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Full text of "The wonders of the world; a popular and authentic account of the marvels of nature and of man as they exist to-day"

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LIBRARY 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 

SANTA BARBARA 



PRESENTED BY 
ROBERT B. STACY-JUDD 



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THE WONDERS OF TME WORLD. 



RoBT. B. Stacy-Judd 

ARCHITBCT 




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Painted In 



uterwood & Uiulcrxfonil. 



A PAGODA THAT ROCKS WITH THE WIND. 

This boulder stands on the very backbone of thu lofty Kelasa Hills. Burma. The temple is called Sampan, or Boat 

Pasoda. on account of the shape of the rocldns stone upon which it is built. 



THE 



WONDERS 



OF THE 



WORLD 







A POPULAR AND AUTHENTIC 
ACCOUNT OF THE MARVELS ^ 
OF NATURE AND OF A\AN A5 
THEY EXIST TO-DAY ^ « « ^ 



BY 



eniNENT TRAVELLERS 

JNCLUDINC 

SIR HARRY JOHNSTON 

G.C.M.C, K.C.B. 

ALAN H. BURGOYNE 

M.P., F.R.C.S. 

PERCEVAL LANDON 
J. THO/nSON 

F.R.C.S. 

AND MANY OTMKK5 

Vol. I 
ILLUSTRATED 

WITH 14 COLOURED PLATES AND 

492 REPRODUCTIONS IN BLACK AND 

WHITE, INCLUDING /^ANY UNIQUE . 

PHOTOGRAPHS OF RECENT DISCOVERIES 



Coiwrit/hl iihnin 1,11 II. C. l;,nNii,i. F.R.II.S, 

THE GRE.M WALL OF CHINA 



London: Hutchinson & Co.. paternoster row 

A' 



Fnnfcd at the Chapel Ktvcy Ficss^ 
Kingston on 'Ihaiiies 



CONTENTS OF VOL. 1, 



INTRODUCTION. By Sir Harry Johnston, G.C.M.G. 

ASIA. 

I. By Perceval Landon - 

II. By Perceval L.vndon and others 

ur. By B. Ij. Putnam Weale 

IV. By Alan H- Burgoyne, M.P., P.R.G.S. 

V. By Philip \V. Sergeant 

V[. By Philip W. Serge.vnt 

vn. By Perceval Landon 

\lll. By .1. Thomson, F.R.G. S.- 
AUSTRALASIA AND THE PACIFIC 

[X. By F. LA!\rBERT, F.R.G.S. 

X. By F. W. Christian, F.U.G.S., and others - 

XI. By L. " Alien " Bakek 



i 



1 

3H 
6.') 
i)8 
1»0 
164 
208 
■241 



251 

260 
200 



AFRICA 



XII. By Sir Harry Johnston, G.C.M.G. 

XIII. By Sir Harry Johnston, G.C.M.C. 

XIV. By Sir Harry Johnston, G.C.M.C. 



34.5 
885 
415 



1LTAJSTKAT10N8 



COLOURED PLATilS 



.V Pagoda that rocks with the wind - 

The Ta.i Mahal, A(;ra 

The Sacred Tank. Alwar- 

Amida, The Giant Diaiiutsu - 

The Schway Dagon P.vgoda 

The Pearl Mosque, Delhi 

The Sarnath Tope 

The Ruins of Martand, Kashmir - 
The Broken Column. Lucas Cave, Jenolan 
The Sutherland Ivm.ls ... - 
Milford Sound 

The Sphin.x 

The Island of Phil.e .... 
The ToMiiS of the Caliphs, Caiko 



P.IC.K 

Fronlitipiccc 



F(u 



IIKJ 



3!) 

6r, 

97 
120 
101 
193 
225 
257 
289 
321 
353 
385 
117 



BLACK AND WHITE ILLUSTRATIONS. 
EUROPE. 



ARCTIC 

Sun, The Midnight 



GREECE 

Athens, the 
Acropohs 



Partlienon at the 



ITALY 

Pisa, The Leaning Tower of . 
Rome, The Cemetery of the Capu- 
chin Monks .... 



PACK 

ARABIA 

Jeddah, The Tomb of Eve . . 218 

I'etra, The Uock-liewn city . 

62, 63, 64, 193, 194, 195 

lilKMA 

Bangkok Wat Snthat . . .189 

\Vat I'o . . 196, 197, 198, 199 

liingyi Caves .119. 120, 121 

Kyaik-Ti-Vn Pagoila, Tile . . 125 

Mandalay, Tlieebaw's Palace 116, 117 

Tlie Kuthodavv . . 104, 105 

The Arakan Tern])le . . 216, 217 

.Mingoon, The Pagoda . . 132 

The Great Bell . .221 

-Mijiihnein, Buddhist cave near . 21 
Pagan, The Janada Pagoda . 6 

Pegn, The Great Buddha 14, 15 

Rangoon, The Slniay Dagon 

Pagoda 1.55, 1.56, 157, 158, 159, 160 
Ruby Mines, The . . . 228 

CA.MBODIA 

Angkor, or Nakhun Wal i41, 242, 

243, 244, 245, 246, 247 

Nakhon Tlium . 248, 249, 250 

CEYLON 

Adam's Peak . 181, 182 

.\llagalla. Lightning on 139 

Anuradliapnra, The Brazen Palace 

134, 135 
lluanweli Pagoda . . . 202 

Bamhiio, (ii;nit .... 37 
Isnrmnuniya temple and hath 188 

Karidy, Temple of the Holy Tooth 201 
K.nnhoda, Waterfall . . . 115 

Rameswaram .... 20 
Sci-eHpine Rnot,s . . . .170 

CHINA 

Great Wall of China, The . ■ 1, 2 

Tomb in Northern China 144 

Canton, Marco Polo as a God 27 

Temple of Five Hundred Genii 85, 86 

The Clepsydra .... 72 

The Yellow Temple . . .191 

Kiatang, Giant Buddha . . 7 

Omi, Fire Gods on Mount . . 87 

Peking, The Ming Tombs 33, 34, 35, 36 



ASIA. 

CHINA (continued) 

The .\ltar of Heaven 

The Great Bell 

The Royal Throne-Koom 

The Royal Throne . 

The Twin Tree 

The Temple of the Five li 

The Walls of . 

The Yellow Temple . 
Soo-Cho», The Leaning Toh 
Tsien-Tang River Bore 
Yangtse Kiang Gorge . 

I.VDIA 

Abu, Jain Temples 

The Toad Rock 
Agra, The Tomb of AKb 



169. 1 



I'AI^E 

60, 61 

92 

106 

ir.6 

110 

168 
■(1,171 

192 
40 
53 
59 



•*, 5 



Sikandra 65, 
66, 67, 68 
The Taj Mahal. . . 38,39,40 

The Most Beautiful Gale in the 



World 
The Tomb of I'timad-ud-d; 



166 
ulah 97, 
98, 99 
. 96 
225, 226 
183 
184 
70 
10, 11 
133 



The Hiran Miiuir 
The Pearl Mosque 

Ajanta, The Rock Temple . 
The Caves 

Amber, Interior of the Palace 

Amritsar, The Golden Temple 

Baltistan, A Glacier Table . 

Benares, Sacred Well of Vishnu 
The Burning Ghats ... 53 

Bhilsa, The Sanchi Tope 44, 45 

Bijapur, The Lord of the Plain . 175 
The Go! Gumbaz . . .239 

Bombay, Tower of Silence . . 109 

Buddhgaya .... 227 

Calcutta, Banyan Tree . 16, 17 

The Badri Das Temple . . 127 

The Jain Temple . .128 

Dariiling. Sacred Cave, Observatorv 

Hill ....'. 206 
Mount Kangchenjunga, from 3 

Delhi, The Kutab Minar . 18,19 

The Iron Pillar ... 84 

The Great Mosque . 129, 130, 131 
The Diwan-i-khas . 230, 231, 232 
The Pearl Mosque . . 177 

Elephanta, The Cave Temples 54, 55, 56 

Ellora. The Caves of . . .30, 31 



INDIA [continued) 

The Kailas Temple ... 32 
Everest. Moimt .... 107 
Ganges, Bathers in the . . ■ 141 

Gwalior 236 

Jabalpur, the Marble Rocks . . 6£ 

Huge Granite Boulders . . 148 

Jeypore, The Hawa Maha! . . 77 

Kanarak, The Black Temple 237, 238 
Madras, Sahadeva's Rath . . 138 

Madura, The Great Temple 178, 179, 180 

Martand 234 

Mohammedan Shrine ... 22 
Mysore, The Sacred Bull . . 49 

Narbada 209 

Puri, The Temple of Jagaimath, 223, 224 
Sikkim, A Cane Bridge . . 143 

Mount .Siniolchu ... 41 
Sravana Belagola, Gomatesvara 28, 208 
Srinagar, Deodar Bridge . . 149 

Tanjore, The Car of Krishna . . 118 

Uilaipur, The White Lake Palace . 136 
Ulwar, The Sacred Tank . . 22E 

lAPAN 
.\sama-Yama in eruption . 23 

Aso-san . . . .13,101,10? 

Chuzenji, The Waterfall, " Kegon- 

no-Taki " . . . . 93 

Enoshima, The Sponge Rocks 126 

Fuji . . .73, 74, 75, 76 

Iwahuni Bridge, The . .124 

Kamakura, The Daibutsu . .114 

Kameido Park, AVistaria . 145, 146 

Kasuhabli, Giant Wistaria . . 146 

Katsura River, The Rapids . . 29 

Kyoto, A Botanical Wonder . . 103 

Chionin Temple, The Great Bell 137 

Temple of 33,333 Gods . 122, 123 

Matsushima, Natural arch . . 215 

Minobu, The Temple of Mount 94, 95 

Miyajima, on the shores of . . 233 

Nara, The stone lanterns . . 108 

Nikko, The Temple lanterns . . 79 

The Great Torii ... 78 

Hear not, speak not, see not Evil 173 

The Yoniei Gate . . .172 

Stone Buddhas by the River 

Daiya . " . . .42 



Black and White Illustrations 



JAPAN {continued) 
Okit.su,__Stone Images of J'ive Hun- 
dred Disciples ... 58 
Tokyo, Graves of forty-sevi'ii lioriln.s li;.") 

JAVA 

Boro-I!odoiT, 'I'll!' 'ri-iupl.' of 24, 2.'), 2(i 

PAI,!^STI.^K 

licllileliem. Tin- Sliriiie of llie 

Manger .... 1.50 
Hebron, Tlie Tomb of Abraham, 

Isaac and Jacob . . 140 

Jebel Usdum, Interior of a sail cave 71 

Jericho, Tlie Walls of . 142 

Jerusalem, Ancient sepulclire 51, 52 

Tomb of Christ . . . i 

Rock cistern .... 88 

Church of the Holy Sepulchre . 203 

Gordon's Calvary . . .204 

Mosques of the TiMiiplc .\rea . 207 



AFUICA (CE.VTKAL) 
Termite .'Vnt-hill . 

AFIUCW, HKITISU 80I'TH 
lirandvlei, Hot Water Springs 
Capeto^vn, «ith Table Mountain 
Drakensberg Mountains, The 
Kimberley, Diamond .Mines 
Diamonils 



403 
375 
410 
408 
409 
Zindiabwe, The Huins of 411, 412, 413 



AI.GKKIA 

Algiers, Street of Camels 



427 



(Eastern) (iorge of the Knirutiel 371, 372 
Natural Bridge over the Uunmiel 370 
Ilamniam Maskutin, Cascade of 

Boiling Water . 439 

TIenicen, The (irand Mosque 437, 438 
A Sand Sea .421 



CONGO 

Ikoko, An Anthill 



404 



KGVl'T 

Alexandria, The Catacombs . . 391 

I'onipey's Pillar . 447 

Assouan, The Obelisk . .420 

The Great Dam . 418, 419 

Cairo, Sarcophagus of a Hull at 

Memphis .... 422 
Tombs of the Mamluks . . 414 



A81 A — loiiliiiiuii. 

PAGE 

PALESTINE (coiilinutd) 

Wailing-place of the Jews . 200 

Lebanon, .Natural Bridge at Mount 9 

PKU.SIA 

Damigban, The Miliar . . . 147 

Isfahan, The Bridge acro.ss the 

Zendah Kua . . . 235 

Kum, Fatima's Shrine . . . 190 

Per.sepolis, The Huins of . 210,211, 

212, 213 

Sbusbter, Valerian's Bridge . . 222 

Silence, The Tower of . . . xii 

Tur(pioise Stores, The U'orld's . 205 

RUSSIAN TURKESTAN 
Samarkand, The Tomb of Timor . 240 

SIAM 

Ayutlia, The Bronze Hu.ldba of . 81 
Ayulba, Tlie Kuins of . 82, 83 

Chang, The Wal . . .89, 90, 91 

Pagoda in fbe Kivi'r, Tin- . . 1,51 

AFKK'A. 

VkiiS. 

EGYPT (coHtiniud) 

Sandstorms . . . 401, 402 

Cairo 380 

The Mosques . 381, 382, 383, 384 
The Mosque Al-Azhar . 429, 430 
(iiza. The Pyramids . 345, 34fi, 347, 
348, 349, 350, 351, 352, 353, 354, 
355, 351), 357, 358, 359 
Heliopolis, The Obelisk . . 400 

Karnak, The Great Temple . 3tM), 301, 
362, 363 
The Obelisk of Qneen Hatjthop- 

situ ..... 304 

The Obelisks of Tehutinies 1. 365 

A Pharaoh Portrait-bust . . 366 

Temple of Tehutimes 1. . . 367 

Temple of Ramses . 368, 369 

Pbihu Island . 385, 387, 389 

Pharaoh's Bed . .386 

Temjile of Isis . . 388, 390 

Sakkara, The 'I'omb of Thiy . '443, 444 

The Serapeion . 423, 424, 425 

Sakkara-Menijihis, Slatue of 

Ramses 11 399 

Siwab, Oasis of . . 398 

Suez Canal . . . 373, 374 

Thebes, The Pavilion of Ramses 

111 415 

Great Temi)le of Hantses III. 416 

Gallery of Tehutimes I. .417 

Statue of Ramses II. . 432 

The Kamesseum . . 433, 434 



SIAM [continued) 

Pechaburi Cave Temples, The . 167 
Phra-Keo, The Wat . . 46, 47, 48 

SIBERIA 

Khirghiz Tombs . , 112, 113 

SYRIA 

Anion, The Gorge of the .171 

Baalbek, The Ruins of . . ix, 161, 

162, 163, 164 
Dead Sea, Tlie . . 185, 186, 187 

Palmyra, The Huins of . 152, 153, 154 

THIBET 

Changchenmo Valley, Thibetan 

Yaks crossing river in . . Ill 

Chiimbi Valley, Frozen waterfall . 8 

Lhasa, The Potala . 219, 220 

TheJo-Kaug . .211 

Tasbi Lhnmpo, Tomb of the First. 

Tashi Lama . . .1011 

Tsang-Po, A wonderful bridge 12 



EGYPT {continued) 

The Colossi of Meiunon . . 435 

The Temple of Halshopsitil 436 

The Valley of the Kings 445, 446 

NUBIA 

Abu Simbel, Temple of 405, 4(16, 407 
Dareheib 397 



RHODESIA 

A Baobab Tree . 



428 



TENERIFE 

Chinzeros, Eruption of . . 442 

Teide, The Peak of 1411, 441 

TUNIS 

Az-Zeitonna Mosque 379 

Carthage . , 376, 377, 378 

Human .\(pieduct . , . 42fi 

WADI ALLAIH 

A Sheikh's Tomb , . .390 

YORUBA 

Ibadaii, I'l'lish Temples at , , 448 

ZAMBESI 

Victoria Falls xvi., 392, 393, 394, 395 



AHGKNTINA 
Tandil, The Rucking .Stone 

MEXICO 

Oaxaca, A Mighty Tree 



AMERICA. 



OKLAHOMA 

A Cyclone at 

Hill DK JANl.lHli 
A Tiiial Wave at 



YELLOWSTONE LAKE 
A F'isli Hot-pot Spring . 



Black and White Illustrations 

AUSTRALASIA 



ANTARCTIC 
An ioeberti 
Ice- Caverns 
Ice-Fuinarole 
Mount Erebus 

liObNTV ISLES 
Penguins • 



. 288 
291, 292 

. 306 
307, 308 



331, 332 



NEW SOUTH WALES 

Blue Mountains, The . . 278, 279 

Jenolan Caves, Stalactites ami 

Stalagmites . vii., 251, 252, 253, 
254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 
261, 262, 263, 264, 265 
Sydney Harbour .... 315 
Wollondilly Caves . . 303 

Wonibeyan Caves . • 302 

Yarrangobilly Caves . . 293, 294 

NEW ZEALAND 

Auckland, Pohuta Geyser . . 272 

Egniont, Mount .... 304 

nawkesbury River Bridge, The . 295 



NEW ZEALAND (coJitinutd) 

Karapiti Blow-Hole, The 'Ml 

Kereru Geyser . . . ■ 270 

Manapouri Lake . 342 

.Milford Sound . 326, 327 

Rotomahana Lake . . • 343 

Southern Alps, " Aorangi " . . 273 

Tasman Glacier 274, 275, 276, 277 
Southern Alps, The Franz Joseph 

Glacier . . 311, 312, 313 

Tarawera, Mount . . . 344 

Taupo, 1 he While Terrace . . 283 

Tikitere . . . 284, 285, 286 
Tonga, A Prc-Historic Monument . 296 
Wairoa . . . . .287 
Wairoa Geyser . . 267, 268, 2611 

Waikite 305 

Waimangu Geyser . iii., 333, 334 

Waiotapu .... 289, 29(1 
Wairakei, The Dragon's Mouth . 341 
The Champagne Pool . 340 

The Aratiatia Rapids . . 282 
Wangaroa, The Sphinxes . . 314 

Whakarewarewa . . 266, 271 

While Island, The Boiling Lake . 325 



PACIFIC ISLANDS 
Borneo, Sea Dyaks 

Dyak Idols 
Hawaii, Kilauea, 
Mauna Loa . 
New Guinea, Houses 
Temple 
\illage . 



. 316 

. 317 

the tiatei ol 

321, 322, 3^3, 324 

. 298, 300 

. 297 

. 299 



Ponapi, Nan-Tauach . 280, 281 

Samoa, Coral Beef . . .309 

Blow-Hole . 31(1 



TASMANIA 

Eaglehawk Neck . . . 318 

The Devil's Kitchen . . .319 

The Tessellated Pavement 320 



WESTERN ALSTR.iLIA 

Buflalo Ranges . . 328, 329, 330 

Blackboy Hollow Cave . 337, 338 

Calgardup Cave . . . .339 

Yallingup Caves . . . 335, 336 




I'hoio by tne\ 



THK 



MlU,\H>ti 1 .-^L N 



i/'/totochrotu Co., /.oTui'm. 



In Polar regions, within the arctic and antarctic circles, the sun never sinUs below the horizon from about tlie middle 
of May to the end of July. Of course, against these weeks of perpetual daylight must be set the six weeks' sunless 
skies of the dead of winter. The above photo was taken at midnight in Tromso. Norway. 



INTRODUCTION 

By Sir HARRY JOHNSTON, G.C.AIG. 



THE feeling of wonder at 
stupendous or curious 
natural objects or the pheno- 
mena of the skies is certainly 
coeval with the birth of the 
human species. Even our 
nearest relations among the 
anthropoid apes are said to 
be agitated at the rising of 
the full moon with its disc of 
gold mottled with grey. Apes 
and monkeys are only less 
inquisitive than humans, and 
are readily attracted by bright 
colours and strange objects. 
Amongst the lowliest races 
of mankind existing at the 
present day Nature seems full 
of wonderment, and perhaps 
inspires more awe to their 
amazed and ignorant contem- 
plation than she does to the 
sophisticated white men and 
women of later intellectual 
growth. The savage, more- 
over, is not impressed by 
mere bulk ; he respects the 
intricate and can marvel at 
perfection of structure. 




/•'rom Steritj aip^riijht'i 



irndrruood i<- riuUrteootl. 



TRADITIONAL TOMB OF CHRIST. 

This ecpulcKre was discovered outside Jcruaalctn. and it i« traditionally •upposed 

to be the actual tomb given by Joseph o( Arimothca for lite burial o( Christ. 



11 



The Wonders of the World 



Hotten':ots and Bushmen wor- 
shipped the Mantis, or " pray- 
ing-insect," on account of its 
strange attitudes and coloura- 
tion. The Forest Negroes all 
over Tropical Africa think the 
Spider one of the Woi'ld's 
wonders, and endow this highly 
specialized arthropod with 
human attributes in their folk- 
lore. The pre-historic savages 
of Pleistocene Europe collected 
and valued strangely-marked 
pebbles or odd-shaped bones. 
Their analogues of the present 
day, the peoples of primitive 
culture in Africa, Asia, Aus- 
tralasia, and South America 
admire or worship upright or 
prostrate stones, mountain 
peaks, volcanoes, lakes, trees, 
flowers, shells, waterfalls, whirl- 
pools, rivers, fish, crocodiles, 
snakes, lizards, birds, beasts, 
the sun or the moon, certain 
constellations, thunder, light- 
ning, sand-storms and water- 
spouts. 

As Man waxed in intelligence 
and himself created wonders 
with his hands and by the 
instruments of his own making, 
he more often reserved his 
awe and admiration for great 
human achievements, rather 
than for the phenomena of 
Nature. The first enumeration 
of world-wonders — known as 
the " Seven Wonders of the 
World " — dealt entirely with 
the works of man. The list 
(probably compiled by Pliny 
the Elder or some other Roman 
writer at the beginning of 
the Christian Era) comprised 
(I) the Pyramids of Egypt ; (2) the Walls and Hanging Gardens of Babylon ; (3) the Temple of 
Diana of Ephesus ; (4) the Statue of the Olympian Jupitei by Phidias (at Olympia) ; (5) the 
Mausoleum raised by Artemisia at Halicamassus ; (6) the Colossus of Rhodes ; and (7) the 
Pharos or Lighthouse of Alexandria. 




' New Photographic Co,"] 



IStrriHtt. 



THE LEANING TOWER OF PISA 



The tower, which is constructed entirely of white marble, is 180 feet high, and 
has eight stories divided by rows of columns, the last, which contains the bells, 
being smaller in diameter than the others. It was built in 1174 and succeeding 
years, and slants 14 feet from the perpendicular. 



i 







[Dtinfilin. 



WAIMANGU GEVZER. NEW ZEALAND. 



The e«ploBion of Waim.neu Gfyzcr. the l.rscsl B-^yzcr in the World. i> .t lime, terrific, boilint w.lcr «nd mud brins 
thrown up to a heilihl of 1.500 feet When thi. photo w«. t.ken the height reoched w.. over 1.000 feet 



IV 



The Wonders of the World 







jZ'fidtf 



Pholo hiq 



[X r. EJtcanh. 



AN INSECT -SKYSCRAPER." TERMITE ANT-HILL IN CENTRAL AFRICA. 



These, so called, ant-hills are very common in tropical Africa, and are built of mud by the " white ants " for their home The 
height frequently reaches -40 feet Termites are not really ants, but insects of a totally different order. 



In the Eighteenth century writers in France and England were wont to add to this enumeration 
a series of " modern " world-wonders : (i) the Coliseum (or Colosseum) at Rome ; {2) the Cata- 
combs of Alexandria ; (3) the Great Wall of China ; (4) the Druidical Temple of Stonehenge ; (5) 
the Leaning Tower of Pisa ; (6) the Porcelain Tower of Nanking in China ; and (7) the Great IVIosque 
(once a Christian Church) of Saint Sophia, at Constantinople. 

The Pyramids are familiar to us all, though they are still legitimately reckoned among the 
Wonders of the World. The name we give to this structure seems to be derived through the Greek 
Pyramis (pi. Pyramides), from an Egyptian word, piremus, meaning " a vertical height." The 
PjTamids are probably evolved from a sudden exaggeration of the " mastaba," or oblong tomb- 
cover, the roof of an underground dwelling hewn in the rock, which contained a chapel or place 
for votive offerings and worship immediately over the grave. On to the basal slab of this 
(originally stone) cover or roof of the tomb were placed other slabs of lessening size, so that 
when finished the " mastaba " had sloping sides in steps, and a flat top. It needed only to 
continue in lessening gradation of size this apposition of one stone slab on another to arrive 
at last at an oblong-shaped pyramid. When these " mastabas " or p\Tamids increased in bulk 
beyond a mere grave cover the layers of single stone slabs were imitated by level courses of 
brick or masonry. 

The Pyramids were never a burial-place or monument of a family ; each was invariably the tomb 
of one person. In their gigantic development and typical form they were probably first constructed 
for the Kings of the IVth Dynasty, beginning at about 3700 B.C., or five thousand six hundred years 
ago. But the earliest type of the colossal pyramidal tomb known to us (and still existing) was the 



Introduction v 

Step Pyramid at Sakkara, supposed to date back to ab3ut 3900 B.C., and to have been built by 
Tcheser, a king of the Ilird Dynasty. 

The Walls and Hanging Gardens of Babylon — a city which in its prime, some two thousand five 
hundred years ago, had an area of about 100 square miles — were computed to be in places 335 feet 
high and 85 feet wide. They were pierced with one hundred gates of brass wfiich had brass posts 
and Untels. The Hanging Gardens, grouped with these colossal Walls as forming the second in the 
list of the World's marvels, were plantations of trees and flowers growing in soil placed in immense 
brick receptacles and raised to a height of seventy-five feet above the ground on arches. Appar- 
entl}' these " roof " gardens (an adjunct of the monarch's palace) formed a hollow square, each 
side of which measured four hundred feet. The vegetation in these immense elevated troughs was 
irrigated by water raised from the Euphrates by means of a revolving screw. 

The Temple of Diana of Ephesus — destroyed by the Goths in 262 a.d. — w-as a building designed 
by Greek architects, constructed during the lifetime of Alexander the Great, and finished about 
330 B.C. It was calculated by the late Mr. J. T. Wood (who explored it for the British Museum in 
1863-4) that this building measured 418 feet long by 239 feet broad. It became a magnificent 
repository and museum of the finest specimens of Greek art in sculpture and painting. There have 
been three or more temples on this spot, each erected on the ruins of its predecessor. According to 
tradition, a Greek colony of lonians under an Athenian leader landed at Ephesus in about iioo B.C. 
They found here an already important city grouped round the temple of a goddess of many breasts, 




yru rh'tloiirapldc ( 



IHE CEMETERN OF THE CAPUCHIN MONKS. 



It is a custom of these Capuchin Monks to remove, from time lo time, the mummiBcci reniuins 01 the Frinrs from tlicir 
place of burial to this vault, where they ore clad in the fiabits ihey were accustomed lo wear when alive, and labelled witli 
their names. When in the course of time their hodies fall into decay, the bones arc collected, classified and 'utilized for 
decoratine the walls of the vault. 



VI 



The Wonders of the World 



whom they identified with their own female deity, Artemis (Diana) ; a goddess who typified fertihty 
and the fruits of the Earth. Ephesus, situated near the mouth of the river Cayster, in south-west 
Asia Minor, fell into utter ruin after the Temple was destroyed by the Goths, and did not revive under 
the blighting rule of the Turks. It is now known as Ayasuluk, a corruption of Hagios Theologos, 
a name apphed to St. John and given to the city in Byzantine times. 

The Statue of the Olympian Jupiter was erected at Olympia in Elis (South-west Greece) by the 
great sculptor Phidias, in about 450 B.C. It was forty feet high, and represented Jupiter seated and 
robed, and holding forth in his right hand a figure of Victory, while his left hand rested on a sceptre 
on ^^■hich an eagle was perched. It may be that the whole Statue was of wood in its main 
substance, but in its outer aspects the face, bust and arms were of ivory, and the robes were of 
gold, enamelled with flowers and figures. 

Mausolus, a Persian, became about the year 3S0 b c. the satrap, or ruler, of the important town 
and district of Halicarnassus (nowadays known by the Turkish name Budrun), which, hke Ephesus, 
was situated on the south-west coast of Asia Minor. His wife Artemisia was ardently attached to 




Pholo li/] 



IJ. W. UcLeltan. 



THE PARTHENON AT THE ACROPOLIS. ATHENS. 



This Doric Temple, dedicated 
The buildi, 



to the 

ig is of 



goddess Athena, is the finest example extant of Greelc architecture at its perfection, 
marble. 228 feet in length and 6-4 feet to the top of the pediment. 



him, and after his death resolved to erect in his memory a superb monument. She employed Greek 
architects to design, and Greek sculptors to decorate, this first " Mausoleum," portions of which are 
now in the British Museum 

The Colossus of Rhodes was a bronze statue of Hehos, the Sun-god, about 120 feet high, erected, 
in 280 B.C. at the entrance to the harbour of Rhodes (in the island of that name). Chares, a Greek, 
was the designer. The statue did not, however (as popularly believed), bestride the entrance to 
the harbour, but was placed on one side of the entrance. It fell down in an earthquake about 
224 B.C. The fragments remained in situ for hundreds of years ; in fact, until after Rhodes was taken 
by the Arabs in 656 a.d. Soon after that date the pieces of bronze were sold to a Jewish merchant, 
who employed a thousand camels to remove them. 




Jty prrmitiion «/] 



IHE MINARET JENOLAN CAVES. NEW SOUTH WALES. 



This beautilul stalaemite in one of the caves is caused by ihc constant drippinn ol lime-water on one particular spot. The 
water evaporates, and the lime deposits arc alone left to accumulate by slow degrees in these fantastic forms. 



Vlll 



The Wonders of the World 




From the collection o/] 



THE BIGGEST TREE IN THE WORLD 



This tree isUa cypress and measures 1 54 feel in circumference, 
ttiat it would require 30 men with outstretched arms to span its 1 
IVlexico. 



It will give a better idea of its enormous size to say 
irth. It is situated at Tule, in the State of Oaxaca, 



The Pharos or Lighthouse of Alexandria — pattern of the world's hghthouses — was built on the 
eastern extremity of the isle (now peninsula) of Pharos by Ptolemy Soter, King of Egypt, in about 
300 B.C. It was 400 feet high. 

The Colosseum or Cohseum at Rome was built by the Emperors Vespasian and Titus as an 
amphitheatre, in which games, gladiatorial displays, and shows of wild beasts, sham fights of soldiers 
and ships, chariot and horse-races took place. Also, during the times of persecution many Christians 
were killed or tortured here. During the early centuries of the Christian era, down to about 550, it 
continued in use for public spectacles and remained intact as late as the ninth century. From that 
time onwards it was partially destroyed by the medieval barons and architects of Rome as a 
handy quarry of buUding stones required for the palaces and churches of Papal Rome. Benedict 
XIV., however, put a stop to this in 1750, and announced the Papal intention to preserve this rehc 
of Imperial Rome, formerly the scene of so much Christian suffering and fortitude. It therefore 
remains to the present day the most remarkable existing vestige of Rome's ancient monuments. 

The Catacombs of Alexandria were vast burial places for the dead, excavated in the calcareous 
rock to the south-west of the modern city of Alexandria. This is the same Umestone rock as 
that of Southern Tunis and Western Tripoli, in which the modern " cave-dwellers " have their 
homes. From a remote antiquity there have been cave-dwellers — " troglodytes " — throughout 
North Africa, from Morocco to Egypt ; people who found it easy to carve dwelhngs in the soft 
limestone rock, the surface of which when exposed to the air hardens, and does not crumble. The 
underground catacombs of Alexandria where the dead were buried in Ptolemaic and Roman times 
were of great extent, and were remarkable for their spacious dimensions and beautiful carvings. 

The Great Wall of China — made known to Europe first by the travels of Marco Polo, and further 
described by the Roman Catholic missionaries of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries — was 



Introduction 



IX 



commenced in about 214 B.C. by the great Emperor Che Hwang Te. It was, of course, intended as- 
a defence work to keep out the Tatar and Mongol cavalry, and when completed, about the beginning 
of the Christian era, extended from Shan-hai-kwang on the Gulf of Pe-chi-li to the westernmost 
comer of the province of Kan-suh, where the Wall finished on the slopes of the lofty Nan Shan 
mountains. The Wall was an instance of Chinese futihty, for it did httle to prevent the constant 
invasion of China by Tatar and Mongol conquerors between 200 B.C. and 1644 a.d. 

England was considered in the later eighteenth century to possess a world-wonder in the 
remarkable pre-historic monument of Stonehenge, perhaps 2,600 years old. This " Wonder of the 
World " will be fully described in a later number. 

The Leaning Tower of Pisa was the Campanile or bell-tower of the cathedral of that city. It 
was designed by two Tyrolese architects (of Innsbruck) and commenced in 1174. Through some 




-^" 



Ji^m- 



X^iHyytr'^- 








^^^^ 



From Slfrto (V/>y;'iyA/] 



ll'iulntcoo't .{- t'ndfr{C"'i(i. 



IHE MIGHIIEST STONE EVER HEWN. BAALBEK. SYRIA 



This Hone is 71 feet in lenKtli, 14 (eel wide, and 13 (eel hi«h. nnd il weinhs over 3.000.000 Ibi. Il i« in one iolid piece. «nd 
ilhere ore other «lone» nearly os Inrae in the ruin« o( the Temple o( the Sun at Baalbelt. which con be teen in the di«tonce.-i 



X The Wonders of the World 

accidental settlement in the foundations the Tower leans on one side, so that the coriiice of its 
summit is fourteen feet out of the perpendicular. The Tower is round, and constructed entirely 
of marble. The walls are thirteen feet tlrick at the base and six feet tliick at the top ; but it is now 
ascertained that the foundations are " miserably narrow " in their reach, are shallow, and rest on 
a bed of clay through which water percolates. Some additional earth tremor perhaps has occurred 
to weaken the Tower's stability, and whilst these lines are being penned urgent measures are being 
taken to save this world-wonder from the collapse which a few years ago laid low another great 
marvel of Medifeval Italy — the Campanile of St. Mark at Venice. Indeed, it is quite possible that 
those who look on the last photograph (here given) taken of the Leaning Tower of Pisa may never 
look upon its exact likeness again, as regards the angle of inclination and the details of the 
surroundings. 

The wonderful Porcelain Towei of Nanking, a great Chinese city, on the south bank of the Yang- 
tse-kiang river, is now no longer in existence. It was destroyed between 1853 and 1864 by the 





Pholo hit tfif'] 



IJ'hotai'hivlll Co.. Loiidull, 



FISH HOT-POT SPRING. YELLOWSTONE LAKE. U.S.A. 



The 



spring is in the middle of this little island, which is a cone of a gcyzer. Fish from the lalie can be caught and cooked 

immediately by placing them in the hot spring. 



Tai-ping rebels. This wonderful achievement of Chinese fantasy was constructed by the Emperor 
Yung-lo in 1413 to commemorate the virtues of his mother, and was called the " Token-of-Gratitude 
Pagoda." The Tower was about 260 feet in height, was an octagon in shape, and divided into nine 
storeys. The outer surface of the building was cased with the finest white porcelain bricks and the 
roofs of each storey were covered with green glazed tiles. Bells were hung on the eaves of each 
storey, totalling in numbers one hundred and fifty-two ; and in hke manner were suspended 
lanterns for illumination at night. The siunmit was surmounted by an iron rod encircled by nine 
iron rings and crowned with a gilded ball. Five chains were stretched from this golden apex to 
the eaves of the roof below, and on each chain was strung a " pearl of good augury," devoted to 
the welfare of the city. One pearl stood for protection against dust-storms, another availed to 
avert fire, a third allayed tempests, a fourth prevented floods of the river, while the fifth pearl 
guarded the city from riots. 

The Great Mosque of Constantinople, which was once the Cathedral Church ot " Holy Wisdom/' 




Hy penniiiioii " /^ 



{Thf One and All Assorintion. 
A CYCLONE IN OKLAHOMA. U.S.A. 

c.rcular .term of Krem force, which, extendina over a Uritc area. «nd rcyolvina 

th it »ond. and in foci onythinK liaht and 



This extraordinary effccl is produced by 
round a calm centre, travels at a ra.eof from 17 to 30 mile, an hour, carryina wi 
easily collected. 



Xll 



The Wonders of the World 



Pholo bi] 




[iV. I'. E<lwnr,1s. 



THE rOWER OF SILENCE. PERSIA 



The Parsis regarding earth, water and fire as sacred, have to dispose of their dead by other methods. The corpses 
being considered unclean, are carried up to these towers of silence and placed on tiers. Vultures eat the flesh off the bones, 
which are then placed in the centre of the to%ver. where they remain until they crumble away 

or Saint Sophia, is called by the Turks " Aya Sofia Jamisi." (The word " Aya " prefixed to so many 
buildings and place-names in Turkey is a corruption of the Greek Hagia^Sa.int, Holy.) It was 
commenced in the year 532 a.d. by the orders of the Emperor Justinian, on the site of the first 
Christian Church erected in Constantinople by Constantine the Great. The interior effect of the 
great, shallow dome, and the bold span of the arches, together with the splendid colours of the 
pillars and mosaics, are captivating to the eye, though one feels oneself to be in the very 
antithesis to a Christian Church. In 1847 the dome showed signs of collapsing, as the walls 
had ceased to be strong enough to support it. The great Mosque was then taken in hand by 
two Christian architects (Fossati and Salzenburg), who executed the most able and ingenious repairs 
which have greatly added to the stability of a building reputed to be the seventh modern wonder 
of the world, before the nineteenth century increased oiu" scope of amazement. 

Before the wonderful nineteenth century (an era in which the advance of man's mind, imagina- 
tion, conceptions, and knowledge of the universe, was out of all proportion in rapidity and extent to 
the progress of the preceding ages), natural marvels, both large and imposing and minute yet powerful 
attracted less attention and admiration than at the present day. Niagara has been known to the 
civilized world since the first report of the existence of these Falls by Samuel Champlain in 1613, 
and the careful description of Father Hennepin in 1G78. Yet this splendid displa}' of a vast river 
plunging into a chasm met with no enthusiastic appreciation till the middle of the nineteenth 



Introduction 



Xlll 



century. The A4ps were styled ' horrid," Uke most other lofty mountains, by the writers of 
classical times, and even of the Renaissance. Natural phenomena, where they were dangerous to 
man's life or even comfort, inspired terror and disgust, but very rarely excited aesthetic admiration, 
such as we of the New Age would feel for the ruthless Tidal Wave ; for the Simum of the Desert 
rising like a gigantic Jinn of the Air to overwhehn and suffocate man and beast ; the Midnight 
Sun — low in the heavens, yet never setting during the height of a Polar siunmer ; the Iceberg ; the 
Columns of Steam and Ashes shooting up from a volcano ; the Geyzer ; the Glacier ; the Tornado 
and the Forest Fire. 

Nor. unto the period of the Romantics began in France and Walter Scott published his novels 
in England, until Millet, Daubigny. Turner and David Cox originated new schools of landscape 
painting, was there any real love of the wonderful, weird, mystic and subtle in landscapes, seascapes 
and skyscapes ; any feeling for atmospheric height, dim glory, shimmering sunshine through stained 
glass and incense fiunes in vast cathedrals ; any gratification at the sight of some Alpine giant peak, 
carrying unruffled snow and blue-green glacier edge into a sky of deep ultramarine, or half veiled by 
a thin drapery of clouds. All previous renderings of landscapes had been hard and matter-of-fact. 
Such of these pictures as are worth looking at at all in the present day are merely interesting to us 
from an archfeological point of view, if they picture faithfully the life of town and country. 

A false idea of religion checked the development of the right sense of wonder — awe combined 
with admiration — which fiUs nowadays all thinking men and women when they contemplate the 
achievements of the human mind and hand, or the infinitely varied manifestations of natural forces. 
From the twelfth century onwards the human intellect of the European world began to revive, 




ritoio iij/} 



IJ'iUiiiiim' ^inj. 



IIDAL WAVE AT RIO DE JANEIRO. 



Tidal waves are almost invariably the result of a submarine carlhquolte."* Immediately before the approach of the actual 
wave, the sea flows bacl< a long distance from the shore. Then comes the tidal wave < one* ofl which is recorded lo have 
reached 210 feet', and the onslaueht of water carries everythine before it. causins destruction to anylhine within its reach. 



XIV 



The Wonders of the World 



expand,' and shake itself free from the fetters of bigotry and false religion. The Persia of Omar 
Khayyam, the Spain of Averroes, the Provence of the Troubadours, Italy of the Renaissance, 
France of Villon, and England of Chaucer, are full of a slowly giowing, tremulous, delicious 
wonderment at the marvels of the world ; at the contrast between the lofty peak and the 
smiling valley, the springing fountain in the wilderness, the pale green gloom of the beech- 
woods, the stalactite miracles of limestone caverns, the growth of the plant, the migration of 
the birds ; and the existence beyond the confines of Romanized Europe of strange wild beasts, 
naked, dark-skinned savages, birds of paradise, gigantic birds of Madagascar, mountains of lode- 
stone, unicorns and phoenixes, sheep drawing their fat tails on little sledges, elephants carrying 
castles, volcanic craters revealing the Earth's fire ; and the thousand and one stories obtained from 
the Arabs and Chinese by Crusaders, Venetian traders and Papal envoys of the Crusades, and of the 




[Underwood d- I'nderuood, London. 
THE CLIFF DWELLINGS OF MANCOS CANON. COLORADO. U.S.A. 

These are the most wonderful buildings that have yet been found of the prehistoric cliff dwellers. Some of the houses are 
built at a height of 800 feet above the valley level. To reach many of the rooms in these buildings a man would have to 
enter an aperture only 11 inches high and 30 inches wide, and crawl through a tube-liUe passag- 20 feet in length. 

period of commercial and religious expansion which followed. The revival of interest in Greek 
literature gave to men's minds in the Europe of the Renaissance the myths (with a sub-stratum of 
fact) of the Greek heroes. But it was perhaps the Crusades most of all which implanted in the 
European mind the desire of adventures for the mere sake of feeding the imagination with wonder- 
ment. The Crusading voyages of the Christians swarming out from Western Europe to attack the 
JMuhammadans in the Mediterranean, carried men in ships to the coasts of Portugal and Morocco, as 
well as to Asia Minor and Syria (and thence to Persia, Tartary, India and China). More and more 
attention was concentrated on the mysteries that lay beyond the Atlantic Ocean. Italian monks 
and Italian explorers as early as the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries had reached the coast of 
the Pacific and had realized the existence of the Malay Archipelago. The desire to behold new 
wonders, as much as any inducement to spread Christianity or obtain gold and slaves, sent men 
across the unknown Atlantic to discover the islands and continents of the New World. 

Perhaps at the present day it is amazing scenery that attracts our eyes and minds more 




k 



-e: 








This is a 
probably bcc: 
parent rocU. I 



[/. n. Dnrihfr, Esq., F.RM.S. 



THE ROCKING STONE. TANDIL. ARGENTINA. 



perfectly 
1 formed 
eavine be 



nnccd boulder of immen.c .izc. <■• c.n be .een by comBi.rin» il with the men .landing near. It has 
the action of wind and rain in triturating and removing by degree, the more friable port. o( the 
d the harder-gritted core. It i. .o perfectly lodged that it can be rocked without fear o( it. falling. 



XVI 



The Wonders of the World 



completely than any other wonders. Later we shall be expending our money and our attention on 
the publications which give us without a hiatus or a guess every stage in the unfolding development 
of the germ into the perfect animal or plant ; which illustrate the life-cycle of the parasitic worm, 
the changes in the grey matter of the brain, the formation of crystals, the development and arrest 
-of disease. 

New wonders will arise of new species in animals and plants created by means of the application 
-of natural laws. An extended study of chemistry and an application of mathematics will 
immensely increase the scope of our admiration and awe, in the revelation of new wonders 
which will have become possible to man as a scientific creator. 

Meantime, there can be no more liberal education than to pass in review what are commonly 
reputed as world's wonders at the present day. It should tend not only to delightful recreation, but 
to an enlargement of our sympathies. Many of us, not only in the United Kingdom and the 
British Colonies, but throughout the world, have not the privilege of travel ; are retained within 
the narrow limits of a town or vOlage by force of circumstances, by indifferent health, or lack 
of sufficient means. To all such, a book dealing with the Wonders of the World as seen with 
accuracy by the photographic lens, and described often by eye-witnesses, should come as a 
-delightful compensation for home-staying. 




liy pet-mission of^ 



{The ISrilish SoiKh Africa Co. 



THE VICTORIA FALLS, SOUTH AFRICA. 



At some period in the geologic history of Africa a crack occurred across the bed of the Zambesi River, creating a big 
-chasm into which the river rushed in a sheer descent; thus forming these famous falls, by far the largest in the world. The 
iNiagara Falls are only half as wide and half as deep. 




Copyri'jfit pfi'if" /'vj 



[//. <;. PofUing, r.fiAi.S. 

construclio 
of the barrier, built over two thousand years ago by the first Chinese Emperor Che-HwanE-te. 



THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA. 

This picture, which includes the PalalinR Gate of the Great Wall, gives a good idea both of the construction and course 



THE WONDERS OF THE WORLD. 



BOOK I. ASIA. 



CHAPTER I. 
By PERCEVAL LANDOX. 

The Great Wall of China. — Best known by repute of all the wonders of the world, the Great 
Wall of China has remained for twenty-one centuries the most amazing construction of human 
hands. Ruined and broken as it is, it is clear at first sight that the amount of human labour 
required to build this majestic barrier is without parallel on earth. Fifteen hundred miles long, 
with additional loops that add another 
thousand miles, there were originally 
twenty-five thousand watch-towers upon 
it. The Wall was built at the end of 
the third century before Christ by the 
first, and perhaps the greatest, of all 
Chinese Emperors. Yin Cheng, Prince of 
Tsin, better known as Che-Hwang-te. 
succeeded as a boy to the throne of a 
comparatively small kingdom, and at once 
began to put into a state of order and 
defence a territory that had ''long been 
allowed to degenerate into a mere prey 
to annual northern invaders. After a 
few years the young king assumed the 
style of Emperor, and organized the 
forces of what for the first time in 
history was China. For he at once gave 
to the whole of this new empire the 







--*t4^ 



From .Stfreo <-opf/rii//i(} lUndfrvood A; Ctutfrtcood. 

A view alons ilic lup of the Tartar Wall. 



The Wonders of the World 



name of- his own small state. He 
then maiched out against the Tatars 
— or as the English prefer to spell 
the name, Tartars — his hereditary and 
perennial enemies in the north. After 
routing these marauding pests, he 
was recalled for the usual oriental 
need of crushing out the seeds of 
rebellion at home. It was probably 
in order that he should not again 
find himself thus between two ene- 
mies, that he conceived the gigantic 
defence of which the larger part re- 
mains to this day. Undeterred by the 
magnitude of the task and the terrible 
loss of life that its construction must 
involve, Che-Hwang-te, like Khufu be- 
fore him, gave the word, and the 
huge structure slowly forged its way 
from many centres at once along 
the entire northern boundary of what 
was then the Chinese Empire. Che- 
Hwang-te enlisted the workers in many 
ways and from many quarters. Some 
of his press-gang work was hardly 
creditable, for it is on record that 
the mere possession of a book con- 
demned the wretched owner to four 
years' hard labour on the Wall, 
as the Chinese proverb has it : 
annihilation of one generation 
proved the salvation of others,' 
for many centuries the Great 
served its purpose well. 

The nature of its construction can 
be well seen in the accompanying 
photographs. The height and size of 
the Wall diminish somewhat as it 
progresses westward, but to the end 
it maintains its high quality of work- 
manship. Starting from Shan-hai Kwan, 
the "Wall of Ten Thousand Miles" 
runs west across the mountains until Kalgan is reached, where it is pierced by the 
main north-western road from Peking ; thence it takes its way over the plains and 
lesser ranges of the Hwang-ho basin, crossing the river at Pien Kwan. From that point the 
existing boundary between the provinces of Mongolia and China proper is faithfully followed 
by this huge fence, until Kiayu Kwan beyond Su-chow is reached, where the Wall comes to 
a sudden end. Modern investigation has demonstrated the fact that the Great Wall branches 
off into two distinct loops near Chunwei, and that another loop enclosed a large tract of land 




But, 

'The 

has 

and 

Wall 



Copyright ph.'lo 1 1] [H. G. Panting, F.R.O.S. 

THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA. 

A characteristic and picturesque view taken near Nankow Pass. 




Cojuri'ifit photo hy^ 

MOUN 1 

1 hird amoRK iKe BfeatcBt mounlnint of the 
Mount Everest or K 2 in the KnraUorom ranice. 
beautiful on earth. 



[//. a. I'onlXH'j^ I'Ji.H.S. 



kANGCHENJUNGA FROM DARJILING. 

world. KanRchcniunKa'a 28.1 56 feet are infinitely more imprciitive than either 

It has often been laid that this view, in ill entirety, i* by far the moat 



The Wonders of the World 



J 



west of the capital. Ex- 
cluding these loops, in length 
the Great Wall is somewhat 
greater than the Grand Trunk 
Road from Calcutta to Pesha- 
war in India, or, to take a 
more easily accessible simile, 
it may be said that it would 
stretch from Berlin to Tiflis in 
the Caucasus. 

A recent writer, Mr. Geil, 
writes of it thus : " Dis- 
appointment generally awaits 
the mortal who has heard 
much about some celebrated 
object, and does visit it ; so 
seldom does the reality come 
up to expectation. But the 
Great Wall is not overrated. 
Behold it by starlight or moon- 
light, gaze on it in twilight or 
in sunlight ; view it through 
the haze of a dust fog, or 
the spindrift of a rain-shower, 
or between the flakes of a 
snowstorm, ever is the Wall 
one great, grey, gaunt, still 
spectre of the past, cresting 
the mountain peak or re- 
posing in the shady valley. 
So vast is it that perhaps 
alone of all man's handiwork it could be discerned from the moon. So vast is it that were 
its materials disposed around the world at the equator, they would provide a wall eight feet high 
and three feet thick. When we reflect on the labour needed to erect it, we slowly divine the toil 
exacted from countless thousands, the sweat and tears and blood that must have been shed ; and 
we are prepared to hear that after two millennia the name of Chi is cursed all along the Wall by 
the descendants of those who were driven to the hateful task, who laboured in deathly fear lest 
when flesh and blood failed to respond to the taskmaster's scourge, that flesh and blood should 
be hurled into the mass of concrete to provide more material for the all-devouring monster. It 
is a Wall of Blood ! " 

Kangchenjunga, from Darjiling. — That which has been described by many travellers as the 
most beautiful view on the face of the globe lies before the reader. There is, of course, room for 
only a small part of the panorama in the plate. The mountain wall stretches interminably to 
right and left and snowy mountain peaks of lesser height rise as far as the eye can reach from 
the darker masses of moraine and naked rock below. But Kangchenjunga is the centre and focus 
of the whole great picture. From among the tropical vegetation of the hill side the eye falls to the 
trimly cultivated plains that thrust themselves between the mountain ridges. At this distance 
the carefully levelled shelves where paddy is grown look like the stairs of a doll's house, and the 
rare buildings no bigger than those that might crowd a shelf in a London toy-shop. Beyond them 




Fi-om Stej'eo copyHght'] 



dertcood it Uiidericood. 



JAIN TEMPLES AT MOUNT ABU. 



These exquisitely finisKed Dilwarra Temples at the summer capital of Raipulana 
were built respectively by Prince Vimala Sah. in 1030 A.D., and by the brothers 
Tejahpala and Vastupala, about the year 1200 A.D. The records that remain of 
their nominal cost in those days mean little now. but it is clear that it would be 
represented by not less than two-and-a-half millions sterling to-day. 



Asia 5 

the barren mountain spurs thrust themselves forward from the main mass of the Himalayas, and 
behind them again the sombre curtains of eternal rock rise nobly and indistinctly in deeper and 
deeper tones of ash-blue till twenty miles away the glaciers mark here and there the irregular 
fortress wall of mountain scarp and battlement, untrodden, remote and lifeless. Five hundred 
feet higher still, and all warmth is gone. Above this waste of ice and moraine there is a lavender 
haze for most days throughout the year, but if you are lucky — if the haze by some happy chance 
is dispersed while you wait — you will see something that will repay you for all your impatience, 
something that you will hardly believe for its very magnificence even as you look at it. Up above 
that lavender haze that crowns the glaciers, up in mid-heaven, up where b\- rights there should be 
nothing but the night-riding stars — there, separate, detached, unconnected with anything on earth, 
there rise the rose-pink ice peaks and saddles of Kangchenjunga. Fifty miles away, yet clearer 
than the glacier plinth below them, the crannies and caves, the towers and pinnacles of the 
mighty mountain stand out in pale crimson glorj' upon the cold ash-blue sky, more like some 
heavenly vision of an old painter than anything that can possibly be real in this world. 
Motionless, silent, ethereal, those untrodden peaks hold the colour as a great shell from a South 
Sea beach glows with twenty shades of pink. Long after the sun has set upon Darjiling you ma\- 
watch from your mountain coign that wonderful set scene, immovably fixed for all the interplay 
of fading rose. Then Kangchenjunga dies out again, and only the dark starless patch in the patined 
sk\- will tell you all night long that what you saw was no mere vision or delusion of your senses. 




I'hoto iy] 



ll.c 



ui tllCHC Jailt K 



I I/... ., .'.''..iji.ii .{• livj'fiutiin. 
c\\ tiltuwn in this pliotuuruph 



The Wonders of the World 



Jain Temples at Mount Abu. — Since Mount Abu was selected as the hot-weather station of 
the Rajputana Agency, it has become one of the best-known places in North-Western India. 
There is here a natural plateau two or three miles long stretching among the mountain peaks, level, 
fertile and well watered. The rich vegetation of the mountain-side jungle and the flat barley 
field of vivid green refresh the eye of the traveller and form a rich setting for some of the 
most extraordinary buildings that man has ever constructed in the world. 

The two Jain Temples of which illustrations are given are built of the purest white 
marble and are decorated as no other buildings in the world have ever been or ever will be 
decorated. A glance at the second illustration will give an idea of this supreme wealth of 
ornament better than the most elaborate of descriptions. Originally built by the piety of Jain 
devotees of the eleventh and twelfth centuries, the temples were allowed to fall into a state of 
disrepair that, in the middle of the nineteenth century, threatened their speedy ruin. But 
energetic and skilful underpinning staved off immediate danger, and for the last twenty years 




Copyright pholo iiji] [//, a.-Ponlimi, F.H.G.S. 

THE ANANDA PAGODA. PAGAN. 

This Temple is the most conspicuous and beautiful object still remaining among the deserted ruins of Pagan, at one 

time the capital of Burma. 

the work of restoration has been steadily going on. Leaf by leaf, flower by flower, curve by 
curve, the new work challenges detection amid the old, and though to occidental tastes the 
buildings are terribly over-encrusted with ornament the sight of these Dilwarra temples at 
Mount Abu silences the most blase and the most critical of their visitors. They seem rather 
the miraculous creation of some Aladdin than the work of human hands. We are accustomed 
to think of Roslin chapel as exquisitely and perhaps over decorated, but the most intricate 
adornment of the Prentice's pillar is mere hatchet work beside the lace-hke decoration of these 
temples. 

Of the Jain religion, which reared these jewels of alabaster, it is enough to say that it claims — 
and probably with truth — an antiquity equal to that of Buddhism, with which faith, indeed, it is 
closely associated both in history and in symbolism. The Jains carry the doctrine of the trans- 
migration of souls to an extremity. The life even of a microscopic insect of the Indian road- 
side is respected by them, and a devout Jain will always brush the ground he is to sit on before 
allowing himself to rest. In many ways Jainism is now fast approximating to Hinduism. Caste 





i'hi'to by] 



GIANT BUDDHA AT KIATANG. CHINA. 

The full fisure is' oboul one hundred and fifty feet in height and is perhaps the most remarkable of these 
Kisontic clifT-hcwn representations of Buddha. 



[AVr. Olin l'«</». 



The Wonders of the World 




Photo hy] [Messrs. Johnson i- Hoffmann. 

FROZEN WATERFALL IN THE CHUMBl VALLEY, TIBET. 

This annual phenomenon takes place a lew miles south-west of Phari. the famous fort 
at the head of the valley. 



restrictions are strictly- 
enforced, the cow is wor- 
shipped and Hindu rules of 
inheritance are observed. 
Except in the externals 
tlie kinship with Buddhism 
is now small. But it is 
with the utmost difficulty 
and uncertainty that the 
existing relics of Jainism 
are distinguished from 
those of Buddhism. 

The Jains are divided 
between the Digambaras, 
or " sky-clad " sect, who 
eat — and in extreme cases 
entireh^ live — naked, and 
deny that women can 
attain salvation ; the 
Svetambaras, who wear 
clothes and have hopes for 
the salvation of their 
womenkind ; and the 
Dhondiyas, who wear 
white clothes, filter the 
air they breathe and 
worship their Gurus, or 
spiritual teachers. A re- 
cent writer has denied the 
present usefulness of a 
sect that merely " denies 
God, worships man, and 
nourishes vermin." But 
the Dihvarra temples stand 
as a lasting proof that 
there were years in which 



the Jains as builders, designers and carvers of marble could challenge the world. 

The Ananda Pagoda, Pagan. — In the strictest sense of the word, this e.xquisite structure by 
the side of the Irrawadi is no more a pagoda than the so-called Arakan Pagoda near IMandalay 
is a pagoda, if by that word it is intended to signify a development of the original stupa, or 
tope, which was the earliest form of commemorative structure in the Buddhist religion For 
the distinguishing characteristic of the stupa is that it has no rooms or corridors within it. It is 
in its essence a simple mound of earth. The Shwe Dagon in Rangoon offers the latest and the 
most highly decorated example of the stupa pure and simple. Such buildings as the Arakan 
Pagoda and this in the deserted riverside capital of Burma should rather be called temples, though 
in many cases the conventional form of the stupa may still be traced buried beneath a wealth of 
masonry and ornament. This Ananda Pagoda at Pagan is pierced interiorly by a network of 
major and minor corridors enmeshing a central solid square, into which four deeply-set chapels are 
sunk, each containing a large statue of Buddha. These four statues represent four reincarnations 



Asia 9 

of the Buddha ; they returned to the world in different ages for the edification and regeneration of 
mankind. 

This is the most majestic temple that stiU exists in Pagan of over a tiiousand pagodas of 
different sizes, shapes, and degrees of repair. Ruined or semi-ruined for the most part, they crowd 
in upon the river Irrawadi, where the remains of Burma's ancient capital can still be traced for 
more than five miles along the river. 

Mr. Scott O'Connor well describes the general effect of Pagan even in its present dilapidated 
and depopulated state : " As we near Yenan Gyat there become visible for the first time countless 
pyramids and spires of Pagan, the most stately capital Burma has ever known. The nearer ones 
are cut in dark outlines against the sky, but the most distinct are so faint that they seem like 
the unreal fabrics of a city of dreams. Yet there is nothing in this superb picture, in all these 
hosts of pinnacles and domes and spires, to hint that before one lies a city of the dead. 
Instead, it looks, hung here between the drowsy clouds and the mirror-like calm of the mighty 
river, like some new evidence of the East destined to play an immortal part in the history of 
the world." 

The temple takes its name from Ananda, the beloved disciple of the master, who, with Upali, 
the St. Paul of Buddhism, was largely instrumental after Gautama's death in casting into a 
permanent tradition and canon the life and teaching of the Buddha. 

Great Buddha of Kiaiang. —This strange cliff-Buddha is described by Mrs. Little as about 
one hundred and fifty feet in height. It is full length, and the feet are washed by a foaming 
mountain torrent. It was, indeed, she writes, to guard against the dangers of the rapids here 
that the figure was cut in the cliff-side by the life-long labour of a single priest. The rock is 
somewhat soft, and, as can be seen, there is much earth in the crevices. This has been 
ingeniously utilized for a monstrous growth of hair, eyebrows and moustache, which adds 



.,■ « 










Photo by] 



[\ir/-itji'irt ilrot., llfl/rotil . 



NATURAL BRIDGE Al MOUM LtBANO.N. 

A Kood illustration o[ natural' architecture The proporliona of it can be imavined by nolicins the size of the men 

on horceback upon it. 



lO 



The Wonders of the World 




Copyrinht photo (../] l"- '•■ ''■•"H'HI, f-R.CS. 

THE GOLDEN TEMPLE, AMRITSAR. 

A cKaracteristic view about noon of iKc approach to the Golden Temple and the crowds that frequent it. 

considerably to the appearance. There are other rock-cut Buddhas in the neighbourhood. 
Mrs. Little mentions one near Yung-Hsien. In this case an entire hill has been carved into 
the shape of the head and shoulders of Buddha and heavy gilding has been apphed. 

Frozen Waterfall. — Until the recent expedition of Sir Francis Younghusband to Lhasa no 
white man had ever seen this curious natural wonder which every winter falls like a veil of 
lace from the top of the hills that shut in the Chumbi Valley on the east. It is to be seen 
about ten miles south-west of Phari. One can climb up on to the frozen mass below and find 
a clear way behind, between the wall of rock and the pillar of fluted ice, through which the 
afternoon sun glows as through a gigantic aquamarine. From the outside, however, there is 
no suggestion of colour in this strange white pillar which begins to be formed in the latter days 
of October, and remains in ever-increasing beauty untU the first warm breath of the south wind 
thaws again the little stream — for it is only a little stream — of which the ceaseless dripping causes 
this gargantuan work. The total height of the faU is about ninety feet, and in 1904 it was about 
thirty feet wide at its base. The waterfall has no attendant beauties of vegetation, for it is not 
less than fourteen thousand feet above the sea level, where little but dwarfed rhododendron and 
brief-lived alpine flowers flourish during the short summer months. 

Natura. Bridge. Mount Lebanon, Palestine. — This natural arch is perhaps as good a 
representation as could be found of a not infrequent effect in nature. It is a curious 
illustration of how often the work of man, even in the application of technical principles, 
seems to have been anticipated by nature. For though at first sight it would appear that the 
beam, rather than the arch, was here exemplified, the natural shape assumed by the rock gives it 



12 



The Wonders of the World 



all the stability of a con- 
structed arch, and it may con- 
fidently be said that this 
gigantic span is fixed over 
the narrow gorge below as 
permanently and in as work- 
manlike a form as any con- 
struction of man could be. 

The Golden Temple, Amrit- 
sar. —The golden temple of 
Amritsar is by repute one 
of the best known buildings 
in Asia. It is to the Sikhs 
what St. Peter's is to the 
Roman Catholics and the 
Ka'abah is to the Moham- 
medans. In it, as the object 
of limitless devotion and ser- 
vice, lies the " Granth," or 
Holy Book. This most sacred 
volume is set upon an altar, 
and is worshipped with offer- 
ings of flowers and the con- 
tinual waving of fans and 
chauris, or fly-whisks. In front 
of it is stretched a sheet, upon 
which the offerings of the faith- 
ful are cast in silver or nickel, 
or cowrie-shells, while the re- 
citation of the droning priests 
fills the ear with the drowsy 
spirit of religious ecstasy. 

The temple is reached by a 
causeway running from the western side of the tank. The door of the temple that 
faces this causeway may not, however, be used by non-Sikhs. The " feringhi,"* what- 
ever his rank and importance, is obliged to use the side door on the north. Once 
inside, he is welcome to go where he pleases, and he will be doubly welcome if after he hcis 
passed beneath the ghttering gold walls and domes of the Darbar Sahib he presents the customary 
offering to the memory of the great soldier saints who founded this most militant of all creeds. 
For the Sikh does not believe much in the efficacy of prayer. But he does believe most mightily 
in the virtue of breaking the heads of heretic enemies. They are fighters by birth and training 
and trade. When we snatched from the hands of Ranjit Singh the dangerous dominion that he 
had acquired over the Punjab, they shrugged their shoulders and turned as readily to the work 
of war under British officers as they ever have beneath those of their own blood. This clan of 
fighters was founded about four hundred years ago. Caste prejudice and the worship of idols 
were denounced, and the unity of God enjoined. Completely sundered as they at first were from 

*This word, which in one form or another is almost universally used in Central and Southern Asia to denote Europeans, 
is an -attempt to pronounce the word " fran9ais," the French or Franks having stood from early times for all white-skinned 
foreigners. 




Pholo by] 

A WONDERFUL 
Readers will notice the 



BRIDGE ACROSS THE 



curious way in which 
by ropes to the iron 



[Cap(. C. O. Raiding, CLE. 
TSANG-PO IN TIBET. 

scanty gang-planks are bound 



Asia 



13 



their Hindu brethren, the austerity of the Sikh rule is now much relaxed, and caste distinctions are 
creeping back among them. 

It will be noticed in the illustration that only the upper part of the temple — that which shows a 
darker tint — is of gold. Plates of copper are coated heavily with the precious metal, and their 
effectiveness for decorative purposes could hardly be better exemplified than by this building. 

A Wonderful Bridge Across the Tsang-po. — This is an excellent illustration of a kind of 
bridge very popular among Tibetans. The footway of the bridge is supported by a coarse, 
interwoven net of ropes, which bind it to the iron chains on either side. These chains are in. 
many cases of great age ; in fact, it would probably be impossible for the Tibetans to repeat 
to-day the prowess of their ancestors in the art of welding iron. 

The finest example of these suspension chains that remains to-day may be found forty miles- 




Pholo lip] ITIit Keifilone Vitic Co. 

IHE GREAT CRATER OF ASOSAN. JAPAN. 

Perhaps amons the many extinct volcanoes of tKc world this portion of Aso-san retains best the features and plan of 

the active crater. 



1 4 The Wonders of the World 

south-west of Lhasa, where the main road to the Gyantse crosses the Tsang-po, at a place called 
Chak-sam {i.e., iron bridge). The huge quadruple chains still swing out across the stream as strong 
and unrusted as when Tang-Tong drew them taut from bank to bank in the fifteenth century. As 
may be imagined, it is almost impossible to get beasts of any kind to cross these bridges, and, 
probably in consequence of this, large ferr^^-boats have entirely displaced the older method of 
transit at Chak-sam. 

The Crater of Aso-san. Japan. — If geologists may be believed, there was a time when craters 
existed on this planet no less in size than those of which the remains may still be traced almost 
with the naked eye upon the surface of the moon. But though this no doubt is the case, these 
craters have, as a rule, lost to a great extent their original structure, and the picture that we give 

of the extinct portion 
of the crater of Aso- 
san, in Japan, presents 
a good idea of what 
is probably the largest 
existing crater in the 
world, of which the preci- 
pitous and almost circular 
hill-sides and the flat bed 
are still clearly visible. 
It requires little imagina- 
tion to reconstruct the 
terror of the scene when 
in remote geological ages 
this mighty blow-hole of 
the earth's interior in- 
candescent activity was 
in full blast, and. more- 
over, it should be men- 
tioned that even at the 
present day a portion 
of Aso-san is still in 
activity. 

The grim thought 
comes over a visitor that, 

after all, this crater may not be as totally extinct as its trim and well irrigated fields and copses 
suggest. The Vesuvian crater of Monte Somma was notoriously extinct and filled with vegetation 
m the year 79 a.d., and we can imagine that the horror and confusion in Pompeii and Herculaneum 
was mcreased tenfold by the complete unexpectedness of the eruprion which without warning 
blew one half of the whole crater of Monte Somma into thin air, and deluged the sides of what 
is now known as Vesuvius with the lava that still hes heavily over Herculaneum. 

The Great Buddha of Pegu. — It is a curious fact that of the marvellous structures of man 
dealt with in this section of this work two were discovered by the merest accident. As will be 
seen elsewhere, the temple of Boro-bodoer, in Java, was brought to light only by the chance 
prospecting of an Englishman. This statue, which without fear of contradiction may be said to 
be by far the largest representation of the human form that exists in the world, was exposed to 
the light by an even more extraordinary stroke of luck. The railway runs north-east from 
Rangoon to Mandalay, and twenty or thirty miles out from the former city Pegu is reached. It 
was the construction of this railway that occasioned the discovery of the statue. In 18S1, while 




'''"'"' ''y'^ ^ li-t-rcn-al landon, Ksq. 

GREAT BUDDHA AT PEGU. 

This photograph of the mosaic decoration upon the soles of the feet will give a good 
idea of the vast sums now being spent upon the decoration of this huge recumbent statue. 
The darU mass of rock to the right will indicate the state in which it was when found. 



i6 



The Wonders of the World 



1 







^ 


' ^!-tl 


^^^iv^is^s^x. '-i - 





I'Uoto hy'] 



[N. P. Edwards. 



THE GREAT BANYAN TREE IN CALCUTTA. 



The Banyan is remarL:able for its rooting branches which soon become new stems, and in this manner the tree spreads 

over a great surface. 

the permanent way was being banked up to protect the lines from occasional floods, the engineer 
in charge required for the solidity of his work a harder ballast than the alluvial deposit over which 
the line was running could give him. It was a little difficult to find anything to suit. Jungles 
stretched five or six miles westward from the river to the foot of the hills. Here and there, how- 
ever, they were diversified by a fold of laterite half concealed beneath the luxuriant vegetation 
that clothed its side. This kind of rock had been used by the contractor before and had been 
found entirely satisfactory for his purpose, and he therefore sent a small body of men to prospect 
in the jungle. Less than a mile away a tree-clad mound raised itself conspicuously from the 
vegetation. The work of clearing away some of the trees took but an hour or so, and then shafts 
were sunk to find the needed stone. Before the diggers had gone down more than a yard they 
struck a solid formation which promised at first to provide the necessary material. But 
a cursory examination showed that the material thus discovered was of hard burnt brick, and 
the curiosity of the contractor's agent, who was superintending operations, was aroused. He 
determined to dismantle a portion of this unknown ruin, and was almost immediately rewarded 
by the discovery that the long, low hill upon which he was engaged was no other than an enormous 
and fairly well preserved figure of Gautama. Perhaps the figure of the man sitting upon the left 
hand of the recumbent statue will give the best standard of dimension for the purpose of estimating 
the actual size of the Shwetha-Yaung, as the figure is known in the neighbourhood. In actual 
length the statue is one hundred and eighty feet, and it is forty-seven feet high to the point 
of the shoulder. The Government has contributed to the work the overhanging shade which, 
indeed, protects it, but which sadly disfigures the general effect of the statue, and makes it almost 
impossible to obtain any comprehensive sight of the image. Private enthusiasm has done, and is 
still doing, all that is needed to turn the plainly moulded brick figure that was originally found 
into an almost resplendent witness to the faith of the land. For example, the soles of the 
feet have recently been adorned, at a very large cost, with Burmese glass-mosaic, as may be seen 
in the accompanying photograph. 

The history of it is known to no one. Judging by the severity of the type this figure cannot be 
less than five hundred years old ; but no record, no tradition, not even the scantiest legend exists 



Asia 



17 



to tell us when or by what reverent hands this strange figure was first constructed. It has, 
however, appealed very strongly to the imaginations of the modern Burmese, and already it has 
taken rank with the Shwe Dagon and the Arakan Pagoda as a building of such holiness that merit 
is acquired by the pious restorer. 

The Great Banyan, Ca/ca//a.— Probably there is no better known characteristic of the East 
than the banyan tree. In ' Paradise Lost " Milton thus describes it in a well-known passage : — 

" The fig-tree at this clay to Indians known 
In Malabar or Deccan spreads her arms 
Branching so broad and long that in the ground 
The bended twigs take root, and daughters grow 
About the mother tree, a pillared shade 
High over-arched and echoing walks between." 

The great banyan tree in the Botanical Gardens of Calcutta is famous. That it deserves its 
fame wiU be apparent on the merest glance at the photograph opposite. It is with some difficulty 
that a visitor brings himself to beheve that the huge mound of vegetation in front of him is actually 
the product of one single tree, for it covers some two and a half acres of ground. 

The utmost care is taken 
of this might}' tree. Every 
tender succulent young root, 
as it begins to fall like a 
stalactite from the branch 
(A'erhead, is encased and 
protected from harm in a 
bamboo. Along the Grand 
Trunk Road a visitor will re- 
peatedly notice that the roots 
of the banyan are cropped 
by passing animals to as 
regular a height above the 
ground as the trees in an 
English park. Rarely before 
has it been possible to test the 
limit of growth of the banyan 
tree, and the size ultimately 
attained by the banyan in 
Calcutta will, therefore, be 
watched with interest. It 
is not improbable that the 
original trunks will vanish 
altogether and leave the still 
expanding outer growths as a 
ring of vegetation round an 
empty circle. Of course, this 
Calcutta specimen is quite ex- 
ceptional. The natural enemies 
of the banyan generally confine 
its size to something scarcely 
larger than a well-grown 
horse-chestnut tree at home. 
It is not impossible, however. 




Frnm Stereo fopyritj/tt] 



[r,i./^/if.., 



This picture 



BANYAN TREE. 

lose qunrtcri the manner In wKich ihe daugliler trunks 



illustrnles 

form under the brancKe 



of the mother tree. 



i8 



The Wonders of the World 



that under careful treatment the Calcutta banyan may be encouraged to cover some fifteen or 
twenty acres in the course of the next fifty years. 

This Calcutta specimen is supposed to have fifteen hundred aerial roots, a number from which 
it is probable that a cypher has been accidentally omitted. The mother trunk is an almost shape- 
less mass by this time, and contributes very little to the sustenance of its multitudinous progeny. 

The Kutab M'nar. — Eleven miles south of Delhi the Kutab Minar marks the southern extremity 
of the broad tract of plain over which the capital of India has slowly travelled northwards 
for a thousand ^years. The tall, perfect tower stands alone and unrivalled, the only perfect 
building within the horizon. It is a monument of victory — the victory of a slave Emperor. This 
splendid minaret, which rises two hundred and forty feet above the plain, was begun by Kutab-ud-din 
after the capture of Delhi in the end of the twelfth century and was completed by Altamsh forty 
years later. As is clearly seen in the photographs, the shaft is divided into five separate storeys, of 
which the varied fluting deserves careful attention, and the use of te.xts from the Koran, ringing 
the pillar at interv'als of twenty or thirty feet, is perhaps the best existing illustration of the 
wonderfully decorative effect of mere lettering. 

The interest of the spot is by no means exhausted when the visitor has inspected the Minar 
itself. A few yards away outside the enclosure rises the stump of a tower planned while yet the 
red sandstone of the Kutab Minar was raw from the mason's chisel. This gigantic shaft was 
intended to be over five hundred feet in height, and, had it been completed, it would have eclipsed 

every human structure on 
earth, except the Eiffel Tower. 
But this Indian Tower of 
Babel was abandoned after it 
had been raised to a height of 
about ninety feet. 

Ramesivaram. — Third in 
holiness among the shrines of 
India is Rameswaram. In- 
deed, only Benares and Purl 
surpass it in spiritual efficacy 
But compared with the other 
two shrines it cannot boast 
anything like as large an 
annual attendance of pilgrims. 
The cause is simple enough. 
It is not every Hindu who 
can aft'ord the cost of the long 
journey that must be taken 
before the temple is reached ; 
for it stands on an island be- 
tween India and Ceylon, and 
not one in ten thousand of 
even the wealthy Europeans 
who visit India takes the 
trouble to visit it. Other 
temples in Southern India 
may surpass it in sheer 
majesty ; but no one who has 




From Stereo copyritjht'] 

THE BASE OF 
This illustration presents an excellent 

introduced as on ornament to thi 



[ Vndericood i(" i'ndericood. 

THE KUTAB MINAR. 

idea of the 'manner in which lettering has been 
s great tower. 




I M r. K. O I . \ ti Ml.N .■\i\ 

Thii tplendid ahaft file* eleven miles •outK of ihe present cily. nnd mirlts ihe toulhern edge of the ruins of byionr 

Delhi. It was beffun about the yenr 1200 as a Tower of Viclory. and is now 238 feel in heisHl. 



20 



The Wonders of the World 



once lost himself among the 
maze of mile-long corridors 
that shut in the central 
shrine will ever forget the 
beauty of Rameswaram's 
architecture. The illustra- 
tion shows fairly well its 
character, but a sense of 
the warm tropical sunlight, 
masked and filtered as it is 
before it reaches these long 
arched tunnels, is needed 
to give the charm of this 
thrice holy spot. 

Rameswaram is holy 
ground because of the 
famous warfare between 
I^ama and Ravana, king of 
Ceylon. The latter had 
carried off Sita, Rama's 
beloved wife, and the be- 
reaved husband called upon 
all Nature to help him in 
his quest of recovery and 
revenge. 

It was Hanuman, the 
monkey god. who saved the 
situation. The straits we 
now know by the name of 
Palk were bridged by the 
monkey battalion holding 
each other's tails, and over 
this living road Rama 
marched to victory against 
the hydra-headed ravisher. 
There is no more favourite 
scene in modern Hindu art than this assault by Rama upon Ravana's stronghold. It may be seen 
in every material and size from rock-sculptures at Mahabalipuram to cheap German oleographs 
in the shops of Delhi or Muttra in the north. This story is not entirely complete without a reference 
to one of the commonest and prettiest of Indian legends. The monkeys could not succeed in wholly 
bridging the vast chasm. A six-inch gap still existed between the utmost stretch of the outermost 
monkeys of India and Ceylon. Apparently Rama, for all his strength, was unable to stride across 
this tiny space, and all the work and loyalty of the monkeys would have gone for nothing had not a 
grey squirrel suddenly appeared and volunteered to fill it. He laid himself down in the gap and 
all was well ; but in gratitude for the invaluable service thus rendered him, Rama, as he crossed 
the bridge, stooped down and drew his fingers caressingly along the grey squirrel's back. And that 
is why the Indian squirrel has two black marks down his back to this very day. 

Buddhist Cave near Moalmein. —Theve are many curious things near " the old Moulmein 
Pagoda," but few of them are as curious as that of the cave of Kogun. 




Photo hti'\ [J*ercerfil Landon, Ki<i. 

RAMESWARAM. 

A fair idea is here given of one of the many corridors for which the Temple of 
Rameswaram is famous. The Temple, which is of vast size, occupies the southern end 
of a small island in the sea between India and Ceylon. It is dedicated to Rama, the 
conqueror of Ceylon, a popular reincarnation of Vishnu. 



Asia 



21 



These strange accumulations of images are found in almost every country in which Buddhism 
is now or has ever been flourishing. The underlying principle is that virtue can be acquired by 
limitless repetitions of prayer or of any act of homage. To add to this strange medley of useless 
and fast-disintegrating statuary is to acquire merit, and the poor man is as anxious to justify 
himself in this way as his richer brother is to save himself from further reincarnations by the 
more ostentatious means of constructing pagodas or by the endowing of monasteries. 

Mr. O'Connor quotes the words of a bygone traveller : — 

" It is of vast size, chiefly in one apartment, which needs no human art to render it sublime. 
The eye is confused, and the heart appalled. . . . Everywhere, on the floor, overhead, on the jutting 
points, and on the stalactite festoons of the roof, are crowded together images of Gautama — the 
offerings of successive ages. Some are perfectly gilded ; others encrusted with calcareous matter ; 
some fallen, yet sound ; others mouldered ; others just erected. Some of these are of stupendous 
size ; some not larger than one's finger ; and some of all the intermediate sizes — marble, stone, 
wood, brick and clay. Some, even of marble, are so timeworn, though sheltered from change of 
temperature, that the face and fingers are obliterated. Here and there are models of temples, 
kyoungs, etc., some not larger than half a bushel, and some ten or fifteen feet square, absolutely 
filled with small idols, heaped promiscuously one on the other. As we followed the path, which 
wound among the groups of figures and models, every new aspect of the cave presented new multitudes 
of images. A ship of five hundred tons could not carry away the half of them." 




This plot? Kivcs A 



[Itoui-nr ,(■ Shr/therd Jlotnbay. 



BUDDIil-Nl I \\l \l \l< \l JUL.MEIN, 

:Karacteri8lic view of the cave at KoKun, on the Salwin. Mulliplicalion of repreaenlationa of tlie 
Buddfia is eveO'where rcsarded by Buddfiiat* a* a holy duty. 



22 



The Wonders of the World 



Strange Mohammedan Mosque.— These quaintly built-up shrines are not infrequent beside the 
road in India. In the majority of cases they have been long abandoned, and the tree roots that 
originally supported them have, in turn, slowly thrust the flimsy masonry apart. But here and 
there one may still be found used as a place of retirement for some holy man. This is, so to speak, 
his private oratory. Services in the true sense of the word are never held in these curious little 
shrines, though informal prayer of course takes place wherever two or three Mohammedans are 
gathered together at the office hours of their creed. It is a far cry from this little bricked up tree- 
temple to the imperial splen- 
dour of the Jumma Musjid 
at Delhi, but the faith that 
prompted the construction of 
both the one and the other 
is of cast iron unchange- 
ability, and at sunset the 
same quiet service of prayer 
and praise-giving, the same 
in word, in deed, and in spirit, 
goes up wherever the simplest 
and strongest of faiths makes 
once more declaration of the 
eternal oneness of God and 
the everlasting service of His 
great prophet, the camel- 
driver of Mecca. 

Asama -yiama, Japan. — 
The active volcano of Asama- 
yama is situated in the dis- 
trict of Shinano, seventy miles 
north-west of Yokohama, 
and is still liable to sudden 
eruption. This vent-liole of 
the interior ebullitions of the 
planet is of very uncertain 
activity. From the earliest 
days, however, it has been 
recognized as a volcano ; and 
in 1650 a severe eruption en- 
abled Europeans resident in 
the island to place it among 
the powerful active volcanoes of the world. Little, however, was known about its activity till tlie 
year 1783, when one of the historic eruptions of the world, an event which may be compared with 
the explosions of Mont Pelee or of Krakatoa, took place. As is w'ell known to those who live in 
seismic districts, it is a difficult thing to obtain a photograph of a volcano in eruption. The usual 
lurid pictures of flames and tire and trickling lava are, of course, nonsense. Geologists doubt 
whether flames have ever issued from any volcano. What is mistaken for them is merely the 
reflection of the heated lava below upon the thick ascending column of cloud and ash which, of 
course, is the most marked feature. Here the column of cloud is clearly seen ascending far above 
the cloud-line, and just beginning to assume the mushroom shape which has always been observed 
in connection with these phenomena. The pillar of ashes which at the moment of the 




am .N/cvty <:u^yii,jlt!\ 

MOHAMMEDAN 

A curiously constructed oratory built in 



SHRINE. 

the hollow 



\^Uiulerwuud d* L'/uiericoini. 



o f a B rea I t ree trunk 




Photo fcy] 



[/Uv. (t. I'. .VliVi. 



ASAMA-VAMA IN ERUPTION. 
A eood view of the ercnlcst active volcano in Japan, in the cJintrict of Shinano, ■cvcntv miles N. W. of I okohama 



Asia 



25 




from atereo ropyrtghtl 



t Undfruood <t Undervood. 



Two of the Daeobas on the summit of Boro-Bodoer. TKe covering 
of soil and jungle has, as will be seen, helped to preserve almost every 
detail of the work. 



photograph was probably between a mile 
and a mile and a lialf high, has 
taken a very characteristic shape, and 
a close study of its convolutions will 
readily explain to the student of human 
nature why it is that the Oriental de- 
tects the actual faces of terrible under- 
ground spirits of evil upon this slowly 
mounting and unnatural mass. Asama- 
yama is about 8,500 feet above the sea, 
and owes much of its impressiveness to 
the fact that of this about 6,000 feet 
rise directly from the surrounding 
country. The crater is of unusual pre- 
cipitousness and depth. Though only a 
quarter of a mile in diameter, the normal 
height of the lava bed within it is a 
thousand feet below the lip, a fact 
which perhaps explains the comparative 
perpendicularity with which the ash is 
discharged. The volcano is regarded as 
one of the regular sights of Japan, and is within easy access both of Yokohama and of Tokio. 

The Temple of Boro-Bodoer, Java. — Just a hundred years ago Sir Stamford Raffles annexed 
the Island of Java to the British Empire. His heart 
was almost broken when, in 1815, it was re-ceded 
to the Dutch, in whose possession it still remains. 
But during the short period of his Governorship he 
did at least one thing for which he deserves a lasting 
fame. He discovered the long-lost Temple of Boro- 
Bodoer. The story of its finding is a strange 
romance. The very villagers at its feet were as 
ignorant as anyone of its whereabouts when Sir 
Stamford made inquiries. But by a happy chance 
a clearance made almost at random betrayed to 
the excavators that the hill itself on which they 
were at work, some hundred and fifty feet in 
height and six or seven hundred in width at the 
base, was no other than the famous temple. It 
is supposed that when the Mohammedan invasion 
of Java occurred in the thirteenth century, the 
Buddhist priests, rather than give up their most 
treasured possession to be defiled by the infidels, 
filled up its terraces with earth and planted the 
quick-growing tropical jungle upon the slopes of 
the hill thus formed. 

Boro-Bodoer stands to-day on the top of a 
slight eminence about five-and-thirty miles from 
the ancient capital, Djok-Djokarta, and almost in 
the centre of the island. If is pyramidal in shape, 




t-itliyri.iltl] 



[I'nttfiuoi'd it I'tidmi" 



Inside carh of the DaBobns shown above sits n statue of 
Buddha, of which an illustration is here siven. 



26 



The Wonders of the World 




I'hoto bii'\ 



/ Ldiiihin, Kni. 



A few yards of the famous frieze that is cut upon the terraces of Boro-Bodoer. 



rising from a paved terrace. In the centre of each side there is a staircase leading from one to 
another of the five terraces of which it is composed. Each terrace completely surrounds the temple, 
following the fortification-like outline of the ground plan. On these terraces is the carving for which 
Boro-Bodoer is famous above all other buildings. It has been estimated that not less than three 
miles of this strange frieze is wrapped round and round the temple. Roughly speaking, it may be 
said that as the visitor ascends, the subjects illustrated by this carving signify a higher and higher 
grade in the ethical development of Prince Gautama. The story begins with his early life as a 
gay and boyish young prince, free from care and anxiety, free even from the very knowledge of 
sickness or sin or death, and his trials and his triumphs are recorded terrace by terrace, until the 
central cupola, or dagoba, is reached, in which, buried to the neck, still exists the most mysterious 
of all Asiatic statues. It is a mere roughly-hewn head on a shapeless body. The theory I have 
just been referring to interprets this with a subtlety that is scarcely Eastern. It contends that 
this is intended to represent the final achievement of Buddha when the divine essence and all that 
it created are received once more into the bosom of nothingness — if Nirvana may thus be translated. 
Perhaps re-absorption into the universal soul is a better phrase. 

But another and prettier legend has it that Boro-Bodoer was built to win the affections of a 
capricious young woman who lived in the village at the bottom of the hill. She insisted that her 
lover, who lived at the top of the hill, should design, construct and complete the finest temple on 
earth as a wedding-gift to her within the space of twelve months. This the energetic youth promised 
to do, and, indeed, nearly succeeded in doing, for he was able to enlist the services of the entire 
population of the globe. But the sharp eyes of his lady-love, when at the close of the twelve months 
she was proudly taken over the gigantic and exquisite structure, noted that this last and highest 
statue alone among all the tens of thousands of figures which crowd the decorated walls, or are 
sitting in meditation within the latticed dagobas — that this was unfinished. Whereupon she coldly 



Asia 



reminded her lovei that her conditions had not been fulfilled, and returned downliill to wed another 
and more favoured youth. They must have had some appreciation of the feminine character even 
in those remote ages. 

But, legends apart, when was this stupendous temple built ? No one will ever certainly know ; 
but it seems likely that the beginning of the seventh century of the Cliristian era is the most 
probable period. Thanks to its long concealment, it is almost perfect. But the roots of the 
mountain jungle have thrust themselves between and disturbed the mortarless courses. 

The actual human workmanship bestowed upon this building is so veist that even that which 
raised the Pyramids of Egypt pales beside it. Each side of the temple is a hundred feet longer than 
the Great Pyramid, and 
though it is but one-third 
of the height, the wealth 
of carving lavished upon 
every corner and corridor, 
every pinnacle, every stair- 
way, every fiat surface of 
masonry, however small, is 
something that defies de- 
scription afterwards, just as 
at the moment it baffles 
the bewildered eye of the 
visitor. 

Boro-Bodoer will never 
be a place of popular 
pilgrimage. It can only 
be seen by making a long 
detour from Singapore, and 
it must be admitted that 
there are healthier places 
than Java for the white 
globe-trotter. But Boro- 
Bodoer remains, and will 
always remain, the most 
gorgeous product of that 
religion which to this day 
claims more adherents than 
any other in the world. 

Statue of Marco Po.o, 
Canton. — Every schoolboy 
knows that it was the 
Polos of Venice, who in 
the thirteenth century were 
" the first to reveal to 
Christendom in a complete 
and accurate as well as 
picturesque manner the 
splendours and attractions, 
the wealth and commerce 
of China and Indo-China, 




I'ltUtll t'fj\ 



[I'^rr^ral Latuion, Ki'i. 



MAi<( ( > r. II 



\-< \ GOD 



An 
i* iiiiid, 
probable 



ancient imasc of 
on ihe alrcngth ol 
ascription. 



European amonc ih 
in ancient Chineie trnd 



Five Hundred Deiliet in 
to repreaenl Marco 



Canton. It 
Polo, a very 



28 



The Wonders of the World 



of the Deccan and the Indian Archipelago." 
From them Europe first learnt of Mesopotamia 
and Persia, Mongolia, Siam, Burma, Formosa 
and Japan. Of Java and Sumatra and Tibet, 
too, they were the first to write, and their 
pictures of other countries of which uncertain 
histories already circulated in Europe, were 
often the best that the world was to possess 
until the dawn of modern scientific exploration. 
The details of the life of Marco Polo are hard 
to collect and are often inconsistent ; but one 
flash of nature on his death-bed tells us much 
about this far-travelled soul. Jacopo D'Acqui 
tells us that as Marco lay dying his best friends 
came to him and implored him, for the sake of 
his reputation, to revise his book of travels 
and cut out all that was untrue. He sturdily 
replied that he would do nothing of the 
sort, and that, as a matter of fact, he had 
not told one-half of all the wonders he had 
seen. 

There exists in the Temple of the Five 
Hundred Deities in Canton a statue which has 
often been quoted as a witness to the truth of his 
pretensions, and as a souvenir of the greatest of 
all travellers, it is here included. Photography 
is strictly discouraged in this temple, and the 
picture here given was obtained by the writer 
more by good luck than management. Why, 
one wonders, was he included in this strange 
company ? All we know for certain is that in 
1277 Marco Polo was made a Privy Councillor 
by the Chinese Emperor Kublai Khan, and 
about eight years later was made Governor of 
the city of Yang-Chau. Unless Khanfu is 
identical with Canton, Marco Polo makes no 
mention of any stay in the city which is now 
the southern capital of China and in which 
this strange figure is to be seen. The ascription of the statue to him is based upon Chinese 
tradition, not, as is sometimes alleged, on mere European fancy ; but the inherent probability of its 
truth will be clear to anyone who looks at the almost hideously un-Chinese traits of the face, 
the little ruff round the neck, the sailor's rough-weather cloak, and the equally foreign hat. That 
the sculptor must have had a European before him as he made his model is beyond question, and 
the writer has been assured by residents in Hong Kong that this famous image may well be as old as 
the early part of the fourteenth century. Where it was made, whether in Canton or elsewhere, 
and when it was first given its present place of honour, there is no means of knowing. But there 
seems little reason to doubt the tradition. To deprive the world without reason of one of the most 
interesting and unexpected testimonies to the restlessness and pluck of Western races would be 
wantonness. That the figure represents a European is obvious : that it is nearly coeval with Marco 




COiMATESVARA. INDIA. 

A huge monolithic statue, about fifty feet in height, carved by 
the Jains out of a hilltop at Sravana Belagola. in South India. 




_, , JLf-- <' 

[ ' ndfruood d' Vndfrtrood. 
SHOOTING TME RAI'IDS OK THE KATSURA RI\ ER. KYOTO. 

One of Ihc «porl- of Japan thni l,o. mo.t coubHi the fancy of European vi.itor. it thi. rxciting po.limr of •hootinB 

the kalsuragawo in boat* or on rafta of bamboo 



o 



o 



The Wonders of the World 




Photoby;\ 



l/iou7-ne <{• Shepherd. Bomf-au. 



THE CANES OF ELLORA. 



Most famous of all the rock-cul temples of India, those at EHora would repay a month's careful examination. Excepting 
Mohammedanism, nearly all Indian religions, past and present, have at one time contributed to this amazing series of 
excavations in a curving hill-side near Daulatabad Ajanta alone competes with them in antiquity, but Ajanta cannot 
boast a Kailas Temple. 

Polo is also clear. The tradition that it is Marco Polo himself is so universal that a copy of it was 
sent to the Geographical Congress held at Venice in 1881. 

Gomatesvara, India. — One of the most curious statues in the world may be found by an 
energetic traveller in the little Jain village of Sravana Belagola, about ten miles north of the 
station " French Rocks " on the railway near Seringapatam. Marvellous as the work is, it is rarely 
visited or even referred to by travellers or writers. It is cut from the projecting crest of hard 
rock on the top of a hill, and has been skilfully adapted to the formation of the stone without 
sacrificing in any way the intention of the designer. The figure — of which the nudity betrays 
the Jain rather than the Buddhist origin — is nearly fifty feet in height. 

It will be remembered by visitors to Gwalior that the modesty of the great Emperor Baber was 
outraged by the sight there of the great nude images that stand sentinel about the rock-fortress. 
This example, far away in the south, escaped his puritanic hand, and has a peculiar interest on 
account of its position. In most cases it is impossible to obtain a good view of these rock-cut 
figures, owing to the overpowering mass of the mountain-side behind them. The Gomatesvara statue 
stands out both actually and metaphorically alone in the effectiveness of its position, and well repays 
a visit. 

The Katsura Rapids. — To the west of Kyoto the Katsura river descends through precipitous 
defiles to the ancient capital. The waterway is used for the transport of timber from the province 



Asia 



3A 



of Tamba, but the beauty of the defiles, the rushing and rapid stream, and the excitement of 
shooting the torrents on bamboo rafts or boats are all features to be notified. In autumn the 
woods are of orange and scarlet and gold, and the dark river and blue sky just seen overhead 
between the cliffs make up a picture that the visitor to Japan will long remember. 

The Caves of Ellora, India. — First among the many groups of caves in India for 
variety and importance, and sharing the claims of age with that at Ajanta only, 
are the strange rock-cut cells and chapels and temples at Ellora, within a ride of 
Daulatabad in the north-western corner of the Nizam's dominions. The road from the 
bungalow descends over the crest and almost in the centre of the curving hill in the 
side of which they are cut, and the caves may be made out stretching for nearly a 
mile on either side to right and to left. Many of them are difficult to detect, so carefully 
has the entrance been masked by leaving in front of the opening a grass-grown curtain 
of the virgin rock of which the hill is made. These caves lie one close beside another 
in a half circle, and to the student of ancient India there is no more interesting or instructive 
a district in the whole sub-continent. In the first place, they were probably begun by 
Buddhist hermits, who found here both quietude, a fertile and pleasant neighbourhood, and 
no doubt the worship and service also of the inhabitants. From simple cells, not unlike those 
which still exist at Bhuvaneshwar and elsewhere, more ambitious structures were graduahy 
designed, and an almost perfect series of the ecclesiastical buildings of Buddhism can be dis- 
covered here within the space of a few hundred yards. Of course, some of the features of 
Buddhist architecture were modified by the fact that everything had here to be excavated from 
the living rock, and not built up with individual stones in the usual way. but shrines and monasteries 
and council rooms are all to be 
found, and nearly all of them are 
still in a state of perfection. 

But the Buddhist caves, although 
the oldest, are by no means the only 
structures here. Indeed, for most 
visitors the famous Kailas Temple 
is apt to eclipse the memory of any 
of the other caves. The architects 
of this marvellous building were 
not content to hew out the in- 
terior economy of the temple 
from the hill-side. Instead, they 
cut away the rock both out- 
side and inside the temple walls. 
To-day there may be seen with 
every detail of construction and 
ornament a perfect temple stand- 
ing in a courtyard, and sur- 
rounded by all the cells, pillars, 
symbols, figures and screens that 
the Hindu worship loves, and 
covered within and without 
with elaborate carving. Not 

one square inch of this temple /■««/„ /.v] [//.//i .(c... am., /.•'■.•"' 

has been laid upon another. ^ ^^i_^( ^, EMor». rrprccMin, shiv. one o( .he ihr« Diviniiie. of 

It is all one giant monolith, <^' Hindu Trinity. 




o-" 



The Wonders of the World 



one stone with the mountain-side that surrounds it and frowns over it, capped with long grass 
and ak plants. 

The beauty of this Kailas Temple may be guessed from the illustration. The reader will 
admit that he needs to have been given this explanation. Even after reading it he may still 
have to look closely at the plate before he entirely realizes that this exquisite building is a single 
mass of seamless and virgin rock. It is impossible from any point to give any idea in a photo- 
graph of the size and exquisite decoration of this temple. The illustration here given was 
taken from the top of an elaborately carved screen, which stands across the entrance and almost 
entirely hides the treasures within from the gaze of the passer-by. The reader must con- 
struct as best he can in his own imagination the courtyard that entirely surrounds the temple, 
the encircling wails of rock pierced and decorated with pillared corridors and cells, the carved 
elephants outside and the exquisite columned architecture within the temple, none of which 
unfortunately can be included in this, the best though a very incomplete view of the Kailas. 
The smaller building in the foreground of the plate contains the sculptured bull, or Nandi, the 
svmbol of strength and reproduction, which is to be found in, or beside, all temples dedicated to 
Shiva from one end of India to the other. It is many ages since prayers and ceremonies have been 
formally offered within these walls, though a few marigolds and champaks will often be found laid 
reverently on the long desolate thresholds. 



^wowMwn 




Photo by'] [rrtlh <l- ('.V. /,(,;., Rei.jalf. 

THE MOST MARVELLOUS MONOLITHIC BUILDING IN THE WORLD. 

It is difficult from any point of view to obtain a good view of the Kailas, the most marvellous monolithic building in the 
world. The entire temple and all its adjuncts are cut straight from the virgin rocU of the hill-side, which may be seen above 
it. Inside and outside it is carved with the same minute perfection. 




Photo ?t] [ir. J. Ham- II, i:,-j. 

ENTRANCE GATE TO THE MING TOMBS. 

This beautiful Pai-low forms tKe entrance Bate to the Tombs of the Chinese Mins Dynasty, near Peking. 
It is of white martir, roofed with darU red tiles 



CHAPTER II. 

Tombs of the Kings of the Ming i?ynas/>— The establishment of the Ming Dynasty upon 
the throne of China is one of tlie romances of history. The great Mongol ruler, Kublai Khan, had 

extended and consolidated his power by welding the states and tribes 
' of Central Asia into one immense empire. When he died in 1294 

A.D., at the age of eighty-three, after reigning eighteen years as 
Emperor of half Asia, his kingdom e.xtended from the China seas 
and the Himalayas to the northernmost extremity of Siberia, and 
from the eastern shores of Asia to the frontiers of Poland and the 
European states. 

Tlie empire held together for seventy-three years after the death 
of Kublai, the last of his line, Shun-te, ascending the throne in 1331. 
This indolent, sensuous, weak monarch sat on the throne for thirt}^- 
five years, watching in feeble wrath his army deteriorating, his 
empire being pared down by rebellions and conquests, and his world- 
wide power being curtailed on every side. 

Meanwhile, a youth named Choo, the son of a labouring man of 
the state of Nan-king, who had been found to be too delicate for 
manual labour, was placed by his father in a monastery with a view 
to his becoming a bonze, or priest. Choo found himself to be lacking 
in enthusiasm for the priesthood, but in his quest for knowledge 
he had gained health and strength, so, after some years spent in 
semi-seclusion, he left his monastery to enter the imperial army. 
Once enlisted in its ranks, his skill in arms secured him rapid 
promotion. He attained high rank and married a widow of large 
means, but with prosperity came also ambition. Choo could hardly 
have spent these years in military circles without imbibing the 
general feeling of dissatisfaction with Tatar rule wiiicli was rife in 
China ; and not long afterwards he saw his opportunity and carried 
out a successful insurrection in Nan-king. His fame as a leader 
spread, and the rebel army increased in size and efficiency. The 
insurgents took Peking, whence the worthlass Shun-te had fied, and 

4 




Lull''. 



A Minister of Slate in effigy 
standintE attentive to wait on the 
v/ialies of hig departed Emperor. 



34 



The Wonders of the World 




in 1366 Choo ascended the Imperial Throne 
under the title of Tai-Tsoo, and founded 
the Ming, or " Bright " Dynasty, which 
endured in power for three centuries. 

The tombs of many of the Ming 
Emperors are situated forty miles north of 
Peking, and form one of the best-known 



sights of China. 



Entering bj' a magnifi- 



cent Pai-low of five gateways in white 
marble, the visitor passes through the 
dromos, nearly a mile long, where thirty- 
two colossal figures are ranged in pairs on 
either side of the roadway. Some are 
human, some are figures of camels, griffins, 
or elephants. There are thirteen tombs 
ranged round the base of a hill, and they 
extend for several miles. Each is simply a 
huge mound of earth about half a mile in 
circuit, with a crenellated retaining wall, 
twenty feet high, at the base. There is no 
entrance to the mounds, nor is there any- 
thing to mark the exact spot of burial of 
their occupants. 

Giant Bambccs, Ceylcn. - Nature has 
run riot in Ceylon. The island is like 
a vast forest rising out of the sea, 
and as the traveller approaches b}- the 
water it is impossible to see the earth 
tor the lavish growth upon it. 

This wealth of natural beauty finds its 
highest expression in the Government 
Botanical Gardens of Peradeniya, at 
Kandy. The entrance is through an 
avenue of india-rubber trees towering one 
hundred feet into the air, with huge roots 
creeping like snakes about the earth below. 
The gardens swarm with squirrels and 
tropical birds, humming-birds flash like 
jewels about the flowers, as evening falls 
the leathern flying foxes play in the trees. 
M. Chevrillon, the French traveller, has written this eulogy of the beauties of the place : 
" One can walk for many leagues in this place, meeting no human being, yet still conscious of a 
certain order, lines and plan in this marvellous wild garden. There are wide lawns where tropical 
plants can grow freely and attain their full size : there are ferns of improbable hues, blue ferns as 
subtle as vapours : there are leaves as delicate as dream vegetation — green lace like a cobweb, 
varieties of Adiantum, the hair, not of maidens, but of very fairies. And at last I reach the 
triumph, the apotheosis, so to speak, of the island's vegetation. On the edge of tlie gardens, 
beside the slow-moving, yellowish waters of a stream, there is a sheaf of bamboos one hundred 
feet in circuit. They are crowded together, smothering each other, each one as large as a 



Copyt'i'jht photo by'\ 

Another figure ir 
that mount guard 
departed Emperors. 



the dromo! 
n the dromos 



One of the colossal stone warriors 
avenue, over the spirits of 




i'hotni \ and 1 I'y //. ''. Wtnt^ Co., Lon.l-m.] 



THE MING TOMBS. 



There ore (wo ccmcteric* of the Mine Dynaaty. one at Nan-king and the other forty milet north of Pckinic. Each 

is npproachcd by a dromoa, or avenue, of colosani atone fieurca repreacnline mtniatcra of atate, warriors and animala. At 

PcUinR theac figurea number thirly-two. ranucd in pairs either aide of ihc roadway lor a diatnnce of a mile 1 Key vary 
from ten to fifteen feet in heittht 



36 



The Wonders of the World 



European tree. The hard stems, bluish and 
glossy, in joints two feet long, perfectly round, 
are gorged with water. They grow so crowded 
that only the outer stems are visible : the 
others, covered and repressed, spring straight 
up in darkness ; at the height of one hundred 
feet they separate with a supple move- 
ment, spread apart in the form of a vase, 
and are lost in a great rustling mass of dark 
leafage." 

M. Chevrillon might have said even more than 
he has. One specimen of the Dendrocalamus 
giganteus, which ultimately attained the height 
of 125 feet, was observed carefully and was 
proved to have grown thirtv-six inches in 
twenty-four hours. 

The Taj Mahal, Agra. — There is no traveller 
whose pulse does not quicken as he turns in 
through the dark red gateway a mile outside 
the modern city of Agra and at last catches 
sight of the famous Taj. By common consent 
the tomb of Shah Jehan's loved wife is the goal 
and centre of Indian travelling. 

Nor is this to be wondered at ; for after the 
last word of praise and appreciation of the Taj 
as a building has been said, there is something more, something greater about it still. That 
which perhaps weighs heaviest in our estimation and lives longest in our memories is that side 
of it which photographs cannot give. Surely the dullest of visitors must be impressed by the 
mere fact that the Taj stands, as nothing else in the world stands, for the great and lasting devotion 
of a man for a woman. Remember that it was erected in eternal honour of a woman at a time 
when women were regarded as little but the playthings of their owners, and by tlie disciple of 
a faith which to this day denies to woman the possession of a soul. The story of the love of 




STONE TURTLE BEARI^G MhiMOKIAL lABLET. 

These turtles are seen at tKe end of the tombs at Nan- 
Icing. The Ancestral tablet of the deceased is held in great 
reverence through the belief that one of his released souls 
attaches itself to the tablet. The turtle is known as " Pi 
Ti." the burden bearer. 





Photo hy'\ 




The double row of stone images at the Ming Tombs. Nan-king 



[.V. /'. Kdicards. 



38 



The Wonders of the World 




I'holo hy'] 



\Xf''ssrs. Johnston A: Iloffnunm. 



THE TAJ MAHAL. AGRA 



This macnificent tomb was built by Shah Jehan as a great and lasting memorial of his favourite wife Mumtaz-i-Mahal. 
When Shah Jehan himself died, his body was placed beside hers in the tomb. 

Shah Jehan for j\Iiimtaz-i-I\Iahal is one of the great romances of this world's history. We may 
well ask who was this Arjumand Banii, Mumtaz-i-Mahal, or the " Chosen of the Palace " ? 

Arjumand Banu was the daughter of Asaf Khan, and niece of the famous Nur-jehan, the 
wife of Jehangir. By what slight chances the course of the world's history is changed could 
hardly be better illustrated than by the story of the flight into India of Nur-jehan and her brother 
with their father, Itmad-ud-Daula, as he fled southwards from Teheran across the desert roads 
of Persia and Afghanistan. On one day of tormenting thirst Itmad-ud-Daula saw no help for 
it but to leave his dying daughter by the roadside in order that, relieved of the burden of her, 
the remainder might have some bare chance of reaching water before nightfall. This was done, 
and a few miles were covered by the silent and ashamed party. Then, struck with remorse, 
Itmad-ud-Daula turned back to where the infant was lying, still unhurt by the gathering vultures. 
Cost what it might, the father intended to live or die with his little daughter, and the miserable 
journey was resumed. The unexpected arrival of travellers an hour or two later enabled 
Itmad-ud-Daula and the children to come down safely into India. Here Nur-jehan — in all cases 
we are giving the later names by which these individuals were best known — entered the harem of 
Jehangir and made her way into imperial favour at a sham market in the palace by her famous 
and impertinent demand of a lakh of rupees from her master for a piece of moulded sugar-candy. 

But, striking as Nur-jehan's career was, it pales into insignificance beside that of her niece. 
Arjumand Banu was married to Shah Jehan in 1615, twelve years before the succession of her 



Asia 



39 



husband to the throne. Indeed, she knew httle of the splendours of Shah Jehan's court, for 
in 1629 Mumtaz-i-Mahal died in childbed at Burhanpore, the capital of the Deccan Province, 
and with her the light went out of the life of the most splendid of all emperors. Crushed 
with grief, Shah Jehan determined that his lost love should have such a memorial as 
neither woman nor man had ever had in the history of the world before. So he called to 
him one Ustad-Isa, a cunning architect, and bade him prepare as noble a design as his imagina- 
tion could furnish. We do not know very much about the actual building of the Taj. 
The minarets, which are perhaps the most criticized details in the structure, were moved 
away from the central building, and stand, instead, at the four corners of the marble plateau, 
or plinth, on which the Taj is built. We know from Tavernier that the cost of the 
scaffolding was as great as that of the tomb itself, because there were at that time no trees near 
by from which timber could be obtained for this purpose. We are told that Austin de Bordeaux, 
an absconding French jeweller, was called in to ornament its white marble walls with the famous 
" pietra dura " work. Tradition also has it that Verroneo, an Italian, had a hand in the 
decoration of the tomb. But of the part that Shah Jehan himself played in this colossal 
enterprise we know nothing. The Emperor stated that, apart from the materials, to which half 
Asia contributed her marbles, the masons alone were paid the sum of about six hundred thousand 
pounds. Seventeen years were occupied in the building. The body of Arjumand was then 
placed under the centre of the dome in the place of honour. Years afterwards, when Shah 
Jehan himself, a broken, disappointed and dethroned man, came to die as his own son's prisoner 
in the fort he had himself built at Agra, the\' laid his body beside that of his loved mistress. 
Not even then did they dare break the great tradition of love that the Taj was built to immortalize. 




Copyright photo 6y] 



THE TAJ REFLECTED IN IHE RI\ER JUMN.A 



[//. (/. Pontini/, F.R.a.S. 



Ap«rl from mnlrrioli. lo which hnlf A.in conlrlbul<-d her mnrhlc. the m»«on. nlonc were pnid the .urn of £600,000 in ihc 

buildinR' of ihe T oi. 



40 



The Wonders of the World 



Shah Jehan's tomb, though larger — as befits an emperor — is placed on one side of Arjumand's 
central resting-place. These tombs, in accordance with Eastern custom, are not the actual 
resting-places of the bodies. Arjumand and Shah Jehan lie in the crypt underneath, where 
the relative positions, as already noted, are faithfully maintained. 

Inside, beneath the dome, there is, round the tombs of the two lovers, an exquisitely, 
beautiful pierced marble trellis heavily inlaid with precious and semi-precious stones. 
The beauty of this interior apartment cannot be better described than in the words of Mr. 
Fergusson : " The light is admitted only through double screens of white marble trellis- work 
of the most e.xquisite design, one on the outer and one on the inner face of the walls. In 
our climate this would produce nearly complete darkness ; but in India, and in a building 
wholly composed of white marble, this was required to temper the glare that otherwise would 




Copyfigltl pholo by^ 



[U. G. I'oKling, t'.Ii.G.. 



THE MARBLE SCREEN IN THE TA] MAHAL. 



This exquisitely beautiful marble trellis, heavily inlaid with precious and semi-precious stones, is built around 
the actual resting-place of Shah Jehan and Mumtaz-i-Mahal. 

have been intolerable. As it is, no words could express the chastened beauty of that central 
chamber, seen in the soft gloom of the subdued light that reaches it through the distant and 
half-closed openings that surround it." 

Of the essential and eternal charm of the Taj another writer has written : 
" You will understand the Taj best if you will wait till the rosy fleeces have faded in the 
afterglow and the ripples of the Jumna run steel-grey in the waning light. A bird springs up, 
and the leaves of the thuia and the pepal murmur together as the darkness grows. A flying-fox 
with leathern wings wheels down from above, and a morrice of bats heralds the coming of the moon 
in the evening silence. And then you will understand that it does not matter whether you can 
still see the Taj or not. It is no question now of dome or gateway, silver work, or inlaid jewels. 
But as the dusk deepens you will come to know that the frail little body buried far down in its 
jewelled alabaster beside her faithful lord stands, and will always stand, for all that men hold dear 
or sacred in this world. However splendid or costly it may be, however renowned, however 



V,i 




^.iSk. wJ^^^dLx. ^^^ Wt Teit-.,-;*^-^* Mi in^ahn -Malirtti 

PhUo by] [Vittorio ,Sflla. 

MOUNT SIMOLCHU. SIKKIM. 

Beyond oil question Sintolchu is the mo*t brauti(ul of all ihc known peaks of the world. Otiiers turpaat it in lieisbl. 
but they cannot khow the clean precipitous majesty of this needle summit of SilcLim. 



42 



The Wonders of the World 



beautiful, tlie Taj itself is but 
an emblem and a symbol. 
So long as men and women 
love upon this earth, so long 
shall they go to the quiet 
garden beside the Jumna to 
lay their flowers in the 
honour of Mumtaz alone, not 
of Ustad Isa, not of Shah 
Jehan, nor of another. For 
she loved and was much 
beloved." 

Mount Siniokhu, Sikkim. — 
Not very many Englishmen 
have ever seen Siniolchu. 
Its e.xtreme summit may just 
be seen as one descends from 
the Darjiling tea-fields to- 
wards the bridge across the 
Tista, but it is not until 
Gangtok, the little-visited 
capital of Sikkim, is reached 
that the twin peaks of 
Siniolchu and Simvoo betray 
their exquisite and lonelv 
magnificence. Beyond all 
question, Siniolchu is the 
most beautiful of all the 
known peaks of the world. 
Others surpass it in mere 
height, but Mount Everest 
is but the highest fold of 
an immense ice-field; Kangchenjunga's peaks are sublime, but crowded upon by the mighty 
rivals that stand to north and south ; even K2 cannot show the clean precipitous majesty of this 
needle summit of Sikkim. 

In shape, there is something of the Matterhorn ; but the Matterhorn's highest pinnacle, four 
thousand feet above the Alpine line of eternal snow, would not reach up even to the base of the 
picture of Siniolchu that is here given. The Matterhorn has been picturesquely described as a 
mile-high wedge of rock and ice placed upon a plinth two miles high. Siniolchu may be said 
to be a wedge two miles high upon a three-mile plinth. Moreover, those extra two miles of 
height by which Siniolchu surpasses the Matterhorn are of such beauty that woids fail utterly 
even to hint at their beauty. The photograph will reveal to the reader much of their 
perfection, but it will only be understood by remembering the delicate aquamarine of these 
huge suspended glacier-crevasses and the ever-changing hues of grey and ash that pass across 
these silver and virgin slopes as the clouds draw in all day, and by reconstituting the rosy 
splendour of the peak when the last rays of the vanished sun still light up this most inaccessible 
and most exquisite of all the hills of this earth. 

Nikko. — " Call no place beautiful till you have seen Nikko." Thus runs a well-known 
Japanese proverb, and beyond question it is the most exquisite spot in all the land. It is the 




STONE BUDDHAS BY 



[//. ' . Whiu^ Co,, London, 
THE DAFYA RI\ER. NIKKO. 

A Japanese legend says that these forgotten, moss-grown figures are nlimberless. 
and certainly the traveller finds great difficulty in counting them correctly. One of 
them once fell off his pedestal into the river and was carried down to the village of 
Imaichi. where he was set up with his face to NikUo and is honoured as a god by 
the countryside. 



Asia 



43 



burial place of two Shoguns, the two greatest of Japan's rulers, who were deified after their death. 
Their Temple-tombs are situated in a scene of such natural splendour and majestic beauty that 
it is impossible to give an adequate description in a few words. They lie among mountains which 
are capped with snow through most of the year, and clothed with dense forests. There are 
deep and cool ravines, dark lakes, and waterfalls like silver lace. Through a gorge of solemn 
grandeur the impetuous Daiya river flings itself down the mountain side from the snows to 
the sea. 

To a spot on the slope of Hotokc Iwa — sacred ever since a Buddhist hermit made his dwelling 
there in 767 — the first Shogun of the Tokugawa Dynasty, lyeyasu, was brought after death, in 1617. 
After his deification temples were erected and decorated in his honour by the loyal and the devout. 

The approach to this sacred spot is extremely impressive. There are two roads running 
through glorious avenues of giant cryptomeria trees, the one fifty, the other thirty miles long 
Many of the trees are as 
much as twenty-seven feet in 
girth, and spring to a height 
of fifty or sixty feet before 
branching. They are said 
to have been planted as a 
humble offering to the god 
by a man too poor to afford 
to place a bronze lantern 
before the shrine. A wide 
carriage road runs between 
them, which ends at length 
at the Mihashi, the sacred 
bridge only used by the 
Shoguns, built in 1636, of 
red lacquered timber sup- 
ported on stone piers, which 
was swept away during 
a flood a few years ago. 
The Daiya river thunders 
here through its narrow gorge, 
and across its foaming waters 
are colossal flights of stone 
stairs leading up to Xikko — 
Nikko, the grand and lonely 
forest sepulchre, the home of 
cloud and mystery. Terraced 
roads lead through crowding 
cryptomerias and magnolias ; 
shrines and figures appear 
at every turn. The grand 
approach is up a broad path 
with a granite torii at the 
top twenty-seven feet high, 
and with one hundred and 
eighteen magnificent bronze 
lanterns bordering the way. 




ffom ,SlrrfO coptiriij/it] 

THE 



LEANING TOWER OF 



SOO-CHOW 



■ifci'./ .(■ l'n<Uruooi1. 



This Tower of SoocKow, which ia also named " I he 1 iRcr Hill Pnsoda." ho» been GUI 
of the pcrpendiculBr from time immcmoriol. It ia Renernlly ncl<nowledKcd as heinK well over 
1.300 yeara old. but there are aome authorilica who thinU it wna huill na early 09 the 
fifth century. 



44 



The Wonders of the World 



Entering the temple precincts, several gorgeous buildings are found surrounding a court 
enclosed by a wall of bright red timber ; of which one is the stable for the three sacred albino 
horses which were dedicated to the use of the god. A bell tower, a drum tower, a magnificent 
cistern for holy water, and bronze lanterns of marvellous workmanship are here too. Within, 
there are seemingly endless corridors, quadrangles and buildings, and to pass from court to court, 
from splendour to splendour, through all this profusion of ornament, gilding and colour, 
renders the visitor dazed by the multitude of his impressions. 

From the imposing entrance, through courts, gates and temples, among shrines, pagodas, 
colossal bronze bells and lanterns inlaid with gold, the visitor passes through golden gates to the 
inner Gold Temple. Enshrined in this opulent building, instead of the image one would expect to 
find there, there is merely a table of black lacquer with a circular mirror of metal upon it. 

The actual resting-place of the Shogun is not in the midst of this wealth of manufactured beauty. 
Nature herself has collaborated with Art to render the tomb of this great man a scene of dignity and 




iHC SANCHi lori; 

Cn an exquisitely wooded hill near Bhilsa. stjnds the Sanclii Tope, the oldest historical ruin in India. N^ r 

not yet bestowed its secret origin to the outer world. 



ipped 



[^L. (.. llovtt. 
silence, it he 



grandeur unsurpassed. A staircase of two hundred and forty steps leads to the hUl-top, where 
he sleeps in an unadorned tomb of stone with a bronze urn above it. In front is a stone table 
with a bronze incense burner, a vase of lotus blossoms, and a bronze stork with a candlestick in 
his beak. That is all. A lofty stone wall surrounds this place of majestic silence and simphcity, 
and giant cryptomerias make a solemn twilight there on the brightest day. The masonry of this 
vast retaining wall, the stone staircase and the gallery is contrived without mortar or cement ; 
it has stood for two hundred and sixty years, and looks as if the centuries would slip by it as 
easily as the waters of the Daiya, of which the murmur comes up from the base of the hill. The 
great granite cistern for holy water on the top of the hill is an admirable piece of work. The water 
of a little cascade is caught and brought into this cistern from above, while the lower edge is so 
truly and daintily cut into steps that the water pours so evenly over the lip of the tank and 
down the undulations of the stone that it loses the appearance of water and looks as if it too 
were carved from some piece of translucent marble. 

The burial place of the other Shogun, lyemitsu, is close by, and is even more bewildering. 




Painted by J. R. yh.l.thmn 



TH1-: TAJ MAHAL. AGUA. 



The Taj is acknowledged to he the most perfect huildint; in the world This last resting place of Shah Jehan and his heloved wife 
is constructed ot white marble, and is said to have taken 20 000 men. employed incessantly, 17 years to build. 





'^■fH I 




^ 


.:yJ 



Si^%iiiiiiL..St;:^ 



f 



IKJ^ 




J'ri'iios iii] 



THE BEAUTIFUL CAR\ ED GATES OF THE SANCHl 1 OPE 

Al the four c»rdinol point, of tlic comp... there i. on enlr.nce lo . curiou. .mbulotory which encircle, the Top.-, ivith on exqui.itely 
cor%ed note, the ornomenlotion of which cannot be .urpm.ed in the whole of India 



46 



The Wonders of the World 




yVw/.> l;u] 



THE WAT PHRA KEO. 



[A'.././. L.h: .{• Co., Bangkok. 



L.ike all Siamese Temples, \\ at Phra Keo contains a great array of monster figures of men and beasts that guard the entrances 
and defeat the macfiinations of evil spirits. The pious Siamese "acquire merit" by building endless ohrAChedees^ or pagodas, which 
are richly gilt and ornamented. 

because here the Buddhist ceremonial still holds full sway. The stone buildings of this temple 
are roofed with sheet copper or with richly-coloured tiles, giving it an effect of great brilliancy. 

Mrs. Bishop has thus summed up her impression of this wonderful place : " The details 
fade from my memory daily as I leave the shrines and in their place are picturesque 
masses of black and red lacquer and gold, gilded doors opening without noise, halls laid 
with matting so soft that not a footfall sounds, across whose twilight sunbeams fall aslant on 
richly arabesqued walls and panels carved with birds and flowers, and on ceilings panelled and 
wrought with elaborate art : of inner shrines of gold, and golden lilies six feet high, and 
curtains of gold brocade, and incense fumes and colossal bells, and lacquer screens and 
pagodas, and groves and bronze lanterns : of shaven priests in gold brocade and Shinto 
attendants in black lacquer caps : and gleams of sunlit gold here and there, and simple monu- 
mental urns, and a mountain side covered with a cryptomeria forest with rose azaleas lighting 
up its solemn shade." 

The Leaning Tcwer of Soo-choiv. — Soo-chow and Hang-chow enjoy the distinction of being 
the two most beautiful cities in China. Indeed, their beauty is proverbial. " Above there is 
Paradise, below are Soo and Hang," says one Chinese proverb. And according to another well- 
known native saying, to be perfectly happy a man must be born in Soo-chow, live in Canton, 
and die in Liau-chow. This saying has reference, no doubt, to the fortunate position of Soo- 
chow from the point of view of its " fung-shui." This fung-shui bears such a large part in 
Chinese iife that it is perpetually offering problems for the study of the Westerner. So far as it 
is possible to unravel the intricacy of Oriental ideas, fung-shui appears to be a faint inkling of 
natural science overlaid and infinitely distorted by superstition. It is believed that through the 



Asia 



47 



surface of the earth there run two currents representing the male and female principle in Nature, 
the one known as the " Azure Dragon " and the other as the " White Tiger." The undulations of 
the earth's surface are held to indicate to the professors of fung-shui (aided as they always are by 
magnetic compasses) the whereabouts of these occult forces. To obtain a fortunate site, these 
two currents should be in conjunction, forming, as it were, a bent arm with their juncture at the 
elbow. Within the angle formed by this combination is the site which is calculated to bring 
wealth and happiness to those who are fortunate enough to secure it for l)\iililing purposes, or for 
a place of burial. As it is obviously impossible to command such a conjunction, the necessary 
formation may be supplied by artificial means. In a level country a bank of earth and a grove 
of trees answer all the purposes of the "Azure Dragon" and the " Wliite Tiger." Of such an 
origin is the Tiger Hill at Soo-chow. It is a monstrous mound of earth, produced artificially 
long years ago to accommodate the fung-shui of the spot whereon the great Ho-lu-Wang was 
buried. 

He is said to have founded the city of Soo-chow in 484 a.d., though there is great divergence 
of opinion as to the exact date. Some authorities put it — at least that of the construction of the 
great Pagoda of Ku-su-tai, said to have been built by him — as late as 600 a.d. The poetic name 
of the city is Ku-su, so-called after the great tower of nine stories, which is considered the finest in 
all this land of pagodas. Soo-chow owes its beauty to the fact that, like Venice, it is built upon a 
cluster of islands, on the eastern side of Lake Tai-hu, in the province of Kiang-su, about fifty miles 
nortli-west of Shanghai. The Tai-hu Lake is celebrated for its size and beaut}', and it is dotted 




t'lwtu by] 



WW. WAI I'HUA KF.O. 



IKoU. l<ii: i Co.^ liauykok. 



The Temple colled ihe Phr« Morodop in (he centre of the court ia planned in the form o[ a cross, and the KinK goes there 
on festive occasions to hear m sermon from llic Prince Hiah-Priest. 



48 



The Wonders of the World 



over with islands on which 
are temples and pleasure- 
houses. The Grand Canal, 
the magnificent artificial 
river which connects the 
waterways of North and 
South China, after leaving 
Hang-chow, passes round 
the eastern side of Lake 
Tai-hu, and surrounds the 
city of Soo-chow before it 
trends north-east through 
a densely-populated and 
fertile country. 

Sanchi Tope. ^Hardly 
one of the more important 
sights of India is as little 
known to travellers as the 
Sanchi Tope, yet here, on 
the top of an exquisitely 
wooded hill near Bhilsa, 
within the territories of 
the Begum of Bhopal, 
there are to be found not 
only the oldest historical 
ruins in India, but a 
wealth of architectural 
carving which might well 
surprise a man who has 
visited all the most famous 
of Eastern shrines. 

The tradition is that 
immediately after the 
death of Buddha in 
Kusinara, two of the 
Master's chief disciples 
set off on a mission of 
evangelization into South India and Ceylon. Within a short time Ceylon seems to have 
established a regular connection with the Buddhist region, and one of the halting places of this 
sacred traffic seems to have been at Sanchi. Perhaps the beauty of the situation, as well as the 
convenience of a common half-way house, helped to decide the choice of the early missionaries. 
No doubt also the fact that the great Buddhist Emperor, Asoka, found his first wife in a 
neighbouring village, and that, in consequence, his attention was especially directed to the 
district, accounted for much of the religious importance of Sanchi in later generations. On 
several of the hills round Sanchi, Buddhist structures have been found, though none of them, 
with one exception, is of great importance. Asoka paid a special honour to Sanchi by lavishing 
upon it architectural ornamentation of a kind that has been surpassed nowhere else in India, 
and rivalled only at Bharahat. 

The gateways that surround the central mound are almost as perfect to-day as when they 




Photo 
Uilhin 



hy'\ \_Rohl. Lenz .(■ Co.. liant/kok. 

THE WAT PHRA KEO. 

the Temple boundaries tliere are a mu'litude of temples, shrines, pagodas and dwellings 
for priests, the whole enclosed within walls covered with elaborate frescoes. 



50 



The Wonders of the World 












;;---„--/" -^ 










..^^ 


K 














^^^ 


m^ 




, .. 








iksij 


9^H 


W r- 




■^-^^-■v -■- ■ ■■■- 


■ - - ■ -^^^-^^ -^v 


' ■ -^.s--.- 


.~^i^^^v^«aw^ 



THE BORE ON THE TSIEN-TANG RIVER. CHINA. 

This great tidal wave sweeps up the river from the sea in a wall of water twenty feet high It traverses thirty-five 
to forty miles in less than four hours when the moon is at the full or change. No boat or even large vessel can live 
before its onslaught. 

were first set up. A faithful restoration was, indeed, carried out in 1883, but scarcely any new 
material was needed, and the central tope itself is, with the exception of a stone palisade upon 
the summit, almost exactly as it was left by Asoka in the middle of the third century B.C. But 
the place was holy long before King Asoka bedecked it with these sculptured portals. The 
ashes of Sariputta and Moggalyana, two of Buddha's nearest friends and comforters, have 
been found buried within a smaller mound a few miles away. The central tope at Sanchi 
then, the oldest and by far the most important of the religious buildings of this district, 
has not yet yielded its secret. No relic chamber has as yet been found within it, and the 
tradition that it was built in honour of no other than Yasodhara, Buddha's long-deserted wife, 
has no historical basis whatever. This mound, which is one hundred and six feet in diameter, 
is placed upon a plinth fourteen feet in height : round this again is the famous railing, of 
the gates of which illustrations are here given. The railing itself is of a typical Asokan 
character. The stone posts are about nine feet six inches in height, and the broad stone rails 
between them are two feet two inches long. The aspect thus given is rather of a wall than 
of a fence, especially as a heavy stone coping crowns the entire structure. At the four 
cardinal points of the compass there is an entrance into this curious ambulatory, which 
encircles the tope, and each of the gates would repay a week's careful study. That to the 
east is perhaps the most famous, though in point of richness there is little to choose between 
the four portals. The groups of elephants which surmount the heavy square gateposts and 
support the elaborate superstructure, deserve special attention, and from the details of the 
carving that covers every inch, back and front, of the stone beams above, no small amount 
of our knowledge of early Buddhist life in India has been drawn. 



Asia 



51 



The Wat Phra Keo. — The great Temple of Phra Keo is intimately bound up witli the Hfe 
and history of Bangkok, the capital of Siam. 

King Chulalok, who founded the present dynasty, founded also the city of Bangkok in 1782, 
and three years later he inaugurated the building of the Temple there with a grand religious 
ceremony " as a Temple for the Emerald Buddha, the palladium of the capital, for the glory of 
the King, and as an especial work of Royal Piety." The work of royal piety, however, stopped 
far short of completing the whole design, and only the library and chapel were finished. But King 
Chulalonkorn ascended the throne, and it is recorded that on Tuesday, 23rd December, 1879, 
he made a vow to complete the work, which was commenced the next month and finished, 
after a period of two years, three months and twenty days, in 1882, and on the one hundredth 
anniversary of the founding of Bangkok the crowning glory of the city was to be seen in all its 
perfection. The King defrayed the whole of the enormous outlay out of his private purse. 
His many brothers and relatives were entrusted with the different sections of the work. 
One relaid the marble pavement : a second renewed all the stone inscriptions inside the 
Obosot : a third laid the brass paving of the Obosot : a fourth restored the pearl inlaid work : 
a fifth repaired the ceilings. 

Included under the general designation of Wat Phra Keo are various buildings. A temple, 
called Phra Marodop, in the centre, is planned in the form of a cross. Thither the King 
goes on state occasions to hear a sermon from the Prince-High-Priest. The walls of it 
are decorated with inlaid work, the ceiling is blue and gold, the beautiful doors of ebony are 
elaboratel}' inlaid. Behind this 
Chapel Roval is the great 
Phrachedee. covered with gilt 
tiles, of which the effect is 
gorgeous. The Obosot shelters 
the Emerald Buddha, a very 
beautiful figure of "emerald" 
green jade, found at Kiang Hai 
in 1436, and brought hither 
after various vicissitudes. The 
figure has different costumes, 
all richly ornamented with gold, 
for use at different seasons of 
the year. Here, too, the half- 
yearly ceremony of drinkint; 
the Water of Allegiance is held, 
when the Siamese, tlnough their 
representatives, the princes and 
high officers of state, renew 
tiieir oath of fealty to tiie 
King. The ceremony takes 
place on April ist and Sep- 
tember 2ist. and consists in 
drinking a draught of watei 
sanctified by priests. Thi> 
great Temple is a symbol ol 
the rule of the Siamese /'"'.>V"..,-,w,-,V'.'] 

, X •.. ■ v 1 xi ANCIENT ROCK-HEWN SEPULCHKIi. JERUSAL.LM. 

dynasty; it is bound up with .^^ „ j , u 1 ■ ■ j > 1 

•^ ■ •»• ' "^ rolline-tlone moved partly bock into its cfoove. disclose* the entrance to the 

the progress of the Civihza- tomb, which is opprooched by sloirs cut in the rock. 




52 



The Wonders of the World 




tion of the people, and its 
completion marks an epoch in 
Asiatic history, for the city 
founded by King Chulalok one 
hundred and twenty-eight years 
ago now numbers hundreds of 
thousands of inhabitants. 

The Sacred Bull, Mysore. — 
This stone Nandi, or Sacred 
15ull of Shiva, on a low hill 
near the city of Mysore, is one 
i)f the finest Nandis in India. 
There is a similar figure at 
Tanjore, carved in one block 
of granite, which is rendered 
the more remarkable by the 
fact that the nearest super- 
ficial formations of granite are 
hundreds of miles distant. 
Mysore city lies at the foot of 
the Chamundi Hill, an isolated 
peak rising fifteen hundred feet 
sheer from the plain. The 
Brahmin, not content with his 
million gods, reveres animals, 
and among them the bull and 
the cow are pre-eminently 
holy. Sacred cows block up 
his temples, bulls freely roam 
his streets. To buy fodder and give it to them is a meritorious act : to let them eat of the 
grain exposed for sale outside, and even inside your shop, is counted to the unhappy grain- 
seller for righteousness, though of late years a pirate bull is apt to receive a smart but 
surreptitious slap on the nose if he continues his depredations too long. The Nandi, or 
image of the bull, is especially Shiva's emblem. It is the companion emblem of the lingam, 
and is to be found in the same recumbent form wherever the God of Life and Death is wor- 
shipped in India. 

The Bore at Hang-ch(no. — The Bore is found in miniature in at least six rivers of the 
British Isles. There are also two or three estuaries in France where it occurs, and is known as 
the Mascaret ; but it is only seen in all its grandeur at the mouths of the Amazon in South 
America and of the Tsien-tang river in China. According to Vice-Admiral Osborne Moore, R.N.. 
who has made a special study of the subject, " the conditions necessary to produce a perfect 
bore are (i) a swiftly flowing river ; (2) an extensive bar of sand, dry at low water, except in 
certain narrow channels kept open by the outgoing stream ; (3) the estuary into which the river 
discharges must be funnel-shaped with a wide mouth, open to receive the tidal wave from the 
ocean. When any one of these conditions is absent, the bore is not known. Thus, in the 
Thames, although the third condition is present, the first and second are absent : for the stream 
is not swift, and there is no dry bar at low water. In the Severn all three conditions are present, 
and there is a bore, not a very large one, but the highest in these islands. The bore of the 
Tsien-tang river in China has the three conditions developed. The estuary into which the river 




From tStereo copyriy/it} 



THE ROLLING SI 0.\E. 

TKis view, taken from above, sliows the manner ir 
serves its purpose of opening and closing trie tomb, 
standing with her back to the entrance 



which the 
The girl 



rolling-stone 
may be seen 




THE BUKMNG CH A 1 .1. ilKNAKES. 
After hnvinK bcrn dipped in t'lc sncrrd Gansea, the morinl remain* of llic Hindu dead ore very tenderly placed 
upon the prepared fire. Two or three loss are ihrn put lonEiludinalty upan the csrpae. the aacred nre it applied, and 
within half an hour the flaked cinders arc let adrift upon the boiom of the broad, placid river 



54 



The Wonders of the World 




.-^^f/ '**J^:- 



Cojjyrijhi plt<ilo ^</] 



III. a.l''jiUlnil, f.Ji.U..-i. 



CAVE TEMPLES AT ELEPHANTA. 

This is the entrance to the principal Cave Temple on the island of Elephanla, Bombay. These Hindu temples date 
from about the 10th century, and are chiselled from the living rock of the island, 

falls has a vast area of sand at its head, and is favourably situated for the reception of the 
tidal wave from the Pacific. The range of the tide immediately outside the Hang-chow gulf is 
twelve feet ; but as the wave becomes compressed on advancing towards its head, it is as much 
as twenty-five feet in height at ordinary spring tides, and thirty-four feet when the wind is 
blowing on shore and the moon in perigee at the time of full and change. ... In crossing the 
bar, first, of course, through the narrow river channels, the flood meets with the swift outgoing 
stream, which trips up its foot and causes an overfall ; then, as more rushes of water overlie the 
first of the flood, the inequality of level becomes greater until the water rises to a bore, 
which advances, with increasing velocity but great regularity of front, towards the mouth of the 
Tsien-tang. . . . The bore maintains its breadth, height, and speed for twelve or fifteen miles 
above the mouth of the Tsien-tang. As the bed of the river slopes gradually up from Haining 
to Hang-chow, the range of the tide, and consequently the height of the bore, decreases from 
about twenty to six feet. It usually then breaks up." 

The speed of this bore is estimated at about fifteen miles an hour. It flies up the river at 
the pace of a galloping horse, its front is a gleaming cascade of foam, a wall of agitated water 
ten to twelve feet high, pounding along upon itself, and roaring up the sandy flats at the river 
side. On a calm, still night it can be heard fifteen miles away, a fuU hour before it passes with 
a roar like the rapids of Niagara. This devastating waU of water sweeps the channel every 
low tide, but in calm weather, and at neap tides, it is only two or three feet high. It is at 
spring tides, when the moon is at the full, that it arrives in all its force. The life of this bore 
is three or four hours from the time it forms in the bav to the time when it dies above the 



Asia 



00 



city of Hang-chow, and it travels about forty miles in the time. Opposite the city it is quite 
innocuous for fifteen or twenty days a month. 

At Haining it is always dangerous for boats, and at spring tides no ship could live before it. 

The Bhota Pagoda is the best spot at which to watch the bore enter the river. 

This pagoda is said to be over one thousand years old ; it is one hundred and twenty feet 
high, he.xagonal, and has six stories. The native version of the building of the pagoda and 
explanation of the bore are as follows : Many hundred years ago there was a certain general 
who had obtained many victories over the enemies of the emperor. But being constantly 
successful and deservedly popular among the people, he at last e.xcited the jealousy of his sovereign. 
The emperor therefore caused him to be assassinated and thrown into the Tsien-tang, when his 
spirit conceived the idea of revenging itself for the ingratitude by bringing the tide in from the 
ocean in such force as to overwhelm the city of Hang-chow, then the capital of the empire. The 
spirit flooded a large part of the country, and the alarmed emperor failed to appease it until he 
had built a handsome pagoda upon the sea-wall at the spot where the worst breach in the defences 
had been made by the waters. We may presume that mending the breach, too, had some influence 
also in ensuring the better behaviour of the resentful general. 

The Tombs of the Kings, /erasalem.—The name given these tombs by tradition is apparently 
not sanctioned by authority, for no Kings of Judah were buried here. The place is known to 
the Jews as the " Gorged Dog " (Kalba Shebna), from the legend that a rich Jew once lived 
here who fed all the dogs of the city during the last siege of Jerusalem — the story is referred to 
in the Talmud. It hes three-quarters of a mile distant from the Damascus Gate, and is 
composed of several sepulchral chambers containing sarcophagi, hewn out of the solid rock. 
These chambers vary in size from ten to twenty feet square. 

The largest is entered by a portico with columns and pilasters in the Doric style, but the 
architecture proves it to be not later than the Roman period. There is a descent, by rock-cut 




I'hoto byl 



IJohiulon it- lltt^mt'i 



TEMPLE OF SHIVA. ELEF'HANTA- 



The subterranean Imll of this lemplc if 1 30 feci »quare, and the roof is upheld by 26 massive pillars Much of the damase 
it has suffered is said to be the work of Portuguese iconoclasts 



56 



The Wonders of the World 



stairs, to a large rectangular 
chamber excavated in the solid 
stone to a depth of twenty feet. 
The entrance is guarded by the 
curious rolling-stone shown in 
our illustration. In shape it is 
something like a mill-stone, 
and it can be made to roll 
backwards and forwards along 
a deep groove hollowed in the 
rock outside, thus concealing 
or revealing the opening into 
the tomb. This ancient form 
of construction throws some 
light upon the reference in the 
New Testament to the need for 
rolling away the stone from 
the door of the sepulchre 
wherein Christ was buried. 

The Burning Ghats, Be- 
nares. — Few visitors to Benares 
fail to make a visit to the 
famous Burning Ghats by the 
side of the sacred river Ganges. 
There are few things that 
seem on the face of them to 
be more repulsive ; in reality 
there are few that are more 
simple and more significant. 
Very tenderly the mortal remains of the dead, after having been baptized in the waters of the 
Ganges, are placed upon the prepared pyre. Two or three logs are then placed longitudi- 
nally upon the corpse, so as to conceal the unbeautiful process of cremation from the eyes of 
the curious. One of the special caste which alone may fulfil the offices, draws near and apphes 
the sacred fire. The flame licks upwards through the logs, and in twenty minutes or half an hour 
all is over, and from among the white, charred ashes of the wood the flaked cinders of what 
was once a human being are set adrift upon the bosom of the broad, placid river. Thus, 
as the Hindus most faithfully believe, will the spirit that once occupied the mortal frame 
attain certain peace. 

Benares is the most sacred city in India. It is to Hinduism what Lhasa is to the northern 
Buddhist, and what Mecca is to the followers of Mohammed. Moreover, it is not only the 
white-hot centre of the fanaticism that clings round the worship of Shiva, but it is one of the 
oldest universities that the world possesses. 

The god Shiva has perhaps a stronger hold upon the mind of Hindus than anything else 
within their lives. Sir Alfred Lyall well sums up the nature of the worship of Shiva in the 
following words : 

" Shiva represents what I have taken to be the earliest and universal impression of Nature 
upon men — the impression of endless and pitiless change. He is the destroyer and rebuilder 
of various forms of life ; he has charge of the whole circle of animated creation, the incessant 
round of birth and death in which all Nature eternally revolves. His. attributes are indicated 




Pluilo hy'] 



[Bourne <{■ ."^Ifplterd. 



IN THE TEMPLE OF SHiVA. 

und ihe walls are Rroups of colossal fisrures. 



ELEPHANTA. 

twelve to twenty feet high 



58 



The Wonders of the World 



by symbols emblematic of death and of man's desire ; he presides over the ebb and flow of sentient 
existence. In Shiva we have the condensation of the two primordial agencies : the striving to live 
and the forces that kill ; and thus, philosophically speaking, we see in this great divinity a 
comprehensive transfiguration of that idea which, as I repeat, I hold to be the root of Natural 
Religion. He exhibits by images, emblems, and allegorical carvings the whole course and revolution 
of Nature, the inexorable law of the alternate triumph of life and death — Mors Janiia Vitce — the 
unending circle of indestructible animation." 

And of this grim deity Benares is the chosen home. 

The Caves of Elephania, ^omfojy. — The island of Elephanta lies six miles out across the 
water from Bombay. It is a conical hill six hundred feet high, for the most part covered with 
coarse vegetation, and instead of beaches there are mangrove swamps which creep up to 
the very side of the slippery concrete blocks on which visitors step ashore. 

A long flight of steps leads up to the caves, which date from the tenth century, and are 
witnesses to the skill of the chisels of the early inhabitants of the harbour. The island is sacred 
to Shiva, who is largely represented in the decorations. The temple to Shiva-linga is one 
hundred and thirty feet square ; the roof is upheld by twenty-six massive fluted pillars and 
sixteen pilasters. Round the walls are groups of figures, twelve to twenty feet high, carved out 
of the solid rock, as, of course, is the whole building. In past years these caves have been 
considerably damaged by the Portuguese, but they still remain to testify to the splendour and 

spaciousness of Hindu archi- 
tecture in the early centuries 
of our era. 

The Toaa Rock, Mount 
Abu. — Mount Abu is a popular 
hot-weather resort, and there 
are a number of private 
houses and bungalows on the 
outskirts which cluster round 
the shores of the Gem Lake. 
The Lake is dotted with little 
toy islands that are reflected 
in the still water, while over 
all hangs a curious natural 
rock that looks like a gigantic 
toad about to spring into the 
water. It has the squat out- 
line and the heavy slothful air 
of its hideous prototype. Its 
dun-coloured mass throws a 
dark and sinister shadow upon 
the sparkling water in the 
brightest of mountain sun- 
shine. The heights of Mount 
Abu are so broken up that 
practicable roads are few ; it 
is mostly traversed by foot- 
paths that wind their way 




STONE IMAGES OF THE -500 DISCIPLES' 



OF BUDDHA. 



Go-Kyaku Rahan, or the " 500 Disciples." were the Arya, or Holy Men, who 
were O Shaka Sama's immediate disciples. The most f^mDUs company of these 
effigies is that at the Temple of Seikenji, near Okitsu. Japan 



among the scattered boulders 



and masses of rock. 



The 



Asia 



59 




I'/ioto tju] 

THE BEAUTIFUL GORGE OF THE YANGTSE KIANG. 

The ^angtsc Kiang is the chief river of China, and is one of the longest and noblest in the World. 

as about 5S4.000 square miles 



[./. Thnmstin, Eiq., t.li.CS. 
Its area is calculated 



Toad Rock was tossed into its position by the hand of some primeval giant long ages ago, 
and now sits looking darkly down into the green heart of the little lake that men have made 
at its feet. 

Images of the Rahan, or Disciples of Buddha. — These holy men provide one of the 
favourite subjects of Buddliist art. They figure in the sacred paintings ; their images are placed 
within the temples, and groups of statuary out of doors representing these earliest disciples are 
frequently found. This band of disciples was gathered round him by the Master when after long 
wanderings and much self-mortification the truth of his Buddhahood had been revealed to him 
beneath the Bo-tree near Gaya. Inspired by a Divine call to teach to his suffering and deluded 
fellow-men the way to attain peace, he hastened to the Deer Forest near Benares, where his late 
pupils lived He had disappointed them when he had given up in despair tiie life of relentless 
self-mortification he had been practising in their company ; but he knew tiiat by that road alone 
the truth could not be found. He found them in the Deer Forest, and. it is said, preached to them 
with the greatest earnestness and eloquence for five days, when they became convinced of the 
truth of his revelation of the Way of Perfection and gladly embraced the new faith. 

These men formed the nucleus of the band of five hundred disciples. Here in the Deer Forest 
many eager hearers gathered round him, till his personal followers soon numbered three-score. 
After due instruction he sent them forth on preaching expeditions. To the newly-formed Sangha, 
or Society of Mendicants, he gave a regular organization and the most minute rules for the conduct 



6o 



The Wonders of the World 



of those who entered it. They were permitted to eat no sohd between sunrise and noon : they 
might drink no intoxicating liquor : they were to beg their food in a begging bowl from house to 
house without distinction of rich or poor. Their dwelling, wherever possible, was rather to be in 
a grove or forest than in the houses of those to whom they were sent. Their heads were to be 
shaven. Such a monk might possess but eight articles : his three robes, a girdle, an alms- 
bowl, a razor, a needle, and a water-strainer— this last in order that by no accident should he 
swallow any living thing as he drank. 

The effigies of these first Rahan are set up as ensamples of right living and right thinking to 
their weaker brethren of to-day. In many a Buddhist centre we may see them, with their grave 
faces, their high, shaven foreheads, their emaciated limbs, their scanty covering. In Japan, the 
most famous company of these holy men is perhaps to be seen at the great Buddhist Temple of 
Seikenji, near Okitsu, which is the subject of the illustration. 

Gorge on the Yangtse Kiang. — The immense waterway of the Yangtse Kiang rises in tlie 
mountains of Tibet, follows a course of something like three thousand miles through fertile and 




I ** "-f ^* ^Ti T'-' , .- »--* '71^ t*'-^ 'l"»* ^^ ^^ Tir ^ ■ 









'">•'"» ''."] iJ. Thoimoi,. &./., F.n.a.s. 

THE ALTAR OF HEAVEN 

The altar is open to the sky on the summit of three terraces, the topmost beins paved with stones laid in nine concentric 
circles. The Emperor repairs here once a year, in winter, to adore "' the Azure Heaven" with solemn ritual. The Emperor 
claims to represent Man in the Divine Trinity with Heaven and Earth. 

densely populated territory, and empties itself into an estuary on the Chinese shore of the Yellow 
Sea. It is the chief river of China, and one of the longest and noblest in the world. Its basin, 
of which the area is calculated as about five hundred and eighty-four thousand square miles, includes 
the greater part of China proper. At the juncture of its two main affluents, where it is already a 
formidable torrent and barely fordable even at low water, its height above the sea level is 
estimated as thirteen thousand feet. From this great height it hurls itself down through leagues 
of wild and forest-grown country and through barren mountain passes, tumbling over rapids and 
tearing through the narrow channels of its bed. Soon, however, the steep descent yields to a flat 
tableland, and as the gradient ceases the long, quiet journey is made, among the shifting sand- 
banks, to Hang-kow. Here it flows so placidly and mildly that the incoming tide ripples up its 
bosom full two hundred miles from its mouth. 

By far the most beautiful scenery along its course, if we except the inaccessible wilds of Tibet, 
which are forbidden land, is found among the mountain gorges above I-chang. Here the 
mountain spurs thrust themselves down to the bed of the river, at times forcing the mass of the 




. i'onltn-j, I'.li.ii. 



THE TEMPLE OF HEAX E\. PEKING 

\X ithin ihc icmpic enclosure ore several fine huildinns. Amons these are the Chnmber of Imperiil Heaven, where the Emperor 
repairs to worship "the Supreme Ruler" and his ancestors, and the Hall of Abstinence, where he retires lor fastins and visil durinK 
the cumbersome ceremonies in which he takes pan. according to a ritual cider than any olher now in use in the world. 



62 



The Wonders of the World 



moving current into so narrow 
a channel that it becomes a 
boiling"^ torrent of foaming 
water. Then, again, the moun- 
tains seem to stand back as 
though to observe their handi- 
work, and the tortured river 
spreads itself out into wide, 
peaceful pools, wherein the 
exquisite scenery' is reflected. 

The Temple of Heaven, 
Peking. — This is a remarkable 
building in itself, but to West- 
ern ideas it is yet more re- 
markable for the fact that it 
is bound up with the claim to 
divinity of a human being. The 
Emperor of China does not 
claim to be King by Divine 
Right, he claims to be Divine, 
and, therefore. King. In the 
Chinese religion there is a 
Divine Trinity — Heaven, Earth 
and Man — of which the Em- 
peror represents the third. 
" The Emperor," says Profes- 
sor Douglas, " is the possessor 
of a power limited onlv by the 
endurance of the people, the 
object of profound reverence 
and worship by his subjects, 
and the holder of the lives 
of ' all under Heaven.' As pos- 
sessor of the Divine authority, 
he holds himself superior to 
all who are called gods, and takes upon himself to grant titles of honour to deities, and to 
promote them in the sacred hierarchy. He alone is entitled to worship the azure heaven, and 
at the winter solstice he performs this rite after careful preparation and with solemn ritual. The 
Temple of Heaven, where this august ceremony is performed, stands in the southern portion 
of the city of Peking, and consists of a triple circular terrace, two hundred and ten feet 
wide at the base, and ninety feet at the top. The marble stones forming the pavement 
of the highest terrace are laid in nine concentric circles. On the centre stone, which is 
a perfect circle, the Emperor kneels facing the north, and acknowledges in prayer and by 
his position that he is inferior to Heaven and to Heaven alone. Round him on the pa\'e- 
ment are the nine circles of as many heavens, consisting of nine stones, then of eighteen, 
then twenty-seven, and so on in successive multiples of nine until the square of nine, the favourite 
number of Chinese philosophy, is reached in the outermost circle of eighty-one stones * On the 
evening before the winter solstice the Emperor is borne in a carriage drawn by elephants to the 

* Williamson. "Journey in North China.'' 




THE ROSE-RED ROCKS OF PETRA 

The approach to Pelra from the east is by a narrow defile, known as "the Sik " 
Located in this canyon-like and narrow Sik is the wonderful temple of El Khasneh, 
cut out of the rose-red rock in Graeco-Roman architecture. 



Asia 63 

mystic precincts of the Temple, whence after offering incense to Shangti, the Supreme Ruler, and 
to his ancestors, he proceeds to the hall of penitential fasting. There he remains till 5.45 a.m., 
when, dressed in his sacrificial robes, he ascends the second terrace. This is the signal for setting 
fire to the whole burnt sacrifice, which consists of a bullock of two years old without blemish. 
The Supreme Ruler having been thus invoked, the Emperor goes up to the highest terrace, and 
offers incense before the sacred shrine, and that of his ancestors. At the same time, after havmg 
knelt thrice and prostrated himself nine times, he offers bundles of silk, jade cups, and other gifts 
in lowly sacrifice. A prayer is then read by an attendant minister. One solemn rite has still to 
be performed before the 
sacrificial service is com- 
plete. While the Emperor 
remains on his knees, 
officers appointed for the 
purpose present to him 
' the flesh of happiness ' 
and the ' cup of happiness. ' 
Thrice he prostrates him- 
self before the sacred em- 
blems and then receives 
them with solemn rever- 
ence. By this solemn 
sacrifice the Emperor as- 
sumes the office of Vice- 
Regent of Heaven, and 
by common consent is 
acknowledged the co- 
ordinate of Heaven and 
Earth, and the represen- 
tative of Man in the 
Trinity of which these 
two powers form the other 
persons." 

The whole Temple of 
Heaven is contained in an 
open space about a milr 
square, within a triple en- 
closure, which is, or was. 
used to secure the animals 
intended for sacrifices. Ti > 
the south is the very 
sacred structure of terraces 
on the summit of which i 
the altar, open to the sky. 
The northern structure, 
which is more of a temple 
proper, is roofed, but not 
enclosed, by walls. The 
main roof is supported 
by four columns, and tlie 




liL kHASNF.H. OR -THE TREASURY 

The wonderful rocU-iicwn temple of El Kho.neh U ■■ 
erecled by the E nperor Hodrlnn when he vi.ited Pelra in 131 

The Bedouin Arobl believe il contain, 
temple tdUes it» name. 



treaiure ol 



OF PHARAOH" 

temple ol l»i«. and waa probably 

A.D 

Phnrnoh." and from this fad iKc 



64 



The Wonders of the World 



two lower roofs round if by 
twenty-four shorter columns, the 
whole being richly gilt and 
sculptured. 

El Khasneh. The Treasury; of 
Pharaoh. — This is the crowning 
gem in the collection of rock- 
built tombs and temples in the 
\-alley of the Wady Musa, where 
was the ancient Nabataean town 
of Petra. This rocky and almost 
inaccessible valley is situated in 
the mountains between the Dead 
Sea and the Gulf of Akaba. El 
Khasneh is a Temple of Isis, 
and was probably erected by the 
Emperor Hadrian when he visited 
Petra in 131 a.d. The building 
owes much of its wonderful 
beauty to the rose colour of the 
living rock from which it is 
liewn. For, with the exception 
of the two central columns of 
the portico, the entire edifice 
is fashioned from the rock of 
the hillside. 

The fa9ade of the " treasury " 
has two stories and is sixty- 
five feet high. The handsome 
portico of the lower story is supported upon si.x massive Corinthian columns. All the capitals, 
cornices, and the pediment are of fine workmanship. Above the pediment, the symbol of Isis, a 
solar disc between two horns, can be distinctly traced. At either corner are sphinxes. Columns 
in the same style adorn the upper story also, and in the centre, interrupting the pediment in a 
curious manner, is a large and deep recess. Within this is poised a kind of cylinder, or circular 
lantern, and upon the pointed, conical top of this rests an urn, within which, as the Bedouin Arabs 
believe, is deposited the " treasure of Pharaoh," whence the building takes its name. No doubt 
some object of great veneration or of mythical value was contained in this strange receptacle when 
the Temple was originally built, but there is now no trace of it left, however slight, by which to 
determine its nature. In front of it, standing between two columns, stands Isis, holding in her 
hand the horn of plenty. The figure of the goddess is unfortunately much damaged. She is 
supported on the right and left by attendant figures popularly supposed to be Amazons. 

The interior of the Temple is reached by a richly-decorated door beneath the principal portico. 
The chief hall is of large dimensions, and is absolutely devoid of ornament. The pale rose- 
coloured walls with their delicate veinings rise in austere plainness from the smooth pavement 
under-foot. The light is dim, the echoes are loud, the place has just that air of mystery which 
to this day often clothes an Eastern shrine with legend and romance. There are three smaller 
chambers grouped round it, all as plain and unadorned as the central hall. The whole, as we have 
said, is carved from the ruddy sandstone rock of this wild hillside, and offers to the student, the 
artist, or the traveller one of the strangest and most beautiful works of architecture in all Syria. 




r/iolo hu] [Airi'^rirati I'ol'irit/, J'TUsnlem. 

Entrance to the rose-red rocli-hewn temple of El Khasneh, Petra. 




L'opyriijlU I'hoto ol] 
This is tKe actual nnausolcuin 



[//. *;. i\.unn.j, r.lij;..- 



THE TOMB OF AKBAR. SIKAXDRA. 

pyramidal building of four stories The three lower ones are of red sandstone, in 
elaborate arcades. The topmost is of dazzling white marble. 



CHAPTER III. 

/>'-/ />'. L. PrrXAM ]VKALE. 



Akbar's Tomb, Sikandra. — Akbar. 
the great Moghul emperor, died in 
1605, at the age of sixty-two. He 
was a contemporary of Queen Ehza- 
beth, and the splendour of his reign 
equalled, if it did not excel, that 
magnificent period of English history 
when the world was ringing with 
English doings. During his lifetime 
Akbar built himself a magnificent 
tomb at Sikandra. a suburb of Agra, 
his capital. In doing this he was 
only following the example of many 
Eastern potentates ; but the building 
he erected is, as Fergusson, the 
highest authority on Oriental archi- 
tecture, says, " quite unlike any other 
tomb built in India either before or 
since, and of a design borrowed, as 1 
believ-e. from a Hindu, or more cor- 
rectly a Buddhist model. It stands 
in an extensive garden, still kept 
up, approached by a noble gateway. 
In the centre of the garden, on a 
raised platform, stands the tomb it 
self, of pvramidal form. The Iowli 
story measures tiiirty feet in height. 
pierced by ten great arches on each 
face, and with a larger entrance, 
adorned with a mosaic of marble, in 




THE BEAUTIFUL ENTRANCE GATE lO .VKBAR'S TOMB. 

1 he Kmperor's tomb is in a luxuriant Rnrden- I he sale that leads to the 
enclosure is imposing both from its size and Roudiness. It is of red sandstone. 
sUilfully inloid with white and coloured marble. 

G 



66 



The Wonders of the World 



the centre. On this terrace 
stands another stone far more 
ornate ; a third and fourth 
story of similar design stand 
on this, all these being of red 
sandstone. Within and above 
the last is a white marble en- 
closure one hundred and fifty- 
seven feet each way. or exter- 
nally just half the length of 
the lowest terrace, its outer 
wall composed entirely of 
marble trellis-work of the most 
beautiful patterns. Inside it is 
surrounded by a colonnade or 
cloister of the same material ; 
in the centre of which on a 
raised platform is the tomb- 
stone of the founder, a splendid 
piece of most beautiful ara- 
besque tracery. This, however, 
is not the true burial place ; 
the mortal remains of this 
great king repose under a far 
plainer tombstone in a vaulted 
chamber in the basement, ex- 
actly under the simulated tomb 
that adorns the summit of the 
mausoleum." 

The Moghul princes made 
their sepulchres places of gaiet)'' 
and amusement ; so long as 
the founder lived his tomb was 
a rendezvous for his friends 
and a festive place of retreat. 
When once the place had been 

consecrated by the interment therein of its founder, it immediately ceased to be used as a place 

of festivity. 

The sarcophagus of Akbar is inscribed on one side " All.\hu Akb.\r " (" God is greatest ") and 

on the other " J.\lla J.\lalahu " (" May His glory shine "). This story on the summit of the 

great building is of wonderful beauty. The magnificent cenotaph, of white marble, most delicately 

carved, lies unsheltered beneath tlie sky. The full blaze of the tropic sun falls on it ; it is washed 

by the tropic dews. 

Akbar was a man with the most liberal conceptions of religion ; he tolerated all creeds. And 

now on his monument, carved by his orders among the flowers that adorn it, stand the impressive 

words : " God is greatest." All his doubts and aspirations seem to be summed up in that last 

sigh from his dying lips ! 

He was not only an unconquerable soldier, a patron of art and literature, a great builder and 

lover of fine architecture, but he loved all forms of beauty, and his collection of gems was one of the 




VopuniJ/it photo by"} 

AkBAR-S lOMB 

There is a masnificent cenotaph on the top story 
all over in exquisite designs of flowers. Far below is 
slab devoid of ornament. 



Pouting, l\li.t!.s. 



It is of white marble and carved 
the actual tomb, a plain marble 




Cvpyrighl photo 6j/] 



[// n. i'on/tinj, /■./^^^ 



AkBARS TOMn. 



View of the (treot red sntcway ihrounh one of the fine morbic Inlticca of the moutolrun 



68 



The Wonders of the World 



marvels of the world. Among 
them was the famous " Koh- 
i-noor " diamond, now one 
of our own Crown jewels. A 
small marble pillar can be seen 
close to the cenotaph on the 
tomb. This was once covered 
with gold, and within a re- 
ceptacle in the upper part the 
Koh-i-noor reposed, it is said, 
for the space of one hundred 
and thirty years, until carried 
oft by the Shah Nadir of 
Persia. The entrance to the 
gardens and tomb lies through 
a marvellous gateway of the 
proportions of a palace. This 
gateway merits some attention. 
It is of red sandstone, pro- 
fusely inlaid with white marble. 
There are minarets sixty feet 
high at the corners, and the 
interior contains spacious halls. 
From the platform on the top 
^ ^ -^ 2iJ^''^'- ■'''''''''. IK ''^ this wonderful structure the 

l^fc ^^ ^ flr^Clf II a^Sv. ^ Moghul emperor could see the 

waters of the Jumna river 
washing the walls of the 
massive red sandstone fort he 
had reared on its banks to pro- 
tect his rich capital of Agra. 
The most impressive feature of this magnificent royal mausoleum lies behind a plain doorway 
in the lowest story. A narrow passage ends in a simple undecorated vault, and here beneath 
a marble slab, bare of all inscription or ornament, lies the body of the greatest of the IMoghul 
emperors. 

Marble Rocks, Jabalpur. — Twelve miles by road from the city of Jabalpur the solemn hills 
have been cleft as if by the blow of a giant sword. The turbulent waters of the Nerbudda river 
have carved this passage through the mountain, and now lie like a silver sword-blade along 
the bottom of the gorge. Sheer on either side tower the white cliffs, gleaming, marvellous. The 
gorge of the " Marble Rocks " is a mile long, a mile of rare and wonderful beauty. To say 
that these gleaming white walls of magnesian limestone are from ninety to one hundred and 
twenty feet in height can give no adequate idea of their singular dignity. An unearthly beauty 
clothes every rock and green thing in the gorge. To pass from the Smoke Cascade at its head, 
where the Nerbudda fiings itself over the lip of the cliff into the boiling cauldron below, past 
the narrow spot known as " Monkeys' Leap." past the curious shaped rocks the " Foot of the 
Elephant," to the wild welter where the river springs over the rock barrier at the foot of the 
gorge, and leaps foaming out into the open valley, is like a journey in fairyland. And when 
the brilliant Indian moonlight lies like a sih'ered veil upon the glistening walls, and every crevice 
and rift is sketched with a pen of ink, the scene is one never to be forgotten. The Nerbudda 




AKBAR'S TOMB. 

All round ihe sides of the topmost terrace is an exquisite cloister, witli walls 
marble trellis work. 



Asia 



69 



ri\-er runs swift and deep down tlie echoing gorge, singing its wild song, or sinking its voice to 
a mysterious murmur wliere the rocks fall away and it grows deep. The stream is said to be 
no less than one hundred and fifty feet deep in parts. 

Quantities of wild bees make their nests in these marble rocks, and travellers are warned to 
do nothing to disturb them. There is a warning in the shape of a simple memorial at the lower 
end of the ravine to a young English engineer officer who was drowned there in trying to escape 
the attack of the venomous insects. 

The Old Palace, Amber. — The deserted city of Amber, in Rajputana, is one of the most 
romantic and entrancing spots in wliich to wander in all the romantic East. To quote Sir 
Frederick Treves, Amber is " a wizened old city hidden among hills at the end of a lonely gorge. 
So very ancient is this town that Ptolemy (the Greek historian) knew of it and wrote of it, while 
a century or more before the Norman Conquest of England Amber was already great and 
prosperous. Here many maharajas reigned in splendour, and here, in 1600. was built the great 
palace which still stands defiantly at the blind gorge's end with its back to the hills. 

" At last there came to the throne one Jey Sing. He was a prince of unexpected talents and 
of original mind. . . . Although his palace was one of the statehest in India, although centuries 
of romance and the memory of great deeds hung about the old city and its huddled streets, he 
determined to abandon Amber and to rebuild a capital in the plains that opened at his feet. 




*r^ 







*■»■»!>««■ 









-/ 



tl>- A>::- 






It 



j^EOg^CsS^k 



[AViM ,(■ Co. Llil., liii^jotf. 



IHE MARBLE ROCKS. JAB.-\LPUR, 



The GofKC of the .Marble Rocks is n mile lonK. where ihc Ncrbuddo river flows between those Rle»ininR white walls o( 
moKnesian limestone that look like the walls of a calhedrnl. They lower to a heiuhl o( 120 (eel. and their unearthly benuu is a 
thins travellers gladly i!0 the twelve miles out from Jabalpur to see 




Pitintvil hy l\ Scfh. 



THIC SACUI-:i) TANK, L'LWAR. 



I'imto. by H. a. noiiti$iti. F.n.G.s. 



The Sacred Pool of Ulwar is one of (he most lovely spots in all India. The lomh of a native cliiefiain, Uakhtawa Sint;h, 
who died in 1815, stands on one side, and temples dedicated to Vishnu on the other. The place is deemed iio holy ihat 

visitors may only approach without their shoes. 



Asia 



71 



Thus it was that he founded the surprising city and called it Jeypore after his own name. . . . 
The old city, Amber, clings to the hillside at the blind end of the ravine, a medley of winding 
ways, of steep causeways, and of houses built up on steps of rock, crowned by a palace. ... On 
the summit of the highest hill is a deserted fort, while on a low ridge in the valley is the 
deserted palace. 

" The town of Amber covers each slope of this ridge together with all that part of the valley 
which gives access to it. The palace stands well— a fine, solid, square mass of masonry with 
white walls, stout buttresses, and many cupolas and domes. Its monotony is broken by arcades 
and passages with columns, 
by an occasional verandah, or 
by the trellised walls of hidden 
courts. ... It is maintained 
in perfect state, and its halls 
and corridors are endless. . . . 
The whole city can be viewed 
from a balcony whicli juts out 
from the palace wall. It is a 
city of ruins, utterly silent, 
empty and forlorn. At the 
foot of the palace hill is a lake, 
with an island of gardens. The 
island has around it an em- 
bankment, in which are steps 
leading down to the water 
Its gardens are in terraces. 
traversed by paved paths antl 
covered walks, with here and 
there a summer house or cool 
court. Upon the island and 
its gardens a woeful ruin has 
fallen. A wild undergrowth has 
spread over it, so that there is 
now reflected on the surface of 
the lake little more than a lonely 
arch, a crumbling balustrade, 
or a heap of stones covered 
with a cobweb of briars and 
brambles So utterly desolate 
is this once laughter-haunted 
spot that the poor pleasauncc 
may be a garden of Babylon, 
and the little stairs may be 
hiding their broken steps in 
the waters of Babylon." 

Yet there are in the old 

palace many halls that present ^- ^/v,,. .i„„.,i.-.i.mwo„!/, ^/./uwm 

fine specimens of Rajput art. ' imekiok oi- s.\Lr ca\e. jebel usdum. 

The Diwan-i-Am is particularly The hiii c J.bd u.dun,. in P,ic..i„c. i. 350 icc hi.h .„d .bou, .cvc„ „,iic. 

. '^ loni. It ii compo.cd ol o Sf"' nio.. ol rock •nil. 

fine. Tlie rajah's apartments xhc iiiu.iroiion .how. ihc .lainciiic. o( .nii 




which ore tortuous cave. 



72 



The Wonders of the World 



are situated on the higher terraces and separated from the main portion of tlie palace by a 
splendid gateway covered with mosaics. Above this is the exquisite little pavihon known as 
the Suhag Mandir. with beautiful latticed windows. On one side of a garden cool and green 
where fountains play is the Jey Mandir, or Hall of Victory, adorned with panels of alabaster, 
some inlaid and some carved with fine relief of flowers. Near this a narrow passage leads 
down to the bathing rooms where the rajah and his intimates disported themselves. These 
are all of a pale cream-coloured marble, in which the delicate veining has drawn faint natural 

patterns. The light is dim and full of 
tender gleams and pale shadows. It 
is an ideal place of refuge from the 
fierce heats of an Indian summer. 
< )ne wonders with what keen regrets 
the dwellers in this luxurious palace 
loft it for the new splendours of the 
I a and new city in the plain below. 
But such was the influence, or 
authority, of Jey Sing that they left 
the old city just as it was, and as 
they left it so it remains to this day, 
save for the havoc wrought by time 
and the elements in one hundred and 
seventy years. The dwellers in this 
palace moved out in a body down the 
very narrow streets, down the narrow 
hill paths, to the road across the plain 
that led them to the pink and white 
palace ready and waiting for them in 
the empty new town of Jeypore. 

Jebel Usdum. — Tradition commonly 
places the cities of the plain, Sodom 
and Gomorrah, in this now barren 
and desolate spot, although they were 
more probably situated at the more 
fertile northern end of the Dead Sea. 
Jebel Usdum, or the Mountain of 
Sodom, is a great mass of rock salt 
three hundred and fifty feet high and 
about seven miles long from north to 
south. It is covered by a loose crust 
of gravel, flint and gypsum. It is 
full of cracks and fissures, whilst blunt and pointed pinnacles are crowded together on its 
heights like hundreds of gaunt figures pointing skyward. The salt cliffs continually fall and 
leave perpendicular precipices with a heap of rubbish at their feet. And in this salt 
mountain are long, narrow, tortuous caverns, penetrating far into its harsh and glittering 
heart, looking like the labyrinths of a deserted mine. Stalactites hang from the roofs, their 
fine fragments strew the uneven floors : to enter is to walk in a natural salt mine. 

All the appearance of the surrounding country points to eruptions and upheavals in 
comparatively historic times. There are sulphur springs all round the south shores of the cruel 
and lifeless sea. Sulphur is strewn over the plain, bitumen is deposited with the gravel on the 




This 



llii CLEPSYDRA. OR WATER M.otk. Ol CANTON. 

is a monster Kour-glass. five hundred years old. The water drips 
slowly from one copper jar to the next, and in the lowest a float marks 
srainst a scale its gradual rise. It takes twelve hours to transfer the water 
from the topmost to the lowest jar. 




Copj/ritjht pfioto 6j/] 



[//. a. I'onlini;, t'.lt.(j.!<. 
MOUNT FUJI. JAPAN 

The distant view o( Fuji, the .acred mountain of Japan. i> very impre.iive It ri.e. in lonely maie.ty to a hei.ht ol 

over 12.000 (eet. 



74 



The Wonders of the World 




MOUNT FUJI. 

This is a beautiful view of Fuji, with the winter hood of sno%v on its shoulders. The 
pretty cascades, and there are also a number of hot springs ir 



[//. <;. I'oniiiiij, f./i.a.s. 



low hills round about are threaded with 
the vicinity. 



beach and oozes out through the rocks. 



Tristram, the great authority on the environs of the 
Dead Sea, discusses the probable position of those four cities of the plain whose destruction the 
Bible story attests. " If there be any physical evidence left of the catastrophe which destroyed 
Sodom and Gomorrah, or of a similar occurrence, we have it here," though he adds that there 
are no remains to be found of the cities either here or at the more likely northern end of the 
sea. But " the kindling of such a mass of combustible material either by lightning from heaven 
or by other electric agency, combined with an earthquake ejecting the bitumen or sulphur from 
the lake, would soon spread devastation over the plain, so that the smoke of the country 
would go up like the smoke of a furnace." That gloomy and terrible things should be associated 
with such a region is only too natural. 

The Water Clock of Canton. — Threading the narrow, dark, winding streets of Canton, it is 
easy for the traveller to imagine that he has been suddenly transported into some forgotten 
century. There is no large city visited by the tourist that is so entirely " native " in its aspect 
— that is so immersed in its own peculiar civilization. Canton looks practically the same to-day 
as it must have looked nearly six centuries ago when the celebrated \'enetian adventurer, Marco 
Polo, visited it and wrote his vivid descriptions of its many curiosities. Among the quaint 
survivals of another age the famous Water Clock must take a prominent place. This is a primitive 
form of time register and hour-glass worked by water. 

To visit it the stranger makes his way along the picturesque and crowded Street of the Double 

Here are the largest and most fashionable book stores, and it is this 



Gateway in the Old City. 



Asia 



75 



street that is the most favourite haunt of the literati. The Double Gateway itself pierces a section 
of a very fine old wall dating from the seventh or eighth century, and above it is seen the curious 
erection in which the Clepsydra, or Water Clock, is housed. This consists of four large copper 
jars mounted on steps one above the other, in such fashion that when the top one is filled, the 
water flows very slowly, drop by drop, into the next one, and then on into the lowest. In 
this last one is a float to which is attached an indicator or measure. And it takes exactly a day 
of twelve hours for the contents of the top jar to be emptied completely into the lowest. As the 
water steadily rises in this last receptacle, the float points to the hour marked on the indicator. 
This archaic time gauge was first erected about 1324 a.d. It has a history full of incident : it 
has been many times destroyed during invasions from without and riots within the city. But 
it has always been restored, so that to-day. in spite of the advances made in mechanical methods 
of measuring time, we find the old water clock in practical use as it was five hundred years ago. 
For at intervals during the day the (more or less) correct time is exhibited on a board outside the 
building, and the native Cantonese are quite content to pin their faith to this unique servant of 
old Father Time. 

Fu/i-san. — Mount Fuji is the sacred mountain of Japan, and is held dear and holy by every 
sect in the country, however widely they may differ from one another on other points. Pilgrims 
crowd its steep paths all through the summer days, although the ascent is well known to be a 
very hard, long, and toilsome business. Indeed, a Japanese proverb runs, " There are two kinds 
of fools, those who have never ascended Fuji, and those who have ascended twice." In spite of 
this, nowadays many women and girls j'early make the ascent. 




y 



.r^;-- 




I'l'iirnjlil JifKif" ''I/] 



[//, (,-. fl'UlllUJ. I 



I'ttKlNCi liNlO IHt; CRAIER OK MOUNT lUJI. 

AllhouBli once on oclivc volcano. Mount Kuii now no lonacr pourt forth tumo ond •moUc. The .'nponc«e hold it Mcred. «nd ' 
pilRfiml toil up its steep BidcB oil the summer throush to KO/c down into its tremendous crater. 



76 



The Wonders of the World 



Fuji stands between the provinces of Suruga and Koshu. Its highest peak, Ken-ga-mine. is 
well over twelve thousand feet. It is a quiescent volcano. From books of the period we learn 
that smoke was commonly issuing from it as late as the fourteenth century. It is surrounded 
by low hills of volcanic origin in which hot springs are found. The belt of cultivation extends 
about fifteen hundred feet up, whereafter a wide belt of grassy moorland is separated by sparse 
forest from the cone of perpetual snow. 

The distant view of Fuji is singularly impressive and beautiful. It rises skyward in majestic 
loneliness, there being no other peak to detract from its appearance of height and dignity. It is 
famed among the world's volcanoes for the unequalled grace and perfection of its sweeping lines. 

Mrs. Bishop describes her first view of its beauty from the sea. " Looking heavenwards, I saw 
far above any possibility of height, as one would have thought, a huge truncated cone of pure 
snow, thirteen thousand feet above the sea. from wliich it sweeps upwards in a glorious curve. 




WATCHING IHE SUN RISE, FROM ABOVE THE CLOUDS 

This unique photo was taken above the clouds from the lop of Mount Fuji, and pictures the sun rising in the early morning. 

against a very pale blue sky, witli its base and the intervening country veiled in a pale grey mist- 
It was a wonderful vision, and shortly, as a vision, vanished. No wonder that it is a sacred 
mountain and so dear to the Japanese that their art is never weary of representing it." 

It is mentioned by the verv oldest Chinese writers, under the name of Horaisan, as a mountain 
of perfect beauty and whiteness rising out of the Eastern Ocean. Numberless are the traditions- 
and legends that cleave to Fuji-san, even as its descriptive names are numberless. In Japan 
the ideal feminine forehead is known as the Fu/i hitai, for it should be white, shapely, and rise up 
in a smooth cone like the holy mountain. 

Legend says there is a mystic law that no unconsecrated soil may remain on the bosom of the 
holy mount, and that when alien grains of sand and dust are brought up it in the sandals of 
pilgrims they go racing down the mountain's sides again during the night. 

Mrs. Hugh Fraser says that " Buddhists call it the ' Peak of the White Lotus.' To them the 
snow-covered mountain, rising in unsullied purity from the low liills around it, was the symbol of 




I'hoto ty] [M'tsti. Johmtnn ,(■ J/ojfmann. 

THE HAWA MAHAL. OR HALL OF IHE WINDS. JEVPORE. 

Part o( the Palace ol the Mnfiarajahi of Jcypore. it ia composed cnltrety of pink and white ttucco. and ■■ a unique piece 
of Indion architecture. It waa built by the founder of the city. Jey SinR. in I72S> 



78 



The Wonders of the World 




THE GREAT TORil. MKKO 

The grand approach to the Tombs of the Shosuns. at Nikko, Japan, 
giant cryptomeria trees, and at the top there is a great granit 







_ -;^ 




[//. 


C. U'hitf Co. 


an. is 


by 


an avenue of 


Torii 


27 


feet ^high. 



the white lotus, whose foot 
grows green under its wide 
leaves in the stagnant water, 
while its cup of breathless 
white holds up its golden heart, 
its jewel, to the sky ; and the 
wonderful symmetry of the 
mountain, with its eight-sided 
crater, reminded them of 
the eight-petalled lotus which 
forms the seat of the glorified 
Buddha. ... So the queen 
of the mountains hangs be- 
tween the stars of heaven and 
the mists of earth, dear to 
every heart that can be still 
and understand. Fuji domi- 
nates life here by its queenly 
beauty, sorrow is hushed, 
longing quieted, strife forgotten 
in its presence, and broad 
rivers of peace seem to flow 
down from that changeless 
home of peace." 

The Hall of Winds, Jey- 
pore. — Jeypore is the finest 
of modern Hindu cities, and 
is beautifully situated in an 
amphitheatre of rugged and 



precipitous hills whose summits are crowned by picturesque fortifications. The city itself is 
dominated by the Tiger Fort, which is on the very top of a scarped and quite inaccessible rock. 
A solid wall of masonry, twenty feet high and nine feet thick, surrounds the city, with bastions 
and towers marking its course at regular intervals. The palace and gardens of the maharajah 
cover a seventh part of the whole city. The grand entrance to the palace, the Siran Deorhi. is 
in the most central spot in the town opposite the College. 

The only portion of the palace visible from the street is the celebrated Hawa Mahal, or Hall 
of the Winds. It is one of the most curious and bewildering examples of Eastern architecture. 
It is constructed of a delicate shell pink and creamy white stucco. The varied designs in the 
elaborate ornamentation of each of the multitude of windows are rare and beautiful, but the 
number of these windows gives a bizarre effect to the building. Sir Edwin Arnold has left a 
record of his sincere admiration for it : he calls it " a vision of daring and dainty loveliness, nine 
stories of rosy masonry and delicate overhanging balconies and latticed windows, soaring with 
tier after tier of fanciful architecture in a pyramidal form, a very mountain of airy and audacious 
beauty, through the thousand pierced screens and gilded arches of which the Indian air blows 
cool over the flat roofs of the very highest houses. Aladdin's magician could have called into 
existence no more marvellous abode, nor was the pearl and silver palace of the Peri Banou more 
delicately charming." 

It was to this fairy edifice that Jey Sing conducted his bewildered and possibly "reluctant Court 
when he brought them from Amber to inhabit the fine new city he had constructed after his own 



Asia 



79 



design. Amber had not a street that could be called straii,'lit; it was like a rabbit warren on a 
very lovely hillside : Jeypore resembles an American city, being laid out in rectangular blocks 
divided by cross streets into six equal parts. Jey Sing thus anticipated the triumphs of modern 
town planning in the early part of the eighteenth century. 

Temple Lanterns, Japan. — The elaborate and varied beauty of the bronze, metal and stone 
lanterns that adorn all the temple precincts is a noteworthy feature of Japanese art. These lanterns 
are for the most part offered separately by the devout as a tribute to the tutelary deity or hero 
of each particular temple, and such offerings are highly respected. For instance, it is recorded 
that the wonderful avenue of cryptomeria pines leading to the tombs of the Shoguns at Nikko 
was planted by a humble countryman too poor to offer a bronze lantern to decorate their temple 
courts. The temple of Kasuga-no-Miya, near Xara, is especially famed for its hanging lanterns 
of bronze and brass. Their decoration is wonderfully elaborate. Many of them are of immense 
age, although an equallj- large number are comparatively modern. The temple is said to have 
been founded in 767 .\.d., so there has been much time in which the faitliful could add to the 
collection of lanterns. These are variously dedicated to the Shinto god Ama-no-Koyane or 
his wife, or certain mythical heroes to whom the temple is sacred. It is approached by way of a 
delightful deer park, where the deer are very tame and have their horns cut every autumn to 
ensure that they do not hurt any of the worshippers. At the end of a long avenue of stone 
lanterns stands the main temple, which is a riot of rich colour, wherein the gleaming brass lanterns 
which hang in countless numbers from its roof beams combine with the brilliance of its red lacquer 
to dazzle the eye. There is an open shed or oratory here where in ancient days the Daimyos used 




Ci'pyriijIU photo l/i/] 



[II, a. /'untin<;, /■'.A'.f/..s. 



IIIF. TEMPLE LANTERNS. JAPAN. 

These beautiful bron7e and brais lonlernB decornle the temple of KaiURn-no-Miyn. near Nara. The variety and elejtance of 
deaisn seen in the lanterns that adorn all the temple precincts arc a feature of Japanese rclifcious art- 



8o 



The Wonders of the World 



to gather for worship : it is now used by the townsfolk of Nara for a quaint ceremonial on the 
eve of Setsu-bun (February 3rd), the scattering of beans to expel evil spirits. 

The giant cryptomeria pines stand in solemn dignity about the temple courts and their green 
magnificence is in striking contrast to the restless and bewildering multiplicity of lanterns and 
ornaments. 

Well of Vishnu, Benares. — In all the holy city of Benares the most sacred spot to the devout 
Hindu is this well on the Manikarnika Ghat. Massive piers running out into the river enclose 
the great flight of stone steps up and down which the faithful jostle and thrust from the river's 
edge to the topmost platform. The temple of Tarkeshwara stands at the head of the steps, and 

behind this is the sacred well. 
It is a railed-in tank thirty- 
five feet square, with stone 
steps leading down from every 
side to the water. Every pil- 
grim who visits Benares, and 
their name is legion, flings his 
tribute into this well — offer- 
ings from the Bel tree, flowers, 
milk, sandalwood, sweetmeats 
and the sacred water of 
Ganges, are all cast by pious 
hands into this foul-smelling 
tank already choked with 
rotting and putrid gifts. The 
water of this pool is never re- 
newed except by the rain from 
heaven ; evaporation slowly 
removes the water and leaves 
the sta.gnant filth. Such are 
the extraordinary results of 
piety in certain parts of the 
world I 

Here are the actual words 
in which the Rev. Arthur 
Parker describes this scene : 
" Within a railed enclosure is 
a square tank, having on each 
of its sides a staircase of stone 
leading down to a pool of 
•stagnant water, fetid with the rotting flowers which have been cast into it as offerings. 
In this the visitor sees the most sacred spot in Benares. To bathe in that filthy water means 
to the Hindu to obtain deliverance from all penalties, even for sins of the deepest dye. The 
liar, the thief and the murderer may here wash and be clean, in a spot which the foot of 
the purest Christian would instantly defile. The visitor to this spot is at the very heart of 
Hinduism. Around him surges a motley throng of pilgrims and devotees of all kinds ; here is 
the naked yogi, with matted locks and smeared from head to foot with sacred ashes, and side by 
side with him the gentle sanyasi, as clean as the other is foul, carrying in one hand his gourd of 
■sacred water and in the other his bamboo wand which never touches the ground. 




FromSlereo.copprujhQ ICndei-moil ,<: Urulfi-unnil. 

THE S.A.CRED WELL OF VISHNU. BENARES 

The well on the ManikarniUa Ghat is one of the most sacred spots in all Benares 
Countless pilgrims visit it to bathe in its foul and stagnant waters. The temple c 
Tarlieshwara stands at the head of the ghat, which leads down to the river Ganges. 

rotting flowers which 



Nuzzling about 



among the crowd, foraging for sacred flowers and leaves and dropped rice, are sacred bulls 




THK BRONZE 

and the clcmcntB hove corroded the bronze, but the 
o( ihc urti«l who den It 



IHE RUINS Oh A'lUlHIA. 

bcnian diRnily of the colossnl feolureii remain* (o beor witness to 
ilh such mOBBivc nnd unwieldy materialB. 



82 



The Wonders of the World 




In ihe heart of the 
buried 



[AV. hn:. i:a,u,k.-k. 

AMONG THE RUINS OF AYUTHIA. 

ruins, amidst crumbling masonry, broken sculptures and spires half 
in vegetation, a Kuee bronze Buddha still keeps watch. 



Every pilgrim is absorbed in a 
passionate endeavour to reach 
the sacred well, to cast therein 
his crumpled wreath, all crushed 
in the crowd, his handful of dirty 
rice, or his little potful of Ganges 
water that gets more than half 
--pilt as he struggles through the 
press. 

There are many legends con- 
necting the good lord Vishnu 
with this well. One of them 
declares him to have dug it out 
himself with pain and labour at 
a time of great drought to give 
drink to his worshippers, and his 
sacred sweat filled it to the brim 
with a pearly flood. Between 
the well and the ghat is the 
( harana Paduka, a round slab 
(if stone on which upon a 
pedestal are the imprints of two 
small feet in the marble. Here 
It is said the god alighted and 
marked the spot as holy by the 
sign of his own footprints. 

The Ruins of Ayathia, 
Siam. — The great city of Ayuthia 
was founded by the famous 
Siamese ruler, Phaya Uthong. 
in 1351, as the capital of the 
kingdom which he had widely 
extended, and whose power he 
did much to consolidate. He and 
subsequent monarchs enriched 
the capital with temples, shrines 
and pagodas, and filled these 
with treasures of fabulous price. 
This rendered the city the El 
Dorado of invading armies, and 
the jealous Burmans and Peguans 
In its most prosperous days in 



three leagues in circumference. 



frequently assailed it, attracted by rumours of its vast wealth. 

the sixteenth century it covered an immense space of ground 

Within its walls it contained distinct quarters for foreigners of different nationality — Chinese, 

Peguans, Malays, Japs and Portuguese. It withstood several sieges from Burmans and others. 

In 1555 they succeeded in taking it, when Siam was reduced to dependence. But a few years 

later the national hero, Phra Naret, restored the independence of Siam, subdued Lao and Cambodia, 

and invaded Pegu, which was utterly overthrown. 

But once again Ayuthia fell. In the eighteenth century Siam was weakened by internal 



Asia 



83 



wars and feuds, and the Burman took advantage of this to invade her and reduced Ayuthia, 
the Magnificent, to ruins. 

The city was never rebuilt. The modern city of Bangkok was founded by King Chulalok 
in 17S2, and became the new capital of the realm. Ayuthia is still a city of ruins and splendid 
memories. The way thither from the modern village of Krung Kao on the banks of the river 
Menam is through a dense, dark jungle, in which the heat is stifling. And in the silence of the 
forest jungle, overgrown with rank weeds, flowering creepers, orchids and tropical vegetation, 
are palace walls, towers, topes, statues and spiral pagodas, all in various stages of decay, and 
all immersed in a brooding spirit of desolation. The most prominent building of Ayuthia was 
the pyramidal structure known as the Golden Mount, some four hundred feet high, surmounted 
by a dome and spire. And above the trees a tall pagoda of the sixteenth century rears a slender, 
tapering spire that glistens in the sunbeams. The greatest of the relics of Ayuthia's golden past 
is the immense grey-green bronze image of the sitting Buddha, Amida. It has been well described 
by Maxwell Summerville : " One would not suppose that the artist, in making so colossal a 
figure, would have been able to produce and preserve in it the dignity of Deity. Yet those 
enormous features are expressive of benignity ; the tender glance of those great eyes seems to 
be that of a being tarrving here to bless, yet belonging above : those placid lips mutely console 




rh-l.: hjil 



{Kl. Irm, Dfinylok. 



RUINED A^UTHIA. 



Ayuthia. the famous capital of Siam. was founded in 1351. After lour centuries of brilliant life, durinc which it contained 
fabulous wealth, which made it the object of attack from countless invaders, it waa almost destroyed by the Burmese in 1767, 
and has since fallen into complete decay' 



84 



The Wonders of the World 



those who approach, beheving. Time and the elements have corroded the bronze, but the serenity 

inspired by the sculptor still prevails in that impressive face. 

"There is food for thought as we stand in the wilderness and underbrush, brambles and 

desolation, looking up at the same image that centuries ago was the patron deity and hope of 

thousands in that metropolis, of which naught else remains save the ruined walls that still rise 

in this jungle in evidence of the monuments that once graced its avenues. Portions of the walls 

of the temple in which the image once 
reigned supreme are standing on four sides, 
supported by dilapidated pilasters with Corin- 
thian capitals, which were placed there at the 
suggestion of the Greek colonists who lived and 
fraternized with the Ayuthians at the time of 
the construction of the shrine." 

Although the Portuguese were the first 
Europeans to establish relations with the 
Siamese, in 15 ii, after the conquest of Malacca 
by D' Albuquerque, other nations followed, 
and English traders were known to be in 
Siam early in the seventeenth century. 

Asoka's Pillar, Delhi.— '^^e poignant in- 
terest of this plain iron pillar lies in the 
fact that it is the oldest cast-iron pillar in the 
world. It astonishes us to-day to learn from 
this post that when the world was young, in 
the India of the third century before Christ, 
an iron pillar could be cast and adorned 
with inscriptions of a particularly clear tj-pe, 
in characters that are the oldest in form of 
any yet discovered in India. In spite of their 
beautiful decision, however, the mediaeval 
Emperor Feroz Shah, who found and took 
possession of the pillar, placing it in its pre- 
sent position, assembled all the learned of 
his day, that they might decipher for him 
the inscriptions, but all in vain. Their secrets 
lay hid until the patient genius of the late 
Henry Prinsep, the Oriental scholar, discovered 
the true key to the characters. 

Feroz Shah brought the Lat. or column, 
from Topra, which is on the banks of the 
Jumna river. He set it up on the top of a 

lofty platform in the Kotila, which formed the citadel of Firozabad, the city founded by him. 

The city is a heap of ruins now ; its bones and sinews strew the plain outside the walls of 

modern Delhi. The Kotila still stands fronting the sun, a little way outside the Delhi Gate on 

the eastern side of the city. 

The pillar is ten feet ten inches in circumference where it leaves the platform, to soar straight 

as an arrow to a height of forty-two feet seven inches, of which four feet is embedded in the 

masonry. 

The real spread of Buddhism in India dates from the reign of Asoka (272-231 B.C.), who ruled 




ASOK.^'S PILLAR. 



DELHI. 



The oldest cast-iron pillar in the world, dating from the third 
century B.C., may be seen standing at Delhi. The spread of 
Buddhism in India dates from the reign of .-Xsoka. He caused the 
Fourteen Edicts, or nioral rules, to be engraved on certain pillars 
and rocks and set up for the instruction of his people. 




t'lom .Stereo ropyritj/if] ICwl-ruov.i .( L uUn uwd. 

THE TEMPLE OF "THE FI\E HUNDRED GENII." CANTON. 

The Icmpic of "(he Five Hundred Genii." or Flowerv Foretl Monostery. al Canton, is of very early orisin. Il datei from 50J A.D., 

and ia one of the wealtKieit in the city- 



86 



The Wonders of the World 




all India north of a line 
drawn west from Nellore. He 
is known to us chiefly for his 
Edicts which he caused to be 
carved upon rocks and mono- 
lithic columns, or lats. There 
are several " Asoka rocks " 
and posts known in different 
parts of India, a notable one 
being at Allahabad. Henry 
Prinsep, who deciphered their 
inscriptions, found them to 
embody for the most part all 
the moral rules of Buddhism, 
the full number of general 
edicts being fourteen. They 
forbid the shedding of blood, 
inculcate obedience to authority 
and charity, refer to rules of 
conduct, the appointment of 
censors of morals, and the 
creation of such works as hos- 
pitals, roads and wells. And 
they all conclude with pious 
aspirations for the spread of 
Buddhism. 

The Delhi Lat, besides the 
Pali inscription of Asoka's 
Edicts, bears a Nagri inscription of the date 1524 a.d., which was put up after the lat was 
removed to Delhi. There are two other curious inscriptions, dating from the twelfth century, set 
above and below the Edicts, which record the victories of Prince Visaladeva, whose kingdom 
extended at one time from Himadri to Vindhya. 

Temple of "Five Hundred Genii," Canton. — This temple is said, in Mr. Bowra's translation 
of the native history of the province, to have been founded by Bodhidharama, a Buddhist monk, 
about 520 A.D. We are all familiar with this Bodhidharama, for it is he whom we so frequently 
behold on Chinese cups and saucers ascending the Yangtse river on his frail bamboo raft ! The 
rebuilding of the temple in 1755 was the pious work of the great Chinese Emperor Kien Lung, 
whose name is familiar to every collector of porcelain. With all its temple buildings, its houses 
for priests and its lovely gardens, it covers a large tract of ground on the outskirts of Canton. It 
is also known as the Flowery Forest Monastery, and is one of the wealthiest temples in the city. 
Very large sums of money are spent by the rich and devout upon certain of the ceremonies here. 
There is a fine marble pagoda, presented by the Emperor Kien Lung in the later eighteenth 
century. On the north side of the quadrangle immediately behind the pagoda is the Hall of " the 
Five Hundred Genii" or Disciples of Buddha. These richly-gilt images are seated on elevated 
platforms arranged in aisles. In the centre aisle is a bronze pagoda with bronze images. The 
variety in the features, expression and posture of the five hundred holy men would repay hours 
of study. 

In his later edition of " Marco Polo " Colonel Yule says that one of the statues in this temple 
is a portrait of the celebrated Venetian traveller of the fourteenth century. 



.SV^/V'i /.(/] 



[//. C. Whitr Co. 



■THE FIVE HUNDRED GENII." 

These images are sealed in two rows on an elevated plaiform. and the variety of 
posture, expression and type of feature is worth a close study. There is a leeend that the 
efHey of the Venetian traveller. Marco Polo, is to he found among the " Disciples." 



Asia 



87 



The Abbot who rules over the httle company of shaven, silent, thoughtful-looking monks who 
have the guardianship of the temple receives visitors with kindly hospitality. His private 
apartments show an austere plainness and the strictest neatness and uniformity. The floor is of 
marble ; the tables and chairs are all either marble or ebony ; while by way of comfort there 
is a block of polished marble in one corner, and one or two glazed porcelain stools. Texts from 
the sacred classics adorn the walls. There is an inner court where under huge plantain trees 
the monks have their tables and seats, and practically spend all their leisure. There is also a 
lotus pool in the centre, which is a vision of loveliness when the sacred blossoms are in full bloom. 
Finally, there is the Lo-hang-tang, or Hall of Saints, full of solemn brooding figures. The 
interior of the inner shrine is very dim and dark and mysterious, and the air is heavy with the 
smell of incense. 

Mount Omi, China.—" Many beautiful descriptions have been written of Mount Omi, that 
mountain that stands alone in its sacredness." says Mrs. Little, " alone in the far west of China, 
with an all-round view from its summit, where the beholder stands on the verge of one of the 
most gigantic precipices in the world, said by Mr. Baber to be a mile deep. Hut it would be hard 

to surpass that of Fan Yii-tsz, 
of the Ming dynasty, who tells 

how he saw the Wa-Wu, and 

the snowy mountains ' running 

athwart like a long city wall,' 

and India, and the mountains 

of Karakorum, together with 

all the barbarous kingdoms, 

the great Min river, and the 

rivers of Kiating, the Tung 

and the Ya ; and winds up by 

saying : ' The advocate and I 

clapped our palms and cried 

out : " The grandest view of a 

lifetime ! " ' 

" And day after day, year 

after year, all the year round. 

pilgrims come and prostrate 

themselves on the different out- 

jutting bastions of the cliffs 

upon boards laid in the wet 

grass for their convenience, 

while they venerate Puhsien, 

who, they say, came up from 

India on his elephant and 

settled here ; just as their an- 
cestors probably came, before 

ever Buddha was, to veneraii 

the Sun (lod. . . . The men and 

women of the province come in 

great numbers : the men with 

their brows bound with the 

white Szechuan handkerchief 

like Dante, and with mouths like 




HRE AND TIGEK GODS. MOUNT OMI 

A con.l.m .ircom of pilgrim, climb, up ihe .Iccp .nd Icil.omc palh. ol ih.. 
..crtd mounl.in in Wc.ttrn Chinii. and ihc m.nT.linj liccr. ihot inh.b.t il. 
in.ccc.iblc cove. Inkc their loll yc.rly ol ihc .lr«««lcr. ond ihc (ccblc Here .re 
ol ihe effiiie. on the mounloin lop lo whom re.pecl i. poid. 



Iwo 



The Wonders of the World 



the old Greek gods, with rich, regular curves ; the women with their skirts only to their knees, and 
feet of the natural size, or only slightly deformed, and in each case bound with Indian corn husks 
the better to contend with the steep stone steps that lead up and down the ten thousand feet of 
mountain-side. . . . Some of the wild tribes also come, without pigtails, like decent people, 
but with their hair strangely sticking out in front of their heads, as if they wore their tails in 
front. And all prostrate themselves and do reverence, as they look over the edge of the great 
precipice, and there on the mist below see the circular halo of three primary colours, very brilliant, 
and in its central brightness the shadow of their own head and shoulders ; or, if their heart be 
such, Puhsien himself riding on his elephant as he came from India more than two thousand years 
ago. . . . Then we meet a pilgrim who is standing staring at some caves far below with protruding 







eyes ; and he says : ' There are 
tigers in there ! ' then stands 
speechless. But on our laugh- 
ing, we are told again of six 
men already eaten this year 
by tigers." There are many 
tales told of the tigers in these 
mountains and of their ruthless 
attacks on pilgrims ; and so 
it is customary for the worship- 
pers on Omi to take care to 
propitiate the spirits of these 
sinister inhabitants of the 
sacred mount. 

In a shrine upon the 
mountain there is an unburied 
saint — the figure of an old 
man gilded all over, who sits 
squatting on an altar. He is 
said to have been a priest 
here long ago, and such a 
true saint that his body would 
not decay, so he was gilded 
and set upon an altar. And 
pilgrims to-day still prostrate 
themselves before him and 
burn joss-sticks to his spirit. 
The Rock Cisterns of Palestine— In all Eastern countries the well, or cistern, still continues 
to play a central part in the daily life of the people, as it once did even in Europe. All Eastern 
gatherings take place near some well of note. Where civilization is still primitive, it is the water- 
springs that determine the road the traveller shall take, not the contours of the country ; and in 
Palestine, morning and evening, the women come to-day with their water-pots to draw from the 
well, just as they did in the Bible stories. We can still visit the Well of Jacob, dug out by the 
patriarch himself, where the " Woman of Samaria " came to draw water and receive her great 
lesson. This well is sunk through the solid rock, reaching down to a depth of seventy-five feet, 
and is said always to have at least twelve feet of water in it. And the water in such a well is 
ever cool and pure. 

At the entrance to Bethlehem we can see another of these historic and long-lasting rock-hewn 
cisterns, the Well of David. This well is immensely deep, with two or three narrow openings into 




From Stereo copyrighC] 



lUndfricood <(■ Undertcood. 



ROCK CISTERN. PALESTINE. 

The ancient dwellers in Palestine who carved themselves cisterns of water in the 
living rock have left monuments from Biblical times that endure to this day. This one 
lies beside an ancient khan or inn on the road from Jerusalem to Nazareth. 





Photo hp} 

The Mat Chone, a I BnncUoU. lies wilhin oi 
(of pricslB* 



IHt WAI CHANG. 

~t enclosure nineteen acres in extent, with lo 
1 he poEoda is one of the most imposinic in 



[AV. l.fnt, linnijkok. 

k-ely Rordens. temples and dwclUnRS 
Siam- 



90 



The Wonders of the World 



it, and is situated in an un- 
tidy yard reached by a 
narrow passage on the left- 
hand side as you enter 
Bethlehem. It is possibly 
the well " at the gate," for 
\\hose water David longed 
so sorely in the Cave of 
.A.dullam. 

At Shiloh, beside the 
picturesque ruins of the 
" House of God." is yet 
another of these wells cut 
out of the solid rock, of 
considerable size. A likely 
place for the dance of " the 
daughters of Shiloh." 

At Bethel is a large 
tank or cistern, some three 
hundred feet by two hun- 
dred feet, into which the 
water flows at the upper 
end from a spring, being 
drained off by a culvert at 
the lower end. From Bethel 
a rough road leads along a 
fine glen, called Robber's 
Valley, a lonely road 
threading the wildest and 
most enchanting scenery. 
In the northern ravine, 
up which the path leads, 
stands the famous " Rob- 
ber's Fountain," with the 
remains of a large rock 
cistern beside it. One of the most interesting of these rock-hewn cisterns is found at Athlit, 
among some of the finest " Crusader " ruins in Palestine. The walls of the town, the towers 
and fortress, are fallen into decay, while poor Arab huts are huddled among the heaps of ruin. 
But the splendid Banqueting Hall still stands where the Crusaders are said to have held their last 
solemn feast together on the eve of their final departure from Palestine. These are the best 
preserved of the ruins in Athlit. And through a low doorway close beside it we can get inside 
an ancient cistern, all cemented within, and having a manhole in the roof. This fine cistern 
probably supplied the whole town with water, and is capable of holding two hundred and sixty 
thousand gallons. To give a full list of these historic wells is impossible, but,' in ^conclusion, it 
may be noted that after leaving Jerusalem, on the road to Nazareth via Nablus, a ruined khan, 
or inn, is passed, and then not far from Ramah and a little off the main road is another ancient 
rock-hewn cistern in a state of very good preservation. 

The Wat Chang, Bangkok. — This great temple is within an enclosure nineteen acres in extent, 
full of the most bewitching gardens, and the usual array of temples, shrines, dwellings for the 




J'/ioto di/] 

THE WAT CHANG. 

The pagoda is covered ^vlth tiles and porcelain plates 
225 feet, its cone-shaped spire being indented with niches in 
are hung. 



[lit. Lenz, I'.aiKjkok. 



It tapers to a heielit of 
which pieces of faience 



Asia 



9' 



bonzes, novitiates and higher clerics, a library and a great array of griffins, dwarfs, giants, and 
fantastic animals, standing about in groups, many of them reflected again on the surface of 
ornamental pools of water, or guarding the portals of temples and the approaches to shady grottoes. 
The pagoda is one of the most imposing in Siam ; its cemented exterior is covered with tiles, China 
plates, saucers, etc., of faience and porcelain. Its graceful lines taper gradually upwards. At 
a height of two hundred and twenty-five feet from the ground it is crowned by a cone-shaped spire, 
in whose side are many rows of ornamental niches in which are hung pieces of faience. 

Below this spire are groups of elephants and seated Buddhas, also in faience. The lines of 
the groups and the twisted trunks of the elephants have been most skilfully utilized to enhance 
the architectural beauty of the building. The whole thing is adorned with multitudes of figures, 
all with extended arms and gestures of admonition and supplication. It is as if the mission of 
the building were to point 

the eye heavenward in i 

search of Nirvana, for it 
is almost without entrance 
way to the dim interior. 

The Great Bell at 
Peking.—" In some re- 
spects this may be called 
the most remarkable work 
of art now in China : it is 
the largest suspended bell 
in the world," says Mr. 
Williams of one of Yung- 
lo's five bells, in his 
classical survey of the 
wonders of " The Middle 
Kingdom." 

This great bell is to be 
found in an obscure lane 
near Peking, and in a 
country where the main 
roads are scarce better 
than beaten tracks filled 
with miry holes, the ob- 
scure lanes are very rough 
indeed. About two miles 
to the north of the city 
of Peking, passing through 
a ruined gateway dating 
from the days of the re- 
doubtable Marco Polo, we 
find the Ta-chung-sz, or 
the Great Bell Temple. 
Here is the deep-voiced 
giant, one of five immense 
bells that were cast in the 
reign and under the per- 
sonal direction of the 




I*hoto by] 
About the courts ore the 



THE WAT 

array of colosaal 



CHANG. 

monalcri and 



uiual array of colosaal monalcri and sianU. 
KuarJinK the portal* of the temples 



\_tii. t.rm, /ianfftot. 



landing in eroups or 



92 



The Wonders of the World 



Emperor Yung-lo. This emperor was the third of the Mings or native Chinese dynasty, 
and ascended the throne in 1403. An exceptionally able administrator, it was he who 
framed the code of laws which has ever since formed the basis of Chinese legal usage. This 
bell is presumed to have been cast in 1406. It was not covered by a. small temple until many 
years later, in 1578 ; and as one looks at it one is struck with the opportunity which was then lost, 
for had it been housed in some great hall it would have been infinitely more impressive. The 
bell stands fourteen feet high, including the umbones ; it is thirty-four feet in circumference at 
the rim ; its weight is fifty-two tons, whilst the uniform thickness of the metal is nine inches. It 
is struck by a heavy beam of wood swung against its rim on the outer side, and a square hole in 
the top prevents its fracture under the heaviest blows. It is covered both on the outside and the 
inside with myriads of fine Chinese characters, which are extracts from the two great Buddhist 
classics, the Fah-hwa King and the Ling-yen King. Only one of the emperor's five monster bells 
was ever hung. Another lies half buried in a neglected spot outside the walls of Peking. This 




This is one of fiv 
ana is 



IHE GKEAl BtLL L'lING NEAR PEKING. 

immense bells that were cast in the reign of \'ung-lo. of the Min? Dynasty 



thirty-four feet in circumference at the rim. Only one of the five bells is 



1406 
known to have been hu 



w-^*ir>»riaiii»- 



', Thoiitmn, Esi/., F.H.C.S. 
It weighs fifty-two tons. 



bell is dumb ; its great voice has never spoken ; the fine characters engraved on it are hidden by 
a coating of dust. Seeing that it weighs more than fifty tons, the difficulties of removing it from 
its lowly bed and hanging it in some great temple as it should be, are well-nigh insuperable. But 
there is something tragic in the sight of that splendid bell lying helpless on its side during the passage 
of six centuries. Countless generations of boys have hung on its arched rim and clambered up its 
curving sides, and have grown old and passed away. While the bell has only settled a little deeper 
in the mud and rubbish of this obscure lane, waiting in dumb patience for the day when it shall 
be set up to fulfil the beautiful function for which it was brought into being so very long ago. 

The Cascade of Kegon-no-taki, /apan.— There is no more entrancing view in all Japan 
than this delicious waterfall, at whatever time of the year it may be visited. The river Daiya 
issues from the Lake of Chuzenji, a benign and quiet stream, though liable at certain seasons to 
sudden swellings and floods, when it will fly impetuously between its tree-clad banks. But at the 




I't'pylijlil Ji/i'ilo f'tj] 



..i„j, IJt.O.f. 



THE BEAUTIFUL WATERFALL OF " KEGON-NO-TAKI." AT CHU7.ENJ1. JAPAN. 



The lovely lull o( ■• KcEon no-lolii " ii one of the fineil in Jopan. It dropi Irom a liei«lit of over 250 feel, cind i> a favourite 

place for Japanese luicides 



The Wonders of the World 




Copyri(/ht photo fey] [//. G. Pontint^, fJi.G.S. 

THE TEMPLE ON MOUNT MINOBU. JAPAN 

The Buddhist monastery on Mount Minobu was founded by the saint, Nicheren. who retired to ^this 



meditate. Much of it was destroyed by (ire in 1875. but new buildings and temples have been erect 
specimens of modern Japanese temple architecture. The illustration shows the exterior of the rounder s 



beautiful 
:d which 
Temple. 



spot to 
are fine 



cascade known as Kegon-no-taki the river suddenly pours out from the overhanging edge of a 
great precipice, and roars down in a racing mass of tortured water on to the rocks two hundred 
and fifty feet below. 

There is a little picturesque tea-house from whose garden paths the finest views of the fall are 
obtained. Roughly it may be said that the waterfall has three moods. In the early part of the 
year, when the river is almost dry, it murmurs as gently as a dove among its bare,- upstanding 
rocks, and pours like a soft veil of silver lace over the lip of the cascade and dances down into the 
gorge below. At that season the hills are clothed with maple-trees still wearing their spring dress 
of pallid green, and the fertile valley spread below looks soft and very far away. But after the 
summer rains the Daiya races between its banks, and a huge volume of water leaps far, far out 
over the cliff edge in a glittering sheet of green and white, and the sound of its thunderous descent 
can be heard long before you turn the corner of the tea-house and the grand sight breaks on your 
eyes. Then the maples flaunt their crimson mantles, and the whole valley is steeped in colour, 
and the gorgeous beauty and power of the scene is such as almost to take away your breath. With 
the coming of winter there is the third and final change. Snow falls constantly until the ground 
is covered to a depth of several feet : the temperature falls lower and lower ; the lake, from whence 
comes all this water, gradually freezes over, until at last Kegon-no-taki is nothing but a mass of 
superb icicles, which in the sunshine gleam and flash like a million swords. 

Mount Minobu, Japan. — The Buddhist Monastery of Kuenji, on Mount Minobu, was founded 
by the Japanese saint, Nicheren, who is still held in the greatest reverence throughout the country. 



Asia 



95 



His followers are not very numerous, but owing to their controversial and uncompromising attitude 
towards other Buddhist sects, the disciples of the " lierv Xicheren " have been called the Jesuits 
of Buddhism. Their doctrine is a complete pantheism ; as Dr. Griffiths puts it, Xicheren " was 
destined to bring religion down, not only to men, but even down to the beasts and the mud." The 
headquarters of this peculiar sect is the monastery on Mount Minobu. and thither the faithful 
yearly make their pilgrimage. Much of the monastery was destroyed by a great fire in 1875, but 
new buildings and temples have been erected to replace the old, and all these later editions are 
fine specimens of modern Japanese temple architecture. 

As is usual in Japan, on entering the gardens and crossing a courtyard, the cluster of temples 
is approached by one of two broad and long flights of stone steps. At the top is the large Founder's 
Temple, and thence galleries lead to the Temple of the True Bones, to the Temple of the Posthumous 
Tablet, to the pilgrims' dormitories, the reception rooms, the Archbishop's dwelling, and the 
various other offices of the sect. Most of the buildings, as well as their ornamentation, look fresh 
and brilliant, in great contrast to many other temples in Japan, where great age has tarnished the 
gilding and subdued all the colours. 

The chief treasure of Minobu is the Temple of the True Bones, where sacred relics of the great 
founder of the sect are preserved. The e.xterior of this small octagonal building is unpretentious. 




ColJljn'j'.! j 



IMERIOR OV THE TOUNUEKS 1 EMI'LE, MOU.N'l ^n^■O^U. 



/'•■nitiuj. r.n.c.s. 



1 hiH IB a biozr of colour and Rold. and is thr most brautilul interior ii 
Jeet bv 1 5 feet, is of scarlet locqucr decorated with uildcd fieures. Notice 
•aid to be worth £30.000. 



1 the whole of Jopan. The central nllar. which is 24 
tfie wealth of ornament on the honRinK betls. which is 



96 



The Wonders of the World 




but within is a blaze of colour and a 
glitter with gold. All round the walls 
on a golden ground are full-sized 
white lotus blossoms, the emblem of 
purity and of the Buddhist faith. 
The actual shrine is of gold lacquer 
in the shape of a two-storied pagoda 
about two feet high. In it reposes a 
casket of gold and precious stones, in 
the form of a tiny octagonal pagoda, 
which rests on a carved lotus flower 
of a translucent jade. Within lie the 
bones, or a portion of them, of 
Xicheren. the holy founder. One of 
the pillars of this little slirine bears a 
date corresponding to .-^.d. 1580. 

The Founder's Temple is the 
largest and most imposing of the 
buildings. Its centre hall is seventy- 
five feet by one hundred and twenty 
feet. The high altar is twenty-four 
feet long. The pillars and framework 
of the walls are all of brilliant black 
and red lacquer. The altar is par- 
titioned off by gilded pillars, and is 
itself lacquered scarlet and decorated 
with gilt lions and peonies. In the 
shrine is a life-size figure of Nicheren. 
The whole is ablaze with colour, and 
has an effect of unsurpassed richness 
and brilliance. 

A feature of the ceremonial here 
is the insistent beating of drums and 
gongs, whilst the invocation of the 
sect " Namu Myoho Renge Kyo " (" Hail to the Doctrine of the Lotus and the Wonderful 
Law") is repeated in a constant and monotonous iteration by all the worshippers. 

The Htran Minar. — The strange tower known as the Hiran Minar (Deer Tower) has a curious 
history. It was built by the great jMoghul Emperor Akbar over the grave of his favourite elephant. 
Twenty-two miles from Agra, across the cotton-fields, lies Fatehpur-Sikri, the deserted city built 
by the emperor. It remains just as it was left, in a wonderful state of preservation. Akbar built 
it in 1570, and after a few years of brilliant life the palace and the town that had grown up about 
its walls were mysteriously abandoned. Near to Fatehpur-Sikri stands the tower Akbar erected 
over the dead favourite who had no doubt borne him gallantly on its broad shoulders many a time 
in the chase, and had doubtless by its courage, docility and perfect training preserved his Hfe 
in the jungle when out after the tigers that were then more plentiful in Indian forests than they 
are to-day. So after its death he is said to have conceived the idea of erecting a tower of stone 
among the woods, from whose summit, as from the howdah on the elephant's back, he could shoot 
game. Hence its name. Deer Tower, for deer and antelope and the shy creatures of the forest were 
driven past the tower below the royal sportsman, as grouse are driven across the butts on a Scotch 




I'fwlo 01/1 



THE HIRAN MINAR. OR DEER TOWER. 



This t 
erave of li 



er was raised by the great Moghul Emperor Akbar over the 
Favourite elephant. Its sides are studded with elephant tusks 

of stone From the lantern he used to shoot the deer and other game driven 

down to him out of the neighbouring forest. 



Asia 



97 







:j^'.: 







riMio (.1] 



[AVif/OK (£■ Co. 



0\ THE ROAD TO A FAMOUS TOMB. 



Tl,( 



Tomb of I'limad-ud-daulah is one o( the most remarkable edifices in India. It is situated at Acra. and is built 
of marble of tfie purest ^vhite. The above sho%vs the approach to the mausoleum. 



moor. There is a sort of lantern on the top from which the emperor could shoot, fully con- 
cealed from sight. To the north and west the country was all under water in Akbar's day, and 
from the shores of this large lake no doubt the wild-fowl were also driven down to the tower. 

It is a circular tower, some seventy feet high, studded with protruding elephants' tusks of 
stone. 

The Sacred Tank, Ulivar. — This is one of the most lovely spots in India. The sheet of 
artificial water lies at the foot of a splendid tomb, the cenotaph of Bakhtawa Singh, a native 
cliief who died in 1815. The city of Ulwar is beautifully situated on rising ground, and is 
dominated by a fort which towers 
high above the winding white- 
washed streets, perched on a peak 
of rock nine hundred feet high. 
It is the capital of the Rajput 
State of Ulwar, and as things 
go in India, is comparatively 
modern, having been founded in 
1771. 

The palace is a group of di 
tached buildings in a variety ol 
styles, and is only divided from 
the foot of the mountain range 
by the splendid Tank referred to 
above. The Shish Mahal and the 
latticed windows of the zenana 
actually overlook it ; and the pre- 
cincts are deemed so sacred that 
no visitor may approach either tin 
Tank or the cenotaph of Bakh- 
tawa Singh without taking off his ^^^ chamber diviaions of the interior of thi« tomb arc of wonderful marble 
, lattice-work. In the above photo the two actual tombs may be seen surrounded 
SnOeS, by these exquisitely-worked screens. 

8 




IHE NELLOW MARBLE TOMBS. 



98 



The Wonders of the World 



CHAPTER IV. 

By ALAN H. BURGOYyE, M.P.. F.R.G.S. 

The Tomb of I'timad-ud-dautah. — Despite the claims of a thousand cities of India to 
historic distinction, there is not one, perhaps, more ricli in varied interest both to the student and 
the traveller than Agra. Apart from the temples and other oriental edifices naturally associated 
with the country, there are within the town, or dotted about its immediate environments, a series 
of tombs, the fame of which has not a little to do with the popularity of Agra as a tourist resort. 
Pride of place is given to the Taj Mahal (" The Crown Lady's Tomb "), erected in 1640 by the 
Emperor Shah Jehan, but a close rival to it both in beauty and in interest must rank the mausoleum 
of I'timad-ud-daulah. This tomb, which is situated on the eastern bank of the Jumna opposite 
the town, was erected to one Ghiyas Beg, a noted Persian refugee, grandfather of the lady of the 

Taj, who became high treasurer 
to Jehangir. It stands in an 
extensive, well-tended garden, 
and is raised from the ground 
about four feet upon a base 
measuring one hundred and 
fifty feet square. The mauso- 
leum has a breadth and depth 
of sixty-nine feet, and is fitted 
with a flat roof, at each of the 
four corners of which rises an 
octagonal tower forty feet in 
height from platform to pin- 
nacle. From the centre of the 
roof is built a small pavilion, 
twenty-five feet square, with 
triple latticed windows, la\dslily 
decorated, on each side. It 
has a curved, oriental roof and 
wide, overhanging eaves. 

The lower building is divided 
up into rooms around a cen- 
tral chamber twenty-two feet 
square, in which, side by side, are the tombs of I'tunad-ud-daulah and his wife. These are made of 
beautifully chiselled yellow marble, and are strikingly effective in the simplicity which contrasts 
in strange fashion with the ornate decoration and gilding of the walls. The side rooms are devoted 
to a display of paintings of flower-vases and fruit, the intervening passage walls being made of 
exquisite marble lattice-work, which allows plenty of light to reach the exhibits. In the pavilion 
on the roof are facsimiles of the two tombs in the central room below. Perhaps the special feature 
of this tomb is the show of marble ; it has been claimed, and with justice, that the inlay and mosaic 
work to be found in this building, though it dates from 162S and is, therefore, the earliest known 
in India, is, nevertheless, the most perfect and pleasing specimen in the country. Much of the 
interior and the whole of the exterior is of glistening white marble. The tomb of I'timad-ud-daulah 




Pholo ;.)/] 

ONE OF THE FOUR 

At each corner of the main building i 
the tombs are placed directly over them in 
reverence common in the East 



CORNER TOWERS 

a beautiful octagonal tower, 
pavilion a duplication 



of 



Copies of 
of oriental 



lOO 



The Wonders of the World 




I'llcIO hi,} 



ICnpl. C. a. Rnicling, CLE. 



TOMB OF THE FIRST TASHl LAMA. THIBET 



This sarcophaeus, one of five in the Tashi Lhumpo Lamasery, is of pure gold, studded with turquoises and 

precious stones, 

owes its existence to Nur Jehan, daughter of Ghiyas Beg, who also designed and built the tomb 
of her husband, the Emperor Jehangir, at Shah Dara, about six miles from Lahore. It is of 
melancholy note that whilst the tombs of her father and husband are both well tended and amongst 
the marvellous buildings of the world, that erected to Nur Jehan herself, also at Shah Dara. was 
never completed and is now nearly in ruins. 

The Tomb of the First Tashi Lama. — Close to Shigatse, Thibet, the head-quarters of 
the Tashi Lama, is to be found the most beautiful lamasery in the country. It is called Tashi 
Lhumpo and consists of numerous temples and dwelling-houses built down the slopes of a rocky 
hill. Here four thousand five hundred lamas spend their lives and keep guard over their most 
valuable possession — the five golden tombs of the former Tashi Lamas. Though many of the 
buildings of this monastery are two and three stories in height, the gilded roofs of these magnificent 
tombs rise high above all the structures around. Describing them after a visit, Captain C. G. Raw- 
ling (" The Great Plateau ") saj^s : " Externally and internally they were very similar, with the 
exception that that of the first Tashi Lama was perhaps the most beautiful and lavishly decorated. 
The sarcophagus, which has a width, depth and height of about twenty-five feet, stands in the 
centre of the room, the roof of which is of Chinese design and heavily gilded, closely painted and 
hung with silks and tapestries. The base of the tomb is square, the back perpendicular, and the 
front, which faces the doorway, slopes backwards, rising in tiers until the summit of the tomb fades 




Piiinteil by F. Sclh. 



l*lii>to by ficrniisstatt (»/ lite tdtrt o/ iionaldahtiy. 



AMIDA, TIIH CIANT DAIIUTSI. . 



The most famous representation or Amiiia is to he found ;it K;im;iliur;i. Japan. The hoss in the htaJ, which is of solid 
silver, weighs thirty pounds, and the eyes arc of pure Bold. 



Asia 



lOI 



away in the darkness. The sarcophagus itself is of gold, covered with beautiful designs of 
ornamental work, and studded with turquoises and precious stones. The turquoises appear to be 
all picked stones, arranged in patterns, and in such profusion as to cover every available spot, 
including the polished concrete of the floor. Along the ridges at the side of the tomb, stand 
exquisite old china vases and ancient cloisonne ware, whilst golden bowls, each holding a liglited 
taper, and vases and cups of the same material, are placed along the front of the base of the tomb. 
At the summit and situated in a niche, sits a figure of the dead Tashi Lama, with pearls hanging 
in festoons from above and around the neck." The ornaments forbidden him during life decorate 
his image after death. A feature almost as striking as the richness and quality of the precious 
stones used in the ornamentation of this tomb is the presence, suspended from a gilded rail, of 
five coloured glass toys of the kind sold in thousands in this country for decorating Christmas- 
trees. It is of interest to note that, despite this tangible wealth (and the value of the jewels attached 
to the tombs is perfectly well known), the lamas themselves live in a state of wretched poverty 
and dirt. The writer has visited many Mongol and Chinese monasteries and never yet has found 
one that appeared sanitary, cared for, or habitable. In spite of these conditions, so detrimental 
to health, the monks and lamas live in numberless cases to a ripe old age. 

Next to the Delai Lama, whose 
temporal seat is Lhasa, and whose 
sanctity is such that it is believed 
that anyone (unless belonging to 
the highest nobility) who casts 
his eyes upon his sacred features 
will promptly lose his sight, the 
Tashi Lama is head of all the 
Buddhist faith, to which, it is 
said, one-third of the world owes 
allegiance. The Tashi Lamas are 
longer lived than the Delai Lamas, 
despite the secluded and sedentary 
life that they arc forced to lead ; 
this may, perhaps, be due partly 
to the distance at whicli they 
live from the constant intrigues of 
Lhasa. To these intrigues many 
an early death may safely be as- 
cribed. The present Tashi Lama 
is about thirty years of age ; he 
is described by those who ha\i' 
met him as gentle, intelligent, 
fair in complexion, and, taken as 
a whole, possessed of a most 
pleasing personality. 

The Adi-ve Crater of Aso-san. 
— In Part I. of this work ap- 
peared a remarkable view of the 
extinct crater of Aso-san, the 
largest volcano in the world. We 
are here able to illustrate the 
active crater, at all times a roaring 




VCIIVF. CRATER OF 



ASO-SAN. 



ABO-Bon IB the world'B miRliticBl volcano; its main cratrr, ten mileB l>y fourteen 
in extent. 18. however, extinct. This ia o view o( the active vent 



I02 



The Wonders of the World 





-^ 



•f 



-■''% 




cauldron of incandescent 
matter But for this vent, 
which is situated on the 
western side of the mountain, 
the position of the many 
villages within the huge, 
fourteen-mile quiescent crater 
would be full of danger. 
Eruptions of Aso-san go 
back to the earliest days of 
Japanese history, the most 
notable in recent times having 
taken place in the vears 1884. 
1889 3-nd 189-I. During the 
first of these the dust and 
ashes ejected hung suspended 
in the air in such quantities 
that even as far as Kuma- 
moto, thirty miles away, the 
darkness was so great that for 
three days artificial light was 
everywhere necessary. The 
1894 outbreak altered the 
configuration of tlie inner 
crater, besides causing great 
rifts in the outer walls. It is 
on record that the ashes from 
this eruption fell continuously 
until 1897, so much so that garments left out of doors were destroyed and crops withered. There 
are five peaks to the crater wall of Aso-san : namely, Kijima-dake, Eboshi-dake, Naka-no-take, 
Taka-dake, and the loftiest, Neko-dake ; this has a height of five thousand six hundred and 
thirty feet. Aso-san is not, therefore, remarkable for elevation. It is situated in the southern 
island of Kyushu. According to popular tradition, the whole inner crater was. in years gone by, 
a great lake ; one day the god of the mountain, seeing to what poor use the sheet of water was 
being put, kicked a breach in the containing wall and let the waters out, leaving the land there- 
after fit for cultivation. The break to which this story refers is on the Kumamoto side, and 
through it runs the Shirakawa river. 

Pine-tree at the Kinkakuji Temple, Ayo/o.— Japan is the true home of the pine-tree, 
nearly every species growing in this land of botanical contradictions with equal strength. It does 
not appear strange, therefore, that the national bent for training plants in directions not intended 
by Nature should have extended to the pine. The picture given here represents a most famous 
specimen, and it is hard to realize that this native sampan, or boat, has been developed from but 
a single root. It is situated in the Kinkakuji Temple, Kyoto, and is said by tradition (frankly 
untrustworthy in this case) to date back to 1397, when Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, having resigned 
from the Shogunate, built himself a palace to serve as a retreat. Of this palace nothing remains 
but a pavilion three stories high and measuring thirty-three feet by twenty-four feet, in which 
are a number of unimportant statuettes of Amida, Kwannon and Seishi, by the well-known carver, 
Unkei. Hence, not a few travellers entirelj- ignore Kinkakuji and its tree. The pine-tree, now so 
curiously shaped, was, according to the most reliable data, planted about two centuries ago, and 



.Steyuyrnph byl 



.["■ 



II.V/' '"'(>., LoikJoh. 



A GLiMrsii OF INFERNO, 
ne slip on the treacherous edge of a volcano's crater would precipitate the 
many hundred feet down into a lake of molten lava. 



atche 




[l^nitrru^>ott .{■ t'nitTUittht 



' ^- '^'" A BOTANICAL WONDEK OF kVOTO. JAPAN 

The above tree, (nshionedv in the .hope ot o boot. .prim, from « .insle .leiti. It i. olrendy over 200 year. old. 



Asia 



105 



had not reached many years of age before a roHgious old monk conceived the idea 'of training it 
in the form it possesses. At his death, another monk took on the work as a pious duty, and so. 
from generation to generation, the tree has developed, and. having in view its robustness at the 
present time and the incomparable skill of the Japanese in these matters, it seems not improbable 
that in yet another century it will be flourishing as healtiiy as it is to-day. 

The Kuihodaiv, or Four Hundred and Fify Pagodas, Mandata^.—'^o the north-east of Fort 
Dufferin, and at the foot of Mandalay Hill, there is. in the city of that name, a remarkable group 
of miniature pagodas. They are described both by the natives and Europeans as numbering four 
hundred and fifty, though, in fact, there are seven hundred and twent\r-nine, and they owe their 
existence to a religious uncle of King Theebaw. This worthy man was desirous of recording in a 
manner that time could not affect the words contained in the holy books of Buddhism. To this 
end he summoned a concourse of the most learned priests, and instructed them to prepare the 
purest version of the commandments for transcription on to stones. These stones are all identical 




rhot'' I'll] 



BrinE. in foci. 729' 



[.1.//. r,nn, /,;./. 

THE KUTHODAW. OR THE 450 PAGODAS. 

These were erected by an uncle of Kins Theebaw. who. it is not scnerally known, is stilt nlivc. 
They fill a space approximately half a mile square. 



in pattern, and on the completion of the task the royal enthusiast set them up row on row in parallel 
lines within a space appro.ximately half a mile square. Over each stone a small domed building 
was erected to preserve the writing from the weather, and the whole surrounded by a high wall fitted 
with an ornamental gate in the centre of each side. Tlie writing on the slabs is executed in the 
Pali language, but transcribed in Buimese characters. Of the inscriptions, one hundred and eleven 
stones contain Vini or Canon Law, two hundred and eight have Ab-bhi-Dhamma-pitaka cut into 
them, and the remaining four hundred and eight stones contain Sutta Law or Nike. In tlie m-dst 
of the smaller buildings is a much larger and more ornate structure, witli a gi'ded dome, where 
prayer may be offered by devotees who visit this strange place. 

The Throne, Peking. — There are several throne-rooms situated in tlic Forbidden (. ity, Peking, 
each having a distinctive appellation and use. Thus, T'ai-ho-tien, " Throne Room of Supreme 
Concord," is set aside for certain solemn occasions and ceremonies, notably, tlie keeping of tiic 
\ew Year fete. The Tchong-ho-tien, or " Throne Room of Comparative Agreement," is where 



io6 



The Wonders of the World 




Photo In] [77i.- K.ji.joiie Vii-ic Co. 

THE ROYAL THRONE ROOM. PEKING. 

There are several Throne Rooms in the Forbidden City. This i; 

the most notatle and in it are kept the Royal Seals. 



presents of grain and comestibles for sacrificial 
purposes are handed to the Emperor. In 
the Pao-ho-tien, " Throne Room of Assured 
Concord," the examination for candidates for 
the Han-lin academical honours are now held. 
Finally, after passing tlirough the huge hall 
where imperial audiences are granted, the Kiao- 
t'ai-tien, " Throne Room of Sublime Union." 
is reached. Here royal marriages aie celebrated 
and the imperial seals kept. The throne itself, 
backed by a wonderful gold screen, is raised 
upon a platform, some three feet in height, and 
approached by three short stairways from the 
front and a further similar flight of steps at 
each side. The legs are very short — ^merely a 
few inches in length — and so, to give dignity to 
the occupant, the actual seat, with its stumpy 
gilt legs, is raised to a comfortable height on 
a plain carved dais. Few Europeans had been 
privileged to view this throne prior to the 
Chinese insurrection in the first year of this 

century. On August 28th, 1900, subsequent to the relief of the legations, General Linevitch 

marched an international division of soldiers, drawn from the British, American, Japanese, German, 

French, Austrian and Russian relief columns, through the Forbidden City to signify that, owing 

to the outbreak, the secrecy of the past could no longer be respected. The first time the Ministers 

of foreign Powers resident in Peking were allowed an audience of the Emperor within the Forbidden 

City was in 1895. The palace and gardens, 

with the many interesting outbuildings and 

the picturesque lakes, are now open to all 

comers. 

Mount Everest. — It is a curious com- 

mentaiy on the wonderful view we give of 

Mount Everest that, had there been as free 

access to Thibet as to every other inhabited 

country of the earth, this giant peak would 

not have remained so long an unconsidered 

factor as was the case. For only from Thibet 

can a clear view of Everest be obtained ; from 

nowhere in India is it visible except as a 

point showing not too clearly over the im- 
mense shoulders of other and nearer ranges of 

giant mountains. The traveller who would look 

on this peak is directed to Darjeeling, whence, 

having ridden six miles to Tiger Hill, a view of 

it may, weather permitting, be obtained, but at 

a distance of at least one hundred and twenty 

miles. From this vantage-point it is quite 








overshadowed by Kinchin] unga, a mere forty- 
five miles away and twentv-eiglit tliousand one 



!;tereograph !>,!/] [//. C. Kliite Co., lonilon. 

THE THRONE. PEKING. 

Probably the most valuable seat in the world, being ornate with 
cold and precious metals 



io8 



The Wonders of the V/or!d 




l-'ophrKjttt pituto bii\ 



THE STONE LANTERNS OF NARA. JAPAN. 



[/r. a. rouiiiiff, /'./;.(;..s. 



Emblems of respect for the dead, tficse lanterns are erected along the approaches to temples to light the departed 
souls either in their new sphere or on their return to their earthly haunts 

hundred and ftfty-six feet high. Everest just tops the twenty-nine thousand, being twenty-nine 
thousand and two feet. The manner of its discovery about sixty years ago is quite worth narrating. 

The custom of the department charged with measuring tliese huge mountains was to choose 
certain known altitudes separated by calculated distances and triangulate with the various visible 
snow peaks. Results were worked out at leisure — almost haphazard ; when a measurement one daj' 
surpassed anything so far attained the excitement may well be imagined. The Surveyor-General 
of India most noted for his work in our Oriental Empire was named Everest ; to do him honour, 
the newly-discovered mountain was called after him, and [Mount Everest it has remained. It 
is related that, not entirely satisfied with the name, a Captain Wood was dispatched in 1903 to 
Katmandu to find out whether the Nepalese had given the peak a name. But these folk had 
never considered it as worthy of particular note, owing to its inaccessible position. It was not 
until the British Mission opened up freer communication with Thibet that the full beauty of the 
mountain could be appreciated and its immense altitude properly ascertained. From the tracks 
taken by the various parties tliat have penetrated the Great Plateau of Asia many a good view 
of Mount Everest has been obtained at no greater distance than forty to fifty miles. One traveller 
who saw it under exceptional circumstances wrote : "It is difficult to give an idea of its 
stupendous height, its dazzling whiteness and overpowering s'ze, for there is nothing in the 
world to compare it with " 

The Stone Lanterns of Nara., Japan. — The lantern plays a very considerable role, in the 
life of the Japanese, though the advent of European ideas has largely negatived their significance. 
Thus there are Bon Matsuri, or Feast of Lantern festivals, in many of the chief towns, which 



Asia 



109 



have for their raison d'clre the lighting up for departed souls of those haunts they most cherished 
during their hfetime. Outside all temples — and their name is legion — will be found a row of 
stone lanterns, sometimes many rows of them. These have been presented at various dates in 
history by devout followers of the faith to which the temples are dedicated, either to light the 
givers on their way to the hereafter, to perform that office for a revered relation, or to illume 
the world of worship for the soul that never dies. Whatever be the reason, the result is peculiarly 
picturesque. The illustration given shows a few of the lanterns stretching through Nara Park 
on the road to the Kasuga-no-Miya Temple. This temple was founded in .\.d. 767 and is dedicated 
to the ancestor of the Fujiwara family, the Shinto god Ama-no-Koyane, to his wife and to certain 
mythical heroes dear to the minds of the Japanese people. It holds a great festival every year 
on December 17th. during which the lanterns, all illuminated, take an important part. Though 
of one general design, these lanterns differ very considerably in detailed conception. Whilst some 
are purely ornamental, their lighting capacity being almost neglected, others are well hollowed 
out and fitted with transparent paper windows to protect the little oil lamps when alight from 
the action of the winds. One of these latter is seen to the right hand of the photograph. Tlie 
park in which these lanterns are situated is full of tame deer, to feed which the attendants at the 
gate sell wheaten biscuits to visitors desiring them. Each year their horns are cut lest, during 
the rutting season, they should attack and hurt any of the crowds that daily walk through the 
park. Having once purchased and distributed these biscuits, the gentle deer refuse to leave 
you, and the writer recalls his experience when for half a mile or so he walked along surrounded 



^itfm^Mi^-^Mhi 




'" !^#.4rV.>j 





^•^.^^■.;^'-"^- 



i'hutu l.y] 



A PARSEE TOWER OF SILENCE. BOMBAY. 

Erected Lv Sir J<im*cliec Jeeirebhoy for the dispoKitl of tlie bodiea of dead Parnecs. The corpnes ore placed. naked 
Within the Tower and devoured by the hordes of vultures always in ottendancc. 



I lO 



The Wonders of the World 



by them, pushing their noses into his pockets, rubbing their heads against his coat in their nearly 
human demands for a delicacy they greatly appreciate. 

Parsee Toivzr of Silence, Bombay. — On the western side of Back Bay, Bombay, is Malabar 
Hill, whereon have been erected five huge Towers of Silence, the burial places of the Parsee sect. 
The Parsees pay a veneration to the elements Earth, Fire and Water which cannot permit their 
pollution by the contact of dead bodies. Also, and the second reason serves if faith in the first 
is not sufficient, it was laid down by Kartasht that in death the rich and the poor shall meet as 
one. Hence the Towers of Silence were devised. The following is a description of that in the 
photograph, which cost thirty thousand pounds to build, as also an account of the mode of burial. 

Within the gateway of an outer enclosure is a flight of steps leading to an inner wall twenty-five 
feet in height and having a circumference of two hundred and seventy-six feet. The bier is carried 

up these steps by four Carriers 
of the Dead (Nasr Salars), 
followed by two bearded men 
and a number of mourners. 
The two bearded men are the 
only ones permitted actually 
to enter the tower. The outer 
wall of this is whitewashed, 
the interior having semblance 
to a circular gridiron sinking 
downwards towards the centre, 
where a deep well, five feet in 
diameter, is located. The dead 
bodies are placed entirely 
naked in compartments built 
between the outer and inner 
walls, and in a few minutes 
every particle of flesh is torn 
off the bones by the loathsome 
vultures always found in at- 
tendance. The skeleton thus 
left is exposed to the sun and 
wind until bleached and drj' ; 
the Carriers of the Dead then 
take the bones with tongs held 
in gloved hands, and cast them 




Sl^r^ogrfiph hy'] 



To be 



[11. C. imu Co., Lvml; 

THE SACRED TWIN TREE. PEKING. 

I in the Temple of the Empress CKing-Ou-Tien, Peking. 



into the weO, where they 
speedily crumble to dust. The rain-water running down from all around sets up disintegration, 
and channels are made at the well-bottom allowing the collected moisture to trickle out over 
a bed of charcoal, whence it flows into the sea. Should the perforations for escape become 
choked, the attendants descend a ladder attached to the well-side and remove the ob- 
struction. Thanks to the torrential rains, the blazing sun, the keen sea winds and. most 
important of all, the voracity of the vultures, this method of disposing of the dead is not as 
insanitary as appears on the surface. So complete is the destruction that the accumulations in 
the well of the tower we illustrate have only attained five feet in forty years. The bearded men 
who do most of the work in connection with the burial ceremony proceed, on its completion, to a 
purifying place, where, having rid themselves of their clothes, they wash themselves. The 
following of general mourners link their clothes together in a certain understood fashion, thus 



I 12 



The Wonders of the World 










'S*- 




The: 



edific 



A KHIRGHIZ 

und on ihi 



TOMB. SIBERIA 



rolling plains of Southern Siberia— a crude testimony 
to religious fervour 



giving a mystic meaning to their 
attendance and displaying a re- 
verential respect for the departed. 
The land around the five 
Bombay towers, amounting to one 
hundred thousand square yards, 
was given to his co-religionists 
by Sir Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy, 
whose body was subjected to the 
treatment outlined above. The 
gardens about the towers are laid 
out in such fashion as to suggest 
and foster meditation in all mour- 
ners, whilst banks of cypresses 
form a dark and solid background 
to the grey-white towers, and, as 
the Parsees themselves say, point 
the way to Heaven with their 
long, tapering shoots. One very 
unpleasant feature resulting from 
the proximity of these Towers of Silence to a numl^er of European residences is that fingers or 
ears are occasionally found in the gardens around these houses, dropped there by a passing vulture 
or hawk. 

Sacred Tivin Tree, Peking. — The religious and hallowed significance of growths such as 
that illustrated here is not what it used to be, say, twenty-five years ago. Doubtless many 
thousands of trippers have now desecrated (in the eyes of the devout Chinese), the opening presented 
bv this twin tree, to be found in the private temple of the Empress Ching-Ou-Tien, Peking. The 
curious feature here is that the doorway, through which the photograph has been taken, was 
erected exactly to coincide with the span of the double tnmk. The effect, with the handsome 
marble stairway in the back- 
ground, is very striking. 

A tree of different kind, but 
equal interest, is situated in the 
courtyard of the Kasuga-no-Miya 
Temple, Nara, Japan. Here, on 
a single tree-trunk, seven ab- 
solutely different species have 
been grafted inextricably to- 
gether. There are camellia, 
cherry, wistaria, maple, icho 
(Japanese oak), and two other 
varieties. To this unusual em- 
blem of inseparable affection 
Japanese lovers are wont to 
attach little pieces of paper, on 
which are written their vows 
and short prayers that these 
may be maintained during 
life. 





ANOTHER FOR^^ OF 1 OMB. 

The Khirghiz have quaint notions of decoration. Being thenrtselves nomads, their 
Views on architecture are very unformed- 



Asia 



•13 








A lOiMH l\ A WILD shlilMJ. 

For scores of miles, often, a lomb such as tfiia !s the only visible thing on the flat, 
sandy land frequently snow-covered * plain. 



An Ice Bridge. — This illustra- 
tion of an ice bridge is probably 
unique. Its utility as a means 
of passage across a difficult spot 
is evidenced by the two heavily- 
loaded yaks and their driver. 
It was taken by Captain C. G. 
Rawling in the Changchenmo 
Valley, Central Thibet. He 
writes that " these causeways 
proved invaluable, as we were 
compelled to cross the river 
several times, and only in one 
place was much difficulty ex- 
perienced." The especial feature 
of J the stnicture lies in this, 
that during summer months the 
banks and hills of the valley- 
through which the spanned river 
runs are covered with luxuriant 
grass, glorious flowers and wild cereals growing riot beneath a blazing sun. A sudden change of 
climate is characteristic of the Thibetan lowlands — unlike the changes from winter to summer in 
Canada or Manchuria, the difference in cause and effect are seen in the course of a single week. 
Snow, frost, deadly gales and icy fogs give way as if by magic to all the attractions of a 
perfect English summer. 

The Khirghiz Tombs of Siberia.— in Central Siberia, localized around the Tian Shan 
plateau, there lives a tribe of nomads of wliich perhaps less is known than of any other people. The 
tombs illustrated here express more eloquently than words the character of these simple, peace- 
loving folk ; around the tombs may be seen the stretching plains of sand and grass, typical of 

the country in which they live. 
The name Khirghiz embraces 
Indo-Europeans, Mongols and 
the Turanian tribes linked alike 
in habits and character. Their 
language is such that a know- 
ledge of Turkish makes com- 
munication easj', and the hos- 
pitality of these nomadic shep- 
herds is of a nature that 
payment for services is an 
unknown feature to them. The 
Khirghiz is forced to change his 
residence twice a year — and his 
family goes with him. This is 
necessary to obtain the best pas- 
turi's fur tiie hertls and flocks, 
invariably to be found close 
below the ever-shifting snow- 
line. Again, since at night tiie 

9 




THE INTERIOR OF A KHIRGHIZ TOMB. 



The heodstone is seen here. Oflimes 
a reminder that a small 



Utile 
child 



cradle lies pathetically oKainsI the wall 
8 buried with its parent* 



114 



The Wonders of the World 



animals are herded close around the camp, the environments become foul beyond bearing after 
the first shower of rain. To meet these novel conditions of life, which know no change, 
their houses are collapsible. They are made of willow, based on a willow-trellis wall, circular 
in section and having a smoke-hole in the top. The willow is covered with woollen cloth, and 
the whole has the appearance of a huge inverted white pudding-bowl. These folk are sociable 
to one another and friendly to strangers ; though Mohammedan in rehgion, their women go about 
unveiled and, moreover, have a strong influence in the affairs of the community. Beside the 
tombs shown here will frequently be found a baby's cradle — a sad, small emblem that a little one 
has been buried close to the holy shrine of past great men. 

The Daibutsu of Kamakura, Japan. — Here is an image which, by general acceptance, stands 
without rival in the world. The Kamakura Daibutsu, by its massive serenity, by its majestic 




Copiiriijht photo /'(/] 

THE DAIBUTSU OF KAMAKURA. 

This representation of Amida. the most massive bronze figure in the world, is forty-nine feet high. It is now necessary to obtain 
an official permit to take a photograph, owing to the damage resultant on the former ease of access permitted to tourists. 

calm, holds those who have seen it in irresistible fascination. It is set in environments moulded 
by nature to add a natural charm to that afforded by the sculptor. Those who once have seen 
it, go to see it again, the better to grasp its colossal size, its harmonious bearing, its impressive 
atmosphere. 

A description of it seems nearly sacrilegious when brought down to measures and weights. Its 
height is forty-nine feet and circumference ninety-seven feet two inches. The length of the face 
is eight feet five inches, and in the huge forehead is set a silver boss thirty pounds in weight and 
fifteen inches in diameter. The eyes, fashioned in pure gold, look out from lids three feet eleven 
inches long, whilst the ears and nose have dimensions of six feet si.x inches and three feet nine 
inches respectively. The mouth is three feet two inches from corner to corner, and on the head 
are eight hundred and thirty curls, nine inches high each. The image is of pure bronze cast in 
sheets and brazed together afterwards, being finished off outside by chiselling. In the interior is 
a shrine with a ladder leading up to the head. The history of this Daibutsu, which represents 




IHE RAMDODA WAIKKKALL. CE>LON. 

rial', omid the wildrst Iropic.l .ccncrv. it caused by a rivrr .tckini: nn c«il (rom the hiehland. ol Nuwar.- 
Eliya lo the lore.t plain, many thousand (eet beloiv. It >• the mo.t (amoui [all in Ceylon. 



ii6 



The Wonders of the World 



Amida, is very interesting. Tradition accords its conception to Yoritomo, who first organized the 
system of military government known as the Shogimate. Though he had discussed his plan very 
well with his associates, he died before he could personally superintend its execution. The 
Daibutsu dates from the year 1252 a.d. Originally it had about it a huge temple fifty yards 
square, the roof of which was supported on sixty-three wooden pillars firmly fixed on stone 
foundations. Twice, in 1369 and 1494, seismic waves have swept the covering temple away, but 
left the image unmoved, and it now stands in the open air unharmed by six and a half centuries 
of existence — the embodiment of intellectual and passionless serenity. 

Ramboda Falls, Ceyton. — Twelve miles from Nuwara-Eliya, the well-known summer resort 
and ancient royal town of Ceylon, is a marvellous valley, looking down, with vistas of great 
mountains upon every side, over the elephant lands so much sought after by the hunter. Here, 
tucked away amid banks of magnificent verdure, are to be seen a series of waterfalls which, if 
they do not vie with others better known in volume or in height, can lay claim to features of 
beauty and situation unequalled the world over. Ramboda would never have been heard of but 
for these falls ; over the jutting edge of a giant precipice there leaps a foaming torrent, falling 
first in a flight of steps and then clear into a boiling cauldron whence the eye cannot follow it. 
Tlie very raggedness of the containing rocks comes as a shock after the surrounding forest : 
it is all so unexpected, so stupendous, that this liquid mass should hurl itself, willy-nilly, several 
hundred feet down from the glorious highlands of Nuwara-Eliya. This wonder, too, 
possesses an unique advantage : unlike so many world-curiosities described in this work, it is 
close to the beaten track of the leisured traveller. Comfortable trains take him to his hotel, 




Phntn hy'] 



[.Vf'.\-.<r5. Johnston d- Iloj^niann. 



THE CENTRE OF THE UNIVERSE. 



A ^vonderful seven-storied erection directly over the Royal Throne Room of Mandalav Palace. This Palace, or Nandaw. has. 
since the exiling of Theebaw. who is still alive, lost much of its beauty and historical aspect. 



Asia 



117 



in comfort the manager of 
his hostelry will arrange 
his trip to the falls. And 
they, once seen, remain 
embedded in the memory 
of the fortunate observer ; 
for in majesty, beauty and 
situation they are unsur- 
passed. 

Theebaiv's Palace : The 
Centre of the Universe. — 
There are man}' royal 
palaces in Asia famed 
either for their gaudy 
magnificence, their archi- 
tecture, or their history, 
but none, perhaps, ap- 
proaches that at Mandala}- 
for general interest. This 
palace, or Nandaw, is situ- 
ated exactl}' in the centre 
of Fort Dufferin — in itself 
a remarkable conception, 
being a huge square en- 
closed by walls twenty-six 
feet high and surrounded 
on every side by a moat 
about three hundred feet 
wide. There are but five 
bridges giving access to 
the fort, and three of 
these lead by roads direct 
to the palace. This palace 
was formerly a strongly 
fortified post, but. subse- 
quent to the annexation, 
the outer stockade and brick walls were removed, leaving the chief buildings as they were 
originally. 

These buildings are mainly of teak, profusely carved and gilded after the manner of the country, 
and though in certain cases put to uses more acceptable to the present owners, are still known by 
their old names. The largest and most striking erection is the Audience Hall, which formerly 
contained the Lion Throne. This hall, now used as a church, has a length of two hundred and 
fifty feet from wing to wing, and is forty-five feet deep. At one end rises the shwepyathat, or gilded 
spire, the external emblem of royalty. This spire has seven stories, and is remarkable for its ornate 
decoration. The Lion Throne itself, over which it was built, has been removed to the Calcutta 
Museum. It is this tawdry yet unusual pinnacle that was known as the " Centre of the Universe," 
the Burmans arguing, so the story goes, that, being the centre of Mandalay, it was also that of the 
world. Directly behind the Audience Hall was the stable of tlic sacred White Elephant, whilst 
to the east of it rises a richly decorated shrine in which Theebaw passed the period of his priesthood. 




■■'j'urighl'] 



■■I .(■ r,„l.r,f0.l. 



These massive %v 
regime. Spaciousness, 
architecture. 



1 HEEBAWSylPALACE. MANDALAY. 

ooden pillars arc indicative of the departed nlory of a ereat heathen 
ornate decoration and solidity arc the distinctive features o( Burmese 



ii8 



The Wonders of the World 



iluch of this palace was 
brought from Amarapura, the 
Immortal City, lying a few 
miles to the south of Mandalay. 
The private audience halls 
were used for many years by 
the Upper Burma Club. A 
stop was put to this, and 
rightly, by Viscount Curzon 
of Kedleston wlien Viceroy of 
India ; he feared that an 
accidental fire might destroy 
for ever that which remains 
the finest palace in a land 
of palaces — a gem of native 
architecture, unique in design 
and workmanship, and fulfil- 
ling in aU respects the tradi- 
tions of ancient Burma. King 
Theebaw, who succeeded hs 
father on the throne in 1878, 
began soon to murder his 
relatives and m srule his 
kingdom. At last the British 
Government's patience, after 
many protests, was exhausted. 
King Theebaw was sent an 
ultimatum, and General Pren- 
dergast sailed up the Irra- 
waddy and deposed him. The 
annexation of Upper Burma 
to Great Britain was pro- 
claimed. Theebaw was sent in 1885 to Rangoon. Later on he was taken to British India. He 
survives, and, although he is under British control and deposed from power, his life is made as 
comfortable as possible. 

The Car of Krishna., Tanjore. — Tlie curious vehicle seen here represents the ceremonial car 
of Krishna, one of the nine incarnations of Vishnu, the Protector. The modern Hindu religion 
acknowledges one God, called Brahma. During religious history, Brahma has given three personal 
manifestations : the first as Brahma, the Creator ; the second as Vishnu, the Protector ; and the 
third as Shiva, the Destroyer and Reproducer. With the first and third of these we have nothing 
to do ; but Vishnu is the central being with which Krishna is associated. Vishnu, when represented, 
holds in one hand a quoit, in another a shell, in a third a club, whilst a lotus flower is held in the 
fourth. Vishnu has come down to earth on nine different occasions, and the advent of his tenth 
appearance is eagerly awaited. The forms of these first nine incarnations were as follow : (i) A 
Fish ; (2) A Tortoise ; (3) A Boar (Varaka) ; (4) A Lion (Narsingh) ; (5) A Dwarf (Vamana) ; 
(6) Parasu Rama ; {7) Rama ; (8) Krishna, and (9) Buddha. The traditional history of Krishna 
is curious : he is the God of the poor people, fo:, though of noble birth, his youth %\as spent amongst 
shepherds and peasants, from whom he learnt the laboured existence of the poorer classes. As a boy 
he killed the snake Kali by stamping his life out with his feet, and followed this up by raising the 







%: 



■*i»i! 



Fruin .sierco copyrighf] 

THE CEREMONIAL CAR 

Cre&l fetes take place in India in honour of Krishna ; 
incemalions of Visfir.u. ihe Protector, the second 1 



\_Undiricood .C Vnd'iuooii 

OF KRISHNA. 

Krishna is one of the nine 
lanifeslation of Brahma. 



I20 



The Wonders of the World 



Mount of Govardhan (fourteen 
miles from Muttra) in such 
manner on his finger that the 
cowherds of the plain were 
protected from a violent storm 
created by Indra, the Rain- 
God, as a test of Krishna's 
divinity. Vishnu first appeared 
as Krishna at the village of 
Gokul, where sundry relics of 
antiquity are kept. Krishna 
was blest with innumerable 
wives and a large family ; in 
all representations he is painted 
blue, and is standing on a 
snake, tlie tail of which he 
holds in one of his left hands. 
In his corresponding right 
liand is a lotus, and the second 
pair of hands frequently hold 
a flute which he is playing. 
It is a curious commentary on 
the status of this religion that 
the adoption of Buddha as the 
nintli incarnation of Vishnu 
was a compromise with Bud- 
dhism ! 

The popularity of Krishna 
may well be imagined when 
it is mentioned that Vishnu, 
in this incarnation, is said to 
deliver mankind from the most fearful miseries of life. These miseries are divided up into 
three sections as follow : (a) lust, anger, avarice, and any evil consequence resultant there- 
from ; (b) beasts, snakes, and danger from men ; (c) demons. The final incarnation of Vishnu 
will also be as a man ; the former human appearances being Krishna, described above, and 
Rama. On this tenth, and last, occasion, he will come down from above as a mounted warrior 
on a superb flying steed, and with a sweep of his arm he will shatter the earth, scattering it and 
its inhabitants over the heavens as dust. Since the date of this eventuality has been fixed safely 
ahead — to wit, in four hundred and thirty-two thousand years — it troubles none of the eastern 
worshippers overmuch. At that date, which will be by Brahman reckoning the fourth, or Kali age, 
the world will have become wholly depraved and worthy of immediate and complete destruction. 
There are several Hindu festivals in which Krishna takes a leading part. The most 
important is called Holi. held fifteen days before full moon in the month of Phagun (March). 
This is a wild carnival, when free licence is permitted to everyone ; the chief joy is the 
throwing of red and yellow powdei over all and sundrj-. Janam Ashtami takes place on 
the eighth day of the dark half of Sawan (August), when Krishna is supposed to have been 
born at Gokul. On this day, no strict Hindu will eat rice, but he contents himself very fairly 
with fruit and other grains until the evening, when he washes before an image of the God whose 
natal day he celebrates. 




stereograph bii] 



\_H, C. White Co., Lomion. 



A GAUTAMA BUDDHA OF THE BINGYI CAVES. 

No details as to the age of these figures have been ascertained. From time im- 
memorial, the historical treasures of Buddhism have found refuge in these huse natural 
cavities. These figures are raised from the ground-level on roughly-hewn shelves. 



Asia 



121 



The Bingy)i Caves. Burma. — In the neighbourhood of Mouhnein there are the five most 
remarkable scries of caves ever discovered. They are known as the Farm Caves, on the Attaran 
River, ten miles from Moulmein ; the Dammathal Caves, on the Gyaing River, eighteen miles from 
Moulmein ; the Pagat Caves, on the Salween River, twenty-six miles from Moulmein ; the Kogun 
Caves, on the Kogun Creek, Pagat, twenty-eight miles from Moulmein, and finally the Bingyi 
Caves, on the Dondami River, fifty-one miles from Moulmein. Only the first of tiiese is much 
visited, whilst the last, of which photographs are given, have only been scientifically explored in 
quite recent years. The Bingyi Caves are situated in some low hills three mUes from the small 
village of Binlaing, on the Binlaing or Dondami River ; the entrance is reached after crossing a 
pool of very liot water, fnjm which a stream descends to the valley below, and after a climb up 
the hillside of about one hundred feet. The main cave is deep and dark, requiring especially 
strong lights for adequate exploration. At the farthest end is a pool of water flush with the floor 
and by it a pagoda so situated as to be lighted from a hole in the roof or, more correctly, the 
hillside. Just outside the entrance is another pagoda, which is unusual, and down the transept 
— if the word may be used — are, or have been, a series of pagodas, or chaityas, with 



images 
arranged 



of Gautama Buddha 
on shelves along 
either side. The Buddhas 
are represented as dressed in 
monks' robes, their curly hair 
drawn up into a knot on the 
top of the head and the lobes 
of their ears stretched out 
so as to meet the shoulder. 
Quite recently the caves of 
Burma have received a well- 
merited attention, having been 
carefullv explored, cleared and 
cleaned, and. in many cases, 
repaired. Hence, ninnerous 
devout people flock to them 
and pray to the gods erected 
in such profusion. In the 
early days of their discover}' 
as caves worthy of closer 
notice, exploration was hin- 
dered by the presence ol 
myriads of bats. So many 
were collected here that the 
caves were noisome from their 
droppings and dead bodies 
which, in many places, covered 
the floor to the depth ol 
several feet. 

These groups of ca\-es art 
now a favourite resort of 
picnic parties, both of the 
European and nati\e jiopu- 
lation. " and most of the 




1HF. BINGM I .W K.s 



Tl-e Btruclure of 
here well illuttralcd. 
careful inipection. 



tficte cavet, probably d< 
Or.ly in recent limei have 



to prehistoric aeitmic diaturboncc*. i 
they been explored and cleaned fo 



122 



The Wonders of the World 




Photo Sji] [Alan 11. Hurgomf, Esq., M.F. 

IHt lEMPLE OK ii.iii GODS. 

This lemple was founded in 1132 bv the Emperor Toba : it has a length of 389 fetl. and is filled from end to end with 
representations of Kwannon- Archers test their sUill against its length, and are greativ looked up to if able to send a shaft 
from one end to the other. 

difficulties there were in reaching them are gradually being overcome by the energy of tourist 
agencies. They are all situated in isolated limestone hills, which rise picturesquely and abruptly 
from the alluvial plains surrounding them. It is beheved that these caves may have been 
excavated by the action of the sea in prehistoric times, and they are to this day in most cases 
full of stalactites and stalagmites. It is quite obvious, even after a most cursory examination, 
that at one time every available spot held an image of one of the many incarnations of 
Buddha ; their fragments lie on every hand, representati\-e of all periods and all ages. 

The secrets of these caves still untapped must form a remarkable field for inquiry, but enough 
has been said to show how rich they are in historical associations and how well worthy of more 
detailed study. Many of the manuscripts and terra-cotta tablets already found have served to 
clear up difficult points in Burmese history — the caves would seem, therefore, to have been the 
hiding places of those precious relics, nearly always historical, which from age to age are handed 
to the priests for preservation. 

San-i'u-san-gen-do, the Temple of Thirty-three Thousand Three Hundred and Thirty-three 
Goc/s.— Probably the longest temple in the world is the San-ju-san-gen-do at Kyoto, its 
dimensions being an over-all length of three hundred and eighty-nine feet and a breadth of 
fifty-seven feet. Here are housed no less than thirty-three thousand three hundred and thirty- 
three representations of Kwannon, the Goddess of Mercy. In 1132 Emperor Toba, having been 
deposed, founded this temple and placed in it the first one thousand and one images, which 
were added to by the Emperor Go-Shirakawa, he giving no less than one thousand one hundred 



Asia 



12 



O 



and sixty-five. In 1249 a disastrous fire destroyed both building and goddesses, to the dismay of all 
who were associated with it. Seventeen years later, in 1266, the Emperor Kameyama ordered 
it to be rebuilt and filled it from end to end with images of the Thousand-Handed Kwannon. 
Thus it stood for some centuries, falling more and more into disrepair, until in 1662 tiie great 
Shogun letsuma restored it as it now stands. 

A more remarkable gathering of goddesses there cannot have been in the history of the world. 
Tier on tier, they fill the vast edifice from end to end, there being one thousand main figures, five 
feet high each, containing upon themselves further representations and carvings of Kwannon, which 
in their aggregate mount to the enormous total of thirty-three thousand three hundred and thirty- 
three. Each image is perfectly worked and superbly lacquered in gold : three liundred are due to 
the art of Kokei and Koei. two hundred were executed by Unkei, and the remainder by the equally 
famous Shichijo-Dai-busshi. One feature worthy of notice is that, though in each case the deity 
represented is the same, each figure differs from the other in some particular — the arrangement 
of the many hands, of the clothes, or of the ornaments. In the centre of these serried rows is 
one large figure, of which we give a picture. This also is a Kwannon, and round about her are 
posed the Bushu, or Eight-and-Twenty Followers. Around this central Kwannon is woven an 
interesting tradition. The ex-Emperor Go-Shirakawa was troubled with persistent headaches, 
and made a pilgrimage to the shrines of Kumano to pray for relief. He was directed to apply to 
a celebrated Indian physician, then residing in a temple of his capital. On his way there he fell 
asleep and dreamed that a monk of stately presence came to him and told him that, in his former 
state, he, the Emperor, had been a pious monk of the name of Renge-bo. Renge-bo had for his 
merits been promoted in the person nf Go-Shirakawa to the position of emperor. But Renge-bo's 




/'/■"/.■ '.i] 



[Man n. Iliir.jofinr, Ai.;., .V.P. 



IHF IRNU'LE OF 33.333 CODS 

ThiB central finure ii snid. by tradition, to hnvc t!ic bI<u1! o( RcnBcbo. a [omoUR monlt. embedded in its bead 



124 



The Wonders of the World 



skull lay uncared for in a river and from it sprang a willow-tree ; whenever this tree shook in the 
breeze the head of Go-Shirakawa began to ache. At the conclusion of the story, the Emperor 
awoke and set out to find the skull, in which quest he proved successful. Having attained his 
object and banished his headaches for ever, he caused the skull of Renge-bo, his former self, to be 
embedded in the head of the large Kwannon that now forms the centre of these thirty-three 
thousand or so similar representations. 

A visitor to this temple gives the following quaint description of his impressions : " They are 
a tawdry, motley company, these tiers of gilded goddesses, whose serried ranks, a hundred yards 
long and a full battalion strong, fill the vast building from end to end. The images, many of 
which are of great age, are continually being restored. In a workshop behind the vast stage an old 
wood-carver sits, his life occupation being the carving and mending of hands and arms, which are 




Ptiotolni] [J'Mnl: 

THE IWAKUM lUxlIii.l , JAPAN. 

SpanninB the Nishiki-gawa River, this bridre has a length of five hundred feel. The stone piers supporting its 
arches are bcund together with lead. No known bridge is richer in historical associations. 

constantly dropping off like branches, from the forest of divine tnmks — for Kwannon is a many- 
limbed deity, and few of the images have less than a dozen arms. Rats scuttled over the floors and 
hid in the host of idols as we made our way round them ; and at the back of the building we were 
stopped by an old priest, who sat at the receipt of custom and demanded a contribution from 
every visitor. One day, as I suddenly turned a corner in this temple, I saw a tourist, who supposed 
no one was looking, dehberately break a hand off one of the gilded figures and put it in his pocket. 
It is strange to what acts of vandalism the mania for collecting useless relics leads some people." 

In the old days it was the custom for skilful archers to try how many arrows in succession 
they could shoot from one end of the temple balcony to the other. This sport was designated 
" o-ya-kazu," or the " greatest number of arrows." Many Japanese may still be seen enjoying 
this game, and an archer is seen in the act of releasing a shaft in the photograph. 

The Iivakuni Bridge, Japan. — On the Inland Sea, in the district of Suwo, is a busy little 
fortified town called Iwakuni, situated at the mouth of the river Nishiki-gawa. Iwakuni was. 




Frnm ^^*r''ograph'] 



THE KNAIKTI-'iO PAGODA. liURMA 

This Icmpic in .ilualcd 3.650 f«l above •rjilcv<!l ond can onlv b- reached from the parent rock by mean« o( ladders. Kvaik-li-yo 
i> the name of the northern •ummit oF the Kela«« Hei»ht«. in the Shweiyin dialrict ot Burma. 



126 



The Wonders of the World 



lr)»r..,ir »n» ' #ma B rt ll» ri S 




THE SPONGE ROCKS OF ENOSHIMA. JAPAN. 



1^. Malstmtn. 



The sacred isle of EnosKima is one of tfie loveliest spots of the Japanese arcfiipelago. It is famed far and wide for its curious 
rocks, whicfi many believe are fossilized sponges. Amongst tfiese are found giant crabs, stretchinc ten feet from claw to claw. 

onginally tlie headquarters of a famous Daimyo, Kikkawa. and the position of his castle, which 
successfully withstood all assaults during the most troublesome period of Japanese history, is now 
marked by a charming temple dedicated to Kato Kiyomasa. Around this there still is kept up the 
original park in wliich the warlike Daimyo took so great a pride. But though historicalh' of 
interest and importance, the main feature, the one extraordinary attraction, of this little seaport 
is the great bridge spanning the Nishiki-gawa River. Kintaikyo, the " Bridge of the Damask 
Girdle," is famous to the whole world, and no structure has better right to be included amongst 
terrestrial wonders. From end to end it is nearly five hundred feet, the five curved arches 
resting on massive stone piers, which to secure them the one to the other are bound together 
with lead. The custom followed for the preservation of this bridge is to repair one arch 
every five years ; this led to the entire structure being practically renewed four times in each 
century. 

The K\aik-ti-yo Pagoda, Burma. — The Kyaik-ti-yo Pagoda has been described as the most 
curious object in Burma. Here we see an edifice about twenty feet high, erected on a huge 
boulder, so balanced on the edge of its parent mass that it rocks in any passing breeze. Indeed, 
viewed from the position whence the photograph was taken, it would almost seem as though the 
laws of gravitation themselves had been set at naught. 

The history of this curiosity is writ large for all to see : first comes the handiwork of Nature, 
driving from around the hard, rocky core those softer materials, which at one time made it part of 
the base upon which it rests. Wind, rain and heat have all played their part here ; rain has. 
softened the friable matters ; the sun, scorching down from all sides, has cracked and disintegrated 



Asia 



127 



these until they were but dust ; and, last step of all, the winds have caught this up and cast it far 
and wide, leaving the giant rock precariously poised as we see it to-day. Here, doubtless, it was 
found many years ago ; the finder rocked it, and, no doubt, ground its base a little firmer into the 
socket containing it. Thus, despite lapse of time, it rests firmer and more secure to-day tlian ever 
in its liistory. 

M one period came a holy man directed (as they all arc) by a iidl, or spirit. Imbued with the 
faith that was in him, he erected a pagoda on its summit, and to this little temple pilgrimages are 
undertaken year in. year out. Tradition relates that beneath the rock lie relics of the great 
Gautama Buddha, and that at certain seasons of the year it floats in space with the pagoda on its 
back. These relics are supposed to be the hairs from Buddha's head, and, as if to testify to their 
sanctity, there lies before the pagoda a great mass of human hair cut off from the iieads of pilgrims 
and left there as a sacrificial offering. The frontispiece of Part I, of this work gave a view of the 
Sampan Pagoda on the Kelasa Hills. It is a coincidence out of the ordinary that the only two 
such structures based upon rocks cast loose by the hand of Nature should both be found in Burma. 
But of the pair any unbiased observer must give the palm for originality, precariousness of position 
and interest of historical association to that at Kyaik-ti-yo. 

The Sponge Rocks of Enoshima, Japan. — Four miles from Kamakura, the once populous 
capital of Eastern Japan, is a delightful little peninsula, formed at iiigli tide into an island. This 
is Enoshima, the home of sea-treasures. Well equipped with first-class native inns, Enosjiima is 
a ]X)pular holiday resort for 
European residents in Japan, 
who are fond of the sea- 
bathing to be ,got there and 
the excellent sea-fishing. To 
the curious, however. the 
fisheries of the glass-rope 
sponge (Hyalonema sieboldi) 
is a fascinating feature ; this 
and the ordinary sponge is 
found ill immense quantities, 
and it is for these things that 
tlie tiny town has become 
most noted. Shells, corals and 
marine curiosities of all sorts 
are part of the life of Eno- 
shima. Back to tiie earliest 
days the island or ])eninsula of 
Enoshima has been sacred to 
Benten, the Goddess of Luck, 
who, to save the children of 
Kosliigal from being devoured 
by a voracious dragon, mar- 
ried the monster and there- 
after held him in check. To 
this day the natives of Eno- 
shima believe there is a sub- . 
terranean passage connecting 
the large cave on the far side 
of tlie island with I'nji-yama. 




Nf-i-i-otjrnph I'l/] 



THE BADRl DAS TEMPLE. 



Buill by the Juin». India's mo»t famoui erchitcctB, no •pecimrn 
this in bcBUty and deiisn. 



/.<ii../i.n. 



CALCUriA. 

'I iKcir work ■urpastcs. 



128 



The Wonders of the World 



This cave is one hundred and 
twenty-four yards deep and 
thirty feet high at the en- 
trance. 

Yet even without this garb 
of legend, it were hard to find 
a more charming spot tlian 
Enoshima. A long, weak-look- 
ing bridge connects the little 
peninsula with the mainland, 
and the inhabitants take small 
Iieed to the repair of this 
stnicture, preferring, perhaps, 
that visitors to their little Eden 
sliould patronize the many 
boatmen who depend for a 
living largely on the payment 
t hey receive for their ferrying. 
At the landing-stage a fine 
torii. one of those quaint arch- 
like erections that are amongst 
the most striking features of 
Japan, faces you. and small 
bronze tortoises, exquisitely 
carved, are placed in natural 
positions at the base of the 
great uprights, which also are 
of bronze. Then rises a steep 
and rocky path to the shrines 
perched on the hill above ; 
along each side of this, decked 
in green foliage, and with all 
the charm of nature to support 
their natural quaintness. are many old inns, and tlie Japanese equivalent to our " curiosity shops." 
Here are displayed, and readilv sold, many marvellous things from the sea. Mr. H. G. Pouting 
narrates a delightful little story, whereby he shows how the unwary traveller is lioodwinked. 
" Down on the rocks wrinkled veterans of the island earn a living by waylaying visitors to the 
Dragon's Cave, and inducing them to throw small coins into the water, which are caught as they 
slowly sink. They also dive for shellfish, and infallibly bring one up from tlie clear green depths ! 
Noticing that every time a diver plunged in he first retired to the cave for a moment, I became 
suspicious, and, stopping one old fellow, just as he prepared to plunge, found he had a crayfish 
concealed in his breech-clout. This e.xposure of the trick caused uproarious merriment amongst 
them all ! " 

The Jain Temple, Calcutta. — Though the strain of Oriental ornamentation runs through 
the whole of the architecture of India, there are, nevertheless, clearly recognized styles of building 
that have developed in well-defined periods. Perhaps the most famous builders, and certainly the 
most painstaking, were the Jains. The central idea governing all Jain temples is a series of ornate 
squares divided by. and supported on, rows of carved columns. The word " simplicity " does not 
apply to their conceptions, and in most cases the temples were erected on sites where, from every 




From l^erfio copyright'\ [ Vndfrteood i<- Vntlericood. 

THE JAIN TEMPLE. CALCUTTA. 

Around the temple are <;ardens and ponds whicK vie in picturesqueness with the 
building itself. The Jains were a wild people with a marvellous aptitude for erecting 
exquisite and lasting buildings. 



Asia 



129 



point of view, the detailed beauty of their ideas could receive adequate publicity and admiration. 
.Minarets, domes, points, spires jut out everywhere, colours being blended in perfect confusion 
to render the curious buildings even more picturesque. 

On pages 4 and 5 (Part I.) were given views of the Dilwarra Temples on Mount Abu. with some 
account of the Jain religion. Here we have a building by the same people, and yet quite different 
in appearance. This temple is situated in the Badri Das Garden. Calcutta, and is dedicated to the 
Tenth Tirthankar-Sitalnath-Ji. The main building is of white marble, and the exquisite orna- 
mentations both within and without are carefully preserved. 

The Jains frequently constructed a number of temples in a group, as at Parasnath, Palitana and 
Girnar, whilst their love of the picturesque induced them to place their designs in entirely opposite 




f^g '.ii'^T-- 



Copyright photo hy] {/! '.. I'-'uftni/, I'Jt.O.S. 

THE JAMA MASJID. OR GREAT MOSQUE. DELHI. 

1 Iu8 is India's Rrralesi mosque, and the second largest in the world. 201 feet long by 120 feel broad. It was buill by Shah 
Jrhan in the first half of the seventeenth century, 5.000 men beiniE employed upon the worU for six yearn. Its most preciou* 
relic is an alleced hair from the beard of the Prophet, %vhich is red in colour. 

places. Mount Abu temples are situated high on a hill ; others are to be found in deep and secluded 
valleys. The two towers of Fame and of Victory at Chitor are splendid specimens of Jain work, 
with remarkable carved pillars. Pieces dating from the tenth century are to be found in the great 
mosques of Kutab Minar, south of Delhi, and in Ajmer Ahmedabad. Of modern Jain work the 
most notable examples are the temple of Hathi Singh (a.d. 1848) at .•\hmedabad, tlie hundred- 
year-old Delhi temple, and that at Calcutta described above. 



I30 



The Wonders of the World 



CHAPTER V. 

By PHILIP W. SERGEANT. 

The Jama Masjid, Delhi. — The Jama (Jumma) Masjid, the " Great Mosque " at Delhi, is the 
second largest Mohammedan place of worship in the world, and has as its chief treasure what is 
said to be an actual hair, red in colour, from the beard of the Prophet. It was built by the famous 
Shah Jehan, grandson of the Emperor Akbar, during the years 1631-1637 .\.d., in honour of his 
daughter Jehan Ara Begam — whence comes its original title of the Masjid Jehannama, though 
it is universally known by the name given above. Five thousand men, it is said, were employed 
on the construction of the building, and the cost was ten lakhs of rupees. 

The Jama Masjid is not, perhaps, the finest mosque in India, being eclipsed in beauty by the 
Moti Masjid, the " Pearl Mosque," which Shah Jehan put up at Agra, But it is, nevertheless, a 




4iJii#'^i«Ainrs. 



Photo hjj] 



THE CHEAl .MOSQUE. DELHI 



[E. G. Wood. 



jeneral vie^v. showing 



the mosque is raised above the plain 



very imposing piece of architecture. The whole is raised up from the plain on a high platform 
built round an outcrop of rock. At each of the angles of this platfonn is a tower, and three 
magnificent flights of steps lead up to the main and the two side gateways. All round runs an 
arcaded cloister, open at both sides, which is. like all the exterior parts of the building, of red 
sandstone. Upon the platform the visitor entering by the principal gate finds a courtyard three 
hundred and twenty-five feet square, paved with granite inlaid with marble, and having in the 
centre a large tank for the ablutions of the faithful. Across this lies the mosque itself, with its 
door in a line with the main gateway. In its construction red sandstone and white marble are 
mingled, the three large domes being of pure marble, while the minarets at each of the front corners, 
one hundred and thirty feet high, combine the two materials in alternating stripes, as is plainly 
shown in two of our photographs. On the top of these minarets are marble pavilions, which 
can be reached by staircases ; and there are also four smaller pavilions, two over the corners of the 
doorway and two on the flat part of the roof. 

The mosque is an oblong, two hundred and one feet long by one hundred and twenty feet broad. 




Frofti Sr^rfo roptji'iij/if] 



[t'ndrneood ,i- riulrrtcot"i ' 
THE GREAT MOSQUE. DELHI. 

View ot the courlyord. i25 feci .quBre. on the latt day o( ll,e .nnuol K..on of fnul in Rnm»d»n, llie ninth month of 
the Mohammedan year. The mo.que it.elf. a. well n. the court, i. filled with wor.hipper.. A. the Inr^e portal i. in the m.ddle 
ol the (.cade and the building i. -el .vmmetricallv in the courlvird. it may be .een that not more than two-th.rd. ol th,. v..t 
outdoor conKretcation is in light 



132 



The Wonders of the World 




Stei-fo ovj 



[y/. V. i\fitte t'o. 



THE MINGOON PAGODA. BURMA. 



" Bodawpaya's Folly" is the largest mass of brickworU in the world, iltKouph the kin? who buih it died before he could 
carry it to more than a third of the heiirht he intended. In 1839. twenty years after his death, an earthquake split it from top to 
bottom and other^vise damaged it. 

Within, the whole pavement is of white marble, and the walls and ceiling are lined with the same, 
30 that there is a generous display of marble throughout the building. 

The great front doors are never opened except for the admission of royal persons and the 
representatives of royalty, like the Viceroy of India. Before them stands a pulpit presented 
eighty years ago by a pious donor, who wished that all gathered in the courtyard might be able to 
hear the voice of the preacher. 

It is on the last day of Ramadan, the Mohammedan equivalent of the Christian Lent, that the 
Jama Masjid presents the most extraordinary spectacle : but it is a spectacle not willingly allowed 
to the eyes of unbelievers. On that day, not only the mosque itself but the whole vast courtyard 
also are filled with worshippers just released from their month of fasting all day from food, drink 
and smoke^ — that is to say, if they are orthodox Mohammedans, and have not had a partial 
dispensation on the ground of being labourers. Some idea of the scene may be gathered from the 
photograph on page 131, though only about two-thirds of the congregation in the courtyard can 
be seen. 

The " Great Mosque " of Delhi played its part in tlie Indian Mutiny, being strongly held by 
the rebels during the assault which followed the siege of 1857. It was not, however, seriously 
damaged in the struggle and has since been excellently restored, the Government co-operating 
with munificent native rulers. It remains to-dav a fine testimonv to the artistic taste of Shah 
Jehan, and even those who do not much admire its general colour-scheme of red and white are 
bound to admit the charm of its lines. 

Mr. H. C. Fanshawe, in his " Delhi Past and Present," says : " The Jama Masjid should be 
visited with the morning sun shining on it, and, if possible, under the full moon, which gives a lovely 
softness to the facade and domes : it is specially beautiful when it can be seen of a morning with 
a bank of dark clouds behind it." 




^^ 







l\unle(l ?)>• G H. lul.nirils. 



From II t>hntoKrat*li by Uitderwooit «v Uiuicrwooii. 
THE SCHWAY DAGON PAGODA. 
Surroundins the mnin PaKoda. «hich is covered with pu« sold from top to bottom, there is a platform crowded with small 



shrines, colossal animals, and figures of various kinds, all combinmi! to make a matimficcnt effect. 



Asia 



133 



The Mingoon Pagoda on the Irra'wadi, Burma. — On the western bank of the Irrawadi, about 
seven miles from Mandalay on the opposite bank, there stands the greatest mass of brickwork 
on earth, in the shape of an unrtnislicd pagoda resting on a five-terraced platform of four hundred 
and fifty feet square. On the uppermost terrace rises a pile two hundred and thirty feet square, 
slightly contracting as it goes up, and one hundred feet high. On this again three terraces are 
placed, bringing the total height up to over one hundred and sixty feet. From a small model 
which stands near it on the river-bank it is gathered that it was intended to carry the pagoda to a 
height of five hundred feet, in which case it would have been the largest single building in the 
world. As it is, though only about a third of it is completed, it contains six or seven million cubic 
feet of brick, and is easily the biggest example of this kind of structure which is known to exist. 

The builder was Bodawpaya, a Burmese king of vast ambitions and cruel character, who died 
in 1819 A.D. He worked on the pagoda, by means of the forced labour of his subjects, for about 
twenty years, and gave much personal attention to its erection. Underneath it he is supposed 
to have buried great treasure. After Bodawpaya's death none of his successors seem to have 
made any attempt to complete his work, and in 1839 an earthquake rent it from top to bottom 
and dislodged great quantities of brickwork, beside wrecking two gigantic lions which had been set 



■\d'^"*-t' 




A (-.LAelL.Kl.\L;LL. 

Ihc pholo .hows o Glocicr Inblr o( rxlrnordinnrv .izc met with by the BullocU Workmon Expedition in ihc lummcr of 1908 on 
tl,c Bi«(o Gl.ci.-r in BaUi.lon. Hcilihl of icc-.hnfl. 3.8 mclr<-. '12 feci 5! inchc): Icnulh of bouWcr-top. 5 mclrc. '16 feci 5 inchc. ' : 
total licisht, 5.5 metres (18 feet J inch>. 



134 



The Wonders of the World 




Photo from " The Book of Ceylon," by^ \_Uenry W. Catf 

THE BRAZEN PALACE, ANURADHAPURA. CE'iLON. 

The only remains of the once greatest monastery in the world are 1.600 rough-hewn granite pillars, which were originally 
cased in bronze and supported a building nine stories high, 

up near the eastern entrance. Along the principal rent in the pagoda the feet of sightseers have worn 
a smooth path, by which it is possible to climb to the summit and obtain fine views toward Mandalay 
and in other directions. 

The story of " Bodawpaya's Folly." as it might be called, sounds like a tale of Egypt in the 
time of the pyramids, and yet the building of the pagoda was still in progress a hundred years ago ! 

Huge Glacier-Table in Baltistan. — ^The Biafo Glacier in Baltistan ("Little Tibet"), on the 
Northern frontier of Kashmir, is one of the two largest glaciers known outside the Arctic regions, 
and certainly one of the most magnificent in the world. It extends for thirty-five miles ; and. 
according to the enthusiastic account of those intrepid climbers, Dr. and Mrs. Workman, e\evy 
step up it " carries one to different scenes of varied and ever-increasing grandeur, until it becomes 
impossible to look in any direction upon a commonplace outline or into a vista of monotonous or 
banal colour." One of the curious phenomena to be met with upon the Baltoro is the glacier-table, 
of which the photograph gives an example, found on the lower portion of the glacier in the summer 
of 1908. 

These tables are formed in the first instance by the fall of a great boulder upon the snow-clad 
surface of the glacier, compressing the snow underneath until it becomes much denser than the 
surrounding snow. Then the action of the sun leads to the melting of this surrounding snow, while 
that under the boulder, being sheltered from the rays and hardened by the downward pressure, 
combined with alternate thawings and freezings, turns into a shaft of ice which makes the support 
of the " table." The warmth of the ground, reflected from the sun, is sufficient to make the shaft 
smaller ir diameter than the rock-covering above, and as time goes on the shaft begins to suffer 
further diminution, especially on the southern side— owing to the fact, explained by Dr. Workman, 
that the sun passes over the tables somewhat to the south and wamis the southern face more than 
the northern. Gradually, therefore, the boulder begins to tilt over to the south, and at last 



Asia 



oo 



it slides off entirely, leaving behind the upstanding ice-shaft, now reduced to the form of 
a pyramid. 

The measurements of the particular table illustrated here were as follows : total height. 5.5 
metres (over eighteen feet) ; height of ice-shaft, 3.8 metres ; length of boulder top, 5 metres. 

The Brazen Palace, Anuradhapura. — -Among the many wonders of the great ruined Buddhist 
city of Anuradhapura, in the North Central province of Ceylon, few are more wonderful than the 
Lohamahapa3-a. or " Great Brazen Palace." although all that remains of it is the sixteen hundred 
monolithic pillars of granite on which the building was formerly upreared. These pillars, once 
sheathed in beaten bronze or copper, cover an area of about two hundred and fiftv feet square and 
are arranged in forty rows six feet apart, those of them which are still unbroken standing twehe 
feet out of the ground. Originally, it is said, they supported a magnificent structure nine stories 
high, each of the upper stories being somewhat smaller than the one below, with, no doubt, a terrace 
round it which could be used for walking by day or for sleeping in the open on hot nights. The 
roof was covered with beaten bronze plates. The principal room was the great audience-hall, in 
which the pillars were overlaid with gold, while in the centre there stood, under a white canopv. 
an ivory throne with golden lion's-claw legs. The old Cingalese chronicle makes each floor 
contain a hundred rooms, but this is questioned by modern critics as highly improbable. 

The Brazen Palace .was built in the second century b.c by a king named Dutthagamini. to 
commemorate his victor}' 
in single combat over the 
Tamil usurper Elala, who 
had descended on Ceylon 
from Mysore and seized 
Anuradhapura, driving out 
the native line which had 
ruled in Ceylon for four 
centuries. It was designed 
as a royal monastery for a 
thousand monks. 

In a subsequent reign thr 
number of stories was re- 
duced from nine to seven, 
and then at the beginning 
of the fourth century .^.o. 
a king named Mahasena, an 
apostate from Buddhism, 
almost entirely destroyed 
the building. 

Either Mahasena, on his 
reconversion, or his son {for 
the accounts vary), rebuilt 
it with five stories onlv- 
The removal of the seat oi 
government from Anurad- 
hapura was followed by tin- 
gradual falling to pieces < ^ 
what had once been the 
largest monastery of its 
day ; and it is long since 




.VTrV fejf] 



WtlUt Co. 



THE BRAZEN PALACE. 

Each pillar Atnnds twelve feel above the Rround, and there arc forty row* of forty encli 

covcrinK an area of about 250 feet square. 



136 



The Wonders of the World 



anything of it has been left to view except the sixteen hundred pillars which the modern 
tourist sees. 

Island Palace, Pichola Lake, Udaipur. — The late James Fergusson, who did so much for the 
introduction to Europe of the knowledge of India's architectural beauties, said of the two island 
palaces in the Pichola Lake at Udaipur (Oodeypore) : "I know of nothing that will bear comparison 
with them anj^^here." The nearest rivals to them in Europe he found in the Borromean Islands 
in Lago Maggiore, Northern Italy ; but he declared the Indian beauty-spots far superior. 

The two palaces are known as Jagmandir and Jagniwas respectively, of which the former is 
represented in the photograph. This island is completely enclosed within the walls of the palace 
(whereas in the case of the other island the trees in places overhang the water), and its area of four 
acres contains not only the palace buildings, but also three distinct gardens, divided from one 
another by arcaded cloisters, in which grow oranges, mangoes, and other fruit trees, and a few 
palms, cypresses and plantains. The buildings are beautifully white, and the photograph brings 




THE BEAUTIFUL WHITE LAKE-PALACE AT UDAIPUR. 

This photograph represe-nts one o( the two beautiful palaces erected on islands in LaUe Pichola at Udaipur. capital of the 
Indian native State of iMewar. It was taken from a window in the royal palace of the Rana. overlooking the lake. It is from 
this island that Outram is said to have swum ashore, in spite of the crocodiles in the lake. 

out admirably the dazzling effect of the whole, as weU as the beauty of much of the detail, such as 
the stone trellis-work in the arcades overlooking the lake. The two halls, of two stories each, on 
the side of the island facing Udaipur Palace, are also shown, and that at the northern end. 
a square with twelve pillars in the centre and a deep verandah all round. 

The two island palaces are both attributed to Jagat Singh, Rana of the Rajput State of Mewar, 
of which Udaipur, " the City of the Sunrise," is the capital. They would thus date from the 
seventeenth century ; while Pichola Lake was formed three hundred years earher by Udai Singh, 
the Rana of those days, when he fled before the conquering Akbar, and, taking refuge in the 
mountains of Mewar, founded a new capital. He built a dyke in the valley and so formed a lake 
two miles and a quarter long by a mile and a half at the greatest width. 

Outram, the •' Bayard of India," is said once to have swum from the Jagmandir to the shore, 
in answer to a taunt from the Rana of Mewar. The presence of many crocodiles in the lake made 
this feat one of no httle danger. 



138 



The Wonders of the World 




Plmto ly] 



lUltjate. 



"SAHADEVA'S RATH," THE OLD DRAX'IDIAN MONOLITHIC 



At Mahabalipuf tliere are five monolithic temples hewn out of the sranite roclc by the Dravidians. in about the sixth century. 
Beside the fifth temple, which is shown in the illustration, there stands a laree granite elephant, which was formerly buried in a 
mound. 

Visiting Udaipur lately, Pierre Loti found the island palaces rather dilapidated and their gardens 
overrun with weeds. Nevertheless, he draws a charming word-picture of their somewhat saddened 
beauty. 

The Great Bell, Chionin Temple, Kyoto. — In the picturesque Chionin monastery, 
standing on a pine-clad hillside at Kyoto, and belonging to the Jodo sect, one of the most 
influential divisions of modern Japanese Buddhism, two of the chief treasures are a set of screens 
painted by celebrated artists in the early seventeenth century and a bell hanging in a pavilion in 
the grounds, which dates from about the same time, having been cast in 1633. Kyoto possesses 
the two largest bells in Japan, the other being that in the temple of the Daibatsu, which was cast 
eighteen years earlier. The Chionin bell — it is nearly eleven feet high as against the Daibutsu 
bell's fourteen feet — is of the same diameter, nine feet, and weighs seventy-four tons against the 
other's sixty-three. The method of ringing it is bj- striking with a great wooden beam against 
the gilded chrysanthemum, which may be plainly seen in the photograph, in the lower centre of 
the bell. It is said that it requires no less than twenty-five men to manipulate the beam so that- 
the bell may ring properly. But its voice is seldom heard, \"isitors are not allowed at the 
Chionin monastery, as at the Daibutsu temple and at Nara (where is the third largest bell in 
Japan), to pay a small sum for the pleasure of hearing the sound. Perhaps it is because of its 
being so rarely rung that it is said that, once heard, the tone of the Chionin bell can never 
be forgotten. 



Asia 



139 



It may be interesting to the reader to give for the purpose of comparison the weights of some of 
the other great bells of the world. The largest is that at Moscow, the " Tsar bell," wliich weighs 
one hundred and ninety-eight tons. This has never been used, having been cracked at the foundry. 
Moscow has another, however, which is the largest bell in use, weighing one hundred and twenty- 
eight tons. The Mingoon bell, on the Irrawadi, near tlie brick pagoda, is ninet}' tons. Peking 
has one of fifty-three and a half tons. Our bells in this country are mere pigmies in comparison, 
the Great Bell at St. Paul's, which is the heaviest, being only seventeen and a half tons. 

Monolithic Temples at Mahabalipur, near Madras.— ^-^ a point on the south-eastern coast 
of India, between Madras and Pondicherrj-, are some of the most important architectural remains 
in the whole peninsula, including what are supposed to be tlie oldest examples of the Dravidian 
rock-hewn temple. They are, at any rate, the oldest at present discovered, and are assigned by 
some authorities to the seventh century a.d., by others to the century before. The Dravidians 
(who inliabited part of India long before the Aryan invasion, and may practically be called 
aborigines), however intellectually inferior they were to the Aryans, were gifted architects ; and to 
this apparently Turanian people must be attributed the largest amount of originality which is 
displayed in Indian temple-construction. 

As might have been expected, the rock-hewn monuments have withstood tlie wear and tear 
of time better than any others, and hence for ancient Dravidian work in its most perfect form it 
is to such monolithic temples as those at Mahabalipur that we must look. Notwithstanding 
tlieir age they have lasted extremely well, and their granite lines have suffered but little in the 
course of twelve or thirteen centuries. 

Although the place is commonlv called in English " Seven Pagodas " (after a native legend 




' TVi** liook of Cft/lon," hv'] 

A WO.NDERKUL LIGHTNING LI 1 EC 1 



ON ALLAGALLA MOUNIAIN 



AliaKalla Mountain, Central Ceylon, is remarUable lor its majestic appearance durinR the numerous thunticrstorms which vi 
•Nowhere is a tropical storm more impressive 1 he thunder seems to shaUe the whole mountain, and cataracts ol water roar 
its sides 



sit it. 
'down 



140 



The Wonders of the World 



which classes together the two temples on the shore, dedicated to Vishnu and Siva, with five others 
which are said to have been buried beneath the waves), the real interest attaches to a group of five 
monoliths, standing close together biit not near the other two temples. These " five raths " 
(that is to say, chariots, from the shape of the shrines) lie four in a straight line and apparently 
all cut out of a single granite rock of gigantic proportions, and the fifth close to the others but 
a little detached and not in a line with them. It is this fifth. " Sahadeva's lath." which is 
represented in the photograph. " Though small," Fergusson's " History of Indian and Eastern 
Architecture" says, " it is one of the most interesting of the whole ; but like the others, it is very 
unfinished, especially on the east side. Its dimensions are eighteen feet in length by eleven feet 
across, and about sixteen feet in height. It faces north, on which side there is a small projecting 

portico supported by two pillars, 
and within is a small empty cell." 

There is no sure explanation of 
the fact that all these five mono- 
lithic temples are unfinished. For 
some reason or other the construc- 
tors left all of them with parts 
merely blocked out more or less 
roughly. It has been suggested 
that a race from the north, in 
temporary possession of this part 
of Madras, began the raths. but was 
driven out before they could be 
completed. Archfeologists. however, 
liave not yet satisfied themselves 
or each other with regard to the 
problem of Mahabalipur. 

Beside the fifth temple there 
has been brought to light a large 
granite elephant, shown in the 
photograph, which was formerly 
buried in a mound that can be 
seen in earlier pictures adjacent to 
the temple. 

AUagalla Mountatn.—'^hii three- 
thousand-three-hundred-and-ninetj-- 
four-feet-high peak, not far from 
Nuwera Eliya, is one of the j^finest ^sights of Central Ceylon. A precipitous mass of granite, 
it towers above beautiful vallevs and never fails to impress those who look up at it from 
the railway which has been carried along its side. The mountain is always majestic, says Mr. 
Henry W. Cave, but especially after excessive rainfall has caused cataracts to dash down from the 
peak into the valleys, increasing in volume as they go. He continues : " Tea grows upon its steep 
acclivities, and those who are occupied in its cultivation on these giddy heights are enviable 
spectators of the most varied and beautiful atmospheric scenes that are to be found in Ceylon. 
Unsettled weather is extremely frequent and is productive of an endless variety of cloud and storm 
effects. ... At one time a vast sea of mists is rolling in fleecy clouds over the lowland acres, and 
the summits of the hills are standing out from it like wooded islands; at another every shape of 
the beautiful landscape is faultlessly defined and every colour is vivid beneath the tropical sun ; 
then an hour or two will pass, and rolling masses of dense black vapours will approach the mountain. 




From Strrt'o ri'puri^jh!'] 

THE TOMB 



ABRAH.-XM. ISAAC, 



The photograph shows the staircase of the great mosque which now covers 
the supposed Cave of Machpclali. at Hehron. where the three patriarchs and their 
wives were buried 



142 



The Wonders of the World 




J«*-. 







i'/iu/K by] 



THE WALLS OF JERICHO. 



lAinerican Coiuiiy^ Ja-UMtli'i 



The excavations which have been carried on since 1907 on the site of the ancient Jericho have revealed a wonderful piece of 
Canaanitish architecture, which proves that Joshua's capture of the place was indeed a great feat. The photograph shows two of 
the features of the great walls the courses of large stone-blocks which \vere laid over the rock foundations, and the remains of the 
mud-bricU top wall 

while the sunbeams play on the distant hills ; now the sun becomes obscured, a streak of fire flashes 
through the black mass, and immediately the whole mountain seems shaken by the terrific peal 
of thunder — thunder of a quality that would turn any unaccustomed heart pale. Then follows 
a downpour at the rate of a full inch an hour ; the cascades turn to roaring cataracts, the dry 
paths to rushing torrents and the rivulets to raging floods. The rice-fields suddenly become 
transformed into lakes and the appearance of the valleys suggests considerable devastation by 
water ; but it is not so ; the torrent passes away almost as suddenly as it comes, and the somewhat 
bruised and battered vegetation freshens and bursts into new life as the heavy pall of purple cloud 
disperses and the gleams of the golden sun return to cheer its efforts." 

The Cave of Machpelah. — Among the various places in Palestine connected with Biblical 
history a special authenticity is claimed for the sepulchres of the patriarchs Abraham. Isaac and 
Jacob, and their respective wives, Sarah, Rebekah and Leah. It will be remembered that, on 
the death of Sarah, Abraham purchased from Ephron the Hittite, for four hundred shekels of 
silver, " the field of Machpelah " — or " the field of the Machpelah," as it is said the correct 
translation should be — at Hebron in the land of Canaan. In this field was a cave in a hillside, 
which was used as the last resting-place, not only of Sarah, but also of Abraham himself, his two 
successors, and their wives. Overlooking the modern Hebron is a large Mohammedan mosque, 



Asia 



143 



which stands over an underground cave, said by the continuous tradition of the last eight centuries 
to be this identical cave-tomb. Before the beginning of the twelfth century a.d. there is no certain 
record, but it is known that at this period pilgrims were wont to visit the spot. The old Jewish 
traveller Benjamin of Tudela writes : 

At Hebron there is a 
large place of worship calico 1 
Saint Abraham, which was 
previously a Jewish syna- 
gogue. The natives erected 
there six sepulchres, which 
they tell foreigners are those 
of the patriarchs and theii 
wives, demanding money as 
a condition of seeing them. 
If a Jew gives an additional 
fee to the keeper of the cave 
an iron door, wliich dates 
from the time of our fore- 
fathers, opens, and the visitor 
descends with a lighted can- 
dle, crosses two empty caves, 
and in the third sees si.x 
tombs, on which the names 
of the three patriarchs and 
their wives are inscribed in 
Hebrew characters. The cave 
is filled with barrels contain- 
ing the bones of people, which 
are taken thither as to a 
sacred place. At the end of 
the field of the Machpelah 
stands Abraham's house, witii 
a spring in front of it." 

Whatever the nature (if 
the earlier building on the 
site, the Crusaders in the 
second half of the twelfth 
century built a church there, 
which the Mohammedans con- 
verted into a mosque, known 
as El Haram. The celebrati ^ 
cave is beneath the found, 1 
tions of this, which are " 
hard red rock. The ca\ 1 
however, is most jealously 

1 J A !■ A ^ rftotti I'U'i Mini t'/ns^r. 

guarded. Accordmg to an ■' ^ ^^^^^ 3^,^^^ ,,^ ^,^^,^,, 

account given by \'ere Monro TI,<t bridse ran>itla o( three pint: ihe .pUl cone.. »vhich provide ihe rail, on eilher 

in iS"^^ ^which he anDarentlv •ide: ihe uneplil bamboo., two or three tosether, *vhich mnlcc the RanRway ; and the 

withe., bark'.trand., or .trip, of cane that form the loop, in which the gangway hanga 

got from a Mohammedan), it between the rail. 




144 



The Wonders of the World 



was never entered, but was constantly illuminated by a lamp lowered by cords through the 
floor of the mosque. Jews were allowed to peep at it through a small hole, but Christians were 
strictly warned off. , Describing a visit in 1865, H. B. Tristram writes : " We were permitted 
to ascend the staircase which rises gently from the south-east corner of the enclosure, having 
the massive stones of the Haram wall at our left, smooth and polished like marble. The 
enclosure embraces not a level space, but the side of a very steep hill, just such as would contain 
a sepulchral cave." 

The visitors then were not allowed to see more than the staircase of the mosque. Things have 
changed but Httle since that day. The wall of the Haram, some fifty feet high, prevents the 

inquisitive eye from seeing more, even 
of the mosque, than its guardians 
choose, and the question as to what 
lies now in the cave still remains un- 
answered. " The discovery of Jacob's 
Egyptian wrapping (the mummy will 
be missing)," says the Rev. F. \V. 
Birch, " beneath the great mosque 
would virtually settle the site of the 
cave of Machpelah." But there is no 
opportunity at present even for making 
a search. 

The Sacred Water of the Ganges. — 
Few scenes of religious observance are 
more remarkable than those which 
may be witnessed in connection with 
the ablutions of Hindu pilgrims in 
the river Ganges, where it flows past 
Benares, Northern India's holiest city. 
The Ganges is said to spring from 
Siva's head. It rises, in fact, in the 
Himalayas, Siva's legendary abode, 
and it is to a city which particularly 
venerates Siva that it comes when 
it reaches Benares. Therefore the 
devout are receiving special edifica- 
tion when they visit Benares and 
dip themselves in the sacred stream. 
Ganges water is of a greenish tint and 
somewhat thick with the mud brought 
down from the Himalayas. In addition, 
it receives a heavy burden at Benares of flower-offerings and funeral ashes, to say nothing of the 
dead bodies of ascetics of unusual sanctity, which it is customary to entrust to the stream. 
Nevertheless, the water is esteemed to have wonderful virtue and to be able to cleanse from 
both disease and sin. Baths are taken by men, women and children alike, either in the river 
itself, in tanks filled from it, or in holy wells in the city. The great tank of Pischamochan 
(" Deliverance from Demons ") is much frequented by pilgrims, as to wash in it is considered a 
most efficacious way of driving out evil spirits. Western observers are wont to shudder at 
the sight of so many and so various specimens of humanity bathing together in one spot — and 
in water already so polluted : but the pilgrims enter the tank witli the utmost joy and faith. 




Stereo by] 



[//. C. White Vo. 



A NORTH CHINA TOMB. 



In NortK China the character of ih? tombstones varies very little. There 
is a slab in front of the tomb, and immediately above the inscription of this 
there is engraved the head of a reptile. The stone, which is placed in a 
perpendicular position, rests upon the fiirure of a tortoise. 



146 



The Wonders of the World 




From Stereo eopyriLjIW] \_l'ndericood J: i'tuiericood. 

GIANT WISTARIA AT KASUKABE. TOKYO. 

This thousand-year-old tree covers an area of 60 by 100 feet. 



The Walls of Jericho. — Few excavations of 
recent times have had results of a more interesting 
nature than those on the site of the ancient 
Jericho, and they have revealed that the Jews had 
every right to be proud of their capture of the 
Canaanitish fortress. 

Four years ago there stood at a distance of a 
mile and a half from the modern Jericho a huge 
oval mound, known as Tell es-Sultan, about four 
hundred yards long by one hundred and eighty 
\ards at its greatest breadth, and rising from forty 
to fifty feet above the level of the surrounding 
plain, with a few smaller mounds standing on the 
top. Professor Sellin began work on this, aided 
first by the Austro-Hungarian Government and 
then by the German Oriental Society. He has 
unearihed a tremendous surrounding wall and part 
of the interior of the town, including the citadel 
within the northern end of the oval. The outer 
wall proved to consist of three parts. The lowest 
section was a solid natural rock foundation, with a 
few feet of loam and gravel on it. On this was 
built a stone wall about sixteen feet high, the two 
lower courses being of enormous blocks, in some cases as large as six feet by three,, while in the 
subsequent ones the stones grow gradually less in size. The stone wall itself also diminishes in 
thickness as it ascends, being eight feet at its base. The top section is of mud-brick, which 
reaches now to a height of about eight 
feet, but may originally have been con- 
siderably higher. Towers of mud - brick 
project at intervals round the whole enclo- 
sure. 

Such a fortification must indeed have 
been difficult to capture, especially as in 
the central tier of the wall the spaces be- 
tween the blocks were filled with smaller 
stones as a protection against the besiegers' 
tools. The builders were very skilful crafts- 
men. Those who have examined the remains 
of both Jericho and Troy find strong resem- 
blances between the walls just described and 
those of the " second city " discovered by 
Professor Schliemann at Troy, and it is 
suggested that the architects had something 
in common, or learned from the same 
masters. 

The citadel at Jericho is hardly less in- 
teresting than the outer fortifications. Its 
walls are built in much the same way, but stereo ky] [//. c. iVMie co. 

they are double, with a space of eleven to Wista.ia blossoms in swaying sarlands in Kameldo Park Tokyo 







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B^hSQS«Sp^^tv^B 








H^^^Hv BhBI 


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H^S 




uHk^^lU 





Asia 



147 



W^^ 



twelve feet between them. Two towers 
rise at the two northern angles. Within 
is what the writer of an article in the 
Builder describes as " a perfect warren 
of small houses," with only a single 
thoroughfare among them, as is the 
case with many Eastern bazaars of to- 
day. These houses, of which one is in 
a very fair state of preservation, seem 
to be later in date than the city walls, 
and to belong to the period after the 
Jewish capture of the place. The 
Canaanites, between the seventeenth 
and fourteenth centuries B.C., erected 
the walls, and probably- the greater 
part, if not all, of the citadel ; but the 
Jews, while utilizing the shell, re- 
modelled the interior. A thorough 
examination of the finds, however, is 
necessary before anything can be de- 
duced as to the history of Jericho after 
its fall before the army of Joshua. 
Two interesting points have come out 
already — one, that much Egyptian 
pottery was in use ; the other, that 
under the floors of some of the houses 
were earthenware jars containing the 
bodies of infants. 

The sand which composed the mound 
of Tell es- Sultan has had an excellent 
preservative effect, and now that much 
of it has been cleared away, it is pos- 
sible to realize vividly how imposing a 
place Jericho must once have looked 
from the plain for miles around. 

Cane Bridges in Sikkim. — A bridge 
constructed chiefly of the bamboo 
cane, which grows abundantly along 
the banks, is the ordinary means of crossing the rivers of Sikkim. That which is illustrated in the 
photograph is suspended over the Tista, a tributary of the Brahmaputra. In appearance it much 
resembles the iron, rope and plank bridge in Tibet already described : and also the all-rope bridge 
over the Astor River, North-West Provinces, of the crossing of which Colonel Algernon Durand 
gives a vivid account in his " Making of a Frontier." Indeed, the general plan of these bridges 
is the same all along the northern boundary of India. The only differences are in the materials 
used. Wherever possible, a high take-off is secured on both sides of the stream to be traversed, 
thus allowing for the inevitable sagging in the centre. The ends are made fast to rocks or trees. 
In Sikkim the bridge itself consists of three parts — the split canes which provide the rails on either 
side ; the unsplit bamboos, two or three together, wliich make tlie gangway ; and the withes, 
bark-strands, or strips of cane that form the loops in which the gangway hangs between the rails. 




1 



Photo by'] \l'r. AhiloUah Afir:n. 

THE MIXAK Al DAMullW. 

ThiB tower opparrntly bclones to the early days of the Mohammedan 
dominalion in Persia. It is the most noteworthy objeci amon^ the extensive 
remains of what was a creal city until two disasters in the seventeenth ccnttir>' 
brought it to rujn 



^.^w^- 




Asia 



149 



That it is an unpleasant sensation to pass along one of these frail structures over a raging torrent 
can easily be imagined. In her " Lepcha Land," Mrs. Donaldson writes, of such an experience : 
"As it was impossible to cross without picking one's way very carefully along the swaying line 
of bamboo, the unaccustomed eye was dazzled and bewildered with the tumultuous white-crested 
water dashing over the boulders — it being completely visible to the traveller, as there were practically 
no sides to the bridge and nothing between him and the dangerous waters beyond the slender 
bamboo line, not more in width than half the length of his foot." 

These cane bridges are sometimes as much as three hundred and fifty feet long. They are 
renewed every year ; or, at least, should be, for often the task is neglected, and then the supports 
give way after the rainy season, with the result of accidents and even deaths in the waters 
beneath. 




Pholo 61/] 



i- s}ii'p)ift\l , [ioinlfay. 



DEODAR BRIDGE, SRI.NAGAR, KASHMIR 

Tnc loundAlions of ihe bridge arc mad= o\ old boats filled with stones and sicnite. Above these are piled up loss of the 
deodar in alternate layers at right angles to each other. On the top of these more logs are laid on the cantilever principle, and 
the roadviray is carried over these. 

A North China Tomb. — Nowhere in the world is the tomb so much in evidence as in China 
— north, south, east, or west. The veriest globe-trotter has this fact forced on his attention as he 
visits the coast ports. Vast cemeteries surround the big towns, and isolated graves are scattered 
broadcast over the hillsides. There is a great varietj' in the style of these tombs, according to their 
age, their locality, and the rank of their occupants ; but everywhere they are a feature of tiic scene 
which cannot be overlooked. In the south the prevalent type is the horseshoe-shaped grave. In 
East Central China one finds many mausoleums built of brick, with the coffins raised above the 
ground upon trestles. In the north tombs with a superstructure such as is represented in the 
photograph are common, for the more illustrious dead, at least. The character of the tombstone 
varies less. The Rev. J. H. Gray, though he was speaking chiefly from his observations in the 
neighbourhood of Canton, might have been describing the picture before us when he wrote : " The 
slab which is placed in front of the tomb of a duke, marquis, or earl, is ninety Chinese inches iiigh 
and thirty-six Chinese inches wide. Immediately above the inscription there is engraved a 



I50 



The Wonders of the World 



representation of the head of a reptile thirty-two inches broad, called by the Chinese Lee. The 
stone, which is placed in a perpendicular position, rests upon the figure of a tortoise thirty-eight 
inches thick." 

The tombstone of each descending class is marked by a diminution in size, and the carving 
on the top of the stone changes according to the rank of the person buried under it. 

The epitaph gives the name and generation of the deceased, the days of his birth and death, 
his titles, the names of his sons and grandsons, the village in which he lived, and in some cases a 
summary of his virtues. 

Japan's Giant Wistarias. — 
Japan is happy in possessing 
the lovely wistaria among 
its common plants. But, al- 
though it grows wild about 
the country, the Japanese de- 
vote much attention to the 
training of it, so as to make 
of its strong green cables and 
purple and white flower- tassels 
the most fascinating arbours, 
roofs, verandahs, etc. After 
the cherry - blossom season is 
over, toward the end of April, 
the wistaria becomes the chief 
attraction of temple enclo- 
sures, tea-houses and private 
gardens. Supported by trellis- 
work, the plant attains to 
dimensions which in some cases 
are truly astonishing. 

The most beautiful example 
of the Japanese culture of the 
wistaria is to be seen in the 
grounds of the Kameido temple 
at Tokyo, in making pilgrimages 
to which the natives at least 
can combine sesthetic satis- 
faction and pious observance. 
For the temple is dedicated 
to Tenjin, the god of learning 
and of handwriting, whose 
history is rather interesting. In the ninth century a.d. a certain Sugahara Michizane won 
for himself the title of " The Father of Letters." He was banished, but afterwards canonized 
as the god Tenjin, on account of manifestations of the wrath of Heaven. The Kameido temple 
is not in itself very magnificent nor w-ell kept, but, at any rate, its wistarias make it a popular 
resort. About half of the grounds (which are said to have been laid out in imitation of some at 
Sugahara's place of exile) consists of fish-ponds, surrounded by flagged paths and roofed over 
with wistaria, growing so thickly on the wooden trellis that the view of the sky is almost 
completely shut out. Concerning the pendant trails of blossom, Mrs. Hugh Fraser says in " A 
Diplomatist's Wife in Japan " : " Their odorous fringes hang four or five feet deep in many 




From Stf'rro atpiirighf] li'iiilericoud ^(. ! n.i ,. - 

THE SHRINE OF THE MANGER. BETHLEHEM. 

In the copl under llie Cliarch of St. Mary, which the Emperor Constantine erected 
on the site of the inn at Bethlehem, are shown both the spot where Jesus Christ was born 
and a facsimile of the manger in which He was laid. The original manger, discovered 
by Constantine's %v:fe. it was said, was carried away to Rome 



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^52 



The Wonders of the World 




Pftoto hy'] \^The Amei'icnn Colony, Jerusalem. 

THE RUINS OF PALMYRA. 

Palnnyra. built on the site of Solomon's foundation, " Tadaior in 
the wiIde«Tiess." renwins to this day the completest collection of 
ruins in Syria, the walls at the period of the Palmyran republic's 
greatness having a circumference of about a dozen miles, as their 
vestiges show. The pKotoEraph represents a view looking westward 
along the Grand Colonnade, which ran down the centre of the main 
street and consisted of 1.500 columns in a double row 




■-v^ 



/■' ' i.} [Tyw Am^-ican Colony, Jerusalem. 

THE TEMPLE OF THE SUN. PALMYRA. 

The area covered by the ruins of this Temple is about a mile 
in circumference. Part of the building, including the inner shrine, 
is 'n a fair state of preservation, and the colunnne. with their 
beautiful capitals, charm the eye of the modem visitor. The 
Bedouins, who no%v dwell in the place, have chosen the Temple in 
which lo erect their huts of clay, as the photograph sho\vs in the 
foreground 



places. Little breezes lift them here and there and sway the blooms about, so as to show the 
soft shadings from pale lilac to dark purple, and the flowers as they move shed drift after drift 
of loose petals down on the water, where the fat red goldfish come up expecting to be fed with 
lard-cakes and rice-balls." 

The semi-circular bridge in the photograph of the Kameido wistaria-arbour spans what is called 
the " Pond of the Word ' Heart ' " from its fancied resemblance to the shape of the Chinese 
character for " heart." It leads to the main entrance to the temple and has a quaint superstition 
attached to it. Those who can walk in clogs over its high arch are supposed to do special 
honour to the patron god. The task is no easy one, as may be imagined. Mrs. Fraser describes 
amusingly how she and another European lady once performed the feat in boots, ignorant 
of the fact that they were thereby doing honour to the deified Michizane. 

Among the celebrated wistarias in Japan there is also another at a place called Kasukabe. 
This covers an area of no less than sixty by one hundred feet and is reputed to be five hundred 
or even a thousand years old. When it is in full bloom it presents a truly extraordinary 
spectacle, which is much enhanced by the crowd of visitors who gather under its trellis-supported 
branches. 

The Damghan To'wer. — Among the extensive ruins of Damghan, situated on the Teheran road, 
Northern Persia, and just on the outskirts of the Great Salt Desert, the most striking object is 



Asia 



1 5: 



certainly the minar represented in the photograph. This high tower, with its surface of ornamental 
brickwork (curiously like basket-work in appearance, and siiowing how the compulsory avoidance 
of the use of animal figures stimulated the ingenuity of the Moslem architect), cannot be precisely 
dated, but it has inscriptions in the old character known as Kufic, and should probably be assigned 
to the early days of tlie Mohammedan domination in Persia. Damghan's former greatness is attested 
by tradition as well as by the remains of its buildings. In the seventeenth century, however, two 
great disasters befell the place : first an earthquake, which killed forty thousand of its 
inhabitants ; and then capture by the Afghans, who slew another seventy thousand. The city 
must have suffered heavily, as well as its people, from these two blows, and seems to have been 
allowed gradually to fall into the state of ruin in which it is to-day. 

There is a curious legend connected with the neighbourhood. Not far from the minar and 
other remains of old Damghan is a spring, which is said to resent any pollution of its waters by- 
raising a great storm. A Shah of Persia once, it is told, having heard this tale and disbelieving it, 
ordered his suite to throw dirt into the spring. Straightway a great wind arose and swept away 
all the tents of the Shah's encampment. High winds are certainly prevalent around Damghan, 
and no doubt the spring is often accidentally polluted, which is sufficient to keep the quaint story 
alive to this day. 

Gigantic Boulders, Jabalpur. — The district of Jabalpur (Jubblepore), in the northern division of 
the Central Provinces of India, has been mentioned once in connection with the beautiful Marble 
Rocks already illustrated and described. The boulders represented in the present photograph 
are very different in appearance, but are no less interesting in their way. They are the remains 



■J, 







'M A. 



e^5^ 



Photo by] 

TRIUMPHAL ARCH. PALMYRA. 



[Thf- Amtrti-an Cuiuuj/t JmfH*'it^H. 



One of the mo«t striltins (rnlures of ihc mini, the arch erected lo commemorotc llv Emperor AureJinn's victoo' over Zonobia. 
which brouuhl the independent career of Paimyrn to nn end 



154 



The Wonders of the World 




I'fioto by] [T/ie Aittiraafi Cvhnv, Jermnlein. 

THE GRAND COLONNADE. PALNn RA. 

The western half of the Grand Colonnade appears above. The brackets which stand out about half-way up the columns ssrved 
to support the statues of celebrated Palmyrans. or benefactors of the city. The arc 
which cut across the double row of columns at right angles. 



the extreme right formed part of an arcade 



of great blocks of granite, marked out originally by joint-planes in the rock, and afterwards rounded 
by the action of wind and weather until they have assumed a shape much resembling that of many 
of the pebbles which we find on the sea-shore. Sir T. H. Holland, Professor of Geology at the 
University of Manchester, writes that " small hills composed of such apparently loosely piled blocks 
of granite, or granitoid gneiss, are common in various parts of peninsular India, as, for instance, 
near Jubblepore, in Northern Hazaribagh, in North Arcot, Salem, Bellary and Mysore." In some 
places the boulders have been worn into various fantastic shapes, in others they have been carved 
by human hands as they lay. The photograph shows very clearly the huge size of the Jabalpur 
specimens and the smoothness of their weather-worn surfaces. 

Deodar Bridge, Srinagar, Kashmir. — Unfortunately for lovers of the picturesque, the two 
bridges in Srinagar which used to recall to mind Old London Bridge, in that they had 
shops running along them from end to end, have recently been robbed of their chief 
attraction. The bridges remain, but the shops have been cleared away. Doubtless this is an 
improvement from the point of view of the health of the place. But visitors to the " City of the 
Sun " go in search of quaint sights rather than of sanitation. 

The bridges themselves, however, are very interesting. The Jhelum River, the Hydaspes of 
the classical writers, forms the real high street of Srinagar, cutting the town in two and having 
most of the principal business-houses built along its banks. It is spanned by seven bridges, all 
built according to the same general plan. A bridge in Kashmir is constructed in an extremely 
ingenious way, which seems peculiar to the country. The foundations are made of old boats filled 
with stones and sunk at the requisite points. On the top of these, which project just above the 
water-level in summer-time, is placed an erection of rough-hewn logs of the deodar, which grows 



Asia 



155 



so plentifully in Kashmir. The logs are piled up in alternate layers at right angles to each other, 
as children often build with sticks. On the top of these again more deodar logs are laid on the 
cantilever principle, and the roadway is carried over these. In order to protect the piers against 
the force of the stream coming down and to minimize the resistance, planks of deodar are built 
in a V-shaped cutwater, and placed in front of the sunken boats. The photograph brings out 
admirably most of the details. 

The deodar wood, a kind of cedar, seems to be remarkably proof against rot, and the common- 
sense underlying the construction of the bridges is proved by the way in which they have held out 
against the periodical heavy rushes of water. In 1893, however, very heavy floods carried away 
six out of seven of Srinagar's bridges. They have since been rebuilt in the same old style. 

The Shrine of the Manger, Bethlehem.— Among all Christian places of pilgrimage, the greatest 
autlienticity is claimed for the chapel of the Nativity in the crypts of the fine Church of Saint Mary 
at Bethlehem. It has been pointed out that Jerome (whose tomb is also in tlie crypts) was born 
but a few years after the 
Emperor Constantine built 
the original church ; and he 
says that it was on the site of 
the former inn of Bethlehem 
that the emperor built. The 
Mohammedans, compelled by 
miraculous intervention, ac- 
cording to the legend, spared 
the place ; so that the altera- 
tions which have been made 
since Constantine's days have 
been due to Christian restorers 
and enlargers of the church. 
That the hand of the destroyer 
was feared at one time is 
proved by the striking insig- 
nificance of the main entrance 
down to the present time, the 
west door being so small that 
the visitor has to stoop to 
enter by it. Nowadays, how- 
ever, the great majority of 
the inhabitants of Bethlehem 
are Christians, mainly of the 
Greek and Latin Churches. 
Bethlehem, Nazareth, and 
Cana. indeed, are the three 
most Christian localities in the 
Holy Land. The chief danger 
at Bethlehem lies in the rivalry 

of the different sects. The , „ . 

Greeks and Armenians used southern' appro.-xch. shwav dagon i'agoda 

to share the guardianship of I'hii i« tKc most (rcqumlcd entrance to the Rfeal open-air colhedral facioK the road 

the snot until tlimilP'h fhp which Iead» up from the river-bank ihroueh the heart of Rannoon. The spire of the 

' ^ paRodo appears in the baclcRround. over the tree*, while near the middle of the picture 

agency of Napoleon III.. m is one of the quaint ttidamic leoRryphs which RUnrd the entrance on either side. 




156 



The Wonders of the World 



1852, the Latins were also ad- 
mitted into an inharmonious 
partnership. 

Perhaps the best brief de- 
scription of a visit to the tra- 
ditional place of the Nativity of 
Jesus Christ is that given by Mr. 
Rider Haggard : " The transept 
and aisle of the basilica," he 
says, " have been walled off 
during the last century, so that 
all the visitor sees as he comes in 
is the noble naked nave and its 
aisles, supported by pillars, each 
hewn from a single rock. This 
part of the building is remark- 
able for its disrepair and ne- 
glected aspect " (owing to its 
being the joint property of the 
warring sectaries, he explains). 
"... After admiring the nave 
and aisles we passed into the 
transept and apse, where we saw 
the gorgeous altars of the various 
sects, and, alongside, the Latin 
church of Saint Catherine. Then 
we went down some steps into 
the chapel of the Nativity. It is 
lighted by many lamps of a good size, and marble-lined throughout. Beneath the altar a plain silver 
star is let into the pavement and with it the inscription : Hie de Virgine Maria lesus Christiis naiiis 
est. . . . Close at hand, at the foot of a few steps, is a kind of trench lined with marble, said to be 
the site of the manger in which the Lord was laid, the original (of course, discovered by the Empress 
Helena) having been despatched to Rome." 

The altar with the silver star, described above, is at the east end of the crypt, directly under 
the choir of the Church of Saint Mary. The Praesepium. or shrine of the Manger, faces it obliquely 
in an angle of the rock. Both have, no doubt, gone through many alterations since the days of 
Constantine and Helena. The priests of the Latin rite have charge now of the manger, in which 
they have laid a waxen image to represent the infant Christ. 

Island Temple in the Menam River. — Visitors to Bangkok arriving from the south, up the 
Menam, are sure to have their attention attracted by one beautiful sight after they have crossed 
the river-bar and passed between Paknam village, on the right bank, and the fort which faces it on 
the left. Described by Mr. Warrington Smyth, in his " Five Years in Siam," as " one of the 
prettiest and most characteristic things of the kind in the country," the Klang-nam prachedi and 
its accompanying buildings give a pleasant first impression of Siam. The snowy- white bell-shaped 
edifice crowned with a tapering spire, which a broad band of scarlet cloth divides from the bell, 
stands out boldly against the sky and the verdure of the river-banks ; and the triple roof of the 
bawt (the principal room of the temple, in which the seated figure of the Buddha is lodged) allures 
with its ridge-ends and eaves curving up into horns, which to the Eastern eye represent the heads 
of snakes, though to the Westerner they often suggest rather the shape of a flame. 




Pholo by] 



[H. C. White Co. 

heat 



Entrance colonnade to tKe Shway Dagon, in which visitors can shelter from thi 

of the tropical sun 







; M?f#v 



.^i\A.' w^f 



,\v 



^^wf^ 







/•ftofoby] 



SHWAY DAGON PAGODA. FROM 



\ Hrjtrj.'Jflhntlon .f floffmann. 

IHE NORIH 

-n.i. W con. 368 .„. hi.h ..„d .Kcclorc ..Ilcr .K.n S, P,.!.. i. .he c.„.r»l poin, o. .V.,.. i. ccr,.in.v on, of .Kc 
"Seven Woodc- ol .Kc modern world. I. i. covered w„h re.l «old (rom it. pinn.cle .0 ... b..e. .nd .he 
ia Kl wi.h over 4.600 diamond., etneraldi ond rubie.. 
EoU relic-cukel wid .0 conlain lour h«ir« Irom .he 



(he 
Undcrn«.th .he «oid i. «>lid brick, while buriod in ■.. lound.lioc« i. 1 
nd ot the Buddh.-whence i. i> «>melime. called .he P.«od» ol the Sacred Hair. 



158 



The Wonders of the World 



The Klang-nam island temple is picturesque rather than historically interesting. At one 
season in the year, however, it is the goal of many thousands of Siamese peasants eager to combine 
a cheerful excursion by water with the " making of merit " dear to the unsophisticated hearts of 
the Buddhist populace in this part of the world. Merit is made in this instance by the presentation 
of offerings of clothes to the monks, who naturally extend a hearty welcome to their lay friends 
and encourage them to pay their respects to the shrine. Mr. Warrington Smyth draws a charming 
picture of the festival, which takes place when the floods are at their height in October. " From 
sunset on to dawn," he says, " the little isle lies in a blaze of brightness in the great dark river; 
the crowded boats come and go into the ring of light, and the long peaked yards of the fishermen 
stand inky against the glare. The deep bass of the monks intoning in the high-roofed bawt swings 
across the water, with the subdued mirth and chatter of the never-ending stream circling round 
the pagoda. Laughing, love-making, smoking and betel-chewing, the good folks buy their offerings, 
and none omit a visit to the bawt, to light their tapers before the great Buddha." 

The name Prachedi Klang-nam, by which this temple is known, may be translated " the 
pagoda (or shrine) in the waters." 

The Ruins of Pa.myira. — Lying about one hundred and fifteen miles distant from one another 

and on opposite sides of the 
great range known as Anti- 
; Lebanon, Palmyra and Baal- 

bek are the two most won- 
derful ruined cities of Syria. 
Baalbek is perhaps the finer, 
but Palmyra is marvellous 
enough, and has a far more 
romantic history — thanks to 
its association with Zenobia, 
" Queen of the East," who 
attempted to rival the great 
Cleopatra, claimed by her as 
a kinswoman, and dispute 
the sovereignty of the world 
with Rome. 

The foundation of the 
city is ascribed to Solomon, 
who " built Tadmor in the 
wilderness " (2 Chron. viii. 4), 
doubtless on the site of an 
ancient trading - post ; for 
Tadmor, or PalmjTa, is on 
the desert route between the 
Persian Gulf and the Medi- 
terranean. From the time 
of Solomon to that of Antony 
it vanishes from history, 
though there is a legend of 
its capture and destruction 
by Nebuchadnezzar. When 
it emerges again we find it an 
independent republic, which 




Fro?n Stereo copyrighfl 



li'ndericoo-l ((- Vndeficood. 



A pause on the steep stairway formed by the lower sections of the central pagoda, 
Shway Dagon This view gives an idea of the manner in which the whole platform 
is crowded with spires, chapels, pillars, artificial trees, etc.. gifts of merit-making 
Burmans to the great shrine 



Asia 



159 



managed to secure, and sur- 
vive for some time, the 
friendsliip of Rome. To this 
period — roughly, the first 
three centuries a.d. — are to 
be ascribed nearly all the 
present remains of Palmyra. 
The Emperor Hadrian pat- 
ronized the place and named 
it after himself, Hadriano- 
polis, while about the end of 
the second century it was 
made a Roman colony, keep- 
ing its own elective senate. 
But the inscriptions dis- 
covered among the ruins 
sliow the buildings to have 
been tiie work of the 
Syrian inhabitants. The 
great Temple of the Sun was 
plundered and damaged after 
the revolt which followed 
Aurelian's capture of Pal- 
myra in 270 ; but Aurelian 
directed that it should be 
restored to its former state, 
apportioning a very large 
sum to the work. 

This Temple of the Sun 
(within the ruins of which 
the whole of the Bedouin 
population of Tadmor to- 
day lives in huts built of 
clay) covers no less than 
six hundred and forty thousand square feet, and is over a mile in circumference. 

The innermost shrine has a magnificently carved ceiling, still intact. But, alas ! there is little 
else of the temple which can be so described. 

The two other principal sights of Palmyra are the Grand Colonnade and tlic Triumphal Arcli. 
The former, which ran down the central street of the city, from the Temple of the Sun, for a distance 
of over four thousand feet, is estimated to have included fifteen hundred columns, fifty-seven feet 
in height, in a double row, each having a bracket for tlie support of statues. These inscriptions 
show to have represented celebrated Palmyrans, among them Zenobia and her husband Odenathus. 
The second photograph of the Colonnade shows a bit of the central arch, wliicli formed part of an 
arcade originally intersecting the two rows of columns. 

The threefold Triumphal Arch was set up to commemorate Aurelian's victory over Zenobia, 
which enabled him to lead her to Rome to walk behind his car— that degradation which her much- 
admired CleiijKitra had escaped with the aid of the asp. 

The Shivay Dagon Pagoda, Rangoon— \i it were necessary to pick out " Seven Wonders 
of the Modern Worid " to match the old list of seven mentioned in the Introduction of this book. 




I'JtOtO ftl/] L 

Curious figures representinK Ndts. the Burmese equivalent 
innumerable erections on the great plaifofm of tfie Shway Dreon 
tolerated the belief in these beings, wliich is firmly implanted in 



rn>' ,(■ sluyh-'rd, fiiwtban. 



of fairies, 
Buddhii* 
tfie he«rts 



on one of the 
1. in Burma, has 
af the pcosnnIO' 



» 



i6o 



The Wonders of the World 



and if we were compelled to restrict the modern list, like the old, to the works of man's hands, then 
certainly the Shway Dagon Pagoda, the great open-air cathedral of the capital of Burma, would 
have one of the first claims to inclusion. No visitor from the West, however little he may be 
touched by sympathy with the spirit of the East and with the Bunnese development of the Buddhist 
religion, can look upon it unmoved. And even the most materially minded must be forced to 
reflect, if only by the prodigious outlay of wealth which has been lavished by those thirsting to 
" make merit " with their gifts to the shrine, which, according to legend, encloses a gold relic-casket 
containing four hairs from the Buddha's head. 

The great glory of the place is the central pagoda itself, at the base of which the casket is said 




Photo Sy] IPfi-c^vnl Lnndon. Esq. 

A view showing the strange medley oi the liclily lietoiated tapeiing spiles which greet the visitor to the Shway Dagon. 

to be buried. The total height of this tapering pyramid is three hundred and sixty-eight feet ; from 
top to bottom its solid brickwork is covered with a layer of pure gold, which is completely renewed 
once in every generation. Formerly this was done entirely with gold-leaf. But at the beginning 
of the present century a new departure was made by the substitution of gold plate for leaf on 
the upper part, which is fifty-nine feet high. The surface to be covered was two thousand seven 
hundred square feet, and the cost of the operation was five hundred and fifty thousand eight 
hundred and eighteen rupees (thirty-six thousand seven hundred and twelve pounds). The lower 
part is still covered with gold-leaf, which, apart from the periodical renewal, is daily put on by 
pious pilgrims, who climb up and with their own hands affix a few leaves. The gold plating was 
substituted above owing to the inaccessibility of the upper section of the pagoda, and its con- 
sequently poor appearance after the annual rains had washed away much of the leaf. 



Asia 



i6i 



It is not only the gold covering which gives the pagoda its material value. The hti (tee) alone 
— the seven-ringed part of the pinnacle, which can be seen under the vane in the first and third 
photographs — cost sixty thousand pounds, and is hung with one hundred bells of gold and about 
fourteen hundred of silver. As for the vane, it is a mass of diamonds, emeralds and rubies, to the 
number of over four thousand si.\ hundred. Yet nothing of these jewels can ever be seen from 
below. " One cannot but recognize the nobilit\' of sentiment underlving this matter." writes ^Ir. 
Scott O'Connor. " In a like spirit, one sees placed at the climbing pinnacles of some grey cathedral 
in Europe the line work of the artist lavished on hidden gargoyles and saintly figures far out of reacli 
of the thronging world below. . . . But it is only in Burma, so often accused of superficiality, that 
men put a great ransom in jewels where no eye can testify to their splendour." 




t'liolo t'lj] 



THE RUINS OF BA.-VLBF.K. S^RIA. 



ilioii/Ui. 



The ancient Heliopolis. ihe "City oi the Sun." of ^vhich there are such %vonHcrful reinnina. is one of the most my»teriou« cities of 
antiquity. It was obviously a place of the hiehest importance, yet next to nolhine is recorded ahout it in Jewish, GreeU. or Latin authors. 
Its most notable ruins are the Temple of the Sun * of %vhich the six ereat columns stand out so plainly' and the Temple of Jupiter. 

It is practically impossible to describe the Shway Dagon in detail (as is pointed out by Mr. Scott 
O'Connor, whose own description of it in that beautiful book " The Silken l-Iast " is the most 
satisfactory in the English language), owing both to the elaboration of its architecture and to 
its constant changes as the pious Burmans add new feature to new feature. Fresh chapels, 
columns and figures are continually being set up, so that in the course of a few years the 
aspect of all except the great golden cone in the centre changes very greatly. We must be 
content, therefore, to notice a few of the most notable points about the shrine. 

The Shway Dagon stands on a height one hundred and sixty-six feet above the level of Rangoon. 
The platform which surrounds the main pagoda is about fourteen hundred feet round, and is 
ascended by four flights of steps facing north, south, east and west. Of these, the southern, the 
most used bv visitors, is shown in our first photograph. The road in front of the steps leads up 



l62 



The Wonders of the World 




Pholo ?•«] 



THE TEMPLE OF JUPITER. BAALBEK. 



inoiifh. 



Although ihis must have been a far )ess imposing structure than the great Temple of the Sun, it is in a much better state of 
preservation- Like the larger temple, it is remarkable for the largeness of th= stone blocks used in its construction. 

from the Rangoon River right through the city. The entrance colonnade, which is a late addition, 
is remarkable for the complexity of its roof. On either side sits a gigantic leogryph, of which one 
appears in the photograph. 

On the platform the mass of small shrines, etc., is positively bewildering. Some idea of the 
effect can be gathered from the fourth picture, taken from the actual side of the central pagoda. 
With the aid of this the reader may be able perhaps to realize the strange medley of tapering spires, 
richly decorated chapels, golden trees with crystal fruit, and tall pillars covered with vermilion or 
with glass mosaic, which greets the eyes of the visitor to the Shway Dagon. The figures, too, 
which surround the pagoda are worthy of study, whether they be of Nais — the fairies or nature- 
spirits of primitive Burma, tolerated by Buddhism because the belief in them is ineradicable among 
the Burmese peasantrj'^ — or of elephants and the various fabulous beasts that share with the 
elephant the animal world as it appears in the temples of the Far East. In few places on earth 
can tliere be seen so curious and charming a blend of the beautiful and the grotesque as on the 
platform of Shway Dagon. And in the midst rises the great golden mass which, in the word? of 
Mr. H. Fielding, seems to shake and tremble in the sunlight like a fire, while, as the wind blows, 
the tongues of the bells at its summit move to and fro, and the air is full of music, so faint, so 
clear, like " silver stir of strings in hollow shells." 





7f -y, TT—*— 



^ 



iiiiili'triiii'*^tfe 



Jy-fi. 



Painlcil by O. H. Uiluards. ' '" * Hn.ifnuinil. 

THE PHAKM. MOSQUE, l)i;i.Hl. 

ThouKh only sixty feet squnre. AuninK/.ch's little nlnsgue iit white marble is wiinderluMy beautiful when seen at cliise 

quarters. In Kraec. simplicity, and perfect proportion, it has been said, this IVarl .Mosgue cannot be surpassed. Particularly 

noteworthy is the curving parapet with its rich traciiv •■' t. n.lrjK r.li.vmL; i lu ni,.n,,t,i.n cif thi- wliUt- (.n.ule. 




/•/,-.(.. I'll III- ] 



(V. 1.1 J., /.nn.hii. 



COLUMNS OK 1HE TEMPLE OK THE SUN. BAALBtk. 

Thcuc six srenl columns nre -ilmosl nil ihol rcmoin. o( ihc srcol Temple o( tlic Sun. wliicli the Roman Emperor Anloninu« Pius creeled, 
probably on ihe aile o( on earlier nhrine o( llie Syrlnn Kod Bool. The diwippeariince of ihe bulk of ihe lemple ««• due portly lo llie Kenerjl 
inlroHuclion of Clirislionity ihrouehoul llie Empire, pnrlly lo ihe convertio.n of ihe file into n forlre.. bv ih- Aroba in tlie Middle A«e». 



164 



The Wonders of the World 



CHAPTER VI. 



B>/ PHILIP W. SERGEANT. 

Baalbek, the " City of the Sun." — This famous ruined city, lying north of Damascus and 
close to the foot of the Anti-Lebanon range, remains to this day somewhat of a mystery, although 
the excavations of German archaeologists, which began in the year 1900, have helped to solve some 
of the problems in connection with it. There is very little that is known for certain of its history, 
considering how important a place it was through its situation on the land-route from Egypt to 
Asia Minor and Europe. No recognizable reference to it is found in the Old Testament. Greek 
and Latin writers of the period when it was a great Roman colony are strangely silent about it. 
An early Christian author says that " Antoninus Pius built a great temple at Heliopolis, near 
Libanus in Phcenicia, which was one of the wonders of the world." but he does not gratify our 
curiosity with details. In fact, it may be said that there are practically no sure records 

about it except the stones of 
its ruins. 

The chief temple, mainly 
the work of the Emperor An- 
toninus Pius in the second 
half of the second century a.d., 
must have been a stupendous 
concern, r'.nough unhappily 
little reir. ^ms beyond six tall 
columns with a cornice on the 
top and three enormous stones, 
all over si.xty feet long, four- 
teen feet high, and about 
twelve feet thick. These three 
stones, known to archcTologists 
as the Trilithon, formed part 
of the supporting wall at the 
western end of a huge artificial 
mound, roughly eight hundred 
and fifty feet by four hundred 




this 



teet. 

On 
raised liis 
its courtyards 



mound Antoninus 

mighty temple, 

and portico, 

the 



Photo bv] 

THE TEMPLE OF JUPITER. 

TKe porlal of the smaller temple at Baalbek is in 
servation to show how fine must have been even the 
at this marvellous city 



BAALBEK. 






sufficiently 


good state 


of pre- 


s important 


of the two 


' shrracs 



fifty feet above the original 
level of the ground, from 
which a long flight of steps 
led up to the entrance. It 
-(•ems to have been intended 
at first to place gigantic 
blocks of stone similar to the 
Trilithon on the north and 
south sides of the temple ; and 



Asia 



165 




GR.WES OF" THE FORT^-SE^E^ ROMNS. lOK^O. 

These are the actual graves of the heroes of a tale of barbarous chivalry made familiar to the West by numerous writers on Japan. The 
affair tool* place at the bettinninj; of the eighteenth century, but the cemetery is still unceasingly visited by pilgrims. On the large tomb 
'that of the lord of Alco. whose death the ronins avrnged J may be seen the visiting-cards of those who have paid their respects to the 
memory of the dead. 

there is in the ancient quarries just outside Baalbek one of them. sevent\--one feet long, thirteen 
high and fourteen thick, and estimated to weigh no less tlian three million pounds. (A photograph 
will be found in the Introduction.) It is supposed that the architects found it impossible to move 
this, the mightiest stone ever hewn, and so left it in the quarries and abandoned the idea of placing 
such blocks on the north and south sides, completing the temple foundations without them. 

The building was apparently finished in the course of the third century. Then came tiie othi^ial 
adoption of Christianity in the Roman Empire. Theodosius closed this last of all the pagan temples, 
but did not go so far as to destroy it. He seems to have been content to erect a church upon its 
courtyard, probably utilizing some of the temple materials to do so. The church was rebuilt 
later, but when the modern excavators dug down they found still embedded in its pavement the 
old stone altar, twenty-eight feet square, which had stood before the temple steps. This seems to 
date from the time of Antoninus, not from the prs-Roman period, as was at first supposed : but 
there may ha\c been an earlier altar to the Syrian god Baal before. Baal was a sun-god. and 
Antoninus's temple was dedicated to Jupiter in liis aspect of the sun-god — whence the name 
Heliopolis, City of the Sun. 

.\fter the Christians came the Arabs in the Middle Ages, who converted the whole of the great 
l^latform into a fortress, using up much of the temple buildings for its walls, but happily leaving a 
few remains to us to wonder at to-day. 



1 66 



The Wonders of the World 



So these six columns and the Trihthon record the remarkable history of a spot first Syrian, then 
pagan Roman, then Byzantine Christian, then Arab — and now no man's. 

The smaller ruin, which is on a lower mound to the south of the Temple of the Sun, was a shrine 
of Jupiter in his more ordinary Roman aspect. JMuch more of its structure is still standing, including 
some fine columns and a good deal of the main walls. Some surprisingly large hewn stones were 
used in its construction, if none to match the giants of the Temple of the Sun. It had a flight of 
thirty-five steps leading up to it. which have been discovered embedded in the Arab building which 

covered part of it in medisval 
times. 

Of the Christian remains at 
Baalbek nothing seems very 
ancient, except perhaps the 
triple apse at the west end of 
the church in the great court- 
yard. This is attributed to Theo- 
dosius's reign (378-395 a.d.), 
the rest of the church being 
tlie work of restorers. 

Of the Baalbek of to-day 
Mrs. G. Lowthian Bell writes : 
The great group of temples 
and enclosing walls set between 
the double range of mountains, 
Lebanon and Anti-Libanus, pro- 
duces an impression second to 
none save the temple group of 
the Athenian Acropolis, which is 
easily beyond a peer. The de- 
tails of Baalbek are not so good 
as those at Athens. . . . But 
in general effect Baalbek comes 
nearer to it than any other mass 
of building, and it provides an 
endless source of speculation to 
such as busy themselves with the 
combination of Greek and Asiatic 
genius that produced it and 
covered its doorposts, its archi- 
traves and its capitals with orna- 
mental devices, infinite in variety 
as they are lovely in execution." 
TTie Graves of the Forty-seven Ronins, Tokyo. — No tale of old-time Japan is more impressive 
than that of the revenge exacted by the forty-seven loyal retainers of the lord of Ako for their 
master's death. Western visitors to Tokyo are naturally drawn to the little cemetery on the hillside, 
known as Sengakuji, where lie buried the remains of the heroes whose story has long been familiar 
to them through the works of various writers on Japan. It is perhaps unnecessary to repeat here 
how Asano Takuni-no-kami. in return for a series of insults, struck a court official and was forced 
therefore to commit suicide; how his retainers in consequence became ronin ("wave-men" 
i.e., attached to no master), and determined to wreak vengeance on the insulter ; how, after a 




^ereograph htt'\ 

THE MOST BEAUTIFUL 
IKis title is claimed for Akbar's arch i 
FittehpurSikri. near Agra. Both the signs o 
a saying of Jesus, on whom be peace ! "" sh< 



GATE 



[y/. r. liVc/r' Co., London 
IN THE WORLD. 

i front of the courtyard of iKe mosque 

Hindu influence and an inscription quolin: 
vv the lolertttion of the great Mohammsdan. 



at 




11. 



ONE OF THE PECHABURI CAVE TEMPLES. 

I he whole of a limrslonr hill al Prchnhuri, in ^^ citrrn Siam. it nalurally hollowed out into cavrrn*. which have been converted into 
Buddhist shrineii and adorned with quantilirs of innaKc* on every jullinK crag and in every rcceit. 1 he cave represented in the pKotoRraph 
■ fc i.luminalrd throush on openins in the hilliidp' Other* have to he seen hy Icrchliithl. 



1 68 



The Wonders of the World 




.Stereograph by'] 



III. I'. M'hite Co., London 



PRINCIPAL ALTAR IN THE FIVE GENII TEMPLE. CANTON. 



The Temple of the Five Genii is dedicated to the sods presiding over Earth. Air. Water. Metal, and Wood, who sit upon the high 
altar, with five stones at their feet which are supposed lo be the petrified bodies of the rams upon which they rode to visit Canton. 

long interval, they broke into his castle one snowy winter's night, slew him. and carried his head 
to their master's grave ; and how then they all solemnly committed suicide, in the approved 
Japanese way, and were buried in the same cemetery. All this occurred at the beginning of the 
eighteenth century ; but to this day pilgrims of all classes of society have never ceased to come to 
Sengakuji to pay their respects to the memory of the Forty-seven, to place little offerings of 
evergreens in the bamboo vases and burn incense-sticks before the tombstones, and finally to leave 
their visiting-cards — for in China and Japan alike, this token of homage is never omitted at the 
grave. 

There are in the cemetery, as even the merest sightseer is bound to notice, not only the large 
tomb of Takuni-no-kami and the smaller ones of the Forty-seven, but also a forty-eighth small 
tomb. In this was buried the body of a man from Satsuma, who committed suicide in remorse 



Asia 



169 



«H«^ 



for his conduct toward Kuranosuke, the leader of the roniiis. The latter, in order to put his dead 
lord's enemy off the scent and disguise his intentions of revenge, gave himself up temporarily to 
riotous living, and was seen Ij'ing drunk in the gutter at Kyoto. Thinking he had forgotten his 
duty, the Satsuma man spat in his face and reviled him. When he heard of Kuranosuke's deed 
and death, he came to Sengakuji and killed himself in front of his grave. Having thus expiated 
his offence, he w-as buried with those whom he had misjudged. 

In the courtyard of the temple (which lies below the graveyard on the hillside) there is a 
chapel where, ranged beneath a gilt figure of Kwannon, goddess of mercy, stand some wooden 
images of the lord of Ako and the faithful Forty-seven. The carving is good and extremely 
reahstic, the faces being coloured in natural hues and the clothing lacquered. To this chapel, 
as to the cemetery itself, visitors repair to pay their respects. 

Marvellous Gateivayi at FaUehpur-Sikri. — The great Akbar built Fattehpur-Sikri. not far 
irom Agra, and made it his favourite abode. According to the storv. the Mohammedan prince 
was returning home from the conquest of Khandesh, having in his company his Hindu wife, and 
rested at the foot of the hill on 
which he afterwards built. It 
happened that the twin children 
of the royal pair had just died, 
to their great grief. On the hill 
dwelt a hermit of much sanctity, 
who promised Akbar that he 
should have another son if he 
would set up a palace here. Ak- 
bar accepted the proposal, and 
in due time the son, Jehangir, 
was born. 

The buildings at Fattehpur- 
Sikri are mainly of the red sand- 
stone of which the hill itself is 
composed. Owing, no doubt, to 
Abkar's wife having been a Hindu 
princess, strong Hindu influence 
is evident in the architecture, 
even of the mosque — which, by 
the way, Fergusson considers one 
of the finest in all India. As 
for the gateway in front of the 
mosque, critics have not hesitated 
to call it the most beautiful in 
existence. 

" To speak of it as a gate- 
way conveys no meaning of the 
building," says Mr. G. W. Forrest. 
" It is a triumphal arch, and 
compared with it the Arch of 
Constantine or the Arch of 
Titus is poor. . . . The grey 
and pink sandstone columns, 
the marble ornaments, the bold, 




From .sr^rtv foj/j/mj/tl] 



Ifwh-iicm.l ,{■ T/i ;.-;if,i.i.;. 



THE WALLS OF PEKING. 
h<- InbellcH 



lliit picture misht hp labelled " unchanRinK CKina." lor Irom lime* immemorial 
aimilar trairiB ol rameU have madr their way to PeltinR Irom the Mongolian deaerik and 
returned with a chanee of commoditiep. The actual walU which we »ee in the hack- 
eround. however, only dote Irom the fifteenth century, as lor a» their brick catinB it 
concerned. Previouily PckinB wob walled with beaten earth only. 



lyo 



The Wonders of the World 



flowing Arabic characters on the white ground, all lend grace to one of the finest portals in 
the world." 

Strange to say, on this memorial of his victory, Akbar caused to be carved the following among 
other inscriptions : " Said Jesus, on whom be peace : The world is a bridge, pass over it. but 
build not a house upon it. The world is but an hour, spend it in devotion, the rest is unseen." 

Between the gateway and the mosque is a courtyard five hundred feet square, with a cloister 
running all round it ; and on the right side of this, after entering through the gate, is a tomb built 
entirely of white marble. This covers the remains of the holy man who induced Abkar to settle 
at Fattehpur-Sikri, and who was thus honoured in return for the birth of Jehangir. Close at hand 

are the remains of Akbar's 
palace ; but the whole place 
is deserted now. Happily the 
beautiful gateway still stands 
intact. 

Cave Temple, Pechabart, 
Siam. — The town of Pechaburi. 
in Western Siam. although it 
is up-to-date enough to have 
a railway running to it from 
Bangkok, has its chief claim 
to attention in some wonderful 
limestone caverns in a hill, 
which pious Siamese have 
converted into underground 
temples to the Buddha. The 
hill is little more than a shell, 
so much is it honeycombed 
with these caves, and at its 
summit is a large hollow, which 
gave early observers from the 
West the mistaken impression 
that it was volcanic in origin. 
But its hollowing-out is to be 
paralleled elsewhere in the case 
of limestone outcrops. 

Describing how the Pecha- 




St/'iror/rtip/t hu] 



THE HATA-MEN. 



PEKING. 

in the wall 



vhich divides the Tartar 



Th? Hata-inen. or "Gate of Sublime Learning, 
from the Chinese quarter of Peking, played a great part in the historic siege of the Legations 
in 1900. The adjacent wall ^vas one of the keystones of the defence. 



buri cave-temples are reached 
by stairways hewn out of the 
solid rock, Mr. Ernest Young 
continues : " One of them 
receives its light through a crater-like opening in the hillside ; some of them are too dark to be 
visited without the aid of torches or lanterns. The floors have in all cases been nicely levelled 
and sanded, while one has been neatly tiled." [This is the cave represented in our photograph.] 
" Idols are arranged in rows round the sides, and Buddhas in standing, sleeping, or sitting 
postures occupy every jutting crag and hollow corner. Tiny holes, often hidden behind a 
gigantic image, lead into little, dark, dirty, damp recesses with plank-beds and torch-smoked 
altars, where hermits live, or years ago lived, in retirement. There is something almost 
grotesque in these cavern interiors. Huge stalactites and stalagmites shine in the light of the 
entering sun, or look gloomy and solemn in the fitful spluttering of the smoky torches." 



apiiPJiF'*''" 




■ m □ vra^ or 




'11. i\ \nii.- 



, /..ifi.l.'n. 



Stfi-fnarnph hvl «,-... ».^ 

THE WALLS OF PEKING 

Grr.l low«. .urmounl thrm .1 in.<-rv.l.. «• .1 ihc anil.. rcDrr.rnlrd .hove. 



172 



The Wonders of the World 



Nature has done much for the appearance of these cave-temples. But, as Mr. Young remarks, 
the grandeur and strength of the great pillars and deep recesses tend to make the gilded figures 
which man has introduced among them look more tawdry than when they are seen in their more 
suitable surroundings in brick and wooden temples. 

The total number of images in the series of caves at Pechaburi is very large ; but there is nothing 
like the accumulation seen in the cave at Moulmein, described in Chapter I. The Pechaburi shrines 
are certainly the more impressive for not having been made to look so much like old curiosity 
shops. 

Temple of the Five Genii, Canton. — The Temple of the Five Genii (or Five Immortals. 
as it is also sometimes called by English writers) is one of the sights of Canton which tourists, wisely, 
make a point of visiting ; for it has many points of interest. Its name is due to its dedication 
to the five gods who preside over the elements of Earth, Air, Water, Metal and Wood. These 
divinities, according to the legend, once descended from heaven and rode into Canton upon five 
rams, bringing with them five kinds of grain as a gift, and bestowing a blessing upon the markets 
of the city. Then they rose into the sky and disappeared. The rams were left behind and took 
the form of five stones, which are now in the temple. The Five Genii sit in a row on the principal 
altar, strikingly vivid in their colouring, and at the feet of each is placed one of the petrified rams. 
To this quaint legend is due Canton's title of " the City of the Rams." 




THE 'lOMEl GAIE. MKKO. JAPAN. 

This is the most beautilul of the gateways in the temple buildings at Nikko a place of vi/hich, takci 
Until you have seen Niklto. don't use the word k^kko CbeautifulJ. 



vholc, ihe Japanese say : 



Asia 



173 




t'fovf Sierto lopyri'j/i/ \ 



li'udfftcooil tC L'niii'rwood. 



■HEAR NOT. SPEAK NOT. SEE NOT E\ IL ' 

Marvellous cnrvinE of thrre monlceys. illustralinE the above principle, over the doorwny of one of tKe leniple buildings al Nikko. 

The temple has, besides these figures of the tutelary genii and their rams, a colossal footprint of 
the Buddha in black basalt ; a great bell in a tower in front of the main shrine, cast in the fourteentli 
century and said never to be struck without bringing ill-luck upon Canton {which, of course, explains 
why on one occasion, after a chance shot from a British warship had pierced the bell, the city was 
captured) ; and altars to a number of deities, whom the hospitable Five Genii permit to dwell in 
their temple. These lodgers include a Cliinese form of Hanuman, the Indian monkey-god. who 
appears here clad in a brilliant silk robe, and the Gods of War, deified heroes from the past 
history of China, 

This Temple of the Five Genii must not be confounded with tliat of the Five Hundred Genii, 
mentioned in Chapter III. That is situated in the western suburb, outside the city walls. This is in 
the Namhoi, or western half of Canton itself, not far to the left of the Namhoi Magistrate's Court. 

The Watts of Petting. — There is nothing in the modern world more suggestive of Babylon 
and Nineveh than tlie walls of Peking as they stand to-day. Even the oldest part of tlieir outer 
casing, however, only dates from the early fifteenth century, thougli no doubt their core of beaten 
earth is very much more ancient. It is their stupendous mass, rather than their actual age, wliich 
causes the mind to travel back to the great cities of the remote past. 

The vision of the walls bursts upon the \isitor to Peking with surprising suddenness, especially 
if he approaches by the road from the coast. Owing to tiie conformation of the vast plain, they 
are not to be seen at any distance from the south or east ; and as Peking has no suburbs, one reaches 
it abruptly, to find the walls looming up above one in a most awe-inspiring way, without a rival 
eminence in the landscape. A close e.xamination of their condition, revealing the dilapidation of 
the fortifications of the Chinese city in particular, and the fact that the guns which seem to peep 
through the embrasures are only painted imitations, brings disillusionment ; but there still remains 
the enormous size to counterbalance all shortcomings. 

The walls that surround the Tartar and Chinese cities (whicli lie toward one anotlier in the 
position of a square placed upon the top of an oblong) are of a deep grey colour, and have at intervals 
great gateways, which have been not inaptly compared with Scottish baronial keeps, and high 
towers. Those of the Tartar city are botli more massive and in better condition than the Chinese 
walls. They are about fifty feet high, with a six-foot crenellated balustrade on tlie top. In tliickness 
they are sixty feet at the base, diminishing to fifty above. Nine gateways pierce them. Of these 



174 



The Wonders of the World 



the two most famous are the Chien-men, or " Front Gate," which leads to the main entrance of the 
Imperial City and the palaces, and was partly destroyed by fire during the siege of the Legations in 
1900 ; and the Hata-men, or " Gate of Sublime Learning." which also played a big part in the 
siege, the adjacent wall being one of the keystones of the defence. These two and the third gate 
between the Tartar and Chinese quarters are shut nightly from one hour after sunset to the following 
sunrise. Over them and the si.x exterior gates on the north, east and west sides, are huge square 
towers, over eighty feet high. It is noticeable that the fortifications are kept in quite as good repair 
on the southern side, fronting the Chinese quarter, as on the others. But the distinction between 

Tartars (Manchus) and Chinese has been gradu- 
ally obliterated, especially since the late Em- 
press Dowager turned reformer after the Boxer 
troubles. 

The walls of the Chinese city, built over a 
hundred years later than the casing of the 
Tartar walls, are about thirty feet high, and 
are much less impressive than the others, 
especially as they are in bad condition, and in 
places even have shrubs growing out of them. 
They are pierced by seven gates, if we exclude 
those communicating with the Tartar quarter. 

Peking has also two other sets of walls. 

those of the Imperial and Forbidden Cities, 

which are within the Tartar city. These are 

pink, or rather faded vermilion, in colour, and 

are capped with tiles of imperial yellow. A 

7' JMX. ' 'W^^^^^^S^M' L,aS ? deep and broad moat further protects the 

jt/^I^^^^J^KI^^B^^^Si^^i ■■■ '■■^SitM Forbidden City, otherwise the "Six Palaces," 

' ' ^KiV^^Ht^K^^^^^E^islMr '^MHI^S the innermost kernel of the Tartar section of 

Peking, to which the envoys of the Western 
Powers for so long strove unsuccessfully to 
penetrate, and to which now again even their 
official visits are so jealously limited. 

The Gateivays of lyieypasu's Temple, Nikko. 
— In earlier chapters of tliis work some of the 
marvels of beautiful Nikko have been mentioned, 
including the collection of magnificent buildings 
which lead up to the tomb erected over the 
remains of lyeyasu, the first Shogun (roughly, 
" Mayor of the Palace ") of the- Tokugawa 
family. In the whole collection there is nothing 
more worthy of admiration than the various 
gateways leading into the three courtyards of the temple. Elaborate carvings decorate them 
all. and also the doorways of various buildings in the courtyards. 

The first gateway is known as the Ni-o-mon. or Gate of the Two Kings, from two huge figures of 
guardian gods, which once stood in niches outside. These were removed when Buddhism was 
disestablished during the present Mikado's reign and lyeyasu's temple handed over to the Shinto 
priests. The rest of the gateway was left intact, and is remarkable for its carvings of tapirs, of 
unicorns and other fabulous monsters, of elephants and tigers, intermingled with peony flowers in 
a most fascinating way. These carvings, however, are surpassed in interest by one which may be 




rhoto by^ 



'tiloiiy, J^j'usafeijt. 



{Til,- Aiiier 

GORGE OF THE ARNO.N. 

The River Amon, nowadays known to the Arabs as v\ ady 
Mojib, flows into the Dead Sea through a gorg* not more than a 
hundred feet across, between sandstone cliffs as high in places as 
fotir hundred feet. 



176 



The Wonders of the World 



seen after one has entered the 
courtyard. It is over the door of 
the sumptuous stable of the sacred 
white horses kept for the use of the 
spirit of tlie mighty dead. On it 
are represented three monkeys, one 
of wliom covers its ears, the second 
its mouth, and the third its eyes. 
Less artistic representations of this 
trio are common in Japan, carved 
on stone slabs, etc. The monkeys 
illustrate vividly the e.xcellent 
principle of " not hearing, not 
speaking, and not seeing evil." It 
has been remarked how admirably 
Japanese artists succeed in por- 
traying monkeys compared with 
many other animals which they 
introduce in sacred and other 
decoration. But they are, of course, 
familiar with the monkey, a native 
of Japan — which is not the case 
(need it be said ?) with some of the 
other beasts. 

The second gateway, the Yomei- 
mon, is a thing of exquisite beauty. 
Mrs. Bishop thus describes it in 
her " Unbeaten Tracks in Japan " : 
" The white columns which support 
it have capitals formed of great 

From Stei'eo copiirighll {^Cmtericood A- rnih'riciWfl, . , i r 1 \ ■ 1 

AERIAL ROOTS OF A scREWPiNE. red-throated heads of the mythical 

Peradeniya Gardens, near kandy. Kivill [a mOUSter borrOWed frOm 

the Chinese]. Above the architrave is a projecting balcony which runs all round the gateway 
with a railing carried by dragons' heads. In the centre two white dragons fight eternally. 
Underneath, in high relief, there are groups of children playing, then a network of richly painted 
beams, and seven groups of Chinese sages. The high roof is supported by gilded dragons' heads 
with crimson throats. In the interior of the gateway there are side-niches painted white, which 
are lined with gracefully designed arabesques founded on the botan, or peony. A piazza, whose 
outer walls of twenty-one compartments are enriched with magnificent carvings of birds, flowers 
and trees, runs right and left, and encloses on three of its sides another court, the fourth side of 
which is a terminal stone wall built against the side of the hill." 

A curious feature in connection with this gateway is that one of the pillars supporting it has its 
pattern carved upside down. It is known as the " evil-averting pillar," and was designed to placate 
the jealousy of Heaven, which might have been aroused against the house of Tokugawa had the 
whole building been perfectly flawless ! 

The courtyard to which the Yomei gate leads was designed to be used chiefly for the recitation 
of the sacred liturgies in the June and September of every year, when Nikko observed festival. 
And the old customs are still kept up. Visitors to Nikko in summer or autumn have the opportunity 
of witnessing wonderful processions and dances, in which all the performers are clothed in genuine 




Asia 



177 



costumes of Old Japan, brought forth for the occasion from the storehouses of the temples. Then, 
too, they may see the palanquins of the Shoguns. usually kept in a building in the second courtyard, 
borne in procession bj' sev-enty-tive men each ; and after them walking the sacred white horse, 
riderless — except, perchance, to the spiritual eyesight, which may be able to re-embody the mighty 
Tokugawa Shogun of three hundred years ago. The third courtyard is entered through the Kara-mon. 
the Cliinese Gate, which is not so imposing as the others, but leads to a shrine of sucli luxuriant 
and fantastic decoration that the eye welcomes with relief the severe simplicity of the Siiinto altar 
in its midst. 

The Arnon River Gorge.— In Israelitish days tiie Arnon formed the soutiiern boundary of 
Palestine beyond the Jordan— at least, after David had finally broken up the power of the 
Ammonites, as narrated in the Second Book of Samuel. Earlier still, when Moses led the 
Twelve Tribes into the Promised Land, the northern bank of the Arnon was the first spot in 
the subsequent territory of Israel at which he pitched his camp. When the country east of 
Jordan was conquered the Tribes of Reuben and Gad settled here, having the Moabites as their 

neighbours in the south. 

The Arnon thus has an interesting place in Palestinian history, and allusions to it in the Old 

Testament are not a few, especially with reference to its position as Israel's southern boundary 

beyond the Jordan. 

Nowadays the Arnon is 

known to the Arabs who 

form the scanty population 

of the country east of the 

Dead Sea as the Wady 

Mojib. It is a poor stream 

except after the winter 

rains have swollen it, for it 

takes its rise in a dry region 

and normally collects but 

little water in its journey 

of forty-five miles to the 

Dead Sea. It enters the 

Dead Sea through a mag- 
nificent gorge, and the cliffs 

on either side rise sheerly 

to a height varying from 

about a hundred to as 

mucli as four hundred feet. 

They are formed of sand- 
stone, beautifully traced 

and corrugated, and re- 
deem the Arnon from the 

insignificance of which it 

might otherwise be ac- 
cused. 

It seems probable that 

the river was once greater 

than it is now, for the way 

in which a passage has been 

cut tiuouL'h the sandstone 




/'/('»/.« hji] 



A view of the interior of AuronK/e 

paloce of liii falKer, SKafi Jelian 



il;.\i<l .mosquf. dflhi. 

b*« bcnuliful little private motque. whicf^ 
1 lie carvinu of tlie marble ia both ricli 



f)e added to the 
and chaale. 



IJ 



178 



The Wonders of the World 



argues considerable force. From the noise made by the waters as they flow through tlie gorge 
into the Dead Sea. the river took its name of old; for " Arnon " means " noisy." 

Huge Sixteenth-Century Gun in India. — At Bijapur, in Bombay Presidency, are the remains 
of extremely powerful fortifications, and in the citadel some large pieces of ordnance, which show 

that the place was once the stronghold 
of a warlike people. As a matter of 
fact, we know that from about the 
middle of the fifteenth century there 
was an independent Mohammedan state 
of Bijapur, whose rulers joined with 
other Mohammedan chieftains in fighting 
against a strong neighbouring Hindu 
state. The fortifications are assigned to 
the middle of the sixteenth century, 
and the gun here illustrated was cast, 
according to an inscription on it, in 
1548, at Ahmadnagar. sixty miles away. 
It is known by the name of Malik-i- 
Maidan (" The Lord of the Plain") and 
is of bronze. Its principal measurements 
are : length, fourteen feet three inches ; 
muzzle diameter, five feet two inches ; 
breech diameter, four feet ten inches ; 
bore, two feet four and a half inches. 
Mr. James Douglas writes : " ' Mons 
Meg.' at Edinburgh Castle, is nothing to 
it ; and how it was placed in its present 
position is a question that no man yet 
has been able satisfactorily to answer." 

In 1686 Bijapur. both state and city, 
was conquered by the Mughals, and the 
fortifications fell to ruins, though " The 
Lord of the Plain " and some smaller 
guns were left to bear witness to the 
wars of old. 

Aerial Roots of a Screiupine, Pera- 
deniya Gardens, Ceylon. — Many of the 
most striking sights in the exceedingly 
beautiful Peradeniya Botanical Gardens, 
four miles from Kandy, have already 
been described in Chapter II. But there 
is one so curious that it seems to merit 
an article to itself. The Gardens contain 
more than a score of varieties of the 
" screwpine " family, scientifically called the PandanacecB. Some of these are indigenous in 
Ceylon, but the majority have been introduced through the zeal of those who have had charge 
of the Botanical Department of the island, and came originally from Malaya, the Dutch Indies, 
the Nicobar and Andaman groups, Indo-China, Madagascar, and the Pacific islands. The screw- 
pines are not only in themselves handsome objects, but also share with some other plants and 




From Stereo cvpyrigh!'^ 



[Vnderuood <{■ Cndt'iicood. 



A near view of one of tlie gopuras, or pyramids, of Madura's Great 
Temple, showing the inconceivable elaboration with representations of Siva 
and his consort, other deities, demons, bulls, etc.. all painted in the most 
glaring colours. 




=_ •«? 



i8o 



The Wonders of the World 




[1. //. riiui, Esq. 



Some of the wonderful frescoes. illustralinB Hindu legends, on the wails of Siva's temple at Madura. 

trees, notably the banyan-tree, the power of sending out adventitious roots. These, in the case 
of the banyan and screwpine, do not develop underground, but are aerial and extend for a 
considerable distance from the main trunk, assuming a very solid and massive appearance. 

The most noteworthy of the various screwpines at Peradeniya is the gigantic one introduced 
thirty years ago from the Andaman Islands and therefore called Pandanus Andamanensiitm — a 
name whose length appears to match its bulk very well. Standing at the southern end of the 
Gardens, near the carriage-drive, this monster shows off its aerial roots to great advantage and 
reduces the human figure to insignificance beside it. 

The Pearl Mosque, Delhi. — The Moti Masjid, or " Pearl Mosque," at Delhi, was added by 
Aurangzeb to Shah Jehan's magnificent palace, the father having apparently been content to leave 
his palace without a private mosque when he had the Jama Masjid so near at hand. Western 
critics are divided as to whether the Pearl Mosque is worthy of its setting in Shah Jehan's handiwork. 
Some are disappointed at its small size — it is only sixty feet square — while others point to its lovely 
decorations and declare that it fully merits the name which it bears, " In grace, simplicity and 
perfect proportion," says Mr. G. W. Forrest, one of its warmest admirers, " the Moti Masjid cannot 
be surpassed," 

Red sandstone walls enclose it all round, so that from outside there can only be seen the three 
white marble domes, the centre one larger than the two side ones, as in the case of the Jama 
Masjid, etc. Within the walls, however, the beautiful finish of the carved marble becomes 
apparent, and the interior is worthy of careful study. In a small compass this mosque is a wonderful 
piece of work. It is said to have cost Aurangzeb one hundred and si.xty thousand rupees to 
build it, 

Delhi's " Pearl Mosque " must not be confused with that of the same name at Agra, which 
was erected, like the Jama Masjid at Delhi, by that princely builder, Shah Jehan, Both Jama 
Masjid and Moti Masjid are comparatively common names for mosques. 



Asia 



i8i 



TTie Siva Temple, Madura. — Madura, the second largest city in Madras Presidency, is 
celebrated chiefly for its Great Temple, dedicated to Siva, under his form Sundaresvara (" the 
Excellent Lord "), and to Minakshi (" the Fish-Eyed Goddess "), a local deity identified with 
Siva's wife Parvati. When the Mohammedans overran India, they captured Madura and damaged 
much of the temple, but spared the shrines of Siva and Minakshi. Madura threw off again the 
Mohammedan yoke, when the temple was rebuilt with more than its former splendour round the 
shrines. 

The ground covered by the buildings has an area of eight hundred and fifty feet by seven hundred 
and fifty feet. In the outer wall are four great gopuras (pyramids or pagodas), while five more 
surround the inner court. These gopuras, of which the tallest, though not completely finished, is 
over one hundred and fifty feet high, are sculptured in almost inconceivable elaboration with 
representations of Siva and his consort, in human and monstrous shapes, other deities, demons, 
bulls, etc., and are painted in the most glaring colours, so that undoubtedly they gain by being 
looked at from a distance rather than close at hand. The same may be said of a good proportion 
of the sculptures and paintings throughout the temple, for the bizarre, repulsive and obscene are 
present everywhere, as in nearly all Sivaite places of worship. Nevertheless, there is much that is 
beautiful in the frescoes illustrating Hindu legends, in the other decorations of ceilings and walls, 
and in the carvings of the columns, while there is a tremendous wealth of jewels in the temple. 




nil MIMlMW 



Thic ahadow. which i« produced by the co-operation of the riainff aun and the morninR miala, haa no doubt helped to R«in the 
mountain ila reputation for holineaa. The ahadow haa been compared with both the BrocUen "Spectre" and the "Glory of the Buddha" 
on Mount Omi. 



1 82 



The Wonders of the World 




Specially notable sections 
of the group of buildings 
are the Hall of a Thou- 
sand Pillars, the Golden 
Lily Tank, and the inner- 
most shrines of Siva and 
Minakshi. These shrines 
are jealously shut against 
Europeans, although, 
thanks to the influence of 
the Maharajah of Tra- 
vancore, M. Pierre Loti 
was allowed to enter a 
few years ago and see the 
marvellous jewellery and 
other treasures of the 
goddess. The ordinary 
\ isitor sees nothing of 
these oldest parts of the 
temple except the gilded 
copper plates which cover 
the roofs above them. 

In the Hall of a Thou- 
sand Pillars the sculp- 
tures are particularly rich 
and fantastic, and the 
shadows and silence which 
envelop the hall make it 
very impressive. By way of contrast, the Golden Lily Tank is a brilliant sight under 
the open sky. with its cloistered arcade all round, and its views of temple-roofs, gopiiras, 
and tall palms beyond. The tank is a broad rectangle, about fifty yards each way. and its 
waters are of a very green hue. which adds to the beauty of the colour-scheme, but is due, alas ! 
to the innumerable worshippers' ablutions of their feet. Overhead, parrots and other birds are in 
constant flight, for they build their nests freely about the temple and roost at will on the gopiiras 
and trees. Bats, also, in hordes, make the buildings their home, and elephants and sacred cows 
wander at liberty among the cloisters and about the grounds. The whole picture is most strange, 
magnificent and grotesque. 

Adam's Peak, Ceylon. — Like " Adam's Bridge " — the link between India and Ceylon, which is 
said to have been destroyed about the end of the fifteenth century, and is claimed by Mohammedans 
to have been the way by which Adam left Paradise, by Hindus the means of Rama's invasion of 
Ceylon in search of his stolen wife — " Adam's Peak " is enshrined in the legends of the followers 
of various religions. The fact that the mountain has on its very summit a depression roughly 
resembling a footmark led the early Christian and Mohammedan visitors to say tliat Adam had 
set foot there. Similarly, the Buddhists claimed the footprint as that of the Buddha, Hindus as 
that of Siva, and later Christians as that of St. Thomas, the apostle to India. When the peak first 
became a goal for pilgrims is uncertain. Priests appear to have been established on the summit 
for very long before history took notice of them. At the present day there is a little open shrine, 
or shed, over the sacred spot ; and just below is a small monastery-hut tenanted by Buddhist monks, 
which is surrounded by a wall to prevent falls down the very steep sides of the peak. In May every 



Photo hyl [/■'. Skeen d- Co. 

ADAM'S PEAK. CEYLON. 

Adam's Peak, about 7.400 feet hiRh, is the most celebrated, if not the tallest, mountain in 
Ceylon. It has been visited by pilgrims from time immemorial. On the very summit is a 
"footprint" attributed by the early Christians and Mohammedans to Adam: by the Buddhists to 
ihe founder of their religion. There is a shelter built over the footprint, and below stands a 
Buddhist monaslcry-liut. as shown on the left hand of the photograph. 




I'lwto iy] 



/ yth .(• Co. till., Itrigalt. 
ROCK TEMPLE. AJANTA. 
The (.code ol one o\ ihc morvcllous slirinc. hewn oul o( the lohd cli(f-(iice. Notice the imilotion woodwork in .lone about the 

Inrceit window. 



1 84 



The Wonders of the World 




ritoio (.!/] 



ifrilh ,( Co. 1.1,1., Hei.jalf. 



THE CAVES OF AJANTA. 

A genera! view of the five temples and twenty-four monasteries excavated in tKe semi-circuiar face of a cliff near Aianta. Hydera 
These roclc-hewn churches and dwelHngs represent the work of eight hundred years of Indian Buddhism. Both the ston* 



bad State. 

carvings and the paintings all over the interior of the caves are remarl 



liable 



year pilgrims come in thousands, and, camping on tlie slopes by night, bring their prayers and 
offerings to the shrine by day. 

The legend of the discovery of the Sripada, or sacred footmark, relates that a certain king 
Walagambahu, about 90 B.C., was out hunting and espied a very beautiful stag, which led him on 
up the mountain until finally it reached the very summit. Here it suddenly disappeared — for in 
reality it was not a stag, but a spirit, sent to guide the king to the Sripada. 

A certain amount of human artifice has heightened the similarity of the mark to a footprint, 
but there is certainly a natural oblong-shaped hollow, about five feet long and between one and 
two inches deep, in which the pious visitors see what they come to see. Similar marks are to be 
found in Siam, the Malay States, Tibet, and at Canton, where the same reverence is paid to them. 

One of the most curious things in connection with Adam's Peak is beyond the power of man 
to alter or improve, and that is the shadow of the mountain. Of it Mr. Edward Carpenter writes : 
" The shadow of the peak, cast on the mists at sunrise, is a very conspicuous and often-noted 
phenomenon. Owing to the sun's breadth, the effect is produced of an umbra and penumbra ; the 
umbra looks very dark and pointed — more pointed even than the peak itself. I was surprised to 
see how distant it looked — a shadow mountain among the far crags. It gradually fell and 
disappeared as the sun rose." 

The shadow of Adam's Peak has been compared with the " Spectre " on the Brocken, and with 
the " Glory of the Buddha " on Mount Omi, but it is hardly so mysterious in appearance as either 



Asia 



185 



of those phenomena, though, hke them, it requires the co-operation of the sun and of the morning 
mist to produce it. 

Ajanta Rock Temples. — Tlie temples and monasteries excavated in the rock of the Inhyadri 
Hills, a little distance away from the village of Ajanta, Hyderabad State, were discovered by 
Westerners about a hundred years ago ; and the late James Fergusson first described them 
minutely in 1843. They had lain deserted since the seventh century a.d., when Buddhism was 
driven out of India. Owing to this fact, however, they are of exceptional interest, for no later 
additions have concealed the early workmanship ; and, happil\% time has dealt lightly with the 
elaborate carvings and with some of the paintings which decorate the excavations. 

In all there are five cetiyas. or temples, and twenty-four viharas, or monasteries, hewn out of 
an almost perpendicular cliff-face, two hundred and fifty feet high, curving round in a semicircle 
and overhanging the bed of a stream. A ledge of rock, now very difficult to pass in places, is 
apparently the only means of access that there has ever been. In some cases the caves when fDund 
were filled up with mud, which had washed in. Few of them were completely finished, though almost 
all had been decorated on roof, walls and columns. Some show obvious Brahman influence, and 
can clearly be assigned to the end of the Buddhist period. The earliest, on the other hand, are 
attributed to about 200 B.C.. so that altogether they represent Buddhist cave-architecture over a 
period of eight hundred years. When they were first discovered there was a tendency to attribute 
to them a far greater antiquity, to place them, indeed, among the oldest monuments in the world. 
A closer study, however, of India's numerous other rock temples and the decipherment of the 
literature of Buddhism enabled the true date to be established with some degree of certainty. 

The general plan of the cetiyas is a high-vaulted chamber, with a circular apse at the inner end, 
in which stands a relic-mound hewn out of stone. The viharas are mostly square halls, with cells 
opening out of them for the monks on three sides, and a piUared verandah in front, though the 
smallest are simply verandahs with cells opening directly out of them. 




I'hoto by'\ 
Thii view of the 



THE DEAD SEA. 

I lake brinfcs out the curiously oily appearance of it* surface and the KCncrnl 
nothine arowins or brcathinK by land or wal;r. 



[American Colony^ Jerujalem. 
lifcletlnefi of the scene with 



1 86 



The Wonders of the World 




Pholo In' 



lAnterican Colony^ Jei-usalenu 
THE DEAD SEA. 

A vie%v on the nortli shore of the Dead Sea, ^vhich is shown 
with uprootsd trees and reeds brought down by the swift stream of 
the River Jordan. 



gloom 



The carving, especially in the case of the 
cetiyas, is both elaborate and interesting, some 
of it showing how skilfully wooden decorations 
could be imitated in stone. {This can be seen, 
for instance, in the fat^ade of the cave known 
as No. 26, which is one of the latest.) The 
paintings in the interior are even more note- 
worthv. and are artistically superior to the 
carvings. They represent a vast variety of 
subjects, from figures of the Buddha and his 
disciples to domestic, hunting and battle scenes. 
Unfortunately in many of them the originally 
brilliant colouring has faded very much. 

The method of lighting the shrines is 
worthy of notice. Fergusson writes : " The 
whole light being introduced through one 
great opening in the centre of the facade 
throws a brilliant light on the altar. . . . The 
spectator himself stands in the shade . . . 
and the roof and aisles fade into comparative 
It is perhaps the most artistic mode of lighting a building of this class that has ever been 

invented, certainly superior to anytliing that was done by the Romans, or during the Middle Ages." 
The Dead Sea. — Even apart from the exaggerations of legend (which make, for instance, its 

exhalations so poisonous that birds flying over it fall down dead through suffocation), the Dead 

Sea is a sufficiently awe-inspiring body of water. Describing it as seen from a neighbouring height, 

Mrs. Goodrich Freer writes : " You look down at the lowest spot on the earth's surface — the 

hollow of the Dead Sea, blue as the sky in the morning sunshine, flecked with cloud-like 

wavelets, beautiful, gay, and smiling, but bitter, 

treacherous, and the home only of mystery and 

death." 

Studied at closer quarters the Sea is of a 

peculiar oily greenish hue. and its strange 

qualities become vividly apparent. There is 

no life in it, with the exception of some few 

microscopic specimens, and salt-water fish die 

when put into it : while fresh-water species 

brought down by the Jordan and other streams 

running into it soon float dead upon the sur- 
face. 

Bathers who venture into it find it impossible 

to sink below the surface, and suffer from 

irritation of the skin after emerging, owing to 

the extreme saltness. Analysis has shown that 

the water contains more than twenty-five per 

cent, of saline matter. About the centre of 

the northern section the depth is very great, 

as much as one thousand three hundred and 

, . Photo bu] [Americau futony, Jerusalem. 

eight feet havmg been fathomed. The surface -r^ ' < . r> ^ = u , .1, , •, • „,„o»»,bi, 

^ The waters of tlie Dead Sea are so buoyant that it is impossible 

is one thousand two hundred and ninety-seven to sink in them. 




Asia 



187 



feet below that of the Mediterranean. And, wliat seems most mysterious of all. the Dead 
Sea has no visible outlet ; indeed, can scarcely- have an outlet owing to its Ij'ing so low ; 
and yet it receives daily about six and a half million tons of water, and apparently once 
received a good deal more, from tiie Jordan and other rivers whicli empty themselves into it. 

The secret of this constant addition to its waters and yet failure to increase in extent or depth 
(except after the rains of winter, whicii are responsible for the stretch of submerged trees shown 
in one of our photographs) is to be sought in the tremendous daily evaporation caused by the fierce 
sun beating down upon it and in the absorbent nature of the soil. The southern end. near the 
salt-hills, is the barest and least inviting to the eye, and it is for this reason that people have 
looked here for the site of the five Cities of the Plain. 

The name of the lake has varied considerablv durinij historical times. In the Old Testament, 




t*hotu bt/'} [Antrrii-nn Cotnnij, Jt-rnsdl^iL 

Tni» pnotoeraph shows half a mile of submerged forest on tfie east sfiorc of tfie Dead Sea, provine tiow tliis body of water has 

erown in consequence of the increased rainfall- 

for instance, we hear of the " East Sea," " Salt Sea," or " Sea of Akabah." In the classical period 
it was known as the " Lake of Asphalt," later as the " Dead Sea," whicii title was adopted by tlie 
early Fathers of the Church, Nowadays the Arabs call it Bahr l.ut, " Sea of Lot," 

Isurumuniya Temple, Ceylon. — The tremendous overgrowth of tiie jungle co\ered up iniu h 
else tiiat was beautiful and historically interesting beside tlie great sinincs, palaces and monasteries 
of the Anuradhapura neighbourhood, in the Nortii Central I'ro\ince of Ceylon, About forty j'ears 
ago, what is known as tlie Isurumuniya Temple was entirely hidden from view and forgotten amid 
the jungle. Since then tiie overgrowth has been cleared away and some of the depredations of 
time repaired by restorations — not always with the happiest results, 

Isurumuniya was a fortunate find. " Tiiis curious building, carved out ot tiic natural rock," 
writes Mr. H. W. Cave, " occupies a romantic jiositiiin. . . . To the right of tlie entrance will be 



1 88 



The Wonders of the World 



noticed a large poknna. or bath. This has been restored and is quite tit for its original purpose of 
ceremonial ablution, but the monks now resident have placed it at the disposal of the crocodiles, 
whom they encourage by providing them with food. The terraces which lead to the shrine are 
interesting for their remarkable frescoes and sculptures in bas relief. There are more than twenty 
of these in the walls, and all of them are exceedingly grotesque. . . . Above the corner of the 
bath are the heads of four elephants, and above them is a sitting figure holding a horse. Similarly 
there are quaint carvings in many other parts. The doorway is magnificent, and for beautiful 
carving almost equals anything to be found in Ceylon. 

The temple is attributed to Tissa. the King of Ceylon at the end of the fourth 
century B.C., who was a friend of the great Indian Emperor Asoka. 




Photo from " The Ruined Cities of Ceyioii,"^ 



ISURUMUNIYA TEMPLE AND BATH. 



The beautiful Uurumuniya Temple, hewn out of solid rock by King Tissa about the beginning of the third century B.C.. was totally 
covered up by jungle-growth when rediscovered forty years ago. Modern additions, such as the entrance which stands out in the centre 
of the photograph, have not improved the appearance: but the old parts of the temple are very interesting. 

Wat Suthat, Bangkok. — Although not so familiar to the tourist as Wat Phra Keo, Wat Chang, 
Wat Po, or Wat Pichiyat, still there is much about Wat Suthat to make it also noteworthy among 
Bangkok's many temples. It has a curious bawt, or " holy of holies," with singularly plain and 
unadorned square pillars uplifting an elaborate fourfold roof, whose ridge-ends terminate in very 
elongated e.xamples of the favourite Siamese decoration of the snake's head. Then the doorway 
of the wihan, or image-house, is a tremendously tall and marvellously decorated piece of work, with 
a distinct individuality of its own. The images within are reputed to be old. Their arrangement 
is certainly striking. Not only is there the usual colossal figure of the Buddha, seated in the attitude 
of meditation, according to the canons of Buddhist religious art ; but also, below this, there is a 
smaller seated Buddha, with his two principal disciples, Sariput and Mokhalan (as the Siamese call 
them) in a position of devotion on either side of him. and a crowd of other disciples sitting in orderly 
rows facing the Master. In the dim light which is invariably maintained in the image-chamber 
these figures look very impressive. The priests in charge of the wats fortunately understand the 








meditolicn." i.e., wilh the Ices cfossci 

Below is II smaller finure ol ihc Baddlm. Buppiri 

facine him on ihe riKht and tlje left 



WAT SUTHAT. BANGKOK. 

thi. icmplc is .he «re». h.ll in which is scaled a colossal figure ol .I.e Buddha in .he "»"""<''■■'' 

d ihe rish. hand claspine ihe rishl knee, and .he le(. hand lyine palm uppennos. across ihe .h,«hs. 

ed by his two chiel disciple, in ihe ollilude o( worship, with two groups o( other disciples 



The most interesting feature ot this temple is the great hall in which is seated a colossal figure ol .he Buddha in th 




i'hoto by} {.^''- Abdiilla Mirza. 

FATIMA'S SHRINE AT KUM. THE SACRED CIT^ OF PERSIA. 

Kum is a sacred city on account of the burial there of Fatima. sister of the eighth Imam. The photograph represents the larger of the- 
two domes in the shrine over her tomb. This dome is covered with copper sheets, overlaid with gold to the depth of one eighth of an inch- 
It is the ambition of pious Persians to be buried as close to Fatima's shrine as possible. 



Asia 



191 



value of religious gloom where tlie sacred images are concerned. Far Eastern shrines exposed to 
the full light of day and seen close at hand are almost invariably a shock to the eye. whereas the 
aid of semi-darkness at once makes tliem pleasing and mysterious. 

Fatima's Mosque at Kum. — Kum (Koom), generally known as the " Sacred City" of Persia, 
lies about a hundred miles south-west of Teheran and, being on the beaten track for travellers 
between Teheran and Ispahan, would be more or less familiar to visitors from Europe, were it not 
that the fanaticism of the inhabitants (a large proportion of them mullahs) makes inquisitiveness 
decidedly dangerous. What makes the city sacred is tlie fact that here was buried Fatima 
el-Masuma (the Immaculate), sister 
of Reza, the eightli of the twelve 
holy iiiiciiiis. or prophets, whom the 
Persians reverence. She had fled from 
Bagdad, according to the legend, 
to escape from persecution at the 
hands of the Khalifs, and. dying 
at Kum, was buried here by her 
brother, since when her tomb has 
become a great resort for pilgrims, 
like that of the Imam Reza himself 
at Meshed. Moreover, owing to 
Fatima's reputation for holiness, it 
became a fashion for the devout of 
the Shiah school of Mohammedanism, 
to wliich nearly all Persia belongs, 
to have their bodies buried close to 
the shrine. In consequence. Kum 
has become a vast necropolis. Some 
ten sovereigns of past dynasties have 
been interred here, between four 
hundred and five hundred saints, and 
numberless other people. Bodies are 
brought from great distances to this 
day to find sepulchre here, and the 
city, indeed, flourishes on the dead, 
big fees being charged for burial 
space — and the nearer to the im- 
maculate Fatima the bigger the fee. 
Undertakers, grave-diggers and stone- 
cutters naturally abound. 

The appearance of Fatima's shrine 
at a distance has been compared 
to that of one of the gilded domes of tlie Kremlin at Moscow. The Hon. G. N. (now Lord) 
Curzon, describing his visit to the place, says : " Another low ridge is climbed, another valley 
opens out, toward the southern end of which extends the belt of mingled brown and green that 
in tiie East signifies a large city. Above it the sun flames on the burnished cupolas and the 
soaring minars of Fatima's mosque. As we approach, the sacred buildings loom larger, and are 
presently seen to consist of two domes overlaid with gilded plates and five lofty minarets, 
disposed in two pairs and a single standing in close pro.ximity to tlie larger dome. 

" Emerging from sinall chnnjis of trees, or standing in solitary prominence, are to be seen 




Copyright photo 6t] 

THE LAMA-S TOMB. 



[//. U. ronling, F.lt.d.S. 
YELLOW TEMPLE. 



This tomb, much of whose architecture auesests India rather than China, 
built not over the body of a deceased 1 ashi Lama, but over liis vellow robe 
which were kept behind when his ausust remains were sent back to 1 ibet. 



192 



The Wonders of the World 



the conical tiled roofs of scores of imamzadehs, erected over the remains of famous saints and 
prophets, whose bones have been transported hither and laid to rest in the consecrated dust of 
Kum. . . . Some of them are in good repair and contain beautiful panels or lintel-bands of 
tiles with Kufic inscriptions from the Koran. Others are in a state of shocking ruin, the blue 
tiles having peeled off their cupolas, upon whose summits repose enormous storks' nests." 

The copper sheets which cover the two domes are plated with gold one-eighth of an inch thick, 
the work on the larger dome being due to Fath Ali Shah, of the present dynastJ^ On the top is 
an ornament of solid gold, said to be one hundred and forty pounds in weight. The minarets near 
this dome are adorned with a beautiful mosaic of azure, canary and iridescent green tiles. Of the 
tomb beneath, an early traveller. Sir J. Chardin, about the end of the seventeenth century, wrote 




Copyright photo by'\ 



ill. U. I'ontmg, f.ll.G.S. 



THE "lELLOW TEMPLE. NEAR PEKING. 



This shows the entrance to the well-known temple, which includes among its treasures a tomb built over the yellow robes of a great 
Tibetan Lama, who died of small-pox at Peking near the end of the eighteenth century. 

that it was " overlaid with tiles of China, painted a la Moresca, and overspread with cloth of gold 
that hangs down to the ground on every side." He speaks of " a gate of massy silver, ten 
foot high, distant half a foot from the tomb, and at each corner crowned as it were with 
large apples of fine gold." This silver " gate," or grating, is said to be still round the tomb. 
But it is practically impossible nowadays for a non-Mohammedan to penetrate inside the shrine 
and see the tomb. 

The YelloTV Temple, near Peking^ — The Hoang Ssii, or " Yellow Temple," is one of the sights 
in the neighbourhood of Peking to which visitors to the Chinese capital never fail to make an 
excursion. It is not easy, nevertheless, to see much when one has got there, for the monks are 
neither amiable nor inclined to encourage sight-seeing except upon receipt of exorbitant donations. 



Asia 



19: 



The principal object of interest, a white marble tomb, can be viewed without very great trouble ; 
but Westerners seldom get a glimpse of much more. 

The Yellow Temple derives its name from the following facts. In 1780 the Tashi Lama, a 
dignitary scarcely inferior even to the great Dalai Lama himself, came on a visit to Peking from 
his home at Tashi Lhumpo. He had only arrived a few weeks when he fell ill of small-pox and 
died. His body was sent back to Tibet in a golden casket, for the mortal remains of an 
incarnation of Amitabha, " Boundless Light." were too holy to be buried elsewhere. But 
his yellow robes were kept behind and enclosed in another casket, and over them was 







Photo hy\ 



THE ,\.MrHlIl!E.\TRE. PETRA. 



After traversing the narrow " Sil<." there lie*, in on open space where the valley widen!, on the left hand, an amphitheatre. 
It it cut out of the mountain, and was made to accommodate over 3.000 spectators. There are 3i tieis of seats. 



erected the tomb which may be seen to-day. Upon a raised terrace, entered through a pailow. 
or triple arch, stands a tall central relic-tower in the midst of four smaller towers, one at each corner. 
The towers, all of white marble like the arch, are Indian or Tibetan, not Chinese, in shape, and the 
central one is charmingly carved witii scenes from the life of tiie Tashi Lama, and innumerable 
Buddhist figures, emblems and inscriptions. 

The entrance to the temple is a picturesque piece of architecture, though of a type more ordinary 
in China than the tomb over the robes. The threefold staircase is worthy of note, with its middle 
flight showing an example of the " spirit staircase," not cut in steps, but set in an inclined plane and 

14 



194 



The Wonders of the World 



foreign devil ' 



ornamented with dragon-carv- 
ings — as can be seen on a larger 
scale at the Temple of Heaven 
in the Chinese City, and the 
Confucian Temple in the Manchu 
City, of Peking. 

The monastery contains also 
a foundry, which turns out 
bronze images, bells, and 
religious vessels and ornaments 
of all kinds, and a number of 
other buildings into which no 
is given to the 
to pry. 
Peira. — The rock-hewn city 
of Petra is exceedingly interest- 
ing, and also of astonishing 
beauty owing to the vividly 
variegated hues of the sandstone 
cliffs out of which its palaces, 
temples, houses, tombs, etc., are 
carved. These cliffs have been 
compared with Oriental carpets, 
so rich are their reds, purples, 
blues, yellows, blacks, and 
whites, running in bands across 
their face. The city itself has 
been called the " Red City," 
owing to the prevailing tint of 
its monuments. It lies in a 
valley about three-quarters of a 
mile long, from north to south, 
and varying in width from five 
hundred yards at the northern end to half that at the southern end. The rocks rise up almost 
perpendicularly around it, and in ancient times there was only one approach, through a deep and 
narrow gorge on the east, now known as the Sik. In places this gorge only allows two horsemen 
to ride abreast, and the enclosing rock-walls vary from two hundred feet high at the start to about 
eighty feet at the finish. 

The original residents of Petra were the Edomites, or Idumaean Arabs, but they were succeeded 
by the Nabathaeans, who built up a strong state, with Petra as its capital. They allowed them- 
selves, however, to become vassals of Rome, and at last, in the reign of Trajan the province of 
Arabia Petraea was formed. 

The remains, with the exception of some of the tombs, seem all to belong to the Roman epoch, 
and to the second, third and fourth centuries of that. The style is debased Graeco- Roman, with 
a blend of native art, due to the Nabatliaeans themselves ; while some see Egyptian influences 
also. A certain amount of damage seems to have been done to them by earthquake at various 
times, cracks and dislocations being visible here and there ; but they are still wonderful. 

Besides the Treasury of Pharaoh and the Kasr Firaun, or " Castle of Pharaoh," which 
appears in the centre of one of the photographs, the most important ruin is the amphitheatre. 




■THE PLACE OF SACRIFICE ABOVE PETRA." 

Of the many wonderful remains of Petra. "The Place of Sacrifice" is perhaps 
the most interesting. This site of religious observance gives a realistic idea of t!ic 
"High Places" of the piimiti\e inhabitants of the Land of Israel, where the 
offered was such a snare to the Israelites. 



vorsnip 



d :^l 












196 



The Wonders of the World 



cut entirely out of rock and capable of seating over three thousand spectators on its 
thirty-three tiers. 

Petra is particularly rich in tombs. Indeed, it might be called a vast necropolis, so full of tombs 
are its enclosing walls on every side. They are to be seen at such a height up the cliff-face that it 
is clear that those who hewed them must have used ladders. Now they are quite beyond reach, 
though not so far that the carved fa(;'ades of many of them cannot be appreciated. 

On the heights far above and a little to the south of the amphitheatre is a " Place of 
Sacrifice," one of the ancient "High Places" to be found in Syria and the neighbouring 
countries, of which frequent mention is made in the Old Testament. In the example at Petra 
are two altars, a large one for the sacrifice of victims and a smaller round one. a pool for 
ablutions, and a courtyard, all of them cut in the solid mountain-top. 

Nowadays Petra is known to the Arabs as Wady Musa, or " Valley of Moses," from the stream 
which runs across the valley from east to west. According to the legend, it was here that Moses 
struck the rock with his staff, whereupon twelve springs gushed out. 

Wa{ Po, Bangkok. — In the heart of the picturesque, dirty and odorous capital of Siam, close 
to the great enclosui-e of tlie royal palace, there is built Wat Po, the largest of the innumerable 
wats, or temple-monasteries, in the only remaining independent Buddhist kingdom in south-eastern 
Asia. Bangkok has been called " the city of temples." but few of them are better worth a visit 
than the one before us. 




I' lull O tjy\ 



WAT PO. BANGKOK. 



\_Kuberl Lfnz^ Itflmjf,-'!,. 



This is the largest temple-monastery in Siam, and is celebrated for a Beure of the Dying Buddha. 175 [eel lone, built of 
brick, but covered with gold-leaf so thickly that early European visitors imagined it to be of solid gold. The photograph 
represents some of the inner buildings of Wat Po. a high wail enclosing the whole and making it impossible to obtain a general 
view. Some of the characteristic features of Siamese architecture can be seen in this picture. 





THI-: SAKNATH TOPH. 

This, one of the oldest monuments in India, was set up in the earliest days of Buddhism to commemorate the spot in the 
Deer-park outside Benares in which Gautama first instructed his followers in the new Way. or. as the Buddhists preferred 

to say. Hrst " turned the Wheel of the Law." 



Asia 



197 



The principal sight is the 
"Sleeping Buddha," as it is 
commonly called, though as a 
matter of fact it represents the 
founder of Buddhism in the 
hour of death, reclining on his 
right side, with his head 
propped by his right hand. 
The figure is one hundred and 
seventy-five feet long and is 
built of brick, which has been 
covered in turn with cement, 
lacquer, and thick gold-leaf, 
while the soles of the feet 
(each foot is five yards long) 
are inlaid with mother-of-pearl 
in the conventional designs 
always associated with the 
soles of the Buddha. 

The photographs which ap- 
pear here show various features 
of the Wat. The first, for 
instance, gives a good idea of 
the ornateness of the archi- 
tecture, especially in the main 
hall (in the centre of the 
picture), and in the large 
prachedi, or votive spire (to 
the right). Although the de- 
rivation is not at first sight 
obvious, the top parts of these 
prachedis represent the old 
umbrellas-of-honour with which 
pious Indians used to crown their relic-mounds. Each ring in the spire is, as it were, a petrified 
umbrella, the number of such rings having increased as this style of architecture developed. 

In this same picture the guardian spirits at the gateway are also noticeable. Another, and 
grimmer-looking, guardian is shown in one of the smaller photographs. The Chinese influence in 
the figure in the smaller picture is obvious. 

In the full-page photograph is shown a cloister with a row of Buddha figures, recognizable by 
the strangely-shaped glory (in Siamese, sirot) on the top of the head. " Amongst the marks which 
the popular superstition insisted upon as characteristic of a Great Being, and which were, therefore, 
pre-eminently marks of the Buddha, was a curiously pointed cranium covered with refulgent hair. 
From this the Siamese derived their idea of the glory, which does not encircle the head, but rises 
flame-like above it." 

In the grounds of Wat Po are some ponds containing crocodiles, which the priests feed ; numerous 
granite rocks carved into monstrous shapes ; and a multitude of trees, both growing naturally and 
artificially dwarfed and deformed — which latter, again, show Chinese influence. 

There is a general air of decay about Wat Po at the present day. but it continues to attract 
pilgrims, if only to see the gigantic image of the dying Buddha. 




I'hoto ^y] 



[Alan n. Burgoyne, Etq., it.P., F.R.O.S. 
THE GUARDIAN OF THE GATE. WAT PO. 

Thr figure shows obvious Chinese influence. 



198 



The Wonders of the World 



The Wailing Place of the Jeivs at Jerusalem. — Few sights are more familiar to the tourist in 
Jerusalem than the " Wailing Place of the Jews," south-west of the Haratn, or " Noble Sanctuary." 
It seems to affect various visitors in various ways. For instance, here is what Mr. Rider Haggard 
says about it ; 

" Facing the wall about a score of Jews, men and women of all ages, were engaged 
in ' wailing.' The women really wept, with intervals for repose, but the men, as strange a 
collection of human beings as I ever saw, did not give way to their feelings to that 
extent. They rubbed their faces against the huge blocks, which occasionally they kissed, or 

read from the Scriptures, or muttered 
prayers. . . . All about the principal 
actors, and mixed up with them, 
was a motley crowd — beggars, halt, 
maimed, and disease-stricken ; boys, 
who drew down their eyelids within 
six inches of your face to reveal the 
shrivelled balls beneath ; men with 
tins the size of a half-gallon pot, 
which they shook before you, howling 
and vociferating for baksheesh." 

Observers find great pathos in this 
sight of men, women and children, 
from all parts of the world where 
Jews make their home, bewailing the 
past glories of Jerusalem and the 
desecration of the Great Temple. 

The wall is part of the ancient 
fortification of the temple, over one 
hundred and fifty feet long and fifty- 
six feet high, and its lower courses are 
composed of vast blocks of stone, one 
being as long as sixteen feet. The 
labour of building such walls must 
have been immense ; but, as we know 
from other structures which have been 
described in the present work, the 
Palestinian architects were skilled in 
the transport and employment of 
gigantic blocks, which certainly liave 
justified their use by the splendid 
condition in which they remain to 
this day. 

Temple of the Holy Tooth, Kandy, — Of the Cingalese temples still standing and not in 
ruins, the Dalada Maligawa, or Shrine of the Holy Tooth, at Kandy, is decidedly the most 
famous. It is assigned to the sixteenth century, when Kandy itself was founded. Below 
it lies a long tank, in which are kept many tortoises to be fed by visitors ; above and 
behind it, well-wooded heights. Trees surround it, and a battlemented stone wall, 
within which a lawn is grazed over by some humped cattle. A massive low doorway 
gives entrance to the temple, whose roof is upborne by rows of short square pillars. Frescoes 
depicting incidents of Buddhist history decorate the walls. The innermost shrine — or, rather. 




[Alan II. Dur.j.iyiie, I^s'/.. M.P., F.R.O.S. 
PRoiCHEDlS AT WAT PO. BANGKOK. 

The prachedi is a development of the relic-mound of India, and the 
curious rings or discs in the spires arc a convc.Ttionalized development of the 
umbrella-of-honour which surmounted such mounds. Each ring represents an 
umbrella. Generally in Siam these spires are purely votive, and do not 
actually cover lelics. 



200 



The Wonders of the World 




THE WAILING PLACE OF THE JEWS. JERUSALEM. 

The \Nall is pan o( the ancient fortification of the letnple. and it is here that Jews from all parts of the world come to bewail 
the past glories of Jerusalem and the desecration of the Great Temple. 

series of seven shrines — is gilt and jewelled with exceeding richness. The relic is kept locked 
up within the seventh and smallest shrine, and is very rarely exhibited except to genuine 
Buddhist visitors — and they have to pay for the privilege. 

The history of the Tooth is a curious one. It was brought to Ceylon in 311 a.d., by 
a fugitive Indian princess, who for safety carried it hidden in the coils of her hair. On 
its arrival it was housed in a temple built expressly for it at Anuradhapura, in the 
precincts of the great Thuparama Dagaba. The ruins of this first Dalada Maligawa are still in 
existence at Anuradhapura. During the wars with the Tamil invaders it was often necessary to 
remove the Tooth to Polonnaruwa for security ; and, finally, when Anuradhapura fell definitely 
into Tamil hands, the Cingalese capital was moved to Polonnaruwa, and a new and beautiful 
Dalada Maligawa was built there, which is the object of much admiration to-day. Later Indian 
raiders succeeded in capturing the relic and carrying it away from Ceylon, but it was ransomed by 
one of the kings and brought back. Finally the Portuguese got hold of it and took it to Goa, 
where it was burnt to ashes by the Roman Catholic Archbishop. But, as one story runs, it 
miraculously reappeared and ever since has been enshrined at Kandy. 

Whatever it was that was burnt at Goa. the actual object shown as the Tooth at Kandy is not 
human. It is stated to look like ivory, and a plaster cast of it exhibited to the present writer at 
Colombo by the monk Jinavaravamsa, cousin of the late King of Siam, showed it to be quite 



Asia 



20 1 



two inches in length. It is contended by some upholders of the relic's genuineness that 
what is now seen is merely an ivory^ case, within which the real Tooth is kept. 

Ruan'weli Pagoda, Anuradhapura, Ceylon, — The Ruanweli dagaba (or " Pagoda of Golden 
Dust "), is one of the most impressive objects amid the ruins of Anuradhapura. When 
rediscovered. Ruanweli had the appearance of a conical hill, surrounded by a wall and topped by 
a small spire. Trees and bushes having taken root on the sloping sides, the illusion was the 
more complete. Examination, however, proved that the seeming hill was a brick building nearly 
one thousand feet in circumference and, not counting in the platforms subsequently e.xcavated, 
about two hundred and seventy feet high. Great alterations in the aspect of the pagoda have been 
taking place since the mound was first discovered. The platforms have been dug out from the 
soil which buried them ; and tlie offerings of pilgrims are enabling extensive restorations to be 
carried out. 

The general plan of the building was as follows : In the centre of two platforms, one superimposed 
on the other, there was built a solid brick bell-shaped mass, two hundred and seventy feet high 
with the spire, and two hundred and seventy feet also in diameter at its base. Three ambulatories, 
each seven feet wide, encircled the bell in order that worshippers might walk round it thrice, keeping 
it on their right hand all the time, according to the prescribed ritual. Chapels stood at the four 
cardinal points of the pagoda, while on the upper of the two platforms there appear to have been 
a number of miniature dagabas. the gifts of the pious, one of which remains almost perfect to this 




/■/!..(.. /r.™ ■ rV />:-'i 



THE TEMPLE OF THE HOLY TOOTH. KANDY. 



[^^ /Imrt W Carr. .« J 



This, the 



O.I f.mou. o( Cint.lc.c Icmplt. •till .l.ndin,. wa. buih in ihc .i.lccnih ccnlurv. LocUtd up wilhin the .cvtnth 
and •mallcil .hrinc ia an ivorr relic which ia aiarrlcd to be an actual tooth ol Buddha 



202 



The Wonders of the World 



day. There were also other erections on the platform, including a hall in which were sheltered four 
statues which the excavators discovered. Three of these were Buddha figures ; the fourth and 
tallest, ten feet high, is supposed to represent King Dutthagamini himself. 

The decorations of the platforms (one sculptured with a frieze of hons, the other with a frieze 
of elephants), and of the various remains surrounding the bell — statues, friezes, altars, etc. — are 
admirable. It appears that the general body of the pagoda and the two platforms were covered 
with a hard white enamel called chiinam, so that the effect in bright sunshine must have been very 
dazzling. 

According to the ancient Cingalese chronicle, when the great work was nearing completion, 
Dutthagamini fell mortally sick. He gave instructions that he was to be carried to a marble couch 
(which is shown to this day), lying on which he could let his dying eyes rest upon the pagoda and 

his other masterpiece, the 
Great Brazen Palace. Be- 
fore he breathed his last 
he adjured his younger 
brother, Tissa, to finish 
his work for him. This 
Tissa did, while subse- 
quent kings added to its 
decorations very consider- 
ably. 

The Holy) Sepulchre at 
Jerusalem. — It has fre- 
quently been pointed out 
by modern writers, in- 
cluding some of the most 
undoubted piety, that the 
evidence in favour of the 
authenticity of the site of 
the Holy Sepulchre is 
weak. Helena, mother of 
the Emperor Constantine, 
is said to have been in- 
duced by a dream to visit 
Jerusalem. There a second 
vision led her to proceed 
to a temple of Venus, 
buiidine. the Brazen Palace. crectcd by Hadrian, and 

destroying the temple, to dig down to the foundations, when there were discovered both the 
sepulchre of Jesus Christ, and also the crosses upon which He and the two thieves were crucified 
three hundred years before. This is Eusebius's story. 

The most sacred part of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre is what is known as the " Rotunda," 
a circular building, sixty-seven feet in diameter, in the midst of which stand the Sepulchre itself 
and in front of it the Chapel of the Angel, through which alone it can be entered. Within 
the chapel, which is illuminated by fifteen lamps belonging to the various sects, is a little 
marble altar supposed to mark the spot where on the morning of the Resurrection the angel stood 
by the tomb and told the amazed women : " He is not here : He is risen, as He said." 

The Sepulchre is inside a building twenty-six feet by eighteen, westward of the chapel, and is 
a quadrangular vault, six feet by seven, with a high domed roof supported on marble columns. 




I'lwlo tnmi'' Thf l.oul, of l>i/l,:n,"] 

RUANWELI PAGODA. ANURADHAPURA. CEYLON. 

Looking at a distance liUc a conical hill surrounded by a wall ana surmounted by a tiny 
spire, Ruanweli pagoda is in reality a solid mass of brickwork. 270 feel high and nearly 
1,000 feel in circumference. It was set up in the second century B.C. by the greatest of the 
Buddhist kings of Ceylon, who on his deathbed let his eyes rest on it and his other great 




ICndfrteood .( UmUruood, 
From .Sifvro covyrinhtl ^ 

THE CHURCH OF THE HOLY SEPULCHRE, 

Th. pho.o.r.ph .how. the f.c.dr of .he Ch.pcl of .he An„l hun. wi.h .Imo.. ,„„umer.ble l.mp.. NVi.hin «'''=''•>"'• 
which i. ilium n.,ed by fif.ccn lamp, belon.in. .o ,he v.rlou. .cc... i. . I...ic m.rbk .l..r ..ppo.cJ .o n,.rU .he .po. where on 
• he morn.n. of .he Re.urr.cl.on .he .n«el ..ood by .he lomb ,nd .old .he «m..rd women .h.. Chr... h»d r.ien 



204 



The Wonders of the World 




Photo by'] 



GORDONS CALXARY. 



[J. \y. Mi-Lellan. 



Outside the present walls of Jerusalem, north of " Herod's Gate." i 
Gordon, to be the actual scene of iKe Crucifixion and burial of Christ, 
in the illustiation ) to the west of the mound supports this theory. 



a mound which is thought by many, including General 
The rock-hewn tomb Mhe entrance to which is shown 



The vault is lined throughout with greyish marble, the upper part of which is quite black with the 
smoke of incense and of the forty-three lamps of gold and silver. At the north side is a marble 
slab, much worn away by the kisses of the pilgrims, under which is said to lie the actual tomb, 
although, as the marble slab has been in its position since mediaeval times, it is impossible to tell 
what is beneath it. The vault is decorated with a relief representing the Crucifixion, over the slab ; 
another, in white marble, showing Jesus rising from the tomb ; and a great quantity of gifts 
resented at various times. 

The outside of the Sepulchre building is covered with white and yellow stone, and there is a 
large metal crown on its summit. 

Apart from the relic from which it takes its name, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre contains a 
great number of other features. There is Golgotha, with a spot which is pointed out as being where 
the three crosses were set up. There are also the Prison of Christ, the Pillar of the Scourging, the 
Chapel of the Division of the Vestments, the Chapel of the Apparition to Mary, the Chapel of the 
Invention of the Cross, the Chapel of Helena, etc., etc., and such curious places consecrated by 
legend as the Tomb of Melchizedek, the Chapel of Adam (who was supposed to have been buried 
where the Cross was later erected), the Centre of the Earth (because it is in the middle of the church, 
which is in the middle of Jerusalem, which, again, is in the middle of the world !), and so on. 

"Gordon's Caharyi " and a Possible Site of the Holy) Sepulchre.— Onisxde the present walls 
of Jerusalem, a little to the north of " Herod's Gate," is a mound which has notable claims to be 
considered the scene of both the Crucifixion and the burial of Jesus Christ. The site of the Church 
of the Holy Sepulchre, experts say, can never have been without the gates of the fortifications of 
Jerusalem, whereas the true Calvary and tomb, according to the Gospel narrative, were without 



Asia 



205 



the gates. The mound in question is a very conspicuous place, rising to a lieight of about fifty feet, 
perpendicular on the side facing Jerusalem, sloping on the other sides, and in general shape curiously 
resembling a skull. 

Moreover, the tomb lying to the west of the mound is strangely appropriate. " It would not 
be too much to say," writes Mr. Rider Haggard, " that here the Scriptural description seems entirely 
fulfilled. The tomb is rock-hewn. It appears never to have been finished, for some of the surfaces 
have not been smoothed. It was closed with a stone. When this stone was rolled away, the 
disciples, Peter and John, by stooping down, could have looked into the sepulchre and seen the 
linen clothes lie, perhaps upon the floor of the little ante-chamber. This tomb, too, was a family 
tomb, such as Joseph of Arimathaea might well have made, with room in it for three bodies, one 
at the end, as it were, and recessed, and two at right angles. Very well might these have served as 
seats, such as those on which Mary must have seen ' two angels in white sitting, the one at the head 
and the other at the feet, where the body of Jesus had lain.' " 

On the east wall of the tomb, at right angles to the only finished receptacle for a body, is a faint 
fresco of a cross with sacred monograms about it, obviously very old. and seemingly indicating that 
what was originall}? meant to be used as a place for a second body had been converted into an 
altar. Outside, but not far away from this tomb, there are to be found early Christian graves, on 
one of which is the inscription : " Buried near his Lord." 




J'hoto by] 



incf AUtiitia Mirtn. 



THE WORLDS TURQUOISE STORE 



Enlmncr 10 one ot the minei where 999 out o( everv 1.000 lurguoiaea which come into ihe market are found. The minea 
arc in a hill dislrici about forty milea iquarc. usually called after the city of Niihapur. althouch a« a matter of fact about thirty 
milea away As much as i^ 2 3.000 worth of turquoises have been turned out in recent yeais from these mines. 



2o6 



The Wonders of the World 



The name of " Gordon's Calvary " has been given to the place owing to the firm conviction 
of General Gordon that this was the true site of the Holy Sepulchre and of Calvary, and here, 
accordingly, he came to pray when on a visit to Jerusalem. Commonly it is known '■ as 
" Jeremiah's Grotto," after a cave in the steep face of the mound, connected by legend with 
the prophet Jeremiah. 

Nishapur Turquoise Mines. — Although the turquoise is not reckoned a rarity among precious 
stones, it is, nevertheless, a fact that almost all the world's supply of turquoises is derived not only 
from one country, Persia, but also from one district about forty miles square in that country. 

The city of Nishapur is not far from Meshed, and lies on the road to Teheran. The actual 
locality of the mines is some thirty miles away, and is known as Madan (that is, simply, " mines "), 
but the former fame of Nishapur has led to the extension of its name to cover this district. The 
turquoises are found in a range of hills, where there are a great number of mines, both old and new. 

Many of the old ones are not 

#\^ i < completely worked out yet. 

l Indeed, some of the finest of 
*'"??si5''"'' ' I ^^^ stones nowadays are stiU 

to be found by careful search 
among their galleries and 
shafts. In tlie new mines, 
the promiscuous and careless 
use of gunpowder for blasting 
results in the ruin of many 
of the stones got out. The 
mining is a State monopoly, 
but the Government farms it 
out to the highest bidder, 
who, in his turn, sublets the 
rights. The Persian dealers, 
in order to dispose of their 
irregular-shaped and flawed 
stones, cut them into seals 
and amulets. They gild 
Arabic letters over the flaws, 
and sell them to pilgrims 
visiting Meshed. 

The Nishapur mines have yielded as much as about twenty-three thousand pounds' worth of 
turquoises in recent years, and work is found at Madan for some fifteen hundred people, mining 
and hunting through the old debris-heaps and the stuff washed down the hillsides. 

Sacred Ca-ve on Observatory Hilt, Darjiting. — Observatory HiU, one of the principal heights in 
the town, and a place to which visitors always repair to enjoy the magnificent panoramic view 
of some of the highest mountains in the world, has a great reputation for sanctity, owing to the 
presence of a cave with two curious legends attached to it. It is known as " the cave of the 
thunderbolt," and from the Tibetan word dorje Darjiling takes its name. Dorje is the same as the 
Indian vajra, the thunderbolt wielded by the god Indra, who was admitted into the very mixed 
pantheon of latter-day Buddhism. The cave is supposed to have been formed by Indra's 
thunderbolt striking the hill. 

The Mosques on tfie Tempte Area, Jerusatem. — On the long platform which crowns ]Mount 
Moriah, where once stood the Temple built by Solomon, is now the Mosque of Omar, or Dome 
of the Rock, about which so many visitors have written m enthusiastic admiration of its beauty. 




L /'.'■ F'i'ft Ayency. 

SACRED CAVE. OBSERVATORY' HILL. DARJILIN'G. 

This hillside cave is populatly supposed to lead to Lhasa, although the distance by 
read from Larjiling is 333 miles. Legend also make^ it hollowed oal by Indra's 
thunderbolt, from the Tibetan name of which, dorje. the na ne of Darjiling is d-rivcd. 



208 



The Wonders of the World 



But even more beautiful is another building 
close at hand, the Mosque of El-Aksa, at the 
southern end of the Haram-es-Sherif, or Noble 
Sanctuary, as the whole Temple area is now 
called. The Emperor Justinian erected on 
this site a church dedicated to the \ irgin Mary. 
•■ I have surpassed thee, Solomon ! " he 
exclaimed when he had completed it. When 
Omar a century later captured Jerusalem, so 
impressed was he said to be at the loveliness 
of this church that he offered up his pi'ayers 
on its steps, refusing to enter lest an excuse 
should be made by his co-religionists for con- 
fiscating it and converting it into a mosque. 
He even gave a guarantee tliat it should 
remain in Christian hands, it was asserted. 
Nevertheless, the Caliph Abd-el-Malik made 
a Mohammedan place of worship of it in 
6S4 A.D. Its subsequent history is full of 
vicissitudes. First an earthquake reduced it to 
ruins. Then it was rebuilt by the Moslems to- 
ward tlie end of the eighth century. Next the 
Crusaders, after their capture of Jerusalem, 
made it a church again, and Baldwin the 
Second, founding the new order of the Knights 
Templar in 1118 A.D., gave them as their 
habitation this " Temple of Solomon," as it 
was erroneously called. The Mohammedans 
once again triumphed, and Saladin and his 
nephew restored the mosque with sumptuous 
additions. Another restoration followed in 
the fourteenth century, but it has not again 
changed hands. Owing to its history, the 
architecture of this mosque shows a mixture 
of styles scarcely to be matched elsewhere 
in the world. 

Colossal Jain Statue at Venur. — In the 
South Kanara district of Madras Presidency there are considerable remains from the time when 
a large part of the district was under rulers professing the Jain religion. The most interesting 
objects, perhaps, are certain huge monolithic statues, each enclosed within a walled place called a 
betta. One of these is found at the small village of Venur. It is thirty-seven feet in height, and, 
therefore, smaller than the one at Sravana Belagola. 

The Venur statue represents Gomata Raya, or Gunta Raj, a hero of Jain legends now practically 
forgotten. It is also called sometimes Bahubalin. The figure and features are of the typical Jain 
character, easily to be distinguished from the work of Buddhist sculptors. The most remarkable 
point about it is that it is carved out of a single block of stone. It is impossible to tell whether 
this block was found on the spot and hewn into shape where it lay, or whether it was brought 
from elsewhere already carved and erected at Venur. The illustration of the " Gunta Raj " 
appeared on page 28, and was by mistake called the Gomatesvara. 




I'hi'lK hy ]"'ninsiion of^ 



\_L. Rice, Kstj. 



Xhe Gomatesvara at Sravana Belagola. 



Asia 



209 



CHAPTER VII. 
By PERCEVAL LAXDOX. 

The Falls of the Narbada. — The story of the exaltation of the Ganges and the consequent 
degradation of the Xarbada from its place as holiest of Indian rivers is one of the strangest legends 
of Hinduism. In old da\'s the latter was so far the superior in sanctity that a mere look at the 
Narbada washed away sin, while actual ablutions in the Ganges were necessar\' to achieve the same 
object. However, the Narbada incurred the anger of the Gods, and its punishment has lasted till 
to-day. There is, however, a strong feeling in India, especially among those by whom the Xarbada 
is more get-at-able than the Ganges, to claim that the period of degradation has just lapsed, and 
that from henceforth the Narbada must take its place once more as the holiest of Indian rivers. It 
seems clear, according to the legend, the degradation of the Narbada was to last for the first five 
thousand years of the Kali Yug, i.e., the era in which we are now living, and that according to 
most calculations that period expired in 1899. 

The river rises beside the sacred temple of Amarnath in the Pendra Ghats. Thence the river makes 
its way to Jabalpur, near which city the famous falls and tlie Gorge of the Marble Rocks distinguish 




I'holo liji'j (fn/A * Co. Ltd., Rtignlt. 

THE FALLS OF THE N'ARRADA. 

The Narbada is, next to the Ganset, the most sacred stream in India. The Hindus upon its banks claim that within the last 

few years the period of its inferiority to the Ganses has rlapmcd. and that now the .Narbada t.iUes the premier place. 

'5 



2IO 



The Wonders cf the World 



its course. The " smoke cascade " is tliat wliich is here represented. The water falls about one 
hundred feet into the pool which at the western end escapes through the Marble Rocks. These 
white cliffs are one of the famous sights of India, and are notorious for liarbouring thousands of 
swarms of savage bees. Several lives have been lost by accident or the foolhardiness of visitors. 
A memorial records the death by drowning of an Englishman who was trying to escape from the 
indignant insects. 

The Ruins of PersepoUs. — Lord Curzon has not hesitated to say of these famous ruins that 
" no more sumptuous framework of regal magnificence was ever wrought by man." They lie upon 
a long artificially constructed platform five hundred yards in length from north to south, and about 
three hundred yards wide, in the valley of Merdasht, thirty miles from Shiraz on the road to Isfahan, 
This platform is of different levels, and the natural ascent of the ground has been utilized as far 
as possible. Access to it is obtained by the famous staircase, of which an illustration is appended. 



:.g- 4{,i^}jl l»lL. 




Pliulo lif] 



\_Alfrtd nel7ttefcf. 



MEW OF THE RUINS OF PERSEPOLIS. 



This is a genrral view of Persepolis taken from tlic east. Immediately in front is the famous Hall of the Hundred Columns, 
burnt down by Alexander tl^e Great in a drunken frolic. Beyond this on the right may be seen the few still remaining columns 
of the Audience Hall of Xerxes. 

This is of such an easy gradient that it is possible for the visitor to ascend it on horseback. 
Immediately at the top of the staircase the visitor is confronted with the Porch of Xerxes. These 
huge bull-flanked portals are of a style somewhat earlier than that which is generally associated 
with the Achasmenian kings. The bulls are nearly eighteen feet in height and nineteen in length, 
the corridor between them being about twelve feet in width. Xerxes has placed an inscription 
upon the piers of the gateway just above the bulls : " By the grace of Ormuzd I have made this 
portal." He also refers in it to the other buildings on the platform, definitely stating them to be 
the work of himself and his father Darius. In spite of some misapprehension, it is clear that these 
buildings were intended for royal and not priestly ceremonies. There is, indeed, no temple of 
any kind among them, though religious scenes form a large part of the ornamentation. 

Leaving these gates — which are grievously defaced by the names that tasteless travellers have 
carved upon them — the Audience Hall of Xerxes is approached, of which the few remaining pillars 




Phnto fey] 

ThtBt I 



lli:- IoUlII uI Al.KXES. I'l-.RSEPOLIS. 



[/v. Al'Juna ilxrtn. 



111.- rout-ll ul Ai.n.Nt."-. I r.u3c.rui.iJ. 
use m«n-hc«dcd bulli (uard the enlrance to the pol.liol buildinsa of Per«epolij. Rulnoui aa they ore. ihev •till offer the 
beat autseation ot the magnificence o/ thoae who called themielvea Kim ol Kin«a and Lord o( the Univerae. 



212 



The Wonders of the World 




Photo by'\ 



•J 



[Alfre.1 Hnni.-ke. 



ST^•LOBATE OF THE AUDIENCE H \LL OF XERXES 



This huge edifice \vas buill upcn an elaborately carved platform, of which a good view is here civen. 



have given to the building the local name of Chehel Minar, or The Forty Columns. The building 
consisted of a hall supported by six rows of six columns each, with porticoes of the same width as 
the main building thrown out to the north, east and west. There were thus seventy-two columns 
when the hall was perfect. Of these but thirteen remain. Two at least have fallen within the last 
hundred years, and it is only too much to be feared that those now standing will shortly be reduced 
in number. Tlie columns of the porticoes are sixty-seven feet high to the top of the bull-head 
capitals. Those of the central hall are somewhat less in height. This great building covered an 
area of about sixty thousand feet. 

Beyond the Hall of Xerxes lies the Palace of Darius. Of this the stone doorways, thresholds 
and corners alone remain, the sun-baked mud of which the walls were made having long yielded to 
the assaults of the weather. Above this lies the Palace of Xerxes, which was a more pretentious 
building. Last of all the buildings on this platform, which is known to the natives as the " Throne 
of Jamshid," is the famous Hall of a Hundred Columns, which is larger than the central Hall of 
Xer.xes, and is estimated by Lord Curzon to be second only to Karnak in the ancient world. These 
columns, of which not a single one now remains erect, were about thirty-seven feet high. The whole 
was surrounded by a wall, of which the stone doorways and windows are in the majority of cases 
still in situ. 

This building contains evidence of the truth of the story told by Diodorus and otheis of 
Alexander the Great, that he wantonly burnt down the Palace of Darius as a drunken frolic : 
for the ashes of the cedar roof — detected by the unerring analysis of the modern microscope — were 
discovered still lying in a thick bed upon the pavement during the excavations of 1878. There is 
perhaps no better known incident in Alexander's life, and it is curious after two thousand two hundred 
3-ears to find ourselves, as Lord Curzon phrases it, contemplating the speaking wreck of what was 
either, if the Greek historians are to be believed, the drunken freak of the conqueror, or. more 



Asia 



21 



probably, the act of a merciless but deliberate premeditation, in revenge for the burning of the 
Temple of Athens by Xerxes. 

TTie Cathedral, Lhasa. — The exterior of the Potala and the interior of the Cathedral are the 
two most interesting tilings in Central Asia — possibly in the whole of Asia. The Cathedral, or 
Jo-kang, is the real Lha-sa. or Place of God. and into this most holy of holies none of the previous 
white visitors to Lhasa had ever dared to \enture before the arri\-al of Younghusband's expedition 
in 1904. There could hardly have been a chance in a thousand for any solitary intruder discovered 
within its darkened and windowless quadrangles. For the Jo-kang has no outside wails at all. 
All round the Cathedral the dirty and insignificant Council Chambers and offices of the Tibetan 
Government cling like parasites. From a distance the five great gilded roofs may from time to 
time be seen blazing in the sun, but the only view possible on a nearer approach is that of the 
great western doors, the only public entrance into the holy place. Inside this Cathedral the 
oldest and incomparabh- most holy chapel is that at the extreme east end, wherein the great golden 
idol of Lhasa sits. The first sight of w'hat is beyond question the most famous idol in the world is 
uncannily impressive. In the darkness it is at first difficult to follow the lines of the shrine which 
holds the god. One only realizes a high, apparently pillared, sanctuary in which the gloom is 
almost absolute, and therein, thrown into strange relief against the obscurity, the soft gleam of the 




I'liola lin] 



iAtfrni lleinickt. 



THE GREAT b 1 All,. A-.l.. TERSEPOLIS 



ThiB. perl. apt ll.e motl famoui •leircaic in the woild. lead* upward* from the plain of Merdaiht lo tlic platform upon which 
arc L>i.ilt thr royal buildinsa of Xrrxca and Darius at Pcrtcpolia. 



214 



The Wonders of the World 



golden idol which sits enthroned in the centre. Before him are rows and rows of great butter- 
lamps of solid gold, each shaped in curious resemblance to the pre-Reformation chalices of the 
English Church. Lighted by the tender radiance of these twenty or thirty beads of light, the great 
glowing mass of the Buddha softly looms out, ghostlike and shadowless, in the murky recess. 

It is not the magnificence of the statue that is first perceived, and certainly it is not that which 
makes the deepest and most lasting impression. For this is no ordinary presentation of the Master. 
The features are smooth and almost childish ; beautiful they are not, but there is no need of beauty 
here. The legendary history of this idol is worth re-telling. It is believed that the likeness was made 
from Gautama himself, in the happier days of his innocence and seclusion in Kapali-vastu. It was 
made by Visvakarma — no man. but the constructive force of the universe — and is of gold, alloyed 
with the four other elemental metals, silver, copper, zinc and iron, symbolical of this world, and it 




Photo byl {Perceval London, Esq. 

IHK ]\)-\.\\i',. iiR I \'I HKliK \l . I.H\s\ 

This is strictly speaking the real Lhasa. The word " Lhasa " means the " Place of Gad." and below the golden roofs of 
the Cathedral rests the great golden image of Buddha, the most famous idol in the world. 

is adorned with diamonds, rubies, lapis-lazuli, emeralds, and the unidentified indranila, which 
modern dictionaries prosaically explain as sapphire. This priceless image was given by the King of 
Magadha to the Chinese Emperor for his timely assistance when the Yavanas were overrunning the 
plains of India. From Peking it was brought as her dowry by Princess Konjo in the seventh 
century. The crown was undoubtedly given by Tsong-kapa himself in the early part of the fifteenth 
century, and the innumerable golden ornaments which heap the khil-kor before the image are the 
presents of pious Buddhists from the earliest days to the present time. Among them are twenty- 
two large butter-lamps, eight of a somewhat smaller size, twelve bowls, two " Precious Wheels of 
the Law," and a multitude of smaller articles, all of the same metal. 

These are arranged on the three shelves of the khil-kor, and the taller articles conceal the whole 
of the image from his shoulders downwards. To this fact may perhaps be due the common, but 
mistaken, description of the Jo as a standing figure. Across and across his breast are innumerable 




Coy\,rxy/a p/wl" hjf] 



NATURAL ARCH AT MAISUSHIMA. 

In the Bay of a Thouiand lalond*. Japan. 



UA O*. yVHii/iy, /• H.U.^. 



2l6 



The Wonders of the World 




/Vwru (jj 



lliE ARAK/5N TEMPLE. NEAR MANDALA\. 

This is a view of t!ie gill spire of the Aralian temple from the Sacred Tank. 



IJ'ercfvnl Lait'ltin, i'.sq. 



necklaces of gold, set with turquoises, pearls and coral. The throne on which he sits has overhead 
a canopy supported by two exquisitely designed dragons of silver, each about ten feet in height. 
Behind him is a panel of conventional wooden foliage, and the " Kyung," or Garuda Bird, overhead 
can just be seen in the darkness. Closer examination shows that almost every part of the canopy 
and seat is gilded, gold, or jewelled. The crown is perhaps the most interesting jewel. It is a deep 
coronet of gold, set round and round with turquoises, and heightened by five conventional leaves, 
each enclosing a golden image of Buddha, and encrusted with precious stones. In the centre, below 
the middle leaf, is a flawless turquoise six inches long and three inches wide, the largest in the world. 
Behind the throne are dimly seen in the darkness huge figures standing back against the wall of the 
shrine all round. Rough-hewn, barbarous, and unadorned they are, but nothing else could have 
so well supplied the background for this treasure of treasures as the Eg^-ptian solemnity of these 
dark Atlantides, standing shoulder to shoulder on altar stones, where no lamps are ever lighted and 
no flowers are ever strewn. 

Matsushima. — Matsushima looks out upon a ba\' studded with islands crowned with those typical 
pine-trees which seem to grow in Japan as they grow nowhere else. Hundreds of these islets dot 
the broad shallow waters of the bay from Shiogama on the west to Kinkwazan forty miles away to 
the east. Not the least beautiful fact about this bay is that the friable nature of the volcanic rock 
of which the islands and the countless promontories are made is continually wearing away. Islands 
disappear in the course of a few generations and are replaced by the erosion of the sea along the 



Asia 



217 



jrt drive of Man.ialav. In form the temple is square. 



coast. The great natural arch, of which a picture is here given, represents one of these new islets 
in process of formation. The sea has worn away the thin curtain of rock between the sturd\- pillar 
of the cliff. At present the lofty archway overhead is intact, but that, in turn, will fall, and a few 
centuries hence another isolated island point will be added to the bay. 

The Arakan Temple, Mandalay. — There are generally said to be onlj' three buildings in Burma 
the restoration (jf which enables the pious to acquire merit. As is well known, the whole countryside 
of the Silken Kingdom is dotted with the disintegrating ruins of small pagodas put up by 
religious-minded men in past generations. For these, howe\er. their descendants have no 
care whatever. They can only do themselves spiritual good by offering for themselves new 
architectural oblations to the comfortable religion of their race. But to this rule there are 
three exceptions. Merit, much merit, is acquired by the restoration of the Shway Dagon in 
Rangoon, the Arakan Pagoda near Mandalay, and the temple at Pegu, To this small and 
se'ect compan}- there has been added by universal consent within the last few years the 
colossal reclining image of Buddha at Pegu, of which a descripti n has been given earlier 
in this volume. 

The temple at Arakan lies within a 
An arched corridor runs all mund 
the central block, in which there is 
a deep and lofty cell containing the 
image which makes the temple 
famous throughout Southern Bud- 
dhism. This is a large gilt image, 
about ten feet in height, which was 
brought from Akyab about one 
hundred and thirty- j^ears ago. It 
shares with the golden idol in Lhasa 
and the amorphous log which does 
duty for the image of Jagannath in 
Puri the reputation of having been 
modelled by Visvakarma. the di\ine 
fashioner of the imiversc. But it is 
certainly of great age, though we 
may not be willing to assent to the 
tradition that declares it to have 
been constructed during the lifetime 
of Buddha himself. Nor can the 
well-known legend be accepted, alas I 
which tells how when all mechanical 
means of welding the pieces together 
had been tried in vain, the Master 
himself appeared and threw his 
arms round the statue, of which 
the several pieces at once came 
together so exquisitely that no 
human eye has since been able 
to detect the sutures. 

The fact upon which this legend 
is based is that the offerings of 
the faitiiful have so: completely 




I HE ARAKAN PAGODA. 



[/'• /■(■«'ra/ Lantltin, Est. 
NEAR MANDALAY. 



1 his photoeraph Eives a partial view of llic famous Arakan Buddha within 
the Arakan temple near Mandalay. It is the holiest imasc in Southern 
[luddhism. and ranks second to the colden idol in Lhasa, which, tradition 
*a\*. was made by the same artist. 



2l8 



The Wonders of the World 



overlaid with gold-leaf every portion of the statue that it is impossible to trace the lines of 
juncture. 

Outside in the darkening corridors is a crowd of gaily-clad Burmans. Their silk jackets 
and skirts reflect every hue of the rainbow, and the dainty coils and oiled black hair of the 
merry little women is relieved by a single scarlet hibiscus flower stuck within its folds. The shops 
are closing down and the last prayers of the day are being muttered. 

The Tomb of Eve, hJdah. — Jeddah is a little-known city. It lies beside, but far off the 
main traffic route between east and west, and the traveller will have to put up with some 
inconvenience in getting to it. Moreover, it is probably the most fanatical town in Asia. It is only 
thirty-eight miles from Mecca, of which it is the port. So jealously do the Moslems watch for any 
attempt on the part of a Christian to repeat the rash enterprise of Burton and Palgrave, that 




[Pe/'ceval Lnntloriy Esq. 



Photo hi/] 

TOMB OF EVE, JEDDAH. 

The iraditional resting-place of ihe molher of all living, lies about a mile north of the Arabian city of Jeddah. The 
photograph shows one half of this strangely-shaped tomb, which is nearly 500 feet in length and ten feel in width. 



during the pilgrim season the one or two Christian residents in the town are practically confined 
to the small foreign quarter near the northern gate. At no time in the year does the European 
move outside the walls of Jeddah without taking his life in his hands. Many readers will 
remember the murderous assault made a few years ago upon four foreign consuls while they were 
innocently smoking their cigarettes a few yards outside the Medina gate. 

A mile to the north of the town lies one of the strangest monuments in the world. Here, 
according to a tradition which is older than Mohammed, the mother of all flesh is buried. Adam 
is believed by some to rest at his own peak in Ceylon, but this is debated by Oriental scholars. 
There had been a difference of opinion between our first parents, and Eve spent the last years of 
her life and was buried at Jeddah, not far from the great temple in Mecca, which Moslem tradition 
ascribes to the liands of Adam himself. A common legend attributes to Eve the lieight of one 




[rrrcrti: l.'i;,l,-n, I.!-), 



THE POTALA. LHASA. 

Thi« view ol ihc Pololn \vo» lokcn (lom in.idc tl.f Porso Koline. or wc.lcrn lolt . Il .how. ihc mnnnrr in which 



the huge caifice dominate, the city bclov> 



220 



The Wonders of the World 



hundred and eighteen feet, but this does not correspond with the dimensions of her tomb, which 
is nearly four hundred feet long. She must have been of a somewhat strange shape, as her grave 
is only ten or eleven feet wide I At her head and feet are little whitened shrines, and in the middle 
of the grave is a small building containing a curious witness to the devotion of the Moslems. On 
the whitewashed walls of this little temple are hundreds of thousands of pencilled names, as far 
up as the hand can reach. The attendant contemptuoush' allowed the writer, although a Christian, 




J'latlu I')] ll'eic: i:i! Lamh'n, rsq. 

THE POTALA. LHASA 

This picture presents a eood vie\v of the famous palace of the Grand Lama at Lhasa. It is about 900 feet in length and 

its gilded roofs aie more than 400 feet from t!ie plain. 

to go inside — after taking his boots off, of course — on the score that all men are the children of 
Eve, whether true Moslems or outcast infidels. I fancy, however, that the prospect of bakshish 
was a stronger argument. 

The Potala, Lhasa. — Lhasa has stood for centuries as the goal of all the greater travelling 
of the world. Once or twice white men, for the most part members of religious orders, have 
reached it in the course of far travel across the central plateau of Asia. One or two priests 
actually took up their abode there in the early part of the eighteenth century. But these were 
expelled, and since then the gates of Tibet have been closed with ever-increasing sternness against 
the white man. When, therefore, on August 3rd, 1904, Younghusband's expedition reached 
Lhasa, no living w^iite man had set eyes upon the forbidden city. So far as the policy both 
of India and Tibet can prevent it, no other living white man would seem to have the least 
chance of repeating the experience. 

The following description has been given of the view which greets the eye of the traveller as 
he climbs the precipitous little neck of land beside the western gate of Lhasa and looks down 
upon the panorama of palace, of park and town : " There was nothing — less, perhaps, in such 
maps and descriptions of Lhasa as we had than anywhere else — to promise us this city of 



Asia 



221 



gigantic palace and golden roof, these wild stretches 
of woodland, these acres of close-cropped grazing 
land and marshy grass, ringed and delimited by high 
trees beside lazy streamlets of brown transparent 
water over which the branches almost met. 

"In front of us. between the palace on our left 
and the town a mile away, there is this arcadian 
luxuriance interposing a mile-wide belt of green. 



Round the outlying 



fringes 



of the town itself and 




I'halo /).v] 



THE CRE.XT 



[/V/TCid/ Landort, /.'i'/. 
BELL. MINGUN. 



TKc present canopy which supports and protects the 
great bell is here well shown. 



creeping up between the houses of the village at the 

foot of the Potala there are trees — trees sufficiently 

numerous in themseh-es to give Lhasa a reputation as 

a garden city. . . . 

" Between and o\-er the glades and woodlands 

tiie city of Lhasa itself peeps, an adobe stretch of 

narrow streets and flat-topped houses crowned here 

and there with a blaze of golden roofs or gilded 

cupolas ; but there is no time to look at this ; a 

man can have no eye for anything but the huge 

upstanding mass of the Potala palace to his left ; it 

drags the eye of the mind like a loadstone, for, indeed, 

sheer bulk and magnificent audacity could do no 

more in architecture than the\- ha\-e done in this 

huge palace-temple of the Grand Lama. Simplicity 

has wrought a marvel in stone, nine hundred feet in length and towering seventy feet higher 

than the golden cross of St. Paul's Cathedral. The Potala would dominate London— Lhasa it 

simply eclipses. By European standards it is impossible to judge this building ; there is nothing 

here to which comparison can be made. Perhaps in tlie austerity of its huge curtains of 

blank, unveiled, unornamented 
wall, and in the flat, unabashed 
slants of its tremendous south- 
eastern face there is a sugges- 
tion of t lie massive grandeur of 
Egyptian work ; but the con- 
trast of colour and surrountl- 
ings. to which no small part of 
the magnificence of the sight is 
due, Egypt cannot boast. 

" The vivid white stretches 
of thf buttressing curtains of 
stone, each a wilderness of 
close-ranked wimlows and the 
home of the lunidreds of 
crimson-clad dwarfs who sun 
themseh'es at the distant stair- 
heads, strike a clean and har- 
monious note in the sea of green 
which washes up to tlieir base. 
Once a year tiie walls of the 




THE GREAT BELL AT 

Nine or ten miles north of Mandalay. on the opposite side o( th 
loruesl huns bell in the w^rlu Loid Cur^on hod it reset-up within 
carved belfry. 



MINGUN. 

opposite side 



l/'ficrval t^iutiin, I't'i. 



river, is the 
»n einborntely 




e 

o 



u 
H 

I 

D 
I 



Q c 






E 



Asia 



22 



o 



Potala are washed with white, and no one can gainsay the effect ; but there is yet the full chord 
of colour to be sounded. The central building of the palace, the Phodang Marpo, the private 
home of the incarnate divinity himself, stands out four-square upon and between the wide 
supporting bulks of masonry a rich red-crimson, and. most perfect touch of all, over it against 
the sky the glittering golden roofs — a note of glory added with the infinite taste and the sparing 
hand of the old illuminator — recompose the colour scheme from end to end, a sequence of green in 
three shades, of white, of maroon, of gold and of pale blue. The brown j'ak-hair curtain, eighty 
feet in height and twenty-five across, hangs like a tress of hair down tlie very centre of 
the central sanctuary, hiding the 
central recess. Such is the Potala." 

The Great Bell, Mingun. — Many 
claims are put forward by different 
places which profess to possess the 
largest bell in the world. Of 
course, the largest bell-shaped 
piece of metal in existence is that 
in the Kremlin, at Moscow, the 
••Tsar Kolokol." It weighs about 
one hundred and ninety-three tons. 
But this huge example of the 
founder's art has a piece broken out 
of one side of such a size that the 
bell at one time was used as a 
chapel, with the fracture as a door- 
way. No attempt has ever been 
made to hang or ring it. Next 
to this doubtful claimant is the 
famous bell of Mingun (Mingoon), 
about nine miles above Mandalay. 
on the western bank of the Irra- 
wadi. This bell is about eighteen 
feet in diameter and thirty-one 
feet in height — this latter figure. 
of course, including the massive 
erection of metal which takes the 
place of the shackle. Its weight 
is about eighty tons. This bell 
remained for generations half 
buried in the ground and silent, 
but was examined by order of Lord 
Curzon, found to be intact, and has recently been hung in the handsome belfry of which a picture 
is given here. Of course, it cannot be rung in the ordinary way, and it does not possess a clapper. 
A heavy piece of wood is used as a ram when it is wished to sound the bell, though a mere rap 
of the knuckle is sufficient to bring out the strangely thrilling low note of this monster. 

The Emperor Valerian's Bridge, Shushter.— There exists at Shushter, in western Persia, not 
only the remains of some of the most important engineering work constructed in ancient times, 
but a curious and pathetic memorial to the one Roman emperor who died in captivity among 
his foes. The Emperor Valerian found himself elevated to the purple in the year 253, at a 
time when the empire was sorely pressed by enemies on all liands. Leaving his son Gallienus 




[P^rffml Lnudon, Esq. 

ONL 01 nil. G.\TES OF THE TEMPLE OK JAGANNATH AT PURl 

This forbidden fcmple is the centre of (he worsliip of Vishnu in India. 1 lie 

central sikra may be sren behind the forts to the left. 



224 



The Wonders of the World 




I'hnto bu] 



W'-' 



cfui Lauaoii, L^q. 



ANOTHER GATE OF THE TEMPLE OF JAGAWATH. 

This is ihe main entiance. In front of it is an exquibilely carved pillar brouglit from tlie Black Temple of tlanarak. 

to deal with the western foes. Valerian hurried to the east to re-establish the Roman dominion, 
which was being threatened by the inroads of the Sassanian monarchs of Persia. He met with 
some success at first, but as the result of long operations in Mesopotamia, the course of which has 
never been really known, Valerian was captured in the year 260. Shapur I,, who achieved this 
crowning triumph over tlie might of Rome, made, it is said, a curious use of his captive. The 
story goes that he imprisoned the unfortunate emperor at Shushter, and there employed him as 
engineer -in-chief for the great irrigation works, of which traces are to be seen for hundreds of 
miles along the Karun River, and in the construction of the bridge, of which a photograph is given 
here. This bridge is known to this day as the Emperor's Bridge. The Persian poet Firdusi is the 
authority for the truth of this legend, though, as Lord Curzon remarks, it is not to be expected that 
a captive sovereign would, as a rule, be of much service if converted into a civil engineer. This 
bridge is now broken, and the fast current has scoured a channel of such depth in the artificially -paved 
bed of the river that it is not likely that any repairs will now be undertaken. 

The Temple of Jagannath, Puri. — Of all the temples of the East, Jagannatli is the best known 
by repute to Europeans. The name of none of the holiest shrines — Benares, Rameswaran, Tanjore, 
Madura, Buddhgaya. or tlie noble temples of Farther Asia — is so familiar to the European ear as 
that o' the Temple of Jagannath. For this there is a curious reason. The inter or of the temple 
is unknown to the white man. No European has ever set foot within its sacred precincts. The 
Viceroy of India himself has been refused admittance, and a Grand Lama of Tibet has found 
it impossible to penetrate inside the temple, which has been built in honour of the very deity of 
whom he is regarded by manv Hindu theologians as a living re-incarnation. The tinkle of bells, 



Asia 



225 



the long-drawn scream of a brass trumpet, the continual sodden thumping of a drum, the hoarse 
unison of voices — these are all that is ever heard outside of the services that night and day go on 
within its forbidding walls. Much, indeed, we know about the legendary origin of the temple. 
We know that there was once upon a time a King of Orissa called Indra-mena, who, after much 
painful digging, re-discovered the Temple of Vishnu, buried nine miles deep in the'sand of the shore 
at Puri. Having found it, he covered it up again. This he must have done with regret, as the 
temple was made of solid gold. By command of Vishnu, however, he built the present temple, 
and in order that it should not tempt the cupidity of mankind, it was allowed to be built of stone 
instead of gold. When it was finished Vishnu himself, in the form of a log, was washed ashore, 
and Visvakarma came to carve tlie log into an image of the god. This lie consented to do, but with 
the reticence of an artist, he stipulated that no one should see it before it was finished. But Indra- 
mena was as inquisitive as Fatima, and peeped in through a chink. Visvakarma thereupon 
repacked his tool-bag and went away in a huff, and that is the reason why the image was never 
finished. Certainly, it remains an armless, legless, unshaped block to this day. 

But this is not the reason why the world knows thenameof Jagannathso well. Once a year this 
extraordinary rudely-hacked log is carried in procession to the Garden House upon the famous Car 
of Jagannath. This is thirty-five feet square and runs upon sixteen wheels. Over four thousand 




rMo hyl 



THE PEAF^L MOSQUE AT AGRA 



{Johnston A llojutann. 



Entirely conilructed of clitterlns whitr marble, the dignity and simplicity of tliia buildinn and the outer court render it 

one of the most beautiful buildinics in India. 

16 



226 



The Wonders of the World 



men pull at the ropes, and similar cars follow after with equally crude representations of the brother 
and sister of Jagannath. The road along which the car passes is a wide thoroughfare, which on this 
annual ceremony is completely full with pilgrims from all parts of India. This car seems to have 
taken the imagination of Europe by storm. It has done so because it is commonly believed that 
men in hundreds immolated themselves under the huge wheels of the slowly moving car. Accidents 
will always happen on such occasions, and there will always be a certain number of fanatics whose 
brain is turned by the popular enthusiasm at such times. But it need hardly be said that every 
possible precaution is now taken to prevent any such well-meant suicide. The car goes backwards 
and forwards nowadays to the somewhat daringly ornamented Garden House without the forfeit 




Priolo bl/1 



The facade of ific Pearl Mosque at Asra. viewed from tKe courtyard. 



of a life, and the popular enthusiasm connected with these festivals has not suffered in the least on 
that account. 

The Pearl Mosque, Agra. — Once inside the red portals of the palace fort of Agra, the visitor 
mounts slowly towards the royal apartments. Just before reaching the open space to which the 
Hall of Public Audience gives its name, right in the heart of the fort, stands the Moti Musjid, or 
Pearl Mosque, which was built by the great Mogul Emperor Shah Jehan in the middle of the 
seventeenth century. It is not of vast size ; indeed, so far as dimensions are concerned, it cannot 
compare for a moment with the vast Jama Musjid at Delhi. Yet in plan the two buildings are 
not unlike, except for the absence of the towering minarets which form such a landmark for miles 
round the capital of Hindustan. The external measurements of the Agra mosque are two hundred 
and thirty-four feet by one hundred and eighty-seven feet, and underneath it the nature of the 




Photo ly"] 



IJohmton »t /lo^innnn. 



BUDDHGA1 A. 



TKia temple, wKich ts more in iKe style of touthern than of norihern Indian architecture. wa» erected on the vite of an earlier 
temple put up by the Emperor Asoka on the spot where Buddha "received enliKhtenmenl " under the Bo-tree. Immediately under 
the tower to the richi of the picture may be »rcn the descendant of the orisinal Ircc 



228 



The Wonders of the World 



ground compelled the construction of a lofty stylobate, or plinth. It is not until the visitor has 
mounted the steps and entered the great gateway on the east that the full beauty of the mosque 
bursts upon his eye. But having once seen the Pearl Mosque at Agra, he is little likely to be over- 
impressed by any other courtyard in Asia. The place deserves its name. No one can ever forget 
the blaze of pearly white light that almost blinds him as he moves from under the dark shadows of 
the red gateway into this marble casket of swimming and dazzling white light. Mr. Fergusson, 
whose knowledge of Eastern architecture has never been surpassed, rightly describes it as one of 
the purest and most elegant buildings of its class to be found anywhere. 

As soon as the eye becomes used to the dazzling reflections of the Oriental sun from the snowy 
pavement that surrounds the sacred tank, he sees that the beauty of the building does not in any 
way depend, as so often happens in India, upon the ornamentation of its surfaces. There is, indeed, 
only one attempt at decoration, and that is a graceful black marble inscription inlaid into the frieze 
of the mosque. For the rest, the exquisite severity of this silver temple is one of its greatest 
attractions. Even in winter, however, it is almost impossible to look steadily upon the flashing 
argent of its marble walls and flooring except through smoked glasses, and the visitor will turn with 
relief to the pillared shade of the mosque itself at the western end of the courtyard. Here the 
shadow half conceals and half reveals a triple arcade of pillars, within which a pleasant blue darkness 
deepens until the farther wall of the mosque is but faintly to be distinguished. 

Fergusson observes that woodcuts cannot do the picture justice, and the same is unfortunately 




Pholo is'] 



IPerceval Landon, Esq. 



THE RUBY MINES, BURMA. 



Ail the best rubies of the world have come from a single valley in Upper Burma, not far from the Chinese frontier. 
The district is known as MogoU, and a general view of the ruby diggings is here given. 




■n 



•E £ 



-v; V 

— u w 

^ y C 

X CI* 



2; X 



= i-r 






^1 



Asia 



229 



true of even the best of photo- 
graphs. Such extremes of light 
and shade defeat the most skil- 
fully constructed lens ; but an 
idea, at any rate, maj' be obtained 
of this unequalled gem of Mogul 
architecture. Not the least re- 
markable part about the Moti 
Musjid is the strange contrast 
which it offers, both to the red 
strength and symmetry of the 
larger part of Akbar's fort, and 
to the jewel-encrusted Jasmine 
Tower of the royal apartments 
from which Shah Jehan. as his 
own son's prisoner, watched with 
dying eyes the gossamer splen- 
dours of the Taj Mahal where hi> 
darhng awaited him and wheri 
he was himself to lie. 

Buddhgaya. — The temple at 
Buddhgaya marks what is the 
holiest place on earth to the 
largest number of human beings. 
Here it was that Prince Gautama, 
after learning much, and suffering 
more, received enlightenment. 
Here he became the Buddha, 
after a last night of struggle and 
temptation with the powers of 
evil. It was here, under the 
spreading branches of the Sacred 
Fig (Ficus Rdigiosa), parts of the 
root of which are to be seen in the 
Museum in Calcutta to this day, 
that the Master won to truth ; 
and a descendant of the original 
tree still springs from under the 
western wall of the great temple. It may be clearly seen in tlie photograph. Inside the temple 
there is a large cell, in which a statue of Buddha is seated in the position known as " calling the 
earth to witness." The temple has fallen into the hands of the Hindus, \\\\o, with some presence 
of mind, have identified Gautama with their own god Vishnu, and have painted the tridentine 
" tilak " of the deity upon the serene brow of the Master. Buddhism is now practically extinct in 
India proper, but a powerful movement has lately been inaugurated among Buddhist states, such 
as Siam, Japan, China, Sikkim and Tibet, to re-obtain for Buddhists tiie rights of free worship at 
Buddhgaya, the heart and centre of their faith. The Indian Government looks favourably upon the 
proposal, but is inclined to hesitate before taking active steps whicii might stir up religious strife. 

The Ruby Mines, Burma. — From the earliest days rubies have been the jewel of jewels. Not 
even the lilniy nacre of the pearl, the glittering purity of the diamond, or the cold perfection of the 




.strtf-i'ijfiiiih by\ \ll- '^- ^^fiif^ Co., London. 

THE S.XCRED TANK. NEAR DELHI. 

Not far from ific famous tomb of Humayun. south of Dellii, is a Sacred Pool 
into wfiicli men and boys will, for a small consideration, leap from a ereat fieisht, 
to the amusement of visitors. 



230 



The Wonders of the World 



sapphire, has ever rivalled the crimson fire of the imperial ruby. Yet it is a curious fact that all 
the great rubies — from that mythical gem as large " as a man's palm " which Mandeville and " Q " 
have alike exploited, down to the single stone that MM. Boucheron exhibited at the French Exhibition 
two and a half years ago, and were willing to dispose of for fourteen thousand pounds — all have 
come from one small valley in a remote district of Burma. Mogok is the name of the settlement, 
which may be reached by a traveller from Thabeytkyin, a little village a day's journey above Mandalay, 
on the banks of the Irawadi. The road lies eastwards for sixty miles through almost virgin jungle, 
rising at last into the scantier vegetation of the outpost foot-hills that culminate eventually in the 

mountainous frontier ranges between 
Burma and China. 

The little town of Mogok lies 
between the ruby workings and the 
inevitable polo ground which is 
always to be found wherever ten 
Englishmen get together in the Far 
East. The ruby diggings are slowly 
eating their way through the town. 
.Already the houses along half the 
High Street have been consumed, 
and in a year or two the polo 
ground itself will begin to fall into 
the jaws of the ever- advancing 
mines. All day and all night the 
work goes on. The " byon," or 
ruby-bearing earth, stretches almost 
everywhere along the Mogok Valley, 
and wherever this rich old-gold- 
coloured clay is found, rubies are 
found also. Yet a stranger might 
hunt among the cuttings for weeks 
and see never a glint of crimson. 
This is a standing jest at the office, 
wliere the offer is often made to 
the visitor that he may keep any 
ruby he sees, an offer of which no 
one has ever yet been able to take 
advantage. Yet there the rubies 
are and after the iron trolleys have 
been hauled up to the washing 
sheds, and their sticky burden rotated and filtered and washed and stirred and cleaned and 
distributed, there is no mistaking the rich glow of the rubies that lie here and there among the 
heaps of dark shingle upon the slate tables of the sorting shed. 

Diving into the Tank of Nizam-ud-Din. — This is one of those curious places of popular resort, 
so frequent in the East, around which a crop of legends has centred. The Tank of Nizam-ud-Din 
lies at a little distance across the road from the famous tomb of Humayun, and has been visited 
by many travellers. Here at one time dwelt the Saint Dargahs, who lived during the reign of the 
Emperor Tughlak in the thirteenth century. The story of the relations between the two is by no 
means as creditable as that between the Emperor Akbar and the Saint Shaikh Salim at Fatehpur 
Sikri. At Delhi, king and priest came to open war. Tughlak required the assistance of the workmen 




Sttreograph iy\ III. C. }nile Co., London. 

The perforated alabaster screen separating the Diwan-i-khas from the 
Emperor's private apartments. 




\ 



Pluto by] 



{II. C. WMIr Co., LondOK. 



THE DIWAN-I-KHAS. DELHI. 



Thia Hall o( Audience, wliich woi buill by Shah Jchnn. ■■ ccrloinly ihc mo«l beautiful room on carlh. It ia conatructcd ol 
white tranalucent alabaater, inlaid with precioua and aemi-precioua atonca. A (amoua Pcraian inacription upon the walla clatma 
thai i( there be a heaven anywhere on earth it ia there. 



232 



The Wonders of the World 



who happened to be ex- 
cavating this tank for his 
new fortress-town at Tug- 
hlakabad. Saint Dargahs 
bowed before the imperial 
will, but asked that he 
might have the services of 
his men at least during 
the night. The emperor 
countered by denying the 
holy man the use of 
oil, which was apparently 
necessary for the building. 
At this point the celestial 
deities intervened. Every 
night the water of tlie tank 
was miraculously turned 
into oil, and the saint's 
purpose was served. Tug- 
hlak thereupon promul- 
gated a useless curse upon 
the waters. Backed by his 
divine allies, Dargahs then 
cursed Tughlakabad. To a 
modern visitor it would 
seem that the saint's curse 
was more efficacious than 
the emperor's. For Tug- 
hlakabad is to-day only a 
haunt for owls and bats, 
while the saint's tank still 
supplies water for man and 
beast. 

One curious custom has 
been initiated. From tlie 
eastern side of the tank 
boys and men, who are promised a recompense by the tourist, will make a long, but not particularly 
dangerous, dive into the waters of the tank. 

The Di'wan-i-khas, Delhi Palace. — When the cunning hand of the jeweller — whether he were 
the renegade Austin de Bordeaux or not — inlaid the famous Persian text upon the cornice of the 
Diwan-i-khas in the palace at Delhi, the artist boasted, indeed ; but if ever a man was justified in 
his boast, it was he. Tlie linr-, run : "If Heaven there be on the face of earth, it is here, it is here, 
it is here." And, indeed, there is nothing like it under the sky. 

This Court of Private Audience is an open hall, supported on a double row of many-cusped 
an hes daintily gilded here and there, and of heavy square columns of marble, panelled and inlaid, 
heie white, here ivory, there old gold in tint. One could swear that this forest of marble is 
translucent. The gilding upon it here and there stands forward and rejects the light that sinks 
softly a finger's breadth into tlie onyx-like stone upon which it is laid. And the inlaid flowers, 
whereof every leaf is jade and malachite, every petal is agate and lapis lazuli, so stand out upon 




Stei-eOfjraph bi/] 



[II. C. While Co., London. 



TKis is a view through the Di\van-i-Uhas in the palace at Delhi. The famous inscrip- 
tion, though of course not legible here, is written along the darU cornice above the 



.iddl 



e atcries. 



Asia 



233 



this pearly bed that you miglit vow you could put your fingers behind the stalk and snap it. You 
will not at first understand the beauty and splendid restraint of the Diwan-i-khas. But if you try 
four afternoons to sketch it, you may begin to realize that a dishonest and fugitive jeweller from 
France may yet prove to have been the first decorator of all known periods — decorator, not artist, 
nor perhaps architect ; the point is in dispute. Quiet, restrained, his riot of colour spreads over 
these jewelled walls, unfailing in taste and perfect even in the veining of a poppy-leaf or the stamen 
of one of those Crown Imperial lilies or blue-purple irises which his craftsmen can never have 
looked upon, though at the bidding of this immoral genius they faithfully translated into stone the 
humbled pride of the one and the cool transparency of the other. Outside there is hot sunshine, 
the blaze of a scarlet hibiscus across the lawn, and the soft and stealing scent of jasmine and orange- 
blossom . 

Upon a marble base, which still exists in the Hall, once stood the famous Peacock Throne. This 
throne, which, like all Oriental thrones, was more like a bed than a seat, was made of gold. But the 
gold was scarcely visible for the rubies, diamonds and sapphires upon it, set closely together from 
end to end of the long, low seat. A peacock, " in his pride," stood behind at either end, and the 
displayed tails formed the greater part of the back. In the centre of the back of the throne was a 
life-sized parrot, cut out of a single emerald. These statements about what was unquestionably 
the most magnificent jewel ever made on earth would be incredible had not a French professional 
jeweller, Tavernier by name, seen it before it was stolen by Nadir Shah in the eighteenth century. 
His estimate, as an expert, of the value of the gorgeous thing is startling. He wrote that in his 
opinion it was worth about 
^12,037,500 sterling — expressed 
in the currency of to-day. We 
have the casket of this jewel ir, 
the Diwan-i-khas, and it is 
worthy of that royal seat, even 
if the latter's beauty was equal 
to its cost. 

Mya/Vma.— This 'exquisite 
village — for it is hardly more — 
upon the Inland Sea of Japan, 
is well worthy of its dignity 
as one of the Three Beautiful 
Places of the Japanese Empire. 
It can easily be reached by rail, 
and the beauty of the locality 
has unfortunately attracted the 
notice of the hotel-keeper and 
the commercial exploiter of the 
world's natural beauties. But 
the Japanese Government have 
unintentionally helped to pre- 
serve the spot, as it has a cer- 
tain strategic importance, and 
the Japanese abruptly dis- 
courage the over-inquisitiveness 
of visitors. It is in shape a «"'°s"-M '^rt [^.<•.^vM,rr.<.. i.ndon. 

,.,, , ^ ^ ,, J J- , ON THE SHORES OF MIYAJIMA ON THE INLAND SEA. 

hill, about two thousand feet ^, , , , , , , , , , , 

1 nia la one ol Inc tamoui beouly apota to which the Japancae point \vitn pride, 
in height, which descends all The famoua Torii U aeen a hundred yards away in the aea. 




234 



The Wonders of the World 



round to the sea in deep-cut chines, if the homely. English word may be used of these 
verdured and magnificent ravines. All along the coast a series of beautiful pictures is 
presented, each more charming than the last. Here an aged temple hides its lacquered 
columns beneath a green cloud of darkening foliage ; there, the dainty little shops of the 
artists and the ruder, but still beautiful, huts of the fishermen stretch entrancingly just 
across the road from the white shell-strewn beach. Out in this almost tideless sea stands a 
giant torii, and from up the hill comes now and then the low, reverberating tone of a deep bell, too 
soft to terrify the little Japanese deer that pick their way daintily along the roads, certain of their 
welcome from even the rudest of Western travellers. In short, there is perhaps no more beautiful 




Photo Jy] 



L- - i.'.'. .i L ... Lld.^ Reigate. 



MARTAND. 



Martand 19 the finest and most typical of tfie existing examples of Kasfimir's arcflitecture. Its peculiar interest is 
that it leproduces in plan the great temple of the Jews more than any other known building. It is, however, im- 
possible to trace any connection between the two temples. 

walk on earth than that which follows the ascending snake like spiral by which the track reaches 
the summit of this fairy island, 

Martand. — Five miles east of Islamabad, the old capital of the Kashmir Valley, the ruins of 
Martand still present to the archjeologist a riddle that seems as insoluble as when they were 
first discovered. In itself it is but a small building sixty feet in length, with a facade of the 
same size. Its ruins stand in a courtyard two hundred and twenty feet by one hundred and 
forty-two feet, which, in the opinion of General Cunningham, was at one time filled with water 
brought by a conduit from the river Lambadari. 

There is a general consensus of opinion that the courtyard was built in the second quarter of the 
eighth century, the temple itself being perhaps of the same date. It is the greatest ruin in Kashmir, 
and the prevalence of architectural forms and ornaments of a European nature is not the least 
remarkable fact of this strange and isolated memorial of the past. Special interest attaches to the 



236 



The Wonders of the World 




Photo ly} 



[.V. !•. Edtrards. 



The fortress of Gwalior rises abruptly from the level plain some distance to the south of Agra- Though now 
abandoned, it possesses many gates and exquisitely tiled palaces. 

fact that it probably presents a more exact reproduction — in plan, for in dimensions the Jewish 
building was larger — of the temple at Jerusalem. There is food for thought in this for those, and 
they are many, who believe that in the fierce, hook-nosed, patriarchally bearded Pathans of the 
North-West frontier the true descendants of the Lost Tribes are to be found. 

The Great Bridge of Isfahan. — Isfahan, as all the world knows, was the ancient capital of 
Persia, and there still remain many memorials of this pre-eminence. Perhaps the famous bridge, 
built by Ali Verdi Khan, is more impressive than even the Chehel Situn or the magnificent Royal 
Square. During the larger part of the year only a few arches are required to carry off the water 
of the Zendeh Rud. but in flood-time the whole of the long row is required if Isfahan is not to be 
submerged. It leads from Isfahan to Julfa, a suburb founded by Shah Abbas in 1604. The name 
of this town is derived from that which is notorious as a city on the Caucasian frontier between 
Russia and Persia. The splendid bridge built by the Shah's Field Marshal is a noble trait d' union 
between the two towns. It is three hundred and eighty-eight yards in length and thirty feet in 
width, and it is built in three stories. The photograph gives a good idea of its general effect. 

G<zvatior, the capital, residence and headquarters of Scindia, the strongest and most capable of 
Indian chiefs, is divided by the Chambal from the better-known districts of Agra. Like Chitor, 
it is a deserted rock fortress in the midst of a plain, with precipitous sides and a well-guarded 
approach on the eastern flank. In old days it must have been almost impregnable, and some old 
guns are still mounted in the casemates. Beside the main entrance at the top of the rock is the 



Asia 



'61 



Painted Palace, the most interesting building still standing on the rock. It is simply designed, 
and decorated with exquisite tile-work of blue and green. Inside there are finely chiselled capital- 
brackets and latticed windows in the women's court, now long given over to the owls and bats. 
There are a couple of interesting temples at the southern end of tlie fortress, and the large nude 
Jain figures still stand that once e.xcited the Emperor Baber's modest anger. 

The Black Temple, Kanarak. — Readers of the " Arabian Nights " will remember that the 
intrepid Sindbad, in the course of his voyaging, had the misfortune on one occasion to be 
shipwrecked from a very unusual cause. As the ship in which he was travelling approached a 
certain part of the coast of India, the iron bolts with which the beams of the vessel were joined 
together were so powerfully attracted by a magnet in a building on the shore that they left their 
positions and the unhappy ship fell to pieces on the sea. Now the Black Temple was the cause of 
this disaster, and to this day you may see lying upon the ground the iron girders, twenty-three 
feet long, which originated the story. 

Years and years ago this temple — which represents the highest achievement of purely Hindu 
sculpture — was consecrated in honour of the Sun, which here cured a son of Krishna of the disease 
of leprosy. The main building 
is modelled in the shape of one 
of those processional " raths," 
or ceremonial vehicles, of which 
the Car of Jagannath is by far 
the best-known example. Not 
the least remarkable feature of 
the building is presented by 
the wheels which represent the 
multitudinous castors of tlie 
great truck. 

The most casual observation 
will reveal the outstanding 
characteristic of the Black 
Temple. Every inch of surface 
has been carved with exquisite 
and loving care. There is not 
a pillar or a plinth or a panel 
that has not its ow^n special 
decoration. 

The great altar is the most 
conspicuous object in the closed 
chamber, or Holy of Holies, 
of the Black Temple. The 
chamber in which it is found 
was full of debris, and has only 
recently been cleared. 

The Gol Gumbaz, Bijapur. 
The tomb of Mahmoud at 
Bijapur is one of the mysteries 

of the world. Internally, it is pM.^-] rr,r.,r.; ^.n*-., n,. 

merely a square room, one the black temple, kanarak. 

hundred and thirty-five feet „. I^"' ""'"''' "°7, ^""''^- '' ■""'"''i' ••>« mo., e.qui.i.c cx.mpic <,f pu«i, 

J Hindu art. the wailH, fools and plaltorma are minutely carved, and ihc temple in 

in each direction, but it lias general very sreatly retemblet the forbidden lemple of Jagannath at Puri. 




238 



The Wonders of the World 



P- 










Photo by'] 



THE GREAT CENTRAL ALTAR WITHIN THE BLACK TEMPLE. 

Especial attention should be paid to tKc elephant frieze. 



[Pfrcfval Landon, Esq. 



the distinction of being the largest domed space in the world. Compared with its eighteen 
thousand two hundred and twenty-five square feet, the Pantheon at Rome can only boast fifteen 
thousand eight hundred and thirty-three square feet. Fergusson's description of this architectural 
marvel must be quoted : " At the height of fifty-seven feet from the floor- line the hall begins 
to contract, by a series of pendentives as ingenious as they are beautiful, to a circular opening 
ninety-seven feet in diameter. On the platform of these pendentives the dome is erected, 
one hundred and twenty-four feet in diameter, thus leaving a gallery more than twelve feet wide 
all round the interior. Internally, the dome is one hundred and seventy-five feet high ; externally, 
one hundred and ninety-eight feet, its general thickness being about ten feet. 

" The most ingenious and novel part of the construction of this dome is the mode in which its lateral 
or outward thrust is counteracted. This was accomplished by forming the pendentives so that 
they not only cut off the angles, but that their arches intersect one another, and form a very 
considerable mass of masonry perfectly stable in itself, and, by its weight acting inwards, counter- 
acting any thrust that can possibly be brought to bear upon it by the pressure of the dome. If the 
whole edifice thus balanced has any tendency to move, it is to fall inwards, which from its circular 
form is impossible ; while the action of the weight of the pendentives, being in the opposite direction 
to that of the dome, acts like a tie, and keeps the whole in equilibrium, without interfering at all 
with the outline of the dome." 

The Tomb of Timur, Samarkand. — Samarkand, the most famous of Tartar capitals, is composed, 
on the one hand, of gardens and orchards, and on the other, of the ruined remains of Timur — and 
of all these remains the tomb of the great butcher is pre-eminent. You may travel through and 
through Samarkand in all directions ; you may buy silks from the placid and contemptuous 
merchants in the bazaar ; you may sketch among the trees that have grown up round the Mosque 
of the Lady Princess ; but at the end of every day it is to the Emir's tomb that you wiU 
inevitably return. Here, in the quiet shadow, you will recall to yourself the most brilliant 



240 



The Wonders of the World 



career that any monster of 
mingled cruelty and shrewdness 
has ever lived. Outside, the 
brilliantly tiled gateway, of 
which a picture is here given, 
prepares the visitor for no ordin- 
ary sepulchre within. 

With what looks like an 
anticipation of Western sym- 
bolism, his plain block of marble 
stands out black under the dome 
among the surrounding white 
cenotaphs of his wives and 
relations. The vault rises above 
the little platform littered with 
plain-cut stones. To the eye of 
some it may seem but a dingy 
place. The translucent belt of 
jasper that runs around the 
walls at shoulder-height, cr\'ing 
forth the nine-and-ninety names 
and the ineffable glory of God, 
is darkened with centuries-old 
grime. You may hardly dis- 
tinguish it at first from the 
time-darkened limestone of which 
the walls of the tomb are 
built. Yet there is both in 
the jasper and the limestone 
as beautiful a play of tints as 
ever was taken on by the 
walls of a human shrine. 
Colour there is in profusion. Mauves, purples lurk in the recesses of the stalactite 
masonry that here and there clings to the corners of the tomb like a gigantic wasp's- 
nest of amber and dull stone. Here in the light the belt of jasper is translucent umber 
— there, in the shadows, smalt grey, and over the plain undecorated surface of the main walls 
there are flashes of nameless colours that change, from minute to minute, as the sun's mote-laden 
gnomon of light wheels slowly over the quiet tombs. The windows are heavily traceried, and the 
sun's intrusion is but a pastime of the late afternoon. At mid-day the light creeps in through the 
unglazed gratings, so tempered by the rich verdure of the forest trees outside that you may see three 
mysterious and changing tints of green under-flushing the sombre colouring of the vault overhead. 
There is silence absolute within the chamber. Silence such as this does but remind one the more 
of the stormy life of him who sleeps below. 




Photo by'] IPf-rcinl Landon^ Esq. 

THE TOMB OF TIMUR. SAMARKAND. 

Two men stand out in the world's history as savage and unrelenting 
butchers of men. Of one of them. Jenghiz Khan, the sepulchre is lost. Timur 
the Tartar, or as his contemporaries called him. Timur the Lame, is buried here 
in Samarkand. 



Asia 



241 



CHAPTER YIII. 
By J. THOMSON, F.R.G.S., 

C>fflcifr tie I'Ordre dti Cambodge. 

The Antiquities of Cambodia. — The Kingdom of Cambodia lies between Siam on the west, and 
Cochin China and the Gulf of Siam on the south and east. 

The early history of the country is wrapped in obscurity, and it is chiefly to the Chinese annals 
that we are indebted for authentic notices of the ancient splendour of Cambodia and its tributarv 
States. It is said that Funan (the name by which part of the realm was known) existed as a kingdom 
in the twelfth century B.C. 

After the lapse of over a thousand years, during the reign of the Chinese Emperor Heao-Wuti. 
about 123 B.C., the king is said to have sent ambassadors bearing tribute to the Chinese Court. But 
the most important event recorded in early history is the advent of Buddhism from Ceylon soon 
after the time when the followers of Gautama were driven out of India and took refuge in 
the island, from which they 
sent propagandists to ultra- 
India, who are said to have 
founded in Cambodia a great 
outpost of Buddhism, and who 

reared the first stone cities ^^^ 

and temples of that country. 
The striking similarity that 
exists between the ancient 
Buddhist buildings of Ceylon 
and those of Cambodia goes 
far to confirm the report of 
the early connection between 
the two. There are no 
temples in India that have 
features in common with those 
of Cambodia. The square 
pillars are characteristic of 
the latter, and of tlie anti- 
quities of Ceylon alone. 

Nakhon Wat, in its 
massive grandeur, suggests a 
vision of Oriental splendour 
materialized in stone, destined 
to stand as a monument of 
human endeavour for all time. 
The Pali characters used in 
the Buddhist sacred books, 
we are told by a Chinese 
historian of the Tsin dynasty, 

£ 11" '''""" 'Vl [■'• Tlionum, l.K.ti.S. 

205-419, were employed in angkor or nakhon wat. 

the books and WritinCrS of E^nterine the western sateway ot the outer callcrv, one obtain* a view o( the railed 

• tone cruciform cautcway Icadine to the main temple, which 1% leen in the diatance. 

17 




Asia 



24: 




/Jj/] IJ. T/itimsiin, F./tJi.S. 

A plan of Nakhcn \^'at 



Funan. and that the people were skilled in fashioning vessels 
of gold and silver, and in the art of sculpture. 

About three centuries later, Lim-yip. another State- 
apparently included in Cambodia, is noticed in the history of 
the Suy dynasty, and its position may be identified, as it is 
stated that the shadow cast by the sun in June when at the 
zenith was ten degrees south of the gnomon. At that time 
the Chinese invaded the country, and after a disastrous war, 
carried off eighteen golden statues from one of the royal 
palaces, and many captives. From the Tang dynasty onward 
to 1017 A.D. there are notices confirming the view that Cam- 
bodia played a leading part all through the centuries in ultra- 
India ; and we gather, further, that a period of decadence 
ensued, brought about by constant strife and the blighting 
influence of war. Unfortunately the exact date of the building 
of Nakhon Wat is unknown, as the written annals of the 
Cambodians did not exist prior to 1346 a.d., about the time 
when the temple was building. Our brief review must be 
confined to the ruins of the city " Inthapatapuri," or " Nakhon 
Thom " ("The Great City"), and Nakhon Wat, the greatest 
and last work of the race. We had the privilege of exploring 
the ruins, and the temple, which is in good preservation. 
in 1S66, taking the first series of photographs, and producing 

the first plan of the " Wat." We spent some time in Nakhon Thom. which was buried in a 

forest of venerable trees. One temple alone, " Prea-Sat-ling-poun." covered a vast area, and 

was crowned by thirty-seven stone towers, each tower sculptured to represent the four- 
faced Buddha, or Brahma, and thus one Imndred and forty-six colossal sphinx-like faces 

gazed benignly towards the cardinal points. Some were 

contorted and torn by trees and parasitic plants that 

had rooted and grown through the crevices in the huge 

blocks of stone of which they were built, while those intact 

were full of that expression of purity and repose which 

Buddhists so love to portray, and all wearing diadems of most 

chaste design above their unruffled brows. Hard by were the 

ruins of a royal palace, described by the Chinese envoy of the 

thirteenth century as " a place of great magnificence, partly 

built of wood, exquisitely carved ; with statues and ornaments 

of pure gold, and approached by a massive stone causeway. 

whose entablature was sculptured to represent a hunting scene 

with elephants in the forest." 

We had to employ a gang of natives for some days in 

cutting the tower of " Prea-Sat-ling-poun " from the growth of 

ages. The city walls have a circuit of about nine miles, and 

rise to a height of thirty feet, and are pierced by five gateways. 

In photographing the gateway represented we had a sort of 

" battle of the apes" ; a tribe of monkeys persisted in shaking 

the foliage, coming and going and displaying almost human 

curiosity in studying our proceedings, causing a loss of much "^'oH: [j. nomion. f ii.n.s. 

1 , . , . I The Hone italue o( ihc leper king found 

time and valuable material .^„„, ,^^ j.^,;. 




244 



The Wonders of the World 



Reared above the gateway stood a series of subordinate towers, having a single large one in the 
centre, whose apex again displayed the four benign faces of the ancient god ; the image was partly 
hidden beneath plants which twined their clustering fibres in a garland round the neglected head. 

In this ancient city one can trace tlie evolution in native architecture from primitive design and 
elementary skill in building to the mature products of a later period. In the early buildings 
the blocks of stone used in construction are smaller, and the examples of the sculptor's art 
are crude when compared with the decoration of Xakhon Wat. It was evident that the 
arch, which is said to have been known to the ancient Egyptians, and certainly to the Greeks 
and Romans, was unknown to the early Cambodians. Their method of constructing a substitute is 

clearly shown at the base of the 
tower of Prea-Sat-ling-poun, whose 
huge blocks of stone are super- 
posed, and project one beyond 
another from each side, and meet 
in the centre, so as to support the 
enormous weight of masonry above. 
This method also applies to Nakhon 
Wat, the Great Temple, about two 
miles distant from the city. 

This wonderful building is per- 
fectly symmetrical in design (as 
may be gathered from the ground 
plan), like the majority of Buddhist 
structures, and may have been 
meant to symbolize the sacred 
^Mount Meru, or centre of the 
Buddhist universe. This is all the 
more apparent when we consider 
that Meru is surrounded by seven 
circles of rocks ; that there are 
seven circles in the central tower : 
that the Sacred Mount is supported 
by three platforms (corresponding 
to the three terraces of this 
temple), one of earth, one of wind, 
and one of water, and that it rises 
out of the ocean. This part of 
the symbolism is indicated by the 
temple being surrounded with a 
wide moat ; and, indeed, during 
the rains, when the place is flooded, the whole stupendous structure would rise (like Meru 
from the ocean) out of an unbroken sheet of water. In some of the ancient temples of Java 
we find the same symbolic architecture : the Shrine of " Kalisari," for example, is an oblong 
square divided into three floors, and there are many more of the same design, On the 
ancient Buddhist Temple of Boro-Bodoer there are seven terraces (and no central tower) 
which would correspond with the seven circles of IMeru. But the three terraces of Xakhon Wat ma\- 
have another significance ; they maj' have been designed originally for the sacred rites and 
processions still practised in ceremonials at the tonsnr festivals of Siam : for example, at the 
coronation of a king the priests march thrice on three successive days round the sacred " Khao- 




rh0(O 1:1/] 



[J. Thonuon, F.Ii.i 



A p.-irt of one of the four tanUs. 






o 



o 



H I 




246 



The Wonders of the World 



Khrai-lat," the Siamese Buddhist Mount Meru. It is difficult to say what may nave been the 
origin in many lieathen religions of the sacred number three. We have them in the Holy Trinity 
of our own Church, a doctrine which does not claim a high antiquity ; in the supreme principles 
of creation ; in Orphic mytho'ogy, Council, Light and Life ; in On, Isis and Neith of the Egyptians ; 
in the Magian Trinity, Mithras, Oromazdes and Ahriman ; the Indian triad, Brahma, Vishnu and 
Shiva ; while in China we liave the classic doctrine of the powers of Nature, Heaven, Earth and 
Man, and the Buddliist Past. Present and Future. We also find in the Temple of Heaven, near 
Peking, where State worship is performed, an altar of three terraces, on which at certain times of 
the year three sacrifices are offered. These are the Ta-sze, or great sacrifice ; the Choong-sze, or 
medium sacrifice, and the Seaon-sze, or lesser sacrifice. 

To return to Nakhon Wat. The ancient Chinese traveller, in his narrative of a tradition, says 
something relating to the worship of the snake in early times ; but he, at the same time, tells us 
that Buddhism was the religion which then prevailed in Cambodia. The view that this great 
building was created for snake worship suggested by Fergusson can hardly be maintained. After 
visiting China, and seeing the Hindoo deities that guard the gates of Buddhist temples there, and 
the mythological objects which adorn these shrines, we have been led to believe that Nakhon Wat 
is a Buddhist edifice, decorated about the roofs and balconies with effigies of the seven-headed 
snake, who is honoured for ever, because he guarded Gautama when he slept. Nagas (snakes) 




rttoto bii] 



{.r. Tl:fm.«'n. /'./l.O.K. 



SECTION OF THE l.\.\ER WESTERN GALLERY. 

One of the open colonnades which form a very conspicuous pait in the te.-nplc. on account of the bas-reliefs on their walls. 



Asia 



247 




rfwto &y] 



The 



[J. rhoi. 



AN EXAMPLE OF THE BAS-RELIEF. 



rlicis 



th<r 



inner calleric* in *^ 
procession; beneath it 



Wi 



I. The upper part of this particular example shows a state 
a scene of a Bu<idhist inlcrno. 



appeared at his birtli to wash liim : numbers of nagas conversed with him here and there, protected 
him, and were converted by him ; and after tlie cremation of his body, an eighth portion of the 
rehcs was allowed to the custody of the nagas 

Nakhon Wat, like the majority of the buildings in Inthapatapuri. and other cities of Cambodia, 
is raised upon a stone platform, and is carried upward from its base in three quadrangular tiers, with 
a great central tower above all, having an elevation of one hundred and eighty feet. The outer 
boundary wall and galleries enclose a square space measuring nearly three-fourths of a mile each 
way, enclosing a moat two hundred and thirty feet wide. Entering the western gateway of the 
outer gallery shown in the central distance on page 245, we found square monolithic pillars, almost 
Roman Doric in design, with a gallery and cloisters richly decorated with sculptured ornament : 
the first glimpse was then obtained of the imposing pile of masonry which forms the main temple. 
This approach leads to a raised, wide stone cruciform causeway, having ornamental flights of steps 
descending to the moat. These were probably intended for the first ablutions of the worshippers 
at the shrine. This causeway had been guarded along its entire length by a stone balustrade 
representing the body of the seven-headed snakes rearing their crests at the points of descent to the 
moat. Ascending a terrace by a flight of steps again sculptured with lavish ornament, and guarded 
on each side by colossal stone lions, we stood before the principal entrance of the temple, whose 
facjade on this side is over six hundred feet in length, and is willed in in the centre for a distance of 
some two hundred feet. Tliis walled sjiace is divided into compartments, and each compartment 
lighted with windows. In every window tliere are seven floral stone bars, uniform in pattern 



248 



The Wonders of the World 



with a height of six and a half feet, 
each space of six and a half feet, 
average 



and in size throughout. The floral design on tliese bars represents the sacred lotus, 
and the flowers are as carefully repeated as if they had been cast in a single mould. These 
compartments occur in the centre of the other three galleries in the sides of the square, each facing 
a cardinal point. The remaining two-thirds of the space consist of open colonnades, the inner 
walls of which, with their bas-reliefs, form one of the chief attractions of Nakhon Wat. 

The building, as already noticed, rises in three terraces, one above the other, and it is out of the 
highest of the three that the great central tower springs up ; four lower, or inferior, towers rise 
around it. The bas-reliefs are contained in eight compartments, measuring each from two hundred 

and fifty to three hundred feet in length, 

In 
the 
number of men and animals 
depicted is sixty. They are executed with 
such care and skill, and in such good draw- 
ing, as to show that the art of the sculptors 
had reached a high degree of perfection 
among the " Khamen-ti-buran," or Ancient 
Cambodians. The chief subjects repre- 
sented are battle scenes, state processions, 
and a complete series illustrating the 
" Ramayana " and " Mahabharata," the 
ancient Indian epic poems, wliich are said 
to have been received from India about 
the fifth century. 

Perliaps the most wonderful subject of 
all the bas-reliefs is what the Siamese call 
the " Battle of Ramakean." This is one of 
the leading incidents in the " Ramayana," 
of which Coleman says: "The Grecians 
had their Homer to render imperishable the 
fame acquired by their glorious combats in 
the Trajan War, the Latins had Virgil to 
sing the prowess of ^Eneas, and the Hindoos 
have their Valmuc to immortalize the deeds 
of Rama and his army of monkeys. The 
' Ramayana ' (one of the finest poems ex- 
tant) describes the incidents of Rama's life 
and the exploits of the contending foes." 

In the sculptures of Nakhon Wat 
many of the incidents of the life of 
Rama are depicted, such as the ultimate 
triumph over the god Ravana, and the recovery of his wife Sita. The chief illustration of 
the poem, however, is the battle scene which ensues after the ape-god Hanuman had per- 
formed several of his feats which formed the daily incidents of his life, such as the construction 
of what is now known as Adam's Bridge at Ceylon. This he accomplished by a judicious selection 
of ten mountains, each measuring sixty-four miles in circumference ; and being short of arms, but 
never of expedients, when conveying them to Ceylon, he poised one on the tip of his tail, another 
on his head, and thus formed the famous bridge over which his army of apes passed to Lanka. In 
another compartment the subjects appear to be the avatar of Vishnu, where the god is represented 




Plato 6ji] 

The Sevcn-hcadcd Sna!<c 



which 
of Nakhon Wat 



[/. Tkoniion, t\li.i;.S. 
one time, surrounded the temple 




[J, nomton, F.n.n.s. 

rholn l.j] 

THE TEMPLE " PREASAT-LING-POUN." IN NAVCHON THOM. 

Th,. icmolc cover, o v„t .re. .nd i. crowned b» ihirtv-.even ..one lower., e.cl, lower .culptured lo repre.enl .he (our- 

t.ced Buddh.. .nd .o 1-16 C0I0...I .Dhinx-like f.ce. e«/e benienlv low.rd. .he c.rdin.l po.nl.. 



250 



The Wonders of the World 




nolo bv'i W- Thomson, F.K.G.s. 

ONE OF THE GATEWAYS OF 
NAKHON THOM. 

The City Walls ol Nakhon Thorn, or 
Inthapatapuri, have a circuit of alsout nine 
miles, and rise to a height of thirty feet, 
and are pierced by five gateways. 



as a tortoise supporting the Earth, which is submerged in the 
Waters. Tlie four-armed Brahma is seated above. A seven- 
headed snake is shown above the water, coiled round the 
Earth, and extending over the entire length of the bas-relief. 
The gods on the right and the dinvtas on the left are seen 
contending for the serpent. Hanuman is pulling at the tail, 
while, above, a flight of angels are bearing a cable to bind the 
snake after the conflict is over. The example of bas-relief on 
this page will convey an idea of the ornate nature of the battle 
scenes, and will also enable the reader to judge for himself, 
not only regarding the art which they display, but also of the 
constructive mechanical skill which the Cambodians possessed, 
and which enabled them to build their war chariots at once 
strong enough for the rough usage of war, and light enough 
to secure that degree of speed upon which the issue of a 
conflict might depend. Take, for example, the wheel of the 
chariot. It must have been strong, and nothing lighter or 
more elegant could be constructed at the present day among 
ourselves. Part of it must have been made of metal, proving 
that the builders were experts in the use of metals. We 
must note that this splendid monument was put together with 
immense blocks of freestone and ironstone without a trace of 
mortar ; and so deftly as to leave but a hair-line to trace the 
junction of the blocks. A part of one of four tanks (shown 

at B on the plan and illustrated on page 244) has all the appearance of a rock-cut temple, and is 

adorned with the sculptured ornament characteristic of the exquisite work of this great building 

race. Nakhon Wat was the greatest and last work of the ancient Cambodians, probably erected 

about the middle of the fourteenth century and left incomplete. 

There is a tradition of a later king, whose stone statue we found among sculptured debris, who 

is said to have built a Bud- 
dhist temple in the hope that 

he might be cleansed of his 

leprosy. 

The illustration on page 248 

represents one of the ancient 

guardians of the temple, the 

seven-headed snakes found 

around the building for the 

protection of the sacred image 

of Buddha enshrined in the 

lofty central tower. Apart 

from fragmentary historical 

accounts and inscriptions, the 

deserted cities, palaces and 

temples of stone tell their tale 

of the rise and fall of a great 

empire, which reached its 

zenith when building the still 

unfinished shrine Nakhon Wat. Basreliet of battle scene in the s.Ilery. 




AUSTRALASIA AND THE PACIFIC. 



CHAPTER IX. 
By F. LAMBERT, FM.G.iS. 

The Jenolan Caves, Neiu South Wales. — Unlike the land of Columbus. Australia can claim 
but little in the nature of the stupendous. It has no Niagara Falls, and its rivers and mountains 
are small as compared with the great waterways of the Amazon and the Mississippi, and the heights 
of the Andes and the Rockies. 

In the limestone caves at Jenolan, New South Wales, however, Australia possesses a natural 
phenomenon which, although smaller than the Mammoth Cave of Kentuck\^ in America, need fear 
no comparison with this, either m general grandeur of effect or in beauty of formation. 




Pholo I'y pf/Tittsnon oj ] 



[Tlf A:j,nl-n,nT,tl /nr .V. ir Soul}, irn/j. 

THE GRAND ARCHWAY. JRNOLAN CAVES. N.S.W. 
The three daylicht covet, of which the Grand Archway it an example, differ very materially from the entirely aubterranean 
cave* : they are open to the air at both end*, and exposure to all Linda of weather haa Kivcn them moat of their lovely 
colouring and aombre ahadea. The tunnel of the Grand Archway ia 450 feet long and about 70 leel hiuh. with a width 
varying from 35 to 180 feet. 



252 



The Wonders of the World 




Pfii^fo hyl 



ITfi' Phatorhrom Co. TJi. 



THE DEVIL'S COACH HOUSE. 



This vast cavern, which tunnels through the mountain limestone, is of an enormous size. The roof is decorated from end to 
end with stalactites —some twenty feet in length— which are tinged with delicate hues of almost every colour. 

These caves are situated in the Blue Mountains on the eastern watershed of the great range 
which divides the waters of the Fish and Cox rivers. They are of vast extent, and of singular attrac- 
tiveness in their limestone formations, and present, when illumined by the electric and magnesium 
lights, scenes of unparalleled loveliness, rivalling, in their marvellous and fantastic beauty, the airy 
fancies of the Arabian Nights, and the brilliancv of Sindbad's Diamond Valley. 

The caves were discovered in 1841 by a Mr. Whalan and two mounted policemen, while in pur- 
suit of a notorious bushranger, named McKeown, who had retired for security into the mountain 
strongholds in which the caves lie. For about a quarter of a century after their discovery little 
or no notice was taken of them. They were regarded by the few who frequented the neighbourhood 
for the purpose of hunting wild cattle as remarkable freaks of Nature, but were allowed to remain 
unexplored. Their hidden beauties soon became so talked about, however, as to arouse the 
enthusiasm of a Mr. Jeremiah Wilson, who, subsequently, as cave-keeper for thirty-five years, was 
instrumental in exploring and opening up some twenty' miles of subterranean channels. As the 
fame of the caves became bruited abroad the number of visitors rapidly increased. Among them 
there were many who did not scruple to remove portions as mementoes, so it soon became 
evident that, unless something were promptly done for their protection, their beauty would 
quickly be destroyed. The Government of New South Wales, therefore, took the matter in 
hand, proclaiming the district, in 1S66, to be public property, and, to their infinite credit, 
have since expended, annually, considerable sums of money in the work of development and 
exploration. 

The caves lie m a limestone belt, probably of Lower or Middle Devonian Age, which runs with 




nolo ij/] 



!iyin.-!i. 



THE CARLOHA ARCH. 



The Cnrlotla Arch stands 200 feet above the valley, and lies briwcen the Grand Archway and llic Devil's Coach Hjuse. 
Its roof ond sides are ornamented with a pretty frinse of blue and itrey limestone formitionj. 



254 



The Wonders of the World 



a comparatively unbroken crop for approximately three miles from north to west, and two 
miles from south to east, varying in thickness between five hundred and six hundred feet, 
corresponding to a surface width between six hundred and seven hundred feet. Through this 
formation two main creeks have excavated a number of subterranean channels, and have thus 
formed the caves. 

The caves may be classified into two kinds — Day and Night. The Day Caves consist of three 
magnificent natural arches, viz., the Grand Arch, The Devil's Coach House, and the Carlotta Arch, 
and are so called on account of the daylight streaming through their entrances. The Night Caves, 




{The Photochrom Co. ltd. 
IHE WILLOWS. NETTLE CAVE. 

In ihc Nettle Cave, at the upper end of some stone steps cut out of the roclc. are the beautiful green formations, 
termed the Willows, because of the resemblance they bear to the graceful foliage of that tree. 

of which there are several, are the interior caverns in the limestone, into which a ray of natural 
light has never penetrated. 

•The Grand Arch and the Devil's Coach House, the two principal Day Caves, run right through 
the mountain limestone, to a depth of four hundred and fifty feet, and are exposed to the daylight 
at both extremities. 

The Grand Arch runs east and west. The western entrance is seventy feet high and sixty feet 
wide, and, in its graceful semi-circular form, looks hke the approach to a railway tunnel. The 
eastern entrance widens out to a span of two hundred feet, and is a marvel of natural architecture. 
Along the walls inside the Arch are caves running into the limestone to a depth varying from ten 
to twenty feet, the bottoms of which are covered with fine dust, pulverized from the rocks lying 
about by animals passing from one rocky hall to another. Midway between the floor and the roof, 
Mr. Wilson, the cave-keeper, had his sleeping-place for twenty years in the midst of rock-wallabies. 



Australasia and the Pacific 



255 




Pholo ('!/] 



[K^rrj/ tt Co.. .Ct'fi'V. 

THE STYX. 
Below "tie Precipice." lost in inky darkness, there 
is a deep chasm, lerminatini; in the far distance in A 
dismal pool whicti liaa been nnn 



" rhe Styx." 



and near to the haunt of a Ivre bird. There he 

strewed his bed of ferns, grasses, and mosses, and 

certainly not even Robinson Crusoe had a more 

magnificent dormitory. 

The Devil's Coach House runs north and south, 

and is therefore at right angles to the Grand Arch, 

from which it is separated only by a few yards. 

This huge cavern, which rises to a maximum height 

of three hundred feet, or nearly as high as tlie 

dome of St. Paul's Cathedral, is a scene of 

indescribable grandeur. Lying about in the wildest 

disorder are tumbled blocks of limestone, making 

a scene of such grand confusion as the soul of a 

Dore would love to picture as the abode of some 

mythical dragon. High up on the roof are two 

natural openings, probably blow-holes, through 

which water spouted in remote ages. Scores of 

gaps in the roof and sides lead to cave upon cave, 

the bottoms of which are covered with bones. The 

teeth of bats, the backbones of marsupials and 

snakes, the wingbones of birds, and various other 
fragments of the animal world arc mi.xed together 
as in a vast charnel-house. 

The Carlotta Arch, although the smallest of the 
three Day Caves, is by no means the least import- 
ant. It stands at an elevation of two hundred 
feet above the Cave Valley, and makes a beautiful 
framework to the bush and mountain scenery 
beyond. The jagged fringe of blue and grey 
limestone, and the pretty natural formation of the 
sides, in appearance much like hanging curtains, 
make the entrance to the cave look like a ruined 
window in some grand monastic pile, fretted and 
scarred by centuries of decay. 

Conducting an underground survey into the 
(ireat Unknown, amid rugged rocks and tortuous 
pathways, with nothing to illumine the Stygian 
darkness but the faint flicker of a candle or the 
rhcmical rays of the magnesium light, can scarcely 
lie regarded as a pleasant pastime. In all, some 
twenty-five miles of underground channels, radiating 
in every conceivable direction, have been surveyed; 
bui owing to the difficulty of access not all are open 
to public inspection. Fortunately, those which are 
not accessible are of a minor character, and aggre- 
gate only a small total of distances. How far the 
caves e.xtend, future exploration alone can reveal ; 
but, in consequence of a peculiar similarity in the 
rocks, it. is believed that, in addition to the 




Photo dv] [Krrry .(r Co., .^ydn'V. 

THE FORMATION OF STALAC m ES. 

Water filtrrini; throut^S ihe limestone, deposits particles 
of lime on the roof of the cave: these gradually form an 
extended tube, and when this becomes choked, the water 
flows down the outside, and the stalactite becomes 
encrusted. 



256 



The Wonders of the World 



caves which have already been opened, the subterranean channels continue for one hundred 
and eighty miles, i.e., from Mudgee to Goulbourn, where the Wombeyan Caves are situated. 
Although grandly picturesque, the Day Caves differ as greatly from the Night, or Crystal, Caves as do 
the pearls in a costly coronet from the rough oyster shells which once concealed them. Exposure 
to all kinds of weather has given to the Day Caves most of the lovely colouring and sombre shades 
which distinguish them ; but the Night Caves, shut off from all atmospheric disturbance, have 
been preserved in all their virgin purity. As it is not possible in a short description to deal with 

all the caves known, and visited 
by tourists from all parts of the 
world, the principal ones only 
can be described, viz., the 
Nettle, the Arch, the Lucas, 
the River and the Imperial, all 
of which contain an intricate 
network of chambers, and al- 
most every type of limestone 
beauty to be met with in the 
subterranean world. With the 
exception of ■' the Nettle." 
which is partly exposed to the 
daylight, and, therefore, may 
be called a Twilight Cave, 
the limestone deposits, hidden 
away in the deep hollows of 
the mountain, are for the 
greater part as white as driven 
snow, and of the most delicate 
and fragile nature. Wherever 
the eye rests, nothing is seen 
but myriads of limestone for- 
mations, streaked with the 
most delicate colours. When 
the electric and magnesium 
lights, which are used for 
illuminating, are thrown on to 
the many crystalline forma- 
tions, the effect is one of be- 
wildering splendour. 

The Nettle Cave was dis- 
covered in 1845. The origin 
of its unromantic title in- 
cautious visitors will quickly 
discover by the abundance of stinging nettles growing round the entrance. After ascending 
a flight of steps cut out of the rock, the tourist descends into a chamber, beneath a 
magnificent cluster of formations of a bright green shade, called the Willows, as graceful in form 
and in harmony of colour as any willow in Nature. The general appearance of the cavern is like a 
ruined palace, or the silent cloisters of some ancient abbey, its gloomy recesses and dim corners, 
its rugged roof and walls, looking like the remnants of past splendour and glory. In one part is a 
chamber called the Ballroom, containing a number of fluted pillars looking like Corinthian columns. 




THE FURZE BUSHES. 

A Eood example of the freakish archileclure of thf 
formations of this type are l<nown as 



■y .{■ L'o., Stjdnry. 



caves. Unexplainabfe 
M vsteries " 



Australasia and the Pacific 



257 



while in another the curious formation of the stalagmites into groups closely resembling partly 
finished statuary, have earned it the name of the Sculptor's Studio. The figures are tall and rough, 
some life-size, some of heroic stature, and it requires no effort of imagination to see in them many 
striking and distinct forms, such as a woman looking upward in a big bonnet of the early Victorian 
period ; an orator in the act of exliortation, with one arm upraised ; and a man under an 
eider-down quilt, in a calm sleep, with liis arms thrown back and his hands placed on his head. 
Other fantastic resemblances are the Hand of Joshua and the Judge's Wig. 

The Arch Cave was also discovered in 1845, and owes its name to its being under the Carlotta 
Arch, and also because it forms a perfect arcade, one hundred j-ards in length. The roof of the 
cave is decked with a rich profusion of stalactite formations. 

The manner in which stalactites and stalagmites are produced is simple and interesting. Water 
percolating through the roof of a 
limestone cavern is enabled to 
dissolve a small amount of lime 
by reason of the carbonic acid it 
contains. Upon evaporation of the 
water, the lime is left attached to 
the roof. When the water filters 
sufficiently slowly, the lime is de- 
posited on the roof in the form 
of a ring, or an extremely thin 
layer, with a cavity in the centri 
of the diameter of the drop of 
water. Whilst there is a constant 
supply of water, the process con- 
tinues, and produces, in the course 
of time, a tube more or less 
extended. So long as the water 
continues unceasingly to flow, the 
tube lengthens, but so soon as the 
supply ceases, the last drop, in 
leaving its deposit of lime either 
at the top or at the bottom, 
blocks it, and in this way the 
tube becomes sealed. In times <■! 
moisture the water again flows, 
but finding no outlet, either at 
the top or the bottom of the 
tube, makes its escape at the 
weakest place, which is usually 
where the stalactite is joined to 
the roof. Encrustation then takes 
place on the outside. When the 
water drips slowly to the floor, 
the lime deposited forms a sta- 
lagmite on the spot where the r/u>lo i,ii permimoti u/] lTI,r Ajem-Urnti^tfor ytiM^uHtWulrt. 

drops of water fall and evaporate. the grand column. 

. I . r .- A mammoth fluted •taloemite of an amber tint, supported by a second 

At times this forms continuous ^^,_^^„ ,^^^ „^.^^ ,^^ cr,.,.lli„e floor, dc.ccd m .r.cdul curve. .. . 

sheets over the floor, and a bc.uiifui bower. 

18 




258 



The Wonders of the World 



stalagmite floor results ; or it rises into columns, which meet and unite with the stalactites 
above. 

In the centre of the Arch Cave is a slender column tapering from the roof to the floor. At one 
time there were five pillars as perfect as the one which remains, but in i860 they were hacked down 
by someone to place as verandah posts in front ' of his sumptuous log-hut ! In this cave there 
are two small stalactites of exceptional interest, less than a quarter of an inch in diameter, and 
barely an inch in length, which have been under constant observation for thirty-five years. As 

they have never been dry, and no 
water has been seen to drop, they 
have consequently never ceased 
growing, and yet the actual addi- 
tion to the stalactite has only 
been three-quarters of an inch. 
The rate of growth of the stalag- 
mite deposits is appallingly slow, 
and affords a striking object lesson, 
not only of the enormous age of 
the caves, but of the globe upon 
which we live. Mr. Voss Wiburd, 
who is the present curator of the 
caves, was born and bred in the 
Blue Mountains. He has been in 
and out of the caves nearly all his 
life, and computes, from careful 
observations extending over a great 
length of time, that the rate of 
increase does not exceed the thick- 
ness of a sheet of notepaper in 
thirty-five years, or about one 
inch in two thousand five hundred 
years. This is the evidence of a 
practical geologist, whose know- 
ledge of limestone caves, and 
especially of the peculiar structure 
of stalactites, is unlimited. 

The growth of the formations 
depends, among other conditions, 
largely on the temperature, the 
degree of moisture, and the 
amount of carbonate of lime in 
the water. The mean temperature 
in the caves is about fifty-two degrees Fahrenheit. The fonnations are by no means constituted 
on any given plan. Every variety of shape and complexity of form is found, accordingly 
as the water becomes distributed, such as columns, domes, pinnacles, minarets, temples, 
cathedrals, canopies, shawls, draperies, and contorted forms known as " Mysteries." The rich 
tints and shades which lend such a charm to the formations are due partly to atmospheric 
influence (especially near the entrances), although the filtering drops of water, charged with 
mineral matter, have effected a great deal towards the harmonious and delicate colouring 
of the whole. 




PfiOto by permtssion o/] 



[7%« Ayent -General for Neu South Waifs. 
THE SHAWL. 

This beautiful formation is situated in tfie Mons Meg Branch. It is 
superbly banded, but is chiefly remarkable for its size, measuring twentv feet 
by four feet. 




I'aifiti-il hy G. H. K</uvir,/s 



I'luilo hy lii-rry <•; 0>.. Syi/iic). 



THE BROKEN COLUMN. LUCAS CAVE, JENOLAN. 



The Broken X^olumn is surrounded by tinted draperies and sparklint: stalactites. At one time it was a Krand pillar iiiniin^ nwf and floor, 
but snapped in two by the sinking of the soil beneath, it now consists of two sections, the one separated from the other by a space of 
ten inches. 




I'hntn bt/l 



THE TEMPLE OF BAAL. 



In the centre of thin maenificent chamber there ttand* a superb Rliatenint; and pure white stalaemile man. thirty feel acro4« On 
either side white and reddish shawls ore haneins from chocolate-tinted walls, which cuive upwards to a lofly dome. 



26o 



The Wonders of the World 



The Lucas Cave was discovered 
in i860, and consists of a suc- 
cession of large chambers and 
narrow passages. 

One of the most majestic in 
the Jenolan domain, this cave 
is in the region of eternal mid- 
night. It presents in grand 
combination almost every type of 
limestone beauty ; and although 
the wealth of detail is less than 
in the Imperial Cave, one is 
awed by the magnitude of its 
chambers and the gloomily im- 
pressive outline of the deep re- 
cesses and tumbled rocks. The 
first cavern, named the Cathedral, 
is so vast that the rich chemical 
rays of the magnesium light fail 
to penetrate its vault ; approxi- 
mately, it is three hundred feet 
high, or seventy feet higher than 
Notre Dame. Its lofty dome 
provides sanctuary for countless 
numbers of bats, which cling 
together like swarms of bees. 

Another chamber of huge di- 
mensions, leading out of the 
Cathedral, is the Exhibition Cave, 
so called on account of the great 
variety of its specimens. This 
cave has an unsupported roof, four 
hundred feet in length, enveloped in a mysterious and soundless gloom. The unresponsive echo of 
the place is almost painful, the only sounds apparently audible being one's quickened respiration and 
the ticking of one's watch. An object of universal interest is the Broken Column, a beautifully 
fluted piUar, which at one time united the floor and the roof, and which is not even now shorn of 
beauty, in spite of the fact that some earth movement or sinking of the floor has fractured it at the 
base. The stalagmitic portion rests on a large rock, the stalactitic portion being suspended from 
the roof. They are ten inches apart and about four inches out of plane. 

Between the Cathedral and the Exhibition is the Shawl Cave, a magnificent chamber, the roof 
of which slopes at an angle of forty-three degrees. Hanging in graceful folds from the sloping roof 
is a group of " shawls " as white as virgin snow, fifteen feet wide and twenty feet deep, and of this 
kind of ornamentation the Imperial Cave contains the finest specimens. They are usually produced 
by the water flowing along an inclined plane. 

Among a multiplicity of dazzhng and bewildering formations the Jewel Casket attracts 
special interest by its exquisite beauty. It is only one foot square and six feet long, and is 
hidden away in a small cryptic recess four feet above the level of the main floor. 

The scene which bursts upon the senses, when the light is flashed on, is like a vision of 
fairyland. The ceiling is literally covered with tiny glistening pendants of the most fragile 




Photo hy permission of^ [Thf Agfnt-Gfnfral for .Yrw &)rtth Wales, 

THE SKELETON CAVE. 

In this cave there is a skeleton of an Australian aboriginal. It is difficult to 
account for its presence at such a depth. 



Australasia and the Pacific 



261 



nature, and the walls and 
floor are a mass of beauti- 
fully coloured crystals, whicli 
look in the reflected light 
like a rich and rare collection 
of gems. 

At the end of the Exhibi- 
tion Cave an iron bridge spans 
a j'awning chasm about fifty 
feet deep ; below the bridge 
an electric light illumines the 
clear waters of a still and 
silent pool from sixteen to 
twentj' feet deep. The pool 
is connected with the water 
way which drains the belt of 
limestone on the south side of 
the Jenolan River and forms 
many of the caverns in the 
River Cave. 

Looking across the vast 
chasm at the huge rocks lying 
piled one over the other, the 
scene is weird and wild in the 
extreme. Leading out from 
the Exhibition Cave is the 
Lurline Cave. 

The discovery of the 
" River " branches of the 
Lucas Cave in 1903- 1904 has 
added over half a mile of 
caverns of unrivalled beaut\- 
and grandeur to the revealed 
treasures of the Wonderland 
of Jenolan. In his book on 
the Caves, Mr. 0. Trickett 
informs us that the branches 
are all contained in the sj'stem 
of channels which have been 
excavated by the waters un- 
derground, and running from 
south to north, find their wa\- 
through the western bank of 
the Jenolan River, opposite 
the outlet of the underground 
waters of the Imperial Caves. 
Starting from a point about 
twenty-five feet from the 
western end of the Lucas 




nmu (,)/] \_Kfrr\) * Co., .Syrfiify. 

GRANNN'S SHAWL. ORIENT CAVE, 

This formntisn. in ih.; Orient Cove, bears a tlrikintE reHcmblance to a folded ahawl ol 
»o(t woollen texture, complete even to the knot* and frinvei. 



262 



The Wonders of the World 



Bridge, a descent is made to the mammoth tumbled rocks forming the floor of the Exhibition 
Cavern. From here a pathway leads down to the present waterway, and an ascent is tlien made into 
the Tower Chambers. In these there are groups of beautifully tinted pillars, superb cream- 
coloured stalagmites, forming terraces, and including that named The Minaret. (An illustration 
of this beautiful pillar appears in the Introduction.) 

A ledge at the end of the Tower overhangs the precipice, which terminates in a partly concealed 
pool, varying in depth from thirty-five to forty-five feet, according to the season of the year. From 

this ledge a weird and awe-inspiring 
scene is presented to the spectator ; 
sombre walls, whose contour is lost 
in inky darkness, surround a chasm 
which seems to terminate in the far 
distance in a dismal pool, called the 
Styx. 

Proceeding thence to the Junction 
Cliamber, the Shower of Shawls comes 
into view. This beautiful formation is 
one of the many amber and chocolate 
tinted mantles which decorate and 
drape a series of rounded ledges. 

Leaving the Shower of Shawls, a 
network of passages is traversed, which 
leads to the Furze Bushes. Deposits 
of clean sand carpet, in a fitting way, 
tlie approach to Olympia. In this 
gorgeous chamber the central figure 
is the Grand Column, a mammoth 
amber-tinted, fluted stalagmite, sup- 
ported by a secondary column, from 
the base of which the crystalline floors 
descend in graceful curves to a sym- 
metrical mantle hanging over a beau- 
tiful bower. All round the Grand 
Column there are pillars, stalactites, 
shawls and draped recesses, some 
majestic and imposing, others dimin- 
utive, but all resplendent in shining 
tints of varied hues. 

Tlie " Mons Meg" branch is an 
upper chamber running from the 
formation referred to as the " Shower 
of Shawls " to Olympia. It is lofty in places — upwards of forty feet — and is named from 
a" huge fallen pillar twenty-two feet long and five feet in diameter, which lies on the floor 
like some ancient dismantled cannon. Near this pillar there are some beautiful terraced 
stalagmites, and a superb Banded Shawl, twenty feet long and four feet broad, which is especially 
interesting on account of its unusual size. Looking back from a point above these formations, a 
splendid group of shawls, in tints varying from a delicate amber to a deep chocolate, are 
revealed by the magnesium lamp. 

The Temple of Baal is the Western brancli, which leaves the River Cave a short distance from 




nolo byl IKerry Jj Co., Sydney. 

SUSPENDED CRYSTALS. ORIENT CAVE. 




Photo by] 



IKrrry J: Co., Sydney. 



LYRE BIRDS- NEST. ORIENT CAVE. 



Thi» elistcnine maas of Blolaclilic formation is one of ihs most beautiful examplci of "the Mystery" type. Imperceptibly 
liay ribs of lime with water are grudually adding further pieces, each doing ihcir own tittle pari lo make on even more 
detailed and dazzling whole. 



264 



The Wonders of the World 




THE "GIANT SAPPHIRES." ORIENT CAVE. 



lAfrry & ty., ^yaney. 



the Furze Bushes. It is two hundred feet long and reaches a width of sixty feet and a height of 
eighty feet. In the centre there is a superb glistening and pure white stalagmitic mass thirty feet 
across ; on eitlier side white and reddish banded shawls of great length hang from chocolate- 
tinted walls, which curve upwards to a lofty dome. 

The Oriental Cave is an upper branch of the River Cave, which rises from near the Furze 
Bushes, and runs in a southerly and south-westerly direction. 

After climbing up sparkling frozen cascades, past crystal walls, and a beautiful canopy richly 
festooned in twisted lime sprays, a halt is made at a glorious basin, whose floor and sides are formed 
of masses and bunches of amber crystals. In the ascent over crystalline floors, along the \\'estern 
branch, many beautiful cream and amber tinted dripstones are passed, among which a folded shawl, 
like soft wool in texture, with knots and fringes, is a special feature. 

Rising over a ledge canopied by the Diamond Wing, a passage of over two hundred feet in 
length runs southerly. It is complete from end to end wdth a succession of enchanting bowers and 
grottos, decked with tendrils, garlands and festoons. Occasionally a be-ribboned garland seems 
to glisten with a silvery radiance. Close inspection shows this to be due to tiny ribs of lime charged 
with water which are silently yet imperceptibly adding further floral tributes, " The ever-playing 
shuttles which weave the fairy fabric." 

Proceeding down the Underground River from the ladder leading to the Main River Cave, an 
entry to the Skeleton Cave is found on the eastern bank. About one hundred and fifty feet from 
the entrance, the skeleton of an aboriginal lies partly embedded in the stalagmitic floor. It has 
probably lain in its present position for a period extending long before the colonization of Australia. 
How the unfortunate man got there is difficult to conjecture, knowing the antipathy the Australian 



Australasia and the Pacific 



265 



mm:' 



aboriginal has to enter any place where the dayhght is excluded. It appears possible that he fell 
through the opening from the face of the chff up in the Cathedral, thence groping in the intense 
darkness, he must have rolled and tumbled into the Bone Cave, and from thence through a chasm, 
which appears to have existed at no distant date, immediately above where the skeleton now lies. 

The Imperial Cave was discovered in 1879. For exquisite beauty and the delicacy of its 
limestone deposits it is not only the finest in the Jenolan district, but is unsurpassed by any other 
cave in the world. It is divided into two branches, viz., right and left, and consists of a 
labyrinth of passages and chambers, twisting and tw ning in every direction for miles through 
the mountain limestone. Through a gloomy tunnel below the general level of the floor flows 
the Underground River, car- 
ving out of the raw material 
its beautiful subterranean chan- 
nels. In a compact array, a 
thousand marvels glitter in the 
electric rays ; lovely stalactites 
and stalagmites in endless 
profusion, alabaster columns, 
sparkling limestone waterfalls 
and cascades, lilhputian cities, 
caskets of rich jewels, recesses 
and grottos filled with crystals 
of many hues, and shawls and 
draperies of wondrous fabric 
like delicate lace. Many of the 
formations are as white as the 
foam of a storm-tossed billow ; 
some are delicately coloured in 
brown or yellow, or in deep 
red. while others are resplen- 
dent in all blended tints of tlic 
rainbow. 

Where all are so beautiful 
it is difficult to make a com- 
parison, but among others 
which may be marked for 
special distinction are Tlw 
Madonna and Child, a pure 
white stalagmite, resembling a 
woman carrying an infant in 
her right arm ; the Snoie 
Drijt, looking as crisp and 
sparkling as if a hea\-3' fall of 
snow had just descended ; 
Lot's Wife, a remarkable im- 
itation of the Pillar of Salt 
on the Dead Sea plains ; 
Crystal Cities — a magnificent 
creation — looking from the dis- 
tance like a dazzling Oriental 




.■.yiifi^y. 



GRAND STALACTITES. IMPERIAL CAVE. 

Thcae ■talactiter. of maftive Krandeur and of dazzlinR whitenei*. are frinsed al 
the lop with a aupcrb drapery: two enormous columnt on either tide reat on a aolid 
liTncBlonc base. 



266 "1 



The Wonders of the World 



city, whose miniature walls, fortifications and buildings are of the purest crystal ; and the 
Grand Stalactites of massive grandeur, and of dazzling whiteness, fringed at the top with a 
superb stalactite drapery, and flanked on each side with an enormous column, which rests on a 
limestone base that sparkles like diamond drift. 

One of the most marvellous spectacles of water sculpture is a superb creamy white canopy 
of a nondescript character, projecting eight feet from the wall, called The Mystery. It 
is embellished with an endless variety of stalactites, many being as fine as the filaments of 
a spider's web, others like spun glass, the whole complex mass looking more like the 
freak of a glass-blower than anything else ; moreover, contrary to the law of gravitation, it 
sometimes travels upward, at other times grows horizontally, or takes a twist and then descends 
in a perfectly straight line. The Furze Bushes and the Lyre Birds' Nest in the River Cave are 
other examples of the " Mystery " type. Currents of air effect formations in various ways, causing 
some to grow obliquely, others to assume a warty-looking form, others to thicken more on one 
side than another. Whether air currents have influenced the " Mystery " it is difficult to say. 
Perhaps future scientific investigation may reveal the secret. 



CHAPTER X. 

Whakaretvaretva. — At the very heart of the North Island of New Zealand, on a tableland 
varying from one thousand to fifteen hundred feet above the sea level, and occupying an area about 
one hundred and fifty miles in length and from ten to fifteen miles in breadth, may be seen the 
greatest geyserland in the world. White Island, in the Bay of Plenty, on the east coast, may be 
considered its most northerly point, whilst it extends south-west to Mount Ruapehu, a snow-clad 
mountain near the centre of the island. 

The whole territory within th's space is teeming with wonderful sights, the plateau being 




f/iuto by} 



[-/. Martin, Auckland. 



WHAKAREWAREWA. NEW ZEALAND. 



Whakarewarewa is a smdtl Maori village two miles south of Rotorua. the very centre of Geyserland. A thick white 
fog of steam, enshrouding everything, creeps out of countless holes which perforate the earth's surface, and finally loses itself 
in the air above. 



268 



The Wonders of the World 



pitted with deep wells in 
the earth's crust as thickly 
as the holes in a sieve ; 
while to break the monotony, 
if the word may be used in 
such surroundings, volcanic 
mountains rise in wild and 
broken outline. 

Countless boiling springs, 
escaping from the earth's 
interior, burst on all sides ; 
beautiful clear blue waters 
of heated lakelets contrast 
themselves with the white 
and brown cones of geysers ; 
and with its fumaroles, 
volcanoes, and ever bub- 
bling mud-springs, the whole 
stretch of country possesses 
a mass of marvels which 
perhaps cannot find its 
equal anywhere in the 
world. 

In the very heart of all 
this activity is Whakare- 
warewa, a small Maori 
village two miles south of 
Rotorua, the very centre 
of Geyserland. Around this 
district may be seen an 
endless variety of Nature's 
extraordinary handiwork, 
and wandering through it 
is an experience never for- 
gotten. One is overawed 
by the great hidden power 
which yet manifests itself 
on every side. The whole 
outlook is weird and even 
terrifying ; it impresses one 
with its might and one's 
own complete helplessness. 
A thick white fog of 
steam, enshrouding every- 
thing, creeps out of the 
thousands of holes which 
perforate the surface of the 
earth, and, chnging to the dwarf rocks, rises, and is wafted gradually away to lose itself 
in the air. It is this cloud-like mist, enveloping everything and filling the air with the 




Pholo hy permission of] [77,, A,jm-Umeral /or Neui Zmland. 

A fine view of Wairoa hurling its boiling water into the heavens. 



Australasia and the Pacific 



269 



fumes of sulphur, that more than anything else, perhaps, renders the whole atmosphere 
uncanny and full of mystery. One would imagine that no vegetation could exist in this 
heated soil with the turmoil all around it ; but the manuka scrub grows on quite disconcert- 
ingly, and may be seen spreading itself everywhere in small patches between the geyser 
basins. The leaves and branches, however, lose their greenness and become tinted a yellowish 
bro\vn by the spray from the surrounding geysers, and the hot fumes cause the leaves to shrivel 
somewhat. On every side the surface of the ground is broken and curled up into fantastic forms. In 
one direction lies a great grey mass of molten lava ; in another, a huge deposit of brown mud ; 
whilst strewn everyvvhere are small rocks and stones beautifully tinted with different hues, mostly 
of a yellowish and grey-white colour. To many, one of the most interesting spots is that where 
smaller jets and constantly bubbling fountains have produced an exquisite, widely-cur\'ing terrace 
of numberless shades of delicate colour, from a washed-out yellow to a pale green. 

This terrace slopes to the sulphurous waters of the clear Puarenga, a cold stream winding its 
way in its narrow channel regardless of the heated springs around. 

Next to an extinct geyser is a rude circular basin, known as Te Komutumutu, " the Brain 
Pot," standing alone on a raised platform of decomposing geyserite. There is an interesting but 
yet horrible history attached to this, taking one's thoughts back to the days of cannibalism. 
Legend says that a chief named Te Tukutuku hid from his enemies for two years in a cave near 
Waikite. After this time had elapsed, however, his enemies succeeded in finding him, and having 
put him to death, they then cooked his brains in Te Komutumutu and ate them. 




Photo bypermUtion of} 



[Tftf Agenl-Qeneral for A''* 



THE MOUTH OF WAIROA GEYSER. 
This is an excellent example of the white ailicateci formationt. worn tmoolh by frequent eruptiana. which aurrouikJ the 

funnel-like mouth of a z^yt^t. 



270 



The Wonders of the World 



Not far from this " Pot " is Waikorohihi, the most regularly active geyser in the valley. Rather 
nearer to the stream the great Pohutu plays, fed daily by Te Horo, a deep well of boiling water 
about eighteen feet in diameter by its side. The beautiful blue waters of this well are continually 
rising and sinking, giving off swirling clouds of steam as they boil furiously. When the water has 
reached its highest, its surface is covered with countless bubbles forming and bursting, and little 
fountains rise in the air and fall again in a shower upon the geyserite surrounding them. Then 
suddenly the overwhelming column of Pohutu is thrown skyward to a height, often, of one hundred 
feet from the depths of its crater below : a magnificent thrust of water and steam, sometimes 
maintained for over three hours. 

Not far away is the little " Kereru," with its thousand tiny steps forming terraces of gorgeous 
hues on one side and a small cliff of geyserite on the other. 

Below, at the foot of the hindmost terrace, one has a view of " The Torpedo," keeping up its 
series of thundering and crackling noises and occasionally shooting up a column of mud ; while a 
short distance away, on a large terraced cone of gleaming white silica, rock-streaked here and there 
with various faint colours, the Waikite geyser spouts away, its waters heavily charged with the silica 
which by artificial means has been made to spread over a very large surface. This has been done in 
the hope that, as time advances, the area around the geyser will be coated with a delightful enamel, 
and eventually form a terrace similar to the famous Pink and White Terraces at Rotomahana, which 
were so unfortunately destroyed by the eruption of 1886. 

Not far from the " Waikite," but higher up the creek, stands "The Giant's Cauldron," a very 
fierce and active crater, and in a lower part of the valley Te Roto-a-Tamaheke, a great boiling 
pond some four hundred feet long, bubbles away, filling the air with a thick, heavy cloud. In 
the centre is a little geyser incessantly casting up its tiny " shot " and supplying Te Roto-a- 
Tamaheke with water from 
its bed. 

There is still one more 
sight in this district which, 
on account of its import- 
ance, must be particularly 
noted. On pages 267-8-9 
Nvill be found photos of the 
great " Wairoa Geyser." 
Irregular in action, and 
seldom seen, it is truly 
magnificent when in play, 
a huge column of water 
being shot from its enor- 
mous mouth to a height 
which rivals even that of 
Pohutu. 

Although Wairoa plays 
very seldom of its own 
accord, visitors may occa- 
sionally have the pleasure 
of seeing its column of 
water forced into the skies 
by artificial means. 

On special occasions 
leave may be obtained 




Th 



Photo by permission oJ'\ 

THE 

hows how the water, he 
forms bcautifull 



[;■/,'■ A\jeni-(ifneral for liew Zealand. 

GEYSER KERERU. 

ly charged with silica from the geyser cone, 
inted terraces around the geyser cones. 



adua 



272 



The Wonders of the World 



from the Government Tourist Department in Wellington to dose the geyser with . soap ; but 
this is very rarely granted, for the reason that the constant throwing of soap into its mouth 
often causes a geyser to cease playing altogether. This process of "soaping" is a very interesting 
one, and is one well worth describing. 

A certain date having been fixed and agreed to by the Government, notice is given to the town 
that Wairoa is going to be " soaped," and the fascinating operation commences. A quantity of 
soap is first of all cut up into small pieces ; then, when everyone is ready, the whole is thrown 
into the gurgling basin. If one looks over the cone immediately after this, rumbling noises from 
the heated mass will be heard, while at the same time it will be seen that lather is beginning to 

form. 

After this, it is unsafe to remain near the cone any longer, as the geyser may begin to spout 
at any moment, everything depending upon the actual temperature that there happens to be at 
the time in the well below. After some minutes water will bubble over the basin's sides and small 

fountains will be lifted a 
few feet. Then follows a 
tremendous roar as the 
column from Wairoa is hurled 
up to a height of over 
a hundred feet, its waters 
coming down with a tre- 
mendous splash around the 
geyser cone below, its spray 
scattered with the wind in 
all directions. Then the 
monster gradually ceases, and 
losing its power, settles down 
again in its ugly basin once 
more to carry on its grumb- 
lings amidst the heated 
atmosphere around. 

Fires would certainly 
seem out of place in such a 
district as that just described, 
and the Maoris are not slow 
to make use of Nature's sub- 
stitute. Frequently one will 
come across them washing 
in the naturally warm waters 
of a spring or lake, and 
using the hot soil and steam- 
holes for cooking their meals. 
In the midst of so much 
that is mysterious. Geyser- 
land, as one would imagine, 
is full of romance and teem- 
ing with Maori legends. The 
Geysers are the sacred fires 
" of Ngatoroirangi," the 
wizard-priest of the Arawa 




[.^ Mijrtin, Auckland. 

Its overwhelminB 
to a height of 100 feet from its crater below. 



nolo ty] 

POHUTU GEYSER. 

Pohutu is one of the most powerful geysers in that district 
"shot" is often ihrov 



Australasia and the Pacific 



273 




Vfujto by i>frini44\on of^ \^T)if Af/^nl -General /or yea Zealatui. 

"AORANGI." OR MOUNT COOK. 

Aoransi is the KigKrst of the magnificent erouD of peaks and sierras of the Southern Alps, Soiith Island, New Zealand. 
Cliff mounted on cliff, and icefield on icefield. Aoranei soars 12,349 feet hieh. 

Canoe, and to the biggest of them poems are dedicated. Many a fairy-tale is told of the 
spouting springs, and every deep pool claims its own particular taniwha or ngarara, a mythic 
dragon-like monster whose origin dates back to time immemorial. There is a very favourite Maori 
legend that, when the moon disappears each month, she goes to the great Lake of Aewa, and in 
the Wai-ora-a-Tane (" The Living Waters of Man "), bathes to renew her strength and prepare 
her for the next month's work of travelling again over her accustomed way through the heavens. 
This myth has a modern application, for in the warm pools Maoris are wont to stand and bathe 
themselves daily. Nor is such bathing confined to the Maoris, for the waters are believed by many 
to have great healing qualities, and they are now used by thousands of people from all parts of 
the world, who come to be strengthened by the mineral-charged waters of Geyserland, 

The Southern Alps. — ^That sublime range of mountains, the Southern Alps, runs for over 
three hundred miles through the South Island westward, dominating with their superb ice-peaks 
and snow domes the great Canterbury plains, whose mighty and swift rivers are fed at their 
glaciers, and whose blue ice-lakes are nursed in their arms, their dazzling summits silver and purple 
and blue, their lower ranges densely clothed with forest and fringed with flowers, .\mong the 
ranges of Southern Westland, untrodden forests climb to vast snowfields ; cascades tumble and 
thunder into deep ravines, blue lakes covered with bright-plumed ducks — sapphires set in extinct 
craters. Long green ascending aisles of dense fern, where the sun can scarcely penetrate, open to 
glimpses of foaming cataract, and stainless snowfields bound in a silence sacred to the ages, except 
for the echoes of avalanches falling far away among the fastnesses touching the sky. 

■9 



274 



The Wonders of the World 



Until comparatively recent years mountaineering in New Zealand had no scientific organization. 
The Southern Alps in all their glory were unexplored except by a few adventurous spirits, who, 
with more courage than organized skill, aspired to the conquest of heights as majestic as those of 
Switzerland. Skilled mountaineers from Europe afterwards joined the adventurous band of New 
Zealand alpinists, but not before Mount Cook, or in native, " Aorangi," twelve thousand three 
hundred and forty-nine feet high, had been captured. The early alpinists had to battle with trying 
weeks of travelling to the base of the mountains to be scaled, before bridges were built and tracts 
cut and huts erected. Even yet, there are countless unconquered peaks, for one peculiar feature 
of the whole range of the Southern Alps is the comparatively few natural passes. 

Mount Cook, or Aorangi, is the highest of a magnificent group of peaks and sierras, " a glorious 
galaxy of snowy heights." Cliff mounted on cliff, and icefield on icefield, mount to a rarefied 
world, where man and his small doings seem puerile. Waterfalls and avalanches voice the white 
solitude ; ice-cataracts and ice-spray dazzle the vision. To right and left, above and below, a 




J'fialii by jjt'r- 



"/] 



ir.e Ajenl-Ci 



■ Si-ic ^■<l/lnif. 



THE TOP OF TASMAN GLACIER. 



Th 



Tasman Glacier is the most lamous one of the Southern Alps. A huge sloping glacier. 11.467 feel hijh and 
two miles \Nide. it is studded %vith ice-towers, and broken with gorges and valleys of ice. 



stainless paradise of glittering beauty, and below the slopes, where the avalanches fall from the 
upper icefields, and dancing cascades run to meet them, in a valley rich with mountain flora, is 
the Hooker River, one of those white, turbulent, foaming mountain streams that has its origin in 
the glaciers. 

At Mount Cook the botanist may revel. The alpine flora is exquisite. At three thousand feet 
above sea-level the edelweiss is luxuriant. Near the rivulets of the lower slopes the violet and 
evening primrose and forget-me-not are scattered, and many blossoming shrubs. All along the 
Hooker Valley the ferns and flowers are very beautiful, and at points magnificent views of Mount 
Cook and the Hooker Ice-Fall are obtained. 

Proceeding down the lower Hooker Valley, a magnificent view of the Tasman Glacier is seen, 
the most famous glacier of the Southern Alps, and all along the valley, framed by ice-pinnacles and 
majestic forest-hills, purple shadows alternating with gold, the luxuriant banks of the river are 
abloom with flowers and flowering shrubs. Giant mountain lilies and alpine daisies vie with 
violets and pimpernels. 

Eleven thousand four hundred and sixty-seven feet high, eighteen miles long, and two miles wide. 




" * X 

i ' 

N — G 

is ^ 



o 
m 



> 
r 
r 



r_ > 



z 

o 
r 
> 

o 

m 



■'«M 



W 



5 5 2 / 



/ 




276 



The Wonders of the World 




r 




All along the valley 



fr 



ed by 



TASMAN GLACIER. 

nacles and majestic (oresl-h'ill 



4u^. 



Vast icefields stretch on its slopes and 



plateau, and blue snow-streams rush through its valleys and gorges. 



this stern, proud monarch of the Southern Alps holds its snow-cowled head next highest of the 
peaks to its neighbour and giant chief, Mount Cook. The Tasman is a huge sloping glacier, studded 
with ice-towers, and broken with gorges and valley? of ice. Vast icefields stretch on its slopes and 
plateaus, and blue snow-streams rush through its valleys and gorges. Numerous ice-cascades 
descend into the Tasman Valley from its neighbouring glaciers and glittering domes. 

The Hochstetter Ice-Fall of the Tasman Glacier has been described as a Niagara of frozen ice, 
a mile wide, falling four thousand feet in waves of milky whiteness, plunging down a rugged mountain 
side of more than twelve thousand feet in height, a many-coloured, downward- rolling, frozen cataract, 
" its hollows glinting a wondrous ethereal blue, and its splintered bergs and minarets glittering like 
countless points of fire." At the foot of the great ice-fall there are marvellous ice-caves and grottos, 
" gleaming with the strange lustre of refracted light, their floors gemmed with the loveliest of little 
purple pools." 

No photograph or brush can give the faintest idea of this world of glittering ice and dark crag, 
with waterfalls flashing in sunlight or moonlight. 

The Hochstetter Ice Cave is another of the wonders of this indescribable region : a grotto or 
cavern lustrous and gleaming white-blue, amid a wilderness of turrets and domes of ice, which 
catch and flash back marvellous colours of the changing sky — a world of ice afire with sparkling 
glints of rose and heliotrope and blue. Under the undimmed moonlight the region is a magic world, 
where it would be easy to imagine that in the exquisite ice-caves and grottos pure, cold spirits dwelt 
apart from the earth-dwellers of the lily fields that carpet the valleys below. In that upper white 
world of the Southern Alps thousands of sub-glacial rivers are born, which, under feet of solid ice, 
seek their way downward, emerge far down, and with the triumphant roar of white foaming rapids 
thunder their freedom to forest-shores. 



Australasia and the Pacific 



■// 



The Blue Mountains, NeTV South Wales, — In tlie Blue Mountains New South Wales possesses 
a feature which any country could be proud of including amongst the natural wonders existing 
within its boundaries. This mountain chain, whose highest peak is Mount Beemarang, four 
thousand one hundred feet higli, forms part of the Great Corderillera, which runs parallel with the 
coast about eighty miles inland. The construction of the Blue Mountains is of ferruginous sand- 
stone, whose cliffs and headlands rise up precipitously from the gullies ever green with ferns and 
other thick luxuriant foliage. 

At tlie foot of the mountains, about thirty-six miles from Sydney, there are the Emu Plains, 
after which the elevation of the country gradually heightens until it reaches well over three thousand 
feet in the extreme west. Proceeding westward, after the Emu Plains, the " Sassafras Gully," 
which is not far from Springwood, demands special attention. This gully is very deep, and presents 
an absolute mass of rich fern foliage, shaded on every side by immense honeycombed overhanging 
rocks and ending in a lovely lagoon. Near Faulconbridge, forty-nine miles from Sydney, for 
the first time Mount Hay becomes visible. This lofty summit constitutes one of the precipitous 
sides of the tremendous ravine called the " Grose Valley," rising to an altitude of three thousand 
feet. Continuing westward, the scenery is wild and romantic, the bluish broken hills rising and 
overlapping each other in the far distance. Standing two thousand three hundred and forty- 
seven ieet high is the famous resort, Lawson. The mountains here break more gently 
into the glens, while many a waterfall pitches over the brink of a steep precipice ; this view, 
together with the innumerable hills and ravines, presents one of the finest sights imaginable. 




This cico 



\Jilv: A^enl'U<nnal Jul- .Vctf Zt^iUtnl, 
THE HOCHSIETTER ICE CAVE. 

nt; white-blue CBVcrn it situated in the Hochltetter Ice-Fajls amidst a wilderneit of lurretx ond domeb 
of ice. catchinc and flashinK bacl( the marvellouii colours of the cliangins sUy. 



278 



The Wonders of the World 



Soon King's Tableland is reached. This is a iine promontory' jutting out into the Jamieson 
Valley, where very beautiful mist -effects are often observable. A further attraction liere is the 
curiously weathered sandstone cliffs, in which bands of ironstone in thin layers stand out in bold 
relief. To the north the waters of the glorious Wentworth Falls are descending, like a silver current 
over its three cascades of fully a thousand feet, to the basin at the head of the gorge. In the final 
drop the depth is so great that the continuous stream is scattered into spray. Rambling on 
through sublime and picturesque scenery, one approaches the I^eura Falls, wliere many think the 
finest views of the Blue Mountains are to be seen. Near here stands a rocky hill whose summit 
has been moulded by Nature into three pinnacles and which has been called " The Three Sisters." 
Not far distant, also, is the " Orphan Rock," a grand old picturesque pillar of grey stone, 
detached from the main mass, towering far up into the sky. Further westward at Black- 




Photo bff permission of] 



[T}if Agent-General for New Sortth Wales. 
THE BLUE MOUNTAINS, NEW SOUTH WALES. 

This is a view of the Blue Mountains, near Govell'a Leap, showing how the rocks stand out on cither side of the 
corse, wl.ich is thickly covered with a rich luxuriant foliaijc 

heath, the world-famed " Govett's Leap " is seen, a descending mass of water of vast height 
swaying as the wind blows, to and fro, like the veil of a bride, the strong contrast of colour and the 
undulation so produced imparting a very singular and charming effect. Near by, there is the 
" ilermaid's Cave," giving one the impression of a glimpse into fairyland. 

Some distance south-west are the famous Jenolan Caves, of which mention has already been 
made. The Blue Mountains, with their innumerable hills and ravines, their thousand valleys 
stretching hke ocean waves to the horizon, hundreds of waterfalls with their beautiful cascades 
tumbling from the cliff, present extensive panoramas of the grandest description. 

The Great Island-Venice of Nan-Matal. — On the east coast of Ponape. a small island 
on the eastern edge of the Caroline group in the North-Western Pacific, lies a remarkable 
ancient water-town called Nan-Matal (" The Place of the Matal, or Water-ways "), which 
consists of a parallax of over fifty artificial islets of varying sizes, which lie dotted amongst 



28o 



The Wonders of the World 



an intricate network ol 
canals. 

Some of these islets are 
merely small platforms of 
stone, much overgrown with 
a tangle of creepers, ferns 
and low scrub, standing onlj' 
a few feet out of the water : 
whilst others are faced with 
solid and lofty walls, en- 
closing paved spaces, neatly- 
designed courts and ancient 
burial-places. All of them 
are constructed of prismatic 
basalt-blocks, laid alternately 
lengthways and crosswise in 
the shallow water. 

The most remarkable of 
the larger islets of the Nan- 
Matal Venice are Itet, in the 
south, Pan-Katara, near the 
centre, and Nan-Tauach in 
the north-east corner. On 
Itet, according to native 
tradition, was kept an Ft, or 
sacred Eel of enormous size. 
It lived in a long stone house, 
or den, with w'alls five feet 
high and four feet thick, en- 
closed by a small court. On 
a pavement within, regular 
offerings of food were laid — 
sometimes the entrails and 
flesh of a turtle ; sometimes 
the body of a slave or 
prisoner of war. 

Pan-Katara lies about half a mile to the north of Itet. Its name means " The Place of Proclama- 
tion," or " The House of Government." It was the scene of the annual assembly of the Metalanim 
Parliament — king, priests, chiefs and commons together. 

The northern angle of the ruined wall formerly surrounding the sacred precinct on Pan-Katara 
is twenty-seven feet above the canal. 

Nan-Tauach, " The Place of the Lofty Walls," the largest and most important structure of the 
Nan-Matal ruins, lies about two miles north of Pan-Katara, a little to the right of Uchentau 
islet. It is almost square, and occupies an area of some twenty-three thousand four hundred 
square feet. 

The water-front consists of a terrace of immense basaltic blocks, about seven feet wide, running 
the whole way round the foot of an outer wall of very solid masonry, fifteen feet thick and from 
twenty feet to nearly forty feet in height. Some of these basaltic shafts of which it is constructed 
are ten or twelve feet in length, three to four feet hi thickness and three and a half feet across. 




rhoto by the Aulhor,-] [/■. jr. cinulian. F.K.O.S. 

THE PRINCIPAL GATEWAY OF THE SANCTUARY OF NAN-TAUACH. 

The entrance lies to the right of the great fallen horizontal basalt pillar, and 
shadowed by a mighty Ikoik-ltcc, a mass of deep green foliage and vivid 
bells of blossom. 



let 



Australasia and the Pacific 



281 



The style of architecture is massive, and grand in its simpHcity, the blocks being laid alternately 
lengthways and crosswise. The outer wall measures one hundred and eighty-five feet by one 
hundred and fifteen feet, the only entrance being a large and imposing gateway on the western face 
towards Uchentau, and a small ruinous portal in the north-east corner. As one enters from the 
terraced landing-place, the wall measures twenty-five feet, and on the right side some thirty feet in 
height. The latter is almost hidden from view by a great Ikoik. or Kanawa tree, a mass of 
splendid, deep emerald-green foliage, starred with small scarlet trumpet-shaped flowers, vivid as 
sparks of fire. Beyond is a spacious Hit, or courtyard, strewn with fragments of monstrous 
fallen pillars, overgrown by weeds, ferns and shrubs of varying height springing up between them. 

An inner terraced enclosure, topped by a projecting frieze, or cornice, of quite a Japanese design, 
forms a second conforming parallelogram of wall, eighty-five by seventy-five feet in length, eight 
feet in thickness, and fifteen to eighteen feet in height. 

The great central vault of Nan-Tauach presents a very striking appearance. It is roofed in 
by basaltic blocks of great length and thickness, and resembles some of the sepulchral structures 
of the mysterious early folk who preceded the Ainoe in Japan. Native tradition declares it to 
be the mausoleum of King Chau-te-Leur, a mighty monarch of old, slain in battle with a 
horde of invaders who came in a great war-fleet from the south, under the leadership of a 
fierce and terrible warrior named Icho-Kalakal, now enshrined as a formidable local deity, the 
War-God, and ancestor of the present line of Ichi-pait, or titular kings of Metalanim. 

It seems that these Metalanim ruins are very old, and, indeed, the presence of great forest-trees, 
such as the lofty Indian fig-tree, or ban3'an, is decisive of a considerable antiquity. The long 




riMobylhr Aulhor.] [''• "' ChrUlinn. f.n.O.S. 

NAN-TAUACH. 

The north-eastern anctc of outer wall at Nan-Tauacli. showing a great AlO^ or Indian fix-trcc. (irm-rooled in the ni.iionry, 
tocrlhcr with masses of micronesian hartstonsue or bird^'-nejt fern, some of the spathci 01 fronds of which arc nearly 

liix feet lone. 



282 



The Wonders of the World 



root-sprays buttressing these banyan-trees are continually sending out myriads of tiny root-fibres 
into every crevice of the masonry, which, as they swell into growth, are continually wrenching the 
enormous blocks out of their places. 

Local tradition is somewhat meagre about the origin of this mysterious City of the Waters; the 
ruins are certainly not Javanese, their design not in the least recalling that of the Buddhist temple 
of Boro-bodoer, or the Shiva temples of Brambanam. 

Javanese settlers have certainly visited Ponape, for the Kiti district on the south-west coast has 
several well-defined Javanese place-names, and the chief's language, or court-speech, of the island 
is full of Javanese words. But these arrivals probably came as conquerors and civilizers of a later 
date, not as architects or engineers. A quaint old Ponapean legend declares that the Nan-Matal 




i*noto 6y] 
Abot 



THE ARATIATIA RAPIDS. 

airaUei the river WaiUato rushes with la 



[Muir J. Muu 



t three and a half miles from W 

channel about fifty feet wide, forming foaming cataracts 



ous speed through a narro%v roclt 
ushing rapids and deep darlt pools. 



Venice was built by the magic power of two great princes of the ancient Ani-Aramach, or Titan 
races, named Olo-sipa and Olo-sopa, who, by incantations of mighty power, caused the great masses 
of stone in the hands of invisible genii to come flying through the air to settle in their appointed 
places. 

Perhaps early Japanese adventurers discovered Ponape before the Malays and Javanese, 
and have helped the rude, clumsy giant-folk of the old black Ocean-Custite races to plan just such 
a structure as the Water City of Nan-Matal. For Japan is full of water-towns, thickly seamed with 
moats and canals, and the Japanese of old were mighty builders in stone. 

Another curious piece of evidence is that, about two hundred and fifty miles south-south-east of 
Ponape, there is a lagoon-island, called Lele. This small speck of land, onl\- a few miles square, is 







•J -0 

■J o 









Australasia and the Pacific 



285 



faced with solid wharves and piers of stone, and covered with remains of vast Cj^clopean walls, 
built of basaltic stones of an extraordinary size, and cut through and through with artificial 
canals. A little way back from the beach lies a massive ruinous fortress, witli walls fifteen feet 
in thickness and from sixteen to thirty feet in height. 

This might very well have been the work of some Southern Japanese Dai-Miyo, or great feudal 
noble, e.xil ed, perhaps, in one of the civil wars, who, coming down from Nagasaki, Hiro-shima or 
Osaka, in a big war-vessel, or, possibly, a small fleet of them, conquered this little spot. 

The Cyclopean fortress of Lele is laid down on very much the same lines of ground-plan as 
the old feudal castle of Osaka, but, naturally, on a somewhat smaller scale. 

So quite likely it was 
some adventurous noble 
or great sea captain of 
the race-stock and daunt- 
less spirit of our brave 
Japanese allies who took 
the chief part in building 
these wonderful works in 
stone, the standing wonder 
and mystery of these far- 
off Eastern Carolines. 

The White Terrace, 
Taupo. — The volcano, 
Tarawera, which in June, 
1886, destroyed the famous 
pink and white terraces, 
is in the great volcanic 
track known as the 
" Taupo Zone," but Lake 
Taupo and its white ter- 
race were too distant from 
the eruption to suffer. 
The lake covers an area 
of about two hundred and 
forty-two square miles, 
and the White Terrace, 
Taupo, is at the height of 
a hundred feet above the 
]iresent shores. A second 
terrace, but less perfect, 
is at the height of four 
hundred feet above the lake. The Maoris told Von Hochstetter that the White Terrace, 
Taupo, was once upon the level of the lake, which has subsided, but no living native 
knew the lake at the terrace height. The whole area of the Taupo volcanic zone is a region of 
hot springs, solfataras, warm creeks and active geysers, and it is probable that, as the pink and 
white terraces were unknown for ages, except to a few Maoris, there may be other of the beautiful 
terraces hidden away in tlie wild tangle of mountains and lakes. A few miles south of the 
Kakaramea, another of the mountains in the Taupw volcanic zone, is the " Primrose Terrace," which 
Professor Thomas describes amid a group of hot springs and sulpliur fumaroles : " One of the most 
considerable of these springs has formed a deposit of sinter which has received the name of the 




I'tMto by'] iJ. .1/-J a... -ii i.'iui. 

TIKITERE HOT WATER FALLS. 

Tlicre in n place wlierc a warm stream leaps into a scries of cascades over a rocUy decline. 



286 



The Wonders of the World 




I'ltolo by ^erint-iiwii o/] 



•THE INFERNO." TlklTERE. 



L^'/ttr -ii/tiit-uentral/or Jifew ^.tuMn 



" The Inferno ' 



is the chief boiling pool of Tilcitere. and is a precipitous yawning black pil in which a great 
mud geyser is in full activity. 



Primrose Terrace.' On the flat summit of a slight elevation is a platform of sinter some five 
yards in diameter. In the centre is a large circular pool of water, its margin formed by a raised 
rim of sinter of beautifully-fretted form. . . . The water falls down a gentle slope, which spreads 
out in fan-like shape. This water is covered with greyish-white sinter, which is not properly 
terraced, but shows very beautiful ripple marks. To the right is a pool of intensely yellow (or 
sometimes orange-red) mud, which owes its colour to the presence of sulphur containing selenium." 
The water from the terrace forms a waterfall into a gully, and both the waterfall and the bed of 
the stream are lined with grey and white sinter, and the course of the stream marked by small 
hot springs. 

But a word description can convey little of the marvellous colour-scheme of the setting, the 
blues and golds and greens, or of giant Mount Kakaramea dominating the scene, its sides covered 
with many-coloured earths, with steam-wraiths beckoning here and there. 

Although the White Terrace of Taupo and the " Primrose Terrace " by no means approach in 
lovehness the destroyed pink and white terraces of Lake Rotomahana, the value of their strange 
beauty is enhanced that they are still in existence. 

On the Waikato River, about nine miles from Taupo, there are the marvellously beautiful 
Aratiatia Rapids. Here the river, in its winding course between steep rocky banks, drops over 
two hundred feet in the short distance of half a mile. The whole is confined within a narrow channel 
about fifty feet wide, which still further increases the impetus to the agitated waters, while, as 



Australasia and the Pacific 



287 



if to add insult to injur}', vast boulders stand in midstream attempting to stay the foaming torrent, 
which is always endeavouring to release itself and so be free of the rushing mass behind it. 

The Valley of Tikttere. — A drive of several hours from Rotorua, within sight of the fatal 
Mount Tarawera, is the valle\- of Tikitere, a portion of which is known as the " Gates of Hades," 
but, unlike the popular conception of Hades, its beauties are as wondrous as its horrors. The 
hydro-thermal action is so great that the ground all around is in a continual tremble. In the 
centre of the valley are two boiling lakes, with mud volcanoes and boiling springs in sinister 
activity. 

" The Porridge Pot " is one of the most famous of the boiling mud pools of Tikitere and " The 
Inferno " is the chief of its boihng springs. Among the remarkable thermal wonders of the district 
are the Tikitere Hot Waterfalls, tumbling over a rocky decline, between ferny banks backed by 
luxuriant forest. 

This " Gate of Hades," as Tikitere has been called, leading to an inferno of sulphurous horrors, 
is entered, not by those who have " abandoned hope," but chiefly by those who are in search of a 
new term of life by bathing in the warm mineral waters, or those in search of Nature's strange 
and awe-inspiring sight. The whole surrounding country is rich with forests and streams and glows 
with colour. 

It is the diversity of the scenery that makes this district so wonderful ; the horrors and terrors of 
the steaming, hissing and trembling earth are forgotten in the vistas of blue lake and shadv forest 
and swift, bright streams. It is a fainy'-spot of gorgeous painting, despite the Inferno of the valley, 







I'hulo liy\ [,(/.i ,{ .1/ itf. OuiirJin. 

ALL THAT IS LEFT OF WAIROA. 

Wairoa was a villaice ncstlins amidst ereen trees on the borders of a laUe till the fatal nisht in 1 8S&, when the Taraw:ra 
awolce. without warning, from o slrrp of centuries, and poured dcsiruclion on the villaEc. 



288 



The Wonders of the World 



the dark greens of the bush-clothed hills contrasting \vith terraces glittering like snow, and with 
the reds and yellows of the foliage. Innumerable bright, cold springs gush forth over fern and 
rock, forming coloured pools. It is a realm of sulphur, and within a mile of the hot valley a large 
quantity of the sulphur is dug by the Maoris. It is the sulphur and other minerals in the baths 
that have made them so valuable to invalids. The sulphur is in the air as well as in the water, and 
streaks the landscape with beautiful colours — blue, red. orange and other brilliant hues. 

Icebergs. — Owing to the spherical form of the earth and the obliquity of its a.xis, the sun's rays 
are entirely withdrawn from the land in the Arctic and Antarctic zone for a portion of the year. 
Of course, the result of this absence of any warmth from the sun is that this part of the earth's 




yiwio tj] 



{^yord'^nskjold. 



AN ICEBERG IN THE ANTARCTIC. 

Antarctic Icebergs have excited the wonder of travellers chiefly by their enormous mass. Unlike those ol the northern 
seas, they arc little indented, but often they attain a precipitous height of over 230 feet. 

surface is always wrapped in ice, and intense frost rules supreme through the long and dreary nights 
that prevail. 

Huge glaciers, very similar to the great icefields of the Alps, abound everywhere amidst their 
snow-white surroundings, and gradually slipping from the mountains and hills from which they take 
their origin, finally reach the sea coast. On this downward path tremendous pressure is brought 
upon the sHding snow, and by the time it reaches the sea it has become a huge mass of ice upon 
which the waves are constantly breaking, with the result that the overhanging parts become detached 
and drift out to sea in whatever direction the prevailing current happens to lead them. These bergs, 
as they are now called, vary considerably in size, some being quite small, while others cover large 
areas and rise to a considerable height. It is estimated that as only one-ninth of the bulk of an 
iceberg appears above the surface, it is not less than nine times as large as it looks. 



Australasia and the Pacific 



289 



- -Vt^-v* 



Icebergs have frequently 
been mistaken by travellers 
for little snow-clad islands, 
as in many maybe seen small 
inlets made by the continuous 
washing of the waves, giving 
the appearance of little bays, 
and so helping the illusion. 

\o sight is more interest- 
ing than the view of a number 
of these ice formations in tlu' 
distance. There is an intinitc 
variety of shapes, and it re- 
quires but little stretch of the 
imagination to picture them 
as towers, churches, obelisks 
and pyramids, or a floating 
mountain range, their great 
beauty and grandeur en- 
hanced by their slow and 
stately movements, wliich 
bring into the rays of light 
the snow-white ridges and 
pinnacles which glisten at 
every angle. As these ice- 
bergs drift from the scene of 
frost and snow, they gradually 
melt away, their size diminish- 
ing by slow degrees until they 
finally lose themselves in the 
oceans of the world. 

Wairoa. — The native vil- 
lage of Wairoa, before the 
eruption of Mount Tarawera, 
in 1886, was one of the 
beauty spots in the Thermal 
district of the North Island, connecting Rotorua, nine miles distant, with Tarawera and Lake 
Rotomahana. The old road from Rotorua was of enchanting loveliness, the slopes were 
crimson with rata and yellow with broom, and everywhere the glinting, dancing water. But the 
fatal night the volcano Tarawera awoke without warning from a sleep of centuries, and 
poured mud and lava and stones on the valleys beneath, Wairoa was destroyed. " Wairoa 
is gone ! " was the cry of those at Rotorua. When the paroxysm of the volcano had 
spent itself, and light struggled through a noonday dawn, a weird, desolate world emerged. All 
that was left of the village, among green trees which had stood on the shores of a lake intensely blue, 
were the roofs and broken timber of the old mill and bridges and wares embedded in ash and caking 
lavas. All the once flowering hill-slopes, green valleys and prancing streams, for miles around, 
were desolate, lifeless reaches of slate-coloured mud, and the once lovely lake an immense and awful 
basin, studded with innumerable volcanic cones and geysers, and the site of the famous pink and 
white terraces a hideous abyss. 




i'hvni hij] y- Martin, Auctland, 

THE DEVIL'S BRIDGE. WAIOTAPU. 
Nature hat thrown « perilous bridne over thi« minlily crcvusae, troin whose 
horrible depths arise sulphurous fumes and stmnEe rumblincs ominously bearint 
witness of the volcanic activity of thi» district. 



290 



The Wonders of the World 



CHAPTER xr. 
By L. "ALIEN" BAKER. 

The Sutherland Falls. — In the Fieordland of the South Island of New Zealand, seven miles 
from Milford, are the Sutherland Falls. But the overland route to the falls from the head of Lake 
Te Anau, through thirty miles of magnificent scenery of the wildest and most beautiful description, 
is more popular. The way through inland Fieordland is for some distance beside the Clinton River, 
which cuts through the great valley-canon — a billowy, roaring, white-crested glacial torrent — 



*Jf1^, 








"THE GIAM'S PUKKIU(jb PU 1 , 



\\ AIOTAPU. 



seething surface of this lake of mud is covered with bubbles caused by the gas thrown off in the ferment. 
These bubbles as they disperse form ever-chaneing patterns in the " porridue." 

through scenes of gorgeous colouring, between cliffs three thousand feet and four thousand feet high 
which slope back to snowy peaks six thousand feet and seven thousand feet high, whose summits 
vanish in the clouds. Much of the track through this marvellous valley goes through forest which 
drapes even its granite walls. Clumps of rata are red with blossom, clematis, whose purity rivals 
the distant peaks, rests lightly like a snow-shower on the dark beech trees, or, entwined with its 
purple sister, flings garlands from bough to bough. Tall palm-ferns grow on every side, and through 
long aisles, carpeted with thick moss of the fallen leaves of centuries— terra-cotta, gold and green 
—the over-arcliing forest roof sheds down a green transforming light. The strange cries of the 
wekas and other native birds accentuate the forest silence. But approaching the Sutherland Falls, 
there is a mighty roar of waters— not from this fall alone, but from the cascades and foaming 
cataracts which hurl themselves down grim precipices and rush through hidden gorges and ravines. 
Waterfalls are everywhere. The quicksilver of cascades flashes from dark clii!s and quivers in the 
sunshine. Many of the falls are so ethereal that they sway to the wind. Mountains are every. 




AN ICE-CAN'ERN IN THE ANTARCTIC. 

The«c pKotoerapha of ice-cavcrna in the vicinity of Mount Erebu* weie tal^cn duiine the expedition of Sir Erneat SKaclcleton. 



292 



The Wonders of the World 



where. And amid this scenic paradise of snow-capped peak and fairyland forest and stream the 
Sutherland Fall bounds down its one thousand nine hundred feet in three great leaps. It measures 
one thousand nine hundred feet from top to bottom, the first is eight hundred and fifteen feet, 
the second seven hundred and fifty-one feet and the third three hundred and thirty-eight feet, but 
it is one fall, not a series of cascades. 

Waf'ofaptf.— Waiotapu, one of the three wonderful geyser-valleys of the Thermal Springs country, 
lies twenty miles from Rotorua. From Wairoa, for some distance up the valley which at one time 
was a totara forest, traces of the eruption are many. At the top of the hill looking towards Tara- 
wera its enormous chasm is seen, and the magnificent Munga-Kakaramea, " Mountain of Coloured 
Earth," or " Rainbow Mountain," stands a gorgeous sentinel guarding the valley steaming with hot 
springs and gleaming with coloured pools. On every side is evidence in the coloured earth and 
the fissured sides of the mountains of a long-past fierce volcanic activity— so long past that fern 
and cool green forest groves shade the crater-cliffs. 

In this valley of colour the contrasts are exquisite. Nature, the great artist, has toned the 
yellows and reds with the greens, has set cool blue and heliotrope lakes beside hot cauldrons and 
waterfalls. Here sinter levels and gleaming alum cliffs and the brilliant-hued pools that vie with the 
coloured earths are fringed and belted by dark tropical vegetation and manuk shrubberies, while 
the leaping Waiotapu coursing down the canon to meet the Waikato, fringed with flax and palm, 
completes the picture. 

On the upper Waiotapu stream is the large mud-volcano here illustrated, known by the name 




rho,.^ hy\ 



[.N/- trnfat ^Ituckletun. 



AN ICE-CA\ERN IN THE ANTARCTIC. 



T^e walls tlial suppoil tlie tDn- of snow form ng the roofs o( th^se CJVerns are also o( snow, packed so closely thai it 

becomes ice. 



Australasia and the Pacific 



293 




n'he A'jenl-0<fii- rat for 2ita SoiUh H'l W. 

THE ^ARRA^GOBlLLY CANES. NEW SOUTH WALES. 

The stalactites in King Solomon.. 1 cmplc. as this cave is cillcJ. are par;icularly remarkable (3r their wonderful 

colourins and beautiful shapes. 

of " The Giant's Porridge Pot," a conical mound ten feet liigh, open at .the top and filled with 
thick boiling mud that resembles porridge, from the seething surface of which bubbles of gas throw 
up small spurts of mud, which, faUing into the pot again, take on sliapes of flowers and rosettes. 
Steps have been erected at one side that the visitor may ascend and watch the action of the crater. 

Another of the remarkable sights of Waiotapu is the great fumarole, " The Devil's Bridge," in 
formation like a bridge of rock over a chasm, from which at intervals issue sights and sounds 
reminiscent of the " lake of fire and brimstone " of another region. 

A few miles further away, under the shadow of the Paeroa Mountain, " a great green range 
sodden with thermal action," is Waikite, with its boiling river flowing through a natural park of trees 
and flowering shrubs. Here are enchanting translucent springs of boiling water bubbling between 
forest and fern. 

The Ice Caves, Antarctic— ^roiessor Douglas Mawson, in " The Heart of the Antarctic," 
describing tlie beautiful ice and snow phenomenon in the district of Cape Koyds, says : 

" During the autumn, sea spray, dashing on the coast, remains behind as ice. Thus a huge ice- 
foot develops along the coast. Grottos are not uncommon in this ice-foot, resembling limestone 
caves of remarkable beauty, filled with stalactites (up to several feet in lengtli) and stalagmites 
of ice. These owe their origin largely to the fact that tlie more saline residual water dripping from 
the roof is further chilled by exposure, and thus continual additions are made to the formations 
from whicli the drip has taken place. The water is highly saline, and stalagmites are produced 
only at very low temperatures, when they consist entirely of cryohydrate." 



294 



The Wonders of the World 



The accompanjang illustrations convey an idea of these beautiful caves, in a region of prisms 
and crystal flowers. 

King Solomon's Temple, Y arrangobilly Caves. — Tlie caves of New South Wales are situated 
in country of the most beautiful description among the hills and valleys of the Blue Mountains, 
" far from the madding crowd," where the wallabies run free. 

The route to the caves through these precipitous gorges and valleys of gigantic and glorious 
views is a preparation for anything of the marvellous that Nature may have further to offer. Caves 
are more or less alike in all parts of the world, but the wallaby is not always met on the route, nor 
does the route always afford such a magnificent panorama as that spread out before the visitor of 
these caves of New South Wales. Arrived on the summits where the caves are situated, headland 
beyond headland and miles of valley stretch out, and a thousand mountain peaks raise their heads 
from gorgeous forest. 

Not volcanic fire, but running water has formed the caves. They are in a bed of limestone, 
through which the underground creeks, working their way, have carved through many ages fantastic 

caverns, temples and grottos and 
tunnels, that no art can equal. 
They take innumerable forms, 
these glittering stalactites and 
stalagmites — statues, birds, deli- 
cately wrought lace, shawls and 
cascades. Some of them are pure 
white, and others are red, yellow, 
,L,'rey or apricot. In these Aladdin 
caves lighted by electricity, 
gleaming as with a million jewels, 
the mystery is enhanced by the 
sight and sound of underground 
water. 

- The Yarrangobilly River has 
cut its way through in a belt of 
limestone from half a mile to a 
mile in width and for six or seven 
miles long : the weather-worn 
and water- worn precipices are 
carved into grotesque shapes, 
and where the river has cut its 
way through the limestone and 
flows under it the Yarrangobilly 
caves are formed. The entrance 
is from the top of a plateau. 

" King Solomon's Temple," 
with the other Yarrangobilly 
('aves, has a kingly surrounding 
uf Alpine scenery; but the 
beauties of the upper world are 
forgotten in the underground 
temple that Nature built long 
before man erected his sacred 
edifices. It is gorgeous with 




CAVES. NEW 



VARRANGOBlLL-i 

Adorned with turrets and minarets of jewel-like bi 
"fringed curtain" of diamonds, tfiese caves rival th 
Aladdin Palace. 



'■ul-i,' o'rnl for iWew .S',' 

SOUTH WALES. 



Iliancy. and huns with 
fabled splendours of a 






o- - 







296 



The Wonders of the World 



coral-like drapery and ex- 
quisite carving and pillars, 
and, as its name suggests, 
might have been one of 
the chambers of King 
Solomon's Temple which 
he adorned for the Oracle. 
The Haivkesbur;^ Bridge. 
— The Hawkesbury Bridge, 
Hawkesbury River, New 
South Wales, one of the 
marvels of engineering, was 
designed to unite two great 
sections of railway, one 
starting from Sydney and 
branching in a westerly, 
southerly and south-west- 
erly direction, the other 
from the sea-coast, one 
hundred miles from Sydney, 
communicating with the 
'northern district and with 
Queensland. 

At the site of the bridge, 
about seven miles from the 
sea, the engineers were con- 
fronted by an estuary width 
of six thousand feet. The 
bridge from embankment to 
embankment, according to 
the engineering report of C. 0. Burge, is " of seven spans"'of four hundred and sixteen feet each, 
from centre to centre of the piers, the foundations for the'latter being of concrete encased in steel 
caissons, while the upper portions of the piers and the whole of the abutments are of masonry. 
The girders are formed of built steel compression-members and solid steel eye-bar tension-rods, 
all the connections being made by steel pins. The cross-girders and rail-bearers are of riveted 
steel plate. The two main girders of each span are four hundred and ten feet and a half-inch 
long from end pin to end pin, and forty-eight feet deep at centre, and are placed twenty-eight 
feet apart from centre to centre, the bridge carrying two lines of railway." 

The borings for the bridge showed a mud bed to a depth of from sixty to one hundred and seventy 
feet below high-water mark. The greatest depth of the foundations is one hundred and sixty-two 
feet below water, which is stated to be the deepest bridge-foundations yet sunk. The caissons for 
the piers were sunk through the mud as follows : " The shoe, having been built on shore, and 
provided with a timber false bottom, was floated out to position, and sunk to the bottom of the 
river by removing the temporary bottom and partially loading the caisson with concrete. The 
caisson was then sunk through the mud by dredging the material from the bottom of the wells and 
by loading the space between the wells and the skin with concrete, more steel being built up as the 
caisson went down. As soon as the structure was firmly in the sand, the dredging wells were 
filled with concrete, and the masonry was then begun at a level somewhat below low water." 
The bridge, which took two and a half years to build, at a cost of three hundred and twenty-seven 




Photo tjf] 



[y. Alaiuti, AucUa?id. 



A PRE-HISTORIC MONUMENT. TONGA. 



So old is this "trilithon" that its history is forgotten. It remains to be an enigma for 
the twentieth century — how was the centre stone raised twenty feet to its present 
position bv a people who knew nothing of mechanics? 



Australasia and the Pacific 



297 



thousand pounds, is as graceful as it is strong, and is more than half a mile in length. Before 
its opening, in 1889, the trains from Sydney were met at the river and the passengers transhipped and 
conveyed across to the connecting cars for northern stations. At the site of the crossing the scenery 
is picturesque and wild, and at all points along the river is grandly impressive. To the west the 
Blue Mountains touch the sky, and the grandeur of hill and vaUey scenery is unsurpassed. Anthony 
TroUope, drawing comparisons between the Hawkesbury River and the Rhine and the Upper 
Mississippi, says : 

" The Rhine has its castles and its islands, and it has, too, in its favour, the bright colours 
of its waters. The Upper Missis- 
sippi has no castles, nor are its 
waters bright, but it has islands. 
. . . The Hawkesbury has neither 
castles nor ^ has it bright, clear 
waters like the Rhine, but the 
headlands are higher, the bluffs 
are bolder, and the turns and 
manoeuvres of the course which 
the waters have made for them- 
selves are grander and to me more 
enchanting than those of either the 
European or American rivers." 

Prehistoric Monument, Tonga. 
Tlie Tongan and Samoan natives 
of the Friendly Islands had in 
their pre-Christianized days many 
strange gods. The Tongans as- 
cribed all their evil to the angei 
of the good gods, or to the evil 
intention of the bad gods. The 
Samoans had a multitude of gods, 
one for every village. They had 
a tradition of a time when 
only the heavens were inhabited, 
Bettany says ; then a long time 
ago the heaven-inhabitants fell 
down into the sea which coveretl 
the earth, and so the eartli was 
peopled. In one district they had 
a stone rain-god ; when there was 
too much rain it was put to the 
fire to dry to cause the rain to 
stop, and when there was drought 
dipped into water. 

The Tongans had spiritual 
chiefs supposed to be descended 
from the gods ; most of the gods 

, , J J 1 1 /'I'^irt " T/if yeu A'ew Gi'.iL' ,, <, .>^ the aulh^T. Mist />iatrue ai-itiu!iaw, 

had a separate temple and a .... 

. ■ * t> * * i;. 1 * A CANNIBAL TEMPLE. NEW GUINEA. 

separate priest. But to Bolotoo, 

., 1 J r Ai J 1 .11 A»»ociated wilh the horror« of connibalitlic ritei. ihc temple la auitalily 

the abode of the gods, where the om.men.ed with .lli..><,r.' .Un.. p,..- law.. .nd hideou. carved l.ce.. 





^x 




298 



The Wonders of the World 



souls of the aristocracy appeared in human hkeness immediately after death, the " lower classes " 
did not go. And this accounts, perhaps, for the rarity of their prehistoric tombs and monuments. 
Miss Beatrice Grimshaw. in " The Strange South Seas," commenting on the tombs of the chiefs of 
Tongans of divine descent, says that for many centuries they were buried in " great oblong raised 
enclosures, three-terraced, and built of rough-hewn, closely-iitted slabs from the coral reef." Two 
of these great tombs remain, but they are older than the recollection of the Tongans, and there are 
no data concerning them. 

The prehistoric monument of the illustration is evidently that of which Miss Beatrice Grimshaw 
says : " There is also a ' trilithon ' erection of three large blocks of stone some miles away [from 
the tombs], concerning which island traditions are silent. It could not have been constructed by 
hand labour alone ; some mechanical device must have been employed to raise the centre stone to 

its present position. The 
ancient Tongans, however, 
knew nothing of mechanics, 
and an interesting problem 
is, therefore, set for anti- 
quarians to solve. The 
height of the side sup- 
ports is about twenty feet, 
and the centre cross-piece, 
which rests in a socket 
on each side, is a little less 
in length." 

A Cannibal. Temple, 
Neiv Guinea.— The modern 
idea of a temple is not 
associated with cannibal- 
ism : rather as a place 
where worshippers as- 
semble. But the older 
significance of the word 
as an abode of the gods 
and a place of sacrifice 
is the more applicable to 
the temples or club-houses 
of the savage gentlemen 
of New Guinea. 

The unique illustration of one of these cannibal temples, or rabis, was obtained by Miss Beatrice 
Grimshaw, who, in her " New New Guinea," describes her exploration experiences in the Purari 
delta village, where this particular rabi was visited. Like the houses of the village, set upon high 
piles and connected by " nightmare bridges " upon tall trembling supports eight feet high or more, 
the temple was approached by such another rickety platform. " Coming out of the dull glare and 
heat outside, the dark coolness of the rabi made one draw a breath of relief. ... It was partitioned 
off into four separate sanctuaries, the three first being divided from each other by rows of wooden 
pillars. The outmost was the largest and highest : as the building went back it became narrower 
and lower." Alligator skulls were in neat rows on the ground; pigs' jaws hung in strings do\.n 
the pillars ; wooden shields were carved with faces, " devilish, bogey, gobhn, comic or fierce." 
The human skulls have been removed ; for although the taking of heads is a distinction in Sarawak, 
the white rulers have other views. 




From Stereo cupf^rvjht iy] 



li'niii'ruood <<■ thidertroocl. 



A NEW GUINEA HOUSE. 



For greater securily these people build their houses on piles. For ihjs ihev are protected 
against marauders and the floods th.it occur in th: rainy s?a ons. 



'&W- 




~rH. 



I'ainled by G. H. lulmirtls. 




Phtitti by Mtiir iji Moutttc, Diiitciiin. 



THE SUTHERLAND FAI.l.S. 



This famou!! waterfall in the Arthur \'all(*y. New /ealatid. measures 1.904 feet from the top to the bottom, and is thus the hi>;hci.t l(now(t 
fall in the World. It is divided into three leaps of 815 feat. 751 feet and 338 feet. 



300 



The Wonders of the World 




t rom ^tei'eo copyriij.tt liy'\ 



{_Utideiwood «i: Underwood, 



NEW GUINEA HOUSES. 



Travellers report that these houses are very artistic, but most insecurely built. The floors are practically of lattice work. 

The verandah is the "lounge" of the house. 

The second division of the rabi was a rephca of the first, with enlarged alhgator skulls and pigs' 
jaws, and handsomer weapons; so the third. " The whole rabi seemed designed with a view oi 
gradually leading up to and enhancing something." 

The mystery was solved. The fourth chamber was the inner shrine, the " Unholy of Unholies," 
dedicated to four dragons. " They had a certain resemblance to alligators, a shght resemblance 
to sharks; but dragons they were in all essentials," with tapering tails and small sprawhng feet, 
red eyes, and all the other goblin features. They were made of plaited wickerwork, about nine feet 
long. But there were other rumours concerning the images beside their ornamental quahty — 
rumours of " ceremonies in which a man, hidden inside the wicker body, feigned to devour the victini 
of a cannibal feast, stabbing him as he was put into the mouth of a figure." 

This, as other temples, is used partly as a club, the aristocracy of the young man spending much 
of their time in it. 

Native Houses in New Guinea. — The isolation of each island of the Pacific makes each a separate 
country distinct from any other of the many groups, and New Guinea is as yet but half explored. 
Miss Beatrice Grimshaw, in her " New New Guinea," says : " When the secrets of South America are 
almost all told, and even Central Africa and Central Asia have little more to give, New Guinea should 
still flaunt defiance in the face of all research. There have been numberless exploring parties, but 
not one has done all that it set out to do, though each has added a little to our knowledge of the 
interior. Not a single one of the great rivers has been traced to its source. Most of the high 
mountains have not been ascended. No one knows what lies in the great blank spaces of the 
Western Division." What is known of New Guinea, however — and it is much, though much more 
remains to know— has all the attraction of the unusual. 



Australasia and the Pacific 



301 



The romance of its great rivers- — seas of rivers and homes of the aUigator — holds the explorer by 
an uncanny spell, for they flow between hundreds of miles of silent shores of coconut-palms, nipa- 
palms, with their roots in the mud and their plumed heads against the burning sky, backed by 
untrodden forest. Rivers and rivers interlacing and crossing over submerged forest, past pandanus- 
trees, mangrove wastes and sago-palm swamps, on and on into the vast unknown. 

The native villages and temples that here and there accentuate the solitude of the river-wilds 
are built on piles over the water for protection, for the rivers are the highways of the " Head- 
hunters " ; while this is a peaceable race occupied chiefly among the sago-palms fringing the 
streams. 

These quaint land-houses of New Guinea are built upon piles out of reach of things that crawl, as 
tlie sea-houses are of the alligators. Brown, palm-thatched and windowless, with deep-pitched roofs 
and overlapping eaves, their doorways admitting the only light, they are dim, cool retreats from 
the tropic sun, set in the midst 

of luxuriant vegetation. Their ! 

access is by ladders, and their 
furnishings chiefly mats and 
camphor-wood boxes, and fire- 
clay pots for cooking and hold- 
ing water, and the absolute 
necessities of the simple life. 

Although the New Guinea 
houses differ in construction in 
various parts of the country, 
tlie common plan of building 
is on raised platforms. Wood 
and bamboo walls and palm- 
thatched roofs are the chief 
features, the roof raised some 
feet above the walls to allow a 
free current of ventilation. The 
broad deep verandah, a feature 
of many of the land houses, as 
of all the sea-villages, is the 
social hall where guests are re- 
ceived, and the women perform 
those arts and crafts which re- 
quire the light for their accom- 
plishment. The groups of pile- 
dwellings on land, set amid 
plantations of bananas, limes 
and coconuts, are intersected by 
broad paths, as the sea-villages 
are traversed by waterways. 

The bush-tribes of New 
Guinea built their villages in 
secret places among the hills, 
cleverly concealed from their 
enemies and out of reach amid 
the tropical forest. Many of 



THE KARAl'llI 



BLOW-HOLE. 



Th.: 



•team from this mishty trumpel, which hat been called the safely valve of 
New Zealand, bursts forth at a pressure of I6J lbs. to the tquarc inch. 



^02 



The Wonders of the World 



the old hill-villages had tree-houses where those attacked took refuge and hurled down stones 
and spears upon their enemies. 

The Karapiti Bloiv-hole. — Tlie wondrous valley lying near the banks of the Waikato, through 
whicli Karapiti is reached, is as marvellous as it is exquisite. The wraith-arms of geysers beckon 
to a fairyland where terraces of snow whiteness or coral pink or yellow gleam among mosses and 
vines, backed by manuka-draped hills. Great and small geysers shoot up at intervals from the 
rocky beds. The sunlight plays upon the gleaming spray of these jewelled fountains. The white, 
surging, river foam, here glancing green, there steely blue, intensifies the colouring of the sinter 

slopes. Pools of brilliant colour 
vie with the pale yellow and 
Indian red patches of the hills. 
Never was there a transforma- 
tion scene so perfect, so gor- 
geous, so bewildering in its 
magnificence ! 

The Karapiti Blow-hole lies 
back on the dark hills. This 
" Devil's Trumpet" is heard for 
some distance as the hill is 
approached, roaring with cease- 
less energy. What would hap- 
pen if this monster steam-vent 
ceased its work can be imagined, 
for the pressure is one hundred 
and eighty pounds to the square 
inch, and within the memory 
of man it has been blowing off 
steam at that rate continuously. 
It is said to be the safety-valve 
of New Zealand; of that por- 
tion — the hot-water district — it 
must be. In shape it is like a 
huge stone trumpet or funnel, 
ten feet across the top and 
widening at the bottom. The 
sight of the mighty blow-hole 
is awe-inspiring and more sug- 
gestive of the tremendous forces 
lying under the crust of volcanic 
country than any other fumarole in the North Island, and it is long before the visitor can 
dismiss the uncanny monster from his mind. 

The Tub, Wombeyian Cai;es.— The Wombeyan Caves, situated about one hundred and thirty- 
six miles from Sydney, are on the Wombeyan Creek, a picturesque stream, and lie in a 
limestone belt about two and a half miles long by one mile wide. The rock is coarse crystal- 
line white marble streaked with yellow, and fossils that have been found show that the limestone 
bed is an old coral reef. 

The surrounding country is magnificent, a wild scene of mountains and valleys intersected 
with streams. The Tub is one of a group of cavities in the Wombeyan Caves. A descent 
from the main cavern, surrounding which are many wonderful caves and passages, leads 




By penmisioii of] [TheAgeid >. . . * a 

THE TUB. WOMBEYAN CA\ Ej. 

Pinnacles, talhcr than cavities, are the usual shapes taken by stalagmites. 
extraordinary formation of those in the Wombeyan Caves has given them 
name o^ "The Basins." 



The 
the 




^w.^ 



By permission p/] 



LCTS WIFE AND THE COCKATOO. WOLLONDILLY CAVES. 

Unconsc.ou. Na.urc I... I>cr= modelled . woman in . .hroud and « bird broodins on « .now-whi.c nesl .o f«i.hlully 

thai ihcsc slBlotmilcB cnn ca.ily be identified by iheir no;iie«. 



304 



The Wonders of the World 




By permission of] [The AgeiU-Gentral for JVuw Zealand. 

MOUNT EGMONT. 

Towerine 8.200 feet above the sea-level as though proud that it is the most perfectly-shaped volcanic mountain in 

the world. TaranaUi rears its cone of snow as a landmark to the sailor miles away in the Tasman Sea. 

to a magnificent natural hall one hundred and seventy feet long and forty feet high, to the left 
of which are formed stalagmite cavities which are called " the Basins," owing to their form, 
for some are shaped like bowls, others like tubs of various sizes. Professor David, B.A., F.R.S., 
accounts for their formation by the sloping rock on which they stand, once forming the bed of an 
underground stream, dissolving and wearing a passage through the marble and descending in 
a. series of small cascades into the channel below. These cascades where they fell wore out the 
marble in basin shape. The discovery of these enchanted coral-like groves and chambers of the 
Blue Mountains is attributed by one report to a bushranger, who made one of the caves his 
hiding-place, and by another to a stock-drover. But to whomever the discovery of Australia's 
great limestone caverns is due, the Jenolan, Wombeyan and Yarrangobilly Caves of New South 
Wales are no mean addition to the list of Nature's wonder-works. 

Lot's Wife and the Cockatoo, WoUondilly) Caves. — A steep mountain climb leads to the 
WoUondilly Caves ; then a difficult descent into the dim tunnels and galleries where are statues 
and skeletons of stalactites and dripstones. This cave is one of the group of the great Cathedral 
Cavern, vast and silent, and dark except where the guide turns the brilliant flash of his magnesium 
lamp. In the foreground of the Temple are the two strange white stalagmites known as Lot's 
Wife, which resembles a pillar of salt, and the Cockatoo, that might have been a marble 
•carving of the bird. 

Mount Egmont. — ^The Maori name of Mount Egmont is " Taranaki," and it stands " lofty and 
lone " in New Plymouth. Its lovely cone, which is said to be the most perfect in the world, is 
enhanced in beauty by the fact that it stands out in splendid isolation from other peaks. Its 
summit, eight thousand two hundred and sixty feet high, is a striking landmark for many miles, 
both by sea and land. Captain Cook, who first saw the peak towering above the clouds, in 1770, 
noted that in appearance it resembled the Peak of Teneriffe. 



Australasia and the Pacific 



305 



The ascent of Mount Egmont, above the lower wooded slopes, is steep and difficult. To the 
height of about two thousand feet the forest of giant pines and rata is very beautiful, but it 
changes gradually to a tangle of stunted trees and scrub, which at five thousand feet, beaten and 
twisted by the wind into fantastic shapes, is called " The Gobhn Bush." The scrub in turn gives 
place to grass and rushes and moss ; the moss-plateaus end in the rock and snow and ice that mass 
the top. But although the cone is capped with eternal snow, during the summer the greater 
portion of the mountain is without its white mantle. 

There is an extensive and magnificent view from the peaks. Below are the shores of Taranaki, 
towns and rivers, waterfalls and forest, and in the distance the snow-clad peaks of Ruapehu. and 
of Xgauruhoe and Tongariro, and the shining waters of the sea. 

Whakoupoku Boiling Well. — The Whakoupoku Boiling Well at Waikite is a beautiful sample 
of the many hot springs that abound in the valleys of the Paeroa Mountains. Of unknown depth, 
this sparkling, foamy pool bubbles amid luxuriant vegetation, warming the roots of the ferns that 
encircle it. These wells at Waikite are extraordinary in their character ; some of them boil furiously 
in their crater-basins, others lie still and blue though at boiling point, and otliers again are constantly 
rising and falling, giving off dense masses of steam, their erupted waters rising perhaps twenty or 
thirtv feet. When comparatively quiet the surface of the pools is often gemmed over with 
thousands of coloured bubbles, which dance and burst and reform. Some of the waters are highly 
charged with sihca and, where they fall over a surface, coat it with a beautiful enamel. In the 
moist, warm atmosphere of the valleys of hot rills and springs the air is aromatic with the scent 




Photo tty] 

THE BOILING WKLL. WAIKITE. 

Under the shadow of Paeroa Mountain in the midst of delicately-f rondcd fern and flowerina 

bubble up nmoncal the trees from an unknoivn depth. 



■ hrubs. ihevc boiline sprini:s 
21 



o 



06 



The Wonders of the World 



of flowering shrubs ; yellow gorse and broom contrast with the green flax and its iris-like blossoms, 
and white mountain lilies combine to rob the steaming land of sinister meaning. The acrid and 
brilliant-hued lakes are all fringed with forest, and the billowy, rumbling rivers zig-zag through 
forest-shores. 

Ice Famarole, Antarctic. — On their way across the old crater, at about eleven thousand feet 
below the active crater of Erebus, the Shackleton exploring party were attracted by the strange ice- 
formation of their photograph, which bears a strong resemblance to a couchant lion, and from 
which smoke appeared to be issuing. The peculiar structure proved to be a fumarole, or volcanic 
vapour-well ; but, whereas in warm climates the emissions would be steam, at the Antarctic 
the vapour is frozen into ice as soon as it reaches the snow line. 

The Erebus exploring party reported : " About fifty of these were visible to us on the track which 
we followed to and from the crater, and doubtless there were numbers that we did not see. These 




Photo 6v] 



{Sir Ernest Sfiackleton. 



AN ICE-FUMAROLE IN THE ANTARCTIC. 



Th 



ese unique ice- 



nounds are the result of the combined action of intense heat and intense cold — volcanic steam frozen 
immediately it issues from the crater of a volcano. 



unique ice-mounds have resulted from the condensation of vapour around the orifices of the 
fumaroles. It is only under conditions of very low temperature that such stractures could exist. 
No structures like them are known in any other part of the world." Varied and fantastic in shape, 
they were in the forms of mounds and turrets ; some resembled animals and others beehives. 

Mount Erebus. — Sir Ernest Shackleton, in " The Heart of the Antarctic," gives a graphic 
description of the ascent of Mount Erebus, named after one of the ill-fated ships of earlier expeditions, 
at whose base he with his fellow- explorers took up their winter quarters, and made a close study 
of the great volcano which stands " as a sentinel at the gate of the Great Ice Barrier." 

The great mountain rises thirteen thousand three hundred and fifty feet above sea-level, " with 
its enormous snow-clad bulk towering above the white slopes that run up from the coast. At the 
top of the mountain an immense depression marks the site of the old crater, and from the side of 
this rises the active cone, generally marked by steam or smoke." 




[Sir Urnfil ShaMtlon. 
Fholo hy] 

MOUNT EREBUS. 
Thi. .r... „,ou„..,n ri.» U.3S0 .«. .bovc .He .»-l.vcl. The ..„a, r„.rU. >h. .c.ivc cone ''\ ^"""^^^^^l'^ ^'ll'' ' ' 
.u„.mi, i. th. .i.c o( .he old cr..er. .h., i. .o ..y. .he -<... imp<.r..n.. for .here .re ev.dence. o( (our <i...,nc. 



3o8 



The Wonders of the World 




PTioto ly] 



[.Si/* ilriietl .^/il^■<^7^f"^. 



MOUNT EREBUS BY MOONLIGHT 



It is by moonlight, according to Sir Ernest Shacklelon. that Mount Erebua is seen al its noblest, when, 
rising up 3.000 feet from the crater and silhouetted against the moon's disc, the huge column of steam 
travels upwards. " not quietly, but impelled by force from below." 

In their winter quarters Sir Ernest Shackleton and his comrades had every opportunity of 
taking observations, for the great mountain was only about fifteen miles off and within full view 
of their hut, and during the winter encampment of the expedition they saw every phase of its 
activity ; the glow was much more vivid at times than at other times, and occasionally great bursts 
of flame illuminated the crater. 

By moonlight a magnificent view of the huge column of steam that rose three thousand and four 
thousand feet high from the crater into the cold air could be obtained, for when the moon passed 
behind the crater upon its disc could be seen " the great cloud travelling upwards, not quietly, but 
impelled by force from below." 

At length a party of the expedition set off from the winter quarters to take the fort of Erebus. 
A sledge was packed and lashed, which on the moraines and steep slopes of small glaciers proved 
difficult to negotiate, the sledgers having much trouble in keeping their feet. The party the first 
day made seven miles from their winter hut-home and camped two thousand seven hundred and 
fifty feet above sea-level. Next morning, in a temperature ten degrees below zero Fahrenheit, they 
proceeded up a much steeper gradient, the sledge capsizing frequently, and only three difficult miles 
were accomplished during the day, camping at an altitude of five thousand six hundred and thirty 
feet, with a temperature twenty-eight degrees below zero. 

On the following morning the climb was resumed, the snow slopes became steeper, but the third 
camp was eight thousand seven hundred and fifty feet up, and during the night a blizzard, which 
increased in fury by the morning, swept fiercely down the rocky ravine where they had halted, 
and they had much ado to keep themselves from being blown off the precipice. The following 
day, after a night of frozen terrors, the blizzard over, they made a fresh start, the ascent steeper 
than ever, the dazzling slopes too perpendicular to climb without cutting steps in the ice. 

They had long abandoned their sledge, leaving it on the lower slopes. The progress was now 
very slow, and at a thousand feet below the active cone they had to be roped together, and make 
their cautious way over the snow-plain with their ice-axes, above them being the coveted crater, 
which was conquered after a five days' struggle. As the party came against the sky-line, they were 



Australasia and the Pacific 



509 



seen far down in the camp by their comrades in the winter quarters, who for two days had followed 
their ascent through the telescope, but had lost sight of them till their figures were silhouetted 
against the light. 

" We stood on the verge of a vast abyss," the report runs, " and at first could see neither the 
bottom nor across it on account of the huge mass of steam filling the crater and soari ng aloft 
in a column five hundred to one thousand feet high. After a continuous loud hissing sound, 
lasting for some minutes, there would come from below a big dull boom, and immediately great 
globular masses of steam would rush upwards to swell the volume of the snow-white cloud which 
ever swells over the crater. This phenomenon recurred at intervals during the whole of our stay 
at the crater. Meanwhile the air around us was extremely redolent of burning sulphur. 
Presently a pleasant northerly breeze fanned away the steam cloud, and at once the whole 
crater stood revealed to us in all its vast extent and depth. . . . There were at least three well- 
defined openings at the bottom of the cauldron, and it was from these the steam explosions 
proceeded." 

When on the top of ilount Erebus the explorers remarked the great conical shadow it threw 
at sunrise over McMurdo Sound, and even as far as the western mountains. The colour effects were 
often ver\^ beautiful, especially at the intermediate season of the year, and at sunrise or sunset the 
mountain was often bathed in a delicate pink light, or seen beneath iridescent clouds. Some of 
the most brilliant displays of the Aurora Australis were in the vicinity of Mount Erebus, whose 
summit it sometimes encircled. 




Pholo (■!(] 





Ahh 


oucFi 


most 


of 


the 


Samoan 


corn 


1 


i» 


w 


W,h 


ma 


l<et tl 


hesc 


ocean 


a. 


owefB 


bcaulif u 


1 wil 


h 




he 


hu 


are 


jusll 


!y famous. 



















COKAL KEHf-b. bAM JA. 

c. the deep transparent water, calchine and reflectins 
let of iKe rainbow, and create* a maitical tea -car den 



the tropic sunltEht, 
lor which iheac itiandt 



o 



lO 



The Wonders of the World 



Coral Formation, Samoa. — This lovely garden of living coral-flowers is one of the most beautiful 
known. Just below the surface these coral-flowers bloom in the most exquisite colours, of delicately- 
tinted shades, pink and green and purple, suggested rather than realized, for it is the water flowing 
over the beds that frequently gives colour to much of the white coral ; the red is rare : the coral of 
the Pacific is chiefly white. But the transformation of light shining through water makes the dull or 
faintly-coloured coral alive with prismatic ravs and forms bouquets of the hues of the tropic seas. 

Coral Reef and Bloiv-hole, Samoa. — The innumerable coral-reefed islands of the South Seas, 
strange with relics of vague traditions and multiplicity of graven images and past gods, sacred 
groves, stones and temples, even yet, despite their semi-civilization, present the barbaric and 
grotesque in juxtaposition with the wonderful and beautiful in Nature. These green and fertile 
oases in the ocean waste, studded with great mountains, gemmed with rivers and waterfalls and 
coloured lagoons, plumed with feathery palms, groved with coconut and banana, scented with 




A BLOW-HOLE IN THE SAMOAN CORAL REEF. 

issuing from a chasm in the deep sea, forces its way through the water and prevents the coral 



They, however, build as closely as possible round it. and so lorn 



This column of steam, 
insects (roin building over the centre of activity 
natural chimney for the steam. 

orange and lemon blossom, and enriched with gorgeous foliage, are encircled and guarded round their 
thousand shores with rings of white branching coral flowering under water, over which the sea-surf 
washes on coral strands whiter than snow. 

These coral islands have been the despair of the word and colour painter alike. Miss Beatrice 
Grimshaw, in " The Strange South Seas," says ; " Outside the windy palms a dazzling beach runs 
down to the open sea all around the island — a beach that is like nothing the travellers ever have 
seen before, for it is made of powdered coral, and is as white as salt, as white as starch, as white 
as the hackneyed snow-simile itself can paint it." And the description paints not one coral shore 
alone, but hundreds — " flowering coral under water, white broken coral gravel above, with here 
and there a thin skin of earth collected by a century or two of falling palm-leaves and ocean waste." 

The blow-hole illustrated, in its setting of coral coast, is after the nature of the fumaroles 
scattered by thousands throughout Australasia and the islands of the Pacific — Nature's safety-valves 
for subterranean fires. 




w 










i 


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r 

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"i. 


, y' 


/ 



\ 



M 



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1 



i«r^'' 



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Bif peri/nsswn t'/] 



[Tlif .V 



THE FRANZ JOSEF GLACIER. 



Thr.c Alp. ..( M.oril.nd «rc . bl.^c o( hi^h dr.matic colour. Th= cr,.,.allinc ..mo.phcrc in.cn.ific. .1! I»nd,c«p. hu.^ 
cc.n.u„c. all .olden li.h.. .nd purple ,h«dow.. The .Uy i. » deeper blue .h.„ on .I.e plain, below. The .ce-hcld. .low 



like white hrc. 



312 



The Wonders of the World 




By pei-missioii or\ ITlie Agent-General Jor yew Zealand. 

IHE FRAXZ JOSEF GLACIER. 

The steeply slanting ice-flows of the Franz Josef Glacier descend from the perpetual snows of the Southern Alps, while 

on either side of the half-mile-wide tongue of ice the roclty scarps rise up. smoothly polished by the pressure of the mass. 

The coral reefs have been divided into three classes — the atoll, or ring of coral surrounding a 
lagoon ; a fringing reef, which is near the land ; and a barrier reef at a much greater distance, the 
deep-water lagoons being within the reef. The upraised fringed coasts show that they have been 
elevated. Darwin sa\'s : " We thus see vast areas rising with volcanic matter now and then, and 
bursting forth through vents or fissures with which they are traversed." The Samoan Islands are 
in the vicinity of submarine volcanoes ; hence the issue of steam from the reef. 

The Franz Josef Glacier. — The Franz Josef Glacier is one of the most beautiful of the world. 
Situated on the western side of Mount Cook in the Southern Alps, and torrentlike in its ice-flow, 
it descends steeply from dividing ranges to within about seven hunded feet of the sea, where, like 
all the snow-domes and ice-fields of this incomparable range, the forest clothes all the lower slopes- 
One of Aorangi the cloud-piercer's glittering satellites. Franz Josef is a flashing ice-field amid a 
sparkling array of mountain domes and spires among monstrous peaks far as the eye can travel 
into distance or reach upward, a stately panorama of diamond radiance and dark rock ; ranges 
beyond and behind ; ranges piercing the clouds and standing above them in the purple haze. 

The Alpine and sub- Alpine flora of the lower slopes of Franz Josef is very beautiful ; the 
vegetation is almost sub-tropical ; the rata, with its gorgeous masses of red blossom, the beech- 
woods, carpeted with'gold and green mosses and hung with pale lichens, meet the snow-line, and the 
groves of ribbon-wood, and plateaus of mountain daisies and deep golden-hearted lilies, veronicas, 
and violets entice the thought from the mountain's austerity. In the autumn a variety of berries 
supplj' the colour-scheme. 



Australasia and the Pacific 



313 



The ice pinnacles of Franz Josef Glacier, a mass of glittering spires of a glacial city, surmount 
walls of solid ice, which it is the Alpinist's delight to scale. Up in that naked world of scarred and 
jagged outline, which from the earth valleys below presents a solid white rock-face, are crystal caves 
and glittering dales and crags, aglow with a million points of reflected fires of green, purple and blue. 
Nature has peopled the solitude of the lone ice-peaks with strange images cut in the ice-groved clefts, 
and adorned the ice-caves with delicate fretwork and carving of stainless wliite, set with twinkling 
diamonds of light. 

Looking down from the glacier, weirdly magnificent lie crest below white crest, ice falls and 
cataracts and snow-rivers, fields and valleys and groves of snow — a world of dark rock and ice, 
dazzling and alive with ethereal hues. 

Sydney Harbour.- — It was Viscount Sydney, Secretary of State for the Colonies, 1787, who, 
more than a century ago, determined to " plant a coloney " in New South Wales (so named by 
Captain Cook in memory of the mining country of England where he. as a boy, worked in the coal 
mines). 

The First Fleet, carrying the roots, five hundred and sixty-four men and one hundred and ninety- 
tw^o women, from good British soil for transplantation in the untried land, consisted of eleven 
vessels. The military section of the expedition comprised one hundred and sixty-eight marines, 
and the wives and children of those who were married, commissioned and non-commissioned officers, 
medical men and mechanics. 

But on arrival of the fleet at Botany Bay and Sydney Cove the captain in command was 
convinced that the shallow inlet, exposed to the full swell of the Pacific, without bays or coves to 
afford shelter, and witli barren shores, was undesirable as a harbour. 




By pf'f'i' 



AT THE EDGE OF THE FRANZ JOSEF GLACIER. 

TKc Glacieii of the Southern Hemisphere descend to a much lower level than those of the Northern- Itiis result* 
in the extraordinary inlerminKlinK of RlenminK ice and semi-tropicnt veiietBtion 



o 



14 



The Wonders of the World 



After exploring the coast about nine miles distant, Captain Phillip discovered at close quarters 
the port — Port Jackson, now known as Sydney Harbour — which Captain Cook had sighted from a 
distance. 

The first sight of this, the most magnificent harbour of the world, as the traveller sails over its blue 
waters on which innumerable " white wings " gleam in the vivid sunshine, gives the impression 
of approaching an enchanted land, whose city runs down to the shores stretching out hospitable 
arms, a forest of stately houses and picturesque villas, set amid sub-tropical verdure. The harbour 
is not one, but many : curved all along its shores are dreamland bays and inlets and creeks that 
have been the inspiration of poet and painter alike, yet the whole of their loveliness remains untold. 
The breadth of the harbour varies from three-quarters of a mile to two miles and more across, and 
the foreshores extend more than two hundred miles. The lake-like expanse of water stretches inland, 
high precipitious cliffs guarding the harbour heads for ten or twelve miles, then on either hand the 




Pholo ly'i 
Surrounded by 



THE SPHINXES, WANGAROA. NEW ZEALAND. 

the sea. the Sphinxes stand out like sentinels from the mainland The action o( 



[J. Martin, Aukfand. 
the sea has given 



hese rocks 



Us their peculi 



ar shape. 



waters wash over shelving beach. All along the coasts the innumerable harbours and bays which 
indent the shores are secluded and calm resorts of great picturesqueness. which, where cliffs and 
forest do not reign supreme, are fringed with flowering orchards and villa gardens rich with blossom. 

Village of Sea-Dyaks, Borneo. — The Sea-Dyaks of Borneo (cultivators of maize, sugarcane, ginger, 
pumpkins, etc.) prefer the low-lying land swamps of the river-sides for their habitations. Formerly 
the Sea-Dyaks occupied only a few of the Sarawak rivers and their tributaries, but now that the 
warlike tribes of their enemies have retreated further into the interior, the Sea-Dyaks have extended 
their activities to many rivers, says Haddon, between Sarawak and Dutch Borneo. 

The Dyak villages are built on piles running out over the mud-flats into the river. The village 
consists of a number of houses, some of which are of considerable size. The traveller quoted describes 
these riverside houses as consisting of two portions — " a verandah extending the whole length of 
the river frontage, and a series of domiciles opening on to the verandah. r'lT he verandah is entered 



3i6 



The Wonders of the World 




Phcto bu] 



\ILL.\GE OF SEA-D'iAKS. BORNEO. 
Notorious for their cruelties, these people are nevertheless more cultivated than most of the neighbouring tribes 
of these houses is the home of a clan, the larger containing apartments for as many as eighty families 



\^Nfwton <t Co. 
Each 



at the end and by two or three doorways at the side. Tlie ladder consists of one or more notclied 
tree-trunks, usually with a slight hand-rail, the use of which is as often as not dispensed with by 
the nimble, bare-footed inhabitants." 

Light broad ladders also lead up to the verandah, which is partitioned off from the apartments. 
Every door gives ingress to a separate house, which is divided into various-sized apartments. Each 
dwelling is occupied by a separate clan, and the larger of them contain from ten to eighty different 
houses, or " doors," which are quite private to the families occupying them. The wife, or wives, 
and daughters of each house have each a separate room ; the men occupy their own quarters. The 
verandah is the great social lounge. 

Over a considerable portion of New Guinea the men have a social life which is distinct from 
family life and " hedged round with observances and taboos." In that respect native club life does 
not much differ from that ot the civilized world. The clubs of the Papuan, like those of the Mason, 
can only be gained by undergoing certain " initiation ceremonies," the mysteries of which are 
jealously guarded from women and children and the stranger, the rites of which are performed either 
in sacred spots in the bush or in tlieir club-houses or temples. 

Dyak Idols. — The chief deity of the Sea-Dyaks of Borneo is called Batava, a pure Sanskrit term 
for God, says Bettany. But they, like all the natives of New Guinea, have innumerable spirits and 
gods with whom they hold commune in the privacy of the woods The Dyaks, both Sea and Land, 
have more religion than the natives of many of the islands, and traces of the Hindu faith are found 
in their beliefs. They attribute all their evils to their gods, and the beginning of their rehgious 
wisdom is certainly fear. Omens, especially bird and animal omens, and dreams are reckoned 
among their superstitions ; the medicine-man with his incantations ranks high with the people. 



Australasia and the Pacific 



317 



and human sacrifice on rare occasions (out of reach ot the Government) is even now not 
unknown. 

The idols and images of Dyaks bear a family likeness to other heathen idols — usually hideous, 
malevolent and fierce in appearance. 

Wooden tablets covered with strange hieroglyphics, small figures carved in wood, reptiles, war- 
gods " covered with coarse red hair like an orang," are among the aids to devotion of these strange 
worshippers. And the history of religions shows that in all ages the world over, since mankind first 
dimly recognized the mystic something outside his comprehension, he has in " graven images " 
endeavoured to give expression to his conceptions of the unseen. 

Eagkhaivk Neck, Tasnun Peninsula. — Tasmania is separated from Austraha by the one 
hundred and twenty miles' width of Bass Strait, but although the smallest State of Australia — 
it is about the same size as Scotland — it excels in natural charms and scenic beauties. " The 
Halcyon Isle," and " The Garden of the South," are equally appropriate names for the island, in 
the vicinity of which are numerous other islands of considerable size. 

The Tasman Peninsula, scene of dramatic incident and wild and rugged beauty, is linked to 
the mainland by a narrow neck of rock known as Eaglehawk Neck, which is barely two hundred 
yards wide, and upon which in the early days of the colony dogs were kept chained to give the 
alarm should a convict attempt to escape from the peninsula, a natural and lovely prison. The 
old convict settlement is now dismantled ; many of the buildings have been pulled down, and others 
destroyed by the fires of surrounding bush. The model prison and the fine old church are in ruins, 
but the beautiful avenue of oak trees that led to the church and is amongst the finest in the 
State, exists unharmed to-day. 




.lilSt^ 



[.V'if/ ■! .£■ 



DVAK IDOLS. 

I he DysKfl arc tccminB wiih superstition. Every Iree and rocU ia the home of some demon. To ward off the altaclis of 
the evil spiiil* carved imntceii such ai thcae are set up outside (he villaee*. 




Phola \iy\ 



TASMAN'S AkCH. EAGLEHAWK NECK. 



iBtaiUe, IJobarl. 



A monumcnl.l .,ch. (ormcd by the action of the sea. that .tand, upon the .hore not far from Eaelehawl. Neck, a narrov 
isthmu. alone connecting the Tasman Peninsula with the mainland. 



Australasia and the Pacific 



319 



The Devil's Kitchen, Tasman Peninsuia. — In the neighbourhood of Eaglehawk Neck are a 
number of wonderful and strange rock-formations, for which this peninsula is famous. " The 
Devil's Kitchen," whose roof has fallen in, derives its name probably from the seething foam of 
the waves that boil about it. It is an extensive specimen of the tunneUing power of the sea, which 
has executed some magnificent engineering at this point of the coast, carving great arches and 
chiselling fantastic fretwork on a gigantic scale. 

The Tasman Arch is one hundred and eighty feet deep. The bottom rock is of blue lava, 
through which the sea has engineered in a soft place and then has washed away the debris, 
leaving the arch. Much similar tunnelling has formed the Devil's Kitchen. The roaring waves 
and the whirling spray add to the fascination of this giant-causeway and the natural bridges. 
A near waterfall flashing among the dark rocks gi\-es enchantment to the beauty and dignity 
of the spectacle. 

These colossal arches and bridges of rock 
look like the picturesque ruins of some pre- 
historic castle that once was inhabited by 
giants, and the giants that were lords of 
this domain must have been exceeding 
cunning workers in stone. But only the 
sea was the architect as it swept tireless at 
the base of the cliffs, polishing with all 
the care and delicacy of a master- workman, 
or, lashing itself to fury, jagged out great 
masses of rock to form the arches where it 
could pass through into the land. How 
terrific must have been the force that thun- 
dered upon the blue rock until the whole 
wall crumbled beneath the gigantic pressure 
and a mighty arch remained — a triumphal 
arch to mark the victory of the waves in 
their struggle with the land ! How delicate 
must have been the soft caress of the ripples 
that smoothed the wrinkles out of old 
Mother Earth and shaped lofty columns 
and car\-ed graceful curves ! Never was so 
great an artist as the sea, and nowhere is 
there greater proof of its wondrous skill as 
here in the Tasman Peninsula at the Bottom 
of the World. 

The Tessellated Pavement, Eaglehaivk 
Neck. — The Tessellated Pa\emcnt is a 
unique formation in this district of stone- 
curios. Not far from the blow-holes and 
arches, it is situated on the peninsula, near 
Eaglehawk Neck, in a region of remarkable 
caves and quarries. 

This formation of silicious clay rocks 
has taken the shape of squares like those 
of a pavement. The interstices between 
these rocks are filled up with a formation 




DEML'S KITCHEN. TASMA.V 



[Ariinif-, tlohart, 

PENINSULA. 



A rr.isKty specimen of the tunncllins power of the tea. The 
Kitchen probably derives it* name from the frothy "brew" of the 
wo\ea thai tots at the base of these precipitous clirfs. 



320 



The Wonders of the World 



of sand and cement-like material acted upon by the water so that it forms a kind of concrete. 
In colour it is brown, somewhat like mud. There is no vegetation on it save here and there a 
straggly clump of seaweed. These rocks stretch by the sea-shore for a distance of over four 
hundred yards, and are so even that in all respects the surface is equal to that of a well-made 
pavement ; scarcely is it possible to trip up against an irregular specimen. The pavement is 
a geological puzzle, and authorities have not been able to come to a decision as to how this 
curious formation came about. The wildest guesses have been made as to its origin. One 
suggestion is that an ancient primeval race, after the manner of the wonderful Egyptian 
monuments, had built a sea wall which is the only monument surviving to their existence ; 
but such an idea is altogether improbable. Other authorities have suggested a more feasible" idea 
It has been observed that the rocks forming the nose of Cape Raoul are of the same substance 




/:— 






r.i ,.,- 



Tnis wonderful natural for 



THE TESSELLATED PAVEMENT. TASMANIA. 

ation is composed of squares of silicious rocU. neatly cemented together. It stretches by tfic 
coast for a distance of about 400 yards. 



and in the same shape — that is, a congregation of square pillars. In another part of the island, 
five thousand feet above the sea-level, the same formation occurs on Mount Ben Lomond, and from 
these points it has been suggested that a strata of silicious material runs through the island, and 
that on this part the sea has filled up the cracks caused by erosion in ages past, and covering it, as 
it does at certain high tides, has worn down the rugged projections and so formed this unique 
pavement. But science has not made a final pronouncement, and the secret of the formation is 
yet to be revealed. The geological formation at Cape Raoul referred to, is a remarkable specimen 
of Nature's workmanship. Each pillar of the series is separate at the top ; the columns join at the 
base and are of irregular height, giving the rock something of the appearance of a gigantic organ. 
They number many hundreds and rise to a considerable height. The hills and rocks of much of 
the Tasmanian coast are cragged into a thousand fantastical and beautiful shapes, which arrest 
by their unusual form and picturesqueness no less than by their scientific explanation. 



Australasia and the Pacific 



?2I 



Mauna Loa, The Island Builder. — On the island of Hawaii are three massive peaks, 
Mauna Loa, Mauna Kea and Hualalai, and the greatest of the three is Mauna Loa. This is the 
master worker, the Island builder. The other two are but satellites, dark-browed and clumsy ; 
from a distance they are suggestive of three stranded whales sprawling over the island that they 
have made. But looking closer, the marvel and terror and beauty of their handiwork will be 
appreciated. For Mauna Loa is still an active volcano ; he and his companions have built up the 
island, laj-er by layer, hill ot, hill, from the floor of the Pacific to the surface of the sea, and from 
the sea-coast to the topmost volcanic crest that rears its forbidding head four thousand feet 
above sea-level. Out of the awful depths far below the ocean bed, from which he derives his restless 
energy, !Mauna Loa has ejected a heap of lava rubbish great enough to form a cone almost six miles 
in height. Within the heart of the mountain this melting, forging and welding have been going on 
for countless centuries ; the molten matter has been cast forth from the furnaces within the crater, 
has fought with and conquered the ocean, has piled up cone after cone, has poured dow-n its caked 
sides fresh streams of lava charged with chemical and mineral substances favourable to vegetation. 
And b\- the kindly action of sun and wind, heat and moisture, tlie la\-a beds have in time been 
fertilized and the naked rock clothed with tropical verdure. And still Mauna Loa is unsatisfied. 
He may stand quiescent for several years, but at intervals his great throat opens, and from the 
far high crater on his rounded crest which is known as JMokua-weo-w'eo, streams of lava break 
forth to deluge the surrounding country. The scenery is of the wildest, for nothing is so unutterably 
desolate and dreary as a congealed lava stream ; while, in dramatic contrast to these barren wastes, 
the fertile shores and the extraordinary luxuriance of its tropical forests entitle Hawaii to the title 
of " The Paradise of the Pacific." 




kILAUt \. mi sixOND CRATER OF MAUNA LOA. 

Mauna Loa has practically built the island of Hawaii, on which it stands. For centuries it has emitted vast volumes 
of lava, the soil of the islandu ; but it has u second crater. Kilauea. which acts as a s.ifcty-valvc for the miBhtv energy 
«f this volcano. 



322 



The Wonders of the World 



Like several other volcanoes, Maiina Loa has its safety-valve. About half-way up the eastern 
flank of the mountain is a large crater named Kilauea. Its existence was first published to the 
civilized world by a party of missionaries in 1823. This remarkable crater is always active, yet it 
builds no lasting cone as a monument to its energies, nor does it pour destroying streams of lava 
from its lip. It lies upon a high exposed tableland many miles wide, about four thousand feet above 
the sea. This tableland has, of course, been formed by the activities of the parent mountain, Mauna 
Loa, and is covered with every variety of lava at its disposal. There are long stretches of smooth- 
faced, glossy, cream-coloured rock, called pa-hoe-hoe, which looks as if a swift river had been 
suddenly congealed with all its foam and ripples. Although in places very slippery, this is 
not very difficult to walk on. and is nothing compared to the horrors of crossing the rugged 
streams of the black a-a, which resembles huge blocks of concrete tossed and broken. It is the 
hardest, most cruelly jagged, most unyielding of all kinds of rock. To this lava Kilauea adds 




his oval crater 



wherein 



that he 



nothing of its own. It was described by its discoverers as an oval crater, nine miles in circum- 
ference, sunk within precipitous walls of volcanic rock, with a lake of fire at one end. And thus it 
still appears to-day. Kilauea is always active, but its works are confined to its own play- 
ground. Here the volcanic agencies that make and unmake the world are to be seen at work, 
though their labours come to nothing, and their building up and breaking down are apparently aim- 
less and merely self-destructive. Every traveller who visits the crater has something different to 
relate of what he has seen there. But there is always the oval crater, nine miles in circumference, 
the precipitous rocky walls, the grey floor of cooling lava, and the burning lake at one end. It has 
the appearance of a huge sunken pit paved with a cold blue-grey substance that might be stagnant, 
leaden-coloured water when viewed from above, but which is found to be a rugged mass of the 
roughest and cruellest lava blocks when the difficult descent has been made and the traveller attempts 
to cross the floor to the Lava Lake. This inner circle, the true chimney, is known as Halemaiimau, 
or the " House of Everlasting Burning." It is always varying. Some have seen a lake of living 




l.\ IHE CRAIER OK KILAUEA. HAWAII 

This vast wall of volcanic roclt, nine miles in circumference, encloses ihe narrower circle o( 

"House of EverlostinK Burning. " 



[rii'Ifrimul .t Uml'riraoi 
d-col>ureJ wills of .the 



324 



The Wonders ot the World 




Pholo hy pennission o/^ 



[fflds. /;. fHsnu-ii. Esq. 



THE LAVA DEPOSITS OF KILAUEA. 

The eruptions of Mauna Loa are repeated on a small scale bv Kilauea. It continuously sends forth floods of this flowing 
lava called p^-hoe-hoe, %vhich varies in appearance from polished ivory to fawn-coloured velvet. 

fire three miles in circumference, wherein burning waves of liquid lava dash themselves upon the 
walls that hem them in. Fiery spray is flung high into the air, and, in falling, turns to lava rocks 
which grow up round the shores of the lake and pen in the waves of fire, which, in turn, undermine 
the crags till they fall with a crash into the cauldron to be re-smelted and thrown up once again. 
Then perhaps within a few weeks the tide of fire recedes into the awful caverns in the heart of the 
mountain, leaving the high crags clustered about the lake's edge in tortured shapes. Or perhaps 
they, too, will go, and only a vast mysterious chimney 'remain open, from which clouds of steam and 
noisome vapour ascend. 

The mountain is regarded by the Hawaiians with great veneration as the throne of the goddess 
Pele. Eruptions are the signs of her anger, and her terrified worshippers endeavour by prayer 
and incantations to appease her wrath, and by flinging into its burning waves things precious to 
themselves seek to stay the destructive lava floods. Many are the stories related to the credulous of 
the miraculous efficacy of these simple sacrifices. 

The Boiling Lake, White Island. — White Island, Bay of Plenty, is situated on the volcanic 
line that stretches from the great cones of the south of New Zealand, and, says Professor Thomas, 
a submarine ridge runs from East Cape and Bay of Plenty along the bottom of the Pacific Ocean 
in a north-easterly direction as far as the Tonga group of islands. 

The greater number of the famed hydrothermal phenomena of the Taupo zone occur on or near 
Ruapehu- White Island line, which is its normal terminal. White Island, a S3dvan spot of forest 
and fern-groves with beautiful shores, is a volcano now in its solfatara stage, and in the centre of 
the island is a crater half a mile in diameter, which, until a short time previous to the eruption of 



Australasia and the Pacific 



325 



Tarawera, was occupied by a lake of acid water. But preceding the eruption tliousands of dead 
fish, poisoned by submarine fumes, were cast up on the shores of the bay, and the crater- 
lake suddenly became dry. The lofty crater now continually gives off a dense body of steam, wliich 
rises in a great white cloud that is visible for fifty miles around. 

Milford Sound. — That wild, and but half-e.xplored vastness of magnificent mountains and 
deep fjords, known as the West Coast Sounds of New Zealand, is beyond description — an 
unpeopled wilderness of countless snow-domes and prime\'al forests whose silence of ages is scarce 
broken save by the echoes of faUing fountains, the thunder of mighty waterfalls in majestic leap 
from the snow-capped towers, or by the foaming cascades dancing to swift snow rivers that roar 
their wa}- through deep canons to the Pacific Sea. 

The crowning-point of tliis wonder-cruise is Milford Sound. It is the last of the fjords that, 
thirteen in number, stretch for hundreds of miles from beauty to a grandeur which culminates at 
this point. 

Bounded bj' gigantic granite cliffs that rise five thousand feet sheer out of the water and dip 
a thousand feet beneath, Milford has been robbed of the glacial austerity of its origin by the wealth 
of the forests that climb over its shoulders and touch the snows under the clouds. That this 
stupendous inlet was once filled by a solid block of ice the face of the cliffs testifies. But even.-where 
that vegetation could, it has taken hold, and the forests, musical with the song of the tut and bell- 
bird, are sub-tropical, and over range beyond range to the hoary peaks the carpet of varied greens 
is spread of palm-trees and pine, totara festooned with flowering vines and green-grey mosses, and 




I'lwlo t.i] [-'. M'irlin. 

IHE BOILING LAKE. W Hll E ISLAND. 

This cratrr of an inactive volcano waa once a lake of acid water, but since the eruption of Mount Tarawera. the waters 
aic dried up and the crater gives off clouds of steam. 



126 



The Wonders of the World 



a wealth of rata in red masses flaming against the snow, and forming giant-bouquets amid the black- 
greens that overlap at the water's edge in a luxuriant fringe of orchids, ferns and rushes and the 
golden-hearted mountain daisy. 

But the sense of majesty is never lost. One of the towering cliff walls is capped bv ilitre Peak, 
another forms the Lion Rock — a dark granite perpendicular monster of three thousand feet, the 
outlines of which resemble the animal after which it is named. Stirling Falls are seen on the north 

side, five hundred feet high. 
Leaping from tlie snow-fields, 
and approaching the head of 
the Sound, the music of the 
white cascades that foam down 
the mountain-side is lost in the 
deep, continuous roar of the 
Bowen Falls, of five hundred 
and thirty feet, that pours its 
torrent into a great basin and 
spouts up again to some height 
before falling into the waters 
of the Sound. 

Buffalo Ranges. — This moun- 
tain range occupies an isolated 
position in the north-east divi- 
sion of Victoria, being about 
twelve miles north of the great 
Dividing Range, and it towers 
majesticallv above the sur- 
rounding plains. It is a 
gigantic mass of granite, which 
has resisted the denuding forces 
that have been at work through 
countless ages stripping off the 
covering of sedimentary rock 
and cracking and crumbling 
and washing away the surface 
of the granite itself. It is one 
of the finest spots in the world 
in which to see the dramatic 
e\-idence of the infinitely slow 
but resistless work of breaking 
down and building up that is 
continually proceeding on the 
face of our apparently stable 
world. They must have been originally an undulating surface of sedimentary rock, which by 
the action of weather and water was carried away and spread over the bedrock of the surround- 
ing plain, exposing the great granite dome of which the remaining masses of the Buffalo 
Mountains are the rugged bones. Thus the plains have been raised many feet above their 
original level, and thousands of feet of the granite dome have been worn away, yet so great is its 
resistance to the gnawing tooth of the destroyer that the Buffalo stands still in its conspicuous 
position, proudly rearing its Horn five thousand six hundred and forty-five' feet above sea- level. 




ISy iKimissioi, of] [Th,- .ht''ii'-l,'-H i-'-tl f.tr .V.-if Zmlnii.l . 

THE GR.WITE WALLS OF MILFORD SOUND. 

These massive walls tower -4,500 feet above iKe fjord and reacK a depth of over 
1.000 feet beneath the surface of the water. Long aeo they fornned a ravine for a 
glacier, and even now bear the deep maiks of the ice-teeth. 



3- (Ji 












328 



The Wonders of the World 







THE KISSING STONES. BUFKALO RANGES. 

Nowhere is the process of denudation shown more strikingly than on this ran^e of granite, but i 
tens of thousands of years of exposure to carve out these huge natural monoliths 



lake 



The general surface of the range is remarkable for the abundance of tors and great granite blocks 
that are strewn all over it. Isolated peaks and ridges piled with loose stones and rock masses of 
symmetrical shape are a feature of the landscape. The Horn, which is at the south end of the 
range, is the topmost peak ; from this point the main plateau, though broken by rocky hills, slopes 
downward some thousand feet to the Gorge, which is four thousand two hundred and seventy feet 
above the sea. The Gorge is a prominent feature, and is the result of the development by denudation 
of certain joints in the granite running north-east and south-west. The north side of the Gorge 
exhibits a granite wall eight hundred feet high and half a mile long. 

Buffalo Creek is a still greater achievement standing to the credit of these denuding agencies, 
for in this case a mass of rock three miles long, from half to one mile wide, and of a varying depth 
of anything from twenty to two thousand feet, has been bodily removed to form a sheltered and 
luxuriant valley with a river flowing quietly along its course. The direction of this valley 
corresponds with that of the north-east and south-west system of joints. This jointing of the 
granite has been the principal element in determining the present features of the Buffalo Range.. 
Wherever a smooth, clean surface of hard granite is exposed these joints may be noticed. In their 
first stage the fissures are fine as the scratches of a needle point, but they nevertheless cleave right' 
through the entire granite mass down to its very roots. 

These fine joints are not set in straight lines, but branch in a curious manner, and the whole 
structure of this mountain chain, with its magnificent and varied scenery, its huge tors, monoliths 
and poised blocks, results from their presence. 



Australasia and the Pacific 



329 



These tors are a source of inexhaustible wonder and interest. There is the Monolith, the most 
conspicuous of all the rocks on the range. It is twenty-two feet long, fourteen feet broad, and thirty- 
feet high, and is perched up on end in a seemingly precarious position on a high peak of bare granite. 
The Sentinel stands in a somewhat similar position, seeming to gaze far out over the plains. He 
is about sixty feet high. The Egg Rock is the best example of a poised rock. The base of this well- 
weathered tor, which weighs from seventy to eighty tons, is so small and its balance so delicate, 
that it testifies that for some thousands of years no earthquake can have affected this locahty. Its 
egg-shaped block is poised on the very corner of a square mass of rock about twice its own size, 
and it only touches the supporting rock for a space of about seven feet by a foot, and that at 
an acute angle. The Kissing Stones are two poised rocks that lean together. The larger stone is 
eighteen feet in length and the pillar it stands on is twenty feet high. The Torpedo Ues hke a monster 
at rest, with a little grove of gum-trees sheltering his retreat, and a soft blanket of green vegetation 
to he upon. The girth of this supine monster is forty-six feet, and from tip to toe he measures 
forty-five feet. Mahomet's Coffin, another egg-shaped rock, is suspended by the two ends only, 
among a hurly-burly of piled slabs and boulders. The Sarcophagus stands like the tomb of a hero, 
high up on a granite ridge. 

The Antipodes Isles. — This spot on the far side of the globe must always be for us full of 
possibilities of romance, as it is the exact antithesis of our civihzed homeland. On the vast bosom 
of the South Pacific Ocean lie these little groups of uninhabited islands, the Antipodes Isles, lying. 




/ft fiertms. 



This rri' 
the Bianitr 
toTM will be 



THE TORPEDO. BUFFALO RANGES. 

on&ler stone measures forty-five feet in lenstK. and has a girth ^f forty-six feet. Notice the conspicuous crack in 
lab on which it lies. In aees to come that fissure will cleave the KfAnile mass from top to bottom and other husc* 
n the makins. 



330 



The Wonders of the World 



>;,<^f~.*wviv 




it is said, just over the spot where an enterprising mole, burrowing straight through from Greenwich, 

would probably emerge into the light of the sun ! 

Such rocky islands as have here succeeded in thrusting their heads above the level of the Pacific 

are dotted about in small groups and companies, known under various names. All are desolate 

and dreary, the home only of the albatross and the penguin, whose mournful crying rises above 

the never-ceasing roar of the hungry surf. Some of the larger islands are covered with luxuriant 

vegetation, the gift, no doubt, 
of the sea-birds, while others 
are bare rock. 

Many are the tragic tales 
told of shipwrecked sailors 
who found a haven on one 
or other of these islands only 
to languish in the greatest 
privation for months, or even 
a year or two, before being 
discovered and rescued by 
a passing whaler or some 
sailing vessel. Many must 
have landed here only to 
die a lingering death from 
thirst and exposure. 

Indeed, relics and in- 
scriptions have been found 
relating the most heartrending 
stories of slow torture. 

So authentic are these 
tales, that some years ago 
the New Zealand Government 
decided to establish provision 
depots on each group. They 
caused small wooden shelters 
to be erected in which pro- 
visions are stored, with fuel, 
matches, bedding and clothing. 
About twice a year a Govern- 
ment steamer leaves the main- 
land to visit these depots and 
set them in order, and relieve 
any shipwrecked mariners from 
their weary vigil among the 
sea-birds. Special permission 

can be obtained to go on this trip to the Islands, and anything more romantic, and in its way 

exciting, it would be hard to imagine. These are the last fragments of habitable, if not inhabited^ 

land before the silent spaces of the frozen Antarctic are reached.' 

The Auckland Isles form the largest and most important group. They have a luxuriant growth 

of vegetation and many beautiful flowering plants of great interest to naturalists. Here are found 

both land 

The Campbell group is also very fertile 




BUFFALO 



RANGES. 



liy permission of] 

THE SENTINEL, 

Frost splitting the granite mass, torrential rain washing aw a 
material, and the fury of the hurricane, have sculptured and poised 
to lower sixtv feel upon ihe summit of ihe ranges. 



the 
' the 



loosened 
Sentinel " 



and sea-birds, and it is one of the few breeding-grounds of the albatross. 



The Macquarie Isles belong to Tasmania. Here there 



c 

c 




332 



The Wonders of the World 




Photo hy'\ [JfMi;- tt Mooilif, Dunedin. 

PENGUIN CAVE, BOUNTY ISLE. 

Penguins, gulls, puffins, and even the great white albatross breed here. The penguin, as may be seen from the photograph, 
is the prevailing species. Provided with every good thing and sheltered in these Isles of the Blest, so that they had no 
need to fly. these birds now possess only rudimentary wings. 

was once a station for procuring the oil of the sea-elephant and king penguin. But that has been 
abandoned since the Tasmanian Government interfered to prevent the extermination of these 
creatures. 

The Bounty Islands are a collection of rugged rocks, destitute of all vegetation, and they are 
crowded with sea-birds. These isles are the breeding-place of the " MoUy Mawks," a name given 
in the southern hemisphere to one of the albatrosses (Diomedea melanophrys). These birds lay only 
one egg, white with a few spots ; and their apology for a nest is some small hollow or depression 
in the rock, or a little circle of earth roughly scraped together on the open cliff. The Bounty Islands 
are crowded with these great albatrosses, and with the fussy, important, comical penguins, besides 
the ubiquitous " mutton birds " (Puffinus brevicaudus). The chief breeding home of the mutton 
birds is found on the wild little islands off the south-west coast of Stewart Island. The young 
are a very favourite food of the Maoris. The ungainly young gulls are thickly covered with very 
long down, and are extremely fat. These islets have never been acquired from the natives, who 
preserve the birds on them, and e.xport them at certain seasons in large numbers to New Zealand 
for sale. 

The Wairrungu Geyser. — Evidences of thermal activity are on every hand in the Hot Lake 
district. Tarawera, seared and scarred, with latent fire gnawing at his vitals, rises northward of 
Waimangu. Sulphur and boiling springs are everywhere, and Lake Rotomahana steams with 



Australasia and the Pacific 



33: 



thermal lieat. But it was ten years ago that another phenomenon was added to the wonders oi 
tliis land of gej-sers. An immense column of steam was perceived rising up from a new geyser, 
which, increasing in fur}-, emitted dense volumes of boiling mud and stones. The Maoris gave to 
the new geyser the name of " Waimangu," or " Black Water," and " Black Water " is no unworthy 
addition to the tale of this district's marvels. Its crater is open on one side level with the surrounding 
soil. It extends over a space of two acres and is two hundred and fifty feet in diameter, where the 
adventurous can look down into the gloomy and troubled swirl of black boihng mud. An eruption 
of this geyser has not taken place since 1908, but in the days of its great activity Black Water was 
not quiescent for longer than thirty-six hours. A flat surface on the open side of the crater in a 
continual state of unrest, and named " The Devil's Frying-Pan," is evidence of latent energy : 
and. further, in the same crater is a boiling lake known as Echo Crater Lake, which overflows when 
a fresh eruption of Wai- 
mangu is about to occur. 
These outbursts are mat;- 
nificent spectacles, for the 
volume of mud obtains a 
height of over eleven hun- 
dred feet, and dense clouds 
of white steam roll up- 
wards many thousands of 
feet before they are lost in 
the atmosphere. 

The Caves of Western 
Australia.— T:his series of 
most beautiful and in- 
teresting caves lies in tlie 
limestone cliffs of Western 
Austraha at the extreme 
south-western corner. Cape 
Leeuwin is the first point 
of the great continent of 
the south to greet the eyes 
of the European traveller. 
and between this headland 
and Cape Xatiiraliste, a 
few miles to the north, 
among the rugged ravines 
and wild scenery lying 
behind the tall cliffs that 
front the sea, these won- 
derful caves are to be found 
The journey thither can 1" 
made either from Yallingup 
or Margaret River. 

They belong to that im- 
portant class of ca\-e that r/mio i.n] yi,,, 
has been hollowed out of the waim.^ngu geyser 

C3.1C3.rGOllS rock \'iV tllP The eruptions of Wotntanitu took sometimes the farm ol blacU. boiline mud and 

" sometimes of explosions of ashes, cailh and stones. They attained an immense heifthl, 

action of water. The rain- fiomnimes «» much »« 1.500 fed. 




334 



The Wonders of the World 



water percolates through some vertical fissure and thence threads its way horizontally till it 
escapes somewhere in the side of the cliff or ravine. In the rain-water is a certain percentage of 
carbonic acid, and the rock is composed to a large extent of carbonate of lime, which is readily 
changed to soluble bicarbonate by the action of carbonic acid. Thus the rock is disintegrated 
along the path of the water, and is worn away and away till the tiny runlet grows to a subter- 
ranean stream, and the crack in the rock becomes a series of large caverns and halls. 

The lime released by the action of the carbonic acid and held in suspension in the hurrying water, 
is caught by any sort of projection in its path, and proceeds to build little white pillars and castles 
and bridges of its own. Where the water falls in a miniature cascade the lime is deposited, and hangs 
a fringe of white stone icicles ; and where the water drops slowly upon the rock floor below a white 

boss of pure limestone will 
be formed, growing ever 
larger, till it becomes a 
stout pillar, and possibly 
will eventually join the 
pendant stalactite from 
which the water has been 
dripping. 

Every variety of stalac- 
tite and stalagmite (those 
peaks that grow up from 
the rock floor) are to be 
seen in these caves near 




Yallins 



up. 



In one there 



By pfi-iHission (j/3 



VIEW 



WAIM.\\GU 



is an almost perfect opera- 
box, with lace curtains, 
arm-rest, pillars, and all 
complete. Another vast 
cavern, called the King's 
Council Chamber, is a 
grand sight. It is diffi- 
cult to get sufficient light 
to see the marvellous 
traceries and incrustations 
of white stone, as this 
cave is of enormous size 
and fully one hundred 
feet in height. But one 
sees that stalactities drop from the domed roof like huge crystal chandeliers, while the hangings 
that are draped upon the walls seem as if they stir and waver in the draught, as the lights 
we carry shed their uncertain radiance over them. Great pinnacled seats rise like thrones in 
the midst of this hall, and one can imagine a royal court being held in a scene of such frozen 
splendour. 

Wallcliffe Cave has a very narrow entrance hidden among bushes and ferns. One must creep, 
bent almost double, along a narrow passage for about thirty feet, and then one is rewarded by sight 
of " a circular chamber richly bedecked with gleaming white stalactites, with mammoth bunches of 
grapes, fleecy wefts apparently as soft as lambs' wool, but solid as marble, and — upspringing from the 
floor of the chamber as if greedy to clutch the fruit yet frozen in making the grasp — a monstrous- 
hand several feet long " (M. Vivienne). 



The crater of this vast geyser is about two acres in extent. For some time \\'aimangu ha 
been quiescent, no eruption having taUen place since 1908. 



336 



The Wonders of the World 




flu p-ymissimi i).r| 

THE MILITARY 

A splendid example of th 



ITfie A'jenI -General for W':f!<'rn AustrnUn. 
RUG, YALLINGUP CAVES. 

stone in these 



jewelled draperies that are woven 
subterranean palaces. 



hang above 



it are so faithfully 
white fringe is droopini 



The Warrawerrie, or 
Blackboy Hollow Cave, is 
about two miles south of 
Wallcliffe. From its pit-like 
entrance there is a descent 
of fifteen feet by ladder. 
The ffoor of this cave is a 
mass of worn and rugged 
boulders. In one place is a 
stalagmite in the likeness 
of a broken column, that 
looks as if carved from 
Italian marble of the purest 
white. Gauzy draperies that 
imitate the 'finest law-n hang 
from the walls, and until the 
iiand is laid upon their cold, 
unyielding substance it is 
cilmost impossible to realize 
that they are ■ woven by 
water of stone, instead of in 
tlie looms of the East. 

The Cave known as 
Doodiijup lies about a mile 
trum Blackboy Hollow. Ac- 
cess to this cave is by 
a rather toilsome ascent, but 
once inside the traveller is re- 
warded by the magnificence 
of the spectacle. There are 
columns like the crowding 
pillars of some vast white 
cathedral and pendants that 
look like the pipes of its 
great organ, 

A running stream gives 
its name to the Crystal Cave, 
where the water appears to 
flow through a series of 
marble basins ornamented 
with the most delicate 
reflected in tlie water that it is 
from above or growing up like 



tracery, while the stalactites that 
difficult to discover whether the gleamiu; 
frosted flowers from the depths below. 

In Calgardup Cave, too, the floor is still damp enough to show that it has been the bed of a 
subterranean creek. This hall is fully seventy feet across ; its walls are adorned with stalactites of 
every imaginable shape, and these take on beautiful iridescent colours in the uncertain light. Here 
is that strange formation known as The Pulpit, apparently supported by the flimsiest of marble 
chains. Here " is the gem of all the caves, the suspended dome, the delicate tracery of whose 



Australasia and the Pacific 



337 



splendid and fantastic fretwork hangs in mid-air held by almost gossamer crystalline threads," 
says M. \'ivienne. who has written a picturesque and enthusiastic description of all these 
caves. 

And the accompanying pictures will demonstrate more clearly than words can do the infinite 
variety of this beautiful form of Nature's artistry. 

Wairakei. — The Wairakei Valley is one of the three great wonder- valleys of thermal-land, 
and lying near the banks of the Waikato. This valley of gej'sers, with its wooded slopes of 
manuka forest, tangled vines and fern-groves, leads through ever-changing scenes of gorgeous 
colouring. Flashing streams and rapids, banks of pink and white, red and yellow silica are 
framed with luxuriant fern and soft moss, and at intervals in the valley the mar\-ellous geysers 
shoot from their rocky beds and play their steam-fountains, disappearing only to reappear 
again with fascinating re- 
gularity. 

The pool, known by the 
two names. " The Champagne 
Pool," or " Pirorirori," which 
is a Maori name signify- 
ing the " Ever-swirling," 
is a boiling cauldron of 
deep blue-green waters, set 
within an oval lake with 
precipitous banks, one side 
of which is covered by 
vegetation, the other varie- 
gated with stripes of the 
coloured clays in which the 
neighbourhood abounds. One 
side of the lake opens into 
an active volcanic area, and 
it is within a circle near 
the shore that the boiling 
pool swirls in its lake setting. 

The beautiful colour of 
the pool is attributed to 
the clay which is held in 
suspension in its active crater- 
basin, the overflow of which 
forms a hot stream known as 
Kiriohinekai. 

The beautiful geyser of 
the Dragon's Mouth is one 
of the most energetic of the 
Wairakei Valley. It is a 
fissure opening from a chasm 
about thirty feet above the 
level of the creek, through 

which the water comes /iv /"■-"„«,..„..' , ^l•w .i,j.;„;,.;..r.,/ ,'.■,■»,•„.,„ A«..,,^h„ 

boiling up about every nine ^"^ broken column, blackbov hollow cave 

, , . . .- I StalttKmitc and Btoloctile have here wrjught Blender fluted columns that the ■killed 

mmUteS, thrOWmg beautiful .culp.or o( Anc.em Greece mi.ht have carved oul o( l.ullle.. Parian marble. 

23 




338 



The Wonders of the World 



feather-like fountains into the air which last aboutT^ten seconds and then disappear. The 
eruptions reach to a height of about ten feet above the cone, then fall into a series of small 
cascades. The soil around, contrasted with dark manuka, is in bright reds, and at the base 
of the geyser is a small boihng pool that circles in a round basin about four feet in diameter. 
The pool is of an exquisite blue, its surface rippled with coloured bubbles. The colour-scheme is 
enhanced by the pink coral-like sinter of the lower portion of the terrace, which above is in many 

shades of browns and reds, black 
and white. 

Lake Manapouri. — Lake Mana- 
pouri is one of the most en- 
chanting and the deepest of the 
New Zealand lakes of the South 
Island. Its old Maori name of 
Motu-rau — the Lake of a Hundred 
Islands — is very appropriate, for 
it is dotted with innumerable 
islets. The area of the lake is 
estimated at fifty square miles, 
and its depth at two hundred 
and fifty fathoms at its deepest 
portion. It is twenty miles in 
length and opens into two long 
arms — the South Arm and the 
Western Arm — and is surrounded 
on all sides by magnificent moun- 
tains, forest-clad and snow-crowned, 
as are all the mountains of this 
coast. The liead of the lake is 
exceedingly beautiful, and the 
Alpine scenery superb. The vast 
mountains tower skyward six and 
seven thousand feet above the 
sea, and for three hundred feet 
tlie mountain-birch, fern-trees and 
rata cover the slopes with dense 
vegetation, while the islets in 
the lake are bowers of green. 
The northern shore gives a wide 
view of towering mountains with 
glittering glaciers, from which 
tumble white waterfalls into deep 
ravines. The Matterhorn Range 
and the Cathedral Peaks dominate 
the blue water-scape with their silver domes and pinnacles. The arms of the lake narrow, 
and with their towering cliffs resemble the fjords of the west coast. The Western Arm is 
particularly beautiful, with deep indents, cove and cape beyond cove and cape, all exquisitely 
wooded. But the whole lake is a combination of lovely scenes and colours ; far as the eye 
can reach the blue waters are set in a faultless frame of splendour, which as yet is unmarred 
by the habitations of man. 




Jty perinission "/] [Tfie Aiji'itl-Genernl /or IlVi/fWi AJfstrnlia. 

BLACKBOY HOLLOW CAVE. WESTERN AUSTRALIA. 

Stalactites of two different mineral substances aie to be seen in this cave. 
Tbe rain peicolating through the rock has cariied ^vith it besides the lime 
another deposit that (he rock contains, which has remained in the stalactites 
and has caused the change of colour. 



o- 



40 



The Wonders of the World 



Lake Rotomahana. — The 
"Warm Lake" Rotomahana, 
upon whose banks rested the 
exquisite sinter terraces of pink 
and white till the convulsion of 
]\Iount Tarawera, is the site of 
an old crater, the basin of which 
was one of the best-known 
beautiful sheets of water of 
the district as the approach to 
the world-famed terraces, these 
gleaming sinter deposits adding 
to the interests of its rush-girt 
shores. But on the night of 
the great eruption of Tarawera 
the original Rotomahana was 
blown completely from its bed, 
and scattered far and wide in 
mud and steam with the dust- 
fragments of the marvels of its 
shores. What had been a scene 
I if unique natural beauty was a 
desolation of strange sights and 
sounds. The bed of the lake 
over its whole area was covered 
with hideous mud-fountains 
and fumaroles that sent up 
great volumes of dense white 
steam. The steep sides of this 
ghastly cauldron were covered 
in ash, and the surrounding 
hills deeply fissured ; from these 
cracks in the rocks innumerable 
steam jets emitted a mighty 
roar. And, above, Tarawera 
was rent in twain. 

Around Rotomahana the ground had everywhere testified to the vigorous hydrothermal activity 
of centuries. Thomas says : " There can be little doubt that at moderate depths from the surface 
the rocks were [before the eruption] saturated with water at a temperature far above its ordinary 
boiling-point, and that this water was simply kept from flashing into steam by the pressure of the 
overlaying rock. If that pressure could have been relieved by the surface layers of the ground 
the superheated water would have been explosively converted into steam. There were present, 
therefore, around Rotomahana all the conditions requisite for a hydrothermal explosion except 
the relief of the pressure due to overlying rocks. The formation of the fissure during the eruption 
supplied the last necessary condition, and the result was therefore the stupendous hydrothermal 
explosion of 1886." Six months later the new lake had risen to half the size of the original. 
The old outlets had been blocked, and the waters pouring into it have extended its area to thirty 
times its original space ; for whereas the original lake covered one hundred and eighty-five acres, 
the present lake covers five thousand six hundred acres. 




I jm-misxicn n/] [7A,- .hj,\ 

THE CHAMPAGNE POOL. WAIRAKEI. 

This boiling lakelet lakes its name from its beautiful colour, which is attributed 
to the clay held in suspension by the bubbling waters. 



Australasia and the Pacific 



-511 



34 



But Rotomahana is not hot over the whole surface. Long reaches are cold, others warm, but 
over the site of the geysers that throb like engines at the crater-bed of the lake the water is boiling, 
and boiling springs break through where the waters are shallow. The cliffs of the lake steam with 
geysers, and the roar of the fumaroles is indescribable as the traveller approaches their vicinity ; 
while added to the enchantment of the richly-coloured scene are the gorgeously -coloured pictures 
painted on the rocks by the pigments of volcanic fires. 

Mount TursL'wera.. — Mount Tarawera, one of the volcanic cones of the great ranges of the 
Xorth Island of New Zealand, cuts through the heart of the thermal district, and is situated on the 
eastern shore of the lake of the same name. The highest part of the mountain, before its eruption 
in i8S6, was three thousand six hundred and six feet above the sea-level, and seen at a distance its 
top had a flat appearance without sign of a crater. The oldest traditions had no data concerning a 
past activity, and its forest-clad sides testified that for ages the volcano had been extinct. Scientists 
are agreed that Tarawera, previous to its recent outbreak, had been dormant since before the Maoris 
inhabited New Zealand. 

The whole great Taupo chain includes in its line many magnificent mountains, among which 
are Edgecombe, Kakaramea. Paeroa. Tongariro, Xgauruhoe. and Ruapehu (nine thousand 
feet high), that dominate the table-land of the solfatara country for at least one hundred 




By penniiiion of] 



;n. .\.j-ui.':.i., ' r /■■:■ y-n z.-.ia....( 



THE DRAGON'S MOUTH. WAIRAKEI. 



Thi« ecyser ia renowned (or its wonderful colourinet. The boiline sprinc. ai it bubble! up. flows over coral-like sinter 

steppes into a p3ol of exquisite blue 



o 



42 



The Wonders of the World 



and fifty miles. The plateau-like Tarawera is monarch of a mar\-ellous region, no less amazing 
than'beautiful. 

The Maoris gave different native names to Tarawera. The name of the North range signified 
" bursting open." the South, " the burst cliff." which is all the more noticeable as there had been 
no bursting open within memory. The mountain was sacred as a burial ground of chiefs, and for 
long its ascent by the white man was opposed by the natives. 

Many signs of disturbance preceded the eruption, although no very special significance was 
attached to these disturbances. Cauldrons and geysers in the locality had been unusually active 
for some time previously ; lakes suddenly rose, and in a crater-lake some miles distant the water 
entirely disappeared, leaving the crater dry. All through the year preceding the outburst there 
had been premonitions that something more than of usual force was happening in the subterranean 
world. The mighty explosion of June loth. 1886. was so little expected that the inhabitants of 



I 




By pfrniiiiion of\ 



\Tlii' Atjeiil-Gt'neral fur Srtc Zealand, 



LAKE MANAPOURI 



The melancholy beauty of this lake, with its thickly wooded islands and sloping shores, and the snow-clad summits of the 
Cathedral Peaks, rising to the north, has given it its name — Manapouri, "Lake of Sorrowing Heart." 

the surrounding towns and villages, both native and European, were peacefully sleeping when 
they were awakened by the first earthquake shocks. 

At Wairoa, eight miles from Tarawera. the sight was as magnificent as it was appalling ; so also 
was it at Rotoraa, fourteen miles distant. Within an hour from the first sHght earthquakes and 
rumblings the shocks had become frequent and violent, and the roar of the exploding craters deafen- 
ing and awful. Each report rattled the windows of the houses in Auckland, one hundred and 
fifty miles off, where flashes of electricity were vividly seen. The explosions were heard at 
WeUington, two hundred and twenty-eight miles away, and even as far as Christchurch in the 
south, four hundred and twenty miles distant. Dense clouds of smoke and vapour, outlined 
by electricity, rose six miles high into the sky, and spread out over the erupting mountain 
hke a huge umbrella, which opened wider and wider, till a vast area was covered. From the 
main column of fire leaping from tlie furnace, fire-balls rolled downward into the lake, while along 



; 2 









73 

o 

-1 
o 



I 
> 

Z 
> 




344 



The Wonders of the World 




l:ij p.Tnn [Thi- A,jri,l-t;,'ii,-rnl fvr Srir Zrnlniul. 

MOUNT TARAWERA 

This photograph shows the immense rifts in the side of the mountain caused by the eruption of 1886. when Tarawera 
awoke from a sleep of ag^s. At the base of the mountain is Lalte Rotomahana. 

the top of the range volcanic fires burst forth till the whole nine miles of mountain ridge burned 
eruptive altars. 

By six o'clock in the morning the great destruction was over, although the eruption, with hourly 
abating energy, continued for some days, and rumblings were heard from the mountain and occa- 
sional stones were ejected from the steaming craters all along the range. When first the summit of 
Tarawera was seen through the columns of vapour, it was found to be higher than previously, its 
flat top raised in the middle, and the whole range rent with huge fissures, the series of vents extending 
nine miles, the depth of the craters varying from three hundred feet to eight hundred feet, and in 
width from one hundred and fifty yards to three hundred yards. The Tarawera Chasm is a 
mile and a quarter in length, from the edge of the plateau down the side of the mountain to its 
foot. 

The forests had disappeared from the slopes, and tlie lovely colour of Lake Tarawera was 
destroyed. But industrious Nature has been busy during the twenty-five years that have 
elapsed since the eruption, setting the country in order in the region of Tarawera, getting 
vegetation through the mud-flats, covering ugly gashes with a luxuriant tangle of vines and 
ferns, reorganizing streams and refilling lakes, and calling back the birds and fish and flowers. 
But the witch-dance of the countless steam fountains and bubbling cauldrons has been more 
active since that fiend-night of 1886. 



AFRICA. 

CHAPTER XII. 
By SIR HARRY JOHXSTON, G.C.M.G. 

The Pyiramids of Giza. — It has been already pointed out in the prefatory chapter to this 
work that the Pyramids of Egypt were foremost in the list of the Seven Wonders of the World in 
the minds of intelligent Romans and Greeks at the beginning of the Christian Era. These colossal 
tombs had first been described intelligently to the European world by Herodotus, the Greek traveller 
and historian, who was born as a Persian subject on the Greek-colonized coast of Asia Minor, and 
who made a long stay in Egypt, probably between 460 and 454 B.C. His name for these four-sided 
erections, the triangular sides of which converge from a square basis to a sharp apex, at an angle 
of about fifty degrees, was Pyramis, probably derived from an Egyptian term, Piremiis, meaning 
a vertical height. The plural of this term in Greek was Pyramides, from which the English term, 
Pj-ramid, was derived, and was, according to Skeat's Dictionary, in use by English writers as early 
as the beginning of the seventeenth centurj'. An older form of the Egyptian root seems to have 
been Ab-mer. 

By those whose knowledge of Egypt is merely vague, it is imagined that there are pyramids 
all over Egypt, from Alexandria to the vicinity of Khartum, and also that pyramids are amongst 




rhi'ln 111,-] [lioiyfilt. 

THE PYRAMIDS OF GIZA, 

\^ ithin sikKi of Cairo, at Gi2a. ihric arr the tt.lrc Pvramids of Khufu or Cheops, his brother Khcfrcn, and Myccrinua. 
second, third and fourth Uini; respectively of the Fourth Dvnostv, who reiencd from about 3733 to somewhercl about 

3600 B.C. 



346 



The Wonders of the World 



the oldest monuments of Egypt and are peculiar to that country. As a matter of fact, the earliest 
of the true Pyramids (namely, a four-sided stone building rising from a square base to a sharp 
apex), is probably not older than the time of the Fourth Dynasty, some six thousand eight hundred 
years ago ; and the beginning of Egyptian civilization may be five thousand years farther back still. 
The true Pyramids, moreover, are almost entirely restricted in their distribution to the northern- 
most part of Middle Egypt, on or near the left bank of the Nile, just above the Delta, not far from 
Cairo. The small and late-built pyramids farther south in Nubia (Meroe) are poor imitations of 
the colossal achievements erected by the kings of the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, Eighth, Eleventh 
and Twelfth Dynasties, a period ranging {according to Petrie), from about six thousand eight 
hundred and fifty to six thousand two hundred years ago.* 

The Pyramids in their perfect form — with a square base and smooth sides — seem to have been 




[/;.>..//,<. 



IHE PYRAMIDS FROM BEHIND THE PALMS. 



It is generally acknowledged now that the Pyramids were nothing more than the tombs of the monaichs of Egypt who 
flourished from the First to the Twelfth Dynasty. The king made his "eternal abode" in his lifetime, and Lepsius. a lead- 
ing savant, is of the opinion that he made additions to it each year. 

almost suddenly evolved by the imagination of a great king or architect from the humbler and much 
smaller Masiaba, or stone tomb, in which, on the original flat surface or slab which roofed in the 
stone grave of a dead person, smaller slabs of masonry were placed. The increase in number of 
these oblong slabs gradually raised the roof of the tomb into a series of steps, and it only needed 
to place a single stone on the apex to have a roughly shaped pyramid such as grew to a marked 
•development in the step pyramids of Sakkara, which will be illustrated farther on in this book. 
The change of the tomb shape from an oblong into a square and the filling up of the " steps " with 
smooth masonry completed the idea of the true pyramid. 

* These figures are according lo the latest published statistics (1906) of Professor Flinders Petrie. Other computations, 
however, as to the age of the Pyramids by other Egyptologists fi.'c their period as being much less remote in time — roughly 
speaking, five thousand years ago. The Sphinx is more or less contemporaneous with the Great Pyramid of Giza : say, six 
.thousand eight hundred years old. 




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^ 



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nt-BBPivr 




348 



The Wonders of the World 




I'linin ;.)/] [.V. r. i.ditards. 

THE GREAT P^■RAM1D, 

This is the "eternal resting-place" of Khufu. The name he gave to it was Kh'lt, which' may be translated as "the Lights." 

Very early in the development history of man, especially of the white, or Caucasian, variety of 
man, arose the idea of burjdng a dead person in a stone chamber, for the principal reason that the 
body was thus protected from destruction by hyenas, dogs, or vultures. The ancient negroid 
people that once inhabited the northern shores of the Mediterranean — it may be, as far back as 
thirty or forty thousand years ago — were thus protected in little stone chambers, made 
usually by hollowing a place in the rock or ground, completing the walls of the burial-place with 
pieces of stone, and laying other pieces over the top. Gradually, the desire to prevent hyenas 
from dislodging separate fragments of stone induced the relatives of the deceased to apply large 
single slabs of stone. In this way grew up the Dolmen, which is found so widely distributed as a 
prehistoric monument over Europe, North Africa and Asia. Stone graves are unknown amongst 
tnie negro races that have not been subjected at one time or another to the white man's influence, 
and wherever they are met with south of the Sahara Desert they are an evidence that that influence 
has reached the negro in ancient or modern times. 

In Berber North Africa a form of tomb analogous to yet different fiom the pyramid was 
invented. Here (in Algeria) the grave of important personages at the beginning of the historical 
period was often of a circular shape, possibly arising from the form of the hut or house ; for the 
idea of burying a person in the home in which they have dwelt when alive was not an uncommon 
one. Over the top of this circular grave was a round masonry roof, on which again a smaller circle 
of stones was placed, and this developed into the " circular " pyramids — step circles of stones 
rising to an apex — whicli became the tombs of famous Berber kings, and which may be seen to this 
day in various parts of Algeria. 

The idea of the pyramid was not confined, however, to Egypt, but arose — no doubt, quite 



(Africa 



349 



independently — in the early civilizations of Greece, Italy, Assyria, India, China, and even Mexico 
and Central America. In all these cases, but especially in Egypt, the pyramid was never a family 
monument but the tomb of one person, or occasionally of husband and wife. For instance, the 
Great Pyramid ofGiza — King Khufu's tomb — has lesser pyramids alongside, which were the tombs 
of other members of the royal family ; though it is possible that besides the remains of King Khufu 
it may also have contained the sarcophagus of his queen. 

As may be seen in one of the photographs, the outer surface of these typical pyramids was of 
smooth mortared masonry, a casing of fine stone, elaborately finished, well jointed and sharp- 
edged at each of the four angles. Had this outer stone casing been left undisturbed by man, it 
is doubtful whether in the climate of Egypt the Pyramids would have looked much out of repair 
at the present day, after nearly six thousand years of existence, and it would have been extremely 
difficult, if not impossible, to ascend them to the apex. But from the time when Egypt began to be 
invaded by " barbarians " from 500 B.C. onwards- — especially during the long and devastating 
reign of the Arabs and Turks- — attempts were made to effect an entrance into the Pyramids to 
discover their secrets and, above all, to search for hidden treasure. The outer casing of well- 
constructed masonry was hacked away, and the rougher interior structure exposed to view. This 
is, in the best-made pyramids, composed of horizontal layers of rough-hewn blocks of stone, with 
or without mortar, but in the later pyramids of the Fifth and Sixth Dynasties the mass of the 



M 




Photo hy-] 



[!>.>u-< 



THE BASE OF THE GREAT PYRAMID. 



Tne Pyramid ia built of nummulilic limestone broUKhl from the quarries of Tu ra onci MoBura, on the 
the Nile. The outer casing was of granite and limestone blocl<R, bul only, below the level of the k round 
traces of this now. 



.. /.>/. 



other side of 
are there any 




ONE CORNER OF THE GREAT PYRAMID. 



IJlmi/ils. 



vr million cubic («,. ' ''"'"' °' "''' ^"'= '= '" '"'■ ^^''' ''"= -li^ "n.ents i. eighty- 



Th 

H 



Africa 



351 




vf^ ^ 







A^- 



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.^iS 



tf^' 



'Jl'^r.^^^', 



■^azk 



structure is little else than loose rubble and mud, and at a still later period the bulk of each pyramid 
was composed of mud bricks, but, of course, the outer surface and the walls of the chambers and 
passages were of good masonry. 

The actual tomb or sepulchral chamber where the body of the monarch or personage was placed 
was nearly always below the level of the ground, and was reached by a descending passage, which 
either opened on the north face of the pyramid* or farther away still emerged from the rocky sides 
of the ground on which the pyramid was erected. These passages sloped downwards from the 
entrance to the central tomb at an angle of about twenty-six degrees. Their outermost entrance 
appears to have been closed by a stone door turning on a pivot. Other passages would branch 
off from the main one 
which led to the tomb 
and communicate with out- 
or more large chambers 
in the middle of the pyra- 
mid, far above the tomb. 
Not infrequently, however, 
such subsidiary passages 
were found to be blocked 
or concealed, either for 
a temporary purpose or 
with the intention of per- 
petuity. The roofs or 
ceilings of these chambers 
were of horizontally-placed 
stones, above which were 
gables of great sloping 
stones converging from 
the north and south walls 
and meeting to form the 
ridge of the roof. In 
the King's Chamber of 
the great Giza Pyramid 
several ceilings of horizon- 
tal stones partially filled 
up the great space between 
the lofty gables. 

It is possible that in 
the great Giza Pyramid 
of Khufu, or Cheops, it 
may have been intended 
to place, not only the body of the King himself, but that of his co-regent or partner in the govern- 
ment, or even of his queen. The lowest central chamber or tomb seems, however, never to have 
been finished, but there is a tradition that a sarcophagus was found in the smaller and second of the 
two highly-finished chambers above the central tomb, that which is known as the Queen's Chamber. 
The King's Chamber, together with the smaller second chamber, was almost exactly in the centre 
of the pyramid, taking the tomb below the surface of the ground to be the bottom. From the 
entrance on the north face of the pyramid at the point where the masonry surface detached itself 
from contact with the natural rock or rubble which is now the base, the passage led downwards 

* The I'yramiils were so placed in llieir construction lli.-it tlieir .sides f.ice:I north, east, south and west. 




> .il*. 



V 



>^ 



Looking down ttie soulli-wcsl 
The crcat hcieht can be sauged 
centre distance, 



corner o( the Great 
from the size of th' 



[I'nthrtcoo.i ,(■ ir,ut,-nco d. 

Pyramid on to the desert below. 
: camel which is standini; in the 



352 



The Wonders of the World 



to a point where the actual base of the pyramid was reached (as distinct from the perpendicular 
plinth of its underground sides). Here it divided into two, the descending portion continuing till 
the central tomb was reached at the very bottom of the whole stmcture. while the ascending shaft 
led to the King's and Queen's Chambers in the heart of the pyramid, giving off, however, midway, 
a horizontal passage leading to a single small chamber, the purpose of which is not very clear. 
From where this horizontal passage to the third chamber leaves the ascending passage, there is 
the trace of an abruptly descending shaft (possibly the work of treasure-seekers), which also com- 
municated with the entrance to the bottom tomb. 

The stones of which the Great Pj'ramid was built, according to Herodotus, were quarried in the 
Arabian Mountains, by which he may have meant Sinai, or even the Nubian Alps, near Suez. No 
stone was less than thirty feet long. The stones^were conveyed to barges on the Nile and thus were 
carried up the Nile to Giza. From the banks of the river they were dragged — no doubt over rollers 
of palm trunks — along a specially constructedroad si.xty feet broad, three-quarters of a mile long, 

and deeply cut into the 
rock. The road was paved 
with smooth stone, and its 
rocky sides were carved 
with figures. It took ten 
vears to construct, after 
which another twenty years 
were devoted to the build- 
ing of Khufu's Pyramid. 
When complete, the Great 
P\-ramid was, according to 
Herodotus, eight plethra 
square, equivalent to eight 
hundred and eight English 
square feet, and the height 
was also about eight hun- 
dred English feet. But 
these measurements were 
authoritatively corrected, 
firstly, by the members of 
the French scientific mis- 
sion to Egypt taken out by 
Napoleon Bonaparte, and 
at later dates by Colonel 
Howard Vyse, Sir Henry 
James and Professor Piazzi 
Smyth. According to the 
last named authority 
I who conceived exaggerated 
ideas about the pyramids, 
and attributed to the 
builders of these structures 
Photo hy\ n.^nfiu. mystic intentions which 

IHE ENTRANCE TO THE GREAT PYRAMID, they probably did not 

The entrance, is on .he north (ace abou. forty-five fee. from .he^.ound. Af.er posseSS), Cach of the four 

entering a descent is made down a passage 5 1\) tcet lor.g, so straight that the skv can 
te seen even ot the extreme end; this leads eventually to the subterranean chamber. SlCleS 01 thC baSC is SCVen 




Africa 



353 



hundred and sixty-three feet long (excluding decimals), and the total height, four hundred and 
eighty-six English feet. The area covered by the base of the pyramid is equivalent to thirteen 
acres, and until the erection of the Eiffel Tower and the great houses and offices of the United 
States, Khufu's Pyramid was the tallest building in the world. As it is, if it were set down in the 
middle of modern New York, it would look almost humble, though it is one hundred and fifty feet 
loftier than St. Paul's. According to tradition, its building required the labour of one hundred 
thousand men. and the value and maintenance expenses of these men (regarded as slaves and paid 
servants), who attended to the quarrying of the stone, the transporting of it by land and river 
to the scene of operations, and the ultimate building of the pyramid, was once computed by 
Professor T. H. Lewis as being equivalent to a capitalized value of eight million five hundred 
thousand pounds. The implements by which the stones were quarried and cut into shape were 
drills, picks, wedges and copper saws, these last said by earlier Egyptologists to have been 
furnished with jewelled points of corundum or diamond : but later research does not confirm this. 
The long copper saws were probabl\- only fed with emer\- powder. Limestone was chiefly quarried 
with picks and adzes of copper. The early drills were pointed with flint or corundum. 

As to the king who, ac- 
cording to Herodotus, built 
the Great Pyramid, his 
native Egyptian name was 
Khujii, a word which in 
later times was pronounced 
Khi'iuf. This was corrupted 
in later Egyptian and Greek 
forms into Kheop, or 
Khembi, and was further 
changed by the Greek 
writers on Egypt to Cheops 
and Suphis. [It is perhaps 
needless to remark that the 
principal Greek name is not 
pronounced like the English 
word " chop." The Greek \ 
was a strong aspirate like a 
German " ch."] 

Khufu in tradition was 
a harsh monarch, though he 
succeeded in reigning over 
the people of Middle Egypt 
for about fifty years. He 
had a contempt for the 
accepted forms of religion. 
closed the temples and 
abolished the sacrifices to 
tlie numerous gods and god- 
desses. He was probably a 
great reformer, enthusiastic 
for public works, but being 
very egotistic, thought that 
the noblest public work on 




t'l-oni Slfreo (upyriijlit] 
Looking down th< 



passaitc leadinR lo Khufu'a sepulchre witKin the 
Grcnt Pyramid. 



24 



354 



The Wonders of the World 



which he could compel his subjects to labour would be a tomb for himself which might outlast 
all time. It is said that he became so straitened for funds to meet the expenses of this colossal 
undertaking that he sold the favours of his daughter Hentsen to the nonveaitx riches of his day : 
no doubt an exaggerated description transmitted by one writer to another of something like the 
modern bazaar in which, in the sacred cause of charity, a lady will consent to kiss a cigar or 
bouquet, or even possibly the purchaser thereof, in return for a good sum in hard cash. Khufu's 
daughter, apparently, not only by some such means raised funds for her father's pyramid 
building, but also built for herself in addition a small pyramid out of the stones given to her by 
her friends as love-offerings. Khufu was succeeded by Khafra who built the second lai'gest of the 
Giza Pyramids. 

Professor Flinders Petrie, Mr. J. H. Breasted and Dr. F. Llewellyn Gritfith all suggest that 

Khufu may have been a 
great reformer, who at- 
tempted to sweep away 
much time-wasting nonsense 
connected with the religion 
of Egypt at that period. 
He seems to have fa\'oured 
the study of medicine and 
to have had very marked 
artistic tastes. He was born 
in Middle Egypt, near Beni 
Hasan, was the founder of 
the Fourth Dynasty, and 
made such an impression on 
the history of his country 
that he and his successor 
Khafra were commemorated 
in funeral ceremonies almost 
to the end of the real Egyp- 
tian dynasties — that is to 
say, for a period of some- 
thing like three thousand 
five hundred years. 

The Great Pyramid of 

Giza, as has already been stated, was built by Khufu, the first King of the Fourth 
Dynasty. The Second Pyramid was raised by his successor and (?) brother, Khaf-ra or 
Khaf-re,* who reigned traditionally for fifty-six years, and who may have been quite 
possibly not the brother but the nephew or sister's son of Khufu. Khaf-ra was possibly 
succeeded by Dadef-ra, but this personage may have been a co-regent or coadjutor either 
of Khufu or of Khaf-ra. The eventual successor of Khaf-ra, at any rate, was one of his 
sons — Men-kau-ra. Men-kau-ra (whose name was corrupted into Men^eres, or Mykerinosj by the 
Greeks) built the Third of the three Giza Pyramids. By accident or design, the Second Pyramid, 
attributed to I\haf-ra, was a little smaller than the Great Pyramid of Khufu, and only reached 
to a height of four hundred and forty-three feet, instead of four hundred and seventy-six feet. 

* The -ra or -;v in all these names mean the Sun or Sun-God. 

t Eg)-ptian n.ames— changing as the Egyptian dialect and pronunciation changed — were first niisrendered in Greek (and in 
early Greek y =; u in transcribing foreign names), and then further transmogrified by spelling the Greek in Latin letters. 
Thus Menyeres is also spelt Mencheres, Mykerinos, Mycerinus, etc. 




From Stereo eapyririhl'] [CiidcricmiJ ,( rml,riri;„l. 

The sarcophagus of Khufu in the sepulchre chamber of the Great Pyramid of Giza. 
It is supposed that this sarcophagus was broken into by treasure-seekers, no doubt 
during the twelve hundred years of [Vluhammadan misrule in Egypt. 




5 ; 



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356 



The Wonders of the World 




ritoto bif} 



[/i.iuHls. 



The Second Pyramid of Giza, that of fving Khaf-ra or Khaf-re (Chephren). 



And the Third Pyramid of Men-kau-ra was considerably lower, for it rose to no more than two 
hundred and sixteen feet. Over about three-fourths of its surface, from the ground upwards, it was 
faced with red granite from Assouan on the verge of Lower Nubia, and for the remaining quarter 
up to the apex with local limestone. But while the Third Pyramid was being constructed, Men- 
kau-ra became heir to the monarchy owing to the death of intervening brothers ; and when he 
succeeded his father, it was decided to change the proportions of his Pyramid and render it more 
worthy of him as a sovereign. He decided not to make his tomb in the upper part of the Pyramid's 
interior, but constructed a passage descending downwards from the second chamber into a secret 
crypt. This was given granite walls and an arched or circular roof. Here was placed his 
sarcophagus, which was constructed from a single block of pohshed basalt, bluish-black in colour, 
and carved in the form of a house or small temple, with three doors and three window openings. 
The mummy-case was of cedar wood and shaped in the form of a human body with a head. 

When the Third Pyramid of Giza was opened by General Howard Vyse in the thirties of the 
nineteenth century, it was found that its interior chambers had already been ransacked ; but he 
discovered the blue-black sarcophagus already mentioned, the mummy-case bearing the name of 
Men-kau-ra, and a mummy, which, however, was not thought to be that of the king. Both the 
mummy and the mummy-case are now in the British Museum, but the beautiful basalt sarcophagus 
was lost at sea on its way to England. 

The Sphinx.- — Next to the Pyramids as a wonder of the world in Egypt ranks the Sphinx. 
This colossal figure of a man-lion has a face of somewhat Ethiopian outline, and a style of hair- 
dressing similar to that in vogue among Gala, Somali and Nubian women at the present day. 



Africa 



357 



But in spite of this feminine style of wearing the hair (not, after all, very unlike the male coiffure of 
the Hamitic tribes of the Red Sea coast), this earliest of the Sphinxes was certainly male in sex, 
for according to historical records it possessed a beard until, a few centuries ago, this stone appendage 
to the chin crumbled away, as also did the helmet that surmounted the head. The Great Sphinx 
was called " Hu " by the Egj-ptians of later times, and may have represented the Egj'ptian god 
Har-em-akhu (Greek, HarmaYis), or " Horos-on-the-Horizon." Har (Horos) was the son of 
Hesiri (Osiris) and of Hes (Isis), and was regarded as having avenged his father, who had been 
destroyed by the bad deity, Set. Har, in Upper Egypt, fused into the later god Amon-ra. and 
was also sometimes identified with the Moon-god Khonsu, and was manifested in other forms and 
developments. 

The colossal figure of the Sphinx rises about sixty-five feet from the angle between the upright 
torso and the prone colossal lion-paws. It is supposed to be about one hundred and eighty-eight 
feet in length, and has been hewn out of a natural prominence in the solid rock, defects or gaps in 
which have been partially filled in by masonry, while the legs have obviously been added and built 
in this way. Recent excavations indicate that this monster may have presided over a temple or 
shrine between its front paws. 

The date of the construction of this remarkable monument is still unknown. It is supposed 
to have preceded in time the earliest of the Pyramids of Giza. A guess at its age is sometimes 
made — 3800 B.C. (say, five thousand seven hundred years ago). Relatively early in its history. 
however, it tended to be buried by the desert sands, and it was a pious work on the part of the 
Egyptian monarchs of the later dynasties — passionately anxious to link on their time with the 
great days of early Egypt — to have the sand round the Sphinx cleared away. It is probable that 




I'hilo bu ii.rmusioH ../] {Mnj.-C'n. J. ttnlfrru'Ut/: 

The Great <nnd oldest) Pyramid of Giza. built for Kin« KKufu 'Cheops'; also the Great Sphinx; and in the foreground 

the 'eranite temple wronely styled the "Temple of the Sphinx." 



58 



The Wonders of the World 



in the present awakening of Egypt tins work of clearing out tlie sand from all approaches to the 
Sphinx may be completed and something of the mystery surrounding this prehistoric monument 
be removed. 

In the middle of the back of the Sphinx is an old tomb sliaft. which (Professor Flinders Petrie 
thinks) was made in the original rock before the Sphinx itself was carved out of some suggestive 
headland ; for it is quite possible that the idea of the Sphinx arose from one of those extraordinary, 
but accidental, resemblances to faces which may be seen in rocky promontories. In one of his 
works (" A History of Egypt ") Petrie suggests that the Sphinx temple may be about coeval with 
the reign of Khufu and the building of the Great Pyramids, while other evidence and traditions 

associate it with the reign of his successor, 
Khaf-ra. The granite temple, often mis- 
named " The Temple of the Sphinx," has 
really nothing to do with that monument, 
though it is possibly of the same age. 

After the glories and achievements of 
the wonderful IVth Dynasty came a period 
of se\-eral hundred years, in which various 
dynasties rose and fell and left as their 
monuments nothing so remarkable as the 
Sphinx and the Pyramids of Giza on the 
one hand, or the great temples of Karnak 
on the other. Monarchs like the celebrated 
Pepi of the \Tth Dynasty, who li\-ed about 
J2O0 B.C.. erected a pyramid at Sakkara 
and the Red Sphinx of Tanis. now in the 
Louvre at Paris, the face of which is sup- 
posed to be a portrait of Pepi ; and there 
was also in that dynasty the celebrated 
Queen Nitokris (Nit-aqert). commemo- 
rated in several monuments. It has been 
suggested that Queen Xit<jkris took pos- 
session of Men-kau-ra's tomb in the Third 
Pyramid, putting that king's sarcophagus 
in a lower vault. The name " Nit- 
aqert " is supposed to have meant " rosy- 
cheeked." and according to Greek legends, 
" Nitokris " (" Rhodopis") was a courte- 
san or dancing girl, who was the original 




Cinderella of fairy stories. It was said 



Photo hi} pfrmiision o_r} [.Unj.-ar„. J. W'al.rlious,-. 

THE -TEMPLE OF THE SPHINX." 

This mortuary temple, now below the surface of the soil and built 
of granite, is. as near as we can judge, as old &s the Sphinx himself, but 
has no connection with that monument, 

that when she was bathing in the river an eagle stole one of her little gilt sandals, and, flying 
away, let it fall into the lap of the King of Egypt, who was holding a court of justice in the open 
air. He was so taken with the beauty of the little shoe that he sought everywhere for its girl- 
owner, and. having found her. made her his queen. 

Karnak, Thebes. — During the long period of confusion and historical darkness between 
3000 and 2700 B.C.. the twin city of the Apts, Thebai (Thebes) in Upper Egypt, was rising into 
prominence. Hitherto the great kings or rulers of Egypt had had their headquarters at Memphis, 
near the Pyramids and modern Cairo. Later on. the capital was transferred to Heracleopolis (to 
give it its Greek name), situated near the modern Beni Suet. But Thebes was situated much farther 
up the Nile, at the point where that river in its windings comes nearest to the coast of the Red Sea 



■y-'^ 




The Great Sphinx ol Gi/a since ihe recent clearing avv.v ol the .«nd which chokes the bose o( this monumen 



[ llimtili. 



36o 



The Wonders of the World 




Pholo from " T/ie African ir.ic/J."] [/ii, permisninii of Leo WeinHal. 

The avenue of Ram-headed Sphinxes leading up to the Great Temple of A Tion-Ra at Karnak. This avenue was made by 

Ramses II. iThe Great'. 

at Kosser, and where there is a broad stretch of cultivable land on either side of the Nile. Here- 
abouts, indeed, grew up in time the town of Qobt, or Koptos, which became so much associated 
with the commerce of Egypt in the minds of the Phoenician and Greek navigators of the Red Sea 
that it is supposed to have been the origin of the Greek Aiguptos (Egypt). Thebes was: higher up 
than Koptos and near the modern Luxor, on the same side of the river. Indeed, Luxor became in 
time the harbour of Thebes. The riverside quarter on the west side of the Nile was what might be 
called the " dead " city of Thebes — the cemeteries and the temples which bore reference to the worship 
of the dead. This was the region known by the Greeks as Memnonia. The Egyptian name of 
" Thebes " seems to have been Apt. In a later pronunciation this was Apet, or Ape, which, in the 
feminine sense often applied to cities, became Tape. The Greeks, realizing that there were two 
cities of Apt, pluralized the name as " Thebai," which (in the mania for Latinizing all Greek names) 
became in our modern speech " Thebes." Apt is supposed by several authorities to have meant 
in ancient Egyptian, "a harem, or enclosure for women," but it is far more probable that it was 
Apt the Water-cow or Hippopotamus, a very old goddess of LTpper Egypt (see the late Gerald 
Massey's " Ancient Egypt, the Light of the World "). Thebes is one of the oldest inhabited sites of 
Egypt. Its history goes back (say) ten thousand years, to palaeolithic times. From about 2000 B.C., 
or earlier, there were the two cities of Apt — Apt-asut (Karnak) and Apt-reset (Luxor).* 

It was at Thebes that the great Xllth Dynasty (the " Old Theban ") was founded by Senusert 
(or Usertsen) ist, more than two thousand years before Christ ; and this monarch of Upper and 
Lower Egypt seems to have commenced the construction of a large temple at Karnak dedicated to 
a local god, Amon or Amen, " the hidden." But there were other local deities of neighbouring bourgs 
to be considered, such as Mut and Amunt (perhaps a feminine form of Anion, Amun, or Amen ; 
the Egyptians, like the Arabs, were very uncertain about their vowels). Mut or Atmu was the great 
mother goddess. There was also Khonsu, the handsome young Moon-God, who, in course of time, 
became somewhat identified with Horos of Lower Egypt, and was taken to be the son of Amon and 

* Karnak is a modern Arabic lerm meaning "a window," from the window openings in the temples ; Luxor is the Arabic 
Al-uksur or " the Castles " (plural of Ksar, a castle). 



Afr 



ica 



361 



Milt (or Anion 'and Amunt). These conflicting worships were reconciled by the three principal 
gods of Thebes developing into a trinity of divine beings, in which combination, however, Amon was 
recognized as the " Father " and as " King of the Gods." Still later in the history of Thebes he 
was styled Amon-Ra, and identified with Ra, the great Sun-God of Lower Egypt. 

The whole history of the 
later Egyptian monarchies, 
commencing with the Xllth 
Dynasty, is bound up with 
this sacred city of Karnak, 
adjoining " hundred-gated 
Thebes." But the early 
temples and monuments of 
the Old Theban dynasty fell 
into ruin or were destroyed 
during the long period of 
over five hundred years 
when Egypt was conquered, 
or partially conquered, by 
the Shepherd kings from 
Arabia, the • Haq - su ■ or 
" Hyksos." But the first 
Egyptian monarcli to re- 
sume the erection of places 
of worship dedicated to 
Amon-Ra, Mut, and'Khonsu 
at this northern city of Apt, 
was Amenhotep I., the suc- 
cessor of Aahmes, who 
about 1625 B.C. had re- 
deemed Egypt from the 
Hyksos oppression and 
founded the XVIIIth Dy- 
nasty of Egyptian kings. 
Amenhotep and his suc- 
cessor, Tehutimes I.,* built 
a splendid temple with 
many chambers round tho 
original shrine, togetlu 1 
with a broad court and 
pylons or stone gateway-^ 
(a glorified development "I 
the " Druidical " menlm 
or horizontal stone rcstin 
on two uprights). Telni 
times I. also erected four 
obelisks of Assouan granite, 

* Tehulimcs is also rendered 
Thothmes by some authorities and 
Telhmosis by others. 




PIv'to hit"] 



\Tlu- riiolochrom Co. lid. 
The Colonnade of iKe Grent Temple at Karnalc. 



362 



The Wonders of the World 



of which two have faUen. Tehutimes III. added to this temple a hall resting on fiftv-six columns, 
besides many other chambers. Other monarchs of later dynasties built two more large pylons, and 
Queen Hatshopsitu erected two fine obelisks. 

The " Catharine II.." the " Empress-Dowager " of Egypt, the celebrated Hatshopsitu.* who 
reigned at Thebes between about 1565-1530 B.C., added a great deal to the glories of Thebes and the 
temples at Karnak. though in some cases r-he merely completed the work of her father. Tehutimes I. ; 
but in the inscriptions she caused to be engraved on the monuments she attributed the whole 

structure to herself. She really did, 
however, cause two obelisks — one of 
which is still standing amongst the ruins 
of Karnak — to be erected to the memory 
of her " father," the god Amon. in order 
that her own name " may remain and 
live on this temple for ever and ever ; 
for this single block of granite has been 
cut without let or obstacle at tlie desire 
of My Majesty between the first of the 
second month of Pirit of the Vth year [of 
her reign], and the thirtieth of the fourth 
month of Shomu of the Vlth year, which 
makes seven months from the day when 
they began to quarry it." — (Sir Gaston 
Maspero.) 
i i_ (_)f the obelisk which is still standing 

/ ' ...( im amongst the ruins of Karnak (ninety- 

' '' seven and a half feet high), it has been 

remarked that the grace of its outline, 
tlie finish of its hieroglyphics and the 
beauty of the figures which cover it, 
amply justify the pride which the queen 
and her younger half-brother and hus- 
band, Tehutimes II.. felt in contemplat- 
ing it. The apices of these two monoliths 
were gilt, so that they could be seen 
from both banks of the river, " in order 
that their brilliancy might light up the 
two lands of Egypt." 

Amongst other messages for posterity 
which Hatshopsitu left inscribed on the 
wonders of Karnak are these words : 
" This is what I teach to mortals who shall live in centuries to come, and whose hearts shall 
inquire concerning the monument which I have raised to my father, speaking and exclaiming as 
they contemplate it. As for me, when I sat in the palace and thought upon him who created me 
[i.e., her father], my heart prompted me to raise to him two obelisks of electrum [granite], whose 
apices should pierce the firmaments, before the noble gateway which is between the two sreat 
pylons of the King Tehutimes I. And my heart led me to address these words to those who shall 
see my monuments in after-years and who shall speak of my great deeds. Beware of saying, ' I 
know not, I know not why it was resolved to carve this mountain wholly of gold I ' . . . but say 
only, ' How like Her ! ' . . . ."-f- 




'■"ud MiUer 



1 he South Entrance to the Great 1 emple at Karn 
was built by Ptolemy III. lEuergetes) as an approach 
hind it of Ramses III. 



This Propylon 
the temple be- 



Hatshopsitu is also spelt Ilatslicpsu or ITatshepMrt. 



^ Sir (;. Maspero and Artlnu \Vcii;all. 







'Xs^-^^^^i 



Pholo htTS 






THE COLONNADE OF THE GREAT I EMPLE AT KARNAK 



t77i.- 1 liolorlii-om Co. lid. 



364 



The Wonders of the World 











Photo hit'] 



The ObelisU of..Queen Hatshopsilu in the Temple of Amon-Ra, Karnak, 



[/,'. nliUhrmd. 



Queen Hatshopsitu was the daughter of Queen Aahmes, who was believed to be of much better 
birth than her husband Tehutimes I., that is to say, she was able to claim a nearly unspoilt descent 
from divine ancestors, or, in other words, kings of early semi-mythical dynasties, who had been 
deified in the course of centuries. But her sixteen quarters of divinity, so to speak, were not quite 
perfect. She numbered amongst her immediate ancestors a grandfather or great-grandfather 
who was not clearly of royal blood ; that is to say, descended from the Sun-God Horos (Har.) This 
defect, however, might be remedied by a miracle, by the Sun-God Har (Amon-Ra ?) becoming 
incarnate in her mother at the moment of conception. The wish was father to the belief, and 
Hatshopsitu, when she had had time to look round and take all her circumstances into account, 
caused it to be inscribed in one of the chapels which she built, that the god Amon-Ra had descended 
upon her mother Aahmes in a flood of perfume and light and had announced to her the approaching 
birth of a daughter in whom his godly qualities would be made manifest. This remarkable story, 
is illustrated by a number of pictures showing the whole story of the conception of Hatshopsitu, 
her birth, attended by good fairies or jinns. and her earthly father, Tehutimes I., accepting his 
theoretical paternity and presenting to his council of nobles the newly-born daughter who is 
eventually to reign over Egypt. 

Nevertheless, her father caused her to marry her younger half-brother, Tehutimes II., who 
reigned for a time conjointly with her, though she really directed affairs with as much arbitrariness 
and vigour as the late Empress-Dowager of China. In fact, she became so greedy of power and 
disdainful of her sex that she attempted for the rest of her life (after the death of her father, 
Tehutimes I.), to conceal her sex in all public manifestations. She removed the feminine termination 
of her name (-itu) and called herself Hatshopsu, and also adopted the title of King Mat-ka-ra. In 
all public ceremonies she dressed as a man and wore a false beard affixed to her chin. The activities 
of this remarkable woman extended far to the north and to the south-east. She reorganized the 



Af 



rica 



365 



Delta region of the Nile, which had been much neglected by hei predecessors, and reopened the 
canals where they were silted up. She resumed the working of the mines of Sinai and was inspired 
by the god Amon-Ra to assemble a fleet at Kosser on the Red Sea, which sailed laden with rich 
merchandise to the sacred land of Punt (or Puoni). 

Punt was probably what we now know as Somaliland. The fleet, indeed, may have entered 
the Bay of Tajurrah and have dealt chiefly with French Somaliland. From these regions the 
vessels brought back the incense trees (Boswellia ?) so loved of the Egyptians, who were passionately 
fond of burning perfumes. Besides Boswellia ihurifera, which is the East African incense tree, 
there were substances derived from other aromatic trees and plants which were mixed together under 
the name of incense. The type of people met with in the land of Punt was very like the modern 
Somali or the Gala. The men carried boomerangs and daggers, and wore necklaces of beads, and 
rings of gold or copper round their legs. The Eg\'ptians bought from this friendly race ivory, gold, 
ebony, perfumes, dogs, leopard- 
skins, large oxen with great 
horns — the well-known Gala 
type of ox — baboons and small 
monkeys, besides thirty-one 
incense trees. At the Abys- 
sinian ports which they called 
at on their return, they ob- 
tained a giraffe and some live 
leopards. 

The incense trees were 
planted near the western bank 
of the Nile, under the shelter of 
the rocky hills at Khafit Nibus 
(Deiral-Bahari), and the temples 
of this western suburb of Thebes 
were painted with pictures 
giving the whole history of this 
wonderful expedition. 

Hatshopsitu only had 
daughters by her marriage with 
Tehutimes II., but by a humble 
concubine of low birth her hus- 
band had a boy, also called 
Tehutimes. After his death, 
Hatshopsitu adopted this child 
as her successor (being the 
sister, or half-sister, of her hus- 
band, she was therefore the 
boy's aunt as well as step- 
mother!). She betrothed him 
to her only sur\-iving daughter, 
Hatshopsitu II., but continued 
to rule during his long minority, 
in fact, until her death. After 
her death Tehutimes III. dis- 
played his rage, and perhaps ihc iw<. rcm.inini: obdi.k 




?66 



The Wonders of the World 



ingratitude, by doing all he could to efface from buildings and records tlie flamboyant accounts of 
the great queen's doings, and wherever he could he erased the name of his aunt, stepmother, and 
mother-in-law, replacing it by that of her father or husband. 

Amenhotep III. (1411-1375), a successor of ^Tehutimes IV., erected the pylons at the east end 
of the subsequently built great hypostyle hall, the largest temple in the world ; but it was reserved 
to the great kings of the Nineteenth Dynasty, which reigned between 1365 and 1225 B.C., to supply 
those features which make Karnak one of the Wonders of the World. Harmahib, Ramses I., 
Seti I. and Ramses II. began and completed the most magnificent hall of columns that was ever 

seen in Egypt or elsewhere. The 
columns are one hundred and thirty- 
four in number and stand in sixteen 
rows. They support a stone roof 
which covers a space of three hun- 
dred and twenty feet long and one 
hundred and sixty-four feet broad 
(a total area of fifty -two thousand 
four hundred and eighty feet). Each 
of the twelve central columns is 
thirty-three feet in circumference 
and eighty feet high beneath the 
architrave. The other columns (ac- 
cording to Lepsius), are forty feet 
high and twenty-seven feet in cir- 
cumference. " It is impossible," 
wrote Lepsius in his description of 
these ruins more than sixty years 
ago, " to describe the overwhelm- 
ing impression which is experienced 
upon entering for the first time 
into this forest of columns, and 
wandering from one range into 
the other, between the lofty figures 
of gods and kings on every side 
represented on them, projecting 
sometimes entirely, sometimes only 
in part. Every surface is covered 
with various sculptures, now in 
relief, now sunk, which were, how- 
ever, only completed under the 
successors of the builder ; most of 
them, indeed, by his son Ramses Meri-Amen. In front of this hypostyle hall was placed, 
at a later period, a great hypsthral court, two hundred and seventy and three hundred 
and twenty feet in extent, decorated on the sides only with colonnades, and entered by a 
magnificent pylon. 

" The principal part of the temple terminated here, comprising a length of eleven hundred 
and seventy feet, not including the row of sphinxes in front of its external pylon, near the peculiar 
sanctuary which was placed by Ramses II. (Meri-Amen), directly beside the wall farthest back in the 
temple, and with the same axis, but turned in such a manner that its entrance was on the opposite 
side. Including these enlargements, the entire length must have amounted to nearly two thousand 





^SS 



FhotO by] 

TKe port rail -bus 



Jt- ■■ 



IJ. lioud Milhr, F./i.'.-.. 
a PKaraoh (supposed lo be of the Old Theban 
lasty) in the ruins at Karnak. 




ri,.in ^,,] 



COLUMNS IN THE TEMPLE OK KING TEHUl IMES 111 AT KARNAK. 



368 



The Wonders of the World 




Dioto hy'\ 



IBonfiU. 



IThe Temple ot Ran 



W. 



feet, reckoning to the most southern gate of the external wall, surrounding the whole space, which 
was of nearly equal breadth." 

Ramses II. (the son of Seti I., and perhaps the great-grandson of Harmahib, the founder of the 
Nineteenth Dynasty, and planner of the Great Temple, the mighty Hall of Columns) not only 
added to the Great Temple and embellished it in many ways, but made an approach to it through 
a great avenue of stone Ram-headed Sphinxes, which now lead up to the imposing Propylon con- 
structed (long afterwards) by a Greek king of Egypt, Ptolemy III. (Euergetes). Ramses II. (The 
Great), who reigned sixty -seven years, has sometimes been identified with the " Pharaoh of the 
Oppression," who harassed the Israelites in the Egyptian Delta. In all probability Ramses con- 
cerned himself very little with the fortunes of an obscure little tribe of Semitic serfs, one of the 
many Asiatic peoples who entered the fat land of Egypt in times of scarcity and became a nuisance 
to the Egyptians. 

Ramses the Great extended his conquests from Northern Syria to the confines of Tripoli, and 
from the Nile Delta to Dongola in the land of the Blacks. He resided less than his predecessors 
at Thebes, and in order to give more attention to the administration of the Delta and commerce 
between Egypt and the civilized States of the Greek Islands, he established his capital at Tanis, 
to the south-west of the modern Port Said, on the banks of what is now Lake Menzala. 

Some of the kings of the Twentieth, or last Theban, Dynasty embellished or added to the 
monuments of Karnak, notably Ramses III., and in a lesser degree Ramses IV. and XII. During 
the reign of the last Ramses the power of the priests of the now supreme god, Amon-Ra,* had 
become so great that they were able to displace the Ramsesides and to install as Pharaoh a nominee 
of their own, Herhor the High 'Priest . (apparently from Tanis, at the mouth of the Nile). This 

* There had been a period of scission under the heretic Tharaoh Amenophis 1\'., last but two of the Eighteenth Dynasty, 
in which the worship of Amon-Ra was thrown over in favour of Aton, the .Syrian Adonis, the " disk of the sun. "J 



Af 



rica 



369 



king restored or beautified' the sacred buildings. So did the absentee Pharaohs of the Twenty- 
second (Bubastite) Dynasty from Lower Egypt, especially Sheshonk. the invader of Palestine 
and Syria in the time of Kehoboam, whose exploits are recorded on the walls of Karnak. The 
Jewish prophet, Nahum, got a chance of a return lunge at Thebes when, in 661 B.C., Egypt was 
invaded by the Assyrians, and when Karnak (called by Nahum " No-Amon ") was stripped of 
nearly all its wealth and partially ruined. The Ethiopian, or Nubian, kings who had ruled at 
Thebes between about B.C. 712 and 663, had, before the Assyrian inrush, done their humble best to 
carry on the architectural work of their mighty " white " predecessors. 

We may suppose that some repair of the marvellous buildings of Karnak took place under the 
last revival of the native Egyptian power — the Psametik Pharaohs, who, beginning from the Delta, 
extended a somewhat uncertain rule over Upper Egypt between 660 and 525 B.C. But there are 
very few traces of their work in the existing monuments. The Persian kings or viceroys appeared 
at Thebes more as robbers and barbarians than as national monarchs identifying themselves with the 
past glories of Egypt. But it was different with the Greek rulers. Alexander the Great and the 
Ptolemies, who reigned over a happier, re-civilized Egypt from B.C. 304 to B.C. 23. Ptolemy II. 
<Philadelphus) restored several of the buildings and built several gateways or pylons. Ptolemy III. 
<Euergetes) erected the magnificent Propylon which is here illustrated. The Roman Caesars, however, 
cared little for Karnak ; and when 
Egypt was ruled from Byzantium, 
Christianity of a low and fanatical 
type was the prevailing religion ; and 
except where the Christians deigned to 
convert some of the Karnak buildings 
into chapels (such of them as they 
vised are marked with coarse paintings 
of Christian emblems), it was thought 
meritorious to allow the habitations of 
strange gods and devils to fall into 
ruin. Muhanmiadan ignorance and 
fanaticism were far worse for Karnak 
(and other monuments of the old 
Egyptian faith and civilization) than 
the most ignorant type of Byzantine 
Christianity, for to a loathing and 
scorn of other faiths and of statues 
and pictures, the barbarian Arabs and 
I^Iuhammadan negroids added a thirst 
for treasure-seeking. 

If anj' consciousness has been 
retained of earthly things by the 
■deified heroes and the proud Pharaohs 
of Upper Egypt, they must have 
uttered a sigh of reUef when Napoleon 
Bonaparte invaded Egypt and so began 
tiiat train of circumstances which has 
led to the revival of interest in and 
reverence for the art and religious 
beliefs of ancient Egypt, and the 
occupation of the Nile Valley by the 




/•/„.(.. /.J,] 



Caitoucho, or kienaturcf, and •vmbolical pictures on ihe walU of the 
1 ctnple of Ramsei III. at Karnalf. 



370 



The Wonders of the World 



troops of a civilized Power able to assist and to protect the recovery and restoration of these 
wonders of the world. 

Algeria. — Algeria, when it comes to be better known by tourists, will be fairly described as 
one of the world's wonderlands. It is not easily distinguished geographically from Morocco, but is 
far more mountainous and elevated than Tunisia, which, in a sense, represents the rubbing-down of 
the Algerian mountains and is a much flatter, more level region sloping towards the eastern half of 
the Mediterranean. When the French took possession of Algiers in 1830, they soon realized that 
this region lying between Morocco and Tunisia — nominally a dependency of Turkey — was really 

governed, more or less, by three 
potentates of Turkish descent. 
On the west there was the Dey 
of Oran, in the centre the Dey 
of Algiers, and on the east 
the Bey of Constantine. (Dey 
is a Turkish term meaning 
" Uncle." It was the name 
given by the Turkish soldiers 
half familiarly to the elderly 
individual whom, at one time, 
they elected as a sort of pasha 
to settle differences and direct 
affairs. Bey means a highly- 
placed military officer — a 
colonel.) The Dey of Oran 
was soon settled ; but the Bey 
of Constantine, Hajji Ahmad, 
who, with [the help of the 
Berber Kabail. had become an 
independent potentate ^in 1826, 
for a considerable period main- 
tained his position as an African 
prince. Constantine, in the east 
of Algeria, is a place of extraordi- 
nary natural strength, a penin- 
sula of rock nearly surrounded 
by a natural moat in the shape 
of the river Rummel. It was 
the Kirtha and Cirta of Phoeni- 
cian and early Roman days, 
and was re-established by Julius 




!>tereO'jtaph by'] 
One of the 



rUabk 



lit, C. \^h%fe (-'€. 

natural bridges over the Rummel at Constantine. 
Eastern Algeria. 



Casar as Colonia Settianorum. Having been destroyed in a native rising, it was rebuilt by the 
great Constantine in 313 and was henceforth called after him. Owing to its position, the French 
were repulsed in their first attempt to seize the place (in 1836), but by means of desperate 
fighting, great gallantry and the use of superior artillery, they finally reduced it to submission 
in the year 1837. 

The Rummel has bored its way through the limestone rocks, leaving here and there natural 
bridges, some of them several hundred feet at their crests above the gorge below. But these 
are not safe or sufficient means of communication between the town of Constantine and the open 
country beyond, and the stone bridge constructed by the Romans broke down in 1857. Consequently, 



372 



The Wonders of the World 



K% 



the French have recently constructed a bridge 
over the gorge of the Rummel, which was 
said to be the highest stone bridge in the 
world. It is a viaduct about five hundred 
yards long raised on twenty-seven arches of 
different sizes, the highest and biggest of these 
arches (which has a span of more than two 
liundred and forty feet) being approximately 
three hundred and fifty feet above the level 
of the bed of the Rummel (the height of 
the dome of St. Paul's is three hundred and 
sixty-five feet). This stone bridge would there- 
fore seem to be the loftiest of any as yet 
constructed, its nearest rival being that of 
Soils, in the Engadine, which is a little more 
than three hundred feet high. The central 
span of the bridge is of iron. 

The Suez Canal. — ^The Suez Canal is cer- 
tainly one of the modern wonders of the world. 
But the idea of a water communication across 
the neck of land which separates the Mediter- 
ranean from the Red Sea was not reserved for 
the nineteenth century. It entered into the pro- 
jects of the monarchs of Egypt as soon as they 
took a special interest in Asiatic conquest and 
in commerce between the Red Sea and the 
Mediterranean. The Isthmus, indeed, must have 
been at frequent intervals under water within 
tlie human period, alternatelj' making Africa an 
island (though probably when cut off from Syria, 
Africa was joined to Sicily and Spain), and then 
constituting itself a broad path between Asia 
and Egypt, over which not only man, but many 
of the African mammals passed to and fro. 
A canal from the Nile to the Red Sea, via Mansura to the Bitter Lakes, is beheved to have been 
planned by Ramses the Great, but the project was not completed. During the Persian occupation 
of Egypt Darius I. resumed work on this scheme, but the canal was not finally achieved till the 
reign of Ptolemy II., Philadelphus, in about 266 B.C. The town near its terminus, almost opposite 
the site of modern Suez, was named Arsinoe, or sometimes Cleopatris. But the commerce between 
the Mediterranean and the Red Sea did not take very kindly to this artificial water-route between 
the Nile of the Delta and the Gulf of Suez : e.xcept during the most prosperous days of the undivided 
Roman Empire the merchants preferred to send their goods from Alexandria (which had replaced 
Tanis as the Deltaic port of entry) round to the Rosetta mouth of the Nile, and thence up-stream 
to Kus, or to Koptos. From one or other of these points their commerce crossed the desert on asses, 
bullocks, and by the newly-introduced camels to Aidhab, or to Berenice, on the Red Sea, whence 
ships conveyed the goods to and fro between the Arabian and Indian ports. 

But the great Emperor Trajan cleared out and enlarged the canal of the Ptolemies and called 
it "Augustus amnis " — the august river. This canal probably connected the Damietta branch 
of the Nile with the Bitter Lakes, by way of Bubastis ; in fact, followed somewhat the course' of 




From Slert'o ropiiriijfit] lUiiflmro^^it it- I'ruh-ncooti. 

The Goree of tKe Rummel. Constantine, Eastern Algeria: 
showing the bridge, which is about 350 feet abo 
the river. 



the bed of 



Africa 



o/o 



the present Sweet Water canal which was constructed fifty years ago by de Lesseps to bring Nile 
water to waterless Suez. From the navigable Bitter Lakes another cutting conveyed the shallow- 
draught boats of Roman days to the head of the Gulf of Suez, then called Sinus Clysma (afterwards 
corrupted by the Arabs into Bahr Kulzum) ; for the name of Arsinoe, or Cleopatris, had given place 
to Clysma. But Trajan's canal does not seem to have been greatly used. No doubt it had a 
tendency to silt up in the annual Nile floods. Still the Nile-Bitter Lakes canal was restored to 
efficiency under the first Arabic Cahphs who ruled over Egypt. Harun al Rashid is said to have 
projected a canal right across the Isthmus of Suez more or less along the line now followed : a 
navigable channel from sea to sea which would obviate the difficult entry into the Nile from 
Alexandria or the crossing of the bars at the Rosetta (Er-Rashid) and Damietta (Dimiad) 
mouths. But he was dissuaded when it was pointed out to him that the Byzantine navy would 
certainly take advantage of this direct sea route to the Red Sea and India, and, in fact, might be 
tempted by the existence of such a canal to put forth all its strength, seize Egypt, and so cut the 
Muhammadan world in two. 

As it happened, even the Nile-Bitter Lakes-Kulzum canal fell into disrepair and disuse 
by about 900 a.d. Kulzum and its opposite suburb, " Bir Suweiz "■ — a brackish well 
protected by fortifications — fell into ruins. But when the Sultan of Turkey became Lord of 
Egypt after 1518, a new seaport town arose styled Suweiz (from the well), and became the 
headquarters, repairing-and-building station for the Ottoman fleet on the Red Sea. By the 
beginning of the eighteenth century Suez had become the starting-point for a sea voyage 
to India — in the ships of Muhammadans, bien eniendii. Transhipment was effected at Jeddah, 
tlie port of Mecca. 

Napoleon Bonaparte, who laid the foundations of Modern Egypt, visited Suez in 1798, and at 
once conceived the project of a canal between this place and the Mediterranean by way of the Nile. 
But the British occupation of Suez in 1800 arrested for ever Napoleon's schemes. At the same 
time his seizure of Egypt, having been deliberately planned as a means of making a flank approach 




-^ 



riMlo l>y] 










iMr 



[,V. r. /'.riMni*. 



The narrowcBt port of the Suez Cann!, 



374 



The Wonders of the World 



to India, drew the attention of the British Government to the supreme importance of Egypt as the 
key of India (in those pre-railway days), and as a land which so narrowly separated the waters of 
the Mediterranean from those of the (hitherto neglected) Red Sea. that by some means or other it 
must be pierced by a canal of communication, if possible under British control. 

But for the time being British designs on Egypt (rendered the more eager in the early years 
of the nineteenth century since the bringing of troops from India to the Red Sea and the Nile 
to cut off the French had caused them to realize how Egypt and India reacted each on the other) were 
frustrated by the rapidly rising power of Muhammad Ali. A British descent on Egypt, in 1806, 
was in fact repulsed by this Turkish pasha. After the Napoleonic wars were over, the study of 
Egypt as a half-way land to India, Southern Asia and Eastern Africa was resumed by brilliant 
Frenchmen and plodding Britons ; both in turn armed by concessions and assistance on the part of 
Muhammad Ali. Between the years 1839 '1''"^ 1845, Lieutenant Waghorn, a British Engineer 
officer, had organized a service of boats and steamers up the Nile from Alexandria to a point as 
near as possible to Suez, the " overland " portion of the journey across the desert being performed 




From Stfreo copyriijht^ 

The Suez Cana 



[CiiJfrifjod ,(■ rn.lrnroo:!. 
near its entrance at Port Said. The quays of Port Said are on the right-hand side. 



by carriages and camels, and on horseback. Later, a railway — the first constructed in Egypt — 
took the place of this caravan journey across the sands. 

The enormous attraction, however, which this steamer journey from England via Gibraltar 
(or from Marseilles) to Alexandria, followed by the overland route thence to Suez and the steamer 
journey from Suez to Bombay, possessed over the three-months'-long, inexpressibly weary and often 
dangerous Cape voyage, soon impressed the British Government. The Britannicizing of Suez led 
almost immediately to the seizure and garrisoning of Aden (1839) as a port of call between Suez 
and India and a protection to steamers against possible (then still existing) Turkish pirate vessels. 

But while the British rapidly built railways across Lower Egypt to connect Alexandria with 
the Gulf of Suez, a Frenchman — Ferdinand de Lesseps — revived the bolder scheme of a Trans- 
Isthmian Canal, a sea-level channel from the Mediterranean to Suez by way of the Salt Lakes, which 
might be navigable by ships of the largest size and deepest draught then built. Lesseps' plan 
was not only denounced by English statesmen as an impracticable one, but it was also bitterly 
opposed because it might give France too great a hold over Egypt. However, in spite of obstacles 



376 



The Wonders of the World 




PlKto byl 



[The flwlathrnia Co. Ltd. 



ON THE SITE OF CARTHAGE. 



The "rock Rarden " which is beins formed naturally among the vestises of Roman and Byzantine Carthage. 

■ — financial and diplomatic — this tenacious Frenchman carried his scheme through to absolute 
success. The canal was commenced in 1859 ^.nd completed in 1869 at a cost of nineteen million 
pounds. In 1869 it was opened to the traffic of the world by the Empress of the French, accompanied 
by the Khedive Ismail of Egypt and the late King Edward Wll. (then Prince of Wales). 

The Suez Canal was named after the now almost side-tracked, moribund Suez, because, fifty 
years ago, there was no other town of any note along the projected water-route across the Isthmus. 
Port Said, on the north-eastern corner of Lake Menzala, is built on soil created by the Canal 
construction and is becoming a healthy and not uncomely city, with a population already of nearly 
fifty thousand. After leaving Port Said, the Canal passes through the eastern part of Lake Menzala, 
then follows a narrow cutting between sand-hills till it reaches little Lake Timsa (the " Crocodile 
Lake," wherein crocodiles — extinct for a hundred years or more — at one time swarmed). On 
Lake Timsa is situated Ismailia, the midway station of the Canal. 

After Lake Timsa, another narrow cutting, and then with relief the steamer passengers see the 
wide horizons of the Great and Little Bitter Lakes opening before them. This is practically one 
sheet of water through which steamers can pass easily with great breadth of channel. Then follows- 
the last section of the Canal cutting, and vessels emerge at Port Taufik (beyond Suez), in a gulf of 
the Red Sea. The Suez Canal is eighty-seven miles long, of which sixty-six miles are artificial 
canal, the remainder being the deeper water of the lakes. 

Owing to the suggestion of the late Mr. Frederick Greenwood and the prompt action of Lord 
Beaconsfield, Great Britain became, in 1875, the purchaser of the Khedive's large share-holding in 
the Canal, a circumstance which, in addition to the great preponderance of her shipping as user of 
the Canal, gave her a strong claim for consideration in the manageinent of that institution, which 
had remained entirely French down to 1886. By that time great complaints were being uttered 



Africa 



3/7 



by British ship-owners as to the inordinate delays inflicted on shipping in passing through the 
Canal. Indeed, after the British occupation of Eg^'pt in 1882 it was seriously proposed that 
Great Britain should construct a rival canal, either from Alexandria to Mansura. Ismaiha and Suez, 
or " a second canal parallel to the old one on the Syrian side," or even more fantastically, a canal 
through the Syrian coastlands to the Upper Jordan, which would have spread the Mediterranean 
water over the whole Lower Jordan and Dead Sea valley (which lies in a rift below sea-level) and 
have left only a short cutting to be made into the Gulf of Akaba. But more conciliatory measures 
were adopted. A British Director was appointed to the Board of Control (which still remains in 
Paris), and the existing Canal was widened. Steamers now pass through in twelve hours and 
can travel night and day. A large number of the Canal employes are Maltese. 

Table Mountain, Capetoivn. — The commencement of the conquest of India under Lord Clive, 
in 1757-60. inevitably directed the attention of British statesmen not only to Egypt — whither James 
Bruce was despatched in 1770 by Lord Halifax to discover the source of the Nile — but also to the 
Cape of Good Hope, the necessary calling-place of British vessels on their ocean route to and from 
India. In fact, two things were rendered imperative by the enlargement and retention of the vast 
Indian Empire : the holding of South Africa and the occupation of Egypt. In both cases the French 
Government precipitated British action. The French, before their revolution, were attempting to 
replace the weak Dutch Company government at the Cape of Good Hope by a French settlement. 
Realizing this, the British Government attempted in 1781 to seize the Cape of Good Hope, but French 
victories at sea thwarted their purpose. In 1795 a more carefully planned armament was sent. 
and the Cape became ours, only to be relinquished reluctantly for three years after the temporary 
peace of Amiens. Already in the closing years of the eighteenth century a few Portuguese had 




Pholo iy] 



In ihe Rnrdcn 'n.fiont of the Muicum of the White Kathers. Carlhane 



378 



The Wonders of the World 



noted with apprehension British interest in the Nile and Abyssinia, and when in 1795 a British 
force was landed at Capetown, the great Portuguese colonial official and explorer, Dr. Jose de 
Lacerda, uttered from his camp on the Zambezi the memorable prediction that Great Britain would 
some day extend — or attempt to extend — her sway from Capetown to Egypt : in fact, he fore- 
shadowed very distinctly the Cape-to-Cairo idea, which was afterwards revived in 1876 by the late 
Sir Edwin Arnold, and again by the present writer in 1888, and by Cecil Rliodes in 1892. 

Capetown, as the splendid illustration here given amply shows, is one of the world's great 
predestined capitals. It is a very notable city so far as position and magnificent natural 

surroundings are concerned. More- 
over, since the great progress in 
the affairs of South Africa, which 
commenced about the year 1890, 
the citizens and the local govern- 
ment of Capetown have realized 
the magnificence of their position 
and their opportunities, and much 
of the architecture of the town 
is of a character to enhance, and 
not to belittle, the supreme 
lieauty of the place. 

Of course, its most notable 
Icature is Table Mountain (3,540 
feet high), over the flat top of 
which the white fleecy clouds 
sometimes lie so closely as to 
simulate a woolly tablecloth. 
Table Mountain is in that direc- 
tion the last prolongation of 
that region of lofty plateaus and 
mountain ranges which makes a 
kind of sub-continent of South 
Africa, and which breaks off 
abruptly above the waves of the 
Southern Ocean in the regions of 
Cape Colony. 

Capetown — Kaapstad — was 
founded in 1652 by Dutch settlers 
sent out by the Netherlands East 
India Company under Jan van 
Riebeek. The country in the 
vicinity of Table Mountain was in 
those days occupied by tribes of Hottentots, who kept herds of long-horned cattle. The Hottentots 
themselves had travelled down the south-west coast of Africa several centuries before from the 
neighbourhood of Walfish Bay and Damaraland. At a still more distant date they seem to have 
been the result of some immigration of a cattle and sheep-keeping, herdsmen tribe from the vicinity 
of the Victoria Nyanza, a tribe resulting from some ancient mixture between the superior Hamitic, 
semi-white stock of North-East Africa and a Bushman race of East Africa. There are still lingering 
people of this mixed stock in the northern part of Unyamwezi land, speaking click languages akin 
to Buslmien and Hottentot. The ancestors of the Hottentots appear to have crossed Africa round 




Pholo i'l. 



A triangular Phoenician Tomb, 



[_Sir Harry Jokiiston. G. 
Carthage, 



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Afri 



rica 



381 



the southern limits of the Congo watershed and Northern Zambezia, and to have reached the Atlantic 
coast'near the mouth of the Kunene. From this direction they advanced slowly towards the Orange 
Riv-er and the Cape peninsula, driving the Bushmen before them or absorbing Bushman clans into 
their midst. There were, however, still lingering Bushmen (" Bosjesmen ") in the background of 
Capetown when the Dutch first settled there ; but the united action of the colonists and the 
more or less friendly Hottentots soon drove them farther into^the wilderness and the inaccessible 
parts of Table Mountain. Capetown has a population of nearly two hundred and fifty thousand 
at the present day, of wliich about one hundred and thirty thousand are whites of European descent. 
It has an imperial garrison of troops, and close by, at Simon's Town, is one of the great naval stations 
of the British Empire. 

Carthage. — If Capetown be the most southern of famous African cities, Carthage is — or was — 
the most northern. Carthage, of imperishable fame, has actuaOy a railway station of its own at 
the present day witli the 
magic name inscribed on it, 
but this is of little more 
importance or magnitude 
than a roadside halt in the 
countr}' sections of our own 
Metropolitan Railway. Car- 
thage was founded about 
the year S22 B.C. by the 
Phoenicians. 

Its Syrian name was 
probably Kart - liadjah, 
" the New City." It was 
not by any means their 
oldest colony on the north 
coast of Africa, for they 
had established Utica about 
three hundred years earlier. 
But Carthage soon rose 
into prominence owing to 
its splendid position on 
the sides of this deep 
gulf, not far from the 
outlet of tiie only im- 
portant river in Tunis, 
the Majerda (Bagradas). Destroyed completely by the Romans in the year 145 B.C., it 
was afterwards rebuilt by them at the instigation of Juhus Caesar in 16 b.c, as the result 
of a dream and partly out of remorse, and in the four first centuries of the Christian era 
rose to a degree of wealth, importance and magnificence exceeding that which it had known in 
its most flourishing days as the capital of a Syrian dominion over the north coast of Africa. In 
spite of many vicissitudes under the rude Vandals, it still continued to exist as a great city at the 
time of tlie first Arab invasion of Tunisia in the seventh century .\.d., but was reduced to absolute 
ruin by Hassan ibn An-numan in 698. The first Arab conquerors of North Africa did not persecute 
the Christians, but allowed tiiem to remain round Carthage and to elect their own bishops. But 
this toleration ceased when the Muhammadan rulers of Tunis became more fanatical (owing to the 
attacks of Christian powers) in the eleventli century. Still. Carthage remained to attract the eye 
as a city, even if it were a city in ruins, until after King Louis IX. of France had landed here in the 




I'holoehftn Co. Ltd. 



rh"to hp-] 

The Citad«l of Cairo: built, or al anv rale mainly built, by Sultan Saladin in 
1166 A.D.. and captured by the British in 1882. 



382 



The Wonders of the World 



year 1270, on an insensate crusade 
against the Muhammadan power. 
King Louis was defeated, not 
by the Berber rulers of Tunis, 
but by the plague, of which he 
and a number of his captains and 
soldiers died. By agreement with 
the enemy the French forces, after 
his death, were allowed to depart 
peaceably in the autumn of 1270 ; 
but when they had finally aban- 
doned Carthage the ruins were 
razed to the ground by the Arabs 
and Berbers in order that they 
might never again shelter a 
Christian force. 

Interest in Carthage revived 
in the eighteenth century owing 
to the wonderful researches con- 
ducted by that truly remarkable 
James Bruce, who afterwards dis- 
covered the source of the Blue 
Nile. The French revived their 
sentimental interest in the place 
after their complete conquest of 
Algeria, and obtained from the 
Bey of Tunis the cession of the 
supposed portion of the site which 

I'hoto bii} U!uitlili. ^'^ ^ 

XL M ( M k J 41 •■ .u r. J I r • 1; - u J had been the camp and the death- 

1 he Mosque or Muhammad Ah surmounting the Ciladel, Cairo: hnished r 

about 1857. place of Louis IX. (St. Louis) in 

1270. This site was then (1841) handed over to the care of a religious settlement which grew into 
the White Fathers of North Africa. A pretentious and ugly chapel of villainous taste was built here as 
a shrine. Subsequently, the late Cardinal Lavigerie, Archbishop of Carthage, built a cathedral here. 
Cardinal Lavigerie also encouraged archaeological research, and the Superior of the monastery 
and those working under him, more especially of late years the Reverend Father Delattre, 
have in a most careful and praiseworthy manner found and preserved wonderful relics of 
Phoenician, Carthaginian, Roman and Byzantine times. Such of these as are not exhibited in an 
admirable Museum are placed in a ver}' picturesque garden near the Museum. The French 
government of Tunis also interests itself in the exploration of the site of Carthage, but the most 
notable discoveries are those of Pere Delattre. Some day, no doubt, a new Carthage will arise 
worthy of the old traditions of splendour. 

Phoenician Tombs at Carthage. — So far the excavations on tlie site of Carthage have not 
penetrated low enough to unveil much of the oldest Punic stratum of the city. But a good many 
inscriptions in the Punic character have been found and placed in the Museum, both at Carthage 
and at the Tunisian State Museum at the Bardo, near Tunis. Further, in one of the outlying quarters 
of Carthage, named " Douimes " by the Arabs, a number of triangular " proto-Punic " or early 
Phoenician graves have been laid bare. One of these, similar to the one in the photograph, was dis- 
covered during the visit of Oueen Alexandra (then Princess of Wales) to the excavations of Carthage 
in i8gg. 




Africa 



383 



Tunis. — Twelve miles away across a shallow lake (through which the French have made a 
navigable channel) lies the beautiful Moorish town of Tunis, less picturesque, perhaps, at the present 
day than it was when the present writer first saw it in 1879. At that period the shallow lake beyond 
Goletta was populated all along its desert banks by troops of pink flamingoes, large pelicans and 
herons, and in the winter-time, storks, geese, duck and wild swans. Tunis tlie White — the " Burnus 
of the Prophet " — rose from the southern shores of this muddy lake. Away to the north-east were 
the picturesque outlines of the extinct volcano of the Two Horns (Bu Karnein) and the table 
mountain of the lead mines — Jebe! Resass. The Tunis of igio has developed immense accretions 
outside the gates and walls of the old city — a whole new European town, with buildings like those 
of Marseilles and Nice. But the Arab town remains almost unspoilt with its flat-roofed white houses, 
its noble minarets and kubbas, or small white domes. The view represented in the accompanying 
illustration is taken from a house-top near the Great Mosque, Az-zeitouna (" The Olive Tree "), 
of which the new minaret replacing the one which fell in 1888 rises into the sky. This, the largest 
and most celebrated mosque of Tunis, has an immense library of ancient Arabic (and perhaps Greek) 
manuscript books. During the Spanish occupation of Tunis in the sixteenth century it was turned 
into a Christian church. No Christian is allowed now to penetrate this or any other mosque in the 
city of Tunis. 

Cairo. — The Cairo of to-day — Old as well as New — is a city, or a combination of cities, the 
name of which dates from the year 968 a.d., when it was founded, as " the City of V'ictory " — Al- 
Kahira — by the general of tiie Fatimite Caliphs of Egypt. But it was little more tiian the refounding 




Sl^reoijraph '-//] 



IMRRIOR 01 NKXSQUH OK .MUH.\M.M AD ALL CAIRO. 

ShuwiriK wonderful sldss lamps 



(//. C. Wliilf Co. 



384 



The Wonders of the World 



of a great centre of human habitation witliin an area eighteen miles by ten which had seen many 
cities arise and crumble in the past. To the south (fourteen miles away, on the west bank of the Nile) 
had been Memphis ; and to the north-east Heliopolis^ — ancient Egyptian capitals ; almost on the 
site of Cairo stood the town of Babylon, founded by Mesopotamian immigrants during the Persian 
rule over Egypt, and remaining a town down to Roman times. Babylon was succeeded by Al-Fostat, 
the " tent " city of the Muhammadan conquerer, Amr-bin-'el-Asi. The " Old Cairo " of to-day 
represents the actual site of Babylon and Al-Fostat, Al-Katai, a dead city, containing the mosque 
of Ibn Tulun, is an outlying bourg of its successor. Al-Kahira, and another ancient and abandoned 
village is Al-Askar. Bulaq is the river-side suburb. When the Napoleonic wars were over, Cairo 




J'fwto ii/] 



IBoii/ils. 



The fountain for ablutions in tfie Mosque of Muhammad Ali. Cairo. 



became the capital of Muhammad Ali. that Turkish sergeant of artillery who founded a monarchy, 
and whose descendant is the present Khedive of Egypt. 

The Citadel of Cairo. — The Citadel of Cairo (built by Saladin in 1166 on a spur of the 
Mokattam hills and constructed of stones from the Pyramids) is associated with many of the exploits 
of Muhammad Ali. amongst which one of the most terrible was the slaughter of the Mamluks in 1811. 
Only one is said to have escaped the sudden and treacherous attack, and he did so by boldly leaping 
his horse over the ramparts on to the pavement far below. The horse was killed, but the man lived 
and escaped — such, at least, is the legend. The British captured the Citadel of Cairo in 1882, and have 
occupied it ever since. 

The Mosque of Muhammad Ali. — This mosque is not a particularly tasteful or beautiful 
building in comparison with the noble mosques of Saracenic art in the older parts of Cairo, but it is 



Africa 



385 



reckoned a minor wonder of the world from its size and the magnificence of the glass lamps 
and chandeliers within and the lavish use of marble and Oriental alabaster which adorns it 
inside and out. 




Photo from " The African W'orhl,'"^ \_Hii permisaion of Uo W'^int/int. 

PHIL/E ISLAND. 

A view' oF PKilae Island 'above the First Cataract) partially submereed. sKowing the Great Temple ol Isis and its Great 
Pylon, and in the distance the Hypaethral Temple built by Augustus Caesar. 



CHAPTER XIIl. 

TTie Island of Philx and its Temples, near the First Cataract.— ^mm the shores of the 
-Mediterranean, in latitude 32°, to the First Cataract just above Assouan, in latitude 24°, the 
Nile is navigable without a check for boats of relatively light draught ; but just above the Island 
of Elephantine, the Nile narrows and rushes down in a tumultuous flood between black rocks. The 
importance of this First Cataract of the Nile was recognized as early as the first historical dynasties, 
partly because of the granite quarries in the neighbourhood ; and Meren-ra, a Pharaoh of the Sixth 
Dynasty, despatched an Egyptian named Una to be Governor of the South and to dig five canals 
at the First Cataract to facihtate the transport of boats to the upper river. Una, who had 
previously raised a negro regiment in Nubia to combat the Beduin Arabs who were attacking Egypt 
at the Isthmus of Suez, invoked the aid of the negro chiefs of the tribes above the First Cataract 
to have timber cut in sufficient quantities to build boats in order to transport red granite from the 
quarries above the First Cataract for the building of pyramids and other monuments in Lower 
Egypt. It has been computed that nearly a thousand acacia and albizzia trees would have been 
required for these purposes. Other evidence goes to show that the banks of the Nile between 
Assouan and Khartum have been greatly deforested through the action of man, and especially the 
influence, direct and indirect, of Ancient Egypt. The Island of Elephantine, just below the First 
Cataract, had from a still earher period in the Sixth Dynasty been a most important meeting-place 
between the white Egyptians and the darker-skinned tribes of Lower Nubia and the absolute 
negroes of Upper Nubia. It is probable that the Ancient Egyptian name of Assouan meant 
market. The name given to Elephantine Island, whereon a celebrated Nilometer is situated, was 
Abu in the Ancient Egyptian tongue, meaning " elephant," possibly because it was seized in 
prehistoric times by an Egyptian clan who had adopted the elephant as a symbol or totem. But it 
is clear from the roughly-scratched drawings on the rocks bordering the Nubian Nile, that elephants 

26 



386 



The Wonders of the World 






=^£r= 



must have been very common in -this region before the riverside forests were destroyed. As early 
as the first historical dynasty- — some four, thousand years before Christ* — the hmits of Egyptian 
power or influence must have extended as far south as the Island of Phite and have had as their 
headquarters in this direction the fortified Island of Elephantine. This region was called by the 
Egyptians the " Door of the South," and was the starting point of overland caravans which travelled 
southwards into Negroland ; moreover, when the First Cataract had been conquered and made 
navigable, Egyptian boats must have passed up the Nile beyond the rapids of Bab el Kalabsheh 
to the Second Cataract just beyond Wadi Haifa, the real and final frontier of Egypt 

Though Elephantine may have been the stronghold of Egyptian .power at the First cataract, 

Philas Island was the sacred 
place, the centre of religious 
interest on the threshold of 
Nubia. It was here, according 
to legend, that the god-man 
Hesiri (Osiris) — the deified 
leader of the Egj-ptians who. 
brought cixalization to the 
Valley of the Nile — was 
buried. Yet although Phike 
must have been an import- 
ant centre of rehgious wor- 
ship in very early times» 
there is among its visible or 
discovered monuments nothing 
dating back later than to- 
the days of the Twenty-fifth 
Dynasty, about six hundred 
and seventy years before 
Christ. 

Perhaps further researches 
may bring to light evidences, 
of older temples to account 
for the importance attached 
by the Ancient Egyptians- 
to the site of Osiris's burial 
place. On the wonderful 
" orange and roseate-tinted 
boulders of granite," which 
are piled up in confused masses in the bed of the river north of Philae (writes Mr. John Ward, in his. 
interesting work, " Pyramids and Progress ") — and also on the adjacent island of Knossos— are 
gigantic cartouches cut deeply into the rock belonging to Pharaohs of the Eleventh Dynasty, and 
there is also a record on the rocks of the visit (in about 1420 B.C.) of Tehutimes IV. The Island 
of Philas is about five hundred square yards in area, and is situated at the head of the First Cataract, 
about two miles above the modern dam or reservoir. This great engineering work, by banking up- 
the Nile above the First Cataract, has drowned not a few Egyptian monuments, and annually turns 
this little granite island of temples and colonnades into two or three islets between December and 
April ; though for the rest of the year all Philse is above the waters and apparently uninjured. 
But the palms which appear in the accompanying pictures (taken before the rising; of the water)j 

* Flinders Petrie would make itja thousand years earlier. 




f 


— 







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i 




. 



Photo >•.. 

ri-lAKAUH'b BlD 

The Hypaethrum (or Kiosk) known as Pharaoh's Bed. to the south-east of the 

Temple of Isis at Philas, before the rising of the dammed-up waters of the Nile. 



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88 



The Wonders of the World 



are mostly killed. When first it was proposed to construct the barrage above the First Cataract, 
much sentimental nonsense was talked and written by critics of the British administration of 
Egyptian affairs as to the effect on Philae and on the other vestiges of Ancient Egyptian art in Lower 
Nubia, which would be produced by the rise in level of the Nile waters during half the year. Had 
the buildings on this island and most of the others between Philae and the Second Cataract been of 
immense antiquity, there might have been some reason in this appeal of Archjeology to Industriahsm 
to stay its hand and to deprive some five millions of agricultural Egyptians of a water supply which 
might enormously increase the cultivable area of Upper and Middle Egypt. But, as a matter of 
fact, the revealed antiquities of Phite and most of those in lower Nubia, are comparatively modern. 
The earliest discovered work on Philae is an altar raised by Taparka, a negroid king of the Twenty- 
fifth (Ethiopian) Dynasty. There are also fragments of buildings dating back to Aahmes II. — say 
550 B.C. The oldest of the existing temples was erected by one of the last Pharaohs of Egypt, 
Nektaneb II., about the year 350 B.C. With these exceptions, all the wonders of Philae date from 
the Ptolemies and the Cassars (down to Diocletian*), and the most striking of these are not materially 
injured by their annual standing in Nile water for three or four months. This being the case, it 
lias recently been decided by the Egyptian Government to raise the barrage and increase the 
amount of stored-up Nile water during the winter and spring. This wih mean the gift of milhons 
of money annually to Egypt and a resultant large increase of population arising from the applying 
of this stored water to the irrigation of a far larger area of desert land, which will thus be rendered 
habitable and cultivable by many more peasants. 

* Whose Triumphal Arch will be complclely covered l>y ihe water when the Nile dam is raised. 




{nonJIU. 



lllE ILMI'LE 01 lili I'lllL.L 

The Second Pylon' and Forecourt of the Temple, showing the stele cut on a natural block of granite, and a colonnade 

of the Birth House 









n,nnlc,l by C. H. F.,lti;iiils. 



THK ISLAND OI" I'llll.r.. 
PhiUu is situated at the hiad of the first cataract of the Nile. Since the huildini! of the Assouan Oam the Island is submerged 



hetween IXcemher and April, hut durin« the rest of the year its buildings remain untouched by the waters of the Nile. 



Afr 



ica 



389 




rho(o from " The A/H,nn Wiirlil."] 



PHIL/E IN THE FLOOD SEASON. 



A view of the Hypaethrum and the Temple of Isis, at Philae, standing in the dammed-up Nile waters during the season 
of artificial flood I Decembei-May I This view is lo3l(ing from the east, westwards. 

The most striking monument of Philae is certainly the beautiful httle riverside temple, so 
ridiculously misnamed " Pharaoh's Bed," or, more vulgarly, the " Kiosk." This hypaethral temple 
was commenced by Augustus Caesar and finished by Trajan, so that it is one of the most modern 
of " pagan " temples in Egypt. The most characteristic features in a view of Philae Island from 
the south are the Great Pylon and the West Colonnade of the Temple of Isis. The Great Pylon 
leading to the forecourt was commenced by King Nektaneb II., and finished by the Ptolemies. 
The West Colonnade was mainly the work of the Caesars — Augustus, Tiberius and Claudius — as 
Pharaohs. 

The Forecourt and Second Pylon of this temple probably date from the time of Ptolemy VI. 
(Philometor), with additions down to Ptolemy XIII. (Neos Dionysos). The eastern side of the 
Second Pylon is built over a block of naturally- placed granite, the outer face of which has been 
planed smooth and used as a stele for a picture of Ptolemy VI. and his queen standing before the 
gods Osiris, Isis and Horos ; and the writing below recounts how a portion of the country on either 
bank of the Nile about Assouan had been dedicated to Isis. The boldly incised figures on this half 
of the Pylon represent Ptolemy XIII. worshipping Horos and Hathor, and above, on a smaller scale, 
the same monarch offering himself to Horos, Isis and Osiris. On the western half of the Pylon 
Ptolemy XIII. in different sizes is seen performing similar acts of reverence before the gods Horos 
and Unnefer and the goddess Isis. (Unnefer was another name for Osiris, the " good " god.) The 
building which abuts on this western half of the Pylon is a portion of the Birth House. This temple 
may, like other adjuncts of the Temple of Isis, date from the reign of Nektaneb II., but its details 
are chiefly associated with the si.\th, seventh and thirteenth Ptolemies and with Tiberius Caesar. It 
is mainly concerned with the worship of the Osiris, Isis and Horos trinity (or these principles under 
other names — Unnefer, Hathor and Harpocrates, etc.), and the name " Birth House " is given to 
it because it illustrates the birth of Horos-Harpocrates. ^ [Harpocrates was more especially the 



390 



The Wonders of the World 



aspect of Horos as a child.] The rectangular Hypostyle Hall has ten columns \vith beautifully- 
carved capitals and a roof in good preservation, which, however, only covers half the hall. This 
Hall has records of the second, third and ninth Ptolemies, besides Coptic paintings of Christ and 
inscriptions of Coptic bishops of the sixth century. The walls and columns are covered with 
inscriptions and bas-rehefs, some of which, however, were cut away by the fanatical Coptic Christians 
during the hundred and fifty years which elapsed between the extinction of the worship of Isis\ (under 
Justinian) and the irruption of Islam. 

Although Horos, in divers aspects, seems to have been the oldest of the gods worshipped at 
Philse, pre-eminence was gradually given to Isis, the goddess-mother ; and the worship of Isis at 
Philse spread so much amongst the Fuzzy-wuzzy tribes of the Eastern Sudan — the Blemmues 
(Blemmyes) of the Greek-Egyptian writers and the Bisharin of to-day — that even when they warred 
with the Romans they generally arranged truces in order to be able to visit the Temple of Isis at 




Photo by'] 



THE HYPOSTYLE HALL OF THE TEMPLE OF ISIS AT PHIL/E. 



[Ikinfils. 



Philje. This attraction was only done away with by the forcible introduction of Christianity into 
Philae in the sixth century .\.d., and at a much later period by the conversion of all these regions 
to the faith of Islam. The Temple of Isis here illustrated was for a time used in portions for 
Christian worship, till, in the twelfth century, the Sultan Saladin sent his brother with a force into 
Lower Nubia to drive out the Christians and establish Mohamedanism. 

The Catacombs of Alexandria. — In the opening chapter of this work, the present writer drew 
attention to the Catacombs of Alexandria as having been reputed a world-wonder during the Middle 
Ages and down to the eighteenth century. The accompanying picture gives an excellent illustration 
of the entrance into these vast underground dwellings. The greater part of Egypt proper is of 
cretaceous rock of late Secondary formation ; the same limestone reappears in parts of Tripoli and 
Southern Tunis. In all these regions it lends itself with peculiar facility to carving, and from a 
remote antiquity this region has provided shelter and habitation for mankind, either in the natural 
caverns hollowed out by the dissolving action of water, or by the ease with which chambers could 
be scooped out of the solid rock, the outer surface of which conveniently hardens under the action 



392 



The Wonders of the World 



of the air. These Catacombs of Alexandria were no doubt in their origin vast caves created by 
the action of underground springs, but from an early period they were turned into underground 
dwellings and refuges in time of war, and in later ages, especially in Ptolemaic and Roman times, 
they became burial-places for the dead. Strabo, writing about the time of Christ, describes the 
vast Necropohs, or City of the Dead, which had been e.xcavated in the rock outside the walls of 
Alexandria. The excavations followed a very symmetrical plan,' and comprised seven chambers 

cut out of the hmestone, with 
a broad central passage and 
six subsidiary passages, besides 
a seventh which led into this 
small terminal chamber. 

There were probably three 
tiers of coffin-spaces on each 
of the three sides of the 
seven chambers, the fourth 
opening into the passage-way. 
In the catacombs used by 
the Christians the walls were 
painted with many pictures of 
the emblems of the Christian 
faith and wth portraits of 
the dead buried in the coffins. 
Now they are abandoned, or, 
at most, are used here and 
there for keeping cattle. 

The Victoria Falls.—The 
Zambezi River is the fourth 
longest watercourse in Africa, 
the other three greater streams 
being the Nile, the Congo, 
and the Niger. The Zambezi 
takes its origin on the granite 
plateaus of South-West Central 
Africa on the very verge of 
the southern basin of the 
Congo, on a line of water- 
parting so indeterminate that 
it is probably due to the 
strength or absence of winds 
at certain seasons that the 
lakes and marshes of this 
region send their overplus of 
water towards the Kasai- 
It is possible tliat at one time the River Zambezi created an 
immense freshwater sea in Southern Africa of which the last remaining nucleus is Lake Ngami. 
Meantime, there was another river^ also rising on the Congo water-parting, the Kafue, which 
flowed southwards and eastwards and received the waters from ancient and modern lakeS' in 
South-East Africa, which it carried into the Indian Ocean. But the great South African sea "or 
lake eventually broke through the granite and basalt barrier on the east, and the Zambezi 




Photo hv l>r 



A portion of the 



VICTORIA FALLS. ZAMBEZI. 








main fail of the \'ictoria Falls. Zambezi; 


the 


first 


fall is seen 


coming in on the right. 









Congo, or towards the Zambezi. 



Africa 



39 



o 



thenceforth joined itself to the 
Kafue and drained South Central 
Africa towards the Indian Ocean. 

The principal upper stream of 
the Zambezi is considered to be the 
Liba. This joins, after a course 
of some two hundred miles, with 
the Kabompo, which has almost 
equal claims to be considered the 
main stream. The Liba then re- 
ceives important affluents from the 
far west, rising on the confines of 
the Portuguese province of Angola 
and the mountain land of Bihe. 
Under the name of the Liambai 
the Zambezi flows through the 
fertile but swampy Barotse valley, 
which appeared to Livingstone — 
the great discoverer of the Zambezi 
— to be the bed of an old lake. 

At Gonye Falls, the original out- 
let of this lake, the river becomes 
straitened in breadth, and from here 
to Sesheke its navigability is hin- 
dered by rapids and by perfectly 
impassable falls. Beyond Sesheke 
the Zambezi-Liambai unites with 
the Chobe (Kwando). About a 
hundred miles east of its confluence 
with the Chobe, the Zambezi — then 
flowing nearly due south and over 
a mile broad — ^has its bed suddenly 
cleft by a chasm about four hundred 
feet deep — a huge zigzag crack in 
the intrusive basalt rock, which 
would have been regarded as an 
impossible feature in geography if it 
were not an actuality. The whole 
river — over a mile broad — plunges 
down into this narrow cliasni. 
throwing up immense columns of 
steam-like spray. On the extreme 
edge or lip of this chasm there an 
four or five raised lumps of rock 
which have become islands densely 
covered with trees. To a certain 
extent they break the uniform de- 
scent of the whole breadth of the 
river. Beginning on the south bank. 




J'hoto hp pr-rint^iiii' 



of] I I /If linliih .'>"iit/i A/rii-n Viniij'niii/. 

\ICIOKIA FALLS. 

The tnuiii iitWt of t!ic Zoinbc/i. where t.^e river, pluntiini: inl.> ihe Ion«. 
nurrow chn«m. ia nboul t5 i»«uc Ion Ine lefli llirjj^h a very nnrrov oullet 
between Ihiah walUi ofl rock. 



394 



The Wonders of the World 



there is first a fall of thirty-six 
yards in breadth, uniform in depth 
of descent to the rest of the Vic- 
toria Falls. Then Boaraka, a 
small island, intervenes, and there 
is only a thin veil of water de- 
scending over the rock in front of 
it. Next comes a great fall with 
a breadth of five hundred and 
seventy-three yards ; a projecting 
rock separates this from a second 
great fall of three hundred and 
twenty - five yards broad ; and 
farther east stands Garden Island ; 
then comes a good deal of the bare 
rock of the river bed uncovered 
by descent of water, and beyond 
that a score of narrow falls which 
at the time of flood constitute an 
enormous cascade nearly half a 
mile in breadth. 

Those falls, however, which 
are between the islands are the 
finest, and there is little apparent 
difference in their volume at any 
period of the year. Their vast 
body of water separates into 
spurts of comet-like form, and 
encloses in its descent a con- 
siderable volume of air, which, 
forced into the cleft to a great 
depth, rebounds and rushes up 
in a mass of vapour, thus forming 
the three to six columns of steam of smoke-like appearance which are visible to a distance of twenty 
miles and which gave their original native name to the \'ictoria Falls— Mosi oatunya— " smoke is 
sounding or roaring." 

After the Zambezi has descended into this narrow gulf, which is nearly twice the depth of Niagara, 
its wonder does not cease. Garden Island, almost in the centre of the falls, divides the cascade into 
two main branches at the bottom of the gulf, which flow round a vapour-hidden mass of rock, and 
after reuniting in a boiling whirlpool find an outlet nearly at right-angles to the fissure of the falls. 
This outlet is nearer to the eastern end of the chasm than to the western extremity and is no more 
than thirty yards wide. Within these narrow limits the Zambezi, which is over a mile wide when 
it plunges down the falls, rushes and surges southwards through the extremely narrow channel 
for one hundred and thirty yards, then abruptly turns and enters a second chasm somewhat deeper 
and nearly parallel with the first. Abandoning at the bottom of the eastern half of this chasm a 
growth of large trees, it turns off sharply to the west, and by another zigzag eastwards forms a 
promontory about a thousand yards long by four hundred yards broad at the base. Again another 
three zigzags through deep and narrow gorges and the trough begins to widen into a less abysmal 
gulf which gradually broadens and straightens as the river flows eastward in an easier descent.' ' In 




np.ijiij. 



Pholo by pei-mission o/1 [Thp Biiliili Smil/i Afn 

VICTORIA FALLS. 

An island of rocU in the main channel of the Zambezi, just helow the 
Victoria Falls, the smoke of which may be seen on the left top corner. 




I'hoto hy permiision "/J 



[TVif- lirilish i<<>Hth A/noi tuf/i/xiny. 



VICTORIA FALLS. 

The'Iip' of ihcj Victoria Falls secnt from the wcBlern' •ide, 



396 



The Wonders of the World 





«. 

t - 

•■«■(- ■ 



C^^^^^^^/^Ww 





xjht by} 



lUnde/'icood <{■ Underwood. 



iThe hous 



AN ARAB SHEIKH'S TOMB. WADI ALLAGI. 

-liUe tomb of an Arab sheikh in the Dareheib district of Eastern Egypt (near the Nubian Afps). 



the abrupt turnings of the sharply -cut trough the zigzag promontories of rock are flat and smooth 
and reduced to quite a narrow ledge at their extremities. 

In the Mining Districts of Dareheib, Eastern Egypt.— In the eastern desert of Egypt, between 
the Nile and the Red Sea, especially in the Nubian Alps, which rise above the Red Sea to heights 
of six thousand feet and less, there are traces of considerable mineral wealth. The Egyptians knew 
nothing of petroleum, which is now being sought for eagerly in tliis direction with some prospect 
of success, but they mined for gold, for emeralds and corundum. At places like Dareheib, where 
the smooth surface of the rock tempted them, they incised inscriptions describing often in 
magniloquent terms the power and wealth of the Pharaohs who sent out these mining expeditions, 
usually composed, as far as labour was concerned, of prisoners of war or slaves. 

The Wadi Allagi, or Allake, in this district, is the dry bed of what was once a great river with 
many tributaries draining the western versant of the Nubian Alps. Nowadays it rarely has even 
a pool of standing water, though about once in seven years or so a cloud-burst over the Nubian 
Alps sends down a flood towards the Nile which sweeps away men and beasts. The people who 
hve about Dareheib and elsewhere in this Nubian Desert are scarcely Arabs so much as people akin 
to the Hamitic race of North-East Africa, represented by the modern Bisharin, etc. The dialects 
of the more northern of these descendants of the Blemmyes are much corrupted with Arabic, but 
the general type of language is Hamitic, and, curiously enough, bears a shght resemblance in its 
suffixes to Hottentot, a fact already noticed by Lepsius a good many years ago. Many of the place 
and tribal names in this eastern desert of Egypt finish with the suffix -ab, or -b (Dareheib, Amerab 
^the Beni Amer tribe — Melikab, Hamdab, etc.). A similar mascuhne suffix exists in Hottentot. 

In the Oasis of Sitvah. — It has been mentioned once or twice how the " white " element in 
the Ancient Egyptians was probably due in the main to the colonization or invasion of Egypt by the 
Berber or Libyan tribes of North Africa. " Libyan," perhaps, is the most convenient term to 
describe this remarkable type of white man which in the countries north of the Mediterranean 
is knownlas Iberian.| The Libyan, or Berber race, has been the dominant type in Mauretania for 



Africa 



397 



thousands of j^ears, but it lias been suggested that this race originally dwelt in Syria, crossed the 
Nile Valley (sending colonies as far south as Abyssinia) and thenceforth colonized the whole rest of 
Northern Africa, including much of the Sahara Desert. The Libyans speak a form of language 
(extending even at the present day from the oasis of Siwah, in the western part of Egypt, to the 
Atlantic Coast of Morocco, and to the Upper Niger at Timbuktu) which is fundamentally related 
not only to the Ancient Egyptian, but to the Hamitic speech of the Galas. Ethiopians, and Somali, 
and even to the Semitic language family of Syria, Mesopotamia and Arabia. The ancestors of the 
Egyptians who founded the monarchy and the civiUzation of the Pharaohs seem to have been 
Hamites allied to the Gala and SomaU who entered the lowlands of Abyssinia from Arabia and 
thence made their way to the valley of the Nile. Here they mingled with the preceding Libyans, 
and also, later on, with the Nubians and negroes. For many centuries the Pharaohs of Egypt, 
however, warred with the Libyans of the west, who occasionally predominated in Egyptian 
affairs. 

At some ancient period these Libyans, or Berbers, developed a remarkable architecture in sun- 
dried mud wth a wooden framework. Tlieir use of Ftone never reached the science of the Egyptians 
and was seldom more than the piling up of unhewn stones without mortar. But with stones, mud 
and sticks they have from time immemorial built themselves vast castles throughout the oases of 
North Africa, castles which are not only intended for refuge and defence, but mainly for the storage 
of grain. 

The Statue of Ramses II. — On the site of Memphis and near the o'd Step Pyramid of Saqqara, 
already referred to, there lies prone a gigantic statue of Ramses IL — Ramses^the Great — of whom 
a description has already been 
given in this work in con- 
nection with the Temple of 
Karnak. This colossal statue 
near Saqqara was originally 
nearly forty-five feet high, 
and probably stood erect at 
the entrance to the long-since- 
destroyed temple of Ptah (the 
Vulcan of Egyptian theology). 
The statue is carved out of 
white chert (Umestone), and is 
considered one of the finest 
specimens of Eg^'ptian art. 

During the centuries of 
Muhammadan rule in Egypt, 
this noble symbol of Egyp- 
tian sovereignty has lost the 
greater part of its legs, which 
have been broken off by 
Turks and Egyptians to burn 
for lime. Muhammad Ali, or 
a succeeding Pasha of Egypt, 
is said to have presented this 
colossus to the British nation ; 
but if so, no attempt was 
ever made to remove it to 
the British Museum. And if 




l-'rom St^rfO eoppHfffitl'^} 



irniirrteood rf- Undfrwood. 



DAREHEIB. 



Ancient' EiEyptian in«cripliona on itic natural cliff face at Darehcib, near the 
Nubian Alps, tejttifyine to the worUins oF the mines in thii neitihbourhood by the 
Pharasha. 



598 



The Wonders of the World 



the story be true, it is most improbable that the British nation would now perpetrate such a 
breach of good taste as to take the statue away from its native land. But what we might do as 
a graceful act towards the New Egypt which is rising up under our guidance is to find the money 
to set this statue on its (restored) feet, and replace it on the site of the vanished temple of the god 

ptah the patron of engineers and artisans, the deification of the Metal Age. This would be a 

respectful tribute on our part to the genius of Ancient Egypt once the Light of the World. 

The Obelisk at Heliopolis.— Amongst the 
capitals of Ancient Egypt was the city of 
On, or An, named by the Greeks Heliopolis, 
and situated four or five miles to the north- 
east of modern Cairo. As its Greek name 
indicates, it was the City of the Sun, and 
possessed a great Sun-temple which was 
really a university of learning, a Greenwich 
Observatory, and a cathedral in one. Here 
the mysteries of astronomy were patiently 
studied, and hither after the fifth century 
B.C. came Greek philosophers to steep 
themselves in the lore of the Egyptians. 
All that remains of Heliopolis to-day is a 
single obelisk of red granite about seventy 
feet high, which in a simply written in- 
scription bears the name of Usertsen (or 
Senusert) I., a Pharaoh of the Twelfth 
Dynasty. 

Sandstorms near Khartum.- — One of the 
most terrible marvels of Nature to those 
m its proximity is the sinwoin, or dust- 
storm of the desert. This is especially 
characteristic of the Sahara, Libyan, 
Nubian, and Central Arabian deserts ; but 
the same phenomenon is met with in the 
desert regions of Australia, of Mongolia, 
and of North America. Usually before 
the rain comes, in most of the hot regions 
of the world there blows a hurricane of 
terrible force, and where this occurs in 
or near a desert, over a surface of sand 
or friable soil, the wind gathers up this 
dust into clouds several thousand feet in 
height and sweeps it over the sky, blot- 
ting out the sun or stars, and covering 
everything on the ground with a varying amount of dust or sand, sometimes to the extent of burying 
caravans of men and camels, towns and plantations, and even civihzed states, such as occurred 
some fifteen hundred years ago in Turkestan and Mongolia. The only recourse of those who see 
such a sandstorm advancing on them is to turn their backs to it, squat down and bow their heads, 
sheltering the face as much as possible with the arms. Sometimes the sandstorm assumes the 
form of one or more vast pillars of whirhng, revolving sand, called zobaa in the Egyptian Sudan, 
and believed by the Arabs to be " jinn " — genii, devils— moving rapidly on an errand of destruction. 




THE OASIS OF SIWAH. 

illage on the confines of Egypt (Oasiti of Siwah). 
These great clay castles are found right across North Africa from 
the confines of the Libyan Desert to Morocco- In Siwah was the great 
temple of Jupitcr-Ammon visited by Alexander the Great, 



J'fiuto ijj^ 



A Libya 



> 

H 

C 
m 



w s- 






3 

n 



O- r-^ 



'o a 




400 



The Wonders of the World 




OBELISK. HELIOPOLIS. 

the only relic of the ancient city of Helio- 
Eibout five miles north east of Cairo. It is 
of red granite, seventy feet high, and is supposed to have been 
<rccled hy Usertsen I. of the Twelfth Dynasty 



THE 

This monument 
polls, which was situated . 



The Hot Springs of Brand'vlei, near 
Worcester, South Africa. — After so much of 
the (Just, bare rock and mystery of Egypt, 
it is a relief to the mind to turn to a cool, 
well-forested, sheltered land, which in some 
respects is quite a new country, with little 
about it in tlie way of ancient history — so 
far as written records are concerned. If 
this be the definition of history, South 
Africa — more especially Cape Colony — must 
be regarded as a relatively new country ; 
for its entry into relations with civilized 
man begins with the reaching of the Cape 
of Good Hope by the Portuguese navigator, 
Bartolomeu Diaz, in i486 (though there is 
now some evidence to show that the Phoe- 
nicians, at the behest of Xeku, a Pharaoh of 
the Twenty-sixth Dynasty, sailed round the 
southern extremity of Africa and back to the 
Mediterranean about 600 B.C.). 

The south-westernmost portion of Cape 
Colony, as mentioned earlier in this work, 
is a region with a climate, a rainfall, and 
a flora peculiar to itself. The almost 
parallel mountain ranges push themselves 
in a triangle of earth-wrinkles close up to 
Capetown, where they terminate in Table 
Mountain. When the Government of Cape 
Colony first sought to reach the far interior 
by means of railways, the traversing of 
tliese coast ranges was a matter of con- 
siderable engineering difficulty. But by a 
series of zigzags the main line to the north 
is carried over the Olifants Mountains and 
makes an important junction at Worcester 
with the much more recently constructed 
line which passes thence to Mossel Bay, 
Port Elizabeth, etc. The town of Worcester 
has a population of about eight thousand, 
and is situated in a fertile, well-wooded 
district where a great deal of vine culti- 
vation is carried on at the present day. 

The country round about Worcester 
is particularly well wooded (for South 
Africa), and is abundantly watered by 
numerous streams descending from the 
mountains. A feature of considerable 
interest and possible utility in the neigh- 
bourhood is the hot-water springs of 



Africa 



401 



Brandvlei. about ten miles from Worcester, near the Breede River. This steaming hot water, 
which comes up from the earth in a boiUng condition, encourages a very hixuriant vegetation of 
almost tropical African character in the vicinity of the pool, and in tiie late autumn (the Cape 
spring) thousands of white arum lilies shine out amongst the undergrowth, ft will be observed 
that the branches overhanging the water are hung with the pendulous nests of weaver-birds, the 
briUiantly coloured, scarlet or orange-and-black tenants of which add to the charm of the scene, 
together with the flowers and the richly foliaged trees. The water, however, is too hot to batiie in, 
in situ, and dogs who plunge in heedlessly are scalded and killed. 

An Anthill, Ikoko, Congoland. — Amongst the oldest of existing insect types, so far as the 
zoological record goes, is the Termite or " White Ant." It is not an ant at all. but an insect of 
much older type, and more related in grouping to the cockroaches, grasshoppers, etc. But in the 
course of ages it has, like the far-more-recently-evolved bees and ants, developed a social condition 




/"/l.)^> hii) 



[i;„l..,-l Wlitlhr.-,,.!. 



.\ SANDS! ORM. 

An instunlancous pholoerapK of an approacKinK sondsloim near Kurluni, tlKVPIian Sudan. 



<if life bearing a considerable superficial resemblance to the organization of thosi' anls and bees 
that live in colonies. 

Termites are found at the present day nearly all over the warmer regions of the world, from the 
countries bordering the Mediterranean Basin to South Africa, Australia and South America. In 
earlier periods before the Glacial ages set in at the close of the Tertiary epoch, termites were probably 
found in Great Britain. Their existence in tropical countries at the present day attracts the 
attention of the unlearned and incurious by the relatively immense dwelling-places which they 
construct, usually out of clay and masticated wood. Perliaps in no part of the world are these 
" ant-hills " more noteworthy as features of the scenery tlian in Tropical Africa. They reach their 
climax of fantastic development in the drier part of Eastern Equatorial Africa lietween Galaland 
antl B)ritish East Africa. Here — for example, in the regions round Lake Baringo — they may rise 
to an altitude of nearly thirty feet, but are remarkably attenuated, like hpge fingers pointing skyward. 

27 



4o: 



The Wonders of the World 



In Senegambia and the regions of the Upper Niger they have many spires, but form a block as large 
as a small house, and often resemble a model of some fantastic cathedral. The illustration here 
given shows an ant-hill of moderate size in the central Congo region, within which the termites have 
enclosed palm-fronds. 

These insects live ordinarily on dead wood, or vegetable substances, such as paper or matting. 
They have a great dislike to a bright light and to the heat of the sun. Consequently, they work 
away from their homes cliiefly at night time and cover their path as they go by an arched film of 
clay. This they build as they go along towards the object they wish to devour, and then pass to 
and fro under the clay roofing. It is a common sight in Tropical Africa to see the trunk of a tree 
marked with these meandering lines of red clay, which, it will be seen, are directed towards some 
portion of the tree that is dead wood. 

" White ants " have an elaborate social organization. The males and the perfect female develop 




■iiiHiiMriK 




A SANDSTORM. 

Another vie\v of the approach of one of these storms of the desert thai leave 



their wake nothing but an arid waste 



wings, but the workers and soldiers — undeveloped females — have no wings. At seasons of the year, 
generally connected with the falling of rain after a drought, the winged males and the winged female 
issue from the ant-hills to fly about in the sunshine and to fall a victim to innumerable enemies — 
including man ; for termites, hke locusts, are esteemed a very great delicacy — equivalent to a 
sweetmeat — amongst nearly all negro tribes. [In negro " fairy " stories they take the place of 
sweetmeats !] Soon after their issuing out into the world, however, the great object of these winged 
insects is to get rid of their wings, for what purpose it is not very clear. The wings are not strongly 
attached to the body and are easily removed by the use of the creature's legs. Many an African 
housewife is exasperated after a rainstorm to find these wings strewn all over such open portions of 
her house as the flying ants have been able to reach. Each community only rears one perfect female 
at a time, an insect with a very long body. As soon as she is impregnated, the queen termite is 
built up in a cell, and her abdomen grows to enormous proportions on account of the immense 
number of eggs it contains. The neuters, or undeveloped females, consist of the humble worker 




f' '>■' 'l 



404 



The Wonders of the World 



and the ferocious soldier. This last is armed with a large pair of forceps at the end of his huge 
head, and can inflict (in the larger species) a very disagreeable bite. 

But apparently white ants can live on amicable terms with other creatures, such as snakes 
and earthworms. A termite hill is constantly used by snakes as their place of refuge, where they 
lay and hatch their eggs. But there are also blind, snake-like lizards and amphibians which frequent 
these great mounds, or live in them, and which undoubtedly feed on the termites being, however, 
impervious to the attacks of the soldiers owing to their armoured skin. Not only, however, do white 
ants serve as the food for many birds, but they have positively called into existence special types 
of ant-eating mammals, such as the egg-laying Echidna of New Guinea and Australia, the great 
and small toothless ant-eaters of South America, the armoured Manises or Pangolins of Tropical 
Africa and Southern Asia, and the Aard Vark (Earth Hog, Orycteropus), restricted at the present 
day to Tropical Africa, but once a native of Greece and Asia Minor. 

The Sixiy-fi've-feet-high Portrait Statues of Ramses II. at Aba Simbel.—The great Temple 
of Abu Simbel is situated on the west bank of the Nile in Lower Nubia, about forty miles north of 

Wadi Haifa, at a place where a 
great mass of sandstone rock 
conies down abruptly to the water- 
side. It is thought that at one 
time there may have been a slight 
lapid. or obstruction of Nile navi- 
gation, at this point, wiiich drew 
attention on the part of travellers 
to these bold and smooth rock 
surfaces, offering an irresistible 
temptation, as in many other 
parts of Egypt, for writing pur- 
poses. Having once mastered tlie 
principle of conveying ideas by 
pictures and signs, tlie ancient 
Egyptians seem to have found as 
great a pleasure in scratching, 
cutting, or scribbling names and 
announcements on smooth surfaces 
of rock (and no doubt tree-trunks) 
as any later Cockney tripper or 




globe-trotter. 



Tlie halting at this 



t'rvin at^reo copvfitjfll &,v] 

AN ANT-HILL AT IKOKO. 



iriiih-JinMl ,t riflfruoo,l. 

CENTRAL BASIN OF THE CONGO 



spot on the Nubian Nile ])rovoked 
the erection of shrines and of 
temples, and finally the great 
Ramses II. erected a splendid 
temple at what w^as tlien probably 
called Abshek. and finished it 
about the year 1359 B.C. 

The earlier temples had (it is 
thought) been dedicated to the 
cow-goddess Hathor, who was the 
presiding deity of the neighbour- 



This slranee erection of red clav is the work of the Terinite insect lerroneousli 
calfed " Wfiite Ant "I. 



hood. 



But the great temple 



built by Ramses H. was ascribed 



Africa 



405 



to '■ Tlie Sun on the Horizon " 
— " Har-em-akhu " (the Greek 
■' Harma\is "). A statue of 
this hawk-headed deity stands 
above the entrance to the 
temple, and regarding it Mr. 
Arthur Weigall writes : — " At 
early morning the sun's rays 
strike full upon it, so that the 
figure appears to be stepping 
forward to greet the sunrise. 
Along the cornice of the 
entrance a row of baboons 
has been sculptured seated in 
attitudes of worship, as in 
the belief of the Egyptians 
these baboons always greeted 
the uprising of the sun with 
loud cries. As the temple 
faces towards the east it is 
onl\- at sunrise that the light 
penetrates into the sanctuary : 
thus the whole temple is 
designed for the one hour of 
sunrise." 

Mr. Weigall justly remarks 
that although one may have 
wearied of the word-painting 
of the literary traveller in 
Egypt, one may in this in- 
stance adopt his enthusiastic 
language and describe the hour 
of sunrise here as one of pro- 
found and stirring grandeur. 

Mr. John Ward (Pyramids and Progress) gives an e.xcellent description of the effect of the rising 
sun in lighting up the interior of this vast rock temple : — " Early in the morning we were awakened 
to see the interior of the temple illumined by the raj^s of the rising sun. We penetrated in almost 
total darkness two hundred feet within the temple to the holy of holies. Suddenly the whole 
darkness fled. The brilliant rays of the rising sun burst through the wide portal. For a few- 
minutes the whole interior was lit up : the avenue of statues on each side became visible, the roof 
and lintel chsclosed their painted decorations. Ramses in his chariot, with his tame lion underneath 
it, galloping in fierce charge against the hated Hittites, and on the opposite side tlie same tyrant 
crushing the dark sons of Kush. Then as we wondered at the sudden revelation of the mysteries 
of the dark interior, tlie sun rose higher, and we were once more in darkness." 

The main feature of the great temple, however, is the four colossal seated figures hewn out of 
the rock. One of these colossi has lost its head and torso, but the others remain singularly unmarred 
by time or the malice of man, and display faces of real beauty which have been sculptured (on an 
enormous scale) w-ith remarkable skill. In between each colossus there is a smaller female figure, 
and between the legs of the colossi a still smaller representation of a male or female, princess or 




I HE lEMPLE OF ABU SIMBEL. NUBIA. 

7hr sixtv-fivc-fcet-hiBh portriiit statues of Romscs II. before the rock-hewn Temple 
of Abu Simbel. .\ubia. The Pharaoh is sitting in the ceremonious posture demanded 
of the divine ruler of the two Esvpts. with hand» reposing on his knees. He wears 
the tail double crown symbolic of his double realm of Upper and Lower Egypt. 



4o6 



The Wonders of the World 



prince. The legs of these colossi are covered with inscriptions, several of which are in Greek and 
date from the sixth century B.C.. having been written by Greek mercenary soldiers in the pay of 
King Psanietik II. There are also inscriptions in the Phoenician language. 

Diamonds and Diamond Mining. —'^'^^^ Egyptians were at one time believed to have found 
diamonds in the mountains of Eastern Nubia, and to have used them to point their drills and the 
teeth of their saws. Rut it is now practically certain that for these purposes they employed flint, 

corundum, emery powder and obsi- 
dian. Nevertheless, the antiquity of 
the diamond is considerable, and 
European knowledge of it goes back 
to Roman writers at the very begin- 
ning of the Christian era. Many 
centuries before it had been valued 
in India as a jewel and a substance 
harder than any other. But it was 
also believed that the wearing of 
diamonds was a remedy against in- 
sanity and a neutralizer of poison. 
As early as two thousand years ago 
the diamond was being employed in 
Western Asia and Greece as a point 
for gem engraving, but the "dia- 
mond " mentioned in Exodus as one 
of the stones in the breast-plate of 
the High iPriest is, states Dr. H. A. 
Miers, a mistranslation of the word 
vahaloiii. The diamond no longer 
holds the monopoly for hardness, the 
maximum rating of lo. It has a rival 
in a black mineral, tantalum, which 
belongs to the same group of sub- 
stances in vanadium, arsenic, and 
bismuth. Diamonds were first dis- 
co\-ered by intelligent human beings 
in the great Dekkan prolongation of 
India — a part of the old Gondwana 
land which once was united with 
Tropical Africa, Brazil and Australia. 
The diamonds of Golconda, however, 
have almost ceased to be, except, of 
course, in the splendid collections of 
jewels belonging to the Indian princes 
and the regalia of European monarchs. The next region to Central India for the discovery and 
working of diamonds was Brazil in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and Brazihan diamonds 
are probably the finest in the world. Diamonds, again, were discovered north of Brazil in British 
Guiana some twenty years or more ago. Next in its turn amongst Nature's surprises came South 
Africa, which has produced more diamonds than any other part of the world. Subsequently, and 
quite recently, diamonds of a Brazilian character have been discovered in Liberia (West Africa). 
They have also been found in Borneo and Austraha, so that this crystallization of carbon seems 




'<l .1 I'niUrtcood. 



Fi-om stereo fvpyriijht i_i/] \_i'ndr. 

THE TEMPLE OF ABU SIMBEL 

Interior of the rock-hewn Temple of Abu Simbel. showing the 
of Holies with the statues of the gods in the rear. The statue pillars 
represent Ramses II. in the form of Osiris, and the features of the King 
may be recognized, especially in the next to the last on the right. 



Holy 




[t'/uti'ritiwil ,{■ t'lulrrictHuI. 



From Sl^reo copyright byi] 

THE lEMPLE OF ABU SIMBEL 

The eaatern facade of ihe great Temple of Abu Simbel. Nubia, built in the reicn of R«m»c« II.. •hDwinu three of the 
four srcal colossi ol the entrance, and a portion of the row of sculptured baboons in the frieze at the top. These doa-hcadod 
monkeys were cspeciallv connected with sun worship, and hence we find them here facinR the risine sun with fore-paw* 
raised in adoratisn 



4o8 



The Wonders of the World 




[.V. /•. r.hrnr.ls. 



I.\ A DIAMOND MINE, KIMBERLE-C. 



A tunnel at a thousand feet belDw the level of the suiface in the great mine of fvimbcrley. South Africa, which 

belongs to the De Beers Company. 

to be remarkably characteristic of the now broken-up continent of Gondwana, wliich extended over 
the equatorial and southern tropics from Austraha past India, Ceylon, Madagascar and Africa, to 
Brazil. It is true that there was also, seemingly, a centre of diamond manufacture in the northern 
regions of the world — circumpolar, one might almost say : and that small diamonds have been 
found in Siberia, Russia, Lapland and North America. 

The diamond mining at Kimberley, which began with mere hand-digging amongst the pipes 
of blue clay in that desolate region, soon descended far into the bowels of the earth into what are 
probably ancient craters of volcanoes filled up with this " blue ground." Some of these tunnels 
reach to a depth of a thousand feet below the surface. They are well lit by electricity, and the 
general conditions of work in the Kimberlev mines for both white and black are on a high level 
of comfort and sanitation. 

Strange Peaks in the Drakensberg Mountains. — Allusion has been already made once or twice 
to the assistance wliich the ancient Egyptians derived (in their carvings of the natural rock into 
sphinxes and Pharaohs) from the accidental resemblance to human features found not infrequently 
in these promontories. In the Drakensberg Mountains of South Africa (wherein the highest 
altitudes of South Africa, over eleven thousand feet, are reached) there are fantastic crags and 
columns of weather-moulded rock which from certain points of view bear resemblances more or 
less striking to the heads of beasts or men. Here and there is one like a lion. In the illustration 
given, there is supposed to be a remarkable resemblance to the late Paul Kruger in the topmost 
crag of all. There is certainly a well-marked human face, with deep-set eyes, a long nose and a 
beard, but the present writer cannot agree that the likeness to the late Paul Kruger is particularly 
striking. If it had been discovered a little later in history it would probably have been called 
Cecil Rhodes. 



Africa 



409 



The Drakensberg Mountains (Kwathlamba of the Basuto and Kafir) are of igneous origin and 
date from the remote Permian age. They rise from out of a sandstone formation of somewhat 
later date (Jurassic), and form the boundary (more or less) between Basutoland, Natal, and the 
South-West Transvaal, but are mostly associated with the country of the Basuto. This African 
Switzerland is of itself a wonderland in South Africa. It has a mean elevation of about six thousand 
feet, and in area is a little smaller than Belgium. In every direction may be seen luxuriant valleys 
through which rivers thread their silvery courses, frequently plunging over chasms in magnificent 
cascades, one of which — Maletsunyane — is over six hundred feet in an unbroken leap. Above 
these fertile valleys, prairies, and ravines, rich in tree-ferns, rise the mountains, tier above tier, till 
the eye rests at last on the almost-eternal snows of the highest crests. The Alpine flora is very 
beautiful and is related to that of Table Mountain : but a good deal of the once-abundant forest 
has disappeared during the last fifty years before the ravages of the natives' bush fires. Similarly 
the wild animals have been nearly all destroyed by the Basuto since guns became common amongst 
them. 

But the present race of vigorous Bantu people was not the original inhabitants of the 
Drakensberg. This mountain region sheltered for ages in its caves and kloofs the little yellow 
Bushmen, whose paintings of wild animals on the walls of rock shelters and caverns testify mutely 
to their former presence in the land. The Basuto formerly dwelt in the more open, less mountainous 
plateau country to the north (Orange Free State). From this they were driven out by the raiding 
Zulu under Umsilikazi in the early nineteenth century. The Trek Boers came on the heels of 
Umsilikazi's bands and saved the remnant of the Basuto clans from destruction. The Basuto 
exterminated what remained of the Bushmen and took possession of their mountain home, realizing 
its wonderful defensive possibilities, not only against the Kafir-Zulu, but against the white man ; 
for the wily chief of the Basuto — Moshesh — soon realized that the white man in the form of Boer or 
Briton might in time come to envy the mountain land he had assigned unwillingly to Basuto 
settlement. First the Boers, then the British, and later the Cape Colonials, attempted, indeed, 
during the fifties, sixties, and eighties of the last century, to subjugate the Basuto and dominate 
their country. But the sturdy resistance they met with induced them to desist. In a way the whole 
allotment of South Africa between the black race and the wiiite has been mismanaged. The 




I'hoto I'll fifrtniiiii'n c/] 



Roui:h dinmond'. Kimbcrlcy. South Africa. 



[77(^ I'npr tlini'rnin^nt littilway*. 



4IO 



The Wonders of the World 



Basuto and similar clans should have been — in the middle of the nineteenth century — assigned 
sufficient tracks of cultivable and grazing land in the more open country of the Orange Free State 
and Eastern Cape Colony ; and tlie Drakensberg mountains and mucli of what is now Basutoland 
should have been constituted into a sort of White citadel in the heart of South Africa : the centre 
of British Administration and an ideal home for the white race. But although such conceptions 
as this passed through the minds of far-sighted men like the late Sir George Grey, the home states- 
men of the middle nineteenth century 
disliked the planning and carrying into 
effect of any far-reaching scheme for 
the ruling and colonizing of South 
Africa : anything which might pledge 
Great Britain to expensive or hazard- 
ous military expeditions at a great 
distance from the sea coast. 

The Zimbabive Ruins.— The great 
unsolved mystery of South Africa is 
the origin of such buildings as those 
(if Zimbabwe and the type of race 
which executed them. The news of 
the existence of these remarkable stone 
forts and pillars, and the gold-mining 
operations with which they were asso- 
ciated, was first conveyed to Europe 
by the Portuguese soldier-explorers of 
the sixteenth century. The Portu- 
guese were conducted to places like 
Zimbabwe by Arabs from the coast. 
Thev found all this interior country 
of South-East Africa, from the Central 
Zambezi down to the Limpopo, under 
the rule, more or less, of a very 
powerful negro emperor, " Monomo- 
tapa," as they called him (a corruption 
of Mwene miitapa, " Lord of the 
Mine"). But the mining operations 
carried on by the negroes of that day 
in their commerce with the Arabs were 
of a very primitive, surface character, 
and all these former centres of a great 
mining industry seem to have been 
then in a condition of ruin. If they 
were inhabited, it was in huts of clay 
stuck about amongst the gaunt evidences of the architectural skill of 




riiiilii by'] 

THE DRAKENSBERG 



MOUNTAINS. SOUTH 



[.V. /'. Kdicjnh. 

AFRICA. 



Strange peaks in the Drakensberg Mountains on the borders of Natal 
and the Transvaal. In the middle of the topmost block is seen enshrined 
a natural caricature of President Paul Kruger's head. 



and thatch (or thatch alone) 
some vanished race. 

The first accounts of these ruins remained buried in little-known Portuguese books, but Zmibabwe 
and other stone cities of the dead were rediscovered about forty years ago by Karl Mauch. a German 
explorer of considerable note. Once again, however, the discovery attracted little notice until this 
region was opened up to civilization by the efforts of Cecil Rhodes and his Chartered Company, of 
South Africa. The Rhodesian pioneers sent back such remarkable stories of Zimbabwe, that the 



IV 









rfi"f'< >'V p''r-mi.<xinn of^ [77if fii-Hish Snt/th A/ricn ConifHtttv. 

THE RUINS OF ZIMBABWE. 
The ouler wall at Zinibrtbwe. witli tlic " lierrin^-bone " pattern round the top- 




Photv hy permitsion of [Th'' lir\li»h South A/rxcn Cotnjiniiv. 

IHE RtTNS OF ZIMBABWE 

I he interior of Zimbab\%e < Rhodctio. Soulh-Eoat A(ric«l, Bhowinn one of the round to\ver», like ihoac o( Ireland, Sarainio. etc 



412 



The Wonders of the World 




Phvto bp pei'missu 



THE RUINS OF ZIMBABWE 

A view of ihe western temple-plalform of the Acropolis of Zimbabwe- 



late Mr. Theodore Bent went there with his wife to investigate what seemed to be the rehcs of a 
Phoenician civihzation. Since his time, the chief work in photographing and describing Zimbabw^e 
and similar places has been done by Mr. R. N. Hall. Besides these lofty walls of carefully adjusted 
stones surmounted with a handsome herring-bone pattern, there were discovered well-made towers, 
big monoliths of stone sculptured into the semblance of birds, stone phalli, and many implements 
for the mining, assaying and weighing of gold. But nowhere was there a single inscription, nowhere 
was there any engraving or picture on the rocks to assist in deciphering the history of these dead 
stone cities (which are strewn all over South-East and South-Central Africa between the Limpopo, 
the Zambezi and the Kalahari Desert). Nor have any human remains been found of any antiquity 
buried under these ruins, except those of negroes. 

Nevertheless, most of the explorers of Zimbabwe, down to about 1905, ascribed the origin of these 
ruins to some non-negro race, probably Arabians from South-West Arabia, or Phoenicians, or even 
ancient Egyptians, who had found their way along the coast of South-East Africa, had discovered 
gold in the streams and set to work to estabhsh a gold-mining industry.* Zimbabwe was. however, 
examined with close attention by Professor D. Mclver in 1905. and, later still, by Professor von 
Luschan, of Berlin. These and other scientific archjeologists have decided that there is at present 
no evidence whatever that Zimbabwe and similar stone ruins in South Africa owe their origin 
to any race of immigrants of an earlier date than about 1000 a.d. That is to say, they might have 
been built by the Arabs who settled along this coast so strongly from the tenth century a.d. onwards. 
But as there is not the slightest indication that Muhammadan Arabs did bui!d these stone walls 

* Theories like these inspired Kider Hag^^ard's no\eI of "She."' 



Africa 



41, 



and towers, and carve these stone birds and [ilialli. the only alternative is to suppose that the stone 
cities of South Africa were erected by some vanished race of negroes which had attained a civilization 
higher than anything (not of European origin) yet known in Negroland. The stone birds at Zimbabwe 
recall the art of Benin, but nowhere throughout the whole of Negroland has any negro tribe thought 
of using stone for building, except here and there in the north-east or north-west, when influenced by 
superior races from the North. The mysterv^ of Zimbabwe, therefore, remains completelv unsolved. 
Yet its history must form a very important factor in the past of Africa. 

The Tombs of the Mamluks, Cairo. — To the east and to the south of the walls of the citadel of 
Cairo are some remarkable buildings exceedingly picturesque in appearance and very arresting 
to the eye of the tourist with their domes and minarets. The group which lies to the north on 
the spurs of the Mokattam hills is known erroneously as the Tombs of the Caliphs (really the 
Circassian sultans of Egypt in the fifteenth century). This will be described and illustrated in a 
later part of this work. The illustration here given is of the Tombs of the Mamluks. which lie to 
the south of the citadel. These 
are tomb mosques, that is to say, 
mosques which have been built 
for purposes of prayer over the 
burial-place of some Mamluk nota- 
bility chiefly of the Burji group. 

The word Mamluk in Arabic 
means a purchased slave or cap- 
tive, from the root Malaka, " he 
possessed." The term was applied 
hv the decaying rulers of the great 
Caliphate on the Euphrates to the 
Circassian, Turkish, Greek, and 
Persian slaves whom they acquired 
in war or by purchase, and whom 
they trained specially for service in 
the army. These bold, personable 
youths became the dauntless cavalry 
of the Arab monarchs, and they 
were especially settled in Egypt 
under their great leader, Saladin, 
whose full name was An-Nasr Salah- 
ad-din Yusuf, the son of Ayub.* 
Saladin was the nephew of Nur- 
ad-din, the Sultan of Damascus. 
Saladin by his victories over the 
Crusaders (against whom he was 
despatched by his uncle the Sultan 
of Damascus), proclaimed himself 

* Keduccil to c'ssc-iuials, lii.s name was 
really "Joseph, the son of Job." The 
precctiin^ words are only himorific titles. 
Several of the "Yusuf" or Joseph place- 
names dotted about Kg)'pt have nothing to 

. , , , , . , r , J'fioto hit iii-rinhuon t>n il'/f /lrin.y/t >i>'il/t A trim I'l'iiipfii 

do with the legendary ijatnarcn of the ' 

Hebrew .Scriptures, or the husband of Mary, """^ RUI.NS Ol ZIMBABWE 

1ml art' rofemices to the Preal Sll'ldin ^ '"" ^^o"'^*^'''"! mnsonry o( llic /.inibnb\\r wnlln nnd Ittbyrinthii of alone. 




Africa 



4'5 



Sultan of Egypt in 1169. Saladin built the citadel at Cairo (Alburj), which was known by an Arabic 
version of the latinized German word borg (burg, burgus). From being cliieHy located in this citadel, 
the Turkish and Circassian Mamluks became known as " Burji." They were the Praetorian Guards of 
Egypt and raised and deposed sultans over that country, not infrequently their own commanders. 
From 1388 to the Turkish conquest in 1517, these Burji Mamluks (increasingly Circassian in extraction) 
were the ruhng power in Egypt, and their more notable sultans or commanders raised to themselves 
these magnificent tombs, now such a picturesque adjunct to the eastern side of Cairo. This Mamluk 
cavalry continued to exist even after the establishment of a Turkish pasha as controller of Egypt, 
and during the eighteenth century got back nearly all the power and government of the country 
into the hands of their leaders. They were finally crushed by Napoleon Bonaparte and exterminated 
bv Muhammad Ali in 1811. 

The Temples at Medinet Habu, Thebes.— -indent Thebes probably, as a capital city, bestrode 
both banks of the Nile and thus dominated both the " lands of Egypt," the West and the 
East.* But in course of time the portion of the metropolis on tiie western side of the great 

river became a city of the dead — 

the Memnonia of the Greeks — while 

the living town lay along the east 

bank, and is represented to-day by 

Luxor and Karnak. To the south- 
wards of Old Thebes, of the city of 

the dead, lies the \'alley of the 

Kings, and Medinet Habu. with its 

three mortuary temples and pavi- 
lion. Some of the ruins liere date 

back to Amenliotep I. of the 

Eighteenth Dvnast\' (about 1550 

B.C.). 

These temples are about a mile 

to the south of the great Colossi 

of Memnon, wiiich will be later 

described. They consist of two 

distinct structures side by side, 

dating from epochs separated by 

as much as one thousand years ; 

so that they have not the same 

angles of construction seemingly. 

The apparent position of the sun 

in the heavens having changed 

somewhat in this interval of 

time, it became necessary in tiic 

later-built temples to arrange tiic 

openings at a different angle in 

* The phrase, "ihc lands of Egypt," 
meaning the cminlries west ami cast of tlu- 
Nile in Up|KT Kgypt, occurs principally in 
ihc writings of ihc Xltli and Xllth, XVIIIih 
and Xl.Xih Dynasties, and must not lie con- 
fused with the other reference to the doulile 
kingdoms of KgypI (with their recognition in 
the double crown) — Upper and Lower Kgypt. 




I'lli'lo hli'j 



[I'luilu^hntm I'o. 1.1,1. 

THE PAVILION OF RAMSES III.. THEBES. 

The famous Pavilion ol Ramtci III. at McdincI Habu iThebc*'. wherein 
are depicted scenes of warlarc and of harem life typical of the life of an 
ERVPIian monarch in the period of the last Thcban Dynasty. 



4i6 



The Wonders of the World 



order to admit the sun's rays at the moment of sunrise into the hohes of holies on the day 
appointed for the worship of the sun-god. 

The perfect state of tlie ruins at Medinet Habu is due to a populous Christian settlement having 
been founded on the site of these temples. The splendid buildings were used for Christian rites 
by small churches or chapels being built inside their courts. Some lingering superstition no doubt 
prevented any destruction of the ancient buildings and their adornments. Somewhere about 
the thirteenth century of the present era the Coptic village was succeeded by one of Muhammadan 
fellahin. Medinet Habu became a populous town and its ramshackle houses rose above the platform 
of accumulated rubbish which had been a Coptic settlement for six hundred years. By the end 



■ *■>(- 




Vliulo bii] 



[lh:iijih. 



THE GREAT TEMPLE OF RAMSES III.. THEBES. 



The Hyposlyle Hall ol the Mortuary Temple built by Ramses III., the last of the "'great" Pharaohs of Egypt, who 

reigned between 1198 and 1167 B.C 

of the nineteenth century the Medinet Habu temples were completely buried in rubbish to the 
depth of one hundred feet. French archaeologists, working under the direction or permission of 
the Egyptian Government, gradually excavated the temples of Hatsliopsitu, Seti, Ramses III., 
and the Ptolemies ; for the local government made a friendly arrangement with the townspeople 
of Medinet Habu to remove to another site provided for them. 

The most noteworthy buildings of this group of Thebes ruins are these here illustrated — the 
Pavilion and the great Mortuary Temple built by Ramses HI. of the Twentieth Dynasty, the last 
of the " great " Pharaohs of Egypt, who reigned between 1198 and 1167 B.C. 

The Pavilion has a somewhat Asiatic look, with its crenellated towers, and this is due to the 
strong Syrian influence then prevailing at the Egyptian court, which affected the architectural style 
of the later Ramsesides. This Pavilion forms a kind of triumphal entiance to the great Mortuary 



Africa 



417 



Temple of Ramses III., which was probably adjacent to the King's Palace, and which lies beyond 
the first and second courts of the Temples of Amenhotep I. and Tehutimes I. On the walls of tlie 
Pavilion are many interesting scenes incised on the stone showing Ramses III. warring against 
Nubians and Libyans. Hittites. Amorites, Sardinians, Etruscans, Sicilians, and that mysterious 
people the Philistines. In the great Mortuary Temple, with its first and second courts and its 
tremendous Hall of Pillars (illustrated in the accompanying photograph), Ramses III. is described 
as "a plundering lion terrifying the goats," and "a mountain of granite which fell on the Libyans 
so that their blood was like a flood and their bodies were crushed on the spot." The King, in these 
battle pictures, is represented as charging into the midst of the Libyans and leaving behind him in 
his victorious career " sixty miles of butcher}'." The Libyans are represented with long hair and side 
locks and abundant beards, very like the Berber peoples of Morocco and Algeria at the present day. 
The Mortuary Temple ascribed to Amenhotep and his successor Tehutimes I., in the desert 
region bordering Thebes, is preceded by a First Court, and by a vestibule and pylons which were 
erected by the later Ptolemies and the Roman Caesars. The old Egyptian temple of the Pharaohs 
of the Eighteenth Dj'nasty (which ruled over the two Egypts between 15S0 and 1350 B.C.). is 
generally styled the Second Court. Although tliis temple was completed probably by Tehutimes III., 
it subsequently fell into ruin, and according to an inscription found on its walls, it was restored 
and rebuilt under the name of " the Splendid Throne of Amon-ra " bv a little-known Pliaraoh, 
Painezem L. who reitjned between lofiy and 1026 rx. 




Phnio 6k] 



1111; G,\LLEI<^ OF lEHUriMES I. 



Tehutimc* lor lKollimes> I, wn* the BUcccssor. prrhapB tKp son. of Amfnhotcp I., and a Pharaoh o( the Wlllth or 
srcateat 1 hrban " dvna«ty. This second court waa bcKUn by Amrnhoirp I. about I5S7 B.C. but was taken over and 
continued by Tehutimes I. and added to by his successors. 

2S 



4i8 



The Wonders of the World 



CHAPTER XIV. 

B^l SIR HARRY JOHNSTOX, G.CJI.G. 

The Barrage of the Nile at the First Cataract.— In describing preceding jphotographs of the 
Island of Phite and its temples, the history of Assouan and of Egyptian settlement at the First 
Cataract was dealt with in order to explain the subsequent importance' of Philae. Soon after the 
British occupation of Egypt, a study of the country by competent engineers led to the conclusion 
that no really great advance could be made in increasing the supply of water for irrigating Upper 
and Lower Egypt until, and unless, the Nile was dammed at the First Cataract. In spite of the 
great weir at Assiut and the barrage at Esna, and the celebrated Barrage twelve miles north of 
Cairo (begun by a French engineer in the middle of the nineteenth century, and finished by British 
engineers in 1890-1901), the supply of Nile water during the months of May and June was completely 
exhausted. In those months no water flowed out through the mouths of the Nile into the sea. It 
was all taken up in irrigating the agricultural regions of Egypt, and. of course, the limit of the water 

_^ supply meant the limit of cultiva- 
tion. Given enough water from 
the Nile — that is to say, from the 
tremendous rainfall of Central 
Africa — and the Desert of Egypt 
(except where the area is bare 
rock) could be made to blossom 
as the rose and provide the world 
with an enormous supply of cotton, 
wheat, sugar, and other vegetable 
products. The climate is so genial, 
the supply of sunshine so con- 
tinual, that perennial cultivation 
could be carried on throughout 
Egypt, if only there were sufficient 
water in this rainless land. Other 
considerations in selecting the site 
for a dam higher up than Assiut 
had to be taken into account, 
namely, that during the times of 
highest flood the Nile water is sa 
charged with alluvial matter that 
if, in this late summer and early 
autumn season of the year, the 
flooded Nile were banked up, it 
would soon deposit enough mud at 
the bottom of the reservoir to fill 
this vast receptacle in the course 
of a few years. It was necessary, 
therefore, to select some such site 
as the head of the First Cataract, 
where the Nile is well above- 




PttPio bill 



Thr 



yiillri.!i. 

A LOCK IN THE GREAT DAM AT ASSOUAN. 

is one of ihe upper row of locks or sluices, of which there are lorly 
in all. each seventy-five feet square. 



420 



The Wonders of the World 




ggfes- 



:^i 



. / 



.-,- r; 




-a 

1 



sea-level, to make a dam which 
would bank up the water of the 
river when it was not in flood, 
namely, during the months 
from December to April. Con- 
sequently, the site for the great 
dam of the Nile was fixed at the 
First Cataract above Assouan, 
where a dyke of red granite 
crosses the river valley. This 
granite is so hard that the river 
as yet has been unable through 
countless centuries to cut a deep 
channel through it. The dyke, 
in fact, was a sort of subscription 
tendered by Nature towards half 
the cost of damming the Nile, as, 
if it were made use of, there was 
no necessity for laying the foun- 
dations of the dam under water. 
This great feat of engineer- 
ing, nevertheless, offered many 
difficulties, and was, of neces- 
sity, extremely costly. The 
engineer who designed it was 
the celebrated Sir William Will- 
cocks. The contractors who 
undertook to carry out the 
work at a total cost of two 
million sterling, were the firm 
of the late Sir John Aird. 
The original plans of Sir Wilham Willcocks were interfered with by the outcry raised by 
archaeologists as to the fate of Philse Island. It was reaUzed that the raising of the level of the 
Nile during the winter months would submerge a good deal of Phila; Island and leave some of the 
principal temples standing in the water. So to content these cavillers (who, as events subsequently 
turned out, were exaggerating the damage which would be done to the monuments) the scheme 
•was modified. At present the greatest depth of water which is stored up in the dam (which is one 
and a quarter miles long across the river) is sixty-five feet. The dam is pierced by one hundred 
and forty under-sluices of one hundred and fifty square feet each, and by forty upper-sluices seventy- 
ifive feet square. When these are fully open they are capable of discharging three hundred and 
fifty thousand cubic feet of water per second. The storage capacity of the reservoir (which forms 
a lake above the First Cataract nearly two hundred miles long) is about three million seven hundred 
and fifty thousand cubic feet of water, a capacity which is reached about the end of March. 

On the west side of the dam a canal has been made with four locks, so that the navigation of 
the Nile is not obstructed. 

The success of this work has been so great that it has silenced the protesters against damage 
which might be done to some of the architectural remains of Ancient Egypt. In 1907 the Egyptian 
Government decided to carry out the plan originally designed by Sir William Willcocks, and to 
raise the Assouan dam twenty-six feet higher than the present level. 



From Stereo copyrigfiQ 

An obelisk ninetv-lwt 
Cataract, near Assouan. 
some fla\v- in the stone. 
3.830 years ago. Large 
feet of unspoilt granite. 



1 



[r„j,v,f:...,/ ,( /■,,,/<, 



I feet long, slill lying in the granite quarry at the First 
This obelisk, partly cut out. was probably rejected for 
by the architect of Senusert I. tXIIth dynasty), some 
blocks have been hacked off it, but it still measures forty 




o -x 



< s = 






C2 a 



Af 



nca 



421 



Ninety-Ttuo foot Obelisk still lying in the Granite Quarry near the First Cataract, Assouan. — 
The region round Assouan was regarded by the Egyptians of early days, even as far back as the First 
and Second Dynasties, as semi-sacred, owing to the beauty of its red granite (syenite). The quarries 
from which this stone was cut lie in the eastern desert between Assouan and Shelal. In the first 
quarry to be reached from Assouan, a huge unfinished obelisk, about ninety feet in length and nine 
feet in breadth, may be seen, quarried but not removed from the parent rock, and with sides that 
have not been fully trimmed. Another obehsk lies similarly amongst the rocks near the railway 
station of Shelal. Mr. Weigall points out that a similar obelisk erected at Karnak, and obtained 
from these quarries, was cut from the granite matrix, despatched two hundred miles to the north, 
and erected in seven months from the time at which the order for it had been given. 

The method employed for quarrying these stones in the times of the Ancient Egyptians was to 
make a series of wedge-shaped holes (by means of drills and picks) along a straight line. Into 
these were hammered wooden wedges, which were then soaked by water being poured over them. 
As the wood expanded it cracked the stone. The blocks split off from the hillside were then roughly 
dressed with copper tools and conveyed along a paved causeway of stone till they could be dragged 
by ropes to the water's edge. Traces of the wedge-shaped holes may still be seen in the rock 
surrounding the quarries. 

A Sand Sea on the Algerian Frontier.— The Sahara Desert is not all sand, as is sometimes 
popularlv supposed. Much of it is stony ground, or there may be high mountains. But all the 
low-lying regions, some of them at no great altitude above sea-level, and almost certainly the sites 
of former lakes or inland seas, are covered to a greater or lesser depth with sand. These are the 
areas known in North African Arabic as Arg or Erg. In Southern Algeria there are two main regions 
covered with these dangerous shifting sands — that on the south-east, which extends over a portion 
of Southern Tunisia, and that of the south-west. In proximity to these shifting sands there may 




A SAND SEA ON THE ALGERIAN KRONTIER. 

Thfse landscapes of sand, with their hills and vallcVJ. aie conlinuallv shiftinc their features under 

They are firm to wall* on nevertheless. 



vind or even a breeze. 



422 



The Wonders of the World 



be oases, which in the peace and quiet resulting from French rule, are developing an important 
agriculture. The sand, however, carried by the wind has been gradually encroaching on the fertile 
parts of North Africa, and if it were not checked by man, would in time extend the area of hopeless 
desert very considerably, just as it has done, and is doing, in Mongolia and Northern Tibet. 

I have ridden along the outskirts of the sandy sea in Southern Tunis, and it is a very impressive 
sight when a strong wind begins to blow, to see the landscape alter under one's eyes. The tops are 
blown off ridges, fresh hillocks are formed, and valleys tilled up. One is never free from the dread 
that too strong a wind and too much sand may blow in one's own direction and engulf one's horse. 
Of course, in this way, under the strong winds which create the dust-storms, many a caravan has 
been buried; while by a subsequent blowing of a strong wind years afterwards the mummied 

remains of dead men and 
beasts have been once more 
exposed to sight. Very slowly, 
little by little, man encroaches 
on the sandy desert. The 
only way in which the sand 
can be fixed is by the spread 
of vegetation, and this can 
be achieved either by a 
change of climate, which in- 
duces rainfall, or by irrigation. 
The climate is changed and rain- 
fall is attracted by the growth 
of trees. Moisture spreads far 
and wide from each centre of 
cultivation, and even if at first 
it produces little more than 
heavy dews, these make it 
possible for small plants to 
maintain existence on the sand, 
and so by degrees to cover this 
fluctuating soil with a thin coat- 
ing of vegetation which arrests 
its movements and prepares it 
in course of time for cultivation. 
A Sarcophagus in the Tombs 
of the Bulls, Memphis. — The 
Tombs of the Bulls are on the 
site of vanished Memphis, near Sakkara, about fourteen miles south-west of Cairo, on the west bank 
of the Nile. These enormous sarcophagi lie in subterranean chambers or galleries in the ruins of 
what was once called (by the Greeks) the Serapeion — the temple erected and dedicated at a very 
early period (First or Second Dynasty) to the god Hesiri-hapi (Osiris-apis, or Serapis, as the 
Greeks rendered it). Very early in Egyptian civilization began the deification of the Ox (BuU or 
Cow), a religious feeling which fingers still in parts of Negro Africa and throughout Hindu India. 
Hathor (better written, Hat-hor, or -har) — the house of Hor, the sun-god — was the Cow-goddess, 
symbolizing the fertility and productiveness of the female principle : Hapi (Apis) was the Bull-god, 
the splendid emblem of masculine force sometimes associated only with animal worship, sometimes 
treated as emblematical of the perfect, most virile type of man — Hesiri (Osiris) especially. To 
accomplish the worship of Hapi or Hesiri-hapi, it became the practice in remote times to select 




Slereogiaph hy-\ [//. c. Wliilr Co. 

THE SARCOPHAGUS OF A BULL IN THE RUINS OF THE 
SERAPEION AT MEMPHIS. NEAR CAIRO. 

In this and similar gigantic tombs the Sacred Bulls were buried with solemn 
riles. Tn£ tombs are of syenite (Assjuan* granite, and are large enough to hold five 
persons. 



H £ 



k 



_ -1 

J X 

C 

3 ■" 

S 33 

S > 

r > 



o 7-. 

2, > 




'VJ '-'Hi'/, 

km- 








424 



The Wonders of the World 



special black bull-calves born with peculiar white markings. Such a calf was transported to 
Memphis and sumptuotrsly lodged in a court of the temple. ' Here it remained, an object of worship, 
till its death. Then followed a period of mourning and a costly funeral. The carcase of the bull 
would be buried in an immense stone sarcophagus (of wliich the accompanying photograph is a 
good example), and over tlie sarcophagus a small temple would be built. During the Nineteenth 
Dynasty, and down to the times of tiie Ptolemies, however, another plan was adopted by the priests. 
Two great galleries were excavated in the rock, and the sarcophagi of sacred bulls were ranged along 
the sides in tomb-chambers. In these later times, moreover, careful registers were kept of the 
sepultures, giving the dates of birth, of deification and of death, and often the name of the birthplace 
and the name of the mother cow. fin all reference to dates in Egyptian chronology it must be 
understood that they were the number of the years of a Pliaraoh's reign, much as we date our laws 
from the first, fifteenth, or other year of Victoria, or George III., or Edward VII., etc. 

Lest we should think this worship very ridiculous on the part of the Egyptians, let us remember 
that we have the same inclinations about racehorses, pedigree cattle and dogs I 

The Step Pyramid ai Sak- 
kara. — This interesting monu- 
ment is of unknown age, but is 
supposed to go back to the be- 
ginning of the great dynasties 
of kings in Egypt. It is con- 
siderably older than the Giza 
Pyramids, and is often cited 
as an example of the Step 
Pyramid which preceded the 
more perfect structure with 
sides of smooth, unbroken 
masonry. Its place in the 
genesis of the pyramid tomb 
has already been alluded to 
in an earlier portion of this 
work.* 

The Pyramid of Sakkara| 
is situated a little to the west 
of the site of the old Egyptian 

" Piufessor Flinders Petrie believes 
tliat the Step Pyramid was built (at 
any rate as regards its nucleus) by 
King Neterkliet of the Third Dynasty 
about 6.000 years ago. 

1 The more common spelling of the 
name is Sakkara, but Egyptologists 
prefer to use the q as a more exact 
equivalent of the thick guttural met 
with in Arabic, in Ancient Egyptian 
and in allied languages. This guttural 
seems to have penetrated to the 
Southern Aryan tongues, such as Greek 
and Latin. It is the parent of our 
letter q. In the modern Egyptian 
dialect it is often replaced by a gasp 
or a hiatus, so that Saqqara is often 
pronotmced by the donkey-boys Sa'ara. 




IHE ENTRANCE TO THE SERAPEION AT SAKKARA. 

Tne exiraDrdinary Srrapeion tSerapeum'. or burial place of the Sacred Apis Bulls, 
was discovered by Mariette. a French Egvptclogist, about thiitv years ago. Hel\vorIi«-'d 
cbiefly on slight indications in the writings o\ the Roman geographer Strabo. 



Africa 



425 



capital of Memphis (" Meii- 
nofer," or " the good place." 
as it was called by the Egyp- 
tians). It is probably the 
tomb of a king of the First 
Dynasty, and consists of six 
courses of steps made of small 
stones, put together with very 
rough masonry. Originally — 
namely, when first constructed 
—it was much smaller. Then 
it was added to at different 
times, but for what purpose, 
or in whose honour, is not 
yet known, the Step Pj-ramid 
being one of the unsolved 
mysteries of Eg\'pt. 

The Roman Aqueduct ai 
Tunis. — This is a \ery promi- 
nent feature in the scenery, 
and anyone driving about the 
outskirts of Tunis is bound to 
pass and re-pass this wonder- 
ful aqueduct, which originally 
covered a distance of over 
forty miles. It was built by 
the Romans to convey the 
water from the summit of 
Zaghwan mountain to Car- 
thage. The ruins near Tunis 
are chiefly met with in the 
slight depression of the Wadi 
Melam (near the Bardo 
suburb), and are usually 
known as the "Spanish" 

Aqueduct, because the Spaniards, during tla-ir thirty-five years' ()ccu]>ation of Tunis 
sixteenth centviry. restored the aqueduct to partial use. 

The Street of the Camels, >l/^rer5.— Algiers, like so many towns of the North African coast, 
is of great antiquity as a centre of human habitation, though under its jircscnt name (which is 
supposed by some to be a corruption of the Arab words Al-jazair— the islands— from two little islets 
which have since been linked to the mainland, and by others to be the corruption of an old Berber 
name, Jir or Zir) it only dates from the tenth century of the Christian era. wlien it was built or 
rebuilt by the son of a great Berber chief named Ziri. In this period it was sometimes known as 
Jazair bini Masghanna. or the two Islands of the Sons of Masghanna. But it was simply the 
rebuilding of the Roman town of Icosium, which had been partially destroyed in the fifth century 
by the Vandals ; and Icosium was only a Roman continuation of a Numidian town which had 
preceded the Roman settlement. This, again, can be traced back to the remote antiquity of 
Neolithic times. Curiously enough, before Algiers became a human settlement the site or the vicinity 
of this town, which has little streams of fresh water flowing down from the hills and mountains 




THE IMERiOR OF THE SERAPEION AT SAKKARA. 

In the Serapeion there is an avenue 600 feet long, with hundreds of sphinxes to 



cuide the way. On either side of a vast subterranean hall, to w.-hich this avenue 
leads a hall 1.200 feet Ions there were v.jults for the granite sarcophagi of the 
Sacred Bulls. 



the 



426 



The Wonders of the World 



behind, was the haunt of enormous quantities of wild animals. In the truly beautiful botanical 
gardens of the city, which are half an hour's tram ride from its centre, the remains of the African 
elephant, the hippopotamus and a huge buffalo with enormous horns are constantly being dug up. 

The Rue des Chameaux is one of the many picturesque streets of Moorish Algiers. This phase 
of the town — as a great capital of the Moorish corsairs — began in the sixteenth century, after 
Algiers had been snatched from the Spaniards by the Turkish pirates nicknamed the Brothers 
Barbarossa, who not only repulsed the Spaniards, but laid the foundations of a Turkish dominion 
over much of North Africa. During the si.xteenth century much of the picturesque part of the town 
was built. Fortunately, a good deal of it remains to delight the eye of the tourist, for beyond 
question the old parts of Algiers are one of the most picturesque incidents in the world's scenery. 
These streets ascend by innumerable short steps to the heights above, on which the great Kasba. 






■.■t 




Steieoijtajtfi Ity] 



[«. C. While Vo. 



THE ROMAN AQUEDUCT. NEAR TUNIS. 



This aqueduct now only remains in portions, but it extended once all the way from the upper part of Zaghwan mountain to 

Carthage, a distance of abjut fortv-fivc miles. 

or fort, was constructed. In spite of the steep climb, some of these streets, such as that which is 
here illustrated, could be ascended by camels. Others are only accessible to human beings on foot. 
The ascent to the Kasba by these narrow streets is an indispensable excursion to all who are able 
to stand a little fatigue. The fronts of the houses usually project to meet one another, and the 
overhanging balconies are supported by rough-looking sticks, but the doorways are frequently of 
beautiful Saracenic designs, and every now and then the passer-by catches a vista of surprising beauty 
as he looks through one of these horse-shoe arches into a tiled patio glowing with bright flowers and 
tropical plants. In some of these streets the manners and customs can only be vaguely indicated in 
a book for general reading, but it may be said that they transport one at a glance back to the disso'ute 
times of the Roman Empire : consequently, those woo are easily shocked by crudities should not 
be pressed to traverse the old Moorish part of Algiers. 




Pholo bjij 



THE STREET OF THE CAMELS. ALGIERS. 



Th. »lr«t. of AUier,. o( which the Strr.l ..( ih. C.mcl. „ o„c of .he bet .x.tnpi 



let. a»cend by innumerable short 



aleps to the heicKts above, on wh 



iich trie airr-ei oi mc v^hhk^'v .- «..v. -■ . , , . .l ( •. «f ik- 

ich the ere.. K..b. or for. „,. conMrueted. On e.ch side of .he.e ..reel, .he fron.. of .he 



s.eps .o .lie heiuhta aDove. on wn.tn i..>: n.^.. ■ .,;,L. 

hou.es proiec. .o mee. one »no,her. .nd .he overh„n,in. balconie. .re .appor.ed by roueh-look.ne ,.,ck.. 



428 



The Wonders of the World 



The Baobab Tree. — The Baobab tree {Adansonia digHata) belongs to the natural order of 
Mallows or Malvacea. and to the tribe or group Bomhacea:. which comprises three species of gigantic 
trees — Adansonia (represented by two species, one in Africa and the other in Australia). Bomhax 
(the magnificent silk cotton trees of Tropical Africa, Asia and America — mainly American), and 
Eriodendron, a gigantic tree with spiny trunk, also found in South America, Africa and Eastern 
Asia. The trees of this Bombax group are very prominent objects in these tropical landscapes, 
and from time immemorial have attracted the attention of savage man, who has sometimes made 
them objects of worship. They are also immediately noticed by the tourist travelhng through 
these countries, the Baobab on account of its enormous, gouty stem, and the Eriodendron and 
Bombax from the huge, rigid, wall-like buttresses which support the elegant, lofty stem of the tree. 
The Baobab and its allies are related to the Cotton Plant (Gossypium), and the Bombax trees of 
America yield in their seed-capsules a beautiful silky substance which is of some use in commerce. 
Tlie very large seed-capsule of the Baobab, on the other hand, contains nothing but a pinkish- 
white pith. This, however, is flavoured with an agreeable lemon taste, and when chewed in 
the mouth of a thirsty traveller produces almost the illusion that he is drinking lemonade. It is 

sometimes called the " Monkey 
Bread Tree," because baboons 
break up the large calabashes 
to eat this pleasant-tasting 
pith. During the dr\- or winter 
season the Baobab sheds its 
leaves : indeed, it is so prone 
to this condition of leafless- 
ness that most photographs 
taken of it represent it in that 
condition. 

W'itli the first rains, how- 
ever, it pushes forth its digi- 
tate light-green leaves (some- 
thing in shape like those of a 
horse-chestnut), and, above all, 
develops its remarkable flowers. 
A Baobab tree in full flower is 
a very notable object in the 
African landscape, for this 
gigantic monster (with a trunk 
perhaps thirty feet in diameter, 
covered with glabrous pinkish- 
grey bark and expanding into 
huge gouty branches) is hung 
with what appear to be at a 
distance little golden lamps 
hanging by strings perpen- 
dicularly from the branches. 
These are the flowers, which 
are large, with thick, whitish 
petals, looking very much as 
though they had been cut out 
of felt. The flower develops 




I-holn by pfjmisxiini of] [t. ifnilfrtihngnu 

A BAOBAB IREE. RHODESIA 

This monster is rather i colossal plant, distantly allied to the Mallows and the cotton 
plant, than a true tree. Its huge trunk is hollow, as are all the larger branches. 



Africa 



429 




Pholos 6.v] 



ir.vnjil,. 



A minaiel of the Mos 
A z h a r , with a view ■ 
of Cairo. 



jue of AI- 

if the citv 



Another minaret of the Mosque of 
Al-Azhar. 



A minaret of the Mosque of Al- 
Azhar, with the Muezzins callinR 
to prayer. 

These minarets of the AI-Azhar or " splendid " Mosque, which is the Muhammadan University <»t Cairo, are much 
admired (or their carving and for the alabaster and marble introduced into their decoration. But the architectural style is 
Turkish rather than pure Saracenic. 

an enormous number of stamens of golden yellow, and hangs~quite perpendicularly by its string- 
like stalk from the branch above. 

The wood of this gigantic vegetable — for it is little else — is very light and pithy. Consequently, 
the tree is sometimes hollowed out by the natives to form a temporary house or shelter, or is made 
into a cistern to hold supplies of water. The bark is fibrous and of some use in commerce. 

The Mosque and Uni'versity of AUAzhar, CatVo.— This word is pronounced " Az-har," not as 
though the zh were pronounced hke z in azure. The foundation of Al-Azhar (" Gami-al-azhar " = 
" The Splendid Mosque ") as a teaching centre seems to date from the time of Jauhar, the general 
of the Caliph Al-Moizz, the creator of Cairo. Jauhar, who did much to encourage the revival of 
learning in Egypt, made this mosque a university in 988 .\.u. ; but some of the minarets and the 
greater part of the buildings of the mosque and university date from what may be called the 
"Silver Age" of Muhammadan Egypt — the period between 1270 and 1500. Additions were also 
made in 1720 and 1855. 

Though Al-Azhar, until the recent uprising of Indian institutions, has been regarded as the 
principal Muhammadan university in the world, its teaching was, and is, of little help to Egyptians 
wlio wish to become world citizens and play a part as important as that of Christian men. Teaching 
in the courts and corridors of tliis vast mosque was hmited to a study of the grammatical inflection 
and syntax of the Arabic language ; the principles of rhetoric based on the work of ancient Greek 
philosophers ; versification (about as useful in the struggle for life as the similar fetish worship of 
the Latin verse still wasting the time of our youth at notable English public schools) ; logic ; juris- 
prudence as based on the law laid down in the Koran and in the accepted Traditions (Hadith) which 



430 



The Wonders of the World 



are a kind of supplement to the Koran ; and also algebra and a certain amount of mathematics, 
especially such as are of use in the fastidious calculations of the Muhammadan calendar and religious 
observances connected with times of prayer. But the chief purpose of the university was the 
inculcation of the orthodox Sunni views on Muhammadan theology, the exposition of the Koran 
and the traditions of the Prophet. 

In the shght revival of civilization in Egypt, which the changes wrought under the reign of 
Ismail Pasha brought about, an attempt was made to introduce modern teaching on philosophical 

questions into the Al - Azhar 
University through the engage- 
ment of Afghan or Indian 
lecturers who had dared to 
cast aside prejudice and study 
deeply the remarkable works 
of Spanish Muhammadans of 
long ago, such as those of 
Avicenna. 

An Afghan professor, named 
Jamal ad-Din, attempted be- 
ween 1872 and 1878, to ex- 
pound Avicenna and similar 
writers to the students at Al- 
Azhar, and to open their 
minds in regard to real facts 
in geography and astronomy 
(for at Al - Azhar, probably 
till the present day, the 
students have been taught, or 
allowed to believe, that the 
sun goes round the earth and 
that the earth is the centre of 
the universe). 

Jamal ad-Din brought with 
him a globe into the Al-Azhar 
Mosque with which to explain 
the form of the earth and the 
chief ideas now held about 
mundane geography and the 
universe in general. But the 
other and more orthodox pro- 
fessors opposed him almost with 
violence, forbade his entrance 
into the mosque, and in 1879 
procured his exile. So long as the Muhammadan world allows by common consent knowledge to be 
strangled by religion at its fountain head, so long they will occupy a position of hopeless inferiority to 
the Christian nations who have now shaken themselves free of similar trammels. No doubt the 
education at Al-Azhar is less irrational than it was twenty-five years ago, and lessons in geography 
and astronomy are more in accord with the science of Europe. But there is no information to hand 
that its course of teaching is such as to fit its students to play a useful part in the administration 
of Egypt. 




Photo by] 

A GENERAL 



/ ■',,nis. 
MOSQUE 



VIEW OF THE MINAREIS AT THE 
OF AL-AZHAR, CAIRO. 

Though the Mosque of AI-Azhar was founded in the tenth century and though 
much of its structure dates from the Silver Age of Saracenic art in EgvDt (four- 
teenth and fifteenth centuries), these minarets are much more 
been built or restored in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. 



node 



and ha 



432 



The Wonders of the World 



A good deal of the 
architecture of the mosque 
is beautiful, though the 
style has been spoilt rather 
by Turkish influence in 
the last two centuries. 
From its minarets resound 
with peculiar force and 
fervour the calls to prayer 
by the Muezzin and the 
Muhammadan profession 
of faith: "There is no 
other God than Allah, 
and Muhammad is the 
prophet of Allah." 

The Ramesseum at 
Thebes. — Amongst the 
mortuary temples of the 
Kings of Egypt in that 
curious series of bifur- 
cating valleys or wadis 
{which no doubt repre- 
sent an ancient back- 
water of the Nile at 
Thebes) are the temples 
of Medinet Habu (already 
described) and the Ra- 
messeum. 

To reach the Rames- 
seum the tourists ride 
away from the western 
at Assouan. bank of the Nile opposite 

Luxor, on donkeys — one or more of wliich is sure to bear the name of Ramses — past the 
Colossi of Memnon, past cultivated fields with fragrant crops, full of flowers and lively with quail 
and hoopoes, to the unreclaimed sand of the desert, out of which rises in front of a background of 
chffs the Ramesseum, the only remaining temple still standing out of a group of six, the foundations 
of which were brought to light by Dr. Flinders Petrie in 1896. These si.x temples were side by 
side, and (according to Mr. John Ward)* in one of these temples was discovered the great Stele 
of Merenptah (the successor of Ramses II.), the supposed Pharaoh of the E.xodus, whose army, 
pursuing the retreating Israelites, was engulfed in the mud or the waves of the Bitter Lakes, or 
some other prolongation of the Red Sea. On this stele was found the first mention in any Egyptian 
inscription of the Israelites, if the allusion applies to this people rather than to any other section of 
the gipsy Semites — the hated Hyksos, or Shepherd Kings. 

The Ramesseum is believed to have been commenced by tlie Plraraoh Seti I., the father of 
Ramses II., though it is always regarded as the mortuary temple of the last-named, whose tomb is 
situated farther to the west in the valley of the Tombs of the Kings. Upon the walls of his great 
mortuary temple Ramses II. caused to be sculptured various scenes from his wars and his dealings 
with the gods of Egypt, especially Amon-ra. Under the Ptolemies this Temple of Ramses II. was 

* ■• Pvramids antl Procrress. " 




-.v-afc-W'-^ •^■^' -•• - >-•■:.•:- ■-..•at ** 



- V -X- 



-f -^, ■■.-_ 






>'>0.t*V 



[//, 



W'hu 



^X'hen coi 
seven to fift 



'inplet< 
eight 



FALLEN 

this stati 
feet in hei 



STATUE OF RAMSES II.. THEBES 

je must have weighed over a thousand tons. It was fif ty- 
ght. and was cut out of a single piece of red granite quarried 



Africa 



433 



called the Tomb of Osymandyas (the Greek translation of one of the names of the titles of Ramses II.) 
art was called tl e Memnomon. and the name Ramesseum was only given to U by one of the 
first o modern Egyptian arch.ologists, Champollion (1828). Down to the begannmg of the Roman 
pr^od in Egypt S£ temple remained m excellent preservation, and contamed a colossal gn.mt 
statue of Ramses II. some sixty feet in height, but a good many centuries ago this figu e was 
hat'redby ightning and is now a heap of broken blocks. When complete this statue mus hav 
weghel ove a thousand tons. The head is still there, with an ear that is three and a ha fee 
Tn length and a face nearly seven feet broad. Mr. Arthur Weigall states that he nail upon 
middle finger is about tWrtv-five square inches in size. On the west side of the wall of the 
Second Cour there is a row of four headless figures of Osiris, standing against four squa e 
pZ' They formed a portion of a row of similar figures and pillars which have since fallen into 

""The ^reat Hypostyle Hall originally contained forty-eight columns those of the middle aisle 
posting capitals beautifully car^.d in the semblance of the calyx of a flower. This temple 1. 
fXof designs engraved on the stone surfaces to illustrate the wars of Ramses II. against the 
H tUes "d the Syrians. Amongst other names of towns given are those of Jerusalem^ Damascus. 
A kalon and t'he Lorite fortresfof Zapur. In all these wars the Egyptians (assisted by Sardinian 
trcnaries in horned helmets) were pitiless, and m one picture the sons of Ramses II. are shown 
7tZZ and slaying the old men, women and children of the Amontes, who are begging piteously 

'" Wnd the Ramesseum Dr. FUnders Petrie discovered by excavating the huge -ne cellars 

which belonged to the religious sect that was charged with the special worship of Ramses II. The 

1 arched with bnck. were m perfect preservation and contained many of the wme ,ars entire, 




-fJ.om "" \^„^ RAMESSEUM, OR MORTUARY TEMPLE. OF RAMSE. 11. AT '■"'^"^.^- ^^ ^,„, 

n.me of the Mcmnonion. or ihe tomb o( O.ymondyos the Oreek nn 



434 



The Wonders of the World 



with their corks undrawn, sealed'with the King's seal, and tlie name and date of the vintage scrawled 
on the outside, but (writes Mr. John Ward) they were hollow mockeries, for during the three 
thousand or more years which had elapsed since their storage the wine had somehow all 
evaporated. 

TTie Colossi of Memnon. — The celebrated Colossi of Memnon were long reputed as a minor 
wonder of the world. They are both of them seated statues of the one king, Amenhotep III. 
(" Amenhotep the Magnificent "), the husband of the celebrated Queen Thiy. [There is a splendid 
portrait in granite of Amenhotep III. to be seen in the British Museum. Unless he has been 
flattered by the sculptor of his day, he was indeed a handsome man, and according to certain 

inscriptions, must have been a 
mighty hunter, who was able to 
relate that he had killed one 
hundred and two fierce lions 
before his marriage to the 
Queen !] 

These two Colossi, and 
perhaps a third of which 
traces have been seen in the 
Nile mud, probably flanked 
the front entrance to the 
now vanished mortuary temple 
of Amenhotep III. This 
monarch himself recorded that 
" My majesty " erected these 
statues, " which caused great 
amazement because of their 
size." The two remaining 
Colossi represent the monarch 
seated on a throne, and be- 
tween the legs of each statue 
is a small figure of his wife, 
Queen Thiy, and of his mother, 
.Mutemua. A figure of a 
daughter stands by the knee. 
(Jn either side of each throne 
are incised pictures of the 
Nile gods of Upper and Lower 




[//. 



117,,; 



Egypt, who, by plaiting to- 
gether symbolically the stems 
of the lotus (representing 
unite the two great provinces 



FOUR HEADLESS STATUES OF OSIRIS AT THE RAMESSEUM, 

THEBES. 

These are all that remain of a long row of Osiris statues and columns which once 
flantied the west side of the wall of the Second Court at the'l'Ramesseum. 

Lower Egypt) and the papynas (the symbol of Upper Egypt), 
under one rule. The material out of which these Colossi are made is sandstone, and they 
were both originally hewn in a single block, though they were each about seventy- feet in 
height, and perhaps thirty feet at their greatest breadth. But during the period of Roman rule 
in Egypt, one of the Colossi (that wfiich lies to the north) partly fell to pieces as the result of 
being cracked by earthquakes, which were frequent in the Nile Valley at the commencement of 
the Christian era. It was restored by being built up with separate blocks of stone. This was 
the colossus (cracked in the great earthquake of 27 B.C., and finally repaired more than two 
hundred years afterwards by the Emperor Septimius Severus) which became famous in the 




Pholv hi/] 



lll»n/ili. 



THE COLOSSI OK MEMNON AT THEBES. 



These are twin utiituet llherr v.o8 once a third which has become enltulled in Nile mudl of Amenholep III.. XVlllth dynasty 
The name of his dearly loved queen is ensraved on the throne, and a small fiiiure of his daughter stands asainst his knee. 



436 



The Wonders of the World 










-^^ IMIHI" 



""j0t""'""' 




r/iolu Jr. 







^J',\i i^'-ran 



THE GREAT TEMPLE OF HATSHOPSITU AT DER-ALBAHRl. NEAR THEBES. 

This is ihe "beautiful white temple at the foot of the vertical cliff." It is cut out of the limestone rock in three terraces, and 
the flat walls within the colonnades are covered with bas-reliefs, finely sculptured and richly coloured. 

writings of Roman geographers for its musical utterances at dawn. The earthquake cracks 
expanded and contracted with the alternations of early morning heat and cold, and the wind 
whistling through them produced a musical, booming noise, which had never been noticed before 
the year of the great earthquake (B.C. 27). 

The Colossi derive their Greek name of Memnon from one of the heroes of the Trojan War, 
who was believed traditionally to have led an army of Ethiopians from Upper Egypt across the 
Mediterranean to the Greek Peninsula. This legend was due to the Greek historians muddling the 
name of Amenhotep with the Memnon of their own traditions, who had been the son of a Nubian 
god and of the beautiful dawn-goddess, Eos. The Roman writers invented the poetical idea that 
the musical sound thriUing out from this colossus at the dawn was the cry of Memnon to his 
mother Eos. The sound was said to be Hke a gong or blast of a trumpet.* Its fame attracted 
many tourists from Rome in the times of the Csesars, and Roman poetesses as well as poets 
wrote verses on the feet of the Colossi, much as modern European and American tourists might 
like to do. 

The Temple of Der-al-Bahri. — The great temple of Dt;r-al-Bahri is situated to the west of 
Thebes, at the base of the lofty limestone cliffs which flank the Theban plain. This vast 
temple was excavated and constructed by the wonderful Queen Hatshopsitu (already described 
in these pages), who dedicated it to the glory of her father, mother and herself. Portraits of 
Hatshopsitu appear on the walls and represent a handsome, if somewhat Semitic looking, type. 
Amongst the pictures is a quaint one of the Princess Khebt-neferu, a naked girl-child, with 
elaborately dressed hair, a necklace, armlets, and a lotus flower in the right hand, who was a 
sister of Queen Hatshopsitu, but died in infancy. 

The beautiful Der-al-Bahri temple lies at the foot of vertical cliffs, and is mostly white in tone, 
being built in three terraces mainly cut out of the limestone, and supplied with colonnades of white 

* Mr. Anhm Weigall. 



Af 



rica 



437 



fluted pillars " pure in style as those of a Doric temple." [Indeed, it is thought by some 
authorities that the Doric style of architecture had its origin in this and similar Egyptian works 
of the same period, the ideas being conveyed thence at a later date to Greece by travellers and 
mercenary soldiers.] The actual name of the architect of this building (or excavation) is recorded 
by the permission of Queen Hatshopsitu. His name was Semut, and in a tomb which he was 
permitted to build above his masterpiece he recorded the story of liis life and works. It is at 
Der-al-Bahri — a lasting monument of the greatness of Hatshopsitu — that the pictures of the 
expedition to Punt are given, already referred to in my description of Hatshopsitu's life 
and reign. " Everything belonging to Hatshopsitu was beautiful " (writes Mr. John Ward). 
The doors of the shrines in this marvellous temple, the wonders of which are only just 
beginning to be revealed and appreciated, were of ebony, which must have come either from 
Tropical Africa or the tropical parts of South-West Arabia. Der-al-Bahri is indeed one of the 
wonders of the world. 

The Great Mosque at TIemcen. — Let us now turn away for a little while from Egypt to a 
much later phase of African 
civilization, the wonderful de- 
velopment of Saracenic art 
which arose in Egypt, in Tunis. 
in Western Algeria, Morocco 
and Spain between the end of 
the twelfth and the end of 
the fifteenth centuries of the 
Christian era ; an art subse- 
quently crushed or vulgarized 
by the Catholic Christians of 
Spain on the one hand, and 
the Byzantine Turks of Con- 
stantinople on the other. No 
doubt this evolution of beauty 
in form and colour, this 
great renaissance of Saracenic 
art, was closely connected 
with the impulse of the 
European renaissance, wliicli 
began in Italy in the twelftli 
century. 

Before the fanaticism of tin 
Spanish Catholics and thr 
bloodthirsty stupidity of the 
Turks had inflicted deadly 
blows on the progress ol 
civilization, a generous feelint; 
of emulation and interchange 
of thought and commerce was 
taking place between East 
and West, North and South. 
The Norman conquests in 
the Mediterranean and on the 
north coast of Africa, and the 




rili'(o I'll] l.Wiir.ovill I r,i/l. 

THE MAHRAB AND PULPIT IN 1HE GRAND MOSQUE AT 
TLEMCEN. ALGERIA 

T Kis mosque and other buildinRS ot TIemcen reprcBcnt n veiy notable develop. 
ment of Saracenic art in Vl'cstcrn Aleeria and Morocco which arose under Berber 
dynasties between the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries. 



438 



The Wonders of the World 



Crusades which brought the warriors of France, England and Germany to Syria and Egypt, really 
stimulated rather than checked this fusion of Muhammadan and Christian ideas and this 
revival of Greek and Roman culture. The Arab rule over North Africa, especially, had 
almost faded away before a great revival of indigenous Berber or Libyan peoples, who 
founded dynasty after dynasty, kingdom after kingdom, in Mauretania and Spain. 
Prominent amongst centres of their art and luxury was the beautiful city of Tlem9en 
(Tlamsaii) situated at an altitude of about three thousand three hundred feet on the flanks 

of a great mountain (Jebel Tarmi), 
in the very mountainous country of 
Western Algeria, at no great distance 
from the modern boundaries of Morocco. 
Tlem^en was no doubt a Roman colony 
under the name of Pomaria, which 
may have meant the fruit yielding, 
or orchard, city. Here the invading 
Arabs and their Berber allies built the 
town of Agadir, not long after all 
traces of Byzantine rule had dis- 
appeared from North Africa, and 
Agadir developed into Tlamsan (written 
by the French Tlemgen).* After many 
vicissitudes under the different Arab 
and Berber dynasties, during which 
Tlem^en was alternately built, burnt, 
plundered, starved, rebuilt, and left to 
decay, it became the capital of a great 
Berber dynasty known as the Abd-al- 
Wad. This dynasty really began to 
rule Tlemgen in 1227, as the viceroys 
of the Al-Mohad emperors who reigned 
over Spain and North Africa. The 
great warrior Yaghmorassen-bin-Zeyan 
converted this vice-royalty into a sove- 
reignty in the middle of the thirteenth 
century. Tlem^en, as we see it to-day, 
really took its origin from the magnifi- 
cent buildings erected by Yaghmorassen 
at this period. 

The Great Mosque, which is here 
illustrated, was commenced and 
mainly finished by about 1300 \.t>. 
It is a vast building of about one hundred and sixty-five feet square, flanked with a rec- 
tangular minaret one hundred and fifteen feet high. This minaret is decorated with small 
columns of marble and mosaics of lacquered porcelain. The staircase leading to the top contains 
one hundred and thirty steps. The great mosque itself is entered by eight doors which open on to 
a splendid court paved with what the French call " onyx " (a kind of marble), and with a fountain 
of the same beautiful stone. The sanctuary of the mosque itself has its ceiling supported by seventy- 
two columns, and beautiful arcades of the style illustrated in the accompanying pictures. The 

• The Talensin of Leo Africanus. 




Pholo bill 
THE MAHRAB OF THE GRAND MOSQUE 



[Nr-nnlffin Frcres. 
AT TLEMCEN. 



Note the exquisite carving of the fine stucco and the beautifully-shaped 
Mahrab with its perfect horse-shoe arch. The Mahrab or Mihrab in a 
mosque is the niche which represents the direction in which lies the sacred 
city of Mekka. In reality the Mahrab shrine is the relic of an esoteric 
worship of the generative principle. 



440 



The Wonders of the World 



Mahrab, which is the Holy of HoHes in all Muhammadan mosques, but which originates in a symbol 
of a very early form of Nature religion, is a miracle of artistic beauty, its surfaces, of course, of hard 
white stucco exquisitely carved. Above the Mahrab the dome has been sculptured in such a way 
as to turn it into an elaborate lace- work of interwoven tendrils which admits daylight and air. In 
short, the Great Mosque of Tlem^en is one of the most exquisite specimens of Saracenic art existing 
at the present day. 

The Boiling Cascade at Hammam Maskutin. — Algeria, we are slowly beginning to realize, is 
full of wonders, both those which are of natural formation and those which are the handiwork of 
man. Amongst its noteworthy sights are the cascades of hot water at Hammam Maskutin 
(Meskoutine) in the eastern part of the province of Constantine near Guelma. There are two 
principal sources the waters of which unite in one stream, the course of which is marked by gigantic 
cones of limestone, some of which are thirty-six feet high. The water, issuing from the ground at 
boiling point, falls into natural basins of a creamy-white colour, due to the deposit of carbonate of 
lime. The total fall of the great cascade is nearly one hundred feet. All round about, the warm 
water percolating through the soil sustains a wonderfully rich vegetation the whole year round — 
olives, pistachio trees, vines, oleanders, ash trees, caroubs, oaks and pines. As the boiling water 
plunges over the richly-coloured limestone terraces, a blue steam rises into the air which gives an 
alluring touch of mystery to the surroundings. This cascade, in fact, is one of the most beautiful 
sights in Algeria. The hot water was, of course, utilized by the Romans. Its present Arab name 
Maskutin means the accursed baths, as they are thought to have some connection with Hell-tire. 
The legend of the Berbers, or Arabs, to explain this strange natural feature is to the effect tliat 
there once lived at this spot a man of importance who found his sister, or half-sister, as she grew 

1 




'''""" ''■*J IMaximiUano Lohr. 

THE PEAK OF TEIDE IN TENERIFE. SEEN FROM THE VILLAGE OF MATANZA. 

The name of ihis village means slaughter, and it was here that a great massacre of the indigenous Guanches of the 
Cani;ry Islands took place during the Spanish conquest of Tenerife in the fifteenth century. 



Africa 



441 




iTHE GREAT \ OLCANO 



TENERIFEi 



COVERED WITH SNOW. 



This sublime sp2clacle rising above the rich vegetation of the mountain's lower slopes would only be visible ordinarily in 
the months ol January or February, as after the height of winter the snow melts as soon as it falls, except along the ridge and 
peak of the summit Curiously enough the peak seems snow-flecked all the year round, but this is due to tvhlte deposits or veins 
of lava catching the sun's rays. 

up to be SO beautiful that he considered no suitor was worthy of her. therefore he married her 
himself. But whilst tlie marriage was being celebrated, the judgment of heaven descended on 
the incestuous pair. Fire came from below, the water of the stream from ice-cold became hot, bride 
and bridegroom and some of the wedding guests were turned into stone, and are represented by the 
limestone cones, which are such striking objects at the present day. 

Near to Hammam Maskutin there is a remarkable subterranean lake at the bottom of a cavern. 
The lake is about seventy feet deep and is, no doubt, together with the neighbouring sulphurous 
springs, connected with the boiling water of Hamman Maskutin. There are also in the neighbour- 
hood the ruins of the wonderful city of Tibilis. an important Roman city built amid these hot 
and medicinal waters to make use of their advantages. 

The Peak of Teide, Tenerife. — The Canary Islands are a group, mainly volcanic, situated off the 
north-west coast of Africa, though the eastern members of the group are probably the remains of a 
former peninsula stretching out from the Morocco coast. These Islands were populated at an 
early date by a branch of the Berber race coming from North Africa. They were, in fact, known 
to the Berbers of Mauretania, who told the Romans of their existence. They were celebrated for 
an indigenous breed of dog of very large size, which probably is why the largest of the islands were 
called Canaria in Latin. [Tiiat these large dogs were not wholly a myth has been shown recently 
by the discovery of a skeleton in a cave. It was possibly a breed allied to the large white collie 
dog kept by the Arabs and Berbers of North Africa at the present day.] The most noteworthy 
feature of this interesting archipelago is the lofty volcano of Teide, the celebrated " Peak of 
Tenerife." This mountain reaches to an altitude of twelve thousand two hundred feet, and is 



442 



The Wonders of the World 




''>""' ^yl [tloximiliniui I.ohr. 

PANORAMA OF THE ERUPTION OF THE SMALL VOLCANO. CHINZEROS. TENERIFE 

(19lh November. 1910). 
There were considerabU signs in 1910 of volcanic activity— smoke, steam, ashes and even boiling lava issuing from the 
minor craters of the volcanic ridge in the Island of Tenlrite. There has been no eruption of lava from the main peak of Teide 
since the eighteenth century or earlier. 

situated in the western part of the island of Tenerife, the largest of the Canary group. There is 
snow on the Peak of Teide all the year round in a cavern at about eleven thousand feet, but for 
nearly half the year the snow is absent from the visible parts of the summit. In the late winter 
and spring the mountain is often a magnificent spectacle, especially seen from the sea. its flanks 
covered with snow above the dark vegetation of pines. 

The beautiful town of Orotava, lying to the north of Teide, is the nearest civilized centre from 
which ascents of the mountain are made, and it has become a favourite winter resort on account of 
its excellent hotels and perfect chmate. The vegetation on the sea-coast and round about Orotava 
is almost tropical in luxuriance, scarcely any tropical palm or flower refusing to grow in this 
wnterless region, where the atmosphere is moistened by the rain clouds of the Atlantic and 
protected by the mountains from the harsh desert winds of Africa, 

The Tomb of Thi^* must not be confused with the celebrated Queen of the same name, 
who was the spouse of Amenhotep III,, and who is such a prominent personage in the temples 
and tombs of Thebes, The Tomb of Thiy, at Sakkara, is believed to date back about five 
thousand years, and to have been the burial-place of a great personage who, amongst other 
things, farmed on a large scale and was evidently very interested in beasts and birds. He was 
also a sportsman, and pursued with bows and arrows the big and small game of Lower Egvpt, He 
attacked, slew, or captured, crocodiles or hippopotamuses in the Nile, He kept large herds 
of long-horned cattle of the type now confined mainly to Equatorial Africa, and troops of asses, 
besides tamed oryx and addax antelopes, ibexes, gazelles, and probably guinea-fowl from Nubia, 
On this and on some similar paintings on Egyptian monuments it would seem as though at a period 
of about five thousand years ago (but not later) the Egyptians had domesticated the addax antelope 
and kept it tame in herds like cattle, [This interesting creature — a type of oryx, but with spiral 

* Also spelt " Ty " and "Tiy, '' 



Af 



rica 



443 



horns — is an inhabitant of tlie desert regions stretching between Egypt and the Atlantic Ocean. 
Of late years it has been pursued so vigorously by European and Arab sportsmen that it has been 
brought almost to the verge of extinction.] In the paintings on Thiy's tomb are shown the plan of 
his farm in the country, and apparently of his mansion in a town. At the country estabhshment 
he kept quite a menagerie of rare beasts and birds. His serfs and peasants are depicted sowing, 
reaping, and storing grain, driving asses, ploughing and building ; peasant women are bringing 
tributes of many food substances ; together with birds that appear to be geese and pigeons. 
They are also followed by little lambs. Thiy himself is depicted on the walls — a fine-looking 
man with a short beard — together with his wife and son, the boy holding a tame bird, probably 
a pigeon. The art of this period was realistic and vigorous, and the pictures in this tomb are of 
the highest possible interest. 

The Tombs of the Kings of Egypt (as distinct from their mortuary temples, wherein they 
were worshipped either as gods or as manifestations of gods, or in memory of their great deeds) 
are situated in a valley of the hmestone hills behind the great temple of Der-al-Bahri and the Theban 
plain. The Pharaohs buried here are those of the Eighteenth, Nineteenth and Twentieth Dynasties. 
Strictly speaking, the tombs are excavated in the face of the limestone rock at different levels. 
Sometimes the earliest Pharaohs were buried with the greatest secrecy, and no doubt the tombs 
erected over the burial-place were sometimes at a great height above the actual lodgment of the 




THE PICIURES ENGRA\ ED 



WALLS OK IHE lOMB OK 



Ihitlnrh. 
^H\\. AT 



A.\D COLOURED ON IHE 
SAKKARA. 

Thiy'wo* a Kfeat Egyptian landowner ond "Kcntlcman former" who lived about >,000 ycnri «KO and prepared for nimaelf before 
hi* death a maRnifirent tomb, the picture* on the walla of which should illustrate hia love for the chose and for dsriculture. 



444 



The Wonders of the World 



mummy in the rock chamber. It was the custom to bury jewellery^and other precious articles 
with the bodies of the kings and of such few queens or ministers of state as were allowed to be 
interred in this privileged region. As soon as the great personage had been buried, the entrance 
to the tomb was generally concealed by debris, and it is supposed that the men who undertook the 
work of excavation were bound by the most solemn vows to keep the location of the tomb secret. 
Possibly the slave-workmen were afterwards killed. It even happened that so completely would the 
location of a grave be forgotten that some succeeding Pharaoh might drive the shaft for his own tomb 
into the burial-chamber of one of his predecessors, even someone who may have died but a few 
years before him. Sometimes a well was sunk near the tomb, not only to draw off water and to 
keep the place dry, but to deceive robbers on the search for buried treasure. But as time went on, 
either less valuable things were buried, or for some other reason there was less risk of tombs being 
rifled, and therefore those of the later Pharaohs were not so much concealed, and the entrance chamber 

to the tomb was frequently 
decorated magnificently with 
paintings sucli as those which 
may be seen in the tomb of 
Seti I., a Pharaoh of the 
Nineteenth Dynasty and the 
father of Ramses II. 

Belzoni discovered the 
entrance to Seti's tomb as 
far back as 1817. In the 
farther domed chamber lay 
the empty coffin, its lid 
broken into fragments. It 
was of purest Egyptian ala- 
baster, nine feet by five, 
completely covered with 
hieroglyphics within and 
without, which were beauti- 
fully engraved and filled with 
blue enamelled paint. It 
is now deposited in the 
Soane Museum, Lincoln's 
Inn Fields. But about 1850 
some Arabs discovered at the 
bottom of a deep shaft leading 
to a tunnel in the rock fifty or more mummies of Egyptian Pharaohs, which had lain in this place 
of concealment for a thousand years before tlie Christian era, evidently removed thither by the 
guardian priests of the tombs in some time of trouble. Every mummy was labelled and separately 
rolled up (writes Mr. John Ward) so that they could be easily restored. But as a matter of fact, 
they are all now in the Museum at Cairo, and amongst them is the body of Seti I., who died about 
1292 B.C. 

Pompey)'s PrY/ar.— Alexandria, founded after the great days of Egypt were over, contains very few 
remains of the days of the Pharaohs, but a great many relics of the Ptolemaic renaissance of Egyptian 
art, of Roman rule and of early Christian monuments. Perhaps the most noteworthy feature of 
ancient days still remaining in the town is Pompey's Pillar (which had little or nothing to do with 
the Roman general of that name). This noble column is a great shaft of Assouan granite, probably 
made from an Egyptian obelisk of vast size by being rounded and fitted with a capital of Greek 




ENTRANCE TO THE TOMB OF THIY. 



[Bonjih. 
AT SAKKARA. 



Thsre are many remarkable Tomb Temples at or near Sakkaia. dating from the 
times of the )st to the VTth dynasties. Saklcara is not far from the site of the old 
capital. Memphis, and seems to have been its necropolis. The tomb of Thiy is 
specially remarkable for its paintings. 






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446 



The Wonders of the World 




Photo (>}(] 



THE MOUNTAIN AND VALLEY OF THE TOMBS OF THE KINGS. NEAR THEBES. 



llSnnfil, 



On the western side of the Nile, opposite Luxor and Karnak. is the vast necropolis of ancient Thebes. Here are the 
Colossi of Memnon. the Ramesseum. Medinet Habu. and Der-al-Bahri and other mortuaiy temples, and behind all are the 
limestone cliffs into which innumerable caves have been tunnelled to form tombs for the Kings of Egypt. 

design. Originally it stood in the centre of the Serapeion temple, of which scarcely any vestiges 
remain. Dr. Botti's excavations, however, have revealed great subterranean corridors near the 
pillar's base, in which the mysteries of Serapis were celebrated.* But not only that : Pompey's 
Pillar rests on a foundation which is composed of remains of a granite temple of the far back time 
of Seti I. — about 1300 B.C. So that, evidently, Alexander merely founded another city on an old 
site used ages before by the Egyptian Pharaohs in their plenitude of power. This ancient temple 
had been destroyed to make a foundation for a Roman column, itself apparently made from an 
Egyptian obehsk between four thousand and five thousand years old. 

Fetish Houses at Ibadan, Yorubaland. — Yorubaland, in West Africa, is a very important 
division of the British Protectorate of Southern Nigeria (Lagos division). It was formerly an empire 
of allied states with its centre at Oyo. The empire seems to have been founded and the beginnings 
of civilization introduced a thousand to twelve hundred years ago (perhaps even earUer), by negroid 
adventurers — hunters, blacksmiths, metal-workers, soothsayers, or merchants — coming from the 
north or north-east. In Yoruba was founded quite a remarkable African art and culture which 
spread to Benin, Dahome, Ashanti, and in cognate forms to the open country along the Benue River 
and the Kamerun hinterland. With these arts coming from the north, came more elaborate ideas of 
religion, in which ancestor worship gave place to the adoration of definite personal divinities, some of 
them embodying natural forces and phases. To these small temples built of thatch, or of clay, 
were erected, and offerings of food and drink tendered ; while first human, and then later beast and 
bird, sacrifices were attached to this worship. It is believed that the extreme north of Yorubaland 

* The worship of the man-bull or bull-god. 



Af 



rica 



447 



even obtained some inkling of Chris- 
tianity about twelve centuries ago 
through the arrival of Berbers (Tuaregs) 
from across the Sahara Desert, who 
had received an initiation into Chris- 
tian ideas througli the Latin Church 
of Carthage. 

Muhammadanism entered Yoruba- 
land about four centuries ago, and 
now the northern Yorubas are nearly 
all Muhammadans ; but the southern 
half of this region (including the 
celebrated Abeokuta) is still given 
over to the worship of numerous gods 
and goddesses, evil spirits and good 
spirits. To honour these divinities 
fetish houses are built in or near all 
centres of habitation, or occasionally in 
sacred groves. Inside the fetish house 
there is a painted clay or wooden idol, 
or group of idols, representing the out- 
ward form of the god or goddess, and 
to these figures gifts are made of cloth, 
beads, kauri shells, etc. Palm wine 
and trade gin are offered as libations, 
fowls or goats are sacrificed, and, of 
course, there is a priest or fetish man 
(or woman) to act as the intermediary 
in these acts of worship and propitia- 
tion. But Christianity is spreading 
fast in the south and Muhammadanism 
in the north, and these fetish temples 
will soon cease to e.xist. 

The (so-called) Tombs of the Caliphs, 
Cairo. — These beautiful Mosque-Tcjmbs 
had really nothing to do with the 
supreme Caliphs of Islam who ruled 
from Baghdad, nor with the Fatiniite 
or Western Caliphs, who reigned over 
Egypt during the period between 973 
and 1 1 71 A.I). They were erected as 
mausolea (tombs with mosques built 
over them) by the Burji Mamluk Sultans 
of Egypt, who arose as a dynasty witli 
Barkuk, a successful soldier, in 1390. 
The Burji Sultans were mostly of Cir- 
cassian origin, though among them were 
several Turks, and one at least of Greek 
origin. It had long been the custom of 





t'rfwi .sii'ii'iifii-npfi i'u] [II. I'. ll/,i/. io. 

PO.MPEYS PILLAR. ON THE SITE OF THE SERAPEION 

AT ALEXANDRIA. EGYPT. 

This rnormou* column is a monolith n ainnlc stone and probably 
an ancient Egyptian obetitU rounded and surmounted- with a capital. 
It is the most prominent object in Alexondria at the present day. and 
is over 120 feet hii{h. 



448 



The Wonders of the World 




Pholo 6i/] 



[A'-' 



J. T. /■. IMIiijfy. 



FETISH TEMPLES AT IBADAN. SOUTHERN YORUBA. 



These temples are built of sticks and clay, with rudely-thatched roofs. Inside on the ffoDr there may be a raised plai- 
form of dried mud on which libatiDns are poured and offerings of food are made, or there may be in addition idols of 
painted clay or wood representing divinities of the native religion. Often these temples, however, are erected to enshrine 
the spirit of some dead person. 

the degenerate Caliphs of the Muhammadan world to employ in their civil and military service slaves 
purchased as boys (or obtained by raids or as presents or tribute) from Turkish-Tatar tribes, 
from Circassia, Persia, Greece or the Balkan peninsula. Frequently these Mamluks rose to 
be generals or viziers, and as frequently deposed the puppet Caliph or Sultan and founded dynasties 
of their own, or were selected by their soldiers as occupants of the throne. The Circassians who 
seized the supreme power in Egypt, beginning with Barkuk, were nicknamed " Burji " because 
they sprang from the force of slave-soldiers which occupied the Burj, or Citadel, of Cairo. 

Under the Burji Mamluks Egypt enjoyed a period of about a hundred and twenty years of 
comparative peace (though the people disliked the constant exactions of these foreign princes and 
their soldiery) ; and, as always happens in such times, the forgiving East (so prompt to smile at 
the least excuse) enjoyed a fresh development of art and industry ; practically the last before 
the nineteenth century. For in 1517 Turkey closed her hand on Egypt, kept the Mamluks to bleed 
her to death, and stifled Egyptian art and literature. Sultan Barkuk and his successors encouraged 
architecture and built for themselves splendid tomb-mosques, with lofty gilt domes and a fanciful 
network of limestone or marble tracery. Perhaps the most beautiful of all these mosques is that 
of Kait Bey (built about 1470). This mosque (on the left-hand side of the picture) has a minaret 
one hundred and thirty-five feet high, and has been not infrequently instanced and illustrated as 
a fine specimen of Saracenic art. It was carefully restored in 1898. 



Rout. B. Stacy-Judd 
architect 




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