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Full text of "Wodarch's Introduction to the study of conchology : describing the orders, genera, and species of shells : with observations on the nature and properties of the animals and directions for collecting, preserving, and cleaning shells"

NRLF 






BIOLOGY 
LIBRARY 



WODARCH'S 

INTRODUCTION 

TO 



THE STUDY OF CONCHOLOGY: 



DESCRIBING 



rlrm, <&enew, attlr 



SHELLS: 

WITH 

OBSERVATIONS ON THE NATURE AND PROPERTIES 
OF THE ANIMALS; 



DIRECTIONS FOR COLLECTING, PRESERVING, AND 
CLEANING SHELLS. . ' . * 



j. MAWE; 

Author of Familiar Lessons on Mineralogy and Geolog/; Treatise'oh Diamonds and Precious 

Stones; Travels in South America, and through the Gold and 

Diamond Districts of Brazil, &c- &c. 



FOURTH EDITION, 
omsitrerafcle UtiUitions antJ '^Iterations. 



LONDON: 

PUBLISHED BY LONGMAN, REES, ORME, BROWN, AND GREEN, 

PATERNOSTER ROW; 
AND BY S. MAWE, 149, STRAND. 

1833. 



. 

We. 



BIOLOGY 
LIBRARY 



WILLIAM H, FLOYD 

COLLECTION. 



LONDON: 
w. M'DOWALI,, PRINTER, pEMBEUTax HOW, 

GOUOH SQUARE. 



PREFACE. 



AT is a circumstance no less to be lamented than wonder- 
ed at, that, in the present enlightened age, when the culti- 
vation of science, and natural history in particular, is so 
eminently conspicuous, Conchology, or the natural history 
of shells, should have participated so sparingly of that ac- 
tive spirit of research and investigation, which has been so 
lavishly bestowed on almost all other branches. 

ONE obvious reason, however, may be assigned, why 
Conchology has remained so long stationary in the lists of 
improvement. Till lately, no publications on shells have 
appeared, but such as were abstruse, voluminous, expen- 
sive, and difficult of access; and as most of them were in 
languages not always thoroughly understood, the attain- 
ment of knowledge through their means frequently be- 
came a source of difficulty and trouble. 

IT is perhaps from this very circumstance, that many 
individuals who possess fine and rare shells, are totally ig- 



M94091 



norant of any systematic mode of arranging them; the 
consequence is, they are suffered to remain in the cabinets 
like a collection of unknown gems, whose intrinsic value 
their proprietor being unacquainted with, they are incapa- 
ble of affording amusement, information, or profit to him. 

INFLUENCED by the repeated observation of the occur- 
rence of these difficulties, it appeared desirable, that the 
public should be put in possession of some compendious or 
abridged treatise on Conchology, which would at once 
enable the young student to arrange his collection syste- 
matically, and at the same time tend to enhance the value 
of that science, which, for want of a proper key, or book 
of introduction, has remained too long in neglected ob- 
scurity. 

To accomplish this, it appeared only necessary to select 
the choicest materials contained in more elaborate works, 
and arrange them in such order as would afford all the in- 
struction requisite for the information and improvement of 
the young Conchologist, in a concentrated, perspicuous, and 
purchasable form. 

IT has been made a point, throughout the work, to ad- 
here rigidly to the Linnaean system, on the strong pre- 
sumption, that it would always prove the surest basis on 
which a more modern superstructure might be raised. 



BUT, as other less celebrated naturalists have also con- 
tributed their quantum of information on the subject of 
Conchology, it has been thought prudent to add whatever 
they have urged of most importance ; and as it is a matter 
of consequence for the learner to call in the aid of figures 
as well as description, it was thought proper to annex fac- 
similes of the most prominent species of the different ge- 
nera of shells; and as they are from nature, the correct- 
ness of their delineation may be depended upon. 

IT was also deemed necessary, in order to render the 
work more generally useful and acceptable, to submit a 
concise account of the nature, habits, and uses of shell-fish ; 
as well as some serviceable hints and directions as to the 
best modes of collecting and cleaning shells. 

CHARLES WODARCH. 



ADVERTISEMENT 



THE FOURTH EDITION. 



AN this Edition the new species recently discovered have 
been added; and a considerable alteration has been made 
in the arrangement of the species of each genus, with a 
view to afford greater facility to the student's acquiring a 
knowledge of their distinctive characters. 

IT would have been beyond the scope of an elementary 
work of this nature to have described every species ; but we 
have endeavoured, by forming numerous divisions and fa- 
milies, and affixing to each a concise description, so to 
class together the species, that the student will have little 
difficulty in assigning any shell that may present itself to 
his observation to its proper division and family; and 
should the shell have obtained a name descriptive of a 
leading character, he will have no difficulty in discovering 
it by referring to the lists of scientific and English or tri- 
vial names accompanying the genera. 



FRONTISPIECE. 



Fig. 1. Murex Foliatus. Foliated Murex. 

2. Regius Royal Murex. 

3. Radix- Root or Black-spined Murex. 



CONTENTS. 



GLOSSARY ...... ............................. Page 



CHAPTER I. 

General Observations ........................ . ...... 9 

Properties of animals inhabiting shells ....... ... ..... . . 10 

Customary uses to which shells and their inhabitants are 

converted .................................. .... 10 

Enemies to shells and shell-fish .................. .... 12 

Directions for collecting shells, and arranging them systema- 

tically ......................................... 14 

Methods of preserving and cleaning shells ....... . ...... 15 



CHAPTER II. 

Description of the animals inhabiting shells ... .......... 18 

CHAPTER III. 

CLASSIFICATION .................................. 21 

I. Multivalves .................................... 21 

II. Bivalves ...................................... 21 

III. Univalves. 1. With a regular spire .............. 22 

2. Without a regular spire ............ 23 



XII 



CONTENTS. 



ORDER I. MULTIVALVES. 

Chiton 25 | Lepas 28 

Pholas.. ..32 



ORDER II. BIVALVES. 



Mya 



35 



Solen 38 

Tellina 39 

Cardium 42 

Mactra 45 

Donax 47 

Venus 49 



Spondylus . . . . 53 

Chama 55 



Area. . 
Ostrea. 



58 
80 



Anomia 67 

Mytilus 70 

Pinna 73 



ORDER III. UNIVALVES. 



Argonauta 76 

Nautilus 78 

Conus 80 

Cypraea 84 

Bulla 87 

Voluta 90 

Buccinum 96 

Strombus 103 

Murex 106 

Troclms 113 



Turbo 118 

Helix 125 

Nerita 132 

Haliotis 135 

Patella 138 

Dentalium 142 

Serpula 144 

Teredo 146 

Sabella 147 

Explanation of the Plates 151 



GLOSSARY 



TERMS USED IN CONCHOLOGY. 



Acuminated, terminated in a sharp point. 

Anterior, (in Univalves) the part which forms the spire : 
(in Bivalves), see Margin. 

Aperture, the orifice or opening of the shell; it is called 
angular, when its circumference has several angles : bi- 
marginated, when the right lip forms a double margin : 
coarctate, contracted: compressed, flattened: gaping, 
when one of the extremities is wider than the other: 
linear, when narrow, and the length greatly exceeds the 
breadth : transverse, when the breadth is greater than 
the length. (These terms are applied to Univalves). 

Apex, the tip or small end of a shell. 

Articulated, (applied to Multivalves), when the different 
pieces of which the shell is composed are so strongly 
united, that they appear to form one shell: (when ap- 
plied to Bivalves), see Teeth. 

Auriculated, having ears. 

Base, (applied to Multivalves), the part on which the shell 
is supported : (to Univalves), the most elevated part of 
the shell, opposite to the spire. 

Beak, Beaked, having the extremity of the base of the 
shell elongated and contracted in the form of a beak. 



lis is of a bristly or hairy na- 
ture. 

Bifid, forked. 

Byssus, a hair-like substance formed by some of the ani- 
mals of Bivalves, by which they attach themselves to 
extraneous bodies. See plate 6, Jig. 1. 

Callous, indurated. 

Callus, a thick excrescence. 

Canal, the prolongation of the mouth in a kind of groove 
or gutter, as in the Murex and Strombus. 

Canaliculated, channelled or grooved. 

Cardinal, see Teeth. 

Carinated, having the form of a boat's keel. 

Cartilage, see Ligament. 

Cartilaginous, resembling a ligament. 

Chambered, when the shell is internally divided by par- 
titions parallel to the aperture. 

Ciliated, surrounded with parallel filaments. 

Clavate, club-shaped. 

Columella, that part of the shell round which the whirls 
turn. 

Compressed, (in Bivalves), when the valves are nearly flat, 
or flattened. 

Concamerated, see Chambered. 

Convolute, when the whirls turn round a lengthened cone, 
nearly vertical to each other. 

Cordiform, heart-shaped. 

Coronated, having the apex surrounded with a row of tu- 
bercles or spines. 

Crenated, Crenulate, having blunt teeth. 

Decollated, having the spire or upper part of the shell 
truncated transversely. 



GLOSSARY. 3 

Decussated, intersected by striae at acute angles. 
Dentated, having teeth. 
Diaphanous, transparent. 
Digitated, having projecting claws. 
Divaricated, obliquely striated. 
Dorsal, belonging to the back. 

Ears, external projections on the sides of the hinge, (see 
plate 6, fa. 5.) 

Effuse, having the lip separated by a gutter. 

Emarginate, having the margin excavated by a canal. 

Epidermis, the outer skin or covering of a shell. 

Equilateral, when the anterior and posterior parts of a 
shell are exactly similar. 

Equivalve, (applied to Multi valves), when the two princi- 
pal valves have the same form, size, and position : (to 
Bivalves), when the two valves are exactly similar. 

Exserted, very thin or slender. 

Fissure, a notch or slit, (see plate 4t,fig- 57.) 

Furrow, a gutter or groove running parallel to the hinge 

in Bivalves. 
Fusiform, spindle-shaped. 

Gaping, (in Bivalves), when the valves do not shut close : 
(in Univalves), when the lower part of the lips is dis- 
tended. 

Gibbosity, a swelling. 

Gibbous, swelled. 

Glabrous, smooth. 

Hinge, the part where the valves are united, and gene- 
rally furnished with one or more teeth : it is said to be 
compressed, when it is formed of one compressed tooth : 

B2 



GLOSSARY. 

lateral, when placed on one side of the shell : reflected, 
when its edges are folded over the exterior margin : ter- 
minal, if situated at the extremity of the shell: and 
truncated, if the beaks of the shell appear to have been 
transversely cut off, and the teeth of the hinge fixed to 
this part. 
Hispid, covered with hairs, as in the Helix hispida. 

Imbricate, when the surface is covered with scales parti- 
ally over-lapping each other. 

Imperforate, having no umbilicus. 

Inequilateral, when the anterior and posterior parts of the 
shell are dissimilar. 

Ineguivalve, when the valves are dissimilar. 

Involute, without a spire, as in the Patellae. 

Keeled, see Carinated. 

Labium, see Lip. 

Lenticular, when the valves are round, and diminish in 

thickness from the centre towards the edges. 
Lid, see Operculum. 
Ligament, a membranous substance which connects the 

valves : it is both interior and exterior in the generality 

of Bivalves. 
Linear, when the length of the shell is greater than its 

breadth, and its form not cylindrical. 
Linguiform, tongue-shaped. 
Lip, (in Univalves), the sides of the aperture : (in Bivalves), 

the exterior edge of the valves. 
Lunar or Lunate, having a crescent form. 

Margin, the edge of the shell: anterior, the space in which 
the ligament is situated; posterior, the space on the 



GLOSSARY. 5 

other side of the hinge ; superior, the space between the 
anterior and posterior parts. 

Maryinate, (in Univalves), having the sides of the shell 
thickened: (in Bivalves), surrounded with an elevated 
margin. 

Mouth, see Aperture. 

Muscular impressions, are the marks made by the muscles 
with which the animal adheres to the shell, as in the com- 
mon oyster. 

Obovate, nearly oval. 

Obsolete, obliterated. 

Obtuse, blunt pointed. 

Operculum, (in Multi valves), the stellular valves which 
shut up the superior orifice: (in Univalves), the part 
which exactly fits into the aperture, and incloses the 
animal. 

Papillary, having the apex rounded. 

Papyraceous, of the thinness of paper. 

Patulous, gaping. 

Pectinated, when the longitudinal ribs on the anterior sur- 
face form acute angles with the transverse striae. 

Peduncle, a tendinous substance belonging to some of the 
Multivalves, by means of which they adhere to solid 
bodies. 

Pillar, see Columella. 

Pillar-lip, that side of the aperture in which the columel- 
la is situated. 

Pisiform, pea-like. 

Plaited, when the columella is toothed, as in Volutes. 

Posterior, see Margin. 

Reticulated, like net-work. 



D GLOSSARY. 

Retuse, when the lower whirls are pressed into the body. 
Rostrum, see Beak. 
Rugose, wrinkled. 

Scabrous, rough. 

Serrated, toothed like a saw. 

Semilunar, like a half-moon. 

Sessile, low, dwarf. 

Sinuous, waved. 

Sinus, a deep cut, as in the lip of the Murex Babylonius. 

Siphon, a prolonged tube running through the partitions 
of chambered shells. 

Slope, the side from the beaks. 

Spinous, having prickles or thorns. 

Spire, is formed by the whole of the upper whirls. 

Strice, lines flat, or slightly raised: they are called longi- 
tudinal, when they run from hinge to margin ; trans- 
verse, when in a contrary direction ; and concentric, when 
they form segments of circles. 

Subcordate, approaching the form of a heart. 

Subpellucid, not quite clear. 

Subulate, tapering. 

Superior, see Margin. 

Suture, a toothed joint. 

Teeth, (in Univalves), angular plaits, as on the pillar lip 
of Volutes : (in Bivalves), pointed protuberances with- 
in the hinge, by which the valves are united. They 
are called: alternate, when the teeth of one valve are 
received between the teeth of the other valve; articu- 
lated, when the tooth is received into a corresponding 
cavity in the opposite valve ; cardinal, the central tooth 
or teeth of the hinge ; compressed, when flattened ; erect, 
perpendicular to the plane of the hinge ; forked, having 



GLOSSARY. 7 

the point divided into two; longitudinal, when it extends 
along the margin. 

Tubercle, a protuberance or knob. 

Tuberculated, having elevations resembling warts. 

Tubular, (applied to Multivalves), when the greater part 
of the shell is cylindrical. 

Turbinated, when the belly of the shell is large in propor- 
tion to the spire, which seems to proceed from the cen- 
tre. 

Valves, the different pieces which compose the shell. 

Varix, Varices, longitudinal elevations or ribs, formed by 
the junction of the different additions the shell has re- 
ceived. 

Ventricose, swollen. 

Vermiform, having the form of worms. 

Vertex, the top or point of a shell. 

Umbilicated, having a hole in the base of the pillar. 
Umbo, the summit. 
Undulated, waved. 

Whir', a spiral convolution. 



INTRODUCTION. 



CHAPTER I. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

J. HE division or branch of natural history on which this 
work treats, is called Conchology; it comprehends the 
study and history of testaceous animals, and not only in- 
cludes those of the sea, but also those of rivers and of the 
land. 

Testaceous animals are such as have a calcareous co- 
vering or habitation, in which the animal, otherwise na- 
ked or fleshy, lives included and protected. 

All animals inhabiting shells are exsanguinous, and des- 
titute of bones; but they are endowed with a heart, lungs, 
mouth, and other organs adapted to their nature. 

It is perhaps necessary to prepare the young Conch o- 
logist with the knowledge, that all shells, in their various 
stages of growth, assume very different appearances; in 
the younger, the shell is usually fragile, thin, and semi- 
transparent, and generally unprovided with the ribs, tu- 
bercles, ramifications, and denticulations, which are ma- 
nifest in those of maturer growth; the adults, however, as 
they advance in age, become thick and ponderous ; their 
surface also becomes covered with callosities ; and they lose 
that brilliancy of external colouring and marking which 
had characterized their earlier state. But although these 
u3 



10 INTRODUCTION. 

differences, in some instances, are sufficient to excite a 
considerable degree of perplexity, yet there is always in 
every shell a definite character, by which the Conchologist 
will be able to distinguish its genus and species ; for each 
genus or species is characterized by structure, substance, 
marks, or colour, which the shells of that genus or species 
almost invariably retain in all their stages of growth and 
varieties of form, and consequently are thereby easily known 
and distinguished. 



PROPERTIES OF ANIMALS INHABITING SHELLS. 

THESE animals possess the power of extending or ag- 
grandizing their calcareous habitation or shell, and are 
also enabled to repair whatever breaches their brittle dwell- 
ings may have sustained by the turbulence of the ocean. 
The operation of enlarging and repairing the shell is sup- 
posed to be effected by a peculiar endowment of the ani- 
mal, which can at pleasure discharge a viscous humour, 
that soon becomes hardened or consolidated, and in time 
acquires the consistence of the rest of the shell. 

Many shells are covered with a cutaneous or skin-like 
substance, called the epidermis, which serves to protect the 
beautiful colors and markings which are frequently conceal- 
ed beneath it. 



CUSTOMARY USES TO WHICH SHELLS AND THEIR INHABITANTS 
ARE CONVERTED. 

THE principal benefit derived by man from shell-fish 
appears to be in the way of food. Whole countries are 



INTRODUCTION. 1 1 

known to have no other sustenance, for weeks together, 
but the produce of the sea ; and shell-fish fill no unim- 
portant station in the immense catalogue of its inhabi- 
tants. 

The nutritive and delicious food afforded by oysters, 
scallops, muscles, and cockles, is too well known to require 
any remark. 

In many countries which do not produce limestone, as 
the coast of Brazil, &c., shells are collected in great quan- 
tities, and, after calcination, form a most desirable substi- 
tute for that useful substance : in this state they are also 
considered excellent as manure. 

The Indians frequently convert shells into domestic and 
defensive implements; the South-sea islanders, for ex- 
ample, head their javelins with them, and manufacture 
them into fish hooks and various sorts of tools. Their 
principal ornaments are often studded or embossed with 
rows and groups of shells, artfully disposed, in regular or- 
der, which are worn as marks of superiority, or as brace- 
lets or armlets, and frequently form handsome appenda- 
ges for the ears. A very extensive commerce is carried 
on in Ceylon with the shank shell, (Murex rapa), which is 
in great request for ornamental purposes. 

The Chinese convert shells, that are opalescent when 
uncoated, into various articles of domestic economy, such 
as drinking cups, ewers, &c. ; and the Indian cabinets, so 
much admired for their beauty and exquisite workmanhip, 
are principally composed of iridescent shells, judiciously in- 
laid and blended with tortoise-shell and other substances. 

Some species of the oyster and muscle genera are ce- 
lebrated for the production of pearls, the value and beauty 
of which can perhaps be best estimated by those who are 
in the habit of purchasing and wearing them. 

There is one large species of Murex, called M. tritonis, 



12 INTRODUCTION. 

which, after having had the apex, or extreme tip, broken 
off, becomes an excellent substitute for a trumpet or horn, 
and is frequently used by the New Zealanders for that pur- 
pose. 

The famous Tyrian dye, so celebrated by the antients for 
the luxuriant purple colour it imparted to the robes of roy- 
alty, is an extract from a shell-fish of the genus Murex, 
and commonly known under the appellation of the Pur- 
pura or purple fish. An account of the method of using 
it in marking linen, &c. is given by Mr. Ma we, in his 
Travels though the Gold and Diamond Districts of Brazil, 
2nd edit. p. 70. 



ENEMIES TO SHELLS AND SHELL-FISH. 

IT appears that shell-fish, besides affording food for man, 
are destined to supply other creatures also with nourish- 
ment. It is said that monkies are particularly fond of most 
species of bivalves, and that the mode they take to catch 
them is as follows : At low water, the monkey repairs to 
the shore, and searches for oysters and muscles left by the 
tide ; the fish, for want of water, generally have their valves 
partly open; the subtle animal, foreseeing the danger 
of trusting his paws between the shells, artfully drops a 
stone or two into them, which entirely prevents their be- 
ing closed by the fish; by this expedient he is enabled to 
extract his prey without danger or difficulty, and devour 
it at his pleasure. 

Tortoises and turtles consume numbers of shell-fish, 
and the strength of their jaws (as reported) is so great, 
that they can with facility masticate the strongest and 
roughest shells. 

Birds also, (sea-fowl especially), are great devourers of 



INTRODUCTION. 13 

shell-fish; and when they are unable to penetrate the 
shells with their beaks, they ascend with them to a consi- 
derable height, and let them fall on some rough or craggy 
place ; by which means the shells are broken, and the fish 
becomes an easy victim*. 

Crabs, and other crustaceous animals, are known to 
make serious attacks on the testaceous orders. The lar- 
ger sort of crabs are able, by their great strength, to open 
the valves of most shells by main force; but those of small- 
er dimensions make their inroads in a different manner : 
the pea-crab, in particular, is very destructive to bivalves, 
especially to muscles; it enters their shells whenever it 
has the opportunity of finding them open, and there re- 
mains, preying upon the fish, till it has entirely consum- 
ed it; at which period the shell opens, the crab takes his 
departure, and proceeds to make similar attacks else- 
where. 

Another species, called the hermit crab, is also suppos- 
ed to be implicated in similar offensive operations among 
univalves;- for it is frequently found housed in the vacant 
habitation of a buccinum, turbo, or nerite, and is there- 
fore suspected of having previously devoured the animal, 
and afterwards to have secured a retreat for itself in the 
empty shell. 



* Mr. Mawe states, in his Travels in Brazil, that he saw a spot 
of bare granite, not more than one hundred yards square, cover- 
ed with an immense number of mutilated shells; the whole 
neighbourhood was rich in wood and verdure, and the sea at 
least five miles distant. On inquiry he was informed, that large 
flocks of birds every evening repaired to this place with shells 
left by the tide, which they let fall on the rock, in order to ob- 
tain their contents. 



14 INTRODUCTION. 

The serpulae, balani, chamae, and anomiae, often affix 
themselves in clusters to the shells of other genera; and al- 
though they destroy the beauty and symmetry of the shell, 
they very rarely injure its inhabitant. 

Shell-fish, though they in part constitute the food of 
animals, birds, and fish, yet, in their turn, have some op- 
portunity of retaliation, by partially destroying the float- 
ing habitation of the universal despoiler, Man ; the Pho- 
las arid Teredo navalis, in particular, frequently commit 
such serious injury on ships, by boring into their planks, 
as often to endanger the safety of the vessel, if not speed- 
ily prevented in their operations. 



DIRECTIONS FOR COLLECTING SHELLS, AND ARRANGING THEM 
SYSTEMATICALLY. 

WITH regard to collecting shells, it is necessary to hint 
to those students, who, by a residence on the sea coast, 
may have an opportunity of forming collections for them- 
selves, that the best way is to select the shells which have 
the animals alive in them ; for those that are found empty 
on the beach are for the most part objectionable, the 
shell becoming impaired by the co-operation of the sun 
and waters, which also greatly tends to destroy the beauty 
of the colouring and marking. 

Besides, a double advantage is to be derived from hav- 
ing the animals alive, for, by keeping them in sea water, 
much useful information may be obtained by an accurate 
observation of their structure and habits. 

Storms frequently drive up live shells on the beach: 
such should be collected as soon as possible, as they fre- 



INTRODUCTION. 15 

quelitly lose their delicate spines and foliations, by being 
suffered to remain beating about on the shore. 

As land and river shells are seldom so beautifully 
formed, marked, or colored, as those of the ocean, they are 
in consequence rarely so much prized; however, they 
form an interesting part in all collections. 

The collector should always keep the following objects 
in view, whenever he commences the arrangement of his 
shells : 

First. The order to which they belong, that is, whether 
they are to be classed with the Multivalves, (i. e. shells of 
many valevs) ; Bivalves, (shells of two valves) ; or Uni- 
valves, (shells of one part of piece only) : which three grand 
divisions constitute the leading distinctions of shells. 

Secondly. He should be careful to place them in the 
proper genus of the order to which they belong. And, 

Thirdly. He should avoid misplacing or confusing the 
species which appertain to each genus. And if, in the course 
of his studies, he should be fortunate enough to obtain any 
hitherto undiscovered genus, species, or variety, he should 
make such an accurate description and drawing, as would, 
by submitting them to the opinion and judgment of the 
scientific, confirm him in the correctness of his own con- 
clusions, and tend to promote the general advancement of 
conchological knowledge. 



THE METHODS OF PRESERVING AND CLEANING SHELLS. 

IF the shell contains the animal alive, it will be neces- 
sary to immerse it in boiling water for a few minutes; 
then plunge it into cold water, which will cause the ani- 



16 INTRODUCTION. 

mal to contract, and render it more easy to be extracted : 
crooked pins, and other sharp instruments, are sometimes 
required to effect a perfect extraction. 

If a large quantity of shells is to be cleaned, dissolve 
half a pound of potash, and half a pound of soft soap, in 
two quarts of boiling water ; stir the solution until all the 
particles are dissolved, and then pour it warm over the 
shells; let them remain in this liquid two or three days, 
frequently warming it, and pouring it over them. After 
this process, wash them well with a brush in warm water ; 
and, when dry, rub them with a nail brush, until they have 
received a sufficient polish. This method may be adopted 
with all smooth shells, such as olives, cowries, cones, &c. 

Rugged shells generally require a different process from 
the preceding, though it is advisable to try that method 
first. But if they are covered with adhesions, or the epi- 
dermis will not separate from the shell, it is also necessary 
to use muriatic acid, after they have undergone the above- 
mentioned process. When they are perfectly dry, the 
acid is to be applied with a fine brush, dipped in sand, to 
the parts which require it. After the adhesions, &c., are 
removed, the shell must be immediately immersed in alkali, 
to neutralize the effects of the acid, and then well washed 
in warm water. As these shells are not susceptible of so 
fine a polish as the smoother varieties, it is usual to give 
them an artificial gloss, by brushing them over with a 
weak solution of gum-arabic. 

CORALS, which are so justly admired for their delicate 
structure, elegant ramifications, and great beauty, may 
be cleaned in a similar manner, by steeping them a few 
days in the solution of potash and soft soap; after which 
they should be carefully brushed in warm water. 



INTRODUCTION. 17 

It not unfrequently happens that corals are discolored 
by some extraneous substance ; when this is the case, the 
part discolored must be immersed in a weak solution of 
muriatic acid, until the outer surface is removed, and then 
dipped in alkali, to neutralize the effects of the acid. They 
must afterwards be cleaned by repeated ablutions in warm 
water. 






18 INTRODUCTION. 



CHAPTER II. 



OF THE ANIMALS WHICH INHABIT SHELLS. 

OF these animals a minute and accurate anatomical de- 
scription is not to be expected; for little more is known of 
their structure than what has been given by naturalists 
concerning their external characters. 

Some of the animals which inhabit shells are also found 
in the mollusca state, that is, without any testaceous co- 
vering. Such, for instance, is the Limax, or slug. 

The animals which have been described as inhabiting 
shells are the following; viz. Doris, Triton, Ascidia, Te- 
thys, Limax, Spio, Amphitrite, Terebella, Nereis, Sepia, 
and Clio. 

Doris. The body is creeping, oblong, and flat beneath ; 
the mouth is placed below on the fore part; vent behind 
on the back, and surrounded by a fringe. Feelers two or 
four, situated on the upper part of the body in front, and 
retractile within the proper receptacles. The animal which 
inhabits the Chiton belongs to this genus. 

Triton. The body is oblong, and the mouth is furnish- 
ed with an involute spiral proboscis; tentacula or arms 
twelve, six on each side, divided nearly to the base. The 
hinder ones cheliferous. The Triton inhabits different spe- 
cies of Lepas. 

Ascidia. The body is fixed, roundish, and apparently 
issuing from a sheath; apertures two, generally placed 
near the upper end, one beneath the other. The animals 
are found in the sea, and adhere by their base to rocks, 



INTRODUCTION. 19 

shells, and other submarine substances : they are more or 
less gelatinous. The only powers of motion which they 
possess seem to be that of contracting and dilating them- 
selves alternately; by which means they are enabled 
to eject, with considerable force, the water which they 
imbibe. This animal inhabits the Pholas, Solen, some 
species of the Mya, Mactra, and other bivalves. 

Tethys. The body is detached, rather oblong, fleshy, 
without peduncles : the mouth is furnished with a termi- 
nal cylindrical proboscis, under an expanded membrane 
or lip; apertures two, on the left side of the neck. The 
Tethys inhabits a great proportion of bivalve shells, as, 
many species of Tellina, Cardium, Mactra, Venus, Ostrea, 
and others. 

Limax. The body is oblong, creeping, with a fleshy 
kind of shield above, and a longitudinal flat disc beneath : 
aperture placed on the right side within the shield : feel- 
ers four, situated above the mouth, with an eye at the 
top of each of the larger ones. The animals belonging to 
this genus inhabit the turbinated univalve shells; but it 
appears that all the animals which inhabit these shells do 
not exactly correspond with the above generic characters. 

Spio. The body projecting from a tube, jointed and 
furnished with dorsal fibres ; peduncles or feet rough with 
bristles, and placed towards the back; feelers two, long, 
simple ; eyes two, long. This animal inhabits some spe- 
cies of Sabella. 

Amphitrite. Body projecting from a tube, and annu- 
late; peduncles or feet small, numerous, with lateral fas- 
ciculi, and branchiae; feelers two, approximate, feather- 
ed ; no 'eyes. The Amphitrite inhabits some species of 
Sabella and Serpula. 

Terebella. Body oblong, creeping, naked, furnished 
with lateral fasciculi or tufts, andbranchias; mouth placed 



20 INTRODUCTION. 

before, furnished with lips, without teeth, and protruding 
a clavated proboscis; feelers numerous, ciliated, capillary, 
and placed round the mouth. This animal is an inhabi- 
tant of many species of Dentalium, Serpula, and Sabella. 

Nereis. Body long, creeping, with numerous lateral 
peduncles or feet on each side; feelers simple, rarely none; 
eyes two or four, rarely none. According to some natu- 
ralists, the Nereis inhabits some species of Sabella. 

Clio. Body oblong, natant, generally sheathed, and 
furnished with two dilated membranaceous anns or wing- 
like processes; tentacula three, besides two in the mouth. 
According to some naturalists, the animal which inhabits 
the Argonauta belongs to this genus. 



INTRODUCTION. 2 1 



CHAPTER III. 



CLASSIFICATION OF SHELLS. 



LINNAEUS ranks Testacea as the third order in his sixth 
class of animals called Worms. He has made three prin- 
cipal or grand divisions, viz. Multivalves, Bivalves, and 
Univalves. 



I. MULTIVALVES. 

SHELLS WITH MANY VALVES. 

1. CHITON: Valves placed in transverse plaits down the 

back. 

2. LEPAS: Valves unequal; body sessile, or on peduncles. 

3. PHOLAS: Shell hivalve, with accessory valves at the 

hinge. 



II. BIVALVES. 

SHELLS WITH TWO VALVES. 

4. MYA : Hinge with generally a broad thick tooth, not 

let into the opposite valve. 

5. SOLEN: Shell open at each end; hinge with a single 

or double subulate reflected tooth, not let into the 
opposite valve. 

6. TELLINA : Hinge with the lateral teeth of one valve 

not let into the other. 



22 INTRODUCTION. 

7. CARDIUM : Hinge with remote penetrating lateral teeth. 

8. MACTRA: Hinge with a complicated triangular mid- 

dle tooth, and an adjoining hollow. 

9. DONAX : Hinge with a generally remote lateral tooth, 

not let into the opposite valve. 

10. VENUS: Hinge with generally three approximate di- 

varicate teeth. 

11. SPONDYLUS: Hinge with two teeth, separated by a 

small hollow. 

12. CHAMA: Hinge in one shell, with two oblique obtuse 

teeth. 

13. ARCA: Hinge with numerous penetrating teeth. 

14. OSTREA: Hinge without teeth, but an ovate hollow. 

15. ANOMIA: Hinge without teeth, but generally a linear 

depression on the rim, the beak of one valve curved 
over the hinge. 

16. MYTILUS: Hinge without teeth, with a subulate de- 

pression, and generally fixed by a silky beard. 

17. PINNA: Hinge without teeth, valves united at one 

end, and open at the other. 



III. UNIVALVES. 

1. WITH A REGULAR SPIRE. 

18. ARGONAUT A: Shell with one cell, spiral, involute. 

19. NAUTILUS: Shell with many cells, with a siphon of 

communication. 

20. CONUS: Aperture effuse, longitudinal, without teeth. 

21. CYPRJEA: Aperture effuse, lineal, longitudinal, toothed 

on each side. 

22. BULLA : Aperture a little contracted, and placed ob- 

liquely; toothed on one side only. 



INTRODUCTION. 23 

23. VOLUTA : Aperture effuse, the pillar plaited. 

24. BUCCINUM: Aperture with a small canal leaning to 

the right. 

25. STROMBUS. Aperture with a small canal leaning to the 

left. 

26. MUREX: Aperture with a small straight canal. 

27. TROCHUS : Aperture contracted, and somewhat trian- 

gular. 

28. TURBO: Aperture contracted and orbicular. , 

29. HELIX : Aperture contracted, lunate on the inner side. 

30. NERITA: Aperture contracted, and semiorbicular. 

31. HALIOTIS: Shell ear-shaped, aperture dilated, with a 

row of orifices along the surface. 

2. WITHOUT A REGULAR SPIRE. 

32. PATELLA: Shell conic, the aperture widened like a 

basin. 

33. DENTALIUM: Shell slender, subulate, open at both ends. 

34. SERPULA : Shell tubular, mostly serpentine, adhering 

to other bodies. 

35. TEREDO: Shell thin, penetrating wood. 

36. SABELLA: Shell composed of agglutinated grains of 

sand, &c. 



INTRODUCTION 



TO 



CONCHOLOGY 



ORDER I. 



MULTIVALVES. 



CHITON. COAT OF MAIL. 

Animal inhabiting the shell a Doris : Shell consisting of 
several segments of valves disposed down the back. 

A HE genus Chiton ranks first in the classification of Tes- 
tacea, or shells; and no less than fifty-two species are 
described, some of which are exceedingly beautiful and un- 
common. It is almost impossible to confuse this genus 
with any other of the shell tribe, for all its species and va- 
rieties coincide so nearly in their general formation and at- 
tributes, that the situation in which they ought to be placed 
may at once be decided upon. 

The most distinguishing character of the Chiton is that 
of bearing a strong resemblance to a small vessel or boat, 
high built at the stern, and turned upside down ; and this 



2(3 MULTIVALVES. CHITON. 

peculiar form is constituted by the attachment of eight 
moveable valves, which are connected by a cutaneous or 
cartilaginous substance, capable of sufficient distention and 
contraction, to admit of considerable action or play on the 
part of the valves; so much so, that the animal can at plea- 
sure convert its shell into the form of a ball, and thereby 
assume the appearance of a little insect, well known as an 
inhabitant of old and decayed wood. 

The covering and colouring of the valves serve to create 
distinction ; some being perfectly smooth, others nodulous, 
or knobbed ; some beset with spines, prickles, or hairs ; and 
others, again, are striated, dotted, and rayed, as the C. his- 
pidus, C. squamosus, and C. marmoratus. 

The colour of the exterior is frequently a dusky brown, of- 
ten passing into different shades of olive-green : others par- 
take of a reddish or pinkish tint ; whereas some specimens 
are of an ochreous or yellowish-white complexion ; and 
many have their valves adorned with elegant designs and 
marblings (not unlike tattooing) in the liveliest colours ima- 
ginable. 

The interior also admits of much variation with regard 
to colour; however, the most prevalent is that of a blueish- 
white, often beautifully diversified with cloudings of yellow, 
brown, light green, and pink. 

The margin which confines the valves in their proper si- 
tuations, differs materially in the various species : in some 
instances, it is smooth and of a yellowish-brown colour; gen- 
erally, however, it is beset with fine scales, of a green or 
olive colour; frequently it is of a reddish tint, and in some 
species it is dusky-brown, or even black. 

The situation and formation of the valves throughout the 
genus resemble the plates which constitute a suit of armour 
or coat of mail ; and it is from this marked similarity that 
the Chiton has derived its name. 



MULTIVALVES. CHITON. 27 

The habitat, or place of residence, of these shells seems to 
appertain, indiscriminately, to all parts of the globe. Ame- 
rica affords the most ; the coast of Chili has recently fur- 
nished many very beautiful species which were previously 
unknown; several are from the East Indies; Africa sup- 
plies a few ; and the Northern seas contribute their portion 
of the remainder. 

The Chiton, like the limpet, is generally found adhering 
to rocks and other substances, as shells, stones, madrepores, 
corals, &c., and some of the northern species frequent the 
roots of sea weed. 

The following is a list of the different species, taken from 
Gmelin's last edition of Linnseus's Sy sterna Naturae, with 
the addition of those species which have been discovered 
since the publication of that work. A similar list will fol- 
low the general description of each genus. The species 
found on the British coasts are distinguished by an asterisk. 

CHITON Coat of Mail. 

DIVISION I. Having a scaly margin. 

Squamosus Scaly. Cumingsii Cumings's. 

Bistriatus Striated. Olivaceus Olive. 

Fasciatus Banded. G ranosus Grained. 

Viridis Green. Glaucocinctus Azure- banded. 

Tessellatus Tessellated. Granulosus Brown-marbled. 

Sulcatus Furrowed. Peruvianus Peruvian. 

Maculatus Spotted. Disjunctus Disjoined. 

Marmoratus Marbled. Elegans Elegant. 

Indus Indian. Lineolatus Linear. 

Coquimbensis Coquimbo. Chilensis Chili. 

DIVISION II. Having a coriaceous margin. 

Fulvus Tawny. Castaneus Chesnut. 

Tunicatus Coated. Lineatus Striped. 

c2 



28 MULTIVALVES. LEPAS. 

Aculeatus Prickly. Cimex Bug-like. 

*Fascicularis Banded. Asellus Millipede. 

Punctatus Dotted. Gigas Large. 

Ruber Red. Islandicus Icelandic. 

Albus White. *Marginatus Marginated. 

Cinereus Ash-coloured. *Laevis Smooth. 

Bicolor Variegated. Amiculatus Imbricated. 

Cerasinus Cherry-coloured. Tuberculatus Knobbed. 

Magellanicus Magellan. *Crinitus Hairy. 

Fuscus Brown. Thalassinus Sea-green. 

Granulatus Granulated. Hispidus Bristly. 

Piceus Pitchy. Porosus Porous. 

Minimus Mealy. Larvseformis Caterpillar. 

DIVISION III. Having a spinous margin. 

Spinosus Spiny. Spiniferus Thorny. 



LEPAS. ACOUN SHELL, OR BARNACLE. 

Animal a Triton: Shell affixed at the base, and consisting 
of many unequal, erect valves. 

THE genus Lepas includes forty-four species, which, for 
the most part, bear a strong resemblance to each other, at 
least with regard to their general formation and outline. 

The most prominent feature of these shells is their being 
(with few exceptions) of a more or less conical shape, which 
is acquired by a number of valves placed perpendicularly 
on a base, broad at the lower margin, and gradually taper- 
ing towards the summit, which is closed by smaller valves, 
placed horizontally, and serving as a lid or covering to the 
animal within. 

The perpendicular valves are incapable of motion : the 
horizontal, on the contrary, are moveable at the pleasure 



MULTIVALVES. LEPAS. 29 

of the animal; which, through their medium, performs 
those functions that are necessary to its existence. 

The Lepas is never found independent or isolated, as 
most other shells are ; on the contrary, all its species are 
known to attach themselves' in clusters, by their base or 
fleshy stalk, to other bodies, as rocks, coral reefs, and shells ; 
even fish themselves are not exempt from their encroach- 
ments ; the whale, for instance, is frequently found with 
groups of Lepades adhering to various parts of its body. 
They also affix themselves to ships, and, though at first in- 
visible, so rapid is their increase in magnitude and num- 
ber, that the velocity of a vessel is considerably impeded by 
them. I once observed, on the coast of Africa, a piece of 
wood, which had been placed as a buoy, in a few days be- 
come covered with a gelatinous substance, and in less than 
a fortnight was thickly beset with Lepades. Hence it would 
appear, that the animal exists in the sea in the state of ani- 
malcule. 

The exterior of the shell is often varied in form, cover- 
ing, and colouring; the usual outline is conical; in some, 
it resembles a pyramid, and in a few is parabolical, or even 
hemispherical ; the Lepas diadema partakes of the latter 
form and bears some resemblance to a divided globe. 

The number of valves which constitute the shell is very 
indefinite ; their usual amount is six, but the Lepas palmi- 
pes has sometimes only four; and other species possess 
the intermediate gradations of number, as far as twenty- 
four, which number is sometimes exceeded in the L. polli- 
cipes. The valves are variously diversified with striae, 
ridges, and grooves. 

The ridges are mostly longitudinal ; the striae, on the con- 
trary, are transverse, and not unfrequently beset with rough 
projections and acute spines, as is the case in the Lepas 
spinosa. 



30 MULTIVALVES. LEPAS. 

The colour also differs considerably, though the most usual 
is of a blueish, purplish, or reddish cast, intermixed with 
a whitish hue. However, some are marked with black and 
green alternately, and others are of a greyish-white, or 
dirty yellow tint, as the L. mitella, &c. 

The valves which compose the lid, or operculum, often 
vary in number and shape ; some species have only two, 
others three or four, and not unfrequently a much greater 
number. They are usually attached to a ligament, and 
sometimes present a pointed or acute form, while in other 
species they are blunt or obtuse. 

The interior of the shells of this genus is either filled up 
with tubular pores, as in the L. porosa, or divided into 
separate compartments or chambers, as in the L. quinque- 
valvis. 

Notwithstanding the great affinity that exists throughout 
the Lepas tribe, there are a few exceptionable species, in 
which a resemblance is difficult to be traced ; as, for ex- 
ample, the L. aurita, L. anserifera, L. anatifera, and others 
in the second division. 

These species are closely allied to each other, but exceed- 
ingly dissimilar to the rest of their genus ; for the generali- 
ty of Lepades are affixed to other bodies or substances by 
the base, or lower part of the shell, whereas these are at- 
tached by a stalk, stem, or pedicle, which proceeds from 
the base of the shell to the substance that sustains it. 

The stem by which the shells are supported differs 
much in quality and substance ; sometimes it appears as a 
smooth, film-like tube, of a texture finer and thinner than 
gold-beaters' skin, though somewhat lighter coloured, and 
not unfrequently tinted with bright red or orange ; and oc- 
casionally it is dark or blueish-brown, much coarser, wrink- 
led, and granulated. 

The L. anserifera and L. anatifera are almost invariably 
composed of five valves; they are supplied with beau- 



MULT1 VALVES. LEPAS. 31 

tiful feathery tentacula of a brown colour, and elegant- 
ly curled. From this circumstance, probably, they were 
supposed to be the origin of the barnacle or brent-geesej 
and are therefore commonly known by the name of Goose- 
shells or Duck-barnacles. The Lepas anserifera is some- 
times found in a fossil state. 

The Indian, American, Atlantic, and Arctic oceans, 
alike provide a habitat for the species of this genus ; and 
no less than thirteen of them are to be occasionally met 
with on the British coasts. 

The Lepas, in all probability, derives its name from its 
custom of adhering to crags of rocks, and other projections 
in the sea. 

LEPAS Acorn Shell or Barnacle. 

DIVISION I. AFFIXED AT THE BASE TO OTHER SUBSTANCES. 
FAMILY I.- Sessile. 

*Balanus Common Barnacle. Spinosa Spinous. 
*Balanoides Small striated. Violacea Violet. 
Tintinnabulum Bell-shaped. Crispata Rugged. 
*Scotica Scottish. * Verruca Wart-shaped. 

*Costata Ribbed. *Rugosa Wrinkled. 

*Conoides Conic. *Punctatus Punctured. 

Palmipes Palmated. Radiata Rayed. 

Minor Flesh-coloured. CarSosa Ridged. 

Angustata Narrow-mouthed. Psittacus Parrot- leaked. 
*Elongata Club-like. Hemispherica Hemispherical. 

Patellaris Limpet-like. Laevis Smooth. 

*Striatus Striated. 

FAMILY 2. Having radiated cells at their base. 
Diadema Turban. Testudinaria Turtle. 

Balanaris Whale. Quinquevalvis Five-valved. 

FAMILY 3. Having a porous base. 
Porosus Porous. Purpurascens Purple. 



32 MULTIVALVES. PHOLAS. 

FAMILY 4. Having a cup-like appendage at the base. 
Galeata Helmet-like. *Spongeosa Spongy. 

FAMILY 5. Tubular and truncated at both ends. 
Tracheaformis Windpipe. 

DIVISION II. SHELLS ATTACHED TO A FLESHY PEDUNCLE. 

FAMILY 1. Having more than five valves, and a wreath of 

smaller ones round the base. 

Mitella Mitred. Scalpellum Knife- like. 

Pollicipes Cornucopia. 

FAMILY 2. Having only five contiguous valves. 
Anserifera Striated. Fascicularis Bladder-like. 

*Anatifera- Duck Barnacle. Vellosa Downy. 
Dorsalis Wrinkled. Dentata Toothed. 

*Sulcata Furrowed. 

FAMILY 3. Having minute and distant valves placed on the 

fleshy extension of the peduncle. 
Aurita Eared. Vittata Ribband. 



PHOLAS. STONE-PIERCER. 

Animal an Ascidia : Shell having two primary valves, di- 
varicate, with several smaller differently shaped acces- 
sory valves at the hinge; hinges recurved, united by a 
cartilage; in the inside, beneath the hinge, is an incurved 
tooth. 

IT appears that hitherto only twelve species of this ge- 
nus have been enumerated, and some of those are so alike, 
that in many instances they may be considered as mere va- 
rieties, rather than different species; however, they all pos- 



MULTIVALVES. PHOLAS. 33 

sess sufficient determinate characters to prevent any admix- 
ture with the genera of Bivalves. 

The form of the Pholas is in most species ovate or ob- 
iong, which is constituted by two large valves, being situat- 
ed opposite to each other, and to which is attached, in the 
vicinity of the beaks, a number of smaller ones, serving as 
substitutes for a hinge, which, in bivalves, or shells of two 
opposite parts only, determines their generic character. 

Another character of the Pholas is, that the valves, (i. e. 
the two large ones), never shut close, they are invariably 
open at one end, and, in most instances, at both. 

In the interior of the shell, in each valve, nearly under 
the beak, is an incurved tooth, sometimes of considerable 
length, and which may certainly be considered as a pecu- 
liarity of the genus. 

The exterior of the Pholas is generally destitute of colour ; 
sometimes it partakes of a brownish cast, but the shell is 
usually of a pure or dusky-white : however, the absence of 
colour is amply compensated for by the beautiful fret-work 
with which the shells of this genus are adorned. 

In some species the reticulations are so delicate in their 
fabric, as to resemble the finest lace ; in others the texture 
is coarser, and approaches nearer to small basket-work; 
and in the Pholas costata the shell is covered with regular, 
elevated, jagged, or scolloped ribs, so elegantly disposed, 
as to render it no less desirable for its beauty than its scar- 
city. 

The Pholades are found in company, but not in groups 
or clusters, as the Lepades are ; for each individual Pholas 
is detached from its neighbour, and occupies a separate and 
distinct habitation, which it forms for itself, by expressing 
a corroding juice, in any substance which accident or intent 
has made most eligible. 

Stone, clay, wood, sponge, and coral, equally serve as ha- 
c3 



34 MULT1VALVES. PHOLAS. 

bitations for the Pholades ; even the stoutest oak planks of 
ships' sides are pierced by them with the greatest facility. 
As they advance in growth, they enlarge their habitation 
within, leaving the small aperture, by which they originally 
entered, of its primitive dimensions, thereby precluding all 
possibility of a retreat. 

The animal possesses the property of emitting a phos- 
phorescent liquor, which shines with brilliancy in the dark, 
and illuminates whatever it touches. 

The American, Indian, and European seas supply the 
few species that are known. 

PHOLAS Stone-piercer. 

*Dacty!us Prickly-piercer. Cordata Heart-shaped. 

Costata Ribbed. Chiloensis Chili. 

Striata Striated. Hians Gaping. 

"Candida White. *Parva Small. 

*Crispata Curled. Falcata Hooked. 

Orientalis Indian. *Papyracea Paper. 



35 



ORDER II, 



BIVALVES. 



MYA. TRUNCATE TROUGH-SHELL OR GAPEK. 

Animal an Ascidia: Shell bivalve, generally gaping at 
one end; hinge with broad, thick, strong teeth, seldom 
more than one, and not inserted into the opposite valve. 
THIS genus has been placed by Linnaeus the first on 
the list of Bivalves : its species are by no means numerous, 
forty only having been described by him. 

The principal characteristic of the Mya consists in its 
gaping at one end : the next general distinguishing mark 
is, its having a single, broad, patulous tooth, proceeding 
from beneath the beak. This tooth differs from that of 
the foregoing genus ; for, in the Pholas, it is long and slen- 
der, and almost of equal size throughout; whereas, in the 
Mya it is much wider and broader at one end than the 
other; and the broadest end has an excavation, which gives 
it the appearance of the bowl of a spoon or ladle. 

However, this sort of tooth is not always discernible in 
every species of the Mya, for some are entirely without it ; 
others, again, have two or three teeth, and, in some in- 
stances, small crenulations supply the place of a regular 
hinge. 

The form of the Mya varies exceedingly, some are ob- 



36 BIVALVES. MYA. 

long and truncate, as if part of the shell had been chopped 
off; others, again, are orbicular or round; and many are 
angular and eared. 

With regard to their general colouring, little can be said, 
for the greatest part of them are covered with a thick 
brown or green epidermis ; and when this is removed, no 
other appearance than that of a livid or wan-coloured surface 
is exhibited; except in those cases where the substance 
composing the shell is of a pearly nature, then the removal 
of the epidermis exposes the hidden beauties of the shell, 
which, when polished, affords the most brilliant mother-of- 
pearl imaginable. This pearly appearance is confined to 
the fresh water species. 

The M. margaritifera is famous for the production of the 
finest pearls, and was formerly found in great quantities in 
the river Conway, in Wales. The creation of pearls is 
said to originate in a disease of the animal. 

Some species of this genus grow to a large size, the M. 
glycymeris, for instance, is often found from ten to twelve 
inches broad. Others, again, as the M. crassa, &c. are re- 
markable for their excessive weight and thickness; and 
their weight often appears out of proportion to their di- 
mensions. Rivers and cataracts afford heavy and thick 
specimens. 

In some places the Mya constitutes a considerable por- 
tion of food, not only for man, but also for aquatic birds. 
They have a propensity to burrow in the sand and mud, 
and are wholly or partially concealed therein. 

Some species of the Mya inhabit the East Indian seas ; 
others are found on the coast of Africa; several are com- 
mon in the European and Northern seas ; and some species 
are to be found in the South seas ; they also occur in con- 
siderable abundance in the neighbourhood of Sheerness and 
Sandgate Creek. 



BIVALVES. MYA. 37 



MYA Gaper. 

DIVISION I. Hinge with one or two rounded teeth, not inserted 
in the opposite valve. 

Glycymeris Great. Rostrata Beaked. 

*Truncata Abrupt. *Distorta Deformed. 

* Arenaria Sand. *Bidentata Double- toothed. 
*Declivis Sloping. *Decussata Decussated. 
*Pubescens Pubescent. *Purpurea Purple. 
*Preetensus Spoon-hinge. *Ferruginosa Rusty. 
Anatina Duck. . Nitens Glossy. 

Globosa Globular. *Prismatica Prismatic. 

Nicobarica Nicobar. *Substriata Substriated. 

DIVISION II. Hinge callous, without teeth. 

E dentula Toothless. Norwegica Norwegian. 

Membranacea Membraneous. Siliqua Bean-pod. 

DIVISION III. Hinge with teeth inserted into the opposite valve. 

* Batava Dutch. Corrugata Wrinkled. 
*Pictorum Painters'. Rugosa Rough. 
*Ovata Oval. Variabilis Variable. 
Radiata Radiated. Nodosa Knobbed. 
Ponderosa Ponderous. Syrmatophora Angular. 
Complanata Smooth. *Suborbicularis Roundish. 
Nodulosa Knotted. *Inaequivalvis Inequivalve. 
*Margaritifera Pearl. Labiata Lipped. 

Aurita Eared. 

DIVISION IV. Hinge toothless, with a conical rounded hollow for 
the reception of the cartilage. 

Vulsella Tweezers. 



38 BIVALVES. SOLEN. 



SOLEN. RAZOR-SHEATH OR KNIFE-HANDLE. 

Animal an Ascidia: Shell bivalve, oblong, open at both 
ends; hinge with a subulate reflected tooth, often double, 
and not inserted into the opposite valve. 

THE number of species in this genus is thirty-five, and 
in their general appearance they are exceedingly varied. 

In some of the species, as in the S. siliqua, S. vagina, 
&c. the breadth of the shell is in the proportion of about 
seven to one of its length, thereby giving it a resemblance 
to the handle of a knife, or sheath of a razor strop; some, 
on the contrary, though possessing nearly the same pro- 
portions, are curved or bent, like the scabbard of a scimi- 
tar, as the S. ensis, &c. In others, the form approaches 
nearer to some of the truncated species of the preceding 
genus, being swollen or puffed up like a bladder. How- 
ever, by observing both ends of the shell, which will be 
invariably found open or gaping, there can be little danger 
of mistaking the Solen for any other genus. 

The next characteristic is derived from the hinge, which 
is usually supplied with one subulate tooth, often found 
double, though not always inserted in the opposite valve. 

The genus Solen, for the most part, presents but little 
beauty; there are, indeed, some few exceptions such as 
the S. radiatus, S. roseus, &c. these, from being rayed with 
purple and white, or having a fine pink colour, may perhaps 
claim admiration ; but whatever beauty they may possess, 
they are infinitely surpassed by innumerable species in the 
other genera of Bivalves. 

Most of the species of Solen are found covered witli a 
thin cuticle or epidermis, which, if not removed, renders 
the colours beneath obscure, and, in some instances, undis- 
coverable. 



BIVALVES. TELLINA. 39 

The European and Northern Seas afford by far the great- 
est proportion of the shells of this genus. They are, how- 
ever, found in the Indian, American, and Mediterranean 
seas. They often reside among zoophytes. 

SOLEN Razor- Sheath. 

DIVISION L Shell linear. 

* Vagina Sheath. Linearis Slender. 

Truncatus Truncated. Ensis Scimitar. 

*Novacula Knife. *Pellucidus Transparent. 

*Siliqua Long brown. *Legumen Pease-cod. 

Cultellus^-Kidney. 

DIVISION II. Shell ovate or oblong. 

*Antiquatus Antique. Striatus Striated. 

Gigas Giant. Castrensis Zigzag. 

Magnus Great. Biradiatus Double-rayed. 

Minimus Small. Sanguinolentus Blood-red. 

Guineensis Guinea. Oriens Rising Sun. 

Inflexus Inflected. Occidens Setting Sun. 

Diphos Violet. Amethystus Amethyst. 

Radial us Rayed. Variegatus Variegated. 

Strigilatus Strigilated. Bullatus Inflated. 

*Coarctatus Narrow. *Minutus Minute. 

*Fragilis Brittle. \irens-Green. 

Anatinus Duck's-bill. *Squamosus Scaly. 

Roseus Rose-coloured. Vespertinus Vesper. 



TELLINA. TELLEN, 

Animal a Teiliys: Shell bivalve, generally sloping on one 
side; in the fore part of one valve there is a convex, and 
in the other, a concave fold; hinge with usually three 
teeth, the lateral one smooth in one valve. , 
AMONGST all the different genera of Bivalves, there is 

none, except the Venus, which can vie with the Tellina in 



40 BIVALVES. TELLINA. 

point of beauty, variety, or number, which amounts to no 
less than eighty-one species: and whether the attention 
be directed to their elegance of form, brilliancy of colour, or 
delicacy of structure, the eye is equally astonished and de- 
lighted. 

The usual form of the Tellina resembles a long pear, 
being broad at one end, and gradually tapering to the 
other; in some cases so much so, that the pointed termi- 
nation of the shell forms a perfect beak or proboscis, as 
in the T. rostrata, T. virgata, &c. Others, on the contrary, 
are more of an orbicular, or spherical form, as the T. sco- 
binata, &c. and some again, as the T. radiata, &c. are 
nearly allied to species of the Solen genus, with which 
(from their near resemblance) they are sometimes con- 
founded; however, from the general propensity of all Tel- 
linae to terminate in a more or less acute beak, much in- 
accuracy cannot well be committed. At the same time, the 
hinge of the Tellina will remove any doubts that may have 
originated from the simple observance of the exterior; for 
it is usually furnished with three teeth, the middle one of- 
ten cleft; the lateral teeth are most commonly smooth; the 
interior margin rarely, if ever, crenulated. 

The outside of the shells is surprisingly varied, some 
being perfectly smooth and polished, whilst others are co- 
vered with minute striae and undulations. In some in- 
stances the whole surface is beset with coarse imbrications 
or scales ; but the more elegant species of the Tellina are 
chiefly remarkable for their beautiful radiations, the colours 
of which are rarely to be equalled in any of the other ge- 
nera. 

As the Tellinae are most important among the Bivalves, 
so the sources from whence they are derived usually 
abound in the different varieties they afford. The Medi- 
terranean, Adriatic, European and Northern Seas, and the 



BIVALVES. TELLINA. 41 

American and Atlantic Oceans produce a great number. 
The rivers, pools, ponds, and marshes of Europe and 
America supply only a few. The finest varieties are 
found in the pearl fisheries of Ceylon. 



TELLINA. Telkn. 

DIVISION I. Ovate and thickish. 

Gargadia Toothed. Inflata Inflated. 

R ugosa Wrinkled. Polygona Polygonal. 

Lingua-fells Cat's tongue. Lacunosa Marshy. 

Marginalis Margined. Gibbosa Gibbous. 

Virgata Tulip. Gari Varying. 

Interrupta Freckled. *Ferroensis Carnation. 

Angulata Angular. *Fragilis Brittle. 
Obliqua Oblique. 

DIVISION II. Ovate and compressed. 

Triangularis Triangular. Coccinea Scarlet. 

Oblonga Oblong. Incarnata Flesh-colour' d. 

Spengleri Spengler's. Opalina Opaline. 

Foliacea Golden. Lanceolata Lance-shaped. 

Acuta Sharp-edged. Sanguinea Sanguineous. 

*Planata Substriated. Nivea Snowy. 

Strigosa Striped. Sulcata Sulcated. 

Lsevigata Smooth. Donacina Donax. 

Madagascariensis Madagascar. *Angusta Narrow. 

Radiata Radiated. Truncata Truncated. 

Pallescens Pale. *Punicea Flat-striated. 

Rostrata Beaked. *Depressa Depressed. 

Rufescens Reddish. *Fabula Semi-striated. 

Flavescens Yellow. *Tenuis Thin. 

Hyalina Glassy. Vitrea Transparent. 

*Inaequivalvis Inequivalve. *Striata Striated. 

*Trifasciata Three-banded. Balaustina Pomegranate. 
Calcarea Chalky. 



42 BIVALVES. CARDIUM. 

DIVISION III. Sub- orbicular. 

Remies Waved. *Zonata Banded. 

*Fausta Obsolete. Bimaculata Double spot. 

*Reticulata Reticulated. Balthica Baltic. 

Cancellata Cancellated. Pisiformis Pea-shaped. 

*Guinaica Guinea. Divaricata Obliquely-striated. 

Scabra Rough. Dentata Toothed. 

* Crassa Thick. Digi taria Digital. 
Decussata Decussated. *Cornea Horn-coloured. 
Cordiformis Heart-shaped. * Lacustris Lake. 
Muricata Prickly. *Amnica River. 
Scobinata Rasp. Pusilla Minute. 
*Lactea Milky. Limosa Maton's. 

* Rotundata Round. Fluminalis Euphrates. 
*Flexuosa Flexuous. Hermaphrodita Olive. 
*Carnaria Rosy. Fluminea Ribbed. 

Fluviatilis Chinese. 



CARDIUM. COCKLE OR HEART-SHELL. 

Animal a Tethys : Shell bivalve, nearly equilateral, eqid- 
valve, generally convex, longitudinally ribbed, striated, or 
grooved, with a toothed margin ; hinge with two teeth near 
the beak, and a larger remote lateral om on each side, 
each locking into the opposite. 

THIS genus, though not so numerous as the last, pre- 
sents great variety of structure and colouring. There are 
forty-seven species. 

The valves of the Cardium are for the most part of a con- 
vex, swollen, or gibbous construction, and often spherical j 
yet, in some instances, their form is elongated and com- 
pressed. In other species the contour exhibits the figure 
of a perfect heart, as in the C. cardissa, &c. 

The shells are usually equivalve, and have their outsides 



BIVALVES. CARDIUM. 43 

adorned with longitudinal ridges and grooves, crossed by 
transverse striae, similar to the common cockle, only much 
more articulate. In others, again, the ridges are beset 
with rows of acute spines, as in the C. aculeatum and C. 
echinatum; but the exteriors of some have a perfectly 
smooth and polished surface, as the egg-cockle, &c. 

The C. fragum and C. unedo exhibit a peculiar formation, 
being sub-angular, and only heart-shaped when seen in a 
particular position. A similar coincidence is observable in 
the C. retusum, though, in other respects, it differs; for the 
C. fragum and C. unedo have their ridges covered with 
crowded pink or yellow elevated lunules or crescents, but 
the C. retusum has nodules rather than imbricated scales. 

The interior margin of this genus is almost universally 
crenate or toothed. 

The hinge is furnished with two teeth, and a larger re- 
mote lateral tooth on each side of it, each locking into its 
opposite. 

The C. edule, or common cockle, is found in great abun- 
dance beneath the surface on sandy coasts ; the fish affords 
a wholesome and nourishing food. 

The most rare and valuable species of the genus Cardium 
is the C. costatum or pipe-ridged cockle, which has rows 
of white hollow elevated ribs, situated at regular distances 
on its surface, and proceeding in a longitudinal direction 
from the beaks to the margin ; the interstices, or spaces be- 
tween these ribs, are (in perfect specimens) of a fine dark- 
brown colour, which gives the shell a great boldness of 
character. 

A great part of this genus inhabits the European and 
Northern seas; many are collected from the American, 
African, and Indian oceans; the Mediterranean, likewise, 
produces some of the species ; and the mouths of rivers, as 
the Tees, Thames, &c. also supply specimens, though 
rarely. 



44 BIVALVES. CARDIUM. 



CARD1UM Cockle or Heart-shell. 
DIVISION I. HEART-SHAPED, VALVES COMPRESSED, UM- 

BONES ALTERNATING. 

Cardissa Venus' s heart. Roseum Smooth edged. 

Hutnanum Concave. Monstrosum Recurved. 

DIVISION II. SUB-CORDATE, LONGITUDINALLY RIBBED. 

FAMILY 1. Having a crescent shaped cavity beneath the 

umbones. 
Retusum Diana* 's. 

FAMILY 2. Ribs armed with nodules, elevated rough strife, 

wrinkles, or scales. 

Edule Common. Regulare Regular. 

Unedo Strawberry. Glaucum Glaucous. 

Fragum White strawberry. *Fasciatum Banded. 
Hemicardium Heart-shaped. *Elongatum Lengthened. 
Tuberculatum Tuberculated. Leucostomum White-mouth 'd. 
Isocardia Rasp. Magnum Yellow ribbed. 

Pecdniforme Pecten. Rigidum Rigid. 

Maculatum Spotted. 

FAMILY 3. With ribs armed, more or less spined. 
Flavum Yellow. Rugatum Gaper. 

Spinosum Spined. Latum Broad. 

*Echinatum Rake. Ciliatum Ciliated. 

Lima Asiatic. *Aculeatum Spinous. 

Muricatum Prickly. *Muricatulum Minute. 

FAMILY 4. With ribs unarmed. 
Costatum Pipe-ridged. Oblongum Oblong. 

Medium Marbled. Papyraceum Paper. 

Donaciforme Triangular. Fimbriatum Furbelowed. 

*Exiguum Pigmy. Rusticum Banded. 

Ringens Toothed. Islandicum Iceland. 

*Parvum Diminutive. 



BIVALVES. MACTRA. 45 

DIVISION III. SUBCORDATE, OBSOLETELY RIBBED, STRIAT- 
ED OR SMOOTH. 

FAMILY 1. Obsoletely ribbed. 
Laevigatum Smooth. 

FAMILY 2. Lightly striated, approaching smooth. 
Lineatum Streaked. Grcenlandicum Greenland. 

Serratum Egg-cockle. JEollcum Janus. 

*Rubrum Red. 



MACTRA. KNEADING-TROUGH. 

Animal a Tethys: Shell bivalve, unequal sided, equivalve ; 
middle tooth of the hinge complicated, with a small hol- 
low on each side; lateral ones remote, and inserted into 
each other. 

THE genus Mactra has little to boast of, either in re- 
gard to beauty or variety. The number of species amounts 
only to forty-two, and in those no great difference of 
colouring or form is observable. 

The Mactra is usually of a triangular form ; but, in some 
instances, it is rather oblong. 

The surface of the exterior is generally smooth, or mi- 
nutely striated ; some exceptions, however, may be found, 
as the M. plicataria, and others, which exhibit a wrinkled 
or ribbed appearance, similar to that observed in the differ- 
ent species of the Cardium, but in a reverse direction ; the 
latter being ridged or plaited longitudinally,- while, in the 
Mactra, the elevations and their adjacent grooves are plac^ 
ed transversely. 

The generality of Mactrae are of a delicate construction, 



46 BIVALVES. MACTRA. 

and have a seraipellucid appearance. They are, for the 
most part, thin, brittle, and remarkably light. 

The most prevailing colour is blueish or yellowish-white, 
but some have, upon a brown ground, delicate rays of pur- 
ple, heightened with rich tints of the same colour : others, 
again, are of a brilliant lilac, passing into a delicate blue. 

The hinge of the Mactra is its best distinction from all 
the other genera of Bivalves, for the middle tooth is almost 
invariably complicated, and of a triangular form, hav- 
ing a small hollow on each side ; the lateral teeth are re- 
mote from the beaks and inserted into each other. The 
hinge, though very articulate, is remarkably thin and deli- 
cate ; in some cases, the teeth which compose it are much 
thinner than paper. 

The Mactrae are mostly equivalves ; in a few specimens 
the valves gape at both ends, and in others at the anterior 
only; the interior margin is rarely crenated or toothed. 

The Northern and European seas supply many of the 
species of Mactrae. The Indian and American oceans, the 
Mediterranean, the shores of Africa and the Cape of Good 
Hope also produce them. They are also frequently found 
at the mouths of rivers. 



MA.CTRA Kneading-trough. 

DIVISION I. SHELL, SUBANGULAR. 
FAMILY 1. Having a smooth surface. 

Spengleri Spengler's. *Stultorum Simpletons'. 

Carinata Keeled. Grandis Great. 

Maculata Spotted. Achatina Agate. 

Corallina Banded. *Triangularis Triangular. 

Lactea Milky. Minutissima Minute. 

*Cinerea Ashy. Donaciformis Donax. 



BIVALVES. DONAX. 47 

FAMILY 2. Having a striated or wrinkled surface. 
Striatula Substriated. Nitida Delicate. 

Plicataria Plaited. Striata Striated. 

Papyracea Paper. *Radiata Rayed. 

Vitrea Brittle. *Solida Strong. 

Cygnea Swan. Solidissima Thick. 

Turgida Inflated. *Truncata Truncated. 

Violacea Violet. *Subtruncata Abrupt. 

Cuneata - Wedge-shaped. Australia Southern. 

Rotundata Roundish. Piperata Pepper. 

Glabrata Smooth. *Tenuis Thin. 

*Boysii Boys'. 

DIVISION II. SHELL OVATE, OBLONG. 

FAMILY 1. Closed at both ends. 
*Glauca Red-rayed. Rugosa Rugged. 

Egyptiaca Egyptian. 

FAMILY 2. Gaping at the anterior end. 
Pellucida Pellucid. *Fragilis Brittle. 

*Listeri Lister's. 

FAMILY 3. Gaping at both ends. 
* Pianata Flattened. *Lutraria Muddy. 

*Hians Gaping. 



DONAX. WEDGE-SHELL. 

Animal a Tethys: Shell bivalve, with generally a crenit- 
late margin, the frontal margin is very obtuse; hinge with 
two teeth, and a single marginal one placed a little be- 
hind, rarely double or triple. 

THE most leading characteristic of the Donax is deriv- 
ed from its form, which (throughout the twenty-four-species) 
is similar to that of a wedge, being very broad and thick at 
one extremity, and gradually narrowing and lessening to 



48 BIVALVES. DONAX. 

the other. The frontal margin is generally very obtuse, and 
the anterior slope is not unfrequently furnished with a sort 
of fissure or gape ; near to which is situated a cartilaginous 
ligature or ligament, which prevents the two shells from 
separating when the animal has occasion to open them. 

Some of this genus, however, are a little ambiguous in 
their external appearance ; so much so, that they frequent- 
ly create a doubt whether they should not be ranked among 
the species of the Venus; but in these cases the hinge alone 
must be the guide, which in the Donax is furnished with 
two teeth, and a single marginal one placed a little behind, 
not often double or triple. 

The exterior of the Donax is generally of a smoothish 
surface, though many are covered with nearly obsolete lon- 
gitudinal striae, being embellished at the same time with 
numerous reddish or purple rays, diverging from the beaks 
to the margin. Other species are perfectly rough on their 
outside, which is caused by crowded striae crossing each other 
in a longitudinal and transverse direction ; this disposition 
of the striae gives the shell a foliated and even a spiny ap- 
pearance, as in the D. scortum and D. pubescens. 

A very prevalent colour in this genus is a fine rich pur- 
ple or purple rays on a white ground ; many of the species, 
however, are of an olive-yellow cast, which not unfrequent- 
ly inclines to a bright orange; others, again, have a pink 
hue, and are finely lettered with brown zigzag markings, 
as the D scripta, &c. and in some instances the shells have 
a banded appearance. The interior almost always par- 
takes of the colouring of the exterior; and the margin, which 
is generally of a high colour, is almost invariably crenulat- 
ed or beset with small contiguous teeth. 

The species and varieties of this genus are but few, and 
thinly scattered over most parts of the globe ; yet some 
coasts (the European in particular) supply a profusion, but 



BIVALVES. VENUS. 49 

of no great variety; they are usually found buried in the 
sand. It is not exactly ascertained whether any of this 
genus are natives of rivers. 

The Donax derives its name from its shape, which re- 
sembles the barbed head of a javelin or dart. 

DONAX Wedge-shell. 

DIVISION I. With decussated and muricated stria. 
Scortum Beaked. Muricata Prickly. 

Pubescens Spiny. Spinosa Spinous. 

DIVISION II. Longitudinally striated. 
Rugosa Wrinkled. Striata Striated. 

Serra Crenated. Denticulata Toothed. 

*Trunculus Common. Incarnata Flesh-coloured, 

E longa ta Elongated. 

DIVISION III. Transversely striated. 
Plebeia Horn-coloured. Candida White. 

*Castanea Chesnut. Radiata Radiated. 

Faba Bean-shaped. Cuneata Wedge. 

Straminea Straw-coloured. Madagascariensis-Madagascar. 

DIVISION IV. Smooth. 

Complanata Single-rayed. Scripta Lettered. 

Laevigata Smooth. Stultorum Foolish. 

DIVISION V. Shell with transverse membranaceous ridges. 
*Irus J 



VENUS. VENUS. 

Animal aTethys: Shell bivalve, the frontal margin flat- 
tened, with incumbent lips; hinge ibith three teeth, all of 
them approximate, the lateral ones divergent at the tip. 
IT has already been observed, that this genus, with re- 
gard to beauty, bears a decided pre-eminence over all the 
D 



50 BIVALVES. VENUS. 

other genera of Bivalves: and it is in all probability from 
this very circumstance that it has obtained the title it bears. 
It contains no less than one hundred and fifteen spe- 
cies; and among these the variety in formation and colour- 
ing is almost infinite : many of its species have the frontal 
margins of their shells somewhat flattened, and not unfre- 
quently with the lips incumbent. The elongated, com- 
pressed, angular, and orbicular forms, find a place in this 
genus, as may be observed on inspecting the four follow- 
ing species: viz. V. literata, V. compressa, and V. tigrina. 
In some, the form is very much inflated, gibbous, or swol- 
len, as in the V. verrucosa, V. fimbriata, and V. reticu- 
lata. 

Many of this genus are remarkable for their smoothness, 
and the brilliant lustre of their surfaces, such as the V. 
Erycina, V. maculata, V. Chione, &c. these at the same 
time are distinguished for their high and rich colouring. 
Others, again, have less of colour and polish, but more of 
carved word or reticulations, as the V. Paphia, V. reticu- 
lata, &c. and one species is even spinous, viz. V. Dione. 

In many specimens the exterior surface is covered with 
longitudinal or transverse stria?, sometimes with both, which 
not unfrequently terminate in foliations near the margins. 

The interior of the shells of this genus is often adorned 
with rich colouring, as in the V. mercenaria or wampum 
clam, which in fine specimens is of a rich purple. The 
North American Indians make their wampum or money 
of the shells of this species. The same shell, in a fossil 
state, is often found in the Swedish mountains. 

The hinge of the Venus, with scarcely any exception, con- 
tains three teeth, all approximate or close to each other ; 
besides these three, there is a lateral tooth, not unfrequent- 
ly divergent at the tip. The inner margin of the shell is 
sometimes crenulated. 



BIVALVES. VENUS. 51 

Almost all parts of the world supply specimens of this 
genus. The American, African, Eastern, and Western 
Oceans abound with them. The Mediterranean, Caspian, 
and Southern Seas likewise produce various species ; as al- 
so do the European and more northern oceans. 



VENUS Venus. 

DIVISION I. WITH THE ANTERIOR DEPRESSION SPINOUS. 
Dione Prickly mouthed. Marica American. 

DIVISION II. SUBCORDATE. 



Paphia Paphian. 
*Fasciata Banded. 
Succincta Grooved. 
*Cingenda GzVdferf. 
Dysera Ribbed. 
Tiara Turban. 
Plicata Plaited. 
*E xcavata Excavated. 

* Spinifera Spiny. 

* Verrucosa Warty. 
Rigida Rigid. 

* C asina Broad- ribbed. 
Cancellata Channeled. 
Subcordata Subcordate. 
*Minima Red streaked. 
*S ulcata Furrowed. 
*Montagui Montague's 
*Scotica Scottish. 
*Danmonia Devonshire. 
Reflexa Reflected. 
*Gallina Hen. 
*Circinata Compass. 
Caliste Dirty white. 

C ompressa Compressed. 
Exalbida Whitish. 



Petulca Clouded. 
*Granulata Grained. 
*Ovata Oval. 
Paupercula Despised. 
Flexuosa Flexuous. 
Mactroides Maclra. 
Tripla Triple. 
Triangularis Triangular. 
Malabarica Malabar. 
Flammea Brown- band. 
E rycina Polished. 
Costata Ribbed. 
Pacifica South-sea. 
* M er cenari a Money. 
*Islandica Icelandic. 
Coaxans Ceylon. 
Lusoria Sportive. 
*Chione Smooth brown. 
Maculata Spotted. 
Casta Chaste. 
Meretrix Lipped. 
Paradoxa Doubtful. 
JLseta Globose. 
Pinguis Sleek. 
Triradiata Three-rayed. 



52 BIVALVES. VENUS. 

Nebulosa Clouded. Callipyga Arabian. 

Exilis Abandoned. *Deflorata Purple-streaked. 

Recens Recent. Fimbriata Fringed. 

Japonica Japanese. Reticulata Netted. 

Striata Striated. Puerpera Spotted. 

Castrensis Camp. Crenulata Crenulated. 

Pectunculus Painted. Radiata Rayed. 

Lorenziana Lorenzo. Cincta Girdled. 

Ornata Adorned. Squamosa Scaly. 

Phryne Phryne. Lapicida Rock. 

Meroe Meroe. Divergens Ziczac. 
Plumbea Leaden. 

DIVISION III. SUBORBICULAR. 

*Tigrina Tiger. Tumidula Gibbous. 

Sinensis Chinese. *Borealis Northern. 

Prostrata Compressed. Aculeata Acute-ribbed. 

Punctata Punctured. Pectinata Pectinated. 

Excisa Defaced. Discors Toothed. 

*Exoleta Antiquated. Dispar Unequal. 

Concentrica Concentric. Equivoca Equivocal. 

3 u venis Young. Divaricata Divaricated. 

Histrio Party coloured. Contraria Contrary. 

*Undata Waved. Corrugata Corrugated. 
Scripta Written. 

DIVISION IV. SHELLS INFLECTED, WITH A LONGITUDINAL 

FURROW ON THE ANTERIOR END. 

Pensylvanica Pensylvanian. Jamaicensis Jamaica. 
Edentula Toothless. *Spuria Spurious. 

Globosa Globose. 

DIVISION V. SHELLS SUBOVAL, AND SLIGHTLY ANGULATED 

ON THE ANTERIOR SIDE. 

FAMILY 1; Smooth or striated. 

Gigantea Gigantic. Geographica Geographic. 

Literata Lettered. Rotundata Rounded. 



BIVALVES. SPONDYLUS. 53 

Undulata Undulated. *Perforans Piercing. 

Obsoleta Obsolete. Virginea Virgin. 

*Decussata Intersected. *Aurea Golden. 

Senegalensis Senegal. *Palustris Marshy. 

Monstrosa Distorted. 

FAMILY 2. Foliated. 
Agaracoides Mushroom. 



SPONDYLUS. THORNY OYSTER. 

Animal a Tethys: Shell bivalve, solid, withunequalvalves: 
one of the valves convex, the other rather fiat; hinge iviih 
two recurved teeth separated by a small hollow. 
THIS genus, though containing innumerable varieties, 
is divided into no more than ten species, and even these, 
from their extreme irregularity of formation and great simi- 
larity of appearance, may often be confounded with each 
other. However, the most striking character of the Spon- 
dylus is, that its valves, which resemble those of the com- 
mon oyster, viz. one convex, the other rather flat, have 
their outsides covered with longitudinal rows of erect spines 
or ramifications. The spines are usually tubular, ending 
in a point; the ramifications or branchings, on the con- 
trary, are flat, jagged, and patulous at their extreme ter- 
minations. 

The spined Spondyli, as the S. Gaedaropus, &c. are 
mostly of one colour, as orange-red, purple, white, brown, 
or yellow; which colours, in fine specimens, are exceeding- 
ly brilliant 

Those which have branches or plaits, (as the S. plicatus 
&c.) have, on the contrary, a ground colour of either of the 



54 BIVALVES. SPONDYLUS. 

above-mentioned tints, and the ramifications are left en- 
tirely white. 

In some instances there is a compound of colouring, as 
white and brown, purple and white, &c. which gives the 
shell a pied or brindled appearance ; and in others (especi- 
ally those which have a tendency to being foliated as well 
as branched) the upper valve is of one colour, as purple or 
brown, while the lower valve is perfectly white. 

The valves of the Spondyli are generally unequal, the 
lower one protruding much beyond the other, and often 
terminating in a curved and lengthened beak. 

The hinge is furnished with two recurved teeth, which 
are very strong and articulate, and separated by a small 
but deep hollow; the inner margin is mostly crenulate; and 
highly coloured with orange or purple. Some of this genus, 
like the escallops, are surmounted with ears on each side of 
the beaks; others, on the contrary, are perfectly earless. 

They are generally found adhering to rocks, corals, &c. 
in groups more or less numerous, often forming large mass- 
es, and sometimes attached to shells. They are to be 
met with in the American, Indian, Mediterranean, and 
other seas. 

SPONDYLUS Thorny Oyster. 

DIVISION I. SHELL ARMED WITH SPINES OR RAMIFICATIONS. 

FAMILY 1. Sharp spines. 

Gaedaropus Thorny red. Aurantius Orange. 

Regius Royal. Citrinus Yellow. 

Histrix Hedge-hog. 

FAMILY 2 Having palmated or foliated ramifications. 

Palmatus Palmated. Spathuliferus Pied. 

Ducalis Ducal. 



BIVALVES. CHAMA. 55 

DIVISION II. SHELL UNARMED. 

FAMILY 1. Upper valve longitudinally striated. 

Anacanthus Spineless. 

FAMILY 2. Valves longitudinally plaited. 
Plicatus Plaited. 



CHAMA. CLAMP, CLAM, OR GAPER. 

Animal a Tethys: Shell bivalve, rather coarse; hinge with 
a callous gibbosity, obliquely inserted in an oblique hol- 
low; anterior slope closed. 

THIS genus is by no means numerous, containing only 
twenty-seven species, which, for the most part, are rough 
and uncouth looking shells. The C. cor is, however, an ex- 
ception, it being usually smooth: from its beauty and pe- 
culiarity of structure, it is signalized from every shell in the 
numerous catalogue of Bivalves. This species, which va- 
ries in size from two to five inches in diameter, bears a 
strong resemblance to a heart; its top being surmounted 
by beaks which wind round towards the hinge in the most 
graceful curvature possible. 

The genus Chama affords a subject for amazement ra- 
ther than admiration, for some of its species grow to an un- 
common size: the C. gigas, for instance, (or Giant clam), 
is a specimen of the unusual magnitude to which shells of 
this genus attain; the valves sometimes exceeding four 
feet in breadth, and of the enormous weight of five hun- 
dred pounds ; but so disproportionate are its varieties, that 
some have been found measuring only half an inch. This 
species is generally more or lesss ribbed and foliated, 



56 BIVALVES. CHAMA. 

and sometimes imbricated or scaly; the usual colour is a 
dirty white, but the rarest varieties are those which have a 
fine red-pink, or yellow tinge. Some of them, when per- 
fect, are highly prized. The cartilage of the hinge has a 
dull brown colour, but, when polished and cut in ovoid, its 
iridescence is so brilliant that it rivals the opal in beauty, 
and has even been sold for it. The C. hippopus also de- 
serves to be noticed; like the C. gigas it varies consider- 
ably in size, and is frequently found a foot long, while 
some specimens do not exceed an inch; it is usually of a 
yellowish colour, with pink spots and murications. 

A grand mark of distinction in this genus is, that the 
posterior slope is usually open or gaping, and the anterior 
closed, not unfrequently having its margin crenulate. The 
valves are mostly inequilateral, one protruding beyond the 
other, and often appearing as if deformed. The hinge 
has generally a callous gibbosity, inserted into an oblique 
hollow. 

The C. concamerata is remarkable for having, in the in- 
terior of each valve, an ovate chamber, which gives the 
shell an appearance of being double. 

The more beautiful species of this genus are richly foli- 
ated or spined, as the C. lazarus, C. gryphoides, and C. 
arcinella; the varieties of which are sometimes worthy of 
admiration. 

It seems a principle with the Chamae, (like the Spondyli), 
to affix themselves to any extraneous substance which ac- 
cident may throw in their way. They often adhere to 
rocks, stones, and various shells; but, in many instances, 
they seem to have a preference for some particular genus 
of shells; for the C. arcinella is most commonly found af- 
fixed to that species of Murex called the Thorny Woodcock; 
however, it retains a partiality for others of the Murices, 
especially those often known under the name of Triplices. 



BIVALVES. CHAMA. 57 

The American, Indian, and Atlantic Oceans ; and the 
Mediterranean, Caspian, and Adriatic Seas, produce infi- 
nite varieties of this genus. 



CHAMA Clam. 

DIVISION I. SHELL EQUIVALVE. 

FAMILY 1. With longitudinal ribs, gaping at the posterior slope. 
Gigas Giant. Hippopus Spotted. 

FAMILY 2. With longitudinal ribs, posterior slope closed. 
Antiquata Antiquated. Calyculata Variegated. 

Ajar Ajar. Pectunculus Peduncle. 

Trapezia Trapeziform, Satiata Obsolete. 

Rosea Rose-coloured. Rugosa Rugged. 

FAMILY 3. Shell longitudinally ribbed, having an ovate 

chamber in the interior of each valve. 

Concamerata Chambered. 

FAMILY 4. Shell decussated, or transversely striated, without 

ribs. 

Semiorbiculata Brown. Oblonga Oblong. 

Cordata Heart-shaped. Coralliophaga Coral. 

FAMILY 5. Shell tuberculated. 
Plumbea Leaden. 

FAMILY 6. Heart-shaped, umbones prominent, and apices 

spirally recurved. 
*Cor Heart. Moltkiana Moltkian's. 

DIVISION II. SHELL INEQUIVALVE. 

Lazarus Lazarus. Lamellosa Lamellar. 

Gryphoides Gryphus. Punctata Dotted. 

Cornuta Horned. Sinistrorsa Reversed. 

Sessilis Scaly. Arcinella Hedge-Hog. 

Ponderosa Heavy. 

D3 



58 BIVALVES. ARCA. 



ARCA.- ARK. 

Animal a Tethys? Shell bivalve, equivalve; hinge with 
numerous sharp teeth, alternately inserted between each 
other. 

THE Area, of which there are forty-five species, are 
readily distinguished from other bivalves, by the peculiari- 
ty of the hinge ; which, without exception, is composed of 
numerous sharp teeth, alternately inserted between each 
other. The line of direction of the hinge admits of two 
variations: in some species, as the A. Noae, A. barbata, 
&c. it is perfectly straight; in others, as the A. pectuncu- 
lus, A. pilosa, &c. it is arched or curved. However, in all 
the species, the same description of hinge exists, though in 
some it may be differently situated. 

The forms of the Arks vary exceedingly; some are elong- 
ated, as the A. tortuosa, A. Noa?, and A. barbata: in the 
A. barbata or bearded Ark, the greater part of the surface 
of the shell is concealed by a thick bristly or hairy covering. 

The subcordate form is exemplified in the A. senilis, A. 
granosa, &c. which are, besides, somewhat gibbous, and 
have usually smooth or muricated grooves. 

The third form is the suborbicular, of which the A. gly- 
cymeris and A. pilosa are sufficient examples; they are for 
the most part smooth on the outside, except where the 
longitudinal striae are placed: these striae are frequently 
more articulate in the interior than on the exterior, and of- 
ten terminate, at the inner margin, in "elevated teeth. The 
shells of this genus are covered with a brownish or green- 
ish black epidermis. 

There are many Arks which gape at the outer margin ; 
others, on the contrary, are perfectly close. Some have 



BIVALVES. ARCA. 59 

the margin entire; others, again, are crenulated 5 and se- 
veral have prominent angular slopes, which give the shell 
an auriculated appearance ; the anterior slope is, however, 
by far the most prominent of the two. 

This genus presents but little beauty, though some of its 
species are considered rare. 

The Ark is found in the European, Indian, American, 
and Atlantic oceans: the Baltic, Northern, and Red seas 
also produce some species. 

ARCA Ark. 

DIVISION I. WITH THE TEETH OF THE HINOE IN A STRAIGHT 
LINE. 

FAMILY 1 Shell twisted. 
Tortuosa Twitted. 

FAMILY 2. Shell rhomboidal. 
Nose Noah's. Candida White. 

*Imbricata Imbricated. Indica Indian. 

Navicularis Boat. *Lactea Milky. 

Plicata Plaited. Reticulata Reticulattd. 

FAMILY 3. Shell oblong or transversely ovate. 
Magellanica Magellanic. Bicolorata Party-coloured. 

Lacerata Hairy. Modiolus Muscle. 

Fusca Brown. Corbula Basket. 

Senegalensis Senegal. 

FAMILY 4. Shell subcordate. 

Lavigata Smooth. Granosa Grained. 

Pella Brittle. Rhombea Rhomboid. 

Antiquata Antiquated. Senilis Rugose. 

FAMILY 5. Gaping. 

Complanata Compressed. Nivea White. 

Barbata Bearded. Cancellata Cancellated. 



60 BIVALVES. OSTREA. 

FAMILY 6. With an ear-shaped appendage in the interior of 

each valve. 
Concamerata Chambered. 

DIVISION II. WITH THE TEETH OF THE HINGE IN A 

CURVED LINE. 

FAMILY 1. Subcordate. 

Campechensis Campeachy. ^Equilatera ^Equilateral. 
A ngulosa Angular. 

FAMILY 2. Suborbicular, margins crenated or plaited. 
Pectunculus Spotted. *Glycymeris Orbicular. 

Pectinata Comb. *Pilosa Downy. 

Decussata Decussated. Stellata Starred. 

Pallens Pale. Scripta Lettered. 

Undata Lettered. Nummaria Coin. 

FAMILY 3. Suborbicular, margin entire. 
Multis-striata Many-striped. 

DIVISION III. WITH THE TEETH OF THE HINGE PRODUCED 

AND SHARPLY POINTED. 

*Nucleus Silvery. *Minuta Small. 

*Rostrata Beaked. *Tenuis Thin. 



OSTREA. OYSTER AND SCALLOP. 

Animal a Tethys : Shell bivalve, generally with unequal 
valves, and slightly eared ; hinge without teeth, but fur- 
nished with an ovate hollow, and mostly lateral transverse 
grooves. 
THERE are no less than eighty-eight species in this 

genus, which present considerable variety in beauty and 

form. 



BIVALVES. OSTREA. 61 

The Ostrese are divided into several classes : the first and 
second comprise the innumerable varieties of escallops or 
scallop shells, and are distinguished from each other by the 
proportion of their ears ; the third and remaining divisions 
include the species somewhat resembling the common 
oyster. 

The first division is, for the most part, composed of 
very elegant specimens : their form is usually regular, and 
their surface is adorned with elevated divergent ribs, in 
number from five to forty, which proceed from the tip of 
the beaks to the extremity of the margins, and there ter- 
minate in a fine scalloped or Vandyked outline, describ- 
ing in their course the most graceful expansion possible. 

The greater number of the species of this genus are in- 
equivalve, that is, the degree of convexity differs in the two 
valves of the same specimen, as in the O. ziczac, O. jaco- 
bsea, &c. which invariably have the upper valve flat, and the 
lower convex. However, in other species, as the O. pallium, 
(ducal mantle), &c. the shells are equivalve, i. c. both pos- 
sess the same degree of rotundity and gibbosity. 

It is remarkable, that in many of the Ostrese the colours 
of the upper valve are brighter than those of the lower: 
this is particularly observable in the O. pleuronectes, known 
by the name of the Compass or Flounder Pecten, which has 
one valve perfectly white, and the other of a brownish or 
reddish cast. This species has also another peculiarity, 
viz. that it invariably gapes at both ends ; whereas, in other 
species, the gape is only at one end. 

The situation of the beaks often varies considerably ; in 
some, as the O. maxima, O. jacobsea, &c. they are placed 
in the centre ; whereas, in the O. lima, O. glacialis, &c. 
they are situated obliquely, or on one side, which gives the 
outline of the shell an appearance of slight distortion, oc- 
casioned by one margin being straight and flattened, white 
the other remains round and inflated. 



62 BIVALVES. OSTREA. 

There is also considerable variation in the size and form 
of the ears, which in some species are nearly of the same 
dimensions; but, in many, one is much larger than the 
other ; and in a few, they are hardly discernible. 

The ears of many of the scallops are almost smooth on 
the outside, but some are rough, and even spined. The 
O. pallium and others have one ear ciliate, and are spin- 
ed within. 

The exterior of the shells, as has been before observed, 
is usually covered with elevated longitudinal ribs and 
grooves, which are variously diversified with beautiful co- 
lours and fine chequer-work. The ribs are mostly covered 
with undulated and transverse striae, not unfrequently as- 
suming the appearance of elevated scales, as in the O. im- 
bricata. In others, again, the striae are crenated, as in the 
O. radula; and some, as the O. nodosa, &c. have large 
knobs or tubercles raised upon the ribs. 

The margins of the interior of the Ostrese are generally 
crenated, and often beautifully coloured. 

The hinge is universally without teeth, and furnished 
with an ovate hollow; in the vicinity of which are placed 
lateral transverse grooves, running in a parallel direction 
in both valves, but not locking into each other, as in the 
genus Area. 

The common scallop, O. maxima, is found in most Eu- 
ropean seas, in large beds, from which they are dredged by 
the fishermen, and afterwards pickled and barrelled for 
sale ; they are also sometimes brought to market in the state 
in which they are caught, and are eaten fresh. These 
shells were formerly worn by pilgrims on their hat or coat, 
as a mark of their having crossed the sea for the purpose 
of paying their devotions at the holy shrine, in Palestine: 
in commemoration of which, they are still preserved in the 
armorial bearings of many families of distinction. 

The scallops are found harbouring among fuci and zo~ 



BIVALVES. OSTREA. 63 

ophytes : they have the faculty of leaping out of the water, 
and are enabled to effect a very rapid motion, by opening 
and closing their valves. 

The third division of Ostreae consists of those which 
in construction, substance, and colouring, are more nearly 
allied to the common or eatable oyster. The species of 
these divisions are of a much more irregular form than the 
scallops, and are usually very rugged, unfinished looking 
shells. The hammer oyster, O. malleus, is perhaps the 
most remarkable of this class ; its form resembles that of 
a long-headed hammer, or more properly a pick-axe : there 
are two distinguishable varieties of it, viz. the white and 
the black, both of which, when in fine preservation, 
are considered rare and valuable. These shells are rough 
and plaited on the outside, but their inside is smooth and 
glossy, having a steel blue colour or metallic lustre diffused 
over the surface. 

The hinge of some of the species, as the O. perna and O. 
isognomon, has a perpendicular grooved line attached to 
it. Some, again, as the O. lima, &c. gape at the hinge ; 
others terminate in a long beak from the hinge upwards, 
as the O. virginea. 

The species of the fourth division are parasitical, and 
some have the appearance of a dried leaf, as the O. folium, 
&c. which often adhere to the roots and stumps of trees, 
especially the mangrove, and are also found affixed to the 
gorgonise. 

The O. crista-galli and the other species of the third fami- 
ly of the fourth division were, in the former editions of this 
work, which closely adopted Gmelin's arrangement, classed 
among the Mytili ; but, guided by the character of the shells, 
we have removed them to this genus, to which they indis- 
putably belong. These attach themselves to foreign bodies 
by a formation of the shell itself, which has the appearance 
of several distinct claws or hands. 



64 BIVALVES. OSTREA. 

The common oyster (O. edulis) is too well known for 
its nutritious and palatable properties to require much de- 
scription ; suffice it to say, that the exterior of the shell is 
usually covered with undulated and imbricated scales, of 
a yellowish or pinkish olive cast; and the old shells are of- 
ten covered with various adhesions, such as anomiae, ser- 
pulse, lepades, sertulariae, and other marine productions. 
The interior of the shell has generally a pearly appearance, 
and specimens are often found containing pearls. They 
are to be met with in most seas, occasionally in clusters, 
affixed to rocks and other substances. In some places they 
are considered so profitable a branch of traffic, that the 
greatest care is taken to promote their generation and 
growth. By proper management their multiplication be- 
comes immense. They are often formed into large layers 
or beds, extending many miles ; which, in favourable sea- 
sons, prove a submarine mine of wealth to their propri- 
etors. 

Ostrese are found in every part of the world ; but the 
most rare are produced in the Indian seas. 

OSTREA Oyster or Scallop. 

DIVISION I. VALVES WITH EARS EQUAL. 

FAMILY 1. Valves ribbed, upper valve flat. 
*Maxima Greatest. Ziczac Zigzag. 

*Jacob8ea Lesser. Striatula Sixteen-rayed. 

Minuta Minute. 

FAMILY 2. Valves ribbed, ears equal. 
Hybrida Hybrid. Imbricata Imbricated. 

Radula Rasp. Plica Folded. 

Hians Gaping. 

FAMILY 3. Valves flattish on one side and gaping. 
Lima File. *Fasciata Banded. 



BIVALVES. OSTREA. 65 

Bullata Swollen. Glacialis Icy. 

Fragilis Brittle. Excavata Hollow. 

Scabra Rough. *Loscombia Loscomb's. 

FAMILY 4. Fakes smooth or striated, and not closing. 
Pleuronectes Sole. Japonica Japanese. 

Magellanica Magellanic. 

DIVISION II. VALVES WITH UNEQUAL EARS. 

FAMILY 1. Valves ribbed. 

Pes-lutrse Otter' s-foot. * Varia Variegated. 

Pallium Ducal Mantle. Sauciata Unequal-rayed. 

Sanguinolenta Blood-spot. Pusio Wrinkled. 

Palliata Variegated. *Sinuosa Distorted. 

Nodosa Knobbed. Miniata Vermilion. 

Pes-felis Cat's Foot. Triradiata Three-rayed. 

Sulcata Sulcated. Solaris Solar. 

*Cinnabarica Red. Glabra Glabrous. 

Senatoria Senator. *Opercularis Painted. 

Citrina Yellow. *Lineata Lined. 

Pellucens Pellucid. Nucleus Kernel. 

Obliterata Worn. Gibba Gibbous. 

Sanguinea Scarlet. Turgida Turgid. 

Porphyria Porphyry. Pyxidata Box-like. 

Flavicans Yellow. 

FAMILY 2. Valves smooth. 
Tigrina Tiger. Vitrea Glassy. 

Fuci Fucus. *Obsoleta Obsolete. 

Exotica Exotic. *Laevis Smooth. 

Proteus Variable. 

DIVISION III. OBLONG, LINEAR. 

FAMILY 1. With a transverse lobe on each side of the hinge. 
Malleus Hammer. 

FAMILY 2. With a slight beak on one side of the hinge. 
Figurata Figured. 



66 BIVALVES. OSTREA. 

FAMILY 3 Rounded at the hinge. 
Regula Tongue-shaped. 

FAMILY 4. Valves diverging at the hinge, and the inside 

vaulted '. 
Fornicata Vaulted. 

DIVISION IV. PARASYTICAL, OR ATTACHED TO OTHER 

SUBSTANCES, 

FAMILY 1. With one valve produced at the summit. 
Cucullata Hooded. Forskalii Forskael's. 

Virginea Virginian. Cristata Crested. 

Rostrata Beaked. Sinensis Chinese. 

FAMILY 2. With the valves nearly equal, 
Orientalis Indian. Orbicularis Orbicular. 

Folium Foliated. Arborea Tree. 

Plicata Plaited. Senegalensis Senegal. 

FAMILY 3. With the valves strongly plaited longitudinally. 
Crista-galli Coxcomb. Hyotis Horned. 

Frons Crested. 

DIVISION V. WITH THE HINGE COMPOSED OF TRANSVERSE 

FURROWS IN A STRAIGHT LINE. 

Crenatula Crenated. Ephippium Saddle. 

Semiaurita Half -eared. Alata Winged. 

Pern a Oblong. Picta Painted. 

Isognomon Long-hinged. Legumen Pod-shaped. 

DIVISION VI. VALVES SLIGHTLY STRIATED, LOWER VALVE 

TURNING UP AT ITS SIDES, AND THE CARTILAGE OF 
THE HINGE PLACED IN A DEEP NARROW GROOVE. 

Spondyloidea Spondyloid. Ovalis Oval. 

DIVISON VII. VALVES COARSE AND RUGGED, AND NOT COM- 
PREHENDED IN THE FORMER DIVISIONS. 

Denticulata Toothed. *Edulis Eatable. 



BIVALVES. ANOMIA. 67 



ANOMIA. ANOMIA OR ANTIQUE LAMP. 

Animal an emarginated, ciliated, strap-shaped body, 
with bristles or fringe affixed to the upper valve; arms 
two, linear, longer than the body ; connivent projecting, 
alternate on the valve, and ciliate on each side, the fringe 
affixed to each valve : Shell bivalve, inequivalw, one of 
the valves flattish, the other gibbous at the base, with a 
produced beak, generally curved over the hinge ; one of 
the valves often perforated near the base; hinge with a 
linear, prominent cicatrix, and a lateral tooth placed 
within, but in the flat valve, on the very margin; two 
bony rays for the base of the animal. 
OF this curious genus of Bivalves there are thirty spe- 
cies. 

The shells are usually inequivalve, one of them often 
flattish, the other gibbous at the base, terminating in a 
produced beak, which curves upwards over the hinge. 
There is frequently a small perforation near the base, 
through which the animal thrusts a strong ligament, 
whereby it affixes itself to different marine substances, as 
fuci, crabs, spines of echini, and especially to the stars of 
the Madrepora prolifera. 

The Anomise differ materially in form, some resembling 
the shape of an oyster, as the A. cepa, A. ephippium, &c., 
all of which have the lower valve flat and perforated. Others, 
again, are imperforated and nearly orbicular, as the A. 
craniolaris, A. placenta, &c., and some are oblong, as the 
A. bifida, &c. Many of them, when viewed in profile, 
resemble the form of an antique lamp, as the A. caput<- 
serpentis, &c. and a few are very similar to the hooked or 
curved beak of a parrot, as the A. psittacea, &c. 



68 BIVALVES. ANOMIA. 

The hinge of the Anomia admits of considerable vari- 
ation ; but its most leading character is that of being fur- 
nished with a linear prominent cicatrix, and a lateral tooth 
placed within. On the margin of the flattest valve in 
many species are placed two bony rays, or linear callosities, 
which serve as a base for the animal ; but some have only 
one in each valve. 

The interior of the shell is often silvery, and the margin 
is frequently crenated, notched, or toothed, but in many it 
is perfectly entire. 

The prevailing colour in this genus is that of a dirty yel- 
low, or dusky white; however, some are bright yellow, as 
the A. electrica. The A. cepa (the onion peel), and the 
A. sella (the saddle oyster), have a fine coppery or bronze- 
like appearance; and the A. Capensis and A. sanguinea 
exhibit a beautiful pink or red colouring. The A. psittacea, 
and other similar species, have a dingy or olive black co- 
lour, and a few are found of a shining jet black. 

Some of the Anomise are almost smooth ; others, on the 
contrary, are ribbed and striated, as the A. muricata, which 
is covered with scales and hollow spines of considerable 
length; and others decline on the fore-part, and have a 
groove or channel running down the middle of the shell. 

The Anomiae are generally thin and delicate shells, and 
usually semitransparent. The A. placenta (the cake) but 
commonly called the Chinese window oyster, when in a 
young state, becomes so transparent by the process of po- 
lishing, that it is frequently made use of by the ingenious 
Chinese as a substitute for glass. 

The European, Indian, American, and African oceans 
supply many species of the Anomia, as also do the Me- 
diterranean and Northern seas. 



BIVALVES. ANOMIA. 69 



ANOMIA Anomia. 

DIVISION I. Lower valve flat and per/orated. 
Craniolaris Cranium. *Aculeata Prickly-valved. 

Turbinata Top-shaped. Muricata Muricated. 

*Ephippium Orbicular. *Undulata Striated. 

*Cepa Onion. Patelliformis Limpet- shaped. 

*Electrica Small-amber. Squama Scaly. 

Punctata Dotted. Bifida Bifid. 

*Cylindrica Cylindrical. 

DIVISION II. Having the umbo perforated, and generally a car- 
tilaginous substance in the interior of the shell. 
Scobinata Rough. Sanguinea Scarlet-rayed. 

Aurita Eared. Caput-serpentisSnake's-head. 

Retusa Blunt. * Terebratula Lamp. 

Truncata Truncated. Cranium Brittle. 

Capensis Cape. Cruenta Blood-red. 

Decollata Semicircular. Dorsata Keeled. 

Pubescens Downy. Psittacea Parrot-beak. 

Rosea Pink. 

DIVISION III. Irnperf orated, and having a truncated triangular 

hinge. 
Placenta Cake. Sella Saddle. 



70 BIVALVES. MYTILUS. 



MYTILUS. MUSCLE. 

Animal allied to an Ascidia : Shell bivalve, rough, gene- 
rally affixed by a byssus orbeardof silky filaments; hinge 
mostly without teeth, with generally a subulate, excavated 
longitudinal line. 

OF the genus Mytilus there are enumerated forty-six 
species; though some of these are a little indistinct in char- 
acter, yet the greatest proportion of them bear a near al- 
liance to the general form and habits of the common or 
eatable muscle. There are, indeed, a few exceptions, such 
as the M. margaritiferus (true mother-of-pearl shell), and 
others of a similar description ; some of which we have re- 
moved from the position they occupied in this genus in the 
former editions of the present work, into the third family 
of the fourth division of the Ostrea genus, as they exhibit 
strong evidence of belonging to that genus. 

The hinge of the Mytilus is usually without teeth, hav- 
ing generally a subulate excavated line in place of them. 
Some species have, however, little denticulations with al- 
ternate grooves, which vary in number from ten to fifty ; 
in the M. niger, which has the greatest number, they 
amount to one hundred. 

The general appearance of muscles differs greatly : some 
being perfectly smooth, and beautifully marbled and va- 
riegated with fine colouring; others are elegantly radiated 
with purple and white, like a tulip ; and some again are 
coarsely ribbed and grained with minute tubercles, and of 
one colour only, such as black, blue, green, yellow, or brown. 
Most of them are indebted to their epidermis for whatever 
outward colour they may possess ; when this is removed, so 
different a surface is often presented, that even an adept 



BIVALVES. MYTILUS. 71 

might be puzzled to recognise two shells of the same spe- 
cies. In some specimens the epidermis is bearded or 
shaggy. In a few instances, the valves gape, as in the M. 
bilocularis, and other similar species. 

The greater part of this genus exhibit internally a pearly 
appearance, and some (when uncoated and polished) afford 
the brightest radiance possible. The M. margaritiferus is 
admired for the iridescent colours it displays, and is, more- 
over, famous for the fine and valuable pearls it engenders 
within its silvery valves. The young shells of this species 
are sometimes so different to the adults in appearance, that 
they can scarcely be known for the same. 

Some of the Mytili possess the faculty of penetrating 
coral-rocks, hard marble, and limestone. Of this class are 
the M. lithophagus and M. rugosus; the latter is sometimes 
found in lakes as well as in the sea. 

A few species, on a superficial glance, might be mistaken 
as belonging to the genus Mya; viz. the M. latus, M. dis- 
cors, and M. ungulatus ; but, by a minute inspection of the 
hinge, the error would soon be discovered. 

The M. edulis affixes itself to other bodies, by means of 
a silky byssus ; it is found in immense beds or layers, con- 
sisting of many myriads. 

The M. cygneus and M. anatinus, (both fresh-water 
species), frequently become the food of birds and aquatic 
fowls. 

The Mytili from the rivers in Africa are often of great 
beauty when polished, and exhibit fine colours. 

The Indian, Atlantic, American, and Northern oceans 
produce many species; some are also from New Zealand, 
the Mediterranean, Russian, and Red seas. 



72 BIVALVES. MYTILUS. 



MYTILUS Muscle. 

DIVISION I. SHELL OBLONG, UMBONES OR APICES TER- 
MINAL AND POINTED, SLIGHTLY ANGULATED AT ONE 
SIDE, AND ROUNDED AT THE LOWER MARGIN. 

*Edulis Eatable. Latus Broad. 

*Pellucidus Pellucid. Perna Lengthened. 

Vulgaris Small. Smaragdinus Green. 

Bilocularis Two-celled. Confusus Wedge-shap'd. 

Ungulatus Ox-hoof. Bidens Double tooth'd. 

Exustus Rose-coloured. Puniceus Ventricose. 

Striatulus Striated. Demissus Silvery. 

Niger Black. Ruber Red. 

DIVISION II. TRANSVERSELY OVATE, WITH LONGITUDINAL 

RIBS ON EACH SIDE, AND PLAIN OR STRIATED 
IN THE MIDDLE. 

*Discrepans Compartment. *Discors Discordant. 
Impactus Wool- coated. 

DIVISION III. FOUND BURROWED IN ROCKS, CORALS, &c. 

Lithophagus Burrowing. *Praecisus Truncated. 

Aristatus Crossbeak'd. Fuscus Brown. 

*Ambiguus Ambiguous. Plicatus Plaited. 

*Rugosus Rugged. Niveus Snow-white. 

Coralliophagus Coral-piercer. Arborescens Dendritical. 

DIVISION IV. SHELL OBLONG, GIBBOUS, WITH THE POS- 
TERIOR SIDE DILATED AND ELEVATED ABOVE 
THE HINGE, APEX ROUNDED. 

*Modiolus Great. 

DIVISION V. ONLY FOUND IN FRESH WATER. 

*Cygneus Swan. *Anatinus Duck. 

Fluviatilis River. *Fucatus Avon. 

Stagnalis Stagnant. Dubius Doubtful. 

Americanus American. 



BIVALVES. PINNA. 73 

DIVISION VI. EARED. 
FAMILY 1. Valves rather compressed. 
Margaritiferus Pearl. Radiatus Rayed. 

Unguis Nail., 

FAMILY 2. With one valve more convex than the other. 
Hirundo Swallow. Morio Mulberry* 

Ala-corvi Crow's wing. 

DIVISION VII. SHELL SUBORBICULAR, LONGITUDINALLY 

STRIATED, AND MARGIN CRENULATED. 

Faba Bean. 

DIVISION VIII. SOMEWHAT TONGUE-SHAPED, APICES 
ACUTE. 

Lingua Tongue. Camellii Camellius'. 



PINNA. FIN-SHELL, NACRE, OR SEA-WING. 

Animal a Limax : Shell bivalve, fragile, upright, gaping 

at one end, and furnished with a byssus or beard; hinge 

without teeth, the valves united into one. 

THE number of species contained in this genus is limit- 
ed to twenty-one, and some of those are so alike, as barely 
to admit of being called distinct. 

The usual form of the Pinnae is allied to that of the larger 
species of muscles, being long and tapering, narrow at the 
beaks, and gradually expanding to a considerable breadth 
at the opposite extremity : there are some instances where 
the form is more compressed. 

The Pinnae are by no means so entire or solid as the 
muscles, for they are (with few exceptions) exceedingly 



74 BIVALVES. PINNA. 

brittle or fragile in substance, and almost invariably gape 
at one end. 

The greatest portion of the Pinnae have longitudinal ribs, 
on which are placed elevated transverse striae, often ter- 
minating in imbricated arched scales, and prominent ca- 
naliculated tubular spines; the P. rudis and P. muricata 
may be adduced as examples : in the younger shells of 
these two species, the spines appear only as minute 
prickles. In other specimens, as the P. saccata (satchel), 
&c. the ribs are not so articulate, but are more undulated, 
and perfectly free from scales or spines. 

The Pinnae have usually a horn-like appearance, which 
is often overcast with a steel-blue or copper-coloured gloss. 
The hinge is invariably without teeth; the valves never- 
theless adhere so closely in the region of the beaks, that 
they appear as if united together. 

Some of the young shells of this genus are less than an 
inch in length, but the adults often exceed three feet. 

This genus produces, in large quantities, a very fine sort 
of byssus or beard, which the Maltese frequently convert 
into sundry articles of wearing apparel, vieing in appear- 
ance with the finest silk. 

The Pinnae are usually found in smooth water and bays, 
with the smaller end sticking in the mud or sand, and the 
wide end a little open. The animal, in some places, is ac- 
counted excellent food. 

The Mediterranean produces Pinnae in great number: 
they are also to be found in the Indian, American, Atlan- 
tic, and European oceans; as well as in the Adriatic and 
Red seas. 

The Pinna, probably, derives its name from its resem- 
blance to a wing or fin of a fish. 



BIVALVES. PINNA. 75 



PINNA Sea Wing. 

DIVISION I. Shells longitudinally ribbed. 

Rudis Rough. AdustaPear-shap'd. 

*Pectinata Spiny-ribb'd. Vexillum Banner. 

Inflata Inflated. Squamosa Scaly. 

*Carnea Flesh-colour' d. Vitrea Brittle. 

Rigida Rigid. Papyracea Paper. 

Nobilis Great. Saccata Satchel. J-t^ 

Muricata Prickly. Cancellata Cancellated. 

DIVISION II. Shell nearly smooth and plain. 
Nigra Black. Bicolor Two-colour 'd. 

*Ingens Scotch. Incurva Incurved. 

Rotundata Giant. Digitiformis Finger- shap'd. 

Lobata Lobed. 



76 



ORDER III. 



UNIVALVES 



I. SHELLS OF ONE PART ONLY, AND HAVING A REGULAR SPIRE. 



ARGONAUTA. PAPER SAILOR. 

Animal a Clio: Shell univalve, spiral, involute, membra- 
naceous, one celled. 

THE genus Argonauta contains but nine species: in so 
small a number, much variety is not to be expected. 

The form resembles a scroll, with a large aperture. The 
surface is ornamented with canaliculated grooves, proceed- 
ing from the summit to the outer margin, which is gene- 
rally bicarinated; but in the A. vitrea (the glassy nautilus) 
the margin is single : this is the most rare and beautiful 
species of the genus. 

The Argonautae are remarkable for their excessive thin- 
ness, brittleness, and lightness. The A. argo, usually 
known by the name of the Paper Nautilus, is supposed, in 
the early ages of society, to have first taught men the use 
of sails. 

A mucilaginous animal, called Poulpe, is often mistaken 
for the Paper Nautilus ; it is seen sailing on the ocean with 



UNIVALVES. ARGONAUTA. 77 

its arms erect, and a membrane thrown out between them, 
by which means it is driven forward, like a vessel under 
sail. The Mediterranean often has large fleets of these 
diminutive navigators floating upon its calm surface. 

The colour of the Argonautae is mostly blueish, or yellow- 
ish-white, having the keel often tinged with a brownish 
hue. 

As to size, the Argonautse differ greatly; the A. argo, 
for instance, often attains ten or twelve inches in width ; 
while the A. cornu and A. arctica seldom exceed three or 
four lines in diameter. 

The Mediterranean and Indian seas produce some va- 
rieties ; others are found at the Cape of Good Hope ; and 
some inhabit the Northern and Greenland seas. 

They are supposed to have derived their name from the 
Argonauts. 

ARGONAUTA Paper Sailor. 

DIVISION I. KEEL TOOTHED. 
FAMILY 1. Summit interiorly curved. 
Argo Oriental. Hians Gaping. 

Tuberculata Tuberculated. Gondola Boat. 
Haustrum Bucket. 

FAMILY 2. Summit exteriorly curved. 
Vitrea Brittle. 

DIVISION II. KEEL NOT TOOTHED. 
Cyinbium Minute. Cornu Horn-shap'd. 

DIVISION III. UMBILICUS PERFORATED. 
Arctica Arctic. 



78 UNIVALVES. NAUTILUS. 



NAUTILUS. PEARLY SAILOR. 

Animal (vide Rumpf. Mus. tab. 17, fig. B.) Shell uni- 
valve, divided into several compartments, communicating 
with each other by an aperture. 

THIS genus contains thirty-six species, which are all 
nearly allied in general formation and structure. The 
most characteristic mark of the genus is, that the whirls 
are generally divided into distinct compartments or cham- 
bers, connected by a slender siphon, which runs spirally 
through the shell. This siphon is in some species cen- 
tral, and in others contiguous to the surface. 

The shells of the first and second divisions are spiral or 
scroll-like; but, in the third, they are dentiform, and re- 
semble the Dentalia. The whirls in the first division are 
contiguous ; while, in the second and third, they are de- 
tached. 

The N. pompilius, when bisected, exhibits in an eminent 
degree the pearly concamerations for which this genus is 
distinguished. The inhabitants of the East often convert 
fine specimens of the above species into drinking cups; 
they carve the surface into various devices and ornaments, 
and also frequently remove the outer coating entirely, by 
which the beautiful pearly appearance of the shell becomes 
visible. The umbilicated varieties of this species are rare. 
The size of the Nautili differs exceedingly; some are so 
small as only to be defined by the microscope. 

Some species of this genus are found adhering to coral 
rocks ; the N. siphunculus is often found on the coral reefs 
on the Sicilian shores. 

The American and Indian oceans, and the Mediterra- 
nean, Adriatic, and Red seas, produce some of the species 



UNIVALVES. NAUTILUS. 79 

of the Nautili; but by far the greater number are found on 
the British, and most of the European coasts. 

NAUTILUS Sailor. 

DIVISION I. Spiral, with contiguous whirls. 
Pompilius Great-chambered. Scrobiculatus Sunken-spire. 
*Lacustris Lake. 

Minute or Microscopic Shells. 

Calcar Spur. Balthicus Baltic. 

*Rotatus Wheel. *Crassulus Strong. 

*Laevigatulus Smooth. *Umbilicatulus Umbilicated. 

*Depressulus Compressed. *Lobatulus Lobed. 

*Crispus Keel-edged. Rugosus Rugged. 

*Beccarii Beccaria's. Umbilicatus Oblique-jointed. 

DIVISION II. Spiral, with detached whirls. 
Spirula Ram's-horn. 

Minute Shells. 
Spengleri Spengler's. Unguiculatus Nail-shap'd. 

DIVISION III. Elongated and almost straight. 

Minute. 

*Semilituus Half-crozier. *Spinulosus Spinous-jointed. 

Lituus Crazier. *Sub-arcuatus Sub-arcuated. 

*Carinatulus Keeled. *Bicarinatus Bicarinated. 

*Obliquus Obliquely -striated. Fascia Banded. 
Raphanistrum Twelve- striated. Insequalis Unequal. 
Raphanus Seventeen- striated. Siphunculus Piped. 
*Costatus Ribbed. *Legumen Pod. 

Granum Eight- striated. *Linearis Linear. 

*Radicula Bulbous-jointed. *Rectus Straight. 



80 UNIVALVES. CONUS. 



CONUS. CONE. 

Animal a Limax: Shell univalve, convolute, turUnate; 

aperture effuse, longitudinal, linear, without teeth, entire 

at the base; pillar smooth. 

OF this beautiful and valuable genus, only one hundred 
and sixty-five are described as distinct species; but that 
number is certainly less than the real amount. 

The Cones are very similar in form, their principal dif- 
ferences consisting in the colouring, marking, and banding ; 
yet, form sometimes assists their arrangement into classes : 
for instance, those which have a subtrancated base, as the 
C. marmoreus and C. imperialis, constitute one division. 
Another division is formed of those species which are py- 
riform and rounded at the base, and have a thick structure : 
of these, the C. betulinus and C. glaucus may be adduced 
as examples. The C. textile and C. aulicus are elongated 
and rounded at the base, and are characteristic of the third 
division : they somewhat resemble the C. tulipa, C. geogra- 
phicus, and C. bullatus, but these are distinguished by hav- 
ing a wider aperture, and being more inflated. 

Most of the Cones have a smooth surface, and bear a 
high natural polish; but some, as the C. nussatella and C. 
granulatus, are covered with granulated transverse striae, 
and even globular tubercles. 

No other genus can vie with the Conus for the beauty 
and diversity of the colouring and marking ; and none per- 
haps holds so important a station in collections. The lines 
on the C. literatus often resemble Hebrew, Greek, or Ara- 
bic characters; and the C. ebrseus exhibits similar appear- 
ances. In other species the colours are arranged into dif- 
ferent shades of cloudings, veins, marblings, dots, stripes, 
bands, or reticulations. 



UNIVALVES. CONUS. 81. 

Among the rarities may be enumerated the C. ammiralis 
or admiral cone, the vice-admirals, guinea-admirals, and 
the varieties of the zebra cones from the South Seas ; most 
of which, when fine, are frequently estimated at from one 
to ten guineas. But this price appears trifling when com- 
pared with the value of the C. gloria-maris ; which, incre- 
dible as it may appear, was estimated at one hundred 
guineas. The following are also considered rare and beau- 
tiful: the C. aurisiacus, C.glaucus, C. nobilis, and a variety 
of C. quercinus, which has been found at the Friendly 
Islands, surrounded with an elevated girdle, 

The far greater number of species are found in the In- 
dian ocean ; some are brought from the shores of Africa 
and America; and others from the South Seas. 



CONUS Cone. 

DIVISION I. SPIRE SUBTRUNCATED. 

FAMILY 1. Spire coronated. 
Marmoreus Marbled. Zonatus Zoned. 

Nocturnus Night. Imperialis Imperial. 

Nicobaricus Nicobar. Fuscatus Clouded. 

Arachnoideus Spider-web. Candidus While. 

FAMIL\ 2. Spire plain or channelled. 
Literatus Lettered. Mustelinus Weasel. 

Eburneus Square- spotted. Leopardus Leopard. 

Tessellatus Mosaic. Hyaena Hyena. 

Generalis General. Miles Soldier. 

Monile Necklace. Centurio Centurion. 

Canaliculatus Grooved. Fusiformis Fusiform. 

Radiatus Radiated. Spurius Spurious. 

Virgo Virgin. Leoninus Lion. 

Capitaneus Captain. Characteristicus Arabic. 

Chemnitzii Chemnitz's. Cserulescens Blue. 

Zebra Zebra. 

E3 



82 UNIVALVES. CONUS. 

DIVISION II. PYRIFORM, ROUNDED AT THE BASE. 

FAMILY I. Spire coronated. 

Cedo-nulli Matchless. Pulicarius Flea-spot* 

Aurantius Orange. Obesus Fat. 

Leucostictus Veined. Piperatus Punctured. 

Tseniatus American-flag. Varius Various. 

Musicus Music. Coronatus Coronated. 

Miliaris Millet. Barbadensis Barbadoes. 

Luzonicus Spotted-velvet. Rosens Rose- coloured. 

Lividus Livid. Coccineus Scarlet. 

Mus Mouse. Citrinus Citron-colour. 

Distans Wide-lined. Sponsalis Pink-spotted, [ed. 

Caledonicus Caledonian. Puncturatus Groove-punctur- 

Costatus Ribbed. Ceylonensis Ceylonese. 

Ebrseus Hebrew. Exiguus Narrow. 

Princeps Persian-robe. Pusillus Dwarf. 

Arenatus Sandy. Lamellosus Plaited- spire. 
Sulcatus Grooved. 

FAMILY 2. Spire plain or channelled. 

Janus Janus. Suratensis Surat. 

Guinaicus Guinea. Monachus Monk. 

Fulmineus Lightning. Ranunculus Ranunculus. 

Lorenzianus Lorenza's. Anemone Anemone. 

Amadis Amadis. Achatinus Tulip. 

Acuminatus Sharp-pointed. Rusticus Rustic. 

Thomee St. Oma's. Nisus Brown-throated. 

Ammiralis Admiral. Coffeae Coffee. 

Archithalassus Granulated. Vittatus Ribbon. 

Vitulinus Spotted. Classarius Sailor. 

Planorbis Depressed-spire. Mercator Net-work. 

Senator Senator. Betulinus Birch- bark. 

Catus Cat. Figulinus Brown- banded. 

Nobilis Noble. Inornatus Naked. 

Siamensis Siamese. Quercinus Box- wood. 

Genuanus Gartered. Lineatus Lineated. 
Papilionaceus Butterfly' s-wing. Eques Equestrian. 

Fluctifer Prometheus. Ermineus Ermine. 

Glaucus Brownish. Vexillum Flag. 



UNIVALVES. CONUS. 83 

Testudinarius Turtle. Mediterraneus Olive-clouded. 

Venulatus Veined. Puncticulatus Red-dotted. 

Namocanus Ashwood. \ted. Mauritianus Mauritian. 

Stercus- muscarum Fly-spot- Verrucosus Warted. 

Cancellatus Cancellated. Columba Dove. 

Portoricanus Porto Rico. Madurensis Green-cross. 

Tinianus Red- colour 1 d. Jaspideus Jasper. 

Taitensis Blackish-violet. Japonicus Orange-mottled. 

Scabriusculus Scabrous. Mindanus White-mottled. 

Rattus Rat. Festivus Festive. 

Jamaicensis Three-banded. Reticulatus Netted. 
Ferruginosus Iron- colour' d. 

DIVISION III. ELONGATED AND ROUNDED AT THE BASE. 

Clavus Yellow-veined. Adansoni Adanson's. 

Gradatus Stepped. Augur Augur. 

Aureus Golden. Magus Magician. 

Circumcisus Truncated. Striatus Striated. 

Terebellum Chocolate. Gubernator Pilot. 

Australis Southern. Gloria-maris Glory of the sea. 

Laevis Smooth. Pyramidalis Pyramid. 

Ochroleucus Yellowish. Textile Embroidered. 

Strigatus Pale-violet. Abbas Abbot. 

Mitratus Mitre. Archiepiscopus Archbishop. 

Glans Acorn. Canonicus Canonical. 

Tenellus Delicate. Episcopus Bishop. 

Nussatella Nussatella. Praelatus Prelate. 

Granulatus Grained. Pennaceus Plumose. 

Fusus Spindle. Rubiginosus Orange-brown. 

Aurisiacus Orange, Omaria Pearl-brown. 

Terebra Whimbte. Aulicus Brunette. 

Raphanus Radish. Elongatus Lengthened. 

DIVISION IV. VENTRICOSE, WITH A WIDE APERTURE. 

Spectrum Spectre. Timorensis Timor. 

Informis Misshapen. Nimbosus Rainy. 

Ventricosus Ventricose. Tulipa Tulip. 

Bullatus Bubble. Geographicus Geographic. 



84 UNIVALVES. CYPR^A. 



CYPRJEA. COWRY OR GOWRIE. 

Animal a Slug: Shell univalve, involute, subovate, 
smooth, obtuse at each end: aperture effuse, linear, ex- 
tending the whole length of the shell, and toothed on 
each side. 

THIS beautiful genus contains seventy-three species, 
but these may be subdivided into more than a hundred va- 
rieties. The shells when arrived at muturity have their 
two lips always beset with strong articulate teeth, which is 
the characteristic mark of the genus. 

The Cyprseae, though very similar in form, possess suf- 
ficient distinctions to constitute six divisions: the first in- 
cludes those that have a manifest spire, such as the C. 
Arabica, C. amethystea (the young of C. Arabica), C. ex- 
anthema, C. plumbea (the young of C. exanthema), and 
C. mappa. Those, on the contrary, which are without a 
manifest spire, form the second division; as the C. caput- 
serpentis (snake's head), and C. Mauritiana, The third 
division is composed of the umbilicated or perforated va- 
rieties; such as the C. ziczac, C. asellus, &c. Those spe- 
cies which are marginated form the fourth class : viz. the 
C. moneta, and C. annulus, &c. The C. moneta is fished 
up by the negro women, three days before or after full 
moon, and transported into Bengal, Siam, America, and 
the adjacent islands; where it is used by the native blacks as 
a substitute for money. The fifth division is composed of 
those species which have their backs wrinkled, such as the 
C. oniscus, C. sulcata, &c. And the sixth, of such as are 
beaked at the extremities, as for example the C. nucleus, 
C. staphylea, &c. 

Most of the Cowries are smooth glossy shells, of exqui- 
site brilliancy of colour, and elegantly marked with dots, 



UNIVALVES. CYPRJSA. 85 

zigzag lines, undulations, streaks, &c. ; which are beauti- 
fully exemplified in the C. mappa, the C. argus, and the C. 
testudinaria. To these may be added the C. vitellus, the 
C. carneola, the C. talpa, and others of the like description. 
Some of the species, however, have but little colouring, 
and have their surfaces covered with small globular tuber- 
culations or warts, as the C. pustulata. 

One of the largest and most valuable Cowries is the C. 
aurora, or orange cowry, which is found, though very 
rarely, at the Friendly Isles. Of the smaller cowries > the 
C. stolida and the C. pustulata are considered rare. 

The greater proportion of the Cypraese are found in the 
Indian ocean; many, however, come from the American, 
African, and Mediterranean shores; some also from the 
South seas. 

CYPR^EA Cowry. 

DIVISION I. SPIRE NOT QUITE CONCEALED. 

Exanthema False-argus. Carneola Flesh-colour' d. 

Mappa Map. Talpa Mole. 

Arabica Arabic. Lurida Lurid. 

Histrio Harlequin, Vanelli Saffron-throated. 

Argus Argus. Lota White. 

Testudinaria Tortoise-shell. Guttata Dotted. 

Stercoraria Livid. Sanguinolenta Sanguine. 

Aurora Orange. Undata Waved. 
Teres Long. 

DIVISION II. OBTUSE, SPIRE QUITE CONCEALED. 

Achatina Agate. Pantherina Panther. 

Caput-serpentis Snake' s~head. Lynx Lynx. 

Mauri tiana Blackish-brown. Felina Feline. 

Vitellus White-spotted. Cinerea Ash-colour' d. 

Mus Mouse. Isabella Yellow. 

Tigris Tiger. Cylindrica Cylindric. 
Indica Green- spotted. 



86 UNIVALVES. CYPR.EA. 

DIVISION III. UMBILICATED. 

Onyx Onyx. Hirundo Swallow. 

Subflava Yellowish. Ursellus Brown-spot. 

Clandestina Clandestine. Lutea Yellow. 

Succincta Banded. Asellus Three-banded. 

Ziczac Ziczac. Errones Olive-mottled. 

Zonata Zoned. Pyrum Pear. 

Punctata Dotted. 

DIVISION IV. WITH THE MARGIN THICKENED. 

Moneta Money. Stolida Square-spotted. 

Annulus Annular. Tabescens Slender. 

Caurica Thick-edg'd. Helvola Star. 

Dracaena Angular-marked. Angustata Narrow. 

Cruenta Ferruginous. Ocellata Eyed. 

Cribraria Umbilicated. Albuginosa Bird's-eye. 

Erosa Bordered. Poraria White-spot. 

Flaveola Ochreous. Gangranosa Gangrene. 

Spurca Narrow -margined. Fimbriata Fimbriated. 
Tessellata Mosaic. 

DIVISION V. WITH THE BACKS RIBBED, WRINKLED, OR 

TUBERCULATED. 

Oniscus Woodlouse. Europea European. 

Sulcata Sulcated. Ma.&agasca.riens\s-Madagascar. 

Aperta Wide-mouth' d. Pustulata Pustulated. 

DIVISION VI. BEAKED AT THE EXTREMITIES. 

FAMILY 1. Having raised dots on the back. 
Nucleus Wrinkled. Staphylea Groove-back' d. 

Cicercula Vetch. 

FAMILY 2. With the back smooth. 
Margarita Pearl. Globulus Globular. 



UNIVALVES. BULLA. 87 



BULLA. DIPPER OR BUBBLE. 

Animal a Limax: Shell univalve, convolute, unarmed 
with teeth: aperture a little straitened, oblong, longitu- 
dinal, very entire at the base ; pillar oblique, smooth. 

THIS genus, which contains fifty-five species, is in some 
instances so nearly allied to the preceding, that much cau- 
tion is necessary to prevent confusion in the classification ; 
so great indeed is the difficulty of distinguishing the young 
shells of the Bulla and Cyprsea, that the two genera have 
heen intermixed by some authors. However, one grand 
mark of distinction in this genus is, that, in whatever stage 
of growth its species are found, they never have teeth on 
both their lips, the pillar-lip being invariably free from 
any appearance of denticulations ; while in the Cyprseae, 
both the pillar and outer lips are crenated with very articu- 
late and prominent teeth. There is also a greater variety 
of form in the Bullse than in the Cypraese. Some species, 
as the B. volva, or weaver's shuttle, are of an elongated 
form, having the length much increased by two produced 
beaks. 

The next variation of form is discernible in the B. ovum, 
or poached egg, of which there are two varieties : the com- 
mon, from Amboyna, is white without, and yellow within ; 
the rarer, from the Friendly Isles, is white without, and 
pink within. These shells are less beaked and more gib- 
bous than the B. volva, and lead into the following orbicu- 
lar species, viz. the B. naucum, B. physis, B. ampulla, &c. 
These are without teeth, and rather umbilicated. 

The B. terebellum is an exception to the general form of 
the Bullse, its shape being remarkably long and slender, 
and resembling a lengthened olive. 



88 UNIVALVES. BULLA. 

Some of the Bullse, as the B. ficus and B. rapa, are very 
similar to the genus Murex : the latter species is esteemed 
a rarity ; the former, on the contrary, is common, and very 
much resembles the shape of a fig. 

The B. zebra, B. fasciata, B. achatina, and other simi- 
lar species, are land shells; in form, they are nearly allied 
to the genus Helix. It is remarkable, that the animals 
which inhabit them are oviparous. The reverse varieties, 
that is to say, those having their whirls or spires twisted 
contrary to the usual direction, and having, at the same 
time, their mouths placed on the opposite side, are highly 
valued. The B. purpurea inhabits Africa, and is found in 
rice fields. 

Some species of this genus are remarkable for the brit- 
tleness and lightness of their shells; such are the B. velum, 
B. amplustre, &c. 

The inhabitant of the B. lignaria, and, in all probability, 
of many other species, is furnished with an organ called a 
gizzard, of a testaceous nature. 

The different 'species of this genus are to be found in the 
Mediterranean, African, American, Indian, European, and 
Northern seas. 

The Bulla, probably, derives its name from some of the 
lesser species resembling a dew-drop, or bubble of water. 

BULLA Dipper. 
DIVISION I. SHELL RESEMBLING THE CYPR^EA GENUS, BUT 

TOOTHED ON THE OUTER LIP ONLY. 

Ovum Poached-egg. Nucleus Wrinkled. 

Imperialis Crumpled. Verrucosa Warty. 

DIVISION II. SHELL OBLONG, BEAKED AT THE ENDS. 
Volva Weaver's-shuttle. Secale Rye-shaped. 

Lepida Orange. Spelta Oblong. 

Birostris Lesser. Gibbosa Belted. 



UNIVALVES. BULLA. 89 

DIVISION III. SHELL THIN, GIBBOUS, AND APERTURE 

LARGE. 

FAMILY 1. Apex generally umbilicated and without aspire. 
Naucum Sea-nut. Amygdalus Almond. 

*Aperta Wide- *Lignaria Brown-striated. 

*Catena Chain. Pectinata Pectinated. 

*Plumula Feather. Soluta Unsealed. 

*Hydatis Paper. *Akera Elastic. 

Ampulla Pewet's-egg. C ylindrica Cylindric. 

Velum White- banded. 

Shells Minute. 

*Cylindracea Cylindrical. *Retusa Blunt. 

*Umbilicata Umbilicated. *Obtusa Obtuse. 

FAMILY 2. Having a spire. 
Physis Striped. Zonata Zoned. 

Amplustre Banded. Undulata Undulated. 

Scabra Rough. 

DIVISION IV. SHELL PYRIFORM, WITH PRODUCED BEAK. 

Ficus Fig. Rapa Turnip-shaped. 

Pyrum Pear. Canaliculata Channelled. 

DIVISION V. SHELL GENERALLY THIN, SPIRE PROMINENT, 

AND BODY WHIRL INFLATED. 

Voluta Volute. Strigata Yellow- streaked. 

Dominicensis Nine-whirVd. Striatula Striated. 

Crassula Reversed. . Exarata Wrlnlded. 

*Fontinalis Fresh-water. Truncata Truncated. 

*Rivalis River. Priamus Priam. 

*Hypnorum Slender. Zebra Zebra. 

Gelatinosa Gelatinous. Achatina Broad- strip* d. 

Virginea Ribbon. Purpurea Purple-mouth' 'd. 

Fasciata Banded. Sinistrorsa Great-revers'd. 

DIVISION VI. SHELL CYLINDRICAL, WITH A SUBULATE SPIRE 

AND TRUNCATE BASE. 

Terebellum Awl-shaped. 



90 UNIVALVES. VOLUTA. 



VOLUTA. VOLUTE OR WREATH. 

Animal a Limax : Shell one-celled, spiral; aperture with- 
out a beak, and somewhat effuse ; pillar twisted or plait- 
ed, generally without lips or perforation. 
THE one hundred and ninety-seven species of this genus 
are more or less celebrated for their beauty or scarcity ; and 
are easily distinguished from all other Univalves, by their 
having several teeth or plaits on the columella or pillar-lip. 
In some species, the number of teeth amounts only to four 
or five; but, in others, as in the Olives, it is unlimited, and 
frequently extends to as many as thirty or forty, when they 
are much smaller and less articulate. 

The Volutes are generally of a smooth and polished sur- 
face; among the exceptions may be mentioned the V. tur- 
binellus, V. ceramica, V. capitellum, and many of the 
mitres. 

Among the innumerable varieties of the olives, the camp 
or panama (V. porphyrea) is most conspicuous, not only for 
the peculiarity of its markings, but also for the consider- 
able magnitude it attains. The rest of the species of the 
olives, as the V. oliva, V. ispidula, and V. utriculus, &c. 
although not remarkable for their scarcity, are much ad- 
mired for their beauty and variety. 

Some of the rarer Volutes are the produce of the land, 
and are curiously distinguished from the rest of the genus 
by having their mouths shaped like an ear; such are the 
V. auris-Midae, V. auris-Sileni, V. auris-Judae, V. auris- 
Malchi, &c. The three first are found in the^marshy woods 
and swamps of India, and are numbered among the rari- 
ties of the genus. The last is an inhabitant of New Cale- 
donia. 



UNIVALVES. VOLUTA. 91 

The fusiform or spindle-shaped volutes constitute a large 
portion of the genus, and are usually known by the name 
of mitres ; some of them are very elegantly formed and 
finely tinted in their colouring. The species most worthy 
of remark are the V. patriarchalis, the V. pertusa, V. pa- 
palis, and V. episcopalis or bishop's mitre, which is fre- 
quently found in India; the inhabitant or fish is said to 
be of a poisonous nature, and to wound with a kind of 
pointed trunk those who touch it. The natives of the island 
of Tanna fix these shells in handles, and use them as 
hatchets. Among the rest of the elongated form may be 
enumerated the V. sanguisuga, V. caffra, V. vulpecula, 
and V. plicaria, some of which are considered rare. 

The V. musica, or music shell, though not rare, is very 
interesting, from the circumstance of having its markings 
arranged in parallel lines, like the lines or a stave in mu- 
sic, upon which are placed small dots or punctures, in 
exact resemblance of the notes and other characters used 
in music. The wild music or bat Volute (V. vespertilio) 
is a curious variety of the above ; as is also the V. ebraea, 
which is esteemed a rarity. 

Among the more beautiful species of the Volutes, are 
the V. vexillum or orange flag Volute, V. imperialis, V. 
Pacifica, the V. lapponica, V. scapha, and V. Magellanica. 

The species of Volutes call Melons are mostly of a large 
size; and some of them, as the V. Ethiopica or Ethiopian 
crown, and its varieties, have their whirls or spires sur- 
rounded with elevated hollow spines, forming a perfect 
coronation or thorny crown: most of this division are pa- 
pillary at the tip. 

The heavy and angulated turnips are worthy of notice 
among the Volutes, not only on account of their great size, 
but for their excessive weight, which, in comparison to 
most other shells, is really immense. 

The different species of Volutes are found in various 



92 UNIVALVES. VOLUTA. 

parts of the world; but, in all probability, the Indian seas 
produce the most; though the Atlantic, Pacific, Northern, 
and European oceans, also yield their supplies. 

VOLUTA Volute. 

DIVISION I. SHELL OVATE, WITH THE APERTURE GENE- 
RALLY EAR-SHAPED AND ENTIRE. 

Auris-Midae Midas' -ear. Auris- virginis Virgin' s-ear. 

Aures-Judse Judas' -ear. Auris-vulpina Fox's- ear. 

Australis New Holland. Auris- cati Cat's-ear. 

Auris-Malchi Malchus'-ear. *Tornatilis Double-banded. 

Glabra Smooth. Flammea Variegated. 

Auris- Sileni Silenus'-ear. Solidula Strong. 

Fasciata Sanded. Livida Livid. 
Coffea Coffee- colour. 

Minute Shells. 

Minuta Minute. *Alba White. 

Flava Yellow. *Pellucida Pellucid. 

*Denticulata Toothed. *Unidentata Single-tooth' d. 

Triplicata Three- tooth' d. *Interstincta Divided. 

Pusilla Small-oval. *Insculpta Engraved. 

Bidentala Double-tooth' d. *Plicatula Plaited. 
*Ambigua Doubtful. 

DIVISION II. SHELL OVATE, SMOOTH, OUTER MARGIN 

THICKENED, APERTURE NEARLY ENTIRE. 

Elegans Elegant. Faba Bean. 

*Pallida Pallid. Strigata Wave-striped. 

Exilis Brown- banded. Prunum Bluish-grey. 

Monilis Necklace. Chemnitzii Chemnitz's. 

Miliaria Millet. Glabella Polished. 

Guttata Dotted. Picta Painted. 

Marginata Margined. Castanea ChesnuL 



UNIVALVES. VOLUTA. 93 

DIVISION III. SHELL OVATE, SMOOTH, SPIRE FLAT, APER- 
TURE EFFUSE AND LINEAR. 

Porcellana Porcelain. Bullata Bubble. 

Persicula Red-spotted, *Lsevis Smooth. 

Cingulata Red-lined. *Catenata Chain- spotted. 

DIVISION IV. SHELL SUB-CYLINDRICAL, ENAMELLED, AND 

EMARGINATED. 

FAMILY 1. Spire rather obtuse. 

Porphyrea Porphyry. Incrassata Thickened. 

Erythrostoma Orange-mouth' d' Pinguis Quaker. 
OHva Olive. Tigrina Tiger. 

Ventricosa Ventricose. Carneola Carnelian. 

Utriculus Bottle-shaped. Micans Little. 

FAMILY 2. Spire prominent or conical. 
Cruenta Orange-throat. Ampla Large. 

Annulata Ringed. Nivea Snowy. 

Gibbosa Gibbous. Jaspidea Jasper. 

Ispidula Enamelled. Ancilla Damsel. 

Hiatula Gaping. Nitidula Delicate. 

Oryza Rice. 

DIVISION V. SHELL FUSIFORM, GENERALLY STRIATED OR 

RIBBED, EITHER LONGITUDINALLY OR TRANSVERSELY. 

FAMILY 1. Spire less than half the length of the shell. 

Crenulata Crenulated. Leucozonias White-striped. 

Fenestrata Eight-plaited. Morio Tawny. 

Dactylus Six-plaited. Aurantia Orange. 

Conus Conic. Vitulina White- banded. 

Texturata Four-plaited. Olivaria Two- banded. 

Microzonias White-banded. Nubila Clouded. 

Tringa Decorticated. Pertusa Punctured. 

Fissurata Straw-colour' d. Spiralis Spiral. 

Barbadensis Striped. Patriarchalis Patriarch. 

Spadicea Five-plaited. Muriculata Walled. 

Decussata Decussated. Paupercula Zebra. 

Variegata Variegated. Pica Magpie. 

Caffra Caffre. Ferrugata Bellied. 



94 UNIVALVES. VOLUTA. 

FAMILY 2. Spire half the length of the shell. 

Cornicula Horn-colour. Rugosa Rugose. 

Schroeteri Schroeter's. Scutulata Scutcheon. 

Crenifera Crenated. Nigra Slack. 

Scabricula Roughly-striated. Casta Brown- banded. 

Ruffina Reddish-yellow. Serpentina Serpent. 

Vulpecula Foxy. Digitalis Fingered. 

Castellans Chequered. Episcopalis Mitre. 

Subdivisa Subdivided. Papalis Pope. 

Melongena Fine-ribbed. Thiara Thiara. 

Plicaria Folded. Goronata Crown. 

Shell less than half an inch in length. 
Maculosa Spotted. Discors Discordant. 

Biplicata Two-plaited. Striata Striated. 

Turricula Tower. Laevigata Smooth. 

Lineata White-lined. Ocellata Eyed. 

Sulcata Sulcated. Nasuta Black-spotted. 

Marmorea Marbled. 

FAMILY 3. Spire more than half the length of the shell. 

Acuminata Sharp-pointed. Nodulosa Nodulous. 

Virgo Virgin. Sanguisuga Leech. 

Filaris Narrow. Polygona Polygonal. 

Filosa Threaded. Tseniata Ribbon. 

Clathrus Cancellated. Cruentata Knotty-ribbed. 

Exasperata Granulous. Turrita Turreted. 

Costata Ribbed. Acus Needle. 

Granosa Grained. Abbatis Abbot. 

DIVISION VI. SHELL SMALL, THICK, STRONG, HAVING THE 

OUTER LIP DENTICULATED, AND RATHER ANGULAR. 

Mercatoria Clouded. Torva Rough. 

Ziervogelii Thick-lipped. Mendicaria Black and white. 

Rustica Rustic. Nana Dwarf. 



UNIVALVES. VOLUTA. 95 

DIVISION VII. SHELL EMARGINATE, EFFUSE, AND SPIRE 

RATHER PAPILLARY. 

FAMILY 1. Whirls nodulous or plain. 

Musica Music. Harpa Lyre. 

Virescens Greenish. Magnifica Magnificent. 

Plicata Plaited. Volva Whitish. 

Ebraea Hebrew- character. Undulata Undulated. 

Fusiformis Spindle-shaped. Magellanica Magellanic. 

Flavicans Yellowish. Rupestris Lightning. 

Nivosa Snow-spotted. Pacifica Pacific. . 

Vexillum Banner. Angulata Angular. 

Lapponica Spotted. Scapha Clouded. 

Junonia Peacock. Colocynthis Wide-mouthed. 

FAMILY 2. Whirls crowned with spines. 
Imperialis Imperial. Vespertilio Bat. 

DIVISION VIII. SHELL VENTRICOSE, AND THE SUMMIT OF 

THE SPIRE PAPILLARY. 

FAMILY 1. Spire coronated or nodulous. 
Ethiopica Ethiopic. Tessellata Tessellated. 

Diadema Diadem. Corona Ducal-crown. 

Cymbiola Boat. 

FAMILY 2. Spire channelled. 

Olla Melon. Cymbium Cup-like. 

Rubiginosa Ochreous. Neptuni Neptune's. 

FAMILY 3. Spire truncated. 
Porcina Keel-margin. 

FAMILY 4. Shell formed by one broad whirl. 
Glans Reddish- yellow. Navicula Gondola. 

FAMILY 5. Spire nearly buried in the body whirl. 
Melo Melon. 

DIVISION IX. SHELL NEARLY ENTIRE, LONGITUDINALLY 

OR TRANSVERSELY RIBBED AND SUBUMBILICATED. 

Reticulata Reticulated. Cancellata Latticed. 



96 UNIVALVES. BUCCINUM. 

Nassa Ribbed. Fusca Tawny. 



DIVISION X. SHELL SPINOUS, OR RUGGED AND NODULOUS. 

Turbinellus Turbinated. Muricata Prickly. 

Capitellum Ridged. Ceramica Horned. 

Rhinoceros Rhinoceros. Globosa Globose. 

DIVISION XI. SHELL WITH A SOMEWHAT PRODUCED 
BEAK. 

Pyrum Pear-shaped. Gravis Solid. 

Scolymus Artichoke. 



BUCCINUM. WHELK. 

Animal a Limax : Shell univalve, spiral, gibbous, aperture 
ovate, terminating in a short canal, leaning to the right, 
with a retuse beak or projection ; pillar-lip expanded. 
THIS genus comprises one hundred and sixty-one spe- 
cies, which are remarkable for their great beauty and va- 
riety. The Buccinum may be distinguished from the G. 
murex, (which it closely resembles), by its beak or canal 
being usually much shorter, and inclining to the right in- 
stead of the left; it is also generally more gibbous, which 
is particularly the case with those species called tuns and 
helmets. The tuns are for the most part of a brittle and 
light fabric, and although some of them grow to a large 
size, yet even then they retain their characteristic fragility 
and thinness. 

The B. dolium, B. perdix, and the B. galea are the most 
common species; the latter of which sometimes exceeds 
ten inches in diameter. 



UNIVALVES. BUCCINUM. 97 

The helmets, which compose the fourth division, are 
nearly allied to the tuns, but are distinguished by having 
both their lips, with few exceptions, crenated with strong 
articulated teeth; they are also covered with prominent 
protuberances or knobs. Among the species of this de- 
scription may be enumerated the B. plicatum, B. cornu- 
tum, and B. rufum, which is remarkable for its nodulous 
belts, and the fiery-red colour of its mouth. 

The seventh division contains the Harps, which are consi- 
dered the most valuable and beautiful species of the genus : 
among these may be particularized the B. harpa and B. 
costatum, the latter is commonly called the Many-ridged 
Harp, and surpasses all the other varieties in elegance 
and rarity. It is found at the Isle of France, and has been 
sold for as large a sum as fifty pounds. Of the Scoops, 
which form the eighth division, the most common species 
are the B. patulum and B. haustrum : there are two varie- 
ties of the B. Persicum, both of which are considered rare, 
when in fine condition. 

Many species of the tenth division resemble in form the 
B. undatum or common English whelk, the inhabitant of 
which is often eaten. The B. spiratum has its whirls chan- 
nelled or spirally grooved ; and the animals of B. scala and 
B. lapillus yield a fine durable purple die. The Buccinum 
bezoar has its whirls surmounted with rows of foliations; 
and is, therefore, generally called the Foliated Bulb. 

The last division of Buccina is more distinct than any 
hitherto enumerated : it comprises those shells which are 
usually known by the name of needles, on account of their 
sharp, lengthened, and spiral form; and, though by no 
means rare, they are often elegantly marked. The most 
common species is the B. maculatum or marline-spike, 
which sometimes exceeds nine inches in length : some of 
F 



98 UNIVALVES. BUCCINUM. 

the other species, as the B. subulatum and B. crenulatum, 
are very beautiful. 

The B. sinuatum and the B. virgineum are fresh water 
species. 

The African, American, Indian, European, and South- 
ern oceans produce the greater part of the species; many 
are found on the British shores ; and also some few in the 
Mediterranean. 

This genus derives its name from some of its species be- 
ing formed like a trumpet. 

BUCCINUM Whelk. 
DIVISION I. SHELL INFLATED, ROUNDED, THIN, SLIGHTLY 

TRANSPARENT AND BRITTLE. 

FAMILY 1. Aperture without teeth. 
Olearium Tun. Perdix Partridge. 

Galea Brown. Dolium Spotted. 

Caudatum Beaked. 

FAMILY 2. Outer lip toothed. 
Sulcosum Flat-ribbed. Chinense Chinese. 

DIVISION II. SHELL OVATE, RIBBED, APERTURE RATHER 

CONTRACTED, PILLAR-LIP THICKENED AND STRONGLY 
WRINKLED, AND OUTER LIP TOOTHED, THICKENED, AND 
MARGINATED. 

Pomum ThicJc-lipp'd. Ringens Grinning. 

DIVISION III. SHELL WITH TUBERCULATED BELTS OR RIBS, 

PILLAR-LIP SPREAD, AND BEAK MUCH PRODUCED 
AND REFLECTED. 

Echinophorum Tuberculated Nodosum Belted, 
fun. Rugosum Rugged. 



UNIVALVES. BUCCINUM. 99 

DIVISION IV. SHELL WITH AN EXSERTED REFLECTED BEAK, 

PILLAR-LIP SPREAD, AND THE OUTER LIP 
UNARMED OUTWARDLY. 

FAMILY 1. With the spire truncated, aperture rather linear, 
pillar-lip much spread, the pillar slightly wrinkled, and outer 
lip thickened. 

Cornutum Wrinkled Helmet. Flammeum Triangular. 

Plicatum Plaited. Rufum Red. 

Tuber osum-Zic-zag. Testiculus Purse. 

FAMILY 2. With the spire rather elevated, pillar-lip thinly 

spread, pillar slightly wrinkled, and outer lip thickened. 
Decussatum Decussated. Strigatum Yellow-striped. 

Areola Draft-board. Saburon Grey. 

Abbreviatum Shortened. 

FAMILY 3. Resembling the second, except having the pillar-Up 

granulated. 
Granulatum Granulated. Undulatum Undulated. 

FAMILY 4. Resembling the third, but having the pillar-Up granu- 
lated and wrinkled. 

Inflation Inflated. * Bilineatum Smooth-net. 

Tessellatum Tessellated. Cicatricosum Cicatrix. 

FAMILY 5. With the pillar-lip smooth. 
Recurvirostrurn Recurved beak. Cassis Helmet. 

DIVISION V. SHELL RESEMBLING THE LAST DIVISION, BUT 

THE OUTER LIP, ON THE OUTSIDE, IS MURICATED 
AT THE BASE. 

FAMILY l.With the spire short. 
Erinaceus Hedgehog. Fimbria Bordered. 

Biarmatum Knobbed. Glaucum Yellow. 

Vibex Agate. 

FAMILY 2. With the spire elevated. 
PapiHosum Prickly-lip. Mutabile Changeable. 

Glans Thread-girded. Gibbum Hunchbacked. 



F2 



100 UNIVALVES. BUCCINUM. 

DIVISION VI. SHELL WITH THE PILLAR-LIP DILATED AM 

THICKENED, AND APERTURE WIDE. 

FAMILY 1. With the pillar-lip much thickened and dilated. 
Arcularia Broad-lipped. Verrucosum Warty. 

Coronatum Crowned. Gibbosulum Gibbous. 

*Hepaticum Small-knobV d. Clathratum Latticed. 
Pullus Young. Ni veum Cancellated. 

Thersites Pale-olive. Lima Acuminated. 

FAMILY 2. With the pillar-Up spread, but not very thick. 
Textum Ttirreted. Plicatulum Plaited. 

*Reticulatum Reticulated. Piscatorium Knobbed. 

*Ambiguum Small-plaited. Mauritii Six-toothed. 
*Macula Spot-lipped. Armillatum Brawn. 

Stolatum Brown-banded. Nitidulum Thin-banded- 

Ventricosum Ventricose. 

FAMILY 3. Obtuse, convex, depressed, and smooth. 
Neriteum Nerite- shaped. 

DIVISION VII. SHELL WITH LONGITUDINALLY KEELED, 

MUCRONATED RIBS, PILLAR SMOOTH. 

Harpa Harp. Crenatum Crenated. 

Cancallatum Latticed-harp. Costatum Many-ridged. 

DIVISION VIII. PILLAR-LIP APPEARING AS IF WORN FLAT, 

APERTURE VERY WIDE AND OPEN. 

FAMILY 1. Armed with a subulate tooth at the base. 
Monodon One toothed Scoop. Narval Unicorn. 
Irnbricatum Imbricated. Cingulatum Belted. 

Crassilabrum Thick- lipp'd. Rhinoceros Smooth. 

FAMILY 2. Without the tooth, and the outside striated. 
Haustrum Scoop. SertwmChesnut. 

Persicum Persian. Vexillum Flag. 

FAMILY 3. With the outside tuberculated. 
Patulum Wide-mouth 'd. tixmastoma Red-lipped* 

Luteostomum Pallid. Armigerum Armed. 

Dentex Toothed. 



UNIVALVES. 
DIVISION IX. SHELL WITH SPIRE OBLIQUELY RECURVED, 

APERTURE VERY LARGE, OUTER LIP REFLECTED, AND PIL- 
LAR-LIP WITH TWO OBSOLETE TEETH AT THE BASE. 

Concholepas Limpet- shap'd. 
DIVISION X. SHELL COARSE, SPIRE ACUTE, APERTURE 

OVATE, PILLAR-LIP SMOOTH AND FLATTISH. 

*Lapillus Common Whelk. Sulcatum Grooved. 

Varium Varied. Smaragdulus Emerald. 

*Undatum Wave-ribbed. Undosum Undulated. 

Ciliatum Ciliated. Affine Brown-striped. 

Solutum Unequal-ribbed. Fumosum Smoky. 

Porcatum Rugged. Tranquebaricum Tranquebar. 

Papyraceum Paper. Cruentatum Red-spotted. 

Otaheitense Otaheite. Pyrozonias Double-streaked. 

Glaciale Keel-ridged. Versicolor Lurid. 

Carinatum Carinated. Lamellosum Lamellar. 

Filosum Threaded. Lamellatum Lamellated. 

Crispatum Wrinkled. 

DIVISION XI. SHELL STRONGLY RIBBED TRANSVERSELY. 

Orbitum Globose. Scala Broad-belted. 

Indicum Indian. 

DIVISION XII. SHELL SUB-GLOBOSE, PONDEROUS, APER- 
TURE LARGE, PILLAR-LIP VERY THICK. 

Plumbeum Double-groov'd. Crassum Thick. 
DIVISION XIII. SHELL WITH THE PILLAR ABRUPT AND 

STRONGLY UMBILICATED. 

Spiratum Acute-spire. Zeylanicum Ceylon. 

Eburneum Spotted. Glabratum Glossy. 

DIVISION XIV. SHELLS SOMEWHAT POLISHED AND NOT 

ENUMERATED IN THE FORMER DIVISIONS. 

Tigrinum Tiger. Testudineum Tortoise-shell. 

T urgitum Red-spotted. Cochlideum Indented-spire. 

Scutulatutn Streaked. Catarracta Long-striped. 



'4 $2 



Lsevissimum Polished. Igneum Red-streaked. 

Cyaneum Blueish. Lyratum Lyre. 

Lseve Smooth. Plumatum Painted. 

Minute Shells. 

Glaberrimum Smooth. Exile Slender. 

Nucleus Small. Prserosum Carious. 

*Lineatum Lineated. *Cinctum Minute. 

Minimum Lesser. 

DIVISION XV. SHELL ROUNDISH, SPIRE FLAT, WHIRLS 

LAMELLATED OR SPINOUS, BEAK PRODUCED AND 
UMBILICATED, AND APERTURE LARGE. 

Bezoar Bezoar's. B ulbosum Bulbous. 

DIVISION XVI. SHELL TURRETED, SUBULATE, AND 

SLIGHTLY POLISHED. 

FAMILY 1. Whirls entire. 

Maculatum Spotted Needle. Succinctum Girdled. 
Oculatum Oculated. Lanceatum Lancet. 

Subulatum Awl-shap'd. Murinum Mouse- coloured. 

Felinum Cat. Hastatum Javelin. 

Vittatum Ribbon. Sinuatum Twisted. 

Digitale Bluish- banded. Bifasciatum Two- banded. 

Concinnum Belt-spotted. Radiatum Radiated. 

Cinereum Steel-grey. Virgineum Fresh-water. 

*Acicula Minute-pointed. 

FAMILY 2. Whirls divided by a transverse line or furrow. 
Crenulatum Crenulated. Strigilatum Strigilated. 

Hecticum Hectic. Duplicatum Double-whirl. 

Geminum Divided. Acus Needle. 

Proximatum Glossy. Dimidiatum Orange 8f White. 

Monile Necklace. Pertusum Hollow-dotted. 



UNIVALVES. STROMBUS. 103 



STROMBUS. WINGED OR CLAW-SHELL. 

Animal a Limax; Shell univalve, spiral; aperture much 
dilated; the lip expanding, and produced into a groove 
leaning to the left. 

THE distinguishing character of this genus, of which 
there are forty-six species, consists in the position of its 
beak, which inclines to the left; but as the younger shells 
are sometimes wholly destitute of any beak, a confusion 
with many other genera is often difficult to be avoided. 

The Strombi seem to have a propensity to extend their 
outer lip, either into the form of an expanded wing, hence 
called alatse or winged shells, or to continue it into long 
and pointed claws: but these appearances are only mani- 
fest in adult shells. 

The most prominent species of the division which has the 
lips terminated by claws, are the following : S. chiragra, 
S. scorpius, S. lambis, and S. millepeda. The number of 
claws in the different species varies from six to ten, but 
the S. pes-peticani has only four. In some species they 
are nearly straight, and often smooth, while in others they 
are very much curved, and covered with waved nodules. 
The growth of these shells is worthy of notice. It has al- 
ready been stated, that the very young shells have no ap- 
pearance of claws, which first shew themselves in the form 
of short and open spouts; when the shells are farther ad- 
vanced in growth, they assume the shape they are to retain, 
but are still thin, hollow, and imperfectly closed ; and it is 
only in the adults that they become solid, and have a thick, 
strong, and horn-like appearance. 

The S. oniscus, in the sixth division, is totally destitute 
of a winged termination; and the S. fasciattis, S. pugilis, 



104 UNIVALVES. STROMBUS. 

and S. lentiginosus, in the second division, exhibit on- 
ly faint indications of that character: but in the S. gallus, 
S. auris-Dianae, S. latissimus, (a very rare species), and S. 
gigas, it is remarkably prominent. Some other species 
have nearly the same peculiarity: as the S. epidromis, the 
S. vittatus, S. canarium, &c. These latter species never 
grow to any magnitude; but some of the former, as the S. 
latissimus and S. gigas, frequently attain a considerable 
size. 

The S. luhuanus, S. gibberulus, &c. have some of their 
whirls very gibbous, and on that account they are often 
called Pouter-alati. Many of these are extremely beauti- 
ful, having their mouths of a scarlet, pink, or orange colour, 
and the interior of their shells of a rich blue, purple, or 
yellow colour. 

The turreted species, which constitute the shells of the 
fourth and fifth divisions, are distinguished into two 
classes: the one having a longitudinal fissure extending 
from the aperture to the summit; and the other, by hav- 
ing a lengthened spire, resembling the Murices. Of the lat- 
ter division, the two varieties of the S. fusus are character- 
istic examples; one variety has a short subulate beak, 
but the other, usually called the long-beaked spindle, is 
much more tapering and delicate, and its beak, when per- 
fect, is nearly as long as the rest of the shell. It comes 
from the Straits of Sunda, and is considered one of the great 
rarities in collections. Of the fifth division, the S. tuber- 
culatus; S. palustris, from the meadows or savannahs of 
the Indian ocean ; and S. ater, from the fens of Amboyna 
are sufficient examples: it may be observed, that the 
three last are land species, and are characterized by hav- 
ing their whirls more or less beset with sharp knobs or 
prickly spines. 

The African, Indian, American, and European oceans 



UNIVALVES. STROMBUS. 105 

produce many species of this genus; and the Mediterra- 
nean, Red, and Arctic seas, only a few. 



STROMBUS Winged or Claw-shell. 
DIVISION I. SHELL WITH LINEAR SEGMENTS, OR CLAWS AT 

THE MARGIN OF THE OUTER LIP. 

Chiragra DeviFs-claw. Purpureus Purple-mouth. 

Scorpius Scorpion. Elongatus Lengthened. 

Lambis Spider. Truncatus Truncated. 

Millepeda Millepede. *Pes-pelicani Pelican' s-foot. 

DIVISION II. SHELL WITH THE OUTER LIP MUCH EX- 
PANDED. 

FAMILY 1. With the margin of the outer lip thickened or lobed. 

Gigas Giant. Papilio Butterfly. 

Accipiter Heavy. Auris-Dianaa Diana? s-ear. 

Gailus Plough. Pacifica Pacific. 

Tricornis Thwe-horn'd. Granulatus Granulated. 

Pugilis Thick-spin' d. Polyfasciatus Many banded. 

Fasciatus Banded. Luhuanus Luhoe. 

Lentiginosus Pink-lipped. Canarium Partridge. 

FAMILY 2. With the outer lip curved inwards. 
Latissimus Broad-winged. Laciniatus Sinuated. 

FAMILY 3. Spire elevated, and outer lip rounded and short. 
Vittatus Ribbon. Epidromis Mainsail. 

Sulcatus Sulcated. 

FAMILY 4. With both lips pointed, and attached to the whirls of 

the spire. 

Marginatus Margined. Minimus Least, 

Accin^tus Girdled. 

DIVISION III. SHELL SMOOTH OR PLAITED, OUTER LIP 

STRIATED WITHIN, AND BUT SLIGHTLY EXPANDED. 

Gibberulus Pouter. Urceus Pitcher. 

F3 



106 UNIVALVES. MUREX. 

Erythrinus Nodulous. Samar Samar. 

Dentatus Toothed. 

DIVISION IV. SHELL TURRETED, WITH A LONGITUDINAL 

FISSURE EXTENDING FROM THE APERTURE 
TO THE SUMMIT. 

Fissus Slit. Fissurella Fissure. 

DIVISION V. SHELL TURRETED, WITH A VERY LONG SPIRE. 

FAMILY 1. The aperture ending in a long beak, and the outer 

lip toothed. 
Fusus Spindle. Unicornis Unicorn. 

FAMILY 2. Without the beak, and the aperture not toothed. 
Tuberculatus Tuberculated. Auritus Eared. 
Palustris Marsh. Lividus Livid. 

Ater Black. *Costatus Ribbed. 

DIVISION VI. SHELL OBOVATE, WITH TRANSVERSE NODU- 
LOUS BELTS, PILLAR-LIP GRANULATED, AND THE OUTER 
LIP THICKENED AND TOOTHED WITHIN. 

Onlscus Wood-louse. 



MUREX. ROCK OR TRUMPET-SHELL. 

Animal a Limax: Shell univalve, spiral, rough, with 
membranaceous sutures; aperture oval, ending in an en- 
tire, straight, or slightly ascending canal. 
THE most prominent character which distinguishes the 
one hundred and seventy-two species of the Murex from 
those of the two preceding genera, consists in the beak, 
which inclines neither to the right nor left, but is almost 
invariably straight and very much produced, sometimes 
turning a little upwards. 



UNIVALVES. MUREX. 107 

The Murices are generally of an irregular form, arising 
from their surfaces being usually covered with spines, 
knobs, striae, or foliations. One division is peculiar for 
the uncommon length of beak, which most of its species 
are remarked for; the principal is M. tribulus, of which 
there are two varieties, the common called the thorny 
woodcock, and the rarer, after the French, peigne de Venus, 
or Venus's comb, which is not only considered a rarity, but 
is perhaps one of the most elegant shells of the genus ; it 
is most beautifully adorned with thin and delicate spines, 
disposed longitudinally in three regular rows. To this 
same division belong also the M. cornutus and M. bran- 
daris; the former grows to a considerable size, and is by 
no means common. 

The third division includes those species that have a 
much shorter beak, and are more foliated than spinous ; 
such are the M. trunculus, M. pomum, and M. radix; the 
latter grows to a considerable size and is much valued; its 
shell is beset with numerous rows of frondose, black, un- 
dulate spines, which being contrasted with opaque-white 
renders it an object of great beauty. It also comprises 
those species which are commonly called Triplices, or more 
properly Purpurae, as the animals inhabiting most of the 
shells of this division possess the property of affording a rich 
purple juice or liquid; from this circumstance the Avhole 
genus has by some authors been called Purpura. The shells 
have their sutures composed of crisped foliations and acute 
angular ramifications; among those best known are the 
pink and yellow-mouthed varieties of the M. saxatilis, which 
are exceedingly rare and beautiful. The number of rows 
in the foliated sutures differs considerably, some (as the 
M. ramosus, &c.) have only three, the M. scorpio has four, 
the M. saxatilis five, and the M. radix has nine. 

The next division is composed of the species that have 



108 UNIVALVES. MUREX. 

their sutures thick, protuberant, and rounded; such are 
the M. rana, M. lampas, M. lotorium, and M. femorale ; 
the outer lip of the latter shell is frequently imitated in the 
borders or rims of massy silver plate, hence called the 
gadroori border. 

In the species of the sixth division the form is more ab- 
breviated and gibbous, they are also more or less spinous, 
and without a manifest beak : as in the M. ricinus, M. hip- 
pocastanum, and the varieties of the M. neritoideus ; most 
of which have rows of black tubercles and spines; some 
having purple, and others yellow mouths. 

The ninth division of Murices is composed of those shells 
which have a long, straight, subulate beak, and unarmed 
with spines: such are the M. colus, of which there are 
many large and beautiful varieties; M. Babylonius, &c. 
The M. Babylonius, and the other towers, have a small fis- 
sure or incision on the extremity of the outer lip, close to 
the termination of the first whirl, a peculiarity solely con- 
fined to these species. The reverse variety of the M. ficus, 
called the M. perversus, is a very rare species. The M. 
antiquus is also sometimes reversed. The animal of the 
M. despectus is often eaten, but is more generally used as 
a bait for cod and ray. The M. Tritonis, which is an in- 
habitant of the Mediterranean, Indian, and South Seas, is 
used by the natives of New Zealand as a musical shell, and 
by the Africans and many nations of the east as a military 
horn. It sometimes exceeds two feet in length. 

The shells of the last division are tapering and subulate, 
and have a short beak. Among them may be noticed the 
M. vertagus, M. aluco, &c. 

Of the rarer species may be mentioned the M. regius, 
M. prismaticus, M. stramineus, M. radix, and M. aruanus. 

The numerous species and varieties of the Murices are 
from the following places : Pulo Gondore, Guinea, Senegal, 



UNIVALVES. MUREX. 109 

Straits of Magellan ; the European, Northern, and Southern 
seas; India, the Mediterranean, Adriatic, and Atlantic. 

This genus derives its name from many of its species be- 
ing rough, like the sharp crags of a rock. 

MUREX Rock or Trumpet- shell. 

DIVISION I. SHELL SPINOUS, WITH A PRODUCED BEAK. 

FAMILY 1. With three varices. 
Tribulus Thorny Woodcock. Scolopax Thornfy Snipe. 



Motacilla Nightingal 



FAMILY 2. With seven varices. 
Cornutus Horned Snipe. Brandaris Short-beak' d Snipe. 

DIVISION II. SHELL WITH A PRODUCED BEAK SIMILAR TO 

THE FIRST DIVISION, BUT NOT SPINOUS. 

Haustellum Snipe. Spirillus Blunt-tipped. 

DIVISION III. SHELL FOLIATED, WITH A SHORT BEAK. 

FAMILY 1. With three varices. 

Ramosus Branched. Lingua Sheep' s-tongue. 

Foliatus Foliated. Tripterus Subtriangular, 

Triqueter Three-warted. 

FAMILY 2. With more than three varices* 

Scorpio Scorpion. Miliaris Scabrous. 

Rota Wheel. Radix Root. 

Saxatilis Endive. Melanomathos Black-spined. 

Trunculus Tyrian-dye. Lamellosus Lamellar. 

Rosarium Rosary. Clathratus Ribbed. 

Pomum Apple-shap'd. *Erinaceus Rough-ridg'd. 

Regius Royal. Scala Ladder. 

DIVISION IV. SHELL WITH THICK PROTUBERANT ROUNDED 
VARICES. 

FAMILY 1. With two opposite varices. 
R ana Frog. Crassus Thick-frog. 



1 10 UNIVALVES. MUREX. 

Spinosus Spiny-frog. Lampas Granulated. 

*Gyrinus Whirled. Scrobilator Violet-throated. 

Bufonius Toad-shap'd. Reticularis Reticulated. 

FAMILY 2. -With two subalternate varices. 
Argus Argus. Candisatus Mottled. 

Olearium Oil-jar. Maculosus Spotted. 

Rubecula Footman. Spengleri Spengler's. 

Femorale Triangular. Pyrum Pear. 

Lotorium Angulated. Clavator Club-shap'd. 

Pileare Nodulous. Caudatus CaudatecL 

Dolarium Narrow- belt. 

FAMILY 3. With a single varix. 

Parthenopus Tawny-yellow. Clandestinus Double-lipp'd. 
Cutaceus Rough-skin. Lyratus Lyre-shaped. 

DIVISION V. SHELL WITH UNEQUALLY GIBBOUS WHIRLS, 

DECUSSATED RIBS, AND THE APERTURE SURROUNDED 
BY A THIN DILATED MEMBRANE. 

Anus Grimace Whelk. Mulus Mule. 

DIVISION VI. SHELL SOMEWHAT SPINOUS, AND WITHOUT 

A BEAK. 

Ricinus Spur. Hippocastanum-jf/orse-c/i'es?^. 

Nodus Chesnut. Sacellum Corded. 

Neritoideus Mulberry. Nodatus Knobbed. 

Finibriatus Seal-skin. Lacerus Carinated. 

Hystrix Porcupine. Virgatus Nodulous. 

Mancinella Mancinella. Columbarium White- belted. 
Senticosus Cancellated. 

DIVISION VII. SHELL NODULOUS, OR LONGITUDINALLY 

PLAITED, WITH A SHORT BEAK. 

Plicatus Plaited. Undatus Waved. 

Morbosus Diseased. Fiscellum Short-beak' d. 

Consul Ventricose. Dubius Doubtful. 

Fenestratus Latticed. 



UNIVALVES. MUREX. J 1 1 

DIVISION VIII. SHELL OVATE, APERTURE WIDE, INNER 

LIP THICKENED AND SPREAD, OUTER LIP 
THICK AND UNDULATED. 

Stramineus Straw-colour 'd. Australia Southern. 
DIVISION IX. SHELL WITH A LONG, STRAIGHT, SUBULATE 

BEAK, UNARMED. 

FAMILY 1. Turreted, outer lip having a notch at the summit. 
Babyloriius Tower-of- Babel. Virgineus Virgin-tower. 
Clavatulus Crowned-tower. Javanus Javanese. 
Gibbosus Gibbous. Tornatus White-tower. 

FAMILY 2. With the column plaited. 
Tulipa Tulip. Polygonus Many- angled. 

Nassa Rough. Infundibulum Funnel- shap'd. 

Amplustre American-flag. Lancea Lanceolate. 

Trapezium Striped-tower. Ocellatus Eyed. 

Craticulatus Plaited. 

FAMILY 3. With the miter lip entire, and the column smooth. 
Colus Spindle [ated. Canaliculatus Channelled. 

Striatulus Transversely-stri- Carica Keeled. 
Versicolor Changeable. Perversus Reversed. 

Verrucosus Warty. Ternatanus Ternate. 

Aruanus Aru-trumpet. Pardalis 'Leopard. 

Tuba Trumpet. Maroccensis Morocco. 

Cariosus Carious. 

DIVISION X. SHELL WITH THE SPIRE RATHER DEPRESSED, 

APERTURE DILATED, NEARLY THE LENGTH OF 
THE SHELL, AND BEAK SHORT. 

Melongena Open-mouth. Candidum White. 

Calcaratus Brownish-white. Corona Crowned. 
Ficus Fig-shap'd. Morio Moor. 

Spadiceum Lineated. Pugilinus Reddish- brown. 

Umbilicatum Umbilicated. Cochlidium "Brown-streaked. 
Harpa Harp. 



UNIVALVES. MUREX. 

DIVISION XI. SHELL OBLONG VENTRICOSE, APERTURE DI- 
LATED AND OVATE, SPIRE PRODUCED, AND BEAK SHORT. 

*Antiquus Antiquated. *Bamffius Bamff. 

Magellanicus Magellanic. * Gracilis Elegant. 

Norwegicus Norwegian. *Attenuatus Lengthened. 

Fornicatus Arched. *Nebula Clouded. 

Despectus Despised. *Costatus- Ribbed. 

*Subantiquatus Angulated. *Proximus Many-ribbed. 

Tritonis Triton. *Septangularis Seven-sided. 

Nerei Musical. *Turricula Turreted. 

Vulpinus Fox. *Rufus Red. 

Pusio Wreath. *Sinuosus Sinuated. 

*Corneus Slender-horn. *Linearis Lineated. 

Lineatus Lined. *Purpureus Purple. 

Lignarius Woody. *Muricatus Thorny. 

Syracusanus Syracuse. *Minutissimus Fery -small. 

Perron Shelving. Arenosus Sea-sand. 

Prismaticus Prismatic. Scriptus Written. 

DIVISION XII. TURRETED AND SUBULATE, WITH A VERY 

SHORT BEAK. 

Obeliscus Chinese-obelisk. Radula Rayed. 

Vertagus Curved- beak. Marginatus Margined. 

Plicatulus White-plaited. Serratus Serrated. 

Aluco Caterpillar. Asper Rough- grain'd. 

Tuberosus Knobbed. Granulatus Grained. 

Adansoni Adanson's. Sulcatus Grooved. 

Clava Club-shaped. Literatus Lettered. 

Uncinatus Grapling. Hexagonus Six-ribbed. 

Atratus Blackish. *Reticulatus Reticulated. 

Alucoides Marbled. *Tubercularis Tuberculated. 

Ebeninus Deep-black. *Adversus Left-handed. 

Fuscatus Clouded. *Subulatus Awl-shap'd. 

Torulosus Ringed. Decollates Decapitated. 



UNIVALVES. TROCHUS. 113 



TROCHUS TOP-SHELL. 

slnimat a Limax: Shell univalve, spiral, more or less co- 
nic; aperture somewhat angular or rounded, the upper 
side transverse and contracted; pillar placed obliquely. 
THIS genus contains one hundred and twenty-nine spe- 
cies. The leading characteristic consists in its conical 
shape, which prevails with few exceptions throughout the 
genus ; some, however, are so nearly allied to the Turbo, 
that frequent mistakes arise in their classification. 

Among those Trochi which have their pillar perforated 
or umbilicated, may be mentioned the T. Niloticus, T. ma- 
culatus, T. perspectivus, T. hybridus, and T. Pharaonis. 

Though some of this genus have their surfaces almost 
smooth, yet the greater number are covered with knobs, 
spines, tuberculations, or undulations, of which the T. so- 
laris and T. imperialis, are striking examples : the former 
has its margin beset with long spines, placed at regular 
distances, resembling, when the shell is perfect, the rays 
of the sun as represented in carved work : it has also a 
most beautiful gold colour, which occasionally shines forth 
through the ochreous surface of the shell, and of course 
adds materially to the similitude. The T. imperialis is 
generally of a dull olive colour, but there is a rare variety 
of it which has a pinkish cast, and is known by the name 
of the Pink Sun : they are both from the South seas. 

Of the imperforated species, the most characteristic are 
the T. vestiarius, T. labeo, and T. tuber ; the latter of 
which very much resembles a Turbo. 

The T. iris, when uncoated, is celebrated for the splen- 
did metallic lustre which illumines its surface, and for the 



UNIVALVES. TROCHUS. 

vivid play of iridescent colours which it exhibits when held 
in different positions and lights. 

The T. Cookii, from Cook's Bay, has its aperture closed 
with a horny lid or operculum, to secure the inhabitant 
when retired within its shell. This appendage is most 
frequent among the Univalve genera; it is affixed to 
the animal, which, as it retreats into the spiral whirls of its 
shell, draws the operculum in along with it, to a particular 
situation of the aperture, where, from the extreme accura- 
cy of its adjustment, it perfectly closes the orifice, and 
thereby forms a complete barrier against any outward at- 
tacks. 

The operculum varies in shape according to the form of 
the mouth it has to close : in some instances, it is elongated, 
and has a horny appearance; in others, it is circular, and 
of a very compact testaceous substance ; some are perfect- 
ly smooth, and others strongly granulated. 

The T. conchyliophorus is a very curious and remark- 
able species; for it is invariably covered with other sub- 
stances, strongly adhering to the whirls of the shell. 

Of this species there are two distinct varieties: one is 
called the Conchologist, from its being loaded with frag- 
ments of shells, and other testaceous substances ; and the 
other is very properly named the Mineralogist, as its bur- 
then consists of stones, earths, pebbles, ores, &c. When 
the former variety is loaded with corals only, it is called 
the Zoologist or Coral-carrier. They are considered, when 
heavily laden, as rarities. 

Some species of Trochi are much elongated, and great- 
ly resemble screw or needle shells. Unlike the rest of the 
genus, they have an exserted pillar; and, when placed on 
their base, they fall on one side. The most prominent 
species are the T. telescopium and T. dolabratus. 

The greater part of the Trochi present a brilliant mo- 



UNIVALVES. TROCHUS. 1 1 5 

ther-of-pearl appearance when uncoated ; others have only 
their aperture pearly or silvery j and a few exhibit a bronze- 
like hue. 

There are several reverse varieties of Trochi : the prin- 
cipal are T. perversus, T. undulatus, T. ventricosus, T. 
annulatus, and T. pusillus; the latter of which is found 
within larger shells, in the sands of India. 

The T. flumineus is a river species, and the T. horten- 
sis is an inhabitant of the gardens in warmer climates. 
The T. terrestris is also a land species, and frequents the 
mountains of Cumberland. 

The following are the places which yield specimens of 
the Trochi: viz. Asia, Africa, America, Friendly Isles, 
New Zealand, Red Sea, Mediterranean, the European and 
British seas, &c. 

TROCHUS Top- Shell. 

DIVISION I. SHELL UMBILICATED, ERECT. 
FAMILY 1. With the pillar and umbilicus smooth. 

Niloticus Large-marble. Fanulum Pagoda. 

Conus Conic. Strigosus Black-lipp'd. 

Spinosus Thorny. Dubius Doubtful. 

Jujubinus Mottled. Depressus Depressed. 

Concavus Concave. Lsevis Smooth. 

Vernalis Green. Groenlandicus Greenland. 

Conspersus Poppy. *Magus Tuberculated. 

Ochroleucus Whitish- brown. Variegatus Variegated. 

Stellatus Starred. Afer Grey-marble. 

Spengleri Spengler's. Muricatus Prickly. 

Costatus Ribbed. Roseus Rose-colour' d. 

Insequalis Unequal. *Patholatus Tumid. 

Regius Royal. Scaber Rough. 

Verrucosus Warty. Quadratus Square-spotted. 

Radiatus Radiated. Croceus Saffron-colour' d. 

Viridis Green, Varius Varied. 



1 16 UNIVALVES. TROCHUS. 

*Obliquatus UmUlicated. Solaris Sun. 

Cinerarias A shy- colour' d. Inermis Short-spined. 

Neritoideus Reddish-colour 1 d. Imperialis Imperial. 

Albidus White. Conchyliophorus Carrier. 

Vittatus Ribbon. Tectum Arch-lipp'd. 

Divaricatus Divaricated. Pumilio Dwarf. 

Fuscatus Brown. *Terrestris Land. 

Umbilicaris Obliquely-rayed. Bidens Double-tooth'' d. 

Cinereus Cinereous. Fragilis Brittle. 

Fasciatus Banded. Carinatus Keeled. 

Planus Flat. Flumineus River. 

FAMILY 2. With pillar toothed or plaited, and umbilicus 

smooth. 

Maculatus Spotted. Cruciatus Cross-rayed. 

Alveare Bee-hive. Modulus Keel-whirVd. 

Tentorium Pavilion. Declivis Egyptian. 

Agrestis Rustic. Viridulus Necklace-grained. 

Niger Black. Perlatus Pearly. 

FAMILY 3. With pillar smooth, and umbilicus toothed or cre- 



Cylindraceus Sub-conical. Carneus Flesh-colour' d. 

Areola Red square-spotted. 

FAMILY 4. With pillar and umbilicus crenated. 
Pharaonis Strawberry. Guineensis Guinea. 

Corallinus Coral-bead. Urbanus Purple-striped. 

FAMILY 5. Shell depressed, with the umbilicus large, pervious, 

and crenated, in which the course of the whirls is strongly 
marked. 

Perspectivus Staircase. Hybridus Mongrel. 

Perspectivunculus Small-do. Stramineus Straw-colour' d. 

Infundibuliformis Funnel- Indicus Indian, 
formed. 

DIVISION II. SHELL IMPERFORATE, ERECT. 

FAMILY 1. With the pillar smooth. 
Grandinatus Studded. Tuber Large-mottled. 



UNIVALVES. TROCHUS. 117 

Melanastomus Black-throated. Purpurascens Purple. 

*Stnatus Striated. Imbricatus Imbricated. 

*Minutus Crimson-tip. Caelatus Scaly. 

Punctulatus Rose-colour' d. Gibberosus Olive-green. 

Conulus Conical. Virgatus Rose-striped. 

*Zizyphinus Livid. Cookii Cook's. 

*Papillosus Granulated. Iris Iris. 

Undatus Undulated. Elegans Elegant. 

Granatum Tiger. Notatus Marked. 

Virgineus Ringed. *Ziczac Ziczag. 

Diaphanus Thin. Obtusus Blunt. > 

Selectus Red- and-white. Crocatus Saffron-colour' d. 
Hortensis Garden. 

FAMILY 2. With the pillar toothed. 
Labeo Double-lipp'd. Turbinatus Turbinated. 

Asper Rugged. Argyrostomus Silver-mouth' d. 

Quadricarinatus Four-keeled. Merula Chinese. 
Tessellatus Tessellated. *Crassus Heavy. 

Americanus American. 

FAMILY 3. With the pillar twisted. 
Mauritianus Great-tooth' d. Pyramis Obelisk. 
Fenestratus Small-tooth' d. Dentatus Sugar-loaf. 

FAMILY 4. Shell convex, smooth, with a thick vitreous matter 

[which covers the centre of the base. 

Vestiarius Flattened. 

DIVISION III. SHELL TAPERING, WITH THE PILLAR EXSEKT- 

ED, AND THE SHELL FALLING TO ONE SIDE WHEN 
PLACED UPON ITS BASE. 

FAMILY 1. With pillar twisted. 

Telescopium Telescope. Terebellus Little-augur. 

Dolabratus Zebra. 

FAMILY 2. Pillar straight. 

Minute Shells. 
Punctatus Dotted. Striatellus Violet-lip^ d. 



118 UNIVALVES. TURBO. 

Reversed Shells. 

Perversus Reversed. Ventricosus Bellied. 

Pusillus Minute. Annulatus Annulated. 

Undulatus Waived. Lunaris Hor n- colour' d. 



TURBO. WREATH. 

Animal a Limax : Shell univalve, spiral, solid : aperture 
contracted, orbicular, entire. 

THERE are no less than one hundred and sixty-seven 
species of this beautiful genus; which are, for the most part, 
solid and ponderous shells, and many of them of a pearly 
nature when uncoated. They resemble the Trochus in 
form, but may easily be distinguished by their suborbicu- 
lar aperture. 

The first division has the pillar margin of the aperture 
dilated, and the pillar imperforate. Among the leading 
species may be enumerated the T. obtusatus, T. neritoides, 
and the T. littoreus, or common periwinkle, a well known 
British shell: its fish, when boiled, is not unfrequently 
eaten. It is an inhabitant of most European shores; and 
it is said of them by sailors, that, if seen crawling high up 
the rocks, it is an indication of the approach of stormy 
weather; but if, on the contrary, they descend, a calm 
may be expected. 

The next division consists of the solid and imperforated 
species: among the principal are the T. petholatus, T. 
chrysostomus, T. pagodus, T. calcar, and T. smaragdus ; to 
which may be added, the T. cochlus, T. cornutus, T. mar- 
moratus, and T. olearius, the two latter of which sometimes 
attain a large size. 



UNIVALVES. TURBO. 119 

The varieties of the T. phasianus have been exceedingly 
rare : there is no other species in this genus which pre- 
sents so much beauty and diversity as the Pheasants. They 
are found at Van Dieman's Land, and other islands of the 
South Seas. 

The next variation consists in the pillar of some species 
being perforated or umbilicated. The T.pica (as being 
the most known and easiest procured) will be the best to 
refer to as an example. The T. margaritaceus and the 
T. argyrostomus also belong to this division. 

Another division is composed of those species that are 
less solid, and cancellated. The wentle-trap (from the 
German, windle-treppe, or winding-staircase), one of the 
most beautiful as well as the rarest of the genus, will suf- 
fice to exhibit the peculiarities of this division. The true 
wentle-trap is a turbinated or spiral conical shell, varying 
in size from a quarter of an inch to upwards of two inches. 
The small and young shells are remarkably thin, brittle, 
and transparent, and generally possess more colour, (usual- 
ly of a yellowish or pinkish white), than those farther ad- 
vanced. The form is extremely elegant; its whirls, which 
are always gibbous or inflated, are beset, at regular dis- 
tances, with numerous, elevated, carinated, suboblique lon- 
gitudinal, continued ribs, evidently the remains of former 
mouths. In very young shells, the ribs are of a blueish 
semipellucid appearance, and have the interstices of a deep 
brown cast, occasioned, probably, by a thin epidermis, ra- 
ther than a local colouring. There are said to be two va- 
rieties of the real wentle-trap, one having only eight 
whirls, and perforated ; the other having ten whirls, and 
imperforated : they also inhabit different places ; one, it is 
said, comes from Barbary, the other from Coromandel. 

This species possesses a striking peculiarity, which con- 



120 UNIVALVES. TURBO. 

sists in its being entirely destitute of a columella to con- 
nect its whirls; a circumstance so opposed to the regular 
structure of all other turbinated shells, must have, of course, 
created considerable doubt as to its classification, and some 
authors have even placed it among the serpulae or worm- 
shells. 

The false wentle-trap, T. clathrus, is a very common 
shell, and is easily distinguished from the true, by its be- 
ing much more elongated and not umbilicated ; the whirls 
also are more closely connected. There are three varieties 
of this species : one is pellucid, with very thin ribs ; the other 
has its lip produced into a beak ; and the third is spotted 
or dotted with brown. They are found in the European 
and Indian seas, in great abundance, from half an inch 
to two inches in length. It is said, that the ancients ex- 
tracted a purple dye from the animal inhabiting these shells. 

The shells of the ninth division are commonly called 
needles or screws ; their shape is that of a well proportion- 
ed spire, with thirty or forty whirls gradually tapering or 
diminishing from the base to the apex, and there ending 
in a very acute point. The shells of this form are distin- 
guished from the similar species among the Strombi and 
Buccina, by their having a circular or orbicular mouth. 

Of the tapering or elongated Turbines may be mention- 
ed the T. imbricatus, T. replicatus, T. acutangulus, T. du- 
plicatus, and T. terebra, which are the principals of the di- 
vision. 

The T. ulvae is found adhering to the ulva lactuca. The 
T, perversus has its whirls contrary, and dwells among 
moss on old walls in most parts of Europe, as does also 
the T. muscorum. Among the fresh-water species the T. 
nautileus stands conspicuous ; it is often affixed to plants 
in stagnant waters. 

The species from the ocean are principally from the 



UNIVALVES. TURBO. 121 

South seas; some are from the American and African 
oceans, and the Indian and Northern seas; and several 
species are to be met with in the Mediterranean, and Euro- 
pean seas. 

TURBO Wreath. 

DIVISION I. SHELL IMPERFORATE, AND THE PILLAR-LIP 
FLAT. 

FAMILY 1. With a smooth exterior. 
Obtusatus Blunt. *Rudis Pale-brown. 

Neritoides Nerite- shaped. Punctatus Punctured. 

Nicobaricus Nicobar. *Petrseus Small-rock. 

Nigerrimus Black. . *Fulgidus Bronze-banded. 

FAMILY 2. With the exterior striated or ribbed. 
*Littoreus Periwinkle. *Crassior Coarse. 

*Tenebrosus Chocolate. *Jugosus Lineated. 

Ethiops Black and white. 

DIVISION II. SHELL IMPERFORATE, SOLID. 

FAMILY 1. With a smooth exterior. 
Personatus Convex. Cidaris Turban. 

Petholatus Serpent' s-skin. Helicinus Green and purple. 

Imperialis Imperial. 

FAMILY 2. With the exterior striated. 
*Cimex Bug. Cochlus Cameleopard. 

*Calathiscus Cancellated. Smaragdus Green. 

FAMILY 3. With the exterior granulated. 
Castaneus Chesnut. Crenulatus Crenulated. ' 

Papyraceus Paper. 

FAMILY 4. With the exterior nodulous. 
Trochiformis White- grain' d. Sarmaticus Large-knobbed. 
Marmoratus Marbled. Olearius Large-keeled, 

C oronatus Coronated. 



122 UNIVALVES. TURBO. 

FAMILY 5. With the exterior ribbed or grooved. 
Canaliculatus Grooved. Sparverius Pearly -mouth 1 d. 

Setosus Leopard. Spenglerianus Spengler's. 

FAMILY 6. With the exterior somewhat spinous. 
Chrysostomus Golden-mouth'' d. Aculeatus Painted. 
Tectum-persicum Little pa- Stellatus Spined. 

goda. *Armatus Armed. 

Pagodus Pagoda. Rugosus Rugged. 

Calcar Spur. Cornutus Large-horned. 

Stellaris Starred. Radiatus Radiated. 

Moltklanus Moltkian's. 

Minute Shells. 

*Semicostatus Ribbed. *Labiosus Lipped. 

*Ruber Red. *Ulvae Sea-weed. 

*Vitreus Glassy. *Ventrosus Bellied. 

*Punctura Punctured. *Subumbilicatus Yellow. 

*Arenarius Sand. *Cingillus Girdled. 

*Unifasciatus Sanded. *Interruptus Streaked. 

*Nivosus White. *Semistriatus Semi-striated. 

Albulus Pellucid. 

DIVISION TIL SHELL UMBILICATED AND SOLID. 

FAMILY 1. With the umbilicus toothed. 
Pica Magpie. Nodulosus Nodulous. 

FAMILY 2. The umbilicus urithout teeth. 
Dentatus Toothed. Diadema Diadem. 

Muricatus Prickly. Undulatus Waved. 

*Auricularis Eared. Argyrostomus Silver-mouth. 

*Vinctus Brown-banded. Margaritaceus Pearly. 

*Quadrifasciatus Four-banded. Porphyrites Porphyry. 
Sanguineus Scarlet. Mespilus Medlar. 

Atratus Black-grained. Granulatus Granulated. 

Anguis Snake. Cinereus Ash-colour 1 d, 

Torquatus Thready. 



UNIVALVES. TURBO. 123 

DIVISION IV. SHELL DEPRESSED, FOLIATED, SPINOUS OR NO- 
DULOUS, AND UMBILICUS LARGE, PERVIOUS, 
AND ARMED WITHIN. 

Delphinus Dolphin, Exasperatus Granulated. 

Distortus Distorted. 

DIVISION V. CANCELLATED. 
FAMILY 1. UmUlicated. 
Scalaris Wentle-trap. 

FAMILY 2. Imperf orated. 

Principalis Many-ribbed. Lacteus Milky. 

Clathrus Latticed. Pulcher Beautiful. 

*Clathratulus Little. . Ambiguus Doubtful. 

Minute Shells. 

*Elegantissimus Elegant. *Coniferus Marginated. 

Simillimus Similar. *Denticulatus Toothed. 

Parvus Guernsey. *Arcuatus Margined. 

*Striatulus Wrinkled. *Striatus Striated. 

*Reticulatus Netted. *Costatus Ribbed. 

*Bryereus Bryer's. *Unicus Convex. 

Indistinctus Indistinct. 

DIVISION VI. SHELL WITH SUBCYLINDRICAL WHIRLS, SIMILAR 

TO THE LAST DIVISION, BUT NOT CANCELLATED. 

FAMILY 1 . Umbilicated. 

Crenellus Crenated. Limbatus Shouldered. 

* T hermalis Fresh- water. Carinatus Keeled. 

Labeo White-lipp' d. Separatista Three-keeled. 

Ligatus Ligature. Niveus Snowy. 

Foliaceus Leafy. Helicoides Brown-ziczag. 

FAMILY 2. Imperforate. 

Crenatus Crenated. Lincinus Green-and-purple. 

Elegans Elegant. Lunulatus Moon-spotted. 



o2 



UNIVALVES. TURBO. 
DIVISION VII. SHELL OBLONO, GLOSSY, BEAUTIFULLY 

MARKED WITH VARIOUS COLOURS, AND 
APERTURE SUBOVATE. 

Phasianus Pheasant. Inflatus Inflated. 

*Pullus Painted. 

DIVISION VIII. SHELL SUBCYLINDRICAL, OBTUSE AT BOTH 

ENDS, AND APERTURE SEMI-OVATE. 

FAMILY 1. Aperture toothed. 

Uva Berry. *Tridens Three-tooth 1 d. 

Mumia Double- tooth' d. * Juniper! Juniper. 

Alvearia Whife-mouth'd. *Muscorum Moss. 

Quinquedentatus Five-toothed, *Sexdentatus Six-tooth' d. 

*Carychium Minute- tooth' d. 

Reversed Shells. 

*Bidens Double-toothed. *Nigricans Black. 

*Laminatss Laminated. *Labiatus Lipped. 

*Biplicatus Double-plaited. *Perversus Reversed. 
Corrugatus Wrinkled. Quadridens Four- tooth' d. 

Vertigo Vertigo. 

FAMILY 2. Aperture without teeth. 
C^lindrus Cylindrical. Reflexus Reflected. 

Croceus Orange. Auriscalpium Ear-picker. 

Sulcatus Sulcated. *Politus Polished. 

Corneus Horny. *Subulatus Awl-shap'd. 

Decussatus Decussated. 

DIVISION IX. SHELL TURRETED. 

Imbricatus Imbricated. *Terebra Augur. 

Replicatus Large. Archimedis Archimedes'. 

Acutangulus Sharp-angled. Variegatus Variegated. 

*Duplicatus Double-ribbed. *Ungulinus Doubtful. 

Torcularis Brown-spotted. Terebellum Little. 

Obsoletus Obsolete. Annulatus White. 

*Exoletus Ribbed. Turris-thomae Tower. 



UNIVALVES. HELIX. 125 

DIVISION X. SHELL DEPRESSED. 

Nautileus Nautilus. *Serpuloides Serpula. 

*Cristatus Small-crested. Ludus Green- spotted. 

*Depressus Minute-flattish. Marginellus Reflected-lip. 



HELIX. SNAIL OR SPIRAL. 

/ 

Animal a Limax : Shell univalve, spiral, subdiaphanous, 

brittle; aperture contracted, semilunar, or roundish. 

THE one hundred and ninety-four species, which com- 
pose this genus, are principally land or fresh water shells, 
a few only being the produce of the ocean. They are 
usually of a delicate and brittle structure, and remarkable 
for their lightness ; their general form resembles that of 
the common garden or hedge-snail, except in those species 
which are tapering or elongated. 

The first division consists of the carinated Helices, and 
the more compressed or flattened species of the genus; 
which, from their shape, are commonly called Antique 
Lamps. The H. lapicida, H. marginata, and H. cicatri- 
cosa, have acute margins, and are characteristic of the ca- 
rinated species. These shells were formerly supposed to 
have fallen in showers from the clouds. 

Of the Antique Lamps, the H. lucerna, H. lampas, and 
H. carocolla, are illustrative specimens. The rarest spe- 
cies are the H. ringens, H. Gualteriana, and H. otis. 

Some of the species of the third division are umbilicat- 
ed, and are much more globose or inflated in their forms, 
as the H. pomatia; which snail is an inhabitant of the 
woods of Europe, and was introduced into England by Sir 
Kenelm Digby, for medical purposes. The animal is used 



126 UNIVALVES. HELIX. 

in many parts of Europe as an article of food during Lent, 
and was considered a luxury by the Romans. It is ovi- 
parous, and very tenacious of life; towards winter, it co- 
vers its aperture with a calcareous lid, resembling an oper- 
culum, and remains in a torpid state until the spring. 
The animal of the H. ampullacea in the sixth division 
grows to an immense size, and is also eaten; its eggs, 
which it deposits in clusters on the bark of trees, or rushes, 
&c. have sometimes a pink tinge, but are generally dull 
white. 

Of the species which compose the fourth division, may 
be adduced the H. dextra and the H. perversa (a syn- 
onym), which differ only in the direction of their whirls : 
they are both rare shells, and have their surfaces covered 
with a beautiful citron colour, variegated with green, and 
striped or banded with brown. The H. ovata and H. ob- 
longa are both land shells; the eggs of the animals are per- 
fectly elliptical, and nearly equal in size to those of the com- 
mon sparrow. The animals of the H. ianthina and H. glo- 
bosa, forming the eighth division, have the property of emit- 
ting a phosphorescent light, and stain the hand of a pur- 
ple colour, not easily removed; they are found in great 
numbers, floating on marine substances. 

Amidst the endless variety of terrestrial shells, there is, 
perhaps, no species so well known as the H. nemoralis or 
common garden snail; it is an inhabitant of European 
gardens and orchards, and very destructive to fruit and 
tender leaves. Its eggs are perfectly round, and about the 
size of small peas. 

A very beautiful and rare species of the third division is the 
H. haemastoma, which is admired for its elegant bandings 
and rose coloured lips. A black lipped variety of this shell 
has lately been discovered, which is also rather rare; the 
body of the shell being pink, forms a beautiful contrast 
with its jet lips. 



UNIVALVES. HELIX. 127 

Of the turreted or tapering Helices may be particula- 
rized the H. decollata and H. columna. 

The last division contains those species which have their 
apertures very large, exposing the whole of the interior of the 
shell, and bear in shape a strong resemblance to the genus 
Haliotis; of these the H. haliotoidea may be adduced as 
an example. 

Many of the Helices inhabit aquatic plants in standing 
waters, lakes, ponds, and ditches: others are found on trees 
and shrubs, and some harbour among rotten wood. 



HELIX Snail. 
DIVISION I. SHELL WITH A CARINATED MARGIN ON THE 

BODY-WHIRL. 

FAMILY 1. UmUlicated and depressed. 

*Lapicida Rock. Exilis White-striped. 

Marginata Margined. *Cantiana Kent. 

Cicatricosa Reversed. *Rufescens Reddish. 

Albella Whitish. *Crenulata Black-tipp'd. 

Albina Minute- white. Annulata Ringed. 

*Rotundata Small-radiated. *Fontana Fresh-water. 

Lsevipes Reverse-whir I'd. Turcica Turkish. 

FAMILY 2. Umbilicated and convex. 

Cornu Large-horn. Trochoides Angular-mouth. 

Oculus-capri Goafs-eye. Incarnata Flesh-colour' d. 

Involvulus White-reflected. Maculosa Spotted. 

Striatula Striated. Corrugata Wrinkled. 

Algira Yellowish. Pellis-serpentis Snakes-skin. 

Leucas Purple- lined. Avellana Hazel-nut. 

FAMILY 3. Imperforated and depressed. 
Lampas Orange -lip. Gualteriana Gualter's. 

Carocolla Large- brown. Faba Bean-shap'd. 



128 UNIVALVES. HELIX. 

FAMILY 4. Imperforated, and convex or ventricose. 
Vermiculata Rough- dotted. Gothica Doubtful. 
Cornu-militare Bugle-horn. Scabra Rough. 

FAMILY 5. Umbilicated, and aperture toothed. 
Punctata Punctured. Unidentata One-toothed. 

FAMILY 6. Imperforated and aperture toothed. 
Sinuata Sinuous. Cepa Onion. 

Lucerna Lamp. Nux-denticulata Nut. 

Lychnucus Top-shaped. Verruca Wart-lipped. 

FAMILY 7. Imperforate and convex, with the aperture toothed 
and turned upwards. 
Ringens Grinner. 

FAMILY 8. Umbilicated and depressed, aperture ear-shaped, 

distorted, toothed, and sinuated, with a marginated lip. 

Otis Plaited. 

DIVISION II. SHELL DEPRESSED, AND WHIRL COILED HORI- 
ZONTALLY. 

FAMILY 1. Umbilicated. 

*Cornea Horn. *Contorta Coiled. 

Similis Dotted. *Alba White. 

*Spirorbis Small-concave. *Crystallina Crystal. 

Polygrata Many-whirl' d. Cornu-arietis Ram's-horn. 

Cornu-venatorium Hunter' s-horn. 

FAMILY 2. Imperforate and keeled. 

*Planorbis Notch-lipp'd. *Complanata Flat-umbilicated. 
* Vortex Vortex. 

DIVISION III. SHELL WITH THE APERTURE SUB-LUNATE. 

FAMILY 1. Umbilicated and depressed. 
*Ericetorum Heath. *Tenuis Thin. 

*Strigata Girdled. Cellaria Cellar. 

Incisa Slit-margin 1 d. Obvoluta Small while-lipped. 

*Pisana Pisa. *Zonaria Zoned. 

*Nitida Pellucid. Striata Striated. 



UNIVALVES. HELIX. 129 

Ungulina Tawny-horn. Citrina Citron. 

*Itala Brown-banded. Rapa Single- band. 

Minute Shells. 

Minima Minute. Costata Cross-ribbed. 

*Hispida Hairy. Pulchella Striated. 

Umbilicata Umbilicated. *Trochulus Trochus- shaped. 

*Aculeata Prickly. 

FAMILY 2. Umbilicated and sub-globular. 
*Castanea Chesnut. Vittata Ribbon. 

Globulus Globular. Lusitanica Lusitdnian. 

Lucana Transparent. Hispana Spanish. 

*Arbustorum Single-streak 1 d. Vitrea Brittle. 
Fruticum Six-whirVd. *Pomatia Edible. 

Fulva Amber. Cincta Red-banded. 

Nemorensis Polished. Rosacea Flesh-colour* d. 

Extensa Four-whirl'd. 

FAMILY 3. Imperforate, and sub' globular. 
Jamaicensis Jamaica. Sultana Variegated. 

Rhodia Rhodian. Hsemastoma Rose-lipp'd. 

Albolabris White lipped. Lactea Milky. 

*Nemoralis Varied. Picta Painted. 

Cartusiana Carthusian. Versicolor Diversified. 

*Lucorum Brown-lipped. Aperta Gaping. 

*Grisea Grey. *Fusca Brown. 

Pellucida Transparent. 

FAMILY 4. Imperforate) and spire rather produced. 
*Vivipara Viviparous. Dissimilis Black- lipped. 

Fasciata Banded. Angularis Angular. 

FAMILY 5. Umbilicated and spire produced. 
Scalaris Produced. 

DIVISION IV. SHELL OVATE, OBLONG, VENTRICOSE, AND 

APERTURE OVATE. 

FAMILY 1. Umbilicated. 

Ovata Oval. Oblonga Oblong. 

Lutaria Mud. Flammea Zebra. 



130 UNIVALVES. HKLIX. 

Kambeul Kambeul. Dextra Yellow. 

Pileus Red fy yellow -strip' d. Stagnorum Barley-corn. 

Trifasciata Three-banded. *0bscura Small- brown. 

Bontia Brown-mouth' d. Lackhamensis Lackham's. 

Labiosa Lipped. Detrita Smooth-rayed. 

Otaheitana Otaheite. Guadaloupensis Guadaloupe. 

Laeva Party-coloured. *Substriata Substriated. 

FAMILY 2. Imperforate. 

Recta Straight. Aspera Rough- striated, [cal. 

Interrupta Tessellated. *Sub-cylindrica Sub-cylindri- 

Papy racea Fragile. Pella Small- red- brown. 

Arenaria Minute-sand. Pupa Little. 

Barbara Barbary. 

DIVISION V. SHELL OVATE-OBLONG, WITH THE WHIRLS 

TRANSVERSELY KEELED AND CORONATED. 

Amarula Mitre. 
DIVISION VI. SHELL SUBGLOBULAR, VENTRICOSE, UMBILI- 

CATED, AND APERTURE OVATE-OBLONG. 

Ampullacea Smooth-girdled. Glauca Greyish- brown. 
Urceus Cocoa-nut. *Lacuna Gutter-lipp'd. 

DIVISION VII. SHELL WITH THE WHIRLS LONGITUDINALLY 

ANGULATED ON BOTH SIDES. 

Scarabseus Cockchafer. Afra African. 

DIVISION VIII. SHELL UMBILICATED, ROUNDISH, OBTUSE, 

DIAPHANOUS, BRITTLE, AND APERTURE 
SUB-TRIANGULAR. 

lanthina Violet. Globosa Globose. 

DIVISION IX. SHELL CONICAL, OBTUSE, DISTORTED, THE 

SIDE OPPOSITE THE APERTURE GIBBOUS, 
APERTURE COMPRESSED. 

Lyonetiana Lyonet's. 



UNIVALVES. HELIX. 
DIVISION X. SHELL SUB-UMBILICATED, PYRAMIDAL, AND 

SUMMIT OBTUSE. 

Eipistylium-^-Bee-hive. Papilla Nipple. 

DIVISION XI. SHELL VENTRICOSE, PELLUCID, AND APER- 
TURE OVATE. 

FAMILY 1. Imperforate. 

*Stagnalis Lake. Inflata Inflated. 

Fragilis Brittle. Opaca Opaque. 

*Palustris Marsh. *Tentaculata Dusky. 

*Fossaria Ditch. *Lutea Yellow. 

Albicans White. Sicula Sicilian. 

*Putris Thin-yellowish. *Glutinosa Membranous. 

Peregra -Horny. *Laevigata- Smooth- flesh-colour 

*Limosa Rough. Balthica Baltic. 

Truncatula Truncated. Neritoidea Nerite- shaped. 

FAMILY 2. Umbilicated. 

Repanda Ventricose. *Canalis Channelled. 

*Auricularia Eared. 

DIVISION XII.TURRETED. 

FAMILY 1. Apex truncated. 
Consolidata Flat-tipp'd. Truncata Flag. 

Decollata Truncated. Calcaria Chalky. 

Contorta-pHcata Coiled-plaits. 

FAMILY 2. Apex acute. 

C uspidata Pointed. Octona Slender. 

Plicaria White-spotted. Columna Column. 

Undulata Waved. Incumbens Tawny-strip' d. 

Vibex Red-marked. * Acuta Double- banded. 

Crenata Crenated. Undata Undulated. 

Fuscata Brown-clouded. Fluviatilis River. 

*Peregrina Eight- whirl' d. Turbinata Turbinated. 

Carinula Brown-lin'd. 

DIVISION XIII. SHELL DEPRESSED, SPIRE FLATTISH, APER- 
TURE VERY LARGE, EXPOSING THE WHOLE INSIDE. 

Perspicua Large-mouth' d. Haliotoidea Venus' s-ear. 



132 UNIVALVES. NERITA. 



NERITA. NERITE OR HOOF-SHELL. 

Animal a Limax: Shell univalve, spiral, gibbous, flaitish 
at bottom; aperture semiorbicular or semilunar ; pillar- 
Up transversely truncate, flattish. 

THIS genus contains only sixty-seven species, and but 
few of any great beauty or rarity. 

There is considerable variation in the form and mark- 
ings of the Neritae: some are spiral, with prominent whirls; 
others have their whirls partly or wholly concealed ; some, 
again, are umbilicated, while others are perfectly entire 
and solid; and many have the umbilicus partially covered 
by a repand lip, or fissurated nodule. 

The interior of the mouth and lips is, in many species, 
toothless; but, in others, both lips are beset with strong 
prominent and articulated teeth, often terminating in dis- 
jointed, elevated strias, or protuberant granulations. 

In most species, the back of the shell is covered with 
strong, elevated ribs, sometimes nodulous and imbricated ; 
it is often only minutely striated, and has frequently a 
perfectly smooth surface and brilliant polish. 

Of the umbilicated species may be particularized the N. 
canrena, of which there are many beautiful varieties; and 
the N. cancellata, N. glaucina, N. vitellus, and N. mammil- 
la; the common variety of the latter shell is white, having 
a porcelain appearance ; but the rarer varieties incline to a 
brownish orange, having their lips surmounted with a black 
margin or border. The N. fulminea is marked with an- 
gular stripes, resembling forked lightning. 

The next division of the Nerites consists of those which 
are imperforated and toothless, as the N. corona and N. 
fluviatilis ; the former is often of a blackish colour, and has 



UNIVALVES, NERITA. 133 

its whirls crowned with spines of an unequal length : the 
latter is an inhabitant of the rivers of Europe, and Barbary ; 
it is usually marked with scaly spots, and is sometimes 
rugged, streaked, or reticulated. 

The species of the third division are distinguished from 
those of the preceding by having their lips toothed : the 
principal are the N. pulligera, N. atrata, N. undulata, 
N. larva, and N. virginea, the latter of which is an inha- 
bitant of the rivers of South America and India; like ma- 
ny other species of the Neritae, it is toothed on the inner 
lip only. Its varieties are extremely beautiful, and are of- 
ten called the Guinea-hen or Guinea-fowl Nerites, from 
the resemblance of its markings to the plumage of the bird 
so named. 

The varieties of the N. polita are the most beautiful of 
this genus; they are smooth polished shells, and are ge- 
nerally clouded with green, having intermediate maculate 
bands of pale pink; but the most rare variety has three 
or four bright crimson bands on a dark mottled ground, 
running in a parallel direction with the convolutions of 
the shell. These shells are frequently worn as ornaments 
by the Indians. 

Some species of this division are strongly ribbed or 
grooved, as the N. histrio, N. plicata, N. grossa, N. pica, 
and the N. chamseleon ; which last is varied by alternate 
undulated black and white rays. 

The N. turrita, from the Antilly Isles, and the N. acu- 
leata, from India, are fresh-water species. 

The different species of Neritse are produced in the Afri- 
can, American, Indian, European, and Red seas; the 
Southern and Northern oceans, the Mauritius, the Cape 
of Good Hope, and New Zealand. 



134 UNIVALVES. NERITA. 

NERITA. tante or Hoof-Shell. 

DIVISION I. SHELL UMBILICATED. 

FAMILY l.-~With the umbilicus rather large, nearly pervious. 
Vitellus Clouded-yellow. Rugosa Wrinkled. 

Punctata Punctured. Vittata Ribbon. 

Cruentata Red- spotted. *Pallidula Pallid. 

FAMILY 2. With the umbilicus bifid. 
*Canrena Tabby-cat. Sulcata Grooved. 

Cancellata Latticed. Spadicea Chesnut. 

Rufa Reddish. 

FAMILY 3. With the umbilicus nearly closed by a callus, or by 

the inner lip, 

*Glaucina Livid. Albumen Liver-coloured. 

Orientalis Eastern. Mammilla Breast. 

Maroccana Wave-striped. Papilla Nipple. 

Arachnoidea Spiders-web. Melanostoma Brown-pillar. 
Ambigua Am biguous. 

FAMILY 4. With the umbilicus toothed. 
Fulminea Ziczag. 

DIVISION II. SHELL IMPERFORATE AND TOOTHLESS. 

FAMILY 1. Spinous. 

Corona Crowned* 

FAMILY 2. Without spines. 

Tladula Rough-ribbed. *Littoralis Strand. 

Magdalena Magdalen. *Lacustris Lake. 

Cornea Horny. *Dubia Black-mark. 

*Fluviatilis River. *Marginata Margined. 

DIVISION III. SHELL IMPERFORATE AND TOOTHED. 

FAMILY 1. W,ith the inner lip toothed. 
Pulligera Reddish. Aculeata Spinous. 



UNIVALVES. HALIOTIS. 13-5 

Pupa Black-and-white. Turrita Tnrreted. 

Bidens Double- tooth' d. Piperina Triangular- spotted. 

Flavescens Yellowish. Larva Broad-land. 

Viridis Green. Ascensionis Ascension. 

Virginea Guinea-fowl. Malaccensis Malacca. 

Hieroglyphica Hieroglyphic. 

FAMILY 2. With both lips toothed or crenated. 
Polita Smooth. Lineata Lined. 

Peloronta Bleeding-tooth. Versicolor Many- colour' d. 

Maxima Great. Pica Magpie. / 

Histrio Harlequin. Stella Star. 

Tessellata Tessellated. 

FAMILY 3. With the inner lip toothed and wrinkled. 
Atrata Smooth-black. Flammea Flame. 

Nigerrima Black. Grossa Red-thrush. 

Antillarum Wrinkle-lip. Undulata Thin-wav'd. 

Plicata Horse-tooth. Quadricolor Four- colour' d. 

FAMILY 4. With the inner lip toothed and tuberculated. 
Albicilla Pimple lip. Exuvia Ea-wwa. 

Fulgurans Lightning. 

FAMILY 5. With the inner lip toothed, wrinkled, and tuber- 
culated. 

Plexa Thrush. Chamaeleon Chameleon. 

Costata Ribbed. Undata Waved. 



HALIOTIS. SEA-EAR OR EAR-SHELL. 

Animal a Limax: Shell univalve, dilated, ear-shaped, 
with a longitudinal row of orifices along the surface; 
spire lateral, and nearly concealed. 
OF this beautiful genus there are but twenty-two species ; 

and their general form and appearance are so similar, that 



136 UNIVALVES. HALIOTIS. 

it- often becomes a matter of difficulty to distinguish the 
one from the other. The form of all the Haliotides re- 
sembles the human ear, excepting one, which is called the 
H. asinina, or ass's ear, on account of its being much more 
elongated or distended than any of the other species. 

There are three reasons which operate to create diffi- 
culty in the arrangement of the species of this genus : 
First, the outside of the shell is generally loaded with ma- 
rine substances, or else is so much decayed or worn as 
not to offer a lineament of the original texture, thereby 
precluding all possibility of judging by the work or colour 
to what species it appertains. Secondly, as the interior 
of the Haliotides is enamelled with a magnificent surface 
of iridescent pearl, no great distinction can be made by a 
reference to that part of the shell. Thirdly, as the beau- 
ty of the shell is considerably increased by being wholly 
or partially uncoated and polished, it is customary to sub- 
mit it to some such beautifying operation; which, how- 
ever, with the surface at once removes all clue to the at- 
tainment of the specific character. 

The exterior of the shell is generally composed of rugae 
or tuberculations, over which pass approximate elevated 
striae. In some species, foliations supply the place of tu- 
berculations, as in the H. Midas or Midas' ear; the out- 
side of which is wrinkled, and of a dusky white hue ; but 
the inside is most beautifully iridescent. It is often eight 
or nine inches long. 

The back of almost the whole of the Haliotides is fur- 
nished with a row of orifices near the margin ; varying in 
number from eight to thirty-eight; of these from three 
to seven are generally open, and the rest perfectly closed. 
There are, however, three exceptions to this general char- 
acter; for the H. imperforata, H. impertusa, and H. du- 
bia are entirely void of any orifices. The former, which 



UNIVALVES. HALIOTIS. 13? 

has an ovate form, with an exserted spire and prickly ribs, 
is a rare shell. 

The Haliotis tuberculata is found on the British coasts. 
The H. parva is remarkable for its red or scarlet colour, 
and for having but one large elevated rib or angle on its 
back. The H. bistriata is peculiar for having a succession 
of double elevated striae, placed in a transverse direction 
on the back. The H. pulcherrima is a beautiful and rare 
shell from the South Seas. 

The H. iris, (from New Zealand), is celebrated for its 
bright iridescent colours, which are finely contrasted with 
a green and gold bronze-like lustre. The H. gigantea, 
from New Holland, sometimes exceeds a foot in length. 

The Haliotides are found on the shores of Europe, Afri- 
ca, and India; where, like the limpets, they adhere to the 
rocks, from which they are with difficulty removed. 

HALIOTIS Sea-Ear. 

DIVISION I. SHELL PERFORATED. 

FAMILY 1. Roundish or ovate. 

Midse Midas*-Ear. Australia Rough-plaited. 

Pulcherrima Beautiful. Gigantea Gigantic. 

Virginea Iridescent. Iris Iris. 

*Tuberculata Common. Cracherodii Cracherode's. 

Striata Wrinkled. Ovina Chesnut-marble. 

Bistriata Double- lined. Parva Small-orange. 

Varia Rough- striated. Rufescens Magnificent. 

Marmorata Marbled. Splendens Splendid. 

Glabra Smooth-mottled. Corrugata Corrugated. 

FAMILY 2. Oblong. 
Asinina Ass's-ear. 

DIVISION II. SHELL IMPERFORATE. 

Imperforata Carinated. Impertusa Imperforate. 

Dubia 



138 



UNIVALVES. 



II. WITHOUT A REGULAR SPIRE. 



PATELLA. LIMPET OR DISH-SHELL. 

Animal a Limax: Shell univalve, subconic, shaped like 
a bason, without a spire. 

THIS genus contains one hundred and six species. They 
are very similar in form, which, with a few exceptions, ap- 
proximates to that of a cone, with its apex a little blunted. 
But, with regard to the colours and workings, they differ 
exceedingly; some being perfectly smooth, whilst others 
are strongly granulated and spinous ; and many are deep- 
ly striated or covered with elevated tuberculated rays. 

Of the limpets which are very entire, and not pointed at 
the tip or crown, those most worthy of notice are the P. 
afra, P. areolata, P. flammea, P. Indica, and P. testudina- 
ria ; the latter is rather a rare species, and generally has 
its interior of a silvery hue. The P. compressa is remark- 
able for its narrow and lengthened form, which gives it the 
appearance of having been squeezed or pinched. 

The P. umbellata is one of the rarities of the genus; it 
sometimes grows to a large size ; it is a flat, broad, expand- 
ing shell, of a blueish white colour, having its interior of 
a glossy yellowish or brownish cast, and the tip generally 



UNIVALVES. PATELLA. 139 

of a beautiful orange colour; the margin is often circular- 
ly scalloped. 

Those species which are more compressed, and have 
their margins angularly or irregularly toothed, form the se- 
cond division : as the P. laciniosa, P. saccharina, P. granu- 
laris, P. granatina, &c. The P. vulgata, or common limpet, 
is found in great abundance on the British shores. 

The third division of the Patella includes the perforated 
species ; the principal are the P. Grseca, P. nimbosa, P. 
Caffra, P. perforata, and P. macroschisma ; the latter, when 
in fine preservation, is considered a rarity ; it grows to a 
considerable size, and is found at Japan. 

The next division comprehends the species which are 
cap-shaped, and have a recurved tip. Of these the P. 
Ungarica is the most remarkable ; it is a beautiful shell, 
and from its similarity of shape is called the Fool's Cap. 
The exterior is usually of a pale fawn colour, and the outer 
margin is bordered with a fine bristly epidermis; when 
the interior is of a very bright pink colour, this limpet is 
considered more valuable. 

The P. lutea has some resemblance to an Haliotis, but 
the flatness and ear-shaped form of the latter genus is a 
sufficient distinction. The P. pectinata is covered with 
spines, and the P. perversa is remarkable for having its 
crown recurved, and turned towards the hind part of the 
animal. 

The species of the sixth division are entire, and furnish- 
ed with an internal lip, which is strikingly observable in the 
P. equestris and P. Sinensis ; some of them are rough and 
scaly, whilst others are perfectly smooth and polished; they 
are known by the name of Cup-and- saucer Limpets. 

The species of the seventh division are chambered or 
vaulted, and have the appearance of a slipper; such are 
the P. porcellana, P. fornicata, and P. aculeata. 



140 UNIVALVES. PATELLA. 

The Patellae are usually found adhering by their base to 
rocks, stones, fuel, and other marine substances, from which 
they are with much difficulty removed. They inhabit the 
Indian, Southern, European, Northern, and Mediterranean 
seas ; the American and Indian islands ; the Atlantic, and 
the shores of China, Greenland, and Iceland. 

The Patellae derive their name from their resemblance 
to a little dish or bason reversed. 



PATELLA Limpet. 

DIVISION I. Shell with the summit obtuse, and the margin entire" 

*Pellucida Pellucid. Flammea Agate. 

*Laevis Smooth. Indica Indian. 

Radians Grey-mottled. Vitellina Yellow. 

Rota Roundish. Las vigata White- tipp'd. 

Testudinaria Tortoise-shell. Surinamensis Surinam. 

*Clealandi Clealand's. Punctulata Dotted. 

Testudinalis Small-tortoise- sh. Notata Wheat-sheaf. 

Compressa Flat-sided. Cruciata White-cross. 

Mytiliformis Muscle. Reticulata Reticulated. 

Afra African. Caeca White-border' d. 

Rustica Narrow ribbed. Virginea Purple-rayed. 

Jamaicensis Jamaica. Tessellata Tessellated. 

Stellifera Starred. Fulva Orange-tawny. 

Fusca Sugar-loaf. Ambigua White-duck' s-bill. 

Areolata Pyramidal. Umbellata Parasol. 

DIVISION II. Shell with the margin angular, or irregularly 

toothed. 

Laciniosa White-eyed. Margaritacea Great-sun. 

Plicata Plaited. Barbara Toothed. 

Monopis Chesnut-streaked. Cypria White-ribbed. 

Saccharina Star. Oculus-capri Goafs-eye. 

Angulosa Angular. Pentagona Five-angled. 

Repanda Small- sun. Granularis White-grained. 

Tennis Thin-amber. Granatina Garnet. 



UNIVALVES. PATELLA. 141 

Chlorosticta Pigeon 1 s-throat. Ulyssiponensis Buckler. 

Tigrina Tiger. Radiata Radiated. 

Ornata Adorned. Lugubris Black. 

Melanogramma Black- ribbed. Vulgata Common. 

Ferruginea Rusty. Ccerulea Blue. 

Crenata Little-grey. Tuberculata White-pimpled. 

Sanguinolenta Rose-streaked. Cochlear Horse-shoe. 

DIVISION III. Shell with the summit perforated. 

Noachina Perforated. Pileolus Open-cap. 

Pustula Doubtful. Scutellum Scutcleon. 

Grseca Cancellated. Picta Painted. 

Atricapilla Black-ring. Nimbosa Scaly-ribbed. 

Nodosa Tuberculated. Nubecula Variegated. 

Perforata Partridge. Porphyrozonias Porphyry. 

Caffra African. Macroschisma Key-hole. 

DIVISION IV. Shell with the summit pointed and recurved. 
*Ungarica Fool's-cap. Mammillaris Nipple. 

*Militaris Hooked. Leucopleura Small-rayed. 

*Antiquata Antiquated. Tricarinata Three-keeled. 

Cochleata White-ridged. PectmatmSpined. 

Calyptra Helmet. Fusco-lutea Yellowish-brown. 

*Intorta Inclining. Lutea Yellow. 

Cassida Lentil-seed. Perversa Reverse-tipp'd. 

Tranquebarica Brilliant. Lacustris Lake. 

Oblonga Oblong. 

DIVISION V. Shell with a marginal fissure. 
*Fissura Slit. Incisa Reticulated-slit. 

Fissurata Rose-colour' d. 

DIVISION VI. Shell with an internal appendage at the summit. 
Equestris Cup-fy-saucer. *Sinensis Chinese-bonnet. 

Neptuni Neptune' s-cap. Auriculata Ear-shop' d. 

Tectum Chinese-roof. Duplicata Double. 

DIVISION VII. Shell with an internal transverse partition. 
Trochiformis Trochus-shap'd. Trochoides Wave-ribbed. 



142 UNIVALVES. OENTALIUM. 

Neritoidea Chambered. Aculeata Spiny-ribbed. 

Porcellana Brown-spot. Goreensis Sandal. 

Fovnicata Slipper. Crepidula Transparent- white. 



DENTALIUM TOOTH OR TUSK-SHELL. 

Animal a Terebella : Shell univalve, tubular , straight, or 

slightly curved, with an undivided cavity open at both ends. 

OF this singular genus there are hut fifteen species; 
they are very similar in form, and resemble an elephant's 
tusk in miniature. 

They differ principally in magnitude, and in the number 
of ribs and grooves with which some of the species are 
marked; a trifling distinction may also be made with re- 
gard to the degree of curvature which many of them pos- 
sess. 

One of the largest and most valuable species is the D. 
elephantinum ; it is often three or four inches long, slight- 
ly curved, and has generally ten strong, elevated ribs, 
which are encircled by dark green bands on a greenish 
ground; it inhabits the Indian and European seas. 

The D. rectum, though nearly allied to the D. elephan- 
tinum, is a straight shell, and therefore easily distinguish- 
ed from it. It is also adorned with doubled or tripled 
longitudinal striae, which at the same time are encircled 
with annular ones. The D. fasciatum is a small species, 
finely striated, and encircled with four or five brown bands 
on a greyish ground. 

Some species are striated annularly : such are the D. po- 
litum, (which is finely pointed, solid, and often of a tosy 
or pinkish colour), and the D. eburneum. 



UNIVALVES. DENTALIUM. 143 

Other species are smooth, or covered with striae, so mi- 
nute that they cannot be discovered without the aid of a 
magnifying glass. Of these, the D. pellucidum is an ex- 
ample ; it is of a horny or pale honey colour, very narrow 
and thin, and does not effervesce in acids ; it is an inhab- 
itant of the Northern seas, and about two inches and a 
quarter long. The D. entalis, which is an inhabitant of 
the Indian and European shores, is generally an inch and 
a half long, and of a reddish or pale yellow colour, and 
the tip is often tinted with orange or pink. 

The D. minutum inhabits the Mediterranean ; it is a 
round, straightish, smooth shell, and so very minute as 
scarcely to be discernible by the naked eye ; it resembles 
a small bristle, or one of the spines of an echinus. 

The D. imperforatum (from Sandwich and its neighbour- 
hood) is also a minute species, and is by no means com- 
mon. 

The recent species are mostly from the Indian and Eu- 
ropean oceans j though some few are from the Mediterra- 
nean and Northern seas, and one species inhabits the shores 
of Africa. 

DENTALIUM Tooth- SMI. 

FAMILY I. With longitudinal ribs. 
Rectum Straight. *Striatum Striated. 

Elephantinum Elephant's. *Dentalis Curved- striated. 

Aprinum White-ribbed. Fasciatum Banded. 

* Imperforatum Minute-truncated. 

FAMILY 2. With annular strife. 

Politum Ring-striated. Eburneum Smooth-ivory. 

*Trachea Minute-windpipe. 

FAMILY 3. Smooth. 

*Entalis Common. *Gadus Hake's. 

Corneum Horn-colour' d. *Minutum Minute. 

Pellucidum Pe Ihicid. 



1 44 UNIVALVES. SERPUL A. 



SERPULA WORM-SHELL. 

Animal a Terebella: Shell univalve, tubular, generally 

adhering to other substances : often separated internally 

by divisions at uncertain distances. 

THE genus Serpula contains forty species ; their form 
(with few exceptions) is exceedingly irregular. They are 
generally found in groups or clusters, adhering to other 
substances, such as rocks, stones, roots of trees, sides of 
ships, zoophytes, sertularias, fuci, shells, corals, &c. They 
are invariably tubular, and present themselves sometimes 
isolated, either straight or twisted, but more frequently in 
clusters, consisting of many hundred spiral and twisted 
tubes, curiously interwoven with each other. 

Of the species which are isolated and spiral, may be in- 
stanced the S. spirillum, S. spirorbis, and S. afra; which 
have their whirls nearly contiguous, and resemble the He- 
lices. 

To this same class belongs the well-known but rare shell, 
the Watering-pot Serpula, (S. aquaria). Its larger end is 
closed by a convex disk, with numerous small perforations, 
and generally a longitudinal one in the middle, the whole 
encircled by a dilated margin of elegant papyraceous tubes, 
resembling a beautifully plaited ruff or frill; the smaller 
end is open. It is found in the Indian ocean, and seldom 
exceeds five inches in length. 

The S. gigantea is about an inch in diameter, and some- 
times exceeds half a foot in length. The S. lumbricalis is 
a flexuous shell, -with a spiral acute tip, and very much re- 
sembles a cork-screw. 

One of the remarkable species of this genus is the S. 
anguina, which has a slit or long-jointed cleft along the 



UNIVALVES. SERPULA. 115 

spiral convolutions of its shell. The S. muricata has its 
shell beset with a succession of spines or prickles : it is 
usually of a rosy or pink colour, and sometimes has its aper- 
ture margined. 

The S. cornu-copiae, or horn of plenty, is, in all proba- 
bility, only a dropped Helix nemoralis, or common garden 
snail, and of course not belonging to this genus. The S. 
denticulata is sometimes found in the Lepas tintinnabu- 
lum; and the S. granulata adheres to the roots of the fucus 
digitatus ; the S. retorta is retort shaped; the latter is scarce. 
The S. incurvata partially resembles the Nautilus semili- 
tuus, but it wants the internal concamerated structure. 

The colours of the Serpulae are various; the most gene- 
ral, however, are brown, purple, yellow, tawny, pink, and 
white, sometimes a little greenish. 

The Indian, African, American, and Northern oceans 
supply many species; as also do the European, Mediter- 
ranean, Adriatic, and Red seas. 

SERPULA Worm- Shell. 

DIVISION I. Attached to other substances. 
Spirillum Minute Spiral. Glomerata Glomerated. 

Triquetra Three-sided. Conica Conical. 

*Intricata Intricate. *Vermicularis Round. 

*Corrugata Wrinkled. *Tubularia Tubular. 

Contortuplicata Twisted. Denticulata Toothed. 

Goreensis Goree. Ocrea Boot-shaped. 

Gigantea Great. 

Minute Shells. 

Stellaris Rayed pin's-head. Granulata Grained. 
Planorbis Flat. Cancellata Grooved. 

Minuta Minute. *Heterostropha Reversed. 

Spirorbis Tapering. *Lucida Shining. 

Carinata Keeled. Vitrea Glossy. 



146 UNIVALVES. TEREDO. 

DIVISION II. Detached. 

*Semilunum Small-reed. Anguina Serpent. 

Incurvata Incurved. Muricata Prickly. 

Cereolus Bougie. Annularis Ringed snake. 

Nebulosa Clouded tawny. Retor-ta Retort-shaped. 

Lumbricalis Cork-screw. Cornu-copise Cornucopia. 

Arenaria Sandy. Decussata Decussated. 

Afra Smooth- brown. Proboscidea Proboscis. 

Volvox Caterpillar. Protensa Lengthened. 

DIVISION III. With radiated border and perforated disk. 
Aquaria Watering-pot. 



TEREDO. SHIP-WORM. 

Animal a Terebella, with two calcareous hemispherical 
valves cut off before, and two lanceolate ones : Shell ta- 
pering, flexuous, and capable of penetrating wood. 
THERE are but four species of this genus : the first is 
the T. navalis, or common ship worm ; it is very thin, cy- 
lindrical, and smooth, and is more or less twisted, and ra- 
ther obtuse or blunt at the tip ; it varies in length from four 
to six inches. This worm was originally imported from 
India, it has the faculty of penetrating the stoutest oaken 
planks of ships' sides, and effects as much destruction in 
the water as the termes or white ant on land. 

The T. utriculus is also cylindrical, undulate, and solid; 
it is found in wood that has lain some time under water. 
It is white, subpellucid, very much bent, and gradually ta- 
pering, with an oval aperture, divided in the middle by a 
partition. Its length is about seven inches. 

The third species is the T. clava, which is found in the 



UNIVALVES. SABELLA. 147 

seminal vessels of the xilosteurn granatum; one end is cla- 
vate, the other incurved, narrower, obtuse, and perforated 
in the middle : the shell is rough, and brownish on the out- 
side, but within it is smooth, and more or less flexuous. 
It is nearly two inches long, but not half an inch wide. 
The fourth is the T. gigantea, which is remarkable for hav- 
ing its interior separated by imperforated convex and con- 
cave divisions, making the shell appear as if it consisted of 
numerous united tubes. The smaller end of this shell is 
also peculiar for being terminated by two distinct or se- 
parate small tubular pipes, which are jointed in the same 
manner as the main stem from which they spring; the 
shell, in this state, resembles a two-pronged fork. It is 
an inhabitant of the Mediterranean and Indian seas, and 
is often found concealed under the sands; it sometimes at- 
tains the extraordinary size of three feet. 

TEREDO Ship Worm. 

Navalis Ship. Clava Club-shaped. 

Utriculus Timber. Gigantea Gigantic. 



SABELLA. SABELLA. 

minimal a Nereis, with a ringent mouth, and two thicker 
tentacula behind the head: Shell tubular, composed of 
particles of sand, broken shells, and vegetable substances, 
united to a membrane by a glutinous cement. 
THIS very extraordinary genus contains no less than 

twenty-five species. The membrane which composes the 

H2 



148 UNIVALVES. SABELLA. 

basis of these animals is covered with various fragments 
and particles of different marine and vegetable productions. 

The S. vegetabilis and S. arundinacea are covered with 
fragments of twigs, the bark of stems or reeds, and bro- 
ken pieces of tellina cornea. The S. ammoniata is coated 
with fragments of the cornu-ammonis. 

The covering of the S. Indica is composed of capillary 
sub-cylindrical agglutinated crystals of quartz ; and that of 
the S. clavata of various sized stones. 

Some of the species, as the S. scruposa, S. chrysodon, c. 
are detached; whereas theS. scabra is affixed by the base. 

The S. alveolata has numerous parallel tubes, communi- 
cating by an aperture, forming in the mass the appearance 
of honey-combs. It is an inhabitant of the European 
coasts, and covers the rocks for a considerable space, and 
is easily broken under the feet. The tubes are straightish, 
and from two to three inches long. The S. rectangula is 
one of the largest of the genus, and often measures nine 
inches in length. 

There are no less than fourteen or fifteen species which 
inhabit rivers and fresh waters ; and most of them are from 
the waters of Thuringia and Belgium, where they are af- 
fixed to stones, &c. The other species are from the Indian, 
American, Northern, and European seas. 



SABELLA Sabella. 

FAMILY 1. Composed of grains of sand, stones, or shells. 

Scruposa White sandy. Nigra Black. 

Scabra Rough. Stagnalis River. 

Alveolata Honeycomb. Conica Conic. 

Chrysodon Pebble. Uncinata Hooked. 

Belgica Tubular. Sabulosa Gravel. 

Rectangula Rectangular. Ammoniata Ammonites. 

Capensis Cape. Helicina Helix. 



UNIVALVES. SABELLA. 149 

Dimidiata Divided. Marsupialis Sooty. 

Fixa Stony, Norwegica Nonvay. 

Clavata Club-shaped. Lumbricalis Coarse. 

Indica Indian. 

FAMILY 2. Composed of vegetable substances. 
Vegetabilis Vegetable. Arundinacea Reed. 

Corticalis Bark. Aculeata Twig. 



THE END. 



H.3 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



PLATE I. 

Fig. 

1 Chiton Squamosus Scaly Chiton. 

a Chiton Fascicularis . Banded Chiton. 

2 Lepas Anatifera Duck Barnacle. 

3 Lepas Balanoides Smooth Acorn Shell. 

4 Pholas Dactylus Prickly Piercer. 

5 Mya Truncata Abrupt Gaper. 

6 Tellina Ferroensis Brindled Tellen. 

7 Pinna Pectinata Muricated Pinna. 

8 Solen Sanguinolentus Red Solen. 

9 Solen Legumen Pease-cod Razor Sheath. 

10 Mytilus Modiolus Tulip Muscle. 

1 1 Anomia Ephippium Common English Anomia. 

12 Ostrea Opercularis . Common English Pecten. 

13 Area Noae Noah's Ark. 

14 Chama Gigas . Furbelowed Clam. 

15 Spondylus Gaedaropus Thorny Oyster. 

16 Venus Chione Smooth Brown Venus. 

17 Donax Denticulata ..... Toothed Wedge Shell. 

18 Mactra Stultorum Common English Mactra. 

10 Cardium Edule Common Eatable Cockle. 



PLATE II. 

Fig. 

20 Argonauta Argo ....... Paper Nautilus. 

21 Nautilus Pompilius Chambered Nautilus. 

22 Nautilus Spirula Spiral, or Crozier-headed 

Nautilus. 

23 Conus Virgo, or Tessel- Mosaic, or Tessellated Pave- 

latus ment Cone. 

24 Conus Ebraeus Hebrew Cone. 

25 Conus Textile 'Embroidered, or Cloth of 

Gold Cone. 

26 Cyprsea Arabica Nutmeg Cowry. 

27 Cypraea Moneta ....... Trussed-fowl, or Black-a- 

moor's-tooth Cowry. 

28 Cyprasa Mus Mouse Cowry. 

29 Bulla Terebellum Auger, or Borer Bulla. 

30 Bulla Naucum White Bulla, or Dipper. 

31 Bulla Lignaria Wood-grain Bulla. 

32 Voluta Utriculus Common Olive. 

33 Voluta Musica Music Volute. 

34 Voluta Episcopalis Bishop's Mitre. 

35 Voluta Persicula Pigmy Volute. 

36 Voluta Tornatilis Mouse-ear Volute. 




J.Mtnve, 149, Strand . 



PLATE III. 



37 Buccinum Patulum Common, or Wide-mouthed 

Scoop. 

38 Buccinum Dolium ..... Ribbed Tun. 

.'39 Buccinum Areola ...... Draft-board Helmet. 

40 Strombus Auris-Dianae Ass's-ear Alatus 

4 1~ S trombus Pes-Pelicani Pelican 's-foot Alatus. 

42 Murex Tribulus ....... Thorny Woodcock. 

43 Murex Neritoideus ..... Mulberry. 

44 Murex Ramosus . . ..... Aculeated Triplex. 

45 Trochus Perspectivus Staircase Trochus. 

46 Helix Ampullacea ..... Apple Snail. 

47 Helix Cornea ......... Ram's-horn Snail. 



PLATE IV. 

Fig. 

48 Turbo Bidens Two-toothed Turbo. 

49 Turbo Petholatus Ribband Turbo. 

50 Nerita Virginea Guinea-hen Nerite. 

51 Nerita Plicata Plaited Nerite. 

52 Haliotis Tuberculata Common Ear Shell. 

53 Haliotis Asinina Ass's-ear Shell. 

54 Haliotis Tuberculata Outside view of fig. 52. 

55 Patella Perforata Perforated Limpet. 

56 Patella Vulgata Common Limpet. 

57 Patella Fissura Cracked Limpet. 

58 Patella Sinensis Chinese-bonnet Limpet. 

59 Patella Equestris Cup-and-saucer Limpet. 

60 Dentalium Striatum Striated Tooth Shell. 

61 Serpula Aquaria Watering-pot Serpula. 

62 Teredo Navalis Common Ship Worm. 

63 Sabella Belgica Granulated Sabella. 



PLATE V. 

Shewing the HINGES of Bivalves, and other Peculiarities. 

Fig. 

1 Internal view of the Donax Scortum, shewing the 

hinge. 

2 Internal view of the Solen Siliqua, shewing the hinge. 

3 Internal view of the Solen Vespertinus, shewing the 

hinge. 

4 Internal view of the Ostrea Isognomon, shewing the 

hinge. 

5 Internal view of the Pholas Dactylus, shewing the 

teeth. 

6 Internal view of the Pinna Pectinata. 

7 Internal view of the Mactra Stultorum, shewing the 

hinge. 

8 Internal view of the Mytilus Hirundo. 

9 Internal view of the Mya Aurita, shewing the hinge. 

10 Trochus Conchyliophorus, shewing its singular pro- 

pensity of collecting and affixing shells to itself. 

1 1 Variety of the above, sometimes called the Mineralo- 

gist, because it collects stones. 



PLATE VI. 

Fig. 

1 Mytilus Edulis, shewing the beard or byssus. 

2 Teredo Navalis, shewing the shells imbedded in the 

wood, which they have perforated. 

3 Variety of the Murex Lotorium, shewing its hairy 

epidermis. 

4 Helix Ampullacea, partially covered with its epider- 

mis. 

5 Variety of Ostrea Varia, shewing a Serpula adhering 

to it. 

6 Venus Meretrix, shewing the anterior slope. 

7 Area Glycymeris, shewing the inside and the hinge. 

8 Cardium Lineatum, shewing the inside and the hinge. 

9 Internal view of the Anomia Sella, (in a young state), 

shewing the triangular hinge. 

10 Internal view of the Tellina Virgata, shewing the 

hinge. 

11 Internal view of the Spondylus Gsedaropus shewing 

the hinge. 

12 Internal view of the Chama Cordata, shewing the 

hinge. 

13 A group of Lepas Tintinnabulum. 

14 A group of Lepas Anatifera, shewing the peduncles 

and tentacula. 



LONDON: 
w. M'DOWALL, PRINTER, PEMBERTON ROW, 

GOUGH SQUARE. 



VI. 




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