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WOMAN FREE 



WOMAN FREE 



BY 



ELLIS ETHELMER 
// 



1893 

PUBLISHED BY THE 

WOMEN'S EMANCIPATION UNION 



Hon. Sec, .—Mrs. WOLSTENHOLME ELMY 
Buxton House, Congleton 



[PRICE FIVE SHILLINGS, PQST FREE] 






WYMAN AND SONS, LIMITED, LONDON AM) KBDHILL 



" Le philosophe, en ^tudiant les lois de la Nature, 
acquiert -chaque jour la conviction que de leur violation 
seule naissent tous les maux dont g^mit Fhumanitd" 

"The philosopher, in studying the laws of Nature, 
acquires more deeply every day the conviction that from 
their abuse alone spring all the evils from which humanity 
is groaning." 

Dr. Menville de Ponsan 
(Histoire de la Femme; Vol. III., p. 3). 



WOMAN FREE. 



I. 

Source of the Light that cheers this later day, 
Science calm moves to spread her sovereign sway ; 
Research and Reason, ranged on either hand. 
Proclaim her message to each waiting land ; 
In truths whose import stands but part revealed, 
Till man befit himself those truths to wield ; 
Since to high Knowledge duties high belong, 
As to the poet's power the task of worthy song. 

II. 
And man, from every stage of slow degree, 
Amendment for his previous rule may see ; 
His keener conscience in our fuller time 
Perceives the whilom careless act a crime, 
Or finds some fancied fault to progress tend, — 
By wiser vision traced to truer end ; 
Till, growing shrewder in the growing light, 
We know no lack of good but our own lack of sight. 



WOMAN FREE, 



IIL 
Thus, sad at first, we mark each evil deed, 
Of ignorance or will, bear fatal seed 
Of suffering to others in its train, — 
The guileless share its penalty of pain, — 
And man's worst misery ofttimes is brought • 
By trespass he himself nor did nor thought ; 
Austere the fiat, yet therefrom we learn 
A purer life to frame, lest myriads mourn in turn. 



IV. 
Deep though the teaching that this truth reveals 
Of fellowship of man with all that feels. 
Remains the riddle that, though inmost ken 
Of humblest creatures and of rudest men 
Has sense of freedom as an instinct strong, — 
Resenting injury as act of wrong, — 
Man listed not this monitor's still voice. 
But gave his wanton wish the guilty force of choice. 



WOMAN FREE. 



V. 
Dark looms the record of his earlier years, — 
A troubled tale of infamy and tears ; 
For, of the ill by man primeval wrought, 
Shows forth predominant with anguish fraught, 
And long disaster to the ensuant race. 
The direful course of degradation base, 
Where freedom, justice, right, — at one fell blow, — 
In woman's life of slave were outraged and laid low. 



VI. 

The inklings gleaned of prehistoric hour 
Speak woman thrall to man's unbridled power ; 
Than brute more gifted, he, with heinous skill. 
Subdued her being to his sensual will ; 
Binding her fast with ties of cunning weight, 
By mother's burden forced to slavish fate ; 
Thus woman was, and such her man-made doom, 
Ere yet the dawn of love illumed the soulless gloom. 

B 2 



WOMAN FREE. 



VII. 
Ere Evolution, in unhasting speed, 
Trained man's regard to larger life and need ; 
By Art his feelings waked to functions higher, 
Disclosed within his clay the veins of fire, 
Taught him his pleasures of the flesh to find 
But presage of the mightier joys of mind ; 
Evoked the soul from fume of mortal dust. 
The vestal flame of love from lower flush of lust. 



VIII. 

The eye that once could note but food or foe 
Grew wise to watch the landscape's varied glow ; 
To gaze beyond our earthly temporal bars, 
And track the orbit of the wandering stars : 
The voice erst roused by hunger or by rage 
Now tells the nobler passions of the age, 
Till with love's language is uplifted love 
To high and selfless thought all sensuous aim above. 






WOMAN FREE, 



IX. 

But not at once such life and love to know, 
For progress strives through many an ebb and flow ; 
Man's kindling sense, though stirred by call of Art, 
Still missed the motive of her deepest heart ; 
Twas in her gracious embassy to give 
A fairer faith and fate to all that live, 
Neglecting none, — yet man, 'twixt lust and pride. 
Due portion in the boon to woman still denied. 



X. 

iEons of wrong ere history was born, 
With added ages passed in slight and scorn. 
Maintained the chains of primal womanhood, 
And clogged in turn man's power of greater good ; 
Egypt or Greece in vain sought heavenly light 
While woman's soul was held from equal flight, — 
Her path confined by man to sordid end, 
As subjugated wife, or hireling transient friend. 



WOMAN FREE. 



XI. 

Marriage — which might have been a mateship 

sweet, 
Where equal souls in hallowed converse meet, 
Each aiding each the higher truths to find. 
And raising body to the plane of mind, — 
Man's baser will restrained to lower grade. 
And woman's share a brainless bondage made ; 
Her only hope of thought or learning wide, 
Some freer lot to seek than yoke forlorn of bride. 



XII. 

Yet, as hetaira, — comrade, chambermate, — 
(The ambiguous word bespoke her dubious state). 
She, craving mental food, might but be guest 
^y P^iying with her body for the quest ; 
Conceding that, might lead a learned life, — 
A licence vetoed to the legal wife, — 
Might win great wealth, or build a lasting fame, 
Not due to her the guilt that left the tinge of shame. 



WOMAN FREE, 



XIII. 
What guilt was there, apportion it aright 
To him who fixed the gages of the fight ; 
Blame man, who, reckless of the woman's fate, 
In greed for meaner pleasure lost the great ; 
Blame him, the vaunted sage, who knew her mind 
Peer to his own in skill and wit refined. 
Yet left the after-ages to bemoan 
The waste of woman worth that dawned and die 
unknown. 



XIV. 

And deep the shame on man's insensate heart 
For later woman doomed to hideous part ; 
Poor lostling, bowed with worse than brutal woes, — 
To her not even dealt the brute's repose ; 
Her sweetness sullied, and her frame disgraced, 
Soul scarce might light her temple fair defaced, — 
Its chastest sanctities coerced to give 
For painful bread to eat, for piteous chance to live. 



8 WOMAN FREE, 



XV. 
While such her fate in lands of cultured creed, 
Judge woman's griefs with man of barbarous breed ; 
Slave to his lust, and tiller of his soil, 
Crippled and crushed by cruelty and toil ; 
Yet still her heart a gentle mien essayed, 
By deeper passion, holier impulse, swayed ; 
Care for her wretched offspring rarely swerved. 
And mother-love alone the infant oft preserved. 



. XVI. 

Thus woman's life, in low or high estate, 
Man fettered with a more than natural weight 
Of sexual function, — disproportioned theme 
And single basis in his female scheme ; 
He strove to quench her flash of quicker fire. 
That crossed his lordship or his low desire ; 
Her one permitted end to serve his race. 
Her individual soul forbidden breathing place. 



WOMAN FREE, 



XVII. 
Scarce other seemed that soul than sentient tomb 
Of human energy debarred to bloom ; 
Her spirit, pining in its durance drear, 
Leaves legacy of many a burning tear 
For aspirations crushed, and aims denied, 
And instincts thwarted by man's purblind pride ; 
Her every wish made subject to the nod 
Of him whose mad conceit proclaimed himself her 
God. 



XVIII. 

So stood at halt, through years of sterile change, 
His narrowed brain and her restricted range ; 
And man intelligent and woman free. 
Was union which the world had yet to see ; 
For time to come reserved the golden sight 
Of glorious harvest from the natural right. 
To her as amply as to him assigned 
To compass power unknown in body and in mind. 



lo WOMAN FREE, 



XIX. 

Happy the epoch destinied to show 
What force of good from that free fate shall flow ; 
The artificial limits to efface 
Of laws and forms that womanhood debase ; 
Even our own imperfect hour may prove 
The ecstasy of earnest souls that move 
In dual union of unselfish strife 
To reach by mutual love to true and equal life. 



XX. 

Yet slow, so slowly, gleams the gathering light, 
And lingers still the hovering shade of night ; 
Though part undone the wrong that we confess, 
Repentance cannot instant bring redress ; 
Nor woman, tortured by her thraldom long, 
At once stand forth emancipate and strong ; 
Her pain persistent, though she calm suppress 
Her rancour for the past, with sweet forgivingness. 



WOMAN FREE. ii 



XXI, 

For carnal servitude left cruel stain, 
And galls that fester from the fleshly chain ; 
Unhealed the scars of man's distempered greed, 
The wounds of blind injustice still they bleed ; 
Recurrent suffering lets her not forget 
The aimless payments of a dismal debt, — 
Survival from dim age of man's abuse 
Of functions immature, profaned by savage use. 



XXII. 

Her girlhood's helpless years through cycles long 
Had been a martyrdom of sexual wrong, 
For little strength or choice might child oppose 
To shield herself from force of sensual foes ; 
Impending motherhood might win no rest 
Or refuge sacred from the satyr quest ; 
Unripe maternity, untimely birth. 
The woman's constant dole in those dark days of 
earth. 



12 WOMAN FREE. 



XXIII. 
Action repeated tends to rhythmic course, 
And thus the mischief, due at first to force, 
Brought cumulative sequence to the race, 
Till habit bred hereditary trace ; 
On woman falls that heritage of woe, 
And e'en the virgin feels its dastard blow, — 
For, long ere fit to wield maternal cares. 
Abnormal fruits of birth her guiltless body bears. 



XXIV. 

Misread by man, this sign of his misdeed 
Was held as symptom of her nubile need, 
And on through history's length her tender age 
Has still been victim to his adult rage ; 
He, by his text, with irony serene, 
Banned her resultant " manner " as " unclean " ; 
The censure base upon himself recoils. 
Yet leaves the woman wan and cumbered in his toils. 



WOMAN FREE, 13 



XXV. 

Vicarious punishment for manhood's crime 
Takes grievous toll of all her active prime ; 
The hap, in educated woman's fate, 
Is instinct with antipathy and hate ; 
Reason confirming tells, no honest claim 
Could ever cause such gust of inward shame. 
Nor act of normal wont might man blaspheme 
To make of Nature's need a vile opprobrious theme. 



XXVI. 

Thoughts like to these are breathings of the truth 
To whoso ponders deep the tale of ruth ; 
The futile mannish pleas that would explain 
The purport of her periodic pain, 
All bear unconscious witness to the wrong 
In blindness born, in error fostered long, — 
The spurious function growing with the years, 
Till almost natural use the morbid mode appears. 



14 WOMAN FREE. 



XXVII. 

Grievous the hurt to woman, which to right 
Is instant duty of our stronger sight ; 
From off her weary shoulders, bruised and worn. 
To lift the cross in longtime misery borne ; 
Until, reintegrate in frame and mind, 
A speedy restitution she shall find, 
From every trammel of man's mastery freed, 
NTor held by his behest from fullest life and deed. 



XXVIII. 

And soon may pass her suffering, for the ill 
By man begot lies subject to our skill ; 
All human malady may be allayed 
With human forethought, human action's aid ; 
Ours then the fault, since, given in our hand 
Is power the evil hazard to command ; 
For Nature, kindly wise our woes to shape, 
n very pang of pain both prompts and points escape. 



WOiMAN FREE, 15 



XXIX. 

So woman shall her own redemption gain, 
Instructed by the sting of bootless pain ; 
With Nature ever helpful to retrieve 
The injury we heedlessly achieve, 
From seed of act, by recent woman sown, 
Already guerdon rich in hope is shown ; — 
Such faculty her new-found presence decks, 
The sage physician, she, and saviour of her sex. 



XXX. 

With purer phase of life proves woman less 
The burden of the wasting weariness ; 
And thus, in rank refined or rude have grown 
Maidens in whom the weakness was not known ; 
Hale woman and true mother have they been, 
Yet never have the noisome habit seen : 
Not to neglectful man to greatly care 
How such immunity all womanhood might share. 



1 6 WOMAN FREE. 



XXXI. 

Her intellect alert the harm shall heal, 
And ways of wholesomeness and strength reveal ; 
The saving truth she wins with studious thought 
More swiftly to her daughter shall be taught, — 
How body still is supple unto mind. 
By dint of soul is fleshly form inclined, 
And woman^s will shall work of man atone. 
The deed his darkness wrought be by her light 
undone. 



XXXII. 

No longer drilled deformity to nurse, 
And woo, when slow to appear, the absent curse, 
Her counter-effort, helped by Nature's grace, 
Shall quell the " custom's " last abhorrent trace ; 
Its morbid usurpation shall refute, — 
Not more to woman natural than to brute ; — 
A needless noyance with a baseless claim, 
The lingering mark of man's unthinking guilt and 
shame. 



WOMAN FREE, 17 



XXXIII. 

Her body, saved from enervating drain, 
Shall lend a newer vigour to the brain ; 
Wide shall she roam in realms of untold thought, 
Which ages since her shackled instinct sought ; 
For oft her prison had the yearnings heard. 
In murmurings scarce rendered into word ; — 
Promptings which man suspicious strove to choke, 
Lest that her soul should rise and break his time- 
worn yoke. 



XXXIV. 

For autocrats of old, with treacherous guile, 
Had bribed the villain's soul by sensual wile ; 
To meanest man a lower drudge assigned, — 
With gift of female thrall cajoled the hind ; 
The stolid churl his servitude forgave 
Whilst he in turn was master to a slave ; 
Through every rank the sexual serfdom ran, 
And woman's life was bound in vassalage to man. 



1 8 WOMAN FREE. 



XXXV. 

Then, fearing that the slave herself might guess 
The knavery of her forced enchainedness, 
A subtle fiction mannish brain designed 
To dominate her conscience and her mind, — 
Inhuman dogmas did his genius frame, 
Investing them with sanctimonious name 
Of " woman's duty " ; and the fetish base 
E'en to this reasoned day uplifts its impious face. 



XXXVI. 

By cant condoned, man fashioned woman's "sphere," 
And mapped out " natural " bounds to her career ; 
His sapience-^should she dare any deed 
In contravention of his code — decreed 
On soul or body penalties condign. 
In part dubbed civil law, and part divine : 
Misguided man, — confused in self-deceit 
His unisexual wit and pious pretext meet. 



WOMAN FREE. 19 



XXXVII. 
Obeisance yet his caste of sex demands ; — 
In legislative script the verbiage stands 
How lowest boor is lordly " baron " styled, 
And highest bride as common " feme " reviled ; 
The tardier fear that grants the clown a share 
In his own governance, denies it her ; 
And British matrons are, by man-made rules. 
In solemn statute ranked with infants, felons, fools. 



XXXVIII. 

The crass injustice early man displayed, 
His own crude infancy of brain betrayed ; 
His riper judgment scorns the childish use. 
And cries to all his bygone freaks a truce ; 
Enactments that long blemished legal page 
Shall fade as figments of a foolish age, 
Till saner years have every bond erased 
Which selfish law of man on life of woman placed. 



c 2 



20 JFOMAJV FREE. 



XXXIX. 
Till like with him in human right she stands, 
Her will an equal power of rule commands ; 
Her voice, in council and in senate heard. 
To stern debate brings harmonising word ; 
In mutual stress each sex the other cheers, 
Since one are made their hopes and one their fears ; 
" Self-reverent each, and reverencing each," — 
The theme that truer man and freer woman teach. 



XL. 

For but a slave himself must ever be. 
Till she to shape her own career be free ; — 
Free from all uninvited touch of man, 
Free mistress of her person'3 sacred plan ; 
Free human soul ; the brood that she shall bear, 
The first — the truly free, to breathe our air ; 
From woman slave can come but menial race. 
The mother free confers her freedom and her grace. 



WOMAN FREE. 21 



XLI. 
By her the progress of our future kind, 
Their stalwart body and their spacious mind ; 
For, folded in her form each human mite 
Has its first home, its sustenance and light ; 
Hers the live warmth that fans its spirit flame, 
Her generous sap supplies its fleshly frame. 
And e'en the juice, — the fuUborn infant's food, 
Is yet a blanched form of woman's living blood. 



XLII. 

Strange wisdom by her unkenned craft is taught 
While yet the embryo in her womb is wrought ; 
For, long ere entering on our tumult rife. 
It learns from her the needful art of life ; 
Unconscious teacher, she, yet all she knows 
Of dark experience to her infant flows. 
And brands him, ere he rest upon her knee. 
Offshoot of slavish race, not scion of the free. 



2 2 WOMAN FREE. 



XLIII. 
To either sex the bondage and the pain, 
They seek to live a freeman's life in vain ; 
For man or woman can but act the part, 
. When 'tis not freeborn blood that fills the heart : 
Strive as he may, the modern man, at best, 
Is tyrant, differing somewhat from the rest ; 
Nor woman thraldom-bred can surely know 
Where lies her richest gift, or how its wealth to show. 



XLIV. 

Thus learn we that in woman rendered free 
Is raised the rank of all humanity ; 
The despot is the fullfruit of the slave ; — 
To form the freeman, equable and brave, 
Habit of freedom must spontaneous come 
As life itself, and from the selfsame womb ; 
Life, liberty, and love, — lien undefiled, — 
The freeborn mother's heirloom to her freeborn child. 



WOMAN FREE, 23 



XLV. 
So shall her noble issue, maid or boy, 
With equal freedom equal fate enjoy ; 
Together reared in purity and truth, 
Through plastic childhood and retentive youth ; 
Their mutual sports of sinew and of brain 
In strength alike the sturdy comrades train ; 
Of differing sex no thought inept intrudes, 
Their purpose calmly sure all errant aim excludes. 



XLVI. 

For soul, not sex, shall to each life assign 
What destiny to fill, or what decline ; 
Through years mature impartial range shall reach. 
And wider wisdom, juster ethics, teach ; 
Conformed to claims of intellect and need, 
The tempered numbers of their highborn breed ; 
Not overworn with childward pain and care, 
The mother — and the race — robuster health shall 
share. 



24 WOMAN FREE, 



XLVII. 

Nor blankly epicene, as scoffers say, 
The necessary sequence of that day ; 
For not by vapid imitation low, 
Or aping falser sex shall truer grow ; 
Nor modish mind may fathom Nature's range, 
Or fix the fleeting scope of human change ; 
Can singer blind the rainbow's tints compare ? — 
The brain enslaved from birth the freeman's powers 
declare ? 



XLVIII. 

Work we in faith, secure that precious seed 
Shall bear due fruit for man's extremest need ; 
Not greatly timorous, as those fruits we see. 
What changed existence from such food may be ; 
For well we wot shall come forth worthy soul, 
Or male or female, with impartial dole 
Of all that life can grant of good or great, — 
Happy what each may bring to help the common 
fate. 



WOMAN FREE. 25 



XLIX. 

By mutual aid perfecting complex man, 
Their twofold vision human life may scan 
From diflFering standpoints, grasping from the two 
A clearer concept and a bolder view ; 
And thus diverse humanity shall learn 
A wisdom which not single sex might earn ; 
Each on the problem casting needful light, 
Not fully known of one without the other's sight. 



L. 
How should he write what she alone may tell ? — 
The movements of her psychic ebb and swell ; 
The latent springs of life that in her gush, 
When motherhood's first throb awakes her flush. 
And swift the signal flashes to her soul, 
Of future being claiming her control ; 
Seeking from her its mind and body's food ; 
Drawing, to make its own, her evil and her good. 



26 WOMAN FREE. 



LI. 
Within herself the drama's scene is laid, 
The Birth and Growth of Soul the mystery played ; 
She, in her part, is but an agent mute, 
Her brain untutored, nor her tact acute. 
Her nerve-strung body slow as senseless soil 
To watch the working of the seedling's toil ; 
In vain before her inmost vision spread 
The hidden streams from whence the vital founts are 
fed. 



LII. 

The mother's blindness was blind man's decree, 
And to himself reverts the misery ; 
Through hapless years his ordinance has run. 
And harsh reward of ignorance has won ; 
His pride of maledom, dull to recognise 
The deeper depth accessive to her eyes. 
Forbade to teach her brain to understand 
The facts that, deftly sought, lay ready to her hand. 



WOMAN FREE, 27 



LIII. 
Less wisely he, his curious search to serve, 
In helpless creature teased the quivering nerve. 
And strove to probe the covert ways of life 
By living butchery with learned knife, 
And cruel anodyne that chained the will. 
Yet left the shuddering victim conscious still : 
But Nature shrinks from foul and fierce attack, 
Nor yields her holiest truths on such a murderer's 
rack. 

LIV. 
True science finds its own by kindlier quest, 
Nor lowers itself to torture's loathsome test ; 
Multiplies not the sentient being's pain. 
But makes a keener lens of man's own brain ; 
Seeks not by outrage dire a soul to grasp. 
Or dimly trace its agonising gasp ; 
But surer learns what fire that soul may move. 
Not wrung with deathly pang, but thrilled by breath 
of love. 



28 W0M.4y FREE. 



LV. 
To touch of love alone will Nature pour 
The choicest treasures of her occult store ; 
Into the ear of love alone repeat 
The secret of the song our pulses beat ; 
To eye of love alone, with joyance bright, 
Shows she her form suffused in living light ; 
To heart that loves her, Nature gives to know 
How from Love's might alone all thoughts of Wisdom 
grow. 



LVI. 
So opes a vaster knowledge to the view, 
Love points the way and woman holds the clue ; 
Nature on her the trustful office laid. 
And arbiter of human fortune made ; 
With woman honoured, rises man to height, 
With her degraded, sinks again in night ; 
Yet still the wayward race has sluggish been 
To learn the fealty due to Earth's advancing queen. 



WOMAN FREE, 29 



LVII. 
For long, in jealousy for corporal power, 
Had man contemned his sister's worthier dower ; 
What time his ruder feelings held the sway, 
With little hope or hint of truer way ; 
Till on a wistful world has dawned benign 
The prescience of a potency divine 
Sleeping, unrecked of, deep in woman's heart, 
Waiting some kiss superne, into full life to start. 



LVIII. 

Woman's own soul must seek and find that fay. 
And wake it into light of quickening day ; 
Man's counsel helpful in that track shall be 
For all his learning rich return and fee ; 
His philosophic and chirurgic lore. 
To her imparted, swell her innate store ; 
Till, clothed with majesty of mind she stand, 
Regent of Nature's will, in heart, and head, and hand. 



30 WOMAN FJREE, 



LIX. 
Each sequent life shall feel her finer care, 
Each heir of life a wealthier bounty share ; 
Those lives allied in equal union chaste 
A sweeter purpose, purer rapture, taste ; 
Both parents vindicate the duteous name, 
The troth and kinship of their linked claim ; 
The only rivalry that moves their mind, 
How for their lineage fair still larger fate to find. 



LX. 
Their task ineffable yields wondrous gain, 
Their energies celestial force attain ; 
Their intermingled souls, with passion dight, 
In aspiration soar past earthly height ; 
Nor fades their prospect into void again, — 
Woman has gift the vision to retain, 
And mould their dreams of love, with conscious 
skill, 
To human living types supreme of form and will. 



WOMAN FREE. 31 



LXI. 
The psychic and the physical at one 
In fervid vigour through their frame shall run ; 
Their science leaps the bounds of straiter space, 
Whose crude dimensions curbed their growing 

grace ; 
Whose inefficiencies allowed not verge 
For rich research their lofty souls would urge ; 
To them the keys of life and love are given, — 
The love that lifts the life from rank of earth to 
heaven. 

LXII. 

And " winged words on which the soul would 

pierce 
Into the height of love's rare Universe " 
Shall native flow from them as mother tongue 
In softest strain to listening infant sung ; 
Till, the sad memories of unmeant wrong 
Solving in music of conciliant song, 
Man's destiny with woman's blended be 
In one sublime progression,^ — full, and strong, and 
free. 



32 WOMAN FREE. 



LXIII. 

The bard of yore, the stately Florentine, — 
The seer of the dream men named Divine, — 
Through whose grave tones one strenuous passion 

rolled, 
While to slow ears the voice fell stern or cold, — 
In his last verse proclaimed his crowning faith. 
By words whose echoes pass the bar of death ; — 
As breathed his soul with Beatrice afar — 
" The love that moves the sun and every circling 
star." 



NOTES, &c. 



WOMAN FREE. 



NOTES, &c. 

I. 

2. — '''' Science calm moves ..." 

"Science is properly more scrupulous than dogma. 
Dogma gives a charter to mistake, but the very breath of 
science is a contest with mistake, and must keep the 
conscience alive." — George Eliot (" Middlemarch," Chap. 
LXXIII.) 



3. — " Research and reason 



)) 



As indicated by Professor Oliver T. Lodge, " It is but 
a platitude to say that our clear and conscious aim should 
always be truth, and that no lower or meaner standard 
should ever be allowed to obtrude itself before us. Our 
ancestors fought hard and suffered much for the privilege of 
free and open inquiry, for the right of conducting investiga- 
tion untrammelled by prejudice and foregone conclusions, 
and they were ready to examine into any phenomenon which 
presented itself. . . . Fear of avowing interest or of 
examining into unorthodox facts is, I venture to say, not 
in accordance with the highest traditions of the scientific 
attitude," — (Address as President of the Mathematical and 
Physical Section of the British Association, 1891.) 

D 2 



36 WOMAJV FREE, 



See also the words of Richard Jefferies : — " Research 
proceeds upon the same old lines and runs in the ancient 
grooves. . . . But there should be no limit placed on 
the mind. . . . Most injurious of all is the continuous 
circling on the same path, and it is from this that I wish 
to free my mind."— ("The Story of My Heart," Chap. X.) 

5. — " . . . part revealed.^^ 

"We are still the early settlers in a beautiful world, 
whose capabilities, imperfectly known as yet, wait until 
higher developments of man can understand them fully, 
and apply the result to the general good." — Professor T. 
Rupert Jones (Address as President of the Geological 
Section of the British Association, 1891). 

II. 

3. — " . . . keener conscience . . ." 

" C'est rincamation de Tid^e qui se dresse tout k coup 
en face des vieilles traditions obstin^es et insuffisantes et 
elle vient . . . poser sa revendication personelle et 
n^cessaire contre les lois jadis excellentes, mais qui, les 
moeurs s'^tant modifi6es, apparaissent subitement comme 
des injustices et des barbaries." — A. Dumas fils (" Les 
Femmes qui Tuent et les Femmes qui Votent," p. 25). 

IV. 

7. — " . . . monitor's still voiced — Conf, Wordsworth ; 
" Taught both by what she " (Nature) " shows, and 
what conceals. 



WOMAN FREE, 37 



Never to blend our pleasure or our pride 
With sorrow of the meanest thing that feels." 

("Hart-Leap Well.") 



VI. 

I. — " . . . prehistoric hour^ 

" The preface of general history must be compiled from 
the materials presented by barbarism. Happily, if we may 
say so, these materials are abundant. So unequally has the 
species been developed, that almost every conceivable phase 
of progress may be studied, as somewhere observed and 
recorded. And thus the philosopher, fenced from mistake 
as to the order of development, by the inter-connection of 
the stages and their shadings into one another by gentle 
gradations, may draw a clear and decided outline of the 
course of human progress in times long antecedent to those 
to which even philology can make reference." — M'Lennan 
(" Primitive Marriage," p. 9). . 

Id. . . "I will confine myself to these examples, 
gleaned from all parts, and which it would be easy to 
multiply. They amply suffice to establish that, in primi- 
tive societies, woman, being held in very low esteem, is 
absolutely reduced to the level of chattels and of domestic 
animals ; that she represents a booty like any other ; that 
her master can use and abuse her without fear. But in 
these bestial practices there is nothing which approaches 
even distantly to marriage, arid we are not in the least 
warranted to call these brutal rapes marriages." — Letourneau 
(" Evolution of Marriage," Chap. VI.). 



38 WOMAN FREE. 

2. — " . . . woman thrall . . ." 

" Woman was the first human being that tasted bondage. 
Woman was a slave before the slave existed." — August Bebel 
("Woman," Chap. I.). 

Id, . . "From the very earliest twilight of human 
society, every woman (owing to the value attached to her 
by man, combined with her inferiority in muscular strength) 
was found in a state of bondage to some man." — J. S. Mill 
(" The Subjection of Woman," Chap. !.)• 

iJ/. . . " In every country, and in every time, woman, 
organically weaker than man, has been more or less en- 
slaved by him." — Letourneau ("The Evolution of Mar- 
riage," Chap. XI.). 

Id. . "It raised up the humble and fallen, gave spirit 

and strength to the poor. 
And is freeing from slavery Woman, the slave of 

all ages gone by." 
— C. G. Leland (" The Return of the Gods "). 

3. — " . . . heinous skiW^ 

" It is pitiful to reflect that man's vaunted superiority 
over the brute, the greater activity of his brain, and the 
subtler cunning of his hand, have for so long lent them- 
selves to the oppression that has resulted in such pernicious 
consequences, and in the still existent slavery, social and 
physical, of the female of his own species." — Ben Elmy 
("Studies in Materialism," Chap. III.). 

8. — " . . . soulless gloomJ^ 

Compare the following picture of the somewhat parallel 
condition of a lower race at the present time : — 



WOMAN FREE. 39 



" Natives may well call the monkey sire Maharaja, for he is 
the very type and incarnation of savage and sensual despotism. 
They are rig^ht, too, in making their Hanuman red, for the old 
male's face is of the dusky red you see in some elderly, overfed 
human faces. Like human Maharajas, they have their tragedies 
and mayhap their romances. One morning there came a 
monkey chieftain, weak and limping, having evidently been 
worsted in a severe fight with another of his own kind. One 
hand hung powerless, his face and eyes bore terrible traces of 
battle, and he hirpled slowly along with a pathetic air of suffer- 
ing, supporting himself on the shoulder of a female, a wife, the 
only member of his clan who had remained faithful to him 
after his defeat. We threw them bread and raisins, and the 
wounded warrior carefully stowed the greater part away in his 
cheek pouch. The faithful wife, seeing her opportunity, sprang 
on him, holding fast his one sound hand, and, opening his 
mouth, she deftly scooped out the store of raisins. Then she 
sat and ate them very calmly at a safe distance, while he 
mowed and chattered in impotent rage. He knew that without 
her help he could not reach home, and was fain to wait with 
what patience he might till the raisins were finished. It was a 
sad sight, but, like more sad sights, touched with the light of 
comedy. This was probably her first chance of disobedience 
or of self-assertion in her whole life, and I am afraid she 
thoroughly enjoyed it. Then she led him away." — J. Lockwood 
Kipling ("Beast and Man in India"). 



VII. 

I. — " . . . Evolution ..." 

"We now know that Nature, as an anthropomorphic 
being, does not exist ; that the great forces called natural 
are unconscious ; that their blind action results, however, in 
the world of life, in a choice, a selection, a progressive evo- 
lution, or, to sum up, in the survival of the individuals best 
adapted to the conditions of their existence." — Letourneau 
("The Evolution of Marriage," Chap. I., Part II.). 



40 WOMAN FREE. 

Id. . . "Robert Chambers's common-sense view of 
evolution as a process of continued growing/' — Professor 
Patrick Geddes and J. Arthur Thomson (" The Evolution 
of Sex," p. 302). 

I.— ''By Art . . ." 

"Other implements of Palaeolithic age are formed of 
bone and horn. Among these are harpoon-heads, barbed 
on one or both sides, awls, pins, and needles with well- 
formed eyes. But by far the most noteworthy objects of 
this class are the fragments of bone, horn, ivory, and stone, 
which exhibit outlined and even shaded sketches of various 
animals. These engravings have been made with a sharp- 
pointed implement, and are often wonderfully characteristic 
representations of the creatures they pourtray. The figures 
are sometimes single, in other cases they are drawn in 
groups. We find representations of a fish, a seal, an ibex, 
the red-deer, the great Irish elk or deer, the bison, the 
horse, the cave-bear, the reindeer, and the mammoth or 
woolly elephant. Besides engravings, we meet also with 
sculptures. . . . It is impossible to say to what use all 
these objects were put. Some of them may have been 
handles for knives, while others are mere fragments, and 
only vague guesses can be made as to the nature of the 
original implements. It is highly probable, however, that 
many of these works of art may have been designed simply 
as such, for the pleasure and amusement of the draughts- 
man and his fellows." — ^James Geikie ("Prehistoric Europe," 
Chap. II.). 

Id. . . The culture or appreciation of Art is of 



WOMAN FREE, 41 



itself evidence of a higher nature in man; "a soul, a 
psyche, a something which aspires," as Richard Jefferies 
calls it. For though the professional pursuit of Art may be 
occasionally not unmingled with mercenary motives, or with 
the pourtrayal of incentives to lower desire, yet the ulti- 
mate appeal of every truly beautiful picture or object of Art 
is, at any rate, not to man's mercenary or meaner nature. 
As Jefferies again says, "The ascetics are the only 
persons who are impure. The soul is the higher even by 
gazing on beauty."— ("The Story of My Heart,'' Chap. VII.) 

7. — " , , . the soul , . ." 

" The mind of man is infinite. Beyond this, man has a 
soul. I do not use this word in the common sense which 
circumstances have given to it. I use it as the only tenn 
to express that inner consciousness which aspires." — 
Richard Jefiferies (" The Story of My Heart," Chap. IX.). 

8. — " . . . from lower flush of lust, ^^ 

"The fact to be insisted upon is this, that the vague 
sexual attraction of the lowest organisms has been evolved 
into a definite reproductive impulse, into a desire often pre- 
dominating over even that of self-preservation; that this, 
again, enhanced by more and more subtle additions, passes 
by a gentle gradient into the love of the highest animals, 
and of the average human individual." — Geddes and Thom- 
son (" Evolution of Sex," p. 267). 

VIII. 

5, 6. — " The voice erst roused by hunger or by rage, 
Now tells the nobler passions of the age^ 



42 WOMAN FREE, 



" The impassioned orator, bard, or musician, when, with 
his varied tones and cadences, he excites the strongest 
emotions in his hearers, little suspects that he uses the 
same means by which, at an extremely remote period, his 
half-human ancestors aroused each other's ardent passions 
during their mutual courtship and rivalry." — Darwin (" The 
Descent of Man," Chap. XIX.). 

7. — " . . . with lovers language is uplifted love, ^^ 

Language is thought, we are told ; so also is love. And 
thus the reciprocal and cumulative action of love, thought, 
and language stands a corollary to Max MUller's words : — 
" Language and thought are inseparable. Words without 
thought are dead sounds ; thoughts without words are 
nothing. To think is to speak low ; to speak is to think 
aloud. The word is the thought incarnate." — (" Science of 
Language," Lect. IX.) 

Id, . . "Even the rude Australian girl (aborigine) 
sings in a strain of romantic affliction : 

' I shall never see my darling again.' " 
— ^Westermarck (" History of Human Marriage," p. 503). 

Id, . . "And again, another benefit accrues to the 
race from marriages of affection. Do not your ancient epics 
which sing of love sing also of noble deeds and acts of 
heroism on the part both of men and women, actuated by a 
pure affection for each other ? Alike in your dramas and 
in those of Shakespeare, and of all great writers, love is the 
great motive power which impels to deeds of prowess, the 
spring of noble actions, of unselfish devotion, of words and 
thoughts which have enriched all later generations, the one 



WOMAN FREE, 43 



sentiment which elevates marriage amongst mankind to 
something infinitely higher and purer than the gratification 
of a mere animal instinct." — Dr. Edith Pechey Phipson 
(Address to the Hindoos of Bombay on Child Marriage, 
1891, p. 14). 

8.—" . , . selfless thought:' 

" Love took up the harp of life, and smote on all the 
chords with might ; 
Smote the chord of Self that, trembling, pass'd in 
music out of sight." 

—Tennyson (" Locksley Hall "). 

IX. 

7. — " . . . Neglecting none . . ." 

"We are entering into an order of things in which 
justice will be the primary virtue, grounded on equal, but 
also on sympathetic association ; having its roots no longer 
in the instinct of equals for self-protection, but in a 
cultivated sympathy between them ; and no one being now 
left out, but an equal measure being extended to all." — 
J. S. Mill (" The Subjection of Women," p. 80). 

X. 

4. — " . . . clogged . . . mar^s power . . ." 

"He has reaped the usual reward of selfishness, the 
gratification of immediate low desires has frustrated the 
future attainment of higher aspirations." — Mrs. Pechey 
Phipson, M.D. (Address to Hindoos). 



44 WOMAN FREE, 



5, 6. — " Egypt or Greece in vain sought heavenly light, 
While woman^s soul was held from equal flight. ^^ 

In Egypt " the art (of literature) was practised only by 
the priests, as the painted history plainly declares. . . . 
No female is depicted in the act of reading. . . . The 
Greek world was composed of municipal aristocracies, 
societies of gentlemen living in towns, with their farms in 
the neighbourhood, and having all their work done for 
them by slaves. They themselves had nothing to do but 
to cultivate their bodies by exercise in the gymnasium, and 
their minds by conversation in the market-place. They 
lived out of doors, whilst their wives remained shut up at 
home. In Greece a lady could only enter society by 
adopting a mode of life which in England usually facilitates 
her exit." — Winwood Reade ("The Martyrdom of Man," 

PP-35> 71). 

8. — " , . . subjugated wife . . ." 

At Athens "the free citizen women lived in strict and 
almost Oriental recluseness, as well after being married as 
when single. Everything which concerned their lives, 
their happiness, or their rights, was determined or 
managed for them by their male relatives \ and they seem 
to have been destitute of all mental culture and accom- 
plishments."— Grote ("History of Greece," Vol. VI., 

p. 133)- 

XI. 

I. — ^^ Marriage which might have been a mates hip sweet:' 

" In vain Plato urged that young men and women should 



WOMAN FREE, 45 



be more frequently permitted to meet one another, so that 
there should be less enmity and indifference in the married 
life/' (" Nomoi/* Book VI.)— Westermarck (" History of 
Human Marriage,*' p. 36i).« 

2. — " . . . equal souls . . /' 

" The feeling which makes husband and wife true com- 
panions for better and worse, can grow up only in societies 
where the altruistic sentiments of man are strong enough to 
make him recognise woman as his equal, and where she is 
not shut up as an exotic plant in a greenhouse, but is 
allowed to associate freely with men. In this direction 
European civilisation has been advancing for centuries." — 
Westermarck (loc. cit), (See also Note XIX., 6.) 

7, -8. — " Her only hope of thought or learning wide, 

Some freer lot to seek than yoke forlorn of bride" 

In Greece " the modest women were confined to their own 
apartments, and were visited only by their husbands and 
nearest relations. . . The courtesans of Athens, by living 
in public, and conversing freely with all ranks of people, 
upon all manner of subjects, acquired, by degrees, a know- 
ledge of history, of philosophy, of policy, and a taste in the 
whole circle of the arts. Their ideas were more extensive 
and various, and their conversation was more sprightly and 
entertaining than anything that was to be found among the 
virtuous part of the sex. Hence their houses became the 
schools of elegance; that of Aspasia was the resort of 
Socrates and Pericles, and, as Greece was governed by 
eloquent men, over whom the courtesans had an influence, 



46 WOMAN FREE 

• *> 

the latter also influenced public affairs." — Alexander 
Walker ("Woman, as to Mind," &c., p. 334). 

XII. 

3. — " . . . craving mental Jood . . ." 

That the quest of knowledge and intellectual power was 
literally the incentive to many a woman who accepted the 
life of hetaira is indisputable. Westermarck says : — " It 
seems to me much more reasonable to suppose that if, in 
Athens and India, courtesans were respected and sought 
after by the principal men, it was because they were the 
only educated women." — (" History of Marriage," p. 81.) 

And Letourneau remarks : — " Religious prostitution, 
which was widely spread in Greek antiquity, has been also 
found in India, where every temple of renown had its 
bayaderes, the only women in India to whom, until 
quite recently, any instruction was given." — (" Evolution of 
Marriage," Chap. III.) 

5, 6. — " Conceding that^ might lead a learned life — 
A license vetoed to the legal wifeJ^ 

" Hetairaiy famous at once for their beauty and intellect 
such as Phryne, Lais of Corinth, Gnathaena, and Aspasia, 
were objects of universal admiration among the most 
distinguished Greeks. They were admitted to their assem- 
lies and banquets, while the 'honest' women of Greece were, 
without exception, confined to the house. ... A con- 
siderable number of women preferred the greater freedom 
which they enjoyed as Hetairai to marriage, and carried on 
the trade of prostitution as a means of livelihood. In unre- 



WOMAN FREE. 47 

strained intercourse with men, the more intelligent of the 
Hetairai^ who were doubtless often of good birth, acquired 
a far greater degree of versatility and culture than that 
possessed by the majority of married women, living in a 
state of enforced ignorance and bondage. This invested 
the Hetairai with a greater charm for the men, in addition 
to the arts which they employed in the special exercise of 
their profession. This explains the fact that many of them 
enjoyed the esteem of some of the most distinguished and 
eminent men of Greece, to whom they stood in a relation- 
ship of influential intimacy, a position held by no legitimate 
wife. The names of these Hetairai are famous to the 
present day, while one enquires in vain after the names of 
the legitimate wives." — August Bebel ("Woman,' Chap. I.). 

7. — " . , . wealthy or n , . fameJ* 

E.g., Phryne, who offered to rebuild the wall of Thebes ; 
and Lais, commemorated in the adage, ^^ Non cuivis 
hominum contingit adire Corinthum,^^ And as to even 
modern " fame," a writer so merciless concerning her own 
sex as Mrs. Lynn Linton can yet say, " Agnes Sorel, like 
Aspasia, was one of the rare instances in history where 
failure in chastity did not include moral degradation nor 
unpatriotic self-consideration," — {Nineteenth Century, July, 
1891, p. 84.) 

* 8. — " , . , the tinge of shame/* 
Why indeed should shame have attached specially to 
those women, more highly cultured and better treated than 
wives; and whose sole impeachment could be that they 
rejected the still lower serfdom of wedded bondage ? 



48 IVOMAN FREE. 



XIII. 

2. — " To him who fixed the gages of the fight.'' 

" If we could imagine a Bossuet or a F^ndon figuring 
among the followers of Ninon de Lenclos, and publicly 
giving her counsel on the subject of her professional duties, 
and the means of securing adorers, this would be hardly 
less strange than the relation which really existed between 
Socrates and the courtesan Theodota." — Lecky ("History 
of European Morals," Vol. II., p. 280). 

8. — '''' The waste of woman worth . . ." 

Since these words were written, a letter from Mrs. Mona 
Caird has been published by the "Women's Emanci- 
pation Union," in which is said : — " So far from giving 
s ifety and balance to the * natural forces,' these time- 
honoured restrictions, springing from a narrow theory 
which took its rise in a pre-scientific age, are fraught with 
the gravest dangers, creating a perpetual struggle and 
unrest, filling society with the perturbations and morbid 
developments of powers that ought to be spending them- 
selves freely and healthfully on their natural objects. Any- 
one who has looked a little below the surface of women's 
lives can testify to the "general unrest and nervous ex- 
haustion or malaise among them, although each would 
probably refer her suffering to some cause peculiar to her- 
self and her circumstances, never dreaming that she was 
the victim of an evil that gnaws at the very heart of society, 
making of almost every woman the heroine of a silent 
tragedy. I think few keen observers will deny that it is 



WOMAN FREE, 49 



almost always the women of placid temperament, with very 
little sensibility, who are happy and contented ; those of 
more highly wrought nervous systems and imaginative 
faculty, who are nevertheless capable of far greater joy than 
their calmer sisters, in nine cases out of ten are secretly 
intensely miserable. And the cause of this is not eternal and 
unalterable. The nervously organised being is not created 
to be miserable ; but when intense vital energy is thwarted 
and misdirected — so long as the energy lasts — there must 
be intense suffering. ... It is only when resig- 
nation sets in, when the ruling ordei: convinces at last and 
tires out the rebel nerves and the keen intelligence, that we 
know that the living forces are defeated, and that death has 
come to quiet the suffering. All this is waste of human 
force, and far worse than waste." 

Id, . . Alexandre Dumas fils says : — " Celles-la 
voient, de jour en jour, en sondant Fhorizon toujours le 
m^me, s'effeuiller dans I'isolement, dans Tinaction, dans 
I'impuissance, les facult^s divines qui leur avaient d'abord 
fait faire de si beaux reves et dont il leur semble que 
I'expansion edt pu etre materiellement et moralement si 
profitable aux autres et a elles-memes.*' — (" Les Femmes 
qui Tuent et les Femmes qui Votent,*' p. 107). 

Id, . . And Lady Florence Dixie has written : — 
" Nature gives strength and beauty to man, and Nature 
gives strength and beauty to woman. In this latter instance 
man flies in the face of Nature, and declares that she must 
be artificially restrained. Woman must not be allowed to 
grow up strong like man, because if she did the fact would 
establish her equality with him, and this cannot be tolerated. 

E 



50 WOMAN FREE. 

So the boy and man are allowed freedom of body, and are 
trained up to become muscular and strong, while the woman, 
by artificial, not natural, laws, is bidden to remain inactive 
and passive, and, in consequence, weak and undeveloped. 
Mentally it is the same. Nature has unmistakably given 
to woman a greater amount of brain power. This is at once 
perceivable in childhood. For instance, on the stage, girls 
are always employed in preference to boys, for they are con- 
sidered brighter and sharper in intellect and brain power. 
Yet man deliberately sets himself to stunt that early evidence 
of mental capacity by laying down the law that woman's 
education shall be on a lower level than that of man's ; that 
natural truths, which all women should early learn, should be 
hidden from her ; and that while men may be taught every- 
thing, women must only acquire a narrow and imperfect 
knowledge both of life and of Nature's laws. I maintain 
that this procedure is abitrary and cruel, and false to 
Nature. I characterise it by the strong word of infamous. 
It has been the means of sending to their graves, unknown, 
unknelled, and unnamed, thousands of women whose high 
intellects have been wasted, and whose powers for good 
have been paralysed and undeveloped." — (" Gloriana : or, 
the Revolution of 1900," p. 130.) 

Id, . . Buckle gives numerous- instances which sup- 
port the foregoing assertions, saying himself on the point : — 
" That women are more deductive than men, because they 
think quicker than men, is a proposition which some per- 
sons will not relish, and yet it may be proved in a variety of 
ways. Indeed, nothing could prevent its being universally 
admitted except the fact that the remarkable rapidity with 



WOMAN FREE. 51 



which women think is obscured by that miserable, that con- 
temptible, that preposterous system called their education, 
in which valuable things are carefully kept from them, and 
trifling things carefully taught to them, until their fine 
and nimble minds are irreparably injured." — (" Miscel- 
laneous Works," Vol. I., p. 8, " On the influence of Women 
on the Progress of Knowledge.") 

Id, . . As a man of straightforward common-sense, 
Sydney Smith has left a name unsurpassed in our literary 
history. Here is something of what he says on this question 
of woman's intellect and its waste : — " As the matter stands 
at present, half the talent in the universe runs to waste, and 
is totally unprofitable. It would have been almost as well 
for the world, hitherto, that women, instead of possessing 
the capacities they do at present, should have been born 
wholly destitute of wit, genius, and every other attribute of 
mind of which men make so eminent a use ; and the ideas 
of use and possession are so united together that, because 
it has been the custom in almost all countries to give to 
women a different and worse education than to men, the 
notion has obtained that they do not possess faculties which 
they do not cultivate." — (" Essay on Female Education.") 

Id, . . Hear also John Ruskin on the relative intel- 
lect or capacity of women : — " Let us try, then, whether we 
cannot get at some clear and harmonious idea (and it must 
be harmonious if it is true) of what womanly mind and 
virtue are in power and office, with respect to man's ; and 
how their relations, .rightly accepted, aid and increase the 
vigour, and honour, and authority of both. . . . Let us 
see whether the greatest, the wisest, the purest-hearted of 

E 2 



52 WOMAN FREE. 



all ages are agreed in anywise on this point. . . . And 
first let us take Shakespeare ; . . . there is hardly a play 
that has not a perfect woman in it, steadfast in grave hope 
and errorless purpose. . . Such, in broad light, is Shake- 
speare's testimony to the position and character of women 
in human life. He represents them as infallibly faithful 
and wise counsellors, incorruptibly just and pure examples, 
strong always to sanctify, even when they cannot save. 
. . . I ask you next to receive the witness of Walter 
Scott. ... So that, in all cases, with Scott as with 
Shakespeare, it is the woman who watches over, teaches, 
and guides the youth ; it is never, by any chance, the youth 
who watches over or educates his mistress. 

" Now I could multiply witness upon witness of this kind 
upon you, if I had time. Nay, I could go back into the 
mythical teaching of the most ancient times, and show you 
how the great people, how that great Egjptian people, 
wisest then of nations, gave to their Spirit of Wisdom the 
form of a woman ; and into her hand, for a symbol, the 
weaver's shuttle ; and how the name and form of that spirit 
adopted, believed, and obeyed by the Greeks, became that 
Athena of the olive-helm and cloudy shield, to whose faith 
you owe, down to this date, whatever you hold most 
precious in art, in literature, or in types of national virtue. 

"But I will not wander into this distant and mythical 
element ; I will only ask you to give the legitimate value to 
the testimony of these great poets and men of the world, 
consistent as you see it is on this head. I will ask you 
whether it can be supposed that these men, in the main work 
of their lives, are amusing themselves with a fictitious and 



WOMAN FREE, 53 



idle view of the relations between man and woman ; nay, 
worse than fictitious or idle, for a thing may be imaginary 
yet desirable, if it were possible; but this, their ideal of 
women, is, according to our common idea of the marriage 
relation, wholly undesirable. The woman, we say, is not to 
guide nor even to think for herself. The man is always to 
be the wiser ; he is to be the thinker, the ruler, the superior 
in knowledge and discretion, as in power. Is it not some- 
what important to make up our minds on this matter ? Are 
Shakespeare and ^Eschylus, Dante and Homer merely dres- 
sing dolls for us ; or, worse than dolls, unnatural visions, 
the realisation of which, were it possible, would bring 
anarchy into all households, and ruin into all affections ? 
Are all these great men mistaken, or, are we ? " — (" Sesame 
and Lilies," p. 125, et seq,) 

Truly, in the face of these things, Tennyson had reason 
concerning his fellow men, when he wrote : — 

" Knowledge comes, but wisdom lingers . . J' 

(" Locksley Hall.") 



XIV. 

3. — " . . lostling . . ." 

Between the most cultured hetairai and the poor outcast 
as here shown, were many intervening or coalescing grades. 
Instance, as one of the phases, the following sketch of an 
Indian courtesan : — " I^lun is a member of the most 
ancient profession in the world. Lilith was her very- 
great-grandmama, and that was before the days of Eve, 
as everyone knows. In the West, people say rude things 



54 WOMAN FREE, 



about Lalun's profession, and write lectures about it, and 
distribute the lectures to young people, in order that 
morality may be preserved. In the East, where the profes- 
sion is hereditary, descending from mother to daughter, 
nobody writes lectures or takes any notice." — Rudyard 
Kipling ("On the City Wall "). 



Id, — ** . . . worse than brutal woes 



a 



Dumas fils, who knew well whereof he wrote, tells of 
"Les femmes du peuple et de la campagne, suant du 
matin au soir pour gagner le pain quotidien, le dos courb^, 
domptdes par la mis^re : " of whom some of the daughters 
" sortent du groupe par le chemin tentant et facile de la 
prostitution, mais oh le labeur est encore plus rude." — (" Les 
Femmes qui Tuent et les Femmes qui Votent," p. loi.) 
As historical instance of depth of wretched degradation, 
conf. mediaeval privilege of ^^ scortum ante niortem^^ con- 
ceded to some of even the vilest and lowest of criminals 
condemned to capital punishment. Though such a con- 
dition is barely more than parallel to the pitch of infamy 
of modern times, as instanced in a quotation reproduced by 
John Ruskin, in "Sesame and Lilies," p. 91, first ed. : — 

" The salons of Mme. C, who did the honours with clever 
imitative g^ace and elegance, were crowded with princes, 
dukes, marquises, and counts, in fact, with the same male com- 
pany as one meets at the parties of the Princess Mettemich and 
Madame Drouyn de Lhuys. Some English peers and members 
of Parliament were present, and appeared to enjoy the animated 
and dazzlingly improper scene. On the second floor the supper- 
tables were loaded with every delicacy of the season. That 
your readers may form some idea of the dainty fare of the 
Parisian demi-monde^ I copy the menu of the supper which was 



WOMAN FREE. 55 



served to all the guests (about 200) seated, at four o'clock. 
Choice Yquem, Johannisberg, Lafitte, Tokay, and Champagne 
of the finest vintages were served most lavishly throughout the 
morning. After supper dancing was resumed with increased 
animation, and the ball terminated with a chaine didbolique and 
a cancan cPenfer at seven in the morning." — {Morning Post^ 
March loth, 1865.) 

To which perhaps the most fitting comment is certain 
words of Letourneau's : — " It is important to make a dis- 
tinction. The resemblance between the moral coarse- 
ness of the savage and the depravation of the civilised 
man is quite superficial. . , The brutality of the savage 
has nothing in common with the moral retrogression of the 
civilised man, struck with decay. . . . The posterity of 
the savage may, with the aid of time and culture, attain to 
great moral elevation, for there are vital forces within him 
which are fresh and intact. The primitive man is still young, 
and he possesses many latent energies susceptible of 
development. In short, the savage is a child, while the 
civilised man, whose moral nature is corrupt, presents to us 
rather the picture of decrepit old age." — ("Evolution of 
Marriage," Chap. V.) 

If M. Letourneau will apply his strictures as to senility 
and decay to so-called "Society" and its system, rather 
than to the individual, he will find many thinkers, both 
of his own and other nationalities, agree with his con- 
clusion. Yet not death, but reform, is the righter event 
to indicate. And by what means that reform may be en- 
sured is, at least in part, clearly set forth in the following 
passage from a paper recently published by the Women's 
Printing Society : — 



56 WOMAN FREE, 



" My positive belief is that women, and women alone, will 
be able to reverse the world's verdict, but they must change 
their method of reform in two important matters. 

" First and foremost, every mother must teach her daughters 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth about the 
relations of the sexes, the condition of social opinion, the his- 
torical, physiological, ethical aspects of the question. She must 
train herself so as to be able to teach the young minds these 
solemn, serious aspects of life, in such a way that the world may 
learn that the innocence of ignorance is inferior to the purity of 
right-minded, fearless knowledge. She must strengthen the 
mmds and form the judgment of her daughters, so that they 
may demand reciprocal purity in those whom they would espouse. 

" I fully understand the difficulty of teaching our pure-minded, 
delicately-nurtured daughters the terrible lessons of this seamy 
side of life. I am a mother of daughters myself, and I know 
the cost at which the courage has to be obtained, but in this 
matter each mother must help another. What a mighty force 
is influence ! What help is conveyed by pressure of opinion t 
How often do I remember with gratitude the words which I 
once read as quoted of Mrs. John Stuart Mill, who taught her 
little daughter to have the courage to hear what other little girls 
had to bear. How gladly I acknowledge the stimulus of that 
example to myself, and therefore I would urge all women to 
SPEAK OUT. Do not be afraid. You will not lose your 
womanliness. You will not lose your purity. You will not 
have your sensibilities blunted by such rough use. No, " To 
the pure all things are pure." We must reach the mass 
through the unit, it is the individual who helps to move the 
world. 

"We must teach and train the mind of every woman with 
whom we come in contact, for we have mighty work to do. A 
no less deed than to reverse the judgment of the whole world 
on the subject of purity. I do not believe it is possible for men 
to accomplish any radical reform in this matter. It belongs to 
women — I was going to say exclusively — but I will modify my 
assertion ; and if women do not speak out more courageously 
in the future than they have done in the past, I believe there is 
but slight chance of any further amelioration in the condition of 
society than those which are such an inadequate return at the 
present time, for all the love and money expended on them.' 



WOMAN FREE. si 



And the same writer says, on a still more recent occasion : 
" I find no words strong enough to denounce the sin of 
silence amongst women on these social evils ; and I have 
come to feel that the best proof of the subjection and 
degradation of my sex lies in the opinions often expressed 
by so-called Christian and pure women /tbout other women. 
If their judgments were not perverted, if their wills were not 
broken, if their consciences were not asleep, and if their 
souls were not enslaved, they would not, they could not, 
hold their peace and let the havoc go on with women and 
children as it does." — Mrs. Laura E. Morgan- Browne 
(" Woman^s Herald^ 27th Feb., 1892), 

Mrs. Morgan-Browne is, perhaps, not more than needfully 
severe on the almost criminal reticence of women ; yet man 
must certainly take the greater share of blame for the social 
" double morality " which condemns irrevocably a woman, 
and leaves practically unscathed a man, for the same act. 
It is male-made laws and rules that have resulted in the 
perverted judgments, broken wills, sleeping consciences, 
and enslaved souls, which both sexes may deplore. Charles 
Kingsley pointed a cogent truth when he said that "Women 
will never obtain moral equity until they have civil equality." 
(See also Note XXXV., 6.) 

XV. 
2. — " . . . woman^s griefs 2vith man of barbarous dreed.' 

" In all barbarous societies the subjection of woman is 
more or less severe ; customs or coarse laws have regulated 
the savagery of the first anarchic ages ; they have doubtless 



58 WOMAN FREE. 



set up a barrier against primitive ferocity, they have inter- 
dicted certain absolutely terrible abuses of force, but they 
have only replaced these by a servitude which is still very 
heavy, is often iniquitous, and no longer permits to legally- 
possessed women those escapes, or capriciously accorded 
liberties, which were tolerated in savage life/' — Letourneau 
(" Evolution of Marriage," Chap. XIV.). 

4. — " Crippled and crushed by cruelty and toil^ . 

Some of this crippling has been of set purpose, as well as 
the simple result of brutal male recklessness. Instance the 
distortion of the feet of high-born female children in Qiina, 
the tradition concerning which is that the practice was 
initiated and enjoined by an emperor of old, one of whose 
wives had (literally) "run away ''from him. A somewhat 
similar precaution would seem to be indicated as a very 
probable source of the persistent and almost universal in- 
commodity and incumbrance of the dress of woman as com- 
pared with that of man. 

Dr. Thomas Inman, in his " Ancient Faiths Embodied in 
Ancient Names," Vol. I., p. 53, seems to indicate a different, 
yet closely allied, origin and motive for the impeding form 
of woman's clothing, the subordinate status of woman being 
always the purpose in view. 

Id, . . " Even supposing a woman to give no encour- 
agement to her admirers, many plots are always laid to 
carry her off. In the encounters which result from these, 
she is almost certain to receive some violent injury, for 
each of the combatants orders her to follow him, and, in 
the event of her refusing, throws a spear at her. The early 



WOMAN FREE. 59 



life of a young woman at all celebrated for beauty is 
generally one continued series of captivities to different 
masters, of ghastly wounds, of wandering in strange families, 
of rapid flights, of bad treatment from other females amongst 
whom she is brought, a stranger, by her captor ; and rarely 
do you see a form of unusual grace and elegance but it is 
marked and scarred by the furrows of old wounds ; and 
many a female thus wanders several hundred miles from 
the home of her infancy, being carried off successively to 
distant and more distant points." — Sir George Grey 
("Travels in North- Western Australia," 1841, Vol. II., 
p. 249 ; quoted in M'Lennan on " Primitive Marriage," 

P- 75)- 

5. — " . , , her heart a gentle mien essay ed,^^ 

" Woman seems to differ from man in mental disposition, 
chiefly in greater tenderness and less selfishness, and this 
holds good even with savages, as shown by a well-known 
passage in "Mungo Park's Travels," and by statements 
made by other travellers. Woman, owing to her maternal 
instincts, displays these qualities towards her infants in an 
eminent degree; therefore it is likely that she should often 
extend them towards her fellow creatures." . . " Mungo 
Park heard the negro women teaching their young children 
to love the truth." — Darwin (" The Descent of Man," 
Chaps. IX., III.). 

6. — ^^ By deeper passion^ holier impulse^ swayed'' 

Mrs. Eliza W. Farnham well says:— "Woman has accepted 
her subordinate lot, and lived in it with comparatively little 



6o • WOMAN FREE, 

moral harm, as the only truly superior and noble being 
could have done. The masculine spirit, enslaved and im- 
prisoned, becomes diabolic or broken ; tlie feminine, only 
warped, weakened, or distorted, is ready, whenever the 
pressure upon it is removed, to assume its true attitude." — 
(" Woman and Her Era," Part IV.) 

Id. . . Perhaps as appositely here, as elsewhere, may 
be recorded the following : — " An American writer says : 
^ While I lived among the Choctaw Indians, I held a con- 
sultation with one of their chiefs respecting the successive 
stages of their progress in the arts of civilised life, and, 
among other things, he informed me that at their start they 
made a great mistake, they only sent boys to school. 
Their boys came home intelligent men, but they married 
uneducated and uncivilised wives, and the uniform result 
was that the children were all like their mothers. The 
father soon lost all his interest both in wife and children. 
And now,' said he, *if we could educate but one class 
of our children, we should choose the girls, for, when they 
become mothers, they educate their sons.' This is the 
point, and it is true.' '* — {Manchester Examiner and Times ^ 
Sept., 1870.) 

8. — " . . . mother-love alone the infant oft preserved^' 

In Polynesia, "if a child was born, the husband 
was free to kill the infant, which was done by applying 
a piece of wet stuff to the mouth and nose, or to let 
it live ; but, in the latter case, he generally kept the wife 
for the whole of her life. If the union was sterile, or 
the children put to death, the man had always the right to 



WOMAN FREE, 61 



abandon the woman when and how it seemed good to him." 
— Letourneau (" Evolution of Marriage," p. 1 1 3). 

Id, . . An Arab legend tells of a chief of Tamin, who 
became a constant practitioner of infanticide in consequence 
of a wound given to his pride . . . and from that moment 
he interred alive all his daughters, according to the ancient 
custom. But one day, during his absence, a daughter was 
born to him, whom the mother secretly sent to a relative to 
save her, and then declared to her husband that she had 
been delivered of a still-born child. — (R. Smith, on " Kin- 
ship,*' p. 282 ; quoted by Letourneau, " Evolution of 
Marriage," p. 83.) 

Id. . . Charles Darwin writes of Tierra del Fuego : — 
" The husband is to the wife a brutal master to a laborious 
slave. Was a more horrid deed ever perpetrated than that 
witnessed on the west coast by Byron, who saw a wretched 
mother pick up her bleeding, dying infant-boy, whom her 
husband had mercilessly dashed on the stones for dropping 
a basket of sea-eggs ! " — (" Voyage of the Beagle^^ Chap. X.) 

Id, . . Mrs. Reichardt tells of a certain Moslem, of 
high standing in the society of Damascus, who " married a 
young girl of ten, and, after she had born him two sons, he 
drove her almost mad with such cruelty and unkindness 
that she escaped, and went back to her father. Her 
husband sent for her to return, and, as she was hidden out 
of his sight, he wrung the necks of both his sons, and sent 
their bodies to his wife to show her what he had in store for 
her. The young mother, not yet twenty, died in a few 
days." — (See Nineteenth Century^ June, 189 1.) 

Id. . . It will not be forgotten that, in more than one 



62 WOMAN FREE, 



of the older civilisations, the father had the power of life and 
death over the members of the family, even past adult age. 
And, to come to quite recent times, and this our Eng- 
land, Mrs. Wolstenholme Elmy, to whose unflagging 
energy, during some fifteen years of labour, was mainly 
attributable (as the Parliamentary sponsors of the measures 
know) the amelioration in the English law concerning wives 
and mothers, embodied in the Married Women's Property 
Acts of 1870 and 1882, together with the later and bene- 
ficent Guardianship of Infants Act, 1886, relates, in her 
record of the history of this latter Act : — 

" It will be remembered that so recently as 1883, a young 
lady petitioned that she might be allowed to spend her summer 
holidays with her own mother, from whom she was separated 
for no fault of her own or of her mother's, but in virtue of the 
supreme legal rights of her father. The Court refused her 
petition, natural and proper as it seems to everyone of human 
feelings ; and the words of the Master of the Rolls in giving 
judgment, on the 24th of July, 1883, are more significant and 
instructive as to the actual state of the law than the words of 
any non-professional writer can be ; — * The law of England 
recognises the rights of the father^ not as the guardian, but 
because he is the father of his children. . . . The rights of 
the father are recognised because he is the father; his duties as 
a father are recognised because they are natural duties. The 
natural duties of a father are to treat his children with the 
utmost affection, and with infinite tenderness. . . . The law 
recognises these duties, from which if a father breaks he breaks 
from everything which nature calls upon him to do ; and, 
although the law may not be able to insist upon their perform- 
ance, it is because the law recognises them, and knows that in 
almost every case the natural feelings of a father will prevail. 
The law trusts that the father will perform his natural duties, 
and does not, and, indeed, cannot, inquire how they have been 
performed. ... I am not prepared to say whether when 
the child is a ward of Courts and the conduct of the father is 
such as to exhaust all patience — such^ for instance^ as cruelty^ or 



WOMAN FREE. 63 



pitiless spitefulness carried to a great extent— the Court might 
not interfere. But such interference will be exercised only in 

THE UTMOST NEED, AND IN MOST EXTREME CASES. It is 

impossible to lay down the rule of the Court more clearly than 
ha been done by Vice-Chancellor Bacon in the recent case of 
''Re Plowley" (47 " L.T.," N.S., 283). In saying that this 
Court, "whatever be its authority or jurisdiction, hcis no 
authority to interfere with the scu:rea right of a father over his 
own chtldren^^ the learned Vice-Chancellor has summed up all 
that I intended to say. The rights of a father are sacred rights^ 
because his duties are sacred. , . .' 

" These sacred rights of the father were, it will be observed, 
in the eyes of the law so exclusive and paramount as to justify 
and demand the refusal to a young girl, at the most critical 
period of early womanhood, of the solace of a few weeks' inter- 
course with a blameless and beloved mother ; and this although 
the gratification of the daughter's wish would have involved no 
denial to the father of the solace of his daughter's company, since 
she was not actually, but only Ugally^ in his custody, not having 
seen him for more than a year. 

"It will be seen from this that the father alone has the abso- 
lute legal right to deal with his child or children, to the extent 
of separating them, at his own sole pleasure, from their mother, 
and of giving them into the care and custody of any person 
whom he may think fit. The mother has, as such, no legal 
status, no choice, voice, lot, or part in the matter." — Mrs. 
Wolstenholme Elmy ("The Infants' Act, 1886," p. 2). 

It is consolatory to learn that a palliation of some part of 
the above unjust conditions has been achieved; yet how 
often has our presumedly happy land witnessed scenes of 
child misery and helpless mother-love, to which was 
denied even the poor consolation, so pathetically depicted 
by Mrs. Browning, in a scene which, as Moir truly says, 
" weighs on the heart like a nightmare " ; — 
" Do you hear the children weeping, oh ! my brothers ! 

Ere the sorrow comes with years ? 
They are leaning their young heads against their mothers. 

And that cannot stop their tears." 



64 IVOMAN FREE, 



XVI. 

4. — " . . . single basis 



First written "disproportioned basis," but altered, with 
good reason, in the face of Mr. Herbert Spencer's arrogant 
male thesis : — " Only that mental energy is normally fem- 
inine which can co-exist with the production and nursing 
of the due (!) number of healthy children." — ("Study of 
Sociology,'' Chap. XV., note 5.) 

But Professor Huxley speaks, more humanly, of " . . . 
such a peasant woman as one sees in the Alps, striding ever 
upward, heavily burdened, and with mind bent only on her 
home ; but yet, without effort and without thought, knitting 
for her children. Now stockings are good and comfortable 
things, and the children will undoubtedly be much the 
better for them, but surely it would be short-sighted, to say 
the least of it, to depreciate this toiling mother as a mere 
stocking-machine — a mere provider of physical comforts." 
— (" On Improving Natural Knowledge.") 

Yet, if it be— as truly it is — a senseless aud disgraceful 
depreciation of woman to look upon her as "a mere 
machine for the making of stockings," is it not equally 
unworthy and unwise to consider her as — primarily and 
essentially — a mere machine for the making of a "due" 
number of stocking-wearers ? 

5. — " . . . quicker fire. ^^ 

In even so sedate and usually dispassionate a physiologist 
and philosopher as Charles Darwin, the masculine sex-bias 
is so ingrained and so ingenuous that he strives to dis- 



WOMAN FREE. 65 



parage and contemn the notorious mental quickness or in- 
tuition of woman by saying : — "It is generally admitted 
that with woman the powers of intuition, of rapid percep- 
tion, and perhaps of imitation, are more strongly marked 
than in man; but some, at least, of these faculties are 
characteristic of the lower races, and therefore of a past 
and lower state of civilisation." — ("The Descent of Man," 
Chap. XIX.). 

His unconscious sex-bias apparently overlooked the preg- 
nant and very pertinent caution which he had himself 
uttered in a previous work: — "Useful organs, however 
little they may be developed, unless we have reason to 
suppose that they were formerly more highly developed, 
ought not to be considered as rudimentary. They* may be 
in a nascent condition, and in progress towards further 
development. Rudimentary organs, on the other hand, 
are either quite useless, such as teeth which never cut 
through the gums, or, almost useless, such as the wings of 
an ostrich, which serve merely as sails. . . . It is, how- 
ever, often difficult to distinguish between rudimentary and 
nascent organs, for we can judge only by analogy whether a 
part is capable of further development, in which case alone 
it deserves to be called nascent." — ("Origin of Species," 
Chap. XIV.). ... 

But surely Darwin would admit that experiment in 
capacity of education and development was as worthy 
evidence as " analogy," and would further acknowledge how 
little effort in this direction had ever been made with 
woman. Buckle would seem to be far nearer the truth in 
ascribing to woman an unconscious deductive form of 

F 



66 WOMAN FREE. 



reasoning, as against the slow and studied inductive process 
to which man is so generally trained to be a slave. — (See 
Buckle's Essay on the " Influence of Women on the Pro- 
gress of Knowledge," as quoted from in Note XIIL, 8.) 

7. — " . . . one permitted end . . ." 

"The function of child-bearing has been exaggerated to an 
utterly disproportionate degree in her life ; it has been 
made her almost sole claim to existence. Yet it is not the 
true purpose of any intellectual organism to live solely to 
give birth to succeeding organisms ; its duty is also to live 
for its own happiness and well-being.*' — Ben Elmy ("Studies 
in Materialism," Chap. III.). 

/^. •••".• . not a moth with vain desire 
Is shrivelled in a fruitless fire. 
Or but subserves another's gain." 

— Tennyson ("In Memoriam," LIV.). 

XVII. 

5. — " • . . aspirations crushed . . ." 

"I have found life a series of hopes unfulfilled and 
wishes ungratified." — (Dying words of a talented woman.) 

6. — " . . . purblind pride . . r" 

"Pride, where wit fails, steps in to our defence,' 
And fills up all the mighty void of sense." 

— Pope. 

7. — ^'' Her every wish made subjext . . ." 
For a somewhat modern exempUfication may be taken 



WOMAN FREE, 67 



the instance of Elizabeth Barrett Browning, in Paris with 
her husband, in 1852. She writes of Georges Sand : — " She 
received us in a room with a bed in it, the only room she 
has to occupy, I suppose, during her short stay in Paris. 
. . . Ah, but I didn't see her smoke ; I was unfortu- 
nate. I could only go with Robert three times to her 
house, and once she was out. He was really very good and 
kind to let me go at all after he found the sort of society 
rampant around her. He didn't like it extremely, but, 
being the prince of husbands, he was lenient to my desires, 
and yielded the point." — (" Life of Robert Browning," by 
Mrs. Sutherland Orr, 1891.) 

8.—" . . . her God:' 

Conf, Milton (" Paradise Lost," Book IV., 299) : — 
" He for God only, she for God in him." 

See Note XXXV., 5. Compare also the Code of Manu, 
V. 154, as quoted by Letourneau : — "Although the conduct 
of her husband may bis blameworthy, and he may give him- 
self up to other amours, and be devoid of good qualities, a 
virtuous woman ought constantly to revere him as a God." 
— (" Evolution of Marriage," Chap. XHI.) 

Id, . . Here may fittingly be appended some mascu- 
line concepts of feminine duty in other races. 

The Status of Woman, according to the Chinese 
Classics : — 

In a periodical published in Shanghai, Dr. Faber, a well- 
known scholar, writes (1891) a paper on the status of 
women in China. He refers especially to the theoretical 

F 2 



68 WOMAN FREE. 



position assigned to women by the Chinese Classics. 
These lay down the different dogmas on the subject : 

" I. — Women are as different in nature from man as 
earth is from heaven. 

" 2. — Dualism, not only in body form, but in the very 
essence of nature, is indicated and proclaimed by 
Chinese moralists of all times and creed. The 
male belongs to yang^ the female to yin, 

"3. — Death and all other evils have their origin in the 
yin^ or female principle ; life and prosperity come 
from its subjection to the yang or male principle ; 
and it is therefore regarded as a law of nature 
that women should be kept under the control of 
men, and not be allowed any will of their own. 

"4. — Women, indeed, are human beings, (1) but they 
are of a lower state than men, and can never 
attain to full equality with them. 

" 5.-^The aim of female education, therefore, is perfect 
submission, not cultivation and development of 
mind. 

" 6. — Women cannot have any happiness of their own ; 
they have to live and work for men. 

" 7. — Only as the mother of a son, as the continuator of 
the direct line of a family, can a woman escape 
from her degradation and become to a certain 
degree her husband's equal; but then only in 
household affairs, especially the female depart- 
ment, and in the ancestral hall. 



WOMAN FREE. 69 



"8. — In the other world, woman's condition remains 
exactly the same, for the same laws of existence 
apply. She is not the equal of her husband ; she 
belongs to him, and is dependent for her happi- 
ness on the sacrifice offered by her descendants. 

" These are the doctrines taught by Confucius, Mencius, 
and the ancient sages, whose memory has been revered in 
China for thousands of years.*' 

And now, what wonder that Chinese civilisation and pro- 
gress is, and remains, fossilised, inert, dead ? 

Japan. 

" There is one supreme maxim upon which the conduct 
of a well-bred woman is made to turn, and this is * obedi- 
ence.' Life, the Japanese girl is taught, divides itself into 
three stages of obedience. In youth she is to obey her 
father ; in marriage her husband ; in widowhood her eldest 
son. Hence her preparation for life is always preparation 
for service. The marriage of the Japanese girl usually 
takes place when she is about seventeen. It is contrary 
to all custom that she should have any voice in it. 
Once married, she passes from her father's household into 
the household of her husband, and her period of self-abne- 
gation begins. Her own family is to be as nothing to her. 
Her duty is to charm the existence of her husband, and to 
please his relations. Custom demands that she shall 
always smile upon him, and that she shall carefully hide 
from him any signs of bad humour, jealousy, or physical 
pain." — Tinseau (quoted in Review of Reviews^ Vol. 
IV., p. 282.) 



70 WOMAN FREE. 

Note well the last two words of the above quotation ; 
they have a bearing on much that will have to be said 
presently. Meanwhile, we read from another writer : " The 
expression, res angusta domt, might have been invented for 
Japan, so narrow of necessity is the wife's home life. The 
husband mixes with the world, the wife does not ; the 
husband has been somewhat inspired, and his thoughts 
widened by his intercourse with foreigners, the wife has not 
met them. The husband has more or less acquaintance 
with western learning ; the wife has none. Affection 
between the two, within the limits which unequal intellec- 
tuality ruthlessly prescribes, there well may be, but the 
love which comes of a perfect intimacy, of mutual know- 
ledge and common aspiration, there can rarely be. The 
very vocabulary of romantic love does not exist in 
Japanese ; a fortiori, there is little of the fact." Yet, under 
the influence of western civilisation, these things are 
changing rapidly, and Mr. Norman, the commissioner of 
the Fall Mall Gazette, further relates that " The generation 
that is now growing up will be very different. Not only 
will the men of it be more western, but tlie women also. 
As girls they will have been to schools like our schools, at 
home, and they will have learned English, and history, and 
geography, and science, and foreign music ; perhaps, evtn, 
something of politics and political economy. They will 
know something of * society,' as we now use the term, and 
will both seek it and make it. The old home-life will 
become unbearable to the woman, and she will demand the 
right of choosing her husband just as much as he chooses 
her. Then the rest will be easy." 



WOMAN FREE. 71 



The harsh and restrained position, both of Japanese and 
Chinese women, is frequently attributed to Confucianism ; 
yet the matter does not seem to be of any one creed, but 
rather of every religious creed. Thus Mrs. Reichardt tells 
us, concerning Mahommedan women and Mahommedan 
married life, that — 

" A Mahommedan girl is brought up with the idea that 
she has nothing to do with love. It is ayib (shame) for 
her to love her husband. She dare not do it if she would. 
What he asks and expects of her is to tremble before him, 
and yield him unquestioning obedience. I have seen a. 
husband look pleased and complacent when his wife 
looked afraid to lift up her eyes, even when visitors were 
present." — {Nineteenth Century^ June, 1891.) 

Nor is Confucius alone, or the simple contagion of his 
teaching, rightly to be blamed for the following condition 
of things in our own dependency of 

India. 

The Bombay Guardian calls attention to an extra- 
ordinary book which is being circulated (early in 1891) 
broadcast, as a prize-book in the Government Girls' School 
in the Bombay Presidency The following quotations are 
given as specimens of the teachings set forth in the 
book : — 

" If the husband of a virtuous woman be ugly, of good 
or bad disposition, diseased, fiendish, irascible, or a 
drunkard, old, stupid, dumb, blind, deaf, hot-tempered, 
poor, extremely covetous, a slanderer, cowardly, perfidious, 
and immoral, nevertheless she ought to worship him as 
God, with mind, speech, and person. 



^2 WOMAN" FREE. 



"The wife who gives an angry answer to her husband 
will become a village pariah dog ; she will also become a 
jackal, and live in an uninhabited desert. 

" The woman who eats sweetmeats without sharing them 
with her husband will become a hen-owl, living in a 
hollow txet,-{Conf, Note VI., 8.) 

" The woman who walks alone without her husband will 
become a filth-eating village sow. 

" The woman who speaks disrespectfully to her husband 
m\\ be dumb in the next incarnation. 

"The woman who hates her husband's relations will 
become from Lirth to birth a musk-rat, living in filth. 

" She who is always jealous of her husband's concubine 
will be childless in the next incarnation." 

To illustrate the blessed result of a wife's subserviency, a 
story is told of " the great reward that came to the wife of 
an ill-tempered, diseased, and wicked Brahmin, who served 
her husband with a slavish obedience, and even went the 
length of carrying him on her own shoulders to visit his 
mistress." 

So quotes the Woman^s Journal of Boston, Mass., and 
says in comment thereon :— " The British Government in 
India has bound itself not to interfere with the religion of 
the natives, but it certainly ought not to inculcate in 
Government schools the worst doctrines of heathenism." 

Yet, again, are these Hindoo, or Japanese, or Chinese 
doctrines simply the precepts of "heathenism" alone? 
Buckle quotes for us the following passage from the 
Nonconformist " Fergusson on the Epistles," 1656, p. 
242 : — " There is not any husband to whom this honour 



WOMAN FREE. 73 

of submission is not due. No personal infirmity, froward- 
ness of nature, no, not even on the point of religion, doth 
deprive him of it." 

Much the same teaching is continued a century later in 
the noted Dr. Gregory's "A Father's Legacy to his 
Daughters" ; and again, hideously true is the picture which 
Mill has to draw, in 1869: — "Above all, a female 
slave has (in Christian countries) an admitted right, and 
is considered under a moral obligation to refuse to her 
master the last familiarity. Not so the wife; however 
brutal a tyrant she may unfortunately be chained to, 
though she may know that he hates her, though it may 
be his daily pleasure to torture her, and though she may 
feel it impossible not to loathe him, he can claim from her 
and enforce the lowest degradation of a human being, that 
of being made the instrument of an animal function con- 
trary to her inclinations. . . . No amount of ill-usage, 
without adultery superadded, will in England free a wife 
from her tormentor." — (" The Subjection of Women," pp. 

57, 59.) 
As to how far public feeling, if not law, has amended 

some of these conditions, see Note XXXVI., 6. Mean- 
while, as an evidence of what is the " orthodox " opinion 
and sentiment at this present day, it may be noted that 
Cardinal Manning wrote in the Dublin Review, July, 1891 : 
— " A woman enters for life into a sacred contract with a 
man before God at the altar to fulfil to him the duties of 
wife, mother, and head of his home. Is it lawful for her, 
even with his consent, to make afterwards a second con- 
tract for so many shillings a week with a millowner whereby 



74 WOMAN FREE. 



she becomes unable to provide her husband's food, train up 
her children, or do the duties of her home? It is no 
question of the lawfulness of gaining a few more shillings 
for the expenses of a family, but of the lawfulness of break- 
ing a prior contract, the most solemn between man and 
Woman. No arguments of expediency can be admitted. 
It is an obligation of conscience to which all things must 
give way. The duties of home must first be done *' (by the 
woman) "then other questions may be entertained." 

Are not these Enghsh injunctions to womanly and wifely 
slavery as trenchant and merciless as any ascribed to so- 
called "heathenism"? And is it not the fuller truth that • 
the spirit of the male teaching against woman is the same 
all the world over, and no mere matter of creed — which is 
nevertheless made the convenient vehicle for such teaching ; 
and that, in brief, the preceptsof womanly and wifely servi- 
tude are blind, brutal, and universal ? 

See also Note XXXIV., 8. 

XVIII. 

8. — " To compass pmver unknown in body and in mind," 

"We need a new ethic of the sexes, and this not merely, 
or even mainly, as an intellectual construction, but as a 
discipline of life, and we need more. We need an increas- 
ing education and civism of women." — P. Geddes and J. 
A. Thomson ("The Evolution of Sex," p. 297). 

Newnham and Girton, Vassar and Zurich, are already 
rendering account of woman's scope of mental power ; 
while the circus, the gymnasium, swimming and mountain- 



WOMAN FREE, 75 



eering are showing what she might do corporeally, apart 
from her liideous an(l literally impeding style of clothing. 
As for some other forms of utilitarian occupation, read the 
following concerning certain of the Lancashire women : — 

"Mr. Edgar L. Wakeman, an observant American 
author, is at present on a visit to this country, and is giving 
his countrymen the benefit of his impressions of English 
life and social conditions. 

" The * pit-brow ' lasses of the Wigan district will not 
need to complain, for he writes of them not only in a 
kindly spirit, but even with enthusiasm for their healthy 
looks, graceful figures, and good conduct. We need not 
follow his description of the processes in which the women 
of the colliery are employed, but we may say in passing that 
Mr. Wakeman was astonished by the * wonderful quickness 
of eye and movement * shown by the * screeners,' and by 
the * superb physical development' and agility of the 
'fillers.' He had expected to find them *the most forlorn 
creatures bearing the image of women,' and he found them 
strong, healthy, good-natured, and thoroughly respectable. 
•English roses glow from English cheeks. You cannot 
find plumper figures, prettier f ^rms, more shapely necks, or 
daintier feet, despite the ugly clogs, in all of dreamful 
Andalusia. The " broo gear " is laid aside on the return 
home from work, and then the " pit-brow " lass is arrayed 
as becomingly as any of her class in England, and in the 
village street, or at church of a Sunday, you could not pick 
her out from among her companions, unless for her fine 
colour, form, and a positively classic poise and grace of car- 
riage possessed by no other working women of England. 



76 WOMAN FREE. 

Altogether,' he says, * I should seriously regard the pit- 
brow lasses as the handsomest, healthiest, happiest, and 
most respectable working women in England." — {Man- 
chester Guardian^ Aug. 28, 1891.) 

Id, , , , Concerning the question of male and female 
dress, evidence as to how far woman has been hindered and 
"handicapped" by her conventional attire, and not by 
her want of physical strength or courage, is reported from 
time to time in the public prints, as witness the following, 
published generally in the English newspapers of 14th Oct., 
1891 : — 

"Not long since a well-known European courier, having 
grown grey in his occupation, fell ill, and like others similarly 
afflicted, was compelled to call in a doctor. This gentleman 
was completely taken by surprise on discovering that his patient 
was a female. Then the sick woman — who had piloted numerous 
English and American families through the land of the Latin, 
the Turk, and others, and led timid tourists safely through 
many imaginary dangers — confessed that she had worn men's 
clothes for forty years. She stated that her reasons for this 
masquerade were that having, at the age of thirteen, been left a 
friendless orphan, she had become convinced, after futile strug- 
gling for employment, that many of the obstacles in her path 
could be swept away by discarding her proper garments and 
assuming the rSie and attire of masculine youth. This she did. 
She closely cut her hair, bought boy's clothes, put them on, and 
sallied forth in the world to seek her fortune. With the change 
of dress seems to have come a change of luck, for she quickly 
found employment, and being an apt scholar, and facile at 
learning languages, was enabled after a time to obtain a 
position as courier, and, but for her unfortunate illness, it is 
tolerably certain that the truth would never have been revealed 
during her lifetime." 

In the early days of April, 1892, the Vienna correspon- 
dent of the Standard reported that — • 



tVOM^A FREE. 77 



" On the 30th ult., there died in Hungary, at about the same 
hour, two ladies who served in 1 848 in the Revolutionary Army, 
and fought in several of the fiercest battles, dressed in military 
uniform. One of them was several times promoted, and, under 
the name of Karl, attained the rank of First Lieutenant of 
Hussars. At this point, however, an artillery major stopped 
her military career by marrying her. The other fought under 
the name of Josef, and was decorated for valour in the field. 
She married long after the campaign. A Hungarian paper, 
referring to the two cases, says that about a dozen women 
fought in 1848 in the insurrectionary ranks." 

Somewhat more detailed particulars concerning " Lieu- 
tenant Karl " were afterwards given by the Manchester 
Guardian (June 6, 1892), as follows :— 

"The Austrian Volkszciiung announces the death of Frau 
Marie Hoche, who has had a most singular and romantic career. 
Her maiden name was Lepstuk. In the momentous year of 
1848 Marie Lepstuk, who was then eighteen years of age, 
joined the German legion at Vienna ; then, returning home, she 
adopted the name of Karl and joined the Tyroler Jager Regi- 
ment of the revolutionary army. She showed great bravery in 
the battlefield, received the medallion, and was raised to the 
rank of lieutenant. A wound compelled her to go into hos- 
pital, but after her recovery she joined the Hussars. As a 
reward for exceeding bravery she was next made oberlieutenant 
on the field. Soon after this her sex was discovered, but a 
major fell in love with her, and they were married. At Vilagos 
both were taken prisoners, and while in the fortress she gave 
birth to her first child. After the major's death she was 
remarried to Oberlieutenant Hoche. For the past few years 
Frau Hoche has been in needy circumstances, but an appeal 
from Jokai brought relief." 

All of which goes far to discredit M. Michelet's theory 
that women are "born invalids,'* an assertion which Dr. 
Julia Mitchell "stigmatises naturally enough as *all non- 
sense,' " and is thus approved — with a strange magnanimity 



78 WOMAN FREE. 

— by the British Medical Journal. — (See Pall Mall Gazette, 
April 29, 1892.) 

The " incapacity of women for military service " has been 
of late days continually quoted as a bar to their right of 
citizenship, as far as the Parliamentary Franchise is con- 
cerned. In the face of the foregoing cases, and of the fact 
that every mother risks her life in becoming a mother, while 
very few men, indeed, risk theirs on the battlefield, it might 
be thought that the fallacious argument would have perished 
from shame and inanition long ago. But the inconsisten- 
cies of partly-cultivated, masculine, one-sexed intellect are 
as stubborn as blind. 

See also Note XLV., 6. 

« 

XIX. 

6. — ^^ The ecstasy of earnest souls . . ." 

"Without recognising the possibilities of individual and 
of racial evolution, we are shut uij to the conventional view 
that the poet and his heroine alike are exceptional creations, 
hopelessly beyond the everyday average of the race. Whereas, 
admitting the theory of evolution, we are not only entitled 
to the hope, but logically compelled to the assurance that 
these rare fruits of an apparently more than earthly paradise 
of love, which only the forerunners of the race have been 
privileged to gather, or, it may be, to see from distant 
heights, are yet the realities of a daily life towards which 
we and ours may journey." — Geddes and Thomson (" Evo- 
lution of Sex," p. 267). 

Id, . . . " What marriage may be in the case of two 



WOMAN FREE, 79 



persons of cultivated faculties, identical in opinions and 
purposes, between whom there exists that best kind of 
equality, similarity of powers, and capacities with reciprocal 
superiority in them — so that each can enjoy the pleasure 
of looking up to the other, and can have alternately the 
pleasure of leading and of being led in the path of develop- 
ment — I will not attempt to describe. To those who can 
conceive it there is no need ; to those who cannot, it would 
appear the dream of an enthusiast. But I maintain, with 
the profoundest conviction, that this, and this only, is the 
ideal of marriage ; and that all opinions, customs, and insti- 
tutions which favour any other notion of it, or turn the con- 
ceptions and aspirations connected with it into any other 
direction, by whatever pretences they may be coloured, are 
relics of primitive barbarism. The moral regeneration of 
mankind will only really commence when the most funda- 
mental of the social relations is placed under the rule of 
equal justice, and when human beings learn to cultivate 
their strongest sympathy with an equal in rights and culti- 
vation."— J. S. Mill ("The Subjection of Women," p. 177). 

XX. 

2. — " And lingers still th^ hovering shade of night, ^^ 

George Eliot had yet to say, " Heaven was very cruel 
when it made women " ; and Georges Sand, ** Fille on nous 
supprime, femme on nous opprime." 

XXI. 

I. — " . . . carnal servitude , . ." 
It may be objected by some that details in the verse or 



8o WOMAN FREE, 

------ - ■* 

in these notes are of too intimate a character for general 
narration. The notes have, however, all been taken either 
from widely read public prints of indisputable singleness of 
purpose, or works of writers of undoubted integrity. One 
is not much troubled as to those who would criticise further. 
To them may be offered the incident and words of the late 
Dr. Magee, who, as Bishop of Peterborough, and a member 
of a legislative committee on the question of child-life insur- 
ance, said : — " In this matter we have to count with two 
things : first, almost all our facts are secrets of the bed- 
chamber ; and, secondly, we are opposed by great vested 
interests. This thing is not to be done without a good 
deal of pain." — {Review of Reviews, Vol. IV., p. 37). 

And thus are verified, in a transcendental sense also, 
the words of Schiller : — 

" Und infeurigem Bewegen 
Werden alle Krafte kund." 

(" Die GlDcke.") 

7. — " Survival from dim age . . ." 

See Note XXIII., i. 

XXII, 

I. — " . . . girlhood's helpless years . . .*' 

Somewhat as to these ancient conditions may be gathered 
from the position in India at the present day. Read the 
following : — " The practice of early marriages by Hindoos I 
was, of course, informed of by reading before coming to 
India, but its mention in books was always coupled with 
the assertion that in India girls reach puberty at a much 



WOMAN FREE, 8t 



earlier age than in cold climates. Judge, therefore, of my 
surprise to find that so far from Hindoo girls being pre- 
cocious in physical development, they are much behind in 
this respect; that a Hindoo girl of fifteen is about the 
equal of an English child of eleven, instead of the reverse, 
and that the statements made to the contrary by English- 
men who have no opportunity of becoming acquainted with 
Hindoo family life, were totally misleading. In the first 
place they were under the impression that marriage never 
takes place before puberty, and, secondly, they accepted the 
Hindoo view as to what constitutes puberty. You know 
that, unfortunately, they were misled as regards the first 
point. I hope to show you that in the second place the 
idea which they accepted as correct is a totally mistaken one.'' 
—Mrs. Pechey Phipson, M.D. (Address to the Hindoos of 
Bombay on the subject of child-marriage; delivered at the 
Hall of the Prarthana Somaj, Bombay, on the nth Oct., 
1890). 

2. — " . . . sexual wrongP 

"As regards the marriage of girls before even what is 
called puberty, I can hardly trust myself to speak, so 
strongly are my feelings those of all Western — may I not 
say of all civilised ? — people in looking upon it as actually 
criminal. Ah ! gentlemen, those of you who are conversant 
with such cases as I have seen, cases like those of Phul- 
moni Dossee, which has just now stirred your hearts to in- 
sist upon some change in the existing law, and others where 
a life-long decrepitude has followed, to which death itself 
were far preferable, do you not feel with me that penal ser- 

G 



Sa WOMAN FREE. 

vitude is not too hard a punishment for such brutality ? I 
am glad to think that a very large section of Hindoo men 
think with me, I have been repeatedly spoken to on the 
subject, and members even of those castes which are most 
guilty in this matter, have expressed to me a wish that 
Government would interfere and put a stop to the practice." 
— Mrs. Pechey Phipson, M.D., dp. cit 

A terrible evidence to the evil is borne by the following 
document : — 

[From "The Times of India," November 8th, 1890.] 

To his Excellency the Viceroy and Governor-General of India. 

May it please Your Excellency. — The undersigned ladies, 
practising medicine in India, respectfully crave your Excel- 
lency's attention to the following facts and cons' derations : — 

-: I. Your Excellency is aware that the present state of the 
Indian law permits marriages to be consummated not only 
before the wife is physically qualified for the duties of 
maternity, but before she is able to perform the duties of 
the conjugal relation, thus giving rise to numerous and great 
evils. 

2. This marriage practice has become the cause of gross 
immoralities and cruelties, which, owing to existing legislation, 
come practically under the protection of the law. In some 
cases the law has permitted homicide, and protected men, 
who, under other circumstances, would have been criminally 
punished. 

3. The institution of child-marriage rests upon public senti- 
ment, vitiated by degenerate religious customs and misinter- 
pretation of religious books. There are thousands among the 
better educated classes who would rejoice if Government would 
take the initiative, and make such a law as your memorialists 
plead for, and in the end the masses would be grateful for 
their deliverance from the galling yoke that has bound them 
to poverty, superstition, and the slavery of custom for cen- 
turies 



WOMAir FREE. 83 



4. The present, system of child-marriage, in addition to the 
physical and moral effects which the Indian Governments have 
deplored, produces sterility, and consequently becomes an 
excuse for the introduction of other child-wives into the family, 
thus becoming a justification iox polygamy, 

5. This system panders to sensuality, lowers the standard of 
health and morals, degrades the race, and tends to perpetuate 
itself and all its attendant evils to future generations. 

6. The lamentable case of the child-wife, Phulmani Dassi, of 
Calcutta, which has excited the sympathy and the righteous 
indignation of the Indian public, is only one of thousands of 
cases that are continually happening, the final results being 
q[uite as horrible, but sometimes less immediate. The following 
instances have come under the personal observation of one or 
another of your Excellency's petitioners : — 

A. Aged 9. Day after marriage. Left femur dislocated, 
pelvis crushed out of shape, flesh hanging in shreds. 

B. Aged 10. Unable to stand, bleeding profusely, flesh 
much lacerated. 

C. Aged 9. So completely ravished as to be almost 
beyond surgical repair. Her husband had two other 
living wives, and spoke very fine English. 

D. Aged 10. A very small child, and entirely undeveloped 
physically. This child was bleeding to death from the 

rectum. Her husband was a man of about 40 years of 
age, weighing not less than 11 stone. He had accom- 
plished his desire in an unnatural way. 

E. Aged about 9. Lower limbs completely paralysed. 

F. Aged about 12. Laceration of the perineum extending 
through the sphincter ani, 

G. Aged about 10. Very weak from loss of blood. Stated 
that great violence had been done her in an unnatural 
way. 

H. Aged about 12. Pregnant, delivered by craniotomy 
with great difficulty, on account of the immature state of 
the pelvis and maternal passage. 

G 2 



i 



84 WOMAN FREE. 



I. Aged about 7. Living with husband. Died in great 
agony after three days. 

K. Aged about 10. Condition most pitiable. After one day 
in hospital was demanded by her husband for his " law- 
ful " use, he said. 

L. Aged II. From great violence done her person will 
be a cripple for life. No use of her lower extremities. 

M. Aged about 10. Crawled to hospital on her hands and 
knees. Has never been able to stand erect since her 
marriage. 

N. Aged 9. Dislocation of pubic arch^ and unable to 
stand, or to put one foot before the other 

• 

•In view of the-above facts, the undersigned lady doctors and 
medical practitioners appeal to your Excellency's compassion to 
enact or introduce a measure by which the consummation of 
marriage *will not be permitted before the wife has attained the 
full age of fourteen (14) years. The undersigned venture to 
trust that the terrible urgency of the matter will be accepted as 
an excuse for this interruption of your Excellency's time and 
attention. 

(Signed by 55 lady-physicians.) 

The memorial as above was initiated by Mrs. Monelle 
Mansell, M.A., M.D., who has been in practice in India for 
seventeen years, and it received the signature of every other 
lady doctor there. The cases of abuse above specified are 
"only a few out of many hundreds — of cruel wrongs, 
deaths, and maimings for life received by helpless child- 
wives at the hands of brutal husbands, which have come 
under Dr. Monelle Mansell's personal observation, or that 
of her associates." 

With regard to case K, and " lawful " use, compare what 
is said by Dr. Emma B. Ryder, who is also in medical 
practice in India, concerning the " Little Wives of India " : 



WOMAN FREE, 85 



— " If I could take my readers with me on my round of 
visits for one week, and let them behold the condition of 
the little wives ... if you could see the suffering 
faces of the little girls, Vho are drawn neariy double with 
contractions caused by the brutality of their husbands, and 
who will never be able to stand erect ; if you could see the 
paralysed limbs that will not again move in obedience to 
the will ; if you could hear the plaintive wail of the little 
sufferers as, with their tiny hands clasped, they beg you * to 
make them die,' and then turn and listen to the brutal 
remarks of the legal owner with regard to the condition of 
his property. If you could stand with me by the side of the 
little deformed dead body, and, turning from the sickening 
sight, could be shown the new victim to whom the brute was 
already betrothed, do you think it would require long argu- 
ments to convince you that there was a deadly wrong some- 
where, and that someone was responsible for. it ? After one 
such scene a Hindoo husband said to me, * You look like feel 
bad ' (meaning sad) ; * doctors ought not to care what see. 
I don't care what see, nothing trouble me, only when self 
sick; I not like to have pain self.' ... A man maybe 
a vile and loathsome creature, he may be blind, a lunatic, 
an idiot, a leper, or diseased in a worse form ; he may be 
fifty, seventy, or a hundred years old, and may be married to 
a baby or a girl of five or ten, who positively loathes his 
presence, but if he claims her she must go, and the English 
law for the * Restitution of Conjugal Rights ' compels her to 
remain in his power, or imprisons her if she refuses. There 
is no other form of slavery on the face of the earth that 
begins with the slavery as enforced upon these little girls of 



86 WOMAN FREE, 

■9 

India."— ("The Home-Maker," New York, June, 1891, 
quoted in the Review 0/ Reviews, Vol. IV., p. 38.) 

And the Times of nth November, 1889, reported from 
its Calcutta correspondent : — " Two shocking cases of wife- 
killing lately came before the courts — in both cases the 
result of child-marriage. In one a child aged ten was 
strangled by her husband. In the second case a child of 
ten years was ripped open with a wooden peg. Brutal 
sexual exasperation was the sole apparent reason in both 
instances. Compared with the terrible evils of child-mar- 
riage, widow cremation is of infiniiely inferior magnitude. 
The public conscience is continually being affronted with 
these horrible atrocities, but, unfortunately, native public 
opinion generally seems to accept these revelations with 
complete apathy." 

For what slight legislative amendment has recently been 
effected in the grievances mentioned by Dr. Ryder, see 
Note XXIV., 4. The " Restitution of Conjugal Rights," so 
justly condemned by her, does, indeed, appear to have 
had — by some inadvertence — a, recognition in the Indian 
Courts which was not its lawful due. But for some fuller 
particulars on this matter, both as concerns India and 
England, see Note XXXVI., 6. 

XXIII. 

I. — " Action repeated tends to rhythmic course,^^ 

" Other and wider muscular actions, partly internal and 
partly external, also take place in a rhythmical manner 
in relation with systemic conditions. The motions of the 



WOMAN- FREE. 87 

diaphragm and of the thoracic and abdominal walls, in conr 
nection with respiration, belong to this category. These 
movements, though in the main independent of will, are 
capable of being very considerably modified thereby, and 
while they are most frequently unheeded, they have a very 
recognisable accompaniment of feeling when attention is 
distinctly turned to them. . . . The contraction of 
oviducts or of the womb, as well as the movements con- 
cerned in respiration, also had their beginnings in forms- of 
life whose advent is now buried in the immeasurable past.*' 
— Dr. H. C. Bastian (" The Brain as an Org^ of Mind,'' 
p. 220). 

4. — ^^ Till habit bred hereditary trace,^^ 

. "Let it be granted that the more frequently psychical 
states occur in a certain order, the stronger becomes their 
tendency to cohere in that order, until they at last become 
inseparable ; let it be granted that this tendency is, in how- 
ever slight a degree, inherited, so that if the experiences 
remain the same, each successive generation bequeaths a 
somewhat increased tendency, and it follows that, in cases 
like the one described, there must eventually result an 
automatic connection of nervous actions, corresponding to 
the external relations perpetually experienced. Similarly, 
if from some change in the environment of any species its 
members are frequently brought in contact with a relation 
having terms a little more involved ; if the organisation of 
the species is so far developed as to be impressible by these 
terms in close succession, then an inner relation corres- 
ponding to this new outer relation will gradually be formed, 



88 WOMAN FREE, 

and will, in the end, become organic. And so on in subse- 
quent stages of progress.*' — Herbert Spencer (" Principles of 
Psychology," Vol. I., p. 439). 

Id. , . , " I have described the manner in which the 
hereditary tendencies and instincts arise from habit, induced 
in the nervous cellules by a sufficient repetition of the 
same acts." — Letourneau ("The Evolution of Marriage," 
Chap. I.). 

Id, . . , " Ainsi Tevacuation menstruelle une fois in- 
troduite dans Tespfece, se sera communiquee par une filiation 
non interrompue ; de sorte qu'on peut dire qu'une femme 
a maintenant des regies, par la seule raison que sa mere les 
a eues, comme elle aurait 6td phthisique peut^tre, si sa 
m^re Tetit ^te ; il y a plus, elle peut ^tre sujette au flux men- 
struel, m^me quoique la cause primitive qui introduisit ce 
besoin ne subsiste plus en elle." — Roussel (" Syst^me de la 
Femme," p. 134). 

Id, , , . " II y a eu des auteurs qui ne voulaient pas 
considerer la menstruation comme une fonction inhdrente 
k la nature de la femme, mais comme une fonction acquise, 
continuant par Thabitude." — Raciborski (" Traits de la 
Menstruation," p. 17). 

Id, . , , ** The * set ' of mind, as Professor Tyndall 
well calls it, whether, as he says, * impressed upon the mole- 
cules of the brain,' or conveyed in any other way, is quite as 
much a human as an animal phenomenon. Perhaps the 
greater part of those qualities which we call the characteris- 
tics of race are nothing else but the * set ' of the minds of 
men transmitted from generation to generation, stronger and 
more marked when the 'deeds are repeated, weaker and 



WOMAN FREE, 89 



fainter as they fall into disuse. . . . Tyndall says : * No 
mother can wash or suckle her baby without having a " set " 
towards washing and suckling impressed upon the molecules 
of her brain, and this set, according to the laws of 
hereditary transmission, is passed on to her daughter. Not 
only, therefore, does the woman at the present day suffer 
deflection from intellectual pursuits through her proper 
motherly instincts, but inherited proclivities act upon her 
mind like a multiplying galvanometer, to augment inde- 
finitely the amount of the deflection. Tendency is immanent 
even in spinsters, to warp them from intellect to baby-love.' 
(Essay: "Odds and Ends of Alpine Life.*') Thus, if we 
could, by preaching our pet ideal, or in any other way 
induce one generation of women to turn to a new pursuit, 
we should have accomplished a step towards bending all 
future womanhood in the same direction." — Frances Power 
Cobbe (Essay : " The Final Cause of Woman "). 
See also Note XXVL, 7. 



6. — " . . . e^en the virgin 



M 



An experienced gynaecologist writes: — "For want of 
proper information in this matter, many a frightened girl 
has resorted to every conceivable device to check what she 
supposed to be an unnatural and dangerous haemorrhage, 
and thereby inaugurated menstrual derangements which 
have prematurely terminated her life, or enfeebled her 
womanhood. I have been consulted by women of all ages, 
who frankly attributed their physical infirmities to the fact 
of their having applied ice, or made other cold applications 



90 WOMAN FREE, 



locally, in their frantic endeavours to arrest the first men- 
strual flow." 

What general practitioner has not met with analogous 
instances in the circle of his own patients ? 

7. — " . . . ere fit , . ." 

" The physician, whose duty is not only to heal the sick, 
but also to prevent disease and to improve the race, and 
hence who must be a teacher of men and women, should 
teach sound doctrine in regard to the injurious results of 
precocious marriage. Mothers especially ought to be 
taught, though some have learned the lesson by their 
own sad experience, that puberty and nubility are not 
equivalent terms, but stand for periods of life usually 
separated by some years ; the one indicates capability, the 
other fitness, for reproduction." — Parvin (" Obstetrics," 
p. 91). 

Id. . . . " The general maturity of the whole frame is 
the true indication that the individual, whether male or 
female, has reached a fit age to reproduce the species. It is 
not one small and unimportant symptom by which this ques- 
tion must be judged. Many things go to make up virility in 
man ; the beard, the male voice, the change in figure, and 
the change in disposition ; and in girls there is a long 
period of development in the bust, in the hips, in bone and 
muscle, changes which take years for their proper accom. 
plishment before the girl can be said to have grown into a 
woman. All this is not as a rule completed before the age 
of twenty. Woman's form is not well developed before she 
is twenty years old ; her pelvis, which has been called the 



\ 



WOMAN FREE. 91 



laboratory of generation, has not its perfect shape until then ; 
hence an earlier maternity is not desirable. If the demand 
is made on the system before that, the process of develop- 
ment is necessarily interfered with, and both mother and 
offspring suffer. Even in countries where the age of mar- 
riage is between twenty and twenty-five, where, therefore, 
the mother has not been weakened by early maternity, it is 
remarked that the strongest children are born to parents of 
middle age, /.^., from thirty-five to forty ; this, the prime of 
life to the parent, is the happiest moment for the advent of 
her progeny." — Mrs. Pechey Phipson, M.D. (^Address to the 
Hindoos). 
See also end of Note XXIV., i. 

8. — ^^ Abnormal fruits of birth . . .*' 

Dr. John Thorburn, in his " Lecture introductory to the 
Summer Course on Obstetric Medicine," Victoria Univer- 
sity, Manchester, 1884, says : — "Let me briefly remind you 
of what occurs at each menstrual period. During nearly one 
week out of every four there occurs the characteristic 
phenomenon of menstruation, which in itself has some 
temporary impoverishing effect^ though, in health, nature 
speedily provides the means of recuperation. Along with 
this we have a marked disturbance in the circulation of the 
pelvis, leading to alterations in the weight, conformation, 
and position of the uterus. We have also tissue changes 
occurring, not perhaps yet thoroughly understood^ but leading 
to ruptures in the ovary, and to exfoliation of the uterine 
lining membrane, a kind of modified aborsion, in fact. 



92 WOMAN FREE. 

These changes in most instances are accompanied by signs 
of pain and discomfort, which, if they were not periodic 
and physiological, would be considered as symptoms of 
disease." 

(The italics are not in the original.) Here is certainly 
cogent evidence of "abnormal fruit of birth," and the 
learned doctor seems to be on the verge of making the 
involuntary discovery. But he follows the usual profes- 
sional attempt (see Note XXX., 4) to class menstruation as 
a physiological and not a pathological fact ; as a natural, 
painful incident, and not an acquired painful consequence. 
His half-declared argument, that, because an epoch of pain 
is periodic it is therefore not symptomatic of disease, is a 
theory as unsatisfactory as novel. 

Id. . . Some of the facts connected with par- 
thenogenesis, alternate generation, the impregnation of in- 
sects, &c., passed on through more than one generation, 
would show by analogy this class of phenomena not extra- 
natural or unprecedented, but abnormal and capable of 
rectification or reduction to pristine normality or non- 
existence. The fact of occasional instances of absence of 
menstruation, yet with a perfect potentiality of child- 
bearing, indicates this latter possibility. That the male 
being did not correspondingly suffer in personal physio- 
logical sequence is explicable on the ground that the 
masculine bodily function of parentage cannot be subjected 
to equal forced sexual abuse ; though in the male sex also 
there is indication that excess may leave hereditary func- 
tional trace. And that, again, a somewhat analogous 
physical abnormality may be induced by man in other 



WOMAN FREE. 93 



animals, compare the intelligent words of George Eliot in 
her poem, " A Minor Prophet " : — 

"... milkmaids who drew milk from cows, 
With udders kept abnormal for that end." 

In confirmation of which see " Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Mr. E. Bidwell, Professor Boyd Dawkins, and 
others, appointed for the purpose of preparing a Report on 
the Herds of Wild Cattle in Chartley Park, and other parks 
in Great Britain.'* The Committee state, concerning a herd 
of wild cattle at Somerford Park, near Congleton, of which 
herd " the cows are all regularly milked," that " The udders 
of the cows here are as large as in ordinary domestic cows, 
which is not the case in the herds which are not milked." — 
("Report of the British Association," 1887, p. 141.) 



XXIV. 

I. — ^^ Misread by man . . ." 

"You say *We marry our girls when they reach puberty,' 
and you take as indication of that stage one only, and that 
the least certain, of the many changes which go to make up 
maturity. It is the least certain because the most variable, 
and dependent more upon climate and conditions of life 
than upon any true physical development. No one would 
deny that a strong country girl of thirteen was more mature 
physically than a girl of eleven brought up in the close, 
unwholesome atmosphere of a crowded city, yet you say the 
latter has attained to puberty, and that the former has not. 
Into such discrepancies has this physiological error led you. 



94 WOMAN FREE, 

Without going into the domain of physiology for proof of 
assertion, let me draw your attention to the very practical 
proof of its truth, which you have in the fact well-known to 
you all, that girls married at this so-called period of puberty 
do not, as a rule, bear children till some years later, i.e., till 
they really approach maturity. I allow that you share this 
error with all but modern physiologists. Even if marriage 
is delayed till fourteen, where conception takes place imme- 
diately, sterility follows after; but where the girl is strong 
and healthy there is a lapse of three or four years before 
child-bearing begins, a proof that puberty had not been 
reached till then, although menstruation had been all the 
time existent. Of course there are exceptional cases, but 
does not the consensus of experience point to these as 
general truths ? " — Mrs. Pechey Phipson, M.D. (Address to 
Hindoos). 

Id. "... sign of his misdeedJ^ 
See Note XXVI., 6. 

4. — " . . . victim to his adult rage.^^ 

Of this, as existent to the present age, abundant direct 
and collateral evidence is given by a brochure entitled "A 
Practical View of the Age of Consent Act, for the benefit 
of the Mahomedan community in general, by the Com- 
mittee of the Mahomedan Literary Society of Calcutta," 
published by that Society, in June, 1 891, as "an accurate 
exposition of the object and scope of the new law, in the 
clearest possible language, for the benefit of the Mahome- 



WOMAN FREE. . 95 



dans, particularly the ignorant classes, and circulated widely 
in the vernacular languages for that purpose." 
The following are extracts from the pamphlet : — 

Par. I . " Now that the Age of Consent Act has been 
passed by his Excellency the Viceroy, in Council, and as there 
is every likelihood of its provisions not being sufficiently well 
understood by the Mahomedan community in general, and by 
the ignorant Mahomedans in particular, owing to the use of 
technical legal phraseology in the drafting of the Act, it seems 
to the Committee of Management of the Mahomedan Literary 
Society of Calcutta, to be highly desirable that the object and 
intention of the Government in passing this Act, as well as its 
scope and the manner in which it is to be administered by the 
Criminal Authorities, should be laid down on paper in the 
clearest and easiest language possible, for the information and 
instruction of the Mahomedan population, and particularly of 
such of them as are not conversant with legal technicalities." 

Par. 2. " The Committee are of opinion that such a course 
will be highly beneficial to members of their community, inas- 
much as it will show to them distinctly what action on the part 
of a Mahomedan husband towards his young wife has been 
made, by the recent legislation, a heinous criminal offence of 
no less enormity than the offence of ra^e, and punishable with 
the same heavy punishment." 

Par. 3. "It is hoped that they will thereby be put on their 
guard against committing, or allowing the commission of an 
act which tAey have hitherto been accustomed to think lawful 
and innocent^ but which has now been made into a heinous 
offence, . . ." 

Par. 9. " . . . There has already been a provision in 
the Indian Penal Code, passed more than thirty years ago, that 
a man having sexual intercourse with his own wife, with or 
without her consent, she being under the age of ten y ears ^ shall 
be considered guilty of the offence of rape^ and shall be liable to 
transportation for life, or to rigorous or simple imprisonment for 
ten years." 

Par. 10. " From this it follows that, under the Penal Code 
a man having sexual intercourse with his own wife, with or with- 
out her consent, if she is above ten years of age, shall not be 



96 * WOMAN FREE. 



considered to have committed the offence of rope. But the 
Act that has just been passed, in amendment of the above pro- 
vision in the Penal Code, raises the age of consent from ten to 
twelve years, and provides that a man having sexual inter- 
course with his own wife, even with her consent, shall be con- 
sidered to be guilty of the offence of rape, if the wife be of any 
age under twelve completed years. This is all the change that 
has been made in the law." 

Par. II. " It having been ascertained, from various sources, 
that in some parts of the country husbands cohabit with their 
wives before they have attained to the age of twelve years, and 
even before they have arrived at puberty^ the result of such 
intercourse being in many cases to cause injury to the health, 
and even danger to the life of the girls, and to generate internal 
maladies which make them miserable throughout their lives, 
and such a state of things having come to the notice of Govern- 
ment, they have considered it their duty to put a stop to it, and 
this is the object of the present legislation." 

Par. 12. "The law does not interfere with the age at which 
a girl may be married, but simply prohibits sexual intercourse 
with her by her husband before she is twelve years of age." 

Par. 13. "It is therefore incumbent upon all husbands and 
their guardians (if they are very young and inexperienced lads) 
to be very careful that sexual intercourse does not take place 
until the girl- wife has passed the age of twelve years. It will 
also be the duty of the guardians of the girl-wife not to allow 
her husband to cohabit with her until she has attained that 
age.' 

Par. 17. "... . The Mahomedan law (/.^., religious 
law) distinctly sanctions consummation of marriage only when 
the wife has reached puberty, and has besides attained such 
physical development as renders her fit for sexual intercourse, 
and it is not imperative upon a Mahomedan husband to con- 
summate marriage with his wife when she is under the age of 
twelve years. Even in those rare cases in which the wife 
attains to puberty and the necessary physical development 
before the age of twelve^ 2l Mahomedan husband may^ without 
infringing any canon of the Mahommedan Ecclesiastical Law, 
abstain from consummating his marriage with her until she 
attains that age. 

Par. 18. "The above will clearly show that the Act recently 



WOMAN FREE, 97 



passed by the Legislature does not, in any way, interfere with 
the Mahomedan religion, and no Mahomedan husband will be 
considered to have committed a sin if he abstains from consum- 
mating marriage with his wife before she is twelve years of 



age." 



(The pamphlet is published, as aforesaid, by the Mahome- 
dan Literary Society of Calcutta, of which the patron is 
the Hon. Sir Charles A. Elliott, K.C.S.I., CLE., and the 
president Prince Mirza Jahan Kadar Bahadur (of the Oudh 
family), and is signed by the secretary, Nawab Abdool 
Luteef Bahadur, CLE. ; Calcutta, 16 Taltollah, 22nd June, 
1891.) 

The italics, as above, exist in the original (with the ex- 
ception of those in Par. 3), and serve, singularly enough, to 
point for us a moral very much deeper than that intended. 
It is a happy fact that British feeling, supported by the grow- 
ing sentiment of the more intelligent and educated of the 
native population, has effected even so slight an ameliora- 
tion of law and custom, and we may hope for and press 
forward to further improvement. Though the utterance 
quoted above is only that of the Mahomedan section, it is, 
of course, understood that the law does not apply or point to 
them alone, but to all the peoples and sects of India ; and 
that the approval of this legislation is also general among 
the enlightened of those other creeds. (See end of Note 
XVIL, 8.) 

Singular confirmatory evidence as to the distressing pre- 
valence of this child-marriage is incidentally given in the 
following paragraph from the Tivies of 31st March, 1892: — 

"A correspondent of the Times of India mentions some odd 

H 



98 WOMAN FREE, 



instances of minor difficulties which have occurred in the work- 
ing of the amended Factory Act, which came into force in India 
at the commencement of the present year. The limit of age 
for * full-timers ' in factories is fixed at fourteen years, and as 
very few native operatives know their children's ages, or even 
their own, the medical officer has, in passing lads and girls for 
work, to judge the age as best he can — generally, as in the case 
of horses, by examining their teeth. If he concludes that they 
are under fourteen, he reduces them to * half-timers.' In one 
Bombay mill recently a number of girls were thus sent back as 
under age who were actually mothers, and several boys who 
were fathers were also reduced ; and one of the latter was the 
father, it is said, of three children. The case of these lads is 
particularly hard, for, with a wife and child, or perhaps children, 
to support, life, on the pay of a * half-timer,' must be a terrible 
struggle." 

Lest it should be objected that such abuses — with their 
consequences — as have been instanced in India, are 
peculiar to that country or civilisation, and that their dis- 
cussion has therefore no bearing on our practices in Eng- 
land, and the physical consequences ensuant here, it will 
be salutary to recall what has been our own national con- 
duct in this matter of enforcement of immature physical 
relations on girl children or " wives *' within times of by no 
means distant date. Blackstone tells in his " Commentaries," 
Book II., Chap. VIII., that " The wife must be above nine 
years old at her husband^s death, otherwise she shall not be 
endowed, though in Bracton's time the age was indefinite, 
and dower was then only due *si uxor possit dotem promereri, 
et virum sustinere,^ " Whereupon Ed. Christian makes the 
following note, worthy of the most careful meditation : — 
" Lord Coke informs us that * if the wife be past the age of 
nine years at the time of her husband's death, she shall be 
endowed, of what age soever her husband be, albeit he were 



WOMAN FREE. 99 



\i\x\.four years old. Quia junior non potest dotem promereri, 
et virum sustinere,^ (Coke on Litt., 33.) This we are told 
by that grave and reverend judge without any remark of sur- 
prise or reprobation. But it confirms the observation of 
Montesquieu in the ' Spirit of Laws,' Book XXVI., Chap. 
III. * There has been,' says he, *much talk of a law in 
England which permitted girls seven years old to choose a 
husband. This law was shocking two ways; it had no 
regard to the time when Nature gives maturity to the under- 
standing, nor to the 'time when she gives maturity to the 
body.' It is abundantly clear, both from our law and 
history, that formerly such early marriages were contracted 
as in the present times are neither attempted nor thought 
of. 

"This was probably owing to the right which the lord 
possessed of putting up to sale the marriage of his infant 
tenant. He no doubt took the first opportunity of prosti- 
tuting (/>., selling in marriage) the infant to his own 
interest, without any regard to age or inclinations. And 
thus what was so frequently practised und permitted by the 
law would cease even in other instances to be considered 
with abhorrence. If the marriage of a female was delayed 
till she was sixteen^ this benefit was entirely lost to the lord 
her guardian, 

"Even the 18 Eliz., cap. 7, which makes it a capital 
crime to abuse a consenting female child under the age of 
ten years, seems to. leave an exception for these marriages by 
declaring only the carnal and unlawful kho^^dedge of such 
woman-child to be a felony. Hence the abolition of the 
feudal wardships and marriage at the Restoration may per- 

H 2 



loo WOMAN FREE. 

haps have contributed not less to the improvement of the 
morals than of the liberty of the people." — (Black stone's 
Comm., Christian's Edition, 1830, Vol. II., p, 131.) 



6. — " . . . manner 



n 



" Manner," or " custom " is the early Biblical definition 
for this habit (vide Gen. xviiL 1 1, and xxxL 35). It may 
be noticed that the word is not rendered or translated as 
"nature." It is also called "sickness" (Lev. xx. 18); 
and "pollution" (Ezek. xxii. 10). See also Note XXV. 8. 

The authorised version of the Bible is here referred to. 
The euphemisms attempted in the recent revised version 
as amendments of some of these passages are equally con- 
sonant with the argument of this note. 

XXV. 

I. — " Vicatious punishment ..." 

Revolting was the shock to the writer, coming, some 
years ago, with unprejudiced and ingenuous mind, to the 
study of the so-called " Diseases of Women," on finding 
that nearly the whole of these special " diseases," including 
menstruation, were due, directly or collaterally, to one form 
or other of masculine excess or abuse. Here is a nearly 
coincident opinion, afterwards met with : — " The diseases 
peculiar to women are so many, of so frequent occurrence, 
and of such severity, that half the time of the medical pro- 
fession is devoted to their care, and more than half its 
revenues depend upon them. We have libraries of books 
upon them, special professorships in our medical colleges, 
and hosts of doctors who give them their exclusive atten- 



WOMAN FREE. loi 

tion. . . . The books and professors are all at fault. 
They have no knowledge of the causes or nature of these 
diseases " (or at least they do not publish it, or act on it), 
" and no idea of their proper treatment. Women are every- 
where outraged and abused. When the full chapter of 
woman's wrongs and sufferings is written, the world will be 
horrified at the hideous spectacle. , . . " — T. ^ L. 
Nichols, M.D. (" Esoteric Anthropology," p. 198). 

So, again, in speaking of menorrhagia : — ** The causes of 
this disease, whatever they are, must be removed. Thou- 
sands of women are consigned to premature graves; some 
by the morbid excesses of their own passions, but far more 
by the sensual and selfish indulgences of those who claim 
the legal right to murder them in this manner, whom no 
law of homicide can reach, and upon whose victims no 
coroner holds an inquest." — {Op. cit^ p. 301.) 

2. — " . . , grievous toll . . ." 

And this in every grade of society, even to the pecuniary 
loss, as well as discomfort, of the labouring classes of 
women. 

"Statistics of sickness in the Post Office show that 
women" (these are unmarried women) "are away from 
their work more days than men." — (Sidney Webb, at British 
Association, 1891.) 

5. — " . , . no honest claims 

The Times of Aug. 3, 1892, reports a paper by Professor 
Lombroso, of Turin (at the International Congress of 
Psychology, London), in which occurs the following :— " It 



I02 WOMAN FREE. 

must be observed that woman was exposed to more pains 
than man, because man imposed submission and often even 
slavery upon her. As a girl, she had to undergo the 
tyranny of her brothers, and the cruel preferences accorded 
by parents to their male children. Woman was the slave of 
her husband, and still more of social prejudices. . . . 
Let them not forget the physical disadvantage under which 
she* had to labour. She might justly call herself the pariah 
of the human family.'* 

The word is apt and corroborative, for it was no honest 
act — it was not Nature, but human cruelty and injustice 
that formed a pariah. 

8. — " . . . opprobrious theme" 

Conf, ancient and mediaeval superstitions and accusations 
on the subject. Raciborski notes these aspersions (Trait e, 
p. 13): — "Pline pr^tendait que les femmes etant au 
moment des regies pouvaient dess^cher les arbres par de 
simples attouchements, faire perir des fruits, &c., &c." And 
a further writer says more fully : — " Pliny informs us that 
* the presence of a menstrual woman turns wine sour, causes 
trees to shed their fruit, parches up their young fruit, and 
makes them for ever barren, dims the splendour of mirrors 
and the polish of ivory, turns the edge of sharpened iron, 
converts brass into rust, and is the cause of canine rabies. 
In Isaiah xxx. 22, the writer speaks of the defilement of 
graven images, which shall be cast away as a menstruous 
cloth; and in Ezekiel xviii. 6, and xxxvi. 17, allusions 
of the same import are made." Unless we accept the 
antiquated notion of a "special curse" on women, how 



WOMAN FREE, 103 

reconcile the idea of an " ordinance of Nature " being so 
repulsively and opprobriously alluded to ? Well may it be 
said : — " Ingratitude is a hateful vice. Not only the 
defects, but even the illnesses which have their source in the 
excessive" (man-caused) "susceptibility of woman, are often 
made by men an endless subject of false accusations and 
pitiless reproaches." — (M. le Docteur Cerise, in his Intro- 
duction to Roussel, p. 34.) 

XXVI. 

I. — " Thoughts like to these are breathings of the truth^^ 

" I submit that there is a spiritual, a poetic, and, for 
aught we know, a spontaneous and uncaused element in the 
human mind, which ever and anon suddenly, and without 
warning, gives us a glimpse and a forecast of the future, 
and urges us to seize truth, as it were, by anticipation. In 
attacking the fortress we may sometimes storm the citadel 
without stopping to sap the outworks. That great dis- 
coveries have been made in this way the history of our 
knowledge decisively proves." — H. T. Buckle (" Influence 
of Women on the Progress of Knowledge "). 

Id, . . " Then there is the inner consciousness — the 
psyche — that has never yet been brought to bear upon life 
and its questions. Besides which, there is a supersensuous 
reason. Observation is perhaps more powerful an organon 
than either experiment or empiricism. If the eye is always 
watching, and the mind on the alert, ultimately chance 
supplies the solution." — Jefferies ("The Story of My 
Heart," Chap. X.). 



I04 WOMAN FREE, 

Id. , , . " Women only want hints, finger-boards, and 
finding these, will follow them to Nature. The quick- 
glancing intellect will gather up, as it moves over the 
ground, the almost invisible ends and threads of thought, 
so that a single volume may convey to the mind of woman 
truths which man would require to have elaborated in four 
or six." — Eliza W. Farnham ("Woman and Her Era," 
Vol. IL, p. 420). 

3. — " ... fictile mannish pieas . . ." 
Roussel details fully some nine of these main theories or 
explanations of the habitude. ("Syst^me," Note A.) 

6. — " In blindness born . . ." 

" Tous ces faits nous induisent fortement a conjecturer 
. qu'il a dii exister un temps ou les femmes n'^taient point 
assujetti^s a ce tribut incommode ; que le flux menstruel 
bien loin d'etre une institution naturelle, est au contraire 
un besoin factice contract^ dans I'^tat sociale." — Roussel 
(Op. cit, Chap. II.). 

Note that menstruation (scriptural "sickness") remains 
a pathological incident, not, as childbirth, an indubitably 
natural and normal physical function. 

See also Note XXX., 4. 

Id, — " .. . . in error fostered . . ." 

Not only the habit itself, but its causes. And this by 
medical, i.e,^ assumedly curative, practitioners. As to which 
" fostering," medical and clinical manuals afford abundant 
spontaneous and ingenuous testimony, an4 also of other 



WOMAN FREE, 105 



professional practices of instigation, or condonation, or 
complicity, at which a future age will look aghast. Conf, 
the following from Whitehead, " On the Causes and Treat- 
ment of Abortion and Sterility " (Churchill, 1847) : — 

" In a case under my care of pregnancy in a woman, with 
extreme deformity of the pelvis^ wherein it was considered advis- 
able^o procure abortion in the fifth month of the process, the 
ergot alone was employed, and, at first, with the desired effect." 
[The italics are not in the doctor's book ; he remarks nothing 
wrong or immoral, and — in an unprofessional person — illegal, 
and open to severest penalty ; he is sim'ply detailing the effects 
of a specified medicament.] "It was given in three successive 
pregnancies, and in each instance labour pains came on after 
eight or ten doses had been administered, and expulsion was 
effected by the end of the third day. It was perseveringly 
tried in a fourth pregnancy in the same individual, and failed 
completely" (p. 254). 

There is an ominous silence as to whether the patient's 
health or life also " failed completely.'* 
See further a case noted on p. 264, op, cit. : — 

1st child, still-bom, in eighth month, April 1832. 

2nd „ abortion at end of 6th month. 

3rd „ „ „ 6th month. 

4th „ „ „ 5 th month. 

5 th „ „ soon after quickening. Summer, 1838. 

6th „ still bom, 7th October, 1839. 

7th „ no clear record given. 

Also other somewhat parallel cases given, the constant 
incidental accompaniment being painful physical suffering 
and grave inconvenience, frequently with fatal results. 
Medical records are full of similar histories. To the unso- 
phisticated mind, two questions sternly suggest themselves : 
Firstly, Is it meet or right for an honourable profession, or 



io6 WOMAN FREE. 

any individual member of it, to be particeps criminis in such 
proceedings as the above ? and, secondly, is the indicated 
connubial morality on any higher level, or likely to be at- 
tended with any better consequences, than the prior ignor- 
ant or savage abuses which are responsible for woman's 
present physical condition ? 

The advocacy of cardinal reform in this direction — ia the 
wrong done both to the individual and the race — is urgent 
part of the duty of our newly-taught medical women. Nor 
are their eyes closed nor their mouths dumb in the matter. 
Dr. Caroline B. Winslow is quoted by the Woman' s Journal 
of Boston, U.S., i6th Jan., 1892, as saying in an article on 
"The Right to be Well Born" : "What higher motive can 
a man have in life than to labour steadily to prepare the 
way for the coming of a higher, better humanity ? . . . 
Dense ignorance prevails in our profession, and is reflected 
by laymen. All their scientific studies and years of medical 
practice have failed to convict men of the wrongs and out- 
rages done to women ; wrongs that no divine laws sanction, 
and no legal enactments can avert. . . . 

"The physician is a witness of the modern death- 
struggles and horrors of maternity ; he sees lives pass out of 
his sight j^he makes vain attempts to restore broken consti- 
tutions, broken by violating divine laws that govern organic 
matter : laws that are obeyed by all animal instinct ; yet all 
this knowledge, observation, and experience have failed to 
reveal to the benighted intellect and obtuse moral sense of 
the ordinary practitioner this great wrong. He makes no 
note of the unhallowed abuse that only man dares ; neither 
will he mark the disastrous and deteriorating effect of this 



WOMAN FREE. 107 



waste of vital force on his own offspring. The mental, 
moral, and physical imperfections of the rising generation 
are largely the result of outraged motherhood." 

7. — " The spurious function growing , . ." 

Mr. Francis Darwin, in a paper on "Growth Curvatures in 
Plants," says of the biologist, Sachs, who had made re- 
searches in the same phenomena : " He speaks, too, of 
custom or use^ building up the specialised 'instinct' for 
certain curvatures. (Sachs' *Arbeiten,' 1879.) These are 
expressions consistent with our present views." — (Presiden- 
tial Address to the Biological Section of the British Asso- 
ciation, 1 891.) 

In the same section was also read a paper by Francis 
Darwin and Dorothea F. N. Pertz, " On the Artificial Pro- 
duction of Rhythm in Plants," in which were detailed 
results very apposite to this " growing of a spurious func- 
tion." 

8. — " . . almost natural use the morbid mode appears r 

" So true is it that unnatural generally only means un- 
customary, and that everything which is usual appears 
natural." — J. S. Mill ("The Subjection of Women," p. 22). 

XXVII. 

I. — " Grievous the hurt . . ." 

Buckle notes one of the many incidental evil results in 
his " Common Place Book," Art. 2133 : — 

" It has been remarked that in our climate women are 



io8 WOMAN FREE, 

more frequently affected with insanity than men, and it has 
been considered very unfavourable to recovery if they 
should be worse at the time of menstruation, or have their 
catamenia in very small or immoderate quantities." (Paris 
and Fonblanque's "Medical Jurisprudence," Vol. I., p. 327). 

5. — " . . . reintegrate in frame and mindJ^ 

" Thus then you have first to mould her physical frame , 
and then, as the strength she gains will permit you, to fill 
and temper her mind with all knowledge and thoughts 
which tend to confirm its natural instincts of justice, and 
refine its natural tact of love.'' — John Ruskin (" Of Queens' 
Gardens," p. 154). 

XXVIII. 

5, 6. — " . . . given in our handy 

Is power the evil hazard to com mandJ' 

" That which is thoughtlessly credited to a non-existent 
intelligence should really be claimed and exercised by the 
human race. It is ourselves who should direct our affairs, 
protecting ourselves from pain, assisting ourselves, succour- 
ing and rendering our lives happy. We must do for our- 
selves what superstition has hitherto supposed an intelligence 
to do for us. . . . These things speak with a voice of 
thunder. From every human being whose body has been 
racked with pain; from every human being who has 
suffered from accident or disease ; from every human being 
drowned, burned, or slain by negligence, there goes up a 
continually increasing cry louder than the thunder. An 



WOMAN FREE. 109 



awe-inspiring cry dread to listen to, against which ears are 
stopped by the wax of superstition and the wax of criminal 
selfishness. These miseries are your doing, because you 
have mind and thought and could have prevented them. 
You can prevent them in the future. You do not even 
try."— R. Jefferies (" The Story of My Heart," pp. 149 et 
seq.). 

Id, , , , ^^ From one philosophical point of view, that 
of Du Prel, the experiments are already regarded as proving 
that the soul is an organising as well as a thinking power. 
. . . Bernheim saw an apoplectic paralysis rapidly im- 
proved by suggestion. . . . The more easily an idea 
can be established in the subject, the quicker a therapeutic 
result can be induced. ... I think that hardly any of 
the newest discoveries are so important to the art of healing, 

apart from surgery, as the study of suggestion Now 

that it has been proved that even organic changes can be 
caused by suggestion, we are obliged to ascribe a much 
greater importance to mental influences than we have 
hitherto done." — Dr. Albert Moll (" Hypnotism,'* pp. 122, 
318, 320, 325, 327). 

Id, , . , " It would, I fancy, have fared but ill with 
one who, standing where I now stand, in what was then a 
thickly-peopled and fashionable part of London, should 
have broached to our ancestors the doctrine which I now 
propound to you — that all their hypotheses were alike 
wrong ; that the plague was no more, in their sense, Divine 
judgment, than the fire was the work of any political, or of 
any religious, sect; but that they were themselves the 
authors of both plague and fire, and that they must look to 



no WOMAN FREE, 



themselves to prevent the recurrence of calamities, to all 
appearance so peculiarly beyond the reach of human 
control. . . . We, in later times, have learned somewhat 
of Nature, and partly obey her. Because of this partial im- 
provement of our natural knowledge and of that fractional 
obedience, we have no plague ; because that knowledge is 
still very imperfect and that obedience yet incomplete, 
typhus is our companion and cholera our visitor. But it 
is not presumptuous to express the belief that, when our 
knowledge is more complete and our obedience the ex- 
pression of our knowledge, London will count her centuries 
of freedom from typhus and cholera as she now gratefully 
reckons her two hundred years of ignorance of that plague 
which swooped upon her thrice in the first half of the 
seventeenth century." — T. H. Huxley ("On Improving 
Natural Knowledge "). 

And the pestilent malady from which woman specially 
still suffers is as definitely the result of man's ignorant or 
thoughtless misdoing, and is as indubitably amenable to 
rectification, as the plague of the bye-gone ages, or the 
typhus and cholera of the present. 

8. — " . . . pain both prompts and points escape.'' 

"All evil is associated more or less closely with pain 
. . . and pain of every kind is so repugnant to the 
human organism, that it is no sooner felt than an effort is 
made to escape from it.' . . . Alongside of the evolu- 
tion of evil there has ever been a tendency towards the 
elimination of evil. . . . The highest intellectual 
powers of the greatest men have for their ultimate object 



WOMAN FREE. in 



the mitigation of evil, and the final elimination of it from 
the earth."— Richard Bithell (" The Creed of a Modern 
Agnostic/' p. 103). 

XXIX. 

I. — " . . . woman shall her own redemption gain,^' 

In the greatest depth of their meaning remain true the 
words of Olive Schreiner : " He who stands by the side of 
woman cannot help her ; she must help herself." 

Id, ..." Nothing is clearer than that woman must 
lead her own revolution ; not alone because it is hers, and 
that no other being can therefore have her interest in its 
achievement, but because it is for a life whose highest needs 
and rights — those to be redressed in its success — lie above 
the level of man's experiences or comprehension. Only 
woman is sufficient to state woman's claims and vindicate 
them."— Eliza W. Farnham ("Woman," Vol. I., p. 308). 

(See also Notes to XLVI. 7 and LVIII. i.) 

2. — ^^ Instructed by the sting of bootless pain^ 

"Toutes les fonctions du corps humain, sauf Tenfante- 
ment, sont autant de plaisirs. Dbs que la douleur surgit, 
la nature est viol6e. La douleur est d'origine humaine. 
Un corps malade ou a viol^ les lois de la nature, ou bien 
souffre de la violation de la loi d'un de ses semblables. I ,a 
douleur par elle-m^me est done le meilleur diagnostic pour 
le m^decin. . . . Entre la loi de la nature et la viola- 
tion de cette loi, il n'y a que d^sordres, douleurs et mines. 
. . . La maladie ne vient pas de la nature, elle n'y est 



132 WOMAN FREE. 

meme pas. Elle n'est que la violation d'une des lois de la 
nature. D^s qu'une de ces lois est viol^e, la douleur arrive 
et vous dit qu'une loi vient d'etre enfreinte. S'il est temps 
encore, le mal peut etre amoindri, expulse, chassd. . . . 
\j3i maladie n'est done que le r^sultat de la violation d'une 
loi naturelle. . . La science et la mecanique du corps 

humain, c'est Tart de vivre d'apr^s les lois de la nature, c'est 
la certitude que pas un m^decin ne possede contre la viola- 
tion d'une de ces lois un remade autre que d'y rentrer le 
plus tot possible. . . . Chaque fois que I'liomnie 
s'efforcera de suivre la loi de la nature, il chassera devant 
soi une centaine de maladies." — Dr. Alexandre Weill (" Lois 
et Myst^res de TAmour," pp. 41, 91, 24, 85, 83). 

3, 4. — " With Nature ever helpful to retrieve 
The injury we heedlessly achieve,^' 

" Thus, if we could, by preaching our pet ideal, or in any 
other way induce one generation of women to turn to a 
new pursuit, we should have accomplished a step towards 
bending all future womanhood in the same direction." — 
Frances Power Cobbe (Essay: "The Final Cause of 
Woman "). 

See also Note XXIII., 4. 

6. — ^^ Already guerdon rich in hope is shoivn^ 

" He (Mr. Frederic Harrison) says — * All women, with 
few exceptions, are subject to functional interruption abso- 
lutely incompatible with the highest forms of continuous 
pressure.' This assertion I venture most emphatically to 
deny. The actual period of child-birth apart, the ordinarily 



WOMAN FREE. 113 



healthy woman is as fit for work every day of her life as the 
ordinarily healthy man. Fresh air, exercise, suitable 
clothing and nourishing food, added to the habitual tem- 
perance of women in eating and drinking, have brought 
about a marvellously good result in improving their average 
health." — Mrs. Fawcett {Fortnightly Review^ Nov. 1891). 

(See also Note LX., 8.) 



8. — " The sage physician, she 



» 



Not only " sage " physician, but " brave " physician ; for 
brave indeed has been the part she has had to bear against 
male professional prejudice and jealousy, opposition from 
masculine vested interests, virulent abuse and even personal 
violence. So recently as 1888, Dr. Sophia Jex-Blake has to 
report concerning the medical education of women, that : — 

" The first difficulty lies in some remaining jealousy and ill- 
will towards medical women on the part of a section (constantly 
diminishing, as I believe) of the medical profession itself. Some 
twenty years ago the professional prejudice was so deep and so 
widely spread that it constituted a very formidable obstacle, but 
it has been steadily melting away before the logic of facts ; and 
now is, with a few exceptions, rarely to be found among the 
leaders of the profession, nor indeed among the great majority 
of the rank and file, as far as can be judged by the personal ex- 
perience of medical women themselves. Unfortunately, it seems 
stron^^est just where it has least justification, viz., among the 
practitioners who devote themselves chiefly to midwifery, and to 
the special diseases of women. The Obstetrical Society is, so 
far as I know, still of the same mind as when, in 1874, they ex- 
cluded Dr. Elizabeth Garrett Anderson, a distinguished M.D. 
of Paris, from their membership ; and the Soho Square Hospital 
for Women has never revoked its curt refusal to allow me to 
enter its doors, when, in 1878, I proposed to take advantage of 
the invitation issued in its report to all practitioners who were 



114 UOAfAX FREE. 



specially interested in the cases for which the hospital is re- 
served. Sometimes this jealousy takes a sufficienthuromic form. 
For instance, 1 received for two successive years a uthog^phed 
circular inviting me by name to send to the Lancet the reports 
of interesting cases that might occur in my dispensary practice, 
but when I wrote in response to this supposed offer of profes- 
sional fellowship, I received by next post a hurried assurance 
from the editor that it was all a mistake, and that, in fact, the 
lancet could not stoop to record medical experiences, however 
interesting, if they occurred in the practice of the inferior sex I 
Probably it will not require many more years to make this sort 
of thing ridiculous, even in the eyes of those who are now 
capable of such puerilities. 

"The second obstacle lies in the continued exclusion of 
women from the majority of our Universities, and from the 
English Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons. Here also the 
matter may be left to the growth of public opinion as regards 
those existing bodies which do not depend upon the public 
purse ; but it is time that Parliament should refuse supplies to 
those bodies whose sense of justice cannot be otherwise 
awakened, and it is certainly the duty of Government to see 
that no new charter is granted without absolute security for 
equal justice to students of both sexes." — Sophia Jex-Blake, 
M.D. {Nineteenth Century^ Nov., 1887). 

See also Note LVII., i, and LVIII., i. 

Id, . , , Progress is indeed being made, surely, yet 
slowly, for Mrs. Fawcett has still necessity to reiterate, 
four years afterwards : — 

" Make her a doctor, put her through the mental discipline 
and the physical toil of the profession ; charge her, as doctors 
are so often charged, with the health of mind and body 
of scores of patients, she remains womanly to her finger 
tips, and a good doctor in proportion as the truly womanly 
qualities in her are strongly developed. Poor women are 
very quick to find this out as patients. Not only from 



WOMAN FREE, 115 

the immediate neighbourhood of the New Hospital for 
Women, where all the staff are women doctors, but also 
from the far East of London do they come, because * the 
ladies,' as they call them, are ladies, and show their poor 
patients womanly sympathy, gentleness, and patience, 
womanly insight and thoughtfulness in little things, and 
consideration for their home troubles and necessities. It 
is not too much to say that a woman can never hope to 
be a good doctor unless she is truly and really a womanly 
woman. And much the same thing may be said with re- 
gard to fields of activity not yet open to women." — Mrs. 
Fawcett {Fortnightly Review^ Nov., 1891). 

Id,— '^^ . . . saviour of her sex.^^ 

Bebel says: — "Women doctors would be the greatest 
blessing to their own sex. The fact that women must place 
themselves in the hands of men in cases of illness or of the 
physical disturbances connected with their sexual functions 
frequently prevents their seeking medical help in time. This 
gives rise to numerous evils, not only for women, but also for 
men. Every doctor complains of this reserve on the part of 
women, which sometimes becomes almost criminal, and of 
their dislike to speak freely of their ailments, even after 
they have made up their minds to consult a doctor. This is 
perfectly natural, the only irrational thing about it is the 
refusal of men, and especially of doctors, to recognise how 
legitimate the study of medicine is for women." (" Woman," 
Walther^s translation, p. 131.) 

Id. . . " As I am alluding to my own experience in 
this matter, I may perhaps be allowed to say how often in 

I 2 



ii6 WOMAN FREE. 

the same place I have been struck with the contingent 
advantages attendant on the medical care by women of 
women ; how often I have seen cases connected with stories 
of shame or sorrow to which a woman's hand could far 
more fittingly minister, and where sisterly help and counsel 
could give far more appropriate succour than could be 
expected from the average young medical man, however 
good his intentions. Perhaps we shall find the solution of 
some of our saddest social problems, when educated and 
pure-minded women are brought more constantly in contact 
with their sinning and suffering sisters, in other relations as 
well as those of missionary effort." — Dr. Sophia Jex-Blake 
(Essay : " Medicine as a Profession for Women "). 

XXX. 

I. — " With purer phase . . ." 

A noted specialist in this matter. Dr. Tilt, " basing his 
conclusions on his own unpublished observations, and on 
those already made public by M. Brierre de Boismont and 
Dr. Rawn," has declared what is indeed a generally ac- 
cepted proposition, that " luxurious living and habits render 
menstruation precarious, while this function is retarded by 
out-door labour and less sophisticated habits." (" Proceed- 
ings of British Association," 1850, p. 135 ; "On the Causes 
which Advance or Retard the Appearance of First Men- 
struation in Women," by E. J. Tilt, M.D., &c., &c.) 

4. — ". . . weakness . . ." 

It is to be carefully kept in mind that this " weakness " 
(Scriptural, " sickness," Lev. xx., 18) is strictly a patho- 



WOMAN FREE, 117 

logical incident ; while maternity is truly a physiological 
one ; the male false physicists seem in their mental and 
clinical attitude to have aimed to precisely reverse this defi- 
nition. (See also Note XXIII., 8, and XXVI., 6.) 

5,6. — To the fact related in these two lines there is 
testimony in nearly every book connected with the sub- 
ject ; and doubtless numerous instances never come to 
light, owing to the very natural reticence pointed out in 
Note XXIX., 8. The improved condition reported by Mrs. 
Fawcett (Note XXIX., 6) is hence more readily verified by 
women practitioners ; and the writer has had detailed per- 
sonal experiences of perfect health and maternity being 
co-existent with little or no appearance of the menses in 
the case of women whose names, if published, would be 
indubitable guarantee for their accuracy and veracity. 



7. — " Not to neglectful man to greatly care 



» 



The Report of the British Association for 1850, in sum- 
marising the paper above referred to (Note i), says of Dr. 
Tilt that, " in discussing what he calls the intrinsic causes 
which have been supposed to influence menstruation, his 
observations are rather of a suggestive character, for he 
considers such causes highly problematical and requiring 
further investigation.'* Dr. Tilt rightly emphasises the 
question as " a matter equally interesting to the physician, 
the philosopher, and the statesman ; and it behoves them to 
know that this epoch (of menstruation) varies under the 
influence of causes which for the most part have been 
insufficiently studied." But the negligence or carelessness 
reprobated in the verse has again supervened. 



ii8 WOMAN FREE. 



Buckle says, concerning this same paper of Dr. Tilt*s : 
" We take shame to ourselves for not having sooner noticed 
this very interesting and in some respects very important 
work ; the author unknown," (?) " and yet the book has gone 
through two editions, though written on a subject ignorantly 
supposed to be going on well. That women can be satis- 
fied with their state shows their deterioration. That they 
can be satisfied with knowing nothing, &c." {sic) (" Mis- 
cellaneous and Posthumous Works," Vol. I., p. 381.) 

The whole passage seems somewhat incoherent, and is 
unfinished as above, as if left by Mr. Buckle for further 
consideration. The last two remarks as to women are cer- 
tainly not written with his usual justice ; when we remember 
how assiduously men have striven to prevent woman's 
pursuit of physiological knowledge, especially as applied to 
her own person, it is manifest that the blame for woman's 
ignorance, or her presumed "satisfaction" therewith, is 
more fittingly to be reproached to man than to her. 

XXXI. 

I. — ^^ Her intellect alert , . ." 

" IntelUctus prelucit voluntatis — " Intellect carries the 
light before the will.*' — Cardinal Manning {Revieiv of Re- 
views^ Vol. v., p. 135). 

5, 6. — " . . ; body still is supple unto mind^ 
By dint of soul is fleshly form inclined'' 

Reflecting Plato's teaching, our second worthy Eliza- 
bethan poet has said : — 



WOMAN FREE, 119 

" Every spirit as it is most pure, 
And hath in it the more of heavenly b'ght, 
So it the fairer body doth procure 
To habit in. 

For of the Soul the Body form doth take : 
For Soul is form, and doth the Body make." 
And in our own day, Charles Kingsley says, in serious 
sportiveness : " The one true doctrine of this wonderful 
fairy tale is, that your soul makes your body, just as a snail 
makes its shell." And again : " You must know and believe 
that people's souls make their bodies just as a snail makes 
its shell. ... I am not joking, my little man ; I am in 
serious, solemn earnest." — ("The Water Babies," Chaps. 
III. and IV. 

And Elizabeth Barrett Browning ("Aurora Leigh," Book 
III.)— 

"... the soul 

Which grows within a child makes the child grow." 
The physiologists and psychologists, as is not unusual, 
tardily follow in the wake of the poets. At the Inter- 
national Congress of Experimental Psychology, London, 
1892, " Professor Delboeuf said that at all times the mind 
of man had been capable of influencing the body, but it 
was only in recent times that this action had been scienti- 
fically put in evidence." — {Times, August 3rd, 1892.) 

And Dr. Albert Moll, of Berlin, had written the year 
previously, that — " When the practical importance of 
mental influences becomes more generally recognised, 
physicians will be obliged to acknowledge that psychology 
is as important as physiology. Psychology and psychical 



I20 WOMAN FREE. 

therapeutics will be the basis of a rational treatment of 
neuroses. The other methods must group themselves 
around this ; it will be the centre, and no longer a sort of 
Cinderella of science, which now admits only the influence 
of the body on the mind, and not that of the mind on the 
body."— ("Hypnotism," p. 328.) See also Note XXVIII., 5. 

XXXII. 

2. — " . . . woo the absent cursed 

Even Raciborski condemns this common error of treat- 
ment : — " . . . quand les jeunes filles de cette 
categoric paraissent souffrantes, quel que soit le caract^re 
des soufFrances, on est dispose k les attribuer au defaut du 
flux menstruel, on le regrette, on I'invoque, et I'on tente 
tout pour le provoquer. Ces id^es sont atijourd'hui encore 
ixhs profondement enracin^es dans le public, et sont 
souvent la cause des entraves au traitement rationnel pro- 
pos^ par les m^decins." — (Traits, &c., ed. 1868, p. 377.) 
And Mrs. E. B. Duffey very sensibly says : — 
" Nature ... is very easily perverted : and the girl 
who begins by imagining she is ill or ought to be at such 
times will end by being really so." (" No Sex in Educa- 
tion," Philadelphia, 1874, p. 79.) 

3. — " . . . counter effort . . ." 

" Forel and many others mention that there are certain 
popular methods of slightly retarding menstruation. In one 
town many of the young women tie something round their 
little finger if they wish to delay menstruation for a few 



WOMAN FREE, 121 



days in order to go to a ball, &c. The method is generally 
effectual, but when faith ceases, the effect also ceases." — 
Dr. Albert Moll (" Hypnotism," p. 226). 
• Before quitting this special subject it may be well to 
remark that little more than the fringe is here indicated of 
an enormous mass of evidence which affords more than 
presumptive confirmation and support for the position here 
taken in the whole question of this " abnormal habit." 



(( 



custom . . ."—See Note XXIV., 6. 



XXXIII. 

2. — " . . . newer vigour to the brain, ^^ 

"It is well-known that every organ of the body and, there- 
fore, also the brain, requires for its full development and, 
consequently, for the development of its complete capability 
of performance, exercise and persistent effort. That this is 
and has been the case for thousands of years in a far less 
degree in woman than in man, in consequence of her 
defective training and education, will be denied by no one." 
So says the learned biologist Buchner. — ("Man," Dallas's 
translation, p. 206.) 

And Bebel also declares: — "The brain must be regularly 
used and correspondingly nourished, like any other organ, 
if its faculties are to be fully developed." — ("Woman," 
Walther's translation, p. 124.) 

Dr. Emanuel Bonavia, in the course of an able reply to 
a somewhat shallow recent disquisition by Sir James 
Crichton Browne, says : — 

" From various sources we have learnt that the brain 



122 WOMAN FREE. 



tissue, like every other tissue, will grow by exercise, and 
diminish, or degenerate and atrophy by disuse. Keep your 
right arm tied up in a sling for a month, and you will then 
be convinced how much it has lost by disuse. Then ana- 
tomists might perhaps be able to say — Lo ! and behold ! 
the muscles of your right arm have a less specific gravity 
than those of your left arm ; that the nerves and blood- 
vessels going to those muscles are smaller, and that, 
therefore, the right arm cannot be the equal of the left, and 
must have a different function ! 

" Any medical student knows that if you tie the main 
trunk of an artery, a branch of it will in due course acquire 
the calibre of tlie main trunk. If, for some reason, it cannot 
do so, the tissues, which the main trunk originally supplied, 
?nust suffer, and be weakened, from want of a sufficient 
supply of blood. . . . Man, and especially British 
man, has evolved into what he is by endless trouble and 
struggle through past ages. He has had to develop his 
present brain from very small beginnings. It would, there- 
fore, now be the height of folly to allow the thinking lobes 
of the mothers of the race to revert, intellectually, by 
disuse step by step again to that of the lower animals, from 
which we all come. That of course many may not believe, 
but it may be asked, how can he or she believe these things 
with such weakened lobes, as he or she may have inherited 
from his or her mother ? How indeed ! If there is 
anything in nature that is true, it is this — That if you don't 
use your limbs they will atrophy ; if you don't use your 
eyes they will atrophy ; if you don't use your brain it will 
atrophy. They all follow the same inexorable law. Use 



WOMAN I'REE, 123 



increases and sharpens ; disuse decreases and dulls. 
Diminished size of the frontal lobes and of the arteries that 
feed them mean nothing if they do not mean that woman's 
main thinking organ, that of the intellect, is, as Sir James 
would hint, degenerating by disuse and neglect." — 
("Woman's Frontal Lobes," Provincial Medical Journal^ 
July, 1892.) 

These facts suggest strongly that the waste at present 
induced in the female body by the menstrual habit might 
well be absorbed in increase of brain power ; and indeed, 
that this evolved habit has hitherto persistently sequestrated 
and carried off from woman's organism the blood force that 
should have gone to form brain power. This explanation 
would dispose of the awkwardly imagined "plethora" 
theory, as well as one or two others, of sundry gynaecologists. 

And the converse — that the increased appropriation of 
the blood in forming brain power induces a state of bodily 
well-being, free from the present waste and weariness, — 
would certainly seem to be borne out by such evidence as 
that of the Hon. John W. Mitchell, the president of the 
Southern California College of Law, who said in a recent 
lecture : — 

"Not only in this, but in other countries, there are 
successful women practitioners (of Law), and in France, 
where the preparatory course is most arduous, and the term 
of study longest, a woman recently took the highest rank 
over 500 men in her graduating examinations, and during 
the whole six years of class study she only lost one day 
from her work." (See Note LVIL, i.) 

A few words may here be said as to the dubitable 



124 WOMAN FREE, 

question of the relative size of the brain in man and 
woman, though the matter may not be of great import, from 
more than one reason. For, as Bebel observes : "Alto- 
gether the investigations on the subject are too recent and 
too few in number to allow of any definite conclusions '* 
(p. 123). A. Dumas fils says ("Les Femmes qui Tuent," p. 
196) — " Les philosophes vous d^montreront que, si la force 
musculaire de Thomme est plus grande que celle de la 
femme, la force nerveuse de la femme est plus grande que 
celle de Fhomme; que, si Tintelligence tient, comme on 
Taffirme aujourd'hui, au d^veloppement et au poids de la 
mati^re c^r^brale, Tintelligence de la femme pourrait etre 
declar^e sup^rieure d celle de Thomme, le plus grand 
cerveau et le plus lourd comme poids, etant un cerveau de 
femme lequel pesait 2,200 grammes, c'est a dire 400 
grammes de plus que celui de Cuvier. On ne dit pas, il est 
vrai, que cette femme ait ecrit Tequivalent du livre de 
Cuvier sur les fossiles." 

To which last remark may be replied, again in the words 
of Bebel, — " Darwin is perfectly right in saying that a list 
of the most distinguished women in poetry, painting, sculp- 
ture, music, science, and philosophy, will bear no comparison 
with a similar list of the most distinguished men. But 
surely this need not surprise us. It would be surprising if 
it were not so. Dr. Dodel-Port (in " Die neuere Schop- 
fungsgeschichte ") answers to the point, when he maintains 
that the relative achievements would be very different after 
men and women had received the same education and the 
same training in art and science during a certain number 
of generations." — ("Woman," p. 125.) 



WOMAN FREE. 125 



"It is. of small value to say — yes, but look hovf many 
men excel and how few women do so. True, but see how 
much repression men have exercised to prevent women from 
even equalling them, and how much shallowness of mind 
they have encouraged. All manner of obstructions, coupled 
with ridicule, have been put in their way, and until women 
succeed in emancipating themselves, most men will pro- 
bably continue to do so, simply because they have the 
power to do it. When women become emancipated, that 
is, are placed on social equality with men, this senseless, 
mischievous opposition will die a natural death."— E. 
Bonavia, M.D. ("Woman's Frontal Lobes"). 

To revert to the question of brain weight, one of the first 
of English specialists says : — 

" Data might, therefore, be considered to show, in the 
strongest manner, how comparatively unimportant is mere 
bulk or weight of brain in reference to the degree of intel- 
ligence of its owner, when considered as it often is, apart 
from the much more important question of the relative 
amount of its grey matter, as well as of the amount and 
perfection of the minute internal development of the organ 
either actual or possible." — Dr. H. C. Bastian ("The Brain as 
an Organ of Mind," p. 375.) 

The American physiologist Helen H. Gardener states : — 
" The differences (in brain) between individuals of the same 
sex — in adults at least, are known to be much more marked 
than any that are known to exist between the sexes. Take 
the brains of the two poets Byron and Dante. Byron's 
weighed 1,807 grammes, while Dante's weighed only 1,320 
grammes, a difference of 487 grammes. Or take two 



126 WOMAN FREE. 

statesmen, Cromwell and Gambetta. Cromwell's brain 
weighed 2,210 grammes, which, by the way, is the greatest 
healthy brain on record ; although Cuvier's is usually quoted 
as the largest, a part of the weight of his was due to disease, 
and if a diseased or abnormal brain is to be taken as 
the standard, then the greatest on record is that of a negro 
criminal idiot; while Gambetta's was only 1,241 grammes, a 
difference of 969 grammes. Surely it will not be held 
because of this that Gambetta and Dante should have 
been denied the educational and other advantages which 
Were the natural right of Byron and Cromwell. Yet it is 
upon this very ground, by this very system of reasoning, 
that it is proposed to deny women equal advantages and 
opportunities, although the difference in brain weight 
between man and woman is said to be only 100 grammes, 
and even this does not allow for difference in body weight, 
and is based upon a system of averages, which is neither 
complete nor accurate." — (Report of the International 
Council of Women, Washington, 1888, p. 378.) 

Concerning an assertion that " the specific gravity of both 
the white and grey matter of the brain is greater in man than 
in woman," Helen H. Gardener says : — " Of this point this is 
what the leading brain anatomist in America (Dr. E. C. 
Spitzka) wrote : * The only article recognised by the pro- 
fession as important and of recent date, which takes this 
theory as a working basis, is by Morselli, and he is com- 
pelled to make the sinister admission, while asserting that 
the specific gravity is less in the female, that with old age 
and with insanity the specific gravity increases.' If this is 
the case I do not know that women need sigh over their 



WOMAN FREE, 127 

shortcoming in the item of specific gravity. There appear 
to be two very simple methods open to them by which they 
may emulate their brothers in the matter of specific gravity, 
if they so desire. One of these is certain, if they live long 
enough ; and the other — well, there is no protective tariff on 
insanity." — {Loc, cit, p. 379.) 

Helen Gardener further appositely observes : — " The 
brain of no remarkable woman has ever been examined. 
Woman is ticketed to fit the hospital subjects and tramps, 
the unfortunates whose brains fall into the hands of the 
profession as it were by mere accident, while man is repre- 
sented by the brains of the Crom wells, Cuviers, Byrons, and 
Spurzheims. By this method the average of men's brains 
is carried to its highest level in the matter of weight and 
texture; while that of women is kept at its lowest, and 
even then there is only claimed 100 grammes' difference ! " 
— {Loc, city p. 380.) 

And she concludes her exhaustive paper with the closing 
paragraph of a letter to herself from Dr. E. C. Spitzka, the 
celebrated New York brain specialist : — " You may hold me 
responsible for the following declaration : That any statement 
to the effect that an observer can tell by looking at a brain, 
or examining it microscopically, whether it belonged to a 
female or a male subject, is not founded on carefully- 
observed facts. . . . No such difference has ever 
been demonstrated, nor do I think it will be by more 
elaborate methods than we now possess. Numerous female 
brains exceed numerous male brains in absolute weight, in 
complexity of convolutions, and in what brain anatomists 
would call the nobler proportions. So that he who takes 



128 WOMAN FREE, 



these as his criteria of the male brain may be grievously 
mistaken in attempting to assert the sex of a brain dog- 
matically. If I had one hundred female brains and one 
hundred male brains together, I should select the one 
hundred containing the largest and best-developed brains as 
probably containing fewer female brains than the remaining 
one hundred. More than this no cautious experienced 
brain anatomist would venture to declare." — {Loc, cit^ 
p. 381.) 

Charles Darwin has clearly summarised this question of 
comparison of brain: — "No one, I presume, doubts that 
the large size of the brain in man, relatively to his body, in 
comparison with that of the gorilla or orang, is closely con- 
nected with nis higher mental powers. . . . On the 
other hand, no one supposes that the intellect of any two 
animals or of any two men can be accurately gauged by the 
cubic contents of their skulls. It is certam that there may 
be extraordinary mental activity with an extremely small 
absolute mass of nervous matter; thus the wonderfully 
diversified instincts, mental powers, and affections of ants 
are generally known, yet their cerebral ganglia are not so 
large as the quarter of a small pin's head. Under this 
latter point of view the brain of an ant is one of the most 
marvellous atoms of matter in the world, perhaps more 
marvellous than the brain of man." — ("The Descent of 
Man," Chap. IV.) 

3. — " Wide shall she roam . . ." 

John Ruskin says, of training a girl : — " Let her loose in 
the library, I say, as you do a fawn in a field. It knows 



WOMAN FREE. 129 

the bad weeds twenty times better than you, and the good 
ones too ; and will eat some bitter and prickly ones, good 
for it, which you had not the slightest thought were good." 
— ("Sesame and Lilies," p. 167.) 

6. — " . . . murmurings i • ." 

"Man thinks that his wife belongs to him like his 
domesticated animals, and he keeps her therefore in slavery. 
There are few, however, who wear their shackles without 
feeling their weight, and not a few who resent it. Madame 
Roland says : * Quand vous parlez en maitre, vous faites 
penser aussitot qu'on peut vous r^sister, et faire plus 
peutetre, tel fort que vous soyez. Uinvulnerable Achille 
nel'^taitpas partout.'" — Alexander Walker, M.D. ("Woman 
as to Mind, &c.," p. 353). 

" Why do women not discover, when * in the noon of 
beauty's power,' that they are treated like queens only to be 
deluded by hollow respect, till they are led to resign, or not 
assume, their natural prerogatives ? Confined then in 
cages like the feathered race, they have nothing to do but to 
plume themselves and stalk with mock majesty from perch 
to perch. It is true they are provided with food and 
raiment, for which they neither toil nor spin, but health 
liberty, and virtue are given in exchange." — Mary Wolls- 
tonecraft ("Vindication of the Rights of Woman," Chap. 
IV.). See also Note XL., 5. 

" What have they (men) hitherto offered us in marriage, 
with a great show of generosity and a flourish of trumpets, 
but the dregs of a life, and the leavings of a dozen other 
women ? Experience has at last taught us what to expect 

K 



I30 WOMAN FREE. 



and how to meet them." — Lady Violet Greville {National 
Review^ May, 1892). 

See also Note XX., 2. 

8. — " Lest that her soul should rise . . ." 

" Laboulaye distinctly advises his readers to keep women 
in a state of moderate ignorance, for * notre empire est 
d^truit, si I'homme est reconnu ' (Our empire is at an end 
when man is found out)." — (Note to Bebel, Walther's trans- 
lation, p. 73.) 

Id, — " . . . l>reak his time-worn yoke^^ 

As already shown, the subjugation of woman has not 
been an incident of Western " civilisation " alone. Mrs. 
Eliza W. Farnham relates that " When a Chinese Mandarin 
in California was told that the women of America were 
nearly all taught to read and write, and that a majority of 
them were able to keep books for their husbands, if they 
chose to do so, he shook his head thoughtfully, and, with a 
foreboding sigh, replied, * If he readee, writee, by'n-by he 
lickee all the men.' Was that a barbarian sentiment, or 
rather, perhaps, a presentiment of the higher sovereignty 
coming?" — (" Woman and Her Era," Vol. II., p. 41.) 

XXXIV. 

5. — " . . . his servitude ..." 

" Villeins were not protected by Magna Charta. " Nullus 
liher homo capiatur vel imprisonetur^ &c., was cautiously 
expressed to exclude the poor villein, for, as Lord Coke 



WOMAN FREE. 131 

tells us, the lord may beat his villein, and, if it be without 
cause, he cannot have any remedy. What a degraded 
condition for a being endued with reason ! " — Edward 
Christian (** Note to Blackstone's Commentaries," Book II., 
Chap. VI.). 

Mr. Christian's exclamation of concern is doubtless 
meant to apply to the serf, yet was not the lord's position 
equally despicable ? 

6. — " . . in turn was master to a slaved 

This was, in fact, simply extending the spirit of the 
feudal system (with its serfdom as just pictured), a little 
further. Buckle exemplifies in ancient French society the 
servility descending from one grade to another in man : — 
" By virtue of which each class exercising great power over 
the one below it, the subordination and subserviency of the 
whole were completely maintained. . . . This, in- 
deed, is but part of the old scheme to create distinctions 
for which Nature has given no warrant, to substitute a 
superiority which is conventional for that which is real, and 
thus try to raise little minds above the level of great ones. 
The utter failure, and, as society advances, the eventual 
cessation of all such attempts is certain." But, meanwhile, 
evil accompaniments are apparent', as Buckle further in- 
stances by saying : " Le Vassor, who wrote late in the reign 
of Louis XIV., bitterly says : * Les Fran9ais accoutum^ k 
Tesclavage, ne sentent plus la pesanteur de leurs chalnes.' " 
— (" History of Civilisation in England," Vol. II., Chaps 
III., IV.) 

That the foregoing habits or foibles are human rather 

K 2 



132 WOMAN FREE, 



than simply masculine, or that the imitation of them very 
naturally spreads to the other sex, would seem to be shown 
by such evidence as Letourneau gives : — 

" In primitive countries the married woman — that is to 
say, the woman belonging to a man — has herself the con- 
science of being a thing, a property (it is proved to her often 
and severely enough), but she does not think of retaliating, 
especially in what concerns the conjugal relations. More- 
over, as her condition is oftenest that of a slave over- 
burdened with work, not only does she not resent the 
introduction of other women in the house of the master, 
but she desires it, for the work will be so much the less for 
herself. Thus among the Zulus the wife first purchased 
strives and works with ardour in the hope of furnishing her 
husband with means to acquire a second wife, a companion 
in misery over whom, by right of seniority, she will have the 
upper hand."— (" The Evolution of Marriage," Chap. VIII.) 

Yet, in point of fact, this is not woman seeking to 
establish her own dominion, but rather to secure somewhat 
more of freedom for herself. As Alexandre Dumas fils tells 
us, concerning the Mormon women : — 

" Non seulement elles donnent leur consentement k leurs 
maris, quand ils le leur demandent pour un nouveau mariage, 
mais elles sont quelquefois les premieres a leur proposer une 
nouvelle femme qui a, disent-elles, des qualit^s necessaires 
k la communaute, en r^alite pour augmenter un peu la 
possession d'elles-memes, c'est-k-dire leur liberty." — ("Les 
Femmes qui Tuent," &c., p. 169.) 

8. — " . . . vassalage to man!''' 



WOMAJSr FREE, 133 



The Laureate Rowe makes his heroine bitterly but with 
reason exclaim : — 

" How hard is the condition of our sex, 
Through every state of life the slaves of man ! 
In all the dear delightful days of youth, 
A rigid father dictates to our wills. 
And deals out pleasure with a scanty hand : 
To his, the tyrant husband's reign succeeds; 
Proud with opinion^ of superior reason. 
He holds domestic business and devotion 
All we are capable to know, and .shuts us, 
Like cloistered idiots, from the world's acquaintance 
And all the joys of freedom. Wherefore are we 
Born with high souls, but to assert ourselves, 
Shake off this vile obedience they exact. 
And claim an equal empire o'er the world ? " 

—("The Fair Penitent," Act HI. sc. i.) 

Letourneau shows the state of feminine tutelage carried 
still further : " We shall find that in many civilisations 
relatively advanced, widowhood even does not gratify the 
woman with a liberty of which she is never thought worthy." 
And later on he quotes from the code of Manu, Book V. : — 
"A little girl, a young woman, and an old woman ought 
never to do anything of their own will, even in their own 
house. . . . During her childhood a woman depends 
on her father ; during her youth on her husband ; her 
husband being dead, on her sons ; if she has no sons, on 
the near relatives of her husband ; or in default of them, on 
those of her father ; if she has no paternal relatives, on the 



134 WOMAN FREE. 

Sovereign. A woman ought never to have her own way." — 
(" The Evolution of Marriage," Chaps. VII., XII.) 

Can a man be esteemed a human or even a rational 
being, who would accept or tolerate such terms for the life 
of his sister woman — the mother of the generations to 
come? 

See also Note XVII., 8. 

XXXV. 

1,2. — " . . . fearing that the slave herself might guess 
The knavery of her forced enchainedness,^^ 

" Here I believe is the clue to the feeling of those men 
who have a real antipathy to the equal freedom of women. I 
believe they are afraid, not lest women should be unwilling 
to marry . . . but lest they should insist that marriage 
should be on equal conditions ; but all women of spirit and 
capacity should prefer doing almost anything else, not in 
their own eyes degrading, rather than marry, when marrying 
is giving themselves a master, and a master too of all their 
earthly possessions. And truly, if this consequence were 
necessarily incident to marriage, I think that the apprehen- 
sion would be very well founded." — ^J S. Mill ("The Sub- 
jection of Women," p. 51). 

See also Note XL., 4. 

5. — " . . . dogmas . . . ." 

These dogmas which, under the guise of religion, were 
imposed on the acceptance of womanhood, may be aptly 



WOMAN FREE, 13S 



summarised and epitomised in the following lines from one 
of the hierarchs of the system : — 

" To whom thus Eve, with perfect beauty adorn'd : 
* My author and disposer, what thou bidd'st 
Unargued I obey : so God ordains ; 
God is thy law, thou mine ; to know no more 
Is woman's happiest knowledge, and her praise.' " 

— (" Paradise Lost," Book IV., 634.) 

Concerning which words of Milton well may Mary 
Wollstonecraft observe, with a quiet sarcasm : — " If it be 
allowed that women were destined by Providence to acquire 
human virtues, and, by the exercise of their understand- 
ings, that stability of character which is the firmest ground 
to rest our future hopes upon, they must be permitted 
to turn to the fountain of light, and not forced to shape 
their course by the twinkling of a satellite." — (" Vindica- 
tion of the Rights of Woman," Chap. II.) 

Milton also discoursed learnedly, but self-interestedly, 
concerning divorce, claiming for the husband a privilege 
and option which he utterly denied to the wife : — " . . . 
the power and arbitrement of divorce from the master of 
the family, into whose hands God and the law of all 
nations had put it . . . that right which God from 
the beginning had entrusted to the husband." — ("The 
Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce.") 

It was this same mediaeval moralist who trained his 
daughters in the pronunciation of .various languages, that 
they might minister to his comfort by reading to him in 
those tongues ; while he carefully withheld from them any 



136 WOMAN FREE. 



knowledge of the meaning of the words they were uttering. 
Could a greater insult or a more degrading office be inflicted 
on a cultured human intellect? Small wonder that his 
daughters were sufficiently " undutiful and unkind " — as 
Milton styled it— to leave him some years before his death. 
That the possessor of the same virile intellect which penned 
the " Areopagitica," with its brave freedom, could tolerate 
and promulgate the servitude and degradation of one half of 
humanity indicates in him a mental darkness as gross and 
as pitiable as his physical blindness. 

6, 7. — " . . . sanctimonious name 
Of * woman^s duty '...*' 

" Hitherto the world has been governed by brute force 
only, which means that the stronger animal, man, has kept 
the weaker in subjection, allowing her to live only in so far 
as she ministered to his comforts ; that he has not un- 
naturally made laws and fixed customs to suit his own 
pleasure and convenience, always at the expense of the 
woman ; and, what is worse, that he has in all countries 
given a religious sanction to his vices, in order to bend the 
woman to his wishes. ... I might also add that all 
cruel customs relating to woman have been imposed upon 
her under the guise of religion, and hence, though so in- 
jurious and baneful to herself, she is even slower to change 
them than the man. There is hardly any cruel wrong 
which lias been inflicted in the course of ages by man upon 
his fellow-man that has not been justified by an appeal to 
religion." — Mrs. Pechey Phipson, M.D. ("Address to the 
Hindoos of Bombay"). 



WOMAN FREE, 137 

Id, . , , "There is nothing which men so easily 
learn as this self-worship : all privileged persons, and all 
privileged classes, have had it. . . . Philosophy and 
religion, instead of keeping it in check, are generally 
suborned to defend it."— J. S. Mill ("The Subjection of 
Women," p. 77). 

Id, , , , A. Dumas fils speaks of "les femmes, 
ces ^ternelles mineures des religions et des codes ; " and of 
"les arguments a Taide desquels TEglise veut mettre les 
femmes de son cot^ " ; and shows as the effect that " II y a 
des femmes honnetes, esclaves du devoir, pieuses. Leur 
religion leur a enseigne le - sacrifice. Non seulement elles 
ne se plaignent pas des epreuves a traverser mais elles les 
appellent pour m^riter encore plus la recompense promise, 
et elles les benissent quand elles viennent. Tout arrive, 
pour elles, par la volont6 de Dieu, et tout est comme il doit 
etre dans cette vallee des larmes, chemin de T^ternite 
bienheureuse. . . . D'ailleurs elles ne lisent ni les 
journaux, ni les livres oU il est question de ces choses-lk ; 
cette lecture leur est'interdite. Si, par hasard, elles avaient 
connaissance de pareilles idees, . . . elles en rougira- 
ient, elles en souffriraient pour leur sexe, et elles prieraient 
pour celles qui se laissent aller a propager de si dangereuses 
erreurs et k donner de si deplorables exemples. . . . 
Mais, pas plus que le bonheur, la ruse, I'ignorance, la 
mis^re et la servitude, la foi aveugle, I'extase, et I'immobi- 
lite volontaire de Vesprit ne sont des arguments sans 
r^plique." — (" Les Femmes qui Tuent," &c., pp. 10, 91, 

The evil which Dumas points out is common to all 



138 WOMAN FREE. 

religions, of whatever race or make ; the hall-mark of every 
creed, from Confucianism to Comtism, has been the sub- 
jection of woman, under the affectation of advocating her 
highest interests. The pious compound has usually been 
altered to meet the growing intellectual requirements of 
common-sense and justice and humanity, and hence the 
precepts of religion as to feminine conduct have by no 
means always lain in such lines as the multitude in our modem 
Western civilisation still enjoins on women. No more 
than the whole and universal attitude of religion, ancient or 
modern, as regards woman, is exposed or expressed in the 
following recapitulation of present or historic facts : — " It is 
not the chastity of women, as we understand it, but her sub- 
jection, that Japanese morality requires. The woman is a 
thing possessed, and her immorality consists simply in dis- 
posing freely of herself. 

" As regards prostitution, Brahmanic India is scarcely 
more scrupulous than Japan, and there again we find 
religious prostitution practised in the temples, analogous to 
that which in ancient Greece was practised at Cyprus, 
Corinth, Miletus, Tenedos, Lesbos, Abydos, &c. (Lecky, 

* History of European Morals,' Vol. I., p. 103). Accord- 
ing to the legend, the Buddha himself, Sakyamouni, when 
visiting the famous Indian town of Vasali, was received 
there by the great mistress of the courtesans. (Mrs. Spier, 

* Life in Ancient India,' p. 28)." — Letourneau ("The 
Evolution of Marriage," Chap. X.). 

The enforcement, or commendation, or acceptance of 
the practice of prostitution, with its profanation of the 
dignity and individuality of woman, and its utter careless- 



WOMAN FREE, 139 

ness and disregard for either her physical or intellectual 
well-being, is indubitable evidence of the man-made (/>., 
male) origin of such a scheme of religion or ethics or 
economics. For, as Mrs. Eliza W. Farnham truly remarks : — 
" If a doubt yet remains on the mind of any reader that I 
have stated truly the part of the masculine as cause in this 
terrible phenomenon, let it be considered how man has always 
introduced prostitution in every country that he has visited, 
and every island of the sea. Does anyone believe, for example, 
that if the voyages of discovery and trade had been made by 
women instead of men, to the islands of the Pacific, this 
scourge would have been left as the testimony of their visit, 
so that, in a few generations, the populations native there 
would have fallen a literal sacrifice to their sensuality, as 
they are actually falling to man's at this day ? There is no 
comment needed on the illustration, I am sure. The com- 
mon sense of every reader will furnish the best comment 
and answer the question correctly." — ("Woman and Her 
Era," Vol. II., p. 299.) 

Id, , , , Lastly, but most convincingly, as to the wilful 
and intentional degradation and subjugation of woman by 
the teaching and rites of religion, let it be noted that, among 
the Jews, the very fact of being a woman is made a dis- 
grace; and woman, the mother of the human race, is 
insulted accordingly. In the morning synagogue service 
of prayer, directly after unitedly blessing "Adonai," for 
bestowing on the barn-door fowl the power to distinguish 
between night and day, and for not having created the 
worshippers present heathens or slaves, each member of 
the male portion of the congregation thanks the same 



I40 WOAfAN FREE. 

Adonai "that Thou hast not fashioned me as a woman," 
while each member of the segregated female portion of the 
company is instructed to submissively give thanks "that 
Thou hast fashioned me after Thfne own pleasure." The 
male thanks for not being heathens seem, under the cir- 
cumstances, conspicuously premature. — (See "Ohel Jakob," 
/>., " Jacob's Temple," the " Daily Prayer of the Israel- 
ites," FraenkePs ed., Berlin.) 

That the spirit of this Mosaic or Hebrew sexual teaching, 
with its incongruous assertions and inferences, has com- 
municated itself deeply to Christianity, may be observed 
from such passages as i Tim. ii. 13, 14; i Cor. vii., 9; 
Eph. v. 24 ; Col. iii. 18 ; i Pet. iii. i, 5 ; and many others. 

Id, , , , Buckle quotes from "Fergusson on the 
Epistles," 1656, p. 242 : — "The great and main duty which 
a wife, as a wife, ought to learn, and so learn as to practice 
it, is to be subject to her own husband." (See also Note 
XVII., 8.) And Buckle further cites, from " Fox's Journal," 
" After the middle of the seventeenth century the Quakers 
set up * women's ' meetings, to the disgust of many, and 
(query,, because) in the teeth of St. Paul's opinion." — 
("Miscellaneous and Posthumous Works," Vol. I., pp. 375, 

384.) 
/^ ... As already said, the "sanctimonious" claim 

of " woman's duty " runs through all religions. Here, for 

instance, is what is reported in a leader of the Manchester 

Guardian of August 15 th, 1892 : — 

"In this country no one would place suicide in the ranks of 
the virtues. Here it is a crime, but in China under certain cir- 
cumstances it is regarded as an act of heroism and devotion 



WOMAN FREE, 141 



worthy of sympathy and of national recognition. Thus the 
Governor of Shansi forwarded to the Emperor of China a 
memorial setting forth the virtues as daughter and wife of a lady 
in that province. She was of good family, both her father and 
grandfather having been officials in the district. At the age of 
ten she showed her love for her mother in a peculiarly Chinese 
fashion. One of the Celestial beliefs is that medicine acquires 
efficacy by having mingled with it some human flesh, and the 
little girl cut some from her own body to be used for the purpose 
of curing an illness which threatened her mother's life. In 1890 
she was married to an * expectant magistrate,' whose expecta- 
tions were realised by his appointment last autumn to a judicial 
post. What she had, as a good daughter, done for her mother, 
she, as a good wife, did also for her husband, who fell ill ; but 
her remedy was inefficacious, and he died. She was now in a 
position which, according to the Chinese code of ethics, has no 
responsibilities for a woman. Without parents, husband, or 
children to demand her affectionate care, she decided to commit 
suicide, and apparently not only communicated her intentions to 
those around her, but had their sympathy and support in her 
decision. We are told that, *only waiting till she had completed 
the arrangements for her husband's interment, she swallowed 
gold and powder of lead. She handed her trousseau to her 
relations to defray her funeral expenses, and made presents 
to the younger members of the family and the servants, after 
which, draped in her state robes, she sat waiting her end. The 
poison began to work, and soon all was over." The story of a 
distracted wife seeking refuge in death from the sorrows of 
widowhood might doubtless be told of any country in Europe, 
but the sequel is possible only in China. The Governor of 
Shansi, struck with the courage of the lady in what he evidently 
regards as a very proper though somewhat unusual exhibition 
of conjugal affection, asks in his memorial that the virtuous life 
and death of the lady may be duly commemorated. The prayer 
of the memorial has been granted by the Emperor and a 
memorial arch is to be erected in honour of the sucide, 

8. — " . . . this reasoned day . , • " 
. See Note xVlL, 8. 



142 WOMAN FREE. 

XXXVI. 

I. — " By cant condoned . , 



)i 



"Much has been said by Guizot on the influence of 
women in developing European civilisation. It is at least 
certain that several of the fathers did everything they .could 
to diminish that influence. TertuUian bitterly complains of 
the insolence of women who venture to teach and to 
baptise. He allows that in case of necessity baptism may 
be administered by a layman, but never by a woman. 
Again, among the other crimes of the heretics he particularly 
enumerates the insolence of their women, who ventured to 
teach, to dispute, &c., &c. In *De Cult. Faem,' lib. I. 
Cap. I., he says : * Let women remember that they are of the 
sex of Eve, who ruined mankind, and let them therefore 
repair this ignominy by living rather in dust than in 
splendour.'" — Buckle (" Common-Place Book," Note 1870). 

Id. — " . . . man fashioned woman' 5 '' sphere' ^^ 

"We deny the right of any portion of the species to 
decide for another portion, or any individual for another 
individual, what is, and what is not, * their proper sphere.* 
The proper sphere for all human beings is the largest and 
highest which they are able to attain to. What this is, 
cannot be ascertained without complete liberty of choice." — 
Mrs. Harriet Mill (" Enfranchisement of Women," West- 
minster Review, July 1851). 

6.— " . civil law , . ." 

« 
For example of this let us look at the law of our own 



WOMAN FREE, 143 

country in even recent times. Blackstone says: — "The 
husband (by the old law) might give his wife moderate cor- 
rection. . . . But this power of correction was con- 
fined within reasonable bounds, and the husband was 
prohibited from using any violence to his wife, aliter quam 
ad virum ex causa regiminis et castigaiionis uxoris sucb licite 
et rationabiliter pertinet (/>., otherwise than to a man for 
the ruling and punishment of his wife, lawfully and reason- 
ably pertains). The civil law gave the husband the same 
or a larger authority over his wife, allowing him for some 
misdemeanours, flagellis etfustibus acriter verberare uxorem 
{i,e.y to severely beat his wife with whips and cudgels), for 
others, only modicam castigationem adhibere (to administer a 
moderate chatisement). But with us, in the politer reign of 
Charles the Second, this power of correction began to be 
doubted, and a wife may now {circ, 1750) have security 
of peace against her husband ; or in return, a husband 
against his wife. Yet the lower rank of people, who were 
always fond of the old common law," (query, were the 
women fond of it?) "still claim and exert their ancient 
privilege : and the courts of law will still permit a husband 
to restrain a wife of her liberty in case of any gross mis- 
behaviour." ("Commentaries," Edward Christian's Ed., 
Book I., Chap. XV.) 

Such was undoubtedly the generally accepted and not 
infrequently acted upon assumption ; and it is certain that 
the Courts of Law would, in the event of a wife absenting 
herself from her husband, order her return to his custody ; 
and would, and did imprison her in default of her com- 
pliance. And this state of things continued until — as Mrs. 



144 WOMAN FREE, 



Wolstenholme Elmy records in her history of the celebrated 
" Clitheroe case " — 

"At length, in the year 1891, and, as in the case of the negro 
Somerset, upon the return to a writ of habeas corpus^ there 
have been found judges bold enough and just enough to set 
aside the ancient saws and maxims, resting mainly upon obiter 
dicta and loose phrases of previous judges used in reference to 
hypothetical cases never actually before the Courts, and to 
declare plainly and straightly that the personal slavery of the 
wife is no part of the law of England. The actual words of the 
Lord Chancellor in dealing with the return to the writ are, as 
reported by the Times ^ March 20th, 1 891, as follows : — 

" After stating the circumstances of the marriage, the decree, 
and the refusal of the wife to cohabit, it states : * I therefore 
took my wife, and have since detained her in my house, using 
no more force or restraint than necessary to take her and keep 
her.' That is the return which seeks to justify an admitted im- 
prisonment of this lady. I do not know that I am able to 
express in sufficiently precise language the difference between 
* confinement ' and * imprisonment,' but if there is any distinction, 
I can only say that upon these facts I should find an imprison- 
ment, and looking at the return it is put as a broad proposition 
that the right of the husband, where there has been a wilful 
absenting of herself by the wife from her husband's house — that 
it is his right to seize possession of his wife by force, and detain 
her in his house until she renders him conjugal rights. That is 
the proposition of law involved in the return, and I am not pre- 
pared to assent to it. The Legislature has expressly deprived 
the Matrimonial Court of the power of imprisoning the wife for 
refusal to comply with a decree for restitution of conjugal rights, 
and the result of such a system of law, if the husband had the 
power, would be that whereas the Court had no power to hand 
the wife over into her husband's hands, but only to punish her 
for contempt by imprisonment under the control of the Court, 
and without any circumstances of injury or insult, and even 
that power was taken away, the husband might himself of his 
own motion seize and imprison her until she consented to the 
restitution of conjugal rights. That is the proposition I am 
called upon to establish by holding this return to be good. 
/ am of opinion that no such right or power exists in law, I am 



WOMAN FREE, 145 



of opinion that no such right ever did exist in our law. What- 
ever authorities may be quoted for any such proposition, it has 
always been subject to this condition : that where she has a com- 
plaint of, or is apprehensive of, ill-usage, the Court will never in- 
terfere to compel her to return to her husband's custody. Now this 
brings me to the particular circumstances of this transaction. I 
am prepared to say that no English subject has a right to im- 
prison another English subject (who is sui juris^ and entitled to 
a judgment of his or her own) without any lawful authority, but 
if there were any qualification of that proposition I should be of 
opinion that on the facts of this case it would afford an ample 
justification to any Court for refusing to allow the husband in 
this case to retain the custody of his wife.' 

" On these and other grounds the Lord Chancellor declared 
that the return of the writ was bad, and ordered that the lady 
be restored to her liberty, the other judges concurring." — 
(" The Decision in the Clitheroe Case and its Consequences," 

pp. 3, 4.) 

Lord Esher was one of the two other Judges, both 
concurring, who formed the Court of Appeal which granted 
the writ, and a few days subsequently he gave from his place 
in the House of Lords the following further statement of 
his judgment and views : — 

" As I was a party to the judgment, which seems to have 
been more misunderstood than any judgment I recollect, I, 
perhaps, may be excused from making an observation. It was 
urged before the Court of Appeal that by the law of England a 
husband may beat his wife with a stick if she refuses to obey 
him, and that if a wife refused her husband conjugal rights, 
whatever that phrase may mean, which I have never been able 
to make out, he may imprison her until she restores him con- 
jugal rights, or satisfies him that she will. All that the Court 
of Appeal decided was that a husband cannot by the law of 
England, if the wife objects, lawfully do either of those things. 
Those intelligent people who have declared that the judgment 
is wrong must be prepared to maintain the converse — namely, 
that if a wife disobeys her husband he may lawfully beat her ; 
and if she refuses him a restitution of conjugal rights he may 



146 WOMAN FREE. 



imprison her, it was urged, in the cellar, or in the cupboard, or, 
if the house is large, in the house, by locking her in it and 
blocking the windows. I thought, and still think, that the law 
does not allow these things. . . ." — (The Times ^ 17th April, 
1891.) 

Mrs. Wolstenholme Elmy further tells us that : — 

" To Lord Selborne the married women of this country owe 
a further debt of gratitude for his introduction n 1 884 of the 
Matrimonial Causes Act of that session, which put an end to 
the punishment by imprisonment of the husband or wife who 
refused to obey the decree of the Court for restitution of con- 
jugal rights. The arguments of Mr. Lankester and Mr. Finlay 
in the Clitheroe case, based upon this abolition of the power of 
the Court to imprison for disobedience, are known to everyone. 
It would be destructive not only to personal freedom, but a 
gross infraction of justice and common-sense, were a husband 
to be permitted to exercise on his own behalf and at his own 
pleasure a prerogative of punishment which had been with- 
drawn from the Court. 

" That this power of imprisonment was not a mere brutum 
fulmsn^ but a terrible reality in former days, may be learned 
from a Suffolk case, early in the present century. A wife in 
contempt of court, a lady of good family in Suffolk, was im- 
prisoned in Ipswich goal for disobeying a decree requiring her 
to render conjugal rights to her husband. At the end of a 
year and ten months she became in want of the common 
necessaries of life, and was reduced to the gaol allowance of 
bread and water ; she suffered from rheumatism and other 
maladies, which were aggravated by the miseries of her im- 
prisonment ; and after many years of such suffering died in 
prison — for she never >vent back to her husband." — ("The 
Decision in the Clitheroe Case and its Consequences," p. 9.) 

But while the law has thus been needfully amended in 
England, a further evil effect has meantime supervened in 
our dependency of India ; for this faculty of imprisonment 
by the Courts for non-compliance with their order in the 
event specified, which has been abolished in England, seems 



WOMAN FREE, 147 

to be still existent and appealed to in our Indian Courts. 
(See Note XXII., 2.) The strange thing is that the suit 
for the restitution of conjugal rights is not a matter of native 
law, but an inadvertent and apparently entirely uninten- 
tional introduction from our English system; the very 
judges who administer the Indian Law being at a loss to 
account for its appearance in their practice. One authority, 
in seeking the solution of the problem, declares that — 
" Mr. * could not find any enactment directly es- 
tablishing suits for the restitution of conjugal rights, and 
believed there were none; but that they had been recog- 
nised in a Stamp Act, and again in the Limitation of Suits 
Act passed in 187 1.' The material point is that Indian 
lawgivers have not consciously given this remedy to those 
who did not possess it before ; but that it has slipped into 

our law without design. Mr. thinks * That this class of 

suits was known in the old Supreme Courts, in the Presi- 
dency towns, and as between Europeans ; and it was not 
an improper subject of legislation as regards Stamp Duty 
or Limitation by Time : but being spoken of without quali- 
fication was held by the High Courts to be available for all 
classes of the Indian communities.' If this theory be true, 
it accounts in an easy way for a change effected without 
any intention of the Rulers at all. It is worth enquiry into 
under this aspect." Yes, enquiry and rectification hand in 
hand! 

Id, — " . . . and part divine" 

The fact has been that male lawgivers, in whatever land, 
have generally asserted for their code of feminine ethics or 

L 2 



148 WOMAN FREE. 



conduct a divine origin, and have announced the punish- 
ment for breach thereof as a divine injunction. In very 
few instances, indeed, was there any attempt to decree an 
equal punishment to the male who was partner with the 
female in a mutual breach of this morality, and very fre- 
quently no punishment of the male attached at all ; and 
even in the few cases where such a punishment was nominally 
threatened, the man's share in the offence was most generally 
connived at, and passed unpunished. This double code 
of morality has a flagrant exemplification in the English 
Law of Divorce, by which, while a man can procure a 
Decree of Divorce on the simple ground of the adultery of 
his wife, a woman cannot obtain a like decree for her 
husband's adultery unless that offence be accompanied by 
such treatment of herself as the Court will recognise as 
" cruelty," or with " desertion." The double scheme of 
sexual morality, so revoltingly tolerated, in so far as man is 
concerned, by " society " in the present day is too patent 
to need further words here. And the repulsive cant is still 
that, while the man is allowed to go free, the punishment of 
the woman is due and commendable as in accordance with 
« divine law." (See Note XIV., 3.) 

XXXVII. 

3, 4. — " . . . lowest boor is lordly * baron ' styled. 
And hi^^hest bride as common 'feme ' reviled^ 

" . . . husband and wife ; or, as most of our elder 
law books call them, ' baron ' and * feme.' " — (Blackstone's 
"Commentaries," Bk. I. Chap. 15.) 



WOMAN FREE. 149 



But the context of the words "baron'' and "feme" in- 
volved something more than a mere fapn de parler of the 
law books. Edward Christian says, in Note 23 to the 
Chapter in " Blackstone " above quoted : — " Husband and 
wife, in the language of the law, are styled baron and feme ; 
the word baron, or lord, attributes to the husband not a 
very courteous superiority. But we might be inclined to 
think this merely an unmeaning technical phrase, if we did 
not recollect, that if the baron kills his feme it is the same 
as if he had killed a stranger or any other person ; but if 
the feme kills her baron it is regarded by the laws as a much 
more atrocious crime, as she not only breaks through the 
restraints of humanity and conjugal affection, but throws 
off all subjection to the authority of her husband. And, 
therefore, the law denominates her crime a species of 
treason, and condemns her to the same punishment as if 
she had killed the king. And for every species of treason 
(though in petit treason the punishment of men was only to 
be drawn and hanged), till the 30 Geo. III., Chap. 48, the 
sentence of woman was to be drawn and burnt alive." 

And Mr. Courtney Kenny says, on the same point, that 
the English Law of Marriage in the twelfth century had 
" clothed the humblest husband with more than the authority 
of a feudal lord, and merged his wife's legal existence alto- 
gether in his own.'' — ("History of the Law of Married 
Women's Property," p. 8.) 

And he exempHfies the position of the " feme " as being 
accurately depicted in the words of Petruchio : — 

" I will be master of what is mine own. 
She is my goods, my chattels ; she is my house. 



ISO WOMAN FREE. 

My household stuff, my field, my bam, 
My horse, my ox, my ass, my anything." 
— ("The Taming of the Shrew," Act III., scene 2.) 

The picture of the past masculine proprietorship and 
"buUyism" is scarcely overdrawn. Ere a distant day 
Englishmen will shudder in reflecting on the male creatures 
who were their progenitors, 

5, 6. — " The tardier fear that grants the clown a share 
In his own governance, denies it her,^^ 

By a leading article on Woman Suffrage, in the Times of 
29th April, 1892, a clear light is thrown on the causes which 
largely influenced the extension of the Parliamentary fran- 
chise to the poorer class of male citizens, — "a share of 
political power which they are not particularly well fitted to 
use," says the Times ; — and which denied the same right of 
franchise to women of whatever class. The intellect of the 
Times enounces that — 

" Without desiring to disparage the sex in any way, we must 
venture to maintain that in both camps a large female con- 
tingent would be a mischievous element. The female Conser- 
vative politician would be an obstacle to all rational reform ; 
the female Liberal politician would be the advocate of every 
crude and febrile innovation. No doubt we have put plausible 
arguments in the mouths of mere logic-choppers by treating 
the franchise as a right rather than as a privilege and a trust. 
Men can demand a share of political power whtch they are not 
particularly well fitted to use, because they possess de facto a 
share of the physical force upon which all political arrange- 
ments ultimately repose. Women do not possess such physical 
force, and, therefore, can prefer no such claim." 

Passing; over, as unworthy of serious refutation, the wild 



WOMAN FREE, 151 

assertions due to sex-bias in the first part of the above 
extract, it may be noted how instantly the lauded masculine 
weapon of logic is discarded and contemned as soon as it 
points in the direction of equal justice for woman. The 
"physical force" question is further dealt with in Note* 
XLV., 6. But considering the words we have italicised, 
does not the whole of the Times exposition as above justify 
the appellation of cowardly " fear " ? (See also p. 78.) 

Id, , . , Yet an even more unworthy thing than 
denial of the suffrage has taken place, in that English 
women have been really robbed of their, earlier franchises. 
A lady Poor Law Guardian of the Tewkesbury Union has 
written : — 

"... the present position of women in regard to the 
various franchises is anomalous and contradictory, unworthy of 
that great growth of freedom which the nineteenth century has 
given to men, and degenerate as regards the position which 
women held in the days of the Plantagenets and the Tudors. 
Freedom for women has not broadened down * from precedent 
to precedent' Rather has it suffered by unnecessary legislative 
interference. Every woman, except the Queen, is, politically, 
non-existent. It was not always so. Restrictions unknown to 
our ancient constitution have crept in. . . . Chief Justice 
Lee is reported to have cited a case (in a manuscnpt col- 
lection of HakewelFs), Catherine v. Surrey, in which it was 
expressly decided, that a feme sole, if she has a freehold, may 
vote for members of Parliament ; and a further one (from the 
same collection), Holt v. Lyle, in which it was decided, that a 
feme sole householder may claim a voice for Parliament men ; 
but, if married, her husband must vote for her ; whilst Justice 
Pasje declared, * I see no disability in a woman from voting for 
a Parliament man.' So closely, in the minds of our Judges, 
were the local and Parliamentary franchises bound up, that a 
question as to the rights of women in local voting seemed to 
involve considerations as to their right to vote for Parliament 
men. 



J 52 WOMAN FREE. 



"Yet, even in the matter of these local franchises, women have 
suffered, and do suffer, from legislative tinkering and sex- 
biassed decisions in our law courts. 

"Down to 1835, women, possessing the qualifications which 
entitled men to vote, voted freely in municipal elections, and in 
some important cities, such as London and Edinburgh, the 
civic rights even of married women, possessing a separate 
qualification from the husband, were well established. The 
Municipal Corporations Act of 1835, however (passed by the 
Whig administration of Lord Melbourne), was framed upon the 
evil precedent of the Reform Act of 1832, and by the use of 
the words * male persons,' in treating of the franchises under it, 
disfranchised every woman in the boroughs to which it applied, 
and this disfranchisement lasted for thirty-four years. 

* Nevertheless, in non-corporate districts, women continued to 
vote as freely as before, and thus secured the ultimate restitu- 
tion of the rights of their disfranchised sisters in incorporated 
districts ; for, when in 1869, on the consideration of the 
Municipal Franchise Bill of that year, these peculiar facts were 
brought to the notice of the House of Commons, and it was 
shown that the incorporation of any district involved the 
summary disfranchisement of the women ratepayers, the House, 
without a dissentient word, or any shadow of opposition, 
adopted the proposal to omit the word * male ' before the word 
^ person ' in Section i of the Bill, and thus restored the rights 
of the women ratepayers, of whom many thousands voted, as a 
consequence of the passing of the Act, in the municipal 
elections of the following November."— Mrs. Harriett Mcllquham 
("The Enfranchisement of Women : An Ancient Right, a 
Modem Need," pp. 5, 12, 13. 



8. — " . . . infants, felons, fools 



)i 



This legal courteousness has afforded Miss Frances Power 
Cobbe the text for an instructive paper: " Criminals, Idiots, 
Women, and Minors : Is the Classification Sound?" 
{Eraser's Magazine, December, 1868.) 

A recent instance o( the official collocation is to be found 
in the Act 5 and 6 Vict., Cap. 35, Sec. 41 : — 



WOMAN FREE, 153 

" And be it enacted, that the trustee, guardian, tutor, 
curator, or committee of any person, being an infant, or 
married woman, lunatic, idiot, or insane, and having the 
direction, control, or management of the property or con- 
cern of such infant, married woman, lunatic, idiot, or insane 
person, whether such infant, married woman, lunatic, idiot, 
or insane person shall reside in the United Kingdom or 
not," etc., etc. 

XXXVIII. 

7. — " . . . every bond erased . . ." 

" In the struggle of the races, keeping in view the teach- 
ings of evolutionists, the most reasonable and sensible thing, 
in addition to \\.% justness^ appears to be this : 

"First, to place women on an equal footing with men, 
socially, and in the eyes of the law. Before that is done, it 
is useless to talk about women's superiority or equality. It 
is all breath and words, or paper and ink. In the eyes of 
the law she is man's inferior. That is not all. In the eyes 
of the law the most cultured woman is inferior to the most 
uncultured man \ she is, in fact, pretty much on a level 
with a baby, or a boy or girl under age. Moreover, the 
most cultured woman in the United Kingdom is considered 
inferior, politically, to the American negro ! 

"Second, let the two sexes settle matters among them- 
selves, as far as intellect is concerned, as men now settle 
matters among themselves, without imposing on each other 
any disability. Those of both sexes who are weak will soon 
find their intellectual level ; and those of both sexes who 



154 WOMAN FREE. 



are strong will soon come to the front."— Emanuel Bonavia, 
M.D. (" Woman's Frontal Lobes ")• 



XXXIX. 

2. — " . . . equal power of rule . 



»> 



" Where women walk in public processions in the streets 
the same as the men, 
Where they enter the public assembly and take places 

the same as the men ; . . . 
Where the city of the cleanliness of the sexes stands, 
Where the city of the healthiest fathers stands. 
Where the city of the best bodied mothers stands. 
There the great city stands." 

—Walt Whitman (" Song of the Broad Axe '). 



3. — " Her voice in council and in senate 



>» 



" Is there so great a superfluity of men fit for high duties, 
that society can afford to reject the service of any com- 
petent person ? Are we so certain of always finding a man 
made to our hands for any duty or function of social im- 
portance which falls vacant, that we lose nothing by putting 
a ban on one half of mankind and refusing beforehand to 
make their faculties available, however distinguished they 
may be ? And even if we could do without them, would it 
be consistent with justice to refuse to them their fair share 
of honour and distinction, or to deny to them the equal right 
of all human beings to choose their occupation (short of 
injury to others) according to their own preferences, at their 



WOMAN FREE, 155 



own risk? Nor is the injustice confined to them, it is 
shared by those who are in a position to benefit by their 
services. To ordain that any kind of persons shall not be 
physicians, or shall not be advocates, or shall not be 
members of parliament, is to injure not them only, but all 
who employ physicians, or advocates, or elect members of 
parliament."— J. S. Mill ("The Subjection of Women," 
p. 94). 

4. — " . . . harmonising word . . ." 

"... the main reason why so many thoughtful 
women now claim direct Parliamentary representation is an 
unselfish one. They desire to take their full share in the 
service of the race; to help to solve those grave social 
problems now so urgently pressing, and which demand for 
their solution the combined resources of the wisdom, ex- 
perience, and heart of both halves of humanity. They 
know that the time is fast coming ~ if, indeed, it be not 
already come — which will need for its direction and control 
something more than diplomatic cleverness or political 
manoeuvring, which will demand the clearer conscience and 
the more sensitive perception of justice born of imaginative 
sympathy. It is because they hope and believe that in 
virtue of their faculty of motherhood they can contribute 
somewhat of these elements to the world's well-being, and 
can thus speed its progress towards a nobler future, that 
they claim full right and power to follow and fulfil their 
highest conceptions of duty." — Elizabeth C. Wolstenholme 
Elmy ("The Decision in the Clitheroe Case and its 
Consequences," p. 17). 



156 WOMAN FREE, 



7. — " Self-reverent each and reverencing each,^^ 

— A line from Part VII. of Tennyson's " Princess." 

Id, . , "The exigencies of the new life are no more 
exclusive of the virtues of generosity than those of the old, 
but it no longer entirely depends on them. The main 
foundations of the moral life of modern times must be 
justice and prudence ; the respect of each for the rights of 
every other, and the ability of each to take care of himself." 
—J. S. Mill ("The Subjection of Women," p. 159). 



XL. 

I. — " • . . but a slave himself 



yy 



" The domination of either sex over the other paralyses 
the dominion of either." — Ellen Sarah, Lady Bowyer 
(Letter to Daily News, 24th October, 1891). 

Jd. . . 

" Can man be free if woman be a slave ? 

Chain one who lives, and breathes this boundless air 

To the corruption of a closed grave ! 

Can they whose mates are beasts, condemned to bear 

Scorn, heavier far than toil or anguish, dare 

To trample their oppressors ? " 

— Shelley ("The Revolt of Islam," Canto 2, s. xliii.). 

2. — ". . . she to shape her oivn career be free . . ." 

"Not less wrong — perhaps even more foolishly wrong 
— is the idea that woman is only the shadow and atten- 
dant image of her lord, owing him a thoughtless and 



WOMAN FREE. 157 

^ . 



servile obedience, and supported altogether in her weak- 
ness by the pre-eminence of his fortitude. This, I say, is 
the most foolish of all errors, respecting her who was made 
to be the helpmate of man. As if he could be helped 
effectively by a shadow, or worthily by a slave.'* — John 
Ruskin (" Of Queens' Gardens," p. 125). 

4. — " Free mistress of her persotis sacred plan^ 

Eliza W. Farnham (in " Woman and Her Era," Vol. II., p. 
92) clearly enunciates the depth of degradation and slavery 
from which woman's person must be freed : — " When this 
mastery is established, and ownership of her becomes a fixed 
fact, she who was worshipped, vowed to as an idol, deferred 
to as a mistress, required to conform herself to nothing 
except the very pleasant requirement that she should take 
her own way in everything ; to come and go, to accept or 
reject, to do or not, at her own supreme pleasure — this 
being may find herself awaking in a state of subjection 
which deprives her of the most sacred right to her own 
person — makes her the slave of an exacting demand that 
ignores the conditions, emotions, susceptibilities, pains, and 
pleasures of her life, as tyrannically and systematically as if 
she were indeed an insensate chattel." 

Happily, as far as England is concerned, our law no 
longer lends its power to enforce such a position. 



5. — " Free human soul 



» 



Woman's deep and wholesome impulse and yearning for 
individual freedom and selfdom is well-spoken in the 
following lines, by an anonymous writer ; touchingly shown 



158 WOMAN FREE, 
1^ 



also is the unsufficingness to her soul of even the most 
honeyed of unequal positions : — 

" Oh, to be alone ! 
To escape from the work, the play, 
The talking every day ; 

To escape from all I have done. 
And all that remains to do. 
To escape — yes, even from you. 

My only love, and be 

Alone and free. 

Could I only stand 
Between gray moor and gray sky. 
Where the winds and the plovers cry. 

And no man is at hand ; 
And feel the free wind blow 
On my rain-wet face, and know 

I am free — ^not yours, but my own — 

Free, and alone ! 

For the soft firelight 
And the home of your heart, my dear. 
They hurt, being always here. 

I want to stand upright. 
And to cool my eyes in the air. 
And to see how my back can bear 

Burdens — to try, to know. 

To learn, to grow ! 

I am only you ! 
I am yours, part of you, your wife ! 
And I have no other life. 

I cannot think, cannot do ; 
I cannot breathe, cannot see ; 
There is * us,' but there is not * me ' : — 

And worst, at your kiss I grow 

Contented so." 

7. — " From woman slave can come but menial race^^' 
If the result to the family is such as I have described 



WOMAN FREE, 159 

what must be the effect on the race? A slow but sure 
degeneration. And has this not taken place ? Is the race 
now such as you read of it in early times before the Mogul 
invasion brought the Zenana and child marriage in its 
train? Where are the Rajputs and the Mahrattas with 
their manly exercises and their mental vigour ? For cen- 
turies you have been children of children, and there is no 
surer way of becoming servants of servants/' — Mrs. Pechey 
Phipson, M.D. (" Address to the Hindoos," p. 9). 

Id, . . "If children are to be educated to under- 
stand the true principle of patriotism, their mother must be 
a patriot." — Mary WoUstonecraft (Letter to Talleyrand). 

8. — " The mother free confers her freedom and her grace, ^"^ 

" The child follows the blood of the mother ; the son of a 
slave or serf father and a noble woman is noble. * It is 
the womb which dyes the child,' they say in their primitive 
language. . . . *The woman bears the clan,^ say the 
Wyandot Indians, just as our ancestors said * The womb 
dyes the child!'" — Letourneau ("The Evolution of Mar- 
riage," Ch. XL, XVIL). 

XLL 

I. — " By her the progress of our future kind,^^ 

" What may man be ? Who can tell ? But what may 
woman be 
To have power over man from cradle to corruptible 
grave ? " 

—William Blake (" Jerusalem "). 

Id, . . "The application of the Pfeiffer bequest, *for 



i6o WOMAN FREE, 



charitable and educational purposes in favour of women,' 
has been delayed by legal difficulties, but the Attorney 
General has now submitted to the Court of Chancery a first 
list of awards. Details given in the Journal of Education 
show that Girton and Newnham Colleges receive £5,ooo each, 
whilst Bedford College, Somerville Hall, the New Hospital 
for Women, the Maria Grey Training College, and a number of 
other institutions benefit by slightly smaller sums. The be- 
quests will doubtless be welcomed by the recipients, for all the 
institutions included so far are doing useful work with very 
inadequate means, and it is to be hoped that the generous 
example of the London merchant and his literary wife will be 
often followed in the future. Women's education — and girls', 
too, for that matter — in this country is almost unendowed, and 
is yet expected to produce results equal to those gained in the 
richly endowed foundations for boys and men. The interest of 
the Pfeiffer bequest, however, lies rather in the spirit that 
prompted it and in the views of progress held by the donors 
than in the generosity of the gift or the precise manner of its 
distribution. In a letter explaining his wishes, Mr. Pfeiffer 
remarks : — 

" I have always had and am adhering to the idea of 
leaving the bulk of my property in England for charitable 
and educational purposes in favour of women. Theirs is, 
to my mind, the great influence of the future. Education 
and culture and responsibility in more than one direction, 
including that of politics, will gradually fit them for the 
exercise of every power that could possibly work towards 
the regeneration of mankind. It is women who have hither- 
to had the worst of life, but their interest, and with their 
interest that of humanity, is secured, and I therefore am 
determined to help them to the best of my ability and 
means." — Manchester Guardiav^ June 7th, 1892. 

" Men are what their mothers made them. You may as 
well ask a loom which weaves huckaback, why it does not 



WOMAN FREE, i6i 

make cashmere, as expect poetry from this engineer, or a 
chemical discovery from that jobber. Ask the digger in the 
ditch to explain Newton's laws ; the fine organs of his brain 
have been pinched by overwork and squalid poverty from 
father to son, for a hundred years. When each comes forth 
from his mother's womb, the gate of gifts closes behind 
him. Let him value his hands and feet, he has but one 
pair. So he has but one future, and that is already pre- 
determined in his lobes, and described in that little fatty 
face, pig-eye, and squat form." — Emerson (Essay on Fate). 

Id, , . "The British race cannot afford to dispense 
with a// the advantage that may be in embryo in the future 
female intellect, because men and some women are found 
who declare that women are intellectually inferior. . . . 
No amount of prayers and wishes and submitting to God's 
will are of any avail. You must use the organs of the in- 
tellect in order, not only to increase their efficiency, but 
to prevent their going from bad to worse. It might here 
be noted, that because the British people might choose to 
be satisfied with atrophy of the intellect lobes in their 
mothers, it will not at all follow that other nations will 
do so a/so,. If such things as nations exist, there will 
always be rivalry and competition, and depend upon it 
those will be first whose mothers generally possess the 
most efficient intellect lobes. . . . Fortunately we 
have learnt another great lesson, evolved by Charles Dar- 
win's frontal lobes, and that is, that there is no such thing 
as 2i fixed and unalterable tissue or organism anywhere. All 
organisms and parts of organisms are changeable. Every- 
thing — organ and organism — h(^s changed in the past, is 

M 



1 62 WOMAN FREE. 

changing in the present, and will change in the future in 
accordance with the conditions that surround it. Women's 
frontal lobes and grey matter will certainly be no exception 
to the rule. Emancipation, keeping her eyes open, and 
thinking for herself are the three main things she has to 
keep hammering at, until the lords of creation see that 
they are the riglit things to do, to save future generations 
from universal imbecility." — E. Bonavia, M.D. ("Woman's 
Frontal Lobes "). 

2. — " Their stalwart body and their spacious mind ; '' 

" If she be small, slight-natured, miserable. 
How shall men grow ? " 

— Tennyson ("The Princess," Canto 7). 

XLIII. 

8. — ^^ Where lies her richest gift ^ ..." 

" As I have already said more than once, I consider it 
presumption in anyone to pretend to decide what women 
are or are not, can or cannot be by natural constitution. 
They have always hitherto been kept, as far as regards spon- 
taneous development, in so unnatural a state, that their 
nature cannot but have been greatly distorted and disguised, 
and no one can safely pronounce that if women's nature 
were left to choose its direction as freely as men's, and if 
no artificial bent were attempted to be given to it except 
that required by the conditions of human society, and given 
to both sexes alike, there would be any material difference, or 
perhaps any difference at all, in the character and capacities 



WOMAN FREE. 163 

which would unfold themselves."— J. S. Mill ("The Sub- 
jection of Women," p. 104). 

XLIV. 

4. — " . . , the freeman, equable . . ." 

" The freeman assuredly scorns equally to insult and to be 
insulted." — Alexander Walker ("Woman as to Mind," 
p. 205). 

' ■' XLV. 
2. — " . . . equal freedom^ equal fate . . ." 

" As long as boys and girls run about in the dirt, and 
trundle hoops together, they are both precisely alike. 
If you catch up one half of these creatures and train them 
to a particular set of actions and opinions, and the other 
half to a perfectly opposite set, of course their understand- 
ings will differ, as one or the other sort of occupations has 
called this or that talent into action. There is surely no 
occasion to go into any deeper or more abstruse reasoning 
in order to explain so very simple a phenomenon." — Sydney 
Smith (" Female Education"). 

Id. . . "Was it Mary Somerville who had to hide 
her books, and study her mathematics by stealth after all 
the family had gone to sleep, for fear of being scolded and 
worried because she allowed her intellect full scope ? She 
has now a bust in the Royal Institution ! . . . What- 
ever view of the case theoretical considerations may suggest, 
there is one fact beyond cavil, and it is this : that the 

M 2 



1 64 WOMAN FREE, 

female frontal lobes are not only capable of equalling in 
power the male lobes, but can surpass them wfun allowed 
free scope. This has been recently proved in one of the 
universities, where a woman surpassed the senior wrangler 
in mathematics — an essentially intellectual work." — Dr. 
Emanuel Bonavia (" Woman's Frontal Lobes "). 

The "girl graduate" last referred to is Miss Philippa 
Fawcett at the University Examinations, Cambridge, in 
June, 1890. 

3. — " Together reared . . ." 

• 

" We find a good example in the United States, where, to 
the horror of learned and unlearned pedants of both sexes, 
numerous colleges exist in which large numbers of young 
men and women are educated together. And with what 
results ? President White, of the University of Michigan, 
expresses himself thus : * For some years past a young 
woman has been the best scholar of the Greek language 
among 1,300 students ; the best student in mathematics in 
one of the classes of our institution is a young woman, and 
many of the best scholars in natural and general science 
are also young women.' Dr. Fairchild, President of 
Oberlin College in Ohio, in which over 1,000 students of 
both sexes study in mixed classes, says : * During an ex- 
perience of eight years as Professor of the ancient languages, 
Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, and in the branches of ethics 
and philosophy, and during an experience of eleven years 
in theoretical and applied mathematics, the only difference 
which I have observed between the sexes was in the 
manner of their rhetoric' Edward H. Machill, President 



WOMAN FREE. 165 

of Swarthmore College, in Pennsylvania, tells us that an ex- 
perience of four years has forced him to the conclusion 
that the education of both sexes in common leads to the 
best moral results. This may be mentioned in passing as 
a reply to those who imagine such an education must 
endanger morality." — Bebel (" Women," Walther's Transla- 
tion, p. 131). (See also Notes to line 7, forward.) 

It is of good omen that the precedent thus set in America 
is finding a following in our own isle also. All honour to 
the University of St. Andrews, concerning which sundry 
newspapers of 15th March, 1892, relate that: "The 
Senatus Academicus of the University of St. Andrews has 
agreed to open its classes in arts, science, and theology to 
women, who will be taught along with men. The Univer- 
sity will receive next year a sum of over ;^3 0,000 to be 
spent on bursaries, one half of the sum to be devoted to 
women exclusively. Steps are being taken to secure a hall 
of residence in which the women students may live while 
attending the University classes." 

Id, — " . . . /« purity and truths 

Through plastic childhood and retentive youth J^ 

"Je voudrais que ce petit volume apportit au lecteur 
un peu de la jouissance que j'ai godt^e en le com- 
posant. II complete mes Souvenirs, et mes souvenirs sont 
une partie essentielle de mon ceuvre. Qu'ils augmentent 
ou qu'ils diminuent mon autorit^ philosophique, ils expli- 
quent, ils montrent Torigine de mes jugements, vrais ou 
faux. Ma mbre, avec laquelle j'ai ^t^ si pauvre, k c6t6 de 
laquelle j'ai travaill^ des heures, n'interrompant mon travail 



i66 WOMAN FREE, 

que pour lui dire : * Maman, etes-vous contente de moi ? ' 
mes petites amies d'enfance qui m'enchantaient par leur 
gentillesse discrete, ma soeur Henriette, si haute, si pure, 
qui, k vingt ans, m'entraina dans la voie de la raison et me 
tendit la main pour franchir un passage difficile, ont 
embaume le commencement de ma vie d^un arome qui 
durera jusqu'k la mort." — Ernest Renan ("Souvenirs 
d'Enfance."). 

5. — " Their mutual sports of sinew and of brain *' 

" No boy nor girl should leave school without possessing 
a grasp of the general character of science, and without 
having been disciplined more or less in the methods of all 
sciences ; so that when turned into the world to make their 
own way, they shall be prepared to face scientific problems, 
not by knowing at once the conditions of every problem, or 
by being able at once to solve it, but by being familiar with 
the general current of scientific thought, and by being able 
to apply the methods of science in the proper way, when 
they have acquainted themselves with the conditions of the 
special problem." — T. H. Huxley (" Essay on Scientific 
Education"). 

And the same learned professor tells us, on another 
occasion : — " A liberal education is an artificial education 
which has not only prepared a man to escape the great 
evils of disobedience to natural laws, but has trained him 
to appreciate and to seize upon the rewards which Nature 
scatters with as free a hand as her penalties. That man, I 
think," (shall we not include " woman " also, on his own 
showing as above ?) " has had a liberal education who has 



IVOMAN FREE. 167 

- " " ' . — 

been so trained in youth thai his body is the ready servant 
of his will, and does with ease and pleasure all the work 
that, as a mechanism, it is capable of ; whose intellect is a 
clear, cold logic engine, with all its parts in equal strength 
and in smooth working order, ready, like a steam engine, to 
be turned to every kind of work, and spin the gossamers 
as well as forge the anchors of the mind ; whose mind is 
stored with a knowledge of the great and fundamental 
truths of Nature, and of the laws of her operations ; one 
who, no stunted ascetic, is full of life and fire, but whose, 
passions are trained to come to heel by a vigorous will, the 
servant of a tender conscience ; who has learned to love all 
beauty, whether of Nature or of art, to hate all vileness, and 
to respect others as himself. 

" Such an one, and no other, I conceive, has had a liberal 
education, for he is as completely as a man can be in 
harmony with Nature. He will make the best of her, and 
she of him. They will get on together rarely ; she as his 
ever beneficent mother, he as her mouthpiece, her conscious 
self, her minister, and interpreter.'* — Id, (" Essay on a 
Liberal Education.") 



6. — " In strength alike the sturdy comrades train; 



» 



How largely strength is simply a matter of training may 
be instanced by a case or two : — 

" The results of practice and training from childhood on 
the bodily development can be seen in female acrobats and 
circus riders, who could compete with any man in courage, 
daring, dexterity, and strength, and whose performances 
are frequently astonishing." — Bebel ("Woman," p. 126). 



1 68 WOMAN FREE. 



"I am a medical man. I have spent several years in 
Africa, and have seen human nature among tribes whose 
habits are utterly unlike those of Europe. I had been 
accustomed to believe that the muscular system of women 
is necessarily feebler than that of men, and perhaps I 
might have dogmatised to that effect ; but, to my astonish- 
ment, I found the African women to be as strong as our 
men. . . . Not only did I see the proof of it in their 
work and in the weights which they lifted, but on examin- 
ing their arms I found them large and hard beyond all my 
previous experience. On the contrary, I saw the men of 
these tribes to be weak, their muscles small and flabby. 
Both facts are accounted for by the habits of the people. 
The men are lazy in the extreme ; all the hard work is 
done by the women." — {Westminster Review, Oct., 1865, 

p. 355-) 

"Les femmes Sphakiotes ne le cedent en rien aux 

hommes pour la vigueur et I'energie. J'ai vu un jour une 

femme ayant un enfant dans les bras et un sac de farine sur 

la tete, gravir, malgrd ce double fardeau, la pente escarpee 

qui conduit k Selia." — Jules Ballot (" Histoire de Tlnsur- 

rection Cretoise," Paris, 1868, p. 251). 

Id, . . In this context it is pleasant to find in the 

newspapers such a note as the following : — 

" The frost continued throughout West Cheshire yesterday, 
and skating on rather rough ice was lars^ely enjoyed. At 
Eaton, where the Duke of Westminster is entertaining a party, 
the guests had a hockey match on the frozen fish-pond in 
front of the hall. The players, who kept the game up with 
spirit for over an hour, included the Duchess of Westminster, 
the Marquis and Marchioness of Ormonde, Lady Beatrice and 



WOAfAlSr FREE. 169 



Lady Constance BuUer, Lord Arthur Grosvenor, Lord Gerald 
Grosvenor, Lady Margaret and Lady Mary Grosvenor, Captain 
and Mrs. Cawley, Hon. Mrs. Norman Grosvenor, Hon. Mrs. 
Thomas Grosvenor, General Julian Hall, and party."— -(i^aw- 
chester Courier^ 12th Jan., 1892.) 

Later on in the year we read in the journal Woman : — 

" At the Marlow Regatta an extremely pretty girl in navy 

serge, built Eton fashion, was a Miss , who wore as an 

under-bodice a full vest of shaded yellow Indian silk. Her 
prowess with the oar is the cause of daily admiration to the 
Marlowites." 

Again, on August 15th, 1892, the Manchester Evening 
Mail has the following: — 

" An ailing * navvy,' who has been engaged in some works 
near Versailles, was a few days ago admitted to a hospital in 
that town. Before the sick person had long been in the institu- 
tion it was discovered that the apparent * navvy ' was a woman. 
The superintendent of the hospital was not in the least surprised 
on hearing of the transformation scene, for it appears that he is 
accustomed to deal with many woman patients who enter the 
hospital in male attire. It is common in the district (says a 
Pans correspondent) for robust women to don men's garb in 
order to obtain remunerative employment as navvies, porters, 
farm labourers, road menders, or assistants to bricklayers, 
masons, and builders. It has long been established that the 
average Frenchwoman of town or country has as great a 
capacity for work either in counting-houses, shops, fields, or 
farms as her lord and master has for laziness and lolling in the 
caf^s, playing dominoes, and smoking cigarettes." 

On the preceding day, August 14th, 1892, the St. Peters- 
burg journals reported that : — 

" Ces jours-ci sera ^rigd d S6bastopol le monument ^lev6 en 
rhonneur des Femmes de cette ville qui, en 18^4, ont construit 
seules une batterie contre les troupes alliees. C'est une 
pyramide taill^e en granit d'une hauteur de cinquante pieds. 



170 WOMAN FREE, 

Sur un cot^ est ^crit en lettres d'or : * C'est ici que se irouvait la 
baiterie des Femmes ' ; sur I'autre face les mots suivants sont 
graves : * A cet endroit, en 1854, les Femmes de Sebaslopol ont 
consiruit une batterie.' Le jour de 1' inauguration de ce monu- 
ment n'est pas encore fixe. L'lmp^ratrice se fera reprdsenter k 
^inauguration par un grand-due." 

And, in October, 1892, the "sporting" newspapers re- 
corded that : — 

" Women are gradually coming to the fore as bicycle riders. 
Miss Dudley, a well-known rider, has just accomplished a feat 
which would have seemed wonderful for any rider not long ago. 
She has ridden from a spot near Hitchin to Lincoln, a distance 
of 100 miles, in little more than seven hours, or at the average 
speed of about fourteen miles an hour. Mr. and Mrs. Smith 
are well known as tandem riders, and they have won many 
races together ; but this is, perhaps, the first recorded instance 
of a woman cyclist holding her own so well, unaided, in a long 
road ride." 

See also "The Lancashire pit-brow women," Note 
XVIIL, 8. 

7. — " Of differing sex no thought inept intrudes ^^^ 

" I have conversed, as man with man, with medical men 
on anatomical subjects, and compared the proportions of 
the human body with artists — yet such modesty did I meet 
with that I was never reminded by word or look of my sex, 
and the absurd rules which make modesty a pharisaical 
cloak of weakness." — Mary Wollstonecraft ("The Rights of 
Woman," p. 278). 

" As a careful observer remarks, true modesty lies in the 
entire absence of thought upon the subject. Among 
medical students and artists the nude causes no extra- 
ordinary emotion; indeed, Flaxman asserted that the 



WOMAN FREE, 171 

students in entering the Academy seemed to hang up 
their passions along with their hats." — Westermarck (" His- 
tory of Human Marriage," p. 194). 

/d. . . **This is strikingly exemplified in the 
curious conversation recorded in Ly lie's 'Euphues' and his 
* England/ edit. 1605, 4to, signature X — Z 2, where young 
unmarried people of both sexes meet together and discuss 
without reserve the ticklish metaphysics of love. But 
though treading on such slippery ground, it is remarkable 
that they never, even by allusion, fall into grossness. Their 
delicate propriety is not improbably the effect of their 

liberty." — Buckle ("Common-place Book," No. 856). 

. « ... 

8. — " Their purpose calmly sure all errant aim excludes ^ 

" We point to a present remedy for undergraduate ex- 
cesses, which, resting on the soundest theory, has also the 
demonstration of unquestioned fact. It is co-education. 
Cease to separate human beings because of sex. They are 
conjoined in the family, in the primary and grammar 
schools, in society, and, after the degree rewards four years 
of monastic student existence, in the whole career of life. 

" Throw open the doors of Harvard to women on equal 
terms, absorb the annexe into the college proper, and as the 
night follows the day, scholarship will rise and dissipation 
fall by the law of gravitation. The moral atmosphere will 
find immediate purification, and the daily association of 
brothers and sisters in intellectual pursuits impart a breadth 
of view which is an education in itself. The professors 
may then be left safely to their themes, John Harvard's 
statue may cease to dread defilement, the regent will find 



172 WOMAN FREE. 



his censorial duties fully as perfunctory as he seems to have 
made them in the past, and character will crowd out 
profligacy." — William Lloyd Garrison (in WomatCs Journaly 
Boston, U.S., 6th February, 1892). 

"Whatsoever is ultimately decided by the wisdom of 
ages to be the best possible form of culture for one human 
nature, must be so for another, for one common humanity 
lies deeper in all and is more essential in each than any 
difference." — Sophia Jex-Blake, M.D. 



XLVL 

3. — " . . . impartial range 



» 



Preparation in this direction is going steadily forward, not 
only in the Western hemisphere, but in the Eastern. It is 
announced (in August, 1892) that 

" Lady students at the five Universities in Switzerland number 
224. Berne is the most popular, with 78 female undergraduates; 
Zurich has 70 ; Geneva 70 ; the new University of Lausanne 
has five ; and Basle one. The medical faculty is in most favour 
with the female students, and counts 157 of the whole number; 
the philosophical faculty follows with 62 ; five prefer the faculty 
of jurisprudence ; the theological faculty has not yet been in- 
vaded by the sex. More than half of the female students, 116, 
are Russians, 21 Germans, 21 Swiss, 11 Americans,, nine 
Austrians, seven Bulgarians, four English, three Roumanians, 
and three from the Turkish Empire, all of whom are young 
Armenian ladies." 

4. — " . . . wider wisdom . . .' 

Such wider wisdom — without the preliminary suffering 
— as the poet had attained to, when he wrote : — 



WOMAN FREE, 173 

" I have climbed to the snows of Age, and I gaze at a field 
in the Past, 
Where I sank with the body at times in the sloughs 
of a low desire ; 
But I hear no yelps of the beast, and the man is quiet 
at last, 
As he stands on the heights of his life with a glimpse 
of a height that is higher." 

— Tennyson (" By an Evolutionist "). 

Id, — " . . . juster ethics^ teach; . . ." 

" For we see that it is possible to interpret the ideals 
of ethical progress, through love and sociality, co-operation 
and sacrifice, not as mere Utopias contradicted by experience, 
but as the highest expressions of the central evolutionary 
process of the natural world. . . . The older biologists 
have been primarily anatomists, analysing and comparing 
the form of the organism, separate and dead j however in- 
completely, we have sought rather to be physiologists, 
studying and interpreting the highest and intensest activity 
of things living. . . . It is much for our pure natural 
history to recognise that * creation's final law ' is not struggle, 
but love." — Geddes and Thomson (" The Evolution of Sex," 

PP- 312, 313)- 

5; 6. — " Conformed to claims of intellect and needy 

The tempered numbers of their highborn breed ;^^ 

"There is a problem creeping gradually forward upon 
us, a problem that will have to be solved in time, and that 
is the steady increase of population, ... I believe 



174 WOMAN FREE. 



that with the emancipation of women we shall solve this 
problem now. Fewer children will be born, and those that 
are born will be of a higher and better physique than the 
present order of men. The ghastly abortions, which in 
many parts pass muster nowadays, owing to the unnatural 
physical conditions of society, as men, women, and children, 
will make room for a nobler and higher order of beings, 
who will come to look upon the production of mankind in 
a diseased or degraded state as a wickedness and unpardon- 
able crime, against which all men and women should fight 
and strive.'* — Lady Florence Dixie (" Gloriaha," p. 137). 

Id, . . And Mrs. Mona Caird says: — **If the new 
movement had no other effect than to rouse women to 
rebellion against the madness of large families, it would 
confer a priceless benefit on humanity." — {Nineteenth 
Century^ May, 1892.) 

Id, . . "To bring a child into existence without a 
fair prospect of being able, not only to provide food for its 
body, but instruction and training for its mind, is a moral 
crime, both against the unfortunate offspring and against 
society. . . . The fact itself of causing the existence of 
a human being, is one of the most responsible actions 
in the range of human life. To undertake this responsi- 
bility — to bestow a life which may be either a curse or a 
blessing — unless the being on whom it is bestowed will have 
at least the ordinary chances of a desirable existence, is a 
crime against that being. And in a country either over- 
peopled, or threatened with being so, to produce children, 
beyond a very small number, with the effect of reducing the 
reward of labour by their competition, is a serious offence 



WOMAN FREE. 175 

against all who live by the remuneration of their labour." — 
J. S. Mill (" Liberty," Chap. V.). 

.Id, , . A. Dumas fils draws a true and piteous 
picture in which this element of the unintelligent over- 
production of human beings has the largest share : — 

" II y a, et c'est la masse, les femmes du peuple et de la 
campagne suant du matin au soir pour gagner le pain 
quotidien, faisant ainsi ce que faisaient leurs meres, et met- 
tant au monde, sans savoir pourquoi ni comment, des fiUes 
qui,^ \ leur tour, feront comme elles, \ moins que, plus jolies, 
et par consequent plus insoumises, elles. ne sortent du 
groupe par le chemin tentant et facile de la prostitution, 
mais oil le labeur est encore plus rude. Le dos courbe sous 
le travail du jour, regardant la terre quand elles marchent, 
domptdes par la misfere, vaincues par Thabitude, asservies 
aux besoins des autres, ces creatures k forme de femme ne 
supposent que leur condition puisse etre modifi6e jamais. 
Elles n*ont pas le temps, elles n'ont jamais eu la faculty de 
penser et de reflechir ; k peine un souhait vague et bientot 
refoul6 de quelque chose de mieux ! Quand la charge est 
trop lourde elles tombent, elles geignent comme des 
animaux terrasses, elles versent de grosses larmes a I'idee de 
laisser leurs petits sans ressources, ou elles remercient in- 
stinctivement la mort, c'est k dire le repos dont elles ont tant 
besoin." (" Les Femmes qui Tuent," etc., p. loi.) 

Id, , . And again, the advanced biological writers 
say: — 

** The statistician will doubtless long continue his fashion 
of confidently estimating the importance and predicting the 
survival of populations from their quantity and rate of re 



176 WOMAN FREE. 



production alone ; but at all this, as naturalists, we can only 
scoff. Even the most conventional exponent of the struggle 
for existence among us knows, with the barbarian con- 
querors of old, that * the thicker the grass, the easier it is 
mown,' that * the wolf cares not how many the sheep may 
be.' It is the most individuated type that prevails in spite, 
nay, in another sense, positively because of its slower in- 
crease ; in a word, the survival of a species or family depends 
not primarily upon quantity, but upon quality. The future 
is not to the most numerous population, but to the most 
individuated. . . • 

" Apart from the pressure of population, it is time to be 
learning (i) That the annual childbearing still so common, 
is cruelly exhaustive to the maternal life, and this often in 
actual duration as well as quality ; (2) That it is similarly 
injurious to the standard of offspring ; and hence, (3) That 
an interval of two clear years between births (some gynaeco- 
logists even go as far as three) is due alike to mother and 
offspring." (It is to be noted that this period of three years 
is postulated as a necessity for the well-being of the off- 
spring ; it is by no means a recommendation to even a 
triennial maternity on the part of the mother, who is indeed 
to be, in all fulness, " free mistress of her person's sacred 
plan," with a duty to herself, as well as to her child). 
" It is time, therefore, as we heard a brave parson tell his 
flock lately, * to have done with that blasphemous whining 
which constantly tries to look at a motherless ' (ay, or 
sometimes even fatherless) 'crowd of puny infants as a 
dispensation of mysterious providence.' Let us frankly face 
the biological facts, and admit that such cases usually 



WOMAN FREE, 177 



illustrate only the extreme organic nemesis of intemperance 
and improvidence, and these of a kind far' more reprehens- 
ible than those actions to which common custom applies the 
names, since they are species-regarding vices, and not 
merely self-regarding ones, as the others at least primarily 
are. • • . 

" It seems to us, however, essential to recognise that 
the ideal to be sought after is not merely a controlled rate 
of increase, but regulated married lives. . . . We 
would urge, in fact, the necessity of an ethical rather than of 
a mechanical 'prudence after marriage,' of a temperance 
recognised to be as binding on husband and wife as chastity 
on the unmarried. . . . Just as we would protest 
against the dictum of false physicians who preach in- 
dulgence rather than restraint, So we must protest against 
regarding artificial means of preventing fertilisation as 
adequate solutions of sexual responsibility. After all, the 
solution is primarily one of temperance. It is no new nor 
unattainable ideal to retain, throughout married life, a large 
measure of that self-control which must always form the 
organic basis of the enthusiasm and idealism of lovers." — 
Geddes and Thomson (" The Evolution of Sex," Chap. XX.). 

As a fitting exemplification of the words of the " parson " 
above narrated, compare the following verbatim extract from a 

conversation in this year of grace 1892. The referred to 

is a man about 35, middle-class, and of "good * education'" (!) 
The same description would also apply to the speaker, who 

said, " Poor is a brave fellow, and keeps up his head in the 

worst of luck. He has a lot of home troubles ; he has lost 
three children, and his wife always has a bad time at the birth 
of each baby." 

No word of sympathy for the wife and mother, or even of 
recognition that it was really she who bore the pain at each 

N 



178 WOMAN FHEE. 



** bad time." As the children left alive still numbered two at 
the time of the speech, the whole incident can but imply — on 
the part of both actor and speaker — the hideous, even if un- 
conscious, inhumanity so widely prevalent. Never will " high- 
born breed " be attained till such action of low-bred intellect is 
reprobated and amended ; in accordance with the enunciated 
truth, that :— 

" Especially in higher organisms, a distinction must obvi- 
ously be drawn between the period at which it is possible 
for males and females to unite in fertile sexual union, and 
the period at which such union will naturally occur or will 
result in the fittest offspring.*' — Geddes and Thomson {pp. 
cit, p. 243). 

7, 8. — " Not overworn ivith childward pain and carCy 

The mother — and the race — robust er health shall 
share ^^ 

" It is not the true purpose of any intellectual organism 
to live solely to give birth to succeeding organisms; its duty 
is also to live for its own happiness and well-being. Indeed, 
in so doing, it will be acting in one of the most certain 
ways to ensure that faculty and possession of happiness 
that it aims to secure for its progeny." — Ben Elmy (" Studies 
in Materialism," Chap. III.). 

Id, . . Even the placid and precisian American poet 
bears strong, if involuntary, testimony to the evil and wrong 
of the non-cultured and un tempered begetting of children : — 

" She wedded a man unlearned and poor, 
And many children played round her door ; 
But care and sorrow, and child-birth pain 
I^ft their traces on heart and brain." 

^Whittier (" Maud Miiller "), 



WOMAN FREE, 179 



Id, . . Mr. Andrew Lang also promises us " a world 
that is glad and clean, and not overthronged and not 
overdriven." — (Introduction to " Elizabethan Songs.") 

Id, . . "Justice never loses sight of self. . . . 
The language of Justice is * to Me and to You ; or to You 
and to Me.' . . . We have to learn, for the action 
and spirit worthy of the coming time, that woman is never 
to sacrifice herself to a man, but, when needful, to the 
Manhood she hopes or desires to develop in him. In this 
she will also attain her own development. But after the hour 
when her faith in the hope of worthy results fails her (reason 
instructing her nobler affections by holding candidly in 
view all the premises, past, present, and future), she is 
bound by all her higher obligations to bring that career, 
whether it be of the daughter, sister, mother, wife, or friend, 
to a close. For the inferior cannot possibly be worth the 
sacrifice of the superior. True self-sacrifice, which neces- 
sarily involves the temporally descent of the nobler to the 
less noble — the higher to the lower — is made only when 
the lower is elevated, improved, carried forward in its 
career, thereby. "^Eliza W. Farnham ("Woman and Her 
Era," Vol. II., p. 149). 

Id, . . "I have urged on woman independence of 
man, not that I do not think the sexes mutually needed by 
one another ; but because in woman this fact has led to 
an excessive devotion which has cooled love, degraded 
marriage, and prevented either sex from being what it should 
be to itself or the other. . . . Woman, self-controlled, 
would never be absorbed by any relations ; it would be only 
an experience to her as to man. It is a vulgar error that 

N 2 



i8o WOMAN FREE. 



love, a love to woman, is her whole existence ; she is also 
bom for truth and love in their universal energy." — 
Margaret Fuller Ossoli ("The Woman of the Nineteenth 
Century "). 

Id, . . Professor Alfred Russell Wallace has written 
an article, concerning part of which Mr. W. T. Stead 
rightly says : " It is a scientific reinforcement of the cause 
of the emancipation of women, and shows that progress 
of the cause of female enfranchisement is identified with 
the progress of humanity." — {Review of Reviews^ Vol. V., 

p. 177.) 

Professor Wallace says : — 

" When such social changes have been effected that no 
woman will be compelled, either by hunger, isolation, or 
social compulsion, to sell herself, whether in or out of wed- 
lock, and when all women alike shall feel the refining 
influence of a true humanising education, of beautiful 
and elevating surroundings, and of a public opinion which 
shall be founded on the highest aspirations of their age and 
country, the result will be a form of human selection which 
will bring about a continuous advance in the average status 
of the race. Under such conditions, all who are deformed 
either in body or mind, though they may be able to lead 
happy and contented lives, will, as a rule, leave no children 
to inherit their deformity. Even now we find many women 
who never marry because they have never found the man 
of their ideal. When no woman will be compelled to marry 
for a bare living or for a comfortable home, those who re- 
main unmarried from their own free choice will certainly 
increase, while many others, having no inducement to 



WOMAN FREE. i8i 

an early marriage, will wait till they meet with a partner 
who is really congenial to them. 

"In such a reformed society the vicious man, the man 
of degraded taste or feeble intellect, will have little chance 
of finding a wife, and his bad qualities will die out with 
himself. The most perfect and beautiful in body and mind 
will, on the other hand, be most sought, and, therefore, be 
most likely to marry early, the less highly endowed later, 
and the least gifted in any way the latest of all, and this will 
be the case with both sexes. 

" From this varying age of marriage, as Mr. Galton has 
shown, there will result a more rapid increase of the former 
than of the latter, and this cause continuing at work for 
successive generations will, at length, bring the average man 
to be the equal of those who are now among the more ad- 
vanced of the race." — "Human Progress, Past and Present " 
{Arena, Jan., 1892). 

XLVII. 

I. — ^^ Nor blankly epicene . . ." 

" Bring up a boy and girl side by side, and educate them 
both for the same profession under the same masters, and a 
novelist who depicts character could yet weave a story out 
of the mental and emotional differences between them, 
which will cause them to look at life from totally opposite 
points of view." — Mabel Collins (" On Woman's Relation 
to the State "). 

2. — " . . . sequence of thai dayj^ 

** We have seen that a deep difference in constitution ex- 



i82 WOMAN FREE. 



presses itself in the distinctions between male and female, 
whether these be physical or mental. The differences may 
be exaggerated or lessened, but to obliterate them it would 
be necessary to have all the evolution over again on a new 
basis. What was decided among the Prehistoric Protozoa 
cannot be annulled by Act of Parliament." — Geddes and 
Thomson (" Evolution of Sex," p. 267). 

3, 4. — " . . . not , , , by aping falser sex shall 

truer growJ^ 

" While man and woman still are incomplete 
I prize that soul where man and woman meet, 
Which types all Nature's male and female plan. 
But, friend, man- woman is not woman-man." 

— Tennyson (" On One who Affected an Effeminate 

Manner "). 

XLVIII. 

8. — " Happy what each may bring to help the common fateJ^ 

" I would submit to a severe discipline, and to go without 
many things cheerfully, for the good and happiness of the 
human race in the future. Each one of us should do 
something, however small, towards that great end. . . . 
How pleasant it would be each day to think, to-day I have 
done something that will tend to render future generations 
more happy. The very thought would make this hour 
sweeter. It is absolutely necessary that something of this 
kind should be discovered. ... It should be the 
sacred and sworn duty of everyone, once at least during 
lifetime, to do something in person towards this end. It 



WOMAN FREE, 183 



would be a delight and a pleasure to me to do some 
thing every day, were it ever so minute. To reflect that 
another human being, if at a distance of ten thousand 
years from the year 1883, would enjoy one hour's more life, 
in the sense of fulness of life, in consequence of anything 
I had done in my little span, would be to me a peace of 
soul."— Richard Jefferies (" The Story of My Heart," pp. 
129, 131, 160). 

XLIX. 

I. — ^^ By mutual aid perfecting complex many 

Kant says : "Man and woman constitute, when united 
the whole and entire being, one sex completes the other." — 
Bebel (" Woman," Walther's Translation, p. 44). 

2, 3. — " Their two-fold vision human life may scan 
From differing standpoints , . 

See Note XLVII., i. 



» 



LI. 

4. — "Zr<?r ^rain untutored . . ." 

" The soldier is exercised in the use of his weapons, the 
artisan in the use of his tools. Every profession demands 
a special education, even the monk has his novitiate. 
Women alone are not prepared for their important maternal 
duties." — Irma von TroU-Borostyani (" Die Mission unseres 
Jahrhunderts." A Study on the Woman Question). 

LIII. 

2. — " . , . the quivering nerve . . ." 
*'M. Chauveau states that his object was * To ascertain 



1 84 WOMAN FREE. 



the excitability of the spinal marrow, and the convulsions 
and pain produced by that excitability.' His studies were 
made chiefly on horses and asses, who, he says, * lend them- 
selves marvellously thereto by the large volume of their 
spinal marrow.' M. Chauveau accordingly * consecrated 
eighty subjects to his purpose.' * The animal,' he says, ' is 
fixed upon a table. An incision is made on its back about 
fourteen inches long ; the vertebrae are opened with the 
help of a chisel, mallet, and pincers, and the spinal marrow 
is exposed." (No mention is made of anaesthetics, which of 
course would nullify the experimenter's object of studying 
" the excitability of the spinal marrow, and the convulsions 
and pain produced by that excitability.") " M. Chauveau 
gives a large number of his cases. . . . Case 7 : ' A 
vigorous mule. When one pricks the marrow near the line 
of emergence of the sensitive nerves, the animal mani- 
fests the most violent pain.' Case 20 : * An old white horse, 
lying on the litter, unable to rise, but nevertheless very sensi- 
tive. At whatever points I scratch the posterior cord I pro- 
voke signs of the most violent suffering.'" — {Journal de 
Physiologic^ du Dr. Brown-S^quard. Tome Quatrieme. 
No. XIII.) 

4. — " . . . living butchery with learned knife.^^ 

" We are told what Professor Briicke says with reference 
to section of the trigeminus : — * The first sign that the 
trigeminus is divided is a loud piercing cry from the animal. 
Rabbits we know,' he adds, * are not very sensitive ; all sorts 
of things may be done to them without making them utter a 
cry ; but in this operation, if it succeeds, they invariably 



WOMAN FREE, 185 

send forth a prolonged shriek.' " — "Lectures on Physiology," 
Vol. II., p. 76. 

5. — " . . . cruel anodyne that chained the will . . ." 

It is dubious whether curare be even an anodyne, i,e, a 
deadener of pain. M. Claude Bernard, himself a vivisector, 
says : — " Curare acting on the nervous system only sup- 
presses the action of the motor nerves, leaving sensation 
intact. Curare is not an anaesthetic." (Revue Scientifique^ 
1871-2, p. 892.) 

6. — " , , . the shuddering victim conscious stillJ^ 

" Everyone has heard of the dog, suffering under vivi- 
section, who licked the hand of the operator ; this man, 
unless he had a heart of stone, must have felt remorse to 
the last hour of his life." — Darwin ("The Descent of Man," 
Part I., Chap. II.). 

8. — ^^ Nor yields her holiest tru'hs on suc'i a 

murderer* s rack,^^ 

" It is fit to say here, once for all, that laws which govern 
the animal kingdom below the human, can no more be 
accepted as final and determining to man, in physiological, 
than in intellectual and moral, action. . . . For neither 
the knife of the anatomist, nor the lens of the microscopist, 
are infallible interpreters of function. We do not possess 
ourselves of all of Nature's secrets by cutting up her tissues 
and fabrics, neither by the keenest inspection of their 
ultimate atoms, whether fluid or solid. There are some 
truths withheld from the investigator, however brave, patient, 



i86 WOMAN FREE. 



and nice his methods and means, which are given up, in 
due time, to the truth-seer, without any method or means, 
save the intuitive faculty and its unambitious, guileless 
surrender to the service offered it. Such, it is at least 
possible, we may find has been Nature's dealing in this occult 
department." — Eliza W. Farnham ("Woman and Her Era," 
Vol. I., pp. 47, 50). 

LIV. 

I. — " True science finds its own by kindlier quesV^ 

" Science is of the utmost importance to mankind, but 
the last degree of importance cannot be said to attach to 
all its mmute discoveries, and where, as in physiology, the in- 
vestigation becomes inhuman, there it ought to stop. It 
ought to stop for our own sakes if from no other motive, 
for the torturing of animals on the chance that it may 
suggest the means of alleviating some of our own pains 
helps to blunt those sensibilities which afford us some of 
our purest pleasures. Animals are not our equals in all 
things, but they seem to be at any rate our equals in the 
sense of pain. The want of imagination may deprive it in 
their case of some of its poignancy, but on the other hand 
they have none of the supports wliich we derive from 
reason and sympathy, from the tenderness of friendship and 
the consolations of religion. With them it is pure, unmiti- 
gated, unsolaced suffering. Our duties to them form a 
neglected chapter in the code of ethics, but we ought not to 
torture them, and there are many who will maintain that 
the obligation is absolute. Life is no doubt valuable, but 
it is not everything. It is more than meat, as the body 



WOMAN FREE. 187 

is more than raiment, but it is not more than humanity. 
There are occasions on which it has to be risked, and there 
are terms on which men of honour and patriotism would 
hold it worthless. The doctrine that we may subject the 
lower animals to incredible suffering on the possibility that 
it may save ourselves from an additional pang is of a selfish 
and degrading tendency. It helps to lower the * moral 
ideal' and to weaken the springs of heroism in human 
character. We owe it to ourselves to keep clear of this 
peril. Nature surrounds us with limitations. Here is one 
which all that is best and noblest in us sets up, and it is 
more sacred than those over which we have no control. 
We refuse to torture other sentient creatures in order that 
we may live." — Dr. Henry Dunckley (^Manchester Guardian^ 
August 9th, 1892). 

The above noble pronouncement, with its conclusion, is 
instinct with the spirit of true science (which repudiates 
with disdain and horror the hypocritical pseudo-science of a 
ghastly and demoralising study and pursuit of cruelty), — the 
true science which is one with love, because it refuses the 
acceptance of life itself on terms of outrage to love. 

See Note LXL, 3. 

4. — " , , , a keener lens ofman^s own brain J^ 

" Observation is perhaps more powerful an ofganon than 
either experiment or empiricism." — Richard Jefferies 
("Story of My Heart," p. 162). 

Id, . . It is well that some English physicists of the 
fullest scientific impulse and effort are revolted at the in- 
human and bootless cruelty of the foreign medical schools 



1 88 WOMAN FREE. 



which masquerades as scientific research. Is it not possibly 
something more than a coincidence that vivisectionists in 
general exhibit an aversion to the equality of woman, and 
that vivisection flourishes more unrestrainedly where her 
position and influence are less recognised ; /.^., in plain 
words, — in a lower civilisation ? 

Mr. Lawson Tait says, with the indignation of a truly 
scientific mind at these methods of "science falsely so 
called":— 

" For one, as intimately and widely concerned in the applica- 
tion of human knowledge for the saving of human life and the 
relief of human suffering as anyone can be, or as anyone has ever 
been, I say I am grateful for the restrictive legislation. Let me 
give one brief illustration of my most recent experience in this 
matter as one of hundreds which confirm me in my determina- 
tion persistently to oppose the introduction into England of 
what passes for science in Germany. Some few years ago I 
began to deal with one of the most dreadful calamities to which 
humanity is subject by means of an operation which had been 
scientifically proposed nearly two hundred years ago. I mean 
ectopic gestation. The rationale of the proposed operation was 
fully explained about fifty years ago, but the whole physiology 
of the normal process and the pathology of the perverted one 
were obscured and misrepresented by a French physiologist's 
experiments on rabbits and dogs. Nothing was done, and at 
least ninety-five per cent, of the victims of this catastrophe 
were allowed to die. 

" I went outside the experimentalists' conclusions, went back 
to the true science of the old pathologist and of the surgeon of 
1 701, and performed the operation in scores of cases with 
almost uniform success. My example was immediately followed 
throughout the world, and during the last five or six years 
hundreds if not thousands of women's lives have been saved, 
whilst for nearly forty years the simple road to this gigantic 
success was closed by the folly of a vivisector. . . . 

"Views such as mine are those of a minority of my pro- 
fessional brethren, and are generally sneered at as those ^of a 



WOMAN FREE, 189 



crank. But my reply to this is that they form the new belief, 
that of the coming generation, and that not one in fifty of the 
bulk of my present brethren have ever seriously gone into the 
question, and probably have never seen a single experiment on 
a living animal. 

"My address as the Surgical Orator of 1890, when the 
British Medical Association met in this town, was mainly 
directed to the mischievous system of so-called scientific train- 
ing, of purely German origin and thoroughly repugnant to our 
English tastes and our English common sense. 

" It is therefore a satisfactory matter to know that the Council 
of Mason's College would have none of it, and that the govern- 
ing body of the new University College of Nottingham has 
recently decided similarly. The Medical School of Queen's 
College is now united entirely with the Science School of 
Mason's College ; but we, of Mason's College, have had the 
direction of the science teaching of the Medical School for 
several years, we have had no German scientific methods, and 
our success has not diminished thereby one atom — on the 
contrary." — Lawson Tait, F.R.C.S., President of Mason^s Science 
College ^ Birmingham (" The Discussion on Vivisection at the 
Church Congress, October, 1892"). 

At the Congress, as above, Professor Horsley made 
aspersions on Miss Frances Power Cobbe, as to statements 
concerning Vivisection in her work, **The Nine Circles." 
The professot declared some of the reported cruel experi- 
ments to have been painless, owing to the victims being 
under the influence of anaesthetics. In reply to the attack, 
the following preliminary letter from Miss Cobbe was then 
published ;»— 

"to the editor of the * times.' 

"Sir, — Professor Horsle/s criticism on the above work — 
planned and compiled by my direction — demands from me a 
careful reply, which I shall endeavour to give as soon as may 
be possible at this distance from the books whence the impugned 
passages are derived. I shall be much surprised if the hocus 
pocus of the sham anaesthetic curare with ineffective applica- 



-.tA 



I90 WOMAN FREE. 



tions of genuine chloroform do not once more illastiate 'i 
curse of vi\isectible animals,' and if the results of the experi* 
ments in question, whatever were their worth, would not, in 
most cases, have been vitiated had real and absolute anaestliesia 
been produced in the \'ictims. Should a small number of the 
experiments cited in the * Nine Circles ' prove, however, to have 
been performed on animals in an entirely painless state, I shall, 
while withdrawing them with apologies from a forthcoming new 
edition of the book, take care at the same time to call attention 
to the multitude of other experiments, home and foreign, theran 
recorded — e.g.^ baking to death, poisoning, starving, creating 
all manner of diseases, inoculating in the eyes, dissecting^ oat 
and irritating the exposed nerves, causing the brain of cats * to 
run like cream,' etc., about which no room for doubt as to the 
unassuaged agony of the animal can possibly exist" 

Miss Cobbe concludes by a sharp, but just, criticism on 
her critic, and with an acute diagnosis of the learned vivi- 
sectionist*s own condition : — 

" The tone of Dr. Horsle/s remarks against me personally 
will probably inspire those who know me and the history of my 
connexion with the anti-vivisection cause with an amused sense 
of the difficulty wherein the Professor must have found himself 
when, instead of argument in defence of vivisection, he thus 
turned to * abuse the plaintiffs' attorney.' For myself I gladly 
accept such abuse (or mere bluster) as evidence that the con- 
sciences even of eminent vivisectors are, like their victims' 
nerves, imperfectly under the influence of the scientific 
anaesthesia, and remain still sensitive to the heart-pricking 
charge which I bring against them, of cowardly cruelty to 
defenceless creatures. 

" I am, Sir, yours, 

"Frances Power Cobbe. 

"Hengwrt, Dolgelly, Oct. 8th, 1892." 

%• A further newspaper correspondence concerning 
" The Nine Circles," a work from which some of the fore- 
going notes on vivisection are copied, has gone on while 



WOMAN FREE, 191 



" Woman Free " is passing through the press ; the vivisectors 
saying that certain of the incidents transcribed in "The Nine 
Circles " are without the announcement that in some cases 
an anaesthetic had been administered prior to the act of 
living anatomy, otherwise admittedly true in every detail. 
The vivisectors lay what stress they can on the omissions ; 
indeed, their principal advocate has made use of a grossness 
of imputation and a coarseness of invective that augurs ill 
for any gentleness of treatment or purpose being existent in 
the organism of such an operator. 

Yet, in truth, it is not a matter of surpassing import 
whether the assertion of the operation (alone) being con- 
ducted under an anaesthetic be indubitable, since the after- 
consequences of pain or incommodity had to be endured 
by the victim without anaesthetics. What initial chloroform- 
ing could ward off the constant after-suffering attendant on 
the incubation of the disease for the creation of which the 
" operation " had been performed, a period acknowledgedly 
often lasting for weeks, and terminated only by death's 
mercy? Or what medicament could anaesthetise the im- 
potent yearning — to feed her starving puppy — of a poor 
mother dog whose mammary glands had been excised, even 
if the "operation" had been carried out "under chloro- 
form " ? Mr. Edward Berdoe, M.R.C.S., reproduces and 
reprobates the incident with horror in the Times of Oct. 27, 
1892 : — 

" Professor Goltz amputated the breast of the mother of a 
puppy nursing her young . . . who * unceasingly licked the 
living puppy with the same tenderness as an uninjured dog 
might do/ " 



192 WOMAJSf FREE. 



Most gladly may we turn to the words and ways of worthier 
seekers after truth. Professor Lawson Tait is reported by 
the Standard^ 28th Oct., 1892, as saying at a meeting the 
previous day : — 

" Vivisection was a survival from mediaeval times. It could 
not be justified by any results that it had produced. In days 
when they could tell the composition of the atmosphere of Orion 
by means of the spectroscope, it was a disgrace that men should 
resort to vivisection, instead of perfecting other and more 
humane means of research." 

There speaks true science. And, on a later occasion, 
Mr. Lawson Tait quotes the celebrated anatomist, Sir 
Charles Bell (who had been falsely claimed as an advocate 
of vivisection), as saying, "on page 217 of the second 
volume of his great work on the Nervous System, published 
in 1839": — 

"... a survey of what has been attempted of late years 
in physiology will prove that the opening of living animals has 
done more to perpetuate error than to confirm the just views 
taken from the study of anatomy and natural motions. . . . 
For my own part I cannot believe that Providence should 
intend that the secrets of nature are to be discovered by means 
of cruelty, and I am sure that those who are guilty of protracted 
cruelties do not possess minds capable of appreciating the laws 
of nature." — (The Times ^ Nov. 8th, 1892, p. 3.) 

The views of Charles Bell and Lawson Tait are in striking 
and encouraging coincidence with verses LIIL, LIV., and 
LV. 

To women peculiarly it belongs to oppose the doctrines 
and methods of vivisectionists, for to the practitioners of 
that school were due the arguments or assumptions which 



WOMAN FREE. 193 

sufficed to introduce for a while into our country the vile 
system of according a licence to male dissoluteness and 
female subjection — under a pretext of public morality and 
"scientific" sanction — known on the continent as the 
"police des moeurs," and in sundry Naval and Military 
stations of England and Ireland as the "Contagious 
Diseases Acts." 

LV. 

8. — " . . . from Lovers might alone all thoughts of 

Wisdom growT 

" Hast thou considered how the beginning of all thought 
worthy the name is love ; and the wise head never yet was, 
without first the generous heart?" — Carlyle' (^'French 
Revolution," Vol. III., p. 375). 

LVI. 

5. — " With woman honoured^ ris'S man to heighfJ^ 

"If a Hindoo principality is strongly, vigilantly, and 
economically governed ; if order is preserved without op- 
pression, if cultivation is extended, and the people prosper- 
ous, in three cases out of four that principality is under a 
woman's rule. This fact, to me an entirely unexpected 
one, I have collected from a long official knowledge of 
Hindoo Governments."— J. S. Mill (" The Subjection of 
Women," p. 100 note). 

6. — ^^With her degraded^ sinks again in nights 

" And you who have departed from the common tradition, 
how have you fared in the race of life ? Are your men as 

o 



194 WOMAN FREE. 

brave and fearlessly truthful, are your women as courageous 
and honest as in the old days of * the maiden's choice ' ? 
Are the little worn-out child-wives of to-day likely to have 
descendants like those of the damsels of your ancient 
epics ? Where are the deeds of high emprise, of daring 
valour, and of patient persistence of the youths who were 
fired by the pure love of a woman ? Ah ! gentlemen, with 
love life departs ; there is no vitality in married life without 
affection, and when love, the great incentive to action, dis- 
appears from the family, leaving dry the streams of affection 
which should flo^ between the children and parents, what 
must come of the race?" — Mrs. Pechey Phipson, M.D. 
("Address to the Hindoos"). 

Id, . • " From all we know of the laws of life and 
its development it would appear one of the foolishest things 
on earth for men to fancy that they can debase the intellect 
lobes of women, and at the same time exalt their own. 
No breeder of cattle or horses would think of debasing the 
qualities, in the females, which he would desire to possess 
in the males. 

" No race in the future can either rule the world or even 

-continue in existence without improving the intellect of that 

race, and this certainly cannot be done by depauperising 

. the intellects of more than half of the progenitors of that 

race." — Dr. E. Bonavia ("Woman's Frontal Lobes"). 

i • . 1. s 

8. — " . . . Earth! s advancing queen,^'' 
"Will man den ganzen Menschen studiren, so darf man 

« 

nur auf das weibliche Geschlecht seine Augen richten : 
. dejin wo die Kraft schwacher ist, da ist das Werkzeug um 



WOMAN FREE, 195 



so kiinstlicher. Daher hat die Natur in das weibliche 
Geschlecht eine naturliche Anlage zur Kunst gelegt. Der 
Mann ist f^eschaffen^ ueberdte Natur zu gebieten, das Weib aber^ 
den Mann zu regieren, Zum Ersten gehort viel Kraft, zum 
Andern viel Geschicklichkeit." — Immanuel Kant. 

LVII. 

I. — " , , , in jealousy . . ." 

The male conceit and jealousy of sex, existent among 
the majority of meaner men, has been perceived and 
censured or satirised by higher masculine minds both in 
ancient and modern literature. To take a few scattered 
instances from the latter, Shakspeare says : — 

"... however we do praise ourselves, 
Our fancies are more giddy and infirm. 
More longing, wavering, sooner lost and won 
Than women's are." 

— (" Twelfth Night," Act IL, Sc. 4;) 

Goethe says pungently (in "Wilhelm Meister's Apprentice- 
ship ") : *• People ridicule learned women and dislike even 
women who are well informed, probably because it is con- 
sidered impolite to put so many ignorant men to shame." 

As our own plain-spoken Sydney Smith has said, in his 
essay on Female Education : — " It is natural that men who 
are ignorant themselves, should view, with some degree of 
jealousy and alarm, any proposal for improving the educa- 
tion of women." 

A ludicrously pitiful modern-day instance of the jealous 
ignorance or ignorant jealousy to which Goethe and Sydney 

o a 



196 WOMAN FREE. 



Smith make reference, is afforded by a seriously-written 
leading article in No. 545 of the Christian Commonwealth, 
a London weekly newspaper, under date of 24th March, 
1892 : — 

" The Woman question will not down. She is asserting her- 
self in every direction, and generally with considerable force. 
In America she is positively alarming the lords of creation by 
her rapid progress in educational matters. She is actually out- 
running the men in the race for intellectual attainments. And 
this fact is becoming so evident, and so prominent, that a new 
problem is being evolved from it. This is, how are the finely 
educated young women of America to find congenial husbands? 
It is assumed by some writers that already there is a great dis- 
parity between the culture of the young men and young women, 
and that every year the chasm between them is becoming 
deeper and wider. This is a truly lamentable state of things, 
but the woman movement in this country is likely to take a 
more practical course. The agitation of the question of 
Woman Suffrage may bring about a reaction against her ex- 
cessive culture. If woman is permitted to enter the cesspool of 
politics, it is probable she will not be very long distressed with 
an overplus of those qualities which are just now endangering 
her conjugal felicity in the United States. . . 



V 



It is refreshing and consolatory to revert from such 
verbiage to what Sir Humphrey Davy said (" Lectures, 18 10 
and 1811"): "It has been too much the custom to en- 
deavour to attach ridicule to the literary and scientific 
acquisitions of women. Let them make it disgraceful for 
men to be ignorant, and ignorance will perish." 

To Shakspeare and Goethe may be added the corrobora- 
tion of French intellect : — 

"Nest-il pas Evident que Moliere, dans ses Femmes 
Savantes n'a pas attaqud I'instruction, I'etude, mais le 
pedantisme, comme, dans son Tartuffe, il avait attaque 



WOMAN FREE. 197 

non la vraie devotion, mais rhypocrisie ? N'est-ce pas 
Molifere lui-m^me qui a ^crit ce beau vers : " Et je veux 
qu'une femme ait des clart^s de toutV^ — Monseigneur 
Dupanloup, Eveque d' Orleans (" Femmes Savantes et 
Femmes Studieuses," 1868, p. 8). 

"C'est k Condorcet et non pas k Jean Jacques, comme 
on le croit g^n^ralement, qu'appartient 1' initiative des 
r^formes propos^es dans T Education et la condition des 
femmes."— Daniel Stern ("Hist, de la Revolution de 
1848," Vol. II, p. 185). 

" Quand la loi frangaise " — (shall we not say also every 
other?) — "declare la femme inf^rieure k Thomme ce n'est 
jamais pour lib^rer la femme d'un devoir vis-k-vis de Thomme 
ou de la society, c'est pour armer Thomme ou la society 
d'un droit de plus contre elle. II n'est jamais venu k 
rid^e de la loi de tenir compte de la faiblesse de la femme 
dans les diffi^rents d^lits qu'elle peut commettre ; au con- 
traire, la loi en abuse." — A. Dumas fils (" Les Femmes qui 
Tuent," etc., p. 204). 

Mill says : — " There is nothing which men so easily learn 
as this self- worship; all privileged persons, and all privileged 
classes have had it." And he also speaks of a time — "when 
satires on women were in vogue, and men thought it a 
clever thing to insult women for being what men made 
them." — (" Subjection of Women," pp. 76, 77). 

We have seen (Note XLV., 5) how Professor Huxley 
postulates scientific training equally for girls and boys ; he 
has also said : — " Emancipate girls. Recognise the fact 
that they share the senses, perceptions, feelings, reasoning 
powers, emotions of boys, and that the mind of the average 



198 WOMAN FREE. 



girl is less different from that of the average boy, than the 
mind of one boy is from that of another ; so that whatever 
argument justifies a given education for all boys, justifies its 
application to girls as well." — (" Emancipation, Blcuk and 
Whiter) 

Balzac asserted: "A woman who has received a mas- 
culine education possesses the most brilliant and fertile 
qualities, with which to secure the happiness of her hus- 
band and herself." — (" Physiologie du Mariage," M^ita- 
tion XL). 

But the instances are innumerable where the intellect of 
higher men expressly or unconsciously rebukes the jealous 
sexual conceit of their less intelligent brethren. Dr. 
Bonavia says, very tersely : — " The fact is, many men don't 
like the idea of being surpassed or even equalled by women. 
They stupidly feel their dignity wounded. This jealousy, 
however, is not only extremely contemptible and unjust, 
but disastrous to the true interests of the race, for men have 
mothers as well as women^ and imbecility — the result of 
atrophied frontal lobes — is just as likely to be transmitted 
to the one sex as to the other, as far as we yet know. 
Just see the injustice of men's jealousy in matters of intel- 
lect. Only recently the talent of Miss Ormerod — ^an 
entomologist who can hold her own anywhere on earth — 
was kept under by the Royal Agricultural Society. She did 
the entomological work, and made the discoveries, while 
they \.OQ^ the credit. In their reports they did not even 
mention her name in connection with her own work !-^A 
more contemptible proceeding, it would appear, has never 
been brought to light, in the struggle of the sexes, if that 



WOMAN FREE. 19$ 



case has been correctly reported." — ("Woman's Frontal 
Lobes.") 

Bebel treats this jealousy with a fine irony in his ex-^ 
position of " the motives which induce most medical 
professors, and indeed the professors of every faculty, to 
oppose women students : " — " They regard the admission of 
women as synonymous with the degradation of science (!) 
which could not but lose its prestige in the eyes of the en- 
lightened (!) multitude if it appeared that the female brain 
was capable of grasping problems which had hitherto only 
been revealed to the elect of the opposite sex." — {Op, 
cit.^ p. 132.) 

Had Bebel recorded masculine mercenary considerations, 
rather than sham misgivings as to the interests of science, 
his sarcasm would have been very grim truth. Indeed, 
what is sometimes called the "loaves and fishes" argument 
is at the root of most of this masculine jealousy which 
cloaks itself under a pretension of tender consideration for 
woman's delicacy. To cite Bebel again : " Another ob- 
jection is that it is unseemly to admit women to medical 
lectures, to operations, and deliveries, side by side with 
male students. If men see nothing indecent in studying 
and examining female patients in the presence of nurses 
and other female patients, it is difficult to understand why 
it should become so through the presence of female 
students." — {Op, cit, p. 132.) And as to the actual 
fitness of women for exercising the profession of medicine 
or surgery: — 

" * Women always improve when the men begin to show 
signs of failing,' were the words of a distinguished physician 



200 H^OMAN FRER 



and surgeon, who had seen years of service on a remote 
wintry station of the army. * I have had fellows .brought 
to me to have the leg amputated — perhaps both — close to 
the body, and never anywhere in Paris, London, or New 
York, saw I better surgeon's assistants than some of our 
women made, especially the Sisters of Charity, of whom we 
had a few at the post, for three or four years. Heads as 
clear as a silver bell ; hands steady and unshrinking as 
a granite rock, yet with a touch as light as a spring leaf ; 
foot quick and indefatigable, whether the time was noon- 
day or midnight; memory perfect; tenderness for the 
sufferer unfailing. Talk about love, courage, fortitude, and 
endurance in your sex ! I tell you,' he added, with a need- 
less affimation at this point, * they seem to be nothing else, 
when these are most wanted, and the man who doubts them 
is an ass.'" — Eliza W. Farnham ("Woman and Her Era," 
Vol. n., p. 157). See also Note XXIX., 8. 

Id, . . Here may fittingly follow the report of a 
trained masculine judgment as to woman's ability in yet a 
further profession — that of the law : — 

At the recent opening of the Southern California College 
of Law, at Los Angeles, John W. Mitchell, the president, 
in his lecture upon " The Study of the Law," spoke of the 
utility of women studying law, in the following language : — 

" This part of this discourse it is believed would be radically 
incomplete without calling attention to one other and particular 
class of persons who need an insight into the rudiments of law 
— which class, it seems, has also been neglected by those 
occupying a like position to my own — I mean the women. He 
is, indeed, blind to the signs of the times who does not recog- 
nise the expanding field of women's work, and their increased 
influence m the professions as well as in the fine arts. 



WOMAA FREE. 201 



That women are entering the lists with men, in behalf of them- 
selves and womankind, is well ; for they must make up their 
minds to take up the task of urging the reforms they need, 
and must solve the woman problem in all its bearings. Women 
are doing this. They are becoming competitors with men in 
the pursuits of life, it is true ; but it is as much from neces- 
sity as choice. But it is not only the women who have to labour 
and earn their own living who need legal knowledge to aid 
them. It is more needful to the woman of property, be her 
possessions but an humble home or a colossal fortune ; whether 
she be married or single. Women want this experience to 
make them cautious of jeopardising their rights, and less con- 
fiding in business matters. The courts are full of cases showing 
how women have been wrongly stripped of their belongings. 
And, perhaps, if one woman had known the legal effect of some 
of her acts, one of the largest fortunes ever amassed in this 
State of Crcesus-like wealth would not have been carried to 
distant States, and there scandalously distributed amongst 
scheming adventurers and lawyers, making a little Massa- 
chusetts county-seat the theatre of one of the most remarkable 
contests for a fortune in the whole annals of probate court law. 
" As to the professions : women were for a long time barred 
from them, but now the barriers to all of them have been re- 
moved, and there is not a profession in which women are not dis- 
tinguished. They have graduated in the sciences from most 
universities with the highest honours, and have stood the same 
tests as the men. The law was about the last to admit them 
within its precincts, and there they are meeting with an unex- 
pected measure of success. Not only in this, but in other 
countries, there are successful women practitioners. And in 
France, where the preparatory course is most arduous, and the 
term of study longest, a woman recently took the highest rank 
over 500 men in her graduating examinations, and during the 
whole six years of class study she only lost one day from her 
work— an example that is commended to you students. Un- 
doubtedly, the weight of the argument is in favour of women 
studying law." — {IVomen^s Journal, Boston, U.S., 6th February, 
1892.) 

Id. ... Even the vaunted politeness and gallantry 
of the Frenchman is not proof against the far more deeply- 



202 IVOMAN FREE, 



bedded masculine jealousy. M. de Blowitz, the erudite 
correspondent at Paris of the TimeSy reports that — 

"The law students yesterday hooted down Mdlle. Jeanne 
Chauvin, 28 years of age, who was to have argued a thesis for 
a legal degree. She had chosen as her theme, *The Pro- 
fessions accessible to Women and the Historical Evolution of 
the Economic Position of Woman in Society.' The uproar was 
such that the examiner postponed the ceremony sine die. 
Mdlle. Chauvin is the first Frenchwoman who has sought a legal 
degree, but two years ago a Roumanian lady went through the 
ordeal without obstruction." — (The Times^ July 4, 1892.) 

To revert to the " loaves and fishes " argument, an in- 
cident now to be given will show that medicine and the law 
are not the only professions in which the objections to the 
equal status of the sexes are largely prompted by a 
"jalousie de metier" of a selfish and mercenary char- 
acter : — 

" The following letters have been received at Auckland 
from the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge 
in relation to the memorial lately sent from New Zealand 
in favour of the opening of degrees to women : — 






Dear Professor Aldis, 

'Your very interesting memorial reached me yesterday. 
1 still await the explanatory letter and analysis. After receiving 
I will write again. 

" * Yours etc., 

"*JOHN PEILE, 

" * Christ's College Lodge, " * Vice-Chancellor. 

"* Cambridge, Nov. 2nd, 1891.' 

"* Mv Dear Professor Aldis, 

" * The petition of the memorial received by me from 
Miss Lilian Edger and yourself, respecting degrees for women 
at the University of Cambridge, and the analysis of the signa- 



WOMAN ^REE. 203 



tures to that memorial, have been printed by me in the 
University Reporter^ the official organ of communication of any 
kind of business to the members of the Senate. The memorial 
itself will be preserved in the Registry of the University. Im- 
mediate action on this question by the Council of the Senate — 
the body, with which, as you are aware, all legislation in the 
University must begin — is not probable. The question was 
raised about three years ago ; and it became at once plain that, 
if persevered in, it would produce a very serious division in the 
ranks of those members of the University who had all shown 
themselves, in the past, friends to the highest education of 
women. Many of those who had earnestly supported the ad- 
mission of women to Tripos examinations, would not support their 
admission to the B. A . degree, I nto their — mostly practic^ — reasons 
I cannot fully enter : One was the belief that admission to B. A. 
must lead, in the end (in spite of any provisions which might be 
introduced), to admission to M.A., and consequently to a share 
in th^ management of the University ; it was also apprehended that 
difficulties would arise in the several colleges with rtspect to 
fellowships^ etc, I do not mention these difficulties as insuperable. 
But they are felt by so many that there is, I am persuaded, no 
prospect of successful action in this matter at the present time. 
I shall, therefore, not myself propose anything in the Council, 
nor so far has any other of the friends of women's education, of 
whom there are many on the Council, given notice of any 
motion. At any future time, when such a motion is made, your 
most influential memorial will certainly have its due weight 
with the members of the Council, and if they decide to take 
action, I hope also, with members of the Senate. 

" * I am, etc., 

"*JOHN Peile, 
"* Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge. 
" * Christ's College Lodge, 

"* Cambridge, Nov. 20th, 1891.'" 

— {New Zealand Herald^ 5th Jan., 1892.) 

6. — " . . . potency . . ." 

" The Brain is different from all other organs of the body. 
It is often a mass of structural potentialities rather than of 



204 WOMAN FREE, 



fully-developed nerve tissues. Some of its elements, viz., 
those concerned with best-established instinctive operations, 
naturally go on to their full development without the aid 
of extrinsic stimuli ; others, however, and large tracts of 
these, seem to progress to such developments only under 
the influence of suitable stimuli. Hence natural aptitudes 
and potencies of the most subtle order may never be mani- 
fested by multitudes of persons, for want of the proper 
stimuli and practice capable of perfecting the development 
and functional activity of those regions of the brain whose 
action is ftiseparably related to the mental phenomena in 
question." — Dr. H. C. Bastian ("The Brain as an Organ of 
Mind," p. 374). 

LVIIL 

I. — " Woman's own soul must seek and find , . 



»> 



On women of medical education especially is the duty 
incumbent to investigate the world of biological experience 
in woman. They may not sit quietly down and assume 
that in learning all that man has to teach, they rest his^ 
equals, and that the last word has been said on the matter. 
They have a field of exploration, with opportunities, with 
implements, and with capacities, which man cannot have. 
His research on such a question as the recognisedly most 
vital one of human embryology with all its issues, can get but 
rare and uncertain light from accidental occasions, and is, 
moreover, simply as it were a dead anatomising ; nor can he 
by any means reach the psychic or introspective phase of 
enquiry ; but woman has the live subject, body and soul, in 



WOMAN FREE, 205 



her own organism, to study at her leisure. Does she not 
yet see how to grasp such further living knowledge ? But 
that is the very quest here indicated. The askidian also 
had no strength of vision, yet we can now tell and test the 
Hght and the components of distant spheres. 

There are, undoubtedly, what may be termed intelligent 
operations carried on in the body unconsciously to oneself, 
or at any rate beyond the present ken of one's actively per- 
ceptive and volitional faculties. Observation and recogni- 
tion of these is to be striven for, and even guidance or 
command of them may be ours in a worthy future. The 
Times of 27th January, 1892, reported a lecture at the 
Royal Institution on the previous day by Professor Victor 
Horsley, in the course of which the lecturer — 



"... pointed out the pineal gland, which Descartes 
thought to be the seat of the soul, but which was now known 
to be an invertebrate eye. He also explained the functions of 
certain small masses of grey matter, which are two, viz. — sight 
and equilibration. The optic nerve was situated close to the 
crura, and equilibration was subserved by the cerebellum. After 
referring to the basal ganglia. Professor Horsley admitted that 
as science advanced we seem to know less and less about the 
specific functions of the various masses of grey matter, and less 
definite views than formerly prevailed were now held with 
respect to the local source of what are termed voluntary im- 
pulses, and that of sensations. . . . We were still in 
ignorance as to the functions of the optic thalamus, and of the 
corpus striatum. Those of the cortex had to some extent been 
ascertained. They might be divided into three classes, viz. — 
movement, sensation, and what was termed mental phenomena. 
But we were still in the dark as to those portions of the brain 
which subserved intellectual operations, memory, and emotional 
impulses. A like ignorance prevailed with respect to the basal 
ganglia." 



2o6 WOMAN FREE. 



What as yet unrecognised inward eyes watch over the 
embryo life ? 

3. — " . . . counsel helpful . . /' 

Mrs. Eliza W. Farnham says : — " In this day the most 
needed science to humankind is that which will commend 
women to confidence in themselves and their sex as the 
leading force of the coming Era — the Era of spiritual rule 
and movement ; in which, through them, the race is destined 
to rise to a more exhalted position than ever before it has 
held, and for the first time to form its dominant ties of 
relationship to that world of purer action and diviner 
motion, which lies above the material one of intellectual 
struggle and selfish purpose wherein man has held and 
exercised his long sovereignty." — ("Woman and Her Era," 
Vol. I., p. 311). 

5. — " . . . philosophic lore , . ." 

"The farther our knowledge advances, the greater will 
be the need of rising to transcendental views of the physi- 
cal world. ... If the imagination had been more 
cultivated, if there had been a closer union between the 
spirit of poetry and the spirit of science, natural philosophy 
would have made greater progress because natural philo- 
sophers would have taken a higher and more successful 
aim, and would have enlisted on their side a wider range 
of human sympathies." — Buckle (" Influence of Women on 
the Progress of Knowledge "). 

/^. " . . . chirurgic lore . . ." 

" The I^dy Dufferin fund had already been the means of 



WOMAN FREE. 207 



opening a school of medicine for Indian women, who would 
consequently devote themselves to the study of anatomy. 
Anatomy and Asiatic women. That was the most extra- 
ordinary association of ideas one could ever have imagined." 
— Professor Vamb^ry (Lecture to the Royal Scottish Geo- 
graphical Society, Edinburgh, 20th May, 1891). Reported 
in the Times of following day. 



8. — " Regent of Natures willy 



j> 



"Woman will grow into fitness for the sublime work 
which nature has given her to do, and man through her 
help and persuasion will spontaneously assume the relation 
of a co-operator in it. Finding that nature intends his 
highest good and that of his species, through the emancipa- 
tion and development of woman into the fulness of her 
powers, he will gratefully seek his own profit and happiness 
in harmonising himself with this method ; he will honour it 
as nature's method, and woman as its chief executor ; and 
will joyfully find that not only individuals, families, and 
communities, but nations, have been wisely dependent on 
her, in their more advanced conditions, for the good which 
can come only from the most perfect, artistic, and spiritual 
being who inhabits our earth." — Eliza W. Farnham 
(" Woman and Her Era," Vol. II., p. 423). 

LIX. 

I. — " Each sequent life shall feel her finer careP 

" The one thing constant, the one peak that rises above 
all c.ouds, the one window in which the light for ever 



2o8 WOMAN FREE. 

burns, the one star that darkness cannot quench, is woman's 
love. This one fact justifies the existence and the perpetu- 
ation of the human race. Again I say that women are 
better than men ; their hearts are more unreservedly given ; 
in the web of their lives sorrow is inextricably woven with 
the greatest joys ; self-sacrifice is a part of their nature, and 
at the behest of love and maternity they walk willingly and 
joyously down to the very gates of death. Is there nothing 
in this to excite the admiration, the adoration, of a modern 
reformer ? Are the monk and nun superior to the father 
and mother?" — Robert Ingersoll {North American Review^ 
Sept., 1890). 

2. — ^^ Each heir of life a wealthier bounty share ^'^^ 

Poets and physiologists agree in these prognostications. 
The keen observer, Bastian, in his treatise on archebiosis, 
willingly calls to his support an equally conscientious ally, 
in the following passage : — 

" We must battle on along the path of knowledge and of 
duty, trusting in that natural progress towards a far distant 
future for the human race, such as its past history may 
warrant us in anticipating. For, as Mr. Wallace points out, 
those natural influences which have hitherto promoted 
man's progress * still acting on his mental organisation, 
must ever lead to the more perfect adaptation of man's 
higher faculties to the conditions of surrounding nature 
and to the exigencies of the social state,' so that *his 
mental constitution may continue to advance and improve, 
till the world is again inhabited by a single, nearly 
homogeneous race, no individual of which will be inferior 



WOMAN FREE. 209 

V ^ I ■ ■■ L. MM 

to the noblest specimens of existing hiinianity/ " — Dr. H 
Charlton Bastian ("The Beginnings of Life," Vol. 11. 
P- 633). 

3. — " ITiose lives allied in equal union chaste " 

"The great chastity of paternity, to match the great 
chastity of maternity." 

—Walt Whitman (" Children of Adam "). 

4. — "-^ sweeter purpose, purer rapture, taste ;^^ 

"A wife is no longer the husband's property; and, 
according to modern ideas, marriage is, or should be, a 
contract on the footing of perfect equality between the 
sexes. The history of human marriage is the history of a 
relation in which women have been gradually triumphing 
over the passions, the prejudices, and the selfish interests of 
men." — Edward Westermarck (Concluding words of "The 
History of Human Marriage "). 



7. — " The only rivalry . 



» 



" When woman finds her proper place in legislation, it 
will be found ultimately that it will be not as man's rival, 
but his helpmate." — Mabel Collins (" On Woman's Relation 
to the State "). 

8. — ^^ How for their lineage fair still larger fate tofind'^ 

" Lycurgus, the Spartan lawgiver, had the idea of making 
public principle and utility predominate over private 
interests and affections ; and on that idea he ordained that 
children were not to be the property of their parents, but 

p 



210 WOMAN FREE, 



of the State, which was to direct their education, and deter- 
mine their modes of life. A better idea with the legislators 
of the future — the number of whom will be equal with that 
of all wholesomely-developed men and women upon the earth — 
will be to take fullest advantage of all natural instincts. 
The parents, their hearts ever yearning with love for their 
offspring, and the community, careful of its individual* 
members, co-operating in placing the children under all 
good influences towards that development, which, being the 
best for their individual lives, will also coincide with what 
is best for the general welfare. For this end, the experience 
of the past, and the higher wisdom of their own times, will 
far better qualify them to judge of fitting means and 
methods than we can now either surmise or suggest." — 
David Maxwell ("Stepping-stones to Socialism," p. 15). 

LX. 

I. — " Their task ineffable yields wondrous gain,^^ 

"... I rest not from my great task ; 
To open the eternal worlds ! To open the immortal eyes 
Of man inwards; into the worlds of thought: into 

eternity 
Ever expanding the human imagination." 

—William Blake (" Jerusalem "). 

2. — " Their energies celestial force attain,^^ 

" Les ^crivains du dix-huiti^me si^cle ont sans doute 
rendu d'immenses services aux Socidt^s; mais leur philo- 
sophic bas^e sur le sensualisme, n'est pas all^e plus loin que 



WOMAN FREE. 211 



I'^piderme humain. lis n'ont consid^r^ que Tunivers 
ext^rieur, et, sous ce rapport seulement, ils ont retard^, pour 
quelque temps, le ddveloppement morale de rhomme. . . . 
L'^tude des mystbres de la pens^e, la ddcouverte des organes 
de TAME humaine, la g^ometrie de ses forces, les ph^no- 
mbnes de sa puissance, Tappr^ciation de la faculty qu'elle 
nous semble poss^der de se mouvoir ind^pendamment du 
corps,- de se transporter oh. elle veut et de voir sans le 
secours des organes corporels, enfin les lois de sa dyna- 
mique et celles de son influence pdiysique, constitueront la 
glorieuse part du si^cle suivant dans le tr^sor des sciences 
humaines. Et nous ne sommes occupes peutetre, en ce 
moment, qu' k extraire les blocs ^normes qui serviront plus 
tard k quelque puissant g^nie pour bitir quelque glorieux 
Edifice." — Balzac ("Physiologic du Maiiage," Meditation 
XXVI.). 

3, 4. — " Their intermingled souls, with passion dight, 
In aspiration soar past earthly height, ^^ 

" As yet we are in the infancy of our knowledge. What 
we have done is but a speck compared to what remains to 
be done. For what is there that we really know ? We are 
too apt to speak as if we had penetrated into the sanctuary 
of truth and raised the veil of the goddess, when, in fact, 
we are still standing, coward-like, trembling before the 
vestibule, and not daring, from very fear, to cross the 
threshold of the temple. The highest of our so-called laws 
of nature are as yet purely empirical. 

" . . . They who discourse to you of the laws of nature 
as if those laws were binding upon nature, or as if they 

P 2 



2 12 WOMAN FEME. 



formed a part of nature, deceive both you and themselves. 
The (so-called) laws of nature have their sole seat, origin, 
and function in the human mind. They are simply the 
conditions under which the regularity of nature is recognised. 
They explain the external world, but they reside in the in- 
ternal. As yet we know scarcely anything of the laws of 
mind, and, therefore, we scarcely know anything of the laws 
of nature. We talk of the law of gravitation, and yet we 
know not what gravitation is ; we talk of the conservation 
of force and distribution of forces, and we know not what 
orces are ; we talk with complacent ignorance of the 
atomic arrangements of matter, and we neither know what 
atoms are nor what matter is ; we do not even know if 
matter, in the ordinary sense of the word, can be said to 
exist ; we have as yet only broken the first ground, we have 
but touched the crust and surface of things. Before us and 
around us there is an immense and untrodden field, whose 
limits the eye vainly strives to define ; so completely are they 
lost in the dim and shadowy outline of the future. In that 
field, which we and our posterity have yet to traverse, I 
firmly believe that the imagination will effect quite as much 
as the understanding. Our poetry will have to reinforce 
our logic, and we must feel as much as we argue. Let us 
then hope, that the imaginative and emotional minds of one 
sex will continue to accelerate the great progress, by acting 
upon and improving the colder and harder minds of the 
other sex." — Buckle (" Influence of Women on the Progress 
of Knowledge "). 

6. — " . . . the vision to retain^^ 



WOMAN FREE. 213 

As with Wordsworth's nature-nurtured maiden : — 

"... beauty born of murmuring sound 
Shall pass into her face . . . 
And vital feelings of delight 
. Shall rear her form to stately height . . . 
The floating clouds their state shall lend 
To her ; for her the willow bend, 
Nor shall she fail to see 
Even in the motions of the storm 
Grace that shall mould the maiden's form 
By silent sympathy."'' 

— (" Poems of the Imagination "). 

Id, . . " My hope becomes as broad as the horizon 
afar, reiterated by every leaf, sung on every bough, reflected 
in the gleam of every flower. There is so much for us yet 
to come, so much to be gathered, and enjoyed. Not for 
you or me, now, but for our race, who will ultimately use 
this magical secret for their happiness. Earth holds secrets 
enough to give them the life of the fabled Immortals. My 
heart is fixed firm and stable in the belief that ultimately 
the sunshine and the summer, the flowers and the azure 
sky, shall become, as it were, interwoven into man's 
existence. He shall take from all their beauty and enjoy 
their glory. . . . He is indeed despicable who cannot 
look onwards to the ideal life of man. Not to do so is to 
deny our birthright of mind." — R. Jefferies (" The Pageant 
of Summer"). 



214 WOMAN FREE, 

7, 8. — " . . . mould their dreams of love^ with conscious 
siill 
To human living types . . ." 

" Her Brain enlabyrinths the whole heaven of her bosom 
and loins 
To put in act what her Heart wills." 

—William Blake (" Jerusalem "). 

"These states belong so purely to the inner nature; are 
so deeply hidden beneath the strata of what we call the 
inner life, even, that only women, and of thes§ only such 
as have become self-acquainted, through seeing the depths 
within the depths of their own consciousness, can fully 
comprehend all that is meant in the words a * Purposed 
Maternity.' I use them in their highest sense, meaning not 
the mere purpose of satisfying the maternal instincts, which 
the quadruped feels and acts from, as well as the human 
being, but the intelligent, artistic purpose (to which the 
maternal instinct is a fundamental motive), to act in harmony 
with Nature in producing the most perfect being which the 
powers and resources employed, can bring forth. . . . 
It is probable that we shall, ere long, arrive at truer 
views of maternity everywhere ; and when we do, I think it 
will be seen that the office has a sacredness in Nature's eyes 
above all other offices, and that she reserves for it the finest 
of her vital forces, powers, susceptibilities, and means of 
every sort." — Eliza W. Farnham (" Woman and Her Era," 
Vol. II., p. 385 ; ^ol I., p. 93). 

[It has been an intense delight to come upon these and 
the other words and thoughts of Eliza W. Farnham • 



WOMAN FREE, 21 



" blazes " or axe-marks of this previous pioneer in the same 
exploration. It is only since completing the whole of the 
verses that the writer has found the passages quoted from 
Mrs. Farnham's work, and deduces a not unnatural . con- 
firmation of the mutually shared views, from the singular 
concord and unanimity of their expression.] 

8. — " . . . supreme of form and wilL^^ 

" The changes that have come over us in our social life 
during the past two decades are, in many respects, remark- 
able, but in no particular are they so remarkable as in the 
physical training and education of women. ... 

" The results of this social change have been on the whole 
beneficial beyond expectation. The health of women 
generally is improving under the chang© ; there is amongst 
women generally less bloodlessness, less of what the old 
fiction-writers called swooning ; less of lassitude, less of 
nervousness, less of hysteria, and much less of that general 
debility to which, for want of a better term, the words 
^ malaise^ and 'languor' have been applied Woman, in 
a word, is stronger than she was in olden time. With 
this increase of strength woman has gained in development 
of body and of limb. She has become less distortioned. 
The curved back, the pigeon-shaped chest, the dispro- 
portioned limb, the narrow feeble trunk, the small and 
often distorted eyeball, the myopic eye, and puny ill-shaped 
external ear — all these parts are becoming of better and 
more natural contour. The muscles are also becoming 
more equally and more fully developed, and with these 
improvements, there are growing up amongst women 



2i6 WOMAN FREE, 

models who may, in due time, vie with the best models 
that old Greek culture has left for us to study in its undying 
art."— Dr. Richardson ("The Young Woman," Oct., 1892). 

Id, — " . . . prophetic scenes, 

Spiritual projections . . . 

In one, the sacred parturition scene, 

A happy, painless mother births a perfect child." 

—Walt Whitman (" Autumn Rivulets "). 

Id, . . "I am so rapt in the beauty of the human 
form, and so earnestly, so inexpressibly prayerful to see that 
form perfect, that my full thought is not to be written. 
. . . It is absolutely incontrovertible that the ideal 
shape of the human being is attainable to the exclusion of 
deformities. . . . When the ambition of the multitude 
is fixed on the ideal form and beauty, then that ideal will 
become immediately possible, and a marked advance to- 
wards it could be made in three generations." — Richard 
Jefferies ("The Story of My Heart," pp. 32, 151, 131). 

/d . . 
" * The Gods ? ' In yourselvtfs will ye see them, when Venus 

shall favour your love. 
And man, fitly mated with woman, believes that his love 

is divine : 
When passion shall elevate woman to something so holy 

and grand 
That she — the ideal enraptured — shall ne'er be a check 

upon Man, 
Then the children they bear will be holy, and beauty shall 

make them her own, 



WOMAN FREE, 217 



And man in the eyes of his neighbour will gaze on the 

reflex divine 
Of the God he inclines to in spirit — or trace in each 

feature and limb 
The lines which the body inherits from souls which are 

noble and true. 

Would thou couldst feel in deep earnest, how beautiful 

God will be then, 
When we see Him as Jove or Apollo in men who inspire 

us with love. 
As Juno and Venus the holy, in women who know not 

the mean, 
And feel not the influence cruel of hardness and self-love 

and scorn. 
Would thou couldst once know how real the presence of 

God will become, 
How earnest and ever more earnest thy faith when thyself 

shall be great. 
And from the true worship of others thoult learn what is 

holy in them, 
And rise to the infinite fountain of glory which flows in 

us all." 

— C. G. Leland ("The Return of the Gods "). 

LXI. 

3. — " Their science ..." 

" Science then 
Shall be a precious visitant ; and then 
And only then, be worthy of her name : 



2i8 WOMAN FREE. 



For then her heart shall kindle ; her dull eye, 
Dull and inanimate, no more shall hang 
Chained to its object in brute slavery ; 
But taught with patient industry to watch 
The processes of things, and serve the cause 
Of order and distinctness, not for this 
Shall it forget that its most noble use, 
Its most illustrious province, must be found 
In furnishing clear guidance, a support 
Not treacherous, to the mind's excursive power." 
—Wordsworth (" The Excursion," Book IV.). 

4. — " . . . crude dimensions . . ." 

" In these material things, too, I think that we require 
another circle of ideas, and I beheve that such ideas are 
possible, and, in a manner of speaking, exist Let me 
exhort everyone to do their utmost to think outside and 
beyond our present circle of ideas. For every idea gained 
is a hundred years of slavery remitted. Even with the idea 
of organisation, which promises most, I am not satisfied, 
but endeavour to get beyond and outside it, so that the 
time now necessary may be shortened." — Richard Jeflferies 
("Story of My Heart," p. 180). 

8. — " The love that lifts the life from rank of earth to 

heaven J^ 

"... utter knowledge is but utter love — 
-Ionian Evolution, swift and slow. 
Thro' all the spheres — an ever opening height. 
An ever lessening earth." 

—Tennyson (" The Ring "). 



WOMAN FREE, 219 



Id. 



I, 2. 



" The light of love 
Not failing, perseverance from their steps 
Departing not, they shall at length obtain 
The glorious habit by which sense is made 
Subservient still to moral purposes, 
Auxiliar to divine. That change shall clothe 
The naked spirit, ceasing to deplore 
The burthen of existence . . . 

So build we up the Being that we are ; 

Thus deeply drinking-in the soul of things, 

We shall be wise perforce ; and, while inspired 

By choice, and conscious that the Will is free. 

Unswerving shall we move as if impelled 

By strict necessity, along the path 

Of order and of good. Whatever we see. 

Whatever we feel, by agency direct 

Or indirect, shall tend to feed and nurse 

Our faculties, shall fix in calmer seats 

Of moral strength, and raise to loftier heights 

Of love divine, our intellectual soul." 

—Wordsworth (" The Excursion," Book IV.). 

LXII. 

— " . . . winged words onwhich the soul would pierce 
Into the height of lovers rare Universe J^ 

The two lines are Shelley's, in his " Epipsychidion." 
7. — ^^Man^s destiny with woman^s blended be,'' 



220 WOMAN FREE, 



"... in the long years liker must they grow ; 
The man be more of woman, she of man." 

—Tennyson ("The Princess," Part VII.). 

Id, --" Dans ma maniere de sentir, je suis femme aux trois 
quarts.'' 

— Ernest Renan (" Souvenirs d'Enfance "). 

Id, 

" Das Ewigweibliche 
Zieht uns hinan." 
— Goethe (concluding two lines of " Faust "). 



8. — " . . . progression^ 



» 



" Unfolded out of the folds of the woman, man comes un- 
folded, and is always to come unfolded ; 

Unfolded only out of the superbest woman of the earth, is 
to come the superbest man of the earth ; 

Unfolded out of the friendliest woman is to come the 
friendliest man ; 

Unfolded only out of the perfect body of a woman can a 
man be form'd of perfect body ; 

Unfolded only out of the inimitable poem of the woman, 
can come the poems of man ... 

Unfolded out of the folds of the woman's brain come all 
the folds of the man's brain, duly obedient ; 

Unfolded out of the justice of the woman all justice is un- 
folded ; 

Unfolded out of the sympathy of the woman is all sym- 
pathy ; 



WOMAN FREE, 221 



A man is a great thing upon the earth, and through 
eternity— but every jot of the greatness of man is un- 
folded out of woman, 

First the man is shaped in the woman, he can then be 
shaped in himself." 

—Walt Whitman (" Leaves of Grass "). 

LXIII. 

2. — " , , , the dream men named Divine^ — " 

"Divine" was the title of honour conferred on the 
" Commedia," by the repentant citizens of Florence, after 
the death of Dante. 

8. — " The love that moves the sun and every circling star.^^ 

The last line of the " Divina Commedia " is — 
" Lo amor che move il sole e le altre stelle." 



EPILOGUE. 

What, then, is the result of these investigations ? 

Briefly this : • 

That woman is not incapable of equal mental and physi- 
cal power with man : 

That where any inferiority on her part at present exists, 
it is but as the inherited result of long ages of misuse of 
her functions, and of want of training of her faculties : 



222 WOMAN FREE. 



That an intelligent education in both directions can repair 
these wrongs, and establish her due individuality, and her 
equal share in human right and happiness : 

" That the principle which regulates the existing social 
relations between the two sexes — the legal subordination of 
one sex to the other — is wrong in itself and now one of the 
chief hindrances to human improvement ; and that it ought 
to be replaced by a principle of perfect equality, admitting 
no power or privilege on the one side, nor disability on the 
other " (John Stuart Mill, " The Subjection of Women," 
Ch. I.) : 

And that, as the result of woman's amended position, 
the whole human race will benefit physically and psychically. 

Thus much, at least, may be fairly concluded from the 
"Notes" here presented; in the gathering together of 
which scattered rays — thoughts and experiences from many 
an observant mind — into one focus, to offer light and 
warmth to suffering womanhood and humanity, the main 
purpose of this book is accomplished. 

E, E. 

January ist, 1893. 



*#* Tke courtesy of corroborations or elucidations (confi- 
dential or otherwise) of the subject-matter of these Notes is 
invited by the Author (care of Mrs, Wolstenholme Elmy^ 
Buxton House^ Congleton), with a view to a possible fuller 
edition. 



INDICES, &c. 



AUTHORITIES OR REFERENCES IN 

NOTES 



v^^schylus, 53. 

Aldis, Prof. W. S., 202. 

Anderson, Dr. Elizabeth 

Garrett, 113. 
Aspasia, 45, 46, 47. 
Athena, 52. 

Ballot, Jules, 168. 
Balzac, H. de, 198, 211. 
Bastian, Dr. H. C, 87, 125, 

204, 208. 
Bebel, August, 38, 46, 115, 

124, 130, 165, 167, 183, 

199. 
Bell, Sir C, 192. 
Berdoe, Ed., 191. 
Bernard, Dr. Claude, 185 
Bernheim, Dr., 109. 
Bidwell, E., 93. 
Bithell, Richard, no. 
Blackstone, 98 to 100, 131, 

143, 148. 
Blake, William, 159, 210, 

214. 
Blowitz, M. de, 202, 
Bonavia, Dr. E., 121, 153, 

162, 164, 194, 198. 



Bowyer, Lady, 156. 

Bracton, 98. 

Browning, Eliz. Barrett, 6^^ 
67, 119. 

Browning, Robert, 67. 

Brown-S^quard, Dr., 184. 

Briicke, Prof., 184. 

Biichner, Dr. L., 121. 

Buckle, H. T., 50, 65, 72, 
103, 107, 118, 131, 140, 
142, 171, 206, 211. 

Buddha, 138. 

Byron, Commodore, 61. 

Byron, Lord, 125. 

Caird, Mona, 48, 174. 
Carlyle, Thomas, 193. 
Cerise, Dr., 103. 
Chambers, Robert, 40. 
Chauveau, Dr., 183. 
Chauvin, Mile., 202. 
Christian, Edwd., 98, 131, 

i43» 149 
Cobbe, Frances Power, 88, 

112, 152, 189, 190. 

Coke, Chief Justice, 98, 130. 

Collins, Mabel, 181, 209. 



11 



REFERENCES IN NOTES. 



Comte, Auguste, 138 (see 

Ethics, in Index), 
Condorcet, 197. 
Confucius, 69, 138. 
Cromwell, 126. 
Cuvier, 124, 126. 

Dante, 53, 125, 126, 221. 
Darwin, C., 42, 59, 61, 64, 

128, 161, 185. 
Darwin, F., 107. 
Davy, Sir Humphrey, 196. 
Dawkins, Prof. Boyd, 93. 
De Boismont, Brierre, 116. 
Delbceuf, Prof., 119. 
Descartes, 205. 
Dixie, Lady Florence, 49, 

174. 
Dodel-Port, Dr., 124. 
Dufferin, Lady, 206. 
Duffey, Mrs. E. B., 120. 
Dumas, A. fils, 36, 49, 54, 

124, 132, 137, 175, 197. 
Dunckley, Dr. Henry, 187. 
Dupanloup, Mons., 197. 
Du Prel, Dr., 109. 

Edger, Lilian, 202. 
Eliot, George, 35, 79, 93. 
Elmy, Ben, 38, 66, 178. 
Elmy, Eliz. C. Wolsten- 

holme, 62, 144, 155. 
Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 161. 
Esher, Lord, 145. 

Faber, Dr., 67. 
Fairchild, Prof., 164. 



Farnham, Eliza W., 59, 104, 
III, 130, 139, 157, 179, 
186, 200, 206, 207, 214. 

Fawcett, Millicent Garrett, 

113, 114, 117- 
Fawcett, Philippa, 164. 
Fergusson, Robert, 72, 140. 
Flaxman, John, 170. 
Fonblanque, Dr., see Paris. 
Forel, Dr., 120. 
Fuller, see Ossoli. 

Galton, F., 181. 
Gambetta, Leon, 126. 
Gardener, Helen H., 125, 

126, 127. 
Garrison, Wm. Lloyd, Jr., 

172. 
Geddes and Thomson, 40, 

41, 74, 78, i73» 175 to 
177, 178, 182. 

Geikie, James, 40. 

Gnathsena, 46. 

Gregory, Dr., 73. 

Greville, Lady Violet, 130. 

Grey, Sir George, 59. 

Grote, George, 44. 

Goltz, Prof., 191. 

Goethe, 195, 220. 

Guizot, 142. 

Halsbury, Lord Chancellor, 

144. 
Harrison, Frederic, 112. 
Harvard, John, 171. 
Hoche, Frau, 77. 
Homer, 53. 



REFERENCES IN NOTES. 



Ill 



Horsley, Prof., 189, 205. 
Huxley, Prof., 64, 109, 166, 
197. 

IngersDll, Robert, 208. 
In man, Dr. T., 58. 

Jefferies, R., ^6^ 41, 103, 
108, 183, 187, 213, 216, 
218. 

Jex-Blake, Dr. Sophia, 113, 
172. 

Jones, Prof. T. R., 36. 

Journals, &c. 

"Arena," 181. 

Bible, 100, 102, 116, 140. 

" Bombay Guardian," 71. 

Brit Assoc. Reports, 35, 36, 
93, loi, 107, 116, 117. 

" British Med. Journal," 78. 

Chinese Classics, 67. 

"Christian Commonwealth," 
196. 

''Daily News," 156. 

" Dublin Review," 73. 

^* Fortnightly Review," 115. 

Fox's Journal, 140. 

" Home Maker," N.Y., 86. 

Ohel Jakob (Jewish Li- 
turgy), 139. 

"Journal of Education," 160 

** Lancet," 114. 

Mahomedan Lit. Society, 94. 

** Manchester Courier," 169. 

^* Manchester Evening 

Mail," 169. 

" Manchester Examiner," 60. 
Manchester Guardian," 76, 
77, 140, 187. 



■n 



Journals, &c. (Con.) — 

" Morning Post," 54. 

" National Review," 130. 

" New Zealand Herald," 
203. 

"Nineteenth Century," 47, 
61,71, 114. 

" Pall Mall Gazette," 78. 

"Provincial Med. Journal," 
see Bonavia, Dr. 

Report of International 
Council of Women, Wash- 
ington, 1888, 126 to 128. 

"Review of Reviews," 69, 
80, 86, 118, 180. 

" Standard," 76, 192. 

"Times," 86, 97, 119, 146, 
150, 189, 191, 192, 205, 
207. 

" Times of India," 82, 97. 

"Westminster Review," 142, 
168. 

"Woman," 169. 

"Woman's Journal," Bos- 
ton, U.S., 72, 106, 172, 
201. 

" Woman's Herald," 57. 

Kant, Immanuel, 183, 195, 

(see Ethics, in Index), 
Karl, Lieutenant, 77. 
Kenny, Courtney, 149. 
Kingsley, Charles, 57, 119. 
Kipling, J. Lockwood, 39. 
Kipling, Rudyard 54. 

Laboulaye, E., 130. 
Lais, 46, 47. 
Lang, Andrew, 179. 
Lecky, W. E. H., 48. 



IV 



REFERENCES IN NOTES, 



Lee, Chief Justice, 151. 

Leland, C. G., 38, 217. 

Lepstuk, Marie, 77. 

Letourneau, Ch., 37, 38, 39, 

46, 55) 58, 61, 67, 88, 

132* i33» 138, 159- 
Le Vassor, 131. 

Linton, Eliza Lynn, 47. 

Lodge, Prof., 35. 

Lombroso, Prof., 10 1. 

Luteef, Abdool, 97. 

Lycurgus, 209. 

Lylie, " Euphues,'' 171. 

Machill, Prof., 164. 

Magee, Archbishop, 80. 

Manning, Cardinal, 73, 118. 

Mansell, Dr. Monelle, 84. 

Manu, 67, 133 (see England, 
in Index), 

Maxwell, David, 210. 

McCarthy, Justin, (see "Mili- 
tary service," in Index), 

Mcllquham, Harriett, 151, 

McLennan, John F., 37, 59. 
Mencius, 69. 
Michelet, J., 77. 
Mill, Harriet, 56, 142. 
Mill, John Stuart, 38, 43, 

73» 79» 107, 134, i37» 
154, 156, 162, 175, 193, 

197, 222 (see Ethics, in 

Index). 
Milton, 67, 135. 
Mitchell; Hon. J. W., 123, 

200. 



Mitchell, Dr. Julia, 77. 

Moir, David M., 63. 

Moli^re, 196. 

Moll, Dr. A., 109, 119, 121. 

Montesquieu, 99. 

Morgan-Browne, Laura E., 

56, 57. 
Morselli, Dr., 126. 

Miiller, Max, 42. 

Nichols, Dr., 10 1. 
Ninon de 1' Enclos, 48. 
Norman, — , 70. 

Orr, Mrs. Sutherland, 67. 
Ossoli, Margaret Fuller, 180. 

Page, Lord Justice, 151. 
Paley, {see Ethics, in Index), 
Paris and Fonblanque, 108. 
Park, Mungo, 59. 
Parvin, Dr., 90. 
Pericles, 45. 
Peile, Dr., 202, 203. 
Pertz, Dorothea, 107. 
Pfeiffer, Edward, 160. 
Phipson, Dr. Edith Pechey, 
42, 43, 80, 81, 91, 94^ 

136, i59j 194- 
Phryne, 46, 47. 

Plato, 44, 118. 

Pliny, 102. 

Ponsan, Dr. Menville dej i. 

Pope, 66. 

Raciborski, Dr.,88, 102, 120. 
Rawn, Dr., 116. 



REFERENCES IN NOTES, 



Reade, Winwood, 44. 
Reichardt, Mrs., 61, 71. 
Renan, Ernest, 166, 220. 
Richardson, Dr. B. W., 215. 
Roland, Madame, 129. 
Rousseau, 197. 
Roiissel, Dr., 88, 103, 104. 
Rowe, Nicholas, 133. 
Ruskin, John, 51, 54, 108, 

128, 156. 
Ryder, Dr. Emma B., 84. 

Sachs, Dr., 107. 
Sakyamouni, 138. 
Sand, Georges, 67, 79. 
Schiller, 80. 
Schreiner, Olive, iii. 
Scott, 52. 

Selborne, Lord, 146. 
Shakespeare, 52, 53, 150, 

195- 
Shelley, 156, 219. 

Sidgwick, Prof. H., (see Neo- 
Malthusianism, in Index), 

Smith, R., 61. 

Smith, Sydney, 51, 163, 195. 

Socrates, 45, 48. 

Somerville, Mary, 163. 

Sorel, Agnes, 47. 

Spencer, Herbert, 64, 88, 
(see Ethics, in Index), 

Spenser, 119. 

Spier, Mrs., 138. 

Spitzka, Dr., 126, 127, 

Spurzheim, Dr., 127. 

Stead, W. T;, 180. 

Stern, Daniel, 197. 



Tait, Lawson, F.R.C.S., 188, 

192. 
Tennyson, 43, 53, 66, 156, 

162, 173, 182, 218, 220. 
TertuUian, 142. 
Theodota, 48. 
Thompson, Wm., (see Etjual- 

ity, in Index), 
Thomson (see Geddes/ 
Thorburn, Dr. John, 91. 
Tilt, Dr. E. J., 116, 118. 
Tinseau, — , 69. 
Troll-Borostyani, Irma von, 

183. 
Tyndall, Prof., 88. 

Vambdry, Prof., 207. 

Wakeman, Edgar L., 75. 
Walker, Dr. A., 46, 129, 163. 
Wallace, Prof. A. R., 180, 

208. 
Webb, Sidney, 10 1. 
Weill, Dr. Alexander, iii, 

112. 
Westermarck, Edwd., 42, 

45, 46, 171, 209. 
White, Prof., 164. 
Whitehead, Dr., 105. 
Whitman, Walt, 154, 209, 

216, 220. 
Whittier, John G., 178. 
Winslow, Dr. Caroline, 106. 
WoUstonecraft, Mary, 129, 

i35> i59» 170. 
Wordsworth, 36, 213, 217, 

219. 



INDEX TO NOTES. 



Abnormality, 91 to 93, 121. 

Affection, 42 ; indispensable 
to true marriage, 194. 

Age of nubility and consent, 
see England, India. 

American Indians, educa- 
tion of, 60. 

Anatomy, feminine teaching 
of in India, 207. 

Arrogance, masculine, 64, 
67, see Sex-bias. 

Art, 40, 41, 216. 

Asceticism, 41 167, 208. 

Athletics, 74, 167 2i^y see 
Strength, Tiaining, Mili- 
tary service. 

Australian girl, 42. 

Barbarism, 37, 54, 57, 

"Baron and feme," 149. 

Bayaderes, 46. 

Beauty, 41, 49, 75, 213, 
216. 

Brain, 121 to 128, 203, 205 ; 
developed by exercise, 
121, 122, 161 ; relative 
size, weight, and specific 

k gravity of, 125, 126; of 
celebrated men, 125; no 



hard and fast distinction 
known, 127 ; of ant, 128. 

Brahrninism, 71, 80, 82, 138. 

Buddhism, 72, 138. 

Capability, 49 to 53, 162, 
164, 169, see Jealousy. 

Catholicism, status of wife, 73. 

Cattle, wild ; lactation, 93. 

Chastity, 47, 138, 177, 209. 

Childbearing, 78, 208 ; ex- 
cessive, 64, 66, 105, 176, 
177; future painless, 216. 

Child-marriage, 81 ; see Mar- 
riage. 

China, 58 ; ethics of woman 
in, 67 ; a Mandarin's fore- 
boding, 130; a girFs duty 
in, 140, see Confucianism. 

Christianity, 73, 140, 142. 

Civism, 74, 154, 155. 

"Clitheroe case,*' 144. 

Clothing ; see Dress. 

Coal-pit women, 75. 

Co-education ; see Education. 

Community of effort, 155, 
173, 182, 183, 194, 207, 
209, 212, 2r8^ 220. 



INDEX TO NOTES. 



VI 1 



Comtism, 138, see Ethics. 

Confucianism; 67, 71, 138. 

Conjugal "rights," in Eng- 
land, 98, 143 to 146 ; in 
India, 85, 86, 95, 147. 

Consent, age of, see England, 
India. 

Contagious Diseases Acts, 

193- 
Courtesanship, 45, 54; see 

Hetairai, Prostitution. 
Cruelty, to woman, 37, 38, 

58, 79» 83, 85, 102, 105 ; 

to children, 61, 62, 83, 

85, 86. ' 
Curare (or "ourali"), 185. 
Custody of Infants, 62. 
Cycling, 170. 

Demi-monde, 54. 

Development, ^6^ 37, 41, 
87, 88, 120, see Evolu- 
tion. 

Disabilities, legal, 150 to 

153. 
Distortion of feet, 58. 

Diseases, feminine, so-called, 
100, lOI. 

Divorce, 73, 135, 148. 

Dogma, 35, 67, see Ethics, 
Religion. 

Dower, old English, 98, 99. 

Dress, 58, 75, 76, 169. 

Duty, so-called, 67 to 74, 
136 to 141; true, 66, 155, 
see Religion, "Sphere," 
Community of effort. 



Education, 50, 51; political 
74, 160 ; liberty of, 128, 
142, 162, 164, 166, 197 ; 
co-education, 164, 165, 
171 ; a liberal, 166. 

Egypt, 44, 52. 

Enfranchisement, 180, see 
Franchise. 

England, modern guardian- 
ship in, 62 ; ancient, 99 ; 
age of nubility and con- 
sent, 98, 99. 

[By the law of England a 
girl is still marriageable at 
twelve and a boy at fourteen 
years of age ; though the 
^* age of consent " to inter- 
course not thus sanctioned 
has been recently raised to 
sixteen years in the case of 
girls. I n the above matters, 
and notably in that of the 
marriageable age, England 
remains barbarously below 
most modem legislatures, 
and is indeed in the dis- 
graceful condition of being 
not even on a level with 
China, in which country — 
as Mr. By rant Barrett points 
out, in his Introductory Dis- 
course to the " Code Napo- 
leon," p. 66 — "In females, it 
would appear, consumma- 
tion is not allowable before 
twelve," while " the age for 
marriage in males is twenty 
complete." China and Eng- 
land are but slightly in 



Vlll 



INDEX TO NOTES. 



advance of ancient India, 
where, according to the pre- 
cepts of Manu, as Mr. Bar- 
rett further shows, (p. 30), 
"The male of 24 years 
should marry the girl of 8 
years of age ; the male of 30 
the female of 12" (Ordin- 
ances of Manu, ch. 9, sec. 
94). Is not such conduct as 
this sufficient to involve as 
i nevitable consequences " un- 
ripe maternity and untimely 
birth," together with all their 
dire inherited miseries ?] 

Epicenity, 181, 182. 
Equality of sexes, 43, 45, 

49> 57, 79, 133, 134, 153, 
154, 156, 162, 163, 194. 

See also the following : — 
"But I hear you indig- 
nantly reject the boon of 
equality with such creatures 
as men now are. With you 
I would equally elevate both 
sexes. Really enlightened 
women, disdaining equally 
the submissive tricks of the 
slave and the caprices of the 
despot, breathing freely only 
in the air of the esteem 
of equals, and of mutual, 
unbought, uncommanded, 
affection, would find it diffi- 
cult to meet with associates 
worthy of them in men as 
now formed, full of ignorance 
and vanity, priding them- 
selves on a sexual superior- 
ity, entirely independent of 



any merit, any superior 
qualities, or pretentions to 
them, claiming respect from 
the strength of their arm, 
and the lordly faculty of 
producing beards attached 
by nature to their chins ! 
No : unworthy of, as incap- 
able of appreciating, the 
delight of the society of 
such women, are the great 
majority of the existing race 
of men. The pleasures of 
mere animal appetite, the 
pleasures of commanding 
(the prettier and more help- 
less the slave, the greater 
these pleasures of the brute), 
are the only pleasures which 
the majority of men seek 
from women, are the only 
pleasures which their educa- 
tion and the hypocritical 
system of morals, with which 
they have been necessarily 
imbued, permit them to ex- 
pect ... To wish for 
the enjoyment of the higher 
pleasures of sympathy and 
communication of know- 
ledge between the sexes, 
heightened by that mutual 
grace and glow, that de- 
corum and mutual respect, 
to which the feeling of per- 
fect, unrestrained equality 
in the intercourse gives 
birth, a man must have 
heard of such pleasures, 
must be able to conceive 
them, and must have an 
organisation from nature or 
education, or both, capable 



: jt- 



INDEX TO NOTES, 



IX 



of receiving delight from 
them when presented to 
him. To enjoy these plea- 
sures, to which their other 
pleasures, a few excepted, 
are but the play of children 
or brutes, the bulk of men 
want a sixth sense ; they 
want the capacity of feeling 
them, and of believing that 
such things are in nature to 
be found. A mole cannot 
enjoy the "beauties and 
glories" of the visible world ; 
nor can brute men enjoy 
the intellectual and sympa- 
thetic pleasures of equal 
intercourse with women, 
such as some are, such as 
all might be. Real and 
comprehensive knowledge, 
physical and moral, equally 
and impartially given by 
education, and by all other 
means to both sexes, is the 
key to such higher enjoy- 
ments. 



• • 



Demand with mild but 
unshrinking firmness, per- 
fect equality with men : 
demand equal civil and 
criminal laws, an equal 
system of morals, and, as 
indispensable to these, equal 
political laws, to afford you 
an equal chance of happi- 
ness with men, from the 
development and exercise 
of your faculties." 

— William Thompson 
("Appeal of One Half the 
Human Race," 1825, pp. 
xii, 19s). 



Ethics, 74, 147, 173, 177, 186. 

[The impotent and con- 
tradictory schemes of ethics 
which philosophers or 
schoolmen, ancient and 
modern, have successively 
evolved, have been but resul- 
tants of "unisexual wit. 
With brilliant exceptions in 
Plato, Kant, and Mill, vainly 
may the various codes be 
searched for any suggestion 
of the identity, individuality, 
and equality, of woman. 
For though the philosophy 
of latter-day ethicists rightly 
disdains to reiterate or to 
countenance the factitious 
scriptural dogmas and im- 
precations declaratory or 
explanatory of woman's un- 
equal and subjugated condi- 
tion, yet a parallel subjection 
and inferiority in her nature 
is still tacitly assumed, and 
on occasion traded upon, 
by these same ethicists ; no 
counsel or consent of her 
own intelligence being 
asked, or disavowal recked 
of, in such propositions as, 
e.g.^ the " utilitarian " theses 
concerning her enounced by 
Archdeacon Paley or Mr. 
Jeremy Bentham ; — the 
nominally " goddess," but 
virtually " slave," status as- 
signed to her by M. Auguste 
Comte ; — or the " due " 
amount of childbearing pos- 
tulated as prior to all 
"normally feminine mental 



INDEX TO NOTES. 



energy" in her, by Mr. 
Herbert Spencer. As the 
bane of all theologies has 
been the implicated degra- 
dation and subserviency of 
womanhood to the unjustly 
favoured male sex, so the 
vital defect in the plans of 
ethics is this irrational dis- 
regard for the personality 
and interests of "one half 
the himian race," — this 
ignoring or negation of 
woman's equal claim with 
man to consideration, posi- 
tion, and action, in all that 
relates to humanity, ethics 
included. At present the 
general mascuhne sex-bias, 
or selfishness, refuses to 
women the wisest and noblest 
a faculty in legislation con- 
ceded to even the meanest 
men ; and justice and in- 
justice, pessimism and op- 
timism, struggle together 
blindly and helplessly in the 
dark. The true Ethic still 
awaits for its formulation 
the assistance and the inspi- 
ration of the intellect of 
woman equal and free: no 
other way can it be arrived 
at.] 

Evolution, 39, 40, 41, 78, 
87, 88, 107, 122, 173, 
180, 208, 210, 211, 218, 
220, 222; see Develop- 
ment. 

Excess, 8 2; 100, 1 01, 105. 



Father, legal "rights" and 

duties of, 62. 
Feme ; see Baron. 
Feudality, 131 ; female 

wards, 98, 99. 
Fictility, 86 to 89, 109, 119, 

1 20 ; see Evolution. 
Franchise, woman's, 150 to 

155- 
French law, 197 ; women 

students of, 201, 202. 

Future of woman and 

humanity ; forecasts or 

counsels concerning, by — 

Balzac, 210. 

Bastian, 208. 

Bjthell, no. 

Blake, 159, 210, 214. 

Bonavia, 162. 

Buckle, 103, 211, 212. 

Cobbe, 112. 

Dixie, 174. 

Dodel-Port, 124, 

Farnham, 104, in, 206, 207, 

214. 
Garrison, 171. 
Geddes and Thomson, 74, 

78, 173. 
Huxley, no, 166, 167, 197. 
Jefferies, 103, 108, 182, 213, 

216. 
Kant, 194. 
Lang, 179. 
Leland, 216. 
Maxwell, 210. 
Mill, 43, 79, 162. 
Moll, n9. 
Pfeiffer, 160. 
Richardson, 216. 
Ruskin, 108, 128. 



INDEX TO NOTES, 



XI 



Schreiner, in. 
Spencer, 87. 
Tennyson, 173, 220. 
Tyndall, 89. 
Wallace, 180, 208. 
Weill, 112. 

Whitman, 154, 216, 220. 
Winslow, 106. 
Wolstenholme-Elmy, 155. 
Wordsworth, 217, 219. 

Girlhood, 81, 128, 163, 197. 
Graduates, women, see Uni- 
versity. 
Greece, 44 to 47 ; culture, 216. 
Guardianship, 62 ; ancient, 99. 

Heredity, 87 to 89, 161, 
178; in man, 92, see De- 
velopment, Evolution. 

Heroines of drama, 52, 78. 

Hetairai, 45, 46, 48, 53 ; ^^^ 
Courtesanship, Prostitu- 
tion. 

Human selection, 174, 180. 

Humanity, see Future. 

Husband and wife, see Baron 
and feme, Clitheroe Case, 
Married Women's pro- 
perty { inequality of right, 
see Father, Wife, Conjugal 
"rights"; different stan- 
dard of morality between, 
see Divorce. 

Hypnotism, 109, 119; sug- 
gestion, 109. 



Imagination, cultivation ot, 
206, 218; future of, 210, 
212. 

Immaturity, 81, 82 ; see Ma- 
turity. 

Improvidence, 177. 

India, 7 1 ; early marriage in, 
80, 81, 93 to 98; effects 
of, 82, 194; age of con- 
sent in, 94 ; courtesanship, 

46* 53> 13S J female teach- 
ing, 46, 71, 207 ; women's 
medical education, 207 ; 
code of Manu, 67, 133 ; 
see England. 

Individuality, see Selfdom. 

Infant, custody of, 62 ; 
feudal wardship, 99. 

Infanticide, 60, 61. 

Intellect, woman's quickness 
of, 5o> 5i> 65, 104, see 
Brain, Capability, Jealousy. 

Intemperance, 105, 106, 176, 

177. 

Intuition, 65, 103, 104, 186. 

Japan, woman in, 69, 138. 
Jealousy, masculine, 113, 

195 to 203; rebuked, 198, 

see Sex-bias. 
Judaism, 100, 102, 139. 
Justice, 43, 108, 179. 

Knowledge, 53, 56, 90, 211, 
212 ; is love, 218. 



Ignorance, 89, 90. 



Language, 42. 



Xll 



INDEX TO NOTES, 



I^w, old, 99, 143 ; study of 
by women, 200; French, 
201 ; civil, see Franchise, 
Husband, Wife; divine, 
see Religion. 

Legal practitioners, female, 
see I^w. 

Legalised abortion, 105. 

Lieutenant "Karl," 77. 

Limitation of offspring, see 
Neo-Malthusianism. 

Love, 41, 42, 43, 70, 71, 78, 
177, i93» 218, 219, 221; 
Woman's, 208; "creation's 
final law," 173, 221; 
origin of all worthy 
thought, 193. 

Lust, 41. 

Magna Charta, 130. 

Mahomedanism, 61, 71, 94. 

Malthusianism, 173 to 178. 

Manhood, 167, 179. 

Marriage, 37, 43, 44, 45, 78, 
90, 134, 180, 209; early, 
in England, 98; in Tur- 
key, 61, see India. 

Married Women's Property, 
62, 149. 

[The Married WoinerCs 
Property Act, 1882, in the 
event of no specific mar- 
riage contract to the con- 
trary between the parties, 
retains to any woman 
married since Dec. 31st, 
1882, the possession, con- 



trol, and disposal oi her 
own property and eaming-s, 
precisely as if she still 
remained a single woman 
(Jemesole) ; itfuther secures 
to every wife (whether 
married before that date or 
afterwards) the right to her 
own earnings, and various 
other property rights, en- 
tirely mdependent of her 
husband's control.] 

Maternity, 59, 64, 91, 106, 
183, 208, 209; artistic or 
purposed, 214; painless 
future, 216. 

Maturity, 90, 93, 99, 178. 

Medical practitioners, evil 
methods of some, 10 1, 
105, 106, see Vivisection. 

Medical women, 1 13 to 1 16 ; 
duty of, 90, 106, 115, 116, 
192, 204. 

Menstruation, 91 ; abnormal 
and acquired habit, 88, 

91, 92, 104; pathological 
incident, not physiological, 

92, 104, 116; developed 
into heredity, not inherent, 
88, 104; not nubility, 93; 
fostering of, 104, 120; 
ignorance concerning, 89, 
91, 117, 118; reproach of, 
102 ; Scriptural defini- 
tions and opprobrium, 100, 
102 ; futile explanations 
of, 104; "plethora*' 



INDEX TO NOTES. 



xiu 



theory, 123; some evils 
of, 91, 92, 100, loi, 108; 
remediable, 108, • no, 
116, 117, 120; immunity 
from, 92, 117; recent 
diminution of, 112, 123, 

215- 
Menorrhagia, 10 1. 

Mental power ; see Capa- 
bility, Ethics, Intellect, 
Jealousy. 

Military service, 77, 78, 169, 
s(e also the following : — 

" One of those who fought 
to the last on the rebels' 
side was the Ranee, or 
Princess, of Jhansi, whose 
territory had been one of our 
annexations. For months 
after the fall of Delhi 
she contrived to baffle Sir 
Hugh Rose and the English. 
She led squadrons in the 
field. She fought with her 
own hand. She was en- 
gaged against us in the 
battle for the possession* of 
G wall or. In the uniform of 
a cavalry officer she led 
charge after charge, and 
she was killed among those 
who resisted to the last. 
Her body was found upon 
the field, scarred with 
wounds enough in the front 
to have done credit to any 
hero. Sir Hugh Rose paid 
her the well-deserved tribute 
which a generous conqueror 
is always glad to be able to 



offer. He said, in his 
general order, that *The 
best man upon the side of 
the enemy was the woman 
found dead, the Ranee of 
Jhansi.'" — Justin McCarthy 
("History of Our Own 
Times," chap. xiii). 

And on the 12th Decem- 
ber, 1892, the Manchester 
Guardian reports : — 

" The death is announced 
of Mrs. Eliza E. Cutler, wife 
of the doorkeeper of the 
United States Senate. In 
February, 1863, her hus- 
band's regiment was at Fort 
Donelson and Mrs. Cutler 
was visiting him there, stop- 
ping at a house just out- 
side the fortification. The 
colours of the regiment were 
also in this house. In the 
excitement which followed 
the first attack on the day 
of battle, the regiment went 
into action without its flag, 
but just as the fighting 
became the hottest, with 
odds terribly against them, 
they were cheered by the 
appearance of a woman with 
a sword in one hand, and 
bearing triumphantly aloft 
the regiment's colours. This 
was Mrs. Cutler, who re- 
mained on the battlefield 
until her husband's regiment 
was ordered on board a 
transport in the Cumber- 
land river. She imme- 
diately went to the upper 



XIV 



INDEX TO NOTES. 



deck, where, with assistance, 
she planted the Stars and 
Stripes in the face of a 
j^alling fire. There she re- 
mained, in spite of all 
remonstrances, until they 
passed out of the range of 
fire." 

Mind, influence on body, 
see Fictility, Psychical 
effort. 

Modesty, 170, 171, 199. 

Monkey, 39. 

Morality, double standard 
of, 57» 67, 68, 71, 73, 
148 ; connubial, 106, 177, 
209. 

Mormonism, 132. 

Mother-love, 61, 63, 208. 

Mutuality, 183, see Com- 
munity of effort. 

Nascent organs, 65. 

Nature, z^^ 39» '20, 167, 
182, 185, 187, 195, 211, 
212; violation of laws of, 
106, no, III ; relation of 
man and woman to, 167, 

i95» 207, 214. 
Neo-Malthusianism, 1 74, 
176 to 178, see also the 
following : — 

"A dogmatic conclusion 
that human life is on the 
whole more painful than 
pleasurable is perhaps rare 
in England ; but it is a 



widespread opinion that the 
average of happiness at- 
tain^ by the masses, even 
in civilised communities, is 
deplorably low, and that 
the present aim of philan- 
thropy should be rather to 
improve the quality of 
human life than to increase 
the quantity." — Professor 
Henry Sidgwick - (* 'History 
of Ethics," p. 247). 

Nubility, 90, 93, see Eng- 
land, Maturity, Puberty. 
Nurses, 200. 

Obedience, 69, 73 74. 
Observation, 103, 187 ; lack 

of, 118; power attendant 

on, 205. 
Ourali, see Curare. 
Over-population, 173 to 178. 

Pain, no, in. 
Palaeolithic art, 40, 
Parturition, painless future, 

216. 
Paternity, 209, see Father. 
Patria potestaSy 62. 
Petit treason, 149. 
Philosophy, natural, 206. 
Physical strength, see 

Strength. 
" Pit-brow" women, 75. 
Poetry, spirit of, 206; future 

of, 212. 
"Police des mceurs," 193. 
Politeness, 201. 



INDEX TO NOTES, 



XV 



Political and legal Position, 

197, j^^ Franchise. 
Potencies, 108, no, 203. 
Pre-historic times, 37, 40. 
Prostitution, 53, 54, 175; 

feminine repudiation of, 

139; religious, 46, 138, 

see Courtesanship, Hetai 

rai. 
Prudence after marriage, 

176, 177. 
Psyche, 41, 103 ; see Soul. 
Psychical effort, 87, 89, 119, 

120. 
Psychology, 119. 
Puberty, 81 ; not nubility, 

90, 93- 
Puritanism, 72, 135, 140. 

Purity, 56, 166, 171, 200. 

Quickness of woman's mind, 
see Intellect, Intuition. 

Reason, 35, 53, 65. 

Reasoning, woman's gener- 
ally deductive, man's 
generally inductive, 50, 

65- 

Religion, dogmas concern- 
ing woman, 73, 74, 82, 
102, 135 to 142, 148, see 
Brahminism, Buddhism, 
Catholicism, Christianity, 
Comtism, Confucianism, 
Ethics, Judaism, Mahome- 
danism, Mormonism, Puri- 
tanism. 



Reproach, 102, 103, 118, 

140, 142. 
Research, 35, 36. 
Reserve, 56, 80, 115. 
Restrictions on woman, 48, 

49, 50, 201, see Training. 
Reticence, 56, 80, 115. 
Revolt of woman, 129, 130, 

133, 135- 
Rhythmic action, 86, 88. 

Rudimentary organs, 65. 

Science, 35, 186 to 189, 192, 

206, 217 ; spirit of, 206. 
Scriptural terms, 100, 102. 
Self-confidence, i 79, 206. 
Selfdom, 66, 156, 157, 158, 

179, 206. 
Self-help, 56, 89, 108, III, 

161, 162. 
Selfishness, 43, 85, 206, see 

Ethics. 
Self-respect, 156, 179. 
Self-sacrifice, 179. 
Serfdom, of man, 130, 131 ; 

of woman, see Slavery. 
Sex-bias, masculine, 64, 136, 

149, 151; rebuked, 195; 

see Ethics. 
Sexual wrong, 64, 106, 177 ; 

in India, 82. 
Silence, see Reticence. 
Slavery, of woman, 37, 38, 

61, 71, 73> 74, 102, 131, 
133, 150, 157 ; effect on 
race, 159, 161, 194; of 
man, see Serfdom. 



XVI 



INDEX TO NOTES. 



Soldiers, female, see Mili- 
tary service. 
Soul, 41, 119, 205, 211, 

219, see Psyche. 
"Sphere" of woman, 142, 

162. 
Steadfastness of woman, 195. 
Strength; physical, 64, 75, 

76, 113, 150, 167 to 170, 

215 ; recent improvement 

in, 113, 123, 215. 
Students, in America, 164; 

in Switzerland, 172. 
Subjection of woman, see 

Slavery, China, England, 

India, Japan, Religion, 

Wife. 
Suffrage, see Franchise. 
Superiority of spirit, 50, 52, 

59, 60, 195, 208. 
Sympathy, 43, 59, 200, 213 ; 

see Community of effort. 

Equality. 

Talent, relative, see Brain, 
Capability, Jealousy. 

Temperance, 113, 177. 

Tendency, 88, 89. 

Thought, language, 42 ; 
love, T93. 

Training, mental, 108, 128, 



160, 161, 163, 166, 183 ; 
physical, 50, 108, 113, 

163, 167, 168, 170, 215 ; 
see Capability, Strength. 

Tutelage, 133; feudal, 99. 

University teaching, 160, 

164, 165, 171, 172, 203. 

Vassalage, 99, 130, 131. 
Vivisection, 183 to 193 ; 
futility of, 188, 192. 

Waste, of woman's faculties, 
48 to 53 ; of vital force, 
107, 123. 

Wife, subjection of, 44, 67 
to 74 ; ancient chastise- 
ment of, 143; legal 
status of, 143 to 146, 149, 
153, see Baron, Mar- 
riage. 

Wisdom 52, 172; correla- 
tive with love, 193. 

Woman suffrage, see Fran- 
chise. 

Women doctors, see Medical 
Women. 

Zenana, 159. 
Zulu wives, 132. 



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