\ STUDIA IN THE LIBRARY of VICTORIA UNIVERSITY Toronto MRS. WILLIE HARDING (D.H.) McGAVOCK Methodist Episcopal Church, South WRITTEN AND COMPILED BY Sara Estelle Haskin Educational Secretary , Woman s Missionary Council, M. E. Church, South Nashville, Term." Dallas, Tex.; Richmond, Va. Publishing House of the M. E. Church, South Smith & Lamar, Agents 1920 -BAMNUEL COPYRIGHT, 1920 BY SAKA ESTELLE HASKIN The Missionaries and Deaconesses who have stood in the front of the battle line this book is lovingly and gratefully dedicated FOREWORD. IN the following pages the author has set forth merely the outstanding facts in the his tory of the organized woman s missionary work in the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. The great underlying purpose, how ever, has been to state these facts in such a way that they themselves will tell the story of God s marvelous leading through the years. The vision of service came first to a small group of women without means, without ex perience, and with no authorized channel through which to work; but in less than fifty years their prayers and their small efforts had resulted in the enlistment of over two hundred thousand women and children in the auxiliaries of the Woman s Missionary Society. The ap peal of one small school in China and the cry of distress sent out in behalf of the poorly paid preachers on the frontier resulted in an organization which in 1920 was conducting well-equipped schools and social-evangelistic centers in the homeland and in seven foreign mission fields. (5) 6 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. The work in the homeland and that in the foreign fields began through separate organ izations, but as the years passed the vision broadened until the world became one great mission field for which every auxiliary member was personally responsible. The result was the merging of the two societies and a united effort in prayer and giving. It is the earnest hope of the author that this story may fill the heart of every woman who reads it with gratitude to God for the great pioneer women who have made it possible for us of the present day to enter into our won derful heritage of world-wide service. The story of the work as told in these pages has been gathered from the following sources : The Annual Reports of the Woman s Foreign Missionary Society ; the Annual Reports of the Woman s Home Mission Society; the Annual Reports of the Woman s Missionary Council ; the "History of the Woman s Foreign Mis sionary Society," by Mrs. F. A. Butler; the "Life of Miss Lucinda B. Helm," by Mrs. Gross Alexander; and "A Decade of Mission Life," by Miss Nannie E. Holding; also pamphlets entitled "The Story of the Years," bv Mrs. R. W. MacDonell, Mrs. F. H. E. Ross, FOREWORD. 7 Mrs. J. B. Cobb, Miss Maria Layng Gibson, and Miss Maude Bonnell. From these last, entire sections have been occasionally em bodied. Grateful acknowledgment is hereby made to my friends Miss Belle H. Bennett, Miss Maria Layng Gibson, and Mrs. R. W. Mac- Donell, who, from the knowledge gained by their years of experience, have rendered most valuable assistance. Thanks are also due to those of my associate workers who have read the manuscript and rendered helpful and sym pathetic criticism. S. E. H. CONTENTS. PART I. ORGANIZATION OF THE HOME BASE. PAGE. I. Banding together for Service 13 PART II. MINISTRY IN THE FIELDS OF THE ORIENT. II. The First Mission Fields 43 V-III. Lighting the Torch in Korea 75 IV. Another Call 95 PART III. MINISTRY IN LATIN-AMERICAN AND AFRICAN FIELDS. V. Another Challenge to Faith 109 VI. Answering a Neighbor s Need 134 VII. A New Campaign 161 VIII. Occupying a Waiting Field 167 PART IV. MINISTRY IN THE HOME FIELD. IX. Answering the Home Call 177 X. A Work of Social Evangelism 199 PART V. TRAINING CONSCRIPTS OF PRAYER FOR SERVICE AROUND THE WoRLD. XL Scarritt Bible and Training School 231 (9) PART I. ORGANIZING AT THE HOME BASE. When you pray the Lord s Prayer, for what do you pray? For my daily bread, forgiveness of my sins? Have you shut the door to shut the world out and be alone with God? But Jesus taught us to pray "Our Father." It is a collective prayer. With the first word it is no longer an experience of the soul alone with God the thronging hosts of humanity are present in the room. The need of others for bread takes place alongside of our hunger ; the passionate desires of others to be released from the pressure of evil stand beside our desire to be forgiven for our sins. It is a prayer of humanity for humanity and for the individual only as a part of humanity. From "Christianising Community Life," by Ward-Edwards. (12) I. BANDING TOGETHER FOR SERVICE. THE heroic women who laid the founda tions of the woman s missionary work in the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, were pio neers in the faith, leading the generations to follow into fields of service and conquest. As is always true in any great enterprise, the be ginnings of their work can be traced back to a vision and purpose born in the hearts of a few chosen of God. SERVICE IN FOREIGN FIELDS. The First Auxiliary. The earliest authentic record indicates that the first effort to organize and project in the South any form of missionary work for wom en was undertaken in 1858 by Mrs. M. L. Kel- ley. She was the wife of an itinerant preacher, the Rev. John Kelley, at that time located at Bethlehem, Tenn., Lebanon Circuit. The rec ords show that a missionary society was or ganized and aid sent to Mrs. J. W. Lambuth for the maintenance of a school she was con- d3) 14 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. ducting in Shanghai, China. Two years later the Civil War broke out, and this initial ef fort seemed lost in the great catastrophe that followed. But the missionary zeal in the heart of this woman could not be quenched, for after fourteen years had passed we find her living in Nashville, Tenn., and with re newed effort seeking to make her vision of service a reality. Her son, Rev. D. C. Kelley, D.D., says in speaking of this new society: "In the fall of 1872 the work of canvassing had begun. A good deal of private effort had been made, and meetings had been called in the various churches of the city. The first meeting of the women \vas on a cold day in November, 1873. The picture is still vivid of the four women who that day came together, the result of much personal effort by Mrs. Kel ley and repeated notices from the pulpit by the pastor of McKendree Church. They sat on the ends of the four pews nearest the reg ister on the western side of old McKendree Church. As Mrs. Kelley sat with the list of names she had obtained, waiting, all seemed hopeless. The pastor, Dr. Kelley, entered the church and said: Organize your society just as if the house were filled. Her heart was warmed, and she knelt in prayer. This so- BANDING TOGETHER FOR SERVICE. 15 ciety took up the same work in which the original society had been engaged: aid to Mrs. Lambuth s school in Shanghai." Mrs. D. H. McGavock says of this meet ing, which has since come to be of such large import: "After much thought and prayer, a day was appointed by Mrs. Kelley to meet the women of the Church and bring the subject before them. When the day came the ele ments of earth, air, and sky all seemed to cast a shadow over the effort. As the wind whirled and the rain poured, the disappointed mother of the movement stood at a window of her dwelling watching the storm. As the clouds emptied their floods the tears flowed from her eyes on her pale cheeks, but her faith never wavered and her resolve to carry on this work did not for a moment falter. Entering her strong tower of prayer, she committed the whole cause to her Heavenly Father without a moment s fear of the result." After months of delay another effort was made, and at last the desire of the years began to take form. In April, 1874, the Woman s Bi ble Mission of Nashville was organized, with the following officers : Mrs. M. L. Kelley, Pres ident; Mrs. D. H. McGavock, Corresponding Secretary; Miss Lucie Ross, Recording Secre- 1 6 WOMEN AND MISSIONS, tary; and Mrs. T. D. Fite, Treasurer. A vice president and managers, one from each of the different Churches in the city, were also elect ed. The society had two distinct objects namely, "To send pecuniary aid to the foreign mission fields and to employ efficiently the women at home in a systematic visitation and Bible instruction of the poor and destitute in their own midst." This new society thus kept in mind the local work and revived that which had been begun on the Lebanon Circuit namely, the support of Mrs. Lambuth s work in China. In 1875 Rev. and Mrs. J. W. Lambuth vis ited the United States, and in their tour of the home Churches spoke in McKendree Church. Mrs. McGavock was so stirred by their mes sages concerning the needs of China that under a strict pledge of secrecy she was moved to give to Mrs. Lambuth the diamonds which had pinned her wedding veil. The funds from their sale purchased a new building for the school in Shanghai, which was called the Clop- ton School, thus honoring Mrs. McGavock s mother, whose maiden name was Clopton. Work Begun in Baltimore. A few years prior to the organization of BANDING TOGETHER FOR SERVICE. 17 the Nashville auxiliary, Mrs, Juliana Hayes had begun work in Trinity Church, Baltimore, forming a society called the Trinity Home Mission. In 1873, however, having heard Mrs. Lambuth s call for aid in China, the so ciety changed its name to the Woman s Bible Mission, which embraced in its efforts the work of foreign missions. Through the in fluence of Mrs. Hayes this organization soon led to the forming of other societies in that vicinity. In April, 1873, one hundred dollars was sent to Mrs. Lambuth from seven auxili aries of Baltimore. This fund was applied to the support of a Bible woman, the daughter- in-law of the Bible woman who had years be fore received support from the first auxiliary on the Lebanon Circuit. The contributions from the Baltimore society from 1873 to 1878 amounted to $1,011.50. A Connectional Missionary Society. Correspondence was carried on between the officers of the Baltimore and Nashville socie ties, and here and there throughout the Church missionary fires began to burn. The result was that there came into the mind and heart of Mrs. McGavock the thought of the possi bility of a connectional missionary society. 2 1 8 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. She prepared a memorial to the General Con ference in 18/4 asking for authority to organ ize a woman s department of missions. The request was referred to the Committee on Mis sions and was never heard from again. This failure increased the determination of the women to push forward in the work that they knew so well God was calling them to do. Soon afterwards their first leader, Mrs. Kelley, was called to her reward, but the women did not flag in their efforts. Mrs. Butler says: "Mrs. McGavock took advantage of every opening and of every concurring thought to push forward this new phase of missionary work. She opened correspondence with all of the prominent ministers and members of the Church, both men and women, whose names and addresses she could obtain ; and some who were prominent in other denominations were liberal contributors, supporting boys and girls in Mrs. Lambuth s school. But now the thought of sending a young w r oman to China to be supported by the women at home began to assume a shade of importance and a tone of probability." A writer in the Christian Advocate asked this pertinent question: "What have we for Christian women to do?" BANDING TOGETHER FOR SERVICE. 19 A few weeks later Mrs. McGavock answered in the following words: "The Methodist Epis copal Church, South, seems to be waking up to the fact that women are both able and will ing to render effective service in evangelizing the world. Almost every week letters come from women in different States asking for in formation in reference to organizing societies, the best objects on which to expend funds al ready collected, and the channel through which such funds should be sent. The women of our beloved Church are aroused ; united effort, con cert of action is all that is lacking in the wom en of Southern Methodism. They are willing, generous, and vitally spiritual ; but they stand aloof from this duty, each waiting for the other to lead, to suggest and adopt plans that will advance this movement. The heart-stir ring letters from Bishop Marvin and Dr. Hen- drix in the East have aroused the missionary pulse to healthy action. Herein will lie the secret of success. Every circuit and station should have an auxiliary society, and every woman and child should give something an nually and send their contributions to a given center; then reports should be sent and pub lished that all might know the amounts, sources, and the direction given to the funds." 20 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. This shows that the whole plan was mapped out very clearly in the minds of these leaders. Mrs. Hayes was untiring in her efforts to interest all with whom she came in touch, and the new undertaking was pushed with en thusiasm and unflagging zeal. In the year 1877 the first woman, in the person of Miss Lochie Rankin, offered her self for missionary service. This gave re newed enthusiasm and another tangible reason for pushing the woman s missionary cause before the General Conference, which was to meet the following year in Atlanta, Ga. At that meeting Dr. D. C. Kelley, then the Assistant Secretary of the Board of Missions, in report No. 4 of the Committee on Missions, recommended that the women of the Church be authorized to organize missionary work under a constitution. The need of the field was so evident and the ability of the women to help meet it so apparent that, at last, the shackles of conservatism were sufficiently loosed to make possible the unanimous adoption of the report. Then followed the organiza tion of the Woman s General Executive As sociation. On May 23, 1878, at 10 A.M., in the First Church in Atlanta a convention of women BANDING TOGETHER FOR SERVICE. 21 was held, and fifty-four names were enrolled as members. The College of Bishops appoint ed the officers and twenty-three women, living in different sections of the South, as man agers. Mrs. Juliana Hayes, of Baltimore, was President; the wives of the bishops, eight in all, were Vice Presidents; Mrs. D. H. Mc- Gavock, of Nashville, Tenn., Corresponding Secretary; and Mrs. James Whitworth, of Nashville, Tenn., Treasurer. In 1882, by action of the General Confer ence, the name of the General Executive As sociation was changed to the Woman s Board of Missions. Later the word "foreign" was inserted. Annual Meetings. The first annual meeting of the General Ex ecutive Association was held in the Broadway Church, Louisville, Ky., May 16, 17, 1879. The reports at that time gave evidence of the untiring service of love that was given in that initial year of organized service. The Confer ence societies numbered fifteen, while the aux iliaries were two hundred and eighteen. The membership enrolled had reached 5,890 and the money reported amounted to $4,014.37. Miss Lochie Rankin, of Shanghai, China, six 22 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. Bible women, and the Clopton School had that year received support. The next annual meeting was held in Nash ville, Tenn., and it was found that in the sec ond year of the organization the Conference societies had grown from fifteen to twenty- two, with four hundred and seventy-five auxili aries and 12,548 members. Probably the most far-reaching plan made at this meeting was the decision to publish a mis sionary magazine to be called the Woman s Missionary Advocate. Mrs. F. A. Butler was elected editor and continued in that office until the home and foreign societies were merged. In the seventh Annual Report we read: "It [the Missionary Advocate] is a live organ, and the woman who edits it and the ten thousand who read it are wide-awake. From the first it has vindicated its right to be our paper, has justi fied our faith in its success, and beautifully il lustrated our happy choice of its editor. It is the bond of union between the Conference so cieties a living, pulsating bond." These words continued to characterize the magazine throughout its lifetime. After the First Twenty Years. In 1895 the annual meeting was held in BANDING TOGETHER FOR SERVICE. 23 Meridian, Miss., and neither the president nor the corresponding secretary was able to be present. Mrs. Butler, in her "History of the Woman s Foreign Missionary Society," says: "In less than one month after this meeting the sad news came that the revered president had passed away and entered into the life more abundant. Mrs. Juliana Hayes died on the second day of June, 1895. She was a woman of marvelous power. While president of the society, in building up the work, she created an interest in it wherever she traveled or was heard to speak and invariably brought to the subject a perennial freshness and enthusiasm. "The health of the Corresponding Secre tary, Mrs. McGavock, was also distressingly precarious, and the end seemed to be approach ing stealthily, but most surely. Late in Sep tember, 1895, sne called a meeting of the local Board to be held in her own chamber ; the busi ness was presented, and then, when scarcely able to hold a pen, she signed papers giving the power of attorney to the Secretary of Home Affairs, Mrs. S. C. Trueheart, saying: This is my last official act. " After twenty years of pioneer work these leaders were called away, but there were those ready to take their places who had been inter- 24 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. ested from the very beginning. Mrs. True- heart was elected to fill the place of corre sponding secretary. She had already served with Mrs. McGavock as promoter of the home base, so was eminently fitted to carry on the work. In an editorial of the September Mis sionary Voice of 1912 her work and spirit are characterized in the following words: "The marked success of the missionary enterprise of the Church is due in large measure to Mrs. Trueheart s knowledge of the work both at home and in the foreign fields; to her calm judgment, wise leadership, wonderful insight into character, and deep love of the mission field." Miss Belle Bennett says of her: "As an officer and a member of the Woman s Board of Missions and, after the death of Mrs. McGavock, as General Secretary, she did more to frame the policy and secure the enact ment of laws than any other one woman in the work." Upon the death of Mrs. Hayes, Mrs. Wight- man was elected to the presidency of the Wom an s Board of Foreign Missions. She served until 1906, at which time she resigned on ac count of failing health. Throughout these years she gave voluntary service unsparingly. Her power and influence is expressed in the BANDING TOGETHER FOR SERVICE. 25 words of Mrs. R. E. Stackhouse: "For many years she bore unceasingly the toils arid trials incident to pioneer work, for the Church had to be won to the cause of woman s work. She met barriers that would have made a weaker vessel falter. In her presence all apathy to the work of sending the gospel to heathen nations vanished. Her enthusiasm was contagious; assemblies addressed by her caught the inspira tion of her mighty faith, were lifted to higher ground, moved to give themselves under the inspiration of her sanctifying influence." Miss M. L. Gibson, who had been serving for a number of years as vice president, was elected to the presidency upon the retirement of Mrs. Wightman. In this capacity she con tinued to serve until the union of the boards in 1910. SERVICE AT HOME. It will be recalled that the first auxiliaries embraced in their work ministry at home, and that this service soon became overshad owed by the appalling need in the foreign field. The vision of the world as one great field to be conquered for Christ had not yet been grasped, and thus it was that God must seek in other directions for the embodiment of service at home. 26 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. A Leader Called. The home work took form first through the vision of Miss Lucinda B. Helm. In speak ing of her burning desire for service in this field, she says: "I felt as if some propelling power beyond me had entered my soul and was moving me with an irresistible force to throw my life into this work of helping to redeem my country from the enemy of souls and to es tablish the kingdom of the Lord." Bishop Hargrove, in his work in the West, had been compelled to leave several charges without appointments because there were no parsonages in which the preachers could live. To meet this need the men at the head of the Board of Church Extension began to look to the women of the Church for aid in building these homes, and Miss Helm was asked to formulate a plan for woman s work and to write a constitution and by-laws. In this plan she included local home mission work. When it was submitted to the Board of Church Ex tension they prepared a memorial to the Gen eral Conference which read as follows: "Whereas there is great lack of parsonages in the weaker charges and throughout the Church, and whereas there is no organized agency to supply this demand which appeals BANDING TOGETHER FOR SERVICE. 27 so directly and so strongly to the Christian en deavor of woman, whose special realm is the home, the Board of Church Extension believes that it is expedient that the General Confer ence provide for a Woman s Department of Church Extension having specific reference to the supply of parsonages for itinerant preach ers, and ask the body so to do." The Woman s Department of Church Exten sion. The provision which the General Conference finally made for the woman s work reads as follows: "The Board of Church Extension shall organize a department to be known as the Woman s Department of Church Exten sion, the object of which shall be to collect funds for purchasing and securing parsonages. All funds so collected shall be subject to the direction of the local boards of Church Ex tension for the objects specified." It will be noted that the work of the women was confined strictly within the limits of parsonage building and that it resolved itself merely into the col lection of funds for that purpose. It was the beginning, however, of larger things for the future. At a meeting of the Board of Church Ex- 28 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. tension on May 21, 1886, Miss Luanda B. Helm was elected General Secretary of the Woman s Department of Church Extension. In her second annual report she says: "Twen ty-four thousand leaflets have been distributed. The woman s work has been kept before the public through the various Church papers and earnestly presented to individuals by personal letters. In response to our efforts, 214 socie ties have been organized, reporting 3,529 mem bers. The children are reported effectively at work in sixty-one places. The financial report is most encouraging. The benefit that our so cieties have been to the local work is shown in the report of 171 added to Sabbath schools and a large sum of special donations reported as raised for local work, which amounted to $4,579.09. This was raised by extra efforts outside their dues. We have endeavored through our societies to foster spirituality and urge greater personal effort on the part of our women and children to be missionaries at home and give the comforts and saving grace of the gospel to those around them." In addition to the work done at her desk, Miss Helm traveled over the Church organ izing societies, all without remuneration. The BANDING TOGETHER FOR SERVICE. 29 Board wished to appropriate money for her salary, but she refused to accept it. The Woman s Parsonage and Home Mission Society. As she went from place to place she ob served that societies for local work were springing up everywhere, and in some places the women were beginning to awaken to the need of a connectional home mission society. As a consequence, Miss Helm resolved to pre sent to the coming General Conference of 1890 a request for authorization to add the work of home missions to that of parsonage building. Even her stanchest friends opposed her, say ing that the parsonage society was still young and that the Church was not yet ready for such activities among the women. It was also stoutly maintained that the organization of home mission societies would hinder the work of the foreign mission society. Miss Helm, however, answered all of these objections so forcefully and was so successful in arousing the interest of the leading men and women of the Church that the General Conference ap proved the plan, changing the name of the or ganization to the Woman s Parsonage and Home Mission Society. Provision was made 30 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. for a central committee, with officers who should share the work which Miss Helm had begun. The following names make up the roll of this committee: Mrs. E. E. Wiley, Presi dent; Miss Lucinda B. Helm, General Secre tary; Mrs. George Kendrick, General Treas urer. Managers: Mrs. R. K. Hargrove, Mrs. Nathan Scarritt, Mrs. D. Atkins, Mrs. S. S. King, Miss Emily M. Allen, Mrs. Maria Car ter, Mrs. Ellen Burdett, and Miss Sue Bennett. After the death of Miss Sue Bennett, Miss Belle H. Bennett became a member of the Central Committee, and the name of Mrs. Gross Alexander was added as Editor of Leaf lets. Parsonage work was continued in the same manner as formerly, but the work of home missions was projected and was entirely under the direction of the Central Committee. The first annual meeting of the Central Committee was held at Chestnut Street Church, Louisville, Ky., in April, 1891. Miss Helm s report showed 472 auxiliaries and a total amount of $10,477.37 raised during the previous year. Mrs. Wiley continued to act as president of the Central Committee until the year 1896, at which time Miss Belle Bennett was elected and BANDING TOGETHER FOR SERVICE. 31 continued as the head of the Home Mission Society throughout the remainder of its his tory as a separate organization. "Our Homes" Published. Soon after the new organization took form, Miss Helm began the publication of the home mission organ, Our Homes. She was always delicate in health, and as her strength began to wane it became apparent that the work she was doing was beyond her physical powers. She resigned her secretaryship in 1893 and Mrs. R. K. Hargrove was elected in her place. Miss Helm, however, continued to edit Our Homes up to the time of her death. On the death of her sister, Miss Mary Helm became the editor and continued in that office until this magazine and the Missionary Advocate were discontinued. Miss Helm s large vision and her unusual powers of mind made her an editor of unusual ability. Much of the larger development of the home mission enterprise was due to the power of her pen. The Woman s Home Mission Society. In 1898 there came to the organization an other change which meant great enlargement of the work. Bv the action of the General 32 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. Conference the name was changed to the Woman s Home Mission Society and, to take the place of the Central Committee, a Woman s Board of Home Missions was organized con sisting of a president, two vice presidents, a general secretary, a recording secretary, a gen eral treasurer, and a corresponding secretary or alternate from each Conference. Thus again the responsibility was extended. The first officers of the Board were as follows: President, Miss Belle H. Bennett; First Vice President, Mrs. J. D. Hammond; Second Vice President, Mrs. T. C. Carroll; General Secre tary, Mrs. R. K. Hargrove; Recording Secre tary, Miss Emily Allen; Treasurer, Mrs. W. D. Kirkland. Mrs. R. K. Hargrove was general secretary for seven years and then resigned on account of failing health. She gives the following ac count of the growth of the work during her administration: "Through God s blessing, in the face of almost insurmountable difficulties, our members have grown in seven years from 11,107 l oca l an d connectional members, most of whom were local, to 23,315 connectional members. Our annual receipts have increased from $5,038 to $40,190 and our local funds from $3,936 to $20,549. At the beginning of BANDING TOGETHER FOR SERVICE. 33 this period we held no property, but now we have possessions valued at $80,000." Mrs. R. W. MacDonell succeeded Mrs. Hargrove in the office of general secretary. It was dur ing her administration that the office of dea coness was inaugurated and the largest devel opment came to the work of city missions. A UNITED WORK. The Woman s Board of Foreign Missions had had a corporate existence of thirty-two years and the Woman s Board of Home Mis sions twenty-five years, when in 1910 the two were merged and a unification plan consum mated with the Board of Missions. The Woman s Board of Foreign Missions had for a number of years worked under the handicap of imposed restrictions, and in 1906 a commission was appointed by the General Conference for the express purpose of pre senting to the General Conference of 1910 a plan of unification. The commission was com posed of nine men and only four women. Both of the woman s boards, in executive session, voted almost unanimously against any change in their autonomy. A number of meetings of the commission was held, but no satisfactory plan evolved, so when the final meeting came, 3 34 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. just prior to the opening of the General Con ference, the entire question of unification was reopened. A plan was finally agreed upon which was presented to the General Conference and ratified without amendment. Under this plan the two woman s hoards ceased to exist as separate organizations, and the Woman s Missionary Council was created as their successor which was to function with much of their former power, subject, ho\vever, to the sanction of the Board of Missions. Pro vision was also made for the membership of fifteen women on the Board of Missions ten managers, four secretaries, who were also secretaries of the Board of Missions, and the treasurer. The plan was new and untried, and the rep resentation of the women on the Board was comparatively small, yet they entered into the new enterprise with heart and enthusiasm, be lieving it to be a step forward in the union of the forces for the upbuilding of the kingdom. Their pledge to the Church was made before the General Conference in the following words: We are not unmindful of all that is accorded women by this measure, but we also remember the great heart ache that will come to the women of the Church as we BANDING TOGETHER FO& SERVICE. 35 pass out of the old life into the new. We plead that you will, therefore, make no radical changes in the re port of the Committee on Missions regarding the wom en, their special work, their responsibility, and the col lection and direction of moneys contributed by them. God helping us, we will do all in our power to make the proposed plan effective in bringing the world to a knowledge of Jesus Christ and his saving power. MARIA LAYNG GIBSON, BELLE H. BENNETT, MRS. R. W. MACDONELL, MRS. J. B. COBB. The officers and executive committees of the two woman s boards met at Asheville be fore the adjournment of the General Confer ence. Miss Belle H. Bennett, whose heart and life had for years been in the work of foreign missions and who had from the beginning been the great leader of the home mission forces, was unanimously and without question elected as president of this new united woman s work. Mrs. J. B. Cobb, who had been for a number of years Associate Secretary in the Woman s Foreign Board, was elected Corre sponding Secretary of the Woman s Mission ary Council, Foreign Department; while Mrs. R. W. MacDonell was elected to the secretary ship of the Home Department. Mrs. A. L. Marshall was elected Editorial Secretary ; Miss Mabel Head, Educational Secretary; Miss 36 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. Daisy Davies, Field Secretary; and Mrs. F. H. E. Ross, Treasurer. Mrs. Fitzgerald S. Parker, Recording Secretary of the Woman s Foreign Board and Mrs. Frank Siler, Record ing Secretary of the Woman s Home Board were both elected to this same work in the Woman s Missionary Council. The following ten women were elected as Managers of the Board of Missions: Miss Belle H. Bennett, Miss Maria Layng Gibson, Mrs. L. P. Smith, Mrs. Luke G. Johnson, Mrs. W. F. Barnum, Mrs. E. B. Chappell, Miss Daisy Davies, Mrs. Hume R. Steele, Miss Mary Moore, and Mrs. Lee Britt. On April 20, 1911, the first session of the Woman s Missionary Council was held in St. John s Church, St. Louis, Mo. The plan of union, had left the Conferences and auxiliaries free to unite or remain separate, and at this meeting there came an unexpected demand for definite ruling on this subject. The Council wisely advised union and left the matter to be settled by the Conferences and auxiliaries themselves. While there was much opposition to unification in some quarters, yet within a few short months nearly every Conference had loyally fallen into line., and the world rapidly BANDING TOGETHER FOR SERVICE. 37 became to these missionary women one great mission field. At the time of the third annual session of the Council the membership of the woman s united societies was increasing so rapidly and the forward look becoming so filled with hope that the President recommended the election of a secretary whose duty it should be to en large and strengthen the home base. At this meeting the office of Home Base Secretary was authorized and Mrs. B. W. Lipscomb elected to fill the place. In 1914 Mrs. J. B. Cobb declined reelection, and Miss Mabel Head was selected as her suc cessor, while Mrs. H. R. Steele was chosen for the office of Educational Secretary. The work under the new plan grew so rapidly that a larger working force was de manded. This demand resulted in legislation by the General Conference of 1918 providing for additional secretaries: two executives for the home department, two for the foreign, and two for the educational. The following were elected to fill these places: Mrs. R. W. MacDonnell, in charge of Deaconess and City Mission Work; Mrs. J. W. Downs, in charge of Home Mission Educational Institutions and Social Service ; Miss Mabel K. Howell, Execu- 38 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. tive Secretary of Oriental Fields ; and Miss Esther Case, Executive Secretary for Latin- American and African fields; Mrs. H. R. Steele, Educational Secretary in charge of candidate work; and Miss Sara Estelle Has- kin, Educational Secretary, in charge of litera ture. Mrs. R. W. MacDonell resigned in 1919 and Mrs. J. H. McCoy was elected to fill her place. Mrs. MacDonell had served the Wom an s Board of Home Missions for ten years and the Woman s Missionary Council for nine years, making in all nineteen years of efficient service. Her report at the end of this period says: "Through God s blessing this work in these years has grown from a cash collection of $48,249.17 to $263,896.07; while City Mis sion Board expenditures have increased from $6,237.76 to $81,418.77. Nineteen hundred parsonages were aided. The endowment funds have increased from $19,494.81 to $119,104. Work among Negroes, Mexicans, and de pendent girls has been inaugurated. The office of deaconess has been created in the Church, and its development committed to the Home Department. One hundred and twenty-five deaconesses and one hundred and eleven home missionaries have been trained and sent out BANDING TOGETHER FOR SERVICE. 39 into the work. The number of city mission boards has increased from eight to thirty-six, while a system of Wesley Houses and other social centers has been developed. There are now thirty-seven Wesley Houses, Bethlehem Houses, and other social centers, and seven co operative homes for working girls in opera tion." In 1920 the organized woman s missionary work of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, marked its forty-second year. The story of its achievements is told briefly in the chapters which follow. PART II. MINISTRY IN THE FIELDS OF THE ORIENT. Lead me, yea, lead me deeper into life, This suffering human life wherein thou liv st And breathest still and holdst thy way divine. Tis here, O pitying Christ, where thee I seek, Here where the strife is fiercest, where the sun Beats down upon the highway thronged with men, And in the raging mart. O deeper lead My soul into the living world of souls Where thou dost move. Richard Watson Gilder. II. THE FIRST MISSION FIELDS. BEGINNINGS. The Clapton School. The Clopton Boarding School, conducted by Mrs. J. W. Lambuth, in Shanghai, China, was the strong appeal which urged the wom en of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, to launch out upon their first great missionary undertaking. Consequently, when Miss Lochie Rankin offered herself for China she was ac cepted and appointed to assist Mrs. Lambuth. A contribution in money, which came from the gift and sale of Mrs. D. H. McGavock s wed ding diamonds, had already made possible a building for this school. The gift carried with it the name "Clopton," in honor of Mrs. McGavock s mother, whose maiden name was Elizabeth Clopton. Pleasant College. Because of the inadvisability of enlarging the Clopton School, it was urged by Dr. Wal ter Lambuth that a school for girls be opened (43) 44 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. in Nanziang, a city fifteen miles from Shang hai. Accordingly, at the close of Miss Ran- kin s first year she was appointed to this city, which could be reached only by boat or wheel barrow. At the first meeting of the General Execu tive Association of the Woman s Missionary Society $1,500 was appropriated for this new school and $750 for a second missionary, and Pleasant College became the first real mis sionary enterprise of the women of the M. E. Church. South. Miss Dora Rankin, the sister of Miss Lochie Rankin, offered herself in response to the call that was sent out for another worker. Pleasant College was opened with fourteen boarding pupils. This number soon increased to thirty, the full number that could receive accommodation. In addition to the boarding school, several day schools were opened for boys and girls. With indomitable courage and unwavering faith this first work was carried forward under the trying circum stances of complete isolation and strange sur roundings. In 1883 a larger school, a new church, and a new school for the boys made the w r ork less difficult. Two years later a blow fell upon this new missionary enterprise, when Miss Dora Ran- THE FIRST MISSION FIELDS. 45 kin s health failed, and she was called to her reward. The heroic sister, however, never abated her efforts, but concentrated her mind and soul upon the enlargement of the work. She had been conducting a day school for boys in Kading under the most discouraging circumstances when suddenly, in 1887, the doors of opportunity were thrown wide open. The literati of the city had come to appreci ate her efforts and were begging her to open an Anglo-Chinese school. Misses Kate Rob erts and Ada Reagan were left in charge at Nantziang while Miss Rankin worked in Kading, itinerating between the two places in an uncomfortable canal boat. Because of the difficulty of making the daily trips, she moved to Kading and was the first foreign woman to sleep in that great walled city. Mrs. Cobb says of this wonderful work: "All classes had to be accommodated. The gifted son of the official; the shrewd, quick-witted son of the tradesman; the less brilliant son of the day laborer all heard the old, old story with the child of the poorest coolie. The school was arranged in every particular to suit the Chi nese. There were no stoves, no w r ooden floors, only large rooms with bare stone floors which even the bright winter sunshine could not 46 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. make comfortable. Despite the heat of sum mer, the rooms were endurable only during that season. At last riots became common in the city, and though Miss Rankin s work was not disturbed, it was deemed wise for her to re move to Nanziang. The work in the two places was very exhausting; but she met all her engagements through cold, rain, heat, and illness; and the school at Nanziang increased in interest and numbers, the power of the gospel penetrating all classes." In 1901 the General Board of Missions de cided to carry on work in prefectural cities only, and upon the withdrawal of other mis sion workers it seemed wise for the women to abandon Nanziang and Kading. This was a great distress to both Miss Rankin and the people whom she served. She still continued her work among them, however, by paying the expenses of a day school at Nanziang. Miss Rankin, together with Miss Ella Cof fee who had become associated with her, was appointed by the bishop to pioneer work in Huchow. Miss Rankin initiated a school for boys, while Miss Coffee opened the Virginia School for Girls. Miss Rankin remained at her post of service for nineteen years without a furlough. She came home in 1914, but hur- THE FIRST MISSION FIELDS. 47 ried back as soon as the Council would allow to resume with glad heart the service of long years in China. Her courage and energy and ability set a pace for the work in this field that never lagged. SHANGHAI. McTyeire School. The steamship City of Peking sailed from San Francisco October 18, 1884, carrying nine missionaries, among them Miss Laura Hay good, a talented high school teacher, of Atlanta, Ga., who had responded to the plea of Dr. Young J. Allen for more women mis sionaries to lead the women of China. His vision of the redemption of China was all- inclusive and carried with it the conviction that the high-class Chinese should be reached by the gospel of Jesus Christ. Miss Haygood s first work after she reached the field was the teaching of English in the Anglo-Chinese College. She soon caught Dr. Allen s vision for reaching the leadership of China and set her whole mind and heart upon the establishment of a high-grade school in Shanghai for high-class Chinese girls. While waiting for funds from the Woman s Board she taught in the Clopton School, which after- 48 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. wards became the primary department of the high school which she established. After many delays, the school had its opening in the fall of 1893. This was the beginning of a new era in woman s work in China. From seven, the first enrollment, the number rapid ly increased to hundreds, until within ten years the buildings were outgrown. McGav- ock Home was added, the parsonage next door secured ; but still girls were being turned away. The church building on the compound was purchased, neighboring houses were rent ed; still these did not suffice for the number who applied for admittance. Miss. Haygood, in her seven years of service in the school, put upon it a stamp which marked it as the leading girls school in all China. Miss Helen Richardson, her worthy suc cessor, gave to McTyeire seventeen years of self-sacrificing service, helping to build the character of the womanhood of China. Dur ing her administration the growth and circum stances of the institution demanded a change of locality, and in 1916 a handsome property of nine acres was purchased in a suburb of Shanghai. The high school was moved into the twenty-five room residence which was al ready on the property, while the grades were THE FIRST MISSION FIELDS. 49 continued down town. Upon the death of Miss Helen Richardson the school was car ried on for one year by the faculty without a principal in charge. In 1918 Miss Martha Pyle was appointed Principal. Miss Pyle had once, for a short time, been a teacher in Mc- Tyeire. She had also opened the Laura Hay- good in Soochow and continued at its head until it was changed to a normal school. She was, therefore, well fitted as the successor of the two able principals who had preceded her. If the history of the students of McTyeire school were written, it would be found that they have come from homes of all classes of Chinese people and from all sections of China. It would also be discovered that the graduates have come to occupy positions of trust and leadership, and that they have shared in the making of new China. In 1920 twenty- nine young Chinese women had been sent to American colleges on the indemnity fund. Of this number thirteen were McTyeire girls who had stood the test and won the honor. SOOCHOW. The Laura Haygood School. The woman s work in Soochow, like that in Shanghai, owed its beginning to the wife 4 50 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. of a missionary. In 1881 an appropriation was made by the Woman s Board for the opening of a boarding school in Soochow to be in charge of Mrs. A. P. Parker. A plant was purchased, and the school was opened the following year with twelve pupils and a teacher who had been trained in the Clopton school in Shanghai. This school for a time bore the name of East Side Boarding School, but was later called the Mary Lambuth School. In her first Deport, Mrs. Parker says: "I spend all my mornings with the scholars, an hour and a half of which time is spent in their Christian books, geography, and arith metic, the remainder of the time in sewing. In the afternoon a native teacher takes charge." An item in the report of the fol lowing year shows the untiring effort and the multiplicity of tasks undertaken by this con secrated woman. She says: "We have taken up no new work. It has required all our time and strength to keep up the old under the de mands of its natural growth. We still carry on the day schools for boys and girls, the Bible class for women, the boarding school, and Sabbath school, thus having under con stant Christian instruction over 180 women and children." Thus we can see that through THE FIRST MISSION FIELDS. 51 Mrs. Parker s untiring efforts the way for our work in Soochow was pioneered and the foundations laid. She continued in charge of the boarding school until 1887, when it was turned over to Miss Lou Phillips. Mrs. J. P. Campbell afterwards directed the affairs of the school until 1895, when Miss Martha Pyle undertook its supervision. Miss Pyle began at once to urge the enlargement of the insti tution. She presented to the Board the spe cial need for the Christian education of the women of that section, in order that the Chris tian men who came out from Soochow Uni versity might not, necessarily, be handicapped by wedding heathen wives. It was in the plan of Miss Laura Haygood, when she was Superintendent of the mission, to establish a school in Soochow that would be the equal of McTyeire. In 1901 the Board voted the consolidation of the Mary Lambuth and the Clopton Schools, giving to the Shanghai school the name Clop- ton-Lambuth. At the same time plans were made for the establishment of a larger school in Soochow to be named the Laura Haygood. Miss Pyle, having had a year on furlough and a year of teaching in McTyeire, returned to open the Laura Haygood in an old build- 52 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. ing and to plan for the erection of a new build ing. As the Laura Haygood began to assume pleasing proportions, one of the missionaries wrote: "The Laura Haygood, when, completed, will be worthy of the name it bears and a fit ting memorial to one who gave her life for China." The new building was finally com pleted in 1906, and the high standard that the school has maintained throughout the years of its existence has placed it in the ranks of the best schools for girls in China. Many Christian women have gone out from its doors who have honored the name of their Alma Mater. In 1916 the demand for a training school that would supply the day schools with trained Christian teachers had become so urgent that the Laura Haygood was changed into a high- grade normal. Miss Mary Lou White served as principal for the first year and was then succeeded by Miss Kate Hackney, who held the place until 1920, when she was in turn succeeded by Miss Louise Robinson. Davidson Memorial. At the annual meeting in St. Louis, 1881, Mrs. A. B. Davidson, of the Baltimore Con ference, had proposed the building up of a THE FIRST MISSION FIELDS. 53 fund through gifts to be made in memory of departed ones. The plan was approved, and when the school for Bible women was opened in East Soochow by Mrs. Julia Gaither this accumulated fund was used, and the school was called the Davidson Memorial in honor of Mrs. Davidson. The w r ork of this school was to teach women who had professed faith in Jesus to read the Bible and to do personal work in the heathen homes of the city. Later the Bible school was transferred to West Soo chow, where a center of work was formed by union with the industrial school and the girls boarding school. In 1904 Miss Virginia Atkinson was put in full charge of the West Soochow work, which included not only the Davidson Me morial, with its various departments, but also nine day schools. About this same time the Louise Home, a residence for missionaries, was moved, brick by brick, from Nanziang to West Soochow, a distance of eighty miles. The Louise Home had been the gift of Miss Achsah Wilkins, a member of Trinity Church Auxilia- ary, Baltimore, in memory of her departed sister, Louise. It had been the home of the Rankin sisters and their coworkers during their years of service in Nanziang. 54 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. The industrial department of the Davidson Memorial, later called the Mocha Garden Mis sion, was enterprised by Miss Atkinson and Miss Susie Williams. Miss Williams s thought had been to keep the girls who were in the literary department under Christian in fluence longer than the regular school hours and at the same time give them an opportunity to earn a livelihood. The school grew so rap idly, first under the supervision of Miss Wil liams and later of Miss Mary Culler White, that in 1905 it was moved into larger quar ters. The prosperity continued until the "mul berry grove," a desirable piece of land ad jacent to the Davidson Memorial, was pur chased, and in 1911 a new house was erected. In 1912 Miss Frances Burkhead was made business manager. The number of workers was increased, and the sales increased pro portionately. Orders for the exquisite work done in the Mocha Garden Mission came from China, America, the Philippines, Korea, Eng land, Norway, and Australia. Beautiful as was the work and important as was the financial results for the workers, far more important was the spiritual help that the women received while they sat, two at a frame, and listened to the daily instruction THE FIRST MISSION FIELDS. 55 given by the Bible women. Many of the workers themselves became Bible women; others, learning the value of an education, entered the academic department of the David son Memorial. It is also worthy of note that the women of the Moka Garden Mission were the first women to learn to read the phonetic script based on the Wu dialect. The first primer of the Wu dialect written in the phonet ic script was prepared by Miss Burkhead. Kindergarten Work. The first kindergarten in Soochow was opened in 1907 in connection with the David son Memorial. The building which housed the school was made possible through the contributions of the South Georgia Confer ence. Miss Wu, the teacher in charge, was trained by Miss Margaret Cook, of the Hiro shima School in Japan. Soon after the open ing of the kindergarten the new regent de creed that kindergarten schools should be opened in connection with all government schools. This soon led to the establishment of a kindergarten training department at the Davidson. The building was provided by the North Alabama Conference, and Miss Nevada 56 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. Martin, of the Mississippi Conference, was appointed director in 1911. Mrs. Staley, of Knoxville, Tenn., gave a dia mond ring which was sold and the money given to the opening of a kindergarten in East Soochow. This school was located near St. John s Church and also in close proximity to the Laura Haygood School. The Senah Staley Kindergarten soon grew to such pro portions under the leadership of Miss Mar guerite Park that there was not only a morn ing school but, also, an afternoon school, thus giving ample opportunity to the normal kindergarten students for observation and practice. The idea grew until, in 1914, there were in all eleven government and mission kindergartens in Soochow, and a directors meeting was being held each month under the supervision of the missionaries. In 1915 Miss Kate Hackney was made Su pervisor of the Kindergarten Training School at Davidson. The following year this de partment, together with its teaching force, was transferred to the Laura Haygood and made a part of the normal school. Medical Work. As early as 1880 plans were projected for THE FIRST MISSION FIELDS. 57 the establishment of medical work in Soochow to supplement that of the General Board by serving the women of China and training na tive women physicians. The first step taken was to send Miss Mildred Phillips to the Woman s Medical College in Philadelphia that she might be trained for this work. The hos pital was finally opened in 1886 in two build ings. One contained a ward large enough for four beds, a room for private patients, and a service room; the other contained a kitchen and a wash room. During the first month 280 patients were treated in the dispensary. After many hindrances the new hospital build ing was finished and formally opened by Bish op Wilson in October, 1889. A few years later a children s hospital was erected. The "Bright Jewels," of North Carolina, contrib uted $1,500 to the building and were granted the privilege of naming it in honor of Mrs. Mary Black, a much loved woman of that Conference. The children s hospital was soon discontinued for lack of a sufficient staff, and the name Mary Black was then transferred to the main building. On the failure of Dr. Phillips s health, Dr. Anne Walter took charge in September, 1893. The institution continued under her supervi- 58 W OMEN AND MISSIONS. sion for three years, during which time she inaugurated the first modern medical school for Chinese women. In 1896 Dr. Margaret Polk was put at the head of this medical work, and that year the first Chinese girls to receive diplomas from an accredited medical school were graduated from the Mary Black. The numbers that graduated in the years to follow were limited, but the training received was of the highest order. Dr. Polk secured a charter for the school in 1908 and was able to offer to her students the same instruction that the men of Soochow University were re ceiving from the same teachers at the same time. This instruction was of inestimable value to the pupils, to the institution, and to the homes visited professionally. Dr. Folk s influence in the mission grew until she became a power not only as physician, but also as ad visor and friend. Thousands came to her for treatment, and most of them went away friends of the hospital. She had but little time for outside visiting and only small op portunity for learning the difficult language. For many years she toiled under manifold difficulties. Often she became discouraged, but she never gave up hope or ceased to put into the work her whole life and effort. After THE FIRST MISSION FIELDS. 59 over sixteen years of devoted service Dr. Margaret Polk resigned for personal reasons, and her niece, Dr. Ethel Polk, and Dr. Hattie Love were put in charge. Both of these wom en had had exceptional advantages. They enlarged the scope of the institution by es tablishing clinics in several country places. They gave talks to the women on hygiene, tu berculosis, sanitation of homes, streets, and public places, on the care and treatment of children, and on the general health of homes and schools. In 1907 Miss Mary Hood, R.N., was ap pointed to take charge of the hospital nurs ing. Up to that time the nurses had had only such direction as could be given by the busy physicians in charge. Miss Hood began at once to develop the nurse-training department, and in 1913 she writes: "The principal event of the year was the graduating of the first class of nurses. The graduating exercises were held in June. Three received diplomas and four received certificates testifying to a practical training of six years." The standards of the medical and nurse- training schools were gradually raised. It was found impossible, however, to meet the demands of the time in an institution with no 6o WOMEN AND MISSIONS. larger equipment. In the belief, therefore, that there was a vast need for well-equipped and well-trained native women physicians, a definite effort began to be made for the es tablishment of an institution that would be adequate to meet the demands of the times. This led to the thought of a union woman s medical school in Shanghai, and negotiations were begun with other boards for its opening. For this reason the Mary Black Hospital was closed in 1918, and the physicians and nurses served as Red Cross workers in Siberia until the close of the World War. Maria Gibson Settlement. In 1912 Miss Maggie Rogers was appointed to the Kong Hong Church in Soochow for the purpose of helping to conserve its evan gelistic efforts by the establishment of a center for woman s work. A kindergarten and a day school were soon developed, the teachers being sent out from the Davidson Memorial Normal Department. Two Bible women were also employed. From this beginning a social cen ter was soon developed, and in 1914 a one- hundred-room Chinese residence was rented to accommodate the work. In 1916, when Miss Bennett was in the Orient, this house was pur- THE FIRST MISSION FIELDS. 6l chased and at her request given the name of Maria Gibson Settlement. The opportunities of the institution were found to be unlimited, for it was located near the church and within one block of the biggest shopping street in Soochow and also within easy reacn of one thousand high-class and merchant homes. The work having been begun in the Church, it continued to be looked upon as the woman s department of the Church. The fact that the settlement was being conducted in a Chi nese house gave to the people an added feel ing of freedom. A large community room, tea room, and rest room constituted one of the most attractive and useful features of the in stitution. Miss Rogers, as Head Resident, was for a time assisted by Miss Florence Herndon, and later Miss Nina Stallings was placed in charge. In 1920 four Bible women, two day school teachers, two kindergarten teachers, and one nurse made up the force of native workers. SUNKIANG. Haycs-Wilkins Institute. At a meeting of the foreign board in 1896 Miss Richardson was commissioned to buy land in Sungkiang for the erection of a Bible 62 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. school, to be known as the Hayes-Wilkins In stitute. Two thousand dollars had been do nated for this school by Miss Wilkins through the solicitation of Mrs. Hayes, both of the Baltimore Conference, and the name was given in honor of these two women. The school was completed in 1898 and dedicated by Bishop Wilson in October of that year. The chapel was named for Melissa Baker, thereby honoring another member of the Baltimore Conference. At first the pupils were few, but the women of the city began to visit the school in such numbers that the prejudice against the foreigners was broken down, giv ing the missionaries access to the people. In time the building became so crowded that an addition was a necessity. Again a Baltimore woman responded to the need, and in 1904 furnished the money for the building of Thomas Annex, which bears the name of its donor. In 1907 the Hayes-Wilkins School was rebuilt and Thomas Annex enlarged. This institution has for years been a center radiating the spirit of Jesus Christ through out all the surrounding sections. Mrs. Julia Gaither spent fourteen years in this institu tion, and as one of the main results of her service many Bible women have gone out to THE FIRST MISSION FIELDS. 63 do work among their own people. In 1916 Miss Irene King became head of the school and was later succeeded by Miss Mary Culler White. Susan B. Wilson School. Miss Alice Waters, who was in charge of the day school in Sungkiang, saw the need for a boarding school at that point and in 1903 secured permission from the Woman s Board for its beginning. The school was opened in rented quarters, but soon the Baltimore Conference came again to the rescue and con tributed money for a new building, which bore the name Susan B. Wilson, in honor of the wife of Bishop Wilson. The building was dedicated in 1907 by Bishop Wilson, Mrs. Wilson and Dr. Lambuth taking part in the dedicatory exercises. The growth of the school soon demanded an addition, which was promptly made possible by the generosity of the Baltimore Conference. A kindergarten school was developed, and the building for this was supplied through the liberality of Mrs. George Bearing, of Louisville, Ky. This fund was supplemented by the gift of Mrs. Sallie Rushing, of Memphis. 64 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. Hue HOW. The Virginia School. It will be recalled that Miss Rankin and her coworker, Miss Coffey, were appointed to Huchow when the work in Nanziang was closed. They brought with them some of their former pupils as workers. At first, when Miss Rankin tried to rent a building in which to open a school, none was found available; either the buildings were too dilapidated or the rent too high. However, the undaunted pio neer of the Woman s Board soon won her way, and the people began to make overtures. The Virginia Conference had already pro vided money for a boarding school, so in 1901 the Virginia School opened with thirty pupils, the success being marked from the very first. Miss Coffey was at the head of the school for three years. She was succeeded by Miss Mil dred Bomar, whose vision and untiring ef forts placed the institution in the rank with our best mission schools. A new building was soon erected, one of the most beautiful owned by the Board. The Tennessee Home, the gift of Tennessee women, was built as a residence for the missionaries. When Miss THE FIRST MISSION FIELDS. 65 Bomar was appointed to Bible woman s work, she was succeeded by Miss Clara Steger. After the opening of the Virginia School Miss Rankin turned her attention to the de velopment of day schools in the city of Hu- chow. The Memphis School, so named be cause of the liberality of Miss Rankin s own Conference, was a day school, and yet many of its pupils came from the surrounding dis tricts and were provided lodging outside the building. This school for boys was still in charge of Miss Rankin in 1920. The Virgina Primary School No. I, at Northgate, the Virginia Primary School No. 2, at Zaung Ka, and the kindergarten were es tablished as the result of Miss Rankin s ef forts, but were later put in charge of Miss Mittie Shelton and made feeders to the Vir ginia School. DAY SCHOOLS. It has been the policy of the woman s work to carry on day schools in all the cities where the boarding schools are located, thus making them a feeder to the higher grades. In addi tion to these, day schools have been opened in nearly all of the outstations. While many of them have not been well graded or adequately equipped, still the benefits have been untold. 5 66 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. In nearly every case evangelistic work result ed in the establishment of schools. West Soochow Boys School. One of the most interesting and fruitful of these day schools was located at West Soo chow. Miss Mary Tarrant, its principal and the source of its power, writes of its origin and history: Twenty-five years ago, coming two miles across the city every day, Miss Atkinson superintended some little day schools for boys in West Soochow. The idea of educating their girls had not yet taken hold of the peo ple. The course of study was not extensive. The much-revered Chinese classics, which the boys learned by heart, swaying their bodies from side to side as they sang out the characters, composed a large part of the course. Bible stories and catechisms were taught the children and as much arithmetic and geography as their classic-bound little minds would receive. It was hard, too, to find suitable textbooks. The trips across the city were very unsatisfactory, and so a Chinese house was rented, and Miss Atkinson gathered her day schools together in one place, where she could live and watch them. English was added to the course for a very nominal charge. This kept parents from taking boys out of school and putting them to learn a trade as soon as they were beginning to understand Christianity. A number of boys united with the Church, some of whom are now teachers in our schools and stewards in the Church. As Miss Atkinson s work increased in other quarters, these day schools were turned over to me. About that time China began to appreciate the impor- THE FIRST MISSION FIELDS. 67 tance of Western education. The lessons she learned after the Boxer uprising were not in vain. The return of the Boxer indemnity money to her by the United States for the education of students in America stirred up the government to improve education in China. A government course of study, according to grades, was published. Our day schools, which had never been regu larly graded, we tried to bring into line. Instead of considering them as separate schools for boys of dif ferent ages, we rearranged the schools and made three departments according to the government plan, corre lating the three under the name Anglo-Chinese Acade my. These departments, which still have the names of the home supporters, are : The McKendree Lower Primary Department, the Waco District Higher Pri mary Department, and the Galloway Middle School. This school meets a need in our West Soochow Church. It makes possible a Christian education for the sons of the Church members. If they are not able to pay the full rate of tuition, they are helped by scholarships. A small part of this money the boys pay back to the school when they go to work. There are one hundred and twenty-two pupils enrolled this fall (1918.) There are forty-five Christians and thirty-three probationers. The majority of those who have not yet made any pro fession are in the primary departments. The Sallie Stewart School. About the time that Miss Atkinson moved the West Soochow day schools into one big house, a little day school for girls was opened near by. This school, called the Sallie Stew art, developed with the years into two depart- 68 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. ments, a lower and a higher primary. Later it became a part of the Davidson Memorial. CHANGCHOW. Two day schools and evangelistic centers were opened in Changchow in 1908, the one at North Gate by Miss Ella Leverett and the other at East Gate by Miss Ida Anderson. The North Gate work was conducted in a Chi nese house in which Miss Leverett lived. Speaking of this house, she says: "It is quite easy to spread abroad on the right hand and on the left, and so we have spread as the old tent filled." Of the character of the school work which had been developed, Miss Leverett writes in 1914: There is an eight-year course in this school, and Chinese is stressed rather than English. The school has grown wonderfully, and arrangements have been made to accommodate a few other pupils, for we can not stop, since the tide is pushing us on with such force. The schools in Changchow shape their course by ours, follow us in many respects, and look to us for help. Some of them have even asked me to help them by teaching their girls to sing. A day school such as we are trying to make ours is obliged to wield a great influence for good in the city. The girls go home every night with their Bibles, songbooks, and Chris tian teachings of the day, and this is bound to impress the family. God is blessing us and our pupils, and we are happy in the work. THE FIRST MISSION FIELDS. 69 The day school at East Gate was opened in an old ancestral hall, which the artistic taste of Miss Anderson transformed into a most attractive room. Adjoining this hall was a famous temple of a war god, which, through the influence of the missionaries, was allowed to be used for evangelistic services. Humbert Home, named for Mrs. J. W. Humbert, for years Corresponding Secretary of the South Carolina Conference Society, was erected in 1916 for the missionaries residence. This was the first foreign house built in Chang- chow. It proved to be a great attraction to the people, and soon became a social and evan gelistic center. In 1914 Miss Anderson writes of her day school: The school has grown steadily, until now we have about sixty pupils. We have no dividing line between the evangelistic work and the school. Most of our women probationers are from the homes of our girls. These homes are open to the Bible women ; and as each of these workers has a Bible or singing or industrial class in the school, they are welcomed in the homes as their children s teachers, and so there are points of contact. The girls not only attend Sunday school and Church services, but many of them elect to come in the afternoons to teach in the two Sunday schools for the children who do not attend our day schools. 70 W OMEN AND MISSIONS. UNION INSTITUTIONS. Gilding College. As the years passed and the mission work of the denominations grew in China, a need was felt for Christian colleges for women. In response to this demand definite steps were taken in 1911 for the establishment of a union woman s college at Nanking. This in stitution came to be known as Ginling College. In its building and maintenance the women of Southern Methodism were responsible for a one-fifth share. Bible School. In 1912 a union Bible school was es tablished in Nanking, supported by the mis sion boards of the Northern and Southern Presbyterians, the Baptists, the Friends, the Methodist Episcopal, and the Woman s Missionary Council of the Methodist Episco pal Church, South. This school soon came to be the most highly specialized training cen ter for Christian workers in China. Miss Ruth Brittain, our capable and efficient representa tive in her report of 1919 says of the insti tution: THE FIRST MISSION FIELDS. 71 In 1919 a class of eight young women was graduated. There are now thirty-five graduates at work in the provinces of Fukien, Chekiang, and Kiangsu. Fifteen are evangelists, and ten are teachers in Bible schools. This fall thirty-four boarders and three day students enrolled. They represent ten provinces and fourteen denominations. They came from thirty-one schools. The Southern Methodists have three students, two from Laura Haygood and one from McTyeire. Our greatest need is a new building, to which the cooperating boards gave their $5,000 shares. The plans are being pushed forward, and we hope for their ma terialization in the near future. EVANGELISTIC WORK. From the very beginning, the work of our schools in China was made truly evangelistic ; but it was not until 1909 that the Woman s Board appointed missionaries who should give their entire time to evangelistic work. It was in that year that Miss Mary Culler White was appointed to the Mary Black Hospital and out- stations for evangelistic service. In the hos pital she had three or four Bible women who gave full time and a number of helpers who were delegated to work in the city and coun try. Some years more than 8,500 patients were received into the hospital. A patient was usually accompanied by two or three attend ants, thus making about 30,000 people who went in and out of the doors of the hospital. 72 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. This gave great possibilities for personal work. In 1910 all the mission boards of China began to place new emphasis upon, evangelis tic work, and this opened up new opportuni ties for our evangelistic workers. The names of Mrs. Gaither, Misses Tarrant, Bomar, Wa ters, King, Anderson, Leverett, Rogers, Wales, Combs, and Bliler are numbered among those who gave time and service to strictly evangelistic work. These missionaries, togeth er with scores of Bible women trained as work ers and helpers, have taught the gospel of Je sus in public meetings and in personal work until thousands have been added to the Church es through their efforts. MISSIONARY SOCIETIES. One of the most certain signs of the suc cess of the gospel in China was the organ ization of a Woman s Missionary Society in 1916. In 1920 there were forty-one auxili aries with a total membership of 1,514. So cieties numbering fifty or sixty members were not uncommon, these members often coming for miles to attend their meetings. At that time young people s auxiliaries had also been organized in most of the mission schools. THE FIRST MISSION FIELDS. 73 The report of 1920 showed that the total receipts of that year were $1,315.91. From this amount $768.25 went to the support of the mission in Yun-nan Province and $109.76 to the Woman s Missionary Council for the work in Africa. A large part of this money was raised by life certificates, the life certi ficate having made a special appeal to the Chi nese women as a substitute for some of the practices connected with ancestral worship. A report of the third annual meeting of the China Mission Conference says: The third annual meeting of the China Mission Con ference Woman s Missionary Society was held in Sung- kiang April 21-25. Eleven Conference officers and sixty-four delegates were in attendance. The total number of auxiliaries in the Conference was forty-one, and thirty-five of these had delegates at the annual meeting. Besides the delegates, there were forty-five visitors attending the Conference, who came at their own expense for the privilege of attending the Con ference to listen and learn. A good program of inspirational addresses, stere- opticon addresses, and departmental drills had been ar ranged, and this was interspersed with business which was conducted in a parliamentary manner. Mrs. K. T. Yang, the President, presided with quiet dignity, and she was ably assisted by an enthusiastic corps of officers. All of the officers were Chinese, and their enthusiasm grew with their growing knowledge of the work. This year there was a distinct advance due to the return of 74 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. Mrs. Tsiang and her report of the work of the Mis sionary Council and the local auxiliaries in America. Mrs. Tsiang attended the annual meeting of the Woman s Missionary Council in 1919, she being the first representative from the na tive peoples of the mission field who ever sat as a delegate in the governing body of one of the woman s missionary organizations of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. III. LIGHTING THE TORCH IN KOREA. SEOUL. As the work in China grew and was crowned with success, the missionary force began to lift its eyes unto other fields. The General Board of Missions had opened work in Seoul, Korea, in 1896, and the Woman s Board of Foreign Missions followed in 1897. Since 1887 Mrs. J. P. Campbell had served in China, working in turn as music teacher, schoolroom principal, assistant in the hospi tal (for a time in full charge), and as evan gelistic worker among women. When the call came from the Woman s Board to pioneer work in Korea she responded gladly, taking with her an adopted Chinese daughter, Miss Dora Yui. They lived for a time in the home of Dr. C. F. Reid. Miss Yui soon learned the Korean language, and she and Dr. Reid took turns at holding Sunday services in Mrs. Reid s parlor. When Mr. Collier was trans ferred to Songdo, Mrs. Campbell and Miss (75) ;6 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. Yui moved into the house which he had oc cupied in Seoul, remaining there for one year. Carolina Institute. At the end of that time the Baptist Mission, located in the northern part of Seoul, was withdrawing, and Mrs. Campbell, seeing that her present work was overlapping with that of the Methodist Episcopal Church, purchased the Baptist property, which was located one mile from the General Board compound. It was necessary to act before authorization could be secured from her home Board, so she made the purchase at her own risk. Her faith was rewarded and, as in China, so in Korea, the first mission center w^as made pos sible through the gift of \vedding diamonds. This time Mrs. Toberman, of Los Angeles, was the giver. The Baptists left the house on Saturday evening, August I, 1898, and Mrs. Campbell, in company with a Korean woman carrying only a few necessary articles, went over to occupy it at once in order to save the property from possible damage. Miss Yui came on Sunday w r ith a fresh supply of food, and they moved in on Monday. The main building was a finely constructed Korean resi- LIGHTING THE TORCH IN KOREA. 77 dence, having been built for the Minister of Finance. There were other houses on the place, which were renovated for school pur poses. A small dispensary was first opened, which was financed by Mrs. Campbell herself. The real work, however, was begun in October, when the school was opened with three pupils. Mrs. Campbell writes: It was not long before we had twenty-one pupils ; these, however, were the children of the serving class only, those who were not wanted in the homes where their parents served. The very first pupil to enter our school was the little daughter of Dr. Reid s gateman, who later became one of the best and most intelligent Bible women in the mission. The women of Korea for five hunc red years had been denied education and any knowledge of the out side world. They were, of course, prejudiced against mission schools, but were not long in seeing that this educated lower class of girls would soon be the su perior women mentally. Because of this they gradually decided to enter the school and study side by side with the girls of the lower class. The school was of course primary, but, even so, re quired all of the inventive genius of the missionaries to devise ways and means to impart knowledge with out equipment. The Catechism and portions of the New Testament had been translated into the Korean vernacular ; except for these there were no Western books available. The difficulty was overcome by plac ing the lesson on the blackboard and having it copied fS WOMEN AND MISSIONS. on sheets Oi paper, a copy for each child, thus forming books. In a few years the school was full to over flowing, and several adjoining houses were purchased and new ones erected. There were no architects in Seoul and the men of the mission were rushed with their own work, so it devolved upon Mrs. Campbell and a Korean carpenter, who had never constructed any but mud cottages, to build a new eight-room, two- story, brick house. Mrs. Campbell says of this experience: The amusing incidents connected with this building and its construction would be a fit subject for a comedy en the screen. The palace towers were immediately in front of the school property, and superstition caused the emperor to believe that the misfortunes befalling his empire were caused by the presence of the Western ers. This two-story house, he thought, offended the gods of the air. Women attendants from the palace called in style and insisted upon looking from the upper story windows, their object evidently being to peer within the palace walls. The Sunday services were conducted in the rooms of this house until the chapel was built within the walls of the school compound. These were a great contrast to the demon worship carried on in the district. In 1899 .Bishop Wilson baptized seven women in the LIGHTING THE TORCH IN KOREA. 79 Cha-kol home parlor. (Cha-kol was the name of the district in the northern section of the city, and the school compound was called the Cha-kol compound.) These seven women were the direct result of the woman s work and the nucleus of a new Church. In 1910 this Church numbered five hundred converts from heathenism. The Sunday before Mrs. Campbell left for America, in 1910, ninety were baptized at the morning service. When the Russo-Japanese War broke out, United States ministers ordered all the mis sionaries to Seoul, where they were to remain until peace was established. Mrs. Campbell placed her school in the hands of the five workers then on the field and returned to the United States, where she helped in securing money to build a home in Songdo and to add to the property in Seoul. The school had at that time increased to an enrollment of sev enty-eight dormitory pupils and a number of day pupils. The location, however, was not satisfactory, as it was too near the canal. In 1907, there fore, a lot was purchased on a hill command ing a view of the city ; and several years later a home for missionaries, a dormitory for a 8o WOMEN AND MISSIONS. limited number of boarders, and a day school were built. In 1916 Miss Lillian Nichols was placed in charge. Miss Ida Hankins and Miss Bertha Smith, each in turn, served as princi pal. Like the other schools of the Council, Carolina Institute made a strong impression upon the life of Korea; but the tragedy of the revolution in 1919 greatly endangered the work. Because of the Student Self-Determi- nation Movement, schools were opened and closed again and again during that year and the year following. It was a period of heavy strain and extreme anxiety for the mission aries, but their efforts to redeem and give to Korea the liberty and redemption of Jesus Christ never ceased. Union Bible School. The plans of the Council for enlargement of the work went forward in the face of all the difficulties, one of the most far-reaching being that of the Union Bible Training School in Seoul. The Methodist Episcopal Church was just completing a beautiful Bible school building, and at the meeting of the Council in 1920, it was voted to enter with them into a union plan upon a fifty-fifty basis in build- LIGHTING THE TORCH IN KOREA. 8l ing, equipment, and workers. This was made possible through Centenary funds. SONGDO. Hoist on Institute. In 1899 Miss Fannie Hinds and Miss Ar- rena Carroll were transferred from Mrs. Campbell s school to take charge of woman s work in Songdo. These missionaries had a bedroom each and, in addition, a kitchen and dining room. Class after class, numbering between fifty and sixty women, met in these bedrooms all during the day. Later, day schools for boys were opened in both the north and south wards of the city. The story of the establishment of the girls school is especially interesting. One day, when the mis sionaries were away attending a meeting, the Christian Koreans were having a picnic, at which time it was suggested that a school for girls was needed. A collection was accordingly taken, and a sufficient amount of money to pay a needed teacher for three months was handed over to the missionaries when they returned. As a result, in 1903, a school with a few pupils in attendance was opened in a Korean building, and one of Mrs. Campbell s 6 82 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. best pupils from Seoul was employed as teach er. In 1905 a boarding school was opened in a conventional Korean house which, according to Korean custom, was placed near the foot of the hill. Like all Korean houses, the par titions were constructed of paper and could easily be removed. A sufficient number of partitions was taken out to form a room twenty-four by eight feet. For the accommo dation of the girls, heavy comforts were placed on the floor for sleeping purposes, and this apartment became the sleeping room for twenty-six girls. In the morning the bedding was aired, rolled up, and placed in an adjoin ing room. The sleeping apartment then became a breakfast room. At the close of the meal, the tables were removed and the same room became a recitation room. Thus, it is seen, that this one apartment served in turn as dormitory, dining room, and school room. In 1907 a gift was made by Dr. Staley, of Bristol, Tenn., which made possible the erec tion of a new building. The school was named Holston Institute because of this gift from the Holston Conference. The building was a handsome gray stone structure located on a LIGHTING THE TORCH IN KOREA. 83 commanding hill in the center of the city. When this location was purchased one of the wealthiest Korean men in the city called on Mrs. Campbell, telling her jestingly that she had secured the most notorious devil-worship ing site in Korea, that the demons would keep things so lively that it would frighten the children away. She replied that it would be a fine opportunity to prove the omnipotence of God, for he always vindicates the cause of those who trust him. The school soon became so crowded that a primary building was added in 1918. The next addition was that of a social-religious building, which became a necessity because of the Japanese laws excluding religious teach ings in the schools. The money for this was raised by the South Carolina women and named the Wightman Humbert Chapel. Miss Mabel Howell, Executive Secretary of Ori ental Fields, after her visit to Korea, said of Holston Institute: Holston Institute, in Songdo, with its six hundred girls before the revolution, stands at the head of the Council s educational system in Korea. It is a splen did school. As soon as possible the high-school de partment should be developed, and possibly a normal or kindergarten training school added. Miss Wagner has been a wise leader in this work through the years. 84 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. Because of home conditions, the Principal, Miss Ella Sue Wagner, was compelled to re turn to the United States in 1920. The year previous, because of the revolution and the suffering of the Korean people, had been one of trial and tragedy. In her report of that year Miss Wagner says : Until March 1, the Higher Common School flour ished, and the work of the students and teachers was most satisfactory. Then suddenly and without warn ing the Independence Movement struck the country like a hurricane, and we found ourselves in the midst of trouble and confusion. Since that time the primary and kindergarten schools have been continued as usual, but for the past six months the higher work has been closed and the girls sent to their homes. The Mary Helm School. The Mary Helm School, opened in 1907, is unique in that it was established for young widows of the higher class who had ambi tions to attain lives of usefulness and yet were too old to enter the primary school with children, their ages varying from fourteen to eighteen. Three of these young girls made an appeal to Baron Yun and, as a result, Mrs. Cram, the wife of W. G. Cram, mission ary under appointment of the General Board, LIGHTING THE TORCH IN KOREA. 85 opened a school in her own home. The teach ing was done at night because of the custom which prohibited the girls from appearing on the street in the day time. After a time a home was secured in which a number of the pupils lived, buying their own food and doing their own work. The school continued to be taught in Mrs. Cram s sitting room until the Crams moved into their new home, at which time a place was provided for the purpose. The work was begun without funds, but when Mrs. Truehart made an appeal there were numbers of responses, among them a contribution from Miss Bennett which came with the suggestion that the school bear the namQ of Miss Mary Helm, former Editor of Our Homes. In 1909 the school was trans ferred to the compound of the Holston In stitute and placed under the management of the missionaries. It was later renamed the Mary Helm Industrial Department of Holston Institute, the change being made to meet Japanese regulations. At first it was con ducted in a Korean building, the same room being used for both bedroom and classroom purposes. In 1914, however, a better build ing was provided. 86 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. WON SAN. Lucy Cuninggim Industrial School. In 1901 Miss Carroll and Miss Knowles were appointed to open work in Wonsan, property having been purchased from the Methodist Episcopal Church. It took them just one week to cross the country in Korean sedan chairs. One can imagine the hardship of riding, day after day, in the uncomfortable position of sitting on one s feet. The prop erty in which the school at Wonsan was be gun was attractive and beautiful, but it was necessary to build dormitories before the work could be made effective. The North Carolina Conference women contributed their thank offering to this enlargement and gave to the school the name Lucy Cuninggim in mem ory of one of their honored workers. The school prospered and soon outgrew its quar ters. Because of its distance from the church it was later deemed wise to move to another part of the city. A beautiful location near the church was selected, and a home for the missionaries and a building for the school were erected. The South Georgia Conference furnished the money, but the school retained its original name. In 1917 the enrollment LIGHTING THE TORCH IN KOREA. 87 numbered 127 and the seven branches, or county schools, numbered 132, making a total enrollment of 269. In 1917 the plan of the work was changed. The principal, Miss Hallie Buie, writes: The greatest change in our work this year has been that of giving up the advanced grades of the Lucy Cuninggim Girls School, in Wonsan, and of establish ing the industrial school for girls and women in its stead. When one sees the life of drudgery and help lessness led by most of the women and girls in Korea, the need of a school that will teach them something whereby they can earn their own living and be self- respecting and independent is keenly felt. In the fall of 1916, at our annual mission meeting, it was decided that, if the Council so granted, the Lucy Cuninggim Girls School building in Wonsan be used for a mis sion industrial school for girls and women and that the girls in the high-school department in Wonsan be sent to Holston Institute, in Songdo. This decision met with the approval of Misses Bennett and Head, who were then on the field. In the spring of 1917 a committee was appointed to investigate the situation and to determine just what kind of an industrial school we should have. The committee, after thorough investigation, unanimously came to the following conclusions: (1) That at first only one line of work should be undertaken and that we proceed to make the training in that line as efficient as possible ; (2) that said line should be one that would be a benefit to the women of the whole territory occu pied by our mission; (3) That it should be a line that would assure us the support and confidence of the gov ernment as well as one that would be in harmony with 88 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. their plans for the development of the Korean people. We decided that nothing would so nearly satisfy the position set forth in the above three principles as seri culture. As soon as these three plans were indorsed by the Council, steps were taken to carry them out. In March, 1918, the mulberry trees were all planted and are growing beautifully. The school was opened in April, 1918, and we soon had an enrollment of twenty pupils. The forenoons are spent in study and the after noons in work. The literary work is divided into three grades, with a special or preparatory year for the ones who have had very little chance to study. The indus trial work is also divided into a course of three years. The newly organized school ran only a few months, however, and was closed on account of the revolution. Concerning the future Miss Howell says: There is a very great field for industrial education in Korea, and this institution needs special care. The greatest need, and an immediate one. is a missionary trained along textile lines. Such a one must be found and trained if necessary. The Alice Cobb Bible School. The Alice Cobb Bible School was located on the same compound with the Lucy Cun- inggim. The building, furnished by the South Georgia Conference and named in hon or of Mrs. Cobb, at one time Foreign Depart ment Secretary of the Council, was construct ed in simple Korean style, but appropriate to LIGHTING THE TORCH IN KOREA. 89 the purpose for which it was designed. Be fore the building was erected the nucleus of the school had been formed by the little band of women who were taught by Mrs. J. B. Ross, formerly Miss Knowles, a missionary under appointment, in her own home. Miss Kate Cooper, principal of the Alice Cobb Bi ble School, says of the institution: The winter months I spend in Bible institute work, which is always a joy, for I love to teach the Bible. We work together with the Canadian Presbyterians in Wonsan, and the missionaries who give their time to the institute are splendid Bible teachers. One course covers five years of three months each. Thirty-three books of the Bible we teach in full and the other half by outlines. During the time the women are not study ing they have an intermediate reading course, which consists of the books of the Bible they are to take the following term in outlines. Besides the Bible, we teach writing, hygiene, simple geography, arithmetic, and singing. We have weekly lectures from Korean pas tors and missionaries -on missions, Church history, and other helpful subjects. In 1918 we had an enrollment of fifty-one, nine of whom were graduated in April. It is a rule of our mission that our Bible women must graduate from the institute before they can be accepted as fully qualified Bible women. Some of the women leaders in the country Churches are those who have studied at our institute. It is our aim to have at least one woman from each Church to study and go back to her own congregation to take charge of the Bible classes. 90 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. EVANGELISTIC WORK. The great revival which broke out in Korea in 1904 is of special interest to the women of Southern Methodism because of its origin. Miss Knowles went to Korea filled with a burn ing zeal for the Master s work. She felt in starting her work in Wonsan that they, as mis sionaries, were not able to grasp the great spiritual privileges which were before them. She and others formed a compact to pray daily that God would give the missionaries power to bring about a great revival. Dr. Hardy was asked to lead the missionaries of Wonsan in a week of Bible study. As he prepared for this work, a deep conviction of his own need overpowered him and he spent one whole night on his knees in prayer. At early dawn there came to him a great blessing and he arose from his knees filled with a new power, which was recognized by all who met him that morning. He rang the chapel "bell and called the Korean Christians together, telling them of the night s experience, con fessing his own former lack of power. Those present, grasping his meaning, saw the empti ness of their own lives and prayed for forgive ness. Days of prayer and confession followed. Finally there came upon them such a bap- LIGHTING THE TORCH IN KOREA. 91 tism of power that they went forth from piace to place and led others into the same experi ence. The revival swept throughout the Church in Korea and thousands were con verted. The revival spirit in Korea made the wom an s evangelistic work one of the most suc cessful features of the mission. In Seoul much of this work was done in connection with the Churches, and under the wise lead ership of Mrs. Campbell and Miss Mamie Myers it took on many institutional features. Out from Songdo, the greatest Southern Meth odist center in Korea, there radiated into the country districts a great spirit of evangelism. One of the most successful evangelistic ef forts was carried on in Choon Chun. This work was opened in 1911 by Miss Laura Ed wards and Miss Alice Dean Noyes. Their first trip into this district, which required three days, was made on pack horses. All their bedding, food, cooking utensils, and cloth ing went to make up the packs, which they carried with them. The rural evangelistic work was conducted on the circuit plan, each missionary caring for a certain number of charges and the Bible women going out two by two. 92 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. From the very beginning, a strong emphasis was placed upon rural evangelistic work, while the schools received the emphasis in the great city centers. When Miss Howell visited the field in 1919-20 she urged an immediate for ward movement in city evangelism in Songdo, Seoul, and Wonsan. City centers had been contemplated for a number of years, and at the Council meeting in 1920 Centenary askings were made available to go forward with these buildings in Seoul and Songdo. Provision was also made for the purchase of land in Wonsan upon which a building was to be erect ed in the near future. WOMAN S MISSIONARY SOCIETY. One of the most hopeful results of the mis sionary work in Korea was evidenced by the organization of missionary societies in the na tive Churches. The Bible women, as they itinerated from place to place, gave these so cieties special attention. Special programs were prepared each year by some one of the missionaries. Most of the society members tithed or gave systematically. One-tenth of all their collections went to the work in Africa and the rest of the money was used for the support of native Bible women in the heathen LIGHTING THE TORCH IN KOREA. 93 villages of Korea. The following is a letter sent by the women of the Wonsan District to the Woman s Missionary Society in Africa: WONSAN, KOREA, April 5, 1920. To the Friends of the Woman s Missionary Society in Africa Greetings from the Woman s Missionary So ciety in Wonsan, Korea. We, the servants of Jesus Christ, according to the will of God, from our District Society in Hamkyung South Province, Wonsan, Korea, send to all the saints in Africa, even to all who are in Christ Jesus, our heartiest greetings with the hope that you have received from God, the Father, and his Son, Jesus Christ, the grace and peace he has promised to all who are faith ful, and that your hope is founded on an eternal foun dation, and that your soul has found eternal salvation. With the wish that you may sing the everlasting songs and praise God through all eternity we, even though we are separated from you by miles and miles, pray for you and feel that Christ is hearing and answering in your behalf. Our Saviour, Jesus Christ, came into this world nineteen hundred and twenty years ago and gave him self once to die on the cress for the sins of all the world. Thus bearing the sins of all mankind, he made all who believe on him to become the children of the Holy God, and to all the saints alike he pours forth his Holy Spirit in order that they may have the power to do his will. Following the example of our Lord, we, too, should love with all our hearts, soul, and strength and serve our God as he directs. Let us give all we have to him and love him with all our hearts. Like Peter and John, even though we have not the gold and silver to give in the name of Jesus Christ, 94 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. we can do many deeds of mercy. As a result of the Centenary Movement at this time the work of the Lord is daily growing in strength, and the faith of many is becoming stronger. Also patience, temperance, brother ly love, and unity are increasing in force. For all this we cannot give thanks enough. But notwithstanding all the joys and blessings that God so freely bestows here in Korea, we are under going a severe trial, and to all of you who love us we earnestly beseech that you will pray unceasingly to the Father of light, who is altogether just and holy. We hope you will pray much and often, for we need your prayers. Like the precious stones hidden away in the mountains that you have to polish for the brilliant colors to appear and like the trees that grow better for the pruning, God means that all our trials shall work together for good, and he is now refining us that his glory may appear. Although we are sending only the small amount of $11.93, we hope you will receive it in love and use it as our Lord Jesus Christ may direct. If we look at the world, there is so much sorrow on every hand ; but if we endure as seeing Him who is invisible, we shall bring forth the fruits of righteous ness and peace. Our hope is in the Captain of our salvation, who is also the Author and Finisher of our faith. We pray for you that you may bring many of your African sisters to Jesus Christ and that they may re ceive the crown of life which Jesus has promised to all who are true and faithful. This is our prayer for you, so we will close with this message for this time. With love, (MRS.) CHASUN KIM, FOR THE WONSAN DISTRICT MIS SIONARY SOCIETY. IV. ANOTHER CALL. IN 1885 the General Board of Missions passed a resolution authorizing the establish ment of a mission in Japan. In July of the following year Dr. and Mrs. J. W. Lambuth and Dr. O. A. Dukes arrived in Kobe. Miss Maud Bonnell says of this adventure: "It took hearts made brave by long years of serv ice in China to turn to a new country, where the people and the language were wholly un known. Go ye into all the world and preach the gospel to the whole creation must have sounded in their ears and nerved them to the new undertaking." The territory chosen for this task comprised the ten provinces bordering on the Inland Sea and on the three islands of Hondo, Shikoku, and Kyushu, which, in the census of 1909, had a population of approxi mately 13,000,000. Upon landing in Kobe the missonaries made their home at No. 47 in the foreign concession and began their work by teaching English to a few Japanese boys in a night school. (95) 96 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. Mrs. Lambuth, who had pioneered woman s work in China, undertook with the same tire less devotion and energy to open the way for the women in Japan. That hers was no easy task is shown by these words from her son, Bishop J. W. Lambuth: There were no women who seemed to be accessible, and it was months before any Japanese woman united with the Church. A male cook, who was a Congrega- tionalist, led the morning prayer in the family circle until the new missionaries had acquired the language. One of his petitions, which he made daily, was : "O Lord, have mercy on these poor Methodists and enlarge their borders, for they have no women in their mem bership." In the year following her arrival in Kobe, Mrs. Lambuth opened a day school for women with eleven in attendance. She also organized a weekly class for women and children. Three years later, in 1890, the Japan Mission passed a resolution calling for the establishment of a Bible school in Kobe. In accordance with this action, the Woman s Bible Training School was opened in 1891 with six pupils in at tendance. Mrs. Lambuth had supervision, but Miss May Bice (later Mrs. W. A. Davis) was placed in charge. The records show that the few years which followed were filled with ANOTHER CALL. 97 difficulties, the school even being closed a part of the time. On the same compound with the Bible school, Mrs. Lambuth opened three other schools namely, Industrial School, where women were taught embroidery, sewing, mu sic, and the Bible; Kobe Institute, where the children of Asiatic and European parentage were taught; and Palmore Institute, which was a night school for women. In 1899 the Industrial School was closed, and in 1905 Kobe Institute also was closed, both for lack of teachers. Palmore Institute was continued, however, but in 1907 was provided with quar ters of its own. Thus the compound was left free for the use of the Bible school. In 1899 Miss Ida Worth was made Prin cipal and continued in this position until 1905. She was succeeded by Miss Maud Bonnell, who remained at the head of the institution for ten years. Her strong personality and her great spiritual power made these years count large for the kingdom of righteousness in Japan. The early evangelistic work for women in Japan consisted of special evangelistic serv ices, Bible classes, mothers meetings, cooking classes, English and industrial classes, Sun- 7 98 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. day schools, and kindergartens. The women who could give their entire time were so few that the services of the missionaries wives and the teachers in the schools were a neces sity. These sought contact with the women of Japan through every possible avenue. In 1891 Miss Kate Harlan, working in Yamaguchi, Japan, wrote: We proposed to teach the women anything they wished to learn crocheting, knitting, foreign cooking, English anything to induce them to come, that we might have an opportunity to teach them the one thing of importance, the one thing they need to learn ; but, alas ! the one thing of which they do not feel their need, the Word of God, the truth as it is in Christ Jesus our Lord. They were hard to reach, slow to come, few in number, and very irregular. Frequently as soon as one began to take any interest the head of the house would assert his authority, and she was not allowed to come any more. THE WOMAN S MISSIONARY COUNCIL ENTERS. The work of the General Board in its other departments was of the highest rank, but its woman s work was wholly inadequate. This is easily understood when we consider the lack of equipment, the small working force on the field, and the absence of an administrative force of women at the home base. On ac count of this lack the entire mission was being ANOTHER CALL. 99 crippled. The prayer of the cook, "O Lord, have mercy on these poor Methodists, for they have no women in their membership," was in reality still the prayer of many hearts as late as the year 1914. The Japan Mission had continued to entreat the General Board to send out single women as evangelistic workers, but that year found only two engaged exclusively in this work. It was then that the mission unanimously de cided to ask the Woman s Missionary Council to enter Japan. Bishop Atkins visited Japan that year, and the following year, 1915, at tended the meeting of the Woman s Mission ary Council, making an eloquent appeal for the women and children of Japan and pleading for the Council s entrance into Japan with its gifts of money and workers and its admin istrative talents. The result was that the fol lowing action was taken: We recommend: 1. That the Woman s Missionary Council assume the support of the woman s evangelis- tice work in Japan on condition that the Board of Mis sions continue its usual appropriation to Fhat field. 2. That the Council recommend two new missionaries for that field. Miss Annette Gist and Miss Charlie Hol land were appointed that same year as mis- 100 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. sionaries to Japan. Miss Ida Worth, Miss Maud Bonnell, Miss Nellie Bennett, Miss Annie Belle Williams, and Miss Ethel New- comb were transferred from the Board of Missions, General Work, to the Woman s Missionary Council. Miss Mabel Whitehead and Miss Katherine Hatcher were sent out in 1917 and Miss Jean Callahan, Miss Rubie Van Hooser, and Miss Mary Searcy in 1920. When the Council entered Japan Miss Maud Bonnell was still in charge of the Lam- buth Bible School. The following year, how ever, she came home on her furlough, much broken in health, and was never able to return. Miss Ida Shannon, of the Hiroshima Girls School, was made acting principal. Her re port of that year says: The first Bible woman was graduated in 1905. Up to 1915 the school has graduated thirty-seven, of whom twenty-two are in active service and five are wives of preachers. The present enrollment is fifteen. The women stay in the school three years, studying the Bible and kindred subjects, music, and practical work. The change that takes place in them during that time is nothing short of marvelous. After they go out into service, the chief need is for better and closer super vision on the part of women missionaries. In 1917 Miss Annie Belle Williams was ANOTHER CALL. 101 made principal. In her report of 1919 she says: This year has added two to the list of graduates which before numbered fifty. The opening of another school year in April brought in six new students, mak ing our number twelve. The new class was an interest ing one for several reasons: (1) Not one of them came from our own missionary territory; (2) they repre sented four different missions ; and (3) most of them had had some experience in a professional or business way, two of them as teachers and one as a nurse. Five of them are on scholarships. The cost of keeping up this school seems entirely out of proportion to the small number of students, but we want you to think of it as an evangelistic center as well as a school. Counting our own Sunday schools, we touch ten dif ferent centers in Kobe and its suburbs. The 1920 enrollment showed that the num ber of students had increased to twenty. At this time enlargement of the school was for a number of reasons imperative: first, the in adequacy of the buildings and their unsanitary condition; second, the movement on foot to move the kindergarten from Hiroshima to the Bible school; third, the demand for a union institution; fourth, the action of the General Conference of the Methodist Church of Japan creating a licensed order of women evangelists. In 1919, when Miss Mabel Howell, Executive Secretary of the Orient, was on the field, the J02 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. Japan Mission passed resolutions asking that the Council embrace in its plan the training of kindergarten teachers and that the proposed new school be located at Osaka. It was also re quested that the Northern Methodists and the Canadian Methodists be asked to unite with the Woman s Missionary Council in the build ing and conduct of the school in order that the whole of Japan Methodism might be served. It was agreed, ^however, that the building should not be delayed awaiting the response of the other Methodisms, In its 1920 session the Council adopted the following recommendations: (1) That the Council accept the responsibility for the Kindergarten Normal Training School in Hiro shima, approve the plan of uniting it with the Lambuth Memorial School, and establish an enlarged school of high grade for training Christian workers. (2) That the enlarged school be located in Osaka and be known as the Lambuth Training School for Christian Work ers. (3) That as the Hiroshima Kindergarten Normal Training School is under the supervision of Miss Mar garet Cook, the Council request the Board of Missions, General Work, to release Miss Margaret Cook to the Council for the purpose of assisting in establishing the enlarged school proposed for Osaka, and that the Sec retary of the Orient present this request to the Board of Missions. (4) That the $8,000 already on the field for the purchase of land for the new Lambuth Train ing School and the $18,000 Centenary askings for the ANOTHER CALL. 103 evangelistic plant at Osaka be combined into one fund to be used for the building of the new training school. Further action was taken, transferring an accrued fund of $4,479.50 already on the field to the building fund, this amount to be used for the proposed chapel in the Lambuth Train ing School to be known as the Maud Bonnell Memorial. At the meeting of the Board of Missions that year the request for the transfer of Miss Margaret Cook was granted, it being recog nized that a better policy would be to train the kindergarten workers and the Bible women in the same school. Miss Katherine Hatcher, who had been the Council s representative in the Hiroshima Training School, was also transferred. The removal of the Bible school to Osaka, only one hour s ride by trolley from Kobe, was decided upon because of Osaka s being a large industrial city and hence well suited as a demonstration center. Concerning the kindergartens and the evan gelistic centers, Miss Maud Bonnell writes shortly after they were turned over to the Woman s Missionary Council by the Board of Missions, General Work: There are six kindergarteners in charge of our women at various points. Three of these are in Kobe, 104 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. two at Oita and Beppu, and the other is in Yoshida, on the island of Shikoku. Oita is as yet our only woman s evangelistic station. Miss Ida M. Worth (St. Louis Conference) went there in 1896. She began teaching English and Bible to the young people and visiting, with her helper, in the homes. Soon she opened a kindergarten, which has grown steadily in efficiency and favor. Visits were paid to the outlying stations, where cooking classes and other women s and children s meetings were held in the chapels or in rented rooms. Miss Annie Belle Williams (South Carolina Conference) went to the station in 1910, and with her personal helper the force was doubled. Soon a kinder garten was opened in Beppu, and other Sunday schools and children s meetings were conducted weekly. Eight stations were regularly visited. Groups of young women working in the telephone exchange and in a yarn factory, where fifteen hundred are employed, have been reached. Because of the lack of sufficient working force and because of conditions caused by the World War, the Council was unable to enter into any greatly enlarged plans. In 1920, however, the number of kindergartens had in creased to fifteen, a home for missionaries had been built at Oita, and the plant itself, containing a home for native workers, was being constructed with the first available Cen tenary money. Plans were being projected for the building of the new Bible school at Osaka and for the utilization of the old buildings in Kobe as a Christian social cen- ANOTHER CALL. 105 ter. The Centenary askings included a suf ficient sum of money for the building of evan gelistic centers in thirteen cities and the sup port of two missionaries and a number of Bible women for each of these places. By action of the Council, in 1920, the evangelis tic centers were given the name "lan-no-Ie," meaning "The House of Comfort and Peace." WOMAN S MISSIONARY SOCIETY. In 1920 Miss Mabel Howell reported con cerning the Woman s Missionary Society of Japan as follows: The women of the West Japan Conference are al ready organized into a Conference Society. This is the Conference in which our work is located. The district and local work is pretty well developed. The two Con ferences unite their gifts in the support of a mission ary, Mr. Kihara, in Siberia. The women of the two Conferences of the Japan Methodist Church are taking steps to unite organically so as to form one society for all Japan. PART III. MINISTRY IN LATIN- AMERICAN AND AFRI CAN FIELDS. Oh, could we love with the love that pours On this great day through all our doors, Could we gather all in a world embrace, Whatever the creed, whatever the race, Not once, nor twice, but all the time, For ev ry need and ev ry clime The love that knows all aims as one, All peoples kin beneath the sun What a different world this world would be ! For we should see as the Christ would see, If only a magic way were found To make us human the whole year round ! From "The Whole Year Christmas" V. ANOTHER CHALLENGE TO FAITH. PlRACICABA. Collegia Piracicabano. ALMOST simultaneously with the opening of work in China there began to loom large be fore the newly organized Woman s Mission ary Society the urgency of the need in Mexico and Brazil. Indeed, at the very first meet ing of the General Executive Association in 1879, there was made a contingent appropria tion of five hundred dollars for Brazil. The second annual report of the Corresponding Secretary says: After much correspondence, it was shown that the appropriation made last May could be judiciously ap plied in aiding the school of Miss Newman at Piraci- caba. This school had been opened the year pre vious by the daughter of the Rev. J. E. New man, an appointee of the General Board of Missions. This same report quotes the fol lowing from a letter from the field: Miss Newman s school in Piracicaba has fifteen pupils three Americans, one English, and eleven Bra- (109) 110 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. zilians. Plan the Rev. J. E. Newman to remain as ostensible head of the school for protection. Desired appropriation for school, $1,000. Reasons we have an infant mission in Piracicaba under an ex-priest. If he is faithful, we will have a Church there before the close of 1880. At the second annual meeting of /the General Executive Association of the Woman s Mis sionary Society one thousand dollars was ap propriated. The school, however, was sus pended during that year on account of the marriage of Miss Annie Newman to Rev. J. J. Ransom and the failing health of her sis ter. Mrs. Ransom died within a few months after her marriage, and the Rev. J. J. Ran som, returning to this country, plead with the women of the Executive Committee to send a missionary at once to reopen the school. The result was the immediate appointment of Miss Martha Watts who became the pioneer representative of the woman s work in Brazil. She reopened the school in September of 1 88 1 in a rented house of ten rooms. Eight een desks were purchased, but on the open ing day only one pupil appeared. The Jesu its had begun to fear the entrance cf the Protestants and had pledged fifteen thousand Collars for the establishment of a girls ANOTHER CHALLENGE TO FAITH, m school. In spite of the discouraging begin ning, the report of 1883 says: The Collegio Piracicabano has become an established fact. It is steadily gaining the favor of the people and is partly self-sustaining. The corner stone of the new building was laid on February 8, with imposing cere monies in which several prominent men of the country took part The new building was opened in 1884 with forty-five pupils. The number soon increased to seventy. Miss Watts was to Brazil, in those early pioneer days, what Miss Haygood was to China. From the first she had courted the friendship and influence of Drs. Manuel and Prudente de Moraes Barros, both of whom were federal senators. Dr. Prudente later became President of Brazil. Miss Watts had adopted in her school the public school meth ods of the United States; and while Dr. Pru dente was Governor of the State of Sao Paulo, Collegio Piracicabano served as his model for shaping the school system of that State, which later became the most advanced, educational ly, throughout Brazil. These leaders not on y looked to Miss Watts for counsel and advice, but were influential in sending the daughters of the leading families to her to be educated. 112 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. In time, Collegio Piraciabana outgrew the beautiful spacious building which had been lo lated in the center of the town, and to en large its usefulness the Martha Watts Annex was built. This building provided an assem bly room, classrooms, and space for the kin dergarten school. Miss M. L. Gibson says: The college and the annex together present the most imposing structure in the city and is a splendid monu ment to the woman whose name it bears. Miss Lily Stradley took charge in 1898, and through her high aims and ability the school at Piracicaba has been kept one of the leading girls schools in all Brazil. The ef ficiency of the work and its hold on the peo ple is set forth in the following from Dr. Browning, Educational Secretary of the Com mittee on Latin America: There is a fine student body. The premises are kept in beautiful order, and the buildings, modeled after the old Southern mansions and set back from the street among palms and other semitropical plants, present a very pleasing appearance to the passer-by. I visited a number of the classes and, so far as one can tell from such a superficial examination, I judge that good work is being done. The dormitories were clean and well aired, the beds well made, and the closets full o f cloth ing neatly hung in order. A pleasing touch was that of finding in almost all the beds, especially in the dor- ANOTHER CHALLENGE TO FAITH. 113 mitory of the small girls, one or more dolls neatly dressed and seemingly patiently awaiting the return of the little mothers from the tasks of the day. The atmosphere of the school was most attractive, the rela tion between the teacher and the student seeming to be of the closest and most friendly sort. There is an air of home life about the entire establishment that cannot but have a very wholesome influence on the girls who are preparing to go out from its classes as wives and mothers or as members of society. There was a public meeting at night held in the school auditorium which was attended by the students and teachers as well as by a considerable number of teachers from the town. There are in Piracicaba two other very impor tant institutions the Normal School, wifh equipment equal to that of Teacher s College in New York, and the State Agricultural College, one of the best I have ever seen as regards equipment and beauty of grounds and there was a good attendance from the faculty of these schools as well as from the townspeople. Rio DE JANEIRO. The determined purpose of the women to establish work in Rio de Janeiro, the capital city of Brazil, has continued to hold through out a whole generation amid almost unparal leled failures and discouragements. In the report of 1885 we read: A few words only will suffice in regard to the Rio College. It must now be generally known that this college is only a projected though determined institu tion. The plan is to build up a first-class college for the girls in Rio de Janeiro, the capital of the empire. 8 II 4 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. The college must be planned on a broad and liberal basis, providing a full literary and scientific course and giving from its incipiency due prominence to Christian culture. Thirty-five years later we find this school still a "projected though determined" insti tution. The following story shows the leading of God through a series of disappointments and seeming failures. In 1884 the one-hundredth anniversary of Methodism was celebrated by gifts for the extension of the kingdom into foreign lands. One of the objects selected by the committee, appointed by the General Conference, was a college to be located in Rio de Janeiro for the girls of high-class families. At the urgency of the committee, the Woman s Board (at the time only five years old) ventured to ask the women of the Church for $50,000 for this purpose. The General Board promised hearty support and co operation. The offering proved to be only $16,229.73, and it was soon discovered that the "hearty cooperation" on the part of the General Board did not mean financial aid. The women were discouraged and wished to abandon the plan and appropriate the funds to other work. When Bishop Granbery vis- ANOTHER CHALLENGE TO FAITH. 115 ited the field in 1887, however, he urged the women to push forward in spite of the odds which were against them. In accordance with his recommendation, Miss Mary Bruce, who had been a teacher in Piracicaba, was appointed to Rio de Janeiro. Some months later beau tiful property on Larangeiras (street of the orange trees) was purchased. Concerning this property it was said: "The altitude, salubrious air, and distance from the crowded part of the city make it almost a sanitarium when yellow fever is prevailing. No case has ever occurred there." Miss Bruce encountered difficulties in pro curing a license, but in her annual report she writes in high hope: Though the children did not swarm in at the opening of the school, yet we are not discouraged. We have fourteen pupils, eleven of whom are boarders. It will require patience and waiting to develop the work here and make a place as Miss Watts has done in Piraci caba ; but in no spirit of boasting we believe our time will come when we will be known and trusted and our efforts crowned with success. Just before the time to begin the second session, there came upon the beautiful city a severe scourge of yellow fever. Schools were suspended and our missionaries were stricken with fever. So great was the calamity that Il6 W OMEN AND MISSIONS. the General Secretary says: "Of our mission aries in Rio de Janeiro it may be said as of the Jews of old, they were scattered and peeled. " After this a brave effort was made to con tinue the work, but pure water was found to be insufficient and the expense of drainage so exorbitant that early in 1893 the school at Rio de Janeiro was closed, it having been demonstrated that the frequent yellow fever scourages made it impossible to establish a per manent work. It was the purpose of the Board to continue its work through a day school and special work among the women. Accordingly, the property on the heights was sold and reinvested in a day school building for Rio de Janeiro and in the establishment of a boarding school at Petropolis. Miss Lulu Ross opened the day school under the handicaps of sickness and the neces sity of seeking new quarters. The following year Mrs. H. C. Tucker, formerly Miss Ella Granbery, took charge. This was the year of revolution, and throughout the bombard ment of the city the workers stood at their post despite the falling of shot and shell in the streets. That year seventy-two pupils were enrolled. ANOTHER CHALLENGE TO FAITH* 117 After the school had been discontinued for eight months it was again opened by Miss Layona Glenn in 1896. Miss Glenn planned for a system of day schools, and for a number of years three were in session: the Jardim School, taught in the Jardim Church, the Cat- tete in connection with the Cattete Church, and the Collegio Americano Fluminense. (It will be remembered that "collegio" merely means school.) The last named was finally closed in 1915, because suitable rented prop erty could not be secured. The most tragic event in the history of the woman s missionary work in Brazil was the failure to hold the vantage ground once held in the capital of the republic, beautiful Rio. At the closing session of the Woman s Board of Foreign Missions, held in 1910, a pathetic appeal came from the entire missionary body in Brazil, pleading for a suitable building in Rio de Janeiro as headquarters for work in the republic. They wrote: "One of three things is inevitable: the school must die a lin gering death, it must be closed at once, or the Board must put it in position to compete favorably with the other schools in the city." They asked for a committee to consider locations and prices and to consult agents and uS W OMEN AND MISSIONS. architects before submitting plans, They pleaded that the work in Rio de Janeiro be considered first. In response the Board voted: That the Executive Committee be authorized to nego tiate a loan of $100,000 if, in their judgment, it were considered wise to purchase the property in Rio de Janeiro for which that amount has been appropriated contingently, and that $25,000 of this amount be paid annually to the bank to liquidate the indebtedness. A month later the Woman s Board of For eign Missions was merged with the Board of Missions. At the first session of the Wom an s Missionary Council, April, 1911, the President, Miss Bennett, said in her message: The Foreign Department of this Council, by its ac tion last year, is committed to the establishment of a girls boarding school in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Every reasonable effort ought to be put forth to accom plish this work within the next twelve months. At that time it was voted to hold a jubilee in cooperation with the women of other boards. The object of the offering was to be for the still "projected and determined" boarding school for high-class girls in Rio de Janeiro. When the result of the gifts proved to be $25,962.08, it seemed that the vision of the years was about to be realized. ANOTHER CHALLENGE TO FAITH. 119 In 1913 Miss Bennett and Miss Gibson vis ited Brazil, spending four months in Rio de Janeiro in search of suitable property. Be cause of high prices, the difficulty of securing a suitable place, and the breaking out of the great World War, the long hope of the years was again deferred. However, in 1919, Bish op Moore, on his second visit to Brazil, suc ceeded in securing a site upon which was lo cated a beautiful building suited to the begin nings of a first-class woman s college, the situation of the property being such as to command the attention of the entire city. Hope again ran high, for the "projected and determined" college for high-class girls in Rio de Janeiro, it seemed, was about to be come a reality, and this hope was changed to "glad fruition" when at its session in 1920, the Council authorized the erection of the administration building for the Bennett Col lege at Rio, plans and specifications to be made and submitted at an early date. Juiz DE FORA. Collegia Mineiro. The difficulties which met the brave mis sionaries in Rio de Janeiro and closed for them the doors of opportunity pushed them 120 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. out into other fields. In 1891 Miss Mary Bruce spoke to the Woman s Board in session concerning the two strategic centers of Pira- cicaba and Rio de Janeiro and urged the open ing of work in a third, Juiz de Fora. This was a city of 21,000 people, which had al ready a church and a well-established school for boys, Granbery College. The bishop in charge also urged the opening of a school for girls, and the result was that in 1892 Miss Bruce and eleven of her pupils were trans ferred from Rio de Janeiro to Juiz de Fora, and Collegio Mineiro was begun. The suc cess of the school from the beginning was al most without parallel in the history of our boarding schools. Children from the high- class families were entered, and soon the poor ly equipped rented houses were outgrown. Miss Perkinson writes in 1897: "Situated as we are we have nothing to recommend us but earnest and faithful work." Thirty-eight pupils were enrolled at that time. In 1900 she says: "We have been fortunate in finding a much more convenient and com modious house, \vhich costs us the same rent as the one that Bishop Galloway said was next to the worst thing he had ever seen in ANOTHER CHALLENGE TO FAITH. 121 Southern Methodism. Life in general seems broader and better here." The event in 1904 that will always stand out prominently in the history of the school was the purchase of property. The house that was occupied was to be sold at public auction, according to the will of the owner, who left it to his widow during her lifetime. Her death forced the sale. The missionaries longed to purchase it, prayed to God, and wrote to the Foreign Secretary, asking permis sion to bid on it. Four days before the sale the cable came: "Bid up to eight thousand dollars." They bid and secured the house. The grounds were valuable, in the very heart of the city, and the house was large, though old. A prominent physician, a Catholic, but a liberal man, said: "The Lord s hand was cer tainly in that purchase, for a. number of men were anxious to buy the property, and yet they did not go to the sale." The missionaries and their friends united in a praise service on Thanksgiving Dry. The purchase gratified the town, and many civic im provements followed, among which were a new modern railroad station, an electric street railway, with Ameri can cars, which proved a boon to teachers and pupils as well as to the public, and new sidewalks laid around the school. 122 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. Many alterations were made, adding to the comfort of the college home. A large open gymnasium was built from the material of a small house on the back lot. Beside this building was the basket ball ground. Another new feature was the rose garden, where the queen of flowers revels in beauty and fragrance twelve months in the year. The house was repaired and painted, and the stately dwelling, all their own, seemed like a palace to the missionaries who had been pilgrims and wanderers so long. ( Story of the Years," by Miss M. L. Gibson.) The school prospered for a number of years under the principalship of Miss Ida Shaffer and later under Miss Sara Warne. In 1913 the enrollment had reached one hun dred and thirteen. Because the building did not meet the needs of the school and because Granbery College was receiving girls, it was decided in 1914 to discontinue Collegio Mi- neiro. The property was sold to the General Department of the Board of Missions for the use of Granbery. The Council received, in exchange, property for the enlargement of Collegio Isabella Hendrix at Bello Horizonte and also a sum of money which was turned into the fund for the projected school at Rio de Janeiro. Collegio Mineiro was closed, yet its years of efficient service and the consecrated lives of the missionaries have enriched Brazil in manifold ways. ANOTHER CHALLENGE TO FAITH, 123 PETROPOLIS. Collegia Americano. For a number of years the question of the sale of property in Rio de Janeiro and the purchase of property for the school in Petropo- lis came before the Woman s Board for de cision. The report of 1894-95 shows that the exchange had been made. Miss Watts writes of the opening of Collegio Americano: A large house with almost no furniture is not famed for cheerfulness, and this one on a hill far from any other was no exception. On the seventh day of May we opened our doors to the public. Three children ap peared, and we went to work with them. No one of us was busy all day, but we all had something to do for the three. As each one constituted a distinct class and each had several studies, there was more to do than any but a teacher would think. In June two more came, and July brought others. New names were enrolled from time to time until we had twenty-four matricu lations. The yellow fever epidemic in Rio de Janeiro had driven the court, diplomatic circles, and all others who were financially able to this health resort of Petropolis, which was only three hours distant. This made the transfer of the Rio de Janeiro property seem wise. However, the situation of the college on the hill made a day pupilage impossible. When 124 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. later the court was removed, the numbers de creased and the attendance became small. Be cause the school did not seem to be serving the largest needs and because of its proximity to the capital city, the teachers and pupils were removed in 1920 to Rio de Janeiro. This formed the nucleus for the opening of that school, and thus the original plan was served. Miss Eliza Perkinson, who for years was the head of the school at Petropolis, was appointed to take charge of this new college. RIBEIRAO PRETO. Collegia Methodista. For a number of years appeafs had been made to the Woman s Board to open work in Ribeirao Preto, but because of lack of funds a continued refusal was necessary. Finally, however, in 1899 Bishop Hendrix transferred Miss Leonora Smith to that point and opened a school, making the condition that there should be no cost to the Woman s Board. Miss Smith writes of those early days: I arrived in Ribeirao Preto August 31 and opened school September 5 in the hall now known as the Meth odist church. There being no school furniture, the church chairs and tables were kindly tendered me for use until I could provide better. One of our members ANOTHER CHALLENGE TO FAITH. 125 made at reasonable rates five double desks, a black board, and a hatrack. Teaching in the church was fraught with many inconveniences, the chief one being the moving of school furniture three times a week to prepare for public services and the arrangements for school the following day. As soon as I could I made a change, finding a house not in every particular de sirable. I have two rooms, each about seven feet square, which I use for bedroom and study, and a large room for the school. For these and my board I pay fifteen dollars. The second year she enrolled seventy-six pupils, and everywhere there seemed to be an open door of opportunity. The success of the school was such that the Board seemed compelled to make an appropriation for its support. In 1903 there came to the city of Ribeirao Preto a terrible yellow fever epidemic, and Miss Ida May Stewart and Miss Willie Bow man, who were serving there at that time, gave themselves in such self-sacrificing serv ice to the sick and the dying that for years their names were mentioned in the most lov ing remembrance. This labor of love enlarged their influence to such an extent that the fol lowing year we find them moving into larger and better quarters. This brought new cour age, and the purchase of a fine lot a little later gave a new prestige to the school. 126 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. It was not until 1913 that plans for build ing were really projected. There were at that time two hundred and twelve children crowded into an old building which was wholly inadequate. The dedication of the new col lege grounds took place while Miss Bennett and Miss Gibson were in Brazil. Of this occasion Miss Gibson says: The dedication of the college grounds to the service of God and ministry to children took place on Sunday night, September 20, 1913. After the night service the large congregation marched in procession to the col lege grounds, and there under the stars and lighted by a large incandescent lamp the assemblage stood while selections from the Ritual were read in English by Dr. Tilly and in Portuguese by Senor Reis. Hymns were sung in the two languages, and short talks were made by friends of the school, after which the erection of the building was authorized in the name of the Wom an s Missionary Council, and Miss Bennett and Miss Gibson each planted a tree in commemoration of the event which would prove of such moment in the history of the Church and community. The final completion of the building meant for the Collegio Methodista a greatly enlarged field of usefulness, and Miss Jennie Stradlcy, the directress, continued to hold for it the center of influence in that city of twenty thou sand inhabitants, located in the heart of a great Brazilian coffee region. ANOTHER CHALLENGE TO FAITH, 12J BELLO HORIZONTE. Collegia Isabella Hendrix. Bishop Wilson visited Brazil in 1903 and, upon his return, advised the sale of the prop erty at Petropolis and recommended the open ing of work in Bello Horizonte. That same year the Board voted to occupy that impor tant city. Miss Watts, who had pioneered the work in Piracicaba and Petropolis, was ap pointed to open the school. This appointment was made with the intention of erecting a building in the near future which should bear the name Isabella Hendrix, in honor of Bish op Hendrix s mother, whose deep interest in the work and workers had been untiring. A beautiful lot, comprising four acres near the center of the town, had been given to the Gen eral Board of Missions, half of which was turned over to the Woman s Board of For eign Missions, and, in 1905, the immediate erection of the Isabella Hendrix was recom mended. Entrance into this city was made against the strongest Catholic opposition, but the courageous heart of our pioneer never failed. She writes in 1905: 128 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. A little more than a year ago we opened school with five pupils, but during the session of nine months that followed we matriculated sixty-three. It really is a wonder that we have a Catholic child in the school, for the priests preach against us on Sunday and work against us on the week days. One priest told his con gregation that Dona Isabella snatched the saint off the neck of one of the children. We hear of people who want to send their children to us, but are afraid. The school continued to prosper, and in 1914 the enrollment had reached one hundred and ninety-one. Not only did Catholic opposition put the school to the test, but the educational reforms going on in Brazil made a higher standard necessary. Miss Watts says concern ing this: "We ll stand the storm as we have done in Piracicaba, Juiz de Fora, and Petropo- lis; for our schools are God s schools. We must have his lighthouses wherever we can put them, and he will keep the light burning." Miss Blanche Howell and Miss Mamie Fin- ley, each in succession, followed Miss Watts as Directress. Later, Miss Emma Christine was put in charge. The following from her gives an insight into the success of the school: "The playgrounds are now a delight to pupils and teachers. A little girl, a pupil, was heard to say as she passed our gate: O but this ANOTHER CHALLENGE TO FAITH. 129 school is good ! It is very good. It has play grounds, a swing, and a seesaw ! Work in the classroom would seem to be equally pleasant, for she further writes: "My fifth-year class in the life of St. Paul was es pecially interesting to me, as in it were many girls who had never before studied the Bible. One day one of these girls said: Paul was so enthusiastic for Christ. Why are not our men of to-day interested in religion? And I thought, Why not, indeed? " PORTO ALEGRE. Collegia Americano. \Vhen the Methodist Episcopal Church and the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, agreed to work territorially in South America, and Brazil was given over to Southern Meth odism, this meant the entrance into the State of Rio Grande do Sul and the carrying on of the work that had already been begun in the capital of Porto Alegre. The Woman s Board, in its session in 1900, voted to follow the General Board into South Brazil and to accept the responsibility of the woman s work in Porto Alegre, which had already been pro jected by the Methodist Episcopal Church. Porto Alegre is four days journey from Rio 9 130 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. de Janeiro, and Miss Mary Pescud, the first appointee, writes two years later concerning this new and untried field: "A year ago I was a stranger in a strange land, a land almost as different from the Brazil I knew as that is from the homeland. Eight or ten differ ent nationalities are represented in our circle of friends, but we all found a common tongue in the Portuguese language." Concerning her school equipment, she says: Its quarters are as poorly adapted for a school as can well be imagined, "and its furnishings would pro voke criticism in a backwoods school in the States, though we are in the capital and lar gest town of one of the largest States of Brazil." The school was opened with an enrollment of fifty, and in 1918 the number had increased to one hundred and ten. In 1909 two flour ishing day schools were in session. Miss Elizabeth Lamb followed Miss Mary Pescud as the head of Collegio Americano and was succeeded by Miss Eunice Andrew. Constantly the missionaries wrote of their success in spite of poor equipment and an illy adapted rented building, inadequate to meet the great possibilities in this rich city. The Centenary ingathering of funds brought new ANOTHER CHALLENGE TO FAITH. 131 courage, for the askings included $100,000 for a new building at Porto Alegre. SOCIAL SERVICE AND EVANGELISTIC WORK. While the outwork has never been as strong in Brazil as in China, yet much has been done that is worthy of note. Miss Amelia Elerding, who was appointed to Brazil in 1892, devoted her efforts almost entirely to evangelistic work first in Rio de Janeiro and for many years to Italian work in Sao Paulo. In Rio de Janeiro Miss Elerding was assisted for a time by Miss Wright, an English lady. A little or gan brought by Miss Watts from the United States was a great help in drawing the people together. Miss Amelia Elerding began an industrial school with nine pupils. With the help of Mrs. Tilly, she organized a woman s prayer meeting. One afternoon in each week the missionaries were "at home" to the estalayem peo ple, giving them an opportunity to see how they lived and how they enjoyed social life. Later Miss Elerding organized a Ladies Aid Society to develop Christian activity. Miss Bowman also worked most effectively in Rio de Janeiro, interesting the English-speaking ladies in visitation work and securing from them cloth ing for children of the families on her visiting list. She visited the Sailors Mission, going on board ships with the sailors missionary to assist in Sunday serv ices. The great Central Mission, conducted by the Rev. H. C. Tucker in a desperately needy section of Rio de Janeiro, has for years had the services of women mis sionaries supported by the woman s work. The fol- 132 W OMEN AND MISSIONS. lowing missionaries have served this Church : Miss May Dye, Miss Eunice Andrew, Miss Trulie Richmond, Miss Blanche Howell, Miss Virginia Howell. In 1898 Miss Elerding was transferred from Rio de Janeiro to Sao Paulo after her furlough, during which time she tried to gain new ideas and new methods re lating to woman s work. There were ninety thousand Italians in Sao Paulo, and from the first Miss Elerding felt a strong interest in them. While she has done some work among the Portuguese, yet her main effort has been directed to the Italians. The work among Brazilians would have been more permanent and en couraging if there had been conservation of effort through a strong central Church that would have com manded the respect and won the confidence of the people of Sao Paulo. With three Bible women and one evangelistic helper, Miss Elerding has lived among the people, visiting their homes, loving them, and serv ing them for Christ s sake. She has held people s prayer meetings before services on Sunday evenings and on Friday evenings and has attended services at the carpenters shops with good results. In Porto Alegre the Institutional Church has been supplied with a pastor s assistant, and for a number of years a day school was conducted in that church by the Woman s Board. In Piracicaba a Woman s Aid Society was organ ized years ago to build up the spiritual, social, and finan cial interests of the Church. During one year four hundred dollars was raised and many women led out into Church work. In 1897 the president of the so ciety urged the members to take up Bible women in China as their special work. Flower missions and services in jails and hospitals have been carried on in various places. "Story of the Years," M. L. Gibson. ANOTHER CHALLENGE TO FAITH* 133 WOMAN S MISSIONARY SOCIETY. The 1911 report of the Woman s Mission ary Society of Brazil showed that at that time there had been organized twenty-two auxiliaries with a membership of six hundred and seventy-three. The aim adopted by this society was to establish parochial schools in a number of small towns in connection with the pastorates and to be responsible for their sup port. Their plan also included contributions to foreign missions. In 1919 they sent their first check to the Council Treasurer for work in Africa. VI. ANSWERING A NEIGHBOR S NEED. EARLY BEGINNINGS. THE beginnings of all worth-while enter prises are fraught with intense interest. This is particularly true with reference to the be ginnings of the woman s work in each of the fields occupied, and Mexico is not an excep tion. It has, indeed, a distinctive interest of its own in the fact that it was begun not on Mexican, but on American soil, and in a pri vate home. The first annual report of the Woman s Missionary Society shows that an appropriation of five hundred dollars was made to a school on the Mexican border, con ducted in the home of Mrs. Jacob Norwood at Laredo, Tex. This amount went to the support of four girls, two of whom boarded in Mrs. Norwood s home, the other two being day pupils. This small beginning was made in answer to the plea of the Rev. A. H. Suth erland, the founder of Southern Methodism on the Mexican border. With wonderful foresight he writes: "We hold a very advan- (134) ANSWERING A NEIGHBOR S NEED. 135 tageous position. We are able to carry on foreign mission work under our own flag. My plan is to prosecute this border work until we reach the Pacific, thus having one long line of gospel breastworks and an army of gospel workers from the Gulf of Mexico to the Pa cific Ocean." The second annual report shows that an appropriation of an additional five hundred dollars was made for pupils to be boarded and educated in the home of Mrs. Sutherland in San Antonio. This was, indeed, a small beginning, but there was in the minds of the women the seed- thought of a great school soon to be estab lished in Laredo. Under date of April 17, 1 88 1, Mrs. Norwood says: "You will no doubt be surprised to learn of our removal from Laredo to this place (Conception). The two girls (boarders) will remain with me, I sup pose, until the opening of the proposed col lege in Laredo. I sincerely hope the college will be built, that many Mexican girls may be educated there. Laredo is a promising and an interesting place, and it was with many regrets that we left." 136 W OMEN AND MISSIONS. Laredo Seminary. In September of that same year two regu larly appointed missionaries, Miss Annie Wil liams and Miss Rebecca Toland, were sent to the Mexican border. Already four thousand dollars had been appropriated for the build ing of Laredo Seminary, and a plot of ground had been donated by the Rev. Elias Robert son. The General Secretary writes in the re port of 1882: The unavoidable delay in the erection of the build ing has not materially affected the work of our young ladies this year. Miss Williams is located for the present at the Mexican town Conception, heart and soul given to her work, and Miss Toland not less suc cessfully engaged in teaching a fine school at Laredo. Miss Annie Williams says of her work in these days: "My home for two months after coming to the border was with Mr. Norwood s family, but they were called away from Con ception, and I went to live with a Mexican family, where I have remained up to this time. I have been the recipient of many kindnesses from the Mexicans of this place and realize what a noble people they will become when the light of the gospel truth illuminates their hearts and minds. I ask that an appropriation ANSWERING A NEIGHBOR S NEED. 137 be made to complete and furnish the seminary at Laredo." The building was completed October 13, 1882, at which time Miss Williams took charge. She says: "We spent some time in furnishing the building and trying to make ready for the fall session, which opened the second Monday in November. We had only three Mexican and four American children at the beginning, but in a short time the school increased to eighteen." That same year Miss Toland had sixty pupils in her self-supporting day school at Laredo. At the end of the first year Miss Williams was married to the Rev. J. F. Corbin, and Miss Toland was given supervision of the sem inary until the arrival of Miss Nannie Hold ing in October of 1883. Since that time the Laredo Seminary has been inseparably asso ciated with Miss Holding s name. Her whole life and soul became incarnate in the institu tion ; and the daughters of the school, some of whom were in attendance for years, were in deed her daughters. She remained at the head of Laredo Seminary for nearly thirty years. When she became principal the build ing would accommodate by the utmost over crowding only thirty children. During her 138 WOMEN AND .MISSIONS. cidministration it was enlarged to a capacity of between three and four hundred. In her book, "A Decade in Mission Life," she says: February of 1885 found us domiciled in our com fortable and sorely needed new quarters. The crowd ing in the old house made the new one seem so roomy that sometimes a little faithless wonder would come : Would it ever be possible for its halls to be filled with children? We were soon rebuked for our faithless ness, for in one short year our numbers caused the prayer to go forth which brought us Faith Hall. The following incident shows the origin of the name "Faith Hall." Miss Holding says: It was late in the fall of 1886. As I write, how that November evening comes back to me laden with the perfume of holy memories. I see again the dear friends and the precious children gathered one by one in the little chapel after a day of fasting; I feel again the hush of the Master s presence; I hear the voice of sup plication as we told of our need, of how crowded we were, of how our hearts were grieved to turn away those who wanted to enter our home ; I hear again the expression of the simple faith of the children. Faith Hall now stands as a monument to that evening s prayer. With strong confidence, one of the little ones, looking up with pure, innocent eyes said : "Shall we begin to-morrow?" I answered "No; but we will pre pare the ground." So the morning found us taking measurements and removing trees. At the meeting of the Woman s Board in 1887 Miss Holding made a plea to the Com mittee on Extension of Work for the money ANSWERING A NEIGHBOR S NEED. 139 to erect Faith Hall. The answer was: "We fear we cannot give you what you ask." On the anniversary night of that same session she made a public address on Mexico. As she closed, Mrs. Lizzie Swiggart stepped forward taking from the table an empty box which had contained flowers. In eloquent words she thrilled the audience until they pressed for ward pouring their gifts into the box. This was the beginning of making Faith Hall a reality. Donations came afterwards from nearly every Southern State. After the Woman s Foreign Mission and Home Mission Boards were united Laredo Seminary was turned over to the home de partment. Miss Holding was succeeded by Dr. J. M. Skinner. The name was changed to Holding Institute in honor of the one whose hope and faith had been a leaven, not only for the work on the border, but throughout all of Mexico. SALTILLO. Colegio Ingles. Miss Holding was not only head of Laredo Seminary, but was agent for missionary work along both sides of the border. In 1888 the Woman s Board began work in Saltillo, a 140 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. city of about twenty thousand inhabitants. A few years previous a day school, opened by Mrs. Corbin, had been taken in charge by Miss Leila Roberts, who was being supported by the "Rosebuds" of Virginia. As the school grew it became the incarnation of the life of Miss Roberts almost to the same degree that Laredo Seminary had become the expression of Miss Holding s mind and heart. The cir cumstances under which she was heroically laboring when the Woman s Board entered Saltillo marked her as a true pioneer. The three-hundred-year-old building in which the school was being conducted was adobe with the exception of the stone facings of the win dows and doors. There was no glass in the windows, and the heavy wooden shutters "shut out all light where most needed, or let in all of the cold where least wanted," At the close of Miss Roberts s first year of work for the Woman s Board, Miss Holding reports : Miss Roberts has worked faithfully to make the Colegio Ingles what it is. I am more and more pleased with the school at every visit. In the short space of one year we can almost call it self-supporting. That same year an appropriation was made to buy property. Miss Holding and Miss Rob- ANSWERING A NEIGHBOR S NEED. 141 erts searched in vain to find a suitable place, and finally resorted to the three-century-old property then occupied. A letter written four years later by the Rev. H. C. Morrison, Sen ior Secretary of the General Board, describes the transformation of the building: At Saltillo we met Miss Roberts, a woman of mar velous power for work and doing good. To her is due the undying honor of the work in that city. Alone and unaided she battled for a time, and then under the fostering hand of the Woman s Board she has wrought wonders a school property, commodious and well ar ranged, with the touch of taste on every hand. In ad dition to this property and fronting on another street is the new church. The lot on which it is located was purchased by Miss Roberts with the proceeds from the school, and the building was erected through her energy and the financial aid of Brother Grimes, of our work. This plant is a gospel arc light in the heart of Saltillo. Miss Roberts, in her report of this same year (1893), reveals the proportions which the work had begun to take. She says: A normal department, with a course of study to be completed in three years, was added to our work. As teaching is really the only avenue open to the women by which they can earn enough to be above want, we saw that our opportunity had come to prove to the people that we were ready, as far as possible, to meet this deeply felt need. 142 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. By tenacity of purpose and personal effort she succeeded in the establishment of this de partment. In time all the other mission schools of the woman s work became feeders to the normal school at Saltillo, each sending yearly, when possible, its most promising pu pils for teacher-training. Miss Roberts, in her report of 1894, further says: Seventy-five poor children were taught in our free schools, and there is one place where all, the high and the low, the rich and the poor, meet together every day, and that is in our chapel services where God is worshiped and his Word is studied. The work wherein my soul delights is that with the poor women. They come to us as their M.D. and their D.D. The number of those enrolled in our Bible and sewing class is sixty-seven. They meet me once a week on the shady side of the wall in one of our courts, as there is no other place. The record of 1896 shows that there was at that time an enrollment of one hundred and ninety-one and that the income was pay ing two-fifths of the school expenses. Such prestige had been established that the Govern or of the State had recommended it to par ents who were asking for the best places to educate their girls. This favor with the of ficials continued, for later, through the in fluence of Governor Carranza, a subsidy of ANSWERING A NEIGHBOR S NEED. 143 one hundred dollars (Mexican) a month was received from the State. The Saltillo Normal was the only Protestant school invited to have representation in the Congress of Teachers in 1912. The school at Saltillo was also the only one of our schools that was not closed at some time during the revolution. Miss Roberts made frequent visits into Mexico and was thus able to keep the work from being discontinued. The report of 1919 shows an enrollment of two hundred and three, the student body rep resenting six States in Mexico and the Mexi can population in the United States. Govern or Mariles, a former pupil of the school, wrote in this year: "I desire to restore to your school the monthly subsidy of one hundred dollars (Mexican) granted by President Carranza when he was governor." Miss Roberts writes at that time: "Gov ernor Mariles was anxious to have us lay the corner stone of the new school building last September. He guarantees us every neces sary protection as well as his personal sup port." In view of these facts, the Council voted in 1919 to erect a new building at the very earli est date possible, a fine piece of land facing 144 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. the Alameda and diagonally across from the State Normal having recently been purchased with that in view. This action was confirmed by the session of 1920 in the passage of the reso lution to erect for the Normal School at Sal- tillo an administration building to cost $150,- ooo, to be provided from a previous appropria tion of $20,000 and from Centenary funds. The great esteem in which the school was held was shown by the fact that its friends and ex- students also subscribed most generously to this building fund. The recent awakening that came to Mexico as a result of the Cen tenary created a great demand for more in tensive training of evangelistic workers. To meet this demand it was decided to open in the fall of 1920 a department of Bible in con nection with the Normal, the old normal build ing to be used for settlement work, thereby providing a center for the further training of evangelistic workers. DURANGO. The MacDonell Institute. A school at Durango was opened by Miss Kate McFarren during the ministry of Rob ert MacDonell (the husband of Mrs. R. W. MacDonell, former Executive Secretary of ANSWERING A NEIGHBOR S NEED. 145 the Home Department). After his death the desire became strong among the women of the Board of Foreign Missions to help extend the life and influence of this one who had given himself in heroic sacrifice. According ly, property was purchased in 1889 and the school, which was taken over from the Parent Board, was called the MacDonell Institute. Miss McFarren was in charge until 1898, at which time she was appointed to evangelistic work and Miss Ellie B. Tidings was made Principal. The MacDonell Institute, from its beginning "met and suffered much." There was in the early days a lack of railroad facili ties, so that this mountainous region was al most inaccessible to the outside world. The fanaticism of the people was so intense that many of the experiences of the workers could well be termed persecution. The property seems constantly to have been in danger, and even as late as 1903 Miss Tidings writes: One day they (meaning the neighbors, who by law had a right to do so) sent workmen to wall up our windows, and when I asked the chief workman what was their motive, he shrugged his shoulders and said : "Just to injure the school." Last year the Jefe Politico sent policemen to protect us on the night of September 16 (Independence Day) ; but, notwithstanding their presence, quite a number of our windows were broken, 10 146 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. so this year he sent word beforehand that he would be personally responsible for our property. The mob came as usual, and we heard them screeching for hours. They could see that the Jefe Politico was keep ing watch. We heard afterwards that they threatened to kill him for not permitting them to "celebrate their liberty." In spite of persecution, the school was suc ceeding; for the Corresponding Secretary of the Woman s Board says in one of her re ports: The city of Durango, while priest-ridden and fanati cal, is not openly so hostile as formerly. The gracious influences emanating from MacDonell Institute are being felt very sensibly; and while superstitution and mariolatry abound, the opra Bible is no longer an un known book. The damage that the neighbors had done by putting one side of the school building in darkness led to its sale and the purchase of a large piece of property with a number of dif ferent buildings. An interesting thing about this new property was that between the build ings there was a cock pit. Miss Esther Case, Executive Secretary for Latin America, on her visit to Mexico in 1919 writes: It has two stories (meaning the cock pit), and at one side there is a long room that could be used as an assembly hall. If this cock pit could be covered with glass, it would serve as a gymnasium and also for a hall for closing exercises. ANSWERING A NEIGHBOR S NEED. 147 Miss May Tread well was in charge of Mac- Donell Institute in 1910, and in 1911 Mrs. Nellie O Bierne was appointed principal. Mrs. O Bierne says in the report of 1911-12: Though we have had wars and rumors of wars all the year, our work has steadily grown. In September when we opened we had sixty pupils, we have now passed the two-hundred mark. In this high tide of success the school was closed, and in the report of the Foreign De partment Secretary for the following year we read: MacDonell Institute was suspended last spring because of political disturbances in and around Du- rango. However, the fall of 1912 found the mis sionaries at work. All went well for a \vhile, but toward the close of the year conditions became more serious, farms all around the city were burned and provisions destroyed. For a while all communication with the out side world was cut off, and affairs grew so much worse that the vice consul decided that the missionaries should leave. With the territorial division of Mexico, which was made according to denominational agreement, Durango remained in the hands of Southern Methodism, and the Council voted I 4 8 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. in 1919 to reopen the school there as soon as workers were available. CHIHUAHUA. Colcgio Palmore. Dr. W. B. Palmore, who visited Mexico in 1889, became so interested in that needy field that at the meeting of the Woman s Board in May, 1890, he made the following offer: I hereby promise to donate to the Woman s Board of Foreign Missions for a girls school in Chihuahua all of a plot of land purchased for me by Rev. S. G. Kilgore and lying on the south side of and adjoining the property of the Parent Board, the property to be used for a site for a girls school to be owned and operated by the Woman s Board of Foreign Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. The gift was accepted, and the school opened the following year with Miss Augusta Wilson as principal. In 1892 a building was erected and the school named Colegio Palmore. The foundations were well laid by the first principal during her three years of service, and the institution had a phenomenal growth from the beginning. Miss Elizabeth Wilson, who was appointed to Laredo Seminary in 1889 as matron of that school, became the successor to Miss Augusta AN Sly BRING A NEIGHBOR S NEED. 149 Wilson. From that time on, until her death in 1916, the work of Palmore College centered about that remarkable personality. She was assisted during all of these years by her close friend and coworker, Miss Lucy Harper. In Miss Wilson s third report she says : "Our work embraces four departments : a pay school for girls and one for boys w r ith some outside pupils for English only. These, with the woman s work, missionary society, two Sun day schools, a prayer meeting, some visiting, and the help in the Church services, keep us fully engaged." The enrollment in 1910 had reached five hundred and eighty-seven, and the church, located on the compound and having a mem- bership made up principally of the former pu pils of the school, had become one of the strongest in Mexico. In 1902 a commercial department was opened under the direction of Prof. Servando I. Esquivel, a former pupil of Miss Wilson. Professor Esquivel, in speaking of Miss Wil son, her school, and its work, says: Miss Wilson s contribution to Mexico is the educa tion of more than three thousand boys and girls. Could there have been a greater one? To accomplish it she toiled in the early hours of the morning and worked far into the night. She did not spare herself. 150 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. Her mission, the one she loved most, was the bringing of souls to Christ. And so if any one visiting Pal- more College in its best days had asked to see its highest expression, I should have led him to Holding Hall at chapel time, where the principal brought forth the treasures of the Scriptures to deposit them in the spirit of the students ; or to the office at the evening twilight hour, where she gathered the girls around her for prayer r.nd sacred songs ; or to the parlor on Sun day morning, where she taught the women of her Sun day school class. These were the crowning moments of her life, the high-water marks of the life of the school. Not all of the students came into personal con tact with her, but not one ever left without having felt the touch of her influence. She did not allow any public function of the institution to be opened without recognition of her God. More than one Governor of the State of Chihuahua bowed for the first time in prayer with Protestants at the closing exercises of Palmore College, because Miss Wilson would place God first. She was a spiritual leader. Herein lies the secret of the marvelous pow er wielded by Palmore College for more than twenty years. In 1914, when Miss Wilson and Miss Har per were telegraphed instructions to leave Mexico, the reply was: "No trouble. No fears. Fine school. Firm friends. Please let us stay." The Secretary of the Foreign Department says in her report of that year: ANSWERING A NEIGHBOR S NEED. 151 Misses Wilson and Harper remained in Chihuahua, the storm center of warfare, until General Villa and six trains o^ soldiers entered the city. Then the American consul ordered them to leave. They left, taking with them their faculty and a number of pupils. They stopped at El Paso, and within two weeks had rented a house in the midst of the Mexicans and opened a school composed principally of children of their former patrons who had refugeed to El Paso. In two months the school increased to one hundred and sixty. The Council did not, however, deem its continuance advisable because a number of Mexican schools were already being conducted in El Paso. The strain of the turbulent times proved too much for the frail body of Miss Wilson, and on Sunday morning, Au gust 29, 1916, she passed to the life beyond. In 1914, at a conference of denominational representatives, held in Cincinnati, plans were proposed for a territorial adjustment of Mexi co. At a later meeting in Mexico City, the adjustments made allotted to our Church the border States of Sonora and Tamaulipas be sides the interior State of Durango, thus giv ing to the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, an unbroken territory extending across the border of Mexico from the Gulf of Mexico on the east to the Gulf of California on the west. In 1919 this plan was put into effect. 152 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. The school at Saltillo had never really closed, so the first one to be reopened by the Council was that of Colegio Palmore. In the reor ganization of the school the boys boarding department was opened in a building received through exchange with the American Board. The Rev. J. P. Lancaster was appointed Prin cipal and Miss Mary E. Massey Associate Principal. Two years later Miss Massey be came the head of the institution. In 1919, in one of the buildings on the school compound, the Council opened its first Christian social center in Mexico with Miss Lillie Fox as Head Resident. It was decided that the name Centro Christiano should be given to this settlement and all others that might in the future be opened in Mexico. SAN Luis POTOSI. Colegio Ingles. In 1882 Miss Blanche Gilbert was sent to Mexico City to pioneer work in Central Mex ico. It was later decided to begin in San Luis Potosi, but from the annual report of 1885 we learn that work at that point was carried on for only one year. Miss Gilbert and Miss Mattie Jones, her assistant, were transferred ANSWERING A NEIGHBOR S NEED. 153 to other fields and the property which had been purchased was sold. In 1890 Miss Holding was sent to this city with a view to reopening work. At that time she purchased an attractive piece of property which had formerly been a part of an old Fran ciscan convent. Miss Toland, the first prin cipal of the new school, writes: "When I ar rived at San Luis Potosi last July I found Miss Holding here with everything in readi ness to welcome me. Already she had the patio adorned with beautiful pot plants and everything looking bright and cheerful." Miss Toland was Principal until 1902, when she was succeeded by Miss Esther Case, who was, in turn, followed by Miss Laura V. Wright. In 1902 Miss Frances Moling be came the head of the school and continued in this position until its close. In 1892 Miss Holding writes concerning the work at San Luis Potosi: "This school is almost without parallel in its growth and prosperity. In the two years of its existence it has outgrown its boundaries and called for more room, more money, and more helpers." To meet this demand an addition was made to the building and a boarding department add ed to the day school. A charity school was 154 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. also conducted in another part of the city under Miss Viola Blackburn s supervision. In 1914 the institution was obliged to be closed on account of the revolution. Miss Moling writes concerning this tragic event: On April 21, 1914, when the Americans entered Vera Cruz, we quickly sent the children away for the night and went ourselves, not realizing that we would never return. The children were in the study hall when the message came that mobs were forming in the streets, that the American consulate had been attacked, the flags torn down and trampled underfoot, and the con sul himself saved only by the timely intervention of a servant who wrapped the Mexican flag about him and spirited him away. We knew then that it was time for us to go, as the college, too, had been threatened. Mexi can friends came to our rescue, friends who were true when the test came, and all of our girls were given homes for the night. A lady who had been formerly a student at Colegio Ingles offered us the protection of her home, which we, of course, gladly accepted. We expected to return the following day, but were bitterly disappointed, the streets still being filled with infuriated mobs. The time for closing the scholastic year was at hand. The deep solicitude of our friends in the homeland, the frequent messages from our Sec retary, which had preceded the occupation of Vera Cruz, all combined to help us to decide to leave Mexico until it would be safe to occupy our building again. Accordingly the last of May, on a special train made up of refugees, we left the work that meant more to us than anythiag else in the world. ANSWERING A NEIGHBOR S NEED. 155 With the exchange of properties incident to the allotment of territory, the Christian Woman s Board of Missions received the property at San Luis Potosi, while theirs at Monterey fell to the Woman s Missionary Council. At this latter place a girls school was opened in the fall of 1919 with Miss Dora Ingram in charge. GUADALAJARA. Institute Colon. In 1893 Miss Augusta Wilson and Miss Mattie Dorsey were transferred from Chi huahua to Guadalajara for the purpose of opening a new school. Miss Wilson remained at the head of this institution for five years and was then succeeded by Miss Esther Case. After two years, Miss Case was followed by Miss Alice B. Griffith. Mrs. A. E. McClen- don, Mrs. Ellen B. Carney, Miss Norwood E. Wynn, and Miss Mary Massey, each in turn, served as Principal. Because of the fanati cism of this city, our missionaries were never able to attract a pupilage from the upper class es and the school suffered from the frequent changes of policy resulting from the changes in principalship. However, numbers of the children of the native pastors were among I r6 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. \J the graduates, many of whom have given valu able service in our mission schools and in ac tive Church work. During the time that Mrs. McClendon was Principal the school was given the name Institute Colon (Columbus). While Miss Wynn was the head of the school a prop erty was purchased which was formerly a sanitarium conducted as a branch of the Bat tle Creek Sanitarium of this country. This was the best piece of property that the Wom an s Board owned in Mexico. A day school was conducted in a building adjoining the church property in San Juan de Dios, the slum section of Guadalajara. This school was called the Trueheart Day School in honor of Mrs. S. C. Trueheart, the Corre sponding Secretary of the Woman s Board of Foreign Missions. In the exchange of properties the school at Guadalajara went to the Congregationalists. MEXICO CITY. Mary Keener Institute. Mary Keener Institute, in Mexico City, was opened in 1897 under the principalship of Miss Hardynia Norville. A day school had previously been conducted in the basement of the mission church which had been supported ANSWERING A NEIGHBOR S NEED. 157 by the women of Carondelet Street Church, New Orleans. Their interest in the work had been aroused by Bishop Keener, and when the Woman s Board took over the school it was given the name Keener Institute. At the re quest of Bishop Keener, this name was changed to Mary Keener, in honor of the bishop s wife, who he said had been the prime mover in the enterprise. Mary Keener Insti tute was opened in a rented building and was throughout the years of its existence without any permanent quarters. Property was so dif ficult to secure that the missionaries worked under the severest handicap. Mrs. Cobb, Ex ecutive Secretary, says in her report of 1911- 12: There are no words too strong to portray the real positive need for a change of location. The house for which we pay nearly $4,500 (Mexican) rent each year is dark, gloomy, poorly ventilated, poorly lighted, and, worse still, has sewerage that is a menace to the in mates. There are no windows in the bedrooms and no ventilation except through open doors. In spite of these conditions the school pros pered under the able management of Miss Esther Case. Mrs. Cobb goes on to say in this same report: Brave Miss Case ! Who else would have endured such conditions? All honor to the woman who, despite 158 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. such environment, can sustain the largest school for girls in Mexico City! If she had failed, if there were not still almost constant applications from the best families in the city, including that of Madero himself, we might consider closing the school. As a result of Mrs, Cobb s visit to Mexico and her presentation of the conditions under which the school was being conducted, a much more desirable place was leased for three years and the last year of the school was con ducted under more favorable circumstances. An interesting feature connected with the Mary Keener Institute was the Chinese Sun day school, in which American and Mexican teachers and pupils from the advanced grades of the school taught Chinese pupils on Sunday afternoon. Many of these pupils were con verted and became active members of Mesias Church, the largest Methodist Episcopal Church, South, in Mexico City. The Institute was closed in 1914. Miss Case says in her report: Our work was rudely interrupted when the bom bardment began on February 9 and lasted for ten days. During that time we sent as many of our boarding girls as we could to their homes. Our church and mission house were in the danger zone. Though more than two thousand people were killed in the" city, thou sands wounded, and bullets and parts of exploded shell thrown into our school yard and on our roof, we ANSWERING A NEIGHBOR S NEED. 159 were mercifully spared and kept from harm. Our boarding and day pupils returned promptly after the bombardment and we carried on the work until the end of the school year in May. On August 28 a cable gram was received telling all the missionaries to leave at once. We sent our boarding pupils home, closed school, and had announcements printed and mailed to our patrons and friends telling them why we were leaving. We came away very reluctantly, hoping we might return after the election in October. When that was a failure, \ve planned to return by the first of the year ; but the revolution continues, and we can only pray that peace may come and the way be opened for us to resume our work. After the territorial division among the de nominations, the responsibility for Mexico City fell into other hands, and the former Principal of Mary Keener Institute was en gaged in the tasks which fall to the Execu tive Secretary of the Council for Latin Amer ica and Africa. PARRAL. Colegio Progreso. In the exchange of properties the Council received a day school, Colegio Progreso, lo cated at Parral, a mining town of about 15,- ooo inhabitants in the State of Chihuahua. This school, formerly owned by the American Board, was conducted for thirty-five years by Miss Prescott, who was obliged to leave on 160 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. account of the revolution. The Mexican teach ers were taken over by the Woman s Mission ary Council and the school was carried on without interruption. In 1918 four teachers were employed and two hundred and twelve pupils enrolled. THE CENTENARY IN MEXICO. The work of the Centenary was so success fully carried on in Mexico that important fi nancial help was given by the people them selves in the upbuilding of the mission insti tutions. At that time Miss Norwood Wynn was appointed as Student Secretary for Mex ico. More than one hundred and thirty young people volunteered. These she organized into volunteer bands and assisted in making plans for their life work. Miss Wynn also organized Woman s Missionary Society auxiliaries among the women ; and Miss Case, in her vis it to Mexico in 1919, formed a Conference society with nine auxiliaries. VII. A NEW CAMPAIGN. THE IRENE TOLAND SCHOOL. UPON the close of the Spanish-American War, the General Board of Missions took im mediate steps to enter Cuba. The Senior Sec retary, Dr. Walter Lambuth, decided that Santiago was the best place in which to open the gospel campaign. Accordingly, a house was rented and the Woman s Board was al lowed the use of one room. Miss G. Hattie Carson was at once transferred from Mexico for the purpose of enterprising a girls school. This school was named in honor of Dr. Irene Toland, a sister of Miss Rebecca Toland, who was at that time a missionary in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Dr Toland was a graduate of the American Medical College at St. Louis, Mo. A few days after her graduation she opened an office in that city and rapidly built up a large practice. When yellow fever was raging among our soldiers at Santiago, she offered her services to the government as nurse and worked in that capacity when she ii (161) 162 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. might have gone as physician. Day after day, medicine case in hand, she fought to save the soldiers from the dread pestilence, and then, at last, worn beyond endurance, she fell a vic tim to typhoid fever and ere long laid do\vn her life as a sacrifice for the American sol diers. To commemorate this service of love, the school at Santiago was named Irene To- land. Because of the inaccessibility of Santiago and the continued scourge of yellow fever, the Irene Toland School was moved, after a year and a half, to Matanzas, "the city of the two rivers," and Miss Lily Whitman was made Principal. In 1902, however, Miss Rebecca Toland was transferred from Mexico, and in 1920 the school was still under her supervision. For twelve years the Irene Toland School was housed in rented property, but at the end of that time a beautiful situation was secured on a hillside overlooking the city and the bay beyond. Miss Esther Case, Executive Secretary for Latin America, says in a report of 1919: The enrollment of day pupils in the Irene Toland is comparatively small because it is located rather far from the center of the city. The majority of these are carried to and from school in the auto bus, which A NEW CAMPAIGN. 163 is owned by the institution. During the nineteen years of the school s existence it has drawn patronage from more than fifty towns and from every province of the island. The Cuban teachers in the grades are former pupils of the school, and others of its graduates and former pupils are teaching, some in mission and others in public schools. It is incorporated with the institute of Matanzas Province and the necessary equipment is being installed for the third and fourth years of high school. THE ELIZA BOWMAN SCHOOL. In the same year that the Woman s Board voted to move the Irene Toland School to Matanzas the following resolution was passed: We recommend that Miss Nannie E. Holding be re quested to go to Havana and organize the work there as soon as the heat of the summer will admit and that the North and East Texas Conference Societies be granted the privilege of naming the school Eliza Bow man, in honor of one whose holy life was a benediction to all with whom she came in contact. Mrs. Eliza Bowman was a woman greatly honored among Texas women for her godly life and character and her zeal for missions. Her son, Richard Bowman, gave one thousand dollars toward founding the school. The twenty-third annual report showed that the school had been opened at Havana and was in charge of Miss Hattie Carson. It re mained in this city for seven years and car- 164 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. ried on during that time some of its most suc cessful work. Because there was no Church in its vicinity, thereby making it impossible to conserve the efforts of the missionaries, it was decided, at the suggestion of Bishop Candler, to move to Cienfuegos. At that time the South Georgia Conference Society united with the North Texas in buy ing a fine piece of property in the central part of the city. Miss Carson writes: The school is situated on the corner of two of the best streets, just a block from our pretty new church. It is such a joy to be in our own home without fear of having to move at the whim of the owner. There are twenty-one rooms in the house besides three bath rooms, and there are fifteen stationary washstands throughout the building. The Eliza Bowman has been incorporated with the public schools and renders her monthly report to the city authorities, thus being under the city s protection. Besides Spanish, we teach the usual English branches and are prepared to give a good high school course. We also teach instrumental and vocal music, typewriting, sewing, and embroidery. Most of our boarders do all of their own sewing, even a child of ten years making dresses for her little sister. Miss Carson remained at the head of the Eliza Bowman School until 1914, when Miss Frances B. Moling, who came out of Mexico on account of the revolution, was made Prin cipal. So crowded did the school become that A NEW CAMPAIGN. 165 there was always a long list of applicants for the boarding department. In 1919 a piece of land was bought in Juan- ita, an addition of Cienfuegos, and plans were made for the erection of a new building to meet the demand. This location, it was known, would cut off the possibility of a day patronage, consequently it was voted to retain the old property for the day school and a so cial center, thus enlarging the scope of the work. HAVANA. Miss Case says after a visit to Cuba in 1919: Havana is the great center of population, as it is the center of commerce and everything that is worth while in Cuba. One-seventh of the population of the island is gathered there, and one-fourth of its in habitants live there and within a radius of twenty-five miles. If the Woman s Missionary Council could es tablish a girls school near Candler College, in Havana, our Church would then be in a position to provide op portunity for Christian education for both boys and girls. The parents who send their boys to Candler College from towns in all parts of Cuba are pleading for a school in Havana for girls. The Centenary askings included a sufficient amount for the projection of this school, and in 1919 a beautiful property was purchased just across the street from Candler College. 166 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. This included a city block of land and a hand some stone residence large enough to make a beginning. Miss M. Belle Markey was ap pointed Principal. The Council could not get possession until January, 1920, so the opening of the school was deferred. VIII. OCCUPYING A WAITING FIELD. AT the meeting of the Woman s. Board of Foreign Missions in 1910, after much prayer and earnest consideration, there was a unani mous decision to send a memorial to the Gen eral Board requesting the opening of work in Africa. The General Board was then in session in Nashville, and the following me morial was presented: Recognizing the obligation of the women of South ern Methodism to do their part in the evangelization of the whole world and to reach in the shortest possi ble time the dying forty millions apportioned to our Church by the great Laymen s Movement, we, the Woman s Board of Foreign Missions, memorialize the General Board of Missions to hear the call from the Dark Continent of Africa and, when it is possible, open work in that needy field. The question of work in Africa had been before the General Board of Missions in 1906, and now through this memorial from the Woman s Board and other pressure brought to bear the question was again revived at this meeting of 1910. Because of lack of funds (167) 1 68 W OMEN AND MISSIONS. the plan met with much opposition, but it was finally decided that a secretary should be au thorized to visit the field and that a "spe cial" should be raised to enterprise the mis sion. The following year found Bishop Lambuth, accompanied by Professor J. W. Gilbert, a prominent leader in the colored Methodist Church and a graduate of Paine College, in the heart of the Congo, seeking a place of occu pation. A great portion of the territory which had been allotted to the Southern Presbyterian Church in the Belgian Congo had never been occupied, and the Mission Board of that Church had continued to urge that the South ern Methodist Church should help to redeem the heart of Africa. The consequence was that the Presbyterian Mission gave to our am bassadors the heartiest cooperation, and with the help and guidance of volunteers from among their converts our two great Christian explorers arrived at the village of Wembo- Niama, the chief of the Batetela tribe, Febru ary, 1912. Here the assurance came that this was the divinely selected spot. At the second meeting of the Woman s Mis sionary Council in Washington, D. C, strong appeals for Africa were made by Miss Ben- OCCUPYING A WAITING FIELD. 169 nett and other leaders of the Church. In the midst of the discussion that followed, a note from Mrs. L. H. Glide, of San Francisco, was sent to the desk. It contained a pledge of five thousand dollars for the work in Africa if the women should enter. The gift was an nounced, whereupon the whole congregation spontaneously arose and broke forth into sing-- ing the doxology. The following resolution was then passed: Resolved, That the Woman s Missionary Council, in annual session at Washington, D. C., in 1912, send a communication to the Board of Missions in its annual session, assuring it that if it is decided to open work in Africa the women will cooperate. The Board, in session the following May, ap propriated a minimum of fifteen thousand dol lars, which included the five thousand of the women, should they at that time enter the field. The first missionaries of the Board of Mis sions, General Work, reached Wembo-Niama in February, 1914. The Woman s Council had as volunteers Miss Kate Hackney and Miss Etha Mills. They were detained, how ever, and did not sail with the first mission aries. Miss Hackney was later sent to China and Miss Etta Lee Woolsey and Miss Kathron Wilson volunteered for service in Africa. 170 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. They were accepted, but detained because of war conditions until 1917, when they, togeth er with Miss Mills, embarked upon their long and perilous journey, reaching their destina tion January 25, 1918. Miss Mills was appointed to serve in Lube- fu, the new outstation. She not only served as the teacher of the village, but was com pelled, because of lack of workers, to super vise the medical work in the dispensary. In her report of 1918 she says: Of course the medical work here, of necessity, has been confined to simple treatments, but this does not keep the more serious cases from coming. Many who are incurable come also. The task of extracting teeth is not a very pleasant one, especially as some of them are very hard to get out, being deeply rooted and firmly set in. I have not failed to get one yet, even though it took three separate pulls with all my strength. Miss Woolsey and Miss Wilson remained at Wembo-Niama, the former being in charge of the girls home and school. In her report of 1919 she says: We are glad to report that the new home built by the Council for its workers was finished during the quarter, and we moved in on July 25, just one year and a half to the day after our arrival at the mission. The house is comfortable, convenient, and pretty, even though the framework is made of trees from the forest OCCUPYING A WAITING FIELD. 171 tied together with vines, the walls of mud, and the roof of grass. Our floors are hand-sawed boards, as are also the window and door frames and the doors. Four of our windows are glass and the others are closed merely by shutters. The woodwork in the living and dining rooms is painted white, and against the soft dove gray of the mud wall, it is very pretty. Take our handsome library table in the center, several pretty rockers (all made by the industrial department), a few good pictures in frames on the wall, our white-dotted swiss curtains, several rugs, and we have a living room into which we would be proud to invite even Miss Bennett and Bishop Lambuth. The little band of workers served these first years under the handicap of a small force and poor equipment and were obliged to work their way slowly through the terrible ignorance, su perstition, and degradation of the African women. At the close of her second year Miss Woolsey writes: We have enrolled eight little girls during the last quarter, but we have only seven at present. One of the mission boys brought his little sister, but her husband objected to her being away, so that the father was com pelled to come and get the child. Then the boy brought his little wife in the place of his sister. She stayed two months, when the father said he wanted her for a slave; tj l.j "killed the marriage," as they say, in order to be abb to take the child from the mission. I did my best to keep her, for she was so unwilling to leave, but the old man would not listen ; so Nkoi took off her apron and went off wearing only the little square of scraps that she had pieced together in her sewing les- 172 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. sons, the beginning of the little skirt of which she was so proud. She left crying, and called to us : "I am coming back." Poor child ! It is dreadful to see the way these little girls are sold in their infancy. Do pray for us as we try to train these children. Before she had been on the field more than a few months Miss Wilson, the trained nurse, was obliged to take the place of Dr. Mumpow- er, whose furlough was overdue. When he left, the entire mission was without a physi cian, and Miss Wilson was compelled to give medical aid, frequently performing some of the most difficult major operations. Her suc cess was nothing short of a miracle. The to tal number of patients in her first year of service was 4,422. In 1920 four recruits were sent out to this lone front line of the mission field. Miss Ruth Henderson, Miss Flora Foreman, Miss Marzie Hall, and Miss Eliza lies, Miss lies being a deaconess who was transferred from the Home Department in which she had given eight years of devoted service. WOMAN S MISSIONARY SOCIETY. On February 14, 1918, there was organized in the African mission a Woman s Missionary Society with an enrollment of forty-five char- WOMEN AND MISSIONS. 173 ter members. In a short time the number was increased to fifty-five. The standard of dues adopted was one egg or its equivalent, one cent, in money. Miss Woolsey said: At the April meeting the women decided that they would like to have a share in the work of God by sup porting an evangelist in a village which had not yet had one. Accordinglly, they took the responsibility for the payment of his salary, $1.30. At first the chief of the village refused to enter the church, so the fifteen members of the society who are baptized Christians met for about two months with one of the missionaries once a week for special prayer for the chief and for Munadi, the evangelist. The chief, we are glad to say, began going to church. It should be noted that the labors of the years in Brazil, China, and Korea had begun to bear fruit, for in 1920 the Woman s Mis sionary Societies in those three fields were contributing to the uplift of Africa. PART IV. MINISTRY IN THE HOME FIELD. To Christianize the community life means to per meate all its activities and relationships with the prin ciples and ideals of Jesus. It means to make the whole of life religious, so that there shall be no separation between the spirit of worship in the community and the spirit of its play, its work, and its government. The task is not the endeavor of a day. Christianity demands a fraternal community for the satisfaction of its ideals. It requires that men who call God Father should find the way to live as brothers. Now we have rifts and chasms. Our task is to bring the different groups of our community life, the divers nations and races of the world, together in a real brotherhood until there shall be no handicapped, ex ploited, dispossessed people, but all shall live together on terms of equal opportunity. Solidarity is not simply the dream of the workers at the bottom. It is the im perative of the gospel. "Christianising Community Life," by Ward-Edwards. IX. ANSWERING THE HOME CALL. SUE BENNETT MEMORIAL. IN the early days of the Woman s Parson age and Home Mission Society Miss Sue Ben nett, the Secretary of the Kentucky Confer ence Society, became interested in the people that lived shut away in the hills just within sight of the fertile valleys in which her home town of Richmond was located. Her inter est had been aroused by the Rev. J. J. Dickey, who was struggling to maintain a school in a mountain community fifty miles from any rail road. The great need of these people at her very door set her soul aflame, and through the enlistment of the children of her Conference she planned to come to the aid of Mr. Dick ey s school, which would have to close unless something could be done to meet the emer gency. However, before she had even taken the first steps toward the realization of this plan her labors on earth were ended. But the women of the Kentucky Conference had caught, through her inspiration and zeal, a 12 (177) 178 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. vision of the need, and they, together with the Central Committee, began to make plans for the mountain work. Mr. Dickey s school was, in the meantime, sold to the Presbyterians, but plans were at once projected for the establishment of a chain of schools in other mountain sections. Mrs. W. T. Pointer, President of the Ken tucky Conference Society, led in the work and was untiring in her efforts to help raise the needed funds. She sent out letters soliciting gifts and, together with her husband, went from place to place helping to arouse interest in the enterprise. London was selected as the most strategic point at which to begin, and the first term of the Sue Bennett School was opened in an old seminary building. In 1897, however, the large administration building was completed, and the school was opened that fall with sev enty-five pupils and a faculty numbering five. The first class was graduated in 1901. Prof. J. C. Lewis, of the Liverpool Uni versity, a man well equipped for the work, was for twenty years president of the school. In 1917 Prof. A. W. Mohn, of the Ohio Wesleyan and of the University of Chicago, and for nine years the head of the Ruth Har- ANSWERING THE HOME CALL. 179 grove School, Key West, succeeded Professor Lewis as principal. From its modest beginning the London School grew to be one of the most efficient secondary schools in the State of Kentucky. The report of 1919 shows an enrollment of students as follows: model school, 125; high school, 101 ; normal school, 74; school of business, 75; school of music, 172. The stu dents numbered 397 and the faculty 19. The extent of the influence of Sue Bennett can be measured only by the life and work of its students. It will be found that they have been scattered far and wide, engaging success fully in the various vocations of life one as a lawyer in Porto Rico ; another as a mission ary in China; others as superintendents and principals of schools in New York, Georgia, and Florida ; some as students at West Point ; others working as engineers in Pennsylvania and Kentucky; and still others as prominent business men. In 1919 it was calculated that ninety per cent of all the teachers in the county of Laurel, the county in which the school was located, had been students at the Sue Ben nett School. No more fitting memorial could be erected to the one in whose heart this work 180 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. for mountain boys and girls was born than this great investment in life and character. BREVARD INSTITUTE. In 1895 another mountain school was opened in Brevard, N. C, by Mr. Fitch Tay lor. The Woman s Parsonage and Home Mission Society was asked to share the ex pense of this school with the Epworth Leagues of North Carolina by supporting one teacher. In response to this request, Miss Armstrong was employed to teach in what was then known as the Brevard Epworth School. The first term was opened with one boarding pu pil, who, it was said, had been paid to come. This pupil, with a few from the town, made up the first enrollment. In 1900 the Western North Carolina Con ference adopted the school and appointed trus tees. In 1903, however, it was offered as a gift to the Woman s Board of Home Missions. A building had been begun which was still unfinished, and the committee of men who met the committee from the Woman s Board promised to be responsible for its completion if Miss Belle Bennett would tour the State in interest of funds. The school had been closed for two years, and to the women this ANSWERING THE HOME CALL. 181 call to enter into this new door of opportun ity seemed very clear. Accordingly, the work was undertaken, and Prof. E. E. Bishop was employed as Principal. He says in his first report: About September 11, 1903, I was employed to take charge of the Brevard Industrial School, to begin Oc tober 1, with everything finished and furnished. In stead of finding the house finished and furnished, I found a large building unpaintccl except priming, with out windows, doors, chimneys, or floors. The plaster ing was about half done, and the force at work on the house consisted of only two carpenters and two plas terers. I learned also that the treasury was entirely empty, the building committee in debt, and no funds in sight from any source. To make matters still worse, there were no written contracts and no specifications. The first thing to be done was to get money that we might put on a large force of men at once. The com mittee was persuaded to borrow about a thousand dol lars. On October 20 we opened school with a public meeting. Miss Bennett, Mrs. Branner, and Mrs. Acton were present. The next day fifty-two pupils were en rolled. The enrollment has steadily increased and is now one hundred and four. Mrs. F. H. E. Ross says concerning the final completion of the building and its pres entation: Money was borrowed to put the building in shape and a mortgage given. Then came the struggle ; for the Board would not accept it till finished, furnished, 182 W OMEN AND MISSIONS. and unencumbered. Something was secured from the Weddington estate, and the Western North Carolina Conference appropriated a few hundred dollars from the school fund year after year. The columns of the North Carolina Christian Advocate were open to our use, a .1 funds were solicited until we lacked only $325 to lift the mortgage. A note was given for this amount signed by some friends, one of whom was our sainted Dr. George H. Detwiler, then pastor of West Market Street Church, Greensboro, N. C. In June, 1905, the annual meeting of the Conference Society was held in the city of Charlotte. On Saturday afternoon the long- prayed-for, hoped-for event took place the presenta tion of Brevard Industrial School to the Woman s Home Mission Board. Dr. Van Atkins, chairman of the Board of Trustees of the school, made a very pleas ing address in presenting the school, and Mrs. Frank Siler, in her usual happy manner, accepted the prop erty for the Board. Professor Bishop served until 1907 and was then succeeded by Prof. C. H. Trow- bridge, a graduate of Harvard University. The growth and growing influence of Bre vard Institute is shown in the 1914 report of its principal: Brevard Institute seems to be holding its own in every respect and going forward in many ways. The academic work is decidedly better than at any previous time, the faculty having more experience than ever be fore and holding the students to a higher grade of accuracy. The grammar and high school are very much crowded. The normal department is working along previous lines, and its graduates are still in de- ANSWERING THE HOME CALL. 183 mand wherever the work of the department is known. The music classes are very much as they have been, though in the fall there were so many pupils that it was necessary to employ an additional teacher for two days in the week. The commercial department con tinues its efficiency and is turning out well-equipped men and women, who are always placed within a few weeks after they are ready for a position. In no case has any graduate failed to be successful. The domes tic art department has more students than ever before and maintains the high grade of work which it has been doing. The purchase of additional ground gives . the agricultural department better opportunities than ever. There has been a considerable increase since last year in the amount of stock and in the value of the farm machinery. The youngest department to be or ganized is household economics. It is getting well under way this year and has developed a course that is thoroughly practical and valuable. Small classes have been organized in telegraphy, plumbing, and carpentry. A summer school was started in 1913. Very little advertising was done, but there were enough students to make it evident that summer work is practicable in this summer resort town. Two summer school camps for boys will be in operation this summer. A number of the girls made a respectable income for themselves by running a boarding house during the vacation months. This will be continued next year. The cot tages on the place are rented in the summer, and for several years a most delightful colony of people has spent the summer here. Th relations between the school and the community continue most cordial. Some members of the Council canvassed Brevard for two days in July and secured subscriptions amounting to more than three dollars for every man, woman, and child in the town. 1 84 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. Six or seven acres of ground adjoining the campus have been purchased during the year, making a campus of about twenty-six acres located within the corporate limits of the town and still set off in such a manner as to secure a very high degree of protection. It would be difficult to arrange the school property more con veniently. With its enlarged boundary and the new administra tion building, it seems that Brevard is about to enter upon an era of increased growth. The dormitories have been practically full all the time during the past three years, and these developments will probably cause a very great increase in the number of applicants for admission. There are few schools in this section which are devoting as much of their energies to vocational work as Brevard Institute is doing, and it seems that the Institute should be able always to maintain its lead with the start it will have when school opens next fall. The success of Brevard Institute, like that of the Sue Bennett School, is measured by the success of its students, who have been able to occupy positions of trust and responsibility. WOLFF MISSION. The plan for the establishment of Sue Ben nett, though first to be conceived, was not the first to be realized, for in 1894, three years previous to the opening of the Sue Bennett, a school was begun in Tampa, Fla., for Cuban children with Miss Jennie Smither as Prin cipal. ANSWERING THE HOME CALL. 185 Mrs. Eliza Wolff, of St. Louis. Mo., had chanced to spend a season in Southern Flor ida and was much moved by the suffering of the Cuban people who were beginning to flock to our shores as workers in the tobacco factories. These factories were being moved into Florida in order to avoid the interruption caused by the conditions which eventuated in the Spanish-American War. Mrs. Wolff ap pealed to the Woman s Foreign Board and as a result, it was recognized that here was an open door which the newly organized Wom an s Parsonage and Home Mission Society should enter. At the second convention of this society, which was held in Nashville, Tenn., October 2-5, 1894, the need for a school on the Florida coast was presented and a propo sition made to raise one thousand dollars by securing one hundred ten-dollar shares. With in fifteen minutes all the shares were taken. A few months later the society opened its first school, Wolff Mission, so called in hon or of the one whose interest had launched the enterprise. In 1897 Miss Mary Bruce, afterwards Mrs. N. F. Alexander, a returned missionary from Brazil, became Principal. Through her friendly visiting, the homes of the people were opened and the Cuban worn- 186 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. en began to identify themselves with the Cu ban Church. Night schools were undertaken for the men, many of whom were eager to learn the English language. Numbers of those in attendance later became interested in the Church. In 1898 Miss Bruce was transferred to Key West and Miss Marcia Marvin, Miss Eliza beth Todd, Miss Josephine Baker, Miss Lula Ford, and Miss Lotie Adams, each in turn, served as Principal of the school. The following from the report of 1900 shows some of the far-reaching results brought about by the institution: One Cuban girl returned to Cuba and now has a Sunday school in her house at a point where there are no other workers. A young man, a laughing, fun- loving boy, who came to the Friday evening socials, was brought into the Church. He returned to Cuba, married, and held preaching service in his house, thus forming the nucleus of a Church. And so it is, here one and there another. In the year 1914-15 more pupils were en rolled in Wolff Mission than ever before, but because of the better opportunities then being provided by the public schools of Florida the institution was closed in 1916 and the work of Wolff Settlement inaugurated. A gymnasium ANSWERING THE HOME CALL. 187 was erected, a clinic established, and a day nursery opened. The institution was thus made to serve the larger needs of the com munity. WEST TAMPA SCHOOL. The year following the opening of Wolff Mission (1895) a small school in West Tampa was opened in the home of two Spanish wom en, Mrs. Rosa and Miss Emelina Valdes, who were converts from Key West. The zeal of these women and their sympathetic appeal to the people made the work a success from the beginning. Mrs. Valdes deeded to the Wom an s Home Mission Board a lot adjoining her home, and upon this lot they built a two- room schoolhouse, which served also as a church. Mrs. Valdes, with the assistance of her niece, Miss Emelina Valdes, continued in charge of this school for twenty years. The little rooms were always full, and the chil dren of the day school crowded to the Sun day school on the Sabbath. Many of them be came Christians ; years later Christian fam ilies were found on the Island of Cuba who had received their inspiration while getting the rudiments of an education from these god ly women. 1 88 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. After Mrs. Valdes s death, in 1912, the school was made into a Wesley House, where social features and gospel teachings were car ried on with marked success. The Council voted that the new building, when erected, should be called the Rosa Valdes Settlement, thereby perpetuating the work of the founder of the school. RUTH HARGROVE INSTITUTE. In 1898 Miss Mary Bruce opened in Key West, Fla., a school which afterwards came to be called the Ruth Hargrove Institute, in honor of the General Secretary, Mrs. R. K. Hargrove, who was vitally interested in the development of the Cuban work. The enroll ment was large from the beginning, and it soon became necessary to broaden the scope of the school, enlarging its capacity to meet the need not only of the Cuban children, but also of the English-speaking children of the community who were being forced, for lack of Protestant schools, to patronize Catholic in stitutions. Miss Emily Reede was the second Principal, and during her five years administration the school grew to such proportions that the cam pus was enlarged and plans were made for a ANSWERING THE HOME CALL. i8y new building. In 1909 Prof. A. W. Mohn took charge, and in 1910 the enrollment reached seven hundred. In 1914, on their return from Brazil, Miss Bennett and Miss Gibson visited Key West and gave the following account of the school: Key West has a population of 25,000, 10,000 of whom are Negroes. The property we own is in the suburbs in the geographical center of the island, we are told. There are four buildings on a lot 550x200 feet, which will accommodate five hundred pupils (20 boarders). It is valued at $60,000. There are eleven churches in Key West, four of which are Methodist, having a mem bership of eight hundred. No other mission board is at work there. There are two Roman Catholic schools, two public schools, and forty schools for Negroes. Bruce Hall is a fine new school building, containing the largest auditorium in the city, which is used sometimes for lectures and concerts when a large hall is needed. Ruth Hargrove building is the home for teachers and students. Then there is the attractive Mattie Wright Kindergarten building and the residence of the prin cipal. The enrollment this year from September 1 to January 1 is 525; in 1911 it was 613; in 1912 it was 609; and it is likely that the present year will see as large a representation. The school has twelve grades, a high-school department, a music department, a com mercial department, and a kindergarten with thirty- one pupils. The faculty mimbers nineteen, of whom five are men. All teachers are Protestants. There are thirteen Methodists, two Baptists, one Congregationalist, one Presbyterian, and two Episcopalians. The Bible is taught in every grade by the teachers. Professor 190 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. Mohn feels the need of a graded course in the Bible covering twelve years. We visited every grade and saw the work on the board for examinations, and we approved what we saw. The night that we left a con cert was held in the chapel. For four years the prin cipal has had a lyceum course, charging $5 per season for ten entertainments. The immediate and imperative needs are a teachers cottage and athletic grounds. In answer to our question, "What returns have come to the school or Church from the pupils?" we were told that they are better citizens, better Christians, better men and women. They have been of immense benefit to the Church. The cost of maintaining this school was $9,875.80 plus fees of $4,815.57. It will be seen that the success of Ruth Hargrove School was marked. The demand it created for education brought about such improved conditions in the public schools of Key West that by 1917 they were adequate to meet the community s need. Mrs. MacDonell, Executive Secretary, says in her report of that year: The situation has greatly changed during these years, and we dare assert that the school has done much toward creating a demand for better educational ad vantages and that it has saved Key West to Prot estantism. At that time the building was leased for a marine hospital, and the following year was bought by the government at a price of fifty ANSWERING THE HOME CALL. 191 thousand dollars. Some years previous, the faculty of Ruth Hargrove had opened an ex tension day school in a congested Cuban dis trict. This was continued and land purchased in this district for the erection of a settlement house. HOLDING INSTITUTE. Laredo Seminary, the history of which is told in the chapter on Mexico, was transferred to the Home Department of the Woman s Mis sionary Council in 1913. The name was then changed to Holding Institute for the pur pose of perpetuating the work of Miss Nannie Holding, who had for so many years put her life and energy into the development of the institution. The school began its first year with four pupils, but in 1917 it enrolled three hundred and seventy-six, and more than two hundred were turned away for lack of room. In 1914 seventy-five pupils came from across the border. Dr. J. M. Skinner was appointed Principal of the school at the time of its transfer to the Home Department and was still in charge in 1920. Holding Institute, in ad dition to a regular high-school curriculum, has provided a normal course for teachers, a com- 192 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. mercial course for the training of clerks, ste nographers, and bookkeepers, and a course in domestic arts, thus giving training for nearly every walk in life upon which the students might enter. THE VASHTI INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. In 1903 Deaconess Annie Heath, while working in Thomasville, Ga., found a four teen-year-old girl in need of protection. She was too old for an orphanage, and the deacon ess could find no means of removing her from her dangerous environment. She appealed to the women of the local auxiliary, and through their influence Mr. Walter Blasin- game, of that city, gave four acres of land and a house of thirteen rooms, where Miss Heath and Efrle, the homeless girl, were sent to live. This was the beginning of the Vashti Industrial School for dependent girls. The home was named Vashti, thus honoring Mr. Blasingame s mother. Miss Heath and Ef- fie were not long alone, for two other girls were discovered in the poorhouse and brought to the home. Within two years, thirty-three girls had found their way to the school, and the house was now too small for their accom modation. The expense, too, had become ANSWERING THE HOME CALL. 193 more than the local auxiliary could meet, and, as a consequence, the work was transferred in 1905 to the Woman s Board of Home Mis sions. Ten years before the opening of the Vashti School, a cigar factory was opened in Cubana (little Cuba), a suburb of Thomasville, but, as it was found impossible to secure Cuban labor, in a few years the enterprise failed. When Vashti School outgrew its home, the Cubana property was selected as a desirable location. It was purchased by the citizens of Thomasville and presented to the Woman s Board of Home Missions in 1908. Prof. E. E. Bishop was elected Principal in the fall of 1907, and the next January seventy-five girls and teachers took possession of the new home. Since that time there has been accommodation for ninety girls at a time, and yet not more than fifteen per cent of the applicants has been received. The girls who have been trained here have received an eighth grade literary course and, in addition, practical industrial training. With few exceptions, characters have been formed that have stood the test of life after leaving the school. Many have taken the responsibility of homes of their own, while others have gone to work in schools and fac- 13 194 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. tories and hospitals. In 1919 Miss Charlotte Dye was elected Principal. PAINE COLLEGE ANNEX. At a meeting of the Woman s Board of Home Missions, held in St. Louis, Mo., in 1901, a request was presented from Dr. Walk er, President of Paine College, Augusta, Ga., asking for the establishment of an industrial department for the Negro girls attending that school. Miss Belle H. Bennett, Mrs. J. D. Ham mond, and Mrs. R. W. MacDonell were guests of Mr. Richard Scruggs. Early on Sunday morning the three were in prayer to gether. Each arose from her knees persuaded that the Board should undertake this work and that this was the day to present it public ly and take a collection for its beginning. Miss Bennett at once called ten of the women over the telephone to come to the church for an executive session. These ten called others, so that promptly at nine o clock all responded to the roll call in the pastor s study at St. John s Church. Miss Bennett told them of the conviction that had come to the group of three. A resolution was promptly offered, and after discussion a vote was taken which ANSWERING THE HOME CALL. 195 was unanimous, with one exception. The dis senting vote came from one of the most en thusiastic missionary women, who held a con viction that she was not authorized to repre sent her Conference in this matter. There were many who feared that the undertaking would be unpopular, but all were willing to follow God rather than man. Miss Bennett was requested to present the matter to the congregation after the sermon, which was preached on that morning by Dr. Shailer Matthews. At no time in her life had she spoken more clearly or with greater conviction. When the collection was taken a number of men present were so moved that they arose at once to make large contribu tions. Dr. Palmore, with streaming eyes, pledged $500, and Miss Mary Helm gave $200. Miss Bennett subscribed $500, and practically every man and woman contributed something. Later, Mr. Richard Scruggs and Mr. Murray Carlton gave $500 each. Thus was launched the girls industrial department of Paine College, and within two years two buildings were erected on three acres of land adjacent to the school. Miss Ellen Young, graduate of Hampton Institute, was secured as matron in 1902 and for nine years rendered 196 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. valuable service. She was assisted by three other teachers in this department. In 1913 Bennett Hall, a large up-to-date dormitory, was erected at a cost of $27,000, a fitting mon ument to the faith and conviction of the one who had lead the women to take this step in the name of the Master. Concerning this work, Mrs. MacDonell, former Executive Secretary of the Home Department, writes in 1920: There are many colored teachers, wives, and mothers, graduates of Paine College, whose lives and homes at test the value of the training at the Annex. This was particularly true in the days when Ellen Young was matron. Many former students have written me. I have met others in my travels, all of whom have given witness to lives made stronger and better. VIRGINIA K. JOHNSON SCHOOL. The appeal of one unfortunate girl, yearn ing for a chance to lead a clean life, led to the establishment of the home in Dallas, Tex., which later came to be known as the Virginia K. Johnson School. When no place could be found for her shelter, Mrs. Johnson was led to the determination to open a Door of Hope. The King s Daughters were enlisted, and through their efforts a small building was rented, while other Christian women helped ANSWERING THE HOME CALL. 197 bear the expenses of the upkeep. It was found difficult, however, to maintain their in terest and Mrs. Johnson appealed in vain to the charitable organizations of the city to take over the work. Finally, she brought the mat ter before the North Texas Conference Home Mission Society at its annual meeting in Gainesville in 1895. After much prayer and consideration, the women of the Conference decided to undertake the support and enlarge ment of the institution. There was not an available dollar in the treasury and a debt rested on the local group in Dallas. There was, however, a vision of a long neglected need, the call of the Master, and prayer and faith. A gift of land having been secured from Mrs. Ann Browder Cunningham, Mrs. Johnson and Mrs. W. C. Young set out to raise money for the building. An agreement was made with an architect for a a five-thou sand-dollar building, expenses to be paid week by week, and work to be discontinued when money failed. The work, however, never stopped until the building was finished, and there was never more money in the treasury than was needed to pay the week s bills. In 1898 the North Texas Conference turned the property over to the Woman s Board of Home 1 98 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. Missions free of debt. After a few years the need of a better location, more land, and larger buildings resulted in the erection of a beauti ful $150,000 plant. Up to this time the school had been known as the Ann Browder Cun ningham Mission Home, but was now re named in honor of Mrs. Virginia K. John son, whose loving service had provided for thousands of friendless girls the shelter of a home. During the early years Mrs. Johnson acted as Principal, but later she was made agent and Mrs. M. L. Stone became Principal. She served three years and was then succeeded by Miss Sue Lyon and later by Mrs. O. M. Ab bott. After four years of service Mrs. Ab bott resigned, and Mrs. Stone was elected for the second time. In 1920 she had already given over ten years of efficient service to this institution, within whose walls many hopeless lives had been restored to self-support, inde pendence, and true character. X. A WORK OF SOCIAL EVANGELISM. THE organized work of city missions in the Church grew out of a real need and had its beginnings in the auxiliaries of the Woman s Home Mission Societies through the appoint ment ,of visiting committees. In the first quadrennial report of the Woman s Parson age and Home Mission Society, the General Secretary, Miss Lucinda B. Helm, says: "The majority of the auxiliaries report good work done by committees in visiting and aiding the poor, in Bible readings, in visits to the jails and benevolent institutions, and in developing Sunday school work. Many conversions have resulted in the large cities." ORGANIZED CITY MISSIONS BEGUN. The Central Committee soon began to real ize that if the work of city missions was to develop to any proportions there must be some centralizing, directing, and conserving force. As a result of this conviction, a con vention was called in St. Louis, May 9, 1893, for the purpose of considering plans of city (199) 200 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. evangelization. Miss Helm s report of this convention says: "Every one felt the Spirit of God was present. Great enthusiasm was aroused and, like another Pentecost, its in fluence radiated throughout the Church." The address of Dr. Walter Lambuth on "City Evangelization" helped greatly in arousing the convictions of the women who attended this convention. This marked the beginning of a united ef fort in the work of city missions. At the close of the convention, representatives of the St. Louis auxiliaries came together at the call of Miss Helm and organized for work, employ ing Mrs. M. R. Skinner for special service. A few weeks later, the General Secretary was called to Nashville, where an organization was effected and Misses Tina and Emma Tucker were employed as city missionaries. Some months later, Miss Helm visited Atlanta and organized the forces in that city. Houston, New Orleans, and Los Angeles are also men tioned in the reports as having begun a united work as a result of the St. Louis convention. CITY MISSION BOARDS AUTHORIZED. At the beginning of the second quadrennium (1894), Miss Helm resigned as General Secre- A WORK OF SOCIAL EVANGELISM. 2OI ,tary and Mrs. Nathan Scarritt (afterwards Mrs. R. K. Hargrove) was elected to the of fice. Another advanced step in the permanent or ganization of city mission work was made in this year, when the General Conference pro vided for the formation of city mission boards, these to be composed of two members from each cooperating auxiliary, each auxiliary being allowed to elect its own representatives. The finances were to be provided for by the different societies taking their apportionments. Mrs. Hargrove continued to serve as Gen eral Secretary until the year 1900. Her re port of that year shows that city mission work was being conducted in Nashville, in New Orleans, in Kansas City, and in Waco. All of these cities were employing workers, and two of them were raising budgets of approxi mately twelve hundred dollars each. St. Louis had a city mission board and was carrying on quite an extended work through volunteer service. The types of service up to this time had been largely that of rescue work, house- to-house visitation, and distribution of litera ture for the most part, purely personal work ; although there had begun to be some institu- 202 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. tional features ; such as, kindergartens, sewing schools, and mother s and children s meetings. THF FIRST CHURCH SETTLEMENTS. Mrs. R. W. MacDonell was elected to suc ceed Mrs. Hargrove as General Secretary. Her broad vision and constructive mind soon began to give new form to the work. The leaders of philanthropy were beginning to real ize that of far greater value than work for people was work ivith people, so here and there, through the social settlement, the con tagion of the higher life was being brought to bear upon the hitherto detached masses of the crowded cities and industrial centers. So it was, that with Mrs. MacDonell s ad ministration there began another stage in the development of city missions; and in co operation with the Nashville City Board the new General Secretary opened the first Church settlement in the South in September, 1901. A house, which had formerly been a pool room, was rented and made habitable. Be low there was a large hall in which the work was conducted, while above were clean and at tractive living rooms for the workers. Miss Minerva Clyce (afterwards Mrs. J. E. Me- A WORK OF SOCIAL EVANGELISM. 203 Culloch) and Miss Martha Frost were the first Residents. Miss Clyce had been trained in the Scarritt Bible and Training School; and her alertness of mind, powers of initiative, and unfailing devotion especially fitted her for leadership in the new enterprise. This settlement was the center of all eyes, for it was to set the standard for all future work. Pioneering the way as good neighbors in a community full of poverty, ignorance, and drunkeness meant days and nights of toil and anxiety. It proved to be worth the cost, how ever, for it was found, fifteen years later, that self-respecting people were choosing to live in this same community because of the ad vantages of the settlement, so changed had the community become. In the year following the establishment of the settlement in Nashville, three other settle ments were opened. At Atlanta, Ga., work was begun in the Fulton Bag and Cotton Mill community with Miss Rosa Lowe, a trained nurse, as Head Resident. This was for years one of the largest settlements throughout the connection, carrying on the most varied ac tivities. In the fall of 1902 Miss Estelle Haskin was 204 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. called to Dallas, Tex. There were months of waiting on her part before a footing could be secured in the district which seemed to have the most crying need. Finally, because noth ing better could be done, a small four-room cottage was rented and she, with two conse crated girls from the Ann Browder Mission Home and Training School, went to live in a neighborhood where there were twenty-five saloors. within a radius of six blocks of the Settlement House, and where the houses of ill- fame were blighting the lives of young men and women as well as little children. The neighborhood responded so quickly to the spir it of neighborliness that in two months time one hundred Sunday school pupils were packed into a room sixteen by eighteen feet and class es were being conducted in every room in the house. The hallway was converted into a din ing room, and because of its publicity some of the community were usually present at morn ing prayers. The experience was one of liv ing ivith the community rather than in it, but it proved to be another demonstration of the power of personal contact. About the same time Miss Mattie Wright was asked to come to St. Louis to direct the work known as the Sloan Mission. A WORK OF SOCIAL EVANGELISM. 205 She wrote, "I will come at once," and added in her characteristic way : "Look for a little old maid in a brown suit, carrying a straw suitcase." Because of her almost insignificant physical appearance, the women of the City Mission Board, upon first meeting her, doubted her ability for the task undertaken, but these doubts were quickly dispelled. She had a most in domitable spirit. No difficulties were too great for her to overcome. She started the work at old Sloan Mis sion in very small quarters and with no equipment. When she took charge, a policeman stood at the door to prevent the rough boys of the neighborhood from breaking up the services by throwing brickbats into the room. For the sake of privacy, a screen stood inside the door, but Miss Wright moved it and told the policeman she would take his place. She met the boys with a smile and a pleasant word and so shamed them by her kindly spirit that they became her best friends and supporters. Miss Wright gave herself the name of "general utility deaconess," for she did everything from con ducting Church services to playing the part of janitor when that individual failed to appear. Kingdom House would not be where it is to-day had it not been piloted through days of storm and stress by this brave spirit who, in the face of overwhelming obstacles, wrested achievement out of seeming impossibilities. (From leaflet by Mrs. C. M. Hawkins.) In 1905 the old Sloan Mission house was sold and the work moved a block away to a larger and better building. The name was at that time changed to Kingdom House. 206 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. A NEW NAME AND A NEW OFFICE. In 1902 the Woman s Board of Home Mis sions sent a memorial to the General Confer ence asking for the establishment of the office of deaconess. The memorial was granted, and the following year the first five deacon esses Miss Mattie Wright, Miss Amy Rice, Miss Elizabeth Davis, Miss Annie Heath, and Miss Arabel Weigle were consecrated. The establishment of the deaconess office and the opening of settlements gave a new impetus to the work in the cities. In 1904 Mrs. Mac- Donell reported seven settlements, twenty- nine salaried workers, and forty-six volunteer workers. The success came, however, in the face of stanch opposition. Many of the preachers opposed the settlement, not considering its work to be religious. In order to overcome opposition to the same forms of service con ducted by the founder of Methodism in the name of religion, the Woman s Board of Home Missions, at its annual meeting in 1907, decided to give the name Wesley House to the settlements under its direction. There was much in the name, for it overcame prejudice and gave to the work a new popularity. A WORK OF SOCIAL EVANGELISM. 207 CHRISTIAN AMERICANIZATION IN THE CITY CENTERS. One of the great tasks accomplished through the city mission enterprise has been that of the Christian Americanization of the foreign- born. In numbers of cities vast communities of foreign-born people have been Christian ized and Americanized. In 1907 a site was selected in New Orleans below Canal. Street in a district where it was said that more nationalities were represented than in any other city in the country. Here a work was jointly begun by the Woman s Board of Home Missions, the General Board of Missions, the Board of Church Extension, and the local City Mission Board. The insti tution was given the name of St. Mark s Hall. Miss Margaret Ragland was the first Head Resident. Within three years after the estab lishment of the work, over forty Italians were added to the membership of Second Street Methodist Church. This led to the organiza tion of an Italian Church, which for seven years worshiped in the parlors of St. Mark s. In 1918 a small church house was erected for the congregation. The clinic, which was for a number of years conducted by Miss Kate 208 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. Wilson (later a missionary to Africa) was one of the most successful activities. Miss Martha Nutt, a returned missionary from Mexico succeeded Miss Ragland as Head Resident. Miss Nutt was a great evangelistic force in the community and helped in unify ing the philanthropic organizations of the city. It was also through her cooperative efforts that commercialized vice was greatly limited and forces set to work which tended to the breaking up of the legalized districts. At Birmingham, Ala., the Ensley Com munity House was established in 1913 to serve a large community of Italians working for the Tennessee Coal, Iron & Railroad Com pany. Miss Dollie Crim, as Head Resident, was a great organizing force in the communi ty from its beginning and during the World War was particularly successful in rallying her community for patriotic service. At Forth Worth, Tex., a Wesley House was located in a packing house district, where there lived Greeks, Mexicans, Bohemians, and Russians. The Head Resident, Deaconess Eugenia Smith, with her genius for winning people, brought into existence a regularly or ganized Church among the Mexicans. In one year two hundred children were enrolled in A WORK OF SOCIAL EVANGELISM. 209 the Sunday school and twenty-five adults joined the Church. In 1912 a Wesley House was opened in a Mexican district in San Antonio, Tex. Dea coness Almeda Hewitt and Deaconess Ella Bowden were the pioneers who made possible this beginning. The difficulties encountered by them were not so much those involved in the task of winning the Mexicans as in the overcoming of racial prejudice in the Amer ican Churches. Within a year after the open ing of the house it was too small to accommo date the work. To meet this great growing opportunity to win Mexico on this side of the Rio Grande, a joint work was established be tween the local City Board and the Woman s Missionary Council. A new house was erected in 1917- The Wesley House here became a great factor in helping to conserve and strengthen the neighborhood Mexican Church. In 1904 Major Toberman, of Los Angeles, gave to the Woman s Board of Home Mis sions $10,000 for the building of a hospital and $20,000, the interest on which was to be used for nursing the "Lord s sick poor." In 1913 work was developed in a densely popu lated Mexican district in a different section of the city. Later, the Homer Toberman Dea- 14 210 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. coness Hospital was sold with the purpose of reinvesting the money in the Homer Tober- man Clinic and Settlement that had been opened in this Mexican district. The work of building was delayed, and in 1920 the clin ic and a night school were still being con ducted in a small and poorly equipped build ing. However, over two thousand patients were being treated annually, and out of the social ministry of the deaconesses a Mexican Church had been organized. Within a few years after the opening of the work in Dallas, Tex., in 1903, the char acter of the community had so changed that the settlement was moved to a cotton mill dis trict. The work, however, was continued in connection with a small chapel which had been taken over from the Northern Method ists. It was later named Wesley Chapel. For a number of years there was such a sway of evil that little could be accomplished. In 1915, however, Deaconess Rhoda Dragoo writes : On November 3, 1913, when the red-light district was abolished, Wesley Chapel entered upon a new period of its existence. New forms of social service were organized to meet the needs of the changing popu lation. The kindergarten was the first social feature introduced, and it was a joy to be able to gather the A WORK OF SOCIAL EVANGELISM. 211 little tots into the chapel and know that the blighting influence of vice had been removed from their lives so far as the law could do it. The population is almost entirely foreign. Mexicans and Russian Jews predomi nate. Only through the kindergarten and sewing school are we able to touch Jewish life. Jewish fathers and mothers are manifesting a keen interest in this work. The night school was organized for Mexicans only. Men and women are eager to learn English. The con dition of the Mexican is pitiful ; but Wesley Chapel is making the most of his extremity, and he is being given a vision of Christian fellowship. In 1907 a mission was enterprised at Biloxi, Miss., in a district where five large oyster canning factories were giving employment to several thousand people. Concerning the character of this community, the first mission ary, Miss Minnie Boykin, says in her report of 1908: Besides the resident population, there is a large pop ulation of people shipped here every year to work in the canning factories. These come in October and re turn in May, when the oyster season is over. They are shipped from Baltimore and other Northern cities in box cars like cattle and are treated not much better when they get here. Belonging to each factory are two or more long shedlike buildings two or three hundred feet long cut up into small rooms, two rooms being allowed for a family, regardless of the size. Most of the men work on boats and the women and children in factories. Children from five years old and up work. When oysters and shrimps are plentiful, they are re- 212 W OMEN AND MISSIONS. quired to begin work in the factory at three o clock in the morning, and in shrimp season they work late at night and often part of Sunday. The acid in the shrimp eats up the hands and fingers. I have seen little children with their hands swollen stiff, the skin all peeled off and bleeding. All day they must stand with their hands in this eating acid, their feet on the cold, wet floor. The work was opened in a small cottage and without local support. The Mississippi Conference Society afterwards purchased a house which they renovated to suit the needs of the settlement. They also supplemented the appropriation of the Council for current expenses. IN THE MINING DISTRICTS. The reports show that by the year 1914 missions were being conducted among foreign people in the mine fields of Oklahoma, Texas, Missouri, and West Virginia. Concerning the field at Hartshorne, Okla., Deaconess Willena Henry writes: This work is supported by the East Oklahoma Woman s Missionary Conference Society and embraces a territory about fifteen miles long and two or three miles wide, with more than twenty nationalities among the six thousand foreigners. In or near the seven towns in this territory are ten or twelve coal mines, giving employment for most of the foreigners. These A WORK OF SOCIAL EVANGELISM. 213 people are untouched by any religious influence except the Catholic Church, Roman and Russian, and many of them are drifting away from these. The mission in the lead belt of Missouri was carried on for seven years through the ef forts of the St. Louis Conference Society. The interesting possibilities found there are shown in the following from Deaconess Laura Proctor in her 1916 report: I arrived on June 2. A few days later, in company with Miss Wike, a tour of the foreign villages was be gun. Each day a new village was entered and a new nationality visited. One day it was an Italian village, the next a Polish, another an Austrian or a Russian. When the itinerancy had been made and the ten villages visited, I felt as though I had been peering into a kaleidoscope which showed about thirteen different nationalities in highly colored costumes. These quaint villages, with the people in native costumes and speak ing their native tongues, were very interesting at first. Yet in an instant back of this could be seen the great need of religious instruction and social service. The harvest is truly white and the laborers few in compari son with the great host of foreigners found here. One year later a cyclone demolished the Wesley House. To complete the tragedy six weeks afterwards strange men came into the lead belt and incited the American employees to rioting. The foreign men were stoned and driven from their work and their wives and 214 W OMEN AND MISSIONS. children thrust from their homes. Finally, at the point of a gun, they were loaded into cars and shipped to St. Louis. Because of these dreadful events, incident to World War con ditions, it became necessary to close the work. The work in the coal fields at Thurber, Tex., was opened in 1908 by the Central Tex as Conference Society. Marston Hall, the so cial and religious center, through the ministry of the workers appointed by the Council, served a population of 6,500 Americans, Ital ians, Mexicans, and Poles. In 1914 a mission was begun in the West Virginia coal mines by the Holston Confer ence Society. It was soon extended into a number of centers, serving Americans, Hun garians, Italians, Syrians, Slavs, Poles, and Jews, ON THE PACIFIC COAST. Soon after coming into office, Mrs. Har grove, the General Secretary, made a visit to the West and became greatly aroused over the needs of Oriental people on the Pacific Coast. It was, therefore, largely through her influ ence that the work was begun in 1897. Miss Mary Helm, editor of Our Homes, visiting the coast mission, gained such a thorough A WORK OF SOCIAL EVANGELISM. 21 e U knowledge of conditions among the Orientals that she was able to make a strong appeal in their behalf. While there she rented suitable buildings and put competent workers in charge. The summer following two hundred and seven Chinese and Japanese were en rolled in the schools, and eleven had joined the Church. In 1903 Dr. C. F. Reid (returned mission ary from Korea) was made Superintendent of the Pacific Coast work. In November of that same year our first Japanese Church was organized in Alameda, Cal., a second in San Francisco, while a little later a third was or ganized in Oakland. Still later, work was opened in Dinuba, Sacramento, and Isleton. At each of these points a native pastor was put in charge and regular Church activities were carried on. At Alameda regular forms of settlement work were opened, and, at the re quest of the Japanese themselves, the institu tion was called Mary Helm Hall. After the earthquake in 1906, the four mis sion boards that were at work on the coast agreed upon a division of territory and the Korean work fell to the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. The Korean Church at San Francisco was located in a rented house on 2i6 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. Bush Street. Rev. Ju Sam Ryang, a young Korean, had just come to this country for the purpose of securing a university education. Dr. Reid induced him to postpone college work until he had established the new Church for Koreans. With alertness of mind, depth of spiritual life, and a gift for organization Mr. Ryang plunged into this undertaking. Three years he remained as pastor, setting a standard for our Korean missions. He also edited a Korean magazine. After the lapse of a year s time, the mission secured as pastor the Rev. David Lee, a graduate of the University of California. The Korean missions grew under his ministry until, in 1918, regular services were being held at the following appoint ments: San Francisco, Sacramento, Manteca, Stockton, Oakland, Marysville, Willow, Max well, and Tracy and occasional meetings in about six other camps in the rice fields where there were a number of Korean laborers. In 1910 Mr. and Mrs. William Acton suc ceeded Dr. Reid as Superintendents of the coast mission. Under their supervision there was great growth and progress. The ac tivities of Mary Helm Hall were multiplied and seven additional centers of work estab lished. In the new centers the converts from A WORK OF SOCIAL EVANGELISM, 217 the older mission for the most part became the missionaries in charge. IN THE FRENCH TERRITORY. In 1910 the Board of Missions appointed a missionary to serve among the French people who lived in the territory of the sugar planta tions. It was found that in this region there were eighty miles of houses so close together that a message could be sent from one end to the other merely by speaking from house to house. Very little English was known and the people lived shut away from the reach of civilization. They were, of course, largely Roman Catholic. Two years after the missionary began work he asked for the assistance of a deaconess. In response to this request, Miss Eliza lies, a Louisianian by birth, was appointed to this field and gave unstinted service for two years. The pastor and deaconess, working together, organized Churches at a number of appoint ments. In a short time Miss Kate Walker was added to the working force. For three years Miss Walker conducted clubs, classes, missionary societies, and other work at the Houma Church. In the fall of 1917 Miss Ella Hooper and Mrs. Laura White were ap- 218 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. pointed to this interesting field. Their head quarters were located at Houma because of its accessibility to all points in the Terre Bonne and La Fourche Parishes. They established a home at Houma and divided the field be tween them. An automobile was furnished these workers by the Council, so that they were able to make more accessible their extended territory. SERVING THE COTTON MILL COMMUNITIES. Because of the large number of cotton mill people in the South and their appalling need, Wesley Houses were opened in many mill communities in rapid succession. Atlanta, Ga., was the first. Then followed Augusta, Ga. ; Birmingham, Ala. ; Knoxville, Tenn. ; Meridian, Miss. ; Spartanburg, S. C. ; Winston- Salem, N. C. ; Orangeburg, S. C. ; Greenwood, S. C. ; Macon, Ga. ; Danville, Va. ; and Griffin, Ga. The Wesley Houses served these communi ties through day nurseries for children of working mothers, night schools for those who were deprived of the privilege of the public school, kindergartens for the little ones, and industrial classes for boys and girls. They also became religious and social centers for A WORK OF SOCIAL EVANGELISM. 219 those whose lives would otherwise have been empty and impoverished. IN OTHER INDUSTRIAL CENTERS. In Kansas City, Mo., St. Louis, Mo., St. Joseph, Mo., Louisville, Ky., Memphis, Tenn., Mobile, Ala., Montgomery, Ala., Murfrees- boro, Tenn., Richmond, Va., and San Fran cisco, Cal., City Mission Boards were organ ized and settlements established to serve in in dustrial centers of mixed population. THE KANSAS CITY INSTITUTIONAL CHURCH. In 1903 Miss Mabel Ho well was added to the force of teachers in the Scarritt Bible and Training School as professor of sociology. It immediately became apparent that there must be developed a center of work where students might secure practical training. As a result of Miss Howell s efforts, the forces of the mission Church and the City Mission Board w r ere brought together. The city at large became interested in the enterprise, and within a short time an institutional church was erected. Much credit is due the Rev. M. Charles Moore for the successful establish ment of this the first Institutional Church. It 220 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. was a triumph over active opposition on the part of numbers of Church leaders. The extent of the influence of this institu tion is shown in its by-products. The work of its deaconesses among the children of the Juvenile Court revealed the need of a receiv ing home where they might be kept in comfort and safety until permanently placed in some institution or returned to their parents. Mrs. T. B. Spofford deeded a splendid property to the City Board of Kansas City and thus en abled it to extend its work in the support of a receiving home named for its donor. The Boys Hotel Association grew to be an institu tion because of the effort of these same women to care for the small boy of the street. The Octavia Hill Association, providing clean, wholesome apartments at nominal prices for working women, was also a product of the effort of the Methodist women of Kansas City. THE BETHLEHEM HOUSE. The Woman s Missionary Council held its first meeting in St. Louis. At this time Miss Mary DeBardeleben presented herself as a candidate for Negro work. A number of years before God had spoken to this young woman on one Christmas eve making her un- A WORK OF SOCIAL EVANGELISM. 221 derstand that she was unworthy of appoint ment to a foreign field unless she were will ing to minister to the Negroes at her own door. The surrender was made, but no en couragement came to her that she might serve the people to whom she was called until she went to the Methodist Training School at Nashville, Tenn., to prepare for work in Ja pan. There she found those upon whom God was laying the same burden. The result of it all was that at an afternoon session of the St. Louis meeting in 1911 she came before the Council; and the members, deeply touched, pledged her in that sacred hour that they would "hold the ropes" while she, as their first repre sentative, entered upon this most needy mis sion field of the South. She was sent to Au gusta Ga., where in 1912 she opened in an abandoned near-beer establishment the Coun cil s first Christian settlement for Negroes. The institution during the first months of its history went by the name of Galloway Hall, in honor of Bishop Galloway, who never ceased to speak in behalf of the Negroes. The Coun cil decided at its meeting in 1913 that settle ments conducted for Negroes should be called Bethlehem Houses. The conviction of the members of the Meth- 222 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. odist Training School during these years \vas taking form and becoming tangible. Very early in its history Mrs. Sallie Hill Sawyer, a godly member of Capers Chapel (the largest Colored Methodist Episcopal Church in Nash ville, Tenn.), came to a member of the faculty asking for help in her Church. Because of her oft-repeated appeals and because of the dire need of a neighboring Negro community, definite organized work was begun by the Training School in the year 1913 in the base ment of a colored Presbyterian Church. For the first year the funds were furnished and the work was done by the teachers and stu dents. The following year an appropriation was made by the Woman s Missionary Coun cil, a house was rented, and the patient pray ing of "Mother Sawyer" (so called by the col ored people) was rewarded. She herself was the first resident settlement worker ever employed for the Bethlehem House work. She remained the House Mother of the Nash ville Bethlehem House until the time of her death, in 1918. The work at this point was distinctive, in that it furnished a training center for the So cial Science Department of Fisk University, one of the leading Negro universities of the A WORK OF SOCIAL EVANGELISM. 223 South. The Bethlehem House touched the en tire city in its influence and set an example of racial cooperation for the South. Miss Estelle Haskin represented the Council as the super visor of this work and was succeeded by Miss Rosa Breeden in 1918 who was at that time ap pointed supervisor. COOPERATIVE HOMES FOR WORKING GIRLS. The workers and the City Board members soon began to discover that the low wage and the cheap boarding house constituted the great est menace to the life and character of the working woman. As a consequence there was developed a new form of service in the estab lishment of the cooperative home for working girls. At Waco, Tex., a City Board was organ ized in 1902. Soon afterwards they donated property to the Woman s Home Mission So ciety for a deaconess home and training school. An effort to use the building for settlement work was unsuccessful because the location was not suitable. However, through the inter est of Mrs. Rebecca Sparks and a local Meth odist preacher the house was opened to a half dozen country girls for board, and in 1909 the property was returned to the local City Board, 224 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. the house was enlarged, and the institution be came known as the Rebecca Sparks Coopera tive Home for Working Women. In 1908 Miss -Mattie Wright was sent to Houston, Tex., to open settlement work among foreign-born people segregated near the rail road centers. Within a few days she found a young girl from the country who had come to Houston to make her way in the business world. She took this homeless young woman to the Settlement Home, and before she real ized it she had gathered twelve girls under its roof. The need for an institution of this type and the system and dispatch demonstrated by Miss Wright appealed to the business men of Houston. Within four years a handsome three-story brick building, large enough to accommodate seventy-five persons, was erected and donated to the Houston District for Meth odist women to use as a home for working girls. The stories of the lives saved through this effort proved the wisdom of Miss Wright in her pioneer work at Houston. Lexington, Ky., soon established a similar home, which, under the guidance of Miss El liott, came to be a saving center in a complex city life. Under the leadership of Mrs. Ross With- A WORK OF SOCIAL EVANGELISM. 225 erspoon, at Jackson, Tenn., another home came into existence, but soon passed from the Meth odist Church to an interdenominational enter prise. At Corinth, Miss., a community small nu merically but important from the standpoint of the young country girl, a Cooperative Home was established by the North Mississippi Con ference Society under the guidance of Deacon ess Mary Daniel. This home soon came to be one of the recognized social centers of Cor inth. The City Board at Savannah, Ga., estab lished a plant known as the Robert Mclntyre Home. In 1914, at San Francisco, Cal., through the liberality of Mrs. L. H. Glide, the Mary Elizabeth Inn was erected and deeded to the Board of Missions for the use of the Woman s Missionary Council. This building was made to accommodate more than one hundred and eight persons, and during one year more than eight hundred women were turned away for lack of room. PORT WORK. In 1907, when the tide of European immi grants began to come to the South, Port Gal- 15 226 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. veston furnished the largest and most attrac tive entry. At that time there were no agen cies for the help of these immigrants, save a magnificent plant conducted by New York Jews for Jewish immigrants only. Jointly with the General Board of Missions the Wom an s Board of Home Missions opened a home for immigrants. For four years this center served as a blessing to these people who could speak no English and were thereby victims of many impositions. Thousands of people were met by the missionaries in charge and directed to centers where work was found for them. Each one was given a chance to know some thing of the better things of our American civilization. From all parts of the United States letters of gratitude returned to the mis sionary in charge. In 1912 the government erected an immigrant home on Pelican Island, so there was no longer need for our institution. Despite the fact that the government cared for these foreigners in a most efficient man ner, the Woman s Missionary Council never theless found it necessary to retain a port mis sionary at Galveston. In 1907 there was also established a Sea man s Rest at Gulfport, Miss., with the Rev. W. D. Griffin in charge. It was a rest home, WOMEN AND MISSIONS. 227 a social center, and a place where religious services were conducted for the men of the sea. In 1917, when the Great War was de clared, fewer sailors came to this country, not enough to warrant the continuance of the in stitution. A great work was done, however, in the ten years that this mission was in opera tion, and the Superintendent had assurances from all parts of the country that the Sail ors Rest had filled a great need. PART V. TRAINING CONSCRIPTS OF PRAYER FOR SERVICE AROUND THE WORLD. "0 tender Shepherd, climbing rugged mountains And crossing waters deep, How long wouldst thou be willing to go homeless To find a straying sheep? I count no time, the Shepherd gently answered, As thou dost count and bind The weeks in months, the months in years ; My counting is just until I find. And that would be the limit of my journey I d cross the waters deep And climb the hillsides with unfailing patience Until I find my sheep. " XL SCARRITT BIBLE AND TRAINING SCHOOL. THE Scarritt Bible and Training School, lo cated at Kansas. City, Mo., has a record of twenty-eight years of splendid and efficient service. It has been the life expression of two women: Miss Belle H. Bennett, out of whose prayer-thought it became a reality, and Miss Maria Layng Gibson, who for o ver twenty- five years molded and directed its life into a world-wide service. RESPONDING TO A CALL. The Woman s Board was sending to for eign fields women who were untried and un trained or those who had been obliged to se cure their training in another Church. That our Church was not meeting its obligation to its ambassadors became to Miss Bennett a bur den from which she could not escape. How to meet their need was her one burning thought by day and by night, and God was with her in such closeness and power that the establish- (230 232 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. ment of a training school was a divine call to which she responded with the dedication of herself to its accomplishment. In the year 1889 the Woman s Board of Foreign Missions met in Little Rock, Ark., and at the earnest solicitation of Mrs. S. C. Trueheart, Miss Bennett attended for the pur pose of presenting to the women her thought of a missionary training school. She was just recovering from a long illness, and in speak ing of the incidents of this meeting she says: I was too sick and too frightened to stand upon my feet when I was called to speak. The President, Mrs. Hayes, seeing my condition, said : "Come right here, Miss Bennett, sit down in this chair and talk it over with us." I did so, standing when I became excited. I poured out the whole thought of my heart as I talked with them about the splendid training that was~~given to doctors and lawyers and professional men of all kinds. "And yet," I said, "we are trying to send out young men and young women to the great dark lands to teach a new religion that they themselves know little about." When I finished, a few questions were asked, and a prayer was offered by Mrs. Nathan Scarritt, of Kansas City, asking God to make the school a reality. Although the difficulties involved in under taking a task necessitating so large an expendi ture of money seemed almost insurmountable, yet so strong was the impression of God s SCARRITT TRAINING SCHOOL. 233 call to this task that the following resolutions were passed: Resolved, That the Board has heard Miss Bennett s address with pleasure and, recognizing the great im portance of its subject, does hereby appoint her as agent of the Woman s Board of Foreign Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, to fully investi gate the matter of a training school for missionaries and does empower her to represent its claims through out the Church, to enlist the sympathy and aid of the workers, and to collect funds, reporting results to the Board. Resolved, That she be directed also to present this matter to other Mission Boards and to ask their in terest and patronage with the view that their mis sionaries may have the benefit of the advantages thus secured. Resolved, That Miss Bennett be furnished by this Board with all necessary credentials to show that she is its duly appointed agent. Upon the unanimous passage of these reso lutions Miss Bennett \vas so overwhelmed at the manner in which God was answering her own prayers that she immediately arose, say ing: "But, ladies, I do not know how to do it, I do not know the Church, I do not as much as know how to begin." Even as she protest ed, however, there came to her with over whelming power the remembrance of her vow to God, and as the women pledged themselves to stand behind her with their prayers and ef- 234 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. forts she consented to undertake the work. The promise, "Commit thy works unto the Lord, and thy thoughts shall be established," became her staying power and her strength and the foundation on which the Scarritt Bi ble and Training School was built. It was decided that all subscriptions should be secured from individuals and that the aux iliaries should not be taxed. At that time members of the Board pledged as follows: Mrs. Adam Hendrix, $100; Mrs. E. C. Dow- dell, $100; Mrs. Julianna Hayes, $100; Miss Mary Helm, $25; Mrs. J. B. Cobb, $50; and Mrs. C. H. Hall, $50 making a total of $425 as the beginning of the fund. Miss Bennett was being entertained in the home of Dr. Thompson, and that evening his little adopted daughter gave her a silver dollar, saying: "Miss Bennett, I have waited on the ta ble since you came and have earned this dollar. I heard you talk about how Jesus went about doing good, and I want to be like him. I am giving you my dollar to help you build the training school." This was seed planted that brought forth many hundredfold as the story of the little girl s gift was told. On the way home from Little Rock, Miss Bennett visited a friend in St. Louis and while SCARR1TT TRAINING SCHOOL. 235 there was urged to call upon one of the shut- in saints, who had been confined to her bed for long years. In telling of this visit, she says: "While in this upper chamber I told her the story of Little Rock and my thought of a training school. Putting her hand feebly under her pillow, she took out a small paper and drew from it a five-dollar gold piece, say ing: I have been waiting for the Lord to show me where he wanted me to put this, and now I know. This, too, was a seed corn that brought in a bountiful harvest. When Miss Bennett reached home there were two letters awaiting her, one containing a check from a gentleman in North Carolina and another from Mrs. Trueheart, asking that she attend with her a camp meeting which was being conducted at Park Hill Campground by the Rev. Sam Jones. She responded to the call and went at once. At Mr. Jones s earnest solicitation she presented her cause to a large audience. After she had finished he arose and pledged $500 for Mrs. Jones. He then said: "Miss Bennett, you and Mrs. Trueheart sit down here and let the people bring you their money." They crowded forward men, wom en, and children pledging from twenty-five 236 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. cents to twenty-five dollars annually for five years, until they had given more than $1,000. THE GIFT OF DR. SCARRITT. Offers began to come from various cities bidding for the location of the school. Lou isville, Ky., made the first formal offer: a rented house in which to open at once and the promise of $15,000 and ground within a year. St. Louis offered a furnished house, rent free for five years, with promise of enlargement for future use. Other offers came from Mar tha Washington College, Abingdon, Va. ; Cen tral College, Lexington, Mo., by Dr. Pal- more; Asheville, N. C, through Mr. and Mrs. Ray; and the Nashville College for Young Ladies, through Drs. Kelley and Price. These kind offers each received due consideration, but the proposal which seemed most worth while came through a letter from Mrs. Isa bella Hendrix, mother of- Bishop Hendrix, and a member of the Woman s Board of Foreign Missions, saying that she had had a conversa tion with Dr. Nathan Scarritt, of Kansas City, in which he had made an offer of both money and land. Miss Bennett went at once to Kan sas City. She says of this visit: "On reach ing Kansas City I was met at the train by Dr. SCARRITT TRAINING SCHOOL. 237 Scarritt and was a guest in his home for more than a week. On Sabbath evening Dr. Scarritt, Mrs. Scarritt, and myself walked over to the beautiful hilltop overlooking the bluffs of the Missouri River. While standing there, he said to me: If you like this, I will give you here whatever you think is necessary for the establishment of the school. Later he said: I will give you $25,000 provided you raise a like amount for the erection of the building. THE CHALLENGE TO THE CHURCH. The Executive Committee of the Woman s Board of Foreign Missions accepted this gift and it became a great impetus to the enter prise. Miss Bennett toured the Church, pre senting the challenge to the people to make good the promised gift. She visited many of Sam Jones s meetings, where thousands of dol lars jwere subscribed. Churches were also visited, many of the invitations coming from the missionary women themselves. Miss Ben nett s request was always for just a few min utes of time at the close of the service. In describing her experiences, she says: "Wheth er I talked to individuals or audiences, gifts of money and subscriptions were made. At Greenville and Meridian, Miss., as I sat on the 238 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. edge of the platform, men and women came up, took off their watches and other jewelry, and with money and subscriptions to the amount of more than $3,000 poured them into my lap." Mrs. M. D. Wightman was asked to assist Miss Bennett and was appointed Associate Agent. She worked with earnestness and zeal in the southeastern Conferences and secured something more than $11,000 of the funds turned over for building and endowment. In less than two years the full amount was se cured for the erection of the building. The difficulties and the triumph of the work are set forth in an extract from an address made by Dr. W. H. Potter at the time of the laying of the corner stone: The originator of the enterprise was appointed Financial Agent to raise the funds with which to start it. There was not a dollar in the treasury ; the mind of the Church respecting it was not known ; a female fiscal agent with connectional relations was a thing unknown to the Church ; yet with a heart strong in the Lord and in the conviction of a great duty she went forward. Her success under such circumstances has been so phenomenal as to convict of blindness those who could not see that God was with her. Miss Belle H. Bennett, of Richmond, Ky., the Financial Agent, deserves and will receive the thanks of this and many future generations for the inception and progress of SCARRITT TRAINING SCHOOL. 239 this great work. No doubt she has already received the approval of her own conscience and her Lord. Miss Bennett has had many noble and worthy coadjutors, too many to be named here ; but her singular strength of purpose, her simple faith, and quiet courage gave heart and hope to them all. THE TRIAL OF FAITH. At the very height of success opposition arose, opposition so strong that it seemed for a time that the enterprise would be wrecked. Some of the men in official position opposed it bitterly, and many of the women feared lest its phenomenal success would be the un doing of the work which was already being carried on in the mission fields. The gift of Dr. Scarritt had already been accepted and the money raised to meet its requirements, but now the question arose as to the right to es tablish such a school under the constitution of the Woman s Board of Foreign Missions. The Board met in St. Louis in May, 1890, dur ing the session of the General Conference. Dr. Scarritt was present and was invited to speak. He told with emotion and tenderness the story of God s dealing with him. He said that while alone, walking about upon his estate, a voice seemed to speak to his soul, saying: "Why don t you give this land to the Worn- 240 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. an s Missionary Society for the training school?" He had obeyed this voice and great ly regretted the delay. At this time he re newed the gift; and to remove the legal bar riers a memorial was sent to the General Conference, with the result that the constitu tion was so amended as to authorize the es tablishment of the school. On May 21, 1890, the Board met behind closed doors with the expressed intention, on the part of some, to ignore all previous action in regard to the school. Dr. Scarritt had gone home because of his serious illness and Bishop Hendrix was acting as his representative. After a heated dis cussion, a resolution was unanimously adopt ed accepting the gift of Dr. Scarritt. At the same time Dr. Scarritt, Rev. W. B. Palmore, and Miss Belle H. Bennett were appointed a building committee with authorization to pro ceed as rapidly as finances \vere available. The news of the acceptance of the gift was sent at once by telegram to Dr. Scarritt. The Board adjourned that night, and on the fol lowing day a message came acknowledging the receipt of the telegram and announcing that Dr. Scarritt had died on that morning (May 22). A special meeting was called and reso lutions passed expressing sympathy and af- SCARRITT TRAINING SCHOOL. 241 fection. At the same time the projected train ing school was named in honor of its gener ous benefactor. Two years later, in 1892, the Woman s Board of Foreign Missions met in Lexington, Ky. The progress of the school had been such that this became a time of great jubilation. The corner stone had been laid in July of 1891 with due ceremony, and now the beautiful building was completed, and its doors were to be opened in September of that year. Miss Laura Haygood had been elected Prin cipal of the school, but had refused to be re leased from her work in China. In the mat ter of choosing the principal, however, as in that of the establishment of the school, there was an unmistakable evidence of divine guid ance, for God s choice lay in another direction. Miss Maria Layng Gibson was at that time Principal of a high-grade private school for young women in Covington, Ky., but at the earnest solicitation of the leaders of the new enterprise she consented to leave her own prosperous institution and become the head of the Training School. At this Lexington meet ing the Board of Managers nominated her as Principal and Miss Elizabeth Holding, of the Chicago Training School, as Bible teacher. 16 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. These nominations were approved by the Woman s Board. Miss Emma D. Cushman was elected Superintendent of Nurses for the hospital department. Notwithstanding the phenomenal success of the enterprise, the Principal must have felt, as she entered upon her new task, that the battie had only begun. The building was beautiful and commodious, but for the most part it was still unfurnished. September was not far distant, and no effort had been made to secure a student body. In November, 1892, after speaking of the success that had crowned their first efforts, Miss Gibson writes: "And yet and yet, the one thing lacking is students. There has been no lack of applications, but our educational standard is high, and many have failed to meet the requirements." The school was dedicated on September 14, 1892. Preliminary services were held in Mel- rose Church, addresses being delivered by Bishop Galloway, Bishop Hendrix, Dr. George Halley, by Miss Elizabeth Holding, Bible teacher, and by the Principal. After the serv ices the entire congregation proceeded to the beautiful memorial chapel of the Training School, where the building was delivered to Bishop Hendrix, President of the Board of SCARRITT TRAINING SCHOOL. 243 Managers, by Judge E. L. Scarritt, on behalf of the Trustees. Concerning the first opening, a member of the school writes under the above date: We had a beautiful day for our opening. The sun shone warm and bright, fairly enticing people out of doors. Melrose Church was crowded. The addresses were delivered in the church ; and then the friends came over to our beautiful chapel, where the dedicatory serv ices were held. Hundreds of people viewed the build ing after the services, and about sixty took lunch with us. Last night we were filled with dismay, for we really feared we should open without a single student ; but about eight o clock Miss Tina Tucker, from Ken tucky, arrived. This morning, just before we started for the church, two others came Miss Sharp, from Missouri, and Miss Irene Shaw, from Texas. Our spirits rose accordingly, and when we mustered the family and started for the church we felt that we made quite a showing. We had often heard that "three was a crowd," but had never had such a practical illustra tion of it before. Our pretty guest chamber, furnished by the ladies of Centenary Church, Kansas City, was occupied last night by our dear Miss Bennett and her efficient secretary, Miss Crook. These ladies, with Miss Lucinda Helm, arrived yesterday morning. We are without gas, owing to some misunderstanding about laying the pipes. We have a number of lamps, but not a sufficient number to dispel the darkness in these great halls. Of course, Miss Bennett could not wait until morning before viewing the building. We all followed in the wake as she and Miss Gibson made the grand tour ; and, although our lamp had a good Rochester burner, yet it made little impres sion on the darkness 244 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. around, and our procession was rather ghostly. The day was a full one, and we were all tired at supper ; nevertheless, we went to prayer meeting at Melrose and felt that it must be a good omen for us to spend the first evening of our school life at a prayer meeting. The enrollment in the Bible department that year numbered five resident students and seven from Kansas City and vicinity. The first ten years marked a steady growth in the life and usefulness of the school. In the spring of 1894 the first commencement ex ercises were held. Miss Layona Glenn, under appointment to Brazil, was the first graduate from the Bible department. Miss Clara Ste- ger and Miss Ella R. Coffey, after one year of training, were sent to China that year. At the close of the ten years the school had repre sentatives in the mission fields as follows: Brazil, n; China, 13; Mexico, 8; Cuba, 10; Korea, 3; Japan, I. The nurse-training department, too, had given ministry at home and abroad. The total number of patients receiving treatment during that period numbered 1,617, and thirty-five nurses had been graduated. In a report dated 1902 Miss Gibson says: Three representatives of the nurse-training depart ment are engaged in foreign work. Miss Helen Me- SCARRITT TRAINING SCHOOL. 245 Intosh, who came from Scotland to enter this school for training as a missionary nurse, after graduation offered herself to the Presbyterian Board and was ap pointed to India as superintendent of a hospital. An other graduate, Miss Mary Wood, of Virginia, is in the mission field as the wife of the Rev. J. A. G. Ship ley, a missionary under the General Board of Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. A notable representative is our former superintendent of nurses, Miss Emma D. Cushman, now in charge of a hospital at Talas, Csesarea. While a young girl she was con verted, and, being much interested in missions and very desirous of becoming a nurse, she made a vow that if God would open the way for her to secure training she would devote her life to him as a missionary nurse. The way opened almost immediately, and she entered the hospital, where she graduated. When her training was ended, however, she was not ready to fulfill her vow. Ten years later the call of God came again ; and she made haste to answer, resigned her position as Su perintendent of our hospital department, and sailed from New York on the steamer Majestic on July 26, 1899. Early in its history the Training School ex perienced an overwhelming sorrow in the death of Miss Elizabeth Holding, who had al ready proved herself a great teacher of the Word and a friend of every student in the school. Miss Effie Thompson was elected to the Bible chair, but served only one year, when Mrs. Mary Lipscomb Hargrove began a term of service which continued for twenty years. In 1896 Miss Bennett and Mrs. Wightman 246 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. resigned as agents of the Training School. Miss Bennett transferred the books from her office at Richmond, Ky., to the training school, and Miss Elizabeth Billingsley was elected by the Board of Managers to take charge of these accounts. This position she continued to hold until 1919, at which time she retired because of ill health. A NEW OPPORTUNITY. In 1902 the deaconess office was authorized by the General Conference, and the Woman s Board of Home Missions entered upon a new era in its work of city missions. Large num bers of home mission candidates were present ing themselves to the school for training. This necessitated the closing of the hospital depart ment in 1905 in order to make room for the enlarged Bible department. In 1903 the chair of sociology was estab lished, to which Miss Mabel Katherine Howell was elected. This was a new departure for the school and naturally led to the enlargement of its usefulness. In 1910 Miss Henrietta Libby Gay was elected as teacher of religious pedagogy, and in 1916 Miss Ida Shaffer was appointed to teach Portuguese to applicants expecting to SCARRITT TRAINING SCHOOL. 247 work in Brazil. Later, the scope of Miss Shaf fer s duties were enlarged by her appointment to the chair of Church history. Thus was completed for the students a thorough and rounded curriculum including courses in Bible, sociology, Church history, religious peda gogy, and training in practical efficiency. IN THE CRUCIBLE. In the years which followed, the school en joyed a season of unusual prosperity, sending to both the home and foreign fields larger numbers of workers than ever before. In 1915, however, it passed through a great finan cial loss which threatened its very existence. In 1895 Miss Bennett and Mrs. Wightman turned into the hands of the treasurer of the Board of Managers $52,394.58 for the endow ment fund. The Conferences added to this fund by collecting $20,000 for a chair named in honor of Miss Belle H. Bennett, and eleven lectureships at $5,000 each. There were, in addition, nineteen endowed scholarships and a small Student Loan Fund.* The interest on these funds was used for the payment of teachers salaries and for the maintenance of the students preparing for mis- *See pages 253-55 for list of Lectureships and Scholarships. 248 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. sionary service. The major part of this total endowment was lost through embezzelment on the part of a man to whom these funds had been intrusted in all good faith. This was a great disaster; for, while some appro priation was being made by the Council, the school was largely dependent upon its vested funds. It seemed, for the time, that the insti tution must close; but friends in Kansas City and vicinity came to the rescue and provided a sustentation fund, which enabled the school to continue until the close of the scholastic year. This was a practical token of the ap preciation of the worth of the school to its neighbors. At the Council of that year action was taken which made good the loss of the interest accruing from the endowment fund. The news had gone abroad in some quarters that the endowment was lost and that the school would close. About this time, also, the educational standards for missionaries were raised, and, in addition to this, the Council de cided to consider all scholarships merely as a loan to the students using them. This com bination of circumstances made the two years which followed the most trying and difficult in all the history of the school. The student body was diminished to almost half of that SCARR1TT TRAINING SCHOOL. 249 which it had formerly been. However, the public learned that the Council was standing solidly behind the school ; the Council came to see the lack of wisdom in sending its mis sionaries out burdened with a heavy debt and changed its ruling concerning the use of schol arships. With the removal of these hindrances and the new call throughout the Church for life service recruits, the institution soon en tered upon a renewed and enlarged life of use fulness. TWENTY-FlFTH ANNIVERSARY. The twenty-fifth anniversary, which was celebrated at the commencement season of 1917, was a crowning event in its history. The occasion was marked by the presentation of a beautiful pageant called the "Spirit of Scar- ritt." In the prologue the Spirit of Scarritt gave a short history of the origin and work of the school. This was followed in Part II by a representation of the life and work of the institution, while Part III presented the "Spir it" of Scarritt through the lives of its gradu ates serving in the mission field. The alumnae on Alumnae Day paid tribute to the great moving spirit which had for twen ty-five years guided and molded the school, 250 W OMEN AND MISSIONS. making its name honored throughout the earth. Miss Gibson had from the beginning poured out her life in loving, sacrificial service. Her deep personal interest in every woman who left the school had caused her influence to reach throughout the bounds of -the entire Church at home and on the foreign field ; and at this time hundreds of her thousand daughters now gird ling the globe with their beautiful ministry paid homage by their presence, letter, or tele gram both to their Alma Mater and to her whom they counted as their spiritual mother. As an expression of appreciation she was pre sented with a beautiful silver plate upon which was engraved a picture of the building, and a silver sandwich plate given by a group of nurses, former graduates from the hospital. Another happy surprise came to her with the uncovering of three hundred bright silver dol lars, a love offering of the alumnae. This amount, \vhich was afterwards increased, she accepted as a trust fund to be used for some future need of the school. THE NEW ERA. In 1916 Miss Mabel Howell, teacher of sociology, was elected by the Council to the office of the Executive Secretarv of the Ori- SCARRITT TRAINING SCHOOL. 251 ental Fields ; and the Bible teacher, Mrs. Mary Lipscomb Hargrove, was elected to represent the Woman s Missionary Council as their Cen tenary Secretary. Miss Gibson, at this same time, asked to be released from the increasing executive burdens and offered her resignation. This made faculty changes necessary. These circumstances, together with the new demand for the new age, led to steps on the part of the Council for the enlargment of plans concerning the school. More and more it was becoming urgent to secure a force large enough to keep the institution before the Church; and to this end, Dr. Ed F. Cook, formerly Foreign Sec retary for the Board of Missions, was elected President, while Miss Maria Layng Gibson was retained as Principal. Miss Sophia Gleim succeeded Miss Howell as teacher of sociology for one year only, when Prof. A. M. Tra- wick, who had had a long and valuable experi ence in this special field, was elected to the place. Miss Mabel Roberta Carter was elect ed to the Bible chair, and in 1919 Miss Mary Ora Durham was appointed a member of the faculty as director of practical methods. At the beginning of this new era, the school al ready numbered four hundred and thirty grad uates, and three hundred and twelve students 252 WOMEN AXD MISSIONS. were serving actively in every mission field that had been entered by the Church. In the year 1919-20 an enrollment of seventy-one stu dents was reached. At the meeting of the Board of Directors that year plans were pro jected for the securing of a charter which would give to the institution college rank, thereby granting it the power to confer de grees. The new President, Dr. Ed F. Cook, says concerning the larger program and the for ward look: The women of the missionary societies have become responsible for the ministry of our Methodism to the women of seven great mission fields and for the greater share of the Church s home mission program. We would urge upon their attention, therefore, the place of fundamental importance held by the Scarritt Bible and Training School, which alone among the institu tions of Southern Methodism provides that highly spe cialized, postgraduate training which will enable our missionaries at home and abroad to fill acceptably a place in the missionary enterprise of to-morrow. In ever-increasing numbers the young women of the Church, under the impulse of the new call to sacri ficial service, will respond to the demand of the Church for workers. The school is now full to capacity. The Council must enlarge the plant and the program in order to meet the insistent demands already crowding upon us. For the glorious service rendered in the past by the Scarritt Bible and Training School we are truly grate- SCARRITT TRAINING SCHOOL. 253 ful. A new day, however, has dawned. The new world is bringing a new challenge to the womanhood of America through a call to greater service. We must face the future and prepare for even greater things. The first requisite is an adequate supply of missionaries well prepared for the more difficult and exacting tasks awaiting them in an awakening and tumultuous world. The Scarritt Bible and Training School, enlarged, equipped, and builded into a great training center, is at once our hope and the answer of Southern Meth odist womanhood to the challenge of the new day. SCARRITT TRAINING SCHOOL LECTURESHIPS. The Frances Bumpass, contributed by the North Carolina and Western North Carolina Conference So cieties. The Morgan Calloway, contributed by the North Georgia Conference Society. The Hannah Lithgow, contributed by the daughters of J. S. Lithgow, Louisville, Ky. The Kavanaugh, contributed by the Louisville Con ference Society. The Steven Noland, contributed by the Kentucky Conference Society. The Bishop W. M. Wightman, contributed by the South Carolina Conference Society. The Stephen Olin, contributed by the South Caro lina Conference Society. The Maria D. Wightman, Woman s Foregin Mis sionary Society. The S. C. Trueheart, Woman s Foreign Missionary Society. The Fannie M. Hitch, contributed by the South Geor gia Conference Society. 254 WOMEN AND MISSIONS. The Musselman Sisters, contributed by Miss Harriet Musselman. SCARRITT TRAINING SCHOOL SCHOLARSHIPS. The Avis Scholarship, contributed by the St. Louis Conference Society. The Melisa Baker Scholarship, contributed by the Baltimore Conference Society. The Mary A. Bonnell Scholarship, contributed by the North Georgia Conference Society. The Harriett Colquitt Boring Scholarship , con tributed by the North Georgia Conference Society. The Alice Culler Cobb Scholarship, contributed by the South Georgia Conference Society. The Helen Finlay Scholarship, contributed by the North Mississippi Conference Society. The Sam Jones Scholarship, contributed by the Ken tucky Conference Society. The Virginia K. Johnson Scholarship, contributed by the North Texas Conference Society. The Fannie Montague Scholarship, contributed by the Missouri Conference Society. The Memorial Scholarship, contributed by friends in many Conferences. The Weyman Potter Scholarship, contributed by the South Georgia Conference Society. The Ellen J. Robinson Scholarship, contributed by the North Texas Confernce Society. The S. Myra Smith Scholarship, contributed by the North Mississippi Conference Society. The Tennessee Scholarship, contributed by the Ten nessee Conference Society. The Texas Scholarship, contributed by the Texas Conference Society. The Carrie Steele Waterhouse Scholarship, con tributed by the Holston Conference Society. SCARRITT TRAINING SCHOOL. 255 The Lula G. Watkins Scholarship, contributed by the Mississippi Conference Society. The Houston-Steger Scholarship, contributed by Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Houston. The Susan N. Jones Scholarship, contributed by the Southwest Missouri Conference Society.