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wim dM nmoDoemir 








wmr Att nmoDUcnoH 





] / 



Harvard college 


^ •. 



(CLAM or IStt) 

• • • * 

^. I'V 


.. ^ - 


C jT"^ ' 

J- • 




Hxy RY HOLT * oa 


To Mr. Theodort Stanton, the editor of « The W 
Question in Europe," I hasten to acknowledge my inde 
ness. After reading that interesting book it occurred t 
thatavolumeon the work of women in America could be 
equally valuable and interesting. 

In the spring of 1888, therefore, I began to collect the 1 
sary material. Naturally it was not possible, nor did it 
desirable, to follow the exact lines of Mr. Stanton's wort 
his book, each chapter is devoted to a different countr 
the woman question therein is treated by the author 
chapter in all of its aspects.* It seemed best, on the coi 
to divide the American history as nearly as possible ii 
many chapters as there are phases of woman's work, 
task of selecting as collaborators eighteen women, wh 
many brilliant womrn abound, was a very difficult one ; 
say nothing in defense or explanation of my choice, ho 
but am satisfied to let the jvork done speak for itself. 

But before the task of selecting the contributors can 
of dividing the whole great field of woman's work, 
can only bow my head before the flood of criticism 1 
bound to bear down upon me. I suppose it is inevitab 
to many it will seem that undue importance has been ac 
to one subject, and too little to another. I can but plei 
in no case have I allowed myself to be influenced by pn 
but only by the best judgment I was capable of brinj 
bear. On mendoning this book to a well-known edi 
poet (a man), I was gravely asked why I had omitted 
ter on " Woman in Marriage," as it would make avery t 
and certainly a very prolific subject. My answer, was 
far as I knew women had never been denied that pi 
and so it could have no legitimate place in my book. 


reply, although uttered lightly, lies the principle upon which I 
have worked ; the fields of labor described here contain evi- 
dences of woman's progress ; they are those in which women/ 
if entrance were not absolutely denied them, were at least not 
welcomed, nor valued. Furthermore, they are phases of 
woman's work that have some direct bearing on the status of 
woman in this country. 

And now a word on the object of the book, for many will 
shrug their shoulders and say : '* Why separate work into man's 
work and womatCs work ? What is gained by this division ? 
Why not be content with the simple word work t Is it not 
soffideot to be a factor in the world's growth, or must the ages 
keep a constant reckoning of meum and tuum t " 

If the time has come when the word work is a neuter noun, 
I admit that the value of this book would be reduced ; but 
even then I think it might justly claim a historical value, a 
▼aloe as a history of the struggle on woman's part to have her 
work accepted just as a ** factor in the world's growth," judged 
oo its own ments^ not 

Mere woman's work, 
Enxesdns^ the oompoiative respect 
Which means the absolute soom. 

But aside from the value of the book as a record, it claims 
a value as an inspiration to greater effort ; for in our eyes 
the tiime Ijas not yet come when all effort should cease. The 
arguments against the development of woman have been many, 
and although centuries have passed, the changing years merely 

^ring different tones upon the same theme. We may acknowl- 
edge that the day is past when it is necessary seriously to 
plead the capacity of woman to accomplish certain things ; 
that victory has been won with tears of blood ; but the fight 

"^ still centers about the propriety of it. The large band of 
ignorant and prejudiced objectors is fast giving place to an- 
other of a more kindly, but more dangerous type. More 
dangerous because instead of employin^^ ^he weapons of disdain, 
they ose those of homage ; instead of i^oading with scorn, they 
disarm with the incense of a false and hollow sentimentality. 
This new w^ve of feeling divides Life into Intellect and Emo- 
tion, the Mind and the Heart, Matter and Soul, etc., the one 
man, woman the other. These sentimentalists, who certainly 
include as many women as men, argue that every woman is the 
oatoral companion of man, and so is upheld by some strong 
shooldec When faced by the awful statistics of unmarried 


females io the Uoited States, they fall back od somehypoti 
cal. father, brother, or cousin. Therefore it is consid' 
highly supererogatory that a woman should be taught to s' 
upon her own feet, when the adjacent shoulder answers 
purpose as well. This belief holds its own with a pec 
tenacity, because there is a certain heroic satisfaction in re 
ing your sentiment notwithstanding all the arguments thai 
be brought forward by the low materialists. 

This book is nothing else than a history of woman's i 
but sure, tiraining to sund balanced upon her own feet, 
has looked about upon the thousands of falling sisters, am 
very reasonably reached the conclusion that the only wi 
make sure of standing is to make use of her own feet. 

Women have many so-called champions of their " put 
and "innocence ;" champions that are shocked at openvi 
many new fields of " man's work" to women ; but the] 
strangely ignorant of the very real contamination to i 
theyexpose their ^rcjlff^f by crowding them into the few al: 
overcrowded channels, and refusing to let in fresh air and 
shine. Men and women both are born into the world he 
and unprotected ; it may seem an ugly and hitler truti 
it is so, that in this struggle for existence daily going on 
us, men and women do indeed stand "side by side^" — n 
with the poet, 

Full nunoied in alt their powen, 

hut each individually carrying on a struggle against suff 
starvation, crime, and death* — forces that remorselessly i 
women, barren of the chivalrous regard of sex with 
these sentimentalists seem to grace them. 

And if it is true that both sexes fight the same battle ( 
istence, who can honestly deny to women (at present phyi 
the weaker), the best possible equipment that education 
kinds can furnish ? I shall not even touch upon the 
and more poetic, argument of the divine rights of genius, 
is of no sex ; but I am content to employ only the prosa 
of the practical needs of life, an argument which h 
America is by far the most potent one. 

My own labors on this book have been purely editorii! 
after selecting the chapters, and the authors, and laying 
certain general principles and suggestions, my respoiu 
ceased. The principles laid down by me have been ; 

Facts and history rather than eloquence ; 

Truth before picturesqueness ; 


A total absence of railing against the opposite sex.* 
The greatest care has been taken to assure accuracy ; if 
mistakes do creep in, notwithstanding this, I must beg the 
leader not to judge too harshly, as the capacity for making 
mistakes in a book like this is illimitable. However, I trust 
the leniency of the reader will not be too severely taxed. 

While being an ardent believer in the future progress of 
woman, it would be impossible to subscribe myself to every 
theory that may be found in these pages. To say one agrees 
in every detail with the opinions of eighteen women, all of 
whom are well known to be '' women with opinions," is to 
boast of a breadth of mind, a roundness of judgment to which 
I am too modest to lay claim. But I can surely say that every 
one of the writers has cordially joined hands in the making of 
the book ; the long hours spent in the writing of it, the many 
annoyances encountered in collecting historical data, all is for-* 
gotten in the hope that this book may serve : 

1. To set certain plain facts, shorn of all sentiment, before 
the world in accessible form ; 

2. To preserve the record of a great, brave, and essentially- 
American struggle ; 

3. To serve as a stimulus to many women who are working 
along a very weary road ; 

4. To hold up before the entire sex in every sphere of life 
only the highest standard of excellence. 

In closing, I want to thank heartily, not only my collabora- 
tors, but also those whose names do not appear, but who have, 
severthelcsSy added greatly to the interest and value of the 

Nsw Y0BX./11NMM7, 1891* 

• I do aot ncsa for an instant to imply that these principles required em* 



EonoK't PUTAOt, 


JUUA Wau> Howi; 

III. THk Education of Wouak in thi Wcstbrm 

May Wkight Siwaix, • 

IV. The Edvcation of Woman in thi Souther.'* 

CUKIITINK Ladd Fhankun, 

VII. Woman in Medicine, 

Maky Putnam Jacobi, U.D. 

VIIL Woman in the Miniitkv, 

Rev. ADA C Bowlei, • 

IX. Woman in Law, 


X. Woman in the State, 

Maey a. Liveemoee, • 

XI. Woman in Induitry, 

AucE Hyneman Rhine, 

Xll. Woman in Philanthropy— Charity, 

JoiETHiHE Shaw Loweu, 

^rB cairrEMTs. 

XUL WoMAH w PUAimakorv— Cakb or the 8ick» 

EmcAH Dow CmMsr, - • • 346 

XIV. WoiuM w PULAimiAonr— Cakb or thb CinmiAin 

SvtAii Hammowp Baiiibt» • * 3S9 

XV. WoiUM Di PioLAirrHmoPT— Cuts or tbm Ivdham, 

Ammul Stomb Qvnrroir, • • • 373 

XVL WoiUM Of FnLAMTiiB0rv— WoAX or Amti-Slatbry 

Til III B. Chacs Wymaii, • - • j9a 
XVn. Woiua DI FnLAMTiiB0rv— WoftK or tthb W. C T. U., 

E. WlLLAftO^ * * * 399 

XVIIL WoiuM DI Pimjumaorr— WoftK or thb Rbd Ciott 


Gl4BA Babtoi^ • « • • • 411 

XL. . i ^ 

XIL. 4^5 

XV^ 434 

VIL, •_C4i 

X. 446 

F^BlBLIOGBAniY, ••••••••449 

• •••••••4^1 




A coMPRZttEKSiVE view of the attainments made b 
can women in this century, and especially during 
fifteen years, cannot but be of great importance aj 
The cruel kindness of theold doctrine that women > 
worked for, and should not work, that their infiuenc 
be felt, but not recognized, that they should hear anc 
neither appear nor speak, — all this belongs now to tl 
of things which, once measurably true, have become 

The theory that women should not be workers is i 
tion of the old aristocratic system. Slaves and 
whether male or female, always worked. Women ( 
the old world were not necessarily idle. The east 
arch who refused an army to a queen, sent her a gold 
The extremes of despotism and of luxury, underminii 
and state, can alone have introduced the theory t 
comes the highly born and bred to be idle. Witb 
natural paralysis of woman's active nature came •■ 
bane of the so-called privileged classes. From tun 
morbid passions, fostered by fantastic imaginations, 
for labor lies at the very foundation of a true democ 

The changes which our country has seen in this re 
the great uprising of industries among women, are 
important to women alone, but of momentous import 
at large. The new activities sap the foundation 
and degraded life. From the factory to the palace 
ening impulse is felt, and the social level rises. ^T(t 
intellectual outlook is added the growing sympathy, 
with each other, which does more than anything.eji 
united action possible among them. A growing got 
esteem of women toward women makes itself happi 
will do even more and more to refine away what is 


unjust in social and class distinctions and to render all alike 
heirs of tmth, servants of justice. 

The initiative is now largely taken by women in departments 

in which they were formerly, if admitted at all, entirely and 

often unwillingly under the dictation of men. Philanthropists 

oC both sexes, indeed, work harmoniously together, but in their 

joint undertakings the women now have their say and, instead 

of waiting to be told what men would have them think, feel 

obliged to think for themselves. The result is not discord 

but a fuller and freer harmony of action and intention. In in- 

dostrial undertakings they still have far to ^u, but women will 

enter more and more into them and with happy results. The 

"^ professioDs indeed supply the key-stone to the arch of woman's 

libcity. Not the intellectual training alone which fits for 

them, but the practical, technical knowledge which must ac- 

oompany their exercise puts women in a position of sure 

defease against fraud and imposition. 

In the volume now given to the public the progress of 
vomen in all of these departments is presented by persons 
who have made each of them a special study, and who 
^Tc done good and helpful work in them, with, moreover, 
^ outlook ahead which is the important element in all 
U)or and service. The world, even the American world, is 
*^*Xyct wholly converted to the doctrine of the new woman-_ 
l^oocL Men and women who prize the ease of the status quo, 
^ the imaginary importance conferred by exemption from 
^ necessities which prompt to active exertion, often show 
peat ignorance of all that this book is intended to teach. 
'I^ will aver, men and women of them, that women have 
ocver shown any but secondary capacities and qualities, 
^omen who take this ground often secretly flatter themselves 
^ what they thus say of other women does not apply to 
tbemselves. A speaker representing this class lately asked 
tt a legislative hearing in Massachusetts why women did not 
enter the professions? why they did not become healers of the 
sick, ministers, lawyers ? One might ask how he could escape 
knowing that in all of these fields, so lately opened to them, 
women are doing laborious work and with excellent results? 
A book like the present will furnish chapter and verse to sub- 
stantiate what is claimed for the attainments of women. It 
will not, indeed, put an end to foolish depreciative argument, 
based upon erroneous suppositions, but it will furnish evidence 
to confute calumny, to convince -the doubtful 




The movemcDt \a behalf of the education of 
America followed so closcl}^ upon the landing of the 
on an unsettled and forbidding coast, and was cos 
persistently and so successfully, under stress of po 
peril, that it seizes upon the imagination, and just 
profound sense of gratitude in succeeding generatioi 

li'hat in its inception, and for a long period, it i 
partial, in fact, but a half movement, after all, appears < 
light of a later day ; which, indeed, it bad helped to 
when the words, "children," "youth," and "peopi 
to take a wider significance. 

The men who gathered in the cabin of the " Ma; 
1620. and framed a compact that every man in t 
should have an equal share in the government, soon 
to promote the general welfare by encouraging inda 

In 1643, the General Court of Mass. Bay Colon 

itself with "taking account, from time to time, of : 

and masters concerning the calling and employmei 

' children, especially of their ability to read and undi 

principles of religion and the capital laws of this co 

In 1647, says the record, " It being one cheife 
ould deluder Satan to keepe men from the knowl 
Scriptures .... by psuading them from ye use ( 
that so at least ye true sense and meaning of ye oiig 
be clouded .... and that learning may not be b 

graves of our fathers It is therefore order 

township in this jurisidiction, after ye Lnrd hath ia 
to ye numberof 50 householders, shall therforthwtb 1 
to teach all tadt children as shall resort to him U 


read, whose wages shall be paid eithr by ye parents or mastr^ 

or by ye inhabitants in general! It is ordered yt where 

aaj towus shall increase to ye number of too familis or house- 
holders, they shall set up a gramer schoole, ye mr thereof 
betog able to instruct youth so far as they may be fitted for ye 
oniyersity.** A penalty of ^5 was fixed for violation of this 

As early as in 1636, the Court ''agreed to give ^400 
toward a school or college/' to which, in 1638, John Harvard 
left, by will, half his property and his library, in 1642, the 
Court gave to the college *'the revenue of the ferry from 
Charlestown to Boston.*' 

1644, ** It is ordered vt ye deputies shall command it to ye 
severall towns (and ye elders are to be desired to give their 

f artherance hereto) *' that *' Evry family alow one peck 

o^ come, or i2d. in money or other commodity to be sent in to 
je Treasurer, for the colledge at Cambridge." 

1650, voted that, ^ Whereas, through the good hand of God, 
many have been stirred to give for the advancement of all good 
literature, arts, and sciences in Harvard Colledge— and for all 
otbef necessary pvsions that may conduce to the education of 
ye English and Indian youth of this country in knowledge 
and godlynes, ordered — tht a corporation be formed, consist- 
ing of seauen psons." 

Revenues of the college and of the president to the extent 
of 500 were exempt from taxation, while special exemptions 
frocn rates, and military and civil duties, were made to officers, 
fellows, scholars, and even the servants of the college. 

This oldest college of the country was, as thus appears, the 
child of the State, and while it was the recipient of private 
benefactions, drew its sustenance, substantially, from the 
labors of the people. 

1683, voted that, *' Every towne consisting of more than five 
hundred families shall set up and maintayne two grammar 
s^iools, and two wrighting scholes to instruct youth as the 
law directs." 

So cordial was the interest felt in education among the colo- 
nists, that many towns had established free schools before it 

Within a year of the founding of Boston, in 1635, the citi- 
in town meeting assembled, voted to call a schoolmaster, 
and *• Philemon Purmont was engaged to teach the children." 
Dorchester, Naumkeag (now Salem), Cambridge, Roxbury, 
and other towns soon took the same course. Salem estab- 


lished a grammar school as «arly as 1637. Thu 
twenty years from the landing of the Pilgrims at Plyn 
foundation of the free-school system may be said to I 
laid. It was frequently stipulated in the action of to 
ings, that the poor should be provided fur, and in I 
least, Indian children were freely taught. But in tl 
sions for " free schools," " schools for the" pftsptB;' 
"children," it is not to be understood that girls we^ 
The broad terms used in the acts of the colonies and 
of town meetings might mislead, in this respect, if hi 
not record the periods, long subsequent, when girls 
mitted even to the " free schools " under restricttom 
with great opposition. 

This long hiatus, during which girls went, practica 
out free-school opportunities, picking up what they 
home, or by aid of the parish minister, was about: 
and a half long, though in 1771, Hartford, Conn., 0| 
common schools to every child, and taught even the g 
ing, writing, spelling, and the catechism, and, rard; 
add. The boys, meantime, studied the first four 

The hiatus between the foundation for the college 
and even the seminar>', or the academy, for girls, eztei 
a long century and a half ; and that between colleges 
and those for females was, in Massachusetts, two har 
thiny-two years long. A prime motive to the encou 
of education in Americirwas that the Scriptures mighi 
eriy interpreted. This appears in the preamble to tl 
1647 establishing schools, which were necessary as 
to the college, and in the motive which led to tti 
tion of Harvard and of Yale, "the dread of I 
illiterate ministry to the churches when our minister 
in dusL" 

It has been noted by Charles Francis Adams 
records of Harvard University s;.. v that of all the 
officers, during the century and ;. ...If of colonial 
two were laymen, and not ministers of the prevaJlir 
nation ; and that of all who in the early times avt 
selves of such advantages as this institution could ol 
half the number did so for the sake of devoting the 
the service of the gospel. But," he continues, " the 
notion of the purpose of education was attended % 
markable consequence, — the cultivation of the femtt 
regarded with utter indifference ; as Mrs. Abigail I 


ii ooe of her letten, ' it wai fashionable to ridicule female 
leaniing.' " 

This discriminatioQ between the intellectual needs of the 
Ivotezcs tfaonld not, perhaps, be matter of surprise, when we 
GOQsider that the English systeni of public schools for boys, 
exieoding from the "Winchester School" to " Rugby," had 
been in caiUence for two centuries, and that of the six hundred 
■bo first landed on the coast of Massachusetts, one in thirty 
was a graduate from the English University of Cambridge, 
while both the men and the women were heirs to the prevail- 
tag sentiment of disrespect for womanly intelligence and edu- 
eaiion, which marked the demoralization of the reign of the 
Smarts in England. 

Tbe time of Queen Elizabeth has passed, in which the 
BoWe Lady Jane (jrey, being asked by Sir Roger Ascham why 
she lingered to read Plato in Greek while the lords and 
bdtcsof the Court were pleasuring in the park, replied, " I 
witt all their sport in the park is but a shadow lo the pleasure 
I find in Plato. Alas ! good folk, they never felt what true 
pkuure meaneth." 

Lady Mary U'ortley Montague truly portrayed the time, 
■hen ^he wrote, early in the eii;liieei)th century: "We are 
peimitted no books but such as tend to the weakening and 
effeminating our minds. We are taught to place all our ait in . 
adorning our persons, while our minds are entirely neglected." 
It might have been expected tliat the religious zeal which 
brought these earucbt New England pilgrims lo a strange, 
*iU country, would hold in check any tendency tu undue dis- 
plar, especially when supplemented by the severe restrictions 
ef iheir domestic life, which were relieved only by cunipnlsory 
>ilcndance on protracted services, held in unwarmed (.liurches, 
to listen lo metapKyi^ical sermons an foreordination, repro* 
Iwion, and infant damnation, and l<i ;'rayers an liour long. 

Vet it appears that while no provi.sam was made for their in- 
■•roaion, they were sometimes arraigned (or wearing " wide 
•iteres, lace tiffany, and such things." while '■ those given to 
Kolding were condemned to sit publicly, with their tongues 
Md in cleft sticks, or were thrice dipped from a ducking> 

It would have been better, perhaps. tU.ii their tongues had 
hen trained by insiruciiim to becoming sjwi-ch, or that they 
bid been permitted to drink at the fuuntain uC learning. 

Sentiment in favor of llie practical skill of women seems not 
tobavc been wanting. They cooked and washed, and the law 



I required them to spin and gather flax, and on one oota 

' j casion women exhibited their skill at the spinning 

I j publicly, on Boston Common. As soon as they cov 

I j around to it they no doubt matched the skill of their I 

f I kindred whom HoUingshed described a half century < 

He says, " The females knit or net the nets for sportsmi 
' ' " ' Fine feme ititch, finny stitch, new Milch, and chiin ttitch. 

Brave broad ttitch, fischer ft[(ch. Irish stitch, and queen ititi 
The Spanish stitch, Tosemary stilch and mowte (dtch; 
i I All these are good, and these we must alloir, 

• I And ihesa are cvctTwhere in practice now,' " 

Aside from their belief in the primary importance 
I I ligious training, it may be conceded that the men of c 

{ times did not lack the sagacity which led Charlemagne 

eighth century to require that the children of those whot 
participate in the government should be educated, " ii 
that intelligence might rule the Empire." The appHca 
this principle in his limited empire opened education 
ruling class ; in America it opened it to the ruling sex. 

How small were the opportunities for instruction, oiitsi 
free schools, may be known from the fact that the cos 
for supervising them enjoined upon the selectmen to tal 
that no person should open a private school except upo 

In 1656 a Mr. Jones having opened a private schc 
visited by the magistrates, who exacted a promise from 
give up the school at the close of the winter term. Ap[ 
he was reluctant in so doing, for it is recorded that t 
spring Mr. Jones was sent for by the selectmen " for Ic4 
Schoole, and required to perform his promise to the T( 
the Winter, to remove himselfe and familye in the Sprii 
forbiden to keep Schoole any longer." 

The fir!!t opportunities for girls in the colonies wei 
" Dame-School," in which some woman was hired ti 
the little children about her knee to teach them theit 
from the New England Primer. They were required 
mit to memory the shorter catechism, and sametim 
taught to read enough to decipher it for themselves, I 
last pages of their only book, the famous Primer. Tr 
manners was made of prime importance. 

In some cases, as is reported, old women who wer 
charge were set to this useful employment. Sometin 
" dames " were housewives, in which case two ft 
alternated in caring for the children. In this way, a 


to the town records of Wobum, in 1635, ^ Joseph Wright's 
wife and Allen Converse's wife were able to divide between 
them ^a los. od^ for a year's work« It is to be inferred that 
the acquirements of these mistresses were limited, as the next 
year, October, 1674, the town ^ agreed with Jonathan Tomson 
to tech bigger children and Allen Converse's wife to teach 
lescr child ren." 

In the old gravesrard in Cambridge, opposite Harvard CoU 
lege. It is recorded that Mrs. Murray died 1707, aged sixty-two 
yearly The title ** Mrs." was honorary, as she was unmarried. 
This betokens the esteem in which she was held, as does the 
following inscription upon her tombstone : 

''TUs £OOd tf^KM>l dftllM 

No longer tcfaool mtist kte^ 

For cnUdrea*t take to weep." 

Later, especially in the old seaport towns, the children's 
schools, for girls as well as for boys, were frequently in the 
hands of women of much refinement. Of such, Miss Hetty 
Higginson, of Salem, was famous as an instructor about 1782. 
The record says that, "being asked what she taught, she 
laughingly replied, ' ethics,' yet to a superficial observer it 
might seem that she taught nothing. Her manners were 
counly, and her conversation was replete with dignity, kind 
feeling, and sound sense." 

Some improvement upon this state of education, or want of 
education rather, gradually crept in ; whether because of the 
need of teachers for the boys, which had come to be felt, or 
because in the home there was much early association of the 
child with the mother, and so some education on her part 
might prove indirectly advantageous, or whether there was 
some dawning consideration of her own personal needs, it is 
impossible to determine. Perhaps there was difficulty in with- 
holding other books from the girl after she could read the cate- 
chism, or, later, in drawing a sharp line between the acquisition 
of the first and the second rule in arithmetic. 

Suffice it that by the close of the eighteenth century, most 
towns in New England had made some slight provisions for 
educating girls; how slight, almost any early town history will 

The rate of progress in a thtiving Massachusetts town, New- 
boryport, is given in Smith's History, as follows :**.... When 
q>eaking of schools we must be understood as referring to 


boys' schools only." So far as education of females by 
tovn was concerned they were sadly deficient. As latt 
1790, a proposition to provide schools for girls was put «i 
without action, by the town, and deferred for another y 
and when they did set about the work it is curious to nou 
how little consequence they considered it as compared 1 
the provision to be made for boys. 

At first three or four schools were suggested for girls betw 
five and nine years of age, which were " to be furnished 1 
dames to learn them good manners and proper decency 
behavior." These were the essentials, but in addition they « 
to be Uught " spelling and reading sufficient to read the Bi 
and, if the parents desired it, needlework and knitting." . , 
The sessions of the school were to be from April to Octol 
.... But a later petition being presented to the town, that K 
arrangement might be made for the instruction of girls 
nine years of age, the town graciously voted, March, 1793, 1 
"during the summer months, when the boys in the school 1 
diminished, the master shall receive girls for instruciioc 
grammar and reading, after the dismission of the boys, foi 
hour and a half." 

Even to this poor privilege there were limitations. No { 
son paying a tax of over three hundred pounds was permit 
to send his daughters to these supplementary schools, 
the scheme for the larger girls did not work well for the b< 
so the masters were directed " not to teach females again." 

As late as 1804 we find the female children, over nine yc 
of age, as great a burden on the hands of the school commil 
of the town as ever. In answer to another petition, of eir 
persons, that this class of girls might be taught, by the Vn 
arithmetic and writing, four girls' " schools were established 
be kept six months in the year, from six to eight o'clocl 
the morning, and on Thursday afternoons." So that, in ill 
tion to their other accomplishments, they were in a fairwq 
being taught early rising. 

It was not until 1836 that the school committee deer 
" that one female grammar school be kept through the JTM 
This is probably the time of which it is recorded " that, w1 
a school was started for girls in Newbur)'port, a taxpt 
objected to it, and applied for an injunction, bringing; < 
Judge Shaw's celebrated opinion pn that point." (Cusbiog 
Newbury port.) 

In 1788 the town of Northampton voted " not to be at t 
expense for schooling girls." Upon an appeal to tlw OCN 


tbe tovnwu iodicted and fiaed for its neglect In 1793 it 
▼otcd ** to sdmit girli. between eigbt and fifteen, to the schools 
from May i to October 31. 

Wiibin the memorjr of a recent resident of Hatfield, an 
ioflDeatial dtixcn, whose children were girls, appealed in town* 
BKctiog for the privilege of scadiog them to the public school, 
vbich be helped by bis taxes to support. An indignant fellow 
■owosatan sprang to bis feet and exclaimed, " Hatfield school 
skat Never!" 

Tbe geotlenua who narrated this fact lived to witness, also, 
tbc foDodation and endowment of a. college for girls at North- 
aiDptoa bjr Miss Smith of Hatfield, one of the sex, and prob- 
ably one of the girls contemptuously forbidden a common* 
fcbool education. 

Foe a long time after summer schools were provided for 
girh, in many of the New England towns they were not sup- 
poned, by a general tax, as were the winter schools for boys, 
but by tuition fees. 

JoMab Quincy, in bis "Municipal History of Boston," says 
"After the peace of 1783,3 committee on schools 'laments. 
tiut so many children should be found in the streets, playing 
and gaming in school hours.' " There seems as yet to be no 
kearch (or girls who arc losing school advantages. 

In 17S9 great educational advance was made in Boston. A 
syi'.em was adopted which provided "a 'Latin School' for 
filling boys of ten years old and over, by a four years' course, 
iaciuding Greek and Latin, for the University ; also three 
reading and writing schools." 

Boys had the right to attend these all the year round; 
girls from the twentieth of April to the twentieth of October. 
This was the first admission of girls to the " free schools." 

Provision was made this year that " arithmetic, orthography, 
and the English language shall be taught, in addition to read- 
ing and writing." It is to be hopcJ that this applied to the 
saoimer sessions, open to girls, as well as to the all-the-ycar- 
round sessions for boys. 

When, however, early in the nineteenth century, arithmetic 
tai geography were generally added to the courses of situJics 
ia scaools, it was oniy for the winter months, such knowledge 
being thought quite unnecessary for girls. " All a girl needs to 
know is enough to reckon how much she will have to spin to 
bay a peck uf potatoes, in case she becomes a widow," was the 
repalse of a too ambitious girl in the eariy part of this century. 

Aa old lady, sitting beside the present writer, well remcm* 


bers liiat in her youth, having outreachcd the prescribed limits 
of the girl's class in arithmetic, she grappled alone with the 
mysteries of " interest." Meeting some difficulty she a[>> 
pealed to her older brother, who had been duly instructed. 
His scornful reply was, " I am ashamed of a girl who wants to 
study ' interest' ! " 

The need of more teachers led gradually to the employment 
of women in "those schools where, besides morals, the only 
requirements were reading, sewing, and writing if contracted 

In the law of 1789 the expression " master and mistress" 
makes recognition of women as teachers for the first time. 
Hitherto women so employed could not legally collect their 
wages ; the receipt of their dues depended upon the honor of 
their employers. 

This act of Justice may have been the more appreciated as 
the wages of female teachers were evidently on a rising scale 
Something less than a half century after Mistresses Wrighi 
and Converse had shared their year's income of ten shillings 
the following vote, passed in the town meeting of Lexington 
shows an increased estimate of women's services : 

" At a meeting of the inhabitants, July 71, i7i7,lhey agree< 
that Clerk Lawrence's wife and Ephraim Winship's wife kee[ 
school from ye day of ye date hereof until ye last day of Octc 
ber next following ; and if they have not scholars sufficient a 
to numbers to amount to five shillings a week, at three penc 
a scholar a week, then ye towne to make up what is wanted < 
ye five shillings out of Che treasury thereof; provided y 
selectmen do not see cause to demolish sd schole before a 
term be expired." 

Probably no deductions from the above specified wagi 
were necessary for living expenses, which these mistresses ■ 
households may be supposed to have earned in their duties , 
home. When, in the course of the succeeding century, wag< 
increased to seventy-five cents or even to a dollar a week, il 
teacher was expected to "board around," though sometim 
her board in one place was paid for from public funds, 
the latter case, in many. New England towns, the privilege 
boarding the teacher, like that of boarding town paupers, w 
put up for public competition, and was struck off to the lo 
est bidder. 

Up to \%3% girls did not go to the public schools in Rho 

Antedating the earliest records here tratiscribed is the cU 


made that the first free school in America was made in Vir- 
ginia in ifiai. If so it struck no root, for, in 1671, Bishop 
Bcrkely, Governor of Virginia, wrote, " I thank God there are 
DO free schools nor printing ; and I hope we shall not have 
tlicm these hundred years." It was one hundred and seven 
years later, in 1778, that Thomas Jefferson introduced a bill 
ID the Virginia legislature, designed to establish a system of 
public schools in that State, arguing that "the greatest sac- 
h6cc the people of the republic can make will fail to secure 
civil liberty to their posterity unless they provide for the edu- 
cation of youth." 

Ill the Dutch settlement of Manhattan a movement for 
schools was made which proved more successful than in Vir- 
ginia, as befitted iu source in the Netherlands, where, since 
the sixteenth century, "the fruitfulness of a wise and state- 
administeied system of universal education " had been illus> 

In 1630, the Sutes-Generat of Holland issued orders to the 
Dutch bast India Company in Manhattan to mainlain a clergy- 
man and a schoolmaster, and in 1633 arrived Adnm Kncland- 
4en. and the hrst school-tax ever levied in America im- 
povd on each householder and inhabitant. So Urooklyn liud 
the fir&t free public school in the United St.itcs. Until t8o8. 
liiit school was in charge of the local congregation of tlie 
D~:ch Reformed church ; then a board of trustees was ap- 
puiiiied. This school still continues. 

In 1658, the Burgomasters petitioned for a fit person as 
Latin schoolmaster. This was granted, and so the lirst clasM- 
cal school was instituted. 

^.nce it IS time that the day of jubilation and self-gratula- 
tion should be over in America, and that the day ot sober, 
crneiX study of educational work should come in, it is not ihe 
part of wisdom to forget that the free school system did not 
orisinate in America. In an address 10 magistrates, in 1514, 
Lut-ier urged that they should "at least provide the poor Mif- 
fer;ng youth with a schoolmaster ": and what " youth " meant 
u> appears in his plea that '■ solely with a view to tht 
present, it would be sufficient reat^^n (or the best schools, ijuili 
for boys and girls, that the world, mdrely to maintain outward 
prosperity, has need of shrewd and accomplished men and 

In Manhattan, the successor of Adam Koelandsen found 
bAe, outside his duties as teacher, to act as graved i(;t,'er, b«l>- 
nagCtAiid precentor"; but if in place of these extra-ofiicial 


duties, the colonists had so profited bjr the wisdom of Luther 
as to cause him to take time for the instruction of girls, we 
may well believe that it would have changed the history of 
education in America, 

Mr. Richard G. Boone reminds us, in his valuable work on 
"Education in the United States," that "Charles and Gus- 
tavtis Adolphus did for Sweden and their generations what 
America, with all her achievements, has failed to do since ; 
-they made education so common that in the year 1637, the 
year of the founding of Harvard, not a single peasant child 
was unable to read and write." 

There is pathetic contrast too, if it be fair to draw it, in the 
fact that while the colonial fathers were barricading the doors 
of the little schoolhouses against girls, so that a large part of 
the wills which women made in that period were signed with 
a cross, and even many wives of distinguished men could not 
sign their names, as appears by the registered deeds of the 
time, an Italian woman, Elena Lucrezia Comaro, "poet, 
musician, astronomer, mathematician, and linguist," received 
a Dr.'s degree at the university of Padua, and Novela d*An- 
drea, who was both learned and beautiful, occasionally lectured 
for her father, who was a law professor in the University of 
Bologna. To be sure, this was 111 line with a tradition in Italy 
for which England herself could furnish no parallel. 

In that ancient seat of learning, Bologna University, which 
produced the most famous jurisconsults of tt\e middle aget 
women had been for centuries both students and professors. 

Beltisia Gozzidini, LL.B., fiiled the juridical chair fron 
1339 till her death ill 1149; Bettina and Novella Calderin 
lectured on law a century later: and in succeeding centurie 
other women became renowned in various departments, includ 
ing mathematics and anatomical research. 

To fill the pages of two centuries, blank, in America, as I 
female education beyond the merest rudiments of learnin; 
let Abigail, wife of President John Adams, who was descends 
from the most illustrious colonial families, the Shepards, No 
tons, and Quincys, sketch for us the intellectual opportuniti 
for girls of her own rank in her time. Born in 1744, &' 
wrote, in 1817, when past threescore and ten : 

" The only chance for much intellectual improvement in t 
female sex was to be found in the families of the educated da 
and in occasional intercourse with the learned of the di 
Whatever of useful instruction was received in the practt 
conduct of life came from maternal lipi : and what of farti 



aae nm developmeDt, depended more upon the eafnerness with 
wbicfa the casul teachings of daily conversation were treas- 
ured up, than upon any labor eipended purposely to promote- 
it. Female education in the best families went no fanher than 
writing and arithmetic, and, in some few and rare insUnces, 
^ofic and dancing." 

AltlMWgh at this time the number of poit-oflices in the 
country probably did not exceed half a hundred, Mrs. Adams 
notes a great letter-writing propensity in her circle. " These 
letters deserre notice," says her biographer, " only as they fur- 
nish a general idea of the tastes and pursuits of the day, and 
show the evident iofiuence upon the writers which study of 
■■ The SpecUtor " and of the poets had exerted." This appears 
in the train of thoagfat and structure of language, as in trifles 
of taste for quoution, and for fictitious signatures. " Calliope " 
and " Uyra," ** Aspasia " and " Aurelia," have effectually dis- 
Cni»cd their true names from the eyes of younger generations. 
Uiss Smith's signature appears to have been " Diana," a 
Bame which she dropped after her marriage, without losing the 
fancy that prompted its selection. 

Her letters written during the Revolution show clearly 
enough the tendency of her own thoughts and feelings in the 
substitute sh& then adopted of " Portia." 

The young ladies of Maiisachu setts, in the last century, were 
ccnainly readers even though only self-taught, and their taste 
was not for the feeble and nerveless sentiment or the frantic 
passion of our day, but was derived from the deepest wells of 
English liieratuij; The superb flowering of native mental 
{ifts in many women of the last part of the eighteenth and the 
early part of the nineteenth centuries, under so slight stimulus 
of educational advantage, would almost force upon us the 
theory of Descartes, that ** in order to improve the mind wc 
ought less to learn than to contemplate "; and lead us to accept 
the dictum of Huiley, that "all the time we are using our 
plain common sense wc are at once scientists and artists." 

Rev. William Woodhridge, a descendant of Rev. Jonathan 
Edwards, and for fifty years an honored ediic:itur, wrote, in 
tb« latter pan of his life, to a correspondent : " Vou inquire 
bow so many of the females of New-England, iluring the latter 
part of the last century, acquired that firmnes.«. and energy, 
and excellence of character for which ihey have been so jusily 
distingutshcd, while the advantages of school education were 
•D limited. The only answer is that it is not the amount of 
fcaowledge, bat the Daiurc of the knowledge, and, still more, 


the manner in which it is used to form character. Natural 
logic, the self-taught art of thinking, was the guard and guide 
of the female mind. The first of Watts's five methods of in- 
•ernal improvement, ' The attentive notice of every iastructive 
fact and occurrence,' was exemplified in practice. News- 
papers were taken in a few families; books were scarce but 
freely lent ; the Scriptures were much read ; and, as for time, 
'where there is a will there is a way.*" 

Since the women of that day left almost no record of their 
thought in print, the biography of Mrs. Adams, already 
quoted, may be called upon to illustrate the intellectual and 
moral characteristics attributed to them. Among the New 
England women of the early part of this century who are sttU 
remembered by the present generation, there was a notewor- 
thy number who, in vigor of intellect and strength of character, - 
might truly be called her peers. 

While Mr. Adams was in Europe (from 17S0) as Commis- 
sioner from the United States, Mrs. Adams was managing the 
family property, at a time of depreciation of paper money. 
Speaking of this period Mr. Charles Francis Adams says : " Her 
letters are remarkable because they display the readiness with 
which she could devote herself to the most opposite duties, 
and the cheerful manner in which she could accommodate 
her.self to the difficulties of the times. She is a farmer, culti- 
vating the land and discussing the weather and crops ; a 
merchant, reporting prices current and the rates of exchange,- 
and directing the making up of invoices ; a politician, specu- 
lating upon the probabilities of peace or war, and a mother, 
writing the most exalted sentiments to her son. Ail of these 
pursuits she adopts together ; some from choice, the rest from 
the necessity of the case ; and in all she appears equally well." 

The complete sympathy of interest between Mrs. Adams 
and her distinguished husband in "seeking for political truth 
in its fundamental principles," as Mr. Adams is said to have 
. done, appears in her letters, and it may be questioned whether, 
barring the consideration of sex, the term "statestnanlike* 
might not apply to the views of both. 

Just a month before the resolution declaring the indepea 
dence of the colonies was offered in the Continental Coogret 
by Richard Henry Lee of Virginia and seconded by Joh 
Adams of Massachusetts Mrs. Adams wrote to her husbsM 
under date of May 7, 1776. 

" I believe 'tis nearly ten days since I wrote you a line, 
have not felt in a humor to entertain you. If 1 had uken 11 

t< wtmAtr's woMit ta amsk/ca. 

■7 pea, perfaip* fonie anbeoonung iDTectire might faave fallen 
fnMD tL The cjea of oar nilen have been ciMied and a leth- 
aiXf baa leiacd ^Imoat erciy member. I fear a faul security' 
has taken p ot i e iri oo of them. While the building ta in flamea 
they tremble at the expenae of water to quench iL In abort, 
two mootha have elapaed aince the eracuation of Soston, and 
vcfy !tule baa been done in that time to secure it, or the har- 
bor, from future iovaaion. The people are all in a flame, and 
ma ooe amoof us, that I have heard of, even mentiona eapense. 
Thcjr think, universally, that there has been an amasing neglect 

** 'TIS a maxim ot Mate titat ' power and liberty are like heat 
and moisture ; where they are well mixed everything prospers ; 
vbcre they are aiagle th^ are destructive ! ' 

** A fovemmeat of more .subility is much wanted io this 
coloajr, asd they arc ready to receive it at the hands of Coo* ' 

■■And siace I have began with maxims of state, I will add 
another, namely, that a people may let a king fall yet still 
remain a people ; but if a king let his people slip from him he is- 
BO longer a king. And as this is most certainly our case, why 
not proclaim to the world, in decisive terms, your own impor- 
uoce ? Shall we not be despised by foreign powers for hesi- 
tating so long at a word?" 

To this Ur. Adams replied : 

** Philadelphia, May a?, 1776. 

■* I think you shine as a statesman, of late, as well as a farm- 
cresa. Pray where do you get your maxims of sute ? They 
Are very apropos." 

All hisioiy shows how long the conception of a plan, in some 
acute mind, precedes the popular impulse toward it. The fer- 
tile miiKl of Daniel De Foe, in an " Essay on Projects," pub- 
Usbcd ia 1699, suggests the plan of an Academy i>f Music, 
«iib hints for cheap Sunday concerts, an Academy for Mili- 
tary Science and Practice, and an Academy for Women. 

This is ihc earliest project for a school of ihis grade, for 
wotneo, and remained the only one for more than a century in 
Eegland. In America, from the middle of the eighteenth cen- 
tnry, academies were established in many towns where the law 
reqniring instruction to fit bo)'s for the university did not apply. 
Soote of these opened their doors to girls, and, in a few 

= 1, aemioanea and academies for young ladies were 

, and, eoGi inaugurated, they multiplied with con- 


etantly accelerating speed. A contemporary of these erents, 
writing as " Senex " in " The American Journal of Education,** 
says : " When at length academies were opened for female 
improvement in the higher branches, a general ezcitemeat 
appeared in parents, and an emulation in daughters to attend 
them. The love of reading and habits of application became' 

There appear, from the first, to have been no discounge- 
ments from lack of mental capacity on the part of girls, even 
in the academies where they were instructed with bojis. 

The " Moravian Brethren " have the honor of founding tbe- 
first private institution in America designed to give girls bet- 
ter advantages than the common schools. A female semioarjr 
was opened by tliem in Bethlehem, Pa., in 1749. Its service 
went beyond its own work, for Rev. Mr. Woodbridge recordi 
that " after the success of the Moravians in female education, 
the attention of gentlemen of reputation and influence was 
turned to the subject. Dr. Morgan, Dr. Rush, — the great ad- 
vocate of education, — with oihers, instituted an academy for 
females in Philadelphia. Their attention and influence and 
care were successful, and from them sprang all the subsequent 
and celebrated schools in that city." 

It is presumed chat it was of the " Philadelphia Feonalt 
Academy," which held commencement exercises from as earl; 
as 1794, that Mr. Woodbridge says, " In 1780, in Philadelphia 
for the first time in my life, I heard a class of young ladic 
parse English." 

The " Penn Charter School " has a long and honorable rei 
ord and has admitted girls for more than a century. 

The Penn Charter School was founded in Philadelphia i 
1697 as a public school, and has been carried on down to tt 
present day under three charters granted by William Peon 
the years 1701, 1708, 1711. These malce provision, at the cc 
of the people called Quakers, for " all Children and Servao' 
Male and Female .... the rich to be instructed at reaso 
able rates, the poor to be maintained and schooled for not 
ing." Provision is made in the charters for instruction of be 
sexes in " reading, writing, work, languages, arts, and science 

The foundation laid is broad enough for a university fori 
people. As a matter of fact the girls and boys have alwi 
been educated separately, and the curriculum of the gi 
school has always been less advanced than that of the be 
The Latin school has not been opened to them, nor, it 
believed, have the ancient languages been taught them. 


la 1795, ** Poo''** Academy for Ydung Ladiet " became "A 
place of prood distinction to finished females." 

Tbe earliest acadcmj for girls in New England was founded - 
ia 1763, at B^6eld. Mass., bj bequest of William Dummer, 
\ wboM name it toolc In 1784, Leicester Academy, open to 
both sexes, was incorporated. 

Iq tbe same year the " Friends " established a school which 
offered tbe highereducation togirlsat ProTidence, R. I. This 
has beeo of high repute down to the present day. 

Id tbe same city we find, in 1797, the advertisement of a 
gcntletnan who "will condua a morning school for young 
tadtes in reading, writing, and arithmetic," and in 1808 Miss 
BRotoo, at South Kingston, R. I., offers instruction which will 
iadnde ** epistolary style, as well as temple work, paper work, 
fiisgiog. and netting." 

In 1785 Dr. Dwigbt founded a Young Ladies' Seminary at - 
Crecoficid, Conn. 

Aboat 1787, Mr. Caleb Brigham, a noted teacher, opened a 
scfaool for girls in Boston. This has been sjwken of as "the 
most rigorous and systematic experiment hitherto made, and . 
tbe most systematically antagonized." U|>on opening, how- 
crer. tbe school was immediately tilled. The supply created 
a demand. More sought admission than could be accommo- 
daicd. With the selectmen's daughters in school female 
education was becoming popular. 

lo 1789 a female academy was opened in Medford, the first 
establishment of the kind in New England. This was the 
reson of scholars Irom all the Eastern Slates. 

We get here and there, proof of the espionage exercised 
over young women in those days. 

Mn. Rawson was a distinguished teacher who established a 
boarding-school for girls. The town voted. May 13, iSoo, 
that tbe second and third seats in the women's side o( the 
gallery of the meeting-house be allowed for Mrs. Rawson, for 
benclf and scholars ; and that she be allowed to put doors and 
locks on them. 

Ia 1791-93 the Maine Legislature incorporated academies at 
Befwick,Hallowell,Fr)-cburg, Westminster, and East Machias. 

Ia 1791 Wcstford (Mass.) Academy was organized. It 
offered a very extensive programme. The body of rules and 
lavs for governance provides that "the English, Latin, and 
Creek languages, together with writing, arithmetic, and the art 
of ^leaking s^U be taught, and, if desired, practical geometry, 
lafic. geography, and music ; that the said school shall be free 


to any nation, age, or sex, provided that no one shall be 
admitted unless able "to read in the Bible readily without 

The impulse which single individuals often give to progress 
had its exemplification in this awakening period. 

Two students of Vale College, during a long vacation after 
the British troops invaded New Haven, had each a class of 
young ladies for the term of one quarter. One of these 
students, well known later as the Rev. William Woodbridge. 
and before quoted here, during his senior year in college, io 
1779, kept a young ladies' school in New Haven, consisting of 
about twenty-five scholars, in which he taught grammar, 
geography, composition, and the elements of rhetoric, and the 
success of this school led to the establishment of others else* 

Mr. Woodbridge, on graduating, toolc for the subject of hi) 
thesis, " Improvement in Female Education." It would bt 
interesting to know whether the school of Mr. Woodbridg< 
led, as seems probable, to the following curious bit of bistorj 

From Yale College, or from as near to it as a girl could gel 
issued, in 1783, the following attested certificate : 

" Be it known to you that I have examined Miss Lucind 
Foote, twelve years old, and have found that in the learn< 
languages, the Latin and the Greek, she has made comment 
able progress, giving the true meaning of passages in tl 
^neid of Virgil, the select orations of Cicero, and in the Gre 
testament, and that she is fully qualified, except in regard 
sex, to be received as a pupil of the Freshman Class of Yi 

" Givc^i in the College Library, the aid of December, 17 
" Ezra Stiles, Prttident.' 

Miss Foote afterwards pursued a full course of coll 
studies and Hebrew, under President Stiles. She then d 
ried and had ten children. 

Timothy Dwight, President of Yale College, travelet! 
1803 through New England and New York, and made car 
observation of educational conditions. He reports that 
the higher class of schools, generally styled academies, w 
pupils arc qualified for college, there are twenty in Cono 
cut and forty-eight in Mas.sachu setts." He adds: "T* 
those in Connecticut and three in Massachusetts are e: 
siveiy female seminaries. Some others admit children of 


■Ml' Re does Dot MMj that any one of the thirteen to New 
Hiapduic or of the twelre in Vermont wu open to cirla. A 
ihinlofaGentoryiftenrardB Massachusettthad 854acadeiniet ' 
'■dprinte tcbooliL Later, the advance in s;rade of the public 
K^ irseiD to reduced the number of penonalljr supported 
■■^Ml^lhat in 1886 there were but 74 academies and 348 
P^nu tchoola, about one-half the number of a century before. 
"* npid growth and ai rapid decline of the academy sjrstem 
*■ dM 10 the fact that, while pcnonal and aasociated effort 
^ taken np a work for which the people were not prepared, 
Anccds (voved a rapid educator, especially as to the capacity 
^ pifa, and the free school syitem was steadily pressed to 

d an English high school for boys in 1827 ; 
*M for girls eighteen yean later, in 1845. 

It win has been stated, when the school committee 
*( N'evbatyport decreed " that one female grammar school be 
^K tbongh the year ": it was only six years afterwards, in 
■|^I, that the town voted to establish a female high school. 
J^ *as encouraging, but when, later, the valuable " Putnam . 
'■■Mj" came into use for advanced education, there was much 
dflcanioo between the special committee, appointed by the 
^P*<>. io conference with the trustees of the fund, as to whether 
*r. Potnam designed, by his bequest, to include the instruc- 
"Mof females, and it required a decision of the Supreme 
^R to Busuin the position of the trustees that "youth " 

. The city of Lowell, Masu., which held its first town meeting 
*ili6, and was not incorporated until 1836, established a 
^ Kbool in 1831, midway between these events, and, to its 
•"^l credit, on a coeducational basis. The firat clasis which 
^ pxloated gave to I^uell its- first woman principal of a 
r^ttmar school, and to the country General B. F. Butler. 
^H was one of the earliest high schools, and, so far as the 
"ilctcan learn, the first that was co-cducational. 

Is ooonection with the first and ephemeral high school for 
V*^ U Boston, we have unusii.-tl opportunities in the " Mu- 
"Kipal History of Boston," by Jusiah Quincy, to learn the public 
**aijaient of the time among ihe most intelligent and wonhy, 
aid to observe the struggle which it cost the more progressive 
Is persuade those in power that girls had as great need of 
I real claim on the public funds, as their 

la i8a5 the tcbool eonnittee of Boston asked an appro* 


firiation from the citjr council for a high school for (prlt. A 
ew years previous the monitorial, or mutual, system of tostnic- 
lion had b«eti tried in a town school. Some claimed that it 
had been successful ; its cost was certainly less thaa chw- 
third that of the old system. 

Speaking of the formation of the plan for a high school for 
girls, Mr. Quincy says: "There being at that time a very 
general desire in the school committee to test the usefulDeu 
of monitorial instruction, it was proposed that the schoo 
should be conducted on that system ; and in respect of ex 
pense the report supposed that one large room would b 
suflicient, at least for one year." 

It was objected to the foundation of the school that the ba 
scholars would be drawn away from the grammar schools, t 
the loss of their influence and of their services as moniton 
in spite of this the city council voted an appropriation • 
$20oo to carry out the plan. " The anticipations of difficul 
were, however, so strong and so plausible, that the project w 
adopted expressly as an experiment, if favorable, to be co 
tinued, if adverse, to be dropped, of course," 

Difiiculties appeared immediately. " Before the ezamiaati 
of candidates occurred, it becomes apparent that the result 
a high school for girls would be very different from that 
the high school for boys; and that, if continued upon 
scale of time and studies which the original project embrac 
the expense would be insupportable, and the effect upon 
common sciiools positively injurious. 

" Instead of 90 candidates, the highest number that 
ever offered in one year for the school for boys, it was as 
tained that nearly three hundred would be presented 
the high school for girls .... and it was evident 
either two high schools for girls must be established the 
year, or that more than one-half of the candidates mui 

Two hundred and eighty-six candidates presented tl 
selves, and an arbitrary system was adopted to keep all 
130 out. " The girls admitted were the /Hie of the grai 
schools, and were among the most ambitious and b 
educated of t:.em, and of private schools, from wfal 
majority of those admitted were derived. 

" It was impossible that such a school should not be fc 
advantageous to the few who enjoyed its benefits." 

After six months' existence of the school, an alarmh 
port was sent to the school committee to the effect th 


cdfofto the best calculations, the number of caodidatet for 
•' Iwi iiioi St the next ezamiaation would be 417. 

HrQuincy notes that " the school was chiefljr for the ad- ' 
^wU|e of the few and not for the xmaj, and those^ also, the 
. P'MpenNis few," and he refards with evident apprehension 
^ Urge number of girts "to whom a high classical educa- 
^M (UtMgh Greek aod Latio were excluded) was extremely 

'Asain this experiment showed that in the school for boys 
the Bsaber of scholars diminiihed every year, whereas of all 
l^vho entered this high school for girls, not one, during 
!^ tifhteen months that it was in operation, voluntarily quitted 
': udtheie was noreaionforbelieving that any one admitted 
to the ichool would voluntarily quit it for the whole three 
1****, eiccpt in case of marriage. 

" It vat apparent to all who contemplated the subject disin- ' 
'"cttedly, that ihe continuance of this school would involve 
***aKMnl of expense unprecedented and unnecessary, since 
"'c tune course oif study could be introduced into the grammar 

"To meet the exigency many schemes were proposed, the 
("^"cipal being that the age of admission should be fourteen 
y^t d of eleven, and no female to be admitted after the age 
"iiKcen: that the requisitions for admission should be 
^■■ed ; and that the school should be only for one year instead 

. ' TbcK modifications, in which the school committee and 
"7 council generally concurred, so greatly diminished the ad- 
^'■UigEs which the original plan proposed, that much of the ■ 
"cnu which its creation excited was also diminished. The 
*™Qol, however, was jMrmitted to continue, subject to this 
■Wification, until November ay, when a committee was raised 
"* ^Mtider the expediency of continuing it, which, on He* 
'^^r II, following, reported 'that it was expedient to con- 


Uoch debate followed, in course of which " the Mayor de< 
T^eil that his opinion was so decidedly adverse to the con. 
'"■Ance of the school, that he could not vote in its favor." 
™iel7, no doubt, through the influential opposition of Mr. 
x'uiCf, who was then Mayor of the city, and on motion of a 
."'■ Savage, who said that, though, " as a member of the city 
f^udl be had voted for the appropriation for the high school 
I* (iris, it was ncrely to make a public experiment of the 
?*ai of mutual instruction as regards females"; it was 


voted on June 3, 1816, " that the girls be permitted to remata 
in the English common school throughout the year." Pre- 
cisely what was meant by this vote, beyond the abolition of the 
high school, appears, if we recall that girls were not yet ad> 
milled to the grammar school except for half the year. 

As Mr, Quincy states it, "The project of the high school was 
thus abandoned and the scale of instruction in the common 
schools of the city was gradually elevated and enlarged." As 
in 1834, eight years later, it was voted " that the school com> 
mittee be directed so to arrange the town schools that the girls 
enjoy equal privileges with the boys throughout the year," it 
is to be presumed that the permission voted in itl36 was inop- 
erative until this date. But the end was gained. The school 
was abolished, of which Mayor Quincy said in an address to 
the board of aldermen in 1839 : " It may be truly said thai 
its Impracticability was proved before it went into operation " 
and he again refers to "this high, classical school " with th< 
remark that " no funds of any city could endure the expense.' 

It may have been that those who were parents of daughter 
as truly as of sons, saw this action in relation to the fact th; 
the English High School, " for boys only," had been su| 
ported for four years, and the Latin School, " for boys only 
for almost two centuries, both from the public funds; ft 
when Mr, Quincy wrote the account from which the abo 
quotations and summary have been made, he recalled the i 
tense opposition to his views of "a body of citizens of gn 
activity and of no inconsiderable influence." 

In 185 1, speaking of his former opinions with regard to 1 
hi !, school, he wrote; "The soundness of these views ; 
. .incidence with the permanent interests of the c 
si , be sanctioned by the fact that twenty-three years h 

eL, ., and no effectual attempt during that period has b 
made for its revival, in the school committee, or in ev 
branch of the city council." 

He did not consider that ideas of which the germ is sc 
have, nevertheless, their periods of incubation ; but, tf sh 
are permitted to " revisit the glimpses of the moon," w< 
imagine the venerable ex-Mayor, ex-President of Har 
and most worthy man, reflectively regarding the "Girls' ' 
School," established in connection with the Normal Scho 
1852, almost before his words of selF-gratulation had ceas 
echo ; and, with still more astonishment, contemplatinj 
Girls' Latin School, established \vi\%i% to fit giris f»r-ti 

In Massachusetts in 1888, 19S cities and towiu supf 



[b ichoolt, most of tbem co-educational. The population 
the cities and towns in which these schools are maintained 
oftr nioety-fiTe per cent of the whole population of the 

It is DOC to be understood that this marvelous progress had 
without resistance at every step, or had been achieved 
^escepc in the way that a plant with the growing power in it 
itniggks to light from under the pavement. 

We have seen that in the lower schools when girls, in proc- 
tatk of time, came to be taught at all, it was out of fitting 
leisoa. sometimes out of due hours, without the best instruc- 
ton» with limited range of study, and always with deference to 
tlie soperior claim of boys. In the endeavor of girls toward 
<be higher education, one is too sadly reminded of the strug- 
gles ol the plebeians against the patricians in Rome, when 
potitions wrung from usurping hands, were yielded, only to be, 
\» the uttermost, shorn of advantage. 

As girls have gained successive opportunities for advanced 
mtudy, the aim of the opponents has always been to keep 
those only analogous to, not identical with, those of boys. 
They have, therefore, been steadily weighted with limiting 
conditions, as the educational history of Boston serves to 

We have seen that the experimental high school of 1825 
Was, io iu feebleness, hampered by, if, indeed, it was not 
foamled for the trial of the monitorial system, and was mori- 
Uand from its inception. 

When, a quarter of a century later, the demand for better 

education for girls again took form, those most active thought 

tt discreet to avoid the controversy of the past, and, as a more 

feasible measure, a Normal School for teachers was projected, 

and was esublished in 185J. 

It was soon found that girls fresh from the grammar schools 
were not fit candidates for normal training. To remedy this 
diflicalty a few additional branches of study were introduced, 
s slight alteration made in the arrangement of the course, and 
the name changed to the Girls' High and Normal School. 
Under this name it continued until 1872, when it was found 
that the normal element had been absorbed by the high school, 
and had almost lost its independent, distinctive, and profes- 
boaal character. The two courses where then separated and 
the normal department was restored to its original condition, 
(or the tnstmctioo of young women who intended to become 
icadiefsto Boctoo, 


Boston had now, at length, » school for girls, deroted, like 
that for boys, to general culture, though still without oppor- 
tunity for full classical training, such as bad beea freely 
offered Boston boys for almost two and a half centuries. But 
to taste intellectually, as well as physically, is to stimulate 

In 1877 a society of 300 thoughtful and inSuential women, 
incorporated as the " Massachusetts Society for the Uni- 
versity Education of Women," supponed by men of equal 
dignity, and prominently associated with educational and 
kindred movements, petitioned the school committee " that a 
course of classical instruction may be offered to girls in the 
Boston Latin School, as is now offered to boys." -^ 

This petition was reinforced by a similar one from the 
" Woman's Educational Association," which, later, instigated 
and supported the Harvard examination for women. The 
trustees of " Boston University " of&cially memorialized the 
school board in the same interest. 

The claim was urged by distinguished divines, physicians, 
educators, presidents of colleges, a founder of a college, states- 
men, and by mothers of girls. They argued a public advan- 
tage, a public demand, and a public right. They showed that 
almost every prominent city and town in the State gave to 
girls in its public high school, — which was usually co-educa- 
lional, — a chance to fit for college ; while the towns that had 
been annexed to Boston, — Charlestown, Dorchester, Brighton, 
and West Roxbury, had thereby lost such advantage, wbict 
their girls had previously etijoyed. The presidents of co-edu 
cational and female colleges testified that while no Bostoi 
high school girl was prepared to enter their institutions, the; 
were receiving well-prepared young women from the moi 
liberal West. 

The ladies petitioning, called attention to the fact thai tl) 
colonial law of 1647 required every township of 100 fa'mili< 
" to provide for the instruction of youth so far as to fit the 
for the University," and that in Massachusetts, from th 
time, there never has been a law passed concerning any pub' 
school which has authorized instruction to one sex not equa' 
open to the other ; that nowhere does the word " male " 
" boy " occur, but always " children " or " youth," 

It appeared that one young woman, daughter of a mast 
had pursued a three years' course of study in the Latin Sche 
sitting and reciting with the other pupils, and winning ' 
highest esteem for modesty and ability. From this course : 


had gndaaled with ao solid a foundation of scholarship that 
ac the age of twentf-two she bad receired the title of " Doc* 
MX ol PttikMopby ** from " Boston UniveTsity," and was the 
ftm VMuan in this country to take such a degree. 

The oppoaitioo to the granting of the petition wax most 
W r ongl y pFcaeaied by tax distinguished presidents of male col- 
leges aod by two Harvard graduates. 
"^ rraident Eliot of Harvard College opposed the admit- 
tance of girls to the Latin School, saying, " I resist the propo* 
uuoo for the sake of the boys, (be girls, and tbe schools, and 
ta tbe general interest of American education." 
/ Hoo. Charles F. Adams wrote, " 1 suppose the experiment 
of Boiliog tbe two seaes in education, at a mature age, is likely 
lo be fully tried. It will go on until some shockiug scandals 
devdop tlw danger." 

Presideat Porter <tf Yale College thought "boys and girls 
fron the ages of fourteen to eighteen should not recite in the 
lame class-room, nor meet in the same study hall. The 
natoral feelings of rightly trained boys and girls are offended 
by social inurcourse of the sort, so frequent, so free, and so 
oDceremonioui. The classical culture of boys and girls, even 
wbcQ it takes both through the same curriculum, should not be 
imparted by precisely the same methods nor with the same 
coairolltog aims. I hold that these should differ iu some 
important respects for each." 

President Bartlett of Dartmouth College said : " Girls can- 
not endure tbe bard, unintcrmitting, and long-continued strain 
to which boys are subjected. . . . Were girls admitted to the 
Latin School I should have no fear that they would not for the 
time hold their own with the boys, spurred on as they would 
be by their own native excitablcncss, their ambition, and the 
stimulus of public comparison. I should rather fear their suc- 
cess with its penalty of shonened lives or permanently de- 
tanged constitutions. You must, in the long run, overtask and 
injure the girts, or you must sacrifice the present and legiti- 
■tate standard of a school for boys. ... It should be added 
that almost every department of study, including classical 
t u di c a, ineritably touches upon certain regions of discussion 
sod allosioa which must be encountered and which cannot be 
treated as they ought to be in tbe presence of both boys aod . 

An eminent dasucist, Prof. William Everett, said : " To in- 
trodnce girls into tbe Latin School would be a legal and moral 
«n»( to the gndnaies "; and declared that " Creek litera- 


ture is not fit for girls "; and, substantiaily, that what was » 
mental tonic for boys would be dangerous tor girls. 

The outcome of the effort was the founding of a " Latia . 
School for Girls," which opened February, 187S, with thirtj- 
onc pupils, which number steadily increased to about two 

Its graduates are in all the colleges of the Sute, at pKMDt, 
to the number of about forty, and they are among the beat 
prepared who enter. 

Not only the graduates of the school, but the whole com- 
munity, must ever hold in grateful memory the names of those 
who, as representatives of the " Society for the University 
Education of Women," worked wisely and indefatiga^ for 
Boston girls : Mrs. I. Tisdale Talbot, Mrs. James T. r ield% 
Miss Florence Gushing. 

By following the history of high schools down to the present 
day in one section of the North Atlantic States, taken as a 
type of progress, we have not paused to note the few helpful 
agencies which were gradually developed. 

Returning to the beginning of the nineteenth century it is 
easier to discover what women lacked than what they enjoyed 
in the way of intellectual stimulus. Books and newspapen 
were few enough to be highly valued by ail. 

In Boston there was a public library as early as 1637, bu< 
women were not considered as patrons. The bold venture, ot 
the part of the sex, of invading the quiet precincts of the read 
ing room of the library of the Boston Athenaum, was mad< 
after a decade or two of the nineteen:h century had passed, b 
a shy woman, grown courageous only through her eagemei 
for knowledge. This was Hannah Adams, who had leame 
Greek and Latin from some theological students boarding : 
her father's house, and who had written books. The inoov 
tion shocked Boston people, who declared her out of b 
sphere. They could not foresee that half a century later the 
would be more women than men readers in the great pub 
library of the city. 

Nor was it considered proper for ladies to attend pub 
lectures, nor to appear in public assemblies except those o 
religious character. Either as cause or consequence of t 
the Lyceum audiences were so rude that it would not hi 
been agreeable for ladies to be present 

In 1838 the Boston Lyceum was started, and after con^t 
able discussion women were allowed to attend lectures. 1 
so quickened the interest and improved the maooen I 


le 9o popular tbu the largest balls were required 
to bold Uic audieoces, 

Tbcre is somcthiag pathetic, as showing how small were the 
pcCBOiary resources of women, in the fact that it was custom- 
ary, ai least in the smaller cities, to admit them to lectures at 
aboax iwo>tbirds the price of men. *' The Lowell Institute," 
Botoo, secured the utmost service to its great benefaction by 
^ukiag DO discrimioatioo sgaiast women in its free courses of 

AnMog the English authors who were the resource of this 
ooaotry in way of literature, there began to be known a few 
vocDca, in whom strong natural impulse had been fostered by 
csceptiooal educational opportunity until they ventured to 
«sc the pen and even to publish. This was usually done 
tisudly. often protestingly, and . one woman, afterwards dis- 
tinguubcd, screened her ulcnt behind her father's name. 

Lady Anoe Barnard, who wrote " Auld Robin Gray,*' (or 
•ooM reasoo or other kept the secret of her authorship for 
fijfty years. 

Mr. Edgcwortb suppressed a translation which his daughter 
Maria had made, from the French, of a work on education 
'because his friend, Mr. Day, the author of ' Sanford and 
Siertoo,* had such a horror of female authors and their writ- 
ing^** and it was published only after Mr. Day':i desth. 

It is curious to note how large a ratio of the female writers 
tA iliis time involve, in their essays or novels, some reference to 
the need of education for their sex. On the contrary, how- 
erer. Mrs. Barbauld, herself a classical scholar and thinker, 
soid both happy aod useful through her acquirements, opposed 
t^ esLablishment of an academy for young ladies. She " ap- 
proved a college and every motive of emulation for young 
Bcc.'* bat thought that "young ladies ought only to have 
^uM » ietur»i tim^turt oj knawledgt as to make them agreeable 
cocpaaioos to a man of sense, and ought to gain these accom- 
pI:s±:aeQU in a more quiet and unobserved manner, from 
(sicrcoune and conversation at home, with a father, brother, or 
frf~^ She regarded herself as peculiar, and not a rule (or 

Late in tbc eighteenth century, Mary WoDstonecraft issued 
a suxxig aod direct appeal for a recognition of the intellectual 
■eccU and capacities of women. She shocked the world into 
astagooisoi by her opinions, and by her use of the word 
' ngbu," as applied to her sex. 

Moch inteieu wu felt iQ the graceful letters of Lady Mary 


Wortlcy Montagu, and society found eotertainment ia the 
small tail: of the heroines of Frances Buntey, " Evelina," 
" Cecilia," and " Rosa Matilda." 

Twenty years after the eloquent appeal had been made for 
"The Rights of Women," Hannah More, in "Ccelebs ia 
Search of a Wife," introduced to the novel-reading world the 
subject of female education, with a tact and moderation which 
the stronger cravings of Mary Wollstonecraft did not permit. 
Witfiout offensive presumption, and with deference to the 
superior claim of the other sex to the whole loaves, she meekly, 
Dut plainly, suggested the relish of ihe female mind for intel- 
lectual crumbs. The more favorable reception of her milder 
views, which was said "to have caused more than one dignified 
clergyman to take down his Eton grammar from the shelf, to 
initiate his daughters into the hitherto forbidden mysteries of 
' hie- base -hoc,' !' goes to prove, by analogy, the theory of the 
high potency school of homoeopath ists, for the smaller the dose 
administered the greater appear to have been the results. 

The tender sentiment and graceful verse of Mrs. Hemans, 
and the sad domestic experience of Hon. Mrs. Norton, from 
whose unmasked sorrows her husband could gather pecuniary 
return, and the sturdy, intellectual vigor of Harriet Martineau, 
who grappled with the problems of political economy and 
social ethics, and was the friend and counselor of the first 
statesmen of her time, could not fail to appeal, on their several. 
lines, to women of corresponding type, if not of equal gifts of 
expression, on both sides of the Atlantic. So education was 
going on for women in othfr ways than in schools, which still 
furnished them limited supplies, both in quantity and quality. 

Among the voices which directly or indirectly were calling 
women to higher levels of intelligence and of thought, wu 
that of the celebrated wit and divine, Sidney Smith, who proved 
by his claims for them, what he said of himself, " I have a pas- 
sionate love for common justice and. for common sense." In 
the Edinburgh Jteview, of which he was one of the founders, 
he had a way of asking such pointed inquiries as whether the 
world had hitherto found any advantage in keeping half tht 
people in ignorance, and whether, if women were better edu 
cated, men might not become better educated too; and hi 
adds, " Just as though the care and solicitude which a mothe 
feels for her children, depended on her ignorance of Gree' 
and mathematics, and that she would desert her infant for 
quadratic equation 1 " 

But so strong are the bonds of prejudice, that, sUhong 


tbis vsc as early u t8io,abi)Ddant cause has been found down 
to the present day to iterate and reiterate the same arguments, 
aod Kill to pierce the bubble of conceit of superior right with 
the arrows of wit and sarcasm. 

To diow what the best schools open to girls were offering 
meantime, we quote what " one who had as good advantages 
io f 808 as New England then afforded," gtrcs as her course of 
Kody : ** Uusic, geography, Murray's Grammar, with Pope's 
Ecaay oa Uan for a parsing book, Blair's Rhetoric, Cumposi- 
tioo, and embroidery on satin. These were my studies and 
mj accomplishments." 

" Twenty-five yean later than that," says the aged lady once 
before quoted, "a considerable part of the gain I brought from 
private school in Charlestown, Mass., was a knowledge of 
wty laoe stitcbes." * 

Looking back to this period from the vantage ground of 
^ets than a century, nuMt women of nowadays would echo 
the Katiment of the small boy, one of four brothers, who 
beard a visitor say to his mother : " What a pity one of your 
boys bad not been a girl ! " Dropping his game to take in the ' 
fall significance of her words, he called out: "I'd like to 
know who'd 'a benn 'er ! I wouldn't 'a benn 'er ; Ed wouldn't 
*a benn 'er ; Joe wouldn't 'a benn 'er, and I'd like to know who 
woold 'a benn 'er ! " 

The third and fourth decades of the nineteenth century 
worked an epoch in education through the service done by a 
few teachers, who seemed to have fresh inspirations as to the 
capabilities of women, and practical ability to embody them. 
T^ey helped to verify the forecast of Rev. Joseph Emerson, 
principal of the Academy at Byficid, Mass. 

Mr. Emerson was deeply interested in the theme of the 
■illcnaium, and regarded woman, in the capacity of educator, 
aa the hope of the world's salvation. Unlike his cotcmporaries, 
be beliered in educating young women as thoroughly as young 
• ^tes, and in iSjs predicted "a time when higher institutions 
for the education of young women would be as needful as 
colleges for young men." Among his pupils was Mary Lyon. 

The pioneer in the new departure was Mrs. Emma Hart 
WiUard, bom in 17S7. in Connecticut, into a home of liberal 
tboogbl and lender affection. The clearness of intellect and 
kccB sense of justice which characterised her life, were all in- 

iBts of culf cduMlios of Amokan wanco autbon la 


dicated, when, as a young woman, on Killing her father's 
straightened estate, she insisted that children have no claim u 
compared wilh the mother's superior right to what she has 
helped to earn. From a child she was noted for interestiag 
' herself in the politics of the day. To relieve her husband from 
financial difBculties, and, as she says, " with the further motive 
of keeping a better school than those about me," she established 
a boarding school at Middlebury. This was the beginning of 
thirty years' service as a teacher, during which she taught 5000 
pupils, one in ten of whom became teachers. She aimed to 
make her pupils comprcheivl the subject taught, and to ^ve 
them power to communicate what they knew. Saya her bic^- 
rapher, Dr. John Lord, " Her profession was an art She 
loved it as Palestrina loved music and as Michael Angelo 
loved painting, and it was its own reward." There was do 
flattery to her pupils nor to their parents. Her regular dutiea, 
and her never-ending struggle for self-improvement and for 
better methods of instruction, kept her at her work from tea 
and someiimea for fifteen hours per day. She keenly felt the 
disadvantages under which she labored. She wrote : " The 
Professors of the college attended my examinations, although 
I was advised by the President that it would not be becomiae 
in me, nor a safe precedent, if I should attend theirs ; so, as I 
had no teacher in learning my new studies, I had no model ia 
teachingor examining them. But I had faith in the clearcon- 
elusions of my own mind. I knew that nothing could be truer' 
than truth, and hence I fearlessly brought to examination before 
the learned the classes to which had been taught the studiei I 
had just acquired My neighborhood to Middlcbury Col- 
lege made me feel bitterly the disparity in educational facilities 
between the two sexes^ and I hoped if the matter was once set 
before the men as legislators they would be ready to correcl 
the error," 

To this end Mrs. Willard prepared an address to the public 
which in 1819, when she resided in New York, she preseotet 
to the New York Legislature. As the views set forth mark ; 
distinct departure In educational demands for women, howeve 
familiar or antiquated they may now seem, they are quoted an 
summarized here. She published them only after long an 
thoughtful deliberation, and said, "I knew that I should I 
regarded as visionary, almost to insanity, should I utter U 
expectations that I secretly enteruin." She asks that as tl 
State has endowed institutions for its sons it shall do the san 
for its daughters, and " no longer leave them to become tl 

)■ mUfAJfS WOKT ttf AMSJtTCA. 

pm o( private adventurers, the result of which hu been to 
make the daofhten of the rich frivoloui and those of the poor 
drttdxe*." She UnenU that " the end of education of one (ex ' 
has Seen to plcaae the other .... until we have come to be 
oooiidered the pampered and wayward babiei of society, who 
auut have tome rattle put into our hands to keep us from do- 
ia( Bitchief to ourselves or to others. But reason and religion 
teach that we, too. are primary existences ; that it is for us to 

ffc ia the orbit of our duty around the Holy Center of Per- 
I. (be companions, not the satellites of men." 

Mn. WiUard fears that "should the conclusion be almost 
■dmittwl that our sex, too. are the legitimate children of the 
LcpslatBi^ and that it is their duty to afford us a share ot 
tbor pat ern al bounty, the phantom of a coUege-lcamed ladv 
woold be ready to rise ap and destroy every good resolution in 

To show that it is not a masculine education that is here rec- 
onmcnded, Urs. Willard sketches her ideal of a female semi- 
nary. She desires it to " to be adapted to the female character 
mad duties, and her first plea is that to which the softer sex - 
shoold be formed." " To raise the female character will be to 

raise that of men It would be desirable that the young 

ladies should spend part of their Sabbaths in hearing discus- 
sioas relative to the peculiar duties of their sex. The difficulty is 
aoc that we are at a loss what sciences we ought to learn, but that 

we have not proper advantages for learning any Many 

writers have given us excellent advice in regard to what we 
sboold be taught, but no Legislature has provided us the means 
ot instruction. .... In some of the sciences proper to our sex 
the books written for the other would need alteration, bc- 
csnse in some they presuppose more knowledge than female 
popUs wonld possess, in others they have parts not particularly 
interesting to our sex, and omit subjects immediately relating 
to tbeir pursuits. Domestic instructions should be considered 
inportanL Why may not housewifery be reduced to a system 
as well at other arts ? 

' If women were properly fitted for instruction they would 
be likely to teach children better than the other sex ; they 
conld aiford to do it cheaper ; and men might be at liberty to 
add to the wealth of the nation by any of those thousand occupa- 
taons from which women are necessarily debarred." 

WhUc "coarse men laughed at this proposition to endow a 
seniBaiT foe girls," the plan was so well received by the Lcgis- 
Itfar* thai Mn. WilUrd's Seminary at Waterforo was incor- 


porated, and placed on the list of institutions which received a 
share of the literary fund. Though this was a small recogni- 
tion of a large need, to New Yorlt belongs the honor of makiog 
the first appropriation of public funds for the higher education 
of women. 

The character of the support given to Mrs. Willard is more 
encouraging than the legislative action. Governor Clinton, a 
man of great educational foresight, recommended Mrs. Willard't 
plan in these words, which incidentally indicate common senti- 
ment at the time : " As this is the only attempt ever made tu 
promote the education of the female sex by the patronage of 
government I trust you will not bedeterred by common- 
place ridicule from extending your munificence to this meri- 
torious work." Distinguished men advocated the plan before 
the New York Legislature, and John Adams, Thomas Jeffer- 
son, and others .wrote letters favoring it, all with little success. 

A bill passed the Senate granting S'ooo to the seminary of 
Mrs. Willard at Waterford, but failed in the Lowcrllouse. 

It was at this seminary that in 1810 a young lady was pub- 
licly examined in geometry, and " it called forth a storm of 

The corporation of Troy, N. Y., came to the rescue of Mrs. 
Willard's project, and raised $4000 by tax, and another fund 
by subscription, and erected a building of brick, to which 
Mrs. Willard came in 1811. She was convinced that "young 
women are capable of applying themselves to the higher ' 
branches of knowledge as well as young men," and that the 
study of domestic economy could be pursued at the same time. 
Developing these theories she made for the " Troy Female 
Seminary " and its pupils a distinguished reputation, and gave 
a decided uplift to the standard of female education. 

More than two hundred institutions of the grade of Troy 
Seminary are now reckoned, extending to South America and 
to Athens, Greece. Half the number are in the Southern 
United States, and two-thirds of them confer degrees. 

Associated with Mrs. Willard at Troy, in the department of 
science, was her distinguished sister. Mrs. Almira Lincoln 
Phelps. Later she was the head of " Patapsco Institute," I 
female diocesan school of high reputation. She was the secom 
woman elected a member of the " A lerican Association fo 
Advancement of Science," and in 18 6 read before that bod 
a paper on " The Religious and Scientific Character and Wril 
ings of Edward Hitchcock," and in 1S7S, one on " The Infidi 
Tendencies <^ Modem Science." Her educational works e 


tMtaajr. chemistry, geology, and uUaral philosophy bad a 
luge drcoUtioo. 

Nimes which toon rose to high dictinction in educational 
«wk were tbote of Miss Grant and Mis* Lyon, of Massachu- 
setta. Mis* Catherine Fiike of Keene, N. H., Miss Catherine 
Becdkcr cA Connecticut, and the Misses Longstretfa of PbiUdel- 

The work of Hiss Fttke was nearly cotemporary with that 
of Mn. Willard. For twenty-three years, up to her death in 
1836, she carried on a school which received some 3500 pupils 
to a courw of study which embraced bouny, chenoistry, astro- 
nomy, and ** Watts on the Mind." 

Mi» Cathcrioe Beecher, who was endowed with the marked 
individuality of her family, conducted a seminary at Hartford, ■ 
Coon., from iSsi to 1831, and later one at Cincinnati, O. Her 
coone of study included Latin, and calisthenic training was a' 
co M pi c nqus feature. She gave prominence in her instruction 
to the worth of domestic skill. 

She wrote text-books on mental and moral philosophy and 
upon theology, and did not forget to prove by publishing "a- 
dotacuic receipt book," that, though learned, she had not soared 
abore the true sphere of woman. 

To the schools already mentioned came pupils from every 
State in the Union, either from families of means or to receive 
the generosity of the principals. 

Mary Lyon was bom among the Massachusetts hills in 1797, 
aod graduated from the position of teacher in the little school- 
bouses, and again as a student from Byfield Academy ; then 
from the charge of Adams Academy at Derry, N. H., and from 
a like position in Ipswich Academy, Mass., in both which she 
was associated with Miss Grant. To her was due the concep- 
tion of " a school which shall put within reach of students of 
i&oderate means such opportunities that the wealthy csnnot 
£&d better ones." 

To the execution of her plan the gathering of a few thousand 
dollars was necessary. The labor involved may be inferred 
from the fact that in the list of contributions the sum of fifty 
cents repeatedly appears. The most serious obstacles were 
fosad ia the antagonism to what icemed to many a needless 
projecL Said Dr. Hitchcock: "Respectable periodicals were 
cbarged with sarcasm and enmity to Miss Lyon's plans. She 
rcmAiBcd unrufBcd.** 

Wbea, in 1834. the Massachusetts General Association dc- 
I fiarrt to vuifxvt the enterprise, a Doctor of Divinity made 


haste to say, "Yoa see that the measure has utterly failed. 
Let this page of Divine Providence be attentively consider«l 
' in relation to this matter ! " 

But in face of all disheartcnments, in 1S37 Mount Holyoke 
Seminary was opened in the beautiful Connecticut valley. The 
mode of living was Cor a time almost ascetic The vork of the 
house was mainly done by the pupils, but the cost, lights and 
fuel excepted, was only sixty dollars per school year of forty 
weeks, and so continued for sixteen years. 

Bible study held a leading place in the curricolunL 

It was Miss Lyon's ambition to make the course equal to 
that required for admission to college, and she planned for 
steady growth from the small beginnings. Nobly, have her 
expectations been fulfilled ! 

The hindrances encountered again indicate the slow growth 
of public sentiment It was desired that the ancient and some 
of the modem languages should be studied, but it was neces- 
sary to wait ten years before Latin could appear in the course, 
because " the views of the community would not allow it." As 
An optional study it was pursued in classes every year after 
the first. So French, which was taught from the very first 
year, became a part of the course only in 1877, after the lapse 
of forty years. 

As time has passed, the thorough work done, and the stead- 
ily expanding course of study have won to the institution 
devoted friends, who have added generously to its grounds, its 
buildings, and its funds. Opce the State has been asked foi 
aid, mainly for payment for a gymnasium, and a grant ol 
$40,000 was obtained in 1S67. 

The triple strain of study, labor, and economy, under th' 
stimulus of lofty aims, might well have given cause, in tbos 
early days, for anxiety on the score of health, but statistic 
were tabulated in 1867 which showed the comparative loi 
gevity of graduates of eight institutions, covering a period < 
thirty years. The colleges noted were "Amherst," *'Bov 
doin," *' Brown," " Dartmouth," " Harvard," ** Williams," ao 

Exclusive of mortality in war, the record of " Mount Hoi 
oke Seminary " was more favorable than any other except tb 
of "Williams College, "which fell two and one-half per co 
betow it in mortality, while " Dartmouth " exceeded it by mc 
than thirty-eight per cent. 

It has been the theory of " Mount Holyoke Seminary" tl 
■be must have every advantage that the state of education 1 


aUov. She most be i college tm/aet, vhetber or not the take 
the same. 

lo this the reversed the theory of many of the 400 inititu- 
tiom in the United States, which easily take the name of col- 
lege first Recently her advanced course of study, pursued by 
xfw pupils, seemed to justify her adding to her powers and to 
her dignilies, and in 18S8 the Maisachusetli Legislature granted 
a charter "authorizing Mount Holyoke Seminary and College 
to confer such degrees and diplomas as are conferred by any 
nniveniiy, college or seminary of learning in this Common- 

Edocaiional institutions, which have taken form and gath- 
ered impetus from Mount Holyoke Seminary, are to be found 
aoc only from ocean to ocean in the United Stales, including 
the " Cherokee Seminary, " founded by John Ross in the In- 
dian Territory in 1851, but in Turkey, in Spain, in Persia, in 
Japan, and in Cape Colony, South Africa. 

After display of so great administrative ability as appeared 
in Miss Lyon and her successors, it strikes one as still another 
ourk of the traditional reluctance to recognize true values, 
that close upon half a century from the founding of the insti- 
tution had passed before the name of a woman appeared in the 
list of trustees. Meantime every principal of the seminary 
had been a woman, every resident physician had been a woman, 
and every anniversary address had been made by a man. 

The debt which the public owes to a few indivi'luals who 
have used lavishly, for its benefit, their own grcnt endoK-ments, 
whether of brains or of money, before this same public was 
conscious of its own highest needs, is distinctly traceable in the 
kindergarten, kitchen-garden, industrial school, college, and 
university movements of the present day. Truly, many of 
these to whom much has been given have read their duty in the 
light of the scripture, "Of him much sha;] be required. " When 
viJnes are once demonstrated to the people, they are ever ready 
to carry on important work with liberality. 

n*bile recofcnizing the importance of the many lines of 
educational effort, if we sought to learn which has done 
moat to give a solid basis of thoroughness to woman's educa- 
tion, and, secondarily, to general education, during the middle 
pan of the present century, we should find the answer in the 
Normal Schools. While other institutions have contributed 
greatly to increase the scope of woman's study, these have 
added thereto the important consideration of methods. 

Aa a part of the thrifty policy which the States have 


shown when dealing with the education of girl^ they have fur- 
nished Normal School instruction with the especial view to 
getting slcilled labor in return. 

Perhaps there is nothing which would insure to ^reat care 
in instilling firs*, principles. The result has certatnljr been 
to make their invaluable influence felt from the citiei to 
the remotest sctiool districts. 

The story of the establishment of these schools U another 
story of personal struggle against more than indifference, and in- 
difference itself may justly be regarded as a solid substance. 

The interest in Normal Schools in America, which was 
aroused by Prof. Denison Ormstead in 1816, and was advo- 
cated by De Wilt Clinton, by Gallaudet, and by Horace Mann, 
grew to fervor in the Rev. Charles Brooks of Medford, 
MasR., who caught his inspiration from Dr. Julius, of Hamburg, 
who was sent to .the United States by the King of Prussia to 
study our public institutions. In 1865 Mr. Brooks rode in fata 
chaise over two thousand miles to present the subject, at 
his own cost, to the people. He held conventions and pre- 
sented the topic in pulpits as " Christian Culture. " He nya; 
"My discouragements were legion. " 

The leading paper in Boston and in New England expressed 
its sense of the absurdity of the movement by admitting a 
caustic communication, which ended by representing Rev. Mr. 
Brooks with a fool's cap on his head, marching up State Street 
at the head of a crowd of ragamuffin young men and women, 
who bore a banner, inscribed, " To a Normal School in the 
clouds. " Mr. Brooks was, hfiwever, invited to speak on the 
subject before the House of Representatives, and ' some mem- 
bers of the Legislature called the new movement by funny 

But educators like George B. Emerson, and thinkers like 
Rev. William Ellcry Channing, and statesmen like Horace 
Mann lent their aid, and, stirred by Mr. Brooks, support 
was given in public speech by Hon. John Q. Adams and 
Daniel Webster. 

Mr. Mann was Secretary of the Board of Education upof 
its organization in 1837, and, in his first report, recommende< 
that the I.egislature establish Normal Schools. A donation 
$10,000 being made by Mr. Dwight to stimulate this iotereal 
a State appropriation was made, and a Normal School fo 
girls was opened at Lexington, Mass., in 1838. Later, othei 
were opened, some of which admitted boys also, but ft 
the first twenty yean, eighty-seven per cent, of the graduati 


wcic nris. These schools are now widely scattered throagh 
the Ihiited Slates. The history of that at O«wego, N. Y., 
is of especial interest 

The firu systematic effort for the physical development of 
women was made in iS6i in Boston. A Normal Institute for 
Physics] Cslture," was established by Dr. Dio Lewis, aided by 
the president aad some of the professors of Harvard College. 
At the outset the yoang women pupils were found lamenubly 
deficient in respect of physical development. Later, Dr. Lewis 
staled that **in everyone of the thirteen classes which were 
padoatcd, the best gymnast was a woman. In each class there 
were from two to six women superior to any of the men." Dr. 
Walter Channing,one of the professors, often spoke with enthu- 
stcsm of the physical superiority of the women to the men. 
From the graduates of these classes instruction in light gym- 
nastics was widely introduced into schools throughout the 
oonotry. Now the well-appointed gymnasium is a prominent 
feature of the leading colleges to which women are admitted, 
and the erection and endowment of this department is a favor- 
ite form of benefaction from the alumnx. 

Prof. Huxley says, " No system of education is worthy the 
name, unless it creates a great educational ladder, with one end 
ia the gutter and the other in the university." Such was the 
intuitive feeling of on r ancestors, even in the Colonial days, 
with regard to bo^s. When, however, in the course of centu- 
fies, conviction came to a few that what had been for one sex 
only was, in fairness, due to the other as well, the atmosphere 
of the older States did not prove bracing enough to sustain so 
ntopiaa a theory, and the ambitious daughters of New Eng- 
land were obliged to follow those who, transplanted to the 
virgin soil of Ohio, had opened Oberlin College, offering luch 
oppoRunitics as it could furnish without distinction of race, 
and with but limited discrimination against sex. 

Something more remarkable than the hungry young mind 
seeking mental food at disadvantage, was witnessed in 1853, 
when the full mind and earnest spint of the leading New Eng- 
land educator, Hon. Horace Mann, eager to inaugurate the best 
methods of the higher education in a co-educational college, 
(oand his only chance by leaving hit native New England, to 
bsild aa institution from its very foundation, in a section re> 
mote from literary association. The pathos is deepened that 
his life was sacrificed in the contest with obstacles. 

FoUowing this magnetic leader, again a few New England 
giifa tanicd wcMward, and gained, at Antiocfa College, OhiOk 


what the East still denied them. Twelve years later, and two 
hundred and forty years after Harvard was established for 
boys, private beneficence endowed " Boston University " on a'\ 
co-educational basis, and in 1869 a college in Matsa ch metU / 
■ was opened to girls for the first time. "*" 

In place of the reply which Harvard College made to girls 
who asked admission to its vacant seats, " We bare no such 
custom," was heard the cheering, "Welcome to all we have to 
otTcr ! " and the old habit of keeping something of the best in 
reserve for the male sex, which has been so persistent in State, 
and municipal, and institutional economy, and which made the 
restricted sex feel an unwelcome pensioner on somebody's 
bounty, has never characterized Boston University. As a result; 
the report of the University for the year i879-A>, shows that 
already over thirty-seven per cent, of the regular classes tn 
the College of Liberal Arls were women, and, in encouragiiifc 
contras. to many colleges from which women are excluded, it 
adds, " no rowdyism or scandal has brought discredit on the 

In a few cases institutions for the higher education of women 
have been established in university towns or cities, and have 
availed themselves of the opportunity aSorded for instruction 
by professors of the neighboring university, and have been 
granted, under restrictions, use of the libaries, museums, etc, 
connected with it. £ach of these differs from the other in 
respect of its relationship to the university. The first estab- 
lished was that at Cambridge, Mass., in 1879, under the direc- 
tion of " The Society for the Collegiate Instruction fo» Women,"* 
which has, unfortunately, come to be known by the misleading 
title of " The Harvard Annex." Applicants for admission to 
the most advanced work of the institution are required to pas* 
the same examinations which admit young men to Harvard 
College, and these examinations are conducted in different 
parts of the country by local committees, under the auspices of 
The Society for the Collegiate Instruction for Women. Certifi- 
cates of proficiency thus gained admit the student to classical 
and scientific courses at the collegiate institution, correspond- 
ing to those given to young men at Harvard College.* 

* The graduate* of the Harvard Aqdcx are given a certificate Inuod h 
The Sodely for the Collegiate Inttructlon of Women. Although the wor' 
of the "Annex "ttudeots If acknowledged to t>e the ume aa that of tl 
Undents of the Univervity, and the ioicnictioa i* given by the Unlnnilj p(i 
fenon, the degrcet that are bcKowed on the graduates of the Unirei^ty ai 
refused to the graduatM of tb* " Anae& " It would eenalnly smb a att 



ETclrn College Priscetcm, N. J., founded under limilir eir< 

cnanUnces in i8S8, diffen from the institution at Cambridge 

hannf been fonnsUjr auiborixcd to confer desrees and to ex- 

crcnc all the fnndioos of A college for the higher education of 

It offendaancalaadKientificcoursescorresponding to those 
of the oeigbboring univcnitjr ; also elective and post graduate 

By resolution of the Board of Trustees of Princeton College 
my bclp nay be given to Evelyn College by the Princeton 
Faculty which does not interfere with their duties in the 
University, and the use of the libraries, museums, etc, is 

eoB^tfaai paritloa oa tbc part o( that ugnK Inttitotioa ir it ditctainied all 
babcf is the coU^iatc cdocuioa of women. Uut Hanrard unilea upon Itl 
fin-r (0 tlw« leaK. o( peitniltiag it* pro(es*ort to give thdr ralua< 
tola bmc to inHnicliaK " the fcntlc «£i.~ Hanrardappaieatly acltDowled^ea 
tka raparily of the foaale mind lo attain ta tbc beigbli of Harvard culture, 
bM atnard J coougli it wiiliboldi tbc only proper recognition which Nircly i* 
dM. aad itua{. 

TW foUowio^ ctftificaie inncd by The Society for the CoileEiate Instrnc- 
tioN of Women will Maa day, let nt hope, be pre*crved ^ly aa ■ curioua 

nu locirrv for the collegiate instruction of women. 

WaftaaanCamn tkat mndrr IJkt uftrriiitn tf Uii Stitlf. 

■ *■! lar Daoaaa or Bachum or Am /# sn/rrrri im Htn^nl Ctllip. aid 


laTBtuHin VnmmmormrintiamitJ lim frtmltlt it lifTteJ tji nr Prtil- 
A^m^Smrlawy am4 hy Ut CAa/nwa t/lii AttJtmlt Btmr^. Uu dmj «/ 


Ctmlrmma ^tkt Aetdtmit Stv^ 

b may be a<Utd at a cnamcntary that the Sai^ent priie for iB^o-qi waa 
vos tvartndentof the " Annex. " Tbii priie ii oticrcd to" Uodeixradu- 
aM* o/ Hanwd Collc^ and Rodenli punuiae counei ei ioitruclion in Cam- 
bndc*, ads (b« directioo of Tbc Society for tbe CollesiAte loitnictioo of 
Wamm." aad wm awarded lor, " Tbc bcM metrical Tcraum of tbc ninth oda 
•( tt« fawtb Book of Horace ~— Ed. 

* TIn Society for tbe CoUe^iale InitnictioD of Women, being duly iocor- 
pmMsd, eeold alto b« aolhortint to coofn' dcgrcca. But it wiacly prefen 
M BMaii tbe dma wbaa Harrard College will botow the Uniirenity degree ; 
maaawWla detag what Urn la its power to catabliih tbe identity of the work 
4mm !■ Ike t*v Bofl if . la Uw aaaa way aa Evdya, Baraa/d Colkga is 


The first college for women to confer degrees upon gradu- 
ates of an affiliated college is Columbia College, New York City. 
As the aim of this paper is rather to trace the growth of educa- 
tionat opportunity than to tabulate results, the various steps 
which led to the opening of Barnard College, New York City, 
in 18S9 arc given, as typical of the progressive nature of move- 
menis for opening the doors of established colleges to women. 
While many still regard it as wise to discriminate between the 
sexes in respect of opportunities, while others would instrnct 
them equally but separately, there is apparently an increasing 

duly incorporated and u authorized by the Rmnts of New Yule State ta 
confer upon tu graduates a degree of its own. But Baruaid prefers to mh% 
it* right and to accept the degree from the parent Univetsitj, Colpmtita 

There is too rauch pluming of one's self in thiscouutiy, on the right to coo- 
fer a college degree, a right granted by State Lc^slaturct Id a lameotably 
superficia] manner. I have received many commutucatiops grarely annoan^. 
ing that the degrees conferred by certain colleges are ererT way equal to 
those of the greatest and oldest institutions of learning in the coautnr— •> 
the Stale L^slature — by a special acl — ha* made them so" (!) I have' 
always failed to see the connection between acts of legislative bodies, and 
the true greatness of universities. 

The trustees of Evelyn College decided to give a teparate degree not 
because Princeton College refused to oSicialty recognize the work of the 
students of Evelyn, but because thus far (December, 1S90) no candidate has 
been received for a college course answering in every way to that for vUdi 
the Princeton degree i* given. Ttie trustees of Evelyn College give* ita 
graduates a degree which is granted for less work than is demanded bj> 
Princeton : (Music and Art are made regular elcctives, and Greek i* not 
demanded even for eatrance examinations). 

Even at the risk of repetition, I will here state the relative standing of tb* 
ttiree American affiliated colleges, I include the following colleges in the tent 
Affiliated College, because each seeks in some way to extend to women tht 
advantages that are offered to men by another (neigbboting) college. Soot 
one has given the raiian 4-'tlr< of the affiliated college to be " the econon] 
which applies to a new purpose resonrces already organized and tested." 

Harvard Annex, founded in 1S79, instruction received from Faculty of Hw 
vard College, admits special students in all departments, gives no degree % 
its own graduates, prefers to await official recognittoD from Harvard Collegt 

Evelyn College, founded in 1S8B. instructions received from Faculty < 
Princeton College, admits special students, give* its own degree, ha* Btn 
asked for the Princeton degree. 

. Barnard College, founded in 1889. instruction received from Faculty 1 
Columbia College, no special students admitted except in Laboratcry wo 
and Graduate department, degree* conferred by Colambia College. Tl 
only affiliated college in the world, so far a* I can learn, that has rre«i*> 
f*U »ffiiUI t^metim ud recognition from the Uaivosity with whldi It 


7 of tbeae wbo would ipplj to colleges, in general, what 
Ac late (ar«igbted PresidcDt Barnard of Columbia said of Uiat 
* r his charge. ** I regard the establishment of an annex as 
' ' ; onljr considered as a step toward what I think must, 
sooner or later, come to pass, and that is the opening of the 
CoOm pK^er to both sexes equally."* 

ElfoiU to gain for pronng women the advantages of Columbia 
College^ New York Citj, have been made at intervali ttncc 1873, 
vbea screral qualified jroung women applied for admission te" 
the otrilefe, mod one, a graduate of Michigan University, for 
■dmJMioB to the medical schooL A plea in their behalf was 
e befoR the facolty by Mrs. Lillie Devereux Blake, on the 
ad that the charter of the College declared that it was 
^Covaded fof the education of the youth of the city," and 
**Toath** includes both sexes. President Bamard and several 
o( ^ bcultj favored the adniuion of women as students, 
bat the conmittcc on education decided that any action was 

In December, 1876, a memorial was presented to the Board 
«f Trustees of Columbia College by " Sorosis," a well-known 
wooaa's club^ of the city, asking that young women should be 
admitted to the college classes. The memorial was laid on 
the table by a ananimous vole. 

Up to 1S79 women were infonnally admitted to the lectures 
of certain professors, during reguUr class hours. This was 
focfaiddea in 1879, not from any harm resulting, but because it 
vas discovered that the statutes (orbade any but regularly 
vatriculated students to attend lectures. This law had no 
Rferesce 10 women, but the trustees declined to change the 
letter of the law and women were banished. Three years later 
a notion made in the board that the statutes should be so 

*AllbeDfta tUi nmuk wu nadc b; lh« Ute Prcsidcal Barsanl, it did 
■oi *at« Iba twtfawnl of ibw vlko m>u£unle>l Ihe movciMDt 10 etiablUh 
Bmmi4 CoOm. Th* aiEliued mllesc i« oot alwiyi > mere " wep lovarJ 
— tdpotiaa : tbtn an bud* that belicn ttui iiutiiuiioiK sucb u the 
■SiJJWd eeOcp*, t^irtoa aod Ncwntum (ven their grujuam entiiled 10 tbe 
U ai T MMt y d^rcc), best mItc the problem o( Ihe colleeialc education of 
wuiuui t»4s]r. lutructiaa in DDder^T«du4le work ii pvta at the womcn'i 
«DlIcpB,aad bobtalnod not ooly from Dnivenitji profcuon. but alio from 
•o*> abia ■MMLu initnicton. But io ^'^'^K «ork, which it the real wotit 
«f A* U al vet si ty. mas *aA women arc moat properly allowed to attend tbe 

•-— ^ -■-— attba UnJTcnitr. Tbe Teaed problem of co.«ducali<Ml 

~~' qoaUoo aa It dcala with tbe onder^nduate work of 

men, or with th« unhcrtltr attd profeaaional uudid 

(iMttra ^a.— Ed. 


changed u not to proliibit the attendance of women, eondi* 
tionally, on certain courses of lectures was lost. But from t886 
■ women have beea admitted to lectures given on Saturday 
mornings, and two hundred ladies have listened weekly, and 
many more have desired admittance. 

In 1SS3 an association was formed in New York to promote 
the higher education of women. A petition signed by 1400 
persons, many of them of highest distinction in public and 
private life, and indorsed by President Barnard of^ Columbia, 
asked that the benefits of education at Columbia College be 
extended to qualifled women with as little delay aspossibTe. by ' 
admitting them to lectures and examinations. In June of that 
year, 1883, the trustees of Columbia College resolved that a 
course of collegiate Study, equivalent to the course given to 
young men, should be offered to such women as may desire it, 
to be pursued under the general direction of the faculty of 
the College. 

This resolve was, however, restricted by regulations which 
Memed to contradict both its spirit and its letter, since it 
narrowed the opportunity of women to that of getting; the re- 
quired instruction where ihey might, except at Columbia, which 
would, however, admit them to examinations to prove whether 
ornot they had done so. As these examinations were not limited 
to the subjects as treated in the courses of lectures, as were the 
corresponding examinations of matriculated students of the 
University, they were more difficult. In spite of the great diffi- 
culties to be encountered, and the very limited advantage to 
result, many young women 'were attracted by the offer. la 
1888 twenty-eight girls were availing themselves of this op- 
portunity for exammation tests of proficiency. In 1885 ine 
trustees of Columbia resolved to grant the degree of Bacheloi 
of Arts to women who had pursued for four years a course tf 
study fully equivalent to that for which the same degree i 
conferred in the school of arts. Those who had secured thi 
degree, or its equivalent (elsewhere), might study for highe 
degrees under the direction of the faculty of the College.* 

* These connes of examinatioDS were offered by Colamtria College for ( 
latidable purpoH of " raitJoc the uaDdard of female edncatioa." t^xtn 
frao) the mhiDtei of the Baud of Trustees : Kepoct of the Select Coam 
tec, March $, 1883.] NotwiihstandiDg the critidun and eloquent expoMt 
tkm of MH»e women wraed at the " cooiervacive" Board o( Tnutecs 
Colombia College, we must not forfpet that ColumbEa hai nerernfuied rf 
nttfnitUtt fir tftMil wi»Ht, It saw no logical pause between tba ackno 



So maaifest became the public demand for collegiate and 
post coUenate instruct ion,— nTrom graduates of the city Normal 
School (which bad 1600 pupils), from the pupils of the best 
dau of private schools, where, sometimes, not less than one 
(oonh were preparing for admission to some college,* and 
from graduates of other colleges, — that a movement was made, 
■a vbich the cfforu of leading men and women in New York City 
were conspicuous both for their unflagging zeal and for their 
judicious methods, to secure necessary funds to fuund and, at 
the ootict. to maintain a college for women whose professors 
aad iostructon should be those of Columbia, and upon whose 
graduates Columbia College should confer the same degrees as 
apoo bcr own. The woman who first approached the Trustees 
qI Columbia College with a plan to found an affiliated college 
ior woeoen was Mrs, Annie Nathan Meyer, who had been one 
of the first young women to take advantage of the course of 
csamiaatioas oSered by Columbia College. After the appeal 
for an affiliated college was made it was discovered that had 
Buch a pUn, supported by the proper persons, and bearing like- 
libood of success, been brought before the Board, it notild 
hare met with approval sonic years before. The former 
petitions had. however, asked for co-ed ucai ion, and at first there 
was considerable opposition to the " annex movement," as it - 
was called, on the part of those whose batlle-cry might have 
been almost said to have been " Co-education or no educa- 

Bui ihe wiicr policy prevailed, and it was acknowledged by 
the majority that "those co-educaiionalists who ignore tlii; an- 
aex project are butting their heads against a stone wall when 
,^ nicely iwardcd path lies before ihem." f Barnard College 
recxivrd official sanction from the Trustees of Columbia Col- 
tege. March, 1S89, was chartered by the Re;;ents of New 
Votk State, July, 1889, and formally opened October, 1889. 

■dcracmi ikai woomi could follow the eollesUtc courtc aad tbc coeTcrrin^ 
mk o£g»»l HLBClioa upoa mdi ■ coune 

Tim >aac Rrport goc* oo to uy : " and onerlng in liable acaJcmic honon 
«Bt! diiEiaclioBi to any »ha. on eiiminatioa, ahall be Tound to have punucd 
■Kk mi i *» af Mudj »ilb lucocsa.— Ili>. 

• Saa artick by Mn. Aoaic Nalhan Mtycr in Tht .Valiam, January 31, 
tUa. Tbm pctiuoD to tbc (lolumtMa BojrJ for oSiLial id&ctioa to open 
l^nmd CoUrjc «>■ Ur^j bated on ihii aiiiclc. 

I Sm actick bj Aaak Nalbaa Ueycr, in Umivrriilf, Februaiy 13, 1 8SS. 


Barnard College was appropriately named in grateful tribute to 
the late President Barnard of Columbia College. 

The great void that it was to fill appeared in many ways, — 
among others in the fact that the botanical and chemical 
laboratories which it established were the only ones in the city 
open to women. 

The trustees of Barnard, one half of whom are women, hope 
to find much of its usefulness in the encouragement and pro- 
vision for graduate work which it will offer to the hundred of 
women who are gathered in New Vork, in the punuince ot 
some profession. 


' The late Matthew Yassar, " recognizing in woman the sane 
intellectual constitution as in man," resolved to give a f^r 
chance to girls for a liberal education, under conditions in 
every way favorable to health. To this end he erected college 
and dormitory buildings in the midst of a lawn of two hundrnl 
acres, at Poughkeepsie. N. Y., with careful provision for pure 
air, good water, abundant sunshine, and good sewerage. He 
provided a gymnasium and provided for out of door sports 
He instituted a professorship of physiology and hygieDe„aod 
made its incumbent " resident physician" and supervisor of 
sanitary arrangements. 

In September, 1865, the institutiop received, upon examina 
tion, about 350 young women as students to a course of stud 
and mode of life determined ^y the trustees, who believed tbi 
"the larger the stock of knowledge, and the more thorough tl 
menial discipline a woman attains, the belter she is fitted fi 
any womanly position, and to perform any womanly duty 
home and in society," a position which the subsequent « 
periencc of this and kindred institutions has abundantly illi 

Up to 1S90, Yassar College has conferred the degree of A 
upon between 800 and 900 graduates. 

It has included in its corps of professors several womer 
distinguished ability — of whom we may name the late P 
Braishn of the department of mathematics, and the late P 
Mana Mitchell, who had not only a national, but a Europ 
reputation, as an astronomer. From the opening of theinsi 
tion till near the time of her death, in 18S9, she was the hea 
the department of astronomy and in charge of the excel 
observatory. Three women are serving on the Yassar boai 
trustees, and three on standing committees. 



Smith College wss founded in Northampton, Mass., bjr 
UiM Sophia ^ilh. of the o«ghboring town of Hatfield. 
Finding bersdf in possesaion of a large fortune to dispose of 
dbe tow coodkI with her pastor, Dr. John M. Green, as to the 
X ose to make of it He conferred, in her behalf, with the 
ding representadres of education, and the general opinion of 
the time was voiced bjr Dr. Edward Hitchcock. When Dr. 
Gfccn asked him, in iWt, " Would you dare to endow a col- 
lege for women ? ** he sud, " No ! The matter of woman's 
higher edacatiwi is still an eaperiment," Prudence seemed to 
cosa pd fvnher deliberation. Strong efforts were made to 
•ecarc the fand (or established colleges, and other schemes of 
beneficence were considered, but by t&68 Miss Smith and Dr. 
Crcea. to whom she had continuously turned for counsel, had 
oo^ to the conviction that in no other way could the money 
be >o welt iorcsted for the benefit of human kind, as in found* 
iog a college which should give young women opportunities for 
edocatioo equal to those which established colleges offered to 
jroang men. The plan was at once developed, and the college 
at Northampton is to-day Miss Smith's noble monument. 

Its high aim has been well sustained, and more than five 
hundred students arc named in the Annual Report of 18S9. 

Tvo thirds of the faculty are women, to whom, however, the 
title of professor is not accorded. This is not thought to im- 
ply lack of competency to fill the positions usually so designated. 
Neither can the current report be credited, that the President 
A>cs not consider it altogether womanly to bear such title, 
■incc Smith College conferred upon Dr. Amelia B. Edwards, 
the English Egyptologist, the honorary degree of LL.D., and 
«Ml7 the highest courtcqr could be intended. 


WcUesley College, Wellesley, Mass., fifteen mites Trom Boston, 
was foanded ia 1875 by the benefaction of Henry F. Durani. 
The parposc of the trustees was "the establishment of a col- 
lefe in which girls should have as good opportunities for 
h^hcr education as the best institutions afforded to young 
■en. and to do so with due regard to health.' They held that 
**ic is not hard study but violation of law that injures health." 

The college is beautiful for situation, with extensive grounds, 
fikc an Encluh park, varied by oak woods and elm-shaded 
aHaac% and Jarlnding Lake Waban, which furnishes ample 


facilities for rowing and ilcating. Thousands of rhododendrou 
and other flowering shrubs have been set to brighten the 
' grounds, and the spring turf blossoins in crocuses and now- 

Amid all this seductive beauty, suggestive of dreaming rue 
noble structures, of solid and eL'gant proportions, dedicated to 
successful work. Within them the practical and the «athctie 
are cliarmingly combined. Music has its temple, art has its 
ministry, science its every facility, and the air of A happy borne 
life broods over all. 

Thoroughness and system are manifest everywhere. This is 
not a college of yesterday. Nowhere are the latest methods 
and the best facilities more promptly welcomed. One wanders 
charmed and glad through its fine library, its extensive labora- 
tories, its dining-roon, where a special grace of living comes 
with the refined service of the students themselves, its dainty 
parlors and reception-rooms, and, seeking some flaw to prove 
It real, finds it, at last, in the fact that only half the yoath of 
the land — only girls are admitted to it. 

From the opening of the college it has been under the 
presidency of women. Miss Ada Howard, a graduate of 
Mount Holyoke Seminary, was succeeded by Miss Alice Free- 
man, who received the degree of" Doctor of Philosophy," from 
her alma mater, the University of Michigan,and that of Doctor 
of Literature from Columbia College. In 1887 Miss Palmer 
resigned the presidency of Wellesley College, but as Mrs. AliD 
Freeman Palmer continues to serve it as a member of th 
board of trustees, which ouf of twenty-five members has ob 
third women members. Miss Freeman was succeeded by tl 
present President, Miss Helen A. Schafer, a graduatcof Obeil 


Cornell University is one of the national colleges foaoj 
upon the land-grant of 1863. The share of New York < 
nearly a million acres, and, by act of the Legislature of I 
York, passed in 1865, the university was incorporated, and 
income from the sale of this land was given it for its mu 
nance. There were certain conditions, the principal oneb 
the donation of $500,000 to the university by Esra Coi 
This was made, together with 100 acres of land. Inaimpit 
comprehensive phrase, Mr. Cornell said : " I would fona 
■"■riiution where an/ person can find instruction k 

Mivenity vss opened, October, 1868, and, happily, it 
h nyiDg, that by act of the trustees, passed in April, 
Women are admitted to the university on the !.ai;ik; terms 
except that they must be at least seventeen yc-urs old." 
M authority of the Dean of the faculty, Mr. H. S. 
(agiist, 1890 : "As to the status of young women at 

th^ enjoy all the advantages which arc open to young 
dtidiBg the nniveraity ichoUrsbip and fellowships. We 
At feUowshipt which arc open to graduate students, 
Ibjr vote of the faculty, not only to our own graduates, 
[nduues of other institutions. In 1SS8-89, three of 
diowahips were secured by young women : one in 
; floe in architecture ; and one in mathematics. The 
~ e Fellows bappeo to be all young men ; but this 
lent, and the question of sex cannot be said to 
■dcml in tbe award. There were established, a few 
{0^ three Sage scholarships, set apart exclusively for the 
ivnea who attended the university ; they were also 
(or tbe aiz uaivenity scholarships ; so that at times 
Ire oat of tbe nine scholarships might be held by young 

Tboe Sage acholarships have recently been converted 
vcnitf acholarshiM open to all applicants without dis- 
at SEK. Sage College was buitt and endowed by Hon. 
W. Sa^ in 1875, at a cost of $350,000, and was given 
dl Uoiversity as a place of residence for young women 
, The gift had but one condition, that " instruction 

afforded to young women by Cornell University, as 
idthorouch as that afforded to vounir men." 


doors of all its colleges for the admission of women on the same 
terms as men. No especial rules are made because of the pres- 
'ence of both sexes in the university, the young women having 
every right that is accorded to young men. We have never had 
difficulty growing out of the presence of both texea in the insti- 
tution. The young ladies are as every depamnent 
as the young men." 

It is not strange that women's benefactions Kt to such an in- 
stitution. In addition to its general libraiy of about 35,ooo 
volumes, and a valuable professional library m connection with 
the college of medicine, in 1SS7, Mrs. Dr. G. M. Reid made a 
gift to the college of the great historical library of Leopold von 
Ranke. In 1889, Mrs. Harriet Leavenworth, of Syracuse, pre- 
sented to the college of fine arts the Wolff collection of engrav- 
ings, containing i a,ooo sheets of rare and costly etchings of en- 
gravings from the great masters of art in all ages. The " John 
Crouse Memorial College for Women " was presented to Syra- 
cuse University in 1889. It is said to be the finest college 
building in the world. 


Bryn Mawr College, situated at Bryn Mawr, ten miles from - 
Philadelphia, Pa., was endowed "by Dr. Joseph W. Taylor of 
Burlington, N. J., of the society of Friends, to afford to women 
opportunities for study equal to those given in the best men's 
colleges. It was opened in 1S85, and admits to lectures and* 
class work three grades of students, — viz., graduates, under- ' 
graduates, and hearers. - The entrance examinations are strict, 
and graduate students have from the first formed a large 
proportion of the students, — from one sixth to one fifth of the 
whole number. The time of graduation is determined only 
by the completion of the prescribed course. 

The students at Bryn Mawr College enjoy exceptional 
opportunity for development of character through the impor- 
tant habit of self -direct ion. Notably wanting here are the 
customary restrictions on freedom of movement. For example^ 
the student may choose her rising, retiring, and study hours ; 
she may go in and out of Philadelphia at her discretion. This 
recognition of the student as personally responsible has been 
attended, it is said, with the happiest results. 

Five fellowships are annually awarded : one in Greek, one in 
English, one in mathematics, one in history, and one in biol- 
ogy. The Bryn Mawr European fellowship is awarded annu- 
ally to « member of the graduating class for excellence in 


The boMer receive* %^oo, applicable to the ex- 
^aes of one ycmr's reiidi : *t tome foreign univenity. 
'X'l^ff ^r***>*^ number of itn i enrolled (luring the year i88fU 
I jaa ■ s6. At the cloi tne scholastic year the degree of 
j^_ '«r*s conferred np twenty-four candidates. All but 
B^ Kaid t>e«i for four yean in attendance at the college, and 
be prcsidcot's report sa -s : "All of them left the coUege in 
hrlr best stale of health. ' 

14o pezvon is appointed a member of the faculty who is not, 
^ e ¥ «g y way, qualified to direct graduate as well as uader- 
padoKtc study. There is absolutely no difference made in the 
■■larira paid to the men women employed in instruction ; 
ifci IS is no difference ma e in academic rank. 

Tbtf present Board ol Trustees, twelve in number, are all 

■MCB, appointed by the founder of the college. Should ft 

vacancy oocor it might be filled by a woman. 


Swarthmore College, ten miles from Philadelphia, Pa., was 
b>anded in 1864 by mcmben of the religious society of Friends, 
for the higher education of both sexes. The two sexes arc 
aboot equally represented, not only among the pupils, but in 
the oAcen of (he corporation and in the officers and com- 
nliecs of the board ; in this latter respect differing from the 
ncord oi any other college. 

Tbc number of female students in the collegiate department 
far tbe scholastic year 188&-89, was 80. 

The college confers the degrees of Bachelor of Arts, of 
Lciten.*od of Science, on completion of the corresponding 
GOsrsei, and, conditionally, the Masters' degrees, A.M., M.L., 
M ^. and also the degree of C-E., in the engineering depart- 


Tbc first admission of women to special courses in the 
Vnirenity of Pennsylvania was in 1876 when, on application, 
tvo youog women of Philadelphia were granted, after examin- 
acioo and payment of a fee.the full privileges of the analytical 
lafcorxtory, and during that year were regular students, passing 
Uc final eaamioations with the junior class. The next year, 
X^JT^^ ^^"^ *^'* admitted 10 lectures, laboratory work, 
III * iTJnni. and final examinations by the department of organic 
% In iiiial yj In the years directly following, the physical labora- 
■oay raooTcd two jronag women, and upon lectures on modem 


history, opened to all fitted by previous study to appreciate 
, them, from twenty-four to thirty ladies were regular atteodants. 
In all departments the ladies received the highest courtesj 
and appreciation. One of the number writing of it sayi : ** You 
have (arte blantkt to say all you will in this respect, — ^you could 
not say too much." 

Through the favor of the dean of the college department 
the following very complete statement is presented of the 
progress toward giving to women the advantages of this veim- 
able university, which has been gathering its rich resources 
since lU foundation in 1746. 

In iS;6 & deputmcnt of muiic was establisbed, in wUch advanced iDAnifr 
dm in tlK tbemy of niulc wu given, and trom tbe beginning wooiea wera 
adroltled to tbe clawet. While a decree was dluinable, under ootua coo- 
ditions of post gnutuaEe node, none luve been awarded. 

In 187S Mn. BIoomReld Moore presented $10,000^ tbe Incona ef wMA 
was to pay the tuition fees of women who sought to qualiff tbemtdvca for 
teachiof, in any of the courses open to them. Certain special courses «f 
lectures and laboratory work, c. %., English history, cbcmutiy, mlDenlOQr, 
were open to tbe public on a fee, and of course women wcpe included, a Inr 
availing- themselves of the opportuniEy ; but tbeae were not matriculated, nor 
entered upon the roll of students. 

In iSSo Miai Alice Bennetc. M.D., received the degree Ph.D, in tbe Av» 
Diary Faculty of Medidne, — a two years' course in certain sciences open tA 
graduates in medidne. 

In iSSe Mrs. Carrie B. Kilgore received tbe degree LL.B., 00 conpletl^ 
the full two yean' course in the law department. 

In neither of these cases was there toy fomuJ action opening the coums 
specified to women. They were itm;jly accepted as students by tbe scvoal 
deans, and when they had complied with the terms were, witliootdcnuir, a^ 
mitied to their degrees. 

Tbe School of Biology, 
has from tbe first been 
pwtion among tt* students, and some of them have provecl to be of tupaior 
ability. Its force and material are uMd In the new four yean' courve tn 
natural biitocy, one of tbe college courses, but to this women are not yet 

Applications were often made for the admission of women to the medical 
department, but trustees and faculty concurred In always refusing iL Thb 
was tbe more unanimously done since tbe establishment of tbe admitabli 
Women's Medical College, which would have been fatally injured by thi 
opening of our doors to women. 

Request* to open the college department to women have been periodical! 
made for many years. At first the faculty positively declined to rccommeo 
this, but gmdnalty opposition to the proposal weakened, until last ycai(iUf 
90) a bare majority voted the other way. 

Before the trusiees liad taken action upon the nutter. CoL Joseph I 
Bennett came forward aod presented two valuable houses, adjacent to tl 
nnlvertily, aitd a sum of $10,000 for establishing a college for women at 
department of the university. The trustees accepted the offer, and aft 
camnl couUnation and coasultatloo with proownenl wooien adneaiof^ 4 


ddad, wiik CoL Bcanctt'* fall appraml, lo make tUt • post graduate d^ait> 

MM «f A* bighot r>^ 

III !■ !,■■<■ Ml I w ud fovcnmeat M« entnutcd toa board of minagen, odc 
kilf weacik Br Um --*~" of iIqi tbc depajtmcnt will be open ; nok- 
Wwkklh* Faotllyof PhiloMpbjr, firing the dcKrae Ph.D. (which ii no 
IkmvkIim bjr tho AuiHafy Facuiijr o( HmUgIim}, anl having ipecial courwa 
■ n^T-^''t M a dtflM^ It b boped that an ampla number oT free icbolar- 
drioi win la pfttvUcd. TIm Facalty o/ Philoaopbx it frcelf open to women, 
aad p « u wd (A fi*« Pb.D. desiMs; Of connc, when tM depaitmcnt for 
mmmtm m «fKMd n wiD prMtkallr be in tUi faculty. 

Is iltf-qo thoB ware tbc fbllowias woom uudeots ; College, Depart* 

~ ' " ' " ' ~ 'v a dmee ; B)olo£r, 13, not candidatei 

It of Madidaa. I, candidate for ScB. 


The Uunchusiettt Institute of Technolo{fy was chartered 
ia iMt. Bjr « special rote of the Corporation in December, 
1S70. a fndnate of Vassar College was admitted as a special 
sUKlcnt in cbemistr^. Id June, 1873, the lady took the final 
cxaminalioiu, corering two years of professional work. As 
00 taition fee was charged no precedent was established by this 
action. In 1873, at the request of the Woman's Educational 
Association, and with its co-operation, the woman's labora- 
tory for chemistry and botany was established, to which 
voiDCD came as special students. Although they had not 
been recognized during their course as regular students, two-- 
women received the Institute Degree in 1881-83. 

lo 1883 final action was taken, opening all the courses to 
women oa precisely the same terms as to men. Women now 
(o into the laboratories with the regular classes. 

The foregoing sketch of woman's educational progress, 
vfaUc extended beyond due limit, leavesout the most encourag- 
ti^ record, — as it is the latest, — the story of what women are 
doing for themselves, and, no less, for humanity. No one can 
fairly estimate the educational forces of the coming decades 
vbo docs not take into consideration the varied means of 
(rowih outside of both school and college ; means which do 
ao( displace the need of these, but rather emphasize it. We 
May not even touch upon these here, but from a moment's 
cnmprebensive glance backward we may dimly conceive the 
ionnnl otitlook. 

It is not yet a century from the time when New England 
town* were voting " not to be at any expense to school girls," 
aod lo ! as « type of to-day, Wellesley College, with a million 
and a half dollars wisely invested to entice girls from the re> 
■otol ialaada of the sea, to love and to get learning. For the 


unlettered housekeeper, filching time from her heavy labon to 
gather the children about her knee in the " Dune school," ve 
' have the young but learned president of the college of nearly 
700 students ; or the woman directing, as its head, the orderly 
movement of a thousand or more pupils in the great city gram, 
mar schoul, which may represent a half score of nationali- 
ties. For the girl accustomed to denial, and deprecatingly 
asking for a little instruction when the boys shall have had 
their fill, ve have the bright-faced, trustful young woman who 
expects and will get ere long the best the world has to offer. 

In a country which finds its safety in the intelligence of iU 
people and its peril in their ignorance, it behooves its thinkers ' 
' to consider whether it is not too great a risk to leave four 
fifths of the instruction of youth in the hands of a sex of io- 
fcrior education. The distinguished president of Harvard 
College, called attention some two years since, in an article 
in TAe AllantU Monthly, to the condition of inferiority of our 
secondary schools, and he proposed remedying it by dis- 
placing a part of the female teachers. It would seem more 
in accordance with the spirit of the time, and certainly more 
practicable, to open to them the closed doors of opportunity and 
fit them to meet the demand made upao them. 

The terror of the learned woman which, in one form or 
another, has had its many victims, has well nigh passed. Evoi 
the more timid and conservative are learning that it is the 
ignorant, not thie instructed woman, that confuses affaira ud 
works disaster. " A little knowledge is," beyond doubt, "a 
dangerous thing "; but onlybecause it is little. 

It is told of Saint Avila that she gained her renown by this 
marvel. At one time, when frying fish in the convent, she was 
seiied with a religious ecstacy, yet so great were her powen 
of self-control that she did not drop the gridiron, nor let tlu 
fish burn ! 

So the educated woman of the nineteenth century has quiete' 
many grave apprehensions as to the consequences of mue 
learning to her sex. After the manner of Saint Avila, she do( 
not permit her intellectual ecstacy to blind her to her simp 
duties. She has abundantly proved that she can cany t) 
triple responsibility of loving and serving and knowing. 



Mo fonnil historj o( the movement in the West on behalf 
of tbe higher edocatioQ of women has been published. The 
^tsteriaU for this paper h&ve been derived from the reports 
moed nnder the auspices of the Bureau of Education ; from 
tbe catalogues of institutions open to women ; from various 
tBonograpbs, some of which recite the history of a single college 
(like "Oberlin, its Origin, Progress, and Results," by Pres. J. 
H. Fairchild), others of which present the educational history 
of a State (hke " Higher Education in Wisconsin," by Protcs- 
aors Allen and Spencer); from a miscellaneous collection of 
laccaUarcatc sennoos and congratulatory addresses delivered 
before the graduating classes and the alumnx associations of 
■tany colleges ; from old files of newspapers, and from scrap 
books which for a series of years have b^en collecting the rec- 
ords of contemporary eETort along the lines of higher educa- 
tiam i from the biographies of distinguished educators in our 
cocotrj ; and from scores of tetters, many of T/hich have 
been written by college presidents and professors in response 
to nj own inquiries, while others have been placed at my dis- 
posal by Dr. Carroll Cutler, formerly President of Adelbert 
Coliege. No stronger evidence of the interest felt in the 
kigbcr education of women could be found than the cordial, 
gcTi0tnu aaswen to my inquiries, which have come -from the 
ogciaU of scorcsof institutions extending from the Ohio to the 
Pacific I am withheld from naming gentlemen to whom I am 
ao deeply indebted only by the fact that a list of those who have 
cooneously replied to my appeals for information would occupy 
mon space than I can aSord to give out of tbe limited number 
«( F*fei allotted nw in this volume. 


The Western St&tes and Territories in the order of 
admission into the Union under their present names, int 
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Michigan, Iowa, Wisca 
' California, Minnesota, Oregon, Kansas, Nevada, Nebraska, 
' orado. North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and Waal 
ton — eighteen States ; and Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming — 
Territories. The changes undergone and the relations 
taihed by each of the above in its progress toward its pr 
independent condition are exhibited in Table I. given ia A[ 
dix B. In this vast territorial expanse, embracing commiu 
just being bom into statehood, together with others which 
enjoyed that dignity for periods varying from ten to ei] 
' seven years, one has an opportunity to witness almost i 
phase of the struggle for the higher education of women. 

Conditions that ceased to exist in one State so lon^ ago 
they had almost passed from the memories of their vici 
arose at a later period to vex other States. Questions lonj 
tied in one community became living issues in another ; 
such is the reluctance of the human being to learn froa 
experience of others, that these questions are still disct 
with as much vivacity, not to say acrimony, as if the^ 
never been settled. 

Higher education in the West has been fostered by thi 
tional government, by the governments of the separate Si 
by many different denominations of the Christian church, 
by individual enterprise and devotion. 

As a large number of the strongest institutions in the \ 
open to women, owe their crigin to provisions made In 
general government, it is fitting to direct our first inquti 
the relations of that government to education in the \ 
On May 35, 1785, the Continental Congress passed an < 
nance disposing of lands in the Northwestern Territoi] 
which it was decreed that : " There shall be reserved Lot 
16 of every township for the maintenance of public icl 
within said township." On July 13, 1787, the famous ( 
nance relating to the government of the territory northwc 
the Ohio River was passed ; in it occurs the passage whi 
so frequently cited in proof that the United States goTem 
stands pledged to aid the higher as well as the lower cd 
tion : vis., " Religion, Morality, and Knowledge being aece 
to good government and the happiness of mankind, id 
and the means of education shall forever be encoiui) 
Ten days later. Congress passed another ordinance filin 
terms of sale for the tract of land purchased by the 


Coapujr. This ordiiunce itipuUted not only that section i6 
of eierr towubip should be reserved for the maintenance of 
■cbool^ bat also that two complete townships shall be given 
papetnallj for the pnrposet of as university, to be laid off by 
the poicluser or purehasers as near the center as may be, so 
Uut the mtw shall be good land, to be applied to the intended 
otyect br the Le{^sUtare of the. Sute:" 

Id these ordinances of 1787, we find the germ of all our 
State Univeraties in the WesL 

Owia^ to the grant secured by Congress in its contract with 
tihe Ohio Company, the Ohio University at Athens, O., was 
feoDded. It was first chartered as the "American Western 
UBmniiy." The name implies that its friends expected it to 
apply the edocatiooal needs of the then vague " West "; but 
oolj a year after the admission of. Ohio as a State, i.e-, in 1804, 
tbe University received a new charter from the State LegisU- 
tue, trnder its present name. This precedent of Congres- 
soaal giants for the endowment of institutions of higher educa- 
tiofi has been followed by the government to the present time. 
Som^mes the two townships of land have been given en. 
Mmt, and some times they have been so given as to permit the 
the location of university lands in difTerent portions of the 
State ; sometimes they have been kept as an endowment of the 
State University ; sometimes they have been in part devoted . 
to the founding of the university. But in every Slate and 
Territory in the above list, a university exists which owes its 
origin and its maintenance in part to the government of the 
United Sutes. 

A study of the history of the State Universities shows that in 
nany States a strange hostility existed toward them. A feei- 
ng that by appropriating lands for their endowment, the gen- 
esal goremment was encouraging the growth of an aristo- 
cratic class of learned men, seems not to have been uncommon 
in tbe early day^ This appears to be one valid explanation of 
the reluctance of Sute Legislatures to make generous or per- 
nancDt appropriations for the support of such universities. 

Tbe truth is, however, that the State Universites are the most 
democr^Uic of all the institutions of higher learning ; this truth 
is now generally perceived, and the institutions arc growing pro- 
portionally popular. It is due to their necessarily democratic 
nature that they are now without exception open to women. 
Their chief feeders are the public high schools, with which 
they mast maintain direct and constant communication. Their 
chief fi««fM^«i support comes directly and equally from all 


property-holding citizens ; either bjr appropriation £roi 
public treasury, varying in amount with each Legislature, 
a fixed, ipecial tax, of a certain percentum of all ssa 
property. Finding their students in the public high sc 
which in the West aie almost universally co-educationa 
their support in the public treasury, into which Bow taxes 
the property of women and girls as welt ai upon that o 
and boys, the wonder is that the State Universities did noi 
their origin admit women as students. 

The following uble will show when each Sute Univerni 
chartered, opened, and opened to women. The list of Sta 
this table is presented as above in the cbrooologjcal on 
their admiisioa to the Union. 


A. >»( Athens t804 iSoa tSTi 

"'"■^IColnmbui...... i8jo 1873 tSTJ 

IndUiM iSm. 1834 1B67 

Illmou 1S67 i36S 1871 

Missouri 1839 1843 1B70 

Michicaa 1B37 1841 1870 

Iowa 1847 i860 1860 

WitcoiMia 1S48 1S49 -{1868, 

California t863 1869 1870 

MiDDCSOta i36S 1S69 1869 

Oreeoo '. 1S76 1S76 187O 

Kansas 1B61 1B66 1866 

Nevada 1864..^ 1874 1B74 

Nebraika 1869 1S71 1871 

Colondo 1B61 1877 1877 

North DakoU 1883 1S84 1&S4 

South Dakota iS6a iBSj iB&s 

Montana 18S4 1883 1U3 

Washington 1861 iS6a.. 

Uuh, DcMtet iBjo iSjo iBjo 

A glance at the table will show that the periods of turn 
ing which these universities received men only, vary fron 
to sixty-two jrears, that but one of those opened pnor to 
has t>een from the outset co-educational ; that all opened 
to t86t became CO- education al between 1861 and 18^1 : aa< 
all organised since 1871 started as co-ed u cat ion al instital 

National government made additional provision for ) 
education by an act usually referred to as " The Agrin 
College Act of 1863." By this act each State received ; 
acres of land for each Senator and Representative to «j 


was entitled in the United Statet Congreu, "the proceeds to 
be applied to the muntenance of at least one college in each 
Scale,'"' without excluding other scientific and clasaical stndiei, 
and iocladiag niUiuiy uctics, to teach tuch branchei ai are 
■dated to agriculture and the mechanic arts," Under this 
act there have been esublithed in the territory discussed in 
tkn chapter, since i86s, fourteen colleges of the character 

la Ohio, Wisconsin, California, Minnesou, Oregon, Nevada, 
and Nebraska such institutions exist as Departments of the 
Suae University, and, like all its other departments, admit 

In Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Michigan, Iowa. Kansas, and 
Colorado, such institutions, under various names, as " Agricul- 
twal College, " ** Industrial and Mechanical College," " College 
of Applied Science," etc, enjoy an independent organization, 
ID some States loosely connected with, in others entirely scpa- 
■ate from, the State University. 

These institutions are authorized to give degrees appropriate 
to the courses of study pursued in them, and they are likewise 
open to women. The act of i86> gave a distinct impulse to 
tbc higher education of women in the West, for reasons to be . 
bereafter mentioned. 

Although the germ of a Stale University was secured by the ~ 
aaiional government lo each of ihe twenty-one Stales and 
Territories in our list at or prior to the time of its admission, 
ia atany Instances the State action relative to these institutions, 
•poa which the government aid had been conditioned, was 
posipooed for a long series of years. In the mean time the 
desire for the higher education was stimulated, and opportuni- 
bes for obtaining it were provided by the churches. 

Appendix B. Table II., to this article, gives a list of i65in5iitu. 
tioos, within my prescribed territor)-, open to women, which are 
of sufficient importance to be included in the tables of "Colleges 
of Liberal Arts," published by the United Suies Commis- 
sioner of Education, in his Report for 18S8-S9 (taken from the 
advance sheeu). Of these, 45 are non-securian. The remain- 
iag lie arc distributed among the various denominations as 

Methodist Episcopal, 31 ; Baptist, 16 ; Presbyterian, 14 ; 
CoBgregaiional, 13 ; Christian, 10 ; United Brethren, 7 ; Luth- 
craa, 6 ; United Presbyterian. 4 ; Reformed, 3 ; Friends, 3 ; 
Cafl^rtaad Presbjrierian. 1 ; U. E. South. > ; Uoiversalist, a ; 
Scnaik Day Baptist, i ; Methodist Protestant, 1 ; Evangelical 


Association, i ; Brethren, i ; Church of God, i ; New Church, 
I ; ProtesUQt Episcopal, i. 

At the present time one frequently hears people deprecate 
the effort to maintain so large a number of colleges. It is 
asserted truly that the distribution of patronage among so 
many, necessarily prevents any from attaining commanding 
influence. Especially do the advocates of non-sectarian educa* 
tion recommend that the weaker institutions be closed, that 
their properties be sold, and that effort be concentrated upon 
the feiv stronger ones. The arguments by which this recoiU' 
mendatioQ is sustained are sound. 

If the financial support, tlic love, iho loyalty, the ambition 
and the students that are distributed among the thirty-oii 
colleges of Liberal Arts in the State of Ohio, could be unite 
in the support of any one of the number, the fortunate recipiei 
might soon rank with the great universities of our countr 
nay, of the world. But however desirable such a conccnirati< 
of patronage ultimately may be, one cannot read the history 
the educational work of the churches, without feeling it 
" Wisdom is justiiied of her children." 

It is true that many of these colleges were founded in i 
interests of sectarian theology, rather than of liberal cultu 
that they were all in some degree, some of them in very la 
degree, regarded and used by their supporters as the it 
available instruments in the labor of securing proselytes to 
particular school of Christian faith in M.hose name (hey v 
planted. In the degree t^ which these institutions have i 
tured sectarian zeal, emphasized distinctions in minor point 
doctrine, and strengthened the barriers between denominati 
it must be conceded that their influence has been benum 
and narrowing ; and in this degree the^ have tended fron 
stead of toward culture, whose mission is to broaden 
quicken instead of to narrow and benumb. 

In spite of this limitation upon the work of denominat 
colleges, they merit the profoundest respect and gratitu> 
the public. A large proportion of these institutions we 
tablished when the wilderness was being cleared and tettl 
It is related by its historian that the site of Ripon C 
was chosen by two enthusiasts in the cause of higher educ 
in the year 1850, when the State of Wisconsin was bv 
years old, when "there were but fourteen rude buildings 
village of Ripon," and when but a single year bad elapsec 
the first clearing on the village site had been made. A 
theK brave men applied for « charter for a cc^llege ; «j 



of the coipontion was declared to be, "To found, es- 

lad Mintain at RipoD, in the county of Fond du Lac, 

ofleambgof the highest order, embracing also 

k desutBtent for preparatory instruction. " 

ws is hardly an exceptional, but a typical instance. 
TW people vere few, scattered, and poor. Communication 
between idaces remote from each other was slow and uncertain. 
Hcaasof traTcl and transportation were limited to the pack 
Wk, the piiTate wagon, the suge coach, and the flat>boat. 
U poterty bad not rendered it impossible for the pioneers to 
iMarthe expense' of sending their children on long and slow 
jMiKys, to distant colleges, the time consumed in such jour- 
■en and the anxiety incident to separation, in the absence 
^say ateuis of frequent and speedy communication, would 
■>*> prohibited it 

Forty years ago, in all of the territory covered by the twenty ' 
"*c States and Territories under consideration, twenty-five 
''^■gD in most of it, and so lately as ten years ago in much 
"■(.Uie time, fatigue, and expense which a dweller in a remote 
""wof a county incurred in traveling to its county scat, was 
'l^'K ihaa be wilt now espend to reach the State capital, 
uadcr such conditions the question with the pioneer was not ' 
*'Kther he should send his children to a near or to a distant 
'^'I'le, but whether he should send them to the near college - 
"to Bone. 

"Tke influence of these 165 colleges upon the life of the Wcsl- 
"> States cannot be measured by the number of their graduates, 
y h y adding to this number those who have attended the col- 
*(Q one or more terms. 

^ presence of a college, with its educated faculty, in any 
|°|^aDity, modifies the tone of its intellectual and social life. 
^ coUegea have been centers of leavening influence in the 
*^ Slates. While recognising this with gratitude, one can also 
^ tlut the conditions which justified and demanded the multi- 
pication of these small colleges have ceased to exist, and that 
'wdiffereat conditions which now prevail counsel denominations 
*^ consolidate their weak insiitutions, and to concentrate their 
<I>npated forces upon a few strong ones. The present means 
of speedy and certain communication and transit enable a strong 
eaOege, with high standards and an able faculty, to bring its 
iifliieace to bear upon all paru of a State and to command the 
fMraoage of its remotest comer. 

Tbat the tendency is toward concentration of effort is indt- 
CBicd by the Year Books of the deoominations for iMS-S^' 


In studying the edncitioiul work of the charchei, one cut- 
not fail to discern th« results of creeds snd halHU oif wonhia 

In a sketch of this character it would be unjust to withhold 
the fact that the colleges under Ifethodist coDtrol bmve been 
generally first and most generous in opening their opportoiii- 
ties to women ; and that they are also oonipicuotu amoBf the 
colleges that include women in tia^x faeultiet and in thcit 
boards of trustees. 

The progresuveneu of Uetbodiita in r^ard to the edocK 
tion of women is evinced not only in their co-edneatinnal col 
leges, but also in institutions fonoded by then for the e 
education of women. 

The latest report of the United States ( 
Education contains over two hundred institutions for the supi 
rior education of women. The litf includes colle|;es and sen 
naries entitled to confer degrees, and a few seminaries, who 
work is of equal merit, which do not give degrees. Of the 
more than two hundred institutions for the education of worn 
exclusively, only 47 are situated within the territory here d 
cussed. Of these 47. but 30 are chartered with authority 
confer degrees. Of these 30, 7 are non-sectarian ; the remt 
der arc distributed among the denominations as follows : 

Presbyterian, 7 ; Methodist Episcopal, 5 ; Baptist, 3 ; Cb 
tian, 3 ; ProtesUnt Episcopal, 1 ; Conpjregational, i. 

The religious affiliations of the remaining four have not b 

The extent to which th* higher education of wome 
in the West identified with co^ucation, can be seen 
comparing the two statements above given. Of the total 
higher institutions receiving women, and of the total 195 
institutions which conler the regular degrees in arts,aci( 
and letters, upon their graduates, i6j are co^ucational. 
most necesMrily, therefore, the most important discu 
in this article will be that of co-education. 

Before approaching it, however, some space mnst b 
voted to women's college* in the West. Almost without e 
tion they include preparatory departments ; very gen 
the attendance in the preparatory department exceeds ( 
the collegiate; frequently members of the faculty divide 
attention between preparatory and collegiate classes ; 
ally the courses of study offered are leu numerous an< 
complete than those offered in colleges of liberal t: 
men ; most of these institutions have paltry or no endow 

With all these limiutions, some of them do much crei 


««i ; bn^ at present, they occupy « rather vague, indefinite 
VotitioB between "the ladies' seminary" of thirty years ago 
aad ibc modem college^ Quoting from the United Slates 
Cuwmiiiioaer of Education (Report for 1887-S8): "The 
■djidnieDt of studies is evidence of a double purpose in these 
■uiiuioas. On the one hand they have endeavored to meet 
l^incTal demand with respect to woman's education. On 
(^ other they have sought to maintain that higher ideal which 
*Mld appropriau for women as well as for men the advan- 

3|aof the kind of instruction and training approved, by wise 
Oft aad long experience^ as the best for ment^U discipline and ' 
A doable purpose, when its parts are, as in this instance, to 

* degree contradictory, imposes impossible tasks. A process 
«f iilltB|is oow goingon among these institutions. Some of 
l*naur will doubtless be absorbed by stronger ones having 
1^ Haw denominational support. Some, whose strength is 
*J|dy in their preparatory departments, will find their 
'''■Bite place in the lists of secondary schools ; and, ceasing; 
^ ompflc with colleges, will do an important and much 
"ctded work in preparing students to enter college. Otiiers, 
''"xlr strongest in their collegiate departments, pledged by 

* 'wble past to achieve a corresponding future, will persist 
u tophuiiing their real collegiate side until at last they 
^'^^ an absolute separation between their preparatarj- and 
twr collegiate work, and can take rank with genuine colleges 
•flii^ral arts. 

. la this sketch it is impossible to give the history of all these 
"xuBtioni ; but among colleges characterized from birth by 

* 'iOfTjJ and progressive spirit may be mentioned " The Cin- 
cJBBui Wcslcyan Woman's College. " This institution was 
S^cml in 1841, and claims to be " the first liberal co'Icsiaie 
l^ilution in the world for the exclusive education of women." 
pis claim sounds somewhat boastful, but a perusal of the 
d^'cusions which were called forth by the establishment of 
^college, will convince one that its undertaking was novel 
*>d quite foreign to the thought of its public, if not, indeed, 
1>ile unprecedented in the world's history. Dr. Charles 
Elioi, the editor of the Wtsttm Ciristiint AJvixatt, heroically 
defended the project against the attacks of both the secular 
nd the religious press. Rev. P. B. Wilber was elected presi* 
4n\ and bis wife, Mary Cole Wilber, was made principal. 

The broad claim made by these enthusiastic educators was 
'ikat women need equal culture of mind and heart with men. 


in their homes, in the church, and in the atate." The enter- 
prise was accused of " being counter to delicacy and to cus- 
tom, as it was to orthodoxy." Mrs. Wilber, who ii still living 
(in 1890}, writes that those who had upheld the college 
" were convinced that a higher intellectual and moral educa- 
tion for women was indispensable to the continued prosperity 
and existence of civilization, especially under our form of 
government. They believed it would be a powerful influence 
for good in the home, in social life, and in all benevolences 
and philanthropies. They believed in the elevation of women 
through education, which is development ; through labor, which 
is salvation ; and through legal rights, which should give free- 
dom to serve and to save." These sentiments do not seem 
antiquated in 1890, and must have seemed not merely ad- 
vanced but dangerous in 1849. 

Violations of precedent continued to keep the watchful eye 
of the public on the college. The college professed to give U 
women the same instruction which secured for young men thi 
degree of A.B., and it obtained from the Legislature authorit 
"to confer the degrees of A.B. and B.S." The college hel 
public commencement exercises, at which the graduates ret 
their own productions, a performance that was the occasion 1 
much scandal. 

September 25. 'S44, "The Young Ladies' Lyceum" w 
organized in the college. This was a literary society, at 1 
meetings of which debates upon current public questie 
were conducted and essays were read. Cuttings from c 
temporary newspapers show that this lyceum created 
small stir. 

In iS^a the graduates of the college organized an alua 
association, which is claimed to be the first organization of 
kind in this country. The preamble to the coDstitu' 
adopted by this body begins thus : 

"The undersigned, graduates of the Wcslcyan Female < 
lege of Cincinnati, believing that as educated American woi 
society and the world at large have peculiar claims upon t) 
which they can neither gainsay nor resist," etc. 

The association at once decided to publish an ar 
which should contain only original articles from the pens ' 
members ; and Article VIL of the constitution says : " 
immediate object of this publication shall be to afford ai 
^ortunity for continued mental effort and improveme 
members ; and its ultimate aim shall be the elevatii 
woman." ILachel L. Bodley, so long dean o( the Wo 


1 CoUcfe in Philadelphia, was one of the original mem- 

W>s«( this anociadoo. 

Tbe professions, claims, and effort* above indicated, probably 
■^■w uie hisli-vater mark of educational aspiration of women 
^ the West u smI before the middle of this century. 

The college drew stndenu from all parts of .the country, 
**d ftuK r>nadff ; and, at one time, according to one of its 
^^otiau, there were in attendance upon it " representatives 
"raw nnj gute in the Union, excepting New Hampshire, 
■«**aie, North Carolina, and Florida." 

J * * cne time tiiia college enrolled nearly live hundred stu- 
*™^ ■ but, as seminaries and colleges for women have multi- 
r^ tbiMghont the region from which it drew iu patronage, 
'**' Specially as more richly endowed colleges wnich were 
^^'wwhed for men have opened their doors to women, its 
'"'j'en liave diminished and its influence has waned. But 
?*™*|>>it should compel its alumnx and its friends to give 
?!*■ c&dowment, a course of study, and a corps of instructors 
^i/'iall make it the peer of its strongest young sisters.* 
^/J^t is a function for the true woman's college which the 
^'^ucsiional college docs not and as yet cannot perform. 

,/^lk Ctedaosri WMkyu Cotlese Ii ai 

j!™S' h tlinoooU, louodcd umI coDlrotled by the syaod of that State, 
^IJlfpar to b« tbe BMt unbilioui itlenipt of the Presbylerian Church 
^Uw Kpanic higbcr cducalkm of wooen ia the \V«I. Thii coilcse 
^.^adcd to lUi, &Dd opened to uudeoti io idSj. Iti piesideot makM 
|. '^*kb reUliOB IO Um cocmtry vest of the Alleghanies. the tame claim 
z!:* * pRsidtW of Um We«leyan made in iu behalf with relation to ihe 
^^ I— iwy. fony-eiflu rem ago. It* prctklent. Dr. R. B. Abbott, 
J** : " Tbii ia the ooly real college iot women weit of tbe Atle^iuDy 
^^t lias. Then ara female lemioariei in abundance, lome o\ >hicb art 
r**M ealkf*. boi art vitbout a full college curriculum and wiihout author- 
*T)*«oJ« ibc degnca of Bacbelor and Mailer of Ans. Albert Lea U a 
*■<(« is (act M «cU as in name.~ 

,_*W WI L«a la worn ia oaly ita 6(lh ^car. I have ikM been able toobtaio its 
a^ocalofaa. Tlic abcwc quoutiou from iU prexideut's letter indicate* 
fcpMaaai. ^'■~'" it redeem thti promise in ititpirilaad word, it would be a 
0Mbl*id*xMtlM Wcu : not to much jroun^ became women in thupan of 
■tnattty aced aaotbcr oollc^e within their caiy rr^ch. but became the entire 
■■maaaty OMdt t» hair tbe dil!erciKC between tbe nominal and Itte real 

■ni^i caatiaaallT a , 

II Alboi Lea draw* tbaip and viiible lloct between its uandardt and tcaCi 
rf Ttwlan hlp. be w cn Ita qoality and meiboda of inHruoion and thoie of 
tta snjvitr cf ilirti PM In tb* above Uat, in Influence will be potent in 
anifaffMw hMwaa y betvwn ■■»■■ and thisp In mbUos pcnalaiog to 


To get one's college educatton'in an institution which ad 
only women, and to enjoy some yean of po>t-gradaate woi 
a co-educational university, is the ideal of oppoitunitf 
cherished by some most careful and intelligent parents an 
some ambitious young women. It is possible that provi 
for satisfying the first half of this ideal ii held in germ by i 
or all of the thiny colleges for women only, now existio] 
the West. 


That in the Western States and Territories, the higher < 
cation of women is generally identical with co^ucatia 
indicated, as has been previously suggested, by the folloi 

I. Of 312 institutions in the West, exclusive of college 
agriculture and the mechanic arts, which afford the hij 
culture to women, 165 are co-educational. 

3. Of the 5565 women reported to the Bureau of Ed 
tion in 1887-28 as students in the collegiate courses of t 
institutions, 43<)i were in the co-educational colleges. 

5. In the twenty-one States and Territories which b 
165 co-educational colleges and 47 colleges for the sepi 
education of women, 50 of which are authorixed to confer 
ular degrees, there are but 15 colleges devoted to the exch 
education of men. 

4. Of these 25 (devoted to the occlusive education of eb 
not one is n on -sectarian, and they are all supported by 
Roman Catholic, the Protestant Episcopal, the Lutheran, oi 
Presbyterian denomination. In several of the Sutes most 1 
spicuous for zeal in the cause of the higher education, a 
Michigan, Iowa, and Kansas, not one college for the eacln 
education of men exists. 

These facts support the statement that the West i» c 
mitted to co-education, excepting only the Roman Catbolici 
Lutheran, and the Protestant Episcopal sects,— which an 
yet, as sects, committed to the collegiate education of wa 
at all, — and the Presbyterian sect, whose support, in the \ 
of 14 co-educational colleges against 4 for the separate ti 
tion of young men, almost commits it to the co-educational 

How has this triumph of the higher co-education 
achieved ? How is the system regarded by (he commas' 
which it is established ? What are its social effects and 
dencies ? What are iu defects and limiutioiu ? Thef 
the inquiries which next present themselves. 


Of die 165 co-edncntioiial colleges ttader contideration, a Tew, 
Ske Kipon College, Wisconiin, were founded for women and 
Mbseqaentlj admitted young men ; a larger number have ad- 
Mticd both men and women from the date of their opening ; 
these, with a few notable exceptions, like Oberlin College m 
Olii(\ and Lawrence Univeraity in Wisconsin, are of recent 
origia, with charters dating from periods since i860. The 
(icat proportion of the entire number were founded for the ex- 
cluiTe education of men, and have, one after anoiher, yielded 
a jmtidpation in their benefits to women since i860.* 

To tell in detail the story of the struggles which have ended 
n the admission of women into each of these institutions would 
be quite impossible ; if possible, it would, for general purposes, 
be quite unprofitable, since the principles involved have in all 
cases been the same. The same arguments, pro and con, have 
bees advanced in every contest, the illustrations and modes of 
application being modified in each by local conditions and cir- 
aunstaDces. Local history should preserve a record of such 
nodifieations of the argument and its application, together with 
the Dsme* of those persons who were conspicuous in the con- 
test; but the purposes of general history do not require 'this, 
and the discrepancy between the extent of territory and the 
Bomber of pages assigned to this chapter does not permit it. 

Is Ohio, the oldest of the Western States, the higher educa- 
tioD of women (im became a question ; and in connection with 
its various institutions every aspect of the question has been 
exhibited. Moreover, as the oldest of the group, the example 
of Ohio has exerted a marked influence upon the other Wes- 
tern States, These facts justify the discussion of co-education 
IB connection with Ohio colleges. 

No institution has been more frequently cited in discussions 
of co-education than Oberlin ; and perhaps the attitude of no 
other has been so persistently misunderstood. In reading 
nnmcrous discussions incident to opening men's colleges in 
Other Slates to women, one finds it implied and asserted that 
** Oberlin was founded to give to women the tame educational 
ad\'antages enjoyed by men." 

Sketches and histones of Oberlin College, sermons, addresses, 
and letters, explanatory of its aims and policy, are numerous 
and accessible ; and if these authoritative documents agree 
upon any one point it is in showing that Oberlin was not 

* Appcsdia B, Tabic II., give* a table by which is shown when uch o( 
ACH «allc|ca wm iaaaded. when opened, mnd when opened to women. 


" founded to give to women the same educational advai 
enjoyed by men "; that at the outset the intention to d' 
was not entertained by her founders ; that such form ol 
legiate co-education as Oberlin now offers has been deve 
gradually ; and, finally, that co-education at Oberlin ( 
differs in many essential respects from the co-education 
found in our State Universities. 

Let the following facts sustain these statementi : 
I. It was as " Oberlin Collegiate Institute " that 01 
began its work in 1833, and the name of "Oberlin CoU 
was not uken until 1850. 

3. The original plan included a " female departn 
under the supervision of a lady, where " instruction in tlu 
ful branches taught in the best female seminaries " coul 
obtained ; the circular setting forth the pUn also sa^ : * 
higher classes of the female department will also be pern 
to enjoy the privileges of such professorships in the teac 
collegiate and theological departments as shall best suit 
sex and prospective employment." 

3. This "female department" contemplated « sep 
building, and separate classes in which women should p 
merely academic studies. But this department was 1 
formed, according to the original plan, because at first pa 
prevented the erection of a separate school building; 
because, in the- beginning, there were only high school cli 
into which, for economy and convenience, young men 
women were together admjttcd with no thought whatev 
their ultimately entering collegiate classes together, 

4. In lieu of the anticipated " female departnwi 
" ladies' course," was provided and maintained until 
This course demanded no Greek and but two years of 1 
and, according to its present president, required only **a 
more time than is devoted to study in the best f< 

5. Separate classes were organized for ladies in etsar 
ing until the commencement of the junior year, when 
were admitted to the regular college class ; their work wa 
limited to writing and reading, none of the ladies haWn) 
practice in speaking. 

6. At the present time the " literary course," under thi 
partment of philosophy and arts, takes the place of the f< 
' ladies' course." 

7. In 1837, four ladies, having prepared themselves to 
the freshman class of the collegiate department, were ndi 


' ^ their own petition ; siDce then Udies have been received 
^^*U the college cUski excepting those of the theological 
^P^tiDCDt, which has never bees open to ladies as regular 
**^n, though at one time two ladies " attended all the . 
^^citeiof thit department through a three years' course, and 
^^ altered upon the annual catalogue as resident graduates 
■r^l the * theological course.'" So long as the "ladies' 
^^''^" continued, the apparent expectation of the college 
l^*!^ a majority of Udies would Uke that course. The in- 
Z^^ of the college was apparently exerted in that direction, 
»/^^*ith such effect that the number of ladies graduating from 
•• Wies' course" was, to the number graduating from the 

l"^ course," nearly as five to one. 
i^V^l'hat the present "literary course" in the department 
• i^.iloaophy and arts is practically the same as the original 
i(*^»ea" course," will be seen by comparing the lists of sub- 
^** .*>pon which candidates for entrance into each must be 
^r*i>>i>ed, and also by considering the scheme of study fol- 
f^^*4 in the "literary course," as presented in the catalogue, 
^ IS88-S9. This view is further sustained by the fact ihat 
-^*8Sft-39, 175 ladies and 3 genllcmen were registered in this 

u^ The larest catalogue states that : " Young women in all 
r^ departments of study are under the supervision of the 
U^ipa] of the ladies' department and the care of the ladies' 
"I**"!. They are required to be in their rooms after eight 
^^k in the evening during the spring and summer months, 
^d after half past seven during die fait and winter months. 

£*erj young woman is required to present, once in two weeks, 
**niteo report of her observance and lier failure in tlieobscrv- 
l^of the regulations of the department, signed by the matron 
^ the family in which she boards." 

The catalogue in another connection says : " In addition to 
'*t(ures announced in the course of study, practical lectures on 
PBcral habits, methods of study, and other important subjects, 
*>< delivered once in two weeks to the younf; women by tlie 
Priocipal of the ladies' department, and /« Uu young men t>/ 
til prt^r»i»ry u/uoii (the italics are my own), by the princi- 
psls of these Khools." 

The regulations here cited may be admirable, and highly 
■dvaatagcous to those whom they affect. It may be matter of 
Rgnt Ibat the young men are not given similar supervision, 
nl thtt the "piaclical lectures on general habits," etc., to 
•hkh woiBca ia til departmeou are required to listen, are, in 


the case of young men, limited to those of the prepara 
schools. The propriety and value of these requirement 
however, not the subject of discussion. They are referro 
here only because they illustrate the difference between 
methods of Oberlin and the methods of what is popul 
understood bjr the term "co-educational college." Beca 
indeed, taken in connection with the preceding eight po 
they show that while Oberlin it largely co-instrucuonu, 
also largely not, in the current tenie of the term, oxducatt 
at all. 

The history and method of co-educttion at Oberiin 
summed up above, proves the truth of what the pretid 
and professors of Oberlin have said in one and another f 
again and again : viz., that coeducation there did not o 
nate in any radically new idea of the sphere and wort 
women ; nor in any conscious purpose to do justice to wo 
as an individual. 

Oberlin originated in religious zeal. As a high schoo 
admitted women because of the great need of educated wo 
who could serve their own country as teachers, or for 
countries as missionaries or missionaries' wives ; women w 
upon their own petition, suffered to enter the college couiv 
men too just and too logical to deny a request groundct 
justice and reason ; but they were not welcomed oy men 
saw in this petition the realization of any theory of^the mc 
equality of the sexes. 

The present Oberlin system has been molded slowly 
poverty and resulting economy, by local needs and, parU 
too, though resistingly, by the progressive spirit of the tji 
It is curious and interesting that so conservative a col 
(independently of her own intention or desire) should I 
been appealed to as their inspiration, and cited as their me 
by colleges between whom and Oberlin great dissimilt 
exists ; but it is true that Oberlin has done more for the a 
of co-education than she could possibly have done had 
taken the attitude ol a propagandist. Probably no collegt 
men has opened its doors to women in the last thirty y 
without first consulting Oberlin's experience. The Oln 
authorities have always unhesitatingly testified to the mu 
of the Oberiin plan ; almost always the testimony of thcM 
nes'ses has indicated their conviction that the Oberlin 
being the outgrowth of peculiar conditions, would not 1m 
tain to flourish if transplanted ; and this moderation, 
abatement of enthusiastic advocacy, has given the tettioe 


Oberlin men incomparable weight during this controversy in 

lo 1S53, Anlioch College was opened at Yellow Springs, O. 
It was the first endeavor in the West to found a college under ^ 
Clmtiaii but non-sectarian auspices. Its president, Horace 
Ifanu. wrote of it : ^ Antioch is now the onl^ first-class college 
IB all tlie West that is really an unsectarian institution. There 
aic, it is true^ some State institutions which profess to be free 
fiom proselyting instrumentalities ; but I believe without 
exception the^ are all under control of men who hold as truth 
something which they have prejudged to be true." 

This fact has a distinct bearing on co-education, and it is 
carioos to observe that even this most non-sectarian of colleges 
pcorided by charter that two thirds of the trustees and two 
thirds of the faculty should belong to the " Christian Connec- 
tiofi *; a body of people who, by separating themselves from 
the sects, had really become a new sect. 

The opening of this college under so distinguished an edu- 
cator as Mr. Mann, gave a new impulse to higher education 
throaghoot the West Antioch was from the first avowedly 
CD-cdttcational ; this was demanded by the liberality of the 
Christian thought by which it was supported. But the best 
friends of the higher education of women, even Mr. Mann him- 
self, regarded this feature of the new college with suspicion, if ' 
not with aversion. How serious the objection that marriages 
night grow out of the intimacies of college life was considered, 
may be inferred from the fact that Mr. Mann discussed it in 
hb inaugural address ; and from the passage of a by-law pro- 
viding that marriaees should not take place between students 
while retaining their connection with the college. At one time 
Mr. Mann advised against co-education on this ground. 

The effect that his experience with a co-educational institu- 
tion produced upon Mr. Mann's own opinion has been fre- 
quently urged as a strong argument in the behalf of co- 

In view of the probable necessity of closing the college, Mr. 
Ifann wrote : ^ One of the most grievous of my regrets at this 
sad prospect is the apprehension that the experiment (as the 
wcvld will still call it) of educating the sexes together will be 
suddenly interrupted, to be revived only in some indefinite 

In his baccalaureate address of 1859, there occurs a passion- 
ate paragraph expressing Mr. Mann's longing to do more and 
better t£tt he haid done for the higher ^ucation of women, 



which shows that he had found women at Antioch vortby o 
their opponuntlies. 

Women were not only received as students at Antioch, bn 
also, in the beginning, were included in the faculty. Theft 
facts, especially the latter, excited marked attention, and, not 
withstanding the disasters' which interrupted the work a 
Antioch, and the poverty which has kept it a small college, tb 
fame of Horace Mann, inseparably connected with its histoid 
has made its infiuence in behalf of co-education potent 


The conditions of pioneer life are favorable to eo-educatioc 
The exigencies incident to life in a new country destroy cei 
tain barriers between men and women which are fixed in ol 
and settled communities. The women in a pioneer settlemen 
not infrequently join in labors in which, under more settle 
conditions, they would never be called to participate. Man 
women in the West have assisted their husbands and fathers i 
the lield, the office, and the shop, simply because hired inal 
labor was unattainable. On the other hand, men in pionee 
homes assist their wives in household labors, because domestii 
help cannot be found. In the organisation of churches 
schools, and Sunday-schools, the sparseness of the populatioi 
compels men to divide the work with women. Thus, withon 
intention on the part of either men or women, they beconb 
used to working together in many unaccustomed ways ; ani 
the idea of going to college together does not seem so un 
natural as in older communities, where traditions of long stand 
ing have separated men and women in their occupations. 

The almost universal connection of preparatory departmmi 
with colleges in the West is properly deplored ; but the "pri 
paratury" has been a stepping-stonr to co-education. In the 
origin the Western colleges found it necessary lo mainu 
preparatory schools in order to obtain any college clasw 
This is illustrated by the experience of Antioch. Out of i 
students who applied for admission to that college in 1S53, fc 
S were able to pass the examinations for admission to I 
freshman class, meager as were the ret^uirements. Thew 
included men and women, married and single. The older C 
leges in this new country have a similar chapter in their hiate 
There were few high schools, and the course of study of th 
was narrow. To have students, each college was compelled 
prepare them. The preparatory department in a college K 
did the work of the present high school ; it was very n«ti 


^t Ac tcndeoU of those tovrni should desire to send both 

^J™ *w tod daoghters to the ** preparatory, " which was usu- 

T^^Pnfcapi always, the best school accessible Co them. This 

^^bowercr, gave no forecast of a desire to send both to the 

• ^y ^to■ on. Sometimes the " preparatory " was not pro- 

^~™*ith a separate bui)dinf[, but its work was done in some 

^^or rooms of tbc college building proper. The preparatory 

^^*. finished, some bright girl would wish to go forward with 

Cj^JMi into college work ; she could not enter the class 

r°?*^y. bat ** if the professor was willing " she could attend 

jj^*** in this or the other subject ; in many college towns 

^^ %re middle-aged and elderly women who, as ^oung girls, 

_L|^ ^^ tacit consent of parents and college instructors, thus 

^r^«d the larger part of a college education. They had no 

j^I^i^ recognition from any one ; their names appeared in no 

^V^f uem, but the), acquired substantial benefits. The present 

J^'^^tted but unacknowledged presence of women at Leipzig 

H^ ^^T universities on the Continent, was thus antedated in 

ij^r|^^*sionalIy one of these students, spurred by what site con- 
^^**d the demands of her self-respect, made formal applica- 
y '0[ regular admission to the college ; and not a few of our 
y^?<m colleges became co-cducational by these natural, easy, 

l^oiseless approaches. 
jjj*« manner in which the desire of one woman for a college 
^T^iion has transformed a men's into a co-cducational college, 
jl'^itiiirated in the history of the State University of Indiana. 
i*^ Sarah P. Morrison wished to enter college, and began 
y^ling the question of opening the Stale University to women. 
- Isaac Jenkinson of Richmond, Ind., lells the whole preg- 
"^U story thus briefly. He writes mc : 

I was a member of the board of trustees in 1866, when 
">U MorrisoD's appeal was made to the trustees. (Miss Mor- 
^t» bad for several years been agitating the question among 
"*r friends.) I at once offered a resolution admitting young 
*<Ben OB equal terms with young men, but I had no support 
vhaicver in the board at that time ; at a following session the 
Mte ycv, my resolution was adopted by a vole of 4 io favor, 
to 3 against iL " 

Haay colleges in the West had from the beginning a " female 
OMnc nnch hke the " ladies' course " at Oberlin. This 
coarse was, like the preparatory department, a way of approach 
far tbc more ambitious. The iiory of one is, with a change of 
■aaca, tbc story of many such colleges. The following from 


" A Report on the Positioii of Women in Indottrie* and Ednca- 
cation m the Sute of Indiana, " * illustrates the fuiiGtioD o( the 
" ladies coune " in facilitating co-education. 

" Butler University at Irvington, Ind., fonnded in 1855, 
admitted women as students from the outset, but at fint oaqr 
into what was denominated its female course. In its laadable 
endeavor to adapt its requirements to an intermediate class of 
beings, the university, in its ' female course ' sobstituted 
music for mathematics and French for Greek. Few yoaD| 
women availed themselves of this 'course' and it was utterly 
repudiated by Demia Butler, a daughter of Ovid Butler, the 
founder of the university, and a gentleman of most enlightened 
views concerning woman's place in life. Miss Butl^, upOQ 
her own petition, indorsed by her father, entered the aniTer< 
sity in 185S, and graduated from what was then known as the 
' male course ' in 1863. From that time the ' female coarse * ' 
became less popular, and in 1864 was formally discontinued." 

The normal class was another of the steps toward co-edo-- 
cation. In the middle of this century it was not uncommoa 
for special short tenns of instruction for teachers to be hdd 
during the fall or spring vacations of the common schools. 
To secure the advanuge of good lecture rooms and appliances, 
and also to secure the aid of distinguished professors, the 
State Superintendent of Public Instruction would obtain per* 
mission to hold his normal class at the State university ; 01 
for similar reasons a county Superintendent would hold such 1 
school for the teachers within his jurisdiction, in a coUegi 
town. In these "normal scnools," having no formal or per 
manent relation with the college at which they were held, on 
sees the origin in many colleges of their present, "departmrat 
of the theory and practice of elementary instruction." 

From the earliest settlement of the West women taught th 
district schools in the summer, and the work of elemental 
instruction fell naturally more and more into their hands, uni 
it was, during the war of 1861-5, almost monopolised by thei 
Necessarily, when the "normal classes" were organixe 
women entered and sometimes exclusively composed thei 
After the normal class had transcended its original limits 
four or six weeks, and had developed into a ** normal depa 
ment," women still, in part or in whole, constituted iL Li 

_.., Ibjf Mav Wright Sewtll at th* Tcquot o[ 

Indlua, for the Indiana- Deputment of the New Orleua Eapodtkn.— 


% were alwajri being delivered in other depulments of the 

e which would be beneficial to the (tudents in the 

J departinent, whose memben were, therefore, gradually 

i to one privilege after another, until at last the college 

:d to a consciousness that it had no reserves. 

More State universities than denominational colleges have 

beeo entered bj women md the ** normal class," though many 

of Uie latter have been opened by the same insidious influence. 

So far as the State uaivenity was concerned, the end must 

iuve been seen from the beginning by all clear-sighted 


e Stale university, like the common school, is supported 
at poblic expense, and free to the children of the Sute, who 
'' paiB into it from the common school. What more natural 
tDdeed, more necessarj, than that the teachers who are to pre- 
pare the boys for the university shall know, by their own 
csperience in it as students, what the requirements of the uni- 
Tcisity are ? In illustration of this view, the steps by which 
co-education was attained in the universities of Wisconsin and 
Missouri ate briefly indicated. 

In the spring of 1&60 a ten weeks' course of lectures was 

S'ren at the University of Wiiconsin, to a "normal class" of 
ty-nine, of whom thirty were ladies. In the spring of 1863 
a "norma] department" was opened, which was at once - 
catered by seventy-six ladles. W this time the Regents 
aanoonccd that the lectures in the university proper upon 
cbcaistry, geology, botany, mechanical philosophy, and Eng- 
lish literature would be free to the "normal" students- 
Conditions at the close of the war demanded a reorganiza- 
tioB of the university. This was effected in i8££, and Section 
Fourth of the Act under which the university was recon- 

stnictcd, says: "The university in all its departments and 
colleges shall be open alike to male and female students." 

However, the Regents were obliged to ask the State to 
reccdcfrom this broad statement of co-education, and the next 
year the Lemslature amended the charter upon this point as 
follows: "The university shall be open to female as well as 
to male students under such regulations and restrictions as 
Ibe Board of Regents may deem proper." The charter was 
thus amended bMause Dr. Chadboume, to whom the presi- 
dency had been offered, had refused it on the ground that he 
(cared that this innovation would lose to the univcnity the 
confidepc e and support of the public. 

Up to 1S6S the ladies pursued the coarse which had been 


Uid down for the "normal department" Tbia coon^ lim* 
ited to three years, was now enlarged to four. 

Until 1871 the reciutions of the young women were wpa- 
rate from those of the young men. In that year, the number of 
professors and instructors being insufficient to carry on sepa- < 
rate classes, the young women were permitted at their option to 
enter the regular college classes. In 1875 the president 
reported that " for the first time women have been put, in ' 
all respects, on precisely the same .footing, in the university, 
with young men." 

The year 1875 does not date the end of the contest in 
Wisconsin, but it dates the last incident pertinent to this put 
of the discussion, the object of which is to show the relation 
between the "normal class" and co-education. 

In Missouri, State university co-education was reached bjr 
similar steps. A " normal class " was organized for women, 
who were next invited into the " normal department, " which 
was originally open to men only. Then the women were 
admitted to such lectures in the university proper as were 
thought to have a special value for them as teachers. The] 
were next invited to attend chapel, but at first only as silen 
witnesses to the worship of the male students ; later the; 
were solicited to join in the services of song and' prayer 
and finally, in 1S70, they were admitted to the universil 
on the same conditions with young men. 

In the early years, denominalional effort was on double line 
wherever it founded a college for men, soon, in its near 
or more remote vicinity, ^t established a "female seminar] 
or " ladies' institute. " Generally the ladies* school w 
unsupplied with books, apparatus, or cabinets ; it oft 
happened that an ambitious instructor sought and obtain 
occasional permission to use the laboratory and the museum 
the college tor the beneAt of her pupils, and to draw bo< 
for them from the college library. Sometimes, when a coll 
professor was about to perform experiments of espc 
interest before his classes, the young ladies of the neigbboi 
" seminary " would be invited, under escort of their insti 
tors, to witness them. 

Usually the college maintained a lecture course, the ben 
of which were open to the seminary students. Unless 
frivolous conduct of some college youth and seminary ma 
excited a scandal which terminated such neighborly offici 
calamity that alone still withholds two or three colleges < 
becoming co-ed ucatioual), these friendly relations werestrei; 


caed from jtai to year, uk) in many instancet have reiulted 
m a reoTganUation by which the seminary hat become a 
woaan's college and an equal component part of the univer- 
mtf which has beeo fonocd by iu union with the college, 
tot niea. 

This process of building up a co-educational institution is 

' iUastntcd in the history of the Northwestern University, at 
EvanstoD, UL 

In reading current college history as presented in catalogues, 
college papers, and the general press, it is very interesting to 
observe bow certain departures from ancient standard* of 
coUcge study have aided co-cducaiion. The cry for the " prac- 

i^bcal and the answer which colleges have made to this cry, 
by offering their scientific courses, may be named as one of 
these. The average person thinks of practical as a synonym 
tot turf id. One opinion in which all men agree (the most con> 
•crratire with the most radical) is, that women should be 
■aefuL In connection with education the average man thinks 
that ** scicniilic " is also a synonym for "practical." Tlie 
CDnviciion that such a scicnti^c, practical course of study will ' 
enlarge a woman's capacity for daily usefulness has sent many a 
yoang woman to a college where such courses of study were 
offered, who would not have been permitted to go to the 
college which offered only the inflexible course of classics and 
^tathematica. The modern cla&sical course, which permits the 
Mibstiiuiion of French and German for Greek is, on similar 
froundi, favorable to co-education. 

Tbe elective system has silenced a host of objectors to co> 
education. All people who entertain vague notions that women 
are intuitional creatures, that their perceptions arc quicker, 
bat their reflective powers less developed than those of men, 
and who hold the consequent conviction that women cannot 
so well conform to prescribed lines of study, all of this cl.iss 
arc reconciled to co-education by the elective system. The 
following quotation supports this view. A father writes: 
** Uy d^iughter has entered Michigan University. Under the 
old r^gimb * *h"uld not have permitied It, for I do not believe 
is a wociun's u. .ertaking a man's work ; but under the elec- 
bvc sniem she tan take what she likes, can take just what she 
woald in a woman's college, in short : and as alt of the pro- 
feMor* are men, the subjects will be much better taught." 
'■ letter is written by an Intelligent but rather old-fashioned 
t,aod the sentiments here eipressed and implied cott- 


ceming the elective sjrstem are entertuaed bj a ftiU nnne 

The influence of the introduction of co-cdacation at St 
universities upon the policy of unaller colleges baa b 

Although, as has been shown. State uniTersitiea did not t 
the initiative in co-education, the influence of the admissioi 
women into such universities as those of Michigan and \ 
consin, has secured a similar change of policy in a lar^e ai 
ber uf denominational and smidler Don-seclariaa c(dk[ 
founded for men only. 

Appendix B., Table II., will shotr the relative Dvmbei 
colleges opened to women prior and subsequent to 1870^ 
year of the admission of women into Michigan Univeni^. 


On the appearance of Dr. Clarke's book, " Sex in Edi 
tion, " in 1873, the controversy, which up to that time bad b 
limited to the localities where co-education was being in 
duced, at once became general. For the next ten yean 
subject was discussed in the press, in the pulpit, in meeting 
medical societies, and on the platform. In a large collec 
of old programs there is proof that every phase of the qi 
tion was considered by all kinds of organizations of teach 
from national conventions to township institutes. Yo 
teachers advanced their opinions, old teachers recited their 
pcrience, and the press everywhere gave the widest publicit; 
these discussions. At the end of a decade the public miad 
fully expressed, and, through expressing, had gradually fon 
its opinion, which was in general favorable to co-education. 
1883 the whole question was opened in a new form by tbf 
tempt to exclude women from Adelbert College of Wei 
Reserve University, which had already been Open to theflt 
twelve years. 

Every reason which had formerly been urged against th) 
mission of women was now offered for their exclusion, 
peculiar origin .of the discussion and the al % ^'^ galUun 
fense of the rights of the women already en^jiled in its c) 
which was made by Dr. Carroll Cutler, the president of . 
bert, attracted wide notice, and the arguments, pro and 
were reviewed by the press of the country. 

Dr. Cutler wrote to the authorities of all the principal cc 
cational colleges, for the results of their experience. 


***»«» of Dr. Culler make* thU voluminous corres|)ondence 
■*«UUe for Ibu cha|}ter. 

^oted briefljr Kud in the chronological order of their devel- 
^Bcat, the argumeati a^nit co-educaiion are as follows : 

*• Women are mentally inferior to men, and therefore their 
P*'«Ke in a coUne will inevitably lower the standard of its 

^ Tbc phyiica) constitution of women makes it impossible 
w them to endure the strain of severe mental effort. If ad- 
*^tt to college they will maintain their position and keep 
PVvith Btca only at the sacrifice of their health. 

*• The pmeacc of women in college will result in vitiating 
■''* ■uaen, if not the morals, of both men and women ; the 
"^ *il) beooaie effeminate and weak, the women coarse and 

' If women are admitted to college, their presence will 
"J"^ the emotional natures of the men, will distract the minds 
" tht huer from college work, and will give opportunity for 

'■ The intiinaciei of college life will result in premature 

/- Young men do not approve of the collegiate education of 
*'*^; they dislike to enter into competition with women, 
^ il the latter are admitted to our colleges it will result in the 
'"* ^ male students, who will seek in colleges limited to their 
**?tex,the social life which cannot be furnished by a co-edu- 
™«ttl institution. 

A- Aeollcgiaie education not only does not prepare a woman 
I'' ^ domestic relations and duties for which she is designed, 
^actnatly unfits her for them. 

*• Colleges were originally intended for men only, and the 
"j^iaf their founders and benefactors will be violated by the 
•wJsiioD of women. 

'- Whatever the real mental capacity or physical ability of 
■"Ben, so fixed is the world's conviction of their inferiority, 
'^1 colleges admitting them will inevitably forfeit the world's 
**fideBce and respect. 

This chapter affords no space for the i piuri arguments 
*hich answer these objections ; and indeed the best answer to 
■Q objections against co-education is found in tis result. Let 
the following letters testify to the fruits of experience. Ex- 
Inct from a letter from ^ames_B. An^ell, president of the 
Vnivcrsity of Uichigan, dated Septem'ber a, 1S84 : 
~~Woacs WCTt'adinittcd here (Michigan University) under 


the pressure of public sentiment, against the vtshet of most of 
the professors ; but I think no professor now regrets it, or 
would favor their exclusion. The way had been well prepared. 
Denominational colleges had for jrears admitted women ; and 
in the high schools, which are our preparatory schools, it was 
the universal custom to teach both sexes. Most of the evils 
feared by those who opposed the admission of women have not 
been encountered. 

"We made no solitary modification of our rules or reqniic- • 
ments. The women did not become hoydenish ; they did not 
fail in their studies ; they did not break down in health ; tbcf 
have graduated in all departments ; they have not been inferior 
in scholarship to the men ; the careers of our women graduates 
have been, on the whole, very satisfactoiy. They are teachers 
in many of our best high schools; six orsevea are id the 
Wellesley College faculty." • 

Extract from a tetter from Moses Coit Tyler, dated at Cor* 
ncU University, September 30, i584 V 

"I was connected with the University of Michigan before 
the advent of women there ; was present during the process of 
their introduction ; for several years afterward watched the 
results ; and am nokv entering on my fourth year here at a 
co-educational university. And now, after all these years, upoD 
my ivord, I cannot recall a fact which furnishes a single yalid 
objection to the system ; while the real utility, convenience, anc 
wholesomcness of it have so long been before my eyes, that ' 
am startled by your letter as implying that anybody still ha 

any doubt about it • I do not know a member of tb 

faculty either at Michigan or here who would favor a retui 
to the old plan, although, before the adoption of the new on 
many were anxiously opposed to it. My observation has bei 
that under the joint system the lone of college life has groi 
more earnest, more courteous and refined, less flippant si 
cynical. The women are usually among the very best schola 
and lead instead of drag ; and their lapses from good bea 
are rather (yes, decidedly) less numerous than those alleged 
men. There is a sort of young man who thinks it is not qt. 
the thing, you know, to be in college where women are, and 
goes away, if he can, and I am glad to have him do 10. '. 

* It ii only fiir to add thkt one of itt (^dutlei became % collen | 
dent — MUi Alice Ftecmui, prctident of Welleiley College during *tx j 

foiinf; woi 


'«aca«m be caiuet by bis departure is not a Urge one, and is 
■ore tban made up by the arrival, in his stead, of a more 
folmtf and a manlier sort." 

Extracts from two letters written bjr the Hon, Andrew D. 
Vbite while president of Cornell University, and bearing 
dates rcq>cctirely of August 5, 1884, and October 35, 1884 : 

** Ujr own opinion is that all the good results we anticii)ated, 

aad soow we did not anticipate, have followed the admission 

a ; on the other hand, not one of the prophe- 

s possibly some young men may have imbibed 

c against the university from the presence of young 

\ aod so have gone elsewhere. This, of course, we can 

hanUy dctermtncL I have never thought the admission of 

woM CB injured us to any appreciable extent, even in this roat- 

■ MS. Scholarship has certainly not been injured in the slightest 

degree^ wbilc order has been improved There have 

been bo scandals. Hardly any attachments have ever grown 

■p between the studenu of the two sexes The best 

•cbolars are, almost without exception, men; but there is a 
Ear larger proportion of youn^ women than of young men who 
become good scholars. Having now gone through one more 
' jcar, makiBg twelve ia all since women were admiiled, I do 
BoC hesitate to say that I believe their presence here good for 
Bs in every respecL There has not been a particle of scandal 
of any sort. As to the relations between the sexes, they give 

Extract from a letter written by John Bascom, then presi- 
deot of the University of Wisconsin, dated August lo, 1884 : 

'Co-education is with us wholly successful. There is no 
diScTcBce of opinion concerning it, either in our faculty or 
osr board. We find no additional difiicuhy in discipline ; our 
yottag women do good work, and the progress of our young 
■CO M io no way impeded. It does not seem to us to b« any 
longer as opeo question. 

I believe the character of both young men and women 
is bdpcd, though the results in this particular are difficult of 
proof. The advantages of the system are manifold ; the evils 
arc Dooc. We have ceased to think about its fitness save as 
qoestions from abroad redirect our aEtention to il" 

Extnct from a letter by Joseph Cummings, president of 
Kerthwcatera University: 

" Tbc effect of co-educaiion in this institution, upon the man- 
acts and atorab of both men and women, is oaly good. The 
hiatafy ol co educilioa shows that mea and womeo trained 


under its influence are less open to tcinptatioiii of the pswou 
than are those trained in separate institutioni. 

" Women are less inclined to pursue long courses of itndy, 
but the average scholarship of those who do persevere and 
graduate is higher than that of the men ; and women here do 
not retard the progress of men." 

In more than aoo letters from presidents and professors to 
co-educational colleges, a part of which were written dniing 
the Adelbert College controversy, and a larger part of which 
have been received by the writer of this chapter within the 
last three months, there is not one which does not give testi- 
mony to the value of the system, similar to that above 

I have chosen to quote from letters written in 1884 because 
the controversy then pending impelled the writers to a fuller 
and more specific statement of their experience than would be 
elicited by a series of questions propounded at this date. I 
is only necessary to add thai in every instance letters dated ii 
i88g or 1890 fully accord with those written in 1883 and t8& 

Presidents Angell, White, Bascom, and Cummings, and Pn 
fessor 1'yler are quoted because of their distinguished reput. 
tion as educators, because their experience has been in inslit 
tions universally acknowledged to ranic among the highest 
our country, and because, as no one of them has ever tak 
the position of an apostle of co-education, their words will 
received as the testimony of witnesses, and not as the pleadii 
of advocates. 


But few of all the 165 colleges in the West now open to 1 
and women have compiled statistics which present the reCf 
of their graduates, prior or subsequent to the admissioi 
women, in reference to health, domestic state, occupa 
social position, ofllicial place, financial or other form of sue 
Perhaps the most important and successful attempt to 0I 
such statistics is that made by the Association of Colle 
Alumnx, whose inquiries were limited to the women wh< 
graduated from the small number of institutions for either 
rate or joint education, admitted to that association. 

These statistics, of course, relate to women only ; and, 
over, they are too incomplete to establish any general law 
they do permit the inference that college life confirms an 
proves the health of women ; and that it does not disi 
them to mauimony, or render them averse to or ii^ci^ 


maUTOMf and iti consequent duties. In the absence of autis- 
tic^ dau one cui only consider the probabilities. 

That « general impression that women were intellectually in- 
Scrior to lacn fonnerljr prevailed cannot be disputed. 

If tlicir work in co-ed ucaiional colleges has (as, according to 
the IcninaoDjr of their instructors, is the case) been, on an aver- 
age, better than that of their male classmates, the young men 
who for four years have witnessed daily this exhibition of an 
mtcUectnal rigor and interest equal to their own, will not be 
Gkdy to entertain the doctrine of women's natural and there- 
fore aecessary inferiority. The minds of the women in these 
colleges will be correspondingly affected ; they will acquire a 
le sp e c t for themselves and for their sei greater than was for- 
Merly characteristic of women. 

The intellectual association of men and women on a plane 
^ of accepted equality, begun in college, will continue after leav- 
' iag it, and will modify the social life of every circle into which 
padnates of co^educational colleges enier. 

These inferred eflfecti of co-education are already visible in 
Vniem communities. Visitors from t)ie Eastern Slates, and 
iroa over the sea, comment upon the relative absence of pru- 
dery among women and of false gallantry among men ; they 
Mtice that sentimentality and condescension on the one hand, 
■^d affectation and soft flatteries on tlie other, arc, lo a degree, 
npcnedcd by a mutual good understanding and respect. 

Literary clubs, associations for the promotion of an and sci- 
oce,uid committees engaged in philanthropy, are frequently 
^MpcHcd of men and women ; and the nflices in these organi- 
■viou are distributed between the two sexes in proportion to 
^' respective representation in the membership. In coniniu- 
'i'ies where there are many graduates from co-educational col- 
't*^ one finds that societies of the kind above referred to have 
Puinl that transition state of mixed clulis, in which men 
'''ITS held the offices of president, secretary, and treasurer, 
*^ women held those of vice-president and corresponding 
^ Uca who have studied with women in college, almost invari- 
i^r^'or their admission to county and State, medical, legal, 
ndcditorial associations; and thus we already see that co-cdu- 
5*ttM prepares society to give women welcome and patronage 
■ bosiscss and professional life. 

The growth oif this cordial recognition of equality, this 4mi- 
4mv. has not, as it was feared would be the case, been 
ifrii»niiii< i1 by the decadence of man's reverence (or woman- 


hood an^ wonuia'i admiration for manliBeu. Sbrewd obser- 
vers lHtif;r that both ihese tentiments apparently KiTvive intel- 
lectual acquaintance, competition, and panneiihip; and that 
the former is expressed with more simplicinr and the latter with 
more frankness than formerly, or than is still usual in sec- 
tions of the country where cif^iication does not so generally 

But it is too soon for the final word <m this sabject to be 
spoken. Statisticians, sociologists, and noveluts hare much ^ 
new work to do in recording the social consequences of co-edn- 

The ideal of higher education in the West suffers from aa 

habitual exaggeration of speech. Nothing is more conducive 
to clear and accurate thinking than a strictly accurate vocabu- 
lary. The custom of calling institutions which do only sec- 
ondary work — some of which offer a limited course of even 
' this work— colleges, and of naming colleges universities, tends 
to mislead and confuse the public mind as to the distinctions 
between the different kinds of institutions and as to the essen- 
tial character of each. The inhabitants of the West find their 
defense for this custom of giving things disproportionate 
names in the general vastness of their surroundings and in th< 
consequent vastness of their plans and hopes. One of thesim 
ptest and surest remedies for the vague and contradictor 
notions now suggested in \he phrase higher education, may b 
found in giving to every institution of learning a name thi 
frankly implies the limit of its work ; and every inatilutic 
would gain in dignity through this nomenclature. 

Nominal honors are too easy in Western institutions ; ai 
the condition!! upon which different institutions confer th( 
are so various that they have ceased to convey any fixed noti 
of the kind and amount of intellectual discipline which th( 
bearing them have received. 

The remedies for this are to be found in some concer 
action among the colleges by which they will agree upon m 
mum requirements for admission to any one of them. ' 
minimum adopted by the Association of Collegiate Alun 
might answer this purpose. This would tend, not onl} 
unify but also to raise the average requirements for admis 
to college, and this in turn would enable secondary school 
maintain a higher standard than is at present common. 


: all collegct urange their courses of study to 
apy foar yean, unifyiog and raising the conditions of 
xaoce would result in unifying and raising the requirements 
for gradnatioQ in the various courses ; and this would tend to, 
ghrc to B.A^ B.S., and fi.L, an intelligible and honorable sig- 
nificance, long since lost. Legislative action could be taken in 
tbc different States, at least with reference to new colleges as 
Ihey shall be founded, limiting the authority to confer degrees 
to those institutions adopting these improved minimum require- 
Bcnts ; this would elevate the public ideal of the higher edu- 
ealkn and tend to save our young people from being betrayed 
by words and alphabetical combinations. 

The defecu above indicated should be frankly admitted to 
cxiM. bat they are less universal and leu disastrous than peo- 
ple living in the Eastern Sutes are disposed to consider them. 

A targe number of the professorships in Western colleges are 
COcd by men educated in Eastern institutions, who, after 
fradoatiBg from Harvard, Yale, Princeton or some other col- 
Icfe which receives only young men, taught in Eastern colleges 
for either men or women separately before entering into their 
present connection with some one of our co-educational col- 
lies. The experience of such men and their natural preju- 
dice in behalf of early associations makes their favorable lesti- 
BOoy to the merit of Western colleges particularly valuable. 

The following extract from a letter trom J. W. Bashford, of 
tbc Ohio Wesleyan University, is a very moderate statement of 
views expressed by many of my correspondents. He says: 
"Four women came to our university during the last two 
weeks of the term last spring, and afterward visited the leading 
colleges for women in New England. Afler personally inspect- 
iag the advantages (or education for their daughters in the 
East and in the West, each of the four women decided in favor 
of co-education and of our university; each came with her 
daughter and entered her among our students at the opening 
otf oar university this year. Belonging to the East myself, I 
have a very high idea of the work done in our Eastern colleges, 
and penooally do not hold that we can give students superior 
■cboiasiic advantages, or in some respects equal scholastic 
advantages to those enjoyed in our best Eastern colleges. 
There i^ however, a greater spirit of earnestness, and possibly 
a nore strongly developed type of manhood and womanhood 
aaoof our Western students than can be found in our Eastern 

Tbc caoM of higher education for women suffers from the 


fzct that life offers fewer incentives to young women thi 
young men. 

Dr. Smart, the President of Purdue University, and 
Jordan, the President of the Indiana State University, me 
distinction in their profession, and well acquainted with ed 
tional questions, both say that the need of the ^oung wome 
their respective institutions is that of sufficient incentive, 
highest of all incentives, self- development and the posses 
of culture, appeals as directly to ^oung women as to yc 
men, and not less strongly ; but this highest of incentive 
sufEcienc for only the highest order of minds ; and in the 
of the average young person of either sex, must be reinfo: 
by incentives more immediate and tangible. In this con 
tion the need of improving the normal schools may be le 
mately discussed. The normal school has done much tc 
i the occupation of teaching Into the rank of the professit 

I. but teaching can never be accounted one of the teamed 

( fesslons untti the lenming which is generally considered re 

site in the doctor, the lawyer, and the clergyman i« demu 
in the teacher. It is quite true that the education impliet 
a full college course is not made a condition of entranc 
schools of medicine, law, and theology ; but if such prelimii 
culture is not demanded by these schools, it is expectet! 
them. On the contrary, it is not only not demanded, bat 
expected, that applicants for admission to a normal sd 
shall present a degree from some reputable college of Ut 

The professions which a majority of ambitious young : 
with intellectual tastes eipect to enter, offer incentive* tc 
preliminary college work ; the one profession into which jrc 
women may enter with undisputed propriety not only does 
offer incentives for taking a preliminary college course, ba 
its entrance requirements and its curriculum implies that i 
a course is not requisite. 

Now that State universities are the direct continuane 
the high schools, it would seem desirable that at least t 
teachers who expect to engage in high school work sli 
have taken the courses of study implied by a college de 
Could the sUndard of normal school instruction and of 
school preparation be thus lifted, it would act as a poi 
incentive to young women. 

The growth of progressive thought in the West, cone* 
the social and civil position and the industrial and protes 
freedom of woman, tends to supply wonen witb iacenti 


obtain the beit education : and the defecu in their education 
Utbcito canaed bjr the absence of incentive, promise to be 
vemcdicd with increasing rapidity. 

TbecoUegcf. particularly the State universities of the West, 
m cbafged with being defective in their provisions for the de- 
vdopmeDl and culture of the social qualities of their students. 
Maaf o( Ibem have no dormitories, and the students upon en- 
tcnag them, women and men alike, go into boarding-houses 
4tr iinvatc families, or form co-operative boarding clubs, ac- 
cotdiDg to Ibeir own tastes and under conditions of their own 

If w these universities students were received for post 
padaatc work only, no criticism could attach to this custom 
cf karing every student to reflate his or her own domestic 
■■d social affairs, for such students are usually mature men and 
*Ottca. But this custom is open to criticism in institutions, 
*> *U of which the majority, and in most of which all the stu- 
^*>t^ are undcr-^raduates of immature age. 

Attudy of their blest catalogues shows that, excluding the 
^^ uaivenities, most of these institutions which enjoy more 
'"*> I local patronage have erected or are coniempUting the 
"''Etioa of dormitories for the accommodation of tlic young 
*^'»n) in attendance upon them. Althoiigli some colleges, as, 
"•■ eumple. the Ohio Wesleyan Univt-rsity, continue to 
"'U dormitories large enough to accommodate one or two hun- 
**' ^>ung women, there is a tendency favorable to the crec- 
"°* oif less pretentious buildings under the name of hall or 
^^''ge, each of which shall accommodate from twenty to sixty 
''"'ai woiren. The refinement Ijoth of college life and of sub- 
''^Wil social life would be enhanced by the multiplication of 
**>e homes (or moderate numbers of college women — if each 
**'c put under the charge of a woman whose intellectual cul* 
^^ stability, and nobleness of character, and experience of 
^* and the world, made her the evident and acknowledged 
per o( every member of the college faculty. But, if these col- 
lie homes lor women students are placed under the charge of 
MUrons who are expected to combine motherly kindness and 
^Muewifely skill with devout piety, but in whom no other quali- 
bes or attaiemenis are demanded, and if the matrons are the 
Miy wotnen, besides the students, connected with the institu- 
boo, the influence of the college home will lend to lower the 
idcd of woman's function in society ; to rob the ideal of do- 
■CMic life of all iotcllectuid quality ; and in general to diminish 
B the incentives to study. 


Every one knowi that the ttron^t ttUDnliu to exertion that 
young men experience in college u afforded br their contact 
with men whose cultivated talenti, whOM aonnd leaniing, whose 
successful experience, and whose rich characters thejr admin^ 
venerate, and emulate. 

The aJraost universal absence of women from college facul- 
ties is a grave defect in co-educational institutioos ; and nega- 
tively, at least, their absence has as injurious an influence npon 
young men as upon young women. 

Under the most favorable conditions, the colle^ home; in 
which a large number of young women are brought into a com- 
mon life under one roof and one guidance, is abnonnal in its 
organization. If, in the university town where young women 
find homes in boarding-houses or in private omUies, then 
couid be a local board of ladies authorized to exercise som« 
supervision over the young women, the arrangement migh' 
secure the aims of a college home under more natural con 
ditions than the latter now provides. 

But women in the faculty, women on the board of visitor 
women on the board of trustees, holding these positions, n 
because of their family connections, not because they are wiv 
or sisters of the men in the faculty and on the boards, b 
because of their individual abilities, are the great present ne 
of co-educational colleges. Only the presence of women in thi 
places can relieve the young men who are students in these 
stitutions from an arrogant sense of superiority arising fi 
their sex, and the young women from a corresponding sens> 
subordination. * 

In a statement of the "Theory of Education in the Vn 
Slates of America," prepared by the Hon. Duane Doty and 
Wm. T. Harris, the present Commisioner of Education, we 
the following : 

" The general participation of all the people in the pH' 
political functions of election, together with the almost com 
localication of self-government by local administration, re' 
necessary the education of all, without distinction of sex,; 
rank, wealth, or natural abilities." Farther: "The na 
government and the State government regard educatior 
proper subject for legislation, on the ground of the net 
of educated intelligence among a people that is to fumis' 
aMding citiiens, well versed in the laws they are to obe 
likewise law-tiuiking citizens, well versed in the social, hi 
and political conditions which give occasion to new U' 
shaiw their provisions." 


TlMse ttatemcDts are in perfect accord with the following 
worti of Wuhington, quoted from his " Farewell Addresi to 
Ac AoBcricaa People": "In proportion ai the itnicture of a 
^ ■ ftjiimo t girei force to public opinion, it is essential that 
pablic ^Haioa should be enlightened." 

Here n the whole argument for the existence of State uni- 
''ea. In the West, these are destined to be the strongest) 
C, and best equipped institutions for the higher learning; 
V likewise dearlr destined to have a determining influence 
ipga the policy of other colleges in respect to co-education. 

TW * West " remains an indefinite term ; and in that part of 
K wUdh tbc word accurauly describes, a people will be born 
■ho know nothing of distinctions in opportunity between men 

A peq^ feared ttndcr such conditions will ultimately ex- 
* * ' e of the " Higher Education of Women in the 



The education of women in the South has suffered from i 
same cause which has kept back the education of women 
over the world. Woman was looked upon as merely an adjui 
to the real human being, man, and it was not considered < 
sirable to give her any other education than what sufficed 
make her a good housewife and an agreeable, but not toocr 
cal, companion for her husband. When Dr. Fierce travel 
through Georgia, in 1836-37, to collect funds for establishi 
. the Georgia Female College, he was met by such blunt 
fusals as the^e, from gentlemen of large means and libe 
views as to [he education of their sons : " No, I will not give j 
a dollar ; all that a wom^n needs to know is how to read 1 
New Testament, and to spin and weave clothing for 1 
family "; " I would not have one of your graduates for a wi 
and I will not give you a cent for any such object." Id 
address delivered before the graduating class of the Greenlx 
Female College of North Carolina in 1S56, the speaker sai 
" I would have you shun the one [too tittle learning] u 1 
plague, and the other [too much] as the leprosy ; I would k 
you intelligent, useful women .... yet never evincing ac 
sciousness of superiority, never playing Sir Oracle, never sh> 
ing that you supposed yourself bom for any other destiny t' 
to be ft ' helpmeet for man.'" An intelligent lady whowaic 
cated in the best schools in Richmond, just before the 
writes me: "If the principal of the school to which I went 
any high views, or any views at all, about the education of woi 
I never heard her express them ; and I fancy that, contcto 
or unconsciously, her object was to make the girls undet 
cue charming women as far as possible, sufficiently well ret 


e and apprecUtiTc eompuiiotu to men." And thii 

of tbe milter hu not yet entii«I]r diuppared, for, in the 
loKPefor 1889 of the Norfolk College for Young Ladies, the 
( of tht KlMxri aie nud to be molded in accordsnce with 
IHJiii i|ili that " a woman's province in life ii to throw 
elf beanily into the ptunoits of otben rather than to have 
■its of her own." It ii plain that lo long as thii view of 
taaction of women prevails thejr will have little inccutive 

fittk oppovtSDitj for nndeitalimg the Kvere labors which 
Ac nccriiiiy condition of a solid education. The lighter 
sa which are supposed to result from a little training in 
•di and Bosk sad from some study of English literature, 
• far a loo| time been accessible to Southern girls, both in 
aebof tbcir own and in the numerous private and fash- 
lUe sdoob of Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York. 
IB a (irl was a member of a thoroughly cultivated family, 

•atnally became a cultivated woman ; there was uBoally a 
w far ber brotheis, whose instruction the was allowed to 
tc (Ac mother <^ Chancejlor Wythe of Virginia Uught her 

Gnd) ; and there was usually, either in her own house or 
Ibe parsonage, a large and carefully selected library of 
[fiA books. If by the right kind of family influence a girl 

bMs thoroughly penetrated with a love of books, some. 
If has been done for ber which, of course, the regular 
■• of education often fail to produce. The women of 
r Orkana, and Charleston, and Richmond were often cul- 
led women in the best sense of the word, but of the higher 
otiai^ as the modern woman understands it, veiy tittle has 
«ftD existed in the Southern Sutes. 

■ a long and exhaustive paper on " Colonial Education in 
A Carolina,"* by Edward McCrady, Jr., absolutely the 
f irnrinn nude of women is in the following sentences : 
a edncation they priied beyond all price in their leaders 

leachen, and craved its possession for their husbands and 
dbcn and soni^" and, ** These mothers gloried in the know- 
^ . . . . (tf their husbands and children, and would 
fo oomforts and endure toil that their sons might be well 
racted, enterprising men."t But in this respect South 

iMd brfion At Historic^ SodctT of Sooth C««Uu. Aarm 6. 1U3, and 
iMibrIhiBwMaofEdBC>tkM,CiKaiarof lafonutloa No. 3, tUS. 
MisHii Isawdsofa chsritsbl* icboal (or rtrlL wUcfa tbsy mn oM 
M4la«Harfallwiksapof iwdvs. sad ol s •cfaeol, apfMnMly (or 
khi|a «pM br Ma- Gmob, As wUs irf JMIM J«lm GHMa.M Fttlag 


Carolina was not behind Massachuietts. The public icb< 
of Boston, esUblished in 164a, were not open to girls 
178^, and then only to teach them spelling, reading, and o 
position for one half the year. The Boston High School 
girls was only opened in 1853* 

The beginnings of the secondary education for girls throt 
out so large a territory as the entire South we have not n 
to trace here, and we shall confine ourselves chiefly to a 
scription of the existing condition of things. But it maj 
mentioned that Mrs. Lincoln -Phelps (bom Almira Hart), 
sister of the Mrs. Emma Willard t who revoluliooixed the t 
cation of girls in the North, was one of the first to introdai 
better state of things in the South. In 1841 she took chaig 
the Patapsco Institute, near Baltimore, and she transforme 
at once into a school of the same grade as the Troy Fen 
Seminary, where she had been for eight years teacher and v 
principal. She writes :{ " The course of instruction, bet: 
the preparatory studies, embraced three years : the class of r 
oric, the class of philosophy, and the class of mathematics 
natural sciences ; and distributed through each, with studies 
propriate to the advancement of the members, were the anc 

and modern languages Besides the twelve resii 

teachers, there were special teachers who came from Baltim 
in the Italian, Spanish, German and French languages «o( 
elocution and general literature. To the regular classes sh( 
be added the class of normal pupils, varymg from twelvi 
twenty, which contributed many accomplished governesses 
teachers to the families amd schools of the South." The nat 
sciences she taught herself, using her own well-lcnown 
books in botany, geology, chemistry, and natural philosopi 
"It was not easy at first to render mathematics popular an 
girls, who were disposed to consider accomplishments aa 
great requisite in education ; but by establishing a reg 
course of studies and by awarding diplomas to those only 
had honorably completed this course, ambition was awab 
which led to efforts that often surprised the pupils themw 
no less than their friends. Thus the study of algebra, geom 
and trigonometry, as well as menUl and moral philosopb; 

* See chapter " Eduutloti In the East"— Go. 
t See chapter" Education ia the KuL" — Ed. 
X Quoted ta the Am. Jeur. af Educadtn, September, iS&S, p. 6t>. 
8 Mrs. Phelps, Mrs. WilUrd, ud Maria Mitchell w«ra the fitst thiM' 
nembeis o( the Ancriaui Awodsllon for the AdnwccBcot of Sdeaei 


w tUs tinw deeised bf 111:1117 repulsive, by degrees became not 
•■If Ulenble, but ia some casei fascinating." 

A jar and a ba]f before this, namely, in January, 1839, the 
Ccoipa Female College (now the Weileyan Female College) 
«u opeoed at Macon, Ca. It had from the beginning the 
povcrof conferring degrees, and eleven young women took the 
dcpte of A.B. in 1840. It is commonly said that this is the 
tntcoUcge for women that ever existed. That it was called a 
caOciewas doubtlcsa merely owing to the politeness of the 
Cmpa Legislature. I have not been able to find out what 
the coone of study consisted in at that time, but at present 
Harkaesa' First Year in Latin is the only preparation in 
lutugcs required for entering the freshman class, and plane 
fooetry is studied during the sophomore year. It is not 
liU)' that the course was better than this in 1840, and hence it 
wpMJB that then as now it was a college only in name,* and not 
■ iSf way superior to Mrs. Lincoln Phelps's more modest 
hbpsco Institute. 

ne years about 1840 seem to have been a period of general 
ankening in the South in regard to the importance of the 
*dBQiion of women. The Judson Institute was founded by 
flw Baptist State Convention of Alabama in iSji] ; the "first 
■Korporated college for women in North Carolina," the 
Gieniborough Female College (Methodist), obtained its char- 
"r ia 1838, but was not opened for the reception of students 
ntili846; in Maryland, the Frederick Female Seminary was 
■"wrporated in 1840 and opened in 1843. St. Mary's School, 
«Rileiih. N. C, was opened in 184a. 

Bbi it is the Moravians in the South, as well as in the North, 
*^haTC been foremost among the religious denominations in 
1^ establishing of schools for girls of a thorough, if of an cic- 
^tary, type. The devotion of Moravian parents to mis- 
Moaiy enterprises made it necessary for them 10 have schools 
>* which their children might find a substitute for family life, 
||Mhcr with such teaching as they were thought to rciiuire. 
"nienul training, thorough instruction in useful knowledge, 
WdKrupuIous attention to religious culture were the charac- 
teristics of their early schools," and are the main features of 
ik five institutions of higher learning which are still carried 
U by thai Church. The Salem Female Academy, in the 
•onhwestcre part of the State of North Carolina, among the 

I Obcrlia. Sm 

m EDucATiotr m tub sootmbkn states. 

foothills of the Blue Ridge, was opened id 1804. The < 

riculum consisted of reading, ^mmar, writing, arithmetic, 
tory, geographv, GeTnia.n, plain needlework, music, drawi 
and ornamental needlework. Between six and seven thoiisi 
pupils have been educated in this school. The course ii 1 
very low ; the rcquircmenu for admission into the junior d 
are arithmetic to the end of simple interest, geometry to quai 
laterals, and one book of Csesar. But the instruction seeni 
be thorough, and the catalogue exhibits a freedom from p 
tense which is very refreshing. I'he auttior of the " HUk 
of Education in North Carolina,"* says : "The influence nf 
Salem Academy has been widespread. For many years it 1 
the only institution of repute in the South for female edw 

tion A great many of its alumnsB have become teach* 

and heads of seminaries and academies, carrying the thoron 
and painstaking methods of this school into their own inttii 
tions. It is probably owing to the influence of the Sil< 
Academy that preparatory institutions for the education 
girls are more ntimeroiis in the South and, as a rule, bet 
equipped than are similar institutions for boys." 

The war was the occasion of a serious break in the edui 
tion of woman in the South and of a serious loss in the sn 
amount of funds that had been accumulated for their schoc 
The Georgia Female College, however, went on wiih its wi 
without interruption, with the exception of two or three weel 
the Confederate authorities were at one time on the point 
seizing it for a hospit.i), but were restrained by an in ju net 
from the civil courts, on the ground that the college was 
residence of several private families, and that many of 
boarding pupils were unable 10 return to their homes, or c 
to communicate with their parents, on account of the gev 
disruption of the railroads-f The Salem Academy, also, 
overcrowded with students during the war, sent as muct 
shelter and protection as for education. After the war, r 
of the existing schools for girls were reopened, and a I 
number of new ones have been established since that timi 


Most people would probably be ready to say that cxce- 
the newly founded Woman's College in Baltimore and t 
University, the collegiate education of women does not 

• Bureau of Education, iSBB. 

\ Historical SiKtcb in tha catolcKnc for 18SB-9. 


X ct fact, there are no leu than one 
^— _ ^_ -.-J « in the South which are authorized 

■I IW Lyilaiaita ik their retpectire States to confer the 
^tikttt&tft Ai^ptu npoD women. Of these, fort/-one are 
*» XlKBliuiial, ei^tf-eignt are for women alone, and twenty. 
y f for colored pcnou <d both sexes. The bureau of 
'■MiM aaakei no atteinpt to go behind the verdict of the 
j^ Undatares, bat on looking over the caulogues of all 
''■t ■mmions * it ii, as night have been expected, easy to 
*yfcl the gnat najoritj of them are not in any degree col- 
9^ ■ tbe oidiMuy tense nl the word. Not a single one of 
*i*edled feoule coHeges presents a real college course, and 
**r of the oo^ncational cdleges are collies only in name. 
j^iiaak college^ however, easily fall into two distinct 
Jfcs ; aoc a few <tf them offer a course such that the students 
"^ac catering upon the junior year are, in a general way, as 
fitted as those who are just admitted to the freshman year 
*<«i^Blar college; This kind of college there will be such 
'•■■■at occasioa to speak about that it is necessary to coin a 
'**«onl for it, and I propose to call them semt-eoileget. The 
f^K is such that two years of the work of a regular college 

I <tf four, and by a regular college I mean one 
^ch cornea np to the standard set by the Association of Col- 
'^■■■K AluBinz ton admission into its ranks. 

Ai tkerc will be several references to the sundard of scholar- 
jjpsci by the Association of Collegiate Alumnx, I add here 
l"( Rqairemeats for admission into the freshman class of any 
""^ ' ' of which are recognised as eligible for 





la ICatheautica 

Oesar (foor books), 
^aeid (six books). 
Cicero {seven orations). 
Anabasis (three books). 
Iliad (three books). 

Algebra through quadratics 
' Ptuie geometry. 

The Sonthem colleges which attain the rank of a semi-college 
I Aall speak of with more deuil farther on. The real colleges 

^>««r *Mad.aad la bsUw 
Mtsiss fcr T i ll tfc wMth «IU BM 1 
Mmi\t iliilm^mielftsacharCwMsa 

, kind ia pUdng lit coltce- 
tor OM (iwB its naaoaeript 

(or lw« run 10 cob*. 
■^ bssa b s ri t a tid fee Qasfc. 


.or women in the South consist of the Wonun't College of Bal- 
timorc and the co-educationaj colleges (including in that tens 
those in which the management ana the degrees are the same 
for the men and the women, though the recitation* may be 
conducted separately). Of these, the University of Texas, the 
Tulane University (which is the State university of Louisiana), 
the University of Mississippi, and the Columbian University in 
Washington are the important ones. The admission of women 
into all of these universities is of very recent date, and may be 
taken as an indication of a general movement in favor -of a 
greater degree of generosity toward women, which may, in 
time, sweep over the entire South. The geographical distribu- 
tion of these entering wedges is worthy of not& Baltimore 
and Washington on the north, the University of Missouri on 
the west, the State Universities of the three States of the ex- 
treme southwest, — add tu this the fact that the State of Florida 
has every one of its four colleges for men open to women, and 
that it has not a single girls' seminary of the old-fashioned 
type, and it may well be believed that the modem idea of whaf 
a woman requires in the way of education is destined to closi 
in upon the entire Southern country, and that the contentmen 
which Southern women have hitherto shown with the unsut 
stantial parts of learning will eventually be replaced by moi 
far-reaching claims. The University of Virginia is the ve: 
mold and glass of form for all the other schools and colleg 
of the South, and if that were to throw down the barrii 
which it now keeps up against the unobtrusive sex, it might 
considered that the battle was already won. But the U 
versity of Virginia is fnr from being unimprcgnable ; thcchi 
man of its faculty writes me : 

" In reply to your interesting * letter of November 35, "8 
would say that opinion is much divided both in our faculty 
in our boaid of visitors on the question of opening this univet 
to women." There is at this moment no way in which any 
who wished to benefit women could do so more effectively 
by offering this university a handsome endowment on cond 
of its tenninating this state of indecision in the right 
The Johns Hopkins University has lately accepted a gift 
hundred thousand dollars from a woman ; it remains to b( 
whether it will show its appreciation of this act of generos 
the part of the self-forgetful sex by opening its doors to w 
Whatever the result of the next few years may be upc 

* iDtercstlng on account «f an axtna fram a kttar from a Vligliiif 


r o( tbe education of women in the South, thei^ can be 
■o donbt that the litnation at the preient moment is far more 
il than it was ten or even five yK»,n ago, and far more 
il than aay one would have believed who hat not recently 
1 into the matter. 
For the present, the Woman's College of Baltimore is the 
onlr npresentative in the South of separate education for 
woneu of a collegiate srade. This college was established 
by the Methodist Church (aided by liberal endowments 
nan a namber of enthusiastic advocates of the higher edu- 
otioo,^ — first among them the Rev. John F. Goucher) for the 
(vpose of providing women with the best attainable facili- 
tM> for securing Uboal culture. It is the intention to in* 
oe*M the endowment to two millions of dollars, exclusive of 
^ value of the buildings, — this is stated to be necessary in 
*'te to meet the objects which the incorporators have in view. 
^■CK are at present nine profcssori and associate professors, 
*°|ether with other instructors ; there arc laboratories and 
"ctore-rooms, a spacious and carefully planned boarding- hall, 
'^■gymnasium which contains a swimming pool and nmning 
^Kk,iDd which is fitted with the best imported appliances 
'* both general and special gymnastic movements. The 
***Ui of the South is becoming so great that there is no 
'^Ua whjr thoroughly equipped colleges like this should not 
^'ittf up in various quarters. 

1 have received the roost emphatic testimony as to the good 
^Xling of the women in the best of the men's colleges to which 
^ have been admitted. Professor Fristoe, of Columbian 
"••venity, writes me : 

*Io 18S4 women were admitted to the medical and scientific 
^'Putments of this university, and in 1887 to the academic, 
''tepi to the preparatory school. We have eleven ladies in 
^ academic department, seven in the medical, and seven in 
^scientific. We admitted them simply because there seemed 
*pbca demand for it, and because we contd find no objec- 
^M. The girls admitted have been, without txciption. superior 
**dents. They have had no injurious effect, but the reverse, 
^«c find no inconvenience from our course. We have had so 
vosly two who finished the course in the Corcoran Scientific 
*hool, bat they were very fine scholars. One of them excelled 
*pniilly in ouithematics, the other in mental philosophy and 
■ck svbjecti. I am rather proud of the girls." 

Tke italics are not mine. Professor Adison Hogue, of the 
vinoB^ o( HisuanpiH, writes me : 


" Women aie admitted here because the board <A trntteet 
gave them the privilege some years ago. I know of do othei 
reason than that. Not many avail themselvet of the oppor- 
tunity, especially as the State for some yean past baa had, at 
Columbus, an industrial institute and college ralclv for women. 
This year we have eleven in attendance here ; in each of vaj 
previous three years the number was five. Their standing 
averages above that of the boys, I think. In '85 and '87 the 
first honor was taken by young ladies; and in our present 
sophomore class a slender girl is spoken of as the * fint honor 
man.' 'I'heir social standing is in no way impaired by tbeir 
coming here, although the plan of mixed education u oot 
greatly in favor, as the small number shows." 

Professor Halsted, of the University of Texas, sayi^ in his 
report to the Superintendent of Public Instruction : " Several 
young ladies have shown marked ability in the acquirement of 
the newer and more abstruse developments of mathematics, for 
example, quaternions." 

The president of the H. Sophie Newcomb College, which i& 
a department of the Tulane University of Louisiana, has a 
larger number of students upon which to base his concluuooL 
He writes ; 

" When the college was inaugurated two years ago, it was dis 
covered that \ay few of the applicants for admission wen 
qualified to undertake a regular college course. The school 
of this city (mostly private), which they had previously attendei 
had not hitherto arranged their courses of study with referent 
to advanced or college work, and had not therefore adopK 

any fixed standard of acquirement The grade of tl 

present freshman class is fully a year and a half in advance 
that which entered two years ago, and at the same time thf 
has been a steady increase in numbers. The greatest gain 1 
been shown in mathematics, science, and Latin. Our advanc 
classes are doing excellent work in calculus and analyti 
geometry, laboratory work in chemistry and biology, < 

While I can testify from experience to the equal a 

ity of the Louisiana young women with those in the East 
elsewhere in mathematical, scientific or other studies, yet 
account of the social pressure, and long established cusi 
which demand early graduations, we must be content to 
our institution develop more slowly than it would other 

I give in Appendix C, Table I., a list of the co-educat 
colleges in the Southern States, prepared for me b; the Bt 



of Education from the manuscript statistics for 1889-90. The 
following so-called colleges have in no sense a proper equip- 
II nor a proper course of study for enabling them to de- 
the name of college : Eminence, Classical and Business, 
Kentucky, (Kv.); Keachie, (La.); Florida Conference 
St J[ohn's River (Fla.); Western Maryland, (Md.); Kavan- 
aghy (Hiss.); Salado, Hope, (Tex.) That leaves the following 
■wabrr <rf students who are in the collegiate departments of 
lea^ iriiile^ oo-educational colleges in the South : 

Dteiciof ^^>ii— «M« 
























Thb table discloses the remarkable fact that there are 750 
woinen studying in such men's colleges in the South as have 
a decent claim to the name of college, and also that Virginia 
is the only Sute in the South that has not got at least some 
kind of a co-educational college. 

The testimony in favor of co-education, by all those colleges 
which have tried it, is very emphatic. The president of Ruth- 
erford College (N.C), says: ''This school [established in 
SS53] is the first experiment in the South, of which we have 
mny information, in which an attempt has been made to train 
the two sexes together in the course of a college education. 
Its results prove the experiment to be a complete success** The 
president of Bethel College (Tenn.), says : " The mutual 
refining influences of co-education, socially, mentally, and mor- 
ally, npon the sexes, is unquestionably good." 

The president of Vanderbilt University, which is the most 
important university in the South after the University of Vir- 
ginia, writes me that, although co-education has not been for- 
vully adopted there, yet women have never been refused admis- 




sion into clasKi, th&t degreet would alwtja be cottfencd s 

those who had taken the proper examinatioai, and that 
young woman had actually completed the conrae and leoei 
the degree of A.H, What more can the women of tlw cat 
Southern Sutet denre? It U not Dccenaijr that tvoy i 
college should be open to them ; there wkj be paxenta 
think that the conventual life u best suited to Uw monl 
social development of their loni, and inch parents dwold J 
an opportunity for carrying out the plan whidi cocasM 
itself to them. All that women ask it that thn ahmild 1 
freedom of access to the itst men's colleges. In tbat «i 
standard for a woman's education wiU be fixed, and v 
woman will be able to reach that standard if she deairM 
the second best colleges may then be allowed to be as ezda 
as they please. 

There is one more bright spot in the educational outlotdi 
Southern women : it is announced that in the new Metbc 
university, which is about to be founded in Washtngloa, a 
large scale, every department will be open to women on exa 
the same terms as to men. 

It lies with Southern women to decide whether they s 
accept the Urge privileges which are now open to them, ] 
hard for mothers who did not go to college themselves 
who have still lived what seemed to them to be happy lives 
feci that something different is desirable for their danj^b 
but may there not be fathers who, having tasted the plcaai 
of intellectual activity for themsctves, will be minded to 1 
their daa^bteis into the Saxat fields which they have fom^ 
be attractive? 


I give in Appendix C. Table II.. the list of semi-coUegM 
determined from their catalogues. Of course, it cannot ba 
ferred from the fact that the course is a good one that it ia ' 
carried out : but if the course is very limited, if the tezt-bc 
used are poor, if there is no indication that the school haa 
library nor any scientific apparatus, it can be inferred thai 
school is not of a hi^h grade ; the above list may thcrefdl 
taken as a superior limit of the semi'colleges in the South, 
the other hand, it may happen that the teachers of the ell 
and of English literature are persons of culture and vt 
learning, and that a greater number of authors are read 
the course laid down demands. 

In the Mary Sharp College (Winchester, Tenn.), in i8f 

woMAif's mutir m ambkica. 

^ u^^>«Hgiwiict competed the folloving pott ^ndnate course 
TL.^^ im half jwai* : Scncca't Enajn, (Edipui Tyrtnnus, 
*r* Uctre% CoUoqaia in Latin, eta ; ia the lecond half 
' tw<tf AcB md Ljrdas' Oration*, — againit Erttoitbenei; 
% tbe ncred olive, and the funeral oration, — the 
: of iMMcnuea, Xcnopbon't Sympotium, Lncian't 
ur*"«a^ and PIntarch's Delajr oi the Deity ; and one of them, 
?^* Ads Slangbter, rand, in addition, the Ajaz of Sopho- 
oH^TtMo's Apology and Crito, Iliad (three books), Lucian'a 
l^^m, Seneca's Bpigrammatica, Seneca's Letters, Ovid's 
rf*'Wini|ihoni (nine books), Cicero de Officiia, Pliny's Let* 
? |'^» Salwat's Jngnrtha, and Eutropius. This college was 
l^^ded ia 1S50, and for nan^ years " it maintained a course 
f* ^tady, a ■ethod of instruction, and plan of government far 
|*^Miaac« of any college in America for women, "f From the 
•^^MJBg it has reqnirM both Latin and Greek for graduation, 
^^^ a very reipeeuble amount of both ; it thus deserves, 
S|^ » than the Georgia Female College, the name of the 
^Ij** college exdnnvely for women in the country. It has 
T^ three bnndrcd graduates, and in 1887-SS it bad i8s 

j^The Nashville College for Young Ladies seemi to be one of 
?* Most imporunt of the colleges of this grade in the South. 
¥ has frcqnent lectures from the profeuon of Vanderbilt 
yj^vernty, and students in the scientific department attend 
'^*«ns in tbe Uboratories and cabtneu of that university. 
^ *Wch sr of the school it present, and examines the class 
y*rward. Tbe professor quiuet in the daily lecture course. 
^y ii not reyanble for the eaaminations. The president of 
^* Kbool writes me : 

Until I began here in 1880, the thought of arresting the 
^*^ioa of a girt was not enteruined. If she went through 
^tanicaliim without preliminary tetts or without any inter- 
2*^iaie OT 6nal esaminationi. the diploma followed as a matter 
, ^)plicd Gootract. Pupili were received to be graduated 
*''Mi a specified time. This sounds incredible, I know, and 
I*t I hare tbt best proof of the facL When I announced that 
|*P«pj| woold be graduated in my institution without inffi- 
**U tests of ber sdiolarship, it wai freely predicted that such 
^'~ ' B would destroy the patronage of the school- I 

iTa«r UH B« epMid Mfl lU 


am glad to (ay that the vattcinatioa was tsiac, but I «Uude to 
to the facts to throw light upon the sUtus among as." 


The schools for women which are of a higher grade than 
the ordinary high school, but not so high as the college, the 
Bureau of Education classifies under the head of Superior 
Instruction. It will be seen from Appendix C, Table III., that 
the State of Kentucky has nineteen of these female colleges, 
and that six of the Southern States have an average of fourteen 
each. They are of all possible degrees of excellence. Such 
schools as the Hollins Institute and the Norfolk College for 
Young Ladies in Virginia, and Caldwell College at Danville, . 
Ky., have every mark of being thoroughly good schools. The 
difhculty with nearly all these schools is, of course, that they 
are private and money-making enterprises, and do not care to 
incur large expenses for teachers or for the proper appliances 
tor instruction, nor to make the course of study so ngid as to 
drive away pupils. It is remarkable to see how soon the char- 
acter of the course, and especially the character of the text- 
books, is changed as soon as the majority of the teachers are 
graduates of Northern colleges. On the other hand, it is the 
lack of intelligence and care on the part of parents that per- 
mits the poorest of thtse schools to continue to exist If the 
worst half of these schools could be starved out of existence, 
and if their patronage could be transferred to the better 
half, the quality of the instruction which women receive in the 
South would he completely changed. It is a duty which parents 
owe to the public, no less than to their daughters, to discnminalc 
carefully against the thoroughly worthless schools.* 

In one of these so-called colleges no foreign language i 
taught ; in another, the senior class takes a whole year to com 

Elete plane geometry; in very many of them Steele's texi 
ooks in the sciences are used. In the Chickasaw Fema' 
College, Latin is optional, no other language and very lilt 
mathematics is taught, and the president says: "An expet 
ence of very many years proves to me that this course is n 
too far extended." In many of these small colleges the su 
jects of study constitute separate schools, following the plan 

* A Kentucky molher who had lalccn ihc trouble to uiid her diughta 
Helmulh College in Canaili. found thjt ihe wascurying oa •iilcca Mai 
at the tune lime, and that the gave one half hour ■ weeli to ^totuKtrf, • 
in( which the leacher save the denuwitraliooa and did oot permit the < 


the Unversily of Vii^ginia. In the Marion Female Seminary, 
" the icbooU being dittioct, the Mudeat may become a candi- 
date for graduation in one or all of them at once." There are 
\ thirteen distinct ichools ; in the Huntsville Female 

SeminaTY there are ten, all carried out, a> far as appear* from 
the catalogue, by a iingle iiutnictor, the president. 

Tite rules and regulations in many of these colleges are 
cxtrcody minute and harassing ; they are largely copied from 
one cataioguelo another; in several instances the pupils are 
■ot allowed to read any book nor an^ newspaper without the 
cspress permission of the president ; m nearly all, the discipline 
will be ** mild, but, if necessary, firm." In one catalogue only, 
it is said that "there are no rules and but few regulations; 
ladylike conduct is the one thing required." 

A nniform dress must be worn in many of these colleges. 
Tbc Sunday suit is frequently " of navy blue, made fashionably, 
bai with no trimmings of cither silk or satin, no rufHes, and no 
beads." In one of these schools, a uniform dress was at first 
required only for Sundays, but the week day dressing was Tound 
to be so extravagant that it became necessary to reslrirt the 
nalerial worn to a black and white check gingham. In ihe 
catalogue of the Suffolk Female Institute, it is staled that " the 
■nifonn dress usually prescribed by other institutions is not re> 
qsired here " ; and, in that of another school, that " uniformity 
is DOt needful or wise." 

The cost of board and tuition in these schools (exclusive of 
Basic and painting and fancy work) is most frequently about 
two bondred dollars. Parents who can afford it usually send 
ibeir daughters Korth, or at least as far North as to Virginia or 
Tennessee, as it is considered that a few years passed in a 
colder climate have a good effect in establishing their health. 
Only a small number have as yet taken the college courses that 
are offered in the North. The following table gives the results 
ti By inquiries : 

SoiTTHtaM Ga*DUATat t>t NoarMakH CoLtJtcss. 

VaBwCoUtx* 4S 

WdIal«T C«ll«ta lO 

teiib Colkfi lo 

Sw«th*or« CoIki« S 

BoMOB Unjnnalj S 

Bry* Uawr Cdl<l« 9 

C«Mdl UalTcniiy I 

flifiUMi Unlrcnitj > 

KsMM Uaittf^tr ■ ■ ^ O 



The president of Michigan Univenity it «ble to recall from 
six to ten women graduates from Southern St&tei, and the nam- 
ber from the University of Wisconsin hai been "not Urge. " 


From the statistics for secondary instruction in the Soutbem 
States, it may be discovered that there are more than twice as 
many girls as bo)[s in attendance upon public high schools. 
There are three times as many girls as Doyt throughout the 
whole country, it will be remembered, who complete the high 
school course. I do not find that a single Southern city pro- 
vides a high school for boys without providing one for girls 
also, and usually it ii the same sctiool for both (though the reci^ 
tation-rooms may be separate). Where the schools are dis- 
tinct, the girls' school is usually much inferior to the boys'. 
This is notably the case in Baltimore, where the boys' high 
school (it is called the City College) fits admirably for the Johns 
Hopl(ins University, and where the two girls' hi^h schools are of 
an extremely low grade. Tliroughout the entire South there 
are only forty-one high schools, while there are seventy-six in 
Massachusetts alone, but it must be remembered that any sys- 
tem of public schools has hardly existed in the South previous 
to the war. 

An important feature in secondary education in the South is 
the establishment of the Bryn Mawr Preparatory School in 
Baltimore. In 1884 five ladies formed themselves into a com- 
mittee and appointed a secretary and six teachers (science, 
classics, mathematics, history, French, and Gennan), all college 
graduates, and a drawing teacher. The school opened with 
forty pupils, and in the third year it met all its expenses. A 
very handsome building, containing a thoroughly wcU-equippetf 
eymnasium, is now (1889) being erected by Miss Mary Garret 
(one of the directors) for the future accommodation of thi 
school. For this building the directors expect to pay a fai 
rent — if not on the actual cost, yet on the price of a buildin 
that would have met the needs of the school. They ai 
anxious to prove that a school of this grade can be made ' 
pay.* They intend, out of the earnings of the school, to p: 
the college expenses for four yenrs of the two best students 
each year's graduating class. The distinguishing marlc of t 
school is that it requires each child who enters to take the si 
jects required for entrance to college (the Bryn Mawr Colh 

* Tb« tultloa ii $ijo a year. 


entrance examinations are given in the sixth and seventh years) 
and at the same time a continuous course in drawing, science, 
and luslorj, in order that a satisfactory course of study may 
be offered to ^rls who do not intend to go to college. The 
number of pupils is limited to 150. 


^ In the great advance which has been made in the South 
since the war in the establishment of systems of public schools, 
die managers of the Peabody Fund have played a very impor- 
tant part It has been said, and without exaggeration, that no 
two millions of dollars ever did so much good to the cause of 
cdocation. Normal schools, in particular, have been the 
object of their special care. In accordance with the express 
wishes of the founder, the fund has offered aid proportionate 
to what a State might do in order to secure the establishment 
of such schools ; and the initiative steps in every State included 
in its administration have been taken under the suggestion and 
stimaltts of its managers. There are now thirty-two normal 
schools in the South ; Alabama has seven, Georgia and North , 
Carolina have none. The Normal College at Nashville is not 
only a normal school for Tennessee, but for the whole South 
as well ; the trustees of the Peabody Fund distribute 114 free 
scholarships annually among ten Southern States. They have 
nbco established recently the Winthrop Training School for 
white girls in South Carolina, and that State has for the first 
time made an appropriation especially for the higher education 
of girls.^ 

Industrial training on any important scale has existed 
tfaroaghout the country only since 1862. In that year Congress 
granted large bodies of public lands to each of the States for 
the establishment of agricultural and mechanical colleges. 
The law permitted the introduction of a moderate college cur- 
ficnlom into these institutions. Gradually the returning 
Soothem States accepted this gift, and all of them have made 
some endeavor to utilize it, either by attaching a department 
to the existing State university, or, as in Virginia, Texas, Missis- 
appi, Kentucky, and Alabama, by maintaining a separate agri- 
coltoral and mechanical college. 

Women ought, of course, to have had a share in these gov- 
ernment grants, and the statistics for the whole country snow 
that of the thirty-two colleges to which they have been given, 

^ RqMft of the Peabody Education Faod, 1889. 


no less than twenty report students of both sexes.* I 
Southern States, with the exception of Arkansas and X 
none but colored women have received any benefit fi 
grants. The Arkansas Industrial University is an a 
administered institution ; the literarjr course, which i 
ground-work for the industrial training, is only a yea 
a good college course. The first class was graduated 
and consisted of seven women and one man. The 1 
Agricultural and Mechanical College has at presenl 
four women in the college course. 

The Legislature of Georgia passed a bill last yei 
appropriating $100,000 for the establishment of an i 
school for gitls. In Mississippi an admirable industri 
for girls has been in existence since 1885, — the Indni 
stitute and College, at Columbus. The entire tncon 
school is derived from State appropriations ; tuition 
all girls of Mississippi, and board is also free to 300 
portioned among the several counties of the State 
pupils are furnished board at cost, usually about nine 
month, including washing. The industrial subject* ti 
phonography, telegraphy, type-writing, decorative an 
trial art, r^pouss^ and art needle-work, printing, dreu 
designing, engraving, modeling, cooking, laundrywor! 
keeping (in a separate cottage), and book-keeping. 1 
113 students in the collegiate course and 375 in the 
course. The collegiate course shows a " marked adva 
the usual course of study in girl's colleges, especial 
elements of a solid education, in the mathematical and 
studies. Analytical geometry, Juvenal, Livy, and 
Hamilton's metaphysics, and political economy, are ai 
required studies, and the calculus, descriptive geomet 
titative analysis, and Ucbcrweg's History of Philos 
among the subjects offered in post graduate couri 
standard of scholarship is high : 75 per cent must be 
in examinations in order to advance from one class to 
The laboratoncs are fitted up with the best modem i\ 
The students in turn do the work of the dining-room 
sleeping apartments. Many of the former pupils ar 
earning good salaries in telegraphy, phonography, b< 
ing, etc. It is plain that this industnal school of M 
presents a model which other States, both North as 
would do extremely well to copy, 

* Borsaa of Educatioa RepoR, iBSf-M. 



^ tbe wholCy the outlook for the education of women in 

^SoQtbero States is not discouraging. The difficult first 

rj^been taken, — there are women college graduates here 

^^here^and it is no longer necessary to look upon them as 

^j^^^tioiitiei. In many a Southern family, the question 

*^^^ a girl shall go to college or not has become, at least, 

MjMioD to be discussed. It rests largely with existing 

^^"cp gradoates to determine whether a sentiment in favor 

J w e higher education for women shall grow rapidly or 

lll^j, and whether schools for " superior instruction " shall 

^^thallnoc be improved in quality. It is not necessary 

^eterygirl should go to college, but it is necessary that 

fOiie shook! go, for there is absolutely no other way of keep- 

'Vsp the standard of the lower schools except by making 

'■ne that they give such instruction as will stand the test of 

^ coOege entrance examinations. No more important work 

ttild be done for women than to establish a dozen preparatory 

idboob thronghout the South, similar to the Bryn Mawr school 

ii Baltimore, for the purpose of giving Southern mothers a 

ttaadard of comparison, and enabling them to exterminate, 

bf So« of patronage, those girls' schools which are thoroughly 

for tbe performance of their work. 




" I am obnoxious to cicb cirping tonne 
That sayt my btmd « needle better its. 

« • • • • 

McD CSD do best, and wodicd know it wdL 
FFc-einiaence in each and all it your*. 
Yet grant lome small acknowledjrnMnt a( oora." 

— Ankb Bsadstbest. 164a 

" Let us be wise, and not impede the loul. Let her work as the w 
Let us have one creative ener^, one incessant revelation. Let it take w! 
form It will, and let ui not bind it by the past to man or womao." 

—Margaret Fullbh, 1844. 

It is difficult to disengage a single thread from the lirt 
web of a nation's literature. The interplay of influences is sue 
that the prodiict spun from the heart and brain of woman alo 
must, when thus disengaged, lose something of its significanc 
In criticism, a classification based upon sex is necessarily m 
leading and inexact. As far as difference between the litcn 
work of women and that of men is created by difference of en' 
ronment and training, it may be legardcd as accidental; wh 
the really essential difference, resulting from the general I 
that the work of woman shall somehow, subtly, express womi 
hood, not only varies widely in degree with the individ 
worker, but is, in certain lines of production, almost ungra 
able by criticism. We cannnt rear walls which shall sepai 
literature into departments, upon a principle elusive as the 
' 'It is no more the order of nature that the especially f emii 
element should be incarnated pure in any form, than that 
masculine energy should exist unmingled with it in any Ton 
The experiment which, Lowell tells us, Nature tried in sha| 
the genius of Hawthorne, she repeats and reverses at will, 


1m practice, tbc evil effectt which have followed the lepar- 
ite cofutderation of wmnsii'i work in liteniture are sufiiciently 
klain. The debuemeot of the coin of criticism ii a fatal 
Bosare. The dearest foe of the woman artist in the past has 
wen the suave and chivalrous critic, who, judging all "female 
writers" bjr aspecial standard, has easily bestowed the unearned 

The present paper is grounded, it will be seen, upon no pref- 
erence for the Shaker-meeting arrangement which prevailed so 
loof in OUT American Temple of the Muses. It has seemed 
desirable, ia a historical review of the work of women in this 
country, to follow the course of iheir effort in the field of litera- 
tnre; to note the occasional impediments of the stream, its sud- 
den accessions of force, iu general tendency, and its gradual 

The colonial period has of course little to give us. The pro- 
fcsaional literary woman was then unknown. The verses of 
)ir«. Anne Bradstreet, called in Rattery "ihe icnth Muse," 
were "the fruit but of some few hours, curtailed from her tleep 
and Other refreshments." The negro girl, Phillis Wheatley, 
whose poetical efforts had been published under aristocratic 
paironage in England, when robbed of her mistress by death 
"resorted to marriage" — not to literature — "as the only alter- 
iMlivc of destitution. " Mrs. Mercy Warren was never obliged 
lo seek support from that sharp-pointed pen which copied so 
cleverly the satiric style of Pope, and which has left voluminous 
records of the Revolution. She too wrote her tragedies "tor 
snusemcnt, in thesolitary hours when her friends were abroad." 

Uiss Hannah Adams, bom in Massachusetts in 1755, may 
be accepted as the first American woman who made liurature 
her proiession. Her appearance as a pioneer in this country 
corresponds closely in lime with that of Mary Wollstonecrafi 
in England. She wrote, at seventy-seven, the story of her life. 
Her account sets forth clearly the difficulties which, in her 
jroath. had to be dealt with by a woman seriously undertaking 
avlbofship. Ill-health, which forbade her at tcndinn^ school, was 
aa individual disadvantage; but she remarks incidentally on 
Ibc defectiveness of the country school, where girls learned 
only 10 write and cipher, and «ere, in summer, "instructed by 
fcsaales in reading, sewing, and other kinds of work. ... I 
rcBwmber that my first idea of the happiness of heaven was of 
m place where we should find our thirst for knowledge fully 
^lificd." How )i.-it helically the old woman recalls the long, 
■f of Ibe ca^er girl! All her life the labored against odds; 


learning, however, the rudiments of I<atin, Greek^ ^eonu 
and logic, "with indescribable pleasure and anditjr, n 
some gentlemen boarding at her father's house. Beconi 
interested in religious controversy, she formed the plan of o 
piling a "View of Religions"; not at first hoping to dei 
what she calls "emolument" from the work. To win bread 
relied at this time upon spinning, sewing, or knitting, a 
during the Revolutionary War, on the weaving of bobbm b 
afterward falling back on her scant classical resources to to 
young gentlemen Latin and Greek. Meanwhile the compi 
tion went on. "Reading much religious controversy, " obser 
Miss Adams, "must be extremely trying to a female, wb 
mind, instead of being stren^hencd by those studies wh 
exercise the judgment, and give stability to the character 
debilitated by reading romances and novels." This sense 
disadvantage, of the meekly accepted burden of sex, perva 
the autobiography; it seems the story of a patient crip) 
When the long task wan done, her inexperience made her 
dupe of a dishonest printer, and although the book sold w 
her only compensation was fifty copies, for which she * 
obliged herself to find purchasers, having previously procu 
four hundred subscribers. Fortunately she had the copyri; 
and before the publication of a second edition, she chancet 
make the acquaintance of a clerical good Samaritan, who tra 
acted the business for her. The "emolument" derived fi 
this second edition at last enabled her to pay her debts, an< 
put outasmall sum upon interest. Her "History of New E 
land." in thepreparatioif of which her eyesight was nearly sa 
ficed, met with a good sale ; but an abridgment of it brought 
nothing, on account of the failure of the printer. She sold 
copyright of her "Evidences of Christianity" for one hund 
dollars in books. 

This, then, is our starting-point: evident character : 
ability, at a disadvantage both in production and in the • 
posal of the product; imperfect educational equipment; u 
hopeless consciousness of inferiority, almost amounting U 
inability to stand upright mentally. 

Susanna Rowson, who wrote the popular "Charlotte Temp 
may be classed as an American novelist, although not bor 
this country. She appears also as a writer of patriotic u 
an actress, a teacher, and the compiler of a dictionary and < 
school-books. "The Coquette, or the History of Elisa V 
ton," by Hannah Webster Foster, was another prime fav 
among the formal novels of the day. 


Kiod lji»4 Hannah Adams, in her old age, chanced to praise 
'Certain metrical effort, — unpromisingly labeled "Jephthah's 
***H Vow," — put forth by a girl of sixteen. Miss Caroline 
'•^•anj. Here occurs an indicative touch. " ' When I learned," 
^yi this commended Miss Caroline, "that my verses had been 
••""■epiitiously printed in a newspaper, I wept bitterly, and 
?i** at alarmed as if I had been detected in man's apparel." 
r|*^h vras the feeling with which the singing-robes were donned 
^ 3 maiden in 1810 — a state of affairs soon to be replaced by 

* Sneral fashion of feminine singing-robes, of rather cheap 
**<erial. For during the second quarter of the present cen- 
■'*1' conditions somewhat improved, and production greatly 
rj^tased. "There was a wide manifestation of that which 
r^fi to pure ideality an inferior relationship," writes Mr. 
I^Utn of the general body of our literature at this period. 

" '&4S Dr. Griswold reports that "women among us are taking 

* 'ceding part"; that "the proportion of female writers at this 
^^ttent in America, far exceeds that which the present or any 

"*S* in England exhibits." Awful moment in America! 
Jj^* ii led 10 exclaim by a survey of the poetic field. Alas, 
'^« vene of those "Tokens." and "Keepsakes," and "Forgcl- 
"J'-iioti," and "Magnolias," and all the rest of the annuals, all 
£iotiom without in their red or white Turkey morocco and gild- 
"*8- Alas, the Rocks of quasi swan-singers! Thty have sailed 
J**rdown the river of Time.chaniing with a monotonous mourn- 
'■•'''lets. We need not speak of them at length. One of liiem 
f"'r vrole about the Genius q\ Oldivion : most of them wrote 
^ it- It was not their fault that their toil increased the sum 
">e'"Litcralnre suited to Desolate Islands." The lime was 
'^'ofjomt. Seniimentalism infected both cnntim-nts. Itwas 
"•'Ufal enough that the infeciion should sti/c most str.>ni;ly 
'l*^"! ihoK who were weakened by an i n icl left 11.1 1 licsi-parlor 
^""•iphere. with small chance of free oul-of-duor currents. 
' ^T hid their reward. Their crude constituencies were jirotid 
Tjheni; and not all wrought without "emohimcnt," tiiim^h it 
^M hardly be said that verse-making w.u not and is not, as a 
1^. a remunerative occupation. Some names survive; held 
. 'he memory of the public by a few small, sweet songs on 
^"'I'le themes, probably undervalued by their authors, but 
'^ling now like flowers al>ovc the tide that has swallowed so 
^^1 pretentious, sand-based structures. 

Urt. Lydia H. Sigourney, the most prolific poetess of the 
^*nod, washailedas "the American Mn. Hemans." A gentle 
*^ pious womanhood shone through her verse; but her Books 



Are undisturbed and dusty in the libraries now, and likely to 
remain so. Maria Gowen Brooks, — "Maria del Occidcnte," — 
was, on the other hand, not popular at home, but put forth a 
far stronger claim than Mrs. Sigoumey, and won indeed some- 
what disproportionate praises abroad. "Southey says *Zo- 
phiel, or the Bride of Seven,' is by some Yankee woman," writes 
Charles Lamb; "an if there had ever been a woman capable 
of anything so great!" One is glad that we need not now con- 
sider as the acme of woman's poetic achievement this metrical 
narrative of the loves of the angels ; nevertheless, it is on the 
whole a remarkably sustained work, with a gorgeousness of 
coloring which might perhaps be traced to iu author's Celtic 

As Mrs. Samuel Oilman, Caroline Howard, of whom we 
have already spoken, carried the New England spirit into a 
Southern home, and there wrote not only verses, but sketches 
and tales, much in the manner of her sisters, who never left th< 
Puritan nest; though dealing at times with material strange b 
them, as in her "Recollections of a Southern Matron." WitI 
the women of New England lies our chief concern, until a dat 
comparatively recent. A strong, thinking, working race,— a 
know the type; granite rock, out of its crevices the une; 
pected harebells trembling here and there. As writers thi 
have a general resemblance ; in one case a little more mica at 
glitter, m another more harebells than usual. Mrs. Sigoumc 
for instance, presents cin azure predominance of the flowery, 
a basis of the practical. Think of her fifty-seven volume! 
copious verse, religious and sentimental; sketches of trav 
didactic "Letters" to mothers, to young ladies; the chai 
ingly garrulous "Letters of Life," published after her dea 
Quantity, dilution, diflusiveness, the dispersion of energy i 
variety of aims, — these were the order of the day. Ly 
Maria Child wrote more than thirty-five books and pamphl 
beginning with the apotheosis of [he aboriginal America' 
romance, ending in the good fight with slavery, and takin 
by the way domestic economy, the progress nt religious id 
and the Athens of Pericles, somewhat romanticiied. I 
granite here, not without ferns of tenderest grace. It is 
curious and impressive, the self-reliant dignity with w 
these noble matrons circimiambulate the whole field of li 
tare, with errant feel, but with a character central and < 
posed. They are "something better than their verse," 
also than their prose. Wliy was it that the dispersive 
dcncy of the time showed itself especially in the literary i 


at women? Perhafx the scattering, haphazard kind of educa- 
tion then commonly beslowed upon girls helped to bring about 
snch a condition of things. Efficient work, in literature as in 
other professions, is dependent, in a degree, upon preparation ; 
Dot indeed upon the actual amount of knowledge possessed, 
but upon the training of the mind to sure action, and the 
viuliiy of the spark of intellectual life communicated in early 
days. To the desultory and aimless education of girls at this 
period, and their contmual servitude to the sampler, all will 
testify. "My education," uys Mrs. Oilman, "was exceed- 
ingly irregular, a perpetual passing from school to school. . . . 
I drew a very little and worked 'The Babes in the Wood' on 
white satin, with floss silk." By and by, however, she "was 
initiated into Latin," studied Watts's Lo^ic by herself, and 
ioincd a private class in French. Lydia Huntley {Mrs. 
Sigoumey), fared somewhat better; pursuing mathematics, 
though she admits thai too little time was accorded to the sub- 
ject; and being instructed in "the belles-lettres studies" by 
competent teachers. Her day-school education ceased at 
thirteen; she afterward worked alone over history and mental 
philosophy, had tutors in Latin and French, and even dipped 
into Hebrew, under clerical guidance. This has a dccep> 
lively advanced sound; we are to learn presently that she was 
•eat away to boarding-school, where she applied herself to — 
"embroidery of historical scenes, filigree, and other fingcr- 
works." (May we not find a connection between this kind of 
training, and the )iroduction of dramatic characters as lifelike 
as those figures in floss silk? Was it not a natural result, that 
corresi)onding*'embroidery of historical scenes" performed by 
the feminine pen?) Lydia Maria Francis (Mrs. Child) "apart 
from her brother's comjianionship, had, as usual, a very une- 
qual share of educational op)x>rtunitiei; attending only the 
public schools" — the public schools of the century in its teens — 
"with one year at a private seminary." She writes to the 
Rev. Convers Francis in 1838, "U I [Ktssessed your knowU 
cdgr, it seems to me as if I could move (he whole world. I 
am often amused and surprised to think how many things I 
have attempted to do with my scanty stock of learning." 
Catherine Sedgwick, "reared in an atmosphere of high intelli- 
fence," still confesses, "I have all my life felt the want of more 
systematic training." 

Another cause o( the scattering, unmethodical supply may 
have been the vagueness of ihc demand. America was not 
quite sure what it was proper to expect of "the female writer": 


and perhaps that lady herself had a lingering feudal idea t 
she could hold literary territory only on condition of stout p 
service in the cause of the domestic virtues and pud<A 
"In those days," says Thomas Wentworth Higginson, 
seemed to be held necessary for American women to vorlc tl 
passage into literature by iirst compiling a cookery-boo 
Thus we have Mrs. Child's "Frugal Housewife"; and we I 
clever Eliza Leslie of Philadelphia, putting forth "Sevei 
five Receipts," before she ventures upon her humorous i 
satirical "Pencil Sketches." The cuhnary tradition was » 
ried on, somewhat later, by Catherine Beecher, with 
"Domestic Receipt Book" ; and we have indeed most mod 
instances, in the excellent ' 'Common Sense Series" of the n 
elist "Marion Harland," and in Mrs. Whitney's "Just Hw 
Perhaps, however, it is not fancy that these wear the kite 
apron with a difference. 

In addition to lack of training, and to the vague natun 
tlie public demand, a third cause operated against symmetr 
artistic development among the women of those electric d 
preceding the Civil War. That struggle between the 
instinct and the desire for reform, which is not likely to C€ 
entirely until the coming of the Golden Year, was then at 
hi^ight. Both men and women were drawn into the maelstrot 
the antislavery conflict ; yet to a few men the artist's single 
seemed still possible: to Longfellow, to Hawthorne. Sim 
examples are lacking among contemporary women. Essen 
womanhood, ' 'das Ewigweibliche," seems at this point unusu 
clear in Che work of women; the passion for conduct, 
enthusiasm for abstract justice, not less than the poten 
motherhood that yearns over all suffering. 

The strong Hebraic element in the spiritual life of h 
England women, in particular, tended to withdraw them f 
ihe service of pure art at this period. "My natural incl 
tions," wrote Lydia MariaChild, "drewme much morestrv 
toward literature and the arts than toward reform, and the we 
of conscience was needed to turn the scale." 

Mrs. Child and Miss Sedgwick, chosen favorites of the pu 
stand forth as typical figures. Both have the art-instinct, 
the desire for reform; in Mrs. Child the latter decidedly 
umphs, in spite of her romances; in Miss Sedgwick, the fo' 
though less decidedly, in spite of her incidental preachn 
She wrote "without any purpose or hope to slay giants,' 
ing merely "to supply mediocre readers with small moral 
on various subjects that come up in daily life." It is inl 


^Sto note just what public favor meant, materially, to the most 

^pular women writers of those days. Miss Sedgwick, at a time 

.^ ^^ she had reached high-water mark, wrote in reply to one 

^5^P ^expected her to acquire a fortune, that she found it impos- 

^ibfe to make much out of novel-writing while cheap editions 

yfei|ilifh novels filled the market. "I may go on,'* she says, 

^^^inmg a few hundred dollars a year, and precious few too.*' 

^'^ could not even earn the "precious few" without observing 

^^tain laws of silence. The "Appeal in Behalf of that class 

^ Americans called Africans" seriously lessened the income 

If IS. Child. That dubious America of 1833 was decided 

^coe point; this was not what she expected of "the female 

* ter.'* She was willing to be instructed by a woman — about 

polishing of furniture and the education of daughters. 

^ <Ajid now there arises before us another figure, of striking 

and power. Margaret Fuller never appeared as a 

e for popular favor. On the polishing of furniture she 

absolutely silent; nor, though she professed "high respect 

those who 'cook something good,' and create and preserve 

order in houses," did she ever fulfill the understood duty 

by publishing a cookery-book. On the education of 

tersshe had, however, a vital word to say ; demanding for 

a far wider and more generous culture.'* Her own educa- 

had been of an exceptional character ; she was fortunate in 

depth and solidity, though unfortunate in the forcing pro- 

that had made her a hard student at six years old. Her 

was superior to that of any American woman who 

previously entered the field of literature ; and hers was a 

ul genius, but, by the irony of fate, a genius not prompt 

dothe itself in the written word. As to the inspiration of 

speech, all seem to agree ; but one who knew her well has 

en of the "singular embarrassment and hesitation induced 

the attempt to commit her thoughts to paper." The reader 

the Sibylline leaves she scattered about her in her strange 

Jr^^eer receives the constant impression of hampered power, of 

J^^xe that has never found its proper outlet. In "Woman in the 

HFV^^^^Q^ Century," there is certainly something of that 

Asiatic dreaminess'* complained of by Carlyle; but 

are also to be found rich words, fit, like those of Emerson, 

Id nails in temples to hang trophies on." The critical 

nian himself subsequently owned that "some of her 

^^pers are the undeniable utterances of a true heroic mind; 
4togetber unique, so far as I know, among the Writing Women 
cf this generation; rare enough, too, God knows, among the 

S^ "go 



Writing Men," She accomplished comparatively 
can be shown or reclconed. Her mission was "to fi 
dilate." Those who immediately responded were U 
the circle of her influence has widened through thej 
source of the original impulse has been unnamedaoc 
But if we are disposed to rank a fragmentary great 
a narrow perfection, to value loftiness of aim moi 
complete attainment of an inferior object, we must u 
Fuller, despite all errors of judgment, all faults at 
high among the '.'Writing Women" of America, 
that, ceasing to discuss her personal traits, we dwell 
the permanent and essential, in her whose mind 
upon the permanent, the essential. Her place in ov 
is her own; it has not been filled, nor does it seem 1 
The particular kind of force which she exhibited — 
it was not individual — stands a chance in our own d 
drawn into the educational field, now that the " wide 
generous culture" which she claimed has been a 

We may trace from the early publications of L 
Francis and Catherine Sedgwick the special line a 
women have worked most successfully. It is in l 
they have wrought with the greatest vigor and fre 
in that important class of fiction which reflects fa: 
national life, broadly or in sectional phases. In 
Francis, a girl of nineteen, wrote "Hobomok," a n 
novel of colonial Massachusetts, with an Indian hei 
were the times of the pse'udo- American school, the 
what Mr. Stcdman has called the "supposititious Ind 
the sanguine, "Hobomok" seemed to foreshadow 
Cooper; and its author put forth in the following 
Rebels," a novel of Boston before the Revolutioi 
effective worker on this line, however, was Mist 
whose "New England Tale" — a simple tittle stor) 
intended as a tract — was published in 1S33, and at 
attention, in spite of a certain thinness, by its n 
home flavor. The plain presentation of New En^ 
"Redwood," her succeeding book, interests andcoi 
reader of to-day. Some worthless elements of plot, 
date, are introduced; but age cannot wither nor ci 
the fresh reality of the most memorable figure, — 
soul Miss Deborah, a character as distinct as So 
could have made her, "Hope Leslie," "CUr 
"The Liniroods" followed; then the briefer tain 



nmge of Mrs. Stowe's productions. They form links, 
or 1^ shining, between a time of confused and groping 
OQ the part of women and a time of definitely directed 
of a concentration that has, inevitably, its own draw- 

_~C1ie encouragement of the great magazines, from the first 
^^■^ndly to women w^riters, is an important factor in their devel- 
.^^P^^ient, Harper's dates from 1850; the Atlantic Monthly ^ 
1^ ^S57ff opened a new outlet for literary work of a high grade. 
r^^vc appeared many of the short stories of Rose Teriy, depict- 
^S the life of New England ; unsurpassable in their fidelity 
^^ nature, their spontaneous flow« their grim humor, pathos, 
y. In the i>ages of the Atlantic^ too, suddenly flashed 
sight the brilliant exotics of Harriet Prescott, who holds 
American women a position* as singular as that of Poe 
men. Her characters have their being in some remote, 
us sunset-land; we feel that the Boston Common of 
is based upon a cloud rather than solid Yankee 
and the author can scarce pluck a Mayflower but it 
at her touch to something rich and strange. Native 
*w>r there is in some of her shorter stories, such as *'The 
th Breaker,'* and ^'Knitting Sale-Socks'*; but a sudden 
t of foreign spices is sure to mingle with the sea-wind or the 
md lilac-scents. "The Amber Gods" and "A Thief in the 
^t" skillfully involve the reader in a dazzling web of 
ceptive strength. 

ii "Temple House," "Two Men," and "The Morgcsons," 

s peculiarly powerful works of ^Irs. Stoddard, the central 

Its do not seem necessarily of any particular time or coun- 

^- Their local habitation, however, is impressively painted ; 

b a few swift vigorous strokes, the old coast towns spring 

before us; the very savor of the air is imparted. Minor 

strongly smack of the soil; old Cuth, in "Two 

," dying "silently and firmly, like a wolf"; Elsa, in the 

^ book. There are scenes of a superb, fierce power, — that 

5Hc wi-ck in "Temple House," for instance. The curt and 

style, the ironic humor of Mrs. Stoddard, serve to 

t^ple her work to the memory as with hooks of steel; it is 

5^inote as possible from the conventional notion of woman's 

^^oe old conflict between the reformer's passion and the art- 

^^^nct b renewed in the novels and stories of Elizabeth Stuart 

pa; who possesses the artist's responsiveness in a high 

with but little of the artist's restraint. Exquisitely 



Rnritire to the lignilicant beauty of the worid, she il 
sensitive to the appeal of human pain. In "Hedged 1 
"The Silent Partner," in her itoriet of the iqnalid b 
and the storm-beaten coaat, her literary work icflecl 
for point, her personal work for the fallen, the toiling 
tempted. Her passionate sympathy gives her a power < 
ing, of commanding the tribute of tear*, which is all h 
An enthusiast for womanhood, she has given tis in "Tl 
of Avis," and "Dr. Zay" striking studies of coaple 
themes; "Avis," despite certain flaw^ of style to waid 
tion is trite, remaining the greater, as it is the laddei 
All Miss Phelps's stories strike root into New England, 
it is not precisely Mrs. Cooke's New England of iron 
and stony farms; and none strikes deeper root than "i 
natural product of the intellectual region whence "Wi 
the Nineteenth Century" sprang thirty years befoi 
other woman, among writers who have arisen since tl 
has received in such fullness the spiritual inheritaitce 
England's past. 

The changes brought about by the influx of foreign 
the factory towns of the Eist, are reflected in the pages 
Phelps, particulariy in "The Silent Partner." A 
worker of the same vein is Lillic Chace Wyman, wh« 
stories, collected under the symbolic title "Poverty Grft 
marked by sincerity and simple power. Sarah Ome 
roams the old pastures, gathering many pungent hant 
the familiar flowers and herbs that retain for us their 
preciousness. She is attended also by the life of thi 
Without vigorous movement, her sketches and storit 
always an individual, delicate picturesqueness, the qua) 
small, clear water-color. ' 'A Country Doctor" is to b 
for its very quiet and true presentation of a symmetrict 
anhood, naturally drawn toward the large helpfulnen 
fessional life. 

A novel which has lately aroused much discutd 
"John Ward, Preacher," of Margaret Dcland, is, alibi 
scene is laid in Pennsylvania, a legitimate growth of N< 
land in its problem and its central character. The orthoi 
of eternal future punishment receives a treatment lo 
similar to that applied by Miss Phelps, in "The Gatet 
to the conventional heaven. The hero seems a n 
Thomas Shepard, or other stem yet tender Puritan Ott 
miraculously set down in a modem environment. Th 
iveneaa of portions of "John Ward," as well at tbc j 


^^^ noral hints,*' such as the "Poor Rich Man and Rich 

f^ Mm/* All are genuine, wholesome, deserving of the 

^^^ wekome they received. "Wise, clear, and kindly/* — 

?^^ttit echo the verdict of Margaret Fuller on our gentle 

!r^^^ in native fiction ; we may look back with pride on her 

^^'^ moderate and sane, but never palsied by fear or skep- 

/^ caution**; on herself, "afine example of the independent 

1^ l^eneficent existence that intellect and character can give 

^ocntn.** The least studied among her pathetic scenes 

^ ^4icirable; and die displays some healthy humor, though 

Jl ^ much as her charmins letters indicate that she possessed. 

^^^<Qt writer has ranked her work in one respect above that 

c^j^^-^oper, considering it more calculated to effect "the eman- 

^fio of the American mind from foreign types." 
Bii^Wt Sedgwick, past three-score, was still in the literary har- 
1^^^ when the woman who was destined to bring the novel of 
^£l?^ En^and to a fuller development reached fame at a bound 
tlw^ '*UncIe Tom's Cabin." At last the artist's instinct and 
c^». I^rpose of the reformer were fused, as far as they are 
p^^^le of fusion, in a story that still holds its reader, whether 
t|^[^^ve or protesting, with the grip of the master-hand. The 
1^2^*^ powers of Mrs. Stowe were fortunately developed in a 
vT^^^ atmosphere that supplied deficiencies in training. Fate 
1^"^ kind in providing occasional stimulants for the feminine 
w ^d, though an adequate and regular supply was customarily 
f^^^held. Miss Sedgwick attributes an especial quickening 
to the valuable selections read aloud by her father to his 
uly; Miss Francis, as we have seen, owed much to the con- 
versation of her brother. To Harriet Beecher was granted, 
^^tside her inspiring home circle, an extra stimulus, in the 
^^y influence of the enthusiastic teacher whose portrait she 
Has given us in the Jonathan Rossiter of "Oldtown Folks." 
A cImc knowledge of Scott*s novels from her girlhood had its 
trfffct in shaping her methods of narration. She knew her 
Bible — perpetual fountain feeding the noblest streams of Eng- 
lish literature — as Ruskin knew his. Residence for years near 
the Ohio border had familiarized her with some of the darkest 
aspects of slavery; so that when the passage of the Fugitive 
Slave Law roused her to the task of exhibiting the system in 
operatioQ, she was as fully prepared to execute that task as a 
woman ol New England birth and traditions well could be. 
Siacc the war, Southern writers, producing with the ease of 
intimacy works steeped in the spirit of the South, have uught 
■s OHich cooceming negro character and manners, and have 



accustomed us to an accurate reproduction of dialect, 
sublimity of Uncle Tom has beeo tried by the reality of the 
less lovable Uncle Remus. But whatever blemtshea or 
travagances may appear to a critical eye in the ^eat i 
Elavery novel, it still beats with that intense life which ne 
forty years ago awoke a deep responsive thrill in the repre 
heart of the North. We are at present chiefly concerned ' 
its immensepraclical success. It was a "shot heard round 
world." Ten thousand copies were sold in a few days; < 
three hundred thousand in a year; eight power-presses i 
kept running day and night to supply the continual denu 
The British Museum now contains thirty-five complete edit 
in English; and translations exist in at least twenty diffe 
languages. "Never did any American work have such i 
cess!" exclaims Mrs. Child, in one of her enthusiastic 
tcrs. . . . "It has done much to command respect for 
faculties of woman." The influences are, indeed, broad 
genera], which have since that day removed all restrict: 
tending to impress inferiority on the woman writer, so that 
distinction of sex is lost in the distinction of schools. Y 
special influence may be attributed to this single marked m 
fcstation of force, to this imposing popular triumph. In 
face of the fact that ihc one American book which had ston 
Europe was the work of a woman, the old tone of patron 
became ridiculous, the old sense of ordained and inevit 
weakness on the part of "the female writer" became obsol 
Women henceforth, whatever their personal feelings in reg 
to the much-discussed book, were enabled, conscious!) 
unconsciously, to hold the pen more firmly, to move it ii 

In New England fiction, what a leap from the work of \ 
Sedgwick, worthy as It is, to that of Mrs. Stowe! The i 
whence a few hardy growths were peeping, seems to have b 
overflowed by a fertilizing river, so rich is its new yield. ] 
the "soul of Down-East" that we find in "The Minister's W 
ing" and "Oldtown Folks." Things spiritual are grasped i 
the insight of kinship, externals are drawn with the certaint 
life-long acquaintance. If wc glance at the humorous sidt 
the picture, surely no hand that ever wrought could have 
tered one smile-provoking line in the familiar figure of 
Lawson, the village do-nuthing. There is a free-handed&e 
the treatment of this character, not often found in more r« 
conscientious studies of local types. It is a painting b< 
photographs. A certain inequality, it may be admitted, apt 


its a4c KeBCi, gives pfomtie of even more valuable coming con- 
^<[)^^Kioofl to American fiction, by the poet of the charming 
"Old Gaidcn." A still more recent New England produciioa 
» ^ book of stories by Mary E. Wilkins, "A Humble Ro- 
**4cc" ; vigorous work, brimful of human nature. 

^c need not now enter into the circumstances, tending to 
™* nitdircction of intellectual effort, which so affected the 
**>*l of Southern women in literature that for some time they 
V'DdiKed little of enduring value. These causes have been of 
1^ fully set forth by a writer of the New South, Thomas 
"tUoo Page; who, in naming the women of Souclicrn birth or 
'^'xlcace most prominent as novelists before the Civil War, 
Plitts Mis. Terhune in a class by herself. "Like the others, 
'^ bu used the Southern life as material, but has exhibited a 
^■cnry sense of far higher order, and an anisic touch." Mrs. 
"'becca Harding Davis, a native of U'est Virginia, has cliosen 
* ^Quylvanian background for some of her best uork; pro- 
^ioj, perhaps, nothing stronger than "Life in the Iron 
''i'lsi" publiriicd lon^ since in the AtlautU ; a story distantly 
*^ to those of Miss Phelps and the author of "t'ovcrty 
^lU." The hojKlesiS heart-hunger of the poor has sddom 
"^ so passionately pictured. A distinguishing characteristic 
ll'hework of Mrs. Davis is her Drowning-lilic insistence on 
~*nie test-moments of life. If, ai in the comiilicaied war- 
l** novel "Waiting for the Vcrdici."— a work of lii^li inien- 
|!°i>,-^ he characters come out starilingly well in the sudden 
't'lU dashed upon them, the writer's idealism is tonic and 

'l was a woman of the N'orth who pictured, in a series of 
^ tales and sketches full of inxighl, the desol.ite South at 
"** tlose of the Civil War : Constance Feniniore U'ooKon, tiie 
*^ broadly national of our women novelists. Her feeling fur 
!**! color IS quick and true; and though she has esiiccully 
!''*Biified herself with the Lake country and with Klorida, one 
"Wft with the impression that hei assimilative powers would 
***l>le bcr to reproduce as successfully the traits of any other 
I'Wer of the Union. Few American writers of fiction have 
P^ evidence of such breadth, so full a sense of the )H>»->il.ili. 
'"■of the varied and comjilex life of our wide land. Kubust, 
''pible, mature, — these seem fiitin^ wurds to iip|>ly to the 
*«hor of "Anne." of "East Ani;els," of the excellent short 
"vice ta "Rodman the Keeper." Women have reaM>n for 
^>de in a representative novelist whose genius is trained and 
1, without being tamed or dispirited. 


Similar surefootedness and mastery of means are ( 
by Mary Hatlock Foote in her picturesque western stoi 
as "The Led Horse Claim : A Romance of the Silver 
and "John Bodewin's Testimony"; in which a certa 
fulness takes the place of the fuller warmth of Miss ^ 
One is apt to name the two writers together, since thi 
sent the most supple and practiced talent just now exe 
women in the department of fiction, Mrs. Frances : 
Burnett, English by birth and education, and influ< 
the Dickens tradition, though reflecting the tone of her 
ment wherever fate may lead her, touches America 
ture chiefly on the Southern side, through "Louisia: 
"Esmeralda." Despite the ambitious character of her 
Washington society, "Through One Administration," 
durable work is either thoroughly English, or belong 
international school. This particular branch of l)< 
cannot now pause to nole, though conscious that such 
the beautiful "Gucnn" of Blanche Willis Howard hi 
own distinct value. 

A truly native flower, though gathered in a field 
miliar as to wear a seemingly foreign charm, is Mrs. J 
poetic "Ramona." A book instinct with passionate 
intensely alive, and involving the reader in its movi 
yet contains an idyl of singular loveliness.the perfection 
lends the force of contrast to the pathetic close. A 
reform, into which a great and generous soul poured its 
strength, it none the less possesses artistic distinction, 
thing is, of course, due to the charm of atmosphere, tl: 
of the background against which the plot naturally plao 
more, to the trained hand, the pen )iliant with long 
exercise; most, to the poet-heart. "Ramona" stanc 
most finished, though not the most striking example, t 
American women have done notably in literature it 
done nobly, 

The magazine-reading world has hardly recovered ; 
its shock of surprise, on discovering the author of "la 
nessee Mountains," a book of short stories, projecting 
on which the writer has since advanced in "The Proph 
Great Smoky Mountain" and "The Despot of Bro 
Cove." Why did Miss Murfree prefer to begin hei 
career under the masculine name of "Charles Egbe 
dock"? Probably for the same reason as George Sand 
Eliot, Currer Bell; a reason stated by a stanch adv 
woman, in words that form a convenient answer to th« 


' "MoUg gwMft thCT wuhritobc n^t but beciuK &ef_ 
J for anmltiMtea JudgmCTt as artMte .^'' The world Iiiis 
I » aMch moR coligliteDMl on ttiii point, thai the biassed 
ii Bov tbc exccptioa, and the biassed editor is a myth. 
^racaalifla of disguise cannot much longer remain a 
-^j, if, iadeed, it was necessaiy in the case of Miss 

jj^n m whatetcr orase adopted, the mask was a completely 
**tyiTe OBC^ Mr. Craddock'a vivid portrayal of life among 
^ Tmif tut Hoantaioi was fairly discusied, and welcomed 
**« nlaable and cbaracuristic contribution from the South; 
J^.aobody hinted then that the subtle poetic element, and the 
^j h iw to anbwdinate human interest to scenery, wereindica- 
"*W « the writer't sex. The few cherishers of the fading 
^miiMM that vomea are without humor, laughed heartily 
y iMaspicioiisly over the droll situatiooi, the quaint sayings 
Jf IW MNUttUDeen. Once more the rtifUtU ad abturium 
y been u^ied to the notion of ordained, invariable, and 
JfconBde diffc 

between the literary work of men and 

The method certainly defers to dullness; but 

'■ho affords food for amusement to the ironically inclined. 

Thk review, cursory and incomplete as it ii, of the chief 
■Bceaplishraent of American women in native fiction, serves 
^bnigoot the faa that they have, during the last forty years, 
^?lied to oar literature an element of great and genuine value; 
^ that while their productions have of course varied in 
''''CTaiMl richness ihey have steadily gained in art. How wide 
*tpp between "Hobomok" and "Ramona"! During the 
■ftahalf of the period, the product gives no general evidence 
Jllnitation ; and the writers would certainly be placed, except 
M the purposes of this article, among their brother authors, 
*duMs determined by method, local background, or any other 
■*■ of arrangement which is artistic rather than personal. 

It QccptioiuJ cases, a reviewer perhaps eacUimi upon certain 
Ws as "womanish" ; but the cry is too hasty; the faults are 
yierf isdividuals, in either sex. It is possible to match them 
ha the wOTk of men, and to adduce examples of women's 
*Mk cBtiidy free from them. Colonel Higginion has pointed 
W thai tbc ivory-miniature method in favor with some of our 
■Modinc artists is thai of lane Auiten. Wherein do Miss 
l^o^e's "Earnest Triflcr, or "The Daughter of Henry Sage 
KakBhotue," display more salient indications of sex than 
■Mfcs of tiflulu scope by Mr. Henry James? 
"TWalBoal cstire disappearance of the distiDctively wocaan's 



ncvcl," — that is, the novel designed expressly for U 
readers, such as ''The Wide. Wide World," and ''The 
lighter," — has lately been commented upon. It is to be ol 
that this species — chiefly produced in the past by woi 
the Warner sisters, Maria S. Cummins, Elizabeth 
Prentiss, the excellent Miss Mcintosh — has become 
extinct at the very time when women are supplying i 
proportion of fiction than ever before; and, further, t 
comparatively few "domestic semi-pious*' novels very] 
in late years have been of masculine production. The < 
and suggestive, though perhaps at times over-subtle, i 
Mrs. Whitney, thoroughly impregnated with the New E 
spirit, and portraying, with insight, various phases of gi 
takes another rank. Whatever may be concluded from 
cadence of fiction written of women, for women, by wo 
is certainly probable that women will remain, as a rule, t 
writers for girls. In connection with this subject n 
mentioned the widely known and appreciated stories of 
M. Alcott, "Little Women," and its successors, — which 
not only been reprinted and largely sold in England, b 
translated into several foreign languages, and thus pu 
with persistent success. " We are told that when * 'Littl 
was issued, "its publication had to be delayed until tl 
lishers were prepared to fill advanced orders for fifty th 

A like popularity is to be noted of the spirited and 
**Han.*i Brinker, or the ^Silver Skates," of Mrs. Mary 
Dodge; which "has had a very large circulation in Ai 
has passed through several editions in England; and h 
published in French at Paris, in German at Leipsic, in 1 
at St. Petersburg, and in Italian at Rome. . . . The 
ing tribute to its excellence is its perennial sale in Hoi 
a Dutch edition." No name in our juvenile litera 
"brings a perfume in the mention" as that of Mrs. Dod] 
for years has been as "the very pulse of the machi 
the production of that ideal magazine for children, w 
not only an ever-new delight but a genuine educ 

In poetry, the abundant work of women during the la 
century shows a development corresponding to that trace 
field of fiction. As the flood of sentimentalism slowly rt 
hopeful signs began to appear; the rather vague tints oi 
of poetical promise. The varying verse of Mrs. Oakes 
Mrs. Kinney^ Elizabeth Lloyd Howell, and Harriet V 



CMots, in different degrees, a general advance, 
ragrmnt pen" of Frances Sargent Osgood, as she 
waaderra lightly down the paper/' but its fanciful 
m and then a swift, capricious grace. The poems 
len Whitman, belonging to the landscape school of 
if marked value, as are also the deeply earnest pro- 
If rs. Anna Lynch Botta ; which display a new dis- 
motive, possibly attributable to the influence of 

The same influence is felt in some of the early 
ce Gary; whose individual strain of melancholy 
pi to remembrance, its charm stubbornly outliving 
recognition of defects due, in great measure, to 
ion. Emily Judson sometimes touched finely 
diords^ as in the well-known poem of motherhood, 
' The tender "Morning Glory" of Maria White 
« poems are characterized by a delicate and child- 
y, will be remembered. 

I critic not generally deemed too favorable to 
le present day, recorded the opinion that there was 
and originality, — in other words more genius, — 
female poets of America than in all their prcdeccs- 
istress Anne Bradstreet down. At any rate there is 
of thought in their verse, and infinitely more art." 
(e first noted by Mr. Stoddard there is no account- 
es of genius are incalculable. The other gains, 
fiction, are to be accounted for partly by the law 

working through our whole literature, by the 
sounder models and of a truer criticism, and by 
ig processes of the magazines ; partly also, by the 
on and improved education of women in general- 
ly of the individual, since change in the atmos- 
ive important results in cases where other condi- 

\ of Mrs. Howe express true womanly aspiration, 
:om of unworthiness, but their strongest charac- 
e fervent patriotism which breathes through the 
;tle-Hymn of the Republic." The clear hope- 
1 notes" of Lucy Larcom — it is impossible to 

quoting Mr. Stedman*s perfect pnrase— first 
unce, have grown more mellow with advancing 

atic lyric took new force and naturalness in the 
;e Terry Cooke, and turned fiery in those of Mrs. 
hose contemplative poems also have an eminent 




■ad dignity of stjrlc The finfr4^B mbjntm i 
Piatt flashes at timet with fdicitiea w « web wU 
Many names appear upon die bmwn^le nil: 

Mrs. SpoSord, — whose rich nature r 
the novel, — Mrs. Hai^[aret J. 
Townsend; Elisabeth Akeis Allen, Jnfia CR. 
Slowe, Mrs. Whitney, Mrs. Dodm, Mn. Mi 
Thaxter, the sea's true lover, who ua derated \ 
faithful expression of a single phase of nattual 1 
Mary E. Bradley, Kate Putnam Owood, Norn 
N. Prescolt, and Harriet HcEwen Kimball; U 
Hudson, Margaret Sangtter, MiuBosha^ "Sna 
"Howard Glyndon," "Stuart Sterne," Chariotti 
May Riley Smith, Ella Diets, Mary Ainge Dc 
Dean Proctor, the Goodale listen, Min Coolbritl 
"Owen Innsley," Eliiaheth Stuart Phelpa, and J 
ton Rollins. I'here is a kind of white fire hi tt 
subtle verses of" H. H." — a diamond light, enhta 
cutting. Generally impersonal, the author's in^ 
lives in them to an unusual degree. We may re 
in the Jewish poems of Emma Lasarus, especial 
Waters of Babylon" and the powerful fourt 
tragedy, "The Dance to Death," "the precioui 
a master spirit, embalmed and treasured up on 
life beyond life." The poems of Edith M. ' 
their exquisite -workmanship, mark the high i 
woman in the mastery of poetic forms, and ezhal 
of that fragrance whictf clings to the work of the 
Miss Hutchinson's "Songs and Lyrics" have als( 
The graceful verse of Mrs. Deland has been qui 
ear of the public. Louise Imogen Guiney, som 
ing the voice, has nevertheless contributed U 
chorus nules of unusual fullness and strengt! 
branches of literature, to which comparatively 
have chosen to devote themselves, an increasing 
is apparent, a growing tendency to specialisa 
snnnvihl^ f«tiinin^ fr»^.lanp<*. with hpr <rav Ha< 


ci Mary L. Booth, the latter also an indefatigable trans- 

; the studies of Helen Campbell in social science; the 

ions of Harriet Waters Preston — these few examples, 

at ranaom,are typical of the determioation and concentra- 

of woman's work at the present day. We notice in each 

of a magazine the well-known specialists. Miss 

has given herself to the interpretation of nature in 

in verse; "Olive Thome" Miller to the loving study 

biiiMife. Mrs. Jackson, the most versatile of later writers, 

the rare combination of versatility and thoroughness 

measure that we might almost copy Hartley Coleridge's 

of Harriet Martineau, and call her a specialist in every- 

; Imt her name will ever be associated with the earnest 

tatioo of the wron^ of the Indian, as that of Emma 

with the impassioned defense of the rights of the 

The hist and genial Colonel Hi^nson expresses disappoint* 
'^ that woman's advance in literature has not been more 

_ since the establishment of the women's colleges. "It 

^** be says, "considerable and substantial; yet in view of the 
^Mipleteoess with which literary work is now thrown open to 
^MKtt, and their equality as to pay, there is room for some 
^^fpiin that it is not greater." 

Tlie proper fruit of the women's colleges in literature has, 
ii fact, not yet ripened. It may at first seem strangely de* 
Wired, yet reflection will suggest the reasons. An unavoidable 
adf-consciousness hampers the first workers under a new dis- 
pensation. It might appear at a casual glance that those 
from the burden of a retarding tradition were ready at 
for the race; but in truth the weight has only been ex- 
dunged for the lighter burden of the unfamiliar. College- 
bfcd women of the highest lype have accepted, with grave con- 
scientiousness, new social responsibilities as the concomitant of 
their new opportunities. 

•* PeaUoc.tbc dock of Time 
Has ttruck the Woman's boor ; 
We bear it oo oar koeci," 

wrote Miss Phelps for the graduates of Smith College ten years 
a|*o. That the summons has indeed been reverently heard 
aad faithfully obeyed, those who have followed the work of the 
Association of Collegiate Alumnae can testify. The deed, and 
sot the word, engages the energy of the college woman of 
%o^Amj\ but as these institutions fftow into the life of our land, 
that life will be everywhere enridied ; and the word must fol* 



low in happy time. Individual genius for literature is sure 
sooner or later to appear within the constantly widening circle 
of those fairly equipped for its exercise. It would be idle to 
expect that the cases in which native power and an adequate 
preparation go hand in hand, will be frequent; since they are 
infrequent among men. The desirable thing was, that this rare 
development should be made a possibility among women. It is 
possible to-day ; some golden morrow will make it a reality. 




Tbi piooecr wooiui in Americuijoumtliiin was Mn. Ma^ 
aud Cnper, of the Mauackmsttti Gawetit and Ntmt LtUtr, io 
uw jcsiB of the RevolutioDuy War. After her to the jrear 
iSj7 nait be referred the first entrance of any Amencan 
wooHB into tfac field of active joumalitm. At that time Mti. 
Aos S. Stepbeiu accepted the duties of editorial writer and 
Itlenrj crilK in the columns of the ^nv y«r4 £r<m't^ Ex- 
PMU. Her connection with that paper continued for thirty 
ycus, but after 1X^7 it was limited to the editorial pages by 
the pre« of exacting duties elsewhere. In the luit named 
year lira. Elizabeth F. Ellel succeeded her as literary editor 
tt the Exfrtu, sustaining well the reputation which Mrs. 
~ ' ns fa«l gained for it o( a just and high lundard of criti- 
But in the intervening twenty years other women had 
ed Un. Stephens's lead, and made their mark in jour- 
■alMm with a freshness, a vigor, and a brilliance unsurpassed by 
asy of the numerous later comers. During the thirties Mrs. 
Sanh Joscpba Hale and the once famous Grimke sisters, 
Svab and Angelina, availed themselves of the opportunities 
atf cr ed for special writing by New York and Philadelphia 
papers. In 1841 Mrs. Lydia Maria Child, one of the most 
widely known authors of the day, made her appearance in the 
aiciu of New York joumalitm is editor of the Amti-Sintry 
SluUard, a weekly newspaper published by the American Anti- 
SUvery Society. Mrs. Child had already demonstrated heredi* 
■ortal ability in the establishment and conduct, for eight years, 
of ibe /mttmU UiutUamj, the pioneer children's magazme of 
erica. For two years Mrs. Child conducted the Slamdari 
te; then, for six years more, in conjunction with her bus- 
d. Bnt her best work during these vears was done iti 
■l4a-*j-'4 as special New York correspondent for the B»t^m 
'* — ^, tbeo edited by Joseph T. Buckugham. Tbcae weekly 


letters of hers, original, sparkling, thoughtful, vigorous, de* 
picting the social, literary, musical, and dramatic life of the 
metropolis, were afterwards republished in two volumes, which 
hold a wonderful fascination still, when read after the lapse of 
more than a generation. 

It was while Mrs. Child's letters were forming one of the 
greatest attractions of the Boston Courier^ in 1843, that Miss 
Cornelia Wells Walter took charge of the editorial columns of 
the Boston Transcript^ doing her work as ably and faithfully as 
any of her masculine fellow journalists. And in the next year, 
1844, Margaret Fuller, who in 1840 had founded, and for two 
years edited, that famous quarterly, the Dial^ came from Boston 
to New York at the request of Horace Greeley to fill the post* 
tion of literary editor of the Tribune. Here she set the stand* 
ard of criticism at high- water mark, and made its literary notices 
famed for a discrimination, sincerity, justness, and fearlessness 
of judgment and utterance which contributed largely to the 
influence of the paper. In the summer of 1846, when she 
sailed for Europe, its review columns had in her hands attained 
^ reputation which in after years the scholarly editing of Dr. 
Ripley did but sustain. 

In the same year that saw the beginning of Mrs. Child's 
brilliant letters from New York, the readers of the LouisvilU 
Journal greeted the advent of another woman, Mrs. Jane G. 
Swisshelm, in letters and editorial contributions bearing the 
strong stamp of an earnest, aggressive, deeply thoughtful but 
vivacious mind, intense in its sympathies, ready to do battle 
against every form of wrong-doing, and gifted with a brieht 
humor which winged the shafts she sent abroad with unfailmg 
vigor. It was but a little while until she became also special 
correspondent for the Spirit of Liberty^ issued at Pittsburgh. 
She speedily proved herself a worthy compeer of her Eastern 
sisters in the journalistic field. In 1848 she removed to Pitts- 
burgh and established there the Saturday Visitor^ a paper which 
grew rapidly into wide circulation and influence. 

But before she had reached this point in her career, while in 
fact the fame of this Western worker was just beginning to be 
heard of in the seaboard cities, the reading public of those 
cities was startled into a fever of enthusiasm by the letters of 
a Western girl in Eastern papers, the Home Journal^ the Satur* 
day Gautte^ the Saturday Evenirtf^ Post^ the National Press, 
It was in 1845 and '46 that "Grace Greenwood" first took her 

[>lace, while still a girl in her teens, as one of the most bril* 
iant, clear-headed, and versatile of newspaper correspondents. 



■I lAidi qiecial pravince. so far as Journalistic work is con- 
she has oected to remain, with the exception of the 
jcm» beginning with 1853, during which she published 
edited the LiilU FUgrim. Mrs. Swisshelm's ambitions, 
M the oontranr, led her idwm to prefer the active duties of 
and poUisher. The iaimrday VisiUr under her man- 
it was a power in the fields of political and social reform, 
dntjes and graces. She enlisted the services of other 
for its departments. Chief among these helpers was 
IfflSL Fiances D. Gage of Ohio, who became afterwards widely 
kaowB ai a charming writer for children, an earnest woman's 
riglhtB speaker, and contributor to the New Y^rk Iniiptndini. 
Im itso, after her connection with the VisUar ceas<Ml, Mrs. 
led the van of women Journalists in her own State by 
nunc associate editor of an agricultund paper in Colum* 
coMocting its Home department with marked success. 
IfflSL Swisdielm, attracted in 1856 by what seemed a wider 
aphere for work in the new Northwest, sold her Pittsburf^ 
paper and soon afterwards started, in Minnesota, the Si. Clwi 
Vidifr, In this she of course continued her advocacy of Free 
SoO and antislavery doctrines, and within a year her office was 
raided and her press destroyed by a mob. Fearlessly she gath- 
ered her resources together, and began the publication of the 
SL CUmd Dttm^crai^ in which she afresh demonstrated her 
ability, and in the campaign of i860 supported Mr. Lincoln.for 
the Presidency. After the close of the war she returned to the 
duties of active journalism; having, during the years of con- 
fict, laid them aside to perform efficient service as a nurse "at 
the front" Her vigorous pen until nearly the close of her life 
failed not to serve every cause in whose truth and justice she 

Near the same time at which Mrs. Swisshelm founded the 
nmhmrrk VisiUr, Mrs. C. I. H. NichoU became the editor 
of the Windham Cm^miy Democrat^ z ^Vhig paper published at 
Brattleboro, Vermont. This she conducted for many years 
with admirable success, her editorials being often widely copied. 
la 1S51 **Gail Hamilton" made a brilliant dash into ioumal- 
ins as special contributor to the NaHpmal Era^ Dr. Bailey*! 
paper at Washington, for which Mrs. Stowe wrote "Uncle Tom*s 
Cabin,*' and Grace Greenwood did some of her best work. In 
fS54 the woman's rights agitation, which had taken form 
•evml years before at the &neca Falls Convention, and re* 
cetved a new impulse at the Worcester Convention of 185 1, was 
fdaCorced by the appearance at Boston of a new paper^ the 


Una^ published and edited by Mrs. Paulina Wright Davis and 
Mrs. Caroline H. Dall. This failed of long life for want of 
pecuniary support, but it was energetically conducted while it 
lived, and is well worthy of remembrance as the pioneer 
woman suffrage paper of America. In 1855 Miss Antoinette 
Brown, afterwards Mrs. Blackwell, became for a time one of the 
special contributors to the New York Tribune. She devoted 
her writing to social and reformatory subjects, giving chief 
place therem to the bearing upon women of the vices and de- 
fects of our social system. 

In any notice of American women in journalism it is need* 
ful to give thus, in somewhat broad detail, an account of the 
workers during those first twenty years, because of the wide 
influence which they wielded in behalf of noble living andhi^h 
thinking, and the practical stimulus which they gave to work in 
the various lines of social reform. 

After those twenty years were over, as the country became 
more widely and thickly settled, as newspapers multiplied and n 
enlarged their departments, and called for an increasing staff 
of writers of varying abilities, women journalists also became 
more numerous, and began to take up special lines of cor- 
respondence and reportorial work. In 1856 Miss Cunningham, 
who soon after became Mrs. D. G. Croly, still better known > 
as "Jennie June," entered upon her journalistic career as a fash- 
ion writer, first on the Sunday Despatch^ then on various other 
New York papers. In 1857 she invented the manifold or syndi- 
cate system of correspondence, supplying fashion items, gossip, 
and news of social topics and occurrences, simultaneously to 
newspapers all over the country. In this department of work 
her followers have multiplied until it would be hopeless to name 
or to count them. In i860 she suggested the founding of 
Demoresfs Illustrated Magazine of Fashions^ and edited it for 
twenty-seven years, during which time she not only maintained 
her syndicate work, but proved herself a good "all round" 
writer for the press, having held at different times a position 
on the staff of nearly all of the leading New York dailies. In 
the autumn of 1889 Mrs. Croly issued the first number of a 
weekly paper. The Woman's Cycle ^ the aim and purpose of 
which are amply indicated by its title. 

During the period of the Civil War and the few years immedi* 
ately succeeding, the larger city papers began to avail them- * 
selves of the work of women as special writers, as correspondents* 
and reporters. The New York Tribune numbered upon its 
editorial staff Mrs. Rebecca Harding Davis and Mrs. Lucia 

ija m>MAU*s wonx m amsmica. 

Gilbert Calboim ; Mrs. Louise Chandler Moulton supplied it 
wcdljr with the literary, dramatic, and art news of Boston, and 
Mbi Ellen Mackay Hutchinson began her work upon it as 
■MJrtan t to Dr. Ripley in its book review department Miss 
Middle Morgan on the Tima has shown among journalists as 
tbocooi^ly as Mile. Rosa Bonheur has done among painters, 
that a woman may fill admirably any unusual place to which 
alic it adapted by inclination and circumstance. Quite recently 
If iM A. L. Wilson has won a kindred success as manager and 
Msinant editor of the San Francisco Breedtr and Sportsman. 

Of correspondents in this period, Mary Clemmer (then Mrs. 
Ames) was the first to become widely known. Her Wash- 
iaifiOQ letters to the New York Indepenient^ and other papers, 
coottnued for a series of years to sund in the front rank of 
jooraalistic correspondence. Succeeding her come a long line 
whose names and work have become famed. Mrs. Bumham, 
afterward Mrs. Fiske, in the Refnbiifan of St Louis, later in 
warioQS Chicago, Washington, and New York papers; Miss 
Anna M. H. Brewster, Mrs. Lucy H. Hooper, Mrs. John 
Sherwood, Miss Kate Field, are among those whose unmistak- 
able gifts and conscientious work have won high place for 
themselves and opened the way for others. 

The religious press, weekly and monthly, was not far behind 
its secular contemporaries in securing the aid of women as 
coodoctors of special departments. For the last thirty years 
there have been few or none of these that have not steadily 
■Bmbercd one or more women among their re^^ular contributors. 

No woman in New York had taken the editorial control of a 
p^)er after 1849, when Mrs. Child relinquished her place upon 
the Siamiari^ until 1867 Miss Mary L. Booth took the charge, 
from its initial number, of Harper s Bazar. Her repuution. 
earned as historian of New York and as a translator, had become 
a national one when in t86i, in a week's time, she rendered 
accurately into brilliant English Gasparin's famous "Uprising 
of a Great People." It aided in drawing immediate popular 
attention to the. new journal. How faithfully and admirably 
her editorial work was done for the remaining twenty-two years 
of her life has but recently been borne witness to over her grave. 

In 1868, one year after the Batar was surted, the lively 
agitation in fa%*or of woman suffrage gave birth to the Reva^ 
Imtiaa^ of which Miss Susan B. Anthony was the publisher 
and Mrs. Elisabeth Cady Stanton editor-in-chief. Two years 
later the lVamam*s Jamrnai was started in Boston, with Mrs. 
Lucy Stone, Mrs. Julia Ward Howe, and Mrs. Mary Livermore 


upon its editorial staff. If these two papers, and the by no 
means insignificant number which have arisen to follow their 
footsteps, have not as yet seen the accomplishment of their 
especial aim, they have served as potent factors in woman's 
educational, industrial and social advancement, in helping to 
secure the repeal of unjust laws, and, if last named, by no means 
least, jn awakening women to a sense of their solidarity as a 
sex — to the truth that "where one of the members suffers all 
the members suffer with it." 

In the mean time there were, both in the West and South, 
women who had demonstrated their ability and fitness for the 
profession of journalism. In New Orleans Mrs E. J. Nichol* 
son, first as coadjutor and then as successor to her husband, 
has for thirty years or more held editorial control of the Pica* 
yun€y of which she is the chief owner. On her paper and on 
the TimeS'Democrat^ also owned by a woman, women have for 
many years held responsible positions. In Assumption, the 
Pioneer has, for a term second only to that of Mrs. Nicholson's 
career, been owned and edited by Mrs. Susan Dupaty. Mrs. 
S. V. Kentzel has for fourteen years made her paper, the •&. 
Tammany Farmer^ of eminent practical value and imiK>rtance 
to the agricultural and material interests of a large part of the 
State. Of later years there have been quite a number of addi- 
tions to the list of women journalists of Louisiana, foremost 
among these being Miss Addie McGrath of the Baton Rouge 
Truths who is one of the chief officers of the Press Association, 
and Mrs. M. L. Gamer, owner and editor of the Carroll Banner 
at Lake Providence ; Mme^ Marie Roussel is the editor of Li 
Propagateur Catholique of New Orleans. A Woman's National 
Press Association was formed at New Orleans in May, 1885.^ 
Two years later the addition of foreign members caused a 
change of name to the Woman*s International Press Associa- 
tion. Mrs. Nicholson is its President. Near the same time 
that Miss Booth assumed charge oi Harper* $ Bazar ^ Mrs. Mary 
£. Bryan entered upon the literary nvinagement of the Sunny 
South at Atlanta, Georgia. She had served her apprenticeship 
to journalism as assistant editor upon an Atlanta paper, and had 
afterwards edited a political journal in Natchitoches. After 
ten years management of the Sunny South she joined the corps 
of women editors in New York, taking charge of the Fashion 
Bazar z. dozen years ago. After Mrs. Bryan's departure from 
Atlanta there seems to have been no other woman in that part 
of the South inspired with an ambition for newspaper work 
until Miss Andrews recently took a place upon the Atlamim 



CmuHimikm Texas hat a ntimber of women journalists, most 
of whom are new-comers in their profeuion; but one of them, 
Mn. S. L. McPherson, in 1877, established and still edits and 
piffWfffirf at Sherman the Daiiy Democrat. For the two or 
three previous years her home had been in Caddo, Indian 
Territory, where she had aided her husband in publishing the 
OUmi^mm StMr. These ladies are all welcome members of the 
Texas Press Association. There are a number of recent indi- 
^ cations that journalism is likely to become a favorite profeuion 
aaoog Sootbem women. 

In the West, while Mrs. Swisshelm was still making herself 
ffdt as a power in Minnesota, Mrs. Susan C. VogI, of late years 
the successful busineu manager of the Boston Womatfs Journal^ 
joomalistic work upon the Wisttrm Spy of Sumner, 
Afterwards she wrote for St. Louis and New England 

Cpers for some years before her removal to Boston. In 1868 
rs. Myra Bradwell founded the Chicago Legal News^ of which 
she has been ever since the editor and business manager. In 
1871 the Illinois Legislature passed special acts making the 
columns Of the News evidence in the courts; and after the 
burning of all records in the Chicago fire, Mrs. Bradwell's paper 
was selected by the circuit and supreme court judges as the 
publication to have exclusive right to publish notices in regard 
to their cases. Mrs. Agnes Leonard Hill's journalistic work 
began as early as 1869 in Kentucky, was carried on in Chicago 
papers, and for the last eight years she has been engaged m 
editorial labors in Colorado. 

In 1876 Miss Margaret F. Buchanan, now Mrs. Sullivan, 
entered upon the journalistic career, in which she speedily 
gained an enviable reputation, showing herself as thoroughly 
equipped as any brother of the press among them all to meet 
the serious questions and vexed problems of political and social 
sdence, and equally ready for bnlliant descnptive work or dis* 
criminating criticism. Near the same time Miss Emily S. 
Booton took the position upon the Toledo Blade which, in its 
varied demands upon her, not only as the head of its liteiary 
and household departments, but as leader writer and special con- 
tributor, has served to show the wide range of her accomplish- 
menu and her abilitr in every line of journalistic labor. The 
editorial and dramatic columns of the Blade have been indebted 
to her for some of their strongest work. It was to the Blade 
also that **Shirley Dare** save much of the best of her early 
versatile achievements in the journalistic field. Somewhat ear- 
lier Mrs. Kate Brownlee Sherwood had filled a responsible 


position upon another Toledo paper. The Indianap^is J 
nal has for many years given a fair field to women journal 
and in its columns Miss Anna Nicholas, Mrs. Florence Ad 
son, Mrs. May Wright Sewall, and others have achieved sua 
In 1878 Mrs. Belle Ball entered on a very different lin 
newspaper works as traveling correspondent of the Albuqiu 
(New Mexico) Journal^ and of two Kansas papers, her c 
cial duty being to report the progress of the Atlantic and Pa 
Railroad, with all its incidental accompaniments — one 
these being for months together the peril to life from In 
foes. After two years of this arduous experience she bee 
an associate editor on a Kansas paper. For the last 
years she has been the literary editor of the Kansas 

After 1876 women journalists multiplied in the West as 
idly as in New England. The Illinois Woman's Press / 
ciation, formed in 1886, at the close of 1888, numbered 
members, of whom 45 are either business managers of im 
tant journals, editors, or editorial assistants. Investiga 
shows a large number of newspaper women in the State 
have not enrolled themselves in this or any association. 
Western Association of Writers, organized in July, 1885, 
may women editors, correspondents, and reporters amon; 
members. The Ohio Woman's Press Association has ii 
Cincinnati branch over thirty members, nearly all of whoix 
journalists. The Cleveland branch numbers between forty 
fifty, about one-half of whom are authors and one-half j 

Earlier than any of these was the Woman's National ] 
Association, organized at Washington, D.C., in July, i 
This has a large membership, and, like all of the others, is 
prosperous condition. Since 1887 a special press galler 
Its members has been set apart in each of the houses of < 
gress. The New England Woman's Press Association 
organized in Boston in November, 1885. At present it i 
bers nearly 100 members, all journalists or magazine edi 
When the Woman 5 Journal was established it found no wc 
journalist in Boston save Miss Sallie Joy, now Mrs. White, 
was then doing more or less desultory work upon the Bi 
Post, In 1869 she was enrolled as one of the regular sta 
that paper. After her marriage in 1874 she transferred 
services to the Advertiser^ and later to the Herald^ and to 
she is duly honored by the numerous sisterhood of Be 
newspaper women as their pioneer and leader. 


New Y<^k saw the esUbliihment of Harptf^s Banar in 
Ac interests of women in one direction, and of the Rev^uHom 
; women's publications in both of the lines thus indi« 
have multiplied until it is quite out of the question to 
give a list of them outside of the pages of a newspaper direc- 
tPty. Tbe most widely known follower in the path of the 
JfmMMT is the Laiks* H^me /^mrttai of Philadelphia, of which 
Mffs. Louisa Knapp was from the beginning until January, 
sS90^ the editor, with a salary of ten thousand dollars a year, 
mad with Mrs. Emma Hewitt and Mrs. Mary Lambert as 

tSb There are probably not many more such pecuniary ^^ 
as yet in the grasp of women journalists; but, on the 
whole, there are not 'many such open for any one. It may as 
wcD be said here that Philadelphia, which was the first city in 
the United States to set wide opei^ many doors for woman's 
work, as yet numbers fewer women journalists than any other 
laife Northern city. Mrs. Hollowell, for many years past edi- 
of the Household department of the Lidger^ and more re- 
tly Mrs. Kate Upson Clark of the Pnss^ have broadened 
their departmental work and made it of great value in educa- 
tional and divers other lines. 

Following the lead of the Revolution and the Woman* s four* 
mni there are many others ; some as out-and-out suffrage papers, 
juid others covering more broadly the circle of woman's indus- 
trial and social interests. In the East, the van among these is 
led by the Woman's Magazine^ published by Mrs. Esther T. 
Hoosh at Brattleboro, Vermont. Mrs. Housh began its pub- 
lication originally at Lexington, Kentucky, under the title of 
Wommm ai Work, In the south is the Woman's Ckronkit of 
Little Rock, Arkansas. In the far West are the Qnetn Bet of 
Denver, Colorado, the Woman* s Triknm of Beatrice, Nebras- 
ka, and the Niw Northwest of Portland, Oregon, — all owned 
and edited by women. Those in the nearer West are too many 
to q>ecify. With these, widely differing yet in one sense kin- 
dred to them, should be named The Woman's Exponent^ the 
ofidal organ of the Woman's Association of Utah. It is 
edited by Emmeline B. Wells, and carries the motto "The 
Rights of the Women of Zion, and the Rights of the Women 
of all Nations." The association which publishes it claims a 
membership of aa,ooo women, "thoroughly organised for the 
idief of the poor, and for medical, philosophical, historical^ 
and religious study." 

The Pacific slope has had comparatively few women joumal- 
istSi bol the names of several appear upon the roU of mem* 


bership of the lately formed Central and Northern Califomi 
Press Association. 

The Woman's Christian Temperance Union has within th< 
last four or five years multiplied greatly the number of womei 
engaged in the practical work of journalism. Beginning witi 
the Union Signal^ founded by Mrs. Matilda B. Carse in Chi 
cago, they have started up in almost every State of the Union 
and many local papers have W. C. T. U. departroects, al 
edited by women. 

The vital interest of working women in the vexed problem! 
of the relation beween capital and labor has called into exis 
tence at least one paper, the Working Woman, This it th< 
organ of the Woman's National Industrial LfCague. It is pub 
lished in Washington, D. C.» by Mrs. Charlotte Smith, wh< 
long ago proved her editorial ability in St. Louis. Miss Mar] 
F. Seymour has, more recently, established in New York th< 
Business Woman* s Journal^ which from its initial number hai 
carried the prestige of success in its chosen field. Miss Fann] 
M. Earl, of the Hartford Insurance Jourfial has made hei 
name widely known in business circles all over the country, anc 
aided in conquering their respect for woman's practical abili 

Our Anglo-African sisters are awakening to a comprehensioi 
of the use of the press as an instrument of value to themselves 
and their race. The names of half a dozen who have been 01 
are now in editorial charge of race papers are well known, anc 
at least a score of others who are actively engaged in journal 
ism. A few of them ha^Te been employed as reporters or aj 
special contributors on some of the leading dailies in our grea 
seaboard cities. 

Having noted the rapid increase in the number of newspapei 
women who in other parts of the country are doing faithful anc 
worthy work in this their chosen profession, it remains to sa) 
that New York City has not fallen behind in this respect. Th< 
evidence of their capacity and fitness for the work is before 
the public in almost every daily, weekly, and monthly publica- 
tion issued in the metropolis. Besides these are many whose 
work goes, through the syndicate system, all over the country. 
Their work, usually signed, serves even more widely to attract 
ambitious and intelligent young women to the same profession 
than does the exceptional reputation of such editors as Miss 
Booth, Mrs. M. M. Dodge, Mrs. Martha J. Lamb, and Miss 
Miss Jeanette Gilder. There are two Amateur Press Associa- 
tions of these youthful intending journalists in New England. 

■» ■ I >• . ■ 


Tkcfe BAT be oCben m dher parts of the coontrjr. And the 
avaber of thofe vho are being inducted into the practical work 
erf joamalism, on rural and county papers, owned by their rela* 
tms or friends, grows greater every year. 

Fnm the very first there have been for women in journalism 
wm open door and a fair field. The earliest comers went into 
it beciose their services were sought for. Themselves and 

whom their success led to embrace the same profession 
with a warm welcome from the public; in not a few 
iDCcs even an enthusiastic one. 
In och and every department of journalism— whether in 

work, i.e. as editors, editorial assistants, or reporters; or 
IB ootsade work, as correspondents, special contnbutors, or 
V OTBdicate writers — the wa^ es paid to women are the same as 
taoie paid to men of similar capacity, doing the same work. 
The prices paid vary according to the financial status of the 
p^Kis themselves. In the larger cities writers "on space** 
icoeive on some journals payment at the rate of five dollars per 
column ; some other papers pay as much as ten dollars per 
column. With all these writers, except where special articles 
have been ordered by the chief, and the length thereof speci- 
fied, it is a matter of uncertainty how much space will be given 
them. The exigencies of the case often cut down what, under 
other circumstances, would be a welcome column article to 
two <^ three paraj^phs, sometimes to as many lines. Office 
nlaries in large cities vary from ten or even only eisht dollars 
per week to as much as fifty or sixty dollars per week. A fair 
average for syndicate correspondence is probably about ten 
doUars per column. On country and county papers wages are 
ol course much lower, often running down to a figure which 
makes outside labor needful for even plain country living. But 
whether in city or country women who can do the needful work 
as well as men may be sure of as sood pay as men, and of fair 
and just treatment at the hands oi their journalistic brethren. 





" Fifty years hence, it will be difiicnlt to gun credit for the 
American women acquiesced throoghoat the former half of the 191I1 
in the complete monopoly of the medical profession by men, even indi 
midwifery, and the diseases peculiar to women. The current nsifa ii 
respect is monstrous." — JVrw Y^rk Trikumt, Editorial, 1853. 

The history of the movement for introducing women 
the full practice of the medical profession is one of the 1 
interesting of modern times. This movement has aln 
achieved much, and far more than is often supposed. Yet 
interest lies even less in what has been so far achieved, tha 
the opposition which has been encountered: in the natui 
this opposition ; in the pretexts on which it has been sustai 
and in the reasonings, more or less disingenuous, by which it 
claimed its justification.^ The history, therefore, is a ra 
not more of fact, than of opinion. And the opinions expre 
have often been so grave and solid in appearance, yet pre 
so frivolous and empty in view of the subsequent event, 
their history is not unworthy careful consideration among 
of other solemn follies of mankind. 

In Europe, the admission of women to the professioi 
medicine has been widely opposed because of disbeliei 
their intellectual capacity.* In America it is less o 
permitted to doubt — out loud — the intellectual capacit 
women. The controversy has therefore been sbifteid to 
entirely different ground of decorum. 

At the very outset, however, two rival decorums confroi 

* See the amimenu interchang^ed in open letten,— learned essavs^bet 
Prof. Biscbon atuckin^, and Prof. Hermann defending:, the adndiiic 
women to the UniTcrsity of Zurich. See also the address made last fst 
PDf . Waldeyer, before the Society of German Physicians and Natmslii 




yi Other. The same centuriei of tradition which had» 
y^^^y. reserved the practice of medicine for men, had 
/^K'^^d to women the exclusive control of the practice of 
y^Cery. It was assumed that midwifery did not require the 
^"'^^^nce of medical art, — that the woman in labor traversed 
^p'^ly phjTsiological crisis, and required only the attendance 
^r^^^ness, patience, and native sagacity, — all obtainable with- 
in ^^ientific knowledge, from her own sex. This being taken 
^p^^l^Dted, the propriety of limiting such attendance to women 
l^^^^red so self-evident, that, from the beginning of the world 
q^^^Ue eighteenth century a«d , the custom was not seriously 
Jf^^ioned. There is an exact parallelism between the relations 
l^^^^^n to midwifery and of f*omen to medicine. The lirnita- 
1^^ of sex in each case was decided by a tradition so immense, 
w to be mistaken for a divinely implanted instinct, intended 

^^ - .w.idence as one of the fundamental safeguards of society 
?^ of morals. In each case the invasion by one sex of a 
sphere** hitherto monopolized by the other, aroused the 
^^^arsest antagonism of offended delicacy. In each case finally, 
^ leal bam existed for the traditional etiquette : there was 
^^Mne reason for protesting against the introduction of the male 
Accoucheur into the lying-in room, or of the ardent young 
firi into the medical school. But in each case, whatever rea- 
sons for protest existed, were outnumbered and outweighed by 
others, to whose greater importance they were finally compelled 
to give way. Other things being equal, it was unpleasant for 
a woman to be attended in the crisis of her confinement by a 
man. But when the necessity for knowledge was recognized, 
when men became skilled while midwives remained ignorant, — 
the choice was no longer possible ; the greater decorum of 
female midwifery was obliged to yield to the greater safety of 
enlightened masculine practice. Similarly, it was occasionally 
noplcasant for young women students to find themselves engaged 
in ceruin subjects of medical study together with classes of 
Toang men. But in proportion as midwifery became enlarged 
by the new province of gynaecology, did occasions multiply on 
which it was extremely unpleasant for non*medical women 
to be medically treated by men. The difficulties of educating 
a relatively few women in medicine were compelled to be 
accepted, in order to avert the greater difficulties of medical 
treatment for a very large number of women. 

The history of medical women in the United States, to which 
tboe pages exclusively apply, may be divided into seven periods^ 
as follows: 


dp Finty the colonial period of exdusivdy femak mtdwif 
many of whose practitioners, according to their cpit^du 
reported to have brought into the world one» two^ or even < 
thousand babies apiece. The Mrs. Thomas Wbitmore of 1 
boro^ mentioned m the note, is especially described as ] 
*' possessed of a vigorous constitution, and frequently is 
ing- through the woods on snow-shoes from one part o 
town to another by night and. by day, to relieve the 
tressed.'* f 

During this period of female midwifery, the medical 
fession proper of the colonies remained entirely unorgu 
and inarticulate. I Without making especial inquiry, a s 
ficial observer could have almost overlooked the eziaten 
doctors, as a special class, in the community. 

^ 1 There followed, however, a second period, that, nai 
- of the Revolution, and the years immediately preo 
and following it. During the former, physicians oq^i 
travel to Europe for instruction. During the Revolutu 
war their public services in the military hospitals, th 
apparently not very useful to the sick,§ yet served to 
the profession, for the first time, out of obscurity; an< 

* ** It is icarcely more than half a century, since arooos^ tis» female 
almost the only accoucheurs." — ** Remarks on the employment of Fern 
Practitioners in Midwifery." by a Physician. Boston, 182a See also 
tions Maine Historical Society ; Proceedings General Court held at WcU 
6, x646,'to*** present " Frances Rayns for presuming to act the part € 
wife. Also, Blake's Annals of the town of Dorchester. Record of de 
1705, of Mrs. Wiat, aged ^ years, having as midwife assisted at the 
of 1 100 and odd children. Also Thomson's History of Vermont, she 
tlie career of Mrs. Thomas Whit more in town of Marlboro, 1765. 
town reoordi of Rehoboth is mentioned the arrival, 00 July 3, 1663, 
Sam Faller and his mother, he to practice medicine, — she as piidwil 
. answer to the town's necessity, which was great." So also Mrs. Eli 
Phillips settled in Charleston in 1718. Anne Hutchinson benn her 
as a midwife. It will be remembered that the mother of William 
Garrison practiced midwifery in Baltimore, and thereby supported 1 
and two oildren, after she had been mysteriously deserted by her hasl 

t This sturdy woman lived to be eighty-seven years of age ; an irooloB 
' meat on the theory of necessarily deSciency of endurance in the femi^ 

X *' Mors than 150 years elapsed after the first i^ettlement, before a 
effort was made either by public authority or by the enterprise of iadivj 
for Ihs sdttcation of pnjrslcians, or for improving the practice of 
doe, • • • . No medical journal was publish^ in America, until tomi 

doss of the l8th century The first anatomical diMectioo wsi 

ia New Yorie, la 1750.— Thacher, Am. Med, Biog, xSaS, p. 16. 

S ** It weold be shocking to humanity to relate the history of oar | 
lio^pitaf la tlie yean. 1777 and 1778, when it swalk>wed up at least m 

^^^mitmrnmit^ym^m* ' ■■ ■ ' *" ~ ■ " ' - - - . . , j i-p 



^'l^'P^^i^iiities afforded for the collective observation of disease 

?^ ^ large scale, first breathed the spirit of medical science 

^^ the American profession. The first achievement of the 

*t>om interest in medical art and education was the expul- 

of ^'females,'* from even the outlying provinces of the 

:moo, and from their world-old traditional privileges as 

'^^^^^^acheors.^ It was a harsh return to make for the services 
'^^^^^jcd to the infant settlements by these valiant midwives, 
?*^^^ liad been tramping through the snow by night and by 
_ y t« bring into a very cold world the citizens of the future 


^^ M?*^^'^ After this, however, came a period of reaction. In 
'^|^^» a Boston gentleman, Mr. Samuel Gregory, be^an to 
][|^^'^siietttly protest against the innovation of '*male midwives,*' 
**" €»pened a crusade on behalf of the women, with something 
pathetic ardor of the Emperor Julian for a lost cause.{ 
jtidge by the comments of the public press, Mr. Gregory's 
against "man-midwifery" awoke sympathetic echoes 
yt quarters. At the present day the interest in the move- 
thus roused, at once progressive and reactionary, lies 
Qy in the remarkable similarity between the arguments 
were then advanced against the intrusion of men into 

bjr crowding and consequent infection." ....*' At 

out of 40 Bieo who came sick from one regiment. — not three 
aliTC^TiUoa oa Military Hospitals (quoted bj Tower, **Medical 
^^ ^ tht Revolotioo.'* Address 1876. p. 77.) 

^"^ It was OQC of the 6rst and happiest fruits of improved medical educa- 

^n Aacrka, that females were excluded from practice ; and this has only 

«ficcttd brf ihe united and perseTering efforts of soooe of the most dts- 

iibed indnridoals of the professioo.'' — Remarks of a Boston physician, 

JT ^^1k sopprei^oo of midwives was more immediately due to the derelop- 

"•• of obstetrical acseocc in England, whither the more ambitious among 

^^olomal physidaos were beginning to travel for in^ruction. and where their 

^Wcts were quickened by direct contact with the minds of men of genius. 

^^s Dr. James Lloyd, returning after two years* study in England. l>egan 

*" ctice obstetrics in Boston : In 1762. Dr. Shippen. similarly prepared, 

to IcctufcoQ obstetrics in Philadelphia. (** Hist, of Art of Midwifery,*' 

t«re by Dr. Augustus Gardner, iSsO. These actions sounded the pro- 

. — ioaal dcath-koell of tht poor midwives. Organixed knowle<!£c must 

^^^fiaUy triuaiph over unorgaoixed ignoraooe, tven though tradition, de- 

^>^as.asd religioa be all on the losing side. 

}*Maa-midwifery Espoused and Corrected ; or. The Employment olMen 
^ancad Women in Childbirth, shown to be a modem innovation, unotccs- 
•■y, QMunsral, and injurioos to the physical welfare of the Coamnnity. and 
pMi i iiu n s in Its influcnos on Profession it and put>Uc Morality." By Snmnd 
Gnyory, A.II., Lsoorcr on Physiology. Boston, 1S48. 



midwifery, and those which were subsequently urged against 
the admission of women to medicine. Thus: 

■ ft ^ 

v^i " The emplosnneDt of micD id mid- 

s, wifery practice is always grossly in- 
delicate* often immoral, and always 
constitutes a serious temptation to 
immorality." — ^iMMPirary of Mr, 
Gregory s argumeni in ^'Man-Mid" 
wftry Exp&ud," 1848. 

"I view the present practice of 
caning on men in ordinary births, 
. . . . as a means of sacrificing deli- 
cacy and consequently virtue.— 
Th4nnas EwtU. M,D,, of Virginia. 

**The pracdoe (of male midwif- 
ery) is unnecessary, -unnatural, and 
wrong, — it has an immoral ten- 
dency."— fK, Stack. M,D., New 

" There are many cases of practice 
anK>ng women .... in which the 
sense of propriety would decide that 
the presence of a female practitioner 
is more desirable than that of a 
man. — Nno York Ohserver. i8jso. 

''There are a few self-evident 
propositions which it would be ques- 
tioning the common sense of man- 
kind to d<Mibt. One is that women 
are bv nature better fitted than men 
to tam care of the sick and the suf* 
ftri&g."->(Mcr'/Z«4^/^Mi, zSsa 

" The especial propriety of quali- 
fying women to practice among 

" To attend medical clinics in 
company with men, women most lay 
aside their modesty. Theie are stiU 
enough geniUmen who would bludi 
to expose their mothers or sisters or 
wives to what, before women, wonld 
be improper and indecent.''— ZWter 
to editor N Y, Med. Keeord. 1884, H 
M, K. Blaekwood, 

** History, physiology, and the gen- 
eral judgment oi sodetjr unite in the 
negative of woman's ntneas for the 
medical office." — ** IVomam amd ktr 
Physician" Lecture. Tkeapk. Par- 
vin. Prof Die, IVomen, 1S70 

" If I were to plan with malicioan 
hate the greatest curse I ooold ooo- 
ceive for women, if I would estrange 
them from the protection of women, 
and make them as far as possible 
loathsome and disgusting to man, 
I would favor the so-calTed reform 
which proposed to make doctors of 
them " -^ Editorial BuffaU .Med. 
Journal^ 1869, p. 191. 

" There are free-thinkers in the 
medical profession as there are free- 
lovers in social life The op- 
position of medical men arises be- 
cause this movement outrages aU 
their enlightened estimate o7 what 
a woman should be. It shocks their 
refined appreciation of woman to see 
her assume to follow a professioo 
with repulsive details at every step^ 
after the disgusting preliminaries 
have been passed." — Skerry^ Med. 
and Surg, Reporter^ fulyt^ 1 867. 

** It is obvious that we cannot In- 
struct women as we do men in the 
science of medicine ; we cannot carry 
them into the dissecting room and 
hospital ; many of our more delicate 
feelings, much of our refined sensi- 
bility must be subdued before we 
can study medicine ; in females they 
must be destroyed " — Remarks am 
Employment of Females as Practi* 
tioturs, Boston, 182a 

*' A he ceremonies of graduating 
Miss Black well at Geneva may wcfl 


tbdr own tts, wQl be be called a farce. I am soiry that Ge- 

I hope \f$ all."— ^/. Rat, nera thoald be the firat to commence 

F^Uer^ iSso. the nefarious prooesi of amalj^ama- 

tion. The profession was quite too — 
fuU befon.^LtiUr ky D, X. (0 ^ 
Boston J^umal^ Feb, 1 849. 
** We have louf been persuaded '*The bare tliought of married fe- 

ihst both oMffality and decency re- males engaj^ng^ in the medical pro- 

pfBctitioners of medi- fessioo is palpably absurd. It car- 

Natars suggests it : leasoo ries with tt a sense of shame, tuI- 

■jBpoMi it : refifkM demands it.**«- P^^T* *^ disgust. Nature is re- 

ifmtUtm Cknstasm Admtmie, iSsa sponsible for m^ unqualified opposi- 

tion to educatmg females for the 
medical profession." — Dus^, 0m 
FetmmUPkyi, by N, WiUUms,M,D,, 
rmd be/0n s N. Y, Mtd, S0f„ June 
6, 18SO. 
• '(^ is one of the most impor- *' Females are ambitious to dabble 

fi b jcMU €i the day for the i»- in medicine as in other matters, with 
■eot oi the condition of wo- a view to reorganixing society. "— 
'^ZimCs Uemld. l8sa E^L BtUm Med. ^ttd Smrf. J^mr,, 

i8s3. p. 106. 
The employment of men as ** The serious inroads made by fe- 

' ei' is a modem custom* male physidank in obstetrical busi- 
aoc to be c om men ded."^ ness, #«/ #//i/ etumUsl kraut ius 0/^^ 
PJkL SUmrdmy Poii^ x8$o. income /# m m^ajonty #/ weU esUtk- 

lislud prachtUmtrs^ make it natural 
enough to inauire what course to 
pursue. ••—/W.. Feb. 1853. 

These ptrallel columns might be extended much further, 
did our space permit We cannot, however, pass by the fol- 
lowing gem of eloquence from an English source, but quoted 
in the Cincinnati Lamet ami Clinic iox 1881. It is from the 
address at the British Medical Association by the President of 
that year: 

** I am not over-squeamish, nor am I over-sensitive, but I 
aliDoa shudder when I hear of things that ladies now do or 
attempt to do. One can but blush, and feel that modesty, once 
inherent in the fairest of God*s creation, is fast fading away. 
You gentlemen, who know the delicacy of women's organiza* 
lion, — you mtut know that constitutionally they are unfit' for 
many of the duties of either doctor or nurse. 

** May not habit so change that fine organization, that sensitive 
nature of women, as to render her dead to those higher feelings 
of love and sympathy which now make our homes so happy, so 

^ Will not England's glory fade without its modest sympa- 
thiiing women, luid its race of stalwart youths and blooming 



" You now, gentlemen, know my views as to the propriety of 
ladies becoming doctors or nurses." * 

The Fourth period of woman's medical history was initiated 
when Mr. Gregory, supported by tlie popular enthusiasm he 
had aroused, succeeded in opening a School of Medicine (n 
called) for women, in Nov. 1848.! The first term lasted three 
months: a second term began the following April, 1849; — 
and with the announcement for the second year it was declared 
that the twenty pioneer pupils had notonly fallowed thelecturei, 
but " had attended above 300 midwifery cases with the most 
satisfactory success." 

In the prospectus issued for the second year of the school, 
Mr. Gregory brought forward a new set of argumenU in its 
support, in addition to those previously adduced. There^wu 
then (1849) in New England, a surplus female populatifti of 
ao.Doo persons, — and " hundreds of these would be willing to 
devote any necessary length of time to qualify themselves for 
a useful, honorable, and remunerative occupation." Thejr, 
could afford, moreover, to give their services at a much cheaper 
rate than men, charging about a third llie ordinary fees, — 
thus $5 instead of $15 for attendance on a contincmcnt case. 

Thus not only would the morals of the community be pre- 
served, but the burdens on its purse be considerably lightened 
by the employment of educated women as obstetricians. As 
the medical profession had just become keenly alive to the 
peculiarly lucrative character of obstetrical and gyneco- 
logical practice, this suggestion that it might now profitably be 
undersold naturally aroused the keenest resentment. It was 
soon retorted that the cheaper practitioners were to be pre- 
pared by a system of education so cheap as to be absolutely 
worthless; and unfortunately the early history of the first medi- 
cal schools for women entirely justified this accusation. 

To support Mr. Gregory's school, a Female Medical Educa- 
tion Society was formed in Boston, and incorporated with a 
state charter. Nothing seemed at the outset fairer than the 
promises of the new college, — but it had one fatal defect. 
There was no one connected with it who either knew or cared 
what a medical education should be. It followed that, under 

^ .* Is it possiUcDOt lOMcm 10 hear, from Bome quiet comer of dispassionate 
f^^bstn3XS,tm, the echo of (he immorlal " Pudg:e [ " whicb xo disturbed the 
~ campIaccDcy of Ihe innocent Vicar of Wakefield ? 

t " To MssMchuselti ia due the credit of eitablishinj the Gnt medical 
tchoal for womeo in Ihe world."— Chad wick, "Th«Snid7 ud Fncttndf 
Medidae by Wonen," InUmalieiial Rtview, October, 1879. .^-^^ 


t^ aaine of medical education^ was oflfered a curriculum of 
'^^^nction, so ludicrously inadequate for the purpose, as to 
^^^ttitttte a ^ross usurpation of the name, — in a word, to be an 
^ ^Oeacially duhonest affair. And still more unfortunately, the 
?**»e inadequacy, naively or deliberately unconscious of 
5*|^tff continued in greater or less degree, to characterize all 
'^'i^tU for the isolated medical education of women for the 
twenty years. This, the fourth period of their medical his- 
—desenres therefore to be considered by women rather 
% pre-ncdical or prelimin;^ epoch ; where purposes 
c&QOciated that were only to be fulfilled many years 

Gregory Medical School maintained a precarious exist- 

until I $74* when, by an enabling act of the Legislature, 

^ j*^^ fnnda were handed over to the Boston University, just 

^ tded,— ^pon condition that women should be admitted to 

medical department of the latter. This condition was 

'^^^ctnally fulfilled ; women students were rendered eligible 

11 departments of the new university. But as the medical 

for some reason, became exclusively homoepathic, — the 

vnes of medical women in the regular profession were not 

^^^y greatly advanced.* 

^ 7ow, however, the movement for women had widened and 

:hed Philadelphia, where two schools were started. One of 

the Penn Medical School, ra«i a permanently unenviable 

'^eer of unfitness, and was finally extinguished. The other, 

Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania, was founded in 

;o, and after a long and precarious period of struggle, finally 

^Viiched upon a solid basis of medical realities, and thence 

;aa its prosperous modern career. In the mean time, and 

^^tunately for the cause, a new departure had l>een taken in 

reral other directions. The Gregory School had been 

^^vnded with the avowed intention of educating women for 

^ On two other occasions did these fortuoet become associated with those 

boBODOpallis. When in 1S69 the Sute University of Michigan opened 

*^ Mcriinil department to women, the I^islature simuluneoosly ruled that 

^%o prafcHon of homoeopathic medicine roust he appointed in the school. 

Aad vbca in 18S6 the trustees of the Boston City Hospital inquired into 

tW p ropri ety of admitting female medicil students, they reported at the 

Wme time upon the application of homoeopathic physicians, to be appointed 

li tbc medicil service of the wards. At this point, however, the fortunes of 

the two ritiifi of applicants divcripd : the bnt rcquett was frantcd ; the 

of 1S90 of ths Boston Uoivtrnty Sdkool only coctnins nias 

IN UEDiai/£. 147 

midwives ; and it did not succeed even in this limited aim, 
because it was either ignorant of or indifferent to the rigid 
system of education imposed, wherever, as in Europe, mid- 
wives are recognized and educated. In America, where hos- 
tility to class distinctions is so profound as to interfere with 
the recognition of even the intellectual distinctions which are 
alone just, — it was probably a foregone conclusion that the vari- 
ous ranks in medicine which exist in European countries would 
never here become officially established.* But a startlingly 
long step was taken at a stride, when, thirty years after the 
paean of victory had been sounded over the complete suppres- 
sion of female midwifes, so that not even this comer of possi- 
ble medicine might remain in possession of women, — thatihen, 
half a dozen women, unknown to each other, and widely separ< | 
ated in this immense country, should appear almost stmul-J 
taneously upon the scene, and demand the opportunity to be] 
educated as full physicians. Their history marks a fifth penoa 
in the movement. 

The first of this remarkable group of women was Harriet 
K. Hunt of Boston. 

This lady had for several years assumed the responsibility > 
of practicing medicine, while yet unprovided with a medicsd 
diploma. This was reprehensible, but from a practical stand- 
point, the course seems to have been justified by subsequent 
events. For when, in 1847, Miss Hunt requested permission 
to attend lectures at the Harvard Medical School, her request 
was promptly refused. After the graduation of Elizabeth 
Blackwell at Geneva in 1849, Miss Hunt thought that the times 
might have become more favorable, and, in 1850, repeated her 
application at Harvard. In mobile America, three years may 
sometimes effect such a change in sentiment as would require 
three centuries in the Old World. On this occasion, five out of 
the seven members of the Faculty voted "That Miss Hunt be 
admitted to the lectures on the usual terms, provided that her 

* Thus in France, — docteur en mcdecinc, officier de sante, sa^ femme; 
In England, — physician, surgeon, apothecary. The midwife in Enj^nd, 
wa«, until recently, assumed not to exist : but as she existed neTcrthdess* 
she became all the more daogcrous because uncontrolled. ** At present date, 
60 per cent, of poor women are attended in their confinements by midwives, 
oninstructed and uncultivated, — probably 10,000 in number. The (atiU 
results to both mothers and children arising from the ignorance of these mid- 
wives is notorious. They must either be annihilated or instructed."— Dr. 
Aveling, writing to Gen. Med. Council, 1873. 

The Obstetrical Society of London now undertakes to instruct end 
ine midwivei. 



be not deemed inconsistent with the statutes." * A 
later, tbe President and Fellows of the University an« 
that the statutes of the Medical School offered no 
to the admission of female students to their lectures. 
JBaty on the eve of success. Miss Hunt's cause was ship- 
wracked, bjr coUiuon and enunglement with that of another 
of the ooeafrancbised to privileges. At the beginning of the 
two^ and later a third, colored man, had appeared 
tbe students, and created by their appearance intense 
When, as if to crown this outrage to gentle* 
feeling, it was announced that a woman was also about 
to be admitted, the students felt that their cup of humilia- 
full, and popular indignation boiled over in a general 
Here resolutions were adopted, remonstrating 
agiintt tbe ^ amalgamation of sexes and races." The compli- 
aat Faculty bowed their heads to the storm, yielded to the stu« 
bo^ tbouffh young and inexperienced, were in • the 
Jonty, and might possibly withdraw m a body to Yale, — and, 
to avoid tbe obloquy of rejecting, under pressure, a perfectly 
rcatooable request, advised the *' female student" to with- 
draw ber petition. This she did ; the storm subsided, and the 
majesty of Harvard, already endangered by the presence of 
tbe negro, was saved from the further peril of the woman. 
/ Mils Hunt returned to her private medical practice, which, 
tboogb unsanctioned by law and condemned by learning, was so 
flKcessful that, in 1873, she celebrated her silver wedding to it.f 
Thus, OD this first occasion, it was not a sentiment of deli- 
\ cacy that forbade the Harvard students to share their privi- 
1 leges with a woman ; but a sense of ofifended dignity of sex, 
7 which distinctly allied itself with the other and equally touchy 
j dignity of race. The odd idea was advanced on this, as on so 
woMnj other occasions, that whenever a woman should prove 
N herself capable of an intellectual achievement, this latter would 
I oeaae to constitute an honor for the men who had previously 
I prized it Hence the urgent necessity of excluding women 
i ffom all opportunity of trying.^ 

^ Drm. Jacob Bifclow and Jamct Jacktoa voted in the ncgattre. The Ut- 
r IttdtMS Ihs pbytidaa to introdocc into Boston the midwife, Mn. Janet 
So tt would teem that hit ohiectioo was not to woom. but to 
who aUght aspire to rank among regularly educated men 

t The detaflt of U\m Hoot's application to Harrard are diapaasionatety 
by Dr. Cbadwick, Uc, a/. 

I WkM, la iSts, tbo Loodoo Uaifwiity, after a two yean' Utter oootr»> 

IN MEDiaNE. X45 

In 1849, ''Diplomas and advanced courses of study were 
things entirely outside the intellectual life of women." ^ The 
pioneer female colleges, the Troy Seminary and the Mt. Holy- 
oke school, had scarcely been founded,! and women everywhere 
received only the most rudimentary education. On the othei 
hand> the medical education of men, was, as compared with 
the objects to be attained by it,— in about an equally nidi* 
mentary condition. The intrinsic tests were so shifting and 
unreliable, the standard of attainments so low, that it was pro« 
portionately necessary to protect the dignity of the profession 
by external, superficial, and arbitrary safeguards. Of these the 
easiest to apply was the distinction of sex. It was often diffi« 
cult to decide, in the absence of intrinsic tests, whether a given 
individual were or were not a competent physician : but it wai 
of course always easy to recognize that he was a man. Thii 
simple principle of distinction was adopted, therefore, as th« 
guiding rule "in future controversies. All men, however 01 
wherever educated, were to be considered competent physi- 
cians, if only they chose to say so themselves. And all women 
were correlatively to, be declared incompetent, no matter what 
care they had taken to prepare themselves. The principle was 
well suited to crude f^nd uncultured societies, and became pro* 
portionately popular 

£Iizabeth and Emily Blackwell were led to the study o( 
medicine in a different manner than Harriet Hunt, theii 
immediate predecessor. While still quite young girls, they 
were, by the sudden death of their father, unexpectedly con- 
fronted with the necessity»of supporting not only themselves, 
but their mother, and a large family of younger brothers and 
sisters. *' Then we realized the infinite narrowness and petti- 
ness of the avenues open to women, and the crowds of com- 
petitors who kept each other down in the struggle. We 
determined that we would endeavor to open a new door, and 
tread a fresh path, — rather than push for a footing in one 
already filled to overflowing." X 
. In this determination a new key-note was sounded. The 

versy, declared women eli^ble to its degrees, the journals were flooded 
with letters from indignant ph)rsicians, who declared that by this actioa 
their own diplomas, previously obiained, had t>een lowered in value, their 
contracts viouted, and their most sacred property rights invaded. 

« Address at Chickerins: Hall, New York, March z8, x888. by Dr. 
Emily BUckwelL 

t Mt. Holyoke was founded by Mary Lyon in 1837. 

I Address of Emily Blackwell, ci/, ui sufra^ • 

^ Sf9 WtmdN^S WOMK IN dMSMCA. 


WkA^if^Ba^ aad cqwciall/ Elistbeth, were less the associates 
€f Hanriel Hsnc, aM of their own immediate successorsi than 
qpiritoal daschters of Mary Wolbtonecraft, whose cour- 
deouuid for a wider field for her sex bad remained 
k&hcrta ainustt alooe^ like a voice crj^ing in the wilderness. 
Tkcjr did not seek wider opportunities in order to study medi* 
OM^ but tbef studied medicine in order to secure wider 
fportMDJtici fw all women.^ 

It was bjr sheer force of intellect, and of the sjnnpathetic im- 

■tjnuinii bom of intellectual perception, that Elisabeth Black- 

wdl divined tw women the suitableness of an occupation whose 

prarliral details were, to herself, in trinsically distastef uL Among 

aB the pioneer group of women physicians, hers chiefly dcMrves 

to be called the Record of an Heroic Life. For with her, the 

with bitter and brutal prepdices in the world was not 

Ibjr the keen and instmctire enthusiasm for medicine^ 

has since carried hundreds of women over impossibilities. 

was the arduonsness of the struggle intensified by a 

le sensitivenett of temperament, which, under a cold 

; rendered her intensely alive to the hardships of the 

nodal obloquy and ostracism which she was destined to en- 

coonter in such abundance. 

^ Those accustomed to value ideas according to their intrin* 

sve power, as shown by their originality and their fruitful 

icsolt, should admit that there was real grandeur in this 

diought : the thought that the entire sex might be lifted upon 

a higher intellectual plane, by means of a practical work, for 

I whid), at the moment, not half a dozen people in America dis* 

f earned the opportunity. ** The thorough education of a clau 

Vof women in medicine will exert an important influence upon 

I tbe life and interests of women in general." ** Medicine is so 

broad a field, so closely interwoven with general interests^ and 

jtt of so personal a character in its individual applications^ that 

the cooperation of men and women is needed to fulfill all its 

mtotrements.** ^ It is not possible or desirable to sanction the 

establishment of an intermediate clau'* [of midwives.] f 

Blackwdl* lOn Tsaajfoa's PrinwM» 

Sk«4d«f«i hm M draui that ««idi tlMvId 

AndalwHhf thtPriaow, h 

Wkm hMmai tW cnfi •! liwHrg. ** 

t ** McdidM M a ProCcnicMi te WooMa.* Addnss by EUabslh aad 
Mmlkf Wsctadl, dsUnnd 0«g. s, i%^ 


So much more broad and sound were the views of this sel 
taught Cincinnati school-teacher,* than of the kind-heart< 
but short-sighted' men, who in Boston were then trying t 
establish the Female Medical Education Society ! 

It was in 1845 that the plan of studying medicine becan 
with Elizabeth Blackwell a settled resolution ; and she w 
thus the first person on the American continent to whom sa< 
an idea did come. 

It is worthy of note, that the originality of the main idea w 
sustained by an almost equal originality of view in regard 
the true nature of a medical education. 

Only a few years ago an eminent New York professo: 
showed that it was both practicable, and a common thing 
do, for men to graduate, even from New York schools, idft 
. only ten months attendance upon lectures, of which the secoi 
five months was a mere repetition of the first : and witho 
ever having seen a sick person. If this were true of New Yoi 
— where, after all, it is possible to do otherwise, — it may be ii 
agined what would be true of the multitude of small scho< 
scattered through the country, where the resources for eith 
clinical or didactic instruction were confessedly inadequa 
And if this were true in 1S80 the status of 1850 may 

It was at this time that Elizabeth Blackwell recognized tb 
preparation for medical practice demanded the sanction of t< 
examinations at a respectable school ; not a few months, b 
years of study ; and above all abundant clinical experien^ 
Rather than accept as final the indorsement of little scho< 
established ad hoc, or exclusively for women, she applied 
be admitted as student at twelve medical schools throughc 
the country, and among these found one, the school at Genei 
N. Y., to grant her request. The faculty referred the matt 
to the students, and they decided to invite the couragec 
applicant Poor, dependent entirely upon her own exertioi 
and with others more or less dependent upon her, she nevertf 
less found means to devote five years to the study of her pi 
fession, of which two were spent in Europe, at that time a n 
extravagance.^ Uninstructed or informed by the laws and ci 

^ Miss Blackwell was of English birth and family, but had come to Que 
nad at the age of twelve. 

t Dr. Robert Weir. 

X Miss Blackwell earned money by several years' work at school teachii 
the great resooice of American |^rU. 


of the entire conntry that attendance on didactic lectures 
mficient to justify a medical diploma, and hospital training 
tvperfluoos, — her native common sense perceived the ab- 
tsfditj oC this theory, and left no stone unturned to secure 
mcii tngmeots of hospital training as were obtainable for her 
\m cither hemisphere. During the term of study at Geneva, she 
«tiliicd a vacation to seek admittance to the hospital of the 
Btockley almshouse at Philadelphia, and obtained it by skill- 
ful manipulation of the opposmg political influences which 
pffcvmiled among the managers of the mstitution.* After gradu- 
adag at Geneva in 1849, the first woman in America or of 
■ode rn times to receive a medical diploma, Miss Black well imme- 
distcljr went to Europe, and by exceptional favor succeeded 
HI visiting some of the hospitals of both London f and Paris. 
la Paris, moreover, she submitted for several months to the 
•evere imprisonment of the great school for midwives. La 

Blackwell was refused admission to the Hobart College 
which had graduated her sister ; but was allowed, 
for one year, to study at the Rush College of Chicago. For 
this permission, however, the college was censured by the State 
Medical Society, and the second term was therefore refused to 
the solitary female student. She was, however, enabled to com* 
plcte her studies at Cleveland, Ohio, and graduated thence in 
sS5a. During one of her vacations, she obtained i>ermission to 
visit in Bellevue Hospital, where Dr. James Wood was just 
mitiating the system of regular clinical lectures. After gradu- 
mtion, Emily Blackwell also went to Europe, and had the good 
foctonc to become the private pupil of the celebrated Sir James 
of Edinburgh. She remained with him for a year, 
when she left he warmly testified to her proficiency and 
competence for the work she had undertaken. The testimonial 
is worth quoting entire: 

^ My Dear Miss Blackwell : 

** I do think that you have assumed a position for which you 
are excellently qualified, and where you may, as a teacher, do a 
great amount of good. 

^ As this movement progresses, it is evidently a matter of the 
vtmost importance that female physicians should be most fully 

* * It WIS the knx tioM that a unanimout vole wai ever cast ia the board." 
'-^Ftrtrnmi Umr ff^m Dr, BUikweU 

t EipadaDy Si. Baitboloatw. through the iafluciMC of l>t.^ afterwards 


and perfectly educated ; i.nd I firmljr believe that it would t: 
difficult or impossible to 6nd for that purpose any one betl< 
qualified than yourself. 

" I have had the fairest and best opportunity of testing \X 
extent of your medical acquirements during the period i 
eight months, when you studied here with oie, and 1 can ha< 
no hesitation in stating to you — what I have often stated i 
others — that I have rarely met with a young physician who w. 
better acquainted with the ancient aod modern languages, i 
more learned in the literature, science, and practical details ' 
his profession. Permit me to add that in your relation 
patients, and in your kindly care and treatment of them. I ev 
found you a 'most womanly woman.' Believe me, tvith »e 
kindest wishes foi your success, ^ 

Yours very respectfully, ^ 

" Jamks G. Siupsok." • 

Miss Blackwell received similar testimonials from seTci 
distinguished physicians in London and Paris, in who 
hospital wards she faithfully studied. Thus equipped, % 
returned to New York in 1855 to join her sister, with aft 
hope of success in the arduous undertaking before them. 

Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell, with the aid of «. few genero 
friends, had opened a little dispensary for women and cf) 
dren, — which after three years' existence, and one year of ti 
pension, developed into the Kew York Infirmary, This w 
first chartered in 1854. But when Emily Blackwell retum< 
from Europe, no opportunities existed for either of the sistt 
to secure the hospital medical work, whose continued trunj 
is justly regarded of such inestimable advantage to eve 
practicing physician. This was recognized even at a til 
that hospitsds were regarded as superfluous in undergradoi 

In 1850, Dr, Marion Sims, arriving as an exiled iaval 
from Alabama, with a brilliantly original surgical opei 
tion as his "stock in trade,"— ^succeeded, with the atd 
some generous New York women, in founding the first W 
man's Hospital in the world. It was just seven yean sin 
the first imperfect medical school for women had been open 

* The " indcDl •nd niodem UnTuage*," coaprited I^tin, Creek, Tttm 
Gemuui, and Italian,— «ii uhommI liit of accomplishmeutt (or a seUiUn^ 
Western bred girl o( thoM dayi. Hiu BIsclmreUjMrtlcntarir danscd X 
Simpcon ^ tnnalatlnff for bim into — " ■ ' 
tions d «ld Anbic medical tmolMt. 

* For Bodcn obttctrici b alaoit m mw a iphcn m fjaMOolofy 

I — 


in Boston: six years since the first woman physician had 
graduated at Geneva : five years since a i>ennanent school for 
women had been founded in Philadelphia. The coincidence 
of these dates is not fortuitous. There is a close correlation 
^-^ between the rise of modem gynaecology, and the rise of the 
oMvement for readmitting women to the medical profession, 
where they once held a place, and whence they had been 
^ iorctblj extruded. While it is far from true that women 
^ physicians are intended only for obstetrics and gynaecology, it 
It unquestionably true that these two great branches of medi- 
cine peculiar to their sex constitute the great opportunity, 
the main portal, through which women have passed, and 
are destined to pass, to general medicine. It would have been 
well if those who conducted the one movement had frankly 
allied themselves with the leaders of the other. Unfortunately^ 
the more important, and especially the more lucrative, the new 
medical spheres ^ seemed likely to be, — the more eager were 
those who engaged in them to keep out women. 

Dr. Sims thus describes the circumstances of the founding 
of the Woman's Hospital : 

** As soon as they (the New York surgeons) had learned 
bow to perform these operations successfully" (those that Sims 
had invented), *' they had no further use for me. My thunder 
had been stolen, and I was left without any resources what- 
ever. I said to myself, 'I am a lost man unless I can get 
somebody to create a place in which I can show the world 
what I am capable of doing.* This was tht inteptwm §/ ih€ 
idea 0fa woman" s hospitair—'' Story of My Life." 

When the New York wom^ organized the hospital they ^ 
framed a by-law, — which has since passed into oblivion, — to 
the effect that the assistant surgeon should be a woman. £m- 
ilv Blackwell was the woman who should have been chosen. 
r' She had had an education far superior to that of the average 
American doctor of the day, a special training under the 
most distinguished gynaecologists of the time, — Simpson and 
Hoginer — and had received abundant testimonials to capacity; 
whUe there was really not another person in New York 
possessed of either such opportunities or of such special 
testimonials. At her return, informal inquiries were made 
to ascertain whether the second woman physician in New 
York would be allowed a footing where she so justly belonged, 
ia New York's first Woman's Hospital The overtures were 

IP^^*— ' ' i H IM I I ■ ■ II \ ^mmmmmm^\ \ i ,1 i n ■ u .i j i . ,.■1, 1 . ^ <i». 


rejected : Dr. Sims passed by these jast cUimt to reoognitio 
and evaded the mandatory by-law of his generous friends, 
a way that is most clearly shown in his own words : **' Oi 
clause of the by-laws provided that the assistant surgeon shou 
be a woman. I appointed Mrs. Brown's friend Henri L. Stna; 
who had been so efficient in organizing the hospital Sk€ m 
matron and general superintendent.**^ 

Having thus evaded the distinct and farfighted intentii 
of the founders of the hospital. Dr. Sim's proceeded 
select his medical assistant upon grounds eztraordinari 

** The hospital had been opened about six months^ when 
told the board of lady managers that I must have an assistai 
They told me to select the man. I offered the appointme 
to Dr. F. N. Johnson, Jr., who had fust graduated.\ He w 
about to be married, and was going to locate in the countnr ne 
Cooperstown. I then offered the place to Dr. George F. Shrad 
He too was about to be married, and for some cause or oth 
he did not see fit to accept it. Soon after this, a young friei 
of mine at the South, was married to Dr. Thomas Addis Ei 
mett, of New Y4Mc. As I was looking for an assistant, I d 
not know that I could more handsomely recognize the frien* 
ship of former days, than to appoint the husband of Mrs. Ei 
mett assistant. So to the accident of good fortune in man 
ing a beautiful Southern young woman, Dr. Emmett owes \ 

Suffering womanhood undoubtedly owes much to Mari< 
Sim's inventive genius. But, on the other hand, Sim's fan 
and fortune may be said to have been all made by wome 
from the poor slaves in Alabama who, un narcotized, surre 
dered their patient bodies to his experiments,! 'to the New Yoi 
ladies whose alert sympathies and open purses had enabU 
him to realize his dream, and establish his personal fortune 
It would have been an act both graceful and just on his pai 
at this crisis, to have shared his opportunities with the ti 

^ *'Story of My Life/' by Marion Sims, p. 299. 

It must be said that Dr. Sims was subsequently president of the Ameria 
Medical Association, at the meeting which received its first woman delcgati 
and doubtless bis influence contributed toward her favorable receptioo. 

t It will be remembered what were the conditions of sjaduation in Nt 
York in 1855. 

t **ThiswasthethirtiethoperationperformedonAnarcha.'' (xS49>— Sim 
ke. eiL p. 846.) XS49. foundation date of American STn«ooloQr, was tl 
date of Uie year when Elizabeth BlackweU received her diploouu 


woacB who^ like himself, bad been well buffeted in an oppoa- 

awoffldp* and wboee wodc and aspirations were so closelv iden* 
d with his own. But this he failed to do ; and the lost 

^ < y|W f tii nity,made all the difference to the pioneer women phj- 
moaas^ between brilliani and modest, between immediate and 
tmdf professional success, 

lyoable elsewhere to obtain hospital opportunities^ the Black* 
wtlli resolved to found a hospital that should be conducted 

*-* wot ool/ for, but bjr women. The New York Infitmary, char- 
toed IB i854» preceded the Woman's Hospital by a year, and, 
like it, was the first institution of the kind in the world. For 
Ihiet years it consisted exclusively of a dispensary; then was 
added a tiny lying-in ward of twelve beds. At this moment 
the advance jpura of women physicians received their fourth 

-^ vecrait. Mane Zaksrewska, a young midwife from Germany. 
She had been a favorite puml of Dr. Schmidt, one of the sute 
rvamtnefs of the school for midwives in Berlin, and chief 
director of the Charity HospitaL He had been so impressed 
by the talents of his pupil, as to entrust her with the responsi- 
bility of teaching his own classes, when ill-health compelled 
bia to resign his work. Discouraged, however, by some in- 
trignes whidi sprang up after the death of her powerful friend, 
Frittleia Zaksrewska decided to abandon the home where a 
career seemed ready marked out for her, and to seek a wider 
horixoo and larger fortunes in America. Here she arrived in 
1S5J. Her pluck and courage carried her safely through tht 
first difficult year of an almost penniless exile ; then the gener- 
oos kindness of Elisabeth Blackwell secured her a place among 
the advance guard of women physicians, taught her English, 
and procured her admission to the Medical School at Cleve- 
laad. She assisted the Blackwells in the task of collecting 
from an indifferent or hostile community the first few hundred 
dollars with which to found the New York Infirmary, and in 
this served as physician for a year; was thence invited to 
lectare 00 midwifery at the Female Medical School at Boston ; 
was finally summoned to build up the New England Hospital, 
which for many years was almost identified with her name and 

r. ShMk fai hb a ot obiography. eoopUiiit that be wm d ca oa a oc d m s 

hythm'* c oa m r a thrt wnrgtotm 01 New York. tooM of wham did aol 

to MCfclly tiy to dwwiadc tbs ladies from doing aonUog about tba 

^ Hoipital. and aifiaf tbat tba New York Hoapbal alraady 

tf, invariably soika to stiaagla fai tba biftb that wbkb is 


with that of Dr. Luc^ Sewall,* and of Dr. Hdea MoiU 
This, tiie second hospiul to be conducted by women phj 
cians, was founded' in 1862. 

The fifth pioneer was Ann Preston, a Quaker lady of Phi 
delphia, an ardent aliolitionist, as it was the inherited privile 
of the Friends to be.t Miss Preston had become early habit 
ated to interest herself in the cause of minorities. Small ai 
fragile in body, she possessed an indomitable little soul ; ai 
when the suggestion had once been thrown out, that a medii 
college for women might be opened in Philadelphia, Ann Pn 
ton never ceased working until had been collected the mea| 
funds considered sufficient for its establishment I'his was 
1850 ; and the sixth annual announcement of the schoc4 m« 
tions Dr. Preston as already installed as professor of physiok^ 

• . This position she held till the day of her death. 

At the outset, the new medical school was scarcely an it 
provement upon its Boston predecessor. Four months lectun 
— composed of compilations from three or four text-books,* 
the same repeated the following year, constituted the curric 
lum. There was much zeal, but little knowledge. Dr. Pre 
ton herself, philanthropist and excellent woman as she was, w 
necessarily ignorant of her subject, because she had never hi 
any opportunity to learn anything about it. The other profc 
sors were not more qualified, although without the same excui 
of necessity. Ten years after the opening of the college, tl 
Philadelphia County Medical Society found an apparent 
plausible pretext for refusing recognition to the school, in tl 
fact that the lecturer on therapeutics was not a physician bi 
a druggist,*-who m6reover presumed to practice medicine ov4 
his counter, and *' irregular*' and advertised medicine at tha 
Even more to the purpose than these accumulated crimes wi 
the fact that his lectures consisted almost exclusively of strin| 

r of prescriptions, and had no real claim to be accepted 1 
exponents of the modem science of therapeutics. 
^ The first adequate teacher to appear in the school was Emmc 

. line Cleveland, who, having graduated under its meagre in 
ttructions, was sent to Europe through the generosity of tw< 

* Dr. Zik»«wrica's life has been sketched in outline down to the abor 
date, in a littJa volume entitled '* Practical UIustratioD o£ Woman's Riffhl ti 
Labor," by Caraliilb DaU. 

t A petition lor the emancipation of nes:ro slaves was piesented ti 
CoQgreis by a groop of Quaker gentlemen, within a few years afte 
the framiiv cf the Conttitmion.— Van liolst, CmstihUi^mal liuUry ^ 

Bst woMidnr^s wrour m America. 


Qsakcr hdic%^ to fit beiidf at the Paris Maternity to lecture 

Sm obstetrics. Dr. QeTelaod thus rei>eated the career of Dr. 
n>ca ia tj6»^^ and like him found in Europe the instruc- 
tioos aad inspiration her native city would not afiford. Dr. Cley e- 
kad was a woman of real ability, and would have done justice 
so a mnch larger sphere than that to which fate condemned her. 
OMspelled by the slender resources of the college to unite the 
dntics of housekeeper and superintendent to those of professor, 
not unf requently passed from the lecture room to the kitchen 
idee the bmd for the students who boarded at the institu- 
F ossessed of much personal beauty, and grace of man- 
she had married young; but her husband had been stricken 
wth hemiplegia eari^ in t^ir married life, and it was the neces- 
sity of supporting him as well as herself, which led the wife, 
chudkis and practically widowed, to enter the profession of 

Of the remaining typical members of the pioneer groups 
of woman phvsicians, all were married, either alreadv when 
they liegan, their studies, or immediately after graduation. 
The latter was the fortune of Sarah Adamson, the second 
woman in the United States to receive a medical diploma, and 
who a year later married Dr. Dolley, of Rochester, where she 
at once settled and has been in successful practice for thirty- 
eight years. Miss Adamson was a niece of the Dr. Hiram Cor- 
aoo, who, in Montgomerv County of Pennsylvania, was destined 
to wage a forty years' chivalrous warfare in defense of women 
physicians. At the age of eighteen, having come across a copy 
of Wistar*s Anatomy, she devoted a winter to its engrossing 
study, and became fired with enthusiasm for the medical art« to 
wfaidi anatomy formed such a grand portal.^ At that time, 
iS49t the Philadelphia Medical School had not yet opened ; 
bot the Eclectic School at Rochester had announced its willing- 
oess to receive woman students, and to this Miss Adamson 
|iersuaded her parents to allow her to go. She graduated in 

Besides Miss Adamson, four other ladies availed themselves 
of the liberality of the ** irregular " eclectic school at Rochester, 
bot of these only one ^|raduated. Even more than her 
Quaker colleagues, did this lady represent a distinctive type 

• Hnsili Rlcbaidioii aad R«bcoca Whit«. 

t S« «/ MS^m. p. i'3,iiolt. 

tGOuy.jUL Tbeiuoomtyoii^QMlMrfU«daotfiMltUi«'aas» 



/y MEDiaNB. 

among women physicians, for she was already married i 
she began her studies. Mrs. Gleason was the wife of a yi 
Vermont doctor, who opened an infirmary in the countr 
chronic invalids, shortly after acquiring his own diplonuL Ii 
management of his lady patients, the young doctor often f< 
it an advantage to be assisted ^by his wife as an intermed 
on the one side to relate the symptoms, on the other to pre* 
the directions.** Thus the wife became gradually associ 
with the husband's work, while he on his part remained gi 
ously alive to her interests. He it was, who, in order to u 
an opportunity for his wife for some kind of systematic n 
cal eaucatton, persuaded the eclectics, assembled in coi 
to open the doors of their new school to women. "Ii 
opinion, the admission of women was the reform most ne 
in the medical profession." '*I remember vividly,** v 
Mrs. Gleason, ** the day of his return, when he exclaimed, 
enthusiasm, * Now, wife, you can go to medical lecture 
The husband and wife have practiced medicine in harmoi 
partnership ever since this early epoch. Their sanitariu 
Elmira still exists to sustain its old and honorable i 

There is something idyllic in this episode. Here in ' 
em New York was realized, simply and naturally, the 
life of a married pair, as was once described by Michelet, i 
the common interests and activities should embrace not 
the home circle, but also professional life. It is the s 
ideal of manv a sweet-natured woman, hitherto attained 
often when the husband is a clergyman than when he is a 
sician, but in America is Sy no means unknown in the 1 
case. By Mrs. Gleason's happy career, the complex ex 
ment in life which was being made by the first group of w< 
physicians was enriched by a special and, on some acco 
peculiarly interesting type. 

The two remaining women of the group were also mai 
and the husband of one, Mrs. Thomas, was also a physic 
She and her sister, Mrs. Longshore, both graduated in 
first class sent out from the Woman's Medical College of I 

^Fenooal letter. 

fTo them were bora two children, a son who died in early chtldlio 
daughter who lived to grow up and became educated as a ph^dan. 

% Opt of 1S9 gnuloates of the Philadelphia College whose sutus m 
ported in iSSi, S^ were married women. The total number o£ grmdtu 
tbattiae WIS 176^ (Rachel Sodley, **The CoUege Stocy," Commtnc 



*^J b i i ,^ Dr. LoDgshofe was the first woman to settle in 
^ y*^a cc IB this citjr, and her sign was regarded as a mon- 
^^'H im airiositjr, collecting street idlers for its perusal. On 
^^^ and perhaps more than one^ occasion, a druggist refused . 
? vl a nrcacription sicned by the "^ female doctor,*' and took 
hlntdt to order her home ** to look after her house 
dam her husband's stockings.'*! But Dr. Longshore 
Ijr etfaUished herself in a lucrative practice. Mrs. 
. the sister, first began to study medicine privately, 
bosbandy a practitioner in Indiana. For four years, 
carin{( for a family of young children, Mrs. Thomas 
• --J medicine ** at all -odd minutes ; and at last, upon hear- 
ts that a medical college had been opened for women in 
*||ihdelphia, she made a grand final effort to secure its 
ymtagesL S^ sewed steadily until she had provided her 
"■felly with clothes for six months in advance, and then 
tteted for the East. Returning with her coveted diploma. 
Mm ThooMtt began to practice medicine with her husband at 
Fort Wayne, and continued to do so until her death about a 
ycv ago (18S9). During eight years she held the position of 
citf physician, and for twelve years was physician to a home 
for friendless girls. 
y The married women physicians of the West, with protcctlDn 
aad qrmpathy at home, and encountering abroad only i^ ^ 
aatnred laxity of prejudice, were in a favored position ^ ..- 
pared with their colleagues in Philadelphia, Boston, and N\ v.* 
York. At the time that the tiny New York infirmary was 
opened (iSs?) ^he name of ^ woman physician " had become 
m by«word of reproach, from its usurpation by a noto* 
^ -^nu abortionist, *' Madame " Restell. So wide a stain could 
diffused over innocent persons by a single evil reputa- 
that it was diflScult for Drs. Blackwell and Zakzrewska 
so obtain lodgings or office room ; their applications were 
fcfosed on the ground that their business must be disreputable. 
Scaicelj more than fifty years had elapsed since the practice of 
obetetncs at least was entirely in the hands of women : yet the 
acooitectioD of this had so completely faded awajr, that the 
sNMBen who now renewed the ancient claim to minister to the 
she physical necessities of their sex, were treated as repro- 

^TtotwtctfktffidoAttt. Tbe fint medial cIms that ever gfidaatad 
in FkBulriiikii about a century before oooiUted of a siagle nwabcr. 
QriK a granp of briuoden collected. 10 bear the diicnsskia. wbkh 


bates.^ The little group of women who neve 
to face thu opprobrium, contained collectifi 
the elemeott necessary for success, although in 
ber of the group were these united. Instincci' 
. for the science of life, instinctive predilectioo 
practice, enlightened resolve to elevate the inteltec 
and enlarge uie practical opportunities of women 
of progressive philanthropy, — personal interest 
suits of the nearest friend, the husband; liten 
exceptional among the uncultivated physicians of 
the tradition of centuries in the discipline of th 
European midwife, — all these were representatin 
tainly none could have been spared. What was 
spicuously lacking was systematic education, which i 
enabled the medical students to judge more critio 
medical education which was offered them. How 
without adequate intellectual preparation, there was i 
representation of interests which sufficiently showed 
enterprise was no isolated eccentricity, but sprang fr 
widely ramifying in the permanent nature of things, ai 
changing circumstances of the day. 

This fourth period in the history of women physit 
which belong the early careers of the pioneers in th 
ment, must nevertheless be considered as a sort of pre- 
episode, analogous in many respects to that of the entir 
ican profession before the Revolutionary War. And \ 
withstanding, and indeed a good deal because dui 
epoch some women were admitted to inferior or ^in 
schools, already established, and because other medical 
were founded exclusively for them. The Philadelphia 
owed its foundation to the most generous impuls 
knowledge and pecuniary resources were both inadequ 
the active and bitter opposition of the medical profe 
the city was an almost insuperable obstacle in the 
securing efficient assistance for instruction. The ide; 
school seems to have originated with Dr. Bartholomew 
a poor schoolmaster, who had been educated by an eld 

* " To be addreised in public at doctor,** writes Dr. Zakzrewi 
ptinfol, for all beads would tura to look at the wocxun that ttig 
(PtrMoal letter.) «* Womeii.'' taid Dr. BlackweU at thit time. «*< 
anematoof potitioo, standing alone in medicine,— often opposed < 
by tba protcwioii, not acknowledged bv tociety, and teparated 
imal purtults aad interestt of women.— (" An Appeal in behi 
Msdioa Ednotfioa of Women." New York: 1S56). 


*to vlooi lie looked op with veneration ; and he thought that 
^airiM OQglit to nave a chance of studjring medicine, if 

A Um ffiends were collected, the plan was matured, the 

^kilter aeciired, and the ai opened for the reception of 

$rt i iti ID iS5a . Dorinj the four years the yearly sessions 

y apt last OEKMre than foik. ocns ; but in the fifth annual cata- 

jy>e the trustees annoui vd with pride an extension of the 

ff^W to five and a half ;hs, ana claimed that this was the 

^^■at-ooarse of instmciion adopted by any medical college 

* tte United States. Tl further, and with evident sincerity, 

^^diMl that the curria n of study was fully equal to that 

^ ^ay othemedical coU 

Yhe iastmctton consi d of rambling lectures, given by 

lea of good intenti imperfect fitness, to women 

wevioos education \ them utterly unprepared to 

, -^ a learned professioii ana many of whom were really, and 

"^ tte oidiaary sense, illii ate. As fast as possible the bright- 

""^ "^lentrwere chosen, ai'ter graduation, to fill places in the 

; and among these one, Emmeline Cleveland, having 

^ a real education, at least for obstetrics, in Europe, 

to Philadelphia to become a really effective teacher. 

Iwdve years scarcely any opportunity existed for the stu- 

of the coUese to see sick people, an anomaly which 

at the time have been considered more outrageous in 

other Gountrv than the United States. As late as 1859, 

after tne foundation of the college, the Philadelphia 

Medical Society passed resolutions of excommunication 

every physician who should teach in the school, every 

#lio should graduate from it, and everybody else who 

even consult with such teachers. 

Ae tiny college been a virulent pest-house, the cordon 

oonld not have been more rigidly drawn around it. 

the trustees claimed that their graduates rapidly 

^ _- medical practice, at least to the extent of a thousand 

^^Dsn a year ; and that applications were frequently received 

^■1 coamnnities in different parts of the country, requesting 

^woosea physicians be sent to settle among them.t In 1857 

>>I itodents had matriculated at the college. 

la 1859 Elisabeth Black well estimated that about 300 women 

~ to ^ graduate '* somewhere in medicine, supposing 

^ Pttioiul letter of aleoe.^^. L. FmmlU 
\ Aasoal CatAlopie, i8S4- 

• > m MEDICINS. J 

that thdr studies had really ** qualified them to begin pncd 
and that bjr gaining experience in practice itself mj wo 
gradually work their way to success." ^ It it not until tl 
leave college, and attempt their work alone and unaidedi t 
they realize how utterly insufficient their education ii 
eniU>le them to acquire and support the standing of a ph 
cian. Many of them, discouraged, having 9ent all d 
money, abandon the profession ; a few gain a litlk pncd 
knowledge^ and struggle into a second-rate position.'' 

This view of the realities of the situation is in cnrioos c 
trast with the cheerful optimism of the lenders of the Fk 
delphia School These did indeed walk by faith,— and 
numerous addresses of Ann Preston, who for many yean ^ 
its guiding spirit, breathe a spirit of moral enthusiasm wkl 
as the final result proved, really did manage to compensate 
the intellectual inadequacy. Dr. Preston seems to have b 
thoroughly convinced, that if the moral behavior dF thei 
physicians were kept irreproachable, intellectual difficnll 
would take care of themselves, or be solved by an over-mi 

The fifth period for women physicians began with the foni 
ing of hospitals, where they could obtain clinical training, t 

* '* Eveiy woman will be narrowly watched and severelv criticised bsd 
she is a woman. If she bear not herself wisely and wdl, many wiU ii 
for her sake. Gentleness of manner, the adornment of a quiet spirit, U 

important to the physician as the woman I too have fdt the he 

and the aspirations after a fuller and more satisfying life, which have aii 

in the sous of some of you The office of healing is Qtfiill 

• • • . Your business is, not ao war with words, but to make good ] 

position by deeds of healing Probity, simplicity, modesty, K 

patience, beoerolence, prudence, — are needed alike by the woman aikl 
physician. AU the brave, struggling women, who, in various wiJk 
life, are laboring for small compensations, will be benefited by a movea 
which opens to women another department of remunerative and hoooii 

C<mtiast with these modoi>t statements of the gentle Philadelphia Qoaks 
the aggressive self-consciousness of the emancipated French woman, ' 
rushes Into the arena, with a little red flag waving in eveqr senteaoa: 
not lectrioes. k nos lecteurs. i nos collab<^teurs, i nos amis cobniis il 
connus, k toos cenz qui s*interessent k notre entreprise. SaUit ! • • • 
Nous voyons tons les jours des professeurs qui ont etudi^ dans leurs moio 
details, toos les £tres organises oui forment la s^rie zoologiquc, si 
aembhmt ignorer absolument ce qu est cet etre qui tient tant de plaot i 
llittmaait^ la femme. Faisons-nous connattre, et quand ils sanroot €t 
nous valoos. Us nous apprecieront comme nous le meritons."— MoM* 
Renooa, Xeptu SeUuHfyui dts femmts, Paris, Mai, zS8S. 

The JUpm is already extinguished after a year's existence. The eol 
sur f hw and p ro speii alter forty years of struggle. . . 


te Kpve fome substance to the medical education they had 
.^.^ itoeived in mere outline. The oldest of these institutions is 
^ Nev York Infirmaiy, chartered, as has been said, in 1854 as 
> fapciary,— opened with an indoor department in 1S57, 
^ue Dfm. Blickwclland 2^kzrewska as attending physicians. 
^ binury was fortunate in securing several eminent New 
l^plqfsictant as consultants, Dr. Willard Parker, Dr. Kissam, 
Ot lines B. Wood, Dr. Stephen Smith, Dr. Elisha Harris. 
^nedical profession in New York never took the trouble to 
^Piuse opposition and pronounce the decrees of ostracism 
1^ Ihindered in Philadelphia ; its attitude was rather that of 
"'ileraioe than active hostility. 

'(0«i8f7 until 1865, the indoor department of the Infir- 

**7 was lioiited to a single ward for poor lying-in women« 

^ vluch contained but twelve beds. But in the dispensary, 

^^^Mtboutand patients a year were treated, and tlie young 

jfyifc ians living in the hospital also visited the sick poor at 

"^ own homes. The persevering efforts of the Blackwells, 

^P ^Bo t tt, finally succeeded in opening one medical institution 

2*lbe city to their students, the great Demilt dispensary. As 

^^as iMiy' the succession of women students who annually 

'^^liied forward to fill the two vacancies at the Infirmary 

V^tiettly waited in the clinic rooms of Demilt. and there gleaned 

^lay crambs of experience and information.* These, together 

^'Vk the practical experience gained in the obstetrical ward 

I ^ llieoitt*practice of the Infirmary, afforded the first and for 

' tkNig dme the only opportunity for clinical instruction open to 

^OBies students in America. 

In 1S65, a medical college was added to the Infirmary; a 
new building was purchased for the hospital, which became 
colarfed Co the capacity of 35 beds. For the first time it then 
began to receive private patients, chiefly from among self-sup* 
porting women of limited income, to hundreds of whom the 
r«ioqrcci of the Infirmary has proved invaluable. Their 
psy, though modest, has contributed materially to the re* 
floorccs 01 the hospital for the treatment of entirely indigent 


The ceport for 1869 shows a hospital staff of : Resident 

* Tk« €Bkbnu4 Dr. Carenua. who for OMoy ycirt held a cUoic for heart 

al tho DtmiU, grnv* valiiabk lostmctioo 10 tht 

f This ina oit tk a (tor k w ooc) w tflcctod duriag tht wridcotihlp of 
BlE. BliiMwrh CaAhr, who \m cotribmod iwitaisly to tho boildi^g op of 


pbystciaiif i ; internes, 3 ; visiting phyiiciMi^ j ; cnocb 
physicians, 3; out-visiting physician, 1. 

Total number . in*paiients, 34a ; Total number dkpensi 
patients, 4835 ; Total number patients treated ac bome^ 768. 

The Wbmaii's Hospital at Philadelphia was founded in tl 
during the excitements of the great Civil War. It « as the 01 
gromn of a aingularly i>rutal incident In i86s tbe reaoun 
- of the college became entirely exhausted ; there was not cnou 
money in the treasury to hire lecture rooms, and it was idi 
tantly decided that thtf lecture course must be suspended. F 
mission, however, had been obtained for the students to visit I 
wards at the Bleckley almshouse, and thither they went one 
the tiny escort of Dr. Ann Preston. On one occasion, in oh 
to effectually disconcert the women students, one of tbe you 
men suddenly introduced into the room a male patient p 
fectly nude. The insult stung the friends of the ooUege 
renewed exertions, which were not relaxed until funds were c 
lected sufficient to purchase a house in which might be open 
a hospital where women could obtain clinical instruction 
themselves. A lecture room was rented in this house, a 
lectures were resumed in the fall of 1862. From this date^ 1 
obstetrical chair of the college, at least, was fairly supplied w 
clinical material. The double institution, college and hospil 
was first lifted out of its period of depressing struggle, wh< 
at the death of its generous president, the Hon. Wm. S. Pier 
it received a bequest of $100,000. With this, a really beauti 
buildin|( was erected for the use of the college. 

Adjoming the college, soon sprang up a separate building! 
a general hospital, which *has, however, always been predoi 
nantly gynaecological. Later was added a special maten 
pavilion. The report of 1889 reads as follows : 

Hospital staff : Resident physicians, i ; internes, 6 ; vii 
-- ing physicians, 6; district physicians, 12; in-patients, 583;* d 
pensary patients, 6365 ; patients treated at home, 695. 

The woman's hospital in Boston, the New England Hospi 
for Women and Children, was also founded during the war, a 
incorporated in 1862. The women who engaged in it w< 
all heavily burdened by the great public anxieties of the tin 
But the very nature of these anxieties, the keen interest arous 
in hospital work and in nursing organizational, helped to din 
attention to the women's hospitals. In New York, the & 
meeting to consider the organization of nursing for the an 

* This is an increase of 100 patients orer the preceding year. 




wm bdd ia the parlon of the Infirmary, and at the sttgg^ttkm 
of Efiiabeth BlackwdL Thi% little meeting was the f erm from 
lAicb aobaeqoently developed the splendid organuation of 
the Saaitary Commission. 

Dn Zakarewsk^ was invited by the founders of the New 
El|ind Hospital to preside over its organization ; * and 
ID do thi% she left the Female Medical School, with which 
dissatisfaction was beginning to be felt Dr. Zak- 
received powerful assistance for the work from one 
of the i^radoates of the school, Lu£y Sewall, descendant of 
along line of Puritan ancestors. This young lady seemed 
•o have been the first girl of fortune and family to study 
in the United States. Her romantic and enthu- 
friendship formed for Dr. 2Uksrewska, while yet 
popilp kd the young Boston girl to devote her life, her for- 
tnac; aisd the influence she could command from a wide circle 
of friepd% to building up the hospital, where she might have 
thcjprivilege of working with her. 

Tbis dement of ardent personal friendship and discipleship 
is rarely lacking in woman's work, from the day — or before 
H— that Fabiola followed St. Jerome to the desert, there to 
botld the first hospital of the Roman Empire. 

Other pupils of the rudimentary Gregory school also felt 
the magnetism of Dr. 2Ukzrewska's personal influence, and 
entered a charmed circle, banded together for life, for the 
4lefense of the hospital, — Anita Tyng, Helen Morton, Susan 
Diflsock, the lovely and brilliant girl whose tragic death in the 
shipwreck of the ScAU/er^ in 1875, deprived the women physi* 
csans of America of their first sur^;eon. Dr. Morton spent 
several arduous years in the Pans Maternity, where she 
became chief assistant in order to fit herself for the medical 
practice at home in which she has so well succeeded. Dr. 
Dimock went to Zurich, and was the first American girl to 
graduate from its medical schooL In the three brief years 
that she was reudent physician at the New England Hospiul, 
she exhibited a degree of surgical ability that promised a bril* 
liaat professional career. The three surgical cases published 
bf her in the New York Jkrdum/ Ra^rd (see Biblic^raphical 
List) are of real importance and originality.f 

la tht dMplcr m** Wonca ia Hotpiub," ia this volame. Mrs. Edaih 
gifas tht dccaQs of tht carl/ fonaatioa of Uw New EafUad Hospi* 

t**Sktwisss fmk sad fkUili as if ick <|Uilirki had atrcr bccapio* 



The New England Hospital, like its sister institutions il 
New York and Philadelphia, outgrew, and more rapidly than 
they, its early narcow limits in Pleasant Street, and in 1873 
the present beautiful little building was erected in ihe suburbl 
of Boston. The work was steadily enlarged, year by year. 
The report for 18S9 shows : 

Hospital staff : Resident physician, i ; advisory physicians, 
' % ; visiting physicians, 3 ; visiting surgeons, 3 ; internes, 6. 
, In-paiients for year, 376 ; Dispensary patients, 3175. 

In 1865, a fourth hospital for women and children wa&s 
organized in Chicago, "at the request and by the earnciL^ 
efforts of Dr. Mary H. Thompson, the pioneer woman physi — 
cian in the city. Opened just at the close of the war, many oB 
those to wliom it afforded shelter, nursing, and medical attend — 
. ance were soldiers' wives, widows, and children, and woniei=3 
whose husbands had deserted them in hours of greatest need^ 
There came from the South refugees both white and colored." "" 
Thus in the West as in the East, we find repeated for th- 
women physicians of the nineteenth century the expeneno;= 
of the men of the eighteenth ; it was amidst the exigencies /-^ — 
a great war that their opportunities opened, their spher:^ 
enlarged, and they " emerged from obscurity " into the respoi=: 
sibililies of recognized public function. 

In 1871, just as money had been collected to purchase 
better house and lot for the small hospital, the great t)^^ 
occurred; and when after it, "the remnants were gather^^ 

together, they were found to consist of one or two helple -__ 

patients, two housemaids, a nurse, a pair of blankets, two p^'^ 

flou'cr-like beauty, a peculiar softness and elegance of appearance and m^^" 
ner. - I have wondered whether she did rial reicmble Angelica Kaufai^^^ 
Underneath th» softness, however, tay a decision or purpose, a Piiriian a^^ 
lerily of character that made JKcIt (elt, lhoii£h unseen. " Sbe ruled the hi 
pital like a litlJe Napnleon." laid a lady who had l>een Iherc .... 8c 
itie surgical talents and (ur^cal training: ot Dr. Oimock are certainly U ■ 
present dale (1S7S). exceptional among women. It ison thir •'■—"■"• >■ 
oui loss ia irreparable, for at this moment there seems to tie □' 
her place. Many batlles have been lost from such a cause. Hut allhon 
ours be ullimatel/ won, we would not. if wc could, grieve less loyally for U 
girl, so brilliant and so geniic, *o sinRle of purpose and so wide of aim, wfc- ^^^ 
life had been ibui ruthlessly uprooted and thrown upon (be waves at the f*^^^ 
moment il touched upon fniiliOQ-"— M. P. Jacobi in A'/w Yfrt Mfd^ '^ 
Jittord. 18J5. 

Dr. Dimock. like so many of the early gyruecoIOKlcal SI 
was a Souihemer, bom ir "— ■■ <" — '— 

□ North CaroUoa. 
* NuKtecnib Annual Report Clika(o HociNtal for Won 


and a bit of carpet" * The> hospital '' remnant/' bow 
rr, profited with others by the outburst of energy which so 
xqiidl J repaired misfortune and rebuilt the city. In 187 1, a 
Wilding was purchased by the Relief and Aid Society, for 
^5^000^ and given to the hospital, on conditions, one of which 
was that & should annually care for twenty-five patients free 
of charge. 

Daring the first nineteen years of its existence, up to 1854, 
over 15,000 patients had been cared for by the hospital, of 
which 4774 were house patients, 9157 were treated in the 
di^^ensary, and 1404 attended at home. The report of the 
hospital for 1888 gives a summary for four years.f There is 
a hospital staff, comprising attending physicians, 5; patholo- 
psl; i; internes, 5. Annual average from four years summary: 
I»-patientSy ^4; dispensary, 806; visited at home, 138. 

The fifth woman's hospital was opened in San Francisco in 
1S759 under the name of the Pacific Dispensary, by Dr. Char- 
loiXe Blake Brown and Dr. Annette Buckle, both ^aduates of 
the Philadelphia school During the first year, it contained 
bat .six beds. To-day, after fifteen years' untiring work, the 
enlisted sympathies of generous friends have developed it to a 
hospital for 110 beds, to which sick children are admitted 
grat^toiuly, and adult female patients on payment of a small 
diarge:. It is under the care of six attending physicians, whOL^ 
serve in rotation. 

Finally, in distant Minneapolis, a sixth hospital has spumg 
«p in 1882. At its latest report, only 193 patients had been 
received during the year. But the history of its predecessors, 
and the irresistible Western energy of its friends, predict 
for this a growth perhaps even more rapid than that possible 
IB cities in the East. 

It is worth while to summarize the actual condition of these 
nx hospitals in a tabulated form : 

f To the fixedness and honesty of porpose of Dr. Mary H. Thompson* 
wij be aedstcd theM satisfactory results of nineteen years* work. They 
■on a devodoo and self-sacrifioe on her part that few can estimate."— 
MaSfmitfwumtUfrmm 1S84 U x888. 





DATS or 




MO* Olf 9tA9w» 





New Yoik lofim- 






1 out physiduk 




Womao*t HoftpiuL 



6 internes. 
la district. 




NewEoglaad Hot- 



tf advisory. 
6 internes. 




Woroaa't Hospiul, 



So beds 

3 internes. 
1 pethol^sicaL 

(pverMs of col- 
lective lepeit 



Hospital for Sick 
Children and Wo- 
men, San Fran- 



6 attendinf . 
a internes. 

Northwestern Hos- 
pital, Minneapolis. 


(report tor sttg) 

Thus, total number of women physicians engaged in six 1 
pitals, 94; number renewed annually, 32; annual nun 
indoor patients, 1828; annual number of dispensary patie 
15,171; annual number patients treated at homeyi6oi;t 
number patients, 18,600. 

This represents Ihe growth since 1857, when the only ha 
tal conducted by women, in this country, was the lying-in w 
of the New York Infirmary, containing twelve beds. 

The foundation of these hospitals effected the transition 
women physicians from the pre-medical period, when med 
education was something attempted but not effected, t 
truly medical epoch, when women could really have an 
portunity to engage in actual medical work. Correlative!/ 
theoretic education began to improve. In Boston, the Fen 
Medical College was happily extinguished as an independ 
institution. In Philadelphia, the Faculty gradually strugj 
free of its inefficient or objectionable members, utilized 
legacy of $100,000 to fully equip its beautiful college buildi 
with amphitheatres, lecture rooms, and even embryo labon 
ries, museums, and libraries, — enlarged its corps of instruct 
until they numbered twenty-three, instead of the original 1 

• * 


ereiiy though more timidljTf begin to en* 

something like a rigid discipline among its students, in 

to conditions of admission, examination, graduation, 

tcnns of study. In i8fl^,Lawson Tait, the famous English 

described the college building as ^ being very large - 
splendidly appointed. Last year twenty-six d^rees of 
of medicine were granted by the Faculty, and from the 
pcrasal of the curriculum, as well as from conversation with 
e of the graduates, and from discussion with both the friends 
opponents of the school, I am quite satisfied that its grad* 
!s are quite as carefully trained as those in any other medi- 
cal scfaooL When I tell you that last winter 13s students ma* 
tiicnlated in this school, that the amphitheatre in the hospital 
is laise enough to seat 300 persons, and that tytty year about 
4000 patients pass through this amphitheatre in the college din- 
I shall have said enough to prove to you that in the United 
the practice of medicine by women has become an ac* 

I9 New York, after much hesiution, a charter was obtained 
in i86j for the establishment of a medical college in connec- - 
tioo with the Infirmary. ^ This step was taken reluctantly, 
hecause the desire of the trustees of the Infirmary, of Drs. 
Elisabeth and Emily Blackwell, was not to found another med* 
ical school, but to secure the admission of women to the classes. 
for instruction already organized in connection with the medi- 
cal charities of the city, and to one at least of the New York 
■cdiril colleges. . . . The demand of women for a medical 
odacation had resulted in the founding of small colleges in 
different places, all, with the exception of the Philadelphia 
School, limited to the narrow and cheap standard of le^al 
.soqnirements, and producing equally cheap and narrow results 
ia the petty standard of medical education they were establish* 
mg women students.t Application was made to the 
of Physicians and Surgeons for advice, and the case 
laid before the Faculty. It was stated that a sufficient 
of women were studying medicine to show that there 
a demsnd for instruction that must be satisfied ; that the 

^MtJkai Mnm» iSSs. Reprint of addrew At BinBinglum by Lm 

nblfahatnt of tach icbooU, profcMiof to further tbo odocation 
km oootiaoed to be the gmtett baoe to the movemeat for their 
Isctfcm. So Ute e« the corrent year (1890), a Udy writes (worn 
: ** The oolleKe elrcedy ia em t en c e It ooe of the ospeidQashli 
^acsnfidlag pubUc" 


Standard of education was so low that incompetent women we 
in possession of degrees, while competent women could n 
obtain the thorough instruction they desired, and those wl 
were fitted to do good work had to contend, not onlj again 
popular and unjustified prejudice, but against the iustifi< 
prejudices of those who saw the slipshod work of ignora 
graduates from women's medical colleges.**^ The trustees pi 
posed to the College of Physicians and Surgeons, the old< 
and most reputable in New York, that they receive a limit 
number of female students on scholarships established by t 
Infirmary, to the amount of $2000 a year. This propositi 
was rejected, and the opinion expressed, in no unfriendly spii 
that the ends proposed were only to be obtained by ettablu 
ing an independent school for women in connection with t 

The establishment of such a school called for money. — ^l 
the money was forthcoming. A new building was purchas 
for the hospital ; the old one, which had done such modest I 
effective work, was surrendered to the use of the college, a 
a prospectus issued announcing the requirements of the lattt 
In this prospectus a bold attempt, was made to outline a schet 
of education, which should not only satisfy the conventioi 
existing standard, but improve upon this. It was realized, ai 
oddly enough, for the first time, that the best way to comp< 
sate the enormous disadvantages under which women ph) 
clans must enter upon their work, was to prepare them foi 
with peculiar thoroughness. Women students were aim 
universally deficient in preliminary intellectual training : th 
lesser physical strength rendered a cramming system moreofi 
dangerous to health, and more ineffective as a means of prep 
ation ; and the prejudices to be encountered in their medi 
career would subject them not only to just, but also to abund 
unfair criticism. Instead, therefore, of the senseless oific 
system which then everywhere prevailed, it was proposed 
establish a three years graded course, with detailed laborati 
work during the first years, and detailed clinical work duri 
the last. A chair of hygiene was established for the first ti 
in America, and an independent board of examiners n 
appointed consisting of professors from the dififerent c 
schools. By this means the college voluntarily submiti 
itself to the external criticism of the highest local authc 

* Memorial of Trustees of Women's Medioa CoUegje of N. V, lafim 



When the lofirmarjr put forth this protpectuf, drawn 
-^ «p bjr the Dn. Bbckwdl, no coll^ in the country required 
Mch a coofm: it was deemed Quixotic by manjr medical 
friend^ and leveral of its features were for a time post* 
poned. The independent board of examinen, however, was 
established from the beginning and, little by little, the other 
parts of the scheme were realised* In 1S76, the three years 
gndcd coarse, at first optional, was made obh'gatory. At 
tUs time no coUece but Harvard had uken this step. The 
wax vcar the dass Ml off one-third,^-a curious commentary on 
the oiaiacter or drcumstances of the students.* In 1881, the 
€olle|e year was len^ened to eight months, thus abandoning 
the tine-hooored division of a winter and spring course, the 
latter comparable to the Cathoh'c works of supererogation, and 
equally neglected. At the same time entrance examinations 
were estaldished. These moderate improvements upon the 
waive barbarism of existing customs again reduced the 
cliiset ooe*half. When people first began to think of educat* 
lag women in medicine, a general dread seemed to exist that, 
* if any tests of capacity were applied, all women would be ex* 
eluded. The profound skepticism felt about women's abilities^ 
was thus as much manifest in the action of the friends to their 
education as in that of iu opponents. But by 18S2, the friends 
dared to ~call upon those who believe in the higher education 
of women, to help to set the highest possible standard for their 
medical education ; and upon those who do not believe in such 
higher education to help in making such requirements as shall 
turn aside the incompetent, — not by an exercise of arbitrary 
power, but by a demonstration of incapacity, which is the only 
logical, manl/ reason for refusing to allow women to pursue an 
honorable calling in an honorable way." t 
L^ '**A career is open to women in the medical profession, a 
career in which the^ may earn a livelihood ; a career in which 
they may do missionary work among the poor of our own 
country, and among their own sex in foreign lands ; a career 
I that is practical, that is useful, that is scientific* | 

Even when a theoretic demand is not entirely realised in the 
actual facu of the case, iu distinct enunciation remains a great 
achievement; and, in an almost mysterious way, constantly 

^TteMHMtUsf iMid kspptMd at Hsnraid, vhta ll laiiid Its itsadwtf 

el fW|QiraBcaCi. 

t Moaorial ThiMsai, Ue. 4U. 



tends to effect its own ultimate realization. An 
been here. 

During the current year, the college has emerg 
original chrysalis condition within [he inconvcnici 
of a private house building, and entered upon a n< 
existence in a suitable building especially erected fi 
The money for this building was collected from 
scriptions, by the indefatigable exertions of the fr 
college, and may be said to some cxtentto measure 
of interest in the medical education oF women, wh 
come diffused through the community. 

In the West, two medical schools for women wen 
the same year, i86g; in Chicago a separate wome 
in Michigan the medical department of the State \ 

The State University was founded and control 
Stale Legislature. On this account, in accordai 
principle generally recognized in the West, th( 
both sexes are equally eligible to its schools, as b< 
children of the citizens who support the schools b 
taxation.* The application of this simple princ 
medical school at once solved the question of " ■ 
education of the sexes," which had been such a bu( 
East. The dilGculties which had elsewhere been co 
insolvable, were arranged in the simplest manner, 
to all subjects liable to create embarrassment, I 
before a mixed audience of young students, the 1« 
duplicated, and delivered to the male and fema 
separately. These was thus a double course for 
gynaecology, and some sections of internal medicin 
«ry. The lectures, lecturers, and subsequent exan 
the students were, however, identical, and the elini 

The value to women of this State recognition, an 
tunity to study at a university school, was immei: 
were numerousdisadvantagesdue to the youth and u 
character of the school, and still more to its control b 
legislature, unversed in the requirements of learned ] 
Yet there was promise of indefinite growth in the 
in all the development of the future, women might ho 

At first the course of instruction was limited to tn 
has lately been extended to three ; though it si 
serious defect of demanding no thesis from siuden 

■^* WOMAN'S woj^r m America, 

5^^t£^n of graduation. Clinical instruction has been necessarily 
"**0 equate in a small country town. It has been lately ])ro- 
to transfer this part of the curriculum to Detroit, where 

bospiub furnish clinical material in abundance. 

1 «i Chicago, application to admit women was made in i86^ to 
~ Rush CollM;e, where Emily Blackwell had studied dunng 

vinier of i^i. The appeal was refused. 
Kk) 18M, application was made at a rival school, the Chicago 
College, and was accepted. For a year female stu* 
ts attaided the lectures and clinics in company with younsr 
**The women/' observes a Chicago writer, ''were au 
'MBI^; bat the men students were at first embarrassed and 
^■S^sTwards rode. The mixed classes were therefore abandoned, 
the woman's movement, being essentially just and correct," 
not abandoned, but led to the founding of a special school 
*^*_ women in 1869. 

pioneer woman physician in Chicago was Dr. Mary H. 

ipaoo, who^ having graduated at Philadelphia, and spent 

as interne at the New York Infirmary, settled in the 

St in tS63. At this period she was often introduced as a 

5^riosity. Western curiosity, however, is rarely ill-natured, and 

itt this case was spon exchanged for respect and a substantial 

*ri*ipathy, which enabled Dr. Thompson to establish the Hos- 

*^Pi<W for Women and Children. In 1869, when the medical 

^^ .. was opened for women, its students found in this little 
"2^pita] their first opportunities for clinical instruction. From 
^'^ till 1877, the collegiate course was conducted in a " small 
{^"Q -story building containing a dissecting room and one little 
"^^ure room furnished with two dozen chairs, a table, a por- 
^^^^ blackboard, and a skeleton. There were scarcely any 
"^^ns for practical demonstration in the lectures, there was no 
J?^^ to procure them." f Worse than all, several among 
^^^<e who had consented to teach the students seemed, 
^^^fely enough, to have done all they could to discourage 
|*J5^ ** One lecturer only delivered two lectures in the entire 
I*'*'^ and then took up part of the time in dwelling upon the 
/^^^r uselessness of teaching women.' The professor of sur- 
9?y went on the staff with great reluctance, and remarked m 
^ introductory lecture that he did not believe in female 

ffoa Cbicago io B^ttm Mtd. mmd Smrg, Jmmml, July, ll?^ 
• ^** HiKory ol CompelitiYc giatnlnatinnt for tb« WoAan't ICodical Col* 
JS^^GUa^o." RMd bddra its AluflMMr AModatte. April I, Itl9b by 

of iweniy members, with eight lecturers and assistant! 
were 90 studeriis in the current year, and it was ai in twenty years had been gr/idiiated 242 pupils. 

In i86j, the same year in which Dr. Thompson s 
Chicago.anolhergraduateof the Philadelphia school p 
still further west, and tried to establish herself in San f 
But this pioneer enterprise tailed. In iSjs, Mrs. ' 
Blake Brown applied to be admitted to the medical ci 
San Francisco, but being refused, went to Philadelphia 
In 1874 Mrs. Lucy VVanzer applied at the Toland 
School. This had been founded by a generous m 
who presented it to the Slate University, — and as the J 
provide for the admission of both men and women to 
schools, the regents were compelled to receive Mrs. 
who thus was the first woman to graduate in medicii 
Pacific Coast. In 1875 ''''^ ''*'^' school, the Coopei 
College, also opened its doors to women, Mrs. Alice 
being the first candidate. Both colleges now fret 
women, and there are about half a doien in each class 

Three of the ladles at present practicing in San 1 
are, however, graduates of Paris, f 

Two other medical schools, both in Western New Y 
for several years admitted women : the school of the 
University, and the school at llufTalo. 

Finally, in 1883, a fourth woman's school was o 
Baltimore, and has connected with it a hospital, whii 

\% llcdkal CoOfife of Pennsylvmnia, report in 1890^ 


*t Medical CoUegeb N. Y. Infirmary; report in 1890, . 


*a Medical CdUege, Chicago^ report in 1890^ 90 ftu* 

Univcrntj of California, report in 1890, 8 female atndenta 
«rt of total of aj. 

Cooper College^ San FranciKO^ report in 1890^ 18 women 
^mx of total of 167. 

Frmu Ann Arbor I have onlj obtained the list of female 

The total number of graduates from the Philadelphia School, 
vlw have been enrolled among the alumns, is 560. 

The total number of graduates of the New York School is 135. : 

Dwing the current year, a movement has been inaugurated 
•a obuin admission for women to the medical school of the 
Johns Hopkins University for the purpose of advanced study .^ 

Future advance for the education of women in medicme 
^ wML be in the line of their admission to the schools where the 
highest standard of education is maintained ; and to such 
ngliation of their own schools with universities, as may bring 
them under the influence of university discipline. There is 
•o flsanner of doubt that« with a few unimportant restrictions;' 
cp-edncation in medicine is essential to the real and permanent 
t pc ccn of women in medicine. Isolated groups of women 
cannot maintain the same intellectual standards as are established 
and maintaii^ by men. The claim of ability to learn, to fol- 
hiWp to apply knowledge, to even do honest original work among 
the innumerable details of modern science, does not imply a ^ 

^ ** The adoettMio of the college it a conquered standpoint : whatremalttsb 

the poetoCollcgUte cducition equiUly enty of access to women. To 

I tbe ficnt labormtorics and the zjctax pfofcseorsbips ol the two or three 

which fhre adequate pott-graduate inttroctioo. would be foolish ia 

It li 

It Is little less than silly to suppose that seriously mladad 
and wooKO could not brave the associations of the Iccturs room without 
of isufopriety. What possible reason can Columbia CoUegt. or 
Uaiverstty. or the Johns Hopkins urge fornol throwing open their 
pi fiwliisle courses to women ? What more graceful act couU be unagined 
vidi which 10 mark this memorsble year, when Vassar College celebrucs her 
of a century and when Phillipa Fawoett is four huodied marks 
of the senior wrtnglcr. than for these naiversitiea, without further 
or coaxing or bribing, to open to women tbe opportunities for 
which women coret, and which the sense of instice of men, tardy 

JuMiy. ir 

- tmn Emmimg tmi^ June 17* li^o^ 

A ^f V*^/ % A^^k^»fc^»« 

» • • «i« « 


nate that the greatest, indeed in this country an i 
resistance has been offered to woman's entrance at 
schools, while inferior and ** irregular" colleges hai 
an odd readiness to admit them. It would seem that ^ 
cational anatomy is more easily swallowed when adr 
in homoeopathic doses ! Evidently, however, for the 
ance of these irregular schooIs,f the women are not 
ble : and they only have two of their own. 

Because women require the intellectual compani< 
man, to be able to recognize the highest intellecti: 
ards, .or to attain them in some cases, and to submi 
influence in others, — it does not follow that they hav< 
ial contributions of their own to offer to the work of 

The special capacities of women as a class for de; 
sick persons are so great, that in virtue of them al 
dreds have succeeded in medical practice, though mc 
ciently endowed with intellectual or educational qual 
When these are added, when the tact, acuteness, an< 
thetic insight natural to women become properly inf 
the strength morejoften found among men, success ma 
to be assured. 

The sixth period is that of the struggle to obtain f 
physicians official recognition in the profession. Ii 
longed debate which followed, the women's cause was 
by many distinguished men, with as much warmth 
opposed by others. This debate began long before 




C 1^1^^ Member who sboald coosolt with women should for> 

te ^^ aeiDbefshipL Upon this resolution the censors declined 

I ^^pfcss an opioioB. Endorsement was» however, obtained 

''^^ a committee of the State Medical Society. The recoca* 

f if ^^' ^at io oi of this society were supposed to be mandatory on 

2^y^ couaty societies throughout the Sute. But one of these* 

'^^^of Montgomery County, under the chivalrous inspiration 

5, *^- Hiram Corson, early distinguished itself by a revolu« 

independence in this nutter. It passed a resolution 

females, if properly educated, should receive the same 

'■riajent as nules, and that it was not just to deny women 
^^••'■*»*« to male colleges, and then, after they had with great 

^ . j^iance established one for themselves, to refuse it recog- 
r^^^^^va.** I1iis resolution being brought before the State Medi* 
r^ SK)cicty in i860, a new resolution was passed, which re- 
*Qlr»«.«^ the decree of excommunication. In 1866, the State 

lu^^^y met at Wilkesbarre, and Dr. Corson, who then entered 
y^^^ists as a champion for women, moved that this motion be 
j^^^^ nded. Dr. Mowry offered a resolution declaring that the 
^^^lution in question was not intended to prevent menil>ers * 
,^^*^ consulting with ** regularly ** educated female physicians, 
gJ^^ observe the code of ethics. This latter resolution was 
^^Ijr referred for discussion to the different county societies, 
m 1867, was the subject of an elal>orate report from a 
ial committee, of which Dr. Condie was the chairman.* 
r. Cofuiie opposed the repeal of the resolution of 1S60, 
Be (he claimed) ''the present condition of female col- 
is rather worse than it was when the resolution was 
pted."* He strongly '* objected to women having schools 
heir own, where any physician, of any kind of notoriety, no 
er what his moral or professional standing, might be admit- 
to teach. We will have female practitioners. We mutt 
e whether they shall be properly educated. It cannot be 
\ibted that there are women well qualified by nature and who 
^ ^Id be thoroughly instructed as practitioners in medicine. 
^^^^ such women should be freely extended the advantages of 
^^^ leading medical colleges, — and they should graduate, if at 
«^^^,at the same schools and under the same conditions as men.** 
JP^ this recommendation, Dr. Bejl objected that there were no 
^^cans at present existing where the women could be instructed. 
^r. Coates said he had no doubt but that women were perfectly 
Competent under favorable circumstances to make good prac* 
'^*****' ' % " '■' ^ 

\^ • FkiL Mid. mmd Smrg, KtfcrUr. 1867. voL l6w 


titioners, bttt it seems to be very rarely the case that Ihey do. 
He did not believe it possible at that date to give women a 
proper medical education. ''The tendencv of female medical 
schools seems to be of the cheapening kind/* 

Dr. Condie remarked that the report [which, however closed 
with a resolution not to "recognize** the woman's college], 
begins by stating that females are competent, if properly 
educated, to practice medicine. History instructs us that the 
female mind is competent to anything the male mind has accom- 
plished. Nevertheless females oujght not to' be encouraged to 
become physicians. God never mtended them to be physi- 
cians. Dr. Atlee* urged that the policy of non-recognitiOB, if 
persisted in, should be placed absolutely on the ground of the 
status of the female colleges. *' Have not women applied year 
after year at our doors and begged to be received, yet been 
rejected ? In self-defense they had to organise their own college, 
which had now been in existence seventeen years." Dr. Attee 
then warmly defended the college on the basis of its published 
curriculum and on the reputation of such of the gentlemen as 
had dared to incur professional odium by teaching in it 

In reply to this, Dr. Maybury declared that ^ he knew some 
of his nurses who could hardly read the directions accompany- 
ing a prescription, who entered the woman's college, and 
emerged shortly after, fully equipped with their legal diploma.** 

Dr. Lee observed that the committee report and its conclud- 
ing resolution might be considered to read about as follows : 
*' Whereas in the opinion of this society, the female mind if 
capable of reaching every stage of advancement to which the 
male mind is competent : and whereas all history points oui 
examples in which females have mastered every branch of sci 
ence, art and literature : therefore^ be it resolved, that any mem 
ber of this Society who shall consult with a female physician 
shall forfeit his privileges as a member of this society.** " Th< 
resolution completely stultifies the report." 

Nevertheless the resolution was adopted, and the Count 
Medical Society, notwithstanding so many rnternal protests 
reaffirmed its former position. The doughty little ^ociet 
from Montgomery then rushed to the rescue with a countc 
resolution. Hung at its big Philadelphia neighbor like the pebbl 
of David at the face of Goliath : 

" Whereas the Woman's Medical College is properly organises 
with an intelligent and efficient corps of instructors, in posse 


^ The distingnlsbed ovariotomist, one of the earliest in the ooontiy. 

'.. 'I -n."., .r« • ."..-»-« itc^u-4j 

ito WOMAN'S waxr in America. 

mam of fDod college bailding^ tod of all the appliances neces* 
^ sary Cor aodical inttnicdoo ; tbal the students and graduates 
are incpfoacbable in habits and character, as aealous in the * 
pastttit of knowledget as intelligent and conscientious, as any of 
tbdr omIc co mp eer s ; we hold it to be illiberal and unworthy 
the bq^ character of our profession to withhold from them the 
eoartrsies awarded to male physicians.** — E. M. Corson, M.D*, 
Saoordrag Secretary* 

la sSjo^ the Montgomery County Society elected Dr. Anna 
Lakcns to memberuiip. 

la these debates the reasoning of the *'opponentS|'** was 
alwap secretly hampered br the lack of a definite standard with 
^ ^rilidi the curriculum of the condemned female schools could 
be conpared. It was perfectly true that the idea prevailed in 
theoB, tnat the real prei»aration for medical practice was to be 
^picked up** by beginning to practice; and that, when a legal - 
dqrioaui had ooce been obtained, all essential difliculties had 
reaiovedv and the graduate could at once enter upon her 

life work," with a light heart and assured prospects of sue* 
eta. But then this same idea prevailed also in the men's . 
achools, that were nevertheless recognized as perfectly ^regular,** 
aad whose graduates were readily admitted to membership. 
Oq this account, detailed argument upon a legitimate basis soon 
bcoke down, and resolutions were substituted which declared 
the views of the Supreme Being in regard to female physicians.* 

The question was now transferred to the larger area of dis- ^ 
cassion in the American Medical Association. This is a greats 
aational body, composed of delegates from all the Sute 
societies, and meeting only once a year in a session of three 
days, at different portions of the country. In 1S71, the annual > 
Bieeting was held at San Francisco, and the ** feniale physician 
question** was there subjected tea long and animated debate.f 

llie preceding year, 1S704 Dr. Hartshome of Philadelphia, 
a i^ysician of eicellent standing, and professor of physiology 
ia the Woman's Medical School, had moved such an amend- 

-^ ^ Qdu A auabtr of tbt ncmbcnol the Society defied the aatboritr of 
kt tfiohaion. and * ooosalted ** vith vooico or cveo uught them. AoMOf 
Ike latter. Dr. Hartdiorae, who hccame ao ahle profcttor of the WooMa? 
CoOcft. wm the ooly ooe who took the troobU to withdimw from the Cooatjr 
iiedical Society 00 aocoont of hb relaiioot with the womao't tchooL 

t Stw$m M^iUmi mmd Smrp€mi j0mrfml^ May »S« 1^71* 

I The matter had appareotly fint beeo bcoi^^ht forwaid In ll6S, at a mart* 
Md m Waahiagtoa. D. C, by a imohilioa otfeiad by Dr. Bovdilch of 
•an.— M K. MO. JIUttrd. 1S6S. 


Were they designed for any different spheres ? Are wt 
the law plainly imprinted on the human race, or are 
body to yield to the popular breeze of the times and sa] 
come, and therefore we will yield to it ? " 

Dr. King of Pittsburgh remarked that this matter h 
debated in the society many years, and on one occasio 
was taken, 47 on one side, 45 on the other, a majority 
two against the women. This war against women was 
the dignity of a learned society of scientific men. Pr 
boiu of California said : " I f a woman showed herself 1 
equal of a man, I cannot for the life of me see what o 
there should be to it." 

Prof. Johnson of Missouri did not understand that 
has asked admission ta this floor. The questions only 
to the admission of her teachers as delegates to the assi 
" I am wholly opposed to the admission of women he 
women have their own associations. This body will 
itself by the admission of women." 

Dr. Atleeof Philadelphia remarked that the oppoi 
female colleges generally comes from the professors 
trollers of other colleges. These women's colleges 
many ret|)ects better than many of the colleges repres 
the association ; Ihey give obstetrical and clinical ins) 
as is n^tpvtn in a majarily of the iollegis rtprtseitied ht 
By the rules of our medical association, I dare not 
with the most hiehlv educated female ohviician. and vi 


Dr. Stni^ was, by its rules, under the bao, because he 
m the habit of cousulting with women. 
Dc Storer of Boston seized the occasion in the evening 
to pronounce a discourse on his favorite subject, the 
pbysiok^gical incapacities of women. Dr. Storer had been for 
two jears a visiting surgeon to the New England Hospital ; 
but the boldness and ill success of many of his operations 
having alarmed the women physicians and the trustees, rules 
were passed subjecting future operations to the decision not 
only of the surgical, but of the medical, sta£f. Such rules were 
distinctly contrary to medical etiquette, and possibly unneces* 
sary for the purpose in view. Dr. Storer resigned, which was 
aoc altogether unreasonable, but the letters in which he pro- 
daimed his annoyance to the world exhibited less of reason 
than of irrelevant petulance. The main argument of this ; 
earlier letter was now reproduced in the memorable San 
Fimndsco debate,— although this, on the face of it, ^ was 
HOC cooceraed with the philosophy of the female physician 

** There is,*' declared the Boston orator, ^ this inherent ' 
quality in their sex, that uncertain equilibrium, that varying 
from month to month in each woman, that unfits her from 
taking those responsibilities which are to control questions 
often of life and death." 

To this Dr. Gibbons of San Francisco replied : '' If we ar^ 
to judge of this proposition by the arguments of my friend «. 
from Boston, I think it would prove conclusively the weakness 
of his side of the question. . . . It is a fact that a large majority 
of male practitioners fluctuate in their judgment, not once a 
month with the moon, but every day with the movement of the 
sun. I ask whether it be not true that one half of the male 
practitioners of medicine are not to a greater or less extent 
ander the influence of alcohol at some period of the twenty* 
four hours ? I do not say that they get drunk, but their judg- 
ment u certainly more or less afifccted." A rude rejoinder to 
a gentleman who had traveled all the way from Boston to 
Saa Francisco to make himself heard on the eternal verities of 
physiology and psychology in regard to ^ female physicians,** 
which must be rescued from the *' popular breeze ** of con* 
temporary opinion * 

Notwitlisunding the warm championship of many of the 
debaters, including the venerable president, the distinguished 
Dr. Stilly Dr. Haitshome's motion was lost, and the whole 
subject laid on the table without a vote. This, however. 


seems to have been the last occasion on which the matter iria 
discussed. For in 1876^ when the Associatioii Inet in Phtli^ 
delphia, Dr. Marion Sims being president, a woinan ddqfita 
appeared; sent by the Illinois State Medical Sodety, Dr* 
Sarah Hackett Stevenson, of Chicago. Dr. Brodie^ of Deiroia 
moved that hers, ''and all such namesi be r e f cnrc d to tha 
Judicial Council" A motion that this resolution be laid apoH 
the table was carried by a large vote, amid considerable 
applause. The president asked if this vote was intended !■ 
recognize Dr. Stevenson's right to a seat Load cries of yefl 
and cheers, emphatically answered the question.* Thos thS 
mighty question, which had disturbed the scientific calm of stf 
many medical meetings, was at last settled bv iiclimntiW 
The following year at Chicago, Dr. Bowditeh of Boatoo, beiaj 
president, congratulated the Association in his inaognnii 
address that women physicians had been invited to assbt at th^ 

The State Medical Society of Pennsylvania, where the dii 
cussion originated, did not really wait for the action of th 
National Association to rescind its original resolution of i86( 
This did not refer to the admission of women as members, thi 
was not even considered, but forbade '* professional intercoun 
with the professors or graduates of female medical college 
*'In 1 87 1, when the Society met at Williamsport, Dr. Trai 
Green moved to rescind this resolution, and, ^ amid intense bt 
quiet excitement," the motion was carried by a vote of 55 yei 
to 45 nays. 

'' Thus,*' writes the now venerable champion of the womei 
Dr. Hiram Corson* " ended successfully the movement origina 
ted by Montgomery County, to blot from the transactions of tt 
State Society a sel^sh, odious resolution adopted eleven yeai 

before This report gives but the faintest idea of the bi 

terness of the contest, of the scorn with which the proceedin| 
of the Montgomery County were received, and the unkindnei 
manifested against all who from year to year asked for justii 
to women physicians. .... What would now be their statu 
had not the blunder of the Philadelphia Medical Society bee 
committed?"! In z88i, the first woman delegate was u 
mitted as member of the State Society ; and in ifS8,the Phil 

• New York Medical Record^ June 10, 1876. 

t **History of Proceedings to procure the Recognitioo of Women P^rsidt] 
by the Medical Profession o( the Sute." By Dr. Hiram Corsoo. WOtA 
phia, 1888. 



dc^hia County Society also yielded, and admitted its first 
member. Dr. Mary Willets.* 

PcniisylYania was not the first State to admit women to medi* 
It has been mentioned that the American Asso- 
at its Centennial year meeting, received Dr. Sarah Stev- 
from the Illinois State Medical Society. But, earlier 
than this, women had been received in New York State and 
city. The very first occasion was 1869, when the Drs. Black- 
w€OL were accepted as members of a voluntary "Medical 
Ubiary and Journal Association,** which held monthly meet- 
ings for hearing papers on medical subjects read by its mem- 
beiB.t In 1872, a paper was read before this society by a 
joong lady who had just returned from France with a medical 
diploma, the first ever granted to an American woman from 
tlic Paris J&0/<f di MidecineX In 1873, Dr. Putnam was ad- - 
mitted without discussion to the Medical Society of New York 
ccMinty, at the suggestion of Dr. Jacobi the president, whom 
she married a few months later. In 1874 she was sent as a 
ddegate from the County Society to the State Medical Society, 
at Its annual meeting at Albany. She also became a member * 
of tlie Pathological, Neurological and Therapeutical societies, 
but was excluded from the Obstetrical Society by means of 
blackballs, although her paper as candidate was accepted by 
the committee on membership, and she received a majority 
wole. Finally, and a few years later, she was elected, thougb 
by the clo^ majority of one, to membership in the New York ^ 
Academy of Medicine. ^ 

The facile admission of Dr. Putnam to these various privi- 
leges, in New York, at a time that the propriety of female 
^ recognition '* was still being so hotly disputed in other cities, 
was due partly to the previously acquired honor of the Paris 
diploma ;§ partly to the influence of Dr. Jacobi. This phy- 

^ **It most be acknowledged that the strictly regular instruction imparted 
fai the principal medical schools for women has excited respect, and greatly 
toKled to ovocome former prejudices. The admission of women is now a 
ised UsxT^PkiL Med. Timtt, 1SS3. 

t This sodety no longer exisu ; but it can hardlv be said to have died from 
the adntwrion of women, as it never had but three female members. 

I Manr Putnam* who was in fact the first woman to be admitted to the 
Firis Sdiool, though Miss Garrett of London was the first to graduate from 
k. Tha paper reiul before the New York 5>ociety was on Septicaemia, and 
aecas to nsvc been the first read by a woman physician in the United States, 

I lli» Pntnam'a graduating thesia bad moreover secured a broiue medal, 
lbs teoood prise awarded. 

sician may be said to have accomplished for women fai 
York what was done in Philadelphia by Drs. Hartshorne, 
Still^y and Thomas ; in Boston by Drs. Bowditch, Cabd 
nam, and Chadwick ; in Chicago by Dr. Byfoid. The 
was opened, other women entered without diffictUhr. 
County Medical Society was expected to register all n 
and reputable practitioners in the city^ and at the preten 
contains the names of 4S regular physicians. • 

Four other women became members of the Fatbol 
Society,* two of the Neurological Society,! one tA the Ne 
gical Association,! and two of the Academy of Medi 
No new application has been made to the Obstetrical Sc 
a private club. But the obstetrical section of the Aci 
contains one female member. | 

In Boston the ** admission *' of women was debated in 
directions : to the Harvard Medical School, to the Mass 
setts State Medical Society, and to the Boston Cit^ Hoi 
The application of Miss Hunt to the Harvard Medical S 
in 1847 and 1850 have already been described. After the 
discomfiture of this first applicant, no other attempt to 
the college doors was made until 1879,^' when a Boston 
Miss Marian Hovey, offered to give $10,000 toward th^ 
building the college was about to erect on condition t 
should receive women among its students. A committe 
appointed from among the overseers of the universi 
consider the proposition ; ** and after a year's consider 
reported, with one dissenting voice, in favor of accepting 
conditions. The committee outlined a plan for medio 
education, substantially like that already adopted at the U 

* l>r%, Cushier, McNutt, Withing;too, Dizoo Jooet. 

f Drt. Peckham, Fiske-Bryson. 

i Dr. McNutt. 

§ Dr». Peckham, Cushier. 

I Dr. Cushier. 

IT In 1876, the Boylston Prize, conferred every two years by R 
University for a medical essay, was won by Dr. Mary Putnam J 
The prizes were awarded in ignorance of the names of the writers, an 
sequently of their sex ; but this was the Hrst occasion on which a worn 
competed. The subject was, ** The Question of Rest for Women < 

Dr. Boylston, the founder of the prize, had been the first. colooial plq 
to practice inoculation, after this had been su^rgested by Cotton Malha 

^^ The committee consisted of Prof. Alexander Agassis chafama 
MonriU Wyman, President Eliot. Mr. J. EUiou Cabot. Dr.UBaroolt 



e\ Unhfenit7y where certain parts of the instruction should 
ghren to both sexes in common ; for others, where embar* 
laansent might occur, the instructions should be duplicated. 
The one dissenting voice, that of Le Baron Russell, disap« 
pmred of co-education in any shape, but urged that Harvard 
iTniversity should charge itself with providing a suitable inde- 
pendent school for women. 

The nujority report expressly advised against the establish* ' 
max of a separate school for women because ^ A consider- 
ate nnmber of the most highly cultivated women physicians 
of the country state that the same intellectual standard cannot 
be maintained in a school devoted to women alone, and that 
the intellectual stimulus obtained by female students from their 
association with men is an all-important element of success." * 

To guide its deliberations the committee had sent ques- . 
tioos to 1300 members of the State Medical Society, to which * 
^la answers were received ; of these 5^0 were in favor either 
of admitting women to the school, or of providing in some way 
for their education and recognition. These answers helped to 
decide the affirmative character of the majority report Upon- 
its reception, the Board of Overseers recommended the Medical 
Faculty to accept Miss Hovey's $10,000 and admit women to 
the school But of the 21 members of the Medical Faculty, 
seven were strongly opposed to the admission of women^ six 
were in favor of admitting them under certain restriction^ 
eight were more or less opposed but were willing to try the^ 
experiment It was generally considered too rash an experi> 
ment to be tried, at the moment that the school was already 
embarked on certain improvements in its course of education, 
which threatened to cause a falling off in the number of its ^ 
-students. So the proposition was finally rejected by a vote of 
14 to 4. The overseers of the university, having no actual 

* B0tim MeJumi «W Sttrgital j0Mm^i, Mav 23, 187a. The editor ex- 
pmics tarprifc at ** to frank a confession of inlenontjr.' AltKoogfa it was 
ooly a few rean since women physidaos were ostracised 00 the ostensibte 
ground of tbe necessary inferiority of their means ol education, the Boaton 
•ditor DOW, ta order to confute the claim of necessity for the Harvard cda« 
catioo. passes in most fUtterini^ review the ejusting schools for wocuca at 
New York, PhiladeJphia. and Chicago, and insists that tbcM offer all the 
adrantaacs any r* asonable woman can want. Thus (this ia 1I79): 
- Philadelphia, 99tb year, class 90 students. 

New York, loth year, class 47 students. 

ChicafO, 9th year, class 33 students. 

** Answers to letters of inquiry show that thMS schools for 
Itohod oa with great favor." 

m MEDtCIlfB. 187 

control over the decisions of the Medical Faculty, were there- 
fore compelled to decline Miss Hovcy's offer. Bat, in doing 
■o, they strongly recommended as expedient that, " under suit- 
able restrictions, women should be instnicted ID medicine by 
Harvard University." 

The defeat at Harvard in May was, however, followed by a 
triumph in another direction in October of the same year. On 
Oct. 9, 1879, an editorial in the Boston MtdUal and Surgical 
Journal says : " We regret to be obliged to announce that, at 
a meeting of the councilors held Oct. i, it was voted to admit - 
women to the Massachusetts Medical Society." 

This society is not, like that of New York and many of the 
States, composed of delegates from county societies, but it com- 
prises, and indeed consists of, all the legally qualified practi- 
tioners of the State. Refusal to enroll women among its _ 
members, therefore, meant a refusal to recognize the legality of 
diplomas that the authority of the State had conferred. The 
profession, therefore, in this matter deliberately set itself above 
the law, a most exceptional act in American communities. 
A precedent for such action had previously been established 
when the society refused to recognize homceopathic and 
eclectic physicians, who also held diplomas by legal authority, 
ioasmuch as their schools were chartered by the Slate. The 
action of the Medical Society towards women was, in fact, 
intended as a means of permanently relegating women among 
classes of practitioners pronounced inferior and unscientific, and 
whose legal rights merely sufficed 10 save them from prosecu-. 
tion as quacks, and to recover their fees from such persons as 
were foolish enough to employ them. 

For twenty-five years the battle was waged, and arguments 
advanced pro and con, of substantially the same nature as 
those which have already been sufficiently quoted. A circu- 
lar was sent to the 1343 members of the society, asking the 
following question : Do you favor the admission of women 
to the Society on the same terms with men ? To this circular, 
1133 replies were received, of whigh 709 were in the affirma- 
tive, 400 in the negative, while 33 were indifferent. "It was. 
thus evident that a considerable majority of the Society, seven 
to four of all who answered the circular, favor the admission of 

In June, 1875, a committee of five was chosen from the 


to report whether duly educated women could not be 
admitted to memberthtp. In October a majority reported in 
favor of examining for membership men and women without 
disdoctioo. But the minority objected so vigorously, that the 
whole matter was postponed indefinitely. In 1878, another 
committee was appointed : in June, 1879, the members were 
fbnad equally divided ; the subject was referred back to the 
kittee, who, in October of the same year, advised no 
But this time the minority reported to instruct the 
to admit women for examination. The councilors 
woted, 4S to jSy to adopt the minority report* 

But the end was not yet, for in February, 1880, the censors of 
Saffolk County (including the city of Boston), voted that the 
society be advis^ to rescind its vote of October. This, how- 
cwcfy was never done ; but, after some further delay, the first 
female candidate, Dr. Emma Call, a graduate from Ann Arbor, 
Aliased a satisfactory examination and was admitted. The 
decisive step once taken, other women passed in readily, and 
t899» ^^^ years from the date of the conclusion of the famous 
controversy, a dozen women sat down to the annual banquet 
of the society, among whom was one invited guest from 
another Sute. The moral tone " did not seem to be ^ per- 
ceptibly lowered," on this occasion. 

In iS82» Dr. Chadwick published a tabulated summary 
of the dates at which various Sute societies had admitted 
women to membership. 

In 1872, Kansas, Iowa; in i874t Vermont ; in 1875, Maine, ' 
New York, Ohio; in 1876, California, Indiana; in 1878, 
New Hampshire ; in 1879, Minnesota, Massachusetu ; in 1880, 
Coooecticut ; in 1881, Pennsylvania. 

Rhode Island, Illinois, and Oregon also had women mem- 
bers, but the date of their first admission was not known. 
Thus seventeen societies contained, in 1882, 115 female mem- 
bers—that of New York alone having forty*two, much the 
largest of all 


^ Tbe editor of the B^timt Medutil mmd SurgumJ Jnurmmi wtknont^ctd this 
I with freat regret. The writer declared it ** to be impoHible that 
tta freqocnt our public meetiogs or lecture-rooms whco certaia 
■re ditniwrd, without breaking through barriert which dcceoqr has 
hmOx m^ aad which it it for the iotercst of every lady and feotlemao to pre* 
serve. . . . The moral tone of the lodety will looo be pcroeptiblf lowered.* 
tii^ October. 1879.) 
Tbs wmooem of the moveoMOt was doe to the chivalrooi eacrry of a 

fioep of fovagcr okemberft, etpedallf l>t%, Juut% aad Charles 
Or. C^wkk. Dr. Cabot, aad Dr. ^ 

Iwkk, Dr. Caboc, aad Dr. Derby. 

/A' MEDICINE. 189 

From this time the question of the official " recognition " of ■ 
women might be regarded as settled. Another question of 
equal, if not greater importance, now came to the front. — 
namely, the extension to women of opponunilies for study and 
practice in great hospitals, opportunities absolutely indis- 
pensable both to obtaining and maintaining a valid place 
in medical practice and the medical profession. The discus- 
sion of this question belongs to the seventh period of the 

For this purpose the small hospitals conducted by women 
were (and are) quite insufficient. There is such a demand 
upon their slender accommodations and resources for obstetric 
and gynaecological cases, and the claims of such cases to the 
special advantages of these hospitals are so paramount, that 
they have so far tended to a specialism, which, though useful 
for the patients, is detrimental to the physicians who must find 
all (heir training in them. Efforts, therefore, have constantly . 
been made to widen the range for women, by securing 
their admission as students, internes, or visiting physicians to 
the great hospitals, which constitute the medical treastire- 
houses of the country.* In describing the actual condition of 
the medical schools, mention has been made of the hospital 
advantages which have been, little by little, secured for their 
undergraduate students. In Boston, where there is no school 
for women but the homoeopathic school of the Boston Univer- 
sity, fewer opportunities exist than anywhere else. 

The Massachusetts General Hospital is reserved exclu- 
sively for the students of the Harvard Medical School. But 
the City Hospital remained unappropriated, and in 18S6, the 
President and Trustees of the Boston University petitioned for 
permission for their female students to visit there, on the same 
terms as the young men. A committee was appointed to con- 
sider the matter, and after an elaborate report on the contem- 
porary usage in ninety-one hospftals throughout the United 
States, advised that the request be granted. This enabled the 
female students to attend the public lectures given and the 

* It will be rememtKred Ihat it was th« cipcrience trained in the rude )w» 
^ta1( of the Revolutionary War. which, b]r alfording Aoiericin pbvd' 
dans for cnlleccive observaiion of ihe lick on a Isr^e scale. Arti bnaEhec 
some scienti^c spirit into the profession. Similar eiperience was ahemtrdi 
giined In the epidemics oC yellow fever and o( spotted (ever. Ihat at dlRer 
ent times ravaged the country. An analogous iafluence was exerdsed ly. 
the Civil War. which iaSucnce is t>econiin£ moH distinct a qoarlcr of < 
century after its close. 

moMAH^s^ waxr ih America. 

i pcffbcmed ia the boqHtal amphitheatre about once 

^ ibooA more freaoent, opportunities for clinical 
a had Deeii prenousljr secured for women at the city 
or New York (BeUerae . Philadelphu (Blocklejr), 
ito([Cook Coontj). At t Pennsylvania Hospital 
^riua^ moieoTer, the womc :rom the Medical School 
admitted to lectures oo s] xial dajrs, when no male 
were present These scanty privileges (for not 
I be learned, about a patient by spectators seated on 
ics of an ami^itheatre) i e only obtained after 
r eoUtsions with the men si t is, occasionally rising 
pity of a row« as upon one memorable occasion at the 
laia Hospital ; f more often consisting in petty teas- 
aaaoyanoesi which bore considerable resemblance to - 
s of schoolbovs. To students habituated to the daily 
lie wards of the' vast European hospitals, this form of 
istmction, where the patient studied is seen but once, 
at a distance, must seem ludicrously inadequate.! 
sse defects, however, the male and female students * 
le. But the former have, until recently, retained the 
' of the hospital appointments, whereby a certain num- 
iduates are enabled to acquire real clinical inslruc- 
lis monopoly is only iust beginning to break downr-<- 
Dtly the first general hospital in the country to con- 
pital appointment on a woman, was the Mt. Sinai ^ 
of New York. Here, in 1874, Dr. Annie Angell, a 
of the Infirmary School, was made one of the resi* 
ndans, at the instance of several members of the 
taff.§ She served three years very acceptably. 
\ Dr. Josephine Walter, another graduate of the In* 

ilss rated that "aav CMet deemed Inpropcr for a mixed aadienot 
etcrved for tbt end ol the lecture, and that the inripeoo before 
with them mav require the withdrawal of aU male or female tto- 
I caee may ba ; farther, ** No female patient ihaU ba taken faito 
catre withoot the aiteodaDce of a female oune : and noopcim- 
ftmili patient requiring mdal espoeara thaU ba parfonaad la 
r of male visitioa ttudeota. 

■pie aad even-handed manner were adjudged tha vaaadqws* 
id been declared so insoluble. 

wk MedUmi Rit9hU Jan. 1, iSTa 

aadeoaadee mi^ht ba recti6ed, without accsnarily iatrododag 
p tact fc e the bmtalitiea that to of tea disfigurt the Earppaaa trwtt* 
pital MttfTfttft 

ig Dr. Jacobi. Dr. EaUl Kra^owiaer, Dr. Ciihleta. The two 


firmary School, was admitted as interne after a severe competi- 
tive examination, among nineteen candidates, of which only 
two could be appointed. She also served three years in the 
hospital, and then spent two years in Europe in medical study. 

Since her appointment, none others have ijeen made, or indeed 
applied for, in thisorany other hospital in the city. Even in the 
Woman's Hospital, with exclusively female patients.and a host 
of female nurses, the medical staS have repeatedly expressed 
their formal opposition to the admission of female internes ; 
and the Board of Lady Managers, oblivious of the first resolu- 
tion of the first founders of the hospital, have so far remained 
indifferent to the anomalous injustice of the situation.* 

Amongdispensary services, however, many women have found 
places. Dr. Angell and Dr. Putnam Jacobi founded a dis* 
pensary at the Mt. Sinai Hospital, and for a year conducted it 
exclusively themselves. It was then systematically organized 
by the directors of the hospital, and has since always had 
women on the staff. In 1882, a school was open for post- 
graduate instruction in New York, and Dr. Putnam Jacobi 
was invited lo a place in its faculty, as the clinical lecturer on 
children's diseases, the first time a lectureship in a masculine 
school was ever, in this country, filled by a woman. In the 
same school, another woman, Dr. Sarah McNutt, was also 
appointed as lecturer, and founded a children's hospital ward 
in connection with the school. The positions at present held 
by women physicians in New York dispensaries may be thus 
summarized, exclusive of the dispensary of the Infirmary : 

Demiil Hospital, 3 ; Mt. Sinai Hospital, x ; St. Mary's 
Hospital for Children, 1 ; Hospital for Ruptured and Crippled, 
4; Manhattan Eye and Ear Infirmary, I ; Foundling Hospital, 
I (resident physician) ; Nursery and Child's Hospital, 1 (resi- 
dent at country branch) ; Babies' Hospital, i. 

In Philadelphia, the Blockley Hospital, the first in the United 
States to allow a woman to visit its wards.f appointed a female 
interne upon competitive examination, in 1883.^ Since this 
dale, eleven other women have received such appointments, — 

former were German r:uljcalsof 1S4S, and b this action remained o 
with philosophic principles o( their fouch. 

• It has been said that if any woman was admitted oo the staff of interaes, 
all the patients would demand her for Ihe personal services now rendered by 
young men. and which arc now accepted, though under protest. lor the ukc 
«f the tpecial tlciU o( the distinguished viiitiog (urgeoiu of the instUutiaD. 

t Etiiabelh Blackwell in 1848. 

} Dr. Maiy P. SooL I 


four b 18S9. Dr. Clara Marshall and Dr. Hannah 
were put on the visiting stafif in 1882. Chicago, 
r, is the city where the hospital privileges have been ^ 
equitably distributed, though the opportunity has been 
by a struggle rend red severe, not from the opposi- 
oC those adverse to woro< physicians, but from the inade- 
«ate ittstmctioo given by tl 10 had professed to be their 

la 1877, an invitation was sent to the senior class to take 
part ta the examination for internes at the Cook County Hos- 
pitaL *To go meant to fail.* We decided to go, if only to 
show how litue we had been taught in surgery." This was 
ically an heroic determination ; and the ordeal was severe. 
''The students and other spectators received us with deafen- 
lag shoots and hisses. . . . The gynaecological and obstetrical . 
cscaauaesB made vulgar jokes. The surgeon tried to wreck us. * 
Wc forced things as best we could, but of course no one 
Irooeivcd an appointment"* As a raiher unusual result of 
this trial, the professor of surgery at the Woman's College was 
RMued to exertion, and for two years taught so well, that on - 
another competitive examination the Woman's College was said 
to have stood first. However, no woman was appointed, but a 
relative of the commissioners, without an examination. Still 
ibe women's pluck and determination held out ; they came. up 
a third time, — and then» in 1881, — the coveted position was 
and a young woman only twenty-one years of age 
aominated as interne. Since then, appointments have^ 
amltiplied, thus : 

Datb or ArraumcsifT. *'**• ^ Womw 

t Hospitil 

( 1881 I 

Couaty HoipitaL \ 188B a 

r 18S9 a 

r 188a I 

1887 I 

1888 s 

1889 I 

W«ic7 Hcipiul >^ I 

Sttit Im— e AsyloiB. Uokoovo. • . . . a 

Ftaally, it is noteworthy that Dr. Sarah Hackett Stevenson 
holds an appointment to the Cook's County Hospital as visiting 
physician, and Dr. Marie Mergler a similar appointment to the 
Woaiaa*s Hospital 

^ Dr. Mark Mcfglcr, Jkr. Hl 

m MBDiaHE. 193 


A special and extremely interestmjs branch of the atran^ 
for hospital positions for women phjrstcians has related to their 
appointment in the female wards of insane asylama. This 
movement also originated in Pennsylvania, and in the peraonal 
efforts of Dr. Corson, supported, as befor^ bv Dr. Auee; At 
the annual meeting of the State Society in 1877, the following 
preambles and resolution were read : 

'' Whereas^ The State Medical Societjr has taken a deep in- 
terest in the welfare of the insane dunng the last few yeais; 


" Whireas^ The inmates of our State hospitals are m tmA$ 
equal numbers of the sexes; and 

'' Whereas^ We have many female physicians who are emi* 
nent practitioners, and one at least* who has had experienoe 
in the medical management of the insane : therefore^ 

^^ Resolved^ That a committee of three persons be appointed 
by the president of this society, to report at its next annmi 
meeting on the propriety of having a female physician for the 
female department of every hospital for the insane, which is 
under the control of the State." 

A committee was appointed,! and reported at length in favor 
of the resolution. Just emphasis was laid on the fact that the 
very first attempts ever made to reclaim the insane asylums of 
the State from a condition of utter barbarism were due to a 
woman, Miss Dorothy Dix, whose name has been a household 
word in America, as that of Elizabeth Fry in England. The 
fact that at present there were no women who had received the 
special training requisite for the scientific treatment for the 
insane was offset by the other facts, that the existing medical 
superintendents were charged with the business responsibilitiei 
of the asylum, and thiis had entirely insufficient time to devote 
to the medical care of the patients ; and that the subordinates, 
upon whom such care practically devolved, were usually recent 
graduates, who were entirely destitute of special trainmg, and 
indeed for whose education in psychiatry no provision any< 
where existed. 

A bill was drafted, to be presented with a memorial to tlH 
Legislature, making the appointment of a female superintendeni 

* Dr. Mary H. Stinson, of Norristown, Pa. 

t Dr. Hiram Cotkki, Dr. A. Nebinger, Dr. R. L. Sibbett 


%Moty fai all asylums i female patients. The legis- 
ts cwmittce rccoroed tb( I to the House with an affirm* 

AcomMcr noM»sorial wa% howeirer, sent to the Senate judiciary 
yto c^ protesting against the appointment of a female ' 
yjiiMiudiHt as liable to cause clauimg in the management 
[~tts asylum. The memorial said that assistant female 
Virions could already be employed wherever deemed expe- 
i>it The memorial was so copiously signed as to suggest 
*t ttuch other opposition than that of superintendents^ dread- 
t •sllision, had been marshaled to defeat the proposed law.* 
Another counter thrust, however, was given bv the trustees of 
' State Lunatic Hospital at Harrisburg, who warmly sup* 
"^tdtho biU. Before the adjournment of the Legiuature, 
hill was in fa^ enacted, but so altered that the trustees * 
obliged to appoint a woman chief physician, but only 
~ to do sa At this same time, a new hospital for 
isttaae was opened at Norristown, not far from Philadel- 
t ; and to this Dr. Alice Bennett, a graduate of the Woman's 
Ileal Collej^ of Philadelphia, was elected by the trustees - 
laief i^ysician of the female de|>artmenL Dr. Annie Ku- 
was appointed assistant* Three months later, in S^tem- 
ilSo^ the trustees of the asylum at Harrisburg elected Dr. 
npret Cleaves to a position as assistant f Legislative action 
l^igotts to that initiated in Pennsylvania was not lon^ after- 
d taken in Massachusetts and Ohio, and finally, dunng thew 
>^t year, 1890, in the State of New York.t 
"^,New York, the bill required the employment of a woman 
'^ictan in every State insane asylum where women are con* 
A* It passed with only two negative votes in the Assembly, ^ 
Uifce m the Senate.§ 

^ was sifMd fint t>y Dr. Kirkbride, tupcrioteiidcat of ths Ftsntxivsols 
^i Asjrlooi. lad tbcai by the turfcocis and physicUot. xh% oottmhsats 
^ ssiteaots. tb« ia-door and out-door tun of thiftcca coHcgcs sad 
K%dB, of wfaicb oaly one rtodvcd iasanc patkats. tho Blocklcy. la ad* 
^ WM% tha auan of aladata phjfsiciaas aaooaaaclad whli aay lasl^ 

br. Btaattt's aowiaatioa was iadoned by caiiatat pImkiaM froai Phlla* 
bia. On. Joacph Lddy. Wm. Pepper. 1 Wdr UUUO. H. C Wood. 
W. Kaca. S. D. Graes. Tlie Utter tiaarible aaiiaaa had fonuaity 
i binwiy oppoaad to wooica phjrtkiaaa. 

**HMoahr rcfrit and woeder are tbat a pw f fak w i so hwaaa and aat* 
aad eaoaciiaf for thcie oafortuaaio wards af tha Seals, hasaat ystT 
a law."— iy«^# IfWi^. iSacx 

Wmmiit Jmnmi. April sA^ iS^a. 


/y MEDICINE. ijjs 

Previous to the enactment of this law, however, women assis- 
tants had served for a year at the Willard Asylum for the chronic 
insane,* and in iSSS, two other women, Dr. Steadinan and Dr. 
Wakefield, were appointed in the New York City Asylum on 
Blackwell's Island. Similar appointments have been volun- 
tarily made in ten other States, and more than twenty women 
are now serving as physicians in insane asylums.f The latest 
appointment was the greatest innovation, for it was in a South- 
ern State, Virginia, at Staunton, and a Southern candidate. Miss ~ 
Dr. Haynes, was appointed. ^ . The SfiringJ!i/d RipMiian con- 
cludes its notice of this event (see note), with the remark : 
"This reform is steadily advancing, and it will not be long 
before the opposition to it will be as obsolete as it is now 
indecent. "§ 

Thus the last word, (so far) like the first in this long contro-N^ 
versy, is indecency. And it is characteristic of the world-old 
social position of women that it should be so ; since women 
have in the mass, never been publicly and officially regarded 
as individuals, with individual riglits, tastes, liberties, privileges, 
duiies, and capacities, but rather as symbols, with collective 
class functions, of which not the least was to embody the ideals ^ 
of decorum of the existing generation, whatever these might | 
happen to be. These ideals once consigned to women, as to 
crystal vases, it became easier for men to indulge their vagranll 
liberty, while yet leaving undisturbed the general framework 

* Rhoda Wilkitu, In 16S5, a eT^u»« of the New York lofiimuy School 
\ The followine ii a partial list o( the women now or rccentlv boMInf 
•uch posilioni. in addilion to those already named : Helen BtHclf, Kalun*' 
zoo. Michi^n: Alice M. Famham. Hart's Island, NewVork Cilr ; AllM 
Wakeman and Au^sla Sleadman. Blacliwell'* Island, New York ; laot 
Carver, Harriiburg, Pa. ; Amelia Gilman, Blockley Insane Honjital, Y^»e 
delphta; Laura Hulme, Worcester, Mats.; Martha Morfui, Hanilborf, 
Pa.; F. McQuaide, Norristown, Pa.; Martha Perry, Tauntoo, Mas*.; AUei 
Rogers, Taunton. Masii.; Julia K. Gary, Danven, Mau.; and oUicn if 
Maine, Minnesota, Indiana, Iliinoiii, Iowa, Nebraika, and California. 

% "It was a great step for Virginia, thus taken by the tnistecs, andn 
quired considerable effort on the part of some memben of the board. . . 
Massachusetts is the only Stale where it is absolutely required br law thi 
eveiy such hospital shall employ one womaa atsistant phfiiciaa.— ^*>iiq 
/uU RtfublUan. 

g The Directors of the Woman's Educational and Industrial Unlea < 
Buffalo wrote to the superintendents of insane asylums in jS State*, aikia 
. their opinion on the law pending in the New York Leg;'*^'!''* dmiOf I 
session of 1SS9-1890. Forty-six answeii were receired fron 33 SCUO; ' 
which 33 favored the law, % were opposed, % noiKoiiimiual, and J bM p 


of order and society. But all the more imperative was it, that 
tbe standard of behavior, thought, and life for women should 
maintained fixed and immovable. Any symptom of change 
ft tbe fttatos of women teemt^ therefore, always to have excited 
certain terror. This is analogous to the fierce conservatism 
f lavafe communities, ready to punish by death the slightest 
from established custom, because, as Mr. Bagc;)iot 
without such strenuous care their entire social struc- 
is liable to fall to pieces. It is perfectly evident from the , 
that the opposition to women physicians has rarely t 
based upon any sincere conviction that women could not | 
iastmcted ih medicine, but upon an intense dislike to the J 
that they should be so capable. Failure could be pardoned ; 
tbcfli, but— at least so it was felt in anticipation — success could i 
Apart frqna the al^tufd ^^*'' of pecuniary injury, which i 
o(y c<mcetvable so long as women were treated, not as so/* 
ly more individuals in the community, but as a separate! 
and a class alien to men of their own race and blood 
ami even family,— apart from this consideration, the argu* 
meats advanced have ^b^Ajs J^SPjLjjirely sentimental. There - 
. bas always been a'ientimental and powerful opposition to 
/ every social change that tended to increase the d^^lop- 
{ meat and complexity of the social organism, by increasing 
\ tbe capacities and multiplying the relations of its mem- 
* bera. Tbe opposition to women physicians is, in its last 
analysts, only one of the more recent manifestations of this^ 
aniversal social instinct. So true is this, that in the strife 
physicians have abandoned the sentiments proper to their own 
profession, and have not hesitated to revile and defame it, in 
order to prove that it was unfit for the delicacy or virtue of 
woman. They have forgotten the tone of mind, the special 
mode of vision that becomes habitual to e\ery one who has 
really crossed the threshold of the sublime art ; they have talked 
of ''revolting details ** and ^ disgusting preliminaries,'* like the 
veriest outside Philistine. There are horrors in medicine, 
because there are horrors in life. But in medicine these are 
overcome or transformed by the potency of the Ideal ; in life . 
tbev must be borne unrelieved. The women, who, equally 
with men, are exposed in life to the fearful, the horrible, the 
disgusting are equally entitled to access to those regions of 
knowledge and ideas, where these may be averted, or relievcdt 
or palliated, or transformed. 

Again : A mother occupied with her young child offers a 
q^ectacie so beautiful and so touching that it cannot fail to 


profoundly impress the social imagination. Contemplating 
this, it is easy id feel that all (he poetry and romance, all the 
worth and signiiicance of women are summed up in llie 
exquisite moments of this occupation ; easy to dread the intro* 
duction of other interests lest the Homen be unduly diverted 
from this, which i> supreme. Vet nothing is mure obvious 
than that diversion comes, a thousand times, from frivolity, 
but never through work ; and that these moments are pre- 
ceded by many years, and followed by many years, and for 
many women, through no fault of their own, never come at 
all. The seventy years of a lifetime will contain much wastc^ 
if adjusted exclusively to the five or six years of even its 
highest happiness. The toiling millions of women of eveiy 
age of (he world have not been permitted (o make such an 
adjus(ment, even if they should wish to do so. They have 
always worked ; but the^ demand now, and simply, some 
opportunity for a free choice in the kind of work, which, apart 
from the care of children, they may perform. The invasion of. 
the medical profession is one of the more articulate forms of 
this demand, ' 

Although, according to the census of 1880, there were 343s 
women registered as physicians throughout the United StueSi 
and several hundred must have graduated in the lost ten ycar^ 
it is probable that many of them have received an educatioa 
100 irregular and imperfect to justify their claim to the title tii 
• any serious sense. Thus the numbers are still too mull, the 
time too short, to begin to estimate the work of women phyit- 
ctans. A large number of the women recorded in the centui 
tables will not be found among the graduates of any sititabk 
colleges, or on the registered lists ot regular phyiiciuis, SM 
these cannot be counted in an estimate like the present Thu 
the census of 1880 records 153 women physicians in New Yoil 
but the medical register o( ten years later contains the naow 
of but 4S. There seem to be about fifty at present in Phili 
detphia, twenty or thirty in Boston. Kighteen are said to b 
practicing in Detroit, The great majoritj' are scattered throtig 
the country in small towns or country villages. 

It is irrelevant to inq^uire with \Valdeyer, " What wonu 
have done ?" from the scientific standpoint, because the pro! 
lem given was to enable them to become observant, faithfi 
and skillful practitioners of medicine, and this is pouible wit 
out the performance of any really scicntilic work. 

U is premature to make such inquiries, ezcept-for single cu 
which serve to illustrate the possibility, for it is4>ut liule ue 


thai the first school was opened to women ; 
than a dosen years since the official education ^ 
MUt has approached any degree of effectiveness. What ' 
ai iHife learned, they have in the main taught themselves, 
il is fair to daini» that when they have taught themselves 
iA| when they have secure the confidence of so many 
■M side persons^ in the t< i of such vigorous and 
JBg opposition, and upon sucn i intv resources and such 
tMfm pieparation ; when such numbers have been able 
Gulish lepntable and even lucrative practice, to care for 
odth of many families over long ttfrms of years, to sustain 
cal inatitations of their own, almost exclusively dependent 
the good-will of cttisens wli have closely watched their 
rHo serve in public hospitab in competition with men, to 
Eor oMUiy thoiuands of sick poor, to whom abundant other 
al aid was accessible, had it been preferred, — to restore^ 
ikh many thousand women who had become helpless in va- 1 
roBB dread of consulting men physicians, or from delay in r 
; 80^— CO hold their own in pnvate practice, in matters of 
lent, diagnosis, medical and operative treatroetit, amidst * 
ccssint and often unfair rivalry of brother competitors, — 
sD this, we repeat, itself demonstrates a very considerable, 
i an nnexpected amount of native ability and medical fit- 
in the part of women. With Ipngej: time; with nk>re solid 
vied opportunities, and with extension to tHe many of 
which have hitherto been shared only by a very few, the 
It of work accomplished may certainly be expected to 
ne, and in geometrical progression. 
XHild be wiihed that space remained to bring to light the 
re heroisms of the many nameless lives, which have been 
dcd in thisone crusade. It has been fought, and modestly, 

teeth of the naost painful invective that can ever be ad- 
id to women, — that of immodesty. Girls have been hissed 
mmpeded out of hospital wards and amphitheaters where 
iffering patient was a woman, and properly claiming the 
ice of members of her own sex ; or where, still more incon* 
tly, non-medical fenule nurses were tolerated and wel* 
L Women students have been cheated of their time and 
f, by those paid to instruct them : they have been led into 
of promise, to find only a vanishing mirage. At what sac* 

have they struggled to obuin the elusive prise ! They 
itarved on half rations, shivered in cold rooms, or been 
led in badly ventilated ones ; they have often borne a triple 
f ifDorance, poverty, and iU health ; when they were not 


permitted to walk, they have crept, — where they could not take, 
they have begged ; they have gleaned like Ruth among the har- 
vesters for the scantiest crumbs of knowledge, and been 
thankful. To work their way through the prescribed term of 
studies, they have resorted to innumerable devices, — taught 
school, edited newspapers, nursed sick people, given massage, 
worked till they could scrape a few dollars together, expended 
that in study, — then stepped aside for a while to earn more. 
After graduating, the struggle has continued, — but here the 
resource of taking lodgers has often tided over the difficult 

These homely struggles, — the necessity in the absence of 
State aid, of constantly developing popular support and sym- 
pathy for the maintenance of the colleges and hospitals, has 
given a solidity, a vitality to the movement, which has gone 
far toward compensating its quaint inadequacies and incon- 
sistencies. On the European continent, the admission of 
women to medical schools has depended on the fiat of govern- 
ment bureaus, prepared in this matter to anticipate a popular 
demand, and to lead rather than to follow public opinion. la ^ 
America, as in England, the movement for such extension of , 
privilege has sprung from the people, it has fought its way, — - 
it has been compelled to root itself in popular sympathy and 
suffrage. Hence a feeling of enthusiasm widely diffuseil 
among the women students, the sense of identification with 
an impersonal cause, whose importance transcended that of 
their individual personal fortunes, and yet which could onVf be 
advanced by the accumulation of their individual successes 
The ill-taught girls at Chicago, who, sure in advance of defeat, 
resolved to face ridicule and contempt at the competitive ex- 
aminations, in order to make a road for their successor*, 
realty exhibited, in a moral sphere, the heroism of Arnold Von 
Winklereid on the old Swiss battlefield. 

The change from the forlorn conditions of the early dayt 
has been most rapid, and those who survived the early stTu«le, 
and whose energies were not so absorbed by its external diffi- 
culties that not enough were left for the intrinsic difficultici 
of medicine, have been really invigorated by the contest In- 
deed one of the ways in which women have secured the infusioi 
of masculine strength essential to their success, has been b; 
successfully resisting masculine opposition to their just clainu 
It is as in the fable of Antsus, — those knocked down to th 
earth gained fresh strength as they touched the ground. Th 
character and self-reliance natural to Americma wome 


^ve thus been reinforced even by the adverse circumstances of 

^^ir position. And, conversely, those for whom circumstances 

^ fortune and education have been apparently the most pro- 

l^><ioiiSy even thoic who have received the best theoretical edu- 

^ri oo, have not nnf requenti j been distanced, or even altogether 

^p^opped altogether out of (he career, because of an incurable 

5*'*gtlantitmp for which the remedy had not been found either 

'^ practical hardship or in native intellectual vigor. 

Afforts have several times been made to estimate the actual 
of markedly successful practitioners among the 
now engaged in medicine.* The two monographs cited 
aie both based upon circulars of questions sent out to as 
J women phyUcians as possible-f The answers to these 
lairics aie necessarily very partial, and can be quoted rather 
illastnuions than as sutistics. Among such illustrations, 
statements of the pecuniary results of practice are interest* 
Dr. Bodley received answer from 76 ladies, and their 
annual income, if divided equally among the 76, amounted 
4UMNit $jooo.t Among these, however, ten earned between 
and $4000 a year, five between $4000 and $5000, threer 
ween $5000 and $15,000, and four between $15,000 and 


^a Dr. Pope's paper, 138 women reported on their income, 

oat of them only eleven had then practiced over* two 

and failed to become self-supporting. Another item of 

iS| that 3a per cent of these women report that th^ 

Ye one or more persons partially or wholly dependent on 

\ ^*The Pkactioe of Medidne by Women in the United Sutes." Paper rend 
\Wbi«Sodnl Sdeoce Assodatioo. by Emily H. POpe, M.D.. Sepc 7. iS3i; 
and ** The College Story, **— address at Woman's Medical College of Phila- 
\4iipUn, by Dcui Rachel Bodley. March 17. 1&81. 

T Dr. Bodley tent circulars only to the graduates of the Philadelphia 
tdiool, of whoa, in 18S1, there had been 276. Of these, 189 answe^xd the 
dresfav. Dr. Pope tent circulars to 470 graduates c fall schools, and recciTcd 
joo sMwi^ BMBy, however, dupUoding those of the Philadelphia drcalar 
«f M«ch. 

t $1907.50 csacUy. 

I TIm writer knows penooaUy of two women physidant, one ia tefga 

pmctke including much surgery, the oiher at the head of a Sani- 

who have each Iwooght up and educated twelve children. One of 

van a widow, with one child, when she l>egan to smdy medicine ; 

never married. A very large numtier of childlem womin 

or coa tri ba u to the ed u cat i on of tho childiea of bffOth«s or 

So great are the imperfections, even to-day, of the medical 
art, so numerous all the difficulties of applying even all exist- 
ing resources, so inevitable are the illusions in regard to the 
real cause of either success or failure, that it is the most diffi- 
cult thing in the world to estimate the intrinsic ability of a 
physician, even by bis success in practice. A large prac- 
tice certainly always testifies to some kind of ability ; but ibi> 
is not always strictly medical. The essential test is that of 
accuracy in diagnosis, and this test cannot, by means of an^ 
public documents accessible, be applied. Its successful appli- 
cation can only be inferred by the gradual development of con- 
fidence in women, both among the more intelligent and critical 
of the laity, and among the more unbiassed of tlie professiorwl 
observers, who, in consultations, have had ample opporiunit}' to 
scrutinize diagnoses.* For a dozen years it lias l>ecome cus' 
tomary in America for the most distinguished members of ih< 
profession, even in large cities, to send paiienis to woroer 
physicians, in any case where tlie circumstances of the ilinre 
lead the patient to prefer a woman.t The same is done when 
from personal acquaintance, or on account of public reputation 
the patient has confidence in some special woman poysiciiii 
and desires her counsel therefore, for other rcasoni than thot 
of delicacy. 

The women physicians of America share, while rather intens' 
fying, the main characteristics of their medical countrynei 
They have, as a rule, little erudition ; but they have gret 
capacity for bringing to bear all available and useful knowledf 
upon practical issues. They certainly do not read enough 
and there is, therefore, a noticeable thinness in their diicv 
sions of medical topics when they meet in isolated couDC 
But they have a resolute helpfulness in dealing with the isd 
vidual cases entrusted to their care, and a passionate loyalty 
those who have put their trust in them. They are possessed 
abundant motive power for concrete intellectual action, thou] 
they might lack this power, if the work depended excluiiv< 
on abstract intellectual interest. And, after all, it ii this h'j 
nf mind which most distinctively marks the modem praclici 

* A dUtioeuished lurgeoa receotly wrote to ■ woman phyildu, wba 
had confirmed herdiagnosiiin i Mrious cue, where the faiDflf then iiqM* 
the presence of the consultant at the operation the wocnan phjrtidM v* 
perforiA : *' I shall tw out of town for ■ week; you had better oat <mit 
me — go ahead and operate yourtelf." Which ibe did auccenfully, 

f The above form of conwltatioa ha* ^atlf extended the fadlttW 
nwtifal treatment for nnnanied wonm and young {Iris. 


Tadaiiy and without it the advances ia medical science 
Aid be of little profit to the sick ; indeed, would often not 

ude. And, what is often overlooked, it is precisely these 
Mai habits here described which have been usually consid- 
id as particularly characteristic of women. Thus the intro- 
ctioa of women into medicine demands no modification of 
\ typical conception traditionally held of women, but only 
cnlarfement of the applications which may be made of this 
mctcristic type.* 

tn nothing are popular riews about women more at variance 
Ji fact than in regard to their capacity for operative surgery, 
c popular conception of surgery is itself entirely false, 
ag mberited from a by-gone period, when hospital opera- 
US were conducted in the wards, filled with shuddering 
tients awaiting their own fate ; amid clouds of steam from 
ratng irons, torrents of blood, and the groans and shrieks of 
^ victinuf But to-day, with anaesthetics, haemostatics, and 
tiseptics, the surgeon may operate as calmly as on an insen- 
4e wax figure ; and, moreover, with a reasonably correct 
>hoique, be assured of success in a vast majority of cases 
M)ie result was formerly, even under the best skill, always 
ubtfuL The very greatness of the achievements of surgical 
aius have lessened the amount of ability requisite to perform 
uiy surgical operations ; and especially have the modern.. 
iKlitions of operating removed the perturbating influences 
'ich femafe nerves might be supposed unable to resist More- 
cr, the technique has become so precise that it can be taught ; 
1 women, even when defective in power of original thought, 

eatremely susceptible of being trained by exact drill. On 
t very account the model of a practical medical school 
"^Id be that of a military academy, where every operation, 
^tal or manual, tiiat the graduate is subsequently expected 
Perform, will be rehearsed befg/e gradujition. . • 

low the remarkable thing about women surgeons is, not that 

* I bdievc that the department o( medicine in which the great and beoeft- 

iaHnrnre of women may be especially exerted, is that 3i the family phy- 

<^ Not aa specialists, out as the trusted guides and wise coonselors m 

Mwerna the physical welfare o( the family, they will find their most 

Sdd of labor. * Eliiabeth BUckweU. ' * The InSuence of Women ia 

of Mcdidoe.** Address before Loodoo Medical School for 


Sot Teooo't report on the Hdcel Dieu of Paris, made to the National 
^■ibly fai 17^ He describes the usage of the time, which eight ocato- 
«f koipiral nlnenct had not taught how to improvt. 


they have learned how to operate when they have been taught 
but that, with very insufficient teaching for the most pan, thr 
have contrived to learn so much, and lo operate so successfully 
Obstetrics and gynecology have here again offered peculii 
advantages, in presenting a series of cases for operation vhld 
vary from the most trifling* to the most serious capital opei 
ations in surgery. The latter have only been attempted in th 
last decade, and it is worth while to quote such statistics as 
have been able to obtain, even thotigh they arc necessaril 
incomplete : 

New York Infirmary : Frora 1S75 to 1890; S35 operation 
{29 laparotomies); operators, chiefly Dr. Elizabeth Cushier,b« 
in a smaller number of cases, Drs. Blackwell, Peckham, M( 
Niitt, Putnam Jacobi. 

New England Hospital: From 1S73 101890; 819 opci 
ations (48 laparotomies) ; operators, Drs. Dimock, Buclce 
Keller, Berlin. Whitney, Smith, Crawford, Bissell, Kellogi 
Angell, Pnnelson, 

Chicago HospiUl : From 1884 to 18S8 ; 206 gynKcologia 
114 general surgery. Dr. Mary Thompson operated on alllli 
gynaecological cases, except four ; the report doet not lUl 
whether she also operated on the others. 

The reports of the Philadelphia Hospital do not give tl 
total number of operations performed in it, but through t) 
kindness of Dr. Fullerton, resident physician, I bar« recoved 
report of the capital operations, nearly all abdominal : 

Women's Hospital, Philadelphia : Froni 1876 to 18S9 ; { 
operations (all laparotomies, including several Ctesarean se 
tions). Operators, chiefly Dr. Anna Broomall ; (or • smi 
number of cases, Drs. Croasdale and Fullerton. t 

in addition to the above. Dr. Marie Werner of Philadetpl> 
reports 23 laparotomies from private practice. 

Other personal statistics I have not been able 10 oht» 
Some are quoted in the list of Literature.} These statistic 

* Dr. Sin», in his treatise on Uterine SnrEery, declued tbst the IM 
trealment of aterine diseases was, almost always, surgicaL 

\ Durinj; this year Dr. Broomall has jrone to Asia, to make a tow oC I 
diflerent missionary stations where Ibere are -women physidaiw, and tb< 
perform capital operations on the cases which hare been accumulating. Tl 
IS an expedition unique of its kind in history. 

% Ac the meeling of the Philadelphia Alumnx Association, held in UsK 
1B89, six successful cases of capital operalions in abdomlikal sarjcry w«n 1 
ported by members, inc'.udinjr two Ctesarean sections and one Inrstcrcctna 
Sixieea laparotomies were further reported from the Woman's Ud^iita^ b 
th«s« hare been included in the statiU^cal t«bl«. 



nSUL oo % man scale, are» for the time in which thef 
enMlated, and for the extremely meagre opportunities 
CM been so far afforded, not at all unsatisfactory, 
ea coiitribatsons to medical literature are also, though 
adaaty at least suflkient to prove that ^ the thing can Be 
Tlie i4< Citations made m the list * all belon|[ to the 
BBSgjof be twe en 1S7S and 1890, a period of eighteen 

ntdkctnal fmitfolness of this period is not to be com- 

ith that eabibited by other and contemporary classes 

ical workers^ bat rather with that of the first 150 or 

ra of American medicine. For, until now, it is a men- 

latedp n tmly cotonial position, which has been occu- 

tho women physicians of America. When a century 

ive elapsed after general intellectual education has 

diffnsed among women ; after two or three genera- 

ive had increased opportunities for inheritance of 

intdlectaal aptitudes ; after the work of establishing, 

loe of resolute op|>osition, the right to privileged work 

km to the drudgeries imposed by necessity, shall have 

10 preoccupy the energies of women ; after selfish 

lies of privilege and advantage shall have broken 

ifter the rights and capacities of women as individuals \ 

ve receiv^ thorough, serious, and practical sociaL. ^ 

ion ; when all these changes shall have been effected 

it a hundred years, it will then be possible to perceive 

rom the admission of women to the profession of medi- 

least as widespread as those now obviously due to their 

iQ to the profession of teaching. 

-WUk thcM pages arep*ssiog thnMtgh ihe press, ibc faaportaot 
■snt is SBsdc that the trustees of the Johns Hopkins UniTersity— 
a gift of $100,000, pcescated by women to the endovmeot food of 
il oen tw i fnt ,—tMif cooientcd to admit wooien to the medical 
ths j[ohas Hopkttts Hospital, to sooo aa that school shall be 
TUs IS ths firtt time ia America that any promioQ lor the medical 
sf wosKa has been made at a uoiTcnity o( the standing of the Johns 

It is espccted that the medical education of the future school 
SpsdaUy dtreded for the benefit of selected and post gndoaie 
or soch as dcairs to nuke special mearches and to porsoe adnmosd 

■sdicsl sdenoa. The admission of women to a share la thtss 

wtualtics is a fact of immense significance, though only a few 
ic by ths adviat^C the standing claU wiU be beacfited by this 
•a recognition of a capadtjr in woaaea for slodisSk 00 this aighsr 
and in company with 

*Sst AmnttMa O. 




The dlrecton of the Tohn* Hopk!c3 have {q this zoatUr sboon the bco 
and liberal spirit whicb befils the noble trust Ibey are called upon 
adminiiler. ft U characteriitlc of Americ« ihal the scimului lo the tiustei 
aclioa came from without the uoiversiiy, Itaai the mitiailve of womea. Tl 
time, women have not only asked but they have at the same time p** 
The $10,000 gift originally offered by Miss Hovey to Harvard o 

donation is the uoble gift of one woman. Mary Gairctt.— daughter 
the original trustees of the Johns lloplfins Uoiversiiy. The foj 
comtniliees amon^ women in all the principal cities of the United Stall 
for the purpose of raisin;; money for the woman's part of the cndomoe 
fund, and even for the remaininf; amount needed to open the tchool, is itH 
a most important fact, for it indicates that inlerest in the JDlelleclBal advaoc 
ment of women, and especially interest ia the success of women in the raed 
cal profession. lias at last become sincere and widespread in quarteis vba 
hitherto it has been entirely and strangely lacldni;. 

Hardly had we pronounced the present position of women in medidae I 
be " colonial," when, by a. sudden shifting of ibe scene, barriers have bee 
thrawa down that seemed destined to last another half century; an entire nc 
bociaon has opeoed before us. Sit Iraruit ttuUtUctmuii^. 





colraiice of women upon the work of the Christian 

in America waited for no ordaining council and 

posiBon of hands, but may be said to have begun with the 

fmching of Anne Hutchinson. Arriving in Boston in 1634, 

being admitted to membership in the church, she forthwith 

the advocacy of her peculiar doctrines, which carried with 

tkcm her commission to preach. Believing that " the power 

^ the Holy Spirit dwells in every believer, and that the inward 

i^elaiions of the spirit, the conscious judgment of the mind, 

<te of paramount authority," what need could she feel of other 

function ? Large numbers of women gathered to the meetings 

** which she boldly discussed the sermons of the preceding 

^bbatb, a» was the custom of the men of the congregation, and 

^^ forth her own belief. The dispute among her followers and 

?^w opposerSf according to Bancroft, ** impressed its spirit 

J^to everything. It interfered with the levy of troops for the 

^eqnoc war; it influenced the respect shown to the magis* 

^^teSithe distribution of town lots, the assessment rates, and, at 

"^^ the continued existence of the two opposing parties was 

^^iisidered inconsistent with the public peace." 

In 1637 a synod of the church was called at Newtown and, 
^UhoQgb CottODp Vane, and Wheelwright, together with all but 
^^ oiembers of the Boston church, had become warm partisans 
?^ Mrs. Hutchinson, her tenets were among the eighty-two opin- 
^^^ttcoodemned as erroneous. A few months later, she was sum- 
before the General Court and, after a trial of two days, 
to banishment from the territory of Massachuestts. 
That her loss was felt by the church which had excommuni* 
^ad ber may be inferred from the effort made to reclaim 
^tr bj a dcpa sent for that purpose to the Inland of 



Aquidneck, afterward called Rhode Island, where she b^d 
found a refuge. After the death of her husband in 1641, she 
removed to the Dutch settlement, then at war with the lodiuii^ 
by whose hand she, with all her family, save one child (carried 
captive), cruelly perished. 

This experience of the church was not calculated to encourage 
the public preaching of women, nor incline it, a score of years 
later, to receive with open-armed hospitality the two Quaker 
women, Mary Fisher and Ann Austin, whose books and trunks 
were burned on shipboard, and who, upon landing, were haled 
to prison, in the same spirit of persecution which had driven 
them from England to the West Indies, and thence 10 this so- 
called "land of liberty." Vainly searched for signs of witch- 
craft, they were then banished for heresy. 

Yet the mild doctrines of the Quakers were destined to take 
root upon American soil, and do their full share in the liberalii- 
ing of thought and especially in securing to woman that free- 
dom to preach which has made itself felt in other Christian 
denominations. The name of no preacher among the Quakers, 
or " Friends," as they prefer to be called, stands above the 
name of Lucretia Molt, whose history is too well known to 
demand more than a word concerning her call to such public 
service, as given by herself : 

"At twenty-five years of age, surrounded by a little family 
and many cares, I felt called to a more public life and devotion 
to duty, and engaged in the ministry in our Society, receiving 
every encouragement from those in authority, until a separa- 
tion from us, in 1827, when my convictions led me to adhere 
i to the sufficiency of the tight within us, resting on truth as 
\ authority, rather than taking authority for truth." 

This step into the larger freedom of the Hicksites, or Uni- 
tartan branch of Quakers, proved no mistake for one whose 
heart and life could not measure themselves by theological 
creeds. To use her own words, " I have felt a far greater in- 
terest in the moral movements of ourage, than in any theologictl 
discussion." And her eloquent pleadings and practical chari- 
ties for three-quarters of a century are ample witness of her 
fiincerity. The domestic life of Mrs. Mott was in itself a noble 
refutation of th^ assertion that eminent public service by 
women is incompatible with home making, since few hornet 
could show such perfect conjugal union and such thrifty house- 
hold management. There are about three hundred and fifty 
women preachers in this branch of the Christian church at 
present. . . 


; of Shakers, or ^ United Society of Believers in 
xood Appearing/' originating near Manchester, 
XMit 1770, as an offshoot of the Society of Friends, 
ng the same spiritual authority, gave to its women 
are with men in its service and government. ^ 

Ann Lee, one of the members of this sect, professedZA'^ 
rived a special illumination, in the name of which she^ 
d as the Christ of the female order." Her followers 
lat ** God was revealed as a dual being, male and 
the Jews, that Jesus revealed to the world God, 
x^ received ** Mother Ann " as '' God revealed in 
er of Mother, the bearing spirit of all the creation 
[n 1774, obedient to another revelation of the spirit, 
n, with nine of the more prominent members of 
emigrated to America and began her work in the 
few York, from which center ardent missionaries 
the new faith. 

I consider the essential doctrines of this sect, — 
herbood, exemplified in a community of goods, non- 
ion-participation in government, strict celibacy, and 
^ty, — we must confess that Ann Lee, possessing npt 
limentary education, must nevertheless have been 

extraordinary powers of persuasion thus to have 

founding of the various communities of Shakers in ~ 
States, among which her name is still reverenced 

1 to follow what might be called natural lines« for 

ecclesiastical freedom for women, the Roman 
torch would seem a proper starting point. Itsex- 

*" Mary, Mother of God," tiie canonization of 
oen, its many sisterhoods, its deep indebtness to 
very age and every land, seem a fitting foundation 

to build an ecclesiasticism which should at least 
(man to be as well endowed by her Creator for a 
esthood as the sex ignored in providing the world's 

Yet no church more rigidly excludes women from 

office or gives less indication of change in this 
r can it be expected in a non-progressive system, 

around the dogma of infallibility. 
1 we, though continuing along the lines of natural 

into the largest Protestant church of America, the 
Episcopal Church, find a radical change, although 
aJey was called the ** real foundress of Methodism ** 

aaid Barbara Heck is given equal credit for the 







1 first impnlie given the church in America. Landing in New 
York in 1760, in company with the first local preacher «nd 
clasi leader, Philip Embury, Mrs. Heck seems to have "kept 
the faith " more loyally, in the midst of the distractions and 
downward tendencies of the new life, than did the preacher. 
Five years passed and, so far as linown, he did nothing to keep 

■ together the few Wesleyans, or add to their number. There 
was much moral degeneration, which no doubt greatly troubled 
the soul of Mrs. Heck. On 2 certain occasion, while visitiag 
at a house where were gathered a number of friends and ac- 
quaintances, finding them engaged in card playing, "her spirit 
was roused, and, doubtless emboldened by her long and inti- 
mate acquaintance wiih them in Ireland, she seized the cards, 
threw them into the fire, and then most solemnly warned them 
of their danger and duty. Leaving them she went immediately 
to the dwellmg of Embury, who was her cousin. *^After naifat- 
in^ what she bad seen and done, under the influence of the 
Divine Spirit and with power, she appealed to him to be no 
longer silent, but to preach the Word forthwith. She parried 
his excuses and urged him to begin at once in his own house 
and to his own people. He consented, and she went out and 
collected four persons who, with herself, constituted his audi- 
ence. After singing and prayer, he preached to them and en- 
rolled them in a class. He continued thereafter to meet them 
weekly," * and thus began the work of Methodism in America. 
When the rigging loft, which had succeeded the house for 
preaching purposes, had also been outgrown, it was " Barbara 
Heck, the real founder of American Methodism," who was 
ready with plans for a chapel, which still stands, a sacred me- 
morial of her zeal and that of the man recalled to his duty bjr 
her burning words. 

Nor can the work of the Countess of Huntingdon be over- 
looked in this connection, although the scene of her labors was 
in another land, since its fruits were here so largely shared 
throQgh the work of Whitelield. Not merely as the builder of 

■ sixty-four chapels, the founder and supporter of a college for 
the education of ministers, many of whom were maintained by 
her, is she to be remembered. In the volume just quoted from, 
we read that. " Under the influence of Whitcfield and the 
Countess of Huntingdon, the Calvinistic non- conformity rose, 
as from the dead, to new life, which has continued ever since 
with increasing energy. By the same means, with the co- 

*CciLteiui7 of American Mcthodluk 


ot Wesley, a powerful evangelical party was raised up 
* the esublishmenty and most of the measures of evangelical 
>yp>pndifm which have since kept British Christianity alive 
^i^ cacrgy, and extended its activity to the foreign world, are 

^mctly traceable to this great revival About the 

^ of Its first decade, a scarcely parallel interest had been 

Cmd and sustained throughout the United Kingdom and 
(the Atlantic coast of America. .... It had presented 
"^ove the world the greatest pulpit orator of the age (if not of 
Ullage), Whitefield ; also one of the greatest religious legis- 
TONia of history, Wesley, a hymnist, whose supremacy has been 
">^ doabtfuUy disputed by a single rival — Charles Wesley ; and 
^^ i&ost signal example of female agency in religious affairs 
vhichChristian history records, the Countess of Huntingdon.*'* 
^fccm emberi ng that the churches established by this gifted 
*?^iin were not known by the names of the men associated 
]P^ her, but as ^Lady Huntingdon's connection," some evi* 
^^'^ce of the leadership of women will be apparent in the 
**2^cricaa Methodist Church. Strange to say, this is far from 
P^^g the case. Although Wesley had encouraged the preach- 
es of women, and although few men could equal the success- 
*^ hbors of many of them, the Methodist Episcopal Church 
^ Aoierica is singularly backward in recognition of its women. 

^''^••chool superintenden ts, .,_. ,_ ._ 

^^^Hlc women from these offices." Notwithstanding this, *' in 

r^^y American churches to-day, a woman class-leader would 
1^ ^most as great a curiosity as John the Baptist, with his 
^T^^^^nt of camel's hair, and a leathern girdle around his 

^ ^Omcn of unquestioned ^bi^ity, liberal education, and purity 
p_^^Haracter have in vain applied for ordination, though sup- 
1^ ^^ by the record of much successful pulpit and pastoral 
o^ ^^ as licensed lay preachers, and by many influential friends 
1^ ^^c laity and clergy. One of these, of national reputation, I 
o^^^hom this sanction of ordination was refused, has since been 
<|^^^ncd by the Protestant Methodist Church, which, having 
^^ *^^ so^ however, steadfastly declines to add to the number, 
^w^^iag apparently exhausted its liberality by this extreme 
....^I^ticatioD of the spirit of Wesley. 

Amcriaa Methodism. f R«v* AnnM U. Shaw. 

I Ckristiaa WomAnbood, W. C BUck, D.D. 




Tlic small sec: of primiLive Mctiiodists which adheres most 

strictly to the methods of Wesley have always employed women 
preachers as a means of reaching the depraved classes ; this 
being one of the points of difference upon which it separated • 
from the main body. . 

The United Brethren in Christ, or German Methodists, as 
formerly called, when their membership was more largely of 
that element, are to be distinguished as appointing the first *^ 
woman as ''circuit rider," which was recently done by Bishop 
Kephart of the Wabash Annual Conference, held at Clay City, 
Ind. The appointee is a young woman eminently adapted to- 
the work and is one of several ordained women elders in this ^ 
church. ' 

So far as known, the Baptist Qh urch has taken no steps 
leading to the admission of women to its ministry, save in that 
division known as Free Will Baptists, which has ordained a -^^ 
small number of women in various parts of the country under 
its democratic system of government. The Free Baptist 
General Conference of 18 86 adopted the following resolution : 
'' That intelligent, godlywomen M-ho are so situated as to devote 
their time to the ministry, and desire to be ordained, should 
receive such indorsement and authority as ordination involves, 
provided there are no objections to such indorsement other 
than the matter of sex. Many of the Baptist clergymen,, 
however, as those of all leading denominations, save the Epis- . 
copal and Roman Catholic, freely admit women to their pulpits 
to speak upon great moral questions, and would welcome them 
to the ranks of the ministry. Women are also prominent in its 
conference and prayer meetings. 

The Presbyt erian Church has been a strongly conservative 
body, slow to sanction radical change in its polity, but if the 
Pan-Presbyterian Council, held not long since in London, 
voices the general sentiment of this large and important 
denomination, women are to enjoy a more equal power in 
its administration. For a long period they were carefully 
excluded ; but for a number of years past a more liberal policy 
has welcomed them to a free utterance in the conference and 
prayer meetings, which they sometimes conduct, and at synods . 
they often speak upon missionary and other topics. At a^ 
Synod of the Refowmu} Presbyterians held in 1889, it was 
decided by a vote of 93 to 24 that the ordination of a woman 
as deacon is in harmony wi*h the New Testament and the 
constitution of the Apostolic Church. 

There are also indications that the long-frozen ground of • 

rr . ' . ■ ■ ^ ■ . jx- 1 

' »T7U , r ^ i tt3.jjt.«; ft'pgaup^ 

wmmm^ m * " ^ w * y 

9^ m w 


ionalism ii thawing toward a springtime of 

genefoos recognition of its women. The recent opening 

Hartford Theological Seminary, and the almost immedi* 

1^ pccsentatioo to it of a prize scholarship to be competed for 

^^ ^onen aloDc, are notable signs. The general recognition of 

itncst of women preachers in missionary fields, the sig- 

it fact that Oberlin College, which graduated its first 

tbeologtcal student * nearly forty years ago and has 

bat one other since, pri nts this year, for the first time, the 

of these two women upon the Triennial Catalogue, are 

Kr straws upon the rising tide of favor toward the woman 

'. Under the Congregational system, any individual 

may ordain for itself a woman whom it may choose 

its pastor, and this has been done in several instances 

dtber by the deacons of the church or by a council 

for the purpose, the present year recording more such 

inatioDS than any preceding year.f 

lan Lutheran Chiu ch. as represented in a recent 
of the Missouri Synod at Baltimore, feeling compelled 
leoognixe the trend of evangelical Christianity toward a 
^laa ministry, presented for discussion the question, " How 
and under what conditions do we allow women to teach ? " 
decision reached was that they must not teach at all in 
pulpit nor in the congregation. As there is absolute- 
P^^ty of the clergy of this church, and the congregation is its 
^ imate of authority, it is by no means certain that this posi- 

« can be uniformly maintained. f^^AJ^*^*-^^^ 

^o this church is due the credit of introducing into tne 
ntry as earl^ as 1849 the order of Di^aconesses ajMnaintained 
Europe dunng the last fifty years, fiy the persistent efforts 
Mr. John D. Lankenau of Philadelphia, an enthusiastic 
^^pporterof this institution, America is now provided with the 
^Hcst ** Mother-house ** in the world, the immediate result of 

* Rev. Antoinette Brt>vn BUckweU, the fint woman ordjuaed in thb 

Mfs. BteckweO writes : " At the time of my ordinatioQ I was pastor of 
tW ckvch of ' Sooth Butler and SaTaooah/ New York State. The church 

ciDed a cooacfl to ordain me and install me at the regukr minister. It was 
anorthodoa society in good and regular standing among othtf Coogrega- 
irchea, aaid the ordination was quite according to precedent ; though 
the Coogre|[atiooal bodjr as a whole never would have ordained a 
either then, thuty-seven fears ago* nor yet to^iay.** — Exk note. 

Rev. Louise & Baker, pastor ol the Orthodox Congregational Chnrch, 
to Haatacket, lla«., was ordained \rf the dsaoooi ol that choich la iti4, 
ef Che fov denooas heiag 


whicli has been a rapid increase of the order in various denomi- 
nations, in all parts of the country. This magnificent edifice, 
built by Mr. Lankenau as a memorial of his wife, at a cost of 
half a million of dollars, has been presented as a free gift to the 
German Hospital Corporation of Philadelphia. " The western 
wing of the building is used as a home for aged men and 
_ women, the eastern wing as a residence and training school (or 
the deaconesses, the chapel uniting the two, and the whole be- 
ing known as the Mary J. Drexel Home and Mother-bouse of 
Deaconesses." • \ 

The Protestant Episcopal Church has for many years recog- 
nized the value of ' sisterhoods " of consecrated women, more 
or less closely affiliated, for carrying on its various branches of 
philanthropic service, from which the growth and efficiency of 
the church has received no small degree of impetus and impor- 
tance. Among these sisterhoods arc numbered two orders of 
deaconesses, one of which has been changed into the "Sister- 
hood of St. John the Evangelist "; which, in view of the grow 
ing hospitality of thought toward preaching by women, carriet 
in its title a certain suggestiveness. Fourteen sisterhoods,*^ 
religious order of widows, and two orders of deaconesses are 
reported in i88S for Ihis church. 

The church polity of the "Christ ian Co fliiection," better 
known as ihe Chrisiiao-Church, as its name implies, is placed 
upon a broad foundation, by which each church is an indepen- 
dent republic, and women arc thus eligible to its pulpits; one 
Woman, ordained la its ministry in the State of Illinois, having 
H the present time charge of three prosperous churches. 

* Keport of the Dedication of the Mary J. Drexel Home and Uothtr, 
house of Deaconesses, December 6, iSSS. In 1SS7 Mrs. Ln^ Rider Meyer, - 
M. D., coDDccled with the Chica^ Traioinf; School, with k few wooms M 
assist, gave tlie lirat impulse to the Deacooess movemeiit Id tha M«tbo<Ii« 
Episcopal Church, which has resulted in the establishment of Mrthrr liiium 
in Chicago, New York, Boston and other larjre cities. The chindi, leeiBf 
the measureless opportunities oflered by such an InstitDtioo, has wiidy bees 
' prompt to adopt it, and this will doubtless encourage tbe adopdoa of A« 
order by other denominations. 

fThe Grace Mouse Training School for Dcacooesses wu opcdcd far 
the admission of candidates October (1S90), in New York, adjoju; ~ 
Church. The General Convention of the Protestant Episcap ' 

Id October, 1889, provided that every candidate for the office of L , 

iMftK-e she is set apart, shall have had "an adequate prepantiaa for htf 
worli, both technical and religious, which prepaiatioa shall cover tb* period 
of two years." The Grace House Tnloin^ ScImoI k pnvidwl In famish 
Ibis preperstioB. — Go. 


The Universalist Church has been the first to open the doors 
oC its theological schools for the training of women for the.min* 
isHj, and Iqr its esublished forms ordain them to its full fellow 
dnpL This was not, however, considered a part of its ecclesi- 
astical system until made practically such by the admission of 
die first woman candidate,* who, denied entrance to the Mead* 
wille Theological School (Unitarian), applied in i860 to the 
Picsident of St Lawrence University to be admitted to its 
theological department In his reply, the fair-minded presi* 
dent candidly wrote : ^ No woman has ever been admitted to 
thu college^ and, personally, I do not think women are called 
to the ministry, but that I shall leave with the great head of the 
chmch. .... I shall render you every aid in my power." A 
graduate of Mt Holyoke Seminary and of Antioch College, at 
which she received the degree of A.B., this' well-equipped 
pioneer for a larger place for women in the Christian church 
soon verified her credentials, and the president, always her 

• 'steadfast friend, preached her ordination sermon. Since her 
ordination, she has enjoyed a number of successful pastorates, 
with the duties of which marriage and motherhood have not 
proved incompatible. 

Aboot fifty women have been ordained in this church, and 
jdl its schools and colleges, save one, are now co*educa* 
tiooaL There is also, with scarcely an exception, among its. 
'ckrgymen a feeling of cordial fellowship toward women 

Would the limits of this article permit, sketches of the work 
accomplished by its pioneer women preachers would furnish 
not uninteresting reading, since their fields of labor have been 
some of the most difficult in their respective churches. They 
have been called to the building of new churches in unbroken 
fields, or to those so dead or dormant as to be apparently 
beyond the reach of men workers, and yet we hear of no fail- 
ores among them to raise these churches to new life and pros* 
perity or to organize new material upon strong foundations. In 
one notable instance, in a suburb of Chicago, a ten gears' pas- 
torate has resulted in the building of one church edifice which, 
speedily outgrown, has made necessary a more spacious and 
degant one ; and there is no disposition to exchange this suc- 
cessful woman minister for a masculine successor. 
/■ y\kit Universalist Register for 1889, contains, in its list of 

' ministers^ the names of thirty-five women, being the largest 

• RcT. Olympia Browa Willis. 


IN THE AfimSTSY. 815 

number of ordained women for any year, and the largest num- 
ber in any denomination. 

In just a decade after its refusal to admit a woman,' the 
Meadrille Theological School (Unilarian) opened its doors to 
women students, since which time it has received sixteen. 
About one third of these have graduated, while others have 
taken but a partial course as wives or prospective wives of min- 
isters, in order to be more truly " help-meets " in the pulpit 
work of their husbands. " Among these graduates," writes a 
member of the faculty, "every woman has been above the 
average. Our experience indicates that for success in our 
ministry, care should be taken to encourage only such womeo 
as, together with personal fitness for the work, can easily main- 
tain this hi^h rank." 

An amusing incident in the domestic life of one of these 
women pastors may indicate a possibility of ^owth in the 
woman ministry likely to startle conservative mmds. A little 
boy and girl, the children of a mother whose work as a 
minister evidently contained no surprises for them, were dis- 
cussing plans for their own future. "I shall help mamma 
preach," said the little girl. "I shall preach, too," stoutly 
said the small brother. His sister, looking thoughtfully and 
doubtfully at him, said slowly, " Yes, mens do preach some- 
The woman ministry in America has had no warmer friend 

C than Mrs. Julia Ward Howe, herself a preacher of well-known 
.ability, occasionally preaching in the pulpits of this country, 
and having preached in Rome, Jerusalem, and Santo Domingo 
while sojourning in those places. In 1873 Mrs. Howe suc- 
ceeded in securing a convention of such ministers as were 
within convenient distance of Boston during. Anniversary 
week, at which addresses were made and the communion 
observed, Rev. Lorenza Haynes and Rev. Mary H. Graves 
Since that lime eight annual conventions have been held ia 

• Boston ; and in the Hollis Street Church, on June a, 1883, the 
"Woman's Ministerial Conference" was formed, Mrs. Julia 
Ward Howe, president. This is not a working body, but a 
fellowship of women preachers, whether ordained or not, 
representing all denominations. Its present officers are : Mrs. 
Julia Ward Howe, president ; Rev. Mary H. Graves, corre- 
sponding secretary ; Rev. Ada C Bowles, recording secretary. 
These, with the additional names of Rev. Louise S. Baker and 
Rev. Mary T. Whitney, form its executive committee. The 


tide of Rer. is never applied save to those who have been rega« 
larlj ordained in their respective denominations. 

That women bore an important part in the planting and 
early growth of the Christian church needs no argument 
Thai the pbin teaching of Paul should have been so perverted 
as to mean their exclusion from the office of public teaching is 
to be esqilained only bv the fact of a departure from the meth- 
of the primitive church, through a purely masculine inter* 
itioo and application of regulations which, entirely adapted 
io the age and country in which uttered, were never intended 
to be prohibitive of women's preaching in that, or at any later. 

to De DfOl 

The establishment of the Diaconate, in which, as an order 
oi the clergy, women administered the sacraments, interpreted 
aad promulgated doctrines, in connection with the practical 
work of charity and benevolence, are matters of history. 

In its periods of persecution, the church received no more 
devoted service than that given hy its consecrated women. 
For its sake, they cheerfully accepted martyrdom, in its most 
cmd forms. Princesses of the blood and other women of 
noble birth left the allurements of courts for the studious seclu- 
sion of the cloister, or, seeking out the poor and needy, they 
divided with them their substance. No conditions of miserable 
poverty or loathsome disease hindered the most tender devo«. 
tioa. In all ages and in all lands women have given proof of 
a loyalty to Christianity as sincere as it was serviceable. By 
their proselyting power in converting royal relatives, they were 
the means of bringing not only Rome but France, England, 
Spain, Hungary, Poland, and Russia under Christian rule.^ 

Is the church to-day less in need of such service than in the 
past, that it will seek in any way to circumscribe the work of 
Its faithful women by denying to them such sanction, through 
its prescribed forms* as it bestows freely upon like qualified 
men, is the question which presses itself persistently forward 
for settlement 

Certain it is that, as ecclesiastical despotism loses its hold 
vpoo the people, they will more readily seek spiritual guidance 
a broader law of adaptation and natural fitness, in which 
mast stand at least an equal chance with men. What 
the world has already lost by their exclusion from a controll- 
tag bfluence in the church, finds its most painful illustration 
ia the widespread and deep depravity of the masses in our 
— i— ■ ■ ^ 

• ** Biognpky of Dintagnishcd WoMa," Sarmk J. HUt. 


great cities, which the' church, in none of its branches, has 
tnatcrially lessened. From the efforts now being made in 
America for the restoration of the Diaconate of woman, it is 
Mfe to argue a change for the better in this respect The new 
departure in methods has also an important illustration in the 
city of Chicago, where, under t)ie leadership of D. L. Moody, 
gifts amounting to $350,000 have been secured for a theologi- 
cal school and home, to be conducted under the auspices of 
the Chicago Evangelical Society, which is to be open to both 
■exes upon the same terms. Its object is the evangelization of 
the unchurched masses of that great city. 

The evils which have resulted to society, and which threaten 
the very life of the nation by the long neglect to establish 
proper relations between the vast arm^ of ignorant and de- 
graded beings throughout the land with the active life of 
Christianityi have become too appalling to be contemplated 
with indifference, even by the most callous and selfish. The 
call for service of a most heroic Icind is urgent and pressing. 
For this work of redemption, women have an especial fitncsk 
Invested with all the sanction the church can bestow, supple- 
mented by municipal authority where necessaiy, let the Chris- 
tian womanhood of America rise to the level of the demand ; 
"In His Name," their motto. In His spirit, their inspiration. 
No pure-hearted, strong-purposed woman but can find a place 
here to labor as " a minister of the sanctuary and of the true 
ttbemade, which the Lord pitched, and" 





history of various ages and nations, since the days of 
prophetess Deborah, irho filled the office of judge among the 
^^Isildren of Israel ( Tudges iv. 4), records the names of women 
distiogui^ed for their legal learning, some of whom were also 
successful advocates. Among the latter we content ourselves 
^tb mentioning Aspasia, who pleaded causes in the Athenian 
f<Miiiii, and Amenia Sentia and Hortcnsia in the Roman forum. 
But, alas, the right of Roman women to follow the profession 
<d advocate was taken away in consequence of the obnoxious 
conduct of Calphumia, who, from ** excess of boldness" and 
^by reason of making the tribunals resound with bowlings un- 
common in the forum/* says Velcrius Maximus, was forbidden 
to plead. (Velerius Maximus, Hist. lib. viii. ch. iii.) The law, 
made to meet the especial case of Calphumia, ultimately, 
^ under the influences of the anti-feministic tendencies *' of 
tbe period, was converted into a general one. In its wording 
tbc law sets forth that the original reason of woman's exclu* 
sion ^ rested solely on the doings of Caphrania." (Lex. i, sec 
S. Di^ iil l) 

Thu exclusion furnished a precedent for other nations which, 
in the course of time, was followed. Dr. Louis Frank, of the 
Faculty of Law at Bologna, in a pamphlet entitled " La Femme 
Avocat," translated by Mary A. Greene, LL.B., of Boston, and 
published in 1889 in serial form in the CAi<a£0 Law Timis^ in 
:ing on this point, says : 
Without taking time to discuss the rudimentary law of the 
ancieot German Colonies, we recall only that institution of Ger* 
fDaoic origin, xhtwgt ot aJv^atits^ whose care it was to represent 
crery woman at the court of the suzerain, in judicial acts and 
debate*. • • • • The ancient precedents were conceived and 


m LAW. 219 

established in • spirit which was extremely favorable to woman. 
There is not a trace in them of the privileges of masculinity. 
They allowed woman to be a witness, a surety, an attorney, a 
judge, an arbitrator. Later, under the influence of the canon 
law, and in the early renaissance of juridical study, under the ' 
action of the schools of Roman law, a reaction made itself 
felt against the rights of women, and the old disabilities of 
Roman legislation reappeared and became a part of the legal 

Further on. Dr. Frank says : 

" llie forwardness of Calphumia appeared to all the ancient 

{'urists a peremptory reason for excluding women from the 

From among his citations to prove this assertion we extract 
the following : 

" BoatiUier tells us that a woman could not hold the ofBce of 
attorney or of advocate. ' For know, that a woman, in what- 
ever state she may be, married or unmarried, cannot be re- 
ceived ai procurator for any person whatever. For she was 
forbidden (to do) anyactof procuration because of Calphumia, 
who considered herself wiser than any one else ; she could not 
restrain herself, and was continually running to the Judge 
without respect for formalities, in order to influence him 
against his opinion.' (Somme Rural, Edit. Mace, Paris, 1603, 
L. i. tit. I. p. 45.) Further on, designating those ' who may 
be advocates in court and who not,' Boutillicr cites as incap- 
able minors, the deaf, the blind, clerks, sergeants, arid women. 
* For women are excluded because of their forwardness, like 
Calphumia, who could never endure that her side should be 
beaten nor that the judge should decide against her, without 
apeakinjc forwardly to the judge or lo the other partj-.' [Id. 
L. ii. tit. ii p. 674) .... In Germany as in France, the 
inferiority of woman was justified upon the same grounds. 
'No woman,' says \\it Miroir de Souabe, ' cxa be guardian of 
herself nor plead in court, nor do it for another, nor make com- 
• plaint against another, without an advocate. They lost this 
through a gentlewoman named Carfurna, who behaved fool- 
ishly in Rome before the ruler.' " {Miroir de Souaie, T. ii. ch. 
xxiv., Lassberg, 34S-) 

^ The prohibition against women acting as advocates, or bar- 
risters, the latter being the term used to designate the office in 
England, wherever adopted, has continued in force to the pres- 
ent time outside of the United States of America. In England 
i are permitted to qualify for and practice as attorneys 


jU law and solicttors in chancery, biit have not been permitted 
to become barristers and exercise the rights of that rank in the 
prcsccotion of their cases. Were it not for the Calphumian 
decree, they still would be ineligible because of being denied 
mxlmission to the four Inns of Court, where barristers are trained 
mud ranked. These Inns of Court are voluntary societies (xoiti 
whose power to reject applications for membership there is no 

The common law of England becoming the law of this coun- 
try, its women were thought also ineligible to admission to the 
l>ar, and but one woman, so far as we know, attempted to test 
the matter until within the last (juarter of a century. This ex- 
eeption was a very notable one in colonial days. It was the case 
of Margaret Brent, spinster and gentlewoman. She and her 
sister Mary, kinswomen of the first Lord Proprietary and Gov- 
ernor of Maryland, came to the Province in 1638, "bringing 
ower nine colonists, five men and four women. They took up 
manors, imported more settlers, and managed their affairs with 
inasculine ability." So says William Hand Browne in his 
*^ History of a Palatinate." The Governor, Leonard Calvert, 
died the 9th of June, 1647, leaving Mistress Brent his sole ex- 
ecutrix. At the time of his death, he was attorney for his 
l>r oilier, Cecilius Calvert, second Lord Baltimore, the Lord 
Proprietary. Mistress Brent succeeded him as attorney for his 
lordship. Her right to act in this capacity, which she at first 
cL^imcd ** on the strength of her appointment as executrix," 
vas questioned in the provincial court, where she had occasion 
f re<iuently to appear in regard to his lordship's " private estate 
and transactions in the Province." The Court ordered that 
she ^ should be received as his lordship's attorney." The 
question came up in court on the 3d day of January, 1648, of 
which record was made as follows : 

** This day the question was moved in court whether or noe, 
Mr. Leon. Calvert (rema}'ning his L»*** sole attorney within this 
Province before his death, and then dying) the said Mr. Cal- 
vert's administrator was to be received for his L^** Attorney 
witr.In this Province untill such time as his Lordship had made 
a r.cvr substitution, or that some other remayning uppon the 
pre :nt Commision were arrived into the Province. The Cov- 
er: jr demanding Mr. Brent's opinion upon the same Quere, 
Ilr^ ansT^xred that he did conceive that the administrator 
c )<t to be looked uppon as attorney both for recovering of 
rl : .:s into the estate and paying of dew debts out of the estate 
z^'^'l tiling care for the estate's preservation : But not further. 

untill hit Lordship shall substitute some other as aforesaid. 
And thereuppon the Governor concurred. It was ordered 
that the administrator of Mr. Leon Calvert aforesaid should be 
received as liis Li"'' Attorney to the intents above." (Archives 
of Maryland, vol. iv. p. 358.) 

The provincial court records show that Mistress Brent not 
only frequently appeared in court as his lordship's attorDey, 
in which capacity she continued to act for some years, but also 
in prosecuting and defending causes as attorney for her brother, 
Capt. Giles Brent, and in regard to her personal affairs, and as 
executrix of Leonard Calvert's estate (the record calls her 
"administrator"; slie was appointed by the testator to execute 
his will). There is no record of any objection being made to her 
practicing as attorney on account of licr sex. At that time the 
provincial court at St. Mary's " was the chief judicial body in 
the Province, being not only a court of first instance for all 
matters civil, criminal, and testamentary for the city and ■ 
county of St. Mary's, but having also appellate jurisdiction 
over the county courts. It was composed of the Governor as 
presiding judge, and one or more of the members of the council 
asassociate judges." (Archives of Maryland, vol. iv. preface.) 

Unmindful of the words "but not further" in the opinion, 
Mistress Brent asked for voice and vote in the' General Assem- 
bly on account of her position as his lordship's attorney. 
This request was denied. Whether her sex entered into the 
denial is a question without solution. The Assembly proceed- 
ings for January 21, 1648, make mention of the fact in these 
words : 

"Came Mistress Margarelt Brent and requested to have vote 
in the howse for herselfe and voyce allso, for that att the last 
court, 3'' Jan., it was ordered that the said Mistress Brent was 
to be looked uppon and received as his Lp* Attorney. Tlic 
Gov' dcnyed that the said Mistress Brent should have any vote 
in the howse. And the said Mistress Br^nt protested against 
all proceedings in this present Assembly, unlesse shee m.iy be 
• present and have vote as aforesaid." (Archives of Maryland, 
vol.1, p. arj). 

The first woman since the days of Mistress Brent to ask for 
and obtain admission to the bar of this country was Arabella^ 
A: Mansfield of Mt. Pleasant. Iowa. She studied in a law 
office and was admitted to the Iowa bar in June, 1869, under a 
statute providing only for admission of '' white male citizens." 
' The examining committee in its report, which is of record, 


" Yoar committee have examined the provisions of section 
9700 of chapter ii4tOf the Revision of i860, concerning the 
qomlifications of attorneys and counselors in this State [section 
sjoo provided for the admission of "white male persons." 
Bou], but in considering the section in connection with division 
3 of section 19, chapter 3 of the Revision, on construction of 
statutes [section 19 provided that *' words importing the mas- 
culine gender only may be extended to females." Ed.], we feel 
jostified in recommending to the court that construction which 
we deem authorized, not only by the language of the law itself, 
but by the demands and necessities of the present time and 
occasion. Your committee take unusual pleasure in recom- 
SBcnding the admission of Mrs. Mansfield, not only because 
she is the first lady who has applied for this authority in this 
State, but because in her exammation she has given the very 

i best rebuke possible to the imputation that ladies cannot 

^ qualify for the practice of law." 

At the time of Mrs. Mansfield's debut into the profession 
without op|x>sition, Myra Brad well, of Chicago, having studied 
law under the instruction of her husband, ex- Judge James B. 
Bradwell, was unsuccessfully knocking at the door of the Su- 
preme Court of Illinois for admission. To give an understand- 
ing of the case, and line of argument used in denying her 
application, we extract from the opinion of the Court, delivered 
hf Mr. Justice Lawrence, the following : 

** Mrs. Myra Bradwell applied for a license as an attorney at 
law, presenting the ordinary certificates of character and quali- 
fications. The license was refused, and it was stated, as a 
sufficient reason, that under the decisions of this court, the 
-» applicant, as a married woman, would be bound neither by her 
express contracts, nor by those implied contracts, which it is 
the policy of the law to create between attorney and client. 

^Since the announcement of our decision, the applicant has 
filed a printed argument, in which her right to a license is 
earnestly and ably maintained. Of the qualifications of the 
applicant we have no doubt, and we put our decision in writing 
in order that she, or other persons interested, may bring the 
question before the next Legislature It is to be remem- 
bered that at the time the statute was enacted [the statute un- 
der which admission was sought, which provided that *' no 
person shall be permitted to practice as an attorney or counsel- 
lor at law," etc. Ed.] we had, by express provision, adopted 
the common law of England, and, with three exceptions, the 
statutes of that country passed prior to the fourth year of James 

IN LA W. aaj 

the First, so fxr as they were applicable to our condition. It 
is also to be remembered that female attorneys at law were un- 
known in England, and a proposition that a woman should 
enter the courts of Westminster Hall in that capacity, or as a 
banister, would have created hardly less astonishment than one . 
that she should ascend the bench of bishops, or be elected to 
a seat in the House of Commons. It is to be further remem- 
bered that when our act was passed, that school of reform -s^ 
which claims for women participation in the malcing and ad- 
ministering of the laws, had not then arisen, or, if here and 
there a wnter had advanced such theories, they were regarded 
rather as abstract speculations than as an actual basis for action. 
That God designed the sexes to occupy different spheres oft 
action, and that it belonged to men to make, apply, and execute / 
the laws, was regarded as an almost axiomatic truth. It may 
have been a radical error, but that this was the universal belief 
certainly admits of no denial. A direct participation in 'the 
affairs of government, in even the most elementary form, 
namely, the right of suffrage, was not then claimed, and has 
not yet been conceded, unless recently, in one of the newly 

settled territories of the West But it is not merely an 

immense innovation in our own usages, as a court, that we are 
asked to make. This step, if taken by us, would mean that, in ^^ 
the opinion of this tribunal, every civil office in this State may 
be filled by women ; that it is in harmony with the spirit of our 
constitution and laws that women should be made governors, 

Judges, and sheriffs. This we are not prepared to hold 

There are some departments of the legal profession in which 
woman can appropriately labor. Whether, on the other hand, i 
to engage in the hot strifes of the bar, in the presence of the I 
public, and with momentous verdicts the prizes of the struggle, 
would not tend to destroy the deference and delicacy with 
which it is the pride of our ruder sex to treat her, is a niattcrj 
certainly worthy of her consideration. But the important 
question is, what effect the presence of women as barristers in 
. our courts would have upon the administration of justice, and 
the -question can be satisfactorily answered only in the light of 
experience," (Supreme Court Reports of Illinois, vol. Iv. 

P-S35-) . . 

The Supreme Court of Illinois havmg refused to grant to 
Mrs, Bradwell a license to practice law in the courts of that 
State, she appealed the case to the Supreme Court of the 
United States, where the judgment of the State court was 
affirmed. She was there ably represented by Mr. Matthew 


Hale Carpenter. Mr. Justice Miller delivered the opinion of 
the court. In affirming the judgment, the refusal being made 
on the ground that women are not eligible under the Taws of 
IHinoi% the court held that *^ such a decision violates no pro- 
visioii of the Federal Constitution "; that the right to practice 
law in the State courts is not '' a privilege or immunity of a 
otiien of the United States, within the meaning of the first 
of the fourteenth article of amendment of the Constitu- 
of the United States "; and that *' the power of a State to 
the qualifications for admission to the bar of its own 
coofts is unaffected by the fourteenth amendment, and this 
court cannot inquire into the reasonableness or propriety of the 
nlet it may prescribe." (i6 Wallace's Reports, Supreme 
Omrt U. S., p. 130). Mr. Justice Bradley, while concurring 
in the judgment, gave expression to his views in a separate 
opinion in which he took occasion to say that, ^ The constitu- 
tiOQ of the family organization, which is founded in the divine 
ordinance as well as in the nature of things, indicates the 

; domestic ^here as that which properly belongs to the domain 
nod functions of womankind." The Chief Justice, Salmon 
P. Chase. ** dissented from the judgment of the court, and from 
nU of the opinions." 

The Legislature of Illinois, in 1871, enacted that ** No per- 
son shall be precluded or debarred from any occupation, pro*. 

^ fcwon. or employment (except military) on account of sex.*' 
Bot Mrs. Bradwell, ever since being occupied with editorial 
work on the Ckicag0 Legal News^ which she founded in 186S, 
nod with the publication of Bradwell's Appellate Court Reports 
nod other legal works, did not renew her application for a 
license to practice law. The sequel is this, copied from the 
Ckuag0 Legal News of April 5, 1890 : '* We are pleased to say 
that last week, upon the original record, every member of the 
Supreme Court of Illinois cordially acquiesced in granting, on 
the Court's own motion, a license as an attorney and counselor 
at law to Mrs. Bradwell." 

The next court case was that of Mrs. Belva Ann Lockwood, 
Washington, D. C, who graduated from the Law School of 
the National University, and was admitted to practice before 
the Sopreme Court of the District, in 1873. The same year a^ 
oiotion was made for her admission to the bar of the U. S.' 
Court of Claims. This Court refused to act upon the motion, 
*'for want of jurisdiction.'* The opinion concludes in these 
words : ''The position which this Court assumes is that under 
the Constitution and Laws of the United States a court is with* 


Iff LA tr. aaj 

out power to grant such an application, and that a woman is 
without legal capacity to take the office of attorney." (Court 
of Claims Reports, vol. ix p. 346.) 

At the October term, 1876, of the Supreme Court of the 
United States, Mrs. Lockwood applied for admission as prac- 
titioner of that court. Her application was denied. The de- 
cision has not been officially reported, but, upon the record of 
the Court, it is thus stated: "Upon the presentation of this 
application the Chief Justice said that, notice of this application 
having been previously brought to his attention, he had been 
instructed by the Court to announce the following decision up- 
on it : By the uniform practice of the Court from its organiza- \^ 
tion to the present time, and by the fair construction of its 
rules, none but men are admitted to practice before it as at- 
torneys and counselors. This is in accordance with im- 
memorial usage in England, and the law and practice in all the 
States, until within a recent period ; and the Court does not 
feel called upon to make a change until such a change is re- ' 
quired by statute or a more extended practice in the highest 
courts of the States." 

Mrs. Lockwood continued practicing before the courts of the 
District and elsewhere, outside of United States courts, until ~v 
Congress passed a bill providing, " That any woman who shall 
have been a member of the bar of the highest court of any State 
or Territory, or of the Supreme Court of the District of Col- 
umbia, for the space of three years, and shall have maintained 
a good standing before such court, and who shall be a person' 
of good moral character, shall, on motion, and the production 
of such record, be admitted to practice before the Supreme 
Court of the United States" (Approved, Feb. 15, 1879). Mrs. 
Lockwood drafted the bill and secured its passage. She was 
the first woman to be admitted under the law and to practice 
before this Supreme Court. (Since then, six others have been 
admitted, viz. : Laura De Force Gordon of Stockton, Cali- 
fornia; Ada M. Bittenbcnder of Lincoln, Nebraska; Carrie 
Bumham Kilgore of Philadelphia ; Clara M. Folti of San 
Diego, California; Lelia Robinson-Sawtelle of Boston, and 
Emma M. Gillet of Washington, D. C. Mrs. Bittenbender 
moved the admission of Miss Gillet, the first instance of one 
woman moving the admission of another to the highest court in 
the country.) A few days after Mrs. Lockwood's admission, 
she received word from-the Court of Claims that she could now 
plead before it. 

The next State court to be heard from on the subject was 


the Supreme Court of Wisconsin, in 1875. ^^^ matter was 
the motion to admit Miss R. Lavinia Goodell to the bar of that 
ootiit. Miss Goodell, the year before, had been admitted to 
tiie bar of the circuit court of Rock county iA that State. 
Tlie argument, read on the hearing of the motion by I. C 
Sloan, Esq^ was prepared by her. The motion was denied, it 
being held that ''To entitle any person to practice in this 
coarty the statute requires that he shall be licensed by its 
order, and no right to such an order can be founded on admis- 
sion to the bar of a circuit court. The language of the statute 
vdating to the admission of attorneys (which declares that * he 
shall first be licensed, ' etc.) applies to males only; and the 
statutory rule of construction that 'words of the masculine 
gender imy be applied to females,' ' unless such construction 
would be mconsistent with the manifest intention of the Legis- 
lature,' cannot be held to extend the meaning of this statute, 
in view of the uniform exclusion of females from the bar by 
the common law, and in the absence of any other evidence of 
a legislative intent to require their admission." Chief Justice 
Ryan delivered the opinion of the Court. The following 
extract from that opinion we believe will be read with interest, 

r and remain of historic value as showing the fossilized miscon* 
ceptions woman combated with in attaining the generally 
acceptable position in the legal profession in this country- 
which she now holds : 

** We cannot but think the common law wise in excluding 
women from the profession of the law. The profession enters 
largely into the well-being of society ; and, to be honorably 

y filled and safely to society, exacts the devotion of life. The 
law of nature destines and qualifies the female sex for the bear- 
ing and nurture of the children of our race and for the custody 
of the homes of the world and their maintenance in love and 
honor. And all life-long callings of women, inconsistent with 
these radical and sacred duties of their sex, as in the profession 
of the law, are departures from the order of nature ; and when 
voluntary, treason against it. The cruel chances of life some- 
times baifle both sexes, and may leave women free from the 
peculiar duties of their sex. These may need employment, 
and should be welcome to any not derogatory to their sex and 
its proprieties, or inconsistent with the good order of society. 
-But it IS public policy to provide for the sex, not for its super- 
fluous members ; and not to tempt women from the proper 
duties of their sex by opening to them duties peculiar to ours. 
There are many employments*in life not unfit for female char* 

tlf LA W. as? 

acter. The profession of the law is surely tiot one of these. 
The peculiar qualities of womanhood, its gentle graces, iUs, 
<)uick sensibility, its tender susceptibilit)[,itt purity, iu delicacy, 
its emotional impulses, its subordination of hard reason to 
sympathetic feeling, are surely not qualifications for forensic . 
strife. Nature has tempered woman as little for the juridical 
conflicts of the court room, as for the physical conflicts of the 
battle-field. Womanhood is molded for gentler and better ! 
things. And it is not the saints of the world who chiefly give 
employment to our profession. It has essentially and habitually %^ 
to do with all that is selfish and malicious, knavish and crirai' 
nal, coarse and brutal, repulsive and obscene, in human life. 
It would be revolting to all female sense of the innocence and 
sanctity of their sex, shocking to man's reverence for woman- 
hood and faith in woman, on which hinge all the better afifec- 
tions and humanities of life, that woman should be permitted 
to mix professionally in all the nastiness of the world which 

. finds its way into courls of justice ; all the unclean issues, all 
the collateral questions of incest, rape, seduction, fornication, 
adultery, pregnancy, bastardy, legitimacy, prostitution, lasciv- 
ious cohabitation, abortion, infanticide, divorce." 

Ah, dear sir, it is largely to " mix professionally in all 
the nastiness of the world which finds its way into courts of 
justice," that many, very many women seek admission to the 
bar. In every case involving any one of the " unclean issues " 
or "collateral questions" you have named, some woman must 
appear as complainant or defendant, or be in someway associ-' 

-Btcd. What more proper, then, than that some other woman 
should be in court, clothed with legal power, tocxtend aid and 
protection to her sister in trouble, that justice maybe done 
her, and the coarse jest and cruel laugh, so proverbial in social 
impurity cases before woman's advent as pleader, prevented! 
And we respectfully call upon the mothers of every land to see 
to it that in no instance in the future of the world shall a 
woman be summoned to the bar of justice as a party or witness 
in any case involving one of these "unclean issues " or " col- 
lateral questions " without being accompanied by one or more 
of her own sex of irreproachable character. When such emer- 
gencies are otherwise unprovided for, let the "good mothers 
of Israel " in the place convene and depute one or more of their 
number to perform this duty. Itisaduty, unquestionably, to be 
performed in the interest not only of one sex, but of mankind 
generally ; for what affects one sex for good or evil, affects 


AyCy Mr. Chief Justice, '' the profession enters largely into 
the wdl-being of society "; and it is because of this fact wo- 
man desires and ought to enter it. This is the best of reasons. 
As to her inotherh(x>d prerogatives, experience has shown her 
abk to perform these as the Father of the Universe and Mother 
Natme would have her, and still not to be precluded from giv- 
ing the profession the necessary '* devotion " to the end that it 
shall be *^ honorably filled and safely to society." If *' the law 
of nature destines and qualifies the female sex .... for 
the costody of the homes of the world and their maintenance 
in love and honor/' as you say, Mr. Chief Justice, — we say 
** if ** because we believe the male sex to be joint-heir, — that 
does not mean that all women, or any woman, should stay in- 
side of four walls continually to cook, wash dishes, sweep, dust, 
make beds, wash, iron, sew, etc. Oh, no ! A woman may 
properly act as the custodian of a home and maintain it in love 
and honor, and do none of these things. Instead of such '* life- 
long callings of women " being '* departures from the order of 
nature, and, when voluntary, treason against it," as you think, 
Mr. Chief Justice, we hold that to stifle the longings of an im- 
mortal soul to follow any useful calling in this life, to be a 
^departure from the order of nature, and, when voluntary, 
treason against it" 

A law was promptly enacted enabling women to practice law — 
in Wisconsin, under which Miss Goodell was admitted to the 
Supreme Court of the State. 

Next following Miss Goodell's case, came that of Lelia J. 
Robinson of Boston, in 1881, the Supreme Judicial Court hold- 
ing that under the laws of Massachusetts *' an unmarried 
woman is not entitled to be examined for admission as an 
attorney and counselor of this court. " In the opinion of the 
Court It is stated that " this being the first application of the 
kind in Massachusetts, the Court, desirous that it should be 
fnlly argued, informed the executive committee .of the Bar 
Association of the city of Boston of the application, and has 
veceived elaborate briefs from the petitioner in support of her 
petition, and from two gentlemen of the bar as amid curia in 
opposition thereto. " The statute under which the application 
made provided that, ^ A citizen of this State • . . . may, 
the recommendation of an attorney, petition the Su- 
preme Judicial or Superior Court to be examined for admis- 
sion as an attorney, whereupon the Court shall assi^ a time 
and place for the examination, and if satisfied with his acquire- 
ts and qualifications he shall be admitted." The Court 

•aid thftt "the word 'citizen,' when used <ii iti most i 
and most comprehensive sense, doubtless includes worn 
K womin is not, by virtue of her citizenship, vested by t 
stitution of the United States, or by the Constitutiot 
Commonwealth, with any absolute right, independent c 
lation, to take part in the government, either as a vo^ 
an officer, or to be admitted to practice as an att 
(Haas. Supreme Court Rep., vol. cxxxi. p. 376.] The 
was delivered by Chief Justice Gray. The Legislature, 
passed a statute providing for the admission of wome 
the same terms as men. Miss Robinson, now Mrs. S 
immediately took the examination and was admitted 
SuSolk County Bar. The next year the Legislature e: 
the powers of women attorneys in an a£t " to authoi 
Governor to appoint women who are attomeys-at-law 
commissioners to administer oaths and to take deposiii 
the acknowledgment of deeds." This legislation 
necessary on account of a decision of the Supreme Coui 
State in which it was held that " a woman cannot law] 
appointed a justice of the peace, or, if formally appoini 
commissioned, lawfully exercise any of the functions 
office." (Mass. Supreme Ct. Rep., vol. cvii. p. 604.] 
power "to issue summonses for witnesses" was addei 
act of 1889. 

Mary Hall of Hartford, Connecticut, in 1881, after 
completed the prescribed tenn of study and passed the i 
examination, applied to the Superior Court m Hartford 
for a license to practice law. The statute under which 
plication was made provided that the Superior Court "t 
mit as attorneys such persons as are qualified thcrefoi 
ably to the rules established by the judges of said court, 
statute had " come down, with some changes, from t 
»7So, »nd in essentially its present form from the year 
The bar of Hartford county "voted to recommend 
mission of the applicant subject to the opinion of thi 
whether, as a woman, she could be legally admitted, 1 
pointed Messrs. McManus and Collier to argue ti 
before the Court." The Court reserved the application 
advice of the Supreme Court. The latter Court "he 
under the statute a woman could be admitted as an atl 
This being contra to the holdings of the United Sta 
State courts in similar cases, which we have cited, was 
ing indeed. The opinion merits quotation quite at ien 
waadelivered by Chief Justice Park. The part selectee 


No one wooU doubt that a statute passed, at this time, in the 
woffds would be sufficient to authorixe the admission of 
to the bar, because it is noir a common fact and pre- 
^liwMir in the minds of legislators, that women in different 
(*tts Of the country are and (or some time have been following 
^ ptofesnon of law. But if we hold that the construction of 
^ statute is to be determined by the admitted fact that its ap- 
^featioo to women was not in the minds of the legislators when 
, ^ %as pasMd, where shall we draw the line ? A U progress in 
Social natters is gradual We pass almost imperceptibly from 
dilate of public opinion that utterly condemns some course of 
^i eu to one that strongly approves it. At what point in the 
yt o ^ of thb change shall we regard a statute, the construction 
||!^^»lnch if to be affected by it, as passed in contemplation of it ? 
^^ea the statute we are now considering was passed it proba- 
^ never entered the mind of a single member of the Legislature 
^4 black men would ever be seeking for admission under it. 
^ ^^U we now hold that it cannot apply to black men ? We 
'^^^ of no distinction in respect to this rule between the case 

statute and that of a constitutional provision Events 

t gave rise to enactments may always be considered in con- 
ling them. This is little more than the familiar rule that in 
^^Kistruing a statute we always inquire what particular mischief 
'^vu designed to remedy. Thus the Supreme Court of the- 
^itcd States has held that in construing the recent amend- 
^^fents of the Federal Constitution, although they are general in 
^^r terms, it is to be considered that they were passed with 
l^erence to the exigencies growing out of the emancipation of 
^ slaves, and for the purpose of benefiting the blacks. But 
«^ statute was not passed for the purpose of benefiting men as' 
distinguished from women. It grew out of no exigency caused 
^ the relation of the sexes. Its object was wholly to secure 
^ht orderly trial of causes and the better administration of jus> 
tioe. .... We are not to forget that all statutes are to be con- 
stnied« as far as possible, in favor of equality of rights. All re- 
strictions upon human liberty, all claims for special privileges, 
are to be regarded as having the presumption of law against 
them, and as standing upon their defense, and can be sustained, 
tf at all by valid legislation, only by the clear expression or 
dear implication of the law. 

** We have some noteworthy illustrations of the recognition 
of women as eligible, or appoin table to office under statutes of 
which the language is merely general. Thus, women are ap- 
pointed in all paru of the country as postmasters. The act of 


W LAW. , 231 

Congreis of i8»5 was the first one conferring upon the Post- 
maiter-Gencrkl the power of appointing postmasters, and it has 
remained essentially unchanged to the present time. The 
language of the act is, that " the Post master- General shall es- 
tablish post-offices and appoint postmasters." Women are not - 
included except in the general term " postmasters," X tenu 

which seems to imply male persons The same may be 

said of pension agents. The acts of Congress on the subject 
have simply authorized " the President, by and with the advice 
and consent of the Senate, to appoint all pension agents, who 
shall hold their offices for the term of four years, and shall give 
bond," etc. At the last session of Congress a married woman 
in Chicago was appointed for a third term pension agent for the 
State of Illinois, and the public papers stated that there was not 
a single vote against her confirmation in the Senate. Public- 
opinion is everywhere approving of such appointmenis. They 
promote the public interest, which is benefited by every legiti- 
mate use of individual ability, while mere justice, which is of 
interest to all, requires that all have the fullest opportunity for 

the exercise of their abilities We have had pressed upon 

us by the counsel opposed to the applicant, the decisions of the 
courts of Massachusetts, Wisconsin, and Illinois, and of the 
United States Court of Claims, adverse to such an application. 
While not prepared to accede to all the general views expressed 
in those decisions, we do not think it necessary to go into a 
discussion of them, as we regard our statute, in view of all the 
considerations affecting its construction, as too clear to admit of 
any reasonable question as to the interpretation and effect 
which we ought to give it." (Conn. Supreme Cl Rep., vol. ]. 
'p. rji). 

We have a record showing that there were fifty-six women ' 
attorneys in the country at the time this last decision was 
rendered, in July, i8Sz, of whom thirty-one had graduated 
from law schools. Five of the fifty-six have gone to the spirit 
land. The first togowasLemmaBarlcaloo, of Brooklyn, N. Y., 
the second to be enrolled as an attorney, and the first to try a 
cam since the days of Mistress Brent. She was refused ad- 
mission to the L<iw Department of Columbia College, and 
entered that of Washington University at St. Louis, in 1869. 
Without completing the course, she was admitted to the Circuit 
Court of St. Louis, and to the Supreme Court of the State in 
1870. She died the same year of typhoid fever. The St. 
Louis Bar resolved " that in her erudition) industry, and en- 
terprise, we have to regret the loss of .one who, in the mom- 


tag of bcr career^ bade fair to reflect credit upon our profes- 
and a new honor upon her sex." Aha M. Hulett, of 
died in 1877. She prepared the bill to secure ad* 
of women in IHinois and lectured in its interest dur- 
ing its pendency. She was admitted on her nineteenth birth- 
dw. fellen A. Martin, in speaking of her in an article on 
^Admission of Women to the Bar/' published in the ini- 
tial anmber of the Chicago Law Times^ says : ** Miss Hulett 
ivas a yoong woman of remarkable energy and push, and 
«f escellent ability and business judgment. She had tact 
skQI in the acquisition and management of business, and 
a capable and efficient lawyer. She had a wonderful 
twoiUXf for making friends who interested themselves in her 
and in the three years of her practice acquired an 
int of profitable business that is not generally expected in 
law practice until after a much longer period. Her successful, 
and It may fairly be termed brilliant, career had a marked in- 
fluence in producing a favorable attitude of the public toward 
woman practitioners." Lavinia Goodell, daughter of the well- 
known Abolitionist, Rev. Wm. Goodell, was the pioneer lawyer 
of Wisconsin. She was admitted to the bar, after passing a 
brilltant examination, in 1S73. The case which greatly ex- 
tended her reputation throughout the State and. country was 
one involving twelve hundred dollars, in which her client was 
a woman. l*he case was carried from the county court to the 
ciicoit court, and appealed from that to the supreme court, 
where she won. According to the law of Wisconsin, Miss 
Goodell's admission to the circuit . cous^ admiued her to all 
courts in the State except the supreme court. Upon carrying 
9p ber case, and applying for admission to this, the chief justice 
(Ryan), refused her on the ground of sex. The arguments 
appear in substance in vol xxxix. of Wisconsin reports. 

She afterward reviewed the chief justice's decision in the 
Cki€^0 JL^g^l News SLX\d unquestionably had the better of him 
in argument She also prepared a bill and sent it to the State 
l^egislatore, providing that no person should be refused admis- 
to the bar on account of sex. A petition asking for its 
was signed by the circuit judge and every member of 
the bar in the county. In such high esteem was Miss Goodell's 
held, that her best paying clients were women. She 
admitted to the supreme court in 1875. 
She did much work for temperance and woman suffrage, two 
wnbjects which were very near her heart. Her life was devoted 
^to good deeds, which only ended here when she was called up 



higher. She died in 1880, in Milwaukee, where she had gone 
for medical treatment 

M. Fredrika Perry, of Chicago, died in 1883. She graduated 
from the Law School of Michigan University in March, 1875, 
was immediately admitted to the Michigan bar, and in the fall 
to the Illinois bar. Soon afterward, on motion of Miss 
Hulett, she was admitted to tlie United States circuit and dis- 
trict courts for the Northern District of Illinois, Miss Hulett 
being the first woman admitted to these courts and to any 
United States court. She continued in practice in partner- 
ship with Miss Martin, under the name of Perry & Martin, un- 
til her death (the result of pneumonia). Speaking of her. 
Miss Martin says : " Miss Perry was a successful lawyer and 
her success was substantial. She combined in an eminent 
degree the qualities which distinguish able barristers and 
jurists ; her mind was broad and catholic, clear, quick, logical, 
and profound; her information both on legal and general 
matters was extensive. She had a clear, strong, and pleasant 
voice, and was an excellent advocate, both in presenting the 
law to the court and the merits of a case to the jury. She was 
a skillful examiner of witnesses, and understood as few attor- . 
Dcys do, save practitioners who have grown old in experience, the 
nice discriminations of Common Law Pleadings and the Rules 
of Evidence, the practical methods by which rights are secured 
in courts. All her work was done with the greatest care. She 
was engrossed in the study and practice of law, appreciating 
its spirit and intent, and gained steadily in efficiency and 
practical power, year by year. She had the genius and ability 
for the highest attainment in all departments of civil practice, 
and joined with these the power of close application and 
hard work. She belonged to the Strong family, which has 
furnished a great deal of the legal talent of the United States. 
Judge Tuley, before whom she often appeared, said of her at 
the bar meeting called to tnkc action upon her de.-ith, "I was 
sarprised at the extent of her legal knowledge and the great 
' legal acumen she displayed." Tabitha A. Holton, of Dob- 
son; North Carolina, died in 1886. She was admitted to the 
Supreme Court of the State in January, 1878, having passed a 
highly creditable examination. She practiced in Dobson, in 
partnership with her brother, Samuel L. Holton, devoting 
herself chiefly to office work and the preparation of civil 
cases, until a short time before her death. 

Ada H. Kepley, of Effingham, Illinois, was the first woman "^ 
to graduate from a law school in this or any other country. 



She took her degree in June, 1870, from the Union College of 
law, Chicago. 

The major part of law schools of the United States now 
freely admit women when applied to for that purpose. Among 
those still refusing are the law departments of Yale, Harvard, 
and Georgetown universities, and Columbia College ; the Cum- 
berland University Law School of Lebanon, Tennessee, the 
Law Department of the Washington and Lee University in 
Lexington, Virginia, and the Law Department of the University 
of Virginia. '* One woman, however, does wear the honors of 
the degree of Bachelor of Laws as conferred by Yale. This is 
Alice R. Jordan, now Mrs. Blake, who, after a year of study in 
the Law School of Michigan University and admission to the 
bar of Michigan in June, 1885, entered the Law School at Yale 
in the fall of the same year, and graduated at the close of the 
coone with the degree as already stated. Dean Wayland, of 
Yale Law School, sends me a catalogue of the University, and 
writes that the marked paragraph on page 25 is intended to 
prevent a repetition of the Jordan incident The paragraph 
referred to appears on the page devoted to departments of in-' 
struction, and reads : * It is to be understood that the courses 
of instruction above described are open to persons of the male 
sex only, except where both sexes are specifically included.'" — 
(Lelia J. Robmson, LL.B., in an article on " Women Lawyers 
in the United Sutes," in T?u Green Bag, January, 1890.) As 
'to the relative standing of the sexes as students in law schools, 
Hon. Henry Wade Rogers, dean of the department of law of 
Michigan University, says : '* The women who have attended 
the Law School have compared favorably in the matter of 
scholarship with the men. They are just as capable of acquir- 
ing legal knowledge as men are." This law school has gradu- 
ated more women than any other in the country. Hon. Henry 
Booth, dean of Union College of Law, gives the standing of 
women in scholarship as that of a fair average, and says : We 
discover no difference in the capacity of the sexes to appre- 
hend and apply legal principles. We welcome ladies to the 
school and regard their presence an advantage in promoting 
decorum and good order." 

A law school for women has recently been opened in New 
York City. Its founder is Madame Emile Kempin*Sp^ri, a 
graduate of the School of Jurisprudence, of the University of 
Sorichy in 1887. Her application for admission to the order 
of advocates of her native country, Switserland, being denied. 

»>t » I I I 



she eaiigratcd to tlie United States. She is the counsel of the 
Swiss Legation in Washington.* 

Women lawyers of this country are entitle4 to practice be- 
fore all courts, State and national, the same as male lawyers. 
When not admitted under existing statutes, the respective 
legislatures, so far, with two exceptions, have promptly passed 
enabling acts. Women anxious for admission were the first 
to advocate these. One exception to the usual legislative 
promptness is found in the case of Annie Smith, of Danville, 
Virginia. The Judge of the Corporation Court, to whom she 
applied in 1889 for a certificate to enable her to be examined, 
refused it on the ground that for a woman to obtain license the 
present statute would have to be amended. Mrs. Smith, aided 
by her husband, an attorney, vainly endeavored to secure the 
necessary enactment during the last session of the State Legisla- 
ture. The bill, a general one, was voted down ; but a private 
bill, to enable Mrs. Smith only to obtain license, was favorably 
reported. The Legislature, however, adjourned before finsd 
action on it. Mr. and Mrs. Smith will continue their efforts 
until successful. 

The other exception was a prior one, but admission came 
without legislation. This is found in the case of Carrie Bum- 
ham Kilgore, of Philadelphia. Speaking of her twelve years* 
struggle for admission, Miss Martin, in her article on *' Admis- 
sion of Women to the Bar," already cited, says : " In Decern- 
ber, 1874, Carrie Burnham (now Kilgore), of Philadelphia, 
began the long and tedious warfare that she has been obliged 
to wage for admission in Pennsylvania. The Board of Ex- 
aminers refused to examine her, because there was ' no precedent 
for the admission of a woman to the bar of this county,' and 
the Court refused to grant a rule on the board req[uiring them 
to examine her. Mrs. Kilgore then tried to have a law passed 
forbidding exclusion on account of sex, but the Judiciary 

* Dr. Kcmpin writes : The Law School for women was a private under- 
taking, but founded with the aim to connect it with an already existing insti- 
tution after having proven its vitality. With the help of the Women's Legal 
Education Society, an incorporated body of women interested in the higher 
education of their sex, the Law School succeeded in connecting itself with 
the University of the City of New York. In response to a request of the 
Women's Legal Education Society the doors of the Law Department of the 
University were thrown open to women on the same terms as to men, and a 
lecture^ip created to which I was selected as a lecturer on the same footing 
at other lecturers in the Law Department and especially to instruct classes ol 
non-matriculating students who desire a knowledge of law for practical guid* 
lUic« and general culture — EDt ' 


^.wwqw— «. 





CoouDittee of the Senate took the position that the lav as it 
stood was broad enough, and so it would seem to be. The 
Act of 1834 declares^ ' The Judges of the several Courts of 
Record in the Commonwealth shall respectively have power to 
admit a competent number of persons of an honest disposition, 
and learned 10 the law, to practice as attorneys in their respec- 
tiwe courts.* The Senate finally passed the clause desired, at 
two or three sessions, but it was never reached in the House. 
Finally Mrs. Kilgore gained admission to the Law School of 
the University of Pennsylvania in 1S81, where she had pre- 
rioosly been denied, and by virtue of her diploma from there, 
ia 1883, was admitted to the Orphans' Court of Philadelphia. 
She was then admitted to one of the Common Pleas Courts, 
but denied admission to the other three, though it is the cus- 
tom when a person has been admitted to one, to admit to the 
test as a matter of course. As soon after admission to the 
Common Pleas Court as the law allows, two years, and in May 
of this year, 1886, Mrs. Kilgore applied and was admitted to 
the Supreme Court of the State, and by virtue of this admission, 
all the lower Courts are now compelled to admit her. Thus, 
Pennsylvania has accomplished after twelve years, what Iowa 
did seventeen years ago without any ado, and with a statute 
chat might have afiforded a reasonable ground for refusal, which 
the Pennsylvania statute did not." Since her admission, Mrs. 
Kilgore has been in active general practice. Her husband, an 
ab!e lawyer, in whose office she studied and worked, died two 
years ago, in 1888. He had a large clientage. After his death, 
llrs. Kilgore was requested to take charge of his cases in all 
but one instance. She is the attorney for Harmon Lodge, 
LO.O.F., and the Relief Mining and Milling Company. 
Several times she has been appointed master and examiner by 
the courts. A special correspondent of the Chicag0 Daily 
Trikume^ in its issue of April 5, 1890, speaking of Mrs. Kil- 
^ore's efforts and successes concludes with : ** She has several 
interesting children and a delii;hiful home, neither her strug- 
gle for woman's rights nor her devotion to her professional con- 
cerns having interferred with her domestic duties nor estranged 
her from the hearth." 
y This reminds us of many interesting cases of motherly care 
and devotion on the part of women practitioners, two of which 
we cannot refrain front mentioning. One is in regard to 
Ohio's first woman lawyer, Annie Cronise Lutes, of Tiffin, who 
was admitted to practice before the courts of that State in 
April, 1^73- Her sister, Florence Cronise, was admitted in 


IN LAW. 137 

September of the tame year. The»e two sistert, aince their 
ftdroisiion, have punued the steady, straight practice of law 
without deviation. For several years they were law panners. 
In tSSo, Mn. Lutes and her husband, who had been fellow stu- 
dent* in the unie office, and were admitted to the bar at the 
•ame time, formed a partnership. (This left Miss Florence to 

Jractice alone, which she has since done w!th signal success.) 
[r. and Mrs. Lutes were married in 1874. They have three 
daughters. The two eldest (aged fourteen and twelve respec- 
tively) are attending the Heidelberg University, at Tiffin, taking 
the full classical course,/<7r which Ihey were prepared under tht 
imUrutHon of their tna/Aer, never having attended public school. 
The full force of this fact will become apparent further on. 
In 18S1 Mr. Lutes became U/a/fy deaf. In a letter showing 
the extent of their law practice, which was published in the 
article on " Women Lawyers in the United States," already 
cited, Mr. Lutes says : 

" Our practice is general in character, and extends to the 
courts of this State and the United Sutes courts for the North- 
em District of Ohio. The following facts will enable you to 
form an estimate as to the nature and extent of Mrs. Lutes's 

Sirxtice and experience at the bar. The bar of this county has . 
ortyfive members. The total number of civil cases on the 
trial docket of the term just closed was 336 ; of that number, 
oar firm was retained in fifty cases, which is probably a fair 
average of our share of the business for this county, and our . 
practice also extends to a considerable extent to the adjoining 
counties of this district." 

Mr. Lutes's infirmity necessarily imposes extra duties on his 
faithful partner, which the following extract from the Chicago 
Daify 7>(X««f, of April S, 1890, graphically pictures: "Mr. 
Lutes is totally deaf, but his wife sits by him in court and 
repeats word for word what is said, and although her lips 
make no audible sound, every word said by judge, jury, or 
opposing counsel is understood. Without her assistance he 
' would be perfectly helpless, so far as his law practice is con- 
cerncd. The two work together on every case that is brought 
to them, and it is seldom a person sees one without the other. 
Their practice is lucrative and extensive." 

The other case is that of Clara S. Foltz. Her married life 
was unfortunate. She had the family to support. This she 
.did by undertaking dressmaking and millinery, and then con- 
ducting classes in voice culture and keeping boarders, An at- 
torney who "admired her keen reasoning powers and her 


loctiiTe logic." one daj said : ^ Mrs. Foltz, you are such a 
food mother that I believe you would make an able lawyer.. 
Here is a copy of Kent's Commentaries. I wish you would 
take it home and read it" She did so as she nursed her 
babies — five of them now. Shortly afterward she began the 
study of biw in an office. Subsequently she secured a divorce 
aod the custody of her children. In September, 1878, she 
was admitted to practice and removed to San Francisco for a 
course in the Hastings Law College. She made application for 
admission as a student in the college and the dean permitted her 
to attend the lecture for three days, while the directors were 
deciding what to do about it. They refused her application on 
tlie ground that it was ^ not wise or expedient, or for the best 
interest of the college, to admit any female as a student 
therein.** Mrs. Foltx informed the dean that she meant to at- 
tend the lectures — peaceably if she could, but forcibly if she 
must. She promptly commenced action for a mandate to 
compel the directors to admit her. She won. The directors 
appealed the case to the State Supreme Court Mrs. Foltz a;>* 
peared and argued her side of the case, making the point that 
the Law College was a branch of the University, and that 
woman's right to enter the latter was unquestioned. The 
Court agreed with her, and held that *^ An applicant for admis- 
sion as a student to the Hastings Law College cannot lawfully be 
rejected on the sole ground that she is a female." (Foltz v, 
Hoge, €i ml.^ Cal. Supreme Court Rep., vol. liv. p. 38.) She 
entered the college and remained there eighteen months, attend- 
ing three classes daily to overtake her class. Finally overstudy, 
lack of nseans, and the care of her children, prostrated her. It 
was a severe disappointment not to be able to complete the 
prescribed three years* course and win her degree. She will 
yet gain it Mrs. Foltz thus tells the story of her first case : 

**I firmly believe in the Infinite. The day the Supreme 
Court admitted me — it was on Thursday — I traveled from 
San Jose to San Francisco. An old gentleman who knew of 
my struggles and ambitions was on the train. He explained in 
an apologetic way that he thought perhaps I would be willing 
to assist him in finding a land claim that he had pre-empted, 
and which another settler contested. My would*be client had 
all the necessary proofs and witnesses ready, and the case was 
to come up at ten o'clock the following day. I had never been 
in a land oflBce. I was ignorant of the methods of procedure, 
but I could soon learn. I accepted the case. 

^ That day was a crisis in my life. To pay the ten dollar 

m LA w. aas 

fee of the Supreme Court I pawned this breaatpm— dear old 
pin [ Next morning, before I was up, a knock came to my dooi 
u the clock struck seven. My client was there. I dressed 
myself and carried on a conversation through the door. Whal 
would I charge for my services, he asked. I did not know, 
but ventured a guess at the correct figure. I would undertake 
the case for $25. He hesitated a little, and said that aftei 
witnesses fees and other expenses were paid he would have 
but $15 left, and that if I had a mind to take that sum it would 
be all right. I accepted eagerly, for I needed the money. 
Next I invited the witnesses in and questioned them. We 
parted to meet at the land of!ice, but I went down in advance 
to see the Surveyor-General. I hold that the truth is always 
the best, so I told him that I had a case at ten o'clock, but knew 
nothing about land-ofHce matters, and that I wanted to learn 
the law. He was very kind and furnished me with a pamphlet 
of instructions. Tlien I ventured to reijuest that the case 
might go over to i f-m. He found that it could. I was im- 
mensely relieved and hastened off with my precious pamphlet. 
Client and witnesses were on the stairs. I informed thera of 
the change in time and turned back. Didn't I get that 
pamphlet by heart though ! And I won my first case, re- 
deemed my cherished pin, and paid rny board bill." 

Laura De Force Gordon, who was also denied admission to 
the Hastings Law College, and aided Mrs. Foltz in her man' 
damns case, successfully defended a Spaniard charged with 
murder, within two months after her admission to. the bar in 
1879. "Among her most noted criminal cases was that of 
The People v. Sproule, which was indeed in some respects the 
most remarkable trial in the whole range of criminal jurispru- 
dence in California. The defendant had shot and killed a 
young man named Andrews, by mistake for one Espey, the 
seducer of Sproule's wife. It was a fearful tragedy, and the 
excitement was so great that the jail had to be guarded for * 
week to prevent the lynching of the prisoner. Mrs. Gordon 
undertook his defense, against the advice of the most distin- 
guished lawyers in the State, and obtained a verdict of " Not 
guilty " amid the most deafening cheers of men and hysteri- 
cal cries of women, half-wecpirg jurymen joining in the gen- 
eral clamor of rfejoicing." ("Women Lawyers in the United 
States," in The Green £a^, January.iSgo.) 

In speaking of her practice, Mrs. Lockwood says ; " My 
first was a divorce case and I won it, but the man refused to 
pay the alimony. The judge told me there was no law to make 

V, V- 


him pay it I told him there was, and I showed him I could 
imoe a m txtat I issued the writ, and the man was clapped 
mto prison until he agreed to pay the alimony. Years after* 
ward a similar case came up and the men who were the 
lawyers asked if there was no way to compel a man to stay in 
the District until he paid the alimony. The clerk said : * Belva 
Lockwood is the only one who has ever issued a m exeat in the 
District ; you had better consult her.' Many a time I have 
been saved by a little wit. Once my client, a woman, got 
vpon the witness stand, in spite of all I could do, and acknowl- 
cd|fed she had committed the crime of which she was accused. 
Il was for shooting a constable, and that woman described the 
whole thing, talking until I was glued to my seat with fright. 
When she stopped and I had to get up I didn't know what I 
was going to say, but I began, * Gentlemen of the jury, the 
laws must be enforced. My client has committed the double 
offense of resisting an officer of the law and shooting a man. 
The District is under the common law. That law says a 
woman must obey her husband. Her husband told her to load 
a gmi and shoot the first officer that tried to force his way into 
the house. She obeyed him. Gentlemen, I claim that that 
husband loaded the gun and shot the officer, and as the judge 
will no: postpone this case until I can have the husband 
brought from the West, where he is, I claim you are not trying 
the right prisoner. You would not have a woman resist her 
husband?' The jury brought in the verdict of 'Not guilty,' 
and the judge, a crusty gentleman, said, when the next case 
was brought up : M will call a new jury for this case, as the old 
one has just done a hard day's work.' " 

Col. C K. Pier, his wife, and three daughters, of Madison, 
Wisconsin, are widely known as '* the Pier family of lawyers." 
The Colonel is a lawyer of long standing. Mrs. Pier and their 
eldest daughter graduated from the Law Department of the 
University of Wisconsin in 1887. AH three practice together. 
The two younger sisters, Carrie and Harriet, have nearly finished 
the course in the law school from which their mother and sister 
graduated. Miss Kate, in her twenty-first year, appeared before 
the Supreme Court and won her case, the first to be argued by 
a woman in the supreme tribunal of the State. A newspaper, 
commenting on the fact, says: "Her opponent «*as J.J. 
Sutton, a veteran practitioner. The gray-haired patriarchs of 
the profession smoothed the wrinkles out of their waistcoats 
and straightened their neckties, and then wiped the specks off 
their spectacles The audience was one before which any 

IN LA W, a4» ^*t» 

young man might readily have been excused for getting rattled. .&ae4- 
There were present Gen. E. E. Bryant, dean of the law •^wj^^'t 
faculty, ex-Secrelary of the Interior William F. Vilas, and % s £>d a 
host of visiting legal lights. Even the dignified JMdgax^^ign 
were compelled to affect an extra degree of austerity to conceal£ic^2ceal 
their interest in the young attorney. But Miss Pier showed ncoT ' no 
sign of embarrassment. Her argument was direct and to th^c" 'l>e 
point, and, moreover, relieved of the superfluities that f requentlj^*"* *»«/■ 
characterize the verbose utterances of more experienced attor-^x *»*""■■ 
neys of the male sex. She stated her case unhesitatingly, and> g^-^pd 
frequently turned to and cited authorities, showing an acquain^v '^}^' 
tance with the law and a degree of self-possession which 'i<^''^*J!i.'e 
catcd that she was truly in love with her profession. Sh»**^^^ 
showed she possessed the true mettle for success, and tw(y^y»^e 
weeks later, when the judges rendered their decision, sh» *^ fc-ie 
.had the pleasure of winning her first case. Since then both sh»**^^" 
and her mother have frequently argued cases before the Court.'* -^^^-i1 

Almeda £. Hi[chcock, of Hilo, Hawaii Islands, grad uatet£ y ^ ^8, 
from the Law Department of the Michigan University in i888^^^^_ oi 
and was admitted to the Michigan bar. Her father is one o ^^^ ^]^ .n 
the circuit judges of that far away island. On her r*tuni^^^^_ o 
home she was admitted to the Hawaiian bar on presentation off^^^ 
her license from the Michigan Court, the first instance of "^^^^^ :xt 
woman's receiving license to practice law in that kingdom.—-' ~^^d 
The same day she was appointed notary public and became ^ 
her father's law partner. 

Marilla M. Ricker, while a resident of the District of Col- 
umbia, was appointed Commissioner and Examiner in Chancery 
by the Supreme Court of the District, and several cases were 
heard before her. Other women lawyers, in various parts of 
the country, have been appointed examiners in chancery and 
examiners of applicants for admission to the bar. Mary £. 
Haddock, LL.B., in June, r878, was appointed by the Supreme 
Court of Iowa to examine students of the State University for 
graduation and admission to the bar. She was reappomted 
for two successive years. Ada Lee, of Port Huron, Michigan, 
the year following her admission in 18S3, was elected to the 
office of Circuit Court Commissioner, having been nominated, 
without solicitation on her part, by the Republican, Democra- 
tic, and Greenback parties of St. Clair county. "She per- 
formed the duties of this office, and held it until the expiration 
of her term, despite the fact that thirteen suits were begun to 
oust her, during which time two hundred and seventeen casM 
were tried before her." Mrs. J. M. Kellogg acted as Assistant 




AltOffBqr-Gcneril during the time her husband was Attomey- 
Goicnd of Kantat. They are law partners. 

Phoebe W. Cousins, LL.B., was chief deputy United States 
Marshal for the Eastern District of Missouri during the time 
fauher was the Marshal. At the death of her father she 
named his successor, which position she held until removed 
by the in-comtng Democratic administration. Catherine G. 
Wiaa^ A.M., LL.B., was for a year or two Professor of Com* 
aeicsal Law in the Rockford (111.) Commercial College. Mrs. 
Folu delivered a legal address before the students of Union 
CoQege of Law in iS86. Mary A. Greene, LL.B. recently 
delnrercd a course of lectures before the students of LaseU 
Semioary on ** Business Law for Women." 

Several able articles have been written for law journals by 
women lawyers of this country. Of books, M. B. R. Shay, is 
aathor of *^Students ' Guide to Common Law Pleading " (pub- 
lished in iSSi.) Of this work, Hon. R. M. Benjamin, dean of 
Law Faculty, and Hon. A. G. Kerr, professor of Pleading of Law 
I>e|>artment of the Illinois Wesleyan University, say, as pub- 
lished in Callaghan& Company's annual catalogue of law books : 

** We have examined with considerable care Shay's Questions 
on Common Law Pleading, and can cheerfully recommend 
Ihem to students as admirably adapted to guide them to a 
thorough knowledge of the principles of pleading as laid down 
by those masters of the system, Stephen, Gould, and Chitty.'* 

Lelia Robinson Sawtelle is author of *' Law Made Easy ** 
(poblished in 1886). Of this work, Hon. Charies T. Russell, 
professor in Boston University Law School, says : " For the 
cod proposed, the information and instruction of the popular 
ntnd in the elements of law, civil and criminal, I know of no 
work which surpasses it. It is comprehensive and judicious in 
scope, accurate in statement, terse, vigorous, simple, and clear 
in style. My gratification in this work is none the less that its 
aathor is the first lady Bachelor of Laws graduated from 
oor Boston University Law School, and that she has thus early 
mnd fully vindicated her right to the highest honors of the 
school accorded her at her graduation.'* Mrs. Sawtelle has 
since written a manual entitled *' The Law of Husband and 
Wife,** which likewise has been well received. She is now at 
work upon another to be called '* Wills and Inheritances.** 

We have already spoken of Myra Bradwell as the editor 
of the CkUag0 Legal News, Catharine V. Waite, LL.B., ediu 
the Ckiemf^0 Law Times^ which she founded in 18S6. Bessie 
Bndwell Helmer, LL.B., compiled, unassisted, ten volumes of 

Bn4««U*s Appelate Court Reports. Cora K Benneson, LL^B., 
was Lav editor for the West Publishing Company of St. Paul, 
UisiMMta, in i8S6. 

The fint association of women lawyers is called " The Equity . 
dab." This was organized in October, 1886, by womeo 
sivdents and graduates of the Law Department of Michigan 
Vni<renity, having for its object " the interchange of encour- 
•gefDcnt and friendly counsel between women law students and 
pnctitionen." It is intemationa] in scope. Each member is 
nqaired to contribute a yearly letter, "giving an account of 
individual experiences, thoughts on topics of general interest, 
and helpful suggestions," for publication and distribution 
among members of the association. 

Another association of women lawyers, organized in 1S88, is 
the " Woman's International Bar Association," having for its * 
object : 

I, To open law schools to women. 

9. To remove all disabilities to admission of women to the 
bir, and to secure their eligibility to the bench. 

3. To disseminate knowledge concerning women's legal 

4. To secure better legal conditions for women. 

Women lawyers are welcomed as members of bar associations . 
established by their brothers in the profession. Many have 
availed themselves of this privilege. 

For various reasons quite a number of women admitted have 
not, so far, identified themselves with law practice. Others' 
have allowed themselves to be drawn into temperance and 
other reform movements ; but the greater portion at once set- 
tled down to follow their chosen pursuit with no deviation, 
and ire ripening into able, experienced lawyers, and winning 
their fair snare of clientage. Some confine themselves mainly 
to ail office practice, seldom or never appearing in public ; 
Others prefer court practice. Those who enter the forum are^.. 
cordially countenanced by brother lawyers and acceptably re- 
Ceiv<Ml before court and jury. As a rule they are treated with 
the tttmoM courtesy by the bench, the bar, and other court 

WOKMn'* influence in the court room as counsel is promo- 
ttvt «t ftoud in more than one respect. Invectives against op- 
HpMtn^ CVttintvl, to freely made use of in some courts, are seldom 
nt^M^I^ in when woman stands as the opponent. And in 
%WMt Wtpuriiy cases, language, in her presence, becomes more 
4^HM^ M^ the moral tone thereby elevated perceptibly. But 


ilioiild be one more innovation brought into general 
vofoe^ that of the mixed jury system. When we shall have 
both as lawyers and jurors to assist in the trial of cases^ 
and not until then, will woman's influence for ^ood in 
the administration of justice be fully felt In Wyoming and 
Washtagtoo the mixed jury system has been triea and found 
perfectly practicable. 

There has not been time enough yet for a woman to develop 
ialo aa Erskine or Burke* an O'Connor or Curran, a Webster 
orChoate. But few men have done so, if history correctly 
Woman has made a fair beginning, and is deter- 
to posh on and upward, keeping pace with her brother 
aloi^ the way until, with him, she shall have finally reached the 
l i jfjfifit pinnirlf of ty g^l fame* 




No one who has studied the history of the world, even super- 
ficially, will dispute the statement that over the female half of 
the human family there has steadily brooded a cloud of hin- 
drance and repression, of disability and servitude. The long 
past has denied to women the possession of souls, and they 
nave been relegated to the ignorance and injustice to which 
men have always doomed those regarded as their inferiors. 
Until within a few years, comparatively speaking, the world 
has been under the dominion of brute force, and might has 
made right. Every one has been welcome to whatever he has 
hjkd the brawn and muscle to win and to hold, and all have 
yielded to the rule of physical force, as to-day we respect the 
decisions of the courts. All through these ages the history at 
woman has been disastrous. Her physical weakness, and not 
alone her mental inferiority, has made her the subject of man. 
Toiling patiently for him, asking little for herself and every. 
thing for him, cheerfully sharing with him all perils and hard- 
ships, the unappreciated mother of his children, she has been 
bought and sold, petted or tortured, according to the whim of 
her brutal owner, the victim everywhere of pillage, lust, and 
war. And this statement includes all races and peoples of 
the earth from the date of their historic existence. 

Among the Hindoos, woman was the slave of man ; bought, 
■old, lent, gambled away, and taken for debt, with the very 
power of life or death held over her by some irresponsible hu»- 
band, father, or other man. She was forbidden to speak the 
language of man, and was condemned to use the patois of 
slaves. Under the old Roman law, the husband was the sole 
tribunal of the wife. He controlled her property, earnings, 
and religion : she was allowed no rights in her own children ; 
ind she could invoke no law against him. The Greek Uw 



regarded woman as a child, and held her in everlastinf^ tute* 
lage f rom the cradle to her gray-haired old age. Anstotle,* 
aiul they of his school, called her a "monster/* an "accidental 
production." The Hebrews pronounced her an afterthought 
of the Deity, and the mother of all evil. Throughout the 
entire Orient, her condition has been one of such compulsory 
senritude, that the phrase "Oriental degradation of woman," 
remains to-day the synonym of the deepest debasement woman 
has ever known. 

When the councils of the medieval church came together to 
decide on the instruction needful to the young, they hastened 
to count women out, and to declare them "unfit for instruc- 
tion.** And they, who in defiance of this decision — kind- 
hearted nuns of the Catholic Church — established schools for 
?'rU, were publcily stoned when they were met on the streets. • 
he early Christian fathers denounced women as "noxious ani- 
mals,** "painted temptresses," "necessary evils," "desirable 
calamities," and "domestic perils." From the English Hep- 
tarchy to the Reformation, the law proclaimed the wife to be . 
**ixi all cases, and under all circumstances, her husband's crea- 
ture, ser>'ant, and slave." Herbert Spencer, writing of Eng- 
lish laws, in his "Descriptive Sociology of England," says: 
**Our laws are based on the all-sufficiency of man's rights, so 
that society exists to-day for woman only as she is in the keep- 
ing of some man." To Diderot, the French philosopher, even 
in the eighteenth century, so persistently do the traditions of 
the past make themselves felt, woman was only a "courte- 
san.'* To Montesquieu, she was "an attractive child," — to 
Rousseau "an object of pleasure to man." To Michelet, 
nearly a centur>' later, she was "a natural invalid." 

This subjection of woman to man, which has hindered her 
development in normal ways, has created a contemptuous opin- 
ion of her, which runs through the literature and legislation of 
all nations. It is apparent to-day in unjust laws and customs, 
which disgrace the statute books, and cause society to progress 
with halting step. There still exist different codes of morals 
for men and women, different penalties for crime, and the rela- 
tions of the sexes to the government are dissimilar. In mar- 
riage, the husband has control of the wife's person, and, in 
most instances, ownership of her earnings, and of her minor 
children. She is rarely paid the same wages as man, even 
when she does the same work, and is his equal only when pun- 
ishment and the payment of taxes are in question. All these 
unjust inequalities are survivals of the long ages of servitude 

Iff THE STATE. 947 

through which woman has passed, and which have do! yet 
ceased to exist. During their existence, says Mme. de Stafi], 
"woman was able to exercise fully but one of the faculties 
with which nature has gifted her — the faculty of suSecing." 

Born and bred under such conditions of injustice, and with 
arbitrary standards of womanly inferiority persistently set 
before them, it has not been possible for women to rise much 
above them. Here and there through the centuries, exccp* 
tional women, endowed with phenomenal force of character, 
have towered above the mediocrity of their sex, hinting at the 

aualities imprisoned in the feminine nature. It is not strange 
lat these insUnces have been rare. It is strange, indeed, 
that women have held their own during these ages of degrada- 
tion. And as by a general law of heredity "the inheritance 
of traits of character is persistent in proportion to the length of 
time they have been inherited," it is easy to account for the 
conservatism of women to-day, and for the indifference and 
hostility with which many regard the movements for their 

For a new day has dawned, and humanity is moving forward 
to an era when oppression and slavery are to be entirely dis- 
placed, and reason and justice recognized as the rule of life. 
Science is extending immeasurably the bounds of Icnowledge 
and power. Art is refining life, and giving to it beauty and 
grace. Literature bears in her hands whole ages of comfort 
and sjrmpathy. Industry, aided by the hundred-handed ele- - 
mentsof nature, is increasing the world's wealth, and invention 
. is economising its labor. The age looks steadily to the redress- 
ing of wrong, to the righting of every form of error and op- 
pression, and demands that law and justice be made inter- 
changeable terms. So humane a spirit dominates the age in 
which we live, that even the brute creation share in it, and we 
have hundreds of societies organized to prevent cruelty to ani- 
mals. It could not be possible but that women should share 
in the justice and kindliness with which the times are fraught, 
and the last quarter of a century has lifted them to higher levels. 
How has this been accomplished? 

While progress is the method of man, his early progress was 
inconceivably slow. He had lived on the earth long ages 
before he Vnew enough, or cared enough, to make a record of 
what he did, thought, felt, hoped, or suffered for the benefit of 
posterity. The moment he began to make a record of his daily 
life, history began. And history lakes us back, according to 
the popiular coaception,only five or six thousand years — autheit- 


tie historjr to a period much less remote. From the early civ- 
ilisations that flourished in the valleys of the Nile and Euphra-t 
lei» this age has inherited very little. What we possess that 
say seem a transmission from that earlier time has been for 
the moat part rediscovered, or reinvented by the civilizations 
of the present. 

To the Greek civilization we are indebted for a marvelous 
development of the beautiful in art. And when our art stu- 
dents have exhausted all modem instruction, they are com- 
piled to go back thousands of years, and sit down at the feet 
oC the dead Greeks, and learn of them, through the mutilated 
fcmains of their masterpieces. To the Roman civilization we 
a wonderful development of law. The Roman code of 
is to-day the basis of the jurisprudence of the civilized 
world. Very little more than these survivals of the Greek and 
Roman civilizations have come down to us. For the barbarian 
hordes of the North and the East crushed out the life of the 
^'Eternal City/' pillaged what they did not destroy of its 
treasures, despoiled the cities in its vicinage, and ground to 
powder its boasted greatness and its strong arm of power.' 
The phenomenal dark ages set in, and for a thousand years 
the world groped in ignorance and darkness, and very little 
progress was made in any direction. 

But civilization is not artificial, but real and natural. It is 
to the race what the flower is to the bud, and the oak tree to 
the acorn, — growth, development. Again the divine in man 
asserted itself, and again there came into the world a quicken- 
iog spirit. Four great events occurred, of world-wide impor- 
tsnce, each following quickly its predecessor, and an impetus 
was given to humanity which has never spent itself, but has 
steadily gained in power and momentum. The revival of 
classical learning had a powerful influence upon woman as well 
ms man. The invention of the art of printing enabled the race 
to retain whatever knowledge it acquired, whereas, before, it 
lost as fast as it gained. The discovery of this continent opened 
a new world and limitless possibilities to the pent-up, struggling 
spirits of the East, longing for a larger and better life than was 
possible under the depressing conditions of that day. While 
the great Reformation, begun by Luther, released both men 
and women from the almost omnipotent control of the Church. 
Demanding the right of private judgment in matters of relig- 
ion, it wrought out a great development of religious liberty, 
which has been succeeded by a greater outcome of civil free* 


T^WK fbor ercDts, occurring almost simultaneously, were the 
jmcsnonof ourpresentcivilizaiion. They kindled the souls 
jC' vea into a flame which has burned steadily to this hour. 
The development of the present diy dates from them, and the 
ciT^uatioQ begotten by them is endowed with earthly im- 
raonalit^. It abounds in the elements of perpetuity, which 
the earlier human growths by tlie Nile and Euphrates never 
powewed. Slavery has almost entirely disappeared from the 
vorld under its influence. Liberty has infected all races with 
its divine contagion, and has driven from the western hemis- 
phere every crowned head. Laws and law-makers, trade and 
commerce, public and private life,church and state are examined 
by the highest ethical standards. And through the last three 
ceaturiei, there has rung out a growing demand for human 
ri^ts, and human opportunity, which has now culminated 
into* mighty and imperious demand that cannot be much longer 
denied. It is the people's hour. In this trumpet call for right 
U)d justice are heard the multitudinous voices of women, who 
have caught the ear of the world, and to whose banner are daily 
flocking new recruits, and at last the woman's hour has also 

During the centuries that preceded the Christian eta, and for 
centuries after, there were, here and there, in many countries, 
eminent women who came into possession of power and privi- 
lege; umetime* they were used wisely, and sometimes wickedly. 
But there were others, on whose histories. women will always . 
dwell with fresh delight, and refuse to believe the inucndoics 
of contemporary writers concerning them. We read of Aspasia, 
th« {WKceptreu of Socrates, the wife of the great Pericles of 
AtheM, and the friend of the Greek philosophers. Summoned 
tiW trUI before the Greek Areopagus, she was charged with 
**w*lking the streets unveiled, sitting at table with men. dis- 
Mwviiu in the Greek gods, believing only in one sole Creator, 
Utd witlt entertaining original ideas concerning the motions 
of iK* sun ftnd moon." She was in advance of her time, and 
Ikw «ge could not undcrat.-ind her. 

W* lin^t over the sad story of Hypatia, whose father, Theoa 
ttt* ^rOMag«T, wai at the head of the Platonic school at Alex- 
MchtM) M the close of the fourth century. He was also the 
COWnwotator on Ptolemy, and the editor of "Euclid," adding 
t*M« MCt there a demonstration of his own. All that he knew 
hA kVi^rted to hii daughter, and Hypatia occupied a position 
Wi^r«ll«led in ancient or modern times. Before she had 
m ( fl |»9d b«i twenty-seventh year she had written a book on 


'Tbe Astronomical Canon of Diophantes," and another on 
'*Tbe Conies of ApoUonius. " One of her enemies, the historian 
SocmteSi tells us that when she succeeded her father in the 
Platonic school derived from Plotinus, and "expounded the pre* 
cepts of philosophy,'* studious persons from all parts of the 
ooiuitry flocked to hear her, and that "she addressed both 
diem and the magistrates with singular modesty/* But alas! 
she paid the penalty of her great superiority. And because 
she was suspected of having "an influence in public affairs,'* 
aad was deemed "worthy to sit in the councils of church and 
state,** she was brutally murdered by a savage mob, that regarded 
superiority in a woman as an arraignment of inferiority in men. 

We are familiar with the story of Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra, 
who reigned a.d. 267, of whom reluctant history tells us that 
she was a woman of great courage, high spirit, remarkable 
beauty, and purity of moral character. Her literary acquire* 
ments were unusual, and she spoke Latin, Greek, ani the 
Oriental languages with fluency ; while in the admistration of 
her government she combined prudence, justice, and liberality, 
so that nearly the whole of the eastern provinces submitted to 
ber sway. 

It is a matter of history that 320 B.C., Martia, Queen of 
Lx>ndon, first formulated the principles of the English common 
law in ber judgments and enactments. Her " Martian Statutes'* 
outlived the Roman, Anglo-Saxon, and Norse invasions. Ho- 
linshed, who is regarded as good authority, says that Alfred the 
Great, after twelve hundred years, revived her Briton laws, 
and enforced them among Anglo-Saxons and Danes. Two 
centuries later, they were again re-enacted under Edward the 
Confessor, and a century after they were again re-enacted by 
Stephen. The earliest laws of Great Britain, therefore, the 
substance of which has been in force twenty-two hundred years, 
were made by a woman. 

Tacitus says of the Britons that sex was ignored in their 
government. C^sar says that women had voice in their coun- 
cils, and power in their courts, and often commanded in war. 
Plutarch says that women, among the Britons, took part in 
deciding on war and peace, as members of the councils, and 
that differences with their allies were decided by the women. 

Until the time of the Reformation, Catholicism was the state 
religion of Britain, and nunneries were established and regulated 
by Uw. The Superiors were elected by the nuns and repre* 
sented their constituents in the Wita, or legislative council; 
sad in this way the right of women to representation in govern* 



tnents was recognized. The Domesday BqoIc, compiled under 
William the Conqueror, in 1070, enumerated the inhabitaiits of 
each village who were entitled by existing Sajcon law to vote 
for local officers, and included many women. Women were 
chosen members of many Saxon local assemblies by their own 
sex, and shared authority as members. 

It has never been questioned Chat women have the right to 
vote in secular corporations where they are stockholders. It 
has been taken as settled that women have a right to vote in 
the enactment of corporation statutes, in deciding who shall be 
intrusted with the powers conferred on the corporation by law, 
and in electing persons to administer those powers. Women 
have always shared control of the immense Bank of England, 
with its enormous power over the currency and fortunes of 
the world. In still more important corporations this has been 
the case. "Women were at liberty to take part as stockholders 
with full powers to vote on all questions in the 'Virginia Com* 
pany,' which peopled Virginia, and in the company which popu- 
lated part of New England, and for a time governed it. The 
tame was true of the Hudson's B:iy Company, which for cen- 
turies ruled half North America. It was also true of the East 
India Company, which for about the same time ruled absolutely 
one of the greatest empires of earth." 

When the barons wrested Magna Charta from King John, 
one of the rights for which they contended, and forced him to 

Sant, was the right of women to a vote in the House of Lords, 
e was compelled to summon to that House all earls, barons, 
and others who held lands directly from the king, and he sum- 
moned to the very first Parliament the countesses of Pem- 
broke and Essex. In the reign of Edward I. ten ladies were 
summoned as entitled to seats There is conclusive evidence 
tltat during the first three reigns of the existence of Magna 
Charta, women had a right to a voice in the English govern- 
ment, and exercised it. 

John Stuart Mill declares that "the list of women who have 
been eminent rulers of mankind swells to a great length, when 
toqueens and empresses there are added women regents, and 
women viceroys of provinces." "It is a curious considera- 
tion," he continues, "that the only things which the existing 
laws exclude women from doing, are the things which they 
have proved they are able to do. There is no law to prevent a 
woman from having written all the plays of Shakspere, or 
composed all the operas of Mozart." But it is almost every- 
wbeie decUted that women are not fit for power and cannot 


be made to, and that they cannot take any part in ciril gov* 
eminent. The laws hare been cunningly framed to prevent 
their taking the first step in this direction, and a public senti- 
ment has been created as the bulwark of the law. "And 
vet,** says Mill, "it is not inference, but fact, that a woman can 
be a Queen Elisabeth, a Deborah, a Joan of Arc," — an Isabella, 
a Maria Theresa, a Catherine of Russia, a Margaret of Austria. 

**If a Hindoo principality is strongly, vigilantly, and eco- 
oomically governed," continues this earnest friend and stu- 
dent of woman, "if order is preserved without oppression; if 
coltivation is extending, and the people prosperous, in three 
cases out of four that principality is under a woman's govern- 
ment.** And he tells us "he has collected this fact from a 
long oflScial knowledge of Hindoo governments." "There 
are manjr such instances," he continues. "For though, by 
Hindoo institutions, a woman cannot reign, she is the legal re- 
gent of a kingdom during the minority of the heir. And minori- 
ties are frequent, the lives of the male rulers being so often pre- 
maturely terminated through the effect of inactivity and sensual 
excesses. When we consider that these princesses have never * 
been seen in public, have never conversed with any man not of 
their own family except from behind a curtain, that they do 
not read, and if they did there is no book in their language 
which can give them the smallest instruction in political affairs, 
the example they afford of the natural capacity of women for 
government is very striking." 

It was not, however, until the fifteenth century that there 
was a marked tendency to recognize the general equality of 
women with men. During the days of feudalism, it was 
debated, verjr earnestly, whether women should be educated 
or not, and it was generally believed that a knowledge of let- 
ters would put into their hands an additional power to work 
eviL Nevertheless, at all periods, whenever and wherever «-e 
can trace a literature, wc find women shining in it. Feudalism 
may be considered to have perished at the beginning of the 
fifteenth century, and a new period of transition had arrived, 
to which historical writers have given the name of "The 

In 1506, Cornelius Agrippa, eminent in the literary society 
of his time, wrote a book not only to prove that men and 
women are equals intellectually, but that woman is superior to 
man. In 1552, another work of similar scope appeared, based 
on the Platonic philosophy, the purpow of which was a defense 
of woman's superiority. In 1599, Anthony Gibson sent into 


the world a third volume, again reileraling "the superiority of 
women to men, in all virtuous actions, no matter how fine the 
quality of men may be proved to be." At the same time 
books were also being publislied by other vigorous writers of the 
day, who itoutiy denied to women the possession of reason, 
and maintained their eminence in iniquity only. 

In 1696, Daniel Defoe contended for the better education 
of women, declaring his belief that if men were trained in the 
same deplorable ignorance as women, they would be vastly 
more incompetent and degraded. In 1697, Mary Astell "dis- 
tinguished for literary and theological labors," wrote a letter 
in "Defense of the Female Sex." which passed through three 
editions. An appeal to women written by the same author, 
entitled, "A Proposal to Ladies for the Advancement of their 
True Interests," advocated their general education, and be> 
■ought their co-operation in some worthy educational scheme. 
It so wrought on Lady Elizabetli Hastings, a wealthy noble 
. lady, that she immediately offered ten thousand pounds for 
the establishment of a college for women. It was a grand 
projMsition, and would have been carried out but for the 
opposition of the bigoted Bishop Burnet. 

At that time Italy led all other nations in literary activity, 
and then, as now, was remarkable for her pride in her learned 
women. Lucrciia Marinella of Venice wrote a work entitled, 
"The Nobleness and Excellence of Women, together with the 
Faults and Imperfections of Men." The University of Bo- - 
logna, which admitted women as students, and conferred 
degrees upon them as early as the middle of the thirteenth 
' century, at last elevated them to professorships, where they 
taught law and philosophy, physiology and anatomy, Latin 
and Greek, The annals of Italian literature, scholarship, and 
art, are radiant with the names nf women who distinguished 
themselves in various departments, and were honored by the 
men of that day, who proudly testified to their abilities and 
achievements. Women of France and Italy interested them- 
selves in medical science, and we read of a woman who lec- 
tured in the sixteenth century on obstetrics "to large classes 
of both sexes." 

In England, there was the same mental quickening among 
women, as on the continent. Queen Elizabeth ascended the 
throne, and found herself immediately confronted with per- 
plexities, embarrassments, and anxieties. She was obliged to 
face religious bigots at home, and imscrupulous kings abroad ; 
her people were rent with differences of religious belief, were 


rude, ignorant, and inert; her noblemen were factious, her 
exchequer empty, her parliaments jealous of her; there was* 
neither army nor navy, and the nation was poor and embar- 
rassed with debt. But her stout heart, strong will, and wise 
bead were soon felt in every part of her kingdom. The Ref* 
ormation begun by Luther had stimulated England to great 
activity, had loosened the hold of the church upon both men 
and women, and the way was being prepared for that grand de- 
vdopment of religious and civil liberty which has since followed. 
During the Elisabethan era, the great ideas were bom which 
immediately underlie' our present civilization. Government, 
icligioQ, literature, and social life were then discussed as never 
before, earnestly, and by great thinkers, and reforms were 
i&asgurated that lifted the world to a higher level. Not only 
was the age enriched by great men of marvelous political wis- • 
dom, financial skill, comprehensive intellect, and original genius, 
bat there were noble women in England, who, holding high 
locial position, devoted their leisure and their wealth to studi- 
ous pursuits, and emulated the superior men of the day. How . 
grandly they illuminated the circles that gathered about them, 
while the majority of their sex wasted their time in frivolous 

It was in the midst of this intense intellectual ferment, and 
as the result of it, that the settlement of our country began. 
While the Church of England had emancipated itself from the 
Pafol power at immense cost of life and treasure, and after 
^generations of conflict, it had not learned the great law of relig* 
KHis freedom. Our forefathers made m*ar on the divine right 
of bishops, and the authority of the church to control their 
consciences, and were driven by persecution to America. 
Here they prospered, were subject to Great Britain, and for 
a time were contented. But when in America they were 
dented the rights granted to Englishmen living in England, 
their discontent became general, and the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence and the War of the Revolution followed. They 
were not hot-headed philosophers, craxed by the theories of 
the French revolution, as many to-day would have us believe* 
The *' glittering generalities" of the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence, as Rufus Choate sneeringly called the immortal pnnci- 
£let of our great charter of liberty, were not deductions from 
Lousseau, Voltaire, or any other French philosopher. They 
were simply the reiteration of the rights of English citisenship, 
expanded and adapted to the exigencies of the new world in 
wUch the colonisu had planted themselves. For the American 


civilisation it only a continuation of the English civilization, 
nnder new conditions — some of them more favorable, and 
other* less so. Before there was a revolution in France, or a 
democracy in France, JefFerson's most democratic words had 
been spoken in America. And all the facts go to show that if 
there was any learning from each other in political science, 
between him and the French philosophers, they were the 
pupils, and not Jefferson. They were men of untarnished 
moral character; religion and patriotism were to them synony- 
mous terms, and their love of liberty developed into a passion. - 
The world has never seen grander, more versatile, nor more 
■elf-poised men, than the founders of our nation. 

What of the women associated with these heroes? "The 
ammunition of the Continental soldiery in the war for freedom 
came from the pulpit, and the farmer's fireside," said one of 
the orators on a recent centennial occasion. The men of the 
Revolution had no cowardly, faint-hearted mothers and wives 
to hang about their neclc like millstones. Their women were 
as heroic in fiber as themselves. Patriotic mothers nursed the 
infancy of freedom. They talked with their children of the 
wrongs ci the people, and of their invaded rights, and uttered 
their aspirations for a better state of things in language of 
tntensest force. Sons and daughters grew sensitive to the 
granny that oppressed their parents, and as they came to 
maturity burned with a desire to defend their rights to the 

During the French and Indian wars of the country that 
preceded the war of the Revolution, women learned to rely on 
themselves, became experts in the use of fire-arms, and in many 
instances defended themselves and their children. They were 
fired with the same love of liberty as the men — they were 
■e<iually stung with the aggressions of the British government, 
and as resolute in their determination to resist them. They 
encouraged them to enter the army, cheered them when 
despondent, toned ihem to heroic firmness when wavering, and 
cheerfully assumed every burden which the men dropped to 
lepel the invaders of their country and their homes. 

Not only did women mingle their prayers with those of men 
at the family altar, beseeching Divine guidance, but their own 
counsel was sought by men, and given, in the deliberations 
which resulted in the nation's independence. Less than half 
a century ago, Mrs. E. F. Ellett took on herself the task o£ 
collecting the facts, and sketching the biographies, of the 
women mo were known to have contributed to the success of 


tbe coootry in its struggle for independence. She was sue- 
ccMful beyond her expectations, and published three volumes- 
of about three hundred pages each, containing biographical 
sketches of nearly one hundred and seventy women. Despite 
tbe light esteem in which the service of women has been held, 
and the ease with which it has been forgotten, their record had 
been preserved, and their memories tenderly perpetuated for 
three-quarters of a century. 

Foremost among them stands Mrs. Mercy Warren, wife of 
Joseph Warren, and sister of James Otis, author of the never- 
to-be-forgotten axiom, that "Taxation without represenution 
is trrannjr!" She possessed the Aery ardor and patriotic seal 
of ner distinguished brother, with more political wisdom and 
sagacity. She was the first one to suggest the doctrine of the 
**n^t to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness as inherent, 
and belonging equally to all mankind" ; and the patriots of that 
day accepted her teaching. She first of all counseled separa- 
tion from the mother country as the only solution of the politi- 
cal problem. She so impressed her convictions upon Samuel 
and John Adams that they were foremost in their advocacy of 
''independence," and received, at first, marked discourtesy 
from their contemporaries for their imprudence. 

She corresponded with the Adamses, Jeff erson.Generals Gerry 
and Knox, Lee and Gates, and others who sought her advice. 
She entertained General and Mrs. Washington, supplied polit- 
ical parties with their arguments, and was the first woman to 
teach political leaders their duties in matters of state. She 
kept a faithful record of events during the Revolutionary War, 
drew her own conclusions as a philosopher and politician, and 
at the close of the struggle published a history of the war, which 
can be found in some of the New England libraries, and which 
contains faithful portraits of the most eminent men of the day. 
Rochefoucauld, in his "Tour of the United States," says of 
her, "Seldom has a woman in any age acquired such ascendancy 
by the mere force of a powerful mtellect, and her influence con- 
tinued through life." 

So grand a leader had plenty of followers, and while there 
appears to have been no other woman of the time whose 
influence was as powerful, there were not a few who almost 
reached the altitude of her rare development. The m^raU of 
these women penetrated the men of the time with a sinewy 
courage that neither weakened nor flagged. They enforced 
their words of cheer by relinquishing prospecu of advantage 
for themselves, renouncing tea and aU other imported luxurieti 


ind pledged themselves to card, spin, and weave the clothing 
of their houieholds, and as far as possible of the army. They 
gave their own property for the purchase of arms and arnmu- 
nitioa for the soldiers, and melted their wealth of pewter 
ware, io which many of the colonial households were rich, and 
ran it into bullets for the army. They raised grain, gathered 
it, and caused it to be ground for bread, that the poor and 
feeble might be fed. 

They visited the hospitals with proper diet for the aiclc and 
wounded, sought out the dungeons of the provost and the 
crowded holds of the prison-ships, with food and medicine in 
their hands and heroic words on their lips. They unsparingly 
condemned coldness or backwardness m the nation's cause, 
and young girls refused the suits of lovers till they had obeyed 
the call of their country for military service. They received 
their beloved dead, slain In battle, and forbore to weep, 
although their hearts were breaking. They even hushed the 
bitter resentment of their souls, which had been aroused by 
British invasion, and gave Christian burial to their enemiei, 
who, but for them, at times would not have received it. They 
trained their little children to the same uncomplaining pa- 
tience, the same steely endurance, and the same heroic love of 
liberty which fired their own hearts, until boys and girls gloried 
ID danger and privation. What wonder that the heroes of the 
Revolutionary War proved invincible ! 

John Adams, the second President of the-Republic, knew the . 
women of the Revolution well, and was able to measure a supe- 
rior woman wherever he found her, and to estimate her influ- 
ence. His own wife, Mrs. Abigail Adams, was the personal 
friend of Mrs. Mercy Warren, and every whit her peer. Her 
husband was proud to acknowledge her as his equal in all save 
early education, which was accorded him in large measure and 
wholly denied her, as she never attended school a day in her 
life. In nne of his letters to his wife Mr. Adams comments on 
the futile efforts of the British General Howe to obtain posses- 
atoa of Philadelphia, which the colonists foiled for a long time. 
He writes her, " I do not believe General Howe has a very 
great woman for a wife. A smart wife would have put Howe 
in possession of Philadelphia a long time ago." 

In the winter of 1780, the resources of the country touched 
their lowest point, and allowed but the scantiest supply of food 
and clothing for any one. British cruisers on the coast de- 
■troyed every hope of aid from the merchant vessels, and the 
cup o( misfortune pressed to the lips of the struggling Colo- 


Bisls OTcrflowed with bitterness. Even the ability of the 
wealthiett and most generous was exhausted by the repeated. 
drifts made on them. So great was the need of the army, 
that General Steuben, who had been aid-de-camp to the king 
oC Prussia, and had learned the art of war from the renowned 
Frederic the Great, declared that *' there was not a comman- 
der in all Europe who could keep his troops together a week 
ia toch sa£fering and destitution.*' 

But when all despaired the women rallied. All else was 
temporarily forgotten. The women of Philadelphia went forth 
from bouse to house, soliciting money, or whatever could be 
converted into money. They asked for cloth, garments, and 
food. Rich women stripped themselves of jewels that were 
heirlooms in their families, pillaged their parlors of antique 
bric-a-brac, with the hope that it might find purchasers, and 
emptied their purses of the last penny they possessed. More 
than seventy-five hundred dollars in specie were collected, when 
hard money was at its highest value. One woman cut five 
hundred pairs of pantaloons with her own hand, and superin- 
tended their manufacture. Mrs. Bache, a daughter of D:. 
Franklin, was a leading spirit in these patriotic efforts. When 
a company of French noblemen called on her, she conducted 
them to her parlor, and showed them a pile of twenty-two hun- 
dred shirts for the army, collected by herself, each one marked 
with the name of the woman m'ho had cut and made it. 

Nor was this a mere spasm of helpfulness, that soon died out 
ia forgetfulness and inaction. All through that dreary winter 
women continued their visits to Washington's camp, fortifying 
the men with their own inflexible spirit, and tiding them over 
this darkest passage in their experience, with steady streams of 
beneficence. They always went laden with comforts for 
the needy and the sick, and were prepared to ser\'e as cook or 
seamstress, amanuensis or nurse, equally prompt with hymn or 
ftory, Bible-reading or prayer, as occasion demanded. 

While the colonial women were a mighty bulwark of strength 
to the struggling men of the embryo nation, some of them were 
anforgetful of their own rights, and in advance of the forma- 
tion of the new government asked for recognition. Abigail 
Smith Adams, the wife of John Adams of Massachusetts, was 
a woman of strong convictions, and of large intellectual abili- 
ties. She wrote her husband, in March, 1776, then at the 
Colonial Congress in Philadelphia, and urged the claims of her 
aez upon his attention, demanding for them represenution wbea 
the government was organised. She wrote as follows: 


"I long to hear that you have declared an independency; 
and in the new code of laws, which I suppose it will be neces- 
taiy for you to make, / desire that you wUl remember the 
women, 4Utd be mere generous arid hoiiorable to them t/tan your 
ancestors. Do not put such unlimited power in the hands of 
husbands. Remember all men would be tyrants if they could. 

"If particular care and attention are not paid to the ladies, 
we are determined to foment a rebellion, and will not hold our. 
selves bound by any laws in whieh we have no voice nor represen- 
tation. That your sex is tyrannical is a truth so thoroughly 
established as to admit of no dispute ; but such of you as wish 
10 be happy, willingly give up the harsh title of master for the 
more tender and endearing one of friend. Why then not put 
it out of the power of the vicious and lawless to use us with 
cruelty and indignity? Superior men of all ages abhor those 
customs which treat us as the vassals of your sex. " 

When the Constitution of the United States was framed with- 
out any recognition of the rights of women, the disappointment 
of Mrs. Adams almost culminated in indignation. She felt ' 
most keenly the discrimination of the law against her sex, and 
wrote her husband again, as follows: 

"I cannot say that I think you are very generous to the 
ladies, for while you are proclaiming peace and good-will to all 
men, emancipating all nations, you insist on retaining absolute 
power over wives. But you must- remember that absolute 
power, like most other things which are very bad, is most likely . 
to be broken." 

She was especially solicitous that there should be equal advan- 
tages of education for boys and girls. " If we mean to have 
heroes," the writes, " statesmen, and philosophers, we should 
have learned women." And again, " If you complain of lack 
of education for sons, what shall I say in regard to daughters 
who every day experience the want of it ! " 

Nor were the women of the South forgetful of their rights, 
and at an early day they also put in a demand for political 
equality. The counties of Mecklenburg and Rowan in Nonh 
Carolina blazed with the fiery patriotism of their women. And 
in their defiant conversations with British officers, who were 
quartered in the houses of the wealthiest and most intelligent 
of these Southern matrons, as also in their debates with the 
men of their own community, officers, judges, and clergymen, 
they unhesitatingly declared their right to legal equality with 
men, in the new government, whenever laws should be formu- 
lated for the infant republic. 

woMAi/'s ivojifr m America. 

Two years after the Declaration of Independence was 
adopted, the sister of General Richard Henry Lee, Mrs. Hannah 
Corbin of Virginia, wrote to her brother, declaring that 
should be allowed the franchise, if they paid taxes. He 
replied that in Virginia women already had the right to vote, 
mxA ** it is on record that women in Virginia did exercise the 
right of voting at an early day." On the second day of July, 
1776, the right to vote was secured to the women of New 
Icney, and they exercised it for over thirty years. Our country 
began its very existence burdened with the protests of our great 
Ibrc-mothers against violation of the immortal principles which 
were its corner-stone. *' All just governments derive their 
powers from the consent of the governed," was the startling 
announcement the Fathers thundered into the ears of the mon- 
archs of the old world. And many of their wives and daugh- 
ters contended, with invincible logic, that this axiom included 
women as well as men. 

The long struggle of American women for education, oppor- 
'tnntty, and political equality which has since followed, dates, . 
therefore, from the hour of the nation's birth. It is the legiti- 
mate outcome of American ideas, for which the nation con- 
tended for nearly a century. Absorbed in severe pioneer work, 
inevitable to life in the wilderness, and denied education them- 
selves, the first care of our revolutionary mothers was for the 
literary and religious instruction of their children. As far 
back as the year 1700, a woman, one Bridget Graffort, had 
given the first lot of ground for a public school-house, although 
at that time, and for long years after, no provision whatever 
was made for the education of girls. There was a bitter preju* 
dice against educated and literary women in the early days of 
our history. And even after five colleges had been founded 
for jroung men, — Harvard. Yale, Princeton, Columbia, and 
William and Mary, Virginia,^ — a young woman was regarded 
as well educated who could "read, write, and cipher." 

If, however, school privileges were denied them, the educa- 
tion of the early American women proceeded, through the 
very logic of events. In laying the foundations of the new 
government all questions were discussed that touched human 
interests, not only publicly but privately — from the pulpit, 
and around the fireside. Women listened to them, and took 
part in them« The famous book of Mary Wollstonecrmft, ** A 
Vindication of the Rights of Woman," was published in Lon* 

• Htfrmitl durtcrad i6$o; Yak. 1701 ; CoUuibia, 17S4 ; WOUas and 
Umj. 1693.— £0. 

m THE STATS. «6l 

don in 1790, and found its way into American circles. It 
received tlie unsparing condemnation meted out to all efforts 
put forth in advance of the age, for the world has always 
stoned its prophets. It demanded for women every oppor- 
tunity accorded to man, and ihe same rights in representation, 
before the law, in the courts, and in the world of work. Tor- 
rents of the vilest abuse were heaped on the author, and 
formed the answer vouchsafed by the public It educated 
not a few women, however, who in turn preached the same 
gospel, and made for women tlie same demands. 

In 1831 the first real grapple began with American slavery, 
through the establishment of the Libtraier by William Lloyd 
Garrison. He flung out his banner, which he never lowered, 
demanding immediate and unconditional emancipation of the 
slaves of the South, and after a struggle of forty years, his 
demand was granted. Slavery was fastened on our coast long 
before ihe hirth of the republic. In the century befoie 1776, 
three and a quarter millions of negroes bad been takes by 
Great Britain from African shores for her various colonies ia 
the new world. And at the close of the Revolutionary War, 
when the po|]ulation was but three millions, six hundred 
thousand of these were bbck slaves, even then a menace to 
the peace of the nation. Against the protests of some of the 
noblest and wisest of the revolutionary i>atriots slavery, was 
introduced into the National -Constitution in 1787, and was 
fastened on the naiional life. 

The aggressions of the slaveocracy during the first half cen*' 
tury of our national existence alarmed the non-slaveholding 
portion of the cuuntry. And almost at tlie same time, in the 
progress of civilization, the era was reuchL-d when the enlight- 
ened conscience of the civilized world demanded ihe abolition 
of slavery. Slowly routed from the dominions of other nations 
-by the manumission of the bondmen, or the purchase of their 
freedom, slavery seemed at last to have intrenched itself on 
American soil, and to dominate American civilization. A 
Struggle with it was inevitable. Some of the grandest men 
and women of the nation entered the lists against it, for the 
early Abolitionists were rem.irkable people. It is only neccs* 
sary to mention the names of some of the leaders in that holy 
war, to summon up visions of manly beauty and womanly 
grace, men and women endowed with ability, culture, char- 
acter, refinement, courage, and social charm. Their public 
speech blazed with remorseless moral logic, and thrilled ifith 
matcbless eloquence, so that crowds flocked to bear ihcm. 


wherever Ihey spoke. Garrison and Phillips, Sumner and 
Parker, Btmey and Pierpont, Gerrit Smith and Theodore 
Weld — what men of their day surpassed them in manliness, 
Moral force, and persuasive and convincing speech ? They 
were supplemented and complemented by noble women, unlike 
them, and yet every whit their peers— ^Maria Weston Chapman 
and Lydia Maria Child, Sarah and Angelina Grimke, Lucretia 
Mott and Abby Kelly, Helen Garrison and Ann Greene 

Mrs. Chapman and Mrs. Child put to the service of the great 
reform pens tipped with flame, and wielded with consummate 
energy and skill. And the Grimke sisters, who had manumitted 
their slaves In Charleston, S. C, and come North to advocate 
Antislavery doctrines, with Lucretia Mott and Abby Kelly, 
entranced large audiences with their eloquent discourse, and 
nwsed the dormant moral sense of their hearers into protest 
against the colossal sin of the nation. Conservatives in church 
and state were alarmed. War was declared against the elo* 
quent women, and it was decided that they should be silenced, 
and not allowed to act or vote in the business meetings of the- 
Antislavery Society. This brought about a division in the 
organization before it had reached its first decade. 

A double battle was now forced on the Garrisonian Abolt* 
tionistk — a battle for the rights of woman as well as for the 
freedom of the slave. The doctrine of human rights was dis- 
cussed anew, broadly and exhaustively, and it was demon* 
strated that the rights of man and woman were identical. 
Antislavery platforms resounded with the demand that liberty, 
justice, and equality be accorded to women, and the anti- 
slavery press teemed with arguments for women's rights, which 
are repeated in the woman suffrage meetings of the present time. 

In 1840 a ** World's Antislavery Convention " was held in 
London, and all Antislavery organizations throughout the 
world were invited to join in it, through their delegates. 
Several American societies accepted the invitation, and elected 
delegates, six or eight of whom were women, Lucretia Mott 
and Mrs. Wendell Phillips among them. The excitement 
caused by their presence in London was intense, for the Eng- 
lish Abolitionists were very conservative, and never dreamed 
of inviting women to sit in their Convention. And these women 
who had come among them had rent the American Anti* 
slavery Societies in twain, had been denounced from the pul* 

* S« ckapur on Th« Work of AatisUvcrjr Wooma ~Eo. 

m THE STATE. 263 

pit, anathematiied by the press, and mobbed by the riffraff of 
the Etreets. " They who have turned the world upside down 
hive come hither also," was the affrighted cry, nor was the 
alann of the English Abolitionists lessened when they saw that 
those of the women delegates who were not Quakers, clad in 
the traditional garb of that sect, were young, cultivated, and 

A long and acrimonious debate followed on the admission of 
the women, during which many of the men delegates from 
■America showed the white feather and sided with the English 
opposition. Again the tyranny of sex was combated, and the 
doctrine of woman's equality with man enunciated, and again 
the battle for woman's rights was fought with moral force and 
logical correctness, as it liad been in America the year before. 
Some of the noblest women of England were in attendance as 
licteners and spectators, — Elizabeih Fry and Lady Byron, Mrs. 
Anna Jameson and Mary Howitt, — and, judging by later events, 
the lesson was not lost upon them. When the vote was taken, 
the women delegates were excluded by a lai^e majority. 
William Lloyd Garrison did not arrive in London until after 
the rejection of the women. When he was informed of the 
decision of the Convention he refused to take his seat with the 
delegates. And throughout the ten days' sessions he main- 
tained absolute silence, remaining in the gallery as a spectator. 
Only one other of the delegates joined him, Nathaniel P. 
Rogers of Concord, New Hampshire, an editor of an Anti- 
slavery paper. 

The London Convention marked the beginning of a new era 
in the woman's cause. Hitherto, the agitation of the question 
of woman's equal rights had been incidental to the prosecu- 
tion of other work. Now the time had come when a move- 
ment was needed to present the claims of woman in a direct 
and forcible manner, and to take issue with the legal and social 
order which denied her the rights of human beings, and held 
her in everlasting subjection. At the close of the exasperating 
and insulting debates of the "World's Antislavery Conven- - 
tien," Lucretia Mott and Mrs. Elizabeih Cady Stanton agreed 
to hold a Woman's Rights Convention on their return to Amer- 
ica, and to begin in earnest the education of the people on the 
question of 'woman's enfranchisement. Mrs. Stanton had at- 
tended the Convention as a bride, her husband having been 
chosen a delegate. 

Accordingly the first Woman's Rights Convention of the 
world WE* called at Seneca Falls, New York, on the 19th and 


aoch of July, 1848. It was attended by crowds of men and 
women, and the deepest interest was manifested in the pro- 
ceedings. ^ Demand the uttermost," said Daniel O'Connell, 
** and yott will get something." The leaders in the new move- 
ment, Lucretia Mott and Mrs. Stanton, with their husbands, 
and Frederick Douglass, acted on this advice. They demanded 
in unambiguous terms all that the most radical friends of 
woman have ever claimed : *' equal rights in colleges and uni- 
versities, trades and professions ; the right to vote ; to share 
ia all political offices, honors, and emoluments ; to complete 
equality in marrbge ; equal rights in property, in wages for 
equal work, and in minor children ; to make contracts ; to sue 
and be sued ; to personal freedom ; and to serve on juries, 
especially when women were tried." 

The Convention adjourned to meet in Rochester, New York, 
August a, 1848. There were the same crowds in attendance, 
the same deep interest, and the same earnest debates and dis- 
cussions as had characterized the meeting at Seneca Falls. 
Women soon adapted themselves to the situation, increased in 
efficiency and courage, participated in the debates, and elected 
a woman president, m spite of the ridicule occasioned by the 
suggestion. She discharged the duties of the office admirably, 
and the ridicule was soon merged in applause. A third Con- 
vention was held at Salem, Olno, in 1850 ; a fourth in Akron, 
Ohio, in 1851 ; a fifth in Massillon, Ohio, in 1853 ; another at 
Ravenna, Ohio, in 1S53, and others rapidly followed. The 
advocates of woman suffrage increased in numl>er and ability. 
Superior women, whose names have become historic, espoused 
the cause — Frances D. Gage, Hannah Tracy Cutler, Jane G. 
Swisshelm, Caroline M. Severance, Celia C Burr, who later 
became Mrs. C. C Burleigh, Josephine S. Griffing, Antoinette 
Lb Brown, Lucy Stone, Susan B. Anthony, Paulina W. Davis, 
Caroline H. Dall, Elizabeth Oakes Smith, Ernestine L. Rose, 
Mrs. C. H. Nichols, Dr. Harriot K. Hunt ; the roll-call was a 
brilliant one, representing an unusual versatility of culture and 

The First National Woman Suffrage Convention was held in 
Worcester, Massachusetu, October 23 and 24, 1850. It was more 
carefully planned than any that had yet been held. Nine States 
were represented. The arrangements were perfect — the ad- 
dresses and papers were of the highest character— the audiences 
were at a white heat of enthusiasm. Tlie number of cultivated 
people who espoused the new gospel for women was increased 
|»y the names of Ralph Waldo Emerson, Theodore Parker. 


BroDSon snd Abby May AlcoCt, Thomas W. Higginson, William 
I. Bowditch, Samuel E. and Harriet W. Sewall, Henry Ward 
Beecher, Henry B. Blackwell, Ednah D. Cheney, Hon. John 
Neal, Rev. William H. Channing, and Wendell PhiUipL Space 
fails for a detailed statement of the grand personages who gave 
of their talents, their wealth, and themselves, that the cause of 
woman's elevation miglit be advanced. 

Meetings were now of frequent occurrence in various parts 
of the country. The ridicule of the press, the horror of^con* 
•ervatives, the anathemas of the pulpit, and the ostracism of 
society began to abate. Petitions to legislatures, that were at 
first received with derisive laughter, and then laid on the table, 
now received attention. Unjust laws, that bore down upon 
women with cruel severity, were modified. And papers estab- 
lished in the interest of women found their way to the people, 
increased in circulation, and their influence was felt for good. 
A dozen years were spent in severe pioneer work and then 
came the four years Civil War. AH reformatory work was 
temporarily suspended, for the nation then passed through a 
crucial experience, and the issue of the fratricidal conflict was 
national life or national death. 

The transition of the country from peace to the tumult and 
waste of war was appalling and swift, but the regeneration of 
its women kept pace with it. They lopped off superfluities, 
retrenched in expenditures, became deaf to the calls of pleasure, 
and heeded not the mandates of fashion. Their work was that 
of relief and philanthropy, and, for the first time in the history 
of the world, the women of A merica developed a heavenly side 
to war. They cared for the needy families of soldiers, nursed 
the sick in camp and the wounded in hospitals,, ministered to 
the dying in the rear of battle-fields, and kept the channels of 
beneficence full to overflowing, which extended from Northern 
homes to the army at the front. For their multiform work 
they needed immense sums of money, and now the latent busi- 
ness abilities of women began to show themselves. 
' They went to Washington, and competed with men for 
government contracts for the manufacture of army clothing, 
and obtained them. When their accounts and their work were 
rigorously inspected by tlic War Department they received 
commendation, and were awarded larger contracts. They 
planned great money-making enterprises, whose largeness of 
conception and good business management yielded millions of 
dollar*, to be expended in the interest of sick and wounded 
wldicn. The last two of the colossal Sanitary Fairs,held ia 


New York and Philadelphia, yielded respectively $1,000,000 
and $19200,000. Women were the creators, the inspiration, and. 
the great energizing force of these immense fairs, and also, from 
first to last, of the Sanitary Commission. Said Dr. Bellows, 
** There was nothing wanting in the plans of the women of the 
Commission, that business men commonly think peculiar to 
their own methods." Men awoke to the consciousness that 
there were in women possibilities and potencies of which they 
bad never dreamed. 

Qara Barton, doin^ clerical work in a department of the 
government, and declining to receive compensation therefor, 
attracted no attention. But Clara Barton in hospitals, and on 
hospital trans|>orts, bringing order out of chaos, hope out of 
despair, and holding death in abeyance — Clara Barton at Ander- 
sonville, where twelve thousand soldiers had succumbed to the 
horrors of life in the military prison of the enemy and had 
been tgnominiously buried in long trenches, unpitied and 
unknown, aroused the attention and awakened the gratitude of 
the nation. For she ordered the trenches opened, the unknown 
dead exhumed and decently buried, each man in a separate* 
grave, with a headstone recording his rank, his name, and the 
date of his death, when it could be ascertained.^ 

Anna Dickinson, working for a pittance in the Philadelphia 
mint, and making speeches, on occasion, in behalf of the 
enslaved black man, was regarded as a nuisance. But Anna 
Dickinson on the platform, with impassioned speech and 
fervid moral earnestness pleading the cause of the slave 
before large audiences, and receiving one and two hundred 
dollars a night for the service — Anna Dickinson in the Con* 
necticut and New Hampshire Republican campaigns, thrilling 
both States with her eloquence, and capturing both for 
Abraham Lincoln and Republicanism, became the heroine of 
the hour, and was hailed as the Joan of Arc of the century. 

The development of those years, and the impetus they gave 
to women, which has not yet spent itself, has been wonderfully 
manifested since that time. At the close of the war there was 
but one college open to women, and that was grand old Oberlin 
in Ohio. Vassar received its first class of students in Septem- 
ber, 1865, and now the colleges and universities which admit^ 
women are more in number than those which reject them.' 
Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell graduated from a medical college in 
Geneva, N. Y., in 1849, ^^'^ afterward had access to the 
highest instruaion and the best clUiques in Paris. She 

^SctdiApctroQ iUdCiwk 


became the pioneer of the great host of women physicians and 
lurgeoDS, who, since the war, have entered the ranks as medi- 
cal practitioners, and have been thoroughly trained and duly 
qualified for their profession. Reverend Antoinette L. Broirn 
was graduated from the theological school at Oberlin, Ohio, 
in 1S50, and ordained in 1S53. But not until after the war 
were theologicil schools opened to women in the Methodist, 
Unitarian, Univcrsalist, Christian, and Free Baptist denomina- 
tions. The United Sutes Census of 1880 gave the number 
of women ministers as one hundred and sixty-five, resident 
in thirty-four Stales. During the last twenty-five years law 
schools have admitted women, and the National Ccnsusof 18S0 
states the number of women lawyers as seventy-five. The 
next Census will reveal a great increase in the numbers of 
women physicians, lawyers, and ministers.* 

It has been since the war, and as the result of the great 
quickening of women which it occasioned, that women have 
organized missionary, philanthropic, temperance, educational, 
and political organizations, on a scale of great magnitude. 
Without much blowing of trumpets, or unseemly boasting, they 
have overcome almost insLiperablc obstacles, have brought 
business abilities to their management of affairs, and have 
achieved phenomenal success. Their capacity for public 
affairs receives large recognition at the present time. They 
are elected, or appointed to such offices as those of county 
cleric, register of deeds, pension agent, prison commissioner, 
state librarian, overseer of the poor, school superintendent, and 
school supervisor. They serve as executors and administrators 
of estates, trustees and guardians of property, trusts, and 
children, engrossing clerks of State legislatures, superintendents 
of women's State prisons, college presidents and professors, 
members of boards of State charities, lunacy and correction, 
. police matrons, and postmistresses. 

They are accountants, pharmacists, cashiers, telegraphers, 
stenographers, type-writers, dentists, bookkeepers, authors, 
lecturers, journalists, painters, architects, and sculptors. In 
many of these positions women serve with men, who graciously 
acknowledge the practical wisdom and virtue that they bring to 
their duties. "And although many women have been appointed 
to positions in departments of government, and to important 
employments and trusts," said Senator Blair of New Hamp- 

* Sm chspten oa Woaua la the Ministiy, Womao ia Law, Woaian in 



shire, from bis seat in Congress, '' as far as your committee 
are aware no charge of incompetence or malfeasance in office 
has ever been sustained against a woman." 

Only a little more than a quarter of a century ago women 
were allowed to enter veqr few remunerative occupations. In 
1S36, when Harriet Martmeau visited this country, to study 
its new institutions, that she might be able to forecast the type 
of civilization to be evolved from them, she especially investi- 
gated the position of women in the young republic She was 
surprised to find them occupying a very subordinate position 
in a country calling itself free, and to find that they had entered 
oolv seven paying occupations. They were allowed to teach, 
to be seamstresses, tailoresses, milliners, dressmakers, house* 
hold servants, and factory operatives. Hon. Carroll D. Wright, 
Chief of the National Bureau of the Statistics of I^bor, m a 
recent report, has announced the number of remunerative pro- 
fessionsand occupations in which women are working as three 
hundred and forty-two. In the cities of Boston, New York, 
Philadelphia, Chicago, Minnea|)olis, and San Francisco, women 
have established hospitals, and have managed them with admira-- 
ble wisdom.* Two of the ablest legal journals of the West 
have been established by women, who are their editors and 

Side by side with this phenomenal development of women* 
and always subsidiary to it, when not its direct cause, the 
movement for woman's enfranchisement has proceeded with 
deepening earnestness, urged onward by the spur of continual 
Tictories. A great host of women have come to regard this as 
the largest question before the world to-day, and as underlying 
and involving the just settlement of the great social and moral 
problems of the time. It is not possible for one sex to settle 
aright the matters that equally concern both sexes, like ques- 
tions of marriage and divorce laws, the regulation of the liquor 
traffic, the management of public schools, the care and cure of 
insane and criminal people, and many others that may be 
mentioned. There is not a question casting its sliadow athwart 
the political horizon that is not underlaid by a moral basis, 
and women have a vital interest in all moral matters. This 
has greatly extended the area of the woman suffrage debate, 
and added to its ranks large numl>ers of able workers, who 
stood aloof while the reform was treated as an abstraction. 

^ Sit dMipCcr IlospitaU and Tr»imog ScbooU maoagcd by Woacs.— Eu. 


ate. We append this valuable summary, which shows japid 

ins ia a very short time, and demonstrates an evolution in 

;lf-government that cannot stop at any half measure, but must 
^o oa yet farther.* 

. The Sutes and Territories which confer cenain rights and ^ 
privileges upon women are twenty-eight, as follows : 

California — No person shall on account of sex be dis> 
<}ualified from entering or pursuing any lawful business, voca- 
tion, or profession. Women over the age of twenty-one years, 
' who are citizens of the United States and of this State, shall 
be eligible to all education.-il offices in the State, except those 
from which they are excluded by the constitution. And more 
than this, no person shall be debarred admission to any of the 
collegiate departments of the university on account of sex. 
[Sch. Uw, 1888.] 

Colorado — No person shall be denied the right to vote at 
any school district election, or to hold any school district office 
on account of sex. [Sch. Law, 1SS7.] 

Connecticut — No person shall be deemed ineligible to 
serve as a member of any board of education, board of school 
visitors, school committee, or district committee, or disqualified 
from holding such office by reason of sex. [Sch. Law, 1888.] 

Illinois — Women arc eligible to any office under the gen- 
eral or special school laws. [Sch. Law, 1SS7.] 

Indiana — Women not married nor minors, who pay taxes, 
and are listed as parents, guardians, or heads of families, may 
vote at school meetings. [Decision of attorney- gen eral.] The 
attorney-general questions the constitutionality of an act to 
authorize the election of women to school offices, approved 
April 14, 1881, The State constitution reads, "No person 
shall be elected or appointed as a county officer who shall not 
be an elector of the county." 

Iowa— No person shall be deemed ineligible, by reason of 
sex, to any school office in the state. No person who may 
have been or shall be elected or appointed to the office of 
county superintendent of common schools, or school director, 
- shall be deprived of office by reason of sex. [Sch. Law, 
188S.] . 

Kansas — Women over twenty-one years of age, residents of 
the district, are allowed to vote at district meetings. [Sch. 
■Law, i88s.] 

KxMTUCKY— Widows qualified to pay taxes, and having 

* See ArFEHDiX E, for Civil Righls of Woicen.-'ED. 


mnd again rendered all women their debtors by their generous 

Chief among these is the Woman's Christian Temperance 
Union, with a membership of nearly two hundred thousand, 
whose greatly beloved president, Frances E. Willard, is as ear* 
nest an advocate of the ballot for woman as a temperance meas- 
ure, as she is for prohibition.* Before she was elected the 
president of the National Woman's Temperance Union, she 
had presented a petition with one hundred and eighty thousand 
signatures to the legislature of Illinois, asking for tlie women 
of the State the right to vote on the question of license or no 
license in their respective districts. Under her grand leader- 
ship that great organization has becouie a mighty factor in 
the work for women's enfranchiseuicnt. Its large membership, 
its perfect organization, its loyalty to its president, its relations 
to the church, its successful publishing house, its ably con- 
ducted official paper. The Union Signal^ with a subscription 
list of eighty thousand, — all these combined advantages enable 
it to wield an influence in woman's behalf more effective than 
all other agencies united. 

It has pushed through the legislatures of thirty* seven States 
and Territories the laws that now compel, in all public schools, 
instruction in the nature and effect of alcoholic drinks and nar- 
cotics on the human system. It has successfully engineered 
other legislation in many States, concerning other matters in 
which it is interested — notably the passage of laws forbidding 
the sale of tobacco to minors under sixteen years of age. It 
lent a hand toward the enactment of the petition-vote in Texas, 
for school oflicers, and in Arkansas and Mississippi, for and 
against liquor license. What may not be expected of this grand 
body of women, when it becomes more firmly welded, has 
grown even more skilled in its work, and more fully conscious 
of its great power ! 

Thi Woman t /oufnai has recently employed an efficient 
woman in Washington to make a complete summary of the 
laws of every State and Territory in the Union, as they affect 
women's right to vote, or take part in the management of the 
public schooU, either as State or county superintendents, or as 
members of school boards. She was detailed to this work, 
and furnished with the sources of information, by Hon. William 
T. Harris, National Superintendent of Education. Her state*, 
ments may be relied on, therefore, as accurate, and complete to 

• Sm chapur oo Womb's Work w tW W. C T. U.^Eo 


date. We append this valuable summary, which shows rapid 
gains in a very short lime, and demonstrates an evolution in 
self-govemraent that cannot stop at any half measore, but must 
go on yet farther.* 

The States and Territories which confer certain rights and ^' 
privileges upon women are twenty-eight, as follows : 

California — No person shall on account of sex be dis- 
qualified from entering or pursuing any lawful business, voca- 
tion, or profession. Women over the age of twenty-one years, 
who are citizens of the United States and of this State, shall 
be eligible to all educational offices in the State, except those 
from which they are excluded by the constitution. And more 
than this, no person shall be debarred admission to any of the 
collegiate departments of the university on account of sex. 
[Sch. Uw, 1888] 

Colorado — No person shall be denied the right to vote at 
any school district election, or to hold any school district office 
on account of sex. [Sch. Law, 18S7.] 

Connecticut — No person shall be deemed Ineligible to 
serve as a member oi any board of education, board of school 
visitors, school committee, or district committee, or disqualified 
from holding such office by reason of sex. [Sch. Law, i883.] - 

Illinois — Women are eligible to any oflice under the gen- 
eral or special school laws. [Sch. Law, 1887,] 

Indiana — Women not married nor minors, who pay taxes, 
and are listed as parents, guardians, or heads of families, may 
vote at school meetings. [Decision of attorney -general.] The 
attorney-general questions the constitutionality of aa act to 
authorize the election of women to school offices, approved 
April 14, 1881. The State constitution reads, "No person 
■hall be elected or appointed as a county ofBcer who shall not 
be an elector of the county," 

Iowa — No person shall be deemed ineligible, by reason of 
sex, to any school office in the state. No person who may 
have been or shall be elected or appointed to the ofEce of 
county superintendent of common schools, or school director, 
' shall be deprived of office by reason of sex. fSch. I,aw, 

Kansas — Women over twenty-one years of age, residents of 
the district, are allowed to vote at district meetings. [Sch. 
Law, 18S5.] 

KENTt;CKY — Widows qualified to pay taxes, and having 

* See Appendix E, for Civil Richti of Woicol—Ed. 

•ja woMAif's wornc m amsmica. 

children of ichool age, may wie at electioiu for district ichool 
troucea. [Sch. Uw, i««.] "xh^^ 

Louisiana — Women over twenty-one are eligible to any 
office of conirol or management under school laws of the Suie. 
[Constitution, Art 13a.] 

Maine — Women arc eligible to the office of supervisor of 
Kbools and superintending school committee. [Sch. Law, 

U ABSACKUSiTTS — Women are eligible to serve on school 
comnittees, and to vote at school meetings for members of 
school committees. [Sch. Law, 1883.] 

UiCKiCAN — Women arc eligible lo eleciion to district offices, 
to the office of school inspecior, and are qualified to vote at 
district meetings. [Sch. Law, 1885.] 

UiKNKSOTA — Women of tweniy-one and over who have 
resided in the United States one year, and in this State for 
four months preceding the election, may vote for school offi- 
cers, or for any measure relating to schools which may come 
np in school dislrici meetings. Any woman so entitled to vote 
may bold any office pertaining lo the management of schools. 
[Sch. Law. 1887.] 

NuaASKA — Women twenty-one years of ape, resident o( ihs 
district and owners of property, or having children to educaie, 
may vote in district meetings. [Sch. Law, 1S85.] "~- 

New HAypsMiEE — Women may vote at school district meet- 
in(s if they have resided and had a home in the district for 
three months neat preceding such meeting. They may hold 
town and diilrict school offices. [Sch. Law, 18S6.J 

New Jutstv — Women over twenty -one years of age, resident 
of the State for one ^ear, and of the county for five months 
preceding such meeting, may vote at Khool meetings. They 
are eligible to the office of school trustee. [Sch. Law, 

New York — No person shall be deemed to be ineligible to 
serve as any school officer, or to vote at any school meeting, 
by reason of sea, who has the Other qualifications now required 
1^ law. This permits women to act as school trustees, and 
to vote at district meetings, if residents of the district, holding 
taxable property, and over twenty-one years of age. [Sch. 
Law. 1887.] 

Orecom — Women who are widows and have children to 
educate, and taxable pmperiy in the district, shall be entitled 
to vote at district meetings. [Sch. Law, 1S87.] 

PuimrLvaMia — Women twenty-one year* of age and upwards 

/vV THE STATE. 173 

jre eligible not only to the office of county superintendent, but 
to any ofSce of control or management under the school Uwt 
of the State. [Sch. Law. 188C.J 

Rhodk Island — Women can be elected to the office of 
Khool committee, and a woman is as eligible u s nun for 
school superintendent. [Sch. Law, 1883.] 

Veuiont — Women have the same right to vote as men have 
in all school district meetings, and in the election of school 
commissioners in towns and cities, and the same right to hold 
offices relating to school affairs. [Sch. Law, 1S81.] 

Wisconsin — Every woman who is a citizen of this State of 
the age of twenty-one years or upward (except those excluded 
by Sec. 3, Art. 3, of the Wisconsin constitution) who has 
resided within the State one year, and in the election district 
where she offers to vote, ten days next preceding any election 
pertaining to school matters, shall have a right to vote at such 
elections. Every wom.-in of twenty-one years of age and 
upwards may be elected or .ip[]ointed as director, treasurer, or 
clerk of a school district, director or secretary of a town board, 
under the township system, member of a board of education 
in cities, or county superintendent. [Scli. Law, 1885.] 

Arizona Ty. — The terrilorinl law provides that no person 
shall be denied the right to vote at any school district elec- 
tion or to hold any school district oRice on account of sex. 
' [Biennial Report, 1883-S4] 

* Dakota Ty. — In all elections held under the provisions. 
of this act, all persons who are qualified electors under the 
general laws of the Territory, and all women of twenty-one 
years and over, having the necessary qualifications as to citi- 
tenship and residence required by the general laws, and who 
have children of school age under their care or control, are 
qualified voters. Women having the requisite qualifications 
are eligible to the otlice of school director, judge or clerk of 
election, township clerk, or county superintendent of public 
schools. [Sch. Law, 1887.] 

Idauo — The right of citizens of any school district to vote 
at any school election, or upon any school matter, or for county 
auperintendent, or to hold office as school trustee or county 
superintendent, shall not be denied or abridged on account of 
sex. [Sch. Law, 1885.] 

* Montana — Every person, without regard to sex, over 
twenty-one yean of age, resident of a school district, and a 
taxable inhabitant, is entitled to vote at the annual school meet- 
ing for the election of trustees. All persons otherwise quali- 


fied are eligible to the office of countv superintendent of com-* 
men schools without regard to sex. [Sch. Law, 1887.] 

WASHUfGTON — Women over the age of twenty-one jjrears, 
resident of the school district for three months immediately 
pfcceding any district meeting, and liable to taxation, are legal 
vocers at any school meeting. They are also eligible to hold 
or be elected to any school office. [Sch. IJtws, 1885-86.] 

Wyomikg — Every woman of the age of twenty-one years, 
residing in the Territory, may, at every election to be holden 
tmdcr the laws thereof, cast her vote, and her rights to the 
elective franchise and to hold office shall be the same under the 
election laws of the Territory as those of electors. [Revised 
Statutes, 1887.] 

All States marked with a star, thus (*), were Territories at 
date of laws. In Montana, those women who pay taxes will 
vote on all questions submiited to the vote of tax-payers. In 
Washington and South Dakota, the question of giving women 
fall suffrage is hereafter to be put to vote, and on this ques* 
tioo women already qualified as voters for any pur|)0se can )tlso 
Tole. In Kansas, women have now the right to vote at munici- 
pal elections, and in Wyoming women have had full suffrage 
OQ the same terms as men for twenty years. The constitution 
of Wyoming, besides the equal suffrage provision, establishes 
the rnding test, as in Massachusetts, and the Australian ballot 
for voters. At this present time of writing, Wyoming's admis- 
sion to the Union as a State is pending in Congress. The 
House of Representatives has voted the Territory qualified for 
statehood, and to ^ive her admission. It is believed the Sen- 
ate will confirm this action and that the bill will be signed by 
the President, when Wyoming will enter the sisterhood of States 
with equal suffrage for men and women incorporated in her 

The States and Territories which, according to the latest 
issoe of their school laws, do not give women any voice in 
school affairs are nineteen, viz. : Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, 
Florida, Georgia, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, 
North Carolina, South Carolina, Ohio,t Tennessee, Texas, 
Virginia, West Virginia, Alaska, Indian Territory, and New 

In Texas, the school officers are chosen by petitions to the 

_ WM admitted to statehood, with cqoal suffrage for men sad 
in c B fp o i a t cd ia her ooosiitotioo, by an Act of Coogrcaa, July. 189QW 

t Aad fH coedMitte had ks birth ia Ohio (ObcrUa, iSji).— £0. 

■p^^^p •* 



county judge for their appointment, and he appoints those 
whose petitions are most Urgely signed. These petitions women 
can sign on the same terms as men, and thus practically vote 
without leaving home. The question of liquor license is de- 
cided in Arkansas and Mississippi in the same manner. In the 
territory of Utah women had full right to the elective franchise, 
and to hold office for many years. But in the winter of tSS6- 
87, women suffrage was abolished, and the Territory redistricted 
for voting purposes. This was done by the Edmunds bill as a 
means to destroy polygamy. In Washington, women had 
exercised the right of suffrage conferred on ihem by the terri- 
torial legislature for two or three years. They were deprived 
of it by the decision of a territorial judge, some two years 
since, who gave an adverse decision on the question, when it 
came before him. His unjust act was performed in the interest 
of the liquor saloons, whose hostility to woman suffrage is 
immitigable everywhere. 

It will be seen, therefore, that there are thirty-one States and 
Territories which have conferred the franchise on women in 
some form, from the petition-vote of Texas, Mississippi, and 
Arkansas, to the full suffrage exercised by the women of 
Wyoming for twenty years. This has been accomplished not 
by the fanaticism of a few abnormal and unbalanced women, 
as many superficial objectors declare. It is the legitimate out> 
growth of the principles of Republican government, and hu 
come naturally from the evolution of woman as a human being, 
which has proceeded through the ages. No one who has 
studied the question can lack faith in its ultimate success, 
and Lhe beneficent results it is sure to accomplish. For thp 
ballot in the hands of woman is the synonym of her legal 
equality with man, and legal justice has always preceded 
social equity. Woman has wrought more of good than evil in 
the world during her ages of ignorance, bondage, and degrada- 
tion. What then may not be expected from her in righteousness 
and helpfulness, when she is accorded freedom, equity, and 
opportunity ! 



Iir treating of woman's industrial career in America the sub- 
ject falls naturally into periods, each one of which seems to 
possess some distinct characteristic. These periods can in no 
sense be considered arbitrary divisions, for the changes in 
woman's industrial position in America have been the result of 
slow transitions from one state to another. The fact that is 
emphasised is, that certain causes can be observed which had 
the effect at stated times of forcing old conditions to give way 
to new. By taking up in their order each of these -epoch* 
shaping factors, we can discern most easily the part women 
have played in the progress of American industries. 

The first of these periods embraces those years of primitive 
social conditions when people labored to supply the simplest 
needs of life ; when men were engaged principally in agricul* 
tore and commerce, and women carried on the work of manu* 
factoring clothing, and attending to the wants of the house- 
bold. In those days, almost every family owned a loom, 
spinning-wheel, reel and knitting-needles, and the family com- 
fort depended largely on the degree of skill and industry with 
which these manufacturing implements were handled. In 
some homes, hundreds of yards of ^ homespun " were made 
yearly. The New York Mercury for 1768 credits one family, 
liTing in Newport, Rhode Island, with having within four 
years ** manafactured nine hundred and eighty yards of woolen 
doth, besides two coverlids f coverlets), and two bed-ticks, and 
all the stocking yam of the family/* 

lo those da^ neither wealth nor position afforded women 
aa eicase for idleness. Nor did their labors cease with the 
borne. It was considered so unbecoming to be unemployed 
that cfco Jmirs of social enjoyment were devoted to osef ol 




occupations. During the enforcement of the non-importation 
acts, when, among other things, cloth and stockinf^ were pre- 
vented from coming into this country from England, a letter 
written from Newport tells of a social gathering where " it was 
resolved that those who could spin ought to be employed ia 
that way, and those who could not, should reel." At a simiUr 
meeting in Boston, "a party of forty or fifty young women, 
calling themselves' Daughters of Liberty,'" amused themselves 
at the house of their pastor with spinning, during one day, 
"two hundred and thirty-two skeins of yarn, some very fine." 
No woman considered herself too elegant 

To guide the sj^ndle and direct the loom, 
or knit the stockings which, since stocking-frames were inter- 
dicted as articles of import, had to be made for the whole peo- 
ple by slow process of hand. As indicative of the simple and 
industrial habits of Mrs. Washington, it is related that when, 
. in 1780, a party of the leading ladies of Morristown called 
upon her by appointment at her husband's headquarters, Mrs. 
Washington appeared before them in a plain gown of " Unsey 
woolsey," and, while she entertained them with pleasant con- 
versation, her busy fingers never ceased plying the knitting- 

Prior to and long after the Revolution, stocking knitting 
was an industry large enough to claim most of what were 
termed woman s " spare moments." With the assistance of 
child and slave labor, large quantities were made for sale 01 
exchange. Legislators, to stimulate busty fingers to fresi 
exertions, offered bounties for their increased production. Ii 
Virginia, prizes of fifty pounds of tobacco (the currency then 
were given " for every five hundred pairs of men's and women' 
stockings produced, worth from three to five shillings the pai: 
with the privilege of buying them at an advance of sevent] 
five per cent, on those prices." 

Except among a few German settlers in Pennsylvania, r 
attempt was made for ihany years to change stockmg-makir 
from a domestic into a factory industry. Until 1836 tl 
manufacture of stockings remained woman's almost exclusf 
province. Then knitting-machines were set up in several 
the States, but, as if there was some peculiar fitness ir. tl 
remaining woman's department, the employees in knitttn 
works have always been, even down to 1889, ** nearly 
women and children." 
.(fever did vomcn work harder than during this domes 


period of labor. The sUtc women of the South, in addition 
to going through all the processes of manufacturing woolen 
and cotton cloth, which they afterward cut and made into 
garments, attended to both in and out-of-door labor. They 
tilled the rice fields, planted tobacco^ sowed the cotton seed, 
alRl helped with the harvesting. The women in the North, 
tbOagb not ^ put into the ground," as the early adventurers 
termed field-work, engaged energetically in other industries. 
nittofy tells of women who helped build their own homes, 
wielding the ax and carrying the water tp mix mortar with 
which to build chimneys. On the farms, it was women who 
raised the garden truck of vegeubles and herbs, attended to 
poultry breeding, milked the cows, made butter and cheese, 
did the sewing, and performed all the household chores now 
classed in industrial statistics as ** domestic service.'* 

Outside the strictly necessary occupations of manufacture, 
boosehold service, clothing, and garden-work« from quite early 
times women in America turned their attention to speculative 
labor and to trade. When James the First, thinking to utilize 
mulberry trees that were indigenous to our soil, forwarded silk- 
worm cocoons to America, when dazzling dreams of wealth to 
come from the successful culture of the silkworm were in- 
dulged in by people on both sides of the Atlantic, and when 
boantiesof money and tobacco were offered for spun and woven 
silk, according to its weight and width, most of these prizes 
were obuined by women. The success obtained by women in 
feeding the worms, and reeling, spinning, and weaving the 
silk, caused this industry, during the varying fortunes that 
preceded the esublishment of silk-weaving as a factory indus^ 
try, to be carried on mainly by them. History has preserved 
llie names of three women famous before the Revolution as 
stlk-growers and weavers : Mrs. Pinckney, Grace Fisher, and 
Sosanna Wright While silkworm culture was a failure in 
spite of all the fostering care bestowed upon it, and none of 
the pioneers realized any of the golden visions of rivaling the 
pffodoctioQS of Spain and the Indies, the efforts made by them 
paved the way for future cultivation. 

Along with the silk industry, another of scarcely less impor- 
tance was growing up quietly in New England. This was the 
manufacture of straw goods, the products of which now amount 
to many millions annually. Straw, applied to so many pur- 
poses to-day, owes its origin as an article of manufacture to a 
yoong Massachusetts girl. In 1789 Miss Beuy Metcalf dis- 
Mj ff tfcJ the secret 01 bleaching and braiding the meadow* 



grass of her native town of Dedham, and of ingeniously mak- 
ing this braid into a bonnet. Although scarcely more than a 
child, the chronicles tell that she taught others to do what she 
had done, and started a business by which the want of bonnets 
and hats for summer-wear was supplied. From using straw 
for head-gear, Its manufacture spread to other things, and 
developed an industry that, in 1880, employed nearly eleven 
thousand operatives. Of these over seven thousand were 

Whether it was the active out-door life led by the American 
women of the eighteenth century, or the wide-awake interest 
circumstances obliged them to take in the concerns of the 
family and of men j whether the stirring limes in which they 
moved, or the deferential attitude of men stimulated them to 
do. things that the women of other nations were not doing, it 
is certain that the American women of a century ago were far 
in advance of their times in all things except a knowledge of 
light literature, which the circulaiiiig libraries of Europe 
placed within the reach of women there, and a scarcity of 
books denied them here. That this was more of a gain than 
loss, by giving women time to think, is shown in the energy 
with which they went to work in helping to build up the na- 
tion. They engaged in mercantile affairs with such success 
that, it is said, "many Boston fortunes owed their rise t( 
women," The active interest them in politics gave 
even before the Revolution, some representative women t< 
journalism." Out of the seventy-eight newspapers publishet 
m the colonies, sixteen were edited by women, and all but tw< 
of them championed the cause of liberty and justice. Th< 
first paper to publish the Declaration of Independence wa 
edited and printed by a Mrs. Reid. In medicine, womei 
confined themselves into distilling herbs into remedies whici 
it was said " could kill or cure with any of the faculty." Ii 
the practice of midwifery, history has preserved the name c 
a Mrs. Robinson, of New London, who continued to practic 
to an advanced age, and who "delivered twelve hundre 
mothers without losing a patient." 

The inventive faculty, so distinctive a trait in the chaiat 
ter of the American man, was also a gift of the America 
woman. How many women were inventors will never b 
known, as they timidly shielded their identity behind mei 
This is said to have been the case with the cotton-gii 
Credited through all the years to Eli Whitney, modem writci 
daim that it was the fruit of the inventive powers of Mr. 


Nathaaid Green,* widow of Gen. Green of revolutionary* 
fame. The story runs that Mrs. Green, a native of Rhode 
Island and familiar with the working of the anchor forge 
belonging to her husband's father, set her wits to work while 
▼isiting her Georgia planutions, to lessen the labor of cleans- 
ing the cotton. When this difficulty was solved, she per* 
mitted Mr. Whitney to claim the patent, through fear of the 
ridicole of ber friends and loss of social position recognition 
of ber work might have entailed. 

By whomever invented, no other instrument has been so 
fmitiful of consequences. In 1793, when the cotton-gin was 
made, cotton, instead of being King, was a humble garden 
plant,*grown for home consumption in the regions from Geor* 
gia to New Jersey. When its snowy blossoms ripened, women 
gathered tbem, plucked the seeds from the fiber, and got it 
ready for spinnmg. So difficult was this process, that to 
remove the seed from one pound was considered a good day's 
work. By the operation of the cotton-gin, in the time it had 
taken to cleanse one pound, three hundred-weight could-be 
got ready for market. By this, cotton was transformed at 
ooce into a valuable commercial product that required for its 
successful cultivation an enormous increase of land and labor. 
It instilled such new life into the almost dying institution of 
slavery that the cotton-gin may well be said to have been the 
foster-mother of slavery in America. 

As the immediate effect of the cotton-gin in the South was 
to give an enormous value to the slave, its invention was 
followed in the North by the cotton factory. The cotton 
factory was the northern complement of the cotton-gin. To 
women it bad the momentous results of transferring them from 
the home to the factory ; of taking them out of the family 
Carm*boose to the manufacturing towns and villages, and, by 
making tbem for the first time the wage-earning competitors 
of men, altering their whole status in the lalK>r market of 

With the factory came a new epoch for women in America. 
The War of the Revolution and the War of 181 2 had been 
coded long enough to induce a general feeling of security 
oooceming the future of the republic. For a large number of 
people, the hard work and deprivations of the past were as a 
dream ; peace and plenty promised to abound. Wealth came 

m iBfmiion** Mrs. Cafe, S^^k Amnumm Rtwuw^ itSj, 


flowing from all directions in a steady stream into the country 
through the various channels of commerce and agriculture. 
Numerous business enterprises were undertaken, principal 
among which were the factories for weaving cotton and wool 
into cloth. The earliest of these was built in Massachusetts, 
where numerous swift-fiowing rivers abound, capable of being 
utilized for moving machinery. Through the energetic, pro- 
gressive spirit of the descendants of the Puritans, it was not 
long before New England began to rival Old England in 
manufacturing the increased production of cotton grown in 
the United States. The first cotton mill erected in Lowell, 
Massachusetts, in iSaa, was followed so quickly by others, that 
by 1839 there were in Lowell ten companies incorporated with 
a capital of 313,000,000. These produced 2,463,000 yards of 
cloth per week, of which all but 91,000 were cotton. The 
number of operatives employed were 12,507, and in the cotton 
mills the majority of these were women. From the amount 
of capital invested and the number of operatives employed, 
Lowell was termed, in the period between 1840 and 1850, " the 
Manchester of America," 

But in nothing — except that Lowell and Manchester were 
places filled with the hum of machinery tended by human 
workers for their own livelihood and the profits of others — 
was there any resemblance between Manchester and Lowell. 
The recorded condition of the English operatives, especially 
women, at that time reads like a page torn from some canto of 
Dante's " Inferno ;" while that of Lowell, pictured by women 
who worked as ordinary mill-hands in the Lowell factories, 
seems in comparison like a Utopian idyl evolved from the 
brain of dreamers. 

According to writers, the women operatives who entered the 
Lowell mills came from the New England farms, not from 
stress of circumstances, but to get wage-money to help lift a 
mortgage from the family farm, or to assist some son or brother 
in obtaining an otherwise impossible university education. A 
large majority entered the mills to secure independence, or 
household and dress adornments. Not a few entered so as to 
be near circulating libraries and schools, with the opportunities 
for self-culture which these afforded. Coming from the agri- 
' cultural class, which considered itself among the aristocracy 
of America,* no class distinctions were made, and the factoiy 

*"For geoer«tionf," writet Johnstone, In hU ' Hiitoiy of CouwctknU' 
"gitrchiati and awcluuilca bad beea outnuked bj ftraien." 




log women were welcomed into the best social circles of 

welL Well bot simply dressed, as was the fashion of the 

ics» they were to be seen at church, Sunday-schools, and 

aal gatherings at the. parsonages and elsewhere, receiving 

: same consideration as those whom circumstances had 

loed above the need of work. The girls themselves felt no 

• oC caste or diminution of self-respect. Most of them ex- ' 

cted to marry — many did — and withdraw from the factory, 

d Calling this, when factory work became disagreeable, to 

ire to the family home. The factory was an epi^e, not, as 

fauer became too frequently elsewhere, the burden of this 

ipcer lo woman's life. . 

The factories f€r u were as remarkable as the women who I 

ented them. Kept as clean as the nature of the work . ^ 

idd admit, with plants growing in the windows trained to 

ide the glass, the rooms seemed redolent of the country. 

OQtiog one side of the building were the banks and waters 

the swift-flowing Merrimac, which, as it hastened on to 

et the sea, turned the wheels of the machinery, ignorant as 

of steam. On the other was the bright, new village, look- 
\ as Dickens said in 1843, **as if every kind of store had 
eo down its shutters for the first time and started in busi- 
s yesterday.** Sunding on the hill was the prettiest build- 

io the place, which was the hospital where girls when sick 
re tenderly cared for. Those unable to pay the weekly 
LTge of three dollars, had it provided for them by the 
porations. Seldom were the latter put to this expense, for 
nkee girls had a horror of being placed under money otli- 
ions. • Boarding-houses, erected by the mill-owners, were 
eo io charge of reputable women. The ch:vrge for board 
them, including the mid-day meal, — which was taken in 
iltxed fashion at the boarding-house tables, — and washing to-- 
ertaio extent, was fixed at the small sum of $1.50. Wages, 
sotiog io those of the little dofifers, averaged $3.75 per 
ek. Weavers, drawing-in girls, warpers, and spinners, who 
idcd extra work, could earn from six to eight dollars per 
ek. These wages, with the low price of board and the eco- 
tnical style of dress common in those days, enabled the mill 
sratives to place a large part of their earnings in the savings 
ik established for their use by the corporations. In 1S41, 
t haodred thousand dollars, a sum which was a source of 
de to all cooccroed, was deposited to the credit of the girls 
Happy io their social position, and io the good feeling tJMl» 


ing between employers and employed, free from pecuniary care 
for the necessities of life and in command of some of the best 
luxuries, the Lowell girls reached an intellectual height unique 
in the history of industrial workers.. When the twelve or four- 
teen hours tiiat then constituted a day's work were ended, 
buoyant with the health of generations of out-door workers, 
the Lowell women were fresh enough to enjoy In various ways 
what was left of their evenings. In most of the boarding- 
houses there were pianos, the joint property of the girls. Some 
played, others sang. Books were read, topics discussed, and 
poems, stories, and essays written. These formed the pages 
of the " Lowell Offering," a monthly magazine composed 
entirely of articles by the girls. The literary merit of these 
articles astonished people from abroad. Harriet Martineau 
republished some of them in England under the title of " Mind 
among 'he Spindles," while Dickens claimed that, independent 
of the fact that the articles were written by girls ailcr a long, 
hard day's work in factories, they." compared favorably with 
those of many English periodicals." In character, the stories 
differed from the sentimental love-tales common to women's 
writings of that period. Simple in style, they were mostly de- 
scriptive of human life and the beauties of nature that the girls 
had leftbehind them, and what was best in their Lowell environ- 
ments. Among the contributors, who attained national repu- 
tation, were Lucy Larcom, the poet; Margaret Fol6y, the sculp- 
tor, and Mrs. H. H. Robinson, the author.* These women 
always spoke with affectionate respect of their factory experi- 
ences. Mrs. Robinson, at the International Council of Womcn,>» 
held at Washington in i88S, after telling how she had entered 
the Lowell mills as a "doffer" when a child, and remained 
there until she married in 184S, said : " I consider the Lowell 
mills my alma mater, and am as proud of them as most girls of 
■the colleges in which they have been educated." 

When factory towns sprang up in the suburbs of the large 
cities of New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, etc., they did 
so under conditions different from those of Lowell, and, of 
conrse, had other results. There was no need in these places 
for corporations to offer exceptional wages and treatment to 
women to induce them to enter the mills. Already at hand, 
and eager to accept any conditions, were the thousands of 

* Malerial for tbe accoaut of Lowell has been taken from Mrs. H. H. 
Robiosoa'i inieresdns paper od' Early Factory Life in Ne« Eneland, 
DiclccDs's Anuricaa Notei, Lowell OfferloE, and Appletoo't AmencaB 


who bad been deposited on the shores of America , 
the tidal ware of immigration, which set in from Europe 
iof the decade of 1845-55. For these women, who labored 
bread and butter and not for knick-knacks, no effort was 
ile» as io Lowell, to surround them with a favorable social 
ioq>ber€. How women spent their evenings, what were 
ir pieasaret or sorrows and how they lived, in a country 
ac the necessities of life were dear, on their weekly wages 
^3 to $4.99 per week (the average wages of factory women 
B 1850 to i860), was inquired into by none. Employers 
employed both felt that all responsibilities began and 
ed with the money given and received on pay-days. 
liis todififereoce concerning working.women was not con- 
d to the factory, but was so general that even the National 
SOS Report did not take the trouble to classify woman's 
k separately from man's, until it was found that in some 
artmeots of industry women exceeded men in point of 
ibers almost in the ratio of two to one. In the cotton 
cries of twenty-five States, in 1850, the number of women 
4oyed was 6a,66i, against 32,295 men. In i860, the aver- 
nomber employed in the cotton factories was, according 
fficial returns, 75,169 women against 46,859 men. It was 
ipoted that in the woolen goods manufactories of the six 
r England States, there were 29,886 men and 51*517 
sen employed. Hosiery, an industry belonging to women 
e days when Shakespeare wrote of 

The knittcrt ta the tan. 
Aad the fM Baids who weave their thread with booet. 

4oyed in i860 almost three times as many women as men. 
ge numbers of women made rubber clothing. Half as 
ly women as men were engaged in the manufacture of_ 
er. Women filled places in bookbinderies, printing offices, 

newspaper establishments. The number of women en. 
ed in domestic service (never an exactly ascertainable 
ntity) formed a bulk equal to the factory population ; 
le the ranks of needle-women were, as usual, larger than all 
bote industries combined, excepting domestic service. In 
9^ the namt>er of women engaged in the making of men's 

boys* clothing alone numbered 61,500 ; the number of 
I bong 35*061. In i860, owing to the invention of the 
ing-ouicfaine, these figures were partially reversed ; the 
iber of woaien employed was diminished and that of men 


m INDUSTRY. »85 

The sevviRg-machine was one of several factors that about 
i860 inaugurated for women another industrial period. From 
its invention by EUas Howe the sewing-maciiine properly 
belonged to 1846, but the business of making and selling ihem 
was not fairly started before 1853.' Then the sales of all the 
manufacturers amounted to only 1539. In i860 they had 
reached to about 50,000. This increase showed that the sew- 
iiig-oiachine results must be dated from the year of its accept- 
ance into popular favor. Mr. Howe's invention, like all other 
labor-saving machines, intended to be a blessing by lightening 
the burdens of workers, proved a curse by taking away their 
accustomed pursuit from those who depended on the skill by 
which they drove 

The patient needle through Che wovea threads. 
Brought into competition with machines that could do mon 
and better work in one day than was possible for six women 
working twenty hours apiece, to accomplish, these had eithe' 
to starvCj or force their way into some other wage-carninj 
industry. An example of how this displacement affeaet 
needle-women can be gleaned from Appleton's Cyclopaedia fo 
i86i, which cites a single establishment in New York, employ 
ing four hundred machines and producing about ten thousam 
shirts a week, whose estimated savings (in wages) were aboij 
$340,000 per annum. In the same year, the following sunt 
were saved in wage-time by the sewing-machines in the mam 
facturing industries : 

Men's and boys* clothing in New York City. $7,50(^000 

Hals and caps 4A>.SOo 

Shin bosoms, S3>,750 

Calculating that each machine did the work of sii girl 
and estimating that one girl operated each machine, thei 
. were 73,190 women displaced by the machines on which the 
savings were made. 

Contemporary with the general acceptance of the sewin 
machine, and intensifying the distress of the wage-worker, w 
the Civil War, which, in i860, began to decimate the ranks 
men and to convert into wage-earners large numbers of womi 
who had been wage-ex penders. Delicate women in the Soul 
reared in affluence, waited upon by slaves, were thrown, 1 
losses of male relatives and property, among the bread-winne: 
Numbers of these journeyed to Northern cities to hide th( 
poverty as well as to gain entrance into the larger field 
industries the North was supposed to offer. But here th 


el by tboasands of other women, native to the North, ^ 
le their sisters of the South, through the death of those * 
id hitherto fought the battle of life for them, were 

to become producers in the place of being consumers, 
distress experienced by workers of this class wrought 
sat revolution in thought which involved the education 
en. This is one of the accepted factors of the present 
At that time agitation was rife as to what should be 
>r the advancement of women as workers. Miss Vir^ 
*enny, in a book called ** Think and Act,'*^ advocated 
rmnce of women into the trades and professions that 
>nopoliied by men. ^ Apprentice/* she says, *' ten thou- 
>men to watchmakers ; train ten thousand for teachers 
roung ; make ten thousand good accountants ; put ten 
kd more to be deaconesses trained by Florence Night- 

put some thousands in the electric telegraph offices all 
tie country; educate one thousand lecturers for 
ics' institutes ; one thousand to read the best books to 
king-people ; train up ten thousand to manage wash- 
zhines, sewing-machines, etc Then the distressed 
voman will vanish, the decayed gentlewoman and 
down governess cease to exist.'* 

;rs like Gail Hamilton in the North and Catherine Cole 
outh urged the higher education of women ; their right 
tucated the same as man ; " to enter the same pursuits, 

the same wages, occupy the same posts and profes- 
ield the same influence, and, in a word, be independent 
as a means of support.** 
e slrangely reasonable, though novel propositions, met 

much public condemnation at the time as though, in 
f being suggestions for elevating women into skilljful, 

workers^ they had advocated turning them into gam- 

>d drunkards. The fact was ignored that the majority 
to had always been engaged in carrying on some kind 
»sary industry, if only in untaught, helpless ways. 
it became fashionable to say that ** woman as a worker 
rodttct of modern times." Her entrance into the ranks 
th-producers and wage-earners was called the " New 
ire,** and was deplored by writers as calculated, by 
1^ nature*s evident design m making her child-bearer, 
iiner, and house-mother, to rob her of special gifu of 

iidi nd Ad,* ** Mm nd WoaM,''"Work uid W^cs.* Vifw 


grace, beauty, and tenderness. The error of the day, h was 
argued, lay in the thought that woman should be self-support- 
ing, and she was implored to stop and coDsidei what liomM 
would become. 

if " woman was to take her place beside man in every field of 'J 
coarse, rough toil." S 

The peculiarity of these arguments, intended to dissuade.' 
women from being workers, was, that while poets, philosophers, J 
and essayists were picturing women as weak, tender creatures, i 
clinging for protection to man as the vine to the oak, the lovely ' 
presiding geniuses of homes, the cxpcnders of wealth pro-, 
duced by man, there were, according to the census of i860,, 
one million women working by the side of men in various 
domains of " coarse, rough toil." These writers, clergy- 
men for the most part, made the mistake, common to people 
in comfortable circumstances, of looking on the small, glit- 
tering world of dazzling drawing-rooms and boudoirs, where 
an elegant, dainty womanhood presides, as " woman's world." 
Living in this, they became blinded to that other, larger world 
of women without homes, with no time for the cultivation of 
the graces or personal adornment, who were obliged to work 
if they would live. 

According to the newspapers oC 1867 and of 1S70, out of 
seventy thousand women (wage-earners) in the city of New 
York, not including domestics, twenty thousand were in a con- 
stant fight with starvation and pauperism. Seven thousand 
lived in cellars. Those who got sewing to do worked from sever 
in the morning until midnight making shirts at six cents apiece 
The most rapid workers could scarcely, even with those Iod( 
hours, make one dozen shirts and thus earn their seventy-tw< 
cents per day. The pay for drawers, undershirts, and blouse 
was in proportion. We read that in Boston there were, ii 
186S, " twenty thousand women working at survation rates 
eight thousand workere at twenty to twenty-live cents per daj 
twelve thousand workers for less than fifty cents, and even a 
these rates there was little work." These women lived 1 
times, it is said, " on one cracker a day for breakfast, diane: 
and supper," working from "dawn to dawn" to "get on 
mouthful of food," In this same year, the New York jouma! 
reported thirty thousand girls struggling in :hat city with stai 
vation and cold, making shirts and furaishing the thread \ 


iL The condition of tevent^-iive thousand worl;* 
the city beggared description. The New York 
ribed them as living in " nasty tenement houses, in 
for human habitation, in pools of foulness, where 
ity is nutured and every vice flourishes.*' Women 
^el sewing-machines worked at them for $2.50 per R 

le fortv-one cents per day that they earned repre- 
rork, if not the wages, of six other women. 
cssness, the misery, the degradation of womanhood, 
d starving on beggarly wages in rich and pros* 
i» arrested the attention of the thinking class to 
!ds as it has never been arrested before. How 10 
to better her condition became, in 1868, one of 
questions of the day. Gail Hamilton, Mrs. , 
tss Penny, and others, attributed the distress of the 
needle-women to the lack of educational training 
d women to crowd into occupations requiring little. 
To remedy this, the establishment of industrial 
advocated. Men, it was reasoned, had their trades' 
ip system, schools, and universities, by which they 
ed into a knowledge of many things ; and by 
t same method to women, giving some thousands 
ofessional training in each of the various trades, 
ences useful to mankind, the ranks of the factory- 
needlc-womcn in search of employment would be 
ciently to cause the anomaly to vanish of millions 
lan beings laboring as men for the pay of children, 
ng as men for whatever they got. Other remedies 
e those of wonian suffrage and the organization of 
societies for mutual protection and benefiL 
ate attempts at industrial schools for the advance* 
men, such as the ** Wilson Industrial School " ia -. 
lad been surted by the benevolence of individuals 
856 ; but the first serious attempt to give practical 
question of higher education for women was under- 
Peter Cooper made the advantages of the institute 
him and bearing his name, free in all its depart* 
men as to men. The Cooper Institute, opened to 
a 1859, had its free art classes for women, where 
U in its application to the industries. The Cooper 
is said to be, even now, '* the largest in the world 
From its inception a few women were found 
lil themselves of the opportunity given them to 
ti various income-produang forms. But 00c until 



after the close of the war, when conditions made it urgent upon ~ 
women to work on new lines, did the classes increase to any 
extent. (Then hundreds more than could be accomnnodated 
applied for admission.) Names were placed in the roll-book « 
year ahead, and the classes, through their increased size, over- 
flowed into rooms not intended for their use. The number of 
students in the free art classes, for the sea.ion of 1S89-90, 
was 310. For this season there were 693 applicants for admis- \ 
sion to the free art classes. The accommodations do not 
admit of but few over 300. 

In this one phase of work accomplished for women in the 
United States, there was much that was attractive to the class 
drawn into the Cooper Institute, a class that belonged neither 
to the rich nor to the extremely poor. The large, light, airy 
rooms were formed, many of them, into charming studios, filled 
with tasteful studies, articles of bric-a-brac, stuffs, and, occa- 
sionally, growing plants. Books, pictures, and engravings on 
art were supplied them in the arc rooms. Descending three 
flights of broad stone steps, lined on each side with studies in 
plaster and on paper, there was the free library, a room of 
magnificent proportions, 125 x 30 feet, glass-domed, and con- 
taining 31, 176 bound volumes, nearly 5000 unbound, and 
having always on file 1S9 magazines and 393 of the best news- 
papers, American and foreign. It can be imagined what god- 
sends these treasures of art and literature were to women of 
talent, whose work had hitherto been conducted without any, 
or the most meager, advantages. To add to their value, the 
work of training pupils was intrusted to teachers capable of 
drawing out latent possibilities. The line of industrial work 
done in the Cooper Institute consisted of the arts of design as 
applied to making patterns for stained glass, wall-papers, oil- 
cloths, textile fabrics, carpets, and adapting the patterns of 
Oriental rugs for the American market. Other forms of art 
consisted in coloring photographs, portrait crayon drawing, 
and in late years wood -engraving, for which women developed 
an unusual aptitude. When pupils attained sufficient profi- 
ciency in any of these branches, they were permitted to add 
to their incomes by executing orders from business firms for 
pay. Profits from this source almost maintained some of the 
most expert during their last school years. The students ta 
1889, and the graduates of May, \%%%, earned in this way, dur> 
ing the year, $17,805. 

A wise discretionary power given the trustees of the Cooper 
Institute, " to add such other art or trade to the carriculum u 


to furnish womeo with suitable employment,*' led 
dishment, in 1869, of a class in telegraphy and in 
enographic and type-writing class. Both of these 
iucated about one hundred women yearly in those 

The expense of carrying on all the departments 
irork was, in 1S89, one-fifth of the whole expenses 
ng, and barely reached $10,000— an outlay surpris- 
for the equipment of about four hundred women, 

maintain themselves^ and influence, by teaching 
s, the minds of the many with whom they come 

t as was the work performed by this institution, 
irt and science, it was, nevertheless, felt by chari- 
uals that something more was needed in the way of 
or the mass of women who toiled without chance 
thin the sphere of iu beautiful influence. Wealthy 
Its, whose sympathies were touched by the Hves ol 
sought to help women in many other ways. The 
len's Christian Association of New York recog* 
;he necessity of educating self-supporting women 
the skilled industries. This association, which, 
\ has become a power for good in almost all the 
of the United States, instituted in New York, as 
plan of work, free classes for training women in 
arithmetic, penmanship, book-keeping, and type- 
I industrial department was created for teaching 

in all its branches of cutting, fitting, hand and 
ing. In imitation of the Cooper, art classes were 
caching the retouching of photo- negatives, photo- 
rhanical and free-hand drawing, modeling, and de- 
ill further carry out its program **to care for 
I, mental, and moral welfare of the self-supporting 
ew York City,'* a free library was attached to the 

a series of free concerts, readings, and lectures 
Through these and other means of physical 
e and choir classes, employment bureaus, board 
nd a department for the sale of goods made in 
^ about five thousand persons were reached dur* 
of iSS;. The number of pupils in all classes was 
^5. But with the best intentions, this organiza* 
e Cooper, failed to reach the women who live 
the city's slums. Its applicants were those who 
doated from the public schools and then, helpless 
1 availed themselves of the splendid opportunity 


it offered for gratuitous instruction in some wage-earning in- 
dustry. When Miss Graffcni-icd, of the United States Labor \ 
Bureau for 1889, went among the women in tenements, facto, 
ries, and shops, out oi three thousand interviewed, she said, 
" Not one was known to have come under the influence of this 
noble organiiation." 

Besides schools such as the Cooper and the Woman's >- 
Christian Union, that were specially designed for educating 
women in industrial trades, so many other ways were thought 
out for bettering their condition, that one might well call the 
years from 1868 on, the philanthropic era for women. So 
numerous were the societies started for their relief that scarcely 
a need existed that an organization of some kind did not 
attempt to fill, and each in its particular way emphasized 
Emerson's truth, "there is more kindness in the world than 
ever, was spoken." Through the efforts of a few liberal- 
minded, energetic men and women, there was established in 
New York, in 186S, a society called the "Working Woman's 
Protective Union," that purposed to provide "women with 
legal protection against the frauds and impositions of unscru- 
pulous employers, to assist them in procuring employment, 
and to secure them such suitable departments of labor as are 
not occupied by them." From the start, the novel work done 
by this society was appreciated by the class it was intended to 
help. Perfectly unsectarian, with all its services gratit, the 
rooms, first on filcccker Street, and for the past twenty years 
on Clinton Place, were thronged by women in distress desirous 
of legal counsel, matronly advice, or help Co better work. At 
all times chance visitors could see women waiting in the front 
room, while the superintendent gave sympathetic car in the 
rear apartment to some earlier comer. One day in each wce^ 
was known as " complaint day." On that day the legal repre- 
sentative of the Union received and examined the complaints 
that the superintendent deemed worthy of prosecution. What 
the society has done in the twenty-five years of its existence is 
summed up in the statement that on an annual outlay of 
$5000 it has fought and won the legal battles of 13,000 womea, 
who would otherwise have been defrauded of their hard-earned 
wages by unscrupulous employers. It has collected by legal 
processes $41,000, in sums averaging $4 each, and supplied in 
twenty-five years more than 300,000 applicants with employ- 
ment, advice, or relief. As many of these applications were 
made by the same person three or four different times, there 
were represented, perhaps, 10,000 applicanU anaually. It was 


of this society that Henry Ward Beecher said the Union's 
(reatest and best work was ^'the mere fact of its existence/* 
as this fact nude employers more careful in withholding from 
the working-woman her just dues. 

When a plan to redress a wrong succeeds, it is sure to have 
imitators. Societies in other cities followed the example of 
the Woman's Protective Union, and some of these branched 
cot in directions unthought of by the founders of the parent 
institotion* The Woman's Educational and Industrial Union, 
in Boston, besides securing wages unjustly withheld from 
working-women, added the task of investigating advertise- 
ments for work to be done at home, and, if found fraudulent, 
warning women against them. It procured situations for the 
unemployed ; sold on commission the fruits of woman's work ; 
opened a lunch-room where women could have varied bills of 
fare at moderate prices, or where they could sit and eat the 
luncheons brought from home. It included in its scope the 
intftmction of women in various poinu of law, such as those 
regarding the relations between employer and employed, the 
biring of rooms, and the detention of property. It deuiled 
agents to look up titles to furniture that, by means of mort- 
gage or insuflScient payment of the installments, might not 
belong to the seller. A feature was made of holding lectures 
and mothers* meetings, the purpose of the talks being to lead 
into higher planes of thought and action. One of the 
active endeavors was made in the line of securing the 
appointment of police matrons in large cities.^ 

ibe honor of originating the parent Wonun's Protective 
Union in New York belongs to men ; but the establishment of 
both similar and widely different societies in the United States 
is doe to the sealous energy of women themselves. The 
Woman's Club in Chicago instituted, in iS66, a Protective 
Agency that had for its objects the protection of woman's 
pority and honor, and her deliverance from swindlers and ex- 
tortiontsts. In the first year of its existence, it examined 1 1;6 
complaints, fifty-one of which were claims for money,— chiefly 
wages. These aggregated $^2.89. It is said to be the design 
of this agencv ''to establish m the near future a loan fund for 
the benefit of those in need of temporary assistance, and who, 
ttoder existing conditions, are obliged to pay usurious interest 
for money.** 
Better than anything else, philanthropic work undertaken by 

; Aid for tkt CfiniaAl 


women in America shows the difference between past and 
present generations. A few decades ag;o, woman's attention 
was absorbed in organizing small, local, .sectarian sewing ^ 
societies, Sunday-school classes, and church fairs. After the ' 
Civil War these few circumscribed channels no longer sufficed 
for woman's activity, and an expansion toolt place that made 
itself felt in the orgnnization of societies for working- worn en. 
These took no heed of sects, restricted in no way the compass 
of the schools designed for them, and worked for humanity as 
a whole. In their management of these institutions, women 
displayed an amount of executive ability and enlightened 
interest in public need thai surprised men. Because they had 
never attempted organization on a large scale, they were sup- 
posed to lack constructive talent. Some, with true conceptions 
of what society should be as a whole, endeavored here and 
there to take away from the institutions they founded, and over 
which they presided, the semblance of that offensive charitj 
which plumed itself formerly in making pelticoais for the 
yoor, — 

Because we are of one flesh after all. 

And need one flannel (uriih ■ proper tense 

Of differcDce in the quality), * 

or distributing Stale bread and thin soup,- together with. homi- 
lies on the virtues of contentment and the blessing of poverty 
and work. Along with men, they fell into the swim of modem • 
thought which attempted to render institutions self-supporting 
through the co-operative efforts of those availing themselves of 
their privileges. It was on these broad lines of non -sectarian- 
ism, diversity of teaching for a sisterhood of women, and the co- 
operative society in which there is strength, that there was built 
up for the use of the working-women the various boarding- 
homes, industrial schools, and stores for the disposal of woman's 
handiwork. To soften the harshest experiences of women 
thrown upon their own resources for necessities of food and 
shelter, philanthropic women, and men, too, made it their 
business to establish "boarding-homes," where the price of 
entrance was fixed at sums low enough to come within the 
reach of the average wage-earning woman. The clean, quiet 
streets usually chosen for these homes, contrasted with the 
filthy, crowded thoroughfares where the cheap lodging-houses— 
the only resorts the average friendless working-woman couk 
afford — were roost apt to be situated. The difference with- 
in was as great as without. In place of the cold, comfortlesi 
rooms which, as a rule, were destitute of fire or carpet, anc 

^94 iroAf^x's iroRK i\ America, 

^vhere there was neither reception-room for visitors, nor bath 

vior laundry for inmates; the model boarding^- houses had 

mpacious, well-ventilated bedrooms attractively adorned, wit^i 

m neat parlor, usually a library or reading-room, well warmed, 

l>nghtl^ lighted, and inviting. Privileges of bath-rooms and 

laundries were added to increase the comforts of the boarders. 

Two of the best of these homes are to be found in Boston, one 

oa Warrenton, the other on Berkeley Street. These structures, 

built under the auspices of the Woman's Christian Association, 

are provided with electric bells, ventilating appliances, and 

safeguards against (ire. Both houses have, besides offices and 

attendants, handsome parlors, well-stocked reading-rooms, 

libraries, and lecture halls. One of them possesses a fine 

lUiiinasium. The price for board and lodging varies from 

$3 ^^$5*5^ P^^ week, but more than one-half of the guests 

pay from $3 to $4 per week. In the two homes there exist 

accommodations for about three hundred women. The sums 

named secure pleasant rooms, well-prepared and neatly served 

meals, and include, besides washing and ironing, heating and 

lighting of rooms, the use of reading-rooms, library, parlor, and 

•admission to all entertainments of the association. 

In thirteen other cities in-the United States there have been 
established, by the same energetic society, one '^-home,'* 
smaller, but similar in character to the Boston homes. Con- 
nected with all of these, and adding greatly to their usefulness, 
are departments for giving instruction in sewing, teaching 
the art of dressmaking, and training woman in housework. 
Chautauqua circles w«*re organized among the residents, and 
classes gotten up in which, for nominal sums, girls could be* 
taught the languages, book-keeping, type-writing, stenography, 
painting, drawing, calisthenics, etc. Employment bureaus 
were attached, which, by personal application or through cor- 
respondence, obtained situations for those who were on its 
registers for services to be given, or received. To still fur* 
ther extend their helpfulness, another department, called the 
** Travelers* Aid,'* employed agents to meet incoming steamers 
and direct unprotected girls to the Association Homes, advise 
them as to the best and most economical means of trani^porta- 
lion, and the best way to secure employment. Several smaller 
organisations, such as the ^ Helping Hand," " Girls' Friendly 
Society,** etc, instituted homes that were carried on in much 
the same way. The benefits of ventilation, cleanliness, and 
decent behavior were rigidly enforced, while in general the 
stfeauous efforu were put forth to make the homes 


SO far self-supporting that their residents could look on them 
as co-operative enterprises, in which, by combination and judi- 
cious management, the funds each expended singly, brought 
tliem all unitedly, comforts which would have been impos- 
sible without such action. 

To propagate the idea of the value of 'co-operation amon^ 
women, whether workers or not, was perhaps the most useful 
thing accomplished by the boarding-home societies. So far 
the number of these institutions ha? been limited, so that ihejr 
suggest wh^t could be done rather than indicate what has been 
accomplished in brightening the lives of the great mass of 
homeless working-women. In Boston, where these "homes" 
are most numerous, there are, for a population of eighty I 
thousand wage-earning women, but six of these dwellings. ( 
Altogether, the limit of their accommodations is about 387 
boarders. In these meager results, for so much energetic, 
philanthropic work, theabortiveness is shown of private indi- 
vidualistic attempts to supplant by means of model co-operatix'e 
boarding- homes, the cheap and nasty tenement lodging-houses, 
situated too often in close proximity to gin-shops, gambling 
dens and brothels. By the numbers who vainly seek admission 
into the few boarding-homes that have been csublished in 
various large cities, the fact is proved that were the idea of 
co-operative homes carried out to largest national issues and 
placed everywhere within reach of wage-earning; women, 
all but the most debased would avail themselves of their 
privileges, and thus secure the comforts and good living en- 
joyed so rarely by women whom circumstances compel to 

Another phase of work initiated by women, and which, like 
the boarding-homes, needs only to be carried out on thfc 
broad and liberal lines of a national co-operation to become a 
power for universal good, were the exchanges, or stores, 
instituted for the purpose of selling hand or machine-made 
articles of woman's manufacture, and which gave the makei 
the full price they brought, less a ten per cent. commissioD 
and a membership fee of $5 for maintaining the establishment 
In this way, the founder of the Woman's Exchange hoped U 
solvetheever-pcrplexing problem of finding a remunerative mar 
ket for the work that women had been taught to &o iA the van 
ousart and industrial schools, At the time the first iexchanj;;! 
was planned in New York, some ten years ago, thousands o 
women, graduates from the various art schools, were at work ii 
etoresand factories decoratingchina, painting household adoni 



meots such as portieres, screens, wall-hangings, and doing ^11 
kinds of fancy work at prices but little, if any, beyond the 
wages of the average worker on men's and women's clothing. 
To direct this work into a channel, where the maker and not 
the employer would receive the profit, was what the originator 
of the exchange proposed to do for women pressed by poverty 
into the raoks of the bread-winners. 

From the first, the exchange became popular with a certain 

^ clas% and had a most phenomenal growth, forty having come 

into existence during the last decade, all of which are working 

'ally oo the same general plan. A walk through the 

of the parent institution, now established in a hand- 

boilding at 329 Fifth Avenue, shows the number and 

vmriety of workers who availed themselves of its privileges. 

lo the salesrooms, hand-painted and embroidered tapestries 

bang 00 the walls ; artistic screens, painted or embroidered 

00 all conceivable materials, stand in every nook and comer ; 

elabormtelv decorated china for ornament or table use lies 

piled 00 shelves ; while textile fabrics of all kinds^ made up 

loto articles for wall decorations^ bed and table use, or personal 

wear« are tastefully arranged on counters or within glass cases. 

Oo the opper floors in the building, women are kepi constantly 

at work inspecting, nurking, and ticketing goods sent in by 

consignees. In the basement are the storehouse and restaurant 

for receiving and selling cakes, pickles, preserves, and other 

edibles, sent to be disposed of for the benefit of the 


In this one establishment the sales for the year 188B 
amounted to $51,180*26. The aggregate sold in the cake and 
preserve department amounted to $13,256.89. One con. 
signee of chicken jelly, etc., got during the year $1,256.89. 
Of two consignees in the cake and preserve de|>artment one 
received $1,019.73, the other $772.42. Things sent to the 
lonch-room for Sunday night teas brought one consignee the 
comfortable little income of $965.78. From the sale of chil- 
dren's wrappers alone, one consignee received $548.66, and 
one woman for screens, decorated frames, etc. $1105.71. 
One consignee received during the spring and fall months 

£17.35 for articles which she had previously made for manu- 
tarers at $a.5o apiece, and which were sold for $35 each. In 
the order department connected with the exchange, the work 
<looe consisted of 1263 pieces of plain sewing, 1784 pieces of 
English embroidery, iioo painted articles, and 2033 fancy 
aitidcii From the forty other societies then in existence the 


reports showed a grand aggregate of over one million doUan i 
from sales during the year. I 

These figures demonstrate how thoroughly practical the 
scheme is of sending baud-made articles to special magazines \ 
to be disposed of for the makers' benefit. The woman who, ' 
by sending her work to the exchange, got $35 for what she, ' 
as a wage-earner, had received $1.50 from the manufacturer, 
got the profit that had previously gone to swell the bank- 
account of the manufacturer, middle men, and retail dealers. 
This was the same with all contributors to the exchanges ; by 
employing their own labor they accumulated the premiunu 
which, under the old factory and store system, inured to the 
benefit of their employers. In establishing the woman's ex- 
changes, the difficulty was to secure enough women of intelli- 
gence to be their own employers and to interest enough women 
in woman's work to become patrons of the exchanges instead 
of the stores. For instance, to meet the expenses of the Fifth 
Avenue establislinient in 18SS, the income from all sources 
was $13,589.56, while the expenses of carryingon the business 
amounted to $16,318.48. This left a deficit of $3733.91 that 
had to be met by donations, and which kept the institution 00 
a partly charitable instead of wholly self-supporting basis. 
As this deficit had lessened with each year, some optimistic 
thinkers began to hope that the time was coming when it 
would disappear altogether, and thus allow them to becoow 
strictly co-operative instead of philanthropic concerns. A 
conclusion reached was, that were they once to become inde- 
pendent of charitable donations, they would branch out largelj 
enough in most of the worst paid departments of woman') 
work so as to force out those employed on such labor foi 
the vast retail stores. But it was found that an insuperabli 
obstacle to the extension of the exchanges lay in the utte: 
lack of system with which contributors worked. In the mat 
ter of production, the regular stores had but little system 
still some attempt was made in them to regulate the sup 
ply of manufactured goods to meet a possible or expectet 
demand. Contributors to the exchanges had no such guid< 
Those who made and sent articles for sale could have if 
opportunity for knowing what others were making and send 
ing. The result was that women living near or afar off ii 
town and country worked completely in the dark. With n 
finger on the public pulse in the matter of supply and dcm'aa 
for goods, they were obliged for this haphazard work to pui 
chase their own material in small quantities in the retail mju 


ketft. while the merchaot-manufacturers bought theirs in balk 
to the cheapest. This could only mean more failures than 
successes in the disposal of goods made under such condi- 
tions. Again, only women possessed of some means could 

^afford to lay out money for materials and wait the uncertain 
chances of its returning to them with a profit. In conseauence, 
most of those contributing articles to the exchanges tor sale 
were *^ reduced gentlewomen/' who made use of this means of 
becoming their own employers, not so much for support, as to 
better their conditions of living, without the publicity conse* 
qoeot upon working for nunufacturers. This in itself made 
It impossible for the exchanges (as was claimed by their sup. 
porters) to have ^ ktlpti womin in gemrai to have kuskid thi 
* Somg 0/ Uu Skirt: '* * To the women of the proleuriat, the 

x^ exchanges were not only unknown mediums by reason of their 
tttoation in fashionable thoroughfares, but forbidden factors 
because of their attendant risks and expenses. The number 
of sewing women helped in them to increased earnings was 
too insignificant to warrant any hope that the co-operative 
principles underlying their business methods would ever 
spread far enough to leave any impress upon prevailing modes 
of work in the business world. Like all other remedies, insti* 
tuted by wealthy philanthropists to assist the working. women, 
they were palliatives for the ills of a few, not curatives for the 
sofferings of the many. 

^ Much more satisfactory than anjrthing which had been 
accomplished in the name of philanthropy or charity for 

/ working- women were the labor organizations founded by the 
proletariat and sustained by their own energy and contribu- 
tions. About 1870, associations of working-people (including 
women) were inaugurated for the purpose of gaining better 
social conditions. These were more attractive and beneficial 
to the laboring class because they lacked that element of resti* 
tatioo of a modicum of withheld wages which tainted all that 
wealth did for the alleviation of the condition of wage-earning 
womeoyf and, moreover, was built upon the sounder philosophy 

^ SpMch of Mr. Frederic Coodcrt at the Lcnos Lfoewii, Aprfl 7. 189a 

k This thouflit ol the fremter btocfit to be derived (rooi the ornauAtkws 
ef Uhor ee oopoeed to the phiUoihropk work done hy the eopkiTUiff cUiMS 
for the pcoDM who work, has been ablir cerricd oot in a paper read bv Mrt. 
rioraico KcUey WbchDOwtiky before the New York Aieociatioii ol CoQcgiato 
AliHMi, May 14. iM?. eaUtled *' The Need ol Theoretical Preparatiooa for 
Work." This eaaay wfll appear la aa oarlj myaber of 


of ao endeavor to organize into bodies capable of striviDg e 
lectively for their own deliverance, that class of women wt 
the industrial schools, women's exchanges, etc.. could i 
reach. The most important c' these bodies was the Knig 
of Labor. Organized openly in iSSi at the Detroit Con» 
tion, but more secretly some years before, this body welcoa 
women into its ranks on the ground of seeking "to gal 
into one fold all branches of honorable toil, without regart! 
nationality, sex, creed, or color." Trade assemblies, compo 
entirely of working- women, were formed, and the memt 
were taught the beautiful principles on wbich the order ' 
founded. In amalgamating with knights, women assumed 
duties of the new chivalry. Engaging as equals in the unt 
taking, helping with time and money to carry out the i 
mission, they sought by Agitation, Education, and Orgao 
tion to lighten the burden of toil, and to elevate the m 
and social condition of mankind. In iSS^. one local asscm 
composed entirely of women, counted fifteen hundred ni 
bers. These must all have given adherence to that ore 
doctrine of " Equal pay for equal work," and " woman's ec 
able consideration with man in the Nation's govemme 
Mrs. Leonora Barry, who had been a factory worker for s 
years in Central New York, became the chief officer of a t 
assembly of nine hundred and iwenty-seven women. Late 
i8S&, she was elected a delegate to the general assembl) 
which she was commissioned "to go forth and educate 
sister working-women and the public generally as to i 
needs and necessities." 

The open declaration of this powerful organization,— 
women possessed equal rights with men, — showed, as muc 
anything else, the advance of public sentiment in regar 
women. Its educational influence extended outside the r 
of the order. Most of the women members were drawn 
the employees in factories producing clothing, textile fat 
food, tobacco, etc., and from the trades of typography, t< 
raphy, and stenography. In the mixed local assem 
women have an equal chance with men to express their ^ 
upon subjects bearing on the labor question. And even « 
women sat quiet, as most frequently happened, without H 
share in the debates, one of the valuable purposes of the < 
was said to be served by the information and larger i 
which came to them through these discussions. In assem 
composed entirely of women, of whom not one, perhaps, ( 
boast of more than a minor part of a coounon school $c 


turn, ideas were advanced for their financial as well as edoca- 
tkxial benefit Factory operatives, coming under their influence, 
became shareholders in co-operative concerns. Co-operative 
shirt factories, conducted solely by women, were established 
in Baltimore and New York« A cooperative knitting mill was 
sec op at Little Falls, N. Y., while other co-operative industries 
throughout the land came« through co-operative principles, 
into the possession of the workers. A co-operative tailoring 
establishment in Chicago had its rise in the lock-out of a few 
factory girls who attended a labor parade without permission. 
With the luck that comes with pluck, they became possessed 
of $40o« through soliciting subscriptions. With this they went 
into business and succeeded. It is claimed, that inside of nine 
months they had done $36,000 worth of business, besides 
having the gratification of being their own employers. 

This departure from the custom prevailing among the pro* 
letariat to sell their services for wage-hire, was due largelV to 
the demand made in the nineteenth plank of the platform of the 
Knights of Labor for the abolition of the wage system and a 
national system of cooperation in lieu thereof. The insertion 
of such a demand proved the founders of the order to have 
been thinkers radical enough to go a step beyond the old idea 
of trades organizations with their petty notions of each trade 
working solely in its own interests. In comparison with the 
broad and lofty conception of the Knights of Labor, which 
sought to include in its benefits all women and men engaged 
io every department of industrial work, other organizations, 
such as the American Federation of Labor, which is a mere 
rope of sand, showed themselves away in the rear-guard of 
progressive civilization by placing themselves solely on the 
old competitive and selfish trades union basis. 

The next largest organization that took women into its body 
on terms of equality was ^ The Granger Association of Western 
Farmers.**^ Founded in 1870, this association of the agri- 
culturists of the country proposed to do for women on the 
farms what the societies had done for them in the other indus- 
triesw They formulated as a principle " that uo Grange should 

* Siaoe Ibc Gruifcf* were fint or^niwd, that body hat amalrmaMtcd its 
t f or u with thoM ol the Fanacrt Alliances and thcic afain with the Knif hu 
ol Ljibor. The AUtaaoet are in ounv ret pcctt awre todalittfe than the 
Sockliat. itiaimych as the last-named have only p roy >o— d, b)r a iranutiooal 
wmA coMtkvtional method, to amve at the dcmaadt now made by the AlU- 
aaocs* and ihcM only after the altniisiic and iadmtrial planks io their plat* 
fSfialMlvf bita|radiiall700M«dcdb^NatiooalaadS|al«Liyiilat«r««. Ths 

L ^7^^^^ IN INDUSTRY. $ 

be organised, or exist, without women," This act was held 
be the emancipation of women on the farms, as that of t! 
Knight of Labor had been in the trades. In their public met 
ings, women were invited to take .part in the discussions 
plans for mutual benefit, for usefulness and culture. The pri 
ciples of co-operation, which brought them together, extend 
to the buying of all descriptions of goods in bulk. This, 
increasing the purchasing power of limited incomes, increat 
the comforts and attractions of homes that would othenr 
have been deprived of them. The women who entered | 
Granges held a conspicuous place in the national census of a| 
cultural operators and producers of national wealth. T? 
were engaged in the farm labors of milking, malting b 
tcr and cheese, raising poultry, preserving eggs, and gather 
honey for market and home consumption. Vegetable garde 
fruit orchards, viticulture, berry plants, and shrubs of ml 
millions' value were largely attended to by them ; while pla 
ing, weeding, haying, harvesting, tilling the soil, and caring 
live-stock were rapidly added to the list of wumea's occu 
tions on the farm. To bring a new brightness into the li 
of these toilers was an avowed object of the Grange. It i 
posed, by bringing men and women together with cominunt' 
of interests, to effect a great moral and social good, mod t 
elevate them from slaves and drudges into a "better i 
higher manhood and womanhood." 

As " the thoughts of men were widened by the proce£sef 
the suns," the idea gained ground that if organisatioD 
good for women in one direction, it might be good in all. t 
' began, about 1884, to receive women into their trades' unit 
and a few energetic women in various States started worki 
women's unions that comprised the members of diffei 
trades. The Cigar and Typographical Unions were among 
tirst to admit women into their bodies. The Cigar-Mak 
Union of Denver, a branch of the International Cigar-Mak 
Union, admitted women to membership and made no dist 
tion on account of color. Through the efforts of the un 
the hours of labor were reduced from ten to eight, and 


communication, railways, canals, telegraphs, telephones, 

this, (h«ir platform calU upon the nation through Conjp^u and the Tra 
department for a system of sul>- treasuries, which have to aid directl 
the purchase, storage, and distribution of the prodocti of (ama aad pi 
tlona— that Is of all graiii, tobacEo, and cotton. 


rate of wages^ lui they expressed it, ^ raised from a mere pit- 
uncc to re>pecuble living wages/' Typographical unions 
were mach praised for their gallantry in forcing employers to 
•agree to their terms of *^ Equal work, equal pay, equal terms 
of apprenticeship for both sexes." This chivatric aspect was 
tomewhat dimmed by the refusal afterward of some union 
meo to work in the same offices with women. Employers 
were frequently given the option of choosing between having 
all men or all women at the cases, and the struggle usually 
ended io favor of the men. How this worked to the dtsadvan- 
uge of women can be seen by referring to the California Bu- 
reao of Labor Sutistics for 18S9, where the statement is that 
the book and job printing houses in San Francisco employ- 
ing union help had only three women in three separate print-^ 
ing establishments as against one hundred and nineteeir men ; 
while in the non.union, the proportion was forty-eight women 
against eighty.five men. Since the investigations of the Bu- 
reau, the number of union women employed is said to be 
^ much increased.** . This in regard to wages means a great 
deal to women, as the unions have a fixed scale which ranges 
from eighteen to thirty dollars for week or time work. In one 
of the largest printing establishments in San Francisco, women 
compositors not in the unions received as.wages nine dollars 
per week as against fifteen dollars for men ; proof-readers, 
nine dollars against eighteen dollars for men. Forewomen and 
foremen were paid in the same ratio. Discrepancies like these, 
of fifty per cent, difference in the wages of women, because 
they were women, proved the value of an association thatnn. 
sasted upon the justice of ** equal pay for equal work." 

Trade organizations composed exclusively of women were 
instituted timidly and tentatively in the large cities.* Though 
protective rather than educational, the instruction given in the 
few trades unions established by and for women possessed a 
very broadening character. Able speakers, frequenting the 
meetings, familiarized the members with the economic theories 
advanced as to the value of the co-operative principle, the duties 
owed by the strong to the weak, and the correlation between 
woman's best interests and the interesu of the State. The ex* 
periencc of the trades unions proved the absurd fallacy of the 
time-worn objection against women's guilds, ^ that it would un- 
•ex them,** for the effect of their organizations was to make their 

^TktifitMM citahlfah^d of aov ootc wm tlMt of tbc Duchtcfs of CHi- 
|ia» li MaasckMilti^ aa orgMiiaMMa of ■hniaiki, laoofpofatod li itTt, 


( :■ 

\ : 



1 1 












1 ■ ? 


through fear of losing the labor vote, to the demar 
of Labor Statistics, which should show the actua 
men and women engaged in any and every d 
labor. Massachusetts, always first in the fie 
established si/ch a bureau of labor statistics in 
States followed slowly in^ her wake. By z8£ 
States had recognized, the imporunce of lu 
bureaus. Among them was " the Departmec 
instituted in Washington itk 1885, for the purp 
collectively for the whole people what the iodi 
were to accomplish separately. When the 1 
Labor Bureau went into operation, its chief. Gem 
Oliver, a man of liberal views, endeavored to 
conditions under which industrial women worked 
employed were : 

I. Personal investigation. 

II. Distribution of printed forms with blanks 
and employers to fill. 

III. Summons to witnesses from the employed 
ing classes to testify. 

IV. Soliciting information through correspond 
Through the recommendation of ladies inte; 

question of ascertaining the conditions of wo 
General Oliver associated one of their own sex, 
Bryant, with the work of the bureau. In the thi 
bureau's existence five women were placed oti 


to Boston. Accompanied by the Chief of Police, he visited the 
homes of "poor-paid laborers," — women and men, — and found 
that the homes of the laborers are a pretty accurate index of 
the social, industrial, sanitary, educational, and moral standard 
of the laborers themselves. The result of his work was a 
recommendation for further and more thorough research. 
^ Such investigations," he said, *' will reveal a state of things 
at which the people of Massachusests will gaxe with amaze- 
ment, disgust, and anger, and demand a bettering of the 
wrong. •• 

Investigations by blanks and by summons to witnesses was 
successful than the personal interview. The mass of the 
people were ignorant of what the bureau sought to accomplish 
by their questions ; hence not more than twenty per cent, of 
the employers and thirty-three per cent, of the employed ad- 
dressed returaed replies. A dread on the part of manu- 
factorers and shopkeepers, lest ** out of their own mouths they 
should be condemned," prevented them from answering, and 
those under them were restrained to silence through. fear of 
losing employment. In spite of the risk, courageous women 
replied to the blanks and gav^ personal testinK>ny sufficient to 
enable the commission to form a partial estimate of the social 
and eoooomic conditions of the whole. The statistics presented 
hy the bureau were said to have reached *' the very verge of 
human society.** Said Mrs. Atkinson, speaking of the reports 
on the working- women, *' The stern fact, the thrilling incident, 
the woeful spectacle, the harrowing sight of squalor and 
wretchedness are marshaled before our eyes in a great and 
terrible array." The subjects investigated were : Housework, 
Hotel and Saloon work. Home work, Store work. Under the 
Home work was classified sale work ; under Store work, clerks, 
accountants, saleswomen, and cash girls. All that could be 
found out concerning women in these emplo3rments was 
printed and presented by General Oliver to the Legislature 
and to the public, without any of the softening touches common 
to later reports^ 

The next extended investigation into the occupations and 
history of wage-earning women was made in i8S4« at the insti* 
gatioa of Mr. Carroll D. Wright, who, in 1874, had superseded 
General Oliver as chief of the Massachusetts Bureau. The 
research undertaken by Mr. Wright had for its object the 
ascertainment of the ** moral, saniury, physical, and economi* 
cal ** condition of all wage-earning women in Boston, except 
thoee eaplojred 10 domest ic service. This was a larger field 

i : I 






classify. One by one domestic industries were 
the home to the factory. And in most of these, 
done by one person had become differentiated 
parts, requiring the co-operation of many work 
the occupation of making men's and women's < 
were classified in 1884 ^^ mai}y as 103 subdi< 
gether, in the seventy distinct industries cat; 
^^^t 354 subdivisions of industries, and eacli 
parts employed a different set of workers. It ' 
that a number of representative women should I 
in each of these departments ; for, even when 
formed part of a distinct whole, each worker in 1 
had interests at variance with the others. 

The force of women engaged in the industi 
had also seemingly almost doubled in the five y< 
to 1885. Exclusive of domestic service, the nun 
in all other industries was estimated in the 
census of 1880 at 20,000 ; in the Massachusetts < 
for 1885 at 39,647. With this apparent doublin 
Intion, the amount distributed in wages had not 
so all that had been bad in the conditions of 
women in previous years was heightened beca 
nothing to relieve it. On account of all this, tl 
of the report of 1884 was anxiously looked for 1 
bers of persons who had become familiar with tl 
of the bureaus. Great, therefore, was the pub 


tigatioo of the condition of the working-women of New York 
Cttj. It WIS estimated that in that year over two hundred 
thousand women were employed in the various trades of that 
city, exclusive of those in Brooklyn. The number of indus- 
tries, exclusive of domestic service, and without counting sub- 
divisions, was ninety. Scarcely any European city offered so 
wide and diversified a field for inquiry as this ; and yet the 
commtssiooer, Mr. Charles F. Peck, claimed that, through 
lack of time, in place of any close and searching inquiry '' into 
special conditions of the effects of these employments on the 
physical development of women and its relation to the social, 
cocnmerctal, and industrial prosperity of the State,** he was 
obliged to content himself ^ with a general survey, instead of 
that minute and detailed examination which the subject would > 

Mr. Peck discovered, as his predecessors in Massachusetts 
had done, that at all times the questions involved in the con* 
ditioos of working-women resolved themselves into those of 
^ wages, hours, health, and morals.'* With regard to the first, 
he found that the wages of women, as a rule, were, in 1885 as 
in 1869, less than one-half that obtained by men, — the remu- 
neration being widely different even where the work performed 
was the same. In those professions or trades in which women 
were organized, and for equal work received equal pay with 
men, — as printers, cigar-makers, and hatters, — the men them* 
selves received very low pay. In the tenement-house factories, 
the women engaged in cigar-making numbered four thousand. 
These were employed in the branches paying the lowest wages, 
as stripping and binding. For these, the pay seldom averaged 
$5 per week, and then was not steady the year round. The 
manufacturers gave as reason for hiring so many women, ^ That 
they could get them for fifty per cent less than men.** Cap. -^ 
makers earned from $3 to 4.50 per week ; compositors all the 
way from $8 to $16 per week. One of the new branches of 
work into which women had entered was that of polishing 
marble. The manager of the Niagara Marble Works testified 
that they employed from twenty-five to thirty women, whose 
wages averaged from $4.50 to $8 per week, men getting for 
the same kind of work from $1.50 to $3 per day. When asked 
if** they could get men to work for the same wages as women ?** 
the re{Ay was, ** Hardly, unless they were boys, and then they 
woold DOC be so skillful.** 

But it was in the class of work that has always been called 
i*s work** that the bureaus found the most beggarly 


wages paid. A manufacturer of pants, vests, shirts, and over- 
alls testified that he gave from AfCeen to thirty-five cents apiece 
for making vests; seventy-five cents to 81,50 per doten for 
shirts, and from twelve and a half cents to twenty-five cents s 
pair for pants. Boy's gingham waists, with trimming on neck 
and sleeves, were paid for at the rate of two and a half cents 
each. By working steadily at the machine from six o'clock in 
the morning until one at night, the seamstress could make 
twenty-five cents a day at this " shop work," The inmates of 
several charitable institutions in the city were found by the 
commissioner crocheting ladies' shawls for twenty-five cents 
apiece. An expert, he was told, could finish one in two day*. 
This was all that the several Blanks & Co. would pay, because 
competition for this kind of work was so great they were able 
to get the work done for almost any price.* On woman's 
wear, the wages had been so reduced that it was alleged that a 
full day's work on a cloak brought from fifty to sixty cents. 
The visits of the commissioner to some of the attic tenemem- 
house rookeries, where this work was carried on under the 
direction of " sweaters," disclosed numbers of cloak-nukers 
working sixteen hours a day for fifty cents. In those deni be 
. saw stacks of cloaks piled on the floors ready to be sewn to- 
gether by women scantily clad, with hair unkempt, and wboae 
pale, abject countenances formed such pictures of physical 
suffering and want as he trusted " he might never again be 
compelled to took upon." . The style and quality of the 
cloaks upon which these women toiled were of the latest and 
best. They were hned with quilted silk or satin and trimmed 
with sealskin or other expensive material, and found ready sale 
in the largest reuil stores in the city at from thirty-five to 
seventy -five dollars each. 

To give some idea of how the cloak-makers lived on this pit- 
tance the bureau gavea realistic engraving, done from a drawing 
taken on the spot, in which it was endeavored to reproduce ttw 
outlines of one room (as a sample exhibit of the rest) where six 
women sat at work under the directions of sweaters. In tise 
the room might possibly have measured twelve by fourteen 
feet, and perhaps nine feet high. The atmosphere was next 
to suffocating and dense with impurities. On one end of a 

* One eWi that ihirt-nuken uid mmstrcues of mil kindi bad to c on tM d 
with iru that the work wai rirea out 10 coairaclon, faroilie*. aod InttitntkaH. 
--'icipallr totlw Roman Catholk Protcctoty and tha Hooaa e( tU Good 


able, at which four of the women sat, was a dinner [>ail par- 
ialljT filled with soup (that is what they called it) and a loaf of 
rell-seasoned bread. These two courses, served with one 
ipoon and one knife, satiated the thirst and hunger of four 
forking- women. In an adjoining side room, without means 
or Tentilation or light, the deadly sewer gas rose in clouds 
rom a sink. On the floor lay a mattress which partook in ap- 
pearance of the general filth found throughout the building. 
)n this mattress the cloak*makers, tired out by the long day's 
rork and faint for want of food, threw themselves down and 
iwaited the coming day's awful toil f* »( bread. This, it was 
iaimed, was neither a fanciful nor exceptional picture ; that 
I degree of want, misery, and degradation existed among the 
rorking-women living in tenement houses next to impossible 
o describe. **Certainly,** said the commissioner, ** no words 
4, mine can convey to the public any adequate conception of 
be truly awful condition of thousands of these suffering 
«ople. Formerly,*' he wrote, *' Hood's 'Song of the Shirt' 
;ave sentimental celebrity to the wrongs of the sewing-women, 
»at it is not the shirt (alone) now, but the woman's cloak and 
be man's coat or pants that draw tears and groans from the 
iverdone sewing-woman." 

Testimony elicited as to the workers in some of the trades, 
larticularly tobacco, was even more revolting than tliat con- 
eming the sewing* woman. In the report, wood -cuts were 
;iveo of rooms such as a large proportion of cigar-makers 
forked, lived« ate, and slept in. '* These people," it was said, 
' worked till twelve p. m. or one o'clock a. m., then slept by the 
oachine a few hours, anil commenced work again." The 
IcscriptioQ of women sitting ^ surrounded by filth, with children 
raddling in it, whose hands, faces, and bodies were covered 
rtth sores,** were sickening. Cankerous sores were ** even 
>Q the lips of the workers, they all the time handling the 
obacco that was made into cigars." In the scale of sanitary 
onditions of homes and workrooms, the cigar-makers were 
Aong the lowest. Of bunch-makers and rollers, who replied 
o the questions of the sanitary condition of their homes, but 
woottt of I iSanswered, "good." All of the rest wrote, '* bad, 
' very bad,** the ** worst you ever saw," " miserable," and "poor. 
is to their workrooms, out of one hundred and thirty, one 
lundred and three were without means for free circulation of 
ir. Om€ only possessed no offensive odors. The unhealth- 
oloesaof the workrooms of the cigar-makers, the coat-makers, 
he tailoressesi and the cloak-makers was about the same. 


Iff INDUSTRY. 309 

Among this latter class of seamstresses 38 out of 41 insirered 
that their surroundings were very offensive through beia; 
" near offensive stables." The order of the day was, " general 
filth, water-closets, bad sewerage, diriy neighborhood*, otrer- 
crowding. and poor ventilation," "Similar complalnu came 
from compositors in printing-offices, women in type-foundries, 
kid-glove sewers, carpet- factory operators, and silk weavers 

White in many of the large factories the sanitary conditions 
were good and proper, ventilation being secured, — when it did 
not interfere with the work carried on, — there were other fea- 
tures that if less injurious to health were quite as objectionable 
to the wage-worker. In the carpet and silk factories, women 
were obliged to stand all day, as, though seats were provided 
in many instances, lines were exacted from those using them. 
' It was the same with washing facilities ; women employed intilk 
establishments in weaving light-colored orwhite silks were fined 
as high as fifty cents for washing their hands, and fines were 
also imposed if spots got 011 ihe goods. Women testified that 
they were fined " if discovered reading a letter, or a paper, or 
spoke to one another." The proprietor of one of these fac- 
tories stated that the fines he collected in this way he gave 
away in " charity," and, " That five dollars a week was eooagfa 
for a girl to live on." In some carpet factories the systen of 
fines was even more excessive. Women were docked asmndt 
as five dollars if any accident happened to the machinery, which 
they were compelled to clean while it was in motion. In one 
mill, they were " not allowed to talk to one another during 
working hours or at noon, under penalty of being docked or 
discharged." The fine in some places for being five miaatet 
late was twenty-five cents, while a half-hour over-time was ex- 
acted. How disproportionate this punishment was is evident; 
those women who were fined at the rate of thirty dollars per 
day, were being paid at the rate of eight cents an hour. When 
women were not fined for being five minutes behind time, 
they were " locked out " for two hours. These were the bands 
employed on piece work, and the loss of two hours madCi 
as it was intended, a large hole in the day's earnings. la 
most cases it was claimed that the amount of fines eiactcd 
was optional with the foreman or superintendent, and that fi» 
quently they were so excessive as to aSect the whole pay of 
employees for weeks ahead. 

The tyranny of the strong and powerful over the weak and 
helpless, — which found expression in the exaction of fines (ran 
those who were termed variously " white slaves" " slave ^rlii" 


^ prisoners of poverty/' etc.,— existed in another form in the 
long hours of labor demanded by the Legrees of the industrial 
world from the wage-working women. While in many facto* 
ries the legal limit of sixty hours per week for minors, and 
women under twenty-one, was observed, there were grave and 
numerous exceptions to this rule among tobacco-workers, 
seamstresses, bakery employees, etc., etc. In the cigar fac- 
tories, the great majority of bunch-makers and rollers, whether 
employed at home or in the factory proper, were worked fifteen, 
sixteen, seventeen, and even eighteen hours a day. Operatives 
on clothing worked from nine to sixteen hours per day. In the 
collar, cuff, and shirt-making factories in Troy» as well as the 
laundries in that place, the hours were uniformly ten, and in 
New York from eight to twelve. Milliners worked nine hours 
to factories and from fourteen to sixteen at home. Feather- 
workers in factories nine to ten. Operatives on ladies' under- 
wear eight to ten in factories ; twelve to- fourteen hours at 
home. While this made a good showing for the factories en- 
gaged in these industries, it must t>e rememt>ered that much of 
the work quoted as done ** a/ home '* was only a continuation of 
factory labor, as work was in many cases taken home from 
these, either to supplement the day's earnings, or to oblige (?) 
employers, who withheld extra compensation for the extra work, 
exacted. In occupations requiring a different kind of skill, or 
impossible at home, the hours were found to t>e sometimes less 
than the legal limit Those for compositors were from eight 
to ten. Type-foundry operatives, seven and a half to nine. 
Stenographers, telegraphers, and typewriters, from five and a 
half tosix, seven, and eight. Saleswomen, again, worked many 
hours over-time in all except the largest houses, and during the 
holiday season these largest stores were no longer exceptions. 
In fancy*goods stores, millinery shops, bakeries, candy stores, 
etc., etc, no limit was placed through the holidays, — that were 
in no sense holidays to employees,^xcept the limit of physical 
endurance. In return no portion of the extra profit this extra 
work brought was shared by proprietors with their overtaxed 

' £couomically speaking, the worst of all the evils society 
perpetrated against the working-women was that of forcing 
ber into long hours of continuous labor ; for, whether stand- 
ing at the looms and in the stores, or sitting at the sew- 
ing-machine, specific diseases of the sexual organs were in- 
duced, causing marriage to t>e followed by miscarriage or 
sickly cbildreo. No original statistics were collected by the 


bureau to show how far the health and morals of wookb 
engaged in industries were affected by their employmcnu, Mid 
what relation this influence exerted in reference to womu't 
position in the State. While this prevented the report {ron 
being of full service to the political economist, to the hUionu 
its pages were valuable as forming a succession of /<m 
pictures, otherwise unattainable, of the proletarian women, u 
they lived, labored, and suffered in New York City in 1885. 

An epidemic of investigation into women's condition as 
wage-workers followed the New York report. Five Stated- 
Maine, California, Colorado, Iowa, and Minnesota — preparnl 
separate chapters on the subject of the working women foe 
their Bureaus of Labor Statistics for 1887-1888. In Ncv 
Jersey, although no original investigation was made by tht 
State, the bureau reprinted in 1887 a large portion of anei- 
cellent report on "Woman's Work and Wages," gathered bj 
Mrs. Barry in 1886 by order of the Knights of Labor, The 
latest, and what should have been the best report, was » 
national research into the social and economic environments 
of wage-earning women in twenty-two of the largest and most 
representative cities in the United States. This invcstigaiioo, 
conducted under the auspices of the Central Bureau at Wash- 
ington, comprehended statistics gained through interviewiof 
and questioning personally 17,427 women engaged in indus- 
trial pursuits. Undertaken in 1S88, this national report wa* 
printed in 1889, under the title of " Working- women in Large 
Cities." It formed a volume of 631 pages, mostly statistical 
tables, framed so as to seem to cover the most imponut 
points concerning women as industrial workers. 

To two grades of readers these bureau publications were 
most welcome. First, to the more intelligent among the work- 
ing-class. " in whose humble cabins," it was said,* •• compleu 
sets of Bureau Reports could be found pre5er\'ed in calin 
covers having as many colors as ' Joseph's coat,' and prescat- 
ing as much evidence of constant use as the old-time spelling, 
book in a country school-house that was passed from schoUt 
to scholar until it has made the round of the school." Second, 
to the students of sociology, who pored over their paga, 
hoping to gain clear ideas of what was going on in the work- 
ing world of men and women. Excellent though they were, 
these reports were nevertheless disappointing, at least as fat 
as they related to facts concerning woman's industrial positioa. 

'Ohio Keport for 1GS7. L. McHogh, 



The first and greatest disappointment for readers was the fact 
that the namber of wage*eaming women interviewed in any 
one place by the bureau agents was too small to give even an 
approximate idea of the whole ; e. g. the statistical tables of all 
industries for New York City were founded on the testimony 
alone of 39S4 women, while at that period (18S9) the number 
of wage-earning women in that city and Brooklyn was esti- 
mated at 3oo,ooo.(?) As this method of taking one per cent, of 
the population of women as a guide by which to estimate the 
Goodttions of all the others prevailed everywhere, conclusions 
drawn from the presented sutistics were, of necessity, vitiated. 
To a certain extent the^* had to be accepted with allowance. 

With all that this limiution implies, the bureau statistics are, 
nevertheless, interesting as comprising the best data we have 
00 which to base assumptions of the industrial status of wage- 
earning women. In regard to wages, the conclusions, though 
obviously inexact, still show plainly enough that wages were 
regulated everywhere by the prices of rent and food, and that 
only so much waspaid as would keep life in the worker. In 
the appended table* taken from the National Report for 1889, 
it will be seen that in the South, where living is comparatively 
cheap, wages are lower than in the West, where life's neces- 
saries come higher. In the East they are a mean between the- 











$ 74 

4. $9 

$ 10 

New Orleans 

New York 




St. Louis 

St. Psul 

San Fraodsoo 

San Jose. 


At] OHes ... . . 






$ 19 
6. OS 


6. II 



In the 343 industries named in this report, for 1889, it will be 
that the conditions under which women gained their liveli- 
bood bad nol be^n bettered, and that, on the contrary, the 


•.tsL'-^csr IS published in the other State reports disclosed 
axit of 2f jirs similar to that which Engels* described as ezii 
,:- amcT.g the same c!ass of laboring women in England 
t&44. Nothing worse can be found in any of Engels' descri 
(:o=s than the following account (given in the New jersi 
Report for 1887-1888) of the tyranny practiced upon ll thread spinners of Pateisoii : " In one branch of tfc 
industry," it is said, " women are compelled to stand on 
stone fioor in water the year round, most of the time barefoc 
with a spray of water from a revolving cylinder flying cft 
stantly against the breast ; and the coldest night in winter,; 
veil as the warmest in summer, these poor creatures must { 
to their homes with water dripping from their underclothii 
along their path, because there could not be space or a fc 
tnoments allowed them wherein to change their clothing.' 
Another account, which calls up the experiences at Leeds ar 
Lancaster in 1844, is Cnkcn from the Wisconsin Report fi 
1S8S. In the prosperous city of Janesville, in that high 
favored State described as a paradise for workers, the repo 
tells of a factory "in which some three hundred women an 
children are employed, who work eleven and a half to tweli 
hours per day and night, the night being the time most < 
the children are employed." Although eight hours is tti 
legal working day in Wisconsin, and fourteen years the ag 
limit at which children may be employed, " many of the chi 
dren are under fourteen years of age, and all have to wor 
eleren and a half hours. The thermometer averages, in tfa 
heated season, about loS degrees .... and loss of healt 
follows women by reason " of the intense heat at night an 
iasafficient sleep in the day-time." 

These by no me.ins exceptional cases show how conditior 
oi wytrk tor laboring women were increasing in intensity in th 
V'KitCsl States, That they were becoming worse in other waj 
wxs evidenced in New England manufacturing towns, whei 
catpuoytaent of women and children as the cheaper wage-takin 

'OwdltkM of the Working Cluses in Englaod in 1B44. Frederick Eogel 
TtMdMolt? Klarenc* Kelley Wischneweizky. 

t 1b SBSutiitl Ihii iiuirac' on humanilx was forbiddco, id 1E7S, by Clatu 
N<K )5 t>t tSe Kdv'tory Di'i. which provided thai " no young peison, 1 
-ffmct thu" b< employed in any pan of a factory in which the wet ipii 
aiu «f i*K bcaip. ■lilt, or tow is carried on. unless tufiicient means be en 
^w«i A>J ««atLnueJ for proiectiDe; the workers from bcia^ vetted, aa< 
^Mn te «4lcf U uteJ, for preventing the escape of slum into the ron 
oijjipiai bf tb* wiukciv'* 


dement was gradaally extinguishing the male operative.^ In the 
manufacturing towns of Fall River, Lawrence, Lowell, etc., the 
family life was so demoralized that men were obliged to be sap- 
ported in idleness by mothers, wives, or sisters or children, be- 
cause no work was to be had for them in the mills. It was said 
that some of these men, displaced by the light-running machin- 
ery that a child's hand might guide, remained at home and did 
the housework and minded the children, while the women went 
forth as the breadwinners ; others, less patient, took to loafing, 
and ended generally in prisons. '* This," as Engels termed it, 
^ insane state of things *' affected all unfavorably. Women 
learned to care so little for themselves that it was said ** a girl 
to Fall River comes out of the mill with bare feet and a shawl 
thrown over her head, and all she cares for is a loaf of bread 
and a mug of beer." Children, going too early into the mills, 
were corrupted, morally and physically ; yet mothers, unable 
from their own slender wages to support the family, were 
tempted to swear ^^ false oaths in regard to their children's 
ages, so as to get them into the mills and thus make more 


This Moloch of cheap labor, which demanded both women 
and children, did not stop at making mothers commit perjury 
for the sake of bread ; it rifled the eleemosynary institutions 
of little ones left there for safe keeping, and sent them in ship 
or car loads to the West.f The claim was made in New York in 
i8S3 that \ '^ during the last forty years not less than two hun- 
dred thousand children had been sent into the Western States, 
many of whom had been sold outright," by managers of asy- 
lums, who refused to allow the names of these little ones to be 
known, for fear that parents or relatives, who had surrendered 
tbem in seasons of distress, might wish to reclaim them when 

^ FaU RiTcr, Lowell, and Lawrence. Thirteenth Acnual, Report, Mi 
Borcaa Sutisdci of Labor. 

t Public anentioQ was first directed to this hideous phase of the child labor 
Quegfcwi tkrouffb the disooverv of the fact that large numbers of orphan chil- 
dm, Tanriof iroawcleren to fourteen years of age, were being exported frocn 
Sc John's Asjlum, Brookl/n, N. Y., to the glass factories of Fostoria and 
Fiadhij. O. Othtf asylums, including the organisation known as the Chil- 
dren's Aid Society, were said to be equally guilty with St. John's Home in 
cmiTing on the business of child trading for a money coosideratioo. 

I New York newspapers Kovemt)er S3 -36. iSSS ; Brmkhn GHwem^ 
Noifcmbcr ^3, iSSS ; Corre sp ondence of Factory Inspectoct, Harry Dora, 
€Mo, Novonbcr iSSS ; Correspoodcaot of Factory Tnspwtori , John FruMT, 
Albnay, N. Y., Nofcmbcr, iSM. 


m INDUSTRY. 313 

fortunate enouj^h to procure work. These children, not sold in 
the open market as their black brothersand sisters had been, but 
disposed of tn the name of Cliartty, had their identity concealed 
by change of name ; cases are on record where brothers and 
sisters have grown up, met, and married, and " after marriage 
learned to their horror that they were children of the same 

Thus factory and farm-house had begun to stand in the 
United States as they had in England from Queen Elizabcth'i 
days— as the fabled ogre's castles of ancient legend, which 
drew women and children into them to ser^'e and suffer hope- 
lessly, unless relieved from captivity and death by a stronger 
power. History repeated itself in this exploitation of women 
and children and in the plans made for their relief. The broad 
system of factory legislation, inspired in England by the revela- 
tions of the cruelty practiced upon the most hapIcKs portions 
of its population, began to be imitated in the United Slates. 
Massachusetts, the pioneer State in introducing salutary re- 
forms, took the initiative, and in 1874 forced its Legislature to i 
recognize that it was the duty of the State to regulate the 
hours of labor of women and children engaged in the manu- 
factures. In that year, after a long series of discussions be- 
tween radicals and conservatives, the Ten-hour Factory Bill"" 
was passed. It is doubtful if the radicals would have tri- 
umphed even then, had they not been able to demonstrate that 
there was "a limit to human endurance, which, once trans- 
gressed, was not only disastrous to the operative but unprofit- 
able to the mill-owners." 

Having once committed itself to the precedent of interfering 
to protect the weak against the strong, Massachusetts had no 
alternative but to advance in the same direction. By degrees, 
twenty-four distinct points were covered by factory legislation.* 
Nine other States followed Massachusetts in the enaction of 
factory laws, and all made provision for bureaus of factory 
inspection to see that the laws were obeyed. These factory 
laws, as far as they concerned women, besides limiting the 
hours of labor, obliged " employers to provide seats for women 
and grant them permission to use them when not actively en- 
gaged in the duties for which they were employed." Fire- 
escapes were to be provided, and proper safeguards thrown 

• w-y Tertev, i8S3 '- Obio, 1S84 ; New York. 1866 ; Wisconsin, Rhtxte 
Idand 1U7; &>o°^''"^ '^^^ ! I^'^"'' '^^^ : Stale facioiy inspectiOD ia 
— '- in'ia 1S89 ; municipal factory ordinance in Oucagio^ 1S89. 


around machinery. Women under twenty-one years wdre not 
to be allowed to clean machinery while in motion. Suitable 
wasb.roomsand other conveniences were to be furnished them. 
Fortjr-five minutes were to be given for the noon-day meal at 
a ttoiform and proper time. Inking of doors — that travesty 
Qpoo free labor— was prohibited during working-hours. Sani- 
tary regulations of work-rooms and weekly payments were to 
be enforced. The trusteeing of wages was abolished. Cel- 
Uurs were forbidden to be used as work-rooms. ^ No plea,** 
it was said, '* and no subterfuge should be permitted to justify 
the use of any underground apartment for purposes of human 

Delegating to States the privileges of exercising supervision 
over manufactories, etc., for the benefit of labor, was a long 
step forward in the path of progress ; a signal triumph of 
radicalism over conservative obstructionists denying the right 
of the State to protect its citizens. But if the reformer gained 
bis points, the nuuiufacturer contrived, as far as possible, to 
make the victory an empty one. Only so far as employers 
coald not prevent was labor legislation effective. With 
the teo-hour working day, while employers complied with 
the letter of the law, a large majority defied the spirit. No 
fact was better known than that the ten-hour law for women 
mod children was disregarded whenever possible. In factories 
where notice was given that ten hours would constitute a day's 
work, the clause *^ unless otherwise ordered," usually accom- 
panied it ; and the '^ otherwise ordered " came whenever the 
manufacturer's convenience demanded it. Other factory 
legislation fared little better. When, according to law, seats 
were placed in mills, factories, shops, and stores, women were, 
in general, forbidden to use them, under penalty of dis- 
charge. Locking of doors, when employees were at work, 
although less common, was still continued. Labor com- 
missioners, wishing to enter factories employing nuny women, 
** had much difficulty in getting inside, so securely was every 
gate and door locked and barred." Sanitary work-rooms re- 
mained the exceptions ; underground places continued to be 
used for hunun^abitations, workshops, and salesrooms. Cel- 
lars were converted into bazaars in which hundreds of women 
and children were employed, and where they lived the year 
roQod in the glare of electric lights, never seeing daylight ex- 
cept in the morning hours, on Saturday half.holidays,and Sun- 
days. One obviotis reason why factory laws were disregarded 
so Aagiaotly was that the working force of factory inspectors in ^ 


every State but Massachusetts was so limited as to ttuike it 
impossible for them to visit even once during^ the year half iW 
factories under their supervision. In man}' cases their poven 
were so restricted that when they caught an offender agaitut 
the laws, they had to acton Dogberry's advice "to uXeae 
note of him, but let him go." 

Despite the fact thai laws, made for the protection of wonci 
in the industries, were not always enforced, — enough juoi 
resulted from them to increase the tendency everywhere ol 
looking to the Slate for further legislation. In the pajoo( 
the labor reports containing the replies made by working 
women Co the question of what, in their opinion, would temtij , 
the wrongs of industrial workers, one response wai, "Tbe 
power to vote, as the right of suffrage, will place the scrvioi 
of women on an economic basis with those of men." Wonefi 
working in factories asked to have inspectors appointed el 
their own sex, on the ground that women could understand 
and protect (he interests of women better than men. In States 
where the statutory age for protection under the eight or ten 
hour factory law was below twenty-one, women over twenty- 
one desired the law extended so as to embrace those of ul 
ages. Employees in mercantile houses doing duty as clerks, 
cashiers, saleswomcn.etc, desired "that the same protection 
given to women in factories be extended to them, as their 
duties are fully as onerous as. those of the average female ia 
the mill or factory." 

As almost all reforms have originated with tlie educated, 
and have gathered strength for fruition by rolling onward 
among the people, the value of these suggestionc was eo- ' 
hanced by reason of being the expression of the most intelli- 
gent of the working-women interviewed by the Labor Barua 
agents. Private philanthropic efforts of all kinds had yielded 
np effectual help to women, and it was small wonder if tbe < 
more thoughtful among them turned to the power of tbe State 
as the only adequate means for relief from conditions whidi 
new inventions of machinery— dispensing with men and cin- 
* ploying women and children as guides — and a mania for 
money-getting at the expense of the proleuriat, had rendered 
intolerable. Though a few stenographers, telegraphers, type-'\ 
writers, teachers, with some workers in the industrial arts, bad 
gained better breathing- pi aces upon the middle rungs of wbat 
was called the " social ladder," the struggle for life had bees 
constantly growing fiercer among those crowded m miMtuU 
, tbe bottom. Everywhere production was carried on with leM 


regard for the life, health, and comfort of the working-Women. 
Women were employed in even greater numbers in the poison- 
ous, dusty, dangerous, and laborious industries, all of which 
were much more injurious to them, as child-bearers, than to 
oien. The long hours of exhaustive work, destructive of 
dually ties ; the starvation wages obtained during seasons of 
work ; the misery of seasons of lock-outs from work, led too 
frequently to the chaffering of their bodies on the street 
comers for bread, or the finding of a refuge from starvation 
in a leap from some house-top or a plunge into the river. 
The stories of the suffering endured by women engaged in the 
indnstrial occupations of the country, as told by capable 
investigators like Helen Campbell, proved that everything 
made by women, not excepting the whitest, daintiest robeSi 
bad crimson spots on them, — the blood-splashes of the toilers,— 
that, although unseen, no cleansing could wash away. Not a 
shop-made garment, a web of silk, cotton, or flax, or wool, a 
pair of gloves, shoes or stockings, any knitted thing, — machine 
or hand-made, — a woven carpet or piece of furniture, an artifi- 
cial flower, feather, or piece of lace, a hat for a man or bonnet 
for a woman, a piece of table-glass, pottery, or cutlery, a lucifer 
match, an article of jewelry, or even a printed book, but over 
them all flitted the ghosts of women twice murdered in their 
making : once by their own pangs, and again by the suffer- 
ings of the little children, flesh of their own flesh, who toiled 
bosde them wearily — 

Wwpiog (working) in the pUj-tiine of the ocberi. 
In the oooatry of the free. 

The publication of Helen Campbell's '* Prisoners of Pov- 
erty," with frequent repetitions, from other sources, of the 
wrongs endured by industrial women, caused a great wave of 
indignation to sweep over society. Many good men and 
women carried on crusades against the purchase of ready- 
made garments — sad misnomer for things so hardly made. 
One of their war-cries was, ^* An honest woman's back is not 
the place for a^dtshonestly manufactured article,'* and another 
that, ^^ It is better for a woman to wear a coat with a hole in it 
than one with the stain on it of blood-guiltinessw" Economic- 
ally unwise and impossible of success as this crusade was, it 
was important as showing that a higher ideal of Justice had 
begun to enter in|o woman's mind. Hitherto people had par- 
taken of the fruits of labor unthinkingly. Now the time was 
seen to have come when an awakened public began to ques« 


tion the propriety of porchasing and using things madedmii^ 
the abase of their fellow ings. As iBmerson said of ks 
charity-giTen dollar that *' ii \ wicked dollmr be woaM jct 
learn to withhold/' so woi . e teaching th ems c l fc s to 
withstand desires for arti< och helped to pciprt s Hi 

wicked systems of work. 

To the political economist, the part that woman was tiUf ^ 
in the country's industries became a subject of oalioQal m 
porunce. After frequent investigations into the nature rf 
their occupations, the question was propounded, ** Whether k 
would not be expedient, for the good of the State, to altogeikr 
forbid the employment of women in factories ? " The pe» 
tion uken by Mr. Wright, the' leading author!^ in Amenoi 
labor.statistics, — not prominent, however, as an advanoed f^ 
former, — was *' that married women ought not to be tokmei 
in the mills at all;'* as ^ the employment of mothers Is Ae 
most harmful wrong done to the race.*' ^ Vital science,* hi 
observes, '' will one day demand their exclusion, as the efsct 
of such employment is an evil that is sapping the life of oor 
operative population andm ust, sooner or later, be regulated, or 
ipore probably, stopped." ♦ 

It will be seen at once that this suggestion of Mr. Wricbt 
lies directly on the plane of modern socialism or nationaliso. 
To advocate taking two million women forcibly from certain 
harmful occupations is a tacit admission that the individoil 
has no right to dispose of herself to the disadvantage of the 
State. Physicians had long sounded notes of warning of i 
race deterioration that was going on in consequence of the 
employment of women under bad conditions of labor, and the 
claim was made that *' at all hazards the State must protect 
itself." To do this, however, involved consequences that the 
advisers, perhaps, foresaw. As legislation excluding womes 
and children from factories would interfere directly with their 
support, the logical conclusion would be that the State, to 
keep them from actual starvation, would be bound to iDte^ 
fere again to the extent of furnishing them with such mesas 
of living as would make them — what the State wanted— hapi^t 
healthy, capable mothers of the race. And, as it wonkl be 
obviously impossible to discriminate between those engaged 
in one pursuit at the expense of those employed in others k 
would follow that the State, by supporting the factory work* 

^ Mattachoictti Bureau of L«bor Sutiatica, 187$, ppw 183-44. 


ers, would place itself under obligations to clothe, feed, shel- 
ter, and educate all women. 

This second proposition is so necessary a corollary of the 
first as to make Mr. Wright's suggestion almost conclusive 
evidence that his investigations had led him to accept the 
nationalistic theory of State interference with the liberty of 
labor, as the sole remedy for the evils sapping the life of our 
female operative population. And as no student of practical 
economics would consent to the entire withdrawal from the 
productive industries of so large and capable a bodv of 
workers as the three millions women now engaged in them, 
Mr. Wright must have also given acceptance to that other 
part of the nationalistic creed^growing so fast into popular 
favor— of its being the duty of the State to regulate the hours 
of bbor so that work may be the promoter of health in women 
in place of being its destroyer. 

Even if the results of Kir. Wright's investigations into the 
hard facts of woman's industrial condition in America had been 
to throw him into accord with what is termed. *' scientific 
aodalism,** * his experience would have been simply that of 
most honest investigators. Helen Campbell, converted to 
socialism while gathering material for her books illustrative of 
women as workers, claimed in her latest volume that '* In 
locialism .... in its highest interpretation, lies the only solu- 
tion for every problem on either side the great sea, between 
the eastern and western worker." Instances of similar experi- 
ence might be multiplied, but are rendered unnecessary by the 

* Whcaevcr ** todalism " b referred to in this emj, by the term should be 
sbaply mderstood the mcmning giYen to the wonl in recent editions of 
Wctaicr'ft ** Unabrid^ DktkMury of the English Language,** vix. : "A theory 
of society which advocates a more precise, orderlj, and harmonious arrange- 
■KOt ol the social relations of mankind than that which has hitherto pre- 
vaOed." This necessarily is the very opposite of anarchy, described, in the 
same aotbority, as '* The state of society where there is no law or supretna 
power, or whore the laws are not efficient and individuals do what they please 
w^b tflBponity.'* Socialism is therefore the antithesis of anarchism. The 
former » constructive and altruistic, the latter destructive, and the absolute 
s of CwigBt y of the individual, oonse<^uently, disregard of others. Nor is by 
^odilism meant oommunism. Socialism recognizes the right of the iodn 
vidaal to the product of his own labor and certainly not the division thereof ; 
wbcrent cowmonism means that common ownership of property which has 
only been wccemfuUy carried out in the conventual orders of the Roman 
OtboficCborcb and io the Buddhistic Lounaseries. This is the position taken 
in n riotntly pobUsbed article from the pen of the weU-known social-econo- 
Charles Sotberan, formeriy literary editor of the New York SBcr, hot 
r iBOwa uad«hisiw«w-^Sr^aMi# 01 *' Colaolya ** and*' Soothcrnwood.** 

UBiiciiL wuiiiiiii : i^i; uy ici^u^iiiiiii); v 
of man, politically and socially ; (j) by fixing i 
of suiiport by the Stale so as to render her i 
man, and thus insure her that freedom and di 
hers of right as the mothers of the race ; {3) 
them to withdraw from maleficent industries ; 1 
ing the legal working day so as to afford her 
higher things of life. As women are also in gi 
the teachers of the race, socialism victorioas wi 
them a complete system of technical, art, an 
schools, so as to make the education of women 
rounded in place of partial and incomplete. T 
one-third of the population has been taught : 
read and write undcrstandingly. 

The students of woman's present position in ; 
named industries make the claim that nothing li 
such reforms as are contemplated by the soctali 
better their condition. A charge made andaui 
is that existing labor legislation, at veil as ct 
tions of schools, libraries, etc., bnilt by bourgeo 
ers out of the " skimped " wages of employees, 
futile. Whatever has been done, the fact rem 
Hugo tersely put it, "The paradise of ttie ric 
of the hell of the poor." Di7es grows richer 1 
the purple and linen of his wires and daughtei 
their fare more sumptuous. While Lazarus, wi 
whose toil supplies the fine raiment and ch( 
crouches outside the gates in rags, grown more 
whose food becomes dailv more loathsome and 



of the population of these principles is," says 4 recent 
writer in the Forum^ ^'one of the most formidable symptoms 
of the * times.' " In this remark there lies all the pungency of 
tmth. Earnest men and women are preaching the doctnnes 
of Nationalism with all that intensity of faith which character- 
taed the disciples of the anti-chattel slavery movement To 
most, its tenets have become a religious as well as a political 
belief. To hasten the time of its adoption, women's voices 
are bein^^ heard in lecture halls and wayside inns, in meeting* 
booses, m the school-room, at the hearth-stone, and through 
the medium of the printing-press — speaking with the same 
enthusiasm for the redemption of the white slave as the Lucy 
Stones and Harriet Beecher Stowes did before 1866 for the 
enfranchisement of the black slave. That wonun's duty to 
woman is taking this noble shape of pleading the cause of 
bumanity, as though every industrial worker in factory, field, 
mill, and shop were her own mother, children, sisters, brothers, 
is the light in the heavens showing that the darkest hour before 
dawn has been reached, and is passing away from.the horixon 
of tbe industrial population. 






To maVe even a superficial study of the work done and beiD{ 
done by American women to help their suffering fellow-beingi 
must fill the heart with gratitude for the wisdom and devotios 
displayed, and with a rejoicing hope for the future. To knov 
that all over this vast continent, intelligent and unwearying 
women are thinking and working and praying for the needy, 
the wicked, the ignorant, the weak, and the down-trodden, is i 
joy and an inspiration. 

Necessarily, everything that is attempted is not accomplished, 
nor are all the attempts wise, but, nevertheless, it is encourag- 
ing to find, in looking over the whole field, that it has been 
very uncommon for any women, in this country, to rest cod* 
tent to feed the body of their suffering fellow-creaiures, ignor- 
ing the wants of the brain, the heart, and the souL However 
imperfectly accomplished, there always seems at least an at- 
tempt to teach beyond the material need and minister to some 
higher want ; to add at least a little to the character of those 
they have sought to help, and where the ministering to the 
higher wants has been made the real aim of the work, where 
the command, "Seek ye first the Kingdom of God and Hit 
Righteousness," has been followed, the results are, as I have 
said, full of encouragement. 

It would be impossible in this article to give a detailed his- 
tory of the charitable work of American women, nor would it 
be especially useful, because in each community very muck 
the same course is followed, and nothing would be gained by 
describing what is so well known. I shall, therefore, attempt 
nothing t»yond a general sketch of the usual fields of women'i 
work, pausing to give a more careful description only of such 
enterprises as seem to me to contain something original, and 


which may serve as an inspiration and example. Nor can I 
dwell at length even upon these. 

Apart from those who compose our own circle of family and 
friends, there are four classes of our fellow-men upon whom 
we may exercise our ^ Charity," — that is, whom we may serve. 
I. Those who have already reached the lowest depths, who 
have given up even the pretense of independence, who 
are housed in ** public institutions," in poorhouses, prisons, 
insane asylums. Much may be done for these to render their 
lives more bearable, to help them to accept the hard lessons 
of their purgatory, and to learn, before they die, that one lesson 
which no other expeiience of life has succeeded in teaching 
them, the lesson of self-control. This has been recognized by 
women for years, and they have carried comfort and help, both 
physical and spiritual, to these unhappy beings. It has not 
common, however, for women, until within a few years, to 
concern themselves with the management of the public institu- 
tions themselves, and although Miss Dorothea Dix began very 
early to devote herself to this work and spent her life in bring* 
ing about reforms in the insane asylums of many different 
States, still it is scarcely twenty years since such work has been 
generally considered to be within the sphere of women. There 
v^ are now four States, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, 
and Wisconsin, in which women have accepted positions on the 
State Boards of Charity, and the^ have in these positions been 
▼er^ useful in bringing their critical and criticising powers and 
thetr knowledge of detail to bear upon the management of 
State and County institutions, besides forcing into prominence 
the moral aspects of the questions dealt with by the official 
Boards of which they are members. 

The first volunteer association established to visit and im* 
f prove the public institutions (as distinguished from the indi* 
[ vidual inmates), and the agency which first turned the attention 
of women generally to their duty in this direction, and convinced 
. men that it was one which women were competent to perform, 
^ was the State Charities Aid Association of New York, founded 
I in 187a by a woman, who, during the war, had discovered 
* and proved th^ working powers of women in the societies 
auxiliary to the Sanitary Commission. The Association con- 
sists of a central body of men and women, giving much time 
and thought to the study of the theory and history of all ques* 
tions relating to the public care of the suffering and dependent, 
and of an associated committee in each county of the State, en- 
faged in active inspection of the local method of caring for these 



unfoTtanates. These Countj Committees appeal to the central 
body for advice and instruction as to the bM means to over- 
come the evils they discover, and furnish it with facts and 
figures to aid its btudy of general i>rinciptes. 

An immense good has bfen accomplished all through the 
State o( New York by the Association by means of the public 
opinion aroused in relation to matters concerning which, before 
its formation, the public conscience seemed to be dead. All 
matters relating to the causes and prevention of pauperism are " 
dealt with by it ; it deserves the thanks of the whole country 
for having been ilie means of establishing the first training- ' 
school for nurses ever opened here, and it was very active in 
lecuring the passage of the New York law forbidding the deten- 
tion of children between the ages of two and sixteen yean is 

In New Jersey there is a similar association, woriting upon 
very much the same plan, and modeled upon that of New 

In Pennsylvania the saving of children from the conumi- 
nation of the vile associations of the poorhouse was also due lo 
women, and they have founded a society to take charge of 
those children who would, but for their labors, be public 

The following extracts from the reports for 1885 and 1886 of 
the Pennsylvania Children's. Aid Society will suffice to show - 
its objects and methods, and also, let us hope, to incite other 
women in other States, where it is still neglected, to uVe up 
the work of gathering together and turning into the noble rivet - 
of working humanity the little rills, which, if left to trickle into 
the great slough of pauperism and vice, only serve to increase 
its slimy foulness, and retjuire deep and expensive channels to 
carry them o^ after they have become cotnipt and poisonous 
in its depths. 

The ebjict of the Children's Aid Society is to provide (or the wclfue e( 
deullute and neglected children by such means as shall be best for Ibea ud 
for the community. Our mtlhod of accompliiihing this object it : 

I. By placing such children in carefully selected private families, mostly 
Id the country, paying a moderate rate of board where necessary, uid (oUow* 
Injr up each case with such inquiry and supervision as may iccure to tbt 
child the conditions of physical and moral well-t>ein|r. 

3. By utiliiint; existing institutions for children as temporary hoOK*, vtiik 
permanent family places are being sought. 

3. Dy putting, so far as possible, the support of a child upon its rclativts 
or parents, legitimate or otherwise, and by preventing the neeidleu (epuatiaa 
of mothers and children. 

4. By keeping an open office (39 South Seventeenth Street, PhUaddp)n4> 


where uiy ddtta era reoeiYe free infonnatioQ about piiblk pra^rlsioii tad 
privmtc oppoct u nitict for bomelett children. 

5. By ocnmieiii^, in the dtict and ooantiet of Pennsylvaoia, auxiliary 
l od cti c i naocr the dircctioo of capable and wiUios^ women, who will not only 
bdp find ffood country homes for the poor children of Phihwlelphia, but wiU 
abo care for the dettitute and pauper children of their own localitiet. 

Oar eap erience and obeenration abundantly confirm the foliowiqg coo- 

1. That there b 00 need of any more public Institntioos for the care of 
daetltute children, and that much of the money now devoted to orphanages, 
etc, might be more usefuUv spent in securing homes for such cbiktrea in 
private umilies and paying thetr board. 

1. That there is no serioos difficulty in finding suitable private homes. 00 
the boarding-out plan, for all homelos children, excepting such as require 
treatment in hartals or training in idiot asylums. 

> That children brought up In institutions are not so well fitted for their 
later fife outside such institutions as those reared in families. Congregated 
in large numbers, they run greater risks of contagious disease ; they lead an 
unnatural life of monotony or stimulattoo ; they must all be treated alike, 
vrith a minimum of personal regard ; they are often at the mercy of hired 
caretakers with little parental feeling. 

4. Child-caring institutions are nevertheless important as temporary homes, 
or as receiving and forwarding houses for the children, while permanent plMes 
wg% being found. 

5. The law forbidding the detention of children in almshouses can best be 
carried out by the oaoperation of the Directors of the Poor, with voluntary 

'assoctatioos of discreet and benevolent women, who are willing to find placrs 
for ihe diildren, look after their welfare, and report to the Directors. It is 
for the interest of the tax-payers that these children be Uken out of the 
pnnper class as soon as possible and absorbed in the community. 

d. In a county where such an assodatioo exists, and where the Directon 
make fair allowance for the support of the children, there is no excuse for 
detaining any child in the headquarters for paupers and no need for creating 

an ittstitutioo for pauper chikiren A v^ important and constantly 

' increasi ng feature of our work seeks the welfare of the child by promoting 
that of the BBOther. Almost every day women bring their babies to the ollke 
with a pitiful tale of poverty, misfortune, and alas ! often of crime, asking 
aomctlmci to have their Unle ones uken and provided for either to save 
themselves the burden, or to conceal their own disgrace. 

The Society has always felt and endeavored to perform its solemn duty in 
soch cases, which consists in keeping the child and SBOtber together, making 
each the guardian of the other, and preserving the tie as the strongest incen* 
thre to a better life on the part oi the mother. The intercsu of the child 
demind this, unless its natural protector should prove henelf totally unfit for 
the simp le s t duties of motherhood. 

Many respectable families in the country are glad to receive the services of 
an able-bodied, though ir»efficient woman, in rrtum for low wages, and the 
privilege of allowing a somU child to run about the house. In this way. these 
poor crestures are encouraged to regain the path of honesty and virtue, and, 
as the child grows older, its k>ve and helpless demands form the strongest 
barrier which can surround the mother's life. 

The work of pladng these woesen at service has Increased to such an ex* 
teat that the antiiv anention of one penoo might be given to this depart* 


or CBAxrrr. 

Tbe Chfidrea's Aid Sode£r of PeniurlrauK has (anf4m 
Co^atj Comain^c^ bccdes its Cc vnX Boud in FhiUd^tbtL 

la Coc=£cac^% CocctT Homes ostc beea opeueA (andtt 
Last oC 1S33-4-3) to TCceiTc tcmpomily childics depeodcat 

BpoD tbe pi:b~.x, &::d conmiitecs, composed ''"Mfrt r» i lii tJ T'f 
of voaie.i, ippcinted to soperrise these Homes sod fiad pcra^ 
DCsi homes i:: fsmilies for the ^ildrcn. 

It. Muuc'r.^sects, womea uc xppoioied as Docntben of the- 
Board of Managers of the State schools for deKnqacBt and de- 
penden: cbiidren, aad a veij impoiuiit work for womea ba 
been dcreloped in caring for such children outside the schools 
In order no: to injure the boj or giri bjr loager rctentioB in the 
school than is absolulelj required for training each one ii, at 
the earliest moment when his progress warraBls the tna^ 
placed in a family to work ; but that the trial nuj be as favor- 
able as possible, for each child so placed, a Tolanteer friend ti 
found by the Board in the neighborhood, who is to watch otct 
and give advice and assistance both to the cbQd and its 
goardian. There are at present (October, 1889) eighty-four of ' 
these women visitors, officiailjrappoinied and recognized by the 
State as part of its system of caring for dependent and delin- 
quent children. Of these chiidrea, thus freed from the weakeit- 
ing influence of a too long extended institution life, there are, 
DOW in Massachusetts 1063 bovs and girls under this State caic' 

This special work (of taking dependent children from poor- 
houses and other public institutions and placing them in private 
families, thus returning to a natural and happy life those who, 
but for such transplanting, would have been doomed togro* 
up tainted with pauperism and vice) owes its inception to the 
personal devotion and the labor of years of individual women ' 
in certain counties of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New 
York. But for the proof of its wisdom and practicability which 
Ihcy gave by their successful work, it would never have assumed 
the position it now holds. These women have not only saved 
the individual child rert whom they took from vile surroundings, 
amid the contaminating companionship of the lowest of men 
and women, but they have set an example which it spreading 
over the country and which will change for the bettei the 
future of whole States. 


^ The WomeD*s PrisoD Association of New York visits the 
prisons of New York and Brooklyn, and within a few years the 
Women's Christian Temperance Union has organized a depart- 
ment of prison work, which will be spoken of elsewhere in this 
book,* but until their attention was thus called to the horrible 
evils of the county jails of this country, its women, with the rarest 
exceptions, seemed absolutely ignorant of this great national 
^^ wickedness. In Massachusetts women are, and have been for a 
few years, members of the Prison Board, and in Massachusetts, 
Indiana, and New York, there are State prisons and reforma- 
tories for women under the charge of women officers. 

Women are peculiarljr fitted for the work of inspecting 
public institutions, and it would be much better if, in every 
community, instead of starting so many private institutions of 
^ charity, they would give their attention to the oversight of the 
public institutions, already necessarily existing, and which, too 
often, by their mismanagement, verv much increase, not only 
the sufferings of the miserable people already in them, but also 
the number of those who will hereafter have to be supported as 

II. Another class of sufferers needing tender care are the 
inmates of private Homes for old people, convalescents, and 
incurables ; and of hospitals, reformatories, and asylums for 
/^ children* Such institutions as these are usually established 
and managed by women, excepting the hospitals, which, though 
under the care of men, often have an associate board of women 
to take the oversight of the daily comfort of the patients. 

The Homes for the aged in our cities are many of them estab- 
lished by churches for their dependent members, and in almost 
all an entrance fee is required. There are Homes for aged 
married couples in some of our cities, and in many, also, a free 
Home for old men and women, maintained b^ the Roman 
Catholic Little Sisters of the Poor, who receive mmates, how- 
ever, of every faith. 

Of Homes for convalescents and incurables there are very 
few, comparatively, though it would seem as if the hard lot of 
these two claaes of sufferers would appeal most strongly to 
tender-hearted women. In no one community, however, have 
we adequate provision for them, and they languish, unwelcome 
inmates of hospitals and poorhouses. There is a small Home 
for Incurables in Boston, founded by a young Roman Catholic 
Irishwoman, who earned her daily bread by hair-dressing, and 

*8Mcbapur» Wotk for the Cciaiaal Clawf i -^Egw 


who for four years had ^ven all her ipare time aod nione7 u 
the care of one dying girl after another, until she was enabled, 
by the help of fricndi for whom she worked, to open the Chu- 
ning Home, which from that time to this (now long after bcr 
death) has been a refuge for poor consumptive girls and cr^ 
pled women. 

Reformatories for women are, strangely enough, often estab- ' 
lishcd by men. It would seem as if no work could be non 
appropriate to women, and as if there were no field wbick 
they should more quiclcly have occupied entirely to the exdo- 
sion of men ; but although there are a number of such institu- 
tions for both girls and women in different parts of the counti;, 
to whose management good women have devoted themselTCt, 
there is still room for many more, in which women (especially 
young women) who arc a danger to themselves and others, ou^t 
to be shut away from temptation and the opportunity to tempL 

Women's work in hospitals and in care for the sick is to be 
treated elsewhere in this book. 

The Homes for children, which abound in almost every put 
of the country, have all had their growth in less than ninety 
years, the very tirst one established being the Boston Feis^- 
Asylum, opened in 1600, and incorporated in 1803, established 
by women whose granddaughters and great-granddaughteraaie 
now numbered among the managers. 

There is a great deal of devoted, earnest work given both by 
the outside Boards who control these Homes and by the officen 
who take the daily care of the thousands of children in thciD; 
there is the wish to do real good, and, especially among the 
Sisterhoods, whose whole lives are given up to the work of 
ministering to these children, there is often absolute self-sacri- 
fice ; but it is too frequently open to question whether the real 
benefit done is equal to the benevolence which prompts the 
doing. 'In these institutions the children are generally treated 
kindly, but the managers, unCorlunatcJy, too often fail to see 
the bad effects of the institution life both upon the child and 
upon society as a whole ; and, though they may suspect their 
existence, they usually feel helpless to remedy these evils, 
scarcely having courage to enter on new ways of caring for tbetr 

One institution, which for thirty-one years had continued in 
the old way, was closed under circumstances most creditable 
to the managers, and the history of the Union Temporaiy 
Home of Philadelphia deserves a place in this article as an ex- 
ample to the managemeDC of other similar institutions. 


wards of the school ; to keep up a knowledge of these girls 
and to report concerning their welfare twice a year, such report 
to be added to the secretary's records. The term Friendly 
Guardianship is used to distinguish this oversight, which does 
not carry with it any formal authority, from the usual school 
guardianship of girls who are placed under our care for a 
period beyond that passed at school, and which is recognized 
as authoritative bv the girls themselves and by their relatives, 
if they have any. 

In the report for i838, it is stated that there are thirty-four 
girls under direct school guardianship, thirty-five under the 
charge of the Friendly Guardianship Committee, and an 
account is given of the present condition of fiftv-eight earlier 
school graduates. The following reflection, found in the 
report, applies equally to other institutions of the same char- 

**The expense of caring for a child at the Industrial School 
is large as compared with the cost of boarding in a private 
family, and this expense can only be justified bykeeping up a 
high standard in the school, and by adding a large amount of 

Grsonal work outside and beyond the school for the girls who 
ve gone out from it" 

Another Boston society (in whose establishment and man- 
agement women have always had a large part) is also distin- 
guished for the continued oversight of its charges after ihey 
have quitted the institutions it has established. The Boston 
Children's Aid Society maintains three distinct farm schools 
for bojs, in each of which a small number of boys (it is the 
intention never to have more than thirty in anyone school) are 
under the care of a farmer and his wife, who teach them to 
work, while they receive a common school education from a 
teacher in the house. The majority of the boys, when received, 
are either under arrest, or are threatened with arrest, and they 
are committed to the care of the society for reformation. 
After such a term of training, as seems needed in each case, the < 
boys are generally sent to work in the country, and a paid 
agent (a lad)!) has the oversight of them, writing to them and 
visiting them. For the boys who have returned to Boston, a 
club has been formed " to afford opportunities for studying 
the careers of the boys, noting their progress, learning the 
plans of such as had p]an«, and stimulating those who had 
none to form them, and in general arousing the boys to a 
livelier sense of their duties and opportunities." 

The Boston Children's Aid Society has aUo a certain number 



of girls under its care, either at work or boarded ii^ pmue 
families. The aim of (lie society is to put the children in iu 
charge into private families as soon as they are fitted for neb 
a life, and it had in i8S8 more children outside its farm schooli 
than in them to lake care of. 

We have so far been speaking of people living in instituiJont, 
living, that is, under unnatural conditions, uprooted, as it wen, 
from their own place in life, and set in artificial surroundiogt. 
There are a third and fourth class still to consider. 

III. The third class are those who neither support ihem- 
selves entirely in self-respecting independence, nor are tubjeci 
to the discipline of an institution, those who are conuaatlfx 
being tempted to depend upon others, to think their circum- 
stances too hard for them, to regard as unattainable the beightt 
of self-support which the mass of mankind reach,— the «ttt 
the inefficient, the unwise, the self-indulgent, — in a word, those 
who are unecjual to the demands of life. They need all tlie 
" help " they can get, but not of the kind which is usually given 
to them, not that which enervates them, which encourages all 
their weaknesses, which makes the dependent more dependent, 
the inefficient more inefficient, the self-indulgent more self- 
indulgent. They need real kelp, help lo stand upon their own 
feet, help to respect themselves, help to play their part in lift 
with energy and intelligence, help to be men and womei^ 
strong, self-dependent, ready to help others. 

The "relief" which is poured out indiscriminately simplf 
serves to check their efforts at self-support, and to turn ill 
their energies to the pursuit of more " relief." It '\% not thit 
they are dififerenl from other people ; no human being will put 
forth greater exertion to sustain himself in the way he likn 
than is required for that purpose. No man will devote tnorr 
time or more labor than is necessary to maintain himself ind 
his family at his own standard. If his standard is so low ihii 
what comes to him in " relief " is enough for him, why shovU 
he spend time and strength in getting more ? But if his stand- 
ard is so low, then the help he needs is that which will raist 
his standard, but not his standard of physical life only ; fir 
more important is it to raise his moral standard, — to raise hii 
character, so that degrading surroundings cannot be endure^ 
SO that they cannot exist. 

By the different kinds of "help "offered to those in want, 
they may be trampled down into the mire and left, body and 
soul degraded, a curse to themselves and others, or they mif 
be lifted into the healthy, self-respecting life of the fflcn ud 


At the thirty-fint annual meeting in January, iSS;, the 
following resolution was adopted : 

Rn^hid^ That io the judgment oi thti meeting it is advisable that oar 
buli^af be doeed at an early day ; that all our property be converted into 
an inoooe-bearing fond ; that under the direction of a ipedal executive com- 
Btctee choien from the Council, or the Board of Managers, or both, said in- 
cone shall be applied, according to the declared object of our constitution,' 
in paying for the temporary board and care of '* children of the poor ; ** that 
the term " Home ** be construed to include any house or household in which 
sych children are placed ; and that the machinery of the Children's Aid 
Society be used for obtaining, investigating, and supervising such boarding* 
homes : that all the rights of parents be dulv respected, and thev still be 
bdd to pay a share, wherever practicable ; and that our Board of Managers, 
or sych ooounittees as they may appoint, represent titis corporation in carry, 
lag oot time arrai^^ements, and in the performances of whatever duties may 
be rapdrsd to secure the eaecutioo of our trust and the wcUars of the 

Some of the reasons for this action are given in the following 
extracts from a paper submitted by the managers to the meet- 

la taking action which looks toward oo<«eration with another body, we 
have been moved by considerations which affect profoundly three interesu : 
(i) Those of the parents and guardians of the children admitted to the 
Home ; (s) those of the public which is asked to give it support ; (3) most 
of an, those of the children. 

I. Since the Home was started, thirty years ago, the population of 
Philadelphia has increased from about to nearly 1,000.000. In such 
a vast and dense mass of human beings, personal relations between giver and 
receiver have become more difficult, and the indiscriminate charity which en- 
co ura ge s pauperism has been a cause of growing concern. A habit of 
dependence, which takes advanuge of every opportunity to live by public or 
private charity, is widespread ; aoid the growth of false, communistic views 
Bsakes necnsary more guarded methods than those which may serve in 
•■sailer communities, with simpler social conditions. 

The history of our own institution, as the managers well know, shows a coo* 
ftant pressure for the admission of children whose parents are able to support 
them, tmt are naturally disposed to do this at the lowest possible cost, and that 
we have also been fumtshmg easy facilities for those who desire, jfor selfish 
leni on s . to rid themselves of the presence and care of their little ones. The 
charitable feature of the institution, or the fact that a part of the expense is 
bome bv our contributors, is disguised bv the fact that we are accustomed to 
charge $ to %i .$0 a week for each chikl, so that the institution is regarded 
by such parents simply 4U m tki^p hoarding- k^usi for tkiUrtm. We believe 
that many, whoeould themselves bear the entire cost with no serious hardship, 
are tempted to OMgnify their own disability bv the fatal facilities afforded 1^ 
A welHDcaat charity. Some of this class are doubtless in need of help, but tt 
should not come in thb delusive form. They may want friendly counsel and 
wise direcdoo in finding suiuble homes ; and they may sometimes be assisted 
by kindly oversight of these homes and of their children. It is in our power 
to sscurs for thma time advantages, with added pecuniary swiiiincis whtrs 



III. The most important coosuleritioa relatea to the children. No bm 
■aviDfr ci money would jiutify a duon which Ihicaiened iDtair to tlK IM 
o[ Ibcte little one*. But a maiority oTtbe maiuf^en are coaTutced. \ff atta- 
m'laa and expciience. that life in the averafe institotioa b not to geoi la 
children ai life in the averafre bouteboid. None can realize that K> folly b 
those wbo are best acquainted with the inner wMlcings aAd TidMnda 
of child-caring institutions. We have (ou^ht to gvmri oar dildKafna 

in charity, — vii.: that the children can best befitted tor the life tbermoatfN 
in the world by being placed in good families. 

The testimony oftwojpntlemenonourBoanlof Coonol, both eapcricacd 
ai heads of zrcat industnal enterprises, is that institntioa boya are fcncn% 
the least desirable apprenlices. They have been dulled in (acuity by hi 
having been daily cieidsed in the use of thcnuclves in small waya. . . . hm 
had all patiiculars of life arranged for them, and, as a oonseqaeoce, they nil 
for some one else to arrange every piece of work, utd we never (tadjr far 
emergencies or able to " take bdd.*' 

One great evil of institutions for children is quite om- 
looked — die effect on the parents of relieving them of the catc 
of their children, — because the attention of the managen i> 
almost exclusively devoted to the care of the children while in 
the institution ; they do not think it part of their duty to siudT 
the family from which the child was taken, or t>ic influences 
which surrounded it before it came under their charge; nor da 
tbey, with rare exceptions, follow the children's lives wiih 
any systematic care after they leave thcni. They thus kno* 
nothing of the results of their own work, and may be doing 
great evil, where they wish only to do good. 

In Dorchester, Mass., there is a small " Industrial School for 
Girls," which seems to be especially distinguished from most 
other Homes of the kind, by the thorough and systematic min- 
ner in which the children who have left the school are watchcil 
over. Besides the standing committee on " placing out," which 
is required to report to the managers once in three monthscon- 
cernin^ the girls under its charge (those who, having been 
fitted in the school for household work, have been put into 
places to earn their living), a "Committee on Friendly Guardian- 
ship " has been created, whose duties arc thus described in the 
' report of the school for the year 1887 : " To keep a list of all 
girls leaving the school, who, through the expiration of the 
papers placing them under our care, are no longer fonnallf 


women who do the work of the world, of the mass of the peo- 
ple, who lead hard lives of struggle and self-sacrifice, but whose 
intellects are strengthened, whose characters are strengthened, 
whose souls are strengthened, by the daily and hourly trials 
they meet and overcome. 

The account of the way in which American women have dealt 
with these suffering i>eople, those upon whom most of the experi- 
ments of the benevolent are tried, is not, as I have already said, 
entirely discouraging. In all their dealings with them, they 
always seem to have had a latent consciousness at least that they 
had minds and souls, and not bodies only. I think women have 
seldom been responsible for the ** charities " which were satisfied 
to give one meal to a hungry fellow-being and then tuni from 
him with no further sense of responsibility for any subsequent 
roeaL They have usually sought to enter into some sort of 
human relation with those they tried to help, to make material 
relief the vehicle for moral and spiritual relief, and even when 
the material relief was actually doing far more harm in under- 
mining character and self-dependence than could be counter- 
acted by all the teaching given, still this sad fact was not rec- 
ognized, or at least not realised, and the intention was far 
better than the performance. 
^ Within the past ten or fifteen years, all over the country, an 
awakening of conscience in regard to these subjects has been 
taking place, and in almost all the larger cities and in many of 
! the towns of our country there are already formed associa* 
! tions whose object it is to cure and prevent pauperism. This 
i movement is in this country due in a great degree to women, and 
in all the sixty or seventy societies which now exist men and 
* women work together, and in many of them women take the 
'lead. The ''old charity" sought mainly to relieve physical 
suffering by physical relief ; the ''new charity " seeks to relieve 
physical suffering by raisins the character of the sufferer and 
bjr discovering the underlying causes of the suffering both in 
himself and in his surroundings. 

IV. The fourth class whom we can serve are the people 
who are generally thought to need no " charity *' at all, and 
who indeed get but little of it, either by word or deed — the 
wage-earners of the world — those who dig and hammer, who 
tew and scrub, who toil and sweat, to feed and clothe them* 
selves and all the world besides. 

Fortunately, there has, within the past few years, grown up a 
strong conviction among those who seek to serve their kind, 
that to help these men and women, to strengthen them, to 

*•.— 1 


teach them, ii the real means of lifting the -met, aod hnce 
have been developed (eipeciall)' by women, and for women umIn 
children) many plans for making their lives not only easiei; 
but richer and nobler, and more what a human life should bt 

In all such plans education is involved, and there are manj^ 
inspiring instancesof really great changes wrought by women io 
the system of education in our large cities, whose influence for 
good will never cease. The introduction of kioder;gaTtti 
teaching for little children, which many of those who study the 
dark problems of pauperism and crime believe will do more to 
destroy the misery of mankind than any other one educationil^ 
agency, was due to Miss Elizabeth Peabody, herself a teacha' 
in her youth, who in her middle age was filled with enihusiasa 
by the beautiful new teaching, and has lived to see it, in bcr 
old age, incorporated, mainly by the exertions of women, into 
the public school system of many of our large cities, where ibc 
need of the reform was greatest. 

In St. Louis, the first city to adopt the kindergarten, it wis a 
woman who proposed it. In Boston, one woman herself estab- 
lished and maintained for nearly ten years thirty-one kindt^ 
gartens, and finally, having by this long experience proved 
their value, persuaded the Board of Education to accept tba 
as, part of the public school system. 

In Philadelphia, another woman, inspired by the good site 
saw accomplished in Boston by the kindergartens cstablishcil 
by her friend, in 1879 opened one in that city, and gradualljr, 
following her example and under her leadership, others wen 
opened ; and in 1881 the Sub-Primary School Society was 
incorporated for the purpose of establishing and maintaining 
kindergartens in Philadelphia, and continued its work until in 
December, if186, this was consummated, when it presented to 
the Board of Education thirty-two kindergancns, to be ia 
future carried on as part of the school system. 

In California, the Golden Gate Association has founded, b; 
the help of a few rich people who have given money, and of 
many devoted women who have watched over the enterprise 
and given time and thought to its success, a large number of 
free kindergartens, and the same is true of many other cities iB 
the country. 

In other ways, also, the public schools have been benefited 
by the volunteer work of women, not only as members ol^ 
School Boards, which position they have accepted in Boston, 
New York, and Philadelphia, but especially in leading the way in 
demonstrating the possibilities and value of industrial educatioD. 


In New York, the Industrial Education Associition was 
founded by men and women for the purpose oif bringing this 
most important subject before the public, and of training 
teachers for all branches of manual education. 

Industrial school^ have been established and carried on by 
women in many different localities,^ and all over the country 
church societies conduct sewing classes, and classes in domes- 
tic training for ^irls. In many of our cities, women have 
established vacation schools to save the children from the 
demoralization of the long summer idleness, and have, in some 
places^ obtained the use of the public school buildings for this 
purpose. In Boston *' The Emergency and Hygiene Associ* 
ation** (composed of men and women) has a '* Committee on 
Playgroondsy'* which, in the summer vacation of 1888, opened 
seven of the public school yards as ph^ grounds for children, 
and three more as ^ sand-gardens.*' In each a matron was 
present to oversee the games of the children, and in the play- 
crounds they were supplied with ^sand-heaps and shovels, 
balls, tops, skipping ropes, sand bags, building blocks, flags to 
march under, %nd transparent slates to draw on," while in the 
^ sand-gardens " there was only the pleasure of digging in sand 
heaps. Thus for three hours a day, on four fair days of each 
week during the vacation, hundreds of children spent happy 
and healthful hours. 

The ** fresh air work," the ^country week," the excursions 
of every kind, are chiefly carried on by the devotion of women, 
and all will undoubtedly accomplish a greater good than the 
temporary benefit to the health and spirits of city children, by 
implanting a love for country life in many of the little visitors, 
which may prove in the future an influence to counteract the 
strance taste which now leads so many people to prefer a 
crowded tenement to a farm-house and makes them '* feel lone* 
tome" within a stone's throw of a doxen neighbors. 

Nor have women, although devoting so much of their time 
to the training of children, neglected those past the age of 
schooling, those who have grown up without privilege or ad- 
vantage, especially the young girls who have to work for their 
living and -struggle with untrained hands and brains to support 
themselves and perhaps many others dependent on them. In 
almost all oar cities women have formed associations especially 
to help self-supporting young women and girls, and the aim of 
all is to give happiness and added pleasure^ besides the oppor* 

^Sst ckaplaroa Woauui ia iDdustry.— En. 


m CHARITY. 337 

tunity of developnient v\ every direction. The Women't" 
Christian Associations,* of which there are more thsn fifty in 
the country, open rooms for evening entertain men t and ttudf, 
give instruction in intellectual and manual branches, find situ- 
ations for those who need them, help working girls in every 
way, and many are the women who have leisure and education 
who devote both to efforts to help and succor women who have 
neither. Most of these associations have Homes for working 
women, where the inmates are guarded and watched over with 
kindly care. In other cities the Young Women's Christian 
Association have no Homes of their own, but select safe 
boarding places for young women, and direct them to them, and 
keep boarding registers. 

One of the women who knows most of the condition of 
workingwomen in our cities, says of the " Homes : " **Thefe« 
hundreds sheltered are in most cases really friendless and 
deserving women to whom the chief boon is not the cheap 
board, but the respectable surroundings, which could not be 

had at all in ordinary lodgings The safe-guards thrown 

about women in these Homes are most desirable My , 

objections to them are that they are not radical enough in their j 
reforms, and really bar the truly needy factory girl of the slums; ' 
and that by furnishing so many comforts and privileges at low 
rates they create false expectations and standards. Were the 
advantages made dependent on co-operative, management, 
were the inmates themselves responsible for the adornment 
and conduct of the Homes, sufTermg for extravagance and bad 
judgment, profiting by foresight and experience, valuable 
educational training would be secured, and a far more home, 
like interest." 

The Boston Young Women's Christian Association (foundedN 
in iS66} in its twenty-third annual report, after describing the 
employment department, gymnasium, library, entertainments, 
the travelers* aid, the industrial training department, the eren* 
ing classes for intellectual work, says : 

Another important work, which has been carried on for\ 
some years, is Che training of girls for domestic service. . . . 

They remain three months They are instructed in the 

best possible way, practically, by doing all varieties of domestic 
.work. As this educational work progressed, there opened out 
another need, and this w^s an opportunity for preparation on 
the part of women of intelligence and education, by which 

* See chapter. Woman In lodnitiy.— Ed. 


thcj could fit themteWes for positions as matrons, house* 
keepers, teachers of domestic economy, etc For this end a 
normal class has been organized, and they are now pursuing a 
course of instruction." 

The New York Young Women's Christian Association, 
founded in 187 a, offers to self-supporting women the follow- 
tag privileges : 

L Tht Bibit dist. 

IL Free oooccrts. lectures, readingi^ etc 

IIL Free cittiei for instructloo to writing, ooamcrdal arithmetic, book- 
hwping , bosioetft tnuning, pbooography, type-writing, retouching photo- 
Brprthres, photo-color, mechanics] and free-hand drawing, clay owdeling, 
applied desgn, choir music, and physical culture. 

IV. Free drculatiog librmry, reference library, and reading rooms. * 

V. Employment bureau. 

VL Needlework department, salesroom, order department, free daises la 
■arhinr and hand-sewing, classes in cutting and fitting. 
VU. Free board directory. 

In the year 1883 was incorporated the Baltimore Young 
Women's Christian Association, '* having in view the improve- 
ment of the condition of the working women of Baltimore by 
providing for them a reading-room, and such other depart- 
ments as may be found necessary.'* 

I quote from a description, lately written, some account of 
the work of this association : 

^The educating influences of the Young Women's Christian 
Association has been chiefly social and practical. . . . Classes 
in reading, writing, book-keeping, and singing were early insti- 
tuted. .... English literature has been taught in simple and 
effective ways by reading aloud from good authors to apprecia- 
tive groups of young women, and also by introducing ihe co- 
operative method of reading, one girl taking one book by a 
pven author, another girl another, and all reporting on their 
mdiridual readings to the assembled class. .... 

** Another excellent branch of committee work is to see that 
nrls who come to the lunch-rooms have proper boarding places. 
— Ladies visit ^irls in their lodgings. A female physician has 
lent her services in caring for the sick, and has made herself 
▼eij useful by keeping a careful watch upon the sanitary con- 
dition of shops where girls are employed. . . . ." 

Several of the Women's Christian Associations have under 

their care other branches of charitable work than those above 

ensoK^ted, and as a rule their benefits seem to be confined 

^ mofc or kaa strictly to Protestants. There are other organ- 


izations for the befriending of young women and ^rls (helping 
hands, girls' friendly locieties, church societief in great num- 
bers, etc., etc.) which have the same limiution, but there art 
still others intended to receive all who will Join them. 

The "Women's Educational and Industrial Unions," exist- *-- 
ing in thirteen ciliea of the United States, have for their ob- 
jects "increasing fellowship among women, in order to pro- 
mote the best practical methods for securing their educationil, 
industrial, and social advancement."* 

The following are extracts from a circular issued by the\ 
original Union, founded in Boston, in 1877: 

TbU intiiiution may be rejiardcd u a locial centre, m place of velaxDC. 
Ad/ woman, reiidenl or ilraoger, by comin|; [o the Uoioo will find bentif 
unonf; frieadi. Its placards in milway itatioiu often bring to us stran^cn 
from various part* of the country and from abroad. It iavites all women u 
its reading-room and parlors. It provides lectures, daises, and cateruin- 
menti. &me of the cUsses are inaust rial. It ha* " Motbct's Mcetiofs' 
and " Talks with Vounf; Girls " from womea with blgfa leputatioa. I: 
afTords opportunities for interchange of ihousbt upon tbe vital questions c! 
the day. It receives and preserves reports ol women's associations bo(li 
near and distant. It is a centre of local information. It gathers in Ihe best 
Ideas and suggcslions, and weaves them into plan* for the bcnent of humait- 
ity. It befriends the friendless. It is a tower of strength for the helplcs. 
Il secures dues unjustly withheld from working women. It investigate 
fraudulent advertisements, and publicly warns women against them. £ fw . 
as practicable, it secures situations for the unemployed. In its salesrooou 
are found tbe produclsof women's industries WIse.tbinkcrsbBveilx 

3iinion that for removing the ills of humanity {mroary work is better this ^ 
ter work. The methods of the latter are chaiiEies. reformatory crusades, 
and penal enactments. The evils contended with. — pauperism, drunkenncsl. 
vice, crime, — are simply inward conditions becoming apparent in conduct. 
These conditions are ignorance, sellishness. undeveloped faculties, false. 
rating of values, lack of self-respect and of self-restraint. Thee ITcctive work 
i* to change such condition* by a kind of education that shall develop tlw 
higheat and best, thus enabling the Individual to stand upright of bimsdf, 
instead of being held in position by charities, reform*, or penalties. 

In New York, in 1879, 'was founded a Girls' Club, which '^' 
consisted of the founder, a woman of education and wealth, 
and ten or twelve factory and shop girls, who met in an upper 
room in a Tenth Avenue^ tenement house. During the past 
ten years, that club lias increased to a membership of several 
hundred, and twenty-two kindred clubs have been formed in 
New York, eleven in Brooklyn, and eight in Boston and in other 
cities. These clubs are mainly self-supporting, and their work 
is the education and elevation of the members in every pos- 

• See chapter. Woman In ladtubr.— En. 


sible direction — physical, industrial, menial, and moral. They 
sopply a common p^ound of meeting for young women who 
have had the privileges of education, money and leisure, with 
those who have had the privileges of self-denying, hard-working 
lives, and the benefits are mutual.^ 

Women have, in various cities, opened restaurants where 
good food is provided at moderate prices^ for the purpose not 
only of saving money to those who patronize them, but to give 
decent and attractive surroundings and a freedom from temp* 
lation to drink. In some of these restaurants are rooms where 
working-girls may eat lunch which they bring from their own 
homesi and in some the decent toilet provision is spoken of as 
m great boon to these girls, who work in shops and factories 
where every requirement ofdecency is neglected or violated in 
that particular. 
^ lo New York City a small band of educated women have 
jointly hired a tenement house in the very worst district of the 
city, politically and morally, and there they intend to live, for 
the purpose of doing what they can to elevate the tone of the 
De^hborhood. Most of them have their daily avocations, but 
in ftie evenings they will give their time to such efforts as they 
find best suited to attain their end.f Some of them have 
already taken part in the work of the '' Neighborhood Guild," 

• The AsMcUtkm of Workiag GirU* Societies was fonaed Febnury. 1M4 
with the foUoving objects : 

I. To strengthen, to knit together, and to pffx>tect the interests of the 

a. To hold mcetiofi, when reports of the societies shall be presented, and 
So Bake BMtre generally kno«rn their aims and advantages. 

5. To prooMtc the general adoptioo of tiie prioaplcs npon which the 
societies have been fonaed • 

4. To secure the senrioes, by co-operatioo, of good teachers, lady pby- 

iaas. and lec tuf c rs . 

$. To keep the sercral societies Informed of such classes and schemes as 
provod valuable. 

6^ To enco ur age and assist in the establishment of new societies. 

la April, 1890, a convention was held under the auspices of the New 
York, Boitoo, and Brooklyn Associations of Working Girls Societies, and the 
Philadelphia New Century Working Women's Guild. Two hundred and 
twcoty4ivs delegates* representing ninety-sis dubs, and from thirty-eight 
diflereal chies and towns, were present. — Ed. 

tThe effort above referred to has during the year taken shape as the 
""CoOcge Settlement," and 00 September i. 1890, iu first annual report 
doles with the following words : 

**WhaC are the 'resuhs?* Certainlv the residenu are recognised as the 
Meads of those about them. The childrea tarn to them with the joy of 

sad the grief of every loss. The dob boys of sizteea 


the ipirit of which is thus described in its last published 
circular : 

W« do Dot look upon oar work u done bj one dan of aociRy for snolbB 
~'"i o( ■odny : not u up-iowa residenu, nor from the bdghi of proud i 
•MfMt-^ to our fellow-men in any regard do we go down to Idbor id tht 
ou*e district. All sons and condiiioos of men are brought imo i 
contact in the Neighborhood Guild. All boEb giTC and rectiTC ; ail art bolh ' 
teacben and taught ; and the lesson for all is the brotherfaood olF man. Tbc 
GoUd U not connected with any church or society, wbatsocrer. But penoos 
of Tariou* beliefs are connected with the Guild, and the seme of tbe brocbcr- 
bood of all men is their bond of union. The work of the Guild, cxcqK is 
tbc kindergarten, is done by faithful volunteers, several of whom h«vc raided ' 
for manf months in the tenement -house district. The spirit of the Gtiild s 
against unnecessary absenteciim in good works. It would bring all sorts of 
men together close enough to feel one another's heart-throb*. It believes ia 
a communism of mental and spiritual possetsioni. 

A somewhat similar society, established both by men 
and women, in Philadelphia, gives the following account of 
itself : 

The object of this unsectarian associaiion is to establish. Id localities m«t 
aecdiog them, and chiefly for the beocRt of workingmen and their ffmil'fs, 
convenient centera for social intercourse, amusement, reading, study, restan- 
rant accommodation, etc., without the accompaniment of any demoraiidaf 

Our Srst experiment was to open, on Saturday evenings, the hall on tbe 
comer of Tweotv-thJrd and Hamilton streets, which seats nearly three bus- 
dred people. This was furnished with tables for refreshments, and here we 
gave a series of light entertainments, sometimes for five cents, lomelioMS tea 
cents admission. The next step was to open tbe house at 3134 Vine street, 
and start a neighborhood society under the title of Family Guild, No. i. Ib 
order to secure to the bouse at the start the character desired, we adn>ltte<l b) 
Its privileges, under proper conditions, men. women, and children, and in- 

and seventeen years are proud of their connection with the boose and eager 
rivals in its good opinion. Even some of the older women turn to the -nA- 
dents as friends upon whom they can rely. Those who know the worlc bat 
do not look for results other than this friendly relation in any near future. 
The work. If it is anythinf;, is a process of education. Charvcter is not 
formed In a year. In all the club work the object constantly sought la help. ' 
ful, personal contact. AU methods are simply a means to this end. For 
this reason the number of members in each club Is limited. If tbe higbei ii 
ever to give an uplilt to tbe lower, mutt it not be through this mctbod of 
(rlendsliip ? Such a relation implies giving; and taking on both sides, ai>d 
the worVen at the Settlement find one of the strongest points gained by len- 
dence to be. that their neighbors have a chance to do. something for them, a 
chance which is often improved. The' Settlement is one of the inllDenccs 
which go to form the lives of the people in Rivington Street. If it shall 
create any higher ideals or quicken any aspirations, if it shall awmkea ooe 
sool to any sense of its own nature, the object of th« Colleg;e Settl«mcot will 
(orely bf attains}," 


And of Kpttfidng fwnUict, offered special iaducemcnti to Citllcr, aoCher» 
Mid chfldrca to eooic to^ber. 

The advmntifcs ol inemberihip are a libraiy. readiog-room (with niaga* 
liata. weekly and dailv papers), roomt for games, mtistc classes, accofDmoda- 
tioos for bttsioess and social meetings, etc The price b ooe dollar a year 
for adults, fifty cents for those under seventeen, while a family ticket indod- 
\ag father, oKMher, and all cbiMrtn under seventeen, is OM dollar and 
fifty cents. Class instructioo is eatra, five and ten cents a lesson. tXf' 
ocpl the manual training, which is free, and the dancing, which it fifteen 

The most popular classes last jrear were cooking, singing, and dreasmaldby. 
The cooking class numbered sixteen, dressmaking ten, sioeing thirty. The 
wimberof members enrolled last winter was ooe hundred and fifty. This 
does not include all attending classes, some of whom were not members of 

The experiment of associating the sexes both in study and recreation has 
proved a success. The class in manual training, which now numbers forty, 
tt composed about equallv of young men and women, and the teadiers say it 
is asoch easier with such a class to keep order and to secure a tten tion to 

Besides the regular social evenings devoted to plavs, singing, dancing, etc., 
k is not unusual for the members of the evening classes which dose at nine 
to adjourn to the plav-room and take a little time for amusement. The 
managers have naturafi v kept an anxious watch over these occasions and have 
lound nothing to complain of in the conduct of the young people. .... 

There will be certain hours of each afternoon devoted to toe children of 
the neighborhood, with the object of teaching them quieter and less t^rutal 
ways of playing than they learn on the streets. We also hope to es ta b l ish a 
day nursery, which shall obviate the dreadful necessity among working 
wooBca of locking their children alone in a room for the day. • • . • 

In Illinois, women have organised associations for the protec- 
tion of women and children which seem to be more far-reaching 
than any such in other States. 

The second article of ^ The Protective Agency for Women 
and Children of Chicago** reads as follows : 

Its objects are to secure protection from all offenses and crimes a|[ainst the 
porky and virtue of women and children ; proteaion against any injustice to 
or children of a financial character, such as withholduig of wa^es, 
of exortMtant interest, violation of contract, or fraudalent advertise- 
f any kind ; enforcement of existing laws, and efforts toward the 
01 better ones, for the protection oif women and children againsr 
and abuses, of whatever nature ; the extension of a wboleKxne 
snpport to women and children who have been wronged, disoimlnatiag 
wisely buV e su misfortvae and guilt. 

For three vears the agency has fulfilled its objects and has 
carried out the wish expressed in its first annual report in the 
following words: ^ Justice is better than chanty, and we wish 
to be a terror to evil-doers as well as a good Sainaritan to the 


IN CHARITY. li,-i^ 

The Agency is carried on by a governing board consisting 
of delegates from sixteen different associations of women in* 
Chicago, and it has taken its stand by the side of. the poor and 
oppressed and demanded and obtained justice for them in the 
courts. In its third annual report it publishes the following 
extracu from a letter of John P. Altgelt, Judge of Superior 
Court of Cook County : '*.... I wish to express my high 
appreciation of the work the Agency is doing. .... You have 
rendered a double service to the courts and have materiallj 
aided in the administration of justice.*' In Peoria^ 111., there is 
also such an Agency, and a National Association has been 
formed " for the purpose of establishing, or helping to establish, 
similar societies m different parts of the country. 

Another important woman's society is the *' Illinois Woman's 
Alliance," which declares its objects to be : *' i. To agitate for 
the enforcement of all existing laws and ordinances that have 
been enacted for the protection of women and children, as the 
factory ordinances and the compulsory education law. a. To 
secure the enactment of such laws as shall be found necessary. 
3. To investigate all business establishments and factories 
where women and children are employed, and public institu- 
tions where women and children are maintained. 4. To pro- 
cure the appointment of women as inspectors and as members 
of boards of education and to serve on boards of management 
of public institutions." 

The Woman's Alliance has already been " largely instni* 
mental in procuring the passage of a compulsory education law, 
and has secured the appointment of women factory inspectors." ^ 

Another branch of work taken up by women in some of our 
cities is the owning and hiring of tenement houses, for the pur- 
pose of improving the houses and thereby serving the tenants 
and the public. This is done both by individuals, who under- 
take the oversight of the houses and the collecting of rents 
themselves (following the example of Miss Octavia Hill in Ix>n- 
don), and by associations such as the Co-operative Building 
Association of Boston, which is a joint stock company of men 
and women, who buy and build houses and oversee their prop- 
erty by means of committees of their own number. The object 
is to raise the standard of the houses for working people in any 
given locality, and also to show that such houses, when man- 
aged for the benefit of the tenants, may be made to pay a fair 
return to the owners. This work seenis peculiarly fitting for 
women, who carry sympathy and conscience into their business '^ 

- ^ " ■■■■ ■' " ■ . 1 ^^'i^W^T'^i^— ^>— pp— ^Wi— 



Indeed, the work of women leerot to be unending,* and it it 
impossible to compute its value. The only feeling evoked by 
tlie study of the reports of what is going on all over the country 
is that oif deep gratitude, and of regret that the whole cannot 
be spread out for the encouragement and inspiration of others, 
and that so meager an account as this must suffice. 

It is stranse to remember that all this activity has had its 
rise in less than a hundred years. The simple story of the 
first organized charitable work ever done, so far as we.know, 
by women in this country is thus told in an account of the 
^ Female Society of Philadelphia for the Relief and Employ- 
ment of the Poor :" 

''It will be remembered that in the year 1793, the yellow 
fever made an ^wful and depopulating visitation to our city, 
and those who were spared iu ravages were left in much dis- 
tress. Anne Parish, and some other young women, having 
devoted considerable time and strength in relieving the suf- 
ferers, felt called upon to continue their labors when the deadly 
scourge had passed, as the following minutes, the first on the 
books, will show : 

^ * A number of young women, having been induced to believe 
from observations they have made that they could afford some 
assistance to their suffering fellow-creatures, particularly u*idim»s 
and ^rpkams^ by entering into a subscription for their relief, 
visiting them in their solitary dwellings without distinction of 
nation or color, sympathizing in their afflictions, and, as far as 
their ability extends, alleviating them, have for this purpose 
associated together. Their views being humble and fundr 
inconsiderable, yet seeking neither honor nor applause, they 
onljr ask a blessing on their feeble efforts, sensible of the obli- 
gations they are under to an Almighty Giver for the comforts 
they enjoy, are desirous of making a grateful acknowledgment 
by endeavoring to adopt the precept He taught, to visit the 
sick, feed the hungry, and clothe the naked. I'hey propose to 
nominate a treasurer, to appoint a committee to visit the poor, 
and discover their necessities either for immediate relief, or to 
give them employment' '* 

This was in i79St And it was this same^'oung Quaker woman, 
Anne Parish, who, in that, or the following year, believing that 
''ignorance was one great cause of vice and the calamities 
attendant thereon, and that a guarded education would tend 
greatly to the future usefulness and respectability of the rising 
youth,** with two friends, opened the first chanty school for 
girls in the United States, teaching them ^ some of the most use* 






So soon as the Human being emerged from barbarism, and 
life became precious, the restoration of the sick to health must 
bare engaged attention. The original idea of the hospital 
was wholly charitable, as it was an obvious duty to take care of 
the sick, who were unable to help themselves, and under many 
circumstances this work could be better done in an establish* 
ment for that special purpose than in a private home. 

Such establishments have existed in very early times and in 
▼arious countries, and women have always borne their part in 
the work as nurses, if not as physicians or managers. 

Although the hospital, in some form, was not unknown before 
the establishment of the Christian church, yet that church cer* 
tainly took the care of the sick as a special province, and found 
in its orders of monks and nuns very convenient instruments 
for carrying it on. It was an important adjunct of religion, 
for the mind and heart, during sickness and convalescence, are 
open to religious and moral influences, and the grateful patient 
often became a zealous convert to the church which had given 
him hdp in the hour of suffering. The old proverb recognised 

Wbco tht Dera was tide, the DevQ a mook wonkl bt ; 
Wbco the Dtril WM well, the dcrU a mook wm ha. 

The earliest known hospital for the sick was founded in the 
latter part of the fourth century at Caeiarea ; St Chrysostom 
built one at his own expense at Constantinople, and Fabiola, 
the friend of St. Jerome, founded one at Rome. 



Many of the present gTea,t European hospitals, as the " Hotel 
Dieu " of Paris, " St. Bartholomew " of London, etc, owe their 
existence to religious foundations, and the sisters of variout 
orders made it their especial work to labor in theoi. 

Women assisted in these good works. In the old hoq)iUl of 
the Savoy in London, thirteen sisters are on the pay roll 
" Queen Mary tried to restore this hospiul, and the fadict of 
the court and maidens of honor stored the same with two beds, 
bedding, and furniture in very ample manner." The work of 
the sisters of charity is familiar to all, and ProteslanU han 
imitated it by establishing orders of women who devote them- 
selves to the care of the sick. 

In addition to the ordinary needs of human life, war brought 
its large increase of wounds and sickness, which made military 
hospitals a necessity, and women did not hesitate to follov 
men to the camp and field to minister to their fejlow-beingi 
in distress. In these scenes of war Florence Nightingale began - 
her great work, which has raised nursing to the rank of a skillful 

grofession. Private charity also extended help to the sick, and 
Ling James's favorite goldsmith, George Heriot, secured an 
honorable remembrance in Edinburgh by founding the large 
hospital which bears his name. Neither has the State for 
gotten its duty to the sick, not only in providing infirmaries, 
almshouses, and other institutions, but certainly, in later timc^ 
in furnishing hospitals for the poor at the public expense. 

In time of war, or when great epidemics devastated cities, the 
hospitals often became excessively crowded, and offered scenes 
of misery and horror which justified the dread and disgust felt 
for them in the popular mind, so that to "die in a hospital" 
was an expression for the extreme of human misery. 

Through all these years women took an active part in hos- 
pital work as nurses, and, in the case of infirmaries connected 
with female convents, must have had charge of the adminit- 
tration ; but it is not until our own day that hospitals have 
been established especially for the benefit of women, and mainly 
under their own control. As the science of medicine advanced, 
and physicians were not solitary students but became a body 
of educated men united in their work and deeply interested in 
the advancement of their science, the hospital came to be re* 
garded not exclusively as a charity, but also as a school in 
which the student of medicine could gain experience and 
knowledge by intimate acquaintance with various forms of 
disease and the means employed to remove it. This created a 
vulgar prejudice that the sick were considered only subjects of 


zperiroent, without regard to their own good. But, hi fact, the 

nstant presence of bodies of intelligent students in hospitals 
done much to raise their character and to reform abuses. 
Dr. Finlmy tajrs* ^ Clinical teaching benefits the patient, se- 

ifcs careful investigation of his case, and has a bracing effect 
4NI the work done in the hospital." 

It is in this relation that hospiuls have become especially 
important to women during the last thirty years. 

The woman physician was not whoUv unknown in America '^ 
before thu time. Anne Hutchinson, of Boston, was doctor as i^ 
well as preacher. Ruth Bamaby practiced the profession of * 
midwife^ forty years, and this branch of practice was fully 
fccognised as belonging to women.* But while the standard 
of education for women was very low, these were onl^ individ- 
uals carrying out the impulses of their genius or their hearts, 
having no relation to each other and no thorough systematic 

When Elizabeth Blackwell took her sUnd for thorough 
medical education for women, she felt the imperative need of 
clinical instruction for them. No hospital in America would 
give to women students of medicine any opportunity to see the 
work done in it. 

The other hospitals, which have been established since these 
pioneers, have followed their plans so nearly that but few 
exceptions need be made to the general account While I 
cannot be sure that my list is complete, I give the following 
names of hospitals known to me, similar in character and 

New York Infirmary, 1857. f 

Women's Hospital of Philadelphia, i860. 

New England Hospital for Women and Children, i86s.f 

Chicago Hospital tor Women and Children, 1865. 

Pacific Dispensary and Hospital for Women and Children. 

Ohio Hospital 

Northwestern Hospital, Minneapolis. 

The hospital in Chicago, like other promising children of the 
East transplanted to the West, has outgrown its parents, and is 
now the largest institution of its kind in this country, and 
probably in the world. It has eighty beds. 

• 8m chapur. Wo«aa la MedidiM.— Ed. 

t The story of tbt fooadiag of tht Ntw York lafimury, sad tht Now 
E^fteadHmpital for Womm 



The Musachusetti Homceopalhic Hospital was not esUb- 
lished for the special benefit of women, but in connection viib 
the medical Echool of Botton Univenity. but it received the 
funds of the old Female Medical School, «nd it has women 
professon and students, and admiit women to the hospital *) 

The hospitals have dispensaries connected with them which 
are very important aids to the work, both of charity and edu- 
cation. These dispensaries afford tiie students a wider range 
of observation and experience than they could gain in the 
hospitals, since the patients arc numbered by thousands, and 
they bring the poor sick women to the acquaintance of women 
physicians, to whom they can often confide their troubles more 
freely than to men. Cases which need the treatment of the 
hospital are secured admittance to it. In all this hospital 
work, and especially in that of the dispensary, as indeed in all 
charitable work, it has been found necessary to guard against 
the danger of pauperizing those who should be helped. For 
this reason a small charge is made to dispensary patient^ 
except in cases of known destitution. The patients willingly 
pay It, feeling th?ir own self-respect increased thereby, and the 
dispensary may be thus made nearly or quite self-supporting. 

The surgical department of hospitals is of special importance 
to the poor, as it is almost impossible for them to have the 
conditions in their homes necessary to insure a fair chance of 
success and recovery in cases of operations. Remarkable suc- 
cess has been attained in this department in some of the hos- 
pitals I have named, where the greatest of a1)dominal opera* 
tions are performed by surgeons connected with the hospital, . 
with a percentage of recovery equal to that of other good hos- 
pitals here or in Europe. This branch of work is of absolute 
importance to the internes, and of the greatest value to the 

Not less interesting or successful is the maternity work of 
these hospitals. A great deal of the chronic trouble from 
which working women suffer so severely comes from want of 
proper care while they are exercising the functions of child- 
bearing. The poor applicant to the maternity department is 
seen by the woman physician, who gives her advice as to 
previous care of herself, and she has in the hospital that 
thorough rest and care which are indispensable to full restora- 
tion to health. 

A great moral question forces itself on the consideration of 
the managers of ^hese hospitals. The applicants to the mater- 


Vj arc very often unmarried girls. Does . true' humanity 
quire us to refuse help to such women ? It is evident that 
re must be exercised to give no encouragement to immorality, 
lile we must not refuse the aid which is so often absolutely 
cessary to save life. The problem is a difScult one, but the 
inagers have tried to meet it They usually make a distinc* 
m between the first offense — which is often rather due to 
lakness and folly than to depravity — and confirmed habits of 
morality, and do not receive unmarried women a second 
ae. In one hospital, at least, the directors find the greatest 
listance from a committee of ladies who look after the 
itemit^ patients, both before they enter and after they leave 
e hospital. They endeavor to procure work for the mother, 
d watch over her welfare and that of the child. But they 
ike it their invariable rule to give aid only on condition that 
t mother makes every effort to fulfill her maternal duties ; 
r they believe there is a regenerating power in motherhood, 
d that care for her child is the surest safeguard against a 
>ther's committing a second fault. 

To many women of good position the maternity is a great 
fssing, if they have not comfortable homes and friends to 
re for them. The expense in the hospital is much less than 
t price for which good medical attendance and nursing can be 
:ured at home. 

1 need only say of the medical care of women by their own 
c in hospitals that its value has been fully proved. Women 
all classes seek this aid eagerly, and show full confidence in 
rir physicians and obey them quite as implicitly as they do 
)se of the other sex. Women often say that they hive 
BTered for years without medical or surgical assistance, that 
ght have relieved them, from unwillingness to reveal their 
rubles to men. The greater freedom of the relation between 
tients and physicians of the same sex, enables the doctors to 
ercise much influence over their patients, who learn many 
od sanitary lessons in housekeeping. A physician was sur*' 
ised to find the sick room of a poor patient carefully aired : 
•\liy, you know they always do so at the hospital," was the 
planation given. 

These hospitals have also done much to dispel amon^ the 
or the fear of going to hospitals.* Finding their fnends 


MoTB.~I do DOC OMoa to cUim that this rcsttlu which it Tcry cridtot is 
ooamoaity, it cotirelT due to the ctubltthmeot of woaeo't ho^Mtalt, for it 1 1 

bo cooteqwaoe of a braodcr feeling for hunumity in all iattitotioot ; bot |^ 

t CMtaialy a ■trirod faatara of wonea't boapitalsi This ooto will apply 



kindly miniftered to bjr their own lex, thcf come to r^srd the 
hospital u a kindly refuge in sickneu, not ms the last resort of 
a homeless and deserted sufferer who will die unfriended and 

Besides these hospitals, especially adapted to assist in the 
medical education of women, are others established by women 
mainly in the interests of charity. I have, for instance, ^ 
twelfth annual repoH of " The Home of Mercy," in Pittsfidd, 
Mass. It contain* about thirteen beds, and the number of 
patients in a year was one hundred. It was established by a 
small body of women who felt the need of a place for the victimi 
of accident or disease. Sixty-eight per cent, of the patients aie 
women, and all the officers but the physicians. This institu- 
tion seems to present a good model for smaller cities and 
towns where, especially among a manufacturing population, 
hospital accommodations are ofien much needed. A trainini 
school for nurses is added to its work. 

Another step has been taken in the medical edacation of ^ 
women in the employment of women physicians, (made obliga- 
tory by the Legislature in some Slates) in Sute institutions, thus 
giving them management ai the women's infinnary. At the 
Reformatory prison at Sherburne, Mass., the resident phytidaB 
has charge of the health of two hundred prisoners. The good 
care and treatment given them is apparent in the improvement 
of the health of prisoners during their stay, and in the soall 
number of deaths. 

The employment of women physicians in insane asylums it a 
very valuable measure from which we may hope great good in 
the future. At present, the most interesting mstance of tack 
work that has come to my notice is in the State Hospital for' 
the Insane at Norristown, Pa., where Dr. Alice Bennett, with 
two women assistants, has charge of over eight hundred 
patients. Her carefully tabulated statistics throw much light on 
important questions regarding the causes of insanity and the 
probability of restoration. Dr. Bennett has introduced bene- 
ficial improvements in the treatment of patients in the direc- 
tion of more freedom and more social life and opportunity of 
employment. She says in her last report, " No mechanical re- 
straint (by which is meant enforced limitation of free move- 
ments of the body by means of jackets, muffs, straps, etc) is at 
any time made use of in this department. .... There are 

to all that I have taid of hospitals. My lubject i* women'i bonnttla, bnt 1 
would gladly do justice to the good woik dou in all hospitaU, if it wen ast 
too broad a fieU. 


timet in the history of many cases, when temporary separation 
fn>m external cause of irritation is beneficial and necessary 

• • • . Brush making, basket making, sewing and mending, 
kindergarten occupations for the feebler-minded and melan- 
cboly, and the ever-present *' house-work/' in all its forms, 
engage about half the whole number of patients at one time or. 
another. The officers and patients have also organized a 

* Lend a Hand Qub.* Dr. Bennett has arranged for a large 
nanber of patients to take their meals together, and finds the 
nrrangement very beneficial." 

Some of those who are working for the sick have preferred 
the name of ^ Hospital Association." Such is the St. Luke's 
hospital in Jacksonville, Fla., said to be the first one in the 
State. The officers are women, but the physicians and a 
board of trustees are men. The main purpose of this associa- 
tion seems to be to relieve the wants of strangers, who so often 
fo to Florida seeking health, but sometimes in vain. 

The Women's Homceopathic Association of Pennsylvania 
was formed for a distinctively reformatory purpose. Its rov- 
emnent is composed of women, with the exception of an 
advisory board of men. The medical faculty is composed of 
both men and women. This account is given of its origin : 

** The motive of starting a women's association was, largely, 
to correct the abuses that grow out of institutions managed by 
men. It is here now and has been for many years the custom 
for hospital or other charitable institutions to have an auxiliary 
board of women managers, whose duties are to look after the 
house-keeping department and raise money either by giving 
entertainments or begging — the expenditure of the money so 
raised, and general management of hospital work, is considered 
beyond a woman's ability. This prevents a voice in the higher 
administration. Some of the women, whose names appear as 
incorporators of the hospital of this association, desired to 
open an institution where women could, when in sickness and 
sorrow, be in the care of women. Out of a 13 patients cared 
for during 18S8, 153 were charity cases, 4$ partial pay, and 15 
cases full pay.'* 

The ** Philadelphia Home for Incurables ** was established 
by women, but its bounty is not confined to them.; it admits 
men as patients. With the exception of a superintendent of 
the men's department, the management is entirely in the hands 
of women. This is an effort to meet the crying need of a home 
for chronic sufferers. Each patient pays one hundred dollars 
«nd is kept during her life. 


Much other work of the i^ame nature «s that I hare described 
is, doubtless, doing in our vast country, of which no acconat 
has reached ul One of the many " Women's Clubs ** has taken 
the subject of hospitals into serious consideration. While 
rejoicing in every such effon, I would like to add a word of 
caution that every enterprise should be most carefully con- 
sidered, and the work never allowed to fall below the recogniMd 
standard of meriL 

When the pioneer hospitals were opened, no other clinical 
advantages were free to women ; now the hospitals are begin- 
ning to open their doors to them. The report of the citf 
hospital of Boston says, " The propriety of women practicing 
ai physicians or surgeons, and their comparative ability and 
fitness to pursue this profession, are not questions for the 
trustees to consider in the official management of the hospital; 
they must recognize the fact that women are becoming practi- 
tioners in all the schools of medicine ; that they are admitted 
to the Massachusetts Medical and other State societies, and 
are recognized as practitioners by the community at large; 
and that they are admitted in common with male students to 
other leading hospitals of the country. The trustees therefore 
feel that there is no sutficient reason why women should not 
be admitted to the public instruction in the amphitheater on 
the same terms as men, except as to certain operations from 
which a reasonable sense or. regard for propriety may exclude 
them." This advance in public opinion is most gratifying ; but, 
even when all hospitals are open to women students, the value 
of those of which I have spoken will not be lost ; they will still 
have special work to do, both in education and charity. 

This movement for the clinical education of women in hos- 
pitals begun in America, has extended to Great Britain, Swit- 
zerland, and Germany, and is now being rapidly introduced 
into India, where the Women's Hospital is found to be a most 
important agent in educating and elevating the women of India. 

The lamented Dr. Amandibai Joshee, who was the pioneer of 
medical education for Hindoo women, was a student at the Phila- 
delphia college and an interne at the New England Hospital. 

An excellent hospital in Burlington, Vt., was planned and 
endowed by a woman (Miss Mary Fletcher), who gave it her 
personal supervision. It had no direct bearing on women's 
education, but was open to all classes of patients. Since Miss 
Fletcher's death it is called by her name. It is mainly intended 
for residents of the State, although other patients are received 
if it is not full. It has no women physicians, but a board of 


visitors. It has an amphitheater for dinic^ instrac- 
d its buildings are large and convenient 
lese hospiuls maintain the principle that those who are 
in them should pay for the care they receive according 
ability. The price of board and treatment varies from 
brty dollars per week, according to the service required 
ler circumsunces ; but in all the institutions are free 
idowed or supported by charity. 

^f this hospital work has grown another very important 
of service in the training schools for nurses. While 
ng this new departure at Us full value, I wish to pause a 
t to pay a deserved tribute to the " old-fashioned nurse." 

England, especially in our country towns, and I pre- 
> less in other parts of the country, the nurse was an 
nt and honored member of society. Although not 
y trained according to the modem demands, she was 
y a woman deeply read in the great school of life ; 
widowed mother, who earned her bread by giving to 
he fruits of her own blighted family life; sometimes a 

who, losing the hope of a home of her own, found a 
d useful sphere for her energies and affections in care 
ick ; sometimes the girl who had wrecked her life by 
1 indiscretion (like Mrs-Gaskell's *' Ruth "), in the min- 
help to others found a life which soothed her own 
and restored her to the respect of society. The nurse 
:hered her knowledge as she could, watching through 
nter nights with sick friends, and visiting among the 
en disease came upon them. Dickens has drawn cruel 
( of the nurse of olden time, true, perhaps, to flagrant 
s, but forming a pitiful caricature of the whole class. 

nurse was more often the true friend of the family, 
led in every time of trouble, and loving the children 
irth she had watched, almost as if they were her own. 
ith the advance of scientific medical practice it became 
J that the physician should have an assistant fitted 
r out his views skillfully as well as faithfully ; and 
ned nurse was called into being. She, as well as the 
n, roust have clinical education. How strongly this 
s felt is shown by the almost simultaneous establishment 
ng schools in various countries. To Miss Nightingale 
\t impulse which started the general movement. 
4ew England Hospital claims priority in this country, 
inciogthe training of nurses as an important part of its 
iS6j ; but its school was not fully established until the 



return of Dr. Dimock froiri Europe in 1&69, who placed it on 
itt present foundation. The methods pursued in the vuioni 
training schools row in operation are very simitar, showin^thit 
the work has been carefully considered and is being satisfac- 
torily done. Similar difficulties presented themselves to thott 
found in all industrial education, of which one of the greaien 
was the impossibility of finding teachers trained for the work. 
Such women as I have described might be very valuable nurses, 
but they had not acquired their knowledge systematically, and 
were not skilled in the art of teaching. The doctor knon 
what qualities are wanted in a nurse, but cannot always gire 
the instruction and discipline which will secure their develop- 
ment. The women physicians had some advantage in this 
respect. The very general employment of women as teachen-^ 
has helped 10 supply this need. A young woman who had ■ 
natural aptitude for nursing, and the high moral qualities nec- 
essary for a superintendent of nurses, and who also had the expe- 
rience of a few years of teaching, became well adapted to tlie 
new profession, and after a few years the training schools begto 
to furnish graduates who could carry on the work as teachers. 

Another difficulty was in the amount of time required for 
thorough training. The pupils seldom had resources to sup- 
port them during one or two years of training. It is quite nec- 
essary, therefore, to pay the pupils a small salary, after their — 
first month of probation, in addition to their board and lodging 
This is sufficient to provide for their inexpensive clothing and 
all other necessary expenses, so that the graduate leaves the 
school without arrears of debt and able to look cheerfully for- 
ward to the exercise of her profession. A great step has beea 
gained for women in thus raising this humble labor to the dignity*' 
of a profession. The woman who has given one or two years 
to preparation for her life-work, looks upon it very differently 
from one who has taken it up only on the pressure of necessity 
and has to learn her business in the doing of it. She feels a 
conscious strength in her position, which ought to stimulate her 
intellectual powers and elevate her moral character. It is true 
that the school gives her only the preparation for her work, and 
she must get the best part of her education from life, but die 
goes to her task with tools well sharpened for use, and a trained 
power of observation which should make every experience 
doubly valuable. Let her not lose In the pride 01 her acquisi- 
tion the lovelier spirit and conscientious fidelity which made 
the old nurse the useful and trusted friend of the family. 

The well-trained nurse is like another eye and hand to the 


phvsicbm. She notes with reliable accuracy the changes of 
pulse and temperature, keeps the record of nourishment and 
sleep, watches every vital function with a practiced eye, and 
thus cao give to the medical attendant a photographic picture 
of all that has occurred since his last visit. She cames out 
llts directions intelligently, and thus enables him to calculate on 
Strict application of the means he wishes to use. 

In i886y bjr the report of the Bureau of Education, there 
rre 19 trainm^i schools for nurses, 139 instructors, 837 pupils, 
3|49 graduates, in twelve different States and the District of 
^Srfumbia. Some of these schools are connected with public 
^ospitalsy others with private charities. In a few cases the 
9cliools are independent of any institution, but the ptipils are 
iployed both in hospitals and private families. 
The rules of admission are very similar in all schools. The 
ininuro age ranges from twenty to twenty*five, the maximum 
from thirty-five to forty. As a general rule, twenty-five is a 
igood age at which to enter a training school ; the constitution 
alioold be well established, the character formed', and some ex* 
perience of life gained before entering upon this difficult work. 
Oood education and character are required, and in most cases 
certificates of good health and ability for the work. 

The wages paid to pupils vary from seven dollars per month 
the first year, and twelve dollars the second year, to sixteen 
dollars per month for the highest grade of nurse, in a New 
York luMpital. The time required for study ranges from one 
to two ^ears, the last being the rule in a majority of cases. 
The Philadelphia school, which demands only one year, has an 
additional course of one year to train superintendents. 

The expense of supplying the nursing of the hospital by a 
training school, in the only case known to me, is found to be 
about the same as by the old method of hired nurses. Trained 
nurses receive good pay in comparison with that of the ordi- 
nary emplo3rments of women, ranging from ten dollars per 
wedt upward to twenty, thirty, or even forty dollars, according ' 
to the difficulty of the case. While these prices are by no 
means higher than should reward a nurse who has given years 
to preparation for her profession and who works faithfully in 
it, thejr are yet burdensome to many families. A surgeon will 
fonetim^ refuse to take a case unless he can have the skilled 
norxing that he believes essential to success, and yet the par 
of the nurse wUl take all the earnings of the father, on which 
the family rely for support 
Bo^ 00 the other haod^ the saving of expense in the number 


tlius fitred lo meet wbai comes to them in thci 
Societii-s art niso formed by women for su| 
ihi- sick poor. Siicli associations employ a n 
nurses in atiend.ince on patterns wlio are ui 
price. They work both in connection with 
independently of (hem. Usually a nunc m* 
day to her patient, doing for her whatever 
household cannot do, but ihe ii always reqi 
lome of the family, if possible, in the simple 
of the siclc. She also uses her opportunity to i 
rules of hygiene and sanitary care on all the 
this way it is hoped that much may be done fc 
of disease as well at its cure. 

The " Visiting Nurse Society, of Philadelj^ 
for a good model of such associations.* 

While it has been impossible in limited fpai 
ticc to all the good work nojr doing in the tr 
there are yet two directions, of which I wish to 

* In New Yorfc diy the Woman** Bnnch of the N«i 
Mndt out live nunei amonfc the poor. These nurae* 
coune at training at some hoipiul. Thii minion di 
society in America to have introduced trained nunc* in i 

The Department of United Relief Works ot the Sodet 
or([aniied in 1B79, (urnishct nurses to Demilt sod N«w 
During; Ihe year 183^1889 these nunc* paid on anav 
*bout 700 patients, including all diieases, even of the SM 


it should be extended. It is desirable that women should be 
especially trained for the care of insane patients, who need 
peculiar care both in institutions and in private life. The ex* 
ratchfulness and the power of control required for this 
seem to demand a special training, which would be 
^mnccessary or eren prejudicial in ordinary nursing. This 
s^ject is already engaging the attention of those having the 
of the insane, and I doubt not they will find means to 
out their ideas. 
Again, I believe that nursing would afford a wide field of 
Ruefulness for the colored women of our Southern States. 
^Thetr Qualities of patience, sweetness, and affection are well 
.adapted to this profession, and when to these is added the 
intellectual education which is now within the reach of many 
of them, there is no reason why, with good training, they should 
iiot do excellent service. Many of the best nurses in our 
Southern cities are of this class. The University of Atlanta, 
GsL, has made some attempt to introduce nursing into its practi- 
cml education, and I hope other experiments wilt soon be made. 
■^ So far as I know the New England Hospital is the only one 
that admits colored pupils to its training school. . Here this 
measure has been entirely successful, and no disagreeable feel- 
ing has arisen on the part of patients or any one else. The 
colored students have maintained a fair average in their stand* 
ing, and some have been superior. A good education is the 
most important prerequisite to the entrance of colored women 
into this field. 

While my fruitful theme is by no means exhausted, I wish 
in conclusion to add one thought, viz., that however decidedly 
these hospitals of which I have spoken owe their existence to 
women, either as originating or endowing them, in every case 
within my knowledge there is a union of both sexes in the man- 
agement of the institution. The arrangements are very vari- 
ous ; in some cases the managers are all women and the phy- 
sicians are men ; in others all the physicians but the consulting* 
staff are women, while the board of management is divided 
between the sexes ; in others we find the women have full 
charge, with an advisory board of men. This proves that 
women have been more anxious to secure good management 
than to establish their own claims. It is an earnest of future 
improvement when both sexes shall work together in all de|»art- 
meats of life, each bringing her or his peculiar talents to the 
work, either as individuals or as representing a part of the 




When Elizabeth Fry, in 1S15, rapped at the prison d( 
England, she not only summoned the turnkey, but SOUl 
call to women in other lands to enter upon a most ( 
like mission. The reports of her work in Great Britain 1 
the Continent, published at intervals during several lucc 
years, extracts of which found their way into American [ 
not only awakened admiration for the fearless courage 
fesled in the self-denying efforts, but marvel at what si 
able to accomplish, and, from the reading, a few women 
land arose 10 ask the question, " Lord, what will TMm 
mctodo?" and in the answer found new light upon the 
" I was in prison and ye visited me." 

There was no talk about " going to work," but, fron 
knees, two or three women in New York, as eariy as 
began in the quietest manner possible to visit the distric 
ups and prisons, making careful inquiries concemiof 
places and their inmates, thus gathering up food for th 
which sent them back to their prayers with something ( 
lo ask for. 

In 1834 these women, with a few others, organised 
New York Moral Reform Society," with Margaret Pi 
their first missionary, and liiey made systematic prison 
lion a part of their regular work. From their own r 
" Our Golden Jubilee, 1834 — 1884," we quote : " Our 
were at that time in a sadly demoralized condition,— 
missionaries went through these public institutions, ga 
facts relative to the spiritual condition of the inmat< 
law an urgent necessity of reform and gave themselves 
till it was accomplished." To their memorials, petitio 
perional appeals, the State Legislature at length re«[ 


«nd several reforms were inaugurated, among ("hem better 
arrangements for separation of the sexes and the placing of 
natrons over the female departments. At this time Mrs. 
Dora Foster was given charge of women at the Tombs, then 
used as a police district lock-up, and she proved of such excep- 
tionable character and qualifications as to continue in favor 
and in office more than forty years. A great change in the 
flBoral atmosphere of the place was effected by her discreet 
maaagemeoty and many and sore evils were prevented. 


Reports of the work were taken to other cities, and in 1839 
the society became national in name, with vice- presidents in 
•eventeen different States^ and in the next few years, particu- 
lariv io New York, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, 
and Connecticut, we find the women prominent in anti-slavery 
and other reforms, giving special thought and personal efforts, 
toward the amelioration of the condition of persons confined 
in our various institutions. Thus quietly was the leaven work- 
ing in many places, hindered, hampered, and limited by preju- 
dice against woman's work, and the fear of their seeing too 
niach, if once admitted and allowed the privilege of inspection. 

It it recorded, that on one of the ladies being denied the 
opportunity which she sought of seeing and ministering to a 
uoLfemtdt prisoner, while a minister was allowed to go in and 
on hu asking the reason of it, " Why," said the official, ^ it 
wouldn't bave done, she's too sharp ; ski wouldn't have come 
in here and just prayed and gone away about her business as 
jott have ; $Ud wanted U know tki caust "; and another time 
wben those in authority had been solicited by a public-spirited 
gentleman to grant permiuion for women to go in and out 
these places on their errands of mercy, they explained their 
refosal by saying, ** That until the State was ready to expend 
monev enough for several changes, it would only be inviting 
trouble to have such women spying round and seeing every* 
thing, as they were sure to do." 


On November aj, 1844, a company of gentlemen gathered in 
a private parlor in New York City '^ to take into consideration 
the destitute condition of discharged convicu " ; then a circu- 
lar was issued, calling for a public meeting on December 6, at 
iriiich time the following resolution, among others, was offered 
by Isaac T. Hopper : ^ Rtsdvid^ That in the foundation of 


such a society (the New York Prison Association), it would 
be proper to have a female departmeat to be especially regud* 
(ul of the interests and welfare of prisoners of that sex." 

Public meetings were held, and in June, 1845, a hoose was 
taken, two matrons placed in charge, and a committee of ladici 
organized to superinleDd and control its operations. A scwiof 
department and school were esublished, and «t « later day a 

In 1854 the women dissolved all connection with the Ne« 
York Prison Association, and were incorporated as "The 
Women's Prison Association and Home." Up to this time tlie 
Home had averaged about 150 inmates per year. We quote 
. from one of their reports : " We will not dwell upon the maoy 

^ears of up-hill work through every possible discouragement 
ut proceed at once to the results of a pre-determined en- 
deavor to take by the hand the unfortunate of our sex and 
lead them to a better life, where by patient industry they might 
earn an honest livelihood." 

In 1859 the association adopted as a distinctive name for its 
house department that of " The Isaac T. Hopper HomeL" The 
work has gone steadily on, the women of the association bavuiB 
been to the front in every effort for prevention of crime, ana 
reform of the criminal girls and women, and in their forty- 
fourth annual report, we find, "During the year 119 women 
have been sent to service in families in the State, and 31 out of 
the State ; 4 were returned to friends." Only those who can 
read between the lines can understand all that these items 
mean. To those who talk glibly about " abandoned women " 
and the " utter hopelessness of trying to save them," the sub- 
joined lines from the same report might seem "mere senti- 
ment," but to those with clearer vision it is the secret of their 
success. " We believe that woman, in her deepest degradation, 
holds something sacred, something undeliled; and, like the 
diamond in the dark, retains some quenchless gleams of the 
celestial light." 

The prison ' committee, through its chairman, gave in 1887 
an exhaustive report upon the condition of prisons and station 
houses, and in i883, through their prison visitor, a female M.D., 
a careful report, both of which contain items which are strange 
reading for nineteenth century civilization and progress 

In the autumn of 1844, Margaret Fuller Ossoli accepteda 
position on the New York Tribune, and became an innute of 


the Greeley mansion. The prison on Blackwell's liland was on 
the opposite side of the river, al a disunce easily reached by 
boat, and Sing Sing was not far off. Margaret was to ^ write 
up *' these pUce% and gladly took the first opportunity to visit 
them. Her biographer says : *' She had consorted hitherto 
with the iUU of her sex, she now made acquaintance with the 
outcasts to whom the elements of womanhood are scarcely rec- 
o^isable. For both she had one gospel, that of high hope and 
divine love. She seemed to have found herself as much at 
home in the office of encouraging the fallen as she had been, 
when it was her duty to arouse the best spirit in women sheltered 
from the knowledge and experience of evil by every favoring 
circumstance. ** She herself said of a meeting where she ad- 
dressed the female prisoners, '* All passed, indeed, as in one of 
my Boston classes. This was after Mrs. Famum had been 
appointed matron, a woman of uncommon character and ability, 
and the women already showed the results of her intelligent 
and kindly treatment Through the letters published in the 
Tribune^ on ** Prison Discipline," ''Appeal for an Asylum for 
Discharged Female Prisoners," ''Capital Punishment," and 
others, public attention and interest were awakened, and Mr. 
Greeley says, " I doubt that our various reformatory institu- 
tions had ever before received such wise and discnminating 
commendation to the favor of the rich as they did from Mar- 
garet's pen during her connection with us.** 

Dorothea Dix, of blessed memory, whose specialty seemed 
the caring for the insane, gave much thought and gracious min- 
istry to those in bonds ; and many were indebted to her per* 
•onal efforu in their behalf, both while in prison and in the 
trying time of their release. She was also fearless in lifting up 
her voice against abuses, and in favor of needed reforms. She 
was so persistent in reiterating her protests, that attention had 
to be given, and her demands secured changes which are thank- 
fully remembered. 

In Rhode Island, as early as 1830, a young and gifted woman, 
whose heart had been stirred by accounts given by her father, 
a prominent lawyer, began to visit the institutions of the State ; 
and through a long and eventful life has continued her minis- 
tratioos. Even now, in her ninety-first year, she has not en- 
tirely laid down her work. By voice and pen she has appealed 
stoutly against wrongs and abuses, and while she has been the 
spiritual mother of numberless men and women, she has not 
neglected the financial aid so important to those who emerge 
frrai prison life. She was the originator of the ** Rhode Island 

mmmmmmmm w i n i 


Prisoners* Aid Association/' and the founder of the ** Tempo- a 
rary Industrial Home " for released female prisoners, which was 
opened in 1880, and bears her name, '^ The Sophia Little Home.' 

Among the special workers should be named Miss Liadi 
Gilbert of New York, who has devoted much time to prisoi 
work, and in fifteen years has procured employment for ofcr 
six thousand ex-convicts ; six hundred of the better class of 
these she has by her own individual aid established in business 
in a small way, and in speaking of the results of her ventBres 
in thus assisting them, she says, *' I am happy to state that doc 
ten per cent, of the number thus aided have turned out unsads> 
factorily." She has also presented twenty-two libraries 10 
prisons in six different States, and among other projects whidi 
she hopes to accomplish is the establishing of a national indus- 
trial home for ex-convicts, where various branches of labor can 
be taught and the inmates put in the way of becoming self- 
supporting. When a little girl of only eight or nine years, she 
used to visit the prison nearest her home and take some little 
gift, if only a few flowers, to cheer the prisoners, who learned 
to look upon her visits to their dark abode as they would a 
stray sunbeam from heaven. 

Elizabeth Comstock, of Michigan, upon whose head in chiM- 
hood Elizabeth Fry placed her hand as she said the kindly 
words, '* Remember what I tell thee, dear Elizabeth ; to be 
Christ's messenger to those' who know him not, that is the 
happiest life," has so well carried out her avowed purpose, 
" To bear our Father's message of love and mercy to the larg- 
est household on earth, the household of affliction,*' that in 
thirty years, mid duties urgent and varied, she has visited over 
120,000 prisoners, awakening hope and giving direction to 
many lives. 

A long list of other names might be added, but our space is 
otherwise needed. 


In the year of 1873 startling revelations concerning immo- 
ralities connected with the Indiana Southern Prison led to the 
immediate occupancy of the buildings in Indianapolis, which 
had been under way for two years and which were to be known 
as " The Reformatory Prison for Women and Girls." The in- 
stitution was officered entirely by women, with Mrs. Sarah J. ^ 
Smith, one of its chief founders, for Superintendent. The proj- 
ect was looked upon as a doubtful experiment, and the speedy 
relinquishment of the idea prophesied. The board of managers 


ted at first of three gentlemen and two bdr vititon. In 
iovemor Williams approved an act of the Legislature bjr 
the general supervision and government were vested in a 
of women managers. This was, at that time, and we be- 
till is, the only governmental prison known, either in the 
1 States or in Europe, under the entire management of 

safe transfer of the women prisoners, seventeen in number, 
the charge of warden, chaplain, and matron of the Jeffer- 
e prison, was considered a great event, *' as two were 
'ous and others below hope.** The present Superintend 
lys: ** We have no weapons of defense, not a gun or pistol 
the premises. Kind words and gentleneu of manner are 
sure to win. We have eleven lady officers, women of re- 
nt and Christian character, lending every thought to the 
fig of their sex. The financial showing in the seventeenth 
report reflects great credit upon the management, while 
rge percentage claimed as ** permanently reformed," 
to the thoroughness of work and wisdom of methods. 
870 a number of influential ladies of Eastern Massachu- 
among whom was Mrs. E. C. Johnson, the present 
ntendent of the rcformatorv — petitioned the Legislature 
;parate institution for the reformation of female prisoners, 
iras not until the fall of 1874 that ground was broken at 
»m for the erection of the buildings. In September, 
hese were occupied, and the work has been eminently 
(ful from the start. The system of grading adopted in 
as proved very satisfactory, and over two hundred and 
inmates, ranging from fifteen toseventy-five years of age, 
it an incentive to order and decorum. The aim is to pre- 
lem, if found trustworthy, to do good work as servants, 
is is so far a success that the denund is greater than the 


one familiar with the old regime in connection with 

prisoners but would hail with thankfulness the improve- 

shown under the present administration. Said an 

1 critic after a visit : *' I remarked, * These people are 

of a hopeless type '; the reply came quickly, * Il0j^iiu is 

ermitted word here, we hope for all.* I came away glad to 

«n such an experiment, hopeful for its success, and confi- 

at women had undertaken for women a beneficent work.** 

len in other States are agitating the question of separate 

for women, and in several feel assured of succeM in the 




I i— — ■^iii^ 







In 1 887 at Hudson, N. Y.» The House of Refuge for Womea 
was opened, and an efficient lady superintendent placed m 
charge. The results reached, even at this short period, bive 
been encouraging in the highest degree, mnd emphasize tbe 
wisdom of the arrangements, which are largely due to the po^ 
sistent efforts of women in philanthropic circles. We quote 
from report of ^Standing Committee on Reformatories" of 
which Josephine Shaw Lowell is a member : ** To any who 
have visited even once one of the county jails in this States and 
know the condition of young women in theoa, kept in idlenea^ 
in the midst of degraded companions, under the charge of 
male keepers, frequently not out of sound, sometimes not OBt 
of sight of the male prisoners, nothing can be more affectiof 
than to see the young women in the House of Refuge, neatly 
dressed, always occupied, and constantly under the care of 
refined and conscientious women/' 


In New York, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Wisconsia i^ 
there are women on the State Board of Charities.* In Peon- 
sylvania, the board appoints women visitors to public instito- 
tions, and in Rhode Island the Governor appoints a board of 
women visitors to all institutions caring for women and girls. 
Massachusetts stands alone in the honor of having women on 
" Boards of Commissioners- of Prisons." This was inaugurated 
in 1880, and their gracious womanly influence is felt in all the 
institutions of the State. 

In some other States women are coming to be recognized 
factors in these lines of work, and are cordially invited to fill 
places of trust. The Journal of Prison Discipline and PAiUtt 
' thropy^ published by the Pennsylvania Prison Association, in its 
issue of 1886 says: '*This society has profited largely by the 
recent admission of competent women into the acting committee. 
Their suggestions have proved of marked advantage, and with 
the time, intelligence, and high moral force they have given to 
the work, both in and out of the prison, there has been a g»in 
which promises incalculable good." 


This department is in the eleventh year of organized work, 
which, under the same Superintendent, Mrs. S. H. Barney, of 

■^ * See chapter on Charity.— Ed. 





Providence, hat steadily bcreased until now ber parish is the 
Atire country. The plan of national, State, and local superin- 
indents insures system and supervision all along the lines, and 
Mings out annualljr the general summary of work attempted 
iiftd work accomplished. 

In the spirit of the department's motto, '' N^ willing thai 
ranr tkoM Hrisk** the investigations have extended to State 
Misoas, penitentiaries, convict camps, city prisons and jails, 
louses of correction or refuge, police stations and lock-ups, and 
cforaatories for adults and juveniles. 

In many of these places were found a brutality and neglect 
H the common decencies of life which were disgraceful beyond 
lescription. Criminads of all grades herded toeether irre- 
spective of age, sex, or degrees in vice. Youths of both sexes 
confined with those hardened in crime, while awaiting trial, 
>ccame schooled in vice. Thousands, who for some first and 
aivial offense were lodged in the calaboose or the county jail, 
niposed to the contaminating influences of indiscriminate com« 
jianionship, became hardened, and lost all self-respect as they 
fielded, day by day, to this mind- poisoning, moral miasma. 

The first visits of the women to many of these places, where 
they went unheralded, were unwelcome, and they were some- 
times repulsed by officials with, ** We don't 'low any women 
roond here ; leastwise, only them that's sentenced." Entrance 
It last secured, it would have been a picture worthy of some 
master hand when these women stepped, pale-faced but brave- 
bearted, into those miserable, crowded corridors. The lewd 
snd profane conversation was hushed, but it could bt filt^ as 
plainly as could be seen the vilest of obscene prints and the 
oaost dangerous kinds of literature. 

Nothing was more disheartening than the condition of w^mtm 
in these places. Having become criminals, they were generally 
deemed hopeless, and, on being released, it was expected they 
would drift back again after a longer or shorter period. 

The call to the work gained emphasis as it was realized how 
little this age of boasted civilization and philanthropy had done 
for unfortunate and degraded women. Arrested by men, given 
ioto the hands of men to be searched and cared for, tried by 
B»eo, sentenced by men, and committed to our various institu- 
tioDS for months and even years, where only men officials had 
access to them, and where, m sickness or direst need, no wom- 
anly help or visitation was expected or allowed. 

In one of the New York cities, in a jail, eleven women were 
Coaad to be in the care of men, and the keys of ** the wo* 


menus' quarters " in the hands of one of the nuiU camncts. The 
women, with the intent of being ready for their release, which 
was near, had removed most of their clothing ^* for the wash," 
and were in a semi-nude condition. 

A visitor to a county jail in Pennsylvania, writes: ^The 
scene that met our gaze when we entered the jail was inde- 
scribable. The prisoners — twenty-six men and two women— 
were allowed to associate in the open space between the vesti- 
bule and the cells. In appearance, they might have been 1 
gang of bandits in a cave. The men were in groups, playing 
cards on low boxes on the floor. The jail was deficient in ven- 
tilation, also in light and cleanliness.*' 

In a New England jail two boys were found under fourteen 
years of age. 1 he months which would elapse before their 
trial would be ample time to complete their crime education 
under the tutelage thus provided for them. Similar sights 
may be seen in many of the prisons and jails of our land, 
proving conclusively the need of womanly forethought in 
these matters, which from a merely economical standpoint 
need prompt attention. The better care of our juvenile 
offenders cannot be deferred without irreparable loss, for in a 
few years we shall have missed our chance to save them, so 
they will then be found in the ranks of confirmed criminals. 
Perhaps no work of the department will prove more fruitful 
in results than the effort to secure Matrons for Jhe Police Sla*^ 
tions. The movement began in 1877 and has been adopted in 
one or more cities in twenty States, while in Massachusetts, New 
York, and Pennsylvania all cities over a given number of. 
inhabitants are required by law to provide matrons to care for 
arrested women. We quote from an article furnished the 
International Review in 1888 by the present writer : 


Shall we have police matrons ? seems no longer an open 

question. With the reform inaugurated in twenty cities, and 

under advisement in as many more, the idea may be said to be 

established. How wide is to be the influence of such an officer, 

and how effective her work, depend upon the place and the 

woman. "The place "should be central, with requisite ac- 

! commodations for the comfort and convenience of the matron, 

i in order that she may economize her time and strength. 

OfHcial recognition of her work and its importance, with ready 

p co-operation in various ways, will necessarily have much to do 

j with its success ; and these have sometimes been won under 



rery trying circumsunces. Other points, more or less essen- 
ial, will occur to those interested, for every conceivable objec- 
ion and obstacle will be presented, emphasized, and duly 
iiagnified while the effort is being made to secure a place. 

That secured, then comes the question, " Where is the 
vooun to fill it ? " There will be applicants enough, and for 
hem ** friends at court ** to push their claims, but ^ the right 
f Oman " will have to be sought ; and it is better to wait for 
ler, than to inaugurate the movement under too great disad* 
rmotages. A middle-aged woman, scrupulously clean in person 
ind dress, with a face to commend her and manner to compel 
respect ; quiet, calm, observant, with faith in God, and hope 
or humanity ; a woman fertile in resources, patient and 
jmpathetic She could hardly be all this without possessing 
\ generous endowment of '*good common sense," and she 
annot possibly do the work required unless that is sanctified. 
X will be seen at once that ^ the place " is indeed, in a very 
eml sense, '' missionary ground," and that *^ the woman " must 
iccessarily have these qualifications and spirit in order to 
ill it and meet the demands of the time. Competent and con* 
cientious, the influence of such a woman, in such a position, 
an hardly be overestimated. Her duties, serious and respon- 
ible, but legitimate to the office, will naturally develop as 
he is given opportunity to work out the problem, " What can 
le done for women in police stations?" under methods de« 
aanded by Christian civilisation. 

Of course, she will be *' on call," and every woman brought 
o the station will be committed at once into her care, and 
rrery duty connected with search, locking-up, and necessary 
ittendance, will be performed by her. The cells for women 
entirely separate from the men) will be in her charge, and she 
rill be accountable for them and their occupants. Just what 
he will need to do in every case, no one could possibly outline. 

(aid the chief of police in : *' I wish you to state definitely 

Jl the duties of a police woman." For answer, I said : " Will 
fOCi first describe to me the duties of a policeman .> " ** Im- 
loasible,** was the reply ; " he must be ready for everything." 
fast so, within the limiutions of her office, must the matron be 
leady for everything. 

Women brought to stations are not all drunk, or even bad. 
Sirls or women suddenly set adrift ; one who has lost her train 
uA is penniless ; or who finds herself deserted ; or who, by 
reason of sudden illness, fainting, or temporary aberration, 
aumoc give I i . and residence ; the partially insane ; 

.'.V :i<JLi w*.«" TSE CSTMiyAL. 


^wt—y.tL 5- J.irs: r^rscrs irresicd on suspicion (and ::^ 
C-J •■/ !-."- .-rrct". : 'jZ'Z,".'^ ^--^ fcijcers up tor uiscrccr.j 
;.---j: .: :«i*:i-s^ :;_-J .r. c;-ci:lcr.ible co=:paay, — allU^ese 

- ; -. ; :.■ :•; :::-^": :: :'e house, a place whici 
.frj-i :;::ft>:Ji: :^ -wi;..t ur.r.: :cr & decent woxail' 
V ^si :.-::>:i\i ir:=:s- i:t :::e:: irrespczsfble for the use 
:.: -^ ji:i.i:>5 .*: I-?.: j^irscz. ir.d regardless of ihc co-- 
■ : r>: -iv? j: ^^jjzjt. T-cr clcihir.^ is often Ci- 

- M",:;- --.- -::ii:;-i^. inc ihey ire liable to be i: 
« . . \^ . . ■■ ...A. • . — . .«• ^..c^.A^ce IS conn, i-s 
~.'i'7.~ >' .' . ^ r>£ ?rc~.^^^ T.i^ 5uCm as vczazi*' 
. .-«.'. ^•«^^^^ «. . »^' Sw.^^.** ai»CwZii>aziv ner c.iArrc 

--* __.,.•« ;*' •*— • T^ '■'^ "•*• —■••.• •"^'^- c^ n* s*"- 

; - -^i :.:m: •ii.'L :. : ; .•:. r^ crurL There will be chUcre: 

^.>. .. ,>• . •?.. ^-. M ......Jh^.. a^ M« w •.• W k«a^ 1 I ii^ 1*1 T -^ 

.... ..-.^ t* -.f«- ^- — Ja"- — •— •" •*,= •■- M ■ "- A**" • -» •"-* 

• _- _.-?. ■* a.w ?*^ ^P. • ■■ . .. ^ . •« ■ ^ ^ ^ ^ w ----1 _ aba ••« 

. --J -, - --.— ..J. .-.- •_-..^«— " ■ ' £-* T •" "^ • <^ •■*»ir#"* 

• .« •- ^ ..« . « «•— _. ^..•..^.•^•^. a^.. ^a a&««»A »«« _«.ta* W«» 

■ • • ■ • - . . • 

• .~ ...... -7 ^ • '•JL.'....w^«. ^....^ ■ aaa^a^ ■ ^ ^ . «« a,C Wa 

:;■;-:•;-- N ; : • >: — i: :z-^ 'z< ruiie i idee- us br -mz^tL 

._ ^•. ^« ka. v^.a..— — .»- _. Am aao-a^aa W* »«.W •«?• '% ^a Av&a.* 

a . . _ • a .. ^ ^«a^r a. -_^« A « ?■ » >. ^, waaa •a.i^a « a^ •« a ■ W'k^^La* 

. _.- . ... J.. J.. J.. J. a • «^ a C"^ 2 •-«.■— ^ a- «— •* 

'* • * 

. r.i^c ^..o 

• a 

■: >•; - 

i: : - l: l .- : , . ■■ : > : 5 :<c - :.LS*Sa n .. direud. c: ccurse. 

b -. « a^a . a . te «. 
—a • ■ i a J 

^-« a.^ ..^..a A«tf a^aa^^M 9 a., « ^.^^ 

" . J^a a « ■ « . « .^^ ... ^ ■ 

...... a-j.ji . --ji-. 

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, .i S^ at. ■ a. a.- -a 5>. . - . » . . a ai . ...a Sa • a - . _ a S a a^* S • . C a J ?&- 

. .. .. .-*J-- -■" •-*--i- - i""-"" ■" • a« - -- . -•*-*,-• ^fc^J . ■ '*,» 

d« a a. « ta .^ ^» a..» ...^a .._a&.a«aa «a a-ate ^^t aaa aba W^^W^A a^ - .'Z 

$UC^«£SlS ^* •ao^ ^aa^rf t teaaa « a* a ^^ . a a SC «>^ k <. a d^ aaaC C aaC C^dC mO ^a«a ^^^ 


place. Difficult as it may seem to secure one who combines 
these qualifications, yet it will doubtless prove, as in many 
another important position where much is demanded, that the 
best available person is selected who, under the emergency, 
develops unexpected fitness, and who in time comes to compel 
i4>proval and indorsement even from those who hesitated in 
oommitting to her this trust 

lo every city where the appointment of a police matron is 
secured, there should be a committee from the Woman's 
Christian Temperance Union, upon whom the matron can relv 
for such help as she will assuredly need, and an ^ Open Door * 
or ^ Temporary Refuge " will prove an absolute necessity 
if much rescue work, which was the primary thought in the 
leform, is to be undertaken. 

In time, there will be womanly supervision in the transport 
tation of women to the various institutions to which they are 
consigned ; and the police matron will hasten the day, by her 
womanly forethought, for the women passing from her care, 
besides strengthening her influence over them. Indeed, thi 
frtuiui of the police matron will often prevent carelessness 
CO many points, and deliberate wrong in others. Ten years 
a^ the movement was sneered at ; ten years hence no city 
will be without one or more such officers. 

All along the lines of the National Department advanced 
plans are yearly sent forth, and every Sute and Territory made 
acme attempt to carry them out .During the last year hun- 
dreds of services have been held in hitherto neglected places. 
These were of a varied natur^ preaching, prayer and confer- 
ence meetings, Bible classes,' Sunday schools, literary and 
mnsical entertainments ; in some of which voung people and 
children assisted. Said the keeper of one of the most desolate 
places : ** It's funny to see how the men try to clean up for the 
women's meetings." 

One of the convicts told an officer, ** I can stand the chap*. 
latns preaching, but those women, with their tearful pleading, 
break me all up ; home and mother seem realities again." 

Tlie Prison Flower Mission, cared for and directed by Jen- 
txic Carsuday, from her sick room in Louisville, Ky., has 
proved a blessed ministry to hundreds, and an opening wedge 
For the gospel message of hope and help. 

Great numbers of bibles, testaments, helps for bible study, 
prayer, hymn, school, and library books have been supplied, 
^od millions of pages of gospel and temperance leaflets and 
l^ ap er s distribttted, thus displacing dime novels and cards. 


Book-cases, wall-rolls, illuminated mottoes^ and pledge cardi 
have been furnished, with Christmas boxes and Easter dkt- 
ings by the thousands. Organs have been given, and othn 
loaned for chapel services. 

Petitions for needed reforms have been widely circulated, 
co-operation with other organisations gladly given, and icoiei 
of articles furnished the press, all of which have helped to 
arouse to action those not identified with the W. C T. 
Union, and who perhaps had larger influence in certain dire& 

Letter writing, to and for the inmates, has proved helpM. 
Visiting the friends of prisoners, giving sympathy, advice, sod 
aid, have proved a practical illustration of the words, ^ Ben 
ye one another's burdens, and so fulfill the law of Christ" 

Several States have inaugurated the ** Prison Gate Mission,' 
which is an important branch, and aims to have its missionaries 
meet the prisoners on their release, with Aelp and kope^ in tlie 
most practical ways. ^^ Temporary Homes'* and '^Opeo- 
Doors " are offering shelter and work, and thousands of Uves 
redeemed attest the genuineness of these varied efforts pot 
forth in quietness but with great faith. 

Many of the State superintendents of this department have 
given years of untiring labor, often furnishing their own sap- 
plies at great personal sacrifice. Brave,^ true-hearted, tod 
practical, they have disarmed criticism, walked unharmed in 
dangerous places ; never dropping into sentiment or refusing 
attention to established rules, they have won recognition from 
all right-minded officials and citizens. 


Thus, glancing backward, and passing 'in hasty review what 
has been attempted and accomplished since 1830, we catch a 
»^ glimpse of what is now waiting to be done, and the call is so 

imperative, that we must express our thanksgiving for the past 
by bringing all the force of combined action to bear upon 
needed reforms in the present. We believe that woman has 
special endowments for these lines of work, and that her absence 
from them has been a source of weakness and failure. 

We must familiarize ourselves with the questions of penalogy, 
the relation of the State to its vicious and dependent classes ; 
contract labor and the lessee system with their attendant evils ; 
congregate and separate imprisonment ; prison discipline, with 
reformatory measures and institutions. 

We should demand the absolute separation of the sexes, and 


< II ^H^lip 



juvenile from older offenders ; alto mair^ns to care for women 
arrested or committed. 

Visit unannounced police stations and courts, with county 
}atlsy where women are under care of men, or " left to them- 
telyeSy** and compare their looks and manners with those in 
similar places where the right kind o^ « tron bears sway with 
i firm hand and dignified presence. m should be associ- 

itcd with men as prison inspectors, ai women physicians on 
boards to care for women ana chi Greater efforts sliould 

;»e put forth in the lines of n t r, openin|[ the way to a 
>eCttni to honesty and self*sup n ; oui double diligence should 
le given to nrnmng M/ t^ / 4 of crimi^ thus proving 

NUBdvcs wise citiseos in th« u of the word. 




The work of women for the Indians within onr national 
limits has been important and of many kinds. It would require 
much more than the space of a single volume at all fitly to 
describe the labor, self-sacHfice, and heroism of women in con- 
nection with the various missionary organizations in behalf of 
the red man. Some of the stories of such work read like heroic 
romance, are worthy to be recorded in an epic, and glow with 
delineations that reveal exalted unselfishness,* divine self- 
devotement, and sometimes a success that seems a fitting crown 
for such labor, albeit the crown, as so often to high souls in 
any vocation, comes after' (he martyrdom. t In the East, id 
the Southwest, and in the Northwest thrilling annals might be 
gathered from two centuries, oftenest of those unknown to 
fame and without even public recognition, who have laid down 
life in work for the Christianization of Indians, and of some 
, women who as overworked secretaries or other officials have no 

i less laid down life in labor to sustain such missionaries. But 

this is a realm for the biographer and for the historiaa of 
Christian missions, and must not be entered upon or even 
gleaned from in a sketch so limited as the present one must be. 
In the educational work of various types done for the native 
Indians, noble women have been engaged, and this is notably 
true of the Hampton, Virginia, and Carlisle, Pennsylvania, 
Indian schools, where gifted women of high culture have 
devoted some of their best years to the elevation of the red 
race. It would seem invidious to name a few where laany 

* S«e the story of Mn. McFartund't work, in " Aluka." bj Rev. Shcldoa 
JackMQ. D.D. 
t See " Mary wd ]," by Rev. Dr. Stephen R. RJxss. 


have wrooght to well, and this department of labor, like that ol 
missionary effort, should be chronicled elsewhere. 

A few women have made philological, ethnographic, and 
archseological studies among North American Indians and have 
added the results to the aggregate of scientific knowledge, do* 
ing also more or less to preserve Indian records and material 
objects of value connected therewith, thus increasing the sum 
of human interest in the red man, and, hj the same, his self- 
jespcct and therefore his elevation and progress. But the 
vequest for this paper was for one regarding the late and 
Heneral philanthropic work of women m behalf of Indians 
vmiher than for one giving the data referred to above, and which 
4are leu familiar to the writer. 

The name of Helen Hunt Jackson deservedly stands first in 
the literary world as connected with modern effort by women 
for the deliverance of our native American Indians from oppres* 
wm and injustice, as shameful as have been endured in an/ 
civilised land or by any race under the guardianship or power 
of any civilized government. The first letters and articles on 
this subject from her fascinating and popular pen were in the 
New York Tribum^ the Christian Uni^n^ and other religious 
and secular newspapers and magazines, and were the outcry of 
a just and humane soul quivering with a poet's intense feeling 
and outraged sensibility at the discovery and realization of the 
unspeakable suffering of a capable and naturally brave race in 
a position where, to put the case comprehensively, no human 
right is treated as sacred, and where greed and passion alter- 
nately rob and destroy among their victims. Her quotations, 
from government documents and of proved facts, startled 
thoughtful readers, and her appeals rang like clarions through 
the souls of those who really heard them, and with peals whose 
Yibrations have not yet ceased. Soon after she seriously took 
op the subject she visited, in Philadelphia, the officers of the 
Women's Indian Association, and expressed herself as delighted 
and still further inspired to find a group of earnest womeft 
already at work to make the facts of the Indian situation 
known, with the object of moving the people to demand of the 
government enacted justice for the wronged race. She wrote 
A Century of Dishonor,*^ a book which every patriotic and 
intelligent American should read, a condensed library on the 
Indian question and largely made up of quotations from public 
and official records, and introduced the book to the prett and 

^ Tkt yttm, sad bcit •ditte is by Robots BrollMfS, Bostoa, If si^ 

lowea. nut tne reception oi ims dook i 
- to its author, and she said, later, in letter 
tioii with the writer: " It is not read as I 
I can count upon certain thousands who n 
because il is mine; but not even all of 
book, and lliey mus/ read somciliing on 
I will write an Indian story." To ihis rei 
her poetic fire, and her genius for graphic c 
Strong statement were given, and ihc stor 
data of which were procured among the Ii 
while she was a government inspector am< 
to idyllic, classic romance, to the America] 
the humane of all civilized society. She ]> 
the story and her heart's blood out throi 
put the labor of the working years of an a 
that half>dccade of toil for a hunted race, 
at not infrequently in this world's story, th. 
and the intense compassion of a quick 
life, and another consecrated genius fell, 
broke. The massive cone of rocks, cast b; 
every State in our Union upon the loni 
which she asked for among the Indian 1 
fitly marks the resting place of her duj 
marching on," still rallying, still inspiring u 
cause she died for. The life given for oih 
Another woman worker who has wrougl 
tion and with the ability of genius for Ih 
began that vvork a year or two after " H 
inspiration, is Miss Alice C. Fletcher, 
accustomed to research she first went ami 


angton« and Sttccettfully awakening interest in 'their behalf 
among le^tlaton, she drafted a bill and had the satisfaction 
of seeing lU passa^^e, and then of allotting their lands under it 
to these Indians in 1883-S4. Nor was this all or even the 
chief part of her work. Her scientific researches since then, 
treating in monographs of Indian traditions, customs, cere* 
monies, music, and other subjects ethnographic, biological, or 
archaeological, have been original and valuable. It was during 
the period covered by this work that she brought a party of 
thirty-six young Indians to the Carlisle and Hampton Indian . 
schools, herself raiiiing $1800 with which to meet the expenses 
of other Indians who begged to join the party and seek an 
education. She persuaded General Armstrong to underuke 
at the Hampton school, the training of young Indian married 
couples, in cottages built by funds she raised for their training, 
and by the success of this experiment introduced the depart- 
ment of Indian Home Building into the Women's National 
Indian Association, of which she is an earnest member, and for 
which department she has raised in all more than two thousand 
dollars, since expended in building Indian homes, such loan- 
fonds being in various instances returned to the association 
and reloaned to other Indian beneficiaries. An exhibit of 
civilized Indian industries for the Exhibition of 1884-S5, at 
New Orleans, was also prepared by Miss Fletcher, and a 
diploma of honor was awarded her for this labor and for the 
lectures she gave upon the exhibit during the exposition. Her 
book, entitl^ ^ Indian Civilization and Education," prepared 
in answer to a Senate resolution of February aj, 18S5, under 
the direction of the Commissioner of Education, is an extended 
and valuable work, and was supplemented by her late journey 
to Alaska in behalf of Indian education there. Since that 
time she has, as a special agent of government, allotted lands 
in severalty to the Winnebagoes of Nebraska, and is at this 
date (January 1891) engaged among the Nei Perc^ of Idaho, 
having been first for such work an appointee of President 
Cleveland, July, 1887, and the only woman till recently so com- 
missoned. In addition to these greater services she has ren« 
dered nuny others, such as starting the education of the first 
Indian woman physician,^ and of several Indian students at law 
or in some course of special training ; inciting others to build 
here a chapel and there a school ; doing with unstinted energy 
and enthusiasm the great service which lay before her, and let- 

• TUs WW Smui U Flodw. a listcr of " Br%kt Eyes.' 


« ■ 


ting no chance slip to render the smaller aid. Possessed o(i 
J quick scientific perception, keen sagacity, great executive aU* 

ity, of undaunted and tenacious purp>ose, of clear judgmeat and 
1 strong mental grasp, her heroic labors have accomplished iD- 

portant and lasting results for the benefit of the Indian ract 
I But another chapter of Indian work began six months 

I before '* H. H.'* commenced earnestly to think or write od the 

I Indian question, as she herself told the writer, when a oobk 

: j , woman in Philadelphia, whose attention was just then specially 

! i called to the wrongs of the red race by items in the daily press, 

brought these facts to the notice of a small group of Christian 
workers. This was Mary L. Bonney, — later the wife of Rcr. 
t Thomas Rambaut, D.D., LL.D., — whose life had been given 

. I to educational work, who had liberally aided many Christian 

I and philanthropic enterprises, who had an important share in 

I inaugurating the Women's Union Missionary Society, and who 

! had given largely for the training of young men, both white 

and colored, for the Christian ministry. President of a mis- 
' sionary circle,* she brought to its monthly meeting, April, 

'\ 1879, facts regarding the efforts of railroad companies having 

-j roads through the Indian Territory, and of western senators 

;' and others, to press Congress to open that Territory to white 

i' settlement, and to set up there a United States territorial gov* 

J ernment, though solemn treaties with the civilized tribes bound 

i the nation never to do this without their consent. Her sense 

.1 of justice was shocked, and she felt that so gross dishonesty 

Ij must be a vast hindrance to Indian missions, as well as a great 

injury to the moral sense of our nation. The story of 
what followed is an interesting one as furnishing another, 
marked illustration of the fact that the human family is but 
one, and that when any branch of it suffers, the others, upoo 
knowledge of the fact, will rise to the rescue ; and that leaders 
and groups of workers are separately and individually moved 
4 upon in accordance with one great over-plan and its clearly 

apparent, allrincluding, redemptive design. Miss Bonney 
printed a petition to the government, and copies were distrib- 
I uted in an anniversary meeting, but from pressure of business 

i these were left unnoticed in the pews ; the missionary circle 

•j ; adjourned for the summer, and there the matter seemed to 

end. But, as Miss Bonney states in a sketch of the beginnings 

* This was The Women's Home Mission Society of the First Baptist 
Church of Philadelphia, that of the Rev. George Dana Board man. D.D., a 
^ 1 1 society organized bv the efforts of Mrs. Boardman, the gifted wife of that 

** ^ * ' distinguished preacoer and author, and largely in the interests of Indians. 

! I 






of the moTcment, ^ she presented/' a month lattfr, ^ the facts 
■he had gathered to her friend/' and ^ the two entered into 
oorenaot '* and ^ formed their plan of action." ^ Miss Bonney 
■s the senior principal of the Chestnut Street Female Semi- 
arnry of Philadelphia, one of the most excellent and widely- 
known educational institutions fur young ladies in the country, 
originated by herself twenty-nine years before, and which 
iMcame, in 1S83, the Ogonts School, had little time for de- 
smiled investigation of wrongs to Indians or to use the avails 
of soch study for arousing the public to their redreu ; but 
had the means required and the heart generously to use 
while her friend the writer, deeply moved on behalf of 
Indians by the facts of their great wrongs, investigated the 
smbject and gave herself to the work. Seven thousand 
copies of an enlarged petition,! with a leaflet appeal to 
aooompany it, were circulated during the summer in fif* 
teen States by this volunteer committee of two, and those 
whom they interested, and the result in the autumn was a 
petition roll, three hundred feet long, containing the sig- 
natures of thousands of citizens. This memorial was car- 
ried to the White House, February 14, 1880, by Miss Bon- 
ney and two ladies, whom she invited to accompany her ; Mrs. 
George Dana Boardman, who presented -the petition to Presi- 
dent Hayes, and Mrs. Marin^ J. Chase, who arranged the 
interview, and it was presented by Judge Kelly in the House 
of Representatives the aoth of that month, with the memorial 
letter written by Miss Bonney, the central thought of which 
was the binding obligation of treaties. It said, ** We would 
express that when a treaty is changed or modified the free 
consent of both parties is necessary "; and it urged faithful- 
ness in the case, ^ because we are strong and the Indians are 
weak.** Both the petition and letter were placed upon the 
records of Congress. Another petition and various leaflets 

*Sm alto tbc *' Sketch and Plain "of The ladiaa Treaty-lcecpiog and 
Frotactivv Anociatton, Jnly. iSSi. aod '*T1ie Ofidal Raoofd ** of Tka 
Nadooal ladiaa AModarton for iSSs. 

t Tht petkioa wat aa foUovt : 
7> iki FfwtUemi #/ iJU Umiitd Stain, mmd i^ Oi SttmH mmd Nmuia/ 
Rtp^idmiuiiTti * 
Wc, tht aadcnigocd aea and woota of tht United Statca. mideat ia or 
r , do BOtt rctpectfttlly bot BOtt earnestly rcqnett the Piitideot 

tht Hoaaaa of Coofma to take all aeedf al stcpa to prcreat the eacroach- 
ita of whka atalcfi opoo the Indian Territory, and to foaid the Indiaaa 
Is the eaioyt of all the righta which have beta gyaiaataad thea oa tht 


/.V CARE OF THE /.VD/A.V. r9 

■rere ;)repared and circulatc<i the r.ex£ year. Miss BocriCyi: 
r.:i: aceiinj al! ciper.scs, her gitis :o the caase during tht '.Hit years bc;^.^ uearlr S5«>, while those of ai: others — 
cr.ii &:i were a; her sol ici Lit ion, — were less than S*oo, aad 
d-rir.j '.he fo-r years amcuRtin^ to nearly S1400, v'''C.t 
; ::oni aii o:her sources were less than $3000. la Maj, 
iSas. a: her suggestion, two other ladies, Mrs. Boarduu: 
ar.c Mrs. Chase, were added by the missionary circle totht 
\v;-r.:eer ccx=:::;ec 01 two, the four being ibea appolcteJ, 
as its ~.:r.,;:es say, " a COiaiTiiuec of ways and means to ac: in 
:Kc ii.s:r:b-::on of the pctitior.s and tracts." At the tx. 
:or:r^i meeiin^ of this comsiittee, — this was :□ December. 
laSs. — its :ncsber5, and the society indorsir.g them, hari:; 
a-i;:rove« the pica of the writer that this wori should bet:- 
secidrian and national, four other ladies of di^ercni denosi- 
r.u'.icns were invited to joir. ii, and it became thencefonha:id£-,ai and i~deper.der.t. At this Arst ctieeting, at Miss 
Bonr-ey's request, Mrs. Chase was made chairman, 
the cir.ce for three months, Mrs. Boardman was elected treu- 
urcr. and the writer, secretary', reporting her work and the pu> 
::cat:ons froni May 1S79. This previous work, according ta 
the minutes of tnat date, " included the circulation of the peii- 
ticr.s of iS;g ar.d cf the present year TiSSo] ; the preparatics 
and circulation of the literature published to accompany these 
petitions ; ti^e presentation of the aims and work of the coo- 
mittee in missionary and other meetings ; at anniversaries, 
associations, and pastors' conferences, in this and other States ; 
the securing promises for two popular meetings and the pres- 
entation in them of our petition, with the general subject of 
Iniiian wrongs, and the preparing articles for the press, with 
ether writing, traveling, and visiting in aid of some or all of 
these lines oi work." 

The eight ladies of this committee were Miss Bonnej, Mrs. 

Boardman, Mrs. Chase, Miss Fanny Lea, Mrs. Mar>- C. Jones, 

Mrs. Margarctta Shcpp;:rd, Mrs. Edward Cope, and the writer. 

The second popular petition,* then already gathered from 

•This was u iaW^: 
T» 1^ StHaU and Iloiut ef RtfrtuniaHvts in Cingmt AiiemiUd- 

We, the undersigned mea and woseo ai these United States, resident in 

or near , do most respectfully, but most eamnlly pray the Hnnin of 

Cotignsi 10 la'iie all neediii; steps to prevent the encroachments of vhitt 
settlers upoo the Indian Territory, and upon all Indian resen-aiioas ; a'lO to 
keep all ireaties wiUi the Indians until they are chansed hy the mutual and 
free consent of both parties, and to guard them in the enjoyment of atf ibt 
rifbls which have beca guaranteed them upon the faith ol the nation. 


tales and sereral of the Territories of the Union, and 
ting fifty thousand citisens, was carried the next 
January, 1881, by the chairman and secreury of 
nittee to Washington, where, with the memorial letter 
I by the secretary,^ it was presented by the Honorable 
awes. United States Senator, to the Senate on the a7th 
month, and on the 31st, by the Honorable Gilbert De 
rr, to the House of Representatives, all being placed 
e records of Congress, and the proceedings, with the 
f Senator Dawes being widely published, 
rch, i88f, at the fourth meeting, Mrs. Chase resigning 
on with the committee. Miss Mary L. Bonney, *' the 
\x and most generous patron of the work, was/' as the 
state, *' unanimously elected chairman."' In June, 
ih five addional members, the committee adopted its 
ten constitution and changed its name to ** The Indian 

^MiMORiAL Lrrrta. 

aU ^md N0UU 9/ Reprtienimiivet im CsMgrets AutmkUd: 

1 and womea of tbb DAtioo herewith present their sccoixl petition 
[ooormblc Body for the faithful fulfiUineiit of treaties and other 
given by our govcmnent to the different tribes of Indians within 
L Your petitioocrs do not suggest any political poliqr to be pomcd, 
ch matters to wise statesmanship. They come with bot one 
9QYiclioo. prayer. The thought recognises the w^^rml MiirnHmt 
, as of indinduals, to keep c o mpa ct s. The conviction is that 
moral obligation should result in the fmt/Ulmuni of such obliga- 
e prayer is for such fulfillment as being ever, we beUere, taa 
iiUml muUfm, the tmest national safety. 

ctioo has kwen made by some to treaty*keeping with Indians, on 
I that the Indian tribes among us were nerer ** n a t io ns , ** and that, 
lo-called ** treaties ** with them were never rm/ treaties. Your 
, with deep feeling recall the fact that 9mr g9vemmmt has for a 
ears reooenised th«e tribes as ** nations,** in its hundreds of com- 
them caJltng the latter ** treaties,** and has, by Acts of Con^preaa, 
If faithf uUv to observe all such made in the past, though deciding 
> new treaties with Indians. Your petitioners, therefore, pray,' for 
' national honor, which demands honest dealing with all men, that 
** nation " and ** treatv " may be kept to the heart as they havn 
en made and explained to the ear. 

has kwen urged that the law of iwumnU dmmmm aotUfies that 
id requires our government to take legal jurisdiction of Indian 
Bvide the same In severalty, and to open the remainder for white 
Your petitioners are deeply impressed that for any government 
It law of easinent domain to the piopei ty of others than its own 
to ■ecrssirsif, if there be resistance, a war of conquest, — a 

opposed to the fundamental principles of this government,— and 
M^ with few tioepti on i , art not dtisens of the United Scatei» b«t 




i ' 

\ Treaty. keeping and Protective Association.*' Adding other 

representative ladies, the work of organization, as foreshadowed 
and provided for in the constitution, went forward. The asso- 
ciation was to be composed of this central executive committee 
and of consenting <* Associate Committees " in the various 
States and Territories, and the writer, thenceforth designated 
the general secretary, with a carte blanche as always in liea of 
i instructions other than those suggested by herself, begao ber 

pilgrimage beyond State limits, seeking and finding indi- 
vidual and groups of workers, with editorial and ecclesiastical 
helpers for the cause, organizing thirteen associate commit- 
tees in five different States before the year ended, — those ia 
the ten great cities of the country having the rank of Sute 
committees, — addressing meetings large and small at Chautao- 

are under their own legislative and executive authority, as in the lodia 
Territory, and this by the terms of our sales of territory to them, and tkir 
\ titles to the same. 

I Your petitioners therefore present their memorial to your honorable body. 

feelinj^ that the plea for treaty-keeping is a protest against any enactment « 

Congrress which would extend lej^al jurisdiction over territory not nodertbc 

: control of this {^[overnment, and which would do this, as for example tbc 

Oklahoma Bill proposes, contrary to explicit treaty stipulations. 
{ Finally, your petitioners would express the earnest conviction that tat 

\ nation, which has spent five hundred millions of dollars on Indian wan 

i jl^rowint;^ out of the violation of treaties, can best afford to make it to the 

? interest of the Indian tribes among us voluntarily to become dtiaens of the 

I United States, and not by the coercion of Acts of our Congress. 

{; . Our petition of last year was from fifteen States ; that of the present yetf 

i ; represents every State of the Union and several of the Territories ; and his 

I ! many more than double the* number of last year's signatures. The workcf . 

I| i circulating the petition, and accompanying pamphlets, has been done byfev 

i * persons, and chiefly by Christian women already busy in benevolent work ; 

] I yet the roll contains the names of people of all' occupations and in all raab 

\\ of society ; of great business firms and manufacturers ; of distinguished 

jl I men and officials ; of judges, governors, and ambassadors to foreign courts ; 

S J of authors and editors ; of the faculties and students of not a few of oor 

most noted collegiate and theological institutions, and of literary and art 
associations. Besides all these, the roll includes the signatures of womea't 
mission boards, Christian associations, and other benevolent societies : the 
names of pastors and bishops of the churches ; also the records of the 
indorsement of a rising vote from various church-meetings of diflfereot 
\ denominations : of meetings held specially to consider the Indian quesdoo ; 

** of minister's unions in different towns and cities, and of various other bodies. 

All these and many other evidences reveal the fact that the m^ral umti- 
ment of those classes who largely make and control public opinion already 
requires governmental faithfulness to our Indian treaties. For this your 
petitioners most earnestly and respectfully pray. 

Secretary of Indian Tnaty^Kte^ng C^muidlUu 

• •'I 


qua. Ocean Grove, and other centers, where leaders for work in 
various places were found, corresponding with these and with 
government officers regarding the interests of Indians, pub- 
lishing reports, appeals, and circulars, and closing the year 
with importunate requests for committees on editorial, 
financial, publication, and State work. At the opening 
of i8Sa, under the revised constitution, the associate commit. 
tees were reorganized by the general secretary as permanent 
auxiliaries, and new ones were added in other Sutes. The 
third annual petition,^ representing more than one hundred 
thousand citisens, was, with the memorial letter, presented to 


atUmiivet %m C^mgrtu AuewMid : 

We, tht oadcnigiicd omo and women of these United States, do most 
fopectf ally bot most earnestly pray our Preiident and your honorable body : 

I. To maintain all treaties with fndians with acnipoloiis fidelity nntil thcM 
compacts are modified or abrogated by the free and weU-coosldered content 
ol the Indian tribes who were also parties to these treaties. 

t. That since the number of Indian children within the limits of the United 
States does not probably exceed sixty thousand, or one-third the number of 
children in the pablic schools of some of oar larger dtiea ; and since treaties 
with manv tribes already bind oar government to provide a teacher for every 
tlifaty Indian children among these tribes : therefore we pray that a oombOT 
di common tchoolt, soflSdent for the edocatioo of every child of every tribe, 
may be provided apoo their reservations, and that indoatrial schoob atoo may 
be established among them 

y We pray that a title in fee-simple to at least one hundred and sixty acres 
di land asay oe granted to anv Indian within the reservation occupied bv his 
tribe, when he desires to hold land in severalty, and that said land shall be 
inalienable for twenty years. 

4. We also earnestly pray for the recognition of Indian petionalty and 
rights nnder the law. giving to Indians the protection of the law of the l>nited 
States for their persons aaid property, and holding them strictly amenable to 
these laws; also giving them increased encouragements to industry, and 
oppor tu nity to trade, and securing to them full religious liberty. 


TV iki SitmU mmd H^mse #/ Repn$tnimHini in Cfmgrtst AtsewtkkJ: 

>gain the wooMn of a national Indian asiociatioo beg leave to present to 
your honorable body the petition they have circulated and received again from 
the people of the United states. Their roll repreaents, at a low estimate, con- 
siderably nwre than a handred thousand citifens» — instead of thirteen thoo* 
amid as did their first, three years ago. — and is an earnest plealorarlghteoas, 
speedy, and permanent settlement oif the Indian question. 

are many hundreds of churches, which have adopted 
the peli^oo by a nnsnJaNios timif vote, this often having kwen taken at a • 

popular meetings have alsohere pcesented 






: ! 

■ I 



< I 


1 « 




' 1 


President Arthur, at the White House, by Mrs. Hawlcy, the 

i . devoted and lamented president of the 'Washington Auziliaty 

1 ; and wife of the Connecticut Senator; Mrs. Keifer, wife of the 

I ' Speaker of the House, and the secretary of the associatioo, 

: the chairman of the committee. This was on February si, 

I ' 1S82, and Senator Dawes introduced the petition and letter in 

the Senate on the same day, both being presented to the 

House of Representatives on the 25th, and the proceeding 

and debate on these occasions occupied several pages of the 

Congressional /Record. The discussion of Senators, hotly ex- 

! pressing on the one hand Western impatience with IndiariS, 

I and antagonism to Eastern sympathy, and on the other hand 

j the moral sense of Christian men and women of many Sutes, 

! was closed by Senator Dawes in a brilliant speech of tbrillio; 

— -* • a "* 

their pica, similarly expressed ; while the roll contaias names of membcnof 
' Icj^islativc bodies, of {fovernors, judges, and lawyers ; names of bishops aad 

of many hundreds of the clerj^- — ^among;the latter the entire ministry of thne 
denominations in the city of Philadelphia and numbering' nearly three hundred; 
names of the professors and students of theological seminaries like thoie at 
^lartford, Cambridge, Rochester, and Upland ; colleges and uniTersiticslilK 
Vale, Ilar\'ard, lirown. Cornell, Rochester, Washington, and Lee ; naiscsof 
editors of leading pcrio<Ucals ; the boards of hundreds of missionary and other 
benevolent societies, not a few of these being national ones ; with names d 
art. literary, and social clubs. Besides all these, the roll contains the sigtutoits 
of hundreds of business and manufacturing Arms, who control capital to the 
- amount of many millions of dollars, and 'who employ many thousand opera- 

tives — all showing that not only has there been a rapid growth of sentimest 
among the religious and intellectual leaders of the community, demaadio; 
! legislation which shall end oppression of Indians and secure to th<in foil 

opportunity for industrial, mental, and religious development, but that the 
commerical interests of our land also are fast coming to demand a just and 
speedy settlement of the Indian question. 

Permit an expression from the association who to-day present to year 
honorable body their third annual p>ctition, — an association having sixteen 
State committees and one in each of the larger cities, with helpers in eveiy 
State, all these committees being composed of patriotic Christian women ; 
permit these to say that into their cars and hearts comes the cry of suffering, 
undefended, ever-cndangercd. Indian women and children, and that this cry 
is our appeal to you to secure for them legal protection ; that the plea of In* 
dian women for the sacred shield of law is the plea of the sisters, wives, and 
mothers of this nation for them, the plea of all womanhood, indeed, on their 
behalf to you as legislators and as men. Permit us also to say, that in labor- 
ing by ever}' means in our power to fill our land with a knowledge of the 
present condition of Indians, and of our national obligations to toem, vt 
most deeply feel, that while justice demands the recognition of Indian pe^ 
• sonalty before the law. thus most surely and simply, it seems to ns, secor- 

I ing to Indians protection and fostering care, we yet feel that legislation 

{ securing this recognition will be an honor to the present Congress and to our 

1 beloved country. For this legislation we most earnestly and respectfully pray. 


eloqoence, giving telling facts of outrages upon Indians by the 
Government and white settlers, and the speech was received 
with prolonged applause. Later, the ladies of the committee 
were mtroduced to the speakers in the Marble Room, and the 
subject was there continued in an animated conversation rep- 
resenting both sets of speakers. Enthusiastic popular meet* 
ings in various cities were next secured, and the organization, 
already of national proportions, received many testimonies to 
and proofs of its |x>wer, and that it had really influenced 
legislation. Before the close of the year the name of the 
society was changed to ^ The National Indian Association/' 
and its intention soon to begin eduoational and missionary 
work among unprovided Indian tribes was announced. 

At the end of 18S3 the word ^ Women's" was introduced 
into the name of the association in recognition of and compli- 
ment to the new *' Indian Rights Association " of gentlemen, 
the amended constitution, substantially as it still remains, was 
adopted, and preparation was made for the new work of mis- 
sions. An extract from the annual report' of that year indi- 
cates the growth of the organization to that date : *' During 
this history twenty-six auxiliaries have been gained, while we 
have still vice-presidents and helpers in States not organized. 
Besides circulating and presenting the three petitions named, 
a million pagesof information and appeal have been circulated, 
many great and small societies, ministerial conferences, 
assemblies, and anniversaries have been visited and have 
responded, indorsing our work and appeals to Government, 
while hundreds of articles concerning our objects have been 
secured in the secular and religious press, and hundreds of 
meetings have been addressed by your secretary and others 
regarding justice to Indians." The kind of work done by 
auxiliaries will be more fully seen by referring to the report of 
that year.^ 

^ Om psragrsph will perhapt be sa encouragtmeot to thoie orgmniiing 
siafiir voaca lOMrcmcAU berca/tcr : '* Under the bead of ' MeetiDft Hekt? 
dM New Haaipehife brmocb reports twelve Udkt' nccdagi and a crowded 
laM If fling ; the Maauchoectts AatodatkM reports eleven ladies' meet- 
lags and a very tooccMfol aMsa-mcettog in Tremont Temple : Coonccticot 
reports foortoea ladies' a»eetings and two nuis-rocetiagt ; New York City 
has bad variom ladies* meetings and a anass-meeting in Rev* Dr. Hall^ 
cbnrcb ; Braoklya bas bad thirteen ladies' meettnfs and two maia meetings ; 
Philadelphia, iochtding local aaxiliaries and meetings o( the National Eacca* 
thra Boafd. baa had aboot forty ladies' nseetings and Sve masaoaceciags ; 
BaWmora baa had eight ladies' oMetiags and two masa-aseetings. and Wash* 
ladiar msa tiag s aad four m a m ma a ringi , Regudiag the dis- 


Miss Bonney's presidency over the association closed NoTen 
ber, 1884, but her ardent interest still remains, and she lu 
continued to be largely the financial provider for the depan 
ment of organization. Her noble character, broad spirit, wis 
counsels, generous gifts, wide reputation, and devotion tothi 
as to all redemptive work, made her a constant power for tb 
cause and association, and though her more active share in ii 
labors ceased with her official duties, she \& stiil its belove 
honorary president. 

The second chairman of the society was the accomplishe 
and well-known writer, Mrs. Mary Lowe Dickinson, who,apo 
a unanimous election, accepted the presidency November, iS& 
and for three years discharged the duties of her office wil 
great ability. Possessing rare literary talents and caltar 
being a natural and enthusiastic leader and a charming speake 
and having a wide circle of friends, she broug^ht much to tt 
aid of the enterprise. Her thoughtful addresses, her stron 
articled in magazine and journal, her poems replete with dee 
religious feeling, her graceful presiding, her wise suggestion 
tact, and, above all, her earnest interest in the cause of India 
emancipation and elevation constituted her a leader of unusa 
value, and it was with great regret that the association vj 
forced, because of her then impaired health, to accept her resij 
nation, October, 1887. 

Upon the retirement of Mrs. Dickinson, the writer, who ha 
continued to do the work of general secretary until that dat 
was, by the executive board, made president, receiving ti 
unanimous election of the association at its following anna 
meeting, November, 1887 ; an office which she still holds, ba^ 
ing been four times re-elected. 

The later growth of the association is revealed in the fo 
lowing facts: The annual report of 1885 reported fifty-s 
branches in twenty-seven States, and $3880 raised for tl 
cause ; that of x886 registered eighty-three branches, showir 
much advance for a yet unpopular cause, and that $6793 we 
expended. In the report of 1887 the collections had grown \ 
$10,690 ; in 1888 to $11,336 ; in 1889 to $16,300, and in 1890 1 

I tribution of leaflets, New Hampshire reportf 5 500 sent out, with 401 pe 

\ ' tions; Connecticut 5000 leaflets, and petitions sent to all ber towu 

\ Maryland has sent leaflets to fifty towns and secured petitions representi 

.1 21.000 citizens. Of articles in the press, New Hampshire has seat sizt 

and Philadelphia over a hundred. Brooklyn has raised $325 ; New Yor 
$405 ; Boston. $724, and, naturally, being the home of the moyement, Phil 
delphia has raised more than these and all other auxiliaries oombincd.** 



^i6,5oa During one year the Connecticut auxiliary raised over 
$4000, and the Massachusetts association put into the treasury 
of the national association $3000, a third of which was desig* 
Dated for missionary purposes and the rest for loans for Indian 
Home Building, and gifts for educational and legal work. 
These two are the strongest auxiliaries, though there are now 
branches and helpers or officers in thirty-four States and Terri- 
tories of the Union. 

Nor has the advance of ideas been less marked than the 
increase of the numbers and receipts of the association. The 
first impulse of the first partnership of meai^s and work, which 
began the active movement, resulting in the organization of a 
national society, was an impulse of protection for Indians 
and their lands from the robberies and horrors of enforced 
removals, and it voiced itself in pleas for treaty-keeping and 
the honest observance of all compacts with the Indians until 
their real consent to changes should be justly won. The impulse 
was one of common humanity, and recognized the manhood 
and womanhood of Indians, and their claims in common with 
all men because human beings. The facts gained from the 
first investigations, given in the first leaflets, and sent forth 
into many States, laid hold upon the minds of free white men 
and women by revealing to their consciences the responsibility 
of silence while our native Indians were still the victims of 
wholesale robbery by military ejectment from their own terri- 
tory, often to be sent to unwholesome, non-supporting lands, 
into utter helplessness, or out of perishing need into wars for 
mere subsistence. The facts popularly made known that Indians 
were practically under the supreme control of the United States 
agent over them ; that they could not sue or be sued,* make con- 
tracts, sell their lumber, or work their mines ; that they had no 
bw; that it was legally not a crime to kill an Indian ; that 
Indian women and girls could be and often were appropriated 
to become mothers of agricultural slaves to till their master's 
soil, — all these facts, startling to republican minds, thrilling to 
bnmaoe hearts, and thundering out appeals to Christian con- 
sciences, led to this impulse of protection. But soon the 
question of ** How most wisely to protect ** led to still more 
thoughtful study of the situation, and to the rapidly grown 

•Sm '^ProtMiottoC Uvfor lodiaat," bj Ccncrml J. B UUc; "TIm 
la^M Mora tht Uw." by H. S. PaoooMt. Etq.; *' CKir lodiaa Wardt," 
by CoL Gmp MaarpaiDr. and ** Our Wild IndUas." by CoL Richard J. 
IMgs; **!■• ladka QyMtJoa.'* by C. W. Ovta, ptgw 90-97 and 699- 


been said by those publicly and conspi 
Indian welfare, has probably done more tl 
other one organization for Indian liberatic 
one familiar with its quality and quantity < 
members recall the many testimonies to ti 
grateful pride, that the Honorable H. L. I 
ibe Indian Committee of the United State 
the long-needed Severalty Bill which bee 
1887, and ever the faithful friend of t 
stated in a public speech that the " new Ini 
everywhere approved, was " born of and ni 
of this association." And, indeed, all t 
new policy arc found in the early peiitlo 
of the society. That the Indian Righ 
evening that it was organized, just as thi 

• That of January, 1883, iaid : 

We, the undersig^ned ciliteni of ibe United Stat 

, viewing Ibe resulls of our past national IndL 

the present pmiiions and relatians of the wbit« and 
bordcn. and beings convinced by many coQ&idera 
polilical. iKat only that Indian policy is just, nnd tti 
for ils ultimaie aim citiicoshJp for Indiani. th'roug 
icservaiion. tyiiera by granting la all Indians, not 
Government of the Indian Territory, lands in several 
law protcclion. property rights, comtnon school edoc 
erty enjoyed by other races among us : 

Now, therefore, we do rwpecitully but most ean 
policy as above suifgested may be adopted and In 
due regard lo the principle! of equity and justice iti 
with Indians, yet granting to them upon their prcsen 
individuals so d<-sire (and we pray thai our Gova 


tioo, was ready to present its fourth annual petition, crystal- 
lised Its plans of work, after reading the constitution of 
the women's society, and adopted its lines and methods of 
work ; that the Boston Indian Citirenship Committee, and 
that the new Commissioner of Indian Affairs and the present 
administration have but done and are doing, what the 
association's literature and petitions have for years advocated 
is a sufficient testimony to the principles and aims of the 
association. That its leaders have been divinely led many 
.humbly and gratefully feel, for, as said the venerable Bishop 
'Whipple, ** The women have builded better than they knew ; 
and as said Hannah Whitall Smith, now of London, England, 
well known on two continents as an uplifting, writer and 
speaker on religious subjects, one of the early treasurers and 
still a patron of the association, ** This Indian work is but the 
Christian motherhood of the nation obeying its instincts 
toward our native heathen." It would require a portly vol* 
ome to mention the names and deeds of the earnest and emi- 
nent women who have had share in this work for the aborigi- 
nes of our country. Among its honorary officers and members, 
as seen in its annual reports and those of its auxiliaries, are 
names distinguished in the world of letters and in political and 
social circles, as well as those known in philanthropic and 
Christian work, while many in its corps of active officers and 
in its executive board are widely known and honored. But 
the temptation to catalogue these in this chapter, must mani- 
festly be resisted or restricted to incumbents of the leading 
offices and to the chairmen of departments. Among those 
most active in State work, Mrs. Sara Thomson Kinney, presi- 
dent of the Connecticut auxiliary, and now first vice*president 
of the national association, has given very largely of time, 
thought, and labor, has compactly organized her State with 
branches in its leading towns, has inaugurated inher associa« 
tion a variety of important work and brought it to its present 
standard of excellence. Under Miss Fletcher's inspiration 
she introduced Indian Home Building by loan funds and is 
chairman of that department in the national association, 
forty or fifty Indian homes having, under her management, been 
built or remodeled in civilised fashion, and among ten or fif* 
teen tribes. Many smaller loans she has also made, ena- 
bling individual Indians to adopt civilized and self-supporting 
industries. Mrs. Elizabeth Elliot Bullard, president of the 
Massachusetts auxiliary, and chairman of the new national 
Committee on Special Education of bright individual Indians 

and are meeliiig wilti other new succes 
lyii associaiiun, which, under ihe leader 
Abbotl, nssislcd by the former president 
Jtronie J'lumiiier, inaugurated the Kiow 
p;ir[iig to open a station among Ihe ] 
Mis& Sarah U. Taylor, of Philadelphia, a 
ing worker and generous giver, is now e 
Fionary DepartmenC which, in six years, h 
indirectly, missions in twenty different 
missionary cottages and (our chapels i 
them, one after another, when well establ 
the permanent denominational societies, 
president of the auxiliary at Ihe national 
letters from that city and whose charming 
so widely enjoyed, is chairman of the Depa 
islation, her racy reports of laws secured, a: 
numerous ones needed, having both a p< 
value, while her prescient watchfulness is 
other and important help for Indians, 
work for Indian civilization at Crow Creek 
furnishing on the reservation, to returi 
civiliiied employments and conlinucd re 
making them self-supporting and an aid I 
led to the election of Miss Grace Howar 
originated, successfully- inaugurated, ai 
chairman of the association's department i 
Work. The Voung People's Deparimc 
Miss Marie E. Ives, of New Haven, whose 
a quartet of young girls in New York Ci 

3SO H^OUMyS n'ORK 11/ A Mi ERICA. 

thoogh the fini hospital, for which funds are afready in hand, 
will soon be built by the National Missionary Committee for 
the Omahas. The devotion of our corresponding secretary, 
Miss Helen R. Foote ; of our late recording secretary, Mrs. 
Rachel N. Taylor ; the generous service of our recent treas- 
urer, Mrs. Harriet L. Wilbur, and of the present one. Miss 
Anna Bennett, and the labors of other workers in different 
sections of the country come up in remembrance, and it would 
be a pleasure to record the names of all these did space per- 
mit. Many women have wrought well during and since the 
inauguration of the new Indian policy, by the influence of which 
already more than one third of the forty-eight thousand Indian 
popils are in the various government and other schools, and 
onder which the people of more than twenty tribes are receiv- 
ing lands in severalty. By the success of this policy, devel- 
oped with the aid of all officials, individuals, and organizations 
friendly to them, the quarter of a million Indians of our 
country are, by taking individual farms or by adopting civiU 
ized avocations, at last really passing out of barbarism into 
ctvtlization, and from the oppressions, disabilities, and helpless- 
ness of the reservation system into the freedom, protection, 
and development of United States citizenship. The work 
of the association for these ends has been pressed with all 
th«} vigor which its numbers and means permitted, and it 
has given its whole thought to the accomplishment of its 
purposes. Not contemplating a permanent existence, it has 
l^ven small though adequate attention to mere form. One of 
Its members, a poet, Indian educator, an able writer on Indian 
topics, and now a government superintendent of Indian schools. 
Miss Elaine Gocxiale, says : "This association stretches out 
sympathetic hands and loses itself in all other good work for 
the Indians so that the measure of its influence may not be 
expressed in any rows of figures however significant, or set 
down in any report however complete. The striking and 
hopeful feature, after all, of this Women's National Indian 
AMOciation is, as its president constantly reminds us, that it is 
not intended as a permanent organization. The women have 
undertaken to meet a particular crisis, to bridge a dangerous 
gap. As fast as the regular missionary societies are ready to 
accept its independent missions, these are placed entirely in 
their bands. As soon as our rich and powerful Government 
comprehends and faithfully discharges its duty to the Indians 
the women will cease to urge their needs and their rights, and 
the aMOCtatioo will cease to exist. lu work will have been 


nr CAMS OF THM UfDlAir. 

dooe. Its dewad it aor (or Us own honor or extensioa 1 
thu tbe object (or vfaidt afamc it Utcs maj speetlU^ be aon 

U^tii this object is {atDed, The Wonteo's National lodi 
Assocaiioa vill aoc soond ictreat nor its freat cxxopacy 
cooseciauii vorkccs dj^tand It is possible that its best ai 
^oogest rccnnl may be made io the fatare and its work 
aaobed br «b4xlT bcw Uboren. God grant tbat this ma; 
so i( cbe vorfe, pixiticat. edocatioaal, industrial, and religioi 
stii; so iaipeiatirelj demanded by justice for oor utire I 
diaa I 

: ! 



Prudence Crandall, a Quaker school teacher in Canter- 
bury, Conn., was the woman whose name we encounter in the 
earliest records of anti-slavery labor in this country. She 
took counsel with Mr. Garrison in 1833, and opened a school 
for colored pupils, which she bravely maintained for over a 
year, although she was subjected therefore to a great amount of 
persecution. She was arrested, and even thrown temporarily 
into jail, and her house and its inmates were made the mark 
for every species of insult and outrage which her neighbors 
dared to perpetrate. She married the Rev. Calvin Philleo, 
and still survives him, living in Kansas. The Legislature of 
Connecticut, a few years ago, granted her a pension in atone- 
ment for the wrongs she formerly suffered in that State. 

Hatred of slavery was the motive which first called women 
to this country into public life. Sarah and Angelina Grimk^ 
were two sisters belonging to a prominent slaveholding family 
in South Carolina. As a child, Sarah was shpcked by the 
cruelties practised upon the slaves around her, but her first 
deep interest in early life was in religious questions. The 
family were Episcopalians, and she remained for many years 
of the same faith. She made a visit to the North, came 
under Quaker influences, and finally joined the Society of 
Friends, and this led to her going to live in Philadelphia, in 
18a I. Angelina, who was twelve years younger than Sarah, 
remained in Charleston. She manifested, like Sarah, a ten- 
dency to extreme asceticism in dress and manner, and she 
became a Presbyterian. She detested the evils of slavery, but 
she does not seem to have thought slave-holding sinful in it- 
self, till after she bad visited Philadelphia in i8a8, when she 
was tweo^-three years old. After that, she grew to feel more 






9t and more keenlf that she was living amid a ^reat wron^, \ 

she suffered intensely at the participatioa ia it of her fam 
She entreated and argued, begged her brother to be mcrd 
to his slaves, besought her mother and sisters to feel at i 
did. In May, 1S39, she wrote in her diary, " May it not 
laid down as an axiom, that that system must be radica 
wrong, which can only be supported by transgressing the la 
1 j of God." A little later, she determined to leave her bos 

' Ji bec.iuse of her inability to do any good there in regard tot 

: M slaves, and she writes, " I cannot but be pained at the tboag 

: Iti of leaving mother. ... I do not think, dear sister, I v 

ever see her again until she is willing to give up slavery." '. 
the autumn of 1839 she left Charlestoa and her mother, who 
she never saw again. 

She went Co Philadelphia and joined the Society of Friend 
After some years of comparatively quiet life, Angelina wro 
in 1835 a sympathetic letter to Wm. Lloyd Garrison, whit 
'J he published in TAe Liberator, She wrote next "An Appeal 

- ■ jj the Christian Women of the South," a pamphlet which "pr 

!* ] ;| duced," says Mrs. Birney, "the most profound sensatit 

^ j wherever it was read." Not long afterward " the city authoi 

■ ■ E tics of Charleston learned," writes Mr. Theodore D. Wei 

I I "that Miss Grimk^ was intending to visit her mother ai 

'■ sisters, and pass the winter with them. Thereupon the may 

. , called upon Mrs. Grimk^ and desired her to inform her daug 

i ter that the police had been instructed to prevent her landii 

{ ' while the steamer remained In port, and to see to it that si 

I \- should not communicate, by letter or otherwise, with any p( 

i' sons in the city; and further, that if she should elude th< 

{ vigilance and go on shore, she would be arrested and imprisom 

|: until the return of the vessel." Threats of personal violen 

;; were also made, should she come. 

, t A year later Sarah published "An Epistle to the Clergy oft 

I !^ Southern States," and the sisters began to address meetings 

.; women on the subject of slavery. They proposed at first 

: : hold parlor meetings, but found it necessary at once to enga 

J.; the session room of a Baptist Church in New York. T 

I' gathering there was " the first assembly of women, not Quake 

' ma public place in America, addressed by.\merican womei 

j Two clergymen performed the opening ceremonies, offer 

\%.\ prayer and made an address of welcome, and then left, so \\ 

.Y\ none but women should hear women speak. Similar assei 

jli blies were held afterward, and In a letter dated "seco 

jl month, 4thj 1837," Angelina writes, that one man had got it 


t meeting, and people thought he must 6e a Southern 
She savs, ** somehow, I did not feel his presence embar- 
f at all, and went on just as though he had not been 

r this, the sisters went to New England to pursue their 

In Dorchester two or three men "slyly slid " into the 

eats of the hall and listened to the speakers, and one of 

afterward took great pains to prove that it was unscrip- 
or a woman to speak in public." From this time a few 
ere generally present at the gatherings, and on the aist 
r» iS37f Angelina wrote, " In the evening of the same 
dressed our first /ivijr^*/ audience. Over one thousand 
L** "The opposers of abolitionism, and especially the 

began to be alarmed," says Mrs. Birney. 'The sisters 
denounced, halls were refused them, the Society of 
s condemned their course, aud violence was threatened; 
arah writes, "They think to frighten us from the 
f duty ; but they do not move us." Even some of the 
ionists doubted the propriety of their labors, and the 
>n of Womans' Rights was fairly launched on the tide of 
ti- slavery movement 

General Association of Congregational Ministers of 
:husetts passed a resolution censuring the sisters, and 

a pastoral letter, containing " a tirade against female 

h next published letters on " The Province of Woman." 
ebruary, 1838, Angelina addressed a committee of the 
:husetts Legislature on the subject of slavery. She 
of this memorable occasion, " My heart never quailed 
, but it almost died within me at that hour." She was 
two hearings, and she says " We abolition women are 
; the world upside down, for during the whole meeting 
ras sister seated up in the speaker's chair of State." 
elina was the more eloquent of the two sisters, and 
l\k Sarah spoke, she preferred to serve the cause by 


Iday, 1838, Angelina married Theodore D. Weld, who 
o earnest and eloquent abolition orator. After this 
ge she spoke once again, and then was obliged to relin- 
Jl public work on account of her health, while Mr. Weld's 
' voice, prevented him from continuing his lecturing 
:. Thev never faltered, however, or relaxed in their 
»lea. They were all three engaged in schoolwork and 
A colored pupils as readily as white ones. Wbeo the 


• I 


J; * m ANTI-SLAVERY. 35 


war came, and slavery was abolished, some peculiar famil 
trials fell to the lot of the Grimk^ sisters, and old wooDd 
were re-opened.' They bore these renewed sufferings witi 
fortitude, and with patient and loving spirits. They saccorti 
their impoverished kindred, who had lon^ been alienated froo 
them, and they fulfilled some- difficult and delicate dutie 
i which grew out of the old ties which their Southern relative 

i had discarded. 

:| Lucretia Mott was a Quakeress, and a very beautiful womaa 

^L She exercised a singular power over people with whom sIm 

came in contact, influencing and inspiring them to all high anc 
holy purposes. She became an Abolitionist in early life, anc 
was sent as a delegate to the World's Anti-Slavery Convention 
held in London, in 1840.* Like the other women who wen 
delegates, she was refused admission to the body, and attendee 
its sessions only as an outsider. 

She was an eloquent and persuasive speaker in anti-slaver] 

and religious meetings. She, with other Philadelphia womea 

used to attend the courts whenever a fugitive slave case wa< 

tried, in the hope that the silent protest of their presence 

J would have some effect on judges and juries, who were inclioec 

j to be subservient to the slave power. On one occasion, shi 

and her companions sat all night in the court-room, the com 

missioner deferring his sentence, thinking that the womei 

would be tired out, and would leave and, finally, unable to ge 

rid of them, he availed himself of a legal quibble, and orderei 

\ the fugitive to be set free. Years later, when the Civil Wa 

came, the lawyer who acted in this affair on behalf of theslavc 

I holder, and who had been an ardent supporter of the interest 

j of slavery, wheeled around, and gave in his allegiance to tb 

Union party. Some one asked him how he dared thus oppos 

all his former friends, and he replied that the man who ha 

endured to sit all night before Lucretia Mott and knew wh; 

\ she was thinking of him all the time, would fear nothing eb 

j on earth. 

j She was herself brave, and once, when an old colored woms 

j was refused a seat in a horse-car, and forced to ride on tl 

I front platform, exposed to a pelting winter storm, she wei 

^ out and stood by her side, and rode for nearly an hour, in < 

the bitter weather. 
: She was very charming, and she retained her great person 

beauty to the last, dying finally in i88o,attheageof eighty-seve 

* Sec chapter Woman in the State. — SOt 




- Abby Kelley was a New England girl, a Quaker, and a 
Bchool-teacher. She began her ami-slavery work by giving 
half of all she earned to the cause. Afterward she decided 
that it was her duty to lecture and talk to people about slavery. 
She received no salary from the anti slavery societies for her 
Imbor, but went from town to town, staying with friends when 
it was possible, going by private conveyance if she could, 
«tting up meetings, and everywhere, in season and out, plead- 
ing for the slave. When her clothes were worn out, she went 
to a sister's and did house-work, till she had earned enough 
money to get what she needed, and then she surted again on 
her mission. She encountered great opposition from press 
mod pulpit. Every epithet was hurled at her which was roost 
calculated to wound the spirit of a sensitive woman. Nothing 
orercame (i^r. The cry of the slave mother sounded in her 
ears and drowned the clamor about herself. She pursued her 
way^ fighting, as it were, for every inch of the ground she 

It is no exaggeration to say that what she did and suffered, 
has oude the path easier for every woman, since her day, who 
has sought to work in any public manner in America. The 
Grimk^ sisters retired early from the field, and Abby Kelley 
bore the brunt of a long and painful content with prejudice and 
opposition, which were directed not only against the anti- 
slavery cause, but against her personally, for doing what 
Women had not till then done. 

Abby Kelley married Stephen S. Foster, an Abolitionist, 
ao resolute, unflinching and uncompromising as to be a fit 
mate for her. They established a home, but both of them 
often went from it on anti-slavery lecturing trips, until she had 
entirely worn out her voice, and was obliged to refrain from 
nstng it in public Once in a while, however, in later life, she 
addressed some convention for a few minutes at a time, when 
the impulse to speak in behalf of something she thought right, 
proved too strong to be resisted. A hoarse whisper was all 
that remained to her from the young voice, with which she ' 
had once challenged the scorn of men and the timid contempt 
of women, but her listeners almost hushed their hearts to hear 
these faint breathings, remembering reverently all the sacri* 
fice and pain she had endured. 

Mrs. Foster lived in all respects a conscientious life. She 
was a careful housekeeper and a devoted wife and mother. 
She and her husband were ardent Woman Suffragists and they 
protested against the payment of uxes to a government which 






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•■i •' 

I ■■ 

1 ■ 

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I ii 





t i 



allowed her no representation. Their home was in Worcesta 
Mass., and they both lived to see slavery abolished. She sai 
vived him for several years, without abating her interest in tlu 
general principles to which their lives had been consecrated. 

Sallie Holley was one of the later anti-slavery speaken 
She was generally accompanied in her lecturing trips bj i 
friend, Miss Caroline F. Putnam, and after the war the tv< 
went to Virginia to live and work among^ the freed people. 

Lucy Stone and Susan B. Anthony were also anti-slaver] 
speakers before the Civil War. Anna Dickinson made a fci 
speeches in her very early girlhood as agent of one of thi 
anti-slavery societies. There were also women employed b] 
the societies as workers in other ways, such as circulaiinj 
petitions, raising money, distributing tracts, and talking iriti 
people in private ways. 

Miss Mary Grew, of Philadelphia, occasionally addressed 
meetings. Miss Grew was one of a large number of woaiefl 
all over the North, who gave all their energies to anti-slavei) 
work. These women helped fugitive slaves, cared for Abolition 
speakers, raised money, arranged meetings, distributed papen 
and pamphlets, corresponded, wrote articles for newspapers, 
sewed for fairs, went without luxuries and even necessities sc 
as to be able to give to the cause, and spent themselves in 
body and brain without stint, and without asking any reward 
but the achievement of the end they sought Mrs. Sidnq 
Lewis, of Philadelphia, kept the anti-slavery office in that dtj 
It would be impossible to name the half of these silent workers 

Lydia Maria Child * was one of the foremost literary womet 
of her day, when she avowed herself to be an Abolitionist, aDi 
her popularity was greatly injured thereby. She edited thi 
Anti- Slavery Standard for two years, and did noble work 
During the war there was a last outbreak of pro-slavery fur 
in Northern cities, and* mobs assaulted Wendell Phillips ii 
Boston. One night, after an anti-slavery meeting, the cr^wi 
threatened to kill him, and she took his arm and walkei 
serenely by his side through the raging multitude, and it wa 
considered that her presence with him awed them to such a 
extent that she really saved his life. 

Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote ''Uncle Tom's Cabin," f whe 
public sentiment was beginning to turn against slavery, an 
the book went all over the world, and was translated into mao 

* See chapter Woman in Literature. — Eo. 
f See chapter Woman in Literatorc-^Eo. 



ton^^es, to make all men feel the wickedness of an institution 
vhich needed that the Fugitive Slave Law should be enacted 
Mid enforced for its support. The effect of the book was 

Maria Weston Chapman and her sisters brought grace, beauty, 
and wit, in social circles, to the aid of the Abolitionists in the 
very first years of the long moral warfare. They became so 
nnpopular in Boston, in consequence of their course, that Mrs. 
Chapman told a friend that she feared to walk alone on