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Full text of "The story of the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 1869-1895"

OF* XHED 



OR THE 



METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH 



THE STORY 



OF THE 



WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY 
SOCIETY 



OF THE 



METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 



1869=1895. 



BY 

MISS FRANCES J. BAKER. 



REVISED EDITION. 



CINCINNATI : CURTS & JENNINGS 
NEW YORK: EATON & MAINS 

1898. 



2.5 bo 



COPYRIGHT 

BY FRANCES J. BAKER. 

1895- 



PREFACE. 



WHILE many things have been written on the 
Woman s Foreign Missionary Society, and 
much information has been published, there is no one 
work which supplies the information contained in 
this volume, or that preoccupies the field. In an 
experience as an itinerant for many years there has 
been found a demand for this very work, giving the 
scope of a Society which is as broad as the needs of 
heathen women, and the knowledge of what has been 
accomplished by Methodist women at home for their 
sisters across the sea. Restricted in limitations, it 
became an unfortunate necessity to omit much valu 
able material, even the mention of the names of so 
many of the great leaders of the Society, who in 
many States and Territories have wrought and are 
still working, who by their faith have removed mount 
ains, of whom the world is not worthy ; and of many 
others who are not, for God has taken them ; and for 
the same reason biographical sketches of the mission 
aries have scarcely been touched upon, though the 
illustrations of the twelve pioneers have been fur 
nished. Incidents which may be regarded as beneath 
the dignity of history have found a welcome place in 
this simple and familiar story. 

After all the time and labor expended, the book 
must be closed incomplete. This is as it should be. 

3 



PREFACE. 



The history of a living Missionary Society must be a 
diary unfinished until "the kingdoms of this world 
have become the kingdoms of our Lord and of his 
Christ." 

It was not possible to give due credit, as I pro 
ceeded, to all the sources appropriated for this vol 
ume. Among them may be specified the files of the 
General Executive Reports; Heathen Woman s Friend ; 
Annual Reports of the Missionary Society; various 
Branch Reports; the printed Reports and Minutes of 
the several India Conferences, Japan and Foochow; 
"India and Malaysia;" "Light in the East;" Church 

Weeklies ; Woman s Work 
in the Far East ; publica 
tions on our Missions in 
India and China; Mission 
ary Letters and Journals. 
I am also indebted to Mes- 
dames Gracey, Butler, L. N. 
Wheeler, Sites, S. L. Bald 
win, O. W. Scott, Achard, 
L. F. Harrison, and Miss 
Dreyer; to many mission 
aries on the field and at 
home, of our own and the 
General Society ; to some of 
the Branch Secretaries, Corresponding and Recording; 
also Conference Secretaries; besides many other home 
workers. Scores of persons have placed me under 
obligation to them for some simple item of informa 
tion. Thank you. 

FRANCES J. BAKER. 
MORENCI, MICH. 




Miss FRANC BAKER. 



CONTENTS. 



INTRODUCTION, . 

9 

CHAPTER I. 
ORGANIZATION, .... 



.... 13 

CHAPTER II, 
INCREASING ACTIVITIES, ..... 

* oJ 

CHAPTER III. 

BRANCH HISTORY 

........ 46 

CHAPTER IV. 
CAMP-MEETING AND OTHER ASSEMBLIES, ......... 64 

CHAPTER V. 
LITERATURE, ..... ....... 

/ O 

CHAPTER VI. 
GERMAN WORK, ........ 

s-J 

CHAPTER VII. 

MISCELLANEOUS, 



CHAPTER VIII. 
MEDICAL MISSIONS INDIA, 



I07 



, CHPTER IX. 
MEDICAL MISSIONS CHINA, JAPAN, AND KOREA, . . . . 147 

CHAPTER X. 
INDIA ........................... I79 

5 



6 CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XI. 

PAGE. 

CHINA, 262 

CHAPTER XII. 
JAPAN, KOREA, BULGARIA, 315 

CHAPTER XIII, 
ITALY, MEXICO, SOUTH AMERICA, AND AFRICA, ....... 357 

CHAPTER XIV. 
REMINISCENCES, 399 

STATISTICAL. 

FOREIGN SUMMARY, 1894, 422 

MISSIONARIES, 423 

SESSIONS OF THE GENERAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE,. . . 432 

LIST OF REAL ESTATE, 433 

APPENDIX, 436 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



FOUNDERS OF THE WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSION 
ARY SOCIETY (taken 1895), . . . Frontispiece. 

Miss FRANC BAKER, 

TREMONT STREET CHURCH, BOSTON, I4 

MRS. Lois E. PARKER l6 

MRS. CLEMENTINA BUTLER, 

MRS. JENNIE F. WILLING, 27 

Miss ISABEL HART, 39 

MRS. J. T. GRACEY, 41 

MRS. ADELINE M. SMITH, 

CORRESPONDING SECRETARIES, 1889, 

OFFICERS OF THE NORTHWESTERN BRANCH, 51 

OUR AMERICAN PUBLICATIONS, facing page 73 

FIRST MAP OF INDIA MISSIONS facing page 74 

ZENANA PAPERS, facing page 83 

INDIA S CHILDREN, Sy 

Miss CLARA A. SWAIN, M. D., First Medical Missionary, . 120 

BAREILLY HOSPITAL, INDIA, 127 

MRS. NANCIE MONELLE MANSELL, M. ix, 138 

Miss LEONORA HOWARD, M. D., 149 

Miss SIGOURNEY TRASK, M. D., 155 

Hii KING ENG, i 59 

MEIYII SHIE AND IDA KAHN, facing page 167 

KOREAN HOSPITAL, SEOUL, facing page 1 70 

ESTHER KIM PAK, . 172 

PIONEERS (THE EAST), 178 

Miss ISABELLA THOBURN, First Missionary, 181 

DORMITORY GIRLS SCHOOL, L/UCKNOW, 183 

LUCKNOW CHRISTIAN SCHOOL-GIRLS, 187 

MISS ELLEN D ABREU, B. M., 190 

MRS. SOPHIA D ABREU THOMPSON, B. A., 191 

7 



8 ILLUSTRATIONS. 

PAGE. 

Miss LJLAVATA SINGH, B. A., 192 

WOMAN S COLLEGE, LUCKNOW, facing page 193 

Miss PHEBE ROWE, 195 

OFF FOR A PICNIC, 207 

Miss MARY REED, 225 

YOUNG MOHAMMEDAN WOMEN, 237 

Miss GRACE STEPHENS, 242 

MRS. YEK ING KWANG, the First School-girl Baptized, . . 263 

MRS. AHOK, 272 

VETERANS SINCE 1872, facing page 285 

FLORA DEACONESS HOME, the First Built in 

the Foreign Field, facing page 293 

MRS. WANG AND FAMILY, facing page 297 

Miss MABEL HARTFORD, facing page 304 

FOOT-BINDING, 312 

JAPANESE NURSE GIRLS 339 

Miss CLARA PROCA, 349 

BULGARIAN GIRLS, 350 

PIONEERS (THE LATIN RACES), 356 

THE GIRLS INSTITUTE IN ROME, facing page 363 

GIRLS HOME SCHOOL, ROME, 364 

MEXICAN GROUP, facing page 378 

OUR DECEASED MISSIONARIES, 400*, 401* 

COLUMBIAN MEDAL, facing page 420 



INTRODUCTION. 



FEMALE MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

ABOUT ninety days after the organization of the 
Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church viz., July 5, 1819 a Woman s Auxiliary was 
formed in the Wesleyan Seminary in Forsyth Street, 
New York City. Rev. Nathan Bangs offered prayer, 
and afterwards stated the objects of the meeting. 
Mrs. Mary W. Mason was elected " First Directress," 
and held the office during the whole period of the 
history of the " Female Missionary Society." Mrs. 
Dr. Seaman was elected Treasurer, and Mrs. Caroline 
M. Thayer Secretary. The address to the "Female 
Members of the Methodist Episcopal Church," sent 
out by this band of devoted women, is still on file, 
and worthy to be sent out again to the women of the 
Church. We quote a few words : " Shall we, who 
dwell in ease and plenty, whose tables are loaded 
with the bounties of Providence, and whose persons 
are clothed with the fine-wrought materials of the 
Eastern looms; shall we who sit under the droppings 
of the sanctuary, and are blessed with the stated or 
dinances of the house of God, thus highly, thus 
graciously privileged, shall we deny the small sub 
scription this institution solicits to carry the glad 
tidings of free salvation to the scattered inhabitants 
of the wilderness? " 

In 1855, the Society had become almost inactive, 

9 



io INTRODUCTION. 

"crowded out of the field by the new missionary or 
ganizations indroduced into the Churches." So far as 
we are able to learn, the last report was made in 
1861, and says: "Almost all our founders, with the 
earliest donors and subscribers, have passed away; 
several are still with us, striving to do what they can. 
Now each Church is desirous to report a large mis 
sionary collection; every Sunday-school is anxious to 
excel in their contributions. This accounts for our 
diminished receipts. Now we can only be gleaners in 
this work. While we regret our shortcomings, yet, 
as a Society, we may be stimulated to renewed dili 
gence by a short review of what has been done. We 
have reason to believe that our collections from the 
commencement in 1819, have been over $20,000, 
which, except for small expenses, have been paid to 
the Parent Society. Beside this, there have been 
contributions in clothing, bedding, books, etc., for 
mission schools. In earlier years we have done much 
in assisting mission schools under the care of Rev. 
William Case and Rev. John Clark. In later years, 
we also assisted the school of the late Ann Wilkins." 

NEW YORK LADIES HOME MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

In 1845 the " Ladies Home Missionary Society of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church" began its honored 
career of charity and benevolence among the poor of 
the city of New York, and with woman s faith and 
heroic courage, in 1850, they said, "We must take 
Five Points for Christ," and applied to the New- York 
Conference for a missionary. 

By an act of the State Legislature, passed March 
20, 1856, Mrs. Caroline R. Deuel (afterward Mrs. 



INTROD UCTION, J x 

Governor Wright), Mrs. Phebe Palmer, Mrs. Helen 
M. Carlton, Mrs. Julia M. Olin, Mrs. Jane E. Barker, 
Mrs. Harriet B. Skidmore, and Mrs. L. A. Holdich, 
and their associates and successors, were constituted a 
body corporate by the name of the " New York 
Ladies Home Missionary Society of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church." 

The history of Five Points mission electrifies the 
land. Such heroism and achievement are rarely 
witnessed. 

LADIES CHINA MISSIONARY SOCIETY OP 
BALTIMORE. 

Contemporaneously with the planting of Meth 
odist missions in China in 1847 was the formation of 
the " Ladies China Missionary Society of Baltimore." 
This, we believe, was a pioneer among Methodist 
women, working specifically for heathen women, and 
during the twenty years of its separate existence, 
with patient continuance in well-doing, it worthily 
sustained the missionary work among the women of 
China. In 1859 this Society took under its fostering 
care the Baltimore Female Academy in Foochow, 
and granted $5,000 for suitable buildings. The Misses 
Woolston took charge of the school. For ten years it 
paid to the Parent Society $300 annually. On the 
3d of March, 1871, passed away the Ladies China 
Missionary Society of Baltimore, and from it came 
the formative impulse to the Woman s Foreign Mis 
sionary Society in Baltimore, while it became merged 
in the Baltimore Branch, of that Society. 



1 2 INTROD UCTION. 

THE WOMAN S UNION MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

The Woman s Union Missionary Society was or 
ganized in the fall of 1860, comprising the women of 
half a dozen or more leading evangelical denomina 
tions, including the Methodist Episcopal, under the 
leadership of Mrs. T. C. Doremus. It was patterned 
somewhat after the English " Society for Promoting 
Female Education in the East." After seven years of 
union effort it was believed by many that the end 
sought could be better attained through denomina 
tional organizations. The Congregationalists were 
the first to draw out in 1868, and the Methodist Epis 
copal in 1869, others following in the succeeding 
years. 

The first donation made for distinctive woman s 
work in the North India Conference was a check 
of $50 from this Society to Mrs. J. T. Gracey 
soon after her arrival in India, in 1861, for the em 
ployment of some native Christian woman as Bible 
reader or teacher. This was the beginning thirty-four 
years ago of the $116,535 ln l8 95> f r India from the 
Woman s Foreign Missionary Society of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, 



THE 

WOWS FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY 

OF THE 

METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 



CHAPTER I. 

ORGANIZATION. 

REAT interest attaches to all the circumstapces 
and stages of the first inception of the Woman s 
Foreign Missionary Society of the Methodist Episco 
pal Church. Twelve years after the movement was 
inaugurated, one of the original actors prepared a doc 
ument which forever removes the Society from the 
perils of oblivion on the one hand, or of legend on 
the other, and had it personally signed by all the ladies 
present at the first meeting, with the exception of 
Mrs. E. W. Parker, in India. It is, therefore, a com 
plete and authentic account of the origin of the So 
ciety, and was written with great care by Mrs. William 
Butler: 

"After having labored ten years in India, Rev. 
E. W. Parker and wife returned to the United States 
in March, 1869, for rest and a renewal of health. On 
arrival they were met by Dr. William Butler, and ac- 

13 



14 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

companied him to his home in South Boston. Their 
visit gave opportunity for much conversation on the 
state and prospect of the work in India, and how it 
might be aided and enlarged. 

"On Sunday afternoon (March i4th) Dr. Butler 
preached a missionary sermon. Mr. and Mrs. Lewis 




TREMONT STREET CHURCH, BOSTON. 



Flanders, of Tremont Street Church, were present to 
hear this discussion. After service, Mr. and Mrs. 
Flanders came to the parsonage to meet the newly ar 
rived missionaries, and thus these three ladies Mrs. 
Parker, Mrs. Flanders, and Mrs. Butler were provi 
dentially brought together, and were led earnestly to 



ORGANIZATION. 15 

consider the subject of the condition of women in 
India, and the powerlessness of the missionaries to do 
anything to alleviate their state on account of their 
isolation. Mrs. Parker expressed her deep conviction 
that unless Christian women took up this work as a 
special and separate duty, it would not be practicable 
to evangelize India to any great extent. Women 
alone could have access to women there. 

"The question was then raised whether something 
could not be done to meet this state of things, and 
whether, if the New England ladies of the Church 
would take it up, the ladies of the West would be 
likely to sustain them. Mrs. Butler then described 
what the ladies of the Congregational Churches had 
done in the line of organizing a society, and showed 
some of the publications of the Woman s Board, in 
cluding a copy of Light and Life, and also their con 
stitution, with a leaflet on zenana work; and turning 
to Mrs. Flanders, she said : Mrs. Parker and I would 
like to see a Woman s Foreign Missionary Society in 
our Methodist Episcopal Church. Can not you help 
us? Mrs. Flanders replied: If others can do this, 
the women of the Methodist Episcopal Church can, 
and it is clearly their duty to engage in this important 
work. Mrs. Flanders volunteered to present the sub 
ject to the ladies of the Tremont Street Church and 
request their co-operation. 

" Accordingly, on Tuesday afternoon, March i6th, 
at the meeting of the Ladies Benevolent Society of 
that Church, about thirty ladies being present, Mrs. 
Flanders spoke to most of them individually on the 
necessity of forming a Woman s Foreign Missionary 
Society. When the business of the evening was con- 



1 6 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

eluded, the meeting was called to order, arid Mrs. 
Flanders addressed the ladies on the subject. A favor 
able response was given, and a committee, consisting 
of Mrs. Joshua Merrill and Mrs. Flanders, was ap 
pointed to see Mrs. Parker and Mrs. Butler, and in 
vite them to come on the following Tuesday (March 
23d), and explain more fully to those present the im 
portance and the practicability of such a society. 

Mrs. Parker and Mrs. 
Butler readily consented. 
Notices were sent to the 
Methodist Churches of 
Boston and vicinity, and 
were read on the next 
Sabbath (March 2ist) in 
all save one, the notice 
having failed to reach 
Trinity Church, Charles- 
town. But Tuesday, the 
23d, proved such a stormy 
day, Mrs. Parker and Mrs. 
Butler, on arriving: at 

MRS. I.CIS I ARKER. >T . 

Tremont Street Church, 

found only six ladies to meet them. These ladies 
were Mrs. Lewis Flanders, Mrs. Thomas A. Rich, Mrs. 
William B. Merrill, Mrs. Thomas Kingsbury, Mrs. P. 
T. Taylor, and Mrs. H. J. Stoddard. A resolution to 
organize was taken. Mrs. Flanders presided, Mrs. 
Butler offered prayer, and Mrs. Parker addressed the 
little circle, showing in a thrilling and impressive way 
the need the women of India had of the gospel, and 
why it could only be brought to them by women who 
would consecrate themselves to the work. All pres- 




ORGANIZATION. 17 

ent seemed to feel the responsibility and the impor 
tance of this duty thus coming upon the women of the 
Church to send out single ladies as missionaries to 
women in heathen lands. 

"A Committee on Nomination of Officers was ap 
pointed, of which Mrs. Flanders was President. They 
agreed on a list of names, which was presented and 
accepted. 

"After singing the doxology, the meeting was ad 
journed to the following Tuesday (March 3oth). An 
earnest effort was made to have the second meeting 
published in all our Boston churches. On the day of 
the meeting a furious rain again fell; yet, notwith 
standing, an increased attendance of ladies was se 
cured, including Mrs. Dr. Warren, Mrs. B. H. Barnes, 
and others, evidencing the growing interest of the 
ladies as they became acquainted with the object of 
the Society. 

"A carefully-prepared constitution was presented 
to, and adopted by and for, the Woman s Foreign 
Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. 

"A large number of ladies joined, and some be 
came life members of the Society. Mrs. Parker, Mrs. 
Butler, Mrs. Warren, and others, addressed the meet 
ing. Matters now assumed a regular form. The 
Society was established, and earnest work and earnest 
prayer soon extended its influence in all the Churches 
around, as well as in the West. 

" The necessity of a periodical to represent this 
missionary work was soon discussed. Some feared it 
might not be sustained; but friendly hands were ready 
to support it, among the rest Mr. Lewis Flanders, 



1 8 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

who offered to aid the experiment to the extent of 
$500, if necessary. So encouraged, the first number 
of the Heathen Woman s Friend was issued in the 
month of May, under the editorship of Mrs. Win. F. 
Warren, and it has since proved its great value to the 
enterprise. It now ranks as one of the first mission 
ary papers of the world. 

" On the jth of May the Missionary Secretaries, 
Rev. Dr. Durbin and Rev. Dr. Harris, met the mem 
bers and friends of the new Society in the vestry of 
Bromfield Street Church, Boston, and after full and 
candid discussion, everything was settled for cordial 
and harmonious working and relation with the Parent 
Society. The General Conference completed its rec 
ognition as an institution of the whole Church, and 
from that hour on, its great influencing and extending 
power in all our foreign missions has evidenced how 
truly its origin was from Him whose glory it seeks, 
and whose redeemed creatures it is trying to bring to 
him as his inheritance. 

"This is a correct account of the origin of the 
Woman s Foreign Missionary Society of the Meth 
odist Episcopal Church. 

"(Signed,) MRS. REV. DR. BUTLER, 
"MRS. IvEwis FLANDERS, 
"MRS. THOMAS A. RICH, 
"MRS. WM. B. MERRILL, 
"MRS. THOS. KINGSBURY, 
"MRS. O. T. TAYLOR, 
"MRS. H. J. STODDARD, 
" MRS. REV. E. W. PARKER (absent in India)." 



ORGANIZA TION. 



The names of these eight women are engraved on 
a beautiful memorial window in Tremout Street 
Church, Boston. It occupies a large space immedi 
ately above the gallery in the church, and is as beauti 
ful as a work of art as it is significant as a chapter 
of remarkable history. The window consists of five 
panels. On the one at either side are floral repre 
sentations, mostly of the lily, while the other three 
contain the suggestive 
record which imparts to 
the window its unique in 
terest. The central panel 
has, near the top, an illu 
minated crown, while be 
low it is a suggestive cross. 
Below these symbols are 
the words: "The Wom 
an s Foreign Missionary 
Society of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church was or 
ganized in this building, 
March 23, 1869." The two 
panels next the center are 
inscribed with the names of the eight women who on 
that day met in the convenient committee-room of 
the church and organized the Society. 

An opportunity had been extended the entire 
membership to share in perpetuating the memory of 
this wonderful beginning, by contributing to the ex 
pense of the memorial. The window was unveiled 
on the twentieth anniversary, when seven of the eight 
"founders" were present, and at the close of the after 
noon program formally "received" the numerous 




MRS. CLEMENTINA BUTLER. 



20 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

guests in the very room where this Society was started 
on its soul-saving mission. The opening devotional 
exercises of the occasion were conducted by Mrs. E. 
F. Porter, whose faith and heroism in the beginning 
of the work were an inspiration to the little band of 
workers. The Secretary of the New England Branch, 
Mrs. I,. A. Alderman, in behalf of the officers and 
members of the Woman s Foreign Missionary Society 
the world over, formally presented to the trustees of 
Tremont Street Church as custodians the beautiful 
memorial window through their pastor, Rev. Dr. 
Brodbeck, who responded in a stirring address on the 
remarkable history of the Society. 

Greetings from Mrs. Parker and Miss Thoburn 
were read ; the Woman s Board sent congratulations, 
and Dr. Clara Swain spoke on her experiences in 
Khetri. Then Mrs. Dr. Daniel Steele read a poem, 
from which we extract the closing stanzas : 

When yonder pictured crystal, 

Through which the sunlight gleams, 
Has faded like the phantoms 

Of evanescent dreams ; 
When place shall be no longer 

For this material sun, 
In the new earth refurnished, 

And the new heaven begun, 

Then shall memorial grander 

Than human artists frame, 
Commemorate forever 

Bach worthy founder s name. 

To crown the hills celestial, 

That monument shall rise, 
And all the assembled nations 

Behold with wondering eyes, 



ORGANIZATION. 21 

From glittering foundation, 

Unto the topmost stone, 
Builded of ransomed spirits, 

Who stand before the throne. 

From every laud and people, 

From every tribe and tongue, 
Shall silvery, treble voices 

Join the triumphant song, 
They who, from darkest midnight, 

Bowed down with sin and shame, 
Lifted by these and rescued, 

Have trusted Jesus name. 

Such, our beloved sisters, 

Shall your memorial be, 
Its splendors multiplying 

To all eternity. 

At the evening meeting Mrs. Dr. Butler spoke 
briefly, the closing address being given by Dr. Butler, 
who. described the "glorious vision" which he beheld 
while resting on the empty crystal throne in the 
king s palace, Delhi, December 20, 1857, when the 
last of the Mogul emperors was being tried for the 
murder of Christians. He claims, by divine sug 
gestion there originated, not only the thought of an 
orphanage to care for the many children that would 
soon be left in misery and starvation, many of them 
the sons and daughters of the Sepoy race, but also of 
a Woman s Missionary Society in America, to send .the 
means to help educate the orphan girls and carry the 
gospel into the secluded zenanas. 

At that second meeting of the Society, held March 
3oth, a constitution was adopted embodying the recom 
mendations of Dr. Durbin that the ladies should raise 



22 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

funds for a particular portion of our mission work in 
India, perhaps also in China, and to leave the admin 
istration of the work to the Board at home and the 
mission authorities abroad. 

The following were elected the officers: 

PRESIDENT. 
Mrs. Bishop Oamon C. Baker. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

Mrs. Bishop Morris, Springfield, Ohio. 
Mrs. Bishop Janes, New York. 
Mrs. Bishop Scott, Odessa, Del. 
Mrs. Bishop Simpson, Philadelphia. 
Mrs. Bishop Ames, St. Louis, Mo. 
Mrs. Bishop Clark, Cincinnati. 
Mrs. Bishop Thomson, Delaware, O. 
Mrs. Bishop Kingsley, Cleveland, O. 
Mrs. Dr. J P. Durbin, New York. 
Mrs. Dr. W. L. Harris, New York. 
Mrs. Dr. Thomas Carlton, New York. 
Mrs. Dr. Wm. Butler, Long Branch, N. Y. 
Mrs. Dr. T. M. Eddy, Baltimore, Md. 
Mrs. Dr. J. P. Newman, Washington, D. C. 
Mrs. Dr. Asbury Lowry, Jackson, O. 
Mrs. Dr. G. D. Carrow, Philadelphia. 
Mrs. Wm. H. Spencer, Philadelphia. 
Mrs. S. L. Gracey, Wilmington, Del. 
Mrs. Dr. E. O. Haven, Ann Arbor, % Mich. 

Mrs. Cook, Chicago. 

Mrs. Dr. D. P. Kidder, Evanston, 111. 

Mrs. Rev. James Baume, Rockford, 111. 

Mrs. Rev. David Patten, Boston. 

Mrs. E. F. Porter, East Boston. 

Mrs. Isaac Rich, Boston. 

Mrs. Charles Woodbury, Boston, 

Mrs. Albert Ellis, South Boston. 

Mrs. Rev. J. H. Twombly, Charlestowu, Mass. 

Mrs. C. W. Pierce, Newton, Mass. 



ORGANIZATION. 23 

Mrs. Philip Holway, Boston, Mass. 

Mrs. Liverus Hull, Charlestown, Mass. 

Mrs. Lewis Flanders, Boston, Mass. 

Mrs. Benjamin H. Barnes, Chelsea, Mass. 

Mrs. Rev. C. N. Smith, Worcester, Mass. 

Mrs. Rev. Dr. E. Wentworth, Pittsfield, Mass, 

Mrs. Rev. E. Taylor, Portland, Me. 

Mrs. Rev. Dr. Joseph Cummin gs, Middletown, Conn. 

Mrs. Rev. Mark Trafton, Providence, R. I. 

Mrs. Benjamin Badger, Concord, N. H. 

Mrs. Paul Dillingham, Waterbury, Vt. 

Mrs. General Clinton B. Fisk. St. Louis, Mo. 

Mrs. Lee Claflin, Hopkinton, Mass. 

Mrs. Governor William Claflin, Boston. 

Mrs. Rev. Dr. G. M. Steele, Appleton, Wis. 

MANAGERS. 

Mrs. Edward Otheman. Mrs. Henry Bowen. 

Mrs. William B. Merrill. Mrs. L. J. Hall. 

Mrs. M. E. Cushmau. Mrs. Frost. 

Mrs. Dr. Woodvine. Mrs. Dr. Mayo. 

Mrs. E. M. Howe. Mrs. D. W. Gardener. 

Mrs. George L. Brown. Mrs. L. H. Daggett. 

RECORDING SECRETARY. 
Mrs. B. J. Pope, 47 Rutland Square, Boston. 

ASSISTANT RECORDING SECRETARY. 
Miss S. F. Haskill, 37^ Beacon Street, Boston. 

CORRESPONDING SECRETARY. 
Mrs. Ruby Warfield Thayer, Newtonville, Mass. 

TREASURER. 
Mrs. Thos. A. Rich, 706 Tremont Street, Bostor,. 

AUDITOR. 
Mr. James P. Magee, 5 Cornhill, Boston. 

On account of declining health, Mrs. Thayer re 
signed, and Mrs. W. F. Warren, Cambridgeport, Mass., 



24 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

Mrs. B. W. Parker, India, and Mrs. Jenny F. Willing, 
Rockford, 111., were elected Corresponding Editors. 

The first public meeting of the Society was held 
in the Bromfield Street Church, Boston, May 26, 1869, 
presided over by Governor Claflin. Addresses were 
made by Drs. Warren, Butler, and Parker, the last two, 
returned missionaries from India, setting forth the 
great need for such a Society. At the close, the 
women held a special meeting, and voted to send out 
their first missionary. This was an important hour in 
the history of the Society. With large faith in God 
and in their work, but with very little money in the 
treasury, they took this advanced action. Miss Tho- 
burn, of Ohio, had been highly recommended by the 
Missionary Secretaries of the Parent Board, and 
others, and, after a general discussion, one of the com 
mittee, Mrs. Porter, said: "Shall we lose Miss Tho- 
burn because we have not the needed money in our 
hands to send her? No, rather let us walk the streets 
of Boston in our calico dresses, and save the expense 
of more costly apparel. I move, then, the appoint 
ment of Miss Thoburn as our missionary to India." 
And they all said, "We will send her." Part of the 
money for her expenses was borrowed, but it was soon 
Very soon after this came an appeal from our 
missionaries in India for a medical woman, if such 
could be found, to take charge of a medical class 
which had been organized in the Orphanage at Ba- 
reilly. The hope was expressed that such a person 
might find her way into the zenanas, help the sick and 
suffering who were without any medical attention, 
and thus be able to present the gospel to them. This 
seemed rather a heroic venture. In a few months the 



ORGANIZATION. 25 

name of Miss Clara A. Swain, M. D., was presented. 
The highest testimonials were given to her ability, 
and she was accepted for this responsible undertaking. 
These two representatives, Miss Thobnrn and Dr. 
Swain, sailed from New York November 3, 1869, via 
England, for India, and reached their destination early 
in January, 1870. 

Farewell meetings had been held in Boston and 
New York of thrilling interest. In those early days 
it was not always easy to get a gentleman to preside 
at a public meeting of this sort, and the brethren 
asked in the Boston " Farewell," who had other en 
gagements, were only equaled by the Scripture story 
of the wedding guests. Gilbert Haven, always ready 
to champion the weak, did not refuse, and presided on 
this occasion, which developed great enthusiasm, and 
was hallowed by many prayers. Another farewell 
meeting was held in old Bedford Street Church in New 
York, from which Ann Wilkins had gone to Africa in 
1836, and its walls never held a greater, a more enthusi 
astic, or a more sympathetic audience than gathered 
on the evening of November 2, 1869, to see and bid 
God-speed to the pioneer missionaries of the Woman s 
Foreign Missionary Society, and at fifty cents a ticket 
too! In its pulpit sat Drs. J. M. Reid, Durbin, Har 
ris, and Butler ; and in its chancel, on the pulpit steps, 
and wherever there was room, sat a host of ministers 
from New York and adjacent cities, to see this strange 
thing that had come to pass, when two young women 
would leave their home and friends to sail thousands 
of miles away to a foreign shore, with no pledge of 
support save that of a handful of women ! 

The work of organization went bravely on. Aux- 



26 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSION AR Y SOCIETY. 

iliary Societies sprang up everywhere, and missionary 
enthusiasm was kindled in the home and in the 
Church. Lynn, Mass., claims to be the first to re 
spond, several Churches uniting in one Auxiliary. At 
first, in many of the cities, only union Auxiliaries 
were formed, as was the case in New York, when on 
June gth, in the chapel of St. Paul s Church a Society 
was organized auxiliary to the one in Boston. Brook 
lyn churches organized June igih; then followed, in 
1869, Bedford Street, Albany, Sing-Sing, and Troy. 
Journeying westward, the first Auxiliary in Ohio was 
organized in St. Clairsville, by Miss Thoburn, after 
her appointment as the first missionary of the new So 
ciety. Then followed five others in their order St. 
Paul s, Delaware; Bellaire; Mt. Auburn, Cincinnati; 
Wheeling, West Virginia, and William Street, Delaware. 
Proceeding to Chicago as a center, we find Mrs. 
Jeanette G. Hauser, a returned missionary from India, 
then in Milwaukee, was in correspondence with Mrs. 
Parker in relation to the founding of the Society, and 
had promised her hearty support. As soon as she 
learned that the organization was really effected, she 
set out to have an Auxiliary in Milwaukee. Early in 
June she had secured ten members, collected the fees, 
and had thirty subscriptions to the Heathen Woman s 
Friend. Sunday evening, June 2oth, Mrs. Jennie F. 
Willing organized an Auxiliary in Rockford, 111., with 
twenty-five members and forty subscribers to the 
Friend, and on the morning of that same day a notice 
was read in all the Methodist Churches in Milwaukee, 
calling the pledged members, and any others who 
would join, to meet on the following Wednesday and 
elect officers. 



ORGANIZATION. 27 

Mrs. Willing was invited to visit St. L,ouis, and on 
April 3, 1870, Auxiliaries were formed in Union, 
Trinity, and Central Churches. 

L/ove and zeal deepened as the work was laid upon 




MRS. JENNIE F. WILLING. 

the Churches. The method adopted for raising funds 
and prosecuting the work of the Society was not by 
public collections for special work, but by every 
Christian woman laying aside two cents a week, or the 
payment of one dollar a year, which should consti 
tute membership. So small was the amount that all 



28 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSION AR Y SOCIETY. 

women, even the most humble, could have a share in 
the work. The aim was to have an Auxiliary in 
every Church, and every woman a member . This 
i was the first organization of the littles that have con- 
tinned to make a full and steady stream of beneficence. 
Not only was the seed sown in cities and villages, 
but at camp-meetings also. September 17, 1869, ac 
cording to the receipts of the Treasurer, Mrs. Rich, 
the first money given at a camp-meeting was at Sing- 
Sing, N. Y., when several women contributed the sum 
of twenty dollars, and were thereby constituted life 
members. Others gave varying amounts, which, al 
together, aggregated $278.25. 

REVISED ORGANIZATION. 

The original plan of leaving the entire manage 
ment of the work at home to the General Society 
or Parent Board, and of the work abroad to its mis 
sionaries on the field, proved within the first year 
impracticable through the rapid growth of Auxiliaries, 
and the fact that the whole scheme was based upon a 
constant and systematic gleaning of small sums, im 
possible to accomplish except by special methods. 
Therefore, what had been planned to meet the re 
quirements, so far as could then be anticipated, was 
found to be inadequate to meet the necessities of the 
growth of the work. 

Hence, in December, 1869, a new constitution was 
framed, on another plan, arranging for co-ordinate 
Branches, comprising certain districts with head 
quarters at specified cities. The legislative power was 
vested in a General Executive Committee, composed 
of the Corresponding Secretary and two delegates 



ORGANIZATION. 29 

from each Branch, who should meet annually and 
have the general management of the affairs of the 
Society. This new constitution, outlining a plan of 
work so admirable that there has never been oc 
casion to change it in any important detail, was sub 
mitted to the Parent Board Missionary Society for 
its approval and sanction, which it received. This 
comprehensive plan included, in 1895, some 6,223 
organizations and 153,584 individuals, through whom, 
in steadily increasing amounts, about $3,500,000 has 
been realized, the money collected and applied directly 
to the work abroad without the intervention of a single 
salaried officer. 

The work of Branch organizations went rapidly 
forward in the following order: New England, March 
loth; New York, June 10, 1869. Philadelphia, March 
3d; Northwestern, March lyth; Western, April 4th; 
and Cincinnati, April 6, 1870. 

In districting the Church, provision was made for 
the organization of Branches in the Southern and 
Pacific States. In what follows, for a time I shall 
keep close to the guidance of Mrs. Gracey s " twenty 
years " of history. 

A year soon passed a year of labor, of new experi 
ences ; a year in which prejudices had to be overcome 
among both ministers and members of the Church ; 
for some feared that the Society in its operations 
might interfere with the collections of the Parent Board. 
The women who were working had not been trained 
in business methods, but they realized they were being 
divinely led. 

The time drew near for the first annual meeting 
under the revised constitution. It was a gathering 



30 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSION AR Y SOCIETY. 

looked forward to with the deepest interest. Women 
who had been called out from the quiet seclusion of 
their homes to do this untried work, were to assemble 
from all parts of the country to rehearse their experi 
ence. They had undertaken a work requiring human 
love and superhuman faith. The objects of their 
prayerful interest were thousands of miles away, far 
over the seas women they had never seen. They 
had tried, during the year, to represent their condition 
to the women of the Church. They were to report 
their success in gleaning financial fields and in gather 
ing the sheaves which had been let fall, "some of the 
handfuls, of purpose, for her." This gathering meant 
much, and many eyes were turned towards the meet 
ing-place of the tribes, and many hearts were uplifted 
in prayer. 

The first General Executive convened in Boston, 
at the house of Mrs. T. A. Rich, April 20, 1870, and 
the six organized Branches were represented by the 
following persons: The New England Branch, by 
Mrs. W. F. Warren, Mrs. Dr. Patten, Mrs. L. Flanders; 
the New York Branch, by Mrs. William Butler, Mrs. 
H. B. Skidmore, and Mrs. J. Olin ; the Philadelphia 
Branch, by Mrs. J. T. Gracey, Mrs. A. V. Eastlake; 
the Cincinnati Branch, by Mrs. E. W. Parker, who 
had just organized that Branch; the Northwestern 
Branch, by Mrs. J. F. Willing, Mrs. F. Jones ; and the 
Western Branch, by Mrs. L. E. Prescott. Mrs. Dr. 
Patten presided at this meeting. The report showed 
that $4,546.86 had been raised during the year, and 
one hundred Auxiliaries had been organized. On 
Thursday, April 2ist, an anniversary was held, and 
four returned missionaries were present, who, with 



ORGANIZATION, 31 

others, made addresses on different phases of the 
foreign work and its home development. During the 
session of this committee, estimates from India were 
received asking for $10,000, which was appropriated; 
and $300 was appropriated to China for work in 
Foochow, Kiukiang, and Peking. This seemed a large 
task to undertake. The previous year had been suc 
cessful, possibly because the enterprise was new; but 
would it be wise to attempt to raise so large an amount 
for another year? But these were women of large 
Jaith, and Mrs. E. W. Parker made a motion that the 
amount for the coming year be made $20,000. The 
motion was unanimously adopted. It seemed almost 
impracticable for an association of ladies pledged to 
make no special efforts, like church collections, toward 
raising money, but simply by membership dues and 
private donations, to bring together in so few months 
so many thousands of dollars. This amount of money 
was apportioned among the Branches as follows: 

New England, $3. 

New York, 6,000 

Philadelphia, 2,500 

Northwestern, 6,000 

Cincinnati, 1,800 

Western, 7 

$20,000 

Previous to this, some money had been paid over 
to Dr. Harris for the support of a Bible-reader in 
Moradabad, which was really the first work actually 
adopted by the Society. 

The Girls Orphanage at Bareilly, India, in which, 
at that time, were about 150 girls, was made over by 



3 2 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

the General Missionary Committee of the Church to 
the Society at this meeting. Reports were made con 
cerning girls schools that had been opened at special 
stations, and Bible women employed during the year. 
The magnitude of the work became clearer at this 
meeting than ever before. These women went out 
to the work of another year, burdened but hopeful, 
to make a combined movement forward. The next 
year the work became more thoroughly systemized at 
home, and they began to " strengthen the stakes and 
lengthen the cords." 

At the second session of the Committee, which 
convened in Chicago May 16, 1871, we find the num 
ber of Auxiliary Societies increased to 614, and over 
26,000 members, and not only the $20,000 in hand, 
but $2,000 more. The first business was the division 
of the Philadelphia Branch territory, ceding to the 
Baltimore ladies the territory of Maryland, the District 
of Columbia, and Eastern Virginia. These had given 
up their former organization, under which they had 
earnestly worked for years in behalf of the mission at 
Foochow, China, and had reorganized as a Branch of 
the Woman s Foreign Missionary Society. During 
this session came the news from Georgia that the 
eighth Branch had been formed. It received, accord 
ing to request, permission to establish headquarters at 
Atlanta, Georgia. 

The estimates which came from India this year 
were nearly double in amount those of the previous 
year. This budget included the cost of sending out 
several new missionaries, and the support of those al 
ready in the field, and increased appropriations for 
schools and Bible-readers. China now asked to be 
heard. From Peking a petition was received for 



ORGANIZATION. 33 

over $5,000; besides, they desired the support of 
lady teachers and of school-work. Two ladies were 
appointed for Peking. In the autumn of 1870, Miss 
Fannie J. Sparkes had gone to join Miss Thoburn 
and Dr. Swain in India. From these ladies, and from 
the faithful wives of the missionaries, there came most 
encouraging and inspiring reports of the work in the 
mission field, proving that the year s labor, here at 
home, in collecting funds, had been balanced by a year 
of constant activity in the mission, the results of 
which had been in every respect as great as those of 
the home workers. Miss Thoburn, at Lucknow, had 
organized schools, and put them in excellent opera 
tion; made many personal visits to the native women, 
and superintended the work of Bible-readers. Miss 
Swain s medical ability had had constant exercise, 
gaining for her admission to many places which other 
wise had remained resolutely closed, and preparing 
the way for others to follow, and care for the good 
seed sown. The class of girls she had under medical 
instruction made good progress. 

In these early days a word of encouragement 
meant very much. The bishops, almost without ex 
ception, most heartily indorsed the work of the So 
ciety, some of them enthusiastically addressing public 
meetings. Others, whose indorsement and commenda 
tion are a matter of record, are the Missionary Secre 
taries, Drs. Durbin and Harris ; the Board of Mana 
gers of the Missionary Society; the Maine Confer 
ences; Cincinnati Methodist Preachers Meeting, 
through the President, Granville Moody; Boston 
Preachers Meeting, through its President, George 
Prentice; India Mission Conference; Dr. J. M. Trim 
ble, always a warm friend and safe counselor; tduca- 

3 



34 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

tors Warren, Cummings, Cooke, Donelson, Bugbee, 
Kidder, Raymond, and E. O. Haven; editors Lore, 
Merrill, House, Wiley, Reid, and Gilbert Haven; also 
Drs. Dashiell, Olin , Fowler, Hatfield, Spencer, and 
Mrs. Wittenmeyer and Frances E. Willard. 

The missionaries of the General Society were al 
ways sure allies. Conspicuous among them, at first and 
through all the years, may be mentioned J. M. Tho- 
burn and S. L. Baldwin. 

In 1873, very earnest applications were received 
for extending the work into Mexico and South Amer 
ica. In 1877, Italy and Bulgaria were opened by the 
employment of Bible-readers at various points. 

In all these fields, every Christian agency was util 
ized for reaching and saving the women and girls. 
Direct evangelistic work through missionaries, Chris 
tian women, and Bible women ; indirect evangelistic 
work, by establishing and sustaining day and board 
ing schools ; through benevolent agencies, such as or 
phanages and medical work, carried on by American 
and native workers; the establishment of hospitals 
and dispensaries ; and by creating a native Christian 
literature. At the close of 1879, or first decade, we. 
find the work well established in India, China, Japan, 
Africa, Italy, South America, and Mexico: with 38 
missionaries in the field, 200 Bible women and native 
teachers; 6 hospitals and dispensaries; 15 boarding- 
schools, with 696 pupils; 115 day-schools, with nearly 
3,000 pupils; 3 orphanages, with 347 pupils, and two 
homes for friendless women, the annual appropriation 
for the work having increased to $89,000. Homes had 
been built for the missionaries, school-buildings erected, 
and permanency given to every branch of the work. 



CHAPTER II. 

INCREASING ACTIVITIES. 

history of the Society for the next ten years 
1 is simply that of continued and increased activities 
as the way opened, and as there came the ability 
to occupy. Every effort was made to establish and 
strengthen the work in hand. Into all fields more 
missionaries were sent. 

At the Committee meeting in Buffalo, in May, 
1 88 1, the time of the annual meeting was changed so 
that the financial year would conform to that of the 
Parent Board. In 1883 the German work was com 
menced, which has since extended to Switzerland and 
Germany. The territory of the Western Branch was 
divided into three separate Branches; viz., the Des 
Moines, Topeka, and Minneapolis. Possibly the most 
important part of the work that year was the estab 
lishment in India, by the Society, of an illustrated 
Christian paper, called The Woman s Friend. In 1884 
the first missionary was sent to Bulgaria. The So 
ciety was incorporated that year under the laws of the 
State of New York. In 1885 a missionary was sent 
to Korea. 

The Society, on learning of the neglect and threat 
ened obliteration of the grave of Ann Wilkins, one 
of the pioneers of woman s missionary work, took ac 
tion to provide a suitable resting-place for the remains 
of the honored dead. A magnificent site was do 
nated by the trustees of Maple Grove Cemetery, 

35 



36 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

Long Island, and a beautiful memorial service was 
held on the interment, June 19, 1886. Bishop Harris 
read the impressive burial service, and Dr. J. M. Reid, 
Missionary Secretary, made the address. Rev. Stephen 
Merritt removed the remains, as a loving service. 
Mrs. Kennard Chandler says : 

"On opening the grave, we found the casket, in 
which Ann Wilkins had rested for nearly thirty 
years, perfect and entire. Its plate bore the inscrip 
tion : Ann Wilkins. Died November, 1857. Aged 
51 years, 4 months, 13 days. 

" With reverent hand the undertaker removed the 
precious remains to the casket we had brought. He re 
marked, Here is her right arm. Give it to me, I said; 
and as I pressed it in my own, I gave this living hand 
in renewed consecration to the cause she loved so well, 
and kneeling over that wide-open grave, filled with the 
pure air of heaven, baptized with the glorious sun 
light, across the more than a quarter of a century since 
that tired hand had rested on her breast, there came to 
me a quick vibration, almost as though the harp held 
by her magic hand had throbbed a double note of 
praise. O hands, that ministered to the lowliest, now 
striking clear notes of praise on harp whose quivering 
chords send out endless notes of melody ! O feet, so 
many times weary with the march and countermarch 
of life, now laving in the crystal river, now tarrying be 
neath the tree of life, whose branches, full-clustered, 
hang low, and now flying with speed, some angelic 
message of love to convey! Upon her head I placed 
my hand head that ached and eyes that wept, as she 
cried, O, Africa! Africa! would that I might gather 
thee into the fold ! The crown rests now upon thine 



INCREASING ACTIVITIES, 37 

uplifted brow, how richly studded with flashing 
jewels !" 

The monument bears the following inscription : 
"Here lies Ann Wilkins, a Missionary of the Meth 
odist Episcopal Church to Liberia, from 1836 to 1856. 
Died November 13, 1857, aged 51 years. Having 
little money at command, she gave herself. Erected 
by the Woman s Foreign Missionary Society." The 
cost of the monument was $319.05. This amount 
was contributed by the various Branches. 

During the session of the seventeenth General 
Executive Committee in 1886, in Providence, tidings 
came of the death of that most honored veteran in 
missionary service, Miss Beulah Woolston, and the 
following was placed on record : 

" Resolved; That we recognize in the sisters Wool 
ston the pioneers of that distinctive work for women 
in the mission field of our Church which is now its 
crowning glory; that we believe, chiefly to the con 
sistent beauty of their lives, the faithfulness of their 
labors, their spirit of self-sacrifice in the service of 
their Master, are due the solidity and success of our 
work in Foochow. They laid the foundations ; others 
have entered into their labors." 

The two sisters, Miss Beulah and Miss Sarah 
Woolston, sailed for China, with other missionaries, 
October 4, 1858. After a voyage of one hundred and 
forty-seven days around the Cape of Good Hope, they 
landed at Shanghai, February 27, 1859, and reached 
Foochow March igth. They were sent out by the 
Parent Board, but their work was supported by the 
" China Female Missionary Society " of Baltimore, 
until the organization of the Woman s Foreign Mis- 



38 WOMAN s FOXESGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

sionary Society, when it was transferred to it. In 
1882, both of them, much broken in health, returned 
to the United,States. October 24, 1884, Miss Beulah 
fell asleep in Jesus. 

A memorial from the Pacific Coast was received 
in 1888, by the Committee, asking for the organiza 
tion of a Pacific Branch, which was granted, and 
thus the work spreads from the Atlantic to the Pa 
cific. Among the measures of special importance in 
1889 was the appointment of a German editor for the 
Heiden Frauen Freund, and Miss Margaretha Dreyer 
as Superintendent of German work, and entitled to 
.membership in the Committee; arrangements for 
a child s monthly; the revision of by-laws, incor 
porating among others, the resolution that the first 
year of missionary life shall be largely devoted to 
study, and that the salary shall be $200 less than 
subsequent years. 

A new experience came tc the Committee in its 
twentieth year. One of the leaders had fallen at her 
post. The Northwestern Branch had lost its stand 
ard-bearer. Mrs. E. A. B. Hoag, the efficient Corre 
sponding Secretary, died at her home in Albion, Mich., 
September 26th. Loving the Master and loving His 
work, she sacrificed comfort and strength to serve. 

The Society had the largest income in its history 
to report at its twentieth anniversary $226,496.15, 
which was an advance over the preceding year of over 
$20,000. There had been general advancement in "all 
departments of this growing work. "The total organ 
izations were 5,531, with a membership of 135,229. 
There were ninety-eight missionaries in the various 
fields, and during the year unprecedented demands 





MISS ISABHI, HART. 



40 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

came from mission fields for increased appropriations, 
almost overwhelming the Committee under the 
pressure. 

The General Executive Committee, held in Kansas 
City in 1891, was memorable in that it was saddened 
by the sense of loss of one of its most active and effi 
cient members, Miss Isabel Hart, who had been re 
leased from her sufferings September 5th. She was 
one of the first of the original Secretaries called home. 
She was missed in all the deliberations of the body. 
Clear in her discussions, practical in her suggestions, 
wise in advice, she was leaned upon, and looked up to 
by her associates. 

" I shall still be remembered by what I have done." 

Miss Hart has stood among the foremost workers, 
not only of the Society, but in all Church, benevolent 
and educational work. Her name carried with it 
something of the charm of her influence even to dis 
tant lands; for she inspired by her devotion, not only 
workers for, but workers in, our mission fields. With 
her pen she rendered valuable service to the cause of 
missions in her contributions to the Church papers 
and to the Heathen Woman s Friend, also in biograph 
ical sketches and popular leaflets. Mrs. Gracey pre 
pared a sketch of her life, by the request of friends 
in Baltimore, which was beautifully bound in silver 
and white. 

The Society in 1892 put itself on record against 
.the opening of the World s Fair at Chicago, in 1893, 
on the Sabbath. The eleventh Branch was author 
ized, at that session, from the farthermost bounds of 
the Minneapolis Branch, to be called the Columbia 



INCREASING ACTIVITIES. 



River Branch. When the next annual meeting con 
vened in St. Paul, in 1893, there were two present of 
those who were at the first meeting in 1870 in Bos 
ton. They were Mrs. Skidmore and Mrs. Gracey. 
The General Missionary Committee were in session in 




; . 



MRS. J. T. GRACEY. 

Minneapolis. In view of the hard times, that Com 
mittee sounded a retreat, and the Church retreated. 
Result, a decrease of over $47,000 from the receipts 
of the preceding year. The Woman s Society made 
an advance of $14,000, and at the close of the year 
1894 the receipts totaled the sum of $311,925.96, 
which was an increase of more than $34,000. The 



42 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

personnel of that twenty-fourth session, including its 
interested visitors, was quite remarkable. There were 
seven bishops and the wives of four, and the daughter 
of another, who were most valuable factors in the 
pleasure and profit of the meetings. There were also 
fifteen missionaries, representing seven fields of labor, 
as well as six others of the General Society. Some 
legislation affecting deaconess work was intro 
duced, to the effect that all unmarried women em 
ployed by the Methodist Episcopal Church shall be 
sent through the Woman s Foreign Missionary So 
ciety, and all money given for this purpose shall be 
paid into the treasury of the Woman s Society, and 
that all matters pertaining to the property for Dea 
coness Homes shall be under the control of the 
Woman s Society. Ever mindful of the valuable serv 
ice rendered by wives of missionaries, it was resolved 
^that all such shall have a right to take part, and vote 
in all meetings relating to the business or work of the 
Woman s Foreign Missionary Society. The year 1894 
marked an important epoch in the history of the So 
ciety the close of the first quarter of a century 
and was duly celebrated as a Silver Anniversary, special 
effort being made to make the occasion noteworthy 
by a free-will offering worthy of the cause. About 
$25,000 enriched the treasury. The building of the 
Woman s College in L,ucknow was to proceed as a 
memorial to Mrs. William F. Warren. Through fire, 
floods, labor troubles, and financial depression, the 
Society, in its twenty-fifth year, marched with steady 
step, placing in its treasury the magnificent sum 
shown above. Over 150 boxes were sent that year to 
the various mission fields veritable object-lessons of 



INCREASING ACTIVITIES, 43 

Christian love. Fifteen new missionaries were sent 
out, and twelve others accepted. The Society became 
a pioneer in Sumatra, opened new work in Paraguay, 
among the Bhotiyas, and in West China. There were 
present, at this session of the Committee in Washing 
ton, those who had helped to lay the foundations of 
the Society. They had ceaselessly since aided in 
carrying its burdens, and their prayers and their wis 
dom in council had through those years aided to guide 
the organization, till it has become a marvelous power 
in the Church and in the world. 

Before the time for another annual meeting, the 
Society had lost one of its most helpful friends, Mrs. 
Adaline M. Smith, of Chicago, who went to be with 
Christ the morning of July 4, 1895. Her life had been 
a remarkable example of faithful Christian steward 
ship, giving away to various Methodist causes during 
the twelve years of her widowhood, $135,428, or 
$10,000 more than the valuation of her estate when 
her husband, Philander Smith, a godly and generous 
man, died. She had done this deliberately, prayer 
fully, most unostentatiously, and most wisely. India, 
China, Japan, and Africa join with us in the home 
land in sorrowing over her departure. 

Three years before, Mrs. Elizabeth Sleeper Davis, 
of Boston, had been summoned to her reward. She 
was making a tour of the globe, visiting our mission 
fields, where she had founded schools and scholarships. 
Her long journey, of nearly two years, had brought 
her on her return as far as Berlin, Germany, and on 
the 8th of May, 1891, she heard the heavenly sum 
mons to cross over. L,oving hands brought her body 
across the sea, and placed it beside her precious dead 



44 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

in the cemetery at Augusta, Maine. Like her Master, 
she " went about doing good." She gave not only her 
money, but her hand, her heart, her love. The largest 




MRS. ADKLINE M. SMITH. 

bequest the Society ever received, $25,000 in 1894, 
was from the estate of Mrs. Davis. 

The work of the Society and the cause of missions 
generally have been advanced on some unusual oc- 



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CHAPTER III. 

BRANCH HISTORY. 

THE NEW ENGLAND BRANCH was organized in 
the chapel of Tremout Street Church, March 10, 
1870, embracing the New England States, with head 
quarters in Boston. The annual meetings were held 
at headquarters until 1881. Since then they have 
been held in Haverhill, Springfield, Portland, Burling 
ton, Lowell, New Haven, St. Johnsbury, Manchester, 
Meriden, Portland, and Lynn. 

Mrs. Dr. Patten, the first President, served seven 
years; Mrs. Dr. Warren, twelve years; Mrs. Dr. Park- 
hurst, five years, when Miss Louise Manning Hodg- 
kins was elected, in 1894. 

Mrs. Dr. Warren was the first Corresponding Sec 
retary. She served three years, and was succeeded 
by Mrs. Dr. Latimer for a term of on year, when 
Mrs. C. P. Taplin was appointed and served four 
years. Failing health compelled her resignation, and 
Mrs. M. P. Alderman, who had served as Conference 
Secretary four years, was elected, and has served in 
that capacity since June u, 1878, with Miss Clara M. 
Cushman as home Secretary since October, 1892. 

The Recording Secretaries have been Mrs. Daggett, 
Miss Fairfield, Miss Richardson, Mrs. Curtis, and 
Mrs. Buell. 

Mrs. T. A. Rich served nine years as Treasurer; 
Mrs. Magee, ten years and a half; Miss Holt, from 
46 



BRANCH HISTORY. 49 

October, 1889. In 1894, Conference Treasurers were 
elected. 

The NEW YORK BRANCH was first organized in 
the chapel of St. Paul s Church, June 10, 1869, prior 
to any Auxiliaries, although the first one was organ 
ized in Brooklyn the same day, with Mrs. Dr. W. L. 
Harris, President. The Branch was organized as an 
Auxiliary to the Society in Boston. Its officers were: 
President, Mrs. Wm. Butler; Corresponding Secretary, 
Miss Eleanor Burling; Recording Secretary, Miss 
Helen F. Smith; Treasurer, Mrs. John Elliott. Owing 
to the illness of Miss Burling s mother a change was 
made, and Mrs. George Lansing Taylor was elected 
Corresponding Secretary. When the revised consti 
tution was adopted, March, 1870, the proper date of 
the New York Branch as such began. 

The office of President has been filled successively 
by Mrs. William Butler, Mrs. Stephen Olin, Mrs. J. 
A. Wright, Mrs. S. L. Baldwin; that of Correspond 
ing Secretary, by Miss Burling, Mrs. G. L. Taylor, 
Mrs. William Butler, Mrs. Wm. B. Skidmore ; that of 
Recording Secretary, by Miss Helen F. Smith, Miss 
Henrietta H. Holdich, Mrs. O. H. Tiffany, Mrs. J. T. 
Crane, Mrs. J. H. Knowles; that of Treasurer, by 
Mrs. John Elliott, Mrs. J. A.Wright, Mrs. Orange Judd, 
Mrs. J. M. Cornell, Mrs. H. J. Heydecker. 

In 1872, Mrs. Butler went with her husband to open 
missions in Mexico, and Mrs. Skidmore was elected 
to fill the office, \vhich she has since held. Mrs. 
Knowles was also elected Recording Secretary that 
year, and with the exception of two years has held 
the office to the present. 

4 



50 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

The PHILADELPHIA BRANCH was organized March 
3, 1870, and the first four years was called "Central 
Branch." The first officers were : President, Mrs. J. 
T. Gracey; Recording Secretary, Miss E. A. Town- 
send, who has always been her own successor ; Cor 
responding Secretary, Mrs. Dr. Eastlake ; Treasurer, 
Mrs. A. W. Rand. It is a little singular that the 
Branch has had four Presidents, Mrs. Gracey, Mrs. 
Keen, Mrs. Long, Mrs. Wheeler ; four Corresponding 
Secretaries, Mrs. Eastlake, Mrs. Gracey, Mrs. Long- 
acre, Mrs. J. F. Keen ; four Treasurers, Mrs. Rand, 
Mrs. Whitaker, Mrs. Cahoon, Mrs. Bishop Foss. It 
is also interesting to note how Mrs. Gracey was as 
sociated with the earliest history of the Branch. She 
opened the first meeting (before organization); she made 
the first missionary address, was elected first Presi 
dent; her name stands first on the list of life mem 
bers; the first "special work" was the support of an 
orphan named Annie Gracey. The first mite-box 
opened belonged to Mrs. Gracey s little daughter, and 
the first money paid out by the Branch Treasurer 
was to Mrs. Gracey " for expenses." 

The NORTHWESTERN BRANCH was organized in 
Clark Street Church, Chicago, March 17, 1870, with 
66 Auxiliaries and 3,750 members.* The Presidents 
elected have been Mrs. Bishop Hamline, Mrs. Gover 
nor Beveridge, and Mrs. I. R. Hitt since 1876, save 

* The officers of this branch, whose portraits are given on 
the opposite page, are: in the top row, Mrs. Mary B. Hitt, 
Mrs. Sarah E. Crandon ; in the middle row, Mrs. L. H. Jen 
nings, Mrs. B. D. York; and in the lowest row, Mrs. Millie P. 
Meredith, Mrs. Gertrude Pooley. 




OFFICERS OF THE NORTHWESTRN BRANCH. 



BRANCH HISTORY. 53 

one year, in 1882, when Mrs. Thos. A. Hill served. 
Mrs. Jennie F. Willing gave fourteen consecutive 
years as Corresponding Secretary; then Mrs. T. A. 
Hill, Mrs. E. A. Hoag, and Miss Mary Raridan, each 
served short terms, death coming to Mrs. Hoag while 
in office. Since 1889, Mrs. F. P. Crandon has been 
elected annually. The labors of the treasury depart 
ment have been shared early and late by Mesdames 
Fowler, Queal, Miller, Horton, Crandon, and Preston, 
the Misses Mary E. Preston and Mary A. Gamble, 
and Mrs. B. D. York. Those who have been elected 
as Recording Secretaries are: Mesdames Kent, Ban- 
forth, Willard, Hill, Eddy, Quine, Fawcett, Miss Ella 
Patten, and Mesdames Calder, Henkle, and Jennings. 
Mrs. Calder served for eight years. Mrs. Jennings was 
elected in 1891. A First Vice-President was created 
in 1891, with Mrs. I. N. Danforth in office for two 
years ; then Mrs. R. M. Pooley. A Secretary of the 
Home Department was also created in 1891, with Mrs. 
I,. Meredith elected; and Conference Treasurers were 
also elected that year. 

The CINCINNATI BRANCH was organized with five 
Auxiliaries, April 6, 1870, in Trinity Church, Cincin 
nati, by Mrs. E. W. Parker. Mrs. Bishop Clark was 
elected President, and filled the office over twenty- 
three years, giving to it her consecrated life and ripe 
experience. She had only laid down her work, it 
seemed, when summoned to the upper sanctuary, to 
be " forever with the L,ord." Mrs. Bishop Joyce suc 
ceeded her, and in 1894 Mrs. Wm. B. Davis, daughter 
of Mrs. Clark, was elected. 

Miss Delia L,athrop, Mrs. Gilbert, Mrs. W. A. 



54 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

Gamble, and Mrs. Wesley Hamilton, in turn, served 
as Recording Secretary. Mrs. C. W. Barnes has been 
elected annually since 1886. The first Corresponding 
Secretary, Mrs. B. R. Cowen, left the Branch in 1872, 
and Mrs. R. R. Meredith filled the place one year. 
On her removal, Mrs. G. E. Doughty was elected. 
Two years later she was called home, and Mrs. M. 
B. Ingham took her place, and until 1878 prosecuted 
the work with vigor and enthusiasm. In April, 1878, 
Mrs. Cowen was again elected, and has held the 
office since. 

Miss H. A. Smith, the first Treasurer, was obliged 
to resign in 1873, and Mrs. Wm. B. Davis for over 
twenty years was Treasurer. When she could no 
longer carry the burden, it was determined to have a 
receiving and disbursing Treasurer, and Mrs. J. C. 
Kunz and Mrs. Oliver Kinsey were elected. 

The BALTIMORE BRANCH was organized, March 
6, 1871, out of an older organization, the Ladies 
China Missionary Society of Baltimore. When the 
affiliations of the two Societies took place, the officers 
of the newly-formed Branch were those who had 
( served so well and so faithfully in the old Society. 
Mrs. Frances A. Crook, President; Miss Isabel Hart, 
Corresponding Secretary; Mrs. E. Hamilton, Treas 
urer; Mrs. S. Morgan, Recording Secretary. 

In 1891 this strong and beautiful chain was broken. 
The first link removed was Mrs. Hamilton, who passed 
to her reward January 7th, her cloak falling upon the 
shoulders of her daughter, Mrs. E. R. Uhler. Sep 
tember 5th, Miss Hart received the victor s crown, 
and was followed by Mrs. Crook in November. Mrs. 



BRANCH HISTORY. 55 

E. B. Stevens and Mrs. A. H. Eaton were elected to 
fill the vacancies. 

The WESTERN BRANCH was organized by Mrs. 
Willing, April 4, 1870, in Union Church, St. Louis, 
with the following officers: President, Mrs. Governor 
T. C. Fletcher; Recording Secretary, Mrs. J. N. 
Pierce; Treasurer, Mrs. Dr. W. A. Jones; Correspond 
ing Secretary, Mrs. Lucy E. Prescott. By the action 
of the General Executive Committee in May, 1874, 
the headquarters were removed to Des Moines, and 
Mrs. Bishop Andrews was elected President; Mrs. E. 
K. Stanley, Treasurer ; Mrs. W. W. Fink, Recording 
Secretary ; the Corresponding Secretary remaining the 
same. In 1882 Mrs. Mary C. Nind was elected Pres 
ident and Mrs. L. B. James, Recording Secretary. The 
following year this Branch was divided into three 
Branches as follows: 

The DES MOINES BRANCH was organized Novem 
ber 12, 1883. Its Presidents have been in turn, Mrs. 
Mary E. Orwig, Mrs. Mary S. Huston; Mrs. M. W. 
Porter, M. D., who died the following year after elec 
tion; Mrs. C. C. Mabee, and Miss Elizabeth Pearson, 
elected in 1889. The Corresponding Secretaries have 
been elected in order: Mrs. Lucy E. Prescott, Mrs. 
L. D. Carhart, and Mrs. M. S. Huston, elected in 1887. 
The Recording Secretaries are: Mrs. L. B. James, 
Mrs. B. Gatchell, Mrs. L. E. McEntire, Mrs. C. D. 
Miller; Mrs. Gatchell was re-elected in 1892. Mrs. 
E. H. Stanley has served continuously as Treasurer 
since 1874; that is, nine years in the old Branch. In 
1895 an assistant was elected, Miss A. H. Field. The 
territory of this Branch consists of two States. 



56 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

The TOPEKA BRANCH was organized November 
22, 1883, arid the following officers were elected: 
President, Mrs. O. J. Cowles; Recording Secretary, 
Mrs. J. M. Torrington; Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. 
H. M. Shattuck; Treasurer, Mrs. M. J. Shelley. Mrs. 
Cowles removed from the bounds of the Branch at 
the close of the first year, and Mrs. Bishop Ninde, 
who was about to take up her residence there, was 
chosen President, filling the office for eight years, 
until her removal. Her successor is Mrs. C. C. Adams. 
In 1885, Mrs. H. M. Pattee was elected Correspond 
ing Secretary; her successor was Miss Matilda Watson, 
in 1888. The office of Recording Secretary has al 
ways been filled by Mrs. Torrington. After seven 
years in the Treasurer s office, Mrs. Shelley was suc 
ceeded by Mrs. A. M. Davis in. 1890. 

The MINNEAPOLIS BRANCH was organized De 
cember 1 8, 1883, with one whole Conference, part of 
another, and two Mission Conferences; the largest in 
territory, smallest in numbers, richest in resources, 
vegetable and mineral, but poorest in money, stretch 
ing across the continent. The officers have been as 
follows: President, Mrs. Emily Huntington Miller, 
Mrs. Wardwell Couch, Mrs. C. N. Stowers, Mrs. M. 
H. Triggs; Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. Mary C. 
Nind, until 1888, then Mrs. C. S. Winchell. Mrs. Nind 
traveled over this vast domain from the Mississippi 
to the Pacific. In company with Mrs. Stanley, in 
1885, a journey was made involving five thousand 
miles. She represented the various connectional in 
terests of the Church, there being none of the Secre 
taries on hand at five Conferences and missions, over 



BRANCH HISTORY. 57 

which Bishop Harris presided. He was always sure 
to be present to hear her. Mrs. J. M. Head has con 
tinuously served as Recording Secretary. The Treas 
urers have been Mrs. W. M. Harrison, who died in 
1886, Mrs. Couch, Mrs. Bishop Foss, Mrs. D. S. B. 
Johnston, Miss Lillian M. Quinby, and Mrs. W. M. 
McDonald. 

The ATLANTA BRANCH was organized with thir 
teen members and fifteen subscribers to the Heathen 
Woman s Friend, in L,oyd Street Church, Atlanta, 
September 25, 1871, with the following officers: Presi 
dent, Mrs. J. C. Kimball; Corresponding Secretary, 
Mrs. Ellie J. Knowles ; Recording Secretary, Miss 
Ellen W. Coffin; Treasurer, Mrs. Dr. Fuller. Subse 
quently, on the removal of Mrs. Knowles, Mrs. Fuller 
became Corresponding Secretary. Their receipts were 
sent through the Cincinnati Branch. 

The PACIFIC BRANCH was organized with sixteen 
Auxiliaries in 1889. The officers were: President, 
Mrs. J. P. Early; Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. Char 
lotte O Neal; Recording Secretary, Mrs. L,. C. Spencer; 
Treasurer, Mrs. M. M. Bovard, who has been succeeded 
by Mrs. S. F. Johnson, Mrs. D. C. Cook, Mrs. Z. L. 
Parmelee. In 1892, Mrs. Early, "the missionary 
mother," after years of feebleness, went to her heav 
enly home, and Mrs. Alice K. Stalker was elected. 
Mrs. O Neal has served as Corresponding Secretary, 
except two years in 1891-92, when Mrs. E. M. Crow 
took the work. Mrs. Crow was elected Secretary of 
the Home Department in 1894. 



58 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

The COLUMBIA RIVER BRANCH was organized De 
cember 7, 1892. The first Auxiliary had been organ 
ized in 1882 by Mrs. W. S. Harrington, in Seattle, and 
made tributary to the Northwestern Branch. Two 
years later all that northwest territory became part of 
the Minneapolis Branch. At the request of Mrs. 
Mary C. Nind, Bishop Walden, when holding the Con 
ferences, appointed two Conference Secretaries for the 
Society. The Branch officers as elected were: Presi 
dent, Mrs. C. E. L,ocke; Corresponding Secretary, 
Mrs. M. C. Wire; Recording Secretary, Mrs. A. J. 
Hanson; Treasurer, Miss L,izzie Y. Wead. In 1894, 
Mrs. F. W. Osburn was elected Treasurer, and Mrs. 
A. N. Fisher Secretary of the Home Department. 

METHODS. * 

At the beginning very little machinery was needed 
to carry on the work. Auxiliaries reported direct to 
the Branch Corresponding Secretary, and the work 
was easily held by one head and one pair of hands. 
But the rapid growth of the Society made some other 
plan necessary. First, Assistant, then State Secre 
taries were introduced. A District meeting was held 
on the Albion District in Michigan in 1870, and one 
in Athens, O., the Mansfield District, December 31, 
1872; and this was the beginning of an invaluable 
source of strength. The Northwestern Branch made 
provision for this new system by preparing a consti 
tution in 1877 for District Associations. In 1876 the 
same Branch substituted Conference for State Secre 
taries, which still further systematized perfection of 
work. Gradually these plans became the regular 
order, when Auxiliaries reported to District officers, 



BRANCH HISTORY, 59 

they to the Conference, and these in turn to the Branch 
Secretary. This may seem a little indirect, but what 
arrangement could have been better? Every member 
of the body has its own adaptation and adjustment 
to the body s wants and its own function and office, 
so that none can say to any other, " I have no need 
of thee." 

Again, at first, Auxiliaries remitted to the Branch 
Treasurer; but this, too, seemed unnecessarily burden 
some to some, as the matter of receipting quarterly to 
over twelve hundred Societies in one of the Branches 
must have become. Since 1886 the New York 
Branch has had two Treasurers until in 1894, an d 
during a period of two or three years both the Cin 
cinnati and the Des Moines Branches had Assistant 
Treasurers. In 1889 the Northwestern Branch elected 
Conference Treasurers, who receive the money from 
the Auxiliaries, receipt to them, and remit to the 
Branch Treasurer. The Philadelphia Branch elected 
Conference Treasurers in 1893, an ^ tne New York and 
New England Branches in 1894. The Cincinnati 
Branch elected a receiving and a disbursing Treas 
urer in 1893. These officers come under the legisla 
tion of Branches. 

The Constitution provides that the Branch Treas 
urers shall forward the money to Foreign Treasurers, 
who are instructed to return receipts for remittances, 
and a statement of balance in hand, quarterly, to the 
Branch Corresponding Secretaries and Treasurers, and 
a full financial statement, annually, to the Official 
Correspondent of the specific mission field. 



60 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

The appropriations for the foreign fields are paid 
on the basis of the currency of the country, the ex 
change therefrom accruing to home treasury, with the 
exception of the salaries of missionaries, which are 
paid on the basis of American gold. 

The Northwestern Branch, conscious that its Secre 
tary was bearing burdens of responsibility and cor 
respondence too great for one woman, and believing 
that the best interests of the work could be subserved 
by a division of the labor devolving upon her, elected 
a Secretary for the Home Department in 1890. The 
New England Branch elected a Home Secretary in 
1892, the Columbia River in 1893, and the Pacific 
Branch in 1894. 

At first the District Secretary was the medium for 
the dissemination of missionary literature in many 
places, but the home side of the missionary work be 
came constantly more complicated, and Bureaus of 
Literature were established, with a Secretary to sup 
plement this work by the wider range of leaflets to be 
bought from all Boards as well as our own, letters from 
missionaries, pamphlets, periodicals, maps, and books 
of reference. This plan in turn gave way to Depots 
of Supplies, with an agent in charge, which in 1892 
became general, each Branch adopting it. A majority 
have their rooms in connection with the Methodist 
Book-rooms in the several cities. 

Some of the Branches from time to time have 
elected Young L,adies Conference Secretaries, Super 
intendents of Bands, Organizing Secretaries, Branch 



BRANCH HISTORY. 61 

Organizers, and Itinerating Committees, the better to 
carry forward the work. 

YOUNG PEOPLE. 

A "JUVENILE MISSIONARY SOCIETY" was organ 
ized in Berea, Ohio, as early as 1873, which pledged 
$30 to support a girl in some mission school. This 
was followed by Greensburg in 1875, Mansfield in 
1876, the "Busy Bees," in Trinity, Cincinnati, 1877, 
and Troy, Ohio, in 1878. Others were organized 
in each of the Branches, until in 1895 there 
were 741 Children s Bands, the Cincinnati Branch 
leading with 152, the New England with 136, and 
the Northwestern with 114. There is a total 
membership of 13,412, the Northwestern having 
2,758, and the New England 2,346 members. These 
children have been trained in intelligent methods. 
Many of them are as familiar with the names of our 
missionaries and their stations as most of the older 
members. Early in 1893 a life-membership certificate 
was issued for children on receipt of ten dollars. 

In many places the YOUNG LADIES are associated 
with the Auxiliaries, but more frequently separate or 
ganizations have been formed. The work done by 
them has been educational, the results of which can 
not be calculated. Many have been led into a deeper 
spiritual life, through their connection with, and plan 
ning for, the work. The Central Young Ladies Aux 
iliary in Detroit has for years been the banner So 
ciety. It was the first to get out an annual pro 
spectus, and for some years took an annual pledge of 
$400, which was duly appropriated by them at the be- 



62 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

ginning of their fiscal year. Not only in churches, 
but in schools and colleges, have Auxiliaries been 
formed ; and not only talents, gifts, and zeal laid upon 
the altar, but some of the students have given them 
selves to the work, and are now in the foreign field. 
The statistics for 1895 show 810 Young Women s So 
cieties, with 16,157 members. 

Making a place in our missionary fold for the tiny 
lambs of the flock had long been in the minds of 
some of our missionary leaders, and worked more or 
less. Hence, the LITTLE LIGHT BEARER move 
ment in 1891 simply gave this thought more definite 
shape, and was heartily welcomed. 

Mrs. Lucie F. Harrison, in the commencement of 
the year 1891, presented to the Executive Committee 
of the New England Branch the following plan : To 
invite our babies, under five years of age, to become 
members by the payment of twenty-five cents a 
year for five years, and suggested also that a new 
card certificate of membership be expressly prepared 
for these little ones to keep as a memorial. This plan 
was cordially welcomed, and 10,000 certificates were 
ordered, all bearing the stamp of the Methodist Epis 
copal Church. Soon other Branches began adopting 
the method, and using the enrollment cards, or certifi 
cates. Not only this, but many other denominations 
also began calling for them. This necessitated order 
ing more, making them undenominational ; and from 
that time the interest has steadily increased. Thirty-two 
thousand were printed, and over 20,000 had been 
called for up to January, 1895. .The movement was 



BRANCH HISTORY. 63 

officially indorsed in 1894, an( i the outfit made free 
to all. 

Previous to the inauguration of the Little Light 
Bearers movement, perhaps no one had done so much 
to secure the interest of the little children as had Miss 
Clara Cushman, through her "Penny Helper" cards, 
with the " Forget-me-not," speaking to the heart. 
Mrs. Harrison has also issued a "Jewel Gatherer" 
card, to gather the pennies for missions. 

Besides the missionaries sent out from this country, 
the Society has employed Miss Budden, whose father 
was one of the London Missionary Societies repre 
sentatives; Miss Phcebe Rowe and Miss Grace 
Stephens, Eurasians; Miss Cecilia Guelphi, a South 
American; Miss Blackmore, from Australia; Miss 
Lydia and Miss Amelia Diem, from Switzerland ; Miss 
Jenny Locke, Japan; has accepted Dr. Hu KingEng, 
for China, and in 1896, two other Chinese girls Miss 
Ida Kahn and Mary She also educated in this country, 
will be ready as physicians. Added to these are Miss 
Elsie Wood, whose whole life has been spent in the 
South American Mission, and Miss Hettie Mansell, 
taken to India when a baby; Ruth Sites, only out of 
China long enough for her education ; and Frances 
Wheeler, who was a very little girl when her parents 
became missionaries in China. 



CHAPTER IV. 

CAMP-MEETINGS AND OTHER ASSEMBLIES. 

THE work of the Society has had earnest repre 
sentation at many of the camp-meetings all 
through the country. We can only mention a few in 
this connection. 

MARTHA S VINEYARD. As early as the summer 
of 1869 Mrs. Clementina Butler went to Martha s 
Vineyard, and awakened an interest in the women of 
India, so that the support of two Bible readers was 
secured. The following year the interest was re 
newed, mainly by the efforts of Mrs. Rev. J. H. 
Twombly. The required sum of $60 was again 
raised for the Bible readers. Mrs. J. D. Flint, of Fall 
River, generously gave, unsolicited, $100; Miss Belle 
Twombly collected $20, to make Mrs. Mary D. James 
a life member of the Society ; also $9.30 for the 
Heathen Woman s Friend, and $13.50 for orphan 
girls. The total amount for the season was $202.80. 
We are without farther data for later years. 

ALBION, MICH. In June, 1870, Miss S. A. Rulison 
attended the State camp-meeting, " hoping in some 
way to interest the good women who should be pres 
ent, so that each would be willing to organize an Aux 
iliary in her home Church. After a day or two she 
Was invited to speak from the stand at eight o clock in 
the morning. The audience was small, but there were 
more preachers than could sit on the stand." After 
64 



CAMP-MEETINGS AND OTHER ASSEMBLIES. 65 

that sendee, a paper was handed her, signed by every 
presiding elder present, recommending her to all the 
Methodist preachers in Michigan for the privilege of 
addressing the people on the subject of Woman s 
Missions, and to aid in organizing Societies. Before 
the camp-meeting closed, Rev. D. D. Gillett, presiding 
elder of Albion District, called his preachers to 
gether, and made out a three weeks program, including 
every charge on the district, to commence immediately 
at the close of the camp-meeting, arranging with the 
preachers to take or send her from one charge to an 
other until the circuit was completed. 

OCEAN GROVE. At this charming "City of the 
Sea," during the camp-meeting in 1872, two meetings 
were held in the interests of the Society. An enthusi 
astic and prayerful spirit seemed to animate the ladies 
as they heard and talked of the progress of "Christian 
woman s work among the women of heathen lands." 
"The strong west wind, as it swept across the taber 
nacle, and touched the billows that rolled and foamed 
a few hundred yards away, must have carried to the 
East many a prayer and hope that will yet be fulfilled 
in India and China when the sea of glory shall 
spread from pole to pole. " Two hundred and seventy 
dollars was given for "camp-meeting mercies," to be 
applied on the Woman s Hospital in Bareilly. Mrs. 
William Butler then organized the Ocean Grove 
Woman s Foreign Missionary Society, auxiliary to the 
New York Branch, enrolling 140 members and two 
life members. Mrs. Dr. E. H. Stokes was elected 
President, and has done much through all the years to 
infuse interest in the Society by her own zeal for the 



66 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

cause. No special effort is made to secure members, 
the managers considering the prime object to be the 
spreading of missionary intelligence. Women return 
to their homes from this place, and become centers of 
missionary circles. Year after year, under the presi 
dency of Mrs. Stokes, the work of this Auxiliary has 
been going on. Eternity alone can develop the ex 
tent of its influence. Through the kindness and 
Christian sympathy of Dr. Stokes, the Society 
has been permitted to hold an anniversary every 
year, and Anniversary-day has become one of the 
important occasions of the place. It is usually held 
on Sunday afternoon, when thousands are in at 
tendance. On August 13, 1876, thirteen thousand 
persons were said to be present. Dr. Stokes had 
given the Sabbath morning hour. Dr. William But 
ler had been secured to speak, and his daughter 
Julia to sing in Spanish. By a pressure brought upon 
him just as the service was about to open, Dr. Butler 
was induced to say that he must address that im 
mense audience in the interests of his own work, and 
speak for the Woman s Society in the afternoon. 
Surprise overcame their presence of mind, and, half 
bewildered by the sudden turn of affairs, the ladies 
were about to yield ; but the one delegated to lead in 
prayer was not informed of the proposed change, 
and as she came before God she \vas impelled to 
offer a most earnest petition for Dr. Butler, "as he 
should speak for us to-day," and for his daughter, that 
"her lips might be touched with heavenly unction 
while she sang," and for Mrs. Butler, "so many miles 
away." There was power in that petition, and Dr. 
Butler said it compelled him to yield. One result of 



CAMP-MEETINGS AND OTHER ASSEMBLIES, 67 

his stirring address was a collection of $375, and at a 
special meeting of the ladies, another one of $187 to 
enable Dr. Butler to print the life of Alfred Cookman 
in Spanish. 

The addresses on these anniversaries are made by 
returned missionaries, native Christians from mission 
fields, and others. In 1892 the twentieth anniversary 
was a season of power and interest, greatly increased 
by the presence and words of Dr. and Mrs. Butler. 
From the commencement, there were unmistakable 
evidences of the Divine presence, and all the services 
were aglow with spiritual fervor. The love-feast on 
Saturday night was at white heat. Most of the per 
sons speaking were, or had been recently, in the mis 
sion field. The sermon on Sunday morning was by 
Dr. S. L. Baldwin, who announced the following text: 
"I entreat thee also, true yoke-fellow, help those 
women who labored with me in the gospel." He out 
lined the work of this Society, showed what it had 
done, and what it needed to meet the obligations contin 
ually pressing it, and did it in such a direct way that all 
hearts were touched, and each felt like asking, Lord, 
what wilt thou have me do? The financial result of 
all these exercises, including the Young People s Tem 
ple, which contributed between $500 and $600, 
amounted to $1,899.62, by far the largest amount 
ever contributed for this object. In 1872 the amount 
given was $95.25; in 1894, $1,579.20. The total 
amount collected in the twenty-two years is $21,427.1 1. 

ROUND LAKE, N. Y. A Society was organized at 
Round Lake in 1873, with H4 members, electing Mrs. 
Joseph Hillman President. That year Dr. Thoburn 



68 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

was the principal speaker, though short talks were 
given by Bishops Simpson and Peck. In 1878 the 
anniversary was held during the Union Evangelistical 
meetings conducted by Mrs. Earle, Mr. Hammond, 
and Chaplain McCabe. Mrs. Hillman presided. Miss 
Fanny J. Sparkes was the first speaker, and Dr. J. P. 
Newman followed briefly. While the canvass for mem 
bers was going on, Dr. Newman called for life mem 
bers. Enthusiasm ran high. One thousand and fifty 
dollars was raised, including eight life members at 
$20 each, the support of eight orphans, and a pledge 
of $600 from a lady for Miss Sparkes s salary the next 
year in India. 

CLIFTON SPRINGS. For several years the Society 
of Clifton Springs invited the Women s Societies of 
the various denominations on the district to gather 
there for mutual aid and sweet counsel. At first these 
meetings were held in the audience-room of the church ; 
but later the spacious pavilion would be crowded, 
until all around in the beautiful grove the eager list 
eners gave evidence of their deep enthusiasm in mis 
sions. Among those present from time to time were 
Rev. C. P. Hard, of India; Mrs. A. J. Brown, of Evans- 
ton; Mrs. Eddy, widow of the late Dr. Thomas Eddy; 
the Misses Woolston, after two decades in China ; 
Miss Cameron, under appointment to Africa. In 1875 
addresses were made by Mrs. Gracey, Mrs. Dr. Hib- 
bard, and Mrs. J. H. Knowles. At the close Dr. and 
Mrs. Foster invited them to tea. After the delightful 
repast, the company was called to order, and Bishop 
Janes was introduced. He said the scene before him 
was "poetic." He commended the operations of the 



CAMP-MEETINGS AND OTHER ASSEMBLIES. 69 

Society, and said that as the Parent Society and this 
were working together so harmoniously, and as the 
marital relation was the most sacred and delightful 
on earth, he proposed that the nuptials of the two be 
celebrated. Dr. Foster then said, that, as the bishop 
had "gone courting," and as no man under such cir 
cumstances liked to go away without an answer, he 
would call on Mrs. Hibbard to reply, either accepting 
or rejecting. She replied that "she had been taught 
to be very honest in such matters, and she was now 
too old to change her habit in this particular. She 
confessed that she saw two insuperable obstacles to 
the match: the first was, they were too near of kin 
the bishop had just called one the Parent Society 
and, secondly, there was too great a disparity in their 
ages, the one being fifty years older than the other." 
She retired amidst great applause, but the bishop, un 
daunted, arose to say that "a courageous man was not 
to be disheartened by one refusal." 

LAKESIDE, O. In 1876, Rev. J. M. Thoburn organ 
ized an Auxiliary at Lakeside, under a tree. It has 
been kept up ever since. A Bible woman in India has 
been supported by this Auxiliary all these years. 
Florence Nickerson was converted here, and the fol 
lowing year received her "call" at the same place. 
Many missionaries have spoken at the anniversaries and 
on other occasions. Phebe Rowe s visit is still green 
in many memories. In 1881, Miss Thoburn was the 
speaker, and when she told her audience that Miss 
Ellen Warner was ready to go to India, and sorely 
needed there, but there was no money to send her, a 
preacher rose and said: "I know Miss Warner. She 



70 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

can stand as peer with any teacher in this State, and 
if she is willing to give up her fine education and 
congenial surroundings for the lowest and most igno 
rant in a heathen land, I want to give the first $25 to 
send her." In a few minutes $400 was raised. 

Elizabeth Russell, when there, carried away a sub 
stantial gift for Nagasaki, Japan. 

Besides the Bible reader, help has been given to 
many objects of the Society, and Missionary-day is 
part of the program. 

LANCASTER CAMP-MEETING, O. While no special 
work has been carried on year after year at Lancaster 
camp-meeting, it has a history in this direction, and 
large gifts have been given to various places, or to 
missionaries. Among those whose names are connected 
with this camp-meeting are Mary Loyd, Lizzie Fisher, 
Anna Bing, Anna Jones -Thoburn, and Elizabeth 
Maxey. Much seed-sowing has been done on these 
grounds. At several other camp-meetings in Ohio 
missionary meetings are held each year and collec 
tions taken. The same is true in many States. Acton 
camp-meeting near Indianapolis, Des Plaines and 
Watseka in Illinois, Crystal Springs and Reed City in 
Michigan, and others, furnish speakers who represent 
the Woman s Foreign Missionary Society. 

TIPPECANOE BATTLE GROUND, IND. In the year 
1882, through the influence of Mrs. Rev. Aaron Gour- 
ney, an Auxiliary of the Society was organized at the 
Battle Ground camp-meeting in Indiana. Each year 
since a Missionary-day has been part of the program. 
The Auxiliary has paid $434 dues. Collections taken 



CAMP-MEETINGS AND OTHER ASSEMBLIES. 71 

at the anniversary meetings have been $129.53 f r 
medical education, $30.25 for zenana paper, $44.26 for 
Bulgaria, $32.55 for Singapore, and $60 for life mem 
bers. Leaflets and other missionary literature are 
freely distributed. The following persons have given 
addresses: Mrs. Elizabeth Wheeler Andrew; Rev. J. 
C. Davison, of Japan; Rev. A. Marine, D. D., Miss 
Anna Downey, Miss Franc Baker, Rev. M. M. Park- 
hurst, D. D., Miss Thoburn, Rev. Messrs. Isham, Old- 
ham, and Floyd, of India; Curtis, of China; Miss 
Forbes, of Japan; Dr. and Mrs. West, of Singapore; 
and General Cowen, of Cincinnati. 

L,AKE BLUFF. The anniversary meeting at Lake 
Bluff Assembly grounds in 1886 was a memorable oc 
casion. A special train of seven filled cars, six from 
Chicago and one from Evanston, carried over four 
hundred people to the grounds. In the forenoon there 
was an address by Dr. Alabaster, of Chicago, and a 
discussion of the "best methods of promoting the 
efficiency of Auxiliaries." In the afternoon Dr. 
Spencer gave very excellent service in securing a col 
lection, and Dr. Thoburn gave a grand address. He 
also donated fifty cents on each of his "Apprentice 
ship " sold. One hundred copies were taken, and his 
donation, the collection, and the profits on the railroad 
tickets amounted to about $300. 

KANSAS CHAUTAUQUA. In July, 1888, Miss Franc 
Baker conducted a four-o clock Woman s Hour daily 
in the interests of the Woman s Foreign Missionary 
Society. On " India-day " short addresses were given 
by Dr. P. N. and Mrs. Buck and Rev. Dennis Osborne, 



72 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

of India, and by Miss Mary Iy. Ninde, recently re- 
turned from a visit to our missions in India. Miss 
Baker also gave one of the platform addresses, speak 
ing on missions at the eleven-o clock hour. 

SILVER L,AKE ASSEMBLY. An Institute of the 
Woman s Foreign Missionary Society was conducted 
by Mrs. M. N. Van Benschoten, at Silver L,ake Assem 
bly, July 29 to August 5, 1895. The meetings were 
full of interest and enthusiasm, and resulted in the 
support of four Bible women and one orphan in India, 
and the planning of four new Auxiliaries, besides the 
consideration of much more special work in India. 

Mrs. Bishop Joyce conducted a Woman s Foreign 
Missionary Society camp-meeting in Tennessee in 
1894. 

The Wesleyan Home at Newton, Mass., for mis 
sionaries children, made possible through the gen 
erosity of Hons. Jacob Sleeper and Alden Speare, was 
placed under the management of the Society in 1894; 
and the following year Miss Emma L. Harvey, whose 
health did not permit her return to India, became 
superintendent of the Home, with a family of from 
six to fourteen persons. 




OUR AMhRlCAN PUBLICATIONS. 



CHAPTER V. 

LITERATURE. 

THE HEATHEN WOMAN S FRIEND. At the very 
beginning of the Society it was proposed that a 
monthly paper be issued, and the following prospectus 
was printed: "The paper will be devoted more espe 
cially to the interests of the work among heathen 
women, and will be filled with interesting facts and 
incidents illustrating that work, furnished by those 
laboring in heathen lands. Information will be given 
concerning the customs and social life of the people, 
the various obstacles to be overcome in their Chris- 
tianization, and the success which attends the various 
departments of missionary labor among them. The 
design is to furnish just such a paper as will be read 
with interest by all the friends of the cause, and one 
which will assist in enlisting the sympathies of the 
children also, and educate them more fully in the mis 
sionary work. The price of the paper ( will be only 
thirty cents per annum, so that it will be within the 
reach of all." 

After the decision was reached to publish a paper, 
came the difficult matter of selecting an editor; a 
woman with ability and adaptability, with literary 
taste and clear judgment, that could launch a new en 
terprise such as this, and do it successfully. Choice 
fell upon Mrs. Wm. F. Warren. "She was then only 
twenty-five years old. At that time papers and mag 
azines conducted by women were something of a 

73 



74 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSION AR v SOCIETY. 

novelty, the field new and untried. With her char 
acteristic energy she immediately went to work, and 
the first issue of the paper, starting modestly with 
eight pages, appeared in June, 1869." Mr. Lewis 
Flanders stood ready with $500 to meet deficiencies, if 
at the end of the year it was needed. Other gentle 
men also promised help. At the close of the first 
year its subscription list had reached four thousand ; 
it paid all running expenses, and had a margin on 
hand. It was then enlarged to twelve pages. Mr. 
James P. Magee acted as general agent. A twenty- 
thousand edition was required in 1870. The sub 
scription price was raised from thirty to thirty-five 
cents, and Mrs. L. H. Daggett was appointed agent. 
The July number in 1871 contained a map, giving all 
the missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church in 
India, in their relation to each other and to the great 
cities. It was prepared by Miss Thoburn, and is the 
first cartographic view of these important missions 
ever laid before the Church. 

In July, 1872, four more pages were added, and it 
became a sixteen-page paper. Its circulation reached 
25,000. During the first seven years a strong corps 
of contributing editors was annually elected. In May, 
1872, the paper appeared with its first illustration. 
The engraving was that of the Mission House and 
Orphanage at Bareilly. Since then this has been a 
prominent feature. In 1875 the paper was increased 
to twenty-four pages, and a beautiful new heading, and 
the subscription price was raised to fifty cents, where 
it has since remained. In this year a new feature was 
added, called the " Home Department," the material 
being contributed by the Brmich Secretaries. Volume 



LITERATURE. 75 

VIII began with the attractive addition of Mrs. Mary B. 
Willard as editor of the Children s Department. She 
filled this position most acceptably for two years, and 
was then reluctantly excused. During the tenth 
year, owing to financial depression, the subscription 
decreased to 13,388. Three years later the number 
again reached 20,000. In November, 1882, Mrs. Dag- 
gett s resignation was accepted, and Miss Pauline J. 
Walden, the present publishing agent, was again ap 
pointed. The paper has published full reports of the 
General Executive Committee in annual session, and 
the acknowledgment of all moneys to the Society 
through the Branch Treasurers, and kept the thread 
of the history of the work on every mission field 
abroad, as well as much of the detail of the work by 
the Auxiliaries at home. 

Since 1878 it has furnished the outline of what is 
entitled the Uniform Study of each month, by means 
of which the women of the Societies unite in pur 
suing a systematic course of study of missionary sub 
jects. It has received uniformly the heartiest com 
mendation from missionaries and ministers and laymen. 
In 1880 the agent was instructed to send gratuitously 
a copy to each missionary, also to all the Methodist 
colleges and seminaries where ladies are admitted. 
Four more pages were added in 1886. The salary of 
the editor and the publisher was raised in 1888 from 
$500 to $700, and a sum sufficient to cover incidental 
expenses. The February number of 1893 contained 
an unwritten page with the name "Harriet Merrick 
Warren," and underneath two dates, "September 15, 
1843 January 7, 1893." 

"Widespread as Methodism was the bereavement 



76 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

caused by the sudden translation of Mrs. Warren." 
For twenty-four years she had stood at the head of 
this enterprise. She had developed the paper so that it 
soon took rank as one of the model missionary period 
icals of the world, and had reached the largest num 
ber of subscribers of any woman s missionary mag 
azine published. After the death of Mrs. Warren, 
her daughter, Mrs. Mary Warren-Ayars, was appointed 
to take the mother s place. She accepted, " because 
in this way she could have the privilege of performing 
one more service for the mother who had gone be 
fore." In July the form of the paper was changed, 
as had long been contemplated, to that of a magazine, 
and contained thirty pages. In the Young Woman s 
Department was included a column of bright notes 
about "Other Girls," carrying out a desire expressed 
by the former editor. Mrs. Ayars carried on the 
work with ability and acceptability until the close of 
the year, thus rounding out a quarter of a century of 
editorial work on the same paper for her mother, and 
then declined a further appointment. At the General 
Executive Committee meeting in St. Paul, in Novem 
ber, 1893, Miss Louise Manning Hodgkins was unani 
mously elected to the important position of editor. 
She has introduced some new features, a department 
of "Family News," also a "Post-office Box," and has 
brought out some special numbers. The first was in 
March, 1894 the twenty-fifth anniversary number 
which was embellished with photo-engravings of 
our founders, Mrs. F. W. Parker and Mrs. Wm. Butler; 
and first missionaries, Miss Isabella Thoburn and Dr. 
Clara Swain. The subscriptions in 1895 were nearly 
22,000. It has always paid expenses and given 



LITERATURE. 77 

large sums to the Society. From 1882 to 1893 it 
contributed $26,000 to other forms of work, and has 
aided in carrying the miscellaneous literature pub 
lished by the Society, the annual reports, uniform 
studies, maps of our mission fields, life membership 
certificates for adults and for children, and a great 
variety of missionary leaflets. This remarkable show 
ing deserves the commendation of every woman who 
believes in the business capacity of her sex. 

During its journalistic career the paper has gath 
ered into its friendly columns the best missionary 
thought of the century. To run through the list of 
corresponding editors in the early days, and, later, of 
its contributors, is to call to mind nearly all the lead 
ing women of philanthropic and missionary distinc 
tion in our generation. 

LEAFLETS. During the winter of 1877, in Au 
burn, N. Y., two women Mrs. D. D. Lore and Mrs. J. T. 
Gracey day by day discussed many things relating to 
the development of the Woman s Foreign Missionary 
Society, so dear to their hearts. Especially were they 
impressed with the need of missionary literature, that 
might be distributed among the women of the 
Church, that would give information concerning the 
work and its needs, and thus awaken a missionary en 
thusiasm, and they decided that this matter should be 
brought to the attention of the officers of the Society. 
Mrs. Lore was a delegate to the General Executive 
Committee which met that year in Minneapolis, and 
presented the matter of printing and disseminating 
missionary literature, but did not meet with the re 
sponse these two had hoped. Some said, " We have 



78 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

no money for such purposes;" and others, "No one 
will read missionary literature." However, after giv 
ing the matter some consideration, they appointed a 
committee of six persons, representing various 
Branches, with Mrs. Gracey chairman, but made no 
appropriation of money, which effectually tied the 
hands of the committee, who could do nothing but 
agitate the matter. At the following session of the 
General Executive Committee in Boston, the chair 
man stated the above facts, and the committee was 
continued, with instructions not only to print leaflets, 
but to arrange for lessons for the monthly meetings of 
Auxiliaries. Each Branch was authorized to appro 
priate $25 from its provisional fund for printing the 
leaflets. The first work done was the publication of 
reports from two Bible women employed by the So 
ciety in India, laboring in Budaon. Others followed; 
but as it was an experiment, the committee moved 
cautiously, but found at the close of the year it had 
is.sued over 180,000 pages. At the meeting in Chicago 
in 1879, the committee was continued, and the same 
appropriation made. During that year there was a 
great demand for these leaflets, for they met a great 
want, and applications for them came from every part 
of the country, and from various denominations. The 
number of pages this year was doubled. At Colum 
bus, O., in 1880, resolutions of appreciation of the 
work of the committee and expressions of helpfulness 
concerning the leaflets were passed, and the appro 
priation increased from $25 to $40 from each Branch. 
A request was also made that Mrs. Gracey should pre 
pare a history of our ten years Woman s Medical 
work, which she did, and had it ready when the Gen- 



LITERATURE. 79 

eral Executive Committee met in Buffalo the following 
year. The issue of leaflets that year amounted to 
350,000 pages. These were all distributed gratui 
tously. At the meeting in Buffalo the committee was 
instructed to prepare a wall-map for use in Auxiliaries. 
It was this year, 1881, that the appropriation for this 
work was made from the surplus funds of the Heathen 
Woman s Friend, instead as formerly from the various 
Branches, and the sum of $300 was named. This was 
increased to $500 in 1882. Bible readings in connec 
tion with the uniform studies were recommended, and 
small maps for the General Annual Report. In 1884, 
leaflets in German, and those especially adapted to the 
needs of the young ladies work were ordered pub 
lished. During these years, the publication of leaflets 
was growing to great proportions, and the issue was 
from two to three million pages annually. The chair 
man edited all the leaflets, superintended their print 
ing, and distributed them, unjustly taxing both time 
and strength. Other arrangements had to be made. 
There was also some modification in the distribu 
tion. For nine years these helps had been furnished 
gratuitously in another sense, and it seemed neces 
sary that a nominal charge be made for all .over 
four pages. During the year 1885, there were is 
sued 473,230 leaflets, or 1,946,240 pages. Of these, 
there were thirty-six varieties, twenty-three that were . 
new, while thirteen were reprints. At the General 
Executive Committee in Nebraska, 1887, the pub 
lishing interests were consolidated by the appointment 
of a Literature Committee, to take charge of the papers, 
and $2,000 appropriated for the work. Five persons 
were appointed viz., Mrs. Dr. Warren, Mrs. Gracey, 
6 



So WOMAN^S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

Miss Hart, Mrs. I. R. Hitt, and Miss Walden who 
met for organization at the home of Mrs. Warren, in 
Cambridgeport, Mass., January n, 1888, appointing 
Mrs. Gracey chairman, Miss Walden treasurer, and 
Miss Hart secretary. Mrs. Hitt was unable to serve, 
and the committee remained without modification 
until the death of Miss Hart in 1890, when Miss Mary 
L,. Nind and Mrs. E. J. Knowles were added, Mrs. 
Knowles being appointed secretary. In 1893 the 
committee again met with another loss in the death 
of Mrs. Warren, when Mrs. O. W. Scott was ap 
pointed. At the organization of the committee, the 
publication of all matter was transferred to Boston. 
It is impossible to give a list of the literature issued 
during these years. The records show an expendi 
ture of about $20,000, and an issue of over thirty 
million pages. An idea of the expansion of the work 
is gained by the one publication, the Annual Report. 
The first one occupied only a page or two in the 
Friend. The story of the first year s work could be 
told in a few minutes. But in the twenty-fifth year, 
the work of heathen women and children has grown 
to such dimensions, and sent out its branches in so 
many directions, that an Annnal Report of 172 pages 
does not tell the story. 

The Woman s Friend. India may be a land of 
books, voluminous and varied, but it has no literature 
fit for a woman to read, and the people have found a 
just defense for the illiteracy of the women in the im 
moral character of the literature of the land. In 
1883, at the meeting of the General Executive Com 
mittee in Des Moines, a proposition was made by re- 



LITERATURE. 81 

turned missionaries that a Christian paper be estab 
lished in the vernacular of the women of India. 
There were present Rev. Mr. and Mrs. Craven, Mrs. Par 
ker, Mrs. Johnson, Rev. Mr. and Mrs. Badley, and Mrs. 
Gracey. The actual need for such a paper was set 
forth, and some suggestions and encouragement of 
fered. The committee decided to undertake the en 
terprise, and instructed Dr. Craven, of the Mission 
Press in India, to take charge of it. During the meet 
ing, Dr. Craven received a telegram from D. C. Cook, 
of Chicago, donating to him, for his general press- 
work in lyucknow, a steam-press worth $2,250, and on 
this the zenana paper would be printed. In referring 
to the action of the committee, the late Miss Hart 
said: "Probably the wisest and most significant, as 
certainly the bravest, work undertaken at this four 
teenth session of the General Executive Committee, 
was the plan to create an endowment of $25,000 for 
the establishment of a zenana paper. That there 
should be a necessity for this, is the best evidence of 
the success of the work wrought among these women. 
When, about a quarter of a century before, our mission 
was planted among the twenty millions of people 
given us to evangelize in the Northwestern Provinces, 
probably there were not twenty women among them 
that could read. It was deemed a ridiculous, if not an 
impossible, thing. These missionaries teach our 
women to read, indignantly and scoffingly cried a 
priest; why, next they will be wanting to teach our 
cows. Certainly we need to publish a paper, then. 
But they have been, and are being, taught by the 
thousands; and we had to face the fact that we had 
established a reading constituency, and had given 



8 2 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

them almost nothing to read. We had created the 
want, and were bound to supply it. The question of 
first importance became, What they shall read? Then 
the further very practical question, How this want 
was to be met? Bound up as a Society to certain 
well-defined specific work, to be done in a specific 
way, with all the means raised in the ordinary way 
pledged to this work, certainly some extraordinary 
method must be adopted to meet this extraordinary 
demand. But the time was auspicious. What could 
have been more fitting, as Methodist women, than 
thus to celebrate our entrance into the second cen 
tennial of our Methodism? How could we have bet 
ter attested our gratitude for all the way by which 
we had been led ; for all the work that had been 
through us wrought, than to make this grand new 
departure in missionary enterprise? Then, was it not 
a goodly way in which to celebrate the entrance of 
our Church in its second quarter of a century of 
work in India? We commenced with nothing but 
prejudice and opposition. We had gathered about us 
a church, a community with Sabbath-schools and day- 
schools and boarding-schools and orphanages and hos 
pitals, and all the appliances of earnest evangelistic 
and educational work. Yet one thing was lacking ; 
aye, one thing was useful. And so we honored our 
centennial celebration as a Church, our quarter-cen 
tennial as a Mission, by supporting a missionary liter 
ature adapted to the wants of our women and 
the work." 

The women of the Church were asked to give 
twenty-five cents each, and in five years the endow 
ment was complete, Mrs. Sleeper Davis, of Boston, 




MOHILA BANDHUli (BENGALI). 

RAKIQ I NISWAN (URDU). 

MATHAR MITHIUI (TAMIL). 



ABI.A HITKARAK (HINDI). 
MARATHI PAPER (MARATHl). 



LITERATURE. 83 

having given, as she promised, the last $5,000 of the 
$25,000 endowment. When Mrs. Davis was making 
a tour of the world, visiting the Methodist missions, 
she was privileged, in January, 1890, to go through 
the publishing-house in L,ucknow, and see the various 
means and ways by which the paper is gotten up. 

It is called the Woman s Friend, and is issued 
twice a month in four dialects the Urdu, Hindi, Ben 
gali, and Tamil and contains editorials on the leading 
topics of the day, especially pertaining to the condi 
tion and needs of women ; discussing such matters of 
interest as widowhood, infant marriage, and others of 
national importance; a picture of some noted build 
ing, place, or person, with a full description ; also pic 
tures of birds and animals ; a continued story of the life 
of Christ, with an illustration for each number; col 
umns for correspondence, for children, for medical 
notes; gems of thought, news notes, and Christian 
hymns, fill the pages. The first copy of the paper in 
Urdu appeared early in 1884. Miss L,. E. Blackmar was 
elected editor but resigned in 1887, on account of the 
pressure of other work, and Mrs. B. H. Badley suc 
ceeded her as editor of the Urdu and Hindi editions 
published in L,uckno\v. The Urdu is called " Rafiq-i- 
NiswanT the Hindi, "Abla Hitkarak" On Mrs. 
Badley s return to America in 1892, Miss Thoburn 
was appointed editor, which position she now holds. 
The Bengali edition, published in Calcutta, is called 
"Mohila Bandhub." Its first editor was Mrs. Meik; 
then, in 1889, Miss Kate Blair was appointed. The 
Tamil edition, published in Madras, called the "Mathar 
Mithiri" was edited by Mrs. Rudisill two years, until 
her death in 1889, when Mrs. George Isham became 



84 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

her successor, until her return to America in 1890, 
when Miss Grace Stephens was appointed to the posi 
tion, which she still holds. In 1893 a Marathi edi 
tion was ordered, if the funds warranted the expense; 
but it was finally made possible by an annual dona 
tion from the Krie Conference of $250, and Miss 
Sarah De L,ine was appointed editor. It is published 
in Bombay. A paper was established in 1895, in 
Singapore, called Sahabat (Friend). It is printed in 
Romanized Malay. It is estimated that 20,000 women 
in the zenanas read these papers. 

The Heiden Frauen Freund. In 1885 the Gen 
eral Executive Committee provided for the publica 
tion of a German paper, to meet the want of the 
German constituency. For some time the German 
Secretary had realized the need of such help for the 
progress of the work and encouragement of the work 
ers. The first numbers were sent out with much trep 
idation, but freighted with prayer, as it was a strange 
thing for a German woman to edit a paper; but the 
Lord opened the hearts of the people, and Miss 
Dreyer, the courageous Secretary, received much en 
couragement. She had had no previous preparation 
for such work ; but trusting in God, she studied and 
worked on month by month, finding in Him her all- 
sufficient help. The present editor says: "As I look 
over the first little volume which lies before me, I am 
impressed with the wealth of material which this little 
four-leaf paper contains." The first number was 
issued in January, 1886, and in December there were 
1,200 subscribers. In 1887 the paper was doubled in 
size in order to contain the mission studies. During 



LITERATURE. 85 

the years 1 888 and 1 889 Mrs. Warren, who had spent five 
year?- in Germany, and was an unusually good German 
scholar, became its editor. In 1888 Mrs. Ph. Achard, 
the present editor, visited Mrs. Warren, while a short 
time in America. As she was at the time preparing 
the German Friend, the two women talked together 
about its future and the good it was doing. Mrs. 
Warren said: "If you ever live in America, this will 
be your work;" but the answer came in dismay: " No, 
never, never can I do such work!" But when Mrs. 
Warren could carry the added burden and responsi 
bilities no longer, editing all the time the English pa 
per, and Mrs. Achard had come again to America to 
live, " What could I do," she asks, "but take up the work 
prompted by my great love for the editor, though 
with many misgivings as to my own ability, and go 
forward trusting in the L,ord? and he has been an 
ever present help." In 1895, Mrs. Achard said to the 
writer: "I can not understand that the Hciden Frauen 
Freund is in my hands, if it was not for the words, 
My strength is made perfect in weakness. I have 
often realized the help of my Lord in this work, and 
though imperfectly done, yet I am so thankful that 
the good Lord lets me help a little in His work." 
Year by year the number of subscribers has increased. 
In 1894 there were 2,882, a good percentage when we 
consider that among the 5,229 members quite a num 
ber take the English paper. There is evidence of 
much good accomplished through this little paper. 
In March, 1894, ^ ie German constituency celebrated 
the "Silver Anniversary" by an enlargement of the 
number for March, and each December number is also 
enlarged by four pages, to contain the proceedings of 



86 WOMA N s FOREIGN MISSIONAR Y SOCIETY. 

the General Executive Committee. Mrs. Achard 
prays that " this little messenger may bring help and 
encouragement to the workers, interest those who 
stand afar, and be a means to spread out the gospel 
throughout the heathen world." This is the only mis 
sionary paper in the German Methodist Church of this 
country, and the only German paper in the world 
edited by a woman. 

The Heathen Children s Friend. After the Woman s 
Foreign Missionary Society was fully organized, the 
workers in various parts of the country saw the de 
sirability of enlisting and educating the children as 
helpers. Bands were formed with this end in view ; 
but with these new organizations a new question 
arose: " Where shall we find suitable reading matter 
for them?" Appeals from all sections came to the 
editor and publisher of the Heathen Woman s Friend, 
asking for something desirable for entertainments, 
for lessons, and for general information. A partial re 
sponse was found to this demand, in the " Children s 
Department" of the Friend, and in Leaflets; but there 
was a gradually deepening conviction that nothing 
but a children s paper would give full satisfaction. In 
1884, at the meeting of the General Executive Com 
mittee held in Baltimore, Mrs. Warren, the editor, and 
Miss Walden, the publisher of the Friend, with others 
who had become deeply interested in the project, 
made a definite proposition that the Society immedi 
ately establish a children s missionary paper. The 
matter was brought before the committee in proper 
form, was discussed, voted upon, and lost by two votes. 
The following year there was a similar discussion, 



LITERATURE. 89 

with a similar result; and it was not until four years 
later, in the Convention at Detroit in 1889, that a fa 
vorable decision was reached. The choice of an ed 
itor was also then considered, and the name of Mrs. 
Emily Hun tington Miller, presented by Western del 
egates, was accepted. After mature deliberation, Mrs. 
Miller felt obliged to decline this appointment, and 
Mrs. O. W. Scott, of the New England Branch, was 
substituted. The name chosen for the new paper, by 
a majority of the Branch Corresponding Secretaries, 
was the Heathen Children s Friend, and in January, 
1890, the first number appeared. It started as an 
eight-page illustrated monthly, attractive in general 
appearance, and received a hearty welcome from inter 
ested friends. Its list of subscribers the first year was 
5,128. With the beginning of the second year it was 
enlarged to twelve pages, while its price remained the 
same fifteen cents for single subscriptions, ten cents 
for a club of ten or more sent to one address. In five 
years it reached a subscription list of 17,000, with a 
fair prospect of increase. This bright little paper is 
filled with stories and sketches from our foreign mis 
sionaries, who give their best to the children. The 
home side of the work is not forgotten, as articles for 
recitations are constantly furnished, while reports of 
Bands occupy one page each month. Another page 
is devoted to "Our Lesson," while still another is set 
apart for the youngest corps of our great Mission 
Army the Little Light Bearers. 

TRANSLATIONS. The literary work that is being 
accomplished by Methodist women in mission fields 
in translation, school and song-book making, and tract 



go WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

writing, deserves more than an enumeration, since the 
circulation of Christian literature in heathen lands is 
one of the foremost demands of the age. Perhaps the 
married missionaries have done more of this work 
than those sent out by the Woman s Society. Of 
these latter we find the following translations: "Short 
Stories for Children," "The Christian s Inheritance," 
"Life of Susannah Wesley," "Life of Hester Ann 
Rogers," Clarke s "Scripture Promises;" also "Me 
morials of Christian Life during the Middle Ages" for 
the Gokyo, the Church paper, Miss M. A. Spencer, 
and the Woman s Department in the Advocate, Miss 
Holbrook, Tokyo; Commentary on the First Epistle 
of John and First Thessalonians; also, "Outlines of 
Bible History," Mrs. Caroline Van Patten, Yokohama; 
Mrs. Meyer s books for Children s Meetings, Miss 
Phelps ; a book illustrating the moral teachings of the 
Bible, Miss Baucus; A Bible History, prepared and 
published by Miss Elizabeth Russell, Nagasaki, 
Japan ; a School Geography, prepared by Miss Anna 
B. Sears, Peking, China; Berean Sunday-school Les 
sons into Italian, Miss Emma Hall, Rome; "Peep of 
Day," Mrs. M. F. Scranton, Seoul; A Bible Picture- 
book, from a Chinese translation by Mrs. Sites, Miss 
Louisa Rothweiler, Seoul, Korea; a Sunday-school 
Hymn-book, Miss Gertrude Howe, Kiukiang. She 
also edits a Children s Department in the Central 
China Advocate. The Misses Woolston, when in 
China, edited a child s paper, Glad Tidings, which 
Misses Johnson and Bonafield edit alternate months 
with A. B. C. F. M. School text-books, Miss Mary 
Robinson; Physiology, Dr. Lucy Hoag, Chinkiang. 
A sketch of the life of Susannah Wesley, "How to 



LITERATURE. 91 

Win Souls," and hymn translations, Miss Ruth Sites, 
Foochow, China. In Japan, in 1892, a system of 
prizes was awarded Japanese women by the mission 
aries, on suggested topics. Miss Mary Reed, after 
her exile to Chandag Heights, engaged in the work 
of translation. The Ten Commandments into Bhotiya 
(which has no written characters), Dr. Martha Shel 
don. Miss Kate Blair edited India s Young Folks, 
and Miss Eva Foster, the Malaysian Message. 

Other work has possibly been done which has not 
come to our notice. 

BOOKS. Of the books issued and sold in the interest 
of the Society by home workers may be mentioned : 
" Diamond Dust," Mrs. Jennie Fowler Willing; "Sis 
ter Ridnour s Sacrifice," Mrs. C. F. Wilder; "The 
Orient and Its People," Mrs. J. G. Hauser; "First 
Decade of the Woman s Foreign Missionary Society," 
Mary Sparkes Wheeler; "The Flowery Orient," Mrs. 
Bishop Newman; "History of Medical Work," Mrs. 
J. T. Gracey; " Rosario," Mrs. J. F. Willing and Mrs. 
E. J. M. Clemens; "Historical Sketch of the North 
western Branch," Miss Franc Baker; "History of the 
Cincinnati Branch," Mrs. E. T. Cowen; "Bright 
Bits," Mrs. M. S. Budlong; "Flora s Graduation," 
W. E. Blackstone; "Gist," Lily Rider Gracey; "The 
Bishop s Conversion," Mrs. Ellen B. Maxwell; 
"Glimpses in Chinese Homes," Miss E. U. Yates; 
"Famous Filials," and " Boats and Carts," Miss Clara 
Cushman; Auxiliary Treasurer s Books by Mrs. 
H. M. Pattee and Miss E. Pearson; and a "Set of 
Books for the two Secretaries and Treasurer," by 
Mrs. Birch. 



92 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSION A R Y SOCIETY. 

Besides these are many booklets, memoirs, bio 
graphical and historical sketches, and tracts written by 
the women of the Society. 

The Missionary Lesson Leaf, prepared and pub 
lished by Mrs. S. A. R. Fish since 1883, circulates 
widely, the monthly issue reaching 20,000 copies. 
She also began the publication of The Foreign Mis 
sion Field ia 1888, for use in other denominations, 
which meets with favor. 

In 1887 she published a Children s Lesson Leaf, 
which was edited by Miss Franc Baker. This was 
sold out to the Little Missionary the following year. 

A little paper called the Quarterly is published by 
some of the Branches. The dates of first publication 
are as follows : Des Moines, April, 1891 ; Northwestern, 
August, 1891; New England, January, 1893; Cincin 
nati, October, 1893; New York, March, 1894. The 
Minneapolis and Pacific Branches also publish one. 

M>s. Emma Moore Scott has rendered incalculable 
service in the preparation of a Hindustanee Tune- 
book, harmonizing the principal native airs sung in 
the missions of North India. It was a herculean 
task, involving some three years of time and no in 
considerable expense. The musician will find much 
of interest in examining these quaint Oriental airs, 
even though he may regard them as mere curiosities 
in music. 



CHAPTER VI- 

GERMAN WORK. 

LANCING at German Methodism at large, we 
find the Church has never had more loyal sup 
porters of its interests in all lines, be they evangel 
istic, judiciary, literary or educational, than its Ger 
man membership. What wonder, then, that the Ger 
man sisterhood took a deep interest in the work of 
the Woman s Foreign Missionary Society so soon as 
they knew enough of its aims and methods? 

Miss Margaretha Dreyer wrote in the Heiden 
Fr aiien Frcund for March, 1894, a regime of the Ger 
man work in the Woman s Foreign Missionary So 
ciety, of which the following is a free translation 
made by her : 

IT is probably impossible to decide when, where, 
and by whom the first German Auxiliary of the Wom 
an s Foreign Missionary Society was organized, because 
the German sisters united with the English soon after 
the organization of the Society in 1869. But this was 
not a methodical and united effort from the side of the 
German sisterhood, but rather the personal and indi 
vidual impulse of those who came in contact with 
the English workers. We know that as early as 
1872 the specific organization of German Societies be 
gan, because the Woman s Auxiliary of the first Ger 
man Methodist Episcopal Church of St. Paul, Minne 
sota dates its organization from that year. This or- 
7 93 



94 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

ganization was effected by the united efforts of Mrs. 
Mary C. Nind and Mrs. L. Prescott, who also organ 
ized our first German Auxiliary in Faribault, Minn., 
during the same year. 

In the territory of the present Central German 
Conference the work early gained a foothold in the 
German Churches of Cincinnati and Greenville, O.; 
also Jeffersonville and New Albany, Ind., and at other 
points. The same can be said of the present Chicago 
Conference. St. Louis German Conference had them 
also, at least one in Farmington, Iowa. 

The first positive date we find is March 8, 1878, 
when Mrs. Davis, daughter of the sainted Bishop 
Clark, organized the Germania Young Ladies Society 
of the Third, or Buckeye Street, German Church of 
Cincinnati. Two years later, on the 24th of March, 
the Auxiliary at Enterprise, Kansas, was organized 
with Mrs. H. Hoffman as its organizer and President. 

In 1882 this same woman sent me a copy of the 
leaflet, "Wanted: Only a Woman s Hand!" by Mrs. 
Julia M. Olin. The appeal strangely thrilled me. I 
had asked God frequently for absolute contentment in 
the duties "which lie nearest," and yet found no peace 
because of the conviction, "The Lord hath need of 
thee; whither and wherefore were unknown, but 
finally were placed unconditionally in the hands of the 
Father. The leaflet seemed to open my eyes, and also 
the floodgates of my heart, and brought me to a de 
cision, though another year passed before it seemed 
possible to organize at Kansas City, Kan. (then Wyan- 
dotte), which was finally done April 13. 1883. I was 
deeply convinced of the truth that the heathen women 
had as much claim upon the German women of the 



GERMAN WORK. 95 

Church as upon the English-speaking portion, and as 
we at that time stood under the direction of the Sec 
retaries of the English Conferences, I conferred with 
them as to what could be done to arouse a more gen 
eral interest among the German-speaking Churches. 
Their opinion seemed to be that I was better ac 
quainted with the German work than they, and 
requested me to write an essay on " The Spirit of Mis 
sions Among the Germans," for the annual meeting of 
the old Western Branch, which convened in Topeka, 
Kan., October, 1883. 

I complied with the request, and, in company with 
three other members of our Auxiliary, attended this 
last Western Branch meeting; and as the Lord unex 
pectedly opened the way, I there organized my first 
Auxiliary. How little I knew what would become of 
these small beginnings! 

This Branch meeting, the first I had ever attended, 
was a great blessing to myself personally, yet when 
requested to accept the responsibilities of German Sec 
retary, and as such visit among the Churches through 
out the Branch, which embraced the entire country 
west of the Mississippi, and continue in the direction 
of the newly-founded work, I hesitated, and would 
have declined; for my wishes and hopes were in an 
other direction, had I not recognized God s hand, and 
for Him and by His grace I accepted it. 

What was done up to this time, in beginnings here 
and there throughout the land, I have already told. 
It is more difficult to state what the fruit of these ef 
forts were, inasmuch as there was no one to keep the 
special records and accounts the German work in 
cluded in the English Conferences. The only source 



96 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

of information within reach is the Annual Minutes, 
and statistics of the various German Conferences, 
which were organized in the fall of 1864. Among 
their entries of contributions for various benevolences 
we find the first mention of the Woman s Foreign 
Missionary Society in the year 1873. The receipts 
this first year from the then organized German Con 
ferences East, Central, Northwest and Southwest to 
taled $355-15- 

Though these statistics are far from satisfactory, it 
is interesting to note the fluctuations in the contribu 
tions of the succeeding ten years. The largest annual 
contribution which the East German Conference 
reached in this time was $75; Central German Con 
ference, $171; Chicago German Conference, $26.21. 
Northwest German Conference, $144.55; Southwest 
(now St. Louis) German Conference, $52.45; West 
German Conference, $176.90; Coast of the Pacific 
(later, California German), $38.75; South German Con 
ference, $12.30. The total contributions of the decade 
amounted to $3,167.79. This, the financial fruit of 
those times under the scattered supervision of English 
Conference Secretaries. But the fruit in point of or 
ganization was far less satisfactory. For these I 
searched, when I accepted the trust proffered me in 
1883. True, I was primarily appointed only for the 
territory west of the Mississippi River, yet I was anx 
ious to know how it stood in all parts. When I left 
home, January 2, 1884, for my first itinerating tour for 
the Society, I knew there were but five German Aux 
iliaries in existence the one named in St. Paul; the 
"Germania," of Cincinnati, O.; the third in Enter- 



GERMAN WORK. 97 

prise, Kan., and the two which I had organized in 
1883, Wyandotte and Topeka, Kan. 

The relation we had, up to this time, held toward 
the English-speaking part of the work, was unnatural, 
and for that reason the efforts put forth failed to bring 
forth fruit with enough vital power to live and grow. 

My first two weeks in the itinerary will not be for 
gotten. The first week of January, when I began, 
was the coldest week of the season, and the railroad 
connections not the best, and I inexperienced in 
traveling. A ride in the hack from six to seven 
o clock in the morning, with the mercury 28 below 
zero, a night in a little railway inn to catch an early 
train, which I missed because the clocks had stopped 
in consequence of the extreme cold; the same cause 
ditched a train ahead of us and gave me a lie-over in 
a dreary cross-road station with only rude men, from 
9 P. M. Saturday to i A. M. Sunday, reaching my des 
tination about 2.30 A. M., at a depot with neither light 
nor fire, and no conveyance to carry me to town, a half- 
mile distant. I took my grip (heavy with missionary 
literature), and followed some commercial travelers, 
who had shown me gentlemanly kindness, and would 
have assisted me had they not been similarly bur 
dened. The way led up an incline, and I slipped 
continually. When I reached the hotel my feet were 
sorely blistered, and did not heal for weeks. This was 
the prelude of severer tests yet to follow. 

I had at another time, later on in my experience, 
made an appointment in a town for a Sunday. I 
stated the case plainly, and told the minister that if it 
could not be arranged for me to have one of the serv- 



98 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

ices for the cause, I should be happy to spend the 
Sabbath there as their guest, if convenient, returning 
to my center of operations from a trip in another di 
rection. I confidently expected word, but received 
none, and, it being Saturday afternoon, I could hope 
for nothing. After thinking the matter over carefully, I 
decided to go, and found the pastor s family greatly 
afflicted through illness, and with this, and the usual 
care of the Church, the pastor had had extra work by 
sickness and death in the charge. He had therefore 
forgotten to write me. I requested to be shown or 
directed to a hotel; but the pastor said he knew of 
none (though he had lived there three years). I left 
the house, glad for the darkness of night to conceal 
my emotion. How I wanted to take the next train to 
loved ones more than a thousand miles away ! I risked 
going to the next appointment, to which I had been 
made welcome by letter ; but fearing the pastor s fam 
ily might ask whether I had had supper, I first went 
to a grocery-store and bought two wafers and an apple 
for a penny or two, and ate them in the darkest street 
I could find, so I could truthfully say "yes," for my 
throat was too full and choked for eating. How much 
more I could relate of experiences akin to that of 
Paul in 2 Cor. xi ! But why should I ? I will rather 
praise God who made it possible to conquer through 
Christ our Lord, for whose sake and in whose name 
I had entered the field. As I look back I can truth 
fully say, there is no feeling, neither was there then, 
against such opponents as I met; for I felt God only 
could know the motive, He alone had the right to 
judge, and I think we all learned to know and prize 
each other as members of one body. 



GERMAN WORK. 99 

The ludicrous was not always lacking. I had had 
considerable trouble getting the Conference floor in a 
certain Conference, when I visited them the first time, 
and was free enough afterward to say that it looked 
much, like a game of chess between myself and the 
Conference Secretary. Some one kindly informed 
him of the remark; and when I again stood before 
the Conference, a year or two later, warmly praising 
God for help vouchsafed, and inviting their co-opera 
tion in ever-increasing proportion, the Secretary, who 
was sitting in the altar where I stood beside him, dis 
tinctly whispered : "You are making a good move on 
the chess-board to-day." I went on, only looking him 
in the face to let him know I had heard. Afterward 
I told him privately I perceived some one had in 
formed him of my comparison, but added: " Though 
I had no desire to pain you, yet, had we had the op 
portunity of talking the matter over, I would have 
told you the same." He laughed, shook my hand, 
and congratulated me on to-day s success. 

But more preciously treasured in memory s store 
house are the hours of sweet communion with my 
God, when, in long days of travel or nights of delay 
in lonely depots, I so deeply felt that he had only led 
ine aside from the crowd that 1 might enjoy his 
nearness. 

That the acquaintance with so many consecrated 
women has been a source of endless pleasure and 
profit, none will doubt ; but not all will comprehend 
the thrice-blessed hours that awaited me on retiring 
after a heavy day s work, when sleep refused to come 
at my bidding, because of the nervous excitement. 
If not too tired, it was a jubilation ; if too tired, I 



i oo WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

would cry, but not alone. Jesus was so consciously 
near that, had he opened my eyes as he did those of 
Elijah s servant, I should not have been startled to 
see the "Beloved Master." Twere hard to say 
which was most precious ; for in both I knew that he 
fully understood me. 

In 1884 I traveled within the bounds of the 
West and the St. Louis German Conferences; also, 
in the present North and Northwest German Confer 
ences all west of the Mississippi ; but received in 
vitations to come further east as well. I accepted, 
and in 1885 extended my work into the Chicago Ger 
man Conference. During this time I organized the 
still-flourishing society of the First German Method 
ist Episcopal Church, in Milwaukee. But the greater 
portion of the winter was spent in the Central Ger 
man Conference; and the following autumn and win 
ter I reached the Atlantic Coast, and labored for a 
time in the East German Conference. 

By this time I had associated with me a number 
of loved co-laborers, who assisted me in copying cir 
cular letters, also in mailing supplies ; which was a 
great help. So far as possible, I had such a one in 
each Conference. 

In the year 1887, nine Conferences reported work 
seven in America, where I had labored, and the Con 
ferences in Germany and in Switzerland, which had 
been called to life in 1886 by Mrs. Hagans, of Chi 
cago, whose timely efforts in seed-sowing might have 
been less fruitful had I not followed with earnest let 
ter-writing by way of remembrance. However, they 
were now at work, under the secretaryship of Mrs. 
P. Achard and Mrs. A. Spoerri, respectively. 



GERMAN WORK. 101 

Mrs. Achard is the daughter of Dr. Jacoby, the 
father of Methodism ill Germany and Switzerland ; 
mother of eleven children, and matron, or " haus-mut- 
tcr" for the students of Martin Institute, at Frank 
fort, Germany. Very wise was her arrangement, ac 
cording to which the membership fee is fixed at thirty 
cents yearly. In this wise she enlisted the masses. 
Those who can do more, and feel so inclined, can, and 
do so. 

The following is~a translation, made by Mrs. Ber 
tha S. Ohlinger, of a circular drawn up by Mrs. Ach 
ard and Mrs. Mann, and sent throughout our work in 
Germany and Switzerland : 

" DEAR SISTER, Since our husbands have, with 
out our knowledge, organized a Branch of the Woman s 
Foreign Missionary Society, thereby occasioning great 
joy among our sisters in America, it is our duty to 
go forward in this work. Although we, the under 
signed, are among the number having the largest 
families to care for, we have nevertheless resolved, 
with the help of God, to accept the office which has 
been conferred upon us, but would ask you to assist 
us in the duties connected therewith in the first 
place, by securing subscribers for the Hciden Frauen 
Frcund. 

" We are of the opinion that if every Sewing So 
ciety, or any other society of sisters, were to sub 
scribe for one copy, it would be a fair beginning. 

" Secondly, we would ask you to find members 
for this Society. Inasmuch as our sisters are already 
taxed to the uttermost, we have concluded to fix the 
rate of membership at five pennies per month. 
Larger contributions will, of course, be accepted. 



1 02 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSION AR Y SOCIETY. 

The paper will come to about thirty cents per annum, 
including postage. 

"You may, perhaps, think that we are already 
overburdened, and can not possibly do more. That 
is exactly what we thought at first ; but after consid 
ering the matter carefully, we feel confident that the 
L,ord will aid us in this work if we put our trust in 
him. It is our duty to lend our sisters in America a 
helping hand. 

" If we but call to mind the many privileges we, 
as Christian women, enjoy, as compared with the 
women in heathen lands, surely the love of Christ 
must constrain us to do all we can for the further 
ance of this cause. We would therefore entreat you 
not to let this matter rest, but to do all that is in your 
power to do. 

"All contributions are to be sent to Mrs. M. Mann, 
in Kaiserslautern, Bavaria; also, the number of sub 
scribers for the Heiden Frauen Freiind is to be re 
ported to her. Other correspondence, in regard to 
the organization of Auxiliaries, membership, and the 
work of the separate Societies, etc., is to be addressed 
to Mrs. Achard, Roderburg 88, Frankfort-on-the- 
Main. In the hope that we may soon have the 
pleasure of hearing from you, we close with sisterly 
greetings. PH. JACOBY- ACHARD, 

M. MANN." 

California reported its first German Auxiliary in 

1890, which at once took rank under the leadership of 
Mrs. C. Meyer. This same energetic and loving sis 
ter influenced the first organization in the North Pa 
cific German Conference, at Tacoma, Washington, in 

1891. Since then we have organizations in all but 



GERMAN WORK. 103 

one of the now thirteen German Conferences in Amer 
ica and Europe. 

The first General Executive Committee meeting 
that I attended was held in Evanston, 111., October, 
1885. At this time I explained our efforts and hopes 
and desires, and was cheerfully granted the necessary 
literature; and in January, 1886, appeared the first 
number of the Heiden Frauen Frennd. As I had no 
one, at that time, who was both capable and willing 
to assume the responsible work, I added it to my 
other duties, trusting the Lord for strength and wis 
dom to do it. Two years I carried this combined 
work, and the next two our beloved (now sainted) 
Mrs. Warren piloted the little craft, until God sent us 
the right person for the place in the person of Mrs. 
P. J. Achard. I will not enumerate the other numer 
ous casual publications which were, and still are, a 
great help ; for, with the constant increase of the 
work, more were needed. 

Thus the end of another decade has come. 
Financially, we have done more than threefold as 
well, giving $35,242.65 ; and the five Auxiliaries with 
which the decade opened have grown to be 194, with 
4,520 annual and 47 life members enough to organ 
ize a Branch, were it not that immense distances and 
other considerations prevented thus far. 

The Society recognized the peculiar situation 
early, and in 1889 gave me a seat and voice in the 
General Executive Committee, as Superintendent of 
German Work of the Woman s Foreign Missionary 
Society. In the meantime my honored assistants 
have advanced from mere ornamental to veritable 
Conference Secretaries, who now form my link of 



104 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

communication with the organizations. Beside the 
names of Mrs. Anna Spoerri and Mrs. L. Kienast, 
Switzerland; Miss D. Gebhardt, South Germany; 
Mrs. L. Wunderlich and Mrs. A. Hempel, North Ger 
many ; Mrs. L. Edwards, East German Conference in 
the United States; Miss A. Baur, Cincinnati German 
Conference; Miss Julia Enderis, Chicago German 
Conference; Mrs. Maggie Zimmerman, North Ger 
man Conference; Miss E. Schuette, Northwest Ger 
man Conference; Mrs. E. Schnackenberg, St. Louis 
German Conference; Mrs. Bertha Kurtz, West Ger 
man Conference; Mrs. C. Meyer, California German 
Conference; Mrs. B. Bauer, North Pacific German 
Conference, who are my assistants at this time, I 
wish to make grateful mention of the following, who 
preceded them : Mrs. H. A. Franz, the Misses Lizzie 
and Clara Bauer, Miss Bertha Rheinfrank, Mrs. Mary 
Snyder, Miss Anna Fiegenbaum, Miss Ida Hallsick, 
Miss Julia Reinhardt, Miss Mary Kaeser, and others, 
who succored in numberless ways. 

How has this been attained and maintained? It 
is not to be denied that in this decade, too, there has 
been a constant per cent of loss as well as gain ; 
nevertheless, the present condition of the work is 
sufficient proof of the wisdom of carrying it on as a 
specifically German work, even though the workman 
ship displayed is of an apparently inferior order. 
With the better knowledge these workers had of Ger 
man needs and peculiarities, we also received the 
needed helps in leaflets, blanks, etc., etc. As climax 
and crown of all, our dear Hcidcn Frauen Freund, 
which has already entered upon its eighth year, 
though it has both changed its form and increased its 



GERMAN WORK. 105 

size, is stretching in a manner which indicates that 
the dress is again growing too small. 

In enumerating gifts and givers, we must not 
forget our own four German missionaries (besides a 
number who have been rocked in the arms of Ger 
man mothers, but who have abandoned the language 
of their ancestry) Miss L,. C. Rothweiler, in 1887; 
Miss Bengel (now Mrs. Jones), three years later, both 
from the Central German Conference; and in 1893, 
Miss L,ydia Diem, from Switzerland to Bulgaria, and 
her sister, Miss Amelia Diem. 

But have we only given? Far from that. We 
have received a German missionary literature from 
the hands of our generous Literature Committee, and 
to our own lives has come a broadening and spiritual 
and intellectual development which only so high and 
holy a cause could bring about. As a sisterhood, we 
have become united as nothing else could have made 
us ; and we have learned to recognize causes for grat 
itude in our humble spheres all unknown before. 
We have become better, more grateful, more active, 
and happier. In that day, side by side with the 
women of heathendom, will stand many German 
Methodist women of America and Europe, praising 
God for the benefits derived through the channels of 
the Woman s Foreign Missionary Society. 

CHICAGO, ILI,., January 27, 1894, 

Iii 1890 the Superintendent of German work vis 
ited the Switzerland and German Conferences, and 
brought back encouraging reports, exhorting us not 
to forget the poverty of our people in those countries, 
and the sacrifices which they bring to maintain the 



io6 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

work of the Church among them ; nevertheless, they 
who partake in these contributions to the Woman s 
Foreign Missionary Society do so with gladness that 
even the little they can do is not too small to be ac 
cepted by the Society, to which they feel greatly in 
debted for transmitting their gifts to their heathen 
sisters, and for aiding those more nearly home by 
sustaining Bible women both in Germany and Switz 
erland. They have a very happy mode of making 
their collections monthly among no n- Church-goers, 
and taking this as an opportunity to reach them for 
their personal salvation. 

The work in the United States lies largely among 
the poorer people. The West German Conference, 
out of seventy-six appointments, has only thirty-one 
that are self-supporting; but has thirty-five organiza 
tions of the Woman s Foreign Missionary Society. 
Mite-boxes are freely circulated on country circuits 
where monthly meetings could not be sustained. 

District meetings are held; the work is repre 
sented at Annual Conferences and at ca mp- meetings ; 
and the Secretaries attend the Branch meetings, catch 
ing a flame of enthusiasm that burns brighter in their 
own hearts, and sends a glow into the hearts of the 
Auxiliaries. 

The Heiden Frauen Freund is much appreciated, 
as shown in its circulation of one paper for less than 
two members. 

In 1893, Mrs. Bishop Newman accompanied her 
husband to Europe on his episcopal visitation. Her 
addresses at the several women s meetings of the 
three German and Swiss Conferences were published 
in the Evangelist, of Bremen. 



CHAPTER VII. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 
GENERAL CONFERENCE ACTION. 

THE General Conference of 1872 took action grant 
ing the Society the most cordial recognition and 
encouragement, "officially authorizing the prosecu 
tion of its work as a recognized agency of the Church, 
with no other than its present restrictions." Impor 
tant action was also taken in regard to tenure of prop 
erty, both at home and abroad, by which the trustees 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church were to hold 
property for this Society. Each succeeding session 
the General Conference has put itself on record to 
the effect that the Society is a most important aux 
iliary in missionary work. 

Section 4, Article VIII, in the Discipline of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, concerning the Woman s 
Foreign Missionary Society, reads : 

" The funds of the Society shall not be raised by 
collections or subscriptions taken during any of our 
regular Church services, nor in any Sunday-school ; 
but shall be raised by such methods as the constitu 
tion of the Society shall provide, none of which shall 
interfere with the contributions of our people and 
Sunday-schools for the treasury of the Missionary 
Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church ; and the 
amount so collected shall be reported by the pastor 
to the Annual Conference, and be entered in a column 

107 



1 08 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIE TV. 

among the benevolent collections in the Annual and 
General Minutes:" 

By an almost unanimous vote, in 1884, the follow 
ing was adopted : 

" Resolved, That 4 of this paragraph, concerning 
Women s Missionary Societies, shall not be so inter 
preted as to prevent the ladies from taking collections 
in ladies meetings convened in the interests of their 
Societies, nor from securing memberships, life mem 
berships, etc., in audiences where their work is repre 
sented; nor from holding festivals or arranging lec 
tures in the interests of their work." 

The collection-taking rights were made, in 1892, 
unmistakably clear, by expunging the word " regu 
lar " from before " Church services," and omitting the 
clause, " nor in any promiscuous public meetings," 
and now reads: "The provisions of 4 of this para 
graph (^] 362) shall not be so interpreted as to pre 
vent the women from taking collections in meetings 
convened in the interests of their Societies ; nor from 
securing memberships and life memberships in au 
diences where their work is represented ; nor from 
holding festivals or arranging lectures in the interests 
of their work." 

Plain, strong words of recognition were given the 
Society in the Episcopal Address to the General Con 
ference, in 1892 : 

"The Woman s Foreign Missionary Society stands 
forth as one of the grandest agencies for the world s 
evangelization, and the wisdom and efficiency with 
which its affairs are administered remain unabated. 
No branch of Christian work has been more ably con 
ducted in the entire history of the Church. Deprived 



MISCELLANEOUS. 109 

of it, the missionary cause would lose much of its 
strength. It should be cherished by the Church as 
one of her prime agencies, and should continue to 
receive her heartiest support." 

SPECIAL DONATIONS AND BEQUESTS. 

" Rarely has a cause been sanctified by offerings 
representing more of sacrifice and devotion than in 
some of these special gifts to the treasury. Gifts 
have been brought, hallowed by the touch of those 
whom God has taken from hearts left desolate. 
Memorial buildings have been erected, and orphans 
supported in memory of the loved. These have been 
baptized with affection and prayer ; and we find here 
some of the secrets of the success, under God, of the 
Society s work. These have come up for a memo 
rial. " 

The enumeration given includes sums of $1,000 
and over. Perhaps the first donation for specific 
work was that of a native prince in India, of property 
valued at $15,000, for woman s medical work; and 
very early in the history of the Society, Lady Li, the 
mother of China s great viceroy Li Hung Chang 
left as a bequest to the "good Doctor" Howard, for 
medical work, $1,000. 

Above and beyond the income of the Society, 
$25,000 have been raised for the endowment of the 
zenana paper, in India, $5,000 of which was contrib 
uted by Mrs. Elizabeth Sleeper Davis, of Boston , 
$1,000 by a gentleman in Baltimore; and $2,000 by a 
lady in Pennsylvania. 

As early as 71, Mrs. Sarah Kemp Slater, of Grand 
Rapids, Mich., willed half the annual interest from 
b 



1 1 o WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSION AR Y SOCIETY. 

the sale of her property, which has amounted, in the 
years down to 95, to over $4,635 ; Mrs. J. P. Newman 
donated $2,000 for a " Home for Homeless Women" 
in North India; Mrs. Dr. Goucher gave $5,000 for the 
"Isabella Fisher" Hospital, in Tientsin, China; Mrs. 
Caroline Wright, $1,700 for a memorial school in 
Hakodati, Japan. 

Mrs. D. C. Scofield, of Elgin, 111., beqeathed $7,- 
ooo, of which $3,000 was for the medical educational 
fund of the Northwestern Branch, and $1,000 each 
for orphanages in Japan, China, India, and Mexico; 
Philander Smith gave $4,500 for school in Loftcha, 
Bulgaria; Mrs. Adeline Smith, $5,500 for school-build 
ing in Nankin, $4,000 for Deaconess Home in Chung 
king, China, and $1,566 to the general work; Mr. 
and Mrs. Wm. E. Blackstone, $5,000 for Deaconess 
Home and Training-school in Muttra, India; Mrs. 
W. E. Blackstone, $3,000 for school-building in 
Seoul, Korea. Mrs. Bertha Sigler, of Iowa, gave 
$3,000 for a school in Budaon, India; Mrs. C. D. 
Strong gave $1,000, and Mrs. Clews, of Iowa, $3,000; 
Mrs. F. C. DePauw, of Indiana, $r,ooo for commenc 
ing work in Japan ; Mr. L,e Huray, of New Jersey, 
and his daughter, Eleanor, $1,000 for outfit in Buenos 
Ayres; an invalid lady in Baltimore, not a Methodist, 
in gratitude to one who is, $1,262 ; Mrs. Frances Ste 
vens, Joliet, 111., for Bombay Home, $1,000 ; Mrs. P. L,- 
Bennett, Wilkesbarre, Pa., $1,000; Mrs. H. W. War 
ren, for work in Japan, $r,ooo; Mrs. Mary C. Nind, 
of Minneapolis, for opening work in Singapore, 
$3,000; Mrs. Wright, of Glen Hope, Philadelphia 
Branch, $3,000; Mrs. L,ouise Soules, of Michigan, to 
found a school in Aligarh, India, $7,000; Mr. and 



MlSCELLANE OUS. Ill 

Mrs. J. W. Phillips, of Michigan, for general work, 
$2,000; Mr. and Mrs. Plested, Trinidad, Colo., $2,500 
for Meerut, India; an aged couple in Topeka, Kan., 
$1,000. A gentleman in Bombay contributed $1,000 
for the work in that city. "Jonathan," of Baltimore, 
gave $ 1,000 for Bible Woman s School in Yokohama. 

Among the bequests, we note $1,000 each from 
Mr. Aaron Devore, Illinois ; Mrs. Adaline Slaughter, 
Indianapolis ; a legacy in Baltimore ; Miss McMillan, 
Michigan ; Mrs. Betts, Michigan ; Sheridan Baker, 
Mrs. Logan, and J. P. Leiter, of Ohio; Miss Isabel 
Hart, Baltimore ; Mary A. Hammond, Indiana ; Rev. 
J. W. Agard, Chicago ; Mary J. Barclay, Johnsville, 
N. Y. 

Other bequests are: E. D. Boynton, New York 
Branch, $1,850; Mrs. Bramwell, Galesburg, 111., $i,- 
500; Mr. Jas. T. Fields, $5,000; Miss L. C. Kennedy, 
Illinois, $2,309; Isaac H. Koll, Wisconsin, $5,000; 
Mrs. Rachel Harford, Illinois, $1,500; Jane A. Wag 
ner, Chicago, $2,000; Emily Kimball, Wisconsin, 
$1,362.58 ; sale of Chicago property, $2,941.30 ; Elvira 
Elliott, Michigan, $2,500; Caroline M. Pettinger, In 
diana, $1,497.75; Alexander McClure, Illinois, $2,- 
189.70; Mrs. J. T. Harrison, Minneapolis, for Indus 
trial Home in Tokio, Japan, $5,000 ; also, Mrs. Coburn, 
for room in the Home; Miss M. J. Kunner, Mifflin, 
Pa., $1,900; Harvard bequest for Medical Fund in 
Northwestern Branch, $2,000; Mrs. Bishop Clark, 
$2,000; Miss Minerva Evans, Cincinnati Branch, $i,- 
500; Mrs. Ellen M.Wagner and Mrs. Lucinda Button, 
Illinois, each $2,000; Mrs. James Abraham, Portland, 
Ore., for three schools in India, $15,000; Mrs. Sleeper 
Davis, $25,000. 



1 1 2 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY, 

Besides the above, at a time of need in the Balti 
more Branch, a bond for $5,000, to run thirteen years, 
bearing 5 per cent interest, was given by Rev. J. F. 
Goucher ; and the beautiful home of Mrs. Charlotte 
O Neal, Pasadena, Cal., has been given to the Society, 
reserving a life lease. A $4,000 missionary scholar 
ship in Albion College was raised in the Northwest 
ern Branch, as a memorial to Mrs. E. A. Hoag. 

These gifts have imparted fragrance to the whole 
work. He who "sat over against the treasury " has 
been keeping the record. 

BEQUESTS TO THE WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSION 
ARY SOCIETY. Careful attention to the wording and 
expressions of a will are necessary for its full accom 
plishment. If persons disposed to make bequests to 
this Society will observe the following form, there 
can be no legal flaw : " I hereby give and bequeath to 
the Woman s Foreign Missionary Society of the Meth 
odist Episcopal Church, incorporated under the laws 

of the State of New York, dollars, to be paid 

to the Treasurer of said Society, whose receipts shall 
be a sufficient acquittance to my executors therefor." 

BntcreO into IReet. 
OFFICERS. 

MRS. G. E. DOUGHTY, Corresponding Secretary of Cincinnati 
Branch, 1875. 

MRS. DR. STEPHEN OWN, President of New York Branch, 
May 2, 1879. 

MRS. C. P. TAPI,IN, Corresponding Secretary of the New 
England Branch, April 29, iSSi. 

MRS. ARZA BROWN, Vice-President of Northwestern Branch, 
February 19, 1882. 



MlSCELLANEO US. 1 1 3 

MRS. J. T. HARRISON, Treasurer of Minneapolis Branch, April 
3, 1886. 

MRS. M. W. PORTER, M. D., President of Des Moines Branch, 
September 8, 1888. 

MRS. E. A. B. HOAG, Corresponding Secretary, Northwestern 
Branch, September 27, 1889. 

MRS. E. HAMILTON, Treasurer of Baltimore Branch, January 
7, 1891. 

MiSS ISABELLA HART, Corresponding Secretary, Baltimore 
Branch, September 5, 1891. 

MRS. FRANCIS A. CROOK, President, Baltimore Branch, No 
vember, 1891. 

MRS. J. P. EARLY, President, Pacific Branch, February, 1893. 

MRS. BISHOP CLARK, President, Cincinnati Branch, October 
18, 1893. 

MRS. REBECCA T. COMEGYS, Vice-President, Cincinnati Branch, 
July, 1895. 

MRS. DR. DANFORTH, First Vice-President of Northwestern 
Branch, August, 1895. 

MRS. SUSAN J. STEELE, Vice-President, New England Branch, 
September 5, 1895. 

MRS. ELLEN HUNT CURTIS, Recording Secretary, New Eng 
land, October 26, 1895. 

PHILANTHROPISTS. 

MRS. ELIZABETH SLEEPER DAVIS, May 8, 1891. 
MRS. ADELINE M. Smith, July 4, 1895. 



1 1 4 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSION A R Y SOCIETY. 



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MISCELLANEOUS. 1 1 5 

SUMMARY OF APPROPRIATIONS FOR 1895. 
INDIA. BY COUNTRIES. 

North India Conference, ..... $52,317 oo 

Northwest India Conference, . . . 21,256 co 
South India Conference, ..... 18,100 oo 

Bombay Conference, ....... I 7,552 oo 

Bengal-Burmah Conference, .... 7,310 oo 

Total for India, ........ fi 16,535 co 

Malaysia, ........... 5,845 oo 

CHINA. 

North China, ........... $21,435 oo 

Central China, .......... 12,179 oo 

West China, ........... 6,640 oo 

Foochow, ............. 25,904 oo 

Total for China, ....... 66,158 oo 

JAPAN ................. 58,253 or 

KOREA, ................ 8,336 oo 

MEXICO, ............... 22,681 oo 

ITALY, .............. . . 7,757 oo 

BULGARIA, .............. 4,465 oo 

SOUTH AMERICA, ........... 20,630 oo 

GERMANY, .............. 150 oo 

SWITZERLAND ............. 350 oo 

Total, ............. $311,160 oo 

Contingent, ......... 12,508 oo 

$323,668 oo 
TREASURER S REPORT. 

AMOUNT OF MONEY COLLECTED FROM OCTOBER i, 1893, TO 
OCTOBER i, 1894, BY BRANCHES, AS FOLLOWS: 

New England Branch (including a bequest of $25,- 

ooo from Mrs. Sleeper Davis), ......... $55,945 23 

New York Branch, ............... 50,009 oo 

Philadelphia Branch, ............... 26,733 J 7 

Baltimore Branch, ................ 12,042 36 

Cincinnati Branch, ................ 40,536 56 

Northwestern Branch, .............. 68,684 17 

Des Moines Branch, ............... 24,161 36 

Minneapolis Branch, ............... 9^69 26 

Topeka Branch, ................. 16,077 4 8 

Pacific Branch, .................. 5,042 94 

Columbia River Branch, ............. 3,524 43 



Total, .................. $3H,925 96 

Amount raised, 1893, .............. 277,303 79 

Increase, ................ $34- 6 ^ 2 X 7 



u6 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 



RECEIPTS OF SOCIETY SINCE ORGANIZATION. 

1870, $4,546 86 

1871, 22,397 99 

1872, 44,477 46 

1873, 54,834 87 

1874, 64,309 25 

1875, 61,492 19 

1876, 55,276 06 

1877, 72,464 3 

1878, 68,063 52 

1879, 66,843 69 

1880, 76,276 43 

1881, 107,932 45 

1882, 105,678 50 

1883, 126,823 33 

1884, I43J99 U 

1885, 157,442 66 

1886, 167,098 85 

1887, I9M58 13 

1888, 206,308 69 

1889, 226,496 15 

1890, 220,329 96 

1891, 263,660 69 

1892, 265,342 15 

1893, 277,303 79 

1894, 3 ri >9 2 5 9 6 

Total since organization, f3,45 r >683 27 



From March, 1869, to April, 




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HOME WORK. 

The Home Work for 1895 is represented by the 
following statistics: 

Auxiliary Societies, 4,630 

Auxiliary Members, 121,288 

Young Women s Societies, 780 

Young Women Members, 14,584 

Children s Bands, 771 

Members Baud, 15,581 

Total Organizations, 6,i8r 

Total Members, 151,163 

Conference Secretaries, 92 

District Secretaries, 331 

Little Light Bearers, 1,562 

Mite-boxes distributed 20,000 



CHAPTER VIII. 

MEDICAL MISSIONS. 

INDIA. 

WOMAN S medical work has been the outgrowth 
of a necessity in all heathen countries. This 
may be seen in India by the following extract from 
the Indian Witness : 

" While maternity may be held in honor, and the 
mother of sons derives special dignity from her posi 
tion, the treatment of all women on the occasion of 
the birth of children is unimaginably cruel and stu 
pid. The education and civilization of which some 
classes of native society can justly boast, stop short of 
any attempt to ameliorate this evil ; and an English- 
speaking and, to some extent, thinking Hindu gentle 
man still considers that all the assistance which his 
wife needs in the supremest trial of her life can be 
sufficiently rendered by a woman of the lowest caste, 
whose ignorance is her greatest recommendation, since 
all that she has learned of the art she professes tends 
only to make her help more dangerous than neglect. 
The wretched mother, whose husband beats her with 
a stick because her new-born babe is a daughter in 
stead of a son, is really little more to be pitied than 
the woman of higher caste, whose life is imperiled 
and whose health is destroyed by the barbarous cus 
toms of the country. The remedy for a state of 
things which it is unnecessary to do more than hint at, 

117 



1 1 8 W.OMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

lies in the proper training of native nurses, and in 
affording facilities for medical and surgical attendance 
to those willing to avail themselves of it." 

To Mrs. Sarah J. Hale belongs the honor of^ pio 
neer in this great movement ; and when editor of 
Godefs Lady s Book, in the March number for 1852 
appealed to American Christians in behalf of the 
"Ladies Medical Missionary Society," formed in 
Philadelphia, in November, 1851, with the special ob 
ject of " giving aid and sympathy to any women en 
gaged in medical studies, who may desire to become 
missionaries." 

Turning from this initial movement at home, let 
us glance at the beginnings in the foreign field. The 
Woman s Foreign Missionary Society of the Method 
ist Episcopal Church took the initiatory in sending to 
Asia a lady physician with a regular degree. Pre 
vious to the organization of this Society, Mrs. 
Thomas, the wife of a missionary in Bareilly, often 
spent her mornings in dispensing medicine, and felt a 
growing conviction in the demand for female doctors, 
and wrote to America, and prayed to God that one 
might be sent out. In India, she explained her views 
to Dr. Corbyn, who promised that, if she would write 
them out, he would forward them to the Government. 
She heard no more of it till Sir William and Lady 
Muir called to see the orphanage in charge of Mr. 
Thomas. Sir William not only entered into her ideas, 
but he offered to have a class of girls instructed by 
his native doctor, if they were sent from the orphan 
age. Mrs. Thomas, however, felt that nothing would 
do for this training but " a full-fledged " missionary 
lady physician ; and she and Mr. Thomas went on 



MEDICAL MISSIONS. 119 

with careful preparatory instructions in the orphan 
age, to fit girls to enter a medical class. 

Meanwhile, at Nynee Tal, Nand Kishore called 
on Dr. Humphrey, of the General Society, to ask him 
to assist him in carrying out a plan for educating 
some native women in midwifery and the treatment 
of diseases of women and children. He promised, 
from his own resources and from among his friends, 
to find half the funds, and to apply to the Govern 
ment for the other half. The application was made 
through Colonel Ramsey, the commissioner of Kum- 
aon, to Sir William Muir, the lieutenant-governor of 
the Northwest Provinces ; but although favorable, he 
met so many objections from medical men that the 
colonel withdrew it, and became personally responsi 
ble for the remaining funds. The first medical class 
of India, consisting of nine women, was opened on 
the first of May, 1869, in that beautiful hill station 
"beside the mirror-lake, beneath the sheen of the 
eternal snows," in Nynee Tal. 

After a two years course of study, four women 
were examined before a Board of three physicians, one 
of them inspector-general of hospitals for the North 
west Provinces. To each of them the Board gave a 
certificate that she was "qualified to practice as a 
midwife, and also to undertake the treatment of all 
ordinary diseases." They added, moreover, that her 
knowledge of medicine and surgery was " quite 
equal" to that of the generality of locally-trained 
native doctors. 

" The victory was won," says Mrs. Gracey, "once 
and for all." " That certificate meant a revolution of 
ideas, plans, and practices a blow at superstitions 



I2O 



FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 



hoary with age, and at religious systems long opposed 
to the benevolent spirit of Christianity." 

The first lady physician to sail from the American 
shore for the heart of India was Miss Clara A. Swain, 
of Castile, N. Y., a graduate of the Woman s Medical 





MISS CLARA A. SWAIN, M. D. 

College in Philadelphia, in 1869. She was formally 
applied to, first by the Woman s Union Missionary 
Society, and subsequently by the Woman s Foreign 
Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, both being in search of a well-qualified 
woman physician. "After three months of thought 



MEDICAL MISSIONS. 



121 



and prayer," Dr. Swain accepted the " call;" and her 
self a Methodist, the first application was gracefully 
withdrawn, and she was sent out by her own Church. 
She sailed on November 3, 1869, and arrived in Ba- 
reilly the 2oth of January, 1870. 

Immediately native Christian women and girls 
came for medicine and advice ; and soon others besides 
began to arrive. In a few weeks a Brahmin of high 
standing, a deputy collector under the Government, 
and the author of an essay on " Female Education," 
which had been read at Durbar, waited on Miss Swain 
to pay his respects. He expressed great interest in a 
hospital, and promised, not only to subscribe, but to 
assist in raising funds. After a few days came the 
little son of this gentleman, bearing his father s sa 
laam and request for a professional visit on his wife, 
who was suffering. Accordingly, the doctor, accom 
panied by Mrs. Thomas, called at the house, where 
they were received cordially and hospitably. "After 
seating us, the gentleman brought his wife and intro 
duced her, telling her to shake hands ; then offered 
her a chair, and told her to sit down. I am told that 
this was very remarkable; that a native gentleman 
seldom pays his wife so much respect," says Miss 
Swain. The lady was richly dressed in silk, em 
broidered with gold, with a chuddah of a fine, delicate 
texture of many colors, with a deep gold and silver 
border. She wore several rings in each ear; a large 
gold hoop, studded with pearls and different-colored 
stones, hung from the left side of her nose, and at 
tached to one of her ear-rings by a chain. There 
were several pretty, delicate gold chains around her 
-leek; ten bracelets on each arm below the elbow, 



122 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

and several above ; rings on her fingers, and a very 
large one on her right thumb, with a small looking- 
glass attached. There were three large silver rings 
on each ankle, and several silver ornaments on her 
toes. She was literally covered with ornaments 
"She seemed pleased," says Dr. Swain, "with the 
idea of getting well ; and both she and her husband 
promised to obey orders on diet and medicine." 

It was not long before another native gentleman 
waited on the doctor, requesting her professional 
services for his wife, who had been ill for three 
months. At his house the ladies were shown through 
dark passages and through a court, around which 
were cells for cows, horses, and human beings; then 
through a second court, till they found the lady lying 
in the open air, on the housetop, with several serv 
ants around her. Her mother was beside her; and 
she at once began to weep, and to implore the lady 
doctor to cure her daughter. 

Soon after Dr. Swain s appointment to Bareilly, 
she commenced a medical class of sixteen girls, pre 
pared by Dr. and Mrs. Thomas in the orphanage, in 
hope of just such an opening. At the end of three 
years, an Examining Board of three doctors passed 
thirteen out of the sixteen, and certificated them for 
practice in all ordinary diseases. They had been 
trained in the dispensary, beside the sick in the or 
phanage, and in accompanying the doctor on her vis 
its in the city and the Christian village. Great 
change from an abandoned orphan to a medical 
practitioner! " Surely," says William Arthur, " kind 
Charity never did look kinder than when she was 
taking in at her door, from off the highway, a shock 



MEDICAL MISSIONS. 123 

of disgusting hair, covering a shrinking mass of child 
ish skin and bone, and then sending forth a fair 
woman, clothed, lettered, Christianized, and skilled 
the starveling waif transformed into the benefactor 
of society." 

In 1872, Dr. Swain was called to twenty-six new 
zenanas, and made 543 professional visits, and pre 
scribed at the Mission House for 1,200 patients. The 
inconvenience for clinics and the destitution of the 
poor made the need for a hospital very urgent ; but a 
suitable site and necessary funds was a serious prob 
lem. A Mohammedan prince owned property adjoin 
ing the mission premises which would answer the 
purpose if it could be secured. But his highness was 
the Nawab of Rampore, an avowed enemy of the 
gospel, who had boasted that the missionaries could 
never make their way into his city. However, M. 
Drummond, the commissioner, advised the missiona 
ries to apply direct to his highness for the estate, 
and ascertain the probabilities. As this was a memo 
rable visit, we quote from Mrs. Thomas s account as 
published in the Northern Advocate: "Rampore is 
forty miles from here ; and the Nawab, when he heard 
we were coming, sent out twenty-four horses for us, 
so that, at each of the six stages of the route, we had 
fresh horses, and drove in a grand old carriage, with 
coachman, two grooms, and an outrider. At the last 
stage we had three cavalrymen to escort us into the 
city. As we entered the gates, the Nawab s subjects 
made low salaams, the children cried, Long life and 
prosperity ! etc. We were then driven to a house 
that is kept up especially for European travelers, by 
his highness. There we found servants in attendance, 



1 24 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

and everything on the most magnificent scale for our 
entertainment. You can fancy how these poor beg 
gars suffered, when twenty-four different dishes were 
served up for breakfast, of fish, flesh, fowl, eggs, veg 
etables, etc. At dinner we left off counting, and eat 
ing too, in despair. 

" In the evening, the Kavvab sent two pairs of 
horses and two carriages to take us about the city ; 
but said he could not see us that evening, as he was 
especially engaged with his prayers. To each other 
we expressed the devout wish that the Lord might 
direct him to grant our desires. The next morning 
we were up bright and early, and his highness s car 
riages and horses were again sent for us. Brother 
and Sister Parker, Miss Swain, husband and I, took 
our seats for the eventful interview with royalty. 

" We were first taken to several palaces and gar 
dens, and at last drew up in front of the royal resi 
dence. We entered the gateway right in the face of a 
great cannon. Five royal elephants made their sa 
laams to us as we passed. We went up the steps and 
into the presence with some trepidation, but felt re 
assured when his highness arose, smiled, and extended 
his hand. After making the usual salaam, he gave 
me a seat at his right hand, in a gorgeously-em 
broidered chair; Dr. Swain next; then Mrs. Parker. 
The gentlemen came next; then his prime minister; 
then his chief magistrate. We talked a little about 
things indifferently; praised his gardens and palaces; 
complimented him for his taste, etc., while his high 
ness smoked his hookah, and looked more and more 
pleased. Finally, the prime minister arose and whis 
pered something to him, to which he assented. The 



MEDICAL MISSIONS. 125 

minister then told Mr. Thomas to make his request, 
which he did with as much shyness and blushing as a 
school-girl. He said he wanted to procure, upon some 
terms, the estate belonging to him (the Nawab) in 
Bareilly, for the purpose of building a hospital for 
women. He had proceeded only so far, when his 
highness graciously smiled, and said : Take it ; take 
it. I give it to you with much pleasure for the pur 
pose. We were taken aback ; the gift came so freely 
that there was nothing to say except to express our 
thanks to the generous giver. All Mr. Thomas s fine 
speech and arguments, which he had been getting up 
in his best Hindoostanee for a week, were of no use- 
There was no occasion for them at all. I do n t know 
what the young Nawab himself thought; but we si 
lently thanked the Lord, and said : He has given it in 
answer to prayer. We have prayed for it these many 
years, but never absolutely needed it as now ; but now 
we have it. The estate is worth at least $15,000. 
There are forty-two acres of land, an immense brick 
house, two fine old wells, and a garden." Some re 
pairs on the building put it in use for a dispensary and 
a home for missionaries and their attendants, while it 
was deemed best to put up a building expressly for 
hospital services. 

The estate was given to the mission October 3, 
1871, and May 10, 1873, the dispensary was opened. 
By the close of the year, 1,600 women and children 
had received medicine there. Two of the members 
of the medical class gave valuable services in the dis 
pensary, as well as in taking care of the indoor pa 
tients, of whom there were sixteen during the year. 
The hospital buildings were completed and ready for 
9 



126 WoMAffs FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

use January i, 1874, the first in all Asia for women ! 
The expense of building, repairing the house already 
on the estate, making roads, setting out trees, etc., 
was $10,300, which was furnished by the Society, save 
$350 subscribed in India. Patients began to come to 
the hospital as soon as they could be accommodated, 
Hindoos, Mohammedans, and native Christians all hav 
ing their own separate apartments. One use of the 
clinical room seemed rather uncommon. Native la 
dies, arriving in their doolies or light palanquins, 
would be carried right into the room, and, with one 
curtain drawn aside, would continue lying in the 
doolie, and there be prescribed for. One young and 
pretty Mohammedan lady arriving in charge of her 
husband, it was found that the vehicle could not be 
got into the room, and there were men about. What 
was to be done? Dr. Swain tried to persuade the 
poor gentleman that an umbrella would sufficiently 
protect his wife from unwelcome eyes. But no; he 
must have two; and so defended, she effected the 
passage. 

The prevailing diseases were small-pox, fevers, and 
ophthalmia ; but Dr. Swain was never called to attend 
a case of small-pox; for was not that a sacred dis 
ease, over which medicine had no power? She was 
allowed to treat the results, however. 

Dr. Swain added to her medical work zenana visit 
ing and Sabbath services among the women. In 1874 
the number of dispensary patients exceeded three 
thousand, with one hundred and fifty outdoor patients ; 
and the following year the hospital patients numbered 
fifty, of whom six were high-caste Hindoos. These 
brought their families with them. One brought oxen 



MEDICAL MISSIONS. 129 

and three conveyances, with her husband, three chil 
dren, sister, and no less than twelve servants, besides 
furniture and provisions. To the doctor, the hus 
band was not welcome ; but the lady said that she 
could not stay without him ; " their friends would 
give them a bad name." One patient said: "May I 
not come here every year and stay awhile, even if I 
am not sick? I like to walk out in the garden here; 
if I walk out at home, my friends and neighbors 
think I am very bad." 

After having passed through an arduous season of 
epidemic, Dr. Swain found the fifth year of her serv 
ice more satisfactory than any previous one. Then 
her health broke down, and she was forced to retreat 
to her native air. The convalescence was slow; but 
after four } ears of absence, she was once more wel 
comed very joyfully welcomed by old friends and 
new, back to her post again. 

Unceasing prayer was made by the women at 
home for a successor worthy of the work, which 
found answer in the person of Lucilla H. Green, of 
New Jersey. She was fully prepared by a literary 
course in Pennington Seminary, and a medical degree 
from the Woman s College in Philadelphia, supple 
mented by several months practice in the Hospital 
for Women and Children. Her accomplishments 
promised a successful career at home. Her spirit 
hailed the call to a missionary sphere. Arriving in 
Bareilly, she found two assistants, Rebecca Gowan 
and Bertha Siegler. They had been brought up in 
the orphanage. Rebecca spent two years in Dr. 
Humphrey s medical class. She was now a well-edu 
cated, zealous young Christian, losing no opportunity 



1 30 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSION AR Y SOCIETY. 

of preaching Christ to the sufferers. She assisted in 
examining patients and preparing medicines, and took 
Dr. Green s place when absent. Bertha had been 
brought to the orphanage a waif six years old, so 
frightened by ill-treatment that she not only screamed 
at those who had to deal with her, but bit them. 
Tamed, trained, converted, she was now a keen, bright 
student, writing prescriptions so well that Dr. Green 
did not hesitate, when absent, to leave her register- 
book in her hand. 

The doctor gives a full and lively description of 
her visitors at the dispensary on a single morning. 
On entering, she receives the salutation of the assist 
ants, and of several women seated on the floor. Clean 
white clothes and bright faces tell her that these are 
native Christians. Next comes the wife of a rich mer 
chant, in costly array, and she retreats to her carriage 
with great precaution against male eyes. A Moham 
medan woman, with a kindly, trusty face, follows. A 
mother brings two puny children, and holds a branch 
to prevent Miss Dr. Sahiba from putting any " evil 
spirit into them." The spirit she would like to put 
in is eggs and milk and meat ; but animal food she 
must not name. Then a low-caste creature wonders 
if the like of her will ever be attended to, and goes 
away happy. Another woman wants to see if the 
doctor knows anything, and the two have a trial of 
their wits. One ragged woman, with "superfluous 
dirt," has " the usual "dozen bracelets on each arm 
and five rings in each ear. The clinking of anklets 
and the rustle of rich dress announce two ladies from 
a zenana visited every week. A sweet, gentle woman 
is a native Christian, and " a jewel indeed." "You 



MEDICAL MISSIONS. 131 

would feel," says Dr. Green, "like putting your arms 
around her, and calling her sister." A Mohammedan 
gentleman brings his wife and children. She will 
not take a seat while her lord stands, nor will she 
speak in his presence. When he turns his back, she 
does so, and very willingly. 

In sixteen months, Dr. Green prescribed for 2,322 
dispensary patients, dispensed over 6,000 prescriptions 
and had twenty-six patients in hospital, many of them 
high-caste women, who w r ould never have visited the 
general dispensary, choosing rather to suffer in si 
lence, or be delivered over to the " charms" of super 
stition and ignorant "hakums" (native doctors). 
During the year 1877 she married Rev. Mr. Cheney, 
a missionary of the General Society, and removed to 
Nynee Tal, where she laid broad plans for work. 
She was suddenly seized with cholera, and in forty- 
eight hours on the last day of September, 1878 her 
body was laid to rest in the beautiful mountain cem 
etery, and friends there and here were overwhelmed 
with sorrow. Thus, in the same place where had as 
sembled the first class in India for female medical 
missionary .students, in less than ten years was dug 
the first grave of a lady physician. "And all down 
the winding vale of time will these two reminiscences 
flow along, like two noiseless silver rills, side by side 
with the pathway of the Missionary Church of Nynee 
Tal." After the removal of Dr. Cheney to Nynee Tal, 
Dr. Julia L/ore McGrew took charge of the medical 
work at Bareilly. It was a most trying time. She 
had to contend with flood, famine, and pestilence; but 
continued in charge until 1880, carrying on the work- 
most successfully. 



132 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

Dr. Swain had now returned invigorated in health, 
and carried on the work, which continued to grow in 
interest and importance, until, in 1884, she reported 
over 7,000 patients treated, nearly 16,000 prescriptions 
given out, besides seventy-six patients in hospital, and 
visits to 352 out-patients. In February of that year, 
a native gentleman secretary to his highness the 
Rajah of Khetri (Rajpootani) called on Dr. Swain, 
and asked if she would visit the Rani (wife of his 
highness), if she should be officially sent for. He had 
previously called on several other lady physicians, 
and had learned of their ability and success, and would 
take the report to the Rajah. The doctor replied, if 
sent for, she could arrange to spend a month with the 
Rani, if desired. About the first of March the secre 
tary telegraphed her to be ready to leave for Khetri in 
ten days. On the ninth day he arrived to escort her 
thither, telling her to take an English nurse, her cook, 
and any other servants necessary to her comfort, not 
regarding the expense. As there were no English 
or Europeans nearer than the railway station, seventy- 
two miles away, she felt justified in adding a native 
Christian teacher and a young lady friend as compan 
ion. Thus the party was made up of seven persons 
besides the escort. Elaborate arrangements were 
made at the end of the railway journey for transporta 
tion across the country, which proved to be a very 
novel and enjoyable, though very tiresome and slow, 
journey. First, there was a camel chariot, drawn by 
four camels; two palanquins, carried by seventeen 
men each; two riding-horses; and, a few miles out, 
two large elephants joined the caravan ; also, a very 
unique conveyance, called a rath, drawn by two beau- 



MEDICAL MISSIONS. 133 

tiful white oxen, for the two native women. Over 
one hundred men servants were also placed at 
her command. Hot milk-and-sugar was frequently 
brought by the men for refreshment as they stopped 
to rest, changing from one conveyance to another. 
In due time Khetri was reached, and a tent was pro 
vided to live in. After about two weeks treatment, 
and the Rani showed signs of improvement, his high 
ness proposed to the doctor to remain as physician to 
the women of the palace, and open a dispensary for 
the women and children of the city and surrounding 
country. This was very unexpected, and required 
much thought and prayer before a decision could be 
reached to leave the work in Bareilly, and the Society 
that had cared for her so many years; but each day, 
as she became more acquainted with the people, and 
saw the great opening for mission work a field com 
prising millions of people, with no missionary or re 
ligious teacher in that part of the country Dr. Swain 
says she began to see the hand of the Lord in bring 
ing her there ; and the more she prayed, the more she 
saw that the Lord was in it. The Rajpoots are very 
religious Hindoos, and would never call a missionary, 
or allow one to preach in the streets or bazaars; but_ 
Dr. Swain goes among the people in her quiet, unob 
trusive way, doing good to tlieir bodies, and praying 
God to bless tlieir souls. She immediately interested 
herself in the children, and obtained cheerful consent 
to open a school, his highness using his influence to 
induce the people to send their daughters, encouraging 
their attendance by giving them as much flour as they 
could obtain with a day s wages. The young lady 
companion was also engaged to teach the Rani and 



i34 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

some of her court women. Christian hymns in the 
Hindi language soon became very popular, and the 
singing women of the palace were found singing them 
to her highness every evening. The Rajah s little 
girl an only child, then two and a half years old 
learned parts of several hymns, and sang them very 
sweetly. The Rani acknowledged their purity, and 
liked them much better than their own vile songs. 
But not only was the Christian religion sung to every 
woman in the palace, but sometimes before his high 
ness also. Many prayers of the women at home have 
followed this pioneer physician, that she may be per 
mitted to establish Christianity in the midst of heathen 
royalty. After serving the Society efficiently for fif 
teen years, she has now been engaged for eleven years 
as physician in the palace of the Rajah of Khetri. 

Dr. Mary F. Christiancy, of Washington, D. C., 
who was sent to India in 1884, and appointed to 
Moradabad, was transferred in a few months to Ba- 
reilly to succeed Dr. Swain. Statistics are a poor 
expression of the work accomplished or the labor 
performed ; but it is interesting to note that over 
6,700 dispensary patients were treated her first year, 
including Hindoos, Mohammedans, Christians, and 
Europeans. In hospital over one hundred patients 
were treated. She had three assistants in the work. 
A class was formed in midwifery in 1887, and a reg 
ular medical class was also resumed. During the 
year 1888 over 12,000 names were recorded in the 
dispensary books, and over 21,000 prescriptions 
given, notwithstanding the Government hospitals 
and dispensaries for women that had been established 
in the city, near and easy of access to crowds. More 



MEDICAL MISSIONS, 135 

and more it became apparent that the mission of 
these Christian physicians was to the poor who 
needed them so much. Women came to the dispen 
sary sometimes, saying, "I have been walking since 
long before daylight to come to yon for medicine;" 
or, " Having heard of you, I came twenty, thirty, 
fort}-, or fifty miles, to show )*ou my child and get some 
medicine for him. " What an inestimable boon an 
itinerant medical service would prove to such women ! 
A sentiment has obtained in some directions that 
non-Christian hospitals should be established for 
women, because the people are afraid of missionaries 
To this Dr. Christiancy enters a protest, that after 
several years acquaintance with the people in North 
India, in the zenanas, in villages, on the railway, or 
as patients in the hospital, and as habitual or occa 
sional visitors to the dispensary, she never found 
one afraid of the medical missionary because of her 
religion. Because of failing health, Dr. Christiancy 
returned home in 1890. The New York Branch fur 
nished a missionary to hold this medical fort, in the 
person of Dr. Mary Bryan, who reached Bareilly in 
1891, and is still there, and has won a place for her 
self in the hearts of the people. Too often the weak 
point in medical work has been in the custom of 
placing the doctors too far apart. The physician 
must often send away patients in need of surgical 
treatment, because she has no one to help her per 
form the required operation. To meet such an exi 
gency the Society sent out Dr. Kate McGregor in 
1893. She had graduated from the Woman s Medical 
College at Chicago, and afterward served six months 
as interne in Wesley Hospital, then took a post- 



1 36 WOMA N s FOREIGN MISSION A R Y SOCIETY. 

graduate course in the Chicago Polyclinic. Dr. Bryan 
greatly rejoiced in a division of labor with her new 
associate ; but for several months Dr. McGregor s 
work consisted in caring for two of the missionaries 
of the Society through a severe and well-nigh fatal 
illness with typhoid fever, doubtless saving the life 
of Miss Fannie English through her careful nursing. 
Early in 1895 her own health demanded a change, 
and she was transferred to the hills, in Pauri ; but 
the missionaries soon faced the problem, that in or 
der to save her life she must hasten home. Sorrow 
fully and in much disappointment she acquiesced in 
their decision, and reached home in the early sum 
mer. Dr. Bryan is strongly convicted of the great 
need of some one going out among the poor people 
in the villages round about, to the sick and helpless, 
especially to those who are Christians, and are driven 
to sacrifice to idols, saying: " What can we do with 
a sick child ? We have no doctor, no medicine, no 
help." Miss Jennie M. Dart, M. D., who took her 
degree at the Chicago Woman s College, was accepted 
by the Society in 1894, and the following summer 
appointed to Bareilly to take the place made vacant 
by Dr. McGregor. 

Among some of the results of woman s medical 
work, the following is taken from a remarkable pa 
per read by Mrs. J. T. Gracey at the Women s Con 
gress of Missions, held during the Columbian Expo 
sition in Chicago, 1893: 

" In the early history of the Methodist Mission 
in India, a little waif of a girl was picked up and 
taken to the Girls Orphanage in Bareilly. The sup 
port of the child was assumed by parties in New 



MEDICAL MISSIONS. 137 

York City. With proper care she developed phys 
ically, and was put in school, became a bright stu 
dent, and, having finished the prescribed course, was 
selected as one to enter the Agra school as a medical 
student. She graduated at the head of her class, and 
was so proficient that her case was noticed by the 
India secular papers. She has been selected to take 
charge of the Woman s Department of a Government 
hospital, and has now been in charge two years, and 
the English surgeon, inspecting her work, acknowl 
edged that her hospital was one of the best con 
ducted in North India. Could the most sanguine 
have imagined that in twenty-five years there should 
be such a revolution in sentiment, that a native 
Christian woman should occupy such a position !" 

L,UCKNOW. Dr. Nancie Monelle was the second 
physician sent out by the Society, and Lucknow was 
the second city in India occupied by a woman med 
ical missionary, at least of the Methodist Church. 
She had graduated from the Woman s College in 
Poughkeepsie, and in 1872 from the Woman s Medical 
College in New York, taking first prize in surgery. 
After a year of hospital and private practice in New 
York, she was sent to India in 1873, and appointed 
to L,ucknow. Her profession opened the way into 
houses which had never been entered by a Christian. 
At the end of the first year she accepted an invita 
tion to Hyderabad, Deccan, having withdrawn from 
the Mission, and refunded her passage and outfit 
money. She was the first lady doctor who ever went 
out alone into a native State. The ruler of the 
province furnished elephants, a regiment of sepoys, 



1 38 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSION AR Y SOCIETY. 



and a band of music to escort her to the palaces of 
the various noblemen of the city. At the expiration 
of three years, having established a dispensary and 
hospital, and treated over 40,000 patients, besides 
having an important private practice among the 
nawabs and nobles, she married Rev. Dr. Henry 

Mansell, of 
the General 
Missionary 
Society, and 
returned with 
him to the 
Northwest 
Provinces. In 
1880 they re 
moved to 
Moradabad. 
The year 1890 
will be mem 
orable for the 
great agita 
tion regard 
ing baby mar 
riages. Such 
revelations of 
inhumanity 
had been brought to light that Dr. Mansell drew up 
a petition, which was cheerfully signed by fifty-five 
woman physicians, and was presented to the Viceroy 
and Governor - General, pleading that the marriage 
able age of girls be raised to fourteen years. The 
thirteen instances only a few out of many hundreds 
given in the petition, of cruel wrongs, deaths, and 




MRS. NANCIE MONELLE MANSELL, M. D. 



MEDICAL MISSIONS, 139 

mannings for life received by helpless child-wives a I 
the hands of brutal husbands, which had come un 
der her personal observation or that of her associ 
ates, were horrible almost beyond belief. While the 
Government was flooded with petitions and memo 
rials from native Christians, Hindoo women, and 
missionaries, it is stated that nearly all the speakers 
in the Legislative Council referred to the facts pre 
sented in this memorial, which had great influence 
in bringing about the change of raising the age to 
twelve years (not fourteen, as asked), "possibly the 
most important step taken in the domestic and social 
life of the people since the abolishment of suttee, 
in 1829." 

Thursday, March 19, 1891, will be remembered 
as one of the great days because of this legislative 
action. On the Sabbath following the passage of the 
bill a great company assembled in Calcutta, from the 
surrounding country, the number estimated from 
seventy-five thousand to a million, at the temple of 
Kali Ghat, where they made a great demonstration by 
singing songs, and appealing to the goddess for help. 

MORADABAD. Mrs. E. W. Parker for twenty 
years prepared the way of a woman physician in the 
city of Moradabad by successful practice of her own. 
She had distributed medicines in the city, in the vil 
lages, on the roadsides. She had visited the sick. 
She had spent days in personally attending those 
stricken with fever and cholera. Two native med 
ical Bible women assisted her ; Shullock, trained in 
the original class at Nynee Tal, and Jane Plummer, 
trained in Dr. Swain s class at Bareilly. But Mrs. 



1 40 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

Parker longed for a woman physician. At last, in 
January, 1875, she was able to welcome Dr. Julia 
Ivore, the daughter of missionary parents, herself 
born in South America. She took her degree in the 
Michigan University, in 1873, and then spent a year 
in Boston at the New England Hospital. Dr. L,ore, 
in addition to house and zenana practice, aimed at a 
dispensary. She succeeded in obtaining one. Ap 
parently she expected the orderly array of mortars, 
glasses, and books, to produce an effect. But, after 
spending a morning or two waiting in vain for a pa 
tient, she began to reflect that such attractions were 
not potent with " the feminine mind of Moradabad." 
Finally, on the seventh day, appeared an old nurse 
with a boy and girl, and she joyfully made patients 
of the whole party. The first entry in her prescrip 
tion book was castile soap, "which," she said, " was 
a most excellent remedy for many Indian ills." 
From that day there was a steady increase in her 
practice, both in the dispensary and in zenanas. 
Called suddenly to a woman of sixty, whom she found 
emaciated and dying with chronic dysentery, Dr. Lore 
had a hope of saving her life, seeing how complete 
had been the absence of anything like rational treat 
ment. But the old woman would not risk her caste. 
Not one drop of liquid from impure hands should 
pass her lips. A single pill did she accept, but never 
another. Three days after she had been burned on 
the river s brink, Dr. L,ore and Mrs. Parker found her 
three daughters-in-law sitting on the floor, and they 
did not rise. For this they apologized, saying that 
custom required them, on the death of the mother of 
their husbands, to pass six months of mourning, eat- 



MEDICAL MISSIONS. 141 

ing only at night, sitting on the floor from daylight 
to dark, and doing nothing. The youngest was a girl 
with a " wee " baby in her arms. They had all been 
at the funeral, had bathed in their dresses, and taken 
a long walk home, "and made themselves miserable." 
The eldest, under her breath, confessed that it was a 
bad custom. 

In 1875, Dr. Lore was married to Rev. G. H. Mc- 
Grew, of the General Society, but continued her prac 
tice as usual. About this time a grant-in-aid from 
the Government was received for the dispensary, and 
a new dispensary was opened at Chandausi, thirty 
miles away. From this time on the medical work 
seems to have had rather a checkered career, some 
times a thoroughly-equipped woman from America 
in charge, but the interim always faithfully supplied 
by the native Bible woman and medical assistant, 
Jane Plummer supplementing what Mrs. Gracey 
calls the " lay medical work " of Mrs. Parker. In 
1878, Miss H. B. Woolston, M. D., a graduate from 
Philadelphia, arrived, and entered at once upon her 
duties, attending morning clinics and recording in 
the dispensary books during the first eleven months 
1,468 patients, 5,086 prescriptions, besides 303 pa 
tients in their homes, and 600 prescriptions to out 
patients. The following year Dr. Woolston retired 
from the work of the Society, and again Mrs. Parker . 
superintended the work, with Jane Plummer in the 
dispensary. Dr. Kate McDowell was appointed here 
in 1886, and spent some weeks in Poona, attending 
the Rani there, she who sent the message to the 
Queen of England which led to the inauguration of 
the Lady Dufferin movement for providing medical 



142 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

aid for the women of India. Dr. McDowell was trans 
ferred to Muttra in 1889, and opened a dispensary, 
which gave great promise of success, in the center of 
the city, directly under the shadow of the great tem 
ple. Her fears were groundless about difficulty of 
access to the women ; for they scarcely gave her time 
to get settled before crowding into her office and 
waiting-room, coming from all parts of the district. 
In 1888 Dr. Martha A. Sheldon was appointed to 
Moradabad, and while studying the language looked 
after the sick in the boarding-schools, superintended 
a zenana district, and answered numerous calls. She 
went from Moradabad to take charge of a Deaconess 
Home in Muttra until in 1892, when she was trans 
ferred to Pithoragarh, and in 1893 assisted in opening 
new work among the Bhotiyas, at Darchula. 

About the year 1888 a building was purchased in 
Moradabad for a hospital, and the following year 
nearly 7,000 patients received treatment in hospital 
and dispensary. Down to 1894 the medical work was 
supported by the Woman s Society. But the new 
conditions, owing to the Dufferin movement, released 
the Society from the necessity that had existed, and 
Jane Plummer was free to engage exclusively in evan 
gelistic work. 

CAWNPORE. In October, 1883, Dr. Laura Hyde 
was sent out by the New York Branch, and com 
menced work in the city of Cawnpore. In April, 
1885, she became ill with typhoid fever; soon after 
went to the mountains, and never resumed work. 

BARODA. Dr. Irzilla Ernsberger, a graduate of 
the Woman s College in Chicago, was appointed in 



MEDICAL MISSIONS. 143 

1888 to Baroda, the capital of the native State of the 
same name, and a walled city of about one hundred 
thousand inhabitants. The first year 3,800 patients 
were treated, and over 350 calls were made on pa 
tients in their homes. She had considerable difficulty 
in getting Christian teachers that knew the language ; 
but when she succeeded, the women listened atten 
tively, and related intelligently what they heard to 
the zenana women in the homes opened to them by 
the medical work. The second year she opened an 
other dispensary, keeping the one in the city open 
four days in the week, and the one in camp some 
hours each day. Over fifty signers were obtained for 
the petition to protect the child-wife. The third year 
6,800 patients received treatment. 

The great success attending the " L,ady Dufferin 
movement" has raised the question of sustaining 
medical missions in India, and we have asked Dr. 
Ernsberger to answer it, which she does in the fol 
lowing : 

"This form of mission work," referring to medi- 
ical missions, " does much to overcome caste preju 
dice. In the dispensary at Baroda, except when one 
was dangerously ill, the patients had to wait their 
turn for medicine, regardless of caste. For several 
years some of the high-caste submitted to this very 
unwillingly ; but in time the different castes learned 
to have much more regard and kindly feeling for each 
other. The native Christian Bible women, because 
they are Christians, are, of course, out-castes and de 
spised by the Hindoos. But through their work in 
the dispensary and acquaintance with the patients, 
numbers of Hindoo women, some of whom were very 



1 44 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

high-caste, became friendly, some even taking the 
Bible women by the hand in friendship and affection, 
and bringing them presents. The native Christian 
women are welcomed in homes where they could not 
go except with the medical missionary. I, also, be 
ing a person of no caste, ordinarily can not touch 
their food or drink, any more than an out-caste, yet 
in sickness many times the relatives have asked me 
to mix (with water) the first dose of medicine, and 
give it to the patient myself. Large numbers who 
dare not or will not admit any one to their homes to 
teach the Bible, hear it carefully explained in the dis 
pensary. Some have thought that the principal work 
of a medical mission is to open the way for other mis 
sionaries ; but in the dispensary there is much careful 
religious instruction given, as in our own work at 
Baroda, and patients had to wait one, two, and some 
times even three hours, until their medicine was 
prepared, as there were generally from forty to sixty- 
five patients treated daily, and during the waiting no 
idle conversation was allowed, but the Bible w r oman 
alternately read and explained the Bible. People from 
great distances were reached where there were no 
missionaries. Tracts and Bible portions were given 
to the patients, and we learned of different cases 
where a whole community heard the gospel from one 
Bible portion thus distributed. 

"About fifty years ago, when some missionaries 
went to Baroda, they were not welcomed by some of 
the officers of the native Government, and left the 
field. Among our patients were the native Queen 
and her sister, the daughter and daughter-in-law 7 of 
the Prime Minister, the daughter of the Chief Justice, 



MEDICAL MISSIONS. 145 

and others from families of high officers. We have 
never heard a word from any authority that we were 
not welcome, but have had far more work than we 
could do. Considering the number of persons receiv 
ing careful Bible instruction, the expense of the work 
is small. The medical work among the native Chris 
tians is a benefit to them religiously as well as phys 
ically, as many of them have more or less of fatalistic 
ideas, and the medical work does much to overcome 
these. The confidence between the patient and the 
physician gives the medical missionary a good op 
portunity to reach the soul, and in general medical 
mission work is an excellent way to gain the confi 
dence of the people. 

" In regard to the Lady Dufferin medical work, it 
is good as far as it goes ; but it does not go far enough 
to take the place of the medical missions. The Med 
ical Missionary Record says in regard to it : The 
great pity is that no gospel effort is allowed in this 
movement. Christ always cared for both body and 
soul. Besides, there are multitudes of people in India 
not reached by this or any other medical work. In Ba- 
roda even, which is in a native State, there are schools 
for both high and low caste boys, and schools are in 
creasing for girls, even schools for widows, supported 
by the native Government. These are without Chris 
tian teaching, and we feel that we should have Chris 
tian schools. In the same way, because there is some 
medical help provided for the people of India, we 
can not afford to neglect the medical mission work, 
and so lose the opportunity so full of promise of 
reaching them with the gospel. There are many chil 
dren not allowed to attend the Christian school who 



1 46 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSION A R Y SOL ~IE TY. 

hear the Bible in the dispensary. Christian schools 
are increasing all the time in India, and they should 
increase more still; but while we are increasing these 
we should also be improving the vast opportunity for 
reaching the souls of the people with the gospel 
through medical missions. 

"Christ s command to his disciples was this: 
Into whatsoever city ye enter, heal the sick that are 
therein, and say unto them, The kingdom of God is 
come nigh unto you. (L,uke x, 8, 9.)" 

After a period of well-earned rest in the home 
land, Dr. Ernsberger sailed, August 10, 1895, for 
India, under appointment to a new station, Sironcha, 
near Bastar, and Dr. Emma Hodge sailed at the same 
time for Baroda. 



CHAPTER IX. 

MEDICAL MISSIONS-CHINA, JAPAN, AND KOREA. 

" If the missionaries ever come into the Chinese heart, 
the physicians will open the door." LI HUNG CHANG. 

"HP HE Chinese have little knowledge of anatomy, 
1 ph3 r siolog5 T , or hygiene, and do not practice sur 
gery ; but four thousand years of experience have 
given them some just ideas concerning the uses of 
herbs in medicine," writes Miss Fielde, of Swatow. 
Chinese women, as well as the women of India, will 
suffer and die before they will call in the help of a 
foreign male physician; hence all the considerations 
that render the help of women physicians in India a 
necessity, apply with equal force in the great Chinese 
Empire. The safe establishment of Dr. Swain s work 
in India was being watched in Foochow, and Mrs. 
S. L,. Baldwin, with the hope that such a work could 
be commenced in China, presented the matter to the 
missionaries the latter part of 1872, or early in 1873, 
and they authorized her to write hoine asking the So 
ciety to send them a medical lady, but requested that 
one of the homeopathic schopl be sent. This condi 
tion caused some delay, and in the meanwhile the mis 
sionaries in Peking had also forwarded an application 
without such condition, and Dr. Lucinda Coombs, a 
graduate of the Woman s Medical College in Phila 
delphia, was sent out, reaching Peking in September, 
1873. Her work was to be experimental. No one 



148 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

had pioneered the way before her. Just how the Chi 
nese would feel toward a lady physician was not 
known ; but surely the field was ripe for the harvest. 
To a thinking people like the Chinese, the daily per 
formance of labors of love among them by a lady 
physician must contribute to that which is so much 
desired, the spread of Christianity. 

At once Dr. Coombs saw the imperative necessity 
for a hospital to separate the patients from their 
homes, and the Woman s Society generously made 
appropriation for it, and in 1875, two years after her 
arrival, she opened the first hospital for women in 
China. The first patient received after the building 
was done was a native Christian woman, who had fallen 
and injured her foot badly. When she left, it was with 
gratitude from herself, her husband, and her son, and 
prayer for the blessing of God upon Dr. Coombs and 
the hospital. The practice of medicine among chil 
dren in China is utterly hopeless unless one is able 
to keep the patient under his own eye. Dr. Coombs 
tells an amusing case where she had prescribed a dose 
of castor-oil. The next day the child and the oil were 
both brought by the father, who said she declined to 
drink it. To the evident surprise of the man, the 
doctor seized the child, and by the time she had ut 
tered three screams, had compelled her to swallow 
the dose. But no parent would ever do such a thing. 
Had not the great Confucius taught, "Govern a child 
when he is eight years old?" One can easily imagine 
the parent s influence who observed that teaching. 
After nearly five years of efficient pioneering in 
medical work, Dr. Coombs was married to Rev- 
A. Strittmater, of the General Missionary Society, and 



MEDICAL MISSIONS, CHINA. 



149 



removed to Kiu-kiang. Three months previous to 
her marriage she was joined by Dr. Leonora Howard, 
who had graduated in the University of Michigan in 

1876, and reached 
Peking in June, 

1877. She immedi 
ately took charge of 
the hospital, and 
commenced at once 
her practice and the 
study of the lan 
guage. She stood 
bravely at her post, 
some of the time 
single-handed, dur 
ing the awful fam 
ine months and the 
pestilence that fol 
lowed, with the 
dead and dying ly 
ing on the streets 
just where they 
happened to fall. 
Events soon await 
ed her that would distinguish her above all other 
women physicians. In the fall of 1878 medical work 
in Peking was temporarily suspended to meet a prov 
idential opening in another field. 

TIENTSIN. Lady Li, wife of the Viceroy, Li Hung 
Chang, the leading statesman of the Empire, was seri 
ously ill ; the arts of the native physicians were ex 
hausted in vain, and her life was despaired of. A 




MRS. LEONORA HOWARD KING, M. IX 



1 50 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

missionary physician of the London Missionary So 
ciety was called, and succeeded in placing her beyond 
immediate danger ; but, being a man, Chinese social 
ideas would not permit the necessary treatment to 
..effect a complete cure. Some one suggested the name 
of Dr. Howard at Peking. Through the unusual af 
fection of this great statesman for his wife, and per 
haps his favorable disposition toward Western science, 
equally strange, a special courier was sent by the 
Viceroy to request her to come a request in which 
both the physicians there and the United States Vice- 
Consul united. A steam launch was sent up the river to 
meet her and hasten her journey. She came, expect 
ing to remain but a few days. Entertainment was 
provided for her at the yam en, or official residence. 
Gradually the ailment of Lady Li yielded to her rem 
edies. She was called to attend the families of other 
high officials, and a strong effort was made for her 
removal to Tientsin. This was an opportunity such 
as had never occurred before in China, and if lost 
might never occur again. The consensus of opinion 
among the missionaries of the General Society, as well 
as those of the Woman s Society, strengthened her 
own decision, that this was surely the hand of Provi 
dence, and she ought to accept the call. The Viceroy 
had taken a heathen temple, built in memory of his pre 
decessors, and placed it in charge of Dr. Mackenzie, 
of the London Missionary Society, for a hospital to 
be devoted to distinctively Christian work. In grati 
tude for her restoration to health, Lady Li undertook 
to defray the expenses of a woman s ward in the tem 
ple under the direction of Dr. Howard, for whom she 
had conceived a strong personal attachment. Tientsin 



MEDICAL MISSIONS, CHINA. 151 

is distant from Peking about 80 miles by land, or 120 
by water. It is the great emporium for the north of 
China, and serves as the port for the Capital City. Dr. 
Howard took up her residence in the foreign settle 
ment, about three miles from the temple, and opened 
a dispensary there also. She was called to visit the 
mother of Li Hung Chang, some distance away, in her 
last illness. She was an aged woman, past eighty 
years of age. Before dying, she gave the doctor some 
beautiful presents of silk, and left $ 1,000 for her work, 
the first bequest of a Chinese woman for Christian 
benevolence. A very earnest call was made for money 
to build a hospital and dispensary, besides a home for 
missionaries, at Tientsin, which found a ready re 
sponse in the heart of a lady in Baltimore, who do 
nated $5,000 for the purpose, with the understanding 
that the building should be known as the the " Isa 
bella Fisher Hospital." 

In 1882, Dr. Estella Akers, a graduate of the Chi 
cago Woman s College, was sent to the relief of Dr. 
Howard. She was diligent in the study of the lan 
guage, assisted in the hospital, and made country 
trips with Miss Yates. On one of these she re 
mained thirteen hours in the saddle. After the mar 
riage of Dr. Howard, in 1884, to Dr. A. M. King, of 
the London Mission, Dr. Akers carried on the work 
in the " Isabella Fisher Hospital." In 1885 Dr. 
Akers became Mrs. Perkins, but rendered faithful 
service another year. The Woman s Society sent 
out Dr. Anna Gloss in September, 1885, she having 
taken her degree in the Chicago Woman s College the 
preceding April. She fully determined, on her ar 
rival, to give herself entirely to the study of the Ian- 



152 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

guage ; but, as with many another, broke her inten 
tions, and saw patients daily. A brief record would 
read: 1886, " Excellent health, enjoy my work;" 1887, 
" Several instances of house-patients becoming Chris 
tians;" 1888, "A pressing need for another doctor in 
Tientsin;" 1889, "Called to an inland city;" 1890, 
" Hospital patients, self-supporting, opened a third 
dispsnsary." Then Dr. Gloss returned home, and 
spent half of the three years absence in professional 
study, going back in 1893 with increased qualifica 
tions, and to Peking instead of Tientsin. Miss Anna 
E. Steere, a trained nurse, was sent to Peking in 
1888. Among her many duties she counts it a mourn 
ful pleasure to have cared for Dr. L,eander Pilcher, 
president of Peking University, in his last illness. 
In 1887 Dr. Gloss wrote: "The new hospital, built 
in the neighborhood of ours by L,ady Lj for Dr. 
Howard-King, is now completed, and will doubtles^ 
be opened this autumn. The last vestige of this 
lady s patronage departed when Mrs. King sent for 
the piero (sign-board) which had been presented by 
L,ady L,i at the opening of the Isabella Fisher Hos 
pital. Of course most of the official patronage goes 
with Mrs. King ; but there is plenty of work among 
the poorer classes. L,ady L,i s interest has always 
been personal, and has never been transferred in the 
least degree to the mission, or to Mrs. King s suc 
cessors. Her influence was doubtless of great impor 
tance when the work was first started, but we have 
plenty of work to-day without it." 

Dr. Ida Stevenson took her degree in the 
Woman s College in Chicago in April, 1890, and 
then spent some time in Wesley Hospital in that 



MEDICAL MISSIONS, CHINA. 153 

city, from which she went tinder appointment to 
Tientsin to relieve Dr. Gloss. The Philadelphia 
Branch also added Dr. Rachel R. Benn the same year 
to strengthen the work, which reported a city clinic 
twice a week, a daily clinic at the hospital dispen 
sary, the ward treatment, and an extensive out-prac 
tice. These physicians go everywhere with love and 
sympathy, and administer to all classes, among the 
homes of the poor and suffering, up through all 
grades to the Viceroy s yamen (official residence). 
At the dispensary all hear the story of salvation, the 
beggar from the street in all her filth, and the "lady" 
in her silks and jewels all who come there. The ear 
nest voice of the Bible woman, telling in the waiting- 
room the "good news," gives new strength to the 
weary physician many a time. When practicable, 
Drs. Stevenson and Benn make evangelistic tours 
through .the districts, preaching the gospel and heal 
ing the sick. Pitiful indeed is the group of sorry- 
looking women, with their babies in their arms, the 
dirty children, and the few men, who gather in the 
places of worship, in the homes of native Christians, 
and by the roadside under the trees. On account of 
her health, Dr. Stevenson was obliged to come home 
early in 1894. Mrs. Mary Barrow, M. D., widow of 
Rev. L. C. Barrow, late of Tientsin, was accepted by 
the Reference Committee at their semi-annual meet 
ing in Cincinnati, in May, 1895, and took work in 
Tientsin Hospital. At the same session Miss Hu 
King Eng, M. D., was accepted, but not appointed. 

TSUN HUA. Medical work was inaugurated in 
Tsun Hua in 1887, by Dr. Edna G. Terry, of Boston. 



154 WOMAN* s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

After a country trip with the presiding elder to a 
village thirteen miles away, she realized a good deal 
of meaning in that prophecy of Isaiah, "Thou shalt 
not see a fierce people ; a people of deeper speech 
than thou canst perceive ; of a stammering tongue 
that thou canst not understand." Tsun Hua had but 
recently become a station on the doctor s arrival; but 
in 1889 a hospital was opened. The greater number 
of cases requiring treatment were eye cases. Fre 
quent trips were made in the country for the purpose 
of dispensing medicines. At one time a four days 
journey into the mining region of Mongolia was made 
in answer to a call. Early in November, 1891, a 
grec.t panic was occasioned by a local rebellion just 
outside the Great Wall, only a few miles from the 
city, when the magistrate advised the missionaries to 
leave at once for Tientsin, furnishing a conveyance 
and an escort for the journey. The rebels were soon 
defeated, the mission property undisturbed ; but the 
shock occasioned by the imminent peril and precipi 
tate flight, added to the strain of previous overwork, 
told very seriously on the women, and Dr. Terry 
came home. After spending a few months in "spe 
cial " studies in the College of Ophthalmia in New 
York, she was again at her post, the work having 
been cared for by Dr. Hopkins, of the General Soci 
ety. Great encouragement is found in the increased 
number of surgical operations, which shows the confi 
dence of the people in the foreign doctor. In making 
her country trips in 1894, Dr - Terry spent six weeks 
in a Chinese cart, and traveled over 1,200 miles. 



MEDICAL MISSIONS, CHINA. 



FOOCHOW. After repeated calls from the mission 
aries at Foochow for a woman physician, in 1874 Dr. 
Sigourney Trask received her appointment to this 
"mother mission" of Methodism in China. She had 
first graduated at the Pittsburg College, and then 
at the Wom 
an s Medical 
College in 
New York 
City. The 
same quiet en 
ergy and spirit 
of determina 
tion to suc 
ceed that char 
acterized her 
in securing 
an education, 
was manifest 
as soon as she 
reached her 
new field of 
labor. " Her 
success," says 

One, "soon Miss SIGOURNEY TRASK, M. D. 

gave her a 

wide reputation as a skilled physician, while her 
gentle manner, and unselfishness won for her the 
respect and love of her patients and their friends." 
In January, 1875, the mission asked for $5,000 to 
build a hospital and residence for the physician in 
Foochow, which was promptly appropriated by the 
General Executive Committee the following May, the 




1 56 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

larger part of the pledge being met by the proceeds 
of a bazar held by some of the New York and Brook 
lyn Churches. The selection of a site, which is on 
the large island in the Min, near the foreign com 
munity, embraced the period of one year ; the erection 
of the building one year more. The inauguration 
services were held April 18, 1877. A pleasant assem 
bly of friends of diplomatic, mercantile, missionary, 
and professional circles, with some Chinese high offi 
cials, graced the occasion Members of the medical 
fraternity present made addresses full of good cheer 
and encouragement. There was singing by a choir 
of ladies, accompanied by Mrs. S. L. Baldwin on the 
harmonium. Mrs. Ohlinger also sang with sweetness 
and pathos, " If I were a Voice." Mr. De L,ano, 
United States Consul, did honor to the occasion and 
himself by presiding over the services. The follow* 
ing day the first in-patient was registered. She was a 
young married woman, who had not been able to walk 
erect for five years. A fall, in which one knee had 
sustained an injury, followed by inflammation, re 
sulted in stiffness of the joint anchylosis in a posi 
tion of flexion at nearly a right angle. By operation 
(resection ) the limb was straightened. A good recov 
ery ensued, and in three months the woman was able 
to return to her home, sixty miles from Foochow. 
Her limb became sound and useful. During her stay 
at the hospisal she lent a favorable ear to Christian 
teaching, and professed her faith in idols dissipated, 
her heart acknowledging the truth of the gospel. 
Such, briefly, is the story of the first patient. At the 
close of the second year the doctor reported the whole 
number of patients registered 1,208, and as the audi- 



MEDICAL MISSIONS, CHINA. 157 

ence in the waiting-room generally averages twice as 
many patients, it is presumable 2,400 persons listened 
to Bible truth. Mrs. S. L. Baldwin from the first was 
her coadjutor, visiting the wards and talking with the 
patients of their relation to God and his Son Jesus 
Christ. During the second year an efficient native Chris 
tian teacher became resident in the hospital, and devoted 
her whole time to the instruction of patients. There 
was success and appreciation on every hand. The 
native authorities took a lively interest in the good 
work, which took on the practical turn of a gift of 
$200 from various high officials, in 1878. That same 
year the Foochow Conference passed resolutions as 
suring her of their hearty interest, and tendered her 
a rising vote of thanks. Dr. S. L. Baldwin bore wit 
ness to the usefulness of women physicians at the 
Shanghai Conference of missionaries in 1877, by some 
commendatory remarks regarding Dr. Trask s work in 
Foochow. As the work pressed on every side, she 
urged the Society to send her relief. She needed 
rest, but would not leave until some one was ready to 
take her charge. After six years of faithful work she 
made a little visit to the United States in 1880 for a 
few months, and then returned to China. January 6, 
1885, she was married in Foochow to John Phelps 
Cowles, Jr. 

The call for help was responded to in 1878 by 
sending Julia Sparr, M. D., to Foochow. She earned 
her degree at the Michigan University in 1877, when 
she spent six months in hospital at Philadelphia for 
further much-needed practice. On her arrival in 
China she assisted Dr. Trask in the hospital ; but in 
February, 1880, opened a street dispensary at the 



1 58 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

chapel, outside the city. The location proved unfa 
vorable, and she moved to East Street, and opened a 
branch dispensary there for women and children, on 
November 7, 1881. Here the attendance was so large 
Dr. Sparr gave it three days in the week. Daily clinics 
during the mornings were held, one of which belonged 
to one of the native medical students ! A Chinese girl 
conducting clinical lectures! In 1876, Dr. Trask re 
ceived under her instruction the first girl medical stu 
dents in Foochow, the first in China. Seven years 
later they were in charge of the morning and even 
ing services in the wards, and read and explained the 
gospel to the patients. 

One of these girls was Hii King Eng, whom Dr. 
Trask desired to come to America, stay ten years, if 
necessary, that she might return qualified to lift the 
womanhood of China to a higher plane, and to prac 
tice medicine among her people. This was brought 
about through private beneficence, three elect women 
assuming her support. She arrived in Philadelphia in 
May, 1884, not able to speak a word of English. It 
was decided to send her to the Wesleyan University 
in Delaware, Ohio, and, as Mrs. Nathan Sites was about 
to go there with her eldest children, Hii King Eng 
spent her first summer with these Chinese missionary 
friends. She learned English rapidly, and her child 
like faith in God s help and presence won for her many 
friends among the girls and in the faculty. After four 
years she entered the Woman s Medical College in 
Philadelphia. On the 24th of January, 1891, she, with 
Miss Ruth Sites, was welcomed home in Foochow. 
Miss Hti s father, Rev. Hii Yong Mi, was fast passing 
away with lung trouble, and it was such a blessed 



MEDICAL MISSIONS, CHINA. 



thing for her to see her father once more and consult 
with him about her future work. Had she not learned 
to trust God fully, according to her own statement, 
she never could have left her sick father to come 
back to fin 
ish her med 
ical course. 
She arrived 
the second 
time in Phil 
adelphia in 
September, 
i 892, and 
graduated 
with honor 
with a large 
class in May, 
1894. In the 
fall she en 
tered upon a 
very expen 
sive course 
of post-grad 
uate study; 
but was for- 
tanate in be 
ing chosen as 
a surgeon s 

assistant in the Philadelphia Polyclinic, which afforded 
her the privilege of attending all the lectures and 
clinics. 

Dr. S. I v . Baldwin baptized King Eng in her in 
fancy. She is the third generation of Christians in 




Hu KING 



1 60 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONAR Y SOCIE TY. 

the Hii family. Mrs. Baldwin, in the Heathen 
Woman s Friend for March, 1894, indulges in some 
interesting reminiscences. It seems that the Chinese 
do not change their surnames, but the given name 
may change with circumstances, and it is very 
common in baptizing men and boys to give them a 
new name. Frequently it becomes necessary to har 
monize with the new man in Christ Jesus. Mrs. 
Baldwin says: "When the first women were bap 
tized, there was the same difficulty, and the question 
arose, Shall women have Christian names? I regret 
to have to record that some of the brethren thought 
this wholly unnecessary. Then arose our mother Hii, 
that energetic, intelligent, fearless grandmother of our 
dear, gentle King Eng, and, without any preliminary 
remarks, informed the brethren that, Of course the 
women would have Christian names ! And then, un 
consciously, she was inspired to utter a great, deep, 
far-reaching truth of infinite joy to all women, 
Woman in Christ has a name; and added, emphat 
ically, If you brethren can not find names for these 
sisters I can ! And she did. Let it be recorded that 
the mother of the rare Hii family, whose three re 
markable sons, Hii Po Mi, Hii Yong Mi, of saintly 
memory, and father of our King Eng (both of them 
the first native presiding elders in China, as was the 
elder brother the first itinerant preacher), Hii Sing 
Mi, all of whom have given twenty-five to thirty-five 
years of service in our ministry, and grandmother of 
still another minister, King Eng s brother be it re 
corded that she gave Christian names to the first 
women of Chinese Methodism. The brethren never 



MEDICAL MISSIONS, CHINA. 161 

had any trouble finding names for our Christian women 
after that example." 

After five years of efficient service, Dr. Sparr re 
turned home in 1883, for a year s rest, to go back again 
to Foochow as the wife of Mr. Augustus Coffin, a tea 
merchant. She has now taken up her residence in 
this country. 

Dr. Kathie A. Corey, a graduate of the Michigan 
University, arrived in Foochow April i, 1884, and al 
most immediately assumed the burden of the work, 
as Dr. Trask was caring for Bishop Wiley through 
his last illness. The duties of hospital, dispensary, 
and nursing, all devolved on Dr. Corey, until she was 
well-nigh broken down under the burden. She felt 
that she could not, and dare not, contract the work, 
but must see all that came, whatever the cost. Dr. 
Susan M. Pray, of New York, was sent out to her re 
lief, arriving in September, 1886; but returned, be 
cause of severe illness, the following September. 
There was a continual plea for re-enforcements. Dr. 
Corey was willing to spend and be spent in the cause, 
but could not think it necessary to spend all at once. 
The printed report of the medical work for 1887 was 
submitted to high medical authority in this country, 
and received unstinted praise. A leading medical 
journal said: " The course of instruction as mapped 
out therein (for medical students) is a thorough and 
more advanced course than that offered by many 
medical schools in our own country." In connection 
with the report, Dr. Corey gave a classification of the 
diseases treated and the surgical operations she had 
performed after assuming charge of the work. The 



1 62 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY, 

list embraced all the diseases usually met with in 
practice. Among the surgical operations were cat 
aract, amputation of the breast, laceration of the cor 
nea, cleft palate, etc. "The report was a strong ar 
gument in support of woman s fitness for the medical 
mission field." Conference time 1887 found Dr. Corey 
alone, overworked and ill, unable longer to bear the 
burden. Dr. May E. Carleton was on her way to 
Nanking, and Bishop Warren, who was presiding at 
the Annual Conference, summoned her by telegram 
to the rescue. But it was too late to relieve Dr. Corey, 
and she was obliged to come home, sailing from 
Foochow March i, 1888. The pressure of work and 
responsibility which was then transferred to Dr. Carle- 
ton, was simply enormous. The hospital had been 
enlarged with wards for seventy patients. There was 
the dispensary at East Street, a new one at South 
Street, besides the work in connection with the hos 
pital at Liang An. Miss Ella Johnson, a thoroughly 
trained nurse, sailed September 8, 1888, from Philadel 
phia, to give valuable aid in this department, and also 
in evangelistic work, so that the report the following 
year speaks of spiritual reception of truth resulting in 
miraculous cures, even of those under the power of 
demoniacal possession, and ancestral tablets and other 
trophies of victory passed to her hand from those whom 
the Son had made free indeed. Miss Johnson was 
married in 1893. Dr. Ella Lyon, a graduate of the 
Chicago Woman s College, re-enforced the work in 
1891. The year 1890 was a memorable one, when 
a class of students completed their five years course 
of study. Four girls entered the class under Dr. 
Corey; after two years they came under Dr. Carle- 



MEDICAL MISSIONS, CHINA. 163 

ton s instruction. The course was graded, consisting 
of anatomy, physiology, hygiene, obstetrics, diseases 
of women, materia medica, theory and practice, dis 
eases of eye and skin, and surgery. With this they 
had four years practice in the wards, drug-room, dis 
pensary, and in practical obstetrical and gynecolog 
ical work. They passed most creditable examinations, 
and were granted diplomas. About two months be 
fore Commencement-day one of the class died, leav 
ing three to graduate. 

Dr. Luella Masters, of Indiana, a graduate from 
Syracuse University, reached Foochow late in Sep 
tember, 1892. The year previous Dr. Lyon carried the 
medical work single-handed and alone. She became 
ill; then all the work fell on Dr. Masters, beside 
caring for her. It seems impossible to add strength 
to the medical force at work in Foochow. Soon after 
Dr. Carleton s return from her vacation, Dr. L,yon left, 
January 29, 1894, for Central China and Japan. She 
extended her trip to Vladivostock, Russia, cherishing 
strong hope of permanent benefit, since it had helped 
so many before her. The year 1895 found three 
physicians on the field at once. They have charge of 
two hospitals and seven dispensaries in Foochow and 
vicinity. They also visit three schools and the 
orphanage for clinics once a week, make out-visits 
and country trips, and teach two classes of medical 
students. The prescriptions filled were, 15,094; 
patients seen in dispensaries, 10,736 ; patients seen in 
homes, 2,953; patients in hospital wards, 279. 

KING HWA. Julia M. Donahue, M. D., was sent 
out by the Cincinnati Branch in 1894, to open med- 



1 64 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

ical work in Hing Hwa. She has evinced wonderful 
energy and perseverance, having educated herself, first, 
by a course in Delaware, Ohio, and afterward in the 
Woman s Medical College in Chicago. She then 
served as interne in the hospital for women and chil 
dren in Chicago. 

KIU-KIANG. Medical work among women was 
commenced in Kiu-kiang when Dr. L,etitia Mason 
reached there the last month of 1874, having received 
her diploma from the Woman s Medical College in 
Chicago in February. She was full of life and 
strength, buoyant and enthusiastic, and on reaching 
her destination entered joyfully upon her work. Her 
first professional visit was to an only child of a well- 
to-do Chinaman, with Miss Howe as interpreter. 
They were borne in sedan chairs, on the shoulders of 
coolies, through dirty streets, so narrow that a man 
with arms extended could reach each side. When 
they arrived at the house, they passed through rooms 
eight by ten feet in size, floorless, windowless, and 
stoveless, until the sick-room was reached, and were 
astonished to find a window in it with two panes of 
glass ! The baby was in a cradle, and the mother and 
grandmother and all the friends were near at hand, 
manifesting great anxiety, for this was a boy. A dis 
pensary was opened, and two hundred patients re 
ceived treatment in ten months. Skin diseases and 
sore eyes predominated, though she was often re 
quired, in the girl s school, to treat the poor, little, 
ulcerated feet suffering so cruelly from the custom of 
binding. In the midst of her usefulness the fever 
seized her, and she was obliged to return, reaching 



MEDICAL MISSIONS, CHINA. 165 

home in August, 1876. Three years later, Dr. 
Kate C. Bushnell was appointed to this work. She 
was thoroughly prepared, with two years study of 
nervous diseases in the office of a prominent physi 
cian in Chicago, a degree from the Woman s College, 
superintendency of a hospital for women and chil 
dren, and three months in the "Bye and Ear Infirm 
ary." She is the same who, in 1893, accompanied 
Mrs. Andrew to India under the auspices of the 
World s Woman s Christian Temperance Union, and 
unveiled the secret haunts of vice in connection with 
the British Army. With no hospital accommodations, 
Dr. Bushnell cared for fifteen to twenty patients often 
in the Mission Home at a time. Women would bring 
their quilts, and sleep on the veranda while recovering 
from a surgical operation. One woman, almost gone 
with consumption, came fifteen miles in a wheelbar 
row to see if she could cure her. Through anxiety 
and overwork, the Doctor became ill with nervous 
prostration, and in 1881, Dr. Ella Gilchrist, a former 
classmate and associate in the hospital, was sent to 
her relief. From the first day her heart and hands 
were over-full of care and toil. One of the mission 
aries was sick, the Chinese were sick and dying on 
every side, and necessity threw every heavy burden on 
her willing shoulders. From September, 1881, to the 
latter part of April, 1882, she gave out over three 
thousand prescriptions, entertained over one hundred 
patients in empty rooms of the mission houses, made 
many visits to out-patients, studied several hours daily 
on the Chinese language, and spent the evenings read 
ing medicine. By fall her chronic bronchitis ap 
peared, and it soon became apparent she must leave 



1 66 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

her Chinese. She and Dr. Bushnell reached San 
Francisco May 30, 1882. The night before they 
started, the Chinese girls and servants crept into 
the room, one by one, and seated themselves on the 
floor about her chair. They took down her hair and 
bathed her fevered brow ; silently the tears flowed 
down their cheeks, and carefully they drew her hand 
out over the arm of the chair and covered it with 
kisses. Only one of them was uncontrollable. Poor 
Tsay Yin would come in for a few moments, and 
then rush from the room with sobs that were heard 
in every part of the house. The two friends stopped 
in Colorado, and the tenderest care and loving devo 
tion of Dr. Bushnell detained her two years. April 
23, 1884, marked her latest breathings of the earth- 
life, and the dawn of the heavenly. 

The medical work in Kiu-kiang has never been 
resumed, but in 1892 Miss Gertrude Howe brought 
to this country two young girls whom she had educated 
in her mission school there. They were Mary She 
(Stone), the daughter of a Bible woman, and the 
first girl in all Central and Western China brought 
up by her own parents with unbound feet ; the other 
girl is Ida Kahn or Con (the same name as Confu 
cius, the philosopher Con), whom Miss Howe had 
adopted when she was but two months old. They 
are both Christian girls, \vhose example is worthy of 
imitation. So thorough had been their preparation 
that they entered after an examination of two days, 
without conditions, the medical classes in the Uni 
versity of Michigan, and their record for three years, 
up to date, has been unexceptional. 




MEIYII SHIE. 
(MARY STONE.) 



IDA KAHN. 

(IDA HOWE.) 



167 



MEDICAL MISSIONS, CHINA. 167 

CHIN-KIANG. In January, 1884, Dr. Lucy Hoag 
was sent to Chin-Kiang, an important center and 
key to the province, to open medical work. Miss 
Hoag first went to China as a missionary in 1872, 
and after seven years returned and took a medical 
course, all unaided by any one, in the Michigan Uni 
versity, graduating in 1883. With her knowledge of 
the Chinese and their language, she found ready ac 
cess everywhere in the use of the healing art, and in 
one month gave medicine to eight hundred and fifty 
patients. The new year of 1887 found her rejoicing 
in a neat little hospital and dispensary on the beauti 
ful hill, in the same [compound with the Home and 
school, in favor with Government officials, and in the 
number and receptivity of the patients. The riot 
of 1889 brought no injury to the property. Eighteen 
hundred and ninety was a year of pestilence. Many 
foreigners were attacked with smallpox, the "heavenly 
flower disease," which also entered the school, and 
took some from the Home. This year the doctor took 
a vacation, not leaving the country, the first since she 
went to China. Twenty-three years have been spent 
by her in preparation and in work in China. Again 
riots made some confusion in the work ; but the mis 
sionaries suffered no inconvenience, and were able to 
furnish an asylum to those less fortunate, feeling that 
" they were safe so long as gunboats were anchored at 
the wharf, and the officials were able to control the 
people." In 1894 the hospital was enlarged, with 
" ample room to accommodate all the Chinese women 
and children who are likely to come for treatment." 
That year she recorded 3,799 dispensary visits; 79 
patients in hospital; 79 , visits to out-patients, and n 



1 68 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

cases of poisoning. Daily religious instruction is 
given, and, when able, the hospital patients attend 
morning prayers and all the services of the Church. 
In the Spring of 1895 Dr. Hoag came home for a 
much-needed rest, intending to return in a few months, 
but found it necessary to change her plans. Dr. 
Hoag s Katie, a devoted, consecrated Chinese girl 
"Little Dr. Hoag," as the natives call her successfully 
carried on the hospital work during her absence, until 
a foreign doctor came. She and her assistant, Urjen, 
prayed to the Great Physician to send them the people 
they could help, and to guide them in dispensing 
medicines. Miss Gertrude Taft, M. D., was appointed 
to Chin-Kiang in the summer of 1895. 

CHUNGKING. Miss Sadie E. Kissack, a trained 
nurse, graduate from Harper Hospital training-school 
for nurses, located in Detroit, was appointed in 1894, 
to Chungking, in West China. 

JAPAN. 

HAKODATI. The need of missionary physicians 
is not now as urgent in Japan as in other non-Chris 
tian lands. An M. D. qualified to make a diagnosis 
and write a prescription can be found in every large 
city of the Empire. It is also a fact that the Imperial 
University and Normal Schools send out highly-edu 
cated men and women. Several women have studied 
medicine in America, some to return as Christian 
healers. In 1883 the Society sent their first and only 
medical missionary to Japan Dr. Florence Nightin 
gale Hamisfar, of Kansas her appointment being 
Hakodati. In 1886, her last year, she taught a class 



MEDICAL MISSIONS, KOREA. 169 

in the Imperial Normal School one hour each day, for 
which she received $495, which she placed to the 
credit of the Branch supporting her. 

KOREA. 

Medical science in Korea is extremely crude, if. 
indeed, it can be called a science. The native physi 
cian knows absolutely nothing about anatomy, physi 
ology, therapeutics. They have a materia medica, such 
as it is, and they know the results of certain drugs, 
but this is mingled with superstition and ignorance. 
Of surgery they have no knowledge, and a Korean 
surgical case will contain nothing but a few sharp 
lancets or needles, and dull irons for puncturing and 
cauterizing. They sometimes dig needles into an eye 
to open up. lost sight; or, in case of epilepsy, they 
take the person by the heels and beat their heads 
against some hard substance to restore them. In 
cases of cholera, they make sacrifices to stop the 
plague, offering pigs, rice, and other food as a burnt 
offering. The sick with certain contagious diseases 
are driven from home into the tents, or even have 
no shelter, and are deserted by friends and become 
subjects of charity. In going outside any of the 
gates of the capital city, many of these deserted per 
sons may be seen. All classes accept medical treat 
ment gladly, and are very grateful; It has plowed 
up prejudice, and reaps unstinted praise. 

SEOUL. The first woman physician to Korea 
was Dr. Metta Howard, sent out by the Society in 
1887. She \vas a graduate of the Woman s College 
in Chicago. During the first ten months she treated 



170 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

1,137 dispensary cases. The following year, on ac 
count of the riotous condition of affairs, and the em 
bargo against direct religious work, all missionary op 
erations were suspended save the medical. In 1889 
the first hospital for women was opened. When the 
king heard of it he showed his approval by sending a 
name, Po Goo Nijo Goan, or home for many sick 
women. It was framed and painted in royal colors, 
all ready to be hung over the great gate. Dr. Howard 
met with favor among the people, visiting profession 
ally in the houses of officials and men of rank. In 
less than two years .she treated three thousand 
patients. Early in 1890 she was obliged, on account 
of serious illness, to return home. Dr. Rosetta Sher 
wood sailed September 4, 1890, for Seoul. She 
reached her destination in due time, and energetically 
set herself to work. As yet there was no trained 
Korean helper to assist in the drug work or in nurs 
ing, and everything devolved on the doctor the 
preparation of. mixtures, ointments, and powders, 
taking of temperatures and pulses, the giving of food 
and medicine, dressing of ulcers and abscesses, and the 
many other things incident to the dispensary and 
hospital work. The first year, which was the fourth 
in the work, she treated 2,476 cases among the high 
est and the lowest class women; 277 were surgical 
cases; 77 were patients in their homes, and 35 were 
in hospital wards. Over 6,000 prescriptions were 
compounded. The second year over 4,000, and the 
third year nearly 7,000 patients were treated by her. 
In 1891, Miss Ella A. Lewis, a trained nurse, was 
added to the working force, and the next year Dr. 
Sherwood married Rev. W. J. Hall, M. D., of the 



MEDICAL MISSIONS, KOREA. 171 

General Society. She then opened new work at the 
great East Gate. Though the Woman s Society could 
make no further claim upon her services, for the love 
of the Master and his suffering ones she continued in 
charge of the Woman s Hospital and Dispensary in 
Seoul until September, 1893, when she was appointed 
by Bishop Foster to open medical and evangelistic 
work for women in Pyong Tang. March 30, 1892, 
Dr. Mary Cutler arrived, and, April i2th, wrote she had 
made 825 professional visits, treating 156 cases since 
her arrival. The East Gate Dispensary was closed in 
1894, and Dr. Cutler and Miss L,ewis continued to 
bear heavy burdens at the Chong Dong Hospital. 

In the school which Mrs. Scranton, the first repre 
sentative of the Society, had opened, the first ever 
established for girls in Korea, there was a pupil 
named Chyon Tong Kim, who proved very quick to 
learn, and soon surpassed her schoolmates. She 
studied the Bible and catechism, also Chinese and 
English. It was not long until lying and stealing, 
so common in Korea, were abhorred, and she prayed 
in secret for a clean heart. After the answer came, 
she went and told the other girls, and invited them to 
come to her room and pray for new hearts. She 
decorated her room with flowers, and made it very 
sweet and inviting, and they had such a beautiful 
evening that they decided to have a daily prayer- 
meeting; and this is the origin of the first woman s 
prayer-meeting in Korea. 

When Chyon Tong was fourteen years old she 
was sent to the hospital to interpret for Dr. Sher 
wood. Here she \vas taught, with several other girls, 
physiology and materia medica, and received practical 



172 WOMA^S FOREIGN MISSIOXARV SOCIETY. 

lessons in the dispensary every day. At first she was 
only attracted to the study of medicine, naturally 
shrinking from surgery; but after assisting at an 
operation, she surprised her friends by declaring that 




ESTHER KIM PAK. 

she wanted to learn to perform such operations her 
self, and from that moment never gave up her dc- 
terniination to be a physician. January 25, 1891, 
she was baptized by ReV. F. Ohlinger, and received 
the name of "Esther." In Korea a woman loses her 
given name when she is married, and is called by 



MEDICAL MISSIONS, KOREA. 173 

none until she becomes a mother, when she is only 
known as such an one s mother. 

It is customary in Korea for all respectable women 
to marry; so " Esther" decided to abide by the custom 
of her people, and was married, in 1893, to a convert 
named Pak. In 1894, she went with her husband 180 
miles away, to Pyong Yang, where she proved a faith 
ful helper, and brave under persecution, and was 
efficient help in opening Christian work in that city of 
100,000 people. L,ate in 1894, Dr. Hall, with the con 
sent of the mission, brought Mr. and Mrs. Pak to 
this country. She entered the Woman s Medical Col 
lege, Baltimore, and is the first Korean woman to 
come to America to study medicine. 

The Society has sent out thirty-nine diplomated 
physicians and four trained nurses. Of this number 
two have died, five retired, and eleven have married. 
It has seven hospitals and nine additional dispensa 
ries, with a valuation of over $41,000. They are in 
charge of seventeen physicians. For the year 1895 
the sum of $20,000 was appropriated to carry on 
medical work. Over fifty thousand women in 1894 
received help from Methodist women physicians that 
otherwise would have had none. 

JosiE M. COPP, M. D. This sketch of medical work 
would be incomplete without making mention of Josie 
M. Copp, M. D., who made all possible preparation to 
become a medical missionary, graduating from Mich 
igan University in 1873. She expected to go to India, 
and would have been such an illustration of Christian 
love, culture, and wisdom in a heathen land ; but God 
knew best, and we must believe there is no waste in 



174 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

his plan. Saturday evening, February 7, 1874, she 
went instead to heaven, to be with her Heavenly 
Father, who alone knew her true value and how she 
ardently longed to render Christ her highest service. 

Miss ALICE JACKSON. At the General Execu 
tive Committee held in Chicago, May, 1879, Miss 
Jackson, of Ohio, was accepted as a medical candi 
date. She seemed endowed with peculiar gifts, and 
had decided convictions in regard to her " call." Her 
services were needed in the South American field. 
Early in the fall of 1879, as she was entering on her 
second course of lectures in the Philadelphia Medical 
College, she sickened and died with typhoid fever, 
leaving a beautiful testimony for her Savior. 

SUMMARY. 

The Woman s Foreign Missionary Society of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church enjoys the following 
signal honors: 

It sent out 
The first woman physician to India, in 1869, Dr. Clara A. 

Swain. 
The first woman physician to China, in 1873, Dr. L,ucinda 

Coombs. 
The first woman physician to Japan, in 1883, Dr. F. N. 

Hamisfar. 
The first woman physician to Korea, in 1887, Dr. Metta 

Howard. 

It opened 
The first hospital for women in India, January i, 1874, in 

Bareilly. 
The first hospital for women in China, October 15, 1875, in 

Peking. 
The first hospital for women in Korea.in 1889, in Seoul. 



MEDICAL MISSIONS. 175 

MEDICAL EDUCATIONAL FUND. 

The Northwestern Branch, in 1871, seriously con 
sidered the matter of educating young women in med 
icine for the foreign field, and appointed a Committee 
of twelve, of which Mrs. A. J. Brown, of Evanston, 
was Chairman, to help raise a special fund by private 
solicitation for this purpose. Aid was also to be fur 
nished through collections at camp-meetings on Mis 
sionary-day, the contents of mite-boxes, and from the 
sale of photographs. In 1881 the revenue from mite- 
boxes was cut off. In 1883, Mrs. D. C. Scofield, of 
Elgin, Illinois, died, leaving in her bequests $3,000 
for this fund, and with the money two perpetual schol 
arships were secured in the Woman s College in Chi 
cago. Preceding 1883, aid was given five candidates, 
who graduated in the University of Michigan. The 
sixth candidate then removed to Chicago, and finished 
there, that institution remitting one half the lecture 
fees. Mrs. Brown was succeeded, in 1881, by Mrs. 
I. N. Danforth, who remained Chairman of the Com 
mittee until her death, in August, 1895. If students 
failed to go to the foreign field, and under the 
Woman s Society, they were expected to refund the 
money; but not until 1883 were they required under 
any circumstances to consider the help received as a 
loan, to be refunded as soon as practicable after enter 
ing the service. Nineteen young women have been 
aided in part or entirely by the Medical Committee, 
whose total number of years in the work is thus far 
thirty-two. Over $12,000 have been expended, includ 
ing a little over $5,000, down to 1884, when the money 
became a loan fund. Something over $1,200 has 



176 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

been refunded. Daring the year 1892 the Harvard 
bequest brought in $1,500, which was augmented 
$500 in 1895. Dr. I. N. Danforth placed, in 1895, 
a $2,000 scholarship in memory of his wife. The 
names of the candidates aided are : Josephine Copp, 
Julia Sparr, Leonora Howard, Kate Bushuell, Ber 
tha Miller, Catherine Corey, Estella Long, Anna 
Gloss, Metta Howard, Ellen Lyon, Lulu Rosser, 
Margaret Green, Addie Bunnell, Lucy Gaynor, Kate 
McGregor, Jennie Dart, Susan Lawrence, Margaret 
Lewis, and Ida Kahn, the last named a Chinese 
girl. Miss Copp received about $25. She died soon 
after graduation. Bertha Miller and Lulu Rosser 
were dismissed after one year. Over $1,200 were ex 
pended on Estella Long, of which she refunded $35. 
She was never sent out. Margaret Green received 
$245, refunded $36, married a missionary, and went 
to Mexico. Addie Bunnell, for family reasons, had 
to defer going abroad, and has refunded nearly all the 
money received. Lucy Gaynor was taken by the 
Friends Society, who paid back all the expenses. 
The second and third candidates married, four came 
home sick, two retired. Anna Gloss and Ella Lyon 
are in China; Jennie Dart was sent to India in 1895; 
the last three named are still in this country, two of 
them not yet through school. Of the six who are not 
now in the service, their years ranged from less than 
two to seven years, a total of twenty-four years, or an 
average of four years. 




PIONEERS IN MISSION WORK (The East 1 . 
MRS. MARIE BROWN DAVIS. MRS. MARY Q. PORTER GAMEWELL. 

MRS. DORA SCHOONMAKER SOPER. 
MRS. M. F. SCRANTON. MISS I^INN A A. SCIiENCK. 178 



CHAPTER X. 

INDIA. 

Commenced in 1856 Woman s work commenced in 1869 
North India Conference organized in 1864 ; South India 
in 1876 ; Bengal-Burma in 1886 ; Bombay in 1892 ; North 
west in 1893; Malaysia in 1893. 

I NDIA was the first field occupied by the Woman s 
1 Society. So marvelous has been the development, 
so rapid the growth of the work, that at present its 
representatives are to be found in nearly all the large 
cities of that vast country, from north to south, and 
extending as far east as Burma. Schools and Bible 
women are supported in sixty-five stations in the 
North India Conference, seven in South India Con 
ference, eight in Bombay Conference, twenty-two in 
Northwest Conference, eight in Bengal-Burma, and 
two in the Malaysia Conferences in all 112 stations. 
Previous to the arrival of the first representatives 
of the Society, much preparatory work had been done 
by the wives of the missionaries of the General Soci 
ety. We group the names of those antedating 1869: 
Mrs. Butler, Knowles, Humphrey, Pierce, Baume, 
Judd, Waugh, Downey, Parker, Hoskins, Scott, Jack 
son, Hauser, Messmore, Gracey, Mansell, Thomas, and 
Johnson. 

LUCKNOW. April 18, 1870, Miss Thoburu, the So 
ciety s first representative, opened school in L,uckuow 
with six pupils. It was to be a school for Christian 
girls, and was begun in a little room in the bazar. A few 

179 



i8o WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

weeks later better accommodations were secured in a 
vacant room of Dr.Waugh s bungalow, and from there 
to a rented house, which was left a year later to take 
possession of the first purchase of the Society, a place 
called then, and ever since, L,al Bagh, which means 
"rose-garden." As Mrs. E. J. Knowles sings: 

" T is the Master s garden of beauty now, 
An orchard of pleasant fruits. 
As He walks in the shade at the cool of the day, 
With voice of approval we hear him say, 
Blessed is she 
Who trains these human plants for me. " 

The property consists of nine acres of ground ) 
with the Home a large house, built by a rich Mo 
hammedan several years before a school, dormitories, 
several small houses for the servants, and houses for 
the Bible women, in one of which has lived for years 
Caroline Richards, "Mama Caroline," as she is known. 
Miss Thoburn s description of the flora is so graphic 
we give it entire : " All about the compound are trees 
and shrubs, some of which are always blooming. 
When the hot winds of April are scorching the an 
nuals in the flower beds, the amaltas-trees, which the 
English call the Indian laburnum, hang out their 
large, golden pendants, making a glory about us 
brighter than the morning sunlight, while deeper 
than the noon-heats blaze the red pomegranate- 
flowers all through May and June. The rains bring 
out the dainty tassels on the babool-trees, and lower 
down the oleanders, which scarcely find breathing- 
room amid the odors of tuberoses and jessamine. In 
October and November the pride of India, a tall tree 
of delicate foliage, puts forth branches of wax-like 



INDIA. 181 

white flowers. All through the cold season convol 
vulus, begonia, and other creepers are blooming every 
where, clinging to the portico, np old trees, over 
gateways and trellis-work. A passion-flower covers 




MISS ISABELLA THOBURN. 

one whole side of the portico. February is the month 
of roses, though some are blooming all the year round ; 
and as the days grow warmer and March comes in, 
the whole garden overflows with color and sweetness. 
Then there is the sacred -pupul-tree, a banyan, and a 



1 82 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSION AR Y SOCIETY. 

palm ; also seven wells, four of which are stone-built, 
each of which is a treasure-house." The property 
was bought for $7,000, one-fifth its real value. 

From the beginning it was Miss Thoburn s en 
deavor to make, not a boarding-place, nor a place to 
stay, but a home in the truest sense to all its inmates. 
How well she succeeded let Dr. Mudge answer: "A 
bright light," he calls Lai Bagh, " in the midst of 
this dark heathen country, and it shines with clear, 
pure rays. The members of our English Church and 
congregation, also of the Hindustani Church; the 
school-girls, with the friends from distant stations 
who visit them ; teachers, munshees, pundits, servants, 
helpers and helped, Christian, Hindus, Mohammedans, 
people of all religion, and of no religion ; individ 
uals from all these classes have some sort of connec 
tion with the place, and feel in their own peculiar 
manner the influence of this pure Christian home. 
It is so well known that Lai Bagh is always ready to 
open wide its hospitable doors for every good pur 
pose, that people seem to feel more free to come there 
than anywhere else. Very many visitors are also en 
tertained here for a day or two at a time, during the 
year, chiefly members of other missions, and religious 
people traveling through the country, who have oc 
casion to stop in the city. In some way such people 
seem to have got in the habit of stopping at Lai 
Bagh, and as they always receive a cordial welcome, 
and are made to feel comfortably at home, the habit 
seems likely to continue." It has also been a birth 
place of souls again and again. Several meetings are 
held weekly, a woman s prayer-meeting, and a. girls 
prayer-meeting, both in English ; then the Hindus- 



INDIA. 185 

tani women and girls each have a meeting, and the 
Church class-meeting also. The door stands open to 
all who can be helped in any way. "Many bring 
blessings, others carry them away," says Miss Tho- 
burn. Miss Jennie Tinsley was the first missionary 
of the Society to share with Miss Thoburn the home 
and school duties, going out in 1871, L,. E. Blackmar 
and Eugenie Gibson in 1878, Florence Nickerson in 
1880, Esther De Vine in 1882, Theresa J. Kyle in 
1885, Anna Gallimore in 1887, Florence Perrine and 
L,ucy Sullivan in 1888, Elizabeth Hoge in 1892, Flor 
ence Nicholls and Lilly D. Greene in 1894. Not all 
of these were in the school. A part went into zenana 
work, Miss Blackmar soon after, in the Home for 
Homeless Women, and Miss Sullivan into deaconess 
work. 

At the close of the first year the school numbered 
twenty-five pupils, and at once a Christian girls 
boarding-school was decided upon, like the one in 
Amroha, only of a higher grade. The attendance in 
creased with the years ; applicants were often refused 
for want of sufficient room. There were 160 pupils 
in 1892, of whom 96 were boarders. All ages were 
represented, from the child of six years to woman 
hood, in one case a mother with two grown daugh 
ters. Miss Thoburn was home for rest in 1880, and 
again from 1887 until 1892, when her health de 
manded a change. During this prolonged absence 
the school was superintended with great efficiency by 
Miss De Vine. The school is too broad to represent 
any class or caste, and has had much to do in breaking 
the walls that are so quick to form and so firm to 

stand among Anglo-Indians, and between them and 
13 



1 86 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONAR Y SOCIETY. 

other races. "Our social Christianity," says Miss 
Thoburn, "or Christian socialism, is largely in the 
hands of women, and we have a part in bringing to 
gether into one all these diverse Indian tongues and 
people." 

An additional grant, in aid, was made in 1887, and 
the standard of education raised. The name was 
changed to Girls High School, and the same year a 
collegiate department added. In 1893 a teachers 
class was begun, and a Kindergarten Department in 
troduced. Great interest centered in this last, the 
first attempt, I believe, in India. That year five kin- 
dergartners were under training, two of whom were 
sent from other schools. Miss Hoge was sent out the 
year before for this special work. 

During the earlier years Miss Thoburn organized 
schools, and put them in excellent operation, en 
gaged in Sunday-school work, made many personal 
visits to the native women, and superintended the 
work of Bible readers. In 1874 she went to Cawn- 
pore, and opened a boarding-school. 

Many of the older girls have become teachers. 
Some are doing village work, many are making Chris 
tian homes, and are occupying positions of trust 
and responsibility; some are pastor s wives, one is 
head teacher in a Girls Boarding-school of the Pres 
byterian Mission, one is teacher in the Collegiate 
Department of this school, many are zenana teachers 
and Bible women, and others have grown daughters 
who are pupils now ; some have won early victories 
and gone safely home, and now there is a bright class 
studying and winning university honors. 




LUCKNOW CHRISTIAN SCHOOL-GIRLS. 



INDIA. 189 

A WOMAN S COLLEGE. The first call for a higher 
education came from a pupil in 1886, who had com 
pleted the course in the Lucknow Girls High School, 
and wanted to study medicine, but was ambitious 
enough to desire the privileges and advantages that 
come with a degree. There was but one school in 
all India where that could be obtained, and it was 
non-Christian, with strong Brahminical influence. 
When Miss Thoburn communicated this fact to the 
girl s mother Mrs. Chuckerbutty, herself a ten-year- 
old convert from Hinduism she replied: "I wish 
Shorat could finish her education, but I would rather 
she never know anything than to be taught to doubt 
the truth of Christianity." When Miss Thoburn pro 
posed a Christian Woman s College, this widow asked 
the privilege of being the first contributor, and offered 
500 rupees. 

The college came into existence in 1887, with 
three students, and Miss H. V. Mansell, B. S., princi 
pal, without reference books, apparatus, atlases, en 
cyclopedias, microscope, telescope, or library these 
\vere furnished later by friends at home. It soon 
affiliated with Calcutta University, His Excellency 
lyord Dufferin, Viceroy of India, sanctioning the affil 
iation. Among the advantages to be derived is that 
of receiving degrees upon the completion of equiva 
lent courses of study. The University puts its seal 
on the work of the Lucknow Woman s College. 
This new departure in education was first presented to 
the General Executive Committee in 1887, by Miss 
Thoburn herself. In 1888 she was given permission 
to raise funds for the college in accordance with the 
wish of the North India Conference ladies, and organ- 



igo WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 



ize young ladies .societies for this work. Miss T. J. 

Kyle, B. S., was appointed principal in 1889 and 1890. 

Two of the first three girls, Miss Ellen D Abreu, 

B. M.,* Mrs. So 
phia D Abren 
Thompson, B. A., 
passed in First 
Arts examination, 
March, 1889, and 
entered Bethune 
College, Calcutta, 
for B. A. About 
this time Mrs. Par 
ker, in India, said: 
" The college is a 
necessity of our 
work. We need 
educated women 
for teaching in all 
our schools; we 
need native Chris- 
tian women 
skilled in medi 
cine for work in 
our cities and 
villages. Then 

there is a most important branch of work that we 

have scarcely touched as yet the preparation of liter- 




Miss ELLEN D ABREU. 



*Miss Ellen D Abreu, B. M., and Mrs. Sophia D Abreu 
Thompson, B. A., are Eurasians. They began their studies at 
Lucknow and Cawnpore, and received the degrees of Bachelor 
of Medicine and Bachelor of Arts, respectively, at Calcutta 
and Madras. 



INDIA, 



191 



ature for our Christian women and girls. For such 
service we must have the highest and best education 
possible. The need of a boarding-school in every dis- 
trict appears 
very plain to us 
now, and the 
need of a col 
lege to train 
teachers for the 
boarding schools 
and doctors for 
the village wo 
men is just as ap 
parent to me." 
Again at home, 
on the twentieth 
anniversary of 
the Society, a 
.special collec 
tion was taken 
on lyticknow 
College Day, 
which amount 
ed to $8,000. Be 
fore Miss Tho- 

burn s return in MRS. .SOPHIA D ABREU THOMPSON. 

1 890, the fund 

had grown to $14,635.57, which warranted commenc 
ing the work. In 1890, Miss Florence Perrine arrived, 
and was appointed principal of the college, retaining 
the position five years, until her marriage with Rev. 
\V. A. Mansell, principal of Reid College, when Miss 
Nicholls succeeded her. There are eight students 




192 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 



in the present Entrance Class, 1895, two of whom are 
daughters of Mrs. Jane Plummer, so well-known at 
Moradabad, herself one of the early orphan girls 

at Bareilly. 
Among the 
teachers is 
Miss L,ilavata 
Singh, B.A.,* 
who was pre 
pared for col 
lege by Miss 
Thoburn, and 
took her de 
gree, in Cal 
cutta, whose 
atmosphere 
was unfriend 
ly to Christ, 
and unconge 
nial to her 
self. After 
graduating 
with honor, 
she accepted 
a Govern 
ment position 
which carried with it a salary of $50 per month. 
When she heard that her former high school had 
a collegiate department, " she offered her services at 

* Miss Singh is a Bengali. She studied above her work 
hours, and took her degree of A. M. at the last university 
examination, standing second in the list in the whole uni 
versity. 




Miss LILAVATA SINGH, B. A. 



INDIA, 193 

half the salary she was receiving, if only she could 
have the privilege of working for God and her Alma 
Mater the old school which gave her her start in 
life." Miss Nichols, Miss Collins, and Miss Singh are 
the college teachers, with two assistants for mathe 
matics and Persian. These are men, one a Hindu, 
and the other a Mohammedan. One of these days 
this will not be a necessity. 

The " Silver Anniversary " of the Society was 
universally observed in India, and the collections ap 
plied on the college. At the Thank-offering service, 
held April 18, 1895, in L,ucknow, nearly 800 rupees 
were raised. This, added to what had already been 
realized from native Churches in various places, and 
over 300 rupees which had been sent to Miss Tho- 
burn by former pupils, made almost 2,000 rupees col 
lected in India. The plan is to use this for an Indian 
room in the memorial building. Most of these offer 
ings are the result of earnest and cheerful self-denial, 
especially on the part of former pupils, who carry 
away to their homes a true appreciation and love for 
the school. 

From the anniversary fund at home $10,000 was 
appropriated for the erection of a new building for 
the college, in memory of Mrs. Harriet Warren, and 
January 28, 1895, the corner-stone was laid with im 
pressive ceremony. The brick walls had risen several 
feet, and the veranda afforded a seat for many of the 
guests. So important an event as the building for the 
first college for women in Asia, brought together 
many missionaries from other stations. The Christian 
students of both the girls and the boys schools were 
present in full force. The exercises began with sing- 



194 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

ing a Hindustani translation of " Revive us Again." 
After the responsive Scripture reading, Bishop Tho- 
burn led in prayer; then another hymn, when Dr. 
Parker read the report of the institution. Among 
other things, he said: "In 1883 the first candidates 
were sent up for the university matriculation exami 
nation, and in 1888 the first for examination in the 
Fine Arts course, which roughly correspond with the 
first two years course in an average American col 
lege. One young lady will appear for the B. A. ex 
amination in 1896. These higher classes, though 
small, are increasing." 

A missionary quartet sang, " The I^ord is mind 
ful of His own," and Bishop Thoburn gave the ad 
dress. "When the time came for placing the stone," 
says Mrs. Perrine-Mansell, " Miss Thoburn was called 
for, and as she stepped upon the platform, the thought 
of all her toil and prayers for this work, and all that 
this occasion must mean to her, made the moment s 
silence eloquent." 

" The plain marble slab with the words, Harriet 
Warren Memorial, and the date, was set in its niche 
in the wall, and, with the customary trowel, Bishop 
Thoburn declared the stone placed, In the name of 
the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. 

PHEBE ROWE. 

Phebe Rowe is one of the Kurasian workers. Her 
father was an English gentleman, her mother a native 
of India. Miss Thoburn calls her " the first answer to 
prayer of the Woman s Foreign Missionary Society." 
Her wonderful course as a soul-winner began in Miss 
Thoburu s school in 1874, when "chiefly through her 



INDIA. 



untiring efforts all the boarders became Christians." 
She entered the school in 1872, and much of her time 
has been spent in L,ucknow, though she often moves 
to other places when needed. Her services are varied; 
now as assistant missionary, teacher, and superintend 
ent of a girls boarding-school; then as zenana worker, 
evangelist, and dea 
coness. After ten 
years, in 1882 she 
was raised to the 
full rank of a mis 
sionary. The story 
of her evangelis 
tic work, together 
with her assistant, 
a Bible woman, 
Caroline Richards, 
is one of triumph, 
going from town 
to town and from 
village to village, 
visiting melas (hea- 
then religious 
fairs), speaking 
from the steps of 
heathen temples, or 

going immediately among the people, talking with them 
in their huts, gathering them under trees, by the way 
side, and in city street, wherever she can collect an 
audience. Her fluency in Hindustani and her gentle, 
winning ways, eminently fit her for this work. Her 
influence over the native Christians is wonderful, 
surpassing that of any missionary, and she is 




Miss PHEBE ROWE. 



196 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

probably doing more than any other one person in 
India to build up the common village Christian in 
right living. 

The cold weather is the time for the extended 
trips, when she often remains out for weeks without 
the shelter of a tent, living in native houses and sub 
sisting wholly on the food which she is able to find 
among the people. Many long journeys are taken in 
common ox-carts, while at other times she pursues 
her journey on foot. She works with her Bible women 
and the native preacher, and men, women, and chil 
dren are baptized. In some places the shrines devoted 
to heathen deities are torn down before the rite of bap 
tism is administered. The villages are turned upside 
down, people coming to her until late at night to hear 
more of this new doctrine ; and when she must have 
rest, and retires, the brethren continue talking, and 
with camel-carts and their smoking drivers, sellers and 
buyers all about she sweetly sleeps until dawn. Up 
the next day, she secures pony-carts and starts for 
other villages; and, if finding the roads too bad, she 
sends them back, and walks on for a dozen miles or 
more, working in the villages through which she passes. 
Talks and baptisms follow, and she is very happy in 
the work. 

In 1887 she was commissioned to bring Florence 
Nickerson home, "one of the dear girls who had 
broken down working for her people." They sailed 
January 25th. From the time they went to sea Florence 
daily grew worse, and on the 3ist, with the little white 
hand clasped by Phebe, the feeble pulse ceased beat 
ing. "The worn frame was prepared for burial, and 



INDIA. 197 

very gently the strong sailors carried her to the lower 
deck. At half-past nine the steamer was stopped, 
and in the solemn stillness the captain read the burial 
service. They were in the Gulf of Aden, and the moon 
touched the rippling water with tender light as the 
body was laid down, in sure hope of the resurrection." 
Miss Rowe came on from Aden alone, and spent six 
months among those who " not having seen," had yet 
loved her. After she had left for home, truly did Mrs. 
Skidmore say: " The relation of her simple Christian 
experience, and her appreciation of those who have 
gone to India to help the women they did not know, 
has affected us deeply, and for many days we shall 
hear the echo of her charming voice in the plaintive 
strains of India s native music. One such trophy for 
Christ as Phebe Rowe is more than compensation for 
a missionary s life of labor and sacrifice, even with the 
loss of health, and we thank God that Isabella Tho- 
burn, who won her to Christ, ever went to India." 

After her return to India, one of the sweetest of 
Phebe Rowe s hymns, which none ever tired of listen 
ing to, was published in the memorial number of the 
WESTERN CHRISTIAN ADVOCATE for its editor, Dr. 
Bayliss, at whose special request the score for the 
music had been reduced to writing. 

Her many friends, and especially those who listened 
to her wonderful voice, and exclaimed, "I never ex 
pect to see or hear anything like that again this side 
of heaven," or, "It seemed to me the gates of heaven 
stood ajar, and I heard the angels singing," these will 
be glad of this beautiful parting gift of the late editor 
to the Woman s Foreign Missionary Society. 



i 98 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSION AR Y SOCIETY. 

I LEAVE IT ALL WITH JESUS. 







I leave it all with Jesus, 
For he knows 
How beside me 
Safe to guide me 
Through my foes ; 
Jesus knows, 
Yes, he knows. 

I leave it all with Jesus, 
For he knows 
Every trial, 
Self-denial, 
All these blows; 
Jesus knows, 
Yes, he knows. 

I leave it all with Jesus, 
For he knows 
My contrition 
And submission, 
All my woes; 
Jesus knows, 
Yes, he knows. 



I leave it all with Jesus, 
For he knows, 
Making duty 
Bright with beauty 
Like the rose ; 
Jesus knows, 
Yes, he knows. 

I leave it all with Jesus, 
For he knows 
What to make me, 
When to take me 
At life s close ; 
Jesus knows, 
Yes, he knows. 

I leave it all with Jesus, 
For he knows ; 
There I 11 leave me, 
He 11 receive me, 
For he knows ; 
Jesus knows, 
Yes, he knows. 



INDIA. 



ORPHANAGES. 

The founding of Orphanages was one of the first 
enterprises of Methodist missions in India. The 
first girl received was a poor, weak little creature, 
blind of one eye and plain-featured ; but she was a girl, 
and was received by Dr. Butler, the superintendent, 
and his wife in November, 1858, to rear for Jesus and 
his Church. So exceedingly bitter was the jealousy 
of both Hindus and Mohammedans, that up to the 
close of 1860 there had been only thirteen received! 
But what the mutiny could not do, the famine made 
easy, and the next year the number increased largely. 
The first Orphanage was established in Lucknow, un 
der the supervision of Mrs. Pierce. Its origin was 
one of the results of the great Sepoy Rebellion. 
When the English Government was instituting meas 
ures of relief for the famine orphans, which could be 
only temporary, Dr. Butler considered the fate of the 
rescued children, and thought out an Orphanage to 
save and educate them, and proposed the bold adven 
ture of taking one hundred and. fifty girls and one 
hundred boys, with no means of support and no 
shelter ; but believing it to be the right and necessary 
thing to do, trusted that the Lord and his Church would 
sustain him in it. They were sent out to Dr. Butler, 
fifteen or twenty of them to the load, in native hack 
eries drawn by four bullocks each, and were laid down 
at his door in 1860, in all their weakness and forlorn 
condition so naked, filthy, and ignorant. There 
were girls from twelve or thirteen years down to the 
babe of three months, for whom a nurse was pro 
vided. Three-fourths of them were under eleven 



200 



WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 



years of age. Most of them were weak and emaciated, 
and a few of them dying, whom no care could save. 
About fifteen of them were too much reduced in 
strength and vitality to be saved. 

At the death of Mrs. Pierce in 1862, her husband 
took charge of the work until Dr. and Mrs. Thomas 
were appointed to it, at the close of the year. It out 
grew its limited accommodations, and was removed at 
the close of 1862 to its present location in Bareilly, a 
site hallowed by the blood of Maria Boist, a Eurasian, 
who became the first Methodist martyr in India. The 
spot had been her home until that memorable Sun 
day May 31, 1857 when the outbreak of the mutiny 
came. She was trying to escape from danger ; but 
her flight was intercepted by a soldier, who cut off 
her head. The body was afterward buried under a 
rose tree in her garden. There stands that Orphanage 
to-day, one of the brightest hopes that shines for 
women in the East, an honor to the American Meth 
odist Church, a fitting monument to the memory of 
Maria. As the first numbers passed out, others came 
to take their places, so that we have to-day two hun 
dred girls being trained in the same faith for which 
Maria gave her life. 

The good fruits of the institution have so won the 
confidence of all who are acquainted with it, that it 
has conquered prejudice and conciliated the interest 
and good-will of many, even of the native nobility, 
as well as the English magistrates, from whom the in 
stitution every year receives additional destitute or 
phans to be adopted into this Christian home and 
family, and trained freely upon our own principles. 



INDIA. 201 

In April, 1870, the support of the Orphanage was 
assumed by the Society, and an appropriation of 
$3,000 was made to carry it on. Miss Fannie J. 
Sparkes sailed the same year for India, and was made 
first assistant. The following year she was appointed 
superintendent. After twelve years Miss Fannie M. 
English was sent to her assistance, and succeeded her 
the next year, in 1884, as superintendent, which po 
sition she still holds, 1895. After a visit in America, 
Miss Sparkes returned in 1889, to take up new work 
in Muttra a Deaconess Home and Training-school 
but for family reasons was obliged to come home again 
in 1891. Other missionaries, besides the corps of na 
tive teachers, who have assisted from time to time as 
superintendent or assistant, have been the Misses 
Kerr, Lawson, Lauck, and Kyle, the latter having 
charge in 1892-93, during Miss English s vacation. 
The standard of the school is high. The first class 
girls study as difficult books as boys in the Gov 
ernment schools. Every department of needlework 
is taught knitting, crochet, embroidery also cook 
ing. The distinguishing feature from the best secu 
lar products of our Western civilization is its pur 
pose to draw all toward Christ in knowledge and 
in life. 

The Orphanage buildings are so arranged as not 
to spoil the girls for their future life, by cultivating 
an expensive European style of living. In one large 
room there are sixteen sets of stones where the 
girls grind their wheat, two at a mill, as in the 
olden time. 

What tact and patience are necessary when one is 



202 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

responsible for the health, morals, education, and 
future married life of three hundred girls ! 

More than a quarter of a century after the found 
ing of this Orphanage, kind friends made it possible 
for Dr. and Mrs. Butler and their daughter to revisit 
these scenes, and as the train moved into Bareilly, at 
two o clock in the morning, they were made welcome 
by two hundred and eighty girls in white, theological 
students, the missionary families, and a number of 
the members of the Church. In front of all stood 
Miss Sparkes, and the moment they saw these friends, 
there rose, to the tune of " Old Hundred," the dox- 
ology, in their own language : 

" Tin ek Khuda jo la-mafruq 
Hanid us ki-karo sab makhluq 
Asmanio, zaminio ! 
Bap, Bete, Ruh ki liatnd karo !" 

The next day a formal reception was held in 
the Girls Orphanage, when an address of welcome 
was given in behalf of the original orphans by one 
of them, who was retained as a leading teacher. 
When she had concluded, a little nine-year-old girl, 
an orphan child of the first orphan girl, christened 
Almira Blake by Dr. Butler in 1858, advanced and 
presented the love-offerings to sahib and memsahib. 

Dr. Butler has been able to trace nearly one hun 
dred and thirty of the original orphan girls through 
their school days, and after they left the Orphanage, 
to their present position, in 1895. The records show 
what they became in the first column, and what has 
been given to our mission in the first twenty-four 
years, in the second column : 



INDIA. 203 

Medical women, 8 16 

Dispensary and hospital assistants, 5 7 

School and zenana teachers 28 56 

Wives of colporteurs, 3 5 

Wives of school-teachers, 14 32 

Wives of exhorters 5 8 

\Vives of local preachers employed in the work, . . 14 39 

Wives of members of Conference, 10 18 

A total of Christian workers, 87 181 

Besides this, it has furnished wives to Christian 
farmers, tradesmen, etc., 78; a grand total of 259 
Christian women, leaving about 50 of the 309 re 
ceived to be accounted for by deaths, removals, etc., 
and including an ascertained total of 124 of the orig 
inal number, 150. 

In 1883, Miss Sparkes reported that, of the 125 
girls that had married out of the Orphanage in the 
nine years previous to that date, 101 were engaged 
in mission work after their marriage, either as teach 
ers or Bible women. 

Miss English, in 1884, had associated with her 
Miss Ellen D Abreu. There have been encourage 
ments and discouragements the usual vicissitudes 
in the years that have followed. Sometime during 
the year, usually during vacation, special revival 
services are held, sometimes with the assistance of 
others, as in 1888, when Miss Isabel Leonard helped 
the girls in Christian living. Miss Phebe Rowe has 
also rendered like assistance. In 1888 a Girls Mis 
sionary Society was organized, with fifty members, 
who make lace, or do other extra work outside of 
regular hours, to pay their pice, which amounts to 
rupees, and thus they are enabled to support a 



204 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSION AR Y SOCIETY, 

village school for Christian girls. Much interest is 
shown in their monthly meetings, writing essays, 
reading selections, singing, etc. They also have a 
women s class, and four girls class-meetings weekly, 
besides two societies of Epworth League. 

The superintendent moves around among the 
villages, looking after the girls who have married, 
and is greatly encouraged to see them leading lives 
of faithfulness and devotion to the Master s work. 

Since 1884 the number of orphans has gradually 
diminished from 280 to 200. This is to be accounted 
for in part by other schools providing for those in 
their locality. During the ten years of Miss Eng 
lish s superintendency we have gleaned a partial re 
port from the North India Conference Minutes, and 
find in seven of those years 109 have married out of 
the school; in nine of the ten years 35 have been 
taken by death, the largest number in any one year 
being seven. In four of the years, 106 have joined 
the Church in full connection, and a number on pro 
bation. In 1894 a kindergarten was added. During 
Miss English s serious illness by typhoid fever that 
year, Miss Clarke had charge of the school, and faith 
fully discharged the duties devolving upon her, until 
her strength gave way and she became ill. 

In addition, the work of the Orphanage has 
crowned the work of the Parent Board, equalized 
congregations, and rendered a perfect social Chris 
tianity. 

PAURI. In 1872 the Society decided to establish 
an orphanage in Pauri. Under the supervision of 
Mrs. Wilson and Mrs. Gill, the school increased in in- 



INDIA. 205 

terest and size; and in 1874, Almira Blake, the first 
girl received into the Bareilly Orphanage, was ap 
pointed matron and teacher. There were then four 
teen girls. In 1892 there were seventy-two enrolled. 
The teaching has always been done by native Chris 
tian women and the pupils, who have been trained in 
a normal class by the married lady missionaries. Mrs. 
McMahon and Mrs. Whitby have also superintended 
the work. During camp-meeting season the girls some 
times walk from sixteen to eighty miles to attend them. 
Among the orphans are many bearing the well-known 
and honored names of missionarj^ women scattered up 
and down the home-land, thereby obliterating the dis 
tinguishing of Hindus from Eurasians or Europeans 
in consequence. 

There is also an Orphanage of sixty children in 
Madras, and one in Kolar of fifty more. In Rangoon, 
Burma, over fifty Anglo-Indian and Eurasian chil 
dren are being taught in an orphanage occupying a 
spacious building in the compound of the Girls 
School, which has been specially remembered by the 
captains in the harbor, and the battery stationed at 
Rangoon. 

SUNDAY-SCHOOLS. 

Methodists have been led to give more attention 
to Sunday-school work than any other mission in 
India, and consequently lead all the missionary organ 
izations in this work. At the close of 1893 not ^ ess 
than 70,000 children were reported in attendance in In 
dia and Malaysia. Thirty years before, Sunday-schools 
had little more than a nominal existence. The few 
English Churches in the cities had made a beginning 
in a more or less formal way, and also a beginning 



206 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

had been made among the Indian converts in most 
parts of the country. "To Rev. Thomas Craven be 
longs the honor of inaugurating Sunday-school work, 
in 1871, among the heathen," says Bishop Thoburn. 
He began by taking the Sunday-school to the boys 
whenever he could get a group of Hindu boys to 
gether at first in out-of-the-way places, afterward 
in the streets inducing them to join in singing 
simple hymns to native airs, and then getting all 
the boys in the several day-schools to come to 
gether en Sunday for singing and Scripture recita 
tions. Bishop Thoburn thought, "Of course nothing 
could be done among the girls, for the sufficient rea 
son that in those days girls day-schools had hardly 
become known." But while the brother said "of 
course," the sister, Miss Isabella Thoburn, began what 
is believed to be the first girls Sunday-school of non- 
Christian girls, on her porch, allowing the men to dis 
cuss the feasibility. Another account is furnished by 
Miss Thoburn as follows: "A Bible woman, living in 
a heathen neighborhood, began gathering the women 
who could come, and the children, into her home on 
Sunday afternoons. She had them well in hand be 
fore I saw the school. I think it was in the second 
month when she asked me to go and see it. A day- 
school grew out of it. (I think this was the first 
heathen Sunday-school of any kind in Lucknow.) 
In March, 1872, Miss Thoburn taught a girls Sun 
day-school by themselves, in a little room in the corner 
of the court all Hindus, all very poor; for only 
daughters of poor people are allowed to come out 
in the streets. The girls would bring their baby 



INDIA. 209 

brothers and sisters along, and one time, when there 
were twenty girls, seven babies came also. 

There was singing, repeating the Lord s Prayer, ques 
tions and talking, and before the children went away, 
a ticket with a text on it was given them, which they 
were made to repeat until it was learned by heart. 
They could n t read, but they liked the pretty red and 
blue cards, and took them home, where their fathers 
could see and read them, and so get a bit of the Sun 
day-school lesson, too. The boys Sunday-school had 
grown to one hundred in attendance, and the day after 
Christmas a festival was held and prizes distributed. 
Two hundred children were at the fete; but in 1872 
there were 1,000! The missionaries talked about it in 
exclamatory sentences, it was so wonderful and so 
full of encouraging promise. The Sunday-schools had 
been growing and multiplying all the year; but the 
sight of the procession made up of Christian Hindus 
and Mohammedans, with their colored banners with 
Scripture texts, and singing as they marched, was won 
derful. In 1873 the girls schools had increased from 
two to seven, and was considered the most encourag 
ing part of the work among girls and women. Miss 
Jennie Tinsley (Mrs. Waugh) designed and superin 
tended the making of the first banner of the first 
heathen Sunday-school organized, says Dr. Craven, 
who presented the same several years ago to Mrs. 
Cowen at Lakeside camp-meeting. 

Once started, the work spread rapidly, and exper 
iments made in other stations besides Lucknow 
proved in every way successful. 

In 1873, Miss Blackmar thus describes a school 
among the heathen in Lucknow: "A score or more 



210 H OMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONA R Y SOCIETY. 

of eager, bright-eyed girls, in rags and dirt, crowded 
together on a piece of matting in a small, dark room, 
in which there was no furniture, save two or three low 
bamboo seats. Some recited the Commandments and 
Catechism, and were so delighted to sing our pretty 
hymns ! Some of the discouragements were appar 
ent when a woman came and ordered two of the 
brightest girls away, because they were betrothed, 
and their friends were afraid the marriage would be 
broken off if the girls were taught to read. Scripture 
texts in the Hindu character were distributed, and 
some would learn one every Sabbath. A bright girl 
of about ten years did not remember hers one day ; 
on inquiring the reason, she said her bridegroom 
came. Another was absent. She had gone to be 
married. " 

In some of these schools, when the collection is 
taken it consists of cowries (little shells used as pieces 
of money in the North, the wheat-belt of India. Its 
value is about i-iooth part of an American cent). In 
other schools the women give pice, grain, etc. There 
are upward of 50x3 Sunday-schools for girls, with 
about 1,200 scholars, in India. 

BOARDING-SCHOOIvS. 

MORADABAD. While it is impossible to sketch all 
the boarding-schools for girls in India, the one at Mo- 
radabad must not be passed over, not simply because 
of its career of wonderful prosperity, so long under 
the fostering care of Mrs. E. W. Parker, but espe 
cially because it furnished a text of this kind of work 
for the mission. The necessity for this school grew 
out of the fact that the native Christians in the vil- 



INDIA. 211 

| lages of the surrounding country were living so scat- 
1 tered that it was impossible to provide for the educa 
tion of their children at home. The parents could not 
read, and the native pastors, in their long tours of 
visitation among the people, could not do much in 
this direction; so that it was felt the only way to do 
was to gather the girls especially into boarding- 
schools at some central point. It was, however, a 
long time before any girls could be taught to read ; and 
it was contrary to custom to allow daughters to leave 
home before marriage. The native preachers, even, 
were not ready for this innovation on long-established 
custom. A small beginning was inr.de with two girls 
in 1868. Mrs. Parker s plan was, after giving them a 
simple education, to send them back again to their 
homes, where they might be expected to act like so 
much leaven among the native Christians in the vil 
lages. She was to return to this country on leave, 
and finding it impossible to arrange for the girls in 
Moradabad, she made them over to Mrs. Zahur-ul- 
Haqq, in Amroha, during her absence. On her return 
the school returned to Moradabad. There were 
twenty-three in the school in 1872, and Miss McMil 
lan was appointed missionary in charge. Early in 
1873 it was decided that the school should be perma 
nently located in Moradabad. When the Society was 
organized, it took control, and in 1875 erected a build 
ing for a Home. The school continued to grow, until, 
in 1883, there were 115 enrolled, of whom 100 were 
boarders; and in 1893 there w r ere 172 girls. They 
came from fifty-six villages. The Society was repre 
sented by Misses De Vine and Lawson from 1884 to 
to 1887. The Misses Lank and Downey superintended 



2 1 2 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

zenana work in 1889 and 1890. Then Miss Mansell, 
Miss Day, and Miss Kemper were in the school from 
1891 to 1895. Three women physicians have been 
sent there from time to time. In 1892 the school re 
ceived recognition by the Director of Public Instruc 
tion as an Anglo-Vernacular High School. In 1894 
kindergarten methods were introduced ; two girls were 
passed in the entrance examinations, the first in Ro- 
hilkund, with its population of 20,000 Christians. 
They are now in the I^ucknow Woman s College. If 
the success of a school were determined by the re 
turns yielded in mission workers, the success of this 
school is beyond question. The twenty-fifth anni 
versary was celebrated by the 500 Christian women and 
children from the city, the school-girls, with several 
former ones who were working elsewhere, and Mrs. 
Parker. In 1895, Miss Kemper had associated with 
her work Miss Dudley, from Australia, with a staff 
of twelve teachers who had been educated in the 
school. 

There are also in Moradabad the Gouchcr Schools. 
Some years ago Dr. Goucher, of Baltimore, undertook 
not only to support 100 village schools, but also to give 
a scholarship to the most promising boy or girl from each 
school, entitling the pupil to go to a central school in- 
Moradabad, and receive an advanced education. " This 
plan," says Bishop Thoburn, "has worked admirably, 
and already a large number of our best workers have 
gone forth from these schools." They are doing an 
important work in the mohullas and near villages in 
giving instruction to women and girls, and also teach 
ing those who have not been baptized, but who are 
anxious for religious teaching. 



INDIA. 213 

SCHOOLS FOR ENGLISH-SPEAKING GIRLS. 

CALCUTTA. The great necessity for training the 
children of English-speaking parents for future mis 
sionary labor became an intense conviction with the 
missionaries, and in 1876 a school was started in Cal 
cutta, and an urgent request made of the Society for a 
superior teacher, which was responded to in 1878 with 
Miss L,ayton. She found the school greatly in need 
of help, with its thirty-five boarders and eighty day- 
pupils. This was the first work undertaken by the 
Society in the South India Conference, and was pro 
vided for as the other self-supporting work. In three 
years the school was full to overflowing, and no more 
applicants could be received. One hundred and fifty 
girls, few of whom were Europeans or natives by far 
the larger number were Eurasians were instructed 
there in 1879. Several were native girls belonging to 
influential families, some were daughters of mission 
aries, and others represented the families of barristers. 
Besides these, came the daughters of Armenians, 
and Bengalis, Burmese, Africans, Germans, Italians, 
and Portugese. 

Early in 1885 the foundations of a new building 
were laid. Although the structure is perfectly plain, 
and no money has been expended on it except to make 
it commodious, airy, and convenient, the cost, includ 
ing the grounds, was over $40,000, a very large sum 
being required for the site. It accommodates one 
hundred boarders. For several years Mrs. J. S. In- 
skip carried on quite a canvass in this land for the 
building fund, after her evangelistic tour through the 
empire, and though for some years a considerable 



214 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

debt remained, the interest was much less than the 
rent of the inferior buildings formerly occupied. 

Owing to the threatened war with Russia, the Gov 
ernment canceled the grants for 1885, of 33,000 ru 
pees, leaving the school in desperate straits. This 
had become the largest Protestant school in the city 
in 1889, and the largest school under the care of the 
Society. The building is the best perhaps the finest 
in the East belonging to Methodism. It is said no 
work connected with the Society has cost so little and 
yielded so much. In 1889 there were two hundred 
pupils, and thirteen teachers besides the American. 
For eight years Miss L,ayton remained at the head, 
much of the time in feeble health, and at the close of 
1886 reluctantly presented her resignation, and was 
succeeded by Miss Hedrick. After five years ab 
sence, she joyfully and hopefully returned to India. 
After three months work in the Cawnpore English 
School, she was suddenly seized with cholera, April 
22, 1892, and in twelve hours her remains were laid to 
rest " out in the fields " in Cawnpore. In 1889, Miss 
Knowles became superintendent, and introduced a 
Musical Department, stenography, and typewriting, 
the latter meeting with much favor among business 
men. A kindergarten was opened in 1893 by Miss 
Harris, with forty children and also a training class. 
During fifteen years at least one hundred Eurasian 
young women went forth as active workers. For 
some years there had been a purpose to open a 
branch of the Calcutta Girls School in Darjeeling, 
which was consummated in December 1893, and in 
April, 1894, Miss Knowles reported sixteen boarders 
and one day pupil. 



INDIA. 215 

CAWNPORE. A school was opened in Cawnpore 
in 1874, property was purchased costing about $7,000. 
and Miss Easton sent out to superintend it in 1878. 
It was to receive at first a monthly grant from the Gov 
ernment of $25, but otherwise to be self-supporting. 
This school on the banks of the Ganges first raised 
the banner for the higher education of girls in India, 
one of its pupils, Miss D Abreu, the first lady matric 
ulate from the Northwest Provinces in a Calcutta en 
trance examination ever to have passed. She subse 
quently received the degree of Bachelor of Medicine 
at Madras. When larger accommodations became 
necessary, Miss Easton raised $6,000 on the ground, 
and then confidently applied to the General Execu 
tive Committee for $1,500, though the estimated value 
was $10,000. In 1886 she returned for a much- 
needed rest, and Miss Harvey succeeded her, until, in 
1890, her health became impaired, and Miss McBurnie 
took charge. Three years later the superintendence 
devolved on Miss Lauck. The Conference decided to 
change the location in 1890, to the Boys Memorial 
School, and continue a department of small boys. 
This was an experiment, many in India disapproving 
of mixed schools ; but the arrangement was satisfac 
torily made. The grant-in-aid for 1891 was 3,600 
rupees. For years this school has yielded teachers 
of a higher grade, and zenana workers, besides stu 
dents for the medical college, thoroughly equipped 
spiritually, morally, and intellectually, as earnest, 
educated, enthusiastic Christian workers, with the 
gift of vernacular speech, a knowledge of native 
opinion and character, and power to live and labor in 
their own country at a comparatively small cost, giv- 

15 



2 1 6 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

ing them great advantage over a foreign missionary, 
and may indefinitely augment their power. 

NAINI TAL. An English school was needed in 
Naini Tal, and as " need is the basis of the worker s 
faith," it was opened February i, 1882 with nine pu 
pils by Miss Knowles, she having previously rented 
a house for the exact amount of her salary, guaranteed 
for one year by the Society. It closed in November 
with twenty-one pupils, six of whom were boarders. 
With no certain dwelling-place and inferior accommo 
dations, there was a struggle for life the first few 
years. Then a Building Committee was appointed of 
Bros. Waugh, Parker, Thomas, Baume, and the 
Misses Thoburn, Blackmore, and Easton, who decided 
to borrow the money, Miss Knowles to meet the in 
terest from the income of the school, besides keeping 
up the running expenses, and paying the salaries of 
the teachers, and purchase a site and erect suitable 
buildings adapted to future needs. The work was 
commenced in 1886, trusting to the Government to 
furnish one half the cost, as promised in the new 
Educational Code, and completed in 1887 at a cost of 
$26,000. The English Government gave $3,000. On 
account of failing health, Miss Knowles resigned, and 
Miss Easton, who had enjoyed a year of rest in this 
land, succeeded her. She was authorized to borrow 
$10,000 in India, and pay the balance due on the 
property, and in August, 1893, was able to say " out of 
debt;" but a new building was needed, and on it " she 
put a mortgage of hard work and careful economy." 
Nothing was asked of the Society but a good kinder- 
gartner, which was met in Miss Butcher. In 1892 the 



INDIA. 217 

Government paid Rs. 4,849 ($1,616) grant-in-aid 
earned. The first girl sent up for the entrance exam 
ination passed in 1887. The number sent up in 1893 
was over fifty. In 1894 the teaching staff consisted of 
three missionaries and nine other teachers. There 
were ninety-seven boarders and twelve day scholars. 
Forty-three passed middle, and three entrance exami 
nations. For tuition and board 4,539 rupees were 
received, which, with the grant-in-aid, amounted to 
9,663. This is the Wellesley of India. It was called 
the Slater High School for a time, in memory of a 
Michigan woman, whose bequest, made in 1871, was 
applied on the first property. 

Missionaries send their daughters to this beautiful 
sanitarium for education. In 1893 " sweet Eleanor Gill" 
passed swiftly through the pearly gates into the city. 
" No other influence, it would seem," says Miss Easton, 
" could have worked out more good among the girls ; 
the seed fell upon prepared ground, and it has brought 
forth fruit." 

RANGOON. In 1881, Miss Ellen Warner, glad to 
give her best for the Master, was appointed to open a 
school in Rangoon, on the self-supporting plan. The 
Government of British Burma donated nine building 
lots, on an eligible site, valued at r,6oo rupees; in 
cash, as a building fund, 10,000 rupees, and 900 for 
furniture. The close of the first year found her with 
a new building, property valued at $15,000, a reputa 
tion established, and a school of one hundred pupils. 
The following year Miss McKisson was sent to her 
assistance. The religious spirit of the school, its 
effect upon the community as a feeder to the Meth- 



2 1 8 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

odist Church, make it one of the best of its kind in 
the East. Two hundred and ten scholars were en 
rolled in 1888, seventy of them boarders. An Orphan 
age grew out of the school, a woman s workshop was 
established, and work among the Burmese started. 
The work done was felt in a dozen directions, and 
strengthened every interest of the Church in Burma. 
" In the Church and on the street, in the coffee- 
rooms and on board ship, in the school and in the 
Orphanage, these missionaries were instant in season 
and out of season." One of the pupils greatly as 
sisted Bishop Thoburn as an interpreter, when he 
opened work among the Burmese. Both Miss War 
ner and Miss McKisson married, and Misses Wisner 
and Perkins carry on the work. A kindergarten was 
added, and in 1892 a thoroughly-organized gymnasium, 
with American methods, adopted under the sanction of 
the Director of Public Instruction. This is the first 
girls school to undertake this training. In 1892 a Bur 
mese school was begun on the veranda of the parson 
age, that in three weeks had twenty-seven children, the 
teaching being largely voluntary. These scholars 
were of the better class, and paid a tuition fee of 
from eight annas to one rupee per month. Applica 
tion was soon made for board, and a boarding-school 
could be seen by faith in the near future. 

SINGAPORE. The Society provided the agent, 
Miss Foster, of the Columbia River Branch, and 
Bishop Thoburn, at the Conference in 1894, appointed 
her to the task of opening a school for English-speak 
ing girls in Singapore. It was done, May 4th, in the 
Deaconess Home, with eleven pupils, which increased 



INDIA. 219 

to thirty-one during the year. The school has made 
excellent progress, and serves a most important mis 
sion in providing an institution where Christian girls 
can receive an education unmixed with either Roman 
Catholic or ritualistic instruction. 

These schools for European and Eurasian children 
are a special feature of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
in India, and are reckoned among the results of Bishop 
Taylor s work there. The Society pays the outgoing 
expenses, and sometimes the salary during the first 
year, of the teachers sent out. 

WOMAN S DEPARTMENT OF THEOLOGICAL SCHOOL. 

A unique department of the Theological School in 
Bareilly was founded by Mrs. T. J. Scott in 1869, the 
year after that school was opened by her husband, Dr. 
Scott. Some of the students had ignorant wives, fresh 
from the villages, and Mrs. Scott felt it her duty to 
get the women fitted to be preachers wives and help 
ers, and in a very unpretentious way began her train 
ing-school with six women, on her veranda, holding 
it for three hours daily. Every year the school grew 
in numbers and in interest, until it was made a rule 
that all the wives of students unemployed should at 
tend ; and without a regular school-room or large corps 
of teachers, it has become quite an institution of itself. 
For years the enrollment has been from forty-five to 
fifty women, and in 1890 it required four recita 
tion-rooms. Two verandas helped supply this need. 
Many of the women were not only beginners in sec 
ular knowledge, but had to be taught the rudiments 
of Christianity. As time went on, a four years Bible 
readers course of study was adopted. This became 



220 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

the curriculum of the Woman s School, so far as they 
are enough advanced for it. They pass their final ex 
aminations at the District Conference, and receive cer 
tificates from the Committee on Examinations. These 
women learn under difficulties. They have all their 
household duties to perform, and nearly every one 
has children to care for. It was a great boon to the 
mothers, as well as of incalculable value to the little 
ones themselves, when, in 1893, Mrs. Neeld opened a 
kindergarten. 

The school has daily Bible-readings, lectures giv 
ing instructions in physiology, hygiene, and subjects 
that are of importance to them as wives and mothers. 
They also have talks on sanitation, care of children, 
treatment of sore eyes, fevers, and diarrhea. All are 
trained to work in the Sunday-school. There is a 
regular class and prayer meeting for them, a Mission 
Band, King s Daughters, a Dorcas Society, and an 
Epworth League. 

About 150 have already gone out, with their hus 
bands, prepared to work, and many of them are help 
meets indeed ; yea, more, they do what their husbands 
can not do that is, enter the homes of their village 
sisters, and talk and read to them. They teach, too, 
by example. Their neat, clean houses, tidy little ones, 
correct lives, and becoming dress, show what Chris 
tianity can do for the women of India. Some have 
schools for little girls. The influence they exert is 

untold. 

KOLAR. 

The Kolar Mission has a unique history. It was 
founded by Miss Louisa H. Anstey, an English lady, 
during the great Indian famine of 1877, and fostered 



INDIA. 221 

by her with all a mother s tenderness for thirteen 
years, when she felt it had outgrown her ability to 
provide for its needs, and made it over, in August, 
1890, to the Methodist Episcopal Church. There was 
an Orphanage for boys, and one for girls, a church, 
dispensary, and four Christian villages, three of which 
contain chapels. The Society received its part as a 
sacred heritage of work among the women and girls 
of Kolar. It consists of Bible-women s work, a day- 
school, and an Orphanage of fifty girls, both large 
and small. Many are Christians. 

PITHORAGARH. 

Isaikot (the Christians Fort) is what Miss Budden 
calls her little settlement of Woman s Refuge, Girls 
School, and Mission Home. For some years a school 
had been carried on by Mrs. Gray, until, in 1879, there 
was gathered out of it the nucleus of a Christian Home, 
and the services of Annie Budden, her sister, secured 
to care for it. Mrs. Dr. Newman, from the sales of 
" Flowery Orient," and a woman in India, provided 
money for the buildings, which were erected from 
stone taken from the land which had been purchased. 
The cultivation of the farm has made the work from 
the start practically self-supporting, the women and 
girls putting in rice, wheat, and other grains. At the 
harvest season Miss Budden spends about seven hours 
daily with the women. During the rest of the year 
they are kept in school. In 1883, Miss Florence Nick- 
erson, whose grave is in the Indian Ocean, rendered 
valuable aid by taking the boarding-school, and the 
following year was assisted by Miss Rowe. In 1886 
the farm work grew, cattle were bought, appropria- 



222 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

tions made for plowmen and a farm manager, and 
many improvements were added through the generos 
ity of friends in America, a corn-sheller, corn-grinder, 
Fairbanks scales, besides the fodder-cutter and grind 
stone bought in India. A windmill was also secured 
in America, and was put up without the aid of an en 
gineer, directed by Miss Budden. Early in 1877, as 
she was returning from a three years enforced absence 
in America, she was received with an ovation eight 
miles long, as she was first met by her adopted daugh 
ter, Ellen Hayes, accompanied by the native pastor 
and doctor; then, later in the day, by a large gathering) 
with flags and banners, and clean, white chuddars; and 
then by the men and boys, servants of the house and 
farm, and some of the first women, and "dear Mrs. 
Grant," who had cared for her " little ones " during 
her absence. When she got back into her dandi, for a 
short distance the four plowmen picked it up and car 
ried her in triumph. There were flowers, and arches, 
and mottoes, songs of welcome, and loving embraces, 
strong arms that bore her along, two at a time, of the 
happy girls, making the merriest, happiest procession 
ever seen in that valley. 

There was a marked and steady improvement in 
every branch of the work ; but a terrible scourge of 
cholera broke in upon all this prosperity. Miss Budden 
removed her women and girls to a hill country twelve 
miles distant, leaving the farm and cattle and store 
rooms, the grain uncut and ungathered, and faced the 
problem of feeding all these people. The coolies were 
panic-stricken, and fled. Several of the women and 
girls died, and no one would come to dig a grave. 
Six of the native Christian women, on the death of a 



INDIA. 223 

woman, with spades and hoes, went with Miss Bud- 
den on the sad burial errand. They tied up the body 
in a blanket, and carried it out, and buried it, after a 
short prayer, in the grave they had dug. This was 
six o clock in the morning, and at six in the evening 
they did the same for another woman. 

There was another visitation of cholera in 1889; 
but not nearly so severe, and that time the servants 
did not leave. 

In 1894 the work consisted of the school, Home, 
seven village schools, the church service, a Christian 
community, two Epworth Leagues, a Missionary So 
ciety, eighteen Ready-workers Bands, two Bible- 
readers classes, and a medical class. In 1892, Dr. 
Sheldon was appointed to Pithoragarh, and she and 
Miss Budden followed the example set by Miss Tho- 
burn in 1889, and now adopted by thirteen or more 
missionaries, of accepting only half salary, on the 
Deaconess plan. 

DARCHULA. 

In April, 1893, Miss Budden and Dr. Sheldon went 
a four days journey toward the eternal snows, to 
Darchula, prospecting among the Bhotiyas for a new 
mission center. They found a hopeful field, and es 
tablished a Deaconess Home, or rather one for sum- 
* mer and one for winter, for these migratory people, 
introducing native Christian women for helpers, one 
of the women becoming the first Hindustani deacon 
ess. William E. Blackstone contributed the money 
for the " Flora Deaconess Home," and the North India 
Conference, in 1895, appointed Dr. Sheldon to this 
work. She was fortunate in taking one of Miss Bud- 
den s school-girls along, who proved to be a pure 



2 24 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIE TY. 

Thibetan, who will help mightily turn this key that 
may unlock the hitherto impregnable Thibet. The 
doctor has started girls schools in four places, and 
has more than twenty girls reading. The Bhotiyas 
have no written language. She also practices med 
icine. 

CHANDAG HEIGHTS. 

In the fall of 1891 the Society was startled over 
the information received concerning Mary Reed. 
She went to India in 1884, and after four years in 
Cawnpore and one in Gonda, returned home in Janu- 
uary, 1890, much broken in health. She went to 
Christ s Hospital, Cincinnati, early in the year 1891, 
for treatment, and was obliged to give serious atten 
tion to a troublesome sore on the end of her right 
forefinger. Several physicians had examined it ; but 
as none of them had ever seen anything of the kind 
they did not consider it at all serious. After several 
remedies had failed, amputation was proposed. We 
prefer to give the account of this affliction as pub 
lished by Bishop Thoburn, in his "Light in the 
East," and will quote from him: "One day while 
lying in bed, Miss Reed was somewhat listlessly tap 
ping the counterpane with her finger as a relief from 
the dull pain which she had felt for some time, and 
thinking of God s dealings with her in her past life, 
when suddenly, and so very distinctly that she could 
not misunderstand it, it seemed to be said to her, 
although no voice spoke : The trouble with your 
finger is leprosy ; you must return to India, and re 
pair at once to the leper asylum at Pithoragarh, and 
devote the rest of your life to teaching the poor lepers 
who are inmates of that place. Up to that hour not 




MISS MARY REED. 



225 



INDIA. 227 

a thought had for a moment crossed her mind that 
the sore on her finger might be a symptom of leprosy, 
and to this day she is unable to account for the inti 
mation received, except by assuming, as she does 
without hesitation, that God, by his Spirit, revealed 
it to her. She could not remember any occasion on 
which she had been brought into personal contact 
with a leper, in such a way as to have contracted this 
terrible disease, and to this da}* we can hardly con 
jecture how she ever became subject to it. 

"When the hospital surgeon called later in the 
day, Miss Reed told him faithfully what had passed 
in her mind, and assured him that she had no doubt 
now as to what troubled her finger. Had she even 
thought of it sooner, she would have recognized it 
long before that eventful hour, but the thought had 
never crossed her mind. The surgeon, who was an 
able and experienced physician, tried to dissuade her 
from taking so serious a view of the case ; but as he 
never in his life had seen a case of leprosy, he told 
her that he would look up the medical authorities 
carefully, and see her the following day. When hp 
returned next day, a glance at his face showed but 
too clearly to what conclusion his studies had led 
him. While hardly able to suppress his tears, he in 
hesitating words told his patient that there was 
reason to fear that her surmise had not been alto 
gether incorrect, but that in so important a case he 
would not give a final decision until a consultation 
was held. This took place without delay, and the 
consulting physicians were compelled to admit that 
Miss Reed had not been mistaken in her statement. 
To make perfectly sure, however, she was sent to an 



228 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

expert in New York, a gentleman who had seen many 
cases of leprosy, and he, too, confirmed the decision 
arrived at in Cincinnati. There was, therefore, no 
alternative but to accept the appalling fact that this 
consecrated Christian worker had become subject to a 
disease which is, perhaps, dreaded more than any 
other in the world. 

"From the very first it was noticed by Miss Reed s 
friends, that she herself did not seem at all crushed 
by her cruel discovery. On the other hand, she 
seemed to accept her mission as if directly assigned 
to her from on high, and from that moment made no 
other plan, and talked of no other plan, than that of 
going at the earliest possible day to her distant mis 
sion. For obvious reasons, the awful discovery was 
kept from the public for a short time, during which 
Miss Reed made a farewell visit to her mother. She 
had written that, for important reasons, she thought 
it best to return to India immediately, and when she 
met her mother she told her casually, in the course of 
conversation, that for a special reason she had formed 
the singular resolve never to kiss any one again, and 
that she mentioned it in advance, so that her mother 
might not think strangely of it if she parted from 
her, without giving her a farewell kiss. The mother 
did not comprehend her meaning, but supposing that 
she had sufficient reason for forming so singular a 
resolution, she asked for no explanation and let the 
matter pass. The farewell words were spoken, and 
the farewell embrace given, but the afflicted daughter 
bade adieu to her sorrowing mother, knowing that 
she would meet her no more in this world, without 
enjoying the luxury of a farewell kiss. 



INDIA. 229 

" She hastened back to India as rapidly as possi 
ble, but stopped long enough in London to consult 
Sir Joseph Fayrer, the most eminent authority en 
all Indian diseases to be found in the world. Sir 
Joseph granted her a prolonged interview, and 
treated her with the utmost kindness, but was unable 
to modify in the slightest degree the verdict of the 
American physicians. He gave her, however, the 
latest remedies, and a few monographs on the sub 
ject of leprosy, which have since proved of value 
to her. 

"Arriving in India, Miss Reed proceeded at once 
to Pithoragarh, which is a remote station in Kumaon, 
among the Himalaya Mountains. I met her in 
Almora, in September, 1891, and had the pleasure, 
which was by no means a melancholy pleasure, of 
listening to the story of her trials and triumphs, and 
cheering her on her way. I am glad to say that 
leprosy, although a terrible affliction at best, is by no 
means so dreadful a disease as is commonly supposed 
in America. In some cases the disease makes rapid 
headway, and the end comes in the short space of 
one or two years ; but in other cases the patient lives 
in comparative comfort for ten, fifteen, or possibly 
even twenty years or more. There are several vari 
eties of the disease, and none of them are at all con 
tagious unless the skin is broken, which is not 
always the case, or when broken, the affected part is 
brought in contact with a cut or abrasion of some 
kind on the skin of a healthy person. Hence, those 
of us who have lived long in India have practically 
ceased to be afraid of lepers, and go among them 
without the slightest hesitation. Thus far, medical 



230 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

skill has not been able to discover any cure for this 
much dreaded disease; but it seems to be well estab 
lished that, although not able to cure leprosy, certain 
medicines can arrest its progress, and this gives an 
unspeakable measure of relief to those on whom the 
disease has not yet made much progress." 

Miss Reed proceeded at once to her field of work 
at Chandag Heights, three miles from Pithoragarh, 
and from the Minutes of the North India Conference 
for 1894 I make a few excerpts from her report: 
" During the past two years I have experienced so 
much of the loving compassion and tender mercy of 
the Friend that sticketh closer than a brother that 
it is with a very grateful, humble heart I attempt to 
recount, for the dear friends of our widening mission 
ary circle, something of God s dealings with me and 
the people to whom he has called me to minister 
here, in this beautiful place, Chandag Heights." 
That his seal of blessing is upon the special work 
going forward among the poor afflicted ones occupy 
ing this retreat, and that, too, among the inhabitants 
of adjacent villages, is evident from her report 
This mountain district, one of the fairest spots on 
God s beautiful earth, has the sad reputation of being 
one of the very worst districts in India for this dread 
malady. But to Miss Reed s report: "During the 
past eighteen months eighty patients names have 
been enrolled on my books, and I am told that 
within a radius of ten miles there are more than 
four hundred who ought to be here in the asylum. 
I hope to see the last of these new buildings occu 
pied as soon as the walls become thoroughly dry." 
The name of the Scottish Society under which Miss 



INDIA. 231 

Reed has been so mysteriously called to work is 
" Mission to Lepers in India and the East," and 
works not by sending out missionaries of its own, 
but by utilizing existing agencies, making grants of 
money to maintain the work. Miss Reed herself is 
supported by the Cincinnati Branch of the Woman s 
Society, from which she first went to India. Of the 
fifty-seven patients enrolled in 1894 all but five were 
Christians, and they had but recently entered the 
asylum. Miss Reed continues: "Aside from the 
special work for which I have been called apart 
though not to a lonely desert place, but to one of the 
most beautiful of earthly abiding places, where I am 
neither alone nor lonely, for as I live within three 
miles of dear Miss Budden and the community of 
more than three hundred native Christians, with 
whom I have frequent communication and many 
pleasant visits I am not lonely, for my heart and 
hands are filled with work. I have had the privilege 
during the past year of opening four schools for boys 
and girls in the villages lying in the mountain valleys 
from two to five miles distant from my home. About 
six months ago, in 1893, two other schools were made 
over to me by the preachers in charge of Pithoragarh 
Circuit. In these six schools are over two hun 
dred pupils. 

" It is a wondrous sweetener of what otherwise 
would be an unbearable burden, that through this dis 
pensation of God s providence and grace he is not 
only working in my own heart and life to will and to 
do of his good pleasure, but that it is also being util 
ized by him in rousing wills, moving hearts, quicken 
ing thought, influencing and enlisting new recruits 
16 



232 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

for that great company needed to publish his blessed 
word. Blessed, ever blessed be His glorious name 
forever !" 

September, 1893, M i ss Ree d, i n referring to her con 
dition, said : " He hath heard the many, many prayers 
offered for this bruised, broken, weak instrument 
during the past year ; and answers have been steal 
ing into my soul as herald-rays, announcing the com 
ing dawn, and the flowers of hope have pierced the 
sod, telling of coming spring. Surely, surely, the 
very marked and remarkable signs of promise of com 
plete restoration to health that have steadily increased 
the past year, are prophetic of what the Great Phy 
sician designs for me in his own good time." The 
writer received a letter from Dr. Sheldon, dated June 
i, 1895, written in Miss Reed s bungalow. She said: 
"As I am writing sister Mary is writing in the same 
room. I stop and look at her. She has on a blue 
dress with white spots. Her abundant hair is coiled 
on the top of her head. A smile is on her face as 
she writes a sweet, peaceful face this morning, with 
no trace of the disease which formerly showed itself 
in a spot on one of her cheeks. Her face is some 
times troubled ; but only for others sins and short 
comings, as all soul-winners and soul-builders will 
understand. She looks well." 

BOMBAY. 

This great city, the gateway through which Eu 
rope enters India, with its multitude of wealthy and 
well-educated people, as well as of poor and ignorant, 
with its splendid commerce and philanthropic spirit, 
is a grand field for missionary effort. Some work had 



fNDIA. 233 

been carried on among women prior to 1884, when 
the Society sent out Miss De Line. Miss Shewanti 
Bai Power, a Mahrati lady of excellent family and 
earnest piety, who speaks five languages and is an 
excellent theologian, was doing zenana work, and had 
access to thirty-five zenanas, and Miss Sarah Cassidy, 
a successful zenana worker from North India, to 
gether with Mrs. C. P. Hard, the pastor s wife, had 
opened schools and held meetings among the native 
Christian women. A Bible woman (Kassie) was also 
employed. Miss De L,ine at once organized for more 
extensive zenana work, and in 1885 was joined by 
Miss Elliott. Besides these two, other workers were 
the Misses Powers, Tracy, Wright, and two Bible 
women. A day-school was opened in March, 1887. 
Miss Elliott married, and Miss Abrams arrived and 
took charge of the school-work, which had grown to 
three day and two Sunday schools. One is a board 
ing, day-school and Orphanage combined, besides an 
other day-school supported by Miss Carroll, who was 
sent to India in 1888, and appointed to Bombay. The 
native Christian girls boarding-school is the largest 
of its kind in the city. Sunday-schools are connected 
with each of the five schools, as is common all over 
India, besides one averaging eighty in attendance in 
the Home. The missionaries also work in Grant 
Road Sunday-school, and in one in Mazagon, held in 
a Hindu temple ; and they are also responsible for the 
Sunday morning service with the Christian commu 
nity there, and share in the responsibility of keeping 
up the Epworth League. 

Eight zenana teachers visit more than 200 houses, 
and probably three times as many secluded women, 



234 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

who but for this agency would never hear of Christ* 
while about half a score of Bible women do good 
service among the women of the lower class. Among 
the zenana workers is a sister of the Miss Power 
above referred to, Miss Sundar Bai Power, a dignified 
native or high-caste Hindu, who visited England as 
a missionary in 1893, to point out the evils of the 
opium-traffic. She retained her Oriental dress while 
there. Miss Power speaks English with great fluency. 

A ZENANA PARTY. 

Miss Mary 1,. Nind has written such a charming 
sketch of a very unusual society event that occurred 
when she was in India in 1887, that we repeat it al 
most entire: 

"It happened on this wise: One warm, bright 
morning in March, we were seated at the breakfast- 
table in our zenana home in Bombay, when Miss 
De lyine turned to me with sudden animation, ex 
claiming: I have ah idea; I am going to give you a 
zenana party ! . . . 

" The following Wednesday was set for the party. 
Some one must be chosen to write the invitations. 
This coveted privilege was granted to Sundar Bai, a 
native zenana worker living in the Home. On tinted 
paper, in a round, clear hand, the dainty missives were 
penned some in Arabic, others in Hindustani, Tamil, 
Marathi, Guzerati, and I do n t know how many un 
pronounceable tongues and given to the bearer, who 
was duly dispatched with them to their destinations. 
News travels fast in India; and it was not long before 
the rumor reached us that the social world in the na 
tive quarter of the city had been thrown into a state 



INDIA. 235 

of the greatest excitement over the coming event, and 
Miss De Line s party was the subject of conversation 
in every zenana. I must say here that Miss De Line 
had access in her zenana visiting to the very cream of 
the native aristocracy families of wealth and fore 
most in rank and influence. In her zenanas were dark- 
haired Jewesses and dignified Mohammedans, dimple- 
faced Arabians, gentle Hindus, beautiful Parsees, and 
last, but not least, the learned Rukhmabai, whose 
fame had already spread to England and America, and 
enjoyed the additional honor of being a friend of 
Ramabai. 

" The morning of the eventful day dawned upon a 
cloudless sky, for there is no fear of March snows or 
April showers in India. At breakfast Miss De Line 
announced to the gentlemen of her household that 
they must be sure to leave the premises at noon, and 
not return till after eight in the evening. They prom 
ised faithfully ; for it was well understood that if so 
much as the shadow of a man were seen by these fair 
visitors, the party would come to an untimely end, 
and likewise, it was feared, would Miss De Line s ze 
nana visiting. All that morning we were busy as bees 
putting the house in order. The four or five zenana 
assistants were excused from their usual round of 
visits, and after breakfast we all set merrily to work, 
sweeping and dusting, polishing and garnishing. 
Flowers and palm-leaves transformed the rooms into 
fairy-like arbors, while each girl brought forth some 
bit of drapery or cherished knicknack to grace the oc 
casion. The house was admirably adapted for a party 
of this kind. It had been built by a Parsee for him 
self, so it was thoroughly native in style. A double 



236 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

carriage-drive led through the compound to the por 
tico, from which opened the reception and drawing 
rooms. Directly overhead was the large, airy parlor, 
with a veranda in front, screened by a high railing, 
and connecting with the cornpound below by a spiral 
staircase. In this way the women could pass directly 
to the zenana quarter overhead without entering the 
house from below and running the risk of meeting a 
chance man-servant. 

" By two o clock, the hour for the party, we were 
ready to receive our guests. As we waited in a flutter 
of expectancy the first arrivals, Miss De Line sug 
gested that I should go out on the veranda and watch 
them come. So I looked over the balustrade and 
peered through the interlacing foliage of the com 
pound to the road beyond. Presently there was the 
rumble of carriage- wheels, and the next minute in 
rolled a coach drawn by prancing horses, with coach 
man in front and footmen behind, all in picturesque 
native livery. The blinds at the windows were closely 
drawn, and not a peep could I get of a pair of bright 
eyes behind them. As the carriage stopped, one of 
the footmen sprang nimbly to the ground and opened 
the door with averted face. Then out stepped a most 
curious-looking figure. It was entirely enveloped in a 
white gown or sheet, that fell in ample folds to the 
ground, but was drawn tightly together in front, as 
if held by a pair of invisible hands, The figure moved 
slowly and cautiously toward the stairs, ascended 
them, and disappeared through the door of the dress 
ing-room. 

" The carriages now followed each other in quick 
succession, and an almost unbroken procession of 




YOUNG MOHAMMKDAN WOMEN. 



INDIA. 



239 



muffled forms, some in white gowns and some in col 
ored ones, filed in solemn array up the winding stair 
case. In striking contrast to these women were a few 
Christian girls, who came in gayly-painted ox-carts or 
on foot, their bright faces framed in a fleecy chuddar 
of white muslin. At last there was a cessation in the 
arrival of guests, and I turned back to the parlor. 
What a picture met my eyes as I entered ! Fifty or 
sixty dusky-cheeked ladies lined the walls. Their 
silken robes, of the richest Oriental colors, fell in 
graceful folds to the floor. Jewels by the myriad spar 
kled in the coils of their dark hair, glossy with co- 
coanut oil, dimpled their soft, bare arms, and adorned 
their foreheads, noses, ears, and necks. The feet of 
the Hindu women were almost hidden by a wealth of 
toe-rings and anklets, while the gold-embroidered slip 
pers of the Mohammedans peeped from under their 
sheeny draperies. The air was heavy with the odor of 
attar of roses and other scents. As I stood lost in ad 
miration of this novel scene, Miss De L,ine approached 
me with an anxious face. I can t get these women to 
talk to each other, and you must help me entertain 
them, she said, in an energetic whisper. But I can t 
speak their language ! O, never mind ; you can 
gesticulate or do something. I made this party for 
you, and you must help me through with it. 

"Eager to be of service, but at a loss how to begin, 
I took a chair and sat down in front of a semicircle 
of eight or ten ladies. We looked at each other in 
silence. I smiled, and they smiled. Then I stroked 
the folds of their silken chuddars, and passed my hand 
admiringly over the gilt embroidery, nodding and say 
ing, as well as I could, that I thought it was pretty. 



240 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

They turned to each other with an amused little laugh, 
and several of them, in a shy, inquisitive way, began 
feeling my dress, and examining its ribbons and but 
tons. I pointed to their heavy anklets and great nose 
rings, and made signs to know if they did not hurt. 
This seemed so funny to them that they laughed im 
moderately, rolling about on their chairs, and acting 
exactly like a bevy of merry little girls. Then they 
looked dolefully at my common-sense shoes, and 
felt of my ears and arms, shaking their heads in pity 
over my deplorable paucity of similar charms. After 
exhausting my resources on one group, I moved to 
anothei, and repeated the pantomime. 

"Occasionally I found some one usually she was 
a Christian girl who could speak a little English, and 
this was a great help, for then I could branch out into 
quite a conversation. While we were in the midst of 
this highly entertaining part of the program, refresh 
ments were announced. They were simple; for Miss 
De I^ine said she would not dare offer anything elab 
orate to these high-caste ladies, though she thought 
some among them might be willing to take such light 
refreshments as tea and cake at the house of a Chris 
tian. Nearly every one did, which was a wonderful 
concession. I could not help contrasting these women 
with many I had seen in North India, who would not 
even let my shadow fall on their food when I visited 
their homes, and who would probably have preferred 
to die rather than eat anything taken from a Christian s 
hand. When the trays were passed, I happened to be 
sitting by a Hindu woman and her two little children, 
a boy and girl. The mother accepted the tea, but re 
fused the cake. Supposing she declined from modesty, 



INDIA. 241 

and thinking that of course the children wanted cake, 
I was just about to give them some, when the dis 
tressed, frightened look on the woman s face recalled 
to my mind that she and her family were high-caste 
Brahmans, and might have to suffer weeks of penance 
if they tasted a morsel of our food. 

" After all were through eating, the Christian girls 
gathered around the organ and began singing some 
of the native bhajans. One after another joined in 
the chorus women who had often heard these mel 
odies sung in their own zenanas by our Bible work 
ers, and learned to love them. Loud and clear the 
plaintive strains floated out on the still air. In the 
gathering twilight I could see the faces around me 
grow serious, and down many a cheek the hot tears 
fell unheeded, as the sweet sentiment of the songs 
touched hearts that perhaps no spoken words could 
have reached telling how life is passing, and our 
friends are leaving us, and if we would meet them 
again we must believe in Jesus, the world s only 
Savior. As darkness fell our guests, robed again 
in their street costumes, left for their homes. Every 
one pronounced the party a perfect success, but as a 
result of it, poor Miss De L,ine was sick in bed for 

two days." 

MADRAS 

The foundations for women s work in connection 
with Methodist missions were laid in Madras by 
Mrs. Mary Rudisill, who was also largely its inspira 
tion. In 1889, Miss Mary Hughes was appointed to 
this work, but married during the following year. 
She is the only American representative the Society 
has ever had there. Mrs. Rudisill died July 8, 1889. 



242 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 



Miss Hughes in writing about the funeral said : " I 
have rarely heard such tributes as were paid by all 
classes to the beauty of her character and the devo 
tion of her life. Her death-bed was a scene of holy 
triumph unsurpassed in saintly annals. It is said 

such a funeral 
was never 
known in 
Madras, as old 
and young, 
rich and poor, 
English, Eu 
rasian, and na 
tive, gathered 
to do her hon 
or, carrying 
her body on 
their shoul 
ders to the 
ce metery, 
strewing her 
bier and fill 
ing her grave 
with flowers ; 

Miss GRACE STEPHENS. begging the 

privilege to 

put above her grave an Indian stone, bearing this in 
scription : The Lord gave, the Lord taketh away, 
blessed be the name of the Lord, saying, She was 
God s precious gift to India. " 

Miss Grace Stephens, in April, 1886, was ap 
pointed to open native work. She is an Eurasian, 
and by universal testimony unequaled in South In- 




INDIA. 243 

dia in her devotion, tact, and success as a zenana 
worker. An Orphanage was started with girls who 
came without clothes, pinched and starved, not 
knowing how to read or write, to sing, to laugh 
or play, and with no idea who made them or whither 
they were going. The assistants were constituted 
deaconesses by the South India Conference, and on 
the marriage of Miss Hughes the entire responsi 
bility rested upon Miss Stephens Orphanage, three 
day-schools, a Christian boarding-school, five Sun 
day-schools, and a large zenana work. One of the 
schools is for high-caste Brahman girls, who wear 
gay dresses and many jewels. There were seventy- 
seven of these girls on the roll, and the same num 
ber in the poor school. Under Miss Stephens and 
her sister, Mrs. Jones, social reform advances by 
leaps and bounds. Hindu methods and notions have 
been revolutionized by them to the extent that 
Hindu wives are treated with more consideration by 
their husbands ; children are nurtured with more 
care than ever was bestowed on them before; intel 
lectual cravings have been engendered; superstitions 
are being slowly shown the door: in fine, activity 
has taken the place of stagnation, and moral and in 
tellectual death have been dispelled by moral and 
intellectual life. The work has also broken down the 
walls of partition separating Hindus and Europeans. 
Miss Stephens began about 1890 her annual zenana 
parties, which have now become an established fact, 
and the increasing numbers that attend each year 
show a marked advancement in interest, which is ac 
companied by as much delight as our Christmas 
preparations. The first one was attended by over 



244 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

two hundred women, who met together in her spa 
cious drawing-room in Vepery. At the one in 1893 
over four hundred accepted her invitations. As they 
all sat upon the floor, Miss Stephens thought it was 
a sight Bishop Thoburn ought to see, and against 
the protestations of co-workers and friends, who 
feared the result, she stealthily sent for him, and took 
him right in among them. She says : " What side 
glances they shot at us as we talked together, and 
what lowering of heads, for many of them are pur 
dah women and Brahmans, who keep long distances 
from us in their homes. After a time they found 
out the Bishop was a human being, and I explained 
to them about him, and asked if they could not shake 
hands with such a man. Actually, more than a 
dozen women arose, and through the crowd made 
their way to the Bishop, and shook hands with him. 
It seemed too good to be true. It was a wonderful 
triumph for God. They were all free and happy, 
though he was in their midst. There were no bad 
results. Do you see how our parties are leveling 
caste away up above the Brahman caste into the 
Christian caste? The zenana party in 1894 was con 
sidered the most successful event, really the greatest 
era, in the work. The usual prizes and gifts and 
Christmas-tree were put aside, and a stereopticon en 
tertainment by Mr. Jefferson resolved upon. We can 
not realize all that this involved. A man, the late 
ness of the hour, a program, all were innovations. 
Over and over the people had to be seen, messages 
sent, and explanations made. Think of the task of 
visiting nearly five hundred people and presenting 
the undertaking to them. L,ike the eagerness pre- 



INDIA. 



245 



ceding the development of some great invention, 
Miss Stephens was not the only one interested, for 
as soon as the wonderful venture became known, the 
conjectures were that it would be a failure, the 
women would not come, this was too much to ex 
pect, and so on. 

"The final day dawned which would decide 
either a total failure or a grand success. The large 
drawing-room and adjoining apartments, hall-way, 
and two verandas were crowded to their utmost ca 
pacity with a company that was at once unique and 
interesting." Before being invited to the gardens, 
where the large stereopticon screen was hung, a 
wonderful program was announced. The names of 
the women were called, and the hymns, and different 
districts they lived in were mentioned. When young 
Brahman girls, child-wives, despised widows, sang out 
in that large crowd, it meant a real testimony for 
Jesus. How it astonished all who heard it ! Their 
women never sing out in such fashion. The singing 
that evening became the talk in all the zenanas. 
But the event of the evening was the exhibition of 
pictures. A Mohammedan woman told her people 
that "she saw everything that there is in the world." 
"She saw," she said, "buildings, animals, flowers, 
trees, men, women, the moon, stars, the sun, clouds, 
lightning; that there was nothing more for her to see 
now but God. If she saw him, her life would be 
finished." 

Strange ceremonies had to be observed on account 
of such departures from usual customs. " Some sat 
for certain hours each day in a tub of water, for 
cleansing from such contamination; others, to break 



246 WOMAN 5 FOREIGN MISSION A K Y SOCIE 7 K 

the charm, took a pill made of the hair and milk of 
the sacred cow mixed with other nameless ingredi 
ents. Washing and sprinkling with lime-juice, pecu 
liar manners, beating the tomtom, and wearing the 
holy beads, were some of the many strange measures 
resorted to." 

Thus step by step the progress has been gradual, 
but sure, in breaking down caste customs, and in ad 
vancing the kingdom of God. 

A remarkable conversion occurred in Madras, in 
1884, of a Hindu devotee, with several roles at one 
time disguised as a Mohammedan to encourage idol 
atry among that class, then a dervish, again a Hindu, 
a mendicant, a fortune-teller in turn. For ten years 
he plied this last vocation under a tree, about half a 
mile from the Methodist Publishing-house in Madras, 
where from a dozen to fifty or more persons daily con 
sulted him as to their future. Miss Stephens began 
giving the man books and tracts, which led to his con 
viction of sin and faith in Christ, when he surrendered 
to her his whole outfit ten books on magic, one 
magic slate, three books written on sacred leaves, and 
bound by sacred threads, and was then baptized. We 
have read before how " many of them also, which used 
curious arts, brought their books together and burned 
them before all men, and they counted the price of 
them, and found it fifty thousand pieces of silver." 
Every means was used by the magicians to recover the 
valuable books; but Miss Stephens declined all money 
offers for them, and sent them to America to the Bal 
timore Branch Secretary. She gave the man a Bible in 
exchange, and he now gives " true fortune out of 
that book." 



INDIA. 247 

SINGAPORE. 

There is a tinge of romance in connection with 
the opening of Methodist missions in Singapore, un 
der either Boards. Mrs. Oldham, whose husband 
opened the work and became its first Superintendent, 
became deeply interested in the women, and wrote to 
Mrs. Mary C. Nind, then Secretary of the Minneapo 
lis Branch, appealing for help. When she presented 
the appeal to the Committee in 1885, there were no 
funds available for new work; but, as Mrs. Oldham 
says, " The Lord laid Singapore on Mrs. Kind s heart, 
and as she mused the fire burned, until it leaped to 
her lips on Thursday, November 5, 1885, in the mem 
orable words that will go down into the history of 
the Malaysian Mission, Frozen Minnesota will yet, 
God helping her, plant a mission at the equator. She 
then personally pledged $3,000 to commence the 
work." Miss Blackmore, of Australia, was appointed 
to the work, and began August 15, 1887, by visiting 
the women and opening a day-school for Tamil girls. 
Parents of other nationalities became interested, and 
their daughters were admitted, and the name changed 
to Methodist Girls School. For several years this 
school was held in a small house furnished, rent free, 
by a Tamil gentleman. When it was full to overflow 
ing, another Tamil collected subscriptions among his 
countrymen to buy land, and the Society put up a 
building for the school. In 1894 there were ninety- 
five pupils enrolled. In August, 1888, Miss Black- 
more opened a Chinese girls school in Telok Ayer, 
with eight children. In 1894 it had grown to thirty. 
The gharry goes about picking up a girl here and 
17 



248 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

another there, twisting up hills, then down streets and 
into lanes, before all the scholars are collected. Miss 
Blackmore has the joy of winning trophies from four 
Eastern races Chinese, Malay, Tamil, and Siamese. 
The mission has been re-enforced since 1892 by Misses 
Ferris, Hebiuger, and Foster. Miss Hebinger en 
gaged in Rescue work in 1893, without support from 
the Society. In 1895 she was married to Rev. E. T. 
Snuggs, manager of the Soldiers and Sailors Home. 
The Mary C. Nind Deaconess Home was ready in 
1893, and into it the workers with the twenty -four 
boarding-school girls moved. 

The Society supports work in Penang, where a 
girls school was opened in 1891. It now has sixty- 
five pupils. There is also there an Indian school of 
twenty pupils. Two influential Babu Chinese women 
have been converted, baptized, and taken into the 
Church. In 1894 the Misses Blackmore and Ferris 
visited Palenbang, in Southwestern Sumatra, whither a 
native Christian woman, a convert in Singapore, had 
gone before them, and told the story of Jesus and his 
love. Everywhere they met with eager listeners to 
the message, and buyers of the tracts and Scripture 
portions they took along. 

PROTECTED NATIVE STATES. 

HAIDERABAD. The Protected States, of which 
there are about two hundred, are ruled by their own 
native princes, but under the protection of the British 
Government. The Society has work in several of 
them, including Haiderabad, in the Nizam s Domin 
ions, the largest and most important of all the native 
States, and this city, the strongest Mohammedan city 



INDIA. 249 

in .the world except Constantinople. There are 
greater varieties of the human race here than else 
where in India. Miss L,. Blackmar, after sixteen years 
in Lucknow, and the North India Conference, was 
transferred, in 1889, to the South India Conference, 
and appointed to open work among Urdu-speaking 
women and girls in Haiderabad, five hundred miles 
from any other of the Society s missionaries. It 
afforded an opportunity for a pioneer woman to go 
and possess all, medical work, school, village teaching, 
and zenana visiting, all in the name of the Lord. Miss 
Haefer was sent to assist in 1891. In addition to the 
English Girls School in their house, one for Marathi 
girls has been opened in the heart of the city, and in 
other parts two schools for Mohammedan girls, and 
yet another of bright little Haiderabads. 

BASTAR. Another feudatory or native Protected 
State is Bastar, concerning which very little has been 
known until recently. It is separated on the north 
east from the Nizam s Dominions by the Godaveri 
River. The country is not surpassed in India for 
beauty, but no one knows the Lord Jesus Christ. 
Nearly all the people are aborigines, Gondo or Kois 
the rest being Hindus. They are not caste-bound, 
No Brahmans exist to prevent any possible and pro 
jected advancement. These wild people have no idol 
temples. In 1892, Rev. C. B. Ward, of the General 
Society, was led to explore this interesting field. He 
went again in 1893, stationing Dr. and Mrs. Batstone 
in Jagdalpur, the capital. In 1894 he made a third 
trip, this time conducting a special expedition, con 
sisting of the presiding elder of Haiderabad District, 



2 50 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSION AR Y SOCIETY. 

of which Bastar formed a part, Miss Blackmar, -and 
some native preachers. The presiding elder and Miss 
Blackmar went by direct commission of Bishop Tho- 
burn. The Government officials had held out every 
encouragement. They welcomed the missionaries, 
grants of land were easily secured, also village sites, 
by which self-support will in time be made possible ; a 
share of all being offered the Society, five years rent 
free, if buildings are put up and work begun in that 
time. In the capital fifty acres has been secured 
the Society. 

Mrs. Emma Moore Scott, in the Indian Witness, 
writes concerning the wonderful expedition: "Under 
taken when the thermometer registered 1 10 on the 
train, conducted through a country infested by tigers, 
bears, and other wild animals, on these brave mission 
aries went, up hill and down, through thick jungles, 
jolting over boulders, crossing steep-banked water 
courses, creeping under low-hung branches that threat 
ened to sweep off the unwary riders, encountering 
brush and scrub that thrust their arms into the path, 
inflicting lacerations on face and hands, and tearing 
clothing, fording broad rivers, threading dense for 
ests such are a few of the difficulties encountered." 

In 1895 a building was erected in Sironcha, known 
as the "Clark Memorial Mission Home," in memory of 
Mrs. Bishop Clark, for 25 years president of the Cincin 
nati Branch, this Branch having furnished the money. 

BARODA. This is a walled city of about one hun 
dred thousand inhabitants, and the capital of the in 
fluential State of Baroda, under native rule. The 
Methodist missionaries are the only ones there. The 



INDIA. 251 

king is not opposed to Christianity. The mission 
aries were kindly received. Miss Anna Thompson, 
who was already in the country, was accepted by the 
Society in 1888, and found much encouragement in 
zenana and school work, visiting between forty and 
fifty homes each week, sometimes in the royal family, 
and sometimes among the very lowest. There were 
conversions among high-caste women the first year, 
and the work continued to grow until she was not 
able to enter all the open doors. When the district 
Conference met in Baroda, the missionaries were so 
few the delegates all had to board in one place. The 
Dewan (the King s Prime Minister) showed much 
kindly feeling by loaning them dishes, lamps, a tent, 
chairs, etc. He also attended the reception given to 
Bishop Thoburn, and the temperance meeting, where 
he made a speech. The day after Conference he sent 
bullo:k-carts and had all the native Christians taken 
to the palaces, and to all the other places of interest, 
and also sent state carriages for all the Europeans to 
go sight-seeing. State elephants were sent two even 
ings, and all that desired went out riding. As 
there was no minister there in 1894, Miss Thompson 
was responsible for everything, even to the burial of 
the dead, in the absence of the presiding elder. May 
i, 1895, a large number of native Christians gathered 
in the church to witness her marriage to Rev. W. H. 
Stephens, of the Marathi Mission. 

METHODS OF WORK. 

ZKNANA VISITING. Twenty-five years ago mis 
sionaries would pass the closely-barred doors of the 
zenanas, \vondering often who would roll away the 



252 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

stone. Western ideas continued knocking until con 
fused cries from within were heard, and prayer set 
wide open the door for eager listeners to hear the 
story of the manger and the cross. There have been 
many encouraging things in zenana visitation, though 
the prejudice of the upper class hinders them from ac 
cepting the truth in the ready way their poor sisters 
do. None can tell what saving results may come from 
the oft-spoken truth in hymn, prayer, and exhortation. 
The field is very wide, and much more might be done 
in these "hidden apartments of the women," if work 
ers could be secured. 

Greater attention of late has been paid to the 
women of Mohullas by Methodists, many of the mis 
sionaries feeling directed to the very poor and de 
pressed, who need all the help that can be given them. 
The ever-increasing Christian community has caused 
great changes in methods of work, and the mission 
aries, especially in the Northwest India Conference, 
had to face the question of continuing to give their 
time and thought and means to the possible few in 
the zenana, or of giving themselves to teaching and 
developing those who have come out of heathendom, 
that they be not known as baptized heathen. Much 
of the zenana work has been transferred to other mis 
sions, so that the Bible women and teachers may teach 
the Christian women and children. 



WOMEN. In the early days of missions the 
Bible woman was not. She is the product of years of 
patient toil. It was necessary first to win her from 
allegiance to heathen gods ; then to teach her to read 
the Bible, to understand its truths, to imbibe its spirit, 



INDIA, 253 

and to shape her life by its laws. Then came years 
of spiritual growth and of increase in numbers, until 
now the Bible woman is recognized as an important 
factor in missionary work. The Society employs over 
625 Bible women, who go into the zenanas, and sing 
sweet songs about the love of God for women as well 
as for men, about the sinless Christ and his redeem 
ing death. After that it is not easy for everything to 
remain as before. In Lucknow, during the painful 
experiences of the famine in 1878, Miss Blackmar, the 
superintendent of the zenana work, ceased the regular 
work of the Bible women, and, with the money sup 
plied by the municipality, carried on a large " Relief" 
work, teaching and furnishing such kinds of work as 
could find a market. The Government put on record 
its high appreciation and cordial recognition of the 
service rendered. 

VILLAGE WORK. The manner of carrying on 
village work is to gather the people together in some 
place and give them religious instruction. Sometimes 
stories are read from the Bible, sometimes told in the 
teacher s own words, and then in a plain, simple way, 
always applied as lessons for the every-day life of us 
all. Bhajans (hymns) are always sung, and if not 
fully understood by the listeners, are simply explained. 
Many of the people in the villages, especially those of 
the higher caste, as Brahmans and Fakirs, are among 
the best and most interested listeners. It is very dif 
ficult to estimate the number who are under instruc 
tion ; but the villages mount up into the thousands. 
Miss Phebe Rowe, accompanied by "Caroline Mama," 
itinerates around a good deal among the villages. It 



254 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

is not uncommon for a woman to have charge of one 
hundred villages in which native Christians live. 

MOHULLA. The mohulla is the home of the poor 
and the outcast. They are the back-slums, and are 
far from being pleasant places. They are low, wind 
ing, unsanitary, and uninviting. Still the Lord s work 
and children are there, and many listen gladly to the 
teaching of the Christian religion; even though tired 
and weary from early dawn until noon, they willingly 
give three hours after that to being taught. There 
are many conversions and baptisms among them after 
due instruction and preparation. In the North India 
Conference alone, in 1894 there were 894 mohullas 
visited. 

MELAS. Visiting heathen melas (a kind of fair 
and religious festival), where hundreds of thousands 
of people gather, has become another agency for evan 
gelistic work. The Christian women sometimes pro 
claim the gospel from the steps of heathen tem 
ples. They sell books and give away tracts to many 
people to whom salvation s story has never been told. 
Sometimes the evangelists gain more attention from 
the crowds than do the Brahmans, who are present to 
teach and to receive their offerings. 

The Christians have established melas of their 
own. At the Chandausi Christian Mela, in North 
India, in 1891 two meetings were held expressly for 
Hindustani women. The wife of a native presiding 
elder was appointed chairman, and, upon her motion, 
a secretary was elected. The business went forward 
in the most orderly manner. The mela in 1890 had 



INDIA. 255 

over 2,200 Christians encamped on the ground, in ad 
dition to a goodly number of visitors. There were over 
300 testimonies Sunday morning at the love-feast. 

HOME FOR HOMELESS WOMEN. 

In a land of many houses and few homes, of many 
benighted, sin-laden women, and few to lift up and 
help, a Home for Homeless Women in Lucknow 
was opened in April, 1882. Among those who have 
been admitted, a very few, tiring of the restraint of 
Christian influence, have left the Home ; but Chris 
tian love and kindness usually rules, and these poor 
women, used only to harshness, want, and misery, have 
shown their gratitude for kindness in the way in which 
their hearts have been touched and won, and with 
their hearts their whole lives have been changed. 
There are others from a better class of society, Eu 
ropeans and Eurasians; some to be lifted out of the 
bondage of strong drink, some from the opium habit, 
some from immorality, and some have come only be 
cause the} have wanted a Christian home and pro 
tection. 

In 1892, there were eight blind women, some of 
whom could read the raised-type books. They help 
themselves a good deal. All are Christians. Miss 
Blackmar superintended this Home until 1889, seven 
years after it was opened, when she was transferred 
to South India, and Miss Sullivan succeeded her. 

WIDOWS HOME. 

For some time a Widows Home has been main 
tained in Shahjehanpore. In 1890, it burned down, 
making the third time in ten years. 



256 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

MEDICAL HOME. 

The Medical School at Agra is not distinctively 
missionary, but is largely under Methodist manage 
ment ; and from the beginning of girls entering the 
school, there has been a Christian home for the med 
ical students. 

DEACONESS HOMES. 

The deaconess has appeared in India, and in 1893 
there were six Homes, with eighteen workers, besides 
twelve others outside of Homes. These Homes are 
located in Calcutta, where Mrs. Bishop Thoburn 
opened the work; in Laicknow, Muttra, Madras, Pith- 
oragarh, and Singapore. A missionary deaconess is 
employed by and responsible to the Society. L,ike 
other missionaries, she receives her appointment from 
the Bishop, and goes where, in his judgment, the 
needs of the work demand. She agrees to certain 
limitations in the matter of dress and support, the 
former consisting of a neat gray dress in summer a 
white one and a black bonnet trimmed with gray 
ribbon ; the support is estimated at nine hundred ru 
pees (equivalent to about $350). In Muttra a new 
building was put up on purpose in 1889, for which 
W. E. Blackstone, of Chicago, gave $5,000 as a me 
morial to his parents, and for the training of native 
workers. In January, 1889, at the Conference, Miss 
Sparkes, returned from America, was appointed to es 
tablish and superintend this Training-school and Dea 
coness Home. During the first two years twenty-two 
students were in attendance from sixteen different sta 
tions. There was introduced a thorough course of 
study, comprising about what is taken in the Chicago 



INDIA. 



257 



Training-school, excepting the medical lectures; these 
they were not able to have. They also have a thor 
ough course of Hindi, -Urdu, and Bengali, and are 
taught methods of work with practical training, be 
sides having the rare instruction of Mrs. Emma Scott 
in teaching music. A course of monthly lectures was 
carried out in 1890, treating such subjects as Hindu 
Mythology, Practical Christian Ethics, Emergencies 
with the Sick, etc. In 1893, we learn: "The Training- 
school was subjected to a most thorough examination 
in Scripture History and Geography, Bible Evidences, 
Prophecies and their Fulfillment, besides a written ex 
amination on the first ten books of the Old Testament. 
The Gospel and Acts of the Apostles, with four of 
the Epistles, closed a most thorough examination." 

The Board of Education desire the older pupils of 
the boarding-schools to avail themselves of the oppor 
tunities afforded by this school, not only in intellect 
ual and spiritual, but in practical training for zenana 
work. Miss Sparkes returned home in 1891, and Drs. 
McDowell and Sheldon in turn cared for the work 
until, in 1895, Miss Sullivan was transferred from the 
Lucknow Home, as superintendent of Muttra, to be 
assisted by Phebe Rowe, the two young ladies of the 
Friends Mission, Miss Fistler and Miss Baird, remain 
ing in lyucknow. The remaining Homes are super 
intended as follows : Pithoragarh by Miss Budden, 
Calcutta by Miss Maxey, Singapore by Miss Ferris, 
and the latest (built in 1895), a t Darchula, by Dr. 
Sheldon. 

MISSIONARY SOCIETIES. As early as 1871 Mis 
sionary Societies were organized in India among the 



258 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

girls in the Bareilly Orphanage, and the native Chris 
tian women. There are now forty of these Societies 
in one Conference alone, which gave in 1894 over 92 s 
rupees into the treasury, 187 of this amount a special 
offering for the Silver Anniversary Fund, the remain 
der to be expended as designated. Some of it was ap 
propriated to local Sunday-school work; 220 rupees to 
the Home for Homeless in L,uckno\v; 177 to an Or 
phanage; other amounts to school, village, and local 
work. Monthly missionary meetings are held regu 
larly, the women and girls studying different coun 
tries as missionary centers, writing essays on different 
topics, and carrying on all the meetings in a proper 
manner. In some cases, for the Silver Anniversary, 
they used a translation of the same program prepared 
for use in this land. 

WOMEN S CONFERENCES. At the session of the 
Annual Conference the missionary women, married 
and single, began in 1871 to meet in a council of their 
own, and this has grown in the lapse of years into a 
most important body, with a four years course of 
study and examinations, which publishes its own Min 
utes and reports, and maintains all the forms of a per 
manent organization. When the Central Conference 
became a matter of history, the women sent delegates 
from their three Annual Conferences to meet with 
them at the same time and place. The District Con 
ference is not to be confounded with a presiding 
elder s district. It is numerically stronger than an 
Annual Conference, and is more largely for the ben 
efit of native workers. It has a course of study 
adapted to the humblest zenana worker or Bible 



INDIA. 259 

reader, and thorough examinations. The native 
Christians have been known to make a seven days 
march to attend one of these District Conferences, 
and that, too, over rough Himalaya roads on foot, 
seventy-five miles ! They have papers, and discus 
sions, and reports. Sometimes, too, a woman pre 
sides who has spent the greater part of her life in a 
Mohammedan home ! 

OTHER KINDS OF WORK. The work of the 
Woman s Christian Temperance Union has been a 
blessing to many. A Hindustani Branch has been 
organized in Cawnpore, with native women for offi 
cers, and another in the Northwest Provinces, with 
Mrs. L,awson as President. There are many circles of 
King s Daughters girls who wear the little silver 
cross, and know what it means. A flourishing branch 
of the Young Woman s Christian Association has 
been in active service for three years, which is also 
officered by native women, and many of them were 
trained by this Society. While these are all, as in 
this country, made up of Christians under various 
denominations, Methodists have their per cent in 
them all. There are many Epworth Chapters in 
India. An Epworth League Convention for the 
whole empire was held in L,ucknow in October, 1893, 
in which some of the students of the girls schools 
took part. Some of the Epworth League Conventions 
have six hundred young people in attendance, of both 
sexes. In 1894 they sent to this country for one 
thousand charters, to meet the growing demands of 
the work consequent upon the great ingathering in 
Northwest India. In 1892, Bishop Thoburn, at the 



260 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

General Confereuce, reported a Christian community 
in India of not less than fifty thousand souls, and a 
membership, including full members and proba 
tioners, of over thirty thousand. "All through these 
past four years we have had inquirers coming to us in 
steadily increasing numbers, and the latest advices in 
dicate no signs of waning interest. We now receive 
more converts in a month than we used to receive in 
a decade. The sun which rose upon you this morn 
ing went down upon fifty converts on the other side 
of the globe, who had just exchanged the worship of 
idols for the service of the living God, and every day 
you tarry here will witness the ingathering of fifty 
more. When I return to my field, I shall expect to 
greet ten thousand new converts men and women 
who were worshiping idols four months ago as con 
fidently as I shall expect to find the mountains in their 
places, or the stars keeping watch in the silent 
heavens. God is truly doing great things in our 
midst, and we call upon the whole Church to rejoice 
with us in the signal tokens for good which he is giv 
ing us." 

The Society carries on the work in the new North 
west India Conference as vigorously as the means at 
command permit. It has 54 day-schools, with 700 
girls; i English and vernacular school, with 78 pupils; 
105 Sunday-schools, where 3,500 children are taught ; 
i medical school, with 15 students; and 115 Bible 
women, who carry the Word of Life into the homes 
of the people; 687 women are learning to read, and 
3,974 other women are under religious instruction, of 
whom over 2,400 are Christian, the others Hindus and 
Mohammedans. Three boarding-schools were started 



INDIA. 261 

in 1892 ; one at Ajmere, the " Avery, "funds for which 
were contributed by Mrs. Avery, of the Topeka 
Branch; another at Meerut, the " Howard Plested," 
due to the timely gifts of Mrs. W. Plested, of Den 
ver; a third at Aligarh, the corner-stone of which 
bears this inscription: " L,ouisa Soules Girls Board 
ing-school, 1894," Mrs. Soules, of Michigan, having 
given $6,000 to found it. A memorial bell to little 
Arthur Ninde Potts, the five-year old son of Dr. Potts, 
of the Michigan Christian Advocate, was provided for 
this school by the children of the Advocate, and after 
beautifully impressive dedicatory services at North- 
ville, Michigan, September 25, 1895, it was sent on its 
way to India, with the prayer that when its eloquent 
lips are touched by its fitting tongue, there shall sound 
forth in sweet and loving vibrations its command- 
atory inscription, "L,ittle children, keep yourselves 
from idols." 

The Conference, when organized in 1893, nac ^ f ew 
missionaries of the Society, the work being carried 
on in thirteen stations by married women, only two 
stations having work under unmarried women. 



CHAPTER XL 

CHINA. 

Commenced in 1847 Woman s work commenced in 1858-^ 
Woman s Foreign Missionary Society commenced work in 
1871 North China Woman s work 1871 Central China, 1872 
West China, 1882 Discontinued in 1885 Reopened in 1894. 

FOOCHOW. Before the Society was organized, 
work was begun in China by the wives of the 
Parent Board Missionaries. The lamented death of Mrs. 
Jane Isabel White, wife of one of the first two Method 
ist missionaries to China in 1847, which occurred a few 
months after the mission was opened, prevented the 
execution of plans for the benefit of Christian women 
in which she was so thoroughly interested, and for the 
carrying out of which she was so admirably qualified. 
December, 30, 1850, a day-school was opened by Mrs. 
R. S. Maclay, with six girls, and continued seven 
years, with Mrs. E. C. Gibson as associate the last few 
years. Among other women who did pioneer work 
were Mrs. Nellie M. Baldwin, whose career of useful 
ness soon terminated, Mrs. Sites, Mrs. E. E. Baldwin, 
Ohlinger, and Chandler. Mrs. Sites and Mrs. Bald 
win also aided the workers at home by their articles 
in the Heathen Woman s Friend. But prior to any 
effort being put forth, the brethren were deeply con 
vinced that China could not be fairly started on the 
path of progress until the daughters of the land were 
enlightened and elevated ; hence they highly approved 
the organization of the Society, and recorded in the 
Minutes of the Mission in 1870 their pledged co- 
262 



CHINA. 



263 



operation. When it became impracticable for the ladies 
to continue day-schools, the Mission sent stirring ap 
peals to the 
Board of Man- 




Mi s s i o n a r y 
Society, and 
to the Ladies 
China Mis 
sionary Soci 
ety, which re 
sulted in the 
latter appro 
priating five 
thousand dol 
lars for suita 
ble buildings 
for a school, 
and in the 
former send 
ing out the 
Misses Sarah 
and Beulah 
Woolston. 

On Novem 
ber, 28, 1859, 

they opened the first Methodist Girl s Boarding-school 
in China. For days, only one girl came, and at the 
close of the year, though fifteen had been admitted, 
only eight remained. Such an accumulation of ob 
stacles, such a combination of hostile elements, 
might, to less courageous spirits, have seemed 
hopeless to continue the struggle. On the gth of 
18 



MRS. YEK ING KWANG, 
The first school-girl baptized. 



264 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

March, 1862, one of the pupils was baptized and re 
ceived into the Church. This was the first fruit of 
a harvest of souls since reaped from the school. In 
January, 1869, in consequence of impaired health, the 
sisters returned on a visit to the United States. In 
December, 1871, they went back to Foochow, un 
der the new Woman s Foreign Missionary Society, 
and resumed the care of the Baltimore Female Acad 
emy. During their absence of three years, Mrs. S. 
Moore Sites had charge of the school, and devoted her 
self with marked fidelity and success to the super 
vision of its interests. An appropriation of $3,000 
was made to enlarge and improve the building. The 
administration of the school aimed at making labor 
honorable ; and ornamental needlework, housework, 
and habits of cleanliness, industry, thrift, and piety 
were taught, besides writing, geography, arithmetic, 
and astronomy. They studied the Bible more than 
anything else. In 1877 there were thirty-one pupils, 
three of whom were teachers and fourteen Church 
members. After six years of work under the Society, 
the Misses Woolston again came home, and left the 
school a second time with Mrs. Sites. The Chinese 
betrothal system allows the girl no choice in a hus 
band, only acquiescence; but the foundlings had no 
one but the missionaries to attend to that ; and what a 
"new departure" it must have been when four young 
men from the Theological School actually wooed and 
won four young women in this boarding-school ! But 
they were required to wait two years until the girls 
had finished the course; then came the busy days of 
preparation. One of the young men brought Mrs. 
Sites $50 as the amount set apart by his family for his 



. 265 

betrothed, and he wanted to give it to the school. 
This she refused to take under the circumstances, but 
allowed him the privilege of spending it on the little 
lady s trousseau. The same privilege was granted the 
others, and from four to six weeks was spent in dress 
making and jewelers work, which was attended with 
exactness, although the parties never spoke to each 
other. Early on the morning of June 26, 1879, four 
red bridal-chairs were waiting at the door of the 
school-house ; the last touches were put upon the 
toilets of the four young brides, they were closed in 
their chairs, and while the church-bell rang a merry 
peal, they were carried to the church, and placed side 
by side, facing the altar. Each bride was led to her 
place, when she was immediately joined by the bride 
groom. The custom of keeping closely veiled, and 
this being a quadruple wedding, some uneasiness was 
felt by the grooms lest a mistake would be made. But 
instead of the usual heavy red flannel plaid, Mrs. 
Sites had provided a rose-colored net which was ex 
ceedingly becoming. No mistake was made. Each 
young preacher was married to the right girl, when 
they left for their new homes, from fifteen, to two 
hundred and forty miles away, to become centers of 
Christian influence. Toward the close of the year 
1879, there was another conquest, another corona 
tion not in life, but in death. A sweet young girl of 
seventeen died. A short time before her death she 
gave her cash a string of bright, large cash she had 
been collecting for years, and greatly prized to 
the Society. 

New educational methods were introduced, under 
the approval of the Mission, including the study of 



266 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

English, the Chinese classics, music, and other accom 
plishments. Mrs. Sites turned the school over to the 
Misses Woolston on their return in 1880; but they did 
not approve, and would not adopt, these new meas 
ures, and retired from the work, with the highest ap 
preciation and esteem of the missionaries of all 
Boards represented in China, and of the Society with 
which they had been so long identified. They laid 
deep foundations, and during a quarter of a century 
great changes had been brought about. Day-schools 
had been opened in the contiguous villages holes in 
the dark, that shall one day make this whole system 
of heathenism fall to pieces ; Bible women s training 
schools had been opened, medical work introduced; 
and now the native Church desired more advanced 
training. The Society had received a most remark 
able document from the native preachers, asking for 
the higher education of the women and girls, and 
pleading for it with an eloquence and wealth of illus 
tration thoroughly Oriental. In December, 1883, 
these pioneers once more, and for the last time, turned 
their faces homeward. Mrs. Sites had preceded them 
in 1 88 1, and for a time the school was carried on by 
Rev. Sia Sek Ong and the wives of the missionaries. 
Then the Franco-Chinese war came, and the school 
was broken up. In the fall of 1884 it seemed as 
though a new beginning had to be made. When 
Misses Jewell and Fisher reached Foochow, Novem 
ber 17, 1884, there were only seventeen girls in the 
school. During the year there was an advance made 
all along the line, not only in numbers to forty-six, 
but in a higher standard of scholarship, a better classi 
fication, greater neatness in apparel and rooms, a 



CHIXA. 267 

higher moral standard, and increased spirituality. The 
school was graded in 1887. Miss Hartford arrived, 
and was associated with Miss Jewell until in 1888, 
when she took up woman s work, and in 1889 opened 
the woman s school. Miss Bonafield began work in 
the boarding school on her arrival in 1888, and had 
charge during Miss Jewell s absence, beginning in 
November, 1889, and continuing until March 18, 1891. 
The first class graduated in 1888, consisting of five 
girls, "Jennie," "Fidelia," " Rossa," "Florence," and 
" Estelle." Sickness in the school prevented holding 
graduating exercises. Diplomas w r ere received later. 
An event of great importance was the purchase of 
new property, for which $12,000 had been appropri 
ated. Early marriages interfered with higher educa 
tion ; but though many girls left, a class of six gradu 
ated in 1890, having finished the eight years course. 
In 1890, Miss Fisher became Mrs. Brewster. In 1891, 
Miss Sites took charge of the Music Department, and 
the name of Jesus and the story of his love, set to 
some sweet melody, was hymned out from native 
lips, prompted by a heart of gratitude. In 1893, there 
was an enrollment of 105, and the course of study 
was lengthened to ten years. Two hundred and fifty 
girls were in the school during Miss Jewell s super- 
intendency, twenty of whom became teachers, and 
ten studied medicine. April 7, 1893, during the thirty- 
fourth year of the school, they moved into the new 
building. In the spring of 1894, Miss Jewell had to 
relinquish her place and work, and came home with 
impaired health. She has counted nothing too great 
an offering for the upbuilding of the school. Miss 
Bonafield, and her congenial and able assistant, Miss 



268 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

Wilkinson, took charge in 1895, and are carrying on 
the work very efficiently. 

An unprecedented revival was enjoyed in Foochow 
in 1894, when probably 2,000 converts were received 
into the Church. 

HING HUA. The second boarding-school in the 
Foochow Conference was opened in King Hua in 1892, 
called the "Hamilton Girls Boarding-school." Its 
growth has been remarkable. Fifty pupils were re 
ported at the end of the second year, and this, too, 
with an entrance examination required, although a 
number were received in the Primary Department 
from places where there were no day-schools. Many 
of the girls were converted ; twenty-eight joined the 
Church on probation, of whom twenty-one were re 
ceived into full membership in 1893. Ep worth and 
Junior Leagues are maintained. Mrs. Brewster de 
voted her best energies in carrying forward the work 
alone until in 1893, when Miss Wilson was sent out. 

KUCHENG. This school was opened in March, 
1893, with twenty-five choice girls in attendance, who 
were selected from the day-schools in the district. It 
became at once a very promising school. The interest 
of the Christian people in it was most touchingly shown 
by their coming long distances to attend the examina 
tions, and by their prayers so constantly ascending 
for its highest success. 

HOK CHIANG. In 1896, a boarding-school was 
opened in Hok Chiang with twelve girls, all of whom 
passed the entrance examinations. The number was 
soon twenty. 



CHINA. 269 

HO KING ENG. 

In 1884, there voluntarily came to this country from 
China a Christian young lady, eighteen years of age, 
and not yet betrothed, whose personal history has been 
mentioned earlier in this volume. The family of her 
grandfather was the second which embraced Chris 
tianity nearly forty years ago. Her grandfather, a 
military mandarin of some rank, was also a soldier for 
Jesus and died a Christian. He left to the Methodist 
Church a legacy of six sons, the second of whom, Rev. 
Hii Yong Mi, the father of Miss Hii, was known 
throughout the Church as the " Johannian " preacher. 
He was one of the first class of seven native preachers 
ordained elders at the organization of the Foochow 
Conference by Bishop Wiley in 1877, and was at one 
time elected the reserve delegate to General Confer 
ence. He was a pillar of strength in the Church in 
China, because of his piety and wisdom and literary 
ability ; having, withal, an eloquent tongue, which, 
in the ardor of pulpit oratory, brought to his fine 
six-foot physique a princely bearing. At noon on 
Friday, June 30, 1893, he died of consumption, and, 
dressed in beautiful, snow-white satin garments, he 
was laid to rest. 

The mother of Miss Hii is a lady brought up in 
the polite society of the higher class of Chinese life, 
and wore an embroidered shoe only three inches in 
length. But with the experience which conies to a 
noble-minded Christian woman in thirty years as the 
wife of a Methodist itinerant in privations oft, and 
in persecutions beyond the power of pen to narrate 
she has become a model woman among her people, 



2 70 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

devoted in a remarkable degree to her family and the 
Methodist Church. 

King Eng is the eldest daughter of a family of 
five children. Her brother, older, is an ordained 
preacher. She has two sisters younger than herself, 
and a brother, forming a most loving, happy family. 

And now the strangest part of all this family his 
tory is, that King Eng should thus sever herself from 
all these tender home ties to seek an education in a 
foreign land to fit her to return to her home again, 
carrying healing to the bodies and joy to the hearts 
of the suffering mothers and daughters of her native 
land. After a literary course in Delaware, Ohio, she 
entered the Woman s Medical College in Philadelphia, 
and took a thorough training in medicine and surgery, 
including a year of postgraduate study and hospital 
experience, and is now a thoroughly-qualified medical 
missionary. 

During her eleven years in this country, King Eng 
retained her native dress. She was the object of the 
care and affection of the Philadelphia Branch, her 
expenses having been met by three of its women who 
returned her to her beloved China, where she arrived 
in Foochow August 6, 1895, the first Chinese woman 
with a Western degree to practice medicine. 

HIGH-CLASS SEMINARY. 

Mrs. Ahok, the daughter of a mandarin, and widow 
of a princely merchant, who is actively engaged in all 
Christian work, was solicited to lend her influence in 
1893 i n establishing a school for high-class natives 
(non-Christians), a class hitherto unreached. These 
girls, daughters of wealthy mandarins, ex-mandarins, 



Cirr.vA. 271 

or officers of various rank, and also of literary gen 
tlemen eligible to official rank, could not, if they 
desired it, be admitted to the Foochow boarding- 
school, because of its rule against bound feet. They 
would live and die for centuries to come without 
Christ and without education rather than yield the 
custom of foot-binding, their mark of gentility. Miss 
Sites had been impressed with a desire that such as 
these should have the gospel also, and though meeting 
with some opposition, succeeded in opening the semi 
nary in March, 1893, ln the Mission House next to her 
home. It was subsequently moved to the woman s 
building. The women of high rank came in crowds to 
see the foreign lady, and Miss Sites was invited to their 
different homes, and thereby had an opportunity to 
give the gospel in all its love and comfort to those 
who had never before even heard the name of Jesus. 
A very complete course of study was laid out, includ 
ing poetry and composition; so that from the most 
critical point of view they can be called educated. 
Eight were enrolled the first year, and ten the second. 
These students pay their own way. The examina 
tions in 1893 were attended by over thirty l.L h-clnss 
women from the city and vicinity, and many of China s 
caste-bound girls are looking toward this school with 
longing hearts. Before the second year closed, all but 
four had been received into the Church, and two of 
these were Church members. They began the study 
of the Bible and our hymns at the very beginning. 
This is the class of people in China who have power 
and influence. The school has shown itself an agent 
in overcoming pride and self-righteousness in several 
of the homes; and the welcome accorded Miss Sites 



272 W OMAN 5 FOREIGN MISSION A R Y SOCIE TY. 





MRS. AHOK. 



and her teachings in it is overcoming the supersti 
tious fears of the common people. Thus the rich have 
the gospel, too. 

MRS. AHOK. 

Mr. Ahok was subsequently converted at our 
Anglo - Chinese College in Foochow, an institution 
founded for boys. Mrs. Ahok is 
the second wife, his first wife hav 
ing died. After this marriage he 
took up his residence in a very fine 
yamen, or Chinese house, besides 
which he also had an elegant Eng 
lish house, furnished with carpets, 
pictures, piano, and everything re 
quired for the reception and conven 
ience of his foreign visitors. In these two houses he 
and Mrs. Ahok dispensed the most generous hospital 
ity. He gave a feast to Bishop Bowman when visiting 
Foochow, when all the latest arrivals among mission 
aries, with others, were invited to meet him. They 
sat down to a luncheon of fourteen courses, served in 
silver dishes, with cups and spoons, as follows: 

Pig-head Jelly and Duck Liver. 

Roast Fowl and Ham. 
Salted Pig-feet and Prawns. 
Preserved Egg and Sausage. 

Birdnest and Pigeon-egg. 

Shark Fin and Crab. Roast Fat Duck. 

Baked Cuttle-fish. Roast Pig-liver. 

Fried Pheasant. Chicken Soup. 

Stuffing Bread. Almond Tea. 

Spring Rolled Cake. Sponge Cake. 

Melon Seed and Almond. 
Preserved Fruits. Fresh Fruits. 



CHINA. 



273 



Mrs. Ahok, within a year after her husband be 
came a Christian, became a most earnest, loving, work 
ing disciple of Christ, ready to deny herself and bear 
the cross in ways most trying to a Chinese lady. In 
her own house, for her family and large retinue of 
servants, she conducted a weekly prayer-meeting, Mr. 
Ahok sending to Dr. S. L,. Baldwin for a small organ 
for use in this service. Mr. Ahok conducted a like 
service with his employees in his counting-room, and 
"remembered the Sabbath-day to keep it holy," 
though at great cost in his secular business. In 1887, 
Mr. Ahok went to Singapore, to Hong Kong, to 
Amoy, and Formosa, spending about five months. 
He went to the jails and prisons to preach to the 
heathen about the gospel of Christ. Early in 1890, 
Miss Bradshaw, of the Church of England Zenana 
Missionary Society, went home to England to recruit 
her health. Mr. Ahok had for some time been bur 
dened with a desire to visit England or America, in 
order to impress upon Christian people the need of 
more missionaries. So he proposed to his wife to ac 
company Miss Bradshaw, and in two days the brave 
little lady had made up her mind to go and plead with 
the women of England to have mercy upon the women 
of China. She said : " I can not think why more Chris 
tians do not come to China ; it must be because they 
do not know how our women are dying. * During 
four months Mrs. Ahok pleaded the cause of her sis 
ters before great audiences in Great Britain and Ire 
landspeaking one hundred times in ninety days. 
Hers was no ordinary mission ; for never before had a 
lady belonging to the ancient aristocracy of the Em 
pire of China crossed the ocean to appear before the 



274 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

British public, and the little, gentle, intelligent woman 
found attentive and responsive listeners as she told 
them, through an interpreter, the earnest wish of her 
heart. 

One day Mrs. Ahok was passing a large gasometer 
in the suburbs, and inquired what it was. Her English 
friend explained that it was a reservoir of gas for light 
ing the London streets. Then she wished to know 
how it was got out of this reservoir to the lamps. She 
was told it was by means of many pipes laid along the 
road. "O, my dear friend," she said, "is not England 
like this gasometer, a big reservoir of gospel light, and 
my people are perishing in theMark in far-away China ? 
Can not you do for God s light what you do with your 
gas, lay it on to those distant places, and let them 
also rejoice in that light that you have so plentifully 
in this England so favored by God?" 

Mrs. Ahok s return home was precipitated by the 
intelligence of the serious illness of her husband. She 
did not arrive in Foochow until September 6th, several 
days after his death. Relatives and friends met her 
at the mouth of the Min River, in her husband s house 
boat, Dr. Sites among them, who broke to her the sad 
news. She sat like a statue for some time, then ut 
terly broke down. " If I could only see him once more 
and tell him all I have done in England," she plain 
tively said. 

PEKING. At the first General Executive Committee 
meeting in Boston, $300 was appropriated for China, 
to be divided equally among Foochow, Peking, and 
Kiu-kiang. Preceding this, Mrs. Lowry, wife of one 
of the Parent Board missionaries, had formed the nu- 



CHINA. 275 

cleus of a girls school in Peking by assuming the sup 
port of two little girls, daughters of a servant in her 
employ; but failing to receive aid from home for a 
school, gave them in charge to Mary Porter, of the 
American Board Mission. In December, 1871, Misses 
Brown and Porter were appointed to Peking, reaching 
that city April 6, 1873, where they found every ar 
rangement had been made for their comfort. At the 
second session of the Committee, $1,500 was appropri 
ated for a school- building. August 28, 1872, a school 
was opened with one bright, nice-looking girl of thir 
teen years. The second day another girl came, then 
one more, and the three constituted the Girls Board 
ing-school, which in 1894 enrolled one hundred pupils, 
besides the four day-schools which have been estab 
lished, with sixty-five pupils, all by offering a considera 
tion for attendance. During that first year fifteen girls 
were admitted, but at the close only six remained. An 
inflexible requirement was made at the beginning, that 
every girl with bound feet, upon entering school, must 
unbind them and allow them a natural growth. This 
was one of the first, if not the first schopl in China to 
insist upon taking off the bandages from the feet. It 
met with some objections, and for many years acted 
as a barrier against the ingathering of pupils; for 
where could a mother-in-law for a large-footed girl be 
found ! But as time went on, sentiment in favor grew, 
not only in the school, but among the Church mem 
bers, and there has been no lack of demand, but 
rather of supply, for all girls of marriageable age, de 
spite their unbound feet. And the alliances made 
have probably, without exception, been better, from 
every point of view, than could have been secured 



276 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

from their own homes. Naturally, it would seem to 
be easier to change this time-honored custom at the 
capital, where the Manchtis, who are in authority, do 
not bind the feet of their women. Another condi 
tion this school made was, that the girls must be al 
lowed to remain in school until eighteen years old, 
and not be betrothed in the meantime without the 
consent of the missionaries. Some of their early 
views have been modified concerning previous be 
trothal in heathen families, and that of keeping girls 
during vacation ; for it seemed better to risk crushing 
out the Christian growth of the year, and let the girls 
have gradual induration to the inevitable condition of 
their after-life, rather than complete isolation from 
them during the years of character-building. And 
perhaps in noway has a more powerful influence been 
exerted in distant country places toward breaking 
down prejudice and exciting interest than by these 
school-girls, of whom every evil was predicted when 
they left their homes, returning to them year after 
year, reading Christian books, singing Christian 
hymns, and telling tales of their journeys and school- 
life, and eagerly anxious at close of summer to return 
to school. 

The mission was re-enforced by Dr. Combs in 1873, 
the first woman physician in the great empire of 
China. Miss Brown married Mr. Davis, and is still 
on the field. Miss Campbell went out in 1875, and 
two years later Miss Porter was obliged to come home 
for a time, leaving Miss Campbell alone with the 
school, with Mrs. Davis s assistance two hours a day. 
After fourteen months thus passed, and two and a 
half years in the mission, breathing in the fever-laden 



CHINA. 277 

air, Miss Campbell suddenly died of typhus fever, 
May 1 8, 1878. Miss Porter had returned, and was with 
her, ministering to her wants. The year before, Dr. 
Howard had come out, and her skill was supplemented 
by that of other able physicians; but all that medical 
skill and the affectionate care of her companions could 
do was unavailing. She was buried Sunday, the igth, 
in the English cemetery, outside the city wall. Of 
the thirty ladies sent out by the Society, she was the 
first called away by death. In her the mission lost 
one of its most earnest workers, and the entire Church 
a most devoted missionary. In 1879, Misses Cush- 
man, Sears, and Yates had all been added to the mis 
sion circle. The boarding-school enrolled forty-two 
girls in 1883, and Miss Cushman tried the experiment 
of teaching music. Thirteen girls manifested special 
aptitude and perseverance, and made sufficient prog 
ress to take their turn playing for chapel prayers. 
She also formed a literary society. Another very 
bold innovation on Chinese customs was the enforce 
ment of silent study. The school now has a course of 
study planned to cover eight years of moderate work. 
It scarcely exceeds that usually completed at fourteen 
or fifteen years of age in the first or second high- 
school year in our public schools. The course begins 
with " San-tzee-ching" followed by the Catechism, the 
Four Gospels, several of the longer Epistles, with se 
lections from others, and the Book of Revelation 
committed to memory. At the same time the pupils 
study their own classics as far as the completion of 
the "Four Books," which are explained, when practi 
cable, by a Christian teacher. Old and New Testa 
ment History, the Life of Christ, Book of Acts, the 



278 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

Parables and Evidences of Christianity, are embraced 
in the Scripture course. Writing, arithmetic, geog 
raphy, physiology, history, algebra, composition, vo 
cal music, and normal work are carried through the 
year. English is also taught to such as have sufficient 
ability and desire to learn it without interference with 
other regular work. But nine out of one hundred 
pupils in the school in 1894 were studying it. Much 
attention is paid to the development of orderly, sys 
tematic habits; an appreciation of the value of time 
to themselves and others, and of bringing themselves 
and their work to time. While there is no regularly- 
organized Industrial Department, yet all the work 
of caring for their own rooms, school-rooms, dining- 
room, courts, setting of tables, washing dishes, the 
cutting-out, making, washing and mending of cloth 
ing, is done by the pupils, the younger ones work 
ing under the direction of the older ones, who are in 
turn supervised and held responsible for the work by 
the teachers. A division of the school, long deter 
mined upon, was brought about in 1893, when Mrs. 
Jewell was appointed to take the high school, and 
Miss Sears the Primary Department. This school has 
never graduated a class, and the day does not seem 
near when it will be able to do so, the demand for the 
girls as wives or teachers being too great to allow 
keeping a class together long enough. It is next to 
impossible to postpone a marriage when the" mother-in- 
law s family " is ready for it. Several of the girls have, 
however, practically finished their course. Both of the 
departments are in charge of former pupils. At Han 
Sun is a boarding-school of twenty-five girls, all with 
unbound feet, taught by a former pupil ; also a day- 



CHINA. 279 

school of forty-three at Pei Yin, taught by another. 
Teachers have also been supplied to the Tsun Hua 
boarding-school, and to the women s training-classes 
of Tientsin and Peking, while two former pupils liv 
ing in Peking have charge of day-schools. In every 
case these girls are found superior, beyond compar 
ison, to the best helpers to be obtained from among 
women who have only come under training after 
reaching mature years. Some of the most serious 
obstacles to mission work are disappearing, and op 
portunities for aggressive work were never greater. 
The war conditions in 1894 caused some interruptions 
in the school; other than that, the work was not 
affected. 

The missionaries sent to Peking have been the 
Misses Brown, Porter, Campbell, Cushman, Sears, 
Yates, Mrs. Jewell, the Misses Green, Ketring, Wilson, 
Hale, Frey, Steere, Crosthwaite, Young, and Drs! 
Combs, Howard, Akers, Gloss, Terry, Benn, and Ste 
venson. Some of these went to labor at other stations. 
Miss Sears returned home in the summer of 1895 
for treatment, and in December died in the hospital 
in Cleveland, whither she had gone for a surgical 
operation. 

MISSIONARY SOCIETY. An Auxiliary of the 
Woman s Foreign Missionary Society was organized 
in Peking, February, 1876, composed of all the mis 
sionaries, and as many of the native women as would 
come, in order to encourage the native Christians to 
give the little they could spare to help others to a 
knowledge of Christian doctrine. This Auxiliary grew 
to have a strong hold on the women. They never 



280 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

forgot the day of the monthly meeting, and sent their 
dues when they could not be present. One old 
woman, as she lay dying, remembered it, and in her 
weakness handed out a string of cash to send to the 
meeting the next Saturday. She was gone before 
Saturday came. In peace she breathed her last, 
ripe fruit of the Peking training-school. At the first 
meeting one woman took out of her hair her only 
silver ornaments, and gave them to the Treasurer. 
Women were taught about India and Africa. "Let 
ters" from this side were eagerly sought. At one time 
they had over $6 in the treasury, a total for seven 
months, and representing more than $60 of an Amer 
ican Auxiliary. What to do with it became quite a 
question. It was left entirely with the women to 
decide. "Send it to the American Society," said one. 
"That s so," said another, "they ll know just where 
it s most needed." One bright, intelligent little 
woman, a school-teacher, said: "Think of those terrible 
black men, eating each other up and suffering awfully. 
Let us send the money to them." But some one else 
suggested that the Society would be sure to send it 
where most needed, and so it was finally agreed that 
the money should be sent to the home Treasurer. 

The Woolston Memorial Auxiliary of Foochow, 
composed of the missionaries and their children, was 
organized March 24, 1894. The first meeting was 
the "Silver Thank-offering." The collection amounted 
to over $18 gold. May 7, 1895, at Mrs. Lacey s, the 
collection was $36.17. 

CHINESE PRAYERS are apt to be stately and 
formal at first; but praying does as much for the 



CHINA. 2 Si 

station-class heart, as studying does for the station- 
class mind. Miss Cushman, on hearing the girls in 
prayer-meeting, said, "Their girlish voices were like 
sweetest music, as they told of longing to be more 
like Jesus, and of the help he gave them," and added: 
"I think of the two cents a week, of the few years of 
service given; I even think of that lone grave just 
outside the city; then I think of forty-six girls on 
their knees at the feet of Jesus, and I say, It pays. " 
It is profoundly touching to see their faith in prayer. 
At one time a woman was sick who lived some dis 
tance from Peking. She had heard about the wonder 
ful answers to prayer, and wanted some one to go 
right away and ask the missionaries to pray for her. 
A friend toiled to the mission and back, eight miles in 
all, on her little bound feet, that close connection 
might be established between the Peking mercy-seat, 
her own little river village, and heaven. 

CHURCH MEMBERS. 

No such statement could be made to-day as in 
Peking in 1872, that "the Church includes no women," 
for many women members are found all through the 
several missions. But in China, as in other Oriental 
lands, men have very little to do with the conversion 
of heathen women. And yet the same statistical 
facts appear; women equal, if they do not exceed, the 
men in numerical membership. It would not be 
extravagant to state that one-half of the membership 
is composed of women and girls. These are the fruits 
of women s labors, for the most part, and to a large 
degree of those sent out by the Society. A pastor 
has a revival and an ingathering. The increase ap- 



282 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

pears in the General Society s reports, but not in the 
woman s. Yet some of the brethren say, in their 
experience a large percentage of this addition came 
from the girl s schools, woman s training-classes, or, 
if away from the centers, as a result of itineration on 
the part of the workers of the Society. When other 
wise as for instance, when whole households have 
united together the women knew not the power of 
the gospel until taught by "our girls," directly or 
indirectly. In 1880, Mary Porter and Mrs. Willetts 
visited a station four hundred miles south of Peking, 
never before visited by women missionaries, though 
frequently by men missionaries. There were a num 
ber of Chinese women who had for several years been 
members of the Church, and yet they asked in amazed 
wonder: "Can a woman pray? We never heard that 
God wanted to hear women pray." 

SUNDAY-SCHOOLS. 

The difficulties in the way of reaching the masses 
of China are to be overcome in no better way than by 
working along some of the lines which have been 
found to be most effective at home, where Sunday- 
schools occupy a very important place. The great 
requisites are, of course, a superintendent, teachers, 
and scholars, which have all been met in the famous 
Peking Sunday-school, which, in 1890, had outgrown 
the chapel, and had to meet in two divisions, one-half 
waiting until the outside women and children were 
taken out before room could be made for the day- 
school girls. When the boys and girls of the schools 
were present, the Sunday-school often exceeded four 
hundred in attendance. The president of the Peking 



CHINA. 283 

University, Dr. L,eander Pilcher, was superintendent 
up to the time of his death, in 1893. Mrs. Gamewell 
took Miss Cushman s class. It often had no, and 
sometimes as many as 177 were present, children 
from the neighborhood. The program is substan 
tially the same as in this land. The whole school 
meet together in the chapel for general devotional 
exercises. When the superintendent announces that 
Mrs. Gamewell s class will go to its own room, there 
is a great uprising of girls of varying ages, some little 
more than babies, staggering beneath the weight of 
smaller ones perched on their backs. Some are there 
with smoothly-combed hair and comparatively clean 
hands and faces, and some are scantily clothed, a bib 
or a pair of shoes constituting their entire outfit. 

The visible means that have been successful in 
bringing these children from their heathen homes to 
the Sunday-school have been the little picture-cards 
sent from America. 

Great changes are observed in the neighborhood, 
as the influence of the Sunday-school is made mani 
fest, and the singing of hymns takes the place of call 
ing the foreigners vile names. Though there are 
Sunday-schools in all the missions, there is said to be 
nothing in China like this wonderful Sunday-school. 
At the close, Mrs. Gamewell stations herself at the 
door, telling them they must go out orderly if they 
want a card, which they evidently believe. "Per 
son s cards" are always the most attractive. 

TSUN HUA. Miss Yates made many country trips 
in 1884, from Tientsin as a central point, at one time 
sitting thirteen hours in the saddle. She also super- 



284 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

intended five day schools. In 1883 she went to Tsun 
Hua for evangelistic purposes, and remained there 
alone, with no other foreigner, for six weeks, instruct 
ing the women and organizing a day-school. Dr. 
Terry was appointed there in 1887, and in 1888, a 
home having been provided, seven of the smaller girls 
were taken out of the Peking Girls Boarding-school 
and sent in two carts, with Tina for a teacher, and 
Miss Hale in charge. In 1890 there were thirty pu 
pils. A local rebellion outside the Great Wall oc 
curred in 1891, when the missionaries were advised to 
leave for Tientsin. The rebels were defeated, the 
mission property protected ; but the shock occasioned 
by the imminent peril and precipitate flight, added to 
the strain of overwork, told seriously on the mission 
aries, and they came home. There were fifty-six girls 
in the school in 1893, and a day-school was started. 
Miss Glover was then appointed to the boarding- 
school. 

WUHU. In 1885 a boarding-school was opened in 
Wuhu, superintended by Mrs. Jackson, and taught 
by a member of the Kiu-kiang School. In 1887, Mrs. 
Jackson s health failed, the school was closed, six of 
the little girls were taken to Nankin, and a boarding- 
school commenced there in 1888. Day-school work 
was begun in 1891. May 24th, mob violence looted 
both houses, the school-house and the day-school 
bnilding, and set fire to one of them ; but it was ex 
tinguished before much damage was done. The school 
numbered twenty-five girls, twenty-one of whom were 
boarders. 




VETERANS SINCE 1872. 
DR. LUCY HOAG. 



LOUISE E. BLACKMAR. 



CHINA. 285 

KIU-KIANG. 

Misses Howe and Hoag reached Kiu-kiang the 
last of November, 1872. The day of their arrival the 
women of the neighborhood declared they would 
never send their girls to school to have those mission 
aries dig out their eyes, and send to America to make 
telescope lenses of, or to take out their hearts and 
other vital organs to make medicines with. Besides 
no one could see any use for girls studying. A boy 
could compete in the public examinations, and per 
haps get a degree, or possibly go on to higher degrees 
and become an official, but there was no such induce 
ment for a girl to study. If she did, she would cease 
to care for family affairs, neglect to comb her hair, and 
not know how to make her own shoes. Yet they 
opened the Kiu-kiang Girls Boarding-school, January 
i, 1873, with two little girls, one of whom ran away 
before night. April 24th they had sixteen girls, and 
opened a day-school about a mile away. This was the 
third station occupied by the Society. In 1874 a riot 
occurred, when the school-house was torn down, 
scarcely one brick being left upon another. 

INFANTICIDE, though common, was said to be less 
frequent at this time than before the Government es 
tablished a foundlings asylum. Little girl-babies 
were left in baskets by the roadside, or at the gate. 
The three earliest missionaries, Misses Howe, Hoag, 
and Wheeler, all adopted little girls. They wanted 
something the Chinese could not take away from them 
without a moment s warning, as they did the little 
school-girls they succeeded in getting together at that 
early time. The first one adopted was a little two- 



286 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

months-old baby, Ida Kahn, the sixth girl born in the 
family. The others had been betrothed in babyhood, 
and this one would have been but for the misfortune 
of having been born under the dog-star, and the boy 
to whom she was to have been betrothed having been 
born under a cat-star. Miss Howe s personal teacher, 
who was neighbor to the family, suggested the child 
be given to the foreign ladies, and Miss Howe adopted 
her. She also adopted three foundlings, Julia, who is 
" Geauli," or " Beautiful Chrysanthemum ;" Ngan-hse, 
in English "Peace and Happiness" or Fanny, who 
was two-and-a-half-years old, and Belle, called " Bow- 
lin" or "Precious Shade." Miss Hoag also adopted 
one, whom she named Katie. Infanticide was talked 
about with familiar unconcern. Miss Howe s nurse 
did not hesitate to say that her sister destroyed eight 
infant daughters with her own hands; her brother s 
wife was also unwilling to preserve the life of her girl 
babies, while she, herself, took credit for sending all 
her girls to the asylum. The school-girls were not re 
served in speaking of such circumstances in their own 
families. It is not that the Chinese are unaware of 
the guiltiness of this practice. Treatises and tracts in 
expostulation are in no wise novelties, but there seems 
little response in their hearts to these mute appeals. 
A certain reasoning on domestic economy, in which 
they are skillful, weighs down the balance against all 
other considerations. The pressure of poverty is a real 
ity with the poorer classes. There is not much senti 
ment in life for them ; girls do not aid them to sup 
port the family, and are an excrescence upon its life. 
It is common for women who had lost or disposed of 
their own child to take one from the asylum to care 



CHINA. 287 

for, as they were allowed 1,000 cash per month. Miss 
Wheeler also took some of these little waifs; one she 
called Tentie, another Dollie, and she became responsi 
ble for the support of still others, all of whom have a 
history. Ten years later one of the Kiu-kiang school 
girls was the teacher at Wuhu, another was the nurse 
of the foundlings at Chin-kiang, still another was as 
sistant to Dr. Hoag in the dispensary, while yet 
another was studying medicine with a view to dis 
pensary work. Mrs. L,iu, one of those early pupils, 
became a teacher and class leader in Kwang Chi, 
where she won the respect of all the Christians there. 

In 1875, Miss Hoag commenced work among 
women, and Miss Howe had the boarding-school. 
There were twenty girls in the school, with very poor 
accommodations, and no prospect of being able to buy 
land to build on. Miss Howe went to live with her 
<( four babies" in a small native house, rather than in 
the great house, where she had to climb stairs and 
sleep and study in the same room with all the babies 
and nurses. L,and was purchased in 1876 outside the 
Concession, within the city walls, and at last, in 1877, 
the missionaries moved out of the old rented ware 
house which had accommodated the school for five 
years, and which sometimes had six inches of water on 
the lower floor when the river overflowed its banks, 
moved out of the old into the new, comfortable house 
in a healthy location. Miss Hoag came home in 1879, 
and took a medical course in the Michigan University, 
and returned in 1883, accompanied by Miss Robinson, 
and went to Chiu-kiang and opened work there. 

For several years only one American family was 
stationed at Kiu-kiang, the mission being maimed by 



288 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

Englishmen for the General Society. Miss Delia 
Howe and three physicians increased the staff of 
workers between 1874 and 1879, but in 1882 they had 
all returned. There was a difference of opinion about 
taking the school-girls through the streets to chapel 
every day, between Miss Howe and the missionaries 
of the Parent Board, when Miss Howe resigned, in 
1883, and the school of fifty girls was consolidated 
with that of the Parent Board. In 1887 she returned 
to Kiu-kiang at the request of the superintendent, 
seconded by every member of the mission there, and 
found no girls school remaining. She reopened the 
school in September, 1888, with the assistance of 
Frances Wheeler, but without a girl from the former 
school, except her four, which she had taken with her 
and brought back again. The brethren finally agreed 
with Miss Howe about the matter over which they 
differed, and expressed their complete satisfaction that 
the Society should hereafter manage girls schools. 
For seven years this school has only admitted girls 
from Christian families, and in 1895 there were forty- 
five enrolled. There are five girls that know English 
well enough to study L,atin. Three of them are Miss 
Howe s Julia, Fanny, and Belle ; one is Annie Stone, 
a sister to Mary Stone; and one is Ernie, the daughter 
of the tailor, the first girl that had her feet unbound 
in Kiu-kiang. Miss Howe s girls are indispensable, 
as available to her as so many additional pairs of 
hands of her own, so true and loyal are they, Belle, 
considered in 1894 "the best educated girl in China," 
has six classes in the school ; Julia teaches in the Bible 
school and has charge of some of the store-rooms; and 
Fanny, so long under the musical instruction of Miss 



CHINA. 289 

Wheeler, a fully-qualified music teacher. But July 16, 
1895, Fanny was married to a native preacher, Mr. Tsai. 
In 1892, Miss Howe came to this country, bringing a 
party of young people, including her adopted daughter 
Ida, and Mary Stone, who are now in their third year 
in the Medical Department of the Michigan University, 
making a fine record, and expect to graduate in 1896, 
when they will return to China to enter upon their 
profession. Mary was elected secretary of her class 
of several hundred members in 1895. The girls have 
greatly endeared themselves to the people whom they 
have met, and command the respect and admiration 
of all. They attended the General Executive Com 
mittee meeting in St. L,ouis in 1895, where they won 
many friends. In the hospitable home where they 
were entertained, was an old gentleman of threescore 
years and ten, who remarked to Ida : "I am glad you 
are going back to your country as a physician. Your 
people need physicians more than they need mission 
aries." With her racial reverence for old age, Ida 
turned aside, and to her friends said in her modest 
fashion: "O, time is short! Eternity is long!" 

Miss Ogburn went out in 1891, and Miss Stanton 
in 1892. Miss Howe returned in 1894. 

CHIN-KIANG. A Girls Boarding-school was opened 
in Chin-kiang by Miss Robinson in January, 1884. 
The five foundlings left by Miss Howe in Kiu-kiang 
made a beginning here. Having no yard for them to 
play in, a couple of baskets were bought and a coolie 
hired to take them to the hills, while the nurse hob 
bled along on her little feet. The next year they 
took two more foundlings. In 1889, four new found- 



290 WOMAN *s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

lings were taken, and the older ones were promoted 
from the nursery to the school. Miss White was sent 
to Miss Robinson s assistance in 1891. 

There was some riotous disturbance in 1893, but 
they were able to conduct the examinations properly, 
and closed the spring term with a literary entertain 
ment, the first public attempt of the kind in the school. 
Music and gymnastics found a worthy place in the 
curriculum through Miss White s instructions. Eng 
lish is not taught in this school. Two prizes were 
offered in 1893 by friends of the school, one for the 
best synopsis on Martin s Evidences of Christianity, 
and one for the best understanding of Scripture 
truths. Members of the foreign community, outside 
the mission circles, have become interested in the 
school, and from time to time have contributed sup 
plies for the clothing of the children. They have also 
furnished employment for the older girls, such as 
knitting, darning, and embroidery. In this same year 
the anti-foreign feeling spreading along the river oc 
casioned some alarm. This was stimulated by some 
infamous books which were circulated, increasing the 
prejudices of the Chinese against the missionaries, and 
the cry of " Kill the foreign devil!" was again heard on 
the streets. 

Applications the following year were received for 
three teachers, but only one was sent out. She went 
to the "Arvilla Lake " school at Nankin, and, in a 
sense became the first graduate. Another girl, who 
had received excellent preparation through the instruc 
tion of Dr. Hoag, became her assistant in the dispen 
sary. Two other girls devoted part of their time in 
hospital and dispensary work. Two societies of Tern- 



CHINA. 291 

perance and Epworth League are great sources of 
power in the spiritual and philanthropic education 
of their members. All are Christians. 

Thus Miss Robinson has had the pleasure of seeing 
the little day-school nucleus in 1884 develop into a 
model girls institute, and several of its graduates go 
out to work in other places. This institution has 
grown into favor with the local literati, and well de 
serves the reputation it has among the foreigners of 
Central China. During the absence of Miss Robinson 
on her first home vacation, in 1895, the managment 
was left entirely to Miss Laura White, who is also 
fully devoting her time and talents for the raising up 
of China s daughters. 

CHUNGKING. The West China Mission exists, and 
was planned and inaugurated by Rev. J. F. Goucher. 
Dr. L. N. Wheeler, who had opened the North China 
and the Central China Missions of the Parent Board, 
was sent in 1883 to open this new work. The long, 
perilous journey two months from Shanghai is only 
possible in boats at certain seasons of the year, over 
rocks and waterfalls, on the River Yangtse, which con 
vinces one that heroism and enterprise are not lost 
arts in the Christian Church. Dr. Wheeler wrote back 
to the Church: "Here we have entered upon the ex 
ploration of the largest and most wealthy province in 
the Empire, unexcelled by any country in the world 
for beauty and fertility, but whose untaught millions 
dwell in the shadow of death." 

Miss Wheeler opened a girls school, October i, 
1883, and had twenty-eight pupils. She got along 
bravely alone, and might have had one hundred girls 



292 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

if there had been room to accommodate them. In 
less than three months several of the girls sang two 
songs correctly at a Christmas entertainment, although 
before entering school they had not known a charac 
ter nor heard a tune sung. In December, 1884, Miss 
Howe, who had been appointed to this work, re-en 
forced Miss Wheeler. There were forty girls en 
rolled, and property was bought for $5,000. The 
wretched traffic in Chinese girls is carried on here, 
and numbers are shipped down the river and sold into 
slavery worse than death. One morning Miss Wheeler 
was astonished by hearing some of the girls say "a 
girl had been sold." They met her as she was car 
ried on her father s back through the streets, and 
called out to her, "Where are you going?" The re 
sponse was, " I am sold." The inhuman father had 
actually sold the child into slavery. After consider 
able trouble, and by paying some money, the ladies 
got her back into the school. 

Then came the notable riot of June 3, 1886, sud 
denly overthrowing all the work, and breaking up the 
mission. Miss Howe, with her four girls, and Miss 
Wheeler, with Aggie, one of the Chungking orphans 
she had adopted, passed through the gate, leaving a 
dozen or so orphans with three native women ; on 
they went to the mission compound, as Brother Game- 
well had directed. Then, in sedan-chairs, under the 
escort of a small official, the whole party were carried 
to the house of the official. They were moved from 
place to place until, at midnight, they reached the 
house of the district magistrate, where, before morn 
ing, all the missionaries of the place were gathered. 
Next morning the magistrate sent chairs and brought 




W 5 



CHINA. 293 

in Miss Howe s four girls. She had sent them, in her 
flight, to the home of one of her Sunday-school boys, 
not knowing if she would ever see them again. 

They all remained two weeks in the house of the 
official, in great danger from the angry mob. Now 
and then articles saved from the looters by some of 
the friendly Chinese were brought in. Five Bibles 
were brought belonging to Miss Howe s especial fam 
ily, four Chinese and one English. The sixteen-year- 
old Sunday-school boy above referred to, brought Miss 
Howe $300 worth of silver which he had secured from 
the chest where she kept it, before the mob had 
reached their house. This silver purchased changes of 
clothing (Chinese) for the entire party men, women, 
and children, our own and the China Inland Mission 
and paid their fare down the river as far as Ichang. 
Owing to the swollen waters the journey was accom 
plished in four days, that took them thirty days to 
make going up. From thence they went by steamer 
to Chin-kiang, where Miss Howe remained with her 
four girls until December, when they returned to Kiu- 
kiang, and she, with Miss Wheeler, reopened the 
school there, as before stated elsewhere. 

In 1894 the work was reopened in Chungking, after 
eight years. Mrs. Philander Smith gave $4,000 for a 
Deaconess Home, and Misses Galloway, Meyer, and 
Kissack went out as deaconesses, the last-named as a 
nurse deaconess. 

DAY-SCHOOLS. 

These are taught by native Christian women that 
have been educated in the mission school. The la 
dies visit these schools once a week, and hear the re- 



294 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY, 

view lessons of the girls. These are usually Scripture 
lessons; for the Bible is the principal text-book. The 
double object of these schools is to introduce Chris 
tianity in heathen homes through the lessons learned, 
and to provide schools for learning to read. Few 
women take advantage of the opportunity offered 
them, so the day-schools are largely composed of girls 
from five to fifteen years of age. There have been 
instances where a little girl of six and a gray-haired 
woman of sixty sat side by side studying the same 
books. The first day-school for girls, under the So 
ciety, was organized by Mrs. Sites, March i, 1872, at 
lek-iong. In 1895, there were in the Foochow Confer 
ence seventy-five day-schools, with an enrollment of 
1,137. At first, girls had to be paid to attend school, 
and all over eight years received ten cash (a penny) a 
day. This custom continued for over eight years, 
when a change was made, of giving a money reward 
for each book recited. The four Gospels, the Psalms, 
etc., each had a specified reward, and the missionaries 
were always present to hear the final recitation. The 
schools soon recovered from the shock felt by such a 
radical change. Again, in 1892, experimental schools 
were tried without any reward. Kucheng took the 
lead, with no money reward and very little in the way 
of presents. Foochow gave no money reward, but a 
little more in the way of presents such as a fan, a 
lead-pencil, and a few bright cards. Hokchiang and 
Haitang changed slowly; but at the examinations all 
received presents, and the best of good-will prevailed. 
King Hwa had not taken the advance step; but at 
the District Conference, in 1893, they got the neces 
sary light, and even voted to discontinue all awards. 



CHINA. 295 

Day-schools are also held in Peking, Tientsin, Kiu- 
kiang, Tsuu Hua, Nankin, and Chungking. 

ORPHANAGE. 

Orphanage work in Foochow has been somewhat 
intermitting. The first experience, in 1861, was car 
ried on by the married ladies, and supported by busi 
ness men in the city Chinese, English, and American. 
Many children were received, more were refused, some 
died. In 1871, about twenty were transferred to the 
Girls Boarding-school, forming a Primary Department, 
and the Orphanage was closed. There were so many 
impositions to contend with. If a baby girl was not 
welcomed, she was rolled up in an apron and laid at 
the door; and people who would not have drowned 
them the usual mode of disposing of these unwel 
come baby girls left them at the mission gate because 
they knew they would be better cared for ; in sotne 
instances the mothers, as did Moses mother, offering 
herself as a nurse for the new infant. About the year 
1888 the Orphanage was again resumed in a modified 
way, and orphans were placed in Christian families, 
and a call for a building was again renewed. Dr. 
Corey, on her enforced return to this land, awakened 
much interest, and was authorized to solicit funds for 
the building. In 1891 an appropriation was made, 
and a building put up, to be known as the " Mary E. 
Crook Memorial." A tablet is placed over one door, 
lettered in gold and black, and bears the name of Dr. 
Kathie Corey-Ford, while a similar one over another 
door has the name of lyulie Rawlings. In 1893 the 
little waifs were gathered into Foochow, and Mrs. 
Lacy took them under her supervision. Most of them 



296 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

had been cast out from homes of abject poverty and 
heathen wretchedness ; many of them with diseased 
bodies; some of them sick nigh unto death. Twenty 
children were placed in the new Orphanage, March 12, 
! 893 the oldest, thirteen years; the youngest, a day 
old. Christian women are employed to care for them, 
who not only attend to their physical wants, but teach 
their lisping lips to pray and sing sweet songs of Jesus 
and his love. During the sessions of the Annual and 
the Woman s Conferences in 1894,111 Foochow, on the 
morning of the 26th of November, in the tent, Mrs. 
~,acy presented eleven of the orphans for baptism, 
after a sermon by Bishop Ninde. Over one hundred 
adults and children of the Christians were baptized. 
Mrs. Mary C. Nind, who was present, said: "It was 
worth coming all the way to Foochow to witness." 

WORK AMONG THE WOMEN. 

This is a hard work, fraught with many difficul 
ties. The women are uneducated, under peculiar sub 
jection and slavery to their husbands, largely kept 
secluded, especially from public assemblies, bound by 
many customs that cause much suffering, and fettered 
as with a strong chain by the superstition everywhere 
prevalent. In 1872, in Peking, Mrs. Wheeler, of the 
Parent Board, and Miss Brown commenced calling 
upon the women, and opened a woman s meeting. At 
the first one, three hours before the time appointed, 
quite a number of women had gathered, and when the 
meeting opened there were about forty women pres 
ent. Subsequently the attendance was not so large. 
The work of the mission had only just begun, and 
the Church membership in Peking was very small, and 




g 



8. 



CHINA. 297 

included no women. A heathen woman had to be em 
ployed as matron in the girls school. The teachers 
were all men from necessity. Later, in 1872, there 
knelt at the baptismal altar three women, who had 
been admitted to membership in the Methodist Epis 
copal Church, the first in North China. They had 
been probationers six months under the religious in 
struction of Misses Brown and Porter. November 
28, 1874, two of the pupils from the school were con 
verted and received into the Church, the first fruits 
from that source. The year 1877 opened, and still no 
Bible women at work regularly. One w T oman of un 
usual earnestness, Wang Nainai, a widow from Shan 
tung, the birthplace of Confucius and Mencius, 400 
miles away, wanted to know of the "doctrines," and 
made the journey of sixteen days to Peking in a wheel 
barrow, pushed by her son. She brought her two 
daughters, Clara and Sarah, with her. There were no 
friends in her home to give her sympathy and encour 
agement. Everybody laughed and prophesied all sorts 
of evil, called her "crazy," and said, "You can never 
learn to read." But she not only learned to read, but 
became one of the most efficient helpers in the North 
China Mission. She was employed first as day-school 
teacher, then hospital assistant, Bible reader, and trav 
eling companion. The son who pushed the wheel 
barrow became a trusted helper; the girls studied in 
the school, Clara becoming one of the best pupils that 
had ever entered. When she was borne away in a red 
chair, according to Chinese custom, as the bride of the 
pastor, Sarah stepped into her place, made good prog- 
gress in her books, rendered efficient help in the 
school, and in time she, too, went out the gate into 



298 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

a little parsonage as the bride of one of the brightest 
graduates from the Peking University. Miss Porter 
visited Chinese villages where Churches had been 
established, to select women suitable for training as 
Bible readers. In 1881 she went to TIENTSIN and 
opened a training-school. To this work she had given 
much thought, labor, and prayer for years, and the 
plans she had revolved, unfolded and increased as the 
work progressed. After Miss Porter s marriage, in 
1882, to Mr. Gamewell, the training-school was re 
moved to PEKING, to the vacant hospital buildings, 
where it remained under her direction until they went 
to Chungking in 1884. About this time Miss Cushman 
had returned from a visit in the home land, with $500 
to invest for a friend. With it she bought a piece of 
property, which was fitted up for the training-school. 
Mrs. Gamewell opened day-schools in various places. 
In 1888 she engaged "a lovely old lady, dear Chen 
Nainai," in the training-school, to help her. She was 
sixty-eight years old, but seemed younger. In time 
she was overtaken by sickness, and when visited by 
Miss Cushman, who told her how much she wanted 
her to get well, and how necessary she seemed to the 
work, Chen Nainai protested, saying: "I can t help 
build the Lord s house. I m not a carpenter, nor a 
mason. I can only carry a little plaster for the ma 
son s use." But her poor, tired, maimed feet were 
bound for the last time, and she was laid to rest beside 
her husband, the first member of our Peking Church. 
In September, 1884 the training-school was again 
reopened in Tientsin, with five women, and in 1893 
a separate building was put up for it. The study was 
confined to the Bible and work upon its doctrines. 



CHINA. 299 

Industrial training was introduced after a time, which 
became an encouraging feature. As most of the 
women were too old to unbind their feet, this was not 
made a condition of entrance as in the boarding- 
school. 

Woman s work was commenced in NANKING, in 
1887, by Ella Shaw, which was largely evangelistic. 
Miss Shaw came home in 1892, and took a course of 
study in the Chicago Training-school, returning in 
1894. Miss Peters had been removed from Chin-kiang, 
and entered upon the work of house-to-house visita 
tion, receiving also the women in her house, more 
than one thousand calling to see her the first year. 
This gave the women a chance to see the neat, clean, 
comfortable house. It was teaching by -sight. The 
" Arvilla Lake Home " was put up in 1894 for a train 
ing-school, and a systematic course entered upon. 
Miss Peters sent to Foochow for a Bible woman to 
help her. Nankin was a long way from Foochow, 
the language and customs were very different, but a 
woman was found brave enough to go. She was a 
timid, poor little widow, with a heart filled with the 
love of God, and her greatest delight was in helping 
to save souls. She thus became the first foreign mis 
sionary, among the women, in Chinese Methodism. 

The first woman who came to call on the Misses 
Howe and Hoag in KIU-KIANG, in 1872, was Mrs. 
She (Mary Stone s mother She, being Anglicized, 
Stone), who was then a professed Christian; for her 
husband had become a convert, and began to practice 
his new faith by teaching his wife to read the Bible. 
Miss Howe invited her to come and read it with her 
every day, which she did for several years; and no 



300 WOMAN } s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

doubt much of her after usefulness could be traced to 
those years of preparation. Her active service com 
menced at once, and some of the results are still 
apparent. She used to go out and invite the women 
to come to the weekly meeting, when she was the 
principal speaker. The women were taught to read 
the few hymns that had been translated. One woman, 
a Mrs. Ya, became specially interested; but after a few 
months she was lost to sight. Seven years later she 
appeared, saying: "My husband has died, and now I 
am free to profess openly the faith I have secretly 
cherished all these years." She was thoroughly con 
verted, and became burdened for her son, who also 
was clearly converted, and began to preach. He was 
ordained by Bishop Ninde in 1894, and is considered 
the strongest man on the staff of native preachers. 
All this, and how much more, growing out of Mrs. 
She s faithfulness. Kiu-kiang is quite a "literary 
city," and soon after the arrival of the first mission 
aries in 1872, as many as eight women came to their 
notice who could read. A plan was formed of getting 
them to study the Bible, and afterward employ them 
as Bible women. One of these women, Mrs. Tang, 
was secured as teacher in the school. She also did 
service as a Bible woman. Mrs. She was twenty-nine 
years old, and Mrs. Tang three years older. They 
received very unkind words and much abuse as they 
went every day into the public streets. They were 
obliged to hear language concerning their character 
vile in the extreme, and from which every true 
woman in China, as in other lands, would seek to 
shield themselves; but with a moral courage Christian 
lands do not witness, they separated themselves to 



CHINA. 301 

this work. In April, 1873, Mrs. She had an infant 
daughter. She promised God that her feet should 
never be bound. The child, she knew, would be an 
object of scorn, but she trusted she would also be a 
gospel of humanity. Nineteen years afterward, this 
girl, Mary Stone the first girl in all Central China 
brought up by her own parents with natural feet- 
entered the Medical Department of the Michigan Uni 
versity, without condition, and during her three years, 
down to the present time, has made a fine record both 
as a pupil and in her Christian life. A woman s 
school was established to give the wives of helpers 
and other suitable women training in the knowledge 
of the Bible, and in the characters of their own 
language. There were seven in the school in 1894. 
Conference examinations are held, when the women 
show such aptitude as agreeably to surprise the Com 
mittee. 

Very unexpectedly a class of fourteen women 
came to Dr. Terry in TSUN HUA, in 1890, to be 
instructed in the "doctrines," and also learn to read. 
A training-class was organized, with thirty women, 
whose ages ranged from sixteen to sixty. 

When Dr. Wheeler opened the West China Mis 
sion at CHUNGKING in 1883, he spoke from his large 
experience in all the missions, and said: " Nowhere in 
China are women so accessible to their foreign sisters 
as here." In 1884, Miss Wheeler would go to the 
chapel on Sunday, and talk and sing to crowds of 
from four hundred to five hundred women and girls. 
Only a part of the many were able to find sittings ; for 
it was estimated, during the hour for service, some 
where near four thousand people either entered or 



302 WOMAN s FOREIG^ MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

were gathered about the front gate. Those who could 
hear, listened very attentively, and the behavior of all 
was, on the whole, as good as could be expected. 

FOOCHOW. The experiment was early tried, of 
sending out women as deaconesses who showed 
natural gifts ; but it was soon discovered their lack of 
equipment, either in the Bible or Church doctrines, 
rendered them unable to meet the questions put to 
them. They could not leave their homes and go tens 
of miles to study with the missionaries. So a plan 
was arranged by which three or four came together to 
study with the native preacher at a central station 
near them. This was very helpful to many women. 
But in December, 1879, Mrs. Sites opened the first 
training-school for Bible women in Foochow, for a 
two years regular course of instruction. They were 
trained by Mrs. Sites, Chandler, and Ohlinger. From 
1884 to 1889 this school was connected with the Girls 
Boarding-school, but was again reopened September 
9th of that last year. In 1890, there were fifty differ 
ent women during the year in school for three or four 
months at a time, long enough to learn how to lead 
Christian lives. A kindergarten was opened for chil 
dren from four to five years of age, which relieved the 
mothers, kept the children out of mischief, and gave 
them an excellent start in study. The closing term 
in 1893 had twenty-five women taking the regular 
course, and twelve children in the kindergarten. 

KING HWA. The woman s school called the 
"Juliet Turner Memorial School "at King Hwa city, 
is under the supervision of Mrs. Brewster. In 1893, 



CHINA. 303 

there was an enrollment of twenty-nine women. This 
school has two departments. The work of one covers 
a year, and all in Romanized Colloquial. The women 
read John, Mark, the Catechism, and the Bible Pic 
ture-book. The training-school proper only receives 
those who are specially fitted for workers, and their 
studies are in the native classical character, covering 
a course of four years. A kindergarten was intro 
duced in 1893. 

ING CHUNG. In 1893, there were twelve women 
in attendance at the Ing Chung school. Of these, eight 
had tiny, bound feet; but six of them were led to un 
bind. Some of the women have been persecuted ; but 
they have stood firm. Mrs. McNabb was in charge 
until she was obliged to return home, in 1894. 

KUCHENG. The women s school was first taught 
by one of the native preachers, released from Confer 
ence for the work. The pupils follow the course of 
study for day-school teachers and Bible women that 
is, reading Exodus, Proverbs, Pilgrim s Progress, and 
Life of Wesley in classical, and the three Character 
Classics for girls. The women go out once a week, 
visiting from house to house. In 1893, nine women 
passed very fine examinations. Nearly all the preach 
ers from over the district were present, and all were 
surprised that women could do so well. Five at once 
opened day-schools ; one of the older ones took exam 
ination for deaconess. Miss Hartford lived here three 
years, when in 1894, Miss Rouse was sent to her assist 
ance. There were then twenty women in the school, 
one or two of whom paid all their own expenses. 



304 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

All the woman unbound their feet. This school has 
the honor of sending out the first missionary from 
the Foochow Conference, Hu L,i Sai, who went to 
Nanking in 1892. In the terrible massacre of men, 
women, and children in 1895, when several of the 
missionaries of other Boards, with ours, were out a 
few miles from Ku Cheng City, at Hua Sang, a moun 
tain resort, Miss Hartford was wounded and thrown 
to the ground, and her escape from a murderous 
death is simply a miracle of mercy. Her presence of 
mind in seizing the deadly weapon and diverting it 
from her own heart; her fleetness of foot as she ran 
from her bloodthirsty enemies; her lying in conceal 
ment for two hours ; her return to the house, where 
she cared for the wounded and dying, left alone for 
some hours while Mr. Phillips and Dr. Gregory were 
preparing the bodies that were slain ; her loving care 
of the motherless and fatherless children till others 
should relieve her on her arrival at Foochow ; her loss 
of sleep and food for days and nights, all this fills the 
heart with wonder and praise that she survived. 

HOKCHIANG. This school, under the supervision 
of Miss Trimble, was opened in March, 1893, with an 
enrollment of twenty, and was a success from the first. 
Two facts of special interest mark that first year. At 
the close of the first term but two women remained 
with bound feet ; and in April a most blessed revival 
visited the school, in which each woman found Christ 
as her personal Savior from sin, and had the conscious 
witness of sins forgiven. 

SEING lu. A long-felt want was met in the open 
ing of this school, in April, 1893. Because of lack of 





MISS MABEL HARTFORD. 
21 35 : 



CHINA. 305 

room, but fifteen women could be admitted. A pecu 
liar feature is, that nothing is studied except in the 
Romanized Colloquial. 

MING CHIANG. This school was opened, April 8, 
1894, with twenty-five women in attendance, in a 
grand old palace, well inclosed, and separated from 
the apartments used by the family. " No work," says 
Miss Sites, who opened the school, " has created more 
general interest and enthusiasm." The previous day 
the house-warming took place, when about fifty gen 
tlemen leaders in society, both literary and official- 
accepted the invitation to inspect the building and 
witness the dedicatory services conducted by the na 
tive preachers. At close of the term the women passed 
a creditable examination, and returned to their homes 
to spread the glories and wonders of the school. 



DEACONESSES. 

The introduction of Bible women, or deaconesses, 
was a novel feature of missionary work to the native 
Church in China, and will still require some length of 
time to get the idea fully before the people. In 1895, 
there were thirty-nine Bible women in the Foochow 
Conference alone; but a number of them lived at their 
homes, and gave only a part of their time. Women 
are needed who can give all their time. There are a 
few who leave their homes and endure great hard 
ships. Many of the women are elderly, who have had 
little advantage in the way of an education or training ; 
but their hearts are filled with the Holy Spirit, and 
their earnestness wins many to Christ. One of the 
Kucheng women reported in 1893, that 8,000 people 
20 



306 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

heard the gospel from her lips. A King Hua woman 
reported 6,400. Another King Hua woman visited 
over 800 villages during the year. Still another trav 
eled on foot 600 miles. While they have not learned 
to report very thoroughly, 35,000 people heard the 
"old, old story "from these Bible women in a single 
year; 2,800 visits were made, and scores were led to 
accept Christ through their efforts. Many interesting 
incidents are given in connection with their work. In 
one case a whole family became so convinced of the 
worthlessness of idols that they insisted that the Bible 
woman should help destroy them. Often the Bible 
women are asked to carry off the idols, which they 
do with right good-will. When Miss Howe was about 
to return to the United States, in 1892, a native Chris 
tian brought her his ancestral tablet and gave it to her. 

WOMAN S CONFERENCE. 

An epoch in woman s mission work in Foochow was 
the holding of the first Woman s Conference, in con 
nection with the Annual Conference, in October, 1885. 
It was a meeting composed of the women from all 
parts of the work, to be examined and instructed as 
Bible women and teachers ; for discussion of methods, 
exckange of views and sentiments, deepening of Chris 
tian experience, and for general helpfulness. It was 
something entirely new among Chinese women. Hii 
Po Mi, an elder in the Church, the uncle of Hii King 
Kng, was asked to pray at the opening session, and 
told the Lord, among other things, that " last year the 
electric telegraph came, and now this year the Woman s 
Conference." He considered the Woman s Conference 
one of the most wonderful events, stranger to the 



CHINA. 307 

Chinese than the electric telegraph, which they thought 
would never be seen in China. At first these exam 
inations were very unpopular, and the effect was to 
eliminate from the ranks of the teachers those who 
were not studious and earnest, and a reduction of fifty 
per cent in the number of schools. But the standard 
has been maintained; the women are measuring up to it, 
and the schools are multiplying in the hands of more 
competent teachers. In December, 1888, the Woman s 
Conference was held in the Anglo-Chinese College. 
Chinese women but recently emerged from heathen 
ism read papers that were spiritual and practical, gave 
Bible readings, and conducted the devotional exer 
cises. The proposition to discontinue "the system of 
money rewards" in the day-schools came from a com 
mittee of native women at one of these Conferences. 
They advised the giving of rewards that the girls could 
call their own, as the parents do not fully appreciate 
the value of an education for their daughters. 

At the ninth session of the Conference, Mrs. Keen, 
the Philadelphia Branch Secretary, was welcomed by 
the 100 women present, and was elected President. She 
was the first representative from the Society to visit 
them officially. The following year Mrs. Bishop Ninde 
was welcomed, and also elected President. Mrs. Mary 
C. Nind was present with her words of counsel. Two 
Secretaries are always appointed one English and one 
Chinese for keeping the minutes. These minutes 
are wonderful documents, as evidencing spiritual in 
telligence and the earnestness of these Chinese women 
and girls. They give the reports of their work with 
cheering simplicity and sincerity. Their essays on 
such topics as the " Inspiration of the Holy Spirit s 



308 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

Aid in Preparation for Work," " Importance of Attend 
ing Prayer-meeting," " The Evils of Early Betrothal," 
are able, and in some cases remarkable for spiritual 
insight and poetic thought, conveyed in quaint ex 
pression. At the Tenth Conference there were two 
papers presented by native women. One on " Woman s 
Part in Temperance Work," by the matron of the Foo- 
chow Girls Boarding-school, resulted in a pledge be 
ing drawn up and signed by fifty persons. This was 
considered a victory not easily won, in a land where 
the time-honored custom to offer drinks to all guests 
is so strong that to omit it brands one as impolite. 
The other paper, by Siek Ming Suoi, on "Sabbath 
Observance," and the discussion following, ended in a 
resolution of all the teachers and Bible women pres 
ent to spend their Sabbath afternoons in teaching the 
poor, ignorant women of the Church to read. The in 
terest of the Conference centered in a Memorial on 
Foot-binding, presented from the Woman s Conference 
to the Annual Conference, petitioning them to take 
some definite action on the subject. Having succeeded 
in obtaining only a half-hearted action, though it was 
an advance step, and the women felt so keenly the 
need of help in fighting this terrible crime of mutilating 
the body, one of the Chinese women said: "If they 
do not take the action we want this time, we will 
draw up our own rules next year, and petition them 
to adopt them." 

When the Central China Mission Conference was 
in session in Kiu-kiang, in 1894, a large mass-meeting 
on "Foot-binding" was held. The Chinese brethren 
were "instant in season," with earnest words of argu 
ment and exhortation against this heathen barbarism. 



CHINA. 309 

The sisters, whose hearts were in like manner fired 
with the same spirit of this reform, found no oppor 
tunity to express it. Early the following day some o{ 
the younger brethren posted a call for another meet 
ing that evening, to be addressed by the women. 
Mrs. She was the first to take the platform, from which 
she announced her convictions with no uncertain 
sound. She had brought up her girls with natural 
feet ; but now felt the time had come for her to take 
a further step in advance, and unbind her own feet. 
Many followed in like spirit, and the sentiment of the 
meeting crystallized in an anti-foot-binding pledge, 
which was signed by about seventy of the married 
women and older girls. It is difficult to appreciate 
the horror of foot-binding. Many women, indeed, 
suffer from it all their lives; and many die under its 
terrible torture. In Canton, one time, a woman came 
to a Christian hospital with a foot in each hand, beg 
ging to have them put on again ! One foot is now in 
the museum in England, and one in America. 

A meeting was called during the Conference of all 
the Chinese women and girls, when papers were read 
by Mrs. She, Julia Howe, and others, followed by re 
marks. Mrs. Mary C. Nind, who was present, ad 
dressed the members, dwelling forcibly upon the im 
portance of care for the physical as well as the spirit 
ual health. Directly afterward, the Woman s Confer 
ence of the Central China Mission was organized; one 
important object was the development of the Chinese 
women in lines of missionary work. 



310 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

DISTRICT CONFERENCE. 

In the course of time, when it was found imprac 
ticable for all the native workers to make long jour 
neys to attend the Annual Foochow Conference, the 
District Conference was organized, in 1890, in KING 
HWA, where a different dialect is spoken. This was 
found to be most helpful, as it was attended by many 
women who could never have come to Foochow. On 
Sabbath, a wonderful meeting was held. Christian 
women promptly rose, and told their experiences in 
simplicity and power. A remarkable fact in connec 
tion with the meeting was that, without any concert, 
three times the second chapter of Acts was read and 
commented upon, showing the trend of their thought 
and language. Other districts were organized until, 
in 1894, there were seven District Conferences, and 
the Foochow became a delegated body. In 1895, 
twenty delegates were present, and the Foochow Dis 
trict brought the number up to over one hundred. 
One woman came one hundred and eighty or two 
hundred miles, and was six days on the way, com 
pelled to ride in a sedan chair, put up at miserable 
inns, and endure all the discomforts of a little tucked- 
up Chinese boat. In that wonderful revival in Hing 
Hwa, in 1891, the Bible women, with the native preach 
ers, did all the work, when ninety-eight people decided 
to leave the darkness of heathenism and worship God, 
and joined the Church. 

A Woman s Conference was held in HOK CHIANG 
in 1894, when one hundred women were present, some 
walking weary miles to attend. Two weeks later, 



CHINA. 3 1 1 

when the last General Executive Committee was in 
session, Sunday had been set aside as a day of prayer 
throughout the district, to the end that the women of 
America might be moved to grant the school-building 
asked for Hok Chiang. The Christian women of Hok 
Chiang were asked to give an offering for that pur 
pose. When the copper cash were all counted, it was 
found that over twenty-two thousand had been given, 
or $21.30, given out of poverty such as women in 
Christian lands do not know. With this sum as a 
nucleus, a beautiful site was purchased, " the choice 
spot of the district," for a girls school. " She hath 
done what she could." 

MING CHIANG. Miss Sites opened the first Ming 
Chiang District Conference in Ming Chiang city, Octo 
ber 19, 1894. with sixty-five women present, from the 
woman s school, the teachers of the day-school, the 
Bible women, and the wives of the Chinese preachers 
from all the circuits and stations round. The papers 
prepared showed much thought and originality, and 
the extempore discussions were very lively. The 
various subjects included "Sabbath Observance," " The 
Ideal Day-school Teacher," " Cleanliness," and " Na 
tive Customs," particularly foot-binding. In the devo 
tional meetings great liberty and power came upon 
the women, particularly upon Mrs. L,au, wife of one 
of the preachers. She was one of the original found 
lings of thirty years ago. "She is the brightest 
woman," says Miss Sites, " in the district, and the 
Chinese regard her as very clever indeed." She was 
so humbled over a merciful Providence that saved her 



3 1 2 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY, 

little daughter from drowning when she fell in the 
creek a few months before, and a beautiful new expe 
rience of Christ- love came into her heart. 




FOOT-BINDING. 

The early missionaries had their path so beset with 
difficulties that, while abolishing all usages connected 
with heathen religious beliefs and superstition, they 
did not make foot-binding, which was considered com 
paratively unimportant, a test question. They said : 
" Bound feet will not keep any Chinese women out of 
heaven, so why should we for that alone keep them 
out of the Church?" As the years went on, there was 
not seen the general voluntary renunciation of this 
custom that was hoped for. Some of the missionaries 
of the Society built up their school-work on a strong 



CHINA. 3 ! 3 

anti-foot-biiiding basis. The Peking Girls Boarding- 
school from the beginning the one in Foochow since 
1884, and the Nankin and Chin-kiang schools make 
a condition of admission, either natural or unbound 
feet. In Kiu-kiang, where foot- binding is universal 
among all classes, and where women have smaller feet 
than in any other part of the country, the matter is 
left voluntary with the girls, and yet even there the 
sentiment is so strong in favor of natural feet that 
more than half the girls in the school have removed 
the bandages. When one of the girls was approached 
on the subject of baptism, she said, with voice 
strained with emotion, " How could I be baptized 
with bound feet?" which was akin to a woman in 
another place, sixty years old, who unbound her feet 
because she had vividly realized that "she would be 
ashamed to go toddling up the golden streets with mu 
tilated feet." On the Hok Chiang district a rule was 
made in 1891 not to employ a bound-footed woman 
as teacher. 

Within a few years, and notably in 1894, a strong 
anti-foot-bindiug wave has spread over many parts of 
China. This found expression in correspondence, in 
published articles, and notably in two mass-meetings 
in Shanghai. Katie Hoag, Dr. Hoag s adopted daugh 
ter, was in Shanghai at the time, the native delegate 
to the Christian Endeavor Conference. She attended 
the second meeting, and gave her testimony with a 
clear, unmistakable ring, which called forth the com 
ment that all temporizers of the custom ought to feel 
rebuked by that speech. At these mass-meetings na 
tives as well as foreigners, and women as well as men, 
take part. Considerable solicitude is felt, in this quite 



314 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONAR Y SOCIETY. 

prevailing crusade, about the position taken by the 
boys schools, that they may be heartily committed to 
a course of opposition to this evil, and realize, too, 
that reform must begin with the men, the head of the 
Chinese household. The missionaries are also con 
vinced that the Society should instruct its candidates 
with reference to this all-important question. They 
say it is pathetic to observe how the girls pray about 
it unceasingly, that God would move on the hearts of 
Christians, and heads of boys schools, and pastors, to 
make war against this mutilation of his temple. 

COSTLY BIBLE. 

In the celebration of the sixtieth birthday, Novem 
ber 8, 1894, of the Dowager Empress of China, the 
missionaries of the Society and the girls in their 
schools contributed to the present that was given her 
by the Christian women of the Empire. It was one 
of the richest copies of the New Testament ever 
issued, and was about the size of a bound volume of 
Harper s Magazine, with solid silver covers delicately 
engraved, the title embossed in fine, large, solid gold 
characters, vertically along the left margin. A large 
gold-plate in the center bears the inscription to the 
Empress. The casket is also of solid silver. The 
entire cost was $1,200. That same morning of the 
presentation the Emperor sent a man to the Bible 
Depository to purchase a copy of the Old and the 
New Testaments, which he wished to own and read 
himself. 



CHAPTER XII. 

JAPAN, KOREA, BULGARIA. 

JAPAN. 

Commenced in 1872 Organized as a Conference in 1884 
Women s Conference organized in 1884 Women s W T ork 
begun in 1874. 

WHEN the Society laid the foundations of its 
work in Japan in 1874, the key to the situa 
tion was educational work. Tokyo, one of the largest 
cities in the world, the center of religious, educational 
and political life in the Empire, was entered by Dora 
Schoonmaker in November, 1874. After weeks of 
disappointment in house-hunting, she was permitted 
to open a Christian Girls School in a part of an old 
temple in Tsukiji, the foreign concession. In process 
of time other accommodations were obtained, the 
school increased in numbers, and there came a demand 
for higher education. It was decided to divide the 
pupils, the more advanced going to. Aoyama, a port of 
Tokyo, but at a distance of five miles from Tsukiji. 
The course of study adopted was very nearly the 
same as that of the higher seminaries in this country, 
except that less of mathematics is given, and no Latin 
or Greek, their place being taken by the much more 
laborious Chinese. Besides grammar, rhetoric, and 
English literature, nearly all history, as well as mental 
and moral science, are taught in English; mathe 
matics and the sciences are taught in Japanese by 

315 



3 1 6 WOMAN s FOREIGN MrssiONAR Y SOCIETY. 

Japanese teachers. Music, both foreign and Japanese, 
is taught. Besides, forming a regular part of the cur 
riculum, is cooking, sewing, knitting, embroidery, and 
etiquette. Schools were opened in different places 
throughout the Empire, but the strength of the mis 
sionaries and the money of the Society is largely 
spent on the important boarding-schools at Hakodati, 
Aoyama, and Nagasaki (in all, there were in 1895 
eleven boarding-schools, thirteen day-schools, and 
two training-schools) and the Bible Women s Train 
ing-school at Yokohama. Miss Gheer, in Kiushiu, 
and Miss Spencer, in Central Japan, have done more 
evangelistic work, gaining the working language of 
the people, and training women as Bible women, 
making itineraries into the country, etc. Of the later 
missionaries, Miss Phelps in Sendai, Miss Imhoff in 
Yonezawa, Miss Baucus in Hirosaki, Miss Forbes in 
Kagoshima, have engaged in work not connected 
with schools, visiting homes, holding women s and 
children s meetings. Of the two kinds of work, per 
haps the school-work is the most encouraging. It is 
slower, to be sure, but the girls are better grounded 
in the faith, and better able to give a reason of the 
hope that is in them. 

Generally in all the schools the girls become ear 
nest Christians before graduation. They then either 
become translation teachers for younger classes, per 
sonal teachers of some missionary, teachers of pri 
mary schools, or are married, if possible, to some 
Christian man. There are some lamentable cases of 
backsliding but what wonder ? while there are many 
instances of great faithfulness through years of oppo 
sition. For instance, the mother-in-law is not a 



JAPAN. 317 

Christian, and she prohibits the young wife from ever 
attending a Christian service. She meekly submits, 
never loses her faith in God, but waits her time. When 
at last the mother-in-law dies, she finds her way to the 
Christian Church. To have disobeyed the mother- 
in-law would have brought disgrace on the family. 
There has been no general revival lately, including 
all parts of Japan, but there are constant accessions to 
the Church ; steadily it is growing in favor with the 
people. The property held by the Missionary Society 
is generally on a ninety-nine years lease, though the 
Aoyama property and some others, being outside of 
"treaty limits," is held in the name of a Japanese as 
trustee. Good positions favorable for schools and resi 
dences have been given, and suitable buildings erected. 
The property at Aoyama is considered the finest; 
that is, it is well built and well equipped. Under the 
treaty revision, sought by Japan for years and accom 
plished in 1894, there will be greater concessions, 
which will prove of great advantage in missionary 
operations. When the treaty goes into operation, 
within five years, the foreigners will have freedom of 
residence, and may lease land, The hindrances to 
missionary work lie in the general indifference of the 
educated men, and the bigotry and superstition of the 
uneducated, together with the great lack of workers. 
Japan has been singularly favored with the assist 
ance afforded by travelers. Joseph Cook delivered 
the address at the formal opening of the Nagasaki 
Home and School, May 29, 1882. In 1889, Professor 
Wilson, of Chattanooga, Tenn., was making the tour 
of the world, accompanied by his children, when Miss 
Mary gave up that pleasure for the privilege of work- 



3 1 8 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSION AP SOCIETY. 

ing as a missionary, and was appointed to Nagoya. 
Bishop Warren, in 1887, had quite a party with him : 
Mrs. Warren, Mrs. Cornelia Miller, Mr. Iliff and Dr. 
Abel, and Mrs. Stevens. Tokyo and Nagasaki re 
ceived substantial tokens from the ladies, Mrs. War 
ren giving $ 1,000 to the work in Nagasaki. 

Mrs. Mary C. L,eavitt, in 1886, awakened a deep 
interest in temperance and kindred subjects wher 
ever she spoke, as did Miss Mary Allen West, who 
went to Japan in the interests of the Woman s 
Christian Temperance Union, and who found that 
heaven was as near to Japan as Chicago. In 
1887, Mr. and Mrs. O. J. Wilson visited Yoko 
hama, and left a roll of bills sufficient to cover 
the expenses of one woman in the training-school 
throughout the entire course. Mrs. Sleeper Davis 
landed in Yokohama, September 6, 1889. She had " lit 
erally girdled the globe with deeds of beneficence." 
Having arrived in the Orient, she exhibited the deep 
est interest in all the details of mission work. After 
Japan, came China, India, and Egypt, then the Holy 
Land, Constantinople, Venice, and Berlin, and then 
the "City of God," May 8, 1891. Miss Josephine 
Carr, after spending some time in Japan went on to 
China, but returned to Tokyo in February, 1890, and 
rendered valuable aid, taking full work and teaching 
until Christmas vacation. For the first time in the 
history of the Woman s Society in Japan, it was 
officially represented in 1893 by Mrs. S. A. Keen, 
of the Philadelphia Branch, accompanied by her 
daughter. Her presence at the Woman s Conference 
brought the missionaries into closer union with the 
home Society; her unfailing sympathy rested and 



JAPAN. 319 

strengthened them ; her words of advice and caution 
were an inspiration to holier, wiser living. She was 
elected President of the Conference, and spoke at the 
anniversary of the Woman s Missionary Society 
at the Annual Conference. Again, in July, 1894, an 
other representative of the Woman s Society arrived 
in Japan, Mrs. Mary C. Nind, who accompanied 
Bishop and Mrs. Ninde. At the eleventh session of 
the Woman s Conference she was elected President. 
" Resolutions were adopted by the members, of appre 
ciation of Mrs. Bishop Ninde s visit, with gratitude 
for her hearty sympathy and interest in every detail 
of the work, strengthened and encouraged as they 
liad been by her loving presence ; also for the untir 
ing patience in their many consultations of Mrs. Mary 
C. Nind, together with her helpful advice over per 
plexing questions." It is interesting to note this 
woman s ceaseless activity, despite her threescore 
years and ten, from the day she arrived in Tokyo and 
was "received." She visited the work in all its 
variety, held prayer-meetings, preached to large con 
gregations, sometimes through a Bible woman, and 
sometimes one of the native preachers as an inter 
preter. She traveled by English cars, first and second- 
class, by jinrikishas, steamer, sanpan, and, with staff 
and parasol, climbed to the top of mountains. At 
Hirosaki, one hundred miles from Hakodati, in the 
interior, she was met at the entrance of the city by 
the pastor and leading women of the Church, Bible 
readers, teachers, and a number of the school-girls 
who had come out to welcome her. Alighting from 
her jinrikisha, she walked through the streets fol 
lowed by the people, she and the pastor leading the 



320 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

procession. At the welcome meeting of the school in 
honor of the return of the principal, Miss Baucus, 
and her visit, she responded. Afterward she visited 
the nurse-girls school, held a meeting with the Chris 
tian women, a Bible reading with the English-speak 
ing converts, and addressed the boys school. This is 
not a Christian school. It was instituted twenty 
years before, and Mrs. Nind is the first woman to be 
thus honored. She was in Nagoya when the Emperor 
passed through, and improved the rare opportunity of 
seeing his Imperial Majesty. She described him as a 
small man, like most of the Japanese, not strikingly 
handsome, who did not turn to the right or left, made 
no response at all. He was dressed in simple uni 
form, and was on his way to Hiroshima, whither he 
was moving his troops from Tokyo, intending to 
remain with them for a time. This is considered an 
aggressive movement, as before his reign, thirty years 
ago, the Emperor was never seen, and when and 
wherever he passed, every door and window was shut 
and no one permitted on the street; and in 1894, in 
presence of gathered thousands, this Emperor went 
from the north to the south of the Empire to locate 
his army. 

Mrs. Nind visited the new million-dollar Buddhist 
temple in Kioto, about which so much had been 
written and said concerning the coils of women s hair 
used to lift the timbers. She discovered that the hair 
simply covered where they coiled the rope, and was 
not a solid rope of hair at all. Her expectant faith 
realizes that this magnificent temple will some day be 
consecrated to the worship of the one living and true 
God. Another temple visited, erected in 1187 A. D., 



JAPAN. 321 

had 33.333 gods; 1,000 of these gilded images were 
five feet high, and all represented the eleven-faced, 
thousand-handed Kwaunon. The promise was re 
membered, "The idols he will utterly abolish." 

Three events stand forth with special prominence 
in the year 1894, of Japanese history: i. Earth 
quakes. 2. Treaty Revision. 3. The War. As 
Commodore Perry s black ships dropped anchor in 
Yeddo Bay, and demanded of Tokyo s TYCOON that 
Japan open her doors to the Occident, so Japan in 
turn, as herald of a higher civilization, went to her 
neighbor China, and demanded that Korea be given a 
chance to rise out of her wretched condition. 

TOKYO. Miss Schoonmaker, as has already been 
stated, arrived in Tokyo in 1874. She was joined by 
Miss Olive Whiting in 1876, who married Mr. Charles 
Bishop, the publishing agent of the Tokyo Gospel So 
ciety, in 1882. A new house had been built inside 
the Concession, and into it they moved, with their 
twenty-one boarders and eleven day-scholars. At first 
the class of girls received were able and willing to pay 
their tuition ; but the missionaries felt their work was 
among the poor especially, even if the others must be 
dismissed. A plan was adopted of placing the girls un 
der bonds to remain from four to six years, and two years 
thereafter, if desired, as assistants in the school; and 
later on the plan was adopted of taking the pupils on a 
three months probation. But this did not diminish 
the attendance. The school had to be enlarged in 
1878. In less than a year a fearful fire swept away 
everything, the inmates barely escaping with their 
lives. One month afterward Miss Schoonmaker, Miss 



322 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

M. A. Spencer, and Miss M. J. Holbrook were in a 
rented building, with prosperity all about. Miss Whit 
ing had gone out beyond the compound for evangel 
istic purposes. Miss Schoon maker married Professor 
Soper in 1879, and resides in Chicago. In the rebuild 
ing, a severe typhoon blew down the greater part of 
the wood- work; but in 1881 the school was safely 
housed, with sixty -six pupils, forty-seven of whom 
were Christians. Miss Mary A. Priest and Mrs. Caro 
line Van Petten arrived in 1881, and Miss Anna P. 
Atkinson 111-1882, and Miss Rebecca Watson in 1883. 
When Bishop Wiley organized the Annual Conference 
in 1884, the ladies organized a Woman s Conference, 
with a four years course of study in Japanese. The 
school graduated its first class in the English depart 
ment this year, and the exercises, together with the 
examinations, excited a good deal of interest. The 
class consisted of two girls, both of unusual ability. 
One was retained as teacher, the other O Yen San, a 
poetess of special promise went to Yokohama to assist 
in the preparation and revision of hymns for a new 
Japanese hymnal. 

Children s-day was observed for the first time in 
1884, when 300 pupils from the different Methodist 
Episcopal Sunday-schools came together in a union 
service. This year open tolerance and protection was 
enjoyed: the gospel could be preached in every part 
of the Empire. September i5th, the day the school re 
opened, the most furious typhoon of twenty years vis 
ited them, unroofing part of the building, and blowing 
tiles from the larger part of the rest. In 1886, Miss 
Atkinson returned to America, accompanied by Miss 
Sakurai, and Miss Anna M. Kaulbach arrived on the 



JAPAN. 323 

field, followed in 1887 by Miss Mary Vance, in 1888 
by Miss Belle J. Allen and Miss Mary E. V. Pardoe, 
in 1889 by Miss Frances E. Phelps, Miss Elizabeth 
R. Bender, and Miss Ella Blackstock, and in 1890 by 
Miss Jennie E. lyocke and Miss M. G. Demotte. Many 
changes were taking place during these years. The 
school was divided, the high school going to Aoyama, 
with Miss Atkinson as principal; the other remaining 
at Tsnkiji, with Miss Pardoe as principal. Five day- 
schools had been started, with 505 pupils, and the mis 
sionaries also had the management of eight Sunday- 
schools, with 444 scholars. Miss Holbrook was in 
vited to a position in the Peeress School for the daugh 
ters of the nobility, which she accepted in 1887, con 
tinuing some work under the Woman s Society. In 
1890 she married Professor B. Chappell in the Anglo- 
Japanese College. Some of the missionaries gave their 
time to evangelistic work, holding, in 1886, as many 
as seventeen women s meetings weekly, assisted by 
five Bible women. Miss Atkinson returned in 1888 
with her sister, Miss Mary Atkinson. Miss Spencer 
opened a Bible training-class for the wives of native 
preachers who could not go to Yokohama. A new 
building was put up in 1889 in Tsukiji, when the 
school numbered over 200. Miss Kaulbach married 
Professor Wilson, of Chattanooga, Tennessee. In De 
cember Miss Vance married Professor J. F. Belknap, 
of the Anglo-Japanese College ; but continued her un 
selfish devotion to Japanese women and girls until 
September 27, 1892, when she entered into rest. Her 
sister, Mrs. James Raikes, in 1894 established in the 
school the Mary Vance Memorial Library, Mr. Belknap 
adding to the original contributions the book-case. 



324 WOMAN *s FOREIGN MISSION AR Y SOCIETY. 

many books, and a fine portrait of Mrs. Belknap. 
Miss Bender became principal of this Anglo-Japanese 
seminary in Tokyo in 1891. The schools were fre 
quently blessed with revival influences. In 1882, 
twenty-seven girls were converted in one evening. 
Their efforts are directed through the familiar chan 
nels : a well-organized Sunday-school, a successfully- 
managed Woman s Missionary Society, bands of King s 
Daughters seven of which were formed by Miss Par- 
doe Ep worth Leagues, and philanthropic and tem 
perance work. August 31, 1892, another life was laid 
upon the altar of sacrifice. " God s finger touched Miss 
Pardoe, and she slept." The result of her Christian 
teaching as an educator, whether as preceptress of 
Dickinson Seminary in Pennsylvania, or as principal 
of the Tsukiji Girls School in Japan, and her pure 
life as she went among her students, will be her en 
during monument. Miss Watson was appointed to 
the vacancy in the school. Kindergarten teaching was 
introduced in 1893. 

Another earthquake occurred in June, 1894, which 
destroyed the property in Tsukiji, and greatly dam 
aged the Yokohama Home, incurring greater loss to 
the Society than any that had preceded it. 

INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. To the loving heart and 
busy brain of Mrs. Flora Best Harris, the Tokyo In 
dustrial School owes its beginning. "Years ago, 
touched with the story of the slender pittance paid in 
Japan for woman s work, and appalled at the number 
of young women who were without honorable means 
by which to earn a livelihood, Mrs. Harris urged the 
establishing of an Industrial Home." In April, 1886, 



JAPAN. 325 

among the legacies of Mrs. J. T. Harrison, of Minnesota, 
was a bequest of $5,000 for the Woman s Foreign 
Missionary Society, a larger portion of which was set 
apart for this new enterprise. Great as was the need, 
it was hedged about with difficulties. Years passed 
before the plans materialized. At length Miss Ella 
M. Blackstock was chosen to inaugurate the work. She 
reached Japan near the close of 1889. The school 
proper opened April 7, 1891, in a small rented build 
ing at Aoyama, "for all deserving women and girls 
aiming at self-support." The industries taught are 
cooking, Japanese and foreign sewing, embroidery, 
drawn work, knitting and crochet. There is also a 
literary course, and instruction is given in drawing, 
Japanese etiquette, including Cha-no-yu, or the tea cer 
emony, and flower arrangement. The Bible is sys 
tematically taught, and on Easter Sunday, in 1894, five 
of the pupils received baptism and admission into full 
membership of the Church. Several others were re 
ceived on probation, leaving only two pupils, among 
the thirty-three enrolled, not Christians. On Decem 
ber 1 6, 1893, the new Harrison building was formally 
dedicated by Bishop Foster, Dr. Spencer, Chairman of 
the Building Committee, and two distinguished Ja 
panese educators assisting. During the " Earthquake 
Conference" of 1894, the Woman s Conference found 
pleasant accommodations in this Home, the only 
building of all the Methodist Mission in Tokyo and 
Yokohama that withstood the severe shock, with only 
slight damages, of the June earthquake. 

YOKOHAMA. In Yokohama, as in other parts of 
Japan, the married missionary women gave great as- 



326 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

sistance in opening schools, superintending the work, 
carrying on evangelistic work, and filling vacancies. 
In October, 1879, Susan B. Higgins arrived in Yoko 
hama, and the ist day of November commenced 
school with four children and three adults. She also 
commenced work among the mothers of the children, 
accompanying the Bible woman on her rounds. 
March ist, she had fifty-two in school, requiring an as 
sistant Japanese teacher. In less than nine months 
she was mysteriously called home. As the lovely 
form was borne, at six o clock in the evening, to the 
beautiful cemetery on the bluff at Yokohama, where 
sleep the men and women of so many creeds and na 
tions, and was laid to rest beside the grave of little 
Flossie, Mrs. Harris s baby daughter, the birds that 
had sought refuge in the leafy branches of the trees 
overhead burst forth in one glad song of welcome, 
only surpassed by that the angels sang when they wel 
comed her to the "Jerusalem, my golden." It had been 
her desire to start a Bible woman s training-school. 
In 1 88 1, Miss Emma J. Benton and Miss Atkinson 
opened a boarding-school at this place, and in 1883 
the New England Branch raised $3,500, over and 
above their appropriations, for a memorial to their 
lovely Miss Higgins. A house was bought, and 
named the " Higgins Memorial," and Mrs. Van Petten 
was transferred from Tokyo to establish a Bible wo 
man s training-school. Her first pupils were seven 
women, mostly widows. June 23, 1887, the first grad 
uating exercises were held, when three young women 
passed in the course of study prescribed by the Japa 
nese Conference. These students do all their own 
work sewing, washing, ironing, and cooking. They 



JAPAN. 327 

make country trips with the missionaries, are class- 
leaders, and teach in the Sunday-school. Indeed, the 
Yokohama Sunday-school, which numbered three 
hundred and fifty as early as 1887, was built up 
through these Bible women, who would go out every 
Sunday and gather the children in. One afternoon 
each week class-work is suspended while they go out, 
two by two, into the homes of the people. In 1890 a 
new building was furnished, large enough to accom 
modate fifty persons. Miss A. S. French arrived, and 
immediately took half the care and work. Thirty- 
seven women were enrolled during the year. The 
standard had been raised, and the course extended to 
four years. January 19, 1893, Miss M. B. Griffiths 
was transferred from Tokyo to take Mrs. Van Petten s 
place, and allow her to take a much-needed rest in the 
home-land. The tenth anniversary was held in 1894, 
and the occasion signalized by holding its first Bible 
Woman s Convention, inviting all the twenty-one 
graduates. Thirteen women assembled in answer to 
the invitation, and talked together of bygone days 
and compared experiences. A daily consecration 
service, reports of work, consultations on various sub 
jects connected with their work, formed the pro 
gram for each day. The views of the Convention 
on the helpfulness of the training received in the 
school were given. Unanimous testimonies showed 
that the direct study of the Bible and theology, com 
mitting Scripture to memory, music and singing, and 
the feeling begotten in the school that direct evangel 
istic work is the work of those who are trained there, 
had all proved essentially beneficial and helpful ; that 
better normal training for Sunday-school work was 



328 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

desirable; and that a Bible woman who is good at 
sewing and housekeeping at once commands the re 
spect of her Japanese sisters. During the severe 
earthquake of June 2oth, though a stone chimney fell 
into the girls dormitory, all were mercifully preserved. 
At a tea-firing warehouse in the neighborhood, many 
poor workers were seriously injured and some killed. 
About thirty wounded ones were carried to the Be 
nevolent Society Hospital, where the students, and also 
many from the Christian girls schools, worked in de 
tachments, day and night, helping nurse the sufferers. 
It was a new experience for them ; but they worked 
bravely and well, earning the wondering gratitude of 
those whom they were serving, and the admiration of 
the police officials, who were in constant attendance, 
as well as the public acknowledgment in the native 
papers of their services. As the sufferers began to 
get better, they would ask : " How is it that you, who 
are all so young, are so able and willing to do such 
work as this, and to care for us strangers?" And the 
answer was: "We are followers of Christ, who died 
on the cross to save us, and we are tending you for 
his sake." 

There have been altogether about one hundred and 
twenty-five names enrolled in the Bible Training- 
school during the first ten years of its existence, 
many of whom, though, failed to complete the course. 
In 1894, there were thirty- four students. 

The day-schools have been in charge, during vary 
ing periods, of Miss Rulofson, Miss French, and Miss 
Simons. In 1894, there were four schools, with seven 
teen native teachers, and over five hundred enroll 
ment. 



JAPAN. 329 

NAGASAKI. When Miss Elizabeth Russell and 
Miss Gheer arrived in Nagasaki, November 23, 1879, 
there were but four Christians in the city. This was 
the center of the ecclesiastical power of the Jesuits, 
which resulted so disastrously in persecution and 
massacre of thousands of native Christians in the early 
part of the seventeenth century. These young wo 
men rented a house, and opened a school December 3d, 
with one boarder, a young widow, educated in Japa 
nese style, but who was a Christian, and wanted to fit 
herself for a Bible woman. In 1883, Miss Emma Ever- 
ding was added to the teaching force. A new building, 
beautiful for situation, unsurpassed in Japan, was 
ready for occupancy. The missionaries were impor 
tunate in their demand for an outpouring of the Spirit, 
when a wonderful religious awakening encouraged 
them. It spread to the boys school and to the 
Church. They furnished the first mourners -bench 
ever seen in Nagasaki, when forty-five persons were at 
the altar in one evening, and thirty-five the following 
evening. In 1885, Miss Minnie J. Elliott came. The 
school enrolled one hundred and seven pupils, and the 
teaching force was divided. Miss Lida B. Smith was 
sent to Fukuoka, seventy miles away, to start a branch 
school. At the closing of the first year there the en 
rollment was sixty-four. Miss Gheer took the depart 
ment for the training of Bible women. Two of the 
older girls were sent to Kagoshima to open a school. 
Miss Belle J. Allen was sent out in 1888, and was ap 
pointed to Fukuoka. Miss Gheer was obliged to come 
home in 1886. From the first, the projectors of the 
Nagasaki school determined it should be high grade ; 
and that, as it developed, it should be worked under 



330 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

departments headed by specialists. Miss Anna L,. 
Bing went out in 1888 to take charge of the musical 
work. She had faith in her department, and believed 
the Japanese could be taught the best music. In 1892, 
thirty-nine students were enrolled nineteen on the 
organ, nineteen on the piano, and one in vocal culture. 
When the fact is known that no Japanese instrument 
has a keyboard, and that in consequence players do 
not learn the use of all their fingers, then the great 
change brought about is apparent. A library of music 
became a necessity, since music-stores were so far 
away ; and a collection has been made of over one hun 
dred and seventy compositions, which is the property 
of the school, the pupils paying rent by the term for 
their use. Choral classes have been taught ; concerts 
have been given ; a harmony clans was organized in 
1893 ; rehearsals are enjoyed; and during the revival 
the enthusiastic singing was a potent factor in the 
success of the services. In 1894, Miss Bing was 
obliged to come home, her physical strength having 
been sorely tried, and some of her olderpupils are carry 
ing forward the work. Miss Maude Simons arrived in 
1889, and took charge of the Art Department. At 
the exhibit, Commencement-week, in 1892, over 400 
specimens of drawings from nature and from models of 
wood-carving attested to the skill and industry of both 
teachers and students. An elegantly-carved book-case 
in the school library shows what the class of 1892 
did, to leave their memory with Alma Mater. Miss 
IvOuise Imhoff reached Japan in 1889, and did good 
service in the Industrial Department for a time. Miss 
A. S. French also arrived in 1889 ; and Mrs. Van Petten 
made her way to Nagasaki early in 1894, arriving just 



JAPAN. 33I 

in time to save the Biblical Department. In 1889, 
Miss Russell, Miss Everding, and Miss Elliott, all had 
to come home. Among the applicants for 1895 is a 
native of the Loo-Choo Islands, who is a Christian 
woman, desirous of preparing herself for work among 
her own people. The first visit to these islands, about 
four hundred miles south of Kiushiu, by a represent 
ative of the Woman s Society, was made by Miss Ella 
Forbes, of Kagoshima, in 1893. Methodism had been 
planted there about six months, and already had seven 
teen members, and several others earnestly studying 
the Bible. The pastor found it impossible for him 
to work among the women. Immediately, the Wo 
man s Missionary Societies at the various stations 
adopted these islands as the field for their foreign 
missionary work. Mrs. Van Petten sent them a Bible 
woman, Mrs. Inotie, and also went herself to help 
inaugurate the work. In 1894, Miss Gheer made an 
other visit to these islands, and was much impressed 
with the opportunities among half a million of people, 
who are practically without a religion. The largest 
Woman s Christian Temperance Union in Japan is in 
Nagasaki, and has one hundred and thirty members. 
Miss Omura, the President, is called their Frances Wil- 
lard. She sometimes accompanies Miss Gheer in her 
itineraries. On one of these trips she lectured thirty- 
six times in twenty-seven places, to audiences of from 
thirty to three hundred. Miss Omura has tried very 
hard to get into the public schools, but has been 
barred out on account of being a Christian. She has 
also tried to gain access to the prisons, in order to 
work among the women ; but the Buddhist priests 
have the right of way there. Though thwarted here 



332 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

and turned aside there, she keeps right on, never dis 
couraged, sure that her Macedonia lies not far ahead. 

FUKUOKA. In 1889, Miss Allen had to go from 
Fukuoka to Nagasaki, and Miss Martha Taylor, who 
arrived in 1890, was sent to Fukuoka. In 1893 she 
became Mrs. Callahan, and entered the mission of the 
Methodist Church South. Then Miss Leonora Seeds 
and Miss Grace Tucker were appointed to this place. 
The school numbered, in 1892, seventy-five girls, 
thirty-five of whom were boarders. There were ten 
conversions that year. Miss Ella Forbes was sent to 
Kagoshima in 1891, where there seemed a wonderful 
opening; but after many trials the school had to be 
given up, because it was impossible to work on the 
only basis they were willing to allow. Other work 
was carried on with success. After two years there 
were two women s meetings, averaging fifty-five ; two 
adult classes, with an attendance of fifty ; four Sun 
day-schools, averaging 185; one Auxiliary of the 
Woman s Foreign Missionary Society, which con 
tributed $8.40 the first year; ten conversions, and four 
baptisms. Miss Forbes s health broke down, and she 
returned home in 1894, and married in 1895. 

YONEZAWA. Miss Mary B. Griffiths, in 1889, after 
reaching Japan was appointed to evangelistic work 
in Yonezawa, and Miss Mary Atkinson, who ar 
rived the year before, was sent to take charge of the 
school, which began with eighteen students, and 
ended the year with forty-eight. Miss Griffiths was 
called to Tokyo in 1890, and Miss Louisa Imhoff was 
sent to Yonezawa. In the spring of 1894, Miss Im- 



JAPAN. 333 

hoff received an injury in her right eye, caused by a 
stone thrown at her as she was about to return from 
an evening meeting held in the park, striking her 
glasses and breaking them, when two small pieces of 
glass pierced her eye. Both Christian and non-Chris 
tian showed her the profouiidest sympathy ; the 
highest officials of the city and district either called 
in person, or sent her gifts, or made other expressions 
of their sympathy and regret. The people generally 
were greatly stirred over the matter. Miss Imhoff re 
turned home in 1895, and Miss Baucus was transferred 
to Yonezawa. Miss Alice Otto was also sent out that 
year. 

NAGOYA. Work was commenced in the populous 
city of Nagoya, October 3, 1888. Miss Mary A. Dan- 
forth and Miss Mary E. Wilson were the organizers, 
managing so judiciously that during the first year 
eighty-six pupils were enrolled. The success of the 
school is without a precedent in Japan. The great 
earthquake of October 28, 1891, in Nagoya and the 
surrounding country partially destroyed more than 
30,000 houses, and entirely demolished more than 
80,000. Many thousands of the inhabitants were 
killed, and a still larger number injured. The tri 
umphant strain of the psalmist comforted the mis 
sionaries : " God is our refuge and strength, a very 
present help in trouble. Therefore will not we fear, 
though the earth be removed, and though the moun 
tains be carried into the midst of the sea." They spent 
the first week after it under the open sky, with the 
earth trembling beneath them, and the air filled with 
the clang of fire-bells or the rumble of incessant 



334 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

shocks. Yoshi San, who had lived in Hakodati, 
wrote the story of this earthquake to her dear friend 
and patron in New York, Mrs. Wright, as follows: 
" From the evening of the 27th till the next morn 
ing, the earth quaked nineteen times ; but these shocks 
were weak, so the people did not mind them. But 
about half-past six, when the sparrows began their 
chattering, the quaking changed to a terrible oscilla 
tion, and the most appalling devastation began. The 
edifices began to rock right, left, above, and below. 
The oscillation continued seven minutes, with abso 
lute fierceness. The buildings all seemed like little 
boats in the ocean, surrounded by violent waves. 
In some cities there is not even one house without 
injury, and nearly all the houses were broken down. 
In the street the sounds of the falling of thousands 
of dishes from high shelves, the crumbling of the 
great chimneys of the large stores, the pitiful cry of 
disappointment through the city, rose louder and 
stronger as the sun rose higher. The loss of thou 
sands of precious lives and of substances is beyond 
reckoning. In one city there was not only an earth 
quake, but a great conflagration followed. The stu 
dents of the normal school and academy, as well as 
the laborers, worked very hard to put down the fire; 
but in six moments thousands of houses broke into 
flames, and two hundred people were burned. The 
people made their tents in the road, and slept there 
at night. They are destitute of food and clothing. 
The hospitals were full of wounded persons. O, 
what a wretched state they were in! I think this 
earthquake is the most terrible one that ever took 



JAPAN. 335 

place in Japan. Kven the earthquake which took place 
thirty-seven years ago in Yedo (Tokyo), which made 
us tremble to hear of, can not foe compared to this." 
On the 5th of July was held the first Commence 
ment, when, for the first time in the history of Nagoya, 
two Christian young ladies stood before a company of 
invited guests as the representatives of a higher edu 
cation for women. On account of the agitation in re 
gard to the ownership of property the building so 
much needed is postponed. Miss Danforth came 
home in 1893, followed by Miss Wilson in 1894, 
but not until after Miss Carrie A. Heaton had arrived. 
Miss Harriet S. Ailing, was also sent out in 1894. 
There was a total enrollment in the school of seventy- 
five, all of whom were self-supporting. 

HAKODATI. When Miss M. A. Priest was sent to 
Hakodati, "the Eye of the North/ in 1878, she was 
the only Protestant lady missionary in all North 
Japan, and continued to be for two years, not one 
nearer than Tokyo, which is five hundred miles south. 
Eleven girls had been gathered into the school, when, 
December 6, 1879, a disastrous fire, which consumed 
two-thirds of the city, deprived her of a school-l]ouse. 
She taught for a time in her bedroom. But her 
health failed, and she returned home. Miss Kate 
Wood worth arrived in December, 1880, in a violent 
snowstorm. No jinrikisha could be procured, and 
she was obliged to climb the hill in a deep snow. 
Miss Mary Hampton was also sent out that year; 
and in 1881 the "Caroline Wright Memorial " was 
built, a gift to the mission from Mrs. J. A. Wright, of 

23 



336 I VOMAN s FOREIGN MISSION AR Y SOCIETY. 

New York City, from the proceeds of a fair held in 
her own parlors. " With matchless skill and perse 
verance, for eight months she wrought, like the silk 
worm, her life into her labors, until, when arrange 
ments for the sale were completed, November 29, 
1 88 1, it was a marvel of even Oriental elegance of 
drapery and design. Cards of invitation had been 
issued to friends, and at the close of a three days re 
ception, which had all the charm and grace of private 
hospitality, there had been an exchange of values 
upon the principle of commercial equivalents, which 
left the sum of $1,700 in the treasury, as the seal of 
the Master s word, Give, and it shall be given unto 
you. The beautiful needlework decorates lovely 
homes, while the money raised the walls of Christ s 
kingdom; and thus again is fulfilled the command, 
full of both human and Divine meaning, Render 
unto Caesar the things that are Caesar s, and unto 
God the things that are God s. One of the beau 
tiful features of the occasion was the presence 
and assistance of the two only children of the two 
daughters in whose memory this deed of love was 
done. One of them, a child ol twelve years, became 
so interested that she made some simple articles, 
and asked the privilege of having a table of her own ; 
and the receipts were $40, with which she intended 
to buy a sewing-machine for the Home." But the 
donor s interest and generosity did not stop with 
this. Perhaps no woman in the Church has sent so 
many boxes, containing valuable gifts, both for mis 
sionaries and pupils, India sharing with Japan, in 
these gifts. An enumeration of the articles would 



JAPAN. 337 

make too long a list ; but among the most important 
were two new Mason and Hamliu organs, three 
sewing-machines to Japan, and one to India, com 
forters, blankets, plaid woolen shawls by dozens, wool 
stockings in large quantities, books, scrapbooks, dolls, 
bed-linen, pillows, table-linen, etc. She interested her 
personal friends from many places, and in other de 
nominations, who assisted her with supplies. Both 
the Bible Society and Methodist Book Concern made 
her liberal contributions. 

Dr. Hamisfar reached Hakodati in 1883, and Miss 
Ella Hewett in 1884. The school had to be enlarged; 
the number enrolled during the year 1887 was one 
hundred and four, sixty-seven being boarding-schol 
ars. A branch-school was opened that year in 
Hirosaki, and the missionaries took turns in superin 
tending it for weeks, and sometimes one would go and 
stay three months. 

Miss Hewett left in November, 1889, and for family 
reasons has not returned, but Miss Augusta Dicker- 
son had come out, and Miss Georgiana Baucus ar 
rived the following year. Each of them gave some 
time to Hirosaki. Miss Nagomine, one of the most 
valuable native teachers, married, in the spring of 
1888, Mr. Honda, one of the leading men in the Japan 
Conference, a reserve delegate to the General Confer 
ence. They made their home in Hirosaki that year, 
and she rendered Miss Hampton valuable aid. The 
failure of Miss Kaulbach s health caused her to try 
another climate, and she was transferred to Yonezawa. 
In September, 1888, the first graduating exercises 
were held, when two girls who had been in the school 



338 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

from the very start, successfully finished their course 
of study. The course covers eight years. This school 
is of the highest grade, and has the best reputa 
tion of any school north of Sendai. Two mission 
aries strengthened the force in 1894 Miss Florence 
K. Singer to Hakodati, and Miss Irene tee to Hiro- 
saki. As far as possible, the school conforms to 
Japanese ways. A good deal of attention, in all the 
schools in Japan, is paid to manners, and in order to 
educate the girls properly, sometimes interesting ex 
aminations are held in Japanese etiquette, when a 
novel feast is arranged, one girl taking the part of 
host, and others that of attendants. A ceremonious 
dinner is given, and though the food is all simulated- 
fish, vegetables, etc., being artistically made of cloth 
everything is handled so deftly and the movements of 
the waiters are so graceful, that a pretty sight is 
afforded. 

NURSE-GIRLS SCHOOL. The heart of the for 
eigner is touched with pity for none more, perhaps, 
than for the little nurse-girl in Japan, who, at work or 
at play, from morning to night, is burdened with the 
weight of another child, scarcely smaller than herself. 
One of the saddest features of this system of caring 
for small children is the fact that it deprives a large 
class of girls of all educational privileges, except those 
rather questionable ones afforded by the street. The 
missionaries in Hirosaki have put forth some initial 
efforts to help these little unfortunates in opening a 
nurse-girls school in 1893, and tne Y found the results 
highly interesting and satisfactory. 



JA1 A.\. 



339 




JAPANESE NURSK GIRLS. 

WOMAN S CONFERENCE. Since 1883 a Woman s 
Conference has been held in Japan, convening at the 
same time and place as the Japanese Annual Confer 
ence, and composed of all the representatives of the 
Society and the women of the General Board. It has 
a four years course of study for the missionaries, a 
two years course for Japanese Christian workers, and 
a one year s course for other Christian women. 
Aoyama is always the meeting-place. It has been 
customary for the presiding Bishop of the Annual 
Conference to open these Woman s Conferences, the 
First Vice-President usually in the chair thereafter. 
But at the tenth session great was the rejoicing in the 
presence of one of the Home Secretaries, Mrs. Keen, 



340 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

who presided at every session and informal meeting, 
in the interim sitting with committees, and hearing 
and answering questions innumerable. She solved 
many difficult problems, unraveled many perplexities, 
and comforted many hearts. Twice she gave public 
addresses; one before the Annual Conference on the 
occasion of the Woman s Anniversary, the other at 
the closing session before the members of the Woman s 
Conference alone. 

Again, at the eleventh session, in 1894, the mem 
bers were favored with the presence of two of the 
home-workers, Mrs. Bishop Ninde and Mrs. Mary C. 
Nind. The last-named was elected President. This 
was called the Earthquake Conference, and was held 
in the Harrison Industrial School-building, the only 
one which did not suffer seriously from the earth 
quakes a few weeks before. The one great question 
to be settled concerned the consolidation of the 
Aoyama and Tsukiji schools, on account of the unsafe 
condition of the Tsukiji building after the earthquake ; 
and the cost of repairs being almost as great as that 
of a new building. Mrs. Nind appointed a Building 
Committee for both Tokyo and Yokohama. At the 
close of the Conference, Mrs. Nind gave a short ad 
dress, beginning with commendation, continuing with 
advice, and closing with exhortation. It was full of 
love, sympathy, and inspiration. 

The twelfth session convened in the ladies semi 
nary at Aoyama, July u, 1895, Bishop Walden pre 
siding at the opening session, when he expressed his 
surprise and regret that the sessions of the Woman s 
Conference should be distinct from those of the Annual 
Conference. There were sixteen representatives of 



JAPAN. 341 

the Society present, besides several members of the 
General Board, and a few visitors from America and 
China. In the election of officers, Mrs. Bishop Wai- 
den was elected President. At this session the in 
structions of the Home Reference Committee were 
read concerning the furnishing of certified copies of 
all deeds of property owned by the Society in foreign 
countries being sent to the Treasurer, Mrs. Skidmore, 
as custodian. A request from the Annual Conference 
was read for the selection of a member of the Woman s 
Conference to serve on next year s Entertainment 
Committee. In consequence of the inequality of ex 
penses incurred by those coming from the extreme 
north and south, and that which the ladies in Aoyama 
incur in preparing for so many guests, it was decided 
to pool all expenses, and divide in equal shares. 

AUXILIARIES. In 1886 an Auxiliary in Yokohama 
was organized, known as the Higgins Memorial Aux 
iliary, pledging the support of one scholarship in the 
training-school. It belongs to the New England 
Branch. March 26, 1887, an Auxiliary was organized 
in Tokyo, reporting to the Northwestern Branch. 
Within six months there was $25 in the treasury to 
ward supporting a Bible woman in the training-school 
in Yokohama. Girls are much interested in the 
meetings, which are generally attended by the entire 
school, whether members or not. There are now two 
Auxiliaries in Tokyo, one in Kagoshima, and one was 
organized in Fukuoka, when every woman who was a 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church became 
a member of the Woman s Foreign Missionary So 
ciety. 



342 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 
KOREA. 

Commenced in 1885. 

" You are making a great mistake. Why don t you 
work the other way?" said an intelligent Korean to a 
missionary. " If you want to win Korea, win the 
women. Win the mothers, and all Korea will be 
Christian." But they can not be reached by men, and 
but a handful of women who love Christ have gone to 
seek them. Korea was opened to civilization and to 
the gospel in 1882. The first company of mission 
aries representing the Methodist Episcopal Church 
started for Korea in January, 1885, but found, on 
reaching Japan, news that made an onward move 
ment somewhat hazardous. Dr. Maclay advised that 
the party be divided, thus avoiding the suspicion that 
might arise if they went in a body. Mrs. Scranton, 
of the Woman s Society, and Dr. Scranton s wife and 
child, remained in Yokohama until June, when they 
joined the rest of the party in Seoul, the capital of 
Korea. Things were in an unsettled state. Civil 
war seemed imminent at times, and war between Eng 
land and Russia probable. A group of obstacles was 
met in the social customs of the people. " Family life 
is thoroughly patriarchal. Marriage is almost obliga 
tory; the unmarried state a shame to either sex. 
Male children are esteemed because they perpetuate 
the ancestral line and maintain ancestral worship. 
Female children, at marriage, are transferred to the 
family of their husbands, and, therefore, are lightly 
esteemed by their parents; while the wife who brings 
forth only daughters is likely to find herself soon re 
placed in her spouse s affections. Young people take 



KOREA. 343 

no part in the choice of their partners. Women of 
the better classes rarely leave their homes. Those 
seen upon the streets all belong to the lower orders. 
The wife is never looked upon as a companion by her 
helpmeet, and if she belong to a respectable class, 
passes her life in the seclusion of the woman s quar 
ters." Such is Korean life. The Christian household 
is an innovation which revolutionizes the very basis 
of society. This is inevitable. Christian homes are a 
prime essential of the Christian Church, and the 
Christian home involves much at variance with Korean 
views. Missionary work was at a great disadvantage. 
A beginning was made without a Bible, without a dic 
tionary or grammar, without even a leaflet to put in 
the hands of the people. 

Mrs. Scranton, recognizing the necessity for a home 
where she could gather the women about her, wrote 
to the Society for permission to buy a piece of prop 
erty in a commanding situation, overlooking the Amer 
ican Legation. Through the generosity of Mrs. 
W. E. Blackstoue, of Chicago, $3,000 was given for 
the purchase, and October 23, 1885, the Woman s For 
eign Missionary Society was the owner of real estate 
in the city of Seoul, and the work of educating the 
women and girls was begun. In less than two years 
medical work and direct evangelistic work were added. 
Miss L,ouisa C. Rothweiler was the second mission 
ary appointed to Korea in 1887, and the first sent out 
from the German Methodist Church. It is claimed 
that the first Protestant baptism in Korea adminis 
tered to women, was by Rev. Mr. Appenzeller, of the 
General Society, who was embarrassed at their not hav 
ing names, and baptized them, giving them the names 



344 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

of Mary, and Martha, and Miriam. February 12, 1889, 
he organized a class among the women who had been 
receiving religious instruction, and the following Sun 
day baptized nine persons. A few days later, eight 
others were received on probation. On account of 
the rigid seclusion of a large part of the women, it 
seemed necessary to organize them for the time into 
a separate Church, and the Rev. F. Ohlinger, at the 
annual meeting in 1889, was assigned their pastor. In 
1894, Bishop Ninde dedicated a small chapel, built es 
pecially for the women by the native Church. Mis 
sion work in Korea rejoices in visible results without 
long waiting. The native Christian women are help 
ful in selling books, Sunday calendars, and in. giving 
out Sunday-school lesson helps. They also act as in 
terpreters, though they have to listen sometimes to 
insulting remarks made about or to them. At one 
time it was suggested to one of these earnest Chris 
tian women that she had better stay at home, and they 
would get along as best they could without her. To 
this she made reply: "After you ladies have come 
thousands of miles to teach us Jesus love, and you 
receive insult from my countrymen every day, shall I 
stop doing all I can for Jesus just because I am in 
sulted? No. If I obey Jesus, their insults will not 
hurt me. I want to do all I can to help my Korean 
sisters to get the same peace in their hearts that I 
have in mine, because I love and serve Christ." 

In 1 886, soon after the new building was occupied, 
the president of the Foreign Office, in order to show 
the people that Mrs. Scranton had the confidence of 
the Government, sent the school-name, "Pear Flower 
School," which was framed according to custom, and 



KOREA. 345 

hung over the big gate. Shortly after a kecsyu fol 
lowed. The keesyus are soldiers who are attached 
to certain officials, always acting as escort whenever 
they go out. They carry letters and do similar 
errands. They can not be employed except by special 
favor of the king. His presence about the place, or 
accompanying Mrs. Scranton, was really a great thing 
in Korean estimation. In 1895 he was called back 
into Government service and greatly missed. 

In 1888, during the political disturbances, when 
all religious teaching had to be suspended, the king 
was friendly and ordered seventy-five soldiers from 
Chemulpo to quiet the disturbance. 

Miss Margaret Bengel was appointed to Seoul in 
1890, and three years later became the wife of Rev. 
G. H. Jones, and pioneered the work in Chemulpo in 
1893, the first work among women outside of Seoul. 
After one year s work, there were eight baptized 
women, seven children, three full members, and thir 
teen probationers. Several times she was called to 
houses to take down the fetiches worshiped by the 
women who wanted to break loose from heathenism. 

Miss Josephine O. Payne arrived in Seoul in 1892, 
and Miss Mary W. Harris and Miss L,ulu E. Frey in 
1893, who, with Dr. Cutler and the trained nurse, Miss 
Lewis, brought the working force up to seven em 
ployees of the Woman s Society. Evangelistic work 
succeeds better than school-work, the school at Seoul 
in 1893 numbering thirty-five girls, and in 1894 only 
twenty. Troublous times was partly the cause. Dur 
ing the war in 1894, a United States warship went to 
Chemulpo to protect American interests, not the least 
of which are our American missionaries. In March, 



346 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

1894, Mrs. Scranton was the first Methodist woman to 
make a country trip, and during the eight days 
occupied, fully six hundred women heard the gospel 
message. She had an audience with the king and 
queen and the crown prince in 1895, and was in 
vited to other homes of high officials. In less than 
six months, over one thousand Korean women were 
received by Mrs. Scranton in her own room, the 
majority coming especially for religious teaching. 

INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION. 

Industrial schools have come to be of great im 
portance in foreign missionary work. The time has 
come for a revolution in the old-time practices in India 
and elsewhere. Let the men go into the fields, the 
foundry, and the factory; and let the women take 
their places in the hospital, at the desk, and in the 
shop. Let men stop their dressmaking and sewing, 
and give such work to the women; let them stop 
sweeping and making beds, and then this will drift 
into the hands of women. Industrial schools are 
needed where girls can be trained in specialties. 
They need to be taught one thing, and to do it well. 
A beginning has been made by the Woman s Society 
in some of the missions. In Pithoragarh, a station 
in the Himalayas, some fifty women support them 
selves by working on the farm in connection with 
the Home for the Homeless. They cultivate rice 
and other grains. The Home for Homeless Women 
in Lucknow, established in 1882, is maintained by 
the work of women. They are trained in the use of 
the sewing-machine, and do plain and fancy sewing 
and knitting. Point-lace and gold-thread embroidery 



INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION. 347 

are also taught. In the cook-house, jams and other 
sweets are prepared for sale. All are instructed in 
housekeeping. The blind are also taught to knit 
and to care for themselves, looking to self-support. 
A woman s workshop has been opened on one of 
the principal streets in Rangoon, Burma. A fore 
woman is employed to oversee the w r ork and take 
orders. Some sixty women here make their own 
living. Industrial work is made a specialty in Tokyo, 
Japan, where a building was erected in September, 
1893, for industrial teaching, in order that the women, 
to so great an extent destitute of the means of self- 
support, may be helped to a way of independent liv 
ing. While emphasis is placed on Japanese sewing, 
instruction is given in foreign sewing, knitting, and 
crocheting, embroidery, straw-work, and cooking. In 
addition, some of the fine arts are taught ; such as 
drawing, crayoning, water-color painting, and wood- 
carving. Orders are taken in America for some of 
their beautiful embroidery. 

Manual-labor schools in a country with so com 
plex a civilization as China meet with difficulties of 
peculiar obstinacy; but by a long trial these can, no 
doubt, be overcome. 

In all the boarding-schools and orphanages in 
every mission field, the girls are taught sewing, dress 
making, cooking, and general house-work. In India 
the native Christian girls are taking responsible posi 
tions; one, educated in the Bareilly Orphanage, has 
been selected to take charge of the woman s depart 
ment in a Government hospital in North India ; others 
are clerks in .dispensaries ; one has been appointed to 
take charge of a post-office a thing unknown in India 



348 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

before and some are in charge of waiting-rooms at 
railway stations 

BULGARIA 

Commenced in 1857 Left without a resident missionary in 
1864 Abandoned in 1871 Re-occupied in 1873 Broken 
up in 1877 Renewed in 1879 Constituted a Mission Con 
ference ill 1872 Woman s Work organized in 1884. 

The Woman s Foreign Missionary Society began 
work in Bulgaria in 1874, by supporting one or two 
Bible women and two or three girls in the school 
of the American Board at Samokof. The Rev. Mr. 
Flocken, the Superintendent of the mission, was very 
much interested in woman s work, and employed 
Clara Proca for the Woman s Society as Bible woman 
at Tultscha, in Eastern Bulgaria, on the Danube. 
She was of German descent, and one of the first 
scholars in the mission-school in 1860. When she 
was sixteen years old (1864), she was appointed assist 
ant teacher. Clara was able to instruct the women 
in several different languages. She reached the 
hearts of those for whom she labored. But the work 
was soon disturbed by the unsettled condition of the 
country, caused by the Turko-Russian war. Many of 
the native Christians were murdered; and some of the 
funds in hand were granted to care for the orphans 
of the preachers who were killed in the war. The 
Rev. Mr. Flocken returned to America, and the work 
and workers were scattered. After matters were 
settled and the country became quiet, Rev. D. C. 
Challis, who had been appointed superintendent, and 
who went to Lof tcha, feeling the importance of again 
undertaking the work among women, opened a school 



BULGARIA. 



349 



for girls, November, 1880; and being unsuccessful in 
securing a Bulgarian teacher, he and Mrs. Challis 
took the work upon themselves, and cared for the 
girls in their own home. While these people are not 
low and degraded like the heathen, there are rea 
sons why we 
should help 
them, chief 
among which 
are: "A dead 
Church whose 
bishops are 
mere politi 
cians and 
worse, and 
priests who 
are ignorant 
and immoral 
and utterly 
despised by 
the people at 
large. In 
their effort at 
self-govern 
ment they CLARA PROCA. 
need the gos 
pel and that great safeguard of true liberty, a national 
conscience." The school developed, and in 1881 the 
General Society instructed Mr. Challis to build a 
house for the school, \vhich he did at a cost of $3,500, 
locating it in one of the pleasantest parts of Loftcha. 
It is one of the most noticeable buildings in the city. 
Its purchase was ordered by the General Executive 




350 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 



Committee in 1883, and arrangements made for send 
ing out a lady to superintend and carry on the school. 
Owing to the instability of the Government, the work 
was interrupted, and school closed by order of the 

Minister of Ed 
ucation, and the 
students were 
placed in Samo- 
kof. Permission 
was granted, 
and some time 
afterward the 
Government or 
dered the school 
to be again 
opened, and a 
primary school 
at Rustchuk al 
so. Thus three 
years of labor, 
three removals, 
two prolonged 
contests with 
the authorities 
of the Govern 
ment, and much 
patient and im 
patient waiting, were involved in the establishment 
of the school at Loftcha. 

In 1884, Miss Linna Schenck was appointed to the 
work. She arrived in November, and at once entered 
upon her duties with enthusiasm. Her native assist 
ants were Mrs. Kassova, an experienced Bulgarian 




BULGARIAN GIRLS. 



BULGARIA. 351 

teacher, and Miss Stornata Atanasova, a graduate of 
the Samokof school, with ten years experience as 
teacher and some years residence in England, a very 
companionable lady. Four pupils graduated in 1886. 
At the closing exercises the room was packed with 
visitors, and great interest was manifested. The year 
before, no one dare4 to come. Two of these girls 
were engaged to marry young preachers, graduates of 
the Theological School at Sistov. One of them took 
work as a Bible woman, and another returned to the 
school as primary teacher. Most of the students 
expected in after years to refund the amount ex 
pended on their education. Most of them were very 
poor, and the Greek religion subjected them to much 
persecution, which, while it evaded the law, subjected 
them to hardships, rough treatment, and non-employ 
ment. Pupils of our faith met with such opposition 
and detraction in the public schools, which are gov 
ernmental and connected with the ruling Church, that 
our people preferred to have their children grow up 
in ignorance rather than have them educated under 
such influences, which are also often atheistic. Al 
most the only comfortable homes and healthy chil 
dren seen are those of Protestants, while the igno 
rance, indecency, uncleanliness, and superstition is 
indescribable. Miss Schenck did not expect to make 
teachers of all her pupils ; some, she hoped, would 
make good wives and mothers. The people by this 
time had come to feel that the Protestants were their 
friends, owing to the sympathy shown in their times 
of suffering. 

Miss Mary L,. Nind visited this isolated mission, 
and after a long, fifty-mile ride in a phciton to the 



352 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

inland town of L,oftcha, she said, if she had been in 
the heart of Siberia she could not have felt farther 
away from home and civilization. When she said 
something like this one day to Miss Schenck, a 
beautiful light broke over her face as she answered : 
"Do you think God meant we should go into all the 
world except Bulgaria, and teach all people except 
the Bulgarians? Bulgaria is a lonely place, I know; 
but I love it, and would rather be here than anywhere 
else in the world." 

Miss Schenck s health suffered greatly, and in 
1887 Miss Ella Fincham was sent to her relief. The 
school had become very popular. Even those who 
had been bitter in their opposition became its patrons. 
The Church authorities became alarmed, and promi 
nent people were urged not to set " such a bad ex 
ample" as to patronize the school. One of the grati 
fying features of this school has always been the 
religious influence pervading it. The most of the 
girls become consistent Christians, and prove faithful 
to their profession of faith after leaving school. Miss 
Schenck s general practice was to meet all the girls 
at least once a \veek for religious conversation ; some 
times in the early morning hours, sometimes at 
twilight, but always each girl alone. The work of 
building up these weak Christian characters was 
necessarily slow, and there were many obstacles in 
the way; but she believed most firmly that the chief 
aim should be the bringing of the girls to Christ. 

In 1889, there was much anxiety by reason of an 
order issued by the Minister of Public Instruction, 
allowing none but Bulgarians to teach in the schools. 
This notice was sent to the several inspectors, and 



BULGARIA. 353 

variously interpreted by them ; some claiming that 
it would not interfere with the work of directors of 
schools, and others that it \vas meant to cover all such 
cases. A protest was sent to the Minister, calling 
attention to the fact that our schools are not national 
schools, but organized under a special law, and sup 
ported by foreign means, and that the teachers had 
been approved by the Minister himself. The Exarch 
also issued a decree, urging the civil authorities every 
where to put down the heresies so dangerous to their 
Church and the national life. The edict included both 
Protestant and Roman Catholic. One of the Bulga 
rian papers, in commenting upon the order, said: 
"The Minister will do well to remember that religion 
was not propagated in these days by police force nor 
gunpowder, and if the Church was in danger, they 
must use the same means that the heretics did ; 
namely, preaching, teaching, and by the spread of 
literature." 

In 1890, Mrs. Bishop Walden cheered the heart of 
the then lonely worker, Miss Fincham, by a visit. Miss 
Schenck had been compelled by poor health to come 
home in 1889. Miss Kate B. Blackburn sailed in 
November, 1892, in company with a large party of 
missionaries. In London she parted company with 
them, and pursued her journey to Bulgaria alone. 
This was fraught with more difficulties and perplexi 
ties than a journey to India or China; but she was 
courageous, and accomplished it successfully. Snow 
bound on the plains of Austria for forty-eight hours, 
quarantined at the station opposite Rustchuk, where 
no one could be found who spoke German, French, 
or English, her experience was unpleasant in the 



354 WOMAN *s FOREIGN MISSION AR Y SOCIETY. 

extreme. When released, she received a warm wel 
come in Mr. Constantine s home in Rustchuk. A 
further journey by steamer to Sistov, made through 
cold, fog, and floating ice, with a carriage-drive of 
fifty miles to L,oftcha, completed the journey. 

Miss Fincham returned in April, and Miss Black 
burn was left with the entire responsibility of the 
school, and also to provide for Sunday services until 
the pastor arrived. The coming of Miss Lydia Diem, 
of Switzerland, in 1893, was counted a great blessing. 
She is the daughter of one of the preachers of the 
Swiss Conference, and admirably adapted to the work 
she has to do. She is thoroughly qualified to teach 
French, music, and drawing, branches that must be 
taught well in order to compete with the national 
schools. Seventy-five pupils were in attendance in 
1893 > besides these were five day-schools, with sixty- 
five pupils. In the former school thirty-five were 
boarders, twenty-one of whom were self-supporting, 
and others paid in part. 

In 1894, M iss Amelia Diem, a sister of Miss Lydia 
Diem, surrendered a lucrative position to accept a 
situation in the school, taking charge of the classes 
in sciences, and the entire charge of the sewing de 
partment, having, in addition to the regular course 
of sewing given in the Swiss schools, a special course 
in cutting and fitting. 

During Bishop Newman s visit to the Bulgarian 
Conference in 1893, Mrs. Newman made the long, 
hard trip to Loftcha. He testifies that the brightest 
light in all our Bulgarian Mission is the Girls Board 
ing-school at Loftcha. 




356 



PIONEERS IN MISSION WORK (The Latin Races). 
Miss MARY HASTINGS. MRS. SUSAN WARNER DENSMORE. 

Miss RMMA HALL. 
Miss JENNIE B. CHAPIN. MISS I,ou B. DENNING. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

ITALY, MEXICO, SOUTH AMERICA, AND AFRICA. 
ITALY. 

Organized as a Conference in 1871 Woman s Work com 
menced in 1877. 

CATHOLIC fields represent all the difficulties of 
ordinary pagan lands, with some special diffi 
culties peculiar to this semi-pagan institution Ca 
tholicism. To quote one of the missionaries : " Ca 
tholicism destroyed nothing of pagan worship. Though 
the images and holidays are baptized with new names, 
they are none the less heathen idols and pagan gala- 
days." 

The work of the Society began in Rome and 
Venice in 1877, by employing three Bible women, un 
der the supervision of Dr. and Mrs. Vernon. Bible 
women were employed in other places from time to 
time, until, in 1885, work was established in most of 
the principal points on the peninsula, beginning with 
Turin, at the northwestern extremity, through Asti 
and Milan to Venice, on the Adriatic Sea, at the 
northeastern border, down through Bologna and 
Perugia to Rome, and on to Naples, across to Foggia 
and Venosa, near the southeastern extremity. In 
1887 as many as thirteen Bible women were at work, 
reading the Scriptures from house to house and from 
person to person, endeavoring to bring women to the 
public services and children to the Sunday-school, 

357 



358 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

circulating religious papers and tracts, and helpfully 
looking after the sick and poor of the congregation. 
They held sewing-classes, and some of them opened 
small day-schools in their own homes. They also 
held gratuitous music and French classes, all to help 
them reach the families ; sometimes driven away 
when calling at their homes on the children, with the 
cry of renegado, apotatc, being instigated by the 
priests. This is a wide range of work, the accomplish 
ment of which is of the utmost importance to the 
cause of Christ in Italy. Our first Bible woman at 
Venosa is the wife of an Italian pastor, and is now, 
in 1895, engaged with him in doing work among the 
Italians in Boston. The second Bible woman at Ve 
nosa is one of the young ladies, now at Cincinnati in 
the Deaconess Home. She left Venosa about a year 
after the opening of the home in Rome to take the 
place of sewing teacher and assist in the training of 
the children. 

One of the Bible women, a pastor s wife, belonged 
to the nobility, really a marchioness, which, while it 
means nothing marvelous, involves a lineage of luster, 
a certain tint and tone in the blood, and when it does 
nothing more, does hang a glimmering nimbus about 
the personality, which tones down deficiencies, height 
ens and beautifies good qualities and gifts, and in 
spires a certain amount of respect. Among the 
earlier workers was a young woman in Milan, Ca 
milla Mattioli, whose cultured bearing and Christian 
meekness and gentleness, her strange and tender mes 
sage of a Savior s love for Italian women, so neglected 
or misled by the priests, disseminated almost an an 
gelic savor and influence over their hard natures and 



ITALY. 



359 



waking hearts. After her marriage to the pastor at 
Milan, she built up an interesting woman s meeting, 
numbering seventeen, teaching them while they 
worked. She established a Sunday-school in her own 
room. At Naples, the Bible woman also had a Sun 
day-school in her room, using the Leaf Cluster given 
by Bishop Vincent. Miss Biondi, for seven years a 
Bible reader at Pisa, was converted in New York City, 
attending Mrs. Phebe Palmer s meetings, and returned 
to Italy full of zeal for the conversion of her country 
women, averaging two meetings daily, and reporting 
692 visits in a single year. This work was not carried 
on without persecution. Mrs. Cruciani, at Modena, a 
most capable Swiss woman, one of the ablest em 
ployed, who writes and speaks English, French, and 
German, suffered much persecution ; her place of 
meeting was watched by spies, who reported all who 
entered. 

In 1879, Dr. Vernon saw the necessity of an Or 
phanage, and quite early began to realize the im 
portance of having some one sent out by the Society 
to give its benefactions that vigorous and efficacious 
application and direction which they merited, and in 
1883 renewed and intensified his appeal for a well-se 
lected Superintendent. " This is a new husbandry," 
he said, " to which you are called, and amid a sea of 
difficulties and tangle of obstacles, such as your ban 
ner-bearers nowhere else encounter. Mark that. Is 
there such another polypus to hold fast its victims as 
the Papacy? These gentlewomen need the counsel, 
guidance, inspiration, and encouraging presence at 
their side of the General, reminding them anon of the 
presence of the great Captain." 



360 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

"The General Executive Committee, in 1881, re 
quested Mrs. Jennie F. Willing, on behalf of the So 
ciety, to visit the missions in Italy and Bulgaria. She 
was able to execute only the former part of the com 
mission, and a new interest was thereby created among 
the home-workers. Miss Emma Hall received an ap 
pointment to Italy in 1885, as the first missionary of 
the Society. Of the beginnings of her work she says : 
"They were very simple; Sunday-school helps, such 
as my slight acquaintance with the language made 
possible, and were for our Sunday-school in Rome. 
A little later I undertook the preparation of the In 
ternational Sunday-school Lessons, and later, notes on 
these lessons, for the aid of our Bible women and 
Sunday-school teachers, for publication in our Italian 
Church paper. My more direct work of supervision 
of the Bible women began in the fall of 1886, when I 
made a trip to our stations south of Rome, in which, 
during a month, I studied their special needs, became 
more fully acquainted with our workers there, and re 
turned to Rome with my heart greatly encouraged and 
refreshed." In ten months she made ten trips to the 
various stations, occupying from one to six weeks. 
Three years after reaching Rome she gathered nine or 
ten girls into her newly-rented quarters, which she 
proposed should be " a veritable Christian home," 
and in 1888 thus established a Home and Orphanage 
in Rome, affording a nucleus, about which easily 
gathered other interests, a Sabbath afternoon meeting 
and the organization of a Mission Band. The open 
ing of schools for girls had been made in the fall of 
1887, when Chevalier Varriale, of Soccavo, a little 
village near Naples, a converted Catholic priest, gave 



ITALY. 361 

a room in his villa for a school, and one for the school 
mistress. He afterwards gave his property to the 
General Society, and his body now rests in a little 
Protestant burying-ground near his villa. The little 
mortuary chapel, in whose walls were places for him 
self and others of his family, was built by him on his 
own property, for the Christian sepulture of his own 
family and any other evangelicals of his village whom 
there might come in time to be ; for at that time his 
household was the only evangelical one in the village. 
Miss Hall made that first trip of supervision in 1886, 
in time so as to be present at the dedication, by re 
ligious services, of this little cemetery and burial 
chapel. This school was simply a day-school, and 
while well attended at first, was soon broken up by 
persecution. Harangues were delivered against it by 
the priests morning and evening ; large posters were 
put up, threatening excommunication and eternal 
damnation to any who entered the school or permitted 
their children to enter. Even the woman who 
scrubbed the floor was shunned in the streets. This 
fierce onslaught caused the school to be deserted, and 
at the close of the year it was given up. The school 
at Rome, being at the Government center the Gov 
ernment having wrested the temporal power from the 
Pope, is tolerant of Protestantism escaped the open, 
bitter, violent persecution, which had destroyed the 
Soccavo school. In it, the pupils living in the build 
ing, came directly under Miss Hall s personal influ 
ence. Among its pupils has been a granddaughter 
of Garibaldi, who was in attendance during the year 
1895. 

Mrs. Bishop Walden s visit, in 1891, gave great 



362 WOMAN 5 FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

pleasure to the missionary. She was welcomed as the 
Bishop s wife, as a Methodist sister, as the representa 
tive of the Society, and doubly welcomed as bring 
ing her a companion in the person of Miss Vickery. 
This year the Italian Conference began its appeals, 
followed through successive years, for a school of a 
higher grade. For four years the school was located 
in the sixth story of a building, but in 1892 was 
changed to a detached residence, with large, sunny 
rooms, and a large garden and play-grounds. But the 
former height did not hinder Christians from America, 
on hearing the school sing some old familiar tune to 
which Italian words were adapted, from climbing the 
stairs to hear them sing, rather than hear the celebrated 
nuns of Trinita de Monti. 

In 1893, two young women came from this school 
to the Elizabeth Gamble Deaconess Home in Cincin 
nati, to receive practical training in deaconess methods 
of visitation and industrial and Sunday-school work; 
coming through the generosity of one of the founders 
of that Home. The one who has already been referred 
to, was converted under the influence of our first Bible 
woman at Venosa, and after her removal from the vil 
lage she had herself carried on the work for a time, 
though quite young, and always regretting her early 
lack of training. These two young Italian women 
conduct a growing work among the Italians of Cin 
cinnati, visiting the jails and city hospitals on regular 
days, when they read the Bible and have religious 
conversation with those of their own nationality. 
Converts from the mission of the Society in Italy, 
coming to America to do missionary work among the 
Italians in Cincinnati ! 



ITALY. 363 

During the first five years of the school, the Home 
sheltered seventy-two little girls, representing thirty- 
seven Catholic and seventeen evangelical families. The 
Bible is a text-book, and forms part of the regular school 
work. In addition to this, there is thorough instruc 
tion in common branches, and the children are taught 
sewing, cooking, and all the details of housekeeping. 
System prevails throughout the school. The great 
need has been the possession of property. Rents were 
high. At last, in 1893, a very desirable piece of prop 
erty could be obtained at one-half its assessed value 
on certain conditions. The house was built for a 
nunnery, and afterward remodeled by an English phi 
lanthropist for an Orphanage. It could be had for 
$15,000 if used for the purpose for which it had been 
refitted, and on easy terms of payment. The Society 
decided to purchase, and Miss Vickery returned to 
this country to secure the necessary legal papers, in 
order to have the deeds properly executed. When 
she went back, Miss Basye accompanied her, paying 
her own traveling expenses, and receiving for her 
services only a nominal salary. 

During 1893-94, Mrs - S- L. Keen, Philadelphia 
Branch Secretary, made a tour of the world, and offi 
cially visited Rome. A Roman Auxiliary was organ 
ized on the Silver Anniversary of the Society, Mrs. 
Keen presiding. Twenty-three gave their names, 
pledging a prayer and a penny a week. 

May 9 and 10, 1894, are dates to be remembered 
in the Methodist Episcopal Church in the Eternal 
City. On the first date the corner-stone was laid of 
a building which was to become the headquarters of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church in Italy. On May 



364 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

loth the newly-purchased property of the Society was 
dedicated as the " Girls Home School." The building 
is a large, substantial edifice, five stories high, with 
a small yard in front and a large garden in the rear. 
The front view is not the most prepossessing; its 
massive walls and rather small windows have a sug 
gestion of a nunnery, and a large inscription shows it 
was dedicated by Benedict XIV for a nuns school. 
The back of the house, however, has been remodeled, 
and an iron balcony looks out over a beautiful and 

extensive garden, well- 
filled with fruit-trees and 
a great variety of flowers. 
Several tiny fountains 
are splashing among the 
green foliage, and there is 
a well-cultivated garden 
of vegetables, whose pro- 
- duction gives healthful 
out-of-door exercise and 
reduces the living ex 
penses of the household. The building was formally 
opened and dedicated by Bishop John P. New 
man. Miss Vickery has given an excellent ac 
count of the services, from which we quote: "The 
exercises were held in the large and commodious 
school-room. Exquisite palms stood as sentinels at 
the entrance, welcoming each guest with a graceful 
but stately greeting; garlands of ivy depended from 
the ceiling, and, with native parasite tendency, clung 
to doors and walls ; while delicate ferns and beautiful 
Marechal Niel and I^a Franca roses adorned table, 
windows, and alcoves. The tricolored flag of Italy 




GIRLS HOMK SCHOOL, ROME. 



ITALY. 365 

and the Stars and Stripes were draped effectively on 
the middle wall, and blended in perfect harmony in 
view of all present. The audience was composed of 
a large number of English and American residents of 
Rome, consuls, attaches of the Government, and many 
Italian friends and patrons of the Church. The serv 
ices were opened with a hymn sung by the thirty-five 
girls of the school. During the afternoon they sang 
several songs, delighting all with their melodious 
Italian voices. The Rev. Mr. Piggott, of the Wes- 
leyan Church, offered prayer, and Dr. Burt followed 
with a reading of the Bible and a brief introduction. 
Mrs. Newman then gave a history of the Society. She 
told of its work in the past and its hopes for the fu 
ture, and concluded by asking all present to offer a 
silent prayer for the success of a fund to support 
Bible workers in Italy. After another song, Miss Hall 
addressed them in the Italian language. She gave a 
resume of the work of the institution, from its foun 
dation in 1888 up to the present time. She spoke of 
the discouragements encountered at first, the antag 
onism on all sides, the persecutions in many cases, the 
difficulty of securing a foothold, and the tact and per 
severance to keep it after it had been secured. From 
a beginning with two girls six years of age, the col 
lege has grown until now it supports thirty-five; 
from shifting rented quarters, it is now established in 
property of its own ; and from a crawling though 
aspiring infant it is at last able to stand alone. Miss 
Hall concluded amidst great applause, which indicated 
that the audience was in sympathy with the power 
and spirit of the work. 

"Then followed the inaugural discourse of the 



366 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

Bishop, after which he received the documents record 
ing the acquisition of the property, which purchase 
has resulted from the enterprise and persistent deter 
mination of the Society. He consecrated the school 
as an institution for Christian education, and invoked 
upon it the benediction from above. 

"As they?wa/<? of the program announced a garden 
party, Dr. Burt invited all present down into the 
extensive grounds. The garden, which is a very large 
one, abounds in all kinds of fruit trees, vegetables, and 
flowers. There is an old palm, rich in branches, at 
the extreme end; laurels in great quantities; orange 
and lemon trees in profusion ; lettuce beds of enormous 
size form perfect squares; rows of Roman potatoes 
and Egyptian onions face each other in seeming .an 
tagonism ; there are big and little beans, purple and 
white grapes, and figs in abundance. 

" The day was a perfect one for an out-door fete, 
and the flowers burst forth in splendid perfection, just 
as if for the occasion. Walks down the garden under 
peach, pear, and apricot trees led to vine-covered ar 
bors where ice and tea were served. Here the guests 
found their way, and in these cool retreats drank in 
the fragrance of the flowering orange-tree, and listened 
to the ever-quieting, never-ceasing waters of the 
Acqua Paola, on the top of the hill. All too soon the 
sun descended behind the church of St. Onofrio, and 
the old palm-tree nodded his dark head in the evening 
breezes as a sign of farewell. All took their depart 
ure, leaving the Institute Femminile, which has had 
such an auspicious opening, to the sheltering protec 
tion of the Janiculum under the shadow of Garibaldi s 
fort, where so many fought for the cause of Italy s 



MEXICO. 367 

freedom. And thus, with the new institute at San 
Panezario, and the new church at Porta Pia, Method 
ism is established at two extreme ends of the Eternal 
City, from which strongholds her doctrines will spread 
abroad under the blue and cloudless sky of a beautiful 
but oppressed country." 

This school is the only purely woman s work for 
woman in missionary lines in Italy. Comparing the 
seventh with the first year, there is every reason to 
thank God, and take new courage for the future. 
There is cause for gratitude in the moral development 
and increased spiritual life of the school so long under 
the fostering care of Miss Hall, and now, in 1895, in 
her absence on her first vacation, under the super 
vision of Miss Vickery. 

September 20, 1895, while Italians at home and 
abroad were celebrating the silver anniversary of 
their deliverance from papal misrule, the Method 
ists at Rome were formally dedicating their new mis 
sion house on the famous boulevard whose name com 
memorates the entry of the victorious revolutionaries. 

MEXICO. 

Commenced in 1873 Organized as a Conference in 1885 
Woman s work commenced in 1874. 

The work of the Woman s Foreign Missionary 
Society was commenced in Mexico early in 1874 by 
Miss Mary Hastings and Miss Susan Warner. They 
sailed respectively from New York and New Orleans, 
met in Havana, and arrived in Mexico City January 
24, 1874. Under the direction of the Superintendent, 
Dr. Wm. Butler, Miss Hastings took charge of the Or 
phanage and day-school, the nucleus of which had 



368 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSION AR Y SOCIEI v. 

already been gathered, aud taught for a few months 
by Miss Carter, daughter of Dr. Carter, formerly of 
the South America Mission. Miss Warner remained 
in Mexico City until April, when Dr. Butler had com 
pleted arrangements for opening a school among 
Cornish miners in Pachuca. Mexican children were 
also admitted, and from the first it was open to both 
boys and girls. In March, 1875, Dr. Butler transferred 
Miss Hastings to Pachuca and Miss Warner to Mex 
ico City. Both schools had been fairly prosperous, 
and so continued. Property was soon purchased, and 
a comfortable building erected in Pachuca, and rooms 
in the property of the General Society in Mexico 
were rented. The care of the Orphanage, with its in 
creasing numbers, proved too heavy a burden for 
Miss Warner, and she became sick with typhus fever, 
and was out of school for months. Miss N. C. Ogden 
was sent to her relief, arriving during the Christmas 
festivities. The Sunday following, Mrs. Clementina 
Butler, who had seen the "beginnings" of Methodist 
mission work among the girls of the "East," and now 
of the "West," was much affected when Miss Warner 
brought six girls with her to partake of the sacra 
ment of the Lord s Supper. The school continued 
to increase in numbers, and many of the pupils gave 
promise of future usefulness as Christian workers. 
Miss Ogden s health necessitated her home-coming 
early in 1878, Miss Warner following in a few months. 
Miss Mary F. Swaney was immediately sent out to fill 
the vacancy, and Miss C. L,. Mulliner to her assistance 
during the year. Miss Warner returned in Novem 
ber 1879, and took charge of the Pachuca school 
while Miss Hastings had her vacation. For some 



MEXICO. 369 

time the mission suffered interruptions because of the 
continual breaking down, physically, of the workers. 
Musty old convents are not very good sanitariums, 
and, at first, these seemed to be the only available 
places for the schools. 

MEXICO CITY. From the beginning, the Orphan 
age excited considerable interest, and was sometimes 
honored with distinguished visitors, attracting men in 
high official positions, governors and others, who ex 
pressed much pleasure with all they saw. In 1881, 
Miss Swaney s health required a change, and Miss 
M. Elliott was sent out to assist Miss Mulliner. At 
no time were there any two well-prepared workers in 
good health. In 1882 the Orphanage was removed 
from the mission property in the old Franciscan con 
vent, to a nice, commodious rented building on an ad 
joining street. The school was reorganized, and un 
deniably ranked above all other similar work in the 
city. Another change placed Miss Swaney in charge 
of Queretaro school, and, in February, 1883 Miss 
Hugoboom arrived to help in the Orphanage. Work 
among the women became very encouraging. A 
Woman s Aid Society was formed, which was self-sup 
porting, receiving from weekly dues and concerts that 
year $266.65. The same touching self-denials that 
always characterize the lives of those who serve 
Christ are found here also. One aged woman, with a 
small income and a family of five or six, gave $30 to 
the missionary collection. Miss Mulliner returned to 
the United States, and Miss Hugoboom left in April, 
1 884. The institution necessarily proceeded with a new 
corps of instructors. Miss E. Le Huray was sent out 



370 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

in March, 1884, and for a time was the only American 
lady there. The Primary Department was under the 
care of a native young woman who had been educated 
in the United States. Miss Mary De F. L,oyd arrived in 
September. The school compares favorably with one 
of its size in the United States, and the girls are very 
much like other girls. The event of the year in 1886 
was the purchase, on February i5th, of a new building 
for $30,000 in gold, the General Society assisting in a 
brotherly way, until the Woman s Society could meet 
the entire expense. It is a large stone building, with 
a patio, or inner court, situated on Second Indepencia 
Street, one of those new streets that Juarez, the iron- 
handed, drove through the ancient convent of San 
Francisco, and is closely connected with the mission 
property of the General Society. At this time the 
course of study used in Government schools was 
adopted, which gave the Orphanage another advantage. 
Many of the girls educated here have proven valuable 
helpers in various parts of the mission. Some are 
wives of native pastors, and others are helping in 
families, where their superior service is much appre 
ciated. In addition to their school work, they are in 
structed in all departments of household work, and 
their training in systematic habits of industry raises 
them in practical efficiency far above their country 
women, while their earnest, true, religious life makes 
them a power for good. In 1887, Miss Ay res took 
Miss L,e Huray s place, and she was given lighter 
work. The school increased in numbers until, in 
1892, there were one hundred and forty-three in at 
tendance, ninety-four of whom passed the public ex 
amination. The course of study covers twelve years, 



MEXICO. 371 

exclusive of the kindergarten. They have gymnastic 
exercises. Spiritual life is helped by work in an Ep- 
worlh League. Miss L,oyd was very sick in 1890, 
and, through the efforts of Mrs. Bishop Walden, her 
mother was enabled to go from Cincinnati to nurse 
her back to health. 

In 1892, two friends in the States made it possible 
to organize an orchestra of nine instruments, which 
are a great help in public worship. In 1893, five 
most excellent teachers graduated, the first class to 
complete the entire course of study in the history of 
the mission. It is interesting to note that of the forty- 
two native teachers working under the Woman s So 
ciety, thirty-four were educated in their own schools, 
though they were undergraduates or graduates from a 
partial course. All of these five young lady graduates 
are employed in the work of the mission. At this 
first annual Commencement, as Madai Aceves, the val 
edictorian, came forward, what eyes must have followed 
her with anxious love! " Her essay," we are told, 
"was well written, and was a tender farewell to 
what? to whom? To the Home that for eleven years 
had sheltered her, and been to her the only home, 
in the true sense, she had ever known ; to the school ; 
to the teachers who had loved her and helped to form 
her character; to the classmates ; to the schoolmates." 
Presiding Elder Butler, after brief addresses, presented 
diplomas, and then gave to each a volume of his 
father s "Mexico in Transition." 

In 1894 the Misses L,oyd and Ay res were granted 
leave of absence. The Misses Van Dorsten and Dun- 
more were summoned from another station, and kept 
up the work, with rare judgment and devotion, until 



372 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

the return, in December, of the former teachers. About 
forty boarding and one hundred day pupils were their 
constant care. Many new members joined the Epworth 
League, and there were a goodly number of interest 
ing conversions. Seventeen girls united with the 
Church on Conference Sunday under Bishop Joyce. 
The annual examinations were creditable to the in 
structors, and elicited warm expressions of approval 
from the lady inspector sent by the Government. 
This was the first time that women had been thus em 
ployed. This fact, and the fact that postmistresses, 
lady telegraph operators and stenographers, are com 
ing to the front in Mexico, is one of the good signs of 
the times, and the presence and work of the Woman s 
Foreign Missionary Society has had its influence, 
doubtless, in the recognition of woman s fitness for 
these and other positions. 

PACHUCA. Miss Hastings returned from her va 
cation in New England to Pachuca the last of the 
year 1880, and has remained continuously at her post 
ever since. In February, 1881, Miss Elliott was trans 
ferred from the Orphanage to take charge of the Eng 
lish-speaking work, and remained until her marriage, 
the last of 1883, to Mr. R. Wilson. There were 100 
girls enrolled at this time. In January, 1884, Miss 
Laura Latimer joined the mission, and assisted Miss 
Hastings for one year, and was transferred to other 
work. In 1887 the school was under the superintend- 
ency of Miss Field, whose presence in Mexico allowed 
Miss Hastings to take a greatly-needed rest. Miss 
Hastings s steady Christian example and faithful teach 
ing through all the years have brought forth unfail- 



MEXICO, 373 

ing results. The girls educated under her remain firm 
to their Christian life and profession. They have seen 
her kneeling at the bedside of the sick and dying, 
shrinking from no poverty, filth, or disease, if she 
could minister comfort and help a soul to trust in 
Jesus. It is no wonder the girls believe in her Christ. 
She meets with opposition from the priests work in 
a Romish land must be a continual war but is often 
encouraged by words like these : " I want you to teach 
my daughters religion ; I want them to have your 
faith." In 1889 the Mexican pastor reported 50,000 
Scripture verses repeated by the children in this 
school. That year Miss Hastings opened a second 
school in another part of the city, and in both had 215 
children under instruction. For assistant teachers 
young women are employed who have been educated 
by her. Nearly six years the demand for enlarged 
borders was heard in the General Executive Commit 
tee meetings, and in 1894 the increased accommoda 
tions were completed, when the school had an enroll 
ment of 355 pupils, the highest number hitherto at 
tained by any similar Protestant institution in the Re 
public. An interesting feature of the school is an or 
chestra, with some ten or twelve young lady musi 
cians, who are always ready to assist on festive occa 
sions. At one time they serenaded the governor of 
the State on his birthday, and were received most cor 
dially by the State officials. 

In the early days, when revolutions were the order, 
Miss Hastings and her school were especially exposed, 
from the nearness to the Government House. In 1876 
a grenade demolished one of the older buildings, and, 
after the attack, she found a good-sized piece of a shell 



374 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

at her bedroom door, plenty of balls in the school 
room, fresh and hot, sixteen bullet-holes in the front 
door. Several balls passed through the chairs and 
benches. These were days of severe and bitter perse 
cution, when "Death to Protestants!" was yelled in 
the ears of the missionaries as they passed quietly 
along the streets, where they were in constant danger 
of martyrdom. 

PUEBLA. In June, 1881, Miss Warner opened the 
Puebla school in a rented building, which had been 
with great difficulty secured, as no landlord desired a 
Protestant school under his roof. Three little girls 
were the pupils during the first week, and the enroll 
ment for the year was only eighteen, nine of them re 
maining for examination. This was a very discour 
aging beginning, and success seemed problematical in 
such a fanatical city; but Dr. C. W. Drees, then su 
perintendent, urged another year s trial before aban 
doning the field. It required tact, skill, and Divine 
guidance wisely to direct the children in Bible study, 
and so the simple story of Jesus was read; and the 
truth that all Christian history and doctrine centered 
in Him was taught. The next year an advance was 
made, twenty-four pupils remaining for examination 
at the close, and Miss Warner began to hope for a flour 
ishing school. A native assistant was secured, a grad 
uate of the Puebla Normal School. In 1883 a change 
of buildings became necessary. The house at first 
rented passed to a new owner, who insisted on posses 
sion as soon as practicable ; but Mexican law conceded 
to a tenant the right of occupancy for three years, if 
rent is promptly paid; so the missionaries took time 



MEXICO. 375 

to find a convenient place. The school was needing 
a large room, and at this juncture the one directly op 
posite was vacated providentially, affording the desired 
accommodations. The building was definitely en 
gaged before the owner was aware that a Protestant 
school was to occupy it. Only the second floor was 
rented, and trials began when a Catholic priest from 
the country, with a family, and horses, dogs, chickens, 
parrots, etc., took possession of the lower story with 
its small patio. Several months passed before he was 
induced to leave. Then the lower tenement was rented 
for the school, to be occupied by Miss Orcilles, the 
Mexican assistant. The school was prosperous, the 
enrollment being over fifty. An interesting class of 
girls was being trained in accordance with Ameri 
can educational methods; and better, was daily read 
ing and studying the Bible and singing gospel hymns. 
Another assistant was obtained as the character and 
aims of the school were being modified. 

Miss Warner s health being very much broken, 
she returned home in 1884 for a few months of rest, 
and the school at Queretaro being small, a Mexican 
lady was placed in charge, and Miss Swaney trans 
ferred to Puebla. This school, which had been built 
up by three years of hard work by Miss Warner, took 
first-class position, attracting to it a better class than 
is usually found in mission schools, and largely from 
Romish families. It lost none of its prestige under 
Miss Swaney s care. The plan of training the more 
advanced pupils with reference to a normal course, 
and, if possible, of founding a normal school for the 
education of teachers to be employed in the mission 
schools, began to take form. Upon Miss Warner s 



376 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

return in the fall, negotiations were completed for the 
purchase of a missionary home and school building 
adjoining the new property of the General Society, and 
the changes necessary to adapt the house to school pur 
poses were soon begun. As the work needed two Amer 
ican teachers, it was deemed best that Miss Swaney 
should remain, if her health, which had become impaired 
in Miss Warner s absence, would permit; but a rest 
of several weeks failed to restore her, and she returned 
to the United States in the spring of 1885. The new 
building was ready in February, 1886, and Miss Lizzie 
Hewett was sent out to assist Miss Warner. The fol 
lowing year Miss Hewett opened a school in Tetela, 
and Miss N. C. Ogden came again to Mexico, inau 
gurating the Kindergarten Department in the Puebla 
school. She accomplished a most difficult task in in 
teresting a number of women in a kind of sewing so 
ciety, with a regular membership fee, the profits of 
which were used in meeting the expenses of the kin 
dergarten. In the summer of 1888, Mexico enjoyed 
her first Pentecost. A gracious revival broke out in 
Puebla, when the most advanced pupils in the schools 
under both Societies, were converted. Miss Warner 
closed her schools for the time. Again, in 1889, an 
other outpouring of the Holy Spirit, and the entire 
school was wrought upon. A class of two young 
ladies graduated ; all departments were in a prosper 
ous condition. Besides the two American ladies, three 
Mexican teachers were employed, also a professor of 
music ; and several of the pupils assisted in teaching 
as a training in normal work. There were nearly 
thirty-five boarding pupils, and a total enrollment of 
over one hundred and fifty in all. Additional room 



MEXICO. 377 

was provided this year. Miss Ogden retired from the 
work, and Miss Parker returned, taking charge of the 
school, when Miss Warner came to the States toward 
the close of 1890. She married the following year, 
and remained here. Miss Anna Limberger was soon 
sent out to undertake the supervision of the kinder 
garten and elementary departments. There were then 
200 girls in the schools. Among the changes that 
have occurred, is the adoption, previously contem 
plated, of the course of study used in the normal 
school of the State of Puebla, that there might be no 
discrimination against our girls when applying for po 
sitions in the public schools. Under the able manage 
ment of Misses Parker and Limberger, the Puebla Nor 
mal Institute greatly increased in numbers, and ad 
vanced in all departments. Eight graduates are teach 
ing in Puebla or elsewhere. In 1895, Miss Dunmore 
was added to the teaching force. 

MIRAFLORES. A school was opened in Miraflores 
in 1879, containing twenty-seven scholars, which, in 
1883, had grown to seventy-five, and in 1885 a new 
school-building was completed. Here no old convent 
is made use of. and the picturesque has yielded to the 
healthful ; the room is sunny and well ventilated, 
which is in marked contrast to almost all else in Mex 
ico ; the saying, " It was once part of an old convent," 
whose titles had to be "cured" by the owner giving 
to the Church large sums for absolution, had become 
very familiar. Two hundred names were enrolled on 
the register, and the teachers were graduates from the 
Orphanage in Mexico City, who met the demands of 
the work in an excellent manner. Truly this has 



378 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

been our Protestant corner of Mexico, where evangel 
ical work has the right of way. Generous aid was 
given the work by Mr. Robinson, a kind-hearted Eng 
lishman, the manager and principal owner of a large 
cotton factory, his eldest daughter teaching in the Sun 
day-school. In 1887, Miss Le Huray was appointed to 
this school, with two girls from the Orphanage, one of 
whom was Carlotta Gutierrez. It became, in 1890, the 
largest day-school in the mission. Here she was some 
times called on, in the absence of the preacher, to bury 
the dead and perform other unusual duties. 

GUANAJUATO. Early in the year 1885, Miss L,ati- 
mer was sent to open a school in Guanajuato, a hot, 
unhealthy city, built in a ravine, with a river running 
through it, over which many of the houses are built, 
and which receives all the sewage of the city, and 
never has any water in it except when it rains. The 
work progressed astonishingly ; all the women of the 
Church met in Miss L,atimer s Bible-class. In less 
than two years she was compelled by failing health to 
abandon the work. Mrs. (IClliott) Wilson taught the 
following year, and was succeeded by Miss Anna 
Rodgers, who remained until her marriage, nearly two 
years later. Miss Ida B. Walton was sent out in 1890 
to take up the work laid down by Miss Rodgers. In 
1892, Miss I^illian Neiger, who had seen several years 
service with the Friends Society, was transferred to us, 
and sent in January to Guanajuato. The school num 
bered seventy-seven. L,uz Aguilar, from the Orphan 
age, was sent to assist her, who kept up most credit 
ably under the disabilities arising from the departure 
of the teacher, Miss Neiger, in the midst of the year 




SENORITA JOSEFA, A BIBLE WOMAN. 
CARLOTTA GUTIERREZ. LUZ AGUILAR. 



379 



MEXICO. 379 

1894. She had been supported by the Arch Street, 
Philadelphia, Auxiliary on the Sarah L. Keen scholar 
ship. The married ladies here, as elsewhere, put 
the Society under obligation by their timely aid in 
the absence of our own missionaries. In the summer 
of 1895, Miss Van Dorsten went to the relief of 
this work. 



. New work was started among the Aztecs 
in Tetela in 1886, by Miss Hewett. She had thirty girls 
the first year, a number of whom were really young 
women. She also secured the attendance of a good 
proportion of the girls in Sunday-school. Many of 
these people had never even heard of a Bible. Some 
were forbidden by the priests to attend the school or 
church; but came in to the evening family prayers, 
or would listen through a partially open door to the 
religious service. The work grew from a small school 
to a large one of nearly one hundred enrollment ; then 
to two, and even three schools. Miss Hewett lived 
here two years without the society of any missionary s 
family, or any one able to speak English, and was sev 
eral days ride on a pony s back from the nearest mis 
sion station. She was re-enforced by Miss Van Dorsten 
in 1890; but her physical condition demanded a com 
plete rest in the home-land, and Miss Dunmore went 
to Miss Van Dorsten s assistance. In 1893, seven girls 
were baptized. The school was left to the care of 
Mexican teachers that year, and the missionaries were 
transferred to other stations. 

Very early in the history of the mission, Bible 
women were employed under the supervision of the 

married ladies, and schools were opened by native 
26 



380 WOMAN s FOREIGN MissiomARY SOCIETY. 

teachers in Orizaba, Apizaco, Tezontepec, San Vin- 
cente, and Guanajuato. At this last-named place Miss 
Swaney was sent in 1882, but was soon obliged to go 
to the relief of larger schools. The work always suf 
fered here from the religious fanaticism of the people, 
and in 1884 the persecutions were unusually severe 
and determined. In 1885, Mary Morris, a young lady 
of English parentage, brought up in the Orphanage at 
Mexico City, taught this school. She was the first 
teacher sent out by the mission schools. In Ayapanga, 
in 1880, six young Indian women were learning their 
A-B-C s in a little square room in an adobe-house. 
Three years later there were thirty girls in the school, 
and one of the first six was in charge of the Primary 
Department. This progress was the more noticeable 
because in the midst of a bigoted Catholic region. In 
1888, it attracted the attention of the Government. 

In 1890, new points of opening were made under 
most favorable auspices. At La Canada the Govern 
ment offered the building and furniture of the 
girls school if the mission would supply the teacher. 
In 1891 a similar request came from Xochiapuelo. 
Atzala also asked for a Protestant girls school; a 
town, which, a few years ago, was baptized with the 
blood of twenty-seven martyrs, and the little church 
almost exterminated Oaxaca has asked for several 
successive years for a school. This is the State of 
Juarez, the Liberator, and of Diaz, the present Pres 
ident. 

In 1895 the number in attendance on our schools 
in Mexico was 1,137. 

Mrs. S. L. Keen, Corresponding Secretary of the 
Philadelphia Branch, visited Mexico in 1886, and was 



SOUTH AMERICA. 381 

empowered by the Reference Committee officially to 
look after the work, and settle any emergency ques 
tions that might arise. 

SOUTH AMERICA. 

English work commenced in 1836 Spanish in 1864 An 
nual Conference organized 1893 Woman s work com 
menced in 1874. 

South America is constituted a mission field by a 
perverted and corrupted form of the Christian faith, 
while in the heart of the Continent there still re 
mains the darkness of paganism, unilluinitiated by a 
single ray of the Light of the world. 

ROSARIO. The pioneers of the Society in South 
America were Miss Lou B. Denning and Miss Jennie 
M. Chapin, who embarked on the Brazilian mail 
steamship, en route for Rosario, some time in January, 
1874, and reached Buenos Ay res the i2th of the fol 
lowing March. A terrific pampero, blowing at the 
time, threatened to ingulf them in the angry billows 
ere they could gain a landing. After a week they 
continued their journey to Rosario. Here they found 
pioneer work to do; the breaking down of prejudice 
that often amounted to hatred toward Protestantism, 
only a few years before it was a crime to own a Bible ; 
presenting the truth so that it might be more attractive 
than the errors of superstition, taught for centuries; 
winning the confidence of the people by living ex 
ample as well as precept. They found the weariness 
of uphill plodding could only be relieved by knowing 
that the Omnipotent Arm upon which they leaned 
was their strength. Perseverence, patience, and prayer 
brought results, even beyond their - fondest hopes. 



382 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

During the first few months a pleasant home was 
found in the family of Rev. T. B. Wood. Just one 
month after their arrival they began teaching some 
native boys Mr. Wood had taken into his home to 
educate and Christianize. This gave them practice in 
the use of the language, while studying the theoret 
ical part. During these months of preparation an 
opportunity was given to look over the field, learn 
about the people, their customs, manner of living 
and notably their spiritual blindness, supersitition, and 
idolatry. The more they knew of the people and 
their houses, the more they felt they could not live 
alone or set up housekeeping. But the Lord never 
requires the impossible. In less than a year after 
their arrival Providence provided a house adjoining 
Mr. Wood s, and they found they could keep house, 
even under the many disadvantages. After they were 
settled in their own hired house, they opened a school 
for girls, and had one little native girl, six years old, 
for their first pupil ; also Elsie Wood, now the rep 
resentative of the Woman s Society in Peru, and her 
sister Amy, who came for the novelty of the thing, 
as she was too young to know much about school 
duties. It was a small beginning; but the numbers 
increased week by week, and the missionaries thanked 
God, and took courage. The following year larger 
accommodations were needed, and as the school opened 
they thought if the number reached twenty it would 
be a success. But the Lord was giving them favor 
in the eyes of the people, and when the register 
showed ninety names, they could but exclaim, " Be 
hold what the Lord hath wrought !" They were not 
confronted by open opposition, as a liberal spirit of 



SOUTH AMERICA. 383 

tolerance, especially toward North Americans, had 
been disseminated among the people, largely due to 
the Administration of Don Domingo Sarmiento as 
President of the Republic. While representing his 
country at Washington, he studied the public-school 
system of the United States. Being elected to the 
Presidency while yet in Washington, he resolved to 
take this system to his people, believing it to be the 
key to national prosperity. But he was confronted 
with the fact that none of his people would put it 
into practice. As he was gifted with a strong, de 
termined will, lie sent to the United States, brought 
out teachers, and had schools organized according to 
his ideal system. These schools have been a con 
spicuous factor in changing the condition of society 
and in elevating the country intellectually ; but the 
same spiritual ignorance characterizes the masses. 

While caste does not exist in Argentina as in In 
dia, the children of the wealthy class, as a general 
rule, do not mingle with those of the working class. 
The common, or municipal school, was for the latter, 
and private schools for the former. Misses Denning 
and Chapin -allowed no distinction, and seated the girl 
who paid tuition, studied French, English, and music, 
beside the one too poor to buy the books she needed. 
As the school grew, there was less time for outside 
work, tract distribution., Scripture reading, and so forth, 
Irom house to house. Home cares were increased by 
day-boarders and orphans being added to the inmates. 
Prayer-meetings for the girls ; working in the English 
and Spanish Sunday-schools ; doing the work of house 
keeper, seamstress for the orphans ; teaching ; super 
intending Sunday-school, with all that belongs to the 



384 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

several departments, left not many idle moments. In 
August, 1880, relief was furnished by Mrs. E. J. 
Clemens, and one week after her arrival these two 
missionaries started for home, broken down in health 
to such a degree that many thought they would find 
an ocean grave. 

Miss Julia E. Goodenough was sent out immedi 
ately to strengthen the work, a^nd Mrs. L,. M. Turney 
to act as matron. Mrs. Clemens felt obliged to leave 
the work on account of the state of her health, June 
1 6, 1882, and Misses Denning and Chapin returned 
the following February, after a rest of two years. 
The derangement of the whole work made the task 
of bringing back system and order no easy one ; but, 
with patience and perseverance, they succeeded in 
regaining some of the lost ground. As an evidence 
of loyalty and loving service, Miss Denning at one 
time declined $150 per month from the President of 
the Board of Education for the province, who had 
visited the school, if she would go into Government 
employ. 

While at home, a pressure was brought to bear on 
the General Executive Committee to provide a Home 
if the work was to be continued. Rented houses are 
both expensive and unsatisfactory. Provision was 
made for the purchase of property, and much time 
spent in looking about. A house and lot was finally 
secured for the school, and a Home was built on the 
adjoining lot that would accommodate boarders and 
orphans. March 15, 1884, they took up their residence 
in the new quarters, tired, but happy to have a per 
manent abiding-place. The cost of the property was 
$11,000 in United States gold. Some changes were 



SOUTH AMERICA. 385 

afterwards made, bringing it up to $16,000; but the 
increased valuation is considerable more than the en 
tire cost. The institution was conducted after the 
Mt. Holyoke plan. It soon became necessary to limit 
the number of applicants, and many had to be turned 
away. In 1886, another school was opened in a differ 
ent part of the city. The two schools for years had an 
annual attendance of two hundred and fifty to three 
hundred girls, representing all classes of society, from 
the rancho to the palace. In 1888, Miss Mary E. 
Bowen was added to the corps of teachers. In 1890, 
these conscientious workers, as they were obliged to 
admit their strength was insufficient for the work, 
though they would gladly have given a life-service to 
it, felt it were better to give place to those who were 
stronger. Almost alone, as representatives of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, these two had main 
tained in Rosario the standard of pure religion during 
considerable periods in sixteen years. When they 
resigned, the Society had property worth $25,000 ; 
had two day-schools, two Sunday-schools, a Spanish 
preaching-service and prayer-meeting. A large num 
ber of those trailed in the Home were teachers in 
evangelical schools. Miss Elsie Wood was appointed 
to the charge of the work, but removed, in 1891, 
with her family to Peru, when Miss Mary F. Swa- 
ney, who had had experience in the Mexican mis 
sion, was sent out. Her arrival and care of the 
boarding and day schools has been very advantageous. 
This, together with the efficient aid given in the Home 
by Miss Disosway, brought great improvement in the 
general state of the work. Miss Disosway was God s 
gift to the mission in a time of great need. In July, 



386 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

1892, he took her to himself, and Miss Swaney s cares 
and responsibilities were correspondingly increased, 
since they had been shared as by a full missionary. 
For three years now Miss Swaney has been doing 
this work alone, without the aid of any one from the 
home-land. Catholic teachers are never employed in 
the schools in South America. 

MONTEVIDEO. In 1878 an excellent opening was 
found in Montevideo, and the services secured of Miss 
Cecilia Guelphi, an Argentine by birth, whose talents 
were of a high order, and whose services were in de 
mand for nearly twice what the Society could pay her. 
She readily spoke, wrote, or sung in Spanish, Italian, 
and French. The school was opened with forty chil 
dren. Over the door a sign was placed, Escuala Evan- 
gclica para Senoritas (Evangelical School for Young 
L,adies). At first she had to struggle against ridicule, 
contempt, and even persecution; but God, whose instru 
ment she was, gave her grace and strength for her day. 
She founded and developed a school system admitting 
pupils by the payment of fifty cents, although she re 
ceived those not able to contribute that amount. This 
course benefited the laboring class without pauper 
izing them. For the first year only eight dollars was 
received; but in eight years from then, the receipts 
were $1,124.13. From the first she had a normal 
class for training future workers. These she taught 
out of regular school hours, upon a thorough, system 
atic course, and had them pass Government examina 
tions, thus taking rank with other teachers of the same 
grade. Gospel hymns were sung in all her seven 
schools, the Bible was much read, and day by day her 



SOUTH AMERICA. 387 

little army of over five hundred pupils sang the gos 
pel in many a poor home. She was greatly beloved 
by all. In 1886, after eight years of remarkable serv 
ice, Miss Guelphi was summoned to her reward. For 
two years the schools remained under the supervision 
of her brother, Rev. Antonio Guelphi. In the larger 
nuinber of the school-rooms, Sunday-schools were 
held, and in many, preaching-services and prayer- 
meetings were established. One evidence of the pub 
lic interest awakened by these schools came in a dona 
tion of land, which it was thought would become val 
uable and afford a building-site in the future for a 
chapel or a school. 

In 1889, Miss Minnie Z. Hyde was appointed to 
this work, and Miss Bowen was sent down from Ro- 
sario, where she had been two years, to assist her. In 
1892, the entire management of the other six schools 
(they had only had the central) passed into their 
hands. They organized this central or high school 
and five primaries. The difficulty in grading was 
with the native teachers, who objected to text-books. 
The Bible- classes were also graded, and given written 
examinations. No one objected to taking the Bible 
as a study. A flourishing Sunday-school was held in 
the Home, with an attendance of sixty-three the 
largest Spanish Sunday-school in the city. On Chil- 
dren s-day, eleven young people, between the ages of 
eight and sixteen years, joined the Church on proba 
tion, and a probationers class was formed for Sunday 
aUernoons. Averse as are the children to study and 
discipline, with their inherited slothfulness, it made 
the task of organizing a perplexing and discouraging 
one. But obstacles were overcome, unfavorable criti- 



388 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

cism was changed to approval, and the way made clear 
for the growth and prosperity of the work. English 
was added as a requirement; a professor from the 
National University was secured to teach French. A 
music-teacher, a professor in mathematics, with other 
teachers, gave them quite a faculty and a fine standing 
as a school of high grade, commanding first-class pat 
ronage. A new building was furnished in 1893, cost 
ing nearly $20,000 in gold, and Miss Hyde, very much 
broken in health, retired from the work. On New- 
Year s day, 1894, she married Professor Daniel T. 
Wilson, and resides in Michigan. 

Re-enforcements were found in Miss L,izzie Hewett, 
of the Mexican Mission, and Miss Rebecca J. Ham 
mond. The day-schools were reorganized into a large 
school for boys under Brother Guelphi, and the other 
for girls in care of Miss Hewett, and the results seemed 
fully to justify the change. Early in 1894, circum 
stances occurred which led to the transfer of Miss 
Hammond to Asuncion. This left Miss Hewett with 
much work, heavy cares, and great responsibilities, 
and in 1895 she became critically ill, but remained on 
the field. During the summer, Miss Elizabeth S. 
Downing was sent out. 

BUENOS AYRES. In 1883, Miss Julia E. Good- 
enough left Rosario, and went to Buenos Ayres, under 
the most urgent appeal from the authorities of the 
Church, to take charge of the girls department, in 
the Ragged School, of about eighty pupils. It was 
conducted in the " Five Points" of the mission, and at 
tended by the children of the poor who live along the 
river front. The support was shared by the General 



SOUTH AMERICA. 389 

Society, the Woman s Society, and private contribu 
tions. The school grew most satisfactorily, and was 
felt as an evangelizing agency in the city, with its 
woman s meeting, sewing school, class and gospel 
meeting, and an English prayer-meeting. In 1886, 
after six years of service, Miss Goodenough married 
Professor Hudson, of the Government schools. In 
1888 a boarding-school was opened, and in 1889 Miss 
Eleanor L,e Huray, of the Mexican Mission, was trans 
ferred here, and undertook, in addition to other du 
ties, a training-school for teachers, where she had 
twenty-five pupils, and four assistant teachers. She 
also successfully addressed herself to the advancement 
of the grade of the central department of her school. 
A new day-school for primary grades was opened 
without expense to the Society. In 1892 there were 
sixty-five pupils in the boarding-school, not only self- 
supporting, but with part interest in the Ragged 
School, where two hundred and fifty little waifs irom 
the tenement-houses of the poorer districts were taught, 
a creditable enterprise of the evangelical mission in a 
Catholic country. The boarding-school girls were of 
many nationalities, but the language of the country 
was used, and Spanish customs followed in all matters 
of minor importance. The Bible was studied forty 
minutes each day, and Church service and Sunday- 
school, and weekly-prayer-meetings were faithfully at 
tended. At the time of Bishop Newman s official 
visit in 1893, a grand Sunday-school rally was held of 
the Spanish people in the Methodist Mission, where 
over twelve hundred children were present from the 
Sunday-schools of Buenos Ayres alone. Mrs. New 
man organized a Woman s Foreign Missionary So- 



390 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

ciety, which, added to that of the recently-formed 
Epworth League, equipped them with societies. Miss 
E. Thompson was employed as teacher here in 1893; 
and in 1894 a new school-building, with capacity for 
two hundred and fifty children, was built, and fur 
niture supplied ironi New York. 

PERU. The beginning of a system of schools des 
tined to become of vast importance, was made in 
Callao, Peru, by Miss Elsie Wood, September 15, 1891, 
assisted by her sister Amy, about two weeks after her 
arrival from Buenos Ayres. This was the first evan 
gelical school in that territory, half as large as the 
United States. In two weeks there were twenty 
children present, made up from ScTwr Penzotti s con 
gregation. The need seemed too great to wait for 
home instructions, and so a few benches were bought, 
some settees from the church borrowed, Miss Wood 
put in some maps, a globe, and a small blackboard, 
the people in whose house the school-room was located 
loaned a table, two chairs, and a water-bottle and 
glasses; and thus equipped, without previous adver 
tising, the work was launched. The children were 
from five to eighteen years of age, of all colors 
Spanish, Peruvian, Indian, Negro, and even Chinese 
Peruvian. A small tuition fee was charged. They 
closed for their summer vacation, December i5th, with 
thirty-four scholars. On January 4, 1892, School No. 
2, the Callao High School was started, in which Eng 
lish as well as Spanish is taught. This school is held 
in the best school-room in the city, and is connected 
with the boys school. These rooms, with good-sized 
courts or play-ground, belong to the committee in 



AFRICA. 39 * 

charge of the English Protestant Church, which has 
been for years without a pastor. They came very 
providentially into the hands of our missionaries, with 
the furniture, maps, seats, and desks. During the 
year forty-one girls were registered. These girls are 
older and more advanced than those of any other 
school in Callao. The first school T .vas placed in the 
hands of a former pupil. A third school was opened 
in 1893, with a young Peruvian woman, one of the 
converts, as teacher. The number of schools had in 
creased in 1895 to eight. "These are all evangelical 
agencies, with the Scriptures in the hands of the 
scholars, and gospel hymns in their mouths, tending 
as directly and powerfully as the Sunday-school to put 
the gospel into their hearts, and vastly more than the 
Sunday-school to shape their lives." In a land where 
public pleaching is forbidden by law, the school be 
comes disproportionately important to our work. 
Miss Elizabeth S. Goodin was sent out in 1895 by the 
Des Moines Branch. 

ASUNCION. As has been stated elsewhere, Miss 
Rebecca J. Hammond was transferred from Monte 
video to Asuncion, in Paraguay in 1894, and reported, 
before a year was closed, between thirty and forty 
pupils. 

AFRICA. 
Commenced in 1833 Organized as a Conference in 1836. 

In 1874 the Woman s Foreign Missionary Society 
believed that the time had come when it might and 
ought to enter Africa, and undertook the supper! 
of a native teacher in Bassa. Correspondence was 



392 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

opened up with the Secretary of the Liberia Confer 
ence, Brother Deputie, as to the further needs of the 
work there. He urged the necessity of "a female 
missionary and teacher being sent either to Monrovia 
or Mount of Olives," naming his preference for the 
latter place. In 1877 he wrote, " The Parent Board 
made a failure, in the early days, by not getting girls 
and training them in a country like this where polyg 
amy is practiced to such a fearful extent;" citing, as 
a reason, " keeping the young native Christian men 
from marrying heathen wives by furnishing them with 
trained Christian young women." There is a great 
demand for training institutions to qualify teachers 
for the native work. 

After advising with Bishop Gilbert Haven and 
Rev. J. T. Gracey on their return from Africa, it was 
decided that the only satisfactory way would be to 
send a woman from this country who should be able 
to plan and carry on the work. Accordingly the 
Executive Committee at Minneapolis, in 1878 made 
an appropriation of $1,500 to be used as opportunity 
offered. No use was made of, it that year, but the 
next was more encouraging. Early in 1879 the Gen 
eral Missionary Society sent out Mary Sharp, and 
as her work was the legitimate work of the Woman s 
Society, her support was taken by it soon after her 
arrival in Monrovia. Miss Sharp was for many years 
previously engaged in mission work among the freed- 
nien of John s Island. On reaching Africa, she 
undertook work among the Kroos in one of the sub 
urbs of Monrovia. With the help of the natives, she 
put up an inexpensive bamboo building for a chapel 
and school-house, which was burned down in 1882, 



AFRICA. 393 

when the Society furnished means to build on a 
larger scale. She wrote in 1881 : "There is not a 
uniform attendance at our school-house in Krootown. 
If it is a good fishing-day, at least half are engaged in 
fishing or selling fish. If they succeed in selling the 
fish in good season, they come to school. Veytown is 
across the mouth of Stockton Creek, quite a large 
stream. There are Kroos there, and ten boys from 
there come to see me at the seminary. Sometimes 
they run in and drop their string of fish down, read a 
lesson, and are off. They come in canoes; yesterday 
there were eight, to-day only two. I have four with 
me for whom I provide." Miss Sharp, believing 
that missionaries lingered too long on the Liberian 
coast, and that it was time they went out among the 
heathen, whose moral degradation called loudly for 
help, took a trip up the Niger to ascertain the possi 
bility of reaching the natives in the interior through 
the agency of that stream. 

After traveling some distance she selected a site 
as a base of operations. In describing the natives as 
she found them, she wrote : " Polygamy is common ; 
human sacrifices are offered, especially on the death 
of a leading man ; in every town the slaves outnum 
ber the free people, and cannibalism is practiced. 
Deep, dark, overshadowing night, a night of death, 
moral and mental, covers this Lost Continent. O, 
the labor, the money, the lives that will have to be 
given before Africa is redeemed ! Yet the earth (and 
Africa is part of the earth) is to be full of the knowl 
edge of God." In some places they were asking for 
teachers and preachers. At Opolo, at the head of 
the Brass River, one of the mouths of the Niger, the 



394 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

king offered to build a church, but he wanted white 
missionaries. 

Miss Sharp traveled amid much danger, some 
times sleeping in low, marshy places, near the deadly 
mango swamps, but enjoyed good health. On one 
of her tours she entered a town where, a few years 
before, the rankest cannibalism prevailed, the natives 
often carrying human flesh around in baskets for sale. 
Through missionary- influence a wonderful change 
had been wrought. She says: "A converted native 
at Old Calabar Mission prayed that God s goodness 
and mercy might cover me around and around. It 
has been ever so. Were I a little more ethereal I 
think I might have discovered the white tents of the 
encamping angels; for you know The Angel of the 
lyord encampeth, etc." 

In 1883, at the General Executive Committee 
meeting in Des Moines, the following action was 
taken : "The Parent Society has no white missionary 
at present in Africa, and its work has been greatly less 
ened in that country. The Woman s Society has been 
represented there the last four years by Mary Sharp, 
who has frequently expressed great dissatisfaction 
with the Society, which has paid her the full amount 
of her salary up to November 30, 1883. Her work 
has been chiefly among the Kroo boys, who are of a 
race hitherto inaccessible, and of such unsettled and 
wandering proclivities that a permanent establish 
ment among them has been impossible. The Parent 
Society, having withdrawn its approval of Miss Sharp 
as a missionary of the Woman s Society, after con 
sultation with the Bishop and missionary authorities 
of the Church, she has been recalled. 



AFRICA. 395 

Woman s Society still holds itself in readi 
ness to follow whenever the Parent Society shall again 
enter or extend its operations in Africa, and prays for 
the time when, with suitable and efficient workers, it 
may do something for the evangelization of that dark 
and difficult field." 

Mjss EMMA MICHENER. 

In the fall of 1879, Miss Emma Michener, of Phil 
adelphia, called upon the Branch Secretary, Mrs. 
Keen, to talk about her desire to go as a missionary 
to Africa. Mrs. Keen presented to her other fields, 
with their pressing needs, told her of the deadly 
climate, and overflowing graveyards of Africa, but 
she answered, " I believe the Lord calls me to go to 
Africa; I go because it is most degraded, and needs 
me most." This was the same spirit of consecration 
that led her, as a successful teacher, to resign her 
position, and for two years teach in a school for col 
ored children. She also said : " If my death in Africa 
is worth more to Him than my work, I am His to do 
His will." She was accepted as a missionary for 
Africa. Her life had been full of good works. She 
had assisted the home missionary among the emi 
grants; was not only zealous but efficient in visiting, 
teaching, and in persuading men to give up drinking 
and attend religious services. She taught a class of 
twenty boys in the mission Sunday-school, and led 
the children s meeting in the Church on Saturday 
afternoons. Great hopes were centered in her for 
usefulness in her newly-chosen field. On her way 
out she had a narrow escape from fatal shipwreck off 

the coast of Wales, when the Montana went on 
27 



396 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

the rocks during the night of March 13, 1880. While 
in the leaking, open boat, in the darkness, she says 
this thought came into her mind: "I thought God 
had called me to go to Africa; but if He wants me 
to go up from a watery bed to-night, all is well." 
She reached Monrovia in April, 1880, and commenced 
teaching. Soon there came a call for a teacher to go 
to Bassa, eighty miles farther down the coast ; she re 
sponded, and in June opened a school for girls in the 
Methodist church-building. This grew rapidly in 
numbers ; but in a month or two the climate began to 
affect her health, and she became very ill of African 
fever; then followed many weary months of extreme 
illness. In November, a woman employed by the 
Baptist Missionary Society, Mrs. Vonbrunn, heard of 
her suffering, and had her removed to her house, 
some nine miles up the St. John River. She was now 
in the hands of an experienced nurse and a kind 
friend, and, under God s blessing, she seemed to re 
cover her health. In all her moments of conscious 
reason her faith never wavered that she would yet 
be permitted to do some work for God in Africa. In 
writing of her illness, she says: " How precious the 
blessed Lord was to me in my hours of loneliness, 
and how sweetly I was enabled to rest my all on Him ! 
thanks be unto His holy name!" During her con 
valescence she was repeatedly urged to return home ; 
but to every suggestion she turned a deaf ear, and, 
after a short visit to Monrovia, returned to Bassa, and 
commenced teaching again in April, 1881. She be 
lieved God wanted her to go right out among the na 
tives, however, and having obtained a grant of one 
hundred acres of unoccupied land in any spot in Li- 



AFRICA. 397 

beria she might select for a mission, July i2th, with 
several native boys, she left for the interior. There 
were no vehicles for travel, and no roads for them ; 
rivers to cross, and no bridges. All overland travel is 
done in hammocks. Imagine this brave girl swung in a 
hammock, carried by nude savages through dense for 
ests and thick jungles, or supported on their heads as 
they wade waist-deep across large rivers ; twelve miles 
from even a civilized Negro, and fifty miles from the 
only two other white persons in Monrovia, right out 
among the natives, and everywhere, if not too much 
afraid, they would run out of their settlements to see 
the strange white woman that had come from far over 
the big water to teach them God palaver. When the 
desired location was found a high hill, well wooded, 
with a running stream of water she sat down amid 
the vast panorama of beauty and cried, " Eureka !" 
and, while tears of joy streamed down her cheeks, 
sang, " Praise God, from whom all blessings flow," 
and said she believed her heart would almost burst for 
joy the day when the school-bell rang out on that hill, 
and re-echoed through those forests. 

In October she wrote : "I have a school number 
ing forty-two children. Six of them are boarders, and 
many of the girls are natives. A few days ago one of 
them was converted, and this morning led in prayer. 
Two others are serious. I have made considerable 
progress in the Bassa language, and my work has at 
tracted attention from some of the most influential 
men of the neighborhood. They are so pleased with 
my resolution to remain, notwithstanding all I have 
suffered, that they assure me they will do all in their 
power to assist in my missionary operations. They 



398 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

have agreed to put me up a building without any cost 
to the Society at home, which will be ready for oc 
cupancy by January i, 1882." 

Miss Michener was taken suddenly ill on an English 
steamer going from Bassa to Monrovia, and died De 
cember 10, 1 88 1. Her remains were taken to Mon 
rovia, and buried in the little cemetery beside those of 
Melville B. Cox. 

Mrs. Amanda Smith visited her grave when in 
Africa, and says : "A very pretty little bush seems to 
have volunteered to mark the spot ; and just where 
her mother would have planted a rose on the breast, a 
beautiful vine, something like our trailing arbutus, 
has spread out its branches, which forms almost a star, 
and at the foot is a bunch of ferns." In 1882 the 
Philadelphia Branch solicited, within its territory, spe 
cial offerings for the purchase, transportation, and 
erection of a suitable stone to commemorate her de 
votion and sacrifice, and mark her resting-place. 
April 19, 1884, Rev. David A. Day wrote : " The stone 
and fence have been placed in position. I have not 
seen the work since it was completed, but the Amer 
ican minister at Monrovia tells me that it is well 
done. I went down and engaged the workers, made 
arrangements for carrying it to the cemetery, etc." 

What shall we do for Africa? is the great problem. 




OUR DECEASED MISSIONARIES. 
FLORENCE NICKERSON, KMMA J. EVERDINO, 

tucknow, India. Nagasaki, Japan. 

M. K. T.AYTON, MARY K. V. PARDOE, MRS. MARY A. (VANCE) BEI.KNAP, 

Cawnpore, India. Tokyo, Japan. Tokyo, Japan. 

ANNIE BIGKLOW SEARS, CLARA DOWNEY, 

Tientsin, China. Bijnour, India. 




OUR DECEASED MISSIONARIES. 
LKTITIA A. CAMPBELL, MRS. L. H. (GREEN; CHENEY, M. D , 

Peking, China. Bareilly, India 

SUSAN ri. HIGGINS, EMMA MICHEXER, ELLA GILCHRIST, M. D., 

Yokohama, Japan. Monrovia, Africa. Kin Kiang, China 

CKCILIA ELENA GTELFI, HARRIET KICUR, 

Montevideo, S. A. Bareilly, India. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

REMI N1SCENCES. 

IN looking back over the years, what memories rise 
among the home-workers! Mrs. J. T. Gracey 
says: "Those who, in the early years, looked on with 
half-amused contemplation of woman s organizing 
and administrative skill, have come to realize the 
business enterprise, literary ability, and far-reaching 
plans of this Society." Mrs. E. T. Cowen remembers 
" the doubts expressed by some and open opposition 
by others; the sneers that cut a sensitive woman like 
a lash; the touching pictures drawn of home duties 
neglected; the Church doors closed to us!" She 
remembers also brighter pictures: "True brotherly 
support from others; friends where friends were 
needed; access to the ear of One whose right arm 
never faileth." Surely the dark days ended gloriously. 
"What a story, full of pathos and humor," says 
Mrs. E. J. Knowles, " might be written of those early 
experiences in organizing Auxiliaries in the days 
when it was a brave, if not a bold thing for a 
woman to lift up her voice so that it could be heard 
in public!" Then, referring to the farewell meetings 
of thrilling interest in the autumn of 1870, held for 
"our first very own missionary, Miss Fannie J. 
Sparkes," in New York, Brooklyn, and Newark, she 
adds: "What times were these! All our hearts went 
with our missionaries then; for the number was few, 
the way was long, and the work in its uncertain 

399 



400 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

beginnings. Now, many run to and fro, and we 
are in clanger of forgetting that they need as much 
as ever our sympathy and prayers." 

In the beginning of this modern missionary move 
ment among women there were "opposers" in the 
West, as well as in the more conservative East; 
and there were ministers and laymen in the Church 
who said: "Let your women keep silence in the 
churches." Mrs. M. J. Shelley, of the Topeka Branch, 
recounts some interesting incidents. "At one time," 
she says, "because of the difficulties in the way of 
representing our work to the women of the Churches, 
we asked for a day at camp-meeting, but were refused. 
We were offered a day after the meeting closed, on 
two conditions; first, we must pay the police force, 
which was deemed necessary for our safety ; and, 
second, we must take no collection on the camp 
ground. We were perplexed to know whether we 
ought to accept these terms, because we had no 
funds; and we had planned to meet all expenses by 
collections. After much prayer and thought we 
accepted the conditions, believing God would in 
some way help us in this extremity. 

"Accordingly, we made all necessary preparations; 
but when the meeting closed, almost every tent- 
holder had left the grounds. The wives of some of 
them would have remained; but their husbands said 
they had been there so many days already, they could 
stay no longer. Others declared they did not care 
about staying to a woman s foreign missionary meet 
ing. After consultation, we concluded to trust our 
God for protection through the night, to save expense 
by dismissing the police, and ring the bell ourselves 



REMINISCENCES. 401 

" The day dawned fair and beautiful, and we were 
up early for our morning prayer-meeting. We real 
ized at our first gathering we were not alone; God 
was with us. Some of the officers of the Camp-meet 
ing Association remained with us, and at our nine 
o clock missionary love-feast they became so inter 
ested that they came to us and said : We have con 
cluded that the Woman s Foreign Missionary Society 
is not detrimental to the promotion of holiness, and, 
if you desire, we will give you a day next year during 
our meeting. Before the eleven o clock service was 
concluded we were waited upon again, and told that 
we might take a collection at the close of the service." 

"An itinerating experience is also given, of which 
Mrs. Shelley was a part. On a cold day in Novem 
ber a carriage might have been seen moving slowly, 
because of the mud and rain, over the Brownville and 
Tecumseh road, a distance of thirty-five miles, in Ne 
braska. The horses had been made life members of 
the Woman s Foreign Missionary Society, and after 
wards spent years in making such journeys. The 
occupants of the carriage were a driver and two very 
diminutive ladies, so completely enveloped in wrap 
pings as to be scarcely recognizable by even intimate 
friends. That you may know who these women are, 
we clip from a local column this notice : Mrs. Nind 
and Mrs. Prescott, two traveling missionaries for the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, gave us two entertain 
ments this week. Fortunately, the informant did 
not stop here and leave us in doubt as to the nature 
of the entertainment, but adds: in the way of a 
sermon from each. This is all the people seemed to 
know about them. They knew not whence they 



402 WOMAN "s FOREIGN MISSION A R Y SOCIETY. 

came nor whither they went ; that they were travel 
ing missionaries their travel-stained garments were 
conclusive evidence. 

" The heavy rains which had fallen rendered 
traveling very difficult ; yet steadily on and on went 
our traveling missionaries, intent upon reaching 
their destination before nightfall. If you had been 
near you might have heard snatches of song or 
ripples of laughter. Darkness came on, and they 
were still several miles from the place where they 
had hoped to spend the night. Fearing if they 
traveled after it was dark they might lose their way 
on these wide prairies in the chilly night, they 
decided it was best to find, if possible, an immediate 
refuge. Accordingly, they drew up at a tiny, low- 
roofed farm-house. A pleasant old gentleman an 
swered to their call, and in reply to their request to 
remain all night, said he was sorry it would not be 
convenient; but as his house was very small, and 
he already had fourteen persons to keep, they had 
better go on to the next house, and if not permitted 
to remain there, they could return, and he would 
endeavor to make room for them. 

"It was now quite dark, and the horses were 
almost unmanageable, yet they reached the next 
house, only to find that a rest here was impossible. 
There was no alternative now but to return to the 
little farm-house, where the hospitable old gentleman 
received them himself. The small room now seemed 
literally packed. After some conversation with these 
people the traveling missionaries gave orders for an 
early breakfast; and, the next day being the Sabbath, 
they paid their bill that night, while the good man 



REMINISCENCES. 403 

said: Seeing you are going about doing good, the 
charges will be but one dollar for yourselves, your 
driver, and your horses. They were shown in which 
corner of the room they might prepare their bed, 
and supperless, after their long ride, the two mission 
aries, and your humble servant, the driver, lay down 
to rest. There was but one blanket between them 
and the uncarpeted floor, and they pieced together 
shawls and wraps for a covering. 

"They arose early, but little refreshed, and made 
preparations for breakfast. This meal consisted of a 
cup of tea, some good bread, and a dish of pork 
swimming in grease. Our missionaries, unfortu 
nately, did not eat pork nor drink tea, but they had 
good bread and water left. They looked at the table, 
at each other, and at the table again. One who had 
reproved the driver the night before, by bravely say 
ing, as they lay on the bare floor, The Son of man 
had not where to lay his head, was now utterly at a 
loss. The driver might have rejoined by saying: 
And into whatsoever city ye enter, and they receive 
you, eat such things as are set before you. 

"But it was little wonder the Secretary was dis 
turbed when she thought of the long ride before 
them, and the little hope for more ample refreshment. 
The driver had made many such journeys before, 
and understood that the hostess had placed before 
them the best she had; but the Secretary did not 
fully realize this fact, and asked demurely, Can I 
have some butter? I have no butter, was the host 
ess s meek reply. With a still more hopeless expres 
sion, the Secretary asked again, Can I have some 
milk? The milk was brought, and the Secretary 



404 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

happily finished her breakfast with good bread and 
milk. We believe that He who said, Whosoever 
shall give you a cup of water, noted the kindness of 
that hostess, and she will find her reward. 

" Breakfast over, the three set out on their journey; 
and after a wearisome ride of fifteen miles, over the 
bluffs along the Missouri River, they reached Peru. 
The people were just going to church where these 
traveling missionaries were engaged to give another 
entertainment at eleven o clock. There was scant 
time to wipe the mud from their faces and brush it 
from their clothing before they must start for the 
church. They found the Methodist church in this 
unfamiliar city only after many wanderings, and 
much fear lest some other denomination might re 
ceive the benefit of their entertainment. 

"Those days of hardships and privations are past; 
still in the prosecution of the work there came expe 
riences that made one missionary say, soon after his 
return from India: Ladies, it is easier to be spit 
upon from the bazars of India than to contend with 
the obstacles which oppose you. " 

Mrs. C. F. Wilder has used some of these "experi 
ences" in making a chapter read stranger than fiction. 
She impersonates an itinerant: 

"My Blessed Friend: I have not forgotten you; I 
have not been ungrateful in my silence for your lov 
ing care and hospitality ; I have not been 

Carried to the skies 
On flowery beds of ease 

since I left your kind roof; but I have been busy. 
That is my excuse for the long delay (of which I am 



REMINISCENCES. 405 

ashamed) in letting you know where I am, and how 
I have fared since I left you. 

" The train was late that night for Oak Valley, and 
I was very thankful for the sensible lunch you put in 
the little box. There was a Sunday-school Conven 
tion in session at Oak Valley, at the opera-house, and 
the big meeting of the Convention was held that even 
ing on which I arrived. The Corresponding Secre 
tary of the Woman s Foreign Missionary Society had 
forgotten to notify the Conference Secretary that it 
would be impossible to have me speak that evening, 
and all the ladies of the Auxiliary had forgotten that 
I was to come. So there was no one to meet me. I 
went to the hotel, and, after 1 had washed my face 
and hands, went to the opera-house. As the kind 
Father would have it, I was taken to a seat beside a 
Sunday-school worker, who is also a member of our 
Woman s Foreign Missionary Society. She was being 
entertained by a royal Christian, whose home, like her 
heart, was large enough to take me in. I left the next 
day for the succeeding appointment, spoke at the Mis 
sionary Convention in the afternoon; made an ad 
dress in the evening; and when the committee met 
me at the train before I left, asked what were my ex 
penses, and I told them $1.95, they gave me two sil 
ver dollars, quoting the motto on the silver coins, and 
adding : We will give you the five cents over ex 
penses. 

"At Berline I was not expected, as the pastor there 
is not of the expectant tribe. All arrangements had 
been made with him by the Conference Secretary, as 
our Society is dead in that place ; but he had not had a 
letter from her for two weeks, and did not know but 



406 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

she had canceled my engagement. When I reached 
that place, there being no one to meet me, I went to 
a hotel. It rained, thundered, lightened, and the wind 
blew furiously. As soon as it cleared off, I went to 
the parsonage, and found it was prayer-meeting night, 
and the pastor just ready to go to Church. There 
were six people at prayer-meeting, and at the minis 
ter s request I talked, I sang, I answered questions. 
All seemed delighted, and we took up a collection of 
$5, that will go to help organize a Society ; for there 
would not be ten women in the Church to take hold> 
and one woman, a washer-woman, was anxious that 
there should be a Society instead of a Band. The next 
morning at the hotel that washer-woman came and 
gave me a dollar toward my expenses. She said: 
Last night I lay a-thinkin and a-thinkin what I could 
do for you, for you did me so much good ; and all of a 
sudden I remembered my home plants that Mis Riley 
offered me a dollar for. I went over to see her this 
mornin , and she gave me a dollar. 

" From Berline to Cherry vale. A rainy, disagree 
able day to find a desolate station ; set down in the 
mud, and nobody nor nothin there ! I sent up town 
for a hack. At Cherryvale they let you come ; and if 
you come, let you send up to the hotel for a hack, and 
then they take you to a hotel. I went to the parson 
age to find that the pastor and his wife were visiting 
in Wooster. I found a little hotel, where I got din 
ner ; then went rummaging over town to dig out some 
Methodists. I dug up two, and learned that my meet 
ing had never been announced. Nobody had ever 
heard of me ! The Woman s Foreign Missionary So 
ciety dead. The pastor had been indifferent, not only 



REMINISCENCES. 407 

to our work, but to his own his habits being such 
that he was almost wholly unfitted for his place the 
one minister I have ever known of this sort. I hung 
my harp upon the willow, feeling as desolate as the 
Jews in a strange land, and went back to the miser 
able little hotel, with its stuffy rooms, thinking if we 
could only see as far ahead as we do behind, what a 
restful week I might have had in your home. What 
a pity ! All the way almost a desert, and no dessert ! 
We could have done so much with our pen in a whole 
week, and I gone to Lancoste for Sunday. 

"I had a very pleasant time there that Sunday. I 
was entertained at Dr. Marine s, and had a great big, 
pleasant room to myself, and could go to it whenever 
I was tired. I visited the Church University, the In 
stitute, and looked all over the beautiful city. I went 
to West Lancoste, and spoke in that Church in the 
morning, and took a collection of $45, besides a good 
time. In the evening I spoke at Trinity. Had a 
large and enthusiastic audience ; Church full ; collec 
tion, $127. Spoke to the Sunday-school and Epworth 
League Monday afternoon ; met the ladies of all de 
nominations in Mrs. Dr. Marine s parlors. Left on 
Tuesday for Tolando, where we held our eighth Con 
vention. It rained all the time I was there; but the 
evening congregation was large, and there were quite 
a number of delegates from the surrounding towns. 
The audience seemed delighted with the address, and 
made me talk about an hour longer than I had planned. 
The pastor begged me to stay over Sunday, and take 
the services. He said that the people were woefully 
ignorant of what our Church was doing through the 
women in the line of foreign missionary work. 
28 



408 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

"I had a present here, from a beautiful lady, of a 
picture that I prize highly. This picture, with that 
little book you saw, and the $2 that came from that 
kind-hearted farmer who rode, with his wife, twelve 
miles to hear me that Tuesday evening at your home, 
are all the presents that I have ever received. 

"On Friday morning I went to Otranto, where I 
was met at the depot by one of the kindest little -women. 
She was so very sorry that she could not entertain me, 
but said her neighbor across the street would give me 
the sweetest entertainment. This kind lady, who 
met me, had her own horses and driver. Her house 
was a large, handsome, steam-heated home. I went 
to her neighbor s, a good-hearted dressmaker, who did 
for me the best she could. The guest-chamber was cold, 
so my good little dressmaker made me take a warm 
flatiron for my feet. You see I could not get off any 
reports or mail from there. I spoke to a fairly good 
audience that evening. People seemed to know that 
some one was to speak whom it would not be con 
venient for the kindest little woman to have for her 
guest. 

"When they asked what my expenses were, they 
seemed astonished at the amount ; so I gave an itemized 
statement of the whole $3.08. When they were pay 
ing me the kindest little woman remarked : I do 
hope that does not empty the treasury, for you know 
I advanced 37^ cents on those Reports. 

" The next day I had a headache, and it rained, and 
hailed, and snowed, and blowed, but I was to speak at 
Mendone. When I reached the station, I was met by 
several nice-looking women, with badges, and we 
walked to the church, taking my valise and handbag 



REMINISCENCES. 409 

along. The ladies had gotten up a social missionary 
tea in the church parlors, that was to last from four 
until eight o clock. Of course, I was expected to be 
social. I talked and ate, and ate and talked. The 
ladies did not seem to dream that I could be tired, 
sick, homesick, or long for one minute s quiet, but ex 
pected me to fill myself with cake, pickles, cold ham, 
and weak tea, and between mouthfuls fill them full of 
missionary enthusiasm ! The parlors were mussed, 
the women tired, everything in a whirl and a buzz. 
I was criticised in regard to my dress (I had put on 
my one ewe lamb, because I knew it was to be a big 
thing ) ; children stared at me, and a darling baby 
wiped her fingers on my one piece of nice neck trim 
ming. 

"They thought that all the money that could be 
spared for a year had been planked down in the ten 
cents paid for their missionary tea. As soon as I dared, 
when I found no one else intended to propose it, I be 
gan the warfare with the gas, oxygen, ham and tea ; 
and although I could not begin speaking until after 
nine o clock, because they are such a social people 
and wanted all the ten cents at the table, every one 
seemed to enjoy the speech. They wanted I should 
take a collection, and were perfectly astonished when 
they counted up over $30. They had taken $8 at the 
tea, but nearly two of that would have to go to pay 
for the ice-cream. They gave me twenty-five cents 
over my expenses ! 

" My Conference Secretary seems very much grat 
ified at my success, but wonders if I could not reduce 
my expenses. She thinks she plans so well that I 
need never go to a hotel or ride in a bus. My rub- 



4 1 o WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

bers are worn out, and my gloves look forlorn. My 
best dress is spotted in several places, and my hand 
kerchiefs look grimy, because I try to wash them out 
myself. My hose need mending, and the buttons are 
loose on my boots. I have earned for the Society 
during the last month about $400, besides giving the 
people a permanent uplift in missionary work. The 
Secretary wrote me that some of the ladies proposed 
to give me enough salary to keep me in gloves and 
boots, but she thought that I ought to love souls well 
enough to do this work for nothing. You know what 
an elegant home our Secretary has ; but she frequently 
writes me of her sacrifice of time to plan out this 
work, and to go now and then to quarterly meetings, 
where, to be sure, she works, but still has leisure for 
visiting with those she knows and loves. For fifteen 
years I have been among strangers in this and foreign 
lands, and everywhere been looked upon as an in 
truder. The ministers and Auxiliaries don t want 
me. The heathen have never been known to hanker 
after us since they were cannibals. I thought I had 
staid among strangers just as long as I could. I 
was worn out, soul and body. I wanted to see my 
mother. Some nights I would have given the whole 
world, if I had had it, to have had my own precious 
mother tuck me in bed, pat the bedclothes, and give 
me the good-night kiss, just as she did when I was a 
little girl, and came home to rest. The workers said the 
women of the Church were ignorant of the needs of 
the missionary work. There was no way for them to 
find out, only for me to go and tell them. Would I 
go? My dear old mother put her heartache aside. I 
said that I would forget that I had spine or nerves, 



REMINISCENCES. 4 1 z 

and take up the work. But as I go around over this 
rich country? filled with expensive homes and elegant 
churches; this country of newspapers, Church papers, 
and magazines, I am puzzled more and more to know 
why the missionary must, when she comes home to 
rest, spend all her time working among the heathen 
in our own Churches." 

I^est we find too sweet contentment in what a quar 
ter of a century has seen accomplished, we will cast 
"a glance backward" with Mrs. S. I,. Baldwin, who 
went to China in a sailing-vessel, instead of a fine, 
swift steamer, one hundred and forty days out on the 
ocean sailing, before reaching Foochow, sixty of them 
out of sight of land, and then anchored off Anjer, on 
the Island of Java, where they took in provisions and 
news as to how " the war" was going in the United 
States. In the various latitudes, one winter, a snow 
storm, as they rounded the Cape of Good Hope, was 
sandwiched between two summers. The workers of 
to-day, with their better equipment, would find it diffi 
cult to understand how these early missionaries were 
hampered for lack of tools. 

The Bible was in process of translation into the 
colloquial, and Mrs. Baldwin writes: 

"Many a pleasant hour did I spend with my hus 
band on Proverbs, while other members of the mis 
sion were at work on other portions. Hymn-book, 
discipline, catechism, school-books all had to be 
translated and printed for the first time. Mrs. Sites 
did a most excellent work in putting into Chinese the 
Bible Picture-book. The Anglo-Chinese Dictionary, 
so invaluable in the study of the language, was not 
in existence. The great value and cost of that work 



4 1 2 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

I appreciated later, as it fell to my lot voluntarily to 
do what one gentleman termed the drudgery of 
straightening out, so that the printers could under 
stand them, the many corrections made by the two 
authors. This cost me two hours writing daily for a 
year and a half. In those days the missionary, to a 
greater extent than now, had to be not only preacher 
and teacher, but translator and bookmaker. Later, 
as God s blessing came on our work, he must be also 
professor, editor, superintendent of a great press, 
which, at times, was so full of work that it was going 
night and day, employing two sets of hands. 

"At that time we had a Foundling Asylum; a 
small building into which were received the castaway 
baby girls, sometimes left on the hill near the door, 
evidently with the hope that they would be cared for. 
Many of them, in spite of utmost care, died of previ 
ous neglect or inherited weakness; but others lived 
to enter our boarding-school, so finely conducted by 
the Misses Woolston. All who lived became Chris 
tians, were married to Christian men, and are lights 
wherever they are. The results of the Misses Wool- 
ston s twenty-five years of wise, unselfish labor, can 
not be estimated here. I shall never forget my first 
visit to our suburban Church, Ching Sing Tong (True 
God Church). As I entered the door I saw only men 
and boys, but the corner, including a window on the 
left of the pulpit, was latticed off, forming a room 
into which no one could look. I inquired its pur 
pose, and was conducted out of the Church to a side 
entrance into this room; and lo! there were the 
women and girls hearing the gospel through the 
lattices. The custom of secluding women made this 



REMINISCENCES. 413 

room necessary, and it was not yet safe to ignore the 
custom. But very soon all such fears disappeared, 
and our women and girls bore the cross for His sake, 
and took their place in the public congregation." 

Mrs. J. T. Gracey throws an intensely interesting 
side light on the history of the Woman s Foreign 
Missionary Society in the following: 

"Looking back over the years, two scenes come 
to my mind connected with the early history of our 
woman s work. One was in India, the other in 
America. 

"It seemed at the beginning of our mission history 
in India as if never a door would open which would 
give us entrance to the women of the country. 
Once a beginning was made, the missionary women 
recognized that it was destined to develop beyond 
any resources they could command; and so a few of 
us met together, talked the matter over, and decided 
that we must make application to the Missionary 
Society at home for an appropriation specially for 
women s work. The application was made, the facts 
were enumerated ; but for some reason no appropria 
tion was allowed. Had the Missionary Society at 
that time adopted this work, it is possible the 
Woman s Foreign Missionary Society might never 
have come into existence, and certainly not in the 
efficient form which it has taken on. The mission 
aries of India in the succeeding months found them 
selves face to face with an obstacle that would not 
down. If they could not get what they needed 
through the Missionary Society, because it was em 
barrassed with debt, or did not apprehend the new 
developments which were destined to swing all the 



4H WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

doors of India back on their hinges, that would not 
excuse the missionary women of India from effort 
to meet the providential necessity by seeking aid 
through some other channel. 

" Five years pass, and there is another assembly of 
women. As the writer sat in this second gathering 
her mind went back to the first alluded to. This one 
is in Boston, not in India. It was in April, 1870, 
when twelve women, representing the six newly-or 
ganized branches which constituted (at least on 
paper) the Woman s Foreign Missionary Society, 
were assembled in the parlors of Mrs. T. A. Rich, of 
Boston. It was the first meeting of the Executive 
Committee of the Society. Two missionaries had 
gone to India already, and the Bareilly Orphanage 
had been transferred to this Society, and its support 
undertaken by them. This first Executive Committee 
faced the fact that $11,000 were necessary to meet 
obligations upon them for the coming year. Wher 
ever could they hope to secure such a large sum of 
money? Eleven thousand dollars! Whose faith was 
equal to the emergency? At this juncture Mrs. E. W. 
Parker, of India, burdened with a sense of pressing 
needs of India s \vomen, and with a faith that was 
well-nigh sublime faith in God, and faith in the 
women of Methodism rose and boldly proposed that 
an effort be made to raise twenty thousand dollars ! 
For a moment there was an oppressive silence, then 
from every one present came an exclamation of sur 
prise, an audible, Oh ! The unexpressed thought 
seemed to be that Mrs. Parker s zeal had run away 
with her judgment. The enthusiasm was, however, 
contagious, and the advanced ground was taken. It 



REMINISCENCES. 41=; 

was a far greater triumph of faith than was the ap 
propriation of three hundred and twelve thousand 
dollars by the Executive Committee in St. Paul 
in 1893. 

" I recall this scene as if it were but yesterday. Of 
that company, the gifted and saintly Mrs. Dr. Olin, 
and the efficient secretary, the brilliant and beloved 
Mrs. Dr. Warren, have passed on through the gates 
of the city, while others are still working or waiting. 

"A mighty, transforming power has been felt in the 
educational, evangelistic, and medical work of this 
Society throughout India, which has been developed 
since those two eventful meetings. Individual lives 
have been lifted from sin and degradation; women 
have come more largely to apprehend and appreciate 
the spirit and power of the Christian home ; thou 
sands of children have been cared for by the So 
ciety s representatives, and have been sent forth to 
spread abroad the tidings learned; a Christian litera 
ture has been made possible for heathen households; 
aspirations have been kindled, and thoughts of God 
have been implanted. 

" The educational lines have been advanced from 
the little veranda school to the Lucknow Woman s 
College. The result of this culture is evidenced in 
native women able to preside over a conference of 
their Christian sisters, while others who had spent 
most of their lives in the Mohammedan or Hindu 
harem, are found in public assemblies reading papers 
written by themselves, or discussing matters pertain 
ing to general education. Bishop Thoburn says that 
nowhere in Methodism, if, indeed, anywhere else in 
Christendom, is woman s work so fully recognized and 



4 1 6 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

so thoroughly organized as in the Methodist Epis 
copal Church in India. We may catch a glimpse of 
the marvelous advance when we realize the fact that 
in two presiding elders districts in North India, 
woman s work is superintended by native Chris 
tian women. 

" Mark the progress in medical work. Our Society 
first introduced the study of medicine among the 
women of Asia; and now a despised, neglected 
Hindu widow breaks away from the prejudices of cen 
turies, and takes the first honors of her class in a 
medical college; and another, a little abandoned waif 
taken into our Orphanage Home, half dead, is now a 
Christian physician in charge of a Government hos 
pital for women. We may not say what number of 
women have learned the way, the truth, and the 
life, or have been relieved from the religion of super 
stition and fear of false gods, and of those which are 
nothing, and have come under the influence of a 
religion of love. 

"Thinking of it all, it seems a long way back to 
that first executive meeting, or that other little group 
of wearied women in India in the gray dawn of this 
movement; and yet it is as a dream when one 
awaketh, for after all it was but yesterday that this 
work began. We close the first quarter of a century 
with devout thanksgiving, and look hopefully to 
the future." 

Mrs. J. Fowler Willing, in a recent contribution 
to the Friend, gives as the secret of the grand success 
of the Woman s Foreign Missionary Society, " plod 
ding perseverance," adding so much good sense we 
venture to make liberal extracts. " Doing the next 



REMINISCENCES. 417 

* 

thing faithfully," she says, "and trusting the L,ord to 
make what He can of it. Not waiting for great wind 
falls, bequests, the gifts of millionaires, but picking 
up the pennies and trudging on. Its two cents a 
week drops into the treasury like the patter of spring 
rain. Though the times are hard, and retrenchment 
is the order on every hand, yet it has had to take no 
steps backward. The sand-banks with which the 
Hollanders shut out the sea are made strong by the 
rootlets of the grass growing on them. So this noble 
Society, by the little helpings of its many workers, 
may hold at bay the tremendous monetary surges that 
sweep away great fortunes and cripple mighty 
enterprises." 

But she seems not satisfied in giving the secret 
spring of the successful achievements of this organi 
zation, but, as of old, fearlessly advancing, she affirms 
that "patient plodding" is the very life of the 
Woman s Foreign Missionary Society. " Wealth is 
good," she moralizes; "pastoral aid desirable; ecclesi 
astical sanction helpful ; but it is patient plodding for 
Christ s dear love that turns the mulberry-leaf of 
feminine ability into the silken robe of salvation for 
heathen women." 

" At first it seemed a great hardship to be for 
bidden to take public collections. What? Work up 
a meeting against all odds, half frightened out of one s 
wits by the presiding, and reporting, and appealing ; 
heart-sinking under a sense of responsibility for half 
the heathen world; and, after all, not be allowed to 
reap a harvest from the interest created! O, the 
pity of it ! exclaimed a gentleman in Piqua, Ohio. 
Such a waste ! If you had taken a collection, I would 



4 1 8 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSION A R Y SOCIETY. 

* 

have thrown in pocket-book and all, and so would 
the rest! 

" L,ike many another restriction, the no-collection 
clause was the best help. Work up an audience to 
the hundred-dollars pitch of enthusiasm, and then let 
it down by getting the women to pledge a pitiful two 
cents a week? Yes. The hundred dollars would be 
the end of it; but two cents a week from fifty women, 
twenty years, would make a thousand dollars, and 
there would be many little odds and ends that wo 
manly ingenuity can devise. Besides, the world ot 
work necessary to keep the fifty women at it, was 
just what was needed to carry missions into the 
homes of the land, and make possible the missionary 
revival that followed. Car-loads of paper had to be 
written and printed; thousands of miles traveled by 
women who never before ventured unattended out of 
sight of their own chimney smoke ; secretaries had to 
spend days and weeks at their desks. 

"All this has made the workers intelligent and self- 
respecting. You call your paper the Heathen 
Woman s Friend, said an Indiana preacher. You 
would better call it the Christian Woman s Friend. 
See what it is doing for the women in our Churches. 

" God be thanked for his blessing, that has been 
like sunshine on the springing grain ! For his sake, 
and to insure permanence in this arm of service, the 
verb to work must be conjugated constantly in all 
its plodding moods and tenses." 

Just after Mrs. Parker returned to India it was 
laid upon a quiet woman, Mrs. W. A. Ingham, of 
Cleveland, to inaugurate the work of the Society in 
Northern Ohio. The pastor of the First Methodist 



REMINISCENCES. 4 1 g 

Church, Cleveland, Ohio, Rev. Cyrus E. Felton, gave 
Sabbath evening, September 19, 1870, to the ladies to 
begin this great work, in presence of the Erie Confer 
ence, then in session. The chapel was packed to its 
utmost aisles, stairways, vestibule, and sidewalk to 
witness and listen to the latest innovation ; that is, re 
ligious women addressing a public audience, such a 
thing having never been attempted in the Forest City. 
Twelve ladies occupied the platform the wives of 
two bishops, of two laymen, and of eight pastors. Mrs. 
Moses Hill offered prayer; Mrs. T. S. Paddock read a 
marvelous Scripture lesson ; Mrs. Bishop Clark, of 
Cincinnati, and Mrs. W. A. Ingham, made the ad 
dresses, reading their own manuscript, the first setting 
forth the need of such a Society, the latter giving the 
condition of the women of the Orient, Mrs. H. C. 
McCabe, of Delaware, O., having inspired and pre 
pared her, in a manner, to stand before a Conference 
and utter the truth that woman was asking all over 
the world for higher motives in life. A letter \vas 
read from Mrs. Bishop Kingsley. The last exercise 
was by Annie Howe Thomson, widow of our own 
beloved Bishop. Slight of figure, with sad, sweet 
voice, she came before the people with the delightful 
poem she had prepared for the occasion. No eyes 
were dry in that vast audience : 

The Master hath need of the reapers, 

And, mourner, he calleth to thee; 
Come out of the valley of sorrow, 

Look up to the hilltops and see 
How the fields of the harvest are whitening, 

How golden and full is the grain ; 
O, what are thy wants to the summons, 

And what are thy griefs and thy pain ? 



420 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

The Master hath need of the reapers, 

And, idler, he calleth to thee ; 
Come out of the mansion of pleasure, 

From the halls where the careless may be. 
Soon the shadows of eve may be falling 

With the mists, and the dew, and the rain; 
O, what are thy joys and thy follies 

To the blight and the waste of the grain ? 

The Master hath need of the reapers, 

And, worker, he calleth to thee ; 
O, what are the dreams of ambition 

To the joys that hereafter shall be? 
There are tokens of storm that are coming, 

And summer is fast on the wane ; 
Then alas ! for the hopes of the harvest! 

Then alas ! for the beautiful grain ! 

The Master hath need of the reapers, 

And he calleth to you and to me; 
O haste, while the winds of the morning 

Are blowing so freshly and free 
Let the sound of the scythe and the sickle 

Float along o er hilltop and plain, 
And gather the sheaves in the garner; 

For golden and ripe is the grain. 



STATISTICAL. 



422 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONAR Y SOCIETY. 



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Schools 


M M ; M CO ; 1-1 CN M 


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CN 




Orphanages 




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Home on leave. 
Mrs. Rev. P. J. Buck, India. 
Mrs.Rev. J.W.Waugh, India. 


~ 


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1878, India." 
Mrs. Rev.Frank Davis, India. 

Retired. 
Died April -22, India. 
Retired. Deceased. 

Died at sea January 31. 
Recalled. 
Mrs. Perie, India. 
Mrs. D. O. Fox, India. 
Mrs. J. C. Lawson, India. 

Died at home, December n. 






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424 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 



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430 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 



REMARKS. 


f 1891, Mrs. Densmore, Red 
( Wing, Minn. 

1885, Transferred. 

1880, Connected with Taylor s 
work. Retired irom Mex 
ico 1889. 
1883, Retired. 
1883, Mrs. R. Wilson, Mexico. 
1884, Married. 

1888, Transferre d. 

1885, Retired. 
. 1890, Transferred. 


1889 Retired. 
1890, Married. 


1891, Married. 
1895, Married. 


BRANCH. 


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Guanajuato.... 
Puebla 

Piiphla 


Guanajuato.... 
Guanajuato.... 
Guanajuato.... 
a... Puebla 


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HOME RESIDENCE 


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5 M -S^ H E 
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... Hillsboro, O 
... Chicago, 111 

Gilead. Mich.... 


... Hillsboro, O 

Rncton A,Tacc 


.... Mt. Pleasant. Pa... 
.... Marilla, N. Y ,... 

no.iTl llo P<J 


.... Wisconsin 
.... Plymouth, Pa 
.... Danville, Ind 
.... Auburn Corners, I 


MISSIONARIES. 








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Si 3 W 3! 

>. ^ - ^ CO S " 

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IB *- IB ( 

IB IB M -r* IB IB IB .- 
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liss Mary D. Loyd 
iss L. M. Latimer 

Miss Lizzie Hewett 
iss Hattie L. Ayres 

; c e -Mall, *. T?Jo1^ 


ss Anna M. Rodgers.... 
ss Theda A. Parker 
ss Anna R. Limberger. 
ss Amelia Van Dorsten 
ss Ida B. Walton 
ss Lillian Neiger 
ss Effie Dunmore 




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432 WOMAN s FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY, 

SUMMARY. 

Missionaries, , 268 

Mediqal, : 39 

Deceased, 15 

Married,. ...;.. j ...... 58 

Retired, 22 

Recalled, . . .j . .j 4 

Daughters of Preachers, 35 

Daughters of Missionaries, . . . i 7 



SESSIONS OF THE GENERAL. EXECUTIVE 
COMMITTEE. 

THE General Executive Committee of the Woman s For 
eign Missionary Society has held its annual sessions as 

follows : 

President. Secretary. 

11870, Boston, Mass Mrs. Dr. Patten Mrs. W. F. Warren. 

2 1871, Chicago, 111 Bishop JCSngsIey.. " W. F. Warren. 

3 1872, New York City " Bishop Clark " W. F. Warren. 

4 1873, Cincinnati, O " L. D. McCabe K.R.Meredith. 

51874, Philadelphia, Pa " F. G. Ilibbard " ]. H. Knowles. 

64-1875, Baltimore, Md " F. A. Crook " R. R. Bailee. 

71876, Washington, D. C... " F. G. Hibbard " W. F. Warren. 

8 1877, Minneapolis, Minn. " Dr. Goodrich ; " L.D.Williams. 

9 187,8 Boston, Mass " W. F. Warren " J. T. Gracey. 

10 1879, Chicago, 111 " G. M. Steele " L. H. Daggett. 

II 1880, Columbus, O " W. F. Warren " J. T. Gracey. 

12 1881, Buffalo, N. Y " F. G. Hibbard " A. Lowrey. 

13 1882, Philadelphia, Pa " W. F. Warren " J. T. Gracey. 

141883, Des Moines, la " L. G. Murphy " J. T. Gracey. 

151884, Baltimore, Md " W. F. Warren " J T. Gracey. 

161885, Evanston, 111 " I. R. Ilitt " F. P. Crandon. 

17 1886, Providence, R. I " W. F. Warren " J. H. Knowles. 

181887, Lincoln, Neb Miss P. L. Elliot " J. T. Gracey. 

191888, Cincinnati, O Mis. W. F. Warren " J. T. Gracey. 

201889, Detroit, Mich.. " I. N. Danforth " J. T. Gracey. 

21 1890, Wilkesbarre, Pa " W. F. Warren " J. T,\-Gracey. 

221891, Kansas City, Mo " J. J. Imhoff. " J. T. Gracey. 

23 1892, Springfield, Mass.... " W. F. Warren " J. T. Gracey. 

24 1893, SI. Paul, Minn " Wardwell Couch.. " J. T. Gracey. 

251894, Washinglon, D. C... " A. H. Eaton " J. T. Gracey. 



LIST OF REAL ESTATE. 

BELONGING TO WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY 
SOCIETY, M. E. CHURCH. 

INDIA. 

Ajinere, School-building, $5,ooo oo 

Aligarh, School-building, 6,000 oo 

Almorah, Sanitarium, 4,000 oo 

Budaon, School-building, 3,ooo oo 

Bareilly, Home (43 acres), 12,500 oo 

Hospital, 9,000 oo 

Orphanage, 3,000 oo 

Bijnour, School, 3,000 oo 

Bombay, Home and School, . . . . , 25,000 oo 

Cawnpore, School-building, 8,500 oo 

Home, 4,500 oo 

Gonda, School-building, 3,500 oo 

Lucknow, School-building, 4,000 oo 

Home, 7,360 oo 

Boarding-halls, 4,000 oo 

" Home for Friendless, 4,500 oo 

" Woman s College, 10,000 oo 

Moradabad, School-building, 2,000 oo 

Home, 3,5OO oo 

Meerut, School-building, 4,500 oo 

Muttra, Deaconess Home, 10,500 oo 

Naini Tai, Boarding-school, 13,000 oo 

Pauri, Orphanage, 3,000 oo 

Pithoragarh, Home for Friendless Women 4,000 oo 

Sitapore, Boarding-school, 4,000 oo 

Shahjehanpore, Boarding-school, 4,000 oo 

Haiderabad Home and School, 10,000 oo 



Total $ 75,360 oo 

CHINA. 

Chin-kiang, Home and Hospital, $5,ooo oo 

Foochow, Orphanage, 4,000 oo 

Girls Boarding-school, 13,500 oo 

Two Hospitals, 7,000 oo 

Kiu-kLm, 7,000 oo 

Nanking, School 4,ouo oo 

433 



434 WOMAN S FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

Peking, Home and School, $14,300 oo 

Tientsin, Hospital, 12,000 oo 

" Home, 5,ooo oo 

Tsun Hua, Home and School, 4,000 oo 

Hospital, 2,000 oo 

Total $77,8oo oo 

JAPAN. 

Aoyama, School Tokyo, $12,000 oo 

Tsukiji, " 10,006 oo 

Hakodati, Home and School, 11,000 oo 

Fukuoka, 8,500 oo 

Nagasaki, 14,000 oo 

Yokohama, 8,500 oo 

Nagoya 3,ooo oo 

Total $67,000 oo 

KOREA. 

Home and School, $5,ooo oo 

Hospital, 2,000 oo 

Chapel, 500 oo 

Total $7,500 oo 

MEXICO. 

Mexico City, Orphanage, $32,000 oo 

Pachuca, Home School, 11,000 oo 

Puebla, " " 26,000 oo 



Total $69,000 oo 

SOUTH AMERICA. 

Montevideo, Home and School, $21,000 oo 

Rosario, " " 10,000 oo 



Total $31,000 oo 

BULGARIA. 

Loftcha, Home and School, $6,500 oo 

ITALY. 

Rome, School Property, $15,000 oo 

Zenana Paper Fund, invested in this Country . . . $25,000 oo 



LIST OF REAL ESTATE. 435 

SUMMARY. 

- . . $175,360 oo 

China, 77,800 oo 

J a P an , 67,000 oo 

Korea, 7,500 oo 

Mexico . 69,000 oo 

South America, . 31,000 oo 

Bulgaria, . 6>5OO ^ 

Italy , 15,000 oo 

Total $449,i6o oo 

Adding Zenana Paper Fund, 25,000 oo 

Grand Total , #474,160 oo 

MEMBERSHIPS AND SCHOLARSHIPS IN THE W. F. M. S. 

The payment of one dollar a year or two cents a week consti 
tutes membership. 

The payment of twenty dollars constitutes a person a life 
member. 

The payment of one hundred dollars constitutes an honorary 
life manager. 

The payment of three hundred dollars constitutes an honor 
ary life patron. 

Twenty-five dollars supports an orphan in India. 

Forty dollars supports ai4 orphan in Japan. 

Seventy dollars supports an orphan in Mexico. 

Sixty dollars supports a Bible reader in India. 

Twenty dollars supports a scholarship in a Woman s Training- 
school, or a Bible woman, in China. 

Thirty dollars supports a day-school, or an orphan, in China 



GLOSSARY. 



(The common spelling is given in Italic, followed by the correct or 
phonetic spelling in Roman.) 

Ayah Ayah. A maid or nurse. 

Baboo Babu. Hindoo title of respect; sir. 

Bagh Bagh. A garden or grove. 

Bazaar Bazar. A market-place or trading-street. 

Begum Begam. A princess or lady (Mohammedan title). 

Brdhmin Brahman. Hindoo priest; the first of the four 
Hindoo castes. 

Bungalow Bangla. A house, usually thatched. 

Bhajan Translation of hymn sung to native air. 

Caste Yat. A division of Hindoo society. 

Chuddar Chaddar. A square of white goods worn over the 
head and around the shoulders. 

Coolie Qul6. A burden-bearer ; a laborer. 

Cowrie Kauri. A small shell used as money T ff of a cent. 

Compound The yard about the missionaries homes. 
Dandi Dande. A light conveyance, borne on the shoulders 

of men ; used at the hills. 
DeccanDakhan. The South. 
Dewan Diwin. Prime Minister. 
Dooley Doli. A light palanquin. 

Eurasian Eurasian. Descendants of Europeans and Asiatics. 
Fakir Faqir. A religious mendicant. 
Gharree Gari. A carriage, cart. 

Ghat Ghat. A bathing place; flight of steps at a river. 
Hnkeem Hakim. A Mohammedan doctor. 
Hookah Huqqa. A smoking-pipe. 
Jungle A forest, wilderness. 

Mela Mela. A kind of fair and religious festival. 
Mohulla Mahalla. A part of a village ; a term used in North 
ern India. 

437 



438 GLOSSARY. 

Nizam Nizam. Ruler. 

Padre Padre. A Christian clergyman. 

Palanquin Palki. A litter for one person. 

Pice Paisa. Copper coin, nearly y,, cent. 

Pundit Pandit. Teacher of Hindoo or Sanskrit. 

Purda Parda. A curtain or veil ; secret. 

Raj Raj. Empire, kingdom, government. 

Rajah Rajah. King, prince, sovereign. 

Ranee Rani. Feminine of Rajah. 

Rupee Rupi. A silver coin from 30 to 50 cents. 

Sahib Sahib. Sir, lord, gentleman. 

Salaam Peace ; salutation or adieu. 

Zenana Zanana. Inner apartment. 



Cash j 1 ^ of a penny; brass coin, used in China. 

Colloquial Chinese language is divided into colloquial, clas 
sical, literary, and business. 

Sedan chair A conveyance for one, borne on the shoulders of 
men. 

Sanpan A little boat. 

Ancestral tablet A plain, oblong piece of hard wood stuck 
into a small transverse block, used in worship of the 
dead. 

Patio Inner court in Mexico. 

Keesyti Soldier in Korea. 



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