen to be the pourer forth of every blessing. 
Physically pouring forth literal waters, removing the 
curse, and turning this world into a paradise : 

" Making her wilderness like Eden, 
And her desert like the garden of the LORD." (Isa. li. 3.) 

And morally pouring forth His Spirit in such abund 
ance as to fill the whole earth with peace, and 
blessing, and glory, " as the waters cover the sea." 



88 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

Upon Israel restored He will pour out His bless 
ing. They will be sprinkled with clean water, and 
possess a new heart and a new spirit (Ezek. xxxvi. 
24-28; Joel ii. 28-32). 

Such are some of the Scriptures which tell of 
this glorious Water-pourer. We need not rob Christ 
of His glory, or Israel of her blessing, in order to 
see in all this Pentecost or the Church. These 
are quite independent of the great line of prophetic 
truth. They are parenthetical, and distinct, and 
true, quite apart from the glorious prophecies of 
Israel s scattering and gathering. The physical 
marvels referred to in the texts above can never 
be satisfied or exhausted by any spiritual fulfilment. 
We may make an application of them as far as is 
consistent with the teaching of the epistles ; but the 
interpretation of them belongs to the Person of Christ, 
and the nation of Israel. That interpretation is 
pictured for us in the Sign, and in its three con 
stellations. 

i. PISCIS AUSTRALIS (The Southern Fish). 
The Blessings Bestowed. 

This first constellation is one of high antiquity,* 
and its brilliant star of the first magnitude was 
a subject of great study by the Egyptians and 
Ethiopians. It is named in Arabic Fom al Haut, 
the mouth of the fish. There are 22 other stars. 



* And in great contrast with several modern ones near it, e.g., the Balloon, 
the Sculptor s. Apparatus, the Microscope, Euclid s Square, the Telescope, etc., etc. 



AQUARIUS: (PEGASUS). 89 

The constellation is inseparable from Aquarius, 
in connection with which we have shown it in 
Plate XVIII. In the Denderah Zodiac it is called 
Aar, a stream. 

It sets forth the simple truth that the blessings 
procured by the MAN the coming Seed of the 
woman, will be surely bestowed and received by 
those for whom they are intended. There will be 
no failure in their communication, or in their recep 
tion. What has been purchased shall be secured 
and possessed. 

2. PEGASUS (The Winged Horse). 
The Blessings Quickly Coming. 

Not only shall they be received, but they shall 
be brought near. They will not have to be fetched, 
but they will be caused to come to those for whom 
they are procured, and will yet be brought by Him 
who has procured them. 

In the Denderah Zodiac there are two characters 
immediately below the horse, Pe and ka. Peka or 
Pega, is in Hebrew the chief, and Sus is horse. So 
that the very word (Pegasus) has come down to us 
and has been preserved through all the languages. 

The names of the stars in this constellation de 
clare to us its meaning. There are 89 altogether ; 
one of the 1st magnitude, two of the 2nd, three of 
the 3rd, nine of the 4th, etc. And, as astronomers 
testify, "they render Pegasus peculiarly remarkable." 



go THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

The brightest, a (on the neck of the horse at 
the junction of the wing), comes down to us with 
the ancient Hebrew name of Markab, which means 
returning from afar. The star (in the near shoulder) 
is called Scheat, i.e., who goeth and returmth. The 
star y (at the tip of the wing) bears an Arabic 
name A I Genib, who carries. The star e (in .the 
nostril) is called Enif (Arabic), the water. The star 
i] (in the near leg) is called Matar (Arabic), who 
causes to overflow. 

These names show us that we have to do with 
no mere horse. A winged horse is unknown to 
nature. It must therefore be used as a figure ; and 
it can be a figure only of a person, even of Him 
who is u the Branch" as the star Enif shows, who 
said, "If I go away I will come again," as the star 
Scheat testifies. 

He who procured these blessings for the re 
deemed by His Atonement, is quickly coming to bring 
them ; and is soon returning to pour them forth upon 
a groaning creation. This is the lesson of Pegasus. 

" Come, blessed Lord, bid every shore 

And answering- island sing 
The praises of Thy royal Name, 
And own Thee as their King. 

Lord, Lord ! Thy fair creation groans 

The earth, the air, the sea 
. In unison with all our hearts, 
And calls aloud for Thee. 

Thine was the Cross with all its fruits 

Of grace and peace divine : 
Be Thine the Crown of glory now, 

The palm of victory Thine." 



AQUARIUS: (CYGNUS). Qi 

3. CYGNUS (The Swan). 
The Blesser surely Returning. 

This constellation repeats, emphasises, and affirms 
this glorious truth. It has to do with the Great 
Blesser and His speedy return, as is testified by 
all the ancient names connected with it. 

In the Denderah Zodiac it is named Tes-ark, 
which means this from afar. 

It is a most brilliant and gorgeous asterism of 
81 stars ; one of the ist or 2nd, six of the 3rd, 
twelve of the 4th magnitude, etc. It contains variable 
stars, five double stars, and one quadruple. The 
star marked " 61 Cygni " is known as one of the 
most wonderful in the whole heavens. It consists 
of two stars which revolve about each other, and 
yet have a progressive motion common to each ! 

This mighty bird is not falling dead, like Aquila, 
but it is flying swiftly in mid-heaven. It is coming 
to the earth, for it is not so much a bird of the 
air, but a bird peculiarly belonging to both the 
earth and the waters. 

Its brightest star, a (between the body and the 
tail), is called Deneb (like another in Capricornus), 
and means the judge. It is also called Adigc, flying 
swiftly, and thus at once it is connected with Him 
who cometh to judge the earth in righteousness. 

The star |3 (in the beak) is named Al Bireo 
(Arabic), flying quickly. 

The star y (in the body) is called Sadr (Hebrew), 
who returns as in a circle. 



Q2 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

The two stars in the tail, now marked in the 
maps as TT i and TT 2, are named Azel, who goes 
and returns quickly ; and Fa/age, gloriously shining 
forth. 

The teaching, then, of the whole sign of AQUARIUS 
is clear and complete. The names of the stars explain 
the constellations, and the names of the constella 
tions explain the sign, so that we are left in no 
doubt. 

By His atoning death (as set forth in CAPRI- 
CORNUS) He has purchased and procured unspeakable 
blessings for His redeemed. This sign (AQUARIUS) 
tells of those blessings being poured forth, and of 
the speedy return of Him who is to bring " rivers 
of blessing," and to fill this earth with blessing 
and glory " as the waters cover the sea." 

" Then take, LORD, thy king-dom, and come in Thy glory ; 
Make the scene of Thy sorrows the place of Thy 

throne, 

Complete all the blessing- which ages in story 
Have told of the triumphs so justly Thine own." 



CHAPTER III. 

THE S!GN PISCES (The Fishes). 
The Blessings of the Redeemed in abeyance. 

IN this third chapter of the Second Book we come 
to the results of the Redeemer s work enjoyed, but 
in connection with conflict, as is seen in the last 



PISCES. 93 

of the three sections (the constellation of Andromeda, 
the chained woman), which leads up to the last chapter 
of the book, and ends it in triumph over every 
enemy. 

The Sign is pictured as two large fishes bound 
together by a Band, the ends of which are fastened 
separately to their tails. One fish is represented 
with its head pointing upwards towards the North 
Polar Star, the other is shown at right angles, 
swimming along the line of the ecliptic, or path of 
the sun. 

The ancient Egyptian name, as shown on the 
Denderah Zodiac, is Pi-cot Orion, or Pisces Hori, 
which means the fishes of Him that cometh. 

The Hebrew name is Dagim, the Fishes, which is 
closely connected with multitudes, as in Gen. xlviii. 26, 
where Jacob blesses Joseph s sons, and says, " Let 
them grow into a multitude in the midst of the 
earth." The margin says, " Let them grow as fishes 
do increase " It refers to the fulfilment of Gen. i. 28, 
" Be fruitful and multiply." The multitude of Abra 
ham s seed is prominent in the pronouncement of 
the blessings, where God compared his future pos 
terity to the stars of the sky, and the sand upon 
the sea shore. " A very great multitude of fish," 
as in Ezek. xlvii. 9. 

The Syriac name is Nuno, the fish, lengthened out 
(as in posterity). 

The sign, then, speaks of the multitudes who 
should enjoy the blessings of the Redeemer s work. 



94 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

And here we must maintain that " the Church," 
which is " the Body of Christ," was a subject 
that was never revealed to man until it was made 
known to the Apostle Paul by a special revelation. 
The Holy Spirit declares (Rom. xvi. 25) that it 
"was kept secret since the world began." In 
Eph. iii. 9 he declares that it "from the beginning of 
the world hath been hid in God"; and in Col. i. 26, 
that it " hath been hid from ages and from genera 
tions, but now is made manifest to His saints." In 
each scripture which speaks of it as " now made 
manifest," or "now made known," it is distinctly 
stated that it was "a mystery," i.e., a secret, and 
had, up to that moment, been hidden from man 
kind, hidden " in God." How, then, we ask, can 
" the Church," which was a subsequent revelation, be 
read into the previous prophecies, whether written 
in the Old Testament Scriptures, or made known in 
the Heavens ? If the Church was revealed in pro 
phecy, then it could not have been said to be hidden 
or kept secret. If the first revelation of it was 
made known to Paul, as he distinctly affirms it was, 
then it could not have been revealed before. Unless 
we see this very clearly, we cannot "rightly divide 
the word of truth" (2 Tim. ii. 15). And if we do 
not rightly divide the word of truth, in its subjects, 
and times, and dispensations, we must inevitably be 
landed in confusion and darkness, interpreting of the 
Church, scriptures which belong only to Israel. 

The Church, or Body of Christ, is totally dis 
tinct from every class of persons who are made the 



PISCES. 95 

subject of prophecy. Not that the Church of God 
was an after-thought. No, it was a Divine secret, 
kept as only God Himself could keep it. The Bible 
therefore would have been complete (so far as the 
Old Testament prophecies are concerned) if the 
Epistles (which belong only to the Church) were 
taken out. The Old Testament would then give us 
the kingdom prophesied ; the Gospels and Acts, the 
King and the kingdom offered and rejected ; then 
the Apocalypse would follow, showing how that pro 
mised kingdom will yet be set up with Divine judg 
ment, power, and glory. 

If these Signs and these star-pictures be the 
results of inspired patriarchs, then this Sign of PISCES 
can refer to " His seed," prophesied of in Isa. liii. : 
" He shall see His seed." It must refer to 

" The n:ition whose God is the LORD, 
And the people whom He hath chosen for His own 
inheritance." (Ps. xxxiii. 12.) 

" Such as be blessed of Him shall inherit the earth." 

(Ps. xxxvii. 22.) 

"The LORD shall increase you more and more, 
You and your children, 
Ye are blessed of the LORD." (Ps. cxv. 14, 15.) 

" Their seed shall be known among- the Gentiles. 
And their offspring- among the people ; 
All that see them shall acknowledge them, 
That they are the seed which the LORD hath blessed." 

(Isa. Ixi. 9.) 

" They are the seed of the blessed of the LORD, 
And their offspring with them." (Isa. Ixv. 23.) 



96 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

The prophecy of this Sign was afterwards written 
in the words of Isa. xxvi. 15 the song which shall 
yet be sung in the land of Judah : 

" Thou hast increased the nation, O LORD, 
Thou hast increased the nation." 

And in Isa. ix. 3 (R.V.), speaking of the glorious time 
when the government shall be upon the shoulder of 
the coming King: 

" Thou hast multiplied the nation, 
Thou hast increased their joy." 

Of that longed-for day Jeremiah sings (xxx. 19) : 

" I will multiply them 
And they shall not be few; 
I will also glorify them, 
And they shall not be small." 

Ezekiel also is inspired to say: 

" I will multiply men upon you, 
All the house of Israel, even all of it : 
And the cities shall be inhabited, 
And the wastes shall be builded ; 
And I will multiply upon you man and beast; 
And they shall increase and bring- fruit." 

(Ezek. xxxvi. 10, 11.) 

"Moreover I will make a covenant of peace with them; 
It shall be an everlasting covenant with them ! 
And I will place them, and multiply them, 
And will set My sanctuary in the midst of them for 
evermore." (Ezek. xxxvii. 26.) 

Indeed, this Sign of PISCES has always been inter 
preted of Israel. Both Jews and Gentiles have 
agreed in this. ABARBANEL, a Jewish commentator, 
writing on Daniel, affirms that the Sign PISCES always 
refers to the people of Israel. He gives five reasons 



PISCES. 97 

for this belief, and also affirms that a conjunction 
of the planets Jupiter and Saturn always betokens 
a crisis in the affairs of Israel. Because such a 
conjunction took place in his day (about 1480 A.D.) 
he looked for the coming of Messiah.* 

Certain it is, that when the sun is in PISCES all 
the constellations which are considered noxious, are 
seen above the horizon. What is true in astronomical 
observation is true also in historical fact. When 
God s favour is shown to Israel, "the Jew s enemy" 
puts forth his malignant powers. When they increased 
and multiplied in Egypt, he endeavoured to compass 
the destruction of the nation by destroying the male 
children ; but their great Deliverer remembered His 
covenant, defeated the designs of the enemy, and 
brought the counsel of the heathen to nought. So 
it was in Persia ; and so it will yet be again when 
the hour of Israel s final deliverance has come. 

There can be no doubt that we have in this 
Sign the foreshowing of the multiplication and bless 
ing of the children of promise, and a token of their 
coming deliverance from all the power of the enemy. 

But why two fishes ? and why is one horizontal 
and the other perpendicular? The answer is, that 
not only in Israel, but in the seed of Seth and Shem 
there were always those who looked for a heavenly 
portion, and were "partakers of a heavenly calling." 
In Heb. xi. we are distinctly told that Abraham 

* How inconsistent when there were three such conjunctions in one year, all 
in the same sign of PISCES, immediately preceding the birth of the woman s Seed ; 
and in addition to this the new star which had been foretold. See under Coma, 
pages 36, 37, 38. 

S. 1005. Cj 



gS THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

" looked for a city which hath foundations, whose 
builder and maker is God" (v. id). They were 
" strangers and pilgrims on the earth" (v. 13). 
Strangers are those without a home, and pilgrims 
are those who are journeying home : " they seek a 
country" (v. 14). They desired "a better country, 
that is, an HEAVENLY : wherefore God is not 
ashamed * to be called their God ; for He hath 
prepared for them a city" (v. 16). It is clear, 
therefore, that what are called the " Old Testament 
Saints" were "partakers of THE HEAVENLY CALLING" 
(Heb. iii. i), which included a heavenly portion and 
a heavenly home ; and all through the ages there 
have been " partakers of the heavenly calling." This 
is quite distinct from the calling of the Church, 
which is from both Jews and Gentiles to form " one 
body," a "new man" in Christ (Eph. ii. 15). It 
must be distinct, for it is expressly stated at the 
end of that chapter (Heb. xi. 40) that God has 
" PROVIDED (marg. foreseen) SOME BETTER THING FOR 
us." How can this be a " better thing," if it is the 
same thing? There must be two separate things if 
one is " better " than the other ! Our calling in 
Christ is the "better thing." The Old Testament 
saints had, and will have, a good thing. They will 
have a heavenly blessing, and a heavenly portion, 
for God has " prepared for them a city," and 
we see that prepared city, even " the holy city, new 
Jerusalem, coming down from God out of HEAVEN, 



* The figure of Tapeinosis, which calls our attention to that fact that He was 
delighted thus to be called. 



PISCES. 99 

prepared as a bride adorned for her husband " 
(Rev. xxi. 2). This is the "heavenly" portion of the 
Old Testament saints, the Bride of Christ. The Church 
will have a still " better " portion, for " they without 
us should not be made perfect " (Heb. xi. 40). 

The fish, shooting upwards to the Polar Star, 
exquisitely pictures this " heavenly calling" ; while the 
other fish, keeping on the horizontal line, answers to 
those who were content with an earthly portion. 

But both alike were divinely called, and chosen, 
and upheld. The names of two of the stars in the 
sign (not identified) are Okda (Hebrew), the united, 
and Al Samaca (Arabic), the upheld.* These again 
speak of the redeemed seed, of whom, and to whom, 
Jehovah speaks in that coming day of glory in 
Isa. xli. 8-10 (R.V.) : 

" But thou, Israel, My servant, 
Jacob, whom I have chosen, 
The seed of Abraham My friend ; 
Thou whom 1 have taken hold of from the ends 

of the earth. 

And called thee from the corners thereof, 
And said unto thee, Thou art My servant : 
I have chosen thee, and not cast thee away; 
Fear thou not, for I am with thee; 
Be not dismayed, for I am thy God! 
I will strengthen thee ; 
Yea, I will help thee ; 

Yea, I will UPHOLD thee with the rig-ht hand 
of My righteousness." 

This is the teaching of the Sign ; and the first 
constellation takes up this thought and emphasises it. 

* Ihere are 113 stars in this sijn, none of any great iaiportaoco ; only one of 
the 3rd magnitude, live of the 4th. etc. 

G 2 



100 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

i. THE BAND. 

The Redeemed Bound, but binding their Enemy. 

The band that unites these two fishes has always 
formed a separate constellation. It is shown in 
Plate XXI. The Arabian poems of ANTARAH fre 
quently mention it as distinct from the Sign with 
which it is so closely connected. ANTARAH was an 
Arabian poet of the sixth century. 

Its ancient Egyptian name was U-or, which means 
He cometh. Its Arabic name is A I Risha, the band, or 
bridle. 

It speaks of the Coming One, not in His relation 
to Himself, or to His enemies, but in His relation to 
the Redeemed. It speaks of Him who says : 

" I drew them with cords of a man, 
With bands of love ; 
And I was to them as they that take off the yoke 

on their jaws." (Hosea xi. 4, R.V.) 

But it speaks also of His unloosing the bands with 
which they have been so long bound. 

In the picture these fishes are bound. One end 
of the band is fastened securely round the tail of one 
fish, and it is the same with the other. Moreover, 
this band is fastened to the neck of Cetus, the sea 
monster, while immediately above is seen a woman 
chained as a captive. These both tell the same 
story, and, indeed, all are required to set forth the 
whole truth. The fishes are bound to Cetus ; the 
woman (Andromeda) is chained ; but the Deliverer of 



PISCES: (ANDROMEDA). 101 

both is near. Ccphcus, the Crowned King, the Re 
deemer, " the Breaker," the Branch, is seen coming 
quickly for the deliverance of His redeemed. These 
are the three constellations of this sign, and all three 
are required to set forth the story. 

Israel now is bound. The great enemy still 
oppresses, but deliverance is sure. ARIES, the Ram, 
is seen with his paws on this band, as though about 
to loosen the bands and set the captives free, and to 
fast bind their great oppressor. 



2. ANDROMEDA (The Chained Woman). 
The Redeemed in their Bondage and Affliction. 

This is a peculiar picture to set in the heavens. 
A woman with chains fastened to her feet and arms, 
in misery and trouble ; and bound, helpless, to the 
sky. Yet this is the ancient foreshowing of the 
truth. 

In the Denderah Zodiac her name is Set, which 
means set, set up as a queen. In Hebrew it is Sirra, 
the chained, and Persea, the stretched out. 

There are 63 stars in this constellation, three of 
which are of the 2nd magnitude, two of the 3rd, 
twelve of the 4th, etc. 

The brightest star, a (in the head), is called A I 
Phiratz (Arabic), the broken down. The star (in the 
body) is called Mirach (Hebrew), the weak. The star 7 
(in the left foot) is called A I Maach, or A I Amak 
(Arabic), struck down. 



IO2 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

The names of other stars, not identified, are 
Adhil, the afflicted; Mizar, the weak ; Al Mara (Arabic), 
the afflicted. ARATUS speaks of Desma, which means 
the bound, and says 

" Her feet point to her bridegroom 
Perseus, on whose shoulder they rest." 

Thus, with one voice, the stars of Andromeda 
speak to us of the captive daughter of Zion. And 
her coming Deliverer thus addresses her : 

" O thou afflicted, tossed with tempest, and not comforted, 
Behold, ... in righteousness shalt thou be established : 
Thou shalt be far from oppression ; for thou shalt not fear : 
And from terror; for it shall not come nigh thee." 

(Isa. liv. 1 1-14.) 

" Hear now this, thou afflicted. . . . 
Awake, awake ; put on thy strength, O Zion ; 
Put on thy beautiful garments, O Jerusalem. . . 
Shake thyself from the dust ; 
Arise, and sit down, O Jerusalem : 
Loose thyself from the bands of thy neck, O captive 

daughter of Zion. 
For thus saith the LORD, Ye have sold yourselves 

for nought; 
And ye shall be redeemed without money." 

(Isa. li. 21 lii. 3.) 

" The virgin daughter of My people is broken with a 
great breach, with a very grievous blow" (Jer. xiv. 17). 

The picture which sets forth her deliverance is 
reserved for the next chapter (or Sign), where it 
comes in its proper place and order. We are first 
shown her glorious Deliverer; for we never, in the 
heavens or in the Word, have a reference to the 
sufferings without an immediate reference to the glory. 



PISCES: (CEPHEUS). 103 

3. CEPHEUS (The King). 
Their Redeemer Coming to Rule. 

Here we have the presentation of a glorious king, 
crowned, and enthroned in the highest heaven, with 
a sceptre in his hand, and his foot planted on the 
very Polar Star itself. 

His name in the Denderah Zodiac is Pe-ku-hor, 
which means this one cometh to rule. 

The Greek name by which he is now known, 
Cepheus, is from the Hebrew, and means the branch, 
and is called by EURIPIDES the king. 

An old Ethiopian name was Hyk, a king. 

There are 35 stars, viz., three of the 3rd magni 
tude, seven of the 4th, etc. 

The brightest star, a (in the left shoulder), is called > 
Al Deramin, which means coming quickly. The next, 
3 (in the girdle), is named Al PJiirk (Arabic), the 
Redeemer. The next, y (in the left knee), is called 
Al Rai, which means who bruises or breaks. 

It is impossible to mistake the truth which these 
names teach. The Greeks, though they had lost it, 
yet preserved a trace of it, even in their perversion of 
it; for they held that Ccphcus was the father of An 
dromeda, and that Perseus was her husband. 

Yes ; this is the glorious King of Israel, the 
" King of kings, and Lord of lords." It is He who 
calls Israel His "son," and will yet manifest it to 
all the world. 



IO4 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

In Jer. xxxi., after speaking of Israel s restoration, 
Jehovah says (v. i) : 

" At the same time, saith the LORD, will I be the God 

of all the families of Israel, 
And they shall be My people. . . . 
For I am a father to Israel, 
And Ephraim is My firstborn " (v. 9). 

As He said to Moses : " Thus saith the LORD, Israel 
is my son, even my firstborn" (Exod. iv. 22). 

Here is the foundation of Israel s blessing. True, 
it is now in abeyance, but " the LORD reigneth," and 
will in due time make good His Word, for 

" The counsel of the LORD standeth for ever. 
The thoughts of His heart to all generations." 

(Ts. xxxiii. II.) 

This leads us up to the last chapter of the Second 
Book, which shows us the fulfilment of all the pro 
phecies concerning the Redeemed and the sure foun 
dation on which their great hope of glory is based. 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE SIGN ARIES (The Ram or Lamb). 

The Blessings of the Redeemed Consummated and 

Enjoyed. 

THIS Second Book began with the Goat dying in 
sacrifice, and it ends with the Lamb living again, 
" as it had been slain." The goat had the tail of a 
fish, indicating that his death was for a multitude of 



ARIES. IO5 

the redeemed. In the two middle Signs we have 
had these fishes presented to us in grace, and in 
their conflict. We come now to the last chapter 
of the book : and, as we have seen, like each of the 
other books, it ends up with victory and triumph. 
Here we are first shown the foundation on which 
that victory rests, namely, Atonement. Hence we are 
taken back and reminded of the " blood of the Lamb." 

This is pictured by a ram, or lamb, full of vigour 
and life ; not falling in death as Capricornus is. 

In the Denderah Zodiac its name is Tametouris 
Amman, which means the reign, dominion, or govern 
ment of Amman. The lamb s head is without horns, 
and is crowned with a circle. 

The Hebrew name is Taleh, the lamb. The Arabic 
name is A I Hamal, the sheep, gentle, merciful. This 
name has been mistakenly given by some to the 
principal star, a. The Syriac name is Amroo, as in 
the Syriac New Testament in John i. 29: "Behold 
the Lamb of God which taketh away the sin of the 
world." The ancient Akkadian name was Bara- 
"i^ar. Bar means altar, or sacrifice ; and ziggar means 
right making; so that the full name would be the 
sacrifice of righteousness. 

There are 66 stars in this si^n, one being of the 
2nd magnitude, two of the 4th, etc. 

Its chief star, a (in the forehead), is named El 
Natli* or El Natik, which means wounded, slain. 
The next, 3 (in the left horn), is culhd Al Sheraton, 

* " Kl Xath" is used liy Cliauerr a.s tlic name of a s;mn star. 



IO6 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

the bruised, the wounded. The next, 7 (near to ), is 
called Mesartim (Hebrew), the bound. 

How is it there is no conflicting voice ? How is it 
that all the stars unite in one harmonious voice in 
testifying of the Lamb of God, slain, and bruised, 
but yet living for evermore, singing together, " Worthy 
is the Lamb that was slain to receive power and 
riches, and wisdom, and strength, and honour, and 
glory, and blessing" (Rev. v. 12)? 

This rejoicing connected with the Lamb shines 
faintly through the heathen perversions and myths : 
for HERODOTUS tells us how the ancient Egyptians, 
once a year, when it opened by the entrance of the 
sun into ARIES,* slew a Ram, at the festival of Jupiter 
Ammon ; branches were placed over the doors, the 
Ram was garlanded with wreaths of flowers and carried 
in procession. Now the sun entered ARIES on the 
i4th of the Jewish month Nisan, and another lamb 
was then ordered to be slain, even "the LORD S pass- 
over "the type of that Lamb that should in the 
fulness of time be offered without blemish and with 
out spot. Owing to the precession of the equinoxes, 
the sun, at the time of the Exodus, had receded into 
this sign of ARIES, which then marked the Spring 
Equinox. But by. the time that the antitype the 
Lamb of God, was slain, the sun had still further 
receded, and on the i^th of Nisan, in the year of 
the Crucifixion, stood at the very spot marked by 
the stars a, El Natli, the pierced, the wounded or slain, 

* TAURUS then marked the Spring Equinox. 



ARIES: (CASSIOPEIA). 107 

and |3, A I Shcratan, the bruised or wounded! God so 
ordained " the times and seasons " that during that 
noon-day darkness the sun was seen near those stars 
which had spoken for so many centuries of this 
bruising of the woman s Seed the Lamb of God. 

Was this design ? or was it chance ? It is far 
easier to believe the former. It makes a smaller 
demand upon our faith ; yes, we are compelled to 
believe that He who created the sun and the stars 
" for signs and for cycles," ordained also the times 
and the seasons, and it is He who tells us that 

" WHEN THE FULNESS OF TIME WAS COME, God Sent 

forth His Son" (Gal. iv. 4), and that "in due time 
Christ died for the ungodly " (Rom. v. 6). 

i. CASSIOPEIA (The Enthroned Woman). 

The Captive Delivered, and Preparing for her 

Husband, the Redeemer. 

In the last chapter we saw the woman bound; here 
we see the same woman freed, delivered, and en 
throned. 

ULUGH BEY says its Arabic name is El Seder, 
which means the freed. 

In the Denderah Zodiac her name is Set, which 
means set, set up as Queen. ALBUMAZER says this 
constellation was anciently called "the daughter of 
splendour." This appears to be the meaning of the 
word Cassiopeia, the enthroned, the beautiful. The 
Arabic name is Ruchba, the enthroned. This is also 
the meaning of its Chaldee name, Dat al cursa. 



IO8 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

There are 55 stars in this constellation, of which 
five are of the 3rd magnitude, five of the 4th, etc. 

This beautiful constellation passes vertically over 
Great Britain every day, and is easily distinguished 
by its five brightest stars, forming an irregular W. 

*r .3 

This brilliant constellation contains one binary 
star, a triple star, a double star, a quadruple star, 
and a large number of nebulse. 

In the year 1572 Tycho Brahe discovered in this 
constellation, and very near the star K (under the arm 
of the chair), a new star, which shone more brightly 
than Venus. It was observed for nearly two years, 
and disappeared entirely in 1574. 

The brightest star, a (in the left breast), is named 
Schedir (Hebrew), which means the freed. The next, 
3 (in the top of the chair), likewise bears a Hebrew 
name Caph, which means the branch; it is evidently 
given on account of the branch of victory which she 
bears in her hand. 

She is indeed highly exalted, and making herself 
ready. Her hands, no longer bound, are engaged 
in this happy work. With her right hand she is 
arranging her robes, while with her left she is adorn 
ing her hair. She is seated upon the Arctic circle, 
and close by the side of Cepheus, the King. 

This is "the Bride, the Lamb s wife, the heavenly 
city, the new Jerusalem," the "partakers of the hea 
venly calling." 



ARIES: (CASSIOPEIA). 109 

He who has redeemed her is " the Lamb that was 
slain," and He addresses her thus: 

" Thy Maker is thine husband ; 
The LORD of Hosts is His name ; 
And the Holy One of Israel is thy Redeemer; 
The God of the whole earth shall He be called. 
For the LORD hath called thee as a woman forsaken 

and grieved in spirit, 
Even a wife of youth when she is cast off, saith thy 

God. 

For a small moment have I forsaken thee; 
But with great mercies will I gather thee. 
In overflowing" wrath I hid my face from thee for a 

moment ; 
But with everlasting" kindness will I have mercy on 

thee, saith the LORD thy Redeemer." 

(Isa. liv. 5-8, R.V.) 

" Thou shalt be a crown of beauty in the hand of the 

LORD, 

And a royal diadem in the hand of thy God, 
Thou shalt no more be termed Forsaken ; 
Neither shall thy land any more be termed Desolate ; 
But thou shalt be called Hephzi-bah (i.e., my delight is 

in her), 

And thy land Beulah (i.e., married} ; 
For the LORD delighteth in thee, 
And thy land shall be married. 
For as a young- man marrieth a virgin, 
So shall thy sons (Hel. thy Restorer) marry thee : 
And as the bridegroom rejoiceth over the bride, 
So shall thy God rejoice over thee." 

(Isa. Ixii. 3-5, R.V.) 

The LORD hath appeared of old (or from afar) unto- 

me, saying, 

Yea, I have loved thee with an everlasting love ; 
Therefore with lovingkindness have I drawn thee. 
Again will I build thee, and thou shalt be built, O 
Virgin of Israel 



HO THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

He that scattered Israel will gather him, 
And keep him as a shepherd doth his flock, 
For the LORD hath ransomed Jacob, 
And redeemed him from the hand of him that was 
stronger than he." (Jer. xxxi. 3-12, R.V.) 

Can we close our eyes to the testimony of these 
scriptures that Israel is the Bride of the Lamb ? 
When we have all these, and more, why should we 
read "the Church" into these ancient ^prophecies, 
which was the subject of a long - subsequent revela 
tion, merely because (in Eph. v. 25) Christ s love to 
His Church is compared to a husband s love for his 
wife ? " Husbands, love your wives, even AS Christ 
also loved the Church." There is not a word here 
about the Church being His wife. On the contrary, 
it reveals the secret that the Church of Christ is to 
be the mystical " Body of Christ, "part of the Husband 
in fact, "One new man" (Eph. ii. 15)! whereas 
restored Israel is to be the Bride of this " New Man," 
the Bride of Christ, the Lamb s wife ! Blessed 
indeed it is to be united to Christ as a wife to a 
husband, but glorious beyond all description to be 
"one" with Christ Himself, part of His mystical 
Body. 

If men had only realised the wondrous glory 
of this mystery, they would never have so wrongly 
divided the Word of Truth by interpreting Psalm xlv. 
of this Mystical Christ. If we " rightly divide " it, 
we see at once that this Psalm is in harmony with 
all the Old Testament scriptures, which must be 
interpreted alike, and can be interpreted only of 
Israel however they may be applied. 



ARIES: (CASSIOPEIA). in 

Having spoken of the Godhead and glory of this 
Ki-ng (faintly and in part foreshown by Ccphciis], the 
Holy Spirit goes on in the latter part of the Psalm 
to speak of the Bride the Queen : 

"At Thy rig-ht hand doth stand the Queen in gold of 

Ophir, 

Hearken, O daughter, and consider, incline thine ear; 
Forget also thine own people, and thy father s house ; 
So shall the King- desire thy beauty; 
For He is thy Lord ; and worship thou Him. . . . 
The King s daughter within the palace is all glorious ; 
Her clothing is inwrought with gold, 
She shall be led unto the King in broidered work; 
The virgins her companions f that follow her shall be 

brought unto thee," etc. (Ps. xlv. 9-17, R.v.) 

Then shall she sing her Magnificat : 

" I will greatly rejoice in the LORD, 
My soul shall be joyful in my God; 

For He hath clothed me with the garments of salvation, 
He hath covered me with the robe of righteousness, 
As a bridegroom decketh himself with ornaments, 
And as a bride adorneth herself with her jewels. 
For as the earth bringeth forth her bud, 
And as the garden causeth the things that are sown in 

it to spring forth ; 

So the Lord GOD [Adonai Jehovah] will cause righte 
ousness and praise to spring forth before all the 
nations." (Isa. Ixi. 10, n.) 

"Thy beauty ; for it was perfect through My comeliness, which I put upon thee 
(Jerusalem), saith the LORD" (Ezek. xvi. 14). 

f Those who interpret the Queen here of the Church as the Bride, interpret the 
"Virgins" in Matt. xxv. of the Bride also. But how inconsistent! If the 
" Virgins" be the Church in Matt, xxv., then where is the Bride? If the Queen 
is the Bride (the Church) in Ps. xlv., then who are the "virgins her companions"? 
Both cannot be the correct interpretation. In fact, both are wrong, and hence the 
confusion. The Bride must be interpreted by the Old Testament scriptures, and 
the Prophecies which belong to Israel must not be robbed and given to the Church. 
They cannot be thus diverted without bringing confusion into the Scripture, nnd 
causing loss to our souls. 



112 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

This, then, is the truth set forth by this enthroned 
woman. The blessing founded on Atonement, and 
the Redemption wrought by the Lamb that was slain, 
result in a glorious answer to Israel s prayer, "Turn 
our captivity, O LORD" (Ps. cxxvi. 4): when they 
that have " sown in tears shall reap in joy," and 
the LORD shall loosen her bonds, and place her 
enthroned by His side. 

This, however, involves the destruction of her 
enemy, and this is what we see in the next section. 

2. CETUS (The Sea Monster). 
The Great Enemy Bound. 

When John sees the New Jerusalem, the Bride, 
the Lamb s wife (Rev. xxi. 10, 2), Satan has been 
bound already : for we read, a few verses before 
(xx. 1-3) : " I saw an angel come down from heaven, 
having the key of the bottomless pit and a great 
chain in his hand. And he laid hold of the dragon, 
that Old Serpent, which is the Devil, and Satan, 
and bound him [and kept him bound} a thousand 
years, and cast him into the bottomless pit, and 
shut him up, and set a seal upon him, that he 
should deceive the nations no more, till the thou 
sand years should be fulfilled." 

This is what we see in the second section of this 
chapter the second constellation in ARIES. 

The picture is that of a great Sea-monster, the 
largest of all the constellations. It is the natural 



ARIES: (CETUS). 113 

enemy of fishes, hence it is placed here in connec 
tion with this last chapter, in which fishes are so 
prominent. 

It is situated very low down among the constel 
lations far away towards the south or lower regions 
of the sky. 

Its name in the Denderah Zodiac is Knem, which 
means subdued. It is pictured as a monstrous head, 
trodden under foot by the swine, the natural enemy 
of the serpent. The hawk also (another enemy of 
the serpent) is over this figure, crowned with a mortar, 
denoting bruising. 

It consists of 97 stars, of which two are of the 
2nd magnitude, eight of the 3rd, nine of the 4th, etc. 

The names of the stars interpret for us infallibly 
the meaning of the picture. 

The brightest star, a (in the upper mandible), is 
named Menkar, and means the bound or chained enemy. 
The next, (in the tail), is called Diphda, or Deneb 
Kaitos, overthrown, or thrust down. The star o (in the 
neck) is named Mira, which means THE REBEL. 
Its name is ominous, for the star is one of the most 
remarkable. It is very bright, but it was not till 
1596 that it was discovered to be variable. It dis 
appears periodically seven times in six years ! It 
continues at its brightest for fifteen days together. 
M. Bade says that during 334 days it shines with its 
greatest light, then it diminishes, till it entirely dis 
appears for some time (to the naked eye). In fact, 
during that period it passes through several degrees 

S. 1005. H 



114 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

of magnitude, both increasing and diminishing. In 
deed its variableness is so great as to make it appear 
unsteady ! 

Here, then, is the picture of the Great Rebel as 
shown in the heavens. What is it, as written in the 
Word? 

The Almighty asks man : 

" Canst thou draw out Leviathan with a fish hook ? 
Or press down his tongue with a cord ? 
Canst thou put a rope into his nose ? 
Or pierce his jaw through with a hook ? . . . . 
Shall not one be cast down even at the sight of him ? 
None is so fierce that he dare stir him up." 

(Job xli. i-io, R.V.) 

But he whom man cannot bind can be bound by 
the Lamb, and He is seen with " the Band " that has 
bound the fishes, now in His hands, which he has 
fastened with a bright star to his neck, saying, 

" Behold, I have taken out of thine hand the cup of 

trembling, 

Even the dregs of the cup of My fury; 
Thou shalt no more drink it again, 
But I will put it into the hand of them that afflict 

thee." (Isa. li. 22, 23.) 

" Behold, the LORD cometh forth out of His place 
To punish the inhabitants of the earth for their in 
iquity .... 
In that day the LORD, with His sore, and great, and 

strong sword, 

Shall punish Leviathan, the piercing serpent, 
And Leviathan, the crooked serpent ; 
And He shall slay the dragon that is in the sea." 

(Isa, xxvi. 21 xxvii. i.) 



ARIES. (PERSEUS). 115 

" For God is my king of old, 
Working salvation in the midst of the earth. 
Thou didst divide (marg. Heb., break] the sea by Thy 

strength, 
Thou brakest the heads of the dragons (R.V. marg., 

sea monsters] in the waters. 
Thou brakest the heads of Leviathan in pieces." 

(Ps. Ixxiv. 12-14.) 

And this Second Book closes by revealing to us 
this glorious " Breaker." 



b 



3. PERSEUS. ("The Breaker.") 

" The Breaker " delivering His Redeemed. 

Here we have set before us a mighty man, called 
in the Hebrew Peretz, from which we have the Greek 
form Perses, or Perseus (Rom. xvi. 13). It is the same 
word which is used of Christ in Micah ii. 13. When 
He shall surely "gather the remnant of Israel " (v. 12), 
it is written 

"THE BREAKER is gone up before them .... 
Their King is passed on before them, 
And the LORD at the head of them." 

This is what is pictured to us here. We see a 
glorious "Breaker" taking His place before His 
redeemed, breaking forth at their head, breaking down 
all barriers, and breaking the heads of Leviathan and 
all his hosts. In His right hand He has His " sore, 
and great, and strong sword" lifted up to smite and 
break down the enemy. He has wings on His feet, 
which tell us that He is coming very swiftly. In His 
left hand He carries the head of the enemy, whom he 
has slain. 

IT 2 



110 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

In the Denderah Zodiac His name is Kar Knem, 
he who fights and subdues. 

It is a beautiful constellation of 59 stars, two of 
which are of the 2nd magnitude, four of the 3rd, twelve 
of the 4th, etc. 

Their names supply us with the key to the inter 
pretation of the picture. 

The star a (in the waist) is called Mirfak, who helps. 
The next, y (in the right shoulder), is named A I Genib, 
which means who carries away. The bright star in the 
left foot is called Athik, who breaks ! 

In his left hand he carries a head, which, by per 
version, the Greeks called the head of Medusa, being 
ignorant that its Hebrew root meant the trodden under 
foot* It is also called Rosh Satan (Hebrew), the head 
of the adversary, and A I Oneh (Arabic), the subdued, or 
A I Ghoul, the evil spirit. 

The bright star, |3 (in this head), has come down 
to us with the name A I Gol, which means rolling round. 

It is a most remarkable phenomenon that so many 
of these enemies should be characterised by variable 
stars ! But this head of Medusa, like the neck of 
Cetus, has one. A I Gol is continually changing. In 
about 69 hours it changes from the 4th magnitude to 
the 2nd. During four hours of this period it gradually 
diminishes in brightness, which it recovers in the suc 
ceeding four hours ; and in the remaining part of the 
time, invariably preserves its greatest lustre. After 

* See Job xxxix. 14, 15, where it is said, the ostrich "leaveth her eggs in the 
dust, forgetting that the foot may crush them, or that the wild beast may break them." 



ARIES: (PERSEUS). 117 

the expiration of this time its brightness begins to 
decrease again. Fit emblem of our great enemy, who, 
" like a roaring lion, goeth about seeking whom he may 
devour " (i Pet. v. 8.) ; then changing into a subtle 
serpent (Gen. iii. 8.) ; then changing again into " an 
angel of light" (2 Cor. xi. 14.). "Transforming him 
self" continually, to devour, deceive, and destroy. 

This brings us to the conclusion of the Second 
Book, in which we have seen the Redeemed blessed 
with all blessings, delivered out of all conflict, saved 
from all enemies. We have seen their Redeemer, 
" the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world," 
"the Conqueror," "the King of Kings and Lord of 
Lords." 

This is the Revelation recorded in the heavens. 
This is the prophetic testimony inspired in the Book. 
And this is the heart-cry prompted by both : 

" Come, Lord, and tarry not, 
Bring- the long-looked-for day; 
Oh, why these years of waiting- here, 
These ages of delay ? 

Come, for Thy saints stiil wait; 
Daily ascends their cry : 
The Spirit and the Bride say, Come ; 
Dost Thou not hear their cry; 

Come, for creation groans, 
Impatient of Thy stay; 
Worn out with these long years of ill, 
These ages of delay. 

Come, for Thine Israel pines, 
An exile from Thy fold; 
Oh, call to mind Thy faithful word. 
And bless them as of old. 



Il8 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

Come, for Thy foes are strong- ; 
With taunting- lips they say, 
Where is the promised advent now, 
And where the dreaded day? 

Come, for the good are few; 
They lift the voice in vain ; 
Faith waxes fainter on the earth, 
And love is on the wane. 

Come, in Thy glorious might; 
Come, with Thine iron rod ; 
Disperse Thy foes before Thy face, 
Most mighty Son of God. 

Come, and make all things new, 
Build up this ruined earth ; 
Restore our faded paradise, 
Creation s second birth. 

Come, and begin Thy reign 

Of everlasting peace ; 

Come, take the kingdom to Thyself, 

Great King of Righteousness." 

Dr. Horatius Bonar. 



THE REDEEMER. 



Boofc, 

THE REDEEMER. 

His SECOND COMING. 

T N this Third and Last Book we come to the con- 
* eluding portion of this Heavenly Revelation. Its 
subject is Redemption completed, and consummated in 
triumph. No more sorrow, suffering, or conflict ; no 
more the bruising of the heel of the Redeemer. We 
have now done with the prophecies of "the sufferings 
of Christ," and have come to those that relate to " the 
glory that should follow." 

No more reference now to His first coming in 
humiliation. No more coming " forth " to suffer and 
die, a sacrifice for sins ; the reference now is only to 
His second coming in glory; His coming " unto " this 
earth is not to suffer for sin (Heb. ix. 28.), but it will 
be a coming in power to judge the earth in righteous 
ness, and to subdue all enemies under His feet. 

Like the other two books, it consists of four 
chapters. 

The first chapter is the prophecy of the coming 
Judge of all the earth. 

The second sets before us the two-fold nature of the 
coming Ruler. 

The third shows us Messiah s redeemed possessions 
the Redeemed brought safely home, all conflict over. 

The fourth describes Messiah s consummated 
triumph. 



I2O THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 



CHAPTER I. 

THE SIGN TAURUS (The Bull). 
Messiah, the coming Judge of all the Earth. 

THE picture is that of a Bull rushing forward with 
mighty energy and fierce wrath, his horns set so as 
to push his enemies, and pierce them through and 
destroy them. 

It is a prophecy of Christ, the coming Judge, and 
Ruler, and "Lord of all the earth." 

The Egyptian Zodiac of Denderah already, 4,000 
years ago, had forgotten the truth to which the pro 
phecy had referred, and called him Isis, i.e., who 
saves or delivers, and Apis, i.e., the head or chief. The 
Bull is clearly represented, and in all the zodiacs 
which have come down to us is always in the act of 
pushing, or rushing. 

The name of the sign in Chaldee is *Ylfl, Tor. 
Hence, Arabic, Al Thaur ; Greek, Tauros; Latin, 
Taurus, etc. The more common Hebrew name 
was ^VifcjJ, Shur, which is from a root which means both 
coming and ruling. There are several Hebrew words 
for bulls and oxen, etc. But the common poetical 
term for all is D&O, Reem, conveying the idea of 
loftiness, exaltation, power, and pre-eminence. We 
find the root in other kindred languages (Etruscan, 
Sanscrit, etc.), and it can be traced in the name of 
Abram, which means pre-eminent or high father ; Ramah, 
high place, etc. 



TAURUS. 121 

The stars in Taurus present a brilliant sight. 
There are at least 141 stars, besides two important 
groups of stars, which both form integral parts of 
the sign. 

The brightest star, a (in the bull s eye), has a 
Chaldee name Al Debar an, and means the leader or 
governor. The star 3 (at the tip of the left horn) 
has an Arabic name El Nath, meaning wounded or 
slain. Another prophetic intimation that this coming 
Lord should be first slain as a sacrifice. 

Then there is the cluster of stars known as the 
Pleiades. This word, which means the congregation 
of the judge or ruler, comes to us through the Greek 
Septuagint as the translation of the Hebrew nip*3, 
Chima, which means the heap or accumulation, and 
occurs in Job ix. 9; xxxviii. 31, 32, and Amos v. 8. 

It consists of a number of stars (in the neck of 
of Taurus) which appear to be near together. The 
brightest of them, marked ij in all the maps,* has 
come down to us with an Arabic name Al Cyone, 
which means the centre, and has given the idea to 
some astronomers that it is the centre of the whole 
universe. The Syriac name for the Pleiades is 
Succoth, which means booths. 

Another group of stars (on the face of the Bull) 
is known as The Hyades,\ which has the similar 
meaning of the congregated. 

* The others have names, but they were given by the Greeks from the names 
of the seven daughters of Atlas and Pleione. The Hyades were their sisters. 
Together they tell us that the saints will be secure with this mighty Lord when he 
comes to rule. 

f The Pleiades and Hyades are sometimes spoken of as constellations, but this 
is a mistake ; they are integral parts of Taurus. 



122 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

Other stars, not identified, are named Palilicium 
(Hebrew), belonging to the judge; Wasat (Arabic), centre 
or foundation; A I Thuraiya (Arabic), the abundance; 
VergilicB (Latin), the centre (Arabic, vertex] turned on, 
rolled round. 

Every thing points to the important truth, and 
all turns on the fact that the Lord is COMING TO 
RULE ! This is the central truth of all prophecy. 
" The testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy." 
All hope for Creation, all hope for the world, all hope 
for Israel, all hope for the Church, turns on this, that 
" Jesus is coming again," and that when He comes 
His saints, "the daughters of the King" (like the 
Pleiades and Hyades), will be with Him. 

There is nothing of " the Church " revealed here. 
The Church will be caught up to meet the Lord in 
the air, to be for ever with the Lord (i Thess. iv. 17) 
before He thus comes unto the world in judgment. 
He will come forth to receive the members of His 
Body unto Himself, before He thus comes with them 
to destroy all His enemies and "judge (or rule) the 
world in righteousness." When we read this Sign 
of Taurus, therefore, we are to understand that 
His Church will be with Him, safe from all judg 
ment. 

There is very much in the Scripture of the Book, 
(as there is in the prophecies in the heavens) about 
the coming of the Lord in judgment ; and about this 
time of His indignation. For Enoch, who doubtless 
was used in arranging these prophetic signs t uttered 



TAURUS. 123 

the prophetic words, " Behold the Lord cometh with 
ten thousands of His saints to execute judgment 
upon all and to convict all that are ungodly" 
(Jude 14, 15). 

We have said (pages 17, etc.) that at a very early 
period these signs were appropriated to the Twelve 
Tribes of Israel, and borne upon their "stand 
ards." This may be traced in the Blessing of 
Jacob (Gen. xlix.), and in the Blessing of Moses 
(Deut. xxxiii.). Taurus was assigned to Joseph, or 
rather to his two tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh, 
like the two powerful horns : 

" The firstling- of his bullock (marg. his firstling bullock] 

majesty is his, 

And his horns are the horns of the wild-ox (Reeni). 
With them he shall PUSH (marg-. gore) the peoples, all 

of them, even the ends of the earth. 
And they are the ten thousands of Ephraim, 
And they are the thousands of Manasseh." 

(Deut. xxxiii. 17, R.V.) 

It is not, however, merely by men alone that this 
will be done, for David sings : 

" Thou art my King-, O GOD. . . . 
Through Thee will we PUSH down our enemies; 
Through Thy Name will we tread them under that 
rise up against us." (Ps. xliv. 5.) 

" I will punish the world for their evil, 
And the wicked for their iniquity; 
I will cause the arrogancy of the proud to cease, 
And will lay low the haughtiness of the terrible. . . . 
Every one that is found shall be THRUST THROUGH." 

(Isa. xiii. 11-15.) 



124 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

Speaking of that day, the Holy Spirit says by 
Isaiah : 

" For the LORD hath indignation against all the nations, 
And fury against all their host : 
He hath utterly destroyed them, 
He hath delivered them to the slaughter. . . 
The LORD hath a sacrifice in Bozrah, 
And a great slaughter in the land of Edom, 
And the wild oxen [Reem] shall come down with them. 
And the bullocks with the bulls; 
And their land shall be drunken with blood, 
And their dust made fat with fatness. 
For it is the day of the LORD S vengeance, 
The year of recompense in the controversy of Zion." 

(Isa. xxxiv. 2-8, R.V.) 

" Behold, the LORD cometh forth out of His place 
To punish the inhabitants of the earth for their 

iniquity : 

The earth also shall disclose her blood, 
And shall no more cover her slain." (Isa. xxvi. 21.) 

This is the united testimony of the two Revela 
tions. It is pictured in the heavens, and it is written 
in the Book. It is the prophecy of a coming Judge, 
and of a coming judgment. 

It is, however, no mere Bull that is coming. It 
is a man, a glorious man, even " the Son of Man." 
This is the first development, shown in the first of 
the three constellations belonging to the sign. 

i. ORION (The coming Prince). 
Light Breaking Forth in the Redeemer. 

This picture is to show that the coming one is 
no mere animal, but a man : a mighty, triumphant, 
glorious prince. 



TAURUS: (ORION). 125 

He is so pictured in the ancient Denderah Zodiac, 
where we see a man coming forth pointing to the 
three bright stars (Rigel, Bellatrix, and Betelguez) as 
his. His name is given as Ha-ga-t, which means 
this is he who triumphs. The hieroglyphic characters 
below read Oar. Orion was anciently spelt Oarion, 
from the Hebrew root, which means light. So that 
Orion means coming forth as light. The ancient 
Akkadian was Ur-ana, the light of heaven. 

Orion is the most brilliant of all the constellations, 
and when he comes to the meridian he is accompanied 
by several adjacent constellations of great splendour. 
There is then above the horizon the most glorious 
view of the celestial bodies that the starry firmament 
affords ; and this magnificent view is visible to all 
the habitable world, because the equinoctial line (or 
solstitial colure) passes nearly through the middle of 
Orion. 

ARATUS thus sings of him : 

" Eastward, beyond the region of the Bull, 
Stands great Orion. And who, when night is clear, 
Beholds him gleaming bright, shall cast his eyes in vain 
To find a Sign more glorious in all heaven." 

The constellation is mentioned by name, as being 
perfectly well known both by name and appearance, in 
the time of Job ; and as being an object of familiar 
knowledge at that early period of the world s history. 
See Job ix. 9; xxxviii. 31, and Amos v. 8 (Heb. Ap^, 
Chesil, which means a strong one, a hero, or giant). 

It contains 78 stars, two being of the ist magni 
tude, four of the 2nd, four of the 3rd, sixteen of the 
4th, etc. 



126 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

A little way below t (in the sword) is a very 
remarkable nebulous star. A common telescope will 
show that it is a beautiful nebula. A powerful 
telescope reveals it as consisting of collections of 
nebulous stars, these again being surrounded by faint 
luminous points, which still more powerful telescopes 
would resolve into separate stars. 

Thus beautifully is set forth the brilliancy and 
glory of that Light which shall break forth when 
the moment comes for it to be said, "Arise, shine, 
for thy light is come." 

The picture presents us with " the Light of the 
world." His left foot is significantly placed upon 
the head of the enemy. He is girded with a glorious 
girdle, studded with three brilliant stars ; and upon 
this girdle is hung a sharp sword. Its handle proves 
that this mighty Prince is come forth in a new 
character. He is again proved to be " the Lamb 
that was slain," for the hilt of this sword is in the 
form of the head and body of a lamb. In his right 
hand he lifts on high his mighty club ; while in his 
left he holds forth the token of his victory the head 
and skin of the "roaring lion." We ask in wonder, 
" Who is this ? " * and the names of the stars give 
us the answer. 

The brightest, a (in the right shoulder), is named 
Betelgeuz, which means the coming (Mai. iii. 2) of the 
branch. 

The next, (in the left foot), is named Rigel, or 
Rigol, which means the foot that crusheth. The foot 

* See Jer. xxx. 21 ; and Matt. xxi. 10. 



TAURUS: (ORION). 127 

is lifted up, and placed immediately over the head 
of the enemy, as though in the very act of crushing 
it. Thus, the name of the star bespeaks the act. 

The next star, y (in the left shoulder), is called 
Bellatrix, which means quickly coming, or swiftly 
destroying. 

The name of the fourth star, 8 (one of the three 
in the belt), carries us back to the old, old story, 
that this glorious One was once humbled ; that His 
heel was once bruised. Its name is A I Nitak, the 
wounded One* Similarly the star K (in the right 
leg) is called Saiph, bruised, which is the very word 
used in Gen. iii. 15, thus connecting Orion with the 
primeval prophecy. Like Ophiuchus, he has one 
leg bruised; while, with the other, he is crushing the 
enemy under foot. 

This is betokened by other stars, not identified, 
named Al Rai, who bruises, who breaks (as in Ce- 
pheus) ; and T habit (Hebrew), treading en. 

Other (Arabic) names relate to His Person: Al 
Giauzd, the branch; Al Gebor, the mighty ; Al Mirzam, 
the ruler; Al Nagjcd, the prince; Niphla (Chaldee), 
the mighty ; Nux (Hebrew), the strong. 

Some names relate to His coming, as Betelgeuse 
and Bellatrix, as above; Heka (Chaldee), coming; 
and Meissa (Hebrew), coming forth. 

Such is the cumulative testimony of Orion s stars, 
which, day after day, and night after night, show 
forth this knowledge. That testimony was after- 

* The star (in the belt) is called Alintaka, dividing, as a sacrifice. (Lev. viii. 2.) 



128 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

wards written in the Book. The Prince of Glory, 
who was once wounded for the sins of His redeemed, 
is about to rise up and shine forth for their deliver 
ance. Their redemption draweth nigh ; for 
"The LORD shall go forth as a mighty man, 

He shall stir up jealousy like a man of war; 

He shall cry, yea, roar; 

He shall prevail against His enemies. 

I have \_He says] long time holden my peace; 

I have been still, and refrained myself: 

Now will I cry like a travailing woman; 

I will destroy and devour at once." 

(Isa. xlii. 13, 14.) 

Then it will be said to His people (and the 
setting of the prophecy in its beautiful introverted 
structure shows us the beauty and glory of the truth 
it reveals) : * 
a | Arise, 

b | Shine; for thy light is come, 

c | And the glory of the LORD is risen upon thee. 

d | For, behold, the darkness shall cover the earth, 
d | And gross darkness the people ; 
c But the LORD shall arise upon thee, and His glory 

shall be seen upon thee. 

b \ And the Gentiles shall come to thy light, 
a | And kings to the brightness of thy rising. (Isa. Ix. 1-3.) 

This is "the glory of God" which the heavens 
constantly declare (Ps. xix. i). They tell of that 
blessed time when the whole earth shall be filled 
with His glory (Num. xiv. 21 ; Isa. xi. 9) ; when 
"the glory of the LORD shall be revealed, and all 

* Note, that 

In a and a, we have the rising of Israel ; 
In b and b, the light that is come upon her ; 
In c and c, the glory of the LORD ; and 
In d and d, the darkness of the world. 



TAURUS: (ERIDANUS). 129 

flesh shall see it together" (Isa. xl. 5), as all see 
now the beauty of Orion s glory. 

But side by side with the glory which the coming 
Light of the world shall bring for His people, there 
is "that wicked," whom the Lord "shall destroy 
with the brightness of His coming." Hence, as in 
the concluding chapter (iv.) of the First Book (of 
which this Third Book is the expansion) we had in 
LYRA (the harp), as I, Praise prepared for the 
Conqueror; and in ARA (the burning pyre), as 2, 
Consuming fire prepared for His enemies : so in 
the first chapter of this book, we have in ORION, 
as I, Glory prepared for the Conqueror; and in 
ERIDANUS, as 2, the River of wrath prepared 
for His enemies. This brings us to 

2. ERIDANUS (The River of the Judge). 
The River of Wrath Breaking Forth for His Enemies. 

It issues forth, in all the pictures, from the 
down-coming foot of Orion. While others see in it, 
from the ignorance of fabled story, only "the River 
Po," or the " River Euphrates," we see in it, from 
the meaning of its name, and from the significance 
of its position, the river of the Judge. 

In the Denderah Zodiac it is a river under the 
feet of Orion. It is named Peh-ta-t t which means 
the mouth of the river. 

It is an immense constellation, and our diagram 
is on a smaller scale than the others (which are all 
in relative proportion, except where otherwise noted). 

S. 1005. I 



I3O THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

According to the Britannic catalogue, it consists 
of 84 stars ; one of the ist magnitude, one of the 
2nd, eight of the 3rd, etc. 

The brightest star, a (at the mouth of the river), 
bears the ancient name of Achernar, which is in, as 
its name means, the after part of the river. 

The next star, (at the source of the river), is 
named Cursa, which means bent down. The next, 
y (at the second bend in the river), is called Zourac 
(Arabic), flowing. Other stars, not identified, are 
Pheat, mouth (of the river) ; and Ozha, the going forth. 

Here, then, we have a river flowing forth from 
before the glorious Orion. It runs in a serpentine 
course towards the lower regions, down, down, out of 
sight. In vain the sea monster, Cetus, strives to stop 
its flow. It is " the river of the Judge," and speaks 
of that final judgment in which the wicked will be 
cast into the lake of fire. It was evidently originally 
associated with fire; for the Greek myths, though 
gross perversions, still so connect it. According to 
their fables, something went wrong with the chariot of 
the sun, and a universal conflagration was threatened. 
In the trouble, Phaeton (probably a reference to the 
star Pheat) was killed and hurled into this river, in 
which he was consumed with its fire. The whole earth 
suffered from such a burning heat that great disasters 
ensued. We see from this myth two great facts pre 
served in the perverted tradition, viz., judgment and fire. 

ARATUS also preserves the connection, 

" For yonder, trod by heavenly feet, 
Wind the scorched waters of Eridanus tear-swollen flood, 
Welling- beneath Orion s uplifted foot." 



TAURUS: (ERIDANUS). 131 

Is not this the testimony afterwards written in 
the Book? Daniel sees this very river in his vision 
of that coming day, when the true Orion shall come 
forth in His glory. He says, " I beheld till the 
thrones were placed, and one that was ancient of 
days did sit : .... His throne was fiery flames, and the 
wheels thereof burning fire. A FIERY STREAM ISSUED 

AND CAME FORTH FROM BEFORE HlM." This is the 

River of the Judge; for he goes on to say, "the judg 
ment was set, and the books were opened " (Dan. vii. 
9-1 1, R.V.). 

We have the same in Ps. xcvii. 3-5 (R.V.), which 
describes the scene when the Lord shall reign : 

"A FIRE GOETH BEFORE HlM, 

And burneth up His adversaries round about. 

His lightning s lightened the world : 

The earth saw and trembled, 

The hills melted like wax at the presence of the LORD, 

At the presence of the Lord of the whole earth." 

So again in Ps. 1. 3, we read : 
" Our God shall come, and shall not keep silence, 

A FIRE SHALL DEVOUR BEFORE HlM, 

And it shall be very tempestuous round about Him." 
By Habakkuk the coming of the Lord is de 
scribed ; and it is written : 

" His brightness was as the light, .... 
Before Him went the pestilence, 
And burning coals went forth at His feet." 

(Hab. iii. 5.) 

What is this but Orion and Eridanus I 

Again, it is written in Isaiah xxx. 27-33 (R.V.) : 

<; Behold, the name of the LORD cometh from far, 
Burning with His anger, and in thick rising smoke: 

I 2 



132 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

His lips are full of indignation, 
And His tongue is as a DEVOURING FIRE : 
And His breath is as AN OVERFLOWING STREAM \offire\. . . . 
For a Topheth is prepared of old ; 
Yea, for the king- \MolocK\ it is made ready; 
He hath made it deep and large ; 
The pile thereof is FIRE and much wood ; 
The breath of the LORD, LIKE A STREAM OF BRIMSTONE, 
doth kindle it." 

So, again, we read in Nahum i. 5, 6 : 

" The mountains quake at Him, 
And the hills melt; 

And the earth is burned up at His presence, 
Yea, the world and all that dwell therein. 
Who can stand before His indignation ? 
And who can abide in the fierceness of His anger ? 
His fury is POURED OUT LIKE FIRE." 

In Isa. Ixvi. 15, 16, we read: 

" For, behold, the LORD will come with fire, 
And with His chariots like a whirlwind, 
To render His anger with fury, 
And His rebuke with FLAMES OF FIRE, 
For BY FIRE, and by His sword, will the LORD plead with 
all flesh." 

With this agree the New Testament scriptures, 
which speak of " the Day of the Lord," " when the 
Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven with His 
mighty angels, IN FLAMING FIRE taking vengeance on 
them that know not God, and that obey not the 
Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ" (2 Thess. i. 7, 8). 

This is the true Eridanus. It is no mere " pic 
ture." It is a dread reality ! It is written in stars 
of fire, and words of truth, that men may heed the 
solemn warning and "flee from the wrath to come"! 



TAURUS: (AURIGA). 133 

But we ask, " Who may abide the day of His 
coming ? and who shall stand when He appeareth " 
(Mai. iii. 2) ? " Who can stand before His indig 
nation," when "His fury is poured out like fire" 
(Nah. i. 6)? 

The answer is given in the next picture ! 



3. AURIGA (The Shepherd). 
Safety for the Redeemed in the Day of Wrath. 

Here is presented to us the answer to the ques 
tion, "Who may abide the day of His coming?" 

"Behold, the Lord GOD (Adonai Jehovah) will come 

as a mighty one, 

And His arm shall rule for Him: 
Behold, His reward is with Him, 
And His recompense before Him. 
He shall feed His flock like a shepherd, 
He shall gather the lambs in His arm, 
And carry them in His bosom, 
And shall gently lead those that give suck." 

(Isa. xl. 10, 11, R.V.) 

This is exactly what is presented before us in 
this last section of the chapter, which tells of the 
coming judgment. We have had the picture of a 
mighty Bull rushing forth ; then the fiery river of 
the Judge; and now we see a Great Shepherd. He 
is seated upon "the milky way," holding up on his 
left shoulder a she goat. She clings to his neck, 
and is looking down affrighted at the terrible on- 
rushing Bull. In his left hand he supports two 



134 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

little kids, apparently just born, and bleating, and 
trembling with fear. 

ARATUS says, 

" She is both large and bright, but they the kids 
Shine somewhat feebly on Auriga s wrist." 

Is not this the Great Shepherd gathering the 
lambs in His arm ? and carrying them in His 
bosom ? Is He not saying : 

" I will save My flock, 
And they shall no more be a prey." 

(Ezek. xxxiv. 22.) 

" And David my servant shall be king over them, 
And they shall have one shepherd." (ib. xxxvii. 24.) 

" And they shall fear no more, 
Nor be dismayed, 
Neither shall they be lacking, saith the LORD." 

(Jer. xxiii. 4.) 

AURIGA is from a Hebrew root which means a 
shepherd. It is a beautiful constellation of 66 stars ; 
one of the ist magnitude, two of the 2nd, nine of 
the 4th, etc. 

The brightest star, a (in the body of the goat), 
points her out as the prominent feature of the con 
stellation, for its name Alioth (Hebrew) means a she 
goat. It is known by the modern Latin name Capella, 
which has the same meaning. 

The next star, |3 (in the shepherd s right arm), 
is called Menkilinon, and means the band, or chain 
of the goats, and points out the truth that they are 
never more to be lost again, but to be bound, with 
the bands of love, to the Shepherd for evermore. 



TAURUS: (AURIGA). 135 

The name of another star is Maaz, which means 
a flock of goats. 

Can there be any mistake as to who this Shepherd 
is ? for the bright star in his right foot is called El 
Nath * (like another in ARIES), which means wounded 
or slain. This is He, then, who was once bruised 
or wounded in the heel. He is " the GOOD Shep 
herd," who gave His life for the sheep (John x. n), 
but He was " the GREAT Shepherd " brought again 
from the dead (Heb. xiii. 20) ; and is now the CHIEF 
Shepherd (i Pet. v. 4) seen in the day of His coming 
glory. Another star emphasises this truth, for it is 
named Aiyuk, which also means wounded in the foot.f 

The star marking the kids is called Gedi (Hebrew), 
kids. 

In Latin, the word Auriga means a coachman or 
charioteer, the band in his right hand being taken 
as his reins. But the incongruity of a charioteer carry 
ing a she-goat, and nursing two little kids, never 
struck them ; nor did the fact that he has no chariot 
and no horses ! When man blunders in the things 
of God, he does it thoroughly ! 

In the Zodiac of Denderah the same truth was 
revealed more than 4,000 years ago ; but the Man, 
instead of carrying the sheep, is carrying a sceptre, 
and is called Trim, which means sceptre or power. 
But this is a strange sceptre, for at the top it 
has the head of a goat, and at the bottom, below 



* It is also reckoned in the horn of Taurus. 
f The same as in 2 Sam. iv. i. 



136 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

the hand that holds it, it ends in a cross ! With 
the Egyptians the cross was a sign of life. They 
knew nothing of " the death of the cross." Here, 
then, we see life and salvation for the sheep of 
His flock when He comes to reign and rule in 
judgment. The truth is precisely the same, though 
the presentation of it is somewhat varied. 

The connected teaching of the two constellations, 
Eridanus and Auriga, is solemnly set forth in Mai. iv. 

1-3 (R.v.): 

" Behold, the day cometh, 
It burneth as a furnace ; 
And all the proud, and all that work wickedness, shall 

be stubble : 
And the day that cometh shall burn them up, saith the 

LORD of hosts, 

That it shall leave them neither root nor branch. 
BUT UNTO YOU that fear My name shall the Sun of 

Righteousness arise with healing" in His wings; 
And ye shall go forth and gambol as calves of the stall. 
And ye shall tread down the wicked ; 
For they shall be ashes under the soles of your feet 
In the day that I do make (marg. do this), saith the 

LORD of hosts." 

In Psalm xxxvii. this day is repeatedly referred 
to, the day when "the wicked shall be cut off"; 
and it concludes by summarizing the same great 
truth (vv. 38-40, R.V.) : 

" As for transgressors, they shall be destroyed together ; 
The latter end of the wicked shall be cut off, 
But the salvation of the righteous is of the LORD : 
He is their stronghold in the time of trouble. 
And the LORD helpeth them, and rescueth them; 
He rescueth them from the wicked and saveth them, 
Because they have taken refuge in Him." 



GEMINI. 137 

Oh, that all who read these pages may heed the 
solemn warning, and flee for refuge to Him who 
now, in this day of grace, is crying, " Look unto me, 
and be ye saved, O all ye ends of the earth " 
(Isa. xlv. 22). 



CHAPTER II. 

THE SIGN GEMINI (The Twins). 
Messiah s Reign as Prince of Peace. 

ALL the pictures of this sign are confused. The 
Greeks claimed to have invented them, and they 
called them Apollo and Hercules. They are so 
given in our illustration. The Latins called them 
Castor and Pollux ; and the name of a vessel in 
which Paul sailed is so called in Acts xxviii. n, 



The name in the ancient Denderah Zodiac is 
Clusus, or Claustrum Hori, which means the place of 
Him who comcth. It is represented by two human 
figures walking, or coming. The second appears to 
be a woman. The other appears to be a man. It 
is a tailed figure, the tail signifying He cometh. 

The old Coptic name was Pi-Mahi, the united, as 
in brotherhood. Not necessarily united by being born 
at the same time, but united in one fellowship or 
brotherhood. The Hebrew name is Thanmim, which 
means united. The root is used in Exod. xxvi. 24 : 



136 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

the hand that holds it, it ends in a cross ! With 
the Egyptians the cross was a sign of life. They 
knew nothing of " the death of the cross." Here, 
then, we see life and salvation for the sheep of 
His flock when He comes to reign and rule in 
judgment. The truth is precisely the same, though 
the presentation of it is somewhat varied. 

The connected teaching of the two constellations, 
Eridanus and Auriga, is solemnly set forth in Mai. iv. 
1-3 (R.V.): 

" Behold, the day cometh, 
It burneth as a furnace ; 
And all the proud, and all that work wickedness, shall 

be stubble : 
And the day that cometh shall burn them up, saith the 

LORD of hosts, 

That it shall leave them neither root nor branch. 
BUT UNTO YOU that fear My name shall the Sun of 

Righteousness arise with healing in His wing s; 
And ye shall go forth and gambol as calves of the stall. 
And ye shall tread down the wicked ; 
For they shall be ashes under the soles of your feet 
In the day that I do make (marg. do this), saith the 

LORD of hosts." 

In Psalm xxxvii. this day is repeatedly referred 
to, the day when "the wicked shall be cut off"; 
and it concludes by summarizing the same great 
truth (vv. 38-40, R.V.) : 

" As for transgressors, they shall be destroyed together ; 
The latter end of the wicked shall be cut off, 
But the salvation of the righteous is of the LORD : 
He is their strong-hold in the time of trouble. 
And the LORD helpeth them, and rescueth them; 
He rescueth them from the wicked and saveth them, 
Because they have taken refuge in Him." 



GEMINI. 137 

Oh, that all who read these pages may heed the 
solemn warning, and flee for refuge to Him who 
now, in this day of grace, is crying, " Look unto me, 
and be ye saved, O all ye ends of the earth " 
(Isa. xlv. 22). 



CHAPTER II. 

THE SIGN GEMINI (The Twins). 
Messiah s Reign as Prince of Peace. 

ALL the pictures of this sign are confused. The 
Greeks claimed to have invented them, and they 
called them Apollo and Hercules. They are so 
given in our illustration. The Latins called them 
Castor and Pollux ; and the name of a vessel in 
which Paul sailed is so called in Acts xxviii. n, 



The name in the ancient Denderah Zodiac is 
Clusus, or Claustrum Hor:, which means the place of 
Him who comcth. It is represented by two human 
figures walking, or coming. The second appears to 
be a woman. The other appears to be a man. It 
is a tailed figure, the tail signifying He cometh. 

The old Coptic name was Pi-Mahi, the united, as 
in brotherhood. Not necessarily united by being born 
at the same time, but united in one fellowship or 
brotherhood. The Hebrew name is Thaumim, which 
means united. The root is used in Exod. xxvi. 24 : 



138 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

" They (the two boards) shall be coupled together 
beneath." In the margin we read, " Heb. twinned 11 
(R.V. double). The Arabic A I Tauman means the 
same. 

We need not trouble ourselves with the Grecian 
myths, even though we can see through them the 
original and ancient truth. The two were both 
heroes of peculiar and extraordinary birth sons of 
Jupiter. They were supposed to appear at the head 
of armies ; and as they had cleared the seas of 
pirates, they were looked upon as the patron saints 
of navigation. (Hence the name of the ship in 
Acts xxviii. n.) They were held in high esteem 
both by Greeks and Romans ; and the common 
practice of taking oaths and of swearing by their 
names has descended even to our own day in the 
still surviving vulgar habit of swearing " By Gemini ! " 

The more ancient star-names help us to see 
through all these and many other myths, and to 
discern Him of whom they testify; even Him in 
His twofold nature God and Man and His two 
fold work of suffering and glory, and His twofold 
coming in humiliation and in triumph. 

There are 85 stars in the sign : two of the 2nd 
magnitude, four of the 3rd, six of the 4th, etc. 

The name of a (in the head of the one at our 
right hand) is called Apollo, which means ruler, or 
judge; while /3 (in the head of the other) is called 
Hercules, who cometh to labour, or suffer. Another 
star, y (in his left foot), is called A I Henah, which 



GEMINI. 139 

means hurt, wounded, or afflicted. Can we have a doubt 
as to what is the meaning of this double presentation ? 
In Ophiuchus we have the two in one person : the 
crushed enemy, and the wounded heel. But here 
the two great primeval truths are presented in two 
persons ; for He was " two persons in one God," 
" God and man in one Christ." As man, suffering 
for our redemption ; as God, glorified for our com 
plete salvation and final triumph. A star, e (in the 
centre of his body), is called Waset, which means 
set, and tells of Him who " set His face like a 
flint " to accomplish this mighty Herculean work ; 
and, when the time was come, " steadfastly set His 
face to go " to complete it. 

He bears in his right hand (in some pictures) a 
palm branch. In the one from which our illustra 
tion is taken, it is a club ; but both the club of 
this one and the bow of the other are in repose ! 
These united ones are neither in action nor are 
they preparing for action, but they are at rest and 
in peace after victory won. The star e (in the knee of 
the other, " Apollo ") is called Mebsuta, which means 
treading under feet. The names of other stars, which 
are not identified, have come down to us with the 
same testimony. One is called Propus (Hebrew), 
the branch, spreading; another is called A I Giauza 
(Arabic), the palm branch; another is named A I 
Dim (Arabic), the seed, or branch. 

The day has here come to fulfil the prophecies 
concerning Him who is " the Branch," " the Branch 
of Jehovah," " the man whose name is the Branch." 



I4O THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

" In that day shall the Branch of Jehovah be beautiful 

and glorious ; 

And the fruit of the earth shall be excellent and comely 
For them that are escaped of Israel." (Isa. iv. 2.) 

" Behold, a king shall reign in righteousness, 
And princes shall rule in judgment ; 

And a man shall be as an hiding place from the wind." 

(Isa. xxxii. I, 2.) 

" Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, 
That I will raise unto David a righteous Branch, 
And He shall reign as King and deal wisely, 
And shall execute judgment and justice in the land. 
In His days Judah shall be saved, 
And Israel shall dwell safely : 

And this is His name whereby He shall be called, 
The LORD is our Righteousness." (Jer. xxiii. 5, 6, R.V.) 

" Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, 
That I will perform that good word which I have 

spoken 
Concerning the house of Israel and concerning the 

house of Judah. 

In those days, and at that time, 
Will I cause a Branch of Righteousness to grow up 

unto David j 
And He shall execute judgment and righteousness in 

the land." (Jer. xxxiii. 14, 15, R.V.) 

This is what we see in this sign Messiah s 
peaceful reign. All is rest and repose. We see 
"His days," in which "the righteous shall flourish; 
and abundance of peace, so long as the moon en- 
dureth " (Ps. Ixxii.). 

But, for this blessed time to come, there must 
be no enemy! All enemies must be subdued. 

This brings us to the first section of this book. 



GEMINI : (LEPUS). 141 

i. LEPUS (the Hare), THE ENEMY. 

The Enemy Trodden under Foot. 
The names of the three constellations of this 
Sign, as well as the pictures, are all more or less 
modern, as is manifest from the names being in 
Latin, and having no relation to the ancient names 
of their stars. To learn their real meaning, there 
fore, we must have recourse to the ancient Zodiacs. 
In the Persian planisphere the first constellation was 
pictured by a serpent. In the Denderah (Egyptian) 
Zodiac it is an unclean bird standing on the serpent, 
which is under the feet of Orion. Its name there is 
given as Bashti-beki. Bashti means confounded, and 
Beki means failing. 

ARATUS says, 

"Below Orion s feet, the Hare 
Is chased eternally." 

It is a small constellation of 19 stars (all small), 
three of which are of the 3rd magnitude, seven of 
the 4th, etc. 

The brightest, a (in the body), has a Hebrew 
name, Arnebo, which means the enemy of Him that 
cometh. The Arabic, Arncbeth, means the same. 
Other stars, not identified, are Nibal, the mad; Rakis y 
the bound (Arabic, with a chain] Siigia, the deceiver. 

There can be no mistaking the voice of this 
united testimony. For this enemy is under the 
down-coming foot of Orion, and it tells of the 
blessed fact that when the true Orion, " the Sun of 



142 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

Righteousness, shall arise," and "the true light" 
shall shine over all the earth, He " shall tread down 
the wicked" (Mai. iv.), and every enemy will be 
subdued under His feet. "It is He that shall tread 
down our enemies" (Ps. Ix. 12), as He has said: 

" I will tread them in Mine anger, 
And trample them in My fury . . . 
For the day of vengeance is in Mine heart, 
And the year of My redeemed is come." 

(Isa. Ixiii. 3, 4.) 



2. CANIS MAJOR (The Dog), or SIRIUS 
(The Prince). 

The coming Glorious Prince of Princes (S iritis). 

This second constellation carries on the teaching, 
and tells of the glorious Prince who will thus subdue 
and reign. 

In the Denderah Zodiac he is called Apes, which 
means the head. He is pictured as a hawk (Naz, 
f%, caused to come forth, coming swiftly down). The 
hawk is the natural enemy of the serpent, and here 
it has on its head a pestle and mortar, indicating 
the fact that he shall crush the head of the enemy. 

In the Persian planisphere it is pictured as a 
wolf, and is called Zeeb, which in Hebrew p8|) has 
the same meaning. Plutarch translates it IL/ooVrr^, 
Leader. In Arabic it means coming quickly. 

Its ancient name and meaning must be obtained 
from the names of its stars which have come down 



GEMINI: (CANIS MAJOR OK SIRIUS). 143 

to us. There are 64 altogether. Two are of the 
ist magnitude, two of the 2nd, four of the 3rd, four 
of the 4th, etc. Of these a (in the head) is the 
brightest in the whole heavens ! It is called Sirius, 
the Prince pb>, Sar), as in Isa. ix. 6. 

Sirius * was, by the ancients, always associated 
with great heat. And the hottest part of the year 
we still call " the dog days," though, through the 
variation as observed in different latitudes, and the 
precession of the equinoxes, its rising has long ceased 
to have any relation to those days. Virgil says that 
Sirius 

" With pestilential heat infects the sky." 
Homer spoke of it as a star 

"Whose burning 1 breath 
Taints the red air with fevers, plagues, and death." 

It is not, however, of its heat that its name speaks, 
but of the fact that it is the brightest of all the 
stars, as He of whom it witnesses is the " Prince of 
princes," "the Prince of the Kings of the earth." 

Though this "Dog-Star" came to have an ill- 
omened association, it was not so in more ancient 
times. In the ancient Akkadian it is called Kasista, 
which means the Leader and Prince of the heavenly 
host. While (as Mr. Robert Brown, Junr., points out) 
" the Sacred Books of Persia contain many praises 
of the star Tistrya or Tistar (Sirius) t l the chieftain 
of the East. "t 

* Our English "Sir " is derived from this word. 
\ Etiphratean Stellar Researches. 



144 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

The next star, (in the left fore foot), speaks the 
same truth. It is named Mirzam, and means the 
prince or ruler. The star 8 (in the body) is called 
Wesen, the bright, the shining. The star e (in the right 
hind leg) is called Adhara, the glorious. 

Other stars, not identified, bear their witness to 
the same fact. Their names are Aschere (Hebrew), 
who shall come ; A I Shir a A I Jemeniya (Arabic), the 
Prince or chief of the right hand! Seir (Egyptian), 
the Prince; A bur (Hebrew), the mighty; A I Habor 
(Arabic), the mighty ; Muliphen (Arabic), the leader, the 
chief. 

Here there is no conflicting voice ; no discord in 
the harmonious testimony to Him whose name is 
called " Wonderful, Counsellor, the Mighty God . . . 
the Prince of Peace" (Isa. ix. 6). 

The names of the stars have no meaning what 
ever as applied to an Egyptian Hawk, or a Greek 
Dog. But they are full of significance when we apply 
them to Him of whom Jehovah says : 

" Behold, I have given Him for a witness to the people, 
A LEADER and commander to the people." 

(Isa. Iv. 4.) 

This is " the Prince of princes " (Dan. viii. 23, 25) 
against whom, " when transgressors are come to the 
full, a king of fierce countenance . . . shall stand up," 
"but he shall be broken without hand," for he shall 
be destroyed "with the brightness of His coming" 
(2 Thess. ii. 8). This is He who shall come forth 
"King of kings and Lord of Lords" (Rev. xix. 16). 



GEMINI : (CANIS MINOR). 145 

But Sirius has a companion, and this brings 
us to 



3. CANIS MINOR (The Second Dog). 
The Exalted Redeemer (Procyon). 

The same facts are to be remembered concerning 
the Greek picture, and Latin name of this con 
stellation. 

The Egyptian name in the Denderah Zodiac is 
Sebak, which means conquering, victorious. It is repre 
sented as a human figure with a hawk s head and 
the appendage of a tail. 

This small constellation has only 14 stars accord 
ing to the Britannic catalogue. One of the ist 
magnitude, one of the 2nd, one of the 4th, etc. 

The brightest star, a (in the body), is named 
Procyon, which means REDEEMER, and it tells us 
that this glorious Prince is none other than the one 
who was slain. Just as this chapter begins with tn o 
persons in one in the Sign (Gemini), one victor ions, 
the other wounded; so it ends with a representation 
of two princes, one of whom is seen triumphant and 
the , other as the Redeemer. This is confirmed by 
the next star, (in the neck), which is named A I 
Gomcisa (Arabic), the burthcncd, loaded, bearing for 
others. The names of the other stars, not identified, 
still further confirm the great truth ; viz., A I Shira, 
or A I Shemeliya (Arabic), the prince or chief of the left 
hand, answering to the star in Sirius. One right, the 
other left, as the two united youths are placed. A I 

S. 1005. K 



146 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

Mirzam, the prince or ruler; and A I Gomeyra, who 
completes or perfects. 

This does, indeed, complete and perfect the pre 
sentation of this chapter : Messiah s reign as Prince 
of Peace ; the enemy trodden under foot by the 
glorious "Prince of princes," who is none other than 
the glorified Redeemer. 

This is also what is written in the Book : 

" Shall the prey be taken from the mighty, 
Or the lawful captives * be delivered ? 
But thus saith the LORD, 

Even the captives of the mighty shall be taken away, 
And the prey of the terrible shall be delivered : 
For I will contend with him that contendeth with thee, 
And I will save thy children. 
And I will feed them that oppress thee with their own 

flesh; 
And they shall be drunken with their own blood as 

with sweet wine ; 
And all flesh shall know that I the LORD am thy 

Saviour, 
And thy REDEEMER the Mighty One of Jacob." 

(Isa. xlix. 24-26, R.V.) 

" When the enemy shall come in like a flood, 
The Spirit of the LORD shall lift up a standard against 

him, 
And the REDEEMER shall come to Zion." 

(Isa. lix. 19, 20.) 

"And He shall divide the spoil with the strong, 
Because He hath poured out His soul unto death." 

(Isa. liii. 12.) 

* Marg., "the captives of the just," or, as read by the Vulg. and Syr., "the 
captives of the terrible." 



CANCER. 147 

CHAPTER III. 

THE SIGN CANCER (The Crab). 
Messiah s Redeemed Possessions held fast. 

WITH regard to the sign of CANCER, one thing is 
certain, that we have not got the original picture, or 
anything like it. 

It does not agree with the names either of its 
three constellations which have come down to us, or 
of its stars. 

In the ancient Denderah Zodiac it is represented 
as a Scarabcsus, or sacred beetle.* In the Zodiac 
of Esneh and in a Hindu Zodiac (400 B.C.) it is the 
same. 

According to the Greeks, Jupiter placed this Crab 
amongst the signs of the Zodiac. 

In Sir William Jones s Oriental Zodiac we meet 
with a crab, and an Egyptian Zodiac found at Rome 
bears also the crab in this sign. 

The more ancient Egyptians placed Hennannbis, 
or Hermes, with the head of an ibis or hawk, as the 
symbol of the sign now allotted to Cancer. 

The Denderah name is Klaria, or the cattle-folds, 
and in this name we have the key to the meaning 
of the sign, and to the subject of this chapter. 



* The Scarabceus, passing its early existence as a worm of the earth, and 
thence issuing as a winged denizen of heaven, was he!d sacred by the Egyptians 
as an emblem of the resurrection of the body. 

K 2 



148 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

The Arabic name is Al Sartan, which means who 
holds or binds, and may be from the Hebrew "OK, to 
bind together (Gen. xlix. n). There is no ancient 
Hebrew word known for the crab. It was classed 
with many other unclean creatures, and would be 
included in the general term " vermin." 

The Syriac, Sartano, means the same. The Greek 
name is Karkinos, which means holding or encircling, 
as does the Latin, Cancer, and hence is applied to 
the crab. In the word Khan, we have the traveller s 
rest or inn ; while Ker or Cer is the Arabic for en 
circling. The ancient Akkadian name of the month 
is Su-kul-na, the seizer or possessor of seed. 

The sign contains 83 stars, one of which is of 
the 3rd magnitude, and seven are of the 4th magni 
tude, and the remainder of inferior magnitudes. 

In the centre of the Sign there is a remarkably 
bright cluster of stars, so bright that they can be 
sometimes seen with the naked eye. It looks like 
a comet, and is made up of a great multitude of 
stars. Modern astronomers have called it the Bee 
hive. But its ancient name has come down to us as 
Praesepe, which means a multitude, offspring. . 

The brightest star, (in the head), is called 
Tegmine, holding. The star a (or a 1 and a 2 ), in the 
lower large claw, is called Acubene, which, in Hebrew 
and Arabic, means the sheltering or hiding-place. 
Another is named Ma alaph (Arabic), assembled thou 
sands; Al Himarein (Arabic), the kids or lambs. 

North and south of the nebula Pracsepc are two 
stars, which Orientalists speak of by a name evidently 



CANCER. 149 

of some antiquity. Asellus means an Ass, and one 
was called Asellus Boreas, tJr northern Ass; while the 
other, Asellus Amir alls, is the southern Ass, 

The sign was afterwards known by the symbol T, 
which stands for these two asses.* 

This connects it with the Tribe of Issachar, who 
is said to have borne upon the Tribal standard the 
sign of two asses. 

This is doubtless the reference in Jacob s blessing 
(Gen. xlix. n, R.V.) : 

" Issachar is a strong" ass, 
Couching- down between the sheepfolds ; 
And he saw a resting-place that it was good ; 
And the land that it was pleasant; 
And he bowed his shoulder to bear, 
And became a servant under task work." 

Have we not here the gathering up of the teaching 
of this sign 

Messiah s redeemed possessions held fast. 

Here we come to the completion of His work. 
In CANCER we see it with reference to His redeemed, 
and in the next (the last) Sign, LEO, with reference 
to His enemies. 

The three constellations develope the truth. What 
is now called Ursa Minor is the Lesser Flock ; Ursa 
Major gives us The Sheep/old and the Sheep; while 
Argo, The Ship, shows the travellers and the pilgrims 
brought safely home all conflict over. 

To accomplish this, we see the true Issachar 
bowing his shoulder to bear. HE could say, " My 

* The Ass was the emblem of Typhon, the king w/io smites or is smitten. 



I5O THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

soul is bowed down " (Ps. Ivii. 6). HE became a 
servant, and humbled Himself to death. HE under 
took the mighty task of saving His people from their 
sins. " Their Redeemer is strong " (Jer. 1. 34) ; for 
help was laid on " One that was mighty" (Ps. Ixxxix. 
19). And His redeemed shall come to a resting- 
place that is good, and to a land that is pleasant. No 
earthly Khan on earth affords them a home. They 
look for a heavenly home, and in the many mansions 
of the Father s house they shall find eternal rest. 

Here we see that sheltering home to which the 
names of these stars point ; where the assembled 
thousands (Ma alaph) shall be received into the true 
Klaria, even the " everlasting habitations." 

These are now to be shown to us. 

i. URSA MINOR (The Little Bear). 
The Lesser Sheep/old. 

Here we come to another grievous mistake, or 
ignorant perversron of primitive truth, as shown in 
the ancient names of these two constellations. 

It is sufficient to point to the fact that no Bear 
is found in any Chaldean, Egyptian, Persian, or Indian 
Zodiacs, and that no bear was ever seen with such a 
tail ! No one who had ever seen a bear would have 
called attention to a tail, such as no bear ever had, 
by placing in its very tip the most important, won 
drous, and mysterious Polar Star, the central star 
of the heavens, round which all others revolve. The 
patriarchal astronomers, we may be sure, committed 
no such folly as this. 



CANCER: (URSA MINOR). 151 

The primitive truth that there were two. or a 
pair of constellations is preserved ; and that of these 
two, one is larger, and the other smaller. But 
What were they? We have the clue to the answer 
in the name of the brightest star of the larger con 
stellation, which is called Dubhch. Now Dubhch 
means a herd of animals. In Arabic, Dubah means 
cattle. In Hebrew, "ll 1 !, Dohvcr, is a fold ; and hence 
in Chaldee it meant wealth. The Hebrew K?^, Dohveh, 
means rest or security; and certainly there is not 
much of either to be found or enjoyed with bears ! 
The word occurs in Deut. xxxiii. 25: "As thy days 
so shall thy strength be." The Revised Version gives 
in the margin, " So shall thy rest or security be." 
This accords with what we have already seen under 
"CANCER": "Couching down between the sheep- 
folds,* he saw a resting-place that it was good." 

Here are the two Sheepfolds, then ; the Greater 
fold, and Lesser ; and here is the rest and security 
which the flocks will find therein. 

But in Hebrew there is a word very similar in 
sound, though not in spelling ^ or nn> dohv, which 
means a bear! So we find in Arabic dub; Persian, 
decb and dob. We can see, therefore, how the Hebrew 
Dohvcr, a fold, and Dohv, a bear, were confused ; and 
how the Arabic Dubah, cattle, might easily have been 
mistaken by the Greeks, and understood as a bear. 

The constellation, which we must therefore call THE 
LESSER SHEEPFOLD, contains 24 stars, viz., one of the 
2nd magnitude, two of the 3rd, four of the 4th, etc. 

* The word is so rendered in Judges v. 16, in A.V. 



152 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

The brightest star, a (at the point of the tail), 
is the most important in the whole heavens. It is 
named A I Ruccaba, which means the turned or ridden 
on, and is to-day the Polar or central star, which 
does not revolve in a circle as does every other 
star, but remains, apparently, fixed in its position. 
But though the star does not revolve like the others, 
the central point in the heavens is very slowly but 
steadily moving. When these constellations were 
formed the Dragon possessed this important point, 
and the star a, in Draco, marked this central point. 
But, by its gradual recession, that point is sufficiently 
near this star Ruccaba, in the Lesser Shccpfold, for it to 
be what is called " the Polar Star." But, how could 
this have been known five or six thousand years ago ? 
How could it have been known when it received its 
name, which means the turned or ridden on ? That it 
was known is clear: so likewise was it made known in 
the written Word that the original blessing included 
not merely the multiplication of the seed of faithful 
Abraham, but it was then added, "And thy seed 
shall possess the gate of his enemies" (Gen. xxii. 17). 

This star was called by the Greeks Kuy&roupo, the 
" Cynosure" ARATUS seems to apply this term to 
the whole of the seven stars of the Lesser Bear. 
Mr. Robert Brown, Junr., shows* that KuvoVoupa, once 
supposed to be Hellenic, is non-Hellenic, and possibly 
Euphratean in origin, from a word which he trans 
literates An-nas-sur-ra, and renders it, "as it literally 
means, high in rising, i.e., in heavenly position." Is 

* Euphratean Stellar Researches, pp. 8, 9. 



CANCER: (URSA MINOR). 153 

not this the primitive truth of the Revelation ? Will 
not this Lesser Fold be high, yea, the highest in 
heavenly position ? 

The Polar Star has been removed from the 
Dragon, and is now in the Lesser Fold ; and when the 
Dragon shall be cast down from the heavens, the 
heavenly seed will be safely folded there. But this is 
the Lesser Shccpfold. These are they who all through 
the ages have been " partakers of the heavenly call 
ing," who desired a better country, that is, a heavenly ; 
wherefore God " hath prepared for them a city," the 
city for which Abraham himself " looked." This was 
no earthly city, but a city " whose builder and 
maker is God" (Heb. xi. 10-16). These have always 
been a smaller company, a " little flock," but the 
kingdom shall be theirs, even the kingdom of God, 
for which they now look and wait. They have not 
yet " received the promises ; but, having seen them 
afar off" by faith, they "were persuaded of them, 
and embraced them, and confessed that they were 
strangers and pilgrims on the earth" (Heb. xi. 13). 
Their Messiah has accomplished " the redemption of 
the purchased possession," and in due time the 
redeemed will inherit it, " unto the praise of His 
glory" (Eph. i. 13). 

The bright star is named Kochab, which means 
waiting Him who comcth. Other stars, not identified, 
are named Al Pherkadain (Arabic), which means the 
calves, or the young (as in Deut. xxii. 6), the redeemed 
assembly. Another, Al Gedi, means the kid. Another 
is Al Kaid, the assembled; while Areas, or Aretes 



154 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

(from which we derive the term Arctic regions), 
means, according to one interpreter, a travelling 
company; or, according to another, the stronghold of 
the saved. 

But there is not only the heavenly seed, which 
is compared " to the stars of heaven," but there is 
the seed that is compared to " the sand of the sea" 
the larger flock or company, who will enjoy the 
earthly blessing. 

This brings us to 



2. URSA MAJOR (The Great Bear). 

The Fold and the Flock. 
Of these it is written : 

" But in Mount Zion there shall be those that escape, 
And it shall be holy : 
And the house of Jacob shall possess their possessions." 

(Obad. 17-19, R.v.) 

It is a large and important constellation, con 
taining 87 stars, of which one is of the ist magni 
tude, four of the 2nd, three of the 3rd, ten of the 
4th, etc. It always presents a splendid appearance, 
and is perhaps, therefore, the best known of all the 
constellations. 

In the Book of Job (ix. 9, and xxxviii. 31, 32) 
it is mentioned under the name of Ash. " Canst 
thou guide Ash and her offspring?" which is ren 
dered in the A.V., " Arcturus and his sons," and in 
the R.V., "The Bear with her train " (marg., "sows"). 



CANCER: (URSA MAJOR). 155 

The Arabs still call it A I Naish, or Annaish, the 
assembled together, as sheep in a fold. The ancient 
Jewish commentators interpreted Ash as the seven 
stars of this constellation. They are called by others 
Septentriones, which thus became the Latin word for 
North. 

The brightest star, a (in the back), is named 
Dubhe, which, as we have seen, means a herd of 
animals, or a flock, and gives its name to the whole 
constellation. 

The star |3 (below it) is named Merach (Hebrew), 
the flock (Arabic, purchased). 

The star y (on the left of $) is called Phaeda, or 
Phaeda, meaning visited, guarded, or numbered, as a 
flock ; for His sheep, like the stars, are both num 
bered and named. (See Psalm cxlvii. 4.) 

The star e is called Alioth, a name we have had 
in Auriga, meaning a she goat. 

The star (in the middle of the tail) is called 
Mizar, separate or small, and close to it A I Cor, the 
Lamb (known as "g"). 

The star TJ (at the end of the so-called tail) is 
named Bend Naish (Arabic), the daughters of the as 
sembly. It is also called Al Raid, the assembled. 

The star i (in its right foot) is called Talitha. 

The names of other stars, not identified, all give 
the same testimony : El Alcola (Arabic), the sheep- 
fold (as in Ps. xcv. 7; and c. 3); Cab d al Asad, 
multitude, many assembled; Annaish, the assembled; 
Megrez, separated, as the flock in the fold; El Kaphrah, 



156 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

protected, covered (Heb. redeemed and ransomed) ; Dub- 
heh Lachar (Arabic), the latter herd or flock ; Helike (so 
called by HOMER in the Iliad), company of travellers; 
Amaza (Greek), coming and going; Calisto, the sheep- 
fold set or appointed. 

There is not one discordant voice in the rich 
abundance of this testimony. We have nothing to do 
here with the Grecian myths about bears or wild 
boars. We see only the innumerable seed gathered 
by Him who scattered (Jer. xxxi. 10). 

Many are the Scriptures we might quote which 
speak of this gathering and assembling of the long- 
scattered flock. It is written as plainly in the Book, 
as it is in the heavens. The prophecies of this 
gathering are as conspicuous in the Word of God 
as the " Seven Stars " are in the sky. It is difficult 
even to make a selection from the wealth of such 
promises ; but few are more beautiful than that in 
Ezek. xxxiv. 12-16 : 

" As a shepherd seeketh out his flock 
In the day that he is among- his sheep that are scattered; 
So will I seek out my sheep, 
And will deliver them out of all places where they have 

been scattered in the cloudy and dark day. 
And I will bring- them out from the people, 
And gather them from the countries, 
And will bring them to their own land, 
And feed them upon the mountains of Israel by the 

rivers 

And in all the inhabited places of the country. 
I will feed them in a good pasture, 
And upon the high mountains of Israel shall their fold 

be: 
There shall they lie in a good fold, 



CANCER: (ARGO). 157 

And in a fat pasture shall they feed upon the moun 
tains of Israel. 

I will feed my flock, 

And I will cause them to lie down, saith the Lord GOD 
(Adonai Jehovah). 

I will seek that which was lost, 

And bring again that which was driven away, 

And will bind up that which was broken, 

And will strengthen that which was sick : 

But I will destroy the fat and the strong; 

I will feed them with judgment. 

It is of this judgment with which this book, and 
indeed the whole Revelation, ends, in the next and 
final chapter. 

But before we come to that we have one more 
picture in the third constellation of this Sign, which 
combines the first two in one. 



3. ARGO (The Ship). 
The Pilgrims safe at Home. 

This is the celebrated ship of the Argonauts, of 
which HOMER sung nearly ten centuries before Christ. 
Sir Isaac Newton puts the expedition of the Argo 
nauts shortly after the death of Solomon (about 
975 B.C.). While Dr. Blair s chronology puts it at 
1236 B.C. 

Whatever fables have gathered round the story 
there can bo no doubt as to its great antiquity. 
Some think that the story had its origin in name, 
as well as in fact, from the Ark of Noah and its 
mysterious journey. All that is clear, when divested 
of mythic details, is that the sailors in that ship,, 
after all their dangers, and toils, and battles were 



158 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

over, came back victorious to their own shores. The 
"golden fleece," for which .the Argonauts went in 
search, tells of a treasure that had been lost. 
" Jason," the great captain, tells of Him who re 
covered it from the Serpent, which guarded it with 
ever-watchful eye, when none else was able to 
approach it. And thus, through the fables and 
myths of the Greeks, we can see the light primeval 
shine ; and this light, once seen, lights up this Sign 
and its constellations, so that their teaching cannot 
be misunderstood. 

ARATUS sings of Argo : 

" Stern-foremost hauled ; no mark of onward-speeding- ship. 

Sternward she comes, as vessels do 

When sailors turn the helm 

On entering harbour: all the oars back-water, 

And gliding- backward, to an anchor comes. " 

It tells of that blessed home-coming, when 

" The ransomed of the LORD shall return 
And come to Zion with songs, 
And everlasting joy upon their heads; 
They shall obtain joy and gladness, 
And sorrow and sighing shall flee away." (Isa. xxxv. 10.) 

It tells of the glorious Jason,* of whom it is 
asked : 

" Art thou not it which hath cut Rahab, 
And wounded the dragon ? 
Art thou not it which hath dried the sea, the waters 

of the great deep; 
That hath made the depths of the sea a way for the 

ransomed to pass over ? 

Therefore the redeemed of the LORD shall return, 
And come with singing unto Zion," etc. (Isa. li. 9-11.) 

* The Gneco-Judean equivalent of Joshua or Jesus. 



CANCER: (AKGO). 159 

" For the LORD hath redeemed Jacob, 

And ransomed him from the hand of him that was 
stronger than he. 

Therefore they shall come and sing- in the height of Zion, 

And shall flow tog-ether to the goodness of the LORD." 

(Jer. xxxi. u, 12.) 

This is the return of the great emigrant-ship 
(Argo) and all its company of travellers (for this is 
the meaning of the word Argo}. 

In Kircher s Egyptian Planisphere Argo is repre 
sented by two galleys (as we have two sheepfolds), 
whose prows are surmounted by rams heads ; and 
the stern of one of them ends in a fish s tail. One 
of the two occupies four segments of the sphere (from 
Taurus to Virgo), while the other occupies the four 
from Leo to Capricorn. One half of the southern 
meridians is occupied with these galleys and their 
construction and decorations. Astronomers tell us 
that they carry us back, the one to the period when 
the Bull opened the year (to which time VIRGIL 
refers); and the other to the same epoch, when the 
summer solstice was in Leo " an era greatly antece 
dent to the Argonautic expedition. How else, they 
ask, do we account for the one ship having her prow 
in the first Decan of Taunts, and her poop in the 
last Decan of Leo ? or for one galley being freighted 
with the installed Bull, and the other with the sol 
stitial Lion? 1 * 

These are the words of an astronomer who knows 
nothing whatever of our interpretation of the heavens 
which is set forth in this work. 

* Jainieson s Scientific Display, &c. . p. 58. 



160 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

It will indeed be a large vessel, the true Argo, 
with its company of travellers, "a great multitude 
which no man can number." All this is indicated 
by the immense size of the Constellation, as well as 
by the large number of its stars. There are 64 stars 
in Argo (reckoning by the Britannic catalogue) ; one 
of the ist magnitude, six of the 2nd, nine of the 3rd, 
nine of the 4th, etc. Only a small part of the ship s 
poop is visible in Britain. 

Its brightest star, a (near the keel), is called 
Canopus or Canobus, which means the possession of 
Him who cometh. Other star-names, not identified, 
are Sephina, the multitude or abundance; Tureis, the 
possession; Asmidiska, the released who travel; Soheil 
(Arabic), the desired; and Subilon, .the Branch. 

Is not all this exactly in harmony with the rest 
of this sign? And is not this what is written in the 
Book? 

" Therefore, fear thou not, O My servant Jacob, saith the 

LORD; 

Neither be dismayed, O Israel : 
For, lo, I will save thee from afar, 
And thy seed from the land of their -captivity; 
And Jacob shall return and be in rest, 
And be quiet, and none shall make him afraid, 
For I am with thee, saith the LORD, to save thee." 

(Jer. xxx. 10, H.) 

" Lift up thine eyes round about, and see ; 
All they gather themselves together, they come to thee ; 
Thy sons shall come from far, 
And thy daughters shall be nursed at thy side, 
Then thou shalt see, and flow together, 



CANCER: (ARGO). 161 

And thine heart shall fear and be enlarged ; 

Because the abundance of the sea shall be converted 

unto thee. . . . 

Who are these that fly as a cloud? 
And as doves to their windows ? 
Surely the isles shall wait for me, 
And the SHIPS of Tarshish first, to bring- thy sons 

from far." (Isa. Ix. 4, 5, 8, 9.) 

The whole chapter (Isa. Ix.) should be read if we 
wish to understand the great teaching of this Sign, which 
tells of Messiah s secured possessions, the safe folding of 
His blood-bought flock, the blessed return of His pil 
grims, and their abundant entrance into everlasting rest. 

" There is a blessed home 

Beyond this land of woe, 
Where trials never come, 

Nor tears of sorrow flow ; 
Where faith is lost in sight, 

And patient love is crowned, 
And everlasting light 

Its glory throws around. 

O joy, all joys beyond, 

To see the Lamb who died, 
And count each sacred wound 

In hands, and feet, and side ; 
To give to Him the praise 

Of every triumph won, 
And sing through endless days 

The great things He hath dontx 

Look up, ye saints of God, 

Nor fear to tread below 
The path your Saviour trod 

Of daily toil and woe; 
Wait but a little while 

In uncomplaining love, 
His own most gracious smile 

Shall welcome you above." 
S. 1005. it 



l62 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE SIGN LEO (The Lion). 
Messiah s Consummated Triumph. 

HERE we come to the end of the circle. We began 
with Virgo, and we end with Leo. No one who 
has followed our interpretation can doubt that we 
have here the solving of the Riddle of the Sphinx. 
For its Head is Virgo and its Tail is Leo ! 

In Leo we reach the end of the Revelation as 
inspired in the Word of God ; and it is the end as 
written in the heavens. 

BAILLY (Astronomy) says, "the Zodiac must have 
been first divided when the sun at the summer solstice 
was in i Virgo, where the woman s head joins the 
Lion s tail." 

As to its antiquity there can be no doubt. JAMIESON 
says, " the Lion does not seem to have been placed 
among the Zodiacal symbols, because Hercules was 
fabled to have slain the Nemean Lion. It would seem, 
on the contrary, that Hercules, who represented the 
Sun, was said to have slain the Nemean Lion, because 
Leo was already a Zodiacal sign. Hercules flourished 
3,000 years ago, and consequently posterior to the 
period when the summer solstice accorded with Leo " 
(Celestial Atlas, p. 40). 

There is no confusion about this sign. In the 
ancient Zodiacs of Egypt (Denderah, Esneh) and 
India we find the Lion. The same occurs on the 



LEO. 163 

Mithraic monuments, where Leo is passant, as he is 
in Moor s Hindu, and Sir William Jones s Oriental 
Zodiacs. In Kircher s Zodiacs he is courrant ; in 
the Egyptian Zodiacs he is couchant. 

In the Denderah Zodiac he is treading upon a 
serpent, as shown in Mr. Edward Cooper s Egyptian 
Scenery. 

Its Egyptian name is Pi Mentekeon, which means 
the pouring out. This is no pouring out or inundation 
of the Nile, but it is the pouring out of the cup of 
Divine wrath on that Old Serpent. 

This is the one great truth of the closing chapter 
. of this last Book. It is 

THE LION OF THE TRIBE OF JUDAH AROUSED FOR 
THE RENDING OF THE PREY. 

His feet are over the head of Hydra, the great 
Serpent, and just about to descend upon it and 
crush it. 

The three constellations of the Sign complete this 
final picture : 

1. Hydra, the old Serpent destroyed. 

2. Crater, the Cup of Divine wrath poured out upon 
him. 

3. Corvus, the Bird of prey devouring him. 

The Denderah picture exhibits all four in one. 
The Lion is presented treading down the Serpent. 
The Bird of prey is also perched upon it, while below 
is a plumed female figure holding out two cups, 

answering to Crater, the cup of wrath. 

L 2 



164 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

The hieroglyphics read Knem, and are placed 
underneath. Knem means who conquers, or is con 
quered, referring to the victory over the serpent. The 
woman s name is Her-ua, great enemy, referring to 
the great enemy for which her two cups are prepared 
and intended. 

The Hebrew name of the sign is Arieh, which 
means the Lion. There are six Hebrew words for 
Lion,* and this one is used of the Lion hunting down 
his prey. 

The Syriac name is Aryo, the rending Lion, and 
the Arabic is Al A sad; both mean a lion coming 
vehemently, leaping forth as a flame ! 

It is a beautiful constellation of 95 stars, two 
of which are of the ist magnitude, two of the 2nd, 
six of the 3rd, thirteen of the 4th. 

The brightest star, a (on the Ecliptic), marks the 
heart of the Lion (hence sometimes called by the 
moderns, Cor Leonis, the heart of the Lion). Its ancient 
name is Rcgulus, which means treading under foot. 
The next star, 0, also of the ist magnitude (in the 
tip of the tail), is named Denebola, the Judge or Lord 
who cometh. The star y (in the mane) is called Al 
Giebha (Arabic), the exaltation. The star 8 (on the 
hinder part of the back) is called Zosma, shining 
forth. 



* (i) Gor, a lion s whelp. (2) Ciphir, a young lion when first hunting for him-, 
self. (3) Sachal, a mature lion in full strength. (4) Laish, a fierce lion. (5) 
Labia, a lioness ; and (6) Arieh, an adult lion, having paired, in search of his 
prey (Nah. ii. 12 ; 2 Sam. xvii. 10 ; Num. xxiii. 24). 



LEO. 165 

Other stars, not identified, are named Sarcam 
(Hebrew), the joining ; intimating that here is the 
point where the two ends of the Zodiacal circle have 
their joining. Another star has the name of Minchir 
al A sad (Arabic), the punishing or tearing of the Lion. 
Another is Deneb Aleced, the judge cometh who seizes. 
And another is Al Da/era (Arabic), the enemy put 
down. 

What can be more expressive ? What can be 
more eloquent ? All is harmony, and all the names 
unite in pointing us to what is written of " the Lion 
of the Tribe of Judah." 

And why is Messiah thus called ? Because it is 
applied to Him in Rev. v. 5 in connection with His 
rising up for judgment : and because the Lion is 
known to have been always borne upon the standard 
of Judah, whether in the wilderness (Num. ii.) or 
in aftertimes. 

In Israel s dying blessing the prophetic words 
foretold of Judah : 

"Thy hand shall be on the neck of thine enemies; . . . 

Judah is a lion s whelp; 

From the prey, my son, thou art gone up. 

He stooped down, he couched as a lion, 

And as an old lion; who shall rouse him up?" 

(Gen. xlix. 8, 9.) 

In the prophecy of Balaam (Num. xxiv. 8, 9), 
we read : 

" He shall eat up the nations his enemies, 
And shall break their bones, 
And pierce them through with his arrows, 
He couched, he lay down as a lion, 
And as a great lion ; who shall stir him up ? " 



166 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

The same testimony is borne by the Prophet 
Amos : 

" Will a lion roar in the forest when he hath no prey ? 
Will a young- lion cry out of his den, if he hath taken 

nothing" ? . . . 
The lion hath roared, who will not fear?" 

(Amos iii. 4, 8.) 

When " the Lion of the tribe of Judah " is roused 
up for the rending, the Spirit describes the scene in 
Isa. xlii. 13 : 

" The LORD shall go forth as a mighty man, 
He shall stir up jealousy like a man of war; 
He shall cry, yea, roar; 
He shall prevail against His enemies." 

And this is what is meant and included when the 
Elder says for John s comfort, " the Lion of the 
Tribe of Judah hath prevailed" and hence, is "worthy 
... to receive power, and riches, and wisdom, and 
strength, and honour, and glory, and blessing" 
(Rev. v.). 

Whether we look, therefore, at the primeval Reve 
lation in the heavens, or at the later Revelation in 
the Word, the story is one and the same. 

And what we see of Leo and his work in both, 
we find developed and described in the three con 
stellations of the Sign. 

i. HYDRA (The Serpent). 
The Old Serpent Destroyed. 

The time has at length come for the fulfilment 
of the many prophecies pictured in the heavens : and 



LEO: (HYDRA AND CRATER). 167 

in its three final constellations we see the consum 
mation of them all in the complete destruction of the 
Old Serpent, and all his seed, and all his works. 

It is the special work of the Messiah, as " the 
Lion of the tribe of Judah," to trample it under 
foot. 

It is pictured as the female serpent (Hydra), the 
mother and author of all evil. Hydra has the signi 
ficant meaning, he is abhorred! 

It is an immense constellation extending for above 
100 degrees from east to west, beneath the Virgin, 
the Lion, and the Crab. It is composed of 60 stars ; 
one of the 2nd magnitude, three of the 3rd, twelve 
of the 4th, etc. 

The brightest star, a (in the heart of the Serpent), 
is sometimes called by the moderns Cor Hydra 
on that account. Its ancient name is Al Phard 
(Arabic), which means the separated, put away. An 
other is called Al Drian, the abhorred. Another star is 
named Minchar al Sugia, the piercing of the deceiver. 

There can be no doubt as to what is taught by 
the constellation of Hydra, nor is it necessary to 
quote the Scriptures concerning the destruction of 
the Serpent. We pass on to consider the second. 

2. CRATER (The Cup). 

The Cup of Divine wrath Poured out upon Him. 

" God is the Judge. 
He putteth down one, and setteth up another, 

FOR IN THE HAND OF THE LflRD THERE IS A CUP, 



l68 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

And the wine is red; it is full of mixture, 
And He poureth out of the same : 

But the dreg s thereof, all the wicked of the earth shall 
wring- them out and drink them." (Ps. Ixxv. 8.) 

" Upon the wicked he shall rain snares, 
Fire and brimstone, and a horrible tempest : 

THIS SHALL BE THE PORTION OF THEIR CUP." (Ps. xi. 6.) 

This is no fabled wine-cup of Bacchus ; but it is 
" The cup of His indignation " (Rev. xiv. 10) ; " The 
cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath " (Rev. 
xvi. 19). This is what we see set forth in this con 
stellation. The Cup is wide and deep, and fastened 
on by the stars to the very body of the writhing 
serpent. The same stars which are in the foot of 
the Cup form part of the body of Hydra, and are 
reckoned as belonging to both constellations. 

This Cup has the significant number of thirteen 
stars (the number of Apostacy). The two Al Ches 
(a), which means the Cup, and (|3) determine the 
bottom of the Cup. 



3. CORVUS (The Raven). 
The Birds of Prey devouring the Serpent. 

Here is the final scene of judgment. We have 
had Zeeb, the Wolf ; now we have Oreb, the Raven. 
Her-na is its name in the Denderah Zodiac. Her, 
means the enemy ; and Na, means breaking up or failing. 
That is to say, this scene represents the breaking up 
of the enemy. 



LEO: (CORVUS). l6g 

There are nine stars (the number of judgment) in 
this constellation. The bright star a (in the eye) 
is called Al Chibar (Arabic), joining together, from the 
Hebrew Chiba (Num. xxiii. 8), which means accursed. 
This star, then, tells of the curse inflicted. The star 
3 (in the right wing) is called Al Goreb (Arabic), from 
Hebrew Oreb, the Raven. A third star is named 
Minchar al Gorab (Arabic), and means the Raven tear 
ing to pieces. 

This brings us to the end. There is nothing 
beyond this. Nothing remains to be told. We 
know from the Word of God that 

"The eye that mocketh at his father, 
And despiseth to obey his mother, 
The ravens of the valley shall pick it out." 

(Prov. xxx. 17.) 

We remember how David said to the Giant 
Goliah a type of this enemy of God s people " I 
will smite thee, and take thy head from thee ; and I 
will give the carcases of the host of the Philistines 
this day unto the fowls of the air, and to the wild 
beasts of the earth" (i Sam. xvii. 46). 

When the great day of this judgment comes, an 
angel standing in the sun will cry "to all the fowls 
that fly in the midst of heaven, Come, and gather 
yourselves together unto the supper of the great God ; 
that ye may eat the flesh of kings, and the flesh of 
captains, and the flesh of mighty men, and the flesh 
of horses, and of them that sit on them, and the 
flesh of all men, both free and bond, both small and 
great" (Rev. xix. 17, 18). 



iyO THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

And after these awful words shall be fulfilled, in 
the closing words of the prophecy of Isaiah, Jehovah 
foretells us how 

" They shall go forth, and look upon the carcases of the 

men that have transgressed against Me ; 
For their worm shall not die, 
Neither shall their fire be quenched; 
And they shall be an abhorring unto all flesh." 

This is the teaching of the whole Sign of LEO ! 
It is all summed up in Jer. xxv. 30-33 : 

"Therefore prophesy against them all these words, and 

say unto them, 

The LORD shall roar from on high, 
And utter His voice from His holy habitation; 
He shall mightily roar upon His habitation ; 
He shall give a shout, as they that tread the grapes, 
Against all the inhabitants of the earth. 
A noise shall come even to the ends of the earth; 
For the LORD hath a controversy with the nations, 
He will plead with all flesh; 
He will give them that are wicked to the sword, saith 

the LORD. 

Thus saith the LORD of hosts, 
Behold, evil shall go forth from nation to nation, 
And a great whirlwind shall be raised up from the 

coasts of the earth. 
And the slain of the LORD shall be at that day from one 

end of the earth 

Even to the other end of the earth; 
They shall not be lamented, neither gathered, nor buried ; 
They shall be dung upon the ground." 

Here is the conclusion of the whole matter! 
Here is the final triumph of the Son of Man in 
the consummated victory of the Seed of the woman : 
" Worthy is the Lamb that was slain to receive 



LEO: (CORVUS). 171 

power, and riches, and wisdom, and strength, and 
honour, and glory, and blessing" (Rev. v. 12). 
" O what a bright and blessed world 

This groaning earth of ours will be, 
When from its throne the tempter hurled, 

Shall leave it all, O Lord, to Thee ! 
But brighter far that world above, 

Where we, as we are known, shall know; 
And, in the sweet embrace of love, 

Reign o er this ransomed earth below. 
O blessed Lord ! with longing eyes 

That blissful hour we wait to see; 
While every worm or leaf that dies 

Tells of the curse, and calls for Thee. 
Come, Saviour! Then o er all below 

Shine brightly from Thy throne above, 
Bid heaven and earth Thy glory know, 

And all creation feel Thy love." 

Man has ever sought to rob Christ of His glory. 
He has long since done his best to obliterate His 
name and His work from the Revelation which had 
been written in the stars of light. When He humbled 
Himself, and came as the promised Seed of the 
woman, men " saw no beauty in Him that they 
should desire Him." And these were religions men. 
It was religious men, not the common rabble, whom 
the Old Serpent made use of to wound Him in the 
heel. The Devil could not touch Him himself; he 
must use them as his instruments ; and it was only 
religious men that could be so used. 

It was the " chief priests and scribes," men learned 
in the Scriptures, whose very knowledge of the Word 
was used to compass His death amongst the babes 
at Bethlehem (Matt. ii. 4-6). 



172 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

It was the same priests and scribes who were 
used to put Him to death, and give the long-pro 
phesied wound in the heel. 

Religion without Christ is enmity against God! 
Knowledge of the Scriptures where the heart is not 
subject to Christ, and where Christ is not seen in 
them, is powerless and lifeless. It is true of the 
Scriptures, as it will be of the heavenly Jerusalem 
"THE LAMB is THE LIGHT THEREOF" (Rev. xxi. 23). 

The Church of Rome has been used of the great 
enemy to rob the Lamb of God of His promised 
glory. JEROME, in his Latin translation of the Bible 
(405 A.D.), wrote " ipse" HE, in Gen. iii. 15, as the 
" bruiser of the serpent s head." And, in spite of 
the fact that JEROME himself so quotes it in his com 
mentary, and that it is masculine in all the other 
ancient translations of the Bible, Rome has first 
corrupted JEROME S Vulgate by changing the " e " into 
" a," and putting " ipsa " (she) instead of " ipse " (He) ; 
then she has so translated this corruption and per 
petuated this perversion in various languages ! So 
that in all her versions, in her pictures and statues, 
in the decree of Pope Pius IX., which promulgated 
the dogma of the u immaculate conception of the Virgin 
Mary," this lie of the Old Serpent has been foisted 
on unnumbered thousands of deluded souls, who have 
thereby been deceived into putting Mary in the place 
of Jesus; the " co-Redemptress " in the place of the 
Redeemer ; the creature in the place of the Creator ; 
the woman in the place of the woman s Seed ; until 
the outcome is reached by emblazoning, in huge gilt 



LEO: (CORVUS). 173 

letters, on the outside of a large church in Rathmines, 
Dublin, " MARI/E PECCATORUM REFUGIUM," 
to Mary the Refuge of Sinners ! 

So complete has been the success of the subtlety 
of the Serpent, that he has beguiled thousands of 
Protestants to unite in circulating these corrupted 
versions as the Word of God, thus giving currency to 
the Devil s lie. This is done on the plea of ex 
pediency, in order that these versions might come to 
many as Protestant truth instead of Popish error ; 
but thus misleading those who were seeking for 
light, while confirming Papists in their darkness. 

But through all the " wisdom of the Serpent " we 
can detect his lie. It is very thinly veiled, and the 
Old Serpent has not succeeded in blinding the eyes 
which the Spirit of God has opened. True, we see 
in all Rome s pictures and statues the foot of Mary 
on the Serpent s head, but the foot is not coming 
down, nor is the head crushed I Rather is the woman s 
foot resting on its head ; and the woman herself sup 
ported by the Serpent. 

The whole system of Mary-anity is thus seen to 
be the outcome of the Serpent s wisdom in opposition 
to the true Christ-ianity. 

How different are the primeval star-pictures of the 
heavens. There, the club is lifted up, the foot is 
coming down, yea, the foot is actually planted upon 
the enemy, treading the Scorpion under foot. 

Rome may corrupt the words of the Book, but 
she cannot touch the stars of heaven ! The Devil 



174 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

himself cannot move them from their places. He 
may choose and use his servants and agents for cor 
rupting the Scriptures written in the Book, but he 
cannot change the Revelation of the stars. 

There, no woman s foot is seen upon the Serpent s 
head ! There, no woman usurps the place of the all- 
glorious Redeemer ! 

In Ophiuchus we see HIM in dread conflict with 
the Serpent, and we see His foot upon the Scorpion s 
heart (SCORPIO). We see HIM, the Risen Lamb (ARIES), 
binding Cetus, the great Monster of the Deep ; we 
see HIM in the glorious Orion, whose foot is coming 
down on the enemy s head \(Lepds) ; we see HIM in 
the Lion of the Tribe of JtUl&n (Lic<), about to tread 
down that Old Serpent (Hydro) the Devil ; we see 
HIM in the mighty Hercules, who has his foot on the 
head of the Dragon (Draco), and his up-lifted club 
about to inflict the long-threatened blow ; we see 
HIM crowned in Cepheus, with all His enemies sub 
dued, and His right foot planted upon the Polar 
Star! 

True, we do see a WOMAN in this heavenly and 
Divine revelation ; for there are four women. Two 
are connected with the REDEEMER, and two with the 
REDEEMED. The Redeemer is seen in the ont^/ViRGo) 
as the "promised Seed"; in the other (Gwna), He 
is seen as the child born, the Son given. The Re 
deemed are represented in one as a captive chained 
(Andromeda), with no power to wage conflict with an 
enemy, but a prey to every foe ; in the other (Cas- 



LEO: (CORVUS). 175 

siopeia), she is enthroned, with no necessity for conflict. 
For with one hand she waves the palm of a victory 
which another (Perseus] has wrought on her behalf, 
while with her right hand she is preparing and making 
herself ready for " the marriage of the Lamb." 

Thus pure and undefiled is this primeval fountain 
of Divine truth. Thus harmonious is it with the 
written Word of God. And He who gave them 
both to enlighten a dark world which lieth in the 
power of this wicked one, has filled both with one 
subject " The sufferings of Christ and the glory that 
should follow." 

These are set forth by the Holy Spirit in a 
double sevenfold expansion of the prophetic promise 
of Gen. iii. 15, giving seven steps in His humilia 
tion and seven in His glorification (Phil. ii. 5-11*). 

CHRIST JESUS, 

1. Who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery 

(a thing to be grasped at and held) to be equal 
with God ; 

2. But made Himself of no reputation (Gr. emptied 

Himself], 

3. And took upon Him the form of a servant, 

4. And was made in the likeness of men : 

5. And being found in fashion as a man. He humbled 

Himself. 

6. And became obedient unto death, 

7. Even the death of the cross. 



* The passage consists really of two members, each of which is arranged as an 
introversion, whore the subject of I corresponds to 7 ; 2 corresponds to 6 ; etc. 



176 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

WHEREFORE 

1. God also hath highly exalted Him, 

2. And given Him a name which is above every name : 

3. That at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, 

4. Of things in heaven, 

5. And things on earth, 

6. And things under the earth; 

7. And that every tongue shall confess that Jesus Christ 

is Lord, to the glory of God the Father. 

Amen. 

"Come, then, and, added to Thy many crowns, 
Receive yet one, the crown of all the earth, 
Thou who alone art worthy! It was thine 
By ancient covenant, ere Nature s birth ; 
And Thou hast made it Thine by purchase since, 
And overpaid its value with Thy blood. 
Thy saints proclaim Thee king; and in their hearts 
Thy title is engraven with a pen 
Dipp d in the fountain of eternal love. 
Thy saints proclaim Thee king; and Thy delay 
Gives courage to their foes, who, could they see 

The dawn of Thy last advent, long desired, 
Would creep into the bowels of the hills, 
And flee for safety to the falling rocks." 

ft O O O O 

"Come, then, and, added to Thy many crowns, 
Receive yet one, as radiant as the rest, 
Due to Thy last and most effectual work, 
Thy Word fulfilled, the conquest of a world." 

(Cowper.) 



( 177 ) 



"FOR SIGNS AND FOR SEASONS." 



T 1 7E have seen the great truths which are taught 
from the position, and forms, and names of the 
heavenly bodies. There are also truths to be learnt 
from their motions. 

When God created them and set them in the firma 
ment of heaven, He said, in Gen. i. 14 

" Let them be for signs and for seasons." 

Here the word " signs " is othoth (flhfc, plural of JUS*, 
oth, from the root HHX, to come). Hence, a sign of 
something or some One to come. In Jer. x. 2 Jehovah 
says, " And be not dismayed at the signs (fiifiHi^l) of 
the heavens, for the heathen are dismayed at them." 
The word " seasons " does not denote merely what 
we call the four seasons of the year, but cycles of 
time. It is *l5?ifc, appointed time (from the verb T^, to 
point out, appoint). It occurs three more times in 
Genesis, each time in connection with the promised 
Seed- 
Gen, xvii. 21, " At this set time in the next year " ; 
Gen. xviii. 14, "At the time appointed I will return " ; 
and 

Gen. xxi. 2, "At the set time of which God had 
spoken." 

S. 1005. M 



178 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

Gen. i. 14 is therefore, " They (the sun, moon, 
and stars) shall be for signs (things to come) and for 
cycles (appointed times)." 

Here, then, we have a distinct declaration from 
God, that the heavens contain not only a Revelation 
concerning things to come in the " Signs," but also 
concerning appointed times in the wondrous movements 
of the sun, and moon, and stars. 

The motions of the sun and moon are so arranged 
that at the end of a given interval of time they return 
into almost precisely the same position, with regard 
to each other and to the earth, as they held at the 
beginning of that interval. " Almost precisely," but 
not quite precisely. There will be a slight outstand 
ing difference, which will gradually increase in suc 
cessive intervals, and finally destroy the possibility 
of the combination recurring, or else lead to com 
binations of a different character. 

Thus the daily difference between the movement 
of the sun and of the stars leads the sun back very 
nearly to conjunction with the same star as it was 
twelve months earlier, and gives us the cycle of the 
year. The slight difference in the sun s position re 
lative to the stars at the end of the year, finally 
leads the sun back to the same star at the same 
time of the year, viz., at the spring equinox, and 
gives us the great precessional cycle of 25,800 years. 

So, too, with eclipses. Since the circumstances 
of any given eclipse are reproduced almost exactly 
1 8 years and n days later, this period is called an 
Eclipse Cycle, to which the ancient astronomers gave 



FOR SIGNS AND FOR SEASONS. Ijg 

the name of Saros ; * and eclipses separated from each 
other by an exact cycle, and, therefore, correspond 
ing closely in their conditions, are spoken of as being 
one and the same eclipse. Each Saros contains, on 
the average, about- 70 eclipses. Of these, on the 
average, 42 are solar and 28 are lunar. Since the 
Saros is ii days (or, more correctly, 10-96 days) longer 
than 1 8 years, the successive recurrences of each 
eclipse fall n days later in the year each time, and 
in 33 Sari will have travelled on through the year 
and come round very nearly to the original date. 

But as the Saros does not reproduce the con 
ditions of an eclipse with absolute exactness, and as 
the difference increases with every successive return, 
a time comes when the return of the Saros fails to 
bring about an eclipse at all. If the eclipse be a 
solar one before this takes place, a new eclipse begins 
to form a month later in the year than the old one, 
and becomes the first eclipse of a new series. 

This is the history of one such eclipse : On May 15 
(Julian), 850 A.D., there was a (new) eclipse of the sun, 
and it occurred as a partial eclipse. On August 20 
(Julian), 1012 A.D., this new eclipse became total. 
From that time it has been an annular eclipse, the 
latitude of the central shadow gradually shifting south 
ward from the north, until on December 17 (Julian), 
12 10, it had reached N. Lat. 24. It turned north 
ward again after 1210, until March 14 (Julian), 1355, 
when it fell in N. Lat. 43. Then it turned south, 



* General Vallancey spells Saros fi Wfc, which amounts to 666 by Gematria ! 
Viz. , V = 300 + y = 70 + 1 = 200 4- 1 = 6 + f = 90 = 666. 

M 2 



l8o THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

and has moved steadily in that direction, until on 
March 18 (Greg.), 1950, its last appearance as an 
annular eclipse will take place. On May 22 (Greg.), 
2058, it will fall so far from the node that a new 
eclipse will follow it on June 21. .It will make three 
more appearances as an ever - diminishing partial 
eclipse, and be last seen on June 24 (Greg.), 2112. 
Its total life-history, therefore, will have been 1,262 
years and 36 days, and will have occupied 70 Sari. 

In the above life-history of an eclipse * there is not 
the slightest difficulty as to its identification. The 
Saros shows no break, and no interruption ; nor does 
the character of the eclipse surfer any abrupt change. 
The district over which it is visible moves in a slow 
and orderly fashion from occurrence to occurrence 
over the earth s surface. 

Now the important point is this, that if we take 
the prophetic reckoning of 360 days to the year, we 
have the following significant Biblical numbers : 

In the first place, we already have the f jo Sari 
divided into two portions of 33 + 37. 

A perfect cycle is accomplished in 33 Sari, or 
595 years, when the eclipse, by a series of unbroken 

* These facts are kindly supplied by Mr. E. W. Maunder, of the Royal Obser 
vatory, Greenwich, who gives another example, as follows : 

In A. D. 586 there were two solar eclipses : on June 22 (Julian) the old and dying 
eclipse, and on July 22 (Julian) another (the new one). A Saros (viz. 18 years and 
II days) earlier there was only one, viz. on June II (Julian), A.D. 568, there being 
no eclipse on July 1 1 of that year. 

The last appearance of this new eclipse, which first appeared on July 22, 586, 
was on August 28 (Greg.), 1848, so that it had a life history of 70 Sari, amounting 
to 1,262 years 36 days (after the Julian dates have been corrected to correspond to the 
Gregorian). Thus the eclipse that died, so to speak, on August 28 (Greg.), 1848, 
first appeared on July 22 (Julian) in A. D. 586. See an important article on Eclipses 
by Mr. E. W. Maunder in Knowledge, for October 1893, where other life-histories of 
eclipses are given, and the whole subject of eclipses clearly explained. 



FOR SIGNS AND FOR SEASONS. l8l 

Sari, has accomplished a passage through the year 
of 360 days ; or, if we reckon only the whole numbers, 
i.e., the 18 completed years, we have for the 33 Sari 
the period of 594 years, while the remaining portion 
of 37 Sari makes 666 years (37x18); and the whole 
7o Sari makes 1,260 years (594 + 666).* 

We have then the following figures : 
18 x 33 594 years. 

1 8 x 37 = 666 years. 

1 8 x 70 = 1260 years. 

Independently of this, we also know that 1,260 
years is a soli-lunar cycle, so exact that its epact, or 
difference, is only 6 hours ! 

There must, therefore, be something significant 
in these numbers, e.g., 70 ; in the. number 1,260, 
with its divisions, not into two equal parts, but into 
594 and 666 ; as also in its double, 2,520. 

There must be something to be learned in the 
occurrence and repetition of these heavenly cycles, 
which for nearly 6,000 years have been constantly 
repeated in the heavens, especially when we find 
these same numbers very prominently presented in 
the Word of God in connection with the fulfilment 
of prophecy. 

We have the great "seven times" (2,520) con 
nected with the duration of Israel s punishment, and 
of the Gentiles power. We have in Daniel and the 

* The relations between 595 years and 1,262 years 36 days, are the same as the 
relations between 594. years and 1,260 years. The difference of the 2 years 36 
is due to the excess of 10-96 days over the 18 completed years in each Sii 



182 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

Apocalypse the half of this great period presented as 
"days" (1,260), as "months" (42), and as "times," 
or years (3!). 

Futurists believe that these "days" and " months," 
etc., interpret for us the purposes and counsels of God 
as connected with " the time of the end," and as 
meaning literal "days" and "months," etc. 

Historicists take these terms, and themselves inter 
pret the numbers, in the sense of a " day " being put 
for a. year, and they believe that these "1,260 days" 
will be fulfilled as 1,260 years. 

One party boldly and ungraciously charges the 
other with teaching " The Fallacies of Futurism" ; 
while the other might well retort with a reference to 
the Heresies of Historicism. 

But is there any necessity for the existence of two 
hostile camps ? Is it not possible that there may be 
what we may call a long fulfilment in years ? And is 
it not more than probable that in the time of the end, 
the crisis, there will be also a short and literal ful 
filment in days ? 

We firmly believe that there will be this literal 
and short fulfilment. We believe that when God says 
"days," He means days; and that when He says 
"42 months," He means months, and not 1,260 years. 
In all the passages referred to by historicists in sup 
port of what is called "the year-day theory," the 
Holy Spirit uses these words "days" and "years" 
in the sense of days and years. In the two particular 
instances of Israel s wanderings (Num. xiv. 34), and 
Ezekiel s prophesying (Ezek. iv. 6), He chooses to 



FOR SIGNS AND FOR SEASONS. 183 

take the number of days as denoting the same number 
of years ; but He does not tell us that we are to do 
the same in other cases ! He only asserts His sove 
reignty by thus acting, while we only show our pre 
sumption in taking His sovereign act as a genera] 
principle. 

But while fully believing in the short fulfilment, we 
are quite prepared to admit that there may be a long 
fulfilment as well; and that, owing to the wondrous 
harmony, and marvellous correspondence, and infinite 
wisdom of all the works and ways of God, there may 
be a fulfilment, or rather a "filment," if we may coin 
the word, in years, which will be only a foreshadowing 
of the literal /^/-filnient afterwards to take place in days. 

If historicists will allow us this liberty as to inter 
pretation, and permit us to believe that God means 
what He says, we will give them some remarkable 
evidence in support of their views, by way of appli 
cation. In other words, if they will allow us to in 
terpret " days " as meaning days, we will gladly allow 
them, and be at one with them, in applying them to 
years. So that while we believe the interpretation to 
mean " days," and to teach a short fulfilment at the 
time of the end, we will thankfully admit an applica 
tion which shall take these days as foreshowing a long 
fulfilment in years. 

In applying, then, these significant numbers (42, 
70, 594, 666, 1,260, and 2,520) to years, from what 
point or date shall we begin to reckon the "times 
of the Gentiles" (Luke xxi. 24) ? That there are such 
definite " times " the words of the Lord Jesus show, 



184 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

when He says, " Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the 
Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled." 
(Luke xxi. 24). That there are "seven times" of 
Gentile dominion is more than intimated by the sym 
bolic episode in the life of Nebuchadnezzar as recorded 
in Dan. iv. ; and that there are "seven times" of 
Israel s punishment is clearly stated in Lev. xxvi. 18. 
" Seven times," according to the Historicist school of 
interpreters, are equal to 2,520 years. 

Instead of asking where they begin, let us first 
note the fact that it is duration which is emphasised 
in the Scriptures rather than chronology ; and look at 
the duration of these years independently of, and 
before we attempt to fix, their beginning and ending. 

In Daniel ii. and vii. it is shown first to Nebu 
chadnezzar in a " dream," and afterwards to God s 
servant the prophet in a "vision," that Israel was 
to be put on one side and become " Lo-Ammi " (not 
My people), while government was to be put into the 
hands of the Gentiles. Jerusalem was the central point 
of both these great and solemn facts. That is to say, 
during 2,520 years, while Jerusalem should remain in 
the power of the Gentiles, Israel could be " no more 
a nation " in possession of their land and city. 

We know, as a matter of fact, that to-day Jeru 
salem is in the hands of the Turks, and that it is 
still " trodden down of the Gentiles." 

If we ask how long it shall continue to be " trodden 
down " ? how long it will be before Israel shall again 
possess their city and their land ? the answer brings 
us at once to the heart of our subject. 



FOR SIGNS AND FOR SEASONS. 185 

In seeking to determine both duration and chrono 
logy, it is necessary to plant our feet on sure ground. 
To do this, let us take a point on which all are agreed. 

There is one date which is universally accepted ; 
and concerning which the evidence is unquestioned. 

ABU OBEIDA, the Mahommedan General, laid siege 
to Jerusalem towards the close of 636 A.D. The city 
was then occupied by the Romans, who held out 
for four months. When they capitulated, the Patri 
arch SOPIIROXIUS obtained a clause in the treaty giving 
security to the inhabitants, and requiring the ratifica 
tion of OMAR himself. OMAR, who had therefore to 
be sent for, arrived some six months afterwards, and 
the delay caused the actual delivering up of the city 
to take place early in the autumn of A.D. 637.* 

The year A.D. 636-7 is therefore the accepted date 
of the passing over of Jerusalem from the Romans 
to the Turks. 

OMAR seems to have stayed in the city only about 
ten days, during which he must have given his in 
structions for the erection of the Mosque on the site 
of the Temple. This Mosque, therefore, stands as 
the sign and the symbol of the treading down of 
Jerusalem, and while it remains, those times of tread 
ing down cannot be considered as fulfilled. 

How steady was Israel s decadence from Nebu 
chadnezzar to OMAR ! Nothing would exceed that 
darkest moment in Israel s history, when Israel was 

* This is the date which concerns only .the City of Jerusalem. The Romans 
were not completely driven out from thf land until L\v>aiva had fallen in 638, when 
the conquest was finally completed Sue Gibbou s Decline and / <;//. 



1 86 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

well nigh obliterated in the mighty struggles of her 
enemies who fought over her inheritance. Thus 
OMAR becomes the great central point of the 2,520 
years, whether reckoned as Lunar, Zodiacal, or Solar, 
dividing them equally into two portions of 1,260 years.* 

Having thus fixed the central date, which already 
points forward to the end, let us go back and find 
the starting point, that we may the better understand 
the end. 

When Daniel was explaining to Nebuchadnezzar 
his mysterious dream, he said, " Thou art this head 

* This date 636-7 is a great and important central date, whether we reckon 
backwards or forwards ; whether we reckon them as Lunar, Zodiacal (360 days), 
or Solar (365 days) years. 

If we take Lunar years (=1222% Solar) 

reckoning backward, we get to 587 B.C., the very date of the destruction 

of the Temple by Nebuchadnezzar. 

reckoning forward, we get to 1860 A. D., the very date of the European 
intervention in the Lebanon, which has brought the Eastern Question 
into its present prominent position. 
If we take Zodiacal years (=1242 Solar) 

reckoning backward we get to 6oS B.C., the date of the battle of Car- 
chemish (2 Chrou. xxxv. 20), when Babylon completed the conquest 
of Assyria, and became supreme ; utterly shattering all the hope which 
Israel had in Egypt. 

reckoning forward brings us to 1879 A.D., when, by the Treaty of Berlin, 
Ottoman power received a blow from which it has never recovered, 
and which has prepared the way for its extinction. 
If we take Solar years, then 

reckoning backward, we get to B.C. 624 (A.M. 3376), the beginning of the 

Babylonian kingdom, the "head of gold." 

reckoning fonvard we get to 1896-7 A. D., which is yet future. 
These reckonings in their beginnings and endings form an introversion, or 
Epanodos, thus : 

587 ) 

6oS 1-3.C. dates increasing. 

624) 
iSoo j 

1879 -A. D. dates increasing. 

1896-7 ) 

The Solar reckonings are the more important dates ; the Lunar are next in 
significance ; while Zodiacal reckonings furnish us with dates which, to say the 
least, fit neatly into their places. 



FOR SIGNS AND FOR SEASONS. 

of gold"! (Dan. ii. 38). This moment is popularly, 
but erroneously, supposed to mark the commence 
ment of the Babylonian kingdom the first of these 
four great Gentile powers. 

But Daniel spoke of what ALREADY existed, and 
was explaining the then condition of things. He said, 
" God hath given thee a kingdom, power, and strength, 
and glory" (Dan. ii. 37). The kingdom of Babylon 
had already been in existence for more than thirty 
years, for its king had destroyed Jerusalem and burnt 
the Temple with fire, and brought away many captives, 
amongst whom was Daniel and his companions. The 
opening words of the book make this very clear. 

The monumental history of Babylon, as now dug 
up, shows that before this it had been sometimes 
tributary to, and sometimes almost independent of, 
Assyria. In A.M. 3352, after a severe struggle with 
Assurbanipal, the Assyrian king, Babylon was once 
more subdued, and its king setting fire to his palace 
perished in the flames. After that there was peace 
for twenty-two years, during which time Kandalanu 
governed Babylon in succession to Sumas-sum-ukin, 
a son of Assurbanipal. 

In A.M. 33/5 (i.e. B.C. 627),* another revolt broke 
out, and the Assyrian king sent a general of great 
ability to quell it. His name was Nabu-pal-user 
(which means Ncbo protects his son). He put down 

* These dates are those furnished by the Monuments, as given by Dr. Budge, 
of the British Museum, in his Babylonian Life and History, R.T.S., 1885. They 
also agree \\ilh the dates dug up by Sir Henry Rawlinson in 1862, consisting of 
fragments of seven copies of the famous " Eponyin Canon of Assyria," by which 
the Assyrian chronology has been definitely settled. Before this, historians had to 
be content with inferences and conjectures. 



l88 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

the rebellion with so much skill that Assurbanipal 
made him governor of Babylon. He shortly after 
wards, in A.M. 3376, himself rebelled, and made 
himself King of Babylon. Associating with him his 
son Nebuchadnezzar, they commenced a campaign 
against Assurbanipal, which ended in the fall of 
Nineveh and the complete subjugation of Assyria. 
The kingdom of Babylon, thus commencing in 
B.C. 625,* became the first great Gentile kingdom as 
foretold in Daniel. 

There is practically no question, now, as to this 
date. 

The actual duration of the three kingdoms that 
followed Babylon, Medo-Persia, and Greece, may 
not perhaps be so accurately determined. Their 
total duration is known, because it is fixed by a 
known date at the other end, but it might introduce 
controversial matter if we attempted to assign to them 
their exact relative duration. Probably they were, 
roughly : Babylon about go years ; Medo-Persia 
about 200 years ; Greece about 304 years. 

We believe these to be fairly proportionate,! but 
whether they are or not, their total amount must 
have been 594 years, because the undisputed date 
of the battle of ACTIUM, by which Augustus became 
the head of the Roman Empire, was September B.C. 31. 

* In adjusting the A.M. and B.C. dates, the latter are always apparently one year 
in advance of the former, because B.C. 4000 was A.M. I, and B.C. 3999 was A.M. 2. 
Hence A.M. 3376 is not B.C. 624, but it is B.C. 625. 

f Cyrus took Babylon, according to the Monuments, iu the I7th year of Nabonidus, 
B.C. 539. I Maccabees i. begins the first of Alexander from the death of Darius 
Codomannus in A.M. 3672. This would slightly vary the above distribution of the 
years of separate duration. 



FOR SIGNS AND FOR SEASONS. 189 

From this date Jerusalem passed permanently under 
the power of Rome until the Mahommedan conquest 
in A.D. 636-7. 

We have, therefore, three fixed dates, and these 
decide for us the duration of the intervening periods ; 
dividing them into the two great Eclipse Cycles of 
594 years and 666 years ! 

Jerusalem under the Gentiles. 

Fixed Duration 
Dates, of Years. 

Babylon (the ist Kingdom) commenced B.C. 625 
Battle of Actium, ending the possession 

of the 3rd Kingdom - - B.C. 31 

Duration of the three Kingdoms,-* 
Babylon, Medo - Persia, and I 
Greece, together (ist Eclipse | 
Cycle) - 
Rome (the 4th Kingdom) became the ~) c , r 

possessor of Jerusalem - - J 

Mahommedan conquest of Jerusalem, "I ^ D g,^ 
ending the possession of Rome - J 
Duration of Rome s possession of 
Jerusalem (2nd Eclipse Cycle) - 

FIRST HALF OF "THE TIMES OF THE 

" i 6o 

GENTILES - - 

Date of Mahommedan conquest of Je 
rusalem - A.D. 636-7 

SECOND HALF OF "THE TIMES OF THET 

GENTILES" and Duration of Mahom- > 1260 1260 
medan possession of Jerusalem - J 

End and "fulness" of "the times o f l A . D>I 396-7 2520 

tVif fipntilp<;" - - -J 



the Gentiles 



* In passing from B.C. dates to A.D. dates, one year must always be deducted, 
e.g., from B.C. 2 to A.D. 2 is only three years, not four ! Thus 

From Jan. I B.C. 2 to Jan. I B.C. I is one year ~\ making 

,, B.C. I to ,, A.D. I is o tie year J- only 
,, ,, A.D. i to A. D. 2 is one year ) three years. 
Hence, B.C. 31 to A.D. 636 is 666 years, not 667. 



1 9O THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

From this it appears that 1896-7 A.D. would mark 
the fulfilment, and complete the duration, of "times 
of the Gentiles." 

The above reckoning has the following advantages 
over all previous historicist interpretations : 

1. Controverted dates are excluded. 

2. The whole period of 2520 years is dealt with, 
instead of only the latter half (1260), as is usually 

the case. 

3. It confines these " times " to the one place where 
the Lord Himself put them, viz., "JERUSALEM." 
He said, "Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the 
Gentiles, till the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled." 

These " times," therefore, are confined to Jerusalem. 
This " treading down " is confined to Jerusalem. It 
is not the city of Rome that is to be trodden down 
for 1260 years. Why, then, should these "times" 
be separated from what is characteristic of their 
duration, and applied to Rome, papal or imperial ? 
Why should historicists search for some act of em 
perors or popes in the early part of the seventh 
century in order to add it to 1260, so as to find 
some terminal date in or near our own times ! * 

We claim that the Lord Himself has joined these 
" times of the Gentiles" with the city of "Jerusalem," 
and we say, " What, therefore, God hath joined 
together, let not man put asunder" (Matt. xix. 6). 

* While the premisses of the Historicist school arc thus streugtheued, their con 
clusions are shown to be erroneous. 



FOR SIGNS AND FOR SEASONS. , 1 

When Jesus spoke of this treading down, it looks 
as though it were then still future ; for He said, 
" Jerusalem shall be trodden down," etc. The occu 
pation of Jerusalem by Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece, 
and Rome, was for purposes of government rather than 
for a wanton treading down. Government on the earth 
was committed unto them. But when Jerusalem passed 
from the government of the Roman Empire into the 
hands of the Turks, it could then be said, in a very 
special sense, to be " trodden down." For of any 
government worthy of the name there has been none ; 
and of desolation and desecration the city has been 
full. Under the feeble rule of the Turks, all the 
Gentiles seem to have combined in laying waste the 
holy city. 

Though Jews are returning thither in ever-increas 
ing numbers, they are only strangers there. They 
have as yet no independent position, nor can they 
make any treaties. But when these " times " shall 
end, it means that they will have a position of 
sufficient independence to be able to make a treaty 
or league with the coming Prince (Dan. ix. 27) ; and 
then the course of events will bring on another 
treading down of 1260 literal "days," which will 
thus have had a fore-shadowing fulfilment in years ! 
This is written in Rev. xi. 2. And to save us from 
any misunderstanding, the time is given, not in days, 
but in "months" 

The angel, after directing John to measure the 
Temple of God and the altar, adds, " but the court 
which is without the Temple leave out, and measure 



IQ2 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

it not ; for it is given unto the Gentiles ; and the 
holy city shall they tread under foot forty and two 
months." 

This refers to a future treading down, which will 
be limited to the brief period of " forty two " literal 
" months," during the time of the coming Prince ; and 
" in the midst " of the last week, when he shall 
break His covenant with the Jews,* set up the 
" abomination of desolation " (Dan ix. 27 ; which 
is still future in Matt. xxiv. 15), and "tread down the 
holy city." 

We now desire to specially emphasize the fact 
that all these dates, and their termination in a rapidly 
approaching fulfilment, refer ONLY TO JERUSALEM, AND 
THE GENTILES, AND THE JEWS ! They refer only to 
the end of the Gentile possession of Jerusalem, and 
to the settlement of the Jews in their own city and 
land. 

These " times and seasons " have nothing what 
ever to do with " the Church of God" (i Thess. v. i). 
The mystical Body of Christ, whenever its members 
are complete, " will be taken up to meet the Lord 
the Head of the Body in the air, so to be ever 
with the Lord" (i Thess. iv. 15-17). This glorious 
event has nothing to do with any earthly sign or 
circumstance, so far as the members of this mystical 
Body are concerned. 



* And cause sacrifice and oblation to cease (Daii. ix. 27). We know that is re 
ferred, by historicists, to the Messiah. But they are not entitled to so interpret this 
passage unless they take with it viii. II, si. 31, and xii. n, where the same event 
is distinctly referred to, and is spoken, not of Christ, but of Antichrist. 



FOR SIGNS AND FOR SEASONS. 193 

Therefore we are not dealing here with the coming 
of the Lord ; either for His saints, or with them. 
We are not referring to what is commonly and 
erroneously called "the end of the world." We are 
merely pointing out that the end of Gentile dominion 
over Jerusalem is drawing near ! And we cannot close 
our eyes to the marvellous manner in which the veil 
is being removed from Jewish hearts : to the change 
which has come over the Jewish nation in its 
attitude towards Christ and Christianity, chiefly, 
under God, through the unparalleled circulation 
of more than a quarter of a million copies of a 
new translation of the New Testament into He 
brew, by the late Isaac Salkinson, published by 
the Trinitarian Bible Society, and freely distributed 
by the Mildmay Mission to the Jews : to the Pales 
tine literature which has sprung up amongst the 
Jews in recent years : to the persecutions in various 
countries which are stirring their nest, and setting 
the nation in motion : to the organized emigration 
to Argentina, which its promoters avowedly speak of 
as " a nursery ground for Palestine" (Daily Graphic, 
March loth, 1892) : to the railways completed and 
in course of construction in the Holy Land : to the 
numerous Societies and their branches which have 
permeated the whole nation, which, while having 
various names, have only one object " the colonisa 
tion of Palestine." 

When we put these events side by side with 
the teaching of the heavens as to the " cycles " 
or appointed times, we are merely showing how 

S. 1005. N 



1 94 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

wonderfully they agree with what is written in the 
Book, and witnessed to by great and uncontested 
historic dates. 

Nor are we absolutely naming a definite year or 
day even for these Palestine events. After all, they 
can be only approximate, for man has so misused 
every gift that God has ever given him, that even 
with such wondrous heavenly time-keepers he cannot 
really tell you what year it is ! And, besides this 
loss of reckoning, there is confusion as to the com 
mencement of the A.D. era, which makes absolute 
accuracy between the A.M., B.C., and A.D. dates 
impossible. 

Added to this, there is another point to be borne 
in mind, viz., that when the "times of the Gentiles" 
shall end, Jewish independence need not be either 
immediate or complete! 

For when Nebuchadnezzar began his kingdom of 
Babylon in A.M. 3376 (B.C. 625), the Jews, though in 
their land and city, were not independent. Nebu 
chadnezzar went to and fro to Jerusalem, and put 
down and set up whom he would ; and it was not till 
some thirty years afterwards that he destroyed the 
City and Temple and made the people captives. 

So, likewise, in the time of the end, there may 
be an epanodos. There may be a similar period of 
possession without independence, a quasi-independence 
guaranteed by the Great Powers ; and, for ought 
we know, it may be that, in order to gain complete 



FOR SIGNS AND FOR SEASONS. 1 95 

independence, they may ultimately make that fatal 
league with the coming Prince. 

So that while we name the dates 1896-7 as being 
significant, we are not " fixing dates " in the ordinary 
sense of the term, but merely pointing out some of 
" the signs of the times," concerning which we ought 
not to be ignorant. 

The true interpretation will in any case still 
remain, and will surely be literally fulfilled in its own 
time. The Word of God will be vindicated ; its pro 
phetic truth will be verified ; God Himself will be 
glorified ; and His people saved with an everlasting 
salvation. 

Meanwhile the members of His Body will " wait 
for His Son from heaven, whom He raised from the 
dead, even Jesus, which delivered us from the wrath 
to come" (i Thess. i. 10). They will live "looking 
for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of 
the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ, who 
gave Himself for us, that He might redeem us from 
all iniquity, and purify unto Himself a peculiar people 
(R.V., a people for His own possession) zealous of 
good works" (Titus ii. 13, 14). They will " look for 
the Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ," from heaven, 
believing that there is no hope either for " the Jew, 
the Gentile, or the Church of God," or for a groaning 
creation, until " the times of refreshing shall come 
from the presence of the Lord ; and He shall send 
Jesus Christ, whom the heaven must receive until 
the times of restitution of all things, which God 

N 2 



ig6 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

hath spoken by the mouth of ALL HIS HOLY 
PROPHETS SINCE THE WORLD BEGAN" 
(Acts iii. 19-21). 

" The world is sick, and yet not unto death ; 
There is for it a day of health in store ; 
From lips of love there comes the healing- breath, 
The breath of Him who all its sickness bore, 
And bids it rise to strength and beauty evermore. 

Evil still reigns; and deep within we feel 
The fever, and the palsy, and the pain 

Of life s perpetual heartaches, that reveal 

The rooted poison, which, from heart and brain, 
We labour to extract, but labour all in vain. 

Our skill avails not ; ages come and go, 

Yet bring with them no respite and no cure; 

The hidden wound, the sigh of pent-up woe, 
The sting we smother, but must still endure, 
The worthless remedies which no relief procure, 

All these cry out for something more divine, 

Which the worst woes of earth may not withstand ; 

Medicine that cannot fail the oil and wine, 

The balm and myrrh, growth of no earthly land, 
And the all-skilful touch of the great Healer s hand. 

Man needs a prophet : Heavenly Prophet, speak, 
And teach him what he is too proud to hear. 

Man needs a priest: True Priest, Thy silence break, 
And speak the words of pardon in his ear. 
Man needs a king- : O King, at length in peace appear." 



APPENDIX. 



APPENDIX. 



Note on the SIGN LIBRA. 

ON page 47. we called attention to the point that in 
all probability the Sign LIBRA was a very ancient 
corruption. 

The ancient Akkadian name for the seventh month, 
which was the month when the sun was in the Sign 
now called LIBRA, was Tul-ku, which means the sacred 
mound, or altar. The Akkadian name for this Sign 
was Bir, which means the Light, hence, the Lamp 
with its light, or the Altar with its fire. 




FIG. i. The Circular Altar, in the Sign now called Libra. 



2.OO THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

Its most ancient form was a circular altar.* In 
Figure i we have reproduced this,f and it will be at 
once seen that we have the original of the disc now 
preserved in the two circular scales which form the 
Sign of LIBRA. 

The next stage of the corruption is shown in the 
Akkadian name of Scorpio (the Scorpion) the Sign 
immediately to the left of the Altar. It was called 
Gir-tab, which means the Seizer and Stinger, and the 
next Figure (2), taken from an Euphratean boundary 
stone, | shows the two Signs combined, for the Scorpion 
is stretching out its claws in order to seize the Lamp 
or Altar. 




FIG. 2. The Scorpion and the Lamp. (From an Euphratean 
Boundary Stone.) 

* See ARATOS, line 440. 

f As proved by Mr. Robt. Brown, junr., in his Remarks on the Euphratean 
Astronomical Names of the Signs of the Zodiac (p. 16). 

J By the kind permission of Mr. Robt. Brown, jvmr., The Celestial Equator of 
A rat os, p. 466. 



APPENDIX. 



201 



Thus the meaning of its name is exemplified. It 
is called the Seizer and Stinger. And just as in the 
constellation above it, the Serpent is struggling with 
the man, while at the same time it is stretching out 
its neck to seize the crown,* so here the Scorpion, 
while trying to sting the same man in the heel, is 
stretching out its claws to seize the altar. 

A seal on a contract, nearly 700 B.C., shows 
this Circular Altar actually in the grasp of the 
Scorpion. 




FlG. 3. Scorpion and Lamp. (From an Euphratean Seal.) 

Figure 3 is a picture of this Euphratean Seal, 
preserved on a contract made on the 8th day of 
the month Tisri, i.e., this same seventh month ! f 

This then is the next stage. But Mr. Robert 
Brown, junr., observes, " The Circle or other repre 
sentation of an Altar not unnaturally disappeared as 



* See this shown on the cover of this book. 

f Menant, Empreintes de Cachets Assyro-Chalctfans, 9. " Sur un central date 
du 8 Tisri, de 1 aunee de Biu-takkil-ani, 690 ou 645 avant J.C." 



202 



THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 



the use of the Sign advanced westward ; whether by 
sea, or across Asia Minor, or both, and the Chelai 
alone remained when the shores of the ^gean were 
reached." * 

This is quite true, for the Greek name for the Sign 
was Chelai, which means simply the Claws. And thus 
the Scorpion monopolised two Signs ; its body one, 
and its claws the other. This led to the mistake of 
SERVIUS, the intelligent commentator on ViRGiL,f that 
" the Chaldean Zodiac consisted of but eleven con 
stellations." We now know that there were twelve 
Signs, and the mistake is thus explained. 




FIG. 4. The Constellation of "the Claws." Formerly the Circular Altar, 
now Libra. 

* Researches on the Euphratean Astronomical Names of the Signs of the Zodiac, 
p. 17. 

f In Georgica, \. 33. 



APPENDIX. 2O3 

Mr. Brown quotes ACHILLES TATIUS, about 475 A.D., 
in a Fragment on the Phainomena, who says, ra$ )Aa 
ray KaXoujtxeva^ UTT A/yu7TT/)v Zuyov.* 

ARATUS says that " some few stars of the Claws 
are in the (Celestial) Equator." And PTOLEMY de 
scribes the stars, now reckoned in LIBRA, as being 
in what he calls " The Constellation of the Claws." 
We have reproduced them so that his description 
of them may be readily traced. He speaks of 

"The brig-ht one of those at the end of the southern 

Claw." (It is named Zuben el Genubi and now 

marked a). 
"The one more northerly than it, and dimmer" (now 

named /). 
"The bright one of those at the end of the northern Claw" 

(named Zuben el Chemali, and now marked )3). 
" The one in front of it and dim " (8). 
"The one in the middle of the southern Claw" (i i). 
" The one in the middle of the northern Claw " (now 

marked <y). 

" The one behind it in the same Claw " (if). 
" The foremost of the three more northerly than the 

northern Claws" (i f). 

"The southern one of the two hindmost" (). 
" The hindmost of the three between the Claws " (one of 

the stars now marked K or A). 
"The northern of the two remaining and preceding ones :r 

(?) 
"The southern one of them " (n). 

This is how the stars formerly in the Sign of the 
(Circular) ALTAR, came to be reckoned in the Claws 



* AP PETAVIUS, Uranologion, 168, " The claws, called by the Egyptian* 
Zugon" i. e., the yoke that joins any two things together. 



204 THE WITNESS OF THE STARS. 

of the Scorpion ; and this is how the circular scales 
of LIBRA came to be substituted for the ancient 
Circular ALTAR. 

This corruption of the primitive teaching of the 
ALTAR, shows how the enemy attempted to seize on 
the Atonement, bring in " the way of Cain," and 
substitute human merit for the atoning sacrifice of 
Christ ; thus perverting the truth at its fountain head. 
Just as in Gen. -iii. we have the woman s promised 
Seed in conflict with the Enemy, so in Gen. iv. we 
see the Scorpion s claws "the way of Cain" in 
conflict with " the way of God." 

There can be but little doubt, therefore, that the 
first Sign of the Zodiac was VIRGO, the second was 
the ALTAR, and the third was the SCORPION. The 
lesson which they teach is clear : The Seed of the 
woman (VIRGO), who was to come as a child, should 
be a sacrifice (the ALTAR) for the sins of His people ; 
endure a great conflict with the enemy (SCORPIO), in 
which He should be wounded in the heel ; but should 
in the end crush and tread the enemy under foot. 



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BS 655 B76 1893 TRIM 

Bui linger, E. W. 
|*The witness of the stars 
L 141478