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A Series Edited by Douglas G. Greene 

The Woggle-Bug Book (1905). Introduction by Douglas G. 
Greene, Old Dominion University. Reprint, Delmar, New 
York: Scholars' Facsimiles & Reprints, 1978. 

By the Candelabra's Glare (1898). Introduction by Peter E. 
Hanff, The Bancroft Library, the University of California, 
Berkeley. Reprint, Delmar, New York: Scholars' Facsimiles 
& Reprints, 1981. 

Policeman Bluejay (1907). Introduction by David L. Greene, 
Piedmont College. Reprint, Delmar, New York: Scholars' 
Facsimiles & Reprints, 1981. 


By L. Frank Baum 






ISSN 0161-7729 



Published by 

Scholars' Facsimiles & Reprints, Inc. 

Delmar, New York 12054 

First Printing 1978 
Second Printing 1982 

New matter in this edition 
5)1978 Scholars' Facsimiles & Reprints, Inc. 
All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A. 

; Reproduced from a copy in the possession of 

OVO<Vv^ David L. Greene 

^Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data 


Baum, Lyman Frank, 1856-1919, 

The Woggle-Bug book (1905). 

Photoreprint of the 1905 ed. published by 

the Reilly & Britton Co., Chicago. 

Includes bibliographical references. 

SUMMARY: The Woggle-Bug has a series of 

misadventures trying to possess a dress 

made from cloth of the bright colors he 

so dearly loves. 

[1. Fantasy. 2. Humorous stories] 

I. Morgan, Ike. II. Title. 

PZ7,B327'Wo 1978 |Fic| 78-6887 

ISBN 0-8201-1308-5 


The Woggle-Bug Book is the least known of Lyman Frank 
Baum's fantasies for children. Scholarly and popular books 
on Baum usually mention the story only in passing. ^ In part, 
scholarly neglect results from the fact that The Woggle-Bug 
Book is extraordinarily rare, owned by few collectors and 
fewer libraries; and the reader who is lucky enough to locate 
the book soon realizes that it is not of the quality of Baum's 
major works. The Woggle-Bug Book, however, is important 
not for its artistic power (which is negligible) but for the 
light that it sheds on Baum's writing at an important period 
in his career. 

Before L. Frank Baum (1856-1919) wrote America's great- 
est fairy tale, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1900), his life 
had been characterized by a series of false starts. His af- 
fluent childhood in upstate New York was succeeded by 
brief careers as an actor, an axle-grease manufacturer, a 
newspaper publisher, an owner of a general store, a re- 
porter, a crockery salesman, and the publisher of a journal 
for window-trimmers. He had achieved brief success as a 
playwright with an Irish melodrama entitled The Maid of 
Arran, which toured the country in 1882 and 1883. Although 
it is an exaggeration to label the play "one of the worst 

1. I am grateful to Dick Martin, David L. Greene, my wife Sandra S. 
Greene, and to the editors of The Baum Bugle, the journal of the Inter- 
national Wizard of Oz Club, Box 95, Kinderhook, Illinois 62345. As David 
L. Greene and Dick Martin say in The Oz Scrapbook (New York: Random 
House, 1977), "it is a sign of the organization's ability to smile at itself and 
its subject — a willingness that goes far to explain the respect in which 
the magazine is held outside the club— that the Bugle has retained . . . 
[its] irrelevant and alliterative title. . . ." 

2. The Woggle-Bug Book is mentioned briefly in Frank J. Baum and 
Russell P. MacFall, To Please a Child: a Biography of L. Frank Baum 
(Chicago: Reilly & Lee Co., 1961), p. 187; Michael Patrick Hearn, The 
Annotated Wizard of Oz (New York: Clarkson N. Potter, Inc., 1973), p. 50; 



melodramas ever written,"^ its stilted language and con- 
trived plot make it almost unreadable today. The Maid of 
Arran had, however, all the elements which made melo- 
dramas popular in the 1880s: a pure heroine, a noble hero, a 
crafty villain, and elaborate sets/ Baum followed The Maid 
of Arran with other plays, none of which received more than 
local attention. Nonetheless, he never lost his belief that, 
given the right situation, he could be a successful dramatist. 
Baum's career as a writer began in the 1890s in Chicago. 
With the publication of Mother Goose in Prose (1897) and 
Father Goose: His Book (1899), he realized that his main 
talent was writing stories and verses for children. During the 
next several years he wrote books that can be divided into 
two categories. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, A New Won- 
derland (1900), Dot and Tot of Merryland (1901), The Life 
and Adventures of Santa Claus (1902), and The Enchanted 
Island of Yew (1903) are elaborate fantasies set in timeless 
worlds of his own invention. On the other hand, American 
Fairy TaJes (1901 ), his newspaper series "Queer Visitors from 
the Marvelous Land of Oz" (1904-1905),^ and to a lesser 
extent The Master Key (1901) are worldly and ironic fairy 
tales with topical humor and generally placed in American 
settings. Even in his more traditional fairy tales Baum talked 
of everyday American objects. "Baum achieved universality," 
write David L. Greene and Dick Martin, "by combining the 
folk tale with elements familiar to every child — cornfields, 

and Greene and Martin, The Oz Scrapbook, pp. 22, 100, 129. Raylyn 
Moore's Wonderful Wizard Marvelous Land (Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowl- 
ing Green University Popular Press, 1974), p. 188, lists the book without 
comment in its "secondary bibliography." 

3. Daniel P. Mannix, "The Wizard of Oz," TV Guide, March 19, 1977. 
p. 27. 

4. Baum and MacFall, To Please a Child, pp. 38-41. This book is the 
standard biography of Baum and should be consulted by all students of 
his writings. Recently discovered material is in Hearn, Annotated Wizard 
of Oz, and in many Baum BugJe articles by both scholars and enthusi- 
asts. Especially important is David L. Greene and Peter E. Hanff, "Baum 
and Denslow: Their Books," Spring 1975 and Autumn 1975. 

5. Heavily revised, eleven of the episodes of this series were printed 
as The Visitors from Oz (Chicago: Reilly & Lee Co., 1960) with most of 
the wry and worldly comments removed. 


things made of tin, circus balloons."^ In later books Baum 
created a magic dishpan, sprinkled two sofas and a broom 
with a Powder of Life, gave an umbrella the power of flight, 
and built a fairy castle out of tin. Combining the timeless and 
the mundane is difficult, and Baum did not always succeed. 
Yet the fact that The Wonderful Wizard of Oz has sold more 
copies than any other American book written for children 
indicates that he was often able to maintain that delicate 

In 1901 Baum decided to return to his original love, the 
theatre. He wrote scenarios for three plays, King Midas, The 
Octopus, and Miss Jinks, but when producers showed no 
interest in those ideas, he dramatized The Wizard of Oz. 
Baum's illustrator, W. W. Denslow, who was to prepare cos- 
tumes for the play, contacted producers,^ and The Wizard of 
Oz was scheduled to open in June 1902. Baum's script, how- 
ever, was unsatisfactory. Probably thinking of the English 
pantomime, he prepared a comic opera for children with the 
gentle humor of the original story. ^ The producer, Fred R. 
Hamlin, and the stage manager, Julian Mitchell, wanted 
something more topical and boisterously funny. Baum was 
willing to sacrifice his story to whatever popular taste de- 
manded. "I was told that what constituted fun in a book 
would be missed by the average audience, which is accus- 
tomed to a regular gattling-gun discharge of wit — or what 
stands for wit.'"^ In a letter to the Chicago Tribune Baum 

The people will have what pleases them and not what the 
author happens to favor. . . . Should I ever attempt another 
extravaganza, or dramatize another of my books, I mean to 
profit by the lesson Mr. Mitchell has taught me, and sacrifice 
personal preference to the demands of those I shall expect to 
purchase tickets."^ 

6. Greene and Martin, Oz Scrapbook, p. 12; see also Hearn, Annotated 
Wizard of Oz, pp. 35. 39-40. 

7. Douglas G. Greene and Michael Patrick Hearn, W. W. Denslow 
(Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan University. 1976), p. 105. 

8. Daniel P. Mannix, "Off to See the Wizard-1903," The Baum Bugle, 
Christmas 1968, p. 5. 

9. Quoted in Hearn. Annotated Wizard of Oz, p. 46. 

10. Quoted in Baum and MacFall. To PJease a Child, pp. 13-14. Raylyn 


The musical extravaganza of The Wizard of Oz was one of 
the greatest successes of the early twentieth-century stage, 
running for at least nine years." The surviving scripts indi- 
cate that it was filled with one-line jokes, '^ gorgeous spec- 
tacle, and beautiful girls. There was enough tension in its 
sometimes incoherent plot to keep theatre-goers in their 
seats, and Fred Stone and David Montgomery as the Scare- 
crow and the Tin Woodman were universally praised. Other 
dramatists produced similar extravaganzas, such as Babes 
in Toyiand and Piff! Paff! Pouf!, which enjoyed similar 

Baum hoped to follow The Wizard of Oz with other suc- 
cessful plays. He prepared scenarios and sometimes full 
scripts for The Maid of Athens, King Jonah XUl, Prince 
Silverwings, Montezuma, and The King of Gee- Whiz.'-' Al- 
though these plays were never produced, Baum wrote The 
Marvelous Land of Oz (1904) with eventual adaptation to 
the stage in mind. Unlike the gentle wit of The Wonderful 
Wizard of Oz, the humor in Baum's 1904 book is broad and 
sometimes farcical. The major plot is a satire on the Suf- 
fragette movement as General linjur captures the throne of 
Oz and makes the men do the housework. The Scarecrow 
and the Tin Woodman were popular in theatres, so Baum 
invented two new grotesque characters, lack Pumpkinhead 
and Mr. H. M. Woggle-Bug, T. E. 

The Woggle-Bug is one of the great creations of children's 
literature. Baum had already completed one-third of The 
Marvelous Land of Oz when he was walking on a beach at 

Moore in Wonderful Wizard Marvelous Land, pp. 59-60, remarks that 
Baum's comment "is surely some kind of precedent in author capitulation 
to popular taste." 

11. Baum and MacFall. To PJease a Child, p. 10. 

12. Some of the jokes are included in A Tin Man's Joke Book (New 
York: J. S. Ogilvie, 1904). The following is a typical example: 

Tinman: Most Royal Wizard, allow me to introduce little 

Wizard: I think you're all a little dotty! 

13. Two of these scenarios are included with a portion of a third play 
in Alia T. Ford and Dick Martin, The Musical Fantasies of L. Frank Baum 
(Chicago: Wizard Press. 1958). 


Coronado, California. A little girl showed him a fiddler crab 
and asked what it was. "A Woggle-Bug," Baum replied, using 
the first word that came to him. The name so delighted the 
child that Baum added the character to his book.'^ In The 
Marvelous Land of Oz Baum explains that the Woggle-Bug 
had once been an ordinary insect, but he had hidden in 
a classroom and gained "excessive knowledge";'' thus he 
earned the initials "T. E." or Thoroughly Educated. One day 
the teacher discovered the Woggle-Bug and magnified him 
on a magic-lantern screen. The Woggle-Bug made his escape 
as "H. M." — Highly Magnified. The insect is a pompous crea- 
ture given to using long words and dreadful puns. 

Without having read the book one might assume that its 
plot and humor are badly dated; yet The Marvelous Land of 
Oz has remained one of Baum's most popular works. In 
describing Jinjur's revolt he avoids references to immediate 
events and instead emphasizes the universal theme of the 
battle of the sexes. In addition Baum lets the reader know 
that the Woggle-Bug's jokes do not constitute high wit by 
giving the insect a mock-serious defense of puns: 

A joke derived from a play upon words is considered among 
educated people to be eminently proper. . . . Our language 
contains many words having a double meaning; and ... to 
pronounce a joke that allows both meanings of a certain word, 
proves the joker a person of cuhure and refinement, who has, 
moreover, a thorough command of the language. 

After the Woggle-Bug illustrates this pronouncement with an 
example, his companions look "reproachfully" at him and 
snort in "derision." 

"We are not very particular," added the Tin Woodman; "and 
we are exceedingly kind hearted. But if your superior educa- 
tion gets leaky again — " He did not complete the sentence, but 
he twirled his gleaming axe so carelessly that the Woggle-Bug 
looked frightened and shrank away to a safe distance.'* 

Baum thus indicates that we can laugh at puns as well as 
laugh at the Woggle-Bug (and ourselves) for enjoying them. 

14. Scott Olsen, "The Coronado Fairyland," The Baum Bugle, Winter 
1976, p. 4. 

15. L. Frank Baum, The Marvelous Land of Oz (Chicago; Reilly & Britton 
Co., 1904). p. 153. 

16. Ibid., pp. 160-161. 


The giant insect was such a hit that Baum made him one 
of the main characters in his series of short stories set in 
America, "Queer Visitors from the Marvelous Land of Oz"; 
and Woggle-Bug buttons, music, postcards, and even a boxed 
game were produced. The insect also became the main char- 
acter in The Woggle-Bug, a musical extravaganza based on 
The Marvelous Land of Oz. Baum reached an agreement with 
a theatrical company on November 18, 1904, to stage the play. 
It opened in Milwaukee on June 15, 1905, and moved to 
Chicago three days later.'' About June 17, to take advantage 
of what was assumed to be the inevitable success of the 
extravaganza, the Reilly and Britton Company published The 
Woggle-Bug Book.^^ The coincidence in dates seems to con- 
firm Michael Patrick Hearn's speculation that the book was 
to have been sold in theatre lobbies presenting the play.'^ 

The play follows the general outline of The Marvelous 
Land of Oz with the addition of a sub-plot involving the 
Woggle-Bug's fondness for bright colors. He falls in love with 
a checked dress worn by one of the characters: "Be my 
stained glass window. Be my rainbow— you reign and I'll be 
the beau." As the play progresses the dress changes owners 
several times, but the Woggle-Bug remains constant in his 
love of the skirt, "Whither thou wogglest," he proclaims, 
"there shall I woggle."^° Baum loaded the play with puns, 
even adding some by hand in the typescript: 

Tip: Are you the chef? 

Dinah: Dat's what I is, honey. Everyone dat eats my cookies 

hankers for more. 
Tip: You're a handker-chef.^' 

Baum clearly thought that he had learned Mitchell's lesson 
about the public's taste. If audiences wanted low puns, he 
would supply them. If they wanted topical gags, he would 

17. Michael Patrick Hearn, "How Did the Woggle-Bug Do?", The Baum 
Bugle, Christmas 1974, pp. 17-19. This important article should be con- 
sulted for further information on the play. 

18. The book was noted in The Publishers' Weekly, "Weekly Record of 
New Publications," June 17, 1905, p. 1622. 

19. Hearn, Annotated Wizard of Oz, p. 50. 

20. The Woggie-Bug, Act I, pp. 5-6. The typescript of the play is pre- 
served in the Copyright Office of the Library of Congress. 

21. Ibid., Act II, addition between pp. 7 and 8. 


write them as well: 

Woggle-Bug: You can't know much. 

Jack: No, I don't expect to get further along than the legis- 

It quickly became evident that Baum did not understand 
public demands as completely as he thought. The Woggle- 
Bug closed after less than a month. It is easy to blame the 
forced gags for The Woggle-Bug's failure, but the jokes are 
no worse than those in The Wizard of Oz which continued to 
play to packed houses. The real weakness of the play is that 
in trying to be funny Baum neglected to devise a fast-moving 
plot; the characters seem more interested in cracking jokes 
than in doing anything important. 

The Woggle-Bug Book was more popular than the play. 
Records in the files of Baum's publisher indicate that the 
book sold well during its first year at 75 cents a copy. Reilly 
and Britten's announcement two and a half months after pub- 
lication that the book was in its "fourth edition" is probably 
an exaggeration,^-* but it did find enough buyers to warrant 
a second printing of the cover and perhaps of the contents 
as well.^"* By the next year, however, sales had fallen to the 
extent that the publisher offered the remaining copies at 
only 50 cents. ^^ The book is rare not because of sales but 
because of its fragile physical make-up. It was bound in thin 
cardboard covers with a cloth spine, and its large size 
(15" X 11") meant that copies were often bent and torn. On 
the whole the book was not printed competently. The plates, 
especially for the marginal illustrations printed on the text 
pages, are not always aligned correctly, and the benday dot 

22. Ibid., Act I, p. 14. 

23. The Publishers' Weekly, September 30, 1905, p. 680. To increase 
sales, publishers commonly exaggerated the popularity of their books. 
For example, the George M. Hill Company (with whom both Britton and 
Reilly had been associated) claimed that almost 90,000 copies of The 
Wonderful Wizard of Oz were printed; the correct figure was about 
34,000. See Greene and Hanff, "Baum and Denslow: Their Books, Part 
Two," The Baum Bugle. Autumn 1975, p. 14. 

24. Dick Martin, "Bibliographia Baumiana: The Woggle-Bug Book," The 
Baum BugJe, Christmas 1969, p. 18. 

25. Advertisement in the first state of L. Frank Baum, John Dough and 
the Cherub (Chicago: Reilly & Britton Co., 1906). 


patterns which appear on the pictures and as a background 
to the text are too coarse. Unfortunately, it is not financially 
feasible to print Ike Morgan's pictures in color in this re- 
edition. Page size has been reduced for ease in handling. 

Isaac (Ike) Morgan, the illustrator of The Woggle-Bug 
Book, was born in Grand Tower, Illinois, in 1871, and he 
studied at the St. Louis School of Fine Arts. After working on 
the St. Louis Republic for two years, he moved to Chicago 
around 1895.^^ Morgan worked on several Chicago papers 
and developed a competent pen-and-ink style which was in- 
distinguishable from that of many other newspaper artists. 
In his color work, however, for The Woggle-Bug Book, Grace 
Duffie Boylan's Kids of Many Colors, and other books, Mor- 
gan drew bold and open pictures which were clearly in- 
fluenced by the work of his friend, W. W. Denslow. Morgan 
and Denslow briefly shared the same studio, and in 1896 they 
had illustrated together Opie Read's An Arkansas Planter.^' 
Like Denslow's work in his Picture Books (1903-1904) and his 
"Billy Bounce" comic page (1901-1902), Morgan's pictures 
use circles, squares, and rectangles not to enclose but to 
emphasize the drawings. The figures peer around, step out 
of, and even stand on top of the borders. On page 41 of 
The Woggle-Bug Book, Morgan directly imitates Denslow by 
placing a comic frieze along the top of the page. When the 
book was set in type, one of Morgan's full-page pictures was 
omitted. It was first printed in The Baum Bugle, Christmas 
1969, and is here included for the first time in an edition of 
the book. 

Baum's story in The Woggle-Bug Book is an expansion of 
the insect's love of bright colors introduced in the musical 
extravaganza. 2^ The book has an excellent opening. The 
sense of wonder is not damaged by explanations of the 

26. W. W. Denslow, "Isaac Morgan," The Inland Printer, May 1896. 
p. 194. 

27. Greene and Hearn, W. W. Denslow, pp. 65, 69. 

28. Hearn, "How Did the Woggle-Bug Do?", p. 20, and Greene and Mar- 
tin, Oz Scrapbook, p. 129, state that the play borrowed a portion of its plot 
from the book. The production and publication dates, however, indicate 
that the reverse was true; the book is an expansion of a sub-plot of the 
musical extravaganza. 


Unused illustration hy Ike Morgan 
intended for page 18 of The Woggle-Bug Book. 


Woggle-Bug's existence and of what he is doing in America, 
though Baum may have expected his readers to recall that he 
had brought the Oz characters to America in his newspaper 
stories. Nor does Baum explain why "the people he met 
avoided telling him he was unusual. "-'^ If the Woggle-Bug's 
acquaintances can suspend disbelief, so can the reader. 

In the remainder of the book the sense of wonder is 
replaced by farce. The Woggle-Bug has a series of mis- 
adventures trying to possess a dress "made of cloth covered 
with big checks which were so loud that the fashion books 
called them 'Wagnerian Plaids.' "^° The story takes a some- 
what different tone after the Woggle-Bug leaves America in 
the "Professor's" balloon. The Professor may be the Wizard 
of Oz who had made a career of balloon ascensions at 
circuses and who would return to Oz, partly by means of a 
balloon, in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz (1908).^' After 
visiting an Arab tribe, the Woggle-Bug travels to a jungle 
kingdom ruled by animals. This episode is certainly the 
strongest in the book. Not only is it a clever satire on big-city 
political bosses, but it contains one of Baum's favorite sub- 
jects, the reversal of roles. Giving animals human character- 
istics is a traditional device, and Baum used it in many of his 
stories, especially in his AnimaJ Fairy Tales, written a year or 
two before The Woggle-Bug Book.^^ But Baum often went 
further. In A New Wonderland Prince Zingle is captured by 
civilized monkeys who believe that he is a primitive creature: 
"Hear him bark! He jabbers away almost as if he could talk!"-" 
The monkeys place him in a cage in the Royal Zoological 
Gardens where the following conversation takes place: 

29. Below, p. 4. 

30. Ibid. 

31. Ruth Herman first made this identification in "A Case of Ozian 
Identity," The Bnum Bugle, August 1961, p. 7. 

32. Baum wrote five of the nine Animal Fairy Tales in Coronado in 1904; 
see his letter to Emerson Hough quoted in Scott Olsen, "The Coronado 
Fairyland," p. 2. The stories appeared in The Delineator, January through 
September, 1905. and were printed in book form by the International 
Wizard of Oz Club in 1969. 

33. Quoted from the slightly revised edition of A New Wonderland; 
L. Frank Baum. The Surprising Adventures of the Magical Monarch of Mo 
and his People (Indianapolis; Bobbs-Merrill. 1903), p. 189. 


"I wonder where on earth the creature came from?" 
"It may be one of those beings from whom our race is 
descended," said another onlooker. "The professors say we 
evolved from some primitive creatures of this sort." 

"Heaven forbid!" cried a dandy-monkey, whose collar was 
so high that it kept tipping his hat over his eyes. "If I thought 
such a creature as that was one of my forefathers, I should 
commit suicide at once."-^^ 

Among many other examples of role reversals in Baum's 
books are men and women exchanging duties in The Mar- 
velous Land of Oz, the Foolish Owl and the Wise Donkey in 
The Patchwork Girl of Oz (1913), an unpublished chapter of 
The Patchwork Girl in which vegetables grow humans for 
food,^^ and of course the cowardliness of the lion in The 
Wonderful Wizard of Oz. In The Woggle-Bug Book a monkey 
is an organ-grinder with a boy on a cord to collect money 
from the audience, and Miss Chim claims that humans are 
'the lowest of all created beasts. "^^ Unlike European mon- 
archs, the King encourages disrespect, Baum used this idea 
in a gentler way in Sky Island (1912), one of his finest books. 
Queen Tourmaline lives in poverty while her subjects exist in 
luxury. She explains to her incredulous visitors that 

Too much should never be given to anyone. If, with my great 
power, conferred upon me by the people, I also possessed 
great wealth, I might be tempted to be cruel and overbearing. 
In that case my subjects would justly grow envious of my 
superior station." 

In Tik-Tok of Oz (1914) Baum created Tititi-Hoochoo who, as 
the only private citizen in a nation of Kings and Queens, is 
naturally the ruler. 

Many of the characters in The Woggle-Bug Book are ethnic 
stereotypes. A black cook in The Woggle-Bug play gained 
possession of the dress and hence of the insect's affections; 
the book contains not only a black washerwoman but also 
Irish, Swedish, Chinese, and Arab characters. Bridget, the 
Irish servant, weighs 180 pounds and wears "seven fuU- 

34. Ibid., pp. 192-193. 

35. Dick Martin, "A Lost Episode of Ozian History," The Baum Bugle, 
Christmas 1966, pp. 5-8. 

36. Below, p. 41. 

37. L. Frank Baum, Sky Island (Chicago: Reilly & Britton Co., 1912), 
p. 142. 


blown imitation roses and three second-hand ostrich plumes 
in her red hair."^^ The black laundry-woman "being colored 
— that is, she had a deep mahogany complexion — was de- 
lighted with her gorgeous gown." She calls the Woggle-Bug 
"Mars Debbil" and runs like an ancestor of Stepin Fetchit.^^ 
The Swedish widow is after a husband, and the Wagnerian 
Plaid "fitted her as perfectly as a flour-sack does a peck of 
potatoes."^" In the midst of all this, the reader learns that 
new immigrants fight "with much pleasure" and consider a 
free-for-all "a special amusement."^' 

Most of these comments are distasteful to modern readers, 
but they are not so bitter as the racist writings of some of 
Baum's contemporaries. Such opinions, nevertheless, are 
inconsistent with Baum's attitudes in many of the Oz books. 
The Lost Princess of Oz (1917) has a four-page discussion 
about which animal is the most beautiful. The Cowardly Lion 
concludes the argument by saying: 

Were we all like the Sawhorse we would all be Sawhorses, 
which would be too many of the kind; were we all like Hank, 
we would be a herd of mules; if like Toto, we would be a pack 
of dogs; should we all become the shape of the Woozy, he 
would no longer be remarkable for his unusual appearance. 
Finally, were you all like me, I would consider you so common 
that I would not care to associate with you. To be individual, 
my friends, to be different from others, is the only way to 
become distinguished from the common herd. Let us be glad, 
therefore, that we differ from one another in form and in 
disposition. Variety is the spice of life and we are various 
enough to enjoy one another's society: so let us be content. ^- 

At his best Baum rose above his age in emphasizing the im- 
portance of judging each person as an individual; why, then, 
did he fill The Woggle-Bug Book with racial and national 
stereotypes? The answer, it seems, lies in his interpretation 
of the lesson that he had learned from Julian Mitchell when 
The Wizard of Oz became a successful play. The Woggle-Bug 
Book is dominated by the kind of humor that Baum thought 

38. Below, p. 14. 

39. Below, pp. 24-26. 

40. Below, pp. 16-18. 

41. Below, p. 16. 

42. L. Frank Baum, The Lost Princess of Oz (Chicago: Reilly & Britton 
Co., 1917), p. 148. 


the public wanted. What he did not always understand is 
that jokes should not get in the way of the story. As in 
The Woggle-Bug play the puns and ethnic gags slow down 
the action, and the Woggle-Bug's pursuits of the gown be- 
come repetitive. In The Marvelous Land of Oz Baum made 
the reader smile at himself for enjoying puns; in The Woggle- 
Bug Book the jokes are forced. Only the line " 'Pop,' went 
the Weasel"^'' seems really funny, if only because the pun is 
so outrageous. 

The Woggle-Bug Book indicates better than any of Baum's 
other books his main weakness as an author. If he continued 
to submerge his own beliefs in an attempt to satisfy public 
taste, his books would be neither literary nor popular suc- 
cesses. The Woggle-Bug Book is based on a good idea, but 
Baum did not develop it. The insect's love of bright colors, 
his confusion of the dress with its wearer, might have been 
used for ironic effect. Baum may, however, have gained 
knowledge of his abilities from the popularity of The Mar- 
velous Land of Oz, the dismal failure of The Woggle-Bug 
musical extravaganza, and the quick decline of sales of The 
Woggle-Bug Book. Although jokes belong in children's stories, 
the main humor must be of situation and character. The 
almost twenty volumes of fairy tales which Baum wrote be- 
tween 1906 and his death in 1919 include some of the finest 
stories ever written for children. 

Douglas G. Greene 
Old Dominion University 
lanuary 1978 

43. Below, p. 46. 



Author <i/" 


Pictures by 




1 a o B 

Front cover of the first edition of The Woggle-Bug Book. 





1 a o s 

1 9 O 5 


EvepyHMit Reserved 

(j,f|\c Unique 


tC J'l) Mr. H. M. Wog-lc-Bug, T. li..' 
becoming sep:irated from the coinrad' 
who had accompanied him from tht 
Land of Oz, and finding, that tune hung 
heavy on his hands (he had four of thvmi, 
decided to walk down the Main street of the City and 
try to discover something or other of interest. 

The initials "H. M." before his name meant "■fliij.hiy 
Magnified," for this Woggle-Bug was several thousand times 
bigger than any other woggle-biig you ever saw. And the 
initials "T. E." following his name meant "Thoroughly 
Educated" — and so he was, in the Land of Oz. But fus 
education, being applied to a woggle-bug intellect, was not 
at all remarkable in this country, where everything is qustc 
different from Oz. Yet the Woggle-Bug did not suspect this, 
and being, like many other thoroughly educated persons, 
proud of his mental attainment.^, he raai'ch^d along the street 


with an air of importance that made one wonder what j^rtat 
thoughts were occupying his massive brain. 

Being about as big, in his magnified state, as a man, the 
Woggie-Bug took care to clothe liimself like a man; only, 
instead ot clioosing sober colors for his garments, he delighted 
in the most gorgeous reds and yellows and blues and greens; 
so that if you looked at him long the brilliance ofhis clothing 
was liable to dazzle your eyes. 

I suppose the Woggle-Bug did not realize at all what a 
queer appearance he made. Being rather ncr\ous, he seldom 
looked into a mirror; and as the people he met a\oided 
telling him he was unusual, he had fallen into the habit of 
considering himself merely an ordinary citizen of the big city 
therein he resided. 

So the Woggle-Bug strutted proudly along the street, 
swinging a cane in one hand, Hourishing a pink handkerchief 
m another, fumbling his watch-fob with another, and feeling 
it" his ncckric was straight with another. Ha\ing four hands 
to Use would prove rather puzzling to you or me, I imagine; 
but the Woggle-Bug was thoroughly accustomed to them. 

Presently he came to a very tine store with big plate-glass 
wmdows, and standing in the center ot" the biggest window 
was a creature so beautiful and ' ■■,!! mt and altogether 
charming that tlu first glance at lu i ikmIn took his breath 
away. Her complexion was loxcly, for it was wax; but the 
thing that really caught the Wogglc-Bug's fancy was the 
marvelous dress she wore. Indeed, it was the latest (last 
year's) Paris model, although the Woggle-Bug did not know 
that; and the designer must have had a real vvoggly loye for 
bright colors, for. the gown was made of cloth covered with 
big checks vshich were so loud that the fishion books called 
them "Wagnerian Plaids." 

Never had our friend the Woggle-Bug seen such a 
beautiful gown before, and it afliecred him so strongly that he 
straiuhtwav ft-ll in love with the entire dtitftt even to the 


wax-complfxioned lady herself. Wry politely he tipped his 
liat to her; but she stared eoldly back without in any way 
.icknowled^ing the courtes) . 

"Nc\er mind," he thought; '"faint heart never won 
f.iir ludy.' And Fni dcrcrniiiied to win this kaliedoscope of 
lu.iut) or perish in the attempt!" You will notice that our 
insect iiad a \va)' of us!ii<; bi^i, words to express himself, which 
leads us to suspect that the school system in Oz is the same 
they employ in Boston. 

As, with swelling heart, the Woggle-Bug feasted his 
eyes upon the enchanting vision, a small green tag that was 
attached to a button of the waist suddenly attracted his at- 
tention. Upon the tag was marked: "Price $7.93— GREATLY 

"Ah!" murmured the Woggle-Bug; "my darling is in 
greatly reduced circumstances, and $7.93 will make her mine! 
Where, oh w here, shall I find the seven ninety-three wherewith 
t'T liberate this divinity and make her Mrs. Woggle-Bug?" 

"Move on!" said a gruff policeman, who came alon^ 
swinging his club. And the Woggle-Bug obediently moved 
on, his brain working fast and furious in the endeavor to 
think of a way to procure seven dollars and ninety-three cents. 

You see, in the Land of Oz they use no money at all, 
so that when the Woggle-Bug an i\ ed in America he did not 
possess a single penny. And no one had presented him with 
any money since. 

"Yet there must be several vvays to pi"ocure money in 
this countrv," he reflected; "for otherw-ise everybody would 
•be as penniless as I am. But how, I wonder, do they man- 
age to get it.^" 

fust then he came to a side street where a number of 
men were at work digging a long and deep ditch in which to 
lay a new sewer. * * 

"Now these men," thought the Woggle-Bug, "must 
„. , ,.w.r.,., f<.v Jioveling all. that earth, else they wouldn't do 


It. Here is my chance to win the charming vision of beauty 
in the shop window ! " 

Seeking out the foreman, he asked for work, and the 
foreman agreed to hire him. 

"How much do you pay these workmen?" asked the 
highlv magnified one. 

"Two dollars a da\," answered the foreman. 

"Then," said the Woggle-Bug, "xou must pay me four 
dollars a day; for I have four arms to their two, and can do 
double their work." 

"If that is so, I'll pav vou four dollars," agreed the man. 

The W'oggle-Bug was delighted. 

"In t\\o da\s," he rold himself, as he threvN off his 
brilliant coat and placed his upon it, and rolled up his 
sleeves; "in two duvs I can earn n^ln dollars -enough to 
purchase my greatly reduced darling and buy her seven cents 
worth of caramels besides." 

He seized two spades and beii;an working so rapidlv with 
his four arms that the foreman said; "You must have been 

"Win ?" asked tlie Insect. 

"Because there's a s.iNuii; that to be forewarned is to 
be four-armed," replied the other. 

"That is nonsense," said the Woggle^Bug, digging with 
all his might; "for they call you the foreman, and yet I only 
see one of you." 

"Ha, ha!" laughed the man; and he so proud of 
his new worker that he went into the corner saloon to tell 
his friend the barkeeper what a treasure he had found. 

It was just after noon that the Woggle-Bug hired out 
as a ditch-digger in order to win his heart's desire; so at 
noon on the second day he quit work, and ha\ing received 
eight silver dollars he put on his coat and rushed awa\ to the 
store that he might purchase hi'- intended bride. 

But, alas for the uncertainty of all our hopes! Just as 



the Wogi^k-Bus^ reached the door he saw a voun<>; lady 
coming out otthe store dressed in (hose idenric:i! i Ik cks with 
which he had fallen in lo\e! 

At rirst he did not knou what to do or sa\, inr the 
\oung ladv's complexion was not wax (ar from it. But a 
glance into the window showed him the wax Iad\ now dressed 
in a plain black tailor-made suit, and at once he knew tliat 
the wearer of the \\'agnerian plaids wis his real love, and 
not that stiff creature behind the gla^s. 

"Beg pardon!" he exclaimed, stopping the Nnuiiii; lad\; 
"but you're muie. fKre's '" ' t\er, 

cents for cand\."' 

But she glanced at hnn in a haughr\ nuinnei, and 
walked awav with her nose slightly elevated. 

He followed. He could not do otherwise with those 
delightful checks shining before him lik. ' '^_' - 

urge him on. 

The young lad\ stepped into a car, which v. hnied 
rapidly away. F'or a moment he was nearly paralyzed at his 
loss; then he started after the c. is fast as he could go, and 
that was very fast indeed — he be;ng a woggle-bug. 

Somebody cried: "Stop, thief!" and a policeman ran 
out to arrest him. But the Woggle-Bug used his four hands 
to push the officer aside, and the astonished man went rolling 
into the gutter so recklessly that his uniform bore marks of 
the encounter for many days. 

Still keeping an eye on the car, the Woggle-Bug rushed 
on. He frightened two dogs, upset a fat gentleman who was 
crossing the street, leaped over an automobile that shot in 
front of him, and finally ran plump into the car, which had 
abruptly stopped to let off a passenger. Breathing hard from 
his exertions, he jumped upon the rear platform of the car, 
only to see his charmer step off at the front and walk 
mincingly up the steps of a house. Despite his fatigue, he 
Hew after her at once, crying ©ut: 




"Stop, my variegated dear— stop! Don't )oii know 
NouVc mine?" 

But she shimmed the door in his f;ice, and lie sat down 
upon the steps and wiped his forehead with his pink hand- 
kerchief and tanned himself with his hat and tried to think 
what he should do next. 

Presently a very angry man came out of the house. He 
had a revolver in one hand and a carving-knife in the other. 

"What do you mean by insulting mv wife?" he 

"Was that your wife?" asked the Woggle-Bug, in 
meek astonishment. 

"Oi course it is my wife," answered the man. 

"Oil, I didn't know," said the insect, rather humbled. 
"Bur Y\\ gi\e vou seven ninet\-three for her. That's all 

vvorth, \ ou know; for I saw it marked on the tag." 

The man gave a roar of rage and jumped into the air 
witli the intention of falling on the Wog<;Ie-Bug and hurting 
him with the knife and pistol. But the Wogglc-Bug was 
^tiddcnlv in a hurry, and didn't wait to be jumped on. 
Indeed, he ran so very fist that the man was content to let 
him go, especially as the pistol wasn't loaded and the carving- 
knife was as dull as such knives usually are. 

But his wife had concei\ed a great dislike for the 
W^agnerian check costume that had won for her the Woggle- 
Bug's admiration. "I'll never wear it again!" she said to 
her husband, when he came \h and told her that the Woggle- 
Bug was gone. 

"Then," he replied, "you'd better give it to Bridget; 
for she's been bothering me about her wages lateh, and the 
present will keep her cjuiet for a month longer." 

So she called Bridget and prescjited her with the dress, 
and the delighted servant decided to wear it that very night 
to Mickey 8ch\\art/'s ball. 

Now the poor Wdggle-Bug, fiiimng his-affe;ctions 




scorned, was feeling very blue and unhappy thur evenini^. 
When he walked out, dressed (among other things) in a 
purple-striped shirt, with a vellow necktie and pea-green 
gloves, he looked a great deal more cheerful than he really 
was. He had put on another hat, for the \N'oggle-Bug had 
a superstition that to change his hat was to change his luck, 
and luck seemed to have overlooked the fact that he \\as in 

The hat may realiv have altered his fortunes, as the 
Insect shortly met Ikey Swanson, who gave him a ticket to 
Mickev Schwartz's ball; for Ike\'s clean dickey had not come 
home from the laundry, and so he could not go himself. 

The Woggle-Bug, thinking to distract his mind from 
his dreams of love, attendid the hall, and the rirst thing he 
saw as he entered the room was Bridget clothed in that same 
gorgeous gown of Wagnerian plaid that had so tasciiiatrd his 
hugly heart. 

The dear Bridget had added to her cliarnis li\ |Hium>; 
seven full-blown imitation roses and three second-hand ostrich- 
plumes in her red hair; so that her cnriie person glf>^ d like 
a sunsft in June. 

The Wogglc-l'iug uas enraptured; uid, although the 
divine Bridget was wah/ing with Frn/ie Case), the Insect 
rushed to her side and, seizing her with all his four arms at 
once, cried out in his truly educated Bostonian way: 

"Oh, my superlative conglomeration of beauty! I have 
found you at last! " 

Bridget uttered a shriek, and Fritzic ("ase\ doubled two 
fists rhiir looked like tombstones, and adsanced upon the 

Still embracing the plaid costume with two arms, the 
Woggle-Bug tipped Mr. Casey over with" the other two. I>ut 
Bridget made a bound and landed her broad heel, which 
supported i8o pwjunds, firmly upon the Insect's toes. He 
gave a yelp of pain and promptly released the ladv. and a 




jBB ^^ 

moment later he found himself Hat upon the Hoor with a 
do/en of the dancers piled upon him all of whom were 
pummelliiiii; one another with much pleiisure and a firm 
eoinietion that the di\ersion had been planned for their 
special amusement. 

Bur the \\'oii;u,le-Bu«; had the streiiL^rh of many men, 
and \\hen he Hopped the hii; winus that were concealed h\ 
the tails of his coat, the gentlemen resting; upon him were 
scattered like autumn lea\es in a j;ust of wind. 

The Insect stood up, rearran<i;ed his dress, and looked 

:hout him. Bridget had run awav and gone home, and the 

hers were still hi^htini; amon<4 themseUes with exceedin<j; 

leerfulness. So the \\'oii;gle-Bug selected a hat that would 

: turn (his own haxing been crushed out of shapel and walked 

- >iTi)\\ tulK liack rn Ills lod^in«;s. 

"■h\identl\ that was not a lucky hat I wore to riie hall," 
!k rcHecred; "hut perhaps this one I now have will bring 
: I ! ;'i I'l^i,- in inx toiTunes." 

iMid:^er iKcded money; and as she had worn her bril- 
liant costume once and allowed her friends to see how 
becoming it was, she carried it next morning to a second- 
hand dealer and sold it for three dollars in cash. 

Scarcely had she left the shop when a lady of Swedish 
extraction -a widow with four small children in her train 
entered and asked to look at a gown. The dealer showed 
her the one he had just bought from Bridget, and its gay 
coloring so pleased the widow that she immediatelv purchased 
it for $3.65. 

"Ay tank ets good deal money, by sure," she said tc 
herself; "but das leedle children mos\ have new fadder to 
mak mind un tak care dere mutder like, bay yimminy! An' 
Ay tank no man look may way in das ole dress Ay been 

She took the gown and^tfie four chi Wren to her home, 
where she lost no time it» trying on the costume, which 


'..i. £:•'. "St- -iH »•:-./ ji'K.-'A.v 



rittcd her as perfectly as a Hour-sack docs a peck of 

"Das ^f^z/— tiful ! " she exclaimed, in rapture, as she 
tried to see herself in a cracked mirror. "Ay ^o das very 
afternoon to valk in da park, for das man-folks ^o cra/\-likc 
ven he sees may fine frocks! " 

Then she took her green parasol and a hand-bag stuffed 
with papers (to make it look prosperous and aristocratic) and 
sallied forth to the park, followed by all her interesting Hock. 

The men didn't fiil to look at her, as you may guess; 
but none looked with vearning until the Woggle-Hug, saun- 
tering gloomily along a path, happened to raise his eyes 
and see before him his heart's delight — the verj' identical 
Wagnerian plaids which had filled him with such unbounded 
affection. . 

"Aha, mv excruciatinglv lo\ely creation!" he cried, 
running up and kneeling before the widow; "I have found you 
once again. Do not, I beg of )ou, treat me with coldness!" 

For he had learned from experience not to unduly 
startle his charmer at their first motneiu of meeting; so he 
made a firm attempt to control himself, that the wearer of 
the checked gown might not scorn him. 

The widow had no great affl'crion for bugs, having 
wrestled uith the species for manv vcars; but this one was 
such a big-bug and so handsomely dressed that she saw no 
harm in encouraging him— especially as the men she had 
sought to captixarc were proxing exccedingh shy. & 

"So you tank Ay ban loaxely.'" she asked, with a coy 
glance at the Insect. 

"I do! With all my heart I do!" protested the 
Woggle-Bug, placing his four hands, one after another, over 
that beating organ. 

"Das mak plenty trouble by you. Ay don'd could be 
youi-s!" sighed the widow, indeed regretting her admirer 
was not an ordinary man. 




"Why not?" asked the Wog^lc-Ikit^. "I have still the 
sc\cn-nincty-thrce; and as that was the oriji^inal price, and 
you are now sHj^htly worn and second-handed, I do not see 
why I need despair of calhng you my own." 

It is very queer, when we think of it, that the Wogi^le- 
Bus; could not separate the wearer of his lovely gown from 
the gown itself Indeed, he always made love directly to the 
costume that had so enchanted him, without anv regard 
whatsoever to the person inside it; and the only wav we can 
explain this remarkable fact is to recollect that the Woggle- 
I>ug was only a woggle-bug, and nothing more could be 
expecte i of him. The widow did not, of course, understand 
his speech in the least; but she gathered the fact that the 
\\'ogg!e-l)Ug had money, so she sighed and hinted that she 
xMis \ery hungry, and that there was a good short-order 
'Lstaurant just outside the park. 

The Woggie-Bug became thoughtful at this. He hated 
to squander his money, which he had come to regard as u 
sort of purchase price with which to secure his divinity. But 
neither could he allow those darling checks to go hungry; so 
he said: 

"If you will come with me to the restaurant, I will 
gladly supply you with food." 

The widow accepted the invitation at once, and the 
VVoggle-Bug walked proudly beside her, leading all of the 
four children at once with his four hands. 

Two such gay costumes as those worn b\ the widow 
and the Woggle-Bug are seldom found together, and tlie 
restaurant man was so impressed by the sight that he 
demanded his money in advance. 

The four children, jabbcruig delightedly in their broken 
English, clambered upon four stools, and" the w idow sat upon 
another. And the Woggle-Bug, who was not hungry (being 
engaged in feasting his eyes upon the checks), laid down a 
silver dollar as a guarantee of good faith. 




It was woiKlertiil ro set' so much pic and cake and 
>icad-and-butrcr and pickles and dou«;h-nuts and sandwiches 
disappear into the mouths of the four innocents and their 
comp;ir!ti\cl\ innocent mother. The VVo<;irle-Bui^ had to 
■add ani.ilH! ijuarter to the vanished dollar before the score 
was hna!l\ settled; and no sooner had the tribe trooped out 
ot tile restaurant than the\ turned into the open portals of 
an Ice-Cream Parlor, where the\ all attacked huj^e stacks 
ot pale ice-cream and consumed several plates of ladv-rin^ers 
and creair.-jiut^s. 

A;;. nil the Wo^i^le-But; reluctantl) abandoned a dollar; 

iM!-^ fix nd was not \ et. The dear children wanted candv 

and then they \\ anted pink lemonade; and then 

■ :u! l!u -.\ iiv,'- Mill ; and alwavs the Wosrti;le-Bu<;, 

•iicmti; cosrumc, ttiiiiKi liiinselt 

, !' ■•■ tile treat. 

•n^ when tlie widou pleaded tatij^iie 
• vii IhiiiK'. lor none of them was able to 
. ifkI ihe \\'oi>;i;le-Bui; wearied her with 
Ills ( *' lidUiKlless admiration. 

_ rmit me to call upon vou this evenini^r" 
asked the Insect, pleadingly, as he bade the wearer of the 
l;o\\ n c;ood-bye on her door-step. 

"Sure like!" she replied, not caring to dismiss him 
harshh ; and the happy Woggle-Bug went home with a light 
heart, murmuring to himself: 

"At last the lo\elv plaids are to be my own! The new 
Iiat I found at the ball has certainly brought me luck." 

I am glad our friend the VVoggle-P)Ug had those feu 
happy moments, for he was destined to endure severe disap- 
pointments in the near future. 

That evening he carefully brushed his coat, put on a 
green satin necktie and a purple embroidered waist-coat, and 
u alked briskly towards the house of the widow . But, alas ! 
as he drew near to the dwelling a most horrible stench 




ji;rccted his nostrils, a sense of ^vcdt depression came over 
him, and upon pausinj^ before the house his body began to 
tremble and his eyes rolled wildly in their sockets. 

For the wily widow, wishing to escape her admirer, had 
sprinkled the door-step and the front walk with insect Exter- 
minator, and not even the Woggle-Bug's love for the en- 
chanting checked gown could induce him to linger longer 
in that \icinitv. 

Sick and discouraged, he returned home, where his first 
act was to smash the luckless hat and replace it with another. 
But it was some time before he recovered from the horrors 
of that near approach to extermination, and he passed a very 
wakeful and unhappv night, indeed. 

Meantime the widow had traded with a friend of hers 
(who had once been a wash-lady for General Funston) the 
Wagnerian costume for a crazy quilt and a corset that was 
nearly as good as new and a pair of silk stockings that were 
not mates. It was a good bargain for both of them, and the 
wash-lady being colored— that is, she had a deep mahogany 
complexion — was delighted with her gorgeous gown and 
put it on the very next morning when she went to deliver the 
wash to the brick-layer's witc. 

Surely it must ha\e been Fate that directed the 
Woggle-Bug's steps; for, as he walked disconsolately along, 
an intuition caused him to raise his eyes, and he saw 
just ahead of him his affinity- carrying a large clothes- 

"Stop!" he called out, anxiously; "stop, my fair Grena- 
dine, I implore you!" 

The colored lady cast one glance behind her and imag- 
ined that Satan had at last arrived to claim her. P'or she had 
never before seen the Woggle-Bug, and was horrified by his 
sudden and unusual appearance. 

"Go 'way. Mars' Debbil! Go '>va3^an' lemme 'lone!" 
she screeched, and the next minute dVopped her empty 



basket and >>ped up the street with a swiftness that onl\ tear 
could ha\e lent her Hat-bottomed feet. 

Nevertheless, the Wofj;gle-Bug mi^ht ha\e overtaken 
her had he not stepped into the clothes-basket and fallen 
headlon<;, becoming so tangled up in the thing that he rolled 
o\er and over sc\cral times before he could free himself. 
Then, when he liad picked up his hat, which was utterly 
ruined, and found his cane, v\hich had Hown across the street, 
his mahoganv charmer in the Wagnerian Plaids had disap- 
peared from \ iew. 

\\'ith a sigh at his latest misfortune he returned home 
for another hat, and the agitated wash-lady, imagining that 
the de\il had doubtless been lured by her beautiful gown, 
made haste to sell it to a Chinaman who lived next door. 

Its bright colors pleased the Chink, who ripped it up 
and made it oxer into a Chinese robe, with flowing draperies 
tallinu to hi^ IkcU. He dressed himself in liis new costume 
:Hid, being proud of possessing such rincrx, sat down on a 
bench outside his door so that e\eryone passing by could 
■.ee how magnificent he looked. 

It was here that the wandering Woggle-Bug espied him; 
and, recognizing at once the pattern and colors of his infatu- 
ating idol, he ran up and sat beside the Chinaman, saying in 
agitated but educated rones: 

"Oil triv prismatic personification of gigantic gorgeous- 
ne- i lia\c fouiui \oli !" 

■•>iire riing," responded the Ctunk with composure. 

"Be mine! C)nl\ be mine!" cominued the enraptufed 

The (Chinaman did not quite understand. 

"Two dlolla a day," he answered, cautiously. 

"Oh, joy," exclaimed the insect in delight; "I can 
tlien own you for a day and a half— for. I have three 
dollars left. May I feel of vour exquisife texture, my 
dearest Fabric?" 




"No riabic. No fcclcc. ^'ou too Hcsh. I //w// China- 
man ! " returned the Oriental calmly. 

"Never mind that! 'Tis your beautiful garment I love. 
b\<.!\ check in that entrancing dress is a joy and a delight 
lo m\ heart! " 

\\'hile the V\'oggle-Bug thus raved, the Chinaman's 
'itl (who w.i^ Mattie Dc Forest before she married him) 
\cilKard tile con\ersation, and decided this love affair had 
L;()ne far enough. So she suddenly appeared with a broom- 
stick, and with it began pounding the Woggle-Bug as fiercelv 
as possible and Mattie was no weakling, I assure you. 

The Hrst blow knocked the Insect's hat so far over his 
c\cs that he was blinded; but, resolving not to be again 
cheated out of his darling, he grasped firmly hold of tht; 
\\ agiierian plaids with all four hands, and tore a goodU 
portion of it from the frightened Celestial's body. 

.\\ \t nioineiir he was dashing down the street, with the 
:. M.,1^ cioth tucked seeurel\ underneath an arm, and 
Maitie, being m slight dishabile, did not think best to 
follow him. 

The triumphant joy of the VV'oggle-Bug can well be 
miagmed. No more need he chase the Meeting vision of his 
lo\e-no more submit to countless disappointments in his 
ertbrts to approach the object of his attcction. The gorgeous 
plaids were now his own (or a large parr ot them, anyway), 
and upon reaching the quiet room wherein he lodged he 
spread out the cloth and gloated long and happily over its 
\i\Ki coloring and violent contrasts of glowing hues. To 
the c\es of the VVoggle-Bug nothing could be more beauti- 
ful, and he positively regretted the necessity of ever turning 
his ga/e from this bewitching treasure. 

That he might never in the future be separated from 
the checks, he folded them, with majny loving caresses, into 
compact form, and wrapped; them in a sirect of stout paper 
tied vyith ecf top v^leftj^'f, ibst i^f^^A the end. 




\\ licicvcr lie went, tliereaker, he carried the parcel under- 
neat li his left upper arm, pressed as closely to his heart as 
possible. And this sense of possession was so deli«ihtful that 
our \Vo<i;gle-Hu*j; was happy as the day was lonj);. 

In the eveninii; his fortunes ehans^ed with cruel 

lie walked out to take the air, and noticing a crowd ot 
people standing in an open space and surrounding a huge 
brown object, our Woggle-Bug stopped to learn what the 
excitement was about. 

Pushing his way through the crowd, and hugging Ins 
precious parcel, he soon reached the inner circle of spectators 
and found they had assembled to watch a balloon ascension. 
The Professor who was to go up with the balloon had nor 
vet arrived; but the balloon itself was full) inHated and 
lugging hard at the rope that held it, as if anxious to escape 
rile blended breaths of the people that crowded around, fust 
below the balloon was a small basket, attached to the nertnig 
of the gas-bag, and the W oggle-Bug was bending over the 
edge of this, to see what it contained, vvhen a warning cry 
fmrn the crowd caused him to pause and glance over his 

Great horrors and crumpled creeps! Springing toward 
him, with a scowl on his face and a long knife with a /.!g-/.ag 
blade in his uplifted hand, was that very (Ihinaman from 
whose bodv he had torn the Wagnerian plaids! 

The plundered Celestial was evidently \indictive, and 
intended to push the wicked knife into the Woggle- Bug's 

Our hero was a brave bug, as can be easily proved; but 
he did not wait for the knife to arrive at the broad of his 
back. Instead, he gave a yell (to show he was not afraid) 
and leaped nimbly into the basket of the balloon. The 
descending knife, missing its intended victim, fell upon 
the rope and severed it, and instantly the great balloon 





iKisc troin the croud and soared majcsticallv toward the 

The Woggle-Rug had escaped the Chinaman, Init he 
didn't know whether to be glad or not. 

For the balloon was carrying him into the clouds, and 
he had no idea how to manage it, or to make it descend to 
earth again. When he peered over the edge of the basket 
he could hear the faint murmur of the crowd, and dimly see 
the enraged Professor (who had come too late) pounding the 
(Chinaman, while the Chinaman tried to dissect the Professor 
with his knife. 

Then all was blotted out; clouds rolled about him; 
night fell. The man in the moon laughed at him; the stars 
winked at each (uhcr as if delighted at the Woggle-Bug's 
plight, and a witch riding bv on her broomstick \elied at him 
to keep on the right side ot the road, and not run her down. 

But the Woggk-llug, s(.]uarted in the bottom of the 
hanker and hugging lii> precious parcel to his bosom, (viid no 
attention to anything bu- his fnvn rlioughts. 

f Ic had often nddi.ii iliroui;li the air in the Gump; but 

never had he been s" 
ground made him lu 

When morning 
beneath him, and 1' ' 

Now all 
highly-magniH(.v, ,.>. 
concealed beneath hi 

this, and the distance 

iim he saw a strange counti\ lar 
J ■ ticad the earth again. 

'M)rn with wings, and our 
Li ,. ,i^,,vinlul, liroad pair of Hoppers 
unple coat-tails. But long ago he 
had learned that his v\ings were not strong enough to lift his 
big body from the ground, so he had ne\er tried to Hy 
with them. 

Here, howe\er, \\as d\ >n when he might put 

these wings to good use, for if he spread them in the air and 
then leaped over the sidf '^f rUp t>iwL,.i- ili.-v n.M.i.t ■>- 1 in the 
same way a parachute the 



Tiie Man in th« taoaa Xau($becl at hita. 



No sooner did this thought occur to him than he put it 
into practice. 

Discntanghng his wings from his coat-tails, he spread 
them as wide as possible and then jumped from the car of 
the balloon. 

Down, down the \^'oggle-Bug sank; but so slowly that 
there was no danger in the Hight. He began to see the earth 
again. King beneath him like a sun-kissed panorama of mud 
and frog-ponds and rocks and brushwood. 

There were few trees, yet it was our insect's fate to 
drop directly above what trees there were, so that presently 
he came ker-plunk into a mass of tangled branches — and 
stuck there, with his legs dangling helpkssK between two 
limbs and his wings caught in the foliage at either side. 

Below was a group of Arab children, who at hrst started 
f(^ run away. But, seeing that the queer creature which had 
dropped from the skies was caught fast in the tree, they 
stopped and began to throw stones and clubs at it. One of 
these missiles siruck tlic nxe-limb at the right of the Woggle- 
iUig and jarred hii^i loose. The next mstant he fluttered 
to the gnnmd, where his t\v^x act was to fold up his wings and 
tuck them underneath his Lo.u-iails again, and his next action 
\- himself th;it ihi. Ixlcnrd plaids were still safe. 

i hen he looked for r!ie Avib children: b'<r tU,-\ had 
-curtKd aua\ rowaid a siroup ot itnts, and c^ i men 

with dark skins and ga\ cloiiiitig eaine iruni the- u.nis and ran 
toward the NV'oggle-Ikig. 

"Good morning," said om he^ i with 

a Nourish, and bowing politely. 

"Meb-la-che-bah!'" shouted the biggest Arab, and at 
once two others woimd coils ot'i-.^^f ironnH iH. \\'fi<r<^ie-Bug 
and tied the ends in hard I 

His hat was knocked ort aiui rrarnjxed into riie mud by 
the Shiek (who was the big Arab), and the precious parcel 
■ d and ruthlessl) opened. 




*'\'e!\ i^ood!" saul rhe Shick, cwiiiir rlic plaid'- \Mth 
plca-'Urc. "My shncs sliall make me a new waistcoat of 
tliiN cloth." 

''Xo! oil, nol" cried the a<i;oiii/id Iiist.i.i; "n i~ taken 
from a person who has had small-j>o\ ami \J!M\\-le\er and 
roothachc and mumps all 4it the sime iiiiie. D'l nor, I bc^ 
!-k \oiir valuable lite h\ weainii; rluit cioih!" 
IVaii!" said the Shiek, scornliilK ; •'l have hati all 
those diseases and man\ more. I am immune. I'.ut now," he 
continued, "allow me to hid vou i;ood-li\e. 1 am sorr\ to 
he ohliy;ed to kill vou, Inir >uch is our custom." 

This was bad news tor the \V'onii;le-Bui;; bur he did 
nor despair. 

".Are vou not atraid to kill mer" he a^kid, as if 

"W'hv should I he afraid .-"" demanded the Sliiek. 

"Because it is a well-known fact that to kill a woirirlf- 
' ii; briiii^s i->ad luck to oiu . 

The Shiek hesitated, for he was very sup^. 

".\ie \ ou a w(isj;<;le-bug.-" he asked. 

"I am," replied the Insect, proudly. "And I ma\ as 
well icll \ou that the last person who killed one of m\ race 
!iad three unlucky days. The first day his suspenders broke 
Ithe Arabs shuddered), tlie second day he smashed a lookin^j- 
y;lass (the Arabs moaned) and the third d<iv he was chewed 
up bv a crocodile." 

X.>,\ the greatest a\ersion the Arabs have is to be 
chewed bv a crocodile, because these people usually roam 
>\ er the sands of the desert, where to meet an amphibian is 
simply horrible; so at the Woggle-Bug's speech they set up 
a howl of fear, and the Shiek shouted: 

"L'nbind him! Let not a hair ofhis head be injured." 

.At once the knots in the ropes were untied, and the 
VVoggle-Bug was free. All the Arabs united to show him 
deference and every respectful attention, and since his own 




hat had been destroyed they wound about his head a pictur- 
esque tuiban of an exquisite soiled white color, having stripes 
of red and yellow in it. 

Then the Wogi;lc-Hua; was escorted to the tents, where 
he- luddenlv remembered his precious plaids, and asked that 
the cloth he restored to him. 

Thereupon the Shiek ^ot up and made a long speech, 
in which he described his grief at hcmg obliged to refuse the 

At the end of that time one of the women came up to 
them with a lovelv waistcoat which she had manufactured out 
of the Wagnerian plaids; and when the Shiek saw it he 
immediately ordered all the tom-toms and kettle-drums in 
the camp destroyed, as they were no longer necessary. Then 
he put on the gorgeous \cstment, and turned a deaf ear to 
the Woggk- Hun's agoni/ed wails. 

r>ur there were some scraps of cloth left, and to show 
that he was liberal and good-natured, tlie Shiek ordered 
these manufactured by his females mto a handsome necktie, 
which he presented to the Woggle-Bug in another long 

Our hero, realizing that the larger part of his darling 
was ' ' !n, decided to be content with the smaller share; 

so li file necktie, and felt really proud of its brilliant 


'ircwtll, he strode across the 
(jese ^ '''^ iiordcis ol a more fertile and 

favoiev. ... ........ 

Indeed, he found 'before him a cool and enticing jungle, 
which at tirst seemed deserted. But while he stared about 
him a sound fell upon his tar, and he saw approaching 
a young lady Chimpan/ee. She was evidently a personage 
of some importance, for her hair wns nearly banged just over 
her eves, and she \vore a c! .riore with bows of 

pink ribbon at (tie sh'nildeis. 





"Ciood morning, Mr. Beetle," 

"Do not, I beg of you, call me a beetle," exclaimed 
our hero, rather peevi'^hlv; "for I am actully a Woggle- 
Bu^, ;ind Highly-Mau;nihed at that!" 

"What's in a name?" laughed the gay damsel. "Come, 
lot me introduce you to our jungle, where strangers of good 
breeding are always welcome." 

"As tor breeduig," said the Woggle-Bug, "my father, 
although of ordinary size, was a famous Bug-Wizard in his 
dav, and claimed descent from the original protoplasm which ^ 
i^onsntuted rhe nucleus of the present planetary satelite upon 
whicli we exist." 

"That's ail right," returned Miss Chim. "Tell that to 
our king, and he'll decorate you with the medal of the 
Omnipotent Order of Onerous Orthographers. Are vou 
ready to meander?" 

The W^oggle-Bug did not like the tiippanr tone m which 
the maiden spoke; but he at once followed her. 

Presently thev came to a tali hedge surrounding the 
Inner Jungle, and without this hedge stood a patrol of brown 
bears who wore red soldiei-caps and carried gold-plated 
muskets in their hands. 

"'VV'e call this the hearicr," said Miss Chim, pointing 
to the soldiers, "because rhc\ ohliiic all strangers to paws." 

"I should tliink It was a beancade, " remarked the 

But "ti,.ii fl-, X ,M.^■,, wh.-d the gatewa\- ^h,- ,iffi, ,■.• ,n 
charge s liss Chmi, -dr. 

to escort tnc ^^ oggie-bug into the sacred precjncib or i!;e 
Inner Jungle. 

Here his eyes were s(^ widest capacit\ 

in I'enuinc astonishment. 

e Jungle was as clean and well-regulated 
'• ' r had eve ■-;-■' '■■ - ■-' ■ 



sleek antelope was running a pop-corn stand, and a little 
further on a screech-owl stood upon a stump playing a violin, 
while acro^-> her breast was a sign reading: "I am blind -at 


An tlK\ walked up the Ntrext rhcv eamc to a big grey 
monkey turning a hand-organ, and attached to a cord was a 
little nigger-boy whom the monkey sent into the crowd of 
animals standing by to gather up the pennies, pulling him 
back every now and then by means of the cord. 

"There's a curious animal for you," said Miss Chim, 
pointing to the boy. "Those horrid things they call men, 
whether black or white, seem to me the lowest of all 
created beasts." 

"I have seen them in a highly civilized state," replied 
the Woggle-Bui^, "and they're really further advanced than 
\ou might suppose." 

. But Miss Chim gave a scornful laugh, and pulled him 
away to where a hippopotomus sat under the shade ot a big 
tree, mopping his brow with a red handkerchief— for the 
weather was somewhat sultry. licfore the hip was a tabic 
co\ered with a blue cloth, -and upon the cloth was embroidered 
the words: "Professor Hipmus, Fortune Teller." 

"Want vour fortune told?" asked Miss' Chim. 

"I don't mind," replied the \^ Cggk-Hug. 

"I'll read \ our han4," said tlic Professor, with a yawn 
riiat srartled the Insect. "I'o my notion palmistry is the 
best means of finding out what nobody knovvs or cures 

ro krinw ' 

upper hand of the VVoggle-Bug, and 

. ■ . *:; ' '- •" over it with an air., of 

announced the Professor; 

auer aonj^nnj; i';s ■ , ■ ' :; 
great wisdom. 

"You have been ir u; 
''but you got it in the neck." 

"True!" murmured the astonished Inseci, putting up 

hi^ Iffr If.wcr b;)ml ''o fct-l <A tll< heIo\ cd rtf^okt it- 


J>k. cgartous Ami 

"I'll read your hand* 

said the Profts»or. 



"\'(Hi think you hu\c won," continued the Hip; "but 
there are others who have i, 2. You ha\c manv heart throbs 
before you, during your future life. Afterward I see no heart 
throbs whatever. Fortv cents, please." 

"Isn't he just wonderful?" asked Miss Chim, with 
enthusiasm. "He's the greatest fortune teller in the jungle." 

"On account of his size, I suppose," returned the 
Woggle-Bug, as they walked on. 

Soon they came to the Royal Palace, which was a beau- 
tiful bower formed of vines upon which grew many brilliant- 
hucd forest Howers. The entrance was guarded by a Z/cbra, 
who barred admission until Miss Chim whispered the pass- 
word in his ear. Then he permitted them to enter, and the 
Chimpanzee immediately ushered the Woggle-Bug into the 
presence of King Weasel. 

This monarch lay coiled upon a purple silk cushion, 
half asleep and \et wakeful enough to be smoking a big cigar. 
Reside him crouched two prairie-dogs who were combing his 
hair \ery carefully, while a red squirrel perched near his head 
and fanned him with her bushy tail. 

"Dear me, what have we here?" exclaiijied the King of 
the Jungle, in a querulous tone. "Is it an over-grown 
pinch-bug, or is it a kissing-bug?" 

"I have the honor to be a Woggle-Bug, your Majesty!" 
replied our hero, proudly. 

"Sav, cut out that Majesty," snapped the King, with a 
scowl. "If vou can hnd anything majc^nc about me, I'd 
like to know what it is." i 

"Don't treat him with any respect," whispered Miss 
Chim to the Insect, "or you'll get him riled. Sticcr at him, 
and slap his face if you get a chance." 

The Woggle-Bug took the hmt, 

"Really," he told the Kmg, "I have never seen a more 
despicable creature than you. The adniirable perspicacity 
inherent in your tribe seem.< to have deteriorated irt you to a 


fi'mJ X J 

tj-us nikOjaarcit lay cuiiuti>jn. ^^1^ 

« pufpie siik cushion.. 



hvpcrboKitL'd !ns()us;uic\ ."" Then he reached our his arms and 
slapped the kini; tour tinus, twice on one side of liis face and 
twice on the other. .And it ^a\e him much saristaetion. 

"Ihinks, nu dear June-Bug," said the monarch; "I 
n(i\' \(>u to be a person of some importance." 

[ am a Woggle-Bug, highly magnified and 
rlioroii^tih educated. It is no exaggeration to say 1 am the 
greatest Woi^i^ic-Bus; on earth." 

"I fulU belie\e it, so pray do not pia\ anv more four- 
somes upon nn jaw. I am sufficiently humiliated at this 
moment to re o^ni/e you as a Sullivanthauros, should you 
claim to be of rivat extinct race." 

Then tuo little weasels a boy weasel and a girl 
weasel came mto the bower and threw their school-books 
at the sqinrrtl so ele\erh' that one hit the King upon the 
rios*.' and smashed iiis ci^j^dV and the other caught him fairly 
ui the pit or" his stomach. 

,Ar first tlic monarch ho\vJcd a hit; then he v\iped the 
tears from his lacc aitd said: 

"Ah, what delightful children I have! What do voui^ 
wish, m\ darlings,-" 

.. t ,,.,„, ., ,.,,■ !,,,■ eiiewinu, gupi," saul ' 

"Oct it lioin the Ciuinea-Fig; you base n;; 
And what does my dear boy want.?" 

"Pop," went the Weasel, "our billy-goat has s\\a!!o>vedj 
the h.iii ;. ; ' 1 c mc to play with." 

sighed the King, "how often I find a huir 
in I Whenever I reign people carry umbrellas; 

and 'hough quite polished, indulges only in 

monkc, - iiiJics. L'neasy lies the head that wears ;! 1 

bin !t"onc is scalped, the loss of the crown render- :d 

iiu! , bcrtct kiiu* than \' i'"' ^Mquired 
the W.=. --Idivn i. cr. 


But th* vttg^ -aag 

After all. 
tia neckci« 
s my love . 


"^\s; hur no wiirsc," answered the Weasel; "and here 
in tlu- jungle lionor> are onlv conferred upon the unworthy. 
Fi>r it J trul\ ;; animal is honored he ^cts a swelled head, 
antl ifvat renders him unbearable. T1k\ now rei>;ard the 
Kini4 of" the Jungle with eontempt, and that make-, all my 
subjects self-respeefin<;." 

"There is wisdom in that," declared the Woggle-Bug, 
appro\ingl\ ; "a sinu;le i;lance at you makes me content with 
being so excellent a bug," 

"True," murmured the King, yawning. But you tire 
me, good sr-anger. Miss Chim, will you kindly get the 
gasolme ^an': It's high time to eradicate this insfct." 

"With pleasure," said Miss Chim, moving a\Nav with 
a smile. 

liut the Woggk-Bug did not linger to be eradicated. 
With one wild bound he cleared the door of the palace and 
sprinted up the street to the entrance of the fungle. The 
bear soldiers saw him dashing away, and took careful aim and 
tired. But the gold-plated muskets would not shoot straight,' 
and now the ^^^ogg]c-Rug was far distant, and still running 


uith all hi~- nuglit. 


Nor did he pause until he had emerged from the forest 


and crossed tiie plain-, and reached ac last the city from 


whence he !iad iscapcJ i') tie balloon. And, once again in 


his old lojuinu ' ' ' ' ' i---- i*';- • t-v- mirror and said: 


"After ai' .d- my love is now 


mine :orei W liy should 1 not be happy and 


CO rite. 


Tin ■ -n.