Skip to main content

Full text of "Woman and temperance : or, The work and workers of the Woman's Christian temperance union"

See other formats

M^^MMMMpn ■■ ■ ■ ■ mi ■ **' _*—»»™ » mi h» * 


\ ... .. \ 

^ &k A^ '^cn*/ 





ITA«.i T ,n N 






wilt. — Words of Christ. 







Copyrighted, 1883. 

By the Park Publishing Co., 
hartford, conn. 

In Loving and Loyal Recognition and Remembrance 

this book is dedicated 

to the memory op my generous benefactor, 





This book is a collection of " Field Notes," roughly 
jotted down by one whose rapid transit left no choice of 
style or method. It has been put together under diffi- 
culties, which, could they be known, would go far toward 
excusing its defects. The publisher's wish, to present some 
of the author's addresses and personal observations of the 
work, has antagonized her preference to devote these pages 
entirely to showing forth the deeds of her beloved coad- 
jutors. Under these difficult conditions, the attempt to 
compromise has met the moderate success herein exhib- 
ited. Our work has grown so greatly that its would-be 
veracious chronicler is well nigh bewildered by the 
embarras de richesse, for the choice names omitted so 
far exceed in number those referred to that there is no 
satisfaction in the final result. My table is crowded with 
collected notes of our work and workers, which must be 
reserved until some future day. But there is this conso- 
lation : the women to whom I have written for " some 
account of their life and works " have not, as a general 
rule, replied at all, and when they have done so the words 
" too busy toiling to tell what has been wrought " have 
recurred so frequently that the names " conspicuous for 
their absence " belong to those who will account them- 
selves most fortunate. But, with all its faults, this 
birds-eye view, giving some notion of about fifty leaders, 
among the two hundred and fifty worthy to be introduced, 
will have a certain value as a record of events, and will, 
let us hope, be useful as an exponent of the aims and 



methods of a temperance society, concerning which John 
B. Gough said, what we would not have dared to claim 
ourselves, that " it is doing more for the temperance cause 
to-day than all others combined." 

F. E. W. 
"Rest Cottage," Evanston, III., March 7, 1883. 

# % Some of the sketches that follow were written for 
the Independent, The Christian Union, Our Union, The 
Signal, etc., and have been transferred by editorial per- 

1. Portrait of the Author on Steel, 

2. Mrs. E. J. Thompson, 

3. Mrs. Geo. Carpenter, 

4. Mother Stewart, 

5. Mrs. Abby F. Leavitt, 

6. Mrs. Mary A. Woodbridge, 

7. Mrs. Margaret E. Parker, 

8. Mrs. Margaret B. Lucas, . 

9. Mrs. W. A. Ingham, 

10. Mrs. J. F. Willing, . 

11. Mrs. Emily Huntington Miller, 

12. Mrs. Annie Wittenmyer, . 

13. Mrs. Mary T. Burt, . 

14. Mrs. S. M. I. Henry, 

15. Mrs. Hannah Whitall Smith, 

16. Mrs. Mary T. Lathrop, 

17. Miss Lucia E. F. Kimball, . 

18. Mrs. Mary H. Hunt, 

19. Mrs. Lucy Webb Hayes, 

20. Miss Esther Pugii, . 

21. Mrs. J. Ellen Foster, 

22. Mrs. Mary A. Liyermore, . 

23. Mrs. C. B. Buell, . 






Mrs. Z. G. Wallace, . . , 

. 477 


Mrs. Bent with her Cornet, , , 

. 513 


Mrs. Sarah K. Bolton, 

. . 525 


Mrs. Sallie F. Chapin, 

. 541 


Mrs. Caroline E. Merrick, 

. 561 


Miss Elizabeth "W. Greenwood, . 

. 581 


Mrs. J. K. Barney, . 

. 585 


Mrs. Elizabeth Comstock, . 

. 589 


Mrs. Letitia Yodmans, 

. 599 


The Future Legislator, 

. 605 



Ancestry and birth — Character of parents — Early life — Travel and 
life abroad — The "Human Question" — Elected President of 
Woman's College — The Teacher — Character and methods — In- 
troduction to the public — Impressions of a journalist — Char- 
acter and aims — Call to the temperance work — Earlier work — 
Gospel work — Journalism — Birth of " Home Protection" — The 
great petition — Elected to the presidency of the National W. C. 
T. U. — Work — Incidents — Southern tours — Character as a 
woman — As a leader of women — As a type. . . , .19 


The W. C. T. U. compared with other Societies — "Without a 
pattern and without a peer." 39 

"W. C. T. U." 

Its object— Hygiene — The " Religion of the Body " — Dress, econo- 
my of time — Value of a trained intellect — The coming of Christ 
into five circles: Heart; Home; Denominationalism; Society; 
Government — Home protection — " The Old Ship Zion, Hal- 
lelujah!" — Motto: " Mary stood the cross beside. " . . .42 


Or why the Author is not a Critic. 48 





Mrs. Judge Thompson of Hillsboro', Ohio — First Praying Band — 
First Saloon Prayer-meeting— Mrs. George Carpenter of Wash-* 
ington Court House — Story of the great victories — Scene at a 
National W. C. T. U. Convention — Presentation of the Crusade 
Bedquilt 50 



Ancestry— A Teacher— A Good Samaritan in War Times— De- 
fends a Drunkard's Wife in Court— Enters a Saloon in Disguise 
—A Leader in Two Crusades— Visits England— Goes South- 
Critique of London Watchman 80 


"Leader of the Forty -three "—The shoemaker and the little white 
shoes 88 


President of the Crusade State, and Recording Secretary of the 
National W. C. T. U.— A Nantucket Girl— Cousin of Maria 
Mitchell — Western education— Baptized into the Crusade — 
Speaks in fifty Presbyterian Churches— The author's glimpse 
of the Crusade— The Crusade in Calcutta— Margaret Parker 
— Mrs. Margaret Lucas . 101 


Chautauqua, Summer of 1874 — Poetic justice— Dr. Vincent — 
Mrs. Ingham's sketch— Mrs. E. H. Miller's circular. . . .121 



The First Woman's National Temperance Convention, Cleve- 
land, Ohio — Red-Letter days — Officers — Resolutions, etc. — 
Representative Women — A brave beginning 127 




Mrs. Plymouth Rock and Friend Rachel Halliday engage in a 
discussion 136 




President of the First National Convention — An Earnest Life 
and Varied Work — Speaker — Organizer — Teacher — Author. . 147 


Mrs. Emily Huntington Miller — Secretary of Chautauqua pre- 
liminary meeting — Author, Editor,- Home-maker. . . . 154 



First President of the W. C. T. U.— War Record— Church Work 
—Philanthropy 160 


Second Corresponding Secretary of National W. C. T. U. — An 
Episcopalian — Editor of "Our Union" — President of New 
York State W. C. T. U 168 




Gospel Temperance, or the Light of Christ shining in the circle of 
one heart — "The Lord looseth the Prisoners" — A reformed 
man's speech — Woman's Christian Temperance Union work in 


the Church universal — Its wholly unsectarian character — "Let 
her not take a text " — Our Evangelists — Mrs. S. M. I. Henry — 
" The Name "—Mrs. Hannah Whitall Smith — " How to prepare 
Bible Readings" — Mrs. Mary T. Lathrop — Miss Jennie Smith — 
Mrs. T. B. Carse— Miss Lucia E. F. Kimball— The Indian 
Chief Petosky — The first temperance Camp-meeting — Alcohol 
at the Communion Table — How one woman helped — That fos- 
sil prayer-meeting — Woman's Christian Temperance Union 
Training School — " The Master is come and calleth for thee." 176 


" Combination view " — Cburch — Saloon — School-house — Home — 
Mother and boy — Philosophy of our plan of work — Doctor, 
Editor, Minister, Teacher, must all stand by the Christian 
mother — Society the cup-bearer to Bacchus — The sovereign citi- 
zen—Education of the saloon — The arrest of thought — Mrs. 
Mary H. Hunt, National Superintendent of Scientific Depart- 
ment 235 



The Light of Christ in the circle of society — The hostess of the 
White House— Sketch of Mrs. L\icy Webb Hayes— Memorial 
portrait — Lincoln Hall meeting — "The Two Bridges" — Mrs. 
Foster's address — Presentation at Executive Mansion — President 
Garfield's reply — "Through the Eye to the Heart" — Lucy 
Hayes Tea Parties, Impressions of the Garfields — Society work 
of young women — Mrs. Francis J. Barnes of New York — Miss 
Anna Gordon — Y. W. C. T. U. of Michigan University — Wel- 
lesley College — Kitchen garden — Miss McClees — Sensible girls 
— "The W. C. T. U. will receive "—Nobler themes— "All for 
Temperance" — Miss Esther Pugh, Treasurer of National W. 
C. T. U 255 


Mrs. Judith Ellen Foster — A Boston girl, a lawyer, an orator — 
Her work part and parcel of the W. C. T. U. — As wife, 
mother, and Christian — Philosophy of the W. C. T. U. in the 
Government — The Keithsburg election, or the "Women who 


dared " — The story of Roekford— Home protection in Arkansas 
—A practical application— Observations en route— The famous 
law— Extract from Fourth of July address — Local option — Plan 
for local campaign — How not to do it — How it has been done — 
Temperance tabernacles— History of Illinois' great petition- 
About petitions — Days of prayer — Copy of the petition— Home 
protection hymn— Mrs. Pellucid at the Capitol— A specimen 
Legislature — Valedictory thoughts — Temperance tonic — Yankee 
home protection catechism — A heart-sorrow in an unprotected 
home — The dragon's council hall — Home guards of Illinois — 
How one little woman saved the day in Kansas — Election day 
in Illinois — Incidents of the campaign — A Southern incident — 
Childhood's part in the victory 321 



Our Chief Speaker, and President of the Massachusetts W. C. T. U. 

Seen from afar — Personal reminiscences — A racy sketch of her 
Melrose home — Sermon on Immortality — Incidents of early 
years — Religious character — Her coadjutors — Elizabeth Stuart 
Phelps' Letter to Massachusetts W. C. T. U 418 


Corresponding Secretary National W. C. T. TJ. 

The universal Brown family — A vigorous ancestry — An itinerant 
preacher's home — The War tragedy — Her brother's helper — 
Hears the Crusade tocsin — A noble life — That Saratoga Con- 
vention 437 





Priscilla Shrewdly and Charlotte Cheeryble — One woman's expe- 
rience — Our letter bag — From a Pennsylvania girl — From an 
Illinois working man — From a Michigan lady — From a Missouri 


lady — From Rockford, Ills. — From a reformed man in Phila- 
delphia — From a new York lady — The temperance house that 
Jack built — One day in a temperance woman's life — From a 
New England girl's letter — Concerning the word "Christian" 
— From Senator and Mrs. Blair 460 



Our Temperance Deborah — Her place — A character — Incidents — 
The Newspaper — A Bible Student — Home life — Her Temper- 
ance Baptism — Figures in " Ben Hur " — A Christian. . .476 



"The Open Secret." 486 




A Quaker conquest — Miss Willard among the Modocs. . . 504 






Superintendent of the Literature Department of the National W. C. T. U. 



Mrs. Sarah K. Bolton — Miss Margaret E. Winslow — "Crowned ' 
— Mrs. Mary Bannister Willard — "John Brant's wife, who was 
not a Crusader " — A sketch 524 



Mrs. Sallie F. Chapin of S. O— Sketch of her life— Address at 
Washington — Mrs. Georgia Hulse McLeod of Md. — Mrs. J. C. 
Johnson of Tenn.— Mrs. J. L. Lyons of Fla.— Mrs. W. C. Sib- 
ley of Ga. — Miss Fannie Griffin of Ala. — Other representative 
Southern ladies — Mrs. Judge Merrick of New Orleans — Address 
at Saratoga on my Southern trip — Texas and temperance. . 540 



Miss Elizabeth W. Greenwood — Miss F. Jennie Duty of Ohio, 
the Minister at Large — Mrs. J. K. Barney of Rhode Island, the 
Prisoner's Friend — Mrs. Henrietta Skelton, the German Lec- 
turer — Mrs. Elizabeth L. Comstock, the Quaker Philanthropist 
— One husband's birthday gift. . 580 



Mrs. Letitia Youmans, the Lecturer — Mrs. D. B. Chisholm, Pre- 
sident of Ontario W. C. T. U. , etc 598 



Miss Lathbury's poem — Boy's Temperance speech — How to reach 
the children. . 604 


How ought a Local W. C. T. U. to conduct a Public Meeting? . 612 


Constitution and Plan of Work for a local W. C. T. U— Plan of 
work of 1874— Plan of work for 1883 633 


We, the undersigned, representing as we do the fifty thou- 
sand women belonging to our National W. C. T. U. all over 
these United States, desire to make a statement of facts. 

When we found that the publishers of this book wished our 
National President, Miss Frances E. Willard, to be its author, 
we at once realized the delicate position in which she was 
placed as regarded her personal share in our work, and we 
determined to take that matter into our own hands. "We felt 
that the story of the work would be utterly incomplete without 
the story of one of the chief workers, and we also felt that it 
must be told fully and truly from our standpoint or not at all. 
We therefore secured the services of our gifted Mary A. 
Lathbury to prepare this sketch, and are ourselves reponsible 
for it in every particular, Miss Willard not having seen its 
contents until it was in print. The book is altogether hers, 
but this chapter is ours and ours alone. 

Mrs. Mary A. Woodbridge, I Mrs. Z. G. Wallace, 

Rec. Secretary National W. C. T. U. 

Mrs. L. M. N. Stevens, 

Assistant Recording Secretary. 

Miss Esther Pugh, 


Mrs. Sallie F. Chapin, 

Superintendent Southern Work. 

President Indiana W. C. T. U. 

Mrs. Mary T. Burt, 

President New York W. C. T. U. 

Mrs. J. E. Poster, 

Superintendent of Legislative Dep't. 

Mrs. T. B. Carse, 

Pres. W. T. P. Association, Chicago. 

Mrs. Hannah Whitall Smith, 

Superintendent Evangelistic Dep't. 





Author of " Out of Darkness into Light," etc. 

Ancestry and birth — Character of parents — Early life — Travel and 
life abroad — The "Human Question" — Elected President of Wo- 
man's College — The Teacher — Character and methods — Introduction 
to the public — Impressions of a journalist — Character and aims — 
Call to the temperance work — Earlier work — Gospel work — Jour- 
nalism — Birth of "Home Protection" — The great petition — Elected 
to the presidency of the National W. C. T. U. — Work — Incidents — 
Southern tours — Character as a woman — As a leader of women — As 
a type. 

66 " TE shall be like a tree," sang the Psalmist of the 

J L coming man, the highest type of the race. Why 

all men are not of New England elms, or California 
pines, may be accounted for, perhaps, but for the fact that 
there are so few " large " women in these days, who shall 
account ? The tree that lifts its fearless face to heaven, 
spreads its arms to the four quarters of the earth, and 
sends its roots to feed from a hundred secret springs, was 
never grown in a box, nor cut by conventional pruning- 
knives. This mental and moral "largeness" is as dis- 
tinctly the birthright of women as of men ; but the 
former have, as a class, been dwarfed in the training. 
Some have risen to exceptional moral height, with little 
lateral increase, while others have put forth root or 
branch in the one direction open to free growth. 

It is probable that Frances E. Willard came into her 
inheritance, in part, through fortunate parentage, for she 



is sprung from that strong New England stock which, 
when transplanted into Western soil, often finds the best 
conditions of growth. 

Major Simon Willard, who traced his line of descent 
to the time of the Conquest, came to America early in 
the seventeenth century. The ancestor of Senator Hoar 
and Major Willard, with a few others, founded Concord, 
Mass., the literary centre of New England. One of the 
Willards was president of Harvard University, and his 
son vice-president. One was pastor of the old South 
Church, and another the architect of Bunker Hill Monu- 
ment. Miss W T illard's grandfather (who was a grandson 
of Major Simon aforesaid) was pastor of one church, at 
Dublin, near Keene, N. H., forty years, and was a chap- 
lain throughout the Revolutionary War. Mrs. Emma 
Willard, the distinguished educator of Troy, N. Y.. is of 
the family, which through its generations, has thrown its 
activities largely into education, politics, and the pulpit. 
The family motto is " G-audet patentia duris" (patience 
rejoices in hardships), and the family name, Willard, 
means " one who wills." 

Miss Willard's mother was of excellent New England 
parentage. Her maiden name was Mary Thompson Hill, 
and she is closely related to the Clements, being a cousin 
of Rev. Dr. Jonathan Clement, of blessed memory in the 
Congregational annals of New England. Both parents 
were natives of Caledonia County, Vermont, removing 
early to Western New York, where their third daughter, 
Frances Elizabeth, was born, in Churchville, near Roch- 
ester. When she was three years of age the family 
removed to Obcrlin, 0., where for five years both parents 
devoted themselves to study (although both had been 
teachers), and then removed to Wisconsin. As " brain 
and brawn " were wisely used in the development of his 
large farm near Janesville, J. F. Willard soon became a 


leader in movements tending toward the development of 
the State. His farm was known to be the field of suc- 
cessful experiments, receiving premiums at the annual 
fairs, and he was appointed president of the State agri- 
cultural and horticultural societies. He was also promi- 
nent in politics for years, and a member of the State 

Mrs. Willard was a woman of grand ideas and aspi- 
rations, which were only to be wrought out indirectly 
through her children. As her daughter once said of her: 
" My mother held that nature's standard ought to be 
restored, and that the measure of each human being's 
endowment was the only reasonable measure of that 
human being's sphere. She had small patience with 
artificial diagrams placed before women by the dictum of 
society, in which the boundaries of their especial 'sphere' 
were marked out for them, and one of her favorite 
phrases was, ' Let a girl grow as a tree grows — according 
to its own sweet will.'" 

" She looked at the mysteries of human progress from 
the angle of vision made by the eye of both the man and 
the woman, and foresaw that the mingling of justice and 
mercy in the great decisions that affect society would give 
deliverance from political corruption and governmental 

During the years between eight and eighteen the child 
Frances grew in the free air, with leagues of prairie 
around her, her only companions her brother and sister; 
her books few, including no novels; her teachers a wise 
and gifted mother, and a bright, talented governess — 
Miss Annie R. Burdick — to whom she was devotedly 
attached. Education — not described by text-books and 
departments — was her daily food and inspiration, and 
was brought to the children through a thousand avenues 
that only a mother, with the divine intuitive gift that 


Froebel had, could have opened. There were " sermons 
in stones, books in the running brooks." The world's 
work was reproduced in miniature in the little household, 
that the children might learn to take part in it. The) 7 
had a board of public works, an art club, and a news- 
paper, edited by Frances, who also wrote a novel of four 
hundred pages which has never seen the light. Poems 
were written — a home-republic was formed, and the 
children trod their little world with the free step and the 
abandon that helped them to conquer it in after life. One 
took in life too largely for her early strength, and died at 
nineteen, and another fell in the midst of the work he 
began as a boy-journalist. The other, with a strength 
that is almost miraculous, lives to fulfill the unique 
destiny she always saw before her — undefined, yet certain, 
when she was still a child. 

At eighteen years of age, school-life, in the conventional 
sense, began. After a term at Milwaukee, in the college 
founded by Catherine Beecher, the family plan was 
changed, the farm sold, and Evanston, 111., chosen as the 
home ; for the parents still wisely held to the plan of 
combining home and school ; and as a college could not 
come to the home, the home must go to the college. 
The father became a banker, of the well-known firm of 
Preston, Willard & Kean, Chicago. In this beautiful 
suburban town the pretty cottage was built, which to 
mother and daughter are now sacred as the father's last 
gift. He died in 1868. Here the daughters graduated, 
and Mary, the one sister, lovely and beloved, was called 
into larger life — and from this point Frances Willard 
began to take up life with a new earnestness. 

The question that, as a little child, she had taken to 
her father — " I don't see Christ ; I don't feel Him ; tvhere 
is EeV — became the one question to be settled beyond 
doubt. And the fact that the beatific vision she longed 


to attain proved to be a revelation of " Christ in us " — 
the life of her own spirit — is the secret of her present 
relation to the moral issues upon which she has laid her 
hand. Some years of teaching followed in Evanston, 
Pittsburg, Pa., and Lima, N. Y. While teaching in the 
Female College at Pittsburg, Pa., she wrote " Nineteen 
Beautiful Years," a most interesting and touching memoir 
of the gifted Mary. It was published in 1864 by the 
Harpers, and is a little shrine holding much of the early 
life of both sisters. In 1868-70, as the guest of her 
friend, Miss Kate Jackson, she journeyed through Europe 
and the East. 

The rare opportunities of study in Paris, Berlin, and 
Rome were thoroughly improved, and nearly every Euro- 
pean capital was visited. In the " College de France " and 
" Petit Sorbonne " they attended the lectures of Laboulaye 
and Guizot the younger, Legouve", Chasles, Franck the 
historian, Chevalier the political economist, and a score 
of lesser lights. In one of a series of delightful letters, 
since published by her under the general title of "A School- 
mistress Abroad," we come upon this characteristic bit, 
after a ramble among the relics of French royalty : 

" It is good not to have been born earlier than the nine- 
teenth century ; and, for myself, I could have rested con- 
tent until the twenty-fifth, by which date I believe our 
hopeful dawn of Reason, Liberty, and Worship will have 
grown to noon-day. Oh ! native land — the world's hope, 
the Gospel's triumph, the Millenium's dawn ' are all with 
thee, are all with thee ! ' " 

The ladies traveled in Palestine, Egypt, Greece, and 
Asia Minor, looking into foreign mission stations on their 
way, sailing from Italy, and returning by the Danube. 
While absent Miss Willard wrote often for home papers — 
the New York Independent, Harper's Jfonthl?/, Tlie Chris- 
tian Union, and Chicago journals. She gathered much 


material for literary work, and the experience added 
breadth to her sight of character and countries. Witness- 
ing the condition of women in the East and in the 
greater part of Europe, she was led to a problem which 
has had large answer in her later life : " What can be 
done to make the world a wider place for women ? " 

The " human question," which she often affirms is 
much more to her than the " woman question," began to 
shape itself in her mind and weigh heavily upon her heart. 
Jean Francjois Millet, brooding over the burdened peas- 
antry, who were almost on the plane of the dumb clods 
of the fields in which they wrought, threw upon canvass 
the pathetic pictures which go far toward redeeming 
French art and awakening the French heart, It was the 
" human question " which possessed him. It was this 
question also, reaching out for solution to the circle near- 
est her — her own sex — that knit the brows and dropped 
a shadow into the clear eyes of our young traveler all the 
way from Paris to the Volga, and through the East. 

From that time she has been a lover of women. She 
saw that woman's condition has kept back civilization, as 
the stream does not rise higher than the spring that feeds 
it ; and she coveted for her countrywomen the " best 
gifts," to hold and to impart. 

In 1871 she was elected President of the Woman's 
College, at Evanston, (an institution with none but 
women among Trustees or Faculty,) and there developed 
her plan of " self-government " for the students, which 
was watched by many with extreme interest, and is now 
pursued with success by several educators. On the union 
of the College with the University, when it became 
impossible to carry out her plan of government, she 
resigned her position. 

One of her pupils during this time (now the wife of a 
college President) writes thus of Miss Willard in a private 


letter to a friend, after a graphic account of her rare 
work in the class-room : 

" In the most important part of her work as an educa- 
tor — the development of character — I can speak from the 
most intimate knowledge. In this I doubt if she ever 
had a superior, and but for Arnold of Rugby, I should 
have said an equal. Her power over the girls who came 
under her influence was most extraordinary. It is an 
amusing fact that some people regarded it with a mixture 
of wonder and fear, as something a little allied to witch- 
craft — an inexplicable spell not founded in reason. But 
she never used her personal power of winning friends for 
the mere purpose of gaining the friends. She never 
seemed to do anything from policy, nor to think whether 
she was " popular" or not. She was always planning for 
our happiness and welfare, and would go to any amount of 
trouble to gratify us. Then she was always reasonable. 
She never insisted that a thing must be simply because 
she had said so, but was perfectly willing to see and 
acknowledge it if she herself was in the wrong. Her 
ideals of life and character were very high, and she suc- 
ceeded in inspiring her girls with a great deal of her own 
enthusiasm. I never, at any other period of my life, 
lived under such a constant, keen sense of moral respon- 
sibility, nor with such a high ideal of what I could become, 
as during the years in which I so proudly called myself 
one of ' her girls.' " 

Says another, now near her in the work of life : 
" Were one to ask the salient features of her work as a 
teacher, the reply should be : the development of indi- 
vidual character along intellectual and moral lines ; the 
revelation to her pupils of their special powers and voca- 
tion as workers, her constantly recurring question being not 
only ' What are you going to be in the world ?' but ' What 
are you going to do ? ' so that, after six months under 


her tuition, each of her scholars had a definite idea of a 

From a concise report of Miss Willard's method of 
self-government already published, we quote : 

" Practically she opened school without rules, but when 
an error in conduct occurred she stated it (impersonally) 
in chapel, submitted a rule to cover the case, and put its 
adoption to vote among the young ladies ; and she never 
failed in the unanimous adoption of the rule offered, even 
the guilty condemning their own acts. Thus her rules 
became a growth that shadowed all defects, with " the 
consent of the governed," and were seldom violated. She 
did not even call them rules, but ' regulations of the code 
of courtesy,' the. point being that to obey them was 
merely the courtesy of each toward all. Pupils who 
kept the code through a half year entered a 'Eoll of 
Honor Society.' This was the intellectual gymnasium of 
the college, and was made measurably responsible for the 
behavior of its members, being allowed certain privileges, 
such as attendance upon evening lectures, etc., without 
special permit, but strictly upon their honor as to points 
of propriety ; and the young lady who preserved a blame- 
less record in this society during one year was advanced 
to the ' corps of the self-governed,' having no school moni- 
tor but the following pledge : 

" 'I promise, by God's help, so to act in respect to my 
conduct and habits that, if every member of this college 
acted in the same way, the greatest good to the greatest 
number would be secured.' 

" Miss Willard found this system to secure not only 
good order, but also respectful affection for teachers, and 
to develop in her pupils a womanly self-respect and dig- 
nity of character." 

About two thousand pupils have been under her instruc- 
tion in the different colleges in which she taught. 



There was apparently more of accident than design in 
Miss Willard's introduction to the public as a speaker. 
While in Palestine she had visions of a new crusade 
which the Christian women of her country might enter 
upon, and the development of a new chivalry — the chiv- 
alry of justice — which gives to woman a fair chance to 
be all that God designed her to be. She spoke of it in a 
women's missionary meeting in Chicago, after her return. 
The next day a Methodist layman of wealth called upon 
her, and after urging upon her the development and use 
of God's gift to her — the ability to stand before assemblies 
" in His name " — he proposed to gather an audience for 
her in one of the large city churches, if she would address 
it. She laid the matter before her mother (blessed be 
the mothers who have open vision !), who said : " By all 
means, my child, accept ; enter every open door." 

She did accept, and spoke to a large audience that 
received her with the utmost cordiality. Several city 
papers reported her words, so that within two weeks she 
had received scores of requests to speak from all parts of 
the northwest. 

As it was soon after this that she entered upon her 
work in the Women's College at Evanston, she gave her- 
self few opportunities to speak in public gatherings ; but 
notwithstanding this she was ranked by many, among 
them an editor of the New York Independent, as holding 
the " first place among women who speak." 

From an article by James Clement Ambrose, whom we 
have already quoted, in Potter's American Monthly for 
May, 1882, we extract the following graceful tribute to 
Miss Willard : 

" As a public speaker, I think Miss Willard is without 
a peer among women. Willi much of the Edward Everett 
in her language, there is more of the Wendell Phillips in 
her manner of delivery. She is wholly at home, but not 


forward on the platform, with grace in bearing, ease and 
moderation in gesture, and in her tones there are tears 
when she wills. It is the voice books call ' magnetic ' — a 
spell is in it to please and carry away. It is musical and 
mellow, never thin, and on an exceptionally distinct 
articulation, winds away to remotest listeners as sound 
from the silvery bells of the Sabbath. Altogether she 
wears the emphasis of gentleness under profound convic- 
tion. She never impresses her hearers as a speaker on 
exhibition, yet she has not despised the use of aids, but 
early in her public work took counsel of a celebrated 
elocutionist, and she attributes much of her ease in 
speech to her mother as a model. In her seasons of 
larger leisure she has been a wide reader of the thought- 
ful authors. To Arnold of Rugby, Frederic W. Robertson, 
and John Stuart Mill, especially in his ' Subjection of 
Women,' she concedes the greatest influence over her 
mind. Among women, they whose writings have done 
most to mould her are Elizabeth Barrett Browning, 
Margaret Fuller, and Frances Power Cobbe." 

In October, 1874, a voice that had been thrilling her 
strangely wherever she heard a sound of it, came to her 
with a personal appeal. It was from the Woman's 
Christian Temperance Union, and the invitation to work 
with them was gladly accepted. She saw, with the clear 
intuition which is peculiar to her, that the little " root 
out of dry ground" was His promise of that which was 
to cover the land with a banyan-like growth. Said she, 
later: " I was reared on a western prairie, and often have 
helped to kindle the great fires for which the West used 
to be famous. A match and a wisp of dry grass were all 
we needed, and behold the magnificent spectacle of a 
prairie on fire, sweeping across the landscape, swift as a 
thousand untrained steeds, and no more to be captured 
than a hurricane ! Just so it is with the Crusade 


When God lets loose an idea upon this planet, we vainly 
set limits to its progress ; and I believe that Gospel 
Temperance shall yet transform that inmost circle, the 
human heart, and in its widening sweep the circle of 
home, and then society, and then, pushing its argument 
to the extreme conclusion, it shall permeate the widest 
circle of them all, and that is, government." 

So closely identified had she become with the woman- 
hood of our country, that the question came very dis- 
tinctly to her as a representative woman, " Who knoweth 
if thou be come into the kingdom for such a time as 
this?" The old feeling of being born to a work, a 
" destiny," had passed over from her own personality to 
the sex with which she is identified, as it is now passing 
over to the race, the "woman question" becoming the 
" human question " 

There is much to be written from this point which 
cannot be brought within the limits of this sketch. It 
would be an unnecessary re-writing of the history of the 
Woman's Temperance Movement. This seed of the king- 
dom, after its wonderful planting in Ohio during the 
winter and spring of 1873-4, was beginning to bear fruit 
through the Middle and Western States. In August of 
that year, at Chautauqua, the " birthplace of grand ideas," 
the Women's Christian Temperance Union was born. A 
convention was called for November of the same year, at 
Cleveland, Ohio, and the National W. C. T. U. was then 
organized, with Miss Willard as Corresponding Secretary. 
It was at this Convention that she offered the resolution 
which, springing from the inspirations and the aspirations 
of the hour, has proved to be, in its spirit, a glory and a 
defence : " Realizing that our cause is combated by mighty 
and relentless forces, we will go forward in the strength 
of Him who is the Prince of Peace, meeting argument 
with argument, misjudgment with patience, and all our 


difficulties and dangers with prayer." Her work grew 
with the growth of the Union, and that growth was 
largely due to the tireless pen and voice and brain of its 
Corresponding Secretary. 

While holding this office there occurred two episodes — 
apparent digressions — which did not, however, sever her 
connection with the Temperance work. In 1876-7, on 
invitation from Mr. Moody, she assisted him in the Gospel 
work in Boston for several months. Her hope in under- 
taking this enterprise was that the Temperance work 
might be united with the Gospel work, and brought with 
it to the front. The meetings for women, filling Berkeley 
and Park Street churches, and her words before the thou- 
sands gathered in the great Tabernacle, are memorable. 

Says one who lives " in the Spirit " as few women do, 
" I have never been so conscious of the presence of the 
Divine power, the unction of the Holy One, in the minis- 
try of the Word, as under the preaching of Miss Willard." 

In this connection we are tempted to quote from a pub- 
lished statement recently made by Miss Willard : 

" The deepest thought and desire of my life would have 
been met, if my dear old Mother Church had permitted 
me to be a minister. The wandering life of an evangelist 
or a reformer comes nearest to, but cannot till, the ideal 
which I early cherished, but did not expect ever publicly 
to confess. While I heartily sympathize with the progres- 
sive movement which will ere long make ecclesiastically 
true our Master's words, 'There is neither male nor female 
in Christ Jesus' ; while I steadfastly believe that there is 
no place too good for a woman to occupy, and nothing too 
sacred for her to do, I am not willing to go on record as 
a misanthropic complainer against the church which I 
prefer above my chief joy." 

The second episode was in 1878, when Miss Willard 
undertook a forlorn hope — the chief-editorship of the 


Chicago Post, a daily evening paper, from which position 
her only brother, Oliver A. Willard, had been suddenly 
stricken down. With the generous enthusiasm and faith 
in the right that is a part of her, she took up the work, 
assisted by her brother's widow, and bravely carried it to 
the result long foreseen by all who knew the financial 
incubus that had for years been wearing out its life. But 
her love was larger than her strength. 

Oliver Willard was an only son and brother, the pride 
of the family, of which no member, perhaps, was more 
gifted, genial, and beloved. He had the best advantages 
of education, and made a brilliant record as speaker, 
writer, and editor. His last year was the brightest of his 
life, for he turned to God for strength as never before, 
although he had known much of what Christ can do for 
human hearts. He conducted a Bible-class of one hund- 
red young men, and spoke in religious and temperance 
meetings with remarkable power. Few have made more 
convincing appeals to tempted men than he did. He died 
in the calmness of Christian faith, saying to his beloved 
wife, " All your prayers for me are answered." . The 
wife, Mrs. Mary Bannister Willard, is a rarely gifted 
woman, with special talent and experience in journalism. 
She was the dearest school friend of Miss Willard, and 
they are now side by side in the work of the W. C. T. U., 
she being the editor of the organ of the National Union, — 
Our Union- Signal, published at Chicago. 

Miss Willard is the originator of the Home Protection 
movement. It came to her like a revelation in the spring 
of the centennial year, on a Sabbath morning, in Colum- 
bus, the capital of the " Crusade State." As she then and 
there knelt before God, it was borne in upon her spirit 
that the ballot in woman's hand as a weapon of " home 
protection," ought to be " worked for and welcomed." 

She has been, from the first, some years in advance of 


the times ; but with the patience characteristic of faith and 
foresight, she has endeavored to " slow " her steps to the 
pace of the more cautious and hesitant among her co-la- 
borers, that the unity of the spirit might be kept in the 
bond of peace. She does not believe in the " total de- 
pravity of inanimate things," and has no fear of a vote or 
a ballot-box, if they can be used by men or women as a 
means of defence against the influx of evil. She does 
believe in the Word, which says ; " All things are yours." 
Believing that whatsoever dwarfs woman dwarfs man, 
she has looked with strong desire toward the day when 
women shall be able to speak and act for the help of 
humanity cf both sexes ; and from advocating, as she did 
in the beginning of the Home Protection movement, a 
limited suffrage for women — local option — that should 
help to control the sale of liquor in their own locality, she 
came in August, 1881, to earnestly urge upon a convention 
of temperance workers at Lake Bluff complete enfranchise- 
ment, and in that gathering of representative men and 
women from twelve States, all identified with the tem- 
perance reform, the following plank was almost unani- 
mously placed in the platform of the National Home Pro- 
tection party, then organized : 

"A political party whose platform is based on constitu- 
tional and statutory prohibition of the manufacture and 
sale of alcoholic beverages in the State and the nation is 
a necessity : and in order to give those who suffer most 
from the drink curse a power to protect themselves, their 
homes, and their loved ones, the complete enfranchise- 
ment of women should be worked for and welcomed." 

At the national convention of the W. C. T. U. in 
Washington, two months later, this advanced position was 
not formally endorsed, but every State union was declared 
free to labor for suffrage if it chose. In the South Miss 
Willard has made no public allusion to this branch of 


temperance work, though frankly stating her opinions 
whenever questioned on the subject. Recognizing the 
right of each State to select such methods as are adapted 
to its sentiment, she has desired the ladies of the South 
to make their own free choice, and this mooted question 
has not come up at all. 

The growth of the idea is equally marvelous. It was 
first projected in the form of petition in Illinois in 1879, 
while Miss Willard was president of the State union. It 
promised nothing; it only petitioned; but there was so 
much of promise — more of prophecy — in the whole move- 
ment, that we already seem to see the cap-stone lifted to 
its place " with shoutings, crying ' Grace, grace unto it ! '" 

She and her indefatigable coadjutors wrought like bees 
all through Illinois, and the result was a petition over two 
hundred and fifteen yards long and containing 180.000 
names (80,000 of them voters), one of the largest petitions 
ever sent to any legislative body. It was placed on the 
calendar of the House as the "Hinds bill" (named from 
the Senator who presented it). Most efficient among the 
thousands who aided in preparing the great petition was 
Miss Anna Gordon of Boston — Miss Willard' s private 
secretary — whose quiet and persistent labors have accom- 
plished so much to increase the efficiency of her chief in 
the last six years of their united toil. 

The bill was laid in apparent death, but the spirit of it 
was by no means " laid." It is seen in almost every 
State in the Union, and it bore a banner at the polls in 
Iowa in the spring of '82, where Miss Willard had spoken 
in thirty towns, and Mrs. J. Ellen Foster had wrought 
like Judith of old. Later it was publicly wedded to the 
Independent Prohibition Party. 

The cry " For God, and Home and Native Land," 
which Miss Willard sent out as wings to the young Home 
Protection idea, has since become the motto of the National 


W. C. T. U., and is fast being wrought into the fibre of a 
national party. 

In 1879 Miss Willard was elected to the presidency of 
the National Union, and since that time this body of 
workers has expressed in a marked degree in its delibera- 
tive councils, and in the work of State and local organi- 
zations, the spirit and wisdom of its leader. Says one of 
her fellow-workers : " In the temperance field, she is the 
same as in the educational ; constantly developing methods 
of work and individual workers, so that the Woman's 
Christian Temperance Union has brought out nearly forty 
distinct departments." 

As an organizer Miss Willard has no equal among our 
women. Her office is not only to plan work, but to be 
the life and inspiration of the workers. And in order to 
be this she not only freely uses her pen (she and her 
secretary wrote ten thousand letters, aside from literary 
work, during 1881), but is almost constantly on the wing, 
going at the call of the cause to plant or encourage new 
organizations ; to confer with workers in council ; to speak, 
at the request of leading thinkers and workers, of the 
moral questions of the day from a woman's point of view, 
and always and everywhere to give enough of herself to 
others to quicken the currents of life and touch new 
springs of activity into motion. 

At the close of the Hayes administration, when that 
representative of the best American womanhood, Lucy 
Webb Hayes, retired from the White House, the women 
of the country, led by Miss Willard, executed a plan for 
placing the portrait of Mrs. Hayes in the Presidential 
mansion. It was painted by Huntington, at one time Presi- 
dent of the Academy of Design, New York, and afterward 
engraved by Barrie,of Philadelphia. After its unveiling at 
a great meeting at Lincoln Hall, it was presented by Miss 
Willard to President Garfield in the White House, and 


now hangs in the Green Parlor in a carved frame 
executed by the ladies of the Cincinnati Academy of 

Miss Willard's two trips through the south in 1880-81 
and 1881-82 were important steps in the only true policy 
of " reconstruction." In the first she was accompanied 
through some of the States by Mrs. Georgia Hulse McLeod 
of Baltimore, a cultured southern lady, who assisted in 
the organization of societies. In Charleston she met Mrs. 
Sallie F. Chapin, a lady of large influence and ability, who 
has since become superintendent of the southern work. 
At this time she organized Women's Christian Temper- 
ance Unions in Maryland, Virginia, North and South 
Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkan- 
sas, Tennessee, and Kentucky, and included in the trip 
the Indian Territory. The second trip included points in 
Arkansas, and thirty towns in Texas, Louisiana, Missis- 
sippi, and several other States. 

At the present writing — the close of 1882 — she begins 
a third southern and western tour, when, if successful in 
carrying out her plans, she will have presented the gospel 
of temperance to the important towns of each State and 
Territory of the Union, and the provinces of Canada. 

" It is a hard life," sighs somebody, reading this sketch 
in the sheltering home, surrounded by love and luxury. 
But here the words of the Lord Jesus sound strangely 
prophetic: "There is no man that hath left house, or 
brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or chil- 
dren, or lands for my sake and the gospel's, but he shall 
receive an hundred fold now in this time — houses, and 
brethren, and sisters, and mothers, and children, and 
lands, with persecutions, and in the world to come eternal 
life." To illustrate this comes the recollection of a late 
letter of invitation to visit Miss Willard in one of the 
rarest homes in this or any land, in which the following 


passage occurs : " You may feel as free as the air, for as 
long as Frank is here it is her house, and she is to order 
all its goings out and comings in." 

And this is one of the thousands of homes all over our 
country that are hers, and the people in them are her 
sisters, and brethren, and fathers, and mothers, in a sense 
that must grow more strong and blessed forever, because 
the relationship and the possession is founded in the 

One who knows her life thoroughly as a woman, and as 
a leader of women, says: 

" To no one more than to Miss Willard do those words 
of Christ belong, ' Whosoever of you will be the chiefest 
shall be servant of all, for even the Son of Mali came not 
to be ministered unto, but to minister.' They are ex- 
pressed in the spirit of her life and conduct as in that of 
no other woman I have ever known." 

And as we glance at the marginal reading of " servant 
of all" — "bond-servant'''' — we are reminded that the in- 
crease of service that has come to her in these last years, 
and her consciousness of it, has laid upon her still 
stronger bonds to serve, and the bondage is — love. 

There are many things from this point of view which 
those who arc nearest her in the work of life, and in the 
sight of the eternal verities, would be glad to have here 
expressed for them, for her friends feel always that the 
woman is larger than her work, and their love for her is 
far greater than their admiration for what she has done. 
But a sense of what she would prefer forbids more than 
this meagre outline of her life and work. It must, how- 
ever, be added that as an educator of women in the wider 
sense; as an emancipator from conventionalities, preju- 
dices, narrowness; and as a representative, on a spiritual 
plane, of the new age upon which we are entering, she 
take3 her place with the foremost women of our time. 


The annual meeting of the National Women's Christian 
Temperance Union for 1882, in Louisville, Ky, — held a few 
months before the writing of this sketch — not only illus- 
trated the results of the educating influence of a woman 
upon women, but was in a remarkable degree a proof of 
what may prevail in congress or conventicle if only the 
Spirit of Christ rule the heart of the ruler. A citizen 
thus comments upon it in the Evening Post: 

" I was a much interested witness to the proceedings 
of the Women's Christian Temperance Union on Wednes- 
day, and was vividly struck with some of the differences 
between it and male convocations of similar size and 
scope. The suavity and dignity of the presiding officer, 
Mis 5 Willard, the mild and even affectionately respectful 
manner of each sister to all the others, impressed me with 
the peculiar fitness of women to preside over and conduct 
the business of a large audience. There was no jarring and 
grating about parliamentary ethics; no discord, no calling 
to order, but business was done decently and in order, 
and impressed me as being as far ahead of any male 
assemblages which meet in our city as a prayer-meeting 
is ahead of a corn-husking." 

Says another who looked deeper : " God was there, and 
we all knew it." 

At the election of officers, when the tellers declared 
that, without one dissenting vote, Frances E. Willard was 
re-elected President of the National Union, by representa- 
tives from thirty States, a wave of joy broke over the 
whole assembly. The great audience rose to its feet with 
a single impulse, and by waving of handkerchiefs and the 
singing of a doxology, expressed the feeling of the hour. 

Loyalty to the woman, in or out of her work, is shared 
alike by men and women, for the former are never an- 
tagonized by her in speech or spirit, and the latter know 
that while she has great faith in men, she has greater 


faith in men and women, or, as she has expressed it, 
the "going forth hand in hand, of the two halves of 
humanity." A profound belief in the second incarnation 
of Christ in the body of humanity accounts for the fact 
that with her the race interest overshadows the love of 
self or of her sex. 

The "largeness" referred to at the opening of this 
paper belongs no more to her mental and moral nature 
than to the affectional, as all who know her " heart to 
heart" will testify. Nor will these testify alone. The 
young girl with gifts, and no money — the woman who 
has lost heart and hope — the young collegian struggling 
with his doubts — the poor fellow who is in the "last 
ditch" — even a stranger, perhaps — will, with scores of 
their class, speak with a glow of the power of her sym- 
pathy — the real interest which can never say to famish- 
ing souls or bodies, " Be ye warmed and filled," without 
adding money, time, or influence to place them in relation 
with a means of support and hope. 

Miss Willard is distinctively a woman of the future. 
She is not a prophetess, but a prophecy, and one of the 
types of the larger and diviner womanhood which our 
land shall yet produce, and which all lands shall call the 
" fittest." 



The W. C. T. U. compared with other Societies — "Without a pattern 

and without a peer." 

I SHALL try to sketch, in the most practical manner, 
a subject of transcendent interest and importance. 
More than any other society ever formed, the Woman's 
Christian Temperance Union is the exponent of what is 
best in this latter-day civilization. Its scope is the broad- 
est, its aims the kindest, its history the most heroic. I 
yield to none in admiration of woman's splendid achieve- 
ments in church work and in the Foreign Missionary 
Society, which was my first love as a philanthropist, but 
in both instances the denominational character of that 
work interferes with its unity and breadth. The same 
is true of woman's educational undertakings, glorious as 
they are. Her many-sided charities, in homes for the 
orphaned and the indigent, hospitals for the sick and 
asylums for the old, are the admiration of all generous 
hearts, but these are local in their interest and result 
from the loving labors of isolated groups. The same is 
true of the women's prisons and industrial schools, which 
are now multiplying with such beneficent rapidity. Nor 
do I forget the sanitary work of women, which gleamed 
like a heavenly rainbow on the horrid front of war ; but 
noble men shared the labor as they did the honor on that 
memorable field. Neither am I unmindful of the Woman's 
Christian Association, strongly intrenched in most of our 
great cities, and doing valiant battle for the Prince of 



Peace ; but it admits to its sacramental host only mem- 
bers of the churches known as " Evangelical." Far be it 
from me to seem indifferent to that electric intellectual 
movement from which have resulted the societies, literary 
and aesthetic, in which women have combined to study 
classic history, philosophy, and art; but these have no 
national unity ; or to forget the " Woman's Congress," 
with its annual meeting and wide outlook, but lack of 
local auxiliaries; or the '-Exchanges," where women, 
too poor or proud to bring their wares before the ] ublic, 
are helped to put money in their purse, but which lack 
cohesion; or the State and associated charities, where 
women do much of the work and men most of the super- 
intendence. But when all is said, the Woman's Chris- 
tian Temperance Union, local, State, and national, in the 
order of its growth, with its unique and heavenly origin, 
its steady march, its multiplied auxiliaries, its blessed 
out-reaching to the generous South and the far frontier, 
its broad sympathies and its abundant entrance minis- 
tered to all good and true women who are willing to 
clasp hands in one common effort to protect their homes 
and loved ones from the ravages of drink, is an organiza- 
tion without a pattern save that seen in heavenly vision 
upon the mount of faith, and without a peer among the 
sisterhoods that have grouped themselves around the 
cross of Christ. 

In the fullness of time this mighty work has been given 
us. Preceding ages would not have understood the end 
in view and would have spurned the means, but the nine- 
teenth century, standing on the shoulders of its predeces- 
sors, has a wider outlook and a keener vision. It has 
studied science and discovered that the tumult of the 
whirlwind is less powerful than the silence of the dew. 
It has ransacked history and learned that the banner and 
the sword were never yet the symbols of man's grandest 

"FOR god and home and native land." 41 

victories, and it begins at last to listen to the voice of 
that inspired philosophy, which through all ages has been 
gently saying : " The race is not always to the swift, 
neither the battle to the strong." 

Beyond the history of its origin but little can be writ- 
ten here concerning that spiritual prairie fire in the 
West, immortalized by fifty days of prayer, persuasion, 
and victory, and called " The Woman's Temperance 
Crusade." Its documentary history has been already 
furnished by Mrs. Wittemeyer ; its spirit lives in the 
organic form of the " W. C. T. U.," whose white ribboned 
host is in the field to-day fighting "for Crod and Home 
and Native Land." 


"W. C. T. U." 

Its objects — Hygiene — The "Religion of the Body" — Dress, econo- 
my of time — Value of a trained intellect — The coming of Christ 
into five circles: Heart; Home; Denominationalism ; Society; Gov- 
ernment — Home protection — "The Old Ship Zion, Hallelujah!" — 
Motto: "Mary stood the cross beside." 

THE W. C. T. U. stands as the exponent, not alone 
of that return to physical sanity which will follow 
the downfall of the drink habit, but of the reign of a 
religion of the body which for the -first time in history 
shall correlate with Christ's wholesome, practical, yet 
blessedly spiritual religion of the soul. " The kingdom 
of heaven is within you" — shall have a new meaning to 
the clear-eyed, steady-limbed Christians of the future, 
from whose brain and blood the taint of alcohol and nico- 
tine has been eliminated by ages of pure habits and noble 
heredity. " The body is the temple of the Holy Ghost," 
will not then seem so mystical a statement, nor one indi- 
cative of a temple so insalubrious as now. " He that de- 
stroyeth this temple, him shall God destroy," will be seen 
to involve no element of vengeance, but instead to be the 
declaration of such boundless love and pity for our race, 
as would not suffer its deterioration to reach the point of 
absolute failure and irremediable loss. 

The women of this land have never had before such 
training as is furnished by the topical studies of our 
society, in the laws by which childhood shall set out upon 
its endless journey with a priceless heritage of powers 
laid up in store by the tender, sacred foresight of those 



by whom the young immortal's being was invoked. The 
laws of health were never studied by so many mothers, 
or with such immediate results for good on their own 
lives and those of their children. The deformed waist 
and foot of the average fashionable American never 
seemed so hideous and wicked, nor the cumbrous dress of 
the period so unendurable as now, when from studying 
one " poison habit," our minds, by the inevitable laws of 
thought, reach out to wider researches and more varied 
deductions than we had dreamed at first. The econo- 
mies of co-operative house-keeping never looked so attrac- 
tive or so feasible as since the homemakers have learned 
something about the priceless worth of time and money 
for the purposes of a Christ-like benevolence. The value 
of a trained intellect never had such significance as since 
we have learned what an incalculable saving of words 
there is in a direct style, what value in the power of 
classification of fact, what boundless resources for illus- 
trating and enforcing truth come as the sequel of a well- 
stored memory and a cultivated imagination. The puer- 
ility of mere talk for the sake of talk, the un worthiness 
of " idle words," and vacuous, purposeless gossip, the 
waste of long and aimless letter-writing, never looked so 
egregious as to the workers who find every day too short 
for the glorious and gracious deeds which lie waiting for 
them on every hand. 

But to help forward the coming of Christ into all depart- 
ments of life, is, in its last analysis, the purpose and aim 
of the W. C. T. U. For we believe this correlation of New 
Testament religion with philanthropy, and of the church 
with civilization, is the perpetual miracle which furnishes 
the only sufficient antidote to current skepticism. Higher 
toward the zenith climbs the Sun of Righteousness, making 
circle after circle of human endeavor and achievement 
warm and radiant with the healing of its beams. First 


of all, in our gospel temperance work, this heavenly light 
penetrated the gloom of the individual, tempted heart 
(that smallest circle, in which all others are involved), 
illumined its darkness, melted its hardness, made it a 
sweet and sunny place — a temple filled with the Holy 

Having thus come to the heart of the drinking man in 
the plenitude of his redeeming power, Christ entered the 
next wider circle, in which two human hearts unite to 
form a home, and here, by the revelation of her place in 
His kingdom, He lifted to an equal level with her hus- 
band the gentle companion who had supposed herself 
happy in being the favorite vassal of her liege lord. 
" There is neither male nor female in Christ Jesus ; " this 
was the " open sesame," a declaration utterly opposed to 
all custom and tradition, but so steadily the light has 
shone, and so kindly has it made the heart of man, that 
without strife of tongues, or edict of sovereigns, it is 
coming now to pass that in proportion as any home is 
really Christian, the husband and the wife are peers in 
dignity and power. There are no homes on earth where 
woman is " revered, beloved," and individualized in char- 
acter and work, so thoroughly as the fifty thousand in 
America where " her children arise up and call her 
blessed, her husband also, and he praiseth her" because 
of her part in the work of our W. C. T. U. 

Beyond this sweet and sacred circle where two hearts 
grow to be one, Avhere the mystery of birth and the hal- 
lowed face of child and mother work their perpetual 
charm, comes that outer court of home, that third great 
circle which we call society. Surely and steadily the 
light of Christ is coming there, through the loving tem- 
perance Pentecost, to replace the empty phrase of punctilio 
by earnest words of cheer and inspiration ; to banish the 
unhealthful tyranny of fashion by enthroning wholesome 


taste and common sense; to drive out questionable 
amusements and introduce innocent and delightful 
pastimes; to exorcise the evil spirit of gossip and domes- 
ticate helpful and tolerant speech ; nay, more, to banish 
from the social board those false emblems of hospitality 
and good will, — intoxicating drinks. 

Sweep a wider circle still, and behold in that ecclesias- 
tical invention called " denominationalism," Christ com- 
ing by the union of His handmaids in work for Him ; 
coming to put away the form outward and visible that He 
may shed abroad the grace inward and spiritual ; to close 
the theological disquisition of the learned pundit, and 
open the Bible of the humble saint ; to draw away men's 
thoughts from theories of right living, and centre them 
upon right living itself ; to usher in the priesthood of the 
people, by pressing upon the conscience of each believer the 
individual commission, " Go, disciple all nations," and 
emphasizing the individual promise, " Lo, I am with thee 

But the modern temperance movement, born of Christ's 
gospel and cradled at His altars, is rapidly filling one 
more circle of influence, wide as the widest zone of 
earthly weal or woe, and that is government. " The gov- 
ernment shall be upon His shoulder." "Unto us a King 
is given." "He shall reign whose right it is." "He 
shall not fail, nor be discouraged until he hath set judg- 
ment in the earth." " For at the name of Jesus every 
knee shall bow, and every tongue confess that Christ is 
Lord to the glory of God the Father." "Thy king- 
don come, thy will be done on earthy Christ shall 
reign— not visibly, but invisibly ; not in form, but in fact; 
not in substance, but in essence, and the day draws nigh ! 
Then surely the traffic in intoxicating liquors as a drink 
will no longer be protected by the statute book, the law- 
yer's plea, the affirmation of the witness, and decision of 


the judge. And since the government is, after all, a cir- 
cle that include all hearts, all homes, all churches, all 
societies, does it not seem as if intelligent loyalty to 
Christ the King would cause each heart that loves Him 
to feel in duty bound to use all the power it could gather 
to itself in helping choose the framers of these more 
righteous laws ? But let it be remembered that for every 
Christian man who has a voice in making and enforcing 
laws there are at least two Christian women who have no 
voice at all. Hence, under such circumstances as now 
exist, His militant army must ever be powerless to win 
those legislative battles which, more than any others, af- 
fect the happiness of aggregate humanity. But the light 
gleams already along the sunny hilltops of the nineteenth 
century of grace. Upon those who in largest numbers 
love Him who has filled their hearts with peace and their 
homes with blessing, slowly dawns the consciousness that 
they may — nay, better still, they ought to — ask for power 
to help forward the coming of their Lord in government 
— to throw the safeguard of their prohibition ballots 
around those who have left the shelter of their arms only 
to be entrapped by the saloons that bad men legalize and 
set along the streets. 

" But some doubted." 

This was in our earlier National Conventions. Almost 
none disputed the value of this added weapon in woman's 
hand, — indeed, all deemed it " sure to come." It was 
only the old, old question of expediency ; of "frightening 
away our sisters among the more conservative." But 
later on we asked these questions : Has the policy of 
silence caused a great rallying to our camp from the 
ranks of the conservative ? Do you know an instance in 
which it has augmented your working force ? Are not 
all the women upon whose help we can confidently count, 
favorable to the " Do everything Policy" as the only one 

MOTTO. 47 

broad enough to meet our hydra-headed foe ? Have not 
the men of the liquor traffic said in platform, resolution, 
and secret circular, " The ballot in woman's hand will be 
the death-knell of our trade ? " 

And so to-day, while each State is free to adopt or 
disavow the ballot as a home protection weapon, and 
although the white-winged fleet of the W. C. T. U. in a 
score of States crowds all sail for constitutional prohibi- 
tion, to be followed up by " Home Protection," still though 
" the silver sails are all out in the West," every ship in the 
gleaming line is all the same a Gospel ship — an "old 
sh ip Zion — Hallelujah ! " 


"Jews were wrought to cruel madness, 
Christians fled in fear and sadness, 

Mary stood the cross beside. 
At its foot her foot she planted, 
By the dreadful scene undaunted, 
Till the gentle sufferer died. 

Poets oft have sung her story, 
Painters wreathed her brow with glory, 

Priests her name have deified. 
But no worship, song, or glory, 
Touches, like the simple story, 

Mary stood the cross beside. 

And, when under fierce oppression, 
Goodness suffers like transgression, 

Christ again is crucified. 
If but love be there, true-hearted, 
By no fear or terror parted, 

Mary stands tlie cross beside." 



Or why the Author is not a Critic. 

THE W. C. T. U. is a sort of mutual admiration 
society, or to put the matter more accurately, it is 
doing more than any other one influence to develop among 
women that esprit du corps, for lack of which they have 
been so sharply censured. Therefore, no apology is made 
for the good things hereinafter related, concerning those 
who have not yet attained obituary honors. 

" I thought before you died I'd just tell you how much 
I have always loved and honored you." This sentence, 
from a letter recently received, has in it matter for reflec- 
tion. It hints at one of the most unaccountable errors 
in our conduct of life's relationships. We speak our 
words of praise too late. We blow the trumpet of our 
approbation at the earnest worker's ear — but not until 
Death's ringer has closed it up forever. We utter at the 
graveside the tender words that might have kept sensitive 
souls with us in a new lease of life. We build monu- 
ments with money that, if bestowed upon the living toiler, 
would have re-enforced the wasted energies and re-awak- 
ened the declining courage. Dear friends, these things 
ought not so to be. I can speak freely to you who have 
been far more generous with me than I deserve. Let us 
as Temperance women be more thoughtful — all of us 
hereafter — lest we sing with sad regret some day, above 
the wearied and unconscious forms of beloved workers 

fallen : 

"Strange we never heed the music, 
Till the sweet-voiced bird is flown." 



It is believed that the sketches now to follow will for- 
ever release their author from the clutches of that style 
of remorse ! For the rest, while not oblivious to faults 
in the leaders herein described, it has seemed best to 
observe the rule of Coleridge in matters of criticism ; 
" Never look for defects ; they will present themselves 
unbidden." As to treating of said defects, the author 
has been largely governed by the spirit of the motto found 
on a sun dial at Naples : " I count only the hours that are 


Mrs. Judge Thompson of Hillsboro', Ohio— First Praying Band — 
First Saloon Prayer-meeting— Mrs. George Carpenter of Wash- 
ington Court House— Story of the great victories — Scene at a Na- 
tional W. C. T. U. Convention— Presentation of the Crusade Bed- 


THE date is memorable. Some day its anniversaries 
will be ranked among our national festivals. True, 
in Fredonia, New York, the protest of women against the 
snares men legalize under the name of "saloons" and 
" sample rooms" had begun, under the leadership of Mrs. 
Judge Barker, eight days before. True, in Washington 
Court House, Ohio, on the 24th, noble Mrs. Carpenter 
led a heroic band to a far grander victory. But the first 
eddy of that Whirlwind of the Lord, which in a few weeks 
had swept over the great State of Ohio, and grown to the 
huge proportions of the Woman's Temperance Crusade, 
began in Hillsboro', Ohio, December 23, 1873. By com- 
mon consent of her sisters in the united churches of the 
village where almost her whole life had been spent, Mrs. 
Eliza J. Thompson was chosen to lead the first band on 
its first visit to a saloon. Never did character and cir- 
cumstance conspire to form a central figure better suited 
to the significant occasion. "The first Crusader," a gen- 
tle-mannered lady of sixty years, had been from her 
early days a member of Christ's church and always 
prominent in charitable work, thus endearing herself to 
the class whose antagonism her new departure would 





naturally arouse. She is a wife, mother, and grand- 
mother, loving and beloved; with marks upon her face 
n\' the grief which renders sacred, which disarms criticism, 
and in this instance, has a significance too deep for tears. 
She is the only daughter of Governor Trimble, than whom 
Ohio never had a chief magistrate more true. 

Nearly forty years before, she had accompanied that 
noble father when he went as a delegate to the earliest 
national temperance convention, which was so small that 
its opening meeting was held in the dining-room of a 
Saratoga hotel of that period. Going with him to the 
door of this dignified assembly, where the white cravats 
of the clergy were a feature of prominence, the timid 
Ohio girl whispered, " 0, papa, I'm afraid to enter, those 
gentlemen may thing it an intrusion. I should be the 
only lady, don't you see ?" Upon this the Governor re- 
plied, "My daughter should never be afraid, even if she 
is alone in a good cause," and taking her by the arm, he 
drew her into the convention. What a prophecy was the 
first entrance of a woman — and this woman — upon a tem- 
perance convention made up of men ! Read its fulfillment 
in her now happy home, her lawyer husband's leadership 
of the home protection movement in Ohio, and in the 
procession of white-ribbon workers that belts the world 

Kneeling hand in hand with this dear friend and leader, 
in the room where first the " Crusade Psalm " was read and 
prayer of consecration offered, my heart was newly laid 
upon the altar of our blessed cause. Upon the thousands 
of faithful temperance women all over the land, let me 
lovingly urge some special annual commemoration of the 
twenty-third of December, as a day in which all our 
hearts shall be warmed with new love, stirred to fresh 
zeal, and lifted into clearer faith. 

It is worth while to preserve in her own language the 

54 DIO lewis' lecture. 

account of that strange " call " which came to Mrs. 
Thompson in 1873. She wrote it out for a near friend 
in the following words : 

" On the evening of Dec. 22, 1873, Dio Lewis, a Boston 
physician and lyceum lecturer, delivered in Music Hall, 
Hillsboro, Ohio, a lecture on ' Our Girls.' 

" He had been engaged by the Lecture Association 
some months before to fill one place in the winter course 
of lectures ' merely for the entertainment of the people.' 
But finding that he could remain another evening and 
still reach his next appointment (Washington C. H.), he 
consented to give another lecture on the evening of the 
23d. At the suggestion of Judge Albert Matthews, an 
old-line temperance man and Democrat, a free lecture on 
Temperance became the order of the evening. 

"T did not hear Dio Lewis lecture (although he was 
our guest), because of home cares that required my pres- 
ence, but my son, a youth of sixteen, was there, and he 
came to me upon his return home and in a most excited 
manner related the thrilling incidents of the evening — 
how Dr. Lewis told of his own mother and several of her 
good Christian friends uniting in prayer with and for the 
liquor sellers of his native town until they gave up their 
soul-destroying business, and then said, — ' Ladies, you 
might do the same thing in Hillsboro if you had the same 
faith,' — and, turning to the ministers and temperance men 
who were upon the platform, added, 'Suppose I ask the 
ladies of this audience to signify their opinions upon the 
subject?' They all bowed their consent, and fifty or more 
women stood up in token of approval. He then asked the 
gentlemen how r many of them would stand as ' backers,' 
should the ladies undertake the work, and sixty or sev- 
enty arose. ' And now, mother,' said my boy, ' they have 
got you into business, for you are on a committee to do 
some work at the Presbyterian Church in the morning at 


nine o'clock, and then the ladies want you to go out with 
them to the saloons.' 

k - My husband, who had returned from Adams County 
court that evening and was feeling very tired, seemed 
asleep as he rested upon the couch, while my son in an 
undertone had given me all the above facts ; but as the 
last sentence was uttered, he raised himself up upon his 
elbow and said, 'What torn-foolery is all that?' My son 
slipped out of the room quietly, and I betook myself to 
the task of consoling my husband with the promise 
that I should not be led into any foolish act by Dio Lewis 
or any association of human beings. But after he had 
relaxed into a milder mood, continuing to call the whole 
plan, as he understood it, ' tom-foolery,' I ventured to 
remind him that the men had been in the 'tom-foolery' 
business a long time, and suggested that it might be 
'God's will' that the women should now take their part. 
(After this he fell asleep quietly, and I resumed my Bible 
reading.) Nothing further was said upon the subject 
that had created such interest the night before until after 
breakfast, when we gathered in the ' family room.' First, 
my son approached me and gently placing his hand upon 
my shoulder, in a very subdued tone said, ' Mother, are 
you not going over to the church, this morning?' As I 
hesitated, and doubtless showed in my countenance the 
burden upon my spirit, he emphatically said, ' But, my 
dear mother, you know you have to go.' Then my 
daughter, who was sitting on a stool by my side, leaning 
over in a most tender manner, and looking up in my face, 
said, ' Don"t you think you will go?' All this time my 
husband had been walking the floor, uttering not a word. 
He stopped, and placing his hand upon the family Bible 
that lay upon my work-table, he said emphatically, ' Chil- 
dren, you know where your mother goes to settle all 
vexed questions. Let us leave her alone,' withdrawing 

56 146th psalm. 

as he spoke, and the clear children following him. I 
turned the key, and was in the act of kneeling before God 
and his ' holy word ' to see what would be sent me, when 
I heard a gentle tap at my door. Upon, I saw 
my dear daughter, with her little Bible open, and the 
tears coursing down her young cheeks, as she said, 'I 
opened to this, mother. It must be for you.' She imme- 
diately left the room, and I sat down to read the wonder- 
ful message of the great 'I Am' contained in the 146th 

"No longer doubting, I at once repaired to the Presby- 
terian church, where quite a large assembly of earnest 
people had gathered. 

" I was at once unanimously chosen as the President (or 
leader) ; Mrs. Gen. McDowell, Vice-President ; and Mrs. 
D. K. Finner, Secretary of the strange work that was to 

" Appeals were drawn up to druggists, saloon-keepers, 
and hotel proprietors. Then the Presbyterian minister 
(Dr. McSurely), who had up to this time occupied the 
chair, called upon the chairman-elect to come forward to 
the ' post of honor,' but your humble servant could not ; 
her limbs refused to bear her. So Dr. McSurely remarked, 
as he looked around upon the gentlemen : ' Brethren, 
I see that the ladies will do nothing while we remain ; let 
us adjourn, leaving this new work with God and the 

" As the last man closed the door after him, strength 
before unknown came to me, and without any hesitation 
or consultation I walked forward to the minister's table, 
took the large Bible, and, opening it, explained the inci- 
dents of the morning; then read and briefly (as my tears 
would allow) commented upon its new meaning to me. 
I then called upon Mrs. McDowell to lead in prayer, and 
such a prayer! It seemed as though the angel had 

mrs. gen. Mcdowell's prayer. 57 

brought down * live coals' from off the altar and touched 
her lips — she who had never before heard her own voice 
in prayer! 

'•As we rose from our knees (for there were none sitting 
on that morning), I asked Mrs. Cowden (our M. E. min- 
ister's wife) to start the good old hymn ' Give to the 
winds thy fears' to a familiar tune,* and turning to the 
dear women, I said:' As we all join in singing this hymn, 
let us form in line, two and two, the small women in 
front, leaving the tall ones to bring up the rear, and let 
us at once proceed to our sacred mission, trusting alone 
in the God of Jacob.' It was all done in less time than 
it takes to write it ; every heart was throbbing, and every 
woman's countenance betrayed her solemn realization of 
the fact that she was " going about her Father's business." 

As this band of " mysterious beings" first encountered 
the outside gaze, and as they passed from the door of the 
old church and reached the street beyond the large 
churchyard, they were singing these prophetic words : 

"Far, far above thy thought, 
His counsel shall appear, 
When fully He the work hath wrought 
That caused thy needless fear." 

On they inarched in solemn silence up Main street, first 
to Dr. Wm. Smith's drug store. After calling at all the 
drug stores, four in number, their pledge being signed by 
all save one, they encountered saloons and hotels with 
varied success, until by continuous, daily visitations, with 
persuasion, prayer, song, and Scripture readings, the 
drinking places of the town were reduced from thirteen 
to one drug store, one hotel, and two saloons, and they 
sold "very cautiously." Prayer meetings were held dur- 
ing the entire winter and spring every morning (except 
Sunday), and mass meetings in the evenings, at the M. 

*The tune was " St. Thomas." 


E. church one week and at the Presbyterian the next. 
This is, in brief, the story for which you have asked." 
- Mrs. Thompson also gives this record of 


" After visiting the drug stores, on the 24th of Decem- 
ber, 1873, our 'band' slowly and timidly approached the 
'first class saloon' of Robert Ward on High street, a 
resort made famous by deeds the memory of which nerved 
the heart and paled the cheek of some among the 
' seventy ' as they entered the ' open door ' of the ' witty 
Englishman,' as his patrons were wont to call the popular 
Ward. Doubtless he had learned of our approach, as he 
not only propped the door open, but, with the most perfect 
suavity of manner, held it until the ladies all passed in ; 
then, closing it, walked to his accustomed stand behind 
' the bar.' Seizing the strange opportunity, the leader * 
addressed him as follows : ' Well, Mr. Ward, this must 
seem to you a strange audience. I suppose, however, 
that you understand the object of our visit.' Robert by 
this time began to perspire freely, and remarked that he 
would ' like to have a talk with Dio Lewis.' Mrs. T. said : 
' Dr. Lewis has nothing to do with the subject of our 
mission. As you look upon some of the faces before you 
and observe the furrows of sorrow, made deep by the 
unholy business that you ply, you will find that it is no 
wonder we are here. We have come, not to threaten — 
not even to upbraid — but in the name of our Heavenly 
Friend and Saviour, and in His spirit to forgive, and to 
commend you to His pardon, if you will but abandon a 
business that is so damaging to our hearts and homes ! ' 

"The embarrassment and hesitation of the saloon- 
keeper were at once improved upon. The 'leader' said, 
softly, as she looked around upon those earnest faces : 

*Mrs. Thompson. 


'Let us pray.' Instantly all, even the liquor seller him- 
self, were upon their knees! Mrs. Dr. McSurely (wife of 
the Presbyterian minister) was asked to lead in prayer 
by Mrs. Thompson as they bowed together, but she de- 
clined. The 'spirit of utterance' then came upon the 
latter, and perhaps for the first time, in a saloon, w the 
heavens were opened,' and, as a seal of God's approval 
upon the self-sacrificing work there inaugurated, the 
' Spirit' came down and touched all hearts. 

As they arose from prayer dear Mrs. Daggett (now in 
Heaven) broke forth in her sweet, pathetic notes, all join- 
ing with her, 

" There is a fountain filled with blood, 
Drawn from Immanuel's veins; 
And sinners plunged beneath that flood, 
Lose all their guilty stains." 

The scene that followed was one fit for a painter or a 
poet, so beautifully was the spirit of our holy religion 
portrayed. Poor wives and mothers, who the day before 
would have crossed the street rather than walk by a 
place so identified with the woes and heart-aches of their 
" lost Eden," were now in tearful pathos pleading with 
this deluded " brother " to accept the world's Redeemer 
as his own. Surely " God is Love." 

* History of the Woman's Crusade at Washington 

Court House, Ohio. 

On the evening of December 24, 1873, the Lecture 
Association of Washington C. H. had in its course a lec- 
ture on " Our Girls," by Dio Lewis. During the evening 
he dwelt somewhat largely upon the havoc being made 
by tobacco and ardent spirits, and offered to suggest a 

* Wishing to have these important historic facts at first hand, I 
have obtained this sketch from Mr% Ustick, Secretary of the Praying 
Band at Washington C. H., Ohio. Mrs. George Carpenter, the central 
figure in this marvellous picture, is wife of the Presbyterian pastor 


new plan for fighting the liquor traffic, which, he asserted, 
if carefully adhered to, would close every saloon in the 
place in one week's time. 

The proposition was heartily accepted, and a meeting 
appointed for Christmas morning, at 10 o'clock, in the 
Presbyterian church. At the designated hour on Christ- 
mas morning a large congregation assembled in the Pres- 
byterian church, eager to see the plan of Dr. Lewis inau- 
gurated with all earnestness and prayer. "Awake! 
Awake ! Put on thy strength, Zion ! " was sung by the 
choir ; prayer by one of the pastors, and reading a Bible 
selection by Dr. Lewis, who at once proceeded to his work. 
He told the story of his mother's experience and efforts; 
his faith in woman's prayer, patience, and love, for 
the cure of intemperance, and his own unsuccessful 
attempts to organize the women in various cities for the 
past twenty-one years. For one hour argument, illustra- 
tion, appeal, and demonstration followed in rapid succes- 
sion, until at the conclusion of the address the entire 
audience were ready to heartily indorse the plan pre- 
sented, and there was organized one of the grandest re- 
formatory movements of the age — the movement now so 
well and fitly known as the Woman's Crusade. 

On motion of Dr. Lewis, three secretaries were elected, 
and instructed to report the names of all the women 
present, as a committee of visitation, whose duty it 
should be to go in a body to each of the saloons, and 
personally appeal to the proprietors of the same to stop the 
business at ©nee and seek other means of livelihood. This 
committee was to enlist for the war — that is, until the work 
was accomplished. Fifty-two women enrolled their names. 

On motion of Dr. Lewis, a secretary was appointed to 
take the names of a number of men, to be called a " Com- 
mittee of Responsibility," who should furnish pecuniary 
means needed in the prosecution of this work. Thirty- 
seven men gave their names as members of this committee. 



On motion of Dr. Lewis, the chair appointed Mrs. Geo. 
Carpenter, Mrs. A. C. Hirst, Mrs. A. E. Pine, and Mrs. 

B. Ogle, as a committee to draw up an appeal to our 
citizens engaged in the liquor business. Closing appeals 
of stirring power were made by Dr. Lewis and Rev. A. 

C. Hirst, and after a vote of thanks to Dr. Lewis for his 
work among us the meeting adjourned, to convene in the 
Methodist Church and hear the reports of the committees 

v Temperance was the all-absorbing theme on that day, 
around every Christian's board and upon all the street 
corners, rln the evening a prayer-meeting was held in 
the M. E. Church, at which time the Chairman of Com- 
mittee on Appeal, Mrs. Geo. Carpenter, reported the 
following : 


" Knowing, as you do, the fearful effects of intoxicat- 
ing drinks, we, the women of Washington, after earnest 
prayer and deliberation, have decided to appeal to you to 
desist from this ruinous traffic, that our husbands, broth- 
ers, and especially our sons, be no longer exposed to this 
terrible temptation,, and that Ave may no longer see them 
led into those paths which go down to sin, and bring both 
body and soul to destruction. We appeal to the better 
instincts of your own hearts, in the name of desolated 
homes, blasted hopes, ruined lives, widowed hearts, for 
the honor of our community, for our happiness ; for our 
good name, as a town ; in the name of the God who will 
judge you, as well as ourselves; for the sake of your own 
souls, which are to be saved or lost, we beg — we implore 
you, to cleanse yourselves from this heinous sin, and place 
yourselves in the ranks of those who are striving to ele- 
vate and ennoble themselves and their fellow-men; and 
to this we ask you to pledge yourselves." 

Which appeal was adopted, and has since been used 


very generally — not only in Ohio, but in several other 
^X On Friday morning, December 26, 1873, the meeting 
convened pursuant to adjournment, in the Methodist 
Episcopal Church .y The services were opened with sing- 
ing and prayer, and reading of the Scriptures. One hun- 
dred copies of the Appeal to Liquor Sellers were ordered 
to be printed and circulated throughout the community. 
Mrs. J. L. Vandeman and Mrs. Judge McLean were ap- 
pointed to lead the procession, Mrs. A. E. Pine to lead 
the singing, Mrs. M. V. Ustick as Secretary, and Mrs. 
Geo. Carpenter as Captain and Reader of the Appeal. 

And now came the most interesting moment of this 
meeting. More than forty of the best women in the 
community were to go forth on their errands of mercy .^ 
There was much trembling of hearts, much taking hold 
on God, much crying, and supplication in prayer. Such 
a scene was never witnessed in Washington C. H. 

Down the central aisle of the church inarched these 
women to their work, while the men remained, continu- 
ing in prayer to God, that He would be with these Avomen 
as they should go from place to place, with Christian 
song and prayer, to appeal, face to face, in their various 
places of business, to those men who were at work selling 
liquor — the tolling of the church bell keeping time to the 
solemn march of the women as they wended their way to 
the first drug store on the list. 

(The number of places within the city limits where 
intoxicating drinks were sold was fourteen — eleven 
saloons and three drug-stores.) Here, as in every place, 
they entered singing, every woman taking up the sacred 
strain as she crossed the threshold. This was followed 
by the reading of the appeal, and prayer ; then earnest 
pleading to desist from their soul-destroying traffic, and 
to sign the dealer's pledge. 


V The novel procession created the wildest excitement 
on the streets, and was the subject of conversation to the 
exclusion of all others. > The work of the ladies was 
thoroughly done. Not a den escaped. The procession 
entered by the front door, filling both the front and 
back rooms. Prayer, followed by Bible arguments, was 
the answer to the excuses of these men. Down into the 
cellar, everywhere, they went with the same eloquent 
plea : " We pray you to stop this ! " " We mean you no 
hurt ! " " We beg you to desist ! " In tears the mothers, 
wives, and sisters pleaded for their cause. 

/C Thus all the day they went from place to place, without 
stopping even for dinner or lunch till five o'clock, meeting 
with no marked success. But invariable courtesy was 
extended them ; not even their reiterated promise, " We 
will call again," seeming to offend. 

No woman who has ever entered one of these dens of ini- 
quity on such an errand, needs to be told of the heart- 
sickness that almost overcame them as they, for the first 
time, saw behind those painted windows or green blinds, 
and entered the little stifling "back-room," or found their 
way down winding steps into the damp, dark cellars, and 
realized that into such places many of those they loved 
best were slowly descending through the allurements of 
the brilliantly lighted drug-store, the fascinating billiard- 
table, or the enticing beer-gardens, with their syren 

A crowded house at night to hear the report of the 
day's work betrayed the rapidly increasing interest in 
this mission. V 

Saturday morning, December 27th, after an hour of 
prayer, an increased number of women went forth again, 
leaving a number of men in the church, who continued 
in prayer all day long. Every few moments the tolling 
bell cheered the hearts of the Crusaders by pealing forth 
the knowledge that another supplication had ascended 



for their success ; meanwhile notes of progress being sent 
by the secretary to the church from every place visited. 

On this day the contest really began, and, at the first 
place, the doors were found locked. With hearts full of 
compassion, the women knelt in the snow upon the pave- 
ment, to plead for the Divine influence upon the heart of 
the liquor dealer, and there held their first street prayer- 

At night the weary, but zealous workers reported at 
mass-meeting the various rebuffs, and the success in hav- 
ing two druggists sign the pledge not to sell, except upon 
the written prescription of a physician. 

The Sabbath was devoted to union mass meetings, with 
direct reference to the work in hand ; and on Monday the 
number of ladies had increased to nearly one hundred. 
That day, December 27th, is one long to be remembered 
in Washington as the day upon which occurred the first 
surrender ever made by a liquor-dealer, of his stock of 
liquors of every kind and variety, to the women, in an- 
swer to their prayers and entreaties, said stock being by 
them poured into the street. Nearly a thousand men, 
women, and children witnessed the mingling of beer, ale, 
wine, and whisky as they filled the gutters and were 
drank up by the earth, while bells were ringing, men and 
boys shouting, and women singing and praying to God, 
who had given the victory. 

But, on the fourth day, the campaign reached its height ; 
the town being filled with visitors from all parts of the 
country and adjoining villages. There was another public 
surrender and another pouring into the street of a larger 
stock of liquors than on the previous day, and more 
intense excitement and enthusiasm. 

Mass meetings were held nightly with new victories 
reported constantly, until on Friday, January 2d, one 
week from the beginning of the work, at the public meet- 
ing held in the evening, the secretary's report announced 


every liquor dealer unconditionally surrendered : some 
having shipped their liquors back to wholesale dealers, 
others poured them in the gutters, and the druggists all 
signed the druggist's pledge. 

Tims a campaign of prayer and song had, in eight days, 
closed eleven saloons, and pledged three drug-stores to 
sell only on prescription. 

At first men had wondered, scoffed, and laughed, then 
criticized, respected, and yielded 

Morning prayer and evening mass-meetings continued 
daily, and the personal pledge was circulated till over one 
thousand signatures were obtained. Physicians were 
called upon to sign a pledge not to prescribe ardent 
spirits when any other substitute could be found, and in 
no case without a personal examination of the patient. 

A property-holder's pledge was also circulated — pledg- 
ing men not to rent or lease property to be used as sa- 
loons, nor to allow any dealings of the liquor traffic to be 
carried on upon any premises belonging to them. This 
pledge was generally signed by holders of real estate. 

During this week came a plea for help from Hills- 
boro. In answer to that call, on Monday, January 12th, 
a committee consisting of Profs. Morehouse and Dean, 
and Mrs. Geo. Carpenter, Mrs. Judge McLean, Mrs. Judge 
Priddy, and Miss Anna Ustick, went to Hillsboro, 
spent the evening in attendance upon a mass-meeting 
there, and the next forenoon in prayer and conference 
with the workers, returning in time to attend the mass- 
meeting at home, bringing with them encouraging words. 

By this time the new method of fighting whisky be- 
gan to attract the attention of the press, and people in 
surrounding places ; and meetings were announced to be 
held in every village and school district in the county. 
Committees of ladies and gentlemen were sent out from 
"Washington C. H., to assist in these meetings. Commit- 
tees were also sent, by request, into all adjoining counties, 


the meetings being constantly kept up at home, and all the 
while gaining in interest. Early in the third week the dis- 
couraging intelligence came that a new man had taken out 
license to sell liquor in one of the deserted saloons, and 
that he was backed by a whisky house in Cincinnati to the 
amount of $5,000, to break down the movement. On Wed- 
nesday, the 14th, the whisky was unloaded at his room. 
About forty women were on the ground, and followed the 
liquor in, and remained, holding an uninterrupted prayer- 
meeting all day and until eleven o'clock at night. 

The next day — bitterly cold — was spent in the same 
place and manner, without fire or chairs ; two hours of 
that time the women being locked in, while the proprie- 
tor was off attending a trial. On the following day, the 
coldest of all the winter of 1874, the women were locked 
out, and stood on the street holding religious services all 
day long. 

Next morning a tabernacle was built in the street, just 
in front of the house, and was occupied for the double 
purpose of watching and prayer, through the day ; but 
before the night the sheriff closed the saloon, and the 
proprietor surrendered ; thus ended the third week. 

A short time after, on a dying bed, this four days' 
liquor dealer sent for some of these women, telling them 
that their songs and prayers had never ceased to ring in 
his ears, and urging them to pray again in his behalf ; so 
he passed away. 

About this time came word from Columbus that the 

Adair Liquor Law was in great danger of being repealed ; 

consequently the following communication was sent to 

every known temperance organization throughout the 

State : 

Washington C. H., Jan. 30, 1874. 

To the Secretary of Women's Temperance League at : 

Dear Sister :— By order of the entire board of our Temperance 
League, we send you an earnest request that you immediately appoint 

a reporter's graphic account. 69 

a committee of not less than six of the most earnest and effective 
workers, who shall be ready at an hour's notice to respond to the call 
embodied in the following resolution: 

Besotted, That the secretary of this meeting be requested to corre- 
spond with the ladies in all places where the temperance movement is 
now, or may be progressing, asking the same to appoint a delegation 
to appear at Columbus, when called, if any action of the legislature, 
threatening the safety of the Adair Liquor Law, may be contemplated. 

" Please notify us of your decision in the matter, forwarding us one 
name to whom we may telegraph if necessary." 

[Signed by the Secretary.] 

Responses poured in from all Leagues addressed, the 
word " Ready." But the law remained undisturbed that 

At this time the Cincinnati Commercial sent a reporter, 
Mr. J. H. Beadle, to investigate the rise of this movement, 
from whose graphic pen we quote the following, as a 
correct word-picture of. the occurrence: 

" I reached Washington C. H. at noon of January 20th, 
and seeking Mr. Beck's beer-garden found him in a state of 
terrible nervousness, as the ladies had spent the forenoon 
in front of this place. He evidently regarded me as a 
spy, but was much mollified when assured that I was only 
a journalist, and made a voluminous complaint in ' High 
Dutch' and low English : 

" 'I got no vitnesses. Dem vimens dey set ub a schob 
on me. But you don't bin a 'bitual drunkard, eh ? No, 
you don't look like him. Veil, coom in. Vot you vant, 
beer or vine ? I dells you, dem vimens is shust awful. 
Py shinks, dhey build a house right in der street, und stay 
mit a man all day, singin' und oder foolishness. But 
dhey don't get in here once agin, already.' 

" In obedience to his invitation, I had entered by the 
side door — the front was locked and barred — to find four 
customers indulging in liquor, beer, and pigs' feet. One 
announced himself as an ' original Granger,' a second as 
a ' retired sailor,' while the others were non-committal. 


They stated that two spies had just applied for admission 
— 'men who would come in and drink, then go away and 
swear they were habitual drunkards under the Adair law' 
— and that accounted for ]\lr. Beck's suspicions of me. 

"The Adair law I find everywhere to be the great 
horror of saloon-keepers. It allows any wife or child, or 
other relative directly interested, to prosecute for the sale 
of liquor to husband or father ; and almost any one may 
prosecute for the sale of liquor to a ' habitual drunkard.' 

" Whether such a law be just or constitutional, there is 
much dispute ; but it is evident that it gives great oppor- 
tunity for fraud and blackmailing. It is, however, just 
now the strong rock of defense of the Ohio temperance 
people ; and it may be that by its enforcement some 
saloon-keepers have been driven out of the business who 
would have withstood the prayers, of an archangel and 
all the tears that sorrowing pity ever shed. 

" Mr. Beck kept open house nearly all that night ; the 
sounds of revelry were plainly heard, and in the morn- 
ing several drunken men came into town, one of 
whom tumbled down in a livery stable and went to sleep 
on a manure pile, from which he was carried to the 
lock-up. Matters were evidently coming to a crisis, and 
I went out early; but the ladies reached there in force 
just before me. I met Mr. Beck hurrying into town to 
consult his lawyer, or, as he phrased it, 'to see mein 
gounsel vhen I no got some right to my own broberty.' 

" The main body of the ladies soon arrived, and took 
up a position with right center on the door-step, the wings 
extending each way beyond the corners of the house, and 
a rearward column along the walk to the gate. In ludi- 
crous contrast the routed revelers, who had been scared 
out of the saloon, stood in a little knot fifty feet away, 
still gnawing at the pigs' feet they had held on to in 

a lady's pb lter. 71 

their hurried flight : while I took a convenient seat on 
the fence. The ladies then sang: 

'O do not be discouraged, for Jesus is your friend, 
He will give you -race to conquer, and keep you to the end.' 

••As the twenty or more clear, sweet voices mingled in 

the enlivening chorus, 

• I'm glad I'm in tins array,' etc., 

the effect was inspiring. 1 felt all the enthusiasm of the 

occasion: while the pigs'-feet party, if they did not feel 

guilty, certainly looked so. The singing was followed by 

a prayer from Mrs. Mills Gardner. She prayed for the 

blessing of God >>n the temperance caus-e generally, and 

in this place particularly; then for Mr. Beck, his family 

and his friends, his house and all that loved him, and 

elosed with an eloquent plea for guidance in the difficult 

and delicate task they had undertaken. In one respect 

the prayer was unsurpassed : it was eminently fitting to 

the place and occasion. As the concluding sentences 

were being uttered, Mr. Beck and his 'gounsel' arrived. 

The ladies paid no attention to either, but broke forth in 

loud strains : 

' Must Jesus bear the cross alone? 
Xo, there's a cross for me,' 

when the lawyer borrowed some of my paper, whispering 
at the same time, ' I musl take down their names. Guess 
I shall have to prosecute some of them before we stop this 

" I should need the pen of an Irving and the pencil of 
a Darley to give any adequate idea of the scene. On one 
side a score of elegant ladies, singing with till the earnest- 
ness of impassioned natures ; a few yards away a knot of 
disturbed revelers, uncertain whether to stand or fly; 
half-way between, the nervous Beck, bobbing around like 
a case of fiddle-strings with a hundred pounds of lager- 
beer fat hung on them, and on the fence by the ladies a 

72 a lawyer's plea. 

cold-blooded lawyer and an excited reporter, scribbling 
away as if their lives depended on it. The scene was 
painful from its very intensity. 

" The song ended, the presiding lady called upon Mrs. 
Wendel, and again arose the voice of prayer, so clear, so 
sweet, so full of pleading tenderness, that it seemed she 
would, by the strength of womanly love, compel the very 
heavens to open and send down in answer a spark of 
divine grace that would turn the saloon-keeper from his 
purpose. The sky, which had been overcast all the morn- 
ing, began to clear, the occasional drops of rain ceased to 
fall, and a gentle south wind made the air soft and balmy. 
It almost seemed that nature joined in the prayer. Again 
the ladies sang, 

'Are there no foes for roe to face? ' 

with the camp-meeting chorus : 

' O, how I love Jesus, 
Because he first loved me.' 

As the song concluded, the lawyer suddenly stepped for- 
ward and said : ' Now, ladies, I have a word to say before 
this performance goes further. Mr. Beck has employed 
me as his attorney. He can not speak good English, and 
I speak for him here. He is engaged in a legitimate busi- 
ness, and you are trespassers on his property and right. 
If this thing is carried any further you will be called to 
account in the court, and I can assure you that the court 
will sustain the man. He has talked with you all he 
desires to. He does not want to put you out forcibly, as 
that would be unmanly, and he cfoes not wish to act 
rudely ; but he tells you to go, and, as his attorney, I now 
warn you to desist from any further annoyance.' 
"Again the ladies sang, 

' My soul, be on thy guard, 
Ten thousand foes arise,' 


when Miss Annie Ustick followed with a fervent prayer 
for the lawyer and his client ; but they had fled the scene, 
leaving the house locked up. After consultation the 
ladies decided to leave Mr. Beck's premises and take a 
position in the adjoining lot. They sent for the ' taber- 
nacle,' a rude frame building they had used in front of 
Slater's saloon. This they erected on an adjoining lot, 
put up immense lights to illuminate the entrance to the 
beer garden, and kept up a guard from early morn till 

For two weeks religious services were held in the 
Tabernacle day and night, and the women were con- 
stantly on duty, at the end of which time an injunction 
was granted Mr. Beck, and the Tabernacle was taken 
down. Suits were then in progress against the two beer 
sellers, under the Adair Law, and judgments were being 
obtained in various amounls, the ladies appearing in force 
in the court room during each trial, thus giving their 
moral support to their suffering sisters. 

On Friday, February 6th, another man opened a beer 
saloon in a new locality. The ladies immediately visited 
him by committees, and thus spent the day. Next day, 
however, they took up their stand in front of his door, 
continuing their services late into the evening, at which 
time their force was increased by the entire congregation 
at mass meeting, who chose to conclude their services in 
unison with the watchers before the saloon. 

Temperance was still the pulpit theme on the Sabbath, 
and on Monday morning, February 9th, all the business 
houses were closeu 1 from 8 to 9, to attend the business 
men's prayer meeting. Large delegations were present 
from adjoining villages at that early hour. At the meet- 
ing there came a messenger from this man stating that 
he would give up his business, which announcement was 
received with cheers. It was then decided that all wjio were 


not enjoined from so doing should march out to Mr. Beck's 
beer garden, where the proprietor met them at the gate, 
and after a brief consultation with a committee appointed 
for that purpose, he publicly announced : " You comes so 
many I quits. I will never sell any more beer or whisky." 
Again the crowd gave vent to their feelings in cheers. 
Messengers were dispatched to the women who remained 
praying in the church, to join them. All the bells com- 
menced ringing, and the procession, numbering 200 
strong, started out to Sullivan's beer house, now the only 
remaining saloon in the township. Marching up Court 
Street the number increased, and, amid the most profound 
silence, the men and women pursued their journey. 
About half-way there the man in question was met and 
interviewed. He asked two days to consider, which were 
granted. The procession then returned, the bells all the 
time ringing out their chimes upon the crisp morning air. 
Meetings, morning and evening, continued with unabated 
interest, and at each came to us the cry from other points : 
" Come and help us." 

On Wednesday morning, February 11th, at mass meet- 
ing in the Presbyterian Church, Mr. Sullivan came and 
publicly pledged himself to " quit, forever, the liquor 
business." A general rejoicing and thanksgiving followed 
this surrender of the " last man." 

Thus, through most of the winter of 1874, no alcoholic 
drinks were publicly sold as a beverage. 

As Dr. Dio Lewis had .signified his intention of again 
visiting our village on Tuesday, February 17th, that day 
was appointed as one of general rejoicing and thanksgiv- 
ing. Accordingly arrangements Avere made for a mass 
meeting to be held in Music Hall at 2 P. M. At 1.80 a 
thousand people were gathered at the depot awaiting the 
arrival of the train. Promptly at the hour, Dr. Lewis, 
accompanied by quite a corps of newspaper men, alighted 


from the car. and was greeted with music from the band 
and cheers from the vast concourse of people, who im- 
mediately proceeded to the hall, where the following brief 
words of welcome were addressed to him by Mrs. Geo. 
Carpenter : 

" Dr. Lewis: In the name of the women of Washing- 
ton, I welcome you. Eight weeks ago, when you first 
came among us, you found us a people of warm hearts, 
generous impulses, fully alive to the evils of intemperance, 
and needing only the magnetism of a master mind to 
rouse us to a determined resistance of its ravages. Yours 
was that mind. Dr. Lewis, your hand pointed out the 
way. You vitalized our latent activities, and roused us 
all, men and women together, and we have gone forth to 
the battle side by side, as God intended we should, our- 
selves perfect weakness, but God mighty in strength. 
He sent you here. He put the thought into your heart. 
He prepared our hearts to receive it. And now He has 
brought you among us again to gladden you with the 
fruition of hope long deferred — to see the seed sown years 
ago by your mother springing up, budding, and bearing- 
fruit. Dr. Lewis, I welcome you to the hearts and homes 
of Washington."' 

Dr. Lewis replied substantially as follows : 
Madame and Friends: I cannot make a speech on this 
occasion. I have always been on the frontier, always 
eno-a<rcd in the battle of reform. And now to find some- 
thing really accomplished — to find a town positively free 
from the curse of liquor-Helling — it really seems as if 
there is nothing for me to do. I feel as one without 
working harness. But I will say this : none but God can 
ever know how much I owe to this town, nor how fortu- 
nate it was for me and for many others that I came here. 
I will not say that this is the only community in which 
the work could be begun. The heroism and self-sacrifice 

76 men's ballots defeat women's prayers. 

displayed in other places would make such a remark in- 
vidious," etc., etc. 

After the response by Dr. Lewis, the remainder of the 
afternoon was spent in general speech-making. The 
evening was occupied in listening to a lecture by Dr. 
Lewis, and the day fitly closed by an informal reception 
given the orators of the occasion, at the home of one of 
the crusaders. 

At the spring election for Mayor and City Council, 
Temperance was made the issue, and, from motives of 
policy, the Temperance men brought out conservative 
candidates. The other party did the same thing. The 
whisky party were successful, and, emboldened by that 
success, many of the former saloonists gradually reopened 
their business. Since that time five of these men have 
gone to render to God an account for their violated vows. 

The summer was given up to the defeat of the license 
clause in the new Constitution, which was to come before 
the people on the 18th of August. 

Mass Temperance picnics were a prominent feature of 
the season, and the untiring zeal of the workers was 
crowned with success on election day. 

During the intervening years weekly Temperance 
League meetings have been kept up by the faithful few, 
while frequent Union mass meetings have been held, thus 
keeping the subject always before the people. 

To-day the disgraceful and humiliating fact exists that 
there are more places where liquors are sold than before 
the crusade. * 

In the almost decade of years which has flitted by since 
these events occurred, the reformation started here has 
belted the world. In many of the lines of work, Fayette 
County is showing herself worthy of the spirit which 
could inaugurate so wonderful a movement. For while 
Dr. Dio Lewis inaugurated a similar movement in three 


other places during the same winter before it was started 
here, results proved that it would have been classed as 
the idle vagary of a bewildered brain, but for the mar- 
velous success which attended it first in Washington and 
gave it a " local habitation and a name," which struck 
fire there, and has been answered by flame upon every 
hilltop in almost every State of our land. 

Scene at a National W. C. T. U. Convention (1877). 


The afternoon of the last day of the Convention at Bal- 
timore, in 1877, was the occasion of a most interesting and 
enjoyable event.' At three o'clock the " crusade quilt" 
was presented to Mrs. E. J. Thompson, of Hillsboro, Ohio, — 
Leader of the First Praying Band of the " Crusade." 

The quilt contained a square of a different color for 
each State represented, and had, in embroidery, upon 
each square the device and motto of the several auxiliary 
organizations. It was a beautiful evidence of woman's 
skill and taste in needle handicraft, and, as it hung in 
graceful folds from the gallery, was a banner of which no 
body of men or women need have been ashamed. 

At the suggestion of Mrs. Wittcnmyer, all the crusaders 

in the Convention — by which was meant every woman 

who had gone into a saloon and prayed and remonstrated 

with the keeper and with the drunkards — arose and 

united in singing the hymn which "the band of seventy" 

sang when they started the movement in the town of 

Hillsboro, beginning : 

' ' Give to the winds thy fears, 
Hope and be undismayed." 

The author of this book made the first speech of 
presentation, which was thus reported in the Baltimore 
papers : 

What is there in the dry and humdrum subject of 


temperance to give these inspirations ? That work, 
my friends, has in it thrilling sentiment and a deep 
romance, as superior to the ordinary impulses of life 
as the poetry of action is greater than the poetry of 
words, by as much as the doing of one kind act 
excels the fine morality of a page of Shakespeare, by 
as much as one deed of self-sacrifice overshadows the 
sweet and tender sentiments of a Dickens or a Haw- 
thorne ! Two days before Christmas, 1873, down in the 
quiet town of Hillsboro, in the Buckeye State, the sweet- 
voiced, saintly-faced woman you see before you, dropped 
her knitting and arose to bring salvation to a manhood 
that was vitiated and depraved. Far away on every hand, 
like wild prairie fire, went the flame enkindled by this 
spark. The quiet school-teacher in Illinois, with her 
college full of girls, felt that here was scope for all her 
dreams. Women throughout this great and glorious land 
became aware that it was time for them to enter into 
business for themselves. I am reminded at this moment 
of how you started this mighty ball a-rolling. When you 
told your husband, he said to you, "It's all tomfoolery, 
Eliza," and you replied to him that the men had been 
monopolizing this tomfoolery so long that it was about 
time the women were taking a hand. I am reminded 
too, that these are bonds of sympathy so strong 
uniting the women of this Union that nothing but death 
can sever them. I am made to feel that it means much 
for God to let a moral idea loose upon this earth, and to 
believe as the sum and substance of philosophy that God 
designs that Christ shall reign within the homes and 
institutions of this country. We look to Hillsboro as to 
the Mecca of our crusade, and have nothing to regret as 
we go back to the time when women were praying on the 
sanded floors of dram shops, surrounded by the drunken 
and the curious. It must, indeed, be a women's conven- 
tion that would make so curious a testimonial as a quilt. 


^This one contains the autographs of 3,000 women, and, 
among other curious things sewn in the centre-piece, a 
prophecy to be opened in the year 1976, and not before./ 
Within ils folds are hidden all our hearts. The day 
will come when, beside the death-sentence of a woman 
who was burned as a witch in Massachusetts, beside the 
block from which a woman was sold as a slave in South 
Carolina, and besides the liquor license that was issued by 
the State of Illinois to ruin its young men, there will 
hang this beautiful quilt, to which young men and women 
will point with pride, and say, " There is the name of my 
great-grandmother, who took part in Ohio's great crusade." 
X Mr s. Lathrop, of Michigan, also spoke. She said the 
quilt was an evidence of woman's patience in matters of 
detail — a quality that had been valuable in temperance 
reform. She considered that the results of the Union's 
four years of labor were simply the results of answered 
prayer. One of these results was the tramp of thousands 
of children throughout the land toward maturity, some 
with feet incased in kid, and more with copper-tipped 
shoes, every one with a temperance pledge in the pocket, 
and the resolution in their hearts never to drink, nor to 
use tobacco, nor to swear. I am glad it was none of us 
wild Western women that started this movement. It 
was this quiet lady, whose sweet, low voice can scarce be 
heard in this assembly, that led, and it was in a Presby- 
terian church, the least radical of all, that it was planned. 
Miss Willard has spoken of the next Centennial. Let us 
hope to meet at the next Centennial on the hills of Para- 
dise, and trust that we may then be able to look down 
upon a country redeemed from the curse of alcohol. 

Mrs. Thompson spoke affectingly in response. She 
explained that when the quilt was made by the women of 
Ohio, from the ten-cent contributions of over 3,000 mothers 
and daughters, she had no idea it would ever become 
hers as a testimonial of the National W. C. T. U. 



Ancestry — A Teacher — A Good Samaritan in War Times— Defends a 
Drunkard's Wife in Court— Enters a Saloon in Disguise — A Leader 
in Two Crusades— Visits England— Goes South — Critique of Lon- 
don Watchman. 

1\ /TRS. ELIZA D., known the world over as " Mother 
_1_V_1_ Stewart," is a native of Ohio, born in Piketon, 
April 25, 1816. On the maternal side she is a granddaugh- 
ter of Col. John Guthery of Revolutionary fame, one of the 
earliest pioneers of the State, and founder of Piketon. 
Her father, James Daniel, a man of superior talent and 
courtly manners, was a native of Virginia. Left an 
orphan before she was twelve, she was very early thrown 
upon her own resources, and soon began to develop the 
characteristics which have won for her an enviable repu- 
tation among the representative women who have done 
their share in molding western character. 

With few of the facilities afforded the youth of to-day, 
she acquired a sufficient education to teach, then, alter- 
nately teaching and attending first Marietta Seminary, 
then Granville, she reached a good position among the 
educators of her State. 

In her sixteenth year she made a profession of religion, 
and united with the Methodist church. 

She has been married twice ; her second husband, 
Hiram Stewart, is still living, is a staunch advocate 
of the principles she teaches, and seconds his wife in all 
her labors. 

* Contributed. 




Mother Stewart has known all the sorrow and bereave- 
ment, but none of the joys of motherhood — none of her 
children living. But she took to her great motherly 
heart two bright sons of her second husband, and with 
conscientious devotion educated and prepared them to 
lake (heir places among men. 

These brief glimpses give us an intimation of the way 
by which the Lord led her; and though often passing 
through the valley of tears and by Marah's bitter fountain, 
He never forsook, but made her meet for His use in the 
coming years. 

When the war came, while husband and sons went to 
the front, she devoted her time to gathering and forward- 
ing supplies to the sick and wounded soldiers, and aiding 
their families, finally going herself to the scene of 
action, where from the " boys in blue " she received the 
name she wears as a crown, and by which she loves to 

be called. 

We may be sure that such a woman could neither be 

blind nor silent on the subject of the liquor curse. So we 
find her more than twenty years ago, by voice and pen, 
throwing her influence on the side of temperance. Inci- 
dents of this period are not without interest, marking her 
as an advanced thinker, and foreshadowing her work of 
later years. 

But later, in January, 1872, having addressed a large 
audience in her own city, and obtained a pledge from the 
ladies to stand by the drunkards' wives in prosecuting 
saloon-keepers under the Adair law recently passed, she 
went, a few days after, into the court-room, where a test 
case was being tried, and was induced by the prosecuting 
attorney, Geo. Rawlins, Esq., to make the opening plea to 
the jury. A lady in the court-room, and winning her case 
against one of the best lawyers in the city, created quite 
a sensation. Henceforth the poor women, fancying that 

84 a drunkard's wife's appeal. 

at last they had found a sympathizing and helpful friend, 
brought her their tales of sorrow, and besought her aid. 
Again, in October, 1873, a woman came and with stream- 
ing tears repeated the old, sad story. Having little hope 
of success, Mother Stewart first thought to send her away, 
but finally taking her to the law firm of which her friend 
Rawlins was a partner, stated the case, and asked if they 
could do anything. Mr. E,. said he would take the case if 
Mrs. Stewart would help him, and without hesitation she 
consented to do so. Now came the thought, " Only through 
prayer can we prevail against this liquor power." She 
invited influential ladies of the different churches to come 
to the court-room, and when there exhorted them to con- 
tinue in prayer, while, amid great enthusiasm, she won 
this case. 

At this time appeared in the city paper her "Appeal to 
the Women of Springfield, from a Drunkard's Wife," 
which added not a little to the excitement. People were 
slow to believe, so little had they thought on the subject, 
that even one woman in Springfield was suffering as this 
pitiful appeal indicated. Next going to the ministers, she 
requested them to preach on the subject, suggesting as a 
text, " Am I my brother's keeper ? " to which they readily 
assented. Then with a petition signed by over six hun- 
dred ladies, and accompanied by a large delegation, she 
visited the council chamber, and in a brief, telling speech 
besought the council to pass what was known as the 
" McConnelsville Ordinance," prohibiting the sale of 
liquors within the corporation. The subject was new, but 
it was taken up by the city benevolent society, and a com- 
mittee appointed to wait on the ministers and ask their 
co-operation in inaugurating mass-meetings. The minis- 
ters pledged their hearty support, and the first meeting 
was held on December 2d. 

But by this time calls were coming to Mother Stewart 


to " Wake up the women ! " It seemed to be impressed 
on the minds of the people that somehow deliverance, or 
at least help, must come by the hand of woman. On this 
evening, having been invited to Osborn, Green Co., she 
addressed a meeting and organized the first Women's 
Union, Mrs. Lee being elected president and Mrs. Har- 
grave secretary. 

Next, observing with what impunity the saloon-keepers 
plied their trade on Sunday, Mrs. Stewart might have 
been seen — if she could have been recognized under her 
effective disguise — entering a saloon on Sunday, buying 
and carrying away a glass of liquor, for which the saloon- 
keeper was duly prosecuted. 

Soon after, Dr. Dio Lewis came West, presented his 
plan of saloon visitation first to the ladies of Hillsboro', 
who at once accepted it, then, other towns in rapid suc- 
cession following, the excitement spread like a flame on 
tin.' prairies. 

Henceforth Mother Stewart was in constant demand, 
lecturing, organizing, leading out bands, and rallying the 
forces to the deepening conflict. 

About this time, impressed that she had a message to 
deliver to our sisters across the seas, she was praying for 
an open door, when an invitation came from that enthusi- 
astic worker, Mrs. Margaret Parker, of Dundee, Scotland, 
and others, to visit Great Britain. Here her welcome was 
so warm that her visit was an ovation throughout the king- 
dom. The English say few women ever visited their 
shores who received the attention paid to Mother Stewart, 
the Crusader. Throwing all her enthusiastic nature into 
her work, she attracted great throngs to her meetings, 
and infused a new spirit into the staunch workers over 
there. The London Times, and other leading journals, 
greatly aided her by the extended and flattering reports 
they gave. 


The result of her meeting was the formation of the 
British Women's Temperance Association, which is wield- 
ing a blessed influence among all classes in that country. 
Once more turning her eyes towards our sisters of the 
sunny South she said, Why shall we not invite them to 
join our holy alliance ? and was crying to her Heavenly 
Father, " Here am I, send me," when she was made Chair- 
man of the Committee on Southern work by the National 
Convention that met at Indianapolis in 1879. 

She at once entered upon her duties, visiting various 
points; introduced our gospel temperance work, every- 
where receiving the proverbial Southern welcome and 
the cordial support of the ministers, as well as of the 
most eminent ladies of the South. 

Though a veteran, Mother Stewart is still full of fire 
and enthusiasm, and able to do effective service in the 
cause she loves and to which she has devoted her life. 
Of her on the platform we quote from the London Watch- 
word : 

" Her voice is sweet, and though not loud, is clear, and 
sometimes penetrating. She goes straight to the point, 
speaking with all the artlessness, originality, and verve 
of one full of the subject and charged with a mighty mis- 
sion, yet talking naturally, and expressing just such 
thoughts, narrating such facts, and making such appeals 
as occur at the moment, couched in racy but idiomatic 

" One's heart goes out to Mother Stewart, standing 
there, pleading for help in her righteous cause. If not 
large in frame, she has a spirit powerful enough to rouse 
and inoculate a vast legion of supporters ; her eye flashes, 
her ardent feelings and aspirations heighten the color in 
her face ; now and then the voice will falter just a little, 
to prove how womanly she is. And oh, how well — though 
it may be briefly — she pleads ! Hearing and reading her 


speeches are very different. A report fails to convey the 
native raciness, the undefinable charm of her manner, 
though, in reading, our words seem to come back to us 
from over the sea, and we can trace how strongly the 
northern, Saxon elements of our language flourish in 
congenial soil, as we look at those sharp, short terms ; 
terse, brief, and pungent." 

•As the gathering army presses forward, let us not for- 
get the veterans of the earlier day ! 



"Leader of the Forty-three" — The shoemaker and little white shoes 



HERE'S lots of human nature in folks." Did 
" Samivel Weller" say that, or was it the " Widow 
Bedott " ? Both are philosophers. 

A human being is like a huge church organ — with 
many pipes, and stops, and banks of keys. And the kind 
of music that you get depends upon the sort of player 
that you are. Some call out only discords, some strike 
the minor chords alone, others evoke the music of laugh- 
ter or of joy, while others still compass the whole diapa- 
son " from grave to gay, from lively to severe," and are 
particularly skilled in bringing out the sweet and tremu- 
lous vox hum ana. 

If Mrs. Leavitt has this rare last-mentioned gift; if 
she is one whom we all thoroughly and heartily love ; if 
she makes us do what she likes, yet never domineers ; if 
one minute she sets us laughing, the next calls an argosy 
of pocket-handkerchiefs into requisition ; if she seems to 
us to be " made up of every creature's best," what is the 
explanation ? Her history gives it so plainly that " he 
who runs may read." From this unique character-study 
there is much to learn. 

This prominent figure of the Crusade owes much of her 
efficiency in that great movement, to her strong frame 
and firm health, equilibrium of brain and heart, and varied 
experience. This " human pippin," as I am fond of calling 
her, grew on a hardy New England stock, where vigorous 
sea breezes charged the air with vital salts ; it mellowed 




in the sunshine of the South, and got its final flavor in 
kindly Indiana valleys, and on the prairies of proud Iowa. 
Best of all, does Mrs. Leavitt' s courage never falter and 
her devotion to the dear Temperance Gospel never flag ? 
This is the explanation: Her life is set to the sweet music < 
of her favorite hymn, which she was singing when 
arrested for praying on the streets of Cincinnati — "Rock 
of Ages, cleft for me." 

Bangor was her birth-place and early home. There 
seems a justice more than poetic in the coincidence by 
which so many of our best workers have been placed by 
birth or education under the influence of that grand old 
prohibition school-master, the State of Maine. In 1854, 
at the age of nineteen, Miss Fisher graduated from the 
Young Ladies' High School of her native town. She 
went South as a teacher soon after leaving school, and 
succeeded admirably, remaining until the war broke out. 
In the autumn of 1861 she become Principal of a Gram- 
mar School in Evansville, Indiana, and remained there 
until 1866, when she married Samuel K. Leavitt, a lawyer 
of Evansville. Four years later Mr. Leavitt was ordained 
a minister of Christ, and was immediately called to the 
charge of the First Baptist Church of Keokuk, Iowa, 
where he enjoyed a pleasant and successful pastorate 
until 1872, when he was invited to the First Baptist 
Church of Cincinnati, where he and the " help " so 
"meet" for a Christian minister of his enlightened views 
concerning women in the church, are still laboring side 
by side. Ministers who mourn and lament " the deadness 
of the church," and then say in prayer-meetings, " The 
brethren will please occupy the time," would find in the 
genial pastorate of Mr. Leavitt many matters worthy 
their thought. Besides leading in plans for the promo- 
tion of home and foreign missionary work, teaching in 
Sunday-school, visiting the poor, and interesting herself 


particularly in the young people of the church, Mrs. 
Leavitt was State Secretary of the Baptist Women's 
Foreign Missionary Society of Ohio, where her efforts 
• have resulted in a marked increase in contributions to 
the work. 

When the crusade burst upon the women of Ohio, she 
recognized in it the hand and call of God, was among the 
first to take her place in the ranks of workers, and, on the 
principle of the " survival of the fittest," was at once pro- 
moted to the leadership of the " Praying Band." Day 
after clay for weeks, accompanied by a long procession of 
noble Christian workers, she visited saloons, holding reli- 
gious services within whenever permission was granted, 
but outside, if it was refused, and always closing up the 
day's work with an earnest Gospel meeting in the church 
from which the bands had gone out in the morning. The 
church would be filled to overflowing with crowds of men 
and women who were hungry for salvation. At these 
meetings hundreds signed the pledge, and asked the 
prayers of Christians. On the 16th of May, 1874, while 
engaged in this work, Mrs. Leavitt, with forty-two oth- 
ers, wives of clergymen and other leading citizens, was 
arrested and taken to jail. It is a strange and thrilling 
story, as she tells it, and none else could do it justice. 
Suffice it that the mayor said the women shouldn't pray 
upon the sidewalk's edge, though beer barrels and blowsy 
drunkards are permitted to obstruct the passageway so 
often in that city, swimming in " lager." Hardly believ- 
ing the threat against them would be executed, they went 
out as usual. Being denied admission to a saloon, they 
knelt upon the pavement, and just as Mrs. Leavitt began 


" Rock of ages, cleft for me," 

a burly policeman laid his hand on her shoulder, saying, 

" You are my prisoner." 

" Let me hide myself in thee," 


sang on the clear, untroubled voice, and they marched to 
jail, continuing the hymn. There they held a prayer- 
meeting, in the midst of which stood the mayor, unable 
to escape, while hard-faced men were weeping on even- 
side. They were locked into a corridor, and Mrs. Leavitt 
talked through the grated doors with several of the pris- 
oners. She found a woman who had been arrested because 
of drunkenness. "It is a curious conundrum," said Mrs. 
Leavitt. with that contagious smile lurking in the corner of 
her mouth, " that here's one woman locked up for getting 
drunk, and another equally locked up for trying to get 
people not to be drunk. Curious country this is, any- 
way ! " 

After their arrest the ladies changed their plans of work, 
going to saloons in companies of two and three instead 
of by eighties and hundreds. Gospel temperance meetings 
were held in churches, jails, and hospitals, cottage prayer- 
meetino-s in neighborhoods, and constant efforts made to 
extend the work of carrying the bread of life to those 
whom some one has aptly called the " elbow heathen," 
who jostle us as we walk along the city pavement; 
" the great humanity that beats its life along the stony 
streets," and may justly bring up to the bar of God the 
accusation against its well-to-do neighbors, "No man 
cared for my soul." 

When the Praying Band of Cincinnati was reorganized 
into the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, Mrs. 
Leavitt was chosen president, and has never lowered the 
white flag of temperance. The headquarters of the 
Union on Vine street are open every day for a Gospel 
meeting, often conducted by her, and hundreds of wayward 
boys, away from their homes and tempted on every side 
by rum shops, bless the day they first heard her kind and 
earnest voice, and knelt beside her while she commended 
their souls to God. 



During the trying days of 1874, previous to the October 
election, when the rum power was using every endeavor 
to iijduce the people of Ohio to vote for a law licensing 
the traffic in and sale of intoxicating drinks, Mrs. Leavitt, 
with hosts of temperance women, spoke in halls, churches, 
tents, and groves against license. 

When the result of the election was announced, and 
the State was saved from the disgrace of a license law, 
many men, good and true, thanked God for temperance 
women who were willing to lift up their voices " for God 
and home and native land." 

Mrs. Leavitt was for years treasurer of the Woman's 
National Union, and her appeals for help, at once so witty 
and convincing, were among the " humors of the conven- 
tion." She was the first woman elected by the first 
National Convention for president of the Woman's 
Christian Temperance Union, which position she at once 

Among the ablest and most constant friends of our 
national paper, Mrs. Leavitt should ever be remembered. 
For two years a member of its publishing committee, 
she has invested much time, thought, and prayer on its 
behalf. It is especially fitting that her friends (and the 
term includes everybody who has ever seen or heard of 
her) should have the pleasure of getting some hint, at 
least, about her from the engraving and this sketch. 
Somehow its preparation has been peculiarly a labor of 
love, and, unconsciously, my pen has been betrayed into a 
freedom of expression to be explained partly by the genial 
character of the subject, and partly by the tender regard 
of the writer. Garrulous as this presentation may ap- 
pear, there has been under every word the grateful 
remembrance of this dear friend's faith, tranquil and 
pure as a June sky. In days never to be forgotten, this 
serene trust in Christ, this unalterable love for Him, and 


devotion to His cause, have been to one tired heart, at 
least, as " the shadow of a great rock in a weary land." 


Mrs. Leavitt has often told the following story from 
the platform : 

" One morning during the Crusade, a drunkard's wife 
came to my door. She carried in her arms a baby six 
weeks old. Her pale, pinched face was sad to see, and 
she told me this sorrowful story : ' My husband is drink- 
ing himself to death ; he is lost tq all human feeling ; our 
rent is unpaid, and we are liable to be put out into the 
street ; and there is no food in the house for me and the 
children. He has a good trade, but his earnings all go 
into the saloon on the corner near us ; he is becoming 
more and more brutal and abusive. We seem to be on the 
verge of ruin. How can I, feeble as I am, with a babe 
in my arms, earn bread for myself and children ? ' 

" Quick as thought the question came to me, and I 
asked it : ' Why not have that husband of yours con- 
verted ? ' 

" But she answered hopelessly, ' Oh, there's no hope of 
such a thing. He cares for nothing but strong drink.' 

" ' I'll come and see him this afternoon,' said I. 

" ' He'll insult you,' she replied. 

" ' No matter,' said I ; ' my Saviour was insulted, and 
the servant is not above his Lord.' 

" That very afternoon I called at the little tenement 
house. The husband was at work at his trade in a back 
room, and his little girl was sent to tell him that a lady 
wished to sec him. The child, however, soon returned 
with the message, ' My pa says he won't see any one.' 

" But I sent him a message proving that I was indeed 
in earnest. I said, ' Go back and tell your pa that a lady 
wishes to see him on very important business, and she 
must see him if she has to stay till after supper.' 

96 a fool's rejoinder. 

" I knew very well that there was nothing in the house 
to eat. A moment afterward a poor, bloated, besotted 
wreck of a man stood before me. 

" ' What do you want ? ' he demanded as he came shuf- 
fling into the room. 

" ' Please be seated and look at this paper,' I answered, 
pointing to a vacant chair at the other end of the table 
where I was sitting, and handing a printed pledge to him. 

" He read it slowly, and then, throwing it down upon 
the table, broke out viplently : 

" ' Do you think I'm a fool ? I drink when I please, 
and let it alone when I please. I'm not going to sign 
away my personal liberty.' 

" ' Do you think you can stop drinking ? ' 

" ' Yes, I could if I wanted to.' 

" ' On the contrary, 1 think you're a slave to the rum- 
shop down on the corner.' 

" ' No, I ain't, any such thing.' 

" ' I think, too, that you love the saloon-keeper's daugh- 
ter better than you do your own little girl.' 

" ' No, I don't, either.' 

" ' Well, let us see about that. When I passed the 
saloon-keeper's house I saw his little girl coming down 
the steps, and she had on white shoes, and a white dress, 
and a blue sash. Your money helped to buy them. I 
come here, and your little girl, more beautiful than she, 
has on a faded, ragged dress, and her feet are bare.' 
, " ' That's so, madam.' 

" ' And you love the saloon-keeper's wife better than 
you love your own wife.' 

" ' Never ; no, never ! ' 

" ' When I passed the saloon-keeper's house, I saw his 
wife come out with the little girl, and she was dressed in 
silks and laces, and a carriage waited for her. Your 
money helped to buy the silks and laces, and the horses 


and the carriage. I come here and I find your wife in 
a faded calico gown, doing her own work ; if she goes 
any where, she must walk.' 

'"Yon speak the truth, madam.' 

" ' You love the saloon-keeper better than you love 
yourself. You say you can keep from drinking if you 
choose ; but you helped the saloon-keeper to build him- 
self a fine brick house, and you live in this poor, tumble- 
down old house yourself.' 

"'I never saw it in that light before.' Then, holding 
out his hand, that shook like an aspen leaf, he continued, 
'You speak the truth, madam — I am a slave. Do you 
sec that hand ? I've got a piece of work to finish, and I 
must have a mug of beer to steadjr my nerves, or I can- 
not do it; but to-morrow, if you'll call, I'll sign the 

" ' That's a temptation of the devil ; I did not ask you 
to sign the pledge. You are a slave, and cannot help it. 
But I do want to tell you this : There is One who can 
break your chains and set you free.' 

" ' I want to be free.' 

" ' Well, Christ can set you free, if you'll submit to 
Him, and let him break the chains of sin and appetite 
that bind you.' 

" ' It's been many a long year since I prayed.' 

" ' No matter ; the sooner you begin the better for you.' 

" He threw himself at once upon his knees, and while 
I prayed I heard him sobbing out the cry of his soul to 

" His wife knelt beside me and followed me in earnest 
prayer. The words were simple and broken with sobs, 
but somehow they went straight up from her crushed 
heart to God, and the poor man began to cry in earnest 
for mercy. 

" ' God ! break these chains that are burning into my 


soul ! Pity me, and pity my wife and children, and break 
the chains that are dragging me down to hell. God ! 
be merciful to me a sinner.' And thus out of the depths 
he cried to God, and He heard him and had compassion 
upon him, and broke every chain and lifted every burden ; 
and lie arose a free, redeemed man. 

" When he arose from his knees he said : ' Now I will 
sign the pledge, and keep it.' 

" And ho did. A family altar was established, the 
comforts of life were soon secured — for he had a good 
trade — and two weeks after this scene his little girl came 
into my husband's Sunday-school with white shoes and 
white dress and blue sash on, as a token that her father's 
money no longer went into the saloon-keeper's till. 

" But what struck me most of all was that it took less 
than two hours of my time thus to be an ambassador for 
Christ in declaring the terms of heaven's great treaty 
whereby a soul was saved from death, a multitude of sins 
were covered, and a home restored to purity and peace. 




President of the Crusade State, and Recording Secretary of the 
National W. C. T. U.— A Nantucket Girl— Cousin of Maria Mitchell 
— Western education — Baptized into the Crusade — Speaks in fifty 
Presbyterian Churches — The author's glimpse of the Crusade— The 
Crusade in Calcutta — Margaret Parker. 

rrpHB .sketch drawn by Rev. A. M. Hills, the gifted 
L -J- pastor of my gifted friend is so excellent that I 
give it in full :] 

" A brilliant writer has said : ' A radiant and sparkling 
woman, full of wit, reason, and fancy, is a whole crown 
of jewels. A poor, opaque copy of her is the most that 
one can render in a biographical sketch.' I feel the 
truth of this remark in attempting the task laid upon me 
— to give a word-picture of Mrs. Mary A. Woodbridge. 

" Mary A. Bravton was born in Nantucket, Mass. Her 
father, Isaac Bravton, was for a score of years captain of 
a whaling vessel which cruised in the Pacific. But he 
was destined to rule over a wider domain than a ship's 
deck, and to command more men than a ship's crew. 
His townsmen, appreciating his rare qualifications of 
heart and mind, sent him to the Massachusetts Legisla- 
ture in the days when Edward Everett was Governor, and 
when that body was composed of as able and distinguished 
members as ever sat in the Congressional halls of any 

" Mr. Bray ton afterward moved to Ohio, and was elected 
to the Legislature, where he won deserved distinction for 
his ability. He was the author of the bill by which the 



public institutions of the State are still controlled. He 
was also afterward an associate upon the bench with 
Benjamin F. Wade. 

" The mother of Mrs. Woodbridge was a sister of the 
great astronomer, William Mitchell, father of the famous 
Prof. Maria Mitchell, of Vassar College, and of Prof. 
Henry Mitchell, of Smithsonian Institute. 

"It is not surprising that the daughter of such parents 
should have unusual intellectual powers. Mary early 
gave brilliant promise. When she was but six years of 
age, Horace Mann, the famous educator of Massachusetts, 
passed a day in Nantucket examining the public schools. 
To his great delight, the precocious little girl went 
through the multiplication table backward and forward 
up to the twenties. When she had finished, he laid his 
hand kindly on her head and said : ' Well, my child, if 
you persevere you will be a noted woman.' There can 
be no doubt in the minds of those who know her best that 
she was at once the pride and the torment of all her in- 

" It must have been morally impossible for her to be a 
' proper-nice ' child. She was too full of intense vitality, 
too mirthful, too keenly alive to the ridiculous, and too 
adept and merciless as a mimic, to be a model of good 
behavior to schoolmates. To outstrip her companions in 
intellectual feats in the school-room, and then to be their 
ringleader in semi-innocent mischief, must have been as 
natural to her as to breathe — a thing altogether to be 

" Mary was nine years of age when her father moved to 
Ravenna, 0., from which time she studied either under 
private instructors or in an excellent private school in 
Hudson, 0. 

" She was converted at the age of fourteen, and married 
at seventeen a promising young merchant — Frederick 


"Wells Woodbridge. She was mother of three children 
when but little more than twenty. Such an early mar- 
riage and such a family would have been, with most 
women, the end of all studv and intellectual achievement; 
but it was not so with her. She never lost her enthusiasm 
for books, nor her thirst for knowledge. She had too 
much energy of character and power of perseverance to 
be balked by difficulties. Her mind must have food, and 
she fed it, studying with her book on a rack before her, 
while her quick hands were engaged with household 
tasks. She took lessons in German and French, and 
recited in her own house while holding one of her babes 
on her knee and quieting another at her side. She was 
at that time presiding over a family of twelve, having the 
entire management of her domestic affairs and performing 
many of the commonest duties herself. For the first six 
years of her married life she lived at Ravenna ; then the 
family moved to Newburgh, now a part of Cleveland, 0., 
where for twenty years she lived the life of a cultured 
Christian matron, and an unusually brilliant member of 
society, yet otherwise undistinguished from the multitudes 
around her. Six years ago Mr. and Mrs. Woodbridge 
returned to Ravenna. She entered again upon the same 
uneventful, everyday life. Thus she might have lived to 
the end of her days unknown beyond her social circle, had 
she not been summoned from her seclusion by the stirring- 
events of the next few months. 

" The Crusade came — came with the suddenness and the 
power of Pentecost ; bringing also, like it, a baptism of 
the Holy Ghost. In common with thousands of others of 
her Ohio sisters, she felt the movings of the Spirit. 
Her eyes were opened, to see in a new light the woes 
caused by intemperance. She went to her closet, and 
there, when alone with her God, heard the Pi vine voice 
asking, ' Whom shall I send ? ' She had the grace given 


her to lay herself upon the altar in consecration, with the 
prayer, ' Here am I ; I will be or do whatever pleaseth 

" But she did not yet understand the vision nor realize 
that a live coal had touched her lips. She had been a 
professing Christian for thirty years, but had never 
spoken a word in public or offered an audible prayer. 
Soon she attended a great union meeting, which had 
come together in the excitement of the hour without any 
one having been appointed to preside when gathered. It 
was thought best that this should be done by a woman. 
Who should it be ? One after another thought of her, and 
she was asked to take the place. She was utterly over- 
come with fear and a sense of inability, and pleaded to be 
excused. Her aged father came to her side and tenderly 
reminded her of her consecration vow, and then left her. 
Her pastor came a second time, when, with a struggle, 
she said to one standing by : ' Doctor, ask the audience 
to rise and sing ' Coronation ' ; I never can walk up the 
aisle with these people looking at me.' As they sang 
she went forward, trembling with weakness and praying 
every step, ' Lord, help me ! Lord, help me ! ' She called 
upon a brother to pray, then she read a verse of Scripture, 
and began to say she knew not what. But God put His 
own message into her anointed lips. The depths of her 
woman's heart were moved. Self was forgotten in her 
message. She pleaded for the degraded victims of drink, 
for their heart-broken wives and mothers, for their suffer- 
ing and degraded children. Her words poured forth in 
tender and resistless eloquence, till the multitude were 
moved as one man. The strong were melted to tears. 
Christians wept and prayed together. A cool-beaded 
judge arose and solemnly declared that he had never been 
in an audience so manifestly moved by the Holy Ghost. 

" In that one sacred hour she was lifted by the provi- 


dence of God into a new life. Her mission had come. 
Like St. Paul, she had had a revelation, and she has not 
since thai time been disobedient to the heavenly vision. 
No single experience could well make a more marked 
change in a woman's life. It may be truly said of her 
that during the years since the crusade " she hath done 
what she could." 

"At once the little country churches around began to 
call upon her, and she would speak to them on foreign 
missions, Sabbath-school work, or temperance, as the 
case might be. No opportunity to do work for Christ 
or humanity was slighted, and no occasion was ever too 
insignificant for her to give her best. And she still re- 
tains the same beautiful spirit. She drinks deeply the 
spirit of her Master, who would address either the multi- 
tudes on the mountain-side or the one wicked woman at 
the well. Though constantly pressed by urgent invita- 
tions to the great cities, she will, when opportunity per- 
mits, preach at the missions of her pastor in country 
school-houses in his absence. 

" She now fills the offices of Recording Secretary to the 
Woman's National Christian Temperance Union, and 
President of the State organization of Ohio. 

" Her husband is in closest and fullest sympathy with 
all her work, always assisting by every means her part, 
while performing his own share in the church or in the 
broad fields outside. 

"As my thought in the near relation of pastor goes over 
her work, I am reminded that she has spoken in more 
than fifty Presbyterian churches during the last year 
from the pulpit; and she speaks from a text ! Whisper 
this in the ear of that New York Presbytery which tried 
and solemnly warned one of its ablest members for admit- 
ting the saintly Miss Smiley into his pulpit. The fact is, 
even Presbyterian prejudice about women speaking in 


meeting melts away under the influence of the sweet 
womanliness, the dignity, the power, and the tender, 
Christ-like spirit of such an one. 

" A few such as she would do much to — yea, will — bring 
her sex into their true liberty, and wipe out the preju- 
dices created by a few unwomanly advocates of woman's 
rights who, a few years ago, engaged the attention of the 
public mind, but now, happily, have dropped out of sight. 

" In addition to all this public effort, and official duties, 
Mrs. Woodbridge also edits weekly several columns of 
the Commomvealth, a temperance paper. As a temper- 
ance worker she is in the advance line, advocating prohi- 
bition and home protection. 

" A statesman is he who can govern and create states- 
men around him. A soul is great that can make others 
great. Measured by this standard, Mrs. Woodbridge is 
a great power for good. Many a woman comes under 
her influence for a day, and receives an uplifting inspira- 
tion which is never lost. As with cultured intellect and 
loving heart she pleads, like an anointed prophetess, for 
the souls of dying men and for the holiest interests of 
humanity in home and States, many another heart throbs 
with holier emotions and worthier ambitions than it has 
been wont to feel, and the God-given talents are brought 
out and laid in tearful yet joyous consecration on the 
altar of the Lord. 

" It yet remains for me to write a word about her home- 
life. Many persons can coruscate in brilliant rhetoric 
before an audience, whose home and private life do not 
bear inspection. Mrs. W. does not belong to that class. 
Her home is beautiful, her hospitality most gracious, and 
all the affairs of the household move off with the order- 
liness and precision of machinery. Her home life is the 
fitting complement of that which is seen. Her family, 
until quite recently, has always been very large, because 


no one ever became an inmate of the household who did 
not prolong his stay. A clerk who came to stay a week 
tarried three years. Her father-in-law came to make a 
visit, and staid eleven years — till death. Her own father 
came to the home one week after Mr. and Mrs. W. were 
married, and he still abides with them. One other char- 
acteristic I must not fail to mention — a grace as rare as 
it is beautiful. Above any other person I ever knew she 
carries in her roomy heart the joys and the sorrows of 
others. The little tokens of remembrance which she 
sends to the sick and the feeble, and the comforting notes 
which go from her hand and heart to the sorrowing and 
troubled, are simply innumerable. To sum up her char- 
acter — humility and power, grace and strength, courage 
and earnestness strive in her for the mastery. I cannot 
say which has it. 

" Happy is the father, honored is the husband, blessed 
are the children, favored is the friend, and fortunate is 
the cause, that commands the advocacy of such a woman." 


Right here, under the wing of my beloved friend 
and associate, let me put in my only personal experience 
of the Crusade. 

Never can I forget the day on which I met the great 
unwashed, untaught, ungospelled multitude for the first 
time. Need I say it was the Crusade that opened before 
me, as before ten thousand other women, this wide, 
" effectual door ? " It Avas in Pittsburg, the summer 
after the Crusade. Greatly had I wished to have a part 
in it, but this one experience was my first and last of 
"going out with a band." A young teacher from the 
public schools, whose custom it was to give an hour twice 
each week to crusading, walked arm-in-arm with me. 
Two school-ma'ams together, we fell into the procession 

108 author's first "gospel temperance work." 

behind the experienced campaigners. On Market street 
we entered a saloon, the proprietor of which, pointing to 
several men who were fighting in the next room, begged 
ns to leave, and we did so at once, amid the curses of the 
bacchanalian group. Forming in line on the curbstone's 
edge in front of this saloon, we knelt, while an old lady, 
to whose son that place had proved the gate of death, 
offered a prayer full of tenderness and faith, asking God 
to open the eyes of those who, just behind that screen, 
were selling liquid fire and breathing curses on his name. 
We rose, and what a scene was there ! The sidewalk 
was lined by men with faces written all over and inter- 
lined with the record of their sin and shame. Soiled 
with " the slime from the muddy banks of time," tattered, 
dishevelled, there was not a sneering look or a rude word 
or action from any one of them. Most of them had their 
hats off ; many looked sorrowful ; some were in tears ; 
and standing there in the roar and tumult of that dingy 
street, with that strange crowd looking into our faces — 
with a heart stirred as never until now by human sin and 
shame, I joined in the sweet gospel song : 

"Jesus the water of life will give, 
Freely, freely, freely!" 

Just such an epoch as that was in my life, has the 
Crusade proved to a mighty army of women all over this 
land. Does anybody think that, having learned the 
blessedness of carrying Christ's gospel to those who 
never come to church to hear the messages we are all 
commanded to " Go, tell," we shall ever lay down this 
work ? Not until the genie of the Arabian Nights crowds 
himself back into the fabulous kettle whence he escaped 
by " expanding his pinions in nebulous bars " — not until 
then ! To-day and every day they go forth on their beau- 
tiful errands — the " Protestant nuns," who a few years 
ago were among the " anxious and aimless " of our 


crowded population, or who belonged to trades and pro- 
fessions over-full— and with them go the women fresh 
from the sacred home-hearth and cradle-side, wearing 
the halo of these loving ministries. If you would find 
them, go not alone to the costly churches which now 
welcome their voices, while to those who are " at ease in 
Zion" they gently speak of the great, whitened harvest. 
But go to blacksmith shop and billiard hall, to public 
reading-room and depot waiting-room, to the North End 
in Boston, Water street, New York, the Bailey coffee 
houses of Philadelphia, the Friendly Inns of Cleveland, 
the Woman's Temperance Room of Cincinnati, and Lower 
Parwell Hall, Chicago, and you will find the glad tidings 
declared by the new " apostolic succession," dating from 
the Pentecost of the Crusade. 


The Crusade wave spread fast and far. As its result 
we have the Woman's Christian Temperance Union of 
Great Britain and Canada, while in Australia and the 
Sandwich Islands there are local auxiliaries, and isolated 
societies in India and Japan. Mrs. Tiele of Albany, and 
that lovely young missionary, Miss Susan B. Higgins of 
Boston (so "early crowned"), started a grand work in 
Yokohama. Rev. Joseph Cook, newly returned from his 
trip around the world, says they are watching women's 
work everywhere from the other side the globe with ear- 
nest hope. Mrs. May of Calcutta, secretary of the ladies' 
branch of " Bengal Temperance League," writes the fol- 
lowing remarkable account. 


"It is now more than two years since we commenced our 
work in Calcutta, and as 1 review the past my heart is 
full of gratitude to God for the success he has seen fit to 


vouchsafe us. It was suggested through reading about 
' The Woman's Crusade in America,' and Dr. Thoburn, 
of the American Methodist Episcopal Church, thought 
that a similar work might be done in this city. 

"Never shall I forget our first Sunday in Flag street. 
This street is one of the lowest parts of Calcutta, and one 
side of it is principally devoted to grog-shops and board- 
ing-houses, which on Sunday afternoon are pretty well 
filled with men more or less intoxicated. A little party 
of four ladies left our carriage and asked for permission, 
through a gentleman who that day accompanied us, to 
sing in one of the grog-shops. The manager refused, 
saying : ' If you are not gone I will throw water over 
you ; you are ruining our trade.' Denied an entrance, 
we four women sang the Gospel at the door, and learning 
that we must ourselves make the request, in every other 
drinking-saloon we gained admission. 

"On this first Sabbath we only sang, but ever after we 
talked to the men pointedly, each addressing the little 
group nearest, and usually making some remark suggested 
by the hymn. After singing the one commencing with 

" 'Art thou weary, art thou languid, 

Art thou sore distrest? 
" Come to me," saith One; and coming, 
Be at rest,' 

one fine, manly fellow responded, saying, ' I am weary. 
I want to come to Jesus.' We directed him to the 
Saviour. Before leaving, it is our rule as far as possible 
to ask them to join in prayer, and while one of us leads 
many bow with uncovered heads, and, may Ave not hope, 
join in our supplications from the heart ? 

"As I was kneeling one sailor said, ' Don't be too long, 
missus, for it is eight years since I knelt in prayer.' On 
another occasion, while we were singing, 

" ' J°y, j°y> joy! there is joy in Heaven with the angels, 
Joy, joy, joy! for the prodigal's return,' 


my attention was drawn to a young officer, who looked 
quite out of place there. He sang most heartily, while 
the tears flowed down his face. Then followed the con- 
fession of a mother's prayers and a father's counsel dis- 
regarded, and of twelve years' pleadings with God by his 
parents for the prodigal's return. He was induced by us 
to attend the service in the evening, and gave himself to 
Christ. His account of himself was : ' It was that hymn 
about the prodigal that broke my hard heart.' I have 
since learned that his father is an earnest minister in 

" We take tracts in sixteen different languages, as sailors 
from every land are to be found in Calcutta. It touched 
our hearts to see the delight of a Greek one day on receiv- 
ing a Testament in his own language. He literally danced 
with joy, and then sat down to read the precious book. It 
seemed so strange to hear him and his companions con- 
versing in that strange language. 

" Thus, from Sunday to Sunday, our work progresses. 
During the cold season as many as forty or fifty are 
induced to go to God's house, and many remain behind to 
be instructed in the way of salvation. But as a whole it 
is a work of faith, and results will only be known in the 
Great Day. 


" One Sunday we found five sober men striving to induce 
their shipmates to leave the grog-shop. Failing in the 
attempt, they were leaving, ashamed of the bad company. 
After assuring them we knew they had not been drinking, 
we gave each a tract. One was entitled, ' I wish I could 
see my father again.' 'That's me,' said the man who 
took it, ' My father has died while I have been making 
the voyage here. He was a good father to me, and I do 
want to see him again.' We told him that if lie would 
serve God here his wish would be realized. This little 


group of five listened most attentively while we entreated 
them to come to Jesus, explaining the sacrifices they will 
have to make in giving up old companions and bearing the 
sneers of ungodly friends, etc. They replied, 'We know 
all that, but we don't mind,' and on the spot they pro- 
fessed to receive Christ, and told us they would not care 
about the scoffs of their shipmates, but would kneel right 
down and pray to God to keep them from sin every morn- 
ing and night. Nothing strikes us more than the child- 
like simplicity of the sailor. He just takes God at His 
word, and therefore ' receives ' as well as ' asks.' 


" At one saloon I felt an unaccountable prompting to go 
to the end, where a gentleman sat in such a position as 
to prevent our seeing his face. His manner and bearing 
seemed strangely out of place there, and he was so morti- 
fied to be found in a grog-shop by ladies that I felt half 
sorry that I had spoken ; but trusting in the One who had 
led us thither, I said : ' You seem to be depressed, and I 
am come to tell you of a Friend who will be with you 
always, even to the end of the world.' The word about 
God's love touched him, and he broke down and wept 
bitterly. It was some moments before he was sufficiently 
composed to speak ; his heart was too full. Then followed 
a sad story of deep distress, which, alas, was beyond our 
powder to ameliorate. We took him home, and then he 
astonished us by saying : ' You saved my life to-day. I 
was bent on committing suicide. I felt as though no one 
cared for me, but the few kind words made me feel life 
was precious after all.' 


" In the saloon an officer with two midshipmen arrested 
our attention. They expressed and looked great surprise 


at seeing ladies there. We explained to them our object, 
and invited them to our evening service. They came, and 
we had a conversation with them afterwards. The officer 
promised never to frequent such places again, and I have 
since learned that, although surrounded by temptations, 
he has kept his word, and more, he has become a total 
abstainer. After four months' absence from Calcutta the 
midshipman returned, and this time we met in God's 
house. Flag street was forsaken for the house of prayer. 
" At one of the largest houses we met a man disposed 
to argue the point of the propriety of our singing hymns 
there. We told him this was our only opportunity of 
speaking to him. He talked much and loudly, but after 
we had prayed he became much more reasonable, and 
said : ' Tell me what time service begins, for I believe I 
shall go. I have the tract you gave me in my pocket.' 


" Three sober men were sitting at another table. We 
said : ' What pleasure can it be to you to be here, where 
there is so much confusion and noise ? ' They replied : 
' We have no other place to go.' I am thankful to be 
able to add that a gentleman has provided a " House of 
Rest,' a ' Seaman's Coffee and Reading-room,' where 
these poor men, whose life is full of toil and tempta- 
tion, can spend their leisure time in peace, free from the 
snares and temptations which are spread for them at the 
grog-shops, and where they will be surrounded by good 
and holy influences. He has fitted it up beautifully, in 
home fashion, with matting and comfortable seats; there 
is a reading-room, spacious and airy, wdiere are little 
tables, at which two or three can enjoy a quiet chat 
together, also two rooms adjoining for singing, Bible- 
classes, etc., but the attendance is voluntary. Tea, coffee, 
lemonade, and other refreshments are sold at a moderate 


price. The whole place is very inviting, and brightly 
lighted up with gas. Pray that the hearts of the men 
who frequent this place may be illuminated by God's Holy 

President of the International Woman's Christian Temperance Union. 

The position and character of our transatlantic cousin 
combine to render her an attractive picture for our gal- 

Margaret E. Parker, of Dundee, Scotland, may be set 
forth in a sentence as a modest gentlewoman with a life 
devoted to noble purposes and philanthropic deeds. Born 
of an old Tory or Conservative line, and reared with all 
the prejudices of aristocratic birth, her generous heart 
has over-leaped these barriers, and in the face of opposi- 
tion which would have crushed a soul less brave, she has 
become a philanthropist and a reformer. 

Her beneficent activities began in that department of 
church work where women have always been allowed an 
"equal right" with men, viz. : that of paying off church 
debts and raising funds for " church extension." Noth- 
ing succeeds like success, and as Mrs. Parker has never 
been associated with a losing enterprise her name has 
become the synonym for victory. Whether conducting a 
charitable fair, circulating a temperance petition, organ- 
izing Mother Stewart's lecture campaign, or the British 
Woman's Temperance Union, she is always gently con- 
fident, untiringly diligent, and sure to win. 

"An orthodox of the orthodox," she worked for woman 
suffrage side by side with the party of John Stuart Mill; 
a wife, mother, and housekeeper of the New England 
school, she addressed the British Social Science Congress 
on the question of capital and labor; a modest, soft- 
voiced woman from the home-hearth and the cradle-side, 



she marshaled " the bonnets of bonny Dundee," leading 
a procession of sixty of her townswomen to the headquar- 
ters of the magistrate, where they presented a no-license 
petition with nine thousand names of women — all this 
in the days of our "Crusade," and under its blessed 
inspiration. Mrs. Parker is a great admirer of our coun- 
try, and this was not the first time she had taken up its 
bright ideas. Indeed, our own John B. Gough counts 
her among his most valued converts, for at one of his 
lectures in Dundee, some twenty years ago, Mrs. Parker 
and her husband first saw their duty, as Christian parents 
and members of society, to become total abstainers. 
Many of us have seen her " bring down the house " by 
telling how, in their zeal, they banished not only wine 
bottles, decanters, and glasses from their sideboard, but, 
forgetting that they should continue to drink "Adam's 
ale," sent away their tumblers also ! Concerning her 
appreciation of " Yankee Notions," Mrs. Parker once 
wrote : " I have an American cook stove in my kitchen, 
an American sewing-machine in my sitting-room, and all 
the American books I can get in my library, and now I 
must have your wide-awake American paper, the Boston 
Woman's Journal.'''' 

Active as she had always been in reforms, the Crusade 
movement stirred Margaret Parker's heart as nothing 
else had ever done. The presentation of her temperance 
petition to the authorities of Dundee struck the key-note 
for the United Kingdom, aroused Christian women to a 
sense of their responsibility, and led to the organization 
of temperance unions in Dundee and many other towns. 
The press having brought to her the name of Mother 
Stewart of Ohio, as prominently connected with the Cru- 
sade, Mrs. Parker invited her to Scotland, and arranged 
a temperance trip for her which greatly enlisted the public 
interest, and from which resulted a meeting at Newcastle- 


on-Tyne. Delegates from all parts of the Kingdom were 
present ; women who had never heard their own voices 
on a platform before spoke with fluency and convincing 
earnestness, and proceeded, with all due observance of 
parliamentary forms, to organize the " British Women's 
Christian Temperance Union." Mrs. Parker was elected 
president of this new society, and was sent as a delegate 
to the Woman's International Temperance Convention 
which met in the Academy of Music, Philadelphia, in 
June of the Centennial year. There Mrs. Parker was 
unanimously elected President of the Woman's Interna- 
tional Christian Temperance Union, the avowed object of 
which is " to spread a temperance Gospel to the ends of 
the earth." Twice, since the Crusade, Mrs. Parker has 
visited our country to study the spirit and methods of the 
Woman's Temperance work. A charming little book, 
entitled " Six Happy Weeks among the Americans," 
records her impression of the land she had so long 
desired to see. A reception was given her by Sorosis, 
and she was elected a member of that society and of the 
" Woman's Congress." Mrs. Parker is not an orator, 
but her refined manners and gentle presence, combined 
with her strong sense and ready wit, made her one of the 
favorite speakers at the great Chicago Convention called 
by the National Temperance Society, of which Mr. J. N. 
Stearns is Secretary. We very frequently hear the mis- 
application of our Lord's statement that " a prophet is 
not without honor save among his own kindred." We 
have no prophets nowadays, but observation teaches that 
people in general^ and even the much-abused " women 
with a career," are apt to be honored and beloved by 
their own townsfolk if they deserve to be. Mrs. Parker's 
record illustrates this. Nowhere is her influence so great 
as in her own city. Twice she has been offered a place 
on the School Board of Dundee, which she has declined 


only that she may give her time to the work of the local 
Woman's Temperance Union, of which she has heen 
President since its organization, and to the duties of her 
more distinguished but hardly more onerous office as 
President of the International. 

Naturally enough, we wish to know something of the 
home life of a woman so prominent in public work — for 
there is one test on which Society has a right to insist in 
the name of its deeper right of self-preservation. If, by 
taking on themselves the burdens of government, of phi- 
lanthropy, of carrying the Gospel message, women are to 
forget to light the hearth and trim the evening lamp ; if 
the voices of their little ones arc to be drowned in the 
applause of multitudes, then Home shall fall, " and when 
Home falls, the world." 

" To the word and to the testimony ! " What does our 
British sister teach us on this vital question ? 

She is the wife of Edward Parker, proprietor of an 
extensive manufactory. She had six children — five sons, 
one daughter — until her noble Harry was lately called 
away. Our Union has contained nothing more tender and 
beautiful than the account of this young man's death. 
During the childhood of her sons and daughters, Mrs. 
Parker gave herself up to their happiness and training, and 
a more loving and harmonious family circle cannot be 
found. Mr. Parker is a man of broad and generous soul, 
who delights in his wife's ability and work, and heartily 
enters into and fosters all her plans. Their elegant resi- 
dence, "The Cliff," is beautiful for situation, "looking 
off upon the German Ocean and old St. Andrew's of 
classic memory." In the best sense it is a model Scotch 
home. Here " the latch string is out," for all men and 
women whose chief aim is to make the world a more 
sunshiny place because they've lived in it. Here is 
"society" in a true and royal sense, undreamed of by 


the votaries of fashion and of pleasure. As Antoinette 
Brown Blackwell aptly puts it, "After all, a mother's 
child is but an incident in her life. Love it as she will, 
it will grow up, and in a few years it is gone. But a life 
tvork remains for a life time 1 " Thus, those who by their 
gifts of brain and heart were formed to be in some sweet 
sense mothers to those outside their homes, may bring to 
the wider ministries of life's long afternoon the culture 
of soul they acquired in the ministries of the cradle and 
the fireside. 

Mrs. Parker closed her annual address before the 
British Woman's Temperance Union, at its meeting in 
London, with these words, which may fitly put a period 
to our hasty sketch : 

A mighty conflict is before us. Shall we, standing here beside the 
Cross, place ourselves in God's hands to do His work? I believe 
many hearts here respond, "By Thy grace I will." I stand before 
you to-day under the shadow of a great sorrow, coming as I do from 
the grave of a dear son of seventeen years. He has left a bright record 
of work done for the Master in the cause of temperance. His dying 
words to me were, "Go on in your blessed work while it is day, for 
the night cometh." And so say I to you — work while it is day, the 
night cometh. Time is so short, eternity so great, and the ravages of 
strong drink so fearful, that it behooves us to rise in the might and 
the power with which God has endowed us, and in the name of the 
perishing, and the God who cares for them, demand that the traffic in 
strong drink shall cease. 

At present Mrs. Parker is living in England with her 
family, and working side by side with her successor as 
President of the British Women's Temperance League, 
Mrs. Margaret Lucas, sister of Hon. John Bright, M.P. 

President of the Woman's Temperance League of Great Britain. 

In this well-known lady we have a fitting illustration of 
what may be wrought for the great outside world in the 
serene hours of life's long afternoon by the wife and 





mother whose meridian years were occupied with the 
cares and duties of her home. Of Quaker ancestry and 
training, the sister of John Bright, ablest and best be- 
loved of British Commoners, with wealth, position, and 
an honored name, Mrs. Lucas brought to our ranks gifts 
many and rare. She had long been a Good Templar, 
having affiliated with that order of true-hearted men and 
women because of her deep sympathy with their aims and 
spirit. She visited the United States some years ago, 
but though cordial, how different the welcome she then 
received from what awaits her now could she be persuaded 
to " cross over." There is not a W. C. T. U. of all the three 
thousand that would not exhaust both resources and in- 
genuity to do her honor. Mrs. Lucas is sixty-three years 
of age, is well preserved, erect and vigorous. She has 
but one daughter, Mrs. Thomasson, wife of a member of 
Parliament, and one son, a deaf mute, who with his lovely 
family, lives near her. She was perfectly devoted to her 
children until they grew to maturity and were settled 
near her in their beautiful homes. Now they are so de- 
voted to her, that although she is very desirous to make 
her American sisters a visit, they will not hear to her 
making another trans-Atlantic voyage. But she goes* 
from one end to the other of the United Kingdom with- 
out harm or seeming fatigue, speaking and organizing 
branches of the flourishing society of which she is Presi- 
dent. She is, like her distinguished brother, a very great 
friend of America, and it was by her kindness and that 
of Margaret Parker that our editor, Mrs. Mary B. Wil- 
lard, was enabled to make researches so extended and val- 
uable, into the varied and mighty temperance movement 
of Great Britain on the occasion of her recent visit. 

Margaret Lucas at sixty-three, organizing the women 
of her country for work in the great cause ; Neal Dow at 
seventy-eight, campaigning for prohibition in Wisconsin ; 


Rebecca Collins of New York at the same age, honorary 
president of the Metropolitan Union, Mother Hill of New- 
ark at eighty, attending onr conventions, and my own dear 
mother at seventy-three, president of the W. C. T. U. of 
Evanston, these, with hundreds of like examples speak well 
for the brain and brawn of the " teetotallers." 



Chautauqua, Summer of 1874 — Poetic justice — Dr. Vincent— Mrs. 
Ingham's sketch— Mrs. E. H. Miller's circular. 

OXCE more appears the poetic justice ever recurring 
in this unique movement of the W. C. T. U. Rev. 
Dr. John H. Vincent, the noble founder of that delight- 
ful sylvan University, is perhaps the most quietly uncom- 
promising opponent of women's public work to be found 
among the enlightened tribes of men. And yet, right 
here, with his cordial endorsement, on the 15th of August, 
1874, good and gifted women gathered fresh from the 
Crusade pentecost, and prayed and planned into perman- 
ent organic form the work which has since sent hundreds 
of temperance Esthers and Miriams to the platform and 
the polls. The history of these small beginnings is thus 
' graphically told by Mrs. Mary B. Ingham of Cleveland, 
who can say truthfully concerning them, " all of which I 
saw and part of which I was." 


" The handful of corn upon the tops of the mountains 
grew apace after its wonderful planting in Ohio during 
the winter and spring of 1873-4. The fruit thereof shook 
like Lebanon throughout the Middle and Western States, 
and in August of that year many of the seed-sowers had 
gathered upon the shore of Lake Chautauqua for a fort- 
night in the woods. In primitive fashion we dwelt in 
tents, or sat in the open air about the watch-fires kindled 
at the first National Sunday-school Assembly. Women 



who had dr; . near to God in saloon prayer-m^ 
felt their hearts aflame again as they recounted the w 
.1 the great uprising. 

•• H - ' hautauqua. the birthpl 

>ur union o: _ .. fced. D is time the story 
tten, and there is no mo. 
place for its rehearsal than in this goodly jw 
city of L He, where South and North meet . sath 

the olive branch to rejoice over its achievements ai. 
its all 

•• ' toe . ighi day a very few ladies were in conversa* 
upon fche subject that filled their hearts, inspiring the 
though! that the tempei - needed the unv 

effort of all the women of the country- The suggestion 
came from Mrs- Mattie McClellan Brown of Alliai. 
OIi!'j. Mrs. Gr. W. Manly, leader of the praying-band of 
A kron, accepted the idea, and it was said : • Why not take 

ps right here toward its formation?' Upon furt". 
consultation it was decided to call a meeting of the lac! 
notice of which was read from the platform of the ai. - 
torium by Rev. Dr. Vincent. Mrs. Jennie F. Willing 
of Illinois, a guesl of the assembly, maintained that - 
important a mo 1 ement should be controlled by women 
engaged in active; Christian work, la order to arran. 
the preliminaries of the announced meeting Mrs. Willing 
invited Mrs. Brown, Mrs. Manly. Miss Emma Janes of 
Oakland, California, and Mrs. Ingham of Cleveland, to 
meet I"''' <" a new board shanty on Asbury avenue. 

" The Woman's National Christian Temperance Union 
was born, not in a manger, hut on a floor of straw in an 
apartmenl into which the daylight shone through hol< - 
and crevices. In a half hour's space every detail w a 
prepared, including a, proposed formation of a committee 
on organization, to take place that very afternoon succeed- 
ing the regular 3 o'clock session of the assembly. At the 



temperance prayer-meeting at 4 o'clock p.m., under the 
canvas tabernacle, were, perhaps, fifty earnest Christian 
women ; of them were several from Ohio, Mrs. H. H. Otis 
of Buffalo, Mrs. Niles of Hornellsville, and Mrs. W. E. 
Knox of Elmira, N. Y. Mrs. Willing was leader of the 
prayer service, and acted as presiding officer of the busi- 
ness session convened afterward. At this conference 
women were chosen to represent various States, an ad- 
journment being had to the following day. 

"At the hour appointed, August 15, 1874, a large 
audience had gathered, Mrs. Jennie F. Willing in the 
chair, and Mrs. Emily Huntington Miller, secretary. As 
results of the deliberation, the committee on organization 
was formed, and the chairman and secretary of the Chau- 
tauqua meeting were authorized to issue a circular letter, 
asking the Woman's Temperance Leagues everywhere 
to hold conventions for the purpose of electing one woman 
from each Congressional district as delegate to an organ- 
izing convention to be held in Cleveland, Ohio, November 
18, 19, and 20, 1874. The call duly appeared. The 
writer of this paper was nominated from Ohio, but with- 
drew her own name, substituting that of Mrs. Brown, 
who was known to have made the original suggestion. 

" Vicissitudes have occurred during the eight years 
passed, but all tend, in our onward march to the fore- 
front of battle, to bring nearer to that which overcoming 
faith and labor are sure to win — victory ! 

" Independent organizations, with large membership, 
have multiplied on both sides of the ocean until a score 
are in active operation as the outgrowth of the great 

"More than all, better than all, the 'Rock of Ages' 
women are proving themselves worthy of the title, and 
are praying to-day even more earnestly than when with 
sublime faith they went out into the streets and saloons 


of Ohio, believing that ere long our Lord will say to us, 
' 0, woman, great is thy faith ; be it unto thee even as 
thou wilt.' " 

As a matter of history, Mrs. Miller's Chautauqua carol 
is here subjoined : 

woman's national temperance league. 

During the session of the National Sunday-school Assembly at 
Chautauqua Lake, several large and enthusiastic temperance meet- 
ings were held. Many of the most earnest workers in the woman's 
temperance movement from different parts of the Union and different 
denominations of Christians were present, and the conviction was 
general that a more favorable opportunity would not soon be pre- 
sented for taking the preliminary steps towards organizing a national 
league, to make permanent the grand work of the last few months. 

After much deliberation and prayer, a committee of organization 
was appointed, consisting of one lady from each State, to interest 
temperance workers in this effort. A national convention was ap- 
pointed to be held in Cleveland, Ohio, during the month of Novem- 
ber, the exact date to be fixed by the committee of organization. The 
chairman and secretary of the Chautauqua meeting were authorized to 
issue a circular letter, asking the Woman's Temperance Leagues to 
hold conventions for the purpose of electing one woman from each 
Congressional district as a delegate to the Cleveland convention. 

It is hardly necessary to remind those who have worked so nobly 
in the grand temperance uprising, that in union and organization are 
its success and permanence, and the consequent redemption of this 
land from the curse of intemperance. In the name of our Master — in 
behalf of the thousands of women who suffer from this terrible evil — 
we call upon all to unite in an earnest, continued effort to hold the 
ground already won, and move onward together to a complete victory 
over the foes we fight. 

The ladies already elected members of the committee of organiza- 
tion are: Mrs. Dr. Gause, Philadelphia; Mrs. E. J. Knowles, New- 
ark, N. J.; Mrs. Mattie McClellan Brown, Alliance, Ohio; Mrs. Dr. 
Steele, Appleton, Wis.; Mrs. W. D. Barnett, Hiawatha, Kansas; 
Miss Auretta Hoyt, Indianapolis, Ind. ; Mrs. Jennie F. Willing, 
Bloomington, 111. ; Mrs. Ingham Stanton, LeRoy, N. Y. ; Mrs. Fran- 
ces Crooks, Baltimore, Md. ; Miss Emma Janes, Oakland, Cal. 

Jennie F. Willing, Chairman. 

Emily Huntington Miller, 

Secretary of the Chautauqua Meeting. 




The First Woman's National Temperance Convention, Cleveland, 
Ohio — Red-Letter days — Officers — Resolutions, etc. — Representative 
Women — A brave beginning. 

NOVEMBER 18th, 19th, 20th, 1874: red-letter days 
in the history of the Crusade. 
Well, it began with prayer — I mean away back at 
Chautauqua Lake Sunday-school camp-meeting. "Honor 
to whom honor is due." And a Western pilgrim to Cleve- 
land, the Mecca of the Crusade, may mildly mention that, 
in the capacity of " a chiel amang ye, takin' notes," she 
learned that Mrs. Mattie McClellan Brown, of Alliance, 
0., first thought out " this Convocation." Nay, better 
than that — the idea of it was put into her heart as an in- 
spiration, while she knelt in prayer at Dr. Vincent's 
camp-meeting. She named this to a lady kneeling by 
her side, Mrs. Russell, of Chicago, and they at once 
brought it before the prayer-meeting in which it had been 
given to them, and all the people said, " Amen." Promi- 
nent and earnest women, encouraged by the best men, 
moved forward actively in getting this idea before the 
women of the country. Mrs. Jennie F. Willing and Emily 
Huntington Miller were appointed to send out the invita- 
tion ; Mrs. Brown, the "prime mover," and Mrs. Mary 
B. Ingham, of Cleveland, a woman of marvelous energy, 
combined their efforts with those of the ladies above 
mentioned. Temperance women all over the land were 
delighted with the idea. State conventions were held and 



delegates appointed, and on the morning of November 
18th we were " with one accord in one place," gathered 
up from Maine and Oregon, from Alabama and Iowa, 
from Massachusetts and Colorado, and many States 

And we began with prayer. In the lecture-room of the 
"Second Presbyterian church, an hour before the Conven- 
tion was to jopen, we gathered for a 


Sitting there, listening to the mild voices of that mild- 
faced throng, singing, 

"Jesus, I my cross have taken," 

one could but feel that, as heaven looks down on things, 
this was the hopefulest of convocations since that one in 
Philadelphia in which they wrote of " life, liberty, and 
the pursuit of happiness." 

When our prayer-meeting ended, and we went in 
rambling procession to the church, what a general hand- 
shaking there was, and "Where are you from?" and 
" Crusaders need no introduction," were words often 

In the spacious auditorium of the Presbyterian church, 
the Convention was called to order by Mrs. Jennie F. 
Willing, of Bloomington, 111. We were seated in delega- 
tions, according to our States and Congressional Districts, 
after the most approved method. We chose our commit- 
tee on temporary organization, with one member from 
each State, which reported the following list of 


President — Mrs. Jennie F. Willing, Illinois. 

Vice-Presidents — Mrs. S. K. Leavitt, Ohio ; Mrs. Ex- 
Governor Wallace, Indiana ; Mrs. J. Backus, Vermont ; 
Mrs. Matchett, Pennsylvania ; Mrs. Professor Marcy, 


Illinois; Mrs. Gifford, Massachusetts; Mrs. Dr. Steele, 
Wisconsin ; Mrs. Mary T. Lathrop, Michigan ; Mrs. Helen 
E. Brown, New York ; Mrs. E. A. Wheeler, Iowa ; Mrs. 
Otis Gibson, California ; Miss Lizzie Boyd, West Vir- 

Secretaries — Miss Auretta Hoyt, Indiana; Mrs. Mary 
T. Burt, New York. 

Treasurer — Mrs. Mary B. Ingham, Ohio. 

These ladies were duly elected. 

Mrs. Dr. McCabe., of Delaware, 0., President of the 
State League, then made a most admirable address of 

To this Mrs. Mary C. Johnson, of New York, responded 
in words litting and beautiful. 

Some discussion arose as to the rights of those who 
had not brought credentials, but the following resolution, 
offered by Mrs. Wittenmeyer, of Philadelphia, settled the 
question : 

Resolved, That the several State delegates be allowed to add to their 
number from representatives from each State, to the number of Con- 
gressional Districts in that State. 

This matter disposed of, the Convention addressed it- 
self to business, of which there was no lack, the following 
list of committees indicating its general character: 

Committee on Credentials — Miss Auretta Hoyt, Indian- 
apolis, Ind. ; Mrs. S. J. Steele, Appleton, Wis. ; Mrs. H. 
N. K. Goff , Philadelphia, Pa. ; Mrs. W. A. Ingham, Cleve- 
land, 0. ; and Mrs. Joel Foster, Montpelier, Vt. 

On Business — Mrs. Almira Brackett, Biddeford, Me. ; 
Mrs. E. R. Backus, Springfield, Vt. ; Mrs. E. A. Bowers, 
Clinton, Mass. ; Mrs. E. A. Wheeler, Cedar Rapids, la. ; 
Mrs. A. M. Noe, Indianapolis, Ind. ; Mrs. Peter Strykcr, 
Rome, N. Y. ; Mrs. H. M. Wilkin, Paris, 111. ; Mrs. S. R. 
Leavitt, Cincinnati, 0. ; Miss Lizzie Boyd, Wheeling, W. 
Va. ; Miss Emma Janes, Oakland, Cal. ; Mrs. J. A. Brown, 


Milwaukee, Wis. ; Mrs. Mary T. Lathrop, Jackson, Mich. ; 
Mrs. S. B. Chase, Great Bend, Pa. 

On Circular Letter to Foreign Nations — Mrs. Lathrop, 
Michigan ; Mrs. S. B. Chase, Pennsylvania ; Miss Emma 
Janes, California. 

On Resolutions — "Mother" Stewart, Ohio; Mrs. Gov- 
ernor Wallace, Indiana ; Miss Willard, Illinois ; Mrs. 
Butler, New York ; Mrs. Collins, Pennsylvania ; Mrs. 
Black, Pennsylvania; Mrs. Brown, Ohio; Mrs. Goff, 

On Constitution — Mrs. J. Ellen Foster, Iowa; Mrs. L. 
M, Boise, Michigan ; Mrs. Finch, Indiana ; Mrs. Witten- 
meyer, Pennsylvania; Mrs. Runyon, Ohio; Miss Boyd, 
West Virginia ; Mrs Gifford, Massachusetts ; Mrs. Ken- 
yon, New York; Mrs. Brown, Wisconsin; Mrs. M. Davis, 
Vermont ; Mrs. J. Dickey, 111. 

On Finance — Mrs. Dr. Leavitt, Cincinnati, 0. ; Mrs. 
Peter Stryker, Rome, N. Y. ; Mrs. S. P. Robinson, Penn- 
sylvania ; Mrs. Foster, Iowa ; Mrs. M. Valentine, Indiana. 

On Memorial to Congress — Mrs. Annie Wittenmeyer, 
Philadelphia ; Mrs. Governor Wallace, Indiana ; Miss 
Frances E. Willard, Chicago. 

On Constitution for National Temperance League — Mrs. 
M. M. Finch, Indiana ; Mrs. Wittenmeyer, Pennsylvania ; 
Mrs. Runyon, Ohio ; Mrs. L. M. Boise, Michigan ; Mrs. J. 
Dickey, Illinois ; Mrs. S. A. Gifford, Massachusetts ; Mrs. 
J. A. Brown, AYisconsin ; Mrs. Dr. Kenyon, New York ; 
Mrs. J. E. Foster, Iowa ; Mrs. M. Davis, Vermont ; Miss 
Lizzie Boyd, West Virginia. 

On Address to the Young Women of America — Mrs. 
Mary T. Lathrop, of Michigan, Chairman. 

On Letter to American Women — Mrs. Marcy, Illinois ; 
Mrs. Johnson, New York ; Mrs. Leavitt, Ohio. 

On Juvenile Organizations — Mrs. E. J. Thompson, Ohio; 
Miss Willard, Illinois ; Mrs. A. M. Noe, Indiana. 


On Est alii tiling a National Temperance Paper — Mrs. 
Annie Wittenmeyer, Pennsylvania ; Mrs. S. J. Steele, 
Wisconsin ; Mrs. S. K. Leavitt, Ohio; Mrs. S. A. Gifford, 
Massachusetts; Mrs. E. E. Marcy, Illinois; Miss Emma 
Janes, California ; Mrs. M. C. Johnson, Brooklyn. 

Passing by the discussions, which were sufficiently 
lively, but (as was stated by a delegate present, who had 
been so happy as to witness thirty conventions) not at all 
extreme, " considering," Ave will give a resume of the 
results arrived at by this significant assembly. 

1. Resolutions were adopted as follows, embodying a 
sufficiently exhaustive " confession of faith : " 

Whereas, Much of the evil by which this country is cursed comes 
from the fact that the men in power whose duty it is to make and 
administer the laws are either themselves intemperate men or con- 
trolled largely by the liquor power; therefore, 

1. Resolved, That the women of the United States, in this conven- 
tion represented, do hereby express their unqualified disapprobation 
of the custom so prevalent in political parties of placing intemperate 
men in office. 

2. Resolved, That we will appeal to the House of Representatives, by 
petition, for their concurrence with the Senate bill providing a com- 
mission of inquiry into the effects and results of the liquor traffic in 
this country. 

3. Resolved, That we respectfully ask the President of the United 
States, Senators, Representatives in Congress, Governors of States, 
and all public men, with their wives and daughters, to give the 
temperance cause the strength of their conspicuous example by ban- 
ishing all wines and other intoxicating liquors from their banquets 
and their private tables. 

4. Resolved, That we will endeavor to secure the co-operation of 
great manufacturing firms in our effort to pledge their employees to 
total abstinence, and that we will ask these firms to consider the 
advantages to sobriety of paying their men on Monday rather than on 
Saturday evening. 

5. Resolved, That we respectfully request the physicians to exercise 
extreme and conscientious care in administering intoxicating liquors 
as a beverage. 

6. Resolved, That as the National Temperance Society, and Pub- 
lishing House in New York — J. N. Stearns, Publishing Agent— pre- 


sents the best variety of temperance literature in the world, consisting 
of books, tracts, The National Temperance Advocate and The Youth's 
Temperance Banner, we hereby recommend the ladies of America to 
encourage the dissemination of this literature in connection with their 

7. Resolved, That all temperance organizations of our land be in- 
vited to co-operate with us in our efforts for the overthrow of intem- 

8. Resolved, That all good temperance women, without regard to 
sect or nationality, are cordially invited to unite with us in our great 
battle against the wrong and for the right. 

9. Resolved, That in the conflict of moral ideas, we look to the 
pulpit and the press as our strongest earthly allies, and that we will, 
by our influence as Christian women and by our prayers, strive to 
increase the interest in our cause already manifested by their powerful 
instrumentalities, gratefully recognized by us. 

10. Resolved, That we will pray and labor for a general revival of 
religion throughout our land, knowing that only through the action 
of the Holy Spirit on the hearts of the Church and the world will they 
be warmed to a vital interest in the temperance cause. 

11. Resolved, That recognizing the fact that our cause is and will 
be combatted by mighty, determined, and relentless forces, we will, 
trusting in Him who is the Prince of Peace, meet argument with 
argument, misjudgment with patience, denunciation with kindness, 
and all our difficulties and dangers with prayer. 

A constitution was adopted as follows : 


"We, the women of this Nation, conscious of the increasing evils and 
appalled at the tendencies and dangers of intemperance, believe it has 
become our duty, under the providence of God, to unite our efforts 
for its extinction. 


1. This Association shall be known as the "Woman's National 
Christian Temperance Union. " 

2. The officers of the Union shall be a President, one Vice-President 
from each State, a Corresponding Secretary, Recording Secretary, and 
a Treasurer. Said officers shall constitute a Board of Managers, to 
control and provide for the general interests of the work. 

3. Each State organization may become auxiliary to the Union by 
indorsing its Constitution. 

4. Each Vice-President shall make to the Corresponding Secretary 
an annual report of the work in her State. 


5. The Annual Meeting of the Union, at which time its officers 
shall be elected, shall be in November, the time and place to be fixed 
by the Board of Managers; said officers to be elected by ballot. 

6. The Annual Meeting shall be composed of delegates chosen, one 
from each Congressional district, by the Auxiliary Woman's Temper- 
ance Unions. 

7. Each State organization shall pay annually to the National Fund 
an amount equal to five cents per member of each Auxiliary Union. 

8. This Constitution may be altered or amended at any Annual 
Meeting of the National Union, by a vote of two thirds of the dele- 
gates present. 

The following ladies were elected officers for the ensu- 
ing year of the Woman's National Christian Temperance 
Union : 

President — Mrs. Annie Wittenmeyer, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Vice-Presidents — Mrs. Mary A. Gaines, Saco, Me.; 
Mrs. Joel M. Haven, Rutland, Vt. ; Mrs. S. A. Gifford, 
Mass.; Mrs. L. N. Kenyon, N. Y. ; Mrs. S. B. Chase, 
Great Bend, Pa.; Mrs. E. J. Thompson, Hillsboro', Ohio; 
Mrs. Rev. S. Reed, Ann Arbor, Mich. ; Mrs. E. E. Marcy, 
Evanston, 111. ; Mrs. S. J. Steele, Appleton, Wis. ; Mrs. Z. G. 
Wallace, Indianapolis, Ind. ; Mrs. M. J. Aldrich, Cedar 
Rapids, Iowa ; Mrs. R. Thompson, San Francisco, Cal. 

Corresponding Secretary — Miss Frances E. Willard, 
Chicago, 111. 

Recording Secretary — Mrs. Mary C. Johnson, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. " 

Treasurer — Mrs. W. A. Ingham, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Thus much for the official decisions reached by the 
first National Convention of temperance workers who 
were women. 

Aside from this, we had good talk and plenty of it, at 
which some hint is given elsewhere. Four mass-meetings 
were held during the Convention. Dr. J. M. Walden, of 
Cincinnati (Chief Knight of the new Crusade), presided 
at the first — a quite exceptional honor, no other member 
of the regnant sex being allowed to lift up his voice 


throughout the whole Convention. Mrs. S. K. Leavitt, 
one of Ohio's strongest and best women, eonducted the 
second ; Mrs. Br. Donaldson, of Toledo (whose mind 
seems as incisive as the blade which bore that name), 
was generalissimo of the third, and Miss Auretta Hoyt, 
of Indiana, as " genuine " as she is practical, carried on 
the fourth. 

Crowded houses signalized these meetings, and Crusade 
hymns were pleasantly interspersed with the excellent 
music furnished by trained singers of Cleveland. 

Some salient features of the Convention may be re- 
ferred to in closing this shadowy outline of what was a 
picture full of life, color, and " tone." This was a rep- 
resentative gathering, not only numerically and geograph- 
ically, but in respect to character and to achievement. 
We had a bright little lady lawyer, Mrs. Foster, all the 
way from Iowa, to be chief of our Committee on Consti- 
tution, and to set us right on legal points in general. 
We had a thorough-going lady physician, Mrs. Harriet 
French, of Philadelphia, who was competent to tell us of 
the relation of alcohol to medicine. We had three or 
four editors, any quantity of teachers, two college pro- 
fessors, Quaker ministers, looking out with dove-like eyes 
from their dove-colored bonnets ; and besides these, three 
licensed preachers of the Methodist persuasion, besides 
business women not a few, and gray-haired matrons from 
scores of sacred homes, all up and down the land. 
Goethe's prophetic words, "The ever-feminine draweth 
on," received new confirmation when, at the close of our 
last mass-meeting, one of our ablest speakers, Mrs. Mary 
T. Lathrop, of Michigan, after a telling address, made a 
brief prayer, and then stretched out her hands and gave 
us the apostolic benediction. And this in the pulpit of a 
Presbyterian Church ! 

We bespeak for the work done by this Convention the 


thoughtful study of every man and woman who may read 
these lines. 

"Something practical" is what our people clamor for, 
and justly. Well, we have here a plan of organization 
that is meant to reach every village and hamlet in the 
Republic; a declaration of principles of which only 
Christ's religion could have been the animus; an appeal 
to the women of our country, another to the girls of 
America, and a third to lands beyond the sea; a memo- 
rial to Congress, and a deputation to carry it ; a National 
Temperance Paper, "of the women for the women;" a 
centennial temperance celebration projected; and, finally, 
a financial plan, involving two cents a week for each 


Surely, a generous, comprehensive plan for " new be- 
ginners" to devise. 

Not least in value was the decision, deliberately reached, 
after a free discussion, to stand by the name as well as 
the faith of Him to whom woman owes all she has come 
to be. That name, " Woman's National Christian Tem- 
perance Union," has volumes in it which this gainsaying 
age may profitably ponder. 

There is no harshness in the utterances of the Conven- 
tion, as there was none in its spirit, but the earnest words 
of one of the ablest workers in the cause, fitly express 
the deep conviction which prevailed there : 

" Woman is ordained to lead the vanguard of this great 
movement until the public is borne across the abysmal 
transition from the superstitious notion that 'alcohol is 
food' to the scientific fact that 'alcohol is poison;' from 
the pusillanimous concession that 'intemperance is a 
great evil' to the responsible conviction that the liquor 
traffic is a crime." 

And while woman leads, her courage and her hope all 
come from Him who said, "Lo! I am with you ahvay." 



Mrs. Plymouth Rock and Friend Rachel Halliday engage in a dis- 

Time— Just after the Xational TY C. T. U. Convention. 
Place — A Pullman car, eastward bound. 

Persons— A Xew England delegate to the Woman's Temperance 
Convention and a Philadelphia "Friend," also a delegate. 

MRS. PLYMOUTH ROCK—'- Well, Cousin Rachel, 
I must say I've added largely to my stock of ideas 
at our Convention. I'm First Vice-President of the 
Union in Cobblestone, and I mean to have our business 
carried on, after this, in a parliamentary manner. By 
the way, do you remember the price of that book, ' Rules 
of Order, by Major Roberts?' (Consults her memoran- 
dum book.) 0, here it is ; seventy-five cents, and the 
publisher is S. C. Griggs, Chicago." 

Rachel Halliday — Wb I tell thee, Martha, I believe thee 
is under a delusion. Thee says thee has added to thy 
stock of ideas, but I tell thee plainly thy stock of spirit- 
uality has not increased. This parliamentary code is 
grievously oppressive, to my mind." 

Mrs. P. R. — 4, I think I must plead guilty to the charge 
you make about my state of mind : but that's my own 
fault, and not to be set down against the thoughtful, 
deliberative assembly of which I'm proud to have been a 
quiet member. After all. 1 think religion is a very broad 
word, and to transact business for God and humanity 
may be quite as religious as to pray." 



Mrs. Rachel — '"Diligent in business, fervent in spirit. 
serving the Lord,' is a favorite text with me, but thee 
sees it was borne in upon my mind that we had too much 
red tape — we magnified our office. Now I don't object 
to an order of business, nor even to "moving and second- 
ing,'' for we have something like that in Friends' meeting, 
but when thee, my cousin Martha, who used to be content 
to sit by me in the meeting-house and commune with thy 
heart and be still, when thee popped up and said to the 
President, 'I rise to a question of privilege,' I tell thee 
I hung my head." 

Mrs. P. R. — (Briskly.) "And, indeed, I should like 
to know why '.' You ought to have been proud of me, 
for I don't believe there were a dozen women in the Con- 
vention who could have done it. Did you raise your 
diminished head in time to see how, by that move, I got 
the floor in time to explain my position on the Bible 
wine question, thus setting myself right with my home 
constituency : " 

Mrs. Rachel — " Thee knows it is quite beyond me, the 
whole of it, and I'm very willing to remain in ignorance. 
But even with thy views thee surely wouldn't defend a 
Christian woman getting up as they did there and offer- 
ing an ' amendment to an amendment ?' I don't know 
when I've had such an exercise of the mind as I did over 

Mrs. P. R. — " In the first place, I should certainly de- 
fend a woman for 'getting up* to offer what you mention, 
for it would be impolite to the president and inconvenient 
to the convention for her to speak when sitting down. In 
the second place, if there's one thing I'm glad I've found 
out about it's this particular point. Let's see. how did 
Mrs. Clerecut illustrate it to Hypatia and me ? 0, I re- 
member : ' A motion made and seconded is the house : an 
amendment is the addition to the house ; an amendment 


to an amendment is the wood-shed of the house ; and you 
vote upon the wood-shed first.' " 

Mrs. Rachel — (Loosing her drab bonnet-ribbons and 
gazing helplessly toward the ventilator.) " Martha, thee 
is going clean daft. If I did not remember thine ancient 
propensity to tease thy poor cousin, I would be seriously 
concerned for thee. Now check thy merriment and tell 
me truly what is the good of thy profane little book with 
its rules of order; of the endless committees, secreta- 
ries, rulings, reports, and so on ? They may do very well 
for the world's people, but I am persuaded that Christian 
women have no call to make use of such devices." 

[At this juncture Mrs. Plymouth Rock takes off her 
gloves, rubs her energetic little hands, and, laying aside 
all defensive tactics, makes a lively onslaught upon the 
citadel of her cousin's prejudice. With index finger 
pointed straight at the placid features of her antagonist, 
she thus proceeds :] 

" There's no use mincing matters, Rachel. You see 
things as you do, because of your bringing up. You're 
non-combative to that degree that old Apollyon and all 
his hosts couldn't ruffle your feathers a particle. But I'm 
not so. ' The Sword of the Lord mid of Gideon ' is the most 
musical sentence in the Old Testament, to ears like mine. 
And, with all due deference, I know more about this busi- 
ness than you do. Haven't I seen in the Union at Fac- 
toryville, near Cobblestone, just because Mrs. Holdfast is 
persistent as gravitation, and wise in parliamentary 
usage as the chief justice, that she carries everything to 
suit herself, and our dear, meek women sit by as if de- 
mented ? You've got to take this world as it is, and not 
as it ought to be, and the facts are — for any quantity of 
women told me so at the convention — that in many a 
locality the woman who ' knows the ropes ' — as men 
would say — moulds the policy of the Union, and the rest 


are blown like thistle-down before the breeze. For there 
seems to be a sort of mysticism in the minds of women 
about this matter of parliamentary usage. And because 
Mrs. Holdfast looks so alarmingly wise when she says, 
' The chair rules that Mrs. Pretty man has the floor,' 
poor, dear sister Prettyman forgets what she wanted to 
say. Now the whole thing is easily learned, and some 
women will most assuredly proceed to learn it, and for 
my part I mean that in our Union all the members shall, 
and then they won't be so easily cowed by one or two 
master spirits." 

Mrs. Rachel — (Neither silenced nor convinced.) 
" But where's the utility of it, when one has learned it ? 
Answer me that thou, Martha, ' careful and troubled about 
many things.' " 

Mrs. P. R. — « Well, take an example. There was a 
delegate from the West who knew of a young lady who 
would have added much strength to the committee on 
young women's work, and whom she wanted to nominate 
to a place on that committee. Up got some wide-awake 
leader, and moved that the old committee on young 
women's work be continued through the year, and in the 
twinkle of an eye the motion was carried through. Mean- 
while, this lady felt like a boat stranded high and dry, 
and went off lamenting that the bright girl who would 
have worked so well, and in whose appointment there 
would have been such fitness, couldn't be ' put on,' and 
she bitterly cried out, ' Too much red tape.' But, in fact, 
there was too little. Rather, there was too much ignor- 
ance inside her own particular cranium. If she had 
studied as our temperance women arc surely going to 
study, she would have found out this : That a body called 
' a convention ' can, like an individual body, change its 
mind while it's alive, and it isn't dead till it's adjourned. 
Any decision it comes to can be reversed — any action 
can be nullified." 


Mrs. Rachel — (Aside) — "Nullified! my! What 
is she coming to ?" 

Mrs. P. R. — " So that lady could, in any one of half a 
dozen ways, have called attention to her pet idea of add- 
ing this young woman to the committee — only she didn't 
know how. Some of us told her this, but she went off 
grumbling, ' When a thing's done, it's done, according to 
my way of thinking.' Ah, cousin, knowledge is power. 
Parliamentary rules are the result of centuries of expe- 
rience in conducting the proceedings of deliberative 
bodies, while one person acts as the mouth-piece, keeps 
matters well in hand, and impartially gives to every dele- 
gate, according to certain prescribed regulations, a chance 
to bring forward her views, and to affect the decisions of 
many women of many minds." 

Mrs. Rachel — " I see thee does really make a point 
about a few who know this rigmarole unduly influencing 
the rest, and concerning that dear woman who felt so set 
back about her plan for the young lady, but I see, too, 
thee does not even try to answer my chief objection — 
that all this takes out the freedom and spirituality from 
our meetings." 

Mrs. P. R. — (Taking her cousin's hand, and waxing 
eloquent.) "Now, I confess I want you on my side in 
this. For, if there is a Christian, you are one, and, like 
you, I would say, give ' rules of order ' to the wind, if for 
their sake we must lose one bit of spiritual power. But 
' order is heaven's first law.' ' Let everything be done 
decently, and in order,' is a sacred command. What 
cleanliness and neat arrangement are to a room, and 
what good manners are to an individual, just that, rules 
and regulations are to an assembly. I was talking about 
all this to Judge Fairmind, in whose home I was a guest 
through the convention. He said what delighted him 
most in our proceedings was the prompt application of 


parliamentary rules, the evident knowledge of them 
among a majority of delegates, and the good nature in 
their observance ; also the way in which by means of them 
Ave got through such a great amount of business in those 
four days, and the ease with which we turned from the 
regular order of business to hymns of praise and words 
of prayer. He said it was to his mind a foretaste of the 
good time coming, when methods useful in themselves, 
but hitherto secular, shall be informed by the spirit which 
giveth life. Then, cousin, you cannot deny that the utmost 
Christian forbearance and gentleness characterized the 
deportment of every member, and ' rules ' did not prevent 
frequent prayer even while a question was pending. 
Moreover, you never saw, and never will see, a lovelier 
sight than the election, so simple and unpremeditated, 
nominations all made in open meeting, and hymns, tears, 
and prayers coming in as freely as if no 'red tape' were 
in the world." 

Mrs. Rachel — " There is much in what thee says, 
Martha; thee is an excellent woman after all, — most ex- 
cellent. I cannot quite see as thee does, but I confess 
there is a method in thy madness, to say the least. But 
as for me, I am quite sure thee will never convert me 
over to a real and lively affection for thy little book of 
rules. Nevertheless I will follow thee part way — but not 
so far as ' an amendment to an amendment,' and thee will 
never, never hear thy cousin say 'I rise to a point of 
order,' or ' I call for the ayes and noes.' " 


IT has been prophesied that the temperance reform, 
which has now marshaled into its ranks both men 
and women, gospel and law, shall one day bring about 
the enfranchisement of women as an instrument, and 
the brotherhood of races as a result of its triumph over 
humanity's worst foe. Be this as it may, one who surveys 
the field from various sides, and whose whole life is bound 
up with the battle, finds evidences multiplying constantly 
of the many-handed hold upon the people's life which this 
reform has gained. 

A few of these straws upon the current, growing every 
day more strong and deep, may help the courage of some 
overburdened heart, for that there are so many ways of 
working is an inspiring feature of the situation. 

For instance, a lady said to me in Denison, Texas : " I 
didn't go to your temperance meeting in the Opera 
House last night, but I staid at home and took care of 
five babies beside my own, so that their mothers could 
attend," and her eyes twinkled as she added, " Wasn't 
that real temperance work ? " 

Again : " Give me those notices. I can take them to a 
printer who will strike them off as his mite for the 
treasury ; " thus gently whispers a young mother whose 
voice we never hear " speaking out in meeting," but 
whose heart is in our work. 

A young girl writes : " Here are twenty-five letters, 
leaving me as many more to copy for you. Be sure to 
have something else ready for me to do when these are 



finished. It isn't much that I can accomplish, but you 
don't know the pleasure I have in putting even a tiny 
thread into the great cable of work and prayer that is to 
bridge the fiery sea." 

Just here an energetic voice chimes in : " I don't speak 
— thumbscrews wouldn't force a Avord from my lips — but 
I know a pair of temperance workers who never tire of 
talking, and whom the people like to hear, whose glove- 
buttons, dress-braids, and general mending would be in a 
sorry plight if I didn't carry the needle-case and thimble 
which they get so little time to use." 

" Well, my talent doesn't lie in that direction," says a 
quiet, motherly-faced lady, taking out her purse, and pay- 
ing the street-car fares of her two guests, as she speaks, 
" but God has given me a pleasant home, and I delight to 
open its doors for our temperance apostles." 

" I fear we are too likely to forget how many ways 
there are of helping, and to think because we neither 
speak, write, nor organize, our activities are unimportant," 
replies a lady from Ohio, temporarily sojourning in the 
Eastern city where the scene of our conversation is laid. 

She continues : " The beauty of our work is, that there 
is in it a place for every willing head and hand and heart. 
It was just so in the Crusade. I know women who went 
just that they might count one in the procession. A dear 
old grandmother who never missed going out with us 
said, ' I don't amount to much ; I can only go along and 
cry.' A servant-girl, an Irish Catholic, whose mistress 
led our band, says, ' Sure, an' I can hold th' umbrelly 
over yer head, mum, and keep the sun or the rain off 
while you pray.' In that same band was a young lady 
who had spent years in the Musical Conservatory at 
Paris, but who sang through storm and shine, and when 
her beautiful voice showed signs of failing, said, in reply 
to the protests of her friends, ' I have no gift too good to 


lay upon the altar of the woman's temperance crusade.' 
Even our silent neighbors, the lower animals, came to our 
help. Mrs. Hitt of Urbana, one of our grandest leaders, 
had a great dog, which walked beside her with stately step 
all through those wonderful days, and, by his presence, 
added not a little to the interest of our long procession." 

" Somehow, there's a homelikeness in everything that 
women do ; there must be in the very nature of the case," 
remarks guest number two, " and bringing this very 
element out into religious work, and eventually into gov- 
ernment, is to be one of the blessed results of this new 
movement, as I look at it. Why, this home feature is the 
ear-mark in everything that women say, and the trade- 
mark on everything they do." (Draws a letter from her 
pocket.) "For instance, here is a contribution to our 
paper, with this note : 

" ' November 8. — Your request that I should contribute 
to the next number of our paper was received last night, 
while I was rocking my baby to sleep. It is now half-past 
ten in the morning. I am sans cook, sans nurse, sans 
everything save my own two hands ; but I have managed 
to get breakfast, wash the dishes, put my house in toler- 
able_order, comforted the three babies, swallowed a license 
victory in our town, and here's the article, subject to the 
editorial guillotine. Do not judge me severely, remember- 
ing all the facts, and that two of the little chicks have 
been beside my desk, emulating their mother's quill-driv- 
ing in a slightly distracting way. But woman's door of 
opportunity for blessed work swings wide, and I, for one, 
am bound to enter.' 

"And here is another note, illustrating this same point. 
The chairman of our committee on ' Out-door Gospel ' 
writes it — a woman gifted as she is gentle, and brave as 
she is modest." 

" Yes, women go at everything in such a homelike 


fashion," muses guest number one, as the trio alight from 
the jingling cars, and wend their way to the delightful 
home where they are to find the rest they so much need. 
" Down in Maine, last summer, in a large meeting for 
ladies, to which, as a natural consequence, men gathered 
in great numbers, a noble temperance worker of that 
State arose and said : ' There is a woman beside me who 
wishes me to ask this question : What can I do, who have 
no talent, no money, and no influence, to help forward 
this reform?' It was not hard to answer. In the first 
place, everybody counts one. Everybody can pray, can set 
a good example, can join herself to a union of temperance 
women, if there is one, and if there isn't, can stir about 
until one shall be formed. It was a poor washerwoman, 
who came on Saturday evening to a distinguished pastor, 
saying : ' 0, sir, I've heard of the woman's crusade ; I've 
prayed that we might have it here, and I believe God tells 
me to ask you to do something about it ' ; and as she wept 
the good man's heart was stirred. Next day he announced 
a meeting for his church, the other pastors followed, a 
week later the town was in a blaze ; a fortnight later 
not a saloon remained. A human being is a wonderful 
potency, and can accomplish prodigies. The trouble is, 
we underestimate our powers. Whoever comes along, 
shakes us by the shoulder and helps us to believe in our- 
selves, does us an immense service, almost the greatest. 
And the Woman's Temperance Unions of this land are 
revealing to hundreds of women their gifts, and to hun- 
dreds more their possibilities. ' The silent sisters,' who 
do not help with voice or pen, are yet as indispensable as 
any. They ' hold up the prophet's hands ; ' they furnish 
the grateful rest beside the wells of Elim ; their sturdy 
good sense keeps the balance between real and ideal 
safely adjusted ; they are the ' joy and song ' of the 
talking fraternity, even as the latter are their pride 


and glory. Choice gifts indeed ' the silent sisters ' bring 
into the common treasury. Largely from their wealth or 
industry we gather the sinews of war. To their social 
position, and the prestige of names they or their fathers 
or their husbands have made as towers of strength, we 
are indebted for the vantage-ground we hold in public 
estimation. Their homes are our shelter, their hearts 
our resting-places." 

" 0, blessed bond, the sweetest that my life has known ; 
and marvelous, benignant age which welcomes all of us to 
new avenues of usefulness, and eloquent, persuasive voice 
which, in the ears of high and low, rich and poor, of 
ignorant and taught among us women, calls at this hour, 
' The Master is come and callethfor thee!' " 

Just then the tea-bell rang, and guest number one 
awoke to the fact that in her enthusiasm she had well- 
nigh crossed the line that separates a colloquy from an 



President of the First National Convention — An Earnest Life and 
Varied Work— Speaker — Organizer— Teacher — Author. 

THE life of aimless reverie must be replaced by the 
life of resolute aim" — so said a teacher once, 
addressing* her girl pupils. If I had chosen to bring 
forward an illustration of the last half of the antithesis, 
I could not have done better than to name the gifted 
woman whose pen and brain picture I here present. 
Among the many sagacious observations of my father, 
which are recorded in memory's standard edition of 
" Household Words," is this : " If you've got the victory 
in you, you'll succeed in life ; that's all. If it's in, it's 
in, and will come out, on the principle of a steam engine, 
a streak of lightning, or a gunpowder plot. But what's 
wanting — well, ' What's wanting can't be numbered.' " 

This is homely as it was home-made philosophy, but 
all the same it hits the mark, and applies to the case in 

Look at this life a little : 

Mrs. Willing was born in Burford, Canada West, 
January 22, 1834. When she was eight years old, her 
parents removed to Illinois, and she grew up in the sur- 
roundings of country life, and with such scanty schooling 
as the Prairie State could furnish in that early day. 
Even this was almost steadily interfered with by her own 
ill health, and was abbreviated by her marriage at the 
age of nineteen years. Few proverbs are truer than this, 



that "blood will tell" — perhaps, however, " brains " is 
better for the initial word. Mrs. Willing's maternal 
grandfather, Rev. Henry Ryan, her mother, Mrs. Horatio 
Fowler, and her In-other, Rev. Dr. Charles H. Fowler 
(recent editor of the N. Y. Christian Advocate), may be 
mentioned as three points in a family quadrilateral, which 
she herself completes, of characters altogether excep- 
tional in mental vigor and in force of will. The mother 
was, in native strength of mind, fully the peer of her 
father and her children. Mrs. Willing sketched her 
mother's life in the Ladies' Repository, a few years since. 
Without teachers, she had mastered many of the school's 
hardest lessons in the sciences ; without travel or society, 
she knew the world ; in history she was a marvel of 
accuracy and research ; and there was no great question 
touching human weal, either in times past or present, to 
which she had not given eager and intelligent attention. 
She lived lonely and unknown among our Illinois prairies, 
but she crowded behind that massive brow, which none 
who saw it can forget, more of aspiration and intellectual 
achievement than many who " ransack the ages, spoil the 
climes " in their pursuit of knowledge, hindered by no 
difficulties which wealth and opportunity can mitigate. 

It counts for much to have had such a mother, and the 
stimulus of such a brother's endeavor and achievement. 

But all who know the Rev. Dr. W. C. Willing will 
agree that, in the development of those intellectual gifts 
which his wife has employed in activities so helpful to 
the church of Christ, his influence has been only second 
to that of her own earnest and unflagging purpose. 

For the sake of womankind in general, not less than 
from a sentiment of generous loyalty, we should be quick 
to recognize such knights of the new chivalry as he has 
proved himself to be. Instead of setting himself to stifle 
the aspirations of his wife toward learning, literary work, 


woman's educational association. 151 

and public speaking, he has delighted in and steadily 
encouraged them. From the day when, as a girl of nine- 
teen, she gave to him the sacred right to influence, almost 
controllingly, her aims and life, he has, like the strong, 
brave man he is, said to his wife, " I have no greater 
pleasure than in helping you up to the level of your best." 

In spite of the fortunate circumstances mentioned, the 
problem of an education was not easy of solution for a 
young minister's wife, with home and church cares crowd- 
ing upon her attention, in a western village, twenty years 
ago. The record, if it could be written, would be full of 
incentives to many a noble girl who reads these lines. I 
have heard Mrs. Willing tell of the book fastened against 
the window-sill and read to the rhythm of the flatiron, or 
kneaded into the brain while the hands were busy per- 
forming a work quite analogous upon the bread. Elihu 
Burritt, pounding iron and ideas at once, is a heroic 
figure. Why not equally heroic this quiet woman at her 
kitchen table with her books and thoughts ? 

Well, something is pretty sure to come of work like 
that. Later on we find our friend installed as Professor 
of the English Language and Literature in Illinois Wes- 
leyan University at Bloomington, an institution of first 
grade. Largely through her influence a " Woman's Edu- 
cational Association " was formed in connection with the 
University, and this organization has provided a home 
where cheap board is furnished for young women who 
are struggling to secure a higher education. We find 
her preparing essays, serials, sermons, and orations — all 
of them evincing vigor of thought, in clear-cut forms of 
expression, and abounding in classic, historic, and scien- 
tific allusions which could only come from a cultured 

All the achievements of her pen and voice move along 
religious lines. For surely the philanthropies in which 


she has wrought so well are outgrowths of His Gospel, 
whose angel heralds announced the coming of " peace on 
earth, good will to men." 

In 1869 she was elected one of the corresponding sec- 
retaries of the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society of 
the M. E. Church. This position she has filled ever since, 
having care of the four States lying about Chicago. In- 
deed she may be said to have created the position and the 
society in the States under her jurisdiction, for her 
patient, persistent work brought order out of chaos and 
changed apathy to enthusiasm. When the Crusade 
sounded its muster-drum, Mrs. Willing was among the 
first to enlist in the new army. She did excellent service 
in Bloomington, sandwiching temperance work between 
college recitations and speaking eloquently night after 
night. She presided at the preliminary meeting held at 
Chautauqua Lake S. S. Assembly in 1874, in which the 
first arrangements were made for calling a convention to 
organize our National W. C. T. U. ; she issued the call 
for the Cleveland Convention, and presided over it in 
November of the same year. She was the first editor of 
our national paper, and was for years President of the 
W. C. T. U. of the State of Illinois. 

Mrs. Willing is already well known, for, aside from her 
writings, she has delivered sermons and addresses in most 
of the chief pulpits of her denomination in all the large 
cities, both East and West. In 1873 she was licensed as 
a local preacher in the M. E. Church, and is usually oc- 
cupied, on Sabbaths, preaching in the pulpits in or near 
Chicago. In no character has she appeared to better 
purpose than as a minister of the New Testament. Her 
revival meetings are scenes of especial power. She is 
also a somewhat voluminous writer, her latest book (pub- 
lished by D. Lothrop & Co., Boston) being a strong temper- 
ance story entitled " The Only Way Out." The others 



are " Through the Dark," " Diamond Dust," « Chaff and 
Wheat," and ' Rosario." 

Like all strong souls, Mrs. Willing has for her motto 
"plus ultra"— more beyond. In car or steamer she is 
always busy with book or pencil, yet keenly observant of 
the lessons best learned from the changeful page of 
human life, and she stands to-day in the prime of her 
years and strength. With rare culture of manner and of 
utterance, with her clear brain, steady purpose, and con- 
secrated heart, we may expect even more of her future 
than we have recorded of her past, As I think about her, 
the question asked of Queen Esther comes to my memory, 
and my affirmative reply will be echoed by all who share 
my information of her work : 

" Who knoweth whether thou art come to the kingdom 
for such a time as this ? " 



Mrs. Emily Huntington Miller— Secretary Chautauqua preliminary 
meeting — Author, Editor, Home maker. 

JUST after our October Convention, in 1877, 1 called 
one morning, by order of our Publishing Company, at 
a pretty cottage in my own home town of Evanston, the 
" classic suburb " of Chicago. The door was opened by 
dark-eyed Fred, known as " a regular mother's boy " 
among the neighbors round about. It occurred to me, as 
he uttered his smiling " Good morning," that I had not 
seen him before since I watched him proudly acting as 
escort to his mother when she started from our railroad 
station for Chautauqua, to give her " Home Papers " before 
the S. S. Assembly, a few months earlier. Fred's mother 
was at her writing-table in the sunny cottage, with its 
pretty book-cases, charming pictures, most of them illus- 
trative of child-life, its bay-window full of vines, ferns, 
and flowers, and, blending all, its cheery air of home. 
Busy, as she always is, filling varied literary engage- 
ments, she readily promised to comply with the official 
request, of which my friend and I were bearers, that she 
should " write for Our Union." For Emily Huntington 
Miller was Secretary of the meeting held at Chautauqua the 
summer after the Crusade, which sent out the " call " for 
a National Convention, whence resulted the society of 
which our paper is the " official organ." Whoever has 
read her stories — and what child has not ? — knows that 
she is a staunch temperance woman. 


/ ft //A 



In those memorable winter days when the Crusade was 
everybody's theme, when, in the university at Evanston, 
hundreds of young men and women, newly aroused to in- 
terest in what they had considered a trite and hopeless 
subject, were debating, orating, and writing essays on 
temperance, the high-water mark of expression was not 
reached until Mrs. Miller gave a lecture on the " Home 
side of the Question.'" 

Our friend was born in Brooklyn, in 1833, and is a 
daughter of Dr. Thomas Huntington, a good man and a 
rio-hteous : and her mother was one of those women 
whose children rise up and call her blessed. Her grand- 
father, General Jed Huntington, of Revolutionary fame, 
was one of Washington's staff officers. Huntington, the 
great artist, is her cousin. She was educated at noble 
old Oberlin College, where she met among her fellow- 
students Mr. John E. Miller (brother of Lewis Miller, 
"of Chautauqua"), to whom she was married in 1859. 
This alliance is one of the number, happily increasing in 
these later days, in which the blending of two lives to 
form the beacon-light of home dims no ray of native bril- 
liancy in the gentler of the two. Himself a man of 
educated tastes, at first a professor of ancient languages, 
and afterward a publisher and prominent S. S. worker, 
Mr. Miller never seems so thoroughly well pleased as 
when listening to an appreciative comment on his wife's 
achievements. They have had four children, of whom 
three — all of them boys — are growing up into the "whole- 
souled " sort of men who never sneer at " intellectual 

" The Little Corporal " was perhaps the most vigorous 
and attractive literary child of the great war. Alfred L. 
Sewell, of Evanston, a Chicago publisher, resolved to help 
the Sanitary Commission by getting the children all over 

* The recent death of Mr. Miller removes one of the truest friends 
of the W. C. T. U. 


the land to buy pictures of " Old Abe," the Wisconsin 
War Eagle. So grandly did the boys and girls respond, 
not only purchasing for themselves, but securing sales 
among their friends, that a fabulous number of pictures 
were disposed of, and thousands of dollars were poured 
into the treasury of the Commission, under the auspices 
of the magnificent Sanitary Fair, conducted by Mrs. Liver- 
more and Mrs. Hoge. Mr. Sewell resolved to have a 
paper through which to communicate with his army of 
juvenile helpers, and founded The Little Corpora/ — the 
brightest and best beloved child's paper ever seen, except 
that noble Youth's Companion, down to the epoch of >St. 
Nicholas and Wide Awake. 

In the first number of this paper, Emily Huntington 
Miller (already known to a large circle of readers through 
her contributions to various newspapers and magazines) 
began a juvenile series. This was the chief feature of 
The Corporal at the beginning, and from then until the 
time when, as one of Chicago's misfortunes resulting from 
the great fire, the paper was merged into the glowing- 
splendors of iSt. Nicholas, Mrs. Miller's pen was always 
busy brightening its pages. Indeed the best part of her 
life, thus far, has been put into her favorite paper. For 
ten years she was associated with it editorially ; at first 
as Mr. Sewell's associate, and afterwards taking the entire 
supervision. Aside from this work, Mrs. Miller has con- 
tributed, with more or less regularity, both poetry and 
prose to many papers and magazines of the best class, and 
has written several juvenile books, Nelson & Phillips, 
of New York, having published six of these, " The Royal 
Road to Fortune " and " The Kirkwood Library." S. C. 
Griggs & Co., of Chicago, published " What Tommy Did," 
an illustrated story, which is having a large sale ; and E. 
P. Dutton & Co., of New York, have brought out her 
latest story, "Captain Fritz." Mrs. Miller's "Home 
Papers," given at Chautauqua, are now in press. 


Besides her literary work, Mrs. Miller has prepared and 
given, with great acceptance, lectures on temperance, also 
on missionary and educational subjects. She is promi- 
nently connected with the Woman's Foreign Missionary 
Society of the M. E. Church, and is a Trustee of the 
Northwestern University at Evanston. 

All objections to an exceptional career for women (and 

especially for women who have husbands, children, and 

homes), find conspicuous refutation in the fragile yet 

indomitable, modest yet independent, loving and beloved, 

yet brave and business-like little woman whom I have 

here the honor to introduce. On one thing she particularly 

prides herself, viz. : her ability to make bread and darn 

stockings with any woman living. But her husband's 

especial pride was in the sweet poems that he often wrote 

down fresh from her own lips, and the manly, wholesome 

characters, the 

" Creatures not too bright or good 
For human nature's daily food," 

which she embodies in her storv books. 

Talk of the " chivalry " of ancient days ! Go to, ye 
mediaeval ages, and learn what that word means. Be- 
hold the Christian light of this nineteenth century, in 
which we have the spectacle, not of lances tilted to 
defend " my lady's " beauty, by swaggering knights who 
could not write their names, but of the noblest men in the 
world's foremost race, placing upon the brows of those 
most dear to them, above the wreath of Venus, the hel- 
met of Minerva, and leading into broader paths of oppor- 
tunity and knowledge the fair divinities who preside over 
their homes. 



First President of the W. C. T. U.— War Record— Church Work- 

ANEW YORK journalist thus describes the varied 
enterprises which have been helped forward to 
success by the gifts and energy of this indefatigable 
Christian worker : 

" Mrs. Wittenmyer's maiden name was Turner. She 
was born in Ohio, but her early home was Kentucky. 
Her grandfather was a graduate of Princeton College, 
and an officer in the war of 1812. Her father was a 
native of the State of Maryland, her mother of Kentucky, 
so that she inherits the warm, fervid temperament of the 
South, united with the cool, calculating reason of the 
North. She attended, for several years, a seminary in 
Ohio, where her education was carried much farther than 
was usual for young ladies at that time. She was mar- 
ried in her twenty-first year, and enjoyed many years of 
happy married life. She was very prominent in the 
Church in consequence of religious zeal and enthusiasm, 
and also for her great activity in all charitable enter- 
prises. At the beginning of the late war, Mrs. Witten- 
myer was appointed by the Legislature, Sanitary Agent 
for the State of Iowa. Secretary Stanton, of the War 
Department, gave passes for herself and supplies through 
the army lines, and a letter of instruction to army officers 
to cooperate in her enterprise for the relief of the sol- 
diers. In this worthy endeavor she continued throughout 




the entire war, changing her relation to it, however, by- 
resigning her position as Sanitary Agent for Iowa to 
enter the service of the Christian Commission. Here 
she had the oversight of two hundred ladies, and she 
developed in this work her plan of special diet kitchens, 
to the great advantage of the health of our soldiers. The 
first kitchen was opened at Nashville, Tenn. In it was 
prepared food for eighteen hundred of the worst cases of 
sick and wounded soldiers. These kitchens were super- 
intended by the ladies under her direction. In this work 
she had the assistance of the Surgeon-General, Assistant 
Surgeon, and all the army officers, both military and 
medical. General Grant was a personal friend, and did 
all in his power to facilitate her efforts. 

" By invitation of the Surgeon-General, she met the 
Medical Commission appointed to review the special diet 
cooking of the army. The work of this commission led 
to a thorough change in the hospital cooking of the army, 
which was lifted to a grade of hygienic perfection far 
above anything before known in military affairs, and 
from which it is not likely to fall again to the old stand- 
ard. It is simple justice to add, what is a matter of his- 
tory in the United States Christian Commission, that 
these improvements in the diet kitchens of the army 
were the means of saving thousands of valuable lives, 
and of restoring noble men to health and usefulness. 

" About the close of the war Mrs. Wittenmyer set in 
motion the idea of a ' Home for Soldiers' Orphans,' and 
became herself the founder of the institution bearing this 
name in Iowa. It is not generally known that this enter- 
prise originated with the brave woman who had cared 
for the husbands and fathers through the perils of camp 
and hospital life. When the fact that such an institution 
was to be opened in Iowa was generally known, hundreds 
of soldiers' orphans became the wards of the State. By 


request of the Board of Managers of the Iowa Home, she 
went to Washington City, and obtained from Secretary 
Stanton (other departments cooperating), the beautiful 
barracks at Davenport, which cost the Government forty- 
six thousand dollars, and hospital supplies amounting to 
five or six thousand more, subject to the approval of Con- 
gress, which was afterwards obtained. The institution 
thus founded and equipped, has accommodated over five 
hundred children at one time, and it still maintains in a 
flourishing condition under the care of the State. 

" Mrs. Wittenmyer next conceived the idea that the 
vast amount of talent and energy brought into activity by 
the philanthropies of the war should be maintained on a 
Christian basis in the Church. Bishop Simpson, always 
ready to aid in any movement promising greater useful- 
ness for women, entered heartily into the plan, and the 
Methodist Church established a Home Missionary Society 
of women, organized for the express purpose of minister- 
ing to the temporal and spiritual needs of strangers 
and the poor. This organization was made a General Con- 
ference Society at the session of 1871, and Mrs. Witten- 
myer was elected its Corresponding Secretary. During 
the year 1876, over fifty thousand families were visited 
under its auspices. 

" At the commencement of this new work Mrs. Witten- 
myer removed to Philadelphia and founded her paper 
known as The Christian Woman, an individual enterprise 
which proved exceptionally successful. More recently 
she established a juvenile paper called The Christian 
Child. In addition to this large publishing work, she 
carried forward all the enterprises of the society above 
described and known as ' The Ladies' and Pastors' Chris- 
tian Union,' traveling in its interest thousands of miles, 
and speaking in every State from Maine to California. 

" When, as an outgrowth of the Crusade, the temperance 

woman's temperance camp-meeting. 165 

women met in 'heir first national convention, after Mrs. 
Lcavitt (-Leader of the 43') had declined the presi- 
dency to which she had been chosen, Mrs. Wittenmyer 
was elected to that post. She wrought earnestly for the 
society in all its earlier years. Twenty-three States were 
organized as auxiliary to the National Union, and a paper 
founded as its organ. Mrs. Wittenmyer also labored tire- 
lessly in the lecture field, speaking sometimes six even- 
ings in the week, besides traveling hundreds of miles. 
She attended all the large conventions, of which forty-six 
were held in 1875. At the second annual meeting of the 
National Woman's Christian Temperance Union, held in 
Cincinnati, November, 1875, she presided with marked 
ability, and was re-elected president for the Centennial 
year by a unanimous vote of the delegates. 

" One of the most notable acts which characterized her 
administration was the presentation to Congress (in Feb- 
ruary, 1875) of a huge petition on behalf of our local, 
State, and National unions, asking for the prohibition of 
the liquor traffic, -on which occasion a 'hearing' was 
granted by the Congressional judiciary committee. An- 
other act even more important was the sending of a let- 
ter of inquiry to the International Medical Association, 
which met in Philadelphia in the summer of the Centen- 
nial year. This led to another hearing before a commit- 
tee of celebrated physicians of Europe and our own 
country, and resulted in the well-known ' Resolutions,' 
expressive of the most important medical opinion agiinst 
intoxicants on record, when we consider the representa- 
tive character of those who gave it. Still another official 
act was the holding of the first ' Woman's National 
Camp-Meeting' at Ocean Grove, which, conducted wholly 
and addressed largely by women, commanded the earnest 
attention of the thousands present to the close, and was 
equally remarkable for spiritual and intellectual power. 

166 "a woman's woman." 

We believe the first woman's camp-meeting on record 
was held in Iowa the previous year, and it was quite in 
keeping that one whose public work began in that noble 
young State should have conducted the first east of the 

" At the annual meeting in Newark, 1876, Mrs. W. was 
elected a third time to the chief office in the gift of the 
temperance women of America, and by a unanimous 

" It was a pleasant sight to see Mrs. W. in her cheery 
Philadelphia home, with her efficient secretary, Miss Mer- 
chant, and her exemplary son, Charlie, around her, all of 
them blithe and busy as so many bees. In addition to 
the care of her two papers and the duties of her office as 
president, this ceaseless worker has written several books, 
among them a ' History of the Woman's Temperance Cru- 
sade.' For three years past she has been chiefly engaged 
in Pennsylvania, doing excellent service in the great cause 
of constitutional prohibition. 

■" Mrs. Wittenmyer is devoted to the advancement of 
her sex in usefulness and opportunity. First, last, and al- 
ways she is ' a woman's woman.' Her editorials ' cry 
and spare not' against the tyranny of prejudice and cus- 
tom. She tilts a free lance, and deals blows worthy of a 
more stalwart arm. 'The See Trial' ('none so blind 
as those who won't see') was the occasion of several 
cogent arguments from her pen, to prove that women 
'have a right to preach or speak in the pulpit,' and she 
once added to the larger of the two editions of her paper 
a department headed ' Pulpit of The Christian Woman,' 
in which a ' sermon ' appeared monthly from the pen of 
some member of the rapidly-growing sisterhood of evan- 

" The Crusade spirit abides with Mrs. Wittenmyer ; the 
gospel work is her delight, and her hymn of ' Victory/ 


written for the convention at Newark, embodies her 
declaration of faith as a temperance reformer. The first 
verse of this hymn forms a fitting close to this sketch : 

" The Lord is our refuge and strength, 
His promises never can fail ; 
"We've learned the sweet lesson at length, 
His grace over sin can prevail. 

"In the sweet by and by, 

We'll conquer the demon of rum; . 
In the sweet by and by 
The kingdom of heaven will come." 



Second Corresponding Secretary of National W. C. T. U. — An Episco- 
palian — Editor of " Our Union" — President of New York State W. 
C. T. U. 

[This gifted woman was one of the secretaries of our 
first National Convention, and has since borne a part so 
prominent in the work that a sketch of her comes in 
appropriately here.] 

MARY TOWNE BURT, the daughter of a gentleman 
of English birth who was educated for the Episco- 
pal ministry, is claimed as a daughter of the Queen City — 
Cincinnati. Her father died when she was four years of 
age, on his return voyage from his native shores, which he 
had visited on business. Upon the widowed mother then 
devolved the trust of rearing the children, of whom there 
were three — a daughter older than Mary (now Mrs. Pom- 
eroy, a member of the W. C. T. U. of Chicago), and a 
son younger. No stronger proof of this mother's fitness 
for and fidelity to her trust is needed than the fact that 
they arise and call her blessed, and her affectionate testi- 
mony to their ever-watchful tenderness for her comfort. 
She removed to Auburn, N. Y., when Mary was twelve. 
Until sixteen the young girl, all unconscious of the pow- 
ers within, yet a faithful student, attended the public 
schools of Auburn. She then became a pupil of Professor 
M. L. Browne, at the Auburn Young Ladies' Institute. 
Here her talents made her an especial favorite, and Pro- 
fessor Browne offered her every facility if she would 




remain with him, but this was not practicable. Her 
home at this time was with her uncle, John T. Baker, 
who, with his wife, regarded the young girl, now just on 
the threshold of womanhood, with warm affection. 

Four vears after leaving school she married Edward 
Burt, son of one of Auburn's oldest and most honored 
residents. Soon after this she was confirmed a member 
of the Protestant Episcopal Church by the venerable 
Bishop Coxe. 

For a long time she was much withdrawn from society 
by frail health, and learned in the solitude of her cham- 
ber and under the loving hand of her Father the lessons 
which can only be learned thus, but which polish and 
perfect heart and mind. Her husband's health also fail- 
ing, in 1872 they spent three delightful months at Nassau, 
and, beside the present enjoyment, reaped lasting benefit 
in strength and vigor. 

When the Crusade sw r ept over the land, it aroused Mrs. 
Burt, as it did the thousands. She engaged the Opera 
House and delivered a lecture on temperance, March 24, 
1874, before a most cultured and refined audience, Pro- 
fessor Browne, her former instructor, presiding. Tem- 
perance was no new thought to her; her father and 
mother were both strong advocates, and the principles 
had been instilled into her earliest training. Her mother 
(now residing with her) gives her fullest sympathy to all 
her present work. In Auburn a W. C. T. U. was organ- 
ized and Mrs. Burt elected President, which position she 
held two years. When the women were called to a na- 
tional council in Cleveland, 0., in the autumn of 1874, 
Mrs. Burt was made one of the Secretaries, thus coming 
to the front in the National Union at its inception. Dur- 
ing the winter of 1875, Mr. and Mrs. Burt removed to 
Brooklyn, and in the fall of 1876, at the Newark Conven- 
tion, she was made a member of the publishing committee 


of Our Union, and elected its publisher. In thus taking 
charge of an enterprise very dear to her, her success 
proved her abundant qualification for the arduous service. 
The paper had been started; was almost an experiment; 
had no capital but the love and faith of the W. C. T. U., 
and was largely in debt. She took hold of her new task 
with energy and vigor, enlarged and improved the paper 
in many ways, pushed its interests with the intensity of 
personal love ; and during the subsequent year its sub- 
scription list was nearly doubled. Her work on our paper 
can best speak for itself to the thousands who know its 
results. The next year Mrs. Burt assumed the position 
of managing editor, and here still further endeared herself 
to the constituency of our W. C. T. U. At the same time 
they were becoming better acquainted with her personally, 
for she had been elected Corresponding Secretary at the 
Chicago Convention, the duties of which position she 
filled during two years. 

Severe afflictions have been hers, the loss of a gifted 
and only brother being among them. But with a win- 
some patience she has borne every cross, endearing her- 
self greatly to our sisterhood of workers by her attractive 
manners and sincerity of spirit. Cautious in counsel, 
and gifted in utterance, Mrs. Burt is a rare favorite in 
State and nation. She is President of the State W. C. 
T. U. of New York, and actively engaged in building up 
the work at large, as well as in her Brooklyn home. 


Does any definite, permanent result ever come of this restless agita 
tion, this endless scries of meetings, these perpetual prayers, these 
hundreds of Bands of Hope, the tons of Temperance tracts, in short, 
this ferment extending from one end of our country to the other? 

We answer boldly, Yes! A result is coming, more definite, more 
permanent, more clearly within measurable limits, than could be 
hoped for in any other moral reform now in progress. And we 


believe that the responsibility for this work, and the credit of its final 
assured success, depends mainly upon the women of America as they 
shall be led onward by their sisters of the National W. C. T. U. 

Whatever of supposed enjoyment comes from pleasures which are 
outside the moral law, falls mainly to the share of the men, while the 
dreadful penalties must be borne mainly by the women; and most of 
all by the good and innocent women. The drinking man has a tem- 
porary respite from care and sorrow in the cup, which is unshared 
by the wife and daughter who are starving or pining at home. The 
disgrace and penalty of social transgressions are comparatively 
unshared by the man in the world's estimation. Not only the finer 
moral nature of woman, but even her self-interest also, are both 
involved in sobriety and chastity. 

To the women of America, therefore, we look for the complete 
reformation of the drinking habits of our country; and happily we 
do not look in vain. 

An illustration is often better than an argument, and we give one 
of many in the history of the town of Millville, N. J., a place of about 
ten thousand inhabitants, calling attention to the painful past of its 
history, its comfortable present, and its hopeful future, in connection 
with the work of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union there. 

Its principal interests are the manufacture of glass, and an iron 
foundry. A generation ago it was conspicuous for its immorality, 
resulting from the almost universal use of liquor. The whisky 
flasks were carried even into the workshops and freely used there. 
The writer remembers when it was not always considered safe, during 
times of agitation on the wages question, for the Philadelphia pro- 
prietors to visit their own factories. Many of the men were brutal, 
their wives wretched, their children ragged. 

The churches had done all they could to stem the ever increasing 
tide of evil, but seemed powerless beyond a certain point. Temper- 
ance societies of men alone made noble efforts, but the evil remained 

At last the women were roused. The future of their brothers, their 
husbands, their sons, and of their daughters also, from whom they 
longed to avert the suffering many of themselves had borne, was all 
at stake. Enthusiastically, yet wisely and prudently, they used their 
influence for the abolition of the seductive snares spread for those 
they loved. They talked, they prayed, they worked, and gradually 
public Bentiment changed, until the question of whether or not the 
liquor traffic should be licensed in Millville became the principal 
issue in all the local elections. 

The women could not vote, but they could influence the voters, and 
they did it faithfully and vigorously. At one time, when the strength 


of the two parties was nearly balanced, and in the town council a 
butcher held the deciding vote as to licensing, the women went to 
him and told him if he should cast his vote in favor of license, they 
would never again purchase any meat of him. In consequence of 
their remonstrances he withheld his vote, and the licenses were 

Another year the three hotels of the town announced that they 
could not afford to keep open if they were not allowed to sell liquor, 
and they all joined to refuse accommodation to travelers. This was 
met by a spirited lady who had the largest house in the town, and 
who opened her comfortable home to travelers, thus showing the 
hotels that they were not indispensable. Two were turned into 
boarding-houses, and the third is now a well-ordered Temperance 

The women held meetings, paid private visits, distributed litera- 
ture, brought attractive lecturers to the town, and worked in every 
way, both publicly and privately, to abolish the evil traffic. And for 
ten years now there has not been a single licensed place in Millville to 
tempt its inhabitants to drink, nor a single man whose business it was 
to draw young men from their homes, and to enrich themselves at the 
cost of the demoralization of their fellow-men and the misery of their 
neighbors' families. 

Instead of three taverns, the town now has three music stores. 
Instead of thousands of dollars squandered in the fiery stimulants for 
the men, six thousand dollars are now annually spent in cottage 
organs for their homes. The drunkards' wives who used to cower 
and suffer, now rejoice. The daughters are sent to school ; the chil- 
dren are well fed and well clothed ; and it would be hard to find any- 
where a more prosperous or happier manufacturing community. 

The question of license or no license was for many years stoutly 
contested at the polls, but the influence of the women has finally 
triumphed, and the question has ceased even to come up before the 
nominating conventions, so nearly unanimous has become the senti- 
ment of the people. Even those who once were addicted to drink are 
thankful now to have a temptation which they are too weak to resist 
removed from them, and join in the prohibition vote. 

With the removal of the drinking places of resort, however, a need 
arose of a place of innocent recreation for the many young workmen 
who were boarding, and consequently had no comfortable place in 
which to spend their evenings. The W. C. T. U. met this want 
partly by securing a pleasant room where the boys of the town were 
entertained nightly with books and music and pleasant company. 
This proved so successful that a larger enterprise was set on foot, and 
within the last year there has been erected, at an expense of nearly 


twenty -five thousand dollars, mainly supplied by the worknieD of the 
town, the Millville Mechanics 3 Institute, a substantial, elegant struc- 
ture, fifty by sixty feet It contains a large gymnasium, used for the 
present as a skating rink; baths, which are patronized by hundreds; 
an elegantly furnished library and reading-room, opened in the after- 
noons to ladies, and drawing several hundred young men in the 
evenings weekly; a newspaper and amusement room, where about 
three hundred men every evening read the papers and play innocent 
games of skill; a large auditorium, holding about seven hundred 
teats, which by the constitution of the Institute is given free of charge 
to the W. C. T. U. forever; and several class rooms which are in con- 
stant use for adult evening classes, some of whom are for the first 
time learning to read. Two acres of ground, fronting on the beautiful 
Maurice river, are appropriated to tennis, croquet, base ball, and 
other out-door games. 

From a definite past involving much of sorrow and degradation, 
Millville has advanced to a definite present of comparative virtue and 
elevation, and looks forward to a definite future of still greater devel- 
opment in virtue and intelligence. 




Gospel Temperance, or the Light of Christ shining in the circle of one 
heart — " The Lord looseth the prisoners " — A reformed man's speech 
— Woman's Christian Temperance Union work in the Church uni- 
versal — Its wholly unsectarian character — "Let her not take a text " 
—Our Evangelists— Mrs. S. M. I. Henry— "The Name"— Mrs. Han- 
nah Whitall Smith— "How to prepare Bible Readings "—Mrs. Mary 
T. Lathrop— Miss Jennie Smith— The Indian Chief Petosky— The 
first temperance Camp-meeting— Alcohol at the Communion Table — 
How one woman helped— That fossil prayer-meeting— Woman's 
Christian Temperance Union Training School— " The Master is 
come and calleth for thee." 

4 ' nn HE Lord looseth the prisoners." This was the first 
1 message of the Woman's Temperance Crusade. 
The Bible was read in ten thousand haunts of sin ; " the 
Rock of Ages women," as saloon-keepers began to call them, 
pointed the men enslaved by drink to the Gospel declara- 
tion : " If the Son shall make you free, you shall be free 
indeed." Never before had this message of hope been 
carried straight from the church to the dram-shop and its 
deluded votaries. The church-bells had said " Come," to 
souls possessed of sin, but now their daily chimes said 
"Go," to saints enlightened by the Holy Spirit. The 
mountain had not come to Mahomet, and at last Mahomet 
went to the mountain. " How can we reach the masses ?" 
had long been the question. " By going where they are," 
was now the answer — not in empty words and paralytic 
theories, but vital, glowing deeds. To get the flask out of 
a man's side pocket was not enough : the New Testament 


"let's make common cause." 177 

must be placed there in its stead. The pledge was good, 
but men must have, as a drinking man has said, " The Lord 
behind the pledge." Attendance at church increased one 
hundred per cent, during the fifty days of that Crusade 
which routed the liquor traffic, " horse, foot, and dragoons," 
out of two hundred and fifty towns and villages. " What 
must we do to be saved from our sin ?" " Sirs, we would 
see Jesus?" were questions which pastors' hearts had ached 
to hear. Thank God ! on every side they heard them now ! 
In general terms, the invitation of the women who 
went to saloons and returned to the church, followed by 
hundreds of penitent drunkards, was this: "Brother: 
You are not a sinner above all the Galileans, though 
down on you has tumbled the tower of public disgrace 
and shame. It is true you have that very inconvenient 
sort of sin that cannot be covered away out of sight. It 
advertises you by the breath which poisons all the air 
about you; it advertises you by the zig-zag steps you 
make along the street, so that he who runs may read ; it 
advertises vou bv the trademark of the drink demon 
stamped upon your cheek, so that even little children 
know. But what if the demon of envy, malice, or pride; 
of ambition, greed, or appetite in other forms should set 
his mark upon the faces of us all — would any cheek be 
fair? Nay, verily; not one, except as Christ has lifted 
us above the level of the self that was, into the victory 
over sin. And so, because He has thus helped us, we 
have come to tell thee, brother. "We have brought with 
us the Declaration of Independence— our total abstinence 
pledge — and we ask thy name. But we would not single 
thee out, like a specimen in a museum to be labeled and 
certified and set up to be gazed upon ; we would not treat 
thee like a black sheep in this great, good-natured flock. 
No, not at all ! You take the pledge — we'll take it too ; 
you wear the badge of ribbon, blue or red — we'll wear it 


too, and we will make that pledge and badge, not on your 
part the confession of past degradation, but on the part of 
all of us the kindly bond of a present brotherhood and 

Going to the drinking class in such a spirit, what won- 
der that, though we had been told " their hearts were 
hard," we found they could be cleft in twain by the 
sledge-hammer blow of the kind word and helpful deed. 
It is one thing to reach down, but quite another and a 
better to extend what Elihu Burritt used to call " the 
horizontal palm." The women had no theory about "the 
removal of the appetite for drink," any more than for 
other miracles of grace. Nobody has ever claimed that 
the lions failed to attack Daniel in the den because their 
teeth had been extracted, nor did the Crusaders stop to 
query whether a diseased stomach was miraculously 
restored — and if they had, it is quite likely they would 
not have claimed any such physiological miracle. But 
the fact remained that men who had been drinking forty 
years left off their cups and have never touched them 
since. " The expulsive power of a new affection," Horace 
Bushnell would have called it, and perhaps with truth. 
The rationale is not so vital as the result. Peter did not 
find the waves turned to a solid path for his feet, and yet 
he walked upon them safely just so long as he looked 
into Christ's face. It is just so with the soul. Faith 
forms the nexus with God's power, and faith alone. It 
is absolute truth in spiritual dynamics that " Prayer 
ivill cause a man to cease from sinning, even as sin ivill 
cause a man to cease from prayer." 

Glorious were the trophies of the Crusade along the 
line of faith and prayer. Many and delightful are the 
books in which their memory is embalmed. Heroic are 
the figures that make up the reformed men's group. 
Francis Murphy, the typical irishman, stands there, a 


royal and brotherly heart, saved " by the kind touch of a 
Christian's hand," and going forth to his glorious mission 
on both sides of the sea, " with malice toward none and 
charity for all." Hundreds of thousands have risen up 
from the ashes of dead hopes to clasp that strong hand 
as Brother .Murphy cried in earnest tones: "Come and 
sign the pledge, while we sing ' I hear Thy gentle voice 
that calls me, Lord, to Thee.' " Dr. Henry A. Reynolds, 
the Harvard graduate and gallant Knight of the Red Rib- 
bon, stands there, proudly confessing, "I attribute my 
salvation from a drunkard's grave to the "Woman's Tem- 
perance Crusade of Bangor," and with his gentle wife 
journeys both east and west, organizing Reform Clubs 
dedicated to his manly motto, " Dare to do Right," and 
rallying the manhood of Michigan behind him, five 
hundred thousand strong. J. K. Osgood, founder of the 
fust reform club, is a dignified, pathetic figure in this 
group, and in every State we count as the most loyal 
friends of woman's work the men who themselves have 
borne, and labored, and had patience, not only in the 
mighty work of personal reform, but in the Christ-like 
effort to help others into " the victory that overcometh, 
even our faith." Some sketches of this Gospel temper- 
ance work, by which the heart-circle is filled with light, 
will now be given. 


We live in an age in which a suspicion, at least, has 
lodged itself in the average mind, that the secret of a 
happy life is somehow mixed up with the practice of 
" going about doing good." True, it has taken many gen- 
erations for the "enthusiasm of humanity," that blessed 
wave the flow of which began at the foot of Calvary's 
cross, to rise so high that it threatens to submerge all 
other ideals of the good supreme. But, none the less, 


" it's coming up the heights of time," and in the sparkle 
of its foaming crest, 

"This poor old world is getting brighter." 

Almost every minister, evangelist, and " without leave or 
license " preacher of the time, from Dr. John Hall and 
Dwight L. Moody down to the humblest itinerant cru- 
sader, has for the burden of a speech to which the common 
people listen gladly, this notion, stated in incomparable 
language by the Master : " It is more blessed to give than 
to receive !" It is good for us to hear " that same " from 
the ranks of those who, in the Master's day, were called 
" the publicans and sinners." Theirs is a different point of 
view, and science teaches that a fresh angle of vision often 
helps to greater vividness of sight. Journeying about 
through the New England States in the interest of our 
dear " National," I have listened to scores of admirable 
speeches for " the cause." Among them all, however, 
none has impressed me quite so much as the following, 
by a reformed man at Old Orchard Beach, where we had 
one of the grandest temperance camp-meetings on record. 
He was a " rough-and-ready " sort of fellow, this premium 
orator of mine ; short, stout, and ruddy-faced, with sign- 
post gestures, steady, earnest voice, and the " chopping," 
Yankee style of articulation. He didn't mince matters a 
bit, but when he was called came sturdily forward, and 
talked on this fashion : 

" I shan't speak mor'n three minutes. Can tell all I 
know inside o' that. Yonder sets Dr. Reynolds of Ban- 
gor, who goes about and gets up reformed men's clubs. 
I want you all to look at him. Wal, I picked up a paper 
on my work-bench, and I read one o' that man's temper- 
ance speeches. Nothin' so dreadful remarkable in it, to 
be sure, but I tell ye, with me, it just happened to strike in. 
I'm but an unlearned fellow, as you see — a carpenter by 


trade — a drunkard, too, by trade, for twenty years. Wal, 
now, will you believe it ? I've lived in a nice town here in 
Maine all that time, and I'm a white man and a Yankee 
to boot, and in all these twenty years never a minister 
or a Christian of any sort ever came near enough* to me 
to tell me I was goin' to hell. Never one of 'em, man, 
woman, or child, ever opened their heads to me about my 
sins or my soul. They preached well and they prayed 
well, and they sang first-rate, up at the meetin'-house. 
.Sometimes I used to hear 'em as I went by to where I 
got my liquor. But I never went to nieetin' in all them 
years. Ye see, I didn't want to go, and I hadn't decent 
enough clothes anyway, and, besides, nobody ever asked 
me ; but I wasn't such a hard fellow after all, for, as I 
tell you, this little speech of the doctor over there — God 
bless him ! — telling how he had reformed, and how bad 
he wanted everybody else to do the same — it just whirled 
me right round on my heels, and I've been walkin' away 
from the beer mug ever since. 

" Now jist a word of what you good folks call exhortin'. 
There's lots o' men like me that ye could save by only 
half tryin'. Why didn't ye never come to my house all 
them years ? now, why didn't ye ? That's a big question ! 
I aint a blamin' nobody. The ministers they've got their 
hands full a studyin' their sermons ; bnt why didn't some 
o' the high privates come, or the reg'lar rank and file ? 
Now, I tell you, that's the doctrine. Go for us fellows ! 
That's the way the Master did. Don't it speak some- 
where in the Good Book about ' My people perishin' for 
lack o' knowledge ?' 

" Why, now I'm reformed, it seems to me I can't do 
enough to bring other men to the comfort that's in my life 
and my home. I go miles and miles, after my day's 
work, when I hear of a poor drunkard, such as I used to 
be. And if it's so much to me jest to be temperate, what 


must it be to be all made over new, as you Christians tell 
about ? " Mercy on us ! I shouldn't think you'd taken a 
bit o' rest from carry in' the glad tidings to us poor 
wretches, who hain't really had half a chance o' our lives 
from tile start. 

" But it's all so new to me, you know, that mebbe I'm 
too fast. I don't mean no offense, and I do remember 
that Christ said, i go, go, go, unto all the world,' and I'm 
sure that means into the back alleys and down among the 
dirty little houses in your own village, as well as away 
over to the Chinese. 

" I've about made up my mind we've got to depend on 
them that was first at the sepulchre and last at the cross 
to do this business. Ladies, won't you take hold and 
help ? Won't you seek out the fellows that don't go to 
church ? Speak a kind word to their wives, and set down 
with 'em in their houses, and jest tell 'em about this 
Jesus you love so much, and who went about doin' good ; 
for if you do, I tell you — and I'm one o' the fellows, 
you'll save 'em every time, just as true as twelve inches 
makes a foot. Now, I'm a carpenter, remember, and I 
know when I've hit the nail on the head, even if I don't 
know much else." 


After the heart and home circles have the light of 
Christ through Gospel Temperance, the work of the W. 
C. T. U. widens to its best evolution in the religious 
homes of the people, collectively known as " the Church." 
Going out on the street to pray signified a good deal 
when one comes to think about it. First of all, it meant 
going outside denominational fences. The Crusaders felt 
that "unity of the Spirit" was the one thing needed, nor 
feared to join hands witli any who had the Bible and 
the temperance pledge for the two articles in their " Con- 


fession of Faith," who rallied to the tune of " Rock of 
Ages," and had for their watchword " Not willing that 
any should perish." Of this blessed fact the illustrations 
from that wonderful epoch are well nigh numberless. 
We give but one : 

In front of a saloon that had refused them entrance, 
knelt a crusading group. Their leader was the most 
prominent Methodist lady of the community. Her head 
was crowned with the glory of gray hairs ; her hands 
were clasped, her sweet and gentle voice was lifted up in 
prayer. Around her knelt the flower of all the churches 
of that city — Congregationalists, Baptists, Presbyterians 
— many of whom had never worked outside their own 
denominations until now. At the close, an Episcopal 
lady offered the Lord's prayer, in which joined Unitarians, 
Swedenborgians, and Universalists ; and when they had 
finished, a dear old lady in the dove-colored garb of the 
Friends' Society was moved to pray, while all the time 
below them on the curbstone's edge knelt Bridget with 
her beads and her Ave Marie. 


I have wondered sometimes whether " our ministerial 
brethren " draw the line between our ministrations and 
their own, on a technicality or on a principle. Once upon 
a time, in a country village where it was the excellent 
practice for three evangelical ministers to join in a tem- 
perance service one Sunday night in the month, it hap- 
pened that two of the ministers were to be absent upon 
the regular evening. The remaining one had preached 
the previous month, and was not ready with another ser- 
mon on that topic. So he sent to a lady temperance 
speaker, sojourning in the place, an invitation to occupy 
the pulpit, saying, however, that he " should not expect 
her to take a text." She accepted the invitation and filled 


up the allotted time to the entire satisfaction of the min- 
ister, as she afterwards learned. She then apologized for 
not sending any definite rejoinder to his message, saying 
that she presumed it would be all right, as she had taken 
" not one but forty texts." No one seemed to think she 
had passed the bounds of decorum in explaining the 
bearing of many Bible passages upon the subject of tem- 
perance. But if she had taken one and explained its 
bearing, or made it a " point of departure" as is often the 
case when our brethren " take a text," who could have 
answered for the consequences ? Since then I have often 
seen the same distinction made, but I have sought in vain 
for the principle involved. I hear women giving Scripture 
readings with great acceptability, involving comments 
on a large scale, using a much wider and more difficult 
range of thought than is commonly given to a sermon 
with one text, and I am more perplexed than ever. Can 
any one inform me ? What makes the difference ? 
Where is the line ? How many texts must we take in 
order to keep within our proper " sphere ? " 



Under the sway of a Christian civilization the tendency 
is toward individuality of character, and, as a natural 
sequence, of vocation also. Hence this is the age of 
specialists and experts. " This one thing I do," must be 
the motto of that man or woman who would condense 
into a year, results once thought sufficient for a life-time. 
Perhaps no field of labor illustrates this practical truth 
more clearly than our well-beloved " W. C. T. U." Since 
we emerged from the nebulous period, and sought specific 
work, through superintendencies, national, state, and 
local, the change has been as from a picture in Berlin 
wools to a clear-cut steel engraving. Among those who, 


MRS. S. M. I. HENRY. 187 

while their gifts would have made them successful in 
almost any field, showed their wisdom by the careful cul- 
tivation of one, Mrs. Henry, for years our Superintendent 
of the National Department of Evangelistic work, stands 

Long before either of us had asked concerning the 
blessed cause of Temperance, " Is all this anything to 
me ? " I had read with great interest the poems of Sarepta 
M. Irish, in the Ladies' Repository. The same love for 
humanity and loyalty to its best Friend, that characterized 
her earliest lines, shines forth in her Temperance ad- 
dresses, books, poems, and daily life. 

Sarepta M. Irish, afterward Mrs. Henry, was born in 
Albion, Erie County, Pennsylvania, November 4, 1839, 
of Xew England stock. Her father was an architect 
before he was a preacher. He was sent out to N. W. 
Illinois as a missionary in 1840, in the days when Indians 
and wild deer roamed the prairies. His daughter retains 
a distinct recollection of both. The former used to come 
often to the little parsonage, stack their arms at the gate, 
and enter. She has now a wampum garter that a chief 
t 10k off and tied about her neck because she kissed his 
pippoose when she was a tiny child. 

Her great grandfather, on the mother's side, was a 
surgeon in the Revolutionary War ; her grandfather a 
captain of militia in the war of 1812. Her father's family 
were Quakers. 

She learned to read from her Bible — a little calf-bound 
copy that her grandmother gave her when a very little 
child. Her father taught her himself until she was nine- 
teen. She had hardly ever attended school until she went 
to Rock River Seminary, at Mount Morris, Illinois, under 
the kind reign of President Harlow. During the first 
term she was called home to see her father die. This 
was an irreparable loss to her, for they were more to each 


other than can be expressed ; he seemed her life. He 
had been an invalid for eight years, and she was his con- 
stant companion, reading and writing for him. She even 
used to do her thinking aloud to him. He was a remark- 
able man, drawing young people to him even when con- 
fined to his room, and winning them to all things pure 
and true by his real love for them, and by the genuine 
greatness of his own noble nature. I think none ever 
forgot him who knew him. Sarepta was fond of literary 
pursuits from childhood, and her mother, with a patience 
which would surprise us in any but a mother, humored all 
her poetic fancies, so that her life until her marriage was 
like a dream, knowing no care, feeling no responsibility. 
Mrs. Henry says: 

" I do not remember when I was converted. I was given 
to God honestly by my parents, and taught that I be- 
longed to Him, and that an obligation of Christian living, 
binding as a contract, rested upon me. The time came 
when I chafed under this yoke, and when there was great 
danger of wreck to my soul on the shoals of skepticism, 
and had not my father been the judicious man he was, I 
should doubtless have gone down. But he was a wise 
man ; he never dogmatically stated anything to me, but 
placing himself at my side, in the work of seeking truth, 
so directed my mind in its processes that I came out on 
the bright side of an undimmed faith that shines like a 
great sun in a cloudless heaven to-day and always ; no 
mists having ever been able to hide its beauty from my 

Her school life was spent at Mount Morris, Illinois, 
where began an acquaintance with many choice men and 
women who helped her future. Rev. Dr. John H. Yin- 
cent was her pastor, brother, and friend, and with his 
wife took her, when a fatherless and almost heart-broken 
child, under their tender care, and made it possible for 


her to rally and go on after her bitter bereavement. Her 
boarding-place was in the home of Rev. B. H. Cartwright. 
A portion of every day was spent with him and his wife 
in their study, and a tie was formed then that has but 
strengthened with the years. 

She had nothing but the promise of God, back of her 
pen, as the means of an education, and the Lord and her 
friends know much better than she does how she got 
along. She was paid very liberally for her pen work, 
however, and so spent two years at school. She had many 
convictions that she ought to enter the foreign missionary 
field, and had there been the as-encies at work then that 
are now so successful, she would doubtless have done this. 
Our friend was married to James W. Henry of New York, 
March 1, 1861, four days after Lincoln was inaugurated, 
and just on the eve of the civil war. Her husband was a 
scholar and a man of deep and tender nature, a poet of 
no mean order, a teacher by profession, but the principle 
involved in the war was deep as his life, and he enlisted 
when the first call was made for men. He was not, 
however, mustered in at first, because he was a trifle 
under regulation height, so they went East, to his home, 
and settled down on a farm, where the years that the war 
allowed to them were spent. Here was born, in June, 
their daughter Mary, who has been so much to her dear 
mother all these years. It was during the first year of 
her life, and while she was cradled in her mother's arms, 
that Mrs. Henry's first book — " Victoria" — was written. 
That poem grew with her first beautiful year, but was 
not published until Mr. Henry was a soldier. He enlisted 
again in October, 1864, in the 185th Xew York Regiment, 
Company E. Her oldest son, Alfred, was born the 4th of 
the next April, just ten days before Lincoln was assassi- 
nated. The husband came home an invalid in July, 1865, 
having been in every battle and on every long march of 


the closing campaign conducted by the 5th Corps. He 
lived over four years, bravely battling disease, but was 
finally conquered and went to his rest in the cemetery of 
his native valley. Arthur, the youngest son, was nearly 
three years old when his father died. Mrs. Henry was 
left absolutely helpless to all appearances, but she had 
her faith and the word of God, and she went to work to 
rear her children for God and her country. It would 
take a volume to tell the story of the faithfulness of our 
Heavenly Father to this helpless group — the mother and 
her babes. Mrs. H. taught for the next three years ; for 
the first two and a half in the village where she had lived, 
but later on returned to her Illinois home. She began 
teaching in Rockford, under Professor Barbour, in the 
public school, and was trying to get her children settled 
in a little home where she could have them with her, 
when, in answer to her cry to God, a wonderful deliver- 
ance came to her in a time of great need, the details of 
which would transcend the limits of this sketch. As a 
result she was settled sweetly at home in a cosy little 
place where, at her study table, she worked out the prob- 
lem of daily bread with her pen, writing the "After 
Truth" series, for which she was paid a fair price down. 
The Crusade found her at this study-table, and she was 
called out of the quiet she had always known before. 
She was a most timid woman. No one ever expected her 
to do anything in public, but under the pressure of a con- 
viction that had to be answered, she made the call for the 
Christian women to come together, and became the mouth- 
piece of a W. C. T. U., March 27, 1873. 

She made her first public address in the State Street 
Baptist Church, Rockford, during the Crusade, to an 
audience that overflowed into the street, and with as 
little embarrassment as she has ever since experienced. 
She was very conservative and always looked to the time 


when she would return to literary work ; but as the years 
pass it becomes more and more evident that it was a life- 
work to which she was then called. A Reform Club was 
organized the year after she began her work. " Pledge 
and Cross " tells the story of its redemption. She gave 
five full years to active temperance work in Rockford,one 
year of Gospel work in Michigan, and has been three years 
in the field in Illinois. In July of 1879, Mrs. Henry re- 
moved to my own town of Evanston, to educate her 
children in our university. Mary is a sophomore, and 
has been her mother's housekeeper all these years ; but 
for her Mrs. H. could not have done her work. Alfred is 
also in the course of the Northwestern University, and 
Arthur has begun his studies there. The boys have made 
it possible for their mother to do her work by faithfully 
keeping her words in their hearts during her absence, and 
their promise to be loyal to mother, sister, and God. 

Mrs. Henry was one of our most effective speakers at 
the capitol of Illinois when we presented the great "Home 
Protection Petition." She made the memorable plea from 
the point of view of a widow with fatherless children, 
and asked the same power to protect them from the 
dram-shops which their father would have possessed had 
he not given his life for his country. Her lecture on 
" What is the Boy Worth ? " is a masterly presentation 
of the most vital question of the hour, and has been given 
with telling effect in scores of towns and cities. The new 
book, " Roy, or The Voice of his Home," is one of Mrs. 
Henry's best, and our young folks will be delighted with it 
and its still happier sequel, " Mabel's Work." " Pledge and 
Cross" has had the largest sale of any book of its kind, 
and conveys the very essence of the Gospel Temperance 
Crusade. All are published by J. N. Stearns, 58 Reade 
street, New York, and ought to be read aloud in every 
local union. The Temperance Training Institute is a 

192 THE NAME. 

happy invention of Mrs. Henry, by which normal Sunday- 
School methods are applied to the elucidation of our work, 
and the spiritual side is strongly emphasized. Dr. Yin- 
cent has invited Mrs. Henry to prepare a series of Biblical 
Temperance Lessons for the Sunday-School Teacher, which 
will be a mighty power in the Church. Mrs. Henry is also 
superintendent of our National Training School for Tem- 
perance Workers. 


BY MRS. 8. M. I. HENRY. 

God's name is Love. • 

He wrote his name in stars; and from the shining throng, 
And from the heavens, there rolled a swelling tide of song. 
The earth, which from the Hand Divine to motion sprung, 
And quivering 'mid the hosts of heaven, in floods of glory hung, 
Had not an eye to read the Name; for praises, had no tongue. 

God's name is Love. 
He wrote his name again in every changing hue, 
And set it high upon the clouds, a promise great as true. 
Men saw the ensign, but forgot the wondrous name it bore; 
The earth beneath the archway swept, forgetful as before, 
And yet God kept the hues, and wrote that one Name o'er and o'er. 

God's name is Love. 
He wrote it yet again all o'er the meadows fair, 
In grass, and rose, and lily-bells, that man might read it there. 
His sweetest, tenderest, dearest name he beaded with the dew, 
And called the winds to publish it each breaking morn anew. 
Man saw and heard, but in his heart the Name he never knew. 

God's name is Love. 
And when each chosen sign of earth, or sea, or sky 
Had been employed to fix and hold man's restless eye, 
From out his heart of love God drew a wondrous plan, 
By which to seize the wandering gaze, and touch the heart of man. 
He wrote his name in blood, on Calvary's rugged hill, 
And heaven was veiled, and all the earth with awe grew still. 
The dead stepped from their graves to see and read the wondrous sign, 
And man, with heart grown tender, owned the Signature Divine. 




There is no nest so likely to fledge philanthropists as a 
Quaker home. Beyond any other religious society have 
" Friends " nourished every reform based upon the elev- 
enth commandment and the sermon on the mount. The 
gospel temperance movement in this land has no leader 
more trusty and tried than Hannah Whitall Smith, a 
"Friend indeed," by ancestry and for many years by 
membership. In all our meetings, the dove-like plumage, 
peaceful face, and sweet " thee and thou " utterance, tell 
us that in the army which, with the sword of the Spirit, 
fights the rum power, even the women of the " Quaker 
church " will take up arms. 

The father of our beloved " Hannah" was known, in 
his day, as " the best-loved merchant of Philadelphia." 
His gifted son-in-law has characterized him thus : " He 
was a bright, cheery, joyous, yet Cromwellian soldier, 
clapped by mistake under the broad-brim of a Quaker ; 
but this extinguisher was never able to hide his gladsome 
piety. And the daughter is her father over again." 

Her mother was a portly Quaker matron, not unlike 
Elizabeth Fry in appearance — one of the purest Quaker 
types, and the soul of everything beautiful and good. 

Hannah has two sisters and one brother — the latter at 
the head of the great firm of Whitall, Tatum & Co., who 
operate at Millville, N. J., the largest white glass factory 
in the world — employing two thousand hands. This firm 
is so loyal to the temperance reform that no orders are 
accepted by them from men whose bottles or glasses are 
to be used to contain intoxicating drinks. Their relations 
to their employees involve no conflict between capital and 
labor. An elegant " Mechinics' Institu f e," with library, 
reading-rooms, bath-rooms, etc. (the whole costing twenty- 
five thousand dollars), has been built by their operatives. 

racifz?-: ' ~ 

illy at the service 

M "... - - 

: : 

:rizi£-~ ~ - -- -""-"--" 

.are di 

- - - - 

- : " -- 

\ C. T. U. 

' V. 

- 3on 

. - " - - 

- : .o tnends more . : _ 

" — _ * 

sisters ~ho partake largel - 
the - xhich hare made her i lead: 

i-:s C J T: :.. "«. : 7 7.\:_ ::.7 i; -. : ::: : - ~ 
the Si . rarrland. and 


- U-. 



r . 

. 1 ; 


r ~ " r r 

- ill ' ' 


- :- 

, 1 .- . - 

:-;:=. i_i 

IrfT I 

.. l r\." wars 

last. There is 

: _ " - 

— - — - — 

- _ . 

. - K 

_•_, . 

:: :7r -: .—: 


type of cultured ' : young Americans/' Charming " Marie- 
chen " writes me from Smith College : 

"You ask me Mother's traits. She seems to me per- 
fectly unselfish, and she carries this into the smallest de- 
tails. For instance, if there is any choice : h ts at the 
fire, or dishes at the table, she always prefers everybody 
before herself. Sometimes I think Mother is too carel - - 
of herself ; and yet I feel more and more each year that 
the strong, unconscious influence of her self-forgetfuh. 
leads us as no formal teaching could. She never preaches 
' in the bosom of the domestic circle.' We can never _ I 
her to repeat her sermons and Bible talks to us. • What 
did thee talk about ? ' we ask. 'Goodness — my child! ' is 
her invariable reply. 

•• She has always treated her children like reasonable 
human beings, never in all her life giving one of us an 
arbitrary • Yes ' or • No,' but always showing us the 
principles behind. She always gives us a chance to m.. 
our own decisions, counting self-discipline worth all the 
rules in the world. We think she leaves us free to de- 
cide for ourselves and we pride ourselves on our frc 
but all the while the steady influence of her si 
exerted almost unconsciously to us. constrains us to love 
the right. Mother never condescends to us, but treats our 
little affairs as if they were of the d si importance. 
We are her friends as well as her children. She does not 
talk down to us from a height, but lifts us up beside her. 
Indeed there is perfect confidence between us. She isn't 
too curious though, or interfering. That's not her way. 
Some mothers worry their daughters dreadfully — by in- 
sisting on reading all their lc -. for instance. But our 
mother never acts that way. Confidences are never 
dragged from us. and as a consequence, we love to tell her 
everything. I suppose I ought to hint tenderlv at her 
faults, but really I can't seem to think of any, unless, j s .- 


haps, she trusts us too much, admires us more than we 
merit, and makes us have too good a time." 

One day Mrs. Smith went to this bright eldest daughter 
and said, " I want thee to read this tract of mine and tell 
me what thee thinks," whereupon Maricchcn answered, 
" mother, I don't need to read thy tracts to know that 
they are good — thee lives them." There isn't much flavor 
of " Mrs. Jcllaby " in such a testimony ! Indeed it is 
the crowning glory of the W. C. T. U. that the patroness 
of " Boorioboola Gha" Mission has never yet cast in 
her lot wi;h us. Says one who knows her life better 
than any oilier : " Hannah is no doctrinaire. She is 
the most practical woman I ever saw. Why her genius 
for housekeeping is something wonderful. From year's 
end to year's end there isn't a screw loose in this 
establishment. Were you ever in one that went more 
as if it ran on wheels ? I don't believe a more con- 
tented, obedient, grateful company of servants, nor a 
service more eagerly rendered, can anywhere be found. 
But it isn't strange that with such a magnificent and 
abiding concept of the Fatherhood and Motherhood of 
God she should, by her grip on that great principle, find 
herself ' seated in heavenly places in Christ Jesus,' and 
so be a pervasive harmonizer in her own home, as every- 
where. I never met a person less affected by either praise 
or blame, or sustained at a more uniform elevation above 
life's pettiness and frailties." Truly may it be said of 
the woman whose views of Christian experience have in- 
fluenced more lives than those of any other since Madame 
Gnyon, "Her children arise up and call her blessed — her 
husband also, and he praiseth her." " The Christian's 
Secret of a Happy Life," which has been translated into 
Russian by a Countess, into German by a daughter of the 
historian Nicbuhr,and into many other foreign languages, 
and which to-day is moulding character into conformity with 


Christ wherever the English tongue is spoken, was first 
lived out in this quiet Philadelphia home. " I learned 
my theology in the nursery with my children " is the fre- 
quent observation of her whom the world knows as " H. 
W. S." " The story of Frank, or Record of a Happy 
Life," has been translated into eight languages and had 
a wider circulation than any religious biography of our 
day, unless we except " The Dairyman's Daughter." The 
meetings addressed by Mrs. Smith at Brighton and Ox- 
ford, in 1875, each 'gathered up seven thousand persons 
from all Europe — men and women of the noblest aims of 
culture, anxious only to know the way of God more per- 
fectly. Mrs. Smith was a guest in many patrician 
homes, and was welcomed to Broadlands, formerly the 
seat of Lord Palmerston, as the trusted friend of his 
successors, Lord and Lady Mount Temple, and their circle, 
but who would dream of the honors she has shared, by any 
allusion she has ever made ? Other women with a tithe of 
her achievements count themselves famous and are oc- 
cupied with their " career," but worldly prestige has few 
charms for one who has found such anchorage in God as 
holds Hannah Smith's life-barque firm. 

An English paper reports her meetings at Brighton, 
thus: "So great is the demand to hear Mrs. Smith that 
she is obliged to deliver her exposition in the Corn Ex- 
change, and then immediately afterward in the Dome, and 
as each of these gigantic buildings will hold more than 
3,000 persons, her congregation is larger than Mr. 
Spurgeon's. Punctually to the moment, like Mr. Moody, 
she steps to the front of the platform, dressed in Quaker 
simplicity, and then speaks for fifty minutes by the clock, 
without hesitating for a moment. Her freshness, her 
profound spiritual insight, are as remarkable as her sur- 
prising fluency." The correspondent of another English 
paper, who listened more critically, declares that "for 


fluency of utterance and vigor of expression, she is un- 
questionably one of the most wonderful of all the female 
orators it has been my fortune to hear, and by all she is 
recognized as the leading spirit of the Convention. Mrs. 
Smith has little of the feminine in her style of oratory. 
Both as to their form and expression her addresses are 
the most vigorous and masculine of any that are to be 
heard at these gatherings. Decision marks every sentence 
she utters. The pathetic element is almost wholly absent. 
As an expositor of the Bible she is trenchant and often 

From Times of Refreshing : 

" However worn the subject may be, it becomes fresh 
and new as Mrs. Smith groups rapidly and clearly her 
texts, and pours out in the homeliest language a stream 
of vigorous thought. Avoiding all vexed questions, all 
dark uncertainties, the fruits of her devout study of the 
Scriptures become at the feast as the already drawn 
water turned into wine — sweet, healing, and leading to 
an atmosphere of soul-rest hitherto unconceived of by 
many. If we might characterize in one phrase the sub- 
stance and result of her teaching, it would be The Sun- 
shine of True Faith. 

" The personality and work of Christ, the authority of 
Scripture, the simplicity of faith, the absurdity of unbe- 
lief, the baptism of the Spirit, and the infinite love of God 
to us — these subjects form the staple of her addresses. 
Her grasp and vigorous use of the types and analogies of 
the Old Testament Scripture form most useful features 
of her teaching. 

"The effect of Mrs. Smith's addresses was greatly 
increased by her strong but restful voice, which rang 
through the grove more distinctly than that of any 
speaker present. The clear-cut articulation of her sim- 
ple sentences relieves the hearer of all effort in following 


the subject. Consecrated talent and careful research, 
aided by a fine physique of unusual vigor, fit this lady 
for her special vocation. A frank naivete of manner 
adds to the brilliant charm which wins the heart, while it 
irresistibly convinces the intellect. Curiously, the clergy- 
men, notwithstanding any scruples as to the preaching of 
women, are always found the most diligent attenders of 
her meetings." 

With calls coming to her from almost every State and 
both sides of the sea, this loyal wife and mother, who so 
dearly loves to preach "the unsearchable riches of Christ," 
remains contentedly at home to cheer and cherish those who 
need her most, going, perhaps, to some obscure suburban 
church near by to speak on Sabbath evening, and faith- 
fully attending Friends' meeting- and Sabbath School. At 
her writ ing table she spends several hours each day preparing 
articles, bible leaflets, letters of consolation and help ; and 
carrying on, by the aid of her secretary and the printed 
circulars constantly sent out, her new duties as our 
superintendent of evangelistic work. Every few weeks 
she gives a " hobby party," one of her own happy inven- 
tions, as a mode of sociability, and greatly enjoyed by 
her children. Notes are sent to thirty or forty friends, 
inviting them to meet certain philanthropists, scientists, 
or religionists, as the case may be, who are distinguished 
by the cultivation of their specialty, and each will meta- 
phorically pace his favorite equine up and down before the 
gathered circle, hoping to secure the prize of their pre- 
ference and adhesion. The truth of God, of nature, of 
humanity — these are always the ends sought. Good cheer 
for heart and soul, as well as weary hand and brain, 
these are always to be had in the beautiful Germantown 
home, the " House Beautiful," as one of our leaders calls 
it. "What a procession it would be if all those whom that 
broad roof and motherly heart have sheltered should form 


in line ! To my own knowledge, not less than a score of 
Christian workers have there found solace within the last 
few weeks, not as mere visitors, but as those welcomed to 
their own " ingle side." 

The development of women as evangelists is the dearest 
wish and purpose of H. W. S., and she hopes ere long to 
found a training school for this specific work. " Greater 
must be the company of them that publish the glad tid- 
ings ;" this is the key note of her present work. The 
noble Saxon word " lady," means " giver of bread ;" ere 
long it shall acquire a heavenlier significance, " lady, giver 
of the Bread of Life." Our temperance hymn, " Rescue 
the Perishing," can have no narrower significance. " But 
Mrs. Smith is always so cheerful — can she have known 
much sorrow?" This 'inconsiderate speech has been 
made so often in my hearing that I intrude upon the 
sacred privacy of what would be unutterable grief to a 
less sunlit heart. Three graves of lovely children are 
in the family burial ground. The eldest born lies there 
— a heavenly-minded girl. " Frank," the Princeton col- 
legian, with his bright promise and rare Christian charac- 
ter — the world knows about him. Within three years 
Mrs. Smith's noble father and tender mother have passed 
onward, and her choicest blossom, the child most like 
herself, the pride of her home, little Ray, died but two 
years ago. Besides all these bereavements, there have 
been other sorrows harder to bear — misconceptions, injus- 
tice, bitterness worse than death. But, to the praise of 
that dear Name above all other names, let it be said this 
Christian heart knows, proves, illustrates, always and in 
all life's changeful discipline, the victory that overcometh, 
even faith. No sentence is so familiar to her friends, 
from those dear smiling lips that open but to speak brave 
and tender words, as this: "I cannot be unhappy— -for 
always 1 have God." 


The true heart which has interpreted New Testament 
ideals of Christian experience to millions of inquiring 
readers ought surely to be heard as a witness on her own 
behalf. Hence this letter is given just as it came from 
her hand, in reply to my inquiry : 

My Dear Frank:— Thee asks for the story of my religious life, and 
I am very willing to send it to thee, because there is nothing in it 
peculiar to myself alone, but its secret is one open to every other 
human soul. And this secret is simply that of entire surrender and 
perfect trust, to the best I know, on whatever plane my soul has 
found itself. 

I have gone through many " experiences," I have had many differ- 
ing "views," I have embraced and outgrown many "dogmas." But, 
through all and in all my one attitude of soul has had to be just this 
of consecration to the best light I had, and of faith in the best 
God I knew. And out of all or in all, whether they have proved to 
be truth or error, I have found that my Divine Master to whom I had 
surrendered myself, has been able to give me food convenient for me, 
and has made all things, even my mistakes, work together for my 
eternal good. "When I have made mistakes, and they have been many, 
they have all come from a want of one or other of these two things, 
either want of obedience or want of faith. "When I have been helped 
and blessed, it has all come through these two channels of consecra- 
tion and trust. At every moment these have been necessary on my 
part; and at every moment when these have been active, God has 
never failed to respond with his wondrous grace. 

I was brought up very guardedly in the Society of Friends by 
devoted parents, and was always, as we say. "religiously inclined." 
But not understanding this simple way of surrender and trust, I spent 
many weary years in legal striving, resorting in vain to every expe- 
dient my soul could devise for gaining the favor of the God who was, 
I thought, angry with me, and had turned His back upon me. At the 
age of twenty-six I suddenly discovered that all the while this very 
God had been loving me, and that He was my Saviour and my Friend, 
and only wanted me to give myself up to Him and trust Him. I saw 
that Jesus had died for me because He loved me, and that all my sins 
had been taken away by Ilim. And I heard and obeyed His divine 
call, "Come unto Me all ye that are weary and heavy laden, and I 
will give you rest." Up to my light I surrendered myself to this 
Almighty Saviour, and up to my strength I trusted Ilim, and began 
to obey Him. 

There followed on this at first great joy and a wonderful victory 

204 "thy will be done." 

over sin. But failing to keep in the continued attitude of obedience 
and trust, not understanding, in fact, the vital necessity of keep- 
ing there, I very soon began to slip back to the old level of conflict 
and failure, and found myself at last living in the seventh of Romans, 
with the sorrowful experience of finding a law within me that " when 
I would do good evil was present with me," so that the " good that I 
would, I did not; while the evil that I would not, that I did." This 
seemed all wrong to me, and contrary to the Scriptural idea of the 
Christian life, and I tried in many ways to remedy it, but all in vain. 
The same legal strivings to which I had resorted when seeking the 
forgiveness of my sins were again renewed, only now on a different 
plane ; and for nine years I struggled to gain the victory over sin by 
my own efforts, just as I had before struggled by my own efforts to 
gain reconciliation with God. . 

During all this time I never doubted the fact of my being an heir of 
God, and a joint heir with Christ, but this assurance only seemed to 
add to my burden; for to believe one's self to be a child, and yet to be 
unable to act like a child, could not but be a source of bitter sorrow. 

At last, in the year 1867, the Heavenly Father threw into my company 
some dear Christians who knew a better way. They taught me that I was" 
the clay and God was the Potter, and that lie alone could make 
me into a vessel unto His honor. They showed me that if I would 
surrender myself up to His workmanship and would trust Him to do 
the work, He would accomplish for me all that I had been so wearily 
and so vainly trying to do for myself. Again I saw, as I had seen at 
first, that surrender and trust were the imperative conditions of my 
spiritual life. It was made clear to me that they were the two wings 
of the soul, without both of which it could not rise, and again I conse- 
crated and trusted up to the fullest measure of light that was given me. 
I chose Christ to be my Master and Owner and Potter and Keeper for- 
ever, and, having chosen Him, I trusted Him and obeyed Him. 

This is all there was about it as far as I was concerned, and this is 
all there ever has been about it since on my side. As a dear little girl 
said one day, I have had nothing to do but "just to mind." But on 
His side what has there not been? "What heights and depths of love, 
what infinite tendernesses of care, what wise lovingness of discipline, 
what grandeur of keeping, what wonders of revealing, what strength 
in weakness, what comfort in sorrow, what light in darkness, what 
deliverance from bondage, what uplifting from anxiety, what easing 
of burdens; in short, what a God and Saviour! 

No wonder that as the years have gone on this life of yielding, 
trusting, and obeying, which at first was hard, has become the very 
delight of my heart; and that to say, "Thy will be done, " seems to 
me now the sweetest song of the soul. 


Moreover, as the result of this attitude of heart towards God, 
there has come in the very nature of things an acquaintance with 
Him. We soon learn to know the Master whom we trust and 
follow. And because we know Him we cannot but love Ilim, for 
who could know Him, ever so little, and not love Him best of all! 

" "Who that one moment has the least descried Him, 

Faintly and dimly, hidden and afar, 
Doth not despise all excellence beside Him, 

Pleasures and powers that are not and that are? 
Aye, amid all men hold himself thereafter, 

Smit with a solemn and a sweet surprise; 
Dumb to their scorn, and turning on their laughter 

Only the dominance of earnest eyes." 

More and more I realize that I am nothing, but that He is all and 
in all. / have no wisdom, nor goodness, nor strength, but He is 
everything tbat is glorious, and good, and loving, and true, and just; 
and He is mine and I am His, and therefore all must be well. All 
my needs, and all my perplexities, and all niy sorrow are met and an- 
swered by the fact of God. Not what He does, not what He gives, 
not what He says, but simply and only what He is. Not anything 
from Him, nor anything for Him, but He Himself, the _God who is 
revealed to us in the face of Jesus Christ, He is the one universal 
answer and solvent of every need. His ways or His plans I might 
misunderstand, but goodness of character I cannot mistake, and it is 
His character that is my impregnable fortress of refuge and of rest. 
"God is" gives perfect peace in everything. 

This has been my life's lesson, to learn to "know God." I have 
advanced only a very little way as yet in this knowledge; but all that 
has come to me has come along this one pathway of surrender, trust, 
and obedience, and by no other. And as I abide steadfastly in these, I 
believe grander outlooks will be continually given me, and I shall 
find it more and more true as our Saviour said, that "this is life eter- 
nal, to know the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom Thou hast 

This pathway lies open to all, and everyone who walks in it will 
know. My coming into the temperance work was after this fashion: 

At the time of the Crusade I was in England, engaged in religious 
work. My American friends sent me over the newspapers containing 
the accounts of the marvelous pentecostal baptism on the Christian 
women of our land. My soul was stirred within me. I recognized 
my Master's voice calling me to a consecration of myself to the 
same work, and as I sat before an English open fire in the drawing- 
room of our London house, I joined that Crusade. In my heart I 


said, "Those women are my sisters, and their work is my work, 
from this time forward until my life ends." It was as real a transaction 
as was ever made, though no outward act was performed and no audi- 
ble word was said. As soon as I returned to America I put my name 
on the pledge roll of the nearest W. C. T. U., and joined the ranks of 
the workers. And from that time to this the fire has burned with 
ever-increasing fervor. To-day the National W. C. T. IT. of 
America seems to me one of the grandest instrumentalities for the 
Lord's work that this world has ever known, blessing equally both the 
workers and those for whom we labor. 

"how to prepare bible readings." 

[Practical Suggestions sent out to the W. C. T. U. by Mrs. Smith.] 

For your study of the Bible you require four things: 
I. A Bible, with references, if possible. 

II. A complete "Analytical Concordance." [You can now get a 
a very good copy for 25 cts.] 

III. A blank-book that can be ruled in columns. 

IV. An undisturbed desk or table, where you can keep the above 
three things, with pen and ink, always ready. Having provided these 
few necessary things, proceed as follows : 

I. Commit yourself, in a few words, to God, asking for light and 
guidance, and expecting to receive them. 

II. Choose a subject appropriate to the occasion. 

III. Find in the Concordance all the words referring to this sub- 
ject, and select from among the texts given such as seem to you best 
to elucidate it, noting them down under their appropriate headings in 
your blank-book. 

IV. Read over these selected texts carefully, and make a list of the 
most striking on a separate piece of paper, putting them in the order 
that will best develop the lesson. Begin this list with a familiar text, 
and gradually progress to those not so well known, letting each suc- 
cessive text develop the subject a little more clearly than the last. 
Close the list, if possible, with some practical instance from Bible 
history, or some typical illustration. 

V. Having thus prepared your list, open your Bible at the first 
text, and on the margin beside it write the reference to the second text 
on your list. Turn to this second one and write beside it the reference 
to the third. Turn to the third and write beside it the reference to 
the fourth. And so on through the whole list. 

VI. On a blank page at the end of your Bible write down an index 
of all the subjects you have thus studied, with a reference at each to 
the first text on your list concerning that subject. If you have no 
blank leaves at the end of your Bible, gum the edge of a half sheet of 
note paper and fasten it in. 



VII. If you prefer it you may write a list of all your chain of texts 
on the margin beside the first text, so as to have them all before you 
at once to choose from. 

VIII. By this plan you will have a complete chain of texts on any 
given subject running all through your Bible itself, each verse referring 
you to the next one you wish to read, without having the trouble of 
loose slips of paper to embarrass you. Also, having once studied out 
a subject, you have it all ready for any future use; and by turning to 
your index list, you can at a moment's notice open your Bible at the 
foundation text, and can then turn to one text after another through 
the whole course of your lesson, without hesitation or embarrassment. 


When God plans a great moral reform movement that 
will lift society out of the ruts of indifference and stagna- 
tion to the level of righteous intent and heroic action, He 
always prepares beforehand the workers for His work. 

The Woman's Temperance Crusade was one of those 
remarkable, providential uplifts that brought together at 
the feet of the Master many of His chosen and trained 
workers. It was the coming of "the hour for the women 
and the women for the hour" in a great social reform 

In the brilliant galaxy of women that has added luster 
to the Woman's National Christian Temperance Union, 
which is a direct outgrowth of the Crusade, Mrs. Lathrap 
is a star of the first magnitude. When the Lord called 
the women of the nation to temperance work, through 
the Crusade, she was ready to answer out of an uttermost 
consecration: "Here am I, Lord; send me." 

She came to the first temperance convention of women, 
a prepared worker, and took rank at once as one of the 
most forceful and eloquent advocates of the cause. 

Her broad and varied experience in connection with 
the "Ladies' and Pastors' Christian Union," and the 
"Woman's Foreign* Missionary Society," had made her 
familiar with the needs of humanity, and given her a 
wide outlook in the direction of social reforms. 

* By Mrs. Wittenniyer. 


But the secret of her remarkable power was in her 
entire devotion to God and duty, and the deep undertone 
of her religious life, "that like a billow in mid-ocean 
never breaks upon the beach" of human discontent. 

Mary Lathrap, nee Torrance, was born on a farm in 
Central Michigan, April 25th, 1838, only twelve miles 
from the city of Jackson, where she now resides. 

Her childhood was spent amid the hardships of pioneer 
life, for at that early period there were no railroads 
west of Detroit, and the vast resources of the State were 

She was educated at Marshall, Mich., where she lived 
during her girlhood days. And, although her education 
had only the finish of the common schools, yet she had 
superior teachers, who directed her in an after-course of 
reading and study, which took her far beyond the ordinary 
school course. At fourteen she began to write for the 
county paper, under the nom de plume of " Lena." 

Strangely enough, her first public speech was a tem- 
perance poem. She has since written very many beauti- 
ful things. One of her temperance poems, " The Dead 
March," has been republished in most of the newspapers 
of the country, and is frequently used by elocutionists in 
their public readings. 

She was converted at the early age of ten years. The 
light flashed suddenly into her soul as she walked home 
from the Presbyterian Church where the family statedly 
worshiped. Her conversion was clear and strong ; and, 
child as she was, the deep convictions of that hour and 
the solemn witnessing of the Spirit to her covenant with 
God were so vivid, that she has been held through all 
these years faithful to her vows. She desired to unite 
with the Church, but she was thought to be too young to 
be brought into the fold at once. She was too timid to 
try again, and so was harmed by the delay, and was not 


received into the Church till she was nearly eighteen. 
But she had a good strong Scotch-Irish Presbyterian 
mother, who held her to the white line, and who, though 
left alone to rear her family, maintained a strict, godly 
rule over her children, who now " rise up to call her 
blessed." In her old age the mother, with work well 
done, sits in sweet content beside Mrs. Lathrap's hearth- 
stone, calmly and joyfully awaiting the messenger who 
shall bear her away to her mansion and her crown. 

Mary Torrance taught in the public schools of Detroit 
from 1862 till 1865, when she was married to Carnett C. 
Lath rap, then assistant surgeon in the Ninth Michigan 

Dr. Lathrap, who is a genial, whole-souled gentleman, 
has always had a reverent faith in his wife's special call 
to Christian work, and has in every way possible helped 
her in it, even at the sacrifice of his own comfort. They 
have not been blessed with children, but a young girl, 
Dr. Lathrap's niece, is a member of the family, to whom 
they are both devotedly attached. 

Soon after her conversion, Mary Torrance had the 
most profound exercise of mind on the subject of preach- 
ing the Gospel ; and, although but a child, and brought 
up in a Presbyterian Church, where the voice of a woman 
had never been heard, yet her convictions were so strong 
that life seemed to her a failure unless she could do the 
one thing that to her was all-important — preach the 

Two years after her marriage she removed with her 
husband to Jackson, and, as Dr. Lathrap was a member 
of the Methodist Church, she united with that church by 
letter, where they still maintain their membership. 

Through all these years the call to preach Christ's 
Gospel has never left her. Day and night, even in her 
most careless moments, it has sounded down into the. 


depths of her innermost soul. Her gifts and graces were 
so remarkable, that the Quarterly Conference of the 
Methodist Church granted her a license to preach. Dur- 
ing the last eight years she has held a local preacher's 
license, which has been renewed from year to year till 
last year, which was not done, owing to a derangement 
in the District Conference plan. But the anointing that 
comes from above still abides. Her preaching is with 
power and the demonstration of the Holy Ghost. Bishop 
Simpson, after listening to one of her sermons, came for- 
ward and said, reverently, " God has certainly called and 
anointed our sister to preach His Gospel." 

The deep earnestness of her soul is manifest in every 
word she utters. The truths she brings to others have 
taken deep root in the subsoil of her own soul, and are 
couched in such clear, ringing, eloquent words, that the 
attention of the most careless listener is at once riveted. 
There is no effort at oratory, no clap-trap of wit or 
words to win applause, for she is as free from ambition 
as a little child. But I have often seen her hold the 
earliest attention of six or seven thousand people, many 
of .them standing, for over an hour, by her clear logic, 
original thought, and her deep earnestness in putting the 
Truth. When she speaks on temperance or preaches the 
Word, her silver trumpet gives no uncertain sound, for 
she hears a voice ever behind her saying, " Take heed 
what ye speak." And the power of this voice is intensi- 
fied by the unusual individuality of her soul. In the 
presence of duty she stands alone with God, as though 
there was not another being in the universe. This soul- 
consciousness of God makes her unusually true and truth- 
ful to the very core of her being. As a friend, she is 
frank, honest, generous, and ardent. She does not 
change friends with every new moon, but, while she con- 
stantly makes new friendships, her fidelity is unwavering 


to old friends right through the years, unless she finds 
them untrue in moral character. As a speaker on the 
temperance question, she has been so popular in Michigan 
that her lime has been greatly taken up in work in that 

She is President of the State W. C. T. U., and earn- 
estly engaged with the workers of Michigan in efforts to 
secure prohibition by constitutional amendment. As one 
of the secretaries of the " Ladies' and Pastors' Christian 
Union," a home missionary society, die has, during the 
last ten years, addressed a very large number of the 
annual conferences. She has also done a large amount 
of work for the " Woman's Foreign Missionary Society." 
After she was licensed she preached her first six sermons 
by invitation of the pastor in the Congregational Church 
of her own town. The church was crowded, and the 
impression was profound. Since then, as an evangelist, 
she has labored in many churches with great success. 
Often in her revival meetings her intense interest for the 
salvation of souls brings her into fellowship with the 
Master to such an extent that for the time she would wil- 
lingly die to save souls. 

Naturally she is witty and light-hearted, and has a keen 
sense of the ridiculous, but grace has so tempered her 
spirit that her wit and joyousness of life is without levity 
or uncharitableness. 

She has always felt a deep interest in the welfare and 
elevation of her own sex. And at the State Convention 
of the Women's Christian Temperance Union in 1878, at 
Grand Rapids, Mich., she read a paper which stirred the 
audience on the question of working for the reformation 
of fallen women, as I have never seen an audience stirred 
before or since. A resolution looking to immediate action 
was at once passed unanimously, and a petition to the 
Legislature prepared for circulation. Twelve hundred 

212 A girls' reform school. 

extra copies of the speech were circulated, and Mrs. 
Lathrap, Mrs. Dr. Morse Stewart of Detroit, and Mrs. 
Church of Greenville, appointed as a committee to take 
charge of the matter. Mrs. Lathrap and others went to 
Lansing and got a bill through the Legislature appro- 
priating $30,000 for such an institution as they desired. 
It is to be located at Adrian. The land has been secured, 
and before another year goes by it will be opened for 

Ladies have been appointed by the Governor of Michi- 
gan to serve with the men charged with this responsibility. 
Mrs. Lathrap's consecrated voice, which is so strong to 
plead with the erring and to plead for the fallen, has won 
for Michigan what is needed for every State — a girls' 
reform school. In all Mrs. Lathrap's labors in this country 
and Canada, everywhere she gathers in the multitudes and 
makes them feel the power of truth. Her words are 
hooks that hold, and are remembered and bring forth 
fruit through the years, and doubtless, when the angels 
gather in the harvest, she will have many sheaves to lay 
at the Master's feet. 


At the time of the Crusade, Jennie Smith, our valued 
Railroad Evangelist, was a helpless invalid, having 
been confined to her couch for many years without once 
being able to put her foot to the floor. Her soul was 
stirred within her like all the rest by the great awakening 
of God that swept so many Christian women into the 
ranks of the temperance reformers, but she could do very 
little to help. 

In 1878, however, the Lord gave her a wonderful deliv- 
erance. She had been taken to a homeopathic hospital in 
Philadelphia in the hope of benefit from a new treatment, 
and had been relieved of some very distressing symptoms. 

*By"H. W. S." 


But she still continued a helpless invalid, utterly unable 
to be even lifted up in bed. She says, concerning it : 

" All my hopes were shattered, not because my physi- 
cian had given up the case, but because I thought I saw 
plainly that the treatment was continued more to gratify 
me than from confidence in its success, and especially I 
was forced to believe that my back was worse instead of 
better. I found I could not say, ' Thy will be done,' to 
suffer on. I felt compelled to overcome this feeling, and 
on the night of April 22, 1878, I passed through the 
severest struggle of my life. The question came before 
me as to whether I would be willing to be a helpless and 
suffering invalid all my life if by this means I could more 
effectually reach the souls around me. During my illness 
I had traveled on a wheeled couch a great deal, and when 
on railroads had of course been obliged to go as baggage. 
This had brought me into intimate association with the 
railroad employees, and their uniform and chivalrous 
kindness to me in my helplessness had won my heart. 
As I passed through the struggle on this never-to-be-for- 
gotten night, there came before me as in a vision all the 
railroad employees in the nation, a mighty multitude of 
hungry souls, and I said in the very depths of my being, 
' Yes, Lord, I am willing to suffer forever, if I may only 
help these men who handle my couch on the railroads.' 
This gave victory, and I felt myself to be more swallowed 
up in the will of God than ever, and to desire only an 
incoming of Divine power to do the work that seemed 
laid upon me. The next evening I summoned to my bed- 
side a few sympathizing friends, and told them I felt an 
assurance that if they would unite with me in waiting on 
the Lord, He would bestow the needed power." 

After a most solemn consecration of body, soul, and 
spirit to Him for His use either in sickness or health, the 
little circle prayed and waited, realizing very vividly the ' 


Divine presence in their midst. Between eleven and 
twelve Jennie felt a shock of life go through her from 
head to foot, and immediately lifted herself up in bed for 
the first time in sixteen years. She then said, " I believe 
the Lord would have me rise up and walk," and her phy- 
sician helped her to her feet. She walked a few steps, 
and kneeled in thanksgiving, and then retired to rest with 
a heart full of praises. From that moment her restoration 
to strength and health was very rapid, so that in a short 
time she was entirely well, and was able to undergo more 
exertion and fatigue than most of her friends around 

She at once began to use her renewed and consecrated 
powers in the work of the Lord for the uplift of humanity, 
and the call she had heard on that memorable night to 
help the railroad men was never out of her mind. But 
she could not see any way of carrying it out, and could 
only wait and trust. In the fall of 1881 she attended the 
National Woman's Christian Temperance Union Conven- 
tion held in Washington, and there told out the desires 
of her heart. And our women, hearing the divine call in 
her longings, inserted in the grand, broad platform of our 
National Woman's Christian Temperance Union a plank 
in the shape of a department called " Work among Rail- 
road Employees," and she was made its superintendent. 
This gave her a backing, and a door was soon opened for 
her through the Woman's Christian Temperance Union 
of Baltimore on the line of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, 
where she has worked with wonderful success for several 
months. A rich harvest has already been gathered as the 
result of her labors, over one thousand souls having been 
brought into the kingdom of Christ from among the rail- 
road men and their families. A marvelous change has 
been wrought in the whole morale of the shops and depots 
belonging to the company, as well as along the line. As 


MRS. T. B. CARSE. 215 

one man said, " We hardly know ourselves on this road 
any more. Where we used to meet each other with oaths 
and blasphemy, we now hear the greeting, ' God bless 
you, brother. Praise the Lord for his goodness to-day.' " 
Drinking has been almost abolished along the line as far 
as the work has extended ; " Railroad Temperance Unions " 
have been formed, and all the converts have been pledged 
to total abstinence and the temperance cause. 

In many other fields of work Jennie Smith has been 
blessed and owned by the Lord of the harvest, and has 
brought in rich sheaves. But nowhere is she so happy 
and so much at home as among her " Railroad boys." And 
nowhere does she receive a more loyal respect and devo- 
tion than from them. 

The work is still going on, and she is hoping and pray- 
ing that other workers may be raised up to join her in 
this long-neglected, but most needy field. 

Superintendent National Sunday-School Department, 

Founder of The Signal. 

In the spring of 1874 the tidal wave of the Crusade 
struck Chicago — that city of mighty antitheses. Three 
thousand dram shops ; three hundred churches ; Dwight 
L. Moody, the evangelist ; Mike McDonald, the gambler ; 
Philip Bliss, the greatest gospel singer of our age, and 
Majors Whittle and Cole, the lay preachers, offset by 
socialists the most incendiary, and infidels the most pro- 
fane ; the Washingtonian and Martha Washington Homes, 
and the " Rehoboth " for women inebriates, offset by 
that moral " Burnt District," known as the" Black Hole," 
— these are a few among unnumbered contrasts that 
reveal the hot contest between Christ and the devil in 
the most marvelous city of modern times. A thrilling 


volume might be written on the efflorescence of woman's 
philanthropy in Chicago. There is no depth of misery 
and shame into which the sweet leaves of its healing have 
not brought cleansing and light. The day seems all too 
short for the tender ministries to which the gentler members 
of Christ's church have gone forth in that city which, with 
all its faults, is so liberal and appreciative of the work of 
women. But I must not suffer the warm sympathy I feel 
for that noble army of workers to beguile me from the 
present duty of delineating two among the hundreds of 
devoted women whom I know and love, in the city where 
my philanthropic work begun. One morning, as I was 
preparing the usual Friday " Chapel Talk " for my dear 
college girls, in the sunny home parlor at Evanston, Mrs. 
Charles II. Case of Chicago — half an hour distant by rail 
— called to invite me to speak at a temperance meeting 
in her own church, Union Park Congregational, Rev. Dr. 
Helmer, pastor. " The tidal wave," referred to in the 
opening sentence of this chapter, was at its height. In 
ten days canvass by the temperance ladies, fourteen 
thousand names had been secured to a petition to the 
Common Council asking for the enforcement of law 
against the dram shops, which request, presented by the 
best women in the city (led by Mrs. Rev. Moses Smith), 
had been summarily disregarded, and the ladies rudely 
hissed at by a whisky mob. Great audiences assembled 
at noontide to discuss the situation. Pastors gave their 
influence in favor of the women's movement, and a 
W. C. T. U. was already organized. Out of my quiet, 
bookish life, where I had only been stirred sufficiently by 
the great events daily reported in my brother's paper, to 
get my rhetorical classes at work, debating the questions 
of total abstinence and prohibition, this invitation beckoned 
me, and the next Sabbath night, before an immense 
audience in the elegant city church, I tried to speak. 

A MODEL W. C. T. U. 217 

Two ladies, among the many I met there, especially im- 
pressed me. Indeed, Mrs. Case had said: "We have 
two members in our church who can become mighty for 
God and temperance, if they consecrate themselves, as I 
believe they will, to this new work." One was Mrs. T. B. 
Carse, a name beloved wherever known by all right- 
minded people, for her work's sake. She is now president 
of her district and of the Central W. C. T. TJ. of Chicago^ 
a society which has reached out wider, stronger arms of 
help and blessing than any other in the United States. 
It has maintained a daily gospel meeting for eight con- 
secutive years, in which thousands have been brought to 
temperance and Christ. It founded the "Rehoboth," a 
name given by Mrs. Carse to the refuge for inebriate wo- 
men who are taken there from the police court, and if they 
pass their novitiate, are graduated into the beautiful 
"Martha Washington Home" outside the city, and thence 
into the church and back to a reputable life. It has' 
placed four matrons at the four police stations, and in- 
duced the city government to help maintain them there. 
It sends special missionaries (like Mrs. Skelton and Mrs. 
01>enauer),to the wards where foreigners are congregated, 
t<> speak to them in "their own tongue wherein they were 
born;" also supports a temperance missionary among the 
colored people. It keeps open headquarters the year 
around, where men come to sign the pledge, and whence 
temperance literature is circulated throughout the city 
and the northwest. It maintains meetings in various 
parts of the city, and in the breezy enthusiasm of its work 
is a reminder of the primitive church whose practical 
Christianity it so grandly illustrates. It carries on a 
lecture course — the chief one of our great city — attending 
to all the details of so huge an enterprise, furnishing 
elevating recreation to the people"rand putting money in 
its purse for the benignant uses of the temperance reform. 


And at the head of those glorious women who have stood 
shoulder to shoulder in tins glorious work, is Mrs. T. B. 
Carse, whose good fortune it is to have a lovely home and 
time at her command, and whose noble boys, David and 
John, beloved by all of us, are the joy of their mother's 
heart, and illustrate that discriminating remark of a 
great man, " Commend mo to a Christian widow's sons as 
models of good bringing up." 

But as the "Founder of The Signal" Mrs. Carse will 
longest be remembered. I shall never forget the look of 
exaltation with which she came to me at Old Orchard 
Beach some years ago, and said : " I had a vision last 
night of the paper we must have at the West to repre- 
sent our broad, progressive work;" and then, with her 
beaming countenance and earnest words, she laid her 
plan before me, adding impressively: "I have prayed 
much about this, and it is to be." Those who know 
her magnificent energy, tireless perseverance, and win- 
ning manners, will not wonder that Mrs. Carse raised 
thousands of dollars requisite for this enterprise from 
our generous Chicago merchants, Robert D. Fowler, 
Chicago's temperance Maecenus, and his earnest-hearted 
wife, contributing, with true English liberality, beyond 
others. So we had a weekly paper, with wider space 
and fresher news, and later on Our Union (whose pres- 
ence in the home, Mary T. Lathrap happily called 
" analogous to that of a refined Christian lady,") merged 
its destiny with that of its wide awake sister of the west. 
So much for nine years' work of one brave temperance 


spoke on the evening of my own timid debut in the Con- 
gregational Church at Union Park. Of fine bearing, 
pleasant voice, and clear enunciation, filling that great audi- 
torium without apparent effort, I recognized at once in her 
gifts and earnestness peculiar fitness for the oncoming 


work. Why should it not be so ? Miss Kimball was 
born and reared in Maine, of parents noble in the truest 
sense, who in their childhood, seventy years ago, took a 
firm stand, amid much contradiction, for total abstinence. 
No shadow of intemperance ever darkened their home 
or that of their children. Indeed, it is a noteworthy 
fact that fully ninety per cent, of our temperance women 
are not such because of any personal experience or sorrow, 
but, on the contrary, have had life-long immunity from 
this greatest scourge of home. What a libel it is upon 
human nature, touched by God's grace, when the dreary 
commonplace is uttered concerning any of our workers, 
" Well, I suppose she has suffered, and so she takes an 
interest in this movement." Was that the reason why 
our Master "took an interest" in poor, dazed, bereft 
humanity, or did God " so love the world" as to send the 
Sinless One for our redemption ? 

Foremost in every reform that tended toward the uplift- 
ing of the race, the father'of my gifted friend, often when 
standing almost alone, was wont to utter this golden sen- 
tence — often on her lips in her references to him : " I 
must do what I ought ; God will take care of the rest.' 1 '' 

In a letter recently received, Miss Kimball says : " You 
know how utterly opposed I am to being written up, and 
I trust you will bear this in mind." Being made aware 
that something would be stated — her prominent position 
in our counsels making this inevitable — she wrote : "If 
anything must be said, I do want my parents to have 
credit for any effort to do good that I may have put forth," 
and later : " To my mother I owe what no words can 
express." A beautiful book, " In Memoriam of our 
Mother," has been written by Miss Kimball for circulation 
only among the family friends, but the reading of which 
is like breaking an alabaster box of ointment, so fragrant 
of all rare, sweet virtues is the life disclosed. 


Miss Kimball is a graduate of Mt. Holyoke Seminary, 
that school upon which Mary Lyon's memory rests like 
the halo of a saint, where the essence of New England 
character and culture is as balmy and penetrating as the 
perfume of trailing arbutus on its hillsides, and whence 
have gone forth more consecrated young lives on em- 
bassies for Christ more distant, adventurous, and widely 
varied than from any other one spot upon the globe. 

To any person of intelligence " a Holyoke graduate " 
stands upon blessed vantage ground in any work for 
Christ. The trained intellect might be found elsewhere, 
but its combination with trained sensibilities, conscience, 
and will, — with self-control and dedication to duty as an 
ultimate principle of action, have nowhere, in my judg- 
ment, been so grandly illustrated or so strongly accentu- 
ated as at " South Hadley." 

Miss Kimball was for several years a teacher in Chicago, 
but, like many another, resigned her position and left a 
vacancy in the overcrowded ranks, that she might join the 
newly recruited "Army of the White Ribbon." She at once, 
as might have been expected from her training, dedicated 
herself to a specialty. Here again the preparation of the 
heart is seen. No institution of its kind ever gave the 
place to Bible teaching which Mary Lyon insisted on at 
Holyoke. Five times did she study the cover off her own 
leather-bound copy of the Holy "Word, and I remember 
the sweet awe that came to my heart, when I rose to 
speak in the " Chapel " where she had stood so often to 
talk and pray with " her girls," as I remembered how 
she used to come to a duty so sacred straight from 
the " silent hour " with that beloved Bible under her 
arm. Naturally, then, a generation later, we have in 
Lucia Kimball, a pupil of this Bible-studying seminary, 
one fitted by long training to make the introduction 
of Sunday-school temperance teaching her special work. 
It was her thought to have this branch of Christian 


instruction systematically carried on by putting into 
the International Series the Quarterly Temperance Les- 
son, on the principle that thus only would it be regularly 
taught, and for the reason that the universally confessed 
curse of Christian civilization is intemperance. The 
largest Sunday-school petition ever known was the one 
circulated by her for this object, presented at the great 
Atlanta Sunday-school Convention in 1878, and at that 
time acceded to. Subsequently, however, the Quarterly 
Lesson was thrown out by the International Commit- 
tee at its Saratoga session, notwithstanding a petition 
again set on foot by Miss Kimball containing names of 
ministers and Sunday-school superintendents, no others 
being invited to sign. But our friend works right on, 
visiting Sunday-school leaders, petitioning lesson pub- 
lishers, and speaking in her earnest, polished way to 
audiences from Maine to Great Salt Lake. 

Miss Kimball is an attractive writer, as her two books, 
" Faith Hayne " (a temperance story) and " More than 
Conquerors" (biographies of saintly women),' abundantly 
testify. She is invited to do literary work enough to 
keep even her busy brain fully employed, and writes for 
some of our leading religious weeklies, but allows nothing 
to interfere with the beautiful mission for childhood's 
weal and home's protection, to which her rare and culti- 
vated powers are dedicated. She delights in her mission, 
hints at no hardships, advertises no sacrifice, but works 
right joyously and bravely on. 


A rare incident occurred at the second camp-meeting in 
Petoskcy, Mich. It was at the close of the last of three 
meetings held on the day allotted to the subject of tem- 
perance. An Irish lady, beautiful and cultured, who had 
given her time and talents to the temperance work, was 
inviting all who would to sign the pledge aud permit her 


to tie on the red ribbon. The night was one of extreme 
beauty ; the harvest moon shed its silvery light upon those 
assembled beneath the shelter of God's own canopy, who 
had come up there, amid the stillness of the forest, to wor- 
ship Him. The air was echoing the last strains of " Ho ! 
my comrades," and the atmosphere, was laden with pray- 
ers, when through the centre aisle an aged chief was led 
by two of his tribe. One hundred and four summers had 
he seen, and still time had left gently her touch upon 
him. He walked with the step of dignity which marks 
so peculiarly the Indian, and, in touching musical cadence, 
he said; "I am Petoskey, chief of the Indian people. I 
want to take the pledge from the white lady,* and let her 
fingers tie the red ribbon on old Petoskey's coat." It was 
a scene fit for a painter, as there, amid such sacred sur- 
roundings, the white lady descended the platform and 
with a beaming face told of hope and an anchorage be- 
yond. With a voice full of tears, she said : " My dear 
brother, far away from beyond the blue Atlantic I have 
come, from my home in the Emerald Isle, where one I 
loved lies sleeping, to take you by the hand, and to call 
you, chief of the Indian tribe, ' my brother.' I welcome you 
as you clasp hands with us, workers in this sacred cause of 
temperance, a cause which means not alone patriotism and 
nationality, but, blessed be God, it means religion. I shall 
go on my way stronger as I remember that up here in the 
wilds of Northern Michigan our numbers are strengthened 
by Petoskey's signature." Pointing upward the old man 
said, in his native tongue : " I'll meet you beyond that 
sky, where we shall need no more moon or sun, for He 
will be the light thereof." And so Petoskey signed our 
temperance pledge. 

* This was Mrs. Kate McGowan, an Irish lady, gifted and beauti- 
ful, whose one year of blessed service and whose tragic death are 
known to Western workers. 



The first temperance camp-meeting ever held convened 
at Old Orchard Beach camp-ground, September 8, 1874. 
It was a witty and blessed invention of Francis Murphy. 
The attendance from the first was large, but on succeed- 
ing days a vast and enthusiastic multitude greeted those 
who had come from many States with their rich experi- 
ence of work in the great cause. 

Following the opening exercises, a business meeting 
was held at the stand, to which the ladies were invited — 
doubtless the first instance of their participation in the 
" cabinet councils " of such an enterprise. Mrs. Hartt, 
of the Woman's Temperance Union, Brooklyn, N. Y., was 
asked to pray, and her appeal to God for guidance, and 
for the constant presence and inspiration of the Holy 
Spirit, met an earnest response from all those workers, of 
so many different " ways of thinking " in religious things. 
Francis Murphy's exclamation after the prayer : " Let us 
trust — let us just trust — let us come together in God's 
name," was prophetic of the spirit that predominated in 
the meeting from its first hour. 

The first evening meeting was, like those which fol- 
lowed it, delightful. It was just " sitting together in 
heavenly places in Christ Jesus." Dear old " Camp- 
meeting John Allen " opened the meeting by repeating, 
with his face all aglow with pleasure, and with his own in- 
imitable tone and gesture, the whole of Paul's Epistle to 
Timothy. He seems to have the Bible " all by heart." 
Experiences and prayer filled up the hour that followed. 
It may be interesting to group here a few notes of testi- 
monies in the social meetings : 

Mr. testified that " the appetite for liquor which 

he had indulged during twenty -five years was, upon his 
conversion to Christ, instantly taken away." 

Mr. J. K. Osgood (founder of the first reform club) 


said : " Temperance and Christianity must go hand in 
hand together — we can never separate them." 

Capt. Sturdevant : " I am glad to go into the gutter 
to bring men out, give them the pledge, get them upon 
the total abstinence platform, and into the arms of the 
Lord Jesus Christ. No drunkard shall ever have a cold 
shoulder from me, unless it is made cold by taking off 
my coat that I might put it upon him." 

An old gentleman, living near by, told this " pointed " 
anecdote : 

" Father Hart was a good old man, a preacher here in 
Maine in the old times. A retired sea-captain was the 
only temperance man in the town where Father Hart 
lived. He tried to get his dear old pastor to sign the 
total abstinence pledge, but he refused, saying, ' I don't 
care much about drink — you all know that ; but I don't 
like this idea of signing away my liberty.' Soon after, 
he called at the grocery, and the man who kept it, and 
who was a notorious drinker and rumseller, came up very 
cordial-like and said, ' The Lord bless you, father Hart, 
I'm glad to see you ; I hear you've got grit enough not to 
sign the pledge, and I bless the Lord for it ; ' and as he 
spoke he came up, half tipsy, and leaned on Father Hart's 
shoulder. The old dominie jumped up, saying, ' Bless my 
soul ! What have I done ? Give me a pledge — quick — 
somebody ! I'll not consent to be a post for a drunkard 
to lean against.' " 

Rev. Dr. Carruthers of Portland, said : " The best 
possible method of getting rid of any sin whatever is not 
to do it. The best possible cure for intemperance is — 
temperance. Moderation in drinking is very likely to go 
on to excess in drinking. I spent many years in Russia, 
a country overrun with drunkenness through the direct 
influence of the government itself, which monopolizes the 
entire liquor traffic — every cork bearing the imperial 
stamp of the State. 


! <A great Russian statesman went to the Empress 
Catharine and urged her to have the traffic stopped. 
'But,' argued she, 'it yields the largest part of our reve- 
nue.' ' Yes,' he replied, ' but in encouraging your people 
to drink, you are cutting down the tree with one hand 
while you gather its fruit with the other.' The Empress 
did not heed this warning of her wise counsellor. Sev- 
enty years have passed, and Russia is now, through all 
her vast territory, a nation of drunkards." 

Rev. I. Luce : " I haven't much faith in the temper- 
ance of political parties. I haven't much hope of a man 
if he stands and alone in his own strength only. I have 
faith in a man if his hands cling to those of Christ," 

A Brooklyn lady gave this experience : " I was told 
that a rumseller wished to see two or three Christian 
ladies, begging that they would come quietly and pri- 
vately to his saloon. Then it flashed over me: 'Now 
if I were anxious about myself spiritually, should I 
want a procession of women to file in, and severally and 
collectively take my case in hand ? No, I should be like 
this man — I should want a very few only, and that they 
should come quickly, privately.' And so I thought, 
' Why, that we can do, any of us, at any time, in the 
spirit of our Master;' and from that clay saloon-visiting 
was divested of its terrors. Nearly a thousand have been 
visited by our ladies in Brooklyn, and the work is only 
just begun. And we have never been treated rudely. 
These men are courteous to us and willing to listen to 
what we have to say, and I could tell you Avhat would 
greatly encourage your hearts, had I time to speak of the 
results of our efforts. I could tell you of men who are 
Christians to-day who were saloon-keepers six months 
ago; of young men whom we have found in these places, 
who have signed the pledge, and are now standing nobly 
by us as we go on in this work to which God has called 



A reformed man introduced Mrs. H. as " the Grace 
Darling of the Crusaders," who were rescuing the drunk- 
ard from his wreck of shame and woe. She said she 
" came only as a Christian woman from her home, not as 
a Temperance lecturer." She told a touching incident 
on this wise : After one of the saloon prayer-meetings 
held in Brooklyn last spring, a woman came to her, say- 
ing that as she left the meeting she overheard two rough 
men talking. One said : " Jim, come on now and get a 
drink." " No," was the answer, " I shan't drink to-night. 
I can't forget the way that lady who led the meeting 
spoke about our mothers. I'm going to go home. I 
won't drink to-night." Said Mrs. Hartt : " I've never seen 
Jim, I never shall here ; but I've presented him to God 
in prayer many and many a time, and I expect that poor 
Jim and I shall meet in Heaven." She continued: 
" Dear sisters, men and methods have failed in this work. 
They have not been equal to the great emergency. But 
God has, in these last days, taught us as never before the 
power of prayer, and I believe that by this means He will 
exterminate this curse of intemperance from our land. 
Let me say to each one here : Consecrate yourself to this 
work of God. If you feel that you have not the power, 
go to your closet upon your knees before God ; and if you 
will take it, He will surely bestow the power richly upon 
your soul." There was a dash of drollery in one of Mrs. 
Hartt's sentences, which it will do no harm to quote. In 
the first part of her excellent exhortation she said : u My 
sisters, begin notv, and dorft come trailing in afterward, 
when this thing has become popular." 


While numbers of us have been descanting on the evils 
of using fermented wine at the communion table, one lady 


of my acquaintance has been quietly at work proving her 
faith by works. She is a member of our W. C. T. U., 
and recounts the matter to me in this fashion : 

" I have alwavs felt sure our Bible wasn't on the wine- 


drinking side of the argument, and equally sure that the 
Church ought not to be there either. 

" More than that, I haven't believed that the Church 
desired or meant to be on the wrong side. I was confident 
the majority of communicants would prefer an unfer- 
mented wine, if well made and fit for use on an occasion 
so sacred. 

" Some time ago our Church decided not to use fer- 
mented wine, but somehow a sort of logwood decoction 
got into the chalices, which was entirely out of place and 
harmful to our cause. Some of the deacons said : ' We 
can't have such a mixture as this — it will not answer ; ' 
and they were right. The matter troubled me. At last 
I said to my husband : ' I can't go out much to the tem- 
perance meetings or take an active part in the work of 
the Woman's Union, but I can prepare wine enough for 
our church of eight hundred members, for all the com- 
munions of this year, and I'll do so.' It was no easy 
undertaking. It kept me in my kitchen, wide-awake and 
on the alert, for several days ; but I've got the wine all 
bottled up, and the people are well pleased with it." Let 
some lady in each church go and do likewise, and she 
will have helped our many-sided cause in a noble, efficient 


" Take twenty pounds Concord grapes (Ohio grapes 
preferred), and add two quarts of water. After crushing 
the grapes, put them into a porcelain kettle ; when at a 
boiling heat the juices separate from the pulp and skins. 
Then strain through a tin sieve or cullender, using a little 

228 "that fossil prayer-meeting." 

more water. Add six pounds granulated sugar. After 
the sugar is all dissolved, strain through a thick cloth. 
Then heat hot and pour immediately into stone bottles, 
and seal tightly while hot. The above will make three 

" If properly strained, it will be clear and of a bright 
color. The quality of the grapes will make a great differ- 
ence in the quality and quantity of juice. Some judgment 
will be necessary as to the quantity of water added. The 
above quantity will make three gallons of wine, and if 
properly put up in perfect bottles and well sealed will 
keep any length of time ; but all air must be kept from it 
till wanted for use. Bottles that will hold the quantity 
needed for each communion would be best. Two gallons 
will serve eight hundred communicants." 

The foregoing is furnished by the lady whose unob- 
trusive but valuable " temperance work " I have chroni- 
cled, in the earnest and prayerful hope that it may serve 
the cause she loves. 


She was paying a visit to the home of her birth ; one of 
our gentlest and most gifted workers. In a distant part 
of the country she had joined us, and, in the warm, vivid 
atmosphere of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, 
her dormant talents had budded and blossomed out into 
lovely words and deeds " for God and home and native 

So well had she wrought, that her name was beloved 
by a large constituency of the most earnest and intelli- 
gent soldiers of Christ, both east and west. Dutifully 
she went to prayer-meeting in the " Sleepy Hollow " vil- 
lage of her "auld lang syne." It belonged to one of 
those churches whence the edict has gone forth, "Let no 
one speak but the holy men." Two-thirds of those who 


faithfully maintained this meeting and "held up the 
hands" of this pastor were holy women; but they had 
been strictly taught to " keep silence in the churches." 

In Sabbath-school their ministrations were the delight 
of the young and the strength of the organization; but 
then Sabbath-school was held in the chapel. At the lit- 
erary society and sociable the women were the life of the 
occasion, and their nimble tongues were in constant requi- 
sition to '"make the occasion pleasant and successful"; 
but the prayer-meeting was a place quite too sacred and 
decorous for their participation, though, very likely, if 
the excellent deacons had been asked, "Why is this 
thus ? " they would have found no better answer than 
that " regulation phrase " of the conservative mind from 
the days of the Sanhedrim and Pharisees of Christ's era 
down to the barbarous races of our own time : " It is 
our custom." 

A few minutes at the opening of this fossil prayer- 
meeting were redeemed by a carefully prepared disserta- 
tion from the pastor on some topic previously announced. 
Then came a hymn of painfully attenuated continuosity ; 
then came what a naughty youth once called " That 
Prayer," enunciated at weekly intervals for the last half 
century, by Deacon Dutiful ; and then followed that pause 
(every reader is familiar with it), dull, dismal, dun-colored, 
settling like salt-marsh fog over the assembly and pierc- 
ing to the joints and marrow by reason of its borcan frig- 
idity. The Quaker's pause, in their meetings of devotion, 
is, at least, placid ; is often comforting, and always calm; 
but the pause of the Fossil Prayer-Meeting is awesome, if 
not actually uncanny. A hymn is absolutely the only 
way out, and is welcomed with an eagerness that half 
takes away one's breath. Then follow other oft-time 
prayers, until from three to five have been not " offered," 
but sedulously solicited, interspersed with " remarks " 


not unfamiliar as to their wording, and still less so as to 
their scope, all well separated by repetitions, pauses, and 
singings, and so on to the end. Now it did not occur to 
these devout and well-intentioned prayer-meeting killers, 
that our earnest-hearted friend might possibly have said 
a word to edification ; or, if it did, their scruples pre- 
served them from any such unseemly " branching out." 
It did not occur to them that the great, warm-hearted 
temperance movement, best known as " Christian," had 
in it matter of infinite pith and moment to the interests 
of that very "fossil remain" of which they formed a part. 
Did they ever observe the lack of growth in that meeting, 
the absence of young people (except certain saintly-faced 
and silent maidens) and the dislike of Sunday-school 
scholars to attend ? 

Why must these things be ? Is the wine of God's 
spirit being indeed poured into new vessels ? Are Christ's 
gleaners flocking to fresh fields because the old are spoiled 
by drouth ? And is this process to go on in certain 
grand and estimable denominations until the prayer-meet- 
ing yields to the inevitable law of non-survival of the 
unfittest, and over its vacant courts are written the words 
which come into my mind whenever I attend such a 
specimen as I have here described : " Behold your house 
is left unto you desolate." 


The training school for temperance workers is a new 
feature of our W. C. T. U. The general outline of study 
to be pursued is the following, prepared by the commit- 
tee in charge : 

1. The origin, history, aims, and methods of the temperance reform 
to be systematically taught in a series of studies to be determined, 
and lectures to be given by a faculty appointed by the Woman's Na- 
tional Christian Temperance Union; the studies to extend through 


one year and be pursued at home, the lectures to be given in the sum- 
mer at some leading Christian resort 

2. Written examinations to be held there, on the entire course, and 
certificates given in accordance with the results. 

3. A model W. C. T. l\. with young ladies' and children's branches, 
to be organized, officered by officers of the Training School, and 
made, so far as possible, to illustrate the methods taught. 

4. The faculty of the school to be chosen by the Executive Committee 
of the Woman's National Christian Temperance Union, and author- 
ized to select and employ such specialists in physiology, hygiene, 
medicine, and different branches of philanthropic, legal, and political 
work, as will in their judgment conduce most to the success of the 
object in view, viz. : sending out into our local, State, and National 
work the largest possible number of women, -especially trained in our 
system and methods. 

A "school of the prophetesses" (or evangelists), in- 
tended as a help to women engaged in Gospel work, 
will also be held every summer, in connection with this 
training school. 


Dear Sisters : 

Our Lord is a most uncomfortable master when he is 
but one of many. " Some for self and some for Thee," 
is an offering pitiable indeed. It involves a miserable life, 
as all half-hearted life must always be, entailing in worldly 
enjoyment anxiety, and in religious duty irksomeness. 
" How much of my hold upon the world can I retain ? " 
This is the constantly recurring question of those who 
take Christ as a master only. In this spirit the young 
convert asks : " Can I not dance, if very careful when 
and where ? " " Can I not have a game of cards, if only 
church members make up the party?" U A master?" 
The Christian who takes Christ as such is like the timid 
bather who steps into the edge of the wave, where sand 
and gravel frietionize him, and floating is impossible; 
when if he would launch out into the sea, the swell of its 
great billows would bear him up. Those who, in child- 


like faith, have chosen Christ as the Master, are always 
beckoning gleefully to loiterers near the shore, calling- 
out in blessed reassurance, " It is better farther on ! " 

Let us remember that, whether for weal or woe, we all 
have masters. Our forms of speech afford unconscious, 
and hence all the more convincing, proof of this. 
" The Goddess of Fashion," " Bacchus, God of Wine," 
" Mammon," all these expressions grow out of the instinct 
of worship and obedience to something higher than our- 
selves. "Be ye not many masters," is the dictate of 
worldly prudence not less than of the heavenly philoso- 
phy of him who adds the blessed reason, "For one is 
your master, even Christ." So let us seek a clear idea 
of who our master is and why he is so, for unity of pur- 
pose must characterize every life which is to manifest 
development that is natural and genuine. If iron-filings 
are to fall into line, the magnet must first be held near 
them. The heart that is not polarized will never turn 
toward Christ, but turning, his attraction will grow 
stronger with every throb of that steadfast heart. We 
want our lives to have unity and to be full of benignant 
strength, and there is One who can make them so, as all 
have proved who have tried Him. He was as much 
made to be our Master as light was made for our eyes, 
air for our lungs, love for our hearts. 

The process by which Christ becomes our Master is 
analogous to that by which any master is chosen by pupils 
intelligent and earnest. We must take his ways in the 
place of our own. We must make his words ours, his 
maxims our laws, his slightest will our cherished wish. 
In brief, we must consecrate our thought, affection, pur- 
pose, to our Master. In proportion as students in a 
school do this, they make swift progress in the branches 
taught. A music-master requires the pupil's unresisting 
hand to be laid upon the key-board in thorough abandon- 


ment to the master's will. Utterly flexible to his com- 
mand it must become before he can impart to it the 
secret of his skill, and you must put yourself wholly 
under his tuition-he cannot teach you till you do So 
in a strict .ruse, the hand is consecrated. Then comes 
faith in him to whom this consecration has been made 
and just how to distinguish the latter from the former 
act ia difficult, since by the laws of mind the consecration 
is impossible, except on a basis of faith in him to whom 
its powers are yielded. Thrice happy are they who, wel- 
coming with glad obedience the Mastership of Him who 
gave Himself for us, can say with honest hearts, "For 
me to live is Christ." 0, how that simplifies a life; how 
it chastens and makes holy! 

The Master is come. For what? First of all to give 
y«»u personal security and individual peace. Some per- 
sons pause all their lives long to ponder this wonderful 
tact. He is come. No longer down the dim ages does 
humanity gaze with wistful eyes, longing "until the day 
dawn and the shadows flee away." Nay, "It is finished " 
He is come in the full provision for making us at one 
with God. In the open Bible is the constantly recurring 
invitation, to the "peace that floweth like a river, making 
life s desert places bloom and smile." 

But, blest with all spiritual blessings in Christ Jesus 
let us not forget that the Master is also come in the mar- 
velous opportunity of this "the Gospel age." To Chris 
tian women this coming is most of all significant. We 
have all along been amateurs in doing good, but we are 
learning m the blessed latter dispensation of these days, 
that to do good is the business of life-is just what Chris- 
bans are for, not as their secondary business, but as their 
irst-before riches, before knowledge, before honor, all 
these tailing into line after those other occupations with 
which the Master was so busy when He trod the ways of 


men. This business of being such people and doing such 
things as shall help make those about us more like what 
they ought to be, grows daily in the comprehension of all 
thoughtful disciples of our Lord. We are learning more 
and more about the blessedness of the Benignant Life ; 
understanding more perfectly the truth that not in the 
acquisition of a language, not in the mastery of a piano 
key-board, not in acquaintance with current literature 
lies the secret of the happiest life, but that to guard 
the ninety and nine which went not astray, to train their 
tender steps to love the safe, sure path, and then to go 
out after the hundredth who has wandered 

"Away on the mountains, bleak and bare, 
Away from the tender shepherd's care," 

in this lies the sweetest of human joys. 

A grand old word is that Saxon word " lady," meaning 
" giver of bread." But " the Master is come " in the 
deeper insight which leads us to revise this definition in 
accordance with the latest researches, so that it reads, 
" lady, giver of the Bread of Life." In the sweet evangel- 
ism of home, some are bestowing their best energies — 
and this world has no employment that is more sacred — 
while daily increasing numbers are giving their leisure 
hours in the larger home of Christian philanthropy, where 
society becomes the foster parent of thousands worse than 
motherless. Let us work from, rather than toward the 
cross. " Saved to start with," (as a sweet girl phrased 
it once,) let us strike out into the desert from the sweet 
oasis of our " rest of faith," bearing the waters of life 
to those who, on the barren sands, cheated by the mirage 
of wordly pleasure and parched by the soul's insatiable 
thirst, stretch towards us their feverish hands for help 
and succor. 



" Combination view " — Church — Saloon — School-house — Home — 
Mother and boy — Philosophy of our plan of work — Doctor, Editor, 
Minister, Teacher must all stand by the Christian mother — Society 
the cup-bearer to Bacchus — The sovereign citizen — Education of the 
saloon — The arrest of thought — Mrs. Mary H. Hunt, National Super- 
intendent of Scientific Department. 

IN the evolution of the W. C. T. U., the light of Christ 
having illumined the tempted human heart, comes 
next to the next larger circle made up of two united 
hearts. Lord Erskine said that "twelve honest men 
inside a jury box, were the best results of civilization." 
But we may say more truly that the bright, consummate 
blossom of our Christian civilization is what Wintrier 
pictures as "the dear home faces whereupon the fitful 
firelight paled and shone," as those bound by the tender 
tie of kindred and affection gather around their family 
altar and their fireside hearth. This Home, then, is 
the shrine for whose high sake all that is good and 
pure on earth exists. It is the fairest garden in the wide 
field of endeavor and achievement, the place where we 
are best beloved that we are anywhere, and in it dwell 
those who love us best that they love anybody. Yet, 
from the curse of the drink habit and the liquor traffic, 
home is like the shorn lamb, to which no wind is tem- 
pered. Gaze on the " combination view " which life's real 
stage presents, and compare its actual pathos, its strange 
romance, with that mimicry we rightly name " the play." 
For life is the only drama worthy of our study. Upon 



its real stage behold a " combination view." Study 
home's environment. Think of a Christian mother's 
tragic fight to save her boy and discover whence is the 
origin and what is the philosophy of our simple " plan of 
work "in the W. C. T. U. 

Behold on one corner of the street a church, stately 
and beautiful, its tall spire pointing like a finger up toward 
(Jod, and leading your heart thither. Behold upon the 
other corner of that same street a school-house, with its 
widely welcoming door inviting boys and girls to enter 
and drink at the pure fountain of knowledge. But be- 
tween these two, behold an institution equally Ameri- 
can, equally guaranteed by our laws, more than equally 
fostered by our politics, more than equally patronized by 
our people. The youngest child that reads these lines 
knows what I mean, for this third institution, so cozily 
sandwiched in with church on one side and school-house 
on the other, has a sanded floor, and curtains half way, a 
screen across the front so that you do not see what is 
going on inside, and fumes coming out of it which, if you 
are pure and cleanly in your habits of life, incline you 
to pass by upon the other side. But there is another fea- 
ture of this " combination view." Indeed, if there were 
not this book would have no being, because the sacred 
theme of woman's temperance work would not have been. 
Just across the way from the dram-shop stands the Home. 
What docs the Woman's Christian Temperance Union 
propose doing to rear defences round the place, even as 
the hills are round about Jerusalem ? 

First, it has made a study of the situation. It lias 
found that among the little children who come to Sunday- 
school and sit on the front seat with their feet far from 
the floor there are just as many boys as girls, with faces 
just as innocent and sweet. But it has found that in the 
intermediate classes of the Sunday-school there is a de- 


plorable weeding out of the boys; that in the Bible-class 
young men are conspicuous for their absence, and that on 
communion Sabbath two-thirds of those who partake of 
the emblems of Christ's sacrifice are women. 

But in the homes of our fortunate membership (for 
ninety per cent, of our workers never knew the drink- 
curse there), are fathers and husbands, sons, brothers, 
and lovers too noble and true for us to accept the cynical 
explanation that " girls naturally take to good ways and 
bovs to evil ones." Our women believe that special 
efforts should be made to help the mother in her unequal 
warfare with the dram-shop for the preservation of her 
boy. It is plainly perceived by them that something is 
wrong in the popular division of responsibility by which, 
although the father may be a moderate drinker, the fail- 
ure of the boy to grow up good and pure is adjudged to be 
his mother's fault. Hence their studies of the science of 
heredity and cognate subjects and their careful circulation 
of scientific treatises, with a view to opening the dull eyes of 
the public to the changeless law of God that " whatsoever 
a man soweth that shall he also reap." But this is not 
enough, for girls, equally with their brothers inheriting 
the taste for stimulants, seldom develop it ; hence in the 
environment we must seek for farther explanation. How 
many of us can think of homes where a noble Christian 
mother taught total abstinence to her boys and girls alike, 
enforcing pure precepts by a spotless example, from which 
the boys, though often by nature more amenable to gos- 
pel truth than their sisters, have gradually sunk away 
into the slavery of the drink habit. And so the W. C. T. 
U. has arranged its careful, systematic plan of work with 
strict reference to the child in the midst who is also in 
the market-place, where they are bidding for him — the 
men who keep saloons. For they must constantly recruit 
their patronage from the ranks of our youth, or it will 


ultimately fail. This is a matter of business with them, 
and of business only. As one of them said to our own 
Mrs. Hunt of Boston, " Just so long as there is eight 
cents profit on a ten-cent drink, so long I shall stick to 
my trade." What then can such a man do to render his 
success absolutely certain save precisely what he does, 
viz. : carefully study the natural and innocent tastes of boys 
and of young men — their taste for amusement, fondness 
of variety, and love of young company — that he may lead 
them into his trap with games, songs, stories, object les- 
sons, literature, all mingled skillfully with the bewilder- 
ment of tobacco and alcoholic drinks ? 

The W. C. T. U. naturally asks the question, What are 
the little foxes that spoil the vines, with their beautiful, 
tender grapes ? What are the errors in a boy's training, 
and the failures of this church and school near by to take 
sides with the mother in the fight to save her son ? Alas, 
perhaps the dear lady herself has never studied hygiene, 
or the laws of physical life, especially the relation of food 
to the appetite for stimulants. Let us then begin just 
there with the scientific gospel of whole wheat flour, a 
diet largely farinaceous, simplicity in dress, abundant 
ventilation, and generous exercise. 

But these great, moulding forces of society — how can 
we secure their allegiance to our plan of rescue for that 
boy ? How shall they be intelligently arrayed in solid 
phalanx so that the sum total of society's benignant force, 
at least, shall come up to the help of the Lord, the mother 
and the boy against the mighty hosts of the saloon ? 

" Benignant forces, did you say ? Why, they are on 
your side already," replies the untrained well-wisher who 
" doesn't belong." 

Are they, indeed ? Let us investigate. Here is the 
boy, with his mother, in the fortress of home. Into that 
stronghold comes the family physician, " revered, be- 


loved." How often he prescribes, not " for external 
application only," the alcoholic stimulants against which 
the boy has been so sedulously warned. Into that strong- 
hold comes the newspaper year after year, with its plea 
for the " superior manliness " of moderate drinking. 
Into that stronghold come men of kind heart and good 
business standing, whom the boy has seen going day after 
day to the saloon just opposite. Out of that stronghold 
goes the boy to Sunday-school, and though lie may be 
taught many good things and true, may grow familiar 
with the wanderings of the Israelites, able to enumerate 
the sacred mountains, or tell the story of the cross, he is 
not taught the Pauline doctrine of total abstinence for 
others' sake ; he does not study about the Bechabites, the 
Xazarites, the Hebrew children, Sampson, John the Bap- 
tist — total abstainers all, and spoken of with highest 
praise for this high virtue. He is not shown the daily 
application of that deep principle, " The body is the 
temple of the Holy Ghost ; he that destroyeth this temple 
him shall God destroy " — not in vengeance, but as the 
sequence of a law full of benignity. Perhaps if questioned 
as to this neglect, the Sunday-school teacher (noble and 
well-intentioned though he be) will answer, as indeed 
I have often heard him : " It might be well to teach these 
tilings, but then we have so much to do. You see, there 
is the lesson to be said, and the golden text, the general 
questions, the singing, giving out of books, besides the 
foreign missionary exercises, and we really can't find 
time." This familiar explanation always reminds me of 
what my little sister, who detested mathematics, said one 
day as she came running in from school and flung her 
slate and book upon the table as she called out triumph- 
antly : " Mother, I'm quite too busy going to school to 
study Vithmetic ! " 

Perhaps, indeed, some of our good friends in Sunday- 
school are as " far back " as a worthy old gentleman in 


Illinois who was asked by the W. C. T. U. to introduce a 
quarterly biblical temperance lesson into his class, and to 
whom, on his replying that there were no suitable pas- 
sages, the ladies read the story of the sons of Jonidab, 
whereupon this veteran teacher exclaimed: "Well, I've 
belonged to the church nigh on to forty years, and I 
didn't know there was any such a piece in the Bible! " 

The boy sits in the old family pew at church and seldom 
hears a temperance sermon, though there is no prohibition 
argument stronger than " Every plant that my Heavenly 
Father hath not planted shall be rooted up.'* and no total 
abstinence text for childhood like " Keep thyself pure." 
The boy sees the pastor set out upon the sacramental table 
intoxicating wine, and offer it as the symbol of the Life by 
which we live. He knows that his mother would not suffer 
that cup to stand on her own table, or its contents to pass 
her lips at home. He knows how good and noble is this 
minister, and mightily indeed would mother s total absti- 
nence teachings be bolstered up if pastor and Sunday-school 
teacher but confirmed them. They never do, however, in 
their official capacity at least, and, though the lips are 
silent, the hard young head grows skeptical concerning 
mother's notions, and concludes : " They're well enough 
for girls, but for a boy it's different, you know ! " He 
goes over to the public school, and finds there a well- 
intentioned woman who would gladly aid and abet his 
mother's plans for his physical salvation ; but one thing 
she lacketh,and that is just what doctor, editor, preacher, 
and Sunday-school teacher lacked before her. What is it ? 


Gladly would she instruct him in the laws of physi- 
ology, chemistry, and hygiene, as opposed to the drink 
and the tobacco habits, but it simply does not occur to 
her even as it did not, in former days at least, to the 
other worthies I have named. 

THE boy's temptations. 241 

" Evil is wrought for want of thought more than for 
want of heart." 

Suppose that in this day of science-worship the school 
should echo the mother's total abstinence teachings; 
suppose that with the majesty of law and dignity of learn- 
ing, the State should require and the teacher inculcate 
lessons like these ? Then indeed it would be " manly " to 
let strong drink alone ; then it would be steadily wrought 
into the warp and woof of boyish character and habit to 
" abstain from fleshly lusts that war against the soul." 

But the boy goes out into society, and perhaps the hand 
of beauty or of fashion presses into his the cup that 
cheers and then inebriates ; perhaps the " nearer oue still 
and the dearer one yet than all other " persuades him for 
a love sweeter just then than mother's, to pledge her 
health in wine. Perhaps some man of influence who 
takes a social glass merely to close a bargain, to conciliate 
an opponent, to win a vote, or simply to comply with an 
elegant custom, asks " mother's boy" to treat. And thus 
what ought to be the benignant force of that larger home 
we call society, fails in the imminent and deadly breach 
of temptation to be " a power not of herself that makes 
for righteousness " in the anxious mother's well-beloved 

But all the way toward manhood that dram shop, so 
social, so seductive, has been just across the street. In- 
deed the boy has run the gauntlet of scores and hundreds 
of such places, and not unscathed, as he went out into 
life to take his chances witli the rest. He has found out that 
in municipal council room, legislative hall, and national 
congress, the so-called guardians of the public weal have 
been the guardians of the liquor traffic. He has found 
that the government of the nation his mother taught him 
to love next to his home and God, throws its protecting 
aegis around the dram shop rather than the home. 


Dear friends who read these lines, written in sorrow, 
not in anger, seeing these things are so, what manner of 
persons ought we to be who compose the W. C. T. U. ? 
Heaven be thanked that our " plan of work," developed in 
nine years of prayer, study, and experience, is simply 
this : to bring about the arrest of thought in the intellect 
and conscience of husband, father, physician, editor, 
pastor, teachers, fashionable leaders, and official law- 
makers, so that perceiving their relation to the mother's 
anxiety and the boy's temptation, they may discharge 
their duty. 

But we do not forget that all homes have not a Chris- 
tian mother to be the priestess of their altar fires. Alas, 
some women are intemperate, and many women need 
missionary work done in their own hearts ; many children 
are orphaned or worse than motherless. Hence, for 
home's sake, we have special lines of work radiating 
thither as a centre, even as all roads once led to Rome. 
The Bands of Hope, the Reading Rooms and Friendly Inns, 
Police Station, Rescue work for Women, and many other 
branches will be mentioned in their appropriate place. 
But be it understood, once and forever, that it is for home's 
sweet sake we toil, striving to rear high the defences 
around that sacred citadel of health, happiness, and relig- 
ion, and knowing if they are not reared, then home shall 
fall, and when home falls — the world ! 


Superintendent of the department for introducing the 
study of scientific temperance into our schools and 
colleges, is a native of Canaan, Connecticut. The 
Taughtonia Mountains, in their course through western 
Massachusetts, with the beautiful Housatonic winding 
through their valleys, give to that region the rugged and 
picturesque scenery for which it is famous. Their rocky 



peaks and wooded hills reach over into northern Con- 
necticut, and there in the town of Canaan, one Fourth of 
July morning, a little girl was born whose quick brain 
and true heart were destined to do more for America's 
real independence than most statesmen of our day have 
either dreamed or realized. Pier father, Ephraim Han- 
chett, and his brothers were iron manufacturers, brineine 
their ore from the Salisbury mines, first discovered and 
opened by their great-great-grandfather. This far-away 
ancestor, fresh from his Welsh home and training, saw 
the ore cropping out from these rough rocks, bought the 
mountain side from the Indians for a song, built his forge 
on the stream hard by, and here, in this primitive fash- 
ion, were the beginnings of the famous Salisbury iron 
works. He was thrifty and industrious, accumulated 
what was a fortune in those days, and dying, left it to his 
only son. This son died in middle life, leaving a large 
family of boys. Only Ephraim (grandfather of our 
Mary) remained near the old home in Canaan. His wife 
(Mary's paternal grandmother) was a woman of strong 
Christian character, who reared her boys, Ephraim, Isaac^ 
and John, to fear God, and abhor strong drink. When 
the great thought of the Temperance Reform came to 
Rev. Dr. Lyman Beecher, in his parish on Litchfield hills, 
seeking the co-operation of his brother ministers in his 
county, he came to Canaan ; securing the hearty sym- 
pathy and help of "Parson Cowles," of the Congrega- 
tional Church. Meetings were called, the people & gath- 
ered to hear Beecher's burning words, and to begin the 
mighty battle against intemperance that is raging still. 
Then and there was organized the Litchfield County 
Temperance Society, witli Rev. Dr. Lyman Beecher for 
President, and Ephraim Hanchett, Jr., father of our 
scientific temperance apostle, one of its Yice-Presi- 
dents— his mother's training had been prophetic of this 


new office, which found him, a young man, with that sus- 
tained enthusiasm of humanity and already markedly 
developed Christian character, that made him, by all the 
forces of his nature, a life-long friend and ardent sup- 
porter of both the temperance and anti-slavery causes. 

But it was only distilled liquors they fought against at 
first. Every family had its cider barrel. The decanter 
from which they had been wont to treat their minister 
and other friends was put away, but a pitcher of cider 
was set in its place. Had the Mary Hunt of to-day been 
present in good Lyman Beechcr's meetings, and had not 
the prevailing prejudice frowned upon the woman who 
should dare to rise and utter her convictions, they would 
soon have learned that since alcohol is the favorite ingre- 
dient in cider, as well as in rum, and since the appetite 
for alcohol, as for all other poisons, insensibly grows by 
what it feeds on, all beverages containing it are danger- 
ous and should be included in the pledge. 

Upon her mother's side Mrs. Hunt is descended from a 
long line of Puritan ancestrv, dating back to " Rev. Peter 
Thacher, a distinguished minister of the gospel in Sarum, 
England, in the sixteenth century." An ancient memoir, 
still extant, says : " He was a man of talents, and pos- 
sessed a liberal and independent mind ; he dissented from 
the established church, and being, in consequence, har- 
rassed by the spiritual courts, resolved to turn his back 
on royal and ecclesiastical folly and persecution and emi- 
grate to New England for the enjoyment of religious 
freedom." The death of his wife altered his determina- 
tion. There is still in existence a letter which lie wrote 
to the bishop of the diocese, in which he firmly declines 
reading certain directions of the vicar-general, which he 
said were " against his conscience and would tend to dis- 
turb the order of worship." " Many of this family, with 
puritanical zeal and courage, opposed the prelatic power," 


says this old record. His son, Thomas Thacher, then in 
his early minority, turned from the University of Cam- 
bridge (England), disgusted with the prevailing ecclesi- 
astical tyranny to which he must have been subjected, 
and, with his father's brother, Rev. Anthony Thacher, 
of the celebrated St. Edmund's Church, Salisbury, 
England, sailed for this country, landing in Ipswich, 
Mass., June 4, 1635. Completing his preparation for the 
ministry under the tuition of Rev. C. Chauncy, in Ply- 
mouth, young Thomas Thacher was ordained pastor of 
the Congregational Church in Weymouth, Mass., January 

2, 1644. 

When the Old South Church was founded in Boston he 
was installed its first pastor February 10, 1670, and con- 
tinued in that station until his death. Thacher's Island, 
in Boston harbor, received its name from the fact that 
Rev. Anthony Thacher and wife were thrown upon its 
shores, the sole survivors of a shipwreck, in which his 
cousin, Rev. Anthony Avery, and family, who came with 
them from England, were lost, Whittier's beautiful 
poem, " Swan Song of Parson Avery," has immortalized 
this scene. Most of the male descendants of these Thach- 
ers, like their ancestry in England, were ministers, fill- 
ing, in their respective generations, some of the most 
influential pulpits in eastern Massachusetts. Among 
them, the Old South, the New North, the New South, and 
tiie Brattle Street, — Congregational churches in Boston, — 
and many churches of the same order in the suburban 
towns. Upon their scholarly and noble lives New Eng- 
land annals dwell at length. 

"When Peter Thacher, fourth generation from Rev. 
Peter — of Sarum, England — was ordained pastor of the 
Congregational Church in Attleboro', Mass., November 
30, 1748, he was — according to family tradition — the 
fourteenth oldest son, in succession, employed in the 


work of the gospel ministry." An old lady of Milton, 
Mass., recollected hearing sermons from Thachers of five 
generations in direct succession. 

On the commencement of the controversy between the 
American colonies and our English ancestry, these men, 
in their various generations, are recorded as " opposing 
with noble zeal and courage, the various stages of British 
encroachments on colonial rights, from their pulpits and 
the press of those days." The early New England pul- 
pit shaped, not only the future history of that section, 
but directly and indirectly that of the nation. James 
Thacher, M.D. — sixth generation from the first Rev. 
Anthony — was a surgeon in the Revolutionary army. 
When eighty years old, he closes an historical paper in 
the Xeiv England Magazine of July, 1834, with these sig- 
nificant words: "Eor seven years and a half I was in 
the service of our country in the great rebellion of 1775, 
and participated in the glorious consummation of Inde- 
pendence. ... I have a recollection of days fraught 
with wondrous things and wondrous results. I have 
seen our precious liberties and freedom wrested from the 
hands of the oppressors, by the immense sacrifice of 
lives, of treasures, of oerils, and of sufferings. How- 
many have I seen at the hour of death exclaiming : ' 1 
die for my country!' 1 I now see the fair heritage of our 
fathers in imminent danger of being sacrificed at the 
shrine of a reckless, sordid spirit of party interest. I 
have, seen public offices courting competent men to fill 
them, and I have seen them filled by men, who, with a 
religious conscientiousness, acquitted themselves of duty. 
But this seems already to be antiquated morality ; for I 
now see unworthy, incompetent men, seeking and laying 
claim to public offices, as a reward for desecration and 
unfaithfulness. My fellow-citizens. I have seen the days 
that tried men's souls. I claim the privilege of age to 


forewarn you, that, unless you view your elective fran- 
chise in a light more precious than heretofore, ere loug 
you will have no office to bestow ; all will be anarchy, 
confusion, ruin, and despair. 0! how great would be my 
consolation, could my benediction avail for the meliora- 
tion of my beloved country's welfare !" 
Plymouth, June, 1834. 

Rev. Peter Thacher, D.D., pastor of a Congregation- 
alist church in Maiden, Mass. (fifth generation), was 
chosen by that town a member of the convention, called 
in 1780, to form a Constitution for the Commonwealth of 
Massachusetts. "Few were more active or influential" 
in that important work. 

From such a maternal ancestry Mrs. Hunt is descended, 
— the ninth in the generations since the Rev. Anthony 
and Thomas Thacher came to this country. What won- 
der, then, that this same gift of intellect, of Christian 
sensitiveness, of humane and patriotic zeal, of choice 
and fluent speech, should crop out in a feminine de- 
scendant, under the influence of these more tolerant days ! 
Surely, the fact is a salient illustration of her favorite 
subject of heredity. 

The little girl Mary, on Canaan Hill, was bright and 
frolicsome, committed from the first to the sunny side of 
every circumstance, and brim full of a harmless fun, that 
was held in check by a quickened conscience ; for there 
was born in her heart, when she was less than nine years 
old, the love for and faith in the God of her fathers 
which has been the controlling inspiration of her life. 
This early experience toned, but by no means shaded, 
her natural, happy girlhood. 

Says one who shared her life as a child : 

"In our long daily walks across the fields to the little 
brown school-house, her busy brain and hands were 
always finding treasures. She spied and bore off the 


first pussy-willows leaning over the brook we crossed on 
stepping-stones, and brought home in her apron to her 
disgusted mother some little grasshoppers, the fruits of 
her research into a sheltered nook, when the March sun 
had coaxed them from their hiding-place, as proof that 
the long, dreary winter was gone. The principal value 
of a tree in her eyes then was the good seats on the limbs, 
the higher up the better. She did not stop to analyze 
her delight in the beautiful landscape about her home. 
The squirrels and the birds were her friends, but books 
were then her trial. She learned easily, but the monoto- 
nous lessons were irksome. She was too full of fun to 
apply herself to study, so, of course, was often in disgrace 
with her teachers. The teachers complained, the parents 
reproved, but it availed little. One summer day, after a 
serious talk with mother about a certain arithmetic les- 
son for the next morning, Mary asked permission to 
climb into her favorite locust tree and sit there, promising 
that she would " get it then." The picture of that fun- 
loving girl, perched high in the leafy locust branches, 
with book and slate, studying a little, and watching the 
birds more, is one long to be remembered. But her 
play-days were almost over. At fifteen she came to real- 
ize that life had problems for her solving, needing honest 
preparation. Conscience and ambition were roused. A 
change came over the spirit of her dreams. The intel- 
lect of this nature-loving child began to assert itself. 
She heard voices calling : ' Face the other way.' The 
dog's-eared, worn school-books which had been her trial 
she now took up in quite another spirit. With a deter- 
mined will and earnest purpose she studied to learn. 
Her teachers were surprised and delighted at her pro- 
gress. In one year of bard study she had gone over the 
work of two. At sixteen, with some misgivings, she 
engaged to teach a country school, and surprised herself 


and friends by her power of waking- the love of study 
even in the dullest and most wayward of her pupils. 
The turbulent, lawless children, who had been, the term 
before, the terror of the neighborhood, were now well- 
behaved, studious boys and girls." 

A \ car of teaching was followed by study at Amcnia 
Seminary, X. Y., where Rev. Gilbert Haven, afterwards 
Bishop Haven, was president. A little later on, we find 
her a student at Patapsco Institute, near Baltimore, 
where Mrs. Almira Lincoln Phelps presided as principal. 
For the influence of these eminent educators, at that 
formative period of her life, Mrs. Hunt is very grateful. 
She graduated with honor from Patapsco, and was at 
once chosen as a teacher in this same institution. As a 
student, the natural sciences were her specialty, and in 
this department she taught with a success foreshadow- 
ing our coming superintendent of scientific instruction. 

When extending the invitation to become one of the 
faculty, Mrs. Phelps said to her, " I have always designed 
to keep you here. Added to other qualities, you carry 
your own sunshine with you, and are always true." But 
she did not keep her long, for in the autumn of the fol- 
lowing year she was married to Mr. Leander B. Hunt, of 
East Douglass, Mass. In the coming years, hers was the 
home-life of the wife and mother, of the lady in society, 
dispensing hospitality with a liberal hand, and a helper 
in benevolent, Sunday-school, and church work. 

The two younger of her three children died in infancy, 
but she had two step-children, who bear witness to her 
fidelity in words of love that could not be more tender 
were they writing of their own mother. 

In the autumn of 1865, Mr. and Mrs. Hunt removed to 
Hyde Park, then a Boston suburb, just springing out of 
the Avilderness. The Congregational church was but a 
handful of people, worshiping in a hall. The novelty of 


the situation and the need of work fired her enthusiasm, 
and, with a company of devoted ladies, she toiled hard to 
build up the church and to help crystallize the new 
society on a religious basis. 

She was quickly recognized as a leader, and, before 
she realized it, was organizing and helping set in motion 
forces that have shaped the character of this enterprising 

In the misfortunes that attended the family about this 
time the strength and heroism of Mrs. Hunt's character 
was exhibited. She had been active as a Christian since 
her childhood, but now she learned those more advanced 
lessons of the faith in God which trusts unfalteringly in 
the dark, and the real consecration that lays all on the 
altar of a Heavenly Father's unexplained will. Thus 
does God fashion with sunshine and storm and the 
primer's knife His chosen fruit-bearing vines. 

A member of the church of her fathers (the Congrega- 
tionalist), she had been brought up to believe "a woman 
should keep silence in the churches." Her first depart- 
ure from this ancient custom was at the earnest request, 
almost command, of her pastor, Rev. P. B. Davis, that 
she should relate to the Friday night church prayer- 
meeting, as she had to him privately, something of her 
spiritual experiences. From that time, in response to 
the solicitations of Christian friends, her voice was often 
heard in the prayer-meetings of her church — and her first 
lessons taken for the larger utterance waiting her. 

To the education and training of her only surviving 
child, Alfred E. Hunt, she devoted herself until he grad- 
uated from the Mass. Institute of Technology in Boston, 
in 1876, and went out to make a man's place for himself 
in the world. 

Home cares were lessened. She had lost her relish for 
general society. Always a student, even in her busiest 


years, the Bible grew more and more to supplant other 
books, and now she turned to its study with a zeal that 
increased with her leisure to gratify it, little herself 
dreaming whereunto it would lead her. As she studied, 
'• a great hunger," as she says, " came into her heart to 
do more for the Master." She supposed this would be 
met with perhaps new "additions to the large Bible class 
of ladies, who recall her teaching with enthusiasm ; or 
another burdened soul to comfort; or another poor family 
to look after. 

The Woman's Temperance Crusade, five years before, 
swept over the country, reaching the East, gathering into 
its ranks of workers many noble women, but not yet the 
Leader of our Educational Department. 

With much timidity and shrinking, in response to 
appeals, she had given a few Bible Readings in the mis- 
sion churches of Punkapaug, Milton, and Clarendon Hills 
near her home. That the people listened when she spoke 
encouraged her. 

And now accidentally, or providentially, her thoughts 
were turned to the physiological or scientific side of the 
Temperance question. These impressions were intensi- 
fied by listening to Rev. Joseph Cook's lectures on "Alco- 
hol and the Brain." With absorbing interest she began 
to read on this phase of a hitherto, to her, trite and com- 
mon-place topic. On every page she saw fresh evidence 
in natural law of the relation of the Temperance Cause 
to the uplifting or downfall of the race, and to the answer 
to the prayer '.'Thy kingdom come." The ancestral fires 
were glowing in her spirit, and when a friend who had 
heard her Bible Readings urged her to give, in a distant 
country town, a Temperance talk, she did not dare say 
" No." 

On the Easter Sabbath night of 1879, in the town hall 
in Leominster, Mass., she gave her first Temperance 


address. When, a few weeks later, the Mass. W. C. T. U. 
appointed her a vice-president of the State Society, she 
was ready to do with her might what she could. The 
unpopularity of a cause to which convictions and con- 
science were committed was no barrier to this descendant 
of the Puritans. In the solitude of her home, over no 
personal experiences, but the scientific works of Drs. Rich- 
ardson, Lees, Story, Hargreaves, Carpenter, and others, 
she had been converted to no ephemeral interest in the 
Temperance work — so clearly to her vision her Master's 
cause. The rapidly developing gift of public speech had 
found its mission, and quickly attracted attention. 

In less than six months from the first " arrest of 
thought " on this subject which had so fired her enthusi- 
asm, she was speaking three and four times a week in its 
interests, under the auspices of the Mass. State W. C. T. 
U. — shrinking and trembling at her own temerity, yet 
longing to utter the alarm she felt for the future of a race 
poisoning itself, soul and body, with alcohol. The follow- 
ing autumn, at the repeated solicitations of the Boston W. 
C. T. Union, she accepted a position which made her their 
advocate for this reform in the churches of the city where 
so many of her maternal ancestry had preached the Gos- 
pel of Grace and Freedom. With so little previous plat- 
form experience, this was a severe test of her faith in the 
promise, " Go, and I will be with thy mouth." The 
result proved the genuineness of the call. Pulpits from 
which no woman had ever spoken before were opened to 
her, and before the year closed the work and worker 
received the hearty indorsement of the most eminent 
men as well as the public of that cultured city. 

It was an early conviction with Mrs. Hunt that the 
success of the Temperance reform depends upon the uni- 
versal education of the successive generations of the 
people as to the real nature and physiological effects of 


alcoholic beverages. To accomplish this, in this country, 
she now devoted her life. She quickly saw that the 
public school system of America must be the vehicle, 
and that suitable text-books must be prepared. Dr. Rich- 
ardson's Lesson Book on Temperance, just published, 
was too advanced for the common schools — the Alma 
Mater of the masses. An extended correspondence and 
consultation with friends of the cause, of longer expe- 
rience, led her to invite Miss Coleman to write "Alcohol 
and Hygiene," a book now used in many intermediate 
schools in this country. At the close of her year's en- 
gagement in Boston, the books being ready, the National 
Woman's Christian' Temperance Union, at their annual 
meeting in that city, in 1880, created the Department 
for the Introduction of Scientific Temperance Instruction 
in Schools and Colleges, and made Mrs. Mary H. Hunt 
its Superintendent, sending her out commissioned to make 
real her vision of hope. Cordial hearings were granted 
her by popular and scholarly audiences in different States, 
as she unfolded the plan of educating all classes in child- 
hood and youth to abhor strong drink, by teaching them, 
as a regular branch of study in the schools from text 
books, graded from the comprehension of the primary to 
the higher students, what Alcohol is and what it does to 
the living body of the drinker as well as the character. 
People had said before, " The Temperance Reform must 
begin with the children." This was a showing how to 
" begin" effectively. " It is just the thing to do," " I 
wonder this has not been done before," enthusiastic 
hearers said. As the work developed, it became evident 
that other than moral arguments were needed with Boards 
of Education with beer and whisky-drinking constituents. 
Said a polite chairman of a Board of Education, "We 
must teach what the law requires man." " Now if the 
law of the State only required this about Alcohol taught, 


we could do it." " And the law of the State shall ere 
long require you," mentally rejoined our earnest-hearted 
Superintendent, who began at once planning and working 
to that end, and the Michigan Legislature enacted the 
following law in 1883 : 


" Sec. 15. The district board shall specify the studies to be pur- 
sued in the schools of the district: Provided always, That provision 
shall be made for instructing all pupils in every school in physiology 
and hygiene, with special reference to the effects of alcoholic drinks, 
stimulants, and narcotics generally upon the human system. ... No 
certificate shall be granted any person to teach in the schools of Michi- 
gan who shall not pass a satisfactory examination, after September 
first, 1884, in physiology and hygiene with particular reference to the 
effects of alcoholic drinks, stimulants, and narcotics upon the human 
system. " 

Vermont passed a similar law in November, 1882. To 
few is it given, to work so broadly for the future as our 
leader of the educational forces, with her noble band of 
State Superintendents of her Department, is doing. 

Perhaps no woman in our great national society has 
risen so rapidly to eminence as Mrs. Hunt. The bent of 
her mind is scientific, and she brought special preparation 
to her work, having, as a student, excelled in the natural 
sciences and made a careful study of the best and latest 
researches in England and France, as well as here, con- 
cerning the effect of alcoholic stimulants upon the tissues 
of the body and the temper of the soul. 



The Light of Christ in the circle of society— The hostess of the 
While House -Sketch of Mrs. Lucy Webb Hayes— Memorial por- 
trait—Lincoln Hall meeting— "The Two Bridges "—Mrs. Foster's 
address— Presentation at Executive Mansion— President Garfield's 
reply—" Through the Eye to the Heart"— Lucy Hayes Tea Parties, 
Impressions of the Garfields — Society work of young women — 
Mrs. Frances J. Barnes of New York — Miss Anna Gordon — 
Y. W. C. T. U. of Michigan University— Wellesley College— Kitchen 
garden — Miss McClees — Sensible girls — "The W. C. T. U. will 
receive"— Nobler Themes— "All for Temperance " — Miss Esther 
Pugh, Treasurer of National W. C. T. U. 

THE next evolution of the W. C. T. U. is into the 
domain of Mrs. Grundy. This ought to be conge- 
nial soil for the growth of every kind of helpful thought. 
Society should be, and will certainly become in the resti- 
tution now going forward, a larger home for all who 
dwell there. The social sentiments, under that mild 
sway which Christian hearts confess, are those which 
most ennoble human nature, because widest in scope and 
most general in endowment. When the Golden Rule 
shall be wrought into deeds within the social realm; 
when in that charmed circle " all men's weal shall be 
each man's care," then will the strong be glad to bear the 
burdens of the weak, and total abstinence will be " the 
fashion." But the key note of social observances is set 
high up in the octave of society. When Dr. Guthrie, of 
Scotland, turned his wine glass right side up at a banquet 
(and that means up side down,) it changed " the custom " 
of thousands in the bonnie land of cakes and ale. When 



Lady McDonald, of Canada, banished alcoholics from her 
dinner table, and Sir and Lady Leonard Tilley gave to 
seven hundred, guests an evening entertainment, elegant 
in its appointments as befitted their high station, yet 
without wine; when the good Queen of England said, 
" Every person at my table shall obey his conscience," 
thus rebuking those who sneered at the total abstainers — 
then the light shone into a wider circle of influence for 
the W. C. T. U. Significant indeed is the fact that the 
grandest as well as earliest pioneer in the highest rank of 
American social life was a daughter of Ohio, and an ear- 
nest friend of the Women's Temperance Crusade. 

The Hostess of the White House. 

Probably there is no woman in the United States who 
has been more earnestly prayed for or so much beloved 
by the W. C. T. U. as Mrs. Rutherford B. Hayes. A 
plain, straight forward account of her life and character 
is here attempted, from sources the most trustworthy. 

Dr. Webb, the father of Mrs. Hayes, died when she 
was an infant, but any account of her which makes no 
reference to her mother is like the play of "Hamlet" 
with Hamlet left out. When her daughter was about ten 
years old, Mrs. Webb determined that she would remove 
from Chillicothe to Delaware, Ohio, with her two sons 
and her little girl, the youngest of the family. The Ohio 
Wesleyan University had been recently established there, 
and was the magnet which attracted this sagacious mother. 
Subsequently she took rooms in the College, and here for 
two years Lucy recited with her brothers. Mrs. Webb was 
of the best blood in the land, as many think, for she was 
of New England ancestry. Her convictions of right and 
her loyalty to duty had the three-fold intensity of inherit- 
ance, education, and personal experience. The Bible was, 



with her, judge, jury, and advocate, on all questions con- 
cerning practical every-day life. Three letters lie before 
me from those who were personally acquainted with Mrs. 
Webb. This is their testimony: 

" She was a woman of solid worth, rare common sense, 
and symmetrical Christian character. lam sure if the 
course of Mrs. Hayes is such as to command the respect 
of the true hearted people of our land, she inherits the 
ability to make it so largely as a legacy from her mother." 

Another letter, from an altogether different quarter, 
employs precisely the same phrase as the first : 

" The mother of Mrs. Hayes was a lady of rare com- 
mon sense, in which the daughter strongly resembles her." 

A third has this : 

"There is one trait in the character of Mrs. Hayes 
which I should like to emphasize for the sake of any who 
may read your sketch. She absolutely will not talk 
<■ gossip.' Even in the intimate confidences of daily inter- 
course, she is as guarded as in the presence of the multi- 
tude. The executive mansion has for its mistress one 
who is a living exemplification of Christ's Golden Rule. 
Except in very rare instances, when some act of oppres- 
sion to the poor or the defenceless outrages her sense of 
right, she is always thoroughly kind in expression. I 
think this trait of carefulness for the feelings of others a 
gift from her mother, who had a nature exceedingly genial 
and kind. It is indeed a blessed thing for our country that 
such a woman had the training of our President's wife." 

Dear reader, perhaps that little girl of yours is yet to 
be the hostess of the nation. Will you not give her just 
as good advantages for the discipline of her mind as you 
afford her brothers, and for her heart a daily exhibition of 
the faith that works by love ? 

So shall she make the humblest station high. 
So shall she 'mong the highest take her seat 
And find herself at home. 


Two years at the Ohio Wesley an University were fol- 
lowed by several years of study in the Cincinnati Wes- 
leyan Female College, of which Rev. Mr. and Mrs. P. B. 
Wilbur had the management. Many of the noblest 
women of the West, foremost in missionary, temperance, 
and other Christian work, were graduated here. Under 
the influence of these gifted educators and their succes- 
sors, the daughters of Ohio have matured characters full 
of the benignant strength which discipline of mind can 
only give when Christ in the heart tempers and mellows 
the clear light it has imparted. One of these students, a 
life-long friend of Mrs. Hayes, and foremost among the 
women philanthropists of our day, writes as follows : 

"Lucy Webb was a first-class student. I was a mem- 
ber of the same class in botany and other studies with 
her, and I have reason to recall my feeling of mingled 
annoyance and admiration, as our teacher, Miss De Forest, 
would turn from us older girls to Miss Webb, who sat at 
the head of the class, and get from her a clear analysis 
of the flower under discussion, or the correct transposition 
of some involved line of poetry. Somewhat of this 
accuracy was doubtless due to the fact that she had been 
trained in the severe drill of the 0. W. University. She 
remained in the Ladies' College of Cincinnati until she 
completed its course of study." 

While yet in her teens, she met Rutherford B. Hayes, 
who, after his graduation at Kenyon College, Ohio, had 
opened a law office in Cincinnati. He writes of her : 

" My friend Jones has introduced me to many of our 
city belles, but I do not see any who make me forget the 
natural gaiety and attractiveness of Miss Lucy." 

One of her friends gives these interesting items : 

" It was my good fortune to be a guest at the small and 
unpretentious wedding of Lucy Webb, in 1852. The only 
attendant of the young pair was a beautiful child of eight 


years, the daughter of the bridegroom's only sister. A 
few days ago, this same child, now the wife of a dis- 
tinguished citizen of Columbus, 0., sat beside her aunt, 
Mrs. Hayes, acting once more as her attendant, and 
looking down from the gallery on the sublimely simple 
ceremonies of the inauguration of R. B. Hayes as Presi- 
dent of these United States. It has been a marriage of 
almost ideal happiness, and to overstate the devotion of 
Mrs. Hayes to her home, her husband, and her children, 
would be almost impossible. The heroism she displayed 
in sharing her husband's army life has been the theme of 
many an admiring newspaper reporter. There are some 
incidents connected with this chapter in her history which 
would enhance its beauty and impressiveness, but they 
are too sacred for our pen." 

Her characteristics are perhaps sufficiently indicated in 
the foregoing statements. " Bright loveliness and devo- 
tion to principle " are given as the chief. What might 
have been positive and almost angular in another, is so 
tempered by sweetness and gaiety of spirit, that she is the 
most influential of all persons with her husband. " His 
heart doth safely trust in her." 

Mrs. Hayes has been from childhood an earnest Chris- 
tian, a member of the Methodist Church. Her expres- 
sions of sympathy for the suffering and her constant 
benefactions to the poor, are not offered through the 
accepted public channels, but rather so quietly that, 
prominent as her social position has long been, they are 
almost lost to the public gaze. Her unostentatious 
habits are well known to our people already. Since the 
Republic was founded, its shoddy element has never 
received a more substantial rebuke than from the simple 
costume, gentle home life, and quiet manners of this model 
" Lady of the White House." 

To dress " as becometh women professing godliness," 


yet not so as to attract special attention, is the endeavor 
of a larger number of thoughtful ladies to-day than in any 
previous age, and the women of the church are fortunate 
in having such a leader as Mrs. Hayes. Notice the quiet 
good taste of her costume, the simple, natural dressing of 
the hair, the modestly covered throat, and fair, un- 
punctured ears of this noble Christian matron — this 
" Cornelia," whose " jewels " are the three bright boys 
and sweet young girl who call her mother. 


To us this is a subject of peculiar interest, and especial 
effort has been made to get at " the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth." Although she never, 
so far as has been learned, participated in the crusade 
work, she sympathized heartily with those who did so, 
and was at least a nominal member of the Executive 
Committee of the League in Fremont, Ohio. An officer 
of that society writes : " Occasionally her noble face 
brightened our meetings with prayer. General Hayes 
gave us the use of his hall for our temperance mass 
meetings and daily prayer meetings. I have attended 
receptions at his residence after his election as Governor, 
and never was a drop of anything stronger than coffee 
offered to his guests. The temperance women of America 
may congratulate themselves on having a Christian 
woman, true as steel, in the White House, and as such 
she is certainly entitled to our confidence, and I should 
deprecate any course on our part that savored of dictation 
or distrust." 

Mrs. Hayes has been the most eloquent of temperance 
lecturers to those about her, by reason of her total abstin- 
ence from the products of the vineyard, the brewery, the 
still, and yet she never " speaks in public." Her home 
life is most lovely, her children are models of noble 


behavior, her charities arc unobtrusive and unfailing as 
the dew. 

For the last two years Mrs. Hayes lias been associated 
with her friend Mrs. Dr. John Davis, also Mrs. Dr. Rust, 
Mrs. A*. R. Clark, and other leading ladies of Cincinnati 
and elsewhere, in the Woman's Home Missionary Society 
of the M. E. Church, of which she has accepted the 
Presidency. It will cooperate cordially with the W. C. T. U. 
in temperance work among the ignorant and ungospelled 
masses of the South, and on the far frontier. 

Two years after the great crusade we began the new 
century with a temperance man from the Crusade State 
as President, and an earnest Christian temperance woman 
for the hostess of the White House. 

In this we trace a "justice" both "poetic," and, what 
is vastly better, providential. 


This was formed on the suggestion of Rev. Frederick 
Merrick, a well-known professor in Ohio Wesleyan Uni- 
versity. Dr. Merrick privately addressed letters to 
temperance leaders, suggesting a temperance memorial of 
the noble course pursued by Mrs. Hayes in banishing from 
the White House all intoxicating liquors as a drink. The 
plan met with earnest approval and a " commission" was 
appointed, in which by Dr. Merrick's request and that of 
the W. C. T. U. of Delaware, 0., I accepted the " laboring 
oar." But for the cooperation of Miss Esther Pugh I 
could not have discharged the duties of this arduous 
position, in addition to those already assumed. In the 
interest of the movement, thousands of documents were 
sent out and addresses delivered in all the leading cities. 
Our local unions did most of the " honest, hard work," 
the Good Templars showing the same fraternal and help- 
ful spirit they have uniformly manifested toward us. It 


was decided that the memorial should take the form of a 
portrait of Mrs. Hayes, to be presented to the nation 
through the incoming President. David Huntington, of 
New York, President of the National Academy of Design, 
was chosen as the artist. An elegant frame was carved, 
under the superintendence of Ben. Pitman, by pupils of 
the Cincinnati Art School, and presented by ladies of that 
city, and a photo-gravure of the picture executed by Barrie, 
of Philadelphia. It is hoped that this representation of 
the painting may be sold so extensively as to lay the 
foundation of a fund for the free distribution of temper- 
ance literature. All the work done by the commission 
was a free gift, and whatever income may be realized for 
the fund will be applied to the purpose named. 


On the 7th of March, 1881, while Washington was in 
splendid spirits and gala attire, our commission was 
represented there by its executive committee and other 
leading ladies of our society. Mrs. Clara L. Roach, 
President of our auxiliary in the District of Columbia, 
with her capable coadjutors, had made all needed prepara- 
tions for us. Mrs. Senator Blair and her noble husband 
had not spared pains to help ; Miss Caroline Ransom, the 
gifted artist, had rendered invaluable service ; and Rev. 
Dr. Lanahan, from the first our wise and genial counsel- 
lor, was untiring in his efforts on our behalf. 

Some of us were in the brilliant Senate Chamber on 
Inauguration Day. Most of us heard President Garfield's 
inaugural, and all witnessed the unrivalled pageant of the 
streets. On the afternoon of that day President Hayes 
and Mrs. Hayes, with their sons, came privately to see 
the picture. Most of our committee being present, Mrs. 
Hayes warmly greeted her old friends, Dr. and Mrs. Mer- 
rick, and spoke kindly to each of us, saying, in her simple, 


friendly fashion: "I have done nothing worthy of all 

•* CD J 

this, and I do not know how to thank you for your kind- 

In the evening, at Lincoln Hall, public exercises were 
held, and, in the presence of an immense audience, the 
picture was unveiled by Dr. Merrick. It is ten feet in 
height and seven in width, the frame, with its monogram, 
clusters of grapes, and symbolic leaves and flowers, being 
a casket worthy of the jewel it enshrines. Mrs. Hayes, 
plainly but richly dressed in velvet and lace, stands in the 
foreground of a pleasing landscape, the only reminder of 
the picture's motif being a bas-relief upon a pedestal, 
representing a symbolic figure of Temperance leaning 
upon an urn, whence flows good, old-fashioned cold 
water, " sparkling and bright in its liquid light." Banked 
with rare flowers, the great picture was the center of a 
stage adorned by the W. C. T. U. of Washington with 
plants and vines, until the ladies seated behind the bright 


footlights seemed in the midst of a brilliant parterre, to 
which the rarest charm was added by a magnificent 
basket of flowers sent from the conservatories of the 
White House by Mrs. President Garfield. Only a synop- 
sis can be furnished of the addresses made on that occa- 
sion, and my own is given first only because its " official " 
character renders this the decorous order. 


Before we can at all estimate the significance, to the Temperance 
Cause, of her example whom we are here to honor, we must turn away 
from the victories already gained and contemplate the mountains of 
difficulty that loom up ahead of our advancing hosts. For there are 
three mighty realms of influence, which the Temperance Reform, based 
as it is on science, experience, and the golden rule, has hardly yet 
invaded. The world of the fine arts, of romance, and of fashion still 
sneer at our total abstinence " Daniel come to judgment,"' and deny 
him a place in their stately halls and at their festal boards. From the 
days of Homer and Virgil to those of Tennyson and Longfellow, the 
poets have been singing, in tuneful cadences, the praise of wine. 


From Praxiteles to Powers, the sculptors have delighted to idealize 
the coarse features of Bacchus, and those types of female beauty 
which correlate with his. From the antique frescoes of Pompeii, 
through gorgeous pictures of the Italian, Dutch, French, and Spanish 
schools, down to .those of Meissonier and Bougereau, the choicest 
pigments of the painter have been lavished to furnish forth convivial 
feasts, and throw a halo around the orgies of the satyr and the merry- 
making of the priest. 

Music, too, has always been the alluring Circe of the wine cup, 
whose captivating charm in classic days lent a fascination not its own 
to the triumphal procession of staggering bacchanals, and drinking 
songs are to-day the favorites of those college glee clubs, successors to 
the antique choruses, which help to demoralize young manhood in 
the bewildered years of the second and third decades. But what 
shall be said of the wizard pen of the romancer, with its boundless 
sweep through time and space? Alas, with what borrowed livery of the 
imagination has it not disguised the dangers of the moderate drinker, 
and bedecked the brutal pleasures of the debauchee ! Heroes have been 
men mighty to drink wine, and heroines have found their prototype 
in Hebe, cup-bearer to the gods. From the sensuous pages of the 
Greek romancers, through mediaeval tale and legend, the reeling pages 
of Fielding, the chivalric pageantry of Scott, the splendid society drama 
of Thackeray, and the matchless character panoramas of Dickens, 
down to our own society novelists; in all the witching volumes over 
which the beaming eyes of youth have lingered, the high lights 
of convivial enjoyment have been brought out in most vivid word 
painting, and its black shadows as studiously concealed. Now, be it 
remembered, that the poet, the artist, and the novelist, mighty inter - 
.preters of nature and the soul, will always maintain their empire over 
the human heart so long as it is a willing captive to the love of 
beauty, and the beauty of love. So that until we win an assured 
place for the Temperance Reform in these supremely influential 
realms of thought and expression, our success cannot be considered 
permanent. Until Genius, with her starry eyes, shall be gently 
persuaded to lay her choicest trophies at the feet of Temperance, 
there will remain for us much territory to be possessed. But be 
it ours to form a solemn covenant and one never to be broken, 
with the high priests of the aesthetic and emotional, so that the 
most romantic Reform in Christendom, the most poetic, ideal, and 
generous shall be fitly celebrated by sculptor's chisel, artist's brush, 
and novelist's enchanting pen. The beautiful portrait soon to he 
displayed, painted by the noblest master of his art in all the land, is 
the avant-couricr of many a trophy which our cause is yet to win. 

But the question will be asked, How is this reciprocity to be 


achieved? The answer is nol far to seek. One other question yields 
it: What is thai other realm, even more potent in its influence than 

that of the fine arts or the romancer? Who build the libraries, the 
picture galleries, the academies of music? Who have the leisure and 
resources to cultivate that line discrimination which alone satisfies she 
exigent demands of the artistic temperament? Who but that class, 
small, yet most potent, which by wealth, position, culture — one or all 
of these — is called the "fashionable class," because its example 
becomes the law of the social world? That which is fashioned is shaped 
or moulded, and the shaping, moulding power of the fashionable 
class has abundant illustration in this audience and everywhere. A 
queen wore high-heeled shoes to conceal the shortness of her stature, 
when lo, for women tall and short there went forth a dispensation of 
high heels. A prince had a wry neck and pul on standing collars, 
when behold, standing collars became the rule for all men every- 
where. A lady of the court decided that the abnormal frontal con- 
figuration of her cerebrum would be best concealed by bangs, and 
you, young ladies, know how that "bang " has reverberated throughout 
Christendom ! 

Now, key to concert pitch the significance of facts like these; lift it 
above the paltry, evanescent fashion of an hour to the level of a 
fashion having such moral significance as sets the joy-bells ringing in 
the hearts of hopeless mothers and unhappy wives. Think what is 
meant to that total abstinence cause, wdiich seeks God's glory 
through man's conformity to the indwelling law r of a clear brain and 
steady hand, when the first lady of the Republic, instead of cherishing 
intoxicating liquors in their immemorial place of honor as the emblem 
of hospitality and kindness and good-will, banished them from cellar, 
side-board, and table, as the enemies of her home and of the guests to 
whom she would do honor! 

"From the days of Alexander the Drunk to the present, wine has 
freely flowed in the houses inhabited by the world's rulers. Lucy 
Webb Hayes has stopped that flow in one." The keynote of social 
observances is set high up in the octave of society. "Where Mc- 
Gregor sits is head of the table." The first question in fashionable 
life is not "What ought I to do ?" but, "What will Mrs. Grundy 
say about it ?" "It is not for kings, O Lemuel, it is not for kings 
to drink wine," had been for ages the reproving voice of inspira- 
tion, and those to whom it spoke had turned a deaf ear to its 
counsel and squandered their priceless opportunities for good, so that 
it was left for h Christian Queen of American Society to be the first 
who should not only hear but heed this voice of God. 

What arithmetic can calculate the sum total of homes restored, 
hopes brightened, temptations routed, brains clear, that would have 


been clouded, eyes bright that would have been blood-shot or tear- 
stained, but for this one woman's brave, thoughtful, loving deed ! It 
has been like a beam in darkness, a torch held up in the gloom, " a light 
in the window for thee, brother," a beacon flaming grandly out on 
the most dangerous headland of the Republic's coast, and it shall 
grow and gather light and mount up to the zenith like another sun, 
shedding its genial rays into the darkest heart and most desolate 
home. It is for this we honor, and shall always love her, the gentle 
lady of the White House, who deserves the grateful homage of this 
Nation more than many a hero in whose honor statues have been 
carved, odes written, and paens sung. It is for this that many loving 
hands have wrought in the Testimonial Commission, and millions of 
loving hearts will perpetually enshrine her memory. What shall be 
the decision of our new President and his wife we cannot tell, but we 
can wait and pray. By nature, he belongs to the people of church and 
home and philanthropic guild; we know he has a great, kind heart, 
and his gentle wife has sent us, on this happy evening, these beautiful 
flowers, in token of her interest and good will. God bless and guide 
them both! 

The chief aim of our temperance workers in this day, is to cause an 
arrest of thought concerning the reasonableness of total abstinence, in 
the minds of the intelligent and well disposed. There are many ways 
of doing this, but none, perhaps, more effective in our practical age 
than the argument from experience and observation. The guest at a 
dinner whence the hostess had banished wine was met by logic of this 
sort, when he petulantly murmured in the ear of his next neighbor, 
" At this rate it won't be long till these fanatics will announce that we 
must dispense with mustard on our roast beef." Whereupon the 
answer was: " If taking too much mustard on roast beef had saddled 
this country with taxes, disrupted its homes, dishonored its manhood, 
agonized its women and children, emptied its churches, and crowded 
its jails and poor-houses to overflowing, I think I would be willing to 
take my roast beef without the mustard to the end of time. " Analo- 
gous to this line of thought is that which seven years of honest hard 
work have impressed upon the temperance women of America. 
Going out with the Gospel life- boat, these Grace Darlings of Christ's 
Church have rescued the wrecks of manhood just as they were sink- 
ing beneath the seething flood of intemperance ; but faster than they 
could pull these out of the swift tide others came floating down, until 
at last the women resolved to go higher up stream seeking the cause 
of this awful waste of human life, when, behold, they found two 
bridges upon which endless processions of people were crossing. One 
was of solid masonry, so strong that the heaviest railroad train or a 
caravan of elephants could hardly cause a vibration of its mighty 

"the royal line." 269 

arches, which rested on the massive piers of science, and the golden 
rule. Across the entrance was carved this motto, Abstain from fleshly 
lusts which war against tlie soul. Behold the healthful happy throng 
upon the grand teetotal bridge! Remember they are at a premium 
with life insurance companies, and in time of pestilence they are of 
all classes most likely to escape; remember too, that from their ranks 
the successful arctic and tropical explorers have been taken, also the 
champion athletes of every kind. Watch where they move, the early 
pioneers, Billy J. Clark and Lebbeus Armstrong, the doctor of medi- 
cine and t lie doctor of divinity arm in arm. See Lyman Beecher and 
Justin Edwards, side by side ; Pierpont the poet and Delevan the man 
of wealth; gentle Father Matthew and his army of followers, John 
Hawkins and his Baltimore comrades, with the Washingtonians 
behind them, Sons of Temperance and Good Templars, with their 
brotherly mottoes and bright regalia; the Catholic Total Abstinence 
Society; Neal Dow, and John B. GougTi, the first saying "total absti- 
nence for the individual and total prohibition for the State," the other 
ruefully declaring, " I could no more drink moderately than you could 
fire off a gun moderately." Look where fall into line Francis Mur- 
phy, with " malice toward none, and charity for all," his blue ribbon 
army following, and Dr. Reynolds, Knight of the Red Ribbon, with 
the manhood of Michigan behind him, "Daring to do right," See 
the long procession of the W. C. T. U. with the badge of white and its 
favorite motto, "For God and home and native land." Proud are all 
these to serve as guard of honor to Lucy Webb Hayes, who moves for- 
ward with the step of a queen, saying, ' ' Why should not America set its 
own fashions and develop its own individuality ? Why should 
Europe furnish our social precedents ? They have standing armies ; 
we do not imitate them; they have crowns, we do not wear them! " 

" Now I beheld with eyes serene 

The very pulse of the machine! 
A being breathing thoughtful breath, 

A traveler between life or death, 
A perfect woman nobly planned 

To warn, to comfort and command, 
A creature not too bright or good, 

For human nature's daily food, 
And yet a spirit, still and bright, 

With something of an angel's light." 

But look again, the Church moves forward; the Bishops of York, 
Exeter, and Gloucester, Canon Farrar and Canon Wilberforce, side 
by side with five thousand of the leading clergy of the Church of 
England, true to the glorious motto of " Noblesse oblige." 


Here follows the Methodist Church, -with Bishop Simpson at its 
head, the Society of Friends, Spurgeon and Moody, Theodore Cuyler, 
and William E. Dodge, Edward Everett Hale and Dr. Miner, with the 
flower of all the clergy from both sides of the sea. And next march 
those noble leaders in the State, who, amid the jeers and cavils of the 
majority, have borne and labored and had patience, Sir Wilfrid Law- 
son, temperance chief in England's Parliament, and our own noble 
Senator, Henry W. Blair, the Temperance leader of the American 
Congress, God bless him. 

Behind them march Justice Strong and Secretary Windom, Sena- 
tors Dawes and Logan, with a goodly following in Congress. Next 
come Governor St. John, of Kansas, the hero of the Constitutional 
Amendment, and Governor Plaisted, of Maine, with the red ribbon in 
his button-hole ; then the Governors of Massachusetts and of Georgia, 
with a procession of their peers in rank, while countless myriads fol- 
low from all classes of our rich #nd varied civilization, both North and 
South, and behind them all comes the quick tread of childish feet, as 
the Sunday-school and Band of Hope send their recruits, carrying bright 
banners, on which gleam the talismanic words, Tremble, King Alcohol, 
we shall grow up ! Thank God for the total abstinence bridge, so safe 
and solid, and for those who walk thereon for their own and others' sake ! 

But stretching across the dark and swollen river of intemperance is 
another bridge, rocking and rickety, standing on the outworn piles of 
custom, precedent, and self-indulgence, with "Moderation" carved 
upon its entrance, and about half-way across, one long, swaying 
narrow plank, where, with great circumspection, and a very level 
head, some balance themselves successfully, as did Blondin at Niagara. 
Great and motley is the throng that sets out upon this bridge, unmind- 
ful of warning voices in the air calling, Be not deceived, God is not 
mocked, whatsoever a man soweth, that shall he also reap! Wine is a 
mocker ! At the last it biteth like a serpent and stingeth like an adder. 
The ignorant, the sensual, and base are here, with the trade-mark of 
the drink demon burnt into their cheeks; the young and rash are here, 
and, strange to say, in the great army march thousands of the gifted 
and the good, whose eyes are holden by the tight cords of antiquated 
but relentless social usage. Ministers march here with Bible under 
arm, ear-marked with the proof -text of their special pleading, and 
unmindful of the spirit of His philosophy and life, who to a benighted 
age declared, " I have many things to say, but ye cannot bear them 
now." Many walk carefully the narrow plank, and with a fortunate 
heredity, and an exceptionally balanced organization, cross in safety 
and beckon to the deluded throng behind them, who sway to right 
and left, and tumble headlong into the surging flood. Men of most 
brain grow dizzy first, because strong drink darts to the brain as a 
panther leaps upon a deer. Hence, when men boast of how much 


liquor they can drink without being overcome, they unwittingly 
reveal their close relationship to evolutionary ancestors! Listen to 
Byron's dirge, one of the most illustrious of the brilliant geniuses who 
have fallen from Moderation Bridge: 

"My days are in the yellow leaf, 
The flower and fruit of love are gone, 
The worm, the canker, and the grief 
Are mine alone." 

Listen to Robert Burns : 

" Then gently scan your brother man, 
Still gentler sister woman; 
Though they may gang a kennin' wrang, 
To step aside is human," 
And then he steps aside, to rise no more. 
Listen to Edgar Poe, crying out in his remorse: 

" Take thy beak from out my heart, 
And thy form from off my door!" 
Quoth the raven — " Nevermore!" 

Listen to the tortured moan of Charles Lamb, of Richard Brinsley 
Sheridan, of "Webster, of Tom Marshall, of poor Dick Yates, and the 
pitiful procession of poets, wits, and orators who have made the 
awful plunge from Dr. Crosby's bridge. Remember that the tendency 
of yesterday becomes the habit of to-day and the bondage of to-mor- 
row. Remember the testimony of that officer of justice, who said: "I 
never yet in my lifetime of experience sent a total abstainer to the 
poor-house or the jail." Remember, all who have fallen into the dark 
river of intemperance have fallen from Moderation Bridge, none from 
the other. Remember, if there were no drunkard on earth to-day and 
moderate drinking should continue, there would be plenty of them 
to-morrow. Look once more at the procession headed by half a mil- 
lion drunkards dropping into the tide, a million moderate drinkers, 
two millions of occasional, fashionable drinkers, and behind them all 
the boys and young men of our land — and then, as you shall face the 
record in eternity, I call on you to choose on which bridge you will 
cross, as a brother of humanity, a patriot, a Christian! " 

To Dr. Merrick the thought of this work, now ap- 
proaching its culmination, was first given, and his was 
the pleasant office of displaying to the eager throng the 
artist's work. He spoke as follows : 

dr. merrick's address. 
It is the declaration of Him whose every utterance is truth, and 
whose are the kingdoms of this world, that "righteousness exalteth a 
nation, but >in is a reproach to any people;" that " it is not for kings 
to drink wine, nor princes strong drink, lest they drink, and forget 
the law, and pervert judgment." The same high authority declares 


drunkenness to be a sin, and because it is a sin, and the destruction of all 
man's highest interests, pronounces a solemn woe upon him who gives 
his neighbor drink. 

Drunkenness, though confined to no age or people, is eminently 
the reproach of our modern civilization. The evil is wide-spread and 
deep-rooted. It is the vice of no particular class. It is found in the 
palace of royalty, as well as in the hovel of the peasant ; in halls of 
legislation and seats of learning, as well as in the marts of trade and 
the guilds of industry. It pervades every department of society. Cul- 
ture, social standing, and political position furnishing but slight power 
to resist its solicitations, while the wreck and ruin which follow in its 
path defy description. The very earth groans under the tread of this 
monster vice. That it is destructive of individual welfare, of domes- 
tic peace and social order; that it is the most prolific source of pauper- 
ism and crime; that it demands an enormous waste of the public 
resources, and heavily burdens the people with needless taxation, 
thus retarding human progress and greatly depressing the standard of 
civilization, is unquestionable. 

Modern science in unveiling this mystery of iniquity, shows these 
results of the use of intoxicating beverages to be inevitable. She not 
only confirms the teaching of Revelation, that "wine is a mocker, and 
strong drink raging," but explains that from the action of alcohol 
upon the human organism, it must be so. It follows from a law as 
inexorable as fate. How to check, and finally to eradicate this great 
evil, is becoming one of the vital questions of the age; one worthy 
the serious attention of statesmen, as well as of philanthropists. 

Though not my purpose now to attempt a portrayal of the evils of 
intemperance, or to discuss methods of reform, I may be allowed to 
say that the vice is many-sided, and that one of its most salient points 
is social custom. The social glass is undoubtedly the most frequent 
initial step to drunkenness. Plato recognizes the fact. Lord Brougham 
quotes his remarks approvingly, and finds their illustration in English 
society. John Bright, for this reason, urges the higher classes to 
banish the intoxicating cup from their tables. Luther styled this cus- 
tom the "sauf teufel" of Germany. Bismarck has taken up the 
watchword, and is sounding it through the Fatherland. Lead- 
ing statesmen of France, as Guizot, Thiers, and Jules Simon, with 
many others, have not only seen and lamented the evil of social 
drinking, but have set the example of abstinence. 

Undoubtedly, whatever is done to render unfashionable the wine 
cup at social gatherings, tends greatly to diminish the amount of 
drunkenness. Many appreciating this fact, have ceased to treat their 
guests to intoxicating beverages. But no other instance of this has 
occurred so marked, and influential for good, as that of her, who for 
the past four years has been the honored mistress of the White House. 


The moral courage, the exquisite tact, the inimitable grace with which 
this change was effected, command our highest admiration. "While 
cheerfully recognizing, and heartily commending what others have 
done in encouragement of this most desirable reform, we must be 
allowed to say, in the words of the ancient prophetess, "Many 
daughters have done virtuously, but thou excellest them all." 

Appreciating its moral grandeur, and recognizing the beneficial 
results that have followed, and which must continue to follow this 
act, the friends of temperance and good order throughout the country, 
irrespective of party affiliations, have caused to be executed a memo- 
rial painting as their testimonial to the noble example thus furnished 
in the exclusion of intoxicating drinks from the table of the Executive 
Mansion for the past four years. 

I esteem it a high honor to be permitted, in this distinguished 
presence, to unveil a portrait of her whom the people delight thus to 
honor — late the mistress of the Presidential Mansion — Mrs. Lucy 
Hayes. Eccam! 

With his closing words Dr. Merrick drew aside the 
screen and gave the lovely picture to the view of an 
admiring audience, which testified its pleasure by con- 
tinued applause. Both eye and ear were charmed ; for to 
afford opportunity to enjoy the sight, music filled the 
interval. Mrs. Woodbridge's name, as President of Ohio 
W. C. T. U., was next on the programme, and although 
not fully recovered from recent illness, she had come to 
Washington to fill her appointment, but her suffering 
returned with such intensity that she was obliged to leave 
the platform, to the very great disappointment of her many 


Mrs. Alford, Corresponding Secretary of the Committee, 
read extracts from the large number of letters received, 
expressive of full endorsement of the movement, and of 
regret at inability to be present at this time so fraught 
with interest. Rev. Dr. Cuyler, Felix R. Brunot, Mrs. E. 
J. Thompson, Mrs. Elizabeth Thompson, Neal Dow, Dr. 
Holland, John G. Whittier, General Hancock, Mrs. E. G. 
Hibben, President Woolsey, Mrs. Livermore, Gov. Little- 


field, Mrs. Dr. McCabe, Mr. Huntington, the artist, and 
Mrs. M. A. Marshall, sent messages of regret. 

Bishop Jaggar of the Episcopal, and Bishop Simpson 
of the M. E. Church, Hon. Wm. E. Dodge, and many 
others had already written, expressing entire sympathy 
and hearty unity with the movement. 

Mrs. Fanny Barnes, of New York, now spoke a few 
graceful and forcible words in behalf of the young ladies 
of the country, after which Mrs. Judith Ellen Foster was 


mrs. Foster's address. 

In no way can we estimate more clearly the civilization of any age 
or time than in the study of the laws of that age, or time, or people, 
for law is the crystallization of ideas, and the embodiment of senti- 
ment. Through the whole Justinian code, in the Magna Charta, and 
bill of rights in the Declaration of Independence, in the Constitution 
of the United States, in the constitutions and statutes of the various 
States, in the ordinances of our cities, in the petty regulations of our 
school districts do we see this illustrated. It is so under despotism. 
Law is the crystallization of the despot's thought or will. It is so 
under all forms of aristocracy. Law there is the embodiment of the 
sentiment of a few or part of the people. Particularly true is this of 
our American civilization, of our age and time, for here every man 
makes his direct impress upon the law. I wish every woman did. 
Then do you ask, dear friends, why I am here to speak of the depart- 
ment of temperance work that I represent — the legislative ? Because 
I know that any example like this will help to give us righteous law. 
Because I know that when the women of America, and the men of 
America shall think and feel as this noble woman. thought and felt, 
the laws on our statute books will be a terror to evil doers and praise 
to them that do well ; and thus, dear friends, representing as I clo the 
department of legislation of the Woman's National Christian Temper- 
ance Union, I rejoice to-night to know that sometime the will of that 
brain shall be crystallized into law; and thus I appeal to you, dear, 
good women, if you honor her and her example, make it yours; men, 
if you honor her example, make it yours, and then by and by it shall 
be the voice of the law. We have said much of woman's work, but, 
gentlemen, our interests and yours are one; what helps you helps 
us, and what helps us helps you. I remember, as I stand here to- 
night, that it was the hand of a man that painted this beautiful 
picture. But I remember also that a day or two ago I stood in the 


studio of a lady of our city, and I beheld a woman* painting the 
glorious picture of a glorious man — General Thomas, the hero of 
many a battle. I said : ' That is all right ; you paint us and we will 
paint you.' 

Dear friends, I come from the West, where the Mississippi rolls 
down to the Gulf, and as I look over this audience, I see men from 
my own State; see others from brave, grand Kansas, that not only 
helped to free the slaves, but has been the first in the sisterhood of 
States to put a protest against the rum traffic into its organic law. 

There are men here, too, whose homes are where the Golden Gate 
opens upon the beautiful Pacific. If I were to bring a garland 
to-night from the homes of these, it would be of grain, such as is 
grown upon our prairies that roll and roll and laugh out loud in 
streams of joy, so glad they are the soil is free — of flowers, also, that 
grew upon our prairies, not so delicate, perhaps, as those greenhouse 
tints, but of richer hues and deeper green, and I should have it tied 
by a ribbon of gold and silver taken from our mountains, wherein is 
hid the wealth of nations — and then, having laid it before this queen, 
I would pray that dews distilled from our rivers might fall softly 
upon it and keep it ever fresh. 

I cannot do the Avork which comes to me to-night, unless I give you 
one last appeal. A great English statesman has said: "It is the 
business of civil law to make it hard to do wrong and easy to do 
right." The woman we are here to honor has made it easy to do right 
and hard to do wrong; and thus in her own dear self she has accom- 
plished that which is the end and aim of all legislation, is it not? 
But, dear friends, we want every one of you to put his sentiment 
where it shall be as wide as the possible limit of his influence. Men, 
we come to you to-night as women, and we ask of you legislation con- 
cerning this terrible traffic that is the enemy of us all. We want you 
to put away the liquor traffic by law — we cannot do that; we can 
reign in the parlor; we can reign in the home, but the parlor and the 
home are set over against the saloon; we want you to put away the 
saloon ; we want you to be as brave in your work as she has been in hers ; 
we know this means a good deal for some of you ; you will excuse 
me if I say to you that in my acquaintance with men that are assembled 
together to make the laws, a great many who seemed ready to do 
great things somehow lacked the courage to do so. When I am about 
to talk to an audience in Massachusetts, I speak about the Legislature 
of New York. In New York I speak about the Legislature of Mas- 
sachusetts. But here I am in Washington. Who shall I talk about ? 
You have come from everywhere. Can I talk about the Legislature 
of Iowa? I would not, if I could, slander my own State. I have 
met in the Legislature of Iowa three classes of men. The first great, 

*Miss Ransom. 


grand men — men who have clear intellectual convictions; men who 
grasp the situation and take it in, who have conscience behind their 
intellects to press them to do a thing if they see it is right to be done. 
Magnificent men they are; as Holland has said: "Men whom the 
lusts of office could not kill, whom the spoils of office could not buy; 
nun who had influence and a will; men who had honor and who 
would not lie; men who could stand and face a demagogue and damn 
his treacherous villainies without winking." But of this class there 
arc not enough to carry any measure. 

There is another class of men — clean, well shaven, wearing good 
clothes, and very courteous in manner. They smiled, they spoke 
kindly, and took our hands in friendly greeting when we pleaded for 
total abstinence and its blessings and righteous laws. They looked 
kindly and said: "Why, dear women, you're all right; of course you 
are." So we left them, thinking we had their votes; but we didn't 
always have them. We noticed, when counting over the list after- 
wards, that some were absent and some voted against us. I think I 
have found the solution of this trouble. I have noticed that those 
men were constructed in such a manner that they could not help it. 
They swayed to and fro like a pendulum, first this way and then the 
of her, and it happened that they swayed the other way when the vote 
was counted. This class illustrates that principle in mechanics known 
as the universal joint. I will tell you, ladies, what that is. It is a 
ball in a socket, shaped so as to go every way; sometimes so, some- 
times so. It don't make any difference ; it will go either way. It is 
very useful, you see — it prevents friction in a great many places. 
Now these men must have, somewhere about the base of their spine, 
a universal joint. As I said before, I don't think these gentlemen are 
to blame. It is the way they are put up. So they go and go in every 

But we must have the votes of these men, because they count so 
many. We must have them on our side, if we are to have righteous 
law. How shall we get these votes? When mechanics do not want 
the universal joint to turn they set it, and then it stays. If Ave can 
set these men it is all right — if you can, somehow or other, prop them 
up so that they will stay up, they are all right. How shall they be 
sel ? Reinforce such men with their poor, weak will — reinforce them 
by such an example as this (pointing to the picture). Women, set 
them right by your example in the parlor; men, set them right by 
your example in the store, in the shop, in the political caucus, in the 
bank, on the farm — everywhere set them, and they will do very well. 

Then, again, there is another class of men. They are few — thank 
God, very few. They are bad men — men who drink licpzor, and love 
it; men who "grovel in the soil and feed on garbage." What shall 

mi:-, garpibld's flowers. 277 

we do with such men? They don't know anything ahout the prayers 
of women. We can only hold over them a club. What shall the 
club be? Your will, men, backed by your vote. Let such men know 
they cannot occupy positions of honor, positions of trust, unless they 
are right on moral questions. Gentlemen, by the teachings of our 
Christianity, by the sweet influences that come from the home, by 
our prayers — by all these things we may succor and encourage and 
hold up the weak. But you must hold over the others the club of 
jour vote. 

And now, dear friends, I leave my message with you. I am con- 
strained to say this. I know I am standing to-day in the nation's 
capital. I know I am surrounded by the representatives of the great- 
est and most glorious nation that the sun shines on, and I love its flag 
as I do nothing else save the cross of Christ ; but I do want to say to 
you, old men, whose heads are white — you who occupy positions of 
trust in the gift of the people — some of you drink liquor; the people 
onlv tolerate you because of your years of service. Young men, don't 
you expect anything from the American people unless you are sober! 
When these men, whose heads are white, have passed away, there will 
be a better sentiment than there is now. When the tempter smiles 
upon you as you move among your accaiaintances in society, see that 
you yield not. We are sorry for them. But you, young men, know 
better. By and by, if women (did I say iff I am speaking prophecy 
to-night) — wTien we occupy positions in the Government — when we 
women shall not only plead, but hold the club — when we can do that 
there will be no hope for you if you use intoxicating drink. You had 
better begin to make your record now. It won't do to wait until that 
time ; then it will be too late. 


To Rev. Mr. Power, the pastor of President Garfield's 
Church, was committed a beautiful part of the even- 
ing's service — the presentation of Mrs. Garfield's basket 
of flowers to the president of the Commission. His few 
sentences were especially felicitous, and my off-hand reply 
was so well received by the audience that its closing 
sentences are given * : "As we have prayed for Lucy, so 
we will pray for Lucretia : God bless James A. Garfield 
and Lucretia, his wife ! " 

*The next day I was invited to lunch at the White House, and 
President Garfield told me those words "had won his heart.'' 

278 president garfield's notes. 

With the benediction by Rev. Mr. Power, the evening 
services closed upon a delighted audience. But all this 
was only preliminary to 


Previous to the inauguration I had written President 

Garfield, asking him to name a elate when he could 

receive the portrait. The following is the General's 

reply : 

Mentor, Ohio, February 21, 1881. 
Dear Miss Willard: — Yours of the 16th inst. came duly to band. 
I shall be glad to consult your convenience in the matter to which 
your letter refers, but it is impossible for me at this date to fix a time 
for receiving you and your friends. It will be better for you to send 
word to me — say on the 5th of March, when a definite arrangement 

can be made. Very truly yours, 

J. A. Garfield. 

After the arrival of the Commission in "Washington, 
the following correspondence between the Commission and 
the President took place : 

Washington, D. C, March 5, 1881. 

To the President : — The Executive Committee of the Commission 
on a Temperance Testimonial, from the people to Mrs. President 
Hayes, desires to present her portrait, painted by Huntington for the 
Commission, to you personally as the nation's representative, at the 
earliest practicable date. We are instructed to request that this testi- 
monial may be placed in the east room of the White House, where it 
will be at all times easy of access to the public. 

The Commission awaits the pleasure of the President. 

Frances E. Willard, President, C. Cornelia Alford, Cor. Sec'y, 
Frederick Merrick, Esther Pugh, Treasurer, 

Mary A. Woodbridge, M. B. O'Donnell. 

Executive Mansion, ) 
Washington, March 5, 1881. f 

Dear Madam:— The President directs me to acknowledge the 
receipt, through the kindness of Mr. Jones, of your note of this morning, 
and also desires me to ascertain the probable number of persons who will 
attend at the presentation. It is very desirable, if not imperatively 
necessary, that the number be as small as possible. 

Upon the receipt of this information the President will send you 


the day and hour when it will be most practicable for him to receive 

the portrait. 

Awaiting your answer, I am, 

Very respectfully, 

J. Stanley Brown, Sec. 

/. Stank ij Brown, Private Secretary to President: 

Dear Sir:— Please convey to the President our thanks for his 
prompt reply and kind consideration. We will not invite more than 
twenty-live or thirty, and fewer if he expresses that preference. As 
the President is busy, we venture to suggest Tuesday, March 8th, at 
10 a. is.., if agreeable to him, as the portrait will be at Lincoln Hall 
until after the public exercises on Monday evening, the 7th. 

Frances E. Willard, President of Commission. 

Executive Mansion, ) 

Washington, March 5, 1881. J 

Miss Willard: — The President desires me to inform you that the 
time (March 8th) named in your note of this morning, is entirely sat- 
isfactory to him. 

Very respectfully, 

J. Stanley Brown. 
In accordance with this arrangement, the portrait was 
conveyed to the Executive Mansion, Tuesday morning, 
March 8th, and hung on the east wall of the east room, 
near the picture of Martha Washington. At ten o'clock 
the members of the Commission, with a few invited 
guests — among them Mrs. Senator Blair and Miss C. L. 
Ransom, the artist, and intimate friend of Mrs. Garfield 
— Mrs. Chase, of Pennsylvania ; Mrs. Foster, Mrs. Barnes, 
Mrs. Merrick, Rev. Dr. Lanahan and wife, several members 
of Washington W. C. T. U., and a few other ladies and 
gentlemen — assembled in front of the picture, and soon 
President and Mrs. Garfield, accompanied by Private Sec- 
retary Brown and Mrs. Gen. Sheldon, entered the room. 
As the President and party advanced, Miss Ransom led 
me forward and introduced me to the President (with 
whom I had already a pleasant acquaintance). Both 
then advanced until we stood directly before the picture, 
and with much inward trepidation 1 addressed my noble 
friend as follows : 


Mr. President — We are here to present to the nation, through its 
honored chief, a temperance testimonial from the men and women, 
high and low, rich and poor, fortunate and unfortunate, who have 
loved her whose pictured presence is now before us, because they 
felt that she was the defender of their homes ; because amid the 
fogs of a time-worn social conservatism she held steadily aloft the 
torch of an example safe, gentle, and benignant. We stand in the 
presence of one whose utterances and character are known to all the 
nation. I do not forget how in the tumult and strife of a great polit- 
ical convention James A. Garfield of Ohio said, " Remember it is in 
the home where the sovereign citizen has his wife and children gath- 
ered around him that God prepares the verdict of the American peo- 
ple." I do not forget that he reminded the women of Cleveland when 
they came to Mentor with their congratulations, that in every army 
there are three classes: the scouts, who go ahead; the soldiers who do 
the fighting; and, within all, the home guards, and that he said, 
" God bless the women, they are America's home guards." I do not 
forget that in his inaugural he reminded us by the sacred words, "A 
little child shall lead them," that the tenderness and sweetness of 
childhood had a place in his thought in that supreme hour; and so 
standing here I feel very much at home, as do we all, in this kind and 
brotherly presence. Mr. President, whom do we represent ? We are 
a part of your constituency, and we represent a great deal of earnest 
hard work done in the name of God, and home, and native land. We 
represent a volume of prayer rising like incense to God from the very 
first hour that we knew the burden which had been laid upon you ; 
and always have we sought a blessing also from on high upon her 
who is the mother of your sons and of your sweet young daughter, 
and upon her who bore and cherished you. We represent that num- 
berless throng who have a right to be heard in this presence because of 
all that they have suffered. We cannot speak to you of the graves of 
the living and the graves of the dead that have strewn our pathway, 
because of the cup that tempts only to destroy. Our principles and 
our endeavors are the inevitable outcome of the philosophy of our 
century. Well is it understood by the scholar President ! For one 
dominant purpose runs through all our modern civilization. Science 
spells it out slowly from the writing in the rocks, from scattered 
monuments and fossil languages and pronounces it the Unity of Man. 
Statesmanship discovers that the woes of one nation are the misfortune 
of all, and so frames treaties and forms alliances of mutual defence 
and service in the name of the Solidarity of Man, but Christianity per- 
ceiving the higher significance of all these studies and their practical 
results, prays, pleads, and labors for the Universal Brotherhood of Man. 
Among the applications of this great underlying principle none is 

president garfielu's reply. 281 

gaining ground more rapidly than the practice of a free and voluntary 
total abstinence, for our own and others sake, from those alcoholic 
drinks which have alienated more hearts, dissolved more homes, pois- 
oned the air with more cruel words, and moved kind hands to more 
hateful deeds than any other agency outside of Pandemonium. 
" Where is thy brother ? " is to-day the central question in that larger 
home which we call social life, answered by a thousand kindly chari- 
ties, but most significantly answered, as we believe, by the great 
army of total abstainers, which in the present military exigency is 
calling all up and down the land for volunteers. We are here to 
leave in your care the picture which symbolizes so much of hope and 
glad expectation for the future. We are here because it is women 
who have given the choicest hostages to fortune. Beyond the arms 
that shield them long the boys go forth and come not back again, and 
the mother heart prays that society may hedge them round about 
with loving safeguards and restraints; and fervent is our hope that a 
steady signal light may shine forth for them from the conspicuous 
windows of the Presidential Mansion. As members of the Church of 
Christ, we appeal to you to help hasten the time when all men's weal 
shall be each rnhn's care, and we pray God's blessing upon you, upon 
your wife, and upon those that cluster around you in your home. 
Well has the laureate said concerning the " good time coming," which 
the triumph of the temperance cause shall help us to usher in: 

"Ring out old shapes of foul disease, 
Ring out the narrowing lust of gold, 
Ring out the thousand wars of old. 
Ring in the thousand years of peace. 

" Ring out a slowly dying cause, 
And ancient forms of party strife, 
Ring in the nobler modes of strife, 
With sweeter manners, purer laws. 

" Ring in the valiant man and free, 
The larger heart, the kindlier hand, 
Ring out the darkness of the land, 
Ring in the Christ that is to be." 


Miss Willard, ladies and gentlemen: The very appropriate gift to 
the Executive Mansion which you have brought, the portrait of its 
late mistress, I gladly accept. It shall take its pfece beside the por- 
traits of the other noble women who have graced this house. She is 
my friend. Nothing I can say will be equal to my high appreciation 
of the character of the lady whose picture is now added to the treas- 
ures of this place. She is noble; the friend of all good people. Her 
portrait will take, and I hope will always hold in this house an hon- 


orcd place. I have observed the significance which you have given 
to this portrait from the standpoint you occupy, and in connection 
with that work in which you are engaged. First, I approve most 
heartily what you have said in reference to the freedom of individual 
judgment and action symbolized in this portrait. There are several 
sovereignties in this country. First, a sovereignty of the American 
people ; then the sovereignty nearest to us all — that sovereignty of the 
family, the absolute right of each family to control its affairs in 
accordance with the conscience and convictions of duty of the heads 
of the family. In the picture before us that is bravely symbolized. 
I have no doubt the American people will always tenderly regard this 
household sovereignty, and however households may differ in their 
views and convictions, I believe that those differences will be 
respected. Each household, by following its own convictions and 
holding itself responsible to God, will, I think, be respected by the 
American people. What you have said concerning these evils of 
intemperance meets my most hearty concurrence. I have been in my 
way, and in accordance with my own convictions, an earnest advo- 
cate of temperance, not in so narrow a sense as some, but in a very 
definite and practical sense. These convictions are deep, and will be 
maintained. Whether I shall be able to meet the views of all people 
in regard to all the phases of that question remains to be seen. But 
I shall do what I can to abate the great evils of intemperance. I 
shall be glad to have this picture upon these walls, and shall be glad 
to remember jour kind expressions to me and my family, and in your 
efforts to better mankind by your work I hope you will be guided by 
wisdom, and that you will achieve a worthy success. Thanking you 
for this meeting and greeting, I bid you good morning. 

The party were then introduced to President and Mrs. 
Garfield, and spent a few moments in pleasant conversa- 
tion. Mrs. Woodbridge, on behalf of the National W. C. 
T. U., presented the resolution adopted at the Boston 
Convention, reading as follows : 

" We heartily endorse the movement, and make it our own, which 
proposes a suitable testimonial to Mrs. Lucy W. Hayes, the honored 
wife of our Chief Magistrate, whose brave stand for total abstinence 
at the White House has been so successful, and who has thus pre- 
sented a noble example for imitation; and we recommend that the 
Woman's National Christian Temperance Union, before adjourning, 
appoint a suitable committee of ladies to visit her successor as soon as 
possible after the Presidential election, to urge, with gentle and cour- 
teous entreaty, that the good work begun by Mrs. Hayes may not be 
interrupted on her retirement to private life. " 


The company went through the conservatory, and Miss 
Ransom, ever watchful to promote the pleasure of all, 
arranged for a reception by the elder Mrs. Garfield, and 
viwh one enjoyed a handshake and friendly word with 
" Grandma." 


[Miss Pugh gives the following account.] 
" It was announced that the committee and friends of the Commis- 
sion would adjourn to "Temple Cafe" for a prayer-meeting. And 
here, in a few moments, about fifty gathered, to commit the words 
and work of the day to God, and to ask his blessing upon our 
President and his household. The meeting was a pentecostal season, 
wherein we sat together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus, great lib- 
city being given in prayer and praise, the Holy Spirit brooding over 
all, melting all into unity before God. It seemed almost impossible 
to close this precious season, and when we finally parted it was with 
hearts tilled with thanksgiving for the presence and power under 
which we had met.'' 


The saloon-keepers understand this new proverb, — 
" Through the eye to the heart." " King Gambrinus," 
in garb of green and red and purple, flourishing aloft his 
foaming mug of beer, and bestriding a huge cask of the 
same refining beverage, sits above the doors of all lead- 
ing dram-shops. In Kansas, just after the prohibition 
law went into force, I saw a picture displayed jn the 
empty windows of the closed saloons, which was artfully 
contrived to arouse the dormant appetite of every drink- 
ing man who looked sorrowfully toward the scene of his 
former exploits. A generous glass of ale, brimming 
with beaded foam, was done in colors carefully laid on, 
and this tempting but now impossible draught was sur- 
rounded by separate hands, all the fingers of each one 
being represented in most ardent, expectant attitudes 
of grasping, clutching, and clawing all in" vain, to reach 
the coveted but unattainable glass. The tobacconist, with 
similar wit and shrewdness, attracts attention to his 
demoralizing wares by placing before his door a statu- 


esquc Indian maiden, who offers a bunch of artificial 
cigars, while to get the real ones, of which she sets the fool- 
ish young man thinking, he must go inside. But our 
temperance reformers have been inexplicably slow to 
appreciate, and still slower to apply the principle illus- 
trated on every hand by their opponents. Patriotism is 
silently taught in every homo by pictured faces of our 
nation's heroes looking down upon us from the walls. 
Religion has its noble object-lessons in engravings from 
great masters, but temperance, pure and lovely handmaid 
of them both, is left without a witness even in the dwell- 
ings of our standard-bearers. Not a dozen times in my 
nine years' temperance sojourn in almost forty States, 
have I found a temperance picture even in a temperance 
home. Dear friends, can we not have an " arousement " 
on this subject ? Do we not need an " arrest of thought" 
here, as really as those for whom we labor need that 
same " arrest " on the total-abstinence question ? Are 
we not strangely blind to the silent, sure, and permeating 
influence of that which passes " through tbe eye to the 
heart " ? Nay, more, as women, should we not manifest 
more strongly our appreciation of the first national en- 
graving, secured through woman's influence, of a woman's 
face, <si which the annals of our history make mention ? 
And such a woman ! So strong, yet gentle; so true to 
her possibilities of help to ignorant, tempted, and sorrow- 
ful humanity. 

What has not been wrought of pure and healthful influ- 
ence for the total-abstinence movement by thirty years of 
" The Old Oaken Bucket " engraving on the walls of a 
thousand homes ? And what may we not expect of benefi- 
cent sentiment to be educated and enforced by " line upon 
line and precept upon precept," not in abstract formula, 
but incarnated in a presence so noble, and enforced by a 
character so earnest and attractive as that of Lucy Webb 

barrie's photogravure. 285 

Hayes ? " Biography is history teaching by example," 
and that lesson can in no other way be made so vivid as 
by keeping that example before the radiant eyes of youth 
in home and school-room and public institution. Right 
well have many of the temperance societies wrought for 
the Hayes portrait testimonial. Grateful and glad ought 
we to be that in the White House hangs a frame of 
majestic proportions, the finest ever executed in America, 
earve'd by women's skilled fingers in the Cincinnati Acad- 
emy of Design, and paid for by the gifts of women, 
beaded by Mrs. A. R. Clark, of that city, and that 
inside this frame is a noble, full-length painting of 
Mrs. Hayes, by Daniel Huntington, the finest artist in 
America. But if this national picture in its high place 
teaches perpetually its glorious lesson to the traveling 
public, why shall not Barrie's beautiful photo-gravure 
(30 x 20 in size) teach the same lesson to the great, 
blessed democracy of those who stay at home, especially 
to our young folks in their impressible and clear-cut days ? 
Should we not, then, order the photo-gravure as a birth- 
day, Christmas anniversary, or every-day present for son, 
daughter, pastor, teacher, physician, or representative in 
Congress, as the case may be ? Remember, this is no pri- 
vate speculation, but a national enterprise, beginning and 
ending with " We, the people of these United States," (and 
for this once it means not only men, but Ave women, too !) 
Our brothers have helped us, though, as they always do and 
always will when we are in dead earnest. The I. 0. G. T. 
and S. of T. have sent out special circulars urging their 
auxiliaries to secure this work of noble sentiment as well 
as art. Remember, too, that all the money beyond actual 
cost of the engraving will be used to buy and circulate 
temperance literature, thus directly advancing our cause. 



This method of blending social recreation with work 
for the cause is becoming so popular with our girls, and 
so many reports have come to us of successful enterprises 
of this kind, that wc give a few brief notices. Such a 
tea-party was held in the town hall at Brattleboro', Ver- 
mont. A line collection of antiquities was got together, 
among them teaspoons 130 years old, and crockery 
which once graced the table of King James of Scotland, 
supposed to be at least 300 years old. " Hayes mottoes," in 
red, white, and blue, ornamented the hall. The persona- 
tions were good ; speeches and singing enlivened the occa- 
sion, and the receipts were most encouraging. 

Another Lucy Hayes tea-party, of which a full account 
has been sent us, was held at Port Chester, N. Y., on 
February 22d. 

Another of these enjoyable affairs took place at Green- 
wich, Washington county, N. Y. The dresses were bright 
and picturesque ; the supper — served in old-fashioned 
china, and cooked after the manner of " ye olden time " 
was excellent. 

Still another was given at Poughkeepsie, several hund- 
red citizens being present. The exercises were much 
the same as usual in such cases. One little girl recited a 
poem from Our Union, and a young lady personated its 
editor, and sold many copies of the "Lucy Hayes" num- 
ber. George and Martha Washington were the life of the 



A " Lucy Hayes Reception " was given by the Boston 
Y. W. C. T. U., in Odd Fellows Hall. About three hund- 
red persons were present. The entertainment consisted 
of music, dramatic recitations, and refreshments. Many 
of the regular and honorary members of the Union were 
dressed in costume, representing distinguished characters 


of the olden time — General and Mrs. Washington, Governor 
and Mrs. Bradford, Governor and Mrs. Winthrop, John 
Alden and Priscilla, Roger Williams and his wife, etc., etc. 
Mrs. Hayes was personated hy a lady who looked the 
part to perfection, and aroused a suspicion among the 
more unsophisticated that the Union had induced the real 
Mrs. Hayes to grace the reception. The costumes were 
beautiful and striking, and made the hall look like a 
flower garden. Pledge books were circulated, and an 
opportunity was afforded to all to inscribe their names. 
The Union secured a number of new members, and a sub- 
stantial addition to its treasury. Part of the proceeds will 
be devoted to the Lucy Hayes memorial fund, and the 
remainder to the work of the Y. W. C. T. U. 


I first met General Garfield in 1876, when we went to 
Washington with the " Home Protection Petition." Some 
of our committee had sent their cards to him in the 
House of Representatives, and he came out hurriedly into 
the ante-room, evidently much preoccupied, and while 
they presented our plans to him, I stood at a little dis- 
tance "to take him in," for his name had attracted me 
years before, and I believed him to be the most complete 
embodiment of American ideas and Christian statesman- 
ship the country had seen for many a day. He remained 
but a moment, listening gravely to what was said, and 
promising to give it due consideration. Pleading an im- 
pending vote in the House, which he must not miss, he 
bowed with courteous dignity and disappeared. As I photo- 
graphed for memory's magic gallery that tall, well-knit, 
and robust form, soldierly bearing, and strong, regnant 
countenance, in which " the manhood of strength and gen- 
tleness " was mirrored, I thought: This is the victorious* 
Norseman of old, with his giant strength, his eyes blue as 


a Scandinavian fiord, and complexion clear as the sky of 
the midnight sun, but heart mellowed by the light that 
fell upon the hills of Galilee. 

In 1878, taking the palace car at Elmira, New York, 
one afternoon, young Dr. Adele Gleason bade me good-bye', 
and left the train after it had begun to move. Anxiously 
I followed her to the door, and, returning when she was 
landed, saw a tall man whose chair was just ahead of mine, 
leaning out of the window, then turning to ask me hur- 
riedly " if that young lady was safe " ? I did not look up 
so far as his face, hence did not recognize him ; but, reply- 
ing that she was, began to write and read, as is my custom, 
in the only study I have known for years — the great, 
swift, roaring train, to whose rhythm one's thoughts keep 
time. After a while I noticed that my little nugget of a 
traveling bag, packed to suffocation with books and 
papers, was out-ranked by the huge and handsome port- 
manteau which the tall man opened, and that from under 
his great, soft, felt hat he was peering into the books, 
magazines, and manuscripts which formed a large part of 
his outfit. 

" That's James A. Garfield," I said to myself when I had 
noted him more carefully, for I had just been reading his 
great speech on hard money, delivered the night before at 
Rochester. Busily he read on, and I could not help see- 
ing — even if I had wished to — that the Princeton Review 
and " Milman's History of the Jews " were among his 
current studies. Later on, when the New York dailies 
reached us, he bought them all, with that desire to 
"hear both sides" which has given such splendid equi- 
poise to his character, and, turning to me, he frankly 
said he " heard the young lady ask me when I was to 
speak next, wondered whether I was as tired of it as his 
campaign was tiring him" — at the same time offering 
me the Tribune. I replied that " I never made acquaint- 


ances upon the cars, but believed this was General Gar- 
field, of whom my friend, Mrs. Woodbridge, of Ohio, had 
often spoken."' " The same," he said ; whereupon J told 
my name, address, anil employment. We shook hands 
cordially, ami from then until I got off at Paterson, N. J., 
we talked on. I think the General's conversation that 
day would fill a good-sized book, and 1 have often charac- 
terized the range of subjects by saying that " he treated 
of everything from protoplasm to Omnipotence." So 
rapid was his thought, so clear and forcible the stream 
of his utterance, so considerate and kindly his criticism, 
so varied and available his information, that I learned 
more about him, and profited more largely by his knowl- 
edge than it would be in the power of most persons I have 
met to reveal and teach in half a lifetime. He talked of 
books, science, and invention, — of great characters, and 
foreign travel. 

He told me of his life — nearly everything that I have 
since seen in books ; of his religious history ; that in his 
church all men are preachers, and the Bible the only 
creed ; of his school and college days, and of Mark Hop- 
kins, and Miss Almeda Booth, the former, president of 
Williams College when he went there, and the latter pre- 
ceptress at Hiram, and a woman, (much older than himself 
and long since dead,) for whom he seems to have felt the 
deepest reverence. He talked of the Credit Mobilier, and 
other legislative scandals. After telling how deeply he 
was wounded by seeing his name, for the first time after 
so many years of public life, associated with imputations 
of dishonor, lie felt that God said to him in the depths of 
his soul : " You know that you meant to do right, and I 
know it — that is enough." Aftej which he never worried 
about the matter any more. Among other things, we 
talked of temperance, and he said strong drink was never 
a snare to him — he had better uses for his faculties and 


for his time. "Now and then, on a public occasion, or 
the drinking of a toast," he said he tasted wine. I begged 
him to 'think how significant the gesture of his hand 
would be (and, to my mind, more eloquent than any ges- 
ture employed in a great speech,) as it waived aside the 
cup that tempts so many to their ruin. He listened 
kindly, but was not convinced. He talked of the South, 
and its great men, its generous sympathies and bright 
outlook for the future, and most of all he dwelt upon 
Lamar, of Mississippi, with a brother's fondness. As I 
went my way, the thought that stayed longest with me 
concerning this big-hearted, big-brained man's career, was 
this : He is foreordained to be our President ! I never 
saw him again until he walked sturdily into the Senate 
chamber on Inauguration day, and as soon as he was 
seated on President Hayes's right hand, looked smilingly 
up to the gallery where his mother, his wife and children 
sat, and bowed to them. An hour later, he stood on the 
steps of the Capitol and pronounced his inaugural with a 
forcefulness of utterance which carried the words to my 
ear far away, and at the close, amid the hurrahs of the 
acres of human beings around him, stooped to kiss his 
noble mother and faithful wife. On the next Friday the 
President received our memorial portrait of Mrs. Hayes, 
and on the next a note from Mrs. Garfield invited Miss 
Ransom, the artist, to bring me to the White House to 

I hardly know how to do justice to the impression made 
upon my mind by Mrs. Garfield. " Pure, womanly," ex- 
presses it, if one had been so fortunately trained that tbe 
"sweet reasonableness" of a strong mind, tempered by 
the " gentleness of Chrj^t," go into the definition of that 
royal word, " womanly." Looking across the wide lunch 
table at his wife, the President said to me : " I can hardly 
believe, as 1 see her sitting there, that she who has taught 


Latin to my boys, was learning it of me a score, of years 
ago"; and again: "Don't blame the dear little woman 
yonder if all your hopes are not fulfilled"; and again, 
when I said we temperance women wished he would read 
Canon Farrar and Dr. Richardson, he replied: "What- 
ever you send me I will carefully read; only, if you want 
me to be sure to get it, mail it to my wife." Then, laugh- 
ingly, he said : " When I replied to you ladies, the day 
the Hayes portrait came, you may have deemed me unsat- 
isfactory ; but I thought I would rather take the part 
of ' I-go-not-sir-and-went,' than ' I-go-sir-and-went-not ' " ; 
and he added, — " You will respect my convictions, I am 
confident, whatever the result." I told him we certainly 
would, do so, but how the gentle words of Mrs. Garfield 
cheered me when she said : " I hope I shall not disappoint 
your expectations." So, with thoughtful, friendly words 
the time sped on, and I could but feel, looking upon the 
delicate, responsive face of the wife, noting the noble son's 
quiet attention to his mother, and the ay hole-hearted 
ways of Mollie Garfield and the boys, that here, if I had 
ever seen one, was the typical American home. How 
little did President Garfield dream that day, as he told 
me of his mother's anxiety lest harm might come to him, 
and added " I suppose a man in my position is an 
attractive target to a crank," that a few weeks later the 
whole nation would be thrilled by the terrible story of a 
snake in the eagle's nest ! 


From the beginning of our work, young women have 
held an honored place in the W. C. T. U. It was a dear 
Ohio girl who selected for her mother the first scripture 
ever read in a saloon, the 146th Psalm, now historic in our 
annals. In Cincinnati was another, a charming girl, who 
always took the arm of her grandmother when the long, 

292 " HONOR FOR HONOR." , 

solemn procession marched from the church to the rum- 
shop, singing- " Rock of ages, cleft for me," and who, when 
challenged by the words, " I will sign if you will," uttered 
by a drunken workman who owed the roof over his head 
to her father's clemency, put her fair autograph upon the 
pledge she had opened on a saloon table, wet with the 
drippings of potations upon which her visit had blessedly 
intruded. We also recall the brave Arkansas girl who, 
when a saloon-keeper raised his pistol, and dared the 
praying women's band to cross his threshold, sprang 
lightly to his side, singing " Never be afraid to work for 
Jesus," and laid her gentle hand upon his weapon. 

Let it be thoughtfully remembered by young women, 
and by the mothers to whom they look for counsel, that 
home, if it is to be the sacred shrine that we would have 
it, demands not only a priestess but a jjriest to keep its 
altars pure and bright. As Mrs. Lathrop often says 
" There must be honor for honor, purity for purity, total 
■ abstinence for total abstinence." 

To all, with equal force, comes the voice of God declar- 
ing that " to be carnally -minded is death, but to be 
spiritually-minded is life and peace." 

Clearly, then, young women must require of men whom 
they admit to their society and to their homes, a purity 
of personal life such as they have not in the past required. 
But, on the other hand, it is their duty to do all in their 
power to make this nobler habit of life less difficult of 
attainment by offsetting the temptations of the saloon (be it 
the grimy grog-shop, the gilded " restaurant," or costly " bil- 
liard hall ") by the attractions of the temperance reading- 
room and literary or musical reunion. Undertakings of 
this character may, with propriety, engage the efforts of 
young women, and have been successfully carried on in 
many places since the great temperance awakening. 

In their own social circle they can do still more by 

MISS CxORDON's address. 293 

scattering- all about them the light of a pure example, 
and of gently uttered argument in favor of total abst i- 
nence as the only personal security. The autograph 
pledge-book upon the parlor table would be in itself an 
influence for good of incalculable value. It would call 
attention to the subject, occasion argument, and result 
often in the confirmation of good principles or the con- 
viction of bad ones. 

Recently in Cleveland, the work of the Young Women's 
Christian Temperance Unions was clearly outlined in the fol- 
lowing brief address by Miss Anna Gordon : 

Our good friend Mrs. Ingham has urged me to take the witness 
.stand to-night and testify to the work that young women are doing 
in the temperance reform. It is now more than five years since my 
own heart was specially enlisted in this branch of Christian endeavor, 
and nothing has ever given me so much happiness as to see the young 
women of our land rallying to the call of the W. C. T. U. In every 
State of the North, and in nearly all the Southern States, young 
women are organized in separate societies, have taken the total absti- 
nence pledge, donned the white ribbon, and dedicated their fresh young 
energies to the cause of " God, and home, and native land." Their 
work may be properly divided under three heads. First, influence in 
society; second, self-education on all questions pertaining to the 
temperance reform; and third, teaching the children. We begin by 
forming a society which is really a social club with total abstinence 
as its basis. Young gentlemen are invited to join as honorary mem- 
bers. Thus we secure their names to our pledge in a delicate way 
which does not offend their pride, and gradually they become inter- 
ested in temperance work by association with their young lady friends, 
who are actively engaged in it. 

I recently attended a fortnightly reception given by one of the 
young women's societies of Baltimore. It was, in fact, an evening 
party, to which all came in their best attire, and there were as many 
young gentlemen present as ladies. Upon a signal from the presiding 
officer of the evening (an honorary member, by the way), a hush came 
over the happy group, and a significance was given the entertainment • 
soon to follow, by an impressive reading of the Scripture lesson, begin- 
ning "Put. on, therefore, the whole armor of God." 

Then came the programme prepared for the occasion, consisting of 
a well- written essay, two or three select readings, good music, 
promenading, and refreshments, the young men taking an equal part 


in the exercises, and evincing just as much interest as the young 
ladies. The open pledge book on the centre table gave an oppor- 
tunity for new names to be added, and who can tell what a shelter 
from temptation and safeguard from the formation of bad habits that 
society may prove to those who are so much more tempted than young 
women are by false social usages, which this society will help to 
render obsolete ? Thus it will be seen that the central thought of our 
work is to add a noble moral significance to social gatherings and 
entertainments of young people, so that, as I have heard many a 
sweet girl say, "We may have our pleasant, social evenings all the 
same, and yet be doing good to somebody." Who can estimate how 
much or how far-reaching is this "good ? " What homes it brightens 
even now, what mothers' hearts it renders glad, what wayward lives 
it helps to chasten, and in the future what joy in other homes, not 
formed as yet, shall linger as its blessed sequel ! 

But while the social side of this work is its most important feature, 

the Y. W. C. T. IT. branches out in varied forms of active usefulness. 

Its regular meetings are made interesting and profitable by topical 

study of scientific temperance, by debates, and occasionally a literary 

or musical programme, after business is laid aside. 

Bands of Hope for children, and night schools for boys, are often 
conducted by our young ladies, and many other lines of work, sug- 
gested by the needs of different localities, are successfully pursued. 
I was glad to see that the Young Women's Temperance League of 
Cleveland had arranged for a special course of lectures on the 
chemistry of alcohol and its effects, and that they were enterprising 
enough to have the excellent one given recently, well reported for 
the press. In Rochester, N. Y. , the young women go to the public 
schools, by permission of the Board of Education, and give lessons to 
the children on the scientific aspects of the temperance question. In 
many cities, the kitchen garden, so successful in Cleveland, which 
teaches the household arts to girls, is a charming feature of our work. 
Dear young ladies of this audience, let me urge upon your thought 
an interest in this temperance work. It will help to teach you, as it 
has helped to teach me, the secret of a happy life. 

If you are in doubt as to what you are capable of doing, let me 
leave with you my favorite motto: " Get thy spindle and thy distaff 
ready, and God will give thee flax. " 

National Superintendent of Young Women's C. T. U. 

There is a lovely Quaker home in Skaneateles, N. Y., 
where temperance workers are always welcome. A lady 
" who has the Gospel in her looks " presides over this 


" Weary Women's Rest." " Saint Letitia " we call her, 
as we smooth her soft, bright silver hair, and she looks 
up with deprecation in those kind eyes ; for Quakers 
don't believe in titled saints, though their " Society " has 
furnished more real ones than any other of the same 
dimensions since time began. A well-to-do merchant, C. 
W. Allis by name, is joint partner in this establishment, 
and " Daughter Fanny " is the joy and pride of both. It 
is hard to write with judicial calmness of a friend so dear. 
She was not known to me until her bright girlhood and 
school days were over, and as Mrs. Fanny J. Barnes, the 
wife of a young lawyer, she came to Chicago from New 
York in 1875. I was holding a meeting in the lecture- 
room of the Clark Street Church, and had observed a 
stylish-looking young lady seated beside my good Quaker 
friend, Mrs. Isabella Jones. " I wonder what she came 
for," was in my mind, for temperance was not what it 
has since grown to be in fashionable circles. What was 
my delight when this sweet-faced lady came forward with 
Mrs. Jones, and declared her readiness to " do anything 
she could to help." So frankly was this said, and so truly 
his my "younger sister" (as I have often called her) 
lived up to those words that, on the instant, she grew 
dear to me. In those days of our novitiate, how pleas- 
antly we wrought, " true yoke fellows," with never a jar 
or a difference from then fill now. Fanny — I must call 
her so, even if she is a " National Superintendent " — used 
to come over from her elegant home at the Sherman 
House to my dingy office in the Y. M. C. A., and there 
Ave planned our small campaigns ; but how huge they 
seemed to us then! We helped to carry on that blessed 
"three-o'clock gospel temperance meeting" in Lower 
Farwell Mall, where so many men have found Christ 
in the eight years of its steady work. We held after- 
noon and evening meetings in church parlors ; we 

296 "an atom op temperance dust." 

spoke at the Newsboys' Home ; we received temperance 
calls on New Year's Day; we climbed together up the 
stairs of printing offices, and swung aloft in the dizzying 
"elevator" to editorial sanctums ; we went to Springfield, 
and spoke in the stately Hall of Representatives for 
" Home Protection." Not for some years did my gentle 
friend differentiate into her chosen work for girls, by 
which she is now known wherever the W. C. T. U. has 
gained a foothold. In her New York home, with such 
grand friends as Mrs. Margaret Bottome, Mrs. Mary Lowe 
Dickinson, and that true-hearted " Lady Bountiful," Mrs. 
James Talcott, Mrs. Barnes is steadily building up the 
different departments of a model Y. W. C. T. U. Mrs. 
F. W. Evans is her Secretary and staunch ally. There 
is no prettier sight in bewildering New York than the 
charming home of Mrs. Barnes, in whose manifold and 
bright mosaic her own identity seems tangled, where she 
sits with quiet young Mrs. Evans, " planning the National 
work." " The Boys' Loyal Temperance Legion " is a 
great success, and parlors are soon to be opened for the 
Y. W. C. T. U. But in that mighty Babel the laborers 
are few, and I have letters half droll and half pathetic, 
from my gentle friend. In one of them she said : " Think 
pitifully of me — prayerfully too — for in this roaring 
Gotham I am the veriest, futile atom of temperance dust." 
Mrs. Barnes has the choice endowment of a sunny, 
loving spirit, a versatile mind, a piquant style, and happy 
gifts of speech and pen. She might be a poet if she only 
had time; of this her "Easter Lilies" is sufficient proof. 
At the Louisville National Convention (1882) she gave 
her annual report in a delightful fashion. Coining before 
the great audience with an exquisite basket of flowers, 
and gracefully "suiting the action to the word," she gave 
a " floral report " of the young women's work, represent- 
ing the different localities by flowers indigenous to them 
or whose language was appropriate. 


From every word and deed of Mrs. Barnes shines forth 
the gentleness of the true Christian lady. Her work as 
an ambassador of Christ is but begun. 


On a dim February day in 1877, Berkeley Street Con- 
gregational Church, Boston, was crowded with women. 
They had come over from the great Tabernacle meeting, 
held every forenoon by Mr. Moody, and were now to have, 
as was the daily custom during the three months of that 
marvelous revival, a noon meeting of their own. 

The lady who was to lead found herself in a trying 
position, for the organist was late. Turning to the 
audience, she called for a volunteer musician. There 
was an ominous silence — a craning of necks to see if 
anybody would come forward — but no response. The 
dilemma became painful, and the request was renewed in 
terms of entreaty. " Was this music-famed Boston, and 
yet not a lady — not a young lady — even would come for- 
ward for His dear sake, in whose name we were met, to 
lead us in a hymn of praise ? " A moment's pause ensued, 
and then along the aisle, with quiet step, came a slight 
figure in the garb of mourning. A winsome, spiritual 
face smiled deprecatingly into that of the leader, and a 
gentle voice said simply: "I will try." 

This was sweet Anna Gordon's "first appearance on 
any stage" but from that day she has been quietly going for- 
ward in the work of the W. C. T. U., with whose varied 
methods she is as familiar as any person living, and which 
she has served without money and without official honors, 
in a spirit so gentle, unselfish, and meek as to win for her 
a place in every heart. 

It is worth while to look below the surface in a life so 
unique and a character so rounded. 

Anna Adams Gordon was born in Boston, christened 


by Rev. Nehemiah Adams, for one of whose daughters 
she was named, and became a member of the Congrega- 
tional Church in Auburndale, a Boston suburb, at the age 
of twelve. A lovelier Christian home cannot be found 
than that from which she had the rare fortune to derive 
both " nature and nurture." Her father, James M. Gor- 
don, was for ten years Treasurer of the American Board 
of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, and among his 
seven children no one inherits so much of his strong yet 
strangely gentle individuality. Her mother is the incarna- 
tion of unselfish character. Both have rare vocal gifts, 
and the morning hymn at family worship, led by the 
parents, with their four daughters and three sons taking 
the different parts, has lifted many a tired soul almost to 
the gates of paradise. In later years, after Anna became 
my faithful friend and invaluable Secretary, how many 
times lias the music at this fireside rested me as neither 
psalm nor sermon could! For these were Christians, 
every one, and sang, not with the understanding only, but 
the Spirit. As I went out from 1 the sweet shelter of their 
home, how often have they chanted, as is their custom on 
the morning of a guest's departure, the 121st psalm 
(" The Lord shall bless thy going out and thy coming in 
from this time forth, even forever more ") ! In such an 
atmosphere was trained the oldest child, now Alice Gor- 
don Gulick, the well-known missionary to Spain, who, 
equally with her husband, carries on the church and 
school at San Sebastian. In such a home lived Mary, the 
second daughter with her sweet gift of song, whose death, 
two years ago, removed one of the loveliest spirits that 
ever passed from earth to heaven. What wonder that of 
the five children now living one is in the foreign, and one 
(Prof. Henry Gordon, of Trinidad, Colorado), in the home 
missionary field, a third (Anna) in the temperance work, 
while Miss Bessie Gordon— the peer of any in beauty of 


character — stays at home, that her parents may not be 
lonely, and is the center of the Young Women's work of 
Auburndale, and a second brother, amid the temptations 
of a young business man at the South, holds firm to his 
religious principles, of which total abstinence is one. 

Mount Holyoke, that glorious monument of glorious 
Mary Lyon, was the schooling place of these earnest 
women workers, and carried forward the development 
so auspiciously begun by their inheritance and home 

But the depths of the young soul whose history we 
would depict were never stirred until sorrow troubled the 
pool. She had gone quietly along the pleasant path of 
life, studious of books and music, observant of the splen- 
did object lesson afforded by her native city, thoughtful 
when the noble men and women who were so often guests 
in her home had told of the world's sin and sorrow. She 
was tender in heart, so that she needed not the lovely 
lesson of Cowper's lines, 

" Never to blend thy pleasure or thy pride 
With sorrow of the meanest thing that feels." 

She had a love of nature so acute that when a little 
child of three years old, she was coming home from 
church in early spring, she broke away from her mother's 
guiding hand to run in at an open gate and kneel beside 
a bed of violets, the first she had ever seen in bloom ; 
while she threw her little arms around the wee, shy 
posies, and cried out, almost with tears, " 0, mamma, I 
didn't know that ! " 

She had spent a year abroad, chiefly in Spain, and would, 
perhaps, have been a missionary but for the ii home ache " 
for her parents and her native land. But the eternal stars 
outshine only when it is dark enough. Her blithe young 
spirit had up to this time dwelt at ease. Rowing her 
adventurous boat along the classic Charles, or skating 
merrily over its frozen surface ; the life of sleighing par- 

802 HOW life unfolds! 

ties, picnics, and Christmas festivities, — no hand had cast 
the plummet line of a great purpose into her deepest 
heart. Less than a month before we met in the dim 
church of Berkeley street, Anna had seen the light die 
out forever from eyes she dearly loved ; her noble brother 
Arthur, a gifted, heavenly-minded boy of eighteen, her life- 
long comrade, had suddenly died. She had never before 
seen death, and it was terrible. Closing his eyes with 
her own firm, tender touch, she knelt beside the bed, and 
in such heart-break as the soul knows but once, dedicated 
her life to Christ in the service of humanity. Every- 
thing was different after that. She saw what life is for. 
She knew it could not be to her a summer holiday. Timid 
by nature, and conservative in training, her first hope was 
that, with her passionate love of music, it might be her 
vocation to inspire and lift up human hearts through the 
medium of the organ. But there was other work for her. 
She had never heard a woman speak yet her prejudices 
were not difficult to overcome. Soon we were steadfast 
friends. She played for me all through the Boston meet- 
ings, and in Park Street church stood tremulously before 
the audience, and for the first time publicly witnessed for 
Christ in language. 

One day I placed in Anna's hand a bundle of letters, 
containing invitations for me to speak through the New 
England States. " Please answer these," I said, " making 
out a trip for me at your discretion." This was another 
of the " new departures," all of which she has taken so 
quietly. Ten days later she brought me a neat little book 
with the trip admirably arranged, every train carefully 
marked, the name of every place of entertainment indi- 
cated ; in short, the whole trip so minutely planned that 
I went through it like an express package labeled " witli 
care." From that time this clear-brained, quick-witted 
girl has been my secretary, traveling with me in nearly 


every State and Territory of the nation, an "organized 
Providence" superintending every detail of my life and 
work. But she has been far more than this. The famous 
Home Protection campaign of Illinois, by which in nine 
weeks we secured 180,000 signatures, and festooned the 
Eall of luM rcsentatives at Springfield with a petition one- 
fifth of a mile long, was more largely Anna Gordon's work 
than that of any other, though until now this had not 
beeu avowed. The three trips South were chiefly planned 
by her. Indeed, she is so superior to any one I have ever 
known in arranging a lecture trip that, after a month's expe- 
rience with a well known lyceum bureau, during which I was 
exploited over the country with as little regard to comfort 
as if I had been an alligator, I returned to Miss Gordon's 
fostering care with inexpressible relief and gratitude. 
But in the young women's work her place is second to 
none. She often speaks in public, and always with accept- 
ance ; she organizes with a skill and method which her 
" senior partner " vainly emulates ; and writes letters, 
" between times," with the quiet persistency of a perpetual 
motion. Sometimes I look up from the steady grind of 
work "on the cars" and see "far-away thoughts" in the 
little woman's face, when, lo ! a few minutes later, she 
places a sweet bit of verses in my hand ; sometimes gay, 
but often full of pathos. These she never permits to see the 
light, though I have surreptitiously confiscated one or two 
wee manuscripts for our paper. My purpose in giving these 
details of this young woman's life work is two-fold. I know 
she has thousands of friends who will enjoy and be helped 
by them ; but, more than that, I see in fancy the faces of 
the bright girls I love, in homes all over this broad land, 
bending over the pages where this record of a gracious 
young life is made, and I pray that some sweet sense of 
the power to "go and do likewise" may stir their gentle 
spirits as they read. 



One evening, in 1878, the W. C. T. U. held a meeting 
in the great Lecture Hall of Michigan University, at Ann 
Arbor. It Avas my part to speak of young women's influ- 
ence. A message was handed me, when I had finished, 
to this effect : " The lady students of the university are 
coming forward to put their names upon the pledge roll 
and receive the red ribbon. They do this as a sacred 
duty, in the interest of their brother students, and ear- 
nestly request that there may be no applause." Knowing 
the uproarious customs of collegians, I feared the petition 
had been made in vain, for the galleries were filled with 
young men. But no ; in perfect silence those brave girls 
moved forward down the aisle, and in silence registered 
their names, and took the badge of the Reform Club. 
Professor Olncy, whose mathematical works are so well 
known, and who is one of the noblest temperance men in 
all the land, was chairman of the meeting. When the 
young ladies had resumed their seats, Robert Frazer, a 
gifted lawyer, reformed man, and alumnus of the univer- 
sity, asked permission to speak. He said : 

" Mr. Chairman : I have always been conservative on 
the question of women's higher education and wider work. 
To the extent of my power I opposed their admission to 
the privileges of my alma mater. But to-night I've had 
a change of heart, and I say, God forgive me, and God 
bless them ! They'll save us men if we give them half a 
chance. And now, boys, you've been gentlemen and 
respected the wish of these young ladies. But I say we've 
had a glimpse of the moral sublime, and here goes for 
three cheers for the girls that signed the pledge. Hip- 
Mp-hurrah I '" 

Wellesley College, that palatial school founded by 
Henry F. Durant of Boston, and presided over by gifted 


Miss Alice Freeman, Ph. D., has a thriving Y. W. C. T. U. 
of one hundred members and furnishes a course of lectures 
in the interest of temperance, besides conducting a Band of 
Hope in a manufacturing village near by. Its president 
is a young lady in her senior year. Alleghany College 
Meadville, Pa., has also a model society among its lady 
students, and invited Hon. Neal Dow to give an address upon 
•• ( lommencement Day." The good accomplished by these 
associations is beyond computation. They furnish "society" 
in the best and noblest sense. Their pleasures are such 
as do not " perish in the using." 


The "newest thing" in Y. W. C. T. U. work is the 
••kitchen garden." Miss Mary McClees of Yonkers, 
X. Y., is at the head of this department in the National 
Union, and is most successful in her work, having 
organized in Baltimore, Louisville, and elsewhere. The 
general plan is to teach by object lessons the complete 
duty of a housekeeper, keeping time to the movements of 
bed-making, table-setting, sweeping, etc., by music and 
songs that teach just how to do these things properly. 
Each girl has a doll's bed completely fitted out, and makes 
it, to music, in the most approved style : the rhymes sung 
helping to fix firmly in the mind the very best rules for 
exercising the art. Breakfast and dinner are prepared 
and served — in fancy's eye. as to the food — but with tabic, 
cloth, napkins, and crockery complete. Sweeping and 
dusting are carried out to perfection, also tending the 
door, going to market, and many other exercises. Intef- 
spersed with these lessons can be temperance songs and 
lessons, ad libitum, and the giving out of temperance 
books and stories. Mrs. F. R. Tuttle is superintendent 
of this work in Cleveland, and to see her teaching 
these girls to make a graceful bow is a picture, indeed 


—the model being so full of womanly attractiveness. 
A lady recently came to Miss Minnie Gillette of that 
city, at the close of her charming kitchen garden exhi- 
bition, and said she would like to engage one of the class 
as a servant — which is precisely what the temperance 
ladies hope may result from the general introduction 
of this work, to the great advantage of both mistress and 

This branch of work enlists fashionable young ladies 
who would not be likely to interest themselves in more 
direct temperance methods, but who in this way learn to 
understand the relation of ■ good food and good house- 
keeping to habits of sobriety. Beginning with the kitchen 
garden, they are quite likely to take all the degrees of 
temperance work in the natural evolution of their knowl- 
edge and experience. 


A number of Maine girls have formed a protective 
union, and adopted a series of resolutions for their 
government. The following extract from the constitution 
and by-laws gives a very fair idea of the nature, aims, and 
objects of the society : " That we will receive the atten- 
tion of no self-styled young gentleman who has not 
learned some business or engaged in some steady employ- 
ment ; for it is apprehended that after the bird is caught 
it may starve in the cage. That we will promise marriage 
to no young man who is in the habit of tippling or using 
tobacco, for we are assured that his wife will come to want 
and his children go barefooted. That we will marry no 
young man if he is not a patron of his neighborhood news- 
paper, for it is not only a strong evidence of his want of 
intelligence, but that he will prove too stingy to provide 
for his family, to educate his children, or encourage insti- 
tutions of learning in his community." 




Bear sisters, — Your loyalty to the "Muster Roll 
Pledge " of the great total abstinence army is about to 
be tested on the field. Perhaps the captain will ask you 
to take wine with him at the very first dinner " on board." 
Unquestionably the good physician will prescribe cham- 
pagne as the specific for sea sickness. Absolutely a 
chorus of " more experienced " travelers beyond the sea, 
will warn you against the danger of drinking water, far 
more than they would against the danger of drinking 
drams. But your sisters are persuaded that we shall 
hear better things of you. Like a lovely girl to whom one 
of us said good-bye this morning, wishing her " bon 
voyage," and saying, " Be loyal — don't touch wine;" you 
will answer, " Trust me — I will not forget." 

In carrying out this noble resolution, you may be 
fortified by facts like these: Mr. Thomas Cook, the most 
persistent of tourists, says that in his lifetime of voyag- 
ing, including trips around the world, he has been a strict 
teetotaller, and with the happiest results. 

Bishops of the Methodist Church who travel in Asia 
and Africa, as well as Europe, have told me concurrent 
experience in exactly the same line ; also ministers re- 
presenting many denominations have corroborated this 

Some of our own members joined parties last summer, 
in which they were the only total abstainers, and by 
parity of reasoning, the only ones who escaped the harm- 
ful effects against which their companions vainly attempted 
to provide. 

Boiled water or milk can always be had, and will 
always lie far safer than any stimulating drink. May 
you, dear friends, exhibit the courage of your convictions 

308 new year's day. 

as you journey, and come back to us with pledge un- 
tarnished and health restored, or unimpaired, is the earn- 
est prayer of your sister and friend. 


So far as I can learn, the first announcement of this 
kind on record, was made in the Chicago papers a few 
days before the New Year in 1875. A dozen of our 
leading ladies spent the day at headquarters in the 
Y. M. C. A. We had nearly a hundred calls, many signers 
to the pledge, and some brief prayer meeting scenes, which 
my heart recalls with fervent gratitude. The announce- 
ment that follows we made to our unions at large in 

" The first New Year's Day of America's second 
century is just at hand. How may we fitly signalize it, 
as workers in a reform which means as much more to 
our country's future than civil service or currency re- 
forms, as home means more than bank or office ? In the 
long past, women with Circean blandishments have done 
what other women, gentle and loving, have ignorantly 
imitated, and by means of both, the New Year festival 
has been too often a reminder of bacchanalian feasts. But 
in the land we love, civilization's choicest flower, the world's 
hope, and scene of Christ's most blessed triumphs, it shall 
not be so any more. There is a ' right about face ' in the 
attitude of public sentiment. Banished from presidential 
receptions, governors' banquets, and social reunions, ' the 
wine cup in the jeweled hand' is rapidly becoming a relic 
of the past. The appeals sent forth by so many of our 
unions in these two years succeeding the Crusade, have 
not been useless. Let us repeat them through the local 
press this year, in every town where our organization 
exists, and make them specially emphatic; and whenever 
practicable, let us do more than this. Last year, in 


many places, the ladies' temperance headquarters were 
adorned with evergreens and mottoes, in some instances 
made attractive by 'refreshments,' and here a committee 
appointed for the purpose received the calls of gentlemen 
interested in the cause, and of those also who wished on 
that auspicious day to 'turn over a new leaf.' Many a 
poor fellow would screw his courage to the sticking point 
of signing the pledge under the impetus of Christian 
sympathy thus expressed, who otherwise might fail. We 
do not speak at random, but testify of what we have seen 
in the office of our union at Chicago, where we have spent 
the two most delightful ' New Years' of our lives — as 
much sweeter than the ceremonious 'occasions' of other 
davs. as it is sweeter to minister of heavenly things than 
to be ministered unto of earthly things. Shall it not be 
then that along with other ' social events pertaining to 
the season,' we shall see in many a newspaper the 
significant announcement, ' The W. C. T. Union will 
receive.' (By the way, an adorned ' mite box,' with 
appropriate inscription, might give a secondary meaning 
to the words, which friends of temperance would doubt- 
less heed!)" 


Doubtless it is well that our temperance women think but 
little of the incalculable advantage of the movement to 
themselves. Among unsympathetic outsiders, however, 
no observation is more frequent than that " The W. C. T. 
Unions are accomplishing good things for women, even if 
they are not doing much for temperance." For ourselves 
we prefer that concerning woman's kingdom, which, we are 
persuaded, is closely related to the kingdom of Heaven, 
it should also be truly said, " It cometh not by observa- 

The "Human Question," including in it the woman ques- 
tion, as a circle includes an arc, is the objective point we aim 


at ; for the " Everybody Cliorus " is to our ears the most 
inspiring music this side the hallelujah chorus of Heaven. 
We want no solo of bass or soprano — we want no Paganini 
twanging one string, even though his art were magical. 
Give us the orchestra ! But all the same, we are thank- 
ful to note the rapid development of our members in 
power and clearness of mental grasp, vigor of expression, 
business ability, knowledge of parliamentary usage, and 
many other particulars which tend toward that person- 
ality which is the glory of the home as of the State. 
For as it is the study of a florist to differentiate and per- 
fect the undeveloped into the individualized plant, so in 
God's glorious human garden there is no work so signifi- 
cant to the well-being of all, as the fullest evolution of 
each into his best — her best. Beyond all who have ever 
lived, Christ was the prophet and the priest of individu- 
ality. In Sparta the person existed but for the State ; in 
a Christian civilization, all offices and ordinances find 
their raison d'etre in the person, and justify their being 
only in so far as they develop and ennoble him — and her. 
But in turn, this is for the sake of the whole. In no par- 
ticular have we been more impressed with this growth of 
our Christian workers, than in their themes of conversa- 
tion. Truly " their speech bewray eth them." They learn 
to look beyond home's four walls, and take an interest in 
the larger home of social and governmental life. The 
widening march of our society is quite correctly indi- 
cated by the increasing number of women who read the 
newspapers and can tell you what the legislature is 
doing ! When two of our members meet, they condense 
their observations on the weather, the servant girl, and 
the family ailments, that they may discuss the new plan 
of district work and the conduct of City Council and State 
Legislature. The opinions of Canon Farrar and Dr. 
Richardson are as familiar to them as were the views 


held by Mrs. A. concerning Mrs. B.'s milliner, in the days 
of our grandmothers. God's great gift of speech never 
willingly but often ignorantly abused by women, was 
never turned to nobler uses than in the seven years past. 

But there remaineth much territory to be possessed. 
The solitude of the masculine intellect must be still fur- 
ther invaded. We could mention a home of beauty and 
thrift, whose hospitable, board is surrounded by lovely 
daughters and noble sons, and whose head is a man of 
rare and gifted nature, and yet, so thoroughly has " small 
talk in the family,"' that relic of oriental habitude, perme- 
ated the modes of expression even in this Christian home, 
that the table talk is a dreary waste of platitudes. In- 
terested in every great cause, conversant with all the 
philanthropic movements of the day, and ready to bear a 
generous part therein, these Christian people content 
themselves on intellectual husks, when there is bread 
enough to spare. The different dishes and their flavor ; 
the history and mystery of the day's doings in the kitchen 
and among the pets ; the false reports of " Old Probs,'' 
these, with impossible conundrums and puns, altogether 
unpardonably fill up the hour. 

Emerson says, " We invariably descend to meet," an 
observation, the subtilty of which is illustrated by a mil- 
lion tea-tables even at this hour. Let us hope, however, 
that this statement is historic only, and not prophetic. 
For, behold ! in the sitting-room or on the piazza, the gen- 
tlemen of the household referred to, adjourned from tea, 
begin with one accord to talk of themes more level to 
their intellectual status. Affairs of church and State, the 
hading editorial in a great metropolitan daily, Cook's 
lectures, Croshv"s sermon, Cladstone's land bill, Garfield's 
Southern policy, all these come to the surface, and in dis- 
cussing them how quick their utterance, how intelligent 
their analysis. Meanwhile the sisterhood go their way. 


and if they think their thoughts concerning these discrep- 
ancies between household gossip and post-prandial con- 
versation, no looker-on in Venice is the wiser for their 
lucubrations. Brethren and sisters, these things ought 
not so to be, and to help unify the thought and talk of home, 
our W. C. T. U. is one of the grandest institutions that 
has been invented up to date. 


So far as possible, this should be our motto and our 
rallying cry. Let us claim everything that is good, 
whether it be great or small, as ours by affinity and 
adoption. The other day, at Newark, N. J., in the Tem- 
perance Convention of Essex County, we had a fresh 
illustration of what I mean. Noble men and true had 
called the meeting; that devoted Newark W. C. T. U. 
was out in force, with the Christian Reform Club its 
" Guard of Honor." Rev. Dr. L. H. Dunn was in the 
chair. We were in thorough working humor — you could 
see the spirit beaming in each face. Dr. Dunn came for- 
ward at the close of a speech, and said," Sing 'Auld Lang 
Syne.' ' Now, it is a blessed tune, and full of sweetness 
and tender memories ; but we could by no means tolerate 
its bacchanalian allusions. Think of an audience of zeal- 
ous temperance campaigners declaring, 

" We'll tak' a right good Willy waught," 

"We'll tak' a cup o' kindness yet, 
For auld lang syne. " 

But in these days, when temperance claims all good 
things for its own, our genial chairman readily found a 
a way out. of the difficulty by the following amendment: 
" Sing, 'Am I a soldier of the Cross ? ' to the tune of 'Auld 
Lang Syne.' " These words cut the Gordian knot, and if 
ever hearts and voices joined with " a right good will," 
it was in the last verse : 


"Thy saints, in all this glorious war, 
Shall conquer though thej r die ; 
They see the triumph from afar, 
By faith they bring it nigh." 

Since then the following - beautiful version of "Auld 
Lang Syne " has come to light. It is destined to replace 
the words which embalm social customs from which our 
more kindly and enlightened age is fast emerging. So 
the good work goes on, and shall deepen and extend until 
poetry, music, and romance — last of all citadels to yield — 
become strongholds of total abstinence sentiment as now, 
alas ! thev are of the sentimentalism which looks with 
toleration upon inebriety. 

Tlie Neto Old Lang Syne. 

" It singeth low in every heart, 
We hear it, each and all, 
A song for those who answer not, 
However we may call. 

" They throng the silence of the breast, 
"We see them as before, 
The brave, the kind, the true, the sweet, 
Who walk with us no more. 

" 'Tis hard to take life's burden up, 
When these have laid it down, 
They sweetened every joj r of life, 
They softened every frown. 

"But O, 'tis good to think of them, 
When we are troubled sore; 
The brave, the kind, the true, the sweet, 
Who walk with us no more. 

"More friendly seems the great Unknown, 
Since they have entered there ; 
To follow them were not so hard, 
However they may fare. 

" They cannot be where God is not, 
On any sea or shore ; 
What e'er betides, Thy Love abides, 
Our God forever more." 

314 "she was dependable." 

miss esther pugh, 

Treasurer of National W. C. T. U. 

Two of our workers were talking about epitaphs. Said 
No. One : " Of all others jet penned, I would prefer to merit 
these words upon my tombstone, ' She was dependable.' " 
At this her comrade answered : " Whether you or I merit 
so much may be an open question; but I'll tell you who 
does, and that's our ' watch-dog of the treasury,' — Esther 

This is high, ante-funeral-oration praise, but we are 
safe in putting it on record. One look into our Esther's 
face, with its broad forehead arching above those solemn 
brows and steadfast eyes, would settle that question in 
the most doubtful mind. Like many another woman of 
forceful life, " she is her father over again," the resem- 
blance in features being no stronger than in character. 
He was a man of iron mould and spotless reputation — a 
Quaker of the Quakers, long the publisher of a leading 
Cincinnati daily paper, and well reported for what a good 
pastor of mine used to call " common religion," or Chris- 
tianity applied to business dealings and other e very-day 

The mother was all sweetness and loveliness in char- 
acter, and was idolized by her strong-natured husband 
and daughter. Miss Pugh was a leader at the dawn of 
the Crusade ; indeed the Quakers have such sensible, 
primitive views about " following the Master," that it did 
not seem an unheard-of stepping out to them to " go tell " 
the gospel story to those who, of all others, were least 
likely to conic and hear it inside the Lord's especial 

Waynesboro, Ohio, was the scene of exploits that have 
been often recounted in the annals of " the great 
uprising," and which Miss Pugh narrates with exceeding 
vivacity, having been foremost in that band. 


"bricks without straw.*' 317 

It was in strict accordance with spiritual dynamic laws 
that, from those days to these, Esther Pugh has been 
closely identified with the W. C. T. U. She had the 
brain, the heart, and, best of all, the will to do this work. 
At first an officer in the Cincinnati Union, then in the 
State, and now for years in the National, she knows our 
W. C. T. U. by heart, and its friendships, work, and 
inspirations have been her solace in many recent sor- 
rows — lor father, mother, and the sheltering home 
conserved by their presence, all have passed away in 
these last years. 

Esther Pugh is a woman for difficult emergencies. 
Some of us know how she has " stood in the gap" when 
any lint a veteran would have beat a retreat. As editor 
and publisher of Our Union, she has faced duties at once 
irksome and difficult, but always with a fortitude little 
less than heroic. As the responsible, though not the 
actual head of the " Hayes Commission," she had thrust 
upon her the burden of grave decisions and heavy financial 
obligations, which she assumed without fee or reward, 
and carried with a skill and faithfulness worthy of all 
praise. But as Treasurer of the National W. C. T. U. 
she has earned the right to our profoundest gratitude. 
The forlorn hope of an empty exchequer occupies a 
position to the last degree unenviable, and, alas, too often 
thankless. If the facts could be known concerning her 
letters, circulars, interviews, and appeals for money to 
pay the actual current expenses of printing, postage, rent, 
etc., at our New York office ; if the picture of our 
Treasurer, kneeling in prayer, with the unpaid bills before 
her and sometimes with tears upon her cheeks, could 
come to tin' knowledge of the good people who "believe 
in temperance," Esther Pugh's relation to our great and 
growing work would not be so difficult as it has been up 
to this day. 


But I must not sketch my friend in lines too somber, 
for despite her trying role as custodian of an empty 
treasury, she is a woman of most cheerful spirit, sees the 
droll as well as the serious side of every situation, and 
brightens her letters, as she always does her conversation, 
with rare sallies of wit and pleasantry. 




Mrs. Judith Ellen Foster — A Boston girl, a lawyer, an orator — Her 
work part and parcel of the W. C. T. U. — As wife, mother, and 
Christian— Philosophy of the W. C. T. U. in the Government— The 
Keithsburg election, or the "Women who dared" — The story of 
Rockford— Home protection in Arkansas — A practical application — 
Observations en route — The famous law — Extract from Fourth of 
July address — Local option — Plan for local campaign — How not to 
do it — How it has been done— Temperance tabernacles — History of 
Illinois' great petition — About petitions — Days of prayer — Copy of 
the petition — Home protection hymn — Mrs. Pellucid at the Capitol 
— A specimen Legislature — Valedictory thoughts — Temperance tonic 
— Yankee home protection catechism — A heart-sorrow in an unpro- 
tected home — The dragon's council hall — Home guards of Illinois — 
How one little woman saved the day in Kansas — Election day in 
Iowa — Incidents of the campaign — A Southern incident — Child- 
hood's part in the victory. 


A SKETCH of our Superintendent of the Legislative 
Department fitly opens the chapter on our work 
" in the Government." 

"Blood will tell" is a pithy proverb, and one well 
illustrated in our " Temperance Portia's " vigorous brain, 
firm hand, and generous heart. Her father, Rev. Jotham 
Horton, was a typical son of New England, born in Bos- 
ton in 1789 ; her mother, a native of Duxbury, on Cape 
Cod, was a descendent of General Warren, of Revolution- 
ary fame. Under the preaching of Bishop Hedding her 
father was converted, and began to preach in the Metho- 
dist Church before he was twenty-one years of age. 
When convicted of sin he was also convicted of the duty 



and beauty of total abstinence, and, when he pledged to 
the church his soldiership under the Captain of our sal- 
vation, he pledged himself never to touch intoxicating 
liquors. This was long before he ever heard of a tem- 
perance organization outside the Nazarites and Recha- 
bitcs, so highly recommended in the Bible. For four 
years he worked in his father's blacksmith shop, and 
when the men drank rum " between the heats " he drank 
water, notwithstanding the derisive laugh of his com- 
rades. They perished ignobly, but he endured, becoming 
one of New England's most successful preachers, fore- 
most in all reforms ; dowered with " the hate of hate, the 
scorn of scorn, the love of love," and in his gifted 
daughter still breathes and speaks his lofty and indomi- 
table spirit. Terrible in denunciation and strong in 
argument, he hated sin, loved righteousness, and was a 
redoubtable soldier of Christ. Mrs. Foster's mother was 
a quite different type, the daughter of a sea-captain, 
reared in the quiet of a New England farm, she never 
met the world till called to stand beside this fiery cham- 
pion of the cross. Beautiful in face and form and 
graceful in manner, she was the ideal complement of her 
husband. When Judith (for I can but call her thus, 
believing that the -Iowa liquor traffic shall yet turn out to 
be her Holofernes,) was not quite seven years old, 
she lost this lovely mother. Born at Lowell, Mass., 
November 3, 1840, motherless at seven, and an orphan at 
twelve years of age, Judith Ellen's short life had already 
comprehended the most significant vicissitudes, when her 
oldest sister, Mrs. Charles Pierce, wife of a wealthy business 
man of Boston, received the young girl into her home and 
directed her education, first in the public schools of 
Boston, then at Charlcstown Female Seminary, and last 
at the Genesee Weslcyan Seminary, Lima, N. Y. Her 
musical education was carried on in Boston, under the 


best teachers. After leaving school she taught briefly, 
but at twenty years of age (18G0) she was married to a 
promising young merchant of the city. 

Concerning this painful episode in her history, the fol- 
lowing facts are furnished by a friend : " This union, 
desired and approved by mutual friends, promised naught 
but joy and blessedness ; but clouds soon gathered, and 
after years of poverty and toil and wanderings to and 
fro, and vain attempts to cover up and bear the shame 
that came because she bore his name, nothing was left of 
this sad marriage but two children for her to love and 
rear. In the home of a brother she put on widow's 
weeds, sadder far than those that come at death." 

Having secured a divorce, slie was married to Hon. E. 
C. Foster, who is a prominent lawyer and politician of 
Iowa, a life-long temperance man, and earnest, working 

She read law first for his entertainment, and afterwards, 
by his suggestion and under his supervision, she pursued 
a systematic course of legal study, with, however, no 
thought of admission to the bar. She read, with her 
babies about her, and instead of amusing herself with 
fashion plates or fiction, such learned tomes as Black- 
stone and Kent, Bishop and Story. She never had an 
ambition for public speaking or public life. Although 
reared in the Methodist church, she had never, until about 
the time of the crusade, heard a woman preach or lecture, 
but when that trumpet blast resounded, she, in common 
with her sisters, responded to the call, and lifted up her 
voice in protest against the iniquity of the drink traffic. 
Her acceptance with the people just at the time when she 
had completed her legal studies, seemed a providential 
indication, and her husband said : " If you can talk before 
an audience, you could before a court or jury"; and he 
insisted upon her being examined for admission to the 


bar. Prior to this time she had prepared pleadings and 
written arguments for the courts ; but without formal 
admission she could not personally appear. She was 
examined, admitted, and took the oath to " support the 
constitution and the laws." This triumph won the appro** 
bation of friends and the increased hatred of the liquor 
party, who knew that it meant not only warfare upon the 
temperance platform, but in the legal forum also. The 
night of the day on which she was admitted to practice 
saw her home in Clinton, Iowa, in flames. There was 
little doubt that the fire was kindled by two liquor-sellers 
whom Mr. Foster had prosecuted, and who had just 
returned from the county jail. Mrs. Foster was the first 
woman admitted to practice in the State supreme court. 
She has recently defended a woman under sentence of 
death, and after a ten days' trial, in which our lady law- 
yer made the closing argument, the verdict of the jury 
was modified to imprisonment for life. Mrs. Foster 
enjoys the absolute confidence and support of her husband 
in her legal and temperance work. He was its instigator, 
and more than any other rejoices in it. 

Mrs. Foster has lost two little girls. Two sons remain, 
one of whom is a student in the Northwestern University, 
at Evanston, 111., and another often accompanies his 
mother in her work. In her own home Mrs. Foster is 
universally honored, and for her beloved Iowa she has 
grandly wrought from the beginning until now, when, 
more by her exertions than those of any other individual, 
the constitutional amendment has been ratified by the 
people. Mrs. Foster's life, since the crusade of 1874, is 
part and parcel of the W. C. T. U. She has never been 
absent from one of our national conventions, and her 
quick brain, ready and pointed utterance, and rare knowl- 
edge of parliamentary forms, Have added incalculably to 
the success of these great meetings. There is not a State 


at the North in which our cause is not to-day more pow- 
erful than it would have heen but for her logic and her 
eloquence. Whether making her famous two hours' argu- 
ment for the constitutional amendment, as she did night 
after night for successive months in the Northwest, writ- 
ing a treatise on that great subject, as she has lately done, 
or following the intricacies of debate in a convention and 
conducting a prayer-meeting between the sessions, whether 
leading the music of an out-door meeting, answering Dr. 
Crosby at Tremont Temple, Boston, pleading for woman's 
ballot in Iowa, or for prohibition in Washington ; whether 
playing with her boys at home, reading Plato in the cars, 
preaching the gospel from a dry-goods box on the street 
corner of her own town, or speaking in the great taberna- 
cle at Chautauqua, Mrs. Foster is always witty, wise, and 
kind, and thorough mistress of the situation. Her hus- 
band's heart doth safely trust in her, and her boys glory- 
in a mother who can not only say with Cornelia, of Rome, 
" These are my jewels," but whose great heart reaches 
out to restore to the rifled casket of many another woman's 
home, whence strong drink has stolen them, these gems 
of priceless cost. Best of all, she loves the Lord Jesus 
Christ, and above her chief joy desires and labors to build 
up His kingdom on the earth. 


When a ray of light starts forth from the Sun of Right- 
eousness, men may not limit its flight nor prescribe its 
influence. When the fisherman, in "Arabian Nights," 
broke the strange kettle, and the genie emerged and " ex- 
panded its pinions in nebulous bars," it was a waste of 
words to order the apparition back into the limits which, 
once for all, it had escaped. When the Woman's Chris- 
tian Temperance Union began its evolution, the law of 

spiritual force predicted its expansion till, in the fullness 


of time, its leaven should leaven the whole lump. What 
if, in fifty days, the crusade by its prayers and persuasions 
routed the liquor traffic, " horse, foot, and dragoons," out 
of two hundred and fifty towns and villages ? Did they not 
spring up again like so many Canada thistles ? What if, on 
three hundred and sixty-four days in the year, women 
wrought patiently to build defences around their homes 
with their moral suasion weapons, did not the voters carry 
them away as with a flood upon election day, intrenching 
the triumphant dram-shop behind the sheltering aegis of 
the commonwealth ? What wonder, then, that by the 
most natural gradations ; by growth rather than by a 
forcing process ; " by evolution rather than by revolution," 
as Joseph Cook so aptly puts it, the W. C. T. IL, passing 
through the stages of petition work, local-option work, 
and constitutional-prohibition-amendment work, have come 
to the conviction that women must have the ballot as a 
" home protection " weapon ? 

The long, slow marches of the years ; the logic of events, 
and the argument of defeat in our warfare against the 
dram-shop ; the strange discovery that the Ten Command- 
ments and the Sermon on the Mount are voted up, or 
voted down, upon election day ; the reiterated lesson in 
temperance arithmetic that, in spite of home, and church, 
and school; in spite of Y. M. C. A., and W. C. T. IT., 


has most votes — all these have led us up to our conclu- 
sion. The men of the liquor traffic have themselves con- 
tributed not a little to our schooling. In their official 
organs, secret circulars to political aspirants, and by the 
mightier eloquence of votes paid for with very hard cash, 
they have united in the declaration (here given in their 
own words) : "Woman's ballot will be the death knell of 
the liquor traffic ! " 

On the other hand, when our simple-minded temperance 


women have gone to reputable men of affairs with the 
question : " Why is the sale of strong drink protected by 
law in our commonwealth?" the answer has invariably 
been : " Because the public sentiment seems to require it." 

But we slowly learned to follow up that question with 
another far more significant, "Whose public sentiment; 
that of the church?" Oh, no; two-thirds of the church 
are women, and well do they understand that Christ's 
cause has no enemy so bitter and redoubtable as the traf- 
fic in strong drink. 

"Whose public sentiment; that of the home?" Oh, 
no; the home guards have learned by pitiful experience 
that home — the shrine for the sake of which all that is 
pure and good on earth exists — has no enemy so subtle 
as the dram-shop. 

-Whose public sentiment?" Why, that of men who 
make and sell the poisonous beverages ; men who drink 
them, and other men dependent for patronage in business, 
professional life, and for political preferment on those 
who drink and sell. 

These classes, as the outcome of deliberate choice, 
based upon selfish motives, saddle the liquor traffic on 
our communities, year after year. But all the while they 
were outraging the "public sentiment" lodged in the 
brain, heart, and conscience of the women in their homes ! 

Moreover, the class thus unrepresented in the most 
important decision that local government involves, is not 
committed to the liquor interest by any of the motives out 
of which the choices grew whose outcome was the license 
ballot in the fateful box. They are not entangled with 
business interests or partnerships; they have, as a rule, 
no connection with professional life; no aspirations for 
political preferment. By nature, and by the circumstances 
of their lives, they would bring to this decision a set of 
motives altogether new, and of resultant choices alto- 


gether different. By not utilizing this " public sentiment K 
at the point where a conviction can pass into a vote, and 
a heart-break into a law, we temperance women became 
convinced that good men conspicuously exhibited their 
lack of the serpent-like wisdom which is as authoritatively 
enjoined on Christian soldiers as is the dove-like harm- 

But while convinced that woman's ballot, for purposes 
of home protection, must be the outcome of the temper- 
ance reform in its governmental phase, our W. C. T. U. 
everywhere falls in with the prevailing sentiment as to its 
legal work. In the South there is no effort to introduce 
the " home protection movement," as this work for the 
ballot is called. In Kansas and Iowa the women worked 
hard for prohibition, and were proud and grateful that 
the votes of men secured a boon so blessed. In Pennsyl- 
vania and Michigan they are " the power behind the 
throne," in the present efforts towards the same end. 
But all the same, their eyes have been opened to see that 
(as a gifted one has said) " while prohibition is the nail, 
woman's ballot is the hammer .that must drive it home." 
For while the issue is to a great extent non-partisan dur- 
ing the period of legislating for the prohibitory amend- 
ment itself, it must at once cease to be so when the 
executive officers who alone give its provisions force are 
to be chosen. For example, when in each locality the 
magistrate, the sheriff, the constable are to be chosen, 
then the liquor interest will rally its forces under one 
party banner, and the temperance forces under another. 
Precisely here comes in the "dead pull" in tugging 
prohibition up the Hill Difficulty ; precisely here the votes 
of women will turn the scale for temperance. Is this 
doubted ? 

christ'r soldiers counted at the ballot-box. 329 
the keithsburg election ; or " the women who dared." 

•' The things which are impossible with men are possible with God." 
"All things are possible to him that believeth." 

The following letter was written by Miss Lois Smith 

of Rhode Island, in reply to the query, " What about the 

Keithsburg election?" 

Monmouth, 111., April, 1880. 
My Dear Friend — To begin at the beginning: While attending a 
district convention at Bushnell, 111., last week, "I became acqnainted 
with the fart that the Town Board of Keithsburg, 111., had recently 
passed a "Home Protection Ordinance" (and that unanimously), and 
that women over eighteen years of age, residing in the town, were by 
its provisions invited to vote "for license " or " against license," on 
Monday, the 5th day of April, 1880. The Keithsburg W. C. T. U., 
through a committee of twelve ladies, had explained the ordinance, 
and read the invitation to vote to every woman in the town (the work 
of this canvassing committee told on election day, I assure you). Now, 
thought I, "seeing is believing" it is said, and so I at once resolved 
that ' ' Naomi " and I would be there to see. We accordingly made 
our way to Monmouth, stopped for the night at the hospitable residence 
of Mr. and Mrs. Kirkpatrick, and next morning, in company with 
Mrs. M. L. Wells of Springfield, and Mrs. E. G. Hibben of Peoria 
(the newly-elected successor of Frances E. Willard), President of 
Illinois W. C. T. U., we set off for "the seat of war." Keithsburg is 
a town of about fifteen hundred inhabitants, in Mercer county, 
Illinois, on the Mississippi river, "beautiful for situation," and but 
for the unenviable fact of being the only " license" corporation in the 
county, would be a thriving little town. Upon our arrival at Keiths- 
burg we were received at the depot by Mrs. Slocum, the energetic 
President of the W. C. T. U., with a carriage and horses, and speedily 
transferred to her own and other homes of Keithsburg. 


At half -past three o'clock p. m. we met the ladies of" the W. C. T. U., 
and some of the citizens, in the Presbyterian Church for conference. 
The meeting was held at the close of the preparatory sermon previous 
to the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper. I sat in amazed meditation 
and reflected. Here we are, holding this meeting, and talking about 
the voting of women, in immediate connection Avith this especial 
religious service, in a Presbyterian meeting house ! Shade of the 
Puritans ! How this world is moving on ! The meeting was opened 
with prayer by Lois L. Smith; Mrs. Hibben and Mrs. Wells addressed 


the ladies present, and Messrs. Pepper and Taliaferro answered the 
questions concerning the ordinance, etc., closing with prayer by Cassie 
L. Smith. 

There was a temperance mass meeting held in the evening, 
addressed by Mr. Pepper, at the M. E. Church. 


The use of the M. E. Church was kindly given, and meetings held 
in the forenoon and evening. At eleven a. m. Mrs. Hibben read the 
Scripture lessons, and prayer was offered by Cassie L. Smith. The 
following telegram from Miss Frances E. Willard was read: "Eager 
eyes are watching you from a thousand darkened homes. God help 
you to be brave and true ! " Lois L. Smith spoke as God gave her 
utterance, from Ephesians 0: 12, 13, "For we wrestle not against 
flesh and blood," endeavoring to show the true nature of the liquor 
traffic (i, e., actuated by Satanic power), and the means to be used for 
its overthrow, viz. : a holy, consecrated Church, using such weapons 
as God has ordained. 

At half-past two p. M. a Children's Meeting was held in the Presby- 
terian Church, conducted by Cassie L. Smith. 

At half-past four p. M. Mr. I. M. Kirkpatriek of Monmouth, whose 
interest in the occasion was such that he had procured a substitute for 
an engagement that he had made to speak in a neighboring town on that 
day, in order that he might be present at the Keithsburg election, 
spoke with apparently Methodistic fire and fervor at the most public 
street corners, using a lumber wagon for a pulpit, after the fashion of 
pioneer Methodist preachers. 

The evening meeting was addressed by Mrs. Hibben and Mrs. 
Wells. The singing during the day and at nearly all the subsequent 
meetings was led by a grand choir of young women, of whom there 
are a goodly number in the Keithsburg W. C. T. U., which is but 
four months organized, and numbers seventy members. Their singing 
contributed much to the interest and success of the meeting. 


Monday at seven a.m., a prayer-meeting of rare spiritual power 
was led by Mrs. Hibben, who opened the meeting by announcing the 
hymns, "Where He leads we will follow," and " Triumph by-and- 
bye." Reading 121st Psalm and 124th Psalm. Requests for praj-er : 
for the salvation of six men with whom I talked yesterday; for four 
young ladies who are undecided; for Keithsburg W. C. T. U., and for 
the young men and young women of Keithsburg. This request was 
made by Mrs, Taliaferro, and accompanied by a tearful- exhortation 
for many loved ones. Mrs. Hibben led in prayer for these requests, 


and was evidently helped with the divine unction while she prayed. 
Singing: "I will sing of my Redeemer," followed by the reading of 
Dean Trench's poem on prayer, "Lord what a change within us one diort 
hour." Prayer by ( lassie L. Smith for following requests: for the men of 
Keithsburg who are wavering; for young men, ahout whom there is a 
spceial whisky influence; for little hoys of Keithsburg. Also prayer 

drs. Wells. Singing: " Hallelujah, 'tis done." Mrs. Hihben then 
read a letter from a reformed man, a German, and formerly an infidel. 
Other prayers and requests. Singing: " I need Thee every hour." 
Cassie L. Smith then asked the question: " Who will be on the 
Lord's side?" and nearly every person present arose, among them a 
number who were not professing Christians; then Lois L. Smith led 
in a prayer of consecration, "while heaven came down our souls to 
greet, and glory crowned the mercy seat." "Blest be the tie that 
binds " was then sung, and the first company of women, forty-seven 
in number, proceeded quietly to the place for voting. It was my rare 
good fortune to take on my arm an aged Presbyterian lady, of 
Southern birth and education, who could hardly tell how such strange 
things had come about, but was nevertheless not behind in her duty 
on this important day, and also to attend Baby Slocum in his phceton 
while his papa and mamma went together to deposit their ballots. 
During the day the Keithsburg band volunteered their services, 
"because it was the first time the Avomen ever voted, you know." 

The election proceeded very quietly, and all hands agreed there 
never was such an election day. Several men who bad always voted 
"for license," came with their wives and voted "against license." 
One man who had always voted the whisky ticket said: " I could 
stand everything but the woman's prayers. I shall vote no license." 
He was present at the seven a. m. prayer-meeting. Young Mr. 
Taliaferro said that, so far as he could learn, all the young men who 
voted for the first time, voted the "anti-license ticket " for town board 
as well as "against license." 

At five p. m. of election day. One hundred and fifty-four women 
have voted up to this time. One lady said, " I have lived to see my 
prayers answered. My son and three daughters have voted together 
against whisky." Banners are out with "Bad luck to whisky," and 
" Down with License." The band is playing and the enthusiasm rises. 
Temperance ahead. Men who have formerly voted whisky are run- 
ning their teams to gather up votes for "temperance." Much to our 
regret Mrs. Hibben was obliged to leave on the afternoon train for 
( Ihicago. " God bless you women," she said, as the omnibus in winch 
we accompanied her to the depot passed the voting place where the 
women were hard at work. 



Meeting at the M. E. Church at half-past seven p. m. The singers 
were on hand, and sang with inspiration, although many of them had 
been working hard all day, and were very weary. 

Lois L. Smith read Psalms 81 and 82. (I didn't dare read "Then 
sang Deborah," until the election returns were announced, although I 
had two places in my Bible opened, awaiting developments.) 

Cassie L. Smith led the expectant congregation in prayer. The 
choir sang again, and just then the messenger came with the election 
returns, and our hearts swelled unutterably full of thanksgiving to 
the prayer-answering God as the announcement was made, "No 
license in Keithsburg ! A clean sweep for temperance ! " The figures 
were slightly incorrect. The following is the official statement kindly 
furnished to me by the clerk. (Three women were among the judges 
and clerks of the election) : 

Anti-license for Town Board, - - - - 517 

For license, - - 451 

(These tickets were of course only voted by men.) 


Women voting against license, 159 

Men, --- - ... 98 

Men for license, - 1 

Not one woman for license. The intense enthusiasm of the hour 
is impossible to describe. The choir sang "Hurrah! hurrah!" and 
"Glory, Hallelujah! " After the excitement had measurably subsided, 
Mrs. Wells, who had been announeed as the speaker for the evening, 
began her address, but she was soon interrupted by the band, who 
came at once on their reception of the joyful news, to serenade "the 

Mrs. President Slocum immediately invited them to take seats in 
the church, and for two hours the people rejoiced greatly with songs 
and speech making. Several men signed the pledge— one, the son of 
an invalid mother, for whom many prayers had been offered. 'Twas 
a wonderful day! The answers to prayer were so marked that we 
were constrained to say, as one after another the requests that were 
made at the early morning prayer meeting were fulfilled: " Give unto 
the Lord the glory due unto His name." A deep undercurrent of 
spiritual power pervaded the community, and I was reminded of the 
saying of good Esther Pugh, as she tells of the days when the crusade 
began, "Our chief thought was, God is here." God was there, at 
Keithsburg. I paused at one time on the street and looked down its 


length toward the river, and T wished I could photograph the whole. 
Young men and maidens, old men, women and children, all working 
for the right, ami not a tew faithful women were endeavoring to win 
souls for Christ along the highway. There is now a demand for 
revival work thai seems to be so imperative that it is difficult to denj', 
but our engagements are fixed. It is impossible to remain. It was 
an eventful day, but the end is not yet. "So may all thy enemies 
perish, O Lord." 


Illinois has hardly another town so beantiful for situa- 
tion as Rockford, on the rolling river beloved by some of 
us from childhood's sacred days. The crusade took a 
deep hold here, and Mrs. Henry lived out the pages of her 
well-known book, " The Pledge and Cross," in the real 
work of Rockford W. C. T. U. Here have " borne and 
labored and had patience," those elect ladies, Mrs. Backus, 
Mrs. Wilkins, and Mrs. Melancthon Starr, with their 
worthy coadjutors. Conservative by nature and by prac- 
tice, this W. C. T. U. was reluctant to fall into line when 
the White Ribbon Regiment of Illinois, moved gently to 
the front and planted firmly " once for all" its Home 
Protection Banner. Twelve towns of the Prairie State 
permitted women to vote on the question of license, and 
in them all the "-Home Guards" fulfilled the predictions 
of their friends by outlawing the liquor traffic. As year 
after year passed on, and our Rockford sisters learned by 
what they suffered from the mighty power by which the 
sovereign citizen throws around the dram-shop the 
guarantees and safeguards of the State, they took a 
solemn resolution. In pursuance thereof, a petition was 
carried to the city council (T. B. "Wilkins, the hus- 
band of Mrs. Wilkins, being mayor) asking, that since 
by the laws of Illinois, the question of licensing dram- 
shops is left discretionary with the local authorities, they 
should pass an ordinance under which they should be 


pledged to grant no licenses, if by popular vote of men 
and women over twenty-one years of age, the majority 
should declare against license. Such an ordinance was 
adopted, and the spring campaign was entered upon with 
energy, the ladies canvassing the city with their petitions, 
and going to the polls two thousand strong. Now, be it 
remembered that Rockford is a manufacturing town, with 
a large foreign population, but that notwithstanding this, 
hundreds of poor women and foreign women put on their 
best Sunday attire and marched in the procession that 
day to drop in their no license ballots, while but two 
women (and they homeless and debased) voted in favor 
of continuing dram-shops among the institutions of a 
town in which mothers were to rear their children. 
Mrs. Wilkins wrote me as follows : 

Manufacturers, ministers, merchants, doctors, lawyers— all classes, 
indeed— came with their wives to the polls, with as much good feeling 
and dignity as they would manifest in going to church. Young 
women came alone or in pairs. We had a quiet, pleasant day— no 
disturbances or need of police in the whole city. Even our enemies 
confessed in the papers next day that their prophecies concerning that 
election, viz., that the best women would not vote, and we should 
have disorder at the polls, had failed. 

But note the sequel. While women, under the special 
ordinance, were voting on the " non-partisan " question 
of "license or no license," the liquor interest had its 
party ticket in the field, and, though good men wrought 
valiantly, there was not enough who " stood up to be 
counted " to make a majority ; consequently a license 
board was elected, the ordinance under which the women 
voted was at once repealed, and dram shops flourished 
like the green bay tree. 

Note also that if the women, too, had been permitted to 
vote for the officers themselves, as well as on the abstract 
question of license (that is, for the enforcer as well as 
the enforcement Act), the majority would have been over- 


whelming for prohibition. An ounce of fact is worth a 
ton of theory. 


We met in the Hall of Representatives at Little Rock, 
where, in 1880, through the efforts of temperance men 
and women, a law was passed by which, within three 
miles of a church or school-house, the sale of intoxicating 
liquors could be prohibited by the will of the majority of 
the men and women, expressed in the form of their signa- 
tures to a petition. Delegates to this grand jubilee were 
present from all parts of the State, the majority being 
ministers, lawyers, and editors, those three mighty factors 
in the problem of public sentiment. Unlike most of our 
Northern States, Arkansas boasts a judiciary wherein 
almost every member is a friend of this law by which the 
people actually rule. 

These dignified gentlemen were out in force, and their 
opinions had great weight with the audiences which for 
three days and evenings assembled in the historic hall. 
My notes of several leading addresses will best reproduce 
the impression which has so renewed my strength as a 
temperance advocate. 

Rev. H. R. Withers, a pioneer preacher and editor, 
spoke somewhat as follows : 

Nearly forty years ago Dr. R. L. Dodge, a young medical mission- 
ary from Vermont, was sent out by the American Board of Foreign 
Missions to help evangelize the Creek Indians. He rode two thousand 
miles on horseback, from Danville, Pa., to Fort Gibson. Ten years 
later he established the first temperance paper ever known in the then 
wild State of Arkansas. He had a heart as big as the wilderness 
around him and true as the stars that lighted his pathway through the 
forest. Pun; and clear, but small and almost unheeded, he sent forth 
his clarion voice for prohibition. Yonder he sits, God bless him, full 
of years and honors, the noblest Roman of them all! Are we not 
glad he has lived to see this day? Look over the map of our be- 
loved State, where we and our wives have so long labored and 


had patience, trace the line from Fort Smith to Little Rock and all 
along the Iron Mountain Road, look over the counties, and from 
three-fourths of them you will find the liquor traffic routed, horse, 
foot, and dragoons. Women did it ! We men put the weapon of law 
in their hands, and they have wielded it like true daughters of the 
Church, the State, the home'. We welcome you to the first temperance 
jubilee that Arkansas has ever known, because never before had the 
sovereign people an opportunity to assert its conviction and to avenge 
its heartache. 

The next speech was by Col. Porter Grace, a leading- 
lawyer, and I will sum up in my report what I heard him 
say in public and in private on this question. Learning 
that he was the member of the committee which reported 
to the Legislature the wishes of the temperance people 
for this bill, I was desirous to know his motive. This 
was his testimony : 

In my career as a lawyer I have prosecuted or defended one hundred 
and thirty men for homicide in my part of the State. Fully nine- 
tenths of all my cases at court have been directly traceable to the 
liquor traffic. I have seen women suffer so much that I determined 
to befriend them, if I could. Two facts stood out in bold relief as the 
result of my experience: first, intoxicating drinks are at the bottom 
of crime; second, the women, as a class, not only do not drink, but 
are set against the habit. Then came the question: "What can be 
done to protect the homes?" Our Legislature had not got up, nor 
down, nor around (just as you please to call it) to the idea of the full 
ballot for women. So, as I could not put that in their hands, I 
resolved to do my level best to give them the vote by signature. We 
asked for this law, and secured it by a large majority. Be it said to 
the everlasting credit of women withal that, as a class, without regard 
to color, they stood for the right when we gave them the power. 

I learned that the Woman's Christian Temperance 
Union in fourteen counties sent in petitions to the Legis- 
lature, and that first called the attention of Col. Grace 
and his committee to the immediate demand on the part 
of the people for this measure. Senator Mitchell, who 
was the chief champion in the Senate, said : 

I was always opposed to the ballot for women; but they have so 
nobly vindicated their right to it in our State, and by their quiet and 


divine action have done so much more to increase the sum of human 
welfare here than any single force has ever before done, that I am 
prepared to use my influence to invest them with full sovereignty pro 

Hon. H. M. McVeagh, one of the most gifted lawyers 
in the State, said : 

I come from Osceola, in the northwest county of our State. A few 

years ago we were given up to drink. I have often heard Judge , 

who sits there at my left, discharge the jury because they were too 
drunk to serve. I have seen members of the grand jury, when a 
murder ease was being tried, fall asleep because of drunkenness, and 
start up when nudged by a lawyer, and say: "What— case — we — 
a-tryin' now." Then the only code was that you must be able to 
In ild more than the other fellow. That was where your gifts and 
prowess came in. Arkansas had no use for a man who didn't drink. 
My friend, the judge, will corroborate this statement. There was a 
\ oung man in our county who achieved the position of sheriff when 
only twenty two years old. He was a graduate of Mississippi Univer- 
sity, and worth $40,000 in his own right. He was the handsomest 
man in the State, and married a beautiful young woman. From 
taking an occasional glass, he went down in five years so that he 
spent one-half of his time in jail for stealing the wherewithal to buy 
liquor, and the other half whipping his mother and his wife. After 
several times trying to kill himself, he died suddenly, a common 
drunkard and pauper. Yes, we were given to drink; but I want you 
just to imagine the change, when, to say nothing of our closed-out 
saloons, a river steamboat stopping at our wharf shuts up its bar! One 
of our drinkers went on board but yesterday and tried to get a glass. 
" No," Baid the captain, "I have no mind to be shut up in Osceola 
jail." Imagine the change when owe marshal says: "You might as 
well abolish my office. For one month I have had no cases of 
drunken and disorderly conduct, and not a single arrest save one for 
thieving.'' You may imagine the change when a mean-spirited busi- 
ness man in our community said to an old resident: "You can't keep 
up your town. Xo arrests, no fines. You can't even keep your side- 
walks in repair." And some fanners, standing by, laughed their con- 
tempt for the speech, and one of them said to the rest: " What a pity 
it is, boys, that a lot of us can't be jerked up by the marshal, carried 
out to court, and sawed up into the right length for sidewalks." 

I want you to remember that no outsider came to help us. We've 
aad no " movement" and no excitement. Our political leaders have 
stood aloof; but the law had sharpened a weapon for us. The majesty 
of the people registered their decree according to the motto, prophetic 


as it now seems, of our dear old State: " Regnat populos." Arkansas 
is religious. Go out into our backwoods, and you will find a Bible in 
tbe bouse and bowed beads around the table, asking God's blessing on 
the daily bread. "The people of the rural dee-stricts," as they are 
sometimes called, can be trusted to take their own destiny in their 
hands, only you must let them all come to the front in solid phalanx 
against their foe. For law is merely public sentiment organized. The 
Supreme Court has declared our law constitutional; so, tbe other day, 
when a saloon-keeper lost his case in the District Court, somebody 
asked him if he was going to appeal it, and he answered, with an oath: 
" Wbat use would it be, when the Supreme Court has turned itself 
into one big Murphy meeting? " 

Rev. Dr. Winfield, one of the most gifted men in the 
Methodist Church, South, made the closing speech of the 
evening. He spoke with exceeding pathos, saying : 

I have cast in my lot with Arkansas and worn out my life in her 
service. I bave a right to complain of the stinging injustice done me 
by the laws that tempt my boy to ruin, so that it is a positive danger 
for him to pass along these streets of Little Rock. And I claim for 
my home at tbe capital the protection already given to other towns, 
so that the provisions of this law may extend to a city of the first 

Dr. Winfield' s wife is President of the W. C. T. U. of 
the capital, and Dr. Dodge's of the State. The most 
important question before the Convention was whether, 
at the next session of the Legislature, the temperance 
people should try for a constitutional amendment or to 
extend the present law to the largest towns. It is note- 
worthy that, notwithstanding the prevailing enthusiasm 
for constitutional prohibition, the unanimous advice of the 
judges present — than whom I never saw a body of more 
intelligent, whole-hearted temperance men — was to adhere 
to the present form, but to enlarge its scope. This was, 
after full discussion, acceeded to by a unanimous vote. 
The argument of the saloon-keepers, made by their lawyer 
before the Supreme Court, has in it matter for reflection 
by those who consider the weapon of law a " carnal one " 
in woman's hands, even though it prove " mighty for the 

A PRACTICAL TEST. :'>•"'»'.» 

pulling down of strongholds." I quote from the printed 
"brief" furnished me by Col. Wittick, one of the leading 
lawyers of the Stale : 

None but male persons of sound mind can vote; but their rights 
s»e destroyed, and the idiot, alien, and females step in and usurp their 
rights in popular government. Since females, idiots, and aliens cannot 
, they should not be permitted to accomplish the same purpose by 
signing a petition; for the signature of an adult to a petition is the 
substance of a ballot in taking the popular sense of the community. 
It merery changes the form, and is identical in effect. 

May God hasten the day when all good people 'who 
oppose tliis kk Home Protection Movement" shall see that 
they have allies whom they can but detest, and when this 
most Christian method of temperance work shall become 
universal in this Christian land. 


With this keen threshing instrument of a " Home Pro- 
tection " law in hand, let us look in upon the little town 
of Ball Knob, Ark. The population is made up of men 
engaged in quarrying for a railroad, and the saloon-traps 
catch these poor, undeveloped souls as they emerge from 
the paymaster's car, which comes along the track once a 
week, and divert their wages from supplying the flour- 
barrel at home to supplying the till of the dram-shop. 
.Merchants have been obliged to " garnishee " the earnings 
of these men in the interests of the hungry wife and chil- 
dren at home, as the only means of preventing the dis- 
ruption of their families. But members of the Women's 
Christian Temperance Union started out one bright morn- 
ing, on a preconcerted signal, and quietly canvassing the 
town, secured the names of a majority of the people to a 
petition against the leeches that were gorging themselves 
on the blood of "industry and famishing the homes of the 
poor. Within twenty-four hours the liquor-dealers had 
"folded their tents like the Aral), and as silently stolen 


away," leaving women's hearts full of a strange new joy. 
They had not even known, so ignorant were they, that 
any such door- of escape had been opened to them by this 
benignant law. Some of them could not write their own 
mimes, but gratefully made the sign of the cross. 
blessed cross ! symbol beloved of that Christ who lifts 
woman up out of her degradation, and places her feet 
upon the beautiful mountains of privilege and hope. 

This illustration is but one among scores that might be 
cited, the total influence of which has been to shut up the 
saloons in three-fourths of the counties of Arkansas. So 
will it always be when our Christianity becomes so prac- 
tical that the united force of all good men and women can 
be brought to bear against the liquor traffic at the point 
where conviction can be correlated with law. 

( From a Letter Home.) 
Winter of 1882 : It is a gala day for all good people in 
Arkansas. Little Opportune and I are on the train, tak- 
ing a ten hours' ride from the capital to the border of 
Indian Territory, where, in the wickedest town of the 
State, we are to hold four temperance meetings to-morrow 
(Sabbath), and to get a foothold for our dearly beloved 
Women's Christian Temperance Union. On the train 
men are talking of nothing else save this local option law, 
which has recently gone into effect, and by the provisions 
of which women as well as men have the vote by signa- 
ture on the question of licensing saloons. It is, in effect, 
the very same law for which we worked so hard in Illinois. 
As a prominent lawyer just said to me on the cars, " We 
have been so cursed in Arkansas by drink, the homes and 
the women have been so oppressed, that when, in response 
to the petitions of the Women's Christian Temperance 
Union, and the hard work of Colonel Grace, J. L. Palmer, 

-A BLIND TIGER.' 1 341 

and others, the last Legislature said to our people, ' Up, 
and at 'em. r you may be sure we didn't stand on cere- 
mony. The women have displayed a loyalty and earnest- 
ness beyond all praise, and in three-fourths of our counties 
prohibition is the law. We are fortunate in having the 
press and the lawyers almost solid on our side, as well as 
the ministers, and so we get thorough enforcement." 

As we flv along on the train from town to town, it is 
a strange and blessed sight' to see every saloon — and 
there are always so many in sight from the depot — her- 
metically sealed, the lonesomest looking places I have 
ever beheld outside the glimpse I had in Egypt of the 
Desert of Sahara. A good minister seated behind me — 
the Rev. Mr. Boone — has just shown me his elegant gold- 
headed cane, given him by the temperance people of 
Morrillton in return for his hard work in getting up the 
death-dealing petition that closed out the liquor traffic 
there. Perhaps their appreciation was enhanced by the 
fact that, as the good man was leaving their town when 
his work was ended, a venomous saloon-keeper came to 
the depot and spat in his face. Having done this, the 
miserable fellow took out his pistol and said, " Come on ; 
I'm ready." " Oh, no," replied the good-natured-looking 
minister, " I should be no match for you in the use of the 
weapons you have chosen." 

Just now we passed a town at which the temperance 
man pointed triumphantly, saying, "They had a blind 
tiger here" (meaning the secret sale of grog), "but the 
good folks closed him out yesterday to the tune of $500 
and costs." 

The machinery of the law is superb. No " remon- 
strance" or counter petition is permitted. The simple 
question, " Do we want dram-shops?" is answered by the 
signatures of men and women, and that settles the mat- 
ter — not for a year only, but " once for all." In not a 


single case where the vote has been taken, has it lavored 
the abomination of desolation. The outrages upon the 
homo have been borne so long that "wrath has been 
treasured up against the day of wrath." Too often the 
"drug-store nuisance" succeeds that of the saloon, and 
prescriptions at so much apiece fly thick as autumn leaves 
from the hands of recreant members of the medical fra- 
ternity. Not so here. Each doctor makes public affidavit, 
under pains and penalties, that only in cases of extreme 
necessity will he so prescribe. The only people aside 
from saloon-keepers who have, so far as I can learn, 
antagonized the law, are the " Hard-shell Baptists." 
They have joined in the hue and cry that " alcohol is a 
good creature of God," and angrily declared that women 
had better stay inside their own proper sphere, and let 
politics alone. 

General Erwm, of Des Arc, and his earnest-hearted 
wife, gave me a most interesting account of their work in 
that remote but wide-awake community. It seems they 
have a Woman's Christian Temperance Union of fifty 
members ; a flourishing Juvenile Society, which has care- 
fully studied Di\ Sewall's " Stomach Plates," and Julia 
Colman's " Catechism." They have thus built up a solid 
and intelligent sentiment, and when the law declared that 
women might have power equal to men in the decision of 
this great home question, thus for the first time in the 
history of their town expressing the actual public senti- 
ment in a concrete form on the question of the dram- 
shops, there was no question as to the result. Mrs. Erwin 
took her horse and buggy and went in one direction, her 
husband rode on horseback in another, and obtained the 
decision of " We, the people of Des Arc," and within 
twenty-four hours the death-knell of the saloons was 

This is only a specimen case. In Forrest City the 


Woman's Christian Temperance Union quietly and 
secretly districted the town, went out to their work in the 
morning, and before sundown announced that Hut had 
the majority upon their books. 

Among all the delegates, though many had far 1 tetter 
education, none was endowed with a nobler manliness 
than General Erwin, '"born and reared in Prairie County, 
and proud to be a native of redeemed Arkansas," as he 
told us; a brave officer on the Confederate side during 
the late unpleasantly, but hearty in his expressions of 
delight at "the .co-operation of the two sections in this 
home protection work." He was for twenty years a 
moderate drinker ; and spent his money freely in treating 
at the bar. One day he heard the saloon men boasting 
of the patronage he brought. "Bless my heart!" said 
he ; " these fellows aint agoin' to make a spring-board o' 
me to ruin no more likely young men." So he signed the 
pledge. He also and at once gave up tobacco. It was a 
great encouragement to hear the earnest words of this 
great, generous-hearted man, who came into our women's 
meeting to report for his wife, who was too timid. " She's 
a major hand with her pen," he said, looking proudly at 
the dark, earnest face of his wife ; " beats me all hollow 
at that ; but I have to do the talking for the family." 
" We had some trouble to get our most conservative wo- 
men started out in this petition work," he added ; " but 
we jest collected 'em up, and my wife, she prayed and I 
argued, and they got to see that it was ' for God and home 
and native land' they was a-workin', and that they was 
a military company in the great Union army of the Wo- 
man's Christian Temperance Union, that belongs to the 
South as much as to the North, and so you see it just 
knocked the pins out from under their little timidity, and 
the women saved the day." 

So shall it be ere long all over this great country, when 

344 a "home protection" law. 

the " human question " comes squarely to the front, and 
the unit of our race, formed from the fractions man and 
woman, adds united strength to the Prohibition vote in 
the name of humanity and God. The Woman's Christian 
Temperance Unions have borne themselves most nobly in 
this great uprising — the like of which has not been seen 
since the crusade of 1874. Having been the first to peti- 
tion for the law, they have quietly districted the towns, 
and gathered in the priceless signatures, thus for the first 
time in the history of this wild Western State, having 
expressed the real public sentiment, and made the power 
of the church actively felt as a force which can overmaster 
the saloon. 


Let me earnestly commend to the careful attention of 
all our workers the following statute, declared by the best 
attorneys of Arkansas (when it shall extend to cities of 
the first and second class) to be superior to any measure 
yet enacted. Their reason is that while in effect strictly 
prohibitory, it rests upon the widest basis of active public 
sentiment, and furnishes the simplest machinery for en- 
forcement. The italics are my own. 

Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Arkansas : 

Section 1. That whenever the adult inhahitants residing within 
three (3) miles of any school-house, academy, college, university, or 
other institution of learning, or of any church house in this State, 
shall desire to prohibit the sale or giving away of any vinous, spiri- 
tuous, or intoxicating liquors of any kind, or any compound or 
preparation thereof commonly called tonics or bitters, and a majority 
of such inhabitants shall petition the county court of the county 
wherein such institution of learning or church house is situated, pray, 
ing that the sale or giving away of the intoxicating licpiors enumerated 
in the premises be prohibited within three (3) miles of any such 
institution of learning or church house; whereupon said county court, 
being satisfied that a majority of such inhabitants have signed such 


petition, shall make an order in accordance with the prayer thereof, 
and (h, n aft* r it shall be unlawful for any person to vend or give away 
any spirituous or intoxicating liquors within the limits aforesaid; 
Provided, that this ad shall not affect persons who may have already 
obtained a license to sell spirituous liquors in any locality wherein 
this act shall be put in force, until such license shall expire; 
and, provided further, that nothing in this act shall be construed as 
affecting or repealing any special law now in force prohibiting the 
sale or giving away of spirituous or intoxicating liquors in any 
particular locality. 

Sec. 2. For the purposes of this act, females as well as males are 
competent subscribers to the petition herein provided for. 

Sec. 3. That this act shall not be construed as prohibiting the use of 
wine for sacramental purposes, or to prevent the prescribing and 
furnishing of alcoholic stimulants by a regular practicing physician 
to the sick under his charge, when he may deem the same necessary; but 
before such physician shall be authorized to so prescribe and furnish 
such alcoholic stimulants, in order to protect himself from the penalty 
of this act he shall file in the office of the county clerk of the county 
in which he resides, an affidavit which shall be in the following form, 

to wit : 

I, , do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I am a regular practic- 
ing physician, and that I will not prescribe or furnish any vinous or 
alcoholic stimulants to any one, except it be, in my judgment, a 
necessity in tlie treatment of the disease with which he shall be at the 
time afflicted. 

Sec. 4. Be it further enacted, That the provisions of this act shall 
not apply to cities of the first and second classes, in Avhich a regular 
police force is maintained. 

Sec 5. That any person violating the provisions of this act shall 
be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction either in the 
circuit court or before any justice of the peace, shall be fined in any 
sum not less than twenty-five dollars, nor more than one hundred 

Sec. 6. That all laws in conflict with the provisions of this act be 
and hereby arc rep. alcd, and this act take effect and be in force from 
and after its passage. 

(Extract from Fourth of July Address at " The Independent's" Celebration, 1879.) 


Once more will the time honored declaration be made to-day by a 
thousand Fourth of July orators, that "the Americans are a free 
people." But 1 insist that we are governed by the most powerful 


king whose iron rule ever determined the policy, moulded the institu- 
tions, or controlled the destinies of a great nation. 

So pervasive is his influence that it penetrates to the most obscure 
and distant hamlet with the same readiness, and there wields the same 
potency as in his empire's capital; nay (with reverence be it said), he 
is like Deity in that his. actual presence is co-extensive with his vast 
domain. Our legislatures are his playthings, our congressmen his 
puppets, and our honored President the child of his adoption. 
We do not often call him by his name, this potentate of million hands 
and myriad voices; but, to my thinking, nothing is to-day so vital to 
America as that we become better acquainted with our ruler. Let me 
then present to your thought his Majestic Highness, King Majority, 
Sovereign Ruler of these United States. 


Permit me now to introduce a different character, who comes to the 
court of King Majority as chief ambassador from the empire of his 
Satanic Majesty. Behold! I show you the skeleton at our patriotic 
banquet. It has a skull with straightened forehead and sickening 
smile; but bedecked with wreaths of vine, clusters of grape, and 
heads of golden grain — King Alcohol, present at court in radiant 
disguise. With a foaming beer-mug at his lips, he drinks the health 
of King Majority; and placing at his feet a chest of gold labeled 
" Internal Revenue," he desireth conditions of peace. 


Behold in these two figures the bewildering danger and the ineffable 
hope of the Republic! How can we rouse the stolid giant, King 
Majority? How light in those sleepy eyes the fires of a holy and 
relentless purpose? How nerve once more, with the resistless force 
that smote African slavery to death, the mighty sinews of the 
Republic's sleeping king? 


How? Only by " sweet reasonableness:" only by ceaseless persua- 
sion; only by noble examples; only by honest hard work, based upon 
fervent and effectual prayer. 

Human heads and hearts are much alike. I remember that the 
great Temperance Crusade of 1874 found me with a beer keg in my 
cellar, a fatal haziness in my opinions, and a blighting indifference to 
the temperance reform upon my will. But how did its intense pathos 
melt my heart; how did its mighty logic tune the lax cords of opinion 
to concert pitch; how did its miracle of prayer bring thousands to 
their knees, crying, "Lord, what wouldst thou have me to do?" For 
myself, I could never be the same after that. As a woman, a patriot, 

" MAKE A CHAIN." 347 

a Christian, my heart is fixed in deathless enmity to all that can 
intoxicate. The same influences which so transformed one brain and 
heart, arc steadily at work to-day in a thousand quiet ways. 

The sobei second thought of the Woman's Temperance Crusade 

was organization. The voice of God called to them from the lips of 
his prophet: " Make a chain, for the land is full of bloody crimes and 
the city is full of violence." And so in every town and village we 
are forming these chains of light and of loving helpfulness, which we 
call 'Women's Christian Temperance Unions." We have already 
twenty-three Slates organized, with thousands of local auxiliaries. 
Every day brings fresh accessions of women, translated out of the 
passive and into the active voice on this great question of the protec- 
tion of their homes. Of the nine thousand papers published in this coun- 
try, timet housand have had temperance facts and figures regularly 
provided by members of our societies. Temperance literature is being 
circulated; Our Union, the official organ of the Women's Temperance 
Society, has a large subscription list; Sabbath schools are adopting our 
plans of temperance instruction; and hundreds of juvenile societies 
are inscribing on their banners: "Tremble, King Alcohol! We shall 
grow up." Friendly inns and temperance reading-rooms are multi- 
plying; gospel meetings, conducted by women, are reaching the 
drinking class in hundreds of communities; the Red and Blue Ribbon 
movements have attained magnificent proportions; and all this many- 
sided work is fast concentrating its influence to place the ballot in the 
hand of woman, and thus capture for the greatest of reforms old King 
Majority. Magnificent is the spectacle of these new forces now rally- 
ing to the fray. Side by side with the 500,000 men whose united 
energies are expended in making and selling strong drink, we are 
working day by day. While they brew beer we are brewing public 
sentiment; while they distill whisky we are distilling facts; while they 
rectify brandy we are rectifying political constituencies; aiftl ere long 
their fuming tide of intoxicating liquor shall be met and driven back 
by the overwhelming flood of enlightened sentiment and divinely 
aroused energy. 


"To be sure. King Majority gave prohibition to Maine; but pro- 
hibition doesn't prohibit," interrupts Sir Sapient, who--' remark fur- 
nishes a striking illustration of the power of the human mind to r< - 
knowledge, .lust take the spyglass of observation, and behold from 
Kittery to Calais the gleaming refutation of your error. 

Less than thirty years ago they had four hundred open hotel bars 
and ten miles of saloons. To day. Dr. Hamlin of Constantinople, tells 
us that, coming home after forty years absence, he finds his native 


State thoroughly renovated from the liquor traffic. General Neal Dow 
testifies that the law has absolutely driven the sale of strong drink out 
of all rural districts ; and in the larger towns, instead of the free, open 
sale of former years, it is crowded into secret places, kept by the 
lowest class of foreigners. Ex-Governors Dingley and Perham, and 
Senator Blaine and Representative Fry declare that prohibition is as well 
enforced as the law against stealing; and even sensational journalists 
have not told us that thieves flourish in the Pine Tree State. Mr. 
Renter of Boston, President of the National Brewers' Convention, 
held in St. Louis four weeks ago, says: "Formerly Maine produced 
nearly ten thousand barrels of beer annually; but this has fallen to 
seven barrels, in consequence of the local enforcement of prohibitory 
law." Surely this gentleman should be considered as good authority 
on this subject, as a convict is of the strength of his prison bars! 


But you say "Maine is different from any other State." Why so? 
Are not its citizens of like passions with other men? Turn your glass 
upon a panorama of Maine as it was in former days. See yonder 
stalwart workers in the harvest-field paying vigorous addresses to the 
little brown jug; observe its ubiquitous presence at the logging bee, 
the "raising," the wedding, and the funeral; see it pass from lip to 
lip around the fireside circle; observe the Gospel minister refreshing 
himself from the demijohn of his parishioner and host; and be assured 
that within the memory of men now living these were every day 
events. I have this testimony from the most honored residents of 
Maine, whose recitals involved the words, " all of which I saAv, and 
part of which I was." But, as gallant Neal Dow hath it, "Maine was 
s own knee-deep with temperance literature before we reaped the har- 
vest of prohibition." Let us note the evolution of this seed-planting. 
Land-owners found that two-thirds of their taxes resulted from the 
liquor traffic (largely in cost of prosecuting criminals, and taking care 
of lunatics and paupers); so they concluded that legalizing saloons for 
the sake of the revenue was penny wisdom and pound foolishness. 
Business men discovered that the liquor traffic is a pirate on the high 
seas of trade, that the more the grog-shop is patronized the fewer cus- 
tomers there are for flour and fuel, boots, shoes, and clothes; and so, 
in self-defence, they declared for prohibition. Church people found 
that fifteen times as much money went to the dram-shop as to the 
church, and that the teachings of the one more than offset, those of the 
other with the young men of the State; so they perceived they could 
not conscientiously ally themselves with the liquor traffic by their 
votes. Those interested in education learned that enough money was 
swallowed in drinks that deteriorate the brain, to furnish a school- 


house for every fifty boys and girls, and to set over them teachers of 
the highest culture; and they xiw it was unreasonable to defend the 
liquor traffic. In short, the majority came to believe that, between 
the upper and nether millstones of starving out saloons on the one 
hand, and voting them out on the other, they could be pounded to 
death; and they have so pounded them. The question of selling as a 
beverage the drinks which we know by centuries of demonstration 
will so craze men that they commit every crime, and show the subtlest 
cruelty to those they love the best, is not to-day in Maine an open 
question with either party, any more than trial by jury or imprison- 
ment for theft. True, the people had a thirty years' war before the 
declaration of this blessed peace: but what are thirty years, when 
crowned at last by the surrender of King Alcohol to King Majority? 


"Ah! but," pursues our doubting friend, "Maine is a peculiar 
State, in this; it has few foreigners, with their traditions of whisky 
and of beer." 

I grant you, there we are at disadvantage. But go with me to the 
Cunard wharves of Boston, and to Castle Garden of New York, and, 
as the long procession of emigrants steps across the gangway, you will 
find three times as many men as women. How can we offset their vote 
for free liquor, on Sundays and all days? Surely, the answer to this 
question is not far to seek. Strengthen the sinews of old King 
Majority, by counting in the home vote to offset that of Hamburg and 
of Cork, and let American customs survive by utilizing (at the point 
where, by the correlation of governmental forces ' ' opinion " passes 
into " law ") the opinion of those gentle " natives " who are the neces- 
sary and tender guardians of the home, of tempted manhood and 
untaught little children. 

Hands which have just put aside the beer-mug, the decanter, and 
the greasy pack of cards are easting ballots which undermine our 
Sabbaths, license social crimes that shall be nameless, and open 
250,000 dramshops in the shadow of the church and public school. 
I solemnly call upon my countrymen to release those other hands, 
familiar with the pages of the Book of God, busied with sacred duties 
of the home and gracious deeds of charity, that they may drop in 
those whiter ballots, which, as God lives, alone can save the State! 


Kind friends, I am not theorizing. I speak that I do know, and 

testify what I have seen. Out on t he Illinois prairies we have resolved 
to expend on voters the work at first bestowed upon saloon-keepers. 
We have transferred the scene of our crusade from the dram-shop to 


the council-room of the municipal authorities, whence the dram-shop 
derives its guaranties and safeguards. Nay, more. The bitter argu- 
ment of defeat led us to trace the tawny, seething, foaming tide of 
beer and whisky to its source; and there we found it surging forth 
from the stately capitol of Illinois, with its proud dome and flag of 
stripes and stars. So we have made that capitol the centre of our 
operations; and last winter, as one among the many branches of our 
work, we gathered up 175,000 names of Illinois's best men and women 
(80,000 being the names of voters), who asked the Legislature for a 
law giving women the ballot on the temperance question. In prose- 
cuting our canvass for these names, we sent copies of our "Home 
Protection Petition" to every minister, editor, and postmaster in the 
State; also to all leading temperance men and women, and to every 
society and corporation from which we had anything to hope. 

In this way our great State was permeated, and in most of its towns 
the petition was brought before the people. The religious press was a 
unit in our favor. The reform clubs of the State, with ribbons blue 
and red, helped us with their usual heartiness and efficiency. And 
what shall be thought of the advance in public sentiment, when (as 
was often done) all the churches join on Sabbath night in a " Union 
Home Protection Meeting," and ministers of all denominations (Pres- 
byterians included) conduct the opening exercises, after which a 
woman presents the religious duty of women to seek, and men to 
supply the temperance ballot; and, to crown all, conservative young 
ladies go up and down the aisles earnestly asking for signatures, and 
the audience unite in singing: 

" Stand up, stand up for Jesus, 
Ye soldiers of the Cross ; 
Lift high His royal banner, 
It must not suffer loss." 

Friends, it means something for women of the churches to take this 
radical position. America has developed no movement more signifi- 
cant for good since the first dawning of the day we celebrate. 

The State of Indiana stands with us; only there the temperance 
women have worked out the problem of deliverance further than we, 
and asked the ballot on all questions whatsoever. They do the same 
in Minnesota and in Iowa ; while at the East the W. C. T. U. of grand 
old Maine endorses the temperance vote, and Rhode Island sends to 
Illinois resolutions of approval, while Massachusetts, under Mary A. 
Livermore, has declared for home protection, and is preparing for the 
fall campaign; and within a few days Ohio, the Crusade State, which 
is the mother of us all. has fallen into line. The most conservative 
States are Connecticut, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and New York; 
but in each of these there are many brave women who but bide their 


time for this same declaration, and the whole twenty-three States 
already joined in the Woman's National Christian Temperance Union 
will ere long clasp hands in the only work which can ever fulfill the 
glorious prophecy of the Crusade. History tells us that on the morn- 
ing of December 23d, 1873, when in Hillsboro', Ohio, the" pentecostal 
power fell <>n the "praying band" which first went forth, the leading 
men of that rum-cursed town went out from the church where their 
wives and mothers had assembled, saying: "We can only leave this 
business with the women and the Lord."' History has repeated itself 
this winter in our Illinois crusade. Men have placed money in our 
hands to carry on the Home Protection work, saying: "The women 
of America must solve this problem. Our business relations, our 
financial interests, our political affiliations and ambitions have tied our 
hands; but we will set yours free, that you may rid us of this awful 


Yet a few men and women, densely ignorant about this movement, 
have been heard to say: " "Who knows that women would vote right?" 
I confess that nothing has more deeply grieved me than this question 
from the lips of Christian people. Have distillers, brewers, and saloon- 
fei epers, then, more confidence in woman's sense and goodness than 
she has herself? They have a very practical method of exhibiting 
their faith. They declare war to the knife, and the knife to the hilt 
against the Hume Protection movement. By secret circulars, by 
lobbyists and attorneys, by the ridicule of their newspaper organs, and 
threats of personal violence to such women of their families as sign 
our petition, they display their confidence in womankind. 

The only town in Illinois which sent up a delegation of citizens 
openly to oppose our petition was Belleville, with its heavy liquor 
interest and ten thousand German to three thousand American 
inhabitants; and among our 204 legislators there were no other dozen 
men whose annoyance of the Home Protection Committee was so per- 
sistent and so petty as that of the Senator who openly declared he was 
there to defend the voted interests of his Peoria constituents, who in 
1878 paid to the government a million dollars revenue each month on 
ardent spirits. Nay, verily, woman's vote is the way out of our misery 
and shame, " our enemies themselves being judges;" and none see this 
so clearly asthe liquor dealers, w hosealligator eye is their pocket-book, 
and the politicians, whose Achilles heel is their ambition. Tin- women 
of the Crusade musl come once more to judgment — not, as aforetime, 
with trembling lip and tearful eye; but reaching devout hands to grasp 
the weapon of power, and crying with reverent voice, " The sword of 
the Lord and of Gideon! " 



But, after all, " seeing " is a large part of " believing " with this 
square-headed Yankee nation; so let us seek the testimony of expe- 

In Kansas the law* provides that the signatures of women shall be 
requisite to a petition asking for a dram-shop before that boon shall be 
conferred upon any given community. This arrangement wrought 
such mischief with the liquor dealers that they secured an amendment 
exempting large towns from such bondage. But in small towns and 
villages it has greatly interfered with the traffic, and has so educated 
public sentiment that prohibition can, with impunity, form the theme 
of a Governor's inaugural, and Kansas is on the war-path for a law 
hardly less stringent than that of Maine. 

In Des Moines, Iowa, a few weeks since, as a test of popular 
opinion, the women voted on the license question; twelve declaring 
in favor of saloons and 800 against them. In Newton, Iowa, at an 
election ordered by the council, 172 men voted for license to 319 
against — not two to one against it; while the women's vote stood one 
in favor to 394 against licensing saloons. In Kirkville, Mo., ten 
women favored the liquor traffic, twenty declined to declare them- 
selves, and 500 wanted "no license." In our Illinois campaign, 
which resulted in 90,000 names of women who expressed their wish 
to vote against saloons, not one woman in ten declined to affix her 
name to our petition. 


The attitude of the Catholic Church was friendly to our petition, 
many priests urging their people to sign. Irish women, as a rule, 
gave us their names, and saloon-keepers' wives often secretly did so. 
Scandinavians were generally enthusiastic for the petition. Germans 
opposed us; but the reply of one of them indicates the chivalric 
nature which will come to our aid when the invincible argument 
against beer shall be brought in contact with German brain 
and German conscience. He said: "If it is not the pledge, I will 
sign it. I cannot give up my beer; but I want to help the ladies." 
To be sure, German saloon-keepers were universally and bitterly 
antagonistic, and had much to say about "women keeping inside 
their proper sphere." 


But the convictions which supply me with unalterable courage and 
unflagging enthusiasm in the Home Protection work are not based 
upon any proof I have yet given. No argument is impregnable unless 
founded on the nature of things. 


The deepest instincts and the dearest interests of those who have 
the power to enact a law must be enlisted for its enforcement before 
it will achieve success. For instance, the Fifteenth Amendment to 
the Constitution of the United States is going to be enforced by the 
ballots of the colored men who once were slaves, just so long as those 
men retain their reason and their color. By parity of reasoning, if 
you can enlist in favor of a local option or prohibition law the dearest 
interest of a class in the community which in all ages of wine and 
beer and brandy drinking has not developed (as a class) the appetite 
for them nor formed the habit of their use, you will have something 
trustworthy on which to base your law. We temperance people have 
looked over at the rum power very much as the soldiers of Israel did 
at Goliath of Gath. We have said: "He has upon his side two of 
the most deeply-rooted instincts of human nature — in the dealer the 
appetite for gain, and in the drinker the appetite for stimulants— and 
we have nothing adequate to match against this frightful pair." 

But, looking deeper, we perceive that, as God has provided in 
Nature an antidote for every poison, and in the kingdom of His grace 
a compensation for every loss, so in human society He has ordained 
against King Alcohol, that worst foe of the social state, an enemy 
beneath whose blows he is to bite the dust. Take the instinct of self- 
protection (and there is none more deeply seated): What will be its 
action in woman Avhen the question comes up of licensing the sale of 
a stimulant which nerves with dangerous strength the arm already so 
much stronger than her own, and which at the same so crazes the 
brain God meant to guide that manly arm that it strikes down the 
wife a man loves and the little children for whom when sober he 
would die? Dependent for the support of herself and little ones, and 
for the maintenance of her home, upon the strength which alcohol 
masters and the skill it renders futile, will the wife and mother cast 
her vote to open or to close the rum-shop door over against that 

Then there is a second instinct, so much higher and more sacred 
that I would not speak of it too near the first. It is as deep, but how 
high it reaches up toward Heaven — the instinct of a mother's love, a 
wife's devotion, a sifter's faithfulness, a daughter's loyalty! Friends, 
this love of women's hearts was given for purposes of wider blessing 
to poor humanity than some of us have dreamed. Before this century 
shall end the rays of love which shine out from woman's heart shall 
no longer be, as now, divergent so far as the liquor traffic is concerned; 
but through that magic lens, that powerful sun glass which we term 
the ballot, they shall all converge their power, and burn and blaze on 
the saloon, till it shrivels up and in lurid vapors curls away like mist 
under the hot gaze of sunshine. Ere long our brothers, hedged about 


by temptations, even as avc are by safeguards, shall thus match force 
with force ; shall set over against the dealer's avarice our timid instinct 
of self-protection, and match the drinker's love of liquor by our love 
of him. When this is done you will have doomed the rum power in 
America, even as you doomed the slave power when you gave the 
ballot to the slave. 


"But women should content themselves with educating public sen- 
timent," says one. Nay, we can shorten the process; for we have the 
sentiment all educated and stored away, ready for use in brain and 
heart. Only give us the opportunity to turn it to account, where in 
the least time it can achieve the most ! Let the great guns of influence, 
now pointing into vacancy, be swing to the level of benignant use, 
and pointed on election day straight into the faces of the foe! "No; 
but she should train her son to vote aright," suggests another. But if 
she could go along with him, and thus make one vote two, should we 
then have a superfluous majority in a struggle intense as this one is to 
be? And then how unequal is her combat for the right to train her 
boy ! Enter yonder saloon. See them gathered around their fiery or 
their foamy cups, according to the predominance in their veins of 
Celtic or of Teuton blood. What are they talking of, those sovereign 
citizens? The times have changed. It is no longer tariff or no tariff, 
resumption of specie payments, or even the behavior of our Southern 
brethren that occupies their thought. No. Home questions have 
come elbowing their way to the front. The child in the midst is also 
in the market-place, and they are bidding for him there, the politicians 
of the saloon. So skillfully will they make out the slate, so vigor- 
ously turn the crank of the machine, that, in spite of churches and 
temperance societies combined, the measures dear to them will 
triumph and measures dear to the fond mother heart will fail. Give 
her, at least, a fair chance to offset by her ballot the machinations 
which imperil her son. 


" But women cannot fight," you say, "and for every ballot cast we 
must tally with a bayonet." Pray tell us when the law was promul- 
gated that we must analyze the vote at an election, and throw out the 
ballots of all men aged and decrepit, halt and blind? Do not let the 
colossal example of Judge David Davis so fill our field of vision that 
we cannot perceive brain, and not bulk, to be the rational basis of 
citizenship. Avoirdupois counts greatly among the Zulus; but it is a 
consideration far less weighty with the Americans than it was before 
the Geneva Arbitration. I venture the prediction that this Kepublic 
will prove herself the greatest tighter of the nineteenth and twentieth 


centuries; but her bullets will be molded into printers' type, her Gat- 
ling guns will be the pulpit and the platform, her war will be a war 

of words, and under the white storm of men's and women's ballots 
her enemies— the saloon, and the commune— shall find their only 

"woman's right." 

Of the right of w< »man to the ballot I shall say nothing. All persons 
of intelligence, whose prejudices have not become indurated beyond 
the power of logic's sledge-hammer to break them, have been con- 
vinced already. For the rest there is no cure save ne — the death 
cure — which comes sooner or later, and will open more eyes than it 
closes. Of the Republic's right to woman's ballot I might say much. 
Well did two leaders of public thought set f ^rth that right when 
Joseph Cook declared that "woman's vote would V to the vices in 
our great cities what the lightning is to the oak ;" and when Richard 
S. Storrs said: "If women want the suffrage, they will be sure to 
have it; and I don't know but when it comes it will turn out to be 
the precious amethyst that drives drunkenness out of politics." 


"But women do not care to vote." This is the "last ditch" of the 
conservatives. The evolution of temperance sentiment among women 
hitherto conservative refutes this argument; yet I confess there are 
many who do not yet perceive their duty. But Jack's bean-stalk 
furnishes only a tame illustration of the growth of women in this 
direction in the years since the Crusade. Of this swift growth I have 
already given abundant proof. It is, in my judgment, the most solid 
basis of gratitude on this national anniversary. 

During past years the brave women who pioneered the equal suf- 
frage movement, and whose perceptions of justice were keen as a 
Damascus blade, took for their rallying cry: "Taxation without 
representation is tyranny. " But the average woman, who has nothing 
to be taxed, declines to go forth to battle on that issue. Since the 
Crusade, plain, practical temperance people have begun appealing to 
this same average woman, saying: " With your vote we can close the 
saloons that tempt your boys to ruin;" and behold! they have trans- 
fixed with the arrow of conviction that mother's heart, and she is 
ready f<>r the fray. Not rights, but duties; not her need alone, but 
that of her children and her country; not the "woman," but the 
"human " question is stirring women's hearts and breaking down 
their prejudice to-day. For they begin to perceive the divine fact 
that civilization, in proportion as it becomes Christianized, will make 
increasing demands upon creation's gentler half; that the Ten Com- 


mandments and the Sermon on the Mount are voted up or voted down 
upon election day; and that a military exigency requires the army of 
the Prince of Peace to call out its reserves. 


In the grand sweep of sentiment for constitutional 
amendment we must not forget the great advantages of 
local option as an educator, not less than as a practical 
measure of temperance reform. Its usefulness has been 
splendidly demonstrated in Maryland and other States, 
and with the woman's ballot to give it a consistency effi- 
cient on the day when enforcing officers are chosen, it 
would be a mighty power. 

But some have said that local option is an inconsistency, 
for no community would ever place a bill against stealing 
before the people for their option, and the liquor traffic is 
a crime as bad as stealing. But no law was ever enacted 
against stealing, except as the result of an option (a free 
choice) in the Legislatures of State and Nation. It was 
voted upon, and men voted as they chose. The immense 
public sentiment in favor of such a law caused the vote to 
be unanimous, and this will some day be the case with 
prohibitory law. Meanwhile, in States where the senti- 
ment would not yet give us a prohibitory law (which we 
could only get by a local option in the locality known as 
the "Halls of Legislation"), let us not say to less con- 
spicuous places — municipalities, for instance — that be- 
cause the whole State will not they may not vote the 
legalized dram-shop out of their boundaries. Since in a 
representative government we can pass no law except by 
leaving it open to the chances of a " local option," and 
since this same option is the only possible method by 
which we cnn delegate to localities under a government 
"of the people, by the people," power to enact in the 
territory nearest them, and in which they are most inter- 


ested a prohibitory law, therefore, local option is a neces- 
sity per se, and the surest forerunner of that more general 
form of local option popularly known as prohibition. 



1. Complain all the preceding year of the utter failure 
of no-license, and do nothing whatever to secure its 
enforcement, though you voted (or worked) for it at the 
last election. 

2. Tell (in private) what astonishing "dead letter" 
tokens you see every time you go down town ; but never 
give your evidence, influence, or money to help convict 
the law-breakers. 

3. Never speak in pulpit or prayer-meeting about the 
law. Treat it as a Gentile, that has no place in the courts 
of the Lord. 

3. Let it be generally understood that the best people 
in town are utterly discouraged and disgusted with pro- 
hibition, and ready to return to license, " since it helps to 
keep up the sidewalks, at least." 

5. Aroused by the straightforward arguments of an 
earnest temperance worker, imported by somebody three 
days before election, come out brighter than ever — per- 
haps because of this temporary eclipse — and declare that 
it's a shame to let the town go by default. Induce the 
temperance sojourner to remain. Whisper softly when- 
ever convenient that there are to be meetings held; but 
don't* mention the fact out loud. Light up the church 
dimly ; gather in a couple of hundred excellent people 
who need no repentance ; furnish no music, save as Dea- 
con Fugue "raises" "Old Hundred" higher than the 
church-gable ; and expect the dead community to be gal- 


vanized into ghastly and imbecile motion at the eleventh 

Forget that the rum party held secret caucuses while 
you were asleep ; selected their candidates while you were 
scolding at the law; and canvassed for votes while you 
were busy getting reconverted ! In brief, though you are 
harmless as a dove, don't on any account allow yourself 
to be wise as a serpent. 


1. The W. C. T. U. co-operated with other temperance 
societies and with the churches in raising a fund by pri- 
vate subscription and public pledges. 

2. This was placed in the hands of an Executive Com- 
mittee or " Home Protection Alliance," and by them 
invested in securing speakers and circulating prohibition 
documents. These last were given out at all public meet- 
ings, left in all stores and offices, hung up on lamp-posts, 
in street-cars, and everywhere, and carried to all homes by 
judicious sub-committees. Tracts in their own language 
are sure to gain the attention of Germans and Scandina- 
vians. A column of carefully selected facts and arguments 
was supplied every week in the year for the weekly press 
by women specially appointed, who used their scissors to 
excellent purpose on the teeming columns of the temper- 
ance papers furnished them by the Executive Committee. 

When, as has been computed, a million words of tem- 
perance logic can be had for the price of a drink, and the 
cost of a yoke of oxen invested in such words will so 
revolutionize public sentiment that local option is carried 
in a whole county, where is the sense or grace in temper- 
ance people who complain that " they don't know what to 
do," and arc " only Availing" for work ? 

3. Temperance meetings were regularly held through- 
out the year, " to workup public sentiment." The first 

everybody's war. 359 

six months they were held every fortnight : the next 
three, every week; the last two, several times a week; 
and the last month, even - night. These meetings were 
handsomely placarded through the town, and thoroughly 
advertised in press and pulpit. The managers of a 
theatrical company could hardly have taken more pains 
to invite people to come than did this temperance com- 
mittee. During the last month a band of music played 
every night in front of the hall where the best interests 
of the community were to be discussed by earnest, prac- 
tical men and women, devoted to the cause. Often 
speakers were met at the depot by the White-ribbon 
Brigade and the Reform Club. All speakers were 
instructed to use no bitter epithets nor harsh personal 
allusions. Facts, logic, persuasion, embellished by narra- 
tives, brightened by wit — these were their sufficient stock 
in trade. Ministers of the Gospel bore a prominent part 
in this work, speaking from their pulpits on Sunday, and 
steadily lending their influence to the work. Children 
from the public schools recited selections, witty and sad ; 
young men declaimed; young women read and sang. 
There was a place for everybody, and grandly were those 
places filled. 

4. Two or three weeks beforehand, at a large public 
meeting, the people's ticket was announced, having been 
agreed upon by the Executive Committee, appointed at 
the beginning of the campaign, and consisting of a mem- 
ber from each church and two from each temperance 
society. The men chosen as municipal officers were 
remarkable for something besides their devotion to the 
temperance cause. They stood well in the community : 
had thoroughly practical and liberal views concerning 
town affairs; were thorough financiers; and hard-headed 
men of business could pick no flaw in their integrity. 
They were not the sort of nominees whom you can pick 

360 " people's ticket." 

up the evening before to " fill a gap," which will be wider 
the day after election than at any previous date. They 
were solid citizens, who would never have come forward 
thus, save on the call of a committee which had shown 
skill equal to its earnestness, and common sense no whit 
behind the clear grit it had exhibited. 

The candidates made brief addresses, and, from mayor 
to constable, pledged themselves to a faithful execution of 
the laws. Now came the seething of the caldron, which 
had been heated long. The town, already districted by 
the committees on circulating documents, was thoroughly 
canvassed once more — this time with a petition similar to 
that which follows : 

"We, the undersigned, voters and women of legal age within the 

corporate limits of the town of , do respectfully and earnestly 

petition all persons who will support the following 

people's ticket 

to affix their signatures to this paper; women's names being a promise 
to vise their influence in favor of the ticket, and men's names being a 
promise to vote the said ticket on election day." 


Thus every signature was not only a personal agree- 
ment, but had also the force of a request to all other 
residents of the community. This canvass was conducted 
chiefly by women carefully chosen for their discretion and 
their gentleness. The results of it were published in the 
local papers, figures being given, but not names. 

5. Election day arrived. The ladies had secured per- 
mission to decorate the engine-house with wreaths, 


flowers, and patriotic mottoes. They furnished a tooth- 
some free lunch next door, to which everybody was 
invited, and where the temperance pledge was offered, and 
the people's ticket and a buttonhole bouquet furnished to 
all who would accept them. Hundreds of voters were 
fed and won, and scores of homes were brightened by new 
resolves that day ; and toward night the church-bells 
rang out the tidings of a victory that had been earned, a 
success that had been organized, as all true successes are. 

6. But the Executive Committee did not stop here. 
The headquarters were still kept open, and a secretary 
employed who kept a bright lookout for opportunities to 
strengthen the hands of the authorities in that enforce- 
ment of law which alone makes it respected and enduring. 

To the W. C. T. Unions which are "waiting for work" 
this plan is recommended for study. Its most important 
suggestions may be universally applied, and its campaign 
lasts all the year round. 


A local habitation, a name, and an earnest, practical 
woman who could give her entire time to the work would 
quadruple the results attained by our W. C. T. Unions. 
Compare the work done by those equipped in this way 
with that of the general run of our societies, and learn 
once more that God has chosen in this world to work by 
means. In many Western towns a great, rough, one- 
story hall is the rallying place of our forces, and demon- 
strates to the enemy that which he hates to think — 
namely, that we have come to stay. The Temperance 
Tabernacle of Atlanta, Illinois, is a tine illustration. First 
an enthusiasm was aroused by a series of meetings con- 
ducted by a reformed man. Before that had time to sub- 
side, several clear-headed men of business invited the 


people to take stock in shares of $10 each in a building 
which should be the temperance headquarters for meet- 
ings, concerts, etc., and which could be rented as a hall 
to any one who would pay a fair price. This ten dollars 
was understood to be a gift, the " certificates of shares " 
— like many others supposed to be more valuable — being 
mere souvenirs of the transaction. A piece of ground 
was purchased for a nominal sum ; lumber and hardware 
merchants furnished the material at cost rates ; masons 
and carpenters, painters and glaziers gave their services 
at half price ; women made handsome mottoes and 
decorations ; and the place speedily became the favorite 
audience-room of all the country round. Add to this a 
reading-room and an office for the Secretary of the W. C. 
T. U., and we should have a base of operations worthy 
the magnitude of our endeavor. Here our Sunday 
Gospel-meetings would be held, the poor feeling them- 
selves especially welcome and at home; here would be 
the great mass meetings of the no-license campaign, the 
depository for temperance literature and subscription 
books of our paper; here, by frequent sociables and 
entertainments, we could help replenish our treasury ; 
and here perhaps, some day, as the rallying point of 
beneficent influence for all, might be located the ballot-box, 
which is always either the coffin or the throne of the saloon. 



[As a matter of history and for future comparison with 
other campaigns, the following is copied :] 

October 10th, 1878. — The Annual Meeting of the Illinois 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union, at Monmouth, 
ordered the petition to be prepared, which was accordingly 
done by Miss Willard, assisted by W. P. Black, an attor- 
ney-at-law, of Chicago. 


December 5th. — The draft prepared was accepted by 
the Executive Committee of the State Union. 

December 12th. — The first presentation was made by- 
Miss Willard, at Geneseo ; but no great effort was made 
until January. 

January 1st, 1879. — Less than 1,000 names had been 

March 1st. — The petitions were called in for presenta- 
tion, the entire canvass having occupied but about two 
months or nine weeks. The signatures were pasted on 
strong white muslin, eighteen inches wide, bound with 
red ribbon on one edge and blue on the other. The entire 
supervision of this (the first) petition and putting it 
together were the weighty task of Miss Anna Gordon, 
Miss Willard' s private secretary, and the work was 
admirably done. Prominent business men of Chicago, 
chief of whom was R. J. Fowler, Esq., furnished the funds 
for postage, printing, and necessaries. 

March ith ([Evening'). — There was a reception in the 
Governor's rooms at the Capitol, with addresses by a 
number of ladies and gentlemen. 

March 5th (Evening). — There was a mass meeting in 
the Representatives' Chamber, previously granted for that 
purpose. The petition was gracefully festooned around 
the chamber, and stirring addresses were delivered by 
ladies of the Presentation Committee, and by Mrs. Foster, 
the lady lawyer of Clinton, Iowa, who was present by in- 
vitation of the ladies and presented the legal aspects of the 
case. The Presentation Committee were : Miss Frances 
E. Willard, President of W. C. T. U. of Illinois ; Mrs. T. 
B. Carse, President of Chicago W. C. T. U. ; Mrs. L. 1. 
Hagans, Mrs. Willis A. Barnes, Mrs. C. H. Case, Mrs. D. 
J. True, all of Chicago ; Mrs. Prof. Fry and Mrs. A. R. 
Riggs, of Bloomington ; Mrs. C. H. St. John, of Eureka; 
Mrs. M. II. Villars, of Pana; Miss Mary A. West, of 


Galesburg ; Mrs. E. W. Kirkpatrick, of Monmouth ; Mrs. 
H. A. Calkins and Mrs. E. G. Hibben, of Peoria; Mrs. M. 
L. Wells and Mrs. R. Beach, of Springfield; and Miss 
Anna Gordon, of Massachusetts (Mrs. M. Wait, of Gales- 
burg, former President State W. C. T. XL, and Miss Kate 
Ross, of Abingdon, also members, were unable to be 

March 6th. — Presentation of the petition to the House 
of Representatives, with an address by Judge Hinds, of 
Stephenson County. Three of the ladies — Miss Willard, 
Mrs. Foster, and Mrs. St. John — by invitation of the 
House, on the motion of Hon. Sol. Hopkins, then 
addressed the House, this being the first time a lady had 
ever spoken in an open session of the Illinois Legislature. 
The number of signatures to the petition was 110,000, of 
men over twenty-one and women over eighteen years of 
age, about half of these being voters. 

April 9th (Evening). — Mass meeting in the Senate 
Chamber, with supplemental petition exhibited in like 
manner as above, which petition contained at least 
70,000 additional names, all secured in less than four 
weeks. The putting together of this last petition was the 
work of the women of Springfield, under supervision of 
Miss Barnett. 

April 10th. — Presentation in the Senate by Senator 
Taliafero. An effectual objection being made to the 
ladies speaking in open session, a motion for a recess of 
thirty minutes prevailed, and Miss Willard occupied the 
time in speaking on the objects of the petition. Twenty- 
four senators voted for the recess, and nineteen against 
it. Three senators left the chamber, returning at the 
close of the recess. 

The Presentation Committee was the same as before, 
with the addition of the following persons: Mrs. H. A. 
Allyn, of Springfield ; Mrs. R. Greenlee, Mrs. M. A. 


Cummings, Mrs. J. B. Hobbs, and Miss Lucia Kimball, 
of Chicago; Mrs. G. H. Read, of Blooming-ton ; Mrs. H. 
W. Barwood and Mrs. H. C. Cullom, of Joliet; Mrs. S. 
B. Mooney, of Pana ; Mrs. S. M. I. Henry, of Rockford; 
and Mrs. M. A. Taliafero, of Keithsburg. 



Persons of small thoughtfulness are wont to say, when 
our petitions are not granted : " How much time and 
money have been lost." But they forget the reflex influ- 
ence of such work ; the entire change in public sentiment 
which a thorough canvass has often wrought in a locality, 
and the indirect results achieved. If we mean that crowds 
shall gather, there must be something for them to rally 
around, and a petition to which their signatures are 
sought affords this nucleus. Our Home Protection cam- 
paign in Illinois has crystalized the thoughts of the people 
around the idea of a law against the liquor traffic. Ser- 
mons and speeches by the score have reached and con- 
vinced them by the thousand, and the louder voice of the 
press, coming with cogent and oft-repeated arguments, has 
changed the views of tens of thousands. The quiet house- 
to-house canvass of an army of women who could not 
speak in public has brought home to th'e fireside and the 
wife and mother, with little time to read, reasons enforced 
by practical illustrations taken from everyday life ; and 
thus hosts of friends for woman's temperance ballot have 
been raised up where all were passive and inert before. 
Of the 832 towns that voted on the question of license 
while our campaign was in progress, 645 declared for no 
license — a much larger number than ever before; and 

* The entire number of names on the petition was 180,000. It is 
now under the care of the Chicago Historical Society, and will be 
brought to light once more when what it asked for is an achieved 
power in Illinois. 


experienced men say it was largely clue to the Home 
Protection Petition work of the W. C. T. Unions. It has 
also reacted most favorably on all departments of our 
society, greatly extending the knowledge of our methods, 
multiplying our organizations, and bringing out an army 
of helpers of whom we had not known before. 

Similar results would attend the circulation of a 
petition to the county or municipal authorities on any 
phase of our manifold cause. Let us remember that, in 
giving prominence to this branch of work, Ave are but 
transferring the Crusade from the saloon to the sources 
whence the saloon derives its guaranties and safeguards. 
Surely this does not change our work from sacred to 
secular ! Surely that is a short-sighted view which says : 
"It was womanly to plead with saloon-keepers not to 
sell; but it is unwomanly to plead with law-makers not 
to legalize the sale and to give us power to prevent it." 
No wonder the Ohio Crusaders, who have spent hours in 
the stifling atmosphere of the saloons, do not deem it 
indelicate to enter airy council-rooms and stately legis- 
lative halls; and they, like the W„ C. T. U. of Illinois, 
have enlisted for a seven years campaign, or one of four- 
teen years, if need be, not expecting immediate success, 
but going forth in the crusade spirit of dependence upon 
God and consecration to His service. " The letter killeth, 
but the spirit giveth life." Methods constantly change, 
but motives must have their spring in everlasting truth 
and righteousness. 


The "Home Protection Crusade" for woman's temper- 
ance ballot is the natural successor of the Temperance 
Crusade of 1873-4, and simply changes its objective 
point. If rightly understood and faithfully pursued, the 
new movement will do much toward fulfilling the sacred 
prophecies of its divine forerunner. Then let our work 


be begun, continued, and ended in prayer. Let every 
document prepared or sent out, every address delivered, 
every name asked for the petition be accompanied by 
breathings of the soul to God for a right spirit in our- 
selves and a heavenly blessing on our endeavor. Let not 
the noon-hour of united prayer for our W. C. T. Unions 
and their work be overlooked, and let stated days of 
prayer be appointed by the officers of the State Union, at 
the opening of the campaign, and on the day when the 
committee present the petition to the Legislature. Ever- 
more, as our growing hosts move forward, may our 
watchword be : 

"Praytr is the Christian's vital breath — 
The Christian's native air " 


As a matter of interest and suggestion, an exact copy 
of the petition is here given : 

Home Protection Petition, Illinois W. C. T. U. 

[Editors please publish aud temperance people circulate.] 

[Among the many prominent religious newspapers which have 
editorially endorsed this petition are the following: Christian Union, 
Independent, and Witness, New York. Northwestern Christian Advocut, , 
Advance, Interior, Standard, and Alliance, Chicago; The Golden Rale 
and Zion's Herald, Boston.] 
To be returned to , at , by the day of , without fail. 

[X.B.— This petition will lie presented at the State Capital at the 
earliest possible date in the session of the Legislature, which convenes 

on the day of 1ST—, by the following committee: - — — 

Any number of copi s will be sent to any address, if desired; but it is 
also earnestly requested that persons interested in utilizing the in- 
fluence of woman against the legalized traffic in strong drink will 
have printed or written copies of the petition made and circulated 
from house to house. Let them also be sent to editors, ministers, 
Sunday-school and public school teachers, and to all Reform Clubs 
and other temperance societies. All ministers and temperance speakers 
are requested to presenl the petition to their audiences after a sermon, 
address or exhortation on the subject of which it treats. The follow- 
ing method of securing si -natures in audiences is recommended: 
Previous to op. ning ih ■ meeting, place in each pew a narrow strip of 
paper, with the words "Names of men over twenty -one" written 


across the top, and " Names of women over twenty -one " half way 
down the strip. After reading the petition, at the close of the meeting, 
call attention to these papers and constitute the gentleman or lady 
sitting in the end of each of each pew or seat nearest the aisle a com- 
mittee of one to see that all in that seat have the opportunity to sign the 
slip of paper. Let one person be in attendance in each aisle with pencils 
to lend, and let this person gather up the slips as soon as signed. 
These autographs are to be sent to headquarters, to be pasted upon the 
petition. While the signing proceeds, such hyms as "America" or 
Miss Lathbury's "Home Protection Hymn" may be sung by the 
choir. AVhen the largest number of signatures possible has been 
obtained, send the list of autograph signatures, stating plainly where 

they were obtained and paying postage in full, to , at 

Headquarters State W. C. T. U., in . AVrite on one side 

only, giving name of town and county on each list of names. Paste 
more paper on the petition as required. Names may be signed in 
pencil, and autographs only are desired.] 

To the Senate and House of Representatives of the State of Illinois : 

Whereas, In these years of temperance work the argument of 
defeat in our contest with the saloons [has taught us that our efforts 
are merely palliative of a disease in the body politic, which can never 
be cured until law and moral suasion go hand in hand in our beloved 
State ; and 

Whereas, The instincts of self-protection and of apprehension for 
the safety of her children, her tempted loved ones, and her home, 
render woman the natural enemy of the saloons; therefore, your peti- 
tioners, men and women of the State of Illinois, having at heart the 
protection of our homes from their worst enemy, the legalized traffic 
in strong drink, do hereby most earnestly pray your honorable body 
that, by suitable legislation, it may be provided that in the State of 
Illinois the question of licensing at any time, in any locality, the sale 
of any and all intoxicating drinks shall be submitted to and determined 
by ballot, in which women of lawful age shall be privileged to take 
part, in the same manner as men, when voting on the question of 


[Please have this printed in local papers.] 

Among the many prominent religious newspapers which have 
editorially endorsed this petition are the following: Christian Union, 
Independent, nmXWitness, New York; Northwestern Oh ristian Advocate, 
Advance, Interior, Standard, and Alliance, Chicago; The Golden Rule 
and Zion's Herald, Boston. 

In a recent "Monday Lecture," Rev. Joseph Cook of Boston, 
spoke thus : 

" There stands a noble statehouse in the cornfields near Springfield, 
Illinois, and Lincoln's grave lies under its shadow. Above his grave 
a Legislature will be petitioned this winter by ladies of Illinois, to give 


women of legal age the right to vote in cases of local option under 
temperance laws. ... In New Hampshire the line has already been 
broken as to the exclusion of women from participation in the settle- 
ment of questions closely touching the home. Let it be noticed that 
New Hampshire, a conservative .New England State, has just given to 
women the right to vote on all questions concerning the school laws. 
I am not a woman suffragist. Do not applaud this platform under the 
mi-taken idea that I am a defender of extreme positions as to woman's 
rights. I am meditating on that theme. But this I dare say, that one 
of the fragments of self-protection for women— namely, a right to 
vote concerning temperance laws, when the question of local option 
is up— I am willing to defend, and intend to defend, to the end of the 
chapter. Great natural justice is on the side of such a demand. 
Woman's interests are among the chief ones concerned; and as to 
family divisions, why, they come largely from temperance laxness. 
Woman surely has political intelligence enough to understand the 
difference between license and no license, especially wdien she has 
suffered under a lax execution of the temperance laws. The difference 
is so plain between local freedom and no local freedom to sell liquor 
that woman, without anj r great participation in the turmoil of politics, 
might be expected to have an intelligent vote on this subject. I know 
that many cultivated and refined women say the}' do not w T ant women 
to vote, because they do not want to increase the amount of ignorant 
suffrage. Well, I respect the intelligence and the refinement of the 
ladies who make such remarks; but I believe that on most moral ques- 
tions woman is likely to be more intelligent and certainly more dis- 
interested than man. I am told by many of the best authorities that 
women who are opposed to female suffrage at large are usually in 
favor of this modified measure. I am assured that a majority of the 
thoughtful, cultivated women of the United States, or certainly of the 
Northern States, can be expected to favor this demand for a vote to be 
given to women in questions of local option, concerning temperance 
laws. If a majority of women want such a vote, Heaven grant their 
desire! Women would be united on this topic. Woman's vote would 
be to city vices depending on intemperance what the lightning is to 
the oak. God send us that lightning! " [Applause.] 


(Sung at our "Rallies" in the West.) 


Tune: "Arise and Shine." Gospel Hymns No. 2. 

O trust ye in the Lord forever! 

Strong is His arm, and wide His love; 
He keepeth truth, He faileth never, 

Though earth, and sea, and heaven remove. 


Chokus : 

Sing to the Lord ! He goes before us ; 

His strength is ours, His truth shall stand 
Till east and west shall join the chorus, 

"For God, and home, and native land." 

Be strong, O men who bear in battle 

For us the banner and the shield, 
For strong to conquer, as to suffer, 

Is He who leads you in the field. 

Lift up your eyes, O women, weeping 

Beside your dead ! The dawning day 
Has rent the seal of death forever, 

And angels roll the stone away. 

Room for the right ! Make room before us 

For truth and righteousness to stand, 
And plant the holy banner o'er us 

For God, and home, and native land. 

Easter, 1879. 


Mrs. Pellucid* was my companion at the capitol, where 
with other ladies, we spent several weeks in the endeavor 
to secure legislative support for our Home Protection 
measures. One of the members, when earnestly appealed 
to, replied with a rueful grimace: " Ladies, when I tell 
you the leading towns in the district I represent, you Will 
see that I cannot do as you wish," and he rattled off such 
names as " Frankfort, Hamburg, and Bremen," wished us 
"the success that our earnestness merited," and bowed 
himself out. 

" Why — what — does — he — mean ? " inquired my lovely 
conservative, in astonishment. 

A committee clerk stood by, who answered, briskly : 
"Why, ladies, Mr. Teutonius represents a district in 
which German voters are in the majority ; therefore, he 
cannot support your bill." 

" Why, I thought a lawmaker was to represent his own 

♦Otherwise Mrs. E. G. Hibben, a cultured Presbyterian lady of Peoria, and my 
successor as President of the W. C. T. U. of Illinois. 


judgment and conscience," murmured the sweet-voiced 

" His judgment, yes ; for that tells him on which side 
the majority of votes in his district is located. His con- 
science, no; for that would often cost him his chances 
for a political future," answered the well-instructed youth. 

" O-o-oh! " softly ejaculated Mrs. Peilucid, in the key of 
E flat, minor scale. 

By this time Mr. Politicus entered, in response to our 
invitation of course, he never would have come on his 
own motion. After a brief conversation, he pledged him- 
self to vote for our bill, and to make a speech in our 
favor. Nevertheless, if you should glance over the list we 
are carefully preserving and industriously circulating in 
Illinois, of men who voted against us, you would find his 
name. But he is an honest fellow in his way, and we owe 
it to a motion made by him that women were, for the first 
time in history, allowed to speak before the Legislature 
of Illinois. He explained his desertion of the temperance 
cause on this wise : " I tell you, ladies, I've got to go back 
on you. I'm the leader of my party in the House, and 
they've cracked the party whip mighty lively around my 
ears. The long and short of it is, I've got to represent 
the fellows that voted me in." 

Poor Mrs. Pellucid! How appealing was her voice, as 
she replied: "But I am sure your better nature tells you 
to represent us." Mr. Politicus brought his great fist 
down on the table with a stalwart thump, and said: 
" Course it docs, madam, but Lord bless you women, you 
can't stand by a fellow that stands by you, for you hain't 
got any votes." Just here a young lady of the group 
piped up: "Oh' but we would persuade our friends to 
vote for you." "Beg pardon, miss ; but you couldn't do 
npthin' of the kind," said he. " Don't you s'pose I know 
the lay o' the land in my district ?" The young lady now 


grasped the other horn of the dilemma, saying, desper- 
ately : " But we will get the temperance men in your dis- 
trict to vote against you if you desert us in this manner." 
His rejoinder was a deplorable revelation to our simple- 
minded company : " Never a bit on't, miss. The temper- 
ance men are an easy-going lot, and will vote the party 
ticket anyhow. Old dog Tray's ever faithful ! We've 
ignored them for years ; but they come up smilin', and 
vote the Republican ticket all the same. You'll sec ! " 
" But won't you stand by us for God and home and native 
land ! " pleaded Mrs. Pellucid, with a sweetness that would 
have captured any man not already caught in the snares 
of a gainsaying constituency. The worthy politician 
thumped the table again, and closed the interview by say- 
ing : " You women are altogether too good to live in this 
world. If you could only vote, you'd have this Legisla- 
ture solid. But, since you can't, I'm bound to stand by 
such a conscience as I've got, and it tells me to stick to 
the fellows that voted me in. Good morning ! " And he 
got speedily out of the range of those clear, sad eyes. 
Mr. Readyiight (an ex-Senator) came in. With all the 
vehemence of his Irish nature he anathematized the 
" weak-kneed temperance men." " Sure as you're living, 
Politicus told you the truth," said he. "The temperance 
men are the foot-ball of parties. There's none so poor to 
do 'em reverence. Where are the plucky young fellows 
that were here when we gave Illinois her present local 
option law ? " (By the way, that law bears the name of 
this valiant Senator, who is by the same token a Demo- 
crat.) "Where are they? Out in the cold, to be sure. 
Did the temperance folks remember their services and 
send 'em back ? Not a bit of it. But the whisky men 
didn't forget the grudge they owed 'cm ; and they're on 
the shelf to-day— every last man of 'em." " I tell you," 
and the wise old gentleman gesticulated wildly in his 


wrath, " until you women have the power to say who shall 
make the laws and who enforce 'em, and to reward by re- 
election them that are faithful to your cause, and punish 
by defeat them that go back upon it, you may hang jour 
bonnets on a very high nail, for you'll not need 'em to 
attend the funeral of the liquor traffic ! " " AVhy," 
exclaimed one of the ladies, confusedly, " you don't mean 
to say that the temperance ballot is not enough, and that 
we must follow in the footsteps of Susan B. Anthony ? " 
The sturdy old gentleman walked to the door, and fired 
this Parthian arrow back at us : " Susan could teach any 
one of ye your a-b-abs. This winter's defeat'll be a pay= 
ing investment to ye all, if ye learn that a politician is 
now and ever will be the drawn image, pocket edition, 
safety-valve, and speakin' trumpet of the folks that* voted 
him in." 

The ladies drew a long breath. "I begin to see men 
as trees walking," slowly murmured sweet Sister Pellucid. 

" But we must bide the Lord's time," warningly uttered 
an old lady, who had just arrived. To her the brisk 
committee clerk ventured this answer : " But Senator 
Readyright says you'll find the Lord's time will come just 
about twenty-four hours after the womeu get their eyes 
open ! " 

A temperance member of the House is the last caller 

whom I will report. He spake in this wise : " Ladies, 1 

pretend to no superior saintship. I am like other men, 

only I cdine from a district that would behead me if I 

did not stand by you. I have a pocket full of letters, 

received today from party leaders at home, assuring me 

I run no risk." At the close of three weeks of such a 

school as this, one of our radicals asked Mrs. Pellucid, 

chief of conservatives, this pointed question: " Are you 

still for the Home Protection vote alone, or for the ballot 

on all questions?" She replied in thrilling tones and 


most explicit words : " Any temperance woman who could 
have shared our bitter experience here without desiring 
to vote on every officer, from constable to President, would 
be either a knave or a fool." 


This lady reasoned that, since we are solemnly bound 
to be wise as serpents, we must harness self-interest to 
our on-moving chariot. The great majority of men who 
are in office desire to be re-elected, by fair means, if they 
can ; but to be re-elected anyhow. Only in one way can 
they bring this to pass and tlyit is by securing on their side 
old King Majority. If we furnish them with a constituency 
committed to the proposition " The saloon must go," then 
go it will, and on the double quick. Let the city council 
know that women have the ballot, and will not vote for 
them if they license saloons, and they will soon come out 
for prohibition. Let the sheriff, marshal, and constable 
know that their tenure of office depends on their success 
in executing the law thus secured, and their faithfulness 
will leave nothing to be desired. Let the shuffling justice 
and the truckling judge know that a severe interpretation 
of the law will brighten their chances of promotion, and 
you will behold rigors of penalty which Neal Dow himself 
would wince to see. 

There is also great force in the consideration that if 
women, not themselves eligible to office, had the power to 
elect or to defeat men (who will alone be eligible for a 
long while yet), the precise check might by this arrange- 
ment be supplied, which would keep politics from forming 
with the worst elements of society that unholy alliance 
which is to-day the grief of Christians and the despair of 
patriots. Belonging to no party ourselves, we might be 
able to lift the Sabbath, the temperance movement, and 
kindred moral questions out of the mire of merely partisan 


politics into which they have fallen. It is, at least, worth 
trying. Into the seething- caldron, where the witch's 
broth is bubbling, let us cast this one ingredient more. 
In speaking thus I am aware that I transcend the present 
purpose of my constituency, and represent myself rather 
than " the folks that voted me in ! " 


Our temperance women in the West are learning that, 
while the primary meetings are the most easily influenced, 
they are the most influential political bodies in America. 
Ere long the W. C. T. Unions will attend these, beginning 
in the smaller and more reputable communities. We are 
confident that nothing would be so effective in securing 
the attendance of the respectable voter as the presence at 
the primaries of "his sisters and his cousins and his 
aunts." To be " in at the birth" of measures vital to the 
well being of society seems to us, in the light of last win- 
ter's experience, a more useful investment of our influence 
than to be " in at the death." At Springfield we found 
the enemy entrenched, while in the primaries his soldiers 
are not yet even recruited. "We intend also to open in 
each locality books of record ; and, by thorough canvass 
to secure an informal registration of all men and women 
— the former as to how they will, and the latter how they 
would (mournful potential mood !) vote on the question 
of permitting saloons. Every such effort helps to 
obliterate party lines; or, more correctly, to mass the 
moral elements by which alone society coheres, against 
the disintegrating forces, which of themselves would drive 
us into chaos and old night. 

New England must lead. Let not the west outstrip 
you in this glorious race. I appeal to the women of the 
east. Already New Hampshire and Massachusetts have 
placed in your hands the educational vote, which has a 


direct bearing on the temperance question, since by its use 
the mothers of this land can place on the school com- 
mittees those who will make the scientific reasons for 
total abstinence a regular study of the children. I beg 
you, by its use, to testify your fitness and desire for the 
more powerful weapon it foretells. It comes to you as 
the gift of a few earnest, persistent women, who steadily 
asked your legislators to bestow it, even as they will the 
larger gift, if you as diligently seek it. Your undertak- 
ing will not be so gigantic as ours in Illinois, for with us 
34 in the Senate and 102 in the House must first agree to 
a constitutional amendment, and then the concurrence of 
two-thirds of our voters must be secured. Another con- 
trast further illustrates the favorable conditions here. 
Negro suffrage at the South was forced upon vide areas 
occupied by a voting population bitterly hostile to the 
innovation. Here woman's vote must first be granted by 
free consent of a majority of the representatives chosen 
directly by those who are already citizens; and by operat- 
ing over the small area of a single State at a time it would 
arouse no violent upheaval of the opposition. Besides, 
the large excess of women here makes this the fitting 
battle-ground of a foregone victory. Women of New 
England ! among all the divisions of our great White 
Ribbon Army you occupy the strategic position. Truly, 
your valiant daughter, Illinois, earlier flung down the 
gauge of the new battle ; but your blood is in our veins, 
your courage nerves our hearts, your practical foresight 
determines our methods of work. I come from the prai- 
ries, where we are marshaling forces for a fresh attack, 
and solemnly adjure } t ou to lead us in this fight for God 
and home and native land. Still, let dear old New Eng- 
land take her natural place in the forefront of the battle; 
and from an enemy more hateful than King George let 
the descendants of our foremothers deliver Concord and 

"thebe's a light about to beam." 377 

Lexington, and wield onee more in Boston, with its eight 
miles of grog-shops, the sword of Bunker Hill ! To 
chronicle the deeds by which your devotion shall add 
fresh luster to names renowned and hallowed, the Muse 
of History prepares her tablet and poises her impartial 

Friends, there is always a way out for humanity, but 
evermore in earth's affairs God works by means. To-day 
he hurls back upon us our complaining cry : " How long ? 
Lord ! how long ? " Even as he answered faint-hearted 
Israel, so he replies to us : What can I do for this people 
that I have not done ? " Speak unto the children of 
Israel that they go forward." 

" There's a light about to beam, 
There's a fount about to stream, 
There's a warmth about to glow, 
There's a flower about to blow. 
There's a midnight blackness 

Changing into gray ; 
Men of thoughts, of votes, of action, 

Clear the way I 

Aid that dawning tongue and pen ; 
Aid it, hopes of honest men ; 
Aid it paper, aid it type, 
Aid it, for the hour is ripe, 
And our earnest must not slacken into play. 
Men of thoughts, of votes, of action, 
Clear the way ! 


(a specimen op all.) 

A peep from the ladies' gallery of the " Thirty-second 
General Assembly " of Illinois may not be amiss on this 
opening day of the session. Of course, it will be from a 
temperance point of view. The liquor men are already on 
hand. u Early and often," is their motto, which we shall 
some day be wise enough to emulate. They have a pair 

378 "our representatives." 

of lawyers with them, and their lobbying will be contem- 
poraneous with the first appearance of a Solon on the 
scene. But the temperance people are also on the alert. 
This afternoon we have a consultation meeting with the 
local W. C. T. U.; and on the 15th we begin a series of 
meetings culminating in the " Alliance Convention " 
(Jan. 18 and 19), at which all temperance societies will 
be represented. 

The Hinds bill, by which women have a voice, through 
petition, on local license questions, will be promptly pre- 
sented, and a lively contest kept up, as the friends of tem- 
perance rally to the standard raised. 

But I must not forget to look up from these pencilings to 
the moving panorama before me. With eye and ear I 
must act as your reporter. It is twenty minutes of 
twelve, and the opening exercises begin at noon. In the 
ladies' gallery are gathered many of our true-hearted 
temperance women. Behind me, a couple of politicians 
are talking. One says : 

"They'll meet and sit, and what'll they do? They've 
got nothing to do — that's the fact of the business. We 
want no new legislation. Things are in splendid shape ! " 

Happy man, to be endowed with powers to squint thus 
at the human race, seeing but half of it. There are a 
score of women within ear-shot of him who will not rest 
until the " home guards " have somewhat to say about the 
home question of the dram-shop. 

At my left, a veteran employee is giving to a bright 
young lady scribe minute accounts of the state and stand- 
ing of the members as touching the Hinds bill. "Favor- 
able to Hinds bill." " Voted for us last time." " Bitter 
against us." " A promising young man, but has been 
bought by whisky votes." These are the statements 
which the swift pencil, " when found, makes a note on." 
In the men's gallery (ought I to say gentle-men's ?) are 


"sovereigns*' in considerable numbers, with hat on head 
and pipe in mouth. Already the air is blue and sickening 
with tobacco smoke; members walking up and down, 
puffing in one another's faces. I am glad to say these 
ill-bred personages constitute less than a tenth of the 153 
in the House. What forlorn mothers— or fathers— they 
must have had. It is interesting to note that the men 
who smoke almost invariably wear their hats. Selfish- 
ness and ill-breeding are twin-born. At 11.50 the mem- 
bers are nearly all assembled. Somebody beside me 
says, "A better looking collection than in '79; more fine 
foreheads ; better clothes, and fewer red noses." Another 
says, " Not a dozen bald heads — mostly men of middle 
age." Another, " Look at the Democrats ! They are on 
their good behavior, and well they may be. Less smoking 
on their side than on the Republican." 

But the hour strikes, the gavel falls, Secretary of State 
Harlow calls the House to order, and calls on Dr. Wines 
to offer prayer. Almost every head is bowed, a few old 
men rising instead ; the great hall is as quiet as a church, 
while slowly and tenderly fall on our ears the words first 
spoken by the world's elder Brother and Redeemer when 
he said, " After this manner therefore pray ye." 

How unutterably significant, at such a time, in such a 
place, were the words that floated on the mild air of Judea, 
and into the ears of a dozen fishermen, but which, coming 
from lips divine, had life immortal in them. That we 
are partly barbarous yet, was signified by the effigy of 
manhood who, with feet on desk, head erect and cigar 
in mouth, puffed right on through the prayer. Secretary 
Harlow now reads his graceful valedictory, " After 
twenty-six years of public life," which is kindly received 
with applause, the roll of members is called, and certifi- 
cates presented. And now the fight begins by the nomi- 
nation of temporary chairman ; on the Republican side, 


Mr. John M. Pearson ; on the Democratic, Mr. Young- 
blood. Of course, this is a form, for the " party that 
saved the Union " has eleven majority. Mr. Pearson is 
duly elected, conducted with much ceremony to the chair, 
makes a sensible speech one minute long, and the House 
proceeds to other uninteresting business. 

The general impression is that this House is not as 
favorable to temperance measures as it might have been 
had not so many-of our good people slept while the enemy 
sowed tares. Still, there are decided gains in some quar- 
ters, and we have a basis of hope. The election of Gen. 
H. H. Thomas in the Republican caucus last evening is a 
gain for the temperance side. The forces will soon be 
organized, and we can better judge of the situation. The 
air is full of rumors as to the " position " of our members, 
many preferring to maintain the character of " lookers-on 
in Venice " for a while. But we 

Bate not one jot of heart or hope ; 

Ours is the future, grand and great, 
The safe appeal of truth to time, 

So we can wait. 


Beloved Sisters of the W. C. T. U., of Illinois: 
For fifteen months I have been honored by the leadership 
of the ".women who dared." My life has witnessed no 
other period of equal length into which so much happi- 
ness has been crowded, for in no other have I been blessed 
with such transcendent opportunities of usefulness. For- 
ever it remains God's universal law that the more constant, 
effective, and beneficent our reaction on the mass of 
humanity about us, the more steadfast and rational is 
that joy in us which this world cannot give nor take away. 
Profoundly then I thank you for the fulcrum and the lev- 
erage vouchsafed to me by your love and confidence, but 
most of all, by your intelligent and energetic cooperation. 

memory's review. 381 

But by your will and that of other women like you, both 
East and West, I am transferred to the leadership of all 
the States instead of one, and it is essential that my rela- 
tionship to all should be that of impartial interest and 
endeavor : hence the dissolving of our earlier relation- 
ships by the executive committee's acceptance of my resig- 

Yet I linger in the doorway of my dear prairie homo, 
and before turning my face eastward, send from a loving 
heart the benediction, God bless thee, Illinois ! In long- 
procession thy legions go marching through my memory 
with banner, prayer, and song — the Home Protection 
army of that great campaign, which was the Sumter gun 
of America's latest and most heroic anti-slavery war. 
Behold them marching in the van, those brave, true- 
hearted warriors of God, who from a thousand pulpits 
preached and prayed that, woman's pleading might give 
place to woman's power. See the rallying clans of the 
reformed men, always our chivalric guard of honor, as 
they fall into line, with ribbons blue and red, singing 
" Rally round the flag, boys, rally once again." See the 
luavy columns of artillery, the noble legion of editors 
Christian and editors secular, the Gatling guns of the 
metropolitan press leading the grand advance ! Notice 
the veteran corps of the old line temperance societies 
marching along with closed ranks and what the greatest 
captain of the age has called "the swing of conquest," 
and see filling up our broadest prairies the swift advancing 
lines of the grand army, the one hundred and eighty 
thousand men and women who signed the muster-roll of 
the great petition as volunteers. Here, with steps so 
rapid they can hardly grade them to the company's music, 
march the business men of Chicago, who provided the 
sinews of war for our campaign ; the Swedes of the Nord 
Seitj the miners of Streator, the moral aristocracy of 


Peoria, stronghold of our relentless foe, and the hest blood 
of Springfield, where Lincoln's memory makes st§rn 
hearts kind ; while southern Illinois, the " Egypt " of 
our misapprehension, moves forward with tens of thou- 
sands, led by kindly old Cairo, where the gallant " Club" 
and liberal-hearted " Union " share the honors each has 
earned. Next these deploy the students from our schools, 
young men and women with no geometrical formula for 
bounding anybody's " sphere," but content to let God's 
" Thus far and no farther," written in the nature of things, 
replace the crude "Thus far and no farther" which has 
rung from custom's pinched lips, checking woman's 
buoyant steps in all the ages past. The Present doffs its 
cap to these as they file onward, and salutes them as 
" burgomasters of the future." 

There are ninety thousand women in this procession, 
the advance guard of an army which is gathering from 
every State, and the music of their marching feet is 
keyed to the tune of "Home, Sweet Home." Set for the 
defence of a principle, they have wrought into the granite 
of deeds what others have been content to "declare" in 
"resolutions" meagerly enforced by pitifully small "peti- 
tions," and their record is the guiding " signal " light of 
the countless hosts who shall come after them. 

But who are these now passing up through the shining 
ranks of the great white-ribbon army, as the gentle sol- 
diers gaze on them with eyes that cannot see for tears ? 
Ah, theirs are memorable faces, theirs are names to be 
emblazoned on our banners and our hearts ; the seventy- 
eight who voted for our bill, headed by Senator Taliafero 
and Judge Hinds, the brave Republican and Democrat 
who presented our petition at the capital. Forget them ! 
Nay, not we ! See where they march, brave Speaker 
James and Chairman Black, noble Peters of Watseka, 
German of the Germans, forerunner of the army that ere 


long shall keep their Wacht am Rhein for the protection of 
our homes ; sec where they march and hear the soft " God 
bless you," of a hundred thousand tremulous voices as 
Whiting, Ford of Galva, Dysart, Neal, and Tice march by, 
heading the total of ninety votes we mustered in both 
Houses at " headquarters." Other men there were fought 
in the ranks of the Black Dragon, when the battle raged 
under the capitol's great dome ; in whose sight greed 
of office, of party, and of gold were stronger than 
God's eternal justice, and more regarded than the tears 
of the oppressed. Their names shall pass into a swift 
oblivion, but some tall shaft upon the generous soil of the 
first Home Protection battle ground, shall yet bear down 
to happier generations the names of the true and loyal 
knights who, even now, wear fadeless honors in memory's 

Farewell, dauntless vice-presidents, you who have borne 
and labored and had patience ; noble sisters of the pen 
and the exchequer, wide awake general superintendent of 
the " ninety-and-nine " that went not astray, tireless office 
secretary, indomitable founder of the Signal, beloved 
editor, who in sorrow's night hast earned the title " bravest 
of the brave," and manly publisher, whose royal spirit 
deems it an honor to help our woman's enterprise, and 
accepts exile from his country for the dearer love he bears 
our cause ; farewell, heroic presidents of the local Unions, 
who " hold the fort " amid the storms of defeat, the 
gloom of apathy ; farewell to you, unvanquished soldiers 
of the rank and file, whose faithful courage often puts to 
blush our own. God's blessing be upon you, each and all. 

Step to thy rightful place, * Elizabeth, Queen of the 
Home Protection army in the pioneer prairie State. 
Trained under the guns of the enemy, Peoria sends her 

*Mrs. Elizabeth Grier Hibben, the new president. 


choicest daughter forth to a broader, but not a fiercer 
battle ground. Thy gentleness hath made thee great. 
The future shall bring us tidings of such victories as 
shall make the Past appear the tyro that she is. 

Attack the enemy in squads, this winter, with the local 
ordinance and petition. Yoke last year's enthusiasm to 
this year's discipline ; by your success in local elections, 
throw the ordinance into the courts, where the decision 
can but establish its validity, and next autumn send back 
to the legislature the friends who stood by us, and do 
your utmost to retire those who were false or faint of 


Strike till the last armed foe expires; 
Strike for your altars and your fires ; 
Strike for the freedom of your sires, 
God, home, and native land. 


The following pledge, used by the W. C. T. U., has been 
extensively circulated, the final sentence being changed 
to suit the prevailing sentiment in different localities. 

Copy of pledge to be written in little book and given to 
women appointed for the purpose in every W. C. T. U. 

I, the undersigned, a voter of , hereby pledge 

myself, as an act of justice to the mothers, Avives, and 

daughters of , who can get no representation at 

the polls except through their fathers, husbands, brothers, 
and sons, that I will attend every primary meeting, caucus, 
and election wherein the temperance question is directly 
or indirectly involved, and that I will then and there give 
my influence and vote in favor of such men and measures 
;is will advance the cause of the total prohibition of the 
liquor traffic (or of local option) ; (or of the ballot for 
women as a weapon of protection for her home from the 
outrages of the liquor traffic ; or the triumph of. the con- 
stitutional prohibitory amendment.) 



Question. — Is work for woman's full ballot a " side 
issue" in temperance reform? 

Answer. — Do the brewers so regard it? 

Q. — Would men who never voted prohibition them- 
selves give us women the power to do so ? 

A. — Have they done so in Arkansas? 

Q. — Is not the subject of prohibition less unpopular than 
that of woman's ballot ? 

A. — Is the superior popularity of prohibition indicated 
by the fact that four States have the suffrage amendment 
now pending, and two have the prohibition, and that in 
twelve States the woman's educational ballot is a part of the 
.^tate government? Or by the fact that while neither 
branch of Congress has a temperance, both have a suffrage 
committee now in full blast ? Or by the further fact that, 
while in the House of Representatives they would not so 
much as grant a commission to investigate the results of 
the liquor traffic, they have granted the woman's suffrage 
committee aforesaid ? 

Q. — Is not the home protection movement less popular 
than it was years ago ? 

A. — Do you rely for proof of this upon the fact that the 
S. S. workers of Illinois, at their recent temperance meet- 
ing, and the Congregational ministers, at their annual 
association, resolved to stand by the W. C. T. U., which 
is thoroughly pronounced for woman's full ballot ? Or 
upon the fact that our leading temperance women are 
freely invited to speak in Presbyterian churches on Sab- 
bath evenings, when their utterances about the ballot are 
sure to have no uncertain sound ? Or upon the fact that 
at the District Convention held this spring, our " women 
of the churches," confessedly conservative, have stood up 
so unanimously for the ballot, when the question was 


called, that it has been declared " positively cruel" to put 
the negative ? 

Q. — Is it not easier to get prohibition than the ballot 
for women ? 

A. — Do the foregoing facts (not fine spun theories) 
point in that direction ? Is it easier for a legislator to go 
to his whisky constituents and say, " I voted to submit a 
prohibition amendment," or " I voted to submit an equal 
franchise amendment?" Which sounds the worst in the 
distiller's ears? Did you know that a large element 
among the "liberals" — Germans and others — believe it 
an act of justice to let all the adult population share 
directly in making the laws by which they are governed ? 
Had you heard that the editor of a leading German beer 
paper said to one of our workers, " I hate to have the 
women vote, because they will vote against beer; but I 
shall cast my ballot on their side because I believe in your 
American Declaration of Independence ?" 

Q. — Will not the majority of foreigners vote against 
temperance ? 

A. — Then has not temperance something to gain from 
letting women vote, since at least two foreign men come 
to us where one foreign woman comes, and the proportion 
of native born women to native born men is in our favor ? 

Q. — Did not Kansas declare for prohibition without 
woman's help ? 

A. — Is it not true that for fifteen years previous to 
carrying the amendment, Kansas had allowed the signa- 
ture of a woman to count just as much as that of a man on 
license questions, thus giving to women the " vote by sig- 
nature?" Did not that, according to the admission of 
Kansas people, help mightily in building public sentiment 
for prohibition ? And does not Governor St. John declare 
they must give women the ballot that they may help to 
elect such officers in the large cities of Kansas as will 


make the law something more than a rusty sword in a 
still more rusty scabbard? 

Q. — Will not the ballot come to women in due season 
without the special efforts of temperance women? 

A. — Is it not true, as Garfield said, that things don't 
turn up in this world, but somebody must go to work and 
turn them up? If the "ballot by signature" in women's 
hands closed the grog shops in three-fourths of the coun- 
ties of Arkansas, is it not in harmony with temperance 
for the W. C. T. U. to hasten its advent to the utmost ? 

Q. — Have not the woman suffragists come into the 
W. C. T. U. for the purpose of using its forces in the 
interest of their cause ? 

A. — Will you please furnish a list of those who have so 
entered our work? Is there a general officer of the 
National W. C. T, U. who has ever been affliated with 
the suffrage movement except as a W. C. T. U. worker? 
Is there a State President except Mary A. Livermore and 
Mary T. Lathrap (now a conservative) who ever spoke in 
a suffrage meeting ? Let us have facts. 

Q. — Have not those W. C. T. Unions that have 
included work for the ballot among their methods become 
hobbyists and laid down the Gospel to take up the ballot? 

A. — Which has most auxiliaries and the greatest num- 
ber of temperance schools, evangelistic meetings, etc. — ■ 
the Home Protection States or the conservatives? (Look 
in the annual reports of the National W. C. T. U. and 
see.) Which State furnished for years the national 
superintendent of the evangelistic work ? (Illinois — and 
a more fervent Christian worker or a more pronounced 
Home Protectionist is not to be found in America than 
Mrs. Henry.) Which furnishes the superintendent of the 
Sunday-school work? Illinois. Of " unfermented wine at 
the sacrament?" Illinois. On which side have the 
veterans of the crusade ramrod themselves? " Bv their 
fruits ve shall know them." 


Q. — Is not the Bible opposed to woman's ballot? 

A. — Do you refer to the place where it says " male and 
female created he them and called their name Adam?" or 
to the account of Miriam and Deborah, Huldah and 
Esther, Anna and Elizabeth, and the Marys? or to the 
Apostle's declaration : " There is neither male nor female, 
but ye are all one in Christ Jesus ?" Nay, as the outcome 
of our Christian civilization let us have 

" Two heads in counsel, two beside the hearth ; 
Two in the tangled business of the world ; 
Two in the liberal offices of life; 
Two plummets dropped to sound the abyss of science, 
And the secrets of the mind. " 


The accompanying letter so stirred my heart when I 
received it that I determined to pass it along to the 
good and thoughtful people who will read this book, and 
ask them to think it over : 

Dear Sister: — Thanking you as far as words can do it, for the 
kind mention you always make of me, for your tender sympathy, 
which has bound me to you, I will give you a picture of my life since 
my arrival on Saturday, and if it will help to open blind eyes, or 
rouse to thought one indifferent mind, use it as you will, only for my 
dear son's sake suppress the name. 

I came home after the week's work — work 1 tried to do lovingly as 
for the Master, looking gladly toward the rest, and the welcome of 
home faces and sweet home voices. 

My boy had reached it before me ; he had been at work this~week, 
after many months without employment. Part of his wages he left 
with a friend, saying "it would be safer so." He knew his weakness 
to withstand the tempter's lures. Then he went to make some pur- 
chases, which he intended as a pleasant surprise towards home 
comfort — went, as he thought, safe in his loving desire to make home 
bright in atonement for the many dark days he had caused there. 

After a few hours he came, with unsteady feet, brain heated and 
bewildered; the face that God had made so fair swollen, flushed, dis- 
figured; the beautiful eyes, that were to have watched for his mother's 
home coming, bloodshot and wild in their brightness. This was on 
Saturday night. On God's holy day he stole out, and drank again 


and again to quench the thirst that it but enkindles anew. To-day 
when the mother pleaded, when her hand would have held him back, 
keeping him within home's shelter, the lips she used to kiss so lovingly 
cursed the day that he was born, cursed the mother that gave him 
birth, the mother who would die to save him now, and went out 
again on the road that leads to death. The law has no redress for me, 
no restraining influence for him. He is of age, say the lawyers; the 
men of whom he buys liquid tire are licensed to sell it. "What are we 
mothers to do? Shall we sit quietly down and watch the ending, the 
dark, dreary ending? God help us. God give us strength to put 
aside our timid shrinking. Let us petition — petition — until we have 
the right to say by our actions as well as our prayers that this 
slaughter of souls must cease. I must do what alone is left. If the 
law hedges about the rumseller because he has a voice, a tribute for 
the revenue, a vote that intimidates even those who wish well to the 
temperance cause, if he and his saloon are protected, why should not 
I, who, because I am a woman, need it more, have Home Protection 
for my helpless ones, myself, my weak and wandering boy, avIio but 
for rum's traffic would be, with his rich gifts of heart and mind, an 
ornament to society, a power for good in the land? 

A Sufferer, if not wholly a Suffragist. 


Behold his Satanic Majesty in cabinet council assem- 
bled, with his minions and his emissaries just returned 
from this sin-stricken earth. Each brings the latest news 
concerning the endless conflict between darkness and 
light, ignorance and wisdom, sin and righteousness. Each 
gives the most carefully considered suggestions for the 
building up of Satan's kingdom — for the multiplication of 
murders, robberies, outrages, and conflagrations. " Permit 
the suggestion, your Majesty," says one brimstone-colored 
satellite, "that you will build a new distillery at Spiritsville, 
for at that point the church people are growing rapidly in 
power." "Not at all," tartly replies he of the horns and 
hoofs; "don't you know better than to be always showing 
your hand in that fashion ! Do this instead : Put it into 
the heart of John Barleycorn, proprietor of the distillery 
I have already there, to subscribe a thousand dollars 
toward finishing the church." 


The order was entered in lurid letters on the books, 
and Emissary No. 2 proceeded to report : " In Temperance- 
ville they have so few saloons that the young men are 
rapidly getting out from under thy sway, and I humbly 
suggest the imperative necessity of a special order on the 
Stygian Manufactory for six well-instructed and experi- 
enced imps, who shall put it into the heads of six men 
now engaged in other business to open six saloons, as 
business is so lively at Cincinnati and Peoria that we can 
spare none of our already enlisted forces." " Tut, tut ! " 
roared the devil ; " I can beat that device, with only half 
trying. Send a beer-drinking pastor to Temperanceville, 
and let him preach in favor of the Business Men's Mod- 
eration Society, and show up the idiotic theories of those 
stiff-necked teetotalers." No. 3 iioav ventured to suggest 
that in Tippleton the women had opened a Sunday- 
afternoon meeting, and had given out that they should 
offer a free lunch at the polls on the approaching election 
day. He therefore asked for a detailed escort of fiends, 
who should be commanded to set fire to the Temperance 
Reading Rooms and drive the President of the W. C. T. 
U. raving distracted." " You are a callow young limb of 
perdition to go so clumsily about your business," roared 
the devil. " I won't send a special squad, for they are all 
employed in the saloons working up the voting lists 
against the next election, in the interests of the whisky 
governor ; but do you go and put it into the head of 
Deacon Setbones to prove to that W. C. T. IL President 
that the Scriptures do plainly teach that it's a sin and 
shame for a woman to speak in any public place, and that 
the whole spirit of Christianity is set against the insane 
notion of a woman's undertaking to preside at an election- 
eering lunch clown at the polls." 

And now comes the last and most lugubrious-looking 
messenger, with this doleful story to relate : " I ask that 


pestilence and famine be let loose, for I am terribly 
alarmed for the stability of thy kingdom in the province 
of which Chicago (otherwise Beeropolis) is the chief city; 
for be it known unto your majesty there is a serious 
revolt among those whom thou hast kept in strict subordi- 
nation, lo, these centuries! The women are rousing them- 
selves to the cry of 'Home Protection,' studying into the 
structure of the Government, tracing back to their source 
the temptations that have so admirably succeeded in 
capturing boys and men for thy great armies. These 
frightful women, neglecting their proper sphere and the 
submission that has been so long their convenient char- 
acteristic, have actually dared to publish figures showing 
that the majority of voters are on thy side, and that thus 
thou dost hold thyself in power by keeping thine ambas- 
sador, King Alcohol, intrenched among the people." 
Here the fiendish messenger turned a sickly yellow and 
gasped with rage, as he concluded his awful revelation in 
these words : " They even ask — and many ministers, 
church editors, and other strong allies of Him whom thou 
didst tempt and crucify are asking for them — the power 
to vote upon all questions relating to the sale of alcoholic 

0, what a scene was that ! The devil quaked in every 
limb, his sharp knees smote together, and a howl of hell- 
ish hate and rage rang through the sulphurous air of the 
dark council chamber as he cried: 

"Away with you, fools that you are! Talk of letting 
loose famine and pestilence ! If things have reached this 
p ass — if the women have discovered that the side always 
wins which has most votes — let me make haste. I'll send 
no stupid, clumsy-footed subaltern in an emergency like 
this! I'll steal in among those timid and silly rebels 
who have always hated me and sought the triumph of 
Him who wore the thorn-crown, and from a thousand 


pulpits I'll declare that woman leaves her home on this 
vile errand at the peril of society ; that you cannot carry 
temperance, much less the Gospel, into politics ; and that 
en the day when woman votes the home will fall in ever- 
lasting ruin, and woman turn herself into a Jezebel. 
Mxue,nt omnes. 


In his eloquent sermon at Lake Bluff, near Chicago, 
Chaplain McCabe, while fully and frankly avowing his 
belief in woman's vote as a means of advancing the 
temperance cause, stated some difficulties. As the Lake 
Bluff Temperance Convocation was called by the W. C. T. 
Union of Illinois, whose work for the temperance ballot is 
well known, Miss Willard briefly replied to the points 
made by the chaplain, and the following is an abstract of 
her impromptu : 

She said : " Our good chaplain's first objection is that : ' It 
is unwise to enlarge the law-making power while the 
law-executing power is not increased." But the beauty of 
it is that in the nature of things this can't be done. The 
persons whom you add to the law-making power (for 
instance, women with the temperance ballot on the Local 
Option question) are by this new prerogative translated 
out of the passive and into the active voice ; they become 
interested in the enforcement of law. The chaplain 
draws a humorous picture of woman's weapons, showing 
how inappropriate the sewing-machine and darning-needle 
would be as engines of war, but Mrs. Plum of Streator, 
one of our vice-presidents, can tell you of women who, 
having first changed the public sentiment of that com- 
munity by years of holding meetings, circulating temper- 
ance literature, and canvassing for the Home Protection 
petition, finally secured local prohibition for the first 
time in the history of that mining town, and then, with 


their knitting in their hands and their darning-needles, 

for audit I know, went over to the court and prosecuted 
infractions of the law. 

The difficulty presented is fancied, not real, and vanishes 
in the light of practical experience. The Home Protec- 
tion movement in Illinois did more to awaken and solidify 
both law-making 'and law-enforcing power than any 
movement our State has ever seen. This is the admission 
of our practical workers, who go from one part of the 
State to the other, and of the dram-shop keepers them- 
selves. Of 832 towns that voted on the question of 
license in the Spring of 1879, following our campaign, 
645 voted u no license," a vastly larger proportion than at 
any previous time. If to-day women are not the law- 
executing power in Illinois, where our local unions have 
grown at the rate of 100 a year since the Home Protec- 
tion movement was inaugurated, what class in our State 
constitutes that power ? The chaplain would have known 
all this, and h ■; heart would have been cheered by it, if 
the great circle around which he swings in his broader 
orbit had not led him outside our State for the most part. 

Second objection : " Would not men vote as readily for 
prohibition as for woman's temperance ballot, and is not 
that the more direct way of coming at the difficulty?" 

Until it can be proved that every man who opposes or 
dares not vote for prohibition also opposes or dares not 
vote for woman's temperance ballot, this objection is but 
chimerical. But it can never be thus proved. On the 
contrarv,all experience points the other way. Some men, 
unlike our brave Chaplain McCabe, were unwilling to go 
themselves to the war, but quite ready to sacrifice upon 
the shrine of patriotism all of their wives' relations. In 
like manner, men are constantly saying to us, "You women 
must do this work. Your hands will soon be free to 
undertake it. We will give money to help you on 3 but 


our business interests and political ambitions arc a ball 
and chain to us." Others, who are not frank enough to 
say this, show by their actions that they think it. 
Besides, there is a large class who, though not awake to 
the value of prohibition, do earnestly believe in woman's 
vote. Listen to intelligent conversation upon this subject, 
and you will find this to be true. 

Third objection : " Behind the policeman's star, which 
is the symbol of the majesty of law, the offender sees the 
executive power of force residing in the strong arm of 
manhood. When women are ready to carry the sabre and 
ride to the cavalry charge, then their law-making power 
will avail something tangible for temperance." 

Nay, let us think a little farther as to what is behind 
the star on that policeman's breast. If he is in Canada 
or England, a woman named Queen Victoria is behind it! 
But, jesting aside, everywhere that humanity has risen 
above brute force into the realm of law, you will find 
Christ's philosophy prevailing. Go back along the life- 
path of your statesman, your legislator, who made those 
statutes by which the Anglo-Saxon race is lifted from 
brute force to the level of constitutional law, and you will 
find a home, a mother's training, a Christian cradle 
hymn, a child's sweet prayer. Put men by themselves in 
camp and wilderness, and how long is law their arbiter 
rather than the matched strength of arm with arm and 
blow for blow? It is pure, ennobled Christian woman- 
hood, with her teachings and example, that has made law 
possible to the Anglo-Saxon race. Reverently let it be 
said, behind the policeman's star gleams the Star of 
Bethlehem. We women of Illinois believe in force. It 
rules the world; it always will. Force of brain, of heart, 
of conscience — these are the vital powers that move the 
world. It was said of a great chieftain: 

" One blast upon his bugle horn 
Was worth a thousand men!" 


It was said of a great gencral- 

" I have brought you Sheridan all the way 
From Winchester down to save the day." 

We believe in force of patriotism and leadership. They 
will always win, and women have them in abundant 
measure. It was not the bayonet, but the schoolmaster, 
that conquered at Sedan. In Switzerland it was not 
brute force that triumphed, but such a spirit in the people 
as that of Arnold of Winkelreid, when he opened his 
arms to gather to his faithful breast a sheaf of Austrian 
spears, and fell crying "Make way for liberty!" But 
should it come about that woman's help was needed on 
the battlefield in driving back the rum power for the 
defence of home, there are plenty of women in this con- 
vention who would lead a regiment just as ably and 
successfully as they now preside over a county convention. 
We temperance women of America believe in One who 
shall yet be crowned the King of nations, as He is now 
the King of saints, and we are ready to do and dare and 
die for Him. Christ, it is not brute force that has 
carried on the triumph of Thy cross since the little 
procession of fishermen and women started out along the 
hillsides of Judea! No, it has been one mightier far, for 
love force has won the battles by which Thy cross grows 
regnant day by day. Prayer force, even as the chaplain 
says, is mighty to the pulling down of strongholds. 
Prayer, from the blessed days of the Jhio crusade, has 
been raising a citadel around our workers, high as the 
hope of a saint, deep as the depths of a drunkard's despair. 
If prayer and womanly influence are doing so much as 
forces for God by indirect methods, how shall it be when 
that electric force is brought to bear through the battery 
of the ballot-box along the wires of law ? 

We mean to go straight on. Illinois will never call a 
halt. Let other States work for a prohibitory amendment, 


and may God bless them, but we will experiment along 
another line, first making sure of a trained constituency 
for prohibition, and then seeking constitutional law. Wo 
shall have the womanhood of this State with us. In 
Keithsburg, white and black, high and low, Catholic and 
Protestant women made common cause when invited to 
register their opinion on the saloon question. We have 
three American women to one woman foreign born to help 
to offset the vote of Hamburg and of Cork. We mean to 
be as good-natured as sunshine, but as persistent as fate, 
and may God defend the right! 



Neither poet nor oainter need wish a more dramatic 
subject than is afforded by the history of how the consti- 
tutional amendment for prohibition came to be submitted 
to the people of Kansas. For fifteen years that brave 
young State had been under a blessed process of educa- 
tion by means of a local option law, by which, in cities of 
the second class, women had an equal voice with men 
concerning the legal status of the dram-shop. But though 
this method secured to the smaller towns immunity from 
the saloon, it did not reach the cities, and temperance 
legislators were anxious for a more sweeping law. Then 
it was that the liquor interest, dreading a statute like 
that of Maine, and not expecting their proposition to be 
accepted, made the suggestion that no legislation should 
be had, but the whole matter referred to the people. 
Whereupon the temperance men turned their jest to 
earnest, and for the first time in history a resolution was 
adopted to submit to popular vote a constitutional amend- 
ment for the total prohibition of the liquor traffic. It is 
not generally known that one little woman's heart was 


the pivot on which this mighty movement turned, but 
nothing is more true. For while the resolution to submit 
passed the Senate without special difficulty, in the House 
il trembled in the balance. Public feeling was at fever 
heat, debate was long and full of animation, not to say 
recrimination. Temperance men and women flocked to 
the capitol, and the liquor men were out in force. At 
last the issue was joined at midnight, after a stormy 
closing debate. The roll of ayes and noes was called, 
while every ear in the vast assembly that rilled galleries 
and corridor was strained to catch the responses of these 
men, " dressed in a little brief authority," but none the 
less men of destiny to-night. Busy pencils kept the tally, 
and when the voting ceased a sigh from many a temper- 
ance man's heart accompanied the words : " "We've lost 
our cause by just one vote ! " 

But look, a woman, gentle, modest, sweet, advances 
from the crowd. What, is she going down that aisle, 
where woman never trod before, and in among that group 
of party leaders ? Yea, verily, and every eye follows her 
with intense interest, and the throng is strangely still as 
she goes straight to her husband, takes his big hands in 
her little ones, lifts her dark eyes to his face, and speaks 
these thrilling words : " My darling, for my sake, for the 
sake of our sweet home, for Kansas' sake and God's, I 
beseech you change your vote." When lo ! upon the 
silence broke a man's deep voice : " Mr. Speaker, before 
the clerk reads the result I wish to change my vote from 
no to aye /' How loud rang out the cheers of men : how 
fell the rain of women's tears, for love had conquered, as 
it always will, at last, and the voices of the people, when 
heard in Kansas, said : " Give us prohibition for home's 
and children's sake." So Kansas leads the van, and one 
little woman saved the day. 

398 woman's work in iowa. 

the battle in iowa. 

The victory gained June 27 th in Iowa was the culmina- 
tion of a hard-fought campaign, extending over eight 
courageous years. As everybody knows, our great Civil 
War was followed by a period of apathy in the temper- 
ance reform, public opinion having been solely occupied 
with one absorbing issue, and our citizen soldiery return- 
ing from the field with personal habits and moral standards 
reduced to lower levels by their long loss of home's sweet 
safeguards and exposure to the life of camp and field. 

In 1874 came that mighty reaction known as the 
Woman's Temperance Crusade, by which the peaceful 
weapons of prayer and persuasion drove the saloons from 
250 towns in fifty days ; by which crime was diminished 
by nine-tenths, and attendance at church was increased 
100 per cent. Although these results were largely tem- 
porary, the sober second thought of that crusade was 
organization, and the " Woman's Christian Temperance 
Union," now extended over the entire Republic, the 
Dominion of Canada, and the Kingdom of Great Britain, 
is the most effective temperance society as yet known to 
philanthropic annals. From the beginning this society 
lias had a splendid growth in Iowa, and under the leader- 
ship of Mrs. Judith Ellen Foster, Mrs. M. J. Aldrich, Mrs. 
L. D. Carhart, Mrs. V. M. Moore, Mrs. A. M. Palmer, 
Mrs. M. F. Goode, Mrs. Dr. Thrall, Mrs. Florence Miller, 
Mrs. Thickstun, Mrs. M. J. Callanan, and others, it has 
wrought with an energy and patience worthy of all praise. 
By their invitation and help, Francis Murphy of Maine, 
John W. Drew of New Hampshire, I. C. Bonticon, and 
Capt. Linscott of Michigan, and other leaders among 
reformed men, wrought valiantly in years past to persuade 
drinking men to cease patronizing the saloons. By their 
efforts also Bands of Hope were organized in every town, 
pledged to total abstinence from strong drink, tobacco, 


and profanity. By their efforts reading-rooms were 
opened, Gospel meetings held, literature scattered, and 
audiences convened in every corner of the commonwealth 
where, with gentleness of utterance and strength of argu- 
ment, moral and legal suasion (the two millstones 
between which intemperance is to be crushed) were pre- 
sented to the intellect and conscience of the Hawkeye 
State. From the first these women were convinced of the 
reasonableness of these twin methods of attack, and never 
ceased to urge them upon public attention. When, in 
1875, the temperance men nominated Chaplain Lozier for 
Governor on an independent-prohibition ticket, the con- 
science of the W. C. T. U. was with the movement, 
though the society was then too weak to make itself felt, 
and the brave chaplain received but 1,400 votes. When, 
in 1877, Hon. Elias Jessup, a State Senator, was nomi- 
nated by a convention of the Temperance Alliance, and 
twelve thousand independent votes were cast for him, 
Mrs. Foster, the most gifted and influential woman in the 
State, took the platform on his behalf. 

When, in 1879, the Republicans heard the sound in the 
mulberry trees, and knew that the people were preparing 
to assert themselves, judging the signs of these times by 
the fact that there was greater defection from their ranks 
and discontent within than had heretofore been known, 
they agreed, by request of the W. C. T. IT., and the brave 
men who had worked side by side with them, to submit 
to the people a constitutional amendment forever pro- 
hibiting the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors 
(including ale, wine, and beer) as a drink. Mrs. Foster 
was the first in the State to make this public recommen- 
dation. She did so at the annual convention of the State 
W. C. T. U., at Burlington, in 1878, as Superintendent of 
the Department of Legislative Work. Mrs. Foster and 
her husband, E. 0. Foster, Esq., are both lawyers, and had 

400 iowa's petition. 

carefully studied this subject, having heard Aaron M. 
Powell of New York make an address upon it at the 
Chicago Temperance Convention in 1875, knowing also 
the opinions and work of the Hon. S. D. Hastings, of 
Wisconsin, an early champion of the constitutional 
method, and being conversant with the noble undertaking 
of Senator Henry W. Blair of New Hampshire, at Wash- 
ington. To the everlasting credit of the Republican 
party, be it said that they acceded to the appeals made 
them by the people of Iowa in the form of a petition, 
drafted by Mrs. Foster for the W. C. T. Unions, and by 
them carefully circulated throughout the State. The 
question that followed and stirred the heart of every tem- 
perance man and woman in Iowa was now before them. 
Having passed this measure once, will the dominant 
party have courage to do so again at the next biennial 
session ? But the party stood manfully to its pledge — 
placed in its platform at the next State convention pre- 
cisely the resolution which the ladies asked — namely, 
reiterating the same form of amendment as before, and 
pledging its submission at a special election. 

Governor Sherman, who has frankly championed the 
amendment, was nominated and elected with a full 
understanding of that fact ; the Speaker of the House 
was chosen on that issue ; the election of James H. Wil- 
son, Iowa's grand new Senator, was another temperance 
victory ; and by excellent majorities the Legislature again 
voted to submit. Mr. Clarkson, of the Des Moines 
Register, the ablest and most influential paper in the 
State, battled from the first for the amendment. The 
strong men of the State took up the war-cry ; Senator 
Wilson's magnificent speech was scattered by thousands ; 
James Wilson, " of Tama," was true as a canny Scotsman 
only can be ; Aaron Kimball, a State Senator and Chair- 
man of the Amendment Association, gave time and 


money to the battle; the best lawyers in the State took 
the stump ; the pulpit was solid, a thousand sermons a 
Sunday being brought to bear upon the people from texts 
like these : " Woe unto him that justifieth the wicked for 
a reward." "Every plant that my Heavenly Father hath 
not planted shall be rooted up." Speakers were invited 
from other States. Governor St. John, of Kansas, from the 
gdorious standpoint of victory attained, told them how 
fields were won; George W. Bain, of Kentucky, "with 
malice toward none and charity for all," plead with his 
matchless eloquence the sacred cause of Home versus 
Saloon ; John B. Finch, a lawyer from Nebraska, dealt 
blows of logic that resounded throughout the State ; 
George Woodford, of Illinois, put a reformed man's 
pathos into his powerful plea ; Mrs. S. Skelton, of Ger- 
many, the daughter of a Darmstadt professor, talked to 
our German friends in the beloved language of their 
fatherland ; Mrs. Fixen, of Minnesota, spoke their own 
tongue to the Scandinavians ; John Sobeski, of Poland, 
one of the most genial, witty, and delightful of speakers, 
won all win) heard him; and "Steamboat Frank," the 
converted Modoc, through a good Quaker interpreter, Ira 
D. Kellogg, of Indian Territory, warned the pale faces 
against the fire-water. During the month of June one 
hundred speakers were constantly in the held, not to 
mention local workers. Mrs. Goode rallied the children, 
teaching them "The Constitutional Amendment Cate- 
chism," until they knew as much as most lawyers on that 
weighty subject, and went back to reason with, as well as 
to persuade, the voters in their homes. The committee 
at headquarters kept up a steady cannonade with temper- 
ance literature, sending to every chairman of a county or 
a township regular and frequent assignments of printed, 
arguments. There were statistics for the farmers, 
prepared by a leading temperance woman and said to 


have been one of the most helpful of campaign documents; 
speeches by Senator Wilson and Judith Ellen Foster, by 
Governor St. John and many others ; also the publications 
of J. N. Stearns and D. C. Cook— these went by cart- 
loads, paid for by the business men of Iowa. The 
opposition tried similar tactics. Two men, with " Rev." 
prefixed to their names, took the stump; also an editor 
or two. We will kindly drop their names into the same 
oblivion into which their sorry work has fallen. A pam- 
phlet on "Personal Liberty" (said to be by Henry Clay 
Dean) was circulated, and manifestoes by a German Free 
Thinker, who was chairman of the "Anti-Amendment 

Letters from Kansas were sent out, claiming that there 
was more liquor sold than ever, and yet winding up with 
the assertion that all foreign immigration was driven away, 
because there was nothing to drink. Statements about 
Maine, to the effect that in illiteracy, crime, etc., the old 
Pine Tree State brings up the rear of the Union, caused 
people of intelligence to smile. Statistics, duly watered, 
striving to prove the teetotal failure of prohibition 
wherever tried, were offset by counter statements from 
Neal Dow and Governor St. John. Many Democrats 
came out in strong advocacy of the amendment, and 
many Republicans in bitter opposition. There was but 
one subject discussed on the cars, one in the stores, shops, 
offices, and on the pavement, and that was the amend- 
ment, Temperance workers spoke two and three times a 
day, and rode across the country in the dead of the night, 
to catch the train for next forenoon's appointment. 
Governor St. John spoke in Cedar Rapids at 8 a. m. to an 
immense audience, and at Missouri Valley Junction, from 
the steps of the railroad station, " every man, woman, 
child, and dog in town " being present, by actual count. 
(I have it from an " eye-witness.") 


Arriving- on short notice at a wayside station, and 
urged to speak to an impromptu audience, the present 
chronicler was vastly amused to hear, between the pauses 
of her address on " Personal Liberty," the boy of the 
period ringing his mother's dinner-bell, as he perambu- 
lated the streets and shouted, in his shrill falsetto: 

" Lecture al Blank's Hall, now — now — now. Miss , 

of Illinois ; everybody invited." 

Can we ever forget such days ? Never did those sacred 
words, " The People," have significance so full of comfort. 
No "fence-mending" politicians, no wheedling dema- 
gogues, no imperious " bosses " could prevail. " The 
cause" had radiated out from the quiet prayer-room into 
the wide, free area of a mighty State; "the plan" had 
been adopted by a great party; "the appeal" of 
woman's heart was to become the dictum of the sovereign 
citizen : the hope of the gentle had become the purpose 
of the strong. What one of America's great leaders said 
was coming true: "The verdict of the people can always 
be trusted when they have had a fair chance to hear the 
evidence." For eight years the Commonwealth of Iowa 
has been studying this question ; for four years that 
splendid State has been one great debating club. What 
wonder that on the 27th of June the jury thus summed 
up the evidence : " In the interest of the Home, the 
Saloon must henceforth be an outlaw. The Lord reigneth ; 
let the earth rejoice." 


" All of which I saw," can only be said by the Omnis- 
cient, of so great a movement as that in Iowa. One little 
glimpse in a single pleasant village came to me. Marion, 
near Cedar Rapids, is one among the fifteen hundred 
polling-places of the " Hawkeye State." Out of its ninety- 
nine counties seventy-five gave a majority of over fifty 


thousand on the 27th of June for a constitutional amend- 
ment prohibiting the liquor traffic. Marion has about 
one thousand voters, of whom nine hundred cast their 
ballots, and of these seven hundred were for prohibition. 
As Mrs. L. H. Carhart, the earnest-hearted President of 
the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, lives in 
Marion, I determined to spend the " day of days " with 
her, after having visited, by her invitation, twenty towns 
and cities, " speaking unto the children of Israel that they 
go forward," and urging upon them our temperance war- 
cry, " The sword of the Lord and of Gideon." Picture a 
lovely tree-embowered village, a fair June day, a popula- 
tion voluntarily turned out of doors, but all so orderly 
and quiet that an almost Sabbath restfulness is in the air. 
Promptly at nine o'clock the deep tones of the Court 
House bell summon the Sunday-school children to the 
Methodist church, whence, headed by the Band of Hope, 
they are to march to the park, just opposite the polls. 
Soon after, the Presbyterian bell calls the women to their 
all-day prayer-meeting, the voters not being invited, for 
the motto is, " The home expects every man to do his 
duty — at the polls." As a matter of fact, I rang a church 
bell for the first time in my life on the 27th of June, we 
women having it all our own way ; pastors, deacons, and 
laymen spending the entire day at the City Hall, most 
of them not even going to dinner. Toward night some of 
them came by way of jubilee to tell us what a victory was 
gained, the good Methodist minister and the principal of 
the high school taking the lead when the closing hours 
arrived. The bell rang every hour to denote that a new 
meeting was begun. Some of our good friends said, 
"Enter into thy closet and shut thy door," and inveighed 
against the frequent bell, but gentle Mrs. Carhart said : 
" ' With the heart man believeth unto righteousness, and 
with the mouth confession is made unto salvation ; ' that 

MRS. carhart's steps. 405 

bell is the voice of the Christian people of this village 
confessing him k upon whose shoulder the government 
shall be.' " 

But while the chastened voices of their mothers sang 
"Rock of Ages" at the church on the corner, near the 
City Hall, what a din (heir young hopefuls were making- 
two blocks away, at the Methodist rendezvous. Having 
<•])* 'lied the women's prayer-meeting, Mrs. Carhart's swift 
steps passed on to where the clamoring throng were deck- 
ing themselves with badges, and dividing the spoils of 
flags and banners. There was a strong tendency mani- 
fest for "all to be corporals," and to indicate the fact by 
hoisting some insignia aloft, perceiving which, with ready 
tact, the ladies in attendance improvised mottoes and 
wreaths of evergreens, fastened to bits of lath, broomstick, 
or hoe-handle, and the boys' hearts were set at rest. 
Meekly the girls marched forth two by two, and stood 
upon the order of their going until carefully graded 
according to their height, when, with plume and banner 
gay, they led off to the lovely park with the boys follow- 
ing ; such mottoes as " Please vote for the Homes of 
Marion," " Tremble. King Alcohol, we shall grow up," 
" Stand aside, gentlemen, here come the future voters," 
while the star-spangled banner, stuck in hat bands or 
borne aloft in eager little bands, made its mute but elo- 
quent appeal. Up and down through the streets they 
marched, the ladies forming their guard of honor, and 
finally drawing up in the park, they sang in their clear, 
cheery tone : 

" My drink is water bright, water bright, water bright, 
My drink is water bright, from the crystal springs." 

This was followed by : 

" Get ready for the jubilee,*' 
Hurrah! hurrah! 
When this our country shall be free, 
Hurrah! hurrah! 


The girls -will sing, the boys will shout, 

When alcohol is voted out, 
And we'll all be gay 

When temperance rules our land. " 

These musical exhortations were applauded by the 
grave citizens in the great group across the way, and thus 
encouraged, the children sang " Keep to the Right," gave 
a three times three for the amendment, and retired in 
good order from the field. 

Meanwhile, about three doors from the City Hall, a 
beautiful flag had been flung to the breeze, and the 
announcement of " W. C. T. U. Free Lunch for all " 
greeted the eye. Here a committee of ladies worked 
hard all day, and fragrant coffee sent forth its pleasant 
invitation on the breeze. Voters were constantly passing 
in and out, temperance men would enter and confidentially 
allow the leading ladies to peep at the " tally," which they 
carefully kept, and here were brought to us the telegrams 
from all over the State : " Day fine, voters all out, ladies 
all out, business suspended, prospects good " — words 
which we could hardly see for tears of joy and hope. 
The lunch-room was adorned with those pretty things 
that women bring from home — plants, trailing vines, 
brackets, pictures, and flowers ; Washington, and Martha 
by his side, Lincoln and Garfield, our greatest and best. 
" Oh," said the active local president, " they call this a 
fast age, and so it is, but in a blessed sense fast when you 
come to the temperance question. Neither Washington 
nor Lincoln saw greater things for God and home and 
native land than we shall see and share in." 

An old gentleman, past eighty, came in after casting 
his vote, and as he took us by the hand he said: "To 
think I have lived to see this day, and to help on its 
victory ! Now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, 
Lord, for mine eyes have seen thy salvation." The 
dear old man called it ." voting for the improvement," and 


wo women thought he had stumbled on the right, if not 
tlic legal phrase. Every few minutes some temperance 
man would rush in with such incidents as these : " Ladies, 
what do you think ? Blank, the brewer, took his team 
and went into the country for a sick man he felt sure 
would stand by him. The poor fellow was hardly able to 
come, but he did : and when the brewer had helped him 
in and offered him a ballot against the amendment, what 
did he do but fumble in his pocket, fetch out one of our 
kind that his wife had got for him, and put it in, with all 
the anti fellows looking blank enough." Another man 
went to vote, while the saloon-keeper who brought him 
was entangled in an argument by our minister. He voted 
all right, and when the saloon-keeper found it out he 
looked like a cat that has lost its mouse, and said : " How 
dare he ? Why, the fellow owes me this very minute for 
at least one keg of beer!" A man who has always 
patronized the # saloons came to Dr. C. and said: "I'm 
about wrecked. I've paid the money into these places 
that belonged to my family, and ought to have gone into 
flour and coal; but I tell you I'm bound to strike one 
blow for the right, now that I've got such a grand 

All day .ong at the polls stood the Congregational 
minister, with sprained and painful ankle, supporting 
himself by leaning on his cane, pleading good-naturedly 
with voters, holding men who had come to peddle anti- 
amendment ballots in endless argument, and lifting up 
his heart to Hod for victory. All day long the best brain 
and brawn of Marion were all things to all men, that by 
all means they might win the most. It is like the nil- 
admirari school of fossiliferous communities to speak 
about " keeping clear of politics," but the lust men of the 
bravest State in the Republic do not so speak. They 
"go in to win," as runs their own forcible phrase, and 


they honor the mothers that bore, the teachers who 
taught, the preachers who exhorted, and the homes that 
are proud of them. The only man whom I saw in Marion 
who seemed out of tune with the " Gloria" of the day was 
a crumpled up, cranky, and slightly intoxicated old 
Englishman (no fair exponent of that splendid race), who, 
after we had given him lunch and when we offered him 
the right kind of a ballot, fired up with these words : 
" You're too late ; I voted 'fore I came to lunch. I'm 
dead set agen your law and I'll always be dead set agen 
it, because I'm opposed to this here female rule ! " 

There was no more " telling " work than that of the 
young ladies and the children. They stripped the gar- 
dens of their choicest flowers, made them up into bouquets, 
and gave them out to men who agreed to vote for the 
amendment. I saw many a man in his shirt sleeves 
wearing a bunch of flowers, the symbol of home's sweet- 
ness, love, and purity. I saw colored men whose whole 
faces were one smile of delight as fair fingers proffered 
them a sprig of violets and mignonette, because they 
said they would vote for the amendment. I saw a rough 
farmer in " stogy boots " carefully putting his flowers 
aside, " to take home for my wife," he said. 

When sunset came and we knew we had the victory, 
and knew that the saloon-men were saying, " Now, are 
you folks going to jeer at us and get up a big blow-out 
over this thing ? " it was sweet and memorable to hear 
the womanly voice of the president saying, in that last 
hour of prayer, " Let us remember the Gospel exhortation, 
' Be pitiful, be courteous.' " In keeping with this spirit 
were the resolutions passed next day by the State W„ C. 
T. U., ''pledging the good word, good will, and patronage 
of the women of Iowa to those whose business has been 
declared illegal whenever they enter on any occupation 
that is beneficial to society." No wonder there was joy 


in the homes of Iowa. The women have been so intent 
upon their temperance work that, as Mrs. J. Ellen Foster 
said (she who, more than any other, has wrought for the 
glorious consummation) : " It has filled our very souls. 
Why, the frogs in the swamps have croaked ' 'Mendment ' 
in my ears : the birds in the branches have twittered 
''Mendment;' the little lambs have bleated, and the 
mother sheep baaed, and the cows in the pastures have 
mooed ' 'Mendment ; ' and there is no other word in Iowa 
until we win." 

In the winning how many hearts rejoice! Iowa sent 
eighty-three thousand men to fight the South, but those 
gentle women yonder, whom we were once taught to call 
implacable, prayed all day long for the success of this 
greatest battle ever fought by the Hawkeye State. I 
have their kind letters from "all along* shore" of the sea- 
board and the Gulf, desiring me to tell the women of 
Iowa of their love and their prayers. From Maine to 
Oregon, from Charleston to Sacramento, from New 
Orleans to Salt Lake, the temperance women were on 
their knees that day. In Chicago our best pastors led the 
meeting of our Union at Farwell Hall, and it was a 
millennial ray to see in the great secular papers a tele- 
gram with such a heading as " Availeth much. Let us 
take courage." 

" God 's in his heaven; 
All 's right with the world," 

or, as Mrs. Stowe divinely puts it, " Whatever ought to 
happen is going to happen." 
Evanston, III. 


German speakers addressed audiences in their native 
tongue. Mrs. Skeldon, daughter of a Heidelberg profes- 
sor, Avon votes by hundreds among her own people, both 


through her addresses and the circulation of her paper, 
Der Bahnbrecher. Scandinavian ministers stood at the 
polls, church directory in hand, to check off their voters 
and be sure they had the prohibition ballot. A conference 
of German ministers came out unanimously in its favor. 
There was no lighting; no rough behavior at the polls. 
The ladies went the night before and decorated the city 
halls, engine houses, and other places where the ballot- 
box was set with pictures, mottoes, evergreens, and 
flowers. " Please vote to protect our homes," " The 
father's constituency is his family," "Iowa expects every 
man to do his duty," " For God, and home, and native 
land," were some of these. 

In several cities the stores, offices, etc., were closed, 
and the notice posted up, " Gone to work for the Amend- 
ment." "The Band of Hope" marched in the procession, 
singing " Home, sweet home," " Dare to do right." 

"Get ready for the jubilee, 

Hurrah! hurrah! 
"When dear Iowa shall he free, 

Hurrah! hurrah! 
The girls shall sing, the boys shall shout, 

When alcohol is driven out, 
And we'll all be gay 

When temperance rules our land." 

Speaking in twenty of the chief towns, I had told 


which had touched my heart, as related by a temperance 
gentleman in Texas. It was the story of a Kentuckian 
who after years of hard drinking had reformed, had got 
the flask out of his side pocket and the New Testament 
in there instead, and had fastened his weak and wavering 
will to God's will omnipotent, by belts of faith and bands 
of prayer. On the morning of election day his wife said 
to him, timidly, " John, have I been a good wife to you, 


and tried to make our home pleasant, and to help yon in 
your struggle for a better life?" and he answered, "Why 
Sallie, if you hadn't stood by me and helped me like a 
saint, as you are, I'd never have won this fight. You've 
been God's own special providence to me from the first 
day I ever saw your face." And then she said, with tears 
in her gentle eyes, " Dear John, you know I never said a 
word about your politics before, but if I've been a comfort 
to you, do please go to-day and vote against the saloon 
for my sake and that of our little ones." John made no 
reply, but went straight out of the house and over to the 
polls. His old cronies called out, "Why, where have you 
kept yourself so long, old fellow? We've missed you and 
m< mined you, but you've got around in the very nick o' 
time: the fight's pretty tough; stand up for your old 
friends: here's your regular regulation ballot," and they 
handed him one with " license" in large letters. But a 
temperance man stood by with earnest face and a bunch 
of different votes. "See here, I reckon I'll sample your 
lot," said John, turning to him, and receiving a clean 
temperance ballot. Then the reformed man held up the 
first that all might see, tore it into little bits and scattered 
it to the winds, but afterward, with heaven's own sunshine 
on his face, he held the temperance ballot aloft and said: 
"Boys, I've always joined with you before, but, by the 
grace of God, here goes a vote for Sallie and the children.'''' 
It has been a great comfort to me to hear from different 
parts of the State of Northern men as noble as this 
generous Southron, who said, as they cast in their ballots 
on the 27th of June, in Iowa, " Well, I do this just as 
John did. away down South, 'for Sallie and the children.'" 
So the great cause binds us with new and tender ties, 
and shall yet blot Mason and Dixon's line out of the 
heart as well as off the map, and give us in a sense we 
had not known before a really re-United States, and may 
God speed the day ! 


A lovely omen -was the unbroken circle of prayer in our 
TV. C. T. Unions on Iowa's behalf. Letters are coming to 
me from all parts of the South, asking me to tell the 
ladies there of the meetings held and the earnest petitions 
from tender hearts that God would deliver their fair 
young State from the cruelty of the rum power. Let me 
here gratefully acknowledge these sisterly messages on 
behalf of those to whom they were so kindly sent. 

childhood's part in iowa's victory. 

" To the children of the State, whose hearts and songs 
were the sunshine that never left the banner of the 
amendment, let no one forget the fullest measure of grati- 
tude." This sentence is from the Iowa State Register, 
which, in circulation and influence, stands at the head of 
journalism in that commonwealth, and is edited by Mr. 
Clarkson, a noble man and brilliant writer, whose utmost 
strength has been exerted for the success of prohibition, 
and whose paper has, by unanimous consent, done more 
to .ensure the recent victory for temperance than any other 
sino-le force. Mr. Clarkson was himself a member of the 
Cadets of Temperance twenty years ago, and is a con- 
spicuous illustration of results to be expected from honest, 
hard work among the children. Perhaps there is no 
parallel, in the history of a great reform, to the efforts 
made for temperance education among the children of 
Iowa for eight years past, and to the power exerted by 
them in securing the result by which the liquor traffic in 
that State was recently outlawed by a majority of over 
fifty thousand in seventy-five out of its ninety-nine coun- 

As the genius of temperance does not belong to that 
class in society who " reap where they have not sown, and 
gather where they have not strewn," it will be instruc- 
tive to study the methods by which the children have 

MRS. M. F. GOODE. 413 

become one grand " cold-water army." In the first place, 
the translation of Christian women out of the passive and 
into the active voice on this question has had an immense 
influence on their little ones at home. I know of more 
than one mother in Iowa whose little boy would go two 
blocks out of his way rather than pass a saloon. The 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union is perhaps stronger 
in that Slate than in any other ; and the table-talk, the 
juvenile literature that comes into the homes, indeed, the 
whole atmosphere, is tinged with an influence that leads 
toward purity in the conduct of life, and away from 
" fleshly lusts that war against the soul." Then, in many 
localities, the "Woman's Christian Temperance Union has 
succeeded in getting the Temperance Lesson Book of Dr. 
Benjamin Ward Richardson, and the Alcohol and Hygiene 
of Miss Julia Colman, into the public schools, where the 
effects of strong drink on the tissues of the body and the 
temper of the spirit have been regularly taught. We 
have not yet succeeded in securing a legislative enactment 
by which the teaching of this branch is as obligatory as 
that of grammar and arithmetic, but expect to do so at 
the next session, petitions having been largely circulated 
to this end. Minnesota has the honor of being the first 
State to adopt such a law, and Iowa will doubtless be the 

But the " good general," as she is called, of the juvenile 
temperance forces, is Mrs. M. F. Goode, a widow with 
children of her own, whose home is in Tillesca, Iowa, but 
whose praise is on the lips of her great Band of Hope 
Army throughout the State. As Superintendent of 
juvenile temperance work, this lady has done more than 
any other in our ranks along this special line of duty. 
She is of just the nature most agreeable to childhood, — 
strong, healthful, cheery, and loving-hearted, with such 
motherly ways that every boy and girl turns as instinct- 


ively to her as chickens to the mother hen. She has no 
"holy horror" in look or tone, but has a warm hand to 
lift with if anybody wants to climb, and a gift of making 
the climb itself attractive, She is the sort of person who 
can and does with impunity stop a crowd of boys emerg- 
ing from a shooting-gallery, gathering them around her 
in the street as she makes a platform of the curbstone's 
edge, and calling out: "Now, my young men, I wish 
every one of you thai chews or smokes tobacco would just 
lift up your hand." On the occasion of which I write, 
among twenty boys, fifteen lifted their hands, and all 
were under sixteen years of age. 

Mrs. Goocle has organized the Band of Hope throughout 
the State, in which the reasonableness of total abstinence 
is taught by lessons, experiments, and blackboard illus- 
trations. The children's reading is largely supervised in 
the interest of temperance as opposed to the Jesse James 
pictorials, and the triple pledge (against intoxicating 
liquors, tobacco, and swearing) intelligently made. 

Added to these instrumentalities are two others of 
paramount importance. The ministers of Iowa preach 
against the making and the use of intoxicating liquors as 
a drink, with almost concurrent testimony and power, 
while the Sunday-school is earnest, clear, and systematic 
in its teaching. The Quarterly Temperance Lesson and 
Exercises have been generally introduced, and meet the 
hearty approbation of the people. The recent Sunday- 
school convention at Waterloo was a real temperance 
jul alee. All our leading speakers were invited, and 
among those present to whom time was given were Mrs. 
J. Ellen Foster, the leading exponent of temperance reform 
in the Woman's Christian Temperance Union of Iowa; 
Colonel George W. Bain, the Southern orator ; Mrs. M. 
J. Aldrich, a Presbyterian lady of Cedar Rapids, who 
gives constant and most efficient service to the cause ; and 
Mrs. A. M. Palmer, our State evangelist. 


Let me conclude with a few incidents of the memorable 
day (June 27th) when the people of Iowa voted so to amend 
their constitution as forever to prohibit the manufacture 
and sale of intoxicating liquors, including wine, beer, and 
ale, as a drink. 

Mrs. Goode had issued "Military Order No. — " to 
her Band of Hope ; namely, that, " at 9 a. m. they should 
meet at an appointed rendezvous, wearing their badges, 
and carrying flags and banners, and should march through 
the streets with a band of music at the head of their 
battalion, singing near the polls their cold-water songs, 
giving three cheers for the amendment, and returning in 
good order to the starting-place." These young folks 
were not raw recruits, — many a time had they marched 
before. They were not ignorant of the import of this 
day. "The Constitutional Amendment Catechism" had 
been so carefully studied at their regular meetings that 
little people, eight years old, knew the difference between 
constitutional and statutory law — and the reasons of 
superiority in the first. They knew the facts and figures 
— having them illustrated by diagrams and pictures. 
" How much grain is used in our breweries ? " " What 
is Iowa's annual drink bill?" " What proportion of our 
taxes, crime, pauperism, lunacy, comes of strong drink in 
our State ? " 

These and a score of such subjects had been thoroughly 
set forth in the Socratic method, and few voters were 
better informed than these boys and girls. They had 
also been urged to repeat all this at home, and to plead 
with fathers and brothers to vote aright. With a woman's 
tact, Mrs. Goode had told them that at present the theory 
of our government is that the father represents "the 
people" in his home, and that is why we say " we, the 
people of Iowa," will vote on these great public questions 
and decide them. So she urged the children to get papa 


to take the census in his own home, and go to the polls 
to represent not himself only, but his constituency. 

It is well known in Iowa that the children did a vast 
amount of delightful and most effective electioneering at 
their own home hearths ; and on the final day barefooted 
urchins went timidly up to well-dressed business men, and 
said, " Please, sir, won't you vote for my mother and me ? — 
my father is a drunkard." Little boys marched up and 
down through the crowd of voters with banners wreathed 
in evergreen, whereon, in fleecy white letters, cut from 
cotton batting, were the words, "Please vote for the 
home," or " Tremble, King Alcohol, we shall grow up," 
or " Our guns are ballots, our bullets are ideas." Little 
girls went out two by two, with baskets heaped with 
button-hole bouquets, and while, at a little distance, fond 
motherly eyes watched their proceedings, they said to 
voters : " Won't you put in a ballot, sir, for the amend- 
ment ? " And if they said they had, or would, the little 
fingers handed up a dewy bunch of flowers. I gained 
new hope for poor humanity as I saw rough men care- 
fully pinning childhood's sweet gift of "posies" on their 
checked shirts ; Germans and Swedes fastening a sprig of 
mignonette in their old hat-bands ; and colored men, with 
gleaming ivories, tying a full-blown rose to the only button 
left upon a threadbare coat, and saying, " Yes, honey, dis 
chile is fur de 'men'ment every time." 

In one of the river towns the mayor brought in a 
bloated German beer-drinker to vote the "whisky 
ticket," when the German's children, fresh from the Band 
of Hope procession, hurried forward, the little girl throw- 
ing her arms around her father's neck, and saying, with 
tears, " Papa, please vote for us at home," and the boy, 
who was a cripple, taking him by the hand, with the same 
plea. " Ach, mein Gott, dis vas too much ! " exclaimed 
the German, breaking away from the man who had 


counted on him, and going up to the ballot-box with the 
vote his little daughter gave him, while she held one 
hand, and the lame hoy hobbled on the other side as 
guardian. Not an eye that looked upon the group could 
see it clearly because of tears. "A touch of nature 
makes the whole world kin." 

Truly "a little child shall lead them." Truly that 
little child is " the fortress of the future," standing away 
out on the frontier of time. Let us furnish the fortress 
with provisions, weapons, ammunition ; and eager hearts 
shall ''hold the fort" when Ave grow weary. God bless 

" The little soldiers newly mustered in." 



Our Chief Speaker, and President of the Massachusetts W. C. T. U. 

Seen from afar — Personal reminiscences — A racy sketch of her Melrose 
home — Sermon on Immortality — Incidents of early years — Religious 
character — Her coadjutors — Elizabeth Stuart Phelps' Letter to Mas- 
sachusetts W. C. T. U. 

IN the seclusion of Evanston, our idyllic suburban vil- 
lage, we read much during the later years of the 
war, about Mrs. Livermore and her great-hearted associate, 
Mrs. A. H. Hodge of Chicago. As the projectors of those 
mammoth " sanitary fairs," which were a national astonish- 
ment, these ladies loomed like colossal figures in the imaerina- 
tion of one obscure school teacher, who would have deemed 
it the height of impertinence to seek acquaintance with 
women so distinguished. Their Amazonian courage seemed 
to be equaled only by their motherly tenderness. Now 
canvassing the great Northwest for hospital supplies; 
then conducting a fail" which yielded one hundred thousand 
dollars as a net profit to the sanitary commission, and 
anon watching over the wounded in hospitals and on the 
field, those women were heroines to be gazed en from 
afar, but also loved and prayed for as one's " very own." 
Years after, during my residence abroad, mother wrote a 
letter full of enthusiasm relative to a " woman's conven- 
tion " she had just attended in Chicago, in which 
occurred these words: "Mrs. Mary A. Livermore, who 
presided throughout the session, is a queen among women. 
Of stately presence, deep, melodious voice, and most 
womanly nature, she was head and shoulders above every 


' J II 1 



other person present. Would not such a woman adorn 
the U. S. Senate ? Yea, verily, far beyond most of the 
men who get themselves elected to that august body, and 
I fervently hope she may live to take the seat fur which 
nature has certainly ordained her." As my mother is to 
me " final authority" upon a theme like that, I was more 
than ever an admirer of Mary A. Livermore. On my 
return home I found that Mrs. Hodge had become a 
resident of Evanston. I soon enjoyed the rare pleasure 
of being associated with her in the work of our new 
college for ladies. We planned the " Woman's Fourth of 
July," a mammoth celebration, at which ten thousand 
people were amused and fed, the entire proceeds going to 
the new educational enterprise to which we were devoted. 
In our frequent meetings, how often Mrs. Hodge spoke to 
us of her gifted associate, and in reply to my fusilade of 
questions — for nothing on this planet attracts me like a 
noble, grandiose woman — I learned more of Mrs. Liver- 
more than the numerous, eagerly-scanned biographies had 
ever taught. As Mrs. Hodge waxed eloquent over her 
choice theme, some of us used to say, "It takes one gifted 
woman adequately to describe another." How she dwelt 
upon the "reserve power" of her friend — that surest 
mark of a great nature ; the subtle keenness of perception; 
the fertility of resource; the intrepidity of execution! I 
learned that Mrs. Livermore was as gifted as though not 
industrious, and as industrious as though not gifted. 
"Often, when we were at the front after a battle," said 
Mrs. Hodge, " and I had gone to my bed in utter exhaus- 
tion after a day's nursing, I would hear the pen of that 
indomitable woman scratching away into the night or 
unto the dawn. Articles for her husband's paper in 
Chicago, appeals to the people for supplies, letters to the 
anxious friends of wounded soldiers, — these she would toss 
off at electric speed, resuming her hospital work betimes, 
next day." 

422 MRS. HODGE. 

I was newly reminded of these words when the press 
circulated a touching incident which recently occurred in 
a Michigan town where Mrs. Livermore lectured. A 
woman from the country, who had taken a long ride over 
rough roads to hear her, came timidly forward at the 
close, and carefully producing a thin, gold ring, gave it to 
the famous lecturer, saying : " Do you remember writing 
out the dying message of a soldier to his wife, and by his 
wish, sending this ring?" Mrs. Livermore was obliged 
to confess that she had written so many such letters she 
could not remember this specific case, upon which the 
aged woman explained, with tears, that the soldier's 
widow was her only child, who, dying, had charged her 
mother to give back this ring to Mrs. Livermore if she 
ever had the opportunity. 

It was to Mrs. Hodge we were indebted for the long- 
coveted pleasure of hearing Mrs. Livermore at Evanston. 
She came and gave us a lecture for the benefit of our new 
enterprise, in which her generous heart was deeply inter- 
ested. The church was packed, the scene historic, as the 
two foremost women of the war sat side by side, the 
senior a Presbyterian of conservative training and the- 
ology, the junior a liberal in her views (perhaps the 
intellectual rebound of an adventurous spirit from a Bap- 
tist deacon's training), but both too intellectual and 
royal-hearted to permit divergent " views " to alienate 
them in their philanthropic deeds. 

" What shall we do with our daughters ? " was the 
theme. Happy was the aspiring girl (and our college 
was out in force) who heard its invulnerable logic, its 
tender pathos, and its ringing eloquence. What would I 
not have given to be this woman's auditor when I, like 
them, was in my teens ! The admiration and love then 
kindled in my breast and heart for Mrs. Livermore have 
been perennial. Never have I had more inspiring talks 


with gifted persons than with " our Temperance Great 
Heart,"' as I like to call her, at Melrose, Mass., or the 
Twin Mountain House, where I have been her guest. To 
write out some account of these to me memorable occa- 
sions, especially to describe that genial, loving fireside 
circle in her heart's-ease of a home, was on my mind 
when the following racy sketch by Virginia F. Townsend, 
the talented author, came in my way. Every temperance 
woman in the land will read it with keen pleasure. It is 


" ' Melrose ! ' shouted the conductor. I was out on the 
platform in a moment, with the rest of the human pack- 
ages, staring curiously up and down the quaint old town, 
which strikes one at first sight as comfortably taking its 
ease and the world at large in a peaceful, Rip- Van-Winkle 
sort of atmosphere. Melrose, however, is only seven 
miles from Boston, and, despite the air of serene respect- 
ability with which it confronts a stranger, must come in 
for its share in the seasoning of Attic salt, and, no doubt, 
get to the heart of it, is well tinctured with heresies and 
radicalism. It was the late afternoon of one of those 
June days Lowell sings about so felicitously, when I made 
my way through the shadows of the pleasant, dreamy old 
street to the home across whose threshold I was now to 
pass for the first time. A soft, poetic sunshine was on 
leaves and flowers ; there were hushes of winds among 
locusts and maples, and the sweet twitter of robins 
through the stillness when I found mvself at the house 
where I was to pass the night. A quiet, unpretending 
New England home stood before me, finished up in 
browns, even to the blinds, a veranda across the front, 
and June roses in a very glee and riot of blossoming — the 

extreme simplicity of the whole in fine harmony with the 

424 mrs. livermore's home. 

old town and the shadowy street, even though the presid- 
ing divinity here was the strong, earnest, intent soul of 
Mary A. Livermore. I may as well say at this point that, 
measured by hours and interviews, we were almost 
strangers to each other. A brief meeting or two, a letter 
sent me when the heart of the writer was at white heat 
with the work and the glory of the Chicago Sanitary 
Fair, comprised our personal acquaintance ; yet, despite 
this fact, I was certain that hostess and guest would meet 
to-night not as strangers do. If one does not feel at 
home with the first glance at the house, one is certain to 
the moment he is across the threshold. 

" The parlor which received me was a place to dream 
in for a day, with pictures, and engravings, and pretty 
brackets that gave color, and grace, and a certain artistic 
effect to the whole room, while that subtle charm of a 
real home atmosphere brooded over all. I had expected 
to find in Mrs. Livermore a good housekeeper; indeed, 
come to think of it, I never knew a literary woman, in the 
highest sense of that word, who did not prove herself in 
her own home a capable domestic l manager ' ; and having 
been in more than one of these homes I am, despite the 
traditional blue stocking, entitled to speak ex-cathedra on 
this matter. My own room, too, when I went into it, 
proved the very ' pink essence ' of order and comfort, 
with pictures and brackets again, and delicate little 
artistic touches everywhere. I sat down by the window, 
too content for any thing but watching the sunshine in 
the cherry and locust trees outside, and waited, but not 
long. There was a rap at the door — no soft, appealing- 
flutter of fingers, but prompt, strong, decisive — and, 
getting up, I confronted Mrs. Livermore. She was a tall, 
dignified, matronly presence, an earnest, intent, attractive 
face, with a smile that comes suddenly and breaks up the 
gravity with a sweet archness, a voice full of a clear, 

soldiers' gift. 425 

ringing helpfulness and decision, and the more you see 
of her the more you grow into a sense of her reserve force 
and her wonderful magnetic power, and comprehend what 
a shrewd physician meant when he said: 'The Lord 
made you up, Mrs. Livermore, to do a big job of work in 
this world.' 1 1 should have come to you at once,' she 
said, with her cordial warmth of speech and manner, ' but 
my husband's congregation at Hingham gave us a recep- 
tion yesterday, and this morning I was obliged to take 
the six o'clock train into Boston to see to the getting out 
of the paper, so, when I learned you were coming, I 
primed myself with a couple of hours' sleep.' We took 
our supper alone together that night. A silver goblet 
stood by my plate, and when I had taken my first draught 
Mrs. Livermore remarked : ' That goblet was given me by 
the soldiers at the Chicago Sanitary Fair.' Perhaps I 
was unusually thirsty that night; at any rate, it seemed 
to me as I drained the goblet that no water had ever 
tasted so sweet. The silver was simple enough, with its 
chasing and Latin inscriptions, but it spoke to me of 
weary iourneys through days and nights in ' mud- 
spankers,' over the wide, lonely plains of the Northwest ; 
of burdens under which a strong man might well have 
faltered, always with calm, unflinching courage ; of 
wounded men in dreary hospitals starting at the sound of 
the clear, helpful voice, and glancing up with tearful joy 
as that woman's shadow fell into their pain and lone- 

" Before we had finished our supper Mr. Livermore 
entered — a tine-looking, rather portly gentleman, who 
evidently has a relish for a joke and a profound faith in 
looking on the bright side of things. He reminded me of 
some jolly English squire, who would enjoy riding to 
cover in the dew and sunshine of an autumn morning, 
and spurring on horse and hound to the chase with the 


bravest, but he is in reality the pastor of a Universalist 
church at Hingham. 'We exchange works sometimes,' 
said his wife, with a laugh. ' When there is a high 
pressure of business on me he obligingly spares me the 
trouble of writing an editorial, and, in turn, I occasionally 
preach for him.' Despite the appalling fact that his wife 
is an editor, a lecturer, an occasional preacher, and a 
leader in the Woman's Rights Movement, nobody, seeing 
them half an hour together, could doubt that the Hingham 
pastor was a proud and a happy husband. 

" After supper we went over the house, and Mrs. Liver- 
more took me into her sanctum, a quiet little nook, and 
as orderly as Sir Walter Scott's library at Abbotsford. 
From the back windows the idyl of Mrs. Livermore's 
home burst suddenly upon me in the shape of ' Crystal 
Lake,' a delicious little sheet of water on whose shores 
her house stands. It was just at sunset, and the winds 
were out, and there was a very dazzle of silver waves 
along the banks as I first caught sight of the little lake 
between its low-lying shores. Here, too, lay a dainty 
little row-boat, just fitted for the fairy stream it was to 

" But the cream of the evening was yet to come. At 
last we were quietly settled down in Mrs. Livermore's 
own room for the 'talk' we had been so lono; promising 
ourselves. It was a talk which, following no law, glanced 
all over Mrs. Livermore's life. The stately matron was 
again a child, with Copp's Hill Cemetery for her play- 
ground, and without a fear of the quiet sleepers under her 
riotous sport. She drew herself a wild, impetuous, over- 
flowing ' tom-boy ' of a girl, brimming with fun and mis- 
chief ; the strong, native, vital forces in her bringing her 
forever to grief, yet never permanently checked ; the 
champion always of the poor and friendless ; and a 
strange, underlying sadness getting sometimes to the 

A deacon's daughter. 427 

surface throutrh all the boisterous mirth and mischief. 


This woman was evidently cut out 011 a grand pattern 
from the beginning. The royal Hebrew's injunction of ' not 
sparing the rod' was faithfully observed in the training of 
the eager, intense, tumultuous New England girl. She was 
sent supperless to bed; she was defrauded of that crown- 
ing treasure and delight of childhood, Saturday afternoon ; 
she was scolded at and urged ; and she cried herself sick, 
or would if any such thing had been possible to the fibre 
that went to the making of the stout, robust little figure, 
and wished she was dead, and then broke the cords which 
held her a prisoner in the chair, and, mounting that, 
made it serve for a pulpit and preached to the walls, 
warning sinners to 'flee from the wrath to come,' while 
father and mother would stand listening outside in 
amused bewilderment at the child's passionate eloquence. 
Sometimes, too, the old Baptist deacon would look mourn- 
fully at his daughter, and say : ' If you had only been a 
boy. Mary, what a preacher in that case you would have 
made ! I would certainly have educated you for the 
ministry, and what a world of good you might have done!' 
But it never so much as entered the Boston deacon's 
heart that this strange, impulsive, fiery little soul, whose 
sex he so keenly deplored, had her own work to do in the 
world, and would yet hold vast masses breathless under 
the power of her logic, the magic charm of her eloquence. 
But the years went on, and the Boston deacon's daughter 
grew into girlhood and womanhood, with her marvelous 
energy, with her keen, alert mind, with her hungry greed 
of knowledge, with her swift scorn of sophistries, but 
with the warm, generous heart, a little steadied with the 
gathering years, as swift and helpful now as in those old 
days when it danced in Copp's burying-ground, and was 
the champion of all the poor, neglected children. 

"'When we were married,' said Mrs. Livermore, with 


that humor whose current plays and sparkles through all 
the earnestness of her talk, ' our capital consisted of books. 
I did all my own work. I cut and made my husband's 
coats and pants. There is no kind of house work with 
which I am not familiar. I defy anybody to rival me in 
that line. My drawers, my closets, my whole house are 
always free for inspection.' 

" It is marvelous, when you come to think of it, the 
amount of mental and physical strain which this woman 
manages to undergo. There is the constant wear and 
tear of nerve and brain. For three weeks at a time, dur- 
ing the lecture season, she assures me she has not slept 
on a bed, except such poor substitutes of one as lounges 
on cars and steamboats afford. Even during the summer 
her engagements are so numerous that the evening I 
passed with her was the solitary one she could command 
for the ensuing month. She was to speak in a few days 
in Clifton, N. Y., and to lecture before the graduating 
class of the divinity school in Canton, this being the first 
time in the history of American institutions that such an 
honor has been awarded to a woman. Add to this her 
constant reading, her duties as chief editress of the 
Woman's Journal, the letters that must be answered, the 
ocean of manuscripts that must be waded through. One 
cannot help sympathizing with the sentiment of the dis- 
tich which she quoted to me as a sample of the avalanche 
of rhyme which poured down on the Woman's Journal : 

"Art thou not tired, my dear M. A. L., 
"Working forever, so hard and so well ? " 

' There were actually four pages in this key,' she said. 
Of course no woman could bear all this physical and men- 
tal strain without the foundation of an admirable phy- 
sique. With few exceptions, she has always enjoyed 
splendid health. The stamina of her Puritan grand- 
mother seems to have been bequeathed unweakened to 

Ili:i: [NCESSANT LABOR. 429 

Mary A. Livermore. Then, there are the constant claims on 
her time and charity. As an instance in point, one year 
she found homes for thirty-three children, worse than 

•• • 1 never in my life.' she said, 'turned anybody away 
who came to mo for help. I never willfully wronged a 
human being.' How few of us could in our inmost souls 
say these words ! 

••Amid our talk there shine two sentences of my 
hostess which have come back to me so often and which 
seem two such clear crystals of truth that I cannot choose 
but write them here. One was, ' A Divine discontent 
must pursue all human lives ; ' and the other, ' Life is 
lonely to every soul.' 

•• I hit the pleasantest hours have an end, and we were 
on the flood-tide of our talk, and Mrs. Livermore wore 
the look of an inspired sybil, and the hours were wearing 
toward midnight, when the Hingham pastor, with his 
pleasant face and his air of the English squire, broke in 
upon us, saying, quietly, that to-morrow would demand 
too heavy a toil for the night's lost sleep, and he must 
send us to bed. I entreated him to furnish us some cor- 
dial that would hold us awake and alert for the precious 
hours of that one night, but it was evident that his phar- 
macy yielded no such inspiring draught, and his wife — I 
must tell the honest truth here — seemed disposed to 
' obey ' him with as much meekness and alacrity as though 
she regarded that obnoxious verb a binding part of the 
marriage covenant — as though she had never stood upon 
a platform, or preached from a pulpit, or gone down 
bravely to the hospitals and bound the quivering limbs of 
poor, wounded soldiers, or held a cooling draught to their 
fevered lips — nay, even as though the woman whom Bos- 
tun long ago gave to Chicago, and whom Chicago, after 
the grand work of the Sanitary Fair was accomplished, 

430 i: WILY LIFE. 

gave back in the prime of her womanhood and the ripe- 
ness of her intellect to Boston, had never waved the banner 
and raised the war-cry of the Woman's Journal?' 

Since Mrs. Townsend's sketch was written, Mrs. Liver- 
more has ceased to edit this foremost paper of the 
woman's movement, and concentrates her powers on 
lycemn lecturing and the temperance reform, preaching 
frequently on Sabbath nights in the pulpits of almost all 
denominations. I shall never forget a, sermon on 
" Immortality " delivered by her in Chicago. It had the 
motherhood of God in it, no less than His Fatherly char- 
acter, and seemed to me to supply the " missing link " 
"which I had always felt rather than known in the dis- 
courses of men. None but a mother — and one as true 
and tender as Mrs. Livermore has always been — could 
have talked as she did about the love of God. 

Some facts of her early life must be referred to before 
I close. Mary Ashton Rice (her maiden name) was 
born in Boston, Dec. 19, 1821, and at fourteen years of 
age, graduated with high honors from Hancock school, 
taking the Franklin medal. She at once entered the 
Charlestown Female Seminary, a Baptist institution ; 
remained there three years as teacher and pupil, being 
advanced to the position of instructor in Latin, Italian, 
and French. She also acquired enough Greek to render 
her eligible to enter Harvard University, and she actually 
went with a few daring young schoolmates like herself to 
President Quincy, then at the head of that conservative 
institution, and sought admission. It seemed hardly pos- 
sible for the good man to regard their intention as serious, 
and to say they got no countenance whatever is a feeble 
image of their discomfiture. 

The childhood of Mary Livermore was no humdrum 
affair, but quite as remarkable in its way as her later his- 
tory. She always had a great heart. The family was in 


moderate circumstances, and she was so anxious to be a 
helper rather than a burden that she went privately to a 
shop and took some shirts to make at six cents apiece. 
Her mother, finding this out, wept at this proof of her 
little girl's devotion. "The platform spirit Avas in her 
earlier than this," writes one who furnished me these items, 
" for she would go into the shed, set up blocks of wood 
for an audience, and then orate to her heart's content, 
getting so earnest, almost to tears, over her theme, which 
was often drawn from "Fox's Book of Martyrs," of which 
her father was a diligent expounder. So strong an impres- 
sion did this book make upon her childish imagination 
that " playing martyr " was among her favorite pastimes, 
and in that character she even burned in the old-fashioned 
fire-place a handsome doll given by her grandmother. At 
the age of ten she was so gifted in composition that her 
teacher, Master Field of Hancock school, couldn't believe 
she wrote the essays whose authorship she claimed, and 
to test the matter she was shut up in a recitation room 
with paper and pencil only, and upon the theme assigned 
to her — " Self-government" ! she wrote a composition so 
remarkable that all doubts vanished, and she was thence- 
forth taken into special favor." 

It would be a study of absorbing interest to trace the 
religious history of this earnest-hearted woman. No 
passage in her many-sided life is more characteristic or 
suggestive. But this is not the place for that delineation. 
Mrs. E. R. Hanson of Chicago, in her attractive book, 
"Our Woman Workers," published at the office of The 
Star and Covenant, has given this history in full. Happily 
we have emerged upon an era when the theory of Chris- 
tian life is by all thoughtful people held in abeyance to 
the Christian life itself. Measured by this standard, 
every true heart must pay glad homage to the character 
and deeds of Mary A. Livermore. Grand leadership 


invariably develops a royal "following," and the W. C. 
T. U. of Massachusetts is an emphatic illustration of this 
rule. We have no abler women than those who are 
grouped around this noble leader, and to recount their 
work would be pleasant indeed. But their chief has 
" made history " at such a rate herself, that space is lack- 
ing for the notes I had designed of Mrs. L. B. Barrett, 
her schoolmate and life-long friend, Mrs. P. S. J. Talbot, 
the devoted " member for Maiden," Mrs. Rev. Dr. Gordon, 
the model President of Boston W. C. T. IT., Mrs. Fenno 
Tudor, that wealthy woman with a wealthy heart, Miss 
Elizabeth S. Tobey, who leads the work of the young women, 
Mrs. Emily McLaughlin, and Mrs. Mary G. C. Leavitt, 
the gifted lecturers, and many of their earnest-hearted 
sisters. I am confident these loyal workers will applaud 
my decision to curtail these personal notices, that I may 
enrich my book with the matchless letter of Elizabeth 
Stuart Phelps, written for their last annual meeting : 


Ladies of the Christian Temperance Union: 

You have asked me for an address which I am disabled from giving; 
for an address which I am not in health to write. Yet I find it diffi- 
cult to pass by with silence your kind recognition of my sympathy 
with the cause for which you are " toiling" so " terribly." 

Those wisest of words, of one of the wisest of men, never return to 
me with more force than when I am brought to bay before these moral 
ferocities of society such as it is your privilege and your pain to com- 
bat, We must "toil " as "terribly" to save a soul, as to discover a 
star, — to purify a village, as to win a continent. Most of us, at the 
outset of life and labor, have to learn, perhaps, that philanthropic 
effort is not intellectual ease. "A scholar," it has been well said, "is 
the result of the abnegation, of the sacrifice, of generations." Let me 
remind you that it takes no less of precedent and of cost to make a 
reformer. The mushrooms of our little kindly impulses sprout up 
every day and in any nature. The aloe of the great moral martyr 
demands its century to blossom in. What ancestries of pure blood, 
humane culture, religious sensitiveness, go to his creation ! The suc- 
cessful philanthropist is never an accident. Heredity and circum- 


stances hem him in, and urge him on to his inevitable sequence. The 
consistent, unfaltering life of balanced usefulness is as much a conse- 
quence of ordered causes as fame, or the gallows. Such a life is not a 
thing that comes by wishing. Mere zeal can never make a power of 
a good intention. It is a drawn game, perhaps, yet, in the history of 
the world, which works the deepest mischief, head without heart, or 
heart without head? Good works mean, above all else, good thoughts. 
Humanity is nothing if it is not common sense. Benevolence without 
wisdom becomes maleficence. These are old saws which every kind 
of effort in social progress must resharpen for use, but there are few 
directions in winch we are forced to hack away with them so often, or 
so hard, as in this one work of reforming the laws, which make it 
almost impossible for men to live sober, and of dealing properly with 
the man when he is drunk. 

I have little knowledge to offer you but that of a limited invalid 
experience in the great effort which needs the health, the heart, and 
the hope of the country to urge it on. You are veterans in a cause 
where I am but a raw and disabled recruit. Yet if on the battle-field 
you would pause to hear a whisper from the hospital, I can only give 
you the one thing that the work itself has given to me: 

It is not so much a work of the emotions as it has been superficially 
supposed — and often practically proved — to be. It is more a work of 
reflection than we are forewarned to consider it. We have made our 
share of mistakes in this point of the compass. Our praying bands at 
street corners, and State-houses draped with petitions, and vicious 
men spoiled by lavish womanly tenderness, have had their dramatic, 
but their pitiable aspects. Now we are coming to the undramatic, the 
unemotional, the dogged hard w T ork without brilliant effects. Perhaps 
now 7 we must learn that hardest of tasks — how to hope without the 
excitement of el ctric returns. 

Nothing impresses me so much about this reform as the eternity of 
it. It goes on, and goes on, in our individual experience, like Car- 
lyle's " everlasting No," perhaps like the golden ring of love itself, 
wherein there seems no beginning and no ending to our joy. 

This I have learned— that there is no end. There can be no end to 
our education, to our mistakes, to our strain of muscle and strength of 
nerve, to our courage that must break up and out like trodden flame, 
to our patience that should sleep like the deepest depth of mid-ocean, 
or the bluest heighl <>i' mid-heaven, behind and below all the little blus- 
ter that goes to make up the storms of progress. 

It takes a good many drops of the heart's blood to save one drunk- 
ard, but it takes as many brain-cells. It calls for the fire of a soldier, 
but the repose of a saint. We must be men in daring, but women in 
devotion — girls in enthusiasm, hut aged in discretion — dizzy wilh 
fervor, but poised with wisdom. Like all else in life, it is an infinitely 


more complex thing than we know till we have tried it, to handle the 
great forces of tempted human souls. 

If, dear friends, when all is done, each woman of you has hut re- 
stored one diseased nature, has only helped, by the weight of one indi- 
viduality, to the creation of that public sentiment which will some day 
make it almost as disreputable to tolerate drunkenness as to get drunk, 
is it worth while ? 

It seems to me that the answer to this question, whereon the law 
and prophets of the matter hang, rests altogether with our individual 
selves. There is a cheap and easy way of disposing of such moral 
problems, as if, forsooth, the force of any one creature successfully 
expended on any one other must be of necessity good politico-spiritual 
economy. This is not true. It does not follow that it is always worth 
while to do every good deed that presents itself to us. The value of 
our efforts depends quite as much upon the results to ourselves as 
upon the effect on those for whom we sacrifice ourselves. 

Are tee the better, nobler, richer in nature, larger in grace, for the 
reform or philanthropy which we have selected to be the outlet of our 
restless nerve, or our compressed consecration? We have a right to 
ask ourselves this question. The drunkard is not the only soul to be 
considered. The delicate woman who has the variousness and sweet- 
ness of all human uses and pleasures open to her choice — she who com- 
mands the welcome and the warmth of so many a social value — she 
too shall be estimated as a factor in this sum. Sometimes she too 
must ask herself, in very honesty, the question which lookers-on, in 
easy phrasing, ask her, — Is she wasted? 

Women of this Union ! banded together to go down into the dens 
and slums and horrors, thence to lead out woe and shame and vice — 
Are you wasted ? You, who turn from your children's evening prayer 
to lead a "reformed man" safely home past the fifteen grog-shops he 
must pass before he can reach Ms children's waiting faces — and then 
back again to kiss your own babies in their sleep — are you wasted? 

Wasted? Nay, then, you are saved, at spiritual usury. Wasted? 
Nay, for it is your own fault if you do not treble your own value by 
this work. I have no fears, and speak with no uncertain sound, on 
this one point, at least. Whatever individual mistake may do with it, 
the work of saving tempted men and women from this one form of 
ruin can be made the source of the deepest growth in womanly char- 
acter, and the sweetest blessedness of womanly content. 

If you are wasted in the "passion for people who are pelted; " if 
you are wasted in lifting the miserable out of the mud; then He was 
wasted who saved Magdalene and Matthew. Then Gethsemane was 
a waste, so also was Calvary. Then life itself is a waste, and the high 
value of humanity a pitiful deceit. Praying God to speed and guide 
you, I am, Sincerely your friend, 

Elizabeth Stuart Phelps. 



Corresponding Secretary National W. C. T. U. 

The universal Brown family— A vigorous ancestry— An itinerant 
preacher's home— The War tragedy— Her brother's helper— Hears 
the Crusade tocsin— A noble life — That Saratoga Convention. 

THOMAS HUGHES opens his well-known story of 
English school life, " Tom Brown's School Days at 
Rugby," with an amusing and graphic characterization of 
the universal Brown family, who, he says, " for centuries, 
in their-quiet, dogged, home-spun way, have been subduing 
the earth in most English counties and leaving their 
mark in American forests and Australian uplands, * * * * 
getting hard knocks and hard work in plenty, which was 
on the whole what they looked for, and the best thing for 
them ; and little praise or pudding, which indeed they, 
and most of us, are better without." 

The subject of this brief and very imperfect sketch is 
an honorable offshoot and fair sample of a respectable 
branch of the prolific Brown family. Her paternal 
ancestry was early transplanted from Old to New Eng- 
land, where both history and tradition agree that they 
grappled manfully with the labors, hardships, and dan- 
gers of pioneer life in the then howling wilderness, 
now known as New Hampshire. These sturdy, square- 
headed, broad-shouldered, God-fearing Englishmen reared 
their long-lived progeny who, in due time, grew up to 
make good citizens and sterling patriots ; and when the 
fulness of the time was come in a later generation, 
Caroline's grandfather became a rampant rebel, and 



shouldering his gun, marched to Bunker's Hill, and 
helped to " fire the shot heard round the world." His 
wife, too, was of like vigorous stock — not like the puny, 
dainty, spindling girls of this period, reared only in hot- 
house luxury; but she was a hearty, healthy Yankee 
woman, who nurtured her* little family of fifteen boys and 
girls, born in the parental likeness, and yet found time to 
read so largely that far and near it was a marvel, as it 
was in the case of Goldsmith's village schoolmaster, " that 
one small head could carry all she knew." Withal, she 
was a politician who was able to hold her own in an 
argument, and " even when vanquished she could argue 
still." Both she and her husband lived to a good and 
ripe old age, as did their fathers and mothers before 
them, and they died near a hundred years old, full of 

The pioneer spirit also possessed the maternal ancestry, 
which was imported into New England in the earliest 
period of its history, in the little " Mayflower," and colon- 
ized finally in Connecticut. 

Sprung from such robust stock, Caroline Brown first 
saw the light in the old Bay State, being the only daughter 
of an itinerant Methodist minister; and so, lest the 
history and traditions of the Brown family should be 
rudely broken, she had her early experiences of life amid 
the hard knocks and diversified trials that constitute the 
sunshine and shadow of a Methodist itinerant's family 
life. Thus, unused to enervating surroundings, and forced 
to struggle with adverse circumstances and conditions, 
she grew to early womanhood with a sound physical con- 
stitution and a gradually developed, vigorous mental 
character. Burning with desire for larger intellectual 
culture, she embraced every means afforded her to that 
end, and supplemented the discipline of trial and the 
tuition of experience with earnest study and diligent 


reading as opportunity offered, both in and outside the 
regular curriculum of school life. In such a school, by 
such severe discipline, were developed the traits which 
have made her so wise a counsellor and so judicious an 

She had arrived at the blush and beauty of maidenhood 
when the grand event occurred that changed the tenor of 
thousands of lives, and hers was not to be the exception. 
The great civil war broke out; the life of the nation was 
imperiled ; the call was made for men to come and stand 
in the imminent deadly breach. Frederick W. H. Buell, 
a noble, manly, brave, pure-hearted, and patriotic young 
man. of Connecticut nativity, was among those who 
responded. The day before he left home for the camp he 
cl timed his bride, and she was left alone. Thenceforward, 
the story runs, as in so many narratives of those sad 
• lavs — thank God! they are only a dream now — the 
dreadful nightmare of a dreary night of sorrow and 
death! With intensest interest she followed, day by day, 
the movements of the regiment with which he marched, 
and not he alone, for one of her brothers marched with 
him, and later her grey-haired father, as the chaplain of 
the regiment ; for husband, three brothers, and father — 
all the male members of the family — were enrolled in the 
army or navy, and she and her mother were left alone 
as the •• Home Guard" through those eventful years. 
Sometimes she lost sight, for a while, of the regiment, 
while the awful tempest of Avar swept over it, and her 
loved ones were lost in the smoke and dust of the battle, 
as at Cold Harbor, or Drury's Bluff, and then the cloud 
would lift for a little while, and the straining eyes would 
be relieved, while peace and sunshine for a brief space 
would fall on the battle-torn banners. So the awful 
tragedy of the war went on; the struggle was almost 
over, and hearts " weary with waiting for the war to 


cease" began to take courage, because the end seemed so 
near; till, on a winter night, early in a new year, without 
one word of warning, for the young lieutenant was well 
when she last heard, 

"Home they brought her -warrior dead." 

So the great grief of her life came to that young and 
untried heart. It was a lightning-stroke from a clear sky 
— sharp, swift, decisive, terrible ! But Caroline Buell had 
early^ learned to trust in God. She did not rebel, neither 
did she despair, but until he grew to man's estate, her 
noble boy was her first care, as he has always been the 
solace of the loving heart that said in its hour of greatest 
grief, " Sweet my child, I live for thee." 

Thus, years passed on — they had little of history in 
them — till called by the death of her eldest brother's wife 
to give her aid and comfort to the bereaved family, she 
hastened to take the care of his motherless children. 
Here she spent more than three years of earnest and 
unselfish labor, leaving on the hearts of those she* cared 
for impressions for good that will never be erased. It 
was here she was found when, in 1876, she was chosen to 
be the Corresponding Secretary of the W. C. T. U. of 
Connecticut, which had been organized in some measure 
the preceding year. She entered at once heartily into the 
work devolved upon her, and gave to the organization the 
benefit of her great natural executive ability, so that 
speedily the Woman's Christian Temperance work in 
Connecticut was put into orderly and effective shape.* 
Annually, since that period, Mrs. Buell has been honored 
by re-election to the Corresponding Secretary's position, 
though she would have gladly chosen to decline it. 

* It was in her first year as Corresponding Secretary of the Con- 
necticut Union that she devised the plan of quarterly returns, that 
has been since very largely adopted all over the country by the various 
State Unions. 

WORE. 441 

In 1880 the National W. C. T. U., at its session in 
Boston, elected Mrs. Bnell, very unexpectedly to herself, 
to be Corresponding Secretary of that body. She entered 
at once upon her work, and by her pen and upon the 
platform has abounded in labors in behalf of the cause 
and the organization. The difficult duties of the position 
she has so efficiently discharged that she has been twice 
re-elected by nearly unanimous votes. 

In person Mrs. Buell is about medium height and size ; 
graceful in form and carriage, easy in address, of fine 
personal presence ; fair, open countenance, keen, dark 
eyes, and hair now silvering prematurely. Upon the 
platform, as a speaker before an audience, she is always 
self-poised, self-unconscious, earnest, and impressive. In 
her mental characteristics she does honor to the stock 
from whence she sprung, for she has the " quiet, dogged, 
homespun " perseverance which Thomas Hughes assigns 
to her family — the getting-hold-of and never-letting-go 
disposition of mind that that will " fight it out on this 
line, if it takes all summer." 

.Mrs. Buell is a woman of singularly gentle nature and 
quiet manners, combined with altogether exceptional 
force of character. Unselfish to a fault and altogether 
free from personal ambition, the hearts of her friends do 
safely trust in her, and no woman in our ranks is more 
devoutly loyal to God and home and native land. 



Time, June 21 and 22, 1881 : place, the big, handsome 
Methodist church at Saratoga; people, many of the 
representative temperance men and women of America, 
to the number of 400, with a spicy sprinkling of Canada 
thrown in. " Sir, we had good talk," said old Sam John- 
son, after an evening with the wits and wisdoms of Lon- 


don. " Good talk " it was that crowded full those two 
delightful days — the echo of grand triumphs and the 
bugle blast of victories yet to be. The quick, incisive 
brain that planned it all was J. N. Stearns. The clear- 
headed, available men, ready for every good word and 
work, were J. L. Bradley (husband of our Nellie H. 
Bradley) and C. H. Meade, of Buffalo, N. Y. The men 
of wise and thunderous speech were Judge Black, of Lan- 
caster, Pa., and Rev. Dr. Peck, of Brooklyn. Dr. S. J. 
Gordon, of Boston, the " Temperance Hercules " of that 
city, was our mellow-voiced president, so tolerant in 
spirit that he shared that honor with two of the vice- 
presidents, selecting impartially from the ranks of Adam 
and Eve as well, the latter piece of poetic justice never 
having been previously awarded. 

Joshua L. Bailey, the Quaker gentleman of Phila- 
delphia and prince of coffee-house founders, who feeds 
twenty thousand a daj r on the best fare at the least rates 
of any man in America, was first vice-president, and a 
first-class presiding officer. Our gentle Eliza Thompson, 
all the way from Hillsboro, Ohio, was the second, and her 
bright, crisp speeches enlivened the proceedings not a 
little. Age is said to contribute to garrulity, but there is 
not a woman in our ranks who can make a point so 
briefly and at the same time so well as this same Cru- 
sade mother of us all. Forty-five years before this date 
she attended the first temperance convention ever held in 
Saratoga, being then a merry girl and coming with her 
father, Governor Allan Trimble, of Ohio. As she entered 
the dining-room of the hotel where the first committee 
meeting was held, and saw a few men, but no woman 
present, she said to her father: "I can't go in alone," 
when he replied : " Never be afraid to stand alone in a 
good cause, my child." 

Little did she think that, a long lifetime later, she was 


to prove so true to this exhortation by leading the van of 
the Crusade. The foregoing is her first speech at the last 
convention, only the application was made by us delegates. 
On the platform, beside Brother Stearns, sat the Corre- 
sponding Secretary of our National W. C. T. U., Mrs. C. 
B. Buell, and beside her Mrs. L. D. Douglass, of Mead- 
ville, Pa., Assistant Lady Secretary ; and there was 
another gentleman, C. K. Sambling, from noble old 
Oberlin, Ohio, queen of total abstinence towns. 

Dr. Eaton, pastor of the church, welcomed the delegates 
in royal fashion, and Mother Stewart replied in her best 
vein. " Our Temperance Portia," Mrs. Judith Ellen 
Foster (I tell her she is Judith, and the liquor traffic in 
Iowa is to be her Holofernes) read an admirable paper on 
her favorite theme of " Constitutional Amendment." 
This is, as a " third-party " delegate remarked, sotto voce 
(the "current craze"), all allusions to it being received 
with enthusiasm and adopted without dissent. A grand 
thought it is, and one which, within twenty-five years, 
will be brought out in every State. 

But without woman's ballot it will never universally 
" materialize," and this is distinctly perceived by many 
in our ranks. Aside from this "common consent" 
theme, the two most vital subjects seemed to be an 
organized ballot for temperance men and the effort to 
secure that death-dealing little weapon, the ballot bullet, 
for women. The first was long and earnestly debated, 
and advanced opinion is clearly shown in the fact that 
Judge Black's resolution was unanimously carried. This 
is as follows : 

Whereas, The Beer Brewers' Association, and kindred liquor 
dealers' organizations, during a score of years past have declared the 
traffic in intoxicating drink to be a legitimate part of American com- 
merce, entitled to and demanding for it the protection of law and the 
fostering care of the State and National Governments, denying the 
right to prohibit or restrict the same, have yearly avowed their pur- 

444 judge black's resolution. 

pose to vote for no man who favored legislation in the interests of 
temperance, and constantly have used their political franchise for the 
continuation of their trade ; in the past have received the countenance 
of political parties in support of the positions and selfish interests 
thus assumed, securing through such aid the rescinding of constitu- 
tional enactments and the repeal, modification, or impairment in 
efficiency of acts of Congress and of the State restrictive of their 
business, and by many and other influences have secured the election 
of friends and the defeat of supposed opponents. Having thus 
deliberately resolved and acted by the consent and co-operation of the 
party press leaders, they have forced the liquor question into National 
and State politics, making their traffic an issue in State and municipal 
elections, and in their interest largely secured the administration of 
government law. Therefore 

Resolved, That the interests of the public peace and welfare, the 
defence of personal liberty, the safety and protection of home, with 
faithfulness to avowed convictions, demand from the friends of 
temperance, good government, and free institutions the acceptance of 
this field of contest and their gage of battle, and this convention 
declares it to be the duty of every temperance voter to cast his ballot 
at every election only for such candidates for public office as may be 
relied upon on this liquor question to use official power and place for 
securing the enactment and due execution of law for the prohibition 
of the manufacture, sale, or importation of alcoholic liquors for drink- 
ing uses. That an organized ballot, whether under the name of 
Prohibition Party, or for securing and maintaining amendment of the 
National and State Constitutions, or general or local prohibition, or 
the restraint of the liquor trade in view of the platform declarations 
of present parties, against the prohibition of such trade, and of the 
machinations and organizations of the brewing, distilling, and liquor- 
selling interests for political ends, has become a present and impera- 
tive necessity in order to purify our politics and legislation, and save 
our free institutions from the blight of the God-defying and virtue- 
despising liquor business. That adhesion to party allied with liquor 
manufacturers and sellers is to give aid and comfort to the enemy, 
and is treason to temperance. Prayer and the ballot should be as 
inseparable as faith and works. 

Resolved, That we recommend the immediate organization in every 
election district of all voters favorable to the prohibition of the liquor 
traffic, and pledged to support only sueh candidates as will accept and 
promote the constitutional and statutory prohioition of the liquor 

Resolved, That the hearty participation of woman in the organiza- 
tion and work for temperance is received and acknowledged thank- 


fully, as a boon from a beneficent God, and we claim and shall 
persistently demand for her legal power to aid and defend her home 
and children from the curse of rum as fully as she now holds her 
equal, created social and religious privileges and duties with man, and 
equal duties and responsibilities demand equal power and liberty. 

George Vibbert of Massachusetts, gifted and nobly 
loyal defender of the prohibition party (which was founded 
by Judge Black), insisted that its name should be 
inserted, but the grand old judge, in an admirable speech, 
said : " The principle is in the resolution which I drafted, 
I don't care for the name. I am called James Black, but 
if you changed it to John Smith I should be the same 
man. The idea is what I'm after." And to his " idea" 
tile convention certainly acceded. As for the "Home 
Guards," they are "third party" almost to a woman. As 
one said to me, " I wouldn't give a penny for the differ- 
ence between Republican beer and Democratic whisky," 
and another, "I'll have nothing to do with either party, 
for bofb are held together by barrel hoops," and a third 
party whispered, as the fiery Vibbert made his telling 
points, " I know just what his line of argument will be, 
I've had it in the top of my head, and the bottom of my 
heart, lo, these many days." 

Our dauntless Mrs. T. B. Carse, founder of The 
Signal and President of the Chicago W. C. T. II., related 
the experience of the recent Chicago campaign, and 
declared to the committee on resolutions that if they had 
survived such an experience they would never again 
question the imperative need of the "organized temper- 
ance ballot" with a vertebrate candidate behind it. Rev. 
Dr. D. C. Babcock, one of the best minds in the conven- 
tion, read an excellent essay, in which he advises the 
effort first to secure satisfactory nominations from some 
existing party, and when they fail to furnish thorn, then 
the coming out independently This position was taken 
by Mrs. Foster and other able advocates, and finally 


represented the majority, though there was a tremendous 
ground swell for a party, be it' first, second, or third, 
wherein dwelleth the righteousness of a steady, uncon- 
promising front to the foe, and I confess my convictions 
lead me there, with the " old guard," the anti-slavery 
party of the new war, the independents who are deter- 
mined to know nothing among you but the extermination 
of the rum power, and to crystallize around this change- 
less purpose a new departure in politics. To this com- 
plexion it must come at last — and ivhy not now? No 
speaker made a more delightful impression than my 
beloved "Deborah" — Mrs. Gov. Wallace of Indiana. By 
special invitation she " spoke her mind," but, with her 
rare good sense, she spoke it briefly. Men, she said, had 
conquered the forces of nature. She thanked them for 
the inventions which had freed woman's hands from 
slavery to the spinning-wheel, the loom, the needle, that 
they might busy themselves with the moral and spiritual 
problems of the child's training, the home's development, 
the State's purification. Her strong, gentle, motherly 
words were applauded to the echo by the noble, brotherly 
men of that incomparable convention, and we women 
could have cried for joy. Indeed I have never in any 
previous assembly seen a truly Christian republic so 
admirably forecast as here. Down to the smallest and 
up to the highest particular, womanhood was recognized 
as a help so meet for manhood that its place was by his 
side, not at his feet, and those gentlemen were so 
thoroughly civilized that they gloried in the facts for 
which we were so proudly grateful. When our noble- 
hearted president was escorted to the chair, General 
Wagner, Judge Black, and Dr. Babcock laughingly stood 
back to let the two ladies of the committee of five conduct 
the ceremony, and giving an arm to each, the president 
mounted the platform amid applause. It was so all the 


way through, and on the second day a dignified Presby- 
terian doctor of divinity, from Philadelphia, made an off- 
hand speech (received with a storm of hand clapping), in 
which he said " He was thoroughly converted. He hadn't 
a word to say and never should have again against a 
woman doing anything in this world that she pleased. If 
any man would deprive the women in this convention of 
the ballot, he wasn't worthy to be set with the dogs of 
the flock. The cerebrum of woman would never be 
questioned as to its size or quality again by the gentlemen 
who were so fortunate as to attend this nineteenth century 
convention. The question was not whether women needed 
the vote, it was how in the world this government had 
got along at all without their casting it." 

The resolution on this question, drawn by Judge Black, 
after admirable discussion by that Bayard of our cause, 
A. M. Powell of New York, Rev. Mr. Montgomery, the 
whole-souled Irish minister of Connecticut, George Vib- 
bert, and others in favor, and by Mrs. Wittenmyer 
against (who was called out, and spoke earnestly and 
well), was carried with but twelve dissenting votes, and 
only one of these was from a woman. Hon. Felix R. 
Brunot, of Pittsburgh, made a droll explanation of his 
negative vote, saying that while he could make a good 
speech against woman's ballot, he could make a much 
better one in favor, and he wanted to quote a Scripture 
often overlooked in citing authorities on the affirmative 
side, and that was from Acts in these words, " Let her 
drive!" He said, however, that he was opposed to the 
resolution not on its merits, but because he thought it 
would retard the prohibition movement. 

Mrs. Mary H. Hunt made a brief, clear speech on the 
scientific aspects of total abstinence, and Mrs. Mary C. 
Johnson spoke in a very happy vein of the willingness of 
conservative women like herself, taught by the severe 


reverses of past years along the line of prohibition, to use 
the ballot when we have it in our hands, " although we 
do not clamor for it." 

But the charm of those two days beguiles me into the 
prolixity I have condemned. It would be pleasant to 
write at length of Rev. Dr. Peck's splendid speech, in 
which he came out for the first time in favor of " the 
organized ballot," and of John B. Gough's magnificent 
utterances, among others this, " While I can speak against 
this awful crime, I'll speak ; when I can't do that, I'll 
whisper; and when that fails me, Til just make motions — 
they say I'm good at that!" 

I want also to mention the great satisfaction felt in the 
selection of such a superb committee on resolutions, with 
Rev. A. G. Lawson of Brooklyn at its head, one of the 
noblest Romans of them all. 

Brief speeches were made by Mrs. Leavitt of Boston, 
Mrs. Washington of New Jersey, late of Iowa; Miss 
Esther Pugh ; Miss Colinan, our indomitable superintend- 
ent of temperance literature; Professor Poster, who 
strongly represented the Canada delegation headed by 
Sir Leonard Tilley, and many others. New England was 
well represented by Mrs. L. B. Barrett, Mrs. Dr. Gordon, 
Miss Wendell, Charles Hovey, Eugene Clapp, and others. 
The South had but few delegates, but the leader of the 
Southern delegation, Hon. Mr. Daniels, Local Option 
champion of Maryland, was a host in himself. The only 
colored man was from New Jersey. His unique excuse 
for going beyond time, "If I say it all now, you won't 
have to hear me again," brought down the house. 

The tobacco question was vigorously handled, and no 
resolution was more applauded than the one denouncing 
the vile weed. The Hayes memorial was heartily en- 

Surely this convention took its place upon the picket 


line of progress. Best of all, it did so in the name of 
Christ. Earnest and devout were these men and women 
all. Prayer-meetings in the morning; noon hour observed 
on Tuesday, by dear Mother Hill's request; the Bible 
insisted on as " the only permanent temperance docu- 
ment " — these are the signs of that power by which God's 
militant host shall surely conquer, and His Son shall 
reign " whose right it is." 




THE following address is the first I ever gave on the 
theme dear to my heart. It came to me in its 
entirety, as to the name and argument, while alone on 
my knees one Sabbath in the capital of the Crusade State, 
as I lifted my heart to God, crying, " What wouldst thou 
have me to do " ? This was in May of the centennial 
year. At that time I was corresponding secretary of the 
National W. C. T. U., and was making a trip through the 
State under the direction of Mrs. Dr. L. D. McCabe, then 
president of the Ohio W. C. T. U. I at once wrote my 
superior officer, Mrs. Wittenmyer, asking permission to 
give this address at our projected centennial temperance 
meeting in the Academy of Music, Philadelphia. She 
declined, and I went to Chautauqua, where by invitation 
of my good friend, Dr. John H. Vincent, I was to speak. 
There I met that brave champion of Home Protection, 
Rev. Dr. Theodore L. Flood, who several years later debated 
this question in the great auditorium there, and won not 
only his cause but the gratitude of women everywhere. 
Dr. Flood urged me to give my new speech then and 
there, none of our W. C. T. U. having at that time pub- 
licly taken a position so decided. Going to Dr. Vincent 
1 frankly stated the case ; but, while he pleasantly said, 
" Our platform is free to those whom we invite," 1 felt his 
preference so strongly that I refrained from speaking out 
my deepest thought. Going on to Old Orchard Beach, 
where Francis Murphy was the presiding genius", I asked 
again if I might bring on my pet heresy. " 0, yes, speak 



right on till you're understood," replied that tolerant soul, 
in his rich brogue, although he did not then agree with 
the views I felt constrained to declare. And so in the 
fragrant air of Maine's dear " piney woods," with the 
great free ocean's salt spray to invigorate lungs and soul, 
I first avowed the faith that was within me. There is 
something wonderfully novel and inspiring in the outlook 
of a pioneer along fresh lines of reform work. All 
around, my good friends looked so much surprised — and 
some of them so sorry ! 

The "Woman's Congress at St. George's Hall gave me 
my next Home Protection audience, and there I felt 
at home. This was no new gospel to Maria Mitchell, 
president of that society, nor to Elizabeth Churchill, who 
grasped my hand with a sister's warmth and cheered me 
on to the fray. And the fray came. In Newark, N. J., 
we held our third annual meeting (or " Convention"), of 
the National W. C. T. U., and by this time my soul had 
come to " woe is me if I declare not this gospel." Welcome 
or not, the words must come. In a great, crowded church, 
with smiles on some faces and frowns on others, I came 
forward. Our gifted Mary Lathrop had told a Avar story 
in one of her addresses, about a colored man who saw 
a boat bearing down upon the skiff drawn up to shore in 
which he and three white men were concealed. If he 
could only push off instantly they would be saved, but to 
show himself was fatal. But he did not hesitate ; calling 
out, " Somebody's got to be killed, and it might as well 
be me,"' he launched the boat and fell with a bullet in his 
heart. In that difficult hour this story came to me, and 
as I told it some of my good friends wept at the thought of 
ostracism which, from that day to this, has been its sequel 
— not as a' rule, but a painful exception. When I had 
finished the argument, a lady from New York, gray-haired 
and dignified, who was presiding, said to the audience : 


"The National W. C. T. U. is not responsible for the 
utterances of this evening. We have no mind to trail our 
skirts in the mire of politics." She doubtless felt it her 
duty so to speak, and I had no thought of blame, only- 
regret. As we left the church, one of our chief women 
said : " You might have been a leader in our national 
councils, but you have deliberately chosen to be only a 


The rum power looms like a Chimborazo among the mountains of 
difficulty over which our native land must climb to reach the future 
of our dreams. The problem of the rum power's overthrow may well 
engage our thoughts as women and as patriots. To-night I ask you 
to consider it in the light of a truth which Frederick Douglass has 
embodied in these words : " We can in the long run trust all the 
knowledge in the community to take care of all the ignorance of the 
community, and all of its virtue to take care of all of its vice." The 
difficulty in the application of this principle lies in the fact that vice 
is always in the active, virtue often in the passive. Vice is aggres- 
sive. It deals swift, sure blows, delights in keen-edged weapons, and 
prefers a hand-to-hand conflict, while virtue instinctively fights its 
unsavory antagonist at arm's length; its great guns are unwieldy and 
slow to swing into range. 

Vice is the tiger, with keen eyes, alert ears, and cat-like tread, while 
virtue is the slow-paced, complacent, easy-going elephant, whose 
greatest danger lies in its ponderous weight and consciousness of 
power. So the great question narrows down to one of two(?) methods. 
It is not, when we look carefully into the conditions of the problem, 
How shall we develop more virtue in the community to offset the 
tropical growth of vice by which we find ourselves environed ? but 
rather, How the tremendous force we have may best be brought to 
bear, how we may unlimber the huge cannon now pointing into 
vacancy, and direct their full charge at short range upon our nimble, 
wily, vigilant foe ? 

As bearing upon a consideration of that question, I lay down this 
proposition : All pure and Christian sentiment concerning any line of 
qonduct which vitally affects humanity will, sooner or later, crystallize 
into law. But the keystone of law can only be firm and .secure when 
it is held in place by the arch of that keystone, which is public senti- 

I make another statement not so often reiterated, but just as true, 
viz. : The more thoroughly you can enlist in favor of your law the 


natural instincts of those who have the power to make that law, and 
to select the officers who shall enforce it, the more securely stands the 
law. And still another: First among the powerful and controlling 
instincts in our nature stands that of self-preservation, and next after 
this, if it does not claim superior rank, comes that of a mother's love. 
You can count upon that every time; it is sure and resistless as the 
tides of the sea, for it is founded in the changeless nature given to her 
from God. 

Now that the stronghold of the rum power lies in the fact that it 
has upon its side two deeply rooted appetites, namely: in the dealer, 
the appetite for gain, and in the drinker, the appetite for stimulants. 
We have dolorously said in times gone by that on the human plane 
we have nothing adequate to match against this frightful pair. But 
let us think more carefully, and*we shall find that, as in nature, God 
has given us an antidote to every poison, and in grace a compensation 
for every loss; so in human society he has prepared against alcohol, 
that worst foe of the social state, an enemy under whose weapons it is 
to bite the dust. 

Think of it! There is a class in every one of our communities — in 
many of them far the most numerous class — which (I speak not vaunt- 
ingly ; I but name it as a fact) has not in all the centuries of wine, beer, 
and brandy-drinking developed, as a class, an appetite for alcohol, but 
whose instincts, on the contrary, set so strongly against intoxicants 
that if the liquor traffic were dependent on their patronage alone, it 
would collapse this night as though all the nitro-glycerine of Hell Gate 
reef had exploded under it. 

There is a class whose instinct of self-preservation must forever be 
opposed to a stimulant which nerves, with dangerous strength, arms 
already so much stronger than their own, and so maddens the brain 
God meant to guide those arms, that they strike down the wives men 
love, and the little children for whom, when sober, they would die. 
The wife, largely dependent for the support of herself and little ones 
upon the brain which strong drink paralyzes, the arm it masters, and 
the skill it renders futile, will, in the nature of the case, prove herself 
unfriendly to the actual or potential source of so much misery. But 
besides this primal instinct of self-preservation, we have, in the same 
class of which I speak, another far more high and sacred — I mean the 
instinct of a mother's love, a wife's devotion, a sister's faithfulness, a 
daughter's loyalty. And now I ask you to consider earnestly the fact 
that none of these blessed rays of light and power from woman's 
heart, are as yet brought to bear upon the rum shop at the focus of 
power. They are, I know, the sweet and pleasant sunshine of our 
homi >; they are the beams which light the larger home of social life 
and send their gentle radiance out even into the great and busy world. 


But I know, and as the knowledge lias grown clearer, my heart was 
thrilled with gratitude and hope too deep for words, that in a repuhlic 
all these now divergent beams of light can, through that magic lens, 
that powerf id sun-glass which we name the ballot, be made to converge 
upon the rum-shop in a blaze of light that shall reveal its full abomina- 
tions, and a white flame of heat which, like a pitiless moxa, shall burn 
this cancerous excrescence from America's fair form. Yes, for there 
is nothing in the universe so sure, so strong, as love ; and love shall do 
all this — the love of maid for sweetheart, wife for husband, of a sister 
for her brother, of a mother for her son. And I call upon you who 
are here to-day, good men and brave — you who have welcomed us to 
other fields in the great fight of the angel against the dragon in society 
— I call upon you thus to match force with force, to set over against 
the liquor-dealer's avarice our instinct of self-preservation; and to 
match the drinker's love of liquor with our love of him ! When you 
can centre all this power in that small bit of paper which falls 

" As silently as snow-flakes fall upon the sod, 
But executes a freeman's will as lightnings do the will of God," 

the rum power will be as much doomed as was the slave power when 
you gave the ballot to the slaves. 

In our argument it has been claimed that by the changeless instincts 
of her nature and through the most sacred relationships of which that 
nature has been rendered capable, God has indicated woman, who is 
the born conservator of home, to be the Nemesis of home's arch 
enemy, King Alcohol. And further, that in a republic, this power 
of hers may be most effectively exercised by giving her a voice in the 
decision by which the rum-shop door shall be opened or closed beside 
her home. 

This position is strongly supported by evidence. About the year 
1850 petitions were extensively circulated in Cincinnati (later the 
fiercest battle ground of the woman's crusade), asking that the liquor 
traffic be put under the ban of law. Bishop Simpson — one of the 
noblest and most discerning minds of his century — was deeply inter- 
ested in this movement. It was decided to ask for the names of 
women as well as those of men, and it was found that the former 
signed the petition more readily and in much larger numbers than the 
latter. Another fact was ascertained which rebuts the hackneyed 
assertion that women of the lower class will not be on the temperance 
side in this great war. For it was found — as might, indeed, have been 
most reasonably predicted — that the ignorant, the poor (many of them 
wives, mothers, and daughters of intemperate men), were among the 
most eager to sign the petition. 



to hold the pencil and affix the signature of women of this class, and 
many another, which could only make the sign of the cross, did that 
with tears, and a hearty "God bless you." " That was a wonderful 
lesson to me," said the good Bishop, and he has always believed since 
then that God will give our enemy into our hands by giving to us an 
ally still more powerful, woman with the ballot against rum-shops in 
our land. It has been said so often that the very frequency of reitera- 
tion has in some minds induced belief that women of the better class 
will never consent to declare themselves at the polls. But tens of 
thousands from the most tenderly-sheltered homes have gone day after 
day to the saloons, and have spent hour after hour upon their sanded 
floors, and in their reeking air — places in which not the worst politician 
would dare to locate the ballot box of freemen — though they but stay 
a moment at the window, slip in their votes, and go their way. 

Nothing worse can ever happen to women at the polls than has been 
endured by the hour on the part of conservative women of the churches 
in this land, as they, in scores of towns, have plead with rough, haE- 
drunken men to vote the temperance tickets they have handed them, 
and which, with vastly more of propriety and fitness they might have 
dropped into the box themselves. They could have done this in a 
moment, and returned to their homes, instead of spending the whole 
day in the often futile endeavor to beg from men like these the votes 
which should preserve their homes from the whisky serpent's breath 
for one uncertain year. I spent last May in Ohio, traveling constantly, 
and seeking on every side to learn the views of the noble women of 
the Crusade. They put their opinions in words like these: "We 
believe that as God led us into this work by way of the saloons, 


"We have never prayed more earnestly over the one than we will over 
the other. One was the Wilderness, the other is the Promised Land." 

A Presbyterian lady, rigidly conservative, said: "For my part, I 
never wanted to vote until our gentlemen passed a prohibition ordi- 
nance so as to get us to stop visiting saloons, and a month later 
repealed it and chose a saloon-keeper for mayor." 

Said a grand-daughter of Jonathan Edwards, a woman with no 
toleration toward the Suffrage Movement, a woman crowned with the 
glory of gray hairs — a central figure in her native town — 


"If, with the ballot in our hands, we can, as I firmly believe, put 
down this awful traffic, I am ready to lead the women of my town to 
the polls, as I have often led them to the rum shops." 


We must not forget that for every woman who joins the Temper- 
ance Unions now springing up all through the land, there are at least 
a score who sympathize but do not join. Home influence and cares 
prevent them, ignorance of our aims and methods, lack of consecration 
to Christian work— a thousand reasons, sufficient in their estimation, 
though not in ours, hold them away from us. And yet they have 
this Temperance cause warmly at heart ; the logic of events has shown 
them that there is but one side on which a woman may safely stand 
in this great battle, and on that side they would indubitably range 
themselves in the quick, decisive battle of election day, nor would 
they give their voice a second time in favor of the man who had once 
betrayed his pledge to enforce the most stringent law for the protec- 
tion of their homes. There are many noble women, too, who, though 
they do not think as do the Temperance Unions about the deep things 
of religion, and are not as yet decided in their total abstinence senti- 
ments, nor ready for the blessed work of prayer, are nevertheless 
decided in their views of Woman Suffrage, and ready to vote a Tem- 
perance ticket side by side with us. And there are the drunkard's 
wife and daughters, who from very shame will not come with us, or 
who dare not, yet who could freely vote with us upon this question; 
for the folded ballot tells no tales. 

Among other cumulative proofs in this argument from experience, 
let us consider, briefly, the attitude of the Catholic Church toward 
the Temperance Reform. It is friendly, at least. Father Matthew's 
spirit lives to-day in many a faithful parish priest. In our procession 
on the Centennial Fourth of July, the banners of Catholic Total 
Abstinence Societies were often the only reminders that the Republic 
has any temperance people within its borders, as they were the only 
offset to brewers' wagons and distillers' casks, while among the 
monuments of our cause, by which this memorable year is signalized, 
their fountain in Fairmount Park— standing in the midst of eighty 
drinking places licensed by our Government— is chief. Catholic 
women would vote with Protestant women upon this issue for the 
protection of their homes. 

Again, among the sixty thousand churches of America, with their 
eight million members, two-thirds are women. Thus, only one-third 
of this trustworthy and thoughtful class has any voice in the laws 
by which, between the church and the public school, the rum 
shop nestles in this Christian land. Surely all this must change 
before the Government shall be upon His shoulders "Who shall one 
day reign King of nations as He now reigns King of saints." 

Furthermore, four-fifths of the teachers in this land are women, 
whose thoughtful judgment, expressed with the authority of which I 
speak, would greatly help forward the victory of our cause. And, 


finally, by those who fear the effect of the foreign element in our 
country t let it be remembered that we have sixty native for every one 
woman who is foreign born, for it is men who emigrate in largest 
number to our shores. 

When all these facts (and many more that might be added) are mar- 
shaled into line, how illogical it seems for good men to harangue us 
as they do about our "duty to educate public sentiment to the level 
of better law," and their exhortations to American mothers to "train 
their sons to vote aright." As said Mrs. Governor Wallace, of 
Indiana — until the Crusade an opponent of the franchise — " What a 
bitter sarcasm you utter, gentlemen, to us who have the public senti- 
ment of which you speak, all burning in our hearts, and yet are not 
permitted to turn it to account." 

Let us, then, each one of us, offer our earnest prayer to God, and 
speak our honest word to man in favor of this added weapon in 
woman's hands, remembering that every petition in the ear of God, 
and every utterance in the ears of men, swells the dimensions of that 
resistless tide of influence which shall yet float within our reach all 
that we ask or need. Dear Christian women who have crusaded in 
the rum shops, I urge that you begin crusading in halls of legislation, 
in primary meetings, and the offices of excise commissioners. Roll in 
your petitions, burnish your arguments, multiply your prayers. Go 
to the voters in your town — procure the official list and see them one 
by one — and get them pledged to a local ordinance requiring the votes 
of men and women before a license can be issued to open rum -shop 
doors beside your homes; go to the Legislature with the same; remem- 
ber this may be just as really Christian work as praying in saloons was 
in those other glorious days. Let us not limit God, whose modes of 
operation are so infinitely varied in nature and in grace. I believe in 
the correlation of spiritual forces, and that the heat which melted 
li .ills to tenderness in the Crusade is soon to be the light which shall 
reveal our opportunity and duty as the Republic's daughters. 

Longer ago than I shall tell, my father returned one night to the 
far-off Wisconsin home where I was reared; and, sitting by my 
mother's chair, with a child's attentive ear, I listened to their words. 
He told us of the news that day had brought about Neal Dow and the 
great fight for prohibition down in Maine, and then he said: "I won- 
der if poor, rum-cursed Wisconsin will ever get a law like that?" 
And mother rocked a while in silence in the dear old chair I love, and 
then she gently said: 


My father had never heard her say so much before. Tie was a great 
conservative; so he looked tremendously astonished, and replied, in 

I > s T1IK ADD11KSS. 

his keen, sarcastic voice: " And pray how w ill you arrange it bo that 
women shall vote? " Mother's chair went to and fro a little faster for 
a minute, and then, looking not into his face, but into the flickering 
flames of the grate, she slowly answered: " Well, I say *o you, as the 
apostle Paul said to his jailor, ' You have put US into prison, we being 
Romans, and you must come and take us out." 

That was a seed thought in a girl's brain and heart Years passed 
On, In which nothing more was said upon this dangerous theme. My 
brother grew to manhood, and soon after he was twenty-one years 
old he went with his father to vote. Standing by the window, i girl 
of sixteen years, a girl of simple, homely fancies, not at all strong- 
minded, and altogether ignorant of the world, I looked out as they 
drove away, my father and my brother, ami as I looked I felt a 
strange ache in my heart, and tears sprang to my eyes. Turning to 
my sister Mary, who stood beside me, I saw that the dear little inno- 
cent seemed wonderfully sober, too. 1 said: "Don't you wish we 
could go with them when we are old enough? Don't we love our 
country just as well as they do? " and her little frightened voice piped 
out : " Yes, of course we ought. Don't I know that? but you mustn't 
tell a soul— not mother, even; we should be called strong minded." 

In all the years since then I have kept diese things, and many others 
like them, and pondered them in my heart; but two years of struggle 
hi this temperance reform have shown me, as they have ten thousand 
other women, so clearly and so impressively, my duty, that 


and am ready for any battle that shall be involved in this honest 
declaration of the faith that is within me. "Fight behind masked 
batteries a little longer," whisper good friends and true. So 1 have 
been fighting hitherto: but it is a style of warfare altogether foreign 
to my temperament and mode of life. Beared on the prairies, I 
seemed pre determined to join the cavalry forces in this great spiritual 
war, and I must tilt a free lance henceforth on the splendid battle- 
field of this reform; where the earth shall soon be shaken by the onset 
of contending hosts; where legions of valiant soldiers are deploying; 
where to the grand encounter marches to-day a great army, gentle of 
mein and mild of utterance, but with hearts for any fate; where there 
are trumpets and bugles calling strong souls onward to a victory 
which Heaven might envy, and 

"Where, behind the dim Unknown, 
Standeth God within the shadow, 
Keeping watch above His own." 

T thought that women ought to have the ballot as I paid the hard- 
earned taxes upon my mother's cottage home — but 1 never said as 


much— somehow the motive did not command my heart. For my 
own sake, I had not courage, but I have for thy sake, dear native 
land, for thy necessity is as much greater than mine as thy transcend- 
ant hope is greater than the personal interest of thy humble child. 
For love of you, heart-broken wives, whose tremulous lips have 
blessed me: for love of you, sweet mothers, who, in the cradle's 
shadow, kneel this night beside your infant sons, and you, sorrowful 
little children, who listen at this hour, with faces strangely old, for 
him whose footsteps frighten you; for love of you have I thus 

Ah. it is women who have given the costliest hostages to fortune. 
Out into the battle of life they have sent their best beloved, with 
fearful odds against them, with snares that men have legalized and 
set for them on every hand. Beyond the arms that held them long, 
their boys have gone forever. Oh! by the danger they have dared; 
by the hours of patient watching over beds where helpless children 
lay : by the incense of ten thousand prayers wafted from their gentle 
lips to Heaven, I charge you give them power to protect, along life's 
treacherous highway, those whom they have so loved. Let it no 
longer be that they must sit back among the shadows, hopelessly 
mourning over their strong staff broken, and their beautiful rod; but 
when the sons they love shall go forth to life's battle, still let their 
mother- walk beside them, sweet and serious, and clad in the gar- 
ments of power. 



Priscilla Shrewdly and Charlotte Cheery ble — One woman's experi- 
ence — Our letter bag — From a Pennsylvania girl — From an Rlinois 
working man — From a Michigan lady — From a Missouri lady — 
From Rockford, Ills. — From a reformed man in Philadelphia — 
From a New York lady — The temperance house that Jack built — 
One day in a temperance woman's life — From a New England girl's 
letter — Concerning the word "Christian" — From Senator and Mrs. 

MRS. A. : " Nobody need grumble to me about " third 
party " as though it was something dreadful. I'd 
like to know if Illinois isn't governed by one to-day. A 
" third party " that is throttling the best life of our com- 
munities, and its name is " whiskyite." 

Strange that a truth so simple should be so hard to 

discover by the average mind ! Second, Mrs. B , a 

gray-haired leader, with a most quizzical smile, was 
speaking of the hubbub caused at Springfield by the " local 
election," because the tempcrancers wanted to put a living- 
issue ticket before the people. She said : " You ought to have 
seen our voters. They reminded me of nothing so much 
as our old hens when the sun was eclipsed. For both hens 
and voters were ' struck of a heap.' They didn't know 
whether to go to roost as they did at night, or to get 
under the shed as they did when it rained. But they 
seemed to feel that something had to be done right 
straight away, so they took to whirling round and round 
like a parcel of crazy Janes, and nobody could guess where 
they would fetch up at last. A terror of great darkness 
was upon 'em, and more than that we shall never cer- 



tainly know till the secrete of the artful dodger's heart 
BhaU !"• revealed." .Mrs. 0. i<» the I on | common council 
of (in) harmonious workers at Bloomington: "Gentle- 
men, it is of no use to expecl me to give up my news on 
the Bubjecl of the woman's ballot as the mad to prohibi- 
tion — for, like Josiah Allen's wife, ' I'm up on ni\ cast- 
iron principles, ami nothing on this earth can thai 
me." All of which items were refreshing to "a chiel 
amang ye takin 1 notes," ami now she prints 'cm. 



A year ago last winter, when (he W. ('. T. I'. was 

laboring at Springfield for the passage of the Binds bill, 

a gentleman was journeying in the central part of the 
State, ami in crossing the river on the ire. Btopped on an 
island in the only habitation there, to tret warm. The 
house proved to he a saloon. Presently a man came in 
for his grog. As he raised the glass he said : •• l wish to 
God there was none of this stuff ever made." "0, don't 
wish dat," said the Dutchman at the bar, " Dat time come 
Boon enough." -No." returned the drinker, " It'll never 
come — this miserable whisky'll always be manufactured." 
••You t i nk so? Nein, I tell yon uein. Wat dem vim- 
mens doing at Springfield? Dem vimmens down dere 
now. Den dey'll vote. Den veie'll de beer and whisky 
be?" Echo answers, •• Where?" 


Two of our beloved ''temperance women" were sitting 
up k, to talk the meeting over." For Plumptou had 
enjoyed the sensation of a mass meeting in the interest of 
the reform dear to their hearts. Moreover, to-morrow 

was the day set for the annual election of officers in the 


W. C. T. U., whose varied fortunes they had watched 
since the crusade that swept them into the temperance 
work. With such an achievement just behind, and such 
a crisis just before them, it wasn't to be supposed that 
they could quietly lie down to dreams. 

Mrs. Cheeryble was the hostess, and welcomed Miss 
Shrewdly to the easiest chair in her snug sitting-room, 
brought her a dish of hot oyster soup and the fleece-lined 
slippers in which her guest delighted. Then, having 
ensconced her own plump figure in the low rocking-chair 
on the other side of the fireplace, she uttered a single 
syllable, but one whose inimitable inflection " spoke vol- 
umes " of cuteness and curiosity. " Well ? " 

Miss Shrewdly was not the woman to hesitate about 
taking the initiative. Her opinions were to be had " on 
call " by any who wanted them ; nay, they were often 
forthcoming without even that small provocation. 

" Well, did you say ? " was her sprightly rejoinder. 
" It may do for you, perhaps, to use that word in connec- 
tion with such proceedings as were had in Smith's hall to- 
night, but then you're the easiest soul that ever sat still 
and saw other people inaugurate and carry to a triumph- 
ant conclusion the failure they are foreordained to make 
but never to suspect." 

" Why, I thought our president did better than usual ; 
she hasn't studied ' Roberts's Rules of Order ' in vain," 
was the kindly reply. " I really enjoy seeing such women 
come to the front." 

" I should think you did," replied her guest, " and I 
agree with your husband, who I wish were here to stand 
by me in the argument, that the mistake of your life, 
Charlotte Cheeryble, is that you take such a rose-colored 
view of people and their possibilities ; you seem to see in 
them what nobody else does, and what certainly never 
comes to the surface. Then you lack backbone ; you're 


as roly-poly in your policy as in your figure, and, if you'll 
pardon the allusion — here we are, thirty good and true 
women of the W. C. T. U. ; we all like you and can work 
harmoniously with you as our leader; when you say that 
you'll leave the Union by the door, the minute sectarian- 
ism enters by the window, somebody moves we table the 
resolution excluding Universalists ; when you tell us it's 
a shame for us to withhold our dues from the National 
Union, even Misses Prune and Prism open their lips in 
smiles and their pockctbooks in greenbacks — " 


interrupted the hostess with a smile like a small sunrise, 
" your logic is sadly at fault. The indictment accuses me 
of being an invertebrate, of the species known in science 
as roly-poly. The evidence acquits me by recounting 
deeds of prowess worthy of the Iron Duke." 

" Not a bit of it, queen of the sophists," retorted Pris- 
cilla Shrewdly, putting aside the soup plate she had emp- 
tied, and addressing herself actively to the case in hand, 
" birds that can sing and won't sing are the naughtiest of 
all, and women who can cause things to come to pass, who are 
bom leaders and yet won't lead, but will allow themselves 
to be set aside, as you do, and bring disgrace upon us by 
allowing an empty-headed, pushing woman like" — 

" No harshness, my high-toned friend," quickly inter- 
rupted her hostess. " Remember the second word in the 
name we bear — Woman's Christian Temperance Union." 

" You're right — you're always right," and Priscilla 
came over to her friend's side of the hearth and grasped 
her hand. " Nevertheless," and Miss Shrewdly stood 
before Mrs. Cheeryble gesticulating with less of grace 
than vigor, " nevertheless, I will say that in such a meet- 
ing as we had to-night, with a great crowd, grand gospel 
singing, and rousing speeches by reformed men, Mrs. 


Blank's manner of presiding was a regular wet blanket — 
there ! " and the flush on her cheeks was hardly less 
brilliant than the light in her eyes. " Nay, more," and 
now her friend saw that it was useless to protest, for 
Priscilla had reached the point known in such phenomena 
as " dangerous," " I hold that it ought not to be possible 
for such an exhibition to be made before the eyes of all 
Plumpton. We women are, in a sense, on trial. While 
the public is willing to let us make the attempt, it is keen- 
eyed to note the failure. Ours will be a lost cause in 
Plumpton if this sort of thing continues. I can see her 
now, standing before that magnificent audience, and (don't 
interrupt me ; I won't speak as harshly as I feel and the 
facts warrant) mumbling the Crusade Psalm. 0, what a 
psalm it is, and how you would have read it! So she 
dulled the keen edge of their interest, and even the 
reformed men couldn't sharpen it with all their force and 
fire. Then, nobody could hear hardly anything she said, 
save when she said she ' wan't a-goin' to close without 
takin' a collection for these poor fellows ' ; whereat the 
audience filed out, and the " fellows " took on an apoplec- 
tic hue. No, Charlotte," — and now 'the speaker renewed 
the attack by a full-arm gesture right in the face of her 
mild-mannered opponent — "I believe in the survival of 
the fittest, and if you don't see fit to take the presidency 
at to-morrow's election, I think I shall have some sort of 
fit myself. One thing is sure, I won't be reelected treas- 
urer if you don't take the presidency ! " 

"Has the lady done? Has she completely done?" 
inquired the gentle matron, taking Priscilla's hand and 
leading her back to the easy chair whence she had been 
borne upon the whirlwind of her emotions. " That oyster 
soup must surely have been medicated. Another time I 
shall give you milk to restore you after the reading of 
your report. Why, Silly, for you merit the nickname, 


though you've caught me with guile, your speech is a 
regular electioneering tirade, a campaign document com- 
mitted to memory. Where's your ' slate ? ' Have you 
the ticket all ready, and nothing for the Union to do but 
just say 'aye,' a sort of human equivalent to the ' bah ' of 
so many sheep ? No, mademoiselle. You reminded me 
that the people are on the lookout to see how we women 
steer our boats in the rapids of public life.. I will remind 
you, in turn, that if an inefficient presiding officer is a 
snag in the stream, an office-seeking membership is a 
bottomless whirlpool. Have we then read the history of 
men's failures in vain? Can we think of nothing better 
than to bring a rapier rather than a bludgeon with which 
to do the same deed ? It is your dream that by the 
suffrages of women the end shall come to our long and 
dreary contest. Sometimes I share the hope. But I 
should pray that the time might never come, if I thought 
that on the larger stage of national politics women would 
be guilty of the meanness we sometimes see displayed in 
our smallest temperance meetings. Be assured I will 
never countenance anybody, even you, in coming to me 
with harsh words of another, or getting me to aid and 
abet your ' pipe-laying,' as the politicians call it, for my- 
self as her successor." 

This was rather strong meat for the discerning Pris- 
cilla. " I guess I'll go home," she said, looking down 
piteously at the pretty slippers with a curled up kitten 
embroidered on each toe. " Charlotte, you're too harsh " 
— Miss Shrewdly's nether lip began to quiver — " I know 
I've spoken plainly, but I've told the truth, and you are 
well aware of it. Come now, do you think Mrs. Blank a 
good presiding officer ? " 

" Well," said Mrs. Cheeryble, once more, this time with 
the falling inflection, " I have made up my mind to tell 
her — not the Union — that before another meeting I'd like 

466 one woman's experience. 

to go over to the church with her, and listen while we 
practice speaking, so as to be heard in every part of it. I 
will also suggest a little more care for the feelings of 
others in alluding to the object of the collection. Mrs. 
Blank is a true and noble woman, one of our best workers 
and most earnest Christians. This was her first public 
meeting, and she was somewhat embarrassed. I believe 
she is capable of doing admirably, however, with practice." 

" And now, in conclusion," with these words the gentle 
lady took Priscilla's hand once more, " I knew from the 
staccato way your head moved about after the meeting, 
that you were afflicted with an attack of ' caucus,' and 
determined to help you through to the best of my ability." 

Priscilla smiled — what else had she to do ? — and, taking 
her friend's bright face, " fair, fat, and forty," in her slim 
hands, inquired : 

"And how does Judge Cheery ble propose to have can- 
didates chosen and business conducted on this foot-stool, 
anyway ? " 

" Roly-poly as I am, I expect to have considerable influ- 
ence in choosing ours," she archly replied, " and, in a 
word, my ' policy,' as you call it, may be outlined thus — 
A fair, full trial to all, and, on my part, by God's grace, 
obedience to the blessed precept, ' Whosoever will be great 
among you, let him be your minister, and whosoever will 
be chief among you, let him be your servant,' and that we 
ponder more these wondrous words of Christ : ' I am among 
you as him that serveth.' " 


[This came to me from a leading worker whose name I am not at 
liberty to give.] 

No arguments changed me, and I am happy to say not 
one person in all the convention opened her lips indi- 
vidually to me in regard to Home Protection. I had 

ONE woman's experience. 467 

thought I had consecrated myself to the Lord, to work for 
Him both in the Church and in temperance work ; I 
thought I was willing to use any weapon for truth, justice, 
and virtue that He might place in my hand. But when 
I came into convention the conviction kept forcing itself 
upon me that I was not wholly consecrated to His ser- 
vice ; I was not willing to do anything and everything for 
Him. There was that fearful ballot — woman "lmsexing 
herself," etc., etc., according to Dr. Bushnell, whose argu- 
ments you know, and of which every letter I have hitherto 
endorsed. The question came to me, and with it the con- 
viction that the women who stood before me, and whose 
words I heard, were consecrated women — not ambitious 
seekers of power. I had never been thrown with our 
workers before ; I had seen very little in the narrow limits 
of my horizon, and the prejudices of old made me feel 
unjustly, no doubt, that all advocates of suffrage were 
party aspirants and grumblers, who were shrieking over 
the wrongs of women. God had been so good to me, I 
did not think that women had such a hard time after all ; 
nor, in fact, do I now. But here were these gentle tem- 
perance women, wholly and solely working for the free- 
dom of our land from the tyranny of rum. 1 felt I was 
not doing all I could to help. I simply laid my heart bare 
before my God and asked Him to make me willing to do 
His will — to gather up my prejudices as a bundle, and lay 
them aside. They did not vanish like mist before sun- 
shine ; they remained tangible and tough, but I laid them 
aside. I do not array them before me any more, and I 
feel so much lighter in my heart and conscience. 

This is the story of my conversion. It came to me after 
nights of waking and weeping, for I felt the dear Lord was 
preparing me for something, and when the hour of trial 
came He did not want me to be burdened with that bun- 
dle. In Methodist parlance, my way grows brighter and 



brighter. This is for you. It would sound very strange 
and far-fetched to many ears, even absurd, that a woman 
should be morally and religiously converted to Home 
Protection. I feel I was actually converted by the Lord's 
Spirit, and led to a deeper feeling, if not deeper knowl- 
edge, of the truth. 


Writing and receiving ten thousand letters and postals 
a year, most of this and my newspaper work being done 
on the cars, I have had glimpses into so many hearts and 
homes that it seems selfish to keep such riches all to 
myself. A few specimen sentences are here given in this 
' ; open letter " of a book. 


"I saw in the paper that you would send word how to form a 
juvenile society to anybody that asked you, and I thought may be I 
could do good in that way. Our town is in a dreadful state; it seems 
as if whisky almost ran along the streets, and the boys and young men 
almost all drink. Yesterday 1 saw a boy of fifteen lying under a rail 
fence, dead drunk. If we could have a temperance society that was 
real interesting, so they would like to come, I thought it might do 
good, and I will help along all I can, if you will tell me how." 


"You spoke about a catechism that was to be used in the children's 
temperance societies, to show them the evil of strong drink. I would 
like to buy one, to use in my own family, so my boys will know 
better than to form the habit, for it's ignorance that's the matter with 
a great many people that become drinking men. " 


We are bound to have the temperance cause brought up in every 
ministerial gathering, in every Sunday-school convention, at every 
camp meeting, and to ' keep it before the people ' just so far as our 
influence permits. It's grand to be in a work where the more it is 
talked about the better you are pleased." 



"After our defeats we were, for awhile, lulled into our old poppy- 
dreams again, when somebody's good genius started a pair of us off 
to St. Louis to the Woman's State Convention, and that roused us for 
a new endeavor. My life is a busy one. I've two juvenile voters, 
dear little fellows, to train 'for the right side,' but my spare time I 
pledge to direct work in the temperance cause. A good friend and 
co-laborer has promised to as>i>t me in taking charge of a weekly 
column in one, and perhaps two, of our papers. Our Union meets 
every Thursday p. m. We hope soon to have a Sabbath p. m. service, 
when all good temperance Christians may unite to worship, and to 
hold it in a part of the city where worldly men do congregate. 

" Is not the report of the National Brewers' Association encouraging 
to us? Even our own Missouri, which we have so lamented over as 
being at the very rear of the marching hosts, reports that 38 out of 
130 breweries have "shut up shop " within a year. Well, it's a grand 
age in which to have a part, and by God's grace I will not be wholly 
unworthy of its matchless opportunities of good." 


Our Fourth of July celebration produced an excellent impression on 
the public mind. No cannon, no sky-rocket, no broken thumbs, but 
three hundred boys, in simple uniform of black pants, white shirts, 
drali caps, and red, white, and blue ribbons, headed by a reformed 
and Christian colonel, and followed by a hundred sweet girls in white 
dresses and white sashes, singing cold water songs. The speech of 
young Captain Wellington was excellent, setting forth that their 
weapons were spiritual, and their war one of ideas and against the old 
Goliath of rum. This idea of military music and drill combined, with 
hurrahing for the pledge, and teaching the common sense of total 
abstinence, is going to win the boys of our land as nothing else can. 


I don't want you to think I will take your counsel as a tedious 
lecture. I am not so great a coward as to shrink from good advice 
which I know I ought to follow. I see in the many illustrations which 
aic constantly before me, of the printers who have been ruined by 
whisky, and yet who still retained many brilliant qualities, that the 
only way for one of my trade is to make a pledge and keep it, for 
there is no class so constantly thrown in the way of temptation, by 
the very character of their work. I k*ow, and you can imagine how 
hard it is, about one o'clock at night, when a man is exhausted and 
sleepy from over-work, and he hears, while dreaming over the 


manuscript on his case, " Come, have something to brighten you up!" 
to refuse that which will stimulate him to complete his task. Strong 
drink possesses a fascination which the strongest find hard to resist, 
and under which the noblest minds are reduced to commit the basest 
actions. If I was philosophical, I would regulate my actions by 
previous examples, but as I am not — " 


I am holding firmly to my pledge, by God's help, and write to you 
ladies to ask your prayers, and to encourage you. In returning from 
Chicago, for the first time in years, I found I could travel without 
staying myself up by drink. Every afternoon, at three o'clock, I get 
down my " Gospel Songs," and my wife plays the melodeon, and we 
sing the hymns I have heard there. My wife wants me to thank you 
that she has her husband back again, and we both pray God to keep 
us true to Him. I shall go to the Ladies' Temperance Prayer-Meeting 
here. What a blessed thing it is that a man can now find such a 
haven of rest in almost every city or village in our land. 

Dear friends, who have read these echoes of the greatest 
battle now being fought on earth, will you not buckle on 
your armor and join the gentle host that is daily increas- 
ing in numbers and in courage, and marching on to 
certain victory in the name of the Captain of our salva- 
tion, who is the " Prince of Peace." 


Here are some sweet, warm words from a gifted and 
very influential lady at the East. I wish I might write 
who for the general encouragement, but hardly feel free 
to do that. The letter is from Ocean Grove, N. Y., and 
here are a few sentences : 

I have taken several steps within a week — and some inward bounds 
besides ! At a young people's meeting the other morning I told them 
my experience. Mrs. Foster of Iowa had spoken, and had said she 
knew the time was before her when she would be tired. She was 
speaking especially to the young ladies. Colonel Bain followed, 
addressing the young men. I was then called on to speak by the 
leader of the meeting, and I told them of our friendship since last 


winter when you were in New York city, and how I then signed the 
pledge and joined the W. C. T. U. Also of how I reproached myself 
in the presence of the women in that city who had worked so hard 
and grown so tired. I then called on all the ladies, young and old, 
who would join me, to pledge ourselves that we would come up to the 
help of yourself and Mrs. Foster, and turning to her asked if it 
wouldn't rest her a little if she could see a new band of workers 
coming to the front ? The tears were on her cheek as her reply. Then 
1 asked Colonel Bain, that royal man, if he would like to have the 
young men do the same ? You may know how he answered. And 
last of all I asked for the vote — the brave, fresh volunteers — and it 
would have cheered your heart to see the young men and women who 
rose. They were lovely, cultivated girls, and our boys here on vaca- 
tion from their colleges. We are coming — do not be discouraged ! 
The great w T ave hardly touches our New York shore, but it is coming. 
We are on the watch. March forward — the imperial reinforcements 
will yet arrive ! 

Undaunted as are the women of the West, " Strong in 
the strength that God supplies through His eternal Son," 
it is nevertheless like a " Dinna ye hear the slogan?" to 
know how true their hearts are beating away toward the 
rising sun ! God bless us every one ! 


Our temperance women have a marvelous versatility. 
Witness the following droll bit of rhyme and reason from 
Mrs. E. E. Orendorff of Delavan, Illinois, President of 
the local W. C. T. U. My bright friend sends me her 
impromptu, with the following explanation : 

" How our town expenses can be kept up without 
license money seems to puzzle many. Improvements to 
be made, sidewalks built, repairs attended to, and the 
treasury low. They shake their heads and point to the 
income to be derived from licensing the liquor traffic. 
Sixteen years ago there were no sidewalks in Delavan. 
A little west of the main street the ladies had a long, low 
building, erected of rough boards, in which were held 
exhibitions, concerts, etc., for the purpose of raising 
money for a sidewalk. 


" One of the songs they sang ran as follows : 

For the right and the might and the truth shall be, 
And come what there may to stand in the way, 
That day the world shall see. 

"Their efforts were successful; they drove nails and 
sawed boards, and Delavan had a sidewalk. Now when 
the nails start up and I view the broken places, I tremble 
lest our people may think license necessary to keep up 
repairs, and up and down, see-saw, through my brain — 
after the manner of the " House that Jack Built " — go 
these words: 

This is the town of Delavan ; 

Once there were women that built a walk 

In this town of Delavan. 

Now here are men that talk and talk, 

Though once there were women who built a walk 

In this town of Delavan. 

There are the sidewalks broken and worn, 
And here is the Town Board all forlorn, 
And there are the men that talk and talk, 
Though once there were women who built a walk 
In this town of Delavan. 

The treasury's bare of silvery chink, 
And the lovers of alcohol bound to drink, 
And here is the Town Board all forlorn, 
And there are the sidewalks broken and torn, 
And here are the men that talk and talk, 
Though there were women that built a walk 
In this town of Delavan. 

But list! a voice! Don't lessen your joys! 

And sidewalks I'll build if you'll give me your boys — 

For the treasury's bare of silvery chink, 

And the lovers of whisky arc bound to drink, 

And here is the Town Board all forlorn, 

And there are the sidewalks broken and torn, 

And there are the men that talk and talk, 

Although there were women that built a walk 

lu this town of Delavan. 

ONE day's experience. 473 

But look at the women,— just look at them rise, 

They know 'tis old Satan in friendliest guise, 

And the gay and the staid, the aged and fair, 

All come to the rescue with work and with prayer, 

And they'll give all their joys and glittering toys, 

They'll give all their time, but they won't give their bops. 

Though the treasury's bare of silvery chink, 

And lovers of alcohol bound to drink, 

And though the Town Board is all forlorn, 

And though the sidewalk 's broken and worn, 

Yet there are men that can work and talk, 

And women here that can build a walk, 

In this town of Delavan." 


There is not a better worker in Christendom than the one who wrote 
me this letter. She is a State President, and has led her hosts to a 
victory, grand as that which Miriam sang. 

" I certainly believe and act the ' do-everything policy' about as 
much as anyone I know, in more ways than in temperance work. You 
would laugh to know how often I change my employment; sometimes 
copying from poll-books, writing letters, dress-making, plain sewing, 
when my husband is away, acting chore-boy, raking door-yard, solicit- 
ing for temperance work, holding a temperance social in my house, 
and at last extremity, instead of oysters must have a chicken pie — so 
prepare the chickens and make five chicken pies in the afternoon, 
stopping to answer calls, receive donations, answer questions; in the 
evening, play hostess, wait on table, etc., etc., and withal think, think, 


" Sunday doesn't satisfy me any more when I have to hear the Rev. 

Mr. 's abstract disquisitions on some Scripture passage, in place 

of a sermon which might electrify into action every dormant soul in 
his congregation. How long must this continue? 'Oh, wad some 
power!' Well, I'm ready to shout for joy and sing praises to the 
Lord when I think of the Y.. W. C. T. U. fairly set agoing at last in 
this good town. The influence it will have in quickening the con- 
sciences of these indifferent people; the reflex influence on the girls 
themselves; the talk it will create on a subject discussed so little here- 
tofore — all this is beyond human measurement. It's a wonderful 
thing to be brought thus out of one's little round of personal cares and 
interests; and I'm sure we girls little dream of all that's going to come 
of it, and of the effect upon our characters in all the future. And to 
think that the most conservative girl in the Episcopal church has been 

made our President ! " 




Frequent letters have this query, and I publish my reply to one, 
which is equally suited to all : 

" Is it best in this rationalistic community to hold firmly to our princi- 
ples as implied in our name — "Woman's Christian Temperance 

Answer — God forbid that we should boast save in the Cross of 
Christ. Nail that signal to the mast. " By this sign conquer." " If 
I forget thee, O Jerusalem, let my right hand forget her cunning, and 
my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth." Hoist your flag and let 
the people rally around it. Bring the regiment up to the colors. No 
compromise prospers; no "expediency" will stand the test of time. 
Truth is magnetic — do not be afraid. The cross attracts — the multi- 
tude will gravitate toward it like the tides to the sun. 


U. S. Senate Chamber, Washington. 
My Dear Mrs. Buell — I found on my desk in the Senate this morn- 
ing an exquisite basket of flowers, presented by the Woman's Chris- 
tian Temperance Union. 

I can think of nothing so like them in beauty and sweetness as those 
who gave them to me, while the immortal natures of the givers supply 
all that is wanting in the fading hues and dying perfumes of these 
selectest treasures of the gardens of earth. 

Please accept my sincerest thanks, and convey to those who have 
thus delicately manifested this personal regard, and more than full 
appreciation of whatever slight service I may have rendered the great 
cause of " God and Home and Native Land," these acknowledgments 
of my appreciation of their confidence and regard. 

I am, Dear Madame, 

Very Respectfully, 

Your Obedient Servant, 

Henry W. Blair. 
Mrs. Buell, Corresponding Secretary of W. C. T. U. 

Washington, D. C, October 31, 1881. 
Mrs. Chapin, and the Ladies of the South : 

Saturday evening the cheers and hearty good will of the ladies melted 
my heart. 

Ten minutes later I would have given much to speak what I now 
write, but I am not one of those who can be satisfactorily surprised. 
Let me now say to you that I was deeply touched by your gift of 
flowers, because of the kindliness which I know prompted its bestowal. 


No one could appreciate the gracious sentiment of those roses more 
than I did. They stand for affection. Let them be "for a sign" 
"between thee and me," and " between thy people and my people" 

The love of woman has always been a great factor in affairs, civil 
as well as religious, and between us, whose swords have severed and 
wounded, it is eminently fitting that this strong compelling force 
should unite and heal. 

Come and see us. What you did for Miss Willard in the Somh shall 
be done for you in the North. If you think us cold and stern, look 
on us in our homes. You will find that in the crevices of our rough 
ledges the hare-bells grow, and all along our highways bloom the 


Sincerely yours, 

E. N. Blaik. 
October 14, 1881. 



Our Temperance Deborah — Her place — A Character — Incident — The 
Newspaper— A Bible Student — Home life — Her Temperance Bap- 
tism — Figures in "Ben Hur" — A Christian. 

IN his essay on Friendship, Emerson uses the follow- 
ing language : " A new friend is a great hope — a sea 
to swim in ; but soon we find its shores ; it was only a 
pond after all." 

Experience has, doubtless, enforced the truth of the 
great thinker's statement in repeated instances for all of 
us, but surely our grand Zerelda Wallace furnishes to 
those who are so happy as to call her " friend " a striking 
contrast to his illustration. 

By the resources of her mind, the stores of her memory, 
the treasures of her judgment, the power of her conscience, 
aud the magnanimity of her heart, she reminds us of the 
line, " Still there's more to follow," and verifies her title 
to the epithet often applied to her, " The noblest Roman 
of them all." As illustrations of her character, take a 
few instances from the National Conventions of the W. 
C. T. U., at four of whose sessions she has been not only 
a presence, but a power. 

In 1874, when in Cleveland the crusade clans rallied to 
the slogan of "organization," and we met for the first 
time, gathering to the call from eighteen different States, 
I remember whispering to a friend as Mrs. "Wallace came 
forward to speak, " Who is that senatorial and motherly- 
looking lady ?" 

As she stood before us, in her exceeding simplicity of 




dress, manner, and utterance, I did not dream she had 
presided at many a gubernatorial levee, graced the salons 
of Washington, and "brought up" gifted General Lew 
Wallace, now our Minister to Turkey, and what is more, 
the author of "Ben Hur." But there was something in 
thai benignant face, that rich alto voice, those earnest 
words, and that solemn iy-brandished silver spectacle-case, 
which made a more profound impression on my mind 
than any other of all the noble personalities in the Con- 

Although Mrs. Wallace had been nominated Chairman 
of the Committee on Resolutions, it seemed to us that 
Mother Stewart, as more closely identified with the Cru- 
sade, should occupy that position, and I therefore moved 
the substitution of Mother Stewart's name, which was 
effected by a large majority. Immediately after, I went 
to Mrs. Wallace, and the first words I ever addressed to 
her were words of explanation and apology. Grasping 
my hand warmly, she said : " When you know me better, 
my friend, you will discover that in this sacred cause I 
have lost sight of all personal considerations." Magnani- 
mous heart ! How many times since then, in the clash of 
preferences, have you proved true to that high declara- 
tion ! What a victory will it be for us all as professed 
followers of Him " who was meek and lowly in heart," 
when, in our wide domain of National, State, and local 
societies, we can say as honestly as was then said, " 1 
have lost sight of personal considerations in this sacred 
cause.'''' At the next National Convention (Cincinnati, 
1875), our " Temperance Deborah " stood up all alone and 
sounded the first note for Home Protection. Having 
prayed much over her "Resolution," and written it with 
great care, she came before the Convention, in St. Paul's 
M. E. Church, and presented the first resolution asking 
woman's 1 >allot on t lie temperance question. This was 
adopted, without debate, by an almost unanimous vote. 


It is a matter of unique interest to know the history of 
a character at once so judicial and so womanly as our 
" Temperance Deborah." My heart rejoices in the fact 
that Mrs. Wallace is a Southerner. Looking;, as I do, 
with eager and expectant eyes to the women of the South, 
where I have invested so much work, it is an augury of 
good to hail in one of our noble leaders a daughter of 
that sunny land. Kentucky is her native State, and her 
father was Dr. Saunders, a prominent physician there. 
She was the youngest of five daughters, and, unlike many 
narrow souls, her father taught his daughters as he had 
himself been taught, and talked with them of all great 
questions, religious, political, and scientific. You may 
select women thus broadly and blessedly trained by many 
signs infallible. 

Among these a temperance traveler has learned to 
include the reading of the daily newspaper. Whatever 
daughter of Eve contrives, under the new dispensation of 
Trial by Newspaper, to suppress her interest in the 
human race to that degree which renders the morning 
paper an unattractive object must, indeed, have early been 
indoctrinated with the superstition that " women have no 
business with matters and things outside the house." If 
one must judge by the fraction of women who read news- 
papers on the cars, and in their homes as well, the 
generous training which enables Mrs. Wallace to say, 
with the poet Terence, " I am human, and whatever 
touches humanity touches me," is small indeed. 

But the Bible was the foundation of all her education 
and culture. At the age of twelve she had committed it 
to memory as far as the book of Chronicles, and its 
truths had been heeded so honestly that at fourteen years 
of age she joined the " Christian" Church. At nineteen 
she became the second wife of David Wallace of Indianapo- 
lis, whose three sons she reared, besides six children of her 


own ; and she has put aside the public duties crowding 
upon her now that she might be a mother to a quartette 
of grand-children bequeathed to her care by their parents' 

She has earned the right to repudiate with dignity the 
aspersions of those who say that an interest in public 
affairs mars the gentleness of womanhood, and to declare 
that, having cradled three generations in her arms, she 
thinks her home record may well pass muster. Here let 
me quote from a brilliant sketch of Mrs. Wallace, recently 
published in a leading journal of the West : 

" By virtue of her social position and rare mental 
qualities, Mrs. Wallace might have been what is known 
as a ' leader ' in social circles ; but that kind of glory was 
not to her taste. She cared for society only as she found 
in it men and women of grand ideas and splendid purpose. 
Her husband was a man of fine literary culture, and 
together they enjoyed every new book, every speech or 
sermon, and every newspaper that came in their way. 
She tells how delightful were their evenings at home, 
when the babies were put to bed, and she sat with her 
foot on the rocker of the cradle and listened to Mr. 
Wallace as he read the latest political speech or newest 
book, which they discussed with the zest of professional 
critics. Everything Governor Wallace wrote, speech, 
essay, or argument, was submitted to her for criticism or 
approval. Though she knew nothing of equity, he 
complimented her by saying that her unerring sense of 
justice at once lighted upon any defect or discrepancy in 
jurisprudence, while her fine literary taste was invaluable 
in regard to rhetorical symmetry. As her stepsons grew 
older she read law with them, and is to-day better 
educated in the science of jurisprudence than any woman 
not a professional lawyer." 

Mrs. Wallace has been a widow twenty-two years. She 


was left with a home but no income, and thus many years 
of her widowhood were spent in providing means for her 
children's support and education. 

The story of how she was aroused to a sense of 
responsibility as an individual factor in society, as a 
citizen, is this : About nine years ago, when the temper- 
ance question was agitated with remarkable vigor, a 
meeting was called in its interest at one of the churches, 
to which Mrs. Wallace went. Though deeply interested 
in the exercises, when she was appointed on a committee 
she made several ineffectual attempts to rise and beg that 
she be excused from duty, so great was her dread of 
publicity. A little later she listened to an eloquent 
lecture on the evils of intemperance from Mr. Curry, at 
Fort Wayne, and then for the first time felt that it was 
her imperative duty to do what she could to check the 
devastating vice. One day afterward a lady was visiting 
her, and they talked together on this subject with all the 
earnestness and interest of zealots. At last her friend 
said, " Mrs. Wallace, if you would consent to go before 
our next meeting at Masonic Hall, and talk exactly as 
you talk to me, I believe it would do good." She was 
prevailed on to consent to appear, though she trembled at 
the very thought of the trial it would be to her, and was 
upheld only by an unfaltering sense of duty. She 
hurriedly wrote out her speech, and in excess of fear 
stood before her audience. " But," said she, " the moment 
I began to speak all terror left me, and the devotion I felt 
for my theme gave me an almost superhuman confidence." 

She did not become a woman suffragist until about five 
years ago. Her convictions came with the suddenness of 
electricity, and through a humiliation and a scourge, as 
most higher developments do come. She was appointed 
by the temperance women to speak before the Legislature 
against the repeal of the Baxter temperance law. Before 


this her contact and association with men had been of 
such a fortunate nature as to lead her to suppose that she 
had only to prove to them, singly or in bodies, that a 
cause was just and right in order to have them support it 
with all their souls. The appointed day came, and in 
company with a hundred or more women, she went to the 
legislative halls to address the " august body." For the 
first time in her life, she says, she was made to feel 
ashamed of being a woman. As soon as she entered she 
discerned the spirit of the " honorable body." Nudges, 
leers, and even winks, went significantly around the 
membership. Most of them could scarcely conceal their 
contempt for women in general, and temperance women 
in particular. Mrs. Wallace's quick acumen read the 
minds of the law-makers at once, and she suffered an all 
but mortal humiliation. She had prepared her speech in 
the full belief that it was to be delivered to thoughtful, 
intelligent, well-bred gentlemen. It opened with a modest 
disclaimer of any wish to usurp man's " rightful place " 
in government or to be " mixed in the issues of politics," 
and begged that the assembly would consider the cause 
she presented as being specially a woman's cause, etc. 
She laughs in good-natured scorn at her lack of knowledge 
when she talks of that occasion, and says: "I am happy 
to say that it is the last time I ever gave voice to such 

* o 

opinions." The " honorable body " heard her through in 
a bored sort of way, the shoulder-shrugging and con- 
temptuous leering being kept up mildly throughout. The 
general air and hinted language of the " honorable body" 
was to the effect that they would let " the ladies, God 
bless 'em," talk ; it would be an affliction, but they would 
submit to it in a gallant spirit. When Mrs. Wallace sat 
down, a Marion County representative, a senator, arose 
and said something to the effect that representatives 
could not always vote as they would like to, or as con- 


science dictated. They were not there to represent their 
own convictions, but to represent their constituency, and 

- constituency wanted liquor license ; therefore he 
should vote liquor licens . '-Instantly/' says Mrs. 
Wallace, "there flashed into my mind the question : 'Win- 
am I not one of this constituency which Marion County's 
representatives must vote to please?'" After adjourn- 
ment Mrs. Wallace shook hands with the senator, and 
said to him: " You are against our cause, but I am still 
grateful to you, because you have made me a woman- 
suffragist. You have proved to me how trifling a cipher 
an unfranchised person is in the eyes of a Legislature." 
From that day to this she has made it a part of her 
religion to labor for the removal of woman's political 
disabilities, and to establish a distinct idea in the public 
mind of the rights of the race without regard to sex or 

A deep sense of individual responsibility alone actuates 
her in her public work. For all women who are unjustly 
discriminated against in law and life she feels an 
unutterable sympathy — a yearning to give them the 
helping hand which, in drafting the Constitution, the 
founders of the Republic failed to remember. 

She is one of the few women who do not fall behind 
tin- times. She will be interesting and capable of teaching 
the thinking people as Long as she lives, because she will 
always be well versed in the thought of the age. She 
takes a newspaper on every leading phase of thought, 
and critically rends them all. She regards the decent 
and dignified press as the great educator." 

Mrs. Wallace has been from the beginning of our work 
Indiana's best beloved and most influential leader. The 
noblest and best political men in that State are her friends 
and allies. She might have made a name that would 
have lived in history. A man of equal ability would 
have been entitled to lead a party or to organize a cabinet. 

\ • 

T J- 



"The Open Secret." 

THE main points of the following were made in my 
Iowa addresses during the constitutional amend- 
ment campaign : 


Kind Friends : The stereoscopic view is most complete because it 
presents the same object under two angles of vision. By plain analogy- 
prohibition, like other moral issues, gains in clearness and perspective 
when we bring to bear upon it the different bflt united vision of man- 
hood and of womanhood. Fitting is it, then, that Governor St. John 
should be succeeded on the platform by J. Ellen Foster, and repre- 
sentatives of jour voters' Temperance Alliance by those of our 
W. C. T. IT. 

There is, moreover, historic and poetic, as well as scientific justice 
in a woman's plea for prohibition. Not long ago I sat beside Neal 
Dow, in his Portland home, and learned from him that thirty years 
ago in that very room came a broken-hearted wife, once the school- 
mate of his own, beseeching him to bring her drunken husband from 
a saloon, the name of which she gave. General Dow went at once to 
the proprietor, stated the case, made a plea on behalf of the sorrowful 
housewife, and was ordered out of the saloon, the keeper saying, 
' ' There's my license on the wall ; this man is one of my best custom- 
ers; I'll not offend him." 

General Dow then asked: "Do you mean that you will go right on 
selling whisky to him ? " and received this reply: "I shall sell to him 
just as long as he can pay for his drinks." 

General Dow left the saloon with these words: "The people of 
the State of Maine will see how long you'll go on selling." For then 
and there was born in his soul the purpose of a deadly contest with 
the liquor traffic through prohibitory law. 

Remember, then, dear friends, that I am speaking on behalf of homes 
no less bereft, and women no less desolate than those whose misery 
touched the compassionate heart and moved the mighty will of him 
whose name stands peerless upon history's page as the father of pro- 
hibitory law. 



The psalm of life was set by our Creator to the key-note of "happi- 
ness." The very word betokens this. Happiness is made up of that 
which happens, and these haps have been in the sum total so much 
more pleasurable than painful that we call them happiness. Out 
under the pleasant sky we listen to nature's cheerful testimony and 
find that disease and casualty form the exceptions, but health and 
soundness arc the rule. Man is slowly learning the significance of 
nature's harmony and joy. Our own age, more than any other, has 
evolved the fact that the philosophy and formula of God's world is 
summed up in the words "according to law." Not the smallest infrac- 
tion from the benignant law of "their being's end and aim " seems to 
be willfully made, through all the joyous ranks from the firefly in the 
grass to the sun in the sky. 

But here is man himself, the eager student of all these laws and 
their attendant harmonies; man, with the mystical, magical brain 
which can contain God's thoughts and photograph a universe on the 
sensitive plates of memory; man, with his head lifted toward the 
stars, and in his eyes a light which never shone on sea or shore; who, 
with clear brain and steady pulse, was meant to be the calmest, the 
most joyous, the most fortunate of all, but who has sold himself a 
slave to misery, disease, and death by trampling on the kindly law 
written in his members by his heavenly Father. 

Here is man's brain, with its fine and delicate mechanism, by which 
the body is controlled as Theodore Thomas controls an orchestra, as 
the engineer controls his train, or the operator his line of telegraph. 
Given so much clear thought, and you will get so much clear action; 
given so much disordered thought, and you will get so much disor- 
dered action. No law of mathematics is less variable; no statement 
of geometry more axiomatic. Consider this thinking machine, in its 
snug, round box on the top of the head. Thirty years of scientific 
study have yielded us some priceless certainties concerning it. In an 
idiot this brain weighs about twelve; in a good level head about fifty, 
and in a "philosopher" about sixty ounces. In composition, it 
bears a resemblance to the white of an egg; and into its innumerable 
convolutions are dipped the ends of the great system of nerves which 
form the telegraphic network of the body, and it is traversed by one- 
sixth of the entire circulation. Quiet and healthful is the ripple of 
the nerve vibrations which center in the brain, when the blood 
pumped into its delicate network is calm and healthful in its flow, and 
rational messages go from it then to every portion of the body's intri- 
cate machinery. But man, in his ignorance of all these laws, has been 
accustomed to go forth into the fragrant fields and shady vineyards, 
and, with the brook at which he, like all other animals, was meant to 
slake his thirst, tinkling its disregarded invitation in his ears, he has 


gathered the kindly grains and fruits of the earth provided for his 
food, and by soaking, bruising, and boiling them has got for himself 
a set of mixtures and decoctions known as "intoxicating" — which 
literally means, according to the dictionary's rough truthfulness, 
"poisoning beverages." Now the attractive ingredient of all these 
drinks is alcohol, of which brandy, rum, whisky, and gin contain, in 
varying proportions, from fifty-four to eighty-eight per cent. ; wine 
from eight or nine to twenty -five per cent. ; ale and beer from one to 
ten per cent. The effects of these drinks are shown by the law of 
Massachusetts, which, though not a temperance State, defines as "intox- 
icating" all beverages containing three per cent, of alcohol. But it is 
the changless law of alcohol, when brought in contact with vital tis- 
sues, that, though by the liquid quality of the beverages in which it is 
mixed it seems to appease, it really creates thirst. It does this by 
absorbing the fluids of the body, notably of the brain, because in the 
brain, as has been shown, there is so much fluid to absorb. Hence, 
the more brain a man has, the less liquor he can stand up under, and 
the less brain the more impervious he is to the assaults of alcohol, 
which helps to explain why the epoch of our revolutionary ancestors 
may have been less darkened by drunkenness than our own. The 
alcohol in drinks acts in exact proportion to the quantity imbibed 
upon the albuminous matter of the brain precisely as fire acts upon 
water, lapping it up with a fierce and insatiable thirst, which still, 
like the horse-leech's daughter, keeps crying "Give!" until its hot 
lips have sucked out the last particle with which they came in contact. 
For it cannot be too strongly stated that the affinity of alcohol for 
moisture is like a feverish and consuming passion, and the blistered 
nose, burnt brain, and parboiled stomach of the man who makes a 
business of drinking are nature's perpetual object-lessons to illustrate 
that alcohol is the redoubtable enemy of an organism made up, as the 
human body is, of seven in every eight parts water. It should also 
be said that the tendency of the appetite for alcoholic drinks is toward 
self -perpetuation, so that the life of the drinker is likely to be com- 
prised in two periods, in the first of which he could leave off drink- 
ing if he would, and in the second he would do so if he could. For 
it has been truly said that alcoholic beverages are the only ones on 
God's footstool which have no power of self-limitation. One glass 
says two, two say three, and so on, and this because the more this 
liquid-absorbing ingredient is swallowed the dryer one literally 
becomes. "All the physiologists who oppose the temperance reform 
do not touch the Gibraltar of that argument." 

But the statement that an appetite for alcoholic drinks is inherent 
with mankind has been so often made that its very reiteration has 
given it the semblance of truth. The appetite may be well nigh as 


universal as savagery and sin, but that fact should be our strongest 
incentive to lift men to a higher plane of knowledge and enjoyment. 
With just as much reasonableness might it be said that the appetite 
for tobacco is universal among Americans, because in the years since 
its discovery and Sir Walter Raleigh's bad example that habit has 
been so generally acquired. Moreover, one-half the human race, 
its (rentier half, has never found either of these tastes "inherent" 
to itself. But, on the other hand, we find that the men of greatest 
physical achievement have not belonged to the drinking class. Lieut. 
Schwatka and his companions on their sledge journey of three thou- 
sand miles in the arctic zone; Hanlan, the champion oarsman; suc- 
cessful travelers, pedestrians, jockeys, and pugilists are all witnesses 
of incontestible authority in support of this fact. Nor is it irrelevant 
to instance the health and strength of the huge vertebrate animals, 
whose general structure is analogous to man's, but which are water- 
drinkers, every one. 

If, then, a great curse afflicts our race; if science shows that the 
tendency of occasional indulgence in alcoholic beverages is toward 
their habitual use, rather than away from it; if the appetite is no 
more inherent than other evil appetites which civilization must wage 
war upon — what lines of remedy naturally suggest themselves whereby 
man may be restored to the normal condition of happiness which 
comes only through obedience to God's laws, as wrought into our 

1. Suppose that, with a knowledge of all these facts, a being, wise 
and good, should come from loftier regions and alight upon our poor 
old planet earth. Is it not probable that — as the celestial visitant 
observed that by keeping out of the fire we avoid being burned — it 
would occur to him that, in like manner, by keeping the products of 
the wine-press, the brewery, the still outside of our lips, we tempted 
mortals might avoid the pitiful consequences which sooner or later are 
likely to prove the sequel to their use? Thousands have seen and fol- 
lowed this straight, sure pathway to personal security and beneficent 
example; they are among the wisest and kindest of our race; they are 
at a premium with the life insurance companies. Other thousands 
sneer at the simplicity of the expedient, or murmur at the fancied 
hardships, and we must good-naturedly assail them with the Gatling 
gun of press, platform, and pulpit, and keep up our cannonading at 
eye-gate and ear-gate until the arguments which have convinced us 
shall do their work on them. 

Our German friends will not be easily convinced, because the con- 
siderations urged are comparatively new to them, but a people so 
intelligent and kindly will finally be among the mere trophies of a 
reform which has for its motto: "Come, let us reason together." 


Their own great chemist, Baron Liebig, says that " there is more 
nutriment in as much flour as can be held on the point of a table- 
knife than in nine quarts of the best Bavarian beer." Their own 
Martin Luther characterized the brewing business as of the devil; 
their own Bismarck declares it is the great demoralizing power of the 
German Empire, and at the last session of the Reichstag their own 
Minister of Finance proposed a tax upon it because of its deteriorating 
influence on the health, morals, and manners of the people. 


It is true that at the sixth brewers' congress, in St. Louis, a medical 
pamphlet on the virtues of beer was ordered printed, and this remarka- 
ble statement was made : " It ought to come before the public, not 
as an issue of the brewers, but of well-known and distinguished 
physicians." It is also true that such an issue was forthcoming, in 
which the theories of "inherent appetite," and that "beer is food," 
were advocated by distinguished names, supposed by the unsuspecting 
public to be perfectly disinterested in their utterances. But, per con- 
tra, take the following from Sir Henry Thompson and Mr. Darwin. 
(The speaker here read the unqualified statements of the gentlemen 
referred to, that even fermented liquors were very deleterious to 
health, and continued.) When such scientific instruction as the fore- 
going is furnished in our public schools, and with the dignity of the 
State to emphasize it, we shall not see the boys of our country baited 
with beer, and led onward into the coarse habits which deteriorate the 
tissues of the body and the temper of the soid. 

But, in general terms, the question now before the people's jury in 
the State of Iowa is this: Ought a civilized nation to legalize and 
derive revenue from the sale of alcoholic compounds to be used as 
beverages, when it has been proved by centuries of awful demonstra- 
tion that such use results in untold misery and ruin? Ought an intel- 
ligent nation to protect a traffic which sets two schools of ignorance 
and vice over against each public school house in the land? Ought a 
home-loving nation to tolerate an institution which is the arch foe of 
woman's peace and childhood's purity? Ought a Christian nation to 
foster the saloon system, which empties churches, scoffs at the law of 
Christ, and can succeed only in the proportion that His gospel fails? 

Twenty years from this time it will seem as unaccountable that, on 
this subject, there should be a difference of opinion among good men, 
as it does now that twenty years ago men just as good took texts from 
the New Testament, from which to prove African slavery divine. 
But at the present stage of public enlightenment it will be urged, not 
among the ignorant alone, but also as the honest opinion of intelligent 
and estimable men, that a law prohibiting the liquor traffic is "a dan- 
gerous infringement of personal liberty." 



Let us seek the meaning of this current phrase. 

The poet Cowper represents Robinson Crusoe in these familiar 

lines: out 

I am monarch of all I survey, 

My right there is none to dispute, 
From the centre all round to the sea, 

I am lord of the fowl and the brute. 

But when Crusoe saw upon the sandy shore of his desolate island a 
foot-print not his own, that very moment he was no longer monarch 
and no longer lord. From that moment his personal liberty was 
divided by two; from that moment self-hood (that pitiful pivot on 
which so many windmills turn), had to take cognizance of otherhood. 
Ever after that, "I" (that tall telegraph pole of a pronoun) had to 
take note of y-o-u, with its pathetic echo of " I owe you." Or, to put 
the matter somewhat differently: Out on his island Robinson could 
reach forth his nimble fingers and gather whatever seemed to him good 
for food, aud nobody was there to interfere. But suppose him trans- 
ferred to this capital city of Iowa, and practicing the same light- 
fingered method in your grocery store, good citizen, or at your pantry 
shelf, dear lady! What a catastrophe would then occur! Out on his 
island he could appropriate what he liked for clothing, but let him 
try the same method in your tailoring establishment, my friend— it 
wouldn't work at all. Out on his island he had the freedom of the 
place, and might shout hello at the top of his lungs, but just let him 
try it on in this audience! Why, I have scores of brothers present, 
not known to me by name, who would take the intruder by the collar 
and march him down this aisle upon the double quick. This very 
audience, by its kindly attention and courteous quiet, is a splendid 
object lesson to illustrate my point, that a citizen's liberty is relative, 
not absolute, and I am confident you will accept the definition I would 
now offer you, viz. : That all law, from the days of Justinian's code 
down to your own Iowa amendment that is to be, is but a drawing of 
the circuit of one person's liberty just so large around and far across 
as is consistent with the number of circles to be drawn within a given 
space. Take this audience again—it is an illustration perfectly in 
point. Within these four walls the circles must be small, for there is 
only so much space, and there are so many circles to be drawn. You 
have all resigned the abstract right of unrestricted locomotion and 
vocal utterance. Your personal liberties are very much abridged 
thereby, but there is the given space, the four walls of this auditorium, 
and here the many circles to be drawn ; the elbow room is thus defined 
with accuracy almost mathematical. 

It is just so in the wide but crowded realm of civilization. Centu- 
ries of the gentle teaching of Christ's gospel are requisite to clarify the 


intellectual vision, so that we can dwell together in this good and 
pleasant estate of brotherly kindness, and mould our laws so that they 
shall illustrate Gladstone's motto, " The State should make it as easy 
as possible for everybody to do right." Three classes are outside the 
charmed circle of our civilization— the idiot, the savage, and the child. 
The first has no brain to be impressed by such considerations as I have 
tried to urge, hence he cannot form one in our social compact, but we 
provide for him the conditions suited to his imbecile condition. 

The savage has the freedom, but at the same time submits to the 
privations of "all out doors," and yet unless he is the very "last of 
the Mohicans," he observes certain unwritten laws of brotherhood, 
dividing his venison steak and his buffalo robe with a needy comrade. 
"Baby is King" has passed into a proverb. He pulls your hair or 
doubles up his tiny fist, and thrusts the same into your eye. But let 
anybody else try it, and how soon you will develop that unconscious 
but clear-cut theory of a restricted liberty in the benignant basis of 
which you live and move and have your being. Behold with what 
persistence the enginery of civilization takes that little child in hand 
to teach it what are the dimensions of the home circle of personal 

Before he can speak he has learned to divide; to keep the peace; to 
fold his little hands while papa asks the blessing. The little angular 
fragment of human character, under the attrition of home life, grows 
smooth and symmetrical, as the pebbles on the shore of my own Lake 
Michigan are rounded and polished by the untiring waves. Then after 
a while the mother hands her child over to the school. Having taught 
2,000 pupils in my time. I know how our work supplements that of 
the home. "You must not be tardy, little man." "Why?" "Be- 
cause the rest of us can't wait for you." And so on with respect to 
silence, order, and good lessons. Then comes the church to teach the 
reasonableness of all these inroads upon personal liberty that they are 
based upon the golden rule, and that "what is good for the hive is 
good for the bee." Now, if these three agencies have done their 
work well, a man's personal liberty will never be, consciously to him. 
restricted by law. Its crude requirements will sweep far outside the 
circle of his cultured and brotherly conduct of life. .Christianity, and 
the institxitions growing out of it, were meant to work this very trans- 

I am happy to address an audience, most, if not all, of whose mem- 
bers doubtless look upon the laws of the land (prohibitory and all) as 
I do. For I was so fortunate in my mother, my teachers, and my 
pastors, that law is a kind brother to me, and that alone. Its clutches 
I have never felt — shall never feel. It is the law that gives my mother 
the title deed to her quiet home at Evanston; it is the law that hedges 


her daily path anil mine with a thousand guarantees and safeguards. 
It is the law which says, even to the snorting iron horse that hears 
me safely over uncounted thousands of swift miles, " Thus far shalt 
thou L r o and no further." But "no man feels the halter draw with 
good opinion of the law," and it conies as a stem schoolmaster and a 
remorseli as avenger to those who, failing to have or to heed the lessons 
Of home, school, and church, project their ignorant and lawless indi- 
viduality across the wide sweep of its sharp, relentless circle, to their 
wounding and their hurt. 

With this clear understanding we turn now to Robinson Crusoe and 
other solitary souls like him, inviting them to enter the civilized, the 
social, the human family, and sit down by its broad and cheerful 
hearth. We say to them: " You shall share with us in the long result 
of time. All that art yields and all that nature can decree shall be 
poured like a libation at your feet. You must give up many things, 
but you shall gain a thousand fold for all that you relinquish. Con- 
quest over the forces of nature, instead of slavery to them, shall be 
given you by our clear eyed men of science and the magic wand of our 
inventors. For you our philosophers shall ponder, travelers explore, 
and poets sing; for you our artisans put forth the manly energies of 
the strong arm or skillful hand. The very viands on your table, the 
very garments on your back, shall be the product of splendid prowess 
and tireless energy of thousands, who have 

Ransacked the ages, 
Spoiled the climes 

for you. Come in with us and we will do you good. But remember 
there are two parties to this contract. Meum and Tuum are both 
involved; hence the swift question what will you do for this great and 
generous firm of We, Us & Company? What shall your relation be 
to that magnificent everybody who knows so much more than any- 
body? Ah, that's the question. There comes in the crucial test of 
what you are. For civilization has her enemies — implacable vindic- 
tives — and chief among them the drink habit and the liquor traffic. 
What attitude will you take toward them? Shall your example be 
like a torch held up in the gloom? ' A light in the window for thee, 
brother. ' Will you, of your own free and voluntary choice, enact a 
prohibitory law for one in the legislature of your intellect, declare it 
constitutional in the supreme court of your judgment, and enforce it 
by the executive of your own benignant will? That is what we come 
to urge upon your conscience along the lines of moral suasion." 

"But no," you say, " I will eat, drink, wear, speak, just what I 
please." Nay, friend, you cannot speak what you please. It will be 
easy for you to utter words so blasphemous or so unfit for cars polite 
that you will trench on the sharp circle of the law. It will be easy for 


you to appear among us in such garb that we shall hand you over to 
the courts. 

Edmund Burke says that when man enters the civil out of the soli- 
tary state, he relinquishes the very first of personal liberties upon the 
threshold. What is that? The liberty to defend himself — he must 
resign his ease to judge and jury. If at the outset he gives up so 
much, surely (while we may only plead with him not to patronize the 
products of the vineyard, the brewery, the still) we may require him 
to earn his living by honest sweat of brow or brain — not to absorb it 
like a leech out of the body politic, giving no quid pro quo. And so 
we come with the question, "What business do you intend to follow? 
In your contract with society it is important to have an answer to this 
question before we let you in." "I shall start a gambling house." 
" O, no, you won't, my friend; the principle of gambling is a princi- 
ple of getting something for nothing, and would be utterly subversive 
of society." "Well, then; I will have a shop to sell vile literature." 
"O, no, you won't; we shall interfere with your personal liberty just 
at that point in the sacred interest of childhood and of home." 

"I will set up a tannery, a slaughter-house, a powder-mill alongside 
of your houses." " No you will not; for we will declare them a nuis- 
ance on the instant. 

" You may not even build a house of such material as you happen 
to prefer. We legislate on all these matters in the interest of the 
majority. " 

" Well, then; I will start an opium den." 

" No; we will have an ordinance against that whenever you attempt 
such an atrocity. We are not so ignorant as you suppose. There is 
a history about opium. Taken in small quantities it seems to do no 
harm at first, and exceptionally strong constitutions bear up under its 
curse for a long period. But it is a poison, and the law of poisons is 
its law, viz. : The tendency of yesterday becomes the habit of to-day 
and the bondage of to-morrow. It makes maniacs out of some men, 
and its tendency is that way in the case of all, either directly or by 
transmission to their children. What legislation can do to root out 
your shop it will, and it is much to make an outlaw and an Ishmaelite 
out of any man's method of getting gain." 

"But if you are so hard on me, I will start a saloon instead." 

" No you will not, my friend; and for the self -same reason that we 
will not tolerate the traffic in opium — poison gathered from poppies — 
we will not let you sell the alcohol poison distilled from fruits and 
grains. The opening of your saloon would be the opening of Pan- 
dora's box. It would light the incendiary's torch, impel the random 
bullet and the pernicious knife stroke, and descend in heaviest blows 
on the gentlest and most innocent among us. Fifty per cent, of the 


insanity comes of strong drink; seventy-five per cent, of the crimes 
have their inspiration in the dram-shop; eighty per cent, of our pau- 
pers and ninety per cent, of our worthless youths emerge from drunk- 
ard's homes. The personal liberty the dealer really seeks is his own 
liberty to enslave a class. His practice proves too much against his 
theory. In proportion as the slavery of the drink appetite enchains 
his patrons are his own receipts increased. Ours is a country where 
each man is supposed to he king over one— that one himself— but 
when the integers in the problem of free government are systematically 
converted into ciphers by the effects of strong drink and the education 
of the saloon, then is the danger widespread and appalling. The 
home, too, has its rights which the saloon is bound to respect. 

"The child in the midst is also in the market place, and the men 
who deal in alcohobc stimulants are swift to bid for him. We propose 
to stop this auctioneering for the best beloved of tender mothers' 
hearts. The protection of society must be withdrawn from the saloon, 
and its sheltering segis thrown around the home. The enlightened 
influence of society must be condensed and brought to bear through 
the electric battery of the ballot-box along the tingling wires of law. 
With all kindly regard for our German population, we propose to 
level up and not down, to go forward and not back, and to lend a 
hand to those who mourn over their strong staff broken, and their 
beautiful rod. 

" Listening to crude arguments for 'personal liberty,' heard every- 
where in Iowa, from the lips of the ignorant, the thoughtless, and the 
base, we remember the infinite pathos of Madame Roland's words, 
that noblest of patriots and martyrs in the lawless days of the French 
Revolution. Condemned to death by those who knew her love and 
loyalty to France, she trod the scaffold with firm steps, and said as 
her last words, ' O, Liberty ! what crimes are committed in thy sacred 


Aside from the foregoing argument concerning personal liberty, 
Miss Willard's address contained answers to queries constantly made 
by press and people. These were considered under the title, "Amend- 
ment Question Box," and are here answered in condensed form: 

Question. The Iowa amendment, which is to be submitted to our 
voters on the 27th of June declares that "no person shall manufac- 
ture for sale, sell, or keep for sale as a beverage, any intoxicating 
liquors whatever, including ale, wine, and beer," and requires the 
legislature to prescribe regulations of enforcements and penalties for 
violation. Now, then, is not this contrary to the constitution of the 
United States? 

Answer. All persons of fair intelligence (with the exception of 


Senator Voorhees of Indiana) know that Judge Taney and Judge 
Grier, of the United States Supreme Court, long ago rendered decis- 
ions explicitly declaring that prohibitory law is in no wise contrary to 
the letter or to the spirit of the national constitution. 



Q. "What is the difference between the constitution of Ohio and 
that proposed for Iowa? 

A. That of Ohio says no saloon shall ever be licensed to sell liquor, 
but it does not say that liquor shall not be sold. That of Iowa (if 
amended) will prohibit both sale and manufacture. The former is 
negative; the latter positive. Ohio says: "The State declines to 
receive revenue from the liquor business," but fails to say, "The 
business shall not be carried on. w 

Iowa says to manufacturer and dealer, "Close out your saloon, or 
we will close you out." And yet Governor Foster of Ohio, and the 
Chicago Tribune, and the anti-amendment papers of Iowa delight to 
confuse the minds of the people as to their difference, although it is 
as great as the difference between black and white, imbecility and 
action, something and nothing, life and death. 


Q. But we object to putting the police power of the State into the 
constitution. Why not let it go in a statute instead? 

A. The constitution enunciates principles; the statute provides for 
carrying them into practical effect. The principle of anti-slavery was 
imbedded in the fourteenth and fifteenth amendments of the national 
constitution; the statutes carried that principle into effect. In like 
manner the pending amendment in Iowa declares a great principle, 
places it beyond the fluctuations of politics, and empowers the legisla- 
ture to render it efficient by statutory law. But aside from all other 
arguments, the people being sovereign, being themselves the original 
source of power, may put into their constitution whatsoever they 


Q. But if we find it so difficult to enforce our present law, what 
reason have we to think the new one would work any better? 

A. In the first place, a new, stronger, and more direct expression 
of the people's will (for the present statute was from the legislature 
only) would give great additional force to the execution of law. In 
the next place, the present law opens the door for perjury, as every 
body knows who has tried to enforce it. The wine and beer clause 
makes it almost a dead letter, just as the liquor dealers, who went to 
such pains to secure it, knew would be the case. For it is a historical 


fact that the only towns in Iowa where the present law is not a dead 
letter, are those where (as in Grinnell) the people have, by local ordi- 
nance, prohibited the sale of ale, wine, and beer, as well as the distilled 
drinks. As things are now, saloons are a legal institution, and to 
prove just what kind of intoxicating liquors are sold inside them, 
whether beer or brandy, whisky or wine, is well nigh impossible. 
Under the amendment, the very existence of a saloon, the very pres- 
ence of its outfit and paraphernalia would be prima facie evidence of 
violated law. Now, if a man has a saloon, the presumption is that he 
sills only wine and beer; then, if he had a saloon or any symptoms of 
one, the presumption is that he is violating law. 


Q. "Ah, but,"' we hear on every side, "prohibition doesn't pro- 
hibit." How is that? 

A. The temperance people do not claim that prohibition is per- 
fectly carried out, any more than other laws. They admit that after 
its adoption in any State it will require a long time to secure its com- 
plete enforcement in large cities; but history shows that it is immedi- 
ately effective in villages and towns, and gradually becomes so in 
cities, its force being educational and always beneficial. Aside from 
individual statistical testimony, there are three ways in which the fact 
that prohibition is not a failure can be proved. First, by the positive 
statement of those who are enemies to prohibition. Henry Reuter, 
at one time President of the Brewers' Association, admits that 
"unfriendly legislation has driven the brewing business from Maine; " 
and no one denies that distilleries are banished from the favored pre- 
cincts of that State. At the National Liquor Dealers' League, 
recently held at Chicago, the following declaration was made by 
Peter Lieber, a well-known brewer of Indianapolis. Upon being 
elected temporary Chairman, he made a speech of acknowledgment, 
in the course of which he said : " Gentlemen, the history of prohibition 
is a history of success." But actions speak louder than words, and 
the actions of liquor dealers from Maine to California prove that they 
detest and dread this law. They combine against it everywhere, and 
we know that men do not compass sea and land to make one proselyte 
in a State Legislature or municipal council unless their business suffers 
from the law they so remorsely fight. Besides, it is a plain principle 
of political economy that no business ever yet succeeded better because 
the law was against it. Again, the opponents of prohibition prove 
too much when they say in one breath that beer-loving foreigners are 
leaving Kansas, and in another that there was never so much liquor 
sold and drank there as under prohibition. Finally, no law is self- 
executing. The officers and people may be a failure, but not the law; 


for a law is-never a failure, save when its principle is wrong. But wc 
turn the tables on our objector with this question: 
If prohibition does not prohibit, 


Let Chicago answer, with her three thousand licensed and three 
hundred unlicensed dram-shops open on the Sabbath day; with her 
drunken boys and abandoned girls thronging these haunts of infamy ; 
with her drunkards freely obtaining liquor enough to keep flourishing 
the crop of arrests for criminal assault; with her jails crowded by 
murderers, her vile "concert" saloons in violation of an ordinance 
which declares a penalty for every exhibition of the kind; with her 
horrid scenes at the police courts, where drunken men and women 
are sent to the bridewell and the jail, but no indictment found against 
the saloon keepers who, in open violation of law,' sold them the liquor 
that sent them there, and who will do so again as soon as they can get 
them back into their clutches. Chicago, with her municipal authori- 
ties and executive officers solemnly sworn to enforce the license law, 
is a suggestive commentary upon the comparative excellences of 
license and prohibitory laws; and remember Chicago is but a type of 
every town and city in the land. 

"But let us discriminate between the sale of whisky and of beer," 
is the specific offered by some well-meaning people. The Duke of 
Wellington was of this number, and thought he had won a greater 
victory than Waterloo when he secured the passage of the "beer 
act " in the British Parliament. For thirty-nine years this remained 
in full force, and meanwhile England sank deeper and deeper in 
drunkenness. The Convocation of Canterbury, a department of the 
English Church which has ecclesiastical supervision over fourteen 
millions of persons, then instituted a careful inquiry into the results 
of this same beer act. Let me give you the summing up of the testi- 
mony taken from the lips of thousands of witnesses, not themselves 
temperance people either, but for the most part public officers of the 


" This ale and beer act, though introduced for the avowed purpose 
of repressing intemperance by counteracting the temptation to exces- 
sive drinking of ardent spirits, has been abundantly proved not only 
to have failed of its benevolent purpose, but to have served, through- 
out the country, to multiply and intensify the very evils it was 
intended to remove." 

If ever history learned a costly lesson that she might teach it to 
posterity, it was this one, which America ignores to-day. 

But the evils of beer legislation must not, in this connection, be 
overlooked. We live in a Republic where each man counts one in 


every decision by which public opinion crystalizes into law. The 
brewers are fast becoming dictators to those in power. I quote Mr. 
Schade, the editor of their organ at Washington : 

" No, gentlemen, first personal and then political liberty. First 
beer, then politics. If we want to succeed, we must do it at the 

I quote Mr. Clausen, president of the tenth Brewers' Congress : 

"Unity is necessary, and we must form an organization which not 
only controls a capital of $200,000,000, but which also commands 
thousands of votes. By our efforts the former minority in the 
Assembly of New York State was changed to a majority of twenty in 
our favor." 

It is as dangerous to the Republic to be governed by an oligarchy of 
beer-brewing and beer-drinking citizens as by a single wicked tyrant. 
Yet our cities are rapidly being thus governed, and no one can read 
the Congressional record and see the steady concessions to the brewing 
interest without being aware that beer is already the determining 
factor in our politics. Before this blear-eyed, foamy -mouthed mon- 
ster Legislatures bow the knee, municipal authorities grovel in the 
dust, crying: "Great is Gambrinus of the Teutonians. " When a million 
blurred and muddled ballots are cast into the box on election day, the 
Goddess of Liberty may well veil her face in shame. 


Q. But would not high license work as well and be a more practi- 
cable measure, at the same time adding to the public revenue? 

A. In the first place, the piinciple is wrong, and, in the next 
place, the increased tax to pay the cost of taking care of the results of 
the liquor traffic (crime, pauperism, etc.) render the method penny 
wise and pound foolish. Besides, high license saddles the saloon 
system upon the community, renders it impossible to prove up cases 
of violated law, and surrounds the dram-shop with an air of attractive- 
ness and respectability in the last degree dangerous to young men. 


Q. But do we not break faith with the manufacturers by outlawing 
their business, heretofore legal? 

A. No more than we do when any other kind of business is condemned 
by law. This is a risk to be taken by liquor dealers at the outset, as 
they very well know. Of course this condemnation always involves 
loss, but we may be measurably consoled in this case by contemplating 
the enormous g ;ains of the past — "the eight-cent profit on a ten cent 
drink," by which saloon-keepers have enjoyed a higher interest on 
their investment than any other class of men. In general terms, all 


progress, all inventions, bear heavily for a while upon a class. But 
public policy must be considered, and pro bono publico and sur- 
vival of the fittest must prevail. The question, therefore, resolves 
itself into this: Shall we let those people engaged in the liquor traffic 
suffer, or shall we leave defenceless the people's homes? 


Q. But is not this simply a method of transferring sales of drink 
from saloon-keepers to druggists? 

A. To some extent this will be true, but you have now to contend 
against the double evil, for these two institutions stand side by side. 
Under the amendment you will simplify the problem and know just 
whom you are fighting. In Arkansas they have hedged the druggists 
about by requiring a sworn pledge from every physician, under heavy 
penalty, that he will not furnish a prescription to those not actually 
ill, and they also keep a list of all prescriptions open to public inspec- 
tion and render the druggist who violates the law liable to fine and 


Q. But has the time arrived for such a sweeping measure? Is not 
this action premature? 

A. Let this be answered by the fact that two separate Legislatures, 
at intervals covering four years, representative bodies coming directly 
from the people and supposed to know the wishes of their constituents 
(yea, verily, and the political results to themselves) have by large 
majorities placed the amendment squarely before the people. Besides, 
as Senator Wilson so pithily puts it, " If there is doubt remaining as 
to whether this is the time, we propose to set it at rest on the 27th of 


Q. But is not this a sumptuary law? 

A. In no sense of that much misunderstood term. Sumptuary laws 
flourished in the days of ancient Rome, and at certain oppressive 
periods of English history, and aimed to regulate personal and house- 
hold expenses in such a way that more money would pass into the 
treasury of the State. How often a dinner party could be given, of 
how many courses it could consist, and how many guests might be 
invited at a time — these were matters regulated by law. Now, the 
brewers even, will not maintain that it is a sumptuary law by which 
saloons are closed upon election day, for this is done as a measure of 
public safety, no man's personal habits being thereby legislated 
against. But if the public conscience becomes sufficiently enlightened 
to perceive that the saloons are a danger not only upon election, but 
every other day, and, thus perceiving, extends the provisions of the 


law. is it sumptuary in the last case any more than in the first? By 
parity of reasoning it is not. Sumptuary law regulates personal 
habits, prohibition assails a harmful business; sumptuary law inter- 
feres with the driuk( r, prohibition with the seller; the first is oppres- 
sive, the second legitimate. 


Q. But ought not the drunkard to bear his part of the blame, and 
does not this kind of legislation unjustly discriminate against the 

A. These things ought ye to have done, and not have left the other 
undone. Doubtless the drinker ought to have been dealt with as to 
the results of his crime, and he can be by the statutes. Let us not 
then throw away so good a tool as the amendment because it is not 
perfect. As a general principle you can deal with a barrel of whisky 
in the shop of the seller more readily than in the flask or stomach of 
the consumer. 


Q. But after all, is it not true that alcoholic stimulants, taken in 
moderation, are good for people's health? 

A. No; because men of the greatest physical endurance do not 
belong to the drinking class, as -is proved by the statistics of life- 
insurance companies, by the death-rate in cases of pestilence and sun- 
stroke, also by the record of successful explorers, pedestrians, oars- 
men, etc. The same fact is also proven from the changeless tendency 
of the appetite for alcoholic drinks toward self -perpetuation, so that 
one glass says two, two call for three, and so on. " All the physiolo- 
gists living cannot touch the Gibraltar of this argument." Science, 
experience, and the golden rule unite to answer this last question with 
the most emphatic negative. But, let it be remembered, this amend- 
ment limits no man as to what he shall drink. Do not let us confound 
things that are different. Shall the liquor traffic be legalized? The 
amendment answers no! May we all take for our motto the words of 
Christ : ' ' Every plant that my Heavenly Father hath not planted shall 
be rooted up." 

Friends, there is always a way out for humanity. Progress never 
calls a halt, but beats her drums and waves her banners far up the 
heights where courageous voices shout "Excelsior." When Sir Wil- 
fred Law son's local option resolution was adopted in Parliament last 
spring, The London Times made a comment which has in it the explo- 
sive force of nitro-glycerine, for it declared that "this measure would 
never succeed until woman had the ballot." 

The day will come, and is not distant, when to offset the vote of 
Cork and Hamburg, the "home vote "will be counted in, not out. 


This expectation is based on the fact that the thoughtful classes in the 
community are already committed to the movement that State after 
State is steadily enlarging the scope of woman's power; that in 
four-fifths of the Woman' Christian Temperance Unions the movement 
has been formally indorsed, and that press and pulpit are ranging 
themselves in favor of the change. 

Dear ladies, let us be of good courage. The gentlemen of this audi- 
ence will not decline to represent us at the polls. Constitutional pro- 
hibition will be secured in this generous, wide-awake "Hawkeye 
State," through manhood suffrage. But when, on the issue of enforce- 
ment the question becomes partisan, as assuredly it must, Barak will 
call Deborah to his side in the Prohibition party of the future, and 
humanity's full voice will then be heard giving everywhere a temper- 
ance majority " For God and Home and Native Land." 

" Somewhere beneath the vaulted sky, 
Or underneath the slumbering sod, 
Wrath broods its thunders ere they fly, 
Pale Justice steels her toughening rod ; 
When wealth and power have had their hour, 
Comes for the weak the hour of God." 


Here follows a fair sample of revelations coming to me 
continually as a temperance worker. This is from a for- 
mer schoolmate — the gayest and one of the most gifted in 
our college. She is writing of her husband : 

, Michigan. 

" Last Sunday, for the first time, I was obliged to have help, Ned 
was so bad. I had not slept for three successive nights. Every 
evening I had hunted him up and brought him home, but he would 
slip away about four o'clock in the morning. I had been to the 
saloons and begged them not to sell him liquor. One man denied that 
he kept it, swore at me, and ordered me out of his place. O, my 
friend, where has God gone? He certainly has forsaken this town of 

. Three gentlemen staid with Ned all day Sunday and Sunday 

night and Monday. He is so penitent when it is over, and promises 
never to touch strong drink again. Sometimes it will be several 
months before he does, and then some one, perhaps a prominent man, 
and one who knoios his weakness, will invite him to take a drink, and 
with one glass he loses all control. I have humiliated myself again 
and again by being pleasant to men I despised, just that I might influ- 
ence them to let Ned alone, and then, perhaps, have failed. I have 

POOR NED ! 503 

been in saloons full of quarrelsome men, late a* night and all alone, 
to persuade my husband to come home. I have questioned lawyers to 
know if I can not prevent liquor dealers from selling to him. They 
always shake their heads. The trouble is they are afraid to do any- 
thing about it. The liquor dealers control our lawyers, some of our 
ministers, and all our public schools. Why, we have a forty thousand 
dollar school-house built from the taxes on our saloons. I could not 
get a single newspaper to publish that little announcement you sent 
me of a W. C. T. U. Convention. I took it to a pastor and asked him 
to use his influence to get it in, but he shook his head and said " it 
was of no use to try." Poor Ned! He is such a grand, good fellow 
when he is sober that only the welfare of my boys would make me 
wish to leave him, and that not always, but sometimes. It is such a 
relief to talk straight out of my tired heart. I have repressed my 
feelings and shut up my troubles so long that I am in great danger of 
changing into an icy -hearted woman— -who used to be so merry. Dear 
friend of better days, please do not forget to pray for me, for my 
faith does not grow stronger." 




A Quaker conquest — Miss Willard among the Modocs. 

Ocean Grove, N. J., August, 1881. 

FIGURE to yourself three scenes : The first is in the 
lava beds of Oregon. Here the fierce, wild Modoc 
Indians are scalping General Canby and the Rev. Dr. 
Thomas, while Colonel Meacham is left upon the field for 
dead, — and all this comes to pass under a flag of truce. 
In the desperate fight squaws redden their hands in the 
white men's blood, for so desperate is the struggle that 
women's hearts become as hard as those of life-long 
warriors. News of the slaughter is quickly carried along 
telegraphic wires, and throughout the civilized world the 
name of " Modoc " becomes the synonym of savage 

The second scene transports us to the simple Quaker 
home of Asa and Emeline Tuttle, of the Quapaw agency, 
Indian Territory. He is a Quaker preacher from the 
State of Maine, and she a teacher from the State of 
Indiana, and to both there came, many years since, " a 
deep concern " for their red brethren, insomuch that they 
dedicated their lives to each other and also to that Indian 
peace policy, which was the happiest Presidential thought 
of General Grant. Beloved by her Indian pupils, and 
delighted with the work in which she and her husband 
have been so grandly useful, Emeline Tuttle, from the 



day on which she learns of the horrid Modoc fight, sighs 
for new worlds to conquer ! 

With an earnestness which hecomes like a fire in the 
bones, she covets these heathen for her inheritance, and 
these uttermost parts of the earth for her possession. 
Often in the twilight she goes away alone into a little 
grove and prays with a fervor that would frighten her did 
she not feel it " borne in upon her soul," as the Quakers 
say, and in the night she wakes, with tears of joy upon 
her face from dreams in which the Modocs have indeed 
been given her to teach. So praying, trusting, and mean- 
while teaching her Indian school, the days "go on, go 


Nearly a year passes, when behold, one autumn after- 
noon a shabby railroad train rolls along the prairie, and 
from some creaking old cars are literally dumped, almost 
at Mrs. Tuttle's feet, the horrible, marauding Modocs of 
the Lava Beds. They are in paint, and blankets, and 
tattooing, with rings in their noses and (pardon, ladies) in 
their ears also. Unkempt, uncleanly, huddled together in 
squatting attitude, with untaught hands, brains cobwebbed 
by superstition, and bodies diseased by strong drink; 
without habits of industry, instincts of home, and knowl- 
edge of Christianity ; this band of savages is turned over 
to Brother Asa and Sister Emeline to see what the New 
Testament and the total abstinence pledge can do for 

Seven years or thereabouts have flown, and on Saturday 
evening, the 23d of May last, it was my fortune to be 
landed in the Modoc settlement, to spend a few days with 
Mrs. Turtle, now vice-president for the Indian Territory 
of our National W. C. T. U. And this is the last scene 
of the " dissolving view " of sloughed-off barbarism — the 
dawn of a new manhood in Christ Jesus. Driving along 
the fragrant prairie we passed farm after farm belonging 


to different members of the tribe. Under the guidance 
of a kind Quaker farmer fences were building and crops 
being planted, while on every hand comfortable log-houses 
were to be seen. In a neat white cottage, I found my 
Quaker friends, and in great peace and quietness slept 
the sleep of the weary that night in a community where 
the hands that used to clasp scalping-knives had grown 
familiar with plough-handles, and the voices that yelled 
the lava beds' war-whoop now sang the Moody hymns. 

The next day was the Sabbath, and trooping from every 
side came the swarthy-faced men, women, and children of 
this strange race. In a pretty building, seated with Hol- 
brook's furniture, and answering the double purpose of 
church and school, we gathered for morning service. It 
had been decorated in honor of my visit, and the motto 
of our W. C. T. U. was arched in evergreen letters behind 
the simple pulpit : " For God, and home, and native land." 
The Sunday-school lesson for that day — which the Modocs 
studied in common with all other Christians! — was 
" Answers to Prayer," and after a scripture recitation, in 
which all the younger ones participated with remarkable 
clearness of English, I was asked to tell them once more 
the story of the temperance crusade — the greatest prayer 
movement of the nineteenth century. They had heard it 
often from Mrs. Tuttle's lips, but listened with all the 
more appreciation on that account. The Indian "Ugh," 
of which we hear so much, was frequently employed, and 
when I had finished that thrilling and pathetic story of 
" The Women who Dared," those Indians, with their tall 
heads, swart faces, and beaming, dark eyes, sang " Rock 
of Ages" (our crusade hymn), as I have seldom heard it 
sung in church or prayer-meeting. 

The invitation was then given for any to speak. Colonel 
D. R. Dyer of Illinois, agent of this reservation, and an 
earnest temperance man, spoke of his determination to 


enforce in his domain the prohibitory law with which the 
entire Territory is blessed. Asa Tuttle recounted the 
splendid growth of public sentiment among the Modocs, 
until now every man, woman, and child wears the ribbon 
and belongs to the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, 
and most of them are members of the Society of Friends. 
The Indians then stood forward one by one to speak, an 
exercise of which, by the way, they highly approve. With 
inimitable reverence " Scar-Face Charlie," " Long George.'' 
" Steamboat Frank," and others pointed to the great gilt- 
edged Bible as the book that makes the white man what 
he is, and with impressive gravity to the bottles of alcohol 
I had jnst used in an experiment, as the "fire-water" 
which has reduced the Indian to degradation. 

Princess Mary, sister to Captain Jack, was present ; 
also his two wives, comely-faced women, but with no 
oratorical ambitions. Steamboat Frank's wife spoke with 
more freedom and eloquence than any other person, and 
the Modocs recognize her as decidedly superior to her 
husband, albeit he is the "preacher" of the tribe. The 
perfect equality of men and women in the Lord's house 
has, of course, been thoroughly set forth by these 
enlightened Quakers, and is thoroughly accepted by the 
Indians, abhorrent as would have been the thought seven 
years ago. A Cherokee lady named Mrs. Arnold, the 
post-mistress at Yinita, I. T., had accompanied me to the 
.Modoc settlement, and it was indeed suggestive to see in 
her the fruit of generations of Christian training, as she 
came gently forward, saying, " I am so glad, dear friends, 
that you have embraced temperance and the gospel, for 
they have redeemed our Cherokee nation ; and we are 
proud of our Indian blood, and are doing all we can to 
make the Cherokee name respected, even as you will 
make the name of Modoc noble and honorable." 

And now four little Modoc girls came forth, with 


bright, handsome faces, roguish looks, and in their hands 
a pretty bead basket, trimmed with gay ribbons. In perfect 
English and musical unison they thanked me for my 
visit (Hiawatha fashion, " Since you come far to see us"), 
and said that as "poor little Modoc girls, they hadn't 
much to give, but had made this little basket to remind 
me of them when I was far away," concluding with the 
sweet Bible benediction, " The Lord bless thee and keep 
thee ; the Lord make His face to shine upon thee and be 
gracious unto thee; the Lord lift up His countenance upon 
thee and give thee peace." Well, when those fresh yonng 
voices ceased, it was very quiet in the little church, for I 
tried in vain to speak, and we all cried together. Some- 
how it was so blessed and so wonderful — the change in 
these " Modocs of the lava beds," and the dear gospel 
temperance cause which brought us face to face had 
renewed so many ruined lives of those who sat about me, 
that " I wished in vain that my tongue might utter the 
thoughts which arose in me." But after awhile I told 
them that though I had been welcomed by noble people 
in nearly forty States and Territories for the temperance 
union's sake, by Governor St. John of Kansas, and 
Governor Colquitt of Georgia, in words most brotherly, 
and though I had talked with the Great Chief at the 
White House, I had never, until these little Modoc girls 
spoke kindly to me, been so deeply touched by human 
words that I had vainly tried to make reply. 

In conclusion: intelligent men and women in the 
Indian Territory desire me to urge two considerations 
upon our people at home. First: The importance of trade 
schools. Head, heart, and hand must all be educated, 
if we would bind the Indians to us in a covenant never 
to be broken. It is a proverb that " no Indian can build 
a bridge." So little of our Yankee skill have they by 
heredity or rearing, that for this reason we should make 


all the more strenuous efforts for their development in 
this respect. Many a youth and maiden (especially the 
latter) have returned to their tribes after years of school- 
ing, and by reason of their inability to show any practical 
results of their efforts, have become the butt of ridicule, 
and have been forced by their friends to resume their 
blanket, paint, and moccasins. But let them return skilled 
in some useful art, and they will " hold their own " and 
lead others to desire similar acquirements, greatly ad- 
vancing their tribes in the outward forms of civilization. 

Second: The advantages of having the schools in the 
territory. The reflex influence of the faculty and institu- 
tion on surrounding Indian communities would be strong 
and beneficent. Students would suffer less in health and 
heart than they do by this virtual exile from home and 
country; would also be less liable to the alienations from 
their people which now ensue. A favorite project is a 
university for the Five Nations, at their capital, Telequah, 
with a board of trustees selected from the tribes, and the 
Indian commissioner at the head. 

Third: There as here, the prohibitory law does not 
enforce itself. Without vigilant efforts on the part of the 
agents, it is but a rusty sword in a still more rusty 
scabbard. Under perfidious Commissioner Hayt (whose 
entire wits were absorbed in fraudulent attempts to 
make money out of his office) the prohibitory law was 
largely a dead letter in towns and villages. But since the 
advent of Commissioner Hiram Price of Iowa, a thorough, 
active temperance man, there is a vigorous tension of the 
reins, with a marked approval on the part of all save 
those who " feel the halter draw." 

In Colonel Dyer's reservation (the " Quapaw ") there 
has, however, been strict enforcement for years, and no 
better object teaching on the merits of prohibition can be 
desired than, is here furnished. Fourteen mounted Indians 


in Uncle Sam's uniform strike terror to the hearts of men 
with big box, little box, carpet-sack, or bundle, suspected 
of containing the products of vineyard, brewery, or still. 
Missionaries come and go at pleasure, travelers camp out 
minus escort or weapons ; ladies drive their spirited horses 
hither and yon with none to molest them or make them 
afraid. We must revise our ignorant fancies of Indian 
Territory by the fact that it abounds in churches, school- 
houses, and homes, but is minus bar-rooms and grog- 
shops. God speed the day when Massachusetts may have 
a record equally encouraging. 



NOTWITHSTANDING her earnest plea to be left 
out of this veracious chronicle, "Mrs. Stevens of 
Maine " is a figure too central for such treatment. Her 
native pines are a true symbol of the rectitude and whole- 
someness that individualize the character of this brave 
and womanly coadjutor of Neal Dow in the later temper- 
ance work of Maine. As president of the State W. C. T. U., 
and recording secretary of our national society, Mrs. Ste- 
vens has been conspicuous in much of the most thorough 
work we have inaugurated. As she said to a friend, 
" When I heard about the Ohio crusade, I thought, ' That 
means me, too ! ' I joined the army then and there, and 
have marched right along ever since." For seven years 
she has conducted meetings in her own city, and all kinds 
of temperance work are as familiar to her as knitting 
stockings was to her grandmother. She has a generous 
and well-to-do husband, glad and proud of his wife's work, 
and one lovely child — her " sunbeam," a bright girl of fif- 
teen, who already writes debates on prohibition and the 
ballot for woman as a " Home Protection " weapon. Mrs. 
Stevens is of fragile physique, and her health was delicate 
until the temperance work welcomed her to a life largely 
spent in the open air. The streets of Portland have not 
a sight more familiar, and surely none more welcome 
to all save evil-doers, than Mrs. Stevens in her phaiton 
rapidly driving her spirited horse from police station to 
Friendly Inn ; from Erring Woman's Refuge to the sher- 


512 MRS. L. M. N. STEVENS. 

iff's office. The round of her duties for the day- 
would be far more thrilling* than the dilettante society nov- 
elist knows how to imagine, much less depict. Histories 
full of the real heart-throb, and the romance of actual 
misery are poured into her ears as she kneels to pray 
beside some newly-arrested woman at the jail. Betrayer 
and betrayed sometimes accept her gentle arbitration ; 
friendless boys from country homes owe to her the open 
door into a better way of life ; drunkards consecrate them- 
selves to Christ in her meetings; time-serving officials 
dread her evidence at court ; saloon-keepers hate the keen 
scrutiny of her fearless investigation. She often says to 
the devoted women associated with her: " When I enlisted 
in the W. C. T. U. warfare, it was for life, and when the 
day is darkest my courage is the best." In a letter to one 
of them, she refers to her religious experience in words 
so characteristic that we borrow them : 

" I was but twelve years old when my only brother died, 
and the expression of the minister who said, 'He died 
like a Christian and a philosopher,' lodged in my childish 
head. From that time the problem of a religious life 
came to be mixed in with mathematical and other problems. 
My invalid mother was a Baptist,' my scholarly father 
was a Universalis!, and to me there were things unreasona- 
ble and things beautiful in both beliefs. But the thing 
most beautiful of all was the love of Christ, and so when 
I came to a place where it seemed to me I needed a 
church home, I could but choose it where the creed to 
which I must subscribe did not limit His love and power, 
but asserted it to be strong enough somehow and some- 
where to restore all souls to holiness and happiness. So 
you see, my religious ' confession of faith' is not thrilling 
at all, like most of our dear women's, but to me it is 
meaning-full, and I am happy." 

Mrs. Stevens, though disagreeing with the majority of 

MRS. M. A. BENT, with her cornet. 

MRS. F. A. BENT. 515 

our W. C. T. U. in her theory of the future, is in perfect 
unity with us as to methods and plans, and joins us in 
the sacrament of sacred deeds. 


the charming cornetist of our National W. C. T. U. Con- 
ventions, is a niece of Mrs. Stevens, the wife of a young- 
business man of Portland, who is himself a fine amateur 
musician. Playfully taking his instrument one day, his 
wife found she could make music, too, and henceforth, 
encouraged by his generous aid, the gifted little woman 
lias been going on with her study of this inspiring instru- 
ment under the best Boston teachers, and now she is glad 
to lay her gifts and acquisitions on the altar of the tem- 
perance reform. 

The pretty, slight figure with the golden cornet has 
been for years one of the pleasant features of the national 
meeting. In Louisville a leading pastor playfully said, 
" Mrs. Bent, you at least can blow your own horn," where- 
upon the bright little woman replied, " 0, no, sir ; you 
mistake ; I am only blowing Maine's prohibition bugle, 
and I expect to do so until the echoes fly from all the 

In the Mammoth Cave excursion of our delegates, the 
golden cornet enlivened the long ride, and sent old "Coro- 
nation" sounding through the wierd "Star Chamber" in 
a fashion not easy to forget. 

The muster roll of Maine is too ample for my book. 
Miss Mary Crosby and Mrs. Crossman of Bangor, Mrs. 
Hunt of Augusta, and Mrs. George S. Hunt of Portland, 
are among the leaders. 



Superintendent of the Literature Department of the National W. C. T. U. 

THIS well-known temperance worker came of mingled 
Puritan and Huguenot blood. The Colman family 
from England settled in Wethersfield, Conn., in 1634. 
About the year 1800 her grandfather's family moved 
" away out west " to Northampton, Montgomery County 
(now Fulton County), New York, which was her native 
village. Her mother, Livia Spier, was of Welsh ancestry, 
who came to Boston eight generations since. 

Her father, Rev. Henry R. Colman, a clergyman of 
the M E. Church, after several years itinerancy in the 
Troy Conference, went in 1810 to Wisconsin as mission- 
ary to the Oneida Indians, and settled near Green Bay. 
Here the child Julia took lessons in self-denying labor, 
and, in her juvenile efforts to communicate with these 
untaught children of the forest, laid the foundation of 
that simplicity and directness of style for which her 
writings are noted, and which constitute both the charm 
and success of her extended literary productions. There 
were no schools in that then wild region which she could 
attend, but the lack was supplied by careful home teach- 
ing, and the privation only excited her youthful energies 
to greater exertion. In true Yankee-girl fashion, she 
early commenced teaching in Calumet and Fond-du-lac 
Counties, "living in the parlor" — as boarding around 
from family to family was there termed — and indus- 
triously continuing her own studies as she could. During 

*This sketch was furnished by Mrs. Helen E. Brown of New York. 



this period she commenced the study of botany, analyzing 
and classifying over three hundred specimens before 
having the aid of any teacher. This was a rare achieve- 
ment, strikingly indicating, and at the same time helping 
to develop the faculty for accurate observation with which 
nature had endowed her, and training her into those 
habits of careful research which have since proved so 
useful in other departments. 

When Lawrence University, at Appleton, opened its 
doors for students, Miss Colman was in the first classes. 
She remained there for nearly two years, and then spent 
two years at Cazenovia Seminary, New York, under Rev. 
Dr. Bannister, graduating in the first class in the colle- 
giate or five years' course. Her specialties were the 
languages and moral science, with unusual aptitude in 
physiology and chemistry. 

After a year or two longer in teaching, she deliberately 
chose literary pursuits, accepting a position in the edi- 
torial office of the Methodist Sunday-school Union and 
Tract Society, where she remained over thirteen years, as 
librarian and assistant to Drs. Kidder, Wise, and Vincent, 
making acquaintance with editorial, publishing, and 
benevolent society work, which has been of the greatest 
value to her in her present position. During a portion of 
this time she assisted in editing the Sunday-School Advo- 
cate, which then had a circulation of nearly 400,000, and 
where her articles, signed " Aunt Julia," attracted much 

Here she commenced a crusade against tobacco by 
inducing the boys to form local "Anti-Tobacco Leagues," 
to learn about tobacco, and to work against it, especially 
by distributing anti-tobacco literature. She provided 
them with a manual and other requisites, and over one 
hundred such leagues were formed in different parts of 
the country. They were ephemeral, as boys' societies 
necessarily are, but they aimed in the right direction, and 


doubtless did something towards checking a great and 
growing evil. It was, at all events, a foreshadowing of 
future work. 

Translations from the French and German of articles 
for the National Magazine and letters for the Christian 
Advocate, the preparation of a number of small books for 
the children on natural history, anti-slavery, and temper- 
ance, were among the literary labors of that period ; while 
benevolent efforts in the large Sunday-school of Greene 
Street church, where for five years she was lady superin- 
tendent, constituted her outside work. These constant 
and pressing demands, however, finally proved too much 
for her health, and she relinquished a portion of them for 
a series of studies in medicine and physiology. Through 
these she found her way into restored health, which has 
continued almost unbroken to the present time. She was 
also providentially led in this way into an acquaintance 
with the medical and scientific aspects of the temperance 
question. Are not the Lord's ways as far above ours as 
the heavens are higher than the earth ? Thus it is that 
He chooses one and another, develops, adapts, and 
ordains them that they may go and bring forth fruit, and 
that their fruit may remain. 

Previous to this, the subject of our sketch had been, 
like most others, largely unmoved by the needs of tem- 
perance. She saw and deplored the great evil of intem- 
perance ; but, like those around her in the Church of 
God, she sat with folded hands, because she could see no 
effective method of checking it. The question had never 
come to her practically, either in her own person or 
among her kindred ; but now, in the course of these later 
studies, her eyes were opened. She was taught of God 
to see the immense responsibility of the medical pro- 
fession in the use, and especially in the moral sup- 
port given by them to the use, of alcoholic liquors. 


She immediately began to study and write on the question, 
and, not finding sufficient access to the public through the 
press at her command, she prepared a lecture on "Alcohol 
our Enemy," which, after a good deal of earnest effort 
and patient waiting, she was permitted to deliver. It was 
in March, 1808, before a crowded house in the church of 
which she was then a member, in the presence and with 
the assistance of her pastor and other influential friends, 
the lecture was given, and was subsequently repeated 
many times in other places. 

Finding her time and interest engrossed in this topic of 
temperance and in the kindred subject of food and diet, 
she, in the autumn of 1867, severed her long connection 
with the Methodist Publishing House, where, however 
pleasant it might be, there was little chance (being a 
woman) of advancement. She then gave two courses of 
lectures on " Food " in the Dixon Institute, Brooklyn, N. 
Y., wrote a long series of articles on that subject for the 
Ladies' Repository, and still more for the Rural Neiv 
Yorker, for Home and Health, Science of Health, etc., etc., 
besides temperance articles for the National Temperance 
Publishing House, and for the Youth's Temperance Visitor 
in Maine. Through the latter she was led incidentally to 
a long series of engagements to lecture in that State on 
temperance. This gave her the much-desired opportunity 
of studying the temperance problem upon that soil, and 
learning the conditions which led to its wonderful 
advancement and success there. During the winter and 
spring of 1870 and 1871 she filled nearly one hundred 
engagements, speaking sometimes before Methodist con- 
ferences and sometimes before teachers' institutes, where 
she faithfully advocated temperance teaching in the day- 
school, sounding the first notes on that topic. 

She finally concluded, however, that she could reach a 
greater number by the pen, if exclusively devoted to this 


subject, and thus more effectively promote a cause in 
which her interest was becoming more and more en- 
grossed. She wished also to take a course of lectures in 
medicine, which she preferred to do at different colleges, 
that she might learn the various ideas about the uses of 
alcohol in medicine. She gave especial attention during 
this period of study to the chemical course. This broken 
method did not favor her taking a diploma, which, how- 
ever, was offered her. But she declined the honor, as 
she did not propose to practice, and did not care to 
flourish a medical title. She also paid much attention to 
the chemistry and preparation of food, making investiga- 
tions in several health institutions, and subsequently pub- 
lished no less than seventy-five consecutive articles on this 
subject in the Monthly Science of Health and Phrenological 

It was while carrying out some of these engagements, 
so that she could not give her personal attention to the 
cause, that the remarkable temperance crusade swept 
over the land. But when, in the summer of 1875, she 
retired to an inland country town for needed rest, taking 
with her for preparation the " Twenty Tracts on Temper- 
ance" — now twenty-five — issued by the Methodist Book 
Concern, she engaged actively in the new temperance 
work. She helped to start in that town a local Temper- 
ance Union, and became Superintendent of the first so- 
called " Temperance School." In this she used the 
catechism on alcohol, which she had written and pub- 
lished three years before, and worked out the method 
afterwards developed in her " Lessons from Nature," pub- 
lished in Our Union in 1877, and more fully in the 
Juvenile Temperance Manual. Accounts of this school 
in the papers and elsewhere attracted attention, and at 
the National Convention of the W. C. T. U., in Newark, 
in 1876, Miss Colman was elected to edit one page of 


" Our Union" for the children, preparing lessons explana- 
tory of the catechism. She was also made Chairman of 
a " Leaflet Committee," which was the starting point of 
the present extended and constantly extending literature 
work, of which she has been for six years the indefatigable 
and eminently successful Superintendent. 

Her work in this department aims to devise effective 
measures for the distribution of temperance literature, 
favoring special topics to harmonize with other lines of 
work, and more particularly the accurate knowledge of 
the nature and effects of intoxicants as indispensable to 
getting rid of them. This is to be followed with tract 
after tract, and then courses of readings on each topic, as 
" Readings on Beer," already issued. These are designed 
for the local unions, to be accompanied by the distribution 
of the tracts and hand-bills, one kind at a time. These will 
lead to the study of books which will become a part of a 
loan and reference library, and which may be made availa- 
ble and effective by the efforts of the members of the 

Miss Colman aims not so much to produce new publi- 
cations as to utilize the best of what are published. What 
is lacking she supplies, as in the Union Leaflets (71), 
especially adapted to the various needs of the woman's 
work ; the Beer Series of Handbills (57) ; the Gospel 
Scries (30), etc. A large share of her attention has been 
devoted to the work for children. For this she has 
written the "Catechism on Alcohol," "Juvenile Temper- 
ance Manual," " The Temperance School," and adapted a 
variety of tracts, leaflets, chromo, and hymn cards, mak- 
ing a complete system of requisites. More recently she 
has written " Alcohol and Hygiene," a school text-book, 
intended to precede Richardson's " Temperance Lesson 
Book" in the graded schools. This has been well re- 
ceived. She has also commenced a series of " Leaflets 


for Young People," suited for distribution with others in 
schools and colleges, meeting a felt want in the work. 

In a similar manner she has classified a great variety 
of the best tracts, handbills, and leaflets into sets, accord- 
ing to their character, so that it is easy to procure speci- 
mens of tracts for definite uses ; and her directions are so 
simple and clear that the work of tract distribution is 
becoming both pleasant and effective. 

She has also suggested and planned the dime collection 
system to supply the wants of her department, as churches 
provide for their tract work, by their tract collections. 
This plan was adopted by the National Convention at 
Boston in 1880. But it does not provide for her personal 
expenses, which she supplies mostly by her contributions 
to the press outside of her department labors, or by edi- 
torial work like that she bestowed upon the " Young 
People's Comrade." Tims she can say, like Paul, while 
preaching by voice and pen the gospel of temperance: 
" These hands have ministered unto my necessities," 
" that we might not be chargeable to any of you." 

Surely the Lord, who sees " the end from the begin- 
ning," the Master Workman, the Divine Husbandman, 
knows where and how to find workers for his work, and 
work for his workers ; and we can but stand aside and 
admire his adaptations. lie has by nature endowed, by 
education lilted, by discipline cultured, and by grace made 
willing this his disciple, and lias brought her to the place 
where her peculiar talents and gifts may have free and 
ample exercise. 

And he has also opened and prepared the field. Just 
when his trained and obedient servant stood ready, ask- 
ing " Lord, what wilt thou have me to do ? " came the 
crisis in the great temperance reform when the printed 
word was needed to be scattered, as the sower sows the 
seed, upon the ploughed ground ; seed that is to grow, 


we " know not how," but which will surely, by the grace 
of God, germinate and bear fruit abundantly to his glory. 
Miss Colman is, emphatically, our seed-sower; and we 
garland her name with the precious words of inspiration, 
" Blessed are ye that sow beside all waters," and " In 
due season ye shall reap if ye faint not." 



Mrs. Sarah K. Bolton— Miss Margaret E. Winslow — "Crowned" — 
Mrs. Mary Bannister Willard — "John Brant's wife, who was not a 
Crusader," — A sketch. 


MRS. BOLTON of Cleveland, Ohio, is a woman of 
special gifts and culture as a journalist. She has 
the rare art of putting much in little space ; is one of the 
best informed women in America, and has, withal, 
unbounded pride and faith in women, sparing no pains to 
bring them out and help them up. She was one of the 
original crusaders, and by voice and pen has stood by that 
great movement from the first, has written its history, and 
also put it in the form of an attractive narrative entitled 
" The Present Problem," and set forth our work in most 
influential quarters on both sides of the sea. As a 
member of the editorial staff of the Boston Congrega- 
tionalist Mrs. Bolton did us excellent service, and earlier, 
as assistant corresponding secretary of the National 
W. C. T. U., she kept articles, paragraphs, and enlight- 
ening excerpts before the public which did more toward 
setting our new methods before the people than any single 
agency has ever compassed up to this time. After spend- 
ing some years abroad with her husband and only child 
in study and travel, Mrs. Bolton has recently returned to 
Cleveland, where she is actively aiding her philanthropic 
husband, Charles E. Bolton, Esq., in a most successful 
enterprise for reaching the masses with first-class lectures 




and reading matter. There is material for study in this 
new departure, by which a counter attraction to saloon 
tastes and comradeship is offered in the city where, of all 
others, the crusade attained most permanent success. 
Mrs. Bolton is in her early prime, and if she lives, her 
record will be second to few if any of our " twentieth cen- 
tury women" of the W. C. T. U. 


Mrs. Willing, Mrs. Bent, Miss Winslow, and Miss Pugh 
— these are the names of the faithful quartette whose 
thankless task it has been to edit Our Union. All of 
them are women of brains and energy, and each did better 
in her place than we had any right or reason to expect. 
"We set before them the impossible task of making a fifty- 
cent monthly paper sufficiently fresh, varied, and attract- 
ive to suit the tastes of a great constituency whose standard 
had been set by the choicest religious weeklies and cost- 
liest monthly magazines. Making " bricks without straw " 
would be as a bagatelle in the comparison. That our 
editors did so well is a marvel, and Ave who criticised so 
freely merit the retribution invoked by one of them in a 
moment of impatience : " I wish you had to take my place 
for just one month." But even this anathema was tem- 
pered with mercy, for she might have said " one year." 

Among our journalistic martyrs, already promoted to 
apotheosis in the firmament of every well regulated W. 
C. T. U. memory, Margaret Elizabeth Winslow is chief, 
for she filled the position at two separate times, and during 
the longest period of any. Miss Winslow is, like our 
leaders generally, well descended. She was born of Puri- 
tan antecedents, in New York city, and has spent most of 
her life in Brooklyn, and Saugerties on the Hudson. She 
was educated partly at the Abbot Institution in New York, 

and partly at Packer Institute, of which she is a graduate, 


and in which for twelve years she was a teacher. The 
last year of her stay she held the position of composition 
teacher, and had charge of the Art Department of Pic- 
tures, Coins, etc. At the age of nineteen she united with 
the Episcopal church, of which she has remained a loyal 
member. She spent 1869-70 in Europe studying and 
traveling in England, France, Italy, and Germany. She 
became acquainted with many foreign Protestants, and on 
coming home was made one of Mr. Albert Woodruff's 
"Foreign S. S. Association" (Italian Committee), and 
still fills that position. 

Eight years ago Miss Winslow began writing for the 
press, and still has articles in the N. Y. Observer, N. Y. 
Evangelist, Independent, Christian Union, Churchman, 
Christian at Work, Christian Advocate, Christian Register, 
S. S. Times, St. Nicholas, etc. She is the author of five 
or six story books of pure spirit and style, published by 
the National Temperance Society , American S. S. Union, etc. 

Miss Winslow signed the pledge and wrote temperance 
compositions when but eight years old. At fifteen, she 
declined to come into the parlor on New Year's Day if 
wine was offered, and carried her point. 

The crusade in Ohio roused her interest and enthusiasm. 
A friend said, " Are you going to kneel on the pavements 
before liquor saloons ? " " By no means," she replied, 
"I am a lady." Dr. Dio Lewis came to Brooklyn fresh 
from the great awakening in Ohio. The Packer Institute 
teacher attended several temperance prayer-meetings, 
and was present at the one (March 17th, 1874) at which 
the first Brooklyn W. C. T. U. was organized. Desiring 
to attend the daily meetings which followed, she per- 
suaded the editor of the New York Witness to accept 
reports, and every day for fourteen weeks went directly 
from school to the Y. M. C. A. in Brooklyn, where these 
meetings were held. Here was uttered her first public 


testimony for Christ. One evening Miss W. went with 
fifteen ladies to a prayer meeting in a liquor saloon. In 
a letter to one of her friends she thus graphically 
describes the scene : 

" 1 shall never forget that sight. Before us was a bar- 
ricade of tables smeared with deadly-looking rings. From 
the walls large pictures looked down upon us, such pic- 
tures as I had never seen before. The room was thronged 
with men and boys, and the hall whose door was open 
behind ns, with women and girls of the lowest description. 
The front room was separated by a screen, over and 
between the interstices of which gleamed curious eyes and 
grimy hands. The meeting began ; there was singing 
and prayer, the ladies spoke, one after another, in the old 
prayer-meeting fashion, with shut eyes, trembling and 
tear-choked voices. The audience became disorderly. 
Boys tripped each other up, girls tittered, and a drunken 
man in the middle made faces, to the great distress of a 
sweet little girl of seven, who accompanied him. The 
leader of the meeting whispered to me, " Can't you say 
something ? " " I, — " was my exclamation, drawing 
myself up, "I speak in meeting; I, an Episcopal lady ?" 
"AVhy did you come then?" she asked, sadly. Audi 
thought, " Why did I come, indeed ? was it from curiosity 
only ? I profess to hold in my hand and heart the one 
divine remedy fur all the crime and misery in this world, 
part of which is now before me, and conventionality shut 
my lips from offering it as I felt I could ! " 

In an instant I was on my feet. I felt as though 
invisible hands lifted me there. I was conscious that 
those hundreds of eyes were all fastened upon me ; there 
was a dead silence, and I found myself not talking tem- 
perance, but painting a word picture of the crucified 
Christ. Sixteen of the saloon habitues present that night 
were, as we had reason to hope, converted during the fol- 
lowing week. This was my ordination." 


From that time Miss W. spoke at temperance gather- 
ings, missions, prisons, etc., in Brooklyn and elsewhere. 
She also took part in Mr. Moody's work in Brooklyn, and 
later in New York. Later on she went to Florida, but 
was present at the National W. C. T. U. Convention held 
in Newark, 1876 ; was chosen editor of Our Union. She 
declined re-appointment to the position for a principle — 
because she objected to the Home Protection movement. 
Becoming somewhat less conservative, she accepted this 
position again in 1880, and retained it until the paper 
was united with The Signal in 1883. 

It was a burst of inspiration from Miss Winslow, rela- 
tive to its simplicity and purity, which at the Chicago 
Convention determined us to wear the white ribbon as 
a badge rather than the red, white, and blue which was 
strongly urged by many. 

Our friend's poetic gift is perhaps her best. The poem 
on Garfield is among the very best evoked by that pathetic 
theme, and the one " To Mrs. Hayes " is beautiful. Miss 
Winslow's exceptional talents and culture, with her great 
native refinement of character, render her an honored 
and admired member of our great fraternity. 



Not the fair chaplet of her girlhood hours, 

The mingled rose and lily -bloom of flowers ; 

Not the bright coronal that crowns the bride, 

The matron comeliness, the mother pride; 

Nay, not the artist wreath she well may win 

Of bays, like those that crowned the proud Corinne, 

Is woman's best adornment. 

She may claim 
Her coronation at the hands of fame 
Or love, and men will worship; but the crown 
Before whose radiance earth and heaven bow down, 
Inspiring poets and seraphic lays, 
And drawing from the Master's lips high praise, 


Is hers who for the righteous cause and good, 

In her great Leader's name, did what she could. 

And so, "elected lady," as to-day 

Our loving reverence a1 thy feet we lay, 

And in our nation's mansion-house of pride 

Place thee and our lands' mother side by side. 

We build no monument of soulless stone, 

Engrave no tales of glittering triumphs won, 

But bid the witchery of thy holy eyes 

Speak forth the soul in God's own wisdom wise 

To do, and strong to dare for man and right, 

And thus assert the woman's purest might. 

Upon thy brow we place no crown of flowers, 

No jeweled diadem in gift is ours, 

But glowing canvas and rich carving mean 

That our act crowns thee womanhood's fair queen; 

That loves bold daring, woman's highest praise, 

Circles its aureole round our Lucy Hayes; 

That by the soul who does as she has done, 

The noblest crown of woman will be won. 

Margaret E. Winslow. 


Editor of The Union Signal (organ of the National W. C. T. U.) 

In March, 1858, 1 first met this endowed and distinctive 
woman, who was then my sister Mary's class-mate in- the 
Northwestern Female College at Evanston — now a depart- 
ment of the University. She was known to me at first as 
the eldest daughter of Rev. Dr. Henry Bannister, for 
for many years Principal of Cazenovia Seminary, New 
York (which was her birthplace), and Professor of 
Hebrew in Garrett Biblical Institute at Evanston, the 
western theological school of the Methodist church. She 
was known to me when months passed by as a student to 
whom, by native gifts and life-long scholarly surroundings, 
intellectual work was a source of unfailing delight, and 
supremacy in the recitation room was a foregone con- 
clusion. Some of us took high rank in special branches, 
but "Mary Bannister" shone conspicuous in Greek and 

532 "all one' 1 and "all won." 

algebra alike. Rhetoric and chemistry, debate and essay- 
writing seemed to be " all one " (and " all won " also, I 
sometimes ruefully thought) to that clear, intent, and 
many-sided brain. But she was not ambitious, and 
plumed herself so little on her achievements that her very 
modesty would have made her a universal favorite, had 
she not, in addition to it, possessed the gift of comrade- 
ship beyond almost any person whom I have met. 
Withal, she was, though of marked poetic temperament, 
and devoted to music, the most practical young woman in 
the college. It was a proverb among "us girls" "that 
little Mary Bannister can make any article of food known 
to a civilized cuisine, and every article of her wardrobe 
from hat to shoe." Some minds are opaque ; some, like a 
mirror, reflect the passing scene ; others, like a magnet, 
draw to themselves after their kind. The friend I am 
describing is of this last variety ; what she acquires she 
retains, and having been attracted only to the noblest 
realms of thought, she might well say, were she not too 
unassuming even to think the poet's words: 

"My mind to me a kingdom is." 

Intent upon a useful life, she taught for one year after 
completing the classical course of study, spending some 
months at the South, but at the close of that period she 
married my only brother, Oliver A. Willard, and until his 
death, nearly sixteen years later, found in her home and 
children — of whom four remain to her — labors and cares 
which to her loyal heart meant the putting aside of the 
" career " to which by nature and training she was 
exceptionally called. 

Among the many noble traits of my brother, there is 
none which I remember with more pleasure than the pride 
he always manifested in his wife's gifts. He was passion- 
ately fond of books, had a choice library, and delighted in 
high themes of conversation. 


So the home life of this young pair rose at once above 
the commonplace level at which so many men, even of 
culture, are content to remain in household converse. 
Together they read their favorite authors, with constant 
notes, queries, and commentary ; together they talked of 
every plan and purpose they had formed. When my 
brother became an editor, it was to his wife that he 
turned for criticism as well as praise. She was cognizant 
of all his literary work, and, as years passed on, wrote not 
a little for the columns of his paper, The Chicago Evening 
Mail (later The Evening Post). When his death occurred, 
in 1878, after an illness of less than three days, it was 
her heroic thought to undertake the herculean task of 
carrying on the paper. Surely a spirit so indomitable 
was never enshrined in form so fragile. I could but 
think, and would have deemed myself indeed disloyal had 
I refused to stand beside my life-long friend and sister in 
a breach so " imminent and deadly." But the long- 
gathering financial storm soon broke upon us and upon 
the friends who had been so true and helpful. My sister 
then, after an interval of office work, became editor of 
The Signal, now consolidated with Our Union. In these 
three years of her widest opportunity she has abundantly 
demonstrated her ability as a journalist, and gained a 
grand constituency of friends and coadjutors. She has 
also developed exceptional ability as a speaker and 
organizer, few women in Illinois having more influence in 
our State councils. The summer of 1881 she spent 
abroad, combining temperance observations with those of 
a tourist, and by her addresses since her return giving 
us at the West more information concerning our British 
temperance cousins than we have acquired from any other 

She is a woman of abounding spirituality, whose intui- 
tions of Christ, conscience, and immortality, supple- 


mented by life-long Bible study, anchor her firmly in a 
broad, deep, living faith, which no outward circumstance 
of bereavement or disaster has in. the least degree dis- 

In her cosy Evanston home she maintains a delightful 
Christian hospitality, and the picture to which, of all 
others, my eyes most fondly turn is that of the twin cot- 
tages (of which my mother's "Rest Cottage" is one), 
where the tranquil-hearted grandmother, the true and 
tender daughter-in-law, and the bright children, busy with 
their studies, share " the dearest spot on earth " to them 
and me. 


I close this sketch with a charming temperance picture 
by our editor, Mary Bannister Willard. 

She was only an ordinary woman who bore no great 
part in the society of the brisk little Indiana town in 
which she lived, felt no great burden of soul for the 
various reforms, and heard, or least heeded, no call to 
religious and secular crusades. Her duty, John Brant's 
wife always said, began and ended at home ; and well it 
might, if she thoroughly fulfilled it, since in the seven or 
eight years of her life with John, four little children had 
called her mother. Called her so still, each at the rate 
of seventy-seven times per diem, and the clamor of their 
voices scarcely ever left her ear. If she went out of an 
afternoon to a social tea, it was still there ; very much, 
she said, in a quaint sort of a way, as once when she was 
driving away from a camp-meeting — the echoes of the 
prayer and praise seemed all lodged in the crown of her 
Shaker bonnet, and she carried them all the way home. 

One can readily see that such a woman, with such pre- 
occupations, would not be found in the van of the tem- 
perance crusade. John himself, too, was of the rank and 


file, led sometimes, bul never leader— a master mechanic 
who kept good faith with his employers, and was conse- 
quently in a thrifty way, and never out of work. A good 
family man, too, who kept things snug and trim at home 
in the house and yard, looked alter the marketing and the 
children's shoos with an attention that your professional 
man often fails to devote to such ignoble things. 

In a general way, both those honest people were living 
religious lives, going regularly to a little church where 
they heard a plain gospel discoursed in simple speech, 
having cast their lots in with this rather primitive people 
on a Sunday when the elder "opened the pale." All this, 
however, was not to them at all inconsistent with John's 
flask of ale put up daily in the tin pail which carried his 
luncheon. If, indeed, any thought had been bestowed 
upon it, it was only that economy and thrift demanded 
that the ale should be drawn at home from the five gallon 
cask that cost very little, rather than taken by the glass 
at the saloon nearest his work, at five cents a glass. 
John's wife sakl it " heartened him amazingly ; not that 
he had a taste for liquor — it was simply like a new back- 
bone in the middle of the day ; it helped him to do his 
afternoon work better, and so to earn his daily bread." 

When the Xew Dispensation of Temperance was fairly 
inaugurated, however, new ideas began to creep in under 
Mrs. John's thinking cap. They wedged themselves into 
her roughly crystalized consciousness, sank down and 
lodged dee]) in her soul. It was many days before she 
ventured to speak of them to John, and when she did it 
was met with such coarseness of rebuff as might have 
filled her with encouragement if she had only been more 
of a philosopher — showing that the arrow had entered 
his soul also. Things went on as usual for days, only 
that the pangs grew severer each morning that his wife 
filled his canteen. She did it under a sort of protest 
these days, but soon the siege began. 


First it was—" John, shan't I fill the flask with coffee 
to-day ? " The next day—" John, mayn't I fill the flask," 
etc.; the next—" Please, John, let me fill," etc. John 
Brant was not wholly unmoved when his wife said 
" please." There was enough of the love of their courtina- 
days left in him to give her a kiss and bravely succumb. 
At night he said, " Your coffee is as good coffee, Mary, as 
man ever drank, but it didn't go to the right spot to-day. 
Twasn't hot, you know." 

The next morning, however, he accepted the coffee- 
filled can without a word, which meek submission was the 
sorest trial Mary had yet had to bear. It almost ended 
the crusade. A few hours after, she went down into the 
woodhouse to see Mike, the wood sawyer, and get a few 
lengths of the solid hickory cut a little smaller for the 
dining-room stove. 

Strange to say, Mike wasn't there. Strange, for only a 
moment before she had heard the whirr of his saw dis- 
tinctly. She came back to her work ; soon the music of 
the saw began again, but an unexpected interruption 
delayed her going down for the second time. When at 
last she was ready to go, there was no Mike again. He 
came rushing up the street, however, wiping his lips with 
an old bandana, and into the woodhouse as cheery and 
heartsome as few men feel after working five or six 

"I'd jest stipped round the corner, mem, faylin the 
nade of a wee dhrop. Sich a goneness come to the pit o' 
me stummick along of this old saw and this hickory 
wood, mem. An' thin it's the dyspepsy, I'm thinkin', 
that gives me no joiy o' me food savin' for a glass of 
whisky now and thin. It hairtens me up, loike, an' it's 
not so mony bits o' comfort a poor mon loike me has, I 
kin till ye, mem." 

"Heartens him up"— just the words she had used 


about John's ale ; but then this was whisky. Did every- 
thing drift that way? Would nothing else answer as 
well? The coffee didn't answer John as well, for it 
wasn't hot. She might try Mike with hot coffee, seeing 
he was right here, handy. 

" Mike," said she, " if you won't go to Downie's any 
more to-day for whisky, every time you feel that goneness, 
come up into the kitchen and I'll give you a cup of hot, 
strong coffee. See, now, if that won't do just as well." 

" Och, mem, an' whin did ye jine wid those perrayin' 
wimmen ? Shurc, an' it's all along o' thim." 

" No, Mike, it's only an experiment. John's trying it 
too, only, poor fellow, he don't get his coffee hot, as you 

" The Virgin kape ye, mem. I'll come intil yer experi- 
ment shure, though me rheumatics is that bad, mem, it's 
hopin' I'll git up thim stairs," and Mike's eyes rolled 
desparingly at the short flight of steps to the warm 

.Mike's rheumatics did not stand in the way of his com- 
ing once, twice, three times during the next three hours, 
and each time the cup was ready, steaming hot and well 
creamed. And Mrs. John could really scarcely see that 
the smack of his lips and the flourish of the old bandana 
were not as hearty and grateful as after the " wee dhrop " 
at Downie's. 

" I've got my idea — I am going on my crusade" she 
cried so suddenly and vehemently that the little twelve- 
year-old " help " — Biddy Mahan — started alarmed. The 
idea was infectious, however. It crept slowly into Biddy's 
head, and after leaving her in charge of the children and 
the coffee dispensary, Mrs. John found her young lieu- 
tenant hanging surprisingly on to her skirts and mutter- 
ing, "Would ye mind steppin' round to mother's, Mrs. 
Brant, to see if she's a bit comfortable loike, and jist to 


find out how me faythcr is doin' — the prayin' women got 
a hold on him the other day, and mother 'n me sort o' 
hopes it'll last him." 

Mrs. Brant went straight to Pownie's, thinking as she 
went, " How can it last them when there's nothing to take 
the place of whisky ? " 

She marched up to the bar, her courage undaunted by 
the straggling customers on the outskirts and two or three 
loafing inside. They moved aside to let her pass without 
a jeering word, for John Brant's wife was not a crusader, 
but a keeper-at-home — a woman they, in their rough way 
respected. " Mr. Downie (her voice was clear and her 
tone so respectful — who had called him aught but Old 
Downie or Jack before ?) I've never been here before. 
I'm not one of the crusading women. God forgive me 
that I haven't been ! but I've come to tell you that I'm 
going to run opposition to you unless you come on to my 
side. I'm going to keep saloon in my own house, and sell 
hot coffee at three cents a cup, and a nice fresh roll, 
buttered with the best butter I can make, for one cent 
more ; or (here was the pivot on which turned destinies 
so high, so grandly high that Providence took the burden 
off little Mrs. John's shoulders and poised it on the 
Almighty Arm) you may have my idea, the good will and 
all, turn out your whisky and sell my coffee and buttered 
rolls instead — for I'll make 'em for you ; then I'll know 
these poor fellows are getting the worth of their money." 

Sec how Providence undertook for her, and then tell 
me the age of miracles is past ! The poor, blear-eyed, 
trembling creatures that Jack Downie had been killing 
inch by inch all these years straightened up into men, 
gave one triumphant yell as the demon, exorcised by 
unseen forces, left their poor decaying bodies, and out into 
the miserable little street that Mrs. John had hardly ever 
so much as entered before — it was so miserable-— rolled 


the one old whisky barrel that constituted Downie's stock 
in trade. Trade had been getting duller and duller, and 
even the glass bottles and decanters that followed were 
not so full as common ; but Bond street seemed cleaner 
than ever before, though sprinkled smartly with glass 
splinters and whisky. Mrs. Brant stood, like many 
another who has invoked Omnipotence to his aid, utterly 
stunned at the results. 

" B — bless me," said Peter Hayncy, changing his curs- 
ing to blessing at a comrade's nudge, "I'm that busted, I 
believe if anybody had a pledge here now I'd sign it." 

Who should bring out the desired pledge but Old 
Downey himself. " The wimmun stuck it at me this 
mornin'," he apologized; and there, sure enough, closely 
folded inside the rum-sellers, lay the drunkard's pledge — 
quite suggestive of the fitness of things, and in sweetest 
accord. On the rolling surface of the empty barrel Jack 
Downie steadied his hand and wrote his name to the 
first. The barrel was tilting, and so were the signatures ; 
here and there over the paper the scrawls meandered up 
and down, but there were ten names , deciphered on the 
drunkard's pledge that night, and one of them Biddy 
Mahan nearly blotted out with tears. 

" I must really get back now," said plain, ordinary Mrs. 
Brant ; " John and the babies will soon be needing; me." 

Just then Biddy's pleading " look after fayther," came 
to her remembrance. She darted back, forgetting for a 
minute. " It's all right, I guess," she said to herself, 
returning, " he's looked after." 

To crusaders at large. — Moral : Nature abhors a, vacuum. 
" Goneness at the pit o' the stummick " is a factor in the 
problem of the crusade. Can you eliminate it by any 
better than Mrs. Brant's way ? 



Mrs. Sallie F. Chapin of S. C— Sketch of her life— Address at Wash- 
ington—Mrs. Georgia Hulse McLeodof Md.— Mrs. J. C. Johnson of 
Tenn.— Mrs. J. L. Lyons of Fla.— Mrs. W. C. Sibley of Ga.— Miss 
Fanny Griffin of Ala.— Other representative Southern ladies— Mrs. 
Judge Merrick of New Orleans— Address at Saratoga on my South- 
ern trip — Texas and temperance. 


WITHIN three years three temperance trips have 
been made to the South, of which some account 
will be made later on. Never was welcome more cordial 
or cooperation more hearty vouchsafed to strangers in a 
strange land. Never in the North has a deeper interest 
been shown or have larger results been achieved in the 
same space of time. Among the noblewomen "to the 
manor born " w T ho will ever stand as pioneers of the 
W. C. T. U. in the South are those whose life history is 
briefly outlined in this chapter. 


stands at the head of our Southern work as superintendent. 
By intellect, culture, and influence this lady may justly 
be called " representative." There is hardly a distin- 
guished South Carolinian of her epoch with whom she has 
not been acquainted. W. Gilmore Sims, the novelist, was 
a fireside friend ; the pen with which the ordinance of 
secession was signed, was given to Mrs. Chapin by her 
gifted brother, a leader in the movement. Her well- 
known novel, " Fitzhugh St. Clair, the rebel boy of 




South Carolina" (published by Claxton, Remscn & Co., 
Philadelphia), is dedicated to the children of the Southern 
Confederacy, and devoted to a statement of the causes of 
the war from a Southern point of view. " With all its 
phases she was familiar. Living in a besieged city, where 
the crashing of shells was heard from morning till night, 
almost in sight of bloody battlefields, her efforts in the 
hospital of Charleston and vicinity were constantly 
demanded and freely made." 

As a writer and conversationalist, Mrs. Chapin has 
been compared to that brilliant daughter of the North, 
Gail Hamilton, a Southern gentleman having said, " Per- 
sonal friends of these two ladies find them congenial 
spirits in boldness of thought and independence of utter- 
ance, though in politics far apart as the poles. Both are 
intense believers in womanhood — the one being acknowl- 
edged as the ablest literary champion of woman's rights, 
while the other is equally forcible and possibly more elo- 
quent on woman's wrongs." Wherever Mrs. Chapin 
travels at the North — and she has made repeated visits 
in the interest of the W. C. T. U. — she rouses the enthu- 
siasm of the people by her noble presence and bearing, 
refreshing humor, and great-hearted sympathy. Her 
speech in Washington at the National Convention was an 
event. Foundry church never held so delighted an audi- 
ence. Entirely unaccustomed to public speaking, Mrs. 
Chapin seems born for the platform, to which she trans- 
fers all the graces of the drawing-room. At the Chicago 
Convention (August 23, 1882), where the independent 
temperance party was launched under the new name of 
" Prohibition Home Protection Party," Mrs. Chapin was 
made a member of the executive committee, and since 
then has populari/.ed the movement wherever she has 
spoken in the South. In common with many others, she 
believes it to be the key to the position for a really reunited 


Iii a letter to one of lier associates, Mrs. Chapin thus 
naively replies to questions concerning her past life : 

" Like the old knife-grinder, dear friend, ' I have no his- 
tory.' My maternal ancestry were Huguenots, who came 
to this country in 1685, after the revocation of the Edict 
of Nantes. Two of my great-grandfathers, Vigneron and 
Tousager, were revolutionary officers, and were both killed. 

My maiden name was Moore. My grandfather Moore 
was one of the inevitable three brothers who always "came 
over." He settled in Charleston ; the others in New 
York, and Kentucky. He was a man of large means, so 
that my father, although an itinerant Methodist preacher, 
was not dependent on the church for the education of his 
children. We lived in our own house, and were attended 
by servants who had always been in the family. 

I was born in Charleston, but a great fire having 
burned our home and all that was in it, together with 
other houses belonging to my father, we removed to the 
upper part of the State. My father's property was all 
uninsured, for at that time many of our ministers thought 
it as absolutely wrong to insure as some of them now 
think it is for women to speak for Christ. The world 
moves — thank God for it. 

I was raised and educated in Cokesbury, Abbeville 
county, then celebrated for having the best educational 
advantages in this State. 

From a school-girl I have been a literary scribbler. My 
first newspaper effort was made in reply to an article 
which we school-girls did not altogether endorse, written 
by one who is now the learned and distinguished judge of 
Florida. He was at the " vine-and-oak " age, and made 
the vines altogether too twiney to " suit our tastes ; so I 
pointedly set forth my views," and I am afraid I will have 
to take him in hand again, for by the Advocate I see he is 
still worried lest the women of the nineteenth century 


will overleap the bounds prescribed by Paul for our brawl- 
ing- Corinthian sisters, ages ago. He forgets that it would 
be just as sensible for us in this country and age to go to 
foot-washing (which is equally commanded), as to carry 
out this other rule, specifically made for that particular 
time and people. Paul lays down the grand principle 
that " there is neither male nor female in Christ Jesus " ; 
but we do not often hear him quoted as making a declara- 
tion so grand. But if not, why not ? Let the conserva- 
tives reply ! To attend one W. C. T. U. convention and 
hear some of our women speak, would put these obsolete 
ideas about woman on the platform to everlasting flight 
from all sensible brains. 

I married young, and had one of the most devoted hus- 
bands God ever gave to a woman. We were both fond of 
society, and entertained largely. 

M r. Chapin was one of the founders of the Y. M. C. A. 
of Charleston, and was its chief officer for years. This 
brought to our knowledge a great many strangers, and 
during the winter months we were seldom without a 
house full of Northern friends. The remembrance of 
these delightful years often comes to me as a haunting 
memory of the " dead that return not." My mother and 
father both died during the war ; the latter dying in the 
pulpit at a union camp-meeting, while on his knees in 
prayer. He was laid out in the altar, with his head pil- 
lowed on the Bible and hymn-book. My brother had 
been killed " at the head of his brigade, in the thickest of 
the fight," the dispatch said, and that broke my father's 
heart. My brother was a lawyer and an editor. My 
father had superintended the closing up of his law office 
and [lacked away his books the day before he died, and it 
is supposed it was too great a trial for him. I have writ- 
ten enough to make half a dozen books if it was collected, 
but I have published only one book — Fitzhugh St. Clair, 


the Rebel Boy of South Carolina. I was president of our 
Soldiers' Relief Society during the war, and worked day 
and night in hospitals and with my needle. We lost (as 
almost every one did) a great deal by the war, and then 
after it, for three successive years, my husband lost by the 
caterpillar his cotton crop. These repeated troubles 
proved too much for him and caused his death by conges- 
tion of the brain. I was so prostrated and paralyzed by 
the suddenness of the shock that I did not leave my 
house for a year. Life had become an intolerable burden, 
and but for the temperance work, I am sure I should ere 
this have been in my grave. This work has, unsought 
for and unplanned for, been put into my hands by God so 
manifestly, that I dare not doubt it; and whenever I grow 
discouraged, something occurs to assure me that, imper- 
fect and feeble as my efforts are, God blesses them, and 
" the Master has need of even me." 

Mrs. Chapin is a great-hearted woman, as is proved by 
her attitude on the " Home Protection " question. Reared 
a conservative, she was approached on her visit north by 
some good ladies, who deplored the liberal spirit of our 
National W. C. T. U. toward such States as desired to 
work along this line, and was urged to take a stand 
against this policy. " Why should I ? " answered Mrs. 
Chapin, in her spirited but pleasant way, " Why should I 
insist that the whole army keep step to the slowest foot 
in the last battalion ? If those brave women of the West 
find the ballot helpful to their work, let them seek it by 
all means — we of the South shall not object; we can't and 
be consistent, for we believe in State rights, don't you 
know. To be sure this branch of work would never do 
for us — nothing would hinder our work more at the 
present juncture of affairs, but why can't we live and let 
live?" But Mrs Chapin is her own best interpreter, and 
I close this sketch of one dear as a sister to me, with her 


own bright words and original poem, given at our 
Washington meeting in 1881 : 




I thank you, .Miss President, for the kind and cordial 
greeting you have given my section in this, the nerve 
center of the nation. 

It is said by those who understand atmospheric and 

serial phenomena, that, at a certain height in the air, all 

sounds are as one, and they are all set to the key of C. I 

think the same phenomena must be produced by coming 

to the Convention of the W. X. C. T. XL, for here I have 


No North, no South, no alien name, 
Firm in one cause we stand ; 
Hearts melted in the sacred flame 
For God and native land. 

Ruskin says that when the women of Christendom 
resolve that war shall cease, it will cease. I see before 
me to-night earnest, consecrated women representing 
every State in the Union ; and from the shores of that 
broad ocean whose surging billows dash and break against 
the sea wall of my native city, to where the Golden Gate 
lets out into the broad Pacific, all are here, brought 
together by the threatening of a common peril, and all 
deeply, earnestly resolved that this war against our 
homes and dear ones shall cease. 

All have come. They have brought their best thoughts 
and richest experiences to cast them into the common 
stock, and we have come from the South. We are in 
Washington, so I suppose we must be asking for a place ; 
I believe everybody who comes here does that ! We have 
not come to ask for a place from Congress or the Presi- 


dent at the Capitol; we will ask our own peerless 
president. We want a place. We have come for it and 
you will have to find out what that place is. I think as 
platform orators we will not be a success, and the 
departments seem to be all filled. Mistress Livermore, 
whose title to Queen of the Platform I have never heard 
disputed, will tell you that the thousands of emigrants 
who are landing at Castle Garden every week will not, 
without prohibition, be able to determine who shall make 
the laws and govern this grand nation. Mrs. Foster, our 
gifted lawyer, the chronometer by which we set our legal 
opinions, will tell you that although the rum-seller has the 
image and superscription of Caesar upon his credentials, 
chartered wrongs and legalized crimes are not different 
from other abuses. Mrs. Hunt has the " Key to the 
Situation." She has let in rays of light upon our 
ignorance, and our schoolboys now know what alcohol is, 
and our rum-sellers will soon know it, or she will tell 
them if they want to know. And the rest of the ladies 
are all equally good in their line, so there really seems to 
be no vacancy for us on the platform. But we want a 
place. We have come for a place. 

At Montauk light-house a Douglass lamp illuminates the 
water for miles around. This lamp has six wicks, one 
within another. When I was there this Summer we asked 
the keeper if it would burn with five. He said ' Yes, but 
it burned better with six." We have come to make the 
sixth wick. I don't think we can add one scintilla to 
your bright galaxy, for we have no crusade victories to 
report. We are a mighty quiet people down there where 
I come from. We are afraid to have our voices heard. 
You don't know how much afraid of it I am. But I came 
at Miss Willard's request. She had all things her own 
way down South, as a stranger last Winter, ainMiere she 
just queens it right royally over us all. She has said that 


I must respond to this address. We have come to be the 
sixth wick. Well, here we are. What are you going to 
do with us ? 

Dr. Hepworth said that when he was in Europe he was 
told by all means to see the stained glass windows of the 
Milan Cathedral, they are so very beautiful. He sought 
the spot, he said, and looked at the windows. There was 
the cathedral and there the windows; the conditions, too, 
were all met, for the sun was shining on them, but he saw 
nothing to admire; he went on the other side of the street 
and looked up, and was disgusted, and made a note to that 
effect in his note book. He walked off and met his wife 
and told her how much disappointed he was; the windows 
were so terribly overrated. She proposed that they should 
return. They did so. When they reached the place he 
started to cross the street again. She said to him," Why, 
what arc you going to do?" " Cross over here." "Why, 
go inside, go inside," she said. He went inside ; and oh, 
such radiance of glory as those broken rays made as they 
fell upon the tesselated pavement — a whole heaven of 
rainbows. And so we Southrons want to come inside ! 
That is what we have come here to do. 

I have been North this summer; I have attended a 
great many of these temperance meetings, and your love 
has been to my darkened life what I did not suppose could 
ever come there again, and I wanted my Southern sisters 
to come and know you as I know you, and then I knew 
they would love you as I do, with all my heart. 

" No North, no South." We have a South, and we have 
a problem at the South. Temperance at the South is a 
peculiar thing. You know a cloud coming between the 
sun and us causes the mercury to sink in the thermometer. 
Well, last summer, week after week, accompanied by 
Bishop Stevens of the Episcopal Church, we went to the 
colored churches, and we got thousands of names signed 


to a petition for prohibition, and wo thought everything 
was going on well. The colored people are naturally 
religious. They were so before the war. Their recreations 
were religious ; their plantation melodies full of hallelujahs, 
and they would have been so yet if it had not been for 
the sediment that settled down among us after the war. 
Now they are demoralized ; taught by bar-room teachings 
they speak flippantly of sacred things, and they say they 
want whisky and more of it. 

A minister of the Gospel told me that he heard, only a 
few weeks ago, a corner shop rum-seller say to a Western 
distiller, that the barrel of whisky he had bought from 
him, doctored, had turned out twelve barrels of whisky 
for the colored people that he had bought it for. Now, 
what kind of liquor do you suppose that was ? And that 
is the kind of liquor that is being sold to these newly 
enfranchised people, and they are drinking it ! 

Do you call them free ? Ah, they are in far more 
abject slavery than we ever held them in. You have clone 
only half of your duty. You have got to have prohibi- 
tion, prohibition! Instead of worshiping their God they 
worship their party. I tell you it is time for honest 
people to come out from parties ; they have had their day. 
Slavery is dead, forever dead. It is not among the current 
issues of the day any longer, and although I cannot truth- 
fully say I think it was exactly fair for us who had 
nothing to do with bringing it here to have to bear all the 
expense of getting it away, we would not have those 
people put into slavery again, not upon any consideration. 
To Christian owners they were a responsibility greater 
than children. Who is responsible for them now ? They 
have been alienated from us. Who is responsible? 
They are the wards of the nation. What is the nation 
doing for them ? Licensing bad men to sell them burn- 
ing, fiery poison ; that is what it is doing, and it should 


not boast of enfranchising them until it banishes the 
saloons which overwhelm them in a bondage far more 
terrible. The nation ought to take care of them as it does 
of the Indian and the soldier. Before the war it was an 
offence punished by law to sell liquor to a slave ; then you 
never saw a slave drunk; now the best of them get 
drunk, and the religious among them deplore it deeply. 
It is the duty of the nation to give us prohibition, that is 
it ! We could work together in a prohibition movement. 

In this new platform, which we of the South have come 
to licli) you build, we should have an educational qualifica- 
tion. What do these men that landed at Castle Garden 
a few weeks ago — whisky, beer-drinking Irish and 
Germans, and their wives not much better than they — 
what do they know about using the ballot ? The idea 
that they are the men that are in five years to make out- 
laws is a disgrace, and we will never, never have a 
Christian country again until we put an educational plank 
in our platform. We need it, we ought to have it. 

But I am not here to talk politics. I only came to ask 
for a place and to speak for my people. I Avanted to 
come inside. I wanted you to know us. We do not know 
one another, that is the trouble. 

A few years ago, when the yellow fever raged in Charles- 
ton, one who had been an officer in the Federal army and 
fought bravely during the whole war, and at its close came 
South and went into business, took the fever. I went to 
see him. He wasn't a very near neighbor of mine, but, 
as he was sick and a stranger, I thought I would stretch 
the etiquette of the occasion. A lady said to me the other 
day the Southern people made neighbors four and five 
squares off. When I called on him he was very glad to 
see me; but I saw him signaling to his wife, and she 
turned his picture with the epaulets on the shoulder to 
the wall. I never felt so badly in all my life ; that I, who 

552 • peesident Arthur's salute. 

had professed religion from a child, that I could be 
thought to have a resentful feeling toward that man 
because he fought as God gave him the right to fight — 
according to his light — even as we did ! I told him to 
turn out his picture from the Avail, I wanted to see it ; I 
believed in a man fighting for his colors. Magnanimity 
is the greatest virtue, I believe, in the world, and I tried 
to cultivate it then and there ! 

When I was in Canada this summer, I saw a monument 
raised by England that pleased me — a monument built to 
Wolf and Montcalm — and upon it was the inscription: 
" We give them a common tomb, and posterity will give 
them a common history." But, then, our own President, 
the other day, did something that was beautifully courteous 
when he had the British flag saluted. It was the flag of 
the Queen, the royal woman who stretched out her hand 
across the water to the widow of a man not born in the 
purple. It was a beautiful courtesy ; it was right, the 
newspapers to the contrary notwithstanding, although I 
also go with the papers; that is, whenever they think as 
I do I go right with them ! But I thought that President 
Arthur did just the right thing in that when he ordered 
the British flag* saluted, and said it was not so much a 
want of bravery as it was that the British were outnum- 
bered one hundred years ago. 

" You have careful thoughts for the stranger, 
Kind words for the sometime guest; 
But for your own, the bitter tone, 
Though you love your own the best." 

There is a brave nation nearer to you than England. 
Did you ever tell them they were outnumbered ? Your 
children will, but those who would feel it will then be 
dead and gone. Speak those words. It will grapple them 
to you with hooks of steel. Speak to them as did our 
president, who, as she went from home to home, carried 


all hearts captive, and you know we don't approve of 
women speaking down there. Oh, say kind words ; it is 
so much better than bitter ones, and 

" Angels look downward from the skies 
Upon no holier ground, 
Than where defeated valor lies, 
By generous foemen crowned." 

We have come for a place. That is what brought us 
here. We knew this was the place to come — Washing- 
ton. Everybody wants a place here. We are not going 
to ask President Arthur for it. We would not be pre- 
pared to fill it if he was to give it to us. That is not 
what I want. We are not voters down where I came 
from. If peace comes to this country it will come through 
the women, and we have come for this place inside of your 
hearts. We want you inside of ours. Down at the South 
Ave are quick to resent, but easy to forgive. Didn't we 
vote for your man who had fought against us, every one 
us ! We were better to him than you were ! And we 
gave allegiance to the man you elected, and when the 
assassin struck him it went "to the heart of everybody at 
the South : they forgot their own private sorrows to think 
of the sorrows right here. If you knew us* better you 
would love us more. 

Now we have come. Here we are. We have come for 
a place. We want you to give it to us right in your 
hearts — right in your hearts. I used to be the staunchest 
Democrat, and I think a great deal of Hancock yet ; but 
Mr. Arthur did beautifully the other day at Yorktown — 
he really did ! I like him. I have given my allegiance 
to Mr. Arthur. I really have, though I am not going to 
ask him for a place ! 

I want you to hear how we women mean to build a 



Then let us build what men in vain , 

Have sought to rear these hundred years, 
And failed in throes of heart and brain, 

And torture deep and blood and tears; 
A platform broad as all the land, 

Where North and South and East and West, 
In grand and high accord may stand, 

Arm linked with arm and breast with breast. 

Where Maine may bring her plank of pine 

To mortice with palmetto beam, 
And round the stately elm entwine 

Vines from the bayou's turbid stream; 
White stanchions set in granite rock 

From old New Hampshire's bosom brought, 
Will stand all storms nor heed their shock, 

With Alabama iron wrought. 

Where Mississippi hand to hand 

With Minnesota asks to be, 
Seeking redemption for our land, 

Struggling to set the nation free; 
And Florida from out her groves 

Of tropic fruit and towering palm, 
Stands with brave Kansas whom she loves, 

And joins her in the inspiring psalm. 
Where all the old and grand thirteen 

Who broke, as one, the tyrants' sway, 
May with their sister States be seen 

Engaged again in deadliest fray. 

Yes, women, build; for be ye sure 

Ye build far better than you know; 
And that your building will endure 

Till time itself will be no more. 
Ye hold alone the place sublime; 

No claims of section, creed, or pride, 
Nor thought of color, class, or clime 

Your love-embattled ranks divide. 
Deep unto deep with answering cry, 

Atlantic and Pacific pleads, 
Hold, women, to your purpose high, 

And prove your faith by words and deeds I 


The cruel gulf by carnage made 

Is bridged for aye by mortal blood, 
And where our slaughtered chief was laid 

The arch of peace there spans the flood. 
With every sound of discord stilled, 

High on that glorious arch we stand, 
With one resolve each heart is filled, 

To strike for home and native land. 

Late Yorktown's doubly sacred sod 

Saw foes as friends again arrayed, 
So for our cause, for home, for God 

Be our white banners high displayed! 


Mrs. McLeocl, daughter of Dr. Isaac Hulse, of the 
United States Navy, was born near Barrancas, Florida, 
at the naval hospital, of which her father was then 
surgeon. She very early evinced a taste for literature 
and a predilection for poetry, in which she was encour- 
aged by Mrs. Lydia H. Sigournev, of Connecticut, and 
Dr. Thompson, historian, of Long Island, her father's 
friend. In her childhood she mingled much in French 
society, the naval officers of French men-of-war being 
frequent guests of her father when in port ; and, in order 
to complete her French education, she was sent to a 
convent school, taught by native Parisians, where she 
remained some years. 

In her early girlhood she contributed to several 
periodicals, under various noms de plume. Before com- 
pleting her school education, she wrote " Sunbeams and 
Shadows" and "Aunt Minnie's Portfolio," published by 
Messrs. Appleton & Co., New York, and afterwards 
republished by Routledge & Co., London, under the title 
of " Gertrude and Eulalie." 

In 1853 she was married to the Rev. Alexander W. 
McLeod,D. D., a well-known theological writer and editor 
of the official organ of the \Yesleyan Methodists of the 


lower provinces. Her later works are " Ivy Leaves," 
published in Halifax, Nova Scotia, followed by " Thine 
and Mine," published by Messrs. Derby & Jackson, and 
" Sea Drifts," by Carter & Brothers, New York. She has 
in preparation a work entitled " Unprotected Homes," a 
prohibition story. 

" Her writings," says an able critic, " evince steady 
growth and culture, marked by fine sensibility and high- 
toned morality." Mrs. McLeod is widely known and 
loved for her pure womanliness and exalted piety, as well 
as for her gifts of mind. For many years she was prin- 
cipal of the " Southern Literary Institute for Young 
Ladies," located in Baltimore, which became one of the 
most popular and successful educational institutions in 
the South, her pupils, scattered through the different 
Southern States, to this day holding her in veneration 
and affection. On account of ill health, at the earnest 
solicitation of her friends, she reluctantly gave up the 
school ; and on the organization of the Woman's Christian 
Temperance Union of Maryland she was unanimously 
elected Corresponding Secretary, a position she still 

For eighteen years it was her privilege to correspond 
with Henry W. Longfellow, who took much interest in 
her and her works, and of her fugitive poems coming 
under his notice, and which lie pronounced good, were 
"Under the Sea," "The Old Tower," "Exiled," "Tribute 
Leaf," in memoriam of Charles Green, Esq., Savannah, 
Ga. ; the last being characterized by him as "a poem of 
exquisite pathos." 

Mrs. McLeod, being an advocate for State rights, 
warmly espoused the cause of her section in the late war. 
Her love for her sunny South land has grown with the 
years, and the organization of Woman's Christian Tem- 
perance Unions in every Southern State has brought to 
her the joy of an answered prayer. 



is a Presbyterian lady of Memphis, Tenn., and has been a 
leading pioneer, having come into the work when Mrs. 
Wittenmyer and Mrs. Denman of New Jersey, went 
South 011 an organizing trip in 187G. Mrs. Johnson was 
associated with Mrs. Jefferson Davis in the Woman's 
Christian Association of Memphis, and maintains also a 
home for women desiring to reform. She and her noble 
husband entered heartily into our work, and she has been 
for years President of the W. C. T. U. of Tennessee. 


of Jacksonville, Pla., has been our leader in that State 
for many years. Formerly a missionary in Syria, Mrs. 
L. " takes naturally " to active service for Christ, and, 
with the earnest ladies associated with her, has made our 
society a felt force, sending petitions (local option) to 
the Legislature, the effect of which was plainly visible at 
Tallahassee on my. recent visit. 


President of W. C. T. U. of Georgia, is a Southern leader, 
the daughter of the distinguished Judge Thomas, of 
Columbus, Ga., and the wife of W. C. Sibley, President of 
Sibley Cotton Mills, with one exception the largest manu- 
factory in the South. From her elegant home, where she 
is surrounded by seven charming sons and daughters, 
Mrs. Sibley goes forth with her kind husband's hearty 
endorsement, speaking (Presbyterian though she is) to 
her Christian sisters, " that they go forward." I shall 
never forget her words when, without previous consulta- 
tion, she was elected President of the local W. C. T. U. 
of aristocratic old Augusta. She came forward at the 
close of the meeting held in Rev. Mr. La Prade's church 
one Sabbath afternoon, and said, as she took my hand 


warmly : " I am surprised that the lot should have fallen 
on me ; but, since it has, I promise you I will try to use 
this sacred office solely in the interest of the homes of 
our beautiful city." Nor shall I forget how this sweet- 
natured lady stood before a great audience at the W. C. 
T. U. Convention of Atlanta, all unused to public speak- 
ing as she is, and gently said: "Dear friends, I am 
grateful that so many are here; but I tell you truly if 
there were not another to stand between the dram-shops 
of Georgia and its homes, so dearly do I love this temper- 
ance cause. Iivould stand there all alone." 


of Montgomery, Ala., is one of the most gifted young 
women I have met North or South. She it was who said 
to me on my first visit, in 1880 : " The war was terrible, 
but had its compensations. It developed individuality — 
it gave many of us to ourselves in a deeper, wider con- 
sciousness of power. It set me at work, and I am thank- 
ful for it. A bee is worth more than a butterfly, no 
matter how prosaic the one and poetic the other." It 
was she also who said : " 1 am not ' reconstructed,' please 
take notice ! I was just as loyal to my highest beliefs as 
you were to yours. Always you were taught to spell 
Nation with a capital N, and I to spell Alabama with a 
capital A. It was my best beloved land; it was my 
Nation. What could I do but follow its fortunes in victory 
or defeat ? But let that pass. I can clasp hands with 
you warmly in this new warfare. Let us be friends." 
And so we are " for always." I spent a delightful even- 
ing with Miss Griffin and gifted Will Hayne — only child of 
the poet and his lovely wife — in the home of Captain Bush, 
of Montgomery. Miss Follansbce, principal of the leading 
ladies' school of that exclusive city, was President also of 
the " Chautauqua Circle," which met at Captain Bush's, 


"round the evening lamp." We had good talk — well 
worth reporting — but I give from its full quiver only this 
Parthian arrow fired by Miss Griffin at a gentleman who 
"didn't altogether believe in women's speaking" : 

"No doubt, sir, you have moulded and rounded the 
pretty little tea-cup that represents our ' sphere; ' but you 
forget that the great reservoir of the nineteenth century 
is pouring in its wealth of knowledge and of opportunity ; 
the poor little limits arc quite drowned out ; the fragile 
cup is broken ; there is no help for it. Now, since the 
pouring-in process cannot cease, is there anything to do 
but to enlarge the sphere?" 

I can give no idea of the vivacity and electric force 
with which Miss Griffin speaks. She is the lady princi- 
pal of the public schools in Montgomery ; is up and at her 
books by 6 a. m., studies French, German, literature, his- 
tory, etc., and is my " temperance stand-by" in the capi- 
tal city of Alabama, aided by the true-hearted women I 
have named, and several of their friends. Time would 
fail me to map