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Full text of "The Wood family of Burslem, a brief biography of those of its members who were sculptors, modellers and potters"

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BRIEF BIOGRAPHY OF ^ 
ITS MEMBERS WHO 

SCULPTORS MODELLERS 
AND POTTERS 





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RANK FALKNE 




f r ,KAS.E.liAU..IA Tco 

IMPORT!*^ B0 °l3E|,|,|, ii 5 
385Wash'nSt.Bo«to 



THE 
WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 



THE EDITION OF THIS WORK IS LIMITED TO 
FOUR HUNDRED AND FIFTY COPIES 




HUDIBRAS. H. n.Un. 
(A 13) 

S toner coll. 



THE WOOD FAMILY 
OF BURSLEM 

A BRIEF BIOGRAPHY OF THOSE OF 

ITS MEMBERS WHO WERE 

SCULPTORS MODELLERS 

AND POTTERS 



BY 

FRANK FALKNER 



WITH AN INTRODUCTION 
BY WILLIAM BURTON M. A. 



LONDON 
CHAPMAN & HALL LIMITED 
1912 




COPYRIGHT ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



PREFACE 

T ' TT ' YHILE no doubt it must be conceded even by enthusiasts that 
V]f the productions described and illustrated in the following pages 
come into the category of the minor arts, nevertheless as a 
chapter in the development of the portrayal of the human figure the 
results achieved by the potters of Staffordshire are by no means to be 
altogether ignored- No writer upon the subject of English Earthenware, 
Busts and Statuettes can justifiably deny his tribute of praise to the 
craftsmanship of John Dwight of Fulham; the important position 
accorded to his work by the authorities of the British Museum and by 
those of the Victoria and Albert Museum show at once a just apprecia- 
tion of this great seventeenth century sculptor-potter, and Sir Arthur 
Church has not considered unworthy of his research the field of 
Dwight's labours, a field in which he has been rewarded by further 
important finds since he published his monograph upon the subject. 

That the Ralph Woods should have pursued this particularly 
attractive branch of Art is not surprising, though most sincere 
collectors of their productions would frankly admit that, while the 
originality of their figures is delightful, the satisfactory effect of their 
work is indebted in a large measure to the refined scheme of decora- 
tion they adopted in the application of their fascinating coloured 
glazes. 

That the mantle of the modeller and sculptor should have descended 
upon Enoch Wood was only natural, and although greater achieve- 
ments have been attained by those whose designs and thoughts have 
been chiselled in marble or moulded in bronze, few men have been able 
to afford pleasure to a wider circle of patrons than he whose genius 
expressed itself in the forms of Staffordshire pottery. His statuettes 
and busts have been and will be found amongst our household gods for 
generations. His memory as a local historian and antiquarian is 
still green, and Burslem, his native town, was keenly alive to the 
merits of her son when she universally accorded him the affectionate 
title of " The Father of the Potteries. " 

To certain branches of the early earthenware of Staffordshire the 
term "Peasant Pottery" has been applied and more particularly to 



2Q2C 



PREFACE 

the so-called "SUP" Dishes and Posset Pots and to the Statuettes and 
Groups. Recent research, however, has brought to the minds of some 
collectors the conviction that sufficient credit has not been accorded to 
the designers and decorators of these productions. It is possible that 
an examination of the wonderful collection of fine "Slip" Dishes 
recently displayed at the Whitworth Institute in Manchester may have 
led to the conclusion that the invention and decorative ability displayed 
by these seventeenth and eighteenth century potters must have been 
devoted to patrons above the station of peasants. 

In all probability the master potters in many instances manu- 
factured the dishes not for use, but as tributes to the landowners from 
whose clay these decorative objects were made, and considering the 
means at their disposal for carrying out their designs, the effects 
achieved were of much distinction and of no little artistic merit — 
indeed they were the unconscious exponents of a powerful impressionist 
school. 

The potters of the early eighteenth century assuredly did not 
design statuettes from the classics for the cottagers, and although it 
is well known that many objects were made for these worthy folk, a 
higher purpose must have been intended for a large portion of their 
productions. 

That the native genius and artistic faculties of those men whose 
work is referred to in this book should receive a due meed of praise 
has been the chief object of my efforts. 

In the course of this work which has pleasantly occupied my 
leisure hours during many years, I have been indebted to the following 
friends for valuable help and encouragement — Sir Arthur Church, 
K.C.V.O.; Mr. William Burton, M.A.; Dr. Sidebotham of Bowdon; the 
late Mr. John Baddeley Wood of Henley Hall, Ltidlow; Mr. Arthur H. 
E. Wood of Browhead, Windermere ; Captain R. B. Wood; Mr. J. M. 
Wood; Mr. Josiah Wedgwood, M.P.; Mr. George Hammersley ; Mr. 
Percy W. L. Adams; Mr. George Stoner ; Mr. P. Entwistle; Mr. 
Edward Sheldon; Mr. Ben H. Mullen, M.A.; Mr. Charles Falkner; 
Mr. George F. Falkner; and to the authorities of the British and the 
Victoria and Albert Museums. For this assistance so willingly 
rendered I desire to accord my grateful thanks. 

FRANK FALKNER 

Hillside 

Bowdon, Cheshire 



CONTENTS 



PREFACE 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

INTRODUCTION 

CHAPTER I Burslem : Historical Sketch 

CHAPTER II The Wood Family . 

CHAPTER III The Work of the Ralph Woods 

CHAPTER IV Aaron Wood . 

CHAPTER V Liverpool and the Potteries 

CHAPTER VI 

CHAPTER VII Enoch Wood : His public activities 

CHAPTER VIII Enoch Wood : Extracts from his diaries 

CHAPTER IX Enoch Wood : His productions 

CHAPTER X Enoch Wood : 1834- 1840 

APPENDIX A List of the Mould or Subject Numbers of the 
Ralph Wood Productions 

APPENDIX B Index to the Collection of Items of Interest 
relating to Burslem 

APPENDIX C Alphabetical list of names appearing on Enoch 
Wood's Map of Burslem 




INDEX 



Page 
vii-viii 

xi-xiv 

xv-xviii 

1 
6 

9 
21 

31 

38 
61 

7i 
80 

96 
103 
106 



ill 



113 



GENEALOGICAL TABLE 



facing 118 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



(Tailpiece) 



The figures in parentheses inserted after the Illustration No. thus Illustration No. 4 ( p. 4) refer to 
that page of the book upon which the Illustration thus referenced is described 

Hudibras .... 

Map of Burslem 

Falstaff Toby Jug 

St. John's Church, Burslem 

St. Paul's Church, Burslem 

First Town Hall, Burslem . 

Second Town Hall, Burslem 

Third Town Hall, Burslem 

Pedlar carrying Crate of Pottery 

Ralph Wood of Cheddleton 

John Wood of Brownhills . 

Brownhills 

Mrs. John Baddeley . 

John Wedgwood of Bignal End 

Thomas Wedgwood of The Big House 

The Big House, Burslem (Tailpiece) 

John Voyez 

Old Age .... 

Haymakers 

The Vicar and Moses 

The Parson and Clerk 

Toby Fillpot 

Toby Fillpot with Cartouche 

Falstaff Jug 

Bacchus Jug 

Sailor Jug 

Lord Howe Jug 

" Diogenes looking for a Honest 

Group, " Flute Player " 

Group, " Bird Cage " 

St. George and the Dragon 

Group, traditionally known as 

Son " . 
Jupiter 
Minerva . 
Neptune . 
Venus 

Roman Charity 
Charity 
Charity 



Man 



Ralph Wood and hi 





Frontispiece 






page XX 




facing 


page I 
page 2 


• 




P»ge 3 


Plate I 


Illustration No. 4 






Page 4 


Plate I 


Illustrat 


ion No. 6 
Page 5 


Plate II 


Illustration No. 8 


II 




9 


II 




10 


III 




II 


III 




12 


III 




13 

page 8 


Plate II la 


Illuitrat 


on No. 13a 


IV 




M 


IV 




15 


IV 




16 


IV 




17 


V 




18 


V 




19 


V 




20 


V 




21 


V 




22 


V 




23 


VI 




24 


VI 




25 


VI 




26 


VI 




27 


VII 




28 


VIII 




29 


VIII 




30 


VIII 




31 


VIII 




32 


IX 




33 


IX 




34 


IX 




35 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Alderman Beckford 

Benj. Franklin . 

Van Tromp 

Diana 

Spanish Dancer 

Spanish Dancer 

Spanish Dancer 

Gamekeeper 

Satyr Head Mask Cup and Jugs 

Shepherdess 

Lost Sheep 

Shepherd . 

Shepherdess 

Shepherd . 

Musicians 

Cupid on a Lion 

Cupid on a Lioness 

Elijah 

Lost Piece 

Peasant at Prayer 

Lion 

Goat 

Ram 

Squirrels 

Bull Baiting 

Elephant . 

Seated Stag 

Pointer and Setter 

Series of Animals 

The Seasons and Sphinx 

Gardeners and Shepherdesses 

Admiral Rodney 

Three Grooms Drinking 

Jack on a Cruise 

Patricia and her Lover 

Patricia 

Lover 

Paris and CEnone 

Nymph piping to a dancing Faun 

Child riding a Lion and nursing a Lamb 

Milton 

Fair Hebe Jug . 

Shakespeare Medallions 

Sir Isaac Newton 

Chaucer . 

Heirloom Jug (front and base) 

Dolphin Flower Holders and Vase 





Illustration 


Plate 


No. 


IX 


36 


IX 


37 


IX 


38 


X 


39 


X 


40 


X 


41 


X 


42 


XI 


43 


XI 


44-45-46 


XII 


47 


XII 


48 


XII 


49 


XII 


5° 


XII 


51 


XII 


52-53-54 


XII 


55 


XII 


56 


XII 


57 


XII 


58 


XII 


59 


XIII 


60 


XIII 


61 


XIII 


62 


XIII 


63-64 


XIII 


65 


XIII 


66 


XIII 


67 


XIV 


68 


XV 


69 


XV 


70 


XVI 


— 


XVI 


7i 


XVII 


72 


XVIII 


73 


XVIII 


74 


XIX 


75 


XIX 


76 


XX 


77 


XX 


78 


XXI 


79 


XXI 


80 


XXI 


81 


XXII 


82-83 


XXII 


84 


XXII 


85 


XXII 


86-86a 


XXIII 


87 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Set of Vases in green glaze 

Aaron Wood 

Pew Group 

Camel Teapot 

Soup Tureen 

Pitcher block of Teapot 

Teapot .... 

Aaron Wood's Signature from Pitcher block 

Salt-Glaze Dish . 

William Wood's Box 

Salt-Glaze Bottle 

Group of the Caddick Family 

Richard Caddick 

Thomas Bentley 

Richard Chaffers 

Richard Caddick 

Mrs. Proudlove . 

Enoch Wood (by Andrews) 

Mrs. Enoch Wood (by Andrews) 

Enoch Wood (Portrait on a Transfer Tile 

Plaque of Wood Arms 

Bust of Enoch Wood, Junr. (back view) 

Bust of Enoch Wood, Junr. (front view) 

The Descent from the Cross 

Medallion (front) 

Medallion (back) 

Dr. Adam Clarke 

City Road Bust of Wesley . 

Early Bust of Wesley (front view) 

Early Bust of Wesley (back view) 

Bust of Wesley 

Bust of Wesley (modern impression from supposed 

original mould 
Bust of Whitfield 

" Eloquence " or " St. Paul preaching at Athens 
Bacchus and Ariadne 
Nelson 

Madonna and Child 
Fortitude . 
Butterfly Plate . 
Seal Moulds 

Enoch Wood & Co.'s Business Card 
£$ Bank Note, Burslem & Pottery Bank 
Enoch Wood (by J. Bostock) 
Wood & Caldwell Jug 
Wood & Caldwell Vase 
Relief Pitcher blocks 





Illustration 


Plate 


No. 


XXIII 


38 


XXIV 


89 


XXV 


90 


XXV 


91 


XXV 


92 


XXV 


93 


XXV 


94 




page 24 


XXVI 


96 


XXVI 


97 


XXVI 


98 


XXVII 


99 


XXVII 


100 


XXVII 


101 


XXVIII 


102 


XXVIII 


103 


XXVIII 


104 


XXIX 


ios 


XXX 


106 


XXX 


107 


XXXI 


108 


XXXI 


109 


XXXI 


no 


XXXII 


III 


XXXIII 


112 


XXXIII 


113 


XXXIII 


114 


XXXIV 


us 


XXXIV 


116 


XXXIV 


117 


XXXV 


118 


XXXV 


119 


XXXV 


120 


XXXVI 


121 


XXXVI 


122 


XXXVI 


123 


XXXVII 


124 


XXXVII 


125 


XXXVII 


126 


XXXVIII 


127 


XXXIX 


128 


XXXIX 


129 


XXXIXa 


I29a 


XL 


130 


XL 


131 


XLI 


132 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Intaglio Pitcher block of design of Winged Lion . 
Cast from above Pitcher block ..... 
Block Mould from Fountain Place Works, Vase of 

Flowers .... ... 

Block Mould from Fountain Place Works, Cupid & Lion 
Block Mould from Fountain Place Works, Cupid & Lion 
Block Mould from Fountain Place Works, Bacchanalian 

Procession ........ 

Block Mould from Fountain Place Works, Cupids with 

Fruit and Flowers 
Bust of Enoch Wood (front view 
Bust of Enoch Wood (back view) 
" West View of the House & Manufactory of Enoch 

Wood, Esq. " 
" An East View of the Manufactories of Enoch Wood 

&Sons" .... 
Seashell Border Plate 
Seashell Border Plate 
Vine and Convolvulus Border Plate 
Silver Tray .... 

Dr. Johnson's Knife Box 
Silver Trowel .... 
China Jug .... 

Inscription on bottom of above Jug 
Triton ..... 
Group, Sheep and Lamb 
Frame of Jasper Ware Medallions 
Frame of Jasper Ware Medallions 
Frame of Jasper Ware Medallions 
Jasper Ware Medallion " Abelard " 
Lion in Jasper Body . 
Sketch of proposed Cabinet 
Marks .... 
Marks .... 
Marks .... 



Plate 


Illustration 
No 


XLII 
XLII 


133 
134 


XLIII 
XLIII 
XLIII 


135 

136 
I36a 



XLIII 



XLV 



137 



XLIII 


i37a 


XLIV 


138 


XLIV 


139 



140 



XLV 


141 


XLVI 


142 


XLVI 


143 


XLVI 


144 


XLVII 


145 


XLVII 


146 


XLVII 


147 


XL VIII 


148 


XL VIII 


149 


XLVIII 


150 


XLVIII 


151 


XLIX 


152 


XLIX 


153 


L 


iS4 


L 


155 


LI 


156 


LI 


iS7 


LII 


— 


LIII 


— 


LIV 


— 



INTRODUCTION 



IT is no disparagement to Josiah Wedgwood — the Prince of British 
Potters — if we suggest that his biographers and many writers on 
the development of pottery manufacture in England have made 
so much of his great achievements as to throw into a shade that 
is hardly just the works and the memory of his contemporaries and 
immediate followers. Up till quite recently it had become almost 
an established custom to speak of all the Staffordshire potters who 
worked in the styles he adopted as his imitators, or worse, and that 
tendency is not entirely a thing of the past. On the whole we may 
rejoice that, while all admit with pride the supreme position of Josiah 
Wedgwood both as a potter and as a great force— the greatest force — 
in the development of English pottery in the 1 8th century, there is a 
distinct attempt to do justice to other men in successive attempts to 
trace the history of other English potters, and especially of famous 
families or firms of potters. While the main lines of the history of 
English pottery are no doubt firmly established, every collector knows 
the disappointing— sometimes irritating -obscurities that overhang certain 
parts of the narrative. The mere fact that certain salient points of 
the general history have been settled serves only to render the filling 
up of the gaps a task needing endless patience in research and a 
special appreciation of some department that has been generally rele- 
gated to a secondary position. There are many collectors in this 
country who for years have made a special hobby of collecting the 



XV 



INTRODUCTION 

1 8th century Staffordshire figures, the tortoiseshell and agate wares, or 
the later lustre wares, but no one has written the special history of 
such wares or recovered from oblivion the name of many of their 
makers. Mr. Frank Falkner has been known for years as an 
enthusiastic and discriminating collector of Staffordshire figures and 
an eager enquirer after marked and dated specimens, and we now 
have the advantage of receiving some of the fruits of his labours in 
this History of the Woods of Burslem, a family of block-cutters, 
modellers and figure makers, whose work was often so distinctive, yet 
so native of the soil from which it sprang, as to make one eager to 
know all that can now be known of a family whose memory is still 
cherished in the district where it had settled. Fortunately Mr. Falkner 
has been allowed access to the family papers, and from these and his 
other researches he has built up with great patience and kindly skill 
a picture which shows us not only the Woods themselves but their 
portraits grouped, as it were, against a background of the Burslem of 
their day in its progress from little more than a hamlet (though 
always the Mother town of the Potteries) to that of a thriving industrial 
centre with its Mayor and Corporation and its Member of Parliament. 

For the first time we are provided with an authentic and docu- 
mentary history of the various branches of the family. Among the 
gathering grounds from which the district now known so distinctively as 
" The Potteries ' ' drew its working population, one of the most impor- 
tant was the moorland district stretching from Burslem and Hanley to 
the Derbyshire border. Much of the self-reliant and quaint habit of 
mind that Arnold Bennett reveals in his stories of the "Five Towns" of 
to-day can be traced to this hardy strain, and it is not surprising to 
find that the Woods, so sturdy and self-reliant, yet always of a 
shrewdly humorous turn, should have been of moorland origin. 



INTRODUCTION 

The first of the family to settle in Burslem was one Ralph Wood of 
Cheddleton, born in 1676, who was always spoken of as "the honest 
miller"; and we obtain a vivid idea of the rapid development of the 
pottery industry in Staffordshire when we realise how many of his 
descendants became either working or manufacturing potters. Another 
interesting light is thrown on the times when we realise from the 
history here unfolded how the master-potters all rose from the bench, 
as the saying is, i.e., they were first workmen in the true sense of the 
word, and then because they were more skilful or more enterprising than 
their fellows they became employers of labour on a gradually increas- 
ing scale. This was the history not only of the Woods, but of the 
Wedgwoods, the Turners, the Spodes, the Mintons, the Adams's and 
many another family famous in the annals of English pottery, and to 
this fact we can trace the rapid and general development of technical 
skill that took place in the district during the 18th century. 

Collectors of Staffordshire figures will be delighted to find that 
Mr. Falkner has succeeded in recovering so many of the actual mould 
numbers of the Wood figures, an additional means of identification of 
the utmost value, and we have also to thank him for the interesting 
and suggestive chapter on Liverpool and the Potteries which puts in 
clearer perspective the connection between the Staffordshire potters and 
the Liverpool potters and especially the connection of the Wood family 
with Liverpool artists. 

Another interesting side issue of Mr. Falkner's researches comes 
out in his dealing with Enoch Wood and Enoch Wood's diaries and 
note-books. If Enoch Wood had only been one of the most notable 
master potters of his time his note-books must have proved of great 
interest but, remembering that he was apparently the first Staffordshire 



INTRODUCTION 

potter who manifested a keen interest in the rise of the potter's art 
in Staffordshire, we find many notes and opinions of his which are 
still of value in enabling us to settle some disputed points. The 
doings of the Elers at Bradwell is one of the most important of these. 
For many years, now, it has been the custom of writers on ceramics 
to attribute to the Elers the introduction of salt-glaze as well as the 
red tea-pots into North Staffordshire, but the recent researches of Sir 
Arthur Church seem to put an entirely different aspect on the position 
of the Elers as Staffordshire potters. Enoch Wood, who was keenly 
interested in such things, denied that they made salt-glaze in Stafford- 
shire but admits their production of small red tea-pots, &c, and this 
seems to be in harmony with the latest views on this disputed point. 



WILLIAM BURTON 



Clifton Junction 

Nr. Manchester 

June 1912 



Hviii 




By kind permission of Josiah Wedgwood, Esq., M.P. 
XX 



For Alphabetical List of Names see Appendix C 




FALSTAFF TOBY JUG 

(/■ m) 

H. I4|in. 

Author's colL 



THE WOOD FAMILY 
OF BURSLEM 

A BRIEF BIOGRAPHY OF THOSE OF 

ITS MEMBERS WHO WERE 

SCULPTORS MODELLERS 

AND POTTERS 



CHAPTER I 
BURSLEM: HISTORICAL SKETCH 

BURSLEM in Staffordshire, often designated the "Mother of the 
Potteries," has long been a subject of interest to historians and 
writers, and though at the present time she may be smoke-begrimed, 
like many other important centres of industry she possesses an 
attractive and even romantic history. Her very name has puzzled the 
antiquarian, for in Domesday it is written Barcardeslim, and in subsequent 
records and charters, Borewardes-lyme, Burewardesley-lime, Burwardeslime, 
Burwardeslem, and Burdeslem. Of these, Burwardeslime has naturally been 
preferred because that name could be resolved into intelligible parts — for 
it has been observed long ago, that our Saxon ancestors never imposed names 
on places without regard to properties, circumstances or situation, but that 
the name of a place usually conveyed a brief description of that place, though 
by lapse of time, corruptness of pronunciation, and orthographical changes 
at different periods, a name which was once intelligible is now often not 
easily understood. The Saxon name Bur signifies a retired dwelling (a 
bower) ; xvardes is the preposition towards ; lime the woodland track 
which once crowned the hilly boundary between Staffordshire and Cheshire, 
so that Burwardeslime, eventually contracted into Burslem, signifies an 
umbrageous dwelling near the woodlands. 

Dr. Plot, referring to the potters in the chapter headed " Of the 
Earths," in his "Natural History of Staffordshire" (1688), writes : " But the 
greatest Pottery they have in this country is carried on at Burslem near 
Newcastle-under-Lyme, where for making their several sorts of pots they 
have as many different sorts of clay which they dig round about the Towne, 
all within half a mile's distance, the best being found nearest the coale." He 
then goes on to give a detailed description, from observation, of the techni- 
calities associated with the making of so-called "Slip " decorated ware and 

[1 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 



butter pots, and had it not been for the careful researches of the learned 
Doctor when he made his scholarly journey through the county, we should 
have had but slight knowledge of the doings of the 17th Century potters of 
Staffordshire. Thomas Cox in his "Magna Britannia," 1720 — 1731, also 
makes interesting notes as to Burslem and its surrounding hamlets. To these 
pages subsequent reference is made in the chapters devoted to Enoch Wood 
(see pp. 71-72). 




".^-O. 



ST. JOHN'S CHURCH, BURSLEM 



The parish church of Burslem illustrated above, dedicated to St. John 
the Baptist, and dating originally from the 12th or 13th Century, was 
probably erected by the Barons of Stafford, and the three hamlets of 
Burslem, Sneyd and Hulton have been exclusively taxed for the repair 
of Burslem Church from time immemorial. This ancient church in 
time became inadequate and on the 24th June 1828 the foundation stone 
was laid by the Bishop of Lichfield of a new and additional church in 
the district of Dale Hall, and on the 19th January 1831 the completed 
building was duly consecrated and dedicated to St. Paul ; an 
engraving of this church appears in Ward's History of Stoke-on-Trent, 



BURSLEM : HISTORICAL SKETCH 







SlMp^ 



Bii 



ST. PAUL'S CHURCH, BURSLEM, 1631 



with a description of its architectural features. Since that time further 
provision for worship has been made by the erection of churches in the districts 
of Sneyd Green and Cobridge ; and at the same time the Methodist Connexion 
and other dissenting bodies have made great progress and have built large 
and imposing chapels. Ward also devotes many pages to the interesting 
historical reminiscences of Burslem and her eminent men, and makes 
reference to members of the Wood family — Brownhills, the seat of 
John Wood, is shown in one of his engravings, and two plates 
represent the east and west views of the works of Enoch Wood & Sons. 

Burslem, by Act of Parliament, became a distinct ecclesiastical parish 
in the year 1805, having been separated from Stoke, the patron then being 
William Adams, of Cobridge Hall. At that period she had emerged 
from her picturesque village existence and become a nourishing place with 
wide and spacious new streets of excellent dwelling-houses, a marked 
contrast to the state in which she was found by Dr. Plot in 1686. 
Previous to 1805 John Wesley had remarked upon the great change which 
had taken place in the appearance of the neighbourhood and in the 
condition of the people within the time he had known Burslem. 



[3 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 



In 1760 the first Town Hall (Plate i, Illustration No. 4), was erected 
upon a plot of waste land near the centre of the town, and in 1824 this 
building underwent complete renovation ; it is described by contemporary 
writers as a handsome structure of brick stuccoed in imitation of stone 
and surmounted by a cupola, but would be deemed rather a poor makeshift 
in these days of palatial public buildings. Thirty years later it had to 
make way for a second Town Hall, illustrated below, which is a 
remarkably fine building, and has been described as the best, architecturally, 
in the Potteries ; it is still standing. This has again been superseded by 
a larger building (Plate i, Illustration No. 6), erected according to the plans 
and elevations of Messrs. Russell & Cooper of London, and opened on 
September 28th 191 1 by Major Cecil Wedgwood, D.S.O., a direct and 
worthy descendant of the great Josiah Wedgwood (1730-1795), the most 
notable potter England has ever produced. It is situated near to " The 
Big House " — referred to later on. In 1825 an Act of Parliament was 
passed with a view to regulating the Markets, and after prolonged 
negotiations, the foundation stone of a Market Hall was laid on the 1st 
of December 1835 by Enoch Wood, the Honorary Treasurer, in the 
presence of the Trustees and a large concourse of spectators. To this 
event further reference will be made. 

From these days the town has flourished and has developed in a 

similar manner to other towns 
in the so-called "Potteries," 
until Tunstall, Burslem, Hanley, 
Stoke, Fenton and Longton, have 
now become merged into one 
large community governed by 
one Mayor and a Corporation. 
It is worthy of note that the 
first mayor of this large and 
recently constituted County Bor- 
ough, now known as Stoke- 
on-Trent, was Major Cecil 
Wedgwood. Much of the land 
on which Burslem stands, as 
well as that which surrounds it, 
has at various times been deeply 
excavated for clay, coal and 
ironstone. 

Dr. Simeon Shaw, in his 

- " History of the Staffordshire 

Potteries" (1829), devotes many 

pages to Burslem and to the 




SECOND TOWN HALL OF BURSLEM, 1854 



4] 



PLATE I 




' i]/EM 



Illustration No. 4 (//. 4 and 94) 

THE FIRST TOWN HALL OF BURSLEM— 1760 

With part of the "Big House" shown on the extreme right 

(From Ward's "History of Stoke-on-Trent") 




Illustration No. 6 (/. 4) 
THE THIRD TOWN HALL OF BURSLEM— 191 1 



BURSLEM : HISTORICAL SKETCH 

eminent potters of the town, both in his own days and earlier ; and though 
Shaw has been proved to be inaccurate in some of his statements, his 
enthusiasm and laudatory adjectives are all delightfully characteristic of the 
man and his time. In the course of our work several references will be 
made to the pages of his little history and to manuscript notes made 
by Enoch Wood in his own copy of the book presented to him by the 
author. 

The Staffordshire potters have always been characterised by their 
liberal donations to churches, chapels and schools, and to all charitable and 
educational institutions in their county. Names of such families as the 
Wedgwoods, the Woods, the Adams, the Mintons and the Copelands are 
usually recorded in the subscription lists for these benevolent purposes. 

Tradition still survives in the Potteries ; the business created by the 
Wedgwoods flourishes ; Brownhills estate, whence the elder branch of the 
Wood family have taken their name, is still one of the possessions of 
the family, and the business founded by Spode and carried on by the 
Copelands, as well as that established many generations ago by William 
Adams, are both, it is pleasant to record, flourishing and being carried on 
under the guidance of their descendants. 




PEDLAR CARRYING CRATE OF POTTERY 



[5 



CHAPTER II 
THE WOOD FAMILY 

THE family of Wood dates back to the early days of Staffordshire, 
and although particular ancestral claims have been made in 
byegone times which cannot be substantiated, recent research 
has proved the existence of deeds showing that in the seventeenth 
century certain members of the family were considerable holders of land 
in or around Burslem. In the course of describing the work of those who 
became celebrated in the art of sculpture and of pottery, it will be necessary 
to trace the two main branches of the family springing from Ralph Wood 
of Cheddleton, near Leek, whose son (Plate ii, Illustration No. 8) born 
1676, was known as the "honest miller," viz., the elder or Brownhills 
branch and the younger or Fountain Place and Newbold Revel branch, 
and the following details will enable the reader to distinguish the two. 

In the elder branch appear the two Ralph Woods, father and son, 
the figure modellers, and John Wood of Brownhills (Plate ii, Illustration 
No. 9). Their descendants in direct line are the present Colonel George 
Wilding Wood of Docklands, Ingatestone, Essex, and Captain John 
Nicholas Price Wood of Henley Hall, Ludlow, who, with other members 
of the family, now own the Brownhills estate, and the Bignal End 
estates inherited many generations ago from the Wedgwoods. In the 
younger branch we have Aaron and Enoch Wood, father and son, the 
former being the distinguished block cutter and modeller of the beautiful 
"salt-glaze" pieces, the latter the celebrated sculptor and potter, who 
eventually became known as the " Father of the Potteries." The direct 
descendant of the younger branch is Mr. A. H. E. Wood, of Browhead, 
Windermere, who is the fortunate possessor of many models from the 
hand of his sculptor ancestor. 

Plate ii, Illustration No. 10, gives the view of Brownhills, shown in 
Ward's "History of Stoke," 1843. The early unlettered impression 
kindly lent by the late Mr. John Baddeley Wood of Henley Hall, from 
which our illustration has been reduced, bears the following memo- 
randum : 

6] 



PLATE II 




Illustration No. 8 {pp.6 and 33) 

RALPH WOOD OF CHEDDLETON 

"THE HONEST MILLER" 

(From the painting by William Caddick) 




Illustration No. 9 !/■/.' and 
JOHN WOOD OF BROWNHILLS d. 1797 
(From the painting by William Caddick) 




Illustration No. 10 (/>. 6) 

BROWNHILLS 
(Reduced from the engraving in Ward's History of Stoke-upon-Trent) 



f by J. F. 



PLATE III 




Illustration No. 11 (/. 7) 

MRS. JOHN BADDELEY 

Ne'e Mary Wedgwood, see pedigree 

(From the painting at Henley Hall) 





Illustration No. 12 (/. 7) Illustration No. 3 (/. 7) 

JOHN WEDGWOOD OF BIGNAL END THOMAS WEDGWOOD OF THE BIG HOUSE 

(1760-1829) ;i762-:826) 

THE TWO SONS OF JOHN WEDGWOOD OF THE BIG HOUSE, d 1780 
(From the paintings at Henley Hall) 



THE WOOD FAMILY 

January 15th, 1830 — John Wood Esq., of Brownhills, has lent me the 
plate of Brownhills, for the impressions of my work on the antiquities and 
history of Stoke-on-Trent, the same to be returned when the work is com- 
pleted. — Simeon Shaw. 

The view has been drawn and etched by J. F. Malloch. 

From the old estate ledgers which were in the possession of the late 
Mr. John Baddeley Wood can be traced the close connection of this 
elder branch with the " Big House " Wedgwoods, the Burslem branch 
of that famous Staffordshire family (Plate iii, Illustration No. 11), from 
whom the two Ralph Woods received not only a practical knowledge of 
potting, but also in the case of Ralph Wood, Senr., estates by inter- 
marriage. Thomas and John Wedgwood of the " Big House " lived 
together as bachelors until both were over fifty years of age, and their 
sister Mary controlled their household affairs ; after her death both 
brothers married. Thomas took his cousin, Mary Wedgwood, to wife, 
they had no issue. John married firstly Mary Allsop and continued to 
live at the " Big House," v/here his seven children were born. He 
married secondly in 1776 Mary Wilkinson, nee Hays, by whom he had 
no issue; he died in 1780 and was succeeded by his two sons, John 
of Bignal End (born 1760) (Plate iii, Illustration No. 12), and Thomas 
of the " Big House " (born 1762) (Plate iii, Illustration No. 13). 

Entries in the old estate ledgers, fortunately preserved, of the "Big 
House" Wedgwoods show a continual accumulation of wealth, and no 
doubt this development caused them in due course to hand over their 
pottery works to the younger men, Ralph Wood and Josiah Wedgwood, 
both of whom had taken in marriage nieces of these ' Big House " 
Wedgwoods — the former had espoused Mary, daughter of the eldest 
Wedgwood brother, Aaron, by whom he had a son christened Ralph, 
and the latter married Sarah, daughter and heiress of the elder Wedgwood 
brother, Richard of Spen Green. Both of these young men, Ralph Wood 
and Josiah Wedgwood, were tenants of Thomas and John Wedgwood. 
Josiah, by his indomitable energy and skill eventually became England's 
greatest potter, while Ralph Wood and his son Ralph devoted their 
talents chiefly to the production of the characteristic statuettes and groups 
now so highly appreciated. 

In the younger branch of the family, Aaron Wood (born 1717), the 
second son of the " honest miller," lived to the age of 68, and was able 
to carry on in a modest manner his artistic work of designing and modelling 
beautiful shapes in domestic and ornamental objects to be realised by 
various makers in the so-called "salt glaze" pottery, now coveted by 
every collector of old English ceramics. His apprenticeship deed, his 
will and signature and illustrations of his work are shown in the chapter 
devoted to this member of the Wood family. 

[7 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

Enoch Wood (born 1759), the youngest son of Aaron Wood, was 
apprenticed to Humphrey Palmer of Hanley, the well-known potter, and 
at an early age had the privilege of artistic tuition from his uncle, Wm. 
Caddick, the portrait painter, of Liverpool. His early work in modelling 
and sculpture — examples of which are illustrated in the chapters on 
this celebrated member of the family — show him to have had considerable 
talents which he assiduously developed during a long life ; his portrait- 
bust of John Wesley in his 78th year, executed when the modeller was 
twenty-two years of age, remains the prototype for all correct sculptured 
presentments of the great divine. 

The memory of Enoch Wood's sincere interest in Burslem and her 
public affairs throughout his long life has been handed down to present 
times, and he is referred to with affectionate regard as having been a 
most zealous citizen. 

Extract from Pedigree : 

Ralph Wood of Cheddleton, b. 1676 (Fountain Place and 
(Brownhills Branch) Newbold Revel Branch) 

Ralph Wood, b. 1715, ob. 1772 Aaron Wood, b. 1717, ob. 1785 

Ralph Wood Enoch Wood 

b. 1748, ob. 1795 b. 1759, ob. 1840 



8J 



PLATE Ilia 




Illustration No. 13a (//. 10-12) 

JOHN VOYEZ 
Jasper Medallion 

A distinguished Modeller and Carver of Miniatures in Ivory. Exquisite 
examples of his workmanship may be seen in the Holburne Museum at Bath. 
From a mould (probably modelled by Voyez himself) recently discovered at the 
Etruria Works, Staffordshire, of Messrs. Josiah Wedgwood & Sons Ltd. The 
following inscription appears upon the back of the mould : "Mr. John Voyez's 
likeness, Sept. 20th, 1768." 



CHAPTER III 
THE WORK OF THE RALPH WOODS 

IN any collection of old Staffordshire figures it is noticeable with what 
prominence the work of the Ralph Woods stands out, a prominence 
due largely to the delicacy of the coloured glazes and the originality 
of the modelling. With the exception of the productions of John 
Dwight of Fulham, who worked in the latter half of the seventeenth 
century, the modelling and decoration of figures and statuettes were, prior 
to the days of the two Ralph Woods, rough and crude in the extreme (see 
Plate xxv, Illustration No. 90), and though early in the eighteenth century, 
Thomas Whieldon to some extent devoted his skill to the production 
of small figures he apparently lacked the aid of a satisfactory modeller, 
and his work in this particular branch was not his greatest achievement. 

Instead of perpetuating the earlier so-called "agate" and "salt- 
glaze " figures, the Ralph Woods adopted for the decoration of their 
wares glazes coloured with metallic oxides, the process inaugurated 
in Staffordshire by Thomas Whieldon* ; they developed their modelling 
and ultimately produced the charming statuettes, groups and plaques 
so much sought for by a large section of collectors of English earthenware. 
They were the first English potters to impress their name upon their 
figure productions, and for this purpose they adopted two distinct marks, 
(see Plate liii) though these marks are not impressed upon all their pieces, 
these marks are R. WOOD in capital letters, and Ra. Wood, Burslem, in 
capital and lower case letters, and it is natural to suggest, though the point 
is conjectural, that the former is the mark of the father and the latter 
that of the son. This assumption seems to be confirmed by the fact that 
the mark R. WOOD has so far only been recorded upon either wholly 
white specimens or those decorated with the coloured glazes, whereas the 
mark Ra. Wood, Burslem, is found also upon later or enamel decorated 
examples ; it is well to remember that there exist many unmarked 

* Without going into technical details, it should be explained on broad lines that the Staffordshire 
potters have adopted two distinctly different methods of decorating their figures, the early process 
being that of colouring their lead glazes with metallic oxides and applying them with a brush or pencil, 
and the other that of glazing first, then applying enamel colours upon the glazed and fired surface, 
and again firing the object in a muffle kiln at a low temperature. 

[9 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

specimens, in which certain characteristics of modelling and decoration 
combined with other features make the work of these potters quite 
recognisable by the student collector. With the exception of Nos. 80 
(Plate xxi), 84 and 85 (Plate xxii), all the Ralph Wood objects we have 
chosen to illustrate are examples decorated with coloured glazes. 

The Ralph Woods also adopted a series of mould numbers ; these 
were occasionally impressed in the paste, and careful research has made 
possible the compilation of a list which, though as yet incomplete, 
may prove a helpful guide in the discrimination of specimens ; its 
continuation would afford an interesting pursuit. The list is given in 
Appendix A, and a reproduction of one of the mould numbers will be 
found on Plate liii at the end of the volume. A close examination 
of these impressed numerals will show a slightly condensed character- 
istic in their shape ; we may also observe that these impressed numbers 
are not to be confused with the painted or enamelled numbers often 
found upon dinner or other services ; these denote either the pattern or 
the private mark adopted by the decorator. 

Ralph Wood, senior, did not rely solely on his own undoubted talents 
as a modeller, for it is safe to assume that he received valuable assistance 
from his brother, Aaron Wood, and later also from that mysterious genius 
John Voyez, who, as is shown in the estate ledgers, was also a tenant of 
Thomas and John Wedgwood of the " Big House." The originality and 
humour of many of the Ralph Wood groups are possibly due to the 
influence of these two colleagues. John Voyez's skill in modelling the 
figure was recognised in a marked manner by Josiah Wedgwood who 
counted himself fortunate in securing the services of such an artist; his 
character, however, was so unsatisfactory that Wedgwood was compelled to 
take legal action, with the result that a flogging and a term of three 
months' imprisonment for drunkenness ensued. During his confinement in 
gaol he is reported to have carved in ivory the plaque representing 
Prometheus chained to the Rock, a piece of refined workmanship 
now treasured with other exquisite carvings of great delicacy and 
refinement in the Holburne Museum at Bath. For three years Voyez 
had worked for Wedgwood, his remuneration being at the rate of 
£1 1 6s. od. per week, a high wage in those days, even for one who 
according to his employer could work " much more effectually than all 
the potters in the country put together." 

The following letter recently received from Dr. Goodchild, who has 
closely studied the work of Voyez, will doubtless prove of considerable 
interest ; it should, however, be pointed out that several views expressed 
therein are not altogether in accordance with accepted traditions. 

10] 



PLATE IV 




Illustration No. 15 (>. 13) Illustration No 14 1 p , 

HAYMAKER. H. 7Un. OLD AGE. H. gin. 

(Mark impressed: R. WOOD) 



Illustration No. 15 (/. i^) 

HAYMAKER. H. 7}in, 



Autkot 




Illustration No. 16 ;>. 13) 

THE VICAR & MOSES. H. 9 iin. 

(Mark impressed : Ra. Wood, Burslem) 

- / uthor's coll. 




Illustration No. 17 (/. 13) 
THE PARSON & CLERK. H. gin. 

(At Henley Hall) 



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PLATE VI 



"DIOGENES 
LOOKING 
FOR A 
HONEST 

MAN " 

H. I2in. 

Illustration No. 24 (/. 15) 
(At Henley Hall) 





. vjS 



Illustration No. 25 (/. 15) Illustration No. 27 (A 15) Illustration No. 26 (A 15) 

GROUP. FLUTE PLAYER. H. pjin. ST. GEORGE AND DRAGON. H. lojin. GROUP. BIRD CAGE. H. I0|in. 

(Mark : Ra. Wood, Burslem) 
Stoner coil. 



PLATE VII 




Illustration No. 28 (/. 15) 



GROUP, TRADITIONALLY KNOWN AS RALPH WOOD AND HIS SON 

H. ill/m. 
tr coil. 



THE WORK OF THE RALPH WOODS 



York Crescent, Clifton, Bristol 

Novr. 9th 191 1 
Dear Sir 

I am afraid that I cannot tell you much of real value about Voyez. I heard 
a tale of him long ago from someone who must have had very special sources of 
information, but I have forgotten even the name of my informant, if indeed I 
knew it, and though interested in his yarn, did not then know its importance as 
an illustration of certain teachings ancient and modern. About a dozen years 
ago, I made some study at Bath and elsewhere, and was able to pick up a few 
facts to add to these memories of the " Frenchman who taught English potters to 
make vases, and was flogged in the market place, and put in the stone-jug for 
his wages." But I have no present notes of any importance and remember little 
in the way of direct reference beyond what is told in the " Life of Wedgwood." 
Briefly and trusting to memory only, I fancy Voyez was born about 1740, and 
was about 60 at the time of his death. He was of French extraction, possibly 
from the neighbourhood of Amiens, where there was a family of engravers and 
metal workers of the same name in the eighteenth century. He was a jeweller 
by training, and included carving, metal and glasswork in their various branches 
amongst his accomplishments. Also I think my original informant told me 
that he had worked for a short time (? a year) in some French pottery before taking 
up his abode in London, where he worked for (Philip Rundell ?) and other jewellers, 
as enameller, &c. There he got into difficulties partly by his own fault and partly 
by being sweated by his employers, and was found by Wedgwood burdened with 
a small debt in or about 1768, when Wedgwood was seeking a Master-£r&itsma.n 
to direct his new works, and engaged by him for three years. During the year 
or so that he was with Wedgwood he taught the latter to make the plaques for 
which the firm is famous, or at least started them on an artistic footing, for of 
course ornamentation of somewhat similar character had been made long before, 
also he began to teach Wedgwood how to make vases, &c, but they had differences 
from the first, Voyez holding that the designer has a right to sign or mark genuine 
craft work, as distinguished from trade articles which are mere repetitions, and 
should bear merely the trade stamp- Wedgwood forbade Voyez to mark his 
designs, and set his stamp " Wedgwood & Bentley " upon them with his own 
hands, somewhat to his later disadvantage, when his enemy forged his stamp, 
and set it on articles baked elsewhere, and peddled at low prices in order to annoy 
him ; for it would have been easy for Voyez to have produced specimens of his 
own work to which his employer had applied the stamp of the firm. Matters 
culminated early in (1769 ?) when Wedgwood going into his foreman's workshop 
found him somewhat in liquor, and modelling a semi-nude portrait figure from 
a young girl who was, I think, the daughter of his own coachman. Wedgwood 
lost his temper at such scandalous conduct during working hours, and set forth 
that a workman at 35/- a week had no right to drink London porter, or to waste 
his time on obscene nudities, when he ought to be studying classic and other designs 
in order that a Master Vase might be produced by the firm ; and Voyez retorted 
that Wedgwood knew nothing about Master Vases, and that it was not study of 
Italian drawings, but of Nature that produced them. In fact, there appears to 
have been a pretty sharp passage of arms and possibly even of fists, at the end of 
which Voyez found himself discharged and was taken before the Staffordshire 
magistrates, who, much scandalised, ordered him the cat and (three months ?) 
imprisonment. During this imprisonment Wedgwood hurried on the baking out 
of his first vases, simple in form but dainty, from a design of the prisoner's, whilst 
the prisoner, in revenge, got seriously to work in scheming a Master Vase, in 



[" 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

which the figure which Wedgwood objected to was repeated, forming the handles. 
(The girl's figure had an actualite, which none of Flaxman's later work equals, 
though only that of a Staffordshire servant-maid.) Also whilst in prison, he carved 
an allegory of Prometheus, and posed the girl from whom he had derived his 
inspiration as the fury who had caused his torture. On coming out he declined 
the firm's offer to buy him out of Staffordshire by paying him for his full term of 
three years on condition that he did not work for other potters but left the country, 
and went to Palmer to aid him in producing the Master Vase designed, but Palmer 
was then unable to produce a black ware suited for the baking out of so large 
a vase, and the beautiful piece failed in the baking, having warped and cracked, 
and lost the arms of the two figures with their wreathed serpents ; the latter 
breakage, a misfortune which entirely spoils the lines of Voyez's design, which 
was a wonderful combination of grace and stability such as was not produced 
later in the eighteenth century. Nevertheless Palmer affixed a rather badly pro- 
portioned foot to it marked with his stamp, and sent it to stand in the centre 
of the window of a shop which he was then opening in Bath as a specimen of 
what his firm was capable of. (Thence it may have gone to a Dr. Gordon, but 
I am by no means sure of this.) At any rate it fell eventually into the hands of 
Sir T. W. Holburne, and with the ivory plaque "Prometheus Bound," forms 
one of the " pieces de conviction " in the Holburne Museum. There must be 
a good many references to Voyez in Wedgwood's correspondence, and one or 
two are quoted by Miss Meteyard, of course from a hostile point of view ; and the 
man was an erratic genius enough, but he was one of those who looked forward 
to an entente cordiale, and whose teaching is bearing fruit at present. 

Yours very sincerely 

J. A. GOODCHILD 
For portrait of Voyez see Plate iiia, Illustration No. 13a. 
Before referring specifically to some of the objects made by the 
Woods, it may be well to point out a characteristic of modelling which 
has been described as a "full fleshiness " of the eyes and mouth, and also 
to three characteristics of decoration, namely : (i) the refined and subdued 
colouring of the glazes, (ii) the absence of glaze here and there, as though 
the brush when applying the coloured glazes had missed some portion of 
the clay, and (iii) the frequent absence of glaze underneath the base or 
pedestal ; no camera or process of reproduction can possibly convey a satis- 
factory idea of the charming effect of the delicately subdued colouring of 
the glazes. Examples of the work of the Ralph Woods may be seen in the 
British, in the Victoria and Albert and in the Brighton Museums, and though 
many of the finest specimens are in the cabinets of private collectors, 
it is still possible to meet with specimens in the hands of dealers. 

Amongst the more important may be cited the figure of Old Age, 
the small pair of figures of Haymakers, the group of Hudibras upon 
his old horse, and the Vicar and Moses in the pulpit. The first three 
are marked R. WOOD and the other two Ra. Wood, Burslem, and all are 
decorated in coloured glazes. It is not necessary to endeavour to differ- 
entiate between the work of the father and that of the son, for the chief 
contrast in their workmanship occurred later, when the enamel colours 
were adopted and a consequent deterioration of artistic effect took place. 

»] 




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PLATE IX 




->" 



Illustration No. 34 [p. il i 

CHARITY. H. 7j;n. 

(Mark: R. WOOD) 

Sidcbolliam i oil. 




Illustration No. 33 •(•■ I 

ROMAN CHARITY. H. 7iin. 

Author's coll- 




Illustration No 35 (/. [I i 

CHARITY. H. 7 '.in. 

Stover coll. 






Illustration No. 30 .,' . | 
ALDERMAN BECKFORD. H n'in. 



Illustration No. 37 - 
BENT FRANKLIN. H. 13m. 



Illustration No. 38 (/. 16) 

VAN TROMP. H. loin. 




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PLATE XI 




Illustration No. 43 I/. t6) 
GAMEKEEPER. H. ioin. 




Ilustration No. 44(/». 16) Illustration No. 45 /t. 16) Illustration No. 46 if. |6) 

H. 4*in. H. oUn. H. Sjin. 

(Mark : Ra. Wood, Burslem) 
SATYR HEAD MASK CUP AND JUGS 



THE WORK OF THE RALPH WOODS 

The Old Age figure (Plate iv, Illustration No. 14) is a skilful rendering 
of human decrepitude ; an example of this appealing old man may be seen 
in the Victoria and Albert Museum, where for many years he stood 
patiently waiting for the recent enlargement of that institution and for the 
prominence which was his due — his pose and delicate colouring constitute 
a lovely little figure ; the small figures of the Haymakers (Plate iv, 
Illustration No. 15) are an attractive pair, in attitude and detail well 
expressing their pastoral occupation. It may here be recorded that so far 
none of the statuettes or groups of the Ralph Woods have been copied 
from or influenced by the Dresden or Chelsea models — all their productions 
are of English inspiration, save the Satyr head cups, which are of Roman 
origin. The group (Mould No. 42) of Hudibras (Frontispiece) upon his 
horse about to draw forth his sword 

" With basket Hilt that would hold broth, 
And serve for fight and dinner both," 

comprises a very notable example of modelling, the face of Hudibras, the 
limp old horse and the general conception of the subject all conspire to 
demonstrate the master modeller in his most artistic mood ; decorated 
in delicately coloured glazes, this group stands forth as a very fine specimen 
of early Staffordshire figurework. The group of the Vicar and Moses 
in the pulpit (Plate iv, Illustration No. 16), modelled possibly by 
Aaron Wood (for he is recorded as having been a humorist) is a delightful 
conception ; the Vicar is sleeping soundly and the clerk with upraised 
hand is pronouncing the benediction — a stroke of genius in modelling, 
portraying the rollicking days of the clergy ; no other Staffordshire group 
has been more popular, for it has been repeated (with ever increasing loss 
of artistic merit) since the day when it was issued, decorated with simple 
but harmonious coloured glazes, signed Ra. Wood, Burslem, and impressed 
with its mould No. 62. Excellent unmarked examples were made of this 
subject in the early days, but all early ones bear on the front of the pulpit 
impressed in capital letters the title "THE VICAR AND MOSES." The 
pulpit is decorated with the exquisite manganese-brown coloured glaze, 
and other features recognisable by the expert declare its genuineness. An 
excellent example of this spirited and amusing group may be seen both in 
the British and the Victoria and Albert Museums, and a coloured plate of 
the latter specimen appears in Mr. William Burton's " English Earthen- 
ware and Stoneware." Little differences of colour scheme are apparent in 
these two specimens — as indeed exist in nearly all instances, for the Woods 
very rarely decorated two figures exactly alike. 

The Group known as The Parson and Clerk (Plate iv, Illustra- 
tion No. 17), no doubt inspired by the same individuals as The Vicar 
and Moses, owes its origin in all probability to Aaron Wood. Its 
popularity is a tribute to the genuine humour of its conception ; almost 

[i3 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

all the specimens so far discovered, including the one in the Victoria 
and Albert Museum, have been decorated with enamel colours. Our 
illustration is taken from the group in the possession of Mrs. Wood of 
Henley Hall, and the high lights, though a deterrent to satisfactory 
reproduction, denote an early period of decoration which consists of a 
rich glaze superimposed upon dark brown manganese. There have 
recently been discovered two separate earthenware figures, about oin. 
high — The Parson and The Farmer s Wife — from the well-known 
" Tithe Pig" group, decorated with coloured glazes and bearing unmistakable 
Ralph Wood characteristics, which may possibly controvert the suggestion 
that the design originally emanated from the Derby-Chelsea factory. 
This fact, in conjunction with the sale on April 5th 1911, in the Turner 
collection (for £157 10s.), of a rare earthenware figure jug, niin. high, 
representing the parson, and lettered "I WILL HAVE NO CHILD THO' 
THE X PIG," may lead to further research. This Parson Jug was illus- 
trated in Messrs. Puttick & Simpson's sale catalogue, and would appear to 
have been decorated in enamel colours. Mr. Stoner's collection includes a 
remarkable figure of the Parson from the "Tithe Pig" group, decorated 
in coloured glazes, a^in. high. 

The Toby Jugs reveal much variety in design and general refine- 
ment in decoration. Their popular Toby Fillpot model (Plate v, 
Illustration No. 18) occasionally bears the mould No. 51, and an example 
in the author's collection is marked Ra. Wood, Burslem in addition to the 
mould number. A variant of this model has at the side an applied 
cartouche upon which is impressed in capital letters "IT IS ALL OUT 
THEN FILL HIM AGIAN" (sic) the misspelling being a proof that 
separate matrices were used for stamping the inscription (Plate v, Illustra- 
tion No. 19). The Ralph Woods were not, however, limited to this design, 
and a vigorous conception marks their large Falstaff jug (Plate v, 
Illustration No. 20) of which two or three examples, varying in certain 
details, are so far known ; this jug, izjfin. high, decorated with coloured 
glazes, is a worthy example of the art of our old English potters, and is 
probably the finest earthenware jug ever made in early Staffordshire days. 
Another example of this Falstaff jug, from the author's collection, is shown 
in the Illustration facing page 1, and a considerable amount of handwork 
after pressing, accentuating many details, is shov/n upon this specimen. A 
rather remarkable Bacchus jug is shown in Plate v, Illustration No. 21 ; 
herein a certain coarseness of subject is redeemed by the beauty of the 
coloured glazing ; later examples differing in details of design are much 
inferior, and though the modelling is English and of Ralph Wood 
character the inspiration is probably Continental. Other jugs show 
originality of conception, an example being that of their Sailor (Plate v, 

Ml 



PLATE XII 





Illustration No. 50 i/. r) Illustration No. 47 i p. 16) Illustration No 48 (/. 16) Illustration No. 49 i p. il Illustration No. 51 (/. 16) 
Shepherdess. H. ioin. Shepherdess. H.8,in. Lost Sheep. H. ojin, Shepherd. H.8,in. Shepherd. H.o.'.in. 






Illustration No. 52 i/ . v i Illustration No. 55 (/. 17] Illustration No. 53 1 /. r I Illustration No. 56 (/>. 17I' Illustration No. 54 
Musician. H. 7 in Cupid on Lion. H 8jin. Musician. H.8in. Cupid on Lioness H.8Un. Musician. H. 7'.inT~ 







lllustration No. 57 I /•. 17) 
Elijah. H.9',in. 



Illustration No 58 
Lost Piece. H. 8,in. 



Illustration No. 59 1 
Peasant at Prayer H. c,in. 







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SERIES OF ANIMALS 
The pair of flower holders and the squirrel in the top row are about 8in. high 






£^% 




Illustration No. 70 (/. 17) 

THE SEASONS AND SPHINX 
Average height about 4,'in. 



PLATE XVI 




J 








GARDENERS AND SHEPHERDESSES 1/.17) 
Average height about 7m. 



Illustration No. 71 
ADMIRAL RODNEY 



PLATE XVII 




Illustration No. 72 I ,'. i 



PLAQUE THREE GROOMS DRINKING 
H. 91'n. 

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THE WORK OF THE RALPH WOODS 

Illustration No. 22). At the back of this is inscribed in beautiful italic 
lettering the following doggerel : 

" Hallo, Brother Briton 

Whoever thou may be 
Sit down on 
That chest of 

Hard dollars by me 

And drink a health 

To all sealors (sic) bold." 
Reproductions from some of their other Toby jugs are shown on Plate v, 
including a representation of Lord Howe, Illustration No. 23. 

Diogenes looking for a honest man is an inscription seen 
upon one of their largest figures (Plate vi, Illustration No. 24). This 
thoughtful looking and classic old man, made more intense by a slight 
leaning forward, (an accident in firing), is a fine conception. So far this 
example, which is in the collection of Mrs. Wood of Henley Hall, is the 
only one recorded. The following groups may be cited as important 
representatives of the school : The Flute Player, mould No. 88, and 
the companion, Youth and Bird Cage, mould No. 89 (Plate vi, 
Illustration Nos. 25-26); in modelling this pair quite equals some of the 
better groups of Chelsea, and the coloured glazes excel in artistic effect 
the enamels of the early China factories. In the author's collection 
both examples of these groups have nozzles for candles as part of the 
tree background; another beautifully "sharp" pair is in the collection 
of Mr. Barber of Manchester. The group of St. George and the 
Dragon (Plate vi, Illustration No. 27), although not satisfactory as to its 
modelling, is a fine piece of early Staffordshire figure work ; the mould 
No. is 23 and the mark Ra. Wood, Burslem ; this group has been 
copied by later potters, losing something of its merit at each reproduction. 
The so-called group of Ralph Wood and his Son (Plate vii, Illustration 
No. 28) is an excellent composition and quite characteristic of the school 
under review ; this example is the only one recorded and is in Mr. Stoner's 
collection ; possibly this subject is included in the invoice printed on 
page 19, described as 375 : Man -with Boy in his hand standing. 

In classic figures the following may be cited, Jupiter (Plate viii, 
Illustration No. 29) ; the mould No. of this model is 23 and it is 
marked Ra. Wood, Burslem. A fine example of this statuette is in 
the collection of the late Mrs. Paull of Truro. There is an entirely 
different design of this subject, so far only recorded in enamelled 
decoration ; herein Jupiter holds a sceptre of cypress, and the 
outstretched wings of the eagle at his right hand side project far 
beyond the pedestal ; the mould No. is 79, and the front of the 
pedestal is lettered "Jupiter"; it is a cleverly modelled statuette. 

G [15 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

Minerva, Neptune and Venus (Plate viii, Illustration Nos. 30, 
31 and 32), Roman Charity with its title incised in script lettering 
(Plate ix, Illustration No. 33), Hercules and Hebe, a beautifully 
modelled pair of uncoloured statuettes, formerly in the collection of 
Mr. Jahn of Hanley, and Faith, Hope and Charity are further 
examples of these classic figures. The subject of Roman Charity 
is the prisoner Cimon, who during his imprisonment was supported by the 
milk of his daughter, specimens of this group are found also with enamel 
decoration ; an entirely different design of the episode was made later, 
more realistic and less artistic — it is lettered Grecian and Daughter. 
An exquisite uncoloured example of the Charity is in Dr. Sidebotham's 
collection, and is marked R. WOOD (Plate ix, Illustration No. 34). A 
variant of the Charity design is shown in Illustration No. 35, Plate ix. 

In portraiture we have the statuette of Alderman Beckford 
(Plate ix, Illustration No. 36) taken from the Guildhall statue by J.F.Moore, 
representing the father of the author of "The Romance of Vathek " 
addressing a remonstrance to George III. This is an artistic piece of 
workmanship, and only two have so far been recorded ; one is to be seen in 
the Willet collection, Brighton, the other is in the possession of Mr. George 
Stoner. The portrait of Benjamin Franklin (Plate ix, Illustration 
No. 37) shows a lifelike expression of the American philosopher, who in 
1757 met with such appreciation in England. Van Tromp (Plate ix, 
Illustration No. 38) is another excellent example of the figurework of 
this school. 

The series of four statuettes (Plate x, Illustration Nos. 39, 40, 41 and 
42) would alone justify any potter's claim to distinction in figure modelling, 
and when decorated in refined coloured glazes they constitute an 
important set: Diana (Illustration No. 39) is marked Ra. Wood, Burslem, 
and the other three, known as the Spanish Dancers, though 
unmarked, bear every characteristic of their school ; The Game- 
keeper (Plate xi, Illustration No. 43) is found both with and without 
pedestal, and the same remark applies to the figures of Neptune and 
Venus. Two Satyr Head mask jugs and a cup are shown in Plate xi, 
Illustration Nos. 44, 45 and 46, No. 45 being a marked specimen 
impressed Ra. Wood, Burslem, mould No. 53. 

The Shepherdess (Plate xii, Illustration No. 47), the Lost 
Sheep (Plate xii, Illustration No. 48) and The Shepherd (Plate xii, 
Illustration No. 49) are typical examples of the Woods' technique. A 
variant of the Lost Sheep shows the shepherd carrying the lamb under 
his arm, examples of this subject are known both in white and coloured 
glazes. Plate xii, Illustration Nos. 50 and 51, shows another pair, 
Shepherdess and Shepherd. Illustration Nos. 52, 53 and 54, are from a 
set of Musicians] Illustration No. 54 bears the mould No. 71, and 

16] 



THE WORK OF THE RALPH WOODS 

possibly its companions may be found numbered 70 and 72 ; the 
mould numbers, however, do not always run consecutively. Cupid 
riding upon a lion and a companion upon a lioness (Plate xii, 
Illustration Nos. 55 and 56) form a dignified pair ; their mould Nos. are 
45 and 46, and they gain in effect by having been mounted upon 
pedestals. These pedestals are quite a feature of the school, and, as 
before mentioned, they are frequently unglazed underneath. 

Not many religious subjects have been recorded. Elijah (Plate xii, 
Illustration No. 57) and the Lost Piece (Plate xii, Illustration No. 58) 
are perhaps two of the best known. Saints Peter, John, Paul and Philip 
bear the respective mould Nos. 118, 119, 120 and 121, and have so far only 
been recorded with enamel decoration. The beautiful coloured glaze 
group of The Peasant at Prayer (Plate xii, Illustration No. 59) is 
the only example yet recorded, and is in the collection of Mrs. John 
Baddeley Wood. 

The Woods, further, sought models in the animal world and they 
produced great numbers of pieces representing various creatures. Their 
Lion (Plate xiii, Illustration No. 60) inspired by the Italian model is 
excellent ; this magnificent example is in the Stoner collection. Another 
model may be seen in the Greg collection, Manchester. Their Goat and 
Ram figures (in Dr. Sidebotham's collection) and Squirrels (Plate xiii, 
Illustration Nos. 61, 62, 63 and 64), Bull Baiting, Elephant, Seated 
Stag (Plate xiii, Illustration Nos. 65, 66 and 67), and Pointer and 
Setter (Plate xiv, Illustration No. 68) decorated in delicate coloured 
glazes, are all desirable. Plate xv, Illustration No. 69, shows a variety of 
animals some of which do duty as flower holder supports and others as 
rhytons or drinking cups. Many of these have been repeated by later 
potters who have decorated them with enamel colours and issued them 
from worn out moulds ; on Plate xv are also shown seven small figures 
of the Seasons and one of the Sphinx (Illustration No. 70). Plate xvi 
represents a series of fifteen figures, amongst them being Gardeners 
and Shepherdesses and the popular Admiral Rodney (Illustration 
No. 71); the average height of these is about seven inches. It is not 
wise, however, without careful study and handling of the actual objects, to 
assume that figures which appear similar to these illustrations have, as 
a matter of course, been made by the Ralph Woods. Plate xxii, 
Illustration No. 86, represents an heirloom jug in the collection of 
Mr. A. H. E. Wood, bearing the following inscription : 
"No Art With Potters, Can Compare, 
we Make our Pots of what we Potters Are ' ' 
together with the initials: "R. W."; and on the base: "T. Locker 
1770 " (Plate xxii, Illustration No. 86a). 

One may be forgiven for writing in enthusiastic terms as to the 

[i7 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

few plaques (for they number only some four or five subjects) so far 
discovered ; the potting is so delicate and thin that they at once attract 
the student of English earthenware. These earliest examples are totally 
unglazed at the back, and are hollow or deeply moulded, and their subjects 
are as follows : Three Grooms Drinking, to be seen in Mrs. Salting's 
loan collection at Bethnal Green (Plate xvii, Illustration No. 72), Jack on 
a Cruise (Plate xviii, Illustration No. 73), in the Stoner collection, and 
Patricia and her Lover (Plate xviii, Illustration No. 74), in both the 
Mayer Museum, Liverpool, and the Stoner collection. This last subject 
is also shown with the two figures upon separate plaques making a 
pair (Plate xix, Illustration Nos. 75 and 76). Other characteristic plaques 
are Paris and OEnone (Plate xx, Illustration No. 77) in the collection 
of Mr. Barber of Manchester, the very important one of the Nymph 
piping to a Dancing Faun (Plate xx, Illustration No. 78), and the 
Child riding a Lion and nursing a Lamb (Plate xxi, Illustration 
No. 79), these last two examples are in the Stoner collection. 

The busts of Milton (Plate xxi, Illustration No. 80) and 
Washington, the former marked 81 Ra. Wood, Burslem, and the 
latter the same mark but without the mould number, are both uncoloured 
examples. The Washington bust may be seen in the Victoria and 
Albert Museum, and the Milton is in the author's collection, on loan, 
at The National Museum of Ireland, Dublin. 

As proof of the fact that Voyez and Ralph Wood, Junr., worked in 
conjunction with each other we have certain examples of the well-known 
Fair Hebe jug (Plate xxi, Illustration No. 81), the plaque of Paris and 
CEnone and the Flask with the medallions of Shakespearean scenes on 
each side (Plate xxii, Illustration Nos. 82 and 83), all of which bear not 
only Voyez 's name but possess also characteristics of potting and glazing 
which are probably attributable to Ralph Wood. The subjects shown in 
Illustration Nos. 82 and 83 are also found as plaques and upon a teapot. 

Of the enamelled figures and groups of Ralph Wood, Junr., certain 
examples are not without merit ; a more finished spirit in the modelling 
added to the temptations of a less restricted palette, produced garish 
results ; however, the two examples, Sir Isaac Newton and Chaucer 
from the collection of Mrs. John Wood (Plate xxii, Illustration Nos. 84 
and 85), the bust of Handel and the statuette of Jupiter holding a 
sceptre of cypress, with certain others of which some are marked Ra. Wood, 
Burslem, form a section in a later school of Staffordshire figures much 
prized by collectors, who recognise in the titles of the subjects, lettered 
frequently upon the front of the pedestal, and in the mould numbers, 
a uniformity of style which is one of the evidences of their origin. 

By the kindness of Mr. Cook, the curator of the Etruria Museum, 
we are enabled to print the following invoice for figures and groups 

181 



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PLATE XXII 



Illustration No. 84 ( //. 10 and i3l 

SIR ISAAC NEWTON. H nin. 

(Mark : Ra. Wood, Burslem; 




Illustration No. 82 I p. i 

SHAKESPEARE MEDALLION. H. 4Jin. 





Illustration No. 86 i //. io and 18) 

CHAUCER. H iojin. 
(Mark: Ra. Wood, Burslem) 




Illustration No. 83 </. i 

SHAKESPEARE MEDALLION. H 4 'in. 
iBoth Medallions marked: J. VOYEZ 




Illustration No. 8Ga [/. 17) 

BASE OF HEIRLOOM JUG 



Illustration No. 86 (/. 17) 

HEIRLOOM JUG. H. 8in. 



PLATE XXIII 




H. 7lin. H. io]in. 

Illustia^ion No. 87 (A 2 ") 
PAIR OF DOLPHIN FLOWER HOLDERS & VASE 



H. 7«n. 




H. 8'in. 



H. 8in. H. 14 1 in. 

Illustration No. 88 1 / 

SET OF VASES, GREEN GLAZE 

tr coll. 



H. 8in. 



H. 8 [in. 



THE WORK OF THE RALPH WOODS 



supplied in 1783 to Josiah Wedgwood at prices that may well make the 
present-day collector of Ralph Wood pottery feel envious. No doubt 
many of the items in the invoice appear in our illustrations, and it is a 
significant fact that just as Josiah Wedgwood availed himself of Sadler 
and Green's process of printing upon his wares, so equally did he not 
hesitate to lean upon Ralph Wood for a supply of figures and groups to 
satisfy the demand in days when the Etruria factory was fully occupied 
with the production of Jasper and other wares. It is still a common 
practice for one potter to buy certain goods made by another to avoid 
the splitting of accounts. 

Burslem. 
Messrs Josiah & Thos Wedgwood 

Bought of Ralph Wood 



1783 
Novr. i6h. 



No. 358 12 George & Dragons 

356 6 Venuses purple Lining .. 

357 6 Neptunes D' 

355 6 D' Blue Lining 

360 24 Dolphin Flowerpots 

341 12 Shephards 

352 12 Appollos ... 

351 12 Men with lost Sheep 

350 12 Charities ... 

339 12 Gardeners 

371 12 Appollos Gilt 
344 12 Sailors Lasses 

367 12 Stags white spotted 

368 12 Hinds Do Do 
366 12 Hinds spotted black 
365 12 Stags Do Do 

369 12 Goats 

370 12 Sheep & Rams ... 

372 1 Pair Neptune & Venus Gilt 

373 1 Elephant... 

374 Man with a Boy sitting on a Rock 

375 Do with a Boy in his hand standing 
6 Doz small colourd Figures 

2 SaterHead Drink ? Cups flatt Bottom 
2 Do Do Do with raised Foot 
2 Do Do Cream Ewers 



*/- 

i5d- 
I5d. 

i8d. 

I/- 

6d. 
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9d. 

8d. 

5d. 
i5d. 

5d. 

9 d. 

9 d. 

9d. 

9d. 
iod. 
iod. 



iSddoz. 



apiece 



£1 



4 
7 
7 
9 
4 
6 
10 

9 

8 

5 

15 

5 

9 

9 

9 

9 

10 

10 

3 
1 
I 
1 

9 
I 
I 
1 



Received 26th Jany 1784 the contents inful 

Ralph Wood. 



Cask 2/- 
Discount 


£10 
1 


4 



9 

5 


Cask 


9 


4 
2 


4 





£9 


6 


4 



19 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

Mr Tho Wedgwood. 

Sir, 

I should esteem it a great favour to settle the Note I delivered with the 
Flowerpots by the Week End which was Dectd— £3 16— my Necesities oblige me 
or should not have ask'd so soon, at the same time I thank you for your 
goodness in promoting my Trade, hoping I may still be favord with your future 
orders in my Way, which will be gratefully acknowledged by Sr. your obliged 
humble Servant, ' Ralph Wood 

20th Oct. Paid to 

Burslem 

19th Oct 1784. 

From this invoice we may gather the fact that Ralph Wood's 
production was not entirely confined to figures and groups, and it is quite 
probable that the item "Dolphin Flowerpots" was not the only design he 
made for the purpose of holding flowers. Plate xxiii, Illustration Nos. 87 
and 88, show a series of vases which bear evident characteristics of his 
workmanship. Items 371 and 372 in the account, described as "gilt" 
and charged for at an additional price, remind us that a number of the 
Ralph Wood figures were decorated with the unfired gilding of the period, 
and it is a remarkable fact that while Chelsea and the other early china 
factories had mastered the process of comparatively permanent gilding, 
the Woods, Josiah Wedgwood and other Staffordshire potters would appear 
to have been decorating many of their wares with a gilding which time 
and its concomitant effects have caused almost entirely to disappear. 
A close inspection of many examples will lead to the discovery of slight 
traces here and there of this attractive method of decoration. 

The salt-glaze blocks marked R.W., designed for the purpose of 
making moulds for the spouts of tea and coffee pots, until recently in the 
collection of the late L. H. A. Jahn, of Hanley, bear further evidence 
of the fact that the productions of the Ralph Woods were more com- 
prehensive than has hitherto been supposed, and no doubt finished 
examples of such objects will in due course be recognised. At the 
sale held on behalf of Mr. Jahn's executors in October 191 1, at 
Hanley, these valuable technical blocks changed hands at prices which 
were simply amazing. 

It affords no little satisfaction to be able to record the increased 
admiration which has arisen in the present day for the artistic quality of 
the work of the Ralph Woods. Remote from outside influences, with 
considerable technical difficulties to overcome, and working on a com- 
paratively small scale, these men reached a height in the production of 
earthenware figures which has scarcely ever been surpassed in England, 
and a study of their productions must elicit warm praise for the artistic 
results they so patiently achieved by such simple means. 

20] 



PLATE XXIV 










Illustration No. 89 (//>. 21 and 34) 

AARON WOOD 

(From the painting by William Caddick, 1747) 
In the possession of Mr. A. 11. E. l!'oo<t 



CHAPTER IV 
AARON WOOD 

THE genealogical table of the family at the end of the volume 
shows that the issue of Ralph and Elizabeth Wood was nine 
children, of whom Aaron, born on April 14th 1717, and baptised 
May 6th 171 8, was the third ; his youth was spent in assiduous 
attention to his craft of Designing, Modelling and Block- Cutting, in this 
he was destined to excel and to leave eventually a reputation which time 
has enlarged far beyond the Pottery districts where his life was wholly 
spent. In many cases the master potters were their own block-cutters, 
but the most famous was undoubtedly Aaron Wood. He was apprenticed 
in 1 73 1 to Dr. Thomas Wedgwood "to learn the art, trade and mystery 
of a potter, throwing on the wheel being out of this Indenture excepted." 
We are further told that he was engaged by Mitchell in order that that 
potter might be better able to compete with Dr. Thomas Wedgwood, 
then the best salt-glaze potter in Burslem. In 1750 he is said to have 
commenced business on his own account, and a mould of his bears the 
date 1759. In later years, so great was his repute as a modeller, that he 
was able to make the stipulation that he should work only in a private 
locked room in order to keep his methods secret. We have it on Shaw's 
authority that he worked under these conditions for Thomas Whieldon 
at Fenton, and there produced some of the finest models for which that 
potter was famous. The fact that he has always been recognised 
as the chief designer or block-cutter of his time serves to show how the 
Staffordshire Potters of the eighteenth century thoroughly upheld the 
dignity of practical workmanship. 

In a manuscript memorandum attached to the original portrait of 
Aaron Wood (Plate xxiv, Illustration No. 89), in the possession of his 
descendant, Mr. A. H. E. Wood, the following interesting description 
occurs : 

This is a striking likeness of Aaron Wood, son of Ralph and Elizabeth, 
born in the year 1717 and died May 12th 1785, aged 68. This likeness was taken 
by William Caddick of Liverpool, in the year 1747 in the 30th year of his age. 
He was modeller to all the potters in Staffordshire at the latter end of the time 
that white ware or white stoneware was made. 

(Signed) ENOCH WOOD 

[21 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

I have heard my father say he was never heard to swear, chew tobacco, 
take snuff or whistle or sing in his life, and was considered the most lively, pleasant 
and merriest man in the country, and was known to everyone in the country. 

(Signed) E. WOOD 

This amusing and possibly overdrawn description in his own words 
of the character of Aaron Wood, which has, however, been confirmed by 
independent witnesses, justifies us in attributing to him many models of 
the humorous and ever popular groups and figures made by his brother 
and nephew the two Ralph Woods, by John and Thomas Wedgwood of 
the "Big House," and other potters; the group of The Vicar and 
Moses, the Hudibras and the earlier Toby Jugs are probably the 
result of his original efforts, and no doubt many of the quaint conceits 
realised in the salt-glaze ware may also be attributed to his master 
hand. In addition to these models it is well within the realm of con- 
jecture that he cut with his own hand all the more artistic moulds used 
for the later salt-glaze productions, of which we may mention the 
exquisite dishes and trays with basket-work centres and pierced borders, 
included in all good collections of salt-glaze wares. 

Sir Arthur Church, in his " English Earthenware," writes : — 

* " Of figures in this salt-glazed white ware, the best known are a pair 
in Turkish costume enamelled in rich colours. Two sets of these, eight 
inches high, and a similar figure washed with grey-brown and olive, and 
another uncoloured, were destroyed in the Alexandra Palace fire ; another 
set is in the Schreiber collection. 

" Animals and birds, too, are not infrequent ; among these, rabbits, 
cats and sheep occur, and now and then a camel, a monkey, a swan or 
a hawk. A figure of this last subject is in the author's collection. It is 
ten inches high, inclusive of the rocky base (coloured brown), on which 
it stands ; these figures are modelled with spirit, but are often wanting in 
sharpness and accuracy of detail. 

"To this class belong the curious figures in quaint costume of which 
two are in the Dresden Museum (Enoch Wood's collection), one example 
in the British Museum and another in that of Mr. Solon. [Similar 
specimens exist in the collections of Dr. Sidebotham (Plate xxv, Illustration 
No. 90) and Mr. George Stoner]. A man and a woman, sometimes 
accompanied by a third figure, are seated on a high-backed bench or pew 
with ends ; while the details of the six examples so far recorded differ, 
they are obviously the work of the same potter. Mr. Solon's example is 
richly decorated in parts with a brown ferruginous colour, and it has 
been beautifully etched (though reversed) in the "Art of the Old English 
Potter." 

* There are also two in the Greg collection at Manchester, one of which is coloured, the other white. 

22] 



AARON WOOD 

"Teapots and other tea ware gave great scope for invention to the 
salt-glaze designers. Heart shape or lovers' teapots and house teapots 
are not rare ; some of the house teapots were of more complex design 
with three stories on one side and two on the other; the majority present 
a curious and bizarre spout in which a mask, a bird's neck and bill, and 
an arm are strangely associated. Sometimes the teapots were modelled in 
the form of a camel. 

"When one admires an early sharply cut piece of salt-glazed ware 
one does not perhaps at once realise how many steps have been taken 
in order to secure the final result. Let us see what these steps in the process 
were. Firstly, a mould was cut in " intaglio," generally in some soft 
material such as native gypsum, that is, alabaster. This mould consisted 
of two or more pieces, flat or curved, in accordance with the shape of the 
vessel to be made. Oval vessels required to be modelled in two sections 
only, round in three, square in four sections for the sides, with two or more 
other pieces for the base, top and lid. The patterns cut in these slabs 
were somewhat limited in range, the pectern shell, tendrils, leaves, coat 
armour, volutes, flutings, diamonds, frets and such other designs as 
could be easily executed by the graver being found amongst those most 
frequently adopted. Instead of concealing the joinings between the 
sections of the mould, these joinings often become positive features in 
the general design, forming borders to the panels into which that design 
was divided. 

"Assuming the engraving of the several parts of the mould to have 
been completed, the next step was to join them together and to make 
from them a mould in relief called a block. This was of clay, somewhat 
thick and in one piece. It was pressed into the mould, dried and fired ; 
occasionally the blocks then produced are found unglazed, but more 
commonly they are of salt-glazed stoneware. 

"The third step is now reached, the preparation from the "block" 
above described, of the pitcher mould. This would of necessity be some- 
what smaller than the original model, but in other respects identical 
with it. Into this pitcher, whether of porous terra cotta, of plaster of 
Paris, or of other porous material, a liquid slip of prepared and mixed 
clay was poured so as to deposit a sufficient film of clay upon the interior 
of the pitcher, then the surplus slip was poured out. After drying, the 
hollow casting was removed from the mould ; legs, handles and spouts, 
with any finishing touches or enrichments that were desired, were added 
and then the whole piece was fired and glazed with salt." 

One of the Salt-Glaze Camel Teapots is shown on Plate xxv, Illustration 
No. 91, and an example of Aaron Wood's modelling of a Soup Tureen with 
mask feet is shown on Plate xxv, Illustration No. 92 ; both examples are 

H [23 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

typical of his art, as also is the Salt-Glaze Waterbottle (Plate xxvi, 
Illustration No. 98). This bottle has apparently been taken from the pitcher 
block in the British Museum. This interesting object is made in sections 
carefully joined together. Very few of the bottles themselves have survived 
but there is no doubt that they were used as water or wine bottles on the 
dinner tables of the period. Associated with William Littler and Aaron 
Wedgwood he employed for the first time the oxide of cobalt as a ground, 
making the first blue salt-glaze which may be said to resemble "lapis 
lazuli." Mr. Burton has illustrated an example in his "English Earthen- 
ware and Stoneware." 

To Aaron Wood may with reason be ascribed the making of the 
mould and the pitcher block therefrom shown on Plate xxv, 
Illustration No. 93, accompanied by the Salt-Glaze Teapot (Plate xxv, 
Illustration No. 94), which has been cast from a mould taken from this 
actual pitcher block. 

A close examination of these instructive objects reveals considerable 
artistic merit, somewhat marred in the case of the Teapot by the 
enamel decoration ; the subject would appear to commemorate the happy 
marriage of George III and Queen Charlotte in 1761. The specimen 
is thus described in Lady Schreiber's catalogue (No. 972), " Fluted Teapot 
and Cover with spout moulded into leaves, on each side a panel enclosing 
a repetition of the same subject, viz.: a King and Queen seated before 
an altar above which is a winged figure holding a laurel wreath and 
cherubs' heads ; the subject and border slightly enamelled in colours, 
on the lid, cherubs' heads ; H. 4^-in." In addition to other characteristics 
there is a quaint humour in the expression of the faces of both the King 
and Queen, which is a distinct attribute of the modelling of Aaron Wood. 



(/ Illustration No. 95 g- J 



The nation possesses in the British Museum the pitcher block of a 
Vase ; upon this the name of Aaron Wood has been clearly inscribed ; 
Illustration No. 95 shows a reproduction of the signature taken there- 
from. In the Victoria and Albert Museum are several good moulds of the 
white stoneware chiefly from the Enoch Wood collection. In one case 
there is a very sharp block for a Cup (3098*52) and the Cup taken therefrom 
(3 I 59'5 2 )- Another pitcher block for a small Milk Jug bears the letters 
R.W. on two bare flat pieces on its opposite sides. These initials probably 
stand for Ralph Wood. The flat pieces on which the initials are cut 
would be concealed in the jug formed from the block, by the feet sub- 
sequently added to these spots. 

24] 




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AARON WOOD 

The following is a transcription of the Indenture of Apprenticeship 
of Aaron Wood to Dr. Thomas Wedgwood : 

This Indenture, made the three and twentieth day of August, in the fifth 
year of the reign of our Sovereign Lord King George the Second over Great 
Brittaine, &c, Anne Dni. 1731, Between Ralph Wood of Burslem, in the County 
of Stafford, Miller, and Aaron Wood, his son, of the one part, and Dr. Thomas 
Wedgwood of Burslem aforesaid potter, of the other part. Wittnesseth that 
the said Aaron Wood, of his own free will and consent and to and with the direction 
and appointment of his said father, Hath put himself, and doth hereby put and 
bind himself apprentice unto the said Dr. Thomas Wedgwood, the art, trade, 
mystery and occupation of a potter to learn, that is to say, turning in the lathe, 
handling and trimming (throwing on the wheel being out of this indenture 
excepted), and with him the said Dr. Thomas Wedgwood to worke from the 
eleventh day of November next, being Martinmas day, for, during and until the 
full end and terme of seven years from thence next ensuing and following, 
and fully to be compleat and ended, during all which time and terme of seven 
years the said Aaron Wood, as an apprentice to his said master, will and faithfully 
shall serve, his secrets shall keepe, his commands lawful and honest everywhere 
shall do, the goods of his master, he shall not inordinately waste, nor them to 
anyone lend without his said master's lycence, from the business of his said 
master, he shall not absent himself, but as a true and faithful servant shall, during 
the said terme of seven years, behave and demean himselfe towards his said 
master and all his. And the said Ralph Wood shall during the said terme of seven 
years find and provide for his said son all sorts of apparrell, whether linen, woollen, 
or other, as also meat, drink, washing and lodging, fitting and necessary for an 
apprentice to such trade as aforesaid. And the said Dr. Thomas Wedgwood in 
consideration thereof and of the said seven years' service, doth hereby covenant, 
promise and agree, that hee, the said Dr. Thomas Wedgwood, shall and will, 
during the said terme of seven years, teach and instruct, or cause and procure 
to be taught and instructed, him, the said Aaron Wood, his said apprentice, in 
the businesse of the potting trade aforesaid, so farr as turning in the lathe, handling 
and trimming, as much as thereunto belongeth, or the best way and method he 
can. And the said Dr. Thomas Wedgwood doth also promise and engage to pay 
unto his said apprentice, the said Aaron Wood for every weeke's worke done by 
the said apprentice in the first, second, and third year of his said apprentishipp, 
the sum of one shilling weekly, of good and lawful money of Great Brittaine, 
and for every weeke's work done by the said apprentice in the fourth, fifth, and 
sixth year of his said apprentishipp, the full sum of one shilling and sixpence, 
and for every weeke's worke done by the said apprentice, in the seventh and 
last year of his said apprentishipp, the full and just sum of four shillings of 
lawfull money of Great Brittaine. And the said Dr. Thomas Wedgwood doth 
hereby further covenant, promisse, and agree that he, the said Dr. Wedgwood, 
shall and will, over and above, the weekly wages aforesaid give yearly to the 
said Aaron Wood, his said apprentice, one new pair of shoes during the said terme of 
seven years. In witness whereof the said parties aforesaid to these present 
Indentures have interchangeably put their hands and seales the day and year 
first above written : 

RALPH WOOD. 
Sealed and delivered in the presence of AARON WOOD. 

SARA X WOOD (her mark). Dr. THO. WEDGWOOD. 

JOS. ALLEN. 

[25 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

After the completion of his apprenticeship Aaron Wood served a 
further term of five years, receiving six shillings weekly, until 1743, when 
he made a change and agreed to enter the employment of John Mitchell, 
for a term of seven years ; the following is his form of agreement : 

Articles of Agreement indented, made and concluded and agreed upon, the 
twenty-eight day of September, in the Year of our Lord One thousand Seven 
Hundred and Forty three, and in the Seventeenth year of the reign of our Sovereign 
Lord King George the Second over Great Brittain and so forth, between Aaron 
Wood, of Burslem, in the County of Stafford, Earthpotter, of the one part, and 
John Mitchell of Burslem, aforesaid, Earth-potter, of the other part, as follows : 

First, — The said Aaron Wood, for the consideration hereunder mentioned, 
doth covenant, promise, and agree, to and with the said John Mitchell, his 
executors, administrators and assigns, by these presents in manner following 
(that is to say) that he, the said Aaron Wood shall and will, for and during the 
term and time of seven years, to begin and be accounted from the eleventh day 
of November next ensuing the date of these presents, abide and continue with 
the said John Mitchell, his executors, administrators and assigns, as his and their 
hired and covenant servant, and diligently and faithfully according to the best 
and utmost of his power, skill and knowledge, exercise and employ himself, and 
do and perform all such service and business whatsoever relating to the trade 
of a earth-potter which he the said John Mitchell useth, as he the said John 
Mitchell shall from time to time during the term aforesaid order direct and 
appoint to and for the most profit and advantage of the said John Mitchell that 
he can, and shall and will keep the secrets of the said John Mitchell relating to 
the said trade or business, and likewise be just, true and faithful to the said John 
Mitchell, in all matters and things, and no ways wrongfully detain, embezzle, or 
purloin any moneys, goods, or things whatsoever belonging to the said John 
Mitchell, but shall and will from time to time pay all monies which he shall receive 
or belonging to or by order of the said John Mitchell into his hands, and make 
and give up fair accounts of all his actings and doings in the said employment 
without fraud or delay, when and as often he shall be thereto required. And in 
consideration of the premises of the several matters and things by the said Aaron 
Wood to be performed as aforesaid, the said John Mitchell doth for himself, his 
executors and administrators, covenant, promise and agree to and with the said 
Aaron Wood by these presents that he the said John Mitchell shall and will well 
and truly pay or cause to be paid unto the said Aaron Wood, the sum of seven 
shillings of good and lawful money of Great Britain, by weekly payments, for 
every six days that the said Aaron Wood shall work with the said John Mitchell 
as aforesaid during the said term ; and also shall and will well and truly pay 
or cause to be paid unto the said Aaron Wood the further sum of ten shillings 
and sixpence of like lawful money, upon every eleventh day of November yearly, 
during the said term ; the first payment of the said sum of ten shillings and 
sixpence shall be made on the eleventh day of November next ensuing the date 
hereof. And it is further agreed by and between the said parties to these presents, 
that the said Aaron Wood shall not be from the service of the said John Mitchell 
above two weeks in any one year during the said term. And that the said Aaron 
Wood shall not, and will not at any time or times during the said term, work for 
any other person or persons at the trade of a earth potter, but the said John 
Mitchell, his executors, administrators, or assigns, upon penalty of paying to the 
said John Mitchell the sum of ten pounds of good and lawful money of Great 
Britain. And that the said Aaron Wood shall not have person or persons to work 

26] 



AARON WOOD 

with him in the business that the said John Mitchell is to employ him in but himself 
only. In witness whereof the said parties to these presents their hands and seals 
have hereunto put this day and year first above written. 

AARON WOOD. 
Sealed and delivered in the presence of JOHN X MITCHELL. 

J. HENSHALL. (his mark). 

ANN HENSHALL. 

Mitchell was a religious and unsuspicious person ; he was the first 
who received into his house the preachers in the Wesleyan Methodist 
Connexion, and though he died in very reduced circumstances, yet, during 
some years he was one of the great local manufacturers of that day. 

Aaron Wood married Mary Meir, born in 1717, who proved a devoted 
wife and mother ; they had eight children, of whom the youngest, Enoch, 
born 1759, was to continue the honourable line of this branch of the family. 

In 1740, the manufactory at Little Fenton of Thomas Whieldon, 
who was High Sheriff of the County of Stafford in 1786, and died, 
having amassed a considerable fortune, in 1798, consisted of a small range 
of low thatched buildings ; his early productions were knife hafts for the 
Sheffield cutlers and snuff boxes to be finished with hoops, hinges and 
springs by the Birmingham hardwaremen. He also made black glazed tea 
and coffee pots, tortoiseshell and melon table plates and other useful 
articles. Aaron Wood made the models and moulds of these articles, 
together with those of pickle leaves, crab stock handles and cabbage leaf 
spouts for tea and coffee pots, all these utensils, in addition to candle- 
sticks, chocolate cups and tea ware, he much improved. When Josiah 
Wedgwood, at first Whieldon 's thrower, became his managing partner 
in 1754, their connections were further extended. 

In a note written by Enoch Wood we read : 

N.B. — My father [Aaron Wood] was born in 1717, was 15 years older than 
Josiah Wedgwood, the Whieldon thrower, and was the foreman to Whieldon at 
Stoke. He further writes in reference to the question as to the introduction of 
salt-glazing into Staffordshire : This mug has been in [the possession of my 
father many years before I was born. I remember his, my father, often showing 
it as (said to be) the produce of the two Dutchmen at Bradwell. It is quite clear 
that these Dutchmen pretended that they made this salt-glazed ware then, to 
deceive the inhabitants of Burslem while they were making red china teapots, 
&c, of the red clay of Bradwell, which they sold at very high prices in^London. 
These salt-glaze pieces which they pretended they made then, it is believed 
caused the potters in Burslem to use the salt for glaze on the clays of this 
country which salt-glaze was then known by the name of Crouch ware. See 
examples in the time of William and Mary with W. M. R. and a crown over the 

labels - E. WOOD. 

The following inscription appears on a small cream jug mould in 
the possession of Mr. A. H. E. Wood : "Salt-glaze block by Aaron Wood 
1745 like those found in his son Enoch Wood's house when pulled 

[27 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

down. E. Wood." In the same collection there is also a salt-glaze 
dish bearing the following inscription written in red enamel by Enoch 
Wood: "This dish was modelled by Aaron Wood about the year 1759 
or 60 and was deposited in this building [the foundation of the Burslem 
Market] by his youngest son Enoch Wood, 1835, who at this date was 
Chief Constable of Burslem and Treasurer to the Markett." 

The Wedgwood Institute still retains the original dish (Plate xxvi, 
Illustration No. 96) inscribed as above, while a third is in that section of 
the Victoria and Albert Museum, which was formerly housed in the 
Geological Museum in Jermyn Street London. 

Mr. A. H. E. Wood possesses Enoch Wood's copy of Shaw's History 
of Staffordshire bearing the following inscription : " To E. Wood Esqre. 
with the unfeigned respectful compliments of S. Shaw." This interesting 
little history has evidently been carefully scrutinised by Enoch Wood, 
for his slips of paper still remain inserted at many of the pages ; upon 
some of these pages he has written comments and additions as side 
notes ; on page 3 he writes : 

I have often heard my father say everybody blamed his father for making 
his sons potters, it could not last long. 

and after the following paragraph by Shaw : " We find various causes 
powerfully combining to give permanence to the manufacture here, and 
are persuaded that the same peculiarities of situation and advantage 
cannot be found in an equal extent of ground in the United Kingdom," 
Enoch Wood adds : 

therefore the trade has lasted longer than was predicted. 

The only other reference to his father written in this Shaw's History 
is on page 28, where he adds to Shaw's reference to Burslem being 
constituted a separate Rectory from Stoke : 

N.B. — The year before my father was born, say 1716, the church was built 
of wood, but in 17 17 the church was rebuilt with bricks and in the year I was 
churchwarden I enlarged and raised it at the cost of the 17 persons who joined 
me in bearing any loss I might sustain by the undertaking. It cost £700 and I 
sold the seats gained by the enlargement for £700, so it cost the parish nothing. 

E.W. 

Further reference is made to the autograph notes by Enoch Wood 
in his Shaw's History in the chapters devoted to him. 

Throughout the private memoranda of Enoch Wood the most sincere 
appreciation of his father is always discernible, and no doubt much of 
the ability in modelling evinced in his later years was the result of the 
practical encouragement received, not only from his father, but from his 
uncle, William Caddick, the portrait painter, of Liverpool. Aaron Wood 
died on the 12th of May 1785 in the 68th year of his age, having by 
his wonderfully artistic originality done much to establish the reputation 

28] 



PLATE XXVI 




[.'lustration No. 96 {p. 28) 

DISH. Salt-Glaze H. loin. 
Wedgwood Institute 





Illustration No. 98 </. 24) 

BOTTLE. Salt-Glaze. H. 9111. 
Authors 1 oil. 




Ilustration No. 97 I/.30) 



WILLIAM WOOD'S BOX. H. 3 ,-in., L. 7in., W. 4m. 
(Made of White Earthenware) 

. 'botham coll. 



AARON WOOD 

of those Staffordshire potters who had the privilege of employing his 
abilities in the furtherance of their productions. 

The following is a transcript of his will, here given for the first time : 

1785 In the name of God Amen I Aron Wood senr. of Burslem in the County 

June of Stafford Potter being well of body and having a sound memory and understanding 
24 do make this my last Will and Testament in manner and form following That 
is to say I will that all my just debts be fully paid and satisfied together with my 
funeral expences by my undernamed Executors First I give and bequeath to my 
eldest son William Wood of Etruria in the County of Stafford the sum of twenty 
pounds and Burket's Works on the New Testament I likewise give and bequeath 
to my son Aron Wood my house in the Rotten Row in the holding of Mr. Thomas 
Taylor and the sum of Seventy nine pounds in cash and a Pew in the Old Gallery 
No. 14 the Pew to be for him and his heirs for ever also a book call'd the Homilies 
of the Church of England also all my wollen wearing apparel I likewise give 
and bequeath to my son Richard Wood the Lower end of my house where I used 
to work in at the Rotten Row and the sum of sixty five pounds and also a Pew 
in the Old Gallery No. 3 the Pew to him and his heirs for ever and likewise if I 
convert the said workhouse into a dwelling before my death the expences shall 
be deducted out of the above sum of sixty five pounds and his part of the backside 
as far as his Building reaches and all my wearing linnens I also give and bequeath 
to my youngest son Enoch Wood the sum of ten pounds and the sum of twenty 
pounds that I now stand indebted to him upon Bond for to make up the Bond 
that I gave for one hundred and forty pounds at his marriage I likewise give 
and bequeath to my daughter Mary Leighs of this town the sum of five pounds 
and to her three children (viz) William Jemima Josephiah Wedgwood each the 
sum of seven pounds if any of them die before the time that its due the money 
shall be divided equally between the survivors or the survivor to have it Likewise 
I give and bequeth to my son in law John Proudlove of Cowbridge the sum of 
eighty pounds in Cash and a Pew in the north side the Church under the Gallery 
marked A.W.M. My bed and furniture thereto belonging and my money in the 
Club I leave towards my funeral expences and proving this Will I will that my 
son Enoch shall have my house that Isaac Leighs now inhabits Provided he 
doth pay the above named Legacies in the space and time of five years after my 
decease and no interest shall be paid for the above legacies during the above 
five years and the rent of the said house after all necessary repairs are done shall 
be equally divided between Aaron Richard and John Proudlove if these legacies 
are not paid in or at the expiration of five years the said House shall be sold by 
my executors to discharge the above legacies Aaron and Richard shall or may 
enter on their houses and Pews at the time of my decease This being my last 
Will and Testament revoking and making void all former Will or Wills at any 
time made by me I likewise nominate my two sons Aaron and Enoch to be 
my two sole Executors of this my last Will made this fourth day of October one 
thousand seven hundred and eighty four 

Signed sealed published and declared\ 
by the said Testator as and for his last Will 
and Testament in the presence of the said [ AARON WOOD 
Testator and by his desire by us 

J AS. BARBER, Lawn Heath 

THOMAS PRICE 
No Inventory 

Proved by both Executors 

[29 



© 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

Aaron Wood's eldest son, William, was apprenticed to Josiah 
Wedgwood in 1762 to learn handling and pressing. At the end of four 
years it was agreed that he should serve four years longer as a modeller. 
He, with other modellers, worked upon the Portland Vase and he never 
severed his association with the Wedgwoods ; most of the useful 
articles manufactured at Etruria are said to be from models and moulds 
of his production. In Dr. Sidebotham's collection there is a neatly made 
white earthenware oblong Box and Lid (Plate xxvi, Illustration No. 97) 
bearing the following inscription in the paste : " W. WOOD, November 
5th 1778, year of Christ" ; this may have been made to hold some of 
William Wood's trimming tools. Mr. Fred Rathbone on examining the box 
pointed out the interesting fact that one of Josiah Wedgwood's stamps 
had been cut away so as to form the name Wood — the initial W having 
been incised — no doubt by William Wood himself. 

To certain minds the designation Potter when applied to the leading 
Staffordshire men might fail to convey sufficiently the social position 
which their high integrity, their success in their craft, and their ownership 
of land, enabled them to attain. For generations many of the more 
prominent families had been on the land, and it was vastly to their credit 
that they seldom seemed to lose sight of the dignity of the practical side 
of the handicraft in which so many of the masters and their sons wisely 
participated and eventually excelled ; instances are recorded of affluent 
parents placing some of their sons in the Church and the Army and 
others in the craft of Pottery manufacture. No one who has ever 
observed the amount of skill required to attain the distinction of being an 
artistic modeller or approved thrower can fail to realise with what 
wonderful gifts many of these men must have been endowed. The 
benevolent institutions they inaugurated and supported, their ever present 
thought and care for the welfare of their operatives, and their constant 
searching for high artistic standards will always redound to the credit of 
the Staffordshire Potters of early days. 



30J 



CHAPTER V 
LIVERPOOL AND THE POTTERIES 

THE seven hundredth Anniversary Exhibition held at the Walker 
Art Gallery, Liverpool, in August 1907 served to show, amongst 
other interesting historical facts, how important had been the 
industry carried on by the Liverpool potters in the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries. 

From public and private collections were gathered together examples 
of Delft and other wares made by Thomas and Samuel Shaw, Richard 
Chaffers, Samuel Gilbody, Seth Pennington, Philip Christian and 
Zachariah Barnes, and of the products of the Herculaneum Pottery Works 
of Liverpool, together with specimens which, though manufactured in 
Staffordshire and Leeds, had been sent to Liverpool to be decorated. 
The process of transferring pictures engraved upon copper plates 
to articles of pottery had been developed there about 1756 by 
John Sadler and Guy Green. Recent research by Mr. Entwistle of the 
Museums, Liverpool, has led to the discovery of a school of clever 
engravers headed by Sadler* and it is to be hoped that ere long collectors 
will be in possession of the result of Mr. Entwistle 's sincere labours. 
Many of the articles of pottery to which these engravers' work was trans- 
ferred are now justly preserved and prized in our public and private 
collections. 

In later days the wonderful development of the Staffordshire potteries 
overshadowed and eventually entirely eclipsed the Liverpool pottery 
industry, though even as late as 1799 the productions of the Wedgwood 
firm were constantly sent to Liverpool to be printed. 

Another prominent feature of this exhibition was the excellent display 
of paintings and drawings consisting of views of early Liverpool by 
Liverpool artists, and it was apparent that the City had been fortunate 
in having developed in the eighteenth century a school of local artists, 
whose work both in this particular direction and in portraiture, was of a 

• For information as to John Sadler reference should be made to Llewellyn Jewitt's " Ceramic Art 
of Great Britain," and to "Transfer Printing upon Pottery and Enamels," by William Turner, F.S.S. 

I [31 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

high order of merit ; in this picture section was shown a portrait in oils 
of Thomas Bentley, potter (Josiah Wedgwood's partner), painted by 
William Caddick in 1766, the property of the City of Liverpool 
(Plate xxvii, Illustration No. 101). 

Included in the Underhill MSS. written about the beginning of the 
nineteenth century, and now in the possession of the Free Public Library, 
Liverpool, there is a history of the city, and the following record appears 
in the portion dealing with the literary and other institutions : 

The first academy for the encouragement of painting and the fine arts 
in Liverpool was established in 1768 with the title of " The Society of Artists of 
Liverpool." Their meetings were held in the room over the Library in John Street, 
where it was proposed to deliver lectures on anatomy, perspective painting, &c, &c. 
The members were 22 in number with P. P. Burdett, President — Richard Caddick 
(son of William Caddick) being one of the members. 

The Society was dissolved after a continuance of one year. Several former 
members, however, renewed their exertions, and in the year 1770 succeeded in 
reviving the Institution. At the re-establishment on the 4th of October in that 
year William Caddick was chosen president and 59 members were associated 
together. 

In some memoranda referring to Mr. P. P. Burdett is the following 
note : 

Wm. Caddick, a Liverpool portrait painter, well acquainted with Wright, 
the marine painter and Mr. Stubbs, the animal painter, both natives of Liverpool, 
where they serve and study. 

In the Town's Records of 1703 a William Caddick is referred to 
as having been fined, with others, for extending hospitality to Joseph 
Harrison and his four children. Aldermen and prominent persons 
frequently transgressed these strange regulations which were survivals 
of mediaevalism framed to prevent too many aliens entering and abiding 
within the confines of the town. During the mayoralty of George Tyrer, 
1710, William Caddick was elected to the position of sub-bailiff. 

In the biographical portion of the Underhill MSS. there appears the 
name of William Caddick, churchwarden in 17 19 (probably the father 
of William Caddick, the artist, who was born in 1719), also that of 

Richard Caddick, an eminent portrait painter, son of a limner in Oldhall 
Street, where he was born. An excellent specimen of his talent is preserved at 
the Workhouse in the portrait of Joseph Brooks, Esq. He was contemporary 
with Stubbs and Richard Wright, and his pictures were amongst the earliest 
exhibitions of the town. 

In the first published directory of Liverpool, 1766, and in the subsequent 
directories to 1791, the name of William Caddick of Old Hall Street is 
recorded, designated as a portrait painter, and in the directories of 
1796 and 1800 the name of Richard Caddick, also a portrait painter 
of Old Hall Street, appears. In 1784 there was held an " Exhibition of 
the Society for promoting painting and design in Liverpool." This was 

32] 



PLATE XXVII 




Illustration No. 99 (/. 34) 

GROUP OF THE CADDICK FAMILY 
(From the painting by Richard Caddick, in the possession of the City of Liverpool) 





Illustration No. 100 I /. 34) 
RICHARD CADDICK (by himself) 

1 From the painting in the possession of 
Miss Sudlow of Liverpool, 



Illustration No. 101 (/. 32) 

THOMAS BENTLEY 

Partner of Josiah Wedgwood 

;By William Caddick, in the possession of the 
City of Liverpool) 



LIVERPOOL AND THE POTTERIES 

the first year of its existence, and in the catalogue among the list of 
officers' names for the ensuing years that of Richard Caddick, who is 
recorded as a "visitor," is included; he also had three portraits on 
exhibition. 

It will therefore be seen that the records of Liverpool have preserved 
the name of Caddick in three generations, viz. : William Caddick, church- 
warden in 171 9 ; William Caddick, portrait painter, born in 1719, died 
1794 (probably his son) ; and Richard Caddick, the eldest son of the second 
William Caddick, also a portrait painter, from whose studio excellent 
portrait work emanated in 1780, while at about the same period a William 
Caddick was exhibiting at the Royal Academy. 

A paper bearing the following memoranda is pasted on the back of 
the portrait of Ralph Wood of Cheddleton, "The Honest Miller" (Plate ii, 
Illustration No. 8) : 

This is the exact likeness of Ralph Wood Miller, who died in the 77th year of 
his age, March 28th, 1763 was buried at Cheddleton ; his sons were Ralph, 
Aaron and Moses, Potters, Burslem. 

N.B. This acct of his age and death was taken by Enoch Wood from 
the mouth of his niece, Sarah Bettany who said she attended him in his last 
illness and saw him die in her mother's house at Rownell in the Parish of 
Cheddleton in Staffordshire. 

Signed— ENOCH WOOD. 

N.B. The above is the handwriting of the late Anne Brettell, pray 
preserve it. 

E. W. 

William Caddick painted this portrait about the year of our Lord 1744. 

Ralph Wood was born 1676 ; his father was a Colonel in King James's Army 
and fell in the Battle of the Boyne ; he was known by the name of " Cherry 
ripe." 

N.B. The Battle of the Boyne was in 1690. 

In Holt and Gregson's MSS. for a History of Liverpool, vol. i, page 27, 
is the following extract from the minute book of the Poor or Workhouse : 

After thanks had been returned to Joseph Brooks for his diligent, active 
and just discharge of the offices of Parish Treasurer and Superintendent of the 
Workhouse, it was further agreed that to preserve a grateful remembrance of 
his services, that his picture at full length should be executed by one of the most 
masterly hands in this Kingdom, and that the same for ever hereafter should 
be hung up in the Committee Room of the Parish Workhouse. 

The execution of this work at the request and recommendation of Mr. Brooks 
was given to his townsman, Mr. (Richard) Caddick, who produced a work which 
does the artist credit. 

The sum paid for the piece was 40 guineas, the size of which is 86 x 59 inches. 

It may not be improper upon this occasion to remark that Mr. Caddick 
and that ingenious artist, Mr. George Stubbs, the celebrated animal painter were 
comrades in their youth and studied together. 

[33 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

The portrait has been carefully preserved and is now in the Committee 
Room of the Workhouse, bearing upon a tablet the following inscription, 
"Joseph Brooks, Treasurer of the Parish 1769 — 1788. Richard Caddick." 

In Billinge's Liverpool Advertiser of January 12th, 1795, the 
following obituary notice was inserted : "On the 29th ult. in the 74th year 
of his age William Caddick an eminent portrait painter," and in the 
same paper for Monday September 21st, 1795, the following notice appeared 
" Died Thursday aged 71 Mrs. Caddick relict of the late Mr. William 
Caddick portrait painter." This Mrs. Caddick was Elizabeth, the 
second daughter of Ralph Wood of Cheddleton. She was born nth 
June 1724, and the fact of her being a sister of Aaron Wood would 
naturally account for his (Aaron Wood's) portrait having been painted 
by William Caddick, his brother-in-law (Plate xxiv, Illustration No. 89). 
The following memoranda, written and signed by Enoch Wood, are 
in this connection particularly interesting. They are attached to the back 
of the portrait of Mrs. William Caddick : 

This is an excellent likeness of my Father's sister, Elizabeth, who was 
married to Mr. William Caddick of Liverpool, an eminent portrait painter. This 
is a sample of his painting soon after he was married to her. When I was eleven 
years old my father sent me by Morrisses' Waggon to his house in Liverpool 
for three months only, to be instructed by his sons, Richard and William, in the 
Art of drawing perspective anatomy, &c, &c. 

By Morrises' "Waggon," Wedgwood and other Staffordshire potters 
sent their ware to be printed in Liverpool by Sadler & Green. 

After my return he sent me to school to the Revd. Richard Benteley and 
my brother-in-law Aaron Wedgwood who were then partners in that school, 
neither of them paid much attention to it and it was soon discontinued. 

ENOCH WOOD. 
Morrises' Waggon hind wheel came off (a cotter pin was wanting) and I 
was crushed under the hollow of that great wheel which rolled off the paved 
rode to the soft dirty side where I had leaped from the hind part while it was 
falling, and crushed me so as to appear lifeless, the hind part of the body of the 
loaded waggon lay upon the wheel while I was under it until neighbouring farmers 
brought rails and levers to raise the wheel, while I crept out alive to the astonished 
men who assisted to relieve me, I fortunately, was not seriously wounded. 

E. WOOD. 
It is interesting to record from this memorandum that Enoch Wood 
spent his earliest days of tuition in Liverpool under the guidance of 
William Caddick. 

The City of Liverpool possesses the oil painting of the group of the 
Caddick Family wherein are seen Richard Caddick the father, his 
daughter Martha, his son William, and his two other sons (Plate xxvii, 
Illustration No. 99), and a portrait of i William Roscoe, author of "The 
Life of Leo Xth," both of which are by Richard Caddick; by the kind 
permission of Miss Sudlow of Liverpool, we reproduce a portrait of 
Richard Caddick by himself (Plate xxvii, Illustration No. 100). 

34] 



LIVERPOOL AND THE POTTERIES 

In the Mayer Museum, Liverpool, there is a portrait painted in oils 
by Thomas Chubbard, of Richard Chaffers the celebrated potter (Plate 
xxviii, Illustration No. 102), whose romantic career is touchingly told by 
Joseph Mayer in his "Art of Pottery," published in 1873. 

At the back of a portrait painted in oils (Plate xxviii, Illustration 
No. 103) in the collection of Mr. A. H. E. Wood there is the following 
note, signed by Enoch Wood, Burslem, March 5th 1838 : 

MEMORANDUM 
This is an excellent likeness of my cousin, Richard Caddick, eldest son of 
my uncle, William Caddick of Liverpool, who, during his lifetime was the best 
portrait painter in that town, or I think, in England ; he studied his profession 
in Liverpool along with two others of his friends, one of whom was a person of 
the name of Wright, the other was a Mr. Stubbs. Wright settled at Derby, Stubbs 
in London, both of whom were in their day allowed to be men of the first rate 
abilities in the art of painting as their works will at this day show. 

The likeness is a rough sketch which was done upon the back of a large 
picture of a landscape, the front was properly primed, but the back on which 
this sketch was made was course rough canvas, but as I see merit in this sketch 
I have cut the head out of a large and damaged picture and have framed and 
varnished it because he bestowed some pains over me when I was only eleven 
years old, being then three months in my uncle's house in Liverpool, Old Hall 
Street, near the top of the North Lady's Walk, for the purpose of learning to 
draw perspective anatomy, &c, &c. 

ENOCH WOOD. 1838. 

Enoch Wood, generally so accurate, makes a mistake in the 
foregoing memorandum. Joseph Wright of Derby was a different man, 
the christian name of Wright of Liverpool was Richard. 

George Stubbs, the contemporary of William Caddick, was born 
in 1724, and he died in 1806. In 1776 he published "The Anatomy of 
the Horse" ; in 1780 he was made A.R.A., but he declined the honour of 
being made an R.A. Several pictures by Stubbs are in the possession 
of the Duke of Westminster at Eaton Hall, Cheshire. He also painted 
an equestrian portrait of Josiah Wedgwood and modelled several plaques. 
The Wedgwood picture is a family group representing the great potter with 
his wife and children in the grounds at Etruria ; it is fully described 
by Jewitt in his "Life of Wedgwood," page 372. Only three original 
portraits of Josiah Wedgwood were ever painted, one by Sir Joshua Reynolds 
and two by Stubbs. 

In the possession of Mr. A. H. E. Wood there is a kit-cat portrait 
in oils of Mrs. Proudlove, nee Wood, born 1741, painted by Richard 
Caddick in 1768, with a letter attached to the back of the picture authen- 
ticating the portrait and giving a list of her eight children including sons 
named Enoch and Aaron, and inscribed : "I believe the above to be correct 
(signed Enoch Wood Burslem 1838 ") — (Plate xxviii, Illustration No. 104). 

[35 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

In the possession of Mr. John Baddeley Wood there is the cleverly painted 
portrait of his ancestor, the elder John Wood, the owner of the Brown- 
hills estates, who died in 1797. It is an important example of the work of 
William Caddick (Plate ii, Illustration No. 9). 

The work of Richard and William Caddick, father and son, is far 
above the ordinary level of family portrait painting, indeed the sketch 
of the head of Richard Caddick by William Caddick might easily be 
considered to have emanated from the easel of Romney, so artistically 
beautiful is the effect achieved. 

Of the Herculaneum works in Liverpool we read : "In the last 
decade of the eighteenth century a pottery was started at Liverpool which 
produced ware of some distinction, and as it was generally impressed 
with the name of the works ' Herculaneum,' it has obtained a considerable 
vogue among collectors of English wares. The pottery was originally 
established about 1793-94, at Toxteth Park, on the banks of the Mersey, 
by Richard Abbey, an engraver, formerly an apprentice of Sadler's, and 
one Graham, a Scotchman. They are said to have been very successful 
in business; but, if so, must have been men of moderate desires, as in 
1796 the works were taken over by a new firm — Worthington, Humble 
and Holland — who enlarged them, named them Herculaneum, and 
brought over a colony of Staffordshire potters, with a foreman and manager 
named Mansfield, from Burslem. As was to be expected, the ware 
produced under such circumstances has a strong family likeness to that 
of Staffordshire." 

The productions from the Herculaneum works which, more than 
any other, show the influence of Enoch Wood, are those of their historical 
busts. Examples of these busts impressed Herculaneum are of excellent 
workmanship, and as the existence of the factory was of comparatively 
short duration and the work in this branch limited, they are somewhat 
difficult to procure. The site of the factory is now partly covered by 
the Herculaneum Dock. 

The author has recently been presented with the workman's copper- 
plate reference book of Sewell & Co.'s Sunderland pottery works at 
St. Anthony's. This scrapbook contains impressions pulled direct from 
the original plates of a number of pictures and ornaments engraved for 
the purpose of decorating the productions of the factory. Here and there 
the influence of Sadler and the Liverpool school of engravers may be 
traced, and generally a higher standard of artistic merit has been achieved 
than writers have been accustomed to accord to this firm ; certain 
masonic arms and the lettering in general being very beautifully engraved. 
The book contains a number of plates obviously inspired by Thomas 
Bewick. 

36] 



PLATE XXVIII 




lllustiation No. 102 (/. 35] 

RICHARD CHAFFERS 

(From the painting by Thomas Chubbard, in the possession of the City of Liverpool) 




Illustration No. 103 

RICHARD CADDICK 

(From the painting by William Caddick, 
in the possession of Mr. A. H. E. Wood) 




Illustration No 



MRS. PROUDLOVE (tit'e Elizabeth Wood) 

(From the painting by Richard Caddick, 1768, 

in the possession of Mr. A. H. E. Wood) 



LIVERPOOL AND THE POTTERIES 

A set of figures representing The Seasons, decorated in effective 
pink lustre, and marked "Dixon Austin & Co.," were made by this Sunder- 
land firm, and were probably inspired by the models of Ralph Wood. 

It is interesting to refer to the following facts: that Josiah 
Wedgwood materially assisted the furtherance of the Trent and Mersey 
Canal ; that Thomas Bentley, the scholarly partner of Wedgwood, was 
a Liverpool man ; that Sadler and Green invented the process of transfer 
printing upon pottery ; and that George Stubbs, and William and Richard 
Caddick of Liverpool painted portraits of Bentley and members of the 
Wood family. These associations and connections in the past history 
of Liverpool and the Staffordshire potteries may possibly receive further 
attention and study from collectors of the English ceramic treasures 
affected thereby. 



[37 



CHAPTER VI 
ENOCH WOOD : THE BUSTS OF WESLEY, STATUETTES, &c. 

ALTHOUGH much of the work of Enoch Wood (Plate xxix, 
Illustration No. 105) in his various branches of ceramic production 
has met with appreciation from collectors, particularly the Figures 
and Busts modelled by his own hand, the absence hitherto of 
available material for research has precluded many of the incidents of 
his long and interesting career from being collectively recorded. 

Through the kindness of Mr. A. H. E. Wood, the great-grandson 
of Enoch Wood, the private papers and diaries have become accessible, 
and the writer has been afforded the privilege of carefully examining 
these historical documents and of tracing from the methodically written 
notes an almost complete record of the career of this honourable and 
skilful Burslem potter. 

As Josiah Wedgwood, born in 1730, received in the course of time 
the well-merited appellation of "the Prince of Potters," as a tribute to 
his wonderfully successful artistic and commercial achievements, so also 
Enoch Wood, in somewhat later days, gained the affectionate title of 
"Father of the Potteries," by reason of his sterling character, his sincere 
love for local lore, and his long life devoted to the Art of Potting. It is 
well known that Wedgwood's successes were secured when much had yet 
to be discovered in and evolved by the industry of which he was the 
great pioneer and eventually the acknowledged head. For Enoch Wood, 
however, there may be justly claimed remarkable genius as a modeller 
and skill as a potter, and in addition the true love of the local historian 
for his birthplace, a love which demonstrated itself in the comprehensive 
museum he instituted at Burslem, the thoughtful and copious notes he 
made in his quaint little red morocco pocket almanacs, and the im- 
portant collection of papers and notices referring to events in Burslem 
during the period from 1788 to 1817, which he so carefully compiled 
and so religiously preserved. 

Born in Burslem on the 31st January 1759, Enoch Wood came of 
a line of potters, the family pedigree showing that Enoch was the 

38] 



PLATE XXIX 







Illustration No. 105 1/. 3S) 

PORTRAIT OF ENOCH WOOD 
(From the painting by Andrews in the Burslem Museum) 




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ENOCH WOOD : THE BUSTS OF WESLEY, STATUETTES, &c. 

youngest of the eight children of Aaron Wood and of Mary Meir, his wife. 
From the affectionate references to his father and mother made by him 
in his private notes we realise how fully he appreciated the blessings 
and advantages of good parentage and happy home life ; these traditions 
he and his wife, Ann Bourne, were spared to hand down to the 
numerous family with which they were blessed. 

In the previous chapter upon the Caddicks of Liverpool, mention 
has been made of the record written by Enoch Wood to the effect that he 
was sent to Liverpool in 1770 when about eleven years of age; after his 
return he attended the school owned in partnership by the Reverend 
Richard Bentley and Aaron Wedgwood. 

Under the influence of his father, Aaron Wood, supplemented by the 
knowledge of anatomy acquired from his uncle, William Caddick, he gained 
that experience in and appreciation of his craft which, in time, secured 
for him in his own neighbourhood recognition as a modeller and sculptor 
of the highest attainments. The source from which he first acquired 
his knowledge of the craft and mystery of making pottery is shown by 
the following memorandum written upon the fold of a map entitled : 
' A plan of the Navigable Canals intended to be made for opening a 
communication between the interior parts of the kingdom and the ports 
of Bristol, Liverpool and Hull." 

This ancient map was given to me by Dorcas [daughter of William and 
niece of Enoch Wood] who found it amongst my Br. Wm.'s papers after his 
decease. E.W. 

I suppose he procured it before the canal was cut — Etruria was then only 
known by the name of the Ridge House, but he has since written the name Etruria 
as given by Mr. Wedgwood, who gave it that name after the Italian Etruria 
where the ancient and much admired vases and pottery were formerly manu- 
factured. 

N.B. — I have no doubt this name was suggested to Mr. Wedgwood by his 
then partner, Mr. Bentley, in his manufactory in Burslem, called the Bell works, 
at which place I first began to be employed in the manufacturing of earthenware 
the year before the Etruria Manufactory was built. Enoch Wood. 

N.B. — Mr. Bentley was a learned literary man and was the chief means of 
introducing Mr. Wedgwood's manufactured earthenware to the Nobility of England 
and to the Foreign Embassidors (sic) at the British Court. 

The volume of records in which the map occurs begins with a notice 
of meeting of the River Weaver Trustees in 1765, and contains a series 
of plans with legal and other documents relating to the Grand Trunk 
Canal, gradually collected by Enoch Wood from early days until his 
74th year, when he caused them to be carefully bound up into one sub- 
stantial volume and his manuscript note inscribed therein is as follows : 

K [39 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

I have collected these papers at different periods in my life and have caused 
them to be thus preserved for the use of my successors who may have the inclination 
to inquire into the rise and progress of the various accomodations to the Stafford- 
shire Potteries ; having heard and seen much upon the different subjects to which 
they relate is the cause of my thus preserving these old scraps, &c, &c, &c. 

Enoch Wood, 

Burslem. 1834. 

In another memorandum he writes : 

The Canal from the Trent to the Mersey, now called the Grand Trunk 
Canal was begun in the year 1766 and was upwards of 14 years in completing, 
being attended by great difficulty and risk. It is in length 99 miles and connects 
by water the Ports of Liverpool and Hull and by a branch from it the Port of 
Bristol, and by means of the Coventry, Oxford and Grand Junction Canals is a 
communication with the Metropolis. 

When only eleven years old the boy had already shown a predilection 
towards the art of modelling, and the nation possesses in the British 
Museum, probably the earliest example of his work (made no doubt while 
he was at the Bell works), consisting of an oval plaque ornamented with 
the arms and crest of the Wood family ; for one so young this is certainly 
a refined and vigorous production. The plaque is in cream ware glazed 
with lead and is thus labelled : " Modelled by Enoch Wood when 
eleven years old in 1771." Franks coll. (Plate xxxi, Illustration No. 
108.) The following inscription is painted on the back : 

These Arms were modell'd by Enoch Wood A.D. 1771 being then in the 12th 
year of his age — signed Wm. Wood. — This piece was found in the possession of 
Wm. Wood, Modeler, after his deceace, with the above memorandum in his hand- 
writing in ink, and is now in 1821 thus transcribed more durably — This Arms 
was copied from a rough drawing found in the wall of Chedleton Church, then 
said to be Wood's Arms. 

In a letter written to Dr. Adam Clarke, to whom reference is made 
later, Enoch Wood states in regard to his modelling that he had 
" practised the art from a very early age," and this production of the 
family coat of arms certainly confirms his statement. 

The following note by Enoch Wood referring to his very youthful 
days is somewhat amusing : 

I knew old Chell John, alias John Simpson, and Hannah his wife, they 
were very old when I was about seven years old. He was a Mottled Master Potter 
in the old Bowling Green, Rotten Row. His sons were all Potters, I knew them 
all, his eldest son was best known as Tommy Twattle. He made a music box 
for me and taught me to play the 4th Psalm upon it. — Brass wires and tobacco 
pipe stumps to tune it. 

There is in the possession of Mr. A. H. E. Wood an excellently modelled 
bust of Enoch Wood, Junr., the eldest son of Enoch Wood, bearing the 
following verses incised at the back in the clay in the sculptor's own 
handwriting (Plate xxxi, Illustration Nos. 109 and no) : 

40] 



PLATE XXXI 




Illustration No. 108 (/. 40) 

PLAQUE OF THE WOOD ARMS. Dia. ioin. 
Modelled by Enoch Wood) 

i cum 





Illustration No. 109 [pp. 40 and 4 i| Illustration No. 110 (//. 40 and 41) 

BUST OF ENOCH WOOD Jr. (Life size) BUST OF ENOCH WOOD Jr. 

(Modelled by Enoch Wood- back view) Modelled by Enoch Wood- front viewl 

In tht possession 0/ Mr. A. .7. E. Wood 



ENOCH WOOD : THE BUSTS OF WESLEY, STATUETTES, &c. 

Enoch Wood Junior, aetat 21. February 12th, 1814 
Enoch Wood Senior, Sculpt. A Birthday present. 

Joy to my brother ! may the years 
That time on rapid pinion bears 
Be blest to life's last setting sun 
As those which mark thee twenty-one. 
Though absent from my native home, 
On Mersey's winding shores I roam, 
Yet there by memory's faithful aid 
Oft are those distant scenes portray'd 
And on this day so glad, so dear 
My spirit wings its passage there, 
I see upon a Mother's cheeks 
A glow which lively joy bespeaks, 
A tear that in a Father's eyes 
The place of eloquence supplies, 
I see a cordial hand extend 
Of him so long my Father's friend, 
I see thy sisters swiftly move 
To greet thee with the kiss of love. 
Oh ! when the social board is crowned 
And mirth and music float around, 
Will not some voice be heard to say 
" Health to our sister far away " 

Anne Brettell. 
Liverpool. 13th February 18 14. 

Referring to the above inscription Enoch Wood writes : 

Aemoiandum 

These lines were engraved by me on the back of a bust which I had made 
a few days before he, Enoch Wood, came to the age of 21 years, which bust I 
hope may be taken care of. It is a very good and perfect likeness of my son 
Enoch at that age. I took great pains in making it as perfect as I could and 
for this purpose I took a plaster cast from his face, lest one impression should 
have a misfortune or be destroyed in firing in the oven, I made two at the same 
time, exactly the same, together with the same lines I engraved on the back of 
each, one of which was placed about 7 or 8 feet deep under the Churchyard wall 
at the head of, or western part of my family vault. Within this bust I placed a 
pane of glass on which I engraved with a diamond the names of all my family, 
etc., etc. Within this vault there is deposited a large Basso Relievo of the 
" Descent from the Cross," moulded by myself, also a Crucifix modelled at 14 
years old by me, Enoch Wood, this is visible in the vault set in mortar and fixed 
in the east wall of the vault. 

flftcmoranOum respecting the cause of my undertaking to model so large 
a figure as the above-named Crucifix which measures from head to foot 22in. 
alto relievo. 

N.B. — At that period two men came to Burslem with a most excellently 
well executed crucifix in colored wax which they alternately strapped to their backs, 
in an elegant mahogany flat box lined with delicate velvet and a large ground glass 
before it which was covered with silk, etc., this so much astonished all who saw 
it that it seemed to soften their hearts and open their purses so that it then appeared 

[41 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

to me that by their travelling from place to place they would gain a fortune by 
it in a short time. I therefore thought I could excel it and soon earnestly set to 
work upon a similar subject about twice the size, with the full intention to pursue 
the same mode, feeling my strength increasing, being about 14 years old, I thought 
I should soon be able myself to carry one on my back so much larger than that 
which the astonished crowds flocked to see, when I should then be able to see 
the world (which I much wished) without being at any travelling expenses, and 
should be, by that mode, getting much better wages than any journeyman potter 
then was able to get. (Wages to potters were then from 10/- to 12/- per week.) 

N.B. — About ten years after this I began to manufacture earthenware 
as a Master Potter and hired John Proudlove for 12/- per week, he was then said 
to be the best Tureen squeezer in the neighbourhood ; he was employed by R. 
Bucknall of Cobridge, the white ware or salt glaze potter at that time. I now 
make this memorandum merely to show how much a few years time and a change 
of circumstances alters the views of young and inexperienced persons in every 
state of life. 

The bust of Enoch Wood was placed under the Foundation of the wall at 
the head of my vault long after the wall or vault were built, there being a 4' 
ditch behind the vault and I had given leave for a deep drain to be cut along the 
wall outside so when this was doing I introduced the bust in the wall as above 
described. The inscription on the back of this Junior Enoch Wood's bust will 
endure to the end of time which some learned Divines believe this world by Divine 
Providence is pre-destined to exist ; however, if this should at any distant day 
again appear upon the surface of the earth it may be preserved in some future 
Museum when my whole family and friends are no more known or thought of 
than if we never had an existence upon this terrestial globe. 

Enoch Wood, 

Burslem, Staffs : 

This deep ditch at the back of the wall may preserve my family vault dry 
so as to enable this vault to be sunk a little deeper if wished for in the front of 
the partitions, but not to undermine those partitions which might disturb them 
all, and defeat intention of long duration of my family vault. 

Enoch Wood. 

From this detailed inscription one learns that at the age of 14 years 
the modeller's ability had aspired to so great an achievement as the execu- 
tion of the large Crucifix he describes as being deposited by himself in 
subsequent years, and as he states, visible within the vault, " set in mortar 
and fixed in the east wall of the vault." If further research ever elicited 
whether or not a replica of this interesting Crucifix was at any time 
produced, valuable information would be gained. 

The John Proudlove referred to in the inscription was Enoch 
Wood's brother-in-law, who had married in 1771, Elizabeth, born 1744, 
the third daughter of Aaron Wood. 

The large Jasper Plaque of the Descent from the Cross (Plate 
xxxii, Illustration No. in), measuring 2oin. x 17m., and dated 1777, 
modelled four years later than the Crucifix, is a wonderful achievement for 
a young man 18 years of age. Inspired by Rubens' great work, from the 

42] 



PLATE XXXII 



Illustration No. 111 pp. u-, 

THE DESCENT FROM THE CROSS. 15 . iifin. 

(Mark incised : Enoch Wood) 

In tlu- possession of Mr. A. H. E. Wood 



ENOCH WOOD : THE BUSTS OF WESLEY, STATUETTES, &c. 

Cathedral of Antwerp, the careful modelling of this artistic production is 
most effective ; whether its issue ever passed beyond experimental stages is 
open to doubt as very few are known to exist, and considerable variance 
of body and finish of detail is observable, some specimens being enclosed 
in an ornamental jasper frame. Mr. A. H. E. Wood possesses no less 
than three examples of this remarkable piece of workmanship, two of 
which are in jasper of different dimensions, one being considerably smaller 
than the other, as though a fired example had been used to prepare 
the mould for a smaller one, while the third is a cast from the mould 
in some particularly dense material, mounted in a heavy moulded frame ; 
the detail work, careful under-cutting and general finish of the two 
Jasper examples, are of a very high order of merit. 

The Lady Charlotte Schreiber's collection at the Victoria and Albert 
Museum contains an example of this important plaque, thus described 
in the catalogue : 

The Descent from the Cross in greyish white cameo on a blue ground mark 
scratched Enoch Wood Sculpt. 1777 D. 20 in. x 15 in. 

Another example is included in the Hulme collection of the Wedgwood 
Institute at Burslem, thus marked 

(ENOCH WOOD) 

( SCULPSIT) 

in impressed capital letters, and written upon it in pencil the date 1777. 

The extreme measurement of the jasper frame or border is 
2oin. x 17m. The plaque itself, embodying the figure subject, measures 
15m. x 11 Jin. It appears to have been made and fired in two separate 
pieces and the flat portion is secured to its place in the frame with 
plaster : the moulded framework, nearly 3m. wide, is decorated with 
white relief scrolls (the conventional treatment of the passion-flower) of 
exquisite modelling, while the details of the centre subject, which show 
the dish and sponge, the nails and the impress of them in the hands 
and feet of our Saviour, are also delicately modelled. 

Mr. Hammersley in describing this example, writes : 

I may mention also that so large a piece as the outer frame 20 by 17 in a 
comparatively vitreous body offers difficulties of manufacture which perhaps only 
a practical potter can appreciate, and although no doubt modelled by Enoch Wood 
in 1777, probably the casts were made at a somewhat later date. 

Another early example with its jasper passion-flower frame may be 
seen in the Hanley Museum. — These very important Jasper plaques 
(far larger than the average medallions) have been recently examined 
by careful experts, and they are naturally interested in conjecturing as 
to whether Enoch Wood at the age of 18 possessed access to the necessary 
materials for their production. He clearly states that not only was 

L43 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

this exquisite piece of work of the Descent moulded by himself, but 
that the still larger subject, viz., the Crucifix, was also the work of 
his own hand, and this he tells us measured 22in. from head to foot. It 
is only natural to suppose that any early productions in Jasper from 
these moulds were made either by his employer Palmer, or that Messrs. 
Wedgwood came to his assistance in helping him to carry out the technical 
completion thereof. It has also been suggested that quite possibly two 
or three were made by Enoch Wood in his more mature days ; as 
already stated no example of the Crucifix other than the one mentioned 
by Enoch Wood has ever been recorded. 

A copy of the Descent plaque, oval in form, and without the 
bordered framework, was in the possession of the late Mr. Gee of 
Basford ; this is in a white stone body, unglazed, and bears at the back 
an incised inscription indicating that it was presented to W. W. Potts by 
Enoch Wood, Junr., in 1840, and was therefore made possibly 60 years 
after the Blue Jasper copies described ; as may be expected from this fact, 
it falls short of the beautiful sharpness of impression which characterises 
the first copies. An interesting example is in the possession of Mr. J. F. 
Maddock of Alsager ; it is in a vitrified stoneware of creamy white, and 
is without the Jasper framework. This is doubtless an early specimen and 
bears the sculptor's name incised in script lettering instead of the 
impressed capitals. Report says that the Burslem Museum plaque was 
for some years in the entrance hall of Enoch Wood's house at Fountain 
Place, and that it would probably have been produced during his appren- 
ticeship with Palmer of Hanley Green. 

After spending the customary short time at the "Bell" or "Brick 
House " works of Josiah Wedgwood in learning the rudiments of his trade, 
Enoch Wood was apprenticed to Mr. Humphrey Palmer of Hanley Green, 
and that at the age of 24 he embarked upon his career of master potter 
may be gathered from the inscription upon the bust of his son. 

The original name of these works was " The Brick House," so called 
because the house attached was the first built of bricks in Burslem. In 
"William Adams, an Old English Potter," page 93, will be found an account 
of the history of the "Brick House" works wherein some errors on the 
part of Llewellyn Jewitt have been duly corrected. The works were the 
property of the Adams family, and were let on lease to Josiah Wedg- 
wood, who with Bentley occupied them in the early days of the firm before 
they removed to Etruria about 1770; eventually the works were pulled 
down and the Wedgwood Institute now stands upon a portion of the 
site. It is interesting to record the fact that so far back as 1617 the 
Adams family were potters, and that the will of William Adams des- 
cribed as a potter was proved in that year ; there are records of the names 
of their progenitors in Burslem and Wolstanton at still earlier dates. 

44] 



PLATE XXXIII 





Illustration No. 112 (/. 4s 



Illustration No 113 (/>. 45) 



MEDALLION SCULPTURED BY ENOCH WOOD AND PRESENTED TO MISS ANNE BOURNE 

hi the possession of Mr- A. H. E. !' 




Illustration No. 114 > 1 

Dr. ADAM CLARKE, LL.D.. &c. H. 9in. 

i After the Bust by Machin) 

Sheldon coll. 



ENOCH WOOD : THE BUSTS OF WESLEY, STATUETTES, &c. 

In further reference to Enoch Wood's apprenticeship an inscription 
recorded by Sir Arthur Church in his "English Earthenware," page 81, 
may be cited ; it is thus set forth : 

The following memorandum occurs in red enamel on the back of a large 
dish of Wedgwood's Queen's ware in the possession of Sidney Locock, Esq.: "This 
dish was made at Etruria by Messrs. Wedgwood and Bentley, the first year after 
Messrs. Wedgwood and Bentley removed from Burslem to Etruria. Richard 
Lawton served his apprenticeship at turning with them, and has had it in his 
house more than fifty years. It is my brother William's modelling. It was 
turned on a hand lathe as plates were at that date. I preserve this to show the 
quality of common cream ware before the introduction of growan or Cornwall 
stone. This body is formed of flint and clay only, the same as used for salt-glazed 
ware at that time, and flint and lead only instead of a salt-glaze, and it is fired 
in the usual and accustomed way and manner as usual for glazed tea-pots, 
tortoiseshell, mottled and agate, and cauliflower etc. Also sand from the Mole 
Cop and Baddley Edge was used either in the body or glaze. N.B. Before flint 
was introduced they used a certain proportion of slip for the body in the glaze 
to prevent crazing, and to make it bear a stronger fire in the glaze oven. I was 
the first person that made use of bone in earthenware when in my apprenticeship 
at Mr. Palmer's at Hanley Green. 
Burslem, Sept. 26th, 1826. Enoch Wood." 

The original memorandum is incorrect in spelling and punctuation ; the 
obvious mistakes have been rectified in the above transcript, in which also the 
abbreviation C n C has been conjecturally expanded into common cream ware. 
The statement as to the use of bones in earthenware by Enoch Wood, when an 
apprentice of Mr. Palmer of Hanley, is of some interest. I have proved that 
bones formed an important constituent of Bow porcelain (1 749-1 775) ; it is now 
apparent that to Spode cannot be given the credit of first employing them even 
in earthenware. 

Enoch Wood was married at the comparatively early age of 21 on 
16th of December 1780, to Miss Ann Bourne (Plate xxx, Illustration No. 
106), at Newcastle-under-Lyme, Staffordshire; she was the daughter and 
youngest child of Mr. James Bourne of that town, and during their 
long married life shared his joys and sorrows and was a cultivated and 
true helpmeet; she died 28th January 1841. There is in the possession 
of Mr. A. H. E. Wood a medallion bearing the following inscription 
upon the obverse : 

This seal was given to Miss Anne Bourne of Newcastle by the Sculpsit 
as an introduction to his becoming acquainted with her. 

and upon the reverse written in pencil : 

Original presented to Miss Anne Bourne by (then impressed) ENOCH 
WOOD, SCULPSIT, 1780. 

written in pencil underneath the impressed mark as though in the nature 
of a memorandum appear the words : 

Stopper for a glass scent bottle. 
(Plate xxxiii, Illustration Nos. 112 and 113.) 

[45 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

With the fuller knowledge gained from the correspondence between 
Enoch Wood and Dr. Adam Clarke * (Plate xxxiii, Illustration No. 114), it 
is now possible to record as an established fact that in the year 1781 
Enoch Wood, when only 22 years of age, sculptured the portrait bust 
of John Wesley from life, in such a masterly manner and so entirely to 
the satisfaction of the great divine, who was then in his 78th year, that 
this work of art has remained ever since the recognised prototype of all 
subsequent portraits and busts of the world -famed preacher. The model- 
ling was carried out during a series of five separate sittings when Wesley, 
who was upon one of his preaching tours in Staffordshire, was staying 
with Mr. Myatt, the potter who took out a patent for a certain Toby Jug 
design. He also visited Enoch Wood, whose wife he had already known 
as the Miss Bourne mentioned in the Memoir of Hester Ann Rogers ; on 
other occasions Wesley had frequently stayed with Mr. William Bourne. 

Owing to the lack of confirmation of this important historical event, 
not only collectors, but the Wesleyan authorities, as we shall see, have 
been much confused by the fact that no bust has so far been discovered 
or recorded bearing the confirming date of 1781, or the age (78) of 
the subject of the bust at the time it was modelled. The earliest dated 
examples are marked in an oval : "The Revd John Wesley M.A., aged 81, 
Enoch Wood Sculpsit." Fifty years after the production of this bust 
Mr. Samuel Manning of London, at the instigation of the Wesleyan Con- 
ference, and under the guidance of Mr. Bacon, the celebrated sculptor, 
undertook the execution of a full length statue of Wesley in marble, now 
known as the Richmond statue, and fortunately Dr. Adam Clarke's friend- 
ship with Enoch Wood prompted him to obtain permission for his bust of 
Wesley to be made available for this purpose. The correspondence in 
connection with these proceedings reveals the exact date and other details 
which elucidate much that has hitherto been a mystery. A perusal will 
show that the earliest busts represented somewhat too truthfully the 
flattened and crushed gown which Wesley was of necessity accustomed to 
adopt when upon his travelling tours ; moreover, they do not seem to have 
been inscribed with a record of their date, though as before mentioned 
they were marked with Wesley's age. It seems to have been intended that 
these details, together with the text suggested by Wesley when sitting to 
the sculptor, "Is not this a brand plucked from the fire" should be 

* Dr. Adam Clarke (born 1760, died in 1832) was a distinguished Wesleyan Minister and writer and 
was born in the North of Ireland. He received but a moderate education in early life and was placed in 
the establishment of a linen manufacturer, but his piety and love of study recommended him to the 
Methodist preachers, and after some preparation at the school founded by Wesley, near Bristol, he was 
sent out an itinerant preacher in 1782 and in time became one of the most famous amongst the Wesleyans. 
Adam Clarke was however much superior to the other ministers of Wesley in point of learning. In 1802 he 
published a " Biographical Dictionary " in 6 volumes giving him a somewhat distinguished position in 
the literary world and he was selected by the Board of Commissioners on Public Records to superintend 
the publication of a new edition of Rymer's " Foedera." The best known, however, of his works is his 
" Commentary on the Bible," which occupied many years of his life. — Cassell's National Biography. 

46] 



ENOCH WOOD : THE BUSTS OF WESLEY, STATUETTES, &c. 

embodied (with a view of Wesley's father's house at Epworth in Lincoln- 
shire, in flames, and the child John Wesley being rescued therefrom), in a 
separate medallion to be modelled and attached to the back of the 
pedestal. The absence however of any available sketch or picture record- 
ing the historical event of the burning house caused an indefinite post- 
ponement by Enoch Wood of the complete rendering of the medallion 
intended for the special pedestal, and of the more artistic treatment of 
the drapery ; the first issue was therefore made without these details ; 
the completion of the drapery and the addition of the text upon certain 
examples, as will be seen from the correspondence, did not take place until 
a subsequent issue was made some years afterwards, probably when the 
companion bust of Whitfield was executed about 1791, while the medallion 
with the picture of the tragic episode at Epworth was apparently never 
even designed. 

A debt of gratitude is owing to the methodical characteristics of 
Enoch Wood, one of which was evidently the making and preserving 
of careful copies of these letters, which he evidently considered to be of 
more than usual importance. 

Letter from Dr. Adam Clarke to Enoch Wood : 

Pinner, Middlesex. 

Dear Sir, 0ct 2nd > l8 3°- 

You have no doubt heard that Mr. Samuel Manning, a Statuary of London, 
brought up under the celebrated Mr. Bacon, has proposed to execute a whole 
length Statue of Mr. Wesley in marble under the direction of the Methodist Con- 
ference and that he is busily engaged in this work. Mr. Manning had but little 
help, and that he had collated from various paintings and engravings of Mr. Wesley 
which, though he had endeavoured scientifically to arrange and harmonize, yet 
he could attain only an incongruous whole, having a resemblance without much 
likeness. While this Image was in clay I saw it and strongly expressed my dis- 
approbation and gave such reasons for my opinion as quite satisfied Mr. Manning 
that he was not likely on his then plan to get an accurate portrait of that great man. 
He laid my objections before Mr. Bacon, which brought to me a letter from 
that artist full of mind and science and an earnest request that I should favour 
Mr. Manning in his work as I appeared to be the only person of all he had applied 
to that would do it, &c. I then spoke of the bust executed by you, the model of 
which you kindly presented to me when once on a visit to Burslem. I have now 
the satisfaction to say that I have got the thing out of the hands of bad advisers 
and on the ground of your Bust Mr. Manning is likely to make a very fine statue, 
as true to nature as excellent in workmanship. The President and Mr. H. Moore 
have expressed their opinion in a letter to Mr. Manning which he intends to 
publish in his Proposals ; and he has applied to me for something in the same 
way. I have drawn up a general but succinct account of the various 
Attempts that have been (in general) successfully made by various Artists and 
have mentioned your work as the only one that could fairly pretend to be 
compared with the original, but I may be wrong in the date or any other 
article. I beg leave to copy that part in which I mention you, praying for your 
correction and any item of information which might embellish my description 
and which I wish to make honourable to yourself. 

L 1.47 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

After mentioning various attempts with criticism on the whole I then proceed : 
" Mr. Enoch Wood of Burslem in 1781 made a model of Mr. Wesley in busto 
which was the most happily executed of all that hitherto had been done. Mr. 
Wesley himself was so well satisfied that Mr. Wood would succeed in his work 
that though pressed by various duties and straitened for time he cheerfully sat 
five times to this Artist till he was convinced that he had given a very faithful 
copy of nature. Several correct copies were taken from this model and were 
dispersed at the time among several of Mr. Wesley's intimate friends, but the 
original model became afterwards recopied by mere mechanical men till the 
likeness, the expression and even the attitude so well represented in Mr. Wood's 
model were lost and the thing became a caricature. Fortunately, the original 
model is still preserved ; some years ago it was kindly presented to me by the 
Artist himself. This to preserve for ever I got cast in brass and under the eye of 
that eminent master, John Jackson, Esq., R.A., it was chased up to the original. 
The model itself I lent to Mr. Manning when I found that he meditated a whole 
length marble statue of this super-eminent man, and I have seen with the highest 
satisfaction the progress made by Mr. Manning in this work. The whole appear- 
ance of Mr. Wesley's face I see in the terra cotta of Mr. Enoch Wood exactly 
transferred from it to the clay and afterwards to the celenite of Mr. Manning, I 
see also in Mr. Manning's work Mr. Wesley's whole length with its exact proportions 
and drapery, his commanding attitude, his attractive expression, in a word his 
mind and his manner " &c. 

My dear Sir, I have copied this much of my paper for the purpose above 
specified and beg you to consider and to favour me with any corrections or 
information you may think necessary, and with best regards to all your family 
(begging for the honour of a speedy answer) 

I am, Dear Sir, 

Your obliged afftn. friend, 

Adam Clarke. 

The following is Enoch Wood's reply : 

[COPY] 

Burslem, Oct. 6th, 1830 
My Dear Sir, 

I am favoured with your letter of the 2nd inst., from which I am happy 
to learn that a whole length marble statue of Mr. Wesley is now in progress. 

The Bust which I had the pleasure to present to you a few years since was taken 
out of the original mould cast upon the clay model for which Mr. Wesley favoured 
me with five separate sittings, at the last of which he did me the credit to say, 
that there had been many attempts at his likeness by different Artists but he thought 
this was much the best. He however asked me if I thought it had not a more 
melancholy expression than himself and I perceived that I had fallen into that 
error, I think owing to his generally being engaged in writing while sitting to 
me, and from which I withdrew his attention with some difficulty ; he therefore 
sat down again and in a few minutes after I had made the alteration he came 
behind me to look at it and immediately desired me not to touch it again lest, as 
he said, I should " mar it," and again expressed himself quite satisfied with it. 
I then told him he might consider the likeness finished, but that I should place it 
on a pedestal, on the back of which I should place a Medallion with his name and 
age inscribed as well as any remarkable occurrence in his life — he, without the 
smallest hesitation, related to me the circumstance of his Father's house being 



43] 



ENOCH WOOD : THE BUSTS OF WESLEY, STATUETTES, &c. 

on fire when he was a child and that his life was then saved from the flames by 
his being taken out of an upper story through a window ; this I fully then intended 
to model on a circular medallion on a Pedestal. He seemed pleased with this 
idea and said you may write underneath or around it — " Is not this a brand plucked 
out of the fire." 

This I deferred doing because I was anxious to procure an exact drawing 
of his Father's House, but to this day it has not fallen into my hands, therefore 
it has not been carried into effect. 

Mr. Wesley's servant, Joseph Bradford, was present at two or three of the 
last sittings and was so much pleased at the growing likeness of his master that 
I observed he threw all impediments which he could with propriety do in the way 
of Mr. Wesley's rising from the sittings in order to give me a full opportunity 
of perfecting the resemblance. 

Your bust of Mr. Wesley was taken by me in the year 178 1 with the greatest 
care and attention, I was then capable of, in the 22nd year of my age, having 
practiced the art from a very early age. 

Mr. Manning may with confidence rely upon every line wrinkle or vein 
marked upon your Bust being a true and correct copy of nature. 

I beg you to accept my best thanks for the very handsome manner in which 
you have introduced my name upon the above subject, it is very grateful to my 
feelings to be the means of preserving a lasting memorial of so super-eminent a 
man. Your kind letter would have received a more immediate answer but that 
it arrived only a few hours before it pleased unerring wisdom to take to Himself 
my beloved daughter, Eliza, who, though her conduct through life had been one 
continued course of duty to God and her fellow creatures under many severe 
trials, she bewailed her sinfulness and trusted only and fully to the merits of 
her great Redeemer. 

In her whole life of forty-two years I had no cause to reprove her, but on 
this subject my present feelings will not allow me to proceed. 

Mrs. Wood and family join me in kindest respects and believe me with 
greatest esteem, 

My dear Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

Enoch Wood. 
Revd. Doctor Adam Clarke, 
Pinner. Middlesex. 

In response to this letter Dr. Adam Clarke wrote to Enoch Wood 
as follows : 

Pinner, Middlesex. 

Oct. 13th 1830 
My dear Sir, 

I am sorry that my letter should have come to your hand when you had so 
much to affect your heart. But as I had no knowledge of the stroke you felt, 
I could not accuse myself of intrusion at an improper time though I must regret 
that it was such. 

As to your Daughter, her removal is clear gain to herself, she is gone to Him 
whom she feared, loved and served — and you have reason to magnify God that 

[49 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

you have been the instrument of adding such an inhabitant to Heaven and your 
family have cause of rejoicing that such a relative has gone before to take her 
part in that inheritance to which we are all travelling — May the ever blessed 
God grant that you and they may all safely arrive when your work and suffering 
are done in that Rest which remains for His people and which has been purchased 
for you all by the Blood of the Cross. 

I am much obliged by your letter which has in so detail'd a manner given 
particulars of the Bust. In the letter which I have prepared for Mr. Manning 
I will give all your information and the Public shall know to whom they owe the 
only proper likeness of that illustrious man whose likeness has suffered so much 
by the caricature of his friends. 

I am sorry that you never made the Medallion — Is your hand steady enough 
to do it still P Some years ago when I was making collections for a projected 
Life of Mr. Wesley, I took a journey to Epworth in Lincolnshire where he was born 
to try to gather up any authentic bits and scraps of his valuable Life. The Revd. 
Mr. Nelson, the Minister of the Parish, and his family shewed me every degree 
of kindness and civility and took me through every part of the parsonage house 
which old Mr. James Wesley had built after the burning of that from which his 
son John was saved as by a miracle. An Artist of the place did me the kindness 
to take an exact representation of the Church and of the House ; the house is 
now before me, and it is so exactly represented that every brick and tile seems 
to be exhibited. Cheerfully will I lend you this if you wish to do anything toward 
the completion of your former Design. It is on a Mahogany Pannel 22 inches 
long by I2i broad, and throws into the view a part of the Church Yard — 
I think it would not be difficult to copy — You know that this has been once repre- 
sented on copper — a front likeness of Mr. W. large 4to. and towards one side a 
house in flames and a man on a ladder taking a child out of an 
upper window with the inscription — Is not this a brand pluck'd 

out of the fire ? With best respects to yourself and family, I am, My Dear Sir, 

Your much obliged 

and affte. humble servant, 

Adam Clarke. 

On the fly-leaf of this letter the following " copy of reply " by Enoch 
Wood is recorded : 

Parkgate, Oct. 28th, 1830. 
My dear Sir, 

I was duly favoured with your kind and consoling letter of the 13th inst., 
and I am sorry I have not sooner answered it. I have been from home almost 
ever since the funeral of my beloved Daughter along with a considerable part of 
my family ; in about a week I hope to be at home where if you have an opportunity 
I should be glad to receive a slight sketch of the House and Church you mention 
as given to you by an Artist of the place ; it would be quite sufficient for my 
purpose (if indeed I should attempt to put in practice my former intention, it, the 
medal, would be very small) — You also mention a copper medal which I never 
heard of, or I should have tried to procure one long ere this, perhaps you can put 
me in the way of obtaining one. When I see these or only a sketch of them I 
still think I should make a trial of my hand again altho' it is now full 47 years 
since I have been very differently employed having however now and then done 
a little in that way. I should have pleasure in completing my original intention 
and more so as I well remember Mr. Wesley seemed pleased with the idea, and 

50] 



ENOCH WOOD : THE BUSTS OF WESLEY, STATUETTES, &c. 

you say you were sorry that it never was done ; therefore I certainly feel a desire 
to make the attempt and if I do you shall have as perfect a specimen as I can 
produce. 

My family here join me in kindest regards and I am, 

With much esteem, 

Truly yours, 

ENOCH WOOD. 

A little more than two months elapse and it would seem to have 
occurred to Enoch Wood that he might send to Dr. Clarke one of the 
busts made by him showing the more complete treatment of the drapery 
as to the button, &c, and he is able to do so by the kind means of his late 
minister, Mr. Marsden. He indites the following letter to Dr. Clarke 
which is also delivered by Mr. Marsden : 

[COPY] 

Burslem, Jany. 1831. 
My dear Sir, 

I have very great pleasure in introducing to your acquaintance our late 
Minister, Mr. Marsden who is now curate of Harrow and for whom I entertain 
a very high regard and esteem, he has been lately on a visit to us and most willingly 
complied with my request of delivering into your hands a Bust of the late Mr. 
Wesley which I think may be useful if shewn to the Statuary if he has not already 
finished the marble statue of this great and good man — the Bust you formerly 
had from me, if I recollect right was deficient of two buttons on the gown, but 
this you now receive is rectified from this trivial error and is now I believe perfectly 
correct. The gown which Mr. Wesley's servant,. Joseph Bradford, put upon him 
for me to copy — I then observed had been much worne and the drapery was pressed 
flat I suppose by being confined in a small compass for the convenience of travelling 
and I therefore copied this imperfection which I hope the Statuary will avoid, 
and to copy that part of the marble statue from a good clerical gown to be put 
upon rather a square shouldered, neat and well proportioned little man : these 
were points of minor importance to me (at that time) my chief object was to 
produce a correct and striking likeness (for a bust only) of a man so popular as he 
then was and the time which has elapsed since has proved his worth, and genera- 
tions yet unborn will hail the day he was " plucked out of the burning," the 
motto written on the back of the shoulders are the identical words which Mr. 
Wesley used to me when I asked him the question I mentioned in a former letter 
to you, and fearing lest I shou'd make a mistake when I was writing that letter 
I desired one of my Daughters to look in the Bible for them and she opened on the 
3rd chapter of Zechariah and 2nd verse instead of Amos the 4th chapter and latter 
part of the nth verse, I did not then know that it appeared in two parts of the 
Bible — I beg of you to excuse my long epistle which I fear may appear to you of 
no importance, and also that you will accept the offered Bust as a small token 
of my great esteem. —My wife and family present their kind regards and believe 
me 

My dear Sir, 

to remain most truly 

Your obliged Servt. 
Dr. Adam Clarke. Enoch Wood. 

[5i 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 
This letter elicited the following reply from Dr. Clarke : 

Pinner Middlesex. 

Jany. 18th, 1831. 
Dear Mr. Wood, 

This week the Revd. Mr. Marsden from Harrow paid me a visit and delivered 
me your letter and a day or two after, sent me the Bust of Mr. Wesley which he 
brought from you. — It is a very beautiful piece of workmanship and does you 
very great credit and I consider it a very valuable addition to all the Representatives 
I have whether painted engraved or modelled of the excellent original and 
truly I feel myself much obliged to you for this so very correct a likeness. I shall let 
Mr. Manning see it and I think he will get some good hints from the Drapery. — 
I shall be glad to see the statue completed we shall then have the only faithful 
likeness of one to whom not only the Empire, but also the principal parts of the 
habitable earth are so much indebted — I think it will be an honour to you and 
to your family after you that you were so highly favoured as to be Fratner and 
the Preserver of this excellent Representation of John Wesley — I begin to think 
to whom I shall bequeath these noble Busts, which, be the projected marble 
whatsoever it may, will ever be considered the highest in worth ; and it will be 
no ordinary friend that shall possess them after me and I shall see that in all 
things he shall be a thorough Methodist. 

I am thankful also to find by Mr. Marsden's report that God has not permitted 
Death to make any further breach in your family — May none of you be removed 
hence till old and full of days, you have long enjoyed the fullness of the Blessing 
of the Gospel of Christ and have done all his will so that when you are called from 
earth you may all have an abundant entrance into the Holiest by the Blood of Jesus. 

Should I ever see Burslem again I hope I shall not be so driven for time as 
I was when last there, when I could not command even five minutes to call on you 
or any other friend. I am sorry to hear that you cannot now trust your hand 
with the little long ago projected Medallion — I find also that the keepers of the 
hand shake — but while we have our hearts and our heads we may enjoy much of 
God and do much for Him — God has brought us into the world that we may receive 
good from him, that we may do good to our fellows. 

With love to all your family, 

I am my dear Sir 

Yours affy. 

Adam Clarke. 

The delicate manner in which Dr. Clarke handles the affair in its 
initial stages is one of supreme diplomacy ; through Mr. Manning he con- 
veys to Mr. Bacon, the great sculptor, a strongly adverse opinion upon 
the situation as it then stood, and draws from him his authoritative con- 
currence, enabling him (Dr. Clarke) to bring the affair of the portrait 
into smooth channels. Then to Enoch Wood he writes in such terms 
that it becomes an honour for him to allow his fine bust to be the basis 
of the statue, and lastly he superintends Manning in the details of 
portraiture, bringing his personal knowledge of Wesley to bear in con- 
firming his mature criticism upon the work during its progress. 

There are touching passages in this correspondence between the 
divine and the sculptor potter ; the arrival of Dr. Clarke's letter of the 

52] 



PLATE XXXIV 



BUSTS OF WESLEY 




Illustration No. 115 (/. 53) 

THE CITY ROAD BUST. H. nin. 
(From the model made in 1781) 





Illustration No. 116 </■. 54) Illustration No. 117 (/>. 5 4> 

EARLY BUST (from the model made in 1781) The Rev. R. Green's Class A. H. uin. 



ENOCH WOOD : THE BUSTS OF WESLEY, STATUETTES, &c. 

2nd October 1830, when Enoch Wood is in sore state bearing the trial 
of the loss of his daughter, and the comforting second letter with its 
acknowledgment, must touch chords of deep sympathy, even in the 
thoughts of the casual reader. The whole subject of the bust of Wesley 
must have awakened memories in Enoch Wood's mind of bye-gone days. 
He had attained 70 years and was writing of an episode which had 
occurred in his 22nd year and his very exact relation of detail is distinctly 
remarkable. The strong reasons he adduces for hoping to make the 
effort, despite his age, to complete the medallion originally intended, 
are also impressive ; no doubt when delivering the bust Mr. Marsden 
reported to Dr. Clarke that Enoch Wood had found himself unequal to 
the execution thereof. 

It may be observed that he falls into a slight error in his interpretation 
of Dr. Clarke's letter of the 13th October 1830, where the latter points 
out that the rescue scene had been represented on copper "a front 
likeness of Mr. W. large 4to. and towards one side a house in flames 
and a man on a ladder, taking a child out of an upper window with the 
inscription — ' Is not this a brand pluck 'd out of the Fire ?' " 

Enoch Wood in replying writes : 

You also mention a copper medal which I never heard of &c. 
This no doubt was a copper-plate engraving and was printed upon paper 
large 4to in size. Whether Enoch Wood ever received a copy of this 
illustration and portrait combined is not recorded. 

The modesty of Enoch Wood's letter of January 1831, when through 
the kind offices of Mr. Marsden he is able to send to Dr. Clarke one of the 
busts showing the more artistic treatment of the drapery with the buttons 
added is charmingly characteristic of the man, and the reference to the 
absence of the two buttons from the gown is one of those natural and 
incidental circumstances which, though not absolute evidence of the date 
of production of certain busts, may doubtless cause those who possess 
these treasures to examine them with renewed thoughtfulness. Reference 
may now be made to our illustrations of the types of busts issued by 
Enoch Wood from the models he made at different periods as a result of 
the sittings accorded to him in 1781 by John Wesley. 

The "City Road Bust," preserved at the famous City Road Wesleyan 
Chapel, London (Plate xxxiv, Illustration No. 115), is thus inscribed: 
"The Rev. John Wesley M.A. aged 81. Enoch Wood Sculp. Burslem." 
This beautiful example is made in a hard creamware biscuit body without 
any glaze whatever ; delicately finished by hand and sharp from the mould 
it bears a remarkable resemblance to the impression taken from the 
mould in Mr. Hammersley's possession, referred to later ; moreover, it 
bears the two shoulder buttons, obviously added by hand after the 

[53 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

moulding — in some of the equally early glazed busts these buttons were 
omitted. It would appear from the correspondence that Enoch Wood 
was particularly desirous that the buttons should appear upon the bust sent 
for the sculptor to copy. Also as a matter of interest for the collectors 
of the busts of Wesley it should be pointed out that the following are the 
two differently worded texts referred to in Enoch Wood's letter to Dr. 
Clarke of January 1831, viz., Zechariah, chap. Ill, latter part of the 
2nd verse — " Is not this a brand plucked out of the fire ?" — and Amos, 
chap. IV, latter part of the nth verse — " Ye were as a firebrand 
plucked out of the burning." 

In the record of the proceedings of the Wesley Historical Society 
of June 1907, vol. VI, part 2, there is included an Essay by the Rev. R. 
Green, entitled: "Enoch Wood's Busts of Wesley." Early in his notes 
Mr. Green makes reference to the important collection of Wesley busts 
in the possession of Mr. J. Botteley of Birmingham, and writes thus : 

Of existing busts smaller than life size known to have been executed by 
Wood there are two distinct classes — those produced before Wesley's death (in 
1791) and those produced afterwards. 

He continues : 

By the kindness of Mr. Botteley I am able to give the following particulars 
of the earliest examples known. 

He then enumerates six different busts, the first three recording the age 
of Wesley as 81, the fourth 87, the fifth 88, and the sixth (erroneously) 90, 
all apparently taken from the same mould (in 1781, the actual year of 
Wood's modelling, as his correspondence with Dr. Adam Clarke shows, 
Wesley was 78 years of age). 

The six foregoing examples Mr. Green places as Class A. In the 
second class B, all the examples he has seen have tablets upon them giving 
the date of Wesley's death 1791 (when 88 years old). 

He proceeds : 

My theory is that all the busts of Class A were from Wood's first model 
or from duplicates of it ; and that on Wesley's death Wood having had several 
years additional experience in modelling and having gained greater experience 
in his art produced the second model which is much superior to the former. 

He points out that a considerable difference of opinion exists as to 
the date of the production of Wood's first model, arising partly from the 
varying inscriptions upon some of the busts and partly from a discrepancy 
in the hitherto published historical accounts thereof. 

It should be noted that the illustrations (which by kind permission 
of the Editorial Council we are enabled to reproduce) accompanying the 
essay show the Class A bust (Plate xxxiv, Illustration Nos. 116 and 117, 
showing front and back views) to be those which are somewhat deficient 

54] 



ENOCH WOOD : THE BUSTS OF WESLEY, STATUETTES, &c. 

in drapery accessories, and Class B (Plate xxxv, Illustration No. 118) to 
be those more ample and artistic in this respect as before mentioned ; 
further, the Class B examples have solid backs with tablets thereon giving 
the date of Wesley's death, 1791 ; their inscriptions vary considerably and 
they are slightly larger than those of Class A. 

After further reference to the historical evidence bearing upon the 
vexed question of the date of Wood's modelling of Wesley's bust, mainly 
as to whether it took place in 1781 or 1784, Mr. Green concludes his 
essay in these terms : 

There seems to be an almost inextricable confusion in the accounts which 
I have quoted ; but without presuming to dogmatise I must say that in my judg- 
ment the circumstances point distinctly to 1784 as the date of the production of 
these small busts. 

Thus Mr. Green having been mainly right as to his classification, 
has put forward strong reasons for the conclusion he adopts in favouring 
1784 as the date of modelling ; but that this conclusion is erroneous is 
shown by Enoch Wood's correspondence, now made known for the first 
time. 

In The Connoisseur of September 1907, the Rev. C. S. Sargisson, 
having through the kindness of Mr. J. Botteley also been accorded access 
to his comprehensive collection of Wesley busts, contributes a thoughtful 
and profusely illustrated article upon this interesting subject. He also 
quite rightly arranges as the earlier productions those which bear the 
lesser amount of drapery, noting the fact that certain examples bear 
buttons upon the shoulders, and he also is quite naturally puzzled by the 
variety of ages attributed to Wesley and impressed upon busts obviously 
taken from the same mould. After making extracts from historical 
records, drawing conclusions therefrom and illustrating a rough cast 
from the original mould, he thus concludes : 

In contemplating Enoch Wood's modelling of Wesley, especially, great 
weight must be attached to the opinions of the contemporaries of the sculptor. 
Ward's "very correct bust," and Fletcher's "beautiful likeness" previously 
quoted, count for a great deal. In the 1843 edition of Ward's History of Stoke-on- 
Trent it is stated, " Mr. Wood, who was originally brought up to his father's business 
of a modeller, executed in his early days many excellent subjects in the plastic 
art, consisting of dwarf statues, groups, bas-reliefs, cameos and intaglios of terra- 
cotta, specimens of which are still to be met with, and are highly prized. A bust 
of the venerable Wesley, modelled from his person at Burslem in the year 1781, 
was acknowledged to be the most faithful likeness of that eminent person ever 
produced, and has been the prototype of numerous copies subsequently pro- 
mulgated." Such opinions on the part of those who were either contemporary 
with Wesley and Wood, or in close touch with those who were, are of great assist- 
ance in forming an estimate of the accuracy of Wood's modelling. Modern 
collectors in this department are much indebted to the man who was the father 
of representations of John Wesley in Staffordshire pottery. 

M [55 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

It will be seen that Mr. Sargisson is led to the conclusion that the 
modelling was done in 1781, and from the correspondence recorded between 
Dr. Adam Clarke and Enoch Wood this opinion becomes confirmed. 

In "Ward's History" the following appears as a footnote : 

We cannot refrain from introducing here an interesting anecdote respecting 
this bust, which we received from Mr. Wood some time ago. He was at Leeds 
when the Methodist Conference was held there in the summer of 1781, and his 
busts, being then first introduced, were in eager demand among the preachers 
and friends of Mr. Wesley. Mr. Wood was pointed out as the artist, and much 
complimented on the occasion. On returning from the Chapel where the busts 
had just been exhibited, he was thus accosted in the old Church-yard, by a tall 
person of clerical appearance. " Are you the young man who made that beautiful 
likeness of Mr. Wesley ? " Being answered in the affirmative, the stranger 
requested Mr. W. to tell him how he had made so exact a resemblance of that 
great man. He was very minute in his enquiries, and having made himself 
master of the subject, standing on a grave, he placed his hands on the young 
artist's shoulders, and going through the whole process, from the first preparation 
of the soft and pliant materials, to the completion of the bust, he, in a most striking 
manner, applied his information for the purpose of illustrating the wonderful 
work of God, in the new creation of the human soul after his own image, by the 
power and grace of the Holy Spirit. He spoke of the rough and unpromising 
materials, viz.: — the old corrupt nature derived from fallen Adam, and how, 
by the influence and energy of the Divine Spirit, this was softened and melted 
down into godly sorrow and contrition of heart — became plastic under the hands 
of the Divine Artificer — was cast into a new mould — was formed by Him after 
the likeness of Christ — and thus became a new creature, bearing the image of 
the heavenly, as before it had borne that of the earthly. He spiritualized, in a 
happy manner, other parts of the process, comparing the fiery ordeal necessary 
to the firmness and beauty of the one to the furnace of affliction — the various 
trials of the Christian, as equally necessary, and by God's grace, equally conducive 
to the steadfastness of faith and beauty of holiness of the other. 

This unexpected address, which lasted twenty minutes, was listened to with 
deep interest, and lively emotion. The stranger was no less distinguished a person 
than the holy and apostolic Fletcher, Vicar of Madeley, Salop, of whom Dr. 
Southey has said, he would have been justly regarded as a saint of the first order 
in the best era of the Church. 

At the suggestion of Mr. Hammersley who has the advantage of 
being a practical potter and the good fortune to be the possessor of the 
original mould from Enoch Wood's first model, we illustrate a present 
day cast taken from that original mould (Plate xxxv, Illustration No. 
119) ; this mould was acquired from the Dalehall Pottery, formerly known 
as J. T. & J. Mayer and later Mayer & Elliot, together with a number of 
other old moulds which had passed into the possession of the Mayer firm 
when the business of Enoch Wood & Sons ceased to exist. 

Now that the year 1781 has been definitely settled as the time of 
the original modelling, no doubt the subject of the dating and identification 
of the numerous busts of John Wesley by Enoch Wood will receive 
further elucidation. 

56] 




PLATE XXXV 




Illustration No. 118 I/. 55) 

BUST OF WESLEY. H. I2|in. 
(More fully draped type, with solid back, made c. 1791) 
The Rev. R. Green's Class B 

.4 ulhor's coll. 



Illustration No. 120 ( /. 57) 
BUST OF WHITFIELD H. 17m. 
(Made c. 1791) 
Hammersley coll. 




Illustration No. 119 (/. 56) 
BUST OF WESLEY. H. ioin. 
Modern impression from Enoch Wood's (supposed) original mould 
Httmmenlty coll. 



ENOCH WOOD : THE BUSTS OF WESLEY, STATUETTES, &c. 

The discussion upon the bust of Wesley naturally brings us to consider 
that of Whitfield, which Enoch Wood, who was the sculptor thereof, 
evidently intended as a companion bust, and it is usually so found. The 
drapery and general design of this model is in complete harmony with 
the second issue of the Wesley bust, and this fact points to the time of 
modelling being near the same period, viz., about 1791. As a rule these 
two busts are found decorated in a similar manner, the gown in a rich 
black and the face slightly tinted in pink or flesh colour. 

Mr. George Hammersley possesses a bust of Whitfield, in black basalt, 
I7in. high (Plate xxxv, Illustration No. 120), one of three large scale 
specimens so far recorded; these are the above-mentioned example, that 
formerly in the Edkin's collection marked "Enoch Wood Sculp. Burslem," 
and the bronzed specimen in the Hanley Museum. Possibly these were the 
earliest models of this subject, and the smaller popular copies of about 
I2in. high, companions to the Wesley bust referred to above, were achieved 
by the potter's usual process of reduction, viz., by taking a mould from a 
fired specimen. The quality of the basalt body of Mr. Hammersley 's bust 
is excellent, the details are sharp, and altogether it is a thoroughly artistic 
production. 

Mr. Stoner possesses an example of the Whitfield bust, I2in. high, an 
early and exquisitely sharp impression, but with the gown tinted in 
a delicate green and the face uncoloured save for the slightest touch 
upon the eyes. This example bears the inscription at back " Revd George 
Whitfield, died Sept. 30th 1770 aged 56, Enoch Wood Sculp Burslem," 
and it is natural to wonder if a Wesley bust also decorated in this 
attractive and artistic manner will ever be discovered. 

About 1786 may be considered the period when Enoch Wood 
executed the important example of sculpturesque modelling known as 
St. Paul preaching at Athens, or Eloquence, for the 
square base or pedestal bearing the impressed name E. WOOD, and 
other characteristics point to its creation as having been earlier than 
1790. Plate xxxvi, Illustration No. 121, is a presentment of this spirited 
and dignified study of anatomy sculptured in the potter's clay of Stafford- 
shire, and marked E. WOOD. A careful examination of this statuette, 
which is 22-^in. high, prompts the conjecture that the pose was suggested 
by that of the graceful female figure adorning the left-hand side of the 
monument erected in Poet's Corner, Westminster Abbey, by Sir Henry 
Fermer, Bart., to the memory of John, Duke of Argyll (1680-1743). It 
is well known that the statuary of the Abbey was wisely studied and 
copied by several of the more able and ambitious of the Staffordshire 
Potters. In this particular instance so different has been the result both 
intended and achieved that only a close examination and comparison of 
the large marble sculpture with that of the earthenware figure will enable 

[57 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

the inspiration to be discerned. The dignified conception of the pose and 
features and the graceful proportions are convincing evidences of a master 
mind guiding a highly trained hand. 

To about the same period may be attributed the production of 
the slightly larger group of Bacchus and Ariadne taken from the 
original by Houdon ; Plate xxxvi, Illustration No. 122, is taken from 
the example belonging to the nation and allocated to the British Museum. 
There is in a private collection a specimen of this group — possibly not from 
the same mould — which bears the following marks, E. WOOD. Sculpt. 
E. HEWITT. Pinxt. Although not quite so beautifully proportioned as 
that of the "St. Paul Preaching," the group is a fine example of the 
sculptor's art. Wedgwood also made a similar group, the mould of which 
has been discovered at Etruria. Reference may here be made to the Bust, 
13m. high, on a pedestal, described at back " Alexander 1st. autocrat 
of all the Russias Born December 23rd, 1777 Moscow burnt September 
14th 1 81 2 Paris entered March 31 1814 Europe preserved. Enoch Wood 
Burslem Sculpsit" Of this particular subject there is a very large example 
27^in. high, bearing in addition to the foregoing inscription upon two 
tablets at the back ENOCH WOOD SCULPSIT BURSLEM STAFFORD- 
SHIRE 1814 also on the pedestal WOOD & CALDWELL, and on 
the front of the pedestal ALEXANDER. This very large bust was 
in the possession of Mr. M. Davies of Long Millgate, Manchester, and 
would appear to have been specially made for some London Club or 
Institution ; it will be observed that the inscriptions vary upon the 
Alexander busts. The Staffordshire potter vividly reflected in those 
days the prevailing current of national thought, especially on its patriotic 
side, and the Russian Emperor for the moment was regarded as the heroic 
ally of Britain in her struggles against Napoleonic aggressions. 

The subject known as Purity, 27 A in. high, one of the largest of the 
Staffordshire statuettes, represents a graceful full-length female figure 
washing her fingers at a bowl upon a classic tripod stand, and may be seen 
at the Hanley Museum. No one but an able sculptor could produce such a 
satisfactory piece of pottery, and very few examples have survived. It 
bears the impressed mark WOOD & CALDWELL. The difficulties 
attendant upon the production of a piece of this dimension are enormous. 

Another interesting specimen of Enoch Wood's work is a Statuette 
of Milton, 17m. high, leaning on a pedestal, artistically modelled and 
decorated in imitation of bronze, marked WOOD AND CALDWELL ; 
this important example is in the collection of Mr. R. B. Wallis of Bury, 
who also possesses a beautifully modelled and coloured bust of 
Napoleon, 9f in. high, lettered at the back BONAPARTE, and impressed 
with the initial letter E ; the enamelling of this bust is excellent, but its 
attribution to Enoch Wood is just a little doubtful. 

58] 




PLATE : XXXVI 



Illustration No. 121 I/. 57) 

"ELOQUENCE" OR "ST. PAUL PREACHING 
AT ATHENS." H. 22lin. 

(Mark : E. WOOD) 
Author's coll. 




Illustration No. 123 (/. 59) 

NELSON. H. ioin. 




Illustration No. 122 ,- 
BACCHUS AND ARIADNE. H. 23.Un 

British Museum 



PLATE XXXVII 




^Ep * \.^l 


% M 


^^^/ ^^BB 


^V\y^ v ^t^B 


ft m v * 


B, l^\v ifl 


^E7 IkA^I 


ft ^'^B 


■ H 


^r "ft 



Illustration No. 124 (A 59> 

MADONNA AND CHILD. H. 28in. 

//; the possession of Mr. A. II. E. Wood 



Illustration No. 125 (A S?) 

FORTITUDE. H. 22n. 

A Ittttor's coll. 




Illustration No. 126 /■. 

BUTTERFLY PLATE 

(Mark: WOOD & CALDWELL) 

Sidetotham colt. 



ENOCH WOOD : THE BUSTS OF WESLEY, STATUETTES, &c. 

The following examples of Enoch Wood's modelling are in the 
Wedgwood Institute, Burslem : 

Bust of Wellington, 22in. high, marked WOOD & CALDWELL, 
decorated in natural tints ; some of the enamel colours have suffered from 
the fact that this bust was buried with the foundations of Burslem Market, 
and was dug up recently when alterations were being made. The bust 
resembles one by Nollekens. A reduced size of this bust was made. Bust 
of Washington, impressed " Washington born 1732 died 1799 aged 68 
E. Wood Sculp. 1818 " Bust on pedestal, I2^in. high, coloured, impressed 
" The Revd. John Wesley M.A. Died Mar. 22nd 1791 aged 88 Enoch 
Wood. Sculp. Burslem." Bust on pedestal, 13m. high, impressed " The 
Revd. George Whitfield Died Sep. 30th aged 56 Enoch Wood Sculp. 
Burslem." Bust on pedestal, 28 Jin. high, King William the 4th, 
coloured, inscribed " The Great Reformer and Father of his People — 
Vive le Roi — Enoch Wood Sculptor Burslem June the first 1831." And 
a Statuette of Shakespeare (a companion to the Milton), 17m. high, 
a late example taken from Enoch Wood's mould. 

The following examples are heirlooms in the possession of Mr. A. H. E. 
Wood : 

Small bronzed Figure of Nelson, beautifully modelled, one of 
Enoch Wood's most successful Statuettes (Plate xxxvi, Illustration No. 
123). Bust of Prior the Poet, decorated in black. Bust of Mater 
Dolorosa, decorated in black. Reclining Figure of Cleopatra, decorated 
in black. Pair of Boys from the antique, bronzed. Figure of Fortitude, 
22^in. high. Bust of Milton, in black basalt. The Reading Girl. 
Pair of Tritons, decorated in black. The actual model of a full-length 
Statuette, 28in. high, of the Madonna & Child, and an early im- 
pression of the same from the mould, decorated in black (Plate xxxvii, 
Illustration No. 124). Small black basalt head of Julius Coesar. 

In the collection of the late Captain Terry of Exeter there are two 
large and beautifully modelled Statuettes of Prudence and Forti- 
tude, 22in. high, marked E. WOOD ; these are inspired by the 
same Florentine originals from which Wedgwood had previously modelled 
similar figures ; they are delicately coloured and are a most artistically 
wrought pair of ornaments. An example of the Fortitude from the 
collection of the author is shown on Plate xxxvii, Illustration No. 125. 

Just as both Wedgwood and Enoch Wood took from the same source 
their inspiration for the group of Bacchus and Ariadne, and the 
statuettes of Prudence and Fortitude, so too did they not hesitate 
to lay under contribution the same original for their models of the 
seated Madonna & Child ; an important difference however exists 
between the two ; Wedgwood's Madonna is sitting upon a stool, whereas 

t59 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

the base of Enoch Wood's group is of a rocky design, and there is no 
plinth as in the Wedgwood model. So far no marked example of this 
most beautiful subject has been recorded, an illustration thereof appears 
in Sir Arthur Church's "English Earthenware," and for enamelled 
decoration the colours are somewhat subdued. This seated group is not 
to be confused with the full-length Madonna already referred to. 
The statuette known as Purity was also made both by Josiah 
Wedgwood and Enoch Wood. 

Dr. Sidebotham possesses a pair of excellently potted creamware 
Plates, marked WOOD & CALDWELL, decorated with beautifully painted 
butterflies and insects (Plate xxxvii, Illustration No. 126). 

To make a list of even all the marked examples of Enoch Wood's 
models would be a considerable undertaking ; the foregoing merely con- 
stitute a representative selection. 

A frame of delicately executed seals by Enoch Wood is in the 
collection of Mr. A. H. E. Wood. Now that the use of seals has largely 
passed away from our every-day life it is not an easy matter to realise 
what an important feature they have been from the very earliest times 
down to the early part of last century. The Egyptians, the Greeks, the 
Romans, and all civilised nations have found many occasions upon which 
the use of seals was absolutely necessary and much refined art has been 
employed in their production and embellishment. Opinions may differ 
as to whether the potter, when embarking upon this branch of minute 
work, was not trespassing somewhat upon the mission of the lapidary 
or metal engraver ; be this as it may, the fact remains that Josiah 
Wedgwood, H. Palmer and Enoch Wood achieved results of the greatest 
refinement in this branch of ceramics. 

A collection of seal moulds (Plate xxxviii, Illustration No. 127) was 
discovered at the Fountain Place works of Enoch Wood & Sons after 
the closing of their successors in tenancy, Messrs. Hope and Carter, and 
therefore it may not be unreasonable to assume that they were at one 
time used by Enoch Wood. Some of these moulds are formed by a soft 
leaden disc embedded in plaster with notches by which probably the upper 
mould of the stem of the seal was held in position. In others there is the 
intaglio from which these softer discs were taken — these intaglios were 
made in a harder metal. They seem to mark a survival of the old mould- 
ing by metal blending with the later use of plaster of Paris. Some of 
the square blocks are in clay of very delicate modelling and are marked 
J. R. 1782; it is presumable that these were used by Job Ridgway of Hot 
Lane before coming into the possession of Enoch and Ralph Wood, or they 
may have been carved for Ridgway by Enoch Wood. 



60] 



PLATE XXXVIII 




Illustration No. 127 (f. 60) 
SEAL MOULDS 

(Half size) 
HammersUy coll. 



CHAPTER VII 
ENOCH WOOD; HIS PUBLIC ACTIVITIES 

WE have so far traced, largely from the private notes in his own 
handwriting, the career of Enoch Wood from his early child- 
hood, his visits to Liverpool, his school-days, his introduction to 
his craft at the Bell works or Brick House under Josiah 
Wedgwood, and his apprenticeship with Humphrey Palmer of Hanley 
Green, to his marriage with Anne Bourne in 1780; we must now give 
some particulars of his career from the time when he commenced 
business on his own account. 

He records that he had taken this step in about 1784, having secured 
the services of John Proudlove, of whose technical abilities he writes 
most enthusiastically. 

In Tunnicliffe's "Survey of Staffordshire" the following entry occurs 
in the list of manufacturers of pottery ware in 1786 : 

Burslem — Enoch and Ralph Wood — manufacturers of all kinds of useful 
and ornamental earthenware — Egyptian Black — cane and various other colours — 
also Black figures — Seals and cyphers. 

Ralph Wood was the cousin who died in 1795, to whom reference 
has already been made. 

Mr. James Caldwell entered into partnership with Enoch Wood in 
1790, taking, however, very little part in the technical management of 
the business, being a "sleeping or finance partner." By the kindness of 
Mr. Percy Adams of Wolstanton, Staffordshire, we are able to reproduce 
the copperplate engraved business card adopted by the firm of Enoch 
Wood & Co., the work of Yates the engraver, whose name appears 
thereon in very small lettering (Plate xxxix, Illustration No. 128). 

The marks of Wood & Caldwell and of Enoch Wood & Sons are 
found upon figures, busts, vases, jugs and blue printed table ware, and 
by reason of the high quality of these productions and their historical 
association such examples are at the present time highly appreciated by 
all collectors of English earthenware both in Great Britain and in America. 

[61 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

James Caldwell married a daughter of Thomas Stamford, a lady of 
considerable property ; by her he was the father of the gifted Mrs. Marsh- 
Caldwell of Linley Wood, Talk-o'th'-Hill, Staffordshire, authoress of 
" Emilia Wyndham," &c. Mr. Caldwell, like his father, had been "bred 
to the law," and was appointed in 1801 to the office of Recorder of 
Newcastle-under-Lyme. He was a large shareholder in the Trent and 
Mersey Canal, and having purchased the estate of Linley Wood (at the 
present day occupied by the Misses Marsh-Caldwell, his direct descendants), 
he eventually became a country squire. He was an executor under the 
will of Josiah Wedgwood. 

A tablet is erected to his memory in the chancel of Audley Church, 
bearing the following inscription : 

To the memory of James Caldwell of Linley Wood in this Parish Esqre. — A 
Magistrate and Deputy Lieutenant for the County of Stafford — and during many 
years Recorder of the Borough of Newcastle-under-Lyme, who died January 
16th 1838 aged 78 years ; also Elizabeth his wife who died April 9th 1831 
aged 76 years. She was daughter and co-heiress with an only sister Hannah 
also here interred who died unmarried January 28th 1832 aged 78 years. — Of 
Thomas Stamford of Derby Esqre. by Hannah his wife, eldest daughter of John 
Compton of Chorley Hall in the County of Lancaster Esqre. 

Also to the memory of Frances Caldwell who died September 10th 1813 
aged 24 years — Catherine Louisa Caldwell who died August 20th 1814 aged 
20 years — Two of the daughters. 

This tablet is with permission of the Patron of this Church erected in this 
Chancel by their Brother the only son of the above James and Elizabeth Caldwell 
James Stamford Caldwell in grateful and affectionate remembrance. 

Also the above James Stamford Caldwell Esqre. of Linley Wood born 1787 
died unmarried November 17th 1858 — Also his only surviving sister Anne 
Marsh-Caldwell of Linley Wood widow of Arthur Cuthbert Marsh Esqre. of 
Eastbury Herts born January 9th 1791 died October 5th 1874 was buried 
at Talk-o'th'-Hill. 

When Mr. Caldwell retired from the firm of Wood & Caldwell in 
July 1818 the name was immediately changed to that of Enoch Wood 
& Sons. The sequence of the changes in the firm which have hitherto 
not been recorded circumstantially may now be set forth ; they were as 
follow : Enoch Wood 1784 ; Enoch and Ralph Wood 1786 ; Enoch 
Wood & Co. 1790 ; Wood & Caldwell 1790 to 1818 ; and lastly from 
1 81 8 to about 1846, when the works were closed, Enoch Wood & Sons. 

It may be recorded that some of Wood's enamellers of pottery became 
well-known men in their own particular sphere ; amongst them we may 
mention Samuel Bourne who was apprenticed to Wood & Caldwell, and 
by his industry and talents attained a high reputation in this method of 
decoration. He was working at his profession as a painter of flowers 
until i860. 

62] 



ENOCH WOOD : HIS PUBLIC ACTIVITIES 

The following extracts relating to events in Burslem and her pottery- 
industry at this period, taken for the most part from the collection preserved 
by Enoch Wood, will no doubt now prove to be of more than local interest. 

July 1788. — In this year an agreement was entered into by the Minister 
Churchwardens and principal inhabitants of Burslem to the following effect : 
" We the Minister Churchwardens and principal inhabitants of Burslem 
observing with great uneasiness and concern the many irregularities and disorders 
that prevail in this Parish on the Lord's day, do, for the prevention of such 
abuses enter into and agree upon the following articles and regulations, and do 
hereby promise and are determined to put them into force as much as in us 
lies, viz : — 

1. We agree that we will pay our respective workmen and labourers 
their wages at 4-0 clock on the Saturday afternoon. 

2. That no shopkeeper, butcher, etc. be suffered to sell or expose 
to sale any of their goods on the Sunday. 

3. That no Barber or Hairdresser be permitted to keep their shops 
open to shave or dress Hair after Twelve o'clock. 

4. That no Public house keepers or victuallers be suffered to fill or 
sell ale etc. at any time of the Sunday or after 10-0'clock on the Saturday 
night on pain of suffering an attempt to have their licences drawn, and 
that every person found tippling in a Public house, or drunk in the open 
street on the Sabbath day shall be punished as the law directs. 

5. That in order to enforce more effectually these resolutions twelve 
persons, principal inhabitants be chosen at the expiration of every six 
months from the date hereof as Assistants to the Churchwardens, Constables 
etc. to inspect into and regulate any offences against these articles and 
agreements. 

Witness our hands this 8th day of July 1788. 

HENRY BADDINGTON Minister. 
ENOCH WOOD \ p . . 

SAMUEL WORTHINGTONJ ^ urctlwar a ens - 

This notice is signed by 31 Burslem residents. 

At the foot is inscribed in Enoch Wood's handwriting : 

December 1831. All the above are dead (save and except Enoch Wood 
by the Grace of God 1!!) 

At the top of the notice appears in Enoch Wood's writing the 
following : 

N.B. On looking over the names upon this paper I perceive the whole 
have many years past been called to another world. May God prepare me 
for my awful change — to a happy eternity. 

March 1790. The following notice was received by Enoch Wood : 

G.R. An extract out of the General Road Act. 

Mr. Enoch Wood, Church Wordin in the Township of Cobridg and Parish 
of Burslem, the same being within your district you are required within seven 
days from the date herof to give me in writing a true list of all and singular 
the inhabitants living within your district, and also a true and exact account 
of what he or she or they is or are chargeable with for and towards the repair 
of the said highways, specifying each persons rent, etc., etc. 

Dated this 8th day of March 1790. 

Sir John Hammersley. 
Surveyor of the Turnpike Road, leading from Leek to Newcastle. 

N [63 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

This communication shows that the surveyor of the Turnpike Road 
was up and doing ; the bad condition of the roads had formerly been one 
of the strong arguments in favour of the promotion of the Canals of the 
pottery districts. It should be explained that the Churchwarden was 
in those days more a civil than an ecclesiastical officer, and he performed 
then many duties which have now passed to the officials of Corporations, 
Town Councils, District Councils, &c. Until the days of the Burslem 
Commission of Health the Churchwardens or Overseers would be almost 
the only nominated officials in the Parish, and they would be elected at 
the Easter Vestry Meetings. 

February 1794. 

Thomas Whieldon presided at a meeting of Parishioners at the Parish of 
Stoke on Trent held this fourth day of February 1794 in Vestry pursuant to 
notice given in the Church and Chapels within the said Parish on Sunday last 
for the purpose of making and entering into certain orders and resolutions in 
connection with workhouses. 

This extract is of interest as showing at this date that Thomas 
Whieldon, whose name has become historic in connection with the 
beautiful coloured glazings, and with whom Josiah Wedgwood had 
collaborated in the early part of his career, was taking part in the public 
life of the district though he had retired from business some fifteen years 
previously, after having amassed a considerable fortune. 

April 1795. The following printed circular was issued : 

At a meeting of Manufacturers of Earthenware held at the Legs of Man 
Inn in Burslem 30th April 1795 for the purpose of enquiring into the expediency 
of the intended advance upon Crates, and after necessary enquiries and investiga- 
tion it was our unanimous opinion that there was no cause for such advance as 
has been proposed and have resolved not to pay any higher prices than has 
been usual and customary heretofore. 

Henshall Williamson & Clowes John & George Rogers 

Wood & Caldwell William Adams 

Theophilus Smith Anthony Keeling & Sons 

Thomas Godwin Robinson & Smith 

Samuel and Thomas Cartlich John Breeze 

Benjamin Godwin Bedson & Rhodes 

John Blackwell Walter Daniel 

Joseph Smith George Robinson & Sons 

William Adams Marsh & Halls 

Caleb Cole & Co. Thomas Wedgwood 

Poole, Laking & Shrigley 

These names are given in full detail, as directories of over a century 
ago are not easily available for reference, and as time goes on it is 
increasingly interesting to know who were prominent in the ranks 
of manufacturers in those times. The names include potters of Tunstall 
as well as of Burslem. 

64] 



ENOCH WOOD : HIS PUBLIC ACTIVITIES 

January 1796. 

Mr. Caldwell presided at a meeting of the Committee at the Legs of Man 
in Burslem on Friday the 8th day of January 1796 for the purpose of arranging 
a system of prices of pottery. 

The fact that Mr. Caldwell presided at this meeting confirms the 
tradition that his interests were mainly financial, and although not a 
practical potter he was recognised as a man of business capacity and 
of influence. 

In 1796 a pamphlet was circulated bearing the following title : 

" Comparative calculations with observations submitted to the Public 
and particularly to the manufacturers of earthenware in the Staffordshire 
Potteries showing some of the advantages that will result by the proposed 
Commercial Canal." Arranged and Published under the direction of the 
Committee and subscribers of this scheme. 

March 1796. The following notice has reference to the condition 
of the roads, always such a prominent feature in the development of the 
Pottery Industry : 

Union Inn, Measham, March 31st 1796. At a meeting of the Gentlemen 
associated for the purpose of obtaining the intended Mail Coach between London 
and Liverpool by way of Coventry, Atherstone, Ashby, Burton, Uttoxeter and 
through the Potteries for which application has been made to the General Post 
Office, — Thomas Kirkland in the Chair resolved that it appears to this Meeting 
from the intimations received from Lord Vernon and Mr. Curzon that the Post 
Masters General expect as a preliminary of their taking into consideration the 
establishment of the proposed mail coach that the roads through which this 
is to pass shall be in perfect repair, etc., etc. 

April 1796. This notice was disseminated in connection with the 
report then circulated as to the Yorkshire Potters underselling the Stafford- 
shire Manufacturers. 

By the direction of the Committee I beg leave to send you the resolutions 
entered into by the Manufacturers of Earthenware in Yorkshire as in which 
it is hoped will be considered a complete refutation of the reports that have 
prevailed of their underselling Staffordshire Manufacturers. 

I am, Yours most obediently, 

JOHN TOMLINSON. Secretary. 

Hanley. 4th April, 1796. 

Mr. John Tomlinson was an important North Staffordshire lawyer ; 
he built the house " Cliff e Ville," still standing in an elevated position 
on the main road from Stoke to Newcastle-under-Lyme ; his daughter 
was the mother of the late Sir Lovelace Stamer, Suffragan Bishop of 
Shrewsbury, and for many years Rector of Stoke-upon-Trent. 

At a meeting of the Potters of Yorkshire held at Mr. Hall's at Ferry Bridge 
21st March 1796 we resolved to form ourselves into a body in the same manner 
as the Potters in Staffordshire have done, to have a Meeting every three months, 

[65 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

the next meeting to be on the 1st Thursday in May to be held at Mr. Hicks', 
Ferry Bridge. The Meeting to be the first Thursday in every third month at 
n-o'clock in the forenoon. 

DAVID DUNDERDALE. Chairman. 

This Mr. David Dunderdale was the founder and principal of the firm 
of D. Dunderdale & Co., established at Castleford about 1790. Their 
mark ' D. D. & Co.' is found upon attractive specimens of Queen's Ware, 
White Stone Ware, and Black Basalt. Quite recently the same mark has 
been discovered upon a plate beautifully decorated in the Whieldon 
' tortoiseshell' manner. 

June 1797. 

Mr. James Caldwell presided at a meeting of the inhabitants of the parish 
of Burslem held at the Legs of Man Inn on the 20th day of June 1797 for the purpose 
of taking into consideration the propriety of forming a Volunteer Corps within 
the said parish. It was unanimously resolved that a volunteer corps of Infantry 
be formed within the said parish in case the same shall hereafter be thought 
expedient. All applications to be made to the Lord Lieutenant of the County. 
Such Corps not to go out of the parish except by their own accord. 

May 1798. 

Mr. Baddeley presided at a Meeting of the Loyal Pottery Volunteer 
Cavalry Association held at the Swan Inn, Hanley, 1st May. 1798 for the purpose 
of concluding the necessary arrangements in respect of this troop. 

August 1798. 

Burslem Volunteers. Inhabitants of Burslem are requested to meet 
at the Legs of Man Inn in Burslem to-morrow morning at eleven o'clock to 
consider all the proposals which it may be proper to transmit to the Lord 
Lieutenant of the County relative to the forming of a Volunteer Corps by 
order of the Committee August 15th, 1798. 

ENOCH WOOD. 

It has already been recorded that the master potters of Staffordshire 
took a very prominent part in the initiation and establishment of the 
Volunteer Force for the defence of the Country. 

Ward writes : 

We should scarcely be excused in omitting all notice of the Military 
Associations which manifested the loyalty of the Pottery District, and provided 
for the peace of the neighbourhood, during the last war when the British shores 
were threatened with an invasion from France. 

In the early part of 1798, when the French talked loudly of sending over 
the "Army of England " which they had assembled on the opposite coast Volunteer 
Corps were formed in various parts of the country, to supply the place of the 
Militia and regular troops in case their services should be required to face the enemy. 
A troop of cavalry was raised at that period under Captain Commandant, Sir 
John Edenson (sic) [Edensor] Heathcote of Longton, to whom succeeded Josiah 
Spode Esq., of Stoke. The troop consisted of about seventy young men from 
various parts of the Borough mounted and equipped at their own expense. 

66] 



ENOCH WOOD : HIS PUBLIC ACTIVITIES 

In 1803 on the renewal of the War with France an Act of Parliament was 
passed enabling His Majesty to call out the whole mass of the people fit to bear 
arms. The spontaneous zeal of the people however anticipated the measures 
of Government and all compulsory levies were rendered unnecessary by an array 
throughout the country of more than half a million of loyal Volunteers. 

The Potteries contributing a local force including officers and subalterns 
of 1400 gallant men, ready to repel the common enemy. 

The potters of Staffordshire have always been ready to record historical 
events upon their productions and at this period Napoleon, the tyrant of 
Europe, obtained a fair share of ridicule and satire at their hands. "Suc- 
cess to the Volunteers" frequently appeared upon jugs on one side and 
upon the other caricatured presentments of Napoleon. 

February 1799. 

On Monday, 25th February 1799, a meeting was summoned by Enoch Wood 
and others of the inhabitants of the Township of Burslem for the purpose of 
supplying one or two good fire engines for the protection of property within 
that Township in case of fire. 

September 1800. 

On September 22nd, 1800, a meeting was summoned by Enoch Wood 
and others of the principal inhabitants of the Parish of Burslem with a view of 
protection against the high price charged by dealers for corn and provisions. 

April 1 80 1. 

A meeting was held on the 14th April 1801 at the Swan Inn, Hanley, 
for the purpose of preparing a petition to the Post Master General endeavouring 
to procure a direct conveyance of letters by means of a man, through the 
Township. 

Hanley, petitioning in 1801 for a man to bring her letters from 
Newcastle-under-Lyme, is in strong contrast to her condition at the 
present day, when she is provided with a splendid new Post Office, 
Corporation Markets, Tramways and Gas Works, and possesses a population 
of over 80,000 inhabitants. 

July 1803. 

On the 28th July 1803, Mr. James Caldwell presided at a meeting at which 
it was resolved unanimously — That at this important crisis we feel ourselves 
indispensably called upon as Men and Britons to stand forward and make most 
active exertions for the defence and preservation of our King and Country. 

Signed by Enoch Wood and others. 
November 1803. 

On November 7th, 1803 a meeting was called by Enoch Wood, James 
Caldwell and others in reference to a letter received from Colonel Sneyd relative 
to the dismissal of the Burslem Volunteers. 

1803. 

In 1803 a circular was issued headed as follows : — Some reasons for the 
alarm taken by the Manufacturers of Porcelain and Earthenware on the occasion 
of the proposed reduction of £59-8-6 per cent from the duty on the importation 
of Oriental Porcelain leaving it 50 per cent. 

[67 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

October 1804. 

The Annual Report of the Methodist Sunday School, Burslem, ending 
1st October, 1804 was issued. Managers for the ensuing year — 

Enoch Wood Treasurer 
Joseph Sherwin Secretary. 

*The Burslem Sunday School was instituted in 1787 for the education 
of children of all denominations, and although held in the Methodist 
Chapel at Hill Top was constituted as in a non-sectarian school. In 1805 
it was removed to a new school erected in the yard behind the present 
Wesleyan Chapel on Swan Bank. The school has always been supported 
by voluntary contributions and some of the gentlemen of the town in 
those early days assisted the teachers in its management ; no doubt Enoch 
Wood was one of those who did so. In an appeal by the Managers to 
the inhabitants of the town for support issued in 1801, Wood's name 
is amongst those who signed the document, and in reports of the school 
from 1808 to 1834 his name appears on the Committee of Management. 
Enoch Wood and others who occupied pews in Burslem Old Church 
did not hesitate to help in the good work of Wesley whom they had 
known personally. 

September 1805. On September 19th 1805 Enoch Wood wrote the 
following letter to Mr. William Adams of Cobridge : 

Sir 

From the conversation I had with you this morning it does not appear to be 
agreeable to you to accomodate us (by sale) with the whole or any part of 
the Ashtree Field. I now beg leave to be informed if you have any objection to 
our having that small piece of a corner of land at the bottom of our garden which 
is divided from the other land by the brook and the road which leads into the 
Ashtree Field. * * * * 

I am very respectfully Sir 

Your obedt servt 

Enoch Wood 

From correspondence in 1813 we gather that Messrs. Wood & 
Caldwell were tenants of William Adams of Cobridge, occupying on lease 
the whole of the Stepy Hill and the Ashtree property. 

In 1807 

Enoch Wood obtained a patent for an improvement in the method of 
raising water from deep mines by means of balance beams, fixed at different 
depths in the shaft and combining therewith the high pressure power of the 
steam engine known as Trevithick's, with the air pumps and condenser of 
Boulton and Watt, which had not been previously adopted. This invention he 
applied, for many years, to a steam-mill and the drainage of his coal-mines at 
the Bycars, near Burslem, and found productive of very considerable advantage. 



* See Ward's "History of Stoke-upon-Trent," pp. 241 to 244. 
68] 



PLATE XXXIX 







"■•U<i; M ,,ii i 



Illustration No. 128 I /. m 
ENOCH WOOD & CO.'S BUSINESS CARD 

l)i !hc possession of the Author 



<3 




■P^ 



& 



& 



$3t r, Q 






dtac^ounfes, 



Illustration No. 129 [p. 
£S BANK NOTE OF THE BURSLEM & POTTERY BANK 
In the possession of Mr. Hattitriersley 



ENOCH WOOD : HIS PUBLIC ACTIVITIES 

September 1808. The Annual Report of the Sunday School, Burslem, 
ending the 1st September 1808 was issued, and the following paragraph 
appears therein : 

This school is not established to promote the religious principles of any 
particular sect but setting aside all party distinctions its object is to instruct 
youth in useful learning in the leading and uncontrovertible principles of 
Christianity and to train them in the practice of moral habits conducive to their 
future welfare as virtuous men and useful members of Society. 

Members for the ensuing year — Edward Bourne, Treasurer ; Joseph 
Sherwin, Secretary ; Mr. Stephen Brougham, Librarian ; Committee, Enoch 
Wood and Eight Colleagues. Number of Scholars, Boys 519 ; Girls 588. 

1814. 

In 1814 Messrs. Bretherton & Company started a light Post Coach called 
the "Express," leaving Liverpool every afternoon at 3-30 passing through 
Knutsford, Holmes Chapel and Tunstall, Stoke-on-Trent, Lichfield, Birmingham, 
and arriving at the Saracen's Head, Snow Hill, London, next evening 8-o'clock, 
meeting at Birmingham coaches for Bristol, Bath and Exeter, also the regular 
coach to and fro the Potteries and Manchester. 

1816. 

In the vale below Burslem, July 26th, 1766, the first clod was cut of the 
Trent and Mersey Canal, by the late Josiah Wedgwood Esq. then recently 
appointed Potter to the Queen Consort of George III. In 1816, on the 50th 
anniversary, all the respectable manufacturers of Burslem assembled to celebrate 
the event, and to pay a respectful compliment to that gentleman, a native of 
this town. On this occasion the Chair was filled by E. Wood Esq. who had 
a personal acquaintance with the deceased ; to whose merits he paid very ample 
acknowledgments, and greatly added to the interest excited, by an exhibition 
of the several gradations of the manufacture during at least one hundred and 
fifty years. Indeed only those persons, who have seen the specimens, can form 
adequate ideas of the regular manner in which the numerous improvements 
have succeeded each other, from the coarse porenger and the Butter-pot, unto 
the fine Porcelain and Jasper. 

In 1 81 9 representations appeared upon the Staffordshire Pottery of 
Orator Hunt, who instigated the agitation against the Corn Laws. The 
people of Manchester were forbidden to hold a meeting to present a petition 
to Parliament, so they proceeded to call one of their own, and invited Hunt 
to take the chair. This assembly met in a field called St. Peter's Field, 
where Hunt addressed a large crowd in very inflammatory tones, ridiculing 
the Government, and saying "that the magistrates desired nothing better 
than to let loose the bloody butchers of Waterloo upon them," meaning 
the 7th Hussars, who were quartered at Manchester. The soldiers were 
ordered to break up the meeting, with the result that a sanguinary riot 
took place, in which a few were killed and others wounded. The field 
was for some time afterwards known as "The Plains of Peterloo. " Hunt 
was accused of high treason, but later the charge was modified to one 
of misdemeanour. 



[69 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

December 1825. 

On December 20th, 1825, a placard was issued consisting of a declaration 
to the effect that Messrs. Enoch Wood & Sons and a large number of Potters 
expressed their entire confidence in the stability of thp. Burslem and Pottery 
Bank under the firm of John Wood and John Irwin Holden and they pledged 
themselves to take the notes of the said Bank in payment of any amount. 

In the present day of large joint stock banks with their vast share 
capital held by thousands of shareholders, it is not easy to realise how 
much more liable the private banks of earlier days were to be called 
upon to endure times of excitement and even of panic. Plate xxxix, 
Illustration No. 129, is a reduced reproduction of one of the £5 bank- 
notes issued by the proprietors of the Burslem and Pottery Bank, Messrs. 
John Wood and John Irwin Holden, upon their London bankers, Messrs. 
Frys and Chapman. As an example of commercial copperplate engraving 
the bank note is excellent, particularly as to the lettering, and it is an 
interesting record of the local history of Burslem and the Potteries. 
The Directory of Burslem shows that the bank was in existence in 
1836, but a little later the strong support of the Woods of Brownhills was 
withdrawn, and the bank ceased to exist. 

This completes the series of extracts, chronologically arranged and 
selected from the collection of documents relating to Burslem ; the 
papers are numbered consecutively and indexed, and are preserved in a 
strongly bound guard book ; they form an excellent epitome of the 
history of Burslem events from 1788 to 18 17, and the index thereof in 
brief will be found in Appendix B. 



70] 



PLATE XXXIXa 




Illustration No. 129a (/. 100) 



(^^^^^^//^-^^ 



Mezzotint by S W. Reynolds 
(From the portrait by John Bostock) 



CHAPTER VIII 
ENOCH WOOD : EXTRACTS FROM HIS DIARIES 

ENOCH Wood's opinion upon the vexed question as to the intro- 
duction of the salt-glaze process by the two brothers Elers is set 
forth in strong terms in the following notes. He was quite decided 
(as mentioned by Shaw) that the mission of the Dutch potters 
was confined entirely to the making of unglazed red ware, and 
it is only natural that the Staffordshire potters generally should hold 
an opinion adverse to the introduction by Dutchmen of such an 
essentially English feature as the salt-glaze white ware productions. 
Examples, however, exist in this white ware glazed with salt bearing 
exactly similar characteristics of decoration to the pieces of unglazed 
red ware admitted to have been produced by the Elers ; hence the division 
of opinion by experts upon this interesting question. 

He also makes a note upon the subject of the early Butter Pots. 

The two notes occur in an old book, the title of which was apparently 
unknown to him. It is that portion in the "Magna Britannia et Hibernia" 
by Thomas Cox, published in 1730 in 6 volumes, which describes the 
County of Staffordshire. This work was arranged in counties, and the 
custom has long prevailed amongst old booksellers of cutting up the 
work and rebinding it in separate volumes, each containing a local 
history (minus a title page), and of offering them for sale in their 
relative counties. 

In front of this volume he writes : 

James Hubbard gave this tattered and torn book, he valued it highly, 
I have had it rebound to please him and old Sally. 

In turning to the pages relating to Burslem and Bradwell his marginal 
notes referring to the two places are found and as usual they are duly 
signed ; the extracts from the volume are as follows with the notes in 
each case added : 

Extract. — Burslem was the Demesn of Robert de Stafford 20 Conq. and 
held of him by one Tamo. Henry de Audley was Lord of it in the time of King 
Henry III and it continu'd in the possession of his family to the end of the 

o [71 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

fifteenth Century. It is now a village of note for the Pottery where Butter Pots 
of a cylindrical form are made, for putting up Butter according to the Act of 
Parliament made for that purpose soon after the restoration for regulating the 
abuses in the packing up of butter. They are to be of a certain size and not 
to weigh above six pounds at most and yet to contain at least I4lbs. of Butter. 
The occasion of this Act was to prevent the subtil cheats of the people in the 
Moorlands here, where butter is chiefly made, for before this Act they would lay 
good butter for a little depth at the top and bad at the bottom, and sometimes 
they set their butter in rolls close to each other at the top and hollow at the bottom 
and at a great distance which this Act prevents, yet the Factors use a butter 
borer to pierce to the bottom of the Pot where they suspect falsehood, otherwise 
they never weighed their butter. A sulphur Water, which in Winter, and at some 
other times will strike with Galls but not in summer as there are some in 
Oxfordshire. 

Also 

Extract. — Bradwell. A Lordship of Nicholas Verdon who gave it to 
Henry de Audley to whom King Henry III confirmed it with many other Lord- 
ships as is above shewed in Audley. It was in the last century the seat of Ralph 
Snead, the son of Sir William Snead whose Grandfather William Snead a Citizen 
of Chester whose ancestors had for some years held it in fee farm from the Lords 
Audley, purchased it. This Ralph is the fourth descent from the raiser of the 
family and hath by his virtue, affability, lenity, and other good means much 
increased his patrimony which shows that the first advancer of this family 
came to his estate by good and laudable ways, for otherwise we know that God 
would punish the sins of the parents upon the children to the third and fourth 
generation and such a succession would not have enjoyed their patrimony. 

NOTE. — Report says, Salt glaze ware was made first at Bradwell about the 
year 1700, I have seen the foundation of the oven near the west end of the barn 
about 20 years since and believe it was built to fire Red China only. 

Enoch Wood 1814. 
His second note written in 1836 makes further reference to the 
brothers Elers : 

N.B. The two Brothers, the Elers, Dutchmen who came to Bradwell 
in or about 1700 for the purpose of making Red China in imitation of the ware 
which was then imported from the East Indies, there being at Bradwell a fine 
Clay, and coals for that purpose at Bradwell or near it, some samples made there 
I will give to the Mechanics Institute Museum, and to disprove the erroneous 
received opinion that these foreigners, first introduced the salt glazed Earthenware 
to the Potters in Burslem I have samples of Crouch Ware made in Burslem, 
in the reign of William and Mary who began to reign in February 13th, 1689. 
See the samples in my possession, and the correct drawing of a Quart Mug which 
I sent to the Museum of the King of Saxony in Dresden in 1835. This vessel 
has a good Medallion upon it and is glazed with Salt, evidently made when 
they ascended the Throne which was many Years before the Dutch men came 
to Bradwell. 

These Dutch men brought with them some pieces of Salt Glazed ware which 
they pretended they made at Bradwell but on my shewing to T. Warburton 
one of those pieces which my father had held in his keeping long before I was 
born, say in 1759, he, Mr. Warburton, said it was made at a Manufactory at 
Newringburgh [Neuremberg] in Germany. 

72] 



ENOCH WOOD : EXTRACTS FROM HIS DIARIES 

These Dutch men I have no doubt taught the Potters in Burslem the method 
of ornamenting the Red China Ware made in Burslem by introducing the Brass 
Sprig Moulds for that purpose ; see the samples made by Thos. & John Wedgwood 
on their wares Ash colour, and red China, etc., etc., etc. Many pieces of this 
kind of Earthenware I have preserved, which my Friend Mr. T. Wedgwood 
gave to me, they were concealed in 1726 and had been preserved by his Father 
long before 1750, placed in a Garret ever since in the first building that was 
covered with Tiles in their Manufactory and long before the "Big House" in 
Burslem was built in 1751. Before this date there had not been any Manufactory 
of Earthenware covered with Tiles, they were uniformly covered with grass 
clods and Thatch, this was considered an extravagant and ridiculous expense, 
until the "Big House'' was built, which astonished the natives. Mr. Emmery 
of Newcastle told me before I was 20 years old he built the "Big House" and 
his Masters, J. & Thos. Wedgwood dipp'd every front brick in a bucket of water 
and gave it into his hand to lay it. 

E. Wood. 
In the chapter upon the Ralph Woods, reference has been made 
to the close connections then existing between Thomas Wedgwood and 
Enoch Wood. This Thomas Wedgwood was the son and heir of John 
Wedgwood, one of the " Big House " brothers, and we have here an 
interesting record of the fact that their manufactures included ash coloured 
ware and red china, and possibly such examples attributed to the Elers 
may have been made by Thomas and John Wedgwood of the " Big House." 

In Pitt's "History of Staffordshire " we read : 

Burslem is remarkable as being the place where the first clod of that 
great National undertaking the Trent to Mersey Canal was cut by the late 
Josiah Wedgwood, Esq., and on July 16th 1816 the 50th anniversary of this 
memorable event was celebrated by a Public Dinner, at which all the principal 
manufacturers of Burslem were present. Enoch Wood presided upon the 
occasion and after the well merited eulogium upon the late venerable Father 
of the Potteries a native of Burslem, and the inventive genius of Brindley he 
exhibited various ancient specimens of earthenware descriptive of the progressive 
state of the manufacture during the last 150 years which he divided into epochs 
of 50 years from the Butter Pot mentioned by Cox down to the time at which 
the excellent specimens of Queen's ware, Jasper, etc., left by the late Mr. 
Wedgwood were produced. 

Later on an account is given of the collection herein referred to and 
some incidents as to its dispersal and ultimate destination are recorded. 

The following amusing note may possibly have some little local 
interest : 

There was in my recollection a Manufactory above where our Barn now 
stands and the Oven was where Pedley's home now stands. 

Thomas Cartledge, alias Squire Oldom, was the then occupier. In my 
memory, he failed in trade and was afterwards employed by me and died in my 
service and was buried by the Parish at an advanced age. He at an early part 
of his days kept a pack of Harriers, was so fond of cock fighting to the last that 
he often would bet the whole of his next week's wages — 4- on his favourite 
cock. If he lost, he lived on Charity the following week. 

E. W. 

[73 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

From the private pocket calendar diaries of 1808-1810 and 1818 
much of Enoch Wood's methodical character and simple kind-heartedness 
in helping those in need can be discerned ; here and there happy family 
incidents and interesting local facts have been recorded ; and from these 
the following have been selected : 

1808.— Burslem Parish contains 2,635 acres — poor rates amount to 12- 
the average per acre — Inhabitants full 8000 — the Overseer collects from 1900 
persons— many persons pay for their tenants and some poor are excused — 1440 
Houses were assessed in 1807. Mr. Richardson says he has reason to believe 
1500 but this includes last year's buildings. 

Wolstanton Parish contains 10,000 acres — Poor rates 4/- per acre. 

The population of Burslem at the present time (1912) is stated to be 
about 50,000 and the acreage 1,862. This enormous increase of population 
in one hundred years has occurred proportionately in the various towns 
immediately surrounding Burslem and constituting what is now known 
all over the world as " The Potteries." 

March 15th 1808. — Sown about 15 acres of oats in Broom Field at Grange 
in two last days — 6 horses 4 men. Took 13 bags or 2 bushels of seed. 

April 13th 1808. — This day we have finished sowing about 30 acres of 
oats. 

May 13th 1808. — We have this day completed the addition of an air 
pump and condensor to the Engine at the Works and it appears to give it £ 
or \ more power, — takes less fire to keep up steam, water being intro- 
duced in boiler very hot — Altho' I agreed with Cope for £50 for the completion 
of this, it has cost ^100 — Till this time have been unable to use the clay machine 
for want of power — the contract for this work was made on the 4th April 1808. 

In Enoch Wood's copy of "Shaw's History " on page 31, reference is 
made to the erection of what in those days must have been a very powerful 
steam engine in the following terms; the account which has been 
corrected by Enoch Wood in several details is as follows : 

The Bichers (sometimes written Bycars) Colliery, a little above the 
town, affords the opportunity of contemplating the advantages to be derived 
from a judicious combination of the principles which distinguish the Steam 
Engines erected by Savory, Boulton and Watt, and Trevethick. In 1806, E. 
Wood Esq., having to erect a powerful Steam Engine at this place, attempted 
to connect the Air Pump and condenser, as well as the patent high pressure 
principle ; and was so successful, that this engine by him constructed here, has 
more than thrice the power of any previously made. Adjoining he erected 
a most commodious circular BATH, supplied with water, to any height of 
temperature, from 85 to 90°. The interior is beautifully painted in Landscapes, 
and marine views ; the public are admitted for a very small acknowledgment. 

Near the northern extremity of the Market Place is the " Big House," so 
called, because when erected, it was indisputably the largest and best in the 
town of Burslem, if not in the whole District ; but we incline to the latter con- 
jecture. It is now occupied by the younger Enoch Wood, Esq., well known 
and esteemed as a most intelligent manufacturer, and of the strictest integrity 
as a tradesman ; and equally respected for his mental ability and the benevolence 

74] 



ENOCH WOOD : EXTRACTS FROM HIS DIARIES 

of his disposition. Another worthy brother resides in a beautiful mansion at 
Longport, and a third eminent for his public and private virtues is High or 
Chief Bailiff of Burslem. 

Later on in his eulogistic manner Shaw, after pointing out that Mr. 
Warner of Loughborough had offered his engineer £1,000 to divulge his 
discovery of doubling the power of the steam engine, writes : 

What merit then attaches to Mr. Wood's leaving his discovery accessible 
to all mechanical geniuses. 

and expresses his appreciation of such honourable proceedings in the 
following rhyme, thus : 

The explosive Steam's dense Columns here aspire 
Like gathering clouds, wing'd by Caloric ire ; 
Thro' Valves' alternate, over and below, 
To fill each vacuum, they swiftly go : — 
Resistless to the Valves' successive calls, 
The well-packed Piston slides, 'twixt iron walls ; 
The balanced beam with quick librations, moves 
The Sun and Planet Wheels' revolving grooves ; 
Until the' expanded Vapour, as a drop 
Sinks, by the gelid stream's effective stop. 

Adverting once more to the pocket calendars : 

June 21st 1808. — Purchased by agreement by letter from Miss Hannah 
Taylor Whitehaven, a field called the Patch, adjoining Parrott's Croft say 
2553 square yards or as per measurement by Thos. Kemp, Schoolmaster, 
2 Roods 4 Perches 464 yards for £250. 

June 20th and July 17th 1808. — On these dates Enoch Wood records the 
temperature of his Garden Bath which he had erected near to his fine house 
adjoining the works. 

The following extract shows a judicious blending of pleasure 
with frugality : — 

December 5th 1808. — Bo't 2 Hogsheads of Best Madeira Wine from 
Thos. Burn, London, on each Hogshead he says he paid duty for m gallons 
and will deliver as received. 

Wine to be as good as the last Hogshead we had from him at 100 guineas 
per hogshead in exchange for earthenware. 

December 17th 1808. — Dined at home with my wife and eleven children 
and two grandchildren — all in good health — Thank God. 

At the end of his 1808 diary he makes the following note : 

Great Britain has twelve million of inhabitants and has 73 millions 
of acres of land, 22 of which are waste or uncultivated. 

1809. Llewelyn Jewitt writes : 

A fragment of an interesting little memorandum in the handwriting 
of the late eminent potter, Enoch Wood, which I saw and copied at 
Hanley, gives an interesting reminiscence of the boyish days of Josiah 
Wedgwood. It was written in 1809 and appears to read thus (it refers to a 

[75 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

piece of early porcelain made by Littler) : — "This was given to E. Wood by Wm. 
Fletcher in January 1809. He informs me he remembers it being made by 
Mr. Littler at Longton near Stone, about 55 years ago — say in the year 1754. 
It has never been out of his possession during that time and is highly valued. 
This Fletcher says he used to work at the Churchyard Works, and made Balls 
(of clay) for two of the throwers at the same time, viz., Richard Wedgwood 
and Josiah Wedgwood, both of whom worked in one room for their father, who 
was the owner of the works. William Fletcher within named was in my employ 
during part of the last years of his life, and says he was about the same age and 
size as Josiah Wedgwood, and generally had his old cloaths because they fitted 
him well. 

E. Wood." 

From the diary : 

May 18th 1810. — I have this day offered to James Daniel to give £6300 
for the Chelloch and Sneyd Hills — he asks £8000. 

October 10th 1810. — God preserved the life of Tom my son in a wonderful 
manner, his sister Mary took him lifeless (sic) from the bottom of the bath 
in the garden — May I ever thankfully remember it. 

November 23rd 1810. — Dined at the Mount with a party at Mr. Spode's, 
the most splendid and sumptuous entertainment I ever have beheld — no 
intoxication. 

December 16th 1810. — Christened in my house three grandchildren, 
and dined with my wife and eleven children and Mr. Brettell, Br. Aaron, the 
Rev. J. Salt, Mr. and Mrs. Pike, Hamlett Wood's wife and had an additional 
number of friends to tea, and on this day I have been married 30 years. 

July 9th 1818. — This is the date of my letter offering to Mr. Caldwell 
terms to buy or sell the property of Wood & Caldwell. 

July 17th 1818. — A note occurs to the effect that a dissolution of the 
firm of Wood & Caldwell was to take place. 

July 1 8th 18 18. — The following printed circular was issued : 

Burslem. I take leave to inform you that the partnership heretofore 
subsisting between James Caldwell and myself of the firm of Wood and 
Caldwell, was dissolved on the 1 8th July last and having now taken my 
sons into the concern the same will in future be carried on in the firm of 
Enoch Wood & Sons. I avail myself of this opportunity of returning 
my sincere thanks for past favours and I flatter myself that by our united 
attention to every branch of our increasing manufactory we shall ensure 
the continuance of your commands. 

Referring to our respective signatures, 

I remain, Your obedient servant, 

The signature of Enoch Wood, 
„ ,, „ Enoch Wood, Junr. 

„ Joseph Wood 
„ ,, „ Edward Wood. 

In a footnote upon page 146 of " William Adams an old English 
Potter " we read : 

In 1818 the Knowl Works was let to Messrs. Wood & Caldwell (later 
Enoch Wood & Sons) for £127-10-0 per annum until 1835. 

76] 



ENOCH WOOD: EXTRACTS FROM HIS DIARIES 

October 27th 1818. — I was weighed and am 9 stone and 3J pounds weight. 

The National Society for Promoting Education in connection with the 
Church of England was active at this period in assisting the local efforts 
for school building in all the Pottery Towns. The Stoke National Schools 
were built in 1815, those of Hanley in 181 6, and those at Burslem were 
begun in 181 7. 

November 26th 1818. — Signed a bond to Mr. Ledward for £200 for the 
further erection of the National School and this same week signed a bond to 
Mr. Chesters for £200 for the Methodist Sunday School, both in Burslem, in 
which many respectable names are joined. E.W. 

This completes the extracts from the pocket diaries. 

In 181 2, a letter of which this is a copy, had been transmitted from 
the Staffordshire Potteries to Mr. Perceval, and a similar one to Lord 
Granville Leveson Gower, one of the representatives in Parliament for the 
County of Stafford : 

To the Right Hon. Spencer Perceval, &c, &c. 

Sir 24th February, 1812. 

WE, the undersigned, Manufacturers of Porcelain and Earthenware, in 
Staffordshire, observing, that notice has been taken in the House of Commons 
of a petition from the Potteries to His Royal Highness the Prince Regent, con- 
taining (as we conceive) an exaggerated statement of the Distresses and Situation 
of these Manufactories and praying for a Repeal of Modification of the Orders 
in Council ; and being apprehensive that such Petition may be attended with 
many mischievous consequences, particularly, by encouraging on the Continent 
a perseverance in the present system of Commercial Hostility, beg leave respect- 
fully to represent to you, that, however we may feel, in common with other 
bodies of Manufacturers, the present Derangement of Trade, and lament the 
Differences subsisting between this Country and the United States of America, 
yet, entertaining no doubt, but that under the auspices of His Royal Highness 
the Prince Regent, every measure compatible with the General Welfare and Safety 
of the Empire at large, will be adopted for the promotion of its Manufacturing 
and Commercial Interests as well as for the Restoration of Amity with Foreign 
Nations, and particularly with America, we consider the Petition in question 
to have been inexpedient and premature and that we disavow and disapprove 
of the same accordingly. We beg leave also to add that we do not regard the 
Meeting at which such Petition was resolved upon to have been so convened 
or attended, nor the petition itself to have been so signed, as to entitle it to be 
deemed the Act of the Body of Manufacturers, or Persons most materially in- 
terested in the Staffordshire Potteries ; and we have the honour to be, 

Sir, 
Your most obedient Humble Servants, 

Josiah Spode, William Adams, 

Wood & Caldwell, John Yates, 

Jno. & Jas. Davenport, Henshall & Williamson, 

Bourne, Baker & Bourne, Jno. and Geo. Rogers, 

Miles Mason, David Wilson, 

Charles Bourne, Benj. Adams, 

Thos. Wolfe, Thomas Minton. 

[77 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

At about this period there were made in a white body certain jugs, 
mugs, bowls and vases decorated with ornaments of figures and festoons 
of flowers carefully undercut and applied upon a turquoise blue ground, 
the whole covered with a rich glaze ; these when marked bear either the 
name of WOOD & CALDWELL or ENOCH WOOD & SONS. Plate xl, 
Illustration No. 130, shows one of these jugs, 6in. high, marked WOOD & 
CALDWELL, and the actual pitcher block for the decoration adopted upon 
the neck of the jug is shown amongst similar ornaments on Plate xli, 
Illustration No. 132. The Vase from the collection of Mr. Edward Sheldon 
of Manchester (Plate xl, Illustration No. 131) is an excellent specimen 
of this class, in that several different designs of figures and flower border- 
ings appear thereon ; it is marked WOOD AND CALDWELL. Examples 
are occasionally discovered, chiefly in the shape of punch bowls, decorated 
on the outside in this manner, and the inside of the bowl ornamented with 
Oriental designs transferred from copper plates; the effect produced is 
distinctly original and artistic. In the collection of Egerton Leigh, Esq., 
of Joddrell Hall, Cheshire, is one of these punch bowls marked ENOCH 
WOOD & SONS. 

The process of applying the ornaments is known as "sprigging " or 
" figuring, " and several of the sprig moulds of flowers and figures, some 
of which are incised at the back with the names WOOD & CALDWELL, 
and others WOOD & SONS, are preserved in the Hanley Museum. Plate xli, 
Illustration No. 132, shows a series of relief pitcher blocks taken from 
original sprig moulds ; from these blocks working moulds were made, then 
presses were taken from the working moulds and applied to the pieces 
of pottery. Plate xlii, Illustration No. 133, is an intaglio pitcher block 
of renaissance design, embodying the Winged Lion, and is delicately cut. 
Plate xlii, Illustration No. 134, represents an impression taken therefrom 
for the purpose of illustration ; this design has probably been conceived 
with the object of decorating an important bowl or jug. 

Plate xliii, Illustration No. 135, shows another pitcher block of a vase 
of flowers, No. 136 is a group of cupids with a lion and chariot, and No. 
136a shows a similar subject. No. 137 represents a bacchanalian pro- 
cession of men and cupids with a chariot and pair of horses, attended by a 
satyr. No. 137a illustrates a pitcher block of a group of cupids with fruit 
and flowers, which possibly may be a companion group to that on the 
jug, Plate xl, Illustration No. 130. Wedgwood carried out, to a 
greater extent than any other potter, a similar method in the decoration 
of his Jasper ware, and Adams and Turner adopted the same process 
in decorating their cream coloured fine stoneware. The Jasper and 
the fine stoneware pieces were not generally glazed. Enoch Wood 
frequently carried out the same process, as we have shown, but his 

78] 



PLATE XL 




Illustration No. 130 !/.;■] 

WOOD AND CALDWELL JUG. H. 6in. 

Author's coll. 




Illustration No. 131 (A 78) 

WOOD AND CALDWELL VASE. H. 8in. 
Sheldon coll. 



PLATE XLI 




Illustration No. 132 </ - 
RELIEF PITCHER BLOCKS 

From original "Sprig" Moulds 

(Two-thirds original size) 

Hatnmcrsley coll. 



PLATE XLII 




Illustration No. 133 I ■ : I 

INTAGLIO PITCHER BLOCK OF DESIGN OF WINGED LION 

(Mark impressed: ENOCH WOOD & SONS) 




Illustration No. 134 I / 7 
CAST FROM THE ABOVE PITCHER BLOCK 
(About Half size) 



PLATE XLIII 
llustration No. 135 [p. 




Illustration No. 136 (p. 73) 
Illustration No. 137 (/. 78) 



Illustration No. 136a 
Illustration No. 137a (/. 78) 



Block Moulds from Fountain Place Works, attributed to 

Enoch Wood or Wood and Caldwell 

(Half natural size) 



ENOCH WOOD: EXTRACTS FROM HIS DIARIES 

productions in this school were as a rule coloured pale blue, with the applied 
ornaments white and the whole thinly glazed, and we are not able so far 
to associate either his name or that of his firm with the manufacture 
of the so-called fine stoneware pieces — even Josiah Wedgwood did not 
excel in this very attractive school. After the ornaments were applied 
to the object, the process of hand finishing or undercutting took place, 
after which they were fired. This school of applied ornamentation 
suffers from a feeling of mechanical repetition, and one is conscious at 
times of a slight sense of over-decoration and of an adoption of irrelevant 
ornament merely for the purpose of filling up spaces, with a result that 
is occasionally somewhat unsatisfactory and confusing. 

In the collection of English Pottery ware presented by Mr. J. H. 
Fitzhenry to the Musee des Arts Decoratifs in Paris, there is 
included a plain Teapot, green and brown, with wavy line decoration 
and green spout, marked ENOCH WOOD BURSLEM. 



t79 



CHAPTER IX 
ENOCH WOOD : HIS PRODUCTIONS 

A SKILFULLY modelled life-size bust of Enoch Wood by himself 
(Plate xliv, Illustration No. 138) is in the collection of Mr. A. H. E. 
Wood. As in the case of the 21st birthday bust of his son, 
executed in 1814, this bears a long inscription, chiefly recording 
the family pedigree, written by Enoch Wood in the soft clay, duly signed 
and dated 1821 (Plate xliv, Illustration No. 139). It is as follows : 

The Bust of Enoch Wood of Burslem. Enoch Wood Sculpsit 1821 in the 62nd 
year of his age. BE IT REMEMBERED. 

My Great Grandfather Ralph Wood was Colonel in King James' Army, 
he fell in the battle of the Boyne in Ireland A.D. 1690, and his property was 
confiscated. He was a descendant* of Bishop Wood the 19th Bishop of 
Lichfield who was suspended from his See for non-residence. 

My Grandfather, Mr. Ralph Wood, died aged 77 and was buried at 
Cheddleton, Nr. Leek, March 28th, 1753 ; he was an honest miller and ground 
all the oatmeal in the neighbourhood at the three mills at Burslem, Cheddleton 
and Bells Mill near Shelton, he worked two days each week at each mill. E.W. 

My Father Aaron Wood, died May 12th, 1785, aged 68, buried at Burslem 
1785. He made the models for all the potters during the time Salt Glaze was 
in general use. E.W. 

Enoch Wood was born January 31st 1759, Married at Newcastle December 
16th, 1780. 

Anne, wife of Enoch Wood was born June 1st, 1758. 

They had issue : — 
Anne Born October 19th 1782, Married to John Brettell. 
Hester „ April 21st 1784, Married to Robert Wilson. 
Edna ,, June nth 1786 

Eliza „ May 19th 1788, Married to Andrew Blake. 

Mary ,, April 19th 1790, Married to Thomas J. B. Hostage. 

Sarah ,, October 13th 1791 

Enoch ,, February 12th 1793, Married Elizabeth Widowson. 

Emma ,, ,, 17th 1794 

Joseph „ „ 17th 1795 

Edward „ April 9th 1796 
Susan ,, May 21st 1797 

Thomas Horatio, born October 28th 1804. 

Witness my hand Enoch Wood, April 28th, 1821. 
* There appears to be some doubt about this. 

80] 




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ENOCH WOOD : HIS PRODUCTIONS 

Memorandum. — In the above named Miller's day the inhabitants of 
Burslem and the Potteries were few, their bread was chiefly made of Oatmeal. 
In the year 1709 the whole expense of the parish for the maintenance of the 
Poor for one week was £o-i6-io|, as follows : — 

Burslem Liberty . . . . 10-6 

Sneyd Hamlet . . . . 1-6 

Hulton Lordship . . . . 4-ioi 

In the last year 1820 Enoch Wood & Sons were assessed and paid six levies 
of £60-1-6 each or £360-6-6 within the year for the use of the Poor only, 
and to Church, King, Roads, etc., etc., etc., numerous additional sums of money. 

E.W. 1821. 

The contrast in the payment of rates recorded in this inscription 
from 1709 to 1820 viewed in th^ i; ght of present day experiences, is both 
interesting and instructive. A similar bust to this one has been 
presented to the Wedgwood Institute Museum, Burslem, and is varnished 
black ; it is incised at the back with an extract from the Parish Book of 
1707 giving the names of the persons receiving parish relief. There are 
also two other busts in the same museum, one of which is inscribed 
" Enoch Wood, Burslem, Aged 62 A.D. 1821." 

The firm of Enoch Wood & Sons prospered rapidly from about this 
period, and a glance at the two views of the Fountain Place Works taken 
in 1833 (Plate xlv, Illustration Nos. 140 and 141), will convey some idea of 
the development which occurred under the able and experienced guidance 
of the "Father of the Potteries." The name of Fountain Place was 
adopted from a fountain or reservoir for the use of the town, constructed 
by Enoch Wood in or about the year 1798, which was supplied with 
water by means of the engine at his manufactory. Conduit pipes 
were laid to a pillar or obelisk which stood in front of the gateway of 
the manufactory (where a tall lamp pillar is now fixed), and the public 
had the free use of this for a number of years afterwards. Now that the 
town and district is supplied by The Staffordshire Potteries Water Works 
Company it is difficult to realise the benefits which must have accrued to 
the community by the kind provision of Enoch Wood's private enterprise. 

From page 30 of Shaw's History, which has been drawn upon by 
every subsequent writer upon the productions of the Staffordshire potters, 
may be taken his appreciative contemporary description of the works, 
&c, of Enoch Wood & Sons in Burslem : 

The very extensive manufactory of Enoch Wood & Sons (which covers 
the site of five old factories) has such a judicious arrangement that it preserves all 
the appearance of a most extensive Laboratory and the machinery of an 
Experimentalist. Two other manufactories in the town are occupied and owned 
by these gentlemen. At the west front of the large Manufactory this venerable 
"Father of the Potteries" and truly eminent Antiquarian has a spacious and 
elegant mansion, surrounded by convenient pleasure grounds, having an 
extensive prospect over the summit pond of the Trent & Mersey Canal. 

[81 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

At the period of 1830 to 1840 the works had assumed considerable 
dimensions, and the district known as Newport Lane had been built by 
the workpeople, encouraged by Enoch Wood, with a view to the investing 
of their savings in erecting their own houses. These cottage houses, 
bearing a tablet lettered " Fountain Place," and dated 1824, consist of 
twenty-one tenements known at the present day as "Tuppenny Row," 
the nickname perpetuating the wise thrift inculcated by their thought- 
ful employer of saving their two pennies on the part of the workpeople. 

A feature of the Fountain Place Works recorded by an old man (the 
son of one who was apprenticed to the firm) was, that although originally 
consisting of five different works, passages underground and overhead 
were so arranged as to connect them all together. From their elevated 
position shown by Illustration No. 140 on Plate xlv, which is taken 
from Ward's "History of Stoke-on-Trent," it is not difficult to 
imagine that an extensive and picturesque view was once upon a time 
counted amongst its chief attributes. The district of Dale Hall, in early 
days the home of the Burslem family, in the more immediate foreground, 
and Longport Hall, the home of the Davenports, with Wolstanton and 
Bradwell Wood in the distance, were all features adding to a delightful 
prospect across the valley. Enoch Wood's fine house, surrounded by well 
laid out and extensive pleasure grounds, has now passed away and much 
of the glory of that which was in those days one of the most important 
factories in Burslem is departed. In its place may now be seen a Roman 
Catholic Church with schools and playing grounds ; the range of 
manufactory buildings immediately behind the house remains, but it is 
not at present occupied. 

Since the cessation of Messrs. Hope & Carter the old works of Enoch 
Wood have only been occupied intermittently and in sections. A portion 
of the south-east side has been removed to make room for the 
extensions of the Manchester and Liverpool District Bank premises, 
and new shops have been erected fronting to Newcastle Street. 
New streets, Blake Street and Riley Street, connected with Lyndhurst 
Street, have been laid out upon the slope of the hill, parallel with 
the old west frontage of the Fountain Place Works, and buildings placed 
thereon, but in the immediate neighbourhood memories of the past are 
transmitted by the present names of " Enoch Street " and " Wood Street." 

In the east front view (Plate xlv, Illustration No. 141) in the distance 
and seen through the archway is probably a representation of Porthill 
House, afterwards occupied by Edward Wood, the third son of Enoch 
Wood. A short distance to the north west from Enoch Wood's house is 
Dale Hall Church, built about 1827, upon land presented by Mr. William 
Adams of Cobridge. 

82] 



PLATE XLV 







Illustration No. 140 I //. 1-S2) 

(From Ward's "History of Stoke-upon-Trent ' 



I 






>A V lit 

19 . inirs&-->- : -^ »•" 










, *i.nEe . 



Illustration No. 141 {pp. 81-82) 



ENOCH WOOD: HIS PRODUCTIONS 

Mr. Henry Wedgwood writes in his " Staffordshire : up and down 
the County" : 

Here upon "The Hill" were the four old salt glaze works on the site of which 
Enoch Wood built his then large and beautiful place and the green fields lay about. 

On the summit of the hill stood the manufactory of John Mitchell which 
was always spoken of as being on the highest land in Burslem, and in 1760 he 
built here the largest oven which had up to that date ever been erected. 

On this Hill Top in 1760 John Wesley preached his first sermon to the 
Potters. 

In 1827 the firm published a small book entitled "A Representation 
of the Manufacturing of Earthenware, with twenty-one quaint copper- 
plate engravings, and a short explanation of each showing the whole 
process of the Pottery, London, published for the Proprietor by Ambrose 
Cuddon, 35 Bury Street, Saint James', and sold by all booksellers 1827." 
This little book, consisting entirely of the series of small illustrations, 
showing the processes of manufacture, which are without any letterpress 
and have only the title to each picture, measures 3jin. x S|in. Although 
it does not bear the name of the firm, it is known to have been issued 
by them, and is now a rare and valuable treasure. 

The illustrations are entitled as follows : 

The Frontispiece " The Staffordshire Pottery," full page, the remainder 
two on a page. 

1. Blending or mixing the materials with water, forming a compound 
called Slip. 

2. Boiling the Slip to evaporate the water leaving a clay about the con- 
sistence of dough. 

3. Beating the clay to make it solid, smooth and pliable fit for the Potter. 

4. First process of potting is " Throwing " forming round pieces of ware 
with the Hands and Machine. 

5. The Turner turning in a lathe and regulating the Clay ware which 
the "thrower" has formed. 

6. The Handler fixing handles &c, to what has been turned, &c, ready 
for being baked or fired. 

7. The Moddler or Sculptor from whose productions are taken casts or 
moulds for the potter. 

8. " Pressing " or " Squeezing " which is making jugs, tureens &c. of 
the clay ready for being fired. 

9. Making of the clay dishes, plates &c, upon moulds or casts of various 
forms and patterns. 

10. Engraving designs on copper for the much admired " blue printed 
pots " &c. 

11. Printing on thin paper impressions transferred to the fired ware and 
paper washed off. 

12. Grinding and preparing the various colours for the enameller or Painter. 

13. Painting and gilding china or earthenware. 

14. " Glazing " or dipping the ware in a prepared liquid which produces 
the glossy surface. 

[83 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

15. Placing the "dipped" ware ready for its being fired or baked in the 
"glazing " oven. 

16. A Potter's oven when firing or baking, the ware being therein placed 
in Safeguards or " Saggers." 

17. Examining or dressing the ware after its coming from the potter's 
and glazing ovens. 

18. Packing china and earthenware in crates. 

19. The Counting House. 

20. Exterior of Pottery. FINIS. 

A description of this booklet has been made possible by the kindness 
of Mr. Percy Adams, who has given access to a copy of which he is the 
owner. This particular copy is inscribed : 

The gift of his uncle, Thos. Heath, to William E. Twigg, January 1st, 1828. 
Mr. Adams writes : 

The book was presented to my father's first cousin, Wm. Twigg by my 
great grandmother's brother, Thomas Heath of the Hadderidge. 

In picture eleven is shown the process of printing impressions from 
the artistically engraved copperplates and transferring them to the fired 
ware, the paper afterwards being washed off before the pieces were 
glazed. This operation was applied to the deep blue table ware made in such 
large quantities by Enoch Wood & Sons and other potters, and shipped 
by them to America ; only very rarely are genuine examples of these 
beautiful productions, especially of those bearing American scenery and 
subjects, discovered in England. For many years the American curiosity 
dealers have been taking away all they could find in this country of these 
artistic plates and jugs which are for the most part decorated with views 
appertaining to the history of America. 

On October 1st 1901 there was issued by the Keramic Studio Pub- 
lishing Co., Syracuse, New York, an excellently produced magazine under 
the title of " Old China," for be it known our American cousins apply the 
word china to both porcelain and earthenware. For want of adequate 
support this little publication ceased with Vol. iii, No. 12, on September 1st 
1904. Throughout its pages capital illustrations occurred of our Stafford- 
shire potters' dark blue productions, and the work of Enoch Wood & Sons 
was most thoroughly appreciated. In the advertised lists historical 
"Platters" and "Pitchers" are offered for sale at prices which would 
surprise even the most exorbitant vendors in the Old Country. 

Mr. N. Hudson Moore in his work entitled " The Old China Book," 
and Mr. William Turner in his " Art of Transfer Printing upon Pottery," 
have referred to the excellent work in this branch as carried on for many 
years by Enoch Wood & Sons as well as by other eminent potters. 

The stirring events of the American War of Independence which ended 
in 1783, afforded opportunities for the Liverpool potters to depict historical 
scenes and to illustrate portraits of American heroes. Staffordshire was 

84] 



PLATE XLVI 




Illustration No. 142 (/>. 86) 

SEASHELL BORDER PLATE. Dia. 6J,in. 

See Mark No. 14, Plate liii 



Illustration No. 143 (/. 86) 

SEASHELL BORDER PLATE. Dia. 3jin. 
See Mark No. 16, Plate liii 



Sheldon coll. 




Illustration No. 144 (/>. 36) 

VINE AND CONVOLVULUS BORDER PLATE. 
See Mark No. 15, Plate liii 
Sidttotham toll. 



Dia. io'in. 



ENOCH WOOD: HIS PRODUCTIONS 

not slow to follow the example, and in the early years of the nineteenth 
century this large and lucrative business was begun by Enoch 
Wood & Sons. The blue colour adopted for the underglaze American 
decorations was far deeper and richer than the ordinary blue used for 
the English market, and the borders as well as the pictures were 
masterly specimens of design and of copperplate engraving and etching. 

When the engraved plates were finished, proofs were taken therefrom 
in prepared inks, and samples were laid away with other records of the 
factory; few of these Fourdrinier paper proofs are now to be found. The 
old copperplates themselves have long ago disappeared, having been melted 
down to be made into new plates. The Pennsylvania Museum possesses 
a most interesting collection of these old tissue paper proofs, and they 
throw a valuable light upon the printed wares of the old English potter, 
for they go to prove that many historical designs once printed upon 
pottery have passed away and are now unknown even to collectors. Thus 
it has been discovered that Enoch Wood published early in the nineteenth 
century a series of views printed on dishes and plates, composed of 
Italian and Sicilian subjects ; the border composition of this series was 
one of the handsomest ever used by any of the old English potters. It 
consisted of a rich broad design of flying cupids, flowers and foliage, and 
among the subjects surrounded thereby may be mentioned the Port of 
Alicata, View of Corigliana, Ruins of the Castle of Carma, Cascade of 
Isola, View in the Valley of Oretho, Tower of Theron at Aggrigentum, 
and many others ; no doubt this series was prepared especially for the 
Italian market. Another series more or less familiar to American collectors 
consists of the Cupid design, wherein the God of Love is shown behind 
prison bars, the companion being The Young Philosopher, a child 
wearing his father's spectacles is seated with a volume in his lap, his mother 
the while standing over him with a switch, apparently uncertain whether 
to administer punishment or not. The border of this pair is an exceedingly 
handsome one, being composed entirely of flowers in which the rose and 
the passion flower are most conspicuous. 

All authorities recognise the fact that Enoch Wood and his firm 
were the first Staffordshire potters to open up and develop the American 
market for this particular class of wares, although many potters had 
previously traded generally with America, including Josiah Wedgwood, 
who held a high opinion of these Colonies. It is good to remember that 
in every realm of high endeavour there are those who with the special 
gifts of unwearying patience and of complete devotion have cheerfully 
performed the ofttimes illrequited labour of the pioneer, and it is pleasant 
to record that amongst such pioneers was the firm of Enoch Wood & Sons. 
Although the various potters did not hesitate to copy each other as to 
the pictures or views portrayed upon these wares, each firm adopted its 

[85 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

own characteristic border to a large extent, and that of Enoch Wood & 
Sons consisted as a rule of sea shells and seaweed conventionally treated 
(Plate xlvi, Illustration Nos. 142 and 143); an alternative design was the 
beautiful vine and convolvulus border (Plate xlvi, Illustration No. 144) ; 
each of these plates bears the impressed mark of ENOCH WOOD & SONS 
in varying styles which are shown on Plate liii, Mark Nos. 14, 15 and 16. 

A series of illustrated sheets of sanitary ware issued by the firm 
shows that they were among the pioneers in a branch of trade which has 
now-a-days developed into most extensive dimensions. 

On Wednesday December the 16th 1829 an important event in the 
life of Enoch Wood took place — the public celebration of his Golden 
Wedding. A detailed account of the ceremony appeared in the 
" Staffordshire Advertiser " of the 17th December : 

FESTIVITIES 
In honour of the 50th Anniversary of the marriage of Enoch Wood Esq., of 

Burslem, 
From our Burslem Correspondent — 

On Wednesday December 16th, 1829, the 50th Anniversary of the marriage 
of Mr. & Mrs. Wood, was celebrated with every demonstration of respect and 
affection. The morning was introduced by the firing of cannon, the ringing of 
bells and the music of the admired Longport band. At three o'clock in the after- 
noon the whole of the men employed in the manufactory of Messrs. Enoch Wood & 
Sons were regaled with ale, and the women with punch ; while large quantities 
of soup were distributed amongst the poor of the town, indiscriminately. At 
five o'clock a large party sat down to dinner at the hospitable table of Mr. Wood. 
As the entertainment was strictly private, we are of course precluded from entering 
upon further particulars ; we may however, be permitted to say that after dinner 
a superb silver waiter bearing an appropriate inscription was presented to Mr. 
& Mrs. Wood by their children and grandchildren, and the scene upon this 
occasion is represented by the gentlemen who were present as affecting in the 
highest degree. 

In the evening the town of Burslem presented a most interesting appearance. 
No previous arrangements had been made, at least none must have been disclosed ; 
but the sympathy and kind feeling of its inhabitants, prompted one of the most 
disinterested, unsought, and flattering compliments that was ever paid to an indi- 
vidual moving in private life. A general illumination took place, as if by magic, the 
whole town, at seven o'clock presenting one blaze of light. In the market place 
especially, we remarked that without an exception, this demonstration of feeling 
was universal. The Town Hall was brilliantly illuminated and several appro- 
priate transparencies were displayed in the windows of different inhabitants. 

Mr. Wood and his family having been informed of these flattering proofs 
of public regard, walked through the town in the course of the evening ; and 
were no sooner recognised, than the most hearty cheers from the surrounding 
multitudes welcomed their progress. 

At nine o'clock, a brilliant display of fireworks took place from the garden 
of Mr. Wood's house to which the public were freely admitted ; and we rejoice 
to say that the proceedings of the day were unclouded either by accident, riot, 
or disorder. At eleven o'clock everything was as quiet as usual. 

86] 



ENOCH WOOD : HIS PRODUCTIONS 

Several private parties were given by different gentlemen of the town, in honour 
of the event, and the whole of the workmen at the extensive manufactory of 
Thomas Heath Esq., were treated in the evening by that gentleman. 

Such unprecedented marks of good-will produced on the part of those to 
whom they were shewn, a very warm feeling of grateful acknowledgment. 
On the following morning a circular of which we present our readers with a 
copy, was distributed throughout the town — 

To the Inhabitants of Burslem — 
My dear Friends, 

I am quite unable to express the gratitude I feel for the very flattering manner 
in which you have spontaneously joined my family in celebrating the 50th anni- 
versary of my Wedding Day. I was totally unprepared for this honour, as well as 
for the manner in which my Family have celebrated the day. My feelings are 
quite overpowered. It always has been my pride and pleasure to witness the 
Prosperity of my native Town. By birth, station, and inclination, my feelings 
are identified with the people of Burslem ; and it is my heartfelt wish that they 
may enjoy uninterrupted Prosperity when I am no more. 

I have the honor to be 

Your obliged, 

and Obedient Servant, 

Enoch Wood. 
Fountain Place, Burslem. 

Dec. 17th, 1829. 

It will be seen from this enthusiastic report how much the public 
work and private character of Enoch Wood had been appreciated by the 
inhabitants of his native town of Burslem. 

There is at present living a very old inhabitant of Burslem who is 
able to remember the rejoicings of Enoch Wood's golden wedding, and 
he recollects the incident of Mr. Wood and his friends walking on that 
occasion in the evening from his house at Fountain Place to the Town 
Hall to view the illuminations ; he also remembers that Enoch Wood's 
family pew was in the south gallery of the old Parish Church and at the 
east end of that gallery. In this old man's early lifetime such illumina- 
tions would consist of vast numbers of lighted candles, and when 
artistically arranged nothing then available could have been more 
effective ; again at the close of the Boer War he witnessed the rejoicings 
and illuminations which made the Burslem Market Place and Town 
Hall like a dream of fairyland, with the dazzling results of coloured lamps 
and gas lights ; now Burslem possesses its electricity works and could 
concentrate in one light an illuminating power equal in effect to all the 
candles ignited in the town at the Wedding Jubilee of 1829. 

The large silver waiter or tray presented to Enoch Wood and his wife 
by their children and grandchildren is of dignified proportions and is 
artistically chased, bearing the following inscription : " Presented to 
Enoch and Anne Wood by their Children and Grandchildren on the 
fiftieth Anniversary of their Wedding, in grateful acknowledgment of 

r [87 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

combined and unremitted exertions to promote the happiness of their 
family and to inspire them with a love of that religion and virtue of 
which their own lives are the brightest examples. 1 6th December 1829" ; 
this tribute to Enoch and Anne Wood is now a cherished heirloom in 
the possession of Mr. A. H. E. Wood (Plate xlvii, Illustration No. 145). 

In 1829 Dr. Simeon Shaw published his " History of the Staff ordshire 
Potteries," a comprehensive and imaginative little work ; he presented a 
copy to his friend Enoch Wood, and to this copy reference has already 
been made. To some of Simeon Shaw's eulogistic statements amusing 
evidences of non-compliance on the part of Enoch Wood appear here 
and there as side notes, thus: "Fudge," "Nonsense," "No, No"; 
to the paragraph at the foot of page 28, referring to the building of 
the National Schools, he writes : 

a bad speculation to E.W. and the other Trustees. 

At the end of the first chapter Shaw refers to the 

united genius of the present potters : Spode, Wood, Ridgways, Minton, 
Turner, &c, 

continuing 

and it is a fair presumption that specimens of their productions will be found 
not only in the cabinets of Princes and opulent persons of taste, but in the markets 
of every state where British commerce extends. 

To this paragraph Enoch Wood adds : 

E. Wood's Museum shews the production of each manufacturer of any note 
up to 1830. 

On page 27 at the foot of the paragraph wherein reference is made 
by Shaw to Dr. Plot's survey of 1686, and his record at that period of the 
fabrication of common vessels, porrengers, jugs, cups, and the rude state 
of the county, Enoch Wood adds : 

Specimens of all that Plott writes about I have in my collection. E.W. 

On page 30 of his History, Shaw writes with reference to the 
collection : 

Here also is a Museum altogether unique, containing specimens of the 
Progress of this Art from very early times previous to any authentic historical 
records, up to the present day, some of which were found under the foundations 
of these Manufactories and of other Manufactories dilapidated more than eighty 
years ago. 

So far no trace of any detailed catalogue of Enoch Wood's collection 
seems to have been recorded, though his methodical character would 
certainly lead to the supposition that one might have been made. His 
remarks are occasionally found upon some of his museum objects, an 
example being that of a specimen of Littler 's porcelain, to which is attached 
the following note in Enoch Wood's handwriting : 

This was given to Enoch Wood by William Fletcher 1st January 1809. 

88] 



PLATE XLVII 




Illustration No. 145 (/. 88) 
SILVER TRAY 

Presented to Enoch and Anne Wood by their 

Children and Grandchildren on their 

Golden Wedding Day 

In the possession of Mr. A. 11. R. Wood 





Illustration No. 146 ( />. 97) 
Dr. JOHNSON'S KNIFE BOX 



Illustration No. 147 (/*. 97) 
SILVER TROWEL 

Presented to Enoch Wood 
1st December 1835 



In tk\ / Mr. A . It '. E. h 



ENOCH WOOD: HIS PRODUCTIONS 

Ward, in his "History of the Borough of Stoke-upon-Trent, " gives 
the following epitome of the contents of Enoch Wood's Museum: 

Mr. Wood, Sen., who is a great Virtuoso in whatever concerns the business 
of the potter, has an extensive and curious collection of early and later specimens 
of the fictile art, from the rude butter-pot of Charles II 's time, to the highly 
adorned vase of modern days. Of this collection we can give but a very concise 
account, and that of the earlier specimens only. 

Those of the most ancient date are rude and unglazed, and prove the entire 
lack of skill and taste which prevailed until after the middle of the seventeenth 
century. 

The next class consists of drinking-cups and other articles of a dark-brown 
hue, glazed with lead ore, or Smithrem, mottled with manganese ; and these 
evidently preceded the use of salt glaze. 

The third series consists of platters, cups, porringers, &c, of the native cane- 
colored clay, ornamented with orange and other slips, figured with rude devices 
of various kinds, done with a tool, and glazed with lead. This series comes 
down to the reign of William III. 

The fourth series shews that the introduction of salt glaze, and a better style 
of workmanship commenced in the same reign, and fortifies the tradition we 
have before referred to, that the salt glazing was first practised by the Messrs. 
Elers, from Holland. A pint jug, bearing a medallion of King William III. in 
relief, and flowered ornaments stamped in metal moulds ; the body, an ash- 
coloured marl, is the earliest specimen of the salt glaze, and of the Dutchmen's 
superior skill, but Mr. Wood is inclined to consider this and other corresponding 
pieces as being imported from Holland or Germany, although they bear effigies 
of the English Sovereigns, William and Mary. 

A fifth assortment comprises a great variety of tea-pots, and other utensils 
of unglazed red-ware of coralline hue, resembling the Samian, turned on the 
lathe, and ornamented with pressed devices. These are the acknowledged 
productions of the Elers, at their works at Bradwell, and show a considerable 
advancement of Dutch over English art. They bring down the manufacture 
to the end of the seventeenth century, and shew that hitherto none but native 
clays were used. 

The series which follows the above consists of a great variety of utensils, 
all glazed with salt, several of them having medallions of Queen Anne, principally 
formed of the yellow native clay, and many of them marbled with manganese, 
like the leaves of modern bound books. They have a good deal of rude chasing 
about them, and some degree of elegance. 

The next collection shews an improvement in forms and lightness, and the 
introduction of slips of Devonshire, or Dorset clay, in ornamenting, or lining the 
wares. These articles are also glazed with salt. 

The succeeding series exhibit the bodies of the wares, composed of a mixture 
of the native clays with flint, the glaze being of salt. These are the white stone- 
wares before spoken of. Many of them are richly ornamented with pressed devices 
from metal moulds, which preceded the introduction of moulds made of plaster 
of Paris. 

Mr. Wood has in his Museum many moulds of brass and iron, used by the 
earlier potters, and several of chiselled Alabaster, quite curiosities, as corroborating 
a relation before hinted at, that an English potter having gone over to France, 

[8 9 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

sent word to his friends at Burslem, that the French China-makers used Alabaster 
moulds, whereupon a sculptor was employed to chisel out the crude stone into 
the shape desired, instead of burning, pulverising, and moulding it, as they after- 
wards discovered to be the more expeditious and proper method. 

It might be considered tedious were we to carry on the description of the 
articles contained in Mr. Wood's Museum to a further length, and we therefore 
here close our account of it. The collection was greatly reduced, in 1835, by a 
present of numerous specimens, (182 pieces), forwarded by Mr. Wood to the King 
of Saxony, through Baron Gersdorff, his Majesty's Ambassador at the British 
Court. This present was handsomely acknowledged by the Directors of the 
Royal Museum at Dresden, through the same nobleman, who, in a letter to Mr. 
Wood, (dated January 16th, 1836), informed him that, in return for his valuable 
and highly-interesting donation, a selection of Chinese and Saxon manufacture 
had been made by the Directors, and forwarded to Burslem for his acceptance. 

It must be an intense regret to the inhabitants of Burslem that Enoch 
Wood's valuable museum, an educational factor so patiently collected 
and so carefully arranged, should ever have been dispersed. From the 
foregoing account of its contents, so seriously reduced in the year 1835, 
and in later days divided between the Geological Museum, London, and 
the Edinburgh and Hanley Museums, one can even now realise what 
a scholarly asset has for ever been lost to the town and district. It is, 
however, satisfactory to know that the collection containing about 200 
specimens under the appreciative care of Herr E. Zimmermann, now at 
the Royal Porcelain Museum in Dresden is highly appreciated, and is 
looked upon as being a very important section of the museum. 

The following letter received from Mr. F. W. Rudler, a former curator 
of the Jermyn Street Museum, bears upon the acquisition of the portion of 
Enoch Wood's collection by the museum authorities: 

Ethel Villa, 
Tatsfield, 

Westerham, 

Oct. 31, 1911. 
Dear Sir, 

Unfortunately I am unable to answer your enquiry as to the way in which 
part of Enoch Wood's famous collection came into possession of the Museum of 
Practical Geology. 

I went to that Museum as an assistant as far back as 186 1 (I am now in my 
72nd year), but I never heard anything from the Curator, Mr. Trenham Reeks, 
who died in 1879, when I succeeded him, as to the original acquisition of the 
Collection. My own view is that it must have been purchased by Sir Henry De la 
Beche, the founder of the Museum, soon after he began to form a Ceramic Depart- 
ment. His geological work in the China-clay districts of Cornwall and Devon 
led him to take much interest in the industrial use of clays in general, and his 
connexion with the Dillwyns of Swansea no doubt stimulated his taste for 
ceramic art. 

The earliest guide book to the Museum was published in 1843, when the 
institution existed in Craig's Court, under the title of " The Museum of Economic 
Geology." But in that little work there is no mention of the Wood Collection. 

90] 



ENOCH WOOD : HIS PRODUCTIONS 

After the building was erected in Jermyn Street, and opened by Prince Albert 
in 1851, the collections were greatly extended. In 1855 a Catalogue of the speci- 
mens of British Pottery & Poreclain was published, and this work (as you 
probably know) states that certain specimens " obtained from Mr. Enoch Wood, 
to whom the Collection belonged, forms the base of the Staffordshire series exhibited 
in this Museum." 

It was, therefore, between 1843 and 1855 that part of the Wood Collection 
was secured by De la Beche. He died in 1855, the year in which the Catalogue 
was published. 

I saw the Dresden part of the Wood series when visiting that City, I think 
in 1882, and I also saw other specimens from the collection at Stoke and Hanley, 
some time I believe in the 'sixties. All have the same handwriting on the original 
labels. 

I am, 

Faithfully yrs. 

F. W. Rudler. 

Although the pottery treasures collected by Enoch Wood have left the 
town, Burslem has been most fortunate in having, comparatively recently, 
received from a highly honoured citizen and former Mayor, the late Mr. 
Thomas Hulme, a comprehensive and valuable collection which compen- 
sates in no small measure for the serious loss of former days. This is, 
indeed, a noble and generous gift, and a visit to the Wedgwood Institute, 
when under the loving care of Mr. Hulme, the donor of and honorary 
curator to the museum wherein the treasures are deposited, was an 
educational advantage to the collector not readily to be forgotten. 

In 1870 a further substantial contribution to the building fund of the 
Institute was made by means of a bazaar held in that year, which, with 
a munificent gift of one thousand pounds each by Mr. James Maddock and 
Mr. Thomas Hulme and other generous subscriptions, made possible the 
addition of important wings to the building. As the result of the 
additions it became not only a Museum but a fine Technological School 
and a Free Reference Library. 

It is satisfactory to be able to record the fact that the institute has 
from that time fulfilled its double mission of fostering and developing 
education, and of being a practical memorial to the great potter of the 
preceding century, the example of whose life, devoted to his honourable 
craft and to good works, called forth the splendid energies which brought 
the beautiful and useful building into being. 

Mr. Thomas Hulme 's last gift to his native town consisted of the 
site for the new Art School, situated opposite to the Wedgwood Institute, 
whereon has been erected, with the aid of the Staffordshire County Council, 
a most suitable building wherein Art Classes, &c, may be held with a 
view to relieving the Wedgwood Institute and affording more room for 
library and museum purposes. 

[91 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

The " Hulme " collection was handed over to the Mayor of Burslem 
in 1894 by H.R.H. Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll. It contains 
examples of the early potters, the Tofts, the Elers, the salt-glaze produc- 
tions of Thomas and John Wedgwood, figures by the Ralph Woods, and 
is particularly strong in choice specimens of Josiah Wedgwood's jasper 
ware, and of the productions of his celebrated contemporaries, Adams, 
Neale, Turner and Palmer. The rich harmonious colourings of the 
various examples of tortoiseshell and coloured glaze ware, attributed to 
Thomas Whieldon, excellently arranged in their spacious case, create a 
lasting impression. The " Father of the Potteries" is represented by 
examples of his work in busts, statuettes, small figures, &c. The 
collection also contains examples of the clay pitcher blocks, many of 
which have a thin coating of salt-glaze. Some of these blocks were 
obtained during the demolition of the old residence of Enoch Wood. 

In a recently published work entitled " Fragments of the Life and 
Writings of William Henry Goss," the following occurs on page 248 : 

In a back sitting room on the ground floor of the " Big House," there is an 
incised date on a slab inserted on the right hand side of the grate " 1775" and 
uniform with it on the left hand side the initials " T.J.W." for Thomas and John 
Wedgwood. 

In 1810 Thomas Wedgwood, Junr., who was then 48 years of age, enclosed 
the back of the " Big House " with a massive stone wall, and his gossip and friend 
E.W. the famous Potter was doubtless much interested and busily co-operative 
in laying the foundation. 

E.W. was a thorough Antiquary naturally, and wherever in the neighbourhood 
of Burslem excavations were being cut or foundations being laid E.W. would 
be in the first instance watching and looking out for fragments of old pottery 
for his museum and in the other case, feeing masons or bricklayers to construct 
little chambers in the foundations in which he would deposit and cause to be 
built in, specimens of his manufactures such as busts, figures, vases, jugs, &c, 
for the gratification of future antiquaries. 

On taking down a portion of this stone wall a quantity of pottery has been 
found chiefly of E.W.'s manufacture consisting of a fine classic group of Bacchus 
and Ariadne in fawn-coloured earthenware, about 25 inches high, some figures 
of a nude seated boy or cupid, &c, a large statuette of Shakespeare ; most of 
these things were broken either by the picks of the workmen or by frost. 

It will thus be seen that, as in days gone by, Enoch Wood had not 
hesitated to search for pottery treasures among the ruins of former works, 
so also in later days Mr. Thomas Hulme was enabled to enrich his collection 
with specimens discovered when Enoch Wood's house and works were 
being demolished. 

Adverting to Enoch Wood's proclivity for burying examples of pottery 
to be discovered hereafter, the following extract will be interesting : 

92] 



ENOCH WOOD: HIS PRODUCTIONS 

CURIOUS DISCOVERY OF OLD POTTERY AT BURSLEM. 

On Monday, March 3rd, 1879, a number of workmen employed in pulling 
down an old sandstone wall at the back of the Conservative Club, formerly known 
as the "Big House," Burslem, found a quantity of old pottery-ware of various 
kinds, which had evidently been secreted some 70 or 80 years ago. Some of the 
stones composing the wall are very large, and from the centre of one of them, a 
square tile, fitting into a suitable space, suddenly became detached, revealing below 
a roughly hewn cavity, filled with such articles as have been mentioned. Four 
cavities were subsequently discovered, all similarly replete with curiosities. Of all 
the articles which have been found here, the most interesting is a small glazed 
porcelain box, about 4-in. by 3-in. by 5-in. deep, which bears on its under-side an 
inscription, which, when deciphered, affords some clue to the secret of the original 
depositor. The glaze has broken off in many places, owing to the action of frost, 
and a few of the "key " bits are missing, but enough has remained to enable the 
following to be easily made out: — "This wall was built by Thomas Wedgwood, 
son of John Wedgwood, of the Big House. Near this will be found specimens of 
various articles of the manufactures of this neighbourhood, which (may) in some 
future time (give) pleasure to the possessor. June 20th, 1810. T.W." Inside this 

small dish is written in white, on a faded gilt ground, "Enoch Wood it," which 

is supposed to indicate fecit. It is well known that Enoch Wood was a potter 
living in Burslem about this time, and in his intimacy with Thomas Wedgwood, 
used most probably to spend many happy hours at the home of the latter. It was 
one of Wood's idiosyncracies to hide pottery works of value in obscure and curious 
places, and recently a quantity of ware was found in the stonework of Burslem 
Church whilst the renovation was in progress, which was placed there by him. 
It is equally well known that the Wedgwood family were tinged with eccentricity, 
and it is by such collateral evidence that the genuineness of the surmise as to the 
original depositor is established. The wall is known to have been erected in 1755, 
so that the stones must have been removed from their places in order that the idea 
might be carried out. The articles found consist of jasper jugs, cameos, seals, 
teapots, figures, and other specimens of the potter's art, besides a few dozen 
copper tokens, which bear the arms and mottoes of the various boroughs and 
companies that issued them. There is a Birmingham halfpenny with the motto, 
"Industry has its sure reward," together with those of Coventry, Liverpool, 
Anglesey Mines Company, Associated Irish Mines Company, and others. An 
amusing item in the list is a couple of old clay pipes, one of them bearing in lead 

upon the bowl, "Thomas Wedgwood,'' and the other " wood's pipe;" which 

would give the idea that the hiding of all that has been found was part of a joke 
conceived by the men. The ware which has been discovered is not that known 
by the name of " Wedgwood," as it certainly was not the work of the great father 
of pottery, though closely resembling it in most respects. Connoisseurs have 
awarded high praise to some of the figure and ornamental work on the jasper 
jugs, which is pronounced equal to many specimens of the real "Wedgwood." 

Reverting to Shaw's History, on page 29 in the paragraph relating 
to the Act of Parliament of 1826 constituting Burslem a Town governed 
by a Chief Constable, Enoch Wood adds : 

Cost about £1,300, 
and at the end of this paragraph referring to the Town Hall he writes : 
Repairs cost about £600, both sums were advanced by E.W. 

[93 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

During the years 1788-89 and 1789-90 Enoch Wood had filled the 
office of churchwarden, and in 1788-9 the church was enlarged at a cost 
of £572 9s. 3d.; the records show that this payment was made by him on 
the 23rd of May 1789, as warden and as one of the trustees ; as further 
evidence of his public spirited generosity it may here be recorded that 
in the list of donations to the fund in 1827 for the erection of an 
additional Parish Church, he subscribed £100. 

On page 30 of Shaw's History, opposite to the paragraph beginning 

In the year 1824 the Town Hall under-went a complete repair both internally 
and externally &c. 

Enoch Wood writes : 

No ! all the money was borrowed and the rents of Halls are mortgaged 
for £1,800 to pay what E.W. advanced and is now owing. E.W. 

On November 8th 1830 Enoch Wood presided at the celebration 
meeting of the election of Burslem's Chief Constable. He adverted to 
the increase of the town in wealth and population within his recollection, 
and he drew a picture of his early memories and contrasted them with 
the present day circumstances and surroundings. 

In reference to the Public Market and the Hall he remembered well the 
place when it was without either ; the first attempt at a butcher's stall was the 
loan of a door unhinged and placed on two old saggers at either end ; and for 
some time this was continued until an improvement took place, by boards being 
placed on crates, next a set of shambles were erected but very weak in materials 
though covered over which caused them to become a complete nuisance ; and 
many of the boards having been at sundry times pilfered on the occasion of the 
celebration of the battle of Copenhagen, the stalls were pulled down and destroyed. 
The Townspeople then used more eligible stalls and the Market had risen into a 
state of equality with any in the county. 

Whereas in early days their Constable's Feast was simple in the 
extreme, now they dined upon refined luxuries in the company of the 
most respectable inhabitants of the town and neighbourhood. (Plate i, 
Illustration No. 4, Town Hall and Market House.) 

In the years 1832 and 1835 Enoch Wood had the honour conferred 
upon him of the position of Chief Constable ; two other members of the 
family had filled the post, Edward Wood, in 1828, and Joseph Wood, 
in 1829. It should be explained that in those days the office of 
Chief Constable was considered to be one of high honour to be 
conferred upon men of strong position, and was equivalent to the 
dignity and prestige of our present-day Mayor or Chief Magistrate. 

Ward writes: 

This officer's duties are not further defined by the Act than that he has 
power given him to suspend any assistant or deputy-constable from acting until 
the next meeting of Commissioners and to appoint the Town Crier, but in practice 
ever since the passing of the Act the Chief Constable has had the general direction 

94J 



ENOCH WOOD: HIS PRODUCTIONS 

of the business of the Police ; he presides at all meetings of the Commissioners 
and is the authority to whom the inferior Constables make their daily reports 
and resort for advice and instructions in cases of emergency. So that the Chief 
Constable is in effect an important civil officer between the' Magistracy and the 
acting Constabulary force. 

In 1834, on May the 9th, Enoch Wood sold to the churchwardens for 
the formation of a footpath or roadway outside the churchyard 284 yards of 
land on " Bourne's Bank," at 3/- per yard (£42 10s. od.), and he seems to 
have given 140 yards of land at the time of this transaction for widening 
the entrance at the north gates of the churchyard. 

In 1832 came into operation Earl Grey's Reform Bill, and in common 
with other industrial centres, the Staffordshire Potteries district for the 
first time had direct representation in Parliament. The new Borough 
was designated Stoke-upon-Trent and embraced practically the whole 
of the Pottery townships — Tunstall, Burslem, Hanley, Stoke, Fenton and 
Longton. The Returning Officer being chosen annually, Enoch Wood 
was appointed to the office by the High Sheriff in 1834, having been 
preceded therein by Thomas [ Minton of Stoke-upon-Trent in 1832, 
and by John Tomlinson of Cliff Ville in 1833. 



[95 



w 



CHAPTER X 

ENOCH WOOD : 1834-1840 

E have now briefly recorded the main points in the career 
of Enoch Wood and have brought our history down to the 
year of his appointment as Returning Officer in 1 834. 



It was a little earlier than this that the correspondence already recorded 
had taken place between Dr. Adam Clarke and Enoch Wood on the 
subject of the bust of John Wesley, namely in October 1830 and January 
1 83 1 ; in April 1831 Dr. Adam Clarke paid a visit to Burslem and 
stayed with Enoch Wood ; the following is a fragment of an undated 
letter which would appear to have been written probably in connection 
with this visit : 

There on Thursday, to preach if able on Good Friday morning and set 
off, if possible that evg. for Liverpool in order to proceed by the Packet for Belfast. 
If I can get in one day to Liverpool I should need rest on Friday night for I 
have been much fatigued by travelling and preaching for some time past. Will 
you have the goodness to see and secure me a coach passage for L'pool on Saturday, 
so that I may get there without being obliged to travel all night ? Please to give 
my best respects to Mrs. Wood, your daughter and family, and if it will not hurt 
poor Mr. M. I shall be glad to take up my lodging for a night at your house. 
I understand that Mr. M. is much indisposed. 
May God sustain and comfort him. Amen. 
I am, Dear Sir, 

Yours truly and Afftly, 

Adam Clarke. 

In Enoch Wood's copy of Dr. Adam Clarke's Bible with Commentary 
in the XXIVth Chapter of St. Luke, there appears written at the side of 
verses 46 and 47 (48 also being marked with a small cross) the following : 

Memorandum, April 1st 1831. Dr. Adam Clarke preached in Burslem 
Chapel from these three verses 46, 47, 48, being Good Friday. He did me the 
honour to pray with my family and sleep in my house and seem'd pleased at dining 
with Dr. Johnson's knives and forks &c, &c. The sermon was a most rational 
and convincing discourse upon the Death of Christ, &c, &c, &c. He offered 
to take Tom with him to the Shetland Islands to cure his nervousness. 

96] 



ENOCH WOOD : 1834-1840 

Dr. Johnson's knives and forks were contained in an old Chippendale 
mahogany knife box (Plate xlvii, Illustration No. 146) and had come into 
the possession of Enoch Wood, by whom they were much prized. They 
would no doubt be produced to do honour to his guest, who apparently 
thoroughly appreciated the compliment. This valuable memento of the 
Doctor is now in the possession of the Wood family, as is the silver trowel 
(Plate xlvii, Illustration No. 147) presented in 1835, bearing the following 
inscription : 

This Trowel was presented to Enoch Wood Esqre. then treasurer on the 
occasion of his laying the Corner Stone of the Covered Market the 1st day of 
December 1835 as a token of the high estimation in which they hold his character 
and to shew the sense of the zeal he has ever manifested for the improvement 
of his native town. 

John Ward 

Clerk to the Trustees. 

Ward, in his "History of Stoke-on-Trent," gives the following 
appreciative account of this important local event : 

The passing of the Market Act was followed by various projects for enlarging 
and improving the Market Place. The Trustees had obtained powers to purchase 
at a valuation price, within the term of five years, certain houses and buildings 
belonging to Thomas Wedgwood, Esq., standing near the East side of the Town 
Hall ; but for want of funds or combination of sentiment that period was suffered 
to elapse, without effecting this desirable object. At length, however, in 1837 
a purchase was made from Mr. Wedgwood's representatives of a portion of the 
above property at the price of £1400 ; the buildings thereon were then pulled 
down, and the site added to the Market Place. In the year 1834 it was resolved 
to purchase and pull down the remainder of the old buildings between Market 
Place & Shoe Lane, now Wedgwood St. (leaving a modern house & some 
cottages standing for the present) and to erect on this site a covered Market 
House. . . . The Corner Stone was laid by Enoch Wood Esqre. the Treasurer 
on December 1st 1835 in the presence of the whole body of the Trustees & a 
very large body of spectators. 

It may possibly have been observed that the ceramic work of Enoch 
Wood had been entirely devoted to the designing or producing of objects 
in earthenware or pottery, therefore the little jug, of which an illustration 
is given (Plate xlviii, Illustration Nos. 148, 149), is interesting as it bears 
the following inscription upon a piece of paper attached thereto. 

This jug was the first piece of China made by Enoch Wood & Sons out of 
the First Kiln full of clay July 27th, 1839. 

Although the process of production of objects in china is similar 
in many of its methods to that of making earthenware, there are important 
differences in the body of the paste, in the manner of treatment, shrinkage 
in firing, and ultimate transparent effect obtained. There exists, taken 
from the same mould, a certain small Lion Couchant made by Enoch 
Wood in jasper, in ordinary glazed earthenware, and in china, and the 
size of all three varies considerably. Illustration No. 156 on Plate li shows 

[97 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

one of these Lions in the jasper body ; it is carefully finished and marked 
ENOCH WOOD SCULPSIT. We may readily imagine that the first 
kiln of china, produced by a works which for 55 years had been 
accustomed to the making of earthenware, must have been quite an 
historical event. It is not recorded whether the production of the firm 
in chinaware attained large proportions or not — probably not. Others had 
devoted many years of experience to the mastering of its inherent 
difficulties, and such firms as Spode, Minton, Copeland and Davenport 
in this connection are world-wide Staffordshire names. 

The work in ceramics executed and controlled by Enoch Wood during 
his long career, beginning in 1780 and terminating in 1840, may be roughly 
divided into three classes : figures and busts, jasper ornaments, and 
blue printed and other table ware. His figures, busts and groups, for the 
most part excellently sculptured and produced in large quantities, were 
in earlier days often the result of his own individual handicraft, and were 
delicately finished with the silver trimming tool it was his custom to use in 
place of the ordinary steel instrument adopted by the modeller artist. 
Examples of his personal work are now widely appreciated and treasured. 
Some of his statuettes and busts taken from the antique or representing 
modern heroes, decorated in exact imitation of bronze, are objects of 
technical wonder to the potter of the present day. One of a pair of bronze 
Tritons is shown on Plate xlviii, Illustration No. 150, marked WOOD AND 
CALDWELL ; this pair is mounted with delicately finished brass nozzles. 

Dr. Sidebotham's collection includes one of the dainty little groups of 
a sheep and a lamb with the tree background inspired by the Chelsea School, 
and the usual patch of reddish-brown colour is upon the back of the 
lamb. In the middle of this patch of colour appear the familiar initials 
E. W. only discernible upon close inspection — showing how Enoch Wood 
thoroughly enjoyed the practical side of his work (Plate xlviii, Illustration 
No. 151). Few specimens of his work in jasper are to be found; those 
in the collection of Mr. A. H. E. Wood consisting chiefly of plaques and 
medallions are, however, sufficient to establish his reputation in excellence 
of design and delicate undercutting. Plates xlix and 1, Illustration Nos. 
152, 153 and 154, show examples marked ENOCH WOOD SCULPSIT, 
which are of distinct artistic merit ranking equally in quality with the 
finest productions in this classic school of the eighteenth century jasper 
ware. The pair Abelard (Plate 1, Illustration No. 155) and Heloise may 
be specially pointed out as being of excellent merit. The quantity of 
jasper ware manufactured commercially would appear however to have 
been comparatively very small. 

In the museum at Warrington there may be seen an important little 
collection of Jasper Medallions similar, to some extent, to those examples 

98] 



PLATE XLVIII 




Illustration No. 148 (/. v7) 
CHINA JUG. H. Sin.J 



Illustration No. 149 f / ,- 

INSCRIPTION ON BOTTOM OF JUG 

(Illustration No. 148) 
In tin possession oj Mi. A. II. E. II 'ood 




Illustration No. 150 ( p. 98) 

TRITON. H. ioin. 

(Mark: WOOD AND CALDWELL) 

A iillior's coll. 




Illustration No. 151 [p. 98) 
GROUP: SHEEP & LAMB. H. 5jin. 

Sidehotkam coll. 



PLATE XLIX 




Illustration No. 152 I p. 98) 

FRAME OF JASPER WARE MEDALLIONS 

(Mark: ENOCH WOOD SCULPSIT) 

In the possession 0/ Mr. A. H. E. Wood 




Illustration No. 153 I , 
FRAME OF JASPER WARE MEDALLIONS 
(Mark: ENOCH WOOD SCULPSITi 
In the fiosst i ' lift I. 11. /;. Wood 



PLATE L 




Illustration No. 154 (/. 98, 

FRAME OF JASPER WARE MEDALLIONS 

(Mark: ENOCH WOOD SCULPSIT) 

In ike possession of Mr. A. H. E. \\'o,ni 




Illustration No. 155 (/.9S) 

JASPER WARE MEDALLION "ABELARD." H. 6|in. W. 5m. 
(Mark: ENOCH WOOD SCULPSIT) 

/« the possession of Mr. A. li. E. Mood 



PLATE LI 







> 



t ~ ~ 



■«■■:•.- V 



Illustration No. 156 I A 97) 

LION IN JASPER BODY. H. 3*in. 

(Mark : ENOCH WOOD SCULPSIT) 

Sidcbotham coll. 







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• #® 




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I 



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OAO.o.Oa 




Illustration No. 157 (/>. 99) 
SKETCH OF PROPOSED CABINET FOR ENOCH WOOD'S JASPER WARE 

In the Possession of Mr. A. //. E. Wood 



ENOCH WOOD : 1834-1840 

shown on Plates xlix and 1 ; they bear the impressed mark ENOCH WOOD 
SCULPSIT, and are delicate productions. 

Miss Meteyard, in her " Life of Wedgwood," page 337, Vol. II, quotes 
from a letter of the great potter addressed to his partner, Bentley, thus : 

We have had some idea of a cabinet for each of us — Mr. More thinks, 
which I believe we have talked of before, that we should each of us have in our 
private possession a specimen of all of our fine Bas relief cameos, Intaglios and 
whatever else of our manufacture we think would be valuable to our children 
or friends of the next generation. 

It will be seen from Plate li, Illustration No. 157, reproduced from a 
very rough tracing sketch found among Enoch Wood's private papers, that 
evidently the same thought had passed through his mind, only to be 
indefinitely postponed and probably never realised. In the rough sketch 
of the cabinet for jasper productions, the place of honour is apparently 
allotted to the large plaque of the Descent from the Cross. 

In the underglaze printed ware of later days Enoch Wood & Sons' 
work was chiefly confined to the dark blue table ware already referred 
to, manufactured specially for the Americans. Their historical scenes 
were depicted upon these richly coloured objects in a large series of 
different views or pictures skilfully engraved, and varying in size to 
accommodate the multitudinous shapes required, and vast quantities were 
produced and exported. 

Soon after 1846 the firm of Enoch Wood & Sons was discontinued, 
and a large number of their figure moulds became distributed among 
other potters, who obviously had not specialised in this particular branch 
of manufacture, and to some extent this will account for the existence 
of many examples of later issues lacking the delicacy of finish and detail 
characteristic of the earlier examples from these same moulds. With 
firms which have been in existence for many years the vast accumulation 
of moulds must always be a considerable difficulty, and with a view to a 
businesslike economy of space, large numbers, at the time naturally 
considered valueless, have been sold or destroyed, thereby increasing very 
much the difficulty of identification when, years afterwards, interest has 
been once more revived by the ever increasing collecting fraternity. 

At the end of the volume of maps and Acts of Parliament referring 
to the promotion of the Trent and Mersey Canal, mentioned in chapter 
vi, there appears a copy of an Act of Parliament, dated 21st June 1798, 
for the protecting and copyrighting of figures, busts and plaques. The 
experience of most collectors would, however, lead them to the conclusion 
that this Act of Parliament has unfortunately remained inoperative. 

Of the portraits of Enoch Wood, in addition to the bust modelled 
by himself, the full length picture in oils painted by John Bostock is a 

[99 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

fine piece of work. A mezzotint engraving by S. W. Reynolds was taken 
from this picture and the plate was published December 9th 1840 by 
E. Sheppard of Newcastle-under-Lyme (Plate xxxixa, Illustration No. 129a). 
In the Wedgwood Institute, Burslem, there are two excellent portraits in 
oils of Enoch Wood and his wife, painted by Andrews, and presented by 
the daughters of Enoch Wood, Junr. (Plate xxix, Illustration No. 105, 
Plate xxx, Illustration No. 106), and Mr. A. H. E. Wood possesses two small 
plaster and one large marble bust of his ancestor Enoch Wood, by Noble. 

The following extract from the end of a letter written by Enoch 
Wood, Junr., which probably accompanied the gift, is pasted under one 
of the engravings by S. W. Reynolds of Enoch Wood's portrait in the 
possession of a member of the family : 

May we both meet in that eternal world where there will be no more hopes 
or fears or changes and when we shall be for ever happy — so prays 

Your ever affectionate friend 

Enoch Wood (Junr.) 
Born 1759 
April 30th 1840 Died 1840 

The date referring to the year of birth and death of the subject of 
the portrait is added in the handwriting of Mr. John Wood, the great- 
grandfather of the present owner of the engraving. 

At the ripe old age of eighty-one Enoch Wood died full of honour, 
leaving behind him many memories which will long be cherished ; and 
on August 17th 1840 his remains were laid in St. John's Churchyard, 
Burslem, the churchyard in which the Ralph Woods, the " Big House " 
and "Hamil" Wedgwoods, John Wood of Brownhills, the Warburtons, 
Stevensons, William Adams, Heaths of Hadderidge, and many other 
noted Staffordshire potters have found their last place of rest. 

The following inscription is recorded upon his tomb : 

In memory of 
ENOCH WOOD 
born — January 31st. A.D. 1750 
died — August 17th. 1840 
also of 
ANNE his wife — 
born — June 1st 1758 
died — January 28th 1841. 

and on the reverse side : 

Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord : they rest from their labours 
and their works do follow them. 

The old inhabitant previously referred to (who is in his 92nd year) 
says that he remembers Enoch Wood's funeral service. Mr. Birchall, 
the curate, officiated and preached a sermon, taking his text from the 40th 
chapter of Isaiah and the 8th verse. The service was conducted by the 
curate because the rector, the Rev. Edward Whieldon, was not a resident 

100] 



ENOCH WOOD : 1834-1840 

rector. Mr. Whieldon, a member of the famous potting family of that 
name, was appointed to the Rectory of Burslem by the patron, Mr. William 
Adams of Cobridge Hall and Brick House, Burslem, in 1809. 

The following obituary notice of Enoch Wood appeared in The 
Mercury published at Hanley on Saturday August 22nd 1840 : 

DEATH OF ENOCH WOOD, Esq. 

The family of Enoch Wood, Esq., of Fountain Place, Burslem, have this 
week been called to mourn over the decease of their venerated and universally 
esteemed parent. This event took place between 8 and 9 o'clock on Monday 
evening last. For some eight or ten days previously Mr. Wood had been in such 
a state as to create painful anxiety in his family, some of whom were summoned 

from a distance to soothe his dying pillow His venerable 

lady, with whom he had lived in the most perfect conjugal felicity upwards of 
sixty years, was not informed of the withering stroke until the following 
morning, when the intelligence was gently broken to her by an endeared friend. 
He died in his eighty-second year — a period of human life appropriately termed 
in the simple and beautiful language of Scripture, " a good old age." 

The honours of age were to a very large extent bestowed on Mr. Wood. It 
would be difficult to conceive of an individual being surrounded by circumstances 
more happily adapted to smooth the rugged decline of life, and soften the rigours 
of its approaching winter. Blest with a good constitution, uninjured by early 
excesses, and having vigorously applied himself to a series of well-directed efforts 
in business, he acquired a handsome competency — the reward of industry 
perseverance and integrity. Surrounded by a numerous and affectionate family,' 
he lived to see the offspring of his children's children. Those who have been 
privileged to witness the occasional meetings of these family groups around the 
fireside of their venerable sire, will long cherish in their memories a picture of 
domestic happiness, which might well be regarded as one of earth's loveliest 
scenes ! In private life, Mr. Wood was a devoted husband, an indulgent father, 
and a steady friend. The virtuous found beneath his roof a hospitable home ;' 
and the hearts of the poor were often gladdened by his private acts of benevolence! 

In business Mr. Wood's conduct was distinguished by unimpeachable 
probity. He commenced about the period of his marriage, upwards of sixty 
years since ; and a considerable portion of his wealth was obtained in the 
manufacture of earthenware ; but a large share of it was the result of improve- 
ments effected by his own skill. By a new application of mechanical power, he 
at one time annually cleared a very large amount. His talent as a modeller is 
justly celebrated by the correct likeness of Wesley, which, as is well known, was 
taken from life, while the pious founder of Methodism was staying under his 
roof. It is due to Mr. Wood to place on record his constant anxiety for the 
welfare of his native town. He had the pleasure to witness many improvements 
in its architectural appearance ; and the progressive prosperity of its inhabitants. 

******* 

It is scarcely necessary to state that Mr. Wood was held in universal esteem. 
The circumstances attending the fiftieth anniversary of his marriage — a nuptial 
jubilee held some ten or twelve years since, when the whole town was illuminated 
in honour of himself and lady — furnished a distinguished proof that both lived in 
the esteem of their neighbours. 

[101 



THE WOOD FAMILY OF BURSLEM 

In this hasty and imperfect notice of the life and character of a valuable 
and good man, we cannot but express our hope that there may be a long 
succession of ENOCH WOODS, whose memory, like that of their venerable sire, 
shall be embalmed in the affections of their friends ; and whose character, like 
his, shall illustrate the sacred truth — "The memory of the Just is blessed." 

The remains of the late Mr. Wood will be interred at noon this day, at the 
burial ground of the Parish Church ; but in consequence of that edifice being 
closed for repairs, the procession will previously move to St. Paul's Church, 
where the funeral service will be read. 

A meeting was held in the Town Hall last night, at which it was determined 
to recommend to the inhabitants partially to close their shops until after the 
interment, and to assemble at the Town Hall, and from thence join the funeral 
procession. 

The death of Mr. Wood will be improved to-morrow week at St. Paul's 
Church, by the Rev. John Cooper, late minister of the Old Church. 

The foregoing obituary notice, written in terms of appreciation 
characteristic of the period, ends the series of available records of probably 
the most distinguished member of the Wood family whose life was devoted 
to the art of the sculptor, modeller and potter. 

The genius displayed in his craft, and his generous aid to local 
benevolent institutions, earned for him a reputation which has added 
lustre to his branch of the family. 

The Author will not have written in vain if he has succeeded in 
presenting some outline of the career, character and skill of men who, 
by uprightness of life, integrity in business and zeal for their craft, have 
been not least amongst those who have bequeathed to their descendants 
examples and traditions of which it is no small privilege to be the inheritors. 



PLATE LII 

MARKS 

RALPH WOOD IMPRESSED MARKS ON GROUPS AND FIGURES 

(slightly enlarged) 



ft.V/OO 



~< 




Found on coloured glaze and 

white glaze figures 

I 




Found on coloured glaze, white glaze 
and enamelled figures, &c. 

2 





51 

Ra.Woo 
Burslem 




Mark on coloured glaze Toby Jug 
showing mould number 



Mould number on pedestal of 

enamelled Jupiter 

4 



ENOCH WOOD IMPRESSED MARKS ON STATUETTES. BUSTS, GROUPS AND PLAQUES 

(Nos- 5, 6 & 7 slightly enlarged) 



t =v<o??5D 



Mark on back of statuette 
St. Paul Preaching 

Plate XXXVI 

Illustration No. 121 

5 




Mark on obverse of Locket 

Plate XXXIII, Illustration Nos 112 and 113 

6 



Mark on Jasper Lion 

Plate LI, Illustration No. 156 

7 




-CM*< Syr*?*" 



„-..•.., «&. 



Mark in circle on back of Washington 
Bust 




PLATE LIII 

MARKS 

ENOCH WOOD IMPRESSED AND PRINTED MARKS ON ORNAMENTAL 

AND TABLE WARE 



E. WOOD 

E. WOOD 



WOOD & CALDWELL 
WOOD & CALDWELL 



ENOCH WOOD & SONS 
ENOCH W r OOD & SONS 



ii 

{Impressed) 



12 
[Impressed) 



13 
(Impressed) 




(Impressed) 



tiUJH 



15 

{Impressed) 



BURSLEM 



16 

(Impressed) 



ENOCH WOOD & SONS 
BURSLEM 

STAFFORDSHIRE 



17 

( Impressed > 



A FESTOON J% 

».,. BORDER ^#M) 



18 

I Transfer printed) 



ENOCH WOOD'S IMPRESSED MARKS ON THE WESLEY BUSTS 
Probably made during Wesley's lifetime from the model sculptured in 1781 




(On the unglazed buff biscuit 

bust at the City Roadl 

19 




(On an early bust in the Author's 

collection) 

20 



(On a black copy from the same 

mould as the City Road bust) 

21 



The above marks are characteristic of the busts which are hollow at the back ; 
they are oval tablets attached to two upright bars. See Plate XXXIV, Illustration No. 117 



PLATE LIV 

SELECTION OF ENOCH WOOD'S IMPRESSED MARKS ON THE WESLEY BUSTS 
PRODUCED AFTER WESLEY'S DEATH 




Usual mark found on the busts with ample drapery. Sometimes the 
words "Aged 88 " are omitted 

22 



THE 

REVEREND 

JOHN WESLEY, M.A. 

FELLOW OF LINCOLN COLLEGE OXFORD 
lb FOUNDER OF METHODISM 

HE SAT FOR THIS BUST 
TO 

MR. ENOCH WOOD SCULPTOR 
BURSLEM 

1788 

AND DIED IN 

1791 

AGED 

88 

YEARS 

I'ictoria &* Albert Museum 
23 



THE 

REVEREND 
JOHN WESLEY, M.A. 

FELLOW OF LINCOLN COLLEGE OXFORD. 
AND FOUNDER OF METHODISM 

HE SAT FOR I HIS BUST 
TO 

MR. ENOCH WOOD, SCULPTOR 
BURSLEM 

1 7S 1 

AND DIED IN 

1791 

AGED 

88 
YEARS 

"lS NOT THIS A BRAND PLUCKED 
OUT OK THE FIRE" 



24 



ENOCH WOOD'S 
IMPRESSED MARK 
ON THE WHITFIELD 
BUSTS 




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Coloured glazes (Companion to 59) 
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Coloured glazes, Enamel colours 

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Enamel colours, Cream colour . . 

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Figure, " Juno ' ' with Bird 

Figure, Bacchus 

Figure of a Boy with Basket of Flowers 

" Vicar and Moses " in Pulpit 

Toby, sailor seated on chest 

A Girl with Basket of Flowers 

Figure of Girl with Pitcher on head 

Figure, " Peasant Worshipping " 

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Figure of a Troubadour 

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Figure of " Spanish Dancer " .. 

Figure of " Sweep Boy " 

Jupiter, a different design from No. 29 . . 

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Bust of Milton 

Bust of a Divine 

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Bust of Matt. Prior 
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[105 



APPENDIX B 

INDEX TO COLLECTION OF ITEMS OF INTEREST RELATING TO BURSLEM, 
made by Enoch Wood, from which extracts have been taken 

1788. Churchwardens' Meeting re House of Industry 

1795. Meeting of Manufacturers — Duty on Property 

1793. Dying Speech of Tom Paine 

1795. Meeting of Manufacturers about Crates 

1795. Advance upon Crates 

1795. Meeting at Lane End about Weights and Measures 

1794. An Address to the Owners and Occupiers of Land in Stoke 
1794. Meeting at Stoke about a Poor-house 

1793. Journeyman's Intimidation Paper — House of Industry, Wolstanton 

1794. House of Industry — Wolstanton and Burslem 

1794. Advance in Straw 
1770. Prices of making Dishes 

1795. New system of Book-keeping 
I 79S- Prices of Cream Coloured Ware 

1796. Outrage offered to Mr. Tomlinson 

1796. A Meeting to raise Prices of Earthenware 

1796. Close & Keeling 's Patent for Ovens and Kilns 

1796. Trent & Mersey Canal Co., extending the Canal to Leek 

1796. Keeling 's substitute for Red and White Glaze 

1796. Ralph Wedgwood — Glazes 

1796. Scarcity of Flour 

1796. Anonymous Handbill addressed to Journeymen Potters 

1796. Navigation from the Trent to the Mersey 

1800. Mr. Clowes Port Bill — Cheese 

1800. Theophilus Smith Assassination 

1706. Tontine Inn 

1796. Meeting of the Yorkshire Potters 

1796. Commercial Canal 

1796. Trent & Mersey Canal 

1796. Ralph Wedgwood — Broken Pitchers 

1796. Commercial Canal 

1796. Forty-three Manufacturers 

1796. New Invented Ovens 

1796. Mail Coach through the Potteries 

1790. Road Act 

1796. Oamphry Touch 'um 

1794. Union between Wolstanton and Burslem for House of Industry 

1794. Ralph Wedgwood 



106] 



APPENDIX B 



1794. Dutch Price current 

1796. A List of Prices of Earthenware 

1797. Sale of Mr. Ralph Wedgwood's Property 

1798. Burslem Volunteer Corps 
1797. Life and Trial of Mr. Oliver 

1797. The Women's Club 

1798. Pottery Cavalry 

1798. Military Association in Hanley, Shelton and Stoke 

1796. Commercial Canal 

Regulations against Forestalling and Regrating 

1798. Burslem, Tunstall, Longport, &c, Armed Association 

1799. Subscription to Purchase Fire Engines for Burslem 

1799. Public Meeting at Lane End, High Prices of Straw 

1800. Meeting at Burslem to Petition on High Price of Corn 

1799. Profanation of the Sabbath. Abstract of Laws. Resolutions at Burslem 

1800. Mr. Wainwright — Bulletin — Poetry by Mr. Aston 
The Corsicans — Progress 

1800. Notice to Farmers — Promise of Protection — High Price of Bread 

1800. Meeting for the Relief of the Poor 

Thos. Trueman " Against Mobbing " Mr. Hickman 

1800. Scarcity — Extracts of Laws against Rioting 

1800. Letters from Mr. Mapey, Newcastle — Report of Potters giving up Work 

1800. Notice about Weights and Measures 

1800. Denial of Report of Concealed Provisions at Porthill 

1800. County Resolutions on the Stand Weight of Bread 

1800. Original Resolutions at Burslem on the Scarcity 

1800. T. Smith & Wainwright— Handbill 

1800. Observations on the Scarcity by a Magistrate 

1802. Isaac Leigh's Notice — Letting Market Stalls 

1802. Combination of Crate Makers — Resolution to Resist 

1802. Dispensary Meetings, &c. 

1802. Contributions of Etruria Workmen to Dispensary 

1802. Printed Parish Accounts 

1802. Rules to Prevent the Spreading of Contagion 

1800. Written Notice to the Workmen advising peaceable conduct by E. W. 

1802. Resolutions at Stoke not to pay an advance on Crates 

1803. Letter from Messrs. Spode, re case of Manufacturers 
Rules for Volunteer Corps — C. Robinson 

1803. Case of Manufacturers — Importation of Foreign China 

1803. Repair to the Road from Burslem to Longport 

1803. Tunstall Volunteers — A. Keeling 

1803. Burslem Volunteers — E. W. 

1803. Original Notice of Subscription for Volunteer Clothing (Resolution for 

forming Corps) 

1803. Dismissal of Burslem Volunteers 

1803. Mr. Gilbert's Sale by Auction 

1803. Committee of Manufacturers, Pilfering of Goods 

1803. Militia — Subscriptions for a substitute 

1803. East India China Bill 

1803. " More reasons " same subject 

Address to the " People of England " 

1803. Proctors Articles of Enquiry about Churches 



[107 



APPENDIX B 



Dialogue between John Bull and Bonaparte 

Dinner to Longport Volunteers 

1804. Assessed Taxes 

Meeting for Repairing Roads about Market Place 

1804. Annual Report of Methodist Sunday School 

1804. Association for Prosecuting Felons 

1804. "The Ruin of Potters and the way to avoid it" 

1805. Concert at Town Hall 
1805. Sale of Land in Star Croft 

1805. Handbill— Theft at Bycars & Sneyd 

1805. Original Subscription for the Wounded in the Battle of Trafalgar 

1805. Property Tax — Notice of Assessment to W. & C. 

1806. Proceedings of Annual Meeting of Manufacturers 
1806. Pullens Proposal for Publishing a Map of the Potteries 
1806. Statement of Mr. T. Bill's Accounts — Newcastle 
1806. Annual Meeting at Dispensary 

1806. Supply of Water at Hanley 

1806. Fire at Messrs. Bent & Caldwell's Brewery 

1806. Poetical Invitation to Charity Sermon — A.B. 

1807. Opposition to Stoke Rectory Bill 

1806. Evening Mail — Funeral of Lord Nelson 
Hanley Association for Prosecuting Felons 

1807. Case of the Petitioners against Stoke Rectory Bill 
1807. An Address to Methodists condemning Lamp Meetings 

1807. Annual Report of Sunday School 

1808. Inland Navigation — Liability to Poor Rates 
1808. A List of Manufacturers' Prices 

1808. Committee of Manufacturers — High Price for Colour — Charge for Straw 

1808. Address to the "Landed Interest " —Canal Liability to Poor Law 

1808. Annual Report of Sunday School 

1808. Wedgwood's Manifold Writer 

1810. Forgery of Kinnerley's Notes 

1808. Report for Auditing Parish Accounts 

1808. Poetical Invitation — Sunday School 

1810. Sale of Lease of Potworks at Fenton— J. Byerley 

1810. Workmen's letter requiring to be paid "for all that is dipped " 

1810. Memorandum of Ephraim Vernon's Wages 

1 810. Advertisement for New Hands 

1810. Lakin's Sale 

1812. Evening Mail — Debate on Orders in Council 

1812. Evening Mail — Debate on Parliamentary Reform 

1812. Evening Mail — Assassination of Mr. Percival 

1812. Liverpool Mercury — Freedom of Elections, &c. 

Scarcity — Recommendation to avoid waste, &c. 

1812. Report of Vestry Meeting 

1812. Particulars of Clough Hall Estate 

18 12. A List of the Poor relieved by the Parish 

The Population by General Census was 8,625 

1812. Plan of the Spitalfields Soup Society 

Plan of a projected House and Works at the Nile (not executed) 

1805. Plan of the Battle of Trafalgar 

Description and Drawing of a Patent Churn 



108] 



APPENDIX B 



1807. Warrant for Assessing the Property Tax 
Panorama Picture of Boulogne 
Panorama of the Bay of Dublin 
Burslem Sunday School Library 

1813. Etruria Female Provident Society 

1813. Autograph of the Revd. C. T. Frey 

1813. Letter from Revd. C. T. Frey to E. W. 

1804. Committee of Manufacturers — Pilferage 

1803. Report of Jew's Society and letter of C. F. Frey 

Letter from W. Heatin, Invention for Fire Engine 
1813. Sale of Edward Keeling's Property 

Female Provident Society 

1808. Association for Prosecuting Felons 
Capture of the Chesapeake — Glorious Victory 
Notice against throwing Crackers 

1813. Mr. Carey — Refutation of Report 

1813. Subscribers' Agreement to publish Macclesfield Gazette 

1813. Letter respecting same 

1813. Handbill — Robbery and attempt to murder R. Bowers 

1800. Handbill — Description of T. Smith 

Dispute at Hanley about the Market 
1 8 13. Invitation to Dinner with the Longport Corps 

Case of Petitioners against Clauses in Hanley Green Market Bill 
Invoice Heads, previous and after partnerships 
Drawing of new Reaping Machine 
Call of Meeting to Petition against Orders in Council 
1 8 12. Petition for ditto 

18 1 2. Letter from " A Staffordshire Potter " same subject 
1 8 12. Denial of Exaggerated Statement 
1812. Extract from the Courier on same subject 
18 12. Inflammatory Paper, found in the key hole 
1812. Orders in Council — Address by a Staffordshire Potter 
1812. Paper picked up in the street — " Bread or Blood " 
1 8 12. Observations on the depressed State of Trade 

Copy of lines by " Journeyman Potter " 
1812. Resolution of Meeting — Orders in Council 
18 12. County Election — Address from Mr. Walhouse 

18 12. County Election — Address from Sir J. Wrothesley 

1838. Anderton Carrying Company — Reduction of Rates 

18 1 2. Sale at Big House 

1812. Sir John Wrothesley — Declaration against Orders in Council 

1812. Sir John Wrothesley — A plain dealing Freeholder 

1812. Letter from Mr. Sparrow — Walhouse Election 

1812. Note from Mr. Sparrow to receive papers from Mr. Ward 

1812. Note from Mr. Sparrow to Mr. Ward 

181 2. A Manufacturer's Letter— Statement of No. of Crates sent to America 

1812. Reply to a Manufacturer's Letter 

1812. Election Paper (by Mr. Warburton) 

1812. Election — Sir J. Wrothesley's Resignation 

1812. "A Freeholder " and " Ben Blue " 

1 8 12. Thanks for Mr. Walhouse 

1812. Orders in Council withdrawn 



[109 



APPENDIX B 



1812. A new Song 

181 2. Meeting of Manufacturers 

1 8 12. Songs " Orders in Council revoked " 

1 812. Letter from a Burgess of Newcastle 

1812. Boughey's Election 

1813. Report of the Statement — the Poor in Burslem 
18 13. Requisition for a Meeting to Petition for Peace 
1813. Meeting for Peace 

1813. Political Address — Major Cartwright 

1813. Statement of Distress addressed to the Duke of Kent 

1813. Notice of the Publication of " Staffordshire Gazette " 
1796. Commercial Canal — Notice of Dissent 

1796. Commercial Canal — Aspersions of Character 

1794. Notice of Advance in the Price of Straw 

1797. Mr. Richardson's Address on the Formation of " Women's Society " 

1795. List of Prices of Ware 

1 79 1. Subscription to Purchase Provisions for the Poor 

1806. Property Tax — Assessor's Warrant 

1 814. Petition for the Abolition of Slave Trade 
1800. Turner's Patent 

1807. Report of Committee for Auditing Parish Accounts 

1813. Etruria Friendly Society 
The Battle of Vittoria 

18 1 4. Sale of Seaton Iron Works 

1814. Letter from Mr. Lane — New Air Machine 
Abstract of Statutes for Repairing Highways 
Report of Committee of Police for the Potteries 
Express Coach 

1815. Dinner at the Celebration of Peace 

1 83 1. List of Paupers in Woolstanton Parish 

18 15. Peace 

1 8 16. Price Current of Earthenware 

1 8 15. Celebration of Peace 

18:5. Notice to Innkeepers against encouraging Tippling 

181 6. Notice against attending Meeting about the Market 

1816. Notes from Mr. Rogers and Mr. Jas. Davenport 

1817. Hanley Protest against attending Political Meetings 



no] 



APPENDIX C 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF NAMES APPEARING ON 
ENOCH WOOD'S MAP OF BURSLEM IN 1750, p. xx 



Adams, Edward 

Adams, John, Brick House 

Adams, Jonathan 

Adams, Joseph 

Adams, Martha 

Adams, Ra. 

Adams, Richard 

Allen, Ralph 

Allen, William 

Astbury, Eliza 

Baggaley, Jane 

Bagnall, Sarah 

Ball, Gabriel 

Ball, Joshua 

Ball, Salathiel 

Barker, William 

Barlow, 

Barlow, Eliza 

Beech, Richard 

Bennet, Joseph 

Bennet, Thomas 

Blakely, William 

Booth, Ephraim 

Bould, Ann 

Bover, S. & J. 

Bowers, Samuel 

Brammer, Mary 

Buckley, Ranie 

Burn, John 

Burn, Ralph 

Burn, Stephan 

Burn, Thomas 

Burn, William 

Cartlich, Mary 

Cartlich, Ralph 

Cartlich, Richard 

Cartlich, Saml., Flash Works 

Cartlich, Sarah 

Cartlich, Thomas 

Cartwright, Richard 

Clews, Thomas 

Cliff, Ann 

Copeland, Moses 

Copeland, Thomas 

Clowes, Aaron 

Daniel, Ann 

Daniel, Richard 



Daniel, Robert, Holehouse 

Works 
Daniel, Timacen 
Dean, Mary 
Ditchfield, Thomas 
Drakeford, John 
Egerton, Mme. 
Field, Edward 
Fletcher, Thomas 
Follows, William 
Gater, Mary 
Green, Thomas 
Grundy, Isaac 
Hall, Eliza 
Harding, Mary 
Harvey, Eliza 
Harvey, John 
Heath, John 
Horden, William 
Hordern, Samuel 
Hume, Richard 
Hurd, John 
Hurd, Joseph 
Knowle Works 
Lees, Samuel 
Leigh, Aaron 
Lockers, Maria 
Lockett, Thomas 
Lockett, Tim. 
Lovatt, John 
Lovatt, Thomas 
Malkin, Clark 
Malkin, Sam. 
Mansfield, John 
Marsh, John 
Marsh, Joseph 
Marsh, Mary 
Marsh, Moses 
Mawson, Dr. 
Mear, William 
Mills, Joseph 
Mitchell, John 
Mitchell, Thomas 
Mollot, John 
Moore, John 
Moore, J. & T. 
Needham, Thomas 



Noden, Isiah 

Norbury, George 

Oldfield, Thomas 

Onions, Richard 

Overhouse 

Owen, Christopher 

Parr, Nathan 

Parrot, Richard 

Plant, James 

Practon, Thomas 

Rathbone, Philip 

Read, Thomas 

Rogers, Francis 

Scarratt, Joseph 

Shaw, Aaron 

Shaw, Bridget 

Shaw, Thomas 

Sheldon, Paul 

Simpson, Chell John 

Simpson, John 

Simpson, Joseph 

Simpson, Josiah 

Simpson, Sarah 

Stanley, John 

Stanley, Samuel 

Steel, John 

Steele, Richard 

Stevenson, Sarah 

Stevenson, William 

Taylor, John 

Taylor, J. & T 

Taylor, Mary 

Taylor, Thomas 

Taylor's Potworks 

Ward, Ann 

Ward, Jno. 

Ward, Thomas 

Wedgwood, Aaron & Little 

Wedgwood, Abner 

Wedgwood, Cath. 

Wedgwood, Ellen 

Wedgwood, Thomas, Church 

House 
Wedgwood, William 
Wood, George 
Wood, Ralph 



u 



[in 



INDEX 



Abbey, Richard, 36 

Abelard and Heloise, 98 

Act of Parliament for the Copyrighting of 

Figures, Busts and Plaques, 99 
Adams, Benj., Potter, 77 
Adams, Percy W. L., 61, 84 
Adams, William, 3, 5, 44, 64, 68, 77, 78, 82, 

92, 100 
Alabaster Moulds, 89, 90 
Alexander 1st of Russia, 58 
Alexandra Palace, 22 
Allen, Joseph, 25 
Allsop, Mary, 7 
Alsager, 44 

America, 61, 84, 85, 99 
American War of Independence, 84 
Andrews, Artist, 100 
Animals, 17 

Antwerp, Cathedral of, 43 
Arms of Wood Family, 40 
" Art of Transfer Printing upon Pottery," 84 
Ashby, 65 
Atherstone, 65 
Audley Church, 62 
Bacchus, 14 

Bacchus and Ariadne Group, 58, 59 
Bacon, Mr., Sculptor, 46, 47 
Baddington, the Rev. Henry, 63 
Baddeley, J., 66 
Baddley Edge, 45 

Barber (Collector), of Manchester, 15, 18 
Barber, James, 29 
Barcardeslim, I 
Barnes, Z., 31 
Basford, 44 
Bath, 69 

Beche, Sir H. De la, 90, 91 
Beckford, Alderman, 16 
Bedson & Rhodes, Potters, 64 
Bells Mill, near Shelton, 80 
Bell Works, 39, 40, 61 
Bentley, Rev. Ric, Schoolmaster, 39 
Bentley, Thomas, 32, 37, 44, 99 
Bettany, Sarah, 33 
Bewick, Thomas, 36 
"Big House," 4, 7, io, 22, 73, 74, 100 
Bignal End, 6 
Billinge, 34 
Birchall, Curate, 100 
Birmingham, 27, 54, 69 
Bishop of Lichfield, 2 
Blackwell, John, Potter, 64 
Bonaparte, Bust of, 58, 67 
Borewardes-lyme, 1 



Bostock, John, Artist, 99 

Botteley, Mr. J., 54, 55 

Boulton and Watt, Engineers, 68, 74 

Bourne, Ann, wife of Enoch Wood, 39, 45, 61, 

100 
Bourne, Baker & Bourne, Potters, 77 
Bourne, Charles, Potter, 77 
Bourne, Ed., 69 
Bourne, James, 45 
Bourne, Samuel, 62 
Boyne, Battle of, 33, 80 
Bradford, Joseph, Wesley's Servant, 49, 51 
Bradwell, 27, 71, 72, 82 
Breeze, John, Potter, 64 
Bretherton & Co.'s Post Coach, 69 
Brettell, Anne, 33, 41 
Brettell, Mr., 76 
"Brick House," 44, 6l, ioi 
Brighton Museum, 12 
Brindley, Engineer, 73 
Bristol, 39, 46, 69 
British Museum, 12, 13, 40, 58 
Brooks, Joseph, 32, 33, 34 
Brougham, Stephen, 69 
Brownhills, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 70 
Bull Baiting, 17 
Bur, 1 

Burdeslem, 1 
Burdett, P. P., 32 
Burewardesley-lime, 1 
Burslem, 1-5, 8, 20, 27, 28, 38, 43, 44, 45, 47, 

4 8 . 5 2 , S5> 61, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 

7', 72, 73, 74. 75. 76, 77. 80, 81, 86, 90, 91, 

92. 93, 94, 95, 96 
Burslem Chapel, 96 
Burslem family of Dale Hall, 82 
Burslem Market, 59 

Burslem Museum (see Wedgwood Institute) 
Burslem Old Church, 68 
Burslem & Pottery Bank, 70 
Burslem Sunday School, 68, 69 
Burton, 65 

Burton, Wm., 13, 24 
Burwardeslem, 1 
Burwardeslime, 1 
Busts by R. Wood, 18 
Butter Pots, 72, 73 
Buttons on Wesley Bust, 51, 53, 54 
Caddick, Mrs., 34 
Caddick, Family Group, 34 
Caddick, Richd., 32, 33, 35, 37 
Caddick, Wm., 8, 21, 28, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 39 
Caldwell, Catherine Louisa, 62 
Caldwell, Frances, 62 



["3 



INDEX 



Caldwell, James, 61, 62, 64, 66, 67, 76 

Caldwell, James Stamford, 62 

Camel Teapot, 23 

Cartledge, Thomas, 73 

Cartlich, Samuel and Thomas, Potters, 64 

Castleford, 66 

Chaffers, R., 31 

Charity, 16 

Charles II, 89 

Charlotte, Queen, 24 

Chaucer, 18 

Cheddleton Church, 40 

Cheddleton, nr. Leek, 6, 8, 33, 80 

" Cherry ripe," 33 

Chesters, Mr., 77 

Chief Constable of Burslem, 28, 93, 94 

Child riding Lion, 18 

Children of Enoch Wood, 80 

China, first piece made by Enoch Wood & Sons, 97 

Chorley Hall, 62 

Chubbard, Thomas, 35 

Church, Sir A., 22, 45, 60 

Cimon, 16 

City Road Bust of Wesley, 53 

City Road Wesleyan Chapel, 53 

Clarke, Dr. Adam, 40, 46, 47, 48, 49, 5°. 5i> 

52, 53, 54. 56, 96 
Classic Figures, 15 
Cleopatra, reclining Figure, 59 
Cobridge, 3 
Cobridge Hall, 101 
Cole, Caleb & Co., Potters, 64 
Collection of Burslem Papers, 38 
Commercial Canal, 65 
Compton, John, 62 
"Connoisseur, The," 55 
Cook, Mr., 18 
Cooper, Rev. John, 102 
Copelands, 5, 98 
Coventry, 65 
Coventry Canal, 40 
Cox, Thomas, 2, 71, 73 
Crouch Ware, 72 
Crucifix, Model of, 41, 42, 44 
Cupid, 17 
Curzon, Mr., 65 
Dale Hall, 2, 82 
Dale Hall Church, 8 
Dalehall Pottery, 562 
Daniel, Walter, Potter, 64 
Davenport, J. & J., Potters, 77, 82, 98 
Davies, M., 58 
" Descent from the Cross," Basso Relievo of 

the, 41, 42, 43, 44, 99 
Devonshire Clay, 89 
Diana, 16 

Dillwyns of Swansea, Potters, 90 
Diogenes, 15 
Dixon Austin & Co., 37 

Documents relating to the Grand Trunk Canal, 39 
Dorcas, daughter of Wm. Wood, 39 
Dorset Clay, 89 
Dresden, 90, 91 

Dresden Royal Museum, 22, 90 
Drinking Cups, 17 



Duke of Argyll, Monument to, 57 

Dunderdale, David, Potter, 66 

Dutchmen (Elers), 27 

Dwight, John, 9 

Eastbury, Herts., 62 

Edinburgh Museum, 90 

Edkin's Collection, 57 

Egyptian Black, 61 

Egyptians' use of Seals, 60 

Elephant, 17 

Elers, 27, 71, 72, 89, 92 

Elijah, 17 

Eliza, Enoch Wood's daughter, 49 

Elizabeth, daughter of Aaron Wood, 42 

Elliot, Mayer &, Potters, 56 

"Eloquence," or "St. Paul Preaching," 57 

Emmery, Mr., 73 

"English Earthenware," by Sir A. Church, 60 

Enoch Street, 82 

Entwisle, P., of Liverpool, 31 

Epworth, Lincolnshire, 47, 50 

Etruria Factory, 19, 29, 39, 45, 58 

Etruria Museum, 18 

Exeter, 69 

Falstaff, 14 

Fenton, Town of, 4, 95 

Ferry Bridge, 65, 66 

Fitzhenry, J. H., Collector, 79 

Flaxman, 1 2 

Fletcher, the Rev., Vicar of Madeley, 55, 56 

Fletcher, Wm., 76, 88 

Florentine Originals, 59 

Flute Player, The, 15 

" Fortitude," Statuette of, 59 

Fountain Place, 6, 8, 44, 60, 81, 82 

France, Warwith, 67 

Franklin, Benjamin, 16 

Franks Collection, 40 

Frys & Chapman, 70 

Gamekeeper, The, 16 

Gardeners, 17 

Gee, the late Mr., 44 

Geological Museum, 28, 90, 91 

George III, 24 

Gersdorff, Baron, 90 

Gilbody, Saml., 31 

Godwin, Benj., Potter, 64 

Godwin, Thomas, Potter, 64 

Golden Wedding of Enoch Wood, 86, 87 

Goodchild, Dr., 10, 11, 12 

Goss, Wm. Henry, 92 

Graham, 36 

Grand Junction Canals, 40 

Grand Trunk Canal, 39 

Grecian and Daughter, Group of, 16 

Greeks' use of Seals, 60 

Green, Rev. R., 54, 55 

Greg Collection, 17 

Hall, Mr., 65 

" Hamil" Wedgwoods, 100 

Hammersley, George, 43, 53, 56, 57 

Hammersley, Sir John, 63 

Handel, 18 

Hanley Green, 4, 44, 45, 61, 65, 67, 75, 95 

Hanley Museum, 43, 57 



II4I 



INDEX 



Harrow, 51 
Haymakers, 12, 13 
Heath Thomas, 84, 87 
Heathcote, Sir John Edensor, 66 
Heaths of Hadderidge, 100 
Henley Hall, 6 
Henshall, Ann, 27 
Henshall, J., 27 

Henshall & Williamson, Potters, 77 
Henshall, Williamson & Clowes, Potters, 64 
Herculaneum Pottery Works, 31, 36 
Hewitt, E„ 58 

Holburne Museum, Bath, 10, 12 
Holden, John Irwin, 70 
Holland, 89 
Holmes Chapel, 69 
Holt & Gregson's MSS., 33 
Hope & Carter, Potters, 60, 82 
Hot Lane, 60 
Houdon, 58 
Howe, Lord, 15 
Hudibras, 12, 13, 22 
Hull, 39 

Hulme, Thomas, Collection of, 43, 91, 92 
Hulton, 2 

Hunt, Orator, of Manchester, 69 
Inscription on Bust of Enoch Wood, 80, 81 
Inscription on Bust of Enoch Wood, Junr., 40-42 
Italian Views on Pottery, 85 
Jack on a Cruise, 18 
Jackson, John, R.A., 48 
Jahn, 16, 20 
Jasper, 19 

Jasper productions of Enoch Wood, 98 
Jermyn Street Museum, 28, 90, 91 
Jewitt, Llewellyn, 44, 75 
John, St., 17 

Johnson, Dr., Knives and Forks, 97 
Julius Caesar, Head of, 59 
Jupiter, 15, 18 

Keeling, Anthony, & Sons, Potters, 64 
Keramic Studio Publishing Co., 84 
King of Saxony, 72, 90 
Kirkland, Thomas, 65 
Knowl Works, 76 
Knutsford, 69 
Lawton, Richard, 45 
Ledward, Mr., 77 
Leeds, 31, 56 
Legs of Man Inn, 64, 65 
Leek, Town of, 6 
Leigh, Egerton, 78 

Leighs, I., son-in-law of Aaron Wood, 29 
Leighs, Mary, daughter of Aaron Wood, 29 
Leveson Gower, Lord Granville, 77 
Lichfield, 69, 80 
Linley Wood, 62 
Lion, 17 

Lion in Jasper Ware, 97 
Littler of Longton, 76, 88 
Littler, Win, Potter, 24 
Liverpool Academy, 32 
Liverpool Potters, 84 

Liverpool and the Potteries, 28, 31-37, 39, 41 
65. 96 



Locker, Potter, 17 

Locock, Sidney, 45 

London Mail Coach, 65 

Longport, 75 

Longport Hall, 82 

Longton, Town of, 4, 66, 95 

Lost Piece, 16 

Lost Sheep, 16 

Maddock, James, 91 

Maddock, J. F., 44 

Madeley, 56 

Madonna and Child, Group of, 59, 60 

" Magna Britannia," 2 

" Magna Britannia et Hibernia," 71 

Mail Coach, London to Liverpool, 65 

Malloch, 7 

Manchester, 69 

Manning, Samuel, Sculptor, 46-49, 52 

Mansfield, 36 

Market at Burslem, 97 

Marks, 9 

Marsden, the Rev. Mr., 51-53 

Marsh, Arthur Cuthbert, 62 

Marsh-Caldwell, Mrs., 62 

Marsh & Halls, Potters, 64 

Mason, Miles, Potter, 77 

Mater Dolorosa, Bust of, 59 

Mayer & Elliot, Dalehall, 56 

Mayer, Joseph, " Art of Pottery," 35 

Mayer, J. T. & J., Potters, of Dalehall, 56 

Mayer Museum, Liverpool, 18, 31, 35 

Measham, 65 

Meir, Mary, wife of Aaron Wood, 39 

" Mercury, The," Newspaper, 101 

Meteyard, Miss, 99 

Methodist Connexion, 3 

Methodist Sunday School, 68 

Methods of Decorating, 9 

Milton, Busts of, 18, 59 

Milton, Statuette of, 58 

Minerva, 16 

Minton, Thomas, 77, 95 

Mintons, Potters, 5, 88, 98 

Mitchell, John, Potter, 21, 26, 27, 83 

Mole Cop, 45 

Moore, H., 47 

Moore, J. F., 16 

Moore, N. Hudson, 84 

Morrises' Waggon, 34 

Musicians, 16 

Musee des Arts Decoratifs, Paris, 79 

Museum, Enoch Wood's, 88-91 

Myatt, Potter, 46 

Napoleon, 58, 67 

National Museum, Ireland, 18 

Navigable Canals, Plan of, 39 

Neale, Potter, 92 

Nelson, Figure of, 59 

Neptune, 16 

New York, 84 

Newbold Revel, 6, 8 

Newcastle-under-Lyme, 1, 45, 65, 67, 100 

Newton, Sir Isaac, 18 

Noble, Sculptor, 100 

Nollekens, Sculptor, 59 



U2 



["5 



INDEX 



Nuremburg, 72 

Nymph piping, 18 

Obituary Notice of Enoch Wood, 101, 102 

" Old Age " Figure, 12, 13 

" Old China " Magazine, 84 

Oxford Canal, 40 

Palmer, Humphrey, Potter, 8, 44, 45, 60, 61, 92 

Paris and GEnone Plaque, 18 

Parkgate, 50 

Parson and Clerk, The, 13 

Patricia and Lover Plaque, 18 

Paul, Saint, 17 

Paull, Mrs., Collection, 15 

Peasant at Prayer, The, 17 

Pedestals, 17 

Pennington, Seth, 31 

Pennsylvania Museum, 85 

Perceval, Right Hon. Spencer, 77 

Peter, Saint, 17 

Philip, Saint, 17 

Pike, Mr. & Mrs., 76 

Pinner, 49 

Pitcher Mould, 23 

Pitt's "History of Staffordshire," 73 

Plains of Peterloo, The, 69 

Plaques, 17 

Plaster of Paris, 89 

Plot, Dr., 1, 3, 88 

Pocket Almanacs, 38 

Poet's Corner, Westminster Abbey, 57 

Pointer and Setter, 17 

Poole, Laking & Shrigley, Potters, 64 

Porthill House, 82 

Portland Vase, 30 

Portraits of Enoch Wood, 99, 100 

Postmaster General, 65, 67 

Potts, Mr. W. W., 44 

Price, witness to signature, 29 

Prince Albert, 91 

Princess Louise, H.R.H., Duchess of Argyll, 92 

Printing on Pottery, 84, 85 

Prior, Bust of, 59 

Prometheus chained to the Rock, 10 

" Prometheus Bound," by Voyez, 12 

Proudlove, Mrs., 35 

Proudlove, John, 29, 42, 61 

" Prudence," Statuette of, 59 

"Purity" Statuette, 58, 60 

Queen Anne, 89 

Queen Consort of George III, 69 

Queen's Ware, Wedgwood's, 73 

Rathbone, Fred, 30 

Reading Girl, The, figure of, 59 

Recorder of Newcastle-under-Lyme, J. Caldwell, 
62 

Reeks, Trenham, Curator, 90 

" Representation of the Manufacturing of Earth- 
enware," 83, 84 

Reynolds, Sir J., 35 

Reynolds, S. W., 100 

Ridge House, 39 

Ridgway, Job, Potter, 60 

Ridgways, Potters, 88 

River Weaver Trustees, 39 

Robinson, George, & Sons, Potters, 64 



Robinson & Smith, Potters, 64 

Rodney, Admiral, 17 

Rogers, Hester Ann, 46 

Rogers, John & George, Potters, 64 

" Roman Charity," Group of, 16 

"Romance of Vathek, The," 16 

Romans' use of Seals, 60 

Roscoe, Wm., 34 

Rownell, Parish of Cheddleton, 33 

Royal Academy, 33 

Rubens, 42 

Rudler, F. W., Curator of Jermyn Street Museum, 

90, 91 
Sadler & Green, 19, 31, 34, 36, 37 
Sailor Jug, 14 

Saint George and the Dragon, 15 
Saint John's Church, 2, 100 
Saint Paul, Church of, 2, 102 
Saint Paul Preaching, Statuette of, 57 
Salt, Rev. J., 76 

Salt-Glaze, 6, 7, 20, 21, 23, 24, 27, 72, 89 
Salting, Mrs., Collection, 18 
Samian Ware, 89 
Sanitary Ware, 86 

Saracen's Head, Snow Hill, London, 69 
Sargisson, Rev. C. S., 55, 56 
Savory, Engineer, 74 

Schreiber, Lady Charlotte, Collection, 22, 24, 43 
Seals and Cyphers, 61 
Seals and Seal Moulds, 60 
Seasons, 17 
Seated Stag, 17 
Sewell & Co., Potters, 36 
Shakespeare, Statuette of, 59, 92 
Shaw, Dr. Simeon, 4, 5, 7, 21, 28, 71, 74, 75, 

81, 88 
Shaw, Thomas & Saml., Liverpool, 31 
Sheldon, Edward, Collector, 78 
Shepherdesses, 16, 17 
Sheppard, E., Printseller, 100 
Sherwin, Joseph, 68, 69 
Shetland Islands, 96 

Sidebotham, Dr., Collector, 17, 30, 60, 98 
" Slip" decorated Ware, 1 
Smith, Joseph, Potter, 64 
Smith, Theophilus, Potter, 64 
Sneyd, 2 

Sneyd, Colonel, 67, 72 
Sneyd Green, 3 
Solon, M., Collector, 22 
Southey, Dr., 56 
Spanish Dancers, 16 
Sphinx, 17 

Spode, Josiah, Potter, 5, 66, 76, 77, 88, 98 
Squirrels, 17 

" Staffordshire Advertiser," 86 
Staffordshire Potteries, 40 

" Staffordshire: up and down the County," 83 
Stamer, Sir Lovelace, 65 
Stamford, Thomas, of Derby, 62 
Stevensons, Potters, 100 
Stoke National Schools, 77 
Stoke-on-Trent, 65-69, 91, 95 
Stone, Staffs., 76 
Stoner, George, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 57 



Il6] 



INDEX 



Stubbs, George, 32, 33, 35, 37 

Sudlow, Miss, 34 

Sunday School, Burslem, 68, 69 

Swan Inn, 67 

Talk-o'th-Hill, 62 

Teapots, 23, 27 

Terry, Captain, 59 

Three Grooms Drinking, 18 

Tithe Pig, 14 

Toby Jugs, 14, 15 

Tofts, Potters, 92 

Tomlinson, John, 65, 95 

Trent and Mersey Canal, 37, 40, 62, 69, 73, 81, 99 

Trevithick, Engineer, 68 

Trimming Tools, 30 

Tritons, pair of Figures, 59 

Trowel, Silver, Presentation, 97 

Tunnicliffe's " Survey of Staffordshire," 61 

Tunstall, 4, 64, 69 

Turner, Potter, 78, 88, 92 

Turner, Wm., Author, 84 

Twigg, William E., 84 

Tyrer, G., 32 

Underhill MSS., 32 

Union Inn, 65 

Uttoxeter, 65 

Van Tromp, 16 

Venus, 16 

Vernon, Lord, 65 

Vicar and Moses, 12, 13, 22 

Victoria and Albert Museum, 12-14, '8. 2 4, 43 

Volunteers, Burslem, 66, 67 

Voyez, John, 10, 11, 12, 18 

Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, 31 

Wallis, R. B., Collector, 58 

Warburton, T., 72, 100 

Ward's " History of Stoke-on-Trent," 2, 3,6,55, 

66, 82, 89, 94, 97 
Warner, Mr., of Loughborough, 75 
Washington, Busts of, 18, 59 
Wedgwood, Aaron, 24 
Wedgwood & Bentley, II 
Wedgwood, Henry, Author, 83 
Wedgwood Institute, 28, 43, 44, 59, 81, 91, 100 
Wedgwood, John, Potter, 7, 73 
Wedgwood, Josiah, 4-6, 10-12, 19, 20, 27, 30, 35, 

37. 38, 44, 45. 59, 60, 69, 73, 75, 78, 79, 85, 92 
Wedgwood, Major Cecil, 4 
Wedgwood, Mary, 7 
Wedgwood, Richard, of Spen Green, 7 
Wedgwood & Sons, 31 
Wedgwood, Thomas, Potter, 7, 64, 73 
Wedgwood, Thomas, Junr., 20, 92 
Wedgwood, Dr. Thomas, 21, 25 
Wedgwood, Thomas and John, of the " Big 

House," 7, 10, 92, 93 
Wellington, Bust of, 59 
Wesley Historical Society, 54 
Wesley, John, 3, 8 ; correspondence relating to 

modelling of Bust of, 46-53, 54-57, 59, 83, 

101 
Westminster, Duke of, 35 
Whieldon, Rev. Edward, 100 
Whieldon, Thomas, Potter, 9, 21, 27, 64, 66 
Whitfield, Rev. George, Bust of, 57, 59 



Willet Collection, 16 

" William Adams, an Old English Potter," 44, 76 

William IV, King, Bust of, 59 

William and Mary, 27, 72, 89 

Wilson, David, Potter, 77 

Wolstanton, 44, 61, 74, 82 

Wolfe, Thos., Potter, 77 

Wood, Aaron, 6-8, 10, 13, 21-30 ; Indenture 
of Apprenticeship, 25 ; Agreement with 
Mitchell, 26 ; his death, 28 ; his will, 29 ; 
his sister, Mrs. Caddick, 34 ; his children, 39 ; 
his wife, Mary Meir, 39 ; his models for Salt- 
Glaze, 80 

Wood, Aaron, brother of Enoch, 76 

Wood, Aaron, Junr., 29 

Wood, A. H. E., Browhead, Windermere, 6, 17, 
21, 27, 35, 38, 43, 45, 59, 60, 80, 88, 98, 100 

Wood, Bishop of Lichfield, 80 

Wood & Caldwell, 58-60, 62, 64, 68, 76, 77, 78 

Wood, Captain John N. Price, 6 

Wood, Colonel George Wilding, 6 

Wood, Edward, son of Enoch, 76, 82, 94 

Wood, Elizabeth, 21 

Wood, Mrs., Enoch's wife, 49 

Wood, Enoch, 2, 4-6, 8, 22, 24, 27-29, 33-36, 
38-102 ; his birth, 38 ; sent to Liverpool, 
collection of documents relating to Grand 
Trunk Canal, 39 ; his notes thereon, models 
the family Coat of Arms, refers to old 
Chell John, model of his son Enoch's Bust, 
40 ; inscription upon same, refers to depositing 
in his family vault the Bust together with the 
Basso Relievo of the "Descent from the Cross," 
and a Crucifix modelled when he was 14, 
states why he modelled the Crucifix, 41 ; a 
description of the " Descent," 42-44; "Brick 
House," 44 ; his apprenticeship with Palmer 
at Hanley Green, marriage to Ann Bourne, 
45 ; modelling of the Wesley Bust, Wording 
for intended Medallion at back of pedestal, 
letter from Dr. Adam Clarke in reference to 
the Wesley Bust, Enoch Wood's reply, letter 
from Dr. Adam Clarke suggesting that the 
Medallion might yet be designed, Enoch Wood's 
reply, the Rev. Mr. Marsden delivers a letter 
and a Wesley Bust to Dr. Adam Clarke from 
Enoch Wood, Dr. Adam Clarke writes to ack- 
nowledge the receipt thereof, 46-52 ; John 
Wesley rescued from a fire, the City Road Bust 
of Wesley, the Rev. R. Green's Essay in the 
Wesley Historical Society's Records, entitled 
"Enoch Wood's Busts of Wesley," the Rev. 
C. S. Sargisson's article in "The Connoisseur" 
of September 1907, extract from Ward's 
History, relating an incident at the Leeds 
Methodist Conference, 53-56 ; the Bust of 
Whitfield, Mr. Hammersley's and Mr. Stoner's 
Busts of Whitfield, Statuette of St. Paul 
preaching at Athens, influence of Westminster 
Abbey Sculptures upon the Staffordshire 
modellers, 57 ; Seals and Seal Moulds, 60 ; 
begins business on his own account, James 
Caldwell becomes his partner, 61 ; changes in the 
name of the firm, 62 ; extracts from his collection 
of Records of events in Burslem, 63-70 ; his 



117] 



INDEX 



MS. notes made in Cox's "Magna Britannia 
et Hibernia," in Pitt's " History of Stafford- 
shire," in Shaw's " History of the Staffordshire 
Potteries" and in his private pocket diaries, 
71-77 ; his productions in a white clay covered 
with a turquoise blue ground, and with white 
applied ornaments, glazed, 78 ; his life-size 
Bust of himself with long inscription, 80 ; 
Fountain Place Works, 81, 82 ; the firm publish 
an illustrated booklet, 83 ; blue under-glazed 
printed ware, 84 ; his Golden Wedding Festi- 
vities, 86 ; his collection of early Staffordshire 
pottery, 88-90 ; the Hulme Collection, 91 ; 
proclivity for burying examples of his pottery, 
92, 93 ; he is made Chief Constable of Burslem, 
94 ; he entertains Dr. Adam Clarke at his house, 
Dr. Johnson's Knife Box, first piece of China 
made by his firm, his production of Jasper Ware, 
portraits by John Bostock and Andrews, his 
death and burial, 96-100 ; obituary notice in 
"The Mercury," Staffordshire, 101, 102. 

Wood, Enoch, & Co., 61, 62 

Wood, Enoch, Junr., Bust of, &c, 40-42, 100 

Wood, Enoch & Sons, 3, 60-62, 70, 76, 78, 81, 
84-86, 99 

Wood, Hamlett, Mrs., 76 

Wood, Mrs., of Henley Hall, Collection of, 14, 15, 
17, 18 



Wood, John, of Brownhills, 6, 36 

Wood, John Baddeley, the late, of Henley Hall, 

6, 7, 36 
Wood, Joseph, 76 

Wood, Moses, son of Ralph Wood, the Miller, 33 
Wood, Ralph, 6-8, 9-20, 21, 22, 37, 60, 61, 73, 

92, 100 
Wood, Ralph, Junr., 7, 8, 18, 100 
Wood, Ralph, born 1748, 8 
"Wood, Ralph, and his Son," 15 
Wood, Ralph, the Miller, of Cheddleton, 25, 33, 34 
Wood, Ralph, Colonel in King James' Army, 80 
Wood, Richard, son of Aaron the Modeller, 29 
Wood, Sara, sister of Ralph Wood, 25 
Wood Street, 82 
Wood, Tom, son of Enoch, 96 
Wood, William, Potter, brother of Enoch, 29, 

30, 4°. 45 
Worthington, Humble & Holland, 36 
Worthington, Samuel, 63 
Wright, Joseph, of Derby, 35 
Wright, Richard, 32, 35 
Yates, John, Potter, 77 
Yorkshire Potters, 65 
Youth and Bird Cage, 15 
Zimmermann, Herr E., 90 



[ll8 




ARMS OF WOOD OF PORTHILL 

Per fesse or and sable a wolf rampant counterchanged between 
in chief two trees eradicated proper; crest: on a wreath of the 
colours a demi lion rampant or seme of buckles sable resting 
the sinister paw on a shield also table charged with a wolf's 
head erased gold. 



ood, 6. Anne Wood, b. 
1730, 8 Oct. 1734. 

May 



inoch Wood, b. 

9 July '754 
died young), 
uried 1757. 



Enoch Wood, b. 31 Jan. 1759, — Ann Bourne, da. 



of Fountain Place, Burslem, 
111. at Newcastle 16 Dec. 1780, 
d. 17 Aug. 1840. (Appren- 
ticed to Palmer of Hanley. 
Started on his own account 
in Partnership with his cousin 
Ralph Wood, 1783.) 



of Jas. Bourne of 
Newcastle.Staffs. 
b. 1 June 1758, 
d. 28 Jan. 1841. 




;Pebtgree of 



ARMS OF WOOD OF BROWNHILLS 
Or, a lion rampant between three boars' head erased sable ; crest : 
a demi-man wreathed about the temples and waist with oak leaves 
fructed. the dexter hand holding a dub in bend with all proper, 
the sinister arm extended the hand grasping a wolf's head erased 
sable. 



JOHN BADDELEY WOOD 

of BROWNHILLS. STAFFORDSHIRE, and HENLEY HALL, SHROPSHIRE 
AND 

ARTHUR HERBERT EDWARD WOOD 

of PORTHILL, STAFFORDSHIRE. NEWBOLD REVEL, WARWICKSHIRE. SUDBOURNE, SUFFOLK, and 
BROWHEAD, WESTMORELAND 



Ralph Wood of Cheddleton,— 
d. 1690. 




Ralph Wood (a), 6, 1676. A— Elizabeth Hammond 

Miller in Burslem, and also at 

Cheddleton near Leek, and 

at Bells Mills, Shelton, at 

same time, and died in the 

77th year of his age on 28th 

March 1753, and was buried 

at Cheddleton near Leek, 

Staffordshire. 



ARMS OF WOOD OF PORTHILL 
Per fesse or and sable a wolf rampant counter changed between 
in chief two trees eradicated proper; crest: on a wreath of the 
colours a demi lion rampant or seme of buckles sable resting 
the sinister paw on a shield also table charged with a wolf's 
head erased gold. 



Sarah Wood, 
27 Mar. 1714. 



Ralph Wood (3): 
iPotterl. of Burs- 
lem, ft. 29 Jan. 
1715, baft. 1 6 
Feb. 1716, rf. 12 
Dec. 1772. 



Mary, da. of Aaron Aaron Wood (Modeller in: 
Wedgwood of Burs- Burslem) b, 14 Apl 1717,1/. 
lem, 6.1715,-/1756. 12 May 1785, ft.i/<(-6May 1718. 
The chief Modeller to the 
Staffordshire White Ware or 
Salt Glaze Potters. Indenture 
of apprenticeship to Dr. 
Thomas Wedgwood, Junr., 
dated 28 Aug. 173'- 



\ I I 

Mary Meir, ft. 25 Moses Wood. b. Mary Wood, b. Elizabeth Wood, 

Jan. 1717. 2Feb. 1719, ft.i/>f. 4 Apl. 1722, baft. b. 11 June 1724, 

4 Feb. 1720. (A 8 Apl. 1722. baft. 1724, mi, 

legacy under ne- Wm. Caddick 

phew Josiah's of Liverpool (the 

will.) eminent Portrait 

Painter), </. 21 

Sept. 1795- 



V 


ill! 




Wood, 


Anne 


Wood, ft. 


Anne 


Wood, 


ft 


b 


.10 


Ap] 


1726 


13 j. pi. 


i73o. 


8 Oct. 














©■i//. 


i-- 


May 
















1730. 













Sarah Wood, b. Mary Wood, 

13 March 1740. 1 March 174 

in. Isaac Leigh 



1 Leigh Josiphiah Wedg- 
wood Leigh 



Elizabeth Wood, 
ft. 2 Feb 1744. 
HI. John Proud- 
love 25 May 
1771, rf. 6 May 
1788 (See pic- 
ture for descen- 
dants ) 



William Wood, h. 21 Aug 
1746, d. May 1808 Mod- 
eller at Etruria m. Manine 

Marv Pr-.-fton ol Dr.ivton 

I .. I. 



Aaron Wood, 
16 Jan. 1749 



1 I I 

Richard Wood, Enoch Wood, b. Enoch Wood, b. 31 Jan. 1759, — Ann Bourne, da. 



2 July 175' 



. July 
(died young), 
buried 1757. 



if Fountain Place, Burslem, 
"i. at Newcastle 16 Dec. 1780, 
rf. 17 Aug. 1840. (Appren- 
ticed to Palmer of Hanley 
Started on his own account 
in Partnership with his cousin 
Ralph Wood, 1783.) 



J 1 . ■■!■■. 1. Wood=Mary, da. of Th 
(Potter of Burs- Wedgwood of 
lem), bafi .7 Mar the Overhouse, 
1742, rf. 1789. Burslem, by first 
By will dated wife, Isabella 
1780, leaves sil- Beech, 
ver watch and 
cup to nephew John, son of 
brother John 



I I 1775 

Sarah Wood, b. John Wood of=Mary, da and Ralph Wood (4I (Potter of==Sophia 



Brownhills, b. 13 
April 1746, baft 
20 April 1740, d. 
30 Jan. 1797. 
aged 50. 



heiress of Nich- Burslem), b. 22 May 1748, 
olas Price of 5 Aug. 1795, aged 47 
Ponty Pandy, ft. 



5 Dec. 
25 Jan 

aged 80 



1 



Martha Wood, 
6, 1749, bapt. 
30 July 1749 



Ralph Wood (5), 
rf. 18 July 1801, 
aged 27 {A Pot 
Manufacturer } 



Mary Wood, b. 
1751, m William 
Johnson of Burs- 
lem. "A Mod- 
eller a quo Rich- 
ard Johnson." 



Susanna Wood, 



John Wood, h, AnnMariaWood 
24 July 1776, rf, h. 27 July 1777, 



John 



1807 

wood of=Mary, 



of the Woodland 
Pottery.Tunstall, 
b. 15 July 1778, 
rf. 15 May 1848 



25 Ju 



787. da. of John 
Baddeley of Shel- 
ton by Mary, da. 
of John Wedg- 
wood(i705 1780) 
"Big 



izabeth Wood, 
12 Sept. 1779, 
S. Waller. 



Harriet Wood,/.. 
8 Oct. 1783, <ii. 
Geo. Mar si and. 



I \ \^ \ I I 

i Wood, ''■ 19 Hester Wood, b Edna Wood, b. Eliza Wood, ft. Mary Wood, b. Sarah Wood, b. Enoch Wood, 

1782, in. 21 April 1784, 11 June 1786, m 19 May 1788, m. 19 Apl. 1790, m. 13 Oct. 1791, mi. 12 Feb. 1793, 

John Brettel at wi Robt. Wilson Thos. Stanton of A. H. Blake at I.J, B. Hostage H. H. Budgett, Elizabeth Wid- 



of Jas Bourne of 
NewcasUe.Stafls. 
b. 1 June 1758, 
d. 28 Jan. 1841. 



H,v 



Burs 



Burslem, 25 Oct. at Stoke, 9 Nov. Pen-y-nant, Ru- 

1809, rf. 31 Oct. 1804, i/.at South- abon, 21 May 

1815. port 18 Nov. i842,./.atNorth- 

1862. wichi5jan.i87i 



Burslem, 12 Oct. 12 Oct. 
816, rf. 4 Oct. 24 Dec. 
830. 



:8i6, ,/. May 



Emma Wood, 6 Joseph Wood, '•. Edward Wood, ft. 
17 Feb. 1794, m. 17 Feb. 1795, '"■ 9 April 1796, rf. 
Richard Jones 5 Mary Chappell at New bo Id Re v- 



dowson 26 Aug. Aug. 1826, rf, at at Liverpool 



, Illustration No. 



;condly)W. B. 1819, rf.atNorth- Northw 
Lidiaid, who died wich 11 June Nov. 1878. 
9 Nov. 1858. rf. 1852. 
20 Dec. 1870 at 
Northwich 



28 Aug, 1827, 
Aug. 
(secondly )Emma 
Slater, rf. 26 
Nov. 1862. 



el Oct. 25 1882, 
5 aged 86 years. ^ 



Marianne Wood, 
/'. 1808, rf. 1870. 
mi. Wm Daven- 
port of Longport 
and Maer Hall, 
Co. Staffs. 



Nicholas Price Wood of 
Bignall End, Staff , and 
Wirksworth Hall, Derby, 
/). 1810, ./. 1868. 111 Agnes 
Eleanor, da of Rev. 
Nathan Hubbersty, b. 
1812, </. 1892 



ichard 



I I I 

ountford Wood, John Wedg Wood, of the Clement Baddeley Wood, 
1811-1BB9 MA St Johns Woodlands Pottery, Tunstall, S.P., />. 1815, rf. 1845 
College, Cambs ClerkinHoly O.SP, b. 1813, rf. 1857 
Orders Rector of Aldbury, 
Herts. Rural Dean of Gt 
Berkhampstead. 

"i Mary, da of the Rev Thos. Newcome, Rector of Shenley, Herts. 
hi. Fanny, da. of Henry Hoyle Oddie of Colney House, Herts., of Toms 
Hill, Aldbury. •!. 1904. 

Wife (i j| i 



111. (i) Susan Wood, b, Thomas Horatio 

Sarah Slater, 19 21 May 1797. Wood, b, 28 Oct. 

Mar. 1831, rf, 8 (Died an infant.) 1804, m. Mar- 
July 1843. garet C. Cooper 
(2) 12 July 1841, rf. 
Elizabeth Scho- 7 Feb. 1876. 
field 15 April 
1845. 6. at Mid- 
dleton 14 Sept. 
181 1, rf. at New- 
bold Revel 1887. 



. 1842. 



Edmund Thos 
Wedgwood 



Wolstanton, and 
Henley Hall, 
Ludlow, '• 1822, 



Sophia, da of G. 

F Schmidt of 

Hamburg, by 

Baroness Emelie 

Von Dickman 

Secheran 

b. 1821, d. 1895 



Anne Elizabeth 
Wood, b. 25 Feb. 
1846, buft. .uid 
re*. 4 Mar 1846, 
rf. at Northwich, 
15 July 1848. 



Edward Herbert—E 
Wood, fi 29 Oct. 
1847, w 8 June 
1869, ,/. 7 April 
1886. 



Geo Wilding 
Wood, /■. 1840. 
Lt. -Colonel late 
56th Regiment. 
"Pompadours." 
Of Docklands, 
Ingatestone, Es- 
sex. J P., Essex. 



Anna Maria Car- 
oline, da. of Rev. 
Jas. Morton of 
Little Island, 
Clonmel. 



Reginald New- 
come Wood of 
Bignall End, ft. 
1841. J.P. Staffs. 
mi. Emily Anne, 
da of Wm- Dav- 
enport of Maer 
Hall, Staffs. 
Issue, 3 daus. 



Daughter 



Daughter 
Wife (2) 



Richard Morton Wood, Lt. 
6th Inniskilling Dragoons, '>. 
■875, in. Marguerite Cecili, 
da of Geo. Mansfield of Mor- 
ristown, Lattin. d. 6th Jan. 
1908. 



Algernon George 
Newcome Wood, 
b. 1879. Capt. 
Essex Regt 



~n~ri 

Four Daughters 



Henry Thellus- 
son Wood, b. 
1850. MA St. 
John's College, 
Cambs. Clerkin 
Holy Orders. 
Rector of Ald- 
bury, Herts. Ru- 
ral Dean. Hon. 
Canon St. Albans 



Lucy Elizabeth, Richard Mount- 
da. of Francis ford Wood, 6. 
M. Collins of 1854. 
Marlborough. 



Clement Badde- John Mountford 
ley Wood, ft.1858 Wood, b. 1861- 
Lt.-Colonel late J.P.Norfolk, m. 
Scottish Rifles. Adelaide Mar- 
ianne, da. of Sir 
Morton Man- 
ningham Buller, 
Bart. 



I I I I 

Four Daughters 



Claude ThomasThellusson Wood, 
/M885. B.A.,Trin. Coll. Cambs. 



Elizabeth Mari- 
anne Wood, da 
and heiress. Mi, 
her cousin, John 
Baddeley Wood 
of Henley, Co 
Salop. I.. 1855, 



I 



John Baddeley 
Wood of Henley 
Hall, Ludlow, 
b. 1849, J.p., 
D.L., Salop, rf, 
3 Oct. 1911. 



Major Charles 
Edmund Wedg- 
wood Wood, 
BishtonHall.nr. 
Stafford. 



Edward John Wedg Wood of 
Meece House, nr. Stone, Staffs 
"I. Lettice, da. of Charles 
Challinor f Basford Hall, 
Co. Staffs., and has issue two 



I I I I 

Four Daughters 



Arthur Herbert Ed- 
ward Wood, b, 1 Apl . 
1870, mi, 28 Dec. 
1893, St. Saviour's 
Church.Upper Chel- 



John Nicholas 
Price Wood, b, 
9 May 1877. 
Capt. 12th Lan- 



Edmund Badde- 
ley Wood, ft. 4 
March 1884. 



Herbert Victor 
Wedgwood 
Wood, b. 1897, 



Olive Mary Gran- Evelyn Cicely Wood John Loekhart Mary Ethel Wood, 
ville, b 9 June 1868, />. 9 Feb. 1871, m. Wood, b. 16 Dec />. 2 Dec. 1872, m. 
da. of Major Bevil William Edward 1871. Capt. 18th RichardTyrrelJones 
Granville, late 23rd Stamer2 June 1894, Hussars. m, Mary of Mossfields, Whit- 
Royal Welsh Fusi- Douglas McCorquo- church, 18 Jan. 1911 
liers Wm. Arthur John dalc '4 D f • ,00 4- 
Stamer.ft. 1899 

Geo.LockhartWood, ft. 26 Sept. 1905. 



elyn 



Ann 
Valiant, ft. 19 
May 1850 Only 
da of Major Gen, 
Valiant,late40th 
Regt. 






Constance Islay Helen Grace Wood, Ronald Beaumont 

Wood, /' 29 May 6. 6 July 1878, m. Wood, 12th Lancers 

1875. Richard Heywood, /•. 7 April 1882, m, 

21 Aug. 1903. Inez Murphy, 29 

I July 1907. 



I I 1 I 

Edward Guy Richard Oliver Evelyn Sybil Wood, Alice Ava Wood, 

Wood, />. 31 Wood, 6. 26 A. 12 Feb. 1900. *■ « June 1902. 

Oct. 1894, Mar. 1896. 



Richard Peter Hey- 
wood, 6. 13 July 
1904. 



Evelyn Dorothy 
Heywood, ■ 16 
July 1909. 



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