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THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

JESUP COLLECTION. 



THE 



WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



WITH AN ACCOUNT OF 



THEIR STRUCTURE, QUALITIES, AND USES. 



WITH 



®eograpf)iral antj otjer Noteg upon tfje SEreea 
iD!)icf) protiuce t^em. 



By C. S. SARGENT. 



NEW YORK: 

D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, 
1, 3, AND 6 Bond Street. 

1885. 



Copyright, 1885, 
By C. S. Sargent. 



WinibtrsitQ ?Prc5s: 
John Wilson and Son, Cambridge. 



INTRODUCTION. 



The American Museum of Natural History is indebted to its 
enlightened and public-spirited President, Mr. Morris K. Jesup, 
for a magnificent collection of woods, which display, for the first 
time in a satisfactory manner, the forest wealth of the United States. 
The conception of this collection belongs to Mr. Jesup. The forests 
of the United States are not surpassed by those of any other coun- 
try in the variety and value of the timbers which they produce. 
Many of these are little known or appreciated commercially ; and it 
was the belief of the founder of this collection that the opportunity 
it would afford to engineers, architects, and mechanics to examine 
specimens of the material produced by the forests of the whole 
country would be of great and immediate practical utility to the 
community, and that the presence of such a collection in the 
Museum of Natural History would facilitate the scientific and in- 
dustrial study of the Sylva of this country, and develop a popular 
interest in forests and forest science. 

Mr. Jesup's collection is the outgrowth of an investigation of 
the forest wealth of this country commenced by me more than five 
years ago. The results of that investigation have been published 
in Vol. IX. of the final Eeports of the Tenth Census, which this 
collection will serve to illustrate. 

The trees of the United States are represented in the Museum by 
large and characteristic trunk specimens, arranged in the sequence 
of their botanical relationship. These specimens are cut in such a 
manner as to display the bark, and cross and longitudinal sections 
of the wood, both polished and in its natural condition. They 
are supplemented, in the case of trees of commercial importance, 



vi INTRODUCTION. 

by carefully selected planks, or burls, which often show better than 
logs the true industrial value of the wood. 

Specimens of a few of the arborescent species of the United States 
have not yet been secured, and others are still in preparation. 
These v/ill be added to the collection as rapidly as possible. 

A series of life-size water-colors of the foliage, flowers, and fruit 
of each tree represented in the collection by a wood specimen is in 
course of preparation. They will be displayed with the collection 
as fast as completed. An herbarium of the trees of the United 
States, arranged by Mr. C. E. Faxon of the Arnold Arboretum, will 
afford special students of dendrology an opportunity of critically 
studying the collection. 

The following catalogue of the trees of this country will serve 
as a guide to the collection ; it is condensed from Vol. IX. of the 
Eeports of the Tenth Census, from which are derived the tables 
relating to the physical properties of the woods of the United 
States. These tables have been prepared for this publication by 
Mr. S. P. Sharples, of Cambridge. 

C. S. SARGENT. 

Arnold Arboretum, Brookline, Mass., 
May, 1885. 



CONTENTS. 



PASS 

Introduction v 

Catalogue of the Forest Trees of North America (exclu- 
sive OF Mexico) 1 

The Physical Properties of the Woods of the United States 141 

TABLE I. 

Specific Gravity, Percentage of Ash, Relative Approximate Fuel Value, 
Coefficient of Elasticity, Modulus of Rupture, Resistance to 
Pressure, and Weight per Cubic Foot of the Woods of the United 
States 144 

TABLE IL 

The Trees of the United States arranged in the Order of the Specific 

Gravity of their Dry Woods 153 

TABLE IIL 

The Principal Trees of the United States arranged in the Order of the 

Relative Approximate Fuel Value of their Dry Woods .... 158 

TABLE IV. 

The Principal Trees of the United States arranged in the Order of 
the Elasticity of their Woods (Coefficient of Elasticity, — Kilogram, 
Centimetre) 168 



viii CONTENTS. 

TABLE V. 

PAGE 

The Principal Trees of the United States arranged in the Order of 
the Strength of their Woods (Modulus of Rupture, — Kilogram, 
Centimetre) 166 

TABLE VL 

The Principal Trees of the United States arranged in the Order of 

the Power of their Woods to resist Longitudinal Compression . 169 

TABLE VIL 

The Principal Trees of the United States arranged in the Order of 
the Power of their Woods to resist Indentation to the Depth of 
1.27 Millimetres 173 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 



MAGNOLIACEJE. 

1. Magnolia grandiflora, L. 

Big Laurel, Bull Bay. 

Cape Fear River, North Carolina, south, near the coast, to Mosquito 
Inlet and Tampa Bay, Florida ; along the coast of the Gulf States to 
southwestern Arkansas, and the valley of the Brazos River, Texas, 
extending north in the valley of the Mississippi River to latitude 32° 30'- 

A magnificent evergreen tree, 18 to 27 metres in height, with a trunk 
0.60 to 1.20 metres in diameter; reaching its greatest development on the 
" blulf " formations along the eastern bank of the Mississippi River from 
Vicksburg to Natchez, and in western Louisiana. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, close-grained, compact, easily worked, 
satiny ; medullary rays very numerous, thin ; color creamy white or 
often light brown, the heavier sap-wood nearly white ; little used except 
as fuel ; suitable for interior finish, fine cabinet work, etc. 

2. Magnolia glauca, L. 

Sweet Bay. White Bay. Beaver Tree. White Laurel. Swamp 
Laurel. 

Cape Ann, Massachusetts; New Jersey, southward, generally near 
the coast, to Bay Biscayne and Tampa Bay, Florida ; westward through 
the valley of the Mississippi River souih of latitude 35°, and the Gulf 
States to southwestern Arkansas and the valley of the Trinity River, 
Texas. 

A tree 15 to 22 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 1.20 metres 
in diameter, or toward its northern limits reduced to a low shrub ; 
swamps or low wet woods, reaching its greatest development on the rich 
hummocks of the interior of the Florida peninsula, and along the low 
sandy banks of pine-barren streams in the Gulf States. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays 
very numerous, thin ; color light brown tinged with red, the sap-wood 

1 



2 MAGNOLIACEiE. Magnolia. 

nearly white ; in the Gulf States sometimes used in the manufacture of 
small wooden-ware. 

The dried bark, especially of the root, of this species and of M. acumi- 
nata and M. Umbrella are included in the American Materia Medica, 
furnishing an aromatic tonic and stimulant used in intermittent and remit- 
tent fevers. 



3. Magnolia acuminata, L. 

Cucumber Tree. Mountain Magnolia. 

Western New York to southern Illinois ; southward along the Alle- 
ghany Mountains, and scattered through eastern and middle Kentucky 
and Tennessee, usually on Carboniferous deposits, to southern Alabama 
and northeastern Mississippi ; and in northeastern, southern, and south- 
western Arkansas. 

A large tree, 20 to 30 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 1.20 
metres in diameter ; rich woods, reaching its greatest development on the 
slopes of the southern Alleghany Mountains. 

Wood durable, light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact, satiny ; 
medullary rays numerous, thin ; color yellow-brown, the sap-wood lighter, 
often nearly white ; used for pump-logs, water-troughs, flooring, cabinet- 
making, etc. 

4. Magnolia cordata, Michx. 

Cucumber Tree. 

Southern Alleghany Mountain region, — Georgia to Winston County, 
Alabama. 

A tree 22 to 24 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.60 metre 
in diameter ; low rich woods ; very rare and local. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays 
very numerous, thin ; color light brown streaked with yellow, the sap- 
wood light yellow. 

5. Magnolia macrophylla, Michx. 

Large-leaved Cucumber Tree. 

Western North Carolina to southeastern Kentucky, southward to 
middle and western Florida and southern Alabama, extending west to the 
valley of Pearl Eiver, Louisiana ; and in central Arkansas. 

A tree 6 to 18 metres in height, with a trunk rarely 0.60 metre in 
diameter ; rich woods, reaching its greatest development in the limestone 
valleys of northern Alabama ; rare and local. 

Wood light, hard, not strong, close-grained, compact, satiny ; medullary 
rays numerous, thin ; color brown, the sap-wood light yellow. 



Liriodendron. MAGNOLIACEiE. o 

6. Magnolia Umbrella, Lam. 

Umbrella Tree. Elk-wood. 

Southeastern Pennsylvania, southward along the Alleghany Mountains 
to central Alabama, westward through Kentucky and Tennessee to north- 
eastern Mississippi ; and in central and southwestern Arkansas. 

A small tree, rarely exceeding 12 metres in height, with a trunk 0.10 
to 0.40 metre in diameter; rich, shady hillsides; most common and 
reaching its greatest development along the western slopes of the southern 
Alleghany Mountains. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact; medullary rays 
very numerous, thin ; color brown, the heavier sap-wood nearly white. 

7. Magnolia Fraseri, "Walt. 

Long-leaved Cucumber Tree. 

Alleghany Mountains, from Virginia southward to western Florida 
and southern Alabama, extending west to the valley of Pearl River, 
Mississippi. 

A small tree, 8 to 12 metres in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 metre 
in diameter ; rich woods. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays 
very numerous, thin ; color brown, the sap-wood nearly white. 

8. Liriodendron Tulipifera, L. 

Tulip Tree. Yellow Poplar. White-wood. 

Southwestern Vermont, through western New England, southward to 
northern Florida ; west through New York, Ontario, and Michigan to 
Lake Michigan, south of latitude 43° 30'; and south to latitude 31° in 
the Gulf States east of the Mississippi River ; extending west to south- 
eastern Missouri and northeastern Arkansas. 

A large and valuable tree, 30 to 60 metres in height, with a trunk 
2 to 4 metres in diameter ; rich woods and intervale lands, reaching its 
greatest development in the valley of the lower Wabash River and along 
the western slopes of the Alleghany Mountains in Tennessee and North 
Carolina. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, very close straight-grained, com- 
pact, easily worked ; medullary rays numerous, not prominent ; color 
light yellow or brown, the thin sap-wood nearly white ; largely manufac- 
tured into lumber, and used for construction, interior finish, shingles, in 
boat-building, and especially in the manufacture of wooden pumps, wooden- 
ware, etc. ; varieties varying in color and grain are recognized. 

Liriodendrin, a stimulant tonic, with diaphoretic properties, is obtained 
by macerating the inner bark, especially of the root. 



4 ANON ACE^. — C APPARIDACE J3. Asimina. 



ANONACE^. 

9. Asimina triloba, Dunal. 

Papaw. Custard Apple, 

Western New York, Ontario, eastern and central Pennsylvania to 
southern Michigan, southern Iowa, and eastern Kansas; south to mid- 
dle Florida and the valley of the Sabine River, Texas. 

A small tree, sometimes 12 metres in height, with a trunk rarely 
exceeding 0.30 metre in diameter, or often reduced to a slender shrub ; 
rich, rather low woods, reaching its greatest development in the lower 
Wabash valley and in the valley of the White River, Arkansas. 

Wood very light, very soft and weak, coarse-grained, spongy, layers of 
annual growth clearly marked by several rows of large ©pen ducts ; color 
light yellow shaded with green, the sap-wood lighter ; the large fruit 
sweet and edible. 

10. Anona laurifolia, Dunal. 
Pond Apple. 

Semi-tropical Florida, — Cape Malabar to Bay Biscayne, west coast, 
Pease Creek to the Caloosa River ; in the West Indies. 

A small tree, sometimes 9 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 metre 
in diameter, or toward its northern limits and on the west coast often 
reduced to a stout, wide-spreading shrub ; common, and reaching its 
greatest development, within the United States, on the low islands and 
shores of the Everglades in the neighborhood of Bay Biscayne. 

W^ood light, soft, not strong, rather close-grained, compact, containing 
many scattered open ducts ; color light brown streaked with yellow, the 
sap-wood lighter. 

The large fruit scarcely edible. 

CAPPARIDACE^. 

1 1 . Capparis Jamaicensis, Jacq. 

Semi-tropical Florida, — Cape Canaveral to the southern keys ; in 
the West Indies and southward to Brazil. 

A small tree, sometimes 6 metres in height, with a trunk 0.15 metre 
in diameter, or reduced to a low shrub ; common and reaching its 
greatest development, within the United States, on Upper Metacombe and 
Umbrella Keys. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact, satiny, containing many 
evenly distributed large open ducts ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; 
color yellow tinged with red, the sap-wood lighter. 



Gordonia. CANELLACEiE. — TERNSTRCEMIACEiE. 



CANELLACE^. 

12. Canella alba, Murr. 

White-wood. Cinnamon Bark. Wild Cinnamon. 

Southern keys of semi-tropical Florida ; in the West Indies. 

A small tree, often 10 metres in height, with a trunk 0.22 metre in 
diameter ; not rare. 

Wood very heavy, exceedingly hard, strong, close-grained, compact ; 
medullary rays numerous, thin ; color dark reddish-brown, the sap-wood 
light brown or yellow. 

The pale inner bark furnishes an aromatic stimulant and tonic, occa- 
sionally employed in cases of debility of the digestive organs. 

GUTTIFER^. 

13. Clusia flava, L. 

West Indies ; Key West prior to 1840. Not rediscovered by the 
later explorers of the botany of semi-tropical Florida, and probably not 
now growing spontaneously within the limits of the United States. 

Wood not examined. 

TERNSTRCEMIACE^. 

14. Gordonia Lasianthiis, L. 
Loblolly Bay. Tan Bay. 

Southern Virginia, south, near the coast, to Cape Malabar, and Cape 
Romano, Florida, and along the Gulf coast to the valley of the Mississippi 
River. 

A tree 15 to 24 metres in height, with a trunk often 0.45 to 0.50 
metre in diameter ; low, sandy swamps. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact, not durable ; 
medullary rays numerous, thin ; color light red, the sap-wood lighter ; 
specific gravity, 0.4728; ash, 0.76; somewhat employed in cabiuet- 
makinof. 

15. Gordonia piibescens, L'Her. 

Franklinia. 

Near Fort Barrington, on the Altamaha River, Georgia. 
A small tree, not rediscovered during the present century, and now 
only known through cultivated specimens. 
Wood not examined. 



STERCULTACE^. — TILIACE.E. Fremontia. 



STERCULIACE^. 



16. Fremontia Californica, Torr. 
Slippery Elm, 

California, — valley of Pitt River, southward along the western foot- 
hills of the Sierra Nevada, and in the Coast Ranges from the Santa Lucia 
to the San Jacinto Mountains ; rare at the north, most common and 
reaching its greatest development on the southern Sierras and the San 
Gabriel and San Bernardino Ranges. 

A small tree, 6 to 10 metres in height, the short trunk often 0.30 to 
0.45 metre in diameter, or more often a tall, much branched shrub ; dry, 
gravelly soil. 

Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained, compact, satiny, containing 
many groups of small ducts parallel to the thin, conspicuous medullary 
rays ; layers of annual growth obscure ; color dark brown tinged with 
red, the thick sap-wood lighter. 

The mucilaginous inner bark used locally in poultices. 

TILIACE^. 

17. Tilia Americana, L. 

Lime Tree, Basswood. American Linden. Lin. Bee Tree. 

Northern New Brunswick, westward in British America to about the 
one hundred and second meridian, southward to Virginia and along the 
Alleghany Mountains to Georgia and southern Alabama ; extending west, 
in the United States, to eastern Dakota, eastern Nebraska, eastern Kansas, 
the Indian Territory, and the valley of the San Antonio River, Texas. 

A large tree, 20 to 24 metres in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 1.20 
metres in diameter, or, exceptionally, 30 to 45 metres in height, with a 
trunk 0.92 to 1.84 metres in diameter; common in all northern forests 
on rich soil ; toward its western and southwestern limits only on bottom- 
lands. A variety {^T. Americana, var. puhescens, Loud) with thinner 
leaves softly pubescent beneath occasionally occurs in swamps and low 
ground from North Carolina to western Florida, generally near the 
coast. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, very close-grained, compact, easily 
worked ; medullar}/ rays numerous, rather obscure ; color light brown, or 
often slightly tinged with red, the sap-wood hardly distinguishable ; largely 
used in the manufacture of wooden-ware and cheap furniture, for the 
panels and bodies of carriages, the inner soles of shoes, in turnery, and 
the manufacture of paper pulp. 

The inner bark, macerated, is sometimes manufactured into coarse cord- 
age and matting ; the flowers, rich in honey, are highly prized by apiarists. 



Guaiacum. MALPIGIIIACE^. — ZYGOPHYLLACEvE. 7 

18. Tilia heterophylla, Vent. 

White Basswood. Wahoo. 

Alleghany Mountains from Pennsylvania, southward to northern Ala- 
bama and Florida ; west to middle Tennessee and Kentucky, southern 
Indiana, and southern and central Illinois. 

A tree 15 to 20 metres in height, with a trunk O.CO to 1.20 metres in 
diameter; rich woods and bottom-lands; most common and reaching its 
greatest development along the western slopes of the southern Alleghany 
Mountains and in middle Tennessee. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact, easily worked ; 
medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color light brown, the sap-wood 
hardly distinguishable ; generally confounded with that of Tilia Americana, 
from which it scarcely differs. 

The young branches are often fed to cattle in winter by farmers in the 
southern Alleghany Mountains. 

MALPIGHIACE^. 

19. Byrsonima lucida, HBK. 
Tallow Berry. Glamberry. 

Southern keys of semi-tropical Florida ; through the West Indies. 

A small tree, sometimes 6 to 8 metres in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 
0.25 metre in diameter, or often shrubby and branching from the ground. 

Wood light, soft, weak, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays numer- 
ous, thin ; color light red, the sap-wood a little lighter. 

Fruit edible. 

ZYGOPHYLLACE^. 

20. G-uaiacum sanctum, L. 
LignumvitcE . 

Keys of semi-tropical Florida, not rare ; in the Bahamas, St. Domingo, 
Cuba, Porto Rico, etc. 

A low, gnarled tree, not exceeding, within the limits of the United 
States, 8 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.30 metre in di- 
ameter. 

Wood exceedingly heavy, very hard, strong, brittle, close-grained, com- 
pact, difficult to work, splitting irregularly, containing many evenly dis- 
tributed resinous ducts ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color rich 
yellow-brown, varying in older specimens to almost black, the sap-wood 
light yellow ; used in turnery and for the sheaves of ships' blocks, for 
which it is preferred to other woods. 

Lignum Guaiaci^ Guaiacum-wood, the heart of this and the allied 
G. officinale, formerly largely used in the treatment of syphilis, is now 



8 RUTACE^. Porltera. 

only retained in the Materia Medica as an ingredient in the compound 
decoction of sarsaparilla. 

Guaiac, the resinous gum obtained from these species, is a stimulating 
diaphoretic and alterative, or in large doses cathartic, and is employed in 
cases of chronic rheumatism, gout, etc. 

21. Porliera angustifolia, Gray. 

Western Texas, — valley of the Colorado River to the Rio Grande, 
extending west to the Rio Pecos ; in northern Mexico. 

A small tree, 8 to 10 metres in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 metre 
in diameter, or toward its eastern, northern, and western limits reduced 
to a low shrub ; reaching its greatest development, in the United States, 
on the hills bordering the valley of the Guadalupe River. 

Wood exceedingly heavy, very hard, close-grained, compact, the open 
ducts smaller and less regularly distributed than in Guaiacum ; medullary 
rays very thin, numerous ; color rich dark brown, turning green with 
exposure, the sap-wood bright yellow ; probably possessing medicinal 
properties similar to those of lignumvitae. 



RUTACE^. 

22. Xanthoxylnm Americanum, Mill. , 
Prickly Ash. Toothache Tree. 

Eastern Massachusetts, west to northern Minnesota, eastern Nebraska, 
and eastern Kansas ; south to the mountains of Virginia, and northern 
Missouri. 

A small tree, not often 7 metres in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 
metre in diameter, or, reduced to a shrub, 1.50 to 1.80 metres in height ; 
common, and reaching its greatest development in the region of the great 
lakes ; rocky hillsides, or more often along streams and rich bottom-lands. 

Wood light, soft, coarse-grained ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; 
color light brown, the sap-wood lighter. 

The bark of Xanthoxylum, an active stimulant, is used in decoction to 
produce diaphoresis in cases of rheuuiatism, syphilis, etc., and as a popular 
remedy for toothache. 

23. Xanthoxylnm Clava-Herculis, L. 

. Toothache Tree. Prickly Ash. Sea Ash. Pepper-wood. Wild 
Orange. 

Southern Virginia, southward near the coast to Bay Biscayne and 
Tampa Bay, Florida, westward through the Gulf States to northwestern 
Louisiana, southern Arkansas, and the valley of the Brazos River, Texas. 

A small tree, rarely 12 to 14 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 metre 
in diameter ; usually along streams and low, rich bottom-lands, reaching 



Ptelea. RUTACE/E. 9 

its greatest development in southern Arkansas, Louisiana, and eastern 
Texas. A slirubby, or on the coast arborescent, form of western Texas, 
with shorter ovate leaves, is yav. fruticosum, ^ray. 

AVood light, hard, not strong, soft, coarse-grained, not durable, con- 
taining many scattered open ducts ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; 
color light brown, the sap-wood lighter. 

24. Xanthoxylnm CaribaeTim, Lam. 
Satin-wood. 

Keys of semi-tropical Florida ; in the West Indies. 

A small tree, 6 to 10 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.40 metre 
in diameter ; not common. 

Wood very heavy, exceedingly hard, not strong, brittle, fine-grained, 
compact, satiny, susceptible of a beautiful polish ; medullary rays numer- 
ous, thin, conspicuous ; color light orange, the sap-wood lighter. 

25. Xanthoxylum Pterota, HBK. 

Wild Lime, 

Semi-tropical Florida, — Mosquito Inlet to the southern keys, and on 
the west coast from about latitude 29° to Cape Sable ; southwestern 
Texas ; and southward through Mexico to Brazil. 

A small tree, sometimes 8 metres in height, with a trunk rarely ex- 
ceeding 0.15 metre in diameter, or often reduced to a slender shrub. In 
Florida common, and reaching its greatest development on the keys of the 
west coast ; in Texas not common, but widely distributed as a small shrub, 
or, on the shores of Matagorda Bay, west of the Nueces River, and in the 
valley of the Rio Grande, a low tree. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays thin, nu- 
merous ; color brown tinged with red, the sap-wood yellow. 

26. Ptelea trifoliata, L. 

Hop Tree. Shrubby Trefoil. Wafer Ash. 

Banks of the Niagara River, and Pennsylvania southward to northern 
Florida, west to Minnesota and the Indian Territory ; through western 
Texas to New Mexico ; in northern Mexico. 

A small tree, sometimes 4 to 6 metres in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 
0.20 metre in diameter, or more often reduced to a slender shrub ; shady, 
rocky hillsides. 

A variety with more or less pubescent leaves, not rare on the south 
Atlantic coast, and the common form of western Texas, is var. mollis, 
Torr. & Gray. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact, satiny, layers of annual 
growth clearly marked by two or three rows of open ducts ; medullary 
rays few, thin ; color yellow-brown, the sap-wood hardly distinguishable. 



10 



STMARUBE^. — BURSERACEiE. 



Canotia. 



The bark of the root possesses tonic properties, and is employed by 
herbalists in the form of tinctures and fluid extracts in the treatment of 
dyspepsia, debility, etc. ; the bitter fruit is occasionally used domestically 
as a substitute for hops. 

27. Canotia holacantha, Torr. 

Arizona, — White Mountain region, valley of the Gila Eiver, valley of 
Bill Williams Fork. 

A small tree, 6 to 8 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.30 
metre in diameter, or often a large shrub ; dry, rocky hillsides. 

Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained, compact, satiny ; medullary rays 
thin, obscure ; color light brown tinged with red, the sap-wood lighter 
brown. 

SIMARUBE^. 

28. Simaruba glauca, DC. 
Paradise Tree. 

Semi-tropical Florida, — Cape Canaveral to the southern keys ; through 
the West Indies to Brazil. 

A tree sometimes 15 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 metre in 
diameter ; within the United States not common, and reaching its greatest 
development on the shores of Bay Biscay ne. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, coarse-grained, containing many large 
scattered open ducts ; medullary rays few, thin ; color light brown, the 
sap-wood a little darker. 

The bark of this species is occasionally used as a substitute for that of 
S. officinalis f DC, as an aromatic, bitter tonic. 



BURSERACE^. 

• 

29. Bnrsera gummifera, Jacq. 

Gum Elemi. Gumbo Limho. West Indian Birch. 

Semi-tropical Florida, — Cape Canaveral to the southern keys, west 
coast Caloosa River to Caximbas Bay ; in the West Indies. 

A tree often 18 metres in height, with a trunk 0.50 to 0.70 metre in 
diameter ; one of the largest and most common trees of southern Florida, 
of very rapid growth and decay. 

Wood very light, exceedingly soft and weak, spongy, containing many 
scattered open ducts ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color light brown 
or gray, quickly discoloring with decay. 

The aromatic resin obtained from this species was formerly somewhat 
used in various forms, under the name of Caranna, as a remedy for gout ; 
and in the West Indies is manufactured into a valuable varnish. 



Ximenia. MELIACE.E. — OLACINEiE. 11 

30. Amyris sylvatica, Jacq. 
Torch-wood. 

Semi-tropical Florida, — Mosquito Inlet to the southern keys ; in the 
West Indies. 

A small tree, sometimes 7 metres in height, with a trunk 0.20 to 0.2.5 
metre in diameter ; common. 

Wood very heavy, exceedingly hard and strong, close-grained, com- 
pact, resinous, exceedingly durable, susceptible of a beautiful polish ; 
medullary rays obscure ; color light orange, the sap-wood lighter. 



MELIACE^. 

31. Swietenia Mahogoni, L. 
Mahogany. Madeira. 

Southern keys of semi-tropical Florida ; rare ; in the West Indies and 
Central America. 

A large tree, on the Florida keys rarely exceeding 15 metres in 
height, with a trunk sometimes 0.90 metre in diameter. 

Wood heavy, exceedingly hard, very strong, brittle, very close-grained, 
compact, very durable, susceptible of a high polish ; medullary rays nu- 
merous, obscure ; color rich reddish-brown, turning darker with age, the 
thin sap-wood yellow ; varying greatly in quality in different regions ; 
largely used and preferred to all other woods for cabinet-making of all 
sorts, interior finish, etc. ; formerly somewhat employed in ship-building. 



OLACINEJE. 

32. Ximenia Americana, L. 

Wild Lime. Tallow Nut. Hog Plum. Mountain Plum. 

Florida, — east coast Saint John's River to the southern keys, west 
coast Caloosa River to Caximbas Bay ; through the West Indies to Brazil, 
and on the coast of the Indian Peninsula (introduced ?). 

A small, low, wide-spreading tree, rarely exceeding 4 metres in height, 
with a trunk 0.15 metre in diameter, or in pine-barren soil and toward its 
northern limits reduced to a low shrub ; common and reaching its great- 
est development, in Florida on the west coast. 

Wood very heavy, tough, hard, close-grained, compact, containing 
numerous regularly distributed open ducts ; medullary rays few, thin ; 
color brown tinged with red, the sap-wood lighter. 

Hydrocyanic acid can be obtained from the edible plum-shaped fruit. 



12 



ILTCINEiE. 



Ilex. 



ILICINE^. 

33. Ilex opaca, Ait. 
American Holly. 

Quincy, Massachusetts, southward, near the coast, to Mosquito Inlet 
and Charlotte Harbor, Florida, through tlie Gulf States to the valley of 
the Colorado River, Texas, and extending northward through the Missis- 
sippi Valley to Southern Indiana. 

An evergreen tree, sometimes 15 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 
to 1.20 metres in diameter, or toward its northern limits reduced to a 
shrub ; generally in low, rather moist soil ; most common and reaching 
its greatest development in the rich bottom-lands of southern Arkansas 
and eastern Texas. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, tough, rather hard, close-grained, very 
compact, easily worked ; medullary rays numerous, inconspicuous ; color 
nearly white, turning to light brown with exposure, the sap-wood still 
lighter ; used and admirably adapted for cabinet work, interior finish, and 
turnery. 

A bitter principle (Ilicin), common to other species of the genus, has 
been obtained from the fruit of this tree. 



34. Ilex Dahoon, Walt. 
Dahoon. Dahoon Nolly. 

Southern Virginia, southward near the coast to Mosquito Inlet and 
Tampa Bay, Florida, and west along the Gulf coast to the prairie region 
of western Louisiana. 

A small tree, sometimes 8 metres in height, with a trunk from 0.20 to 
0.30 metre in diameter ; low, wet soil, or often in cyj^ress swamps and 
ponds; not common, and running into numerous forms, — var. angusti- 
folia, Torr. & Gray ; var. myrtifolia, Chapm. 

AVood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays 
numerous, thin ; color light brown, the sap-wood nearly white. 

35. Ilex Cassine, Walt. 
Cassena. Taupon. Yopon. 

Southern Virginia, southward, near the coast, to Saint John's River 
and Cedar Keys, Florida, west along the Gulf coast to southern Arkan- 
sas, and the valley of the Colorado River, Texas. 

A small tree, G to 8 metres in height, with a trunk 0.10 to 0.15 metre 
in diameter, or more often a shrub, sending up many slender stems and 
forming dense thickets ; sandy, moist soil, along ponds and streams ; reach- 
ing its greatest development on the bottom-lands of eastern Texas. 



Cnjlonia. CYRILLACE^. 13 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, liable to check in drying ; medullary 
rays numerous, conspicuous ; color nearly white, becoming yellow with 
exposure, the sap-wood lighter. 

The leaves possess powerful emetic properties. 

36. Ilex decidua, Walt. 

Southern Virginia, southward, through the middle districts, to western 
Florida ; through the Gulf States to the valley of the Colorado River, 
Texas, and northward through the Mississippi Valley to southern Illinois. 

A small tree, 8 to 9 metres in height, with a trunk O.lo to 0.20 metre 
in diameter, or in the Atlantic States a tall, straggling shrub ; low, wet 
woods along streams, reaching its greatest development in the Iron Moun- 
tain region of Missouri, and in southern Arkansas. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays numerous, 
thin ; color creamy-white, the sap-wood lighter. 



CYRILLACEuE. 

37. Cyrilla racemiflora, L. 
Iron-wood. 

North Carolina, southward, near the coast, to middle Florida, and west, 
along the Gulf coast, to the valley of the Pearl River, Mississippi. 

A small tree, sometimes 8 to 10 metres in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 
0.20 metre in diameter, or often a tall shrub, sending up many stems from 
the root ; open swamps, low thickets, or pine-barren pond-holes. 

Wood heavy, weak, hard, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays thin, 
not conspicuous ; color brown tinged with red, the sap-wood a little 
lighter. 

38. Cliftonia ligustrina. Banks. 
Titi. Iron-wood. Buckwheat Tree. 

Valley of the Savannah River, Georgia, south to middle Florida, and 
west, along the Gulf coast, to the valley of the Pearl River, Louisiana. 

A small tree, sometimes 12 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.40 
metre in diameter, or toward its southern limits in Florida reduced to a 
shrub ; margins of pine-barren ponds and streams. 

Wood heavy, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays 
numerous, thin ; color brown tinged witli red, the sap-wood lighter ; 
largely used as fuel, burning with a clear flame. 



14 CELASTRACEiE. — RHAMNACEiE. Euonymus. 



CELASTRACE^. 

39. Euonymus atropurpureus, Jacq. 

Burning Bush. Wahoo, Spindle Tree. Arrow-wood. 

Western New York, west to the valley of the Missouri River, Mon- 
tana, southward to northern Florida, southern Arkansas, and eastern 
Kansas. 

A small tree, rarely 6 to 8 metres in height, with a trunk 0.15 metre 
in diameter, or more often a shrub 2 to 3 metres in height ; low, rich 
woods, reaching its greatest development west of the Mississippi River. 

Wood heavy, very close-grained, liable to check badly in seasoning ; 
medullary rays hardly distinguishable ; color white tinged with orange. 

Wahoo bark, a mild but uncertain purgative, is used by herbalists in 
the form of decoctions, tinctures, fluid extracts, etc. 

40. Myginda pallens. Smith. 

Upper Metacombe Key, Florida ; in the West Indies. 

A small tree, rarely exceeding 4 metres in height, with a trunk 0.15 
metre in diameter. 

Wood very heavy, hard, very close-grained, compact, satiny ; layers 
of annual growth and numerous medullary rays hardly distinguishable ; 
color dark brown or nearly black, the thick sap-wood lighter brown tinged 
with red. 

41. Schsefferia frutescens, Jacq. 
Yellowwood. Box-wood. 

Semi-tropical Florida, — southern keys from Metacombe Key east- 
ward, Caloosa River, and sparingly on the Reef Keys ; in the West 
Indies. 

A small tree, occasionally 10 metres in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 
0.20 metre in diameter, generally hollow and defective. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact, susceptible of a high polish ; 
medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color light bright yellow, the sap-wood 
a little lighter. 

RHAMNACE^. 

42. Reynosia latifolia, Griseb. 
Red Iron-wood. Darling Plum. 

Semi-tropical Florida, — southern keys to Bay Biscayne ; in the West 
Indies. 

A small tree, sometimes 8 metres in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 
metre in diameter. 



Rhamnus. RHAMNACE^. 15 

Wood heavy, exceedingly hard, strong, close-grained, compact; med- 
ullary rays numerous, thin ; color rich dark brown, the saji-wood light 
brown. 

The fruit edible and of agreeable flavor. 

43. Condalia ferrea, Griseb. 
Black Iron-wood. 

Semi-tropical Florida, — Cape Canaveral to Bay Biscayne, and on the 
southern keys ; in the West Indies. 

A small tree, sometimes 11 metres in height, with a trunk 0.25 to 0.38 
metre in diameter, generally hollow and defective ; common. 

Wood exceedingly heavy and hard, strong, brittle, close-grained, com- 
pact, difficult to work ; remarkable for the large percentage of ash ; med- 
ullary rays very numerous, thin ; color rich orange-brown, the sap-wood 
lighter. 

44. Condalia obovata, Hook. 
Blue-wood. Logwood. Purple Haw. 

Eastern and southwestern Texas, westward through southern New 
Mexico to southern Arizona ; probably extending into northern M exico. 

A small tree, 6 to 10 metres in height, with a trUnk 0.15 to 0.20 metre 
in diameter, or often a low, much branched shrub ; reaching its greatest 
development along the streams of eastern Texas ; one of the common 
"chaparral" plants of western Texas, here forming dense, impenetrable 
thickets. 

Wood very heavy, hard, close-grained, liable to check in seasoning, 
containing many groups of large irregularly arranged open ducts ; medul- 
lary rays numerous, obscure ; color light red, the sap-wood light yellow. 

45. Rhamnus Caroliniana, Walt. 
Indian Cherry. 

Long Island, New York, w^est along the valley of the Ohio River to 
southern Illinois, Missouri south of the Meramec River, eastern Kansas, 
and the Indian Territory, south to northern Florida, and through the 
Gulf States to eastern Texas. 

A small tree, 6 to 10 metres in height, with a trunk 0.20 to 0.30 metre 
in diameter, or in the Atlantic States generally a tall shrub ; rich woods 
along streams and bottom-lands ; reaching its greatest development in 
southern Arkansas and eastern Texas. 

Wobd light, hard, not strong, coarse-grained, compact ; medullary 
rays numerous, thin ; color light brown, the sap-wood lighter. 

The fruit sweet and edible. 



16 RHAMNACEiE. Rhamnus. 

46. Rhamnus Californica, Eschsch. 

California, west of the Sierra Nevadas, from the valley of the upper 
Sacramento River southward to Santa Barbara and Fort Tejon. 

A small tree, rarely 7 to 9 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.37 
metre in diameter, or commonly a shrub, along the sea-coast and at high 
elevations, often prostrate; common and reaching its greatest development 
in the valleys of the Santa Cruz Mountains. A low shrubby form, densely 
white-tomentose, especially on the under side of the leaves, of southern 
California, Arizona, and New Mexico, is var. tomentella, Brewer Tfe Watson. 

Wood light, soft, rather coarse-grained, checking in drying ; layers of 
annual growth marked by many rows of open ducts ; medullary rays 
narrow, obscure ; color brown or light yellow, the sap-wood lighter. 

47. Rhamnus Purshiana, DC. 
Bearherry. Bear -wood. Shittim-wood. 

Puget Sound, east along the mountain ranges of northern Washington 
to the Bitter Root Mountains, Idaho, and the shores of Flathead Lake, 
Montana ; southward through western Washington, Oregon, and northern 
California, west of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. 

A small tree, often 12 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.45 
metre in diameter ; depressions and on the sides and bottoms of canons 
in the coniferous forests ; reaching its greatest development along the 
western slope of the Coast Range of southern Oregon. 

Wood light, very hard, not strong, close-grained, compact, satiny ; 
medullary rays numerous, thin ; color light brown tinged with yellow, 
the sap-wood somewhat lighter. 

The bark, like that of other species of the genus, possesses powerful 
cathartic properties, and, under the name of Cascara sagrada, has been 
introduced into commerce by herbalists in the form of fluid extracts and 
tinctures. 

48. Ceanothus thyrsiflorus, Eschsch. 
Blue Myrtle. 

California, — Coast Ranges, from Mendocino County south to the 
valley of the San Luis Rey River. 

A small tree, 8 to 10 metres in height, with a trunk 0.10 to 0.15 
metre in diameter, or toward the southern limits reduced to a low shrub ; 
common and reaching its greatest development in the Sequoia forests 
near Santa Cruz Bay. 

Wood liglit, soft, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays very obscure ; 
color light brown, the sap-wood darker. 

The bark of the root may be expected to possess similar astringent 
properties to that of the shrubby C. Americana^ used with advantage in 
cases of diarrhoea and dysentery, and as a domestic remedy in the treat- 
ment of troubles of the throat. 



jEscuIus. SAPINDACP:iE. 17 

49. Colubrina reclinata, Brong. 
Naked Wood. 

Southern keys of semi-tropical Florida ; in the West Indies. 

One of the largest trees of the region, deciduous, 12 to 18 metres in 
height, with a trunk 0.60 to 1.25 metres in diameter; reaching its greatest 
development, within the United States, on Umbrella Key, here forming a 
dense forest ; not common. , 

Wood heavy, hard, very strong, brittle, close-grained, compact, satiny, 
susceptible of a good polish, containing many small open ducts ; medullary 
rays numerous, thin ; color dark brown tinged with yellow, the sai>wood 
light yellow. 

SAPINDACE^. 

50. -^scTilus glabra, Willd. 
Ohio Buckeye. Fetid Buckeye. 

Western slopes of the Alleghany Mountains from Pennsylvania to 
northern Alabama, and westward through southern Michigan (rare) to 
southern Iowa, eastern Kansas, and the Indian Territory. 

A small tree, 8 to 15 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.00 
metre in diameter ; rich soil along streams and bottom-lands ; reaching its 
greatest development in the high valleys of the southern Alleghany 
Mountains. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact, difficult to split, 
often blemished by dark lines of decay ; medullary rays obscure ; color 
white, the sap-wood a little darker ; largely used, in common with that of 
the other species of the genus, in the manufacture of wooden-ware, artificial 
limbs, paper pulp, wooden hats, less commonly for the bearings of shaft- 
ing and machinery, and occasionally manufactured into lumber. 

The bark of the allied old-world species ^. Hippocastanum has been 
found efficacious as a substitute for cinchona bark in the treatment of 
intermittent fevers, and similar properties may be looked for in the bark 
of the North American species of this genus. 

51. -<E senilis flava. Ait. 
Sweet Buckeye. 

Alleghany Mountains from Pennsylvania to northern Georgia and 
Alabama, west to southern Iowa, the Indian Territory, and the valley of 
the Brazos River, Texas. 

A tree 18 to 28 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 90 metre in 
diameter, or toward its southwestern limits reduced to a shrub ; rich 
woods and borders of streams ; reachinij its greatest development on the 
slopes of the Alleghany Mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee. 

2 



18 SAPINDACEiE. jEscuIus- 

A variety with purple or flesh-colored flowers, the leaflets pubescent 
beneath, is var. pitrpwascens, Gray. 

Wood light, soft, close-grained, compact, diflicult to split; medullary 
rays numerous, obscure ; color creamy-white, the sap-wood hardly dis- 
tinguishable. 

52. -<EscTilus Californica, Nutt. 
California Buckeye. 

California, — valley of the upper Sacramento River and Mendocino 
County, southward in the Coast Ranges to San Luis Obispo, and along 
the western foot-hills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. 

A low, widely branching tree, 8 to 12 metres in height, with a short 
trunk 0.60 to 0.90 metre in diameter, often greatly expanded at the base, 
or more often a much-branched shrub from 3 to 5 metres in height ; 
borders of streams, reaching its greatest development in the caiions of the 
Coast Ranges north of San Francisco Bay. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, very close-grained, compact ; medullary 
rays numerous, obscure ; color white slightly tinged with yellow, the sap- 
wood hardly distinguishable. 

53. Ungnadia speciosa, Endl. 
Spanish Buckeye. 

Valley of the Trinity River, Texas, to the canons of the Organ Moun- 
tains, New Mexico ; and southward into Mexico. 

A small tree, sometimes 6 to 8 metres in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 
0.20 metre in diameter, or towards its eastern and western limits reduced 
to a low shrub ; common west of the Colorado River, on bottoms and 
rich hillsides, and reaching its greatest development in the valley of the 
Guadalupe River, between New Braunfels and the coast. 

Wood heavy, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact, satiny, contain- 
ing numerous evenly distributed open ducts ; medullary rays numerous, 
inconspicuous ; color red tinged with brown, the sap-wood lighter, 

54. Sapindns marginatus, Willd. 
Wild China. Soapberry. 

Atlantic coast, — Savannah River to the Saint John's River, Florida ; 
Cedar Keys ; valley of the Washita River, Arkansas, through western 
Louisiana, and Texas to the mountain valleys of southern New Mexico 
and Arizona, and southward into Mexico; in the West Indies. 

A tree on the Atlantic coast, sometimes 15 to 18 metres in height, 
with a trunk rarely 0.60 metre in diameter, west of the Colorado River 
much smaller, rarely 9 metres in height ; borders of streams or toward the 
western limits of its distribution, onl}^ in mountain valleys ; reaching its 
greatest development on the bottom-lands of eastern Texas. 



Hypelate. SAPINDACE^. 19 

Wood heavy, strong, hard, close-grained, compact, easily split into thin 
strips ; layers of annual growth clearly marked by several rows of large 
open ducts ; medullary rays thin, obscure ; color light brown tinged 
with yellow, the sap-wood lighter; largely used in Texas in the manu- 
facture of cotton-baskets, and in New Mexico for the frames of pack- 
saddles. 

55. Sapindus Saponaria, L. 
Soapberry. 

Semi-tropical Florida, — Bay Biscayne to Caximbas Bay ; in the West 
Indies. 

A small tree, 6 to 10 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.38 
metre in diameter ; common on Cape Sable, and reaching its greatest 
development, within the United States, on the Thousand Islands and 
along the shores of Caximbas Bjiy. 

Wood heavy, rather hard, close-grained, compact; medullary rays 
numerous, thin ; color light brown tinged with yellow, the sap-wood 
yellow. 

The fruit and roots rich in saponin, and used in the West Indies as a 
substitute for soap ; the round black seeds for beads, buttons, and small 
ornaments. 

56. Hypelate paniculata, Cambess. 
Ink-wood. Iron-wood. 

Semi-tropical Florida, — east coast from Mosquito Inlet to the southern 
keys; in the West Indies. 

A tree often 12 metres in height, with a trunk 0.45 metre in 
diameter. 

Wood very heavy, exceedingly hard, very strong, close-grained, sus- 
ceptible of a good polish, checking in drying ; medullary rays obscure ; 
color bright reddish brown, the sap-wood lighter ; used in ship-building, 
for the handles of tools, and wharf piles ; resisting the attacks of the 
Teredo, 

57. Hypelate trifoliata, Sw. 
White Iron-wood. 

Southern keys of semi-tropical Florida ; in the West Indies. 

A tree sometimes 12 metres in height, with a trunk 0.45 to 0.60 metre 
in diameter ; not common. 

Wood very heavy, hard, close-grained, compact, susceptible of a fine 
polish, durable in contact w^ith the soil ; medullary rays tliiu, obscure ; 
color rich light brown, the sap-wood darker ; used in ship-building, for 
the handles of tools, posts, etc. 



20 SAPINDACE.E. Acer. 

58. Acer Pennsylvanicum, L. 

Striped Maple. Moose-wood. Striped Dogwood. Goose-foot Maple. 
Whistle-wood. 

Valley of the Saint Lawrence River to the northern shores of Lake 
Ontario, and the islands of Lake Huion, south through the north Atlantic 
States, and along the Alleghany Mountains to northern Georgia ; west 
through the lake region to northeastern Minnesota. 

A small tree, 6 to 10 metres in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 metre 
in diameter ; cool ravines and mountain sides. 

Wood light, soft, close-grained, compact, satiny ; medullary rays numer- 
ous, thin ; color light brown, the sap-wood lighter. 



59. Acer spicatTim, Lam. 
Mountain Maple. 

Valley of the Saint Lawrence River, west along the northern shores of 
the great lakes to northern Minnesota and the Saskatchewan region, 
south through the northern States and along the Alleghany Mountains to 
northern Georgia. 

A small tree, sometimes 8 to 10 metres in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 
0.20 metre in diameter, or often a tall shrub ; cool woods and mountain 
ravines ; reaching its greatest development on the western slopes of the 
Alleghany Mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee. 

Wood light, soft, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays inconspicu- 
ous ; color light brown tinged with red, the sap-wood lighter. 

60. Acer macrophyllum, Pursh. 
Broad-leaved Maple. 

Coast of Alaska, from latitude 55° south along the islands and coast of 
British Columbia, through western Washington and Oregon, and along 
the California Coast Ranges and western slopes of the Sierra Nevada 
to the San Bernardino Mountains and Hot Spring Valley, San Diego 
County ; not found above 4,000 feet altitude. 

A tree 24 to 30 metres in height, with a trunk 1.20 to 1.50 metres in 
diameter ; borders of streams ; reaching its greatest development on the 
rich bottom-lands of the Coquille and other rivers of southern Oregon. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact, easily worked, 
susceptible of a good polish ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color rich 
light brown tinged with red, the sap-wood lighter, often nearly white ; 
largely used in Oregon in the manufacture of furniture, for axe and broom 
handles, frames of snow-shoes, etc. ; specimens with the grain beautifully 
curled and contorted are common. 



Acer. SAPINDACE^. 21 

61. Acer circinatum, Pursh. 

Vine Maple. 

Valley of the Fraser River and probably farther north in Britisa 
Columbia, southward throu^^h Washington and Oregon, west of the Cas- 
cade Mountains to the Mount Shasta region of northern California ; 
rarely found above 4,000 feet altitude. 

A small tree, sometimes 8 to 12 metres in height, with a trunk 0.20 to 
0.30 metre in diameter ; borders of streams ; the stems often prostrate 
and forming dense, impenetrable thickets. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays 
numerous, thin ; color light brown or often nearly white ; the sap-wood 
lighter; specific gravity, 0.6660 ; ash, 0.39; used as fuel, by lumbermen 
for axe and shovel handles, and by the coast Indians for the bows of 
fishing-nets. 

62. Acer glabrum, Torr. 
Dwarf Maple, 

Valley of the Fraser River and probably farther north in British 
Columbia, south through AVashington, Oregon, and along the Sierra Ne- 
vada Mountains of California to the Yosemite Valley ; east along the 
mountain ranges of Idaho and Montana to the eastern base of the Rocky 
Mountains, south through Colorado and Utah ; in the east Humboldt 
Range, Nevada, and in the mountain ranges of western New Mexico and 
eastern Arizona. 

A small tree, 8 to 12 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.30 
metre in diameter, or more often reduced to a low shrub 1 to 2 metres in 
height ; borders of streams, reaching its greatest development in the 
mountain canons of western New Mexico and eastern Arizona. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays numerous, 
thin ; color light brown, or often nearly white, the sap-wood lighter. 

63. Acer grandidentatum, Nutt. 

Western Montana, canons of the Wahsatch Mountains, Utah, and 
south through eastern Arizona to southwestern New Mexico ; and in 
Coahuila. 

A small tree, rarely exceeding 10 metres in height, with a trunk 0.20 
to 0.25 metre in diameter ; borders of streams ; not common. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays numerous, 
thin, distinct ; color light brown, or often nearly white. 

64. Acer saccharinum, Wang. 

Sugar Maple. Sugar Tree. Hard Maple. 

Southern Newfoundland, valleys of the Saint Lawrence and Saguonay 
Rivers, shores of Lake Saint John, west along the northern shores of the 



22 SAPINDACE^. Acer. 

great lakes to Lake of the Woods ; south through the northern States 
and along the Alleghany Mountains to northern Alabama and western 
Florida ; west to Minnesota, eastern Nebraska, eastern Kansas, and 
eastern Texas. 

A tree of great economic value, 24 to 36 metres in height, with a trunk 
0.60 to 1.20 metres in diameter, or towards its southwestern limits greatly 
reduced in size ; rich upland woods ; often forming extensive forests, and 
reaching its greatest development in the region of the great lakes. A form 
with more widely lobed leaves, often downy on the lower side, common 
alonsr the borders of streams and on bottom-lands from western Vermont 
to southern Missouri, extending south to northern Alabama and south- 
western Arkansas, is var. nigrum, Gray. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, tough, close-grained, compact, susceptible of 
a good polish ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color light brown tinged 
with red, the sap-wood lighter ; largely used in the manufacture of furni- 
ture, shoe lasts and pegs, saddle-trees, in turnery, for interior finish and 
flooring ; in ship-building for keels, keelsons, shoes, etc., and furnishing 
valuable fuel ; " curled " maple and " bird's-eye " maple, accidental forms 
in which the grain is beautifully curled and contorted, are common and 
highly prized in cabinet-making. 

Maple sugar is principally made from this species ; the ashes of the 
wood, rich in alkali, yield large quantities of potash. 

65. Acer dasycarpum, Ehrh. 

Soft Maple. White Maple. Silver Maple. 

Valley of the Saint John Biver, New Brunswick, to southern Ontario, 
south to western Florida, west to eastern Dakota, eastern Nebraska, the 
valley of the Blue River, Kansas, and the Indian Territory. 

A large tree, 18 to 30 or, exceptionally, 36 metres in height, with a 
trunk 1.20 to 1.80 metres in diameter, borders of streams and intervales, 
in rich soil ; most common west of the Alleghany Mountains, and reach- 
ing its greatest development in the basin of the lower Ohio River. 

Wood light, hard, strong, brittle, close-grained, compact, easily worked ; 
medullary rays numerous, thin ; somewhat used in the manufacture of 
cheap furniture, for flooring, etc. Maple sugar is occasionally made from 
this species. 

66. Acer rubrum, L. 

Hed Maple. Swamp Maple. Soft Maple. Water Maple. 

New Brunswick, Quebec, and Ontario south of latitude 49°, north and 
west to the Lake of the Woods, south to Indian and Caloosa Rivers, 
Florida ; west to eastern Dakota, eastern Nebraska, the Indian Territory, 
and the valley of the Trinity River, Texas. 

A large tree, 20 to 30 or, exceptionally, 32 metres in height, with a 
trunk 0.90 to 1.50 metres in diameter ; borders of streams and low, wet 



Negundo. SAPINDACEiE. 23 

swamps, reaching its greatest development in the valleys of the lower 
\Yabash and Yazoo Rivers. A form common in southern Arkansas, east- 
ern Texas, western Louisiana, and sparingly through the Gulf States to 
southern Georgia, and well characterized by its obovate or truncate leaves, 
densely covered, as well as the petioles and young shoots, with a thick 
white tomentum, is var. Drummondii, Sargent. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, close-grained, compact, easily worked ; 
medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color brown, often tinged with red, 
the sap-wood lighter ; largely used in cabinet-making, turnery, and for 
wooden-ware, gunstocks, etc. 

67. Negundo aceroides, Moench. 
Box Elder. Ash-leaved Maple. 

Shores of the Winooski River and Lake Champlain, Vermont, near 
Ithaca, New York, eastern Pennsylvania, and south to Hernando County, 
Florida ; northwest through the lake region of the United States and 
Manitoba to Lake Winnipeg, and along the southern branch of the Sas- 
katchewan to the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains ; west, in the 
United States, to the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains of Montana, 
and the Wahsatch Mountains, Utah ; southwest through the basin of the 
Mississippi River, western Texas, and New Mexico to eastern Arizona ; 
and southward into Mexico. 

A tree 15 to 22 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 0.90 metre, or, 
exceptionally, 1.20 metres in diameter ; moist soil, borders of streams, etc. ; 
in the Rocky Mountain region in high valleys, between 5,000 and 6,000 
feet elevation ; one of the most widely distributed trees of the American 
forest, reaching its greatest development in the valleys of the Wabash and 
Cumberland Rivers. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays 
numerous, thin ; color creamy-white, the sap-wood hardly distinguishable ; 
occasionally used in the interior finish of houses, for wooden-ware, cooper- 
age, and paper-pulp. 

Small quantities of maple sugar are sometimes obtained from this 
species. 

68. Negundo Californicum, Torr. & Gray. 
Box Elder. 

California, — valley of the lower Sacramento River, southward in the 
interior valleys of the Coast Ranges to the western slopes of the San Ber- 
nardino Mountains. 

A small tree, 6 to 12 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.60 
metre in diameter ; borders of streams. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays 
numerous, thin ; color nearly white, or slightly tinged with yellow ; 
occasionally used in the manufacture of cheap furniture. 



24 



ANACARDIACEiE. 



Rhun. 



ANACARDIACE^. 

69. Rhus cotinoides, Nutt. 
Chittam-wood. 

Alabama, — southern slopes of the Cumberland Mountains, north of 
the Tennessee River ; and doubtfully reported north of the Alabama 
line, in Tennessee. Indian Territory, rocky banks of the Grand River 
(JVuttall), 

In Alabama, a small wide-branching tree, 9 to 10 metres in height, 
with a trunk sometimes 0.30 metre in diameter, on limestone benches 
between 700 and 900 feet elevation, in dense forests of oak, ash, maple, 
etc. ; local and very rare ; not rediscovered in Arkansas or the Indian 
Territory ; in Alabama nearly exterminated. 

Wood light, soft, rather coarse-grained, checking badly in drying, very 
durable in contact with the soil ; layers of annual growth marked by sev- 
eral rows of large open ducts ; medullary rays numerous, very obscure ; 
color bright, clear, rich orange, the thin sap-wood nearly white ; largely 
used locally for fencing, and yielding a clear orange dye. 

70. Rhus typhina, L. 
Staghorn Sumach. 

New Brunswick, west through the valley of the Saint Lawrence River 
to southern Ontario and Minnesota, south through the northern States and 
along the Alleghany Mountains to northern Georgia, central Alabama 
and Mississippi. 

A small tree, rarely 9 metres in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.30 
metre in diameter, or often a shrub ; dry hillsides, or often along streams 
in sandy, moist soil. 

Wood light, brittle, soft, coarse-grained, compact, satiny, taking a good 
polish ; layers of annual growth clearly marked by four to six rows of 
large open ducts ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color yellow 
streaked with green, the sap-wood nearly white ; occasionally used for 
inlaying cabinet work. 

Bark and leaves, astringent, and rich in tannin, are somewhat used 
locally as a dye and in dressing skins. 



71. Rhus copallina, L. 
Dwarf Sumach. 

Northern New England, south to Manatee and Caximbas Bay, Florida, 
west to Missouri, Arkansas, and the valley of the San Antonio River, 
Texas. 

A small tree, 6 to 9 metres in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 metre 
in diameter, or at the north a low shrub 1 to 2 metres in height ; dry hills 



Rhus. ANACARDIACE^. 25 

and ridges ; reaching its greatest development in southern Arkansas and 
eastern Texas ; running into various forms (var. lanceolata, Gray ; var. 
leucantha^ DC). 

Wood light, soft, not strong, coarse-grained, compact, satiny, suscep- 
tible of a good polish ; layers of annual growth clearly marked by several 
rows of large open ducts ; medullary rays thin, not prominent ; color 
light brown, streaked with green, or often tinged with red ; the sap-wood 
lighter. 

Leaves and bark astringent, rich in tannin ; the leaves largely collected, 
principally in Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, and Tennessee, and 
ground for tanning and dyeing. 



72. Rhus venenata, DC. 
Poison Sumach. Poison Elder. 

Northern New England, south to northern Georgia, Alabama, and 
western Louisiana, west to northern Minnesota, Missouri, and Arkansas. 

A small tree, 6 to 8 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.15 to 
0.20 metre in diameter, or more often a tall shrub ; low, wet swamps, or 
more rarely on higher ground. 

Wood light, soft, coarse-grained, moderately compact ; layers of annual 
growth clearly marked by three or four rows of large open ducts ; medul- 
lary rays thin, very obscure ; color light yellow streaked with brown, the 
sap-wood lighter. 

The whole plant, as well as the allied R. Toxicodendron, is exceedingly 
poisonous to most persons, owing to the presence of a volatile principle, 
Toxicodendric acid ; the white milky sap, turning black in drying, yields 
a valuable lacquer. 

73. Rhus Metopium, L. 

Poison-wood. Coral Sumach. Mountain Manchineel. Bum-wood. 
Hog Plum. Doctor-gum. 

Semi-tropical Florida, — Bay Biscayne to the southern keys ; in the 
West Indies. 

A tree 12 to 15 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.60 metre 
in diameter, reaching, in the United States, its greatest development on 
the shores of Bay Biscayne, near Miami ; one of the most common trees 
of the region, the large specimens generally decayed. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, close-grained, checking badly in drying, 
containing many evenly distributed open ducts ; medullary rays numerous, 
thin ; color rich dark brown streaked with red, the sap-wood light brown 
or yellow. 

A resinous gum, emetic, purgative, and diuretic, is obtained from incis- 
ions made in the bark of this species. 



26 LEGUMINOSiE. Pistacia. 

74. Pistacia Mexicana, IIBK, 

Texas, — valley of the Rio Grande near the mouth of the Pecos River ; 
ill northern Mexico. 
Wood not examined. 

LEGUMINOS^. 

75. Eysenhardtia orthocarpa, Watson. 

Western Texas, valleys of the upper Guadalupe and Rio Grande, west 
to the Santa Rita and Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona ; in northern 
Mexico. 

A small tree. 5 to 6 metres in height, with a trunk 0.09 to 0.15 metre 
in diameter, or more often a low shrub ; dry, gravelly soil, reaching its 
greatest known development, in the United States, near the summit of the 
Santa Catalina Mountains, at 3,000 feet elevation. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, very compact ; layers of annual growth 
clearly defined by numerous rows of open ducts ; medullary rays numer- 
ous, thin ; color light reddish-brown, the sap-wood clear yellow. 

76. Dalea spinosa, Gray. 

Colorado Desert, southern California to the valley of the lower Gila 
River, Arizona. 

A small tree, sometimes G metres in height, with a short, stout trunk 
0.45 to 0.50 metre in diameter, or often a low shrub ; dry, gravelly, rocky 
soil. 

Wood light, soft, rather coarse-grained, containing many regularly dis- 
tributed open ducts ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color walnut brown, 
the sap-wood nearly white. 

77. Robinia Pseudacacia, L. 

Locust. Black Locust. Yellow Locust, 

Alleghany Mountains, from Pennsylvania to northern Georgia ; widely 
and generally naturalized throughout the United States east of the Rocky 
Mountains, and possibly indigenous in northeastern and western Arkansas, 
and on the prairies of eastern Indian Territory. 

A tree 22 to 25 metres in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 1.20 metres 
in diameter ; west of the Mississippi River much smaller, or often a low 
shrub 1.80 to 3 metres in height, reaching its greatest development on the 
western slopes of the mountains of West Virginia. 

Wood heavy, exceedingly hard and strong, close-grained, compact, very 
durable in contact with the ground ; layers of annual growth clearly marked 
by two or three rows of large open ducts ; color brown or more rarely 
light green, the sap-wood yellow ; largely used for treenails, posts of all 
sorts, construction, and in turno>ry. 



Olneya. LEGUMINOSiE. 27 

The bark of the root is tonic, or in large doses purgative and emetic. 
The locust was formerly widely planted us a timber tree ; its cultivation 
in the United States is now generally abandoned on account of the de- 
structive attacks of the locust-borer {Cyllene picta). 



78. Robinia viscosa, Vent. 
Clammy Locust. 

High Alleghan}' Mountains of North Carolina. 

A small tree, 9 to 1 2 metres in height, with a trunk not exceeding 0.30 
metre in diameter ; very rare and local in a wild state, but now widely 
cultivated and occasionally naturalized'in the Atlantic States. 

Wood (of a cultivated specimen) heavy, hard, close-grained, compact ; 
layers of annual growth clearly marked by many rows of open ducts ; 
medullary rays numerous, thin ; color brown, the sap-wood light yellow. 

79. Robinia Neo-Mexicana, Gray. 
Locust, 

Southern Colorado, through western and southwestern New Mexico to 
the Santa Catalina and Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona, and in southern 
Utah. 

A small tree, sometimes 6 to 8 metres in height,,with a trunk 0.15 
to 0.25 metre in diameter, or toward its upper limits of growth reduced 
to a low shrub; reaching its greatest development in the valley of the 
Purgatory River, Colorado. 

Wood heavy, exceedingly hard, strong, close-grained, compact, satiny, 
containing many evenly distributed open ducts ; medullary rays thin, con- 
spicuous ; color yellow streaked with brown, the sap-wood light yellow. 

80. Olneya Tesota, Gray. 
Lron-wood. Arbol de Hicrro. 

California, valley of the Colorado River south of the Mohave Moun- 
tains, valley of the lower Gila River, southwestern Arizona ; southward 
in Sonora. 

A small tree, in the United States rarely 9 metres in height, with a 
trunk sometimes 0.45 metre in diameter; dry arroyos and cailons ; in 
Sonora more common and of larger size. 

Wood very heavy and hard, strong, brittle, close-grained, compact ; the 
grain generally contorted, difficult to cut and work, susceptible of a high 
polish ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color rich dark brown streaked 
with red, the sap-wood clear bright yellow ; occasionally manufactured into 
canes and other small objects. 



28 LEGUMINOS^. Piscidia. 

81. Piscidia Erythrina, L. 
Jamaica Dogwood. 

Semi-tropical Florida, — Bay Biscayne and Pease Creek to the south- 
ern keys ; in the West Indies and southern Mexico. 

A tree 12 to 15 metres in height, with a trunk 0.45 to 0.75 metre in 
diameter. 

Wood heavy, very hard, not strong, close-grained, compact, susceptible 
of a high polish, containing few large scattered open ducts ; medullary 
rays thin, not conspicuous ; color yellowish brown, the sap-wood lighter ; 
one of the most valuable woods of the region for boat-building, firewood, 
and charcoal. 

The bark, especially of the root, narcotic, occasionally administered in 
the form of tinctures, or used, as well as the young branches and leaves, 
to poison or stupefy fish. 

82. Cladrastis tinctoria, Raf. 
Yellow-wood. Yellow Ash. Gopher-wood. 

Central Kentucky, and middle Tennessee to the mountains of East 
Tennessee and Cherokee County, North Carolina. 

A tree 9 to 15 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.90 metre, 
or exceptionally 1.20 metres, in diameter; rich hillsides; reaching its 
greatest development in middle Tennessee ; rare and very local, the large 
trees generally hollow or defective. 

Wood heavy, very hard, strong, close-grained, compact, susceptible of 
a good polish ; layers of annual growth clearly marked by several rows 
of open ducts, and containing many evenly distributed similar ducts ; 
color bright clear yellow, changing with exposure to light brown, the 
sap-wood nearly white ; used for fuel, occasionally for gunstocks, and 
yielding a clear yellow dye. 

83. Sophora secundiflora, Lagasca. 
Frigolito. 

Matagorda Bay, Texas, west to the mountains of New Mexico. 

A small tree, sometimes 9 metres in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 
metre in diameter, or often, especially west of the San Antonio River, a 
tall shrub rarely exceeding 2 metres in height, and forming dense thickets ; 
borders of streams, generally in low, rather moist soil. 

Wood ver}^ heavy, hard, close-grained, compact, susceptible of a high 
polish ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color orange streaked with red, 
the heavier sap-wood brown or yellow ; furnishing valuable fuel. 

The seeds contain an exceedingly poisonous alkaloid, Sophoria. 

84. Sophora affinis, Torr. & Gray. 

Valley of the Arkansas River, Arkansas to the valley of the San 
Antonio River, Texas. 



Gleditschia. LEGUMINOSiE. 29 

A small tree, 5 to 7 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.15 to 
0.2;") metre in diameter ; borders of streams and prairies. 

Wood heavy, very hard, strong, coarse-grained, compact ; layers of 
annual growth clearly marked with several- rows of large open ducts; 
medullary rays thin, conspicuous ; color light red, the sap-wood bright 
clear yellow. 

85. Gymnocladus Canadensis, Lam. 
Kentucky Coffee-tree. Coffee-nut. 

Southern Pennsylvania (rare) ; western New York (rare) ; west through 
southern Ontario and southern Michigan to the valley of the Minnesota 
River, Minnesota, eastern Nebraska, eastern Kansas, southwestern Arkan- 
sas, and the Indian Territory, extending south to middle Tennessee. 

A tree 25 to 33 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 0.90 metre in 
diameter ; rich woods and bottom-lands ; not common. 

Wood heavy, not hard, strong, coarse-grained, durable in contact with 
the ground, liable to check in drying, easily worked, susceptible of a high 
polish ; Ifiyers of annual growth clearly marked by one or two rows of 
open ducts ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color light rich brown tinged 
with red, the thin sap-wood lighter ; occasionally used in cabinet-making, 
for posts, rails, etc. 

The fresh leaves, macerated and sweetened, are occasionally used as a 
poison for house-flies ; the seeds, formerly as a domestic substitute for coffee. 

86. Gleditschia triacanthos, L. 

Honey Locust. Black Locust. Three-thorned Acacia. Sweet Locust. 
Honey Shucks. 

Western slopes of the Alleghany Mountains of Pennsylvania, west 
through southern Michigan to eastern Nebraska, eastern Kansas, and the 
Indian Territory ; south to Tampa Bay, Florida (not detected in east 
Florida), northern Alabama, northern Mississippi, and the valley of the 
Brazos River, Texas. 

A tree 25 or 30 metres, or exceptionally 40 metres, in height, with a 
trunk 0.60 to 1.20 metres in diameter ; low, rich bottom-lands, or more 
rarely on dry, sterile hills ; the characteristic tree of the "' barrens " of 
middle Kentucky and Tennessee ; reaching its greatest development on the 
bottom-lands of the lower Ohio River basin ; widely cultivated for shade 
and as a hedge plant, and now somewhat naturalized in the Atlantic States 
east of the Alleghany Mountains. A not uncommon form, nearly destitute 
of thorns, is var. inermis, Pursh. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, coarse-grained, moderately compact, very 
durable in contact with the soil, susceptible of a high polish ; layers of 
annual growth strongly marked by many rows of open ducts ; medullary 
rays numerous, conspicuous ; color bright brown or red, the sap-wood 
lighter ; used for fence posts and rails, wagon hubs, construction, etc. 



30 LEGUMINOS.E. Gleditschia. 

87. Gleditschia monosperma, Walt. 

Water Locust. 

South Carolina, generally near the coast, to Matanzas Inlet and Tampa 
Bay, Florida, through the Gulf States to the valley of the Brazos River, 
Texas, and through Arkansas to middle Kentucky and Tennessee, south- 
ern Indiana and Illinois. 

A tree 12 to 18 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.60 or, 
exceptionally, 0.90 metre in diameter ; deep swamps ; rare in the south 
Atlantic and Gulf States ; common and reaching its greatest development 
on the bottom-lands of southern Arkansas, Louisiana, and eastern Texas, 
here often coverinsr extensive areas. 

AYood heavy, very hard, strong, rather coarse-grained, compact, suscep- 
tible of a high polish ; layers of annual growth clearly marked by one to 
three rows of open ducts ; medullary rays thin, conspicuous ; color rich 
bright brown tinged with red, the thick heavier sap-wood clear light 
yellow. 

88. Parkinsonia Torreyana, Watson. 

Green-harked Acacia. Palo Verde. 

Colorado Desert, southern California to the valley of the lower Gila 
River, Arizona. 

A low, much-branched tree, 8 to 10 metres in height, the short trunk 
sometimes 0.45 to 0.50 metre in diameter ; low canons and depressions in 
the sand-hills of the desert ; common and reaching its greatest development 
in the valleys of the lower Colorado and Gila Rivers. 

Wood heavy, not strong, soft, close-grained, compact, satiny, susceptible 
of a beautiful polish, containing many small, evenly distributed, open ducts; 
medullary rays very numerous, thin ; color light brown, the sap-wood clear 
light yellow. 

89. Parkinsonia micropliylla, Torr. 

Valleys of the lower Colorado and Bill Williams Rivers, eastward 
through southern Arizona. 

A small, much-branched tree, 6 to 7 metres in height, with a trunk 0.25 
to 0.30 metre in diameter ; or often a low shrub, 1 to 3 metres in height. 

AVood heavy, hard, coarse-grained, compact, containing numerous large 
scattered open ducts ; medullary rays numerous, thin, conspicuous ; color 
dark rich brown streaked with red, the sap-wood light brown or yellow. 

90. Parkinsonia aculeata, L. 

Corpus Christi, Texas, west along the Mexican boundary to the valley 
of the Colorado River, Arizona, and southward into Mexico ; probably of 
American origin, but now widely naturalized throughout the tropical and 
warmer regions of the globe. 



Prosopis. LEGUMINOS.E. 31 

A small tree, 6 to 12 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.30 
metre in diameter. 

Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained, inclined to check in drying, con- 
taining many evenly distributed small open ducts ; medullary rays very 
numerous, thin, conspicuous ; color light brown, the very thick sap-wood 
lighter, often tinged with yellow. 

91. Cercis Canadensis, L. 
Red-bud. Judas Tree. 

Western Pennsylvania, south to Tampa Bay, Florida, and northern 
Alabama and Mississippi, west through southern ^lichigan and Minne- 
sota to eastern Nebraska ; southwest through Missouri and Arkansas to 
the eastern portions of the Indian Territory, Louisiana, and the valley of 
the Brazos River, Texas. 

A small tree, 12 to 16 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.30 
metre in diameter ; rich woods, borders of streams, and swamps ; most 
common and reaching its greatest development in southern Arkansas, the 
Indian Territory, and eastern Texas. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, rather coarse-grained, compact, suscep- 
tible of a good polish ; layers of annual growth clearly marked by one to 
three rows of open ducts ; medullary rays exceedingly numerous, thin ; 
color rich dark brown tinged with red, the sap-wood lighter. 

92. Cercis reniformis, Engelm. 
Red-bud. 

Middle and western Texas west of the Colorado River ; in northern 
Mexico. 

A small tree, G to 8 metres in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 metre 
in diameter, or often a shrub forming dense thickets ; limestone hills. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact ; layers of annual growth 
clearly marked by one to three rows of open ducts ; medullary rays 
numerous, not conspicuous ; color brown streaked with yellow, the sap- 
wood liffhter. 



"O* 



93. Prosopis juliflora, DC. 

MesquiU Algaroba. Honey Locust. Honey Pod. 

Texas, — valley of the Trinity River to the northern and western limits 
of the State ; west through New^ Mexico and Arizona to the western 
foothills of the San Bernardino Mountains, California^ reaching southern 
Colorado, southern Utah, and southern Nevada ; in northern Mexico. 

A tree of the first economic value, sometimes 9 to lo metres in height, 
with a trunk 0.90 metre in diameter, or much smaller, often reduced to a 
low shrub ; dry prairies and high rocky plains, or west of the Rocky 
Mountains, along desert streams, here often forming open forests, and 



32 LEGUMINOSiE. Prosopis. 

reaching its greatest development, within the United States, in the valley 
of the Santa Cruz and other stream^ of southern Arizona ; in western 
Texas, owing to the annual burning of the prairies, rarely 1 metre in 
height, the roots then enormously developed, often weighing several 
hundred pounds, and forming, as they are here locally known, " under- 
ground forests," furnishing the best and cheapest fuel of the region. 

Wood heavy, very hard, not strong, close-grained, compact, difficult to 
work, almost indestructible in contact with the soil, containing many 
evenly distributed, rather large, open ducts ; medullary rays numerous, 
distinct ; color rich dark brown or often red, the sap-wood clear yellow ; 
exclusively used for the beams and underi^innings of the adobe houses of 
New Mexico, Arizona, and northern Mexico, for posts and fencing, and 
occasionally in the manufacture of furniture, the fellies of heavy wheels, 
etc. ; the best and often the only fuel of the region, burning slowly with 
a clear flame, and producing valuable charcoal, but unsuited for the gen- 
eration of steam on account of its destructive action upon boilers. 

A gum resembling gum-arabic is yielded by this species ; the unripe 
and pulpy pods rich in grape sugar, are edible, furnishing valuable and 
important fodder. 

94. Prosopis pnbescens, Benth. 

Screw Bean. Screw-pod Mesquit. Tornilla. 

Valley of the Rio Grande in western Texas, west through New Mex- 
ico and Arizona to southern California, southern Utah and southern Ne- 
vada ; in northern Mexico. 

A small tree, rarely 9 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.30 
to 0.45 metre in diameter, or often a tall, much-branched shrub; sandy 
or gravelly river-bottoms, reaching its greatest development, within the 
United States, in the valleys of the lower Colorado and Gila Rivers. 

Wood heavy, exceedingly hard, not strong, brittle, close-grained, com- 
pact, containing many evenly distributed open ducts ; medullary rays 
numerous, thin ; color light brown, the sap-wood somewhat lighter : 
used for fuel and fencing. 

The pods used as fodder are sometimes made into flour by the Indians. 

95. Leucsena glauca, Benth. 

Western Texas, — San Saba to Devil's River ; in northern Mexico ; 
semi-tropical Florida (introduced) ; and through the West Indies. 

A small tree, 7 to 9 metres in height, with a trunk 0.10 to 0.15 metre 
in diameter ; or often a tall or, in Florida, low shrub, sending up many 
stems from the ground. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact, containing many small 
regularly distributed open ducts ; layers of annual growth and medullary 
rays hardly distinguishable ; color rich brown streaked with red, the sap- 
wood clear yellow. 



Acacia. LEGUMIXOSiE. 33 

96. Leucaena pulverulenta, Benth. 

Southern Texas, — valley of the lower Rio Grande ; in northern 
Mexico. 

A small tree, G to 8 metres in height, with a trunk 0.10 to 0.15 metre 
in diameter, often forming dense thickets ; rich, sandy loam. 

Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained, compact, containing many small, 
regularly distributed, open ducts ; medullary rays very numerous, thin, 
conspicuous ; color rich dark brown, the sap-wood clear yellow. 

97. Acacia Wrightii, Benth. 
Cat's Claw. 

Valley of the Guadalupe River, western Texas, west and south to the 
valley of the Rio Grande ; in northern Mexico. 

A small tree, rarely 9 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes ex- 
ceeding 0.30 metre in diameter, or often a low, much-branched shrub. 

Wood very heavy, hard, very close-grained, compact ; layers of annual 
growth marked by one or two rows of small open ducts, and containing 
many scattered smaller ducts ; medullary rays hardly distinguishable ; 
color bright clear brown streaked with red and yellow, the sap-wood 
clear yellow. 

98. Acacia Q-reggii, Gray. 
Cafs Claw. 

Valley of the Rio Grande in w^estern Texas, west through south- 
ern New Mexico and Arizona to San Diego, California ; in northern 
Mexico. 

A low, much-branched tree, sometimes 9 metres in height, with a 
trunk rarely 0.45 metre in diameter, or often a shrub ; dry slopes and low 
canons ; common, the large specimens generally hollow and defective. 

Wood heavy, exceedingly hard, strong, brittle, close-grained, compact ; 
layers of annual growth marked by numerous rows of rather large open 
ducts ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color rich brown or red, the sap- 
wood light yellow. 

A resinous gum resembling gum-arabic is yielded by this species. 

99. Acacia Berlandieri, Benth. 

Valley of the Nueces to Devil's River, southern Texas, southward 
into Mexico. 

A small tree, sometimes 6 to 8 metres in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 
0.20 metre in diameter ; or more often a tall shrub, sending up many stems 
from the ground. 

Wood not examined. 

3 



34 ROSACEiE. Lysiloma. 

100. Lysiloma latisiliqua, Benth. 
Wild Tamarind. 

Southern keys of semi-tropical Florida ; in the West Indies. 

A tree sometimes 15 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 0.90 metre 
in diameter. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, tough, close-grained, compact, suscep- 
tible of a fine polish, containing many scattered open ducts ; medullary 
rays numerous, not conspicuous ; color rich dark brown tinged with red, 
the sap-wood white ; somewhat used, locally, in boat and ship building. 

101. Pithecolobinm Unguis-cati, Benth. 
Cat's Claw. 

Semi-tropical Florida, — Caximbas Bay to the southern keys ; in the 
West Indies. 

A small tree, sometimes 6 metres in height, with a trunk rarely ex- 
ceeding 0.15 metre in diameter, or often throwing out many spreading, 
vine-like stems from the ground. 

Wood very heavy, hard, close-grained, checking badly in drying ; 
medullary rays numerous, inconspicuous ; color rich red varying to pur- 
ple, the sap-wood clear yellow. 

ROSACEA. 

102. Chrysobalanus Icaco, L. 
Cocoa Plum. 

Semi-tropical Florida, — Cape Canaveral and Caximbas Bay to the 
southern keys ; through the West Indies and tropical America to Brazil. 

A small tree, 7 to 10 metres in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.30 
metre in diameter ; or along sandy beaches a low prostrate shrub 1.08 to 
2.16 metres in height; reaching its greatest development, within the 
United States, on the borders and islands of the Everglades, near Bay 
Biscayne. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, compact, containing few 
irregularly distributed, not large, open ducts ; medullary rays numerous, 
thin ; color light brown often tinged with red, the sap-wood lighter. 

103. Prnnns Americana, Marsh. 

Wild Plum. Canada Plum. Horse Plum. 

Valley of the Saint Lawrence to the valleys of Rainy and Assinaboine 
Rivers and the southern shores of Lake Manitoba ; northern Vermont, 
western New England, and southward through the Atlantic States to 
western Florida ; west to the valley of the upper Missouri River, Dakota, 
Pike's Peak region, Colorado, and the valley of the lower Concho River, 
Texas. 



Prunus. ROSACEiE. 35 

A small tree, 6 to 12 metres in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 
0.30 metre in diameter ; rich woods, or along streams and the borders of 
ponds and swamps, reaching its greatest development on the bottom-la.^ds 
of eastern Texas. 

Wood heavy, very hard, strong, very close-grained, compact, satiny, 
susceptible of a beautiful polish ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color 
rich bright brown or often red, the sap-wood lighter ; used for the handles 
of tools, etc. 

Often cultivated for the yellow, red, or rarely nearly black acid, or 
rarely sweet fruit. 

104. Prunus angustifolia, Marsh. 
Chickasaw Plum. Hog Plum. 

Probably native of the eastern slopes of the southern Rocky Moun- 
tains, where it is found at an altitude of 7,000 feet, and of the high plateau 
east and southeast of them ; now widely naturalized by early cultivation 
throughout the Atlantic forests south of Pennsylvania and west of the 
Alleghany Mountains, extending as far north as southern Michigan. 

A small tree, 6 to 8 metres in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 metre 
in diameter, or often a low shrub, generally along streams or borders of 
prairies, in rich soil. 

Wood heavy, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays 
numerous, thin ; color light brown or red, the sap-wood lighter. Often 
cultivated for its globose red or yellow fruit. 

105. Prunus Pennsylvanica, L. f. 

Wild Red Gherry, Pin Cherry. Pigeon Cherry. 

Labrador, shores of Hudson's Bay, and west through the Saskatche- 
wan region to the valley of the upper Fraser Piver ; south through the 
northern States to Pennsylvania, central Michigan, northern Illinois, 
central Iowa, and along the high Alleghany Mountains of North Carolina 
and Tennessee, and the Rocky Mountains of Colorado. 

A small tree, rarely exceeding 12 metres in height, with a trunk some- 
times 0.60 metre in diameter, or in the Rocky IVIountain region reduced 
to a low .shrub ; common in all the northern forests, and taking posses- 
sion of ground cleared by fire of forest growth. 

Wood light, soft, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays numerous, 
thin ; color light brown, the sap-wood clear yellow. 

The small acid fruit used domestically and by herbalists in the prepa- 
ration of cough mixtures, etc. 

106. Prunus umbellata, Ell. 

Sloe. Black Sloe. 

South Carolina, south near the coast to Mosquito Inlet and Tampa 
Bay, Florida, and through central Alabama to eastern Mississippi. 



36 ROSACEA. Prunns. 

A small tree, 5 to 6 metres in height, with a trunk 0.25 to 0.38 metre 
in diameter ; dry, sandy soil. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays numerous, 
thin ; color dark reddish brown, the sap-wood much lighter. 



107. PrunTis emarginata, Walp. 

Vancouver's Island and the valley of the lower Fraser River, south 
through western Washington and Oregon, and along the western slopes 
of the Sierra Nevada and in the Coast Ranges, from San Francisco Bay 
to the Santa Lucia Mountains, California ; east to the western slopes of 
the Bitter Root Mountains, Idaho, and the valley of the Jocko River, 
Montana. 

A tree often 12 to 15 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes ex- 
ceeding 0.30 metre in diameter ; at high elevations and throughout cen- 
tral California reduced to a shrub 2 to 3 metres in height, or, in the Santa 
Lucia Mountains, 15 to 18 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 0.90 
metre in diameter ; generally along streams or in low, rich woods. The 
common northern and Idaho form, more or less woolly pubescent, espe- 
cially on the under side of the leaves, is var. mollis, Brewer. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, close-grained, compact ; medullary 
rays numerous, thin ; color brown streaked with green. 

108. Prunus serotina, Ehrh. 

Wild Black Cherry. Rum Cherry. 

Southern Ontario, southward through the Atlantic forests to Matan- 
zas Inlet and Tampa Bay, Florida ; west to the valley of the Missouri 
River, Dakota, eastern Kansas, the Indian Territory, and the valley of 
the upper San Antonio River, Texas. 

A tree 18 to 30 metres in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 1.20 metres, or 
exceptionally 1.50 metres, in diameter; rich, generally upland woods; 
common and reaching its greatest development on the western slopes of 
the Alleghany Mountains from West Virginia southward ; not common 
and of small size in the Gulf region and Texas. 

Wood light, hard, strong, close, straight -grained, compact, easily 
worked ; medullary rays numerous, thin : color light brown or red, 
growing darker with exposure, the thin sap-wood yellow ; largely used 
and esteemed in cabinet work, interior finish, etc., and now becoming 
scarce. 

The bark contains a bitter tonic principle, and infused with cold water 
generates a small percentage of hydrocyanic acid, and is employed as a 
tonic and sedative in cases of pulmonary consumption in the form of cold 
infusions, syrups, and fluid extracts ; the bitter fruit used domestically in 
the preparation of cherry brandy. 



Prunus. llOSACEii:. 37 

109. Prunus Capuli, Cav. 
Wild Cherry. 

Apache and Guadalupe Mountains, Texas, west through southern New 
Mexico and Arizona to the southern slopes of the San Francisco Moun- 
tains ; in northern New Mexico, and Peru. 

A small tree, in the United States rarely 12 metres in height, with a 
trunk often 0.30 metre in diameter ; bottoms of canons and mountain 
valleys, generally between 5,000 and 7,000 feet elevation. 

Wood heavy, moderately hard, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays 
very numerous, thin ; color brown, or often bright clear red, the sap- 
wood nearly white. 

110. Prunus demissa, Walp. 
Wild Cherry. 

Vancouver's Island, east to the western slopes of the Rocky Mountains 
of Montana, south through the Pacific region ; and in Sonora. 

A small tree, sometimes 7 to 10 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 
0.45 metre in diameter, or more often a low shrub ; reaching its greatest 
development in the rich valleys of southern Oregon and northern Cali- 
fornia, near the coast ; in southern California, and east of the Cascade and 
Sierra Nevada Ranges, a low shrub confined to high mountain valleys. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays 
numerous, conspicuous ; color light brown, the sap-wood lighter. 

111. Prunus Caroliniana, Ait. 

Wild Orange. Mock Orange. Wild Peach. 

North Carolina, south, near the coast, to Bay Biscayne, Florida, south- 
ern Alabama, and west, along the Gulf coast, to the valley of the Guada- 
lupe River, Texas. 

A small evergreen tree, 10 to 12 metres in height, with a trunk rarely 
exceeding 0.30 metre in diameter ; common and reaching its greatest de- 
velopment in the rich, light, deep soil of the bottom-lands of eastern 
Texas. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, checking badly in drying, 
susceptible of a good polish ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color light 
reddish-brown, or, more rarely, dark rich brown, the sap-wood lighter. 

112. Prunus sphaerocarpa, Sw. 

Western shores of Bay Biscayne, Florida ; in the West Indies. 

A small tree, in Florida not exceeding 6 metres in height, with a trunk 
0.10 to 0.15 metre in diameter; high rocky woods, or more rarely along 
the borders of streams and ponds ; rare and local in the United States. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, checking badly in drying, containing 
many very small open ducts ; layers of annual growth and medullary rays 
obscure ; color light clear red, the sap-wood pale yellow. 



38 ROSACEiE. Prunus. 

113. Prunus ilicifolia, Walp. 

California, — Coast Ranges from San Francisco Bay south to the 
southern boundary of the State, extending to the western slopes of the 
San Bernardino and San Jacinto Mountains. 

A small evergreen tree, often 9 to 12 metres in height, with a trunk 
0.30 to O.GO metre in diameter, or in the interior often reduced to a low 
shrub. 

Wood very heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, checking in seasoning, 
satiny, susceptible of a beautiful polish, containing many regularly dis- 
tributed, rather small, open ducts ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color 
bright reddish brown, the sap-wood much lighter ; furnishing valuable 
fuel. 

114. Yauquelinia Torreyi, Watson. 

Arizona, — high mountains of the Gila Valley, summits of the Santa 
Catalina Mountains ; in Sonora. 

A small tree in the Santa Catalina Mountains, 4 to 6 metres in height, 
with a trunk 0.10 to 0.20 metre in diameter; dry slopes and rocky bluffs 
between 2,700 and 4,000 feet elevation, in granitic soil; generally hollow 
and decayed. 

Wood very heavy, hard, very close-grained, compact, susceptible of a 
beautiful polish ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color rich dark brown 
streaked with red, the sap-wood yellow. 

115. Cercocarpus ledifolius, Nutt. 
Mountain Mahogany. 

Coeur d'Alene Mountains, Idaho, southward along the western slopes 
of the Rocky Mountains of Montana and Wyoming ; eastern extremities 
of the Blue Mountains of Washington and Oregon ; Wahsatch Mountains, 
Utah, and west along the mountain ranges of the Great Basin to the west- 
ern slope of the Sierra Nevada of California, extending southward into 
Arizona and New Mexico. 

A small, low tree, rarely 12 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 
0.60 to 0.90 metre in diameter, or north of Utah and Nevada reduced to 
a low shrub ; dry rocky mountain slopes, between 6,000 and 8,000 feet 
elevation, reaching its greatest development on the high ranges of central 
Nevada. 

Wood very heavy, hard, close-grained, compact, brittle, difficult to 
work, susceptible of a beautiful polish ; medullary rays very numerous, 
thin ; color bright clear red, or often dark rich brown, the sap-wood 
clear yellow ; furnishing the most valuable fuel of the region, and largely 
manufactured into charcoal. 



Pyrus. ROSACEA. 39 

116. Cercocarpus parvifolius, Nutt. 
Mountain Mahogany. 

California, — valley of the Klamath River, southward through the 
Coast liaiiges to the San Bernardino and San Jacinto Mountains ; Lower 
California ; Rocky Mountains of Wyoming, Colorado, and New Mexico, 
mountains of southern Arizona, and southward into Mexico. 

A small tree, rarely G to 9 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 
0.30 metre in diameter, or more often a shrub ; dry, gravelly soil, reacli- 
ing its greatest development on the mountains of southern New Mexico 
and Arizona at an elevation of 6,000 to 8,000 feet. 

Wood very heavy, hard, close-grained, compact, difficult to work, sus- 
ceptible of a beautiful polish ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color 
bright reddish brown, the sap-wood light brown; furnishing valuable 
fuel. 

117. Pyrus coronaria, L. 
American Crah. Sweet-scented Crah. 

Valley of the Humber River, and shores of Lake Erie, Ontario, south- 
ward through western New York and Pennsylvania to the District of 
Columbia, and along the Alleghany Mountains to central Alabama and 
northern Mississippi ; west to southern Minnesota, Iowa, eastern Kansas, 
the Indian Territory, and northern Louisiana. 

A small tree, rarely 6 to 9 metres in height, with a trunk often 0.30 
metre in diameter ; rich, rather low woods, reaching its greatest develop- 
ment in the valleys of the lower Ohio region. 

Wood heavy, rather soft, not strong, very close-grained, checking badly 
in drying ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color brown varying to 
light red, the sap-wood yellow ; used for levers, handles of tools, and in 
turnery. 

118. Pyrus angustifolia. Ait. 

American Crab Apple. Southern Crab Apple. 

Pennsylvania (?), southern Delaware, and the valley of the lower 
Wabash River, Illinois, south to western Florida. 

A small tree, 6 to 9 metres in height, with a trunk rarely 0.30 metre 
in diameter ; low, rich woods ; common and reaching its greatest devel- 
opment on the bottom-lands of the South Atlantic States ; less common 
west of the Alleghany Mountains. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, checking badly in drying ; medullary 
rays numerous, obscure ; color light brown tinged with red, the sap-wood 
yellow ; used for levers, handles of tools, etc. 



40 ROSACEA. Pyrm. 

119. Pyrus rivularis, Dougl. 
Oregon Crah Apple. 

Coast of Alaska, southward along the coast and islands of British 
Columbia, through Washington and Oregon, west of the Cascade Moun- 
tains, to northern California. 

A small tree, sometimes 9 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.45 
metre in diameter ; low, rich woods, generally along streams, often form- 
ing dense thickets. 

Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained, liable to check badly in drying, 
susceptible of a beautiful polish ; medullary raj^s numerous, obscure .; 
color light brown tinged with red, the sap-wood lighter ; used for mallets, 
mauls, bearings of machinery, etc. 

120. Pyrus Americana, DC. 
Mountain-ash. 

Labrador, Newfoundland, Anticosti Island, and westward along the 
southern shore of James Bay to the valley of the Nelson River, south- 
ward through all the elevated regions of the northeastern States, and 
along the high mountains of Virginia and North Carolina ; in northern 
Michigan, northern Wisconsin, and northern Minnesota. 

A small tree, 6 to 9 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.45 metre 
in diameter ; borders of swamps and moist, rocky woods, reaching its 
greatest development on the northern shores of Lakes Huron and 
Superior. 

Wood light, soft, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays numerous, 
obscure ; color light brown, the sap-wood lighter. 

121. Pyrus sambucifolia, Cham. & Schlecht. 
Mountain-ash. 

Labrador to northern New England and the shores of Lake Superior ; 
high mountain ranges of the Pacific region from Alaska to southern New 
Mexico ; in Kamtschatka. 

A small tree, 9 to 12 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.30 
metre in diameter, or in the Pacific forests generally reduced to a low 
shrub ; cold, wet swamps or borders of streams, reaching its greatest 
development in northern New England and Minnesota. 

Wood light, soft, weak, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays nu- 
merous, obscure ; color light brown, the sap-wood nearly white. 

The astringent bark and unripe fruit of the American mountain ashes, 
like those of the nearly allied P. aucuparia of Europe, are extremely 
astringent, and occasionally used, domestically, in infusions, decoctions, 
etc., in the treatment of diarrhoea. 



CratcBgus. ROSACEA. 41 

122. Crataegus rivularis, Nutt. 

British Columbia, south through eastern Oregon and Washington, east 
and southeast along the mountain ranges of Idaho, Montana, Utah, a id 
Colorado to the Pinos Altos Mountains, New Mexico. 

A small tree, 6 to 8 metres in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 
0.30 metre in diameter ; or often a tall, much-branched shrub, forming' 
dense, impenetrable thickets along borders of streams and swamps. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays numerous, 
thin ; color bright reddish brown, the sap-wood nearly white. 

123. Crataegus Douglasii, Lindl. 

British Columbia, south through Washington and Oregon to northern 
California, extending east through Idaho and Montana to the western base 
of the Rocky Mountains. 

A small tree, sometimes 12 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.45 
metre in diameter, or often a tall shrub throwing up many stems from the 
ground and forming impenetrable thickets ; rather wet, sand^ soil along 
streams, and reaching its greatest development in the valleys west of the 
Cascade Mountains ; toward its eastern limits a low shrub. 

Wood heavy, hard, tough, close-grained, compact, satiny, susceptible of 
a beautiful polish ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color nearly white 
tinged with rose, the sap-wood lighter ; used for wedges, mauls, etc. 

1 24. Crataegus brachyacantha, Sargent & Engelm. 
Hog's Haw. 

Western Louisiana and eastern Texas. 

A tree 9 to 12 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.60 metre in 
diameter ; borders of streams in low, very rich soil ; the largest North 
American representative of the genus ; rare and local. 

Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained, compact, susceptible of a beau- 
tiful polish ; medullary rays numerous, very obscure ; color light brown 
tinged with rose, the sap-wood lighter. 

The large fruit blue-black, 

125. Crataegus arborescens, Ell. 

Yalley of the Savannah River, South Carolina, south to western Flor- 
ida ; and from the neighborhood of Saint Louis, Missouri, south and 
southwest to western Louisiana, and the valley of the lower Colorado 
River, Texas. 

A small tree, 6 to 9 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.45 
to 0.60 metre in diameter ; borders of streams and low, wet swamps. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, close-grained, compact ; susceptible of a 
beautiful polish ; medullary rays very numerous, obscure ; color light 
brown tinged with red, the sap-wood lighter. 

The small globular fruit bright red, or, more rarely, orange. 



42 ROSACEiE. Cratcegus. 

126. Crataegus Crus-galli, L. 
Cochspur Thorn. Newcastle Thorn, 

Valley of the Suint Lawrence River, west through southern Ontario 
to Manitoba, south, through the Atlantic forests, to western Florida, and 
the valley of the Colorado River, Texas. 

A small tree, 4 to 10 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.30 
metre in diameter ; varying greatly in the size of the fruit, size and shape 
of the leaves, etc. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, close-grained, compact, satiny, suscep- 
tible of a fine polish ; medullary rays numerous, very obscure ; color 
brown tinged with red, the sap-wood rather lighter. 

127. Cratsegiis coccinea, L. 

Scarlet Haw. Red Haw. White Thorn. 

West coast of Newfoundland, west along the valley of the Saint Law- 
rence River and the northern shores of the great lakes to Manitoba, south 
throuirh the Atlantic forests to northern Florida and eastern Texas. 

A small tree, sometimes 9 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 metre 
in diameter ; open upland woods or borders of streams and prairies ; very 
common at the North, rare at the South ; running into many forms, vary- 
ing in the size and shape of the leaves, size of the fruit, etc. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays thin, very 
obscure ; color brown tinged with red, the sap-wood a little lighter. 

128. CrataegTis subvillosa, Schrad. 
Scarlet Haw. 

Eastern Massachusetts (possibly introduced) ; central Michigan to 
eastern Nebraska, south to middle Tennessee, and southwest through 
Missouri, Arkansas, the Indian Territory, and Texas to the valley of the 
San Antonio River. 

A small tree, 7 to 9 metres in height, with a trunk rarely 0.45 metre 
in diameter ; rich woods and borders of streams and prairies. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays 
numerous, very obscure ; color light brown or light red, the sap-wood 
lighter. 

The large red fruit often downy, edible, of agreeable flavor. 

129. Cratsegns tomentosa, L. 

Black Thorn. Pear Haw. 

New Brunswick, west along the valley of the Saint Lawrence River 
and the northern shores of the great lakes to the Saskatchewan region, 
southward throuo^h the Atlantic forests to western Florida and eastern 
Texas, extending west to the mountains of eastern Washington and Ore- 
gon, southwestern Colorado, and southwestern New Mexico. 



Cralcegus. ROSACKiE. 43 

A small tree, 6 to 9 metres in height, with a trunk rarely 0.45 metre 
in diameter, or often, especially w(.'st of the Rocky MounUiins, reduced 
to a low shrub, here forming dense thickets along mountain streams ; 
tlie most widely distributed representative of the genus in North America, 
and varying greatly in the size, shape, and color of the fruit, form of the 
leaves, amount of pubescence, etc. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays 
numerous, thin ; color bright reddish brown, the sai>wood lighter. 

130. Cratsegns cordata, Ait. 

Washington Thorn. 

Virginia, southward along the Alleghany Mountains to northern 
Georgia and Alabama, extending west through middle and eastern Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee to southern Illinois. 

A small tree, 6 to 8 metres in height, with a trunk rarely 0.30 metre 
in diameter, generally along banks of streams. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays numerous, 
obscure ; color brown tinged with red, the sap-wood lighter. 

131. Crataegus apiifolia, Michx. 
Parsley Haw. 

Southern Virginia, southward near the coast to about latitude 28°, ex- 
tending west through the Gulf States to southern Arkansas and the valley 
of the Trinity River, Texas. 

A small tree, rarely 6 to 9 metres in height, with a slender stem rarely 
exceeding 0.08 to 0.10 metre in diameter, or more often a low, much- 
branched shrub ; low, rich soil, reaching its greatest development on the 
pine-barren hummocks of central Florida. 

Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained, compact, susceptible of a beau- 
tiful polish ; medullary rays thin, very obscure ; color bright brown tinged 
with red or rose, the sap-wood much lighter. 

132. Crataegus spathulata, Michx. 
Small-fruited Haw. 

Virginia, southward to western Florida, west through the Gulf Stiites 
to the valley of the Washita River, Arkansas, and the Colorado River, 
Texas. 

A small tree, 6 to 8 metres in height, with a trunk 0.20 to 0.25 metre 
in diameter, or often reduced to a low shrub ; margins of streams and 
prairies, common, and reaching its greatest development on the bottom- 
lands of western Louisiana and eastern Texas. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, close-grained, comi)act ; medidlary rays 
very numerous, obscure ; color light brown or red, the sap-wood lighter. 



44 ROSACEA. Crafcegus. 

1 33. Crataegus berberifolia, Torr. & Gray. 

Western Louisiana. 

A small tree, 6 to 8 metres in height, with a trunk 0.20 to 0.25 metre 
in diameter ; borders of prairies, in low ground ; rare, local, and still very 
imperfectly known ; the fruit and wood not yet collected. 

134. Crataegus aestivalis, Torr. & Gray. 
Mai/ Haw. Apple Haw. 

South Carolina to northern Florida, and west through the Gulf States 
to southern Arkansas and the valley of the Sabine River, Texas. 

A small tree, 6 to 9 metres in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 metre 
in diameter ; generally in sandy soil along the margins of streams and 
ponds ; common and reaching its greatest development on the bottom- 
lands of western Louisiana and eastern Texas. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays 
numerous, obscure ; color light brown or red, the sap-wood lighter. 

The large, globular, fragrant red fruit possesses an agreeable subacid 
flavor, and ripens in May. 

135. Crataegus flava, Ait. 

Summer Haw. Yellow Haw. Red Haw. 

Virginia south^ward, generally near the coast, to Tampa Bay, Florida, 
extending west through the Gulf States to eastern Texas and southern 
, Arkansas. 

A small tree, rarely 7 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 metre in 
diameter, or reduced to a much-branched shrub 2 to 3 metres in height ; 
borders of streams, in low, sandy soil subject to overflow. A variety 
distinguished by the pubescence upon the calyx and young branches, 
smaller flowers, and larger globular or pear-shaped edible fruit, is var. 
pubescens, Gray. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, checking badly in drying, satiny, 
susceptible of a good polish ; medullary rays very numerous, obscure ; 
color light brown tinged with red or rose, the sap-wood lighter. 

Fruit small, red or yellow, acid, or in the variety large and edible. 

136. Heteromeles arbutifolia, Roem. 
Toy on. Tollon. California Holly, 

California, — Coast Ranges, Mendocino to San Diego County, extending 
east to the foot-hills of the Sierra Nevada and San Bernardino Mountains. 

A small, low-branched evergreen tree, rarely exceeding 9 metres in 
height, the short trunk sometimes 0.30 to 0.45 metre in diameter; or more 
often a low, much-branched shrub. 

Wood very heavy, hard, close-grained, inclined to check in drying, 
satiny, susceptible of a beautiful polish ; medullary rays numerous, very 
obscure ; color dark reddish-brown, the sap-wood lighter. 



Liquldamhar. lIAMAMELACEiE. 45 

137. Amelanchier Canadensis, Torr. & Gray. 

June-berry. Shad-bush, Service Tree. May Cherry. 

Newfoundland and Labrador, west along the southern shores of Hud- 
son's Bay to the Saskatchewan region ; south tlirough the Atlantic forests 
to northern Florida, southwestern Arkansas, and tlie Indian Territory. 

A small tree, to lo metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.4.'' metre 
in diameter, or in some forms reduced to a low slirub (vars. rotundifolia 
and oligocarpa, Torr. & Gray) ; common at the north, rare at the south, 
and reaching its greatest development on the high slopes of the southern 
Alleghany Mountains ; varying greatly in the shape of the leaves, size of 
the flowers, amount of pubescence on the leaves and young shoots, etc. 
(var. oblongifolia, Torr. & Gray). 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, satiny, susceptible of a good 
polish ; medullary rays very numerous, obscure ; color dark brown often 
tinged with red, the sap-wood much lighter. 



HAMAMELACE^. 

138. Hamamelis "Virginica, L. 
Witch-hazel. 

Northern New England and southern Ontario to Wisconsin, south to 
northern Florida and eastern Texas. 

A small tree, exceptionally 7 to 9 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 
to 0.37 metre in diameter, or more often a tall shrub throwing up many 
stems from the ground ; common ; rich, rather damp woodlands, reaching 
its greatest development upon the southern Alleghany Mountains. 

Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained, compact ; layers of annual growth 
hardly distinguishable ; medullary rays numerous, thin, obscure ; color light 
brown tinged with red, the sap-wood nearly white. 

The bark and leaves rich in tannin, and largely used by herbalists in 
the form of fluid extracts, decoctions, etc., in external applications (Pond's 
Extract), and as a reputed remedy in hemorrhoidal affections. 

139. Liquidambar Styraciflua, L. 

Sweet Gum. Liquidamber. Red Gum. Bilsted. 

Fairfield County, Connecticut, and southern Indiana and Illinois, south- 
ward to Cape Canaveral and Tampa Bay, Florida, and the valley of tlie 
Trinity River, Texas ; in central and southern Mexico. 

A large tree, often 30 to 36 metres, or exceptionally 48 metres, in 
height, with a trunk 1.20 to 1.80 metres in diameter ; low, wot soil ; very 
common and reaching its greatest development on the bottom-lands of the 
Mississippi Basin, — here, with the cotton-gum, forming a large proportion 
of the forest growth. 



46 RHIZOPHORACE^. — COMBRETACE^. RJuzophora. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, rather tough, close-grained, compact, 
inclined to shrink and warp badly in seasoning, susceptible of a beautiful 
polish ; medullary rays numerous, very obscure ; color bright brown tinged 
with red, the sap-wood nearly white ; manufactured into lumber and used 
in the construction of buildings for plates, boarding, and clapboards, in 
cabinet work as a substitute for black walnut, and for veneering and street 
pavements. 

The balsamic exudation obtained from this species at the South is col- 
lected by herbalists, and sometimes used in the form of a s^'^rup as a sub- 
stitute for storax in the treatment of catarrhal affections, or externally 
as an ointment. 

RHIZOPHORACE-^. 

140. Rhizophora Mangle, L. 
Mangrove. 

Semi-tropical Florida, — Mosquito Inlet and Cedar Keys to the southern 
keys ; Delta of the Mississippi River ; coast of Texas ; West Indies and 
tropical America ; and now widely naturalized throughout the tropics of 
the Old World. 

A tree 12 to 18 metres, or exceptionally 27 metres, in height, with a 
trunk 0.30 to 0.60 metre in diameter, or more commonly not exceeding 4 
to 7 metres in height ; low saline shores, reaching, in the United States, its 
greatest development on Bay Biscayne and Cape Sable ; south of latitude 
29°, bordering with almost impenetrable thickets the coast of the Florida 
peninsula, ascending the rivers for many miles, especially those flowing 
from the Everglades, and entirely covering many of the southern keys. 

Wood exceedingly heavy, hard, and strong, close-grained, checking in 
drying, satiny, susceptible of a beautiful polish, containing many evenly 
distributed rather small open ducts ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; 
color dark reddish brown streaked with lighter brown, the sap-wood 
lighter ; used for wharf piles and furnishing valuable fuel. 

COMBRETACEuE. 

141. Conocarpns erecta, L. 
Buttonwood, 

Semi-tropical Florida, — Cape Canaveral and Tampa Bay to the south- 
ern keys ; through the West Indies to Brazil. 

A low tree, often 8 metres, or exceptionally 15 to 18 metres, in height, 
with a trunk sometimes 0.60 metre in diameter : common, and reaching its 
greatest development, in the United States, on Lost Man's River, north of 
Cape Sable ; or sometimes reduced to a low under-shrub. 

Wood very heavy and hard, strong, close-grained, very compact, suscep- 



Eugenia. MYRTACE.E. 47 

tible of a beautiful polish ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color dark 
yellow-brown, the sap-wood lighter ; burning blowly like charcoal, and 
highly valued for fuel. 

142. Laguncularia racemosa, Gacrtn. f. 

White Buitonwood. White Mangrove. 

Semi-tropical Florida, — Cape Canaveral to the southern keys, west 
coast. Cedar Keys to Cape Sable ; West Indies and tropical Auierica ; 
coast of tropical Africa. 

A small tree, sometimes 6 to 22 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 
0.60 metre in diameter, or toward its northern limits reduced to a low 
shrub ; very common ; saline shores of lagoons and bays. 

"Wood very heavy and hard, strong, close-grained, very compact ; sus- 
ceptible of a beautiful polish ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color 
dark yellow-brown, the sap-wood much lighter. 

MYRTACE^. 

143. Calyptranthes Chytraculia, Sw. 

Semi-tropical Florida, — shores of Bay Biscayne, Key Largo; in the 
West Indies. 

A small tree, sometimes 8 metres in height, with a trunk 0.10 to O.lo 
metre in diameter. 

Wood very heavy, hard, close-grained, compact, containing many evenly 
distributed rather large open ducts ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color 
brown tinged with red, the sap-wood a little lighter. 

144. Eugenia bnxifolia, Willd. 
Gurgeon Stopper. Spanish Stopper. 

Semi-tropical Florida, — Cape Canaveral to the southern keys, west 
coast, Caloosa River to Cape Romano ; in the West Indies. 

A small tree, rarely 6 to 9 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 
0.30 metre in diameter, reaching its greatest development, in the United 
States, on the rich hummocks of the Everglades. 

Wood very heavy, exceedingly hard, very strong, close-grained, very 
compact ; medullar}^ rays numerous, thin ; color dark brown shaded with 
red, the sap-wood a little lighter ; somewhat used for fuel. 

145. Eugenia dichotoma, DC. 
Naked-wood. 

Semi-tropical Florida, — Mosquito Inlet to Cape Canaveral, common, 
west coast, Caloosa River to Cape Romano ; in the West Indies. 

A small tree, sometimes 6 to 8 metres in height, with a trunk rarely 
0.15 metre in diameter. 



48 CACTACE^. Eugenia. 

Wood very heavy, hard, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays numer- 
ous, thin ; color light brown or red, the sap-wood yellow. 
The small, edible fruit of agreeable aromatic flavor. 

146. Eugenia monticola, DC. 
Stopper. White Stopper. 

Saint John's River to Umbrella Key, Florida, rare ; in the West Indies. 

A small tree, rarely 7 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 metre in 
diameter, or in northern Florida reduced to a low shrub. 

Wood very heavy, hard and strong, very close-grained, compact; 
medullary rays numerous, thin ; color brown often tinged with red, the 
sap-wood darker. 

147. Eugenia longipes, Berg. 
Stopper. 

Semi-tropical Florida, — No Name Key ; in the West Indies. 

A small tree, 4 to 7 metres in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 metre 
in diameter ; rare. 

Wood very heavy, hard, close-grained, checking badly in drying, con- 
taining many evenly distributed open ducts ; medullary rays numerous, 
very obscure ; color dark brown or nearly black, the sap-wood brown 
tinged with red. 

148. Eugenia procera, Poir. 
Red Stopper. 

Semi-tropical Florida, — Bay Biscayne to the southern keys ; in the 
West Indies. 

A tree 12 to 18 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.45 metre in 
diameter ; often forming extensive groves, and reaching its greatest de- 
velopment, in the United States, in the neighborhood of Miami, Bay 
Biscayne. 

Wood very heavy, exceedingly hard, very strong and close-grained, 
compact ; medullary rays numerous, hardly distinguishable ; color light 
yellow-brown, the sap-wood darker. 

CACTACE^. 

149. Cereus giganteus, Engelm. 
Suwarrow. Saguaro. Giant Cactus. 

Valley of Bill Williams Fork, Arizona, south and east through central 
Arizona to the valley of the San Pedro River ; southward in Sonora. 

A tall, columnar tree, 8 to 18 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 
0.60 metre in diameter; dry, stony slopes, or low hills rising from the 
desert. 



Cornus. CORNACEiE. 49 

Wood of the large strong ribs very light, soft, ratlier coarse-grained, 
solid, satiny, susceptible of a fine polish, almost indestructible in contact 
witli the ground ; medullary rays very numerous, broad ; color light Ijrown 
tinged with yellow ; used in the region almost exclusively for the rafters 
of adobe houses, for fencing, and by the Indians for lances, lx)W3, etc. 

The edible fruit is largely collected and dried by the Indians. 

CORNACE^. 

150. Cornns alternifolia, L. f. 
Do(/wood. 

New Brunswick, west along the valley of the Saint Lawrence River 
to the northern shores of Lake Superior, south through the northern States 
and along the Alleghany Mountains to northern Georgia and Alabama. 

A small tree, 4 to 8 metres in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 metre 
in diameter ; low, rich woods, and borders of streams and swamps. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, checking badly in drying ; medullary 
rays numerous, thin; color brown tinged with red, the sap-w^ood light 
yellow. 

151. Cornus fiorida, L. 
Flowering Dogwood. Boxwood. 

Southern New England, southern Ontario, southern Minnesota, and 
through the Atlantic forests to middle Florida, and the valley of the 
Brazos River, Texas. 

A small tree, 9 to 12 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.45 metre 
in diameter, or toward its northern limits reduced to a low shrub ; rich 
woods, common, especially at the south. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, tough, checking badly in dry- 
ing, satiny, susceptible of a beautiful polish , medullary rays numerous, 
conspicuous ; color brown, changing in different specimens to shades of 
green and red, the sap-wood lighter ; used in turnery, for wood engraving 
and the bearings of machinery, hubs of wheels, barrel-hoops, etc. 

The bark, especially of the root, in common with that of the other spe- 
cies of the genus, possesses bitter tonic properties, and is used in the form 
of decoctions, etc., in the treatment of intermittent and malarial fevers. 

152. Cornus Nuttallii, Audubon. 
Flowering Dogwood. 

Vancouver's Island, through western Washinjjton and Orejron, and 
southward in California along the western slope of the Sierra Nevada 
and through the Coast Ran<2jes to the San Bernardino ]Mountains. 

A small, slender tree, sometimes 18 to 24 metres in height, with a trunk 
rarely 0.45 metre in diameter ; reaching in the Cascade Mountains an 



50 CORNACE^. Nyssa. 

elevation of 3,000 feet, and in the San Bernardino Mountains, of from 
4,000 to 5,000 feet ; common ; rich, rather damp soil, generally in the 
dense shade of coniferous forests. 

Wood heavy, exceedingly hard, strong, close-grained, compact, satiny, 
susceptible of a good polish ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color 
light brown tinged with red, the sap-wood lighter ; somewhat used in 
cabinet-making, for mauls, handles, etc. 

153. Nyssa capitata, Walt. 

Ogeechee Lime. Sour Tupelo. Gopher Plum. 

Valley of the Ogeechee River, Georgia, to western Florida, and in 
southern Arkansas. 

A tree 9 to 18 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.90 metre in 
diameter ; deep swamps and river bottoms ; rare and local. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, tough, rather coarse-grained, compact, 
unwedgeable, containing many regularly distributed open ducts ; medullary 
rays numerous, thin ; color white, the sap-wood hardly distinguishable. 

A conserve, under the name of " Ogeechee limes," is prepared from the 
large, acid fruit. 

154. Nyssa sylvatica, Marsh. 

Tupelo. Sour Gum. Pepperidge. Black Gum. 

Southern Maine and northern Vermont, west to central Michigan, south 
to Tampa Bay, Florida, and the valley of the Brazos River, Texas. 

A tree 15 to 36 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 1.50 metres in 
diameter, or at the north much smaller ; borders of swamps, or on rather 
high, rich hillsides and pine uplands ; at the south often in pine-barren 
ponds and deep swamps, the base of the trunk then greatly enlarged and 
swollen {N. aquatica, L.). 

Wood heavy, rather soft, strong, very tough, unwedgeable, difficult to 
work, inclined to check unless carefully seasoned, not durable in contact 
with the soil, containing numerous regularly distributed small open ducts ; 
medullary rays numerous, thin; color light yellow or often nearly white, the 
sap-wood hardly distinguishable ; now largely used for the hubs of wheels, 
rollers in glass-factories, ox-yokes, and on the Gulf coast for wharf-piles. 

155. Nyssa uniflora, Wang. 

Large Tupelo. Cotton-gum. Tupelo-gum. 

Southern Virginia, south near the coast to the valley of the Saint 
Mary's River, Georgia, through the Gulf States to the valley of the 
Neches River, Texas, and through Arkansas and southern and south- 
eastern Missouri to southern Illinois. 

A large tree, 21 to 30 metres in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 1.20 
metres in diameter ; deep swamps and bottom-lands subject to frequent 



Viburnum. CAPRIFOLI ACE.E. 51 

overflow ; one of tlie largest and most common trees of the l)Ottom-lan(l8 
of the lower Mississippi River basin, and reaching its greatest develop- 
ni(!nt in the cypress swamps of western Louisiana and eastern Texa«, ntur 
the coast. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact, unwedgeable ; 
medullary rays numerous, thin ; color light brown, or often nearly white ; 
used in turnery and largely for wooden-ware ; that of the root for the 
floats of nets, etc., as a substitute for cork. 



CAPRIFOLIACE^. 

156. Sambucus glauca, Nutt. 

JtJlder. 

Valley of the Fraser River and Vancouver's Island, British Columbia, 
south to the Mexican boundary, extending east to the Blue Mountains 
of Oreijon and the Wahsatch Ranije, Utah. 

A small tree, sometimes 8 to 9 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 
0.45 metre in diameter, or toward its northern limits reduced to a larjre 
shrub ; mountain valleys, in dry, gravelly soil. 

Wood light, soft, weak, coarse-grained, checking in drying; medullary 
rays numerous, rather conspicuous ; color yellow tinged with brown, the 
sap-wood lighter. 

157. Sambucus Mesicana, Presl. 
Mder. 

Valley of the Nueces River, south through western Texas, west along 
the southern boundary of the United States to southern California ; in 
northern Mexico. 

A small tree, sometimes 6 metres in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.25 
metre in diameter ; bottom-lands, in moist, gravelly loam. 

Wood light, soft, rather coarse-grained, compact; medullary rays nu- 
merous, thin, conspicuous ; color light brown, the sap-wood lighter. 

158. Viburnum Lentago, L. 
Sheep-berry. Nanny-berry. 

Southern shores of Hudson Bay, west in British America to about 
longitude 102°, south through the northern States to Pennsylvania, south- 
ern Indiana, eastern Missouri, and along the Alleghany Mountains to 
northern Georgia. 

A small tree, 6 to 9 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.15 to 
0.25 metre in diameter ; rocky ridges and borders of streams and swam})s, 
in rich, moist soil; most common and reaching its greatest development 
far north. 



52 RUBIACE^. Viburnum. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact, emitting a disagreeable 
odor ; medullary rays thin, barely distinguishable ; color dark orange- 
brown, the sap-wood nearly white. 

159. VibTirniim prunifolium, L. 
Black Haw. Stag-busk. 

Southern Connecticut and New York, south to middle Florida and the 
valley of the Colorado River, Texas ; west to Missouri, Arkansas, and the 
Indian Territory. 

A small tree, sometimes 6 to 9 metres in height, with a trunk rarely 
exceeding 0.15 metre in diameter, or at the north generally reduced to a 
low, much-branched shrub ; rocky hillsides in rich soil. 

Wood heavy, very hard, strong, brittle, close-grained, liable to check 
in drying ; medullary rays numerous, very obscure ; color brown tinged 
with red, the sap-wood nearly white. 



RUBIACE^. 

160. Exostema Caribaeuin, Roem. & Schultes. 

Keys of semi-tropical Florida ; in the West Indies. 

A small tree, sometimes 7 metres in height, with a trunk 0.20 to 0.30 
metre in diameter. 

Wood very heavy, exceedingly hard, strong, close-grained, checking in 
drying, satiny, susceptible of a beautiful polish ; medullary rays numerous, 
very obscure ; color light brown beautifully streaked with different shades 
of yellow and brown, the sap-wood clear rich yellow. 

161. Pinckneya pubens, Michx. 
Georgia Bark. 

South Carolina, near the coast ; basin of the upper Apalachicola River 
in Georo;ia and Florida. 

A small tree, 6 to 9 metres in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.30 metre 
in diameter ; borders of streams and low, sandy swamps ; rare and local. 

Wood light, soft, weak, close-grained, checking badly in drying ; layers 
of annual growth clearly marked by four to six rows of large open ducts ; 
medullary rays few, obscure ; color brown, the sap-wood lighter. 

Infusions of the bark are successfully used in the treatment of inter- 
mittent fever, as a substitute for cinchona. 

162. Genipa clusiaefolia, Griseb. 

Seven-year Apple. 

Southern keys of semi-tropical Florida ; in the West Indies. 

A small, much-branched, knotty tree, sometimes 6 metres in height, 



Andromeda. ERICACEiE. 63 

with a trunk rarely exceeding 0.10 metre in diameter, or in Florida more 
often a shrub ; borders of saline shores. 

Wood very heavy, hard, close-grained, compact, susceptible of a beaa- 
tilul polish ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color rich dark brown shaded 
with orange, the sap-wood light yellow. 

163. Guettarda elliptica, Sw. 

Southern keys of semi-tropical Florida ; in the West Indies. 

A small tree, 4 to 7 metres in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 
0.20 metre in diameter. 

Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained, checking in drying, satiny, 
susceptible of a beautiful polish, containing numerous scattered small 
open ducts ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color light brown tinged 
with red. 



ERICACE^. 

164. "Vaccinmrn arboreum, Marsh. 
JF^arkle-berry, 

North Carolina, south near the coast to middle Florida, through the 
Gulf States to Matagorda Bay, Texas, and through Arkansas and southern 
Missouri to southern Illinois. 

A small tree, 7 to 9 metres in height, with a trunk rarely 0.25 metre 
in diameter, or toward its northern limits often reduced to a low shrub ; 
very common throughout the pine-belt of the Gulf States, along the larger 
ponds and streams, in moist sandy soil, and reaching its greatest develop- 
ment in eastern Texas near the coast. 

Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained, compact, liable to twist in dry- 
ing, satiny, susceptible of a beautiful polish ; medullary rays numerous, 
broad, conspicuous ; color light browm tinged with red, the sai)-woo<l 
hardly distinguishable ; somewhat used in turnery in the manufacture of 
small handles, etc. 

165. Andromeda ferruginea, Walt. 

South Carolina to northern Florida, near the coast. 

A small tree, G to 9 metres in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.25 metre 
in diameter, often crooked or semi-prostrate, rich hummocks ; or, in 
sandy pine-barren soil, reduced to a low shrub, 0.60 to 0.90 metre in 
height ; the leaves varying greatly in shape, venation, etc. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, very close-grained, checking in drying, 
satiny, susceptible of a beautiful polish ; medullary rays numerous, thin; 
color bright brown tinged with red, the sap-wood a little lighter. 



64 ERICACEAE. Arbutus. 

166. Arbutus Menziesii, Pursh. 
Madrona. 

Islands of British Columbia, southward through Washington and Ore- 
gon, near the coast, and through the Coast Ranges of California to the 
Santa Lucia Mountains. 

A small tree, sometimes 15 to 25 metres in height, with a trunk 0.90 
to 1.20 metres in diameter, or rarely much larger ; south of San Francisco 
Bay smaller, often reduced to a low shrub ; hillsides in rich soil. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, checking in drying ; medul- 
lary rays numerous, conspicuous ; color light brown shaded with red, the 
sap-wood lighter ; largely used in the manufacture of gunpowder, the bark 
in tanning. 

167. Arbutus Xalapensis, HBK. 

Southern Arizona, — Santa Rita Mountains, between 4,500 and 7,000 
feet elevation ; in northern Mexico. 

A small tree, 9 to 12 metres in height, with a trunk 0.45 to 0.60 metre 
in diameter ; dry, gravelly slopes ; the large specimens generally hollow 
and defective. 

Wood heavy, soft, not strong, brittle, close-grained, checking badly in 
drying, susceptible of a good polish ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; 
color light brown tinged with red, the sap-wood lighter. 

168. Arbutus Texana, Buckley. 

Western Texas, Hays and Travis Counties, west to the Guadalupe and 
Eagle Mountains, and southward, probably into northern Mexico. 

A small tree, 5 to 6 metres in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.25 metre 
in diameter ; dry limestone hills and ridges ; rare and local. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays numerous, 
obscure ; color brown, the sap-wood lighter, tinged with red ; used in 
turnery, the manufacture of mathematical instruments, etc. 

169. Oxydendrum arboreum, DC. 
Sorrel Tree. Sour-wood. 

Western Pennsylvania, south along the Alleghany Mountains to west- 
ern Florida and the eastern shores of Mobile Bay, west to middle Ten- 
nessee and western Louisiana. 

A small tree, 12 to 18 metres in height, with a trunk 0.25 to 0.35 
metre in diameter ; usually in rather dry, gravelly soil. 

Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained, compact, susceptible of a beau- 
tiful polish ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color brown tinged with red, 
the sap-wood somewhat lighter ; used for the handles of tools, bearings of 
machinery, etc. 



Mi/rsine. MYllSIXACEiE. 00 

170. Kalmia latifolia, L. 

Laurel. Calico-bush. Spoonwood. Ivy, 

New Brunswick and the northern shores of Lake Erie, south Ui west- 
ern Florida, and through the Gulf States to western Louisiana and the 
valley of the Red River, Arkansas. 

A small tree, sometimes 9 to 12 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 
O.GO metre in diameter, or more often a low shrub ; rich woodlands ; most 
common and reaching its greatest development in the southern Alleghany 
Mountains, here often forming dense, impenetrable thickets. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, brittle, close-grained, compact ; prin<:ipul 
medullary rays broad, dark brown, conspicuous ; intermediate rays nu- 
merous, thin, inconspicuous ; color brown tinged with red, the sapnwood 
somewhat lighter ; used for tool-handles, in turnery, and for fuel. 

171. Rhododendron maximum, L. 
Great Laurel. Rose Bay. 

Nova Scotia and the north shores of Lake Erie, south through New 
England, New York, and along the Alleghany Mountains to northern 
Georgia. 

A small tree, sometimes 10 to 12 metres in height, with a trunk rarely 
exceeding 0.30 metre in diiwueter, or often a tall, straggling shrub ; at the 
North in cold swamps ; rare ; very common and reaching its greatest 
development in the southern Alleghany Mountains, on steep, rocky banks 
of streams, etc. ; never on limestone. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, brittle, close-grained, compact ; medullary 
rays numerous, thin ; color light clear brown, the sap-wood lighter ; occa- 
sionally used in turnery for the handles of tools, etc. ; a good substitute 
for boxwood in engraving. 



MYHSINACE^. 

172. Myrsine Rapanea, Roem. & Schultes. 

Semi-tropical Florida, — Indian River to the southern keys ; througli 
the West Indies to Brazil. 

A small tree, in Florida rarely exceeding 8 metres in height, with a 
trunk 0.10 to 0.15 metre in diameter, or often a shrub; borders of ponds 
and fresh-water creeks ; in the West Indies much larger. 

Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained, compact ; medullary rays 
numerous, very conspicuous ; color brown tinged with red, antl beauti- 
fully striped with the darker medullary rays, the sap-wood hardly distin- 
guishable. 



56 SAPOTACEiE. Ardisia. 

173. Ardisia Pickeringia, Nutt. 
Marl-herry. Cherry. 

Semi-tropical Florida, — Mosquito Inlet to the southern keys, west 
coast, Caloosa River to Cape Romano ; in the West Indies and southern 
Mexico. 

A small tree, sometimes 8 metres in height, with a trunk rarely 0.15 
metre in diameter, or often a shrub ; reaching its greatest development, in 
Florida, on the shores of Bay Biscayne. 

Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained, compact, susceptible of a beau- 
tiful polish ; medullary rays very numerous, conspicuous ; color rich 
brown, beautifully marked with the darker medullary rays, the sap-wood 
a little lighter. 

174. Jacquinia armillaris, Jacq. 
Joe-wood. 

Southern keys of semi-tropical Florida, rare ; through the West Indies 
to Brazil. 

A low, rigid tree, rarely exceeding in Florida 4 metres in height, with a 
trunk sometimes 0.15 metre in diameter ; in the West Indies much larger. 

Wood heavy, hard, coarse-grained, checking and shrinking badly in 
drying, containing many scattered large open ducts ; medullary rays nu- 
merous, broad, conspicuous ; color light clear brown tinged with yellow. 

The saponaceous leaves are sometimes used as a substitute for soap. 



SAPOTACEJE. 

175. Chrysophyllum oliviforme, Lam. 

Semi-tropical Florida, — Cape Canaveral to the southern keys, west 
coast, Caloosa River to Cape Sable ; rare ; through the West Indies to 
Brazil. 

A small tree, sometimes 9 metres in height, with a trunk 0.25 to 0.30 
metre in diameter. 

Wood very heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, checking in drying ; 
medullary rays numerous, not conspicuous ; color light brown shaded 
with red, the thin sap-wood a little lighter. 

176. Sideroxylon Mastichodendron, Jacq. 
Mastic. 

Semi-tropical Florida, — Cape Canaveral to the southern keys, west 
coast, Cape Romano to Cape Sable ; in the West Indies. 

A tree often 18 metres in height, with a crunk 0.60 to 0.90 metre in 
diameter ; the largest and most valuable tree of semi-tropical Florida ; 
common. 



Bumelia. SAPOTACEiE. 67 

Wood very heavy, exceedingly hard, strong, close-grained, checking in 
drying, containing few scattered small open ducts ; medullary rays nu- 
merous, not conspicuous ; color bright orange, the sa|>-wood yellow ; 
largely used in ship and boat building. 

177. Dipholis salicifolia, A. DC. 
Bustic. Cassada. 

Semi-tropical Florida, — Bay Biscayne to the southern keys ; through 
the West Indies to Brazil. 

A tree sometimes 15 metres in height, with a trunk rarely 0.60 metre 
in diameter ; the large specimens hollow and defective ; rare. 

Wood very heavy, exceedingly hard, very strong, close-grained, com- 
pact, checking in drying, susceptible of a beautiful polish, containing 
many scattered large open ducts ; color dark brown or red, the sap-wood 
lighter. 

178. Bumelia tenax, Willd. 

North Carolina, southward near the coast to Cape Canaveral and 
Cedar Keys, Florida. 

A small tree, 6 to 9 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.15 
metre in diameter ; sandy soil. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, very close-grained, compact, susceptible 
of a beautiful polish ; well characterized, as in all the North American 
species, by large open ducts, defining, with several rows, the rings of 
annual growth, connected by conspicuous branching groups of similar 
ducts ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color light brown streaked with 
white, the sap-wood lighter. 

179. Bumelia lanuginosa, Pers. 
Gum Elastic, Shittim-wood. 

Georgia and northern Florida to Mobile Bay, Alabama ; southern Illi- 
nois and southern Missouri, through Arkansas to the valley of the Rio 
Grande, Texas. 

An evergreen tree, sometimes 18 metres in height, with a trunk 0.00 
metre in diameter, or in the Atlantic States much smaller, rarely exceed- 
ing 6 metres in height ; common and reaching its greatest development 
on the rich bottom-lands of eastern Texas. 

Wood heavy, soft, weak, close-grained, very compact, the open ducts 
conspicuous ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color light brown or yellow, 
the sap-wood lighter ; somewhat used in cabinet-making. 

180. Bumelia spinosa, A. DC. 

Arizona, — Santa Catalina Mountains ; Parras and Saltillo, Mexico. 
A small tree, 6 to 7 metres in height, with a trunk 0.20 to 0.25 metre 
in diameter ; dry, gravelly soil, near water-courses ; rare. 



58 EBENACEiE. Bumelia. 

Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained, compact, the open ducts con- 
spicuous ; medulhiry rays thin, obscure ; color light rich brown or yellow, 
the sap-wood lighter. 

181. Bumelia lycioides, Gaertn. f. 
Iron-wood. Southern Buckthorn. 

Coast of Virginia and southern Illinois, south to Mosquito Inlet and 
the Caloosa River, Florida, and through southern Missouri, Arkansas, and 
Texas to the valley of the Rio Concho. 

A small tree, sometimes 9 to 12 metres in height, with a trunk rarely 
exceeding 0.15 metre in diameter ; low, rich soil, or often, in the Atlantic 
and Gulf States, a low, semi-prostrate shrub (var. reclinatum, Gray). 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays 
numerous, thin ; color light brown or yellow, the sap-wood lighter. 

182. Bumelia cuneata, Sw. 

Anf s-wood. Downward Plum. Saffron Plum. 

Semi-tropical Florida, — Indian River to the southern keys, not rare, 
west coast. Cedar Keys to Cape Romano, rare ; rocky shores, and in the 
interior of low, barren keys ; Texas, valley of the lower Rio Grande, and 
southward into northern Mexico ; in the West Indies. 

A small tree, rarely exceeding 4 metres in height, with a trunk some- 
times 0.30 metre in diameter. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, very close-grained, compact, satiny, 
susceptible of a beautiful polish ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color 
light brown or orange, the sap-wood lighter. 

183. Mimusops Sieberi, A. DC. 
Wild Dilly. 

Southern keys of semi-tropical Florida, common ; in the West Indies. 

A small, low, gnarled tree, sometimes 9 metres in height, with a trunk 
0.30 to 0.40 metre in diameter ; generally hollow and defective. 

Wood very heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, inclined to check in 
drying, susceptible of a beautiful polish ; medullary rays numerous, very 
obscure ; color rich, very dark brown, the sap-wood lighter. 

EBENACE^. 

184. Diospyros Virginiana, L. 

Persimmon. 

Shores of Long Island Sound in Connecticut and New York, and soijth- 
ern Ohio southward to Bay Biscayne and the Caloosa River, Florida, 
and the valley of the Colorado River, Texas, extending to southeastern 
Iowa, eastern Kansas, and the Indian Territory. 



Symplocos. STYRACACE^. 59 

A tree 10 to 20 or, exceptionally, 30 to 35 metres in height, with a 
trunk sometimes O.GO metre in diameter ; very common and often entirely 
occupying abandoned fields in the middle and lower regions of the south- 
ern Atlantic and Gulf States, reaching its greatest development on the 
rich bottom-lands of the lower Ohio basin. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, very close-grained, compact, susceptible of 
a high polish, containing few scattered open ducts ; layers of annual 
growth marked by one or more rows of similar ducts ; medullary rays 
numerous, conspicuous ; color dark brown or often nearly black, the thick 
sap-wood light brown, often containing numerous darker spots ; used in 
turnery for shoe-lasts, plane-stocks, etc., and preferred for shuttles ; the 
dark heart-wood only developed in very old specimens and rarely seen. 

The yellow edible fruit is exceedingly austere until after frost, then 
becoming sweet and luscious, or in the Gulf States ripening in August 
without austerity. 

A decoction of the bitter and astringent unripe fruit and inner bark is 
occasionally used in the treatment of diarrhoea, sore throat, hemorrhage, etc. 

185. Diospyros Texana, Scheele. 

Black Persimmon. Mexican Persimmon. Chapote. 

Western Texas, — Matagorda Bay to the valley of the Concho River ; 
in northern Mexico. 

A small tree, 4 to 10 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.30 
metre in diameter, or more often a low shrub ; not rare, and reaching its 
greatest development, in Texas, on the bottom-lands of the Guadalupe 
River ; borders of prairies, in rich soil ; in Mexico more common and of 
larger size. 

Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained, compact, satiny, taking a beau- 
tiful polish, containing few minute scattered open ducts ; medullary rays 
numerous, thin ; color nearly black, often streaked with yellow, the thick 
sap-wood clear bright yellow ; used in turnery for the handles of tools, 
etc., suitable for wood-engraving, and probably the best substitute among 
American woods for boxwood. 

The small, black fruit sweet and insipid. 



STYRACACE^. 

186. Symplocos tinctoria, L'Her. 
Horse Sugar. Sweet-leaf. 

Southern Delaware, south to middle Florida, and west through the 
Gulf States to western Louisiana and southern Arkansas. 

A small tree, 6 to 10 metres in height, with a trunk 0.20 to 0.25 metre 
in diameter, or often a low shrub ; borders of cypress swamps or in deep, 
damp, shaded woods. 



60 OLEACEJE. Halesia. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, checking in drying ; medul- 
lary rays numerous, thin ; color light red or often nearly white, the sap- 
wood lighter. 

The sweet leaves are greedily eaten by cattle and horses, and yield, as 
well as the bark, a yellow dye. 

187. Halesia diptera, L. 
Snowdrop Tree. Silver-hell Tree. 

South Carolina to northern Florida, near the coast, and west through 
the lower region of the Gulf States to eastern Texas and central Arkansas. 

A small tree, sometimes 6 to 10 metres in height, with a trunk 0.10 to 
0.20 metre in diameter, or often a shrub sending up many clustered stems 
from the root ; borders of swamps in low, wet woods. 

Wood light, soft, strong, very close-grained, compact ; medullary rays 
numerous, thin ; color light brown, the sap-wood lighter. 

188. Halesia tetraptera, L. 

Rattle-box. Snowdrop Tree. Silver-hell Tree. Calico-wood. 

Mountains of West Virginia to southern Illinois, south to middle 
Florida, central Alabama and Mississippi, and through Arkansas to west^ 
ern Louisiana and eastern Texas. 

A tree 10 to 15 metres in height, with a trunk rarely 0.60 metre in 
diameter, or often a tall shrub ; generally along streams, in rich soil ; 
most common and reaching its greatest development on the southern Alle- 
ghany Mountains. 

Wood light, soft, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays numerous, 
thin ; color light brown, the sap-wood lighter. 

OLEACEJE. 

189. Fraxiniis Greggii, Gray. 

Western Texas, — valley of the Rio Grande from the San Pedro to 
the Pecos River ; in northern Mexico. 

A small tree, sometimes 7 to 9 metres in height, with a trunk 0.10 to 
0.15 metre in diameter, or often a graceful shrub ; limestone soil. 

Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained, compact; layers of annual 
growth and medullary rays obscure ; color brown, the sap-wood lighter. 

190. Fraxinus anomala, Torr. 

Southwestern Colorado to southern Utah. 

A small tree, sometimes 6 metres in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 
metre in diameter ; common on elevated sandstone slopes. 

Wood heavy, hard, coarse-grained, containing many large open scat- 
tered ducts ; layers of annual growth marked by several rows of similar 



Fraxinus. OLEACE/E. 61 

ducts ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color light brown, the sap-wood 
lighter. 

191. Fraxinus pistaciaefolia, Torr. 
Ash. 

Mountains of western Texas, southern New Mexico, and southern and 
eastern Arizona, to southern Nevada ; in northern Mexico. 

A small tree, 10 to 12 metres in height, with a trunk rarely 0.45 metre 
in diameter ; generally along borders of streams, in elevated canons, less 
commonly in dry soil, the foliage then thick and coriaceous or, more 
rarely, velvety tomentose (var. coriacea^ Gray) ; the large specimens 
generally hollow and defective. 

Wood heavy, soft, not strong, coarse-grained, compact ; medullary rays 
numerous, thin; color light brown, the sap-wood lighter; occasionally 
used in wagon-building, for axe handles, etc. 

192. Fraxinus Americana, L. 

White Ash. 

Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, southern Ontario to northern Minne- 
sota, south to northern Florida, central Alabama and Mississippi, and 
west to eastern Nebraska, Kansas, the Indian Territory, and the valley 
of the Devil's River, Texas. 

A large tree of the first economic value, 15 to 30 or, exceptionally, 42 
metres in height, with a trunk 1.20 to 1.80 metres in diameter ; low, rich, 
rather moist soil, reaching its greatest development on the bottom-lands of 
the lower Ohio River Basin ; toward its western and southwestern limits 
smaller, of less economic value, and generally replaced by the green ash 
(^Fraxinus viridis). The form of western Texas (var. Texensis, Gray), 
with smaller fruit, and generally 5 short, ovate leaflets, is a small tree, 
with harder, heavier, and more compact wood. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, ultimately brittle, coarse-grained, compact ; 
layers of annual growth clearly marked by several rows of large open 
ducts, which in slowly grown specimens occupy nearly the entire width 
of the annual rings ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color brown, the 
sap-wood much lighter, often nearly white ; largely used in the manufac- 
ture of agricultural implements, carriages, handles, oars, and for interior 
and cabinet work. 

193. Fraxinus pubescens, Lam. 
Eed Ash. 

New Brunswick to southern Ontario and northern Minnesota, south to 
northern Florida and central Alabama. 

A tree 12 to 15 metres in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 0.60 
metre in diameter ; borders of streams and swamps, in low ground ; com- 
mon and reaching its greatest development in the north Atlantic States ; 



62 OLEACE^. Fraxinus. 

rare west of the Alleghany Mountains, probably not extending west of the 
Mississippi River. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, brittle, coarse-grained, compact ; medullary 
rays numerous, thin ; color rich brown, the sap-wood light brown streaked 
with yellow ; somewhat used as a substitute for the more valuable white 
ash, with which it is often confounded. 

1 94. Fraxinus viridis, Michx. f. 
Green Ash. 

Shores of Lake Champlain, Rhode Island and southward to northern 
Florida, west to the valley of the Saskatchewan, the eastern ranges of the 
Rocky Mountains of Montana, the Wahsatch Mountains of Utah, and the 
ranges of eastern and northern Arizona. 

A tree 15 to 18 metres in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 0.60 
metre in diameter ; borders of streams or in low, rather moist soil ; at the 
West confined to the bottom-lands of the large streams and to high moun- 
tain canons. A form with 3 to 5 leaflets, common in Texas west of the 
Colorado River and extending into Mexico, is var. Berlandieriana, Torr. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, brittle, rather coarse-grained, compact, 
satiny, containing numerous scattered small open ducts, the layers of 
annual growth marked b}' several rows of larger ducts ; medullary rays 
numerous, obscure ; color brown, the sap-wood lighter. 

195. Fraximis platycarpa, Michx. 
Water Ash, 

Southeastern Virginia, south near the coast to Cape Canaveral and the 
Caloosa River, Florida, west through the Gulf States to the valley of the 
Sabine River, Texas, and the Washita River, southwestern Arkansas ; in 
the West Indies. 

A small tree, 9 to 12 metres in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 
0.30 metre in diameter ; deep river swamps. 

Wood very light, soft, not strong, brittle, close-grained, compact, the 
open ducts not conspicuous ; medullary rays few, obscure ; color nearly 
white or sometimes tinged with yellow, the sap-wood lighter. 

196. Fraxinus quadrangulata, Michx. 
Blue Ash. 

Southern Michigan to central Minnesota, south to northern Alabama, 
and through Iowa and Missouri to northeastern Arkansas. 

A tree 18 to 25 or, exceptionally, 37 metres in height, with a trunk 
rarely exceeding 0.60 metre in diameter; generally on limestone hills, 
rarely extending to bottom-lands, and reaching its greatest development in 
the basin of the lower Wabash River. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, brittle, close-grained, compact, satiny ; 
layers of annual growth clearly marked by one to three rows of large 



Privet. OLEACE.E. 63 

open ducts ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color light yellow 
streaked with brown, the sap-wood lighter ; largely used for liooring, in 
carriage-building, etc. 

197. Fraxinus Oregana, Nutt. 
Oregon Ash. 

Shores of Puget Sound, south through Washington and Oregon west of 
the eastern valleys of the Cascade Mountains, along the California Coast 
Ranges to San Francisco Bay and the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada 
to the San Bernardino and Hot Spring Mountains, California. 

A tree sometimes 24 metres in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 
0.60 metre in diameter ; moist soil, generally along streams, and reaching 
its greatest development on the bottom-lands of southwestern Oregon. 

Wood light, hard, not strong, brittle, coarse-grained, compact, contain- 
ing many large open scattered ducts, the layers of annual growth strongly 
marked with several rows" of similar ducts ; medullary rays numerous, 
thin ; color brown, the sap-wood lighter ; used in the manufacture of 
furniture, for the frames of carriages and wagons, in cooperage, for 
fuel, etc. 

198. Fraxinus sambucifolia, Lam. 
Black Ash. Hoop Ash. Ground Ash. 

Southern Newfoundland and northern shores of the Gulf of Saint 
Lawrence, southwesterly to the eastern shores of Lake Winnipeg, south 
through the northern States to northern Delaware, the mountains of Vir- 
ginia, southern Illinois, and northwestern Arkansas. 

A tree 25 to 30 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.60 metre in 
diameter ; swamps and low river banks. 

Wood heavy, soft, not strong, tough, rather coarse-grained, compact, 
durable, separating easily into thin layers ; layers of annual growth 
strongly marked by several rows of large open ducts ; medullary rays 
numerous, thin ; color dark brown, the sap-wood light brown or often 
nearly white ; largely used for interior finish, fencing, barrel-hoops, in 
cabinet-making, and the manufacture of baskets. 

199. Forestiera acuminata, Poir. 
Privet 

Southwestern Georgia, western Florida, through the Gulf States to 
the valley of the Colorado River, Texas, and northward through Arkansas 
to southern Missouri and southwestern Illinois. 

A small tree, 6 to 8 metres in height, with a trunk rarely 0.20 metre 
in diameter ; borders of swamps and streams, in low, wet soil ; common 
in the Gulf region, near the coast, and reaching its greatest development 
in southern Arkansas. 



64 BORRAGINACEiE. 



Chionanthus. 



Wood heavy, soft, not strong, brittle, close-grained, compact ; medul- 
lary rays numerous, thin, rather conspicuous ; color light yellow streaked 
with brown ; the sap-wood lighter. 

200. Chionanthus Virginica, L. 
Fringe Tree. Old Ifan's Beard. 

Southeastern Pennsylvania, south to Tampa Bay, Florida, and through 
the Gulf States to southern Arkansas and the valley of the Brazos River, 
Texas. 

A small tree, 6 to 10 metres in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 metre 
in diameter ; generally along streams, in low, rich soil. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact; layers of annual growth 
marked by several rows of large open ducts, connected as in that of Bw 
melia by branching groups of similar ducts ; medullary rays numerous, 
obscure ; color light brown, the sap-wood lighter. 

. A decoction of the tonic and anti-periodic bark of the root is sometimes 
employed in the treatment of intermittent fevers. 

201. Osmanthus Americanus, Benth. & Hook. 
Devil-wood. 

Southern Virginia, south to Cape Canaveral a-nd Tampa Bay, Florida, 
and through the Gulf States to eastern Louisiana, near the coast. 

A small tree, 10 to 15 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.30 
metre in diameter ; borders of streams and pine-barren swamps, in moist, 
rich soil. 

Wood heavy, very hard and strong, close-grained, unwedgeable, diffi- 
cult to work, containing many radiating groups of open cells parallel to 
the thin obscure medullary rays ; color dark brown, the thick sap-wood 
light brown or yellow. 

BOBRAG-INACE^. 

202. Cordia Sebestena, L. 

Geiger Tree, 

Southern keys of semi-tropical Florida ; rare ; in the West Indies. 

A small tree, sometimes 8 metres in height, with a trunk 0.06 to 0.08 
metre in diameter ; rich hummock soil. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact, satiny, containing few scat- 
tered small open ducts ; medullary rays very numerous, thin, conspic- 
uous ; color dark brown, the thick sap-wood light brown or yellow. 

203. Cordia Boissieri, A. DC. 

Texas, — valley of the Rio Grande, westward to New Mexico ; in 
northern Mexico. 



Catalpa. BIGNOXIACE^. 65 

A small tree, rarely 8 metres in height, with a trunk 0.12 to O.lo 
metre in diameter, or more often reduced to a low shrub. 

Wood light, rather soft, close-grained, compact, containing many smaP 
scattered open ducts ; medullary rays very numerous, thin, conspicuous ; 
color dark brown, the sap-wood light brown. 

204. Bourreria Havanensis, Miers. 
Strong Back, 

Southern keys of semi-tropical Florida ; in the West Indies. 

A small tree, 10 or, exceptionally, 15 metres in height, with a trunk 
0.20 to 0.25 metre in diameter ; the large specimens generally hollow and 
defective. A form (generally shrubby in Florida) with scabrous or his- 
pidulous leaves is var. radula^ Gray. 

Wood heavy, very hard, strong, very close-grained, compact, suscep- 
tible of a beautiful polish ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color 
brown streaked with orange, the sap-wood not distinguishable. 

205. Ehretia elliptica, DC. 

KnacJc-away. Anaqua. 

Texas, — Corpus Christi to New Braunfels, and southward to the 
valley of the lower Rio Grande. 

A tree 10 to 15 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.50 metre 
in diameter ; borders of streams, in rich loam, and reaching its greatest 
development between the Guadalupe and Nueces Rivers. 

Wood .heavy, hard, not strong, very close-grained, compact, unwedge- 
able, containing many small open ducts arranged in numerous concentric 
rings within the layers of annual growth, these marked by several rows 
of larger ducts ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color light brown, the 
sap-wood a little lighter. 

BIGNONIACE^. 

206. Catalpa bignonioides, Walt. 

Oatalpa. Oatawba. Bean Tree. Cigar Tree, Indian Bean. 

Southwestern Georgia, western Florida, and through central Alabama 
and Mississippi. 

A low, much-branched tree, 12 to 15 metres in height, with a trunk 
0.50 to 0.75 metre in diameter ; borders of streams and swamps, in rich 
loam ; rare and local ; long cultivated for ornament, and now extensively 
naturalized in the middle and southern Atlantic States. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, coarse-grained, compact, very durable in 
contact with the soil ; layers of annual growth clearly marked by many 
rows of large open ducts ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color 
light brown, the thin sap-wood lighter, often nearly white ; used and 
highly valued for fence-posts, rails, etc. 

6 



66 VERBENACE.E. Catalpa. 

207. Catalpa speciosa, Warder. 
Western Catalpa. 

Southern Illinois and Indiana, western Kentucky and Tennessee to 
southeastern Missouri and western Arkansas. 

A tree 20 to 35 or, exceptionally, 4a metres in hei«^ht, with a trunk 
1 to 2 metres in diameter ; borders of streams and swamps, on rich bottom- 
lands ; common and reaching its greatest development in the valley of the 
lower Wabash River ; cultivated and now widely naturalized in southern 
Arkansas, western Louisiana, and eastern Texas. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, coarse-grained, compact, very durable in 
contact with the soil ; layers of annual growth clearly marked by several 
rows of large open ducts ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color 
brown, the thin sap-wood lighter ; largely used for railway-ties, fence- 
posts, rails, etc., and adapted for cabinet work and interior finish. 

208. Chilopsis saligna, D. Don. 
Desert Willow. 

Valley of the Eio Grande, Texas, and west through southern New 
Mexico and Arizona to southern California ; in northern Mexico. 

A small tree, 6 to 8 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.30 
metre in diameter ; slopes and banks of depressions and water-courses in 
the desert ; the large specimens generally hollow and defective. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, checking in drying, con- 
taining many scattered small open ducts ; the layers of annual growth 
marked by several rows of larger ducts ; medullary rays numerous, ob- 
scure ; color brown streaked with yellow, the sap-wood much lighter. 

209. Crescentia cucurbitina, L. 
Black Calabash-tree. 

Semi-tropical Florida, — near Miami, and on Little River ; in the 
West Indies. 

A small tree, in Florida rarely exceeding 6 metres in height, with a 
trunk 0.10 to 0.12 metre in diameter. 

Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained, compact, containing many small 
regularly distributed open ducts; medullary rays thin, hardly distinguish- 
able ; color light brown tinged with orange, the sap-wood lighter. 



YERBENACE^. 

210. Citharexylum villosum, Jacq. 

Fiddle-wood. 

Semi-tropical Florida, — Cape Canaveral to the southern keys ; in the 
West Indies and Mexico. 



Coccoloba. NYCTAGINACE^. — POLYGON ACE/E. 67 

A small tree, rarely exceeding in Florida metres in height, with a 
trunk 0.10 to 0.15 metre in diameter, or north of Hay Hiscayne reduced 
to a low much-branched shrub ; common and reacliing, witiiin the Uniu*d 
States, its greatest development on the shores of Bay Biscayne, Lost 
Man's River, etc. 

Wood heavy, exceedingly hard, strong, close-grained, compact, sus- 
ceptible of a fine polish, containing numerous small regularly distributed 
open ducts; color clear bright red, the sap-wood lighter. 

211. Avicennia nitida, Jacq. 

Black Mangrove. Black Tree. Black-wood. 

Florida coast, — Saint Augustine to the southern keys, and Cedar 
Keys to Cape Sable ; deltas of the Mississippi River ; through the West 
Indies to Brazil. 

A tree 6 to 9 metres in height, with a trunk 0.25 to 0.30 metre in 
diameter, or, exceptionally, 20 to 23 metres in height, with a trunk 0.00 
metre in diameter ; north of Mosquito Inlet reduced to a low shrub ; 
common along saline shores and swamps, throwing up many leafless 
corky stems, and forming, with the red mangrove (Rhizophora), impene- 
trable thickets, or, more rarely, scattered and round-headed ; reaching its 
greatest development, in the United States, on the west coast of Florida, 
north of Cape Sable. 

AVood very heavy, hard, rather coarse-grained, compact ; the eccentric 
layers of annual growth marked by several rows of large open ducts ; 
medullary rays numerous, thin ; color dark brown or nearly black, the sap- 
wood brown. 

NYCTAGINACE^. 

212. Pisonia obtusata, Sw. 

Pigeon-wood. Beef-wood. Cork-wood. Pork-wood. 

Semi-tropical Florida, — Cape Canaveral to the southern keys ; in the 
West Indies. 

A tree 9 to 15 metres in height, with a trunk 0.25 to 0.45 metre in 
diameter ; saline shores and beaches. 

Wood heavy, rather soft, weak, coarse-grained, compact, containing 
nnmerous large open ducts ; layers of annual growth and medullary rays 
hardly distinguishable ; color yellow tinged with brown, the sap-wood 
darker. 

POLYG-ONACE^. 

213. Coccoloba Floridana, Meisn. 

Pigeon Plum. 

Semi-tropical Florida, — Cape Canaveral to the southern keys, and 
from Cape Romano to Cape Sable. 



68 LAURACEiE. Coccoloba. 

A tree 15 to 18 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.60 metre in 
diameter ; one of the lar<^est and most common trees of the resfion. 

Wood very heavy, exceedingly hard, strong, brittle, very close-f^rained 
inclined to check in drying, containing few small scattered open ducts ; 
layers of annual growth and numerous medullary rays obscure ; color rich 
dark brown tinged with red, the sap-wood lighter ; valuable and somewhat 
used in cabinet-making. 

214. Coccoloba uvifera, Jacq. 
Sea Grape. 

Semi-tropical Florida, — Mosquito Inlet to the southern keys, west 
coast, Tampa Bay to Cape Sable ; through the West Indies to Brazil. 

A low tree, rarely exceeding in Florida 4 metres in height, with a 
gnarled, contorted trunk often 0.90 to 1.20 metres in diameter, or re- 
duced to a low, generally prostrate shrub ; saline shores and beaches ; 
common. 

Wood very heavy, hard, very close-grained, inclined to check in dry- 
ing, susceptible of a beautiful polish, containing few scattered rather small 
open ducts ; layers of annual growth and numerous medullary rays hardly 
distinguishable ; color rich dark brown or violet, the sap-wood lighter ; 
valuable for cabinet-making. 

LAURACEJE. 

215. Persea Carolinensis, Nees. 
Hed Bay, 

Virginia south to Bay Biscayne and Cape Romano, Florida, and 
through the Gulf States to southern Arkansas and the valley of the Trin- 
ity River, Texas, near the coast. 

A tree 15 to 20 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to (3.90 metre in 
diameter ; borders of streams and swamps, in low, rich soil. A form 
found near the coast from North Carolina to Alabama, well characterized 
by its longer flower-stalks densely covered, as well as the young shoots 
and under sides of the leaves, with a dense short brown tomentum, the 
wood orange-colored streaked with brown, is var. palustris, Chapm. 

Wood heavy, hard, very strong, brittle, very close-grained, compact, 
susceptible of a beautiful polish, containing many evenly distributed open 
ducts ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color bright red, the sap-w^ood 
much lighter ; formerly somewhat used in ship-building, interior finish, 
and for cabinet work. 

216. Nectandra "Willdenoviana, Nees. 

Lancewood. 

Semi-tropical Florida, — Cape Canaveral and Cape Romano to the 
southern keys ; in the West Indies and Central America. 



UmhellulaHa LAU RACEME. 69 

A small tree, 6 to 9 metres in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 
0.15 metre in diameter; common and reaching its greatest development, 
in Florida, on the shores of Bay Biscayne and in the neighborhood o*" 
Cape Romano. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, checking in drying, containing many 
small regularly distributed open ducts ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; 
color rich dark brown, the sap-wood bright yellow. 

217. Sassafras officinale, Nees. 
Sassafras. 

Eastern Massachusetts to southwestern Vermont, and west through 
southern Ontario and central Michigan to southeastern Iowa, eastern 
Kansas, and the Indian Territory ; south to middle Florida, and the val- 
ley of the Brazos River, Texas. 

A tree 12 to 15 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 0.90 metre in 
diameter, exceptionally, 24 to 27 metres in height, with a trunk 1.80 to 
2.25 metres in diameter, or toward its northern limits reduced to a small 
tree or shrub; rich, sandy loam, reaching its greatest development in 
southwestern Arkansas and the Indian Territory. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, coarse-grained, very durable in 
contact with the soil, slightly aromatic, checking in drying ; layers of 
annual growth clearly marked with three or four rows of large open 
ducts ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color dull orange-brown, the thin 
sap-wood light yellow ; used for light skiffs, ox-yokes, etc., and largely 
for fence posts and rails, and in cooperage. 

The root, and especially its bark, enters into commerce, affording a 
powerful aromatic stimulant. 

218. Umbellularia Californica, Nutt. 

Mountain Laurel. California Laurel. Spice Tree. Cagiput. 
California Olive. California Bay-tree. 

Southwestern Oregon, south through the California Coast Ranges, and 
along the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. 

An evergreen tree, 24 to 30 metres in height, with a trunk 1.20 to 
1.80 metres in diameter, or toward its southern limits and at high eleva- 
tions a small tree or shrub ; most common and reaching its greatest devel- 
opment in the rich valleys of southwestern Oregon. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, compact, susceptible of a 
beautiful polish, containing numerous small regularly distributed open 
ducts ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color rich light brown, the sap- 
wood lighter ; used on the Oregon coast in ship-building, for jaws, bitts, 
cleats, cross-trees, etc., and the most valuable material produced in the 
Pacific forests for interior and cabinet work. 



70 EUPHORBIACE^. — URTICACE^. Drypetes. 



EUPHORBIACE^. 

219. Diypetes crocea, Poit. 
Guiana Plum. White-wood, 

Semi-tropical Florida, — Bay Biscayne to the southern keys; in the 
West Indies. 

A small tree, sometimes 9 metres in height, with a trunk 0.12 to 0.17 
metre in diameter. A little-known form (var. latifolia, Mull.) with whit- 
ish warty branches, the calyx 5-parted, and more coriaceous leaves, should 
perhaps be considered a distinct species {D. glauca, Nutt.). 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, brittle, close-grained, checking in dry- 
ing ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color rich dark brown, the sap-wood 
yellow. 

220. Sebastiania lucida, MiilL 
Crah-wood. Poison-wood. 

Semi-tropical Florida, — Bay Biscayne to the southern keys ; common ; 
in the West Indies. 

A small tree, sometimes 9 metres in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 
metre in diameter ; the large specimens generally hollow and decayed. 

Wood very heavy, hard, very close-grained, compact, susceptible of a 
beautiful polish ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color rich dark 
brown streaked with yellow, the sap-wood bright yellow ; now largely 
manufactured into canes and furnishing valuable fuel. 

221. Hippomane Mancinella, L. 
Manchineel. 

Southern keys of semi-tropical Florida ; common ; in the West Indies 
and Central America. 

A small tree, in Florida rarely exceeding 4 metres in height, with a 
trunk 0.12 to 0.17 metre in diameter; abounding in white milky ex- 
ceedingly caustic poisonous sap. 

Wood light, soft, close-grained, compact, containing numerous evenly 
distributed small open ducts ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color 
dark brown, the thick sap-wood light brown or yellow. 

URTICACE^. 

222. Ulmus crassifolia, Nutt. 

Cedar Elm. 

Southern Arkansas, and Texas to the valley of the Rio Grande. 
A tree 18 to 20 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 0.90 metre in 
diameter, or toward its southern or southwestern limits much smaller; 



Ulmus. URTICACE.E. 71 

borders of streams, in rich soil ; one of tlie most common and valuable 
timber-trees of Texas west of the Trinity River, and reaching its greatest 
development in the valleys of the Guadalupe and Trinity Rivers. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, brittle, very close-grained, compact ; 
layers of annual growth and medullary rays obscure ; marked, in common 
with that of all the North American species, by concentric circles of irregu- 
larly arranged groups of small oj)en ducts ; color light brown tinged with 
red, the heavier sap-wood lighter ; used in the manufacture of wagon- 
hubs, saddle-trees, chairs, etc., and very largely for fencing. 

223. Ulmus falva, Michx. 

Red Elm. Slippery Elm. Moose Elm. 

Valley of the lower Saint Lawrence River to northern Dakota, south 
to northern Florida, central Alabama and Mississippi, and the valley of 
the San Antonio River, Texas. 

A tree 15 to 20 metres in height, with a trunk 0.45 to 0.60 metre in 
diameter ; borders of streams and hillsides in rich soil. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, very close-grained, compact, durable in con- 
tact with the ground, splitting readily when green ; layers of annual growth 
clearly marked by several rows of large open ducts; medullary rays nu- 
merous, thin ; color dark brown or red, the thin sap-wood lighter ; largely 
used for wheel-stock, fence-posts, rails, railway-ties, sills, etc. 

The inner bark mucilaginous, nutritious, and extensively used in various 
medicinal preparations. 

224. Ulmus Americana, L. 

White Elm. American Elm. Water Elm. 

Southern Newfoundland to the northern shores of Lake Superior and 
the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains, in about latitude 52° N. ; south 
to Cape Canaveral and Pease Creek, Florida, extending west in the United 
States to the Black Hills of Dakota, central Nebraska, the Indian Territory, 
and the valley of the Rio Concho, Texas. 

A large tree, 30 to 35 metres in height, with a trunk 1.80 to 2.70 metres 
in diameter ; rich, moist soil, borders of streams, etc. ; toward its western 
and southwestern limits only on bottom-lands. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, tough, rather coarse-grained, compact, diffi- 
cult to split ; layers of annual growth clearly marked by several rows of 
large open ducts ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color light brown, the 
sap-wood somewhat lighter; largely used for wheel-stock, saddle-trees, 
flooring, in cooperage, and in boat and ship building. 

225. Ulmus racemosa, Thomas. 

Rock Elm. Cork Elm. Hickory Elm. White Elm. Cliff Elm. 
Southwestern Vermont, through western New York, Ontario, and 
southern Michigan to northeastern Iowa, and south throuirh Ohio to 
central Kentucky. 



72 URTICACEiE. Uimus. 

A large tree, 20 to 30 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.90 
metre in diameter ; low, wet clay, rich uplands or rocky declivities and 
river cliffs ; common and reaching its greatest development in southern 
Ontario and the southern peninsula of Michigan. 

Wood heavy, hard, very strong, tough, very close-grained, compact, 
susceptible of a beautiful polish ; layers of annual growth marked with 
one or two rows of small open ducts ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; 
color light clear brown often tinged with red, the thick sap-wood much 
lighter ; largely used in the manufacture of heavy agricultural implements, 
wheel-stock, and for railway-ties, bridge-timbers, sills, etc. 

226. Ulmus alata, Michx. 
Wahoo. Winged Elm. 

Southern Virginia, south through the middle districts to western 
Florida, through the Gulf States to the valley of the Trinity River, 
Texas, extending north through the eastern portions of the Indian Terri- 
tory, Arkansas, and southern Missouri to southern Indiana and Illinois. 

A small tree, 7 to 12 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.60 metre 
in diameter ; generally in dry, gravelly soil, or rarely along the borders of 
swamps and bottom-lands ; most common and reaching its greatest devel- 
opment in southern Missouri and Arkansas. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, very close-grained, compact, unwedge- 
able ; medullary rays distant, not conspicuous ; color brown, the sap-wood 
lighter largely used for hubs, blocks, etc. 

227. Planera aquatica, Gmel. 

Valley of the Cape Fear River, North Carolina, south to western 
Florida, and through central Alabama and Mississippi to western Lou- 
isiana and the valley of the Trinity River, Texas, extending north 
through Arkansas and southern Missouri to central Kentucky and 
southern Illinois. 

A small tree, 9 to 12 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.60 metre 
in diameter ; cold, deep, inundated river-swamps ; rare in the Atlantic and 
eastern Gulf States ; very common and reaching its greatest development 
in western Louisiana and southern Arkansas. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact, containing few 
scattered open ducts ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color light brown, 
the sap-wood nearly white. 

228. Celtis occidentalis, L. 
Sugar-berry. Hachherry. 

Valley of the Saint Lawrence River, west to eastern Dakota, south 
through the Atlantic region to Bay Biscayne and Cape Romano, Florida, 
and the valley of the Devil's River, Texas. 



Ficus. URTICACE^. 73 

A large tree, 18 to 30 or, exceptionally, 36 to 39 metres in height, 
with a trunk 0.60 to 1.50 metres in diameter; most common and reaching 
its greatest development in tlie Mississippi River basin ; rich bottoms or 
dry hillsides; sometimes reduced to a low shrub (CI pumilu), and varying 
greatly in the size, shape, and texture of the leaves ( C. Mississippiensis 
Icevigata, integrifolia, crassifolia, etc.) ; the extremes connected by innu- 
merable intermediate forms, which, thus considered, make one poly- 
morphous species of wide geographical range. A form witli small thick 
coriaceous leaves with prominent reticulated veins, found from western 
Texas to southern California, and through the Rocky Mountains to east- 
ern Oregon is var. reticulata, Sargent. 

Wood heavy, rather soft, not strong, coarse-grained, compact, satiny, 
susceptible of a good polish ; layers of annual growth clearly marked by 
several rows of large open ducts, containing many small groups of smaller 
ducts arranged in intermediate concentric rings ; medullary rays numer- 
ous, thin; color clear light yellow, the sap-wood lighter; largely used for 
fencing and occasionally in the manufacture of cheap furniture. 

229. Ficus aurea, Nutt. 

Semi-tropical Florida, — Indian River to the southern keys. 

A large parasitic tree, germinating on the trunks and branches of other 
trees, and sending down to the ground long aerial roots, which gradually 
grow together, kill the enclosed tree, and form a trunk sometimes 0.90 to 
1.20 metres in diameter. 

Wood exceedingly light, soft, very weak, coarse-grained, compact, not 
durable ; medullary rays thin, hardly distinguishable ; color light brown, 
the sap-wood lighter. 

230. FicTis brevifolia, Nutt. 

Semi-tropical Florida, — Bay Biscayne to the southern keys. 

A tree sometimes 15 metres in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 
0.30 metre in diameter. 

Wood light, soft, close-grained, compact, containing few large open 
scattered ducts, and many groups of much smaller ducts arranged in con- 
centric circles ; medullary rays numerous, thin, conspicuous ; color light 
brown or yellow, the sap-wood lighter. 

231. Ficus pedunculata, Ait. 
Wild Fig. India-rubber Tree. 

Semi-tropical Florida, — Bay Biscayne to the southern keys ; in the 
West Indies. 

A tree sometimes 12 metres in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 
0.50 metre in diameter ; often branched from the ground ; rare. 

Wood light, soft, weak, close-grained, compact, containing many large 
open scattered ducts, with many groups of small ducts arranged in con- 



74 URTICACE.E. Morus. 

centric circles ; medulliiry rays numerous, obscure ; color light orange 
brown, the sap-wood undistinguishable. 

232. Morus rubra, L. 
JR,ed Mulberry, 

Western New England and Long Island, New York, west through 
southern Ontario and central Michigan to the Black Hills of Dakota, 
eastern Nebraska and Kansas ; south to Bay Biscay ne and Cape Romano, 
Florida, and the valley of the Colorado River, Texas. 

A large tree, 18 to 20 metres in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 1.20 
metres in diameter ; generally on rich bottom-lands ; most common and 
reaching its greatest development in the basins of the lower Ohio and the 
Mississippi Rivers. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, rather tough, coarse-grained, compact, 
very durable in contact with the soil, satiny, susceptible of a good polish ; 
layers of annual growth clearly marked by several rows of large open 
ducts ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color light orange-yellow^, the sap- 
wood lighter ; largely used in fencing, cooperage, for snaths, and at the 
South in ship and boat building. 

The large dark purple fruit sweet and edible. 

233. Morus microphylla, Buckley. 
Mexican Mulberry. 

Valley of the Colorado River, through western Texas to 'the valley of 
the Gila River, New Mexico ; in northern Mexico. 

A small tree, sometimes 7 metres in height, with a trunk rarely 0.30 
metre in diameter, or often reduced to a low shrub ; most common and 
reaching its greatest development in the mountain caiions of southern 
New Mexico. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact ; layers of annual growth 
marked by several rows of small open ducts ; medullary rays numerous, 
thin ; color orange or, rarely, dark brown, the sap-wood light yellow. 

The small acid fruit hardly edible. 

234. Madura aurantiaca, Nutt. 
Osage Orange. Bois d'Arc. 

Southwestern Arkansas, southeastern portions of the Indian Territory, 
and southward into northern Texas. 

A tree sometimes 15 to 18 metres in height, with a trunk rarely 
exceeding 0.60 metre in diameter; rich bottom-lands ; most common and 
reaching its greatest development along the valley of the Red River in 
the Indian Territory ; extensively planted for hedges, especially in the 
Western States. 



Plutanus. PLATANACEiE. 75 

Wood heavy, exceedingly hard, very strong, flexible, close-grained, 
compact, very durable in contact with the ground, satiny, susceptible of a 
beautiful polish, containing numerous small open ducts ; layers of annual 
growth clearly marked witli broad bands of larger ducts ; medullary rays 
thin, numerous, conspicuous ; color bright orange, turning brown with 
exposure, the sap-wood light yellow ; largely used for fence-posts, paving- 
blocks, railway-ties, and wheel-stock. 



PLATANACE^. 

235. Platanus occidentalis, L. 

Sycamore. Buttonwood. Button-ball Tree. Water Beech. 

Southern Maine and southeastern New Hampshire to northern Ver- 
mont and the northern shores of Lakes Ontario and Erie, west to eastern 
Nebraska and Kansas ; south to northern Florida, central Alabama, and 
Mississippi, and southwest to the valley of the Devil's River, Texas. 

The largest tree of the Atlantic forests, often 30 to 40 metres in height, 
with a trunk 2.40 to 4.20 metres in diameter ; borders of streams and 
bottom-lands, in rich, moist soil ; very common and reaching its greatest 
development in the valleys of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers ; the large 
specimens generally hollow. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, very close-grained, compact, difficult to 
split and work ; layers of annual growth clearly marked by broad bands 
of small ducts ; the numerous medullary rays very conspicuous, as in that 
of all the North American species ; color brown tinged with red, the sap- 
wood lighter ; largely used for tobacco boxes, ox-yokes, butchers' blocks, 
and, rarely, in the manufacture of cheap furniture. 

236. Platanus racemosa, Nutt. 
Sycamore. Buttonwood. 

California, — valley of the Sacramento River, south through the in- 
terior valleys and Coast Ranges to the southern boundary of the State. 

A large tree, 24 to 30 metres in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 1.20 
metres in diameter ; borders of streams, in rich soil. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, very close-grained, compact, difficult to 
split ; layers of annual growth clearly marked by narrow bands of small 
ducts ; medullary rays numerous, conspicuous ; color light brown tinged 
with red, the sap-wood lighter. 

237. Platanus Wrightii, Watson. 

Sycamore. 

Valleys of southwestern New Mexico to the valley of the San Pedro 
River, Arizona ; in northern Mexico. 



76 JUGLANDACE^. Juglans. 

A tree sometimes 15 to 18 metres in height, with a trunk 0.45 to 0.60 
metre in diameter ; banks of streams and high mountain canons. 

Wood light, soft, weak, very close-grained, compact ; layers of annual 
growth clearly marked by several rows of open ducts ; medullary rays 
numerous, thin, very conspicuous ; color light brown tinged with red, the 
sap-wood lighter. 



JUGLANDACE-^. 

238. Juglans cinerea, L. 
Butternut. White Walnut. 

Southern New Brunswick, valley of the Saint Lawrence River, 
Ontario and southern Michigan to northern Minnesota and central Iowa ; 
south to Delaware, and along the Alleghany Mountains to northern 
Georgia, central Alabama and Mississippi, northern Arkansas, and south- 
eastern Kansas. 

A tree 18 to 24 or, exceptionally, 30 to 35 metres in height, with a 
trunk 0.60 to 0.90 metre in diameter ; rich woodlands ; rare at the south ; 
most common and reaching its greatest development in the Ohio River 
basin. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, rather coarse-grained, compact, easily 
worked, satiny, susceptible of a beautiful polish, containing numerous 
regularly distributed large open ducts ; medullary rays distant, thin, 
obscure ; color bright light brown, turning dark with exjDosure, the sap- 
wood lighter ; largely used for interior finish, cabinet work, etc. 

The inner bark, especially that of the root, is employed medicinally as 
a mild cathartic, and furnishes a yellow dye. 

239. Juglans nigra, L. 
Black Walnut. 

Western Massachusetts, west along the southern shores of Lake Erie 
through southern Michigan to southern Minnesota, eastern Nebraska, and 
eastern Kansas, south to western Florida, central Alabama and Mississippi, 
and the valley of the San Antonio River, Texas. 

A large tree, often 30 to 45 metres in height, with a trunk 1.80 to 
3 metres in diameter ; rich bottom-lands and hillsides ; most common and 
reaching its greatest development on the western slopes of the southern 
Alleghany Mountains and in the rich bottoms of southwestern Arkansas 
and the Indian Territory ; less common east of the Alleghany Mountains, 
and now everywhere scarce. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, rather coarse-grained, liable to check if not 
carefully seasoned, easily worked, susceptible of a beautiful polish, durable 
in contact with the soil, containing numerous large regularly distributed 
open ducts ; medullary rays numerous, thin, not conspicuous ; color rich 



Carn/a. JUGLANDACE^. 77 

(lark brown, the thin sap-wood much lighter ; more generally used in 
cabinet-making, interior finish, and for gun-stocks, than that of any other 
North American tree. 

240. Juglans nipestris, Engelm. 
Walnut. 

Valley of the upper Colorado River, west through western Texas, 
southern New Mexico and Arizona, between 5,000 and 7,000 feet eleva- 
tion, and in the California Coast Ran«jes from the San Bernardino Moun- 
tains to San Francisco Bay and the valley of the Sacramento River. 

A tree rarely 15 to 22 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.90 
metre in diameter, reaching its greatest development near its northern 
limits in California ; in Texas generally reduced to a low, much-branched 
shrub ; borders of streams and mountain canons, in rich soil. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, coarse-grained, checking in drying, sus- 
ceptible of a good polish, containing numerous regularly distributed large 
open ducts ; medullary rays distant, thin, obscure ; color rich dark brown, 
the sap-wood lighter. 

The small nuts sweet and edible. 

241. Carya olivoeformis, Nutt. 
Pecan. Illinois Nut. 

Southeastern Iowa, southern Illinois and Indiana, northwestern Ken- 
tuckv, south and southwest throu£rh Missouri and Arkansas to eastern 
Kansas, the Indian Territory, western Louisiana, and Texas to the valley 
of the Concho River. 

A tree 30 to 52 metres in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 1.80 metres in 
diameter ; borders of streams, in low, rich soil ; very common and reach- 
ing its greatest development on the bottom-lands of Arkansas and the 
Indian Territory ; the largest species of the genus, and the largest and 
most important tree of western Texas. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, brittle, close-grained, compact ; layers 
of annual growth marked by one or two rows of large open ducts ; 
medullary rays numerous, thin ; color light brown tinged with red ; the 
sap-wood lighter brown ; less valuable than the wood of the other species, 
and hardly used except for fuel. 

The sweet edible nuts are collected in great quantities, affording an 
important article of commerce. 

242. Carya alba, Nutt. 

Shell-hark Hickory. Shag-hark Hickory. 

Valley of the Saint Lawrence River, northern shores of Lakes On- 
tario and Erie to southern Michigan and southeastern Minnesota, south 
to western Florida, central Alabama and Mississippi, and west to eastern 
Kansas, the Indian Territory, and eastern Texas. 



78 JUGLANDACEJE. Carya, 

A large tree, 24 to 30 or, exceptionally, 39 to 45 metres in height, 
with a trunk 0.90 to 1.20 metres in diameter; rich hillsides and sandy 
ridges ; common, and reaching its greatest development west of the 
Alleghany Mountains ; varying greatly in the size and shape of the fruit. 
A form with small, thin-shelled nuts (C. microcarpa^ Nutt.) is not rare 
from Delaware southward, and in Michigan. 

Wood heavy, very hard and strong, tough, close-grained, compact, 
flexible ; layers of annual growth clearly marked with one to three rows 
of large open ducts ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color brown, the 
thin and more valuable sap-wood nearly white ; largely used in the manu- 
facture of agricultural implements, carriages, axe-handles, baskets, etc. 

The sweet and edible nuts afford an important article of commerce. 

243. Carya sulcata, Nutt. 

Big Skellrharh. Bottom Shell-hark, 

Chester County, Pennsylvania, west to southern Indiana and Illinois, 
eastern Kansas, and the Indian Territory. 

A tree 24 to 30 or, exceptionally, 37 metres in height, with a trunk 
0.60 to 1.20 metres in diameter; bottom-lands, in low, rich soil ; rare and 
local ; most common and reaching its greatest development in southern 
Arkansas and the Indian Territory. 

Wood heavy, very hard, strong and tough, very close-grained, compact, 
flexible ; layers of annual growth marked by one or two rows of large 
open ducts ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color dark brown, the 
sap-wood nearly white ; used for the same purposes as that of the shell- 
bark hickory. 

The large nuts sweet and edible. 

244. Carya tomentosa, Nutt. 

Mocker-nut. Black Hickory. Bull nut. Big-hud Hickory. White- 
heart Hickory. King nut. 

Valley of the Saint Lawrence River, northern shores of Lakes Ontario 
and Erie to eastern Nebraska, eastern Kansas, and the Indian Territory, 
south to Cape Canaveral and Tampa Bay, Florida, and the valley of the 
Brazos River, Texas. 

A tree 24 to 33 metres in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 1.20 metres in 
diameter ; generally on rich hillsides; less commonly on low, river bottom- 
lands ; very common in the Gulf States, and the most generally distributed 
species of the genus in the South. 

Wood heavy, very hard, strong, tough, very close-grained, checking in 
drying, flexible, containing few large regularly distributed open ducts ; 
medullary rays numerous, thin, obscure ; color rich dark brown, the thick 
sap-wood nearly white ; used for the same purposes as that of the shell- 
bark hickory. 



Carya. JUGLANDACEiE. 79 

245. Carya porcina, Nutt. 

Pig-nut. Brown Hickory. Black Hickory. Switch-hud Hickory. 

Southern Maine to southern Ontario, southern Mielii^'an and Miin^e- 
sota to eastern Nebraska, eastern Kansas, and tlie Indian Territory, soutli 
to Cape Canaveral and Pease Creek, Florida, and the valley of the Nueces 
River, Texas. 

A tree 24 to 40 metres in height, with a trunk 0.00 to 1.50 metres in 
diameter ; dry hills and uplands ; common. 

Wood heavy, hard, very strong and tough, flexible, close-grained, check- 
ing in drying, containing many large open ducts ; color dark or light brown, 
the thick sap-wood lighter, often nearly white ; used for the same purposes 
as that of the shell-bark hickory. 

246. Carya amara, Nutt. 
Bitter-nut. Swamp Hickory. 

Southern Maine to the valley of the Saint Lawrence River, west 
throuirh Ontario, central Michiijan and Minnesota to eastern Nebraska, 
eastern Kansas, and the Indian Territory, south to western Florida and 
the valley of the Trinity River, Texas. 

A tree 18 to 24 metres in height, with a trunk O.GO to 0.90 metre in 
diameter ; borders of streams and swamps, in low ground, or often on dry, 
rich uplands. 

Wood heavy, very hard, strong, tough, close-grained, checking in dry- 
ing ; layers of annual growth marked by several rows of large open 
ducts ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color dark brown, the thick 
sap-wood light brown, or often nearly white ; largely used for hoops, 
ox-yokes, etc. 

247. Carya myristicaeformis, Nutt. 
Nutmeg Hickory. 

South Carolina, near the coast; Arkansas, from the Arkansas River 
to the Red River Valley. 

A tree 24 to 30 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 0.90 metre in 
diameter ; sandy ridges, borders of streams and swamps ; rare and very 
local in South Carolina ; more common and reaching its greatest develop- 
ment in southern Arkansas. 

Wood heavy, hard, very strong and tough, close-grained, compact, con- 
taining numerous small open ducts ; layers of annual growth marked by 
one or two rows of larger ducts ; medullary rays numerous, thin, not 
conspicuous ; color light brown, the sap-wood lighter. 

248. Carya aquatica, Nutt. 

Water Hickory. Swamp Hickory. Bitter Pecan. 

North Carolina, south near the coast to Cape Malabar and the Caloosa 
River, Florida (in Florida not detected within 8 to 10 miles of the coast), 



80 MYRICACEiE. — CUPULTFER.E. Myrlca. 

through the Gulf States to western Louisiana, northeastern Arkansas, and 
the valley of the Brazos River, Texas. 

A tree 18 to 21 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 0.90 metre in 
diameter, or generally much smaller ; low river swamps ; most common 
and reaching its greatest development on the bottom-lands of the lower 
Mississippi and Yazoo Rivers. 

Wood heavy, soft, strong, rather brittle, very close-grained, compact, 
containing few scattered open ducts ; layers of annual growth less clearly 
marked than in the other species of the genus ; medullary rays numerous, 
thin ; color dark brown, the sap-wood light, often nearly white ; used for 
fencing, fuel, etc. 

MYRICACE^. 

249. Myrica cerifera, L. 
Bayherry. Wax Myrtle. 

Shores of Lake Erie ; coast of Maine, and south near the coast to the 
Florida keys and southern Alabama. 

A tree sometimes 12 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.45 metre 
in diameter, or, except in the Southern States, a low much-branched shrub ; 
usually on sandy beaches and dry hillsides, reaching its greatest develop- 
ment on the bottoms and rich hummocks of the Georgia and Florida coasts. 

Wood light, soft, strong, brittle, very close-grained, compact ; medullary 
rays numerous, thin ; color dark brown, the sap-wood lighter. 

The leaves and stimulant and astringent bark of the roots are some- 
times employed by herbalists. The wax which covers the small globular 
fruit was formerly largely collected and made into candles, and now, 
under the name of myrtle wax, is a popular remedy in the treatment of 
dysentery. 

250. Myrica Californica, Cham. 

Cape Foulweather, Oregon, south near the coast to the Bay of Mon- 
terey, California. 

A small evergreen tree, rarely exceeding 9 metres in height, with a 
trunk 0.30 to 0.45 metre in diameter, or toward its northern limits reduced 
to a low shrub ; sandy beaches and gravelly hillsides. 

Wood heavy, very hard, strong, brittle, very close-grained, compact ; 
medullary rays numerous, thin, conspicuous ; color light rose, the sap- 



wood lighter. 



CUPULIFERJE. 



251. Quercus alba, L. 

White Oah 

Northern Maine, valley of the Saint Lawrence River, Ontario, lower 
peninsula of Michigan to southeastern Minnesota, south to the Saint 



Quercus. CUPULIFERiE. 81 

John's River and Tampa Bay, Florida, west to western Missouri, western 
Arkansas, and the valley of the Brazos River, Texas. 

A large tree, 24 to 45 metres in height, witii a trunk 1.20 to 2.40 
metres in diameter ; all soils ; very common, and reaching its greatest 
development along the western slopes of the Alleghany Mountains and 
in the valley of the Ohio River and its triljutaries, where it often forms 
a large portion of the forest growth. 

Wood strong, very heavy, hard, tough, close-grained, liable to check 
unless carefully seasoned, durable in contact with the soil ; layers of an- 
nual growth strongly marked by several rows of large open ducts ; 
medullary rays broad, prominent ; color brown, the sap-wood lighter 
brown ; largely used in ship-building, construction of all sorts, cooperage, 
in the manufacture of carriages, agricultural implements, and baskets, and 
for railway-ties, fencing, interior finish, cabinet-making, fuel, etc. 

252. Quercus lobata, Nee. 
White Oak. Weeping Oak. 

California west of the Sierra Nevadas, from the valley of the upper 
Sacramento River, south through the foot-hills and interior valleys to the 
San Bernardino Mountains. 

The largest of the Pacific oaks, often 30 metres in height, with a trunk 
0.90 to 2.40 metres in diameter ; very common through the central part 
of the State. 

Wood moderately hard, fine-grained, compact ; layers of annual growth 
marked by a few large open ducts and containing few smaller ducts ar- 
ranged in lines parallel to the broad conspicuous medullary rays ; color 
light brown, the sap-wood lighter ; considered of little economic value, 
and only used for fuel. 

253. Quercus Garryana, Doug. 
White Oak. 

Vancouver's Island, shores of Puget Sound, south throuijh western 
Washington, Oregon, and California to San Francisco Bay ; in Washington 
and Oregon extending to the eastern slopes of the Cascade Mountains. 

A tree 21 to 30 metres in height, with a trunk O.GO to 0.90 metre in 
diameter, or at high elevations reduced to a low shrub ; dry, gravelly soil ; 
common. 

Wood strong, hard, that of the young trees tough, close-grained, com- 
pact ; layers of annual growth marked by one to three rows of open ducts ; 
medullary rays, varying greatly in width, often conspicuous ; color light 
brown or j^ellow, the sap-wood lighter, often nearly white ; somewhat used 
for carriage and cooperage stock, in cabinet-making, ship-building, and very 
largely for fuel ; the best substitute for Eastern white oak produced in the 
Pacific forests. 

6 



82 CUPULIFER.E. Quercus. 

254. Quercus obtusiloba, Michx. 
Post Oak. Iron Oak. 

Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, south to northern Florida, west 
through southern Ontario and Michigan to eastern Nebraska, eastern 
Kansas, and the Indian Territory, reaching the one hundredth meridian 
in central Texas. 

A tree rarely exceeding 24 metres in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 1.50 
metres in diameter, or on the Florida coast reduced to a low shrub (var. 
parvifoUa, Chapm.) ; dry, gravelly uplands, clay barrens, or in the South- 
west on Cretaceous formations ; the most common and widely distributed 
oak of the Gulf States west of the Mississippi Eiver. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact, checking badly in drying, 
very durable in contact with the soil ; layers of annual growth marked by 
one to three rows of not large open ducts ; medullary rays numerous, 
conspicuous ; color dark or light brown, the sap-wood lighter ; largely 
used, especially in the Southwest, for fencing, railway-ties, and fuel, and 
somewhat for carriage stock, cooperage, construction, etc. 

255. Quercus undulata, var. Gambelii, Engelm. 
Scrub Oak. 

Mountain region of western Texas and New Mexico to the Santa 
Catalina and San Francisco Mountains, Arizona, eastern slopes of the 
Rocky Mountains of Colorado north to the valley of the Platte River, 
and on the Wahsatch Mountains of Utah. 

A small tree, rarely 15 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.60 
metre in diameter, or often a low shrub spreading from underground shoots 
and forming dense thickets, reaching its greatest development on the high 
mountains of southern New Mexico and Arizona ; the large specimens 
generally hollow and defective. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, that of young trees quite tough, close- 
grained, checking badly in drying ; layers of annual growth marked by 
few not large open ducts ; medullary rays numerous, conspicuous ; color 
rich dark brown, the sap-wood lighter ; largely used for fuel ; and in Utah 
the bark in tanning. 

The typical Q. undulata, Torr., of the central Rocky Mountain region 
does not attain arborescent size and habit. 

256. Quercus macrocarpa, Michx. 

Bur Oak. Mossy-cup Oak. Over-cup Oak. 
Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, northern shores of Lake Huron to Lake 
Winnipeg, south to the valley of the Penobscot River, Maine, and along 
the shores of Lake Champlain and the valley of the Ware River, Massa- 
chusetts, to Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, west to the eastern foot-hills 
of the Rocky Mountains of Montana, central Nebraska and Kansas, south- 
west to the Indian Territory and the valley of the Nueces River, Texas. 



Quercus. CUPULTFERiE. 83 

A large tree of the first economic value, 24 to 50 metres in height, with 
a trunk 1.20 to 2.10 metres in diameter ; rich bottoms and prairies ; in the 
prairie region the principal growth of the " oak openings," and extending 
farther west and northwest than any oak of the Atlantic forests. 

Wood heavy, strong, hard, tough, close-grained, compact, more durable 
in contact with the soil than that of other American oaks ; layers of an- 
nual growth marked by one to three rows of small open ducts ; medullary 
rays often broad and conspicuous ; color dark or rich light brown, the sap- 
wood much lighter; generally confounded with white oak {Q. alba), and 
employed for the same purposes. 



257. Qnercus lyrata, Walt. 

Over-cup Oak. Swamp Post Oak. Water White Oak. 

North Carolina, south near the coast to western Florida, west through 
Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana to the valley of the Trinity River, 
Texas, and through Arkansas and southeastern Missouri to middle Ten- 
nessee, southern Indiana and Illinois. 

A tree 24 to 30 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 0.90 metre in 
diameter ; deep, often submerged river-swamps ; rare in the Atlantic 
States ; more common and reaching its greatest development in the valley 
of the Red River, in Arkansas and Texas. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, tough, very durable in contact with the 
ground, close-grained, inclined to check in drying ; layers of annual 
growth marked by one to three rows of large open ducts ; medullary 
rays broad, numerous, conspicuous ; color rich dark brown, the sap-wood 
much lighter ; used for the same purposes as that of the white oak ( Q. 
alba). 

258. Qnerciis bicolor, Willd. 
Swamp White Oak. 

Southern Maine, valley of the upper Saint Lawrence River, Ontario, 
southern peninsula of Michigan to southeastern Iowa and western Mis- 
souri, south to Delaware, and along the Alleghany Mountains to northern 
Georgia, northern Kentucky, and northern Arkansas. 

A large tree, 24 to 36 metres in height, with a trunk 1.20 to 3 metres 
in diameter ; borders of streams and swamps, in deep alluvial soil ; com- 
mon and reaching its greatest development in the region south of the 
great lakes. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, tough, close-grained, inclined to check in 
seasoning ; layers of annual growth marked by one to three rows of large 
open ducts ; medullary rays broad, conspicuous ; color light brown, the 
sap-wood hardly distinguishable ; used for the same purposes as that of 
the white oak (Q. alba). 



84 CUPULTFERiE. Quercus. 

259. Quercus Michaiixii, Nutt. 
Basket Oak. Cow Oak, 

Delaware, south through the lower and middle districts to northern 
Florida, through the Gulf States to the valley of the Trinity River, Texas, 
and through Arkansas and southeastern Missouri to central Tennessee 
and Kentucky, and southern Illinois and Indiana. 

A tree 24 to 36 metres in height, with a trunk 1.20 to 2.10 metres in 
diameter ; borders of streams and deep, often submerged swamps ; the 
common and most valuable white oak of the Gulf States, reaching its 
greatest development on the rich bottom-lands of southeastern Arkansas 
and Louisiana. 

Wood heavy, hard, very strong, tough, close-grained, compact, very 
durable in contact with the soil, easily split ; layers of annual growth 
marked by few rather large open ducts ; medullary rays broad, conspicu- 
ous ; color light brown, the sap-wood darker ; largely used in the manu- 
facture of agricultural implements, wheel-stock, baskets, for which it is 
unsurpassed, for cooperage, fencing, construction, and fuel. 

The large sweet edible acorns are eagerly devoured by cattle and other 
animals. 

260. Quercus Prinus, L. 

Chestnut Oak. JRock Chestnut Oa:k. 

Eastern Massachusetts, west to the shores of Lake Champlain, shores 
of Quinte Bay, Ontario, and the valley of the Genesee River, New York, 
south to Delaware, and through the Alleghany Mountain region to north- 
ern Alabama, extending west to central Kentucky and Tennessee. 

A tree 24 to 30 metres in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 1.20 metres in 
diameter ; rocky banks and hillsides ; very common and reaching its great- 
est development in the southern Alleghany region, here often forming a 
large proportion of the forest growth. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, rather tough, close-grained, inclined to check 
in drying, durable in contact with the soil, containing few open ducts ; 
medullary rays very broad, conspicuous ; color dark brown, the sap-wood 
lighter ; largely used in fencing, for railway-ties, etc. 

The bark, rich in tannin, is largely used in preference to that of the 
other white oaks in tanning leather. 

261. Quercus prinoides, Willd. 

Yellow Oak. Chestnut Oak. CJiinquapin Oak. 

Eastern Massachusetts, shores of Lake Champlain, west along the 
northern shores of Lakes Ontario and Erie, through southern Michigan 
to eastern Nebraska, eastern Kansas, and the Indian Territory ; south to 
Delaware and through the Alleghany region to northern Alabama and 
Mississippi, extending southwest to the Guadalupe Mountains, Texas. 



Quercus. CUPULIFER^. 86 

A tree 24 to 39 metres in height, with a trunk 0.00 to 0.90 metre in 
diameter {Q. Muhlenbergii) , or often, especially toward the eastern and 
western limits of its range, reduced to a low, slender shrub {Q. prinoides ; 
Q. PrinuSj var. humilis, Marsh. ; Q. Prinus, var. Chincapin^ Michx. f.) ; 
dry hillsides and low, rich bottoms ; rare, except as a shrub, east of the 
Alle<diany Mountains ; very common in the Mississippi River basin, and 
reaching its greatest development in southern Arkansas. 

Wood heavy, hard, very strong, close-grained, checking badly in dry- 
in"-, very durable in contact with the soil ; layers of annual growth marked 
by rows of small open ducts ; medullary rays broad, conspicuous ; color 
dark brown, the sap-wood much lighter ; used for cooperage, wheel-stock, 
fencing, railway-ties, etc. 

The small acorns sweet and edible. 

262. Quercus Douglasii, Hook. & Am. 
^fountain White Oak. Blue Oak. 

California, — from about latitude 39°, south along the western foot- 
hills of the Sierra Nevadas below 4,000 feet elevation, and through the 
Coast Ranges to the San Gabriel Mountains. 

A tree 18 to 24 metres in height, with a trunk O.CO to 1.20 metres in 
diameter ; common on the low foot-hills of the Sierras. 

Wood very hard, heavy, strong, brittle, inclined to check in drying ; 
layers of annual growth marked by several rows of small open ducts, and 
containing many scattered groups of smaller ducts ; medullary rays nu- 
merous, varying greatly in width ; color dark brown, becoming nearly 
black with exposure, the thick sap-wood light brown. 

263. Quercus oblonglfolia, Torr. 
White Oak. 

California, — foot-hills of the San Gabriel Mountains to San Diego 
County ; foot-hills of the mountain ranges of southern Arizona and New 
Mexico ; in northern Mexico. 

A small evergreen tree, 12 to 15 metres in height, with a trunk 0.45 to 
O.GO metre in diameter ; the large specimens generally hollow and defective. 

Wood very heavy, hard, strong, brittle, very close-grained, checking 
badly in drying ; layers of annual growth hardly distinguishable, contain- 
ing few small open ducts arranged in many groups parallel to the broad 
and very conspicuous medullary rays ; color very dark brown or almost 
black, the thick sap-wood brown ; of little economic value except as fuel. 

264. Quercus grisea, Liebm. 
White Oak. 

Southern Colorado, mountains of western Texas, southern New Mexico 
and Arizona between 5,000 and 10,000 feet elevation, west to the Colorado 
desert of California ; in northern Mexico. 



86 CUPULIFER^. Quercus. 

A tree 15 to 24 metres in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 0.60 
metre in diameter, or reduced to a low, much-branched shrub ; a poly- 
morphous species, varying greatly in habit and in the shape and texture 
of the leaves, but apparently well characterized by its connate cotyledons ; 
the large specimens generally hollow and defective. 

Wood very heavy, strong, hard, close-grained, checking badly in dry- 
ing ; layers of annual growth marked by one or two rows of small open 
ducts, these connected by rows of similar ducts parallel to the numerous 
conspicuous medullary rays ; color very dark brown, the thick sap-wood 
much lighter. 

265. Quercus reticulata, Humb. & Bonp. 

Southeastern Arizona, — San Francisco, and Santa Rita Mountains 
between 7,000 and 10,000 feet elevation ; in northern Mexico. 

A small tree, 9 to 12 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.45 metre 
in diameter ; dry, gravelly slopes. 

Wood very heavy, hard, close-grained, checking badly in drying, con- 
taining many small scattered open ducts ; medullary rays numerous, very 
broad ; color dark brown, the sap-wood lighter. 

266. Quercus Durandii, Buckley. 

Central Alabama ; western and southern Texas. 

A tree 21 to 24 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 1.20 metres in 
diameter ; rich bottom-lands, or dry slopes and limestone hills, then re- 
duced to a low shrub forming dense, impenetrable thickets of great 
extent ( Q. San-Saheana) ; very rare and local in Alabama ; the common 
and most valuable white oak of western Texas. 

Wood very heavy and hard, strong, brittle, close-grained, inclined to 
check in drying ; layers of annual growth marked by few large open 
ducts ; medullary rays numerous, conspicuous ; color brown, the sap-wood 
lighter ; used for the same purposes as that of the white oak (^Q. alba). 

267. Quercus virens, Ait. 
Live Oak. 

Southern Virginia, south along the coast to Bay Biscayne and Cape 
Romano, Florida, along the Gulf Coast to Mexico, extending through 
western Texas to the valley of the Red River, the Apache and Guadalupe 
Mountains, and the mountains of northern Mexico south of the Rio 
Grande, here between 6,000 and 8,000 feet elevation ; in Costa Rica. 

An evergreen tree, 15 to 18 metres in height, with a trunk 1.50 to 
2.10 metres in diameter, or in the interior of Texas much smaller and 
often shrubby ; on the coast, on rich hummocks and ridges, a few feet 
above water-level ; common and reaching its greatest development in the 
south Atlantic States. 



Quercus. CUPULIFER^. 87 

Wood very heavy, hard, strong, tough, very close-grained, compact, 
diflicult to work, susceptible of a beautiful polish ; layers of annual growth 
obscure, often hardly distinguishable, containing many small open duc*« 
arranged in short broken rows parallel to the broad conspicuous medullary 
rays ; color light brown or yellow, the sap-wood nearly white ; formerly 
very largely and now occasionally used in ship-building. 

268. Quercus chrysolepis, Liebm. 

Live Oak. Maul Oak. Valparaiso Oak. 

Southwestern Oregon, south through the California Coast Ranges 
and along the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada and San Bernardino 
Mountains between 3,000 and 8,000 feet elevation, and south into Lower 
California ; southeastern Arizona, San Francisco and Santa Cataliua 
Mountains. 

An evergreen tree, 18 to 27 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 
1.50 metres in diameter, or at high elevations reduced to a low narrow- 
leaved shrub (var. vaccinifoHa, Engelm.). 

Wood heavy, very strong and hard, tough, close-grained, compact, 
difficult to work, containing many rather small open ducts arranged in 
wide bands parallel to the broad conspicuous medullary rays ; color light 
brown, the sap-wood darker ; somewhat used in the manufacture of agri- 
cultural implements, wagons, etc. ; the most valuable oak of the Pacific 
forests. 

269. Qnercus Emoryi, Torr. 
Black Oak. 

Western Texas, and through the mountain ranges of southern New 
Mexico and eastern and southern Arizona. 

A tree 12 to 15 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.90 metre in 
diameter, or toward its eastern limits in Texas reduced to a low shrub ; 
common and reaching its greatest development in southwestern New 
Mexico and southern Arizona near streams in open caiions between 5,000 
and 7,000 feet elevation ; dry, gravelly soil, the large specimens hollow 
and defective. 

Wood very heavy, not hard, strong, brittle, close-grained, compact ; 
layers of annual growth marked by several rows of small open ducts, 
these connected by narrow groups of similar ducts parallel to the broad 
conspicuous medullary rays ; color dark brown or almost black, the thick 
sap-wood bright brown tinged with red. 

270. Quercus agrifolia, Nee. 

Coast Live Oak. Enceno. 

California, — Mendocino County, south through the valleys of the 
Coast Ranges to Lower California. 



88 



CUPULIFERiE. 



Quercus. 



A large evergreen tree, 24 to 30 metres in height, with a trunk 1.20 
to 2.10 metres in diameter, or, rarely, reduced to a low shrub {vnr frutes- 
cens, Engelm.) ; rare at the North ; common south of San Francisco Bay, 
and the largest and most generally distributed oak in the extreme south- 
western part of the State ; dry slopes and ridges. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, brittle, close-grained, compact ; layers of 
annual growth hardly distinguishable, containing many large open ducts 
arranged in several rows parallel to the broad conspicuous medullary 
rays ; color light brown or red, the sap-wood darker brown ; of little 
value except as fuel. 

271. Quercus Wislizeni, A. DC. 

Live Oak. 

California, — Mount Shasta region, south along the western slopes of 
the Sierra Nevadas to Tulare County, and in the Coast Ranges south to 
the Santa Lucia Mountains. 

An evergreen tree, 15 to 18 metres in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 
1.80 metres in diameter, or toward its northeastern limits reduced to a low 
shrub (var. frutescens^ Engelm.) ; not common. 

Wood heavy, very hard, strong, close-grained, compact, containing 
numerous large open ducts arranged in irregular bands parallel to the 
broad conspicuous medullary rays ; color light brown tinged with red, 
the sap-wood lighter. 

272. Quercus rubra, L. 
Red Oak. Black Oak. 

Nova Scotia, southern New Brunswick to eastern Minnesota, western 
Iowa, eastern Kansas, and the Indian Territory ; south to northern Florida, 
southern Alabama and Mississippi, and the Limpia Mountains, western 
Texas. 

A large tree, 30 to 45 metres in height, with a trunk 1.20 to 2.10 
metres in diameter ; very common in all soils and extending farther north 
than any other Atlantic oak. The form of western Texas, with smaller 
acorns and deeper cups, and more deeply divided leaves, the wood heavier, 
harder, and more compact, is var. Texana^ Buckley. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, coarse-grained, inclined to check in drying ; 
layers of annual growth marked by several rows of very large open 
ducts ; medullary rays few, conspicuous ; color light brown or red, the sap- 
wood somewhat darker ; now largely used for clapboards, cooperage, and 
somewhat for interior finish, in the manufacture of chairs, etc. 

273. Quercus coccinea, Wang. 

Scarlet Oak. 

Southern Maine to northern New York, Ontario, northern Michigan 
and Minnesota, eastern Iowa and northeastern Missouri, south to Delaware 



Quercus. CUPULIFERiE. 89 

and southern Tennessee, and through the Alleghany region to northern 
Florida. 

A tree 30 to 54 metres in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 0.6'> 
to 1.20 metres in diameter; at the East, in dry, sandy soil or, less com- 
monly, in rich, deep loam ; in the Northwest, with Q. macrocarpa, form- 
ing the oak-opening growth ; not common, and reaching its greatest 
development in the basin of the lower Ohio River. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, coarse-grained ; layers of annual growth 
strongly marked by several rows of large open ducts ; medullary rays 
thin, conspicuous ; color light brown or red, the sap-wood rather darker ; 
if used at all, confounded with that of Q. rubra. 

274. QnercTis tinctoria, Bartram. 

Black Oak. Yellow-bark Oak. Quercitron Oak. Yellow Oak. 

Southern Maine to northern Vermont, Ontario and soutLern Minne- 
sota, eastern Nebraska, eastern Kansas, and the Indian Territory, south 
to western Florida, southern Alabama and Mississippi, and eastern Texas. 

A large tree, 36 to 48 metres in height, wdth a trunk 0.90 to 1.80 
metres in diameter ; generally on dry. or gravelly uplands ; very common. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, not tough, coarse-grained, liable to check 
in drying ; layers of annual growth marked by several rows of very large 
open ducts ; color bright brown tinged with red, the sap-wood much 
lighter ; somewhat used in cooperage and for construction, etc. 

The bark largely used in tanning ; the intensely bitter inner bark 
yields a valuable yellow dye, and is occasionally used medicinally in the 
form of decoctions, etc., in the treatment of hemorrhage. 

275. Quercus Kelloggii, Newberry. 
Black Oak. 

Valley of the Mackenzie River, Oregon, south through the Coast 
Ranges and along the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada and San 
Bernardino Mountains to the southern borders of California. 

A large tree, 18 to 24 metres in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 1.20 
metres in diameter, or at high elevations reduced to a shrub ; the most 
common and important oak of the valleys of southwestern Oregon and the 
California Sierras. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, very brittle, close-grained, compact ; layers 
of annual growth marked by several rows of large open ducts ; medullary 
rays few, broad, conspicuous ; color light red, the thin sap-wood lighter ; 
of little value, except as fuel ; the bark somewhat used in tanning. 

276. Quercus nigra, L. 

Black Jack. Jack Oak. 

Lone Island, New York, west throuijh northern Oliio and Indiana 
to southern Wisconsin, southern Minnesota, eastern Nebraska, eastern 



90 CUPULIFERiE. Quercus. 

Kansas, and the Indian Territory, south to Matanzas Inlet and Tampa 
Bay, Florida, and the valley of the Nueces River, Texas. 

A small tree, sometimes 12 or even 18 metres in height, with a trunk 
rarely exceeding 0.60 metre in diameter, or more often much smaller; 
dry, barren uplands, or often on heavy clay soils ; very common through 
the Southern States, and reaching its greatest development in southwestern 
Arkansas, the Indian Territory, and eastern Texas, forming, with the post 
oak {Q. obtusiloha), the growth. of the Texas cross-timbers. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, checking badly in drying ; layers of annual 
growth marked by several rows of large open ducts ; medullary rays 
broad, conspicuous ; color rather dark rich brown, the sap-wood much 
lighter; of little value except as fuel. 

277. Quercus falcata, Michx. 
Spanish Oah. Red Oak. 

Long Island, New York, south to middle Florida, through the Gulf 
States to the valley of the Brazos River, Texas, and through Arkansas 
and southeastern Missouri to central Tennessee and Kentucky, southern 
Illinois and Indiana. 

A large tree, 24 to 30 metres in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 1.80 
metres in diameter ; dry, gravelly uplands and barrens ; in the North 
Atlantic States only near the coast, rare ; most common and reaching its 
greatest development in the South Atlantic and Gulf States, where, in the 
middle districts, it is the most common forest tree. 

Wood heavy, very hard and strong, not durable, coarse-grained, check- 
ing badl}'^ in drying ; layers of annual growth strongly marked by several 
rows of large open ducts ; medullary rays few, conspicuous ; color light 
red, the sap-wood lighter ; somewhat used for cooperage, construction, etc., 
and very largely for fuel. 

The bark is rich in tannin. 



278. Quercus Catesbsei, Michx. 

Turkey Oak. Scrub Oak. Forked-leaf Black Jack. Black Jack.^ 

North Carolina, south near the coast to Cape Malabar and Pease Creek, 
Florida, and along the coast of Alabama and Mississippi. 

A small tree, 7 to 15 metres in height, with a trunk 0.45 to 0.60 metre 
in diameter ; very common in the South Atlantic and east Gulf States 
upon barren sandy hills and ridges of the maritime pine-belt ; rare in 
Mississippi. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, compact ; layers of annual 
growth marked by several rows of large open ducts, and containing many 
much smaller ducts arranged in short lines parallel to the broad conspic- 
uous medullary rays ; color light brown tinged with red, the sap-wood 
somewhat lighter ; largely used for fuel. 



Quercus. CUPULIFElliE. 91 

279. Quercus palustris, Du Uoi. 

Pin Oak. Swamp Spanish Oak. Water Oak. 

Valley of the Connecticut River, Massachusetts, to central New York, 
south to Delaware and the District of Columbia ; southern Wisconsin to 
eastern Kansas, southern Arkansas, and southeastern Tennessee. 

A tree 24 to 30 or, exceptionally, 3G metres in height, with a trunk 
0.90 to 1.50 metres in diameter; low, rich soil, generally along the 
borders of streams and swamps ; most common and reaching its greatest 
development west of the Alleghany Mountains. 

Wood heavy, hard, very strong, coarse-grained, inclined to check badly 
in drying ; layers of annual growth marked by several rows of large open 
ducts ; medullary rays broad, numerous, conspicuous ; color light brown, 
the sap-wood rather darker ; somewhat used for shingles, claoboards, 
construction, and in cooperage. 

280. Quercus aquatica, Walt. 

Water Oak. Duck Oak. Possum Oak. Punk Oak. 

Southern Delaware, south through the coast and middle districts to 
Cape Malabar and Tampa Bay, Florida ; tlirough the Gulf States to the 
valley of the Colorado River, Texas, and through Arkansas to south- 
eastern Missouri, middle Kentucky and Tennessee. 

A tree 15 to 24 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 1.20 metres in 
diameter ; generally along streams and bottoms, in heavy, undrained soil, 
or, more rarely, upon uplands ; very common and reaching its greatest 
development near the larger streams of the maritime pine-belt in the 
eastern Gulf States. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, coarse-grained, compact ; layers of annual 
growth marked by several rows of large open ducts ; medullary rays thin, 
conspicuous ; color rather light brown, the sap-wood lighter ; probably 
not used except as fuel. 

281. Quercus laurifolia, Michx. 
Laurel Oak. 

North Carolina, south near the coast to Mosquito Inlet and Cape 
Romano, Florida, and along the Gulf coast to the shores of Mobile 
Bay. 

A large tree, 18 to 24 metres in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 1.20 
metres in diameter ; most common and reaching its greatest development 
on the rich hummocks of the Florida coast. 

Wood heavy, very strong and hard, coarse-grained, inclined to check 
in drying ; layers of annual growth marked by several rows of rather 
small open ducts ; medullary rays broad, conspicuous ; color dark brown 
tinged with red, the sap-wood lighter. 



92 CUPULIFERiE. 



Quercus, 



282. Quercus heterophylla, Michx. f. 
BartranCs Oak. 

Salem and Cumberland Counties, New Jersey ; North Carolina {M, A. 
Curtis) ; and doubtfully from North Carolina and eastern Texas. 

A small tree, 12 to45 metres in height, with a trunk 0.45 to 0.60 metre 
in diameter ; rare and very local, and often considered a natural hybrid. 

Wood heavy, hard, very strong, close-grained, compact ; layers of 
annual growth marked by several rows of small open ducts ; medullary 
rays numerous, conspicuous ; color light brown tinged with red, the sap- 
wood somewhat darker. 

283. Quercus cinerea, Michx. 

Upland Willow Oak. Blue Jack. Sand Jack. 

North Carolina, south near the coast to Cape Malabar and Pease Creek, 
Florida, west along the Gulf coast to the valley of the Brazos River, 
Texas, extending north through eastern Texas to about latitude 33°. 

A tree 9 to 15 metres in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 0.20 
metre in diameter ; sandy barrens and dry upland ridges. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, compact; layers of annual 
growth marked by several rows of not large open ducts ; medullary rays 
distant, thin, conspicuous ; color light brown tinged with red, the sap-wood 
darker. 

284. Quercus hypoleuca, Engelm. 

Limpia Mountains, Texas, valleys of the high mountain ranges of 
southwestern New Mexico, Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona, above 6,000 
feet elevation; in Sonora. 

A small evergreen tree, 9 to 15 metres in height, with a trunk some- 
times 0.75 metre in diameter ; dry, gravelly slopes and summits, the large 
specimens hollow and defective. 

Wood heavy, very strong and hard, close-grained, compact ; laj^ers of 
annual growth marked by few small open ducts ; medullary rays broad, 
conspicuous ; color dark brown, the sap-wood much lighter. 

285. Quercus imbricaria, Michx. 
Shingle Oak. Laurel Oak. 

Eastern Pennsylvania, west through southern Michigan, southern Wis- 
consin, and southeastern Iowa to southeastern Nebraska and northeast- 
ern Kansas, south to northern Georgia and Alabama, middle Tennessee, 
and northern Arkansas. 

A tree 24 to 30 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 0.90 metre in 
diameter ; rich woodlands. 

Wood heavy, hard, rather coarse-grained, checking badly in drying ; 
layers of annual growth marked by many rows of large open ducts ; 



Castanopsis. CUPULIFER.E. 98 

mcduUiiry rays broad, conspicuous ; color li«^ht brown tinf^ed with red, the 
sap-wood much lighter ; occasionally used for clapboards, shingles, etc. 

286. Quercus Phellos, L. 
Willow Oak. Peach Oak. 

Staten Island, New York, south near the coast to northeastern Florida, 
through the Gulf States to the valley of the Sabine River, Texas, and 
through Arkansas to southeastern Missouri, Tennessee, and southern 
Kentucky. 

A tree 18 to 24 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.90 metre 
in diameter ; bottom-lands or rich sandy uplands. 

Wood heavy, strong, not hard, rather close-grained, compact ; layers of 
annual growth marked by several rows of small open ducts; medullary 
rays few, distant ; color light brown tinged with red, the sap-wood lighter 
red ; somewhat used for fellies of wheels, clapboards, in construction, etc. 

287. Quercus densiflora, Hook. & Arn. 
Tan-hark Oak. Chestnut Oak. Peach Oak, 

Southwestern Oregon, south through the Coast Ranges to the Santa 
Lucia Mountains, California. 

A tree 18 to 24 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 0.90 metre in 
diameter ; rich valleys and banks of streams ; most common and reaching 
its greatest development in the redwood forests of the California coast. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, very close-grained, compact, containing 
broad bands of small open ducts parallel to the thin dark conspicuous 
medullary rays ; color bright reddish-brown, the thick sap-wood darker 
brown ; largely used as fuel. 

The bark, rich in tannin, is very largely used, and preferred to that of 
any other tree of the Pacific forests, for tanning. 

288. Castanopsis chrysophylla, A. DC. 
Chinquapin. 

Cascade Mountains, Oregon, below 4,000 feet elevation, south along 
the western slopes of the Sierras, and through the California Coast Ranges 
to the San Bernardino and San Jacinto Mountains. 

A tree 15 to 24 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.90 metre in 
diameter, or at high elevations and toward its southern limits reduced to a 
low shrub ; most common and reaching its greatest development in the 
Coast Range valleys of northern California ; at its southern limits rarely 
below 10,000 feet elevation. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact ; layers of annual 
growth marked by a single row of rather large open ducts ; medullary 
rays numerous, obscure ; color light brown tinged with red, the sap- 
wood lighter ; in southern Oregon occasionally used iu the manufacture 
of ploughs and other agricultural implements. 



94 



CUPULIFER^. 



Castanea. 



289. Castanea pumila, Mill. 
Chinquapin. 

Southern Pennsylvania, and the valley of the lower Wabash River, 
Indiana, south and southwest to northern Florida and the valley of the 
Neches River, Texas. 

A tree sometimes 15 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 1.05 metres 
in diameter, or often, especially in the Atlantic States, reduced to a low 
shrub ; rich hillsides and borders of swamps ; most common and reaching 
its greatest development in southern Arkansas. 

Wood light, hard, strong, coarse-grained, durable in contact with the 
ground, liable to check in drying ; layers of annual growth marked by 
many rows of large open ducts ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color 
dark brown, the sap-wood hardly distinguishable ; used for posts, rails, 
railway-ties, etc. 

The small nuts sweet and edible. 

290. Castanea vulgaris, var. Americana, A. DC. 
Chestnut. 

Southern Maine to northern Vermont, southern Ontario and southern 
Michigan, south throuoh the northern States to Delaware and south- 
ern Indiana, and along the Alleghany Mountains to northern Alabama, 
extending west to middle Kentucky and Tennessee. 

A large tree, 24 to 30 metres in height, with a trunk 1.80 to 4 metres 
in diameter ; rich woods and hillsides ; common and reaching its greatest 
development on the western slopes of the southern Alleghany Mountains. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, coarse-grained, liable to check and warp 
in drying, easily split, very durable in contact with the soil ; layers of 
annual growth marked by many rows of large open ducts ; medullary rays 
numerous, obscure ; color brown, the sap-wood lighter ; largely used in 
cabinet-making, for railway-ties, posts, fencing, etc. 

The fruit sweet and edible. 



291. Fagus ferruginea, Ait. 
Beech. 

Nova Scotia and the valley of the Restigouche River to the northern 
shores of Lake Huron and northern Wisconsin, south to western Florida, 
west to eastern Illinois, southeastern Missouri, northeastern Arkansas, and 
the Trinity River, Texas. 

A large tree, 24 to 34 metres in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 1.20 
metres in diameter ; rich woods, or at the South sometimes on bottom-lands 
or borders of swamps ; reaching its greatest development upon the " bluflE" 
formations of the lower Mississippi basin ; very common. 

Wood very hard, strong, tough, very close-grained, not durable in 
contact with the soil, inclined to check in drying, difficult to season, 



Betula. BETULACE^. 95 

susceptible of a beautiful polish ; medullary rays broad, very conspicuous; 
color, varying greatly with soil and situation, dark or often very light 
red, the sap-wood nearly white ; largely used in the manufacture of chairs, 
shoe-lasts, plane-stocks, handles, etc., and for fuel. 

292. Ostrya Virginica, Willd. 

Hop Hornbeam. Iron-wood. Lever-wood. 

Bay of Chaleur, through the valleys of the Saint Lawrence and lower 
Ottawa Rivers, northern shore of Lake Huron to northern Minnesota, 
south through the Northern States and along the Alleghany Mountains 
to western Florida, and through eastern Iowa, southeastern Missouri, and 
Arkansas, to eastern Kansas, the Indian Territory, and eastern Texas. 

A small tree, 9 to 15 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 to O.GO metre 
in diameter ; generally on dry, gravelly hillsides and knolls ; reaching its 
greatest development in southern Arkansas ; common. 

Wood heavy, very strong and hard, tough, very close-grained, compact, 
susceptible of a beautiful polish, very durable in contact with the soil ; 
medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color light brown tinged with red, or, 
like the sap-wood, often nearly white ; used for posts, levers, handles of 
tools, etc. 

293. Carpinus Caroliniana, Walt. 

Hornbeam. Blue Beech. Water Beech. Iron-wood, 
Nova Scotia, southern New Brunswick, northern shores of Georirian 
Bay, southern peninsula of Michigan to northern Minnesota, south to 
Cape Malabar and Tampa Bay, Florida, and the valley of the Trinity 
River, Texas, west to central Iowa, eastern Kansas, and the valley of the 
Poteau River, Indian Territory. 

A small tree, 9 to 15 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.60 to 
0.90 metre in diameter, or at the North much smaller and often reduced 
to a low shrub ; borders of streams and swamps, in moist soil ; most 
common and reaching its greatest development along the western slopes 
of the southern Alleghany Mountains and in southern Arkansas and 
eastern Texas. 

Wood heavy, very strong and hard, close-grained, inclined to check in 
drying ; medullary rays numerous, broad ; color light brown, the thick sap- 
wood nearly white ; sometimes used for levers, handles of tools, etc. 

BETULACE^. 

294. Betnla alba, var. populifolia, Spach. 

WJiite Birch. Old-field Birch. Gray Birch. 

New Brunswick and the valley of the lower Saint Lawrence River to 
the southern shores of Lake Ontario, south, generally near the coast, 
to northern Delaware. 



96 BETULACE^. Betula. 

A small tree, G to 9 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.45 metro 
in diameter ; dry, gravelly, barren soil, or borders of swamps. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, liable to check in drying, 
not durable ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color light brown, the 
sap-wood nearly white ; largely used in the manufacture of spools, shoe- 
pegs, wood-pulp, etc., for hoop-poles and fuel. 

The bark and leaves, as well as those of B. papyrifera and B. lenta, 
are popularly esteemed as a remedy for various chronic diseases of the 
skin, bladder, etc., and in rheumatic and gouty complaints ; the empyreu- 
matic oil of birch obtained from the inner bark by distillation is used 
externally and internally for the same purposes. 

295. Betula papyrifera, Marsh. 

Canoe Birch. WJdte Birch. Paper Birch. 

Northern Newfoundland and Labrador to the southern shores of 
Hudson Bay, and northwest to the Great Bear Lake and the valley of 
the Yukon River, Alaska, south, in the Atlantic region to Long Island, 
New York, the mountains of northern Pennsylvania, central Michigan, 
northeastern Illinois and central Minnesota ; in the Pacific rej'ion south 
to the Black Hills of Dakota, the Bitter-root Mountains and Flathead 
Lake, Montana, northern Washington, and the valley of the lower Fraser 
River, British Columbia. 

A tree 18 to 24 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 0.90 metre in 
diameter ; rich w^oodlands and banks of streams ; very common in the 
northern Atlantic region, and reaching a higher latitude than any deciduous 
tree of the American forest. 

Wood light, strong, hard, tough, very close-grained, compact ; medullary 
rays numerous, obscure ; color brown tinged w ith red, the sap-wood nearly 
white ; largely used in the manufacture of spools, shoe lasts and pegs, in 
turnery, for fuel, wood-pulp, etc. 

The very tough, durable bark, easily separated into thin layers, is 
impervious to water, and is largely used in the manufacture of canoes, 
tents, etc. 

296. Betula occidentalis, Hook. 
Black Birch. 

British Columbia, south to northern California, and through the 
interior ranges and Rocky Mountains to Montana, Utah, and northern 
New Mexico. 

A small tree, 8 to 12 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.30 to 
0.45 metre in diameter ; mountain caiions and borders of streams, in moist 
soil, often throwing up several stems from the ground and forming dense 
thickets. 



Detula. BETULACEiE. 97 

Wood soft, strong, brittle, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays 
numerous, obscure ; color light brown, the sap-wood lighter ; somewhat 
used for fencing, fuel, etc. 

297. Betula lutea, Michx. f. 
Yellow Birch. Gray Birch. 

Newfoundland, northern shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence to the 
western shores of Lake Superior and Rainy Lake, south through the north- 
ern States to Delaware and southern Minnesota, and along the Alleghany 
Mountains to the high peaks of North Carolina and Tennessee. 

The largest and one of the most valuable deciduous trees of the north- 
ern Atlantic forests, often 21 to 29 metres in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 
L20 metres in diameter ; rich woodlands ; common. 

Wood heavy, very strong and hard, very close-grained, compact, satiny, 
susceptible of a beautiful polish ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color 
light brown tinged with red, the heavier sap-wood nearly white ; largely 
used for fuel, in the manufacture of furniture, button and tassel moulds, 
pill and match boxes, and for the hubs of wheels. 

298. Betula nigra, L. 

Red Birch. River Birch. 

Banks of the Merrimac and Spicket Rivers, Massachusetts, Long 
Island, New York, south through the coast and middle districts to western 
Florida, west to western Iowa, northwestern Missouri, eastern Kansas, 
the Indian Territory, and the valley of the Trinity River, Texas. 

A tree 18 to 24 metres in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 0.75 
metre in diameter ; banks of streams and ponds ; very common and 
reaching its greatest development in the South Atlantic and Gulf States. 

Wood light, rather hard, strong, close-grained, compact; medullary 
rays numerous, obscure ; color brown, the sap-wood much lighter ; used in 
the manufacture of furniture, wooden-ware, wooden shoes, ox-yokes, etc. 

299. Betula lenta, L. 

Cherry Birch. Black Birch. Sioeet Birch. Mahofjnny Birch. 

Newfoundland and the valley of the Saguenay River, west through 
Ontario to the islands of Lake Huron, south to northern Delaware and 
southern Indiana, and along the Alleghany Mountains to western Florida, 
extending west to middle Kentucky and Tennessee. 

A tree 18 to 24 metres in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 1..50 metres in 
diameter ; rich woods ; very common in all northern forests. 

Wood heavy, very strong and hard, close-grained, compact, satiny, 
susceptible of a beautiful polish ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; 
color dark brown tinged with red, the sap-wood light brown or yellow ; 
now largely used in the manufacture of furniture and for fuel ; in Nova 
Scotia and New Brunswick largely in ship-building. 

7 



98 BETULACE^. Alnus. 

300. Alniis maritima, Muhl. 
Seaside Alder. 

Southern Delaware and eastern Maryland, near the coast ; valley 
of the Red River, Indian Territory, in about longitude 96° 30' W. ; 
Manchuria and Japan {A. maritima, Japonica, and argiita, Regel). 

A small tree, 6 to 7 metres in height, with a trunk 0.10 to 0.15 metre 
in diameter ; borders of streams and swamps. 

Wood light, soft, close-grained, checking badly in drying; medullary 
rays broad, conspicuous; color light bright brown, the sap-wood hardly 
distinguishable, somewhat lighter. 

301. Alnus rubra, Bong. 
Alder. 

Sitka, south through the islands and Coast Ranges of British Columbia, 
western Washington, Oregon, and California to Santa Barbara, extending 
east through the Blue Mountains of Washington and Oregon to northern 
Montana. 

A large tree, 24 to 30 metres in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 1.20 
metres in diameter, or in British Columbia and the Blue Mountains often 
reduced to a low shrub ; bottom-lands and borders of streams ; most 
common and reaching its greatest development in western Washington 
and Oregon. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, very close-grained, compact, easily 
worked, satiny, susceptible of a beautiful polish ; medullary rays distant, 
broad; color light brown tinged with red, the sap-wood nearly white; 
largely used in Oregon in the manufacture of furniture. 

302. Alnus rhombifolia, Nutt. 
Alder. 

Valley of the lower Fraser River, British Columbia, south through the 
Coast Rano-es to southern California, extending east along the ranges of 
Washington to Clear Creek, Idaho, and the valley of the Flathead River, 
Montana. 

A small tree, 9 to 15 metres in height, ^vith a trunk sometimes 0.60 to 0.90 
metre in diameter, or toward its northern and eastern limits reduced to a 
shrub ; borders of streams ; the common alder of the California valleys. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, close-grained, compact ; medullary 
rays numerous, obscure ; color light brown, the sap-wood lighter, often 
nearly white. 

303. Alnus oblongifolia, Torr. 
Alder. 

San Bernardino and Cuyamaca Mountains, California, through the 
ranges of southern Arizona and New Mexico to the valley of the upper 
Rio Grande ; in northern Mexico. 



Salix. SALICACEiE. 99 

A tree 15 to 21 metres in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 1.20 metres in 
diameter ; borders of streams in d(!ep mountain canons. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, elose-grained, compact; medullary 
ravs numerous, very obscure; color light brown tinged with yellow, the 
sap-wood nearly wliite. 

304. Alnus serrulata, Willd. 
Black Alder. Smooth Alder. 

Massachusetts, west to southern Missouri, south to northern Florida 
and the valley of the Trinity River, Texas. 

A small tree, 6 to 12 metres in height, with a trunk 0.10 to 0.15 metre 
in diameter, or more often a tall, branching shrub forming dense thickets ; 
borders of streams and swamps, probably reaching its greatest develop- 
ment in southern Arkansas. 

Wood light, soft, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, 
conspicuous ; color light brown, the sap-wood lighter. 

A decoction of the bark and leaves, as well as those of A. incana, is a 
popular remedy against impurity of the blood and in the treatment of 
diarrhoea, hcematuria, etc. 

305. Alnus incana, Willd. 

Speckled Alder. Hoary Alder. Black Alder. 

Newfoundland to the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains, south to 
northern New England, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and eastern Nebraska ; in 
Europe. 

A small tree, 6 to 7 metres in height, with a trunk 0.10 to 0.15 metre 
in diameter, or more often a tall, branching shrub ; borders of streams 
and swamps. A form with leaves green and glabrous on both sides or 
slightly pubescent, extending through the mountain ranges of the Pacific 
region from the Saskatchewan and British Columbia to New Mexico and 
the southern Sierra Nevadas of California, is var. inrescens, Watson. 

Wood light, soft, close-grained, checking in drying ; medullary rays 
numerous, broad ; color light brown, the sap-wood nearly white ; pre- 
ferred and largely used in northern New England in the final baking of 
bricks, and occasionally, as well as that of A. serrulata, in the manufacture 
of gunpowder. 

SALICACE^. 

306. Salix nigra, Marsh. 

Black Willow. 

Southern New Brunswick and the northern shores of Lakes Huron and 
Superior southward through the Atlantic region to Bay Biscayne and the 
Caloosa River, Florida, and the valley of the Guadalupe River, Texas ; 



100 SALICACE^. 



Salix. 



Pacific region, — valleys of the Sacramento River, California, and the 
Colorado River, Arizona. 

A small tree, sometimes 15 to 18 metres in height, with a trunk rarely 
0.60 metre in diameter, or in southern Florida reduced to a low shrub ; 
banks of streams ; most common in the basin of the Mississippi River, and 
reaching its greatest development on the rich bottom-lands of the Colorado 
and other rivers of eastern Texas ; varying greatly in the size and shape 
of the leaves (vars. angustifolia, longifolia, latifoUa, etc., Anders.), length 
and habit of the aments, etc. (vars. marginata and Wrightii, Anders., var. 
Wardii, Bebb). 

Wood light, soft, weak, close-grained, checking badly in drying ; med- 
ullary rays obscure ; color brown, the sap-wood nearly white. 

The tonic and astringent bark is used domestically as a popular febrifuge, 
containing, in common with all the species of the genus, salicylic acid, — 
a powerful antipyretic now successfully used in the treatment of acute cases 
of gout, rheumatism, typhoid fever, etc. 

307. Salix amygdaloides, Anders. 
Willow. 

Shores of the great lakes (New York and Ohio), west to the valley 
of the Saskatchewan, and southward through the Rocky Mountain 
region to southern New Mexico ; banks of the lower Columbia River, 
Oregon. 

A small tree, rarely 9 to 12 metres in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 
0.30 metre in diameter ; borders of streams. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, checking in drying ; color 
light brown, the sap-wood nearly white. 

308. Salix laevigata, Bebb. 

Willow. 

California, — Sierra County and the valley of the Sacramento River 
to the southern boundary of the State. 

A tree sometimes 15 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.60 metre 
in diameter ; borders of streams and bottom-lands. Forms varying in the 
shape of the leaves, length of aments, etc., are vars. angustifolia and 
congesta, Bebb. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, close-grained, compact ; medullary 
rays numerous, very thin ; color light brown tinged with red. 

309. Salix lasiandra, Benth. 

Willow. 

British Columbia, south to the valley of the Sacramento River, Cali- 
fornia ; mountains of Utah, Colorado to New Mexico (var. Fendleriana). 



Salix. SALICACEiE. 101 

A tree 12 to 18 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes O.CO metre 
in diameter ; banks of streams ; very common ; varying in the shape of 
the leaves and character of tlie aments (var. lancifolia and Fandleriana. 

Bebb). 

Wood li"-ht, soft, not strong, brittle, close-grained, compact ; medullary 
rays numerous, very obscure ; color light brown, the sap-wood lighter or 
often nearly white. 

310. Salix longifolia, Muhl. 
Sand-bar Willow. 

Valley of the Connecticut River and of the Potomac River at Wash- 
ington ; west and northwest through the region of the great lakes to the 
valley of the Mackenzie River, in latitude G6° N., through the Mississippi 
basin, Texas, the Rocky Mountain region, and the Pacific Coast States. 

A small tree, 6 to 9 metres in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 
0.30 metre in diameter ; borders of streams and river sand-bars, in low, 
wet sandy soil, often forming low, dense clumps ; rare east of the Alle- 
ghany Mountains ; very common throughout the Mississippi River basin, 
and reaching its greatest development in the valleys of Oregon and 
northern California. 

Forms found from western Texas to Oregon, varying in the shape of 
the leaves, aments, nature of pubescence, etc., are var. exigua, Bebb, and 
var. argyrophylla, Anders. 

Wood light, soft, very close-grained, compact ; medullary rays numerous, 
very obscure ; color brown tinged with red, the sap-wood brown. 

311. Salix sessilifolia, Nutt. 

Puget Sound southward, near the coast, and through the California 
Coast Ranges. 

A small tree, 9 to 12 metres in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 
0.30 to 0.45 metre in diameter ; borders of streams, in low, wet ground. 

A form with narrower entire leaves, of the Sacramento Valley and the 
California Coast Ranges, is var. Hindsiana, Anders. 

Wood light, soft, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays thin ; color 
light red, the sap-wood nearly white. 

312. Salix discolor, Muhl. 
Glaucous Willow. 

Labrador, west to the valleys of the Peace and Athabasca Rivers, south- 
ward through the Atlantic resfion to Delaware and southern Missouri. 

A small tree, rarely exceeding 6 metres in height, with a trunk some- 
times 0.30 metre in diameter, or more often a tall, straggling shrub 3 
to 6 metres in height ; borders of streams and swamps, in low, wet soil ; 
varying greatly in the form of leaves, aments, and nature of pubescence. 



102 SALTCACEiE. 



Salix. 



Wood light, soft, close-grained, compact, contaiuing many evenly dis- 
tributed small open ducts ; medullary rays and layers of annual growth not 
obscure ; color brown streaked with orange, the sap-wood light brown. 

313. Salix flavescens, Nutt. 
Willow. 

Rocky Mountains of Idaho and Montana southward to southern New 
Mexico; on the Cascade Mountains, Oregon, and the Sierra Nevada, 
California. 

A small tree, sometimes 6 to 9 metres in height, with a trunk rarely 
0.30 metre in diameter ; borders of streams, reaching its greatest develop- 
ment in the southern Rocky Mountain region. A form found from Alaska 
to California upon dry hillsides and slopes near the coast, distinguished by 
its broadly obovate leaves, larger size, heavier and harder wood, and dark 
sap-wood, is var. Scouleriana, Bebb. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact; medullary rays 
numerous, obscure ; color brown tinged with red, the sap-wood nearly 
white. 

314. Salix Hookeriana, Barratt. 

Grand Rapids of the Saskatchewan ; coast of Washington Territory 
and Oregon. 

A small tree, 8 to 9 metres in height, with a trunk rarely 0.30 metre 
in diameter, or more often a low, straggling shrub with many prostrate 
stems ; on the coast generally along the edge of beaches, or in low, 
rather moist, sandy soil. 

Wood light, soft, close-grained, compact, containing many minute open 
ducts ; medullary rays thin, very obscure ; color light brown tinged with 
red, the sap-wood nearly white. 

315. Salix cordata, var. vestita, Anders. 
Diamond Willow. 

Valley of the Missouri River and its tributaries, — Fort Osage, Mis- 
souri, Iowa, Nebraska, and westward to about the one hundred and tenth 
meridian. 

A small tree, rarely 8 metres in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 
metre in diameter, or more often a low, straggling shrub, not exceeding 
1.80 to 3 metres in height; bottom-lands, in wet, sandy soil. S. cordata^ 
Muhl., of wide distribution through the Atlantic region, rarely, if ever, 
attains arborescent size or habit. 

Wood light, soft, close-grained, compact, reported very durable in con- 
tact with the ground ; annual layers of growth clearly defined ; medullary 
rays very obscure ; color brown or often tinged with red, the sap-wood 
nearly white; used for fence-posts. 



Populus. SALIC ACE^. 103 

316. Salix lasiolepis, Benth. 
Willow 

California, — valley of the Klamath River, southward through tho 
western portions of the State, reaching in the Sierra iS'evadas an eleva- 
tion of 3,500 to 4,000 feet above the sea. 

A small tree, sometimes 12 to 18 metres in hei<^ht, with a trunk 0.45 
to 0.50 metre in diameter, or northward and at high elevations reduced to 
a low shrub ; leaves varying greatly in shape and breadth (vars. anyusti- 
folia and latifolia, Anders.), or toward its southern limit often persistent 
until spring (iSl Hartwegi, Benth.). 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays 
numerous, thin ; color light brown, the sup-wood nearly white ; somewhat 
used as fuel, especially in the southern part of the State. 

317. Salix Sitchensis, Sans. 
Silky Willow. 

Alaska, southward near the coast to Santa Barbara, California. 

A low, much-branched tree, rarely exceeding 8 metises in height, with 
a trunk 0.30 to 0,45 metre in diameter, or more often a straggling shrub ; 
low, wet soil, borders of streams and ponds. A form with narrow oblau- 
ceolate leaves is var. angustifolia^ Bebb. 

Wood light, soft, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays numerous, 
thin ; color light red, the sap-wood nearly white. 

318. Populus tremuloides, Michx. 
Aspen. Quaking Asp. 

Northern Newfoundland and Labrador to the southern shores of Hud- 
son Bay, northwest to the Great Bear Lake, the mouth of the Mackenzie 
River, and the valley of the Yukon River, Alaska ; south in the Atlantic 
region to the mountains of Pennsylvania, southern Indiana and Illinois, 
and northern Kentucky ; in the Pacific region south to the valley of the 
Sacramento River, California, and along the Rocky Mountains and in- 
terior ranges to southern New Mexico, Arizona, and central Nevada. 

A small tree, 15 to 18 metres in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 
0.60 metre in diameter; very common through British America, and 
spreading over enormous areas stripped by lire of other trees ; in the 
Pacific region very common upon moist mountain slopes and bottoms 
between 6,000 and 10,000 feet elevation ; the most widely distributed 
North American tree. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact, not durable, con- 
taining, as does that of the whole genus, numerous minute scattered open 
ducts ; medullary rays very thin, hardly distinguishable ; color light brown, 
the thick sap-wood nearly white ; largely manufactured into wood-pulp ; 
in the Pacific region sometimes used for fuel, flooring, in turnery, etc. 



104 



SALICACEiE. 



Populus. 



A bitter principle in the bark causes its occasional use as a tonic in 
the treatment of intermittent fevers and cases of debility. 

319. Populus grandidentata, Michx. 
Poplar. 

Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and west through Ontario to northern 
Minnesota, south through the Northern States and along the Alleghany 
Mountains to North Carolina, extending west to middle Kentucky and 
Tennessee. 

A tree 21 to 24 metres in height, with a trunk 0.50 to 0.75 metre m 
diameter ; rich woods and borders of streams and swamps. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays 
thin, obscure ; color light brown, the sap-wood nearly white ; largely 
manufactured into wood-pulp and occasionally used in turnery, for 
wooden-ware, etc. 

320. Populus heterophylla, L. 

River Cottonwood. Swamp Cottonwood. 

Connecticut, Northport, Long Island, south, generally near the coast, 
to southern Georgia, through the Gulf States to western Louisiana, and 
through Arkansas to central Tennessee and Kentucky, southern Illinois 
and Indiana. 

A tree 24 to 27 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 0.75 metre in 
diameter ; borders of river swamps ; most common and reaching its great- 
est development in the basin of the lower Ohio River ; rare and local. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays 
thin, very obscure ; color dull brown, the thick sap-wood lighter brown. 

321. Populus balsamifera, L. 

Balsam, Tacamahac. Balm of Gilead. 

Straits of Belle Isle to the shores of Hudson Bay, northwest to the 
shores of the Great Bear Lake and the valley of the Yukon River, Alaska, 
south to northern New England, central Michigan and Minnesota, the 
Rocky Mountains and interior ranges of Montana and Idaho, Washington, 
and British Columbia. 

A large tree, 18 to 24 metres in height, with a trunk 1.50 to 2.10 
metres in diameter ; very common on all islands and shores of the north- 
ern rivers ; in British Columbia generally confounded with the allied 
P. trichocarpa^ the range of the two species here still uncertain. A form 
with broader heart-shaped leaves, white on the under side, rare or un- 
known in a wild state, very common in cultivation, is var. candicans^ 
Gray. 

Wood very light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact ; medullary 
rays numerous, very obscure ; color brown, the thick sap-wood nearly 
white. 



Populus. SALICACEiE. 105 

The buds, as well as those of several other species, are covered with 
a resinous exudation, which is occasionally used medicinally as a substitute 
for turpentine and other bulms. 

322. Populus angustifolia, James. 
Mack Cottonwood. 

Black Hills of Dakota, eastern and southwestern Montana, east Hum- 
boldt and Shoshone Mountains, Nevada, Rocky Mountains of Colorado, 
and on the ranges of southwestern New Mexico and eastern Arizona. 

A small tree, 15 to 18 metres in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 
0.60 metre in diameter; borders of streams, between G,000 and 10,000 
feet elevation. 

Wood light, soft, weak, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays nu- 
merous, obscure ; color brown, the sap-wood nearly white. 

323. Populus trichocarpa, Torr. & Gray. 
Black Cottonwood. Balsam Cottonwood. 

Valley of the Fraser River, British Columbia, and probably much 
farther north, east to the eastern base of the Bitter Root Mountains, 
Montana, south through Wasliington, western Oregon and California to 
the southern borders of the State. 

A large tree, 24 to GO metres m height, with a trunk 1.20 to 2.10 
metres in diameter ; banks of streams and bottom-lands below 6,000 feet 
elevation ; very common and reaching its greatest development in the val- 
leys of the lower Columbia River and the streams flowing into Puget 
Sound, here the largest deciduous tree of the forest. 

Wood very light, soft, not strong, rather close-grained, compact ; 
medullary rays thin, hardly distinguishable ; color light dull brown, the 
sap-wood lighter, nearly white ; in Oregon and Washington largely 
manufactured into staves of sugar-barrels, wooden-ware, etc. 

324. Populus monilifera, Ait. 

Cottonwood. Necklace Poplar. Carolina Poplar. Big Cotton- 
wood. 

Shores of Lake Champlain, Vermont, south through western New 
England to western Florida, west to the eastern base of the Rocky 
Mountains of Montana, Colorado, and New Mexico. 

A large tree, 24 to 51 metres in height, with a trunk 1.20 to 2.40 
metres in diameter ; low, moist soil ; the common Cottonwood of Texas 
and the western plains, bordering all streams flowing east from the Rocky 
Mountains. 

Wood very light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact, liable to warp 
in drying, difficult to season ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color 
dark brown, the thick sap-wood nearly white ; largely used in the manu- 
facture of paper-pulp, for light packing-cases, fence-boards, and fuel. 



106 CONIFERiE. ' Populus. 

325. Populiis Fremontii, Watson. 
Cottonwood, 

California, valley of the upper Sacramento River, south to San Ber- 
nardino County, extending eastward in Nevada and Utah. A form dis- 
tinguished by its sharply acuminate leaves, truncate at the base (var. 
Wislizenl, Watson), is common along all the larger streams from southern 
California, through Arizona and New Mexico, to western Texas and 
southern Colorado. 

A large tree, 24 to 30 metres in height, with a trunk 1.20 to 1.80 
metres in diameter ; borders of streams ; the common cottonwood of the 
valleys of central California. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact, liable to warp in 
drying, difficult to season ; medullary rays thin, very obscure ; color 
light brown, the sap-wood nearly white. 



CONIFERS. 

326. Libocedrns decnrrens, Torr. 

White Cedar, bastard Cedar. Post Cedar. Incense Cedar, 

Oregon, south along the western slopes of the Cascade and Sierra 
Nevada Mountains between 3,000 and 8,500 feet elevation, and through 
the California Coast Ranges to the San Bernardino and Cuyamaca 
Mountains. 

A large tree, 30 to 45 metres in height, with a trunk 1.20 to 2.10 
metres in diameter ; slopes and valleys ; common. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, close-grained, compact, very 
durable in contact with the soil ; bands of small summer cells thin, 
dark-colored, conspicuous ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; the thin 
sap-wood nearly white ; largely used for fencing and in the construction 
of water-flumes, and for interior finish, furniture, laths, shingles, etc. ; 
often injured by a species of dry rot (Dcedalia vorax), rendering it unfit 
for lumber. 

327. Thuya occidentalis, L. 
White Cedar. Arhor-vitce. 

New Brunswick, valley of the Saint Lawrence River to the southern 
shores of James Bay and southeast to Lake Winnipeg, south through the 
Northern States to central New York, northern Pennsylvania, central 
Michigan, northern Illinois, central Minnesota, and along the Alleghany 
Mountains to the high peaks of North Carolina. 

A tree 12 to 18 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 1.20 to 1.50 
metres in diameter ; cold, wet swamps, and rocky banks of streams; very 
common at the North, often covering great areas of swamp. 



ChamcBcyparis. CONIFER.E. 107 

Wood very light, soft, not strong, brittle, rather coarse-grained, com- 
pact, very durable in contact with the soil ; the bands of small summer 
cells very thin, dark-colored ; medullary rays numerous, indistinct ; color 
li<dit brown, turning darker with exposure, the thin sap-wood nearly 
white ; largely used for posts, fencing, railway-ties, and shingles. 

The distilled oil and a tincture of the leaves of Thuya have been found 
useful in the treatment of pulmonary and uterine complaints. 

328. Thuya gigantea, Nutt. 
Red Cedar. Canoe Cedar, 

Alaska, south along the Coast Ranges and islands of British Co- 
lumbia, through western Washington and Oregon and the Coast Ranges 
of northern California, extending east along the mountains of Washing- 
ton to the Ca3ur d'Alene, Bitter Root, and Salmon River Mountains 
of Idaho and the western slopes of the Rocky Mountains of northern 
Montana. 

A large tree, 30 to 45 metres in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 3.60 
metres in diameter ; low, rich woods and swamps, less commonly on dry 
ridges and slopes below 5,200 feet devotion ; common and reaching its 
greatest development in western Washington and Oregon ; the large 
specimens generally hollow. 

Wood very light, soft, not strong, brittle, rather coarse-grained, com- 
pact, easily worked, very durable in contact with the soil ; bands of small 
summer cells thin, dark-colored, distinct ; medullary rays numerous, ob- 
scure ; color dull brown tinged with red, the thin sap-wood nearly white ; 
largely used for interior finish, fencing, shingles, in cabinet-making and 
cooperage, and by the Indians of the northwest coast in the manufacture 
of their canoes. 

329. Chamsecyparis sphaeroidea, Spach. 
White Cedar. 

Southern Maine, south near the coast to northern Florida, and along 
the Gulf Coast to the valley of the Pearl River, Mississippi. 

A tree 24 to 27 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 1.20 metres in 
diameter ; deep, cold swamps ; rare in the Gulf States, west of the Bay 
of Mobile. 

Wood very light and soft, not strong, close-grained, compact, easily 
worked, very durable in contact with the soil ; bands of small summer 
cells thin, dark-colored, conspicuous ; medullary rays numerous, ob- 
scure ; color light brown tinged with red, growing darker with exposure, 
the sap-w"ood lighter ; largely used in boat-building, for wooden-ware, 
cooperage, shingles, interior finish, telegraph and fence posts, railway- 
ties, etc. 



108 CONlFERiE. Chamcecijparis. 

330. Chamaecyparis Nutkaensis, Spach. ' . 
Yellow Cypress, Sitka Cypress. 

Sitka, south along the islands and Coast Ranges of British Columbia 
and the Cascade Mountains of Washington and Oregon to the valley of 
the Santian River, Oregon. 

A large tree of great economic value, 30 to 38 metres in height, with a 
trunk 1.20 to 1.80 metres in diameter, or toward its southern limits and 
at high elevations much smaller ; common along the coast at the sea-level 
to about latitude 49° 30', then less common and only at higher elevations ; 
within the United States hardly below 5,000 feet elevation and very rare 
and local ; the most valuable timber tree of Alaska. 

Wood light, hard, not strong, brittle, very close-grained, compact, very 
durable in contact with the soil, easily worked, satiny, susceptible of a 
beautiful polish, possessing an agreeable resinous odor ; bands of small 
summer cells thin, not conspicuous ; medullary rays thin, numerous, hardly 
distinguishable ; color bright light clear yellow, the thin sap-wood nearly 
white ; somewhat used in boat and ship building, for furniture, interior 
finish, etc. 

331. Chamaecyparis Lawsoniana, Pari. 

Port Orford Cedar. Oregon Cedar. White Cedar. LawsorCs 
Cypress. Ginger Pine. 

Oregon, — Coos Bay, south to the valley of the Rogue River, not ex- 
tending more than thirty miles from the coast ; California, — valley of 
the upper Sacramento River (shores of Castle and Soda Lakes, Shasta 
County). 

A large tree of the first economic value, 45 to 61 metres in height, 
with a trunk 1.80 to 4 metres in diameter ; rich woods, in low, moist soil, 
interspersed among the red fir and hemlock j most common and reaching 
its greatest development along the Oregon coast ; local ; in California very 
rare and local. 

Wood light, hard, strong, very close-grained, compact, easily worked, 
very durable in contact with the ground, abounding in odoriferous resin, 
satiny, susceptible of a beautiful polish ; layers of small summer cells thin, 
not conspicuous ; medullary rays numerous, very obscure ; color light 
yellow or almost white, the thin sap-wood hardly distinguishable ; largely 
manufactured into lumber and used for interior finish, flooring, railway- 
ties, fence-posts, matches, and in ship and boat building ; the resin strongly 
diuretic and a powerful insecticide. 

332. Cupressus macrocarpa, Hart. 

Monterey Cypress. 

California, — Cypress Point, Pescadero Ranch, and Carmelo Point, 
near Monterey. 



Juniperus. CONIFERS. 109 

A tree 15 to 21 metres in height, with a trunk 1.20 to 1.80 metres in 
diameter ; on granite rocks immediately upon the sea-coast ; very local. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, rather brittle, very close-grained, compac*, 
easily worked, very durable in contact with the soil, satiny, susceptible of 
a beautiful polish, odorous ; bands of small summer cells thin, dark-colored, 
conspicuous ; medullary rays numerous, hardly distinguishable ; color clear 
bright brown streaked with red and yellow, the thin sap-wood light yellow. 

333. Cupressus Goveniana, Gord. 

Humboldt County, California, south along the coast and through the 
Coast Ranges into lower California. 

A small tree, sometimes 12 to 15 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 
to 0.90 metre in diameter ; borders of streams and mountain slopes, in 
rather rich soil, or often a low shrub, occupying extensive tracts of sandy 
barrens or thin, rocky soil, 1 to 5 miles inland from the coast ; widely but 
not generally distributed. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, close-grained, compact ; bands of 
small summer cells broad, dark-colored, conspicuous ; medullary rays tliin, 
obscure ; color light brown, the thick sap-wood nearly white. 

334. Cupressus Macnabiana, Murr. 

California, — mountains south of Clear Lake, Lake County. 

A small tree, sometimes 9 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.45 
metre in diameter, or more often a tall shrub branching from the ground j 
very rare and local. 

Wood not collected. 

335. Cupressus Guadalupensis, Watson. 

San Francisco Mountains of New Mexico and eastern Arizona, Santa 
Catalina and Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona ; Sierra Madre, near Saltillo, 
and Guadalupe Island, Mexico. 

A tree 18 to 21 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 0.90 metre in 
diameter; rocky canions and ridges; forming on the New Mexico and 
Arizona Mountains extensive forests between 5,000 and 8,000 feet eleva- 
tion, generally on northern slopes ; local. 

Wood light, soft, very close-grained, compact, easily worked, suscep- 
tible of a good polish ; bands of small summer cells broad, conspicuous ; 
medullary rays numerous, very obscure ; color gray, often faintly streaked 
with yellow, the thick sap-wood light yellow. 

336. Juniperus Californica, Carr. 

Juniper. 

California, — valley of the Sacramento River south through the Coast 
Ranges to lower California. 



110 CONIFERS. Juniperus. 

A small tree, rarely 6 to 9 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.60 
metre in diameter, or more often a tall shrub, sending up many stems from 
the ground ; sandy barrens and dry, rocky soil. 

A form (var. Utahensis, Engelm.) with more slender branchlets and 
smaller globose fruit found from the western base of the Wahsatch Moun- 
tains, Utah, to eastern California, and south through the Great Basin to 
southeastern California and the San Francisco Mountains, eastern Arizona, 
is ver}' common in the elevated valleys and along the lower slopes of all 
the ranges of central and southern Utah and Nevada, and is the most 
generally distributed arborescent spiecies of the region. 

Wood light, soft, very close-grained, compact, very durahle in con- 
tact with the soil ; bands of small summer cells thin, dark-colored, not 
conspicuous ; medullary rays numerous, very obscure ; color light brown 
slightly tinged with red, the sap-wood nearly white ; in southern California 
largely used for fencing and fuel. 

337, Juniperus pachyphlcBa, Torr. 
Juniper, 

Mountains of western Texas, southern New Mexico and Arizona south 
of latitude 34° ; in northern Mexico. 

A tree 9 to 15 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 1.20 metres in 
diameter ; dry, stony slopes and ridges, generally between 2,000 and 3,000 
feet elevation ; the prevailing and largest juniper of the mountains of 
western Texas. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, very close-grained, compact, sus- 
ceptible of a fine polish; bands of small summer cells very thin, dark- 
colored, not conspicuous ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color clear 
light red, often streaked with yellow, the thin sap-wood nearly white. 

338. Juniperus occidentalism Hook. 
Juniper. 

Blue Mountains and high prairies of eastern Washington and Oregon, 
Cascade Mountains of Oregon, valley of the Klamath River, California, 
and south alonsr the hiirh ridires of the Sierra Nevada, between 7,000 and 
10,000 feet elevation, to the San Bernardino Mountains. 

A tree 9 to 15 metres in height, with a trunk 1.20 to 2.10 metres in 
diameter, or often a low, much-branched shrub ; dry, rocky ridges and 
prairies, reaching its greatest development in the California Sierras. 

Wood light, soft, very close-grained, compact, very durable in contact 
with the soil ; bands of small summer cells thin, not conspicuous ; medul- 
lary rays numerous, very obscure ; color light red or brown, the sap-wood 
nearly white ; largely used for fencing and fuel. 

A variety (var. monosperma, Engelm.) with smaller, generally 1-seeded 
berries, extends from the eastern base of Pike's Peak, Colorado, to the 



Juniperus. CONIFERiE. Ill 

mountains of western Texas, and through New Mexico and southern 
Arizona to southern California. 

A smail, stunted tree, G to i) metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 
O.GO metro in diameter, or often branching from the ground with many- 
stout, contorted stems ; dry, gravelly slopes between 3,500 and 7,000 feet 
elevation. 

Wood heavier than that of the type, the layers of annual growth often 
eccentric ; largely used for fuel and fencing. 

A variety (var. conjugens, iingelm.) with slender branchlets and 4 
ranked, closely appressed denticulate leaves and globose 1-2-seeded fruit, 
extends from the valley of the Colorado River, Texas, west and north. 

A tree 11 to 15 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.30 metre 
in diameter, covering with extensive forests the limestone hills of western 
Texas ; its range not yet satisfactorily determined. 

Wood light, hard, not strong, very close-grained, compact, very durable 
in contact with the soil ; bands of small summer cells thin, dark-colored, 
conspicuous ; medullary rays numerous, very obscure ; color brown often 
streaked with red, the thin sap-wood nearly white ; largely used for fencing, 
fuel, telegraph-poles, railway-ties, etc. 



339. Juniperus Virginiana, L. 
Red Cedar. Savin. 

Southern New Brunswick, shores of Georgian Bay, northern Michigan, 
northern Wisconsin and Minnesota, south to Cape Malabar and Tampa 
Ba}^, Florida, and the valley of the Colorado River, Texas, west to eastern 
Nebraska, Kansas, and the Indian Territory to about the one hundredth 
parallel of west longitude ; in the Pacific region, Rocky Mountains of 
Colorado to Vancouver's Island, British Columbia; not extending to 
western Texas, California, or Oregon; in Utah, Nevada, and Arizona 
rare and local. 

The most widely distributed of North American Coniferce, a tree 24 
to 30 metres' in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 1.35 metres in diameter, or 
toward its northern and western limits much smaller, often reduced to a 
low shrub ; dry, gravelly ridges, and limestone hills, or in the Gulf States, 
especially, near the coast, in deep swamps ; common and reaching its 
greatest development in the valley of the Red River, Texas. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, very close- and straight-grained, 
compact, easily worked, very durable in contact with the soil, odorous ; 
bands of small summer cells rather broad, conspicuous ; medullary rays 
numerous, very obscure ; color dull red, the thm sap-wood nearly white ; 
largely used for posts, sills, railway-ties, interior finish, cabinet-making, 
and lead-pencils. 

A decoction of the leaves is occasionally used as a substitute for savine 
cerete, and an infusion of the berries as a diuretic. 



112 CONIFER.E. Taxodium. 

340. Taxodinm distichum, Rich. 

Bald Cypress. Black Cypress. Red Cypress. White Cypress. 
Deciduous Cypress. 

Soutliern Delaware, south near the coast to Mosquito Inlet and Cape 
Romano, Florida, west through the Gulf States to the valley of the Nueces 
River, Texas, and through Arkansas to western Tennessee, western and 
northern Kentucky, southeastern Missouri, and southern Illinois and 
Indiana. 

A large tree, 24 to 46 metres in height, with a trunk 1.80 to 4 metres 
in diameter ; deep, submerged swamps, river bottom-lands, and pine-barren 
ponds ; common and occupying extensive tracts in the South Atlantic and 
Gulf States in the neighborhood of the coast. 

Wood light, soft, close, straight-grained, not strong, compact, easily 
worked, very durable in contact with the soil ; bands of small summer 
cells broad, resinous, conspicuous ; medullary rays numerous, very obscure ; 
color light or dark brown, the sap-wood nearly white ; largely manufac- 
tured into lumber and used for construction, cooperage, railway-ties, posts, 
fencing, etc., often injured, especially west of the Mississippi River, by a 
species of Dcedalia^ rendering it unfit for lumber. 

Two varieties of cypress, black and white, are recognized by lumber- 
men, the w^ood of the former heavier than water when green, rather harder 
and considered more durable than the other ; the unseasoned wood of the 
latter lighter than water, and rather lighter colored than black cypress. 

341. Sequoia gigantea, Decsn. 
Big Tree, 

California, — western slopes of the Sierra Nevada from Placer County 
(Calaveras Grove) south to the southern borders of Tulare County. 

A tree 76 to 119 metres in height, with a trunk 6 to 11 metres in 
diameter ; valleys and moist swales or hollows between 4,000 and 6,000 
feet elevation, growing in small, isolated groves, except toward its south- 
ern limits, here mixed with the sugar pine and red and white firs, occu- 
pying areas often several hundred acres in extent. 

Wood very light, soft, weak, brittle, rather coarse-grained, compact, 
remarkably durable in contact with the soil ; bands of small summer cells 
thin, dark-colored, conspicuous ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color 
bright clear red, turning much darker with exposure, the thin sap-wood 
white ; formerly somewhat manufactured into lumber, and locally used for 
fencing, shingles, construction, etc. 

342. Sequoia sempervirens, Endl. 
Redwood. 

California, — from the northern boundary of the State, south in the 
Coast Ranges to the southern border of Monterey County. 



Taxus. COXIFERiE. 113 

A large tree, 61 to 92 metres in height, with a trunk 2.40 to 7 metres 
in diameter; sides of eanoiis and valleys in low, wel situations, borders of 
streams, etc. ; not appearing on dry hillsides ; generally confined to slopes 
facing the ocean, and nowhere extending far from the coast ; most gen- 
erally multiplied and reaching its greatest average density north of Cape 
Mendocino. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, very brittle, rather coarse-grained, com- 
pact, susceptible of a good polish, easily split and worked, very durable in 
contact with the soil ; bands of small summer cells thin, dark-colored, con- 
spicuous ; medullary rays numerous, very obscure ; color clear light red, 
the thin sap-wood nearly white ; largely sawed into lumber ; the prevail- 
ing and most valuable building material of the Pacific coast, and in Cali- 
fornia almost exclusively used for shingles, fence-posts, telegraph-poles, 
railway-ties, wine-butts, tanning- and water-tanks, coffins, etc. ; forms 
with curled or contorted grain are highly ornamental. 

343. Taxus brevifolia, Nutt. 
Yew. 

Islands and Coast Ranges of British Columbia, through western and 
the mountain ranches of eastern Washinofton and Oreijon to the western 
slopes of the Rocky Mountains of northern Montana ; through the Cali- 
fornia Coast Ranges to the Bay of Monterey and along the western 
slopes of the Sierra Nevadas. 

A tree 18 to 24 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 0.90 metre in 
diameter, or toward its eastern limits in Idaho and Montana much smaller, 
often reduced to a low shrub ; rare ; low, rich woods and borders of 
streams, reaching its greatest development in western Oregon, Washing- 
ton, and British Columbia. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, brittle, very close-grained, compact, suscep- 
tible of a beautiful polish, very durable in contact with the soil ; bands of 
small summer cells thin, dark-colored, conspicuous ; medullary rays thin, 
numerous, very obscure ; color light bright red, the thin sap-wood light 
yellow ; used for fence-posts and by the Indians of the northwest coast 
for paddles, spear-handles, bows, fish-hooks, etc. 

344. Taxus Floridana, Nutt. 
Yew. 

Western Florida, — banks of the Apalachicola River from Bristol to 
Aspalaga. 

A small tree, 3 to 6 metres in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.25 metre 
in diameter ; rare and very local. 

Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained, compact ; bands of small sum- 
mer cells very thin, dark-colored, not conspicuous ; medullary rays nu- 
merous, obscure ; color dark brown tinged with red, the thin sap-wood 
nearly white. 

8 



114 CONIFERS. Torreya. 

345. Torreya taxifolia, Am. 
. Stinking Cedar. Savin. 

Western Florida, — eastern bank of the Apalachicola River from 
Chattahoochee to the neighborhood of Bristol. 

A tree 12 to 18 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 0.90 metre in 
diameter ; borders of swamps on caloareous soil ; very rare and local. 

Wood light, rather hard, strong, brittle, very close-grained, compact, 
susceptible of a beautiful polish, very durable in contact with the soil ; 
bands of small summer cells very thin, not conspicuous ; medullary rays 
numerous, obscure ; color clear bright yellow, the thin sap-wood much 
lighter ; largely used locally for fence-posts, etc. 

346. Torreya Californica, Torr. 
California Nutmeg. Stinking Cedar. 

California, — Mendocino County, and along the western slope of the 
Sierra Nevada to Tulare County, between 3,000 and 5,000 feet elevation. 

A tree 15 to 22 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.90 metre in 
diameter ; borders of streams, in moist soil ; rare. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, very close-grained, compact, susceptible of 
a fine polish, very durable in contact with the soil ; bands of small sum- 
mer cells broad, not conspicuous; medullary rays numerous, obscure; 
color clear light yellow, the thin sap-wood nearly white. 

347. Pinus Strobus, L. 

White Pine. Weymouth Pine. 

Newfoundland, northern shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence to Lake 
Nipigon and the valley of the Winnipeg River, south through the North- 
ern States to Pennsylvania, the southern shores of Lake Michigan ; 
" Starving rock," near La Salle, Illinois, near Davenport, Iowa (very 
rare and local) ; and along the Alleghany Mountains to northern Georgia. 

A large tree, 24 to 52 metres in height, with a trunk 1.20 to 3.50 
metres in diameter ; sandy loam, forming extensive forests, or in the 
reo-ion of the great lakes often in small bodies scattered through the hard- 
wood forests, here reaching its greatest development; north of latitude 
47° and south of Pennsylvania, central Michigan, and Minnesota much 
smaller, less common and valuable. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, very close, straight-grained, compact, 
easily worked, susceptible of a beautiful polish ; bands of small summer 
cells thin, not conspicuous ; resin passages small, not numerous nor con- 
spicuous ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color light brown, often slightly 
tinged with red, the sap-wood nearly white ; more largely manufactured 
into lumber, shingles, laths, etc., than that of any other North American 
tree ; the common and most valuable building material of the Northern 
States ; largely used in cabinet-making, for interior finish, and in the 
manufacture of matches, wooden-ware, and for many domestic purposes. 



Pinus. CONIFERiE. 115 

348. Finns monticola, Dougl. 
White Pine. 

Vancouver's Island, Coast and Gold Ranges of southern British Colunn- 
bia, cast along the mountains of northern Wasliington, through tlie CVjcur 
d'Alene and Bitter Root Mountains of Idaho to the valley of the Flathead 
River, Montana ; south along the Cascade Mountains of Washington and 
Oregon and the California Sierras to Calaveras County. 

A large tree, 30 to 4G metres in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 1..0O 
metres in diameter ; most common and reaching its greatest development 
in the Pend d'Oreille and Clark's Fork regions of Idaho, here a valuable 
and important timber tree ; in British Columbia generally below '3,000 feet, 
and in California between 7,000 and 10,000 feet elevation, not common. 

Wood very light, soft, not strong, close, straight-grained, compact; 
bands of small summer cells thin, resinous, not conspicuous ; resin passages 
numerous, not large, conspicuous ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; 
color light brown or red, the sap-wood nearly white ; inferior in quality, 
although resembling that of the Eastern white pine (P. Strohus) ; in 
Idaho and Montana somewhat manufactured into lumber. 

349. Pinus Lambertiana, Dougl. 
Sugar Pine. 

Oregon, — Cascade and Coast Ranges, from the head of Mackenzie 
River and the valley of the Rogue River, south ; California, — western 
flank of the Sierra Nevada, through the Coast Ranges to the Santa Lucia 
Mountains, and in the San Bernardino and Cuyamaca Mountains. 

A large tree, 46 to 92 metres in height, with a trunk 3 to 7 metres in 
diameter ; most common and reaching its greatest development upon the 
Sierras of central and northern California between 4,000 and 8,000 feet 
elevation ; in the Oregon Coast Ranges descending to 1,000 feet above 
sea-level. 

Wood very light, soft, coarse, straight-grained, compact, satiny, easily 
worked ; bands of small summer cells thin, resinous, conspicuous ; resin 
passages numerous, very large and conspicuous; medullary rays numer- 
ous, obscure ; color light brown, the sap-wood nearly white ; now largely 
manufactured into lumber and used for interior finish, door-blinds, sashes, 
etc., and for cooperage and wooden-ware ; less valuable and less easily 
worked than that of the Eastern white pine {Pinus Strohus) ; its quality 
injured by the larger and more numerous resin passages. 

A saccharine exudation from the stumps of cut or partially burned 
trees is sometimes used as a substitute for sugar. 

350. Finns flexilis, James. 

White Pine. 

Eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains, Montana, and probably farther 
north, south to New Mexico, Guadalupe and Limpia Mountains, western 



116 CONIFERS. Pinus. 

Texas, high mountain ranges of Utah, Nevada, and northern Arizona, 
Inyo Mountains and Mount Silliman, California. 

A tree 15 to 18 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 1.20 metres in 
diameter; dry, gravelly slopes and ridges between 4,000 and 10,000 feet 
elevation ; common along the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains of 
northern Montana, forming open, scattered forests, and the prevailing forest 
tree ; in central Nevada the most valuable timber tree of the region. 

Wood light, soft, close-grained, compact ; bands of small summer cells 
narrow, not conspicuous ; resin passages numerous, large ; medullary rays 
numerous, conspicuous ; color light clear yellow, turning red with expo- 
sure, the sap-wood nearly white ; in northern Montana, Nevada and 
Utah sometimes sawed into inferior lumber and used in construction 
and for various domestic purposes. 

351. Pinus albicanlis, Engelm. 

Coast Ranges of British Columbia, south along the Cascade and Blue 
Mountains of Washington and Oregon ; California, — Scott Mountains, 
Mount Shasta, and along the high peaks of the Sierra Nevada to Mount 
San Bernardino ; extending east along the high ranges of northern Wash- 
ington to the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains of northern Montana. 

A small alpine tree, 6 to 12 metres in height, with a trunk rarely 0.60 
metre in diameter, or at its highest elevation reduced to a low, prostrate 
shrub ; dry, gravelly ridges at the extreme limit of tree growth, reaching 
in the San Bernardino Mountains an elevation of 10,500 feet. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, close-grained, compact; bands of 
small summer cells thin, not conspicuous ; resin passages numerous, not 
large ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color light brown, the sap-wood 
nearly white. 

352. Pinus reflexa, Engelm. 
White Pine. 

Hi^h mountains of southwestern New Mexico to the Santa Rita and 
Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona. 

A tree 24 to 30 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes exceeding 
0.60 metre in diameter ; rocky ridges and slopes of almost inaccessible 
cafions between 6,000 and 8,000 feet elevation. 

Wood light, hard, not strong, close-grained, compact ; bands of small 
summer cells thin, resinous, not conspicuous ; resin passages few, large ; 
medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color light red, the sap-wood nearly 
white. 

353. Pinus Parryana, Engelm. 

Pinon. Nut Pine. 

California, — Larkin's Station, 20 miles southeast of Campo, San 
Diego County, and in lower California. 



rinus. CONIFElliE. 117 

A small tree, 6 to 9 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.45 metre 
in diameter ; very rare within the limits of the United States ; south of 
the boundary forming in lower California extensive open forests upon 
high ridges and slopes. 

Wood light, soft, close-grained, compact ; bands of small summer cells 
thin, not conspicuous ; resin passages very numerous, large, conspicuous ; 
medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color light brown or yellow, the 
sap-wood much lighter, nearly white. 

The large seeds edible. 

354. Pinus cembroides, Zucc. 
Pinon. Nut Pine. 

Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona ; in northern Mexico. 

A small tree, in Arizona 6 to 7 metres in height, with a trunk hardly 
exceeding 0.30 metre in diameter ; dry ridges and slopes at 3,500 feet 
elevation. 

Wood light, soft, very close-grained, compact ; bands of small summer 
cells thin, not conspicuous ; resin passages few, small ; medullary rays 
numerous, obscure ; color light clear yellow, the sap-wood nearly white. 

The seeds edible. 

355. Pinus edulis, Engelm. 
Pinon. Nut Pine. 

Eastern base of Pike's Peak, Colorado, south through New Mexico 
to the mountains of western Texas. 

A small tree, 6 to 9 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.90 
metre in diameter ; dry slopes, generally on lime or sandstone, reaching 
in Colorado an elevation of 9,000 feet. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, close-grained, compact, durable in 
contact with the soil ; bands of small summer cells thin, not conspicuous ; 
resin passages few, small ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color light 
brown, the sap-wood nearly white ; largely used for fuel, charcoal, fen- 
cing, etc., and in western Texas occasionally manufactured into inferior 
lumber. 

The larsre seeds edible. 



'»' 



356. Pinus monophylla, Torr. & Frem. 
Pinon. Nut Pine. 

Western base of the Wahsatch Mountains, Utah, to the eastern foot-hills 
of the California Sierras, south along the mountain ranges of the Great 
Basin to the San Francisco Mountains of eastern Arizona. 

A small, bushy tree, 4 to 6 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 
1 metre in diameter ; dry, gravelly slopes between 3,000 and 6,000 feet 
elevation. 



118 CONIFERiE. Pinus. 

Wood light, soft, weak, brittle, close-grained, compact ; bands of small 
summer cells thin, not conspicuous ; resin passages few, not large ; medul- 
lary rays numerous, obscure ; color yellow or light brown, the sap-wood 
nearly white ; largely used for fuel and charcoal. 

The large edible seeds furnish the principal food of the Indians of the 
Great Basin. 

357. Pinus Balfouriana, Murr. 
Foxtail Pine. Hickory Pine. 

California, — Scott Mountains, Mount Whitney, and about the head- 
waters of King and Kern Rivers. A form (var. aristata, Engelm.), 
common on the mountains of southeastern California, through Nevada, 
northern Arizona, and southern Utah to Colorado, above 7,500 feet, and 
in Colorado reaching 12,000 feet elevation, is distinguished by its ovate 
cones, with thinner scales and shorter recurved awn-like prickles. 

A small tree, 15 to 19 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 0.90 
metre in diameter ; dry, gravelly slopes and ridges, forming upon Scott 
Mountains a broad belt of forest growth between 5,000 and 8,000 feet 
elevation. 

Wood light, soft, weak, brittle, very close-grained, compact, satiny, 
susceptible of a good polish ; bands of small summer cells very nar- 
row, dark-colored ; resin passages few, not conspicuous ; medullary rays 
numerous, obscure. 

358. Pinus resinosa, Ait. 
lied Pine. Norway Pine, 

Newfoundland, northern shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and 
Lake Nipigon to the valley of the Winnipeg River, south through the 
Northern States to eastern Massachusetts, the mountains of northern 
Pennsylvania, central Michigan and Minnesota. 

A large tree, 24 to 46 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 1.37 
metres in diameter ; light sandy loam or dry rocky ridges, forming scat- 
tered groves rarely exceeding a few hundred acres in extent ; common and 
reaching its greatest development through northern Wisconsin and 
Minnesota. 

Wood light, not strong, hard, rather coarse-grained, compact ; bands of 
small summer cells broad, dark-colored, very resinous ; resin passages few, 
small, not conspicuous ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color light red, 
the sap-wood yellow or often almost white ; largely manufactured into 
lumber and used for all purposes of construction, flooring, piles, etc. 

359. Pinus Torreyana, Parry. 

California, — mouth of the Soledad River, San Diego County. 

A low, short-lived, gnarled, crooked tree, 6 to 8 metres in height, with 



Pinus. 



COI^IFER^. 119 



a trunk 0.23 to 0.33 metre in diameter ; crests of sandy bluffs immediately 
upon the sea-coast ; very local and fast disappearing. 

Wood li^-ht, soft, not strong, brittle, rather close-grained, compact; 
bands of small summer cells broad, resinous, conspicuous; resin passi't^es 
small few ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color light red, the sap- 
wood yellow or nearly white ; locally used for fuel. 

360. Pinus Arizonica, Engelm. 
Yellow Pine. 

Santa Rita Mountains, Santa Catalina Mountains, and probably upon 
other ranges of southern Arizona. 

A tree 24 to 30 metres in height, with a trunk O.GO to 0.90 metre in 
diameter; high rocky ridges between 6,000 and 8,000 feet elevation, and 
forming extensive forests near the summits of the Santa Catalina 
Mountains. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, rather brittle, close-grained, compact; 
bands of small summer cells broad, very resinous, conspicuous ; resin pas- 
sages numerous, large ; medullary rays thin, obscure ; color light red or 
often yellow, the sap-wood lighter yellow or white ; sometimes sawed into 
inferior lumber. 

361. Pinus ponderosa, Dougl. 
Yellow Pine. Bull Pine. 

Interior of British Columbia, south of latitude 51°, south and east 
along the mountain ranges of the Pacific Region to Mexico, the Black 
Hills of Dakota, Colorado, and western Texas ; not detected in central or 
southern Nevada. 

A large tree, 61 to 91 metres in height, with a trunk 3.60 to 4.57 
metres in diameter, or throughout the Rocky Mountain region much 
smaller, rarely exceeding 30 metres in height (var. scopulorum) ; dry, 
rocky ridges and prairies, or in northern California rarely in cold, wet 
swamps, reaching its greatest development along the western slope of the 
Sierras of northern and central California ; in western Washington and 
Oregon, rare and local ; next to Pseudotsuga Douglasii the most generally 
distributed and valuable timber tree of the Pacific forests, furnishing the 
principal lumber of eastern Washington and Oregon, western Montana, 
Idaho, the Black Hills of Dakota, western Texas, New Mexico, and 
Arizona. 

Wood varying greatly in quality and value, heavy, hard, strong, brittle, 
not coarse-grained nor durable, compact ; bands of small summer cells broad 
or narrow, very resinous, conspicuous ; resin passages few, small ; medul- 
lary rays numerous, obscure; color light red, the very thick sap-wood 
almost white ; largely manufactured into lumber, and used for railway- 
ties, fuel, etc. 



120 CONIF|;RiE. Pinus. 

362. Pinus Jeflfreyi, Murr. 
£uU Pine. Mack Pine, 

Ciiliforiiia, — Scott Mountains, south along the Sierra Nevada to the 
San Bernardino and San Jacinto Mountains. 

A large tree, oO to 31 metres in height, with a trunk 1.20 to 4 metres 
in diameter ; dry, gravelly slopes between 6,000 and 8,000 feet elevation ; 
most common and reaching its greatest development on the eastern slope 
of the Sierra Nevada. 

Wood light, strong, hard, rather coarse-grained, compact; bands of 
small summer cells not broad, very resinous, conspicuous ; resin passages 
few, not large ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color light red, the 
sap-wood pale yellow or nearly white ; largely manufactured into coarse 
lumber. 

Abietine, a volatile carbo-hydrogen possessing powerful anaesthetic 
properties, is obtained by distilling the resinous exudation of this species. 

363. Pinus Chihuahuana, Engelm. 

Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona, San Francisco Mountains, southwest- 
ern New Mexico and Arizona ; in Chihuahua. 

A small tree, 18 to 24 metres in height, with a trunk 0.45 to 0.60 
metre in diameter ; dry, rocky ridges and slopes between 5,000 and 7,000 
feet elevation ; not common. 

Wood light, soft, strong, brittle, close-grained, compact ; bands of small 
summer cells not broad, resinous, conspicuous ; resin passages few, rather 
large, conspicuous ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color clear light 
orange, the thick sap-wood lighter. 

364. Pinus contorta, Dougl. 
Scrub Pine. 

Alaska, south along the coast to Mendocino County, California, ex- 
tending inland to the western slopes of the Coast Ranges. 

A small, stunted tree, 6 to 9 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 
0.50 metre in diameter ; sandy dunes and exposed rocky points. 

Wood light, hard, strong, brittle, coarse-grained ; bands of small summer 
cells very broad, resinous, conspicuous ; resin passages numerous, not large ; 
medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color light brown tinged with red, the 
thick sap-wood nearly white. 

365. Pinus Murrayana, Balfour. 

Tamarack. Black Pine. Lodge-pole Pine. Spruce Pine. 

Valley of the Yukon River, Alaska, south through the interior of 

British Columbia, along the mountain ranges of Washington and Oregon 

and the Sierra Nevada of California to Mount San Jacinto ; on the high 

plateau east of the Rocky Mountains in about latitude 56°, and south 



Pinus. CONIFERS. 121 

throu<rh the mountains of Iduho, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, and 
Utah to New Mexico and northern Arizona. 

A tree 18 to 24 metres in height, with a trunk 0.00 to 1.20 metres in 
diameter ; reaching its greatest development in the California Sierras ; in 
the interior regions in dry, gravelly soil, here the prevailing tree, cover- 
ing immense areas, and generally rejilacing other species destroyed by 
fire ; western Washington and southward only along the borders of moist 
alpine meadows between 6,000 and 9,000 feet elevation. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close, straight-grained, easily worked, com- 
pact, not durable ; bands of small summer cells narrow, not conspicuous ; 
resin passages few, not large ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color 
light yellow or nearly white, the thin sap-wood lighter; occasionally 
manufactured into lumber, and used for fuel, railway-ties, etc. 

366. Pinus Sabiniana, Dougl. 
Digger Pine. Bull Pine. 

California, — Shasta County, south along the foot-hills of the Coast 
Ranges and the western slope of the Sierra Nevada below 4,000 feet 
elevation. 

A large tree, 24 to 30 metres in height, with a trunk O.GO to 1.20 
metres in diameter ; very common through all the foot-hills region. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, very coarse-grained, compact, not 
durable ; bands of small summer cells broad, very resinous, conspicuous ; 
resin passages few, large, prominent ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; 
color light brown or red, the thick sap-wood yellow or nearly white ; 
largely used for fuel. 

The large seeds edible. 

367. Pinus Coulteri, D. Don. 

California, — Monte Diablo, south through the Coast Ranges to the 
Cuyamaca Mountaiiis. 

A tree 24 to 46 metres in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 1.80 metres in 
diameter ; dry ridges and slopes between 3,000 and 6,000 feet elevation ; 
most common and reaching its greatest development in the San Jacinto 
Mountains. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, coarse-grained ; bands of small 
summer cells broad, very resinous, conspicuous ; resin passages few, large ; 
medullary rays numerous, prominent ; color light red, the thick sap-wood 
nearly white. 

368. Pinus insignis, Dougl. 

Monterey Pine. 

California, — Pescadero to Monterey and San Simeon Bay. 
A tree 24 to 30 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 0.90 metre in di- 
ameter ; sandy soil, in immediate proximity to the sea-coast ; rare and local. 



122 CONlFERiE. Pinus. 

AVood light, soft, not strong, brittle, close-grained, compact ; bands of 
small summer cells not broad, resinous, conspicuous ; color light brown, 
the very thick sap-wood nearly white ; locally somewhat used for fuel. 

369. Pinus tuberculata, Gord. 
Knob-cone Pine, 

Valley of the Mackenzie River, Oregon, south along the western slope 
of the Cascade and Sierra Nevada Mountains, and in the California Coast 
Ranges from the Santa Cruz to the San Jacinto Mountains. 

A tree 18 to 22 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 0.90 metre in 
diameter, or, rarely, reduced to a low shrub ; dry, gravelly ridges and 
slopes from 2,500 (San Bernardino Mountains) to 5,500 (Mount Shasta) 
feet elevation ; net common. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, coarse-grained, compact ; bands of 
small summer cells very broad, not conspicuous ; resin passages numerous, 
large, prominent ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color light brown, the 
thick sap-wood nearly white or slightly tinged with red. 

370. Pinus Tseda, L. 

LoUolly Pine. Old-Jield Pine. Rosemary Pine, 

Southern Delaware, south to Cape Malabar and Tampa Bay, Florida, 
generally near the coast, through the Gulf States to the valley of the 
Colorado River, Texas, and extending north to the valley of the Arkansas 
River. 

A tree 24 to 46 metres in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 1.50 metres in 
diameter ; low, wet clay or dry, sandy soil ; springing up on all aban- 
doned lands from Virginia southward, and now often reiolacing in the 
Southern pine-belt the original forests of Pinus palustris ; in eastern 
North Carolina rarely on low, rich swamp ridges, here known as rose- 
mary pine and attaining its greatest development and value. 

Wood light, not strong, brittle, very coarse-grained, not durable ; bands 
of small summer cells broad, very resinous, conspicuous ; resin passages 
few, not prominent ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color light brown, 
the very thick sap-wood orange, or often nearly white ; largely used for 
fuel and manufactured into lumber of inferior quality. 

371. Pinus rigida. Mill. 
Pitch Pine. 

New Brunswick to the northern shores of Lake Ontario, south through 
the Atlantic States to northern Georgia, extending to the western slope of 
the Alleghany Mountains in West Virginia and Kentucky. 

A tree 12 to 24 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 0.90 metre in 
diameter ; dry, sandy, barren soil, or less commonly in deep, cold swamps ; 
very common. 



Pinus. CONIFERiE. 123 

Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, coarse-grained, compact ; bands of 
small summer cells broad, very resinous, conspicuous ; resin passages nu- 
merous, not large ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color light brown 
or red, the thick sap-wood yellow or often nearly white ; largely used for 
fuel, charcoal, and occasionally manufactured into coarse lumber. 

372. Pinus serotina, Michx. 
Pond Pine. 

North Carolina, south near the coast to the head of the Saint John's 
River, Florida. 

A tree 12 to 24 metres in height, with a trunk O.GO to 0.90 metre in 
diameter ; inundated borders of streams and ponds in low, peaty soil ; not 
common. 

Wood heavy, soft, not strong, brittle, coarse-grained, compact ; bands 
of small summer cells broad, very resinous, dark-colored, conspicuous ; resin 
passages few, large ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color dark 
orange, the thick sap-wood pale yellow. 

373. Pinus inops, Ait. 
Jersey Pine. Scrub Pine, 

Long Island and Staten Island, New York, south, generally near the 
coast, to the valley of the Savannah River, South Carolina, and through 
eastern and middle Kentucky to southeastern Indiana. 

A tree 24 to 36 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 0.90 metre in 
diameter, or in the Atlantic States generally much smaller ; sandy, gen- 
erally barren soil, reaching its greatest development west of the Alleghany 
Mountains. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, very close-grained, compact, dur- 
able ; bands of small summer cells broad, very resinous, conspicuous ; resin 
passages few, not prominent ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color light 
orange, the thick sap-wood nearly white ; largely used for fuel, and in 
Kentucky and Indiana preferred for and largely manufactured into water- 
pipes and pump-logs. 

374. Pinus clausa, Vasey. 

Sand Pine. Scrub Pine. Spruce Pine. 

Florida, — shores of Pensacola Bay, south, generally within 30 miles 
of the coast, to Pease Creek, and occupying a narrow ridge along the east 
coast south of Saint Augustine. 

A tree 21 to 24 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 0.75 metre in 
diameter, or on the west coast rarely 6 to 9 metres in height ; barren, 
sandy dunes and ridges ; most common and reaching its greatest develop- 
ment about the head of Halifax Bay. 



124 CONIFERiE. Pinus. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle ; bands of small summer cells broad, 
very resinous, conspicuous ; resin passages numerous, prominent ; medullary 
rays numerous, thin ; color light orange or yellow, the thick sap-wood 
nearly white. 

375. Pinus pungens, Michx. f. 
Ihhle-mountain Pine. Hickory Pine. 

Alleghany Mountains, Pennsylvania to Tennessee. 

A tree 9 to 18 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 1.05 metres in 
diameter ; most common and reaching its greatest development upon the 
high mountains of East Tennessee, here often forming extensive forests. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, coarse-grained, compact ; bands of 
small summer cells broad, resinous, conspicuous ; resin passages numerous, 
large ; medullary rays numerous, prominent ; color light brown, the thick 
sap-wood nearly white ; in Pexmsylvania largely manufactured into 
charcoal. 

376. Pinus muricata, D. Don. 
Obispo Pine. Bishop's Pine. 

California, — Mendocino County south through the Coast Ranges to 
San Luis Obispo County. 

A tree 24 to 36 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.90 metre in 
diameter, or more often not exceeding 15 metres in height ; cold peat-bogs 
or barren, sandy gravel ; always in situations exposed to the winds and 
fogs of the ocean, and not found above 2,000 feet elevation, reaching its 
greatest development in Mendocino County ; rare and local. 

Wood light, very strong and hard, rather coarse-grained, compact ; 
bands of small summer cells broad, resinous ; resin passages few, not promi- 
nent ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color light brown, the thick sap- 
wood nearly white. 

377. Pinus mitis, Michx. 

Yellow Pine. Short-leaved Pine. Spruce Pine. Bull Pine. 

Staten Island, New York, south to western Florida, through the Gulf 
States to Tennessee and eastern Texas, and through Arkansas to the 
Indian Territory, southeastern Kansas, southern Missouri and southern 
Illinois. 

A tree 24 to 30 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 1.35 metres in 
diameter ; light, sandy soil or, less commonly, along the low borders of 
swamps ; forming, west of the Mississippi River, mixed with oaks and 
other deciduous trees, extensive forests ; the only species of northern 
Arkansas, Kansas, and Missouri, and reaching its greatest development 
in western Louisiana, southern Arkansas and eastern Texas. 



Pinus. CONIFERiE. 125 

Wood varying greatly in quality and amount of sap, heavy, hard, 
strong, generally course-grained, compact ; bands of small summer cells 
broad, very resinous ; resin passages numerous, large ; medullary rays 
numerous, conspicuous ; color orange, the sap-wood nearly white ; largely 
manufactured into lumber, especially in the States west of the Mississippi 
River. 

378. Pinus glabra, Walt. 

Cedar Pine. Spruce Pine. White Pine. 

South Carolina, south to middle Florida, generally near the coast, and 
through the Gulf States south of latitude 32° 30' to the valley of the Pearl 
River, Louisiana. 

A tree 24 to 30 metres in height, with a trunk 0.00 to 1.20 metres in 
diameter ; rich bottom-lands and hummocks in dense forests of hard-wood 
trees, reaching its greatest development in Alabama and Mississippi ; not 
common and very local. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, very coarse-grained, not durable ; 
bands of small summer cells broad, not resinous ; resin passages few, not 
large ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color light brown, the sap-wood 
nearly white. 

379. Finns Banksiana, Lamb. 

Gray Pine. Scrub Pine. Prince's Pine. 

Bay of Chaleur to the southern shores of Hudson Bay, northwest to 
the Great Bear Lake, the valley of the Mackenzie River, and the eastern 
slope of the Rocky Mountains ; south to northern Maine, northern Ver- 
mont, the southern shores of Lake Michigan and central Minnesota. 

A small tree, 9 to 22 metres in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 
0.75 metre in diameter ; barren, sandy soil or, less commonly, in rich 
loam; most common north of the boundary of the United States, and 
reaching its greatest development in the region north of Lake Superior, 
here often forming considerable forests ; toward its extreme western limits 
associated and often confounded with the closely allied P. contorta and 
P. Murrayana of the Pacific region. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, rather close-grained, compact; bands of 
small summer cells not broad, very resinous, conspicuous ; resin passages 
few, not large ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color clear light brown 
or, rarely, orange, the thick sap-wood almost white ; largely used for fuel, 
railway-ties, etc. 

380. Finns palnstris, Mill. 

Long-leaved Pine. Southern Pine. Georgia Pine, Yellow Pine. 
Hard Pine. 

Southeastern Virginia, south to Cape Canaveral and Tampa Bay, 
Florida, and through the Gulf States to the valley of the Red River, 



126 CONIFERiE. Pinm. 

Louisiana, and the Trinity River, Texas, rarely extending beyond 150 
miles from the coast. 

A tree 18 to 29 metres in height, with a trunk O.GO to 1.20 metres in 
diameter ; dry, sandy loam of the maritime plaiij ; forming extensive 
forests almost to the exclusion of other species, or toward its extreme 
interior range, especially in the Gulf States, occupying rolling hills, here 
mixed with oaks and various deciduous trees ; rarely along the borders of 
swamps in low, wet soil. 

Wood heavy, exceedingly hard, very strong, tough, coarse-grained, 
compact, durable ; bands of small summer cells broad, very resinous, dark- 
colored ; resin passages few, not conspicuous ; medullary rays numerous, 
conspicuous ; color light red or orange, the thin sap-wood nearly white ; 
largely manufactured into lumber and used in construction of all sorts, for 
ship-building, fencing, railway-ties, etc. 

The turpentine, tar, pitch, rosin, and spirits of turpentine manufac- 
tured in the United States are almost exclusively produced by this 
species. 

381. Pinns Cubensis, Griseb. 

Slash Pine. Swamp Pine. Bastard Pine. Meadow Pine. 

South Carolina, south near the coast to the southern keys of Florida, 
west along the Gulf coast to the valley of the Pearl River, Louisiana, not 
extending beyond 50 or 60 miles inland ; in the West Indies. 

A tree 24 to 30 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 0.90 metre in 
diameter ; light, sandy soil along the dunes and marshes of the coast, or 
wet, clay borders of ponds, abandoned fields, etc., and now rapidly taking 
possession of ground from which the forests of P. palustris have been 
removed ; the only species of Florida south of Cape Canaveral and Bay 
Biscayne. 

Wood heavy, exceedingly hard, very strong, tough, coarse-grained, 
compact, durable ; bands of small summer cells very broad and resinous, 
conspicuous : resin passages few, not large ; medullary rays numerous, 
rather prominent; color rich dark orange, the sap-wood lighter, often 
nearly white ; hardly inferior in value to that of P. palustris, although 
rarely manufactured into lumber. 

Turpentine is occasionally manufactured in southern Florida from 
this species. 

382. Picea nigra, Link. 
Black Spruce. 

Newfoundland, northern Labrador to Ungava Bay, Nastapokee Sound 
and Cape Churchill, Hudson Bay, and northwest to the mouth of the 
Mackenzie River and the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains ; south 
through the Northern States to Pennsylvania, central Michigan, central 



Picea. CONIFERiE. 127 

Wisconsin and Minnesota, and along the Alleghany Mountains to the 
high peaks of North Carolina. 

A tree 15 to 21 metres in height, with a trunk O.GO to 0.90 metre in 
diameter ; light, dry, rocky soil, forming, especially north of latitude 50*^, 
extensive forests on the water-sheds of the principal streams or in cold, 
wet swamps; then small, stunted, and of little value {P. rubra). 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close, straight-grained, compact, satiny ; 
bands of small summer cells thin, resinous ; resin passages few, minute ; 
medullary rays few, conspicuous ; color light red or often nearly white, 
the sap-wood lighter ; largely manufactured into lumber, and used in 
construction, for ship-building, piles, posts, railway-ties, etc. 

383. Picea alba, Link. 
White Spruce. 

Newfoundland, northern shore of Labrador to Ungava Bay, Cape 
Churchill, and northwestward to the mouth of the Mackenzie River and 
the valley of the Yukon River, Alaska ; south to northern Maine, north- 
eastern Vermont, northern Michigan and Minnesota, the Black Hills of 
Dakota, the Rocky Mountains of northern Montana, Sitka, and British 
Columbia. 

A tree 15 to 50 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 0.90 metre in 
diameter ; low, rather wet soil, borders of ponds and swamps ; most com- 
mon north of the boundary of the United States, and reaching its greatest 
development along the streams and lakes of the Flathead region of north- 
ern Montana at an elevation of 2,500 to 3,500 feet; the most important 
timber tree of the American subarctic forests north of latitude 60^ ; its dis- 
tribution southward in British Columbia not yet satisfactorily determined. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close, straight-grained, compact, satiny ; 
bands of small summer cells thin, not conspicuous ; resin passages few, 
minute; medullary rays numerous, prominent; color light yellow, the 
sap-wood hardly distinguishable ; largely manufactured into lumber, 
although not distinguished in commerce- from that of the black spruce 
(P. nigra). 

884. Picea Engelmanni, Engelm. 
White Spruce. 

Peace River Plateau, in latitude 55° 46', through the interior of 
British Columbia and alons: the Cascade Mountains of Washinj^ton and 
Oregon to the valley of the Mackenzie River ; on the principal ranges of 
the Rocky and Wahsatch Mountains to the San Francisco Mountains, 
Sierra Blanco, and Mount Graham, Arizona. 

A large tree, 24 to 46 metres in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 1.20 
metres in diameter, or at its extreme elevation reduced to a low, prostrate 
shrub; dry, gravelly slopes and ridges between 5,000 and 11.500 feet 
elevation ; the most valuable timber tree of the central Rocky Mountain 



128 CONIFERiE. Picea. 

region, here forming extensive forests, generally above 8,500 feet eleva- 
tion ; rare and of small size in the mountains of Washington, Oreiron, 
and Montana. 

Wood very light, soft, not strong, very close, straight-grained, compact, 
satiny ; bands of small summer cells narrow, not conspicuous ; resin pas- 
sages few, minute ; medullary rays numerous, conspicuous ; color pale 
yellow tinged with red, the sap-wood hardly distinguishable ; in Colorado 
manufactured into lumber and largely used for fuel, charcoal, etc. 

The bark, rich in tannin, is sometimes used in Utah in tanning 
leather. 

385. Picea pungens, Engelm. 
White Sp'^uce, Blue Spruce. 

Valley of the Wind River, south in the mountain ranges of Wyoming, 
Colorado, and Utah. 

A tree 30 to 46 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 0.90 metre in 
diameter ; borders of streams, in damp or wet soil, generally between 
6,000 and 9,000 feet elevation, never forming forests ; rare and local. 

Wood very light, soft, weak, close-grained, compact, satiny ; bands of 
small summer cells narrow, not conspicuous ; resin passages few, small ; 
medullary rays numerous, prominent ; color very light brown or often 
nearly white, the sap-wood hardly distinguishable. 

386. Picea Sitchensis, Carr. 
Tide-land Spruce. 

Alaska, south to Mendocino County, California, not extending more 
than 50 miles inland from the coast. 

A large tree of great economic value, 46 to 61 metres in height, with 
a trunk 2.40 to 5.19 metres in diameter; gravelly ridges and swamps, 
reaching its greatest development in Washington and Oregon near the 
mouth of the Columbia River, here forming a belt of nearly continuous 
forest growth, from 10 to 50 miles in width. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close, straight-grained, compact, satiny ; 
bands of small summer cells narrow, not conspicuous ; resin passages few, 
obscure ; medullary rays numerous, rather prominent ; color light brown 
tinged with red, the sap-wood nearly white ; largely manufactured into 
lumber and used for construction, interior finish, fencing, boat-building, 
the dunnage of vessels, cooperage, wooden-ware, etc. 

386 a. Picea species. 

Alpine slopes of the Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon {Thomas Howell, 
June, 1884) ; probably very rare and local. 

A tree sometimes exceeding 30 metres in height, with a trunk often 1 
metre in diameter ; the botanical characters not yet published ; easily dis- 



Tsvga. CONIFERiE. 129 

tinguished by its long pendulous branchlets, flat or slightly rounded leaves, 
and large cones with broad, spreading, very thin, entire scales. 
Wood not collected. 

387. Tsuga Canadensis, Carr. 
Hemlock. 

Nova Scotia, southern New Brunswick, valley of the Saint Lawrence 
River to the shores of Lake Temiscaming, and southwest to the western 
borders of northern Wisconsin ; south through the Northern States to 
northern Delaware, southeastern Michigan, central Wisconsin, and along 
the Alleghany Mountains to northern Alabama. 

A tree 21 to 33 metres in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 1.15 metres in 
diameter ; dry, rocky ridges, generally facing the north and often forming 
extensive forests almost to the exclusion of other species, or, less com- 
monly, borders of swamps in deep, rich soil ; most common at the North, 
and reaching its greatest individual development in the high mountains of 
North Carolina and Tennessee. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, coarse, crooked-grained, difficult 
to work, liable to wind-shake and splinter, not durable ; bands of small 
summer cells rather broad, conspicuous ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; 
color light brown tinged with red or often nearly white, the sap-wood 
somewhat darker ; largely manufactured into coarse lumber and used in 
construction for outside finish, railway-ties, etc. ; two varieties, red and 
white, produced apparently under precisely similar conditions of growth, 
are recognized by lumbermen. 

The bark, rich in tannin, is the principal material used in the North- 
ern States in tanning leather, and yields a fluid extract sometimes used 
medicinally as a powerful astringent. 

388. Tsuga Caroliniana, Engelm. 
Hemlock. 

Southern Alleghany region, North and South Carolina. 

A small tree, 12 to 15 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 0.75 
metre in diameter ; dry, rocky ridges between 4,000 and 5,000 feet eleva- 
tion ; rare and local. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, coarse-grained ; bands of small 
summer cells narrow, not conspicuous ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; 
color light brown tinged with red, the sap-w^ood nearly white. 

389. Tsuga Mertensiana, Carr. 

Hemlock. 

Alaska, south along the islands and coast of British Columbia, and 
through the Selkirk, Gold, and other interior ranges to the Bitter Root 
Mountains of Idaho, and the western slopes of the Rocky Mountains of 





130 CONIFERiE. Tsuga. 

Montana, extending south along the Cascade Mountains to southern Ore- 
gon and in the Coast Ranges between 1,000 and 4,000 feet elevation, to 
northern California. 

A large tree, oO to 61 metres in height, with a trunk 1.20 to 3 metres 
in diameter ; low, moist bottoms or rocky ridges ; very common and 
reaching its greatest development in western Oregon and Washington, 
often forming extensive forests, especially along the western base of the 
Cascade Mountains. 

Wood light, hard, not strong, rather close-grained ; bands of smaH 
summer cells thin, not conspicuous ; medullary rays numerous, promi- 
nent ; color light brown tinged with yellow, the sap-wood nearly white ; 
occasionally manufactured into coarse lumber. 

The bark, rich in tannin, is the principal material used on the north- 
west coast in tanning leather. 

390. Tsuga Pattoniana, Engelm. 

British Columbia, south along the Cascade Mountains and the Califor- 
nia Sierras to the headwaters of the San Joaquin Kiver, extending east 
along the high mountains of northern Washington to the western slopes 
and summits of the Coeur d'Alene and Bitter Root Mountains of Idaho, 
and to northern Montana. 

An alpine tree, rarely 30 metres in height, with a trunk 1.50 to 2.10 
metres in diameter ; dry slopes and ridges near the limits of tree growth, 
ranging from an elevation of 2,700 feet in British Columbia to 10,000 
feet on the Sierras of central California. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, satiny, susceptible of a 
good polish; bands of small summer cells thin, not conspicuous; medul- 
lary rays numerous, obscure ; color light brown or red, the sap-wood 
nearly white. 

391. PsendotsTiga Dotiglasii, Carr. 

Red Fir. Yellow Fir. Oregon Pine. Douglas Fir. 

Coast Ranges and interior plateau of British Columbia south of lati- 
tude 55° N., east to the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains in lati- 
tude 51° N. ; south along the mountain ranges of Washington, Oregon, 
the California Coast Ranges, and the western slope of the Sierra Nevada, 
on the mountain ranges east to Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, and the 
Guadalupe Mountains of Texas ; in the Wahsatch and Uintah Moun- 
tains, the ranges of northern and eastern Arizona ; in northern Mexico ; 
not detected in the interior region between the Sierra Nevada and the 
Wahsatch Mountains, south of the Blue Mountains of Oregon, and north 
of Arizona. 

A large tree, 61 to 92 metres in height, with a trunk 0.83 to 3.66 
metres in diameter, or in the Rocky Mountains much smaller, here rarely 



Abies. CONIFERiE. 131 

30 metres in height ; the most generally distributed and valuable timber 
tree of the Pacific region, growing from the sea-level to an elevation in 
Colorado of nearly 10,000 feet; often forming extensive forests, almost 
to the exclusion of other species, and reaching in western Oregon ai:d 
Washington Territory its greatest development and value. A form with 
larger cones and narrower acutish leaves (var. macrocarpa, Engelm.) occurs 
in the San Bernardino and Cuyamaca Mountains of southern California, 
— a small tree with darker-colored, lighter, and less valuable wood. 

Wood hard, strong, varying greatly with age and conditions of growth 
in density, quality, and amount of sap ; difficult to work, durable ; bands of 
small summer cells broad, occupying fully one half the width of the annual 
growth, dark-colored, conspicuous, soon becoming flinty and difficult to 
cut ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color varying from light red to 
yellow, the sap-wood nearly white ; largely manufactured into lumber and 
used for all kinds of construction, railway-ties, piles, fuel, etc. Two va- 
rieties, red and yellow fir, distinguished by lumbermen, are dependent 
probably upon the age of the tree ; the former coarse-grained, darker- 
colored, and considered less valuable than yellow fir. 

The bark has proved valuable in tanning leather. 

392. Abies Fraseri, Lindl. 
Balsam. She Balsam. 

High Mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee. 

A tree 18 to 24 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.60 metre 
in diameter; moist slopes between 5,000 and 6,500 feet elevation, often 
forming considerable forests ; very local. 

Wood very light, soft, not strong, coarse-grained, compact ; bands of 
small summer cells rather broad, light-colored, not conspicuous ; medul- 
lary rays numerous, thin ; color light brown, the sap-wood lighter, nearly 
white. 

393. Abies balsamea, Mill. 
Balsam Mr. Balm-of- Gilead Fir. 

Northern Newfoundland and Labrador to the southern shores of Hud- 
son Bay ; northwest to the Great Bear Lake and the eastern base of the 
Rocky Mountains ; south through the Northern States to Pennsylvania, 
central Michigan and Minnesota, and along the Alleghany mountains to 
the high peaks of Virginia. 

A tree 21 to 27 metres in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 0.60 
metre in diameter, or at high elevations reduced to a low, prostrate shrub 
{A. Hudsonica, Hort.) ; damp woods and mountain swamps. 

Wood very light, soft, not strong, coarse-grained, compact, not durable ; 
bands of small summer cells not broad, resinous, conspicuous ; medullary 
rays numerous, obscure ; color light brown, often streaked with yellow, 
the sap-wood lighter. 



132 CONIFERS. Abies. 

Canadian balsam or balm of fir, an aromatic liquid oleo-resin obtained 
from this and other species of Abies by puncturing the vesicles formed 
under the bark of the stem and branches, is used medicinally, chiefly in 
the treatment of chronic catarrhal affections, and in the arts. 

394. Abies subalpina, Engelm. 
,JBalsam. 

Alaska, south through British Columbia and along the Cascade Moun- 
tains to northern Oregon ; Blue Mountains of Oregon and on the ranges 
of Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado. 

A tree 24 to 40 metres in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 0.60 
metre in diameter ; mountain slopes and canons between 4,000 (British 
Columbia) and 12,000 (Colorado) feet elevation; generally scattered and 
rarely forming the prevailing forest growth. 

Wood very light, soft, not strong, rather close-grained, compact ; bands 
of small summer cells very narrow, not conspicuous ; medullary rays 
numerous, obscure ; color light brown or nearly white, the sap-wood 
lighter. 

395. Abies grandis, Lindl. 
White Fir. 

Vancouver's Island, south to northern California, near the coast ; in- 
terior valleys of western Washington and Oregon south to the Umpqua 
River; Cascade Mountains below 4,000 feet elevation. Blue Mountains 
of Oregon to the eastern slop^ of the Coeur dAlene and Bitter Root 
Mountains, Idaho, and the western slopes of the Rocky Mountains of 
northern Montana. 

A large tree, 61 to 92 metres in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 1.50 
metres in diameter ; most common and reaching its greatest development 
on the bottom-lands of western Washington and Oregon in rich, moist 
soil or on moist mountain slopes ; then much smaller, rarely exceeding 
30 metres in height. 

Wood very light, soft, not strong, coarse-grained, compact ; bands of 
small summer cells broader than in other American species, dark-colored, 
resinous, conspicuous ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color light 
brown, the sap-wood rather lighter ; in western Oregon manufactured into 
lumber and used for interior finish, packing-cases, cooperage, etc. 

396. Abies concolor, Lindl. & Gord. 

White Fir, Balsam Fir. 

Northern slopes of the Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon, south along the 
western slope of the Sierra Nevada to the San Bernardino and San Ja- 
cinto Mountains, California ; high mountains of northern Arizona to the 



Abies. CONIFERS. 133 

Mogollon Range, New Mexico, northward to the Pike's Peak region of 
Colorado, and in the Wahsatch Mountains of Utah. 

A large tree, 30 to 40 metres in height, with a trunk 1.20 to 1.^0 
metres in diameter ; moist slopes and cafions between o,000 and 0,000 feet 
elevation, reaching its greatest development in the California Sierras, 
varying greatly in the color and length of leaves, habit, etc., and perhaps 
only a southern form of the too nearly allied A. grandis, from which it 
cannot be always readily distinguished. 

Wood very light, soft, not strong, coarse-grained, compact; bands of 
small summer cells narrow, resinous, not conspicuous ; medullary rays 
numerous, obscure ; color very light brown or nearly white, the sap-wood 
somewhat darker ; occasionally manufactured into lumber and used for 
packing-cases, butter-tubs, and other domestic purposes. 

397. Abies bracteata, Nutt. 

California, — Santa Lucia Mountains. 

A tree 46 to 61 metres in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 1.20 metres in 
diameter ; moist, cold soil, occupying 4 or 5 carions between 3,000 and 
6,000 feet elevation, west of the summit of the range. 

Wood heavy, not hard, coarse-grained, compact ; bands of small summer 
cells broad, resinous, conspicuous ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; 
color light brown tinged with yellow, the sap-wood not seen. 

398. Abies amabilis, Forbes. 

Valley of the Fraser River, British Columbia, south along the Cascade 
Mountains of Washington and Oregon. 

A tree 30 to 45 metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 1.20 metres 
in diameter, forming extensive forests on the mountains of British Colum- 
bia between 3,500 and 5,000 feet, and upon the mountains south of the 
Columbia River between 3,000 and 4,000 feet elevation, here reaching its 
greatest development ; its northern range not yet determined. 

Wood light, hard, not strong, close-grained, compact ; bands of small 
summer cells broad, resinous, dark-colored, conspicuous ; medullary rays 
numerous, thin ; color light brown, the sap-wood nearly white. 

399. Abies nobilis, Lindl. 
Red Fir, 

Oregon, — Cascade Mountains from the Columbia River south to the 
valley of the upper Rogue River, summits of the Coast Range from the 
Columbia to the Nestucca River. 

A large tree, 61 to 92 metres in height, with a trunk 2.40 to 3 metres 
in diameter, forming, with A. amabilis, extensive forests along the 
slopes of the Cascade Range, between 3,000 and 4,000 feet elevation ; 
less multiplied in the Coast Ranges, but here reaching its greatest indi- 
vidual development. 



134 CONlFERiE. Abies. 

Wood light, hard, strong, rather close-grained, compact; bands of 
small summer cells broad, resinous, dark-colored, conspicuous ; medullary 
rays thin, hardly distinguishable ; color light brown streaked with red, 
the sap-wood a little darker. 

400. Abies magnifica, Murr. 
Bed Fir, 

California, — Mount Shasta, south along the western slope of the 
Sierra Nevada to Kern County. 

A large tree, 61 to 76 metres in height, with a trunk 2.40 to 3 metres 
in diameter, forming about the base of Mount Shasta extensive forests 
between 4,900 and 8,000 feet elevation ; in the southern sierras less 
common, here reaching an extreme elevation of 10,000 feet. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, rather close-grained, compact, satiny, 
durable in contact with the soil, liable to twist and warp in seasoning ; 
bands of small summer cells broad, resinous, dark-colored, conspicuous ; 
medullary rays numerous, thin ; color light red, the sap-wood somewhat 
darker ; largely used for fuel and occasionally manufactured into coarse 
lumber. 

401. Larix Americana, Michx. 

Larch. Black Larch. Tamarack. Hachmcdack. 

Northern Newfoundland and Labrador to the eastern shores of Hudson 
Bay, Cape Churchill, and northwest to the northern shores of the Great 
Bear Lake and the valley of the Mackenzie River within the Arctic 
Circle ; south through the Northern States to northern Pennsylvania, 
northern Indiana and Illinois, and central Minnesota. 

A tree 24 to 30 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 0.90 metre in 
diameter ; moist uplands and intervale lands, or, south of the boundary of 
the United States, in cold, wet swamps, often covering extensive areas, 
here much smaller and less valuable. 

Wood heavy, hard, very strong, rather coarse-grained, compact, durable 
in contact with the soil ; bands of small summer cells broad, very resinous, 
dark-colored, conspicuous ; resin passages few, obscure ; medullary rays 
numerous, hardly distinguishable ; color light brown, the sap-wood nearly 
white ; preferred and largely used for the upper knees of vessels, for ship- 
timbers, fence-posts, telegraph-poles, railway-ties, etc. 

402. Larix occidentalis, Nutt. 

Tamarack. 

British Columbia, Selkirk and Gold Ranges, south of latitude 53°, south 
along the eastern slopes of the Cascade Mountains to the Columbia River, 
through the mountain ranges of northern Washington Territory to the 
western slopes of the Rocky Mountains of Montana ; Blue Mountains of 
Washington and Oregon. 



Washingtonia. PALM^. 135 

A large tree, 30 to 45 metres in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 1.50 
metres in diameter ; moist mountain slopes and benches between 2,500 
and 5,000 feet elevation ; scattered among other trees and never exclu- 
sively forming forests ; very common and perhaps reaching its greatest 
development in the region north of the Big lilackfoot River and in the 
valley of the Flathead River, Montana ; the largest and most valuable 
timber tree of the Columbian basin. 

Wood heavy, exceedingly hard and strong, rather coarse-grained, com- 
pact, satiny, susceptible of a fine polish, very durable in contact with the 
soil ; bands of small summer cells broad, very resinous, dark-colored, 
conspicuous ; resin passages few, obscure ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; 
color light bright red, the thin sap-wood nearly white ; occasionally 
manufactured into lumber, but principally used for fuel, posts, railway- 
ties, etc. 

403. Larix Lyallii, Pari. 

Eastern slope of the Cascade Mountains of northern Washington, east 
along the boundary of the United States to northern Montana. 

A low, much-branched, straggling, alpine tree, rarely exceeding 15 
metres in height, with a trunk sometimes 1.50 metres in diameter; dry, 
rocky soil, generally upon northern exposures, and associated with Pinus 
alhicaulis and Tsuga Pattoniana along the upper limits of tree growth 
between 5,500 and 7,000 feet elevation. 



404. Sabal Palmetto, Lodd. 
Cabbage Tree. Cabbage Palmetto. 

North Carolina, south along the coast to Key Largo, Florida, extend- 
ing along the Gulf coast to the Apalachicola River. 

A tree 7 to 12 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 0.90 metre in 
diameter ; sandy maritime shores ; very common and reaching its greatest 
development upon the west coast of the Florida peninsula south of Cedar 
Keys. 

Wood light, soft ; fibro-vascular bundles hard, difficult to work, dark- 
colored ; color light brown ; impervious to the attacks of the Teredo, and 
largely used for wharf-piles, etc. 

405. Washingtonia filifera. Wend. 
Fan-leaf Palm. 

California, — from the eastern base of the San Bernardino Mountains 
to the valley of the Colorado River. 

A tree 12 to 18 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 1.05 metres in 
diameter, forming groves of 250 to 500 plants in the depressions of the 



136 LILIACEiE. Thrinax. 

desert, in moist alkaline soil, or solitary and scattered near the heads of 
small ravines formed by watercourses ; often stunted and greatly injured 
by fire. 

AVood light, soft ; fibro-vascular bundles hard, difficult to cut, dark- 
colored, conspicuous. 

406. Thrinax parviflora, Sw. 
Silk-top Palmetto. 

Southern keys of semi-tropical Florida ; in the West Indies. 

A small tree, 9 metres in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 
0.10 metre in diameter, or in pine-barren soil often low and stemless 
(P. Garheri, Chapm.). 

Wood light, soft ; fibro-vascular bundles small, hard, not conspicuous ; 
color light brown ; the trunk used in making sponge- and turtle-crawls. 

407. Thrinax argentea, Lodd. 

Silver-top Palmetto, Brickley Thatch, Brittle Thatch. 

Southern keys of semi-tropical Florida ; in the West Indies. 

A small tree, 7 to 9 metres in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 metre 
in diameter. 

Wood light, soft ; fibro-vascular bundles small, very numerous ; interior 
of the trunk spongy, much lighter than the exterior ; used for piles, the 
foliage in the manufacture of ropes, for thatch, etc. 

408. Oreodoxa regia, HBK. 
Royal Palm, 

Semi-tropical Florida, — hummocks near Cape Romano to the south- 
ern keys ; in the West Indies. 

A tree 18 to 30 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 metre in diameter ; 
rich hummocks, often forming extensive groves; in Florida rare and 
local. 

Wood heavy, hard ; fibro-vascular bundles large, very dark, conspicu- 
ous ; interior of the trunk spongy, much lighter than the exterior ; color 
brown. 

LILIACE^. 

409. Yucca canaliculata, Hook. 
Spanish Bayonet, 

Texas, — Matagorda Bay, and from the Brazos and Guadalupe Rivers 
to the Rio Grande ; in northern Mexico. 

A small tree, 5 to 8 metres in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.75 metre 
in diameter ; dry, gravelly, arid soil. 



Yucca, LILIACEiE. 137 

Wood, like that of the whole genus, showing distinct marks of con- 
centric arrangement, fibrous, spongy, heavy, difficult to cut and work ; 
color li^ht brown. 

The bitter, sweetish fruit is cooked and eaten by the Mexicans ; the 
root stock, as in the whole genus, is saponaceous and largely used by 
the Mexicans as a substitute for soap. 

410. Yucca brevifolia, Engelm. 
The Joshua. Joshua Tree. 

Southwestern Utah, northwestern Arizona to southern Nevada, and the 
valley of the Mohave River, California. 

A tree 6 to 12 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 0.90 metre in 
diameter ; dry, gravelly soil ; forming upon the Mohave Desert, at 2,500 
feet elevation, an open, straggling forest. 

Wood light, soft, spongy, difficult to work ; color very light brown or 
nearly white ; sometimes manufactured into paper-pulp. 

411. Yucca elata, Engelm. 

Western Texas to southern Arizona and Utah ; southward into Mexico. 
A small tree, 3 to 5 metres in height, with a trunk 0.20 to 0.25 metre 
in diameter ; dry, gravelly slopes. 

Wood light, soft, spongy ; color light brown or yellow. 

412. Yucca baccata, Torr. 

Spanish Bayonet. Mexican Banana. 

Western Texas, south of latitude 32° N., west through New Mexico 
to southern Colorado and southern California ; in northern Mexico. 

A tree 7 to 12 metres in height, with a trunk 0.60 metre in diameter, or 
often much smaller, and toward the northern limits of its range stem- 
less ; forming upon the plains of Presidio County, Texas, extensive open 
forests. 

Wood light, soft, spongy, difficult to work ; color light brown. 

The large juicy edible fruit is an important article of food to Mexicans 
and Indians ; a strong coarse fibre, prepared by macerating the leaves in 
water, is manufactured into rope in Mexico. 



THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES 



OF THE 



WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE WOODS 
OF THE UNITED STATES. 



The various processes by which the physical properties of the woods of 
the United States were determined by Mr. Sharpies, in connection with 
the Census investigation, are fully set forth in Vol. IX. of the final 
Reports of the Tenth Census. This volume may not be accessible to all 
persons who may have occasion to use the following tables, and the 
methods therefore adopted in attaining these results are here briefly 
described. 

The specific gravity, ash, and fuel value of the wood of every indige- 
nous arborescent species of the United States, with seven unimportant 
exceptions, were determined. The specific gravity was obtained by 
weighing carefully measured specimens, 100 millimetres long and about 
35 millimetres square, previously subjected to a temperature of 100° C. 
until their weight became constant. The ash is given in percentages of 
the dry wood, and was determined by burning small blocks of the wood 
in a muffle furnace at a low temperature. 

The relative approximate fuel value of any wood is obtained by 
deducting its percentage of ash from its specific gravity ; and the cor- 
rectness of the result thus obtained is based upon the hypothesis first 
proposed by Count Rumford, that the value of equal weights of all 
woods for fuel is the same. It would be more correct, however, to say 
that the fuel value of the organic matter in all woods is approximately 
the same. 

Wood is made up of two factors, — organic matter, composed of car- 
bon, hydrogen, and oxygen, with a small amount of nitrogen, and a still 
smaller amount of sulphur; and inorganic or mineral matter, —ash, as it 
is generally called, — without value as fuel. The specific gravity represents 
the weight of equal volumes of wood ; and if from the specific gravity the 
weight of the ash, which varies greatly in different species, is deducted, 



142 THE rilYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE WOODS 

the relative fuel value will be obtained. A wood free from ash, there- 
fore, having the specific gravity of 1.000, would represent the unit of fuel 
value, the specimens being free from hygroscopic water. 

If the values thus obtained are multiplied by 4,000, the results will 
give very nearly, except in the case of some of the resinous woods, the 
number of units of heat which a cubic decimetre of the wood is capable 
of yielding, — a unit of heat being the amount required to raise one kilo- 
gramme of water one degree Centigrade. The fuel value of any wood is 
often modified by other conditions than its weight and percentage of ash. 
Perfect combustion is rarely attainable. Resinous woods, especially, are 
seldom perfectly consumed, much carbon escaping in the form of smoke. 
The moisture which always occurs in the firewood of commerce must also 
be considered. Wood when first cut often contains as much as 50 per cent 
of its weight of water, and air-dried wood may generally be expected to 
contain at least 20 per cent. The heat necessary to distil this is, of course, 
lost in combustion. 

The strength and power to resist compression of the principal timbers 
produced in the forests of the United States were determined by Mr. 
Sharpies in the course of the Census investigation. 

A stick being supported at each end and weights being applied to it, 
it is bent or deflected in proportion to each addition of weight within a 
certain limit, which differs in different species of wood. This limit is 
called the elastic limit of the wood. When the elastic limit is exceeded, 
the ratio of deflection is in excess of that previously produced by the addi- 
tion of similar weight. If the elasticity of a given stick under weights 
which do not strain it beyond this limit is known, the deflection of any 
other stick, of the same wood, may be calculated by means of the following 
formula : — 



E = 



4LAbd^' 



E is the coefficient of elasticity ; P, the weight applied in kilogrammes ; 
/, the length of the stick in centimetres ; J, the width of the stick in cen- 
timetres ; d, the depth of the stick in centimetres ; A, its deflection in 
centimetres. 

Any five of these being known, the value of the sixth may be calcu- 
lated. E has been determined for many woods, and its value is given 
in the fourth column of Table I. 

If the deflection of a stick under a given weight is required, it can be 
obtained by using the formula 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 143 

It is often desirable to know what is the ultimate strength of a given 
stick. This is obtained by the following formula : — 

p_3PZ 

in which P, I, b, and d have the same value as in the preceding formulas. 
B is given in the fifth column of Table I. as the Modulus of Rupture. 
In this formula P will most generally be the unknown quantity, and can 
be obtained by using this formula, — 

2hd^R 
bz * 

Wood may be compressed in a direction either parallel or perpendicu- 
lar to its fibres. The latter is known as indentation. When a stick is 
compressed in the direction parallel to its fibres, if its length does not ex- 
ceed ten or twelve times its diameter, it generally fails by the crushing of 
the fibres ; and the force necessary to produce such crushing is propor- 
tionate to the area of the cross-section of the stick. The figures in the 
sixth column of Table I. give the weight in kilogrammes necessary to 
produce such crushing in sticks of the different species one centimetre 
square. In order to find the weight any given stick will support, the 
number in the column should be multiplied by the number of square cen- 
timetres in the end of the stick. The force necessary to sink a punch 
one centimetre square to the depth of 1.27 millimetres perpendicular to 
the fibre of the wood of the different species, is given in the seventh col- 
umn of Table I. The force necessary to produce indentation is propor- 
tionate to the surface of the punch or the surface exposed to its action. 

For further information in regard to the formulas relating to the 
physical properties of wood, the reader is referred to : — 

The Materials of Engineering. Part I. pp. 37-153. Robert H. 
Thurston. New York, 1883. 

Treatise on the Resistance of Materials. De Volson Wood. New 
York, 1871. 



144 



THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE WOODS 



TABLE I. 

Specijic Gravity, Percentage of Ash, Relative Approximate Fuel Value, Coefficient 
of Elasticity, Modulus of Rupture, Resistance to Pressure, and Weight per 
Cubic Foot of the Woods of the United States. 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
I 

8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
171 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
231 

24 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
8ii 



Species. 



Magnolia grandiflora 

Magnolia glauca 

Magnolia acuminata 

Magnolia cordata ....... 

Magnolia macrophylla 

Magnolia Umbrella 

Magnolia Fraseri 

Liriodendron Tulipifera 

Asimina triloba 

Anona laurifolia 

Capparis Jamaicensis 

Canella alba 

Clusia flava 

Gordonia Lasianthus ...... 

Gordonia pubescens 

Fremontia Californica 

Tilia Americana 

Tilia Americana, var. pubescens . . 

Tilia beteropbylla 

Byrsonirna lucida 

Guaiacum sanctum ....... 

Porliera angustifolia 

Xanthoxylum Americanum . . . 
Xanthoxylum Clava-Herculis . . . 
Xanthoxylum Clava-Herculis, var. 

fruticosura 

Xanthoxylum Caribaeuni . . . . 

Xanthoxylum Pterota 

Ptelea trifoliata 

Canotia holacantha 

Simaruba glauca 

Bursera gummifera 

Amyris sylvatica 

Swietenia Mahogoni 

Ximenia Americana 

Ilex opaca 

Ilex Dahoon 

Ilex Dahoon, var. myrtifolia . . . 



o 



0.6360 
0.5035 
0.4690 
0.4139 
0.5309 
0.4487 
0.5003 
0.4230 
3969 
0.5053 
0.6971 
0.9893 



0.4728 



0.7142 
0.4525 
0.4074 
0.4253 
0.5888 
1.1432 
1.1101 
0.5654 
0.5056 



0.5967 
9002 
0.7444 

0.8319 
0.6885 
0.4136 
0.3003 
1 .0459 
0.7282 
0.9196 
0.6818 
0.4806 
0.6873 



0.53 
0.47 
0.29 
0.32 
0.35 
0.20 
0.28 
0.23 
0.21 
4.86 
4.76 
1.75 



0.76 



1.69 

0.55 
0.65 
0.62 
2.46 
0.82 
0.51 
0.67 
0.82 

0.76 
2.02 
0.78 
0.30 
5.33 
0.93 
2.04 
0.69 
1.09 
0.73 
0.76 
0.91 
0.90 






fii a 



0.6326 
0.6011 
0.4676 
0.4126 
0.6290 
0.4478 
0.4989 
0.4220 
0.3961 
0.4807 
0.6639 
0.9720 



0.4692 



0.7021 
0.4600 
0.4048 
0.4227 
0.6743 
1.1338 
1.1044 
0.5622 
0.5016 

0.5922 
0.8820 
0.7386 
0.8294 
0.6518 
0.40U8 
0.2942 
1.0397 
0.7203 
0.9129 
0.6774 
0.4762 
0.5820 



a, .^ 



90330 
91299 
92817 
94073 
'116854 
74365 
94462 
92667 
48179 
60113 

111698 



79414 



84010 
81111 

84659 
52603 
86324 



72577 



Pi 



792 
.736 
671 
600 
696 
683 
707 
657 
391 
607 

1026 



670 



689 
560 
577 
424 

787 



•5 



a: C 

II 



482 
424 

415 
410 
489 
366 
418 
372 
212 
302 

782 



387 



86765 



93217 

41694 

108507 

106272 



64317 
64192 



640 



754 



564 426 



148 
1305 
1003 



348 
405 
394 
391 
737 



197 
102 
107 

89 
130 

84 
123 

82 

69 
127 

573 



99 



63 

59 

68 

210 

793 



449 



686 



686 
572 



165 

748 
666 



159 



373 



86 
47 

650 
309 



419 176 
349 113 



C3 C 
P 






39.64 
31.38 
29.23 
25.78 
33.09 
27.96 
31.18 
26 36 
24.73 
31.49 
43.44 
61.65 



29.46 



44.50 
28.20 
26.39 
26.50 
36.69 
7124 
69.18 
35.24 
81.51 



31.19 
66.09 
46.39 
61.84 
42.91 
25.78 
18.71 
65.18 
45.38 
67.31 
36.26 
29.95 
36.60 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 



145 



Species. 



Ilex Cassine 

Ilex (lecidua 

Cyrilla racemiflora 

(Miftonia ligustrina .... 
Euonymus atropurpureus . 

My<jfin(la pallens 

Scliajfferia frutescens .... 

Keynosia latifolia 

Condalia ferrea 

Condalia obovata 

Rhaninus Caroliniana 
Rliamnus Californica .... 
Rlianinus Pursliiaiia .... 
Ceanotlius thyrsiflorus . 
Colubrina reclinata .... 

^sculus glabra 

.^sculus flava 

il^^sculus Californica .... 

Ungnadia speciosa 

Sapindus marginatus .... 
Sapindus Saponaria .... 
Hypelate paniculata .... 

Hypelate trifoliata 

Acer Pcniisylvanicuin . . . 

Acer spicatum 

Acer macrophylluni .... 

Acer circinatum 

Acer glabrum 

Acer grandidentatum .... 

Acer saccharinum 

Acer saccharinum, var. nigrum 

Acer dasycarpum 

Acer rubrum . . ... . . 

Acer rubrum, var. Drummondii 

Negundo aceroides 

Negundo Californicum . . . 
Rims cotinoides . . . . . . 

Rhus typhina ...... 

Rhus copallina 

Rhus copallina, var. lanceolata 

Rhus venenata 

Rhus Metopium 

Pistacia Mexicana 

Eysenhardtia orthocarpa . . 

Dalea spinosa 

Robinia Pseudacacia .... 

Robinia viscosa 

Robinia Neo- Mexicana . . . 

Olnoya Tesota 

Piscidia Erythrina 

Cladrastis tinctoria .... 
Sophora secundiflora .... 

Sopliora afRnis 

Gyninocladus Canadensis . . 
Gleditschia triacanthos . . . 



o 



0.7270 
0.7420 
0.0784 
0.0249 
0.6592 
0.9048 
0.7745 
1.0715 
1.3020 
1.1999 
0.5462 
O.COOO 
0.5672 
0.5750 
0.8208 
0.4542 
0.4274 
0.4980 
0.6332 
0.8126 
8307 
0.95^^3 
0.9102 
0.5299 
0.5330 
0.4909 
0.6660 
0.6028 
0.6902 
0.6912 
0.6915 
0.5269 
0.6178 
0.5459 
0.4328 
0.4821 
0.6425 
4357 
0.5273 
0.5184 
0.4382 
0.7917 



0.8740 
0.5536 
0.7333 
0.8094 
0.8034 
1.0602 
8734 
0.6278 
0.9842 
0.8500 
0.6934 
0.6740 



0.87 
0.70 
0.42 
042 
0.58 
3.42 
2.54 
3.20 
8.31 
7.03 
0.64 
0.58 
0.67 
0.69 
1 75 
0.86 
100 
0.70 
1.17 
1 50 
4.34 
1.25 
1.38 
0.36 
0.43 
0.54 
0.39 
0.30 
0.64 
0.54 
0.71 
0.33 
0.37 
0.34 
1.07 
0.54 
0.50 
0.50 
0.60 
0.85 
0.64 
2.39 



1.28 
4.04 
0.51 
0.20 
0.60 
2.29 
3.38 
0.28 
159 
0.78 
067 
0.80 






0.7207 
0.7368 
0.6756 
0.6223 
0.6554 
0.8739 
0.7548 
1.0372 
1.1938 
1.1155 
0.6427 
0.5965 
0.5634 
0.5710 
0.8064 
0.4503 
0.4231 
0.4945 
0.6258 
0.8004 
0.8004 
0.9414 
0.8976 
0.5280 
0.5307 
0.4882 
0.6634 
0.6010 
0.6858 
0.6875 
0.6866 
05252 
0.6155 
0.5440 
0.4282 
0.4795 
06393 
0.4835 
0.5241 
0.5140 
0.4354 
0.7728 



0.8628 
0.5312 
0.7296 
8078 
0.7986 
1.0359 
0.8439 
0.6260 
9680 
0.8443 
0.6888 
0.6680 






48828 
78250 



105005 
114316 



74084 
91268 



07656 
64438 



68216 

83681 

lil*144 



78032 
71810 



146108 

102726 

110973 

94284 



68156 
94532 



73647 



10500"; 



129238 1273 



314 

526 



820 
904 



f67 

750 



1216 
494 



6 



:jJj 



843 
119*0 



684 
766 



1149 
962 

1019 
811 



629 
796 



663 



656 



114889 
86822 
85079 

100226 



97694 
104822 
108579 



909 
750 
752 
902 



^i^ 



C'Cm 

c _ 



371 



839 
803 



444 

621 



313 



355 
394 
470 



666 
439 



381 
459 



619 
660 
.482 
463 



822 
442 



377 

479 



633 



I 5 



147 



6.39 
649 



136 



192 



71 



108 
149 
272 



384 



162 

200 



267 
262 
181 
176 



111 

107 



109 
126 



2 

3 . 

e: <=) 

3 

«- O 

■% a 



209 



694 



811 
771 
923 



683 
366 
697 
634 



670 
400 
600 



258 



271 
655 
337 
183 



334 

160 
168 



4.5.31 

46 24 
43.28 
38.95 
41.08 
66.39 
48.27 
66.78 
81.14 
74.78 
34.04 
37.39 
35.85 
35.8.3 
61.15 
28.31 
26.64 
31.04 
39.46 
60.64 
52.14 
59.41 
56.72 
.33.02 
33.22 
80.59 
41.61 
37.67 
43.01 
43.08 
43.09 
82.84 
38 60 
34.02 
26.97 
30.04 
40.04 
27.15 
32.86 
32.31 
27.31 
49.34 



54.47 
34.50 
46.70 
60.44 
60.07 
66.07 
64.43 
39.12 
61.34 



63.03 
43 21 
42.00 



10 



146 



THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE WOODS 



Species. 



Gleditschia monosperma . . . 
Parkinsonia Torreyana .... 
Parkinsonia micropliylla . . . . 

Parkinsonia aculeata 

Cercis Canadensis 

Cercis reniforniia 

Prosopis juliflora 

Prosopis pubescens ..... 

Leucajna glauca 

Leucaena pulverulenta .... 

Acacia Wrightii 

Acacia Greggii 

Acacia Berlaiidieri 

Lysiloma latisiliqua 

Pithecolobium Unguis-cati , . . 

Chrysobalanus Icaco 

Prunus Americana 

Primus angustifolia 

Prunus Pennsylvanica .... 

Prunus umbellata . . . . . . 

Prunus emarginata, var. mollis . 

Prunus serotina 

Prunus Capuli 

Prunus demissa 

Prunus Caroliniana 

Prunus sphserocarpa 

Prunus ilicifolia 

Vanquelinia Torreyi 

Cercocarpus ledifolius .... 
Cercocarpus parvifolius .... 

Pyrus coronaria 

Pyrus angustifolia 

Pyrus rivularis 

Pyrus Americana 

Pyrus sambuci folia 

Crataegus rivularis 

Crataegus Douglasii 

Crataegus brachyacantha . . . 

Crataegus arborescens 

Crataegus Crus galli 

Cratsegus coccinea 

Crataegus subvillosa 

Crataegus tomentosa 

Crataegus tomentosa, var. punctata 

Crataegus cordata 

Crataegus apiifolia 

Crataegus spatliulata 

Crataegus be rberi folia .... 

Crataegus eestivalis 

Crataegus flava 

Crataegus flava, var. pubescens . 
Heteromeles arbutifolia .... 
Amelanchier Canadensis . . . 

Hamamelis Virginica 

Liquidambar Styraciflua . . . 



0.7342 
0.6531 
0.7449 
0.6116 
0.6363 
0.7513 
0.7652 
0.7609 
9235 
6732 
0.9392 
0.8550 



0.6418 
0.9049 
0.7709 
0.7215 
0.6884 
0.5023 
0.8202 
0.4502 
0.5822 
0.7879 
6951 
0.8688 
0.8998 
9803 
1.1374 
1.0731 
0.9365 
0.7048 
0.6895 
0.8316 
0.5451 
0.5928 
0.7703 
0.6950 
0.6793 
0.6491 
0.7194 
0.8618 
0.7953 
0.7585 
0.7681 
0.7293 
0.7453 
0.7159 



0.73 
1 12 
3.64 
2.32 
0.72 
0.77 
2.18 
O.J 5 
3.29 
1 01 
03 
0.91 



0.6564 
0.7809 
0.7683 
0.9326 
7838 
0.6856 
0.5909 



212 

2.40 

0.87 

0.18 

0.28 

0.40 

0.12 

0.21 

0.15 

0.20 

0.50 

0.41 

0.87 

0.78 

1.45 

1.04 

0.45 

0.52 

0.33 

041 

83 

0.35 

0.35 

0.33 

0.42 

0.56 

0.56 

0,38 

0.69 

0.52 

0.47 

0.46 

0.97 

0.66 



S^ 



.tf^ 



K S 



0.7288 
0.6458 
0.7178 
0.5974 
0.6317 
0.7455 
0.7485 
0.7537 
0.8931 
0.6664 
0.9333 
0.8472 



0.57 
0.79 
0.91 
0.54 
0.55 
037 
0.61 



0.6282 
0.8826 
0.7642 
0.7202 
0.6865 

5003 
0.8192 
0.4493 
0.5813 
0.7863 
0.6916 
0.8652 
0.8920 
0,9727 
1.1209 

1 0619 
0.9323 
0.7011 
0.6872 
0.8282 
0.5406 
0.5908 
0.7676 
0.6927 
0.6764 
0.6454 
0.7154 
0.8585 
0.7898 
0.7546 
0.7645 
0.7259 
0.7381 
0.7112 






116991 
55839 



68798 



58297 
82424 



1027 
546 



726 



108507 



0.6527 
7747 
0.7613 
0.9276 
0.7795 
0.6831 
0.5873 



46064 

110973 
82609 
60281 



86055 
85833 

76*895 
93727 



73201 



64241 



485 
894 



792 



653 



961 
864 
468 



679 

829 

691 

928 



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584 
417 



469 



588 
671 



743 



481 



588 
402 
407 
498 
460 
547 
538 
510 
562 



782 544 305 



485 



62600 



78837 
66J36 

90*023 
73160 



67349 



59185 



70765 
11*9677 



445 



621 
653 

73*8 
709 



506 



712 



86388 



724 



1132 



276 
226 



182 



343 
329 



171 



221 
213 
133 
103 
842 
80 
204 
272 
246 
318 



655 
419 



380 
383 



498 
430 

538 
445 



455 



445 



651 



527 
670 



480 
2*50 



117 

107 



184 
210 

2*68 
240 



218 



224 



319 
280 



466 



132 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 



147 



Species. 



"Rliizophora Mangle 

Conocari)U3 erecia , 

Laguncularia racernosa 

Calyptrantlie.s Cliytraculia . . . ' . 

Eugenia huxifolia 

Eugenia dicliotoma 

Eugenia inonticola. . . . . 

Eugenia longipes 

Eugenia procera 

Cereus giganteus 

Cornus alternifolia 

Cornus florida 

Cornus Nuttallii 

Nyssa capitata 

Nyssa sylvatica 

Nyssa unittora 

Sarnbucus glauca 

Sambucus Mexicana 

Viburnum Lentago 

Viburnum prunifoliuin 

Exostema Caribasuni 

Pinckneya pubens 

Genipa clusiyefolia 

Guettarda elliptica . 

Vacciniuui arboreum 

Andromeda ferruginea 

Arbutus Menziesii 

Arbutus Xalapensis 

Arbutus Texana 

Oxydendrum arboreum . . . . . 

Kalmia latifoiia 

Rliododendron maximum ... 

Myrsine Rapanea 

Ardisia Fickeringia , 

Jacquinia armillaris 

Chrysopbyllum oliviforme . . . , 
Sideroxylon Mastichodendron . , 

Dipbolis salicitblia 

Bumelia tenax 

Bumelia lanuginosa , 

Bumelia spinosa 

Bumelia lycioides , 

Bumelia caneata 

Mimusops Sieberi 

Diospyros Virginiana .... 

Diospyros Texana 

Symplocos tinctoria 

Halesia diptera 

Halesia tetraptera 

Fraxinus Greggii 

Fraxinus anomala 

Fraxinus pistaciaefolia .... 

Fraxinus Americana 

Fraxinus Americana, var. Texensis 
Fraxinus pubescens 



o 



1.1617 
0.9900 
0.711:57 
0.8992 
0.93()0 
0.8988 
0.9156 
1.1235 
0.9453 
0.3188 
0.66:)6 
0.8153 
0.7481 
0.4613 
0.6356 
0.5194 
0.5087 
0.4G14 
0.7303 
0.8332 
0.9310 
0.5350 
1.0316 
0.8337 
0.7610 
0.7500 
0.7052 
0.7099 
0.7500 
7458 
0.7160 
0.6303 
0.8341 
0.8602 
0.6948 
0.9360 
1.0109 
0.9316 
0.7293 
0.6544 
0.6603 
0.7467 
0.7959 
1.0838 
0.7908 
0.8460 
0.5325 
0.5705 
0.5628 
0.7904 
0.6597 
0.6810 
0.6543 
0.7636 
0.6251 



1.82 
0.32 
1.62 
3.32 
1.50 
0.74 
1 89 
348 
2.62 
3.45 
0.41 
0.07 
0.50 
0.34 
0.52 
0.70 
1.57 
2.00 
0.29 
0.52 
0.23 
0.41 
1.06 
1.05 
0.39 
046 
0.40 
0.26 
0.51 
0.37 
0.41 
0.36 
0.81 
1.84 
3.45 
124 
5.14 
32 
0.78 
1.23 
1.24 
0.81 
1.90 
2.61 
0.96 
3.33 
0.68 
0.42 
0.40 
0.93 
0.85 
0.62 
042 
0.70 
0.26 



u ^ 



^a 



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7021 
8693 
9220 
0.8917 
0.8983 
1.0844 
0.9205 
0.3078 
0.6669 
0.8098 
0.7444 
0.4597 
0.6323 
0.5158 
0.5007 
0.4522 
0.7282 
0.8289 
0.9289 
0.5328 
10207 
0.8250 
0.7580 
0.7465 
0.7024 
0.7081 
0.7462 
0.7430 
0.7131 
0.6280 
0.8271 
0.8444 
0.6708 
0.9244 
0.9689 
0.9286 
0.7236 
0.6464 
0.6521 
0.7407 
0.7808 
1.0555 
0.7832 
0.8178 
0.5289 
0.5681 
0.5605 
0.7830 
0.6541 
0.6768 
0.6516 
7583 
0.6235 



H 






165567 

102411 

72396 

l'575lo 

108507 

1*19111 



82112 
10S081 
68083 
81832 
51678 
30517 



90654 

119357 

68291 



81380 
83834 
61577 



88851 
58484 
64578 



112424 

109948 

133593 

75120 

48334 

78125 

60281 

100226 

78234 

62202 
68321 



60119 
101668 
108174 

81222 



1207 
942 
518 



1055 
1172 



1176 



904 
991 
682 
830 
655 
870 



951 
10(5 

405 



679 
907 
618 



728 
639 
663 



857 

970 

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387 



562 
615 
914 

879 



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857 



622 

861 

1125 

869 



S '& 

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860 
599 
449 



887 
563 
672 



534 
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431 
468 
365 
275 



555 
692 
751 
272 



399 
487 
502 
401 



601 
430 
439 



698 
650 
730 
452 
362 



489 
478 
460 
503 



384 
434 



385 
463 
641 



s 



462 
370 
149 



896 
408 
444 



305 
242 
166 
196 
161 
138 



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481 
105 



279 
225 
207 

247 



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262 
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382 
355 
274 
181 
160 



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375 
324 



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197 



210 
171 

198 



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435 204 



72.40 
61.70 
44.48 
66.04 
58.33 
55.97 
57.06 
70.02 
58.91 
19.87 
41.73 
60.81 
46.62 
28.75 
39.61 
32 37 
31.70 
28.75 
45.61 
51.93 
58.02 
33.34 
64.29 
51.96 
47.48 
46.74 
43.96 
44.24 
46.74 
46.48 
44.62 
39 28 
61.98 
63.61 
43.30 
58.33 
63.00 
68.06 
4545 
40.78 
41.15 
46.63 
49.60 
67.54 
49.28 
62.72 
33.19 
35.55 
35.07 
49.26 
41.11 
42.44 
40.78 
47 59 
88.96 



148 



THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE WOODS 



Species. 



GJ 



Fraximis viridis 0.7117 

Fraxinus viridis, var. Berlandieriana 0.5780 

Fraximis platycarpa 0.8541 

Fraxinus quadrangulata 0.7184 

Fraxinus Oregana 05731 

Fraxinus sanibucifolia 0.6318 

Forestiera acuminata 6:-!45 

Ciiionantluis Virginica 0.6372 

Osmantlius Americaaus .... 0.8111 

Cordia Sebestena 7108 

Cordia Bojssieri 0.6700 

Bourreria Havanensis 0.8078 

Ehretia elliptica 0.0440 

Catalpa bignonioides 0.4474 

Catalpa speciosa 0.4165 

Chilopsis saligna ^ 0.5002 

Crescentia cucurbitina 0.6310 

Citharexylum villosum 0.8710 

Avieennia nitida 0.0138 

Pisonia obtnsata j 0.6529 

Coccoloba Floridana I 0.9835 

Coccoloba uvifera | 0.9685 

6429 
0.0396 
0.7093 
0.5042 
0.6517 
0.9209 
0.0346 
1.0905 
0.5772 
0.7245 
0.0056 
0.6506 
0.7263 
0.7401 
0.5294 
0.7287 
0.7275 
0.2616 
0.6898 
0.4739 
5898 
0.7715 
0.7736 
0.5678 
0.4880 
0.4736 
0.4086 
0.6115 
0.6554 
0.7180 
0.8372 
0.8108 
0.8218 



Persea Carol inensis 

Persea Carolinensis, var. palustris 
Nectandra Willdenoviana . . . 

Sassafras officinale 

Umbellularia Californica . . . 

Dry petes crocea 

Drypetes crocea, var. latifolia. . 

Sebastiania lucida 

Hippomane Mancinella .... 

Uln)us crassifolia 

Ulnius fulva 

Ulmus Americana 

Ulmus racemosa 

Ulmus alata 

Planera siquatica 

Celtis occidentalis 

Celtis occidentalis, var. reticulata 

Ficus aurea 

Ficus brevitblia 

Ficus pedunculata 

Morus rubra 

Morns microphylla 

Madura aurantiaca 

Platanus occidentalis 

Platauus racemosa 

Platanus Wrightii 

Juglans cinerea 

Juglans nigra 

Juglans rupestris 

Carya olivjeformis 

Carya alba 

Carya sulcata 

Carya tomentosa 



0.65 

0.54 

0.73 

0.78 

0.34 

0.72 

0.72 

0.51 

0.46 

4,22 

3.53 

279 

1.32 

0.38 

0.39 

0.37 

1.35 

0.52 

2.51 

7.62 

5.03 

1.37 

0.76 

0.37 

0.60 

0.10 

39 

6.14 

8.29 

2.78 

5.16 

1.20 

0.83 

0.80 

0.60 

0.99 

0.45 

1.09 

1.22 

5.08 

4.86 

4.92 

0.71 

068 

0.68 

0.46 

1.11 

1.35 

0.51 

0.79 

1.01 

1.13 

0.73 

0.90 

1.06 



e..; 
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.s: *- 
PS 3 



0.7071 

0.5749 

0.3515 

0.7128 

0.5712 

0.6273 

0.6299 

0.6340 

0.8074 

0.6808 

6550 

0.7848 

0.6355 

0.4457 

0.4149 

0.5880 

0.6234 

0.8665 

0.8909 

0.6031 

0.9340 

0.9503 

0.0380 

0.6372 

0.7647 

0.5037 

6492 

0.8644 

0.8571 

1.0602 

0.5474 

0.7158 

0.6898 

0.6454 

0.7219 

0.7417 

0.5270 

0.7208 

0.7186 

0.2484 

0.6119 

0.4506 

0.5856 

0.7663 

0.7683 

0.5652 

0.4826 

0.4672 

0.4065 

0.6067 

0.6488 

0.7099 

08311 

0.8035 

0.8131 



H 






90313 

47637 
77439 

84818 
87185 
70282 



123133 



99649 
39697 
68161 
82156 
54421 

125717 

46503 
113538 

83900 
84918 

51910 
106766 
103890 

83619 



895 

536 
811 
665 
806 
717 



1051 



70399 
95274 
74742 

109628 
52323 
55167 
68527 
86805 
25699 

40690 
82377 



944 

721 
590 
685 
578 



O [? 



482 

251 
499 
520 
423 
401 



220 

138 
222 
166 
194 
170 



547 



247 



937 

297 
918 

902 
820 

(502 
806 
796 
707 



94373 

86402 

62401 

45644 

81253 

109200 

72632 

66646 

138839 

103S84 

114995 



iio 
869 
852 
1066 
724 
621 
789 
805 
289 

230 
775 



575 
387 
364 
407 
297 



294 

229 

77 

86 

144 



689 

31*0 
771 

258 
573 
867 

382 
568 
650 
520 



308 

108 

394 

199 
192 

1*34 

199 
362 
407 



1131 
635 
562 

428 

597 

856 

600 

578 

1200 

1083 

1129 



453 
589 
446 
592 
449 
394 
421 
487 
162 

28*1 
420 



255 
150 
170 
205 
255 
146 
217 
273 
61 

11*9 
178 



809 
450 
324 
327 
392 
583 
437 
484 
625 
559 
593 



363 
165 

93 
117 

90 
196 
182 
232 
271 
288 
277 



^ H 
O P* 



44.35 

36.02 

22.07 

44.77 

35.72 

39.37 

39.54 

39.71 

50.55 

44.30 

42.32 

50.31 

40.13 

27.88 

25.96 

36.78 

39.38 

54.28 

56.95 

40.69 

61.29 

60.05 

40.07 

39.86 

47.94 

31.42 

40.61 

57.39 

58.24 

67.96 

35.97 

45.15 

43.35 

40.55 

45.26 

46.68 

32.99 

45.41 

45.34 

16.30 

39.87 

29.53 

36 76 

48.08 

48.21 

35.39 

30.41 

29.51 

25.46 

38 11 

40.84 

44.75 

52.17 

50.53 

51.21 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 



149 



Species. 



Gary a porcina 

Carya amara 

Carya inyristiriaeforinis .... 

Carya aquatica . 

Myrica cerifcra 

Myrica Califoniica 

Quercus alba 

Quercus lobata 

Quercus Garryaiia 

Quercus obtusiloba 

Quercus uiidulata, var. Gainbellii 

Quercus macrocarpa 

Quercus lyrata 

Quercus bicolor 

Quercus Michauxii 

Quercus Prinus 

Quercus priuoides 

Quercus Douj^lasii 

Quercus oblongifolia 

Quercus grisea 

Quercus reticulata 

Quercus Durandii 

Quercus virens 

Quercus clirysolepis 

Quercus Emoryi 

Quercus agrifolia 

Quercus VVeslizeni 

Quercus rubra 

Quercus rul)ra, var Texana . . 

Quercus cocci nea 

Quercus tinctorla 

Quercus Kelloggii 

Quercus nigra 

Quercus falcata 

Quercus Catesbaei 

Quercus palustris 

Quercus aquatica 

Quercus laurifolia 

Quercus lieteropliylla 

Quercus cinerea 

Quercus liypoleuca 

Quercus iinbricaria 

Quercus Piiellos 

Quercus densiflora 

Castanopsis chrysophylla . . . 

Castanea pumila 

Castanea vulgaris, var. Americana 

Fagus ferruginea 

Ostrya Virgin ica 

Carpinus Caroiiniana 

Betula alba, var. populifolia 

Betula papyrifera 

Betula occidentalis 

Betula lutea 

Betula nigra 



0.8217 
0.7552 
0.8016 
0.7407 
0.5687 
0.6703 
0.7470 
0.7409 
0.7453 
0.8367 
0.8407 
0.7453 
0.8318 
0.7662 
0.8039 
0.7499 
0.8005 
0.8928 
0.9441 
1.0092 
0.0479 
0.9507 
0.9501 
0.8493 
0.9263 
0.8253 
0.7855 
0.6540 
0.9080 
0.7405 
0.7045 
0.6435 
0.7324 
0.6928 
0.7294 
0.6938 
0.7244 
0.7673 
0.6834 
6420 
0.8009 
0.7529 
0.7472 
0.6827 
0.5574 
0.5887 
0.4504 
0.6883 
0.8284 
0.7286 
0.5760 
5955 
6030 
0.6553 
0.5762 



U) 

3 






0.99 
1.03 
1.06 
1.27 
0.51 
0.33 
0.41 
0.30 
0.39 
0.79 
0.90 
0.71 
0.65 
0.58 
0.45 
0.77 
1.14 
0.84 
2.61 
1.82 
0.52 
1.78 
1.14 
0.60 
2.36 
1.28 
1.02 
0.26 
0.85 
019 
0.28 
0.26 
1.16 
0.25 
0.87 
0.81 
0.51 
0.82 
0.17 
1.21 
1.34 
0.43 
0.50 
1.49 
0.35 
0.12 
0.18 
0.51 
0.50 
0.83 
0.29 
0.25 
0.30 
0.31 
0.35 



0.8136 
0.7474 
0.7931 
0.7313 
0.5608 
0.6681 
0.7439 
0.7387 
0.7424 
0.8301 
0.8324 
0.7400 
0.8259 
0.7618 
0.8003 
0.7441 
0.8507 
0.8853 
0.9195 
0.9908 
0.9430 
9338 
0.9393 
0.8442 
0.9044 
0.8147 
0.7775 
0.6523 
0.9003 
0.7391 
0.7025 
0.6418 
0.7239 
0.6911 
0.7231 
0.6882 
0.7207 
0.7610 
0.6822 
0.6342 
0.7902 
0.7497 
0.7435 
0.6725 
0.5554 
0.5880 
0.4496 
0.6848 
0.8243 
0.7226 
0.5743 
5i»40 
0.6012 
0.(5533 
0.5742 



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1046 


301 


102986 


1101 


522 


242 


146484 


1394 


6:i8 


315 


101261 


884 


486 


274 


88778 


815 


445 


144 


99161 


1036 


532 


188 


97089 


905 


511 


213 


71664 


864 


424 


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81109 


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83257 


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417 


255 


92929 


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491 


233 


133438 


1025 


492 


252 


90636 


909 


490 


221 


96373 


1118 


482 


233 


125473 


1031 


538 


2.30 


112461 


1288 


575 


264 


77166 


993 


557 


374 


85739 


719 


434 


439 


73982 


937 


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364 


83766 


093 


534 


308 


113627 


1017 


547 


324 


119810 


1268 


545 


317 


63828 


703 


422 


415 


95276 


935 


463 


285 


86055 


818 


533 


272 


112798 


990 


511 


177 


103843 


1024 


582 


291 


108507 


1054 


504 


202 


103427 


1041 


501 


202 


74488 


768 


449 


174 


97656 


1043 


497 


286 


140151 


1193 


596 


201 


103468 


1046 


457 


228 


112296 


1090 


491 


190 


122657 


1052 


501 


198 


125916 


1181 


526 


253 


122494 


1073 


412 


182 


75120 


993 


448 


201 


94409 


1113 


293 


272 


119357 


1218 


552 


226 


78440 


989 


390 


216 


96347 


946 


475 


224 


101195 


741 


435 


119 


114108 


991 


495 


118 


85621 


696 


381 


106 


120996 


1148 


478 


196 


137276 


1134 


542 


231 


114881 


1149 


498 


213 


72970 


778 


348 


129 


130557 


1065 


487 


126 


92424 


806 


391 


127 


161723 


1248 


619 


161 


111322 


972 


438 


132 



u 



51.21 
47.06 
49.96 
46.16 
35.13 
41.77 
46.35 
40.17 
46.45 
52.14 
52.39 
46.45 
51.81 
47.75 
50.10 
46.73 
53.63 
55.64 
58.84 
62.89 
59.07 
59.25 
59.21 
52.93 
57.73 
51.43 
48.95 
40.70 
56.59 
46.15 
48.90 
40.10 
45.64 
43.18 
45.46 
43.24 
45.14 
47.82 
42.59 
40.01 
49.91 
46.92 
46.57 
42.55 
34.74 
3609 
28.07 
42.89 
51.63 
45.41 
35.90 
37.11 
37.58 
40.84 
35.91 



150 



THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE WOODS 



299 

300 

301 

302 

303 

304 

305 

305^ 

30t> 

307 

308 

309 

30iP 

309^ 

310 

310^ 

310-^ 

311 

3111 

312 

313 

3131 

314 

315 

316 

317 

318 

319 

320 

321 

321 

322 

323 

324 

325 

3251 

326 

327 

328 

329 

330 

831 

332 

333 

334 

335 

336 

3361 

337 

338 

3381 

3382 

339 

340 



Species. 



Betula lenta 

Alnus maritima 

Aliius rubra 

Alnus rlioiubifolia , 

Alnus oblont^ifolia ....... 

Alnus serriilata 

Alnus inoana 

Alnus incana, van virescens . . . 

Salix nigra 

Salix aniygdaloides 

Salix lasvigata 

Salix lasiandra 

Salix lasiandra, var. lancifolia . . 

Salix lasiandra, var. Fendleriana. . 

Salix Jongifolia 

Salix longifolia, var. exigua . . 

Salix longifolia, var. argyrophylia . 

Salix sessilit'olia 

Salix sessilifolia, var. Hindsiana . 

Salix discolor 

Salix flavescens 

Salix flavescens, var. Scouleriana . 

Salix Hookeriana 

Salix cordata, var. vestita . . . . 

Salix lasiolepis 

Salix Sitcliensis 

Populus tremuloides 

Populus grandidentata 

Populus heteropliylla 

Populus balsam ifera 

Populus balsannifera, var. candicans . 

Populus angustifolia 

Populus trichocarpa 

Populus nionilifera 

Populus Eremontii 

I'opulus Fremontii, var. Wislizeni . 

Libocedrus decurrens 

Thuya occidentalis 

Thuya gigantea 

Chamaecyparis sphaeroidea . . . . 
Chamaecyparis Nutkaensis .... 
Chamaecyparis Lawsoniana .... 

Cupressus macrocarpa 

Cupressus Goveniana 

Cupressus Macnabiana 

Cupressus Guadalupensis .... 

Juniperus Californica 

Juniperus Californica, var. Utahensis 

Juniperus pachyphlcea 

Juniperus occidentalis 

Juniperus occidentalis, var. mono- 

sperma , . . . 

Juniperus occidentalis, var. conjugens 

Juniperus Virginiana 

Taxodium distichum 



S, 



0.7617 
0.4996 
0.4813 
0.4127 
0.3981 
0.4666 
0.4607 



0.4456 
0.4509 
0.4872 
0.4756 
0.4547 
0.4598 
0.4930 
0.5342 

o!4397 



0.26 
0.39 
42 
0.31 
0.42 
0.38 
0.42 



K S 



0.4261 

0.4969 

0.5412 

0.5350 

0.6069 

0.5587 

0.5072 

0.4032 

0.4632 

0.4089 

0.3635 

0.4161 

0.3912 

0.3814 

0..S889 

0.4914 

0.4621 

4017 

0.3164 

0.3796 

0..S822 

0.4782 

0.4021 

0.6261 

0.4689 



0.70 

0.92 
0.58 
0.60 
0.79 
0.56 
0.48 
1.06 

6.50 



0.7597 
0.4977 
0.4793 
0.4104 
0.3964 
0.4648 
0.4588 



0.4843 
0.6282 
0.5522 
0.5829 
0.5765 



0.7118 
0.6907 
0.4926 
0.4543 



0.43 
0.61 
0.39 
0.32 
59 
0.98 
0.59 
0.55 
0.45 
0.81 
066 
0.46 
79 
1.27 
0.96 
0.77 
1.13 
0.08 
0.37 
0.17 
0.33 
0.34 
0.10 
0.57 
0.45 



0.4425 
0.4468 
0.4844 
0.4727 
0.4411 
0.4572 
0.4906 
0.5285 

0^4375 






141398 

106046 

84580 
76937 



108507 



39062 
50144 

48828 



1216 

811 

682 
686 



820 



0.44 
0.75 
0.49 
0.11 
0.12 

0.78 
0.46 
0.13 
0.42 



0.4243 

0.4939 
0.5391 
0.5333 
0.6033 
0.5532 
0.5042 
0.4010 
0.4611 
0.4056 
0.3611 
0.4142 
0.3881 
0.3766 
0.3852 
0.4876 
0.4569 
0.4014 
0.3152 
0.3790 
0.3311 
0.4766 
0.4616 
0.6225 
4668 



87935 
30517 



0.4822 
0.6235 
0.5495 
0.5823 
0.5758 

0.7062 
0.6875 
0.4920 
0.4524 



108507 
126216 



88778 

81441 

96827 

72338 

85690 

73024 

45847 

111694 

99417 

]05116 

84317 

84729 

53311 

103372 

40410 

102881 

121772 

107327 

49941 



424 
550 
644 



5 es 
v. □ 

II 



619 

415 

356 
278 



289 



675 
469 



808 
909 



813 



61275 



73426 

66992 

103206 



677 
721 
642 
550 
609 
400 
665 
770 
698 
691 
682 
512 
749 
456 
801 
888 
1045 
539 



213 
264 
319 



341 

286 



408 

468 
427 

385 



226 

129 

117 

78 

74 



93 

81 

118 



87 
82 



761 



468 
740 
682 



330 
358 
283 
320 
276 
271 
390 
353 
378 
372 
403 
306 
450 
259 
455 
466 

359 



98 
126 
111 

140 



532 
416 
423 



80 
62 
86 
75 
64 
76 
63 
83 
86 

100 
98 
60 
70 
67 

101 
82 

237 

178 



186 



286 

148 

81 



03 S 

c a- 






AIM 
31.14 
29.99 

25.72 
24 81 
29.08 
28.71 



27.77 
28.10 
30.36 
29.64 
28.34 
28.65 
30.72 
33.29 



27.40 



26.55 

30.97 

33.73 

33.34 

37.82 

34.82 

31.61 

25.13 

28.87 

25.48 

22.65 

25.93 

24.38 

23.77 

24.24 

30.62 

28.80 

25.03 

19 72 

23.66 

20.70 

29.80 

28.80 

39.02 

29.22 



30.18 
39.15 
34.41 
36.32 
35.93 

44 36 
43.04 
30.70 
28.31 





OF THE 


UNITED STATES. 








161 


a 




i^ 


J3 
n 

< 




i 


1 

0. 

3 




d 

% 

a 









V 




5-rt 


^o 


(4 


<? 





ce a 


s 


Speciea. 





s> 


<z 


a 







« 


-oP. 


9 
ea 






5 
g 

1 


"5 *; 

tf a 


.0 


_3 

"3 
2 


a 

388 


a 

Ja- 
il 


£5 


341 


Sequoia gigantca 


2882 


0.50 


0.2868 


45140 


459 


08 


17.96 


342 


Sequoia seiiipervirens 


0.4208 


0.14 


0.4202 


07040 


597 


410 


77 


26.22 


343 


Taxus brevifolia 


00:391 


0.22 


0.6377 


76133 


1078 


483 


204 


39.83 


344 


Taxus Floridana 


10.0340 


0.21 


0327 


• • • 


, , 


, , 


. . 


39.51 


345 


Torreya taxifolia 


0.5145 


0.73 


0.5107 


82833 


887 


400 


158 


32.00 


340 


Torreya Californica 


0.4760 


1.34 


04090 


40140 


583 


351 


122 


29 66 


347 


Pinus Strobus 


3854 


0.19 
0.23 
0.22 


0..3847 
0.3899 
0..3076 


85093 
95068 
79375 


020 
609 
597 


339 
334 
330 


74 
67 

78 


24.02 


348 


I'inus monticola 


0.3908 


24.36 


340 


Pinus Lambertiana 


0.8084 


22.96 


350 


Pinus flexilis 


0.4358 


0.28 


0.4346 


07531 


624 


349 


108 


27.16 


851 


Pinus albicaulis 


0.4105 


0.27 


0.4154 


.38147 


581 


331 


107 


25.96 


35^ 


Pinus reflexa 


0.4877 


0.20 
0.54 
0.90 


0.4804 
0.5044 
0.0453 


91287 
37783 


770 
426 


489 
339 


128 
195 


30.39 


353 


Pinus Parrjana 


0.5675 


35.37 


354 


Pinus cembroides 


0.6512 


40.58 


355 


Pinus edulis 


0.0388 


0.02 


0.0348 


42094 


447 


349 


2V2 


39.81 


356 


Pinus monophylla 


5058 


0.68 


0.5620 


43488 


288 


274 


169 


35.26 


357 


Pinus Balfouriana 


0.5434 


0.40 


0.5412 


59380 


424 


337 


147 


33.86 


3571 


Pinus Balfouriana, var. aristata . . 


0.5572 


0.30 


0.5555 


71482 


653 


325 


134 


34.72 


3;-8 


Pinus resinosa 


0.4854 


0.27 
0.35 


0.4841 
0,4802 


113210 
54213 


800 
750 


455 
290 


85 
147 


30.25 


359 


Pinus Torreyana 


0.4879 


30.41 


mo 


Pinus Arizonica 


0.5038 


0.20 
0.35 


0.5028 
0.4098 


82370 
88731 


653 
720 


381 
381 


105 
107 


31.40 


361 


Pinus ponderosa 


0.4715 


29.38 


362 


Pinus Jeffrey i 


0.5206 


0.26 


0.5192 


92777 


744 


417 


110 


32.44 


363 


Pinus Chihuahuana ...... 


0.5457 


0.39 


0.5436 


72575 


832 


337 


154 


34.01 


364 


Pinus contorta 


0.5815 


0.19 
0.32 


0.5804 
0.4083 


158533 
77113 


993 
564 


554 
383 


149 

86 


36.24 


305 


Pinus Murrayana 


0.4096 


25.58 


360 


Pinus Sabiniana ....... 


0.4840 


0.40 


0.4821 


58517 


779 


387 


138 


30.16 


367 


Pinus Coulteri 


0.4133 


0.37 


0.4118 


114108 


761 


367 


92 


25.76 


368 


Pinus insignis ........ 


0.4574 


0.80 


0.4560 


97850 


740 


417 


105 


28.51 


309 


Pinus tuberculata 


0.3499 


0.33 


0.3487 


42870 


409 


203 


86 


21.81 


370 


Pinus Taeda 


0.5441 


0.20 
0.23 
0.17 
0.30 
0.31 
0.27 
0.26 


0.5427 
0.5139 
0.7928 
0.5293 
0.5559 
0.4922 
0.4929 


112847 
68127 

116957 
54295 
54295 
80330 

119357 


883 
739 

1164 
658 
502 
726 

1031 


427 

355 
505 
360 
377 
354 
509 


107 
133 
290 
156 
131 
115 
122 


83.91 


371 


Pinus rigida . ... 


0.5151 


32.10 


372 


Pinus serotina 


0.7942 


49.49 


378 


Pinus inops 


0.5309 


33.09 


374 


Pinus clausa 


0.5576 


34.75 


375 


Pinus pungens 


0.4935 


30.75 


370 


Pinus muricata 


0.4942 


30.80 


377 


Pinus niitis 


00104 


0.29 


0.6080 


137495 


1038 


477 


129 


38.04 


378 


Pinus glabra 


0.3931 


0.45 


0.3913 


44750 


496 


288 


106 


24.50 


379 


Pinus Banksiana '. . 


0.4761 


0.23 


0.4750 


94231 


652 


396 


101 


29.67 


380 


Pinus palustris 


0.0999 


0.25 
0.20 
0.27 
0.32 
0.32 


0.0982 
0.7484 
0.4572 
0.4038 
0.34.38 


148733 
157747 

109987 

102280 

80791 


1152 

1172 

747 

747 

574 


029 
664 
407 
342 

207 


153 

180 

77 

74 

76 


43.62 


381 


Pinus Cubensis 


0.7504 


46.76 


382 


Picea nigra 


4584 


28.57 


383 


Picea alba 


0.4051 


25.25 


384 


Picea Engelinanni . 


0.3449 


21.49 


385 


Picea pungens 


3740 


0.38 


0.3720 


65300 


464 


258 


79 


23.31 


380 


Picea Sitchensis 


0.4287 


0.17 


0.4280 


99001 


649 


353 


73 


26.72 


387 


Tsuga Canadensis 


0.4239 


0.40 


0.4220 


89970 


736 


384 


82 


26.42 


388 


Tsuga Caroliniana 


4275 


040 
0.42 


0.4258 
0.5160 


71282 
137483 


401 

909 


403 
547 


125 


26.64 


389 


Tsuga Mertensiana 


0.5182 


101 32.29 


390 


Tsuga Pattoniana 


0.4454 


0.44 


0.4434 


77524 


719 


379 


104 27.76 


391 


Pseudotsuga Douglasii 


0.5157 


0.08 


0.5153 


128297 


881 


519 


100 


32.14 


3911 


Pseudotsuga Douglasii, var. macro- 




















carpa 


0.4563 


0.08 
0.54 


0.4559 
0.3546 


105007 
97170 


846 
639 


463 
347 


102 

65 


28.44 


392 


Abies Fraseri . . 


3505 


22.22 











152 



THE PHYSICAL rPvOPERTIES OF THE WOODS 



i 

B 

3 

1 


Species. 


1 


o 

4) 

si 

a 


1| 
If 

O 3 

» a 


OQ 

o 

"5 
.a 

IP .t; 
o o 


3 
3 

Pi 
o 

S3 


1 
'3) 

k5 


a 

0) 

a 

l-H 
O 

Si 

u 

g . 

"S 3 

11 

75 
64 
51 
78 

*64 
120 

96 
112 
139 


'2 . 
a 3 

V. O 

"^ a 


393 
804 


Abies balsamea 

Abies subalpina 


0.3819 
347G 


0.45 
0.44 
0.49 
0.85 
2.04 
0.23 
0.34 
0.30 
0.33 
0.09 


0.3802 
0.3461 
0.3528 
0.3607 
0.6645 
0.4218 
0.4545 
0.4687 
0.6215 
0.7400 


81924 
76199 
95838 
90889 

126013 
127660 
66220 
126126 
165810 


515 
473 
494 
703 

792 
862 
701 
901 
1227 


365 
302 
391 
390 

467 
453 
435 
536 
689 


23.80 
21 66 


895 


Abies grandis 


3545 


22 09 


896 


Abies concolor .... ... 


3638 


22 67 


397 
89H 


Abies bracteata 

Abies amabilis 


0.0783 
0.4228 


4227 
26.35 


399 


Abies nobilis 


0.4561 


28 42 


400 
401 
402 
403 


Abies magnifica 

Larix Americana 

Larix occidentalis 

Larix Lyallii 


0.4701 
0.6236 
0.7407 


29.30 
38.86 
46.16 


404 


Sabal Pahnetto 


0.4404 


7M 
1.89 
3.99 
3.01 
2.21 
6.27 
4.00 
9.28 
8.94 


0.4067 
0.5075 
0.5752 
0.6956 
0.5901 
0.6258 
0.3588 
0.4055 
0.2480 


56346 


429 


2:27 


66 


27.45 


405 
406 

407 


Washingtonia filifera 

Tiirinax parvitiora 

Tbrinax argentea 


0.5173 
0.5991 
7172 


32.24 
37.34 
44.70 


408 


Oreodoxa reo^ia ... . . . 


6034 


37 60 


409 
410 
411 


Yucca canaliculata 

Yucca brevifolia 

Yucca elata 


0.6677 
0.8737 
4470 


41.61 
23.29 

27.b6 


41^ 


Yucca baccata 


2724 


16.98 











Specific Gravity. ~\ 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 



1^3 



TABLE 11. 

The Trees of the United States arranged in the Order of the Specific Gravity of their 

Dry Woods. 



Species. 



on 



Condalia ferrea . . 
Coiidalia obovata 
Rliizophora Mangle . 
Guaiacum sanctum . 
Vauquelinia Torreyi 
Eugonia longipes . . 
Porliera angustifolia , 
Sebastiania lucida 
Mimusops Sieberi 
Cercocarpus letlifoliu 
Keynosia latiiblia . . 
Ohieya Tesota . . . 
Amyris sylvatica . . 
Genipa clusiaefolia 
Sideroxylon Masticliodend 
Quercus grisea . . 
Conocarpns erecta 
Canella alba . . . 
Sophora secundiflora 
Coccoloba Floridana . 
Primus ilicifolia . . 
Coccoloba uvifera 
Hypelate paniculata . 
Quercus Durandii 
Quercus virens . . 
Quercus reticulata 
Eugenia procera . . 
Quercus oblongifolia 
Acacia Wrigbtii . . 
Cercocarpus parvifolius 
Eugenia buxifolia ". . 
Chrysophyllum olivi forme 
Drypetes crocea, var. latifolia 
Heteromeles arbutifolia 
Dipholis salicifolia . 
Exostema Caribasum 
Quercus Emory i . . 
Leucaena glauca . . 
Drypetes crocea . . 
Ximenia Americana . 



o 



1.3020 
1.1999 
1.1617 
1.1432 
1.1374 
1.1235 
1.1101 
1.090-5 
1.0838 
1.0731 
1.0715 
1.0602 
1.0459 
1.0316 
1.0109 
1.0092 
0.9900 
0.9893 
0.9842 
0.9835 
0.9803 
0.9635 
0.9533 
0.9507 
09501 
0.9479 
9458 
0.9441 
0.9392 
0.9365 

o.Osno 

0.9360 
0.9346 
0.9326 
0.9316 
0.9310 
0.9263 
9235 
0.9209 
0.9196 



41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
60 
61 
62 
(53 
64 
65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 
71 
72 
73 
74 
75 
76 
77 
78 
79 
80 



Species. 



Eugenia monticola 

Avicennia nitida 

Hypelate trifoliata 

Quercus rubra, var. Texan a . . 
Pithecolobium Unguis-cati . . 

Myginda pallens 

Xanthoxylum Caribaeum . . . 

Prunus spliaerocarpa 

Calyptranthes Cbytraculia . . 

Eugenia dicbotoma 

Quercus Douglasii 

Eysenbardtia ortbocarpa . . . 

Piscidia Erytbrina 

Citbarexylum villosum . . . . 

Prunus Caroliniana 

Crataegus coccinea 

Quercus prinoides 

Ardisia Pickeringia 

Acacia Greggii 

Sopbora affinis 

Quercus cbrysolepis 

Diospyros Tex ana 

Quercus undulata, var. Gambelii 

Carya alba 

Sapindus Saponari;i 

Quercus obtusiloba 

Myrsine Rapanea . . . • . . . 

Guettarda elliptica 

Viburnum prunifolium .... 

Ptelia trifoliata 

Pyrus rivularis 

Quercus lyrata 

Ostrya Virginica 

Quercus agrifolia 

Carya toinentosa 

Carya porcina 

Colubrina reclinata 

Prunus umbellata 

Cornus florida 

Sapindus marginatus .... 



o 



0.9156 
0.9138 
0.9102 
09080 
0.9049 
0.9048 
0.!i002 
0.8998 
0.8992 
0.8983 
0.8928 
0.8740 
0.8734 
0.8710 
0.8688 
0.8618 
8t)05 
0.8602 
0.8550 
0.8509 
0.8493 
0.8460 
0.8407 
0.8372 
0.8367 
08367 
0.8341 
0.8337 
0.8:3:32 
0.8319 
0.8316 
0.8313 
0.8284 
0.8253 
0.8218 
08217 
0.8208 
8202 
0.8153 
0.8126 



154 



THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE WOODS [Specific Gravity. 



Species. 



Osmanthus Americanus . . . 

Ciirvii sulcata 

Kobinia viscosa 

Bourreria Havanensis .... 

Quercus Micliauxii 

Kobinia Neo-Mexicana .... 
Carya myristicaeformis . . ' . , 

Quercus lijpoleuca 

Bunielia cuneata 

CratjEgus subvillosa . . '. . 

Pin us serotina 

Rhus Metopium 

Dlospyros Virginiana .... 

Fraxinus Greggii 

Prunus Cnpuli 

Quercus Wislizeni 

Amelancliier Canadensis . . . 

Crataegus flava 

Scliseft'eria frutescens .... 

Madura aurantiaca 

Morus niicropliylla . . . . . 
Chrysobalanus Icaco .... 

Crataegus rivularis 

Nectandra Willdenoviana . . . 
Crataegus flava var. pubescens . 

Quercus laurifolia 

Quercus bicolor 

Prosopis juliflora 

Fraxinus Americana, var.Texensis 

Betula Icnta 

Vaccinium arboreum .... 

Prosopis pubescens 

Cratasgus tomentosa 

Carya amara 

Quercus imbricaria 

Cercis reniformis 

Pinus Cubensis 

Arbutus Texana ...... 

Andromeda ferruginea .... 

Quercus Prinus 

Ulmus alata 

Cornus Nuttallii 

Quercus Phellos 

Quercus alba 

Bumelia lycioides 

Oxydendrum arboreum . . . 

Crataegus apiifolia 

Quercus macrocarpa 

Quercus Garryana 

Parkinsonia micropliylla . . . 
Xanthoxylum Pterota .... 

Ilex decidua 

Quercus lobata 

Carya aquatica 

Larix occidentalis 



o 



8111 
8108 
8094 
8073 
8039 
8034 
8016. 
8009 
7959 
7953 
7942 
7917 
7908 
7904 
7879 
7855 
7838 
7809 
7745 
7736 
7715 
7709 
7703 
7693 
7683 
7673 
7662 
7652 
7636 
7617 
7610 
7(509 
7585 
7552 
7529 
7513 
7504 
7500 
7500 
7499 
7491 
7481 
7472 
7470 
7467 
7458 
7453 
7453 
7449 
.7449 
7444 
7420 
7409 
7407 
7407 



36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
60 
61 

62 
63 
64 
65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 
71 
72 
73 
74 
75 
76 
77 
78 
79 

80 
81 
82 
83 
84 
85 
86 
87 



Species. 



Quercus coccinea 

Gleditschia monosperma . . . 

Kobinia Pseudacacia .... 

Quercus nigra 

Viburnum Lentago 

Quercus Catesbaei 

Bumelia tenax 

Crataegus cordata 

Celtis occidentalffe 

Carpinus Caroliniana .... 

Swietenia Mahogoni 

Celtis occidentalis, var. reticulata 

Ilex Cassine 

Ulmus racemosa 

Ulmus crassifolia 

Quercus aquatica 

Prunus Americana 

Crataegus Crus-galli 

Fraxinus quadrangulata . . . 

Carya olivaeformis 

Thrinax argentea 

Kalmia latifolia 

Crataegus spatlmlata 

Fremontia Californica .... 

Laguncularia racemosa . . . 

Juniperus occidentalis, var. mono- 
sperma 

Fraxinus viridis 

Cordia Sebestena 

Arbutus Xalapensis 

Arbutus Menziesii 

Pyrus coronaria 

Quercus tinctoria 

Pinus palustris 

Capparis Jamaicensis .... 

Ulmus fulva 

Prunus demissa 

Crataegus Douglasii 

Jacquinia armillaris 

Quercus palustris 

Gymnocladus Canadensis . . . 

Quercus falcata 

Acer saccliarinum, var. nigrum . 

Acer saccliarinum 

Juniperus occidentalis, var. con- 
jugens 

Acer grandidentatum . . . . 

Pyrus angustifolia 

Canotia holocantlia 

Prunus angustifolia 

Fagus ferruginea 

Hamamelis Virgiuica . . . . 

Quercus lieteropliylla . . . . 

Quercus densiflora 

Fraxinus pistaciaefolia .... 



0.7405 

0.7342 
7333 
0.7324 
0.7303 
0.7294 
0.7293 
0.7293 
0.7287 
0.7286 
0.7282 
7275 
0.7270 
0.7263 
0.7245 
0.7244 
7215 
0.7194 
0.7184 
0.7180 
0.7172 
0.7160 
0.7159 
0.7142 
0.7137 



0.7118 
7117 
0.7108 
0.7099 
0.7052 
0.7048 
0.7045 
0.6999 
6971 
0.6956 
6951 
0.6950 
0.6948 
0.6938 
6934 
0.6928 
0.6915 
0.6912 



0.6907 
0.6902 
0.6895 
0-6885 
0.6884 
0.6883 
0.6856 
0.6834 
0.6827 
0.6810 



Specific Gravity.'] 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 



155 



Species. 



us 



Cratjegns bracliyacantha 
Cordia Boissieri . . 
Cyrilla raceniiilora . 
Abies bractoata . . 
Gleditscliia triacunthos 
Leuca9na pulverulenta 
Myrica Calif ornica . 
Cornus alternifolia . 
Yucca canaliculata . 
Acer circinatum . . 
Bumelia splnosa . ' . 
Fraxinus anoniala 
Euonymus atropurpure 
Crataegus aestivalis . 
Juglans rupestris . . 
Betula lutca . . . 
Bumelia lanuginosa . 
Fraxinus Americana . 
Quercus rubra . . . 
Parkinson ia Torreyana 
Pisonia obtusata • . 
Umbellularia Californica 
Pinus cembroides . . 
Ulnms Americana 
Crataegus arborescens 
Eliretia elliptica . . 
Quercus Kelloggii 
Persea Carolinensis . 
Rhus cotinoides . . 
Quercus cinerea . . 
Lysiloma latisiliqua . 
Ficus brevifolia . . 
Persea Carolinensis, var 
Taxus brevifolia . . 
Pinus edulis .... 
Chionanthus Virginica 
Cercis Canadensis 
Magnolia grandiflora 
Nyssa sylvatica . . 
Forestiera acuminata 
Taxus Floridana . . 
Ungnadia speciosa . 
Crescentia cucurbitina 
Fraxinus sambucifolia 
Rhododendron maximum 
Juniperus Californica 
Cladrastis tinctoria . 
Cupressus macrocarpa 
Fraxinus pubescens . 
Cliftonia ligustrina . 
Larix Americana . . 
Acer rubrum . . . 
Parkinsonia aculeata 
Juglans nigra . . . 
Pinus mitis .... 



palustris 






0.6793 
0.0790 
0.^784 
6783 
0.6740 
0.6732 
0.G703 
0.G696 
0.0677 
0,6600 
0.6603 
0.0597 
0.6592 
0.0564 
0.0554 
0.6553 
0.0544 
0.6543 
0.6540 
0.6531 
0.0529 
0.0517 
0.0512 
0.0506 
0.6401 
0.0440 
0.0435 
0.6429 
0.6425 
0.0420 
0.0418 
0.0398 
0.6396 
0.6391 
0.6388 
0.6372 
0.6363 
0.6360 
0.6356 
0.6345 
0.6340 
0.6332 
0.6319 
0.6318 
0.6303 
0282 
0.6278 
0.6261 
0.6251 
0.6249 
0.6236 
0.6178 
0.6116 
0.6115 
0.0104 



244 

245 
240 

247 
248 
249 
250 

251 

252 
253 
254 
255 
250 
257 
258 
259 
200 
261 
262 
263 

264 
265 
200 
267 
208 
269 
270 
271 
272 
273 
274 
275 
276 
277 
278 
279 
280 
281 
282 
283 

284 
285 
280 
287 
288 
280 
290 
291 
292 
293 
204 
295 



Species. 



Salix cordata, var. vestita . . . 

Oreoiloxa regia 

Betula occidentalis 

Acer giabruni 

Rhamnus Californica . . . . 

Tiirinax parviflora 

Xanthoxylum C'lava - Herculis, 

var. fruticosum 

Betula papyrifera 

Pyrus sambucifolia 

Liquidambar Styraciflua . . . 

Chilopsis saligna 

Morus rubra 

Byrsonima lucida 

Castanea pumila ...... 

Ilex Dahoon, var. myrtifolia . . 
Juniperus pachyphlcea . . . . 

Prunus serotina 

Ilex opaca 

Pinus contorta 

Fraxinus viridis, var. Berlan- 

dieriana 

Hippomane Mancinella . . . . 
Juniperus occidentalis . . . . 

Betula nigra 

Betula alba, var. populifolia . . 
Ceanothus tliyrsiflorus . . . . 

Fraxinus Oregana 

Halesia diptera 

Platanus occidentalis . . . . 

Pinus Parryana 

Rhamnus Purshiana 

Pinus monophylla 

Xanthoxylum Americanum . . 

Myrica cerifera 

Halesia tetraptera 

Salix lasiolepis 

Pinus clausa 

Castanopsis chrysophylla . . . 
Pinus Balfouriana, var. aristata . 

Dalea spinosa 

Juniperus Californica, var. Uta- 

hensis 

Rhamnus Carolinian a .... 
Acer rubrum, var. Drummondii 

Pinus Chihuahuana 

P.vrus Americana 

Pinus Taeda 

Pinus Balfouriana 

Salix flavescens, var. Scouleriana 

Pinckneya pubens 

Salix Hookeriana 

Salix longifolia, var. cxigua . . 

Acer spicatum 

Sj'mplocos tinctoria 



0.6069 
0.6034 
0.6030 
0.6028 
0.6000 
0.5990 



0.5967 
0.5955 
0.5928 
0.5909 
0.5902 
0.5898 
0.5888 
0.5887 
0.5873 
0.5829 
0.5822 
0.5818 
0.5815 



0.5780 
0.5772 
0.5766 
0.5762 
0.5760 
0.5750 
0.5731 
0.5705 
0.5678 
0.5075 
0.5672 
0.5658 
0.5654 
0.5637 
0.5628 
0.5587 
0.5576 
0.5574 
0.5572 
0.5536 



0.5522 
0.5462 
0.5459 
05457 
5451 
0.5441 
0.5434 
0.5412 
5350 
0.5350 
0.5342 
0.5330 
0.5325 



156 



THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE WOODS [Specific Gravity. 



Species. 



Magnolia macropliylla . . . 
Piiius inops ....... 

Acer Peniisylvanicuin . . 
Planera aquatica . . . . . 

Rims copallina 

Acer dasycarpuni 

Pinus Jeffreyi 

Nyssa uniflora 

Rhus copallina, var. lanceolata 
Tsuga Mertensiana .... 
Wasliingtonia filit'era . . . 
Pseudotsuga Douglasii . . . 

Pinus rigida 

Torreya taxifolia 

Sambucus glauca 

Salix Sitclicnsis 

Xanthoxyluni Clava-Herculis 

Anona laurifolia 

Sassafras officinale .... 

Pinus Arizonica 

Magnolia glauca . . . . . 
Prunus Pennsylvanica . . . 

Magnolia Fraseri 

Alnus maritima 

^sculus Californica .... 

Salix flavGScens 

Pinus muricata 

Pinus pungens 

Salix longifolia 

Juniperus Virginiana . . . 
Populus Fremontii .... 
Acer macrophyllum .... 
Platanus racemosa .... 

Pinus Torreyana 

Pinus reflexa 

Salix lasvigata 

Pinus resinosa 

Cupressus Guadalupensis . . 

Pinus Sabiniana 

Negundo Californicum . . 

Alnus rubra 

Ilex Daboon 

Cbamaecyparis Nutkaensis . . 

Pinus Banksiana 

Torreya Californica .... 

Salix lasiandra 

Ficus pedunculata .... 
Platanus Wriglitii .... 
Gordonia Lasiantlius . . . 

Pinus ponderosa 

Abies magnifica 

Magnolia acuminata .... 
Cupressus Goveniana . . . 

Alnus serrulata 

Populus grandidentata . . . 



0.5309 
0.5309 
0.5299 
0.5294 
0.5273 
0.5260 
0.520G 
0.5194 
5184 
0.5182 
0.5173 
0.5157 
0.5151 
0.5145 
0.5087 
0.5072 
0.5050 
0.5053 
0.5042 
0.5088 
0.5035 
0.5023 
0.5003 
0.4996 
0.4980 
0.4969 
0.4042 
0.4935 
4930 
0.4926 
0.4914 
0.4909 
0.4880 
0.4879 
0.4877 
0.4872 
0.4854 
0.4843 
0.4840 
0.4821 
0.4813 
0.4806 
0.4782 
0.4761 
0.4760 
0.4756 
0.4739 
0.4736 
0.4728 
0.4715 
0.4701 
0.4690 
0.4689 
0.4666 
0.4632 



351 
352 
353 
354 
355 
35G 
357 
358 
359 

360 
36 1 
362 
303 
364 
365 
366 
367 
368 
369 
370 
371 
372 
373 
374 
375 
376 
377 
378 
379 
380 
381 
382 
383 
384 
385 
386 
387 
388 
389 
390 
391 
392 
393 
394 
395 
396 
397 
398 
399 
400 
401 
402 
403 
404 



Species. 



Populus Fremontii, var. Wislizenii 
Cbamaecyparis I.awsoniana . . 

Sambucus Mexicana 

Nyssa capitata 

Alnus incana 

Salix lasiandra, var. Fendleriana 

Picea nigra 

Pinus insignis 

Pseudotsuga Douglasii, var. ma- 

crocarpa 

Abies nobilis 

Salix lasiandra, var. lancifolia . 
Taxodium disticbum .... 

^sculus glabra 

Tilia Americana 

Salix amygdaloides 

Castanea vulgaris, var. Americana 
Prunus emarginata, var. mollis 
Magnolia Umbrella .... 
Catalpa bignonioides . . . 

Yucca elata 

Salix nigra 

Tsuga Pattoninna .... 

Sabal Palmetto 

Salix sessilifolia 

llbus venenata 

Pinus flexilis 

Rhus typhina 

Negundo aceroides .... 

Picea Sitcbensis 

Tsuga Caroliniana .... 

-3Csculus flava 

Salix discolor 

Tilia beteropbylla .... 
Tsuga Canadensis .... 
Liriodendron Tulipifera . . 

Abies amabilis 

Sequoia sempervirens . . . 

Catalpa speciosa 

Pinus albicaulis 

Populus balsam if era,var.candicans 

Magnolia cordata 

Simaruba glauca 

Pinus Coulteri 

Alnus rhombifolia .... 

Pinus Murrayana 

Populus heterophylla .... 

Juglans cinerea 

Tilia Americana, var. pubesceins 

Picea alba 

Populus tremuloides .... 
Libocedrus decurrens .... 

Alnus oblongifolia 

Asimina triloba 

Pinus glabra 



o 



0.4621 
0.4621 
04614 
0.4613 
0.4607 
0.4598 
04584 
0.4574 



0.4563 
0.4561 
0.4547 
0.4543 
0.4542 
0.4525 
0.4509 
0.4504 
0.4502 
0.4487 
0.4474 
0.4470 
0.4456 
0.4454 
0.4404 
0.4397 
0.4382 
0.4358 
0.4357 
0.4328 
0.4287 
0.4275 
0.4274 
0.4261 
0.4253 
0.4239 
0.4230 
0.4228 
0.4208 
0.4165 
0.4165 
0.4161 
0.4139 
0.4136 
0.4133 
0.4127 
0.4096 
0.4089 
0.4086 
0.4074 
0.4051 
0.4032 
0.4017 
0.3981 
0.3969 
0.3931 



Spec'tjic Gravity. '\ 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 



157 



^ 



405 
400 
407 
408 
409 
410 
411 
412 
413 
414 
415 
41(5 
417 



Species. 



Populus angustifolia 
Pinus monticola . . 
Populus monilifera , 
Pill us Strobus . . , 
Abies balsauiea . . 
Populus tricliocarpa . 
Thuya gigantea . , 
Picea pungens . . , 
Yucca brevi folia . . 
Pinus Lanibertiaua 
Abies concolor . . . 
Po[)ulus balsamifera. 
Abies Fraserl . . . 



0.3012 
0.3008 
0.3889 
0.^854 
3819 
0.3814 
0.8796 
3740 
0.3737 
0.3G84 
0.3G38 
0.3035 
0.3565 



418 
419 
420 
421 
422 
423 
424 
425 
426 
427 
428 
429 



Species. 



Abies grandis .... 
Fraxinus platycarpa . . 
Pinus tuberculata . . 
Abies subalpina . . . 
Picea Engelmanni . . 
Cliama?cyparis spliseroidea 
Cereus giganteus . . . 
Thuya occidentalis . . 
Bursera gunimilera . , 
Sequoia gigantea . . . 
Yucca baccata .... 
Ficus aurea 



c 
en 



0.3545 
0.3541 
0.3409 
0.3476 
0.3449 
3322 
0.3188 
0.3164 
0.3008 
0.2882 
0.2724 
0.2616 



158 



THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE WOODS 



[Fuel. 



TABLE III. 

T/ie Principal Trees of the United States arranged in the Order of the Relative 
Approximate Fuel Value of their Dry Woods. 



Species. 



Condalia ferrea 

Rhizopliora Mangle .... 
Guaiacuni sanctum .... 
Vauquelinia Torreyi . . . 

Condalia obovata 

Porliera angustifolia . . . . 

Eugenia longipes 

Cercocarpus led i foil us . . . 
Sebastiania lucida .... 

Mimusops Sieberi 

Amyris sylvatica 

lieynosia latifolia 

Olneya Tesota 

Genipa clusiaefolia . . . . 

Quercus grisea 

Conocarpus erecta .... 

Prunus iiicifolia 

Canella alba 

Sophora secundiflora . . . 
Sideroxylon Mastichodendron 
Coccoloba uvifera . . . . 
Quercus reticulata . . . . 
Hypelate paniculata . . . . 

Quercus virens 

Coccoloba Floridana . . . . 

Quercus Durandii 

Acacia Wrighlii 

Cercocarpus parvifolins . . 
Exostema Caribseum . . . 

Dipholis salicifolia 

Heteromeles arbuti folia . . 
Chrysophyllum oliviforme . . 

Eugenia buxifolia 

Eugenia procera 

Quercus oblongifolia. . . . 
Ximenia Americana . . . . 

Quercus Emory i 

Quercus rubra, var. Texana . 
Eugenia monticola . . . . 
Hypelate trifoliata . . . . 



li 



tf 3 



1.19:]8 
1.1406 
1.1338 
1.1209 
1.1155 
1.1044 
1.0844 
1.0619 
1.0602 
1.0555 
1.0397 
1.0372 
1.0359 
1.0207 
0.9908 
0.9868 
0.9727 
0.9720 
0.9686 
9589 
0.9503 
0.9430 
0.9414 
0.9393 
0.9340 
0.9338 
0.9333 
0.9323 
0.9289 
0.9286 
0.9276 
0.9244 
0.9220 
0.9205 
0.9195 
0.9129 
0.9044 
0.9003 
0.8983 
0.8976 



41 

42 

43 

44 

45 

46 

47 

48 

49 

50 

51 

62 

53 

54 

55 

56 

57 

58 

59 

60 

61 

62 

63 

64 

65 

66 

67 

68 

69 

70 

71 

72 

73 

74 

75 

76 

77 

78 

79 

80 



Species. 



Leucsena glauca 

Prunus sphserocarpa .... 

Eugenia dicliotoma 

Avicennia nitida 

Quercus Douglasii 

Pitliecolobium Unguis-cati . . 
Xanthoxylum Caribceum . . . 

Myginda pallens 

Calyptranthes Cliytraculia . . 
Citiiarexylum villosum .... 

Prunus Caroliniana 

Dry petes crocea 

Eysenhardtia orthocarpa . . . 

Crataegus coccinea 

Drypetes crocea, var. latifolia 

Quercus prinoides 

Acacia Greggii 

Sophora affinis 

Quercus chrysolepis 

Ardisia Pickeringia 

Piscidia Erythrina 

Quercus undulata, var. Gambellii 

Carya alba 

Quercus obtusiloba 

Ptelea trifoliata 

Viburnum prunifolium . . . . 

Pyrus rivularis 

Myrsine Rapanea 

Quercus lyrata 

Guettarda elliptica 

Ostrya Virginica 

Prunus umbellata 

Diospyros Texana 

Quercus agrifolia 

Carya porcina 

Carya tomentosa 

Corn us florida 

Robinia viscosa 

Osmnnthus Americanus . . . 
Colubrina reclinata 



II 

01 s 



0.8931 
8920 
0.8917 
0.8909 
0.8853 
0.8826 
0.8820 
0.8739 
0.8693 
0.8665 
0.8652 
8644 
8628 
0.8585 
0.8571 
0.8507 
0.8472 
0.8443 
0.8442 
0.8444 
0.8439 
0.8324 
0.8311 
0.8301 
0.8294 
0.8289 
0.8282 
0.8271 
0.8269 
0.8250 
0.8243 
0.8192 
0.8178 
0.8147 
0.8136 
0.8131 
0.8098 
0.8078 
0.8074 
0.8064 



Fuel.] 



OF THE UNIIT.D STATES. 



159 



Species. 



Carya sulcata . . . 
Sapindus inarginatiis 
Sapindua iSapuiiaria . 
Qiiercus Michauxii . 
Rohiiiia Neo-Mexicana 
Carya myristicajtbrmis 
Pinus serotina . . . 
Quercus liypoleuoa . 
Cratfegiis subvillosa . 
Prunus Capuli . . . 
Bourreria llavanensis 
Diospyros Virgiiiiana 
Fraxirius Greggii . . 
Bumelia cuneata . . 
Amelancliier Canadensis 
Quercus Wislizeni 
Crataegus flava . . . 
Rhus Me topi um . . 
Madura aurantiaca . 
Cratasgiis rivularis . 
Morns microphylla . 
Nectandra Wildenovian 
Crataegus tomentosa.var 
Ciirysobalanus Icaco 
Quercus bicolor . 
Crataegus flava, var. pub 
Quercus laurifolia 
Betula lenta . . . 
Fraxinus Americana, var 
Vaccinium arboreum 
Scbaefferia frutescens 
Crataegus tomentosa . 
Prosopis pubescens . 
Quercus imbricaria . 
Prosopis juliflora . . 
Pinus Cubensis . . 
Carya amara . . . 
Andromeda ferruginea 
Arbutus Texana . . 
Cercis renil'ormis , . 
Cornus Nuttallii . . 
Quercus Prinus . . 
Quercus alba . . . 
Quercus Pbellos . 
Oxydendrum arboreum 
Quercus Garry ana . 
Ulnuis alata . . . 
Bumelia lycioides . . 
Quercus macrocarpa 
Larix occiden talis . . 
Quercus cocci nea . . 
Quercus lobata . . 
Xanthoxylum Pterota 
Crataegus apiifolia 
Ilex decidua . . . 



esc 



nctata 



en 



Te 



xensis 



5 - 



0.8085 

8004 

8004 

0.8003 

0.7986 

V3dl 

0.7928 

0.7902 

0.7898 

0.786.J 

0.7848 

0.7882 

7830 

0.7808 

0.7795 

0.7775 

0.7748 

0.7728 

0.7683 

0.7676 

0.7663 

7647 

0.7645 

0.7642 

07618 

0.7613 

0.7610 

0.7597 

0.7583 

0.7580 

0.7548 

0.7546 

0.7537 

0.7497 

0.7485 

0.7484 

0.7474 

0.7465 

0.7462 

0.7455 

7444 

0.7441 

7439 

0.7435 

0.7430 

0.7424 

7417 

0.7407 

0.7-100 

0.7400 

0.7391 

0.7387 

0.7386 

0.7381 

0.7368 



36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
60 
61 

62 
63 
64 
65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 
71 
72 
73 
74 
75 
76 

77 
78 
79 
80 
81 
82 
83 
84 
85 
86 
87 



Species. 



Carya aquatica 

Kobinia I^seudacacia . . . . 
Gleditecliia ni()no>perma . 

Viburnum Lentago 

CratiBgus cordata 

Quercus nigra 

Bumelia tenax 

Quercus C^ate-sbaei 

Carpinus Caroliniana .... 

Ulmus racemosa 

Celtis occidentaiis 

Ilex Cassine 

Quercus aquatica 

Swietenia Maliogoni 

Prunus Americana 

Celtis occidentaiis, var reticulata 
Parkinsonia micropbylla . . . 

Ulmus crassifolia 

Crataegus Crus-galli 

Kalmia latifolia 

Fraxinus quadrangulata . . . 

Crataegus spatliulata 

Carya olivreformis 

Arbutus Xalapensis 

Fraxinus viridis 

Juniperus occidentaiis, var. mono- 

sperma 

Quercus tinctoria 

Arbutus Menziesii 

Fremontia Calitbrnica .... 
Laguncularia racemosa .... 

Pyrus coronaria 

Pitms palustris 

Thrinax argentea 

Crataegus Douglasii 

Prunus demissa 

Quercus falcata 

Ulmus fulva 

Gymnocladus Canadensis . . . 
Quercus palustris . ...... 

Acer saccliarinum 

Juniperus occidentaiis, var. con- 

jiigens 

Pyrus angustifolia 

Acer saccliarinum, var. nigrum . 

Prunus angustifolia 

Acer grandidentatum .... 

Fagus ferruginea 

Hamamelis Virginica .... 
Quercus lieteropliylla » . . . 

Cordia Sebestena 

Fraxinus pistaciasfolia .... 
Crataegus brachyacantha . . . 

Cyrilla racemi flora 

Quercus densiflora 






0.731.3 

0.7296 
0.7288 
0.7282 
0.7259 
0.7239 
0.72:^ 
0.7231 
0.7226 
0.7219 
0.7208 
0.7207 
7207 
0.7203 
0.7202 
0.7186 
0.7178 
0.7158 
0.7154 
0.7131 
0.7128 
0.7112 
0.7099 
0.7081 
0.7071 



0.7062 
0.7025 
0.7024 
0.7021 
0.7021 
0.7011 
6982 
0.6956 
0.0927 
0.6916 
0.6D11 
0.6898 
0.6888 
0.6882 
0.6875 



0.6875 
0.6872 
0.6866 
0.6865 
0.6858 
0.6848 
0.6831 
0.6822 
0.6808 
6768 
0.6764 
0.6756 
0.672^3 



160 



THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE WOODS 



[Fuel. 



Species. 



Jaoqninia annill.iris . 
GlcHlitsc'liiu tria(!antlios 
Myrica Calitoniica . 
C'orniis alternii'olia . 
Leucffiiia pulverulenta 
Abies bracteata . . 
Capparis Jamaicensis 
Acer circinatum . 
Euonynius atropurpureus 
Cordia Boissieri . , 
Fraximis anomala 
Re tula lutea . . 
Crata^jj^us aestivalis 
Querciis rubra . . , 
Bunielia spinosa . 
Canotia liolacantha 
Fraxinus Americana 
Umbellularia Californica 
Juglans rupestris . . 
Bunielia lanuginosa . 
Parkinsonia Torreyana 
Crataegus arborescens 
Ulmus Americana 
Pinus cembroides . . 
Quercus Kelloggii 
l^hus cotinoides . . 
Persea Carolinensis . 
Taxus brevifolia . . 
Persea Carolinensis, var. 
Eluetia elliptica . . 
Pinus edulis . ... 
Quercus cinerea . . 
Ciiionantlius Virginica 
Taxus Floridana . . 
Magnolia grandiflora 
Nyssa sylvatica . . 
Cercis Canadensis 
Forestiera acuminata 
Lysiloma latisiliqua , 
Rhododendron maximum 
Fraxinus sambucifolia 
Cladrastis tinctoria . 
Ungnadia speciosa . 
Yucca canaliculata . 
Fraxinus pubescens . 
Juniperus Californica 
Crescentia cucurbitina 
Cupressus macrQcarpa 
Cliftonia ligustrina . 
Larix Americana . . 
Acer rubrum . . . 
Ficus brevifolia . . 
Pinus mitis .... 
Juglans nigra . . . 
Salix cordata, var. vestita 



pal 



tris 



p^ a 



6708 

0.GG86 

GOBI 

O.GOGl) 

0.GGG4 

0.6G45 

0.6G39 

0.6634 

0.6554 

0.6550 

0.6541 

0.6533 

0.G527 

0.6523 

0.6521 

0.6518 

0.6516 

0.6492 

0.6488 

06464 

0.0458 

0.6155 

0.6454 

0.6453 

0.6418 

0.6393 

0.6380 

6377 

06372 

0.6355 

0.6348 

0.G342 

0.6340 

0.6327 

0.6326 

0.0323 

0.G317 

0.6209 

0.6282 

0.6280 

0.6273 

0.6260 

0.6258 

0.6258 

0.6235 

0.6235 

0.6234 

0.6225 

0.6223 

0.6215 

0.6155 

0.6119 

0.G086 

0.6067 

6033 



244 
245 

246 
247 

248 
249 
250 

251 
252 
253 
254 
255 
256 
257 
258 
259 
260 
261 
262 
263 
264 

265 
266 
267 
268 
269 
270 
271 
272 
273 
274 
275 
276 
277 
278 
279 
280 
281 
282 

283 
284 
285 
286 
287 
288 
289 
290 
291 
292 
293 
294 
295 



Species. 



Pisonia obtusata 

Betula occidentalis 

Acer glabrum 

Parkinsonia aculeata .... 
Rliamnus Californica . . . . 

Betula papyrifera 

Xantlioxylum Clava-Horculis, var 

fruticosuni 

Pyrus sambucifolia 

Oreodoxa regia 

Castanea pumila 

Cbilopsis saligna 

Liquidambar Styraciflua . . . 

Morus rubra 

Juniperus pacbyphloea .... 
Ilex Dalioon, var. myrtifolia. . 

Prunus serotina 

Pinus contorta 

Ilex opaca 

Juniperus occidentalis .... 

Thrinax parviflora 

Fraxinus viridis, var. Berlandie- 

riana 

Betula alba, var. populifolia . . 

Byrsonima lucida 

Betula nigra 

Fraxinus Oregana 

Ceanotbus tliyrsiflorus .... 

Halesia diptera 

Platanus occidentalis . . . . 

Pinus I'arryana 

Rliamnus Pursbiana 

Xantlioxylum Americanum . . 

Pinus monopbylla 

Myrica cerifera 

Halesia tetraptera 

Pinus clausa 

Pinus Balfouriana, var. aristala . 
Castanopsis chrysopliylla . . . 

Salix lasiolepis 

Juniperus Californica, var. Uta- 

beusis 

Hippomane Mancinella .... 
Acer rubrum, var. Drummondii . 

Pinus Cliibuabuana 

Pinus Taeda 

Rliamnus Caroliniana . . . . 

Pinus Balfouriana 

Pyrus Americana 

Salix flavescens. var. Scouleriana 

Salix Honkeriana 

Pinckneya pubens 

Da lea spinosa 

Acer spicatum 

Pinus inops 



I! 

w 



0.6031 
0.6012 
0.6010 
0.5974 
0.5965 
0.5940 



0.5922 
0.5908 
0.5901 
0.5880 
0.5880 
0.5873 
0.5856 
0.5823 
0.6820 
05813 
0.5804 
0.5774 
0.5758 
0.5752 



0.5749 
0.5748 
0.5743 
0.5742 
0.5712 
0.5710 
0.5681 
0.5652 
0.5644 
0.5634 
0.5622 
0.5620 
0.5608 
0.5605 
0.5559 
0.5555 
0.5554 
0.5532 



0.5495 
0.5474 
0.5440 
0.6436 
0.5427 
0.6427 
0.5412 
5406 
0.5391 
0.6333 
6328 
0.5312 
0.5307 
5293 



Fuel] 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 



1^1 



Species. 



Magnolia macrophylla . . . 
Symplocos tinctoria .... 
Salix longifolia, var. exigua . 
Acer Pennsylvauicum . . . 

Planera aquatioa 

Acer dasycarpum 

Rhus copallina 

Pinus Jeffrey! 

Tsuga Mertensiana .... 

Nyssa uniflora 

Pseudotsuga Douglasii . . . 
Riius copallina, var. lanceolata 

Pinus rigida 

Torreya taxifolia 

Washingtonia filifera . . . 

Salix Sitchensis 

Sassafras officinale .... 

Pinus Arizonica 

Xantlioxylum Clava-Herculis 

Magnolia glauca 

Sambucus glauca 

Prunus Pennsylvanica . . . 

Magnolia Fraseri 

Alnus maritinia 

iEsculus Californica .... 

Salix flavescens 

Pinus muricata 

Pinus pungens 

Juniperus Virginiana . . . 

Salix longifolia 

Acer macrophyllum .... 
Populus Fremontii .... 

Pinus reflexa 

Pinus Torreyana 

Salix laevigata 

Pinus resinosa 

Platanus racemosa .... 
Cupressus Guadalupensis . . 

Pinus Sabiniana 

Anona laurifolia 

Nc'gundo Californicum . . , 

Alnus rubra 

Chamaecyparis Nutkaensis 
Ilex Dalioon ...... 

Pinus Banksiana 

Salix lasiandra 

Pinus ponderosa 

Torreya Californica .... 
Gordonia Lasiantlius . . . 

Abies magnifica 

Magnolia acuminata .... 
Platanus Wrightii .... 
Cupressus Ooveniana . . . 

Alnus serrulata 

Chamaecyparis Lawsoniana . 






9> a 



ta a 



0..5290 

0.5289 

0.5285 

0.5280 

0.5270 

0.5252 

0.5241 

0.5192 

0.51G0 

0.5158 

0.5153 

0.5140 

0.5139 

0.5107 

0.5075 

0.5042 

0.5037 

0.5028 

0.5015 

0.5011 

0.5007 

0.5003 

0.4989 

0.4977 

0.4945 

0.4939 

0.4929 

0.4922 

0.4920 

0.4906 

0.4882 

0.4876 

0.4864 

0.4862 

0.4844 

0.4841 

0.4826 

0.4822 

0.4821 

0.4807 

0.4795 

0.4793 

0.4766 

0.4762 

0.4750 

0.4727 

0.4698 

0.4696 

0.4692 

0.4687 

0.4676 

0.4672 

0.4668 

0.4648 

0.4616 



^ 



351 
352 
353 
354 
355 
356 
357 
358 

359 

360 

361 

362 

363 

364 

365 

366 

367 

368 

369 

370 

371 

372 

373 

374 

375 

376 

377 

378 

379 

380 

381 

382 

383 

384 

385 

386 

387 

388 

389 

390 

391 

392 

393 

394 

395 

396 

397 

398 

399 

400 

401 

402 

403 

404 



Species. 



Populus grandidentata .... 

Nyssa capiiata 

Alnus incana 

Salix lasiandra, var. Fendleriana 

Picea nigra 

Populus Fremontii, var. Wislizeni 

Pinus insignis 

Pseudotsuga Douglasii, var. ma- 

crocarpa 

Abies nobilis 

Taxodium distichum .... 
Sambucus Mexicana .... 

Ficus pedunculata 

-^sculus glabra 

Tilia Americana 

Castanea vulgaris, var. Americana 
Prunus emarginata, var. mollis 
Magnolia Umbrella .... 
Salix amygdaloides .... 
Catalpa bignonioides . . . 

Tsuga Pattoniana 

Salix nigra 

Salix lasiandra, var. lancifolia 

Salix sessilifolia 

Rhus venenata 

Pinus flexilis 

Rhus typhina 

Negundo aceroides .... 

Picea Sitchensis 

Tsuga Caroliniana .... 

Salix discolor 

-/Esculus flava 

Tilia heterophylla .... 
Liriodendron Tulipifera . . 
Tsuga Canadensis .... 

Abies amabilis 

Sequoia sempervirens . . . 

Pinus albicaulis 

Catalpa speciosa 

Populus balsamifera,var.candicans 

Magnolia cordata 

Pinus Coulteri 

Alnus rhombifolia 

Simaruba glauca 

Pinus Murrayana 

Sabal Palmetto 

Juglans cinerea 

Populus heterophylla .... 

Yucca alata 

Tilia Americana, var. pubescens 

Picea alba 

Libocedrus decurrens .... 

Populus tremuloldes 

Alnus oblongifolia 

Asimina triloba 



gi 

I? 

O 3 

«2 



0.4611 
0.4597 
0.4588 
0.4572 
0.4572 
0.4509 
0.4560 



0.4559 

0.4545 

0.4524 

0.4522 

0.4506 

0.4503 

0.4500 

0.4496 

0.4493 

0.4478 

0.4468 

0.4457 

0.4434 

0.4425 

0.4411 

0.4375 

0.4354 

0.4346 

0.4335 

0.4282 

0.4280 

0.4258 

0.4243 

0.4231 

0.4227 

0.4220 

0.4220 

0.4218 

0.4202 

0.4154 

0.4149 

0.4142 

0.4126 

0.4118 

0.4104 

0.4098 

0.4083 

0.4067 

0.4065 

0.4056 

0.4055 

0.4048 

0.4038 

0.4014 

0.4010 

0.3964 

0.3961 



11 



162 



THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE WOODS 



[Fuel. 



405 
406 
407 
408 
409 
410 
411 
412 
413 
414 
415 
416 
417 



Species. 



Pinus glabra . . 
Pinus monticola . 
Populus angustifolia 
Populus monilifera 
Pinus Strobus . . , 
Abies balsamea 
Thuya gigantea . 
Populus trichocarpa 
Picea pungens . • 
Pinus Lambertiana 
Populus balsamifera 
Abies concolor . . 
Yucca brevifolia . 



(i a 



0.3913 

0.3899 
0.3881 
0.3852 
0.3847 
0.3802 
0.3790 
0.3766 
0.3726 
0.3676 
0.3611 
0.3607 
0.3588 



P3 



418 
419 
420 
421 
422 
423 
424 
425 
426 
427 
428 
429 
430 



Species. 



Abies Fraseri 

Abies grandis 

Fraxinus platycarpa . . . 
Pinus tuberculata . . . 
Abies subalpina . . . . 
Picea Engelmanni . . . 
Chamagcyparis sphaeroidea 
Thuya occidentalis . . . 
Cereus giganteus . . . . 
Bursera guramifera . . . 
Sequoia gigantea . . . . 

Ficus aurea 

Yucca baccata 






^ a 



0.3546 
0.3528 
0.3515 
0.3487 
0.3461 
0.3338 
0.3311 
0.3152 
0.3078 
0.2942 
0.2868 
0.2484 
0.2480 



Elasticity.'] 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 



163 



TABLE IV. 

The Principal Trees of the United States arranged in the Order of the Elasticity of 
their Woods (^Coefficient of Elasticity, — Kilogram, Centimetre). 



Species. 



Larix occidentalis 

Rhizophora Mangle 

Betula lutea 

Pinus contorta 

Pinus Cubensis 

Eugenia buxifolia 

Pinus palustris 

Carya myristicaeformis . . . 

Acer saccharinum 

Betula lenta 

Quercus falcata 

Carya alba 

Pinus mitis 

Tsuga Mertensiana 

Ostrya Virginica 

Dipliolis salicifolia 

Quercus lyrata 

Betula papyrifera 

Robinia Pseudacacia .... 
Pseudotsuga Douglasii .... 

Abies nobilis 

Salixflavescens, var.Scouleriana 

Larix Americana 

Abies amabilis 

Quercus laurifolia 

Citliarexylum villosum . . . 

Quercus Prinus 

Osnianthus Americanus . . . 

Quercus aquatica 

Quercus beterophylla .... 
Chamascyparis Lawsoniana . , 

Fagus ferruginea 

Quercus chrysolepis . . . . 
Amelanchier Canadensis . . . 
Exostema Caribaeum .... 

Quercus inibricaria 

Pinus muricata 

Eugenia procera 

Gleditschia monosperma . . . 

Pinus serotina 

Magnolia macrophylla . . . . 

Carya tomentosa 

Robinia Neo-Mexicana. . . . 
Carpinus Caroliniana . . . . 

Condalia ferrea 

Pinus Coulteri 



.2 
o « 



165810 
165567 
161723 
158588 
157747 
157510 
148733 
146484 
146108 
141398 
140151 
138839 
137495 
137483 
137276 
133593 
133438 
130557 
129238 
128297 
127660 
126216 
126126 
126013 
125916 
125717 
125473 
123133 
122657 
122494 
121772 
120996 
119810 
119677 
119357 
119357 
119357 
119111 
110991 
116957 
116854 
114995 
114889 
114881 
114316 
114108 



47 

48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
63 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
60 
61 
62 
63 
64 
65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 
71 
72 
73 

74 
75 

76 

77 
78 
79 

80 
81 
82 
83 
84 
85 
86 
87 
88 
89 
90 



Species. 



Castanea pumila 

Quercus virens 

Coccoloba Floridana . . . . 

Pinus resinosa 

Pinus Tasda 

Quercus rubra 

Quercus prinoides 

Chrysopbyllum oliviforme . . 

Quercus palustris 

Canella alba 

Populus trichocarpa . . . . 

Betula nigra 

Hypelate paniculata . . . . 

Acer dasycarpum 

Chrysobalanus Icaco . . . . 

Picea nigra 

Sideroxylon Mastichodendron . 

Ulrnus racemosa 

Juglans nigra 

Gleditschia triacanthos . . . 

Arayris sylvatica ...... 

Acacia Greggii 

Eugenia monticola 

Quercus coccinea 

Alnus incana 

Salix flavescens 

Fraxinus Americana, var. Tex- 
ensis 

Cupressus macrocarpa . . . . 

Umbellularia Californica . . . 

Swietenia Mahogoni . . . . 

Alnus rubra 

Populus Fremontii 

Pseudotsuga Douglasii, var. ma- 
crocarpa 

Rhus Metopium 

Reynosia latitblia 

Gymnocladus Canadensis . . 

Drypetes crocea 

Carya sulcata 

Quercus Catcsbaei 

Quercus tinctoria 

Thuya gigantea 

Quercus rubra, var. Texana . . 

Carya porcina 

Taxodiura distichura . . . . 



6 >« 

o u 
U3 



114108 
113627 
113538 
113216 
112847 
112798 
112461 
112424 
112296 
111698 
111694 
111322 
111144 
110973 
110973 
109987 
109948 
109628 
109200 
108579 
108507 
108507 
108507 
108507 
108507 
108507 

108174 
107327 
100766 
106272 
106046 
105116 

105007 
105007 
105005 
104822 
103890 
103884 
103468 
103427 
10B372 
103343 
103300 
103206 



1G4 



THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE WOODS [Elasticity. 



I 



91 
92 
93 
94 
95 
96 
97 
98 
99 
100 
101 
102 
103 
104 
105 
106 
107 
108 
109 
110 
111 
112 
113 
114 
115 
116 
117 
118 
119 
120 
121 
122 
123 
124 
125 
126 
127 
128 
129 
130 
131 
132 
133 
134 
135 
136 
137 
138 
139 
140 
141 
142 
143 
144 
145 
146 



Species. 



Cornus Nuttallii 

Carya aniara 

Clmnuiscjparis Nutkaensis . . 
Acer saccharinum, var. nigrum 

Conocarpus erecta 

Picea alba 

Fraxinus Americana . . . . 

Carya aquatica 

Castanopsis clirysophylla . . . 

Mimusops Sieberi 

Cladrastis tinctoria 

Bourreria Ilavanensis . . . . 

Populus monilifera 

Myrica Calif ornica 

Picea Sitcliensis 

Pinus insignis 

Sophora affinis 

Colubrina reclinata 

Quercus nigra 

Abies Fraseri 

Quercus alba 

Quercus Michauxii 

Quercus densiflora 

Populus grandidentata . . . . 

Abies grandis 

Quercus agrifolia 

UlmuG fulva 

Pinus monticola 

Negundo Californicum . . . . 

Magnolia Fraseri 

Quercus hypoleuca 

Madura aurantiaca 

Acer rubrum 

Pinus Banksiana 

Magnolia cordata 

Prunus Caroliniana 

Simaruba glauca 

Quercus macrocarpa . . . . 
Magnolia acuminata . . . . 

Pinus Jeffreyi 

Liriodendron Tulipifera . . . 

Betula occidentalis 

Magnolia glauca 

Pinus reflexa 

Rliamnus Purshiana . . . . 

Abies concolor 

Viburnum prunifolium . . . 

Quercus bicolor 

Magnolia grandiflora .... 

Fraxinus viridis 

Crataegus subvillosa 

Tsuga Canadensis 

Oxydendrum arboreum . . . 

jy[yrica cerifera 

Salix lasiolepis 

Pinus ponderosa 



» 



e >> 



u:c 



103081 
102986 
102881 
102720 
102411 
102280 
101668 
101201 
101195 
100226 
100226 
99649 
99417 
991G1 
99001 
97850 
97694 
97656 
97656 
97170 
97089 
96373 
96347 
96327 
95838 
95276 
95274 
95068 
94532 
94462 
94409 
94373 
94284 
94231 
94073 
93727 
93217 
92929 
92817 
92777 
92667 
92424 
91299 
91287 
91268 
90889 
90654 
90636 
90330 
90313 
90023 
89970 
88851 
88778 
88778 
88731 



rt 



147 
148 
149 
150 
151 
152 
153 
154 
155 
156 
157 
158 
159 
160 

161 
162 
163 
164 
165 
166 
167 
168 
169 
170 
171 
172 
173 
174 
175 
176 
177 
178 
179 
180 
181 
182 
183 
184 
185 
186 
187 
188 
189 
190 
191 
192 
193 
194 
195 
106 
197 
198 
199 
200 
201 



Salix lasiandra, var. lancifolia . 
Fraxinus sambucifolia .... 

Olneya Tesota 

Celtis occidentalis, var. reticulata 
Xanthoxylum Caribaeum . . . 
Platanus occidentalis .... 
Liquidambar Styraciflua . . . 

Guaiacum sanctum 

Prunus emarginata, var. mollis . 

Quercus Wislizeni 

Prunus scroti na 

Quercus oblongifolia .... 
Populus balsamifera .... 
Castanea vulgaris, var. Ameri- 
cana 

Pinus Strobus 

Piscidia Erythrina 

Persea Carolinensis, var. palustris 
Fraxinus Oregana .... 
Libocedrus decurrens . . . 
Tilia heterophylla .... 
Alnus rhombifolia .... 
Populus Fremontii, var. Wislizeni 

Tilia Americana 

Persea Carolinensis 

Arbutus Menziesii 

Quercus Durandii 

Sapindus marginatus .... 
Drypetes crocea, var. latifolia . 

Quercus obtusiloba 

Torreya taxifolia 

Prunus Americana 

Prosopis pubescens 

Morus rubra 

Pinus Arizonica 

Catalpa speciosa 

Cornus florida 

Abies balsamea 

Nyssa sylvatica 

Populus treniuloides .... 
Andromeda ferruginea .... 

Juglans cinerea 

Fraxinus pubescens 

Tilia Americana, var. pubescens 

Quercus Garryana 

Picea Engelmanni 

Pinus pungens 

Gordonia Lasianthus .... 

Pinus Lambertiana 

Crataegus arborcscens .... 

Quercus Phellos 

Cliftonia ligustrina 

Diospyros Virginiana . . . . 

Bumelia lycioides 

Acer macropliyllum 

Tsuga Pattoniana 






87935 
87185 
86822 
86805 
86755 
86402 
86388 
86324 
86055 
86055 
85833 
85739 
85690 

85621 
85093 
85079 
84918 
84818 
84729 
84659 
84580 
84317 
84010 
83900 
83834 
83766 
83681 
83619 
83257 
82833 
82659 
82424 
82877 
82370 
82156 
82112 
81924 
81832 
81441 
81380 
81253 
81i^22 
81111 
81109 
80791 
80330 
79414 
79375 
78837 
78440 
78250 
78234 
78125 
78032 
77524 



Elasticity.'] 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 



165 



Speciea 



Fraxinus quadrangulata . . . 

Quercus Douglasii 

Pinus Murrayana 

Alnus oblongifolia 

Tninus demissa 

Abies subalpina 

Taxus brevifolia 

Bumelia tenax 

Quercus cinerea 

Ulmus Americana 

Quercus Kelloggii 

Magnolia Umbrella 

Rhamnus Caroliniana . . . . 

Quercus grisea 

Rhus copallina 

Juniperus occidentalis, var. con- 

jugens. 

Prunus ilicifolia 

Crataegus tomentosa .... 
Populus balsamifera, var. can- 

dicans 

Betula alba, var. populifolia. . 

Juglans rupestris 

Xantlioxylum Clava-Herculis . 

Pinus Chiiiuahuana 

Laguncularia racemosa . . . 
Populus heterophylla .... 

Acer circinatura 

Quercus lobata 

Pinus Balfouriana, var. aristata 

Tsuga Caroliniana 

Crataegus flava, var. pubescens . 

Ulmus crassifolia 

Forestiera acuminata .... 

Cercis Canadensis 

Celtis occidentalis 

Hales ia diptera 

Pinckneya pubens 

-^sculus Californica .... 
Catalpa bignonioides .... 

Nyssa capitata 

Sequoia sempervirens .... 

Pinus flexilis 

Crataegus spathulata .... 
Juniperus Virginiana .... 

Gary a olivseformis 

Crataegus Crus-galli 

Abies magnifica 

Rhododendron maximum . . . 

iEsculus glabra 

Ilex opaca 

Pyrus coronaria 

Ilex Dahoon 

Quercus Emoryi 

Pyrus sambucifolia 

Platanus racemosa 



S-3 



77439 
77166 
77113 
76937 
76895 
76199 
76133 
75120 
75120 
74742 
74488 
74365 
74084 
73982 
73647 

73426 
73201 
73160 



73024 
72970 
72632 
72577 
72575 
72396 
72338 
71810 
71664 
71482 
'71282 
70765 
70399 
70282 
68798 
68527 
68.321 
68291 
68216 
68161 
68083 
67646 
67531 
67349 
66992 
66646 
66436 
6()220 
64578 
64438 
64317 
64241 
64192 
63828 
62600 
62401 



256 
257 
258 
259 
260 
261 
2B2 
263 
264 
265 
266 
267 
268 
269 
270 
271 
272 
273 
274 
275 
276 
277 
278 
279 
280 
281 
282 
283 
284 
285 
286 
287 
288 
289 
290 
291 
292 
293 
294 
295 
296 
297 
298 
299 
300 
301 
302 
303 
304 
305 
306 
307 
308 
309 
310 



Species. 



Symplocos tinctoria . 

Arbutus Xalapensis . 

Juniperus pachypliloea 

Prunus anguslitblia . 

Bumelia cuneata . . 

Fraxinus pistaciaefolia 

Pinus Balfouriana . 

Crataegus aestivalis . 

Pinus Sabiniana . . 

Kalmia latifolia . . 

Prosopis juliflora . . 

Negundo aceroides . 

Pinus rigida . . . 

Quercus undulata, var. Gambellii 

Washingtonia filifera 

Parkinsonia Torreyana 

Picea pungens . . 

Planera aquatica . 

Chilopsis saligna . 

Pinus clausa . . 

Pinus inops . . . 

Pinus Torreyana . 

Thuya occidentalis 

Byrsonima lucida 

Ulmus alata . . 

Sassafras ofBchiale 

Nyssa uniflora . . 

Salix amygdaloides 

Anona laurifolia . 

Cupressus Goveniana 

Cyrilla racemifolia 

Salix laevigata 

Bumelia lanuginosa 

Asimina triloba . 

Fraxinus platycarpa 

Pisonia obtusata . 

Lysiloma latisiliqua 

Populus angustifolia 

Platanus Wrightii 

Sequoia gigantea . 

Pinus glabra . . 

Pinus monophylla 

Pinus tuberculata 

Pinus edulis ". . 

Bursera gummifera 

Ficus pedunculata 

Chamaecyparis sphaeroidea 

Torreya Californica 

Ehretia elliptica . 

Salix nigra . 

Pinus albicaulis . 

Pinus Parryana . 

Sambucus glauca 

Salix lasiandra, var. Fendleriana 

Ficus aurea . . 



o o 



62202 
61577 
61275 
00281 
60281 
60119 
59386 
59185 
58517 
58484 
68297 
58156 
58127 
57162 
56346 
55839 
55360 
55167 
54421 
54295 
54295 
54213 
53311 
52503 
52323 
51910 
51678 
50144 
50113 
49941 
48828 
48828 
48334 
48179 
47637 
45503 
46064 
45847 
45644 
45146 
44750 
43488 
42870 
42094 
41694 
40GiK) 
40410 
40146 
.3<)697 
39062 
38147 
37783 
30517 
30517 
25699 



166 



THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE WOODS [Strength. 



TABLE V. 

TTie Principal Trees of the United States arranged in the Order of the Strength of 
their Woods {Modulus of Rupture, — Kilogram, Centimetre). 



Species. 



Carya myristicaeformis .... 

Amyris sylvatioa 

Robinia Pseudacacia 

Quercus chrysolepis 

Betula Intea 

Quercus prinoides 

Larix occidentalis 

Quercus imbricaria 

Colubrina reclinata . , . . . 

Betula lenta 

Khizophora Mangle 

Carya alba . 

Quercus falcata 

Hypelate paniculata 

Quercus laurifolia 

Eugenia procera 

Eugenia monticola 

Pinus Cubensis 

Pinus serotina 

Pinus palustris 

Acer saccharinum 

Carpinus Caroliniana 

Dipholis salicifolia 

Fagus ferruginea 

Ostrj'a Virginica 

Amelanchier Canadensis . . . 

Madura aurantiaca 

Carya tomentosa 

Fraxinus Americana, var. Texensis 

Quercus Michauxii 

Quercus hypoleuca 

Carya amara 

Quercus palustris 

Carya sulcata 

Taxus brevifolia 

Quercus heterophylla 

Ulmus racemosa 

Betula papyrifera 

Eugenia buxifolia 

Quercus cocci nea 

Quercus aquatica 

Osmantlius Americanus .... 

Quercus Catesbsei 

Carya porcina 






1394 

1305 

1273 

1268 

1248 

1238 

1227 

1218 

1216 

1216 

1207 

1200 

1193 

1190 

1181 

1176 

1172 

1172 

1164 

1152 

1149 

1149 

1148 

1148 

1134 

1132 

1131 

1129 

1125 

1118 

1113 

1101 

1090 

1083 

1078 

1073 

1066 

1065 

1055 

1054 

1052 

1051 

1046 

1046 



45 

46 

47 

48 

49 

50 

51 

52 

53 

54 

55 

56 

57 

5H 

59 

60 

61 

62 

63 

64 

65 

66 

67 

68 

69 

70 

71 

72 

73 

74 

75 

76 

77 

78 

79 

80 

81 

82 

83 

84 

85 

86 

87 



Species. 



Cupressus macrocarpa . . . 

Quercus nigra 

Quercus tinctoria 

Pinus mitis 

Myrica Californica 

Quercus Prinus 

Pinus inuricata 

Gleditschia monosperma . . . 

Canella alba 

Quercus lyrata 

Quercus rubra, var. Texana 

Acer dasycarpum 

Quercus virens 

Exostema Caribseuni .... 
Swietenia Mahogoni .... 

Quercus Douglasii 

Quercus Durandii 

Quercus cinerea 

Pinus contorta 

Cornus Nuttallii 

Castanea pumila 

Quercus rubra 

Quercus Phellos 

Quercus macrocarpa .... 

Betula nigra 

Sideroxylon Mastichodendron . 
Acer saccharinum, var. nigrum 
Chrysobalanus Icaco . . . . , 
Viburnum prunifolium . . . , 

Quercus densiflora 

Bourreria Havanensis 

Conocarpus erecta 

Citliarexylum villosum . . . , 

Quercus grisea 

Quercus agrifolia 

Prunus Caroliniana 

Gleditschia triacanthos . . . . 

Mimusops Sieberi 

Coccoloba Floridana 

Robinia Neo-Mexicana . . . . 

Quercus bicolor 

Salix flavescens, var. Scouleriana 

Tsuga Mertensiana 

Arbutus Menziesii 



Strength.'] 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 



167 



Specie& 



ma- 



Quercus alba 

Condalia ferrea 

Cornus florida 

Cladrastis tinctoria .... 
Persea Carolinensis . . . 
Larix Americana .... 

Fraxiiuis viridis 

Prosopis pubescens . . 
Chamaecyparis Lawsoniana . 
Torreya taxifolia .... 

Carya aquatica 

Pin us Taeda 

Pseudotsuga Douglasii . . 
Diospyros Virginiana . . . 
Quercus Garryana .... 
Quercus obtusiloba . . . 
Fraxinus pubescens . . . 

Ulmus fulva 

Prunus Americana .... 

Quercus lobata 

Abies nobilis 

Fraxinus Americana . . . 
Chrysopliyllum oliviforme . 

Plalesia diptera 

Juglans nigra 

Ulmus Americana .... 
Pseudotsuga Douglasii, var. 

crocarpa 

Sapindus marginatus 

Pinus Chihualiuana 

Nyssa sylvatica 

Prunus serotina 

Reynosia latifolia 

Persea Carolinensis, var. palustris 

Alnus incana 

Quercus Wislizeni 

Myrica cerifera 

Salix lasiolepis 

Acer rubrum 

Sophora afRnis 

Fraxinus quadrangulata .... 

Alnus rubra 

Salix flavescens 

Fraxinus sambucifolia 

Umbellularia Californica . . . 

Betula occidentalis 

Celtis occidentalis, var. reticulata 
Chamaecyparis Nutkaensis . . . 

Pinus resinosa 

Negundo Californicum . . . . 

Drypetes crocea 

Magnolia grandiflora 

Acacia Greggii 

Abies amabilis 

Celtis occidentalis 

Guaiacum sanctum 



905 
904 
904 
902 
902 
901 
895 
894 
888 
887 
884 
883 
881 
879 
879 
872 
869 
869 
864 
864 
862 
861 
857 
857 
856 
852 

846 
843 
832 
830 
829 
820 
820 
820 
818 
815 
813 
811 
811 
811 
811 
808 
806 
806 
806 
805 
801 
800 
796 
796 
792 
792 
792 
789 
787 



^ 



144 
145 
146 
147 
148 
149 
150 
151 
152 
153 
154 
155 
156 
157 
158 
159 
160 
161 
162 
163 
164 
165 
166 
167 
168 
169 
170 
171 
172 
173 
174 
175 
176 
177 
178 
179 
180 
181 
182 
183 
184 
185 
186 
187 
188 
189 
190 
191 
192 
193 
194 
195 
196 
197 
198 
199 



3 



Species. 



Prunus ilicifolia 

Pinus Sabiniana 

Betula alba, var. populifolia . . 

Morus rubra 

Ulmus crassifolia 

Gymnocladus Canadensis . . . 

Populus monilifera 

Pinus reflexa 

Quercus Kelloggii 

Acer circinatum 

Juniperus pacliyphloea .... 

Pinus Coulteri 

Pinus Torreyana 

Xanthoxylum Caribaeum . . . 

Piscidia Erytlirina 

Rhamnus Purshiana 

Olneya Tesota 

Thuya gigantea 

Picea nigra 

Picea alba 

Pinus Jeffreyi 

Castanopsis chrysophylla . . . 

Juniperus Virginiana 

Pinus insignis 

Pinus rigida 

Crataegus subvillosa 

Magnolia glauca 

Tsuga Canadensis 

Oxydendrum arboreum .... 

Cercis Canadensis 

Pinus pungens 

Crataegus flava, var. pubescens 

Ulmus alata 

Ehretia elliptica 

Populus grandidentata .... 

Pinus ponderosa 

Quercus oblongifolia 

Tsuga Pattoniana 

Forestiera acuminata 

Crataegus aestivalis 

Crataegus tomentosa 

Magnolia Fraseri 

Drypetes crocea, var. latifolia . . 

Abies concolor . 

Quercus Emory i 

Abies magnifica 

Populus Fremontii 

Magnolia macropliylla .... 

Castanea vulgaris, var. Americana 
Prunus demissa ........ 

Populus Fremontii, var. Wislizeni 

Ilex opaca 

Alnus oblongifolia 

Acer macrophyllum 

Nyssa capitata 

Alnus rhombifolia 



782 
779 
778 
775 
773 
771 
770 
770 
768 
766 
761 
761 
756 
754 
752 
750 
750 
749 
747 
747 
744 
741 
740 
740 
739 
738 
736 
736 
728 
726 
726 
724 
724 
721 
721 
720 
719 
719 
717 
712 
709 
707 
707 
703 
703 
701 
698 
696 
696 
691 
691 
686 
686 
684 
682 
682 



168 



THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE WOODS 



[Strength. 



o 
I 



200 
201 
202 
203 
204 
205 
206 
207 
208 
209 
210 
211 
212 
213 
214 
215 
216 
217 
218 
219 
220 
221 
222 
228 
224 
225 
226 
227 
228 
229 
230 
231 
282 
233 
234 
235 
236 
237 
238 
239 
240 
241 
242 
243 
244 
245 
216 
247 
248 
249 
250 
251 
252 
253 
254 
255 



Species. 



Liboeedrus decurrens 

Taxodiiun distichum 

Quercus undulata, var. Gambellii . 
Prunus eniarginata, var. mollis . 
Andromeda ferruginea .... 

Populus tremuloides 

Salix lasiandra, var. lancifolia . • 

Bumelia tenax 

Magnolia acuminata 

Gordonia Lasianthus 

Fraxinus Oregana 

Populus trichocarpa 

Rhus copallina 

Rhododendron maximum . . . 

Pinus inops 

Liriodendron Tulipifera .... 

Rhus Metopium 

Nyssa uniflora 

Crataegus Crus-galli 

Pinus Balfouriana, var. aristata . 

Pinus Arizonica . 

Pinus Banksiana 

Liquidambar Styraciflua .... 

Picea Sitchensis 

Salix laevigata 

Populus heterophylla 

Xanthoxylum Clava-Herculis . . 

Kalmia latifolia 

Abies Fraseri 

JEsculus Californica 

Catalpa speciosa 

Platan us occidentalis 

Pinus Strobus 

Pinus flexilis 

Fraxinus pistaciaefolia .... 

Crataegus arborescens 

Planera aquatica 

Symplocos tinctoria 

Arbutus Xalapensis 

Pinus monticola 

Populus balsamifera, var. candicans 

Anona laurifolia 

Sassafras officinale 

Magnolia cordata 

Juglans rupestris 

Juglans cinerea 

Sequoia sempervirens 

Pinus Lambertiana 

Catalpa bignonioides 

Tilia Americana 

Magnolia Umbrella 

Torreya Californica 

Pinus albicaulis 

Chilopsis saligna • 

Carya olivaeformis 

Tilia heterophylla 



682 
682 
680 
679 
679 
677 
675 
673 
671 
670 
665 
665 
668 
663 
658 
657 
656 
655 
653 
653 
653 
652 
651 
649 
644 
642 
640 
689 
639 
635 
635 
635 
626 
624 
622 
621 
621 
619 
618 
609 
609 
607 
602 
600 
600 
597 
597 
597 
590 
589 
583 
583 
581 
578 
578 
577 



M 



256 

257 
258 
259 
260 
261 
262 
263 
264 
265 
266 
267 
268 
269 
270 
271 
272 
273 
274 
275 
276 
277 
278 
279 
280 
281 
282 
283 
284 
285 
286 

287 
288 
289 
290 
291 
292 
293 
294 
295 
296 
297 
298 
299 
300 
301 
302 
303 
304 
305 
306 
307 
308 
309 
310 



Species. 



Picea Engelmanni 

Ilex Dahoon 

Rhamnus Caroliniana 

Simaruba glauca 

Pinus Murrayana 

Bumelia lycioides 

Platanus racemosa 

Tilia Americana, var. pubescens . 

Lysiloma latisiliqua 

Salix amygdaloides 

Populus balsamifera 

Parkinsonia Torreyana . . . . 

Cupressus Goveniana 

Fraxinus platycarpa 

Negundo aceroides 

Cliftonia ligustrina 

Laguncularia racemosa . . . . 

Bumelia cuneata 

Abies balsamea 

Thuya occidentalis 

Crataegus spathulata 

Pinus clausa 

Pinus glabra 

iEsculus glabra 

Abies grandis 

Prosopis juliflora 

Pyrus coronaria 

Abies subalpina 

Salix lasiandra, var. Fendleriana . 

Prunus angustifolia 

Juniperus occidentalis, var. con- 

jugens 

Tsuga Caroliniana 

Sequoia gigantea 

Chamaecyparis sphaeroidea . . . 

Picea pungens 

Pinus edulis 

Pyrus sambucifolia 

Washingtonia filifera . . . . . 

Platanus Wrightii 

Pinus Parryana 

Byrsonima lucida 

Salix nigra 

Pinus Balfouriana 

Pinus tubercnlata 

Pinckneya pubens 

Populus angustifolia 

Asimina triloba 

Bumelia lanuginosa 

Sambucus glauca 

Cyrilla racemiflora 

Pisonia obtusata 

Pinus monophylla 

Ficus aurea 

Ficus pedunculata 

Bursera gummifera 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 



169 



TABLE VI. 

Tlie Principal Trees of the United States arranged in the Order of the Power of 
their Woods to resist Longitudinal Compression. 



Species. 



rt 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

in 

20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
81 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 



Eugenia buxifolia 

Rhizophora Mangle . . . . 

Keynosia latifolia 

Macliira aurantiaca . . . . 

Condalia ferrea 

Canella alba 

'Coccoloba Floridana . . . . 
Exostema Caribseum. . . . 

Amyris sylvatica 

Acacia Greggii 

Guaiacum sanctum . . . . 
Dipholis salicifolia . . . . 
Robinia Pseutlacacia. . . . 
Citliarexylum villosura . . . 

Larix occidentalis 

Xantiioxylum Caribreum . . 
Robinia Neo-Mexicana . . . 

Eugenia procera 

Prosopis pubescens . . . . 
Anielancbier Canadensis . 
Hypelate paniculata . . . . 
Swietenia Mahogoni . . . . 
Pinus Cubensis .'.... 

Cornus Nuttallii 

Cercocarpus led i foil us . . . 
Sideroxylon Mastichodendron 

Drypetes crocea 

Carya myristica3formis . . . 

Pinus palustris 

Carya alba 

Rliamnus Purshiana . . . . 

Acer saccliarinura 

Betula lutea 

Betula lenta ....... 

Conocarpus erecta . . . . 

Clirysopbyllum oliviforme . . 
Piscidia Erytbrina . . . . 

Quercus falcata 



■a 
I 

bO 

a 
1 

2 


1 

3 


887 


39 


860 


40 


839 


41 


809 


i 42 


803 


i43 


782 


44 


771 


45 


751 


46 


748 


i 47 


743 


1 48 


737 


49 


730 


50 


694 


51 


689 


52 


689 


53 


685 


54 


683 


55 


672 


56 


671 


67 


670 


58 


666 


69 


666 


60 


664 


61 


663 


62 


655 


63 


650 


64 


650 


65 


638 


m 


629 


67 


625 


68 


621 


69 


619 


70 


610 1 


71 


610 


72 


590 


73 


598 


74 


597 


75 


596 


76 



Species. 



Carya tomentosa 

Viburnum prunifolium 

Ulmus racemosa 

Prosopis juliflora 

Prunus Americana 

Gleditschia monosperma . . . . 

Juglans nigra 

Quercus rubra, var. Texana . . . 

Carya porcina 

Bourreria Havanensis 

Quercus prinoides 

Persea Carolinensis 

Sophora aflSnis 

Umbellularia Californica . . . . 

Prunus Caroliniana 

Carya sulcata 

Quercus Douglasii 

Viburnum Lentago 

Pinus contorta *. . 

Eugenia monticola 

Quercus imbricaria 

Acer saccliarinum, var. nigrum . . 

Prunus serotina 

Osmantlius Americanus . . . . 

Quercus virens 

Tsuga Mertensiana 

Quercus cbrysolepis 

Prunus ilicifolia 

Ostrya Virginica 

Fraxinus Americana, var. Texensis 

Ulmus fulva . . 

Prunus Capuli 

Crataggus subvillosa 

Quercus Prinus 

Larix Americana 

Cladrastis tinctoria 

Cornus florida 

Quercus Durandii 



593 

692 

692 

688 

688 

584 

683 

582 

677 

675 

575 

673 

670 

668 

662 

559 

557 

665 

554 

553 

652 

550 

547 

647 

647 

547 

545 

544 

542 

541 

539 

538 

638 

638 

536 

534 

634 

634 



170 



THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE WOODS 



Species. 



Rhus Metopium 

Quercus Wislizenii 

Myrica Californica 

Juiiiperus occidentalis.var.conjugens 
Cratasgus flava, var. pubescens . . 

Quercus laurifolia 

Carya amara 

Fraxinus Oregana 

Drypetes crocea, vaT*. latifolia . 
Pseudotsuga Douglasii .... 

Quercus alba 

Quercus rubra 

Prunus demissa 

Pinus muricata 

Quercus Garryana 

Pinus serotina . 

Quercus coccinea 

Diospyros Virginiana ..... 

Arbutus Menziesii 

Oxydendrum arboreum .... 
Quercus tinctoria ...... 

Quercus aquatica 

Gleditschia triacanthos .... 
Fraxinus quadrangulata . . . 

Prunus umbellata 

Crataegus arborescens .... 
Carpinus Caroliniana .... 

Quercus nigra 

Castanea pumila 

Quercus lyrata 

Quercus macrocarpa 

Quercus palustris 

Quercus bicolor 

Magnolia macrophylla .... 

Bumelia lycioides 

Pinus reflexa 

Andromeda ferruginea . . . • 
Quercus obtusiloba . . . . 

Betula papyrifera 

Carya aquatica 

Taxus brevifolia 

Magnolia grandiflora .... 

Acer dasycarpum 

Fraxinus viridis 

Quercus Michauxii 

Lysiloma latisiliqua 

Rhus copallina, var. Isnceolata . 

Quercus grisea 

Bumelia cuneata 

Fagus ferruginea 

Pinus mitis 

Quercus densiflora 

Sapindus marginatus .... 

Cercis Canadensis 

Nyssa sylvatica 



533 

533 
532 
532 
527 
526 
522 
520 
520 
519 
511 
511 
510 
509 
505 
505 
504 
503 
502 
501 
501 
501 
500 
499 
498 
498 
498 
407 
495 
492 
491 
491 
490 
489 
489 
489 
487 
487 
487 
486 
483 
482 
482 
482 
482 
481 
479 
479 
478 
478 
477 
475 
470 
469 
468 



32 

33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 

40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
60 
61 
62 
63 
64 
65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 
71 
72 
73 
74 
75 
76 
77 
78 
79 
80 
81 
82 
83 
84 
85 



Salix flavescens, var. Scouleriana . 

Abies amabilis 

Liquidambar Styraciflua . . . . 
Chamaecyparis Lawsoniana . . . 

Acer rubrum 

Fraxinus Americana 

Quercus agrifolia 

Pseudotsuga Douglasii, var. macro- 
carpa 

Prunus emarginata, var. mollis 

Mimusops Sieberi 

Torreya taxifolia 

Acer circinatum 

Quercus Catesbaii 

Cratsegus spathuiata 

Charagecyparis Nutkaensis . . . . 

Pinus resinosa 

Ulmus crassifolia 

Abies nobilis 

Bumelia tenax 

Platanus occidentalis 

Thuya gigantea 

Xanthoxylum Clava-Herculis . . 

Laguncularia racemosa 

Ulmus alata 

Quercus Kelloggii 

Quercus cinerea 

Ulmus Americana 

Cratasgus tomentosa 

Crataegus aestivalis 

Myrica cerifera 

Rhamnus Caroliniana 

Negundo Californicum 

Hj'pelate trifoliata 

Rhododendron maximum . . . . 

Betula nigra 

Juglans rupestris 

Celtis occidentalis, var. reticulata . 

Fraxinus pubescens 

Castanopsis chrysoph3'lla . . . . 

Abies magnifica 

Halesia diptera 

Carya olivaeformis 

Quercus oblongifolia 

^(yssa capitata 

Crataegus Crus-galli 

Kalmia latifolia 

Salix Hookeriana 

Pinus Taeda . ., 

Simaruba glauca 

Magnolia glauca 

Quercus lobata • 

Fraxinus sambucifolia 

Taxodium disticlmm 

Quercus Emoryi 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 



171 



Species. 



Celtis occidentalis 

Morus rubra 

Ilex opaca 

Pyrus coronaria 

Magnolia Fraseri 

Parkiiisonia Torreyana 

Quercus undulata, var. Gambellii . 

Pinus Jeffrey! 

Piniis insignis 

Juniperus Virginiana 

Sequoia sempervirens 

Magnolia acuminata 

Alnus rubra 

Quercus lieterophylla 

Magnolia cordata 

Salix flavescens 

Prunus Pennsylvanica 

Catalpa speciosa 

Picea nigra 

Tilia Americana, var. pubescens 

Libocedrus decurrens 

Tsuga Caroliniana 

Prunus angustifolia 

Arbutus Xalapensis 

Forestiera acuminata 

Gymnocladus Canadensis . . . . 
Vaccinium arboreum .... 

Pinus Banksiana 

Tilia lieterophylla 

Ungnadia speciosa . . . . . 

Planera aquatica 

Juglans cinerea 

Byrsonima lucida 

Betula occidentalis 

Abies grand is 

Quercus Phellos 

Populus tricliocarpa 

Abies concolor 

Sequoia gigantea 

Gordonia Lasianthus 

Eliretia elliptica 

Fraxinus pistaciajfolia .... 

Salix lasiolepis 

Symplocos tinctoria 

Tsuga Canadensis 

Pyrus sambucifolia 

Sassafras officinale 

Acer macrophyilum 

Castanea vulgaris, var. Americana 

Pinus Arizonica 

Pinus ponderosa 

Pyrus Americana 

Tsuga Pattoniana 

Populus Fremontii 

Rhus copallina 



421 
420 
419 
419 

418 

417 

417 

417 

417 

416 

416 

415 

415 

412 

410 

408 

407 

407 

407 

405 

403 

403 

402 

401 

401 

400 

399 

396 

394 

394 

394 

392 

391 

391 

391 

390 

390 

390 

388 

387 

387 

385 

385 

384 

384 

383 

382 

381 

381 

381 

381 

380 

379 

378 

377 



241 
242 
243 
244 

245 
246 
247 

248 
249 
250 
251 
252 
253 
254 
255 
256 
257 
258 
259 
260 
261 
262 
263 
264 
265 
266 
267 
268 
269 
270 
271 
272 
273 
274 
275 
276 
277 
278 
279 
280 
2Sl 
282 
283 
284 
285 
286 
287 
288 
289 
290 
291 
292 
293 
294 
295 



Species. 



Pinus clausa 

Liriodendron Tulipifera . . . 
Populus Fremontii, var. Wislizeni 

Cliftonia ligustrina 

Persea Carolinensis, var. palustris 

Pinus Coulteri 

Magnolia Umbrella 

Olneya Tesota 

Nyssa uniflora 

Abies balsamea 

Catalpa bignonioides 

Bumelia lanuginosa 

Pinus inops 

Cupressus Goveniana .... 
Populus grandidentata .... 

Alnus rhombifolia 

iEsculus Californica 

Pinus rigida 

Pinus pungens 

Populus monilifera 

Picea Sitchensis 

Torreya Californica 

Ilex Dahoon 

Pinus flexilis 

Pinus edulis 

Tilia Americana 

Betula alba, var. populifolia . . 

Abies Fraseri 

Picea alba 

Salix lasiandra, var. lancifolia . 

Pinus Strobus 

Pinus Parryana 

Pinus Balfouriana 

Pinus Chihuahuana 

Pinus Sabiniana 

Pinus Lambertiana 

Pinus monticola 

Pinus Murrayana 

Pinus albicaulis 

Populus tremuloides 

Platanus Wrightii 

Pinus Balfouriana, var. aristata . 

Platanus racemosa 

Negundo aceroides 

Poi)ulus balsamifera 

Salix laevigata 

-^sculus glabra 

Pisonia obtusata 

Thuya occidentalis 

Anona laurifolia 

Abies subalpina 

Chilopsis saligna 

Quercus hypoleuca 

Pinus Torreyana 

Alnus incana 



172 



THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE WOODS 



206 
297 
298 
299 
300 
301 
302 
303 
304 
305 
306 



Species. 



Finns glabra 

Salix lasiandra, var. Fendieriana . 

Populus heteropliylla 

Ficus peJunculata 

Alniis oblongifolia 

Populus balsamifera, var. candicans 

Sambucus glauca 

Pinus inonophylla 

Pinckneya pubens 

Populus angustifolia 

Picea Engelmanni 



J3 
_bp 

'55 
to 

B 

•s 

a 

u 
O 


l-i 

O 
1 


288 


307 


286 


308 


283 


309 


281 


310 


278 


311 


276 


312 


275 


313 


274 


314 


272 


315 


271 


316 


267 


317 



Species. 



Salix amygdaloides . . 
Pinus tuberculata ... 
Chamaecyparis sphseroidea 
Picea pungens .... 
Coccoloba uvifera ... 
Fraxinus plat^'carpa . . 
Washingtonia filifera . , 

Salix nigra , 

Asimina triloba . . . . 

Ficus aurea 

Bursera gummifera . . 



264 
263 
259 
258 
258 
251 
227 
213 
212 
162 
155 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 



173 



TABLE VII. 

The Principal Trees of the United States arranged in the Order of the Power 
of their Woods to resist Indentation to the Depth of 1.21 Millimetres. 



S 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

32 

33 

34 

35 

36 

37 

38 



Species. 



Guaiacum sanctum .... 

Olneya Tesota 

Condalia ferrea 

Reynosia latifolia 

Canella alba 

Amyris sylvatica 

Exostema Caribaeum. . . . 
Cercocarpus ledifolius . . . 
Rhizophora Mangle .... 

Eugenia procera 

Quercus oblongifolia .... 

Quercus Emoryi 

Eugenia monticola .... 
Drypetes crocea, var. latifolia 

Eugenia buxifolia 

Coccoloba Floridana .... 
Hj'pelate trifoliata .... 
Chrysophyllum oliviforme. . 

Mimusops Sieberi 

Quercus Douglasii .... 
Xanthoxylum Caribseura . . 
Conocarpus erecta .... 

Quercus grisea 

Madura aurantiaca .... 

Drypetes crocea 

Sideroxylon Mastichodendron 

Prosopis juliflora 

Prunus unibellata 

Piscidia Erythrina .... 

Sophora affinis 

Prosopis pubescens .... 
Diospyros Virginiana . . . 

Quercus virens 

Crataegus flava, var. pubescens 
Prunus Caroliniana .... 
Quercus chrysolepis .... 
Carya myristicaeformis . . . 
Viburnum prunifolium . . . 



793 
665 
649 
639 
573 
550 
481 
480 
462 
444 
439 
415 
408 
407 
396 
394 
384 
382 
375 
374 
373 
370 
364 
363 
362 
355 
343 
342 
337 
334 
329 
324 
324 
319 
318 
317 
315 
313 



eA 



39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 

52 
53 
54 
65 
66 
57 
58 
59 
60 
61 
62 
63 
64 
65 
6() 
67 
68 
69 
70 
71 
72 
73 
74 
75 



Species. 



Swietenia Mahogoni . . . 
Citliarexylum villosum . . 
Quercus Durandii .... 
Prunus ilicifolia .... 

Cornus florida 

Carya porcina 

Pinus serotina 

Bourreria Havanensis . . 
Quercus rubra, var. Texana 

Carya sulcata 

Bumelia cuneata .... 

Quercus nigra 

Juniperus occiden talis, var. 

jugens 

Amelanchier Canadensis . . . 
Vacciniuni arboreum .... 

Carya tomentosa 

Gleditschia monosperma - . . 

Quercus obtusiloba 

Dipholis salicifolia 

Carya aquatica 

Celtis occidentalis, var. reticulata 
Sapindus marginatus .... 

Prunus Capuli 

Quercus Wislizeni 

Quercus hypoleuca 

Robinia Neo-Mexicana .... 

Carya alba 

Quercus prinoides 

Taxus brevifolia 

Crataegus subvillosa 

Kalmia latifolia 

Robinia Pseudacacia 

Acer saccliarinuni 

Ulinus crassitolia 

Ulnius alata 

Quercus undulata, var. Gambellii 
Quercus laurifolia 



con- 



174 



THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE! WOODS 



Species. 



Acer saccharinum, var. nigrum . . 

Quercus lyrata 

Pyrus coronaria 

Arbutus Xalapensis 

Osmanthus Aniericanus . . . . 

Prunus demissa 

Cornus Nuttallii 

Carya amara 

Crataegus tomentosa 

Quercus Garryana 

Cupressus macrocarpa 

Quercus agrifolia 

Quercus macrocarpa 

Quercus Michauxii 

Carya olivaeformis 

Ostrya Virginica 

Quercus Prinus 

Ehretia elliptica 

Quercus Catesbaei 

Parkinsonia Torreyana 

Quercus imbricaria 

Betula lenta 

Andromeda ferruginea . . . . . 

Crataegus aestivalis 

Quercus densiflora 

Fraxinus quadrangulata . . . . 

Chrysobalanus Icaco 

Quercus bicolor 

Bumelia lycioides 

Fraxinus viridis 

Crataegus spathulata 

Celtis occidentalis 

Quercus Phellos . 

Quercus alba '. . 

Carpinus Caroliniana 

Prunus Americana 

Pinus edulis 

Byrsonima lucida 

Cratsegus Crus-galli 

Fraxinus pistaciaefolia 

Rhus Metopium 

Arbutus Menziesii 

Ulmus racemosa 

Prunus serotina 

Fraxinus pubescens 

Quercus coccinea 

Quercus tinctoria 

Oxydendrum arboreum 

Quercus falcata 

Quercus cinerea 

Acer circinatura 

Persea Carolinensis 

Umbellularia Californica .... 
Fraxinus Americana, var. Texensis 
Quercus aquatica 



252 

252 
250 
247 
247 
246 
242 
242 
240 
240 
237 
235 
233 
233 
232 
231 
230 
229 
228 
226 
226 
226 
225 
224 
224 
222 
221 
221 
220 
220 
218 
217 
216 
213 
213 
213 
212 
210 
210 
210 
209 
207 
205 
204 
204 
202 
202 
201 
201 
201 
200 
199 
199 
198 
198 



Pi 



31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
60 
61 
62 
63 
64 
65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 
71 
72 
73 
74 
75 
76 
77 
78 
79 
80 
81 
82 
83 
84 
85 



Magnolia grandiflora .... 

Halesia diptera 

Nyssa sylvatica 

Juglans nigra 

Fagus ferruginea 

Pinus Parryana 

Fraxinus sambucifolia .... 

Rhamnus Purshiana 

Persea Carolinensis, var. palustris 
Rhododendron maximum . . . 

Quercus palustris 

Myrica Californica 

Quercus lobata 

Juniperus occidentalis .... 

Pinus Cubensis 

Crataegus arborescens .... 

Cladrastis tinctoria 

Cercis Canadensis 

Juglans rupestris 

Quercus heterophylla .... 

Acer dasycarpum 

Bumelia tenax 

Morus rubra 

Cupressus Goveniana .... 

Quercus rubra 

Ilex opaca 

Acer rubrum 

Quercus Kelloggii 

Lysiloma latisiliqua 

Fraxinus Americana 

Forestiera acuminata .... 

Ulmus Americana 

Pinus monophylla 

Gleditschia triacanthos .... 

Fraxinus Oregana 

Platanus occidentalis .... 

Acer macrophyllum 

Nyssa uniflora 

Betula lutea 

Gymnocladus Canadensis . . . 

Bumelia lanuginosa 

Xanthoxylum Clava-Herculis 

Symplocos tinctoria 

Torreya taxifolia 

Pinus inops 

Nyssa capitata 

Pinus Chihuahuana 

Pinus palustris 

Ulmus fulva 

Ungnadia speciosa 

Laguncularia racemosa .... 

Pinus contorta 

Juniperus Virginiana .... 

Cliftonia ligustrina 

Pinus Balfouriana 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 



175 



Species. 



Pinus Torreyana 

l^lanera aquatica ..;... 

Chilopsis maligna , 

Myrica cerifcra , 

Salix lasiolepis , 

Larix occidentalis , 

Sambucus glauca , 

Fraxinus platycarpa , 

Pinus Sabiniana , 

Rhamnus Caroliniana 

Sassafras officinale 

Pinus Balfouriana, var. aristata . . 

Prunus angustifolia 

Pinus rigida 

Liquidambar Styraciflua . . . , 

Betula nigra , 

Pinus clausa 

Betula alba, var. populifolia . . . 

Pinus mitis 

Pinus reflexa 

Anona laurifolia 

Betula occidentalis 

Rhus copallina, var. lanceolata . . 

Betula papyrifera 

Salix flavescens, var. Scouleriana . 

Tsuga Caroliniana 

Magnolia Fraseri 

Torreya Californica 

Pinus muricata 

Abies nobilis 

Ficus pedunculata 

Castanopsis chrysophylla . . . . 

Castanea pumila 

Salix laevigata 

Pyrus Americana 

Platanus Wrightii 

Alnus rubra 

Pinus Jeifreyi 

Pinus pungens 

Ilex Dahoon 

Larix Americana 

Negundo aceroides 

Salix Hookeriana 

Rhus copallina . 

-liEsculus Californica 

Pisonia obtusata 

Pinus flexilis 

Magnolia acuminata 

Negundo Californicum 

Pyrus sambucifolia 

Pinus albicaulis 

Pinus ponderosa 

Pinus Taeda 

Castanea vulgaris, var. Americana 
Pinus glabra 



147 
146 
144 
144 
140 
189 
138 
138 
138 
136 
134 
134 
133 
133 
132 
132 
131 
129 
129 
128 
127 
127 
126 
126 
126 
125 
123 
122 
122 
120 
119 
119 
118 
118 
117 
117 
117 
116 
115 
113 
112 
111 
111 
109 
108 
108 
108 
107 
107 
107 
107 
107 
107 
106 
106 



241 
242 
243 
244 
245 
246 
247 

248 
249 
250 
251 
252 
253 
254 
255 
256 
257 
258 
259 
260 
261 
262 
263 
264 
265 
266 
267 
268 
269 
270 
271 
272 
273 
274 
275 
276 
277 
278 
279 
280 
281 
282 
283 
284 
285 
286 
287 
288 
289 
290 
291 
292 
293 
294 



Species. 



Pinckneya pubens 

Pinus Arizonica 

Pinus insignis 

Tsuga Pattoniana 

Prunus Pennsylvanica 

Magnolia glauca 

Pseudotsuga Douglasii, var. macro- 

carpa 

Chamajcyparis Nutkaensis . . . . 

Tsuga Mertensiana 

Pinus Banksiana 

Populus Fremontii, var. Wislizeni . 

Pseudotsuga Douglasii 

Gordonia Lasianthus 

Salix flavescens 

Libocedrus decurrens 

Abies magnifica 

Platanus racemosa 

Salix nigra 

Pinus Coulteri 

Juglans cinerea 

Magnolia cordata 

Magnolia macrophylla 

Salix lasiandra, var. lancifolia . . 

Simaruba glauca 

Catalpa speciosa 

Populus Fremontii 

Populus heterophylla 

Pinus Murrayana 

Pinus tuberculata 

Pinus resinosa 

Magnolia Umbrella 

Populus monilifera 

Liriodendron Tulipifera . . . . 
Salix lasiandra, var. Fendleriana . 
Chamaecyparis Lawsoniana . . . 

Tsuga Canadensis 

Salix amygdaloides 

Taxodium distichum 

Prunus emarginata, var. mollis . . 

Populus tremuloides 

Picea pungens 

Alnus rhombifolia 

Pinus Lambertiana 

Abies concolor 

Catalpa bignonioides 

Picea nigra 

Sequoia sempervirens 

Populus angustifolia 

Picea Engelmanni 

Populus balsamifera 

Abies balsamea 

Alnus oblongifolia 

Pinus Strobus 

Picea alba 



176 



THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE WOODS, Etc. 



295 
296 
297 
298 
299 
300 
301 
302 
303 
304 



Species. 



Picea Sitchensis . 

-<Esc'ulus glabra 

Tlmya gigantea 

Asimina triloba 

Tilia heterophylla 

Sequoia gigantea . 

Cliamgecyparis sphaeroidea 

Pinus monticola . . . 

Washingtonia filifem 

Populus balsamifera, var. candicans 







ja 




w) 


u 


V 


01 


^ 


-H 


to 


o 


a 


a> 


A 


> 






9 






« 


72 


305 


71 


306 


70 


307 


69 


308 


68 


309 


68 


310 


67 


311 


67 


312 


66 


313 


64 


314 



Species. 



^ 



Abies subalpina 

Abies amabilis 

Tilia Americana 

Populus trichocarpa 

Populus grandidentata . . . . 

Ficus aurea 

Tlmya occidentalis 

Tilia Americana, var. pubescens 

Abies grandis 

Bursera gummifera 



64 
64 
63 
63 
62 
61 
60 
59 
51 
47 



INDEX. 



Abies amaeilis, 133; tables (398) 152, (380) 

156, (385) 161, (24) 1G3, (141) 167, (133) 

170, (306) 176. 

Abies balsamea, 131; tables (395) 152, (409) 

157, (410) 162, (183) 164, (274) 168, (250) 

171, (291) 175. 

Abies bracteata, 133 ; tables (397) 152, (192) 

155, (194) 160. 

Abies concolor, 132 ; tables (396) 152, (415) 

157, (416) 162, (136) 164, (187) 167, (223) 

171, (204) 175. 
Abies Fraseri, 131 ; tables (392) 151, (417) 157, 

(418) 162, (110) 164, (228) 168, (268) 

171. 
Abies ffrandis, 132, 133; tables (395) 152, 

(418) 157, (419) 162, (115) 164, (280) 168, 

(220) 171, (313) 176. 
Abies Iludsonicn, 131. 
Abies ma gnifica, 134; tables (400) 152, (346; 

156, (345)161, (247) 165, (189) 167, (171) 

170, (256) 175. 

Abies nobilis, 133; tables (399) 152, (360) 156, 
(359) 161, (21) 163, (109) 167, (149) 170, 
(215) 175. 

Abies subalpina, 132; tables (394) 152, (421) 

157, (422) 162, (207) 165, (283) 168, (291) 

171, (305) 176. 
Abietine, 120. 

Acacia Berlandieri, 33; table (99) 146. 

Acacia, Green-barked, 30. 

Acacia Greggii, 33; tables (98) 146, (59) 153, 

(57) 158, (68) 163, (140) 167, (10) 169. 
Acacia, Three-thorned, 29. 
Acacia Wriyhlii, 33; tables (97) 146, (29) 

153, (27) 158. 
Acer circinatum, 21; tables (61) 145, (198) 

155, (196) 160, (227) 165, (153) 167, (143) 

170, (126) 174. 

Acer dasycarpum, 22; tables (05) 145, (301) 

156, (301)161, (60) 163, (56) 166, (119) 170, 
(151) 174. 

Acer glabrum, 21; tables (62) 145, (247) 155, 

(246) 160. 
Acer grandidentatum, 21; tables (63) 145, 

(180) 154, (180) 159. 
Acer macrophyllum, 20; tables (60) 145, (327) 

156, (326) 161, (200) 164, (197) 167, (233) 

171, (167) 174. 



Acer Pennsyhanicum, 20; tables (58) 145, 

(298) 156, (299) 161. 
Acer rubruTn,22; tables (66) 145, (240) 155, 

(239) 160, (123) 164, (126) 167, (136) 170, 

(157) 174. 
Acer rubrum, var. Drummondii, 23 ; tables 

(66^) 145, (285) 155, (284) 160. 
Acer saccharinurn, 21; tables (64) 145, (178) 

154, (175) 159, (9) 163, (21) 106, (32) 169, 

(71) 173. 
Acer saccharinurn, var. nigrum, 22; tables 

(641) 145, (177) 154, (178) 159, (94) 164, (71) 

166, (60) 109, (70) 174. 
Acer spicatum, 20; tables (59) 145, (294)155, 

(294) 160. 
Acids, 35. 

Acorns, edible, 84, 85. 
Adobe houses, 32, 49. 
jEsculus Calif ornica, 18; tables (52) 145, 

(320) 156, (238) 161, (320) 165, (229) 168, 

(257) 171, (230) 175. 
^sculus Jlava, 17; tables (51) 145, (381) 156, 

(381) 161. 
jEsculus glabra, 17; tables (50) 145, (363) 

156, (363) 161, (249) 165, (279) 168, (287) 

171, (296) 176. 
jEsculus llippocastanum, 17. 
Africa, 47. 
Agricultural implements, 61, 72, 78, 81, 84, 

87, 93. 
Alabama, 2, 3, 6, 7, 17, 22, 24, 25, 29, 31, 35, 

37, 39, 43, 49, 57, 60-62, 65, 68, 71, 72, 75- 

77, 80, 83, 84, 86, 88-90, 92, 94, 125, 129. 
Alaska, 20, 40, 96, 102-104, 107, 108, 120,127- 

129, 132. 
Alder, 98. 
Alder, Black, 99. 
Alder, Hoary, 99. 
Alder, Seaside. 98. 
Alder, Smooth, 99. 
Alder, Speckled, 99. 
Algaroba, 31. 
Alkali, 22. 
Alkaloid, 28. 
Alleghany Mountains, 2, 3, 6, 7, 17, 20, 22, 

24, 26, 27, 29, 35, 36, 39, 43, 45, 49, 51, 54, 

55, 60, 62, 76, 78, 81, 83, 84, 91, 94, 95, 97, 

101, 104, 106, 114, 122-124, 127, 129, 131. 



12 



178 



INDEX. 



Alleghany Region, 89, 129. 

Alnus argitta, 1)8. 

Alnus incana, 99; tables (305) 150, (355) 156, 

(353) IGl, (71) 163, (122) 167, (295) 171. 
Alnus incana, var. virescens, 99; tables (305^) 

150. 
Alnus Japonica, 98. 
Alnus moritima, 98; tables (300) 150, (319) 

156, (319) 161. 
Alnns oblongifolia, 98; tables (303) 150, (402) 

156, (403) 161, (205) 165, (196) 167, (300) 

172, (292) 175. 
Alnus rhombifoUa, 98; tables (302) 150, (394) 

156, (392) 161, (167) 164, (199) 167, (256) 

171, (282) 175. 
Alnus rubra, 98; tables (301) 150, (336) 156, 

(337) 161, (77) 163, (129) 167, (198) 171, 

(222) 175. 
Alnus serrulata, 99; tables (304) 150, (349) 

156, (349) 161. 
Alpine slopes, 128. 
Altamaha River, 5. 
Amelanchier Canadensis, 45; tables (137) 

146, (97) 154, (95) 159, (34) 163. (26) 166, 

(20) 169, (52) 173. 
Amelanchier Canadensis, var. oblongifolia, 

45. 
Amelanchier Canadensis, var. oligocarpa, 45. 
Amelanchier Canadensis, var. rotundifolia , 

45. 
America: original trees, 30; tropical, 34, 46, 

47, 96. 
American Crab, 39. 
American Crab Apple, 39. 
American Elm, 71. 
American Holly, 12. 
American Linden, 6. 

American Musemn of Natural History, viii. 
American Oaks, 83, 
Amyvis sylvatica, 11; tables (30) 144, (13) 

153, (11) 158, (67) 163, (2) 166, (9) 169, (6) 

173. 
Anacai-diacece, 24, 25. 
An£ES(lietics, 320. 
Anaqua, 65. 
Andromeda ferrurjinen, 53; tables (165) 147, 

(119) ]54,' (J18) 359, (186) 164, (204) 168, 

(U3) 370, (98) 174. 
Ann, Cape, 1. 
Anonacece,, 4. 
Anona laurifoUa, 4; tables (10) 144, (313) 

156, (335) 161, (284) 165, (241) 168, (290) 

171, (206) 175. 
Anticosti Island, 40. 
Anti-periodic bark, 64. 
Antipyretic, 100. 
Ant's-wood, 58. 
Apache Mountains, 37, 86. 
Apalachicola River, 52, 113, 114, 135. 
Apple, American Crab, 39. 
Apple, Custard, 4. 



Apple, Oregon Crab, 40. 

Apple, Pond, 4. 

Apple, Haw, 44. 

Apple, Seven-3'ear, 52. 

Apple, Southern Crab, 39. 

Arbol de Hierro, 27. 

Arbor-vita?, 106. 

Arbutus Menziesii, 54; tables (166) 147, (165) 

154, (163) 159, (171) 164, (88) 166, (95)170, 

(117) 174. 
Arbutus Texana, 54; tables (168) 147, (118) 

154, (119) 159. 
Arbutus Xalapensis, 54 ; tables (167) 147, 

(164) 154, (159) 159, (257) 165, (238) 168, 

(209) 171, (79) 174. 
Arctic Circle, 134. 
Ardisia Picheringia, 56; tables (173) 147, 

(58) 153, (60) 158. 
Arizona, 10, 15, 16, 18, 21, 23, 26, 27, 30-33, 

37-39, 48, 54, 57, 61, 62, 66, 75, 77, 82, 85- 

87, 92, 98, 100, 103, 105, 106, 109-111, 116- 

121, 127, 130, 132, 137. 
Arizona Mountains, 109, 120. 
Arkansas, 1-4, 8, 9, 12-15, 18, 23-26, 28-31, 

42-45, 50, 52, 53, 55, 57-60, 62, 64, 66, 68- 

70, 72, 74, 76-81, 83-85, 90-95, 99, 104, 112, 

124. 
Arkansas River, 28, 79, 122. 
Arnold Arboretum, viii. 
Aromatics, 48, 69, 132. 
Arrow- wood, 14. 
Arroyos, 27. 
Arts, 132. 
Ash, 61. 
Ash, Black, 63. 
Ash, Blue, 62. 
Ash, Green, 62. 
Ash, Ground, 63. 
Ash, Hoop, 63. 
Ash-leaved Maple, 23. 
Ash, Mountain, 40. 
Ash, Oregon, 63. 
Ash, Prickly, 8. 
Ash, Red, 61. 
Ash, Sea, 8. 
Ash, Wafer, 9. 
Ash, Water, 62. 
Ash, White, 61. 
Ash, Yellow, 28. 
Asimina triloba, 4; tables (9) 144, (403) 156, 

(404) 161, (289) 165, (302) 168, (315) 172, 

(298) 176. 
Aspalaga, Fla., 113. 
Aspen, 103. 
Aspen, Quaking, 103. 
Assinaboine River, 34. 
Astringents. 24, 25, 40, 59, 129. 
Athabasca River, 101. 
Atlantic forests, 35, 36, 42, 45, 49, 75, 83, 

97. 
Atlantic oaks, 88. 



INDEX. 



179 



Atlantic Region, 72, 96, 99, 101-103. 
Atlantic States, 1, 9, 13, 15, 18, 20, 27, 29, 30, 
34, 57-59, 61, 05, 72, 83, 80, 90, 94, 97, 112, 

122, 123. 
Avicennid nitlda, 67 ; (Rlnzophora, 07); tables 

(211) 148, (42) 153, (44) 158. 
Axe-hanclles, 20, 21, 61, 78. 



Back, Strong, 65. 

Bahamas, 7. 
Bald Cypress, 112. 
Balms, 105. 
Balm of Gilead, 104. 
Balm-of-Gilead Fir, 131. 
Balm of fir, 132. 
Balsams, 40. 
Balsam, 104, 131, 132. 
Balsam Cottonwood, 105. 
Balsam Fir, 131, 132. 
Balsam, She, 131. 
Banana, Mexican, 137. 
Bark, Cinnamon, 5. 
Bark, Georgia, 52. 
Barrel-hoops, 49, 63. 
Barrels, 105. 
Barrington, Fort, 5. 
Bartram's Oak, 92. 
Basket Oak, 84. 
Baskets, 19, 63, 78, 81, 84, 
Basswood, 6. 

Basswood, White, 7. 

Bastard Cedar, 106. 

Bastard Pine, 126. 

Bayberry, 80. 

Bay, Bull, 1. 

Bay, Loblolly, 5. 

Bay, Red, 08. 

Bay, Rose, 55. 

Bay, Sweet, 1. 

Bay, Tan, 5. 

Bav-tree, California, 69. 

Bay, White, 1. 

Bayonet, Spanish, 136, 137. 

Beads, 19. 

Beams, 32. 

Bean, Indian, 65. 

Bean, Screw, 32. 

Bean Tree, 05. 

Bearberry, 16. 

Beard, Okl jMun's, 64, 

Bear-wood, 16. 

Beaver Tree, 1. 

Beech, 94. 

Beech, Blue, 95. 

Beech, Water, 75, 95. 

Beef- wood, 67. 

Bee Tree, 6. 

Belle Isle, Straits of, 104. 

Berry, Tallow, 7. 

Betulacex^ 95-99. 



Betula alhn, var. popuUfoHa, 95; tables (294) 
149, (267) 155, (265) 160, (221) 165, (146) 
167, (267) 171, (203) 175. 

Betula lentn, 96, 97; tables (299) 150, (110) 

154, (108) 159, (10) 163, (10) 166, (34) 169, 
(97) 174. 

Betula lutea, 97; tables (297) 149, (204) 155, 

(200) 160, (3) 163, (5) 100, (33) 169, (169) 
174. 

Betula nigra, 97; tables (298) 149, (266) 155, 
(267) 160, (58) 163, (69) 166, (166) 170, 

(201) 175. 

Betula occidentalism 96; tables (296) 149, (246) 

155, (245) 160, (132) 164, (133) 167, (219) 
171, (207) 175. 

Betula papyrifern, 96; tables (205) 140, (251) 
155, (249) 160, (18) 163, (38) 166, (115; 170, 
(200) 175. 
Big Blackfoot River, 135. 

Big-bud Hickory, 78. 

Big Cottonwood, 105. 

Big Laurel, 1. 

Big Shell-bark, 78. 

Big Tree, 112. 

Big Williams Fork, 10, 48. 

Bifjnoniaceae, 65, 66. 

Bill Williams River, 30. 

Bilsted, 45, 

Birch, Black, 96, 97. 

Birch, Canoe, 96. 

Birch, Cherry, 97. 

Birch, Gray,' 95, 97. 

Birch, Mahogany, 97. 

Birch, oil of, 96, 

Birch, Old-field, 95. 

Birch, Paper, 96. 

Birch, Red, 97. 

Birch, River, 97. 

Birch, Sweet, 97. 

Birch, West Indian, 10. 

Birch, White, 95, 96. 

Birch, Yellow, 97. 

Bird's-eve Maple, 22. 

Biscavne, Bav, 1, 4, 8, 10, 14, 15, 19, 25, 28, 
34, "37, 46-48, 56-58, 67-70, 72-74, 86, 99, 
126. 

Bishop's Pine, 124. 

Bitter-nut, 79. 

Bitter Pecan, 79. 

Bitter Root Mountains, 16, 36, 96, 105, 107, 
115, 129, 130, 132. 

Bitts, 69. 

Black Alder, 99. 

Black Ash, 63. 

Black Birch, 96, 97. 

Black Calabash-tree, 66. 

Black Cherry, Wild, 36. 

Black Cottonwood, 105, 

Black Cypress, 112. 

Black Gum, 50. 

Black Haw, 52. 



180 



INDEX. 



Black Hickory, 78, 79. 

Black Hills, 71, 74, 96, 105, 119, 127. 

Black Iron-wood, 15. 

Black Jack, 80, 90. 

Black Jack, Forked-leaf, 90. 

Black Larch, 134. 

Black Locust, 26, 29. 

Black Mangrove, 67, 

Black Oak, 87-89. 

Black Persimmon, 59. 

Black Pine, 120. 

Black Sloe, 35. 

Black Spruce, 126, 127. 

Black Thorn, 42. 

Black Tree, 67. 

Black AValnut, 46, 76. 

Black AYillow, 99. 

Black-wood, 67. 

Bladder-diseases, 96. 

Blinds, 115. 

Blocks, 72, 75. 

Blood-impurities, 99. 

Blue Ash, 62. 

Blue Beech, 95. 

Blue Jack, 92. 

Blue Mountains, 38, 51, 98, 110, 116, 130, 132, 

134. 
Blue Myrtle, 16. 
Blue Oak, 85. 
Blue Ri^•er, 22. 
Blue Spruce, 128. 
Blue -wood, 15. 
Boarding, 46. 
Boat-buijding, 3, 28, 34, 57, 71, 74, 107, 108, 

128. 
Boilers, 32, 
Bo is d'Arc, 74. 
Books referred to, 143. 
Borraginacece, 64, 65. 
Bottom Shell-bark, 78. 
Bourreria Bavanensis, 65 ; tables (204) 148, 

(84) 154, (91) 159, (102) 164, (75) 166, (48) 

169, (46) 173. 
Bourreria Bavanensis, var. radula, 65. 
BoA\-s, Indian, 49, 113. 
Box Elder, 23. 

Boxwood, 14, 49 ; substitute for, 55, 59. 
Brazil, 4, 9, 10, 11, 34, 46, 55-57, 67, 68. 
Brazos River, 1, 8, 17, 29-31, 49, 50, 64, 69, 

78, 80, 81, 90, 92, 136. 
Brick-baking, 99. 
Brickley Thatch, 136. 
Bridge-timbers, 72. 
Bristol, Fla., 113, 114 
British America, 6, 51, 103. 
British Columbia, 20, 21, 40, 41, 51, 54, 96, 

98-100, 104, 105, 107, 108, 111, 113, 115, 

116, 119, 127, 129, 130, 132-134. 
Brittle Thatch, 136. 
Broad-leaved Maple, 20. 
Brooms, 20. 



Brown Hickory, 79. 

Buckeye, California, 18. 

Buckeye, Fetid, 17. 

Buckeye, Ohio, 17. 

Buckeye, Spanish, 18. 

Buckeye, Sweet, 17. 

Buckthorn, Southern, 58. 

Buckwheat Tree, 13. 

Bull Bay, 1. 

Bull-nut. 78. 

Bull Pine, 119-121, 124. 

Bumelia cuneata, 58; tables (182) 147, (89) 

154, (94) 159, (260) 165, (273) 168, (125) 

170, (49) 173. 
Bumelia lanuginosa, hi; tables (179) 147, 

(205) 155, (208) 160, (288) 165, (303) 168, 

(252) 171, (171) 174. 
Bumelia hjcioides, 58; tables (181) 147, (125) 

154, (128) 159, (199) 164, (261) 168, (111) 
170, (104) 174. 

Bumelia hjcioides, var. reclinatum, 58. 
Bumelia spinosa, 57; tables (180) 147, (199) 

155, (203) 160. 

Bumelia tenax, 57; tables (178) 147, (142) 

154, (142) 159, (209) 165, (207) 168, (150) 

170, (152) 174. 
Bum-wood, 25. 
Burning Bush, 14. 
Bur Oak, 82. 
Burseracece, 10, 11. 

Bursera qummifera, 10; tables (29) 144, 
(426) 157, (427) 1G2, (300) 165, (310) 168, 
(317) 172, (314) 176. 

Bush, Burning, 14. 

Bustic, 57. 

Butchers' blocks, 75. 

Butter-tubs, 133. 

Butternut, 76. 

Button-ball Tree, 75. 

Button-moulds, 97. 

Buttons, 19. 

Buttonwood, 46, 75. 

Buttonwood, White, 47. 

Byrsonima lucida, 7; tables (19) 144, (256) 

155, (266) 160, (279) 165, (296) 168, (218) 

171, (113) 174. 



Cabbage Palmetto, 135. 

Cabbage Tree, 135. 

Cabinet-work, 1, 2, 11, 12, 22-24, 29, 36, 46, 

50, 57, 61, 63, 66, 68, 69, 76, 77, 81, 94, 107, 

111, 114. 
Cactacece, 48, 49. 
Cactus, Giant, 48. 
Cagiput, 69. 

Calabash-tree, Black, 66. 
CalaA^eras County, 115. 
Calaveras Grove, 112. 
Calico-bush, 55. 
Calico-wood, 60. 



i 



INDEX. 



181 



California, 6. 16, 18, 20, 21, 23, 26, 27, 30-33, 

30-41, 44, 49, 51, 54, 03, 00, 09, 73, 75, 77, 

80, 81, 80, 87-89, 93, 90, 98-103, 105-122, 

124, 128, 130-135, 137. (Often indicating 

limit of distribution.) 
California Bay-tree, 69. 
California Buckeye, 18. 
California Coast, 93. 
California Holly, 44. 
California laurel, 69. 
California Nutmeg, 114. 
California Olive, 09. 

California Sierras, 89, 110, 115, 117, 121, 130. 
Caloosa Kiver, 4, 10, 11, 14, 22, 47, 50, 58, 

62, 79, 99. 
Cahjptranthes CJnjtrnculia, 47; tables (143) 

147, (49) 153, (49) 158. 
Campo, 116. 
Canada Plum, 34. 
Canadian Balsam, 132. 
Canaveral, Cane, 4, 10, 15, 34, 45-47, 56, 57, 

62, 64, 60-08, 71, 78, 79, 125, 126. 
Candles, 80. 
CcinellacevR^ 5. 
Canella alba, 5; tables (12) 144, (18) 153, 

(18) 158, (56) 163, (53) 166, (6) 169, (5) 173. 
Canes, 27, 70. 
Canoe Cedar, 107. 
Canoe Birch, 96. 
Canoes, 96, 107. 
Canons, 27. 
Canotia holocantha, 10; tables (27) 144, (182) 

154, (204) 100. 
Cape Fear River, 1, 72. 
Capparidacece, 4. 
Capparis Jamnicensis, 4; tables (11) 144, 

(169) 154, (195) 160. 
Caprifoliacece, 51, 52. 
Caranna, remedy, 10. 
Carbo-hydrogen, 120. 
Carmelo Point, 108. 
Carolina Poplar, 105. 
Carpinus Caroliniana, 95; tables (293^ 14D, 

(144) 159, (44) 163, (22) 160, (103) 170, 

(110) 174. 
Carriages, 6, 61, 63, 78, 81, 82. 
Carya alba, 77; tables (242) 148, (64) 153, (63) 

158, (12) 163, (12) 166, (30) 169, (65) 173. 
Carya alba, var. microcarpa, 78. 
Carya amarn, 79; tables (246) 149, (114) 154, 

(117) 159, (92) 164, (32) 166, (83) 170, (83) 

174. 
Carya aquatica, 79; tables (248) 149, (134) 

154, (136) 159, (98) 164, (99) 167, (116) 170, 

(58) 173. 
Carya myristicceformis, 79; tables (247) 149, 

(87) 154, (80) 159, (8) 163, (1) 166, (28) 169, 

(37) 173. 
Carya ollvceformis, 77; tables (241) 148, (155) 

154, (158) 159, (245) 165, (254) 108, (173) 

170, (90) 174. 



Carya porcina, 79; tables (245) 149, (76) 15.1, 
(75) 158,(89) 163,(44) im, (47) 169, (44) 173. 

Carya sulcata, 78; tables (243) 148, (82) 154, 
(81) 159, (84) 163, (34) 166, (54) 169, (48> 
173. 

Carya tomentosa, 78; tables (244) 148, (75/ 

153, (76) 158, (42) 163, (28) 166, (39) 169, 
(54) 173. 

Cascade Mountains, 21, 37, 40, 41, 49, 63, 81, 
93, 102, 100, 108, 110, 115, 110, 122, 127, 
130, 132-135. (Often indicating limit of 
distribution.) 

Cascara sagrada, 16. 

Cassada, 57. 

Cassena, 12. 

Custanta pumila, 94; tables (289) 149, (57) 

155, (253) 100, (47) 103, (05) 100, (105) 170, 
(218) 175. 

Castanea vulgaris, var. Americana, 94 ; tables 

(290) 149, (300) 150, (305) 101, (160) 164. 

(192) 187, (34) 171, (239) 174. 
Casianojisis chrysophylh, 93; tables (288) 149, 

(280) 155, (280) 100, (99) 164, (105) 167, 

(170) 170, (217)175. 
Castle, Lake, 108. 
Catalpa, 05. . 
Cat'ilpa bignonioides, 65; tables (206) 148, 

(309) 150, (309) 161, (239) 165, (248) 168, 

(251) 171, (285) 175. 
Catalpa speciosn, 06; tables (207) 148, (388) 

156, (388) 161, (181) 164, (230) 168, (203) 
171, (265) 175. 

Catalpa, Western, 66. 

Catarrh, 46, 132. 

Catawba, 65. 

Cathartics, 8, 14, 76. 

Cat's Claw, 33, 34. 

Cattle, food for, 7. 

Caximbas Bay, 10, 11, 19, 24, 34. 

Ceanothus Americano, 10. 

Ceanothus thyrsi florus, 16; tables (48) 145, 

(268) 155, (209) 100. 
Cedar, Bastard, 106. 
Cedar, Canoe, 107. 
Cedar Elm, 70. 
Cedar, Incense, 106. 

Cedar Keys, 12, 18, 46, 47, 57, 58, 67, 135. 
Cedar, Oregon, 108. 
Cedar Pine, 125. 
Cedar, Port Orford, 108. 
Cedar, Post, 106. 
Cedar, Red, 107, 111. 
Cedar, Stinking, 114. 
Cedar, White, 106-108. 
Celastracece, 14. 

Celtis Mississippiensis, var. crassifolia, 73. 
Celtis Mississippierisis, var. integrifolia, 73. 
Celtis Mississippiensi^, var. Icevigata, 73. 
Celtis occidentalis, 72; tables (228) 148, (144) 

154, (140) 159, (235) 105, (142) 167, (180) 
171, (107) 174. 



182 



INDEX. 



Celtis occidentaUs, var. retlculatay 73 ; tables 
(2281) 148, (U7) 154, (151) 159, (150) 1G4, 
<134) 167, (1G8) 170, (59) 173. 

Census, Vol. IX., 141-U3. 

Central America, 11, 68, 70. 

Cercis Canadensis, 31; tables (91) 146, (225) 
155, (225) 160, (234) 165, (173) 167, (130) 

170, (148) 174. 

Cercis renifovmis, 31; tables (92) 146, (116) 

154, (120) 159. 

Cercocarpus ledifoUus, 38; tables (115) 146, 

(10) 153, (8) 158, (25) 169, (8) 173. 
Co-cocarpus parviJ'oUus, 39 ; tables (116) 146, 

(30) 153, (28) 158. 
Cereus giganieus, 48 ; tables (149) 147, (424) 

157, (426) 162. 
Chairs, 71, 88, 95. 
Clialeur, Bay of, 95. 
GhamoiCjjparis Laivsoniana, 108; tables (331) 

150, (352) 156, (350) 161, (31) 163, (97) 167, 

(135) 170, (275) 175. 
Chamcecgparis Nutkaensis, 108; tables (330) 

150, (338) 156, (338) 161, (93) 164, (135) 

167, (146) 170, (248) 175. 
Chamcecijparis sphceroidea, 108; tables (329) 

150, (423) 157, (424) 162, (302) 165, (289) 

168, (309)172, (301) 176. 
Champlain, Lake, 23, 62, 82, 84, 105. 
Chaparral, 15. 

Chapote, 59. 

Charcoal, 28, 32, 38, 47, 117, 118, 123, 124, 128. 

Charlotte Harbor, 12. 

Chattahoochee, 114. 

Cherokee County, N. C, 28. 

Cherry, 5G. 

Cherry Birch, 97. 

Cherry brandy, 36. 

Cherry, Indian, 15. 

Cherry, May, 45. 

Cherr}', Pigeon, 35. 

Cherry, Pin, 35. 

Cherry, Rum, 36. 

Cherry, Wild, 37. 

CherrV, Wild Black, 36. 

Cherry, Wild Red, 35. 

Chester County, Pa., 78. 

Chestnut, 94. ' 

Che.stnut Oak, 84, 93. 

Chestnut Onk, Rock, 84. 

Celfisjmmilrf, 73. 

Chickasaw Plum, 35. 

Chihuahua, 120. 

Chilopsis saJigna, 66; tables (208) 148, (254) 

155, (254) 160, (274) 165, (253) 168, (292) 

171, (188) 175. 
China, Wild, 18. 
Chincapin, 85. 
Chinquapin, 93, 94. 
Chinquapin *Oak, 84. 

Chionanthus Virfjinica, 64; tables (200) 148, 
(224) 155, (221) 160. 



Chittam-wood, 24. 

Chrysobalanus Icaco, 34; tables (102) 146, 

(102) 154, (104) 159, (61) 103, (72) 166, 

(102) 174. 
Chrysojihyllum oUviforme, 56; tables (175) 

147, (32) 153, (32) 158, (54) 1G3, (111) 167, 

(36)169, (18)173. 
Churchill, Cape, 126, 127, 134. 
Cigar Tree, 65. 
Cinchona Bark, 17, 52. 
Cinnamon bark, 5. 
Cinnamon, Wild, 5. 
Citharexylum villosum. 66; tables (210) 148, 

(54) 153, (50) 158, (26) 163, (77) 166, (14) 

169, (40) 173. 
Cladrastis iinctoria, 28; tables (82) 145, (235) 

155, (230) 160, (101) 164, (92) 167, (74) 169, 

(147) 174. 
Clammy Locust, 27. 
Clapboards, 46, 88, 91, 93. 
Clark's Fork, 115. 
Claw, Cat's, 33, 34. 
Clear Creek, 98. 
Clear Lake, 109. 
Cleats, 69. 
Cliff Elm, 71. 
CliJ'tonia ligustnna, 13; tables (38) 145, (238) 

155, (237) 160, (197) 164, (271) 168, (244) 

171, (184) 174. 
Clusiajiava, 5; table (13) 144. 
Coahuila, 21. 
Coast Live Oak, 87. 
Coast Ranges, 16, 18, 23, 36, 38, 39. 44, 49, 

54, 63, 69, 75, 77, 85, 87-89, 93, 98, 101, 

106-109, 112, 113, 115, 116, 120-122, 124, 

130, 133. (Often indicating limit of dis- 
tribution.) 
Coccoloba Floridana, 67; tables (213) 148, 

(20) 153, (25) 158, (49) 163, (83) 166, (7) 

169, (16) 173. 
Coccoloba urifera, 68; tables (214) 148, (22) 

153, (21) 158, (311) 172. 
Cock spur Thorn, 42. 
Cocoa Plum, 34. 

Cceurd'Alene Mountains, 38,107, 115,130,132. 
Coffee, substitute for, 29. 
Coffee-nut, 29. 
Coffee-tree, Kentucky, 29. 
Coffins, 113. 
Colorado, 21, 27, 31, 34, 35, 39, 41, 58, 60, 82, 

85, 100, 105, 106, 110, 111, 117-119, 121, 

128, 130-133, 137. 
Colorado Desert, 26, 30. 
Colorado River, 12, 13, 18, 27, 30-32, 41-43, 

52, 62, 63, 74, 77, 91, 100, 111, 122, 135. 

(Often indicating limit of distribution.) 
Colubrina reclinata, 17; tables (49) 145, (77) 

153, (80) 158, (108) 164, (9) 166. 
Columbia, District of, 39. 
Columbian Basin, 135. 
Columbia River, 100, 105, 128, 133, 134. 



INDEX. 



183 



Combretacece, 46, 47. 

Commerce, G'J, 77, 78. 

Compression, longitudinal, 169-172. 

Concho River, 34, 59, 77. 

Condalla/errea, L5; tables (43) 145, (1) 153, 

(1) 158, (45) 163, (90) 167, (5) 169, (;J) 

173. 
Condalia obovata, 15; tables (44) 145, (2) 153, 

(5) 158. 
Coniferce, 106-134. 
Co7iife>-ce, North American, 111. 
Connecticut, 45, 52, 58, 104. 
Connecticut River, 91, 101. 
Conocarpus erecta, 46; tables (141) 147, (17) 

153, (16) 158, (95) 164, (76) 166, (35) 169, 
(22) 173. 

Construction, 26, 29, 46, 81, 82, 84,90, 91,93, 

112, 118, 127, 128, 131. 
Cooperage, 23, 63, 69, 71, 74, 81, 82, 84, 85, 

88, 90, 91, 107, 112, 115, 128, 132. 
Coos Bay, 108. 
Coquille River, 20. 
Coral Sumach, 25. 
Cordage, 6. 
Cordia Boissieri, 64; tables (203) 148, (190) 

155, (198) 160. 
Cordia Sebestena, 64 ; tables (202) 148, (163) 

154, (184) 159. 
Cork Elm, 71. 

Cork, substitute for, 51. 

Cork-wood, 67. 

Cornacece, 49-51. 

Cornus alternifoUa, 49; tables (150) 147, 

(196) 155, (192) 160. 
Cornus fiorida, 49; tables (151) 147, (79) 153, 

(77) 158, (182) 164, (91) 167, (75) 169, (43) 

173. 
Cornus Nuttallii, 49; tables (152) 147, (122) 

154, (121) 159, (91) 164, (64) 166, (24) 169, 
(82) 174. 

Corpus Christi, 65. 

Corpus Christi River, 30. 

Costa Rica, 86. 

Cotton-gum, 45, 50. 

Cottonwood, 105, 106. 

Cottonwood, Balsam, 105. 

Cottonwood, Big, 105. 

Cottonwood, Black, 104, 105. 

Cottonwood, River, 104. 

Cottonwood, Swamp, 104. 

Cough-mixtures, 35. 

Cow Oak, 84. 

Crab, American, 39. 

Crab Apple, American, 39. 

Crab Apple, Oregon, 40. 

Crab Apple, Southern, 39. 

Crab, Sweet-scented, 39. 

Crab-wood, 70. 

Cratcegus cestimUs, 44; tables (134) 146, (205) 

155, (201) 100, (263) 165, (183) 167, (160) 
170, (99) 174. 



Cratcerjys npitfolia, 43; tables (131) 146, (127) 

154, (134) 159. 
Crat(Bfjus arborescens, 41; tables (125) 146, 

(213) 155, (210) 160, (195) 164, (235) 168, 

(102) 170, (146) 174. 
Cratcegus berberif (Ala, 44; table (133) 140. 
Cratcegus brack ijacanthn, 41; tables (124) 

146, (189) 155, (186) 159. 
Cratcegus coccinea, 42; tables (127) 146, (56) 

153, (54) 158. 

Cratcegus cordata, 43; tables (130) 140, (143) 

154, (140) 159. 

Cratcegus Crus-galli, 42; tables (120) 146, 

(153) 154, (154) 159, (240) 165, (218) 168, 

(176) 170, (114) 174. 
Cratcegus Douglasil, 41; tables (123) 146, 

(172) 154, (169) 159. 
Cratcegus flava, 44; tables (135) 146, (98) 154, 

(97) 159. 
Cratcegus flava, var. pubescens, 44; tables 

(1351) 146, (105) 154, (106) 159, (231) 165, 

(175) 167, (81) 170, (34) 173. 
Cratcegus rivularis, 41; tables (122) 146. (103) 

154," (100) 159. 
Cratcegus sjxithulata, 43; tables (132) 146, 

(158) 154, (157) 159, (243) 165, (276) 168, 
(145) 170, (106) 174. 

Cratcegus subvillosa, 42 ; tables (128) 146, (90) 
154,' (89) 159, (141) 164, (169) 167, (71) 169, 
(68) 173. 

Cratcegus tomentosa, 42; tables (129) 146, 
(113) 154, (112) 159, (219) 165, (184) 167, 

(159) 170, (84) 174. 

Cratcegus tomentosa, var. punctata^ tables 

(1291) 146, (103) 159. 
Crescentia cucurbitina, GQ; tables (209)148, 

(231) 155, (235) 160. 
Cretaceous formations, 82. 
Cross-trees, 69. 
Cuba, 7. 

Cucumber Tree, 2. 
Cucumber Tree, Large-leaved, 2. 
Cucumber Tree, Long-leaved, 3. 
Cumberland County, X. J., 92. 
Cumberland Mountains, 24. 
Cumberland River, 23. 
Cupressus Goveniana, 109; tables (333) 150, 

(348) 150, (348) 161, (285) 165, (268) 168, 

(254) 171, (154) 174. 
Cupressus Guadalupensls, 109; tables (335) 

150, (333) 156, (333) 161. 
Cupressus Macnabiana, 109; table (334) 150. 
Cupressus macrocarjia, 108 ; tables (332) 150, 

(236) 155, (236) 160, (74) 163, (45) 166, (86) 

174. 
Cupuliferoi, 80-95. 
Curled Maple, 22. 
Custard Apple, 4. 

Cuyamaca Mountains, 98, 106, 115, 121, 131. 
Cyllene picta (locust-borer), 27. 
Cypress, Bald, 112. 



184 



INDEX. 



Cypress, Black, 112. 

Cypress, Deciduous, 112. 

Cj'press, Lawson's, 108. 

Cypress, Monterey, 108. 

Cypress Point, 108. 

C3'press, Red, 112. 

Cypress, Sitka, 108. 

Cypress swamps, 59. 

Cypi'ess, White, 112. 

Cypress, Yellow, 108. 

Cyrilla rncemi/lora, 13; tables (37) 145, (191) 

155, (187) 159, (286) 165, (305) 168. 
CyrillacecB, 13. 



D^DALIA, 112. 

DcBclalla vorax, 106. 

Dahoon, 12. 

Dahoon Hollv, 12. 

Dakota, 6, 22, 34, 36, 71, 72, 74, 96, 105, 119, 

127. 
Dalea spijiosa, 26; tables (76) 145, (282) 155, 

(293) 160. 
Darling Plum, 14. 
Davenport, Iowa, 114. 
Debility, 104. 
Deciduous Cypress, 112. 
Decoctions, 40, 45, 49, 64, 89, 111. 
Delaware, 39, 59, 63, 76, 78, 83, 84, 88, 91, 

94, 95, 97, 98, 101, 112, 122, 129. 
Desert Willow, 66. 
Devil's River, 32, 33, 61, 72, 75. 
Devil-wood, 64. 
Diamond Willow, 102. 
Diarrhoea, 16, 40, -59, 99. 
Digger Pine, 121. 
Dilly, Wild, 58. 
Diospyros Texana, 59; tables (185) 147, (62) 

153, (73) 158. 
Diospyros Virglniana, 58; tables (184) 147, 

(93) 154, (92) 159, (198) 164, (102) 167, (94) 

170, (32) 173. 
DlphoUs salicifolia, 57; tables (177) 147, (35) 

153, (30) 158, (16) 163, (23) 166, (12) 169, 

(57) 173. 
District of Columbia, 39, 91. 
Diuretics, 25, 108, 111. 
Doctor-gum. 25. 
Dogwood, 49. 
Dogwood, Flowering, 49. 
Dogwood, Jamaica, 28. 
Dogwood, Striped, 20. 
Door-blinds, 115. 
Douglas Fir, 130. 
Downward Plum, 58. 
Drypetes crocea, 70; tables (219) 148, (39) 

153, (52) 158, (83) 163, (138) 167, (27) 169, 

(25) 173. 
Drypetes crocea, var. Intifolia, 70 ; tables 

(2191) 148, (33) 153, (55) 158, (174) 164, 

(186) 167, (85)170, (14) 173. 



Drypetes (/lauca, 70. 
Dry rot, 106. 
Duck Oak, 91. 
Dunnage of vessels, 128. 
Dwarf Maple, 21. 
Dwarf Sumach, 24. 
Dyes, 24, 25, 28, 60, 76, 89. 
Dysentery, 80. 
Dyspepsia, 10, 16. 



Eagle Mountains, 54. 

Eastern States, 89. 

Eastern White Oak, 81. 

Eastern White Pine, 115. 

EbenacecB, 58, 59. 

Edible seeds, 117, 118, 121. 

Ehrelica elUptica, 65; tables (205) 148, (214) 

155, (218) 160, (304) 165, (177) 167, (226) 

171, (93) 174. 
Elastic, Gum, 57. 
Elasticity, tables, 163-165. 
Elder, 51. 
Elder, Box, 23. 
Elder, Poison, 25. 
Elemi, Gum, 10. 
Elk-wood, 3. 
Elm, American, 71. 
Elm, Cedar, 70. 
Elm, Cliff, 71. 
Elm, Cork, 71. 
Elm, Hickory, 71. 
Elm, Moose, 71. 
Elm, Red, 71. 
Elm, Rock, 71. 
Elm, Slippery, 6, 71. 
Elm, Water, 71. 
Elm, White, 71. 
Elm, Winged, 71. 
Emetics, 13, 25, 27. 
Empyreumatic oil, 96. 
Enceno, 87. 

Engravhig, 55. (See Wood-engraving.) 
Ericacem, 53-55. 
Erie, Lake, 39, 55, 75-78, 80, 84. 
Eugenia buxifoUa, 47; tables (144) 147, (31) 

153, (6) 163, (33) 158, (39) 166, (1) 169, (15) 

173. 
Eugenia dichpioma, 47; tables (145) 147, (50) 

153, (43) 158. 
Eugenia longipes, 48; tables (147) 147, (6) 

153, (7) 158. 
Eugenia monticola, 48 : tables (146) 147, (41) 

153, (39) 158, (69) 163, (17) 166, (58) 169, 

(13) 173. 
Euf/enia procera, 48; tables (148) 147, (27) 

153, (38) 163, (16) 166, (18) 169, (10) 173, 

(34) 158. 
Euonymus atropurpureus, 14 ; tables (39) 145, 

(201) 155, (197) 160. 
Euphorbiacece, 70. 



INDEX. 



185 



Europe, 99. ' 

Everglades, 4, 34, 4G, 47. 

Extracts, 45. 

Exosttma Caribctum, 52; tables (IGO) 147, 

(36) 153, (29) 158, (35) 103, (58) IGG, (8) 

109, (7) 173. 
Eystnhardtia orthocarpa, 26 ; tables (75) 145, 

(52) 153, (53) 158. 



Facjus fkhkuginea, 94; tables (291) 149, 

(184) 154, (181) 159, (32) 1G3, (24) 1G6, 

(120) 170, (135) 174. 
Fairlield County, Conn., 45. 
Fan-loaf Palm, 135. 
Farkle-berry, 53. 
Faxon, C E., viii. 
Febrifuges, 100. (See Fevers.) 
Fellies, for wheels, 32, 93. 
Fence-boards, 105. 
Fence-posts, 29, 05, GO, 69, 75, 102, 108, 113, 

114, 134. 
Fencing, 32, 49, 03. 71, 73, 74, 81, 82, 84, 85, 

94, 97, 107, 110-112, 117, 120, 128. 
Fetid Buckeye, 17. 
Fevers, 17, 49, 52, 04, 104. 
Ficusaurea, 73; tables (229) 148, (429) 157, 

(429) 162, (310) 105, (308) 108, (310) 172, 

(310) 170. 
Ficus brev'i folia, 73; tables (230) 148, (220) 

155, (210) 175, (240) 100. 
Ficus pedunculaia, 73; tables (231) 148, (342) 

150, (362) 101, (301) 165, (309) 108, (299) 172. 
Fiddle-wood, 00. 
Fig, Wild, 73. 
Fir, Balm-of-Gilead, 131. 
Fir, Balsam, 131, 132. 
Fir, Douglas, 130. 
Fir, Red, 130, 133, 134. 
Fir, White, 132. 
Fir, Yellow, 130, 131. 
Fishes, poison for, 28. 
Fish-hooks, 113. 
Fishing-nets, 21. 
Flathead Lake, 16, 96. 
Flathead Region, 127. 
Flathead River, 98, 115, 135. 
Floats, 51. 

Floornig. 2, 22, 63, 71, 103, 108. 118. 
Florida, 1, 3-15, 17-19,22-25, 28-32, 34-37, 

39, 41-50, 52-84, 80, 88-95, 97, 99, 100, 105, 

107, 111-114, 123-120, 135, 136. (Mostly 

relating to limit of distribution.) 
Florida Coast, 80. 
Florida Keys, 80. 
Flour, 32. 

Flowering Dogwood, 49. 
Fodder, 32. 
Forestiera acuminata, 63; tables (199) 148, 

(228) 155. (226) 160, (233)105, (182)107, 

(210) 171, (101) 174. 



Fork-leaved Black Jack, 90. 

Foulweather, Cape, 80. 

Foxtail Pine, 118. 

Franklinia, 5. 

Fraser River, 21, 35, 36, 51, 96, 98, 105, 133. 

Fruxinus Americana, 61; tables (192) li"', 

(200) 155, (205) 100, (97) 164, (110) 167, 

(68) 169, (137) 170, (160) 174. 
Fraxinus Americana, var. Texensis, 61 ; 

tables (192) 147, (109) 154, (109) 159, (73) 

163, (29) 166, (129) 174. 
Fraxinus anomala, GO; tables (190) 147, (200) 

155, (199) 160. 
Fraxinus Greijijii, 60; tables (189) 147, (94) 

154, (93) 159. 

Fraxinus Orcf/ana, 63; tables (197) 148, (269) 

155, (268) 160, (164) 164, (210) 1G8, (84) 
170, (165) 174. 

Fraxinus pistacicefolia, 61; tables (191) 147, 

(188) 154, (419) 157, (185) 159, (261) 165, 

(234) 168, (227) 171, (115) 174. 
Fraxinus ijistacicefolia, var. coriacea, 61. 
Fraxinus platycarpa, 62; tables (195) 148, 

(420) 102, (290) 105, (209) 168, (312) 172, 

(193) 175. 
Fraxinus pubescens, 61; tables (193) 147, 

(237) 155, (233) 160, (188) 164, (105) 167, 

(169) 170, (120) 174. 
Fraxinus quadrangulata, 62; tables (19G) 

148, (154) 154, (156) 159, (202) 105, (128) 

107, (100) 170, (101) 174. 
Fraxinus sambucifolia, 03; tables (198) 148, 

(232) 155, (229) IGO, (148) 164, (131) 167, 

(183) 170, (137)174. 
Fraxinus viridis, 61, 62; tables (194) 148, 

(162) 154, (160) 159, (40) 164, (95) 167, 

(120) 170, (105) 174. 
Fraxinus viridis, var. Berlandieriana, 62; 

tables (194) 148, (263) 155, (264) 160. 
Frigolito, 28. 
Fringe Tree, 64. 
Fuel, 13, 22, 28, 32, 38, 39, 46, 47, 55, G3, 70, 

77, 81, 82. 84, 85, 88-91. 95-97, 103, 105, 

110, 111, 117-119, 121-123, 125, 128, 131, 

134, 135. 
Fuel value, 141-143, 158-102. 
Furniture, 0, 20, 22, 23, 32, 63, 73, 75, 97,98, 

106, 108. 



Geiger Tree, 64. 
Genesee River, 84. 
Genipa clusioe folia, 52; tables (162) 147, (14) 

153, (14) 158. 
Georgia, 2, 5, 6, 13, 17, 20, 23-26, 43, 49-52, 

55, 57, 63,65, 76, 80, 83, 92, 104, 114, 122. 

(Relating generall_v to limit of distribution.) 
Georgia Bark, 52. 
Georgian Bay, 95, 111. 
Georgia Pine, 125. 
Giant Cactus, 48 



186 



INDEX. 



Gila River, 10, 26, 27, 30, 32, 38, 74. 

Gilead, Balm of, 104, 131. 

Ginger Pine, 108. 

Glambevrv, 7. 

Glass-factories, 50. 

Glaucous "Willow, 101. 

Gleditschia imwosperma, 30; tables (87) 146, 

(137) 154, (138) 159, (39) 163, (52) 160, (44) 

169, (55) 173. 
Gleditschia triacanthos, 29; tables (86) 145, 

(193) 155. (190) 160, (66) 163, (81) 166, 

(99) 170, (164) 174. 
Gleditschia triacanthos, var. inermis, 29. 
Gold Range, 115, 129, 134. 
Goose-foot Maple, 20. 
Gopher Plum, 50. 
Gopher-wood, 28. 
Gordonia Lasianthus, 5: tables (14) 144, 

(344) 150, (193) 164, (344) 161, (209) 168, 

(225) 171, (253) 175. 
Gordonia pubescens, 5; table (15) 144. 
Gout, 8, 10, 96, 100. 
Graham, Mount, 127. 
Grand Rapids, 102. 
Grand River, 24. 
Grape, Sea, 68. 
Grape sugar, 32. 
Gray Birch, 95, 97. 
Gray Pine, 125. 
Great Basin, 38, 110, 117, 118. 
Great Bear Lake, 96, 103, 104, 125, 131, 134. 
Great Laurel, 55. 
Green Ash, 62. 
Green-barked Acacia, 30. 
Ground Ash, 63. 
Guadalupe Island, 109. 

Guadalupe Mountains, 37, 54, 84, 86, 115, 130. 
Guadalupe River, 8, 18, 26, 33, 37, 59, 65, 71, 

99, 136. 
Guaiac, 8. 

Guaiacum officinale, 7. 
Guaiacum sanctum, 7; tables (20) 144, (4) 153. 

(3) 158, (154) 164, (143) 167, (11) 1.69, (1) 

173. 
Guaiacum-wood, 7, 8. 
Guettarda elliptica, 53; tables (163) 147, (68) 

153, (70) 158. 
Guiana Plum, 70. 

Gulf Coast, 37, 50, 86, 92, 107, 126, 135. 
Gulf States, 1, 3, 8, 12, 13, 15, 23, 30, 36, 43, 

44, 50, 53, 58-00, 62-64. 68, 72, 78, 80, 84, 

90, 91, 93, 97, 104, 107, 111, 112, 122, 124- 

126. (Often marking limit of distribution.) 
Gums, 25, 50. 
Gum-arabic, 32, 33. 
Gum, Black, 50. 
Gumbo Limbo, 10. 
Gum Cotton, 50. 
Gum Elastic, 57. 
Gum Elemi, 10. 
Gum, Red, 45. 



Gum, Sour, 50. 

Gum, Sweet, 45. 

Gum, Tupelo, 50. 

Gunpowder, 54, 99. 

Gunstocks, 23, 28, 77. 

Gurgeon Stopper, 47. , 

Guttiferce, 5. 

Gymnocladus Canadensis, 29; tables (85) 145, 

(175) 154, (173) 159, (82) 163, (149) 167, 

(211) 171, (170) 174. 



Hackberry, 72. 

Hackmatack, 134. 

linematuria, 99. 

Halesia diptera, 00; tables (187) 147, (270) 

155, (270) 160, (236) 165, (112) 167, (172) 

170, (132) 174. 
Halesia tetraptera, 60; tables (188) 147, (277) 

155, (277) 160. 
Halifax Bay, 123. 
Ilamamelacece, 45, 46. 
Hamamelis Vinjinica, 45; tables (138) 146, 

(185) 154, (182) 159. 
Handles, 19--21, 39, 50, 53, 54, 59, 61, 62, 95. 
H ird Maple, 21. 
Hard Pine, 125. 
Hats, wooden, 17. 
Haw, Apple, 44. 
Haw, Black, 52. 
Haw, Hog's, 41. 
Haw, May, 44. 
Haw, Parsley, 43. 
Haw, Pear, 42. 
Haw, Purple, 15. 
Haw, Red, 42, 44. 
Haw, Scarlet, 42. 
Haw, Small-fruited, 43. 
Haw, Summer, 44. 
Haw, Yellow, 44. 
Hays County, Texas, 54. 
Hazel, Witch, 45. " 
Heart-wood, 59. 
Hedges, 74. 
Hemlock, 129. 
Hemorrhage, 59, 89. 
Hernando County, Fla., 23. 
Heteromeles arhutifolia, 44; tables (136) 146, 

(34) 153, (31) 158. 
Hickory, Big-bud, 78. 
Hickory, Black, 78, 79. 
Hickory, Brown, 79. 
Hickory Elm, 71. " 

Hickory, Nutmeg, 79. 
Hickory, Pine, 118, 124. 
Hickory, Shag-bark, 77. 
Hickory, Shell-bark, 77. 
Hickory, Swamp, 79. 
Hickory, Switch-bud, 79. 
Hickory, Water, 79. 
Hickory, White-heart, 78. 



INDEX. 



187 



ffierro, Arbol de, 27. 
High Mountains, 131. 
Jlippomane Mancinella, 70; tables (221) U8, 

(2G4) 155, (283) IGO. 
Iloaiv Alder, 99. 
Hog Plum, 11, 25, 35. 
Hog's Haw, 41. 
Holly, American, 12. 
Holly, California, 44. 
Holly, Dahoon, 12. 
Honey, 6. 

Honey Locust, 29, 31. 
Honey Pod, 31. 
Honey Shucks, 29. 
Hoop Ash, 63. 
Hoop-poles, 9G. 
Hoops, 49, 03, 79. 
Hop Hornbeam, 95. 
Hops, substitute for, 10. 
Hop Tree, 9. 
Hornbeam, 95. 
Hornbeam, Hop, 95. 
Horse Plum, 34. 
Horse Sugar, 59. 
Hot Spring jMountains, 63. 
Hot Spring Valley, 20. 
House-flies, poison for, 29. 
Hubs, 49, 50, 71, 72, 97. 
Hudson's Bay (Hudson Bav), 35, 45, 51, 96, 

103, 104, 125, 120, 131, 134'. (Often marking 

limit of distribution.) 
Hupiber River, 39. 
Humboldt County. Cal., 109. 
Humboldt Range, 21. 
Hummocks, 47, 53, 80, 91, 125. 
Huron, Lake, 20, 40. 82, 94, 95, 97, 99. 
Hydrocyanic acid, 11, 30. 
Hypdate. panicidoin, 19; tables (50) 145, 

(23) 153, (23) 158, (59) 103, (14) 100, (21) 

109. 
Hypelate trifoUata, 19; tables (57) 145, (43) 

153, (40) 158, (104) 170, (17) 173. 



Idaho, 10, 21, 36, 38, 41, 98, 102, 104, 107, 

113, 115, 119, 121, 129, 130, 132. 
Ilex Casslne, 12; tables (35) 145, (148) 154, 

(47) 159. 
Jlex Dahoon, 12; tables (34) 144, (337) 

156, (339) 161, (257) 168, (263) 171, (225) 

175. 
JJex Dahoon, var. anejusti folia, 12. 
Jlex Dahoon, var. mi/rtifolla, 12; tables (34) 

144. (258) 155, (258) 100, (252) 105. 
Jlex decniua, 13; tables (36) 145, (132) 154, 

(135) 159, 
Jlex opaca, 12; tables (33) 144, (201) 155, 

(15G) 174, (2G1) 100, (250) 105, (195) 107, 

(188) 171. 
Jlirin, 12. 
Jlicinece, 12, 13. 



niinois, 2, 7, 13, 15, 30, 35, 39, 43, 4.5, 50,63, 

57, 58, GO, 03, 06, 72, 77, 78, 83, 84, 90, 94, 

90, 103, 104, lOG, 112, 114, 124, 134. (Often 

indicating limit of distribution.) 
Illinois Nut, 77. 

Indentation, power to resist, 173-176. 
Lidiana, 7, 12, 30, 45, 51, 00, 72, 77, 78, 83, 

84, 89, 90, 94, 97, 104, 112, 123, 134. (Often 

indicating limit of distribution.) 
Indian Bean, 05. 
Indian Cherry, 15. 
Indian Peninsula. 11. 
Indian River, 22, 5.5-58, 73. 
India-rubber Tree, 73. 
Indians: Coast, 21; tlour, 32; dried fruit, 49; 

manufactures, 113; canoes, 107; food, 118. 
Indian Territory, 0, 9, 15, 17, 22, 24, 2G, 29, 

31, 30, 39, 42,^45, 52, 58, 01, 09, 71, 72, 74, 

76-79, 82, 84, 88-90, 95, 97, 98, 103, 111, 124. 

(Often indicating limit of distribution.) 
Infusions, 36, 40, 52. 
Ink-wood, 19. 
Inlaying, 24, 
Insecticide, 108. 
Interior finish, 23, 36, 61, 63, 66, 68, 69, 76, 

77, 81, 88, 100-108, 111, 114, 115, 128, 1-32. 
Intermittent fever, 49, 52, 04, 104. (See 

Fevers.) 
Invo Mountains, 116. 
Iowa, 4, 17, 35, 39, 58, 62, 69, 71, 76, 77, 83, 

88, 95, 97, 102, 114. 
Ithaca, N. Y., 23. 
Iron Mountain, 13. 
Iron Oak, 82. 
Iron-wood, 13, 19, 27, 58. 
Iron-wood, Black, 15. 
Iron-wood, Red, 14. 
Iron-wood, White, 19, 95. 
Islav, 38. 
Ivy] 55. 



Jack, Black, 89, 90. 

Jack, Blue, 92. 

Jack, Fork-leaved Black, 90. 

Jack Oak, 89. 

Jack, Sand, 92. 

Jacquinia n7'mUla7'is, 56; tables (174) 147, 

(173) 154, (189) 160. 
Jamaica Dogwood, 28. 
Jiimes Bay, 40, 106. 
Japan, 98. 
Jaws, for ships, 69. 
Jersey Pine, 123. 
Jcsup, Morris K., vii, viii. 
Jocko River, 36. 
Joe-wood, 56. 
Joshua, The, 137. 
Joshua Tree, 137. 
Judas Tree, 31. 
Juglandacece, 76-89. 



188 



INDEX. 



Juglans cinerea, 7G; tables (238) 148, (397) 

150, (3'JG) IGl, (187) 1G4, (215) 1G8, (217) 

171, (2G0) 175. 
Juglans nigra, 76; tables (239) 148, (242) 

155, (242) IGO, (G5) 1G3, (113) 167, (45) 169, 

(134) 174. 
Juglans rupestvis, 11 ; tables (240) 148, (203) 

155, (207) 160, (222) 165, (244) 168, (167) 

170, (149) 174. 
June-berry, 45. 
Juniper, 109, 110. 
Junlperus Californica, 109; tables (336) 150, 

(234) 155, (234) 160. 
Juniperus Californica, var. Ufahensis, 110; 

tables (3361) 150, (283) 155, (282) 160. 
Juniperus occidentalism 110; tables (338) 150, 

(265) 155, (262) 160, (144) 173. 
Juniperus occidentalis, var. conjugens, 111 ; 

tables (338^) 150, (179) 154, (176) 159, (217) 

165, (286) 168, (80) 170, (51) 173. 
Juniperus occidentalis, var. monosperma, 110; 

tables (3381) 150, (IGI) 154, (161) 159. 
Juniperus Pachyphlcea, 110; tables (337) 150, 

(259) 155, (252) 160, (258) 165, (154) 167. 
Juniperus Virginiana, 111; tables (339) 150, 

(325) 156, (324) 161, (244) 165, (166) 167, 

(195) 171, (183) 174. 



Kalmia latifolta, 55; tables (170) 147, 

(157) 154, (155) 159, (265) 165, (227) 168, 

(177) 170, (69) 173. 
Kamtschatka, 40. 
Kansas, 4, 8, 14, 15, 17, 21, 29, 36, 39, 58, 61, 

69, 74-79, 82, 84, 88-92, 95, 97, 111, 124. 

(Often indicating the limit of distribution.) 
Kentucky, 2, 3, 7, 28-30, 66, 71, 72, 77. 83, 84, 

90, 91,^93, 94, 97, 103, 104, 112, 122, 123. 

(Often indicating the limit of distribution.) 
Kentucky Coffee-tree, 29. 
Kern County, Cal., 134. 
Kern River, 118. 
Key Largo, 47, 135. 
Ke^- West, 5. 
King Nut, 78. 
King River, 118. 
Klamath River, 39, 103, 110. 
Knack-away, 65. 
Knees, of vessels, 134. 
Knob-cone Pine, 122. 



Labuador, 35, 40, 45, 96, 101, 103, 126, 127, 

131, 134. (Often' indicating the limit of 

distribution.) 
Lacquer, 25. 
Laguncularia racemosa, 47; tables (142) 147, 

(160) 154, (165) 159, (225) 165, (272) 168, 

(154) 170, (181) 174. 
Lake County, Cal., 109. 
Lancaster County, Pa., 82. 



Lances, Indian, 49. 

Lancewood, 69. 

Larch, 134. 

Larch, Black, 134. 

Large-leaved Cucumber Tree, 2. 

Large Tupelo, 50. 

Largo, Key, 47. (See Key Largo.) 

I.arix Americana, 134; tables (401)152, (239) 

155, (238) 160, (23) 103, (94) 167, (73) 109, 

(226) 175. 
Larix LyalUi, 135; table (403) 152. 
Larix occidentalis, 134; tables (402) 152, 

(135) 154, (130) 159, (1) 163, (7) 166, (15) 

169, (191)174. 
Larkin's Station, 116. 
La Salle, 111., 114. 

Lasts, 57. . 

Laths, 106. 
Lauracece, 68, 69. 
Laurel, Big, 1. 
Laurel, California, 69. 
Laurel, Great, 55. 
Laurel, Mountain, 69. 
Laurel Oak, 91, 92. 
Laurel, Swamp, 1. 
Laurel, Sweet, 1. 
Laurel, White, 1. 
Lawson's Cypress, 108. 
Lead-pencils, 111. 
Leather, 84, 128-131. 
Leguminosce, 26-34. 
LeuccBna glauca, 32; tables (95) 146, (38) 153, 

(41) 158. 
Leuccena puherulenfa, 33; tables (96) 146, 

(194) 155, (193) 160. 
Levers, 39, 95. 
Lever-wood, 95. 
Libocedrus decurrens, 106; tables (326) 150, 

(401) 156, (401) 161, (165) 164, (200) 168, 

(206) 171, (255) 175. 
Lignum-vitce, 7, 8. 
Lignum Guaiaci, 1. 
LiliacrcE, 136, 137. 
Limbo, Gumbo, 10. 
Limbs, artificial, 17. 
Lime, Ogeechee, 50. 
Lime Tree, 6. 
Lime, Wild, 9, 10. 
Limestone Hills, 111. 
Limpia Mountains, 88, 92, 115. 
Lin, 6. 

Linden, American, 6. 

Liquidamhar Styraciflua, 45; tables (139) 
146, (253) 155,' (255) 160, (153) 164, (222) 
168, (134) 170, (200) 175. 
Liquidamber, 45. 
Liriodendrin, a tonic, 3. 
lAriodendron, 3. 

Liriodendron Tulipifera, 3; tables (8) 144, 
(385) 156, (283) 1(51, (131) 164, (215) 168, 
(2421 171, (273) 175. 



INDEX. 



189 



Little River, 66. 

Live Oak, 8G-88. 

Live Oak, Coast, 87. 

Loblollv Bay, 5. 

Loblolly Pine, 122. 

Locust, 26, 27. 

Locust, Black, 20, 29. 

Locust-borer, 27. 

Locust, Clammy, 27. 

Locust, Honey, 2!), 31. 

Locust, Sweet, 29. 

Locust, Water, 30. 

Locust, Yellow, 26. 

Lodge-pole Pine, 120. 

Logwood, 15. 

Long Island, 15, 74, 80, 90, 96, 97, 104, 123. 

Long Island Sound, 58. 

Long-leaved Cucumber Tree, 3. 

Long-leaved Pine, 125. 

Lost Man's River, 46, 07. 

Louisiana, 1, 2, 8, 9, 12, 13, 18, 23, 25, 30, 31, 
39, 41, 43, 44, 51, 54, 55, 59, 00, 64, 66, 72, 
77, 80, 83, 84, 104, 124-126. (Often indi- 
cating the limit of distribution.) 

Lumber, 46, 106, 108, 112, 115-123, 125-128, 
130, 132-135. 

Lumbermen, 129. 131. 

LysUoma latisiliquri, 34; tables (100) 146, 
(219) 155, (222) 100, (292) 165, (264) 168, 
(122) 170, (159) 174. 



Machinery, bearings, 17, 40, 49, 54. 
Mackenzie River, 89, 101, 103, 115, 121, 125- 

127, 134. 
Madura aurantiaca, 74; tables (234) 148, 

(100) 154, (99) 159, (122) 164, (27) 166, (4) 

169, (24) 173. 
Madeira-wood, 11. 
Madrona, 54. 
Magnolia, 1, 2. 
Magnolincece, 1-3. 

Magnolia aciiminata, 2; tables (3) 144, (347) 

156, (346) 161, (129) 164, (208) 168, (197) 

171„(233) 175. 
Magnolia cordata, 2; tables (4) 144, (391) 

156, (390) 161, (125) 164, (243) 168, (200> 

171, (261) 175. 
Magnolia Fraseri, 3 ; tables (7) 144, (318) 156, 

(318) 161, (120) 104, (185) 167, (190) 171, 

(212) 175. 
Magnolia glaiica, 1; tables (2)144, (316) 156, 

(315) 161, (133) 164, (170) 167, (181) 170, 

(246) 175. 
Magnolia grandijlora, 1 ; tables (1) 144, (226) 

155, (223) 160,(139) 164, (139) 167, (118) 

170, (131) 174. 

Magnolia macrophylla, 2; tables (5) 144, 
(296) 156, (290) 161, (41) 163, (191) 167, 
(110) 170, (262) 175. 

Magnolia, Mountain, 2. 



Magnolia Umbrella, 2, 3; tables (6) 144, (.368) 

156, (367) 161, (213) 105, (250) 168, (247) 

171, (271) 175. 
Mahogany, 11. 
Mahogany Birch 97. 
Mahogany, Mountain, 38, 39. 
Maine, 50", 75, 79. 80, 82, 83, 88, 89, 94, 107, 

125, 127. (Often indicating the limit of 

production.) 
Malabar, Cape, 4, 5, 79, 90, 91, 92, 95, 111, 122. 

(Often indicating the limit of distribution.) 
Malarial fever, 49. (See Fevers.) 
Mallets, 40. 
Malpighiacecs, 7. 
Manatee, 24. 
Manchineel, 70. 
Manchineel, Mountain, 25. 
Manchuria, 98. 
Mangrove, 46, 47. 
Mangrove, Black, 67. 
Mangrove, Red, 07. 
Mangrove, White, 47. 
Manitoba, 23, 42. 
Manitoba, Lake, 34. 
Maple, Ash-leaved, 23. 
Maple, Bird's-eye, 22. 
Maple, Broad-leaved, 20. 
Maple, Curled, 22. 
Maple, Dwarf, 21. 
Maple, Goose-foot, 20. 
Maple, Hard, 21. 
Maple, Mountain, 20. 
Maple, Red, 22. 
Maple, Silver, 22. 
Maple, Soft, 22. 
Maple, Striped, 20. 
Maple, Sugar, 21. 
Maple, Swamp, 22. 
Maple, Vine, 21. 
Maple, Water, 22. 
Maple, White, 22. 
Maple-sugar, 22, 23. 
Marl-berry, 50. 

Martha's Vineyard, Mass., 82. 
Maryland, 25, 98. 
Massachusetts, 1, 8, 12, 42, 09, 76, 82, 84, 91, 

97, 99, 118. (Often indicating the limit of 
distribution.) 
Mastic, 56. 

Matagorda Bay, 9, 28, 53, 59, 136. 
Matanzas Inlet, 30, 36, 90. 
Match-boxes, 97. 
Matches, 114, 108. 
Mate7'ia Meclica, American, 2. 
^fathematical instruments, 54. 
Matting, 6. 
Maul Oak, 87. 
Mauls, 40, 41, 50. 
jVIay Cherry, 45. 
May Haw, 44. 
Meadow Pine, 126. 



190 



INDEX. 



Medicine, 2, 3, 5, 14, 16, 71. 

Meliacecc, 11. 

Mendocino, Cape, 113. 

Mendocino County, 16, 18, 41, 87, 114, 120, 
124, 128. (Often indicating the limit of 
distribution.) 

Meramcc River, 15. 

Merrimac Kiver, 97. 

Mesquit, 31. 

Mesquit, Screw-pod, 32. 

Metacombe Key, 4, 14. 

Mexican Banana, 137. 

^Mexican Mulberry, 74. 

Mexican Persimmon, 59. 

Mexicans, 137. 

Mexico, 8, 9, 15, 18, 23, 26, 30-33, 39, 45, 51, 
54, 56-62, 64, 66, 74, 75, 85, 86, 98, lOsJ, 
110, 117, 119, 130, 136, 137. (Often indi- 
cating line or limit of distribution.) 

Miami, Fla., 25, 48, 66. 

Michigan, 3, 4, 17, 29, 35, 40, 42, 50, 62, 69, 
71, 72, 74, 76-80, 82-84, 88, 92, 94-96, 104, 
106, 111, 114, 118, 126, 127, 129, 131. (Often 
indicating line or limit of distribution.) 

Michigan, Lake, 3, 114, 125. 

Mlmusops Sieberi, 58; tables (183) 147, (9) 
153, (10) 158, (100) 164, (82) 166, (141) 170, 
(19) 173. 

Minnesota, 8, 9, 20, 22, 24, 25, 29, 31, 39, 40, 
49, 61, 62, 76, 77, 79, 80, 88, 89, 95-97, 99, 
104, 106, 111, 114, 118, 125, 127, 131, 134. 
(Often indicating line or limit of distribu- 
tion.) 

Minnesota River, 29. 

Mississippi, 2, 3, 13, 24, 29, 31, 35, 39, 60, 61, 
65, 71, 72, 75-77, 83, 84, 88-90, 107, 125. 
(Often indicating line or limit of distribu- 
tion.) 

Mississippi Basin, 45, 51, 94, 101, 112. 

Mississippi Delta, 46. 

Mississippi River, 1, 3, 5, 14, 23, 26, 62, 67, 
73-75, 80, 82, 85, 101, 121, 125. (Often in- 
dicating line or limit of distribution.) 

Mississippi Valley, 12, 13. 

Missouri, 3, 8. 13, 15, 22, 24, 25, 31, 41, 42, 
50-53, 58, 62, 63, 66, 72, 77, 81, 83, 84, 88, 
90, 91, 93-95, 97, 99, 101, 112, 124. (Often 
indicating line or limit of distribution.) 

Missouri Rh-er, 14, 34, 36, 102. 

Mobile Bay, 54, 57, 91, 107. 

Mocker-nut. 78. 

Mock Orange, 37. 

Mogoilon Range, 133. 

Mohave Desert, 137. 

Llohave Mountains, 27. 

Mohave River, 137. 

Montana, 14, 16, 21, 23, 35, 37, 38, 41, 62, 82, 
96, 98, 102, 104, 105, 107, 113, 115, 116, 119, 
121, 127, 128, 130, 132, 134, 135. (Often 
indicating line or limit of distribution.) 

Monte Diablo, 121. 



Monterey, 108, 121. 

Monterey Bay, 80, 113. 

Monterey County, 112. 

Monterey Cypress, 108. 

Monterey Pine, 121. 

Moose Elm, 71. 

Moose-wood, 20. 

Morns microphylla, 74; tables (233) 148, (101) 

154, (101) 159. 

Morus rubra, 74; tables (232) 148, (255) 155, 

(256) 160, (179) 164, (147) 167, (187) 171, 

(153) 174. 
Mosquito Inlet, 1, 9, 11, 12, 19, 35, 46, 47, 56, 

58, 67, 68, 91, 112. (Limit of distribution.) 
Mossy-cup Oak, 82. 
Moulds, 97. 
Mountain Ash, 40. 
Mountain Laurel, 69. 
Mountain Magnolia, 2. 
Mountain Mahogany, 38, 39. 
Mountain Manchineel, 25. 
Mountain Maple, 20. 
Mountain Plum, 11. 
Mountain White Oak, 85. 
Mulberry, Mexican, 74. 
Mulberry, Red, 74. 
Mycjinda pallens, 14; tables (40) 145, (46) 

153, (48) 158. 
Myricacece, 80. 
Myrica Calif ornica, 80; tables (250) 149, 

(195) 155, (191) 100, (104) 164, (49) 166, 

(79) 170, (142) 174. 
Myrica cerifera, 80; tables (249) 149, (276) 

155, (276) 160, (144) 164, (124) 167, (161) 
170, (189) 175. 

MyrsinacecB, 55, 56. 

Myrsine liapanea, 55; tables (172) 147, (67) 

153, (68) 158. 
Myrtaceoe, 47, 48. 
Myrtle, Blue, 16. 
Myrtle, ^Yax, 80. 



Naked Wood, 17, 47. 

Nanny-berr}', 51. 

Narcotics, 28. 

Nastapohee Sound, 126. 

Natchez, Miss., 1. 

Nebraska, 6, 8, 22, 29, 31, 42, 61, 71, 74-76, 

78, 79, 81, 84, 89, 92, 99, 102, 111. (Often 

indicating line or limit of distribution.) 
Neches River, 50, 94. 
Necklace Poplar, 105. 
Nectandra Willdenoviana, 68; tables (216) 

148, (104) 154, (102) 159. 
Nefjundo aceroides, 23; tables (67) 145, (378) 

156, (377) 161, (267) 165, (270) 168, (284) 

171, (284) 175. 
Negundo Californicum, 23; tables (68) 145, 

(335) 156, (336) 161, (119) 164, (137) 167, 

(163) 170, (234) 175. 



INDEX. 



191 



Nelson River, 40. 

Nestucca Kiver, 133. 

Net-floats, 51. 

Nevada, 21, 31, 32, 38, 61, 103, 105, 106, 110, 
111, 116, 118, 119, 137. (Often indicating 
line or limit of distribution.) 

New Braunfels, 18, 65. 

New Brunswick, 6, 22, 24, 42, 49, 55, 61, 76, 
82, 88, 95, 97, 99, 104, 10(;, 111, 122, 129. 
(Often indicating line or limit of distribu- 
tion.) 

Newcastle Thorn, 42. 

New England, 3, 24, 25. 34, 40, 45, 49, 55, 
74, 99, 104. 105. (Oiien Indicating line or 
limit of distribution.) 

Newfoundland, 21, 40, 42, 63, 71, 96, 97, 99, 
103, 112, 118, 126, 127, 131, 134. (Often 
indicating line or limit of distribution.) 

New Hampshire, 75. 

New Jersey, 1, 92. 

New Mexico, 9, 15, 16. 18. 19, 21, 23, 27, 28, 
31-33, 37-42, 61, 64, 66, 74, 75, 77, 82, 85, 
87, 92, 96, 98-100, 102, 103, 105, 106, 109- 
lil, 115-117, 119-121, 133, 137. (Often 
indicating line or limit of distribution.) 

New York, 2-4, 14, 15, 23, 29, 39, 51, 55, 58, 
71, 74, 84, 88-91, 96, 97, 100, 106, 123, 124. 
(Often indicating line or limit of distribu- 
tion.) 

Niagara River, 9. 

Nipigon, Lake, 114, 118. 

No Name Key, 48. 

North America, 17, 41, 43, 57, 71, 75, 77, 103, 
114. 

North Atlantic States, 90. 

North Carolina, 1-3, 6, 17, 20, 27, 28, 35, 37, 
40, 53, 57, 68, 72, 79, 83, 90-92, 97, 104, 
106, 122, 12.3, 127, 129, 131, 135. (Often 
indicating line or limit of distribution.) 

Northeastern States, 40. 

Northern States, 20, 24, 42, 49, 51, 55, 63, 95, 
97, 104, 106, 114, 118, 126, 129, 131, 134. 
(Often indicating line or limit of distribu- 
tion.) 

Northport, L. L, 104. 

North, the, 88, 106. 

Northwest, the, 89. 

Norway Pine, 118. 

Nova Scotia, 55, 61, 82, 88, 94, 95, 97, 104, 
129. (Often indicating line or limit of dis- 
tribution.) 

Nueces River, 9, 33, 51, 65, 79, 82, 90, 112. 
(Often indicating line or limit of distribu- 
tion.) 

Nutmeg, California, 114. 

Nutmeg, Hickory, 79. 

Nut, Illinois, 77. 

Nut Pine, 116, 117. 

Nuts, 77, 78, 94. 

Nut, Tallow, 11. 

Nyctaginacece, 67. 



Nyssa aquaticn, 50. 

Nyssa cnpitata, 50; tables (153) 147, (354) 

156, (3.52) 161, (240) 165, (198) 167, (175) 

170, (176) 174. 
Nyssa sylvaticM, .50; tables (154) 147, (2<?7) 

155, (224) 160, (184) 164, (118) 167, (131) 

170, (133) 174. 

Nyssa unijiora, 50; tables (155) 147, (303) 

156, (305) 161, (282) 165, (217) 168, (249) 

171, (168) 174. 



Oaks, American, 83. 

Oak, Bartram's, 92. 

Oak, Basket, 84. 

Oak, Black, 87-89. 

Oak, Blue, 85. 

Oak, Bur, 82. 

Oak, Chestnut. 84, 93. 

Oak, Chinquapin, 84. 

Oak, Coast Live, 87. 

Oak, Cow, 84. 

Oak, Duck, 91. 

Oak, Iron, 82. 

Oak, Jack, 89. 

Oak, Laurel, 91, 92. 

Oak, Live, 86-88. 

Oak, Maul, 87. 

Oak, Mossy-cup, 82. 

Oak, Mountain White, 85. 

Oak openings, 83. 

Oak, Over-cup, 82, 83. 

Oak, Peach, 93. 

Oak, Pin, 91. 

Oak, Possum, 91. 

Oak, Post, 82. 

Oak, Punk, 91. 

Oak, Quercitron, 89. 

Oak, Red, 88, 90. 

Oak, Rock Chestnut, 84. 

Oak, Scarlet, 88. 

Oak, Scrub, 82, 90. 

Oak, Shingle, 92. 

Oak, Spanish, 90. 

Oak, Swamp Post, 83. 

Oak, Swamp Spanish, 91. 

Oak, Swamp White, 83. 

Oak, Tan-bark, 93. 

Oak, Turkey, 90. 

Oak, Upland Willow, 92. 

Oak, Valparaiso, 87. 

Oak, Water, 91. 

Oak, Water White, 83. 

Oak, Weeping, 81. 

Oak, White, 80, 81, 83-85. 

Oak, Willow, 93. 

Oak, Yellow, 84, 89. 

Oak, Yellow-bark, 89. 

Oars, 61. 

Obispo Pine, 124. 

Ogeechee Lime, 50. 



192 



INDEX. 



Ogeechee River, 50. 

Ohio, 39, 58, 71, 89, 100. (Often indicating 

line or limit of distribution.) 
Ohio Basin, 59, 61. 
Ohio Buckeve, 17. 

Ohio River,' 15, 22, 29, 74, 75, 81, 89, 104. 
Ointment, 40. 
Olacinece. 11. 
Old-tield Birch, 95. 
Old-field Pine, 122. 
Old Man's Beard, 64. 
Old World, 46. 
Oleacece, 60-64. 
Olive, California, 69. 
Olneya Tesotn, 27; tables (80) 145, (12) 153, 

(13) 158, (149) 164, (160) 107, (248) 171, 

(2) 173. 
Ontario, Canada, 3, 4, 22, 24, 29, 36, 39, 42, 

45. 49, 61, 69, 71, 72, 74-76, 79, 80, 82-84, 

88, 89, 94, 97, 104. (Often indicating line 

or limit of distribution.) 
Ontarig, Lake, 20, 75, 77, 78, 84, 95, 122. 
Orange, Mock, 37. 
Orange, Osage, 74. 
Orange, Wild, 8, 37. 
Oregon, 16, 20, 21, 36-38, 40-42, 49, 51, 54, 

63, 69, 73, 80, 81, 87, 89, 93, 98, 100-102, 

105-108, 110-112, 115, 116, 119, 120, 122, 

127, 128, 130-134. (Often indicating line 

or limit of distribution.) 
Oregon Ash, 63. 
Oregon Cedar, 108. 
Oregon Coast, 69, 107. 
Oregon Crab Apple, 40. 
Oregon Pine, 130. 
Oreodoxaregia, 136; tables (408) 152, (245) 

155, (252) 160. 
Orford, Port, Cedar, 108. 
Organ Mountains, 18. 
Osage, Fort, 102. 
Osage Orange, 74. 
Osmanthus Americanus, 64; tables (201) 148, 

(81) 154, (79) 158, (28) 163, (42) 166, (62) 

169, (80) 174. 
Ostrija Virginica, 95; tables (292) 149,(73) 153, 

(71) 158, (15) 163, (25) 166, (67) 169,(91) 174. 
Ottawa River, 95. 

Outside finish, 129. (See Inside finish.) 
Over-cnp Oak, 82, 83. 
Oxydendrum arboreum, 54; tables (169) 147, 

(126) 154, (125) 159, (143) 164, (172) 167, 

(96) 170, (123) 174. 
Ox-yokes, 50, 69, 75, 79, 97. 



Pacific Coast States, 101. 

Pacific forests, 40, 69, 87, 119. 

Pacific oaks, 81. 

Pacific Region, 37, 40, 96, 99, 100, 103, 119. 

Packing-cases, 105, 132, 133. 

Paddles, 113. 



Pidmoi, 135, 136. 

Palma Garberi, 136. 

Palmetto, Cabbage, 135. 

Palmetto, Silk-top, 136. 

Palmetto, Silver-top, 136. 

Palm, Fan-leaf, 135. 

Palm, Royal, 136. 

Paolo Verde, 30. 

Papaw, 4. 

Paper Birch, 96. 

Paper-pulp, 6, 17, 23, 105, 137. 

Paradise Tree, 10. 

Parasitic tree, 73. 

Parkinsonia nculeata, 30; tables (90) 146, 

(241) 155, (247) 100. 
Parkinsonia 77iicroj)hijlla, 30; tables (89) 146, 

(130) 154, (152) 159. 
ParJcinsonia Torreyana, 30; tables (88) 146, 

(208) 155, (209) 100, (271) 165, (267) 168, 

(191) 171,(95) 174. 
Parras, Mexico, 57. 
Parsley Haw, 43. 
Pavements, 46. 
Paving-blocks, 75. 
Peace River, 101, 127. 
Peach Oak, 93. 
Peach, Wild, 37. 
Pear Haw, 42. 

Pearl River, 2, 3, 13, 107, 125, 126. 
Pease Creek, 4, 28, 71, 79, 90, 92, 123. 
Pecan, 77. 
Pecan Butter, 79. 
Pecos River, 26, 60. 
Pegs, 22, 96. 
Pencils, 111. 

Pend d'Oreille Region, 115. 
Pennsylvania, 3, 4, 7, 9, 17, 23, 26, 29, 31, 

35, e39, 51, 54, 64, 78, 82, 92, 94, 96, 103, 

106, 114, 118, 124, 126, 131, 134. (Often 

indicating line or limit of distribution.) 
Penobscot River, 82. 
Pensacola Ba}', 123. 
Pepppridge, 50. 
Pepper-wood, 8. 
Persea Carolincnsls, 68; tables (215) 148, 

(216) 155, (215) 160, (170) 164, (93) 167, 

(50) 169, (127) 174. 
Persea Carolinensis, xar. palustris, 68; tables 

(2151)148, (221) 155, (217)160, (163)164, 

(121) 167, (245) 171, (139) 174. 
Persimmon, 58. 
Persimmon, Black, 59. 
Persimmon, Mexican, 59. 
Peru, 37. 

Pescadero Bay, 123. 
Picea alba, 127; tables (383) 151, (399) 156, 

(400) 161, (96) 164, (163) 167, (209) 171, 

(294) 175. 
Picea Enr/elmanm, 127; tables (384) 151, 

(422) 157, (423) 162, (191) 164, (256) 168, 

(306) 172, (289) 175. 



INDEX. 



193 



Picea nigra, 126, 127; tables (382) 151, 
150, (.155) IGl, (02) 10;J, (102) 107, 

171, (280) 175. 

Picea punf/ens, 128; tables ('j85) 151, 
157, (413) 102, (272) 105, (2'JO) 108, 

172, (281) 175. 
Picea rubra, 127. 

Picea Sitchensis, 128; tables (380) 151, 

150, (378) 101, (105) 104, (223) 168, 

171, (2i)5) 176. 
Picea species, 128. 
Pigeon Cherry, 35. 
Pip^eon Plum, 67. 
Pigeon-wood, 67. 
Pig-nut, 79. 

Pike's Peak, 34, 110, 117, 133. 
Piles, 118, 127, 130. (See Wharf -piles. 
Pill-boxes, 97. 
Pinckneya pubens, 52; tables (101) 147, 

155, (292) 100, (237) 165, (300) 168, 

172, (241) 175. 
Pine, Bastard, 126. 
Pine, Bishop's, 124. 
• Pine, Black, 120. 
Pine, Bull, 119-121, 124. 
Pine, Cedar, 125. 
Pine, Digger, 121. 
Pine, Eastern white, 115. 
Pine, Foxtail, 118. 
Pine, Georgia, 125. 
Pine, Ginger, 108. 
Pine, Gray, 125. 
Pine, Hard, 125. 
Pine, Hickory, 118, 124. 
Pine, Jersey, 123. 
Pine, Knob-cone, 122. 
Pine, Loblolly, 122. 
Pine, Lodge-pole, 120. 
Pine, Long-leaved, 125. 
Pine, Meadow, 126. 
Pine, Monterey, 121. 
Pine, Norway, 118. 
Pine, Nut, lie, 117. 
Pine, Obispo, 124. 
Pine, Old-field, 122. 
Pine, Oregon, 130. 
Pine, Pitch, 122. 
Pine, Pond, 123. 
Pine, Prince's, 125. 
Pine, Ked, 118. 
Pine, Rosemary, 122. 
Pine, Sand, 123. 
Pine, Scrub, 120, 123. 
Pine, Short-leaved, 124. 
Pine, Slash, 126. 
Pine, Southern, 125. 
Pine, Spruce, 120, 123-125. 
Pine, Sugar, 115. 
Pine, Swamp, 126. 
Pine, Table-mountain, 124. 
Pine, Weymouth, 114. 



(357) Pine, White, 114-116, 125. 
(204) Pine, Yellow, lllj, 124, 12.j. 

: Pin Oak, 91. 
(412) ! Pinon, 116, 117. 
(310) Pinos Altos Mountains, 41. 

Pinus albicaulis, 116, 135; tables (351) 151, 
(389) 156, (387) 101, (300) lO.J, (252) 168, 
(379) (279) 171, (236) 175. 

(261) Ptniis Arizonim, 119; tabh.-s (300) 151, (315) 
156, (313) 101, (180) 164, (220) 168, (235) 
171, (242) 175. 
Pimis BaJfouriana, 118; tables (357) 151, 
(289) 155, (288) 100, (202) 105, (298) 108, 

(273) 171, (185) 174. 
Pinus BulJ'ourinna, var. aristata, 118; tables 

(3571) 151, (281) 155, (279) 100, (229) 165, 
) (219) 108, (282) 171, (197) 175. 

Pinus Banksiana, 12'); tables (379) 151, (3-39) 
(291) 150, (340) 161, (124) 164, (221) 108, (213) 
(304) 171, (250) 175. 

Pinus cembruicles, 117; tables (354) 151, (211) 

155, (212)100. 
Pinus Chihuahuana, 120; tables (303) 151, 

(286) 155, (285) 160, (224) 105, (117) 167, 

(274) 171, (177) 174. 
Pinus clausa, 123; tables (374) 151, (279) 155, 

(278) 160, (275) 165, (277) 168, (241) 171, 

(202) 175. 
Pinus contorta, 120, 125; tables (364) 151, 

(262) 155, (260) 160, (4) 163, (63) 166, (57) 

169, (182) 174. 
Pmus CouUeri, 121; tables (367) 151, (393) 

156, (391) 161, (46) 163, (155) 167, (246) 
171, (2.59) 175. 

Ptnus Cubensis, 126; tables (381) 151, (117) 

154, (110) 159, (5) 103, (18 1 100, (23) 169, 

(145) 174. 
Pinus edulis, 117, tables (.355) 151, (223) 155, 

(219) 100, (299) 105, (291) 168, (265) 171, 

(112) 174. 
Pinus Jiexilis, 115; tables (350)151, (376) 156, 

(375) 161, (242) 167, (233) 168, (265) 171, 

(232) 175. 
Pinus (jlabra, 125; tables (.378) 151, (104) 156, 

(405) 162, (296) 165, (278) 168, (296) 172, 

(240) 175. 
Pinus inops, 123; tables (373) 151, (297) 156, 

(295) 160, (276) 265, (214) 168, (253) 171, 

(175) 174. 
Pinus insif/nis, 121; tables (368) 151, (358) 

156, (357) 161, (106) 164, (167) 167, (194) 

171, (308) 172, (243) 175. 
Pinus Jeffreyi, 120; tables (362) 151, (302) 

156, (303) 'l61, (130) 164, (164) 167, (193) 

171, (223) 175. 
Pinus Lambcrtiana, 115; tables (349) 151, 

(414) 157, (414) 162, (194) 104, (247) 168, 

(276) 171, (283) 175. 
Pmus mttis, 124; tables (377) 151, (243) 155, 

(241) 160, (13) 163, (48) 166, (127) 170, 
(204) 175. 

13 



194 



INDEX. 



Finns monophylh, 117; tables (35G) 151, (274) 

155, (275) IGO, (2t)7) 1U5, (307) 1G8, (WS) 

172, (103) 174. 
Pinus ntonticola, 115; tables (348) 151, (400) 

157, (40()) 102, (118) 104, (239) 108, (277) 

171, (302) 176. 
Pinus miiricata, 124; tables (370) 151, (322) 

150, (322) 101, (37) 103, (51) 100, (90) 170, 
(214) 175. 

Pinus Murraynna, 120, 125; tables (305) 151, 
(395) 150, (394) 101, (204) 105, (200) 108, 
(278) 171, (208) 175. 

Pinus palnstris, 122, 125, 120; tables (380) 

151, (108) 154, (107) 159, (7) 103, (20) 100, 
(29) 109, (178) 174. 

Pinus Pa rryana, 110; tables (353) 151, (272) 

155, (272) 100, (307) 105, (295) 108, (272) 

171, (130) 174. 
Pimis ponderosa, 119; tables (301) 151, (345) 

150. (342) 101, (140) 104, (179) 107, (230) 

171, (237) 175. 
Pinus ponderosa, var. scopulorum, 119. 
Pinus pun (/ens, 124; tables (375) 151, (323) 

150, (323) 101, (192) 104, (174) 107, (259) 

171, (224) 175. 
Pi7ius rejlexa, 110; tables (352) 151, (330) 

150, (.328) 101, (134) 104, (151) 105, (112) 

170, (205) 175. 
Pinus resinosa. 118; tables (358) 151, (332) 

150, (331). 101, (50) 103, (130) 107, (147) 

170, (270) 175. 

Pinus rir/ida, 122; tables (371) 151, (308) 150, 
(308) 101, (208) 105, (108) 107, (258) 171, 
(199) 175. 

Pinus Sabiniana, 121; tables (300) 151, (334) 
150, (334) 101, (204) 105, (145) 107, (275) 

171, (194) 175. 

Pinus sevotina, 123; tables (372) 151, (91) 154, 

(87) 159, (40) 103, (19) 100, (92) 170, (45) 

173. 
Pimis Strobus, 114, 115; tables (347) 151, 

(408) 157, (409) 102, (101) KM, (232) 108, 

(271) 171, (293) 175. 
Pinus Tceda, 122; tables (-370) 151, (288) 155, 

(280) 100, (51) 103, (100) 167, (179) 170, 

(238) 175. 
Pinus Torreyana. 118; tables (359) 151, (329) 

150, (323) 101, (277) 105, (150) 167, (294) 

171, (180) 175. 
Pinus tuberculata, 122; tables (309) 151, (420) 

1.57, (421) 102, (298) 105, (299) 108, (209) 

175. 
Piscidia Errjthrina, 28; tables (81) 145, (53) 

153, (01) 158, (102) 164, (158) 107, (37) 109, 

(29) 173. 
Pisonia obtusata, 07; tables (212) 148, (209) 

155, (244) 100. (291) 105, (300) 108, (288) 

171, (231) 175. 
Pistacia Mexicana, 26; table (74) 145. 
Pitch, 126. 
Pitch Pine, 122. 



Pithecolobium Unguis-cati, 34; tables (101) 

140, (45) 153, (40) 158. 
Placer County, Cal., 112. 
Planera aquatica, 72; tables (227) 148, (299) 
150, (300) 101, (273) 105, (230) 168, (216) 
171, (187) 175. 
Plane-stocks, 59^ 95. 
Plntanaceoi, 75, 76. 

Flatanus occidentalism 75; tables (235) 148, 
(271) 155, (271) 100, (152) 104, (231) 108, 
(151) 170, (160) 174. 
Plntanusracemosa, 75; tables (2-36) 148, (328) 
150, (332) 101, (255) 105, (202) 108, (283) 
171, (257) 175. 
Platanus Wrightii, 75; tables (237) 148, (343) 
150, (347) 101, (294) 165, (294) 168, (281) 
171, (221) 175. 
Plates, 46. 
Platte River, 82. 
Ploughs, 93. 
Plum, Canada, 34. 
Plum. Chickasaw, 35. 
Plum, Cocoa, 34. 
Plum, Darling, 14. 
Plum, DownAvard, 58. 
Plum, Gopher, 50. 
Plum, Guiana, 70. 
Plum, Hog, 11, 25, 35. 
Plum, Horse, 34. 
Plum, Mountain, 11. 
Plum, Pigeon, 67. 
Plum, Saffron, 58. 
Plum, Wild, 34. 
Pod, Honey, 31. 
Pods, 32. 
Poison Elder, 25. 
Poison, for fish, 28, 29. 
Poison Sumach, 25. 
Poison-wood, 25, 70. 
Polygonacew, 67, 68. 
Pond Apple, 4. 
Pond Pine, 123. 
Pond'b Extract, 45. 
Poplar, 104. 
Poplar, Carolina, 105. 
Poplar, Necklace, 105. 
Poplar, Yellow, 3. 
Populus an;justifolia, 105 ; tables (322) 150, 

(405) 157, (407) 102, (293) 165, (301) 168, 

(305) 172, (288) 175. 
Pvpulus balsamifera, 104; tables (321) 150, 

(416) 157, (415) 102, (159) 104, (266) 168, 

(285) 171, (290) 175. 
Populus balsamifera, var. candicnns, 104; 

tables (.3211) 150, (390) 156, (389) 161, 

(220) 105, (240) 168, (301) 172, (304) 

176. 
Populus Fremontii, 106; tables (325) 150, 

(320) 150, (327) 101, (78) 103, (190) 167, 

(239). 171, (200) 175. 
Pojmlus Fremontii, var. Wislizeni, 106; tables 



INDEX. 



195 



(3251) 150, (351) 156, (356) 161, (108) 164, 

(194) 167, (24;J) 171, (251) 175. 
Populus (frandidtntata^ 104; tables (319) 150, 

(350) 150, (351) 101, (114) 104, (178) 167, 

(255) 171, (309) 170. 
Populus heterophylla, 104; tables (320) 150, 

(390) 150, (397) 101, (220) 105, (225) 108, 

(298) 172, (207) 175. 
Populus monilij'era, 105; tables (324) 150, 

(407) 157, (408) 102, (103) 104, (150) 107, 

(200) 171, (272) 175. 
Populus tremuloldes, 103; tables (318) 150, 

(400) 150, (402) 101, (185) 104, (205) 108, 

(280) 171, (280) 175. 
Populus tnchocarpa, 104, 105; tables (323) 

156, (410) 157, (412) 102, (57) 163, (211) 

168, (222) 171, (308) 176. 
Pork-wood, 67. 

Porliera anfjustifoUa, 8; tables (21) 144, (7) 

153, (6) 158. 

Port Orford Cedar, 108. 

Porto Rico, 7. 

Possum Oak, 91. 

Post Cedar, 106. 

Post Oak, 82. 

Post Oak, Swamp, 83. 

Posts, 19, 26, 29, 32, 65, 94, 95, 107, 108, 111, 

112, 127, 135. 
Potash, 22. 
Poteau River, 95. 
Potomac River, 101. 
Poultices, 6. 
Prickly Ash, 8. 
Prince's Pine, 125. 
Privet, 63. 
Prosopis julijlora, 31; tables (93) 146, (108) 

154, (115) 159, (266) 165, (281) 168, (42) 

169, (27) 173. 

Prosopis pubescens, 32; tables (94) 146, (112) 

154, (113) 159, (178) 164, (96) 167, (19) 169, 

(31) 173. 
Prunus Americana, 34 ; tables (103) 146, (152) 

154, (150) 159, (177) 164, (107) 167, (43) 109, 

(111) 174. 
Prunus angustifoUa, 35; tables (104) 140, 

(183) 154, (179) 159, (259) 165, (285) 168, 

(208) 171, (198) 175. 
Prunus Cnpuli, 37; tables (109) 146, (95) 154, 

(90) 159, (70) 169, (61) 173. 
Prunus Caroliniana, 37; tables (111) 146, 

(55) 153, (51) 158, (126) 164, (80) 166, (53) 

169, (35) 173. 

Prunus demissa, 37; tables (110) 146, (171) 
154, (170) 159, (206) 165, (193) 167, (89) 

170, (81) 174. 
Prunus emarginata, 36. 

Prunus emarginata, var. molUs, S6; tables 
(107) 146, (367) 156, (366) 161, (155) 164, 
(203) 168, (140) 170, (279) 175. 

Prunus ilicifolia, 38; tables (113) 146,(21) 153, 
(17) 158,(218)165, (141)167,(66)169,(42)173. 



Prunus Pennsylvanica, 35; tables (105) 146, 

(317) 156, (317) 101, (202) 171, (245) 175. 
Prunus serotinn, ,30; tables (108) 146, (260) 

155, (259) 1,09, (1,07) 104, (119) 107, (01) 109, 

(119) 174. 
Prunus sphcerocarpa^ 37; tables (112) 146, 

(48) 153, (42> 1.08. 
Prunus umhellata, 35; tables (100) 146, (78) 

153, (72) 1,08, (101) 170, (28) 173. 
Pseudotsuga Douglasli, 119, 130; tables (391) 

151, (307) 156,' (,300) 101, (20) 103, (101) 

107, (80) 170, (252) 175. 
Pseudotsuga Douglusii, var. macrocarpa, 131 ; 

tables (3911) J5i^ (359) 150, (;j.08) 161, (79) 

163, (115) 107, (139) 170, (247) 175. 
Pttlia trifoUata, 9; tables (26) 144, (70) 153, 

(05) 158. 
Puget Sound, 10, 63, 81, 101, 105. 
Pulmonary consumption, 30, 107. (SeeTAroaf.) 
Pump-logs, 123. (See Water-pi^jts.) 
Pumps, 2, 3. 
Punk Oak, 91. 

Purgatives, 25, 27. (See Diuretics.) 
Purgatory River, 27. 
Purple Haw, 15. 
Pyrus Americana, iO; tables (120) 146, (287) 

155, (289) 100, (237) 171, (220) 175. 
Pyrus angustifoUa, 39; tables (118) 146, (181) 

154, (177) 159. 
Pyrus aucuparia, 40. 

Pyrus coronaria, 39; tables (117) 146, (166) 

154, (166) 159, (251) 165, (282) 108, (189) 

171, (78) 174. 
Pyrus rivularis, 40; tables (119) 146, (71) 153, 

(67) 158. 
Pyrus samhucifolia, 40; tables (121) 146, 

(252) 155, (251) 100. (254) 165, (292) 168, 

(231)171, (235) 175. 

QuERCus AGRiFOLTA, 87; tables (270) 149, 

(74) 153, (74) 158, (110) 164, (79) 166, (138) 

170, (87) 174. 
Quercus alba, 80, 83, 80; tables (251) 149, 

(124) 154, (123) 159, (111) 164, (89) 167, 

(87) 170, (109) 174. 
Quercus aquatica, 91 ; tables (280) 149, (151) 

154, (148) 159, (29) 163, (41) 166, (98) 170, 

(130) 174. 
Quercus bicolor, 83; tables (258) 149, (107) 

154, (105) 159, (138) 164, (85) 166, (109) 

170, (103) 174. 
Quercus Catesbcni, 90; tables (278) 149, (141) 

154, (143) 159, (85) 163, (43) 166, (144) 170, 
(94) 174. 

Quercus chrysolepis, 87; tables (268) 149, (61) 
153, (59) 158, (33) 163, (4) 166, (65) 169, 
(36) 173. 

Quercus chrysolepis, var. vaccinifoUa, 87. 

Quercus cinerea, 92; tables (283) 149, (218) 

155, (220) 160, (210) 165, (62) 166, (157) 
170, (125) 174. 



196 



INDEX. 



Qftercus coccinea, 88; tables (273) 149, (13G) 

Ibi, (131) 159, (70) 1G3, (40) IGG, (93) 170, 

(121) 174. 
Quercus deimfiora, 93; tables (287) 149, (187) 

154, (188) 159, (113) 164, (74) IGG, (128) 170, 

(100) 174. 
Quercus Douglasii, 85; tables (262) 149, (51) 

153, (45) 158, (203) 165, (60) 1G6, (55) 169, 

(20) 173. 
Quercus Durandu, 86 ; tables (266) 149, (24) 

153, (26) 158, (172) 164, (61) 166, (76) 169, 

(41) 173. 
Quercus Emoryi, 87; tables (269) 149, (37) 

153, (37) 158, (253) 165, (188) 167, (185) 
170, (12) 173. 

Quercus falcata, 90; tables (277) 149, (176) 

154, (171) 159, (11) 163, (13) 166, (38) 169, 
(124) 174. 

Quercus Garryana, 81; tables (253)149, (129) 
154, (126) 159, (190) 164, (103) 167, (91) 
170, (85) 174. 

Quercus grisea, 85; tables (264) 149, (16) 

153, (15) 158, (215) 165, (78)166, (124) 170, 
(23) 173. 

Quercus heterophylla, 92; tables (282) 149, 
(186) 154, (183) 159, (30) 163, (36) 166, 
(199) 171, (150) 174. 

Quercus hypoleuca, 92; tables (284) 149, (88) 

154, (88) 159, (121) 164, (31) 166, (293) 171, 
(63) 173. 

Quercus imbricaria, 92; tables (285) 149, (115) 

154, (114) 159, (33) 163, (8) 166, (59) 169, 
(96) 174. 

Quercus Kelloggii, 89; tables (275) 149, (215) 

155, (213) 160, (212) 165, (152) 167, (156) 
170, (158) 174. 

Quercus laurifolia, 91; tables (281) 149, (100) 

154, (107) 159, (25) 163, (15) 166, (82) 170, 

(75) 173. 
Quercus lobata, 81; tables (252) 149, (133) 

154, (132) 159, (228) 165, (108) 167, (182) 

170, (143) 174. 
Quercus lyrata, 83; tables (57) 149, (72) 153, 

(69) 158, (17) 163, (54) 166, (106) 170, (77) 

174. 
Quercus macrocarpa, 82, 89 ; tables (256) 149, 

(128) 154, (129) 159, (128) 164, (68) 166, 

(107) 170, (88) 174. 
Quercus Michauxii, 84; tables (259) 149, (85) 

154, (84) 159, (112) 164, (30) 166, (121) 170, 

(89) 174. 
Quercus Muhlenbergii, 85. 
Quercus nigra, 89; tables (276) 149, (139) 154, 

(141) 159, (109) 164, (46) 16G, (104) 170, 

(50) 173. 
Quercus oblongifoUa, 85; tables (263) 149, 

(28) 153, (35) 158, (158) 164, (180) 167, (174) 

170, (11) 173. 
Quercus obtus'doba, 82, 90 ; tables (254) 149' 

(66) 153, (64) 158, (175) 164, (104) 167, (114) 

170, (56) 173. 



Quercus obtusiloba, var. parvlfolia, 82. 
Quercus palustris, 91; tables (279) 149, (174) 

154, (174) 159, (55) 163, (33) 166, (108) 170, 

(141) 174. 
Quercus Phellos, 93; tables (286) 149, (123) 

154, (124) 159, (196) 164, (67) 166, (221) 
171, (108) 174. 

Quei'cus prinoides, 84, 85; tables (261) 149, 

(57) 153, (56)158, (53) 163, (6) 166, (49) 

169, (66) 173. 
Quercus Prinus, 84, 85; tables (260) 149, 

(120) 154, (122) 159, (27) 163, (50) 166, (72) 

169, (92) 174. 
Quercus Prinus, var. Chincapin, 85. 
Quercus Prinus, var. Inimilis, 85. 
Quercus reticulata, 86; tables (265) 149, (26) 

153, (22) 158. 

Quercus rubra, 88, 89 ; tables (272) 149, (207) 

155, (202) 160, (52) 163, (66) 166, (88) 170, 
(155) 174. 

Quercus rubra, var. Texana, 88; tables (272) 
149, (44) 153, (38) 158, (88) 163, (55) 166, 
(47) 173, (46) 169. 

Quercus San-Sabeana, 86. 

Quercus tinctoria, 89; tables (274) 149, (167) 

154, (162) 159, (86) 163, (47) 166, (97) 170, 
(122) 174. 

Quercus undulala, var. Gambelii, 82; tables 

(255) 149, (63) 153, (62) 158, (269) 165, 

(202) 168, (192) 171, (74) 173. 
Quercus rirens, 86; tables (267) 149. (25) 153, 

(24) 158, (43) 163, (57) 366, (63) 169, (33) 

173. 
Quercus Wislizeni, 88; tables (271) 149, (96) 

154, (95) 159, (156) 164, (123) 167, (78) 170, 

(62) 173. 
Quercus Wislizeni, \ax.frutescens, 88. 
Quincy, Mas;=., 12. 
Quinte Bay, 84. 



Rafters, 49. 

Rails, 29, 65, 66, 69, 71, 94. 

Railway-ties, 66, 71, 72, 75, 81, 84, 85, 94, 

107, 108, 111-113, 119, 121, 125-127, 129, 

131, 134, 135. 
Rainy Lake, 97. 
Rain}' River, 34. 
Rattle-box, 60. 
Red Ash, 61. 
Red Bay, 68. 
Red Biirch, 97. 
Red-bud, 31. 
Red Cedar, 107, 111. 
Red Cherry, Wild, 35. 
Red Cvpress, 112. 
Red Elm, 71. 
Red Fir, 130, 133, 134. 
Red Gum, 45. 
Red Haw, 42, 44. 
Red Iron-wood, 14. 



INDEX. 



197 



Red Mangrove, 07. 

Red Maple, 22. 

Red Mulberry, 74. 

Red Oak, 88, 90. 

Red Pine, 118. 

Red River, 55, 74, 80, 98, 111, 125. 

Red River Valley, 79, 83. 

Red Stopper, 48. 

Redwood, 112. 

Reef Keys, 14. 

Restigouche River, 94. 

Reynosia lutifoUa, 14; tables (42) 145, (11) 

153, (12) 158, (81) 103, (120) 107, (3) 109, 

(4) 173. 
Rhamnacece, 14-10. 
Rhnmnus Calif ornica, 10; tables (40) 145, 

(248) 155, (218) 100. 
Rhamnus Californica, var. tomentella, 10. 
Rhamnus CaroUniana, 15; tables (45) 145, 

(284) 155, (214) 105, (258) 108, (102) 170, 

(195) 175. 
Rhamnus Purshlana,lG ; tables (47) 145, (273) 

155, (273) 100, (135) 104, (159) 107, (31) 

109, (138) 174. 
Rheumatism, 8, 90, 100. 
Rhizophora, 07. 
Rhizophoracece, 40. 
Rhizophora Mangle, 40; tables (140) 147, 

(3) 153, (2) 158,' (2) 103, (11) 100, (2) 109, 

(9) 173. 
Rhode Island, 02. 
Rhododendron maximum^ 55; tables (171) 147, 

(233) 155, (228) 100, (248) 105, (213) 108, 

(105) 170, (140) 174. 
Rhus copallina, 24 ; tables (71 ) 145, (300) 150, 

(302) 101, (210) 105, (212) 108, (229) 175, 

(240) 171, (229) 175. 
Rhus copallina,va.r. lanceolata,25; tables (71^) 

145, (304) 150, (307) 101, (123) 170, (208) 

175. 
Rhus copallina, var. leucantha, 25. 
Rhus cotinoides, 24; tables (09) 145, (217) 

155, (214) 100. 
Rhus Mttopium, 25; tables (73) 145. (92) 154, 

(98) 159, (80) 103, (210) 108, (77) 170, (110) 

174. 
Rhus Toxicodendron, 25. 
Rhus typhina, 24; tables (70) 145. (377) 150, 

(370) 101. 
Rhus venenata, 25; tables (72) 145, (375) 150, 

(374) 101. 
Rio Concho, 58, 71. 
Rio Grande, 8, 9, 20, 32, 33, 57, 58, GO. 04-00, 

70, 80, 98, 130. (Range and limit of dis- 
tribution.) 
Rio Pecos, 8. 
River Birch, 97. 
River Cottonwood, 104. 
Robinia Neo-Mexicann, 27; tables (79) 145, 

(80) 154, (85) 159, (43) 103, (84) 100, (17) 

109, (04) 173. 



Robinia Fseudacacia, 26; tables (77) 145, 
(138) 1.54, (J37) 159, (19) 103, (3) 166, (13) 
109, (70) 173. 

Robinia viscosa, 27; tables (78) 145, (83) 154, 
(78) 158. 

Rock Chestnut Oak, 84. 

Rockv Mountains, 21, 23, 20, 31, 35, 37-39. 
41, '43, 02, 71, 73, 82, 90, 99, 100, 102-10.5, 
107, 111, 115, 110, 119, 120, 12.5-127, 129- 
132, 134. (Range and limit of distribution.) 

Rocky Mountain region, 101, 102, 113. 

Rock Elm, 71. 

Rogue River, 108, 115, 133. 

Romano, Cape, 5, 47, 50, 58, 07-09, 72, 73, 80, 
91, 112, 136. (Range and limit of distribu- 
tion.) 

Roots, large, 32. 

Ropes, 130, 137. 

Rosacew, 34-44. 

Rose Bay, 55. 

Rosemary Pine, 122. 

Rosin, 120. 

Royal Palm, 130. 

Rubiacece, 52, 53. 

Rum Cherry, 30. 

Rumford, Count, 141. 

RtUacece, 8-10. 



Sab AL Palmetto, 135; tables (404) 152, (373) 

150, (395) 101. 
Sabine River, 4, 44, 62, 93. 
Sable, Cape, 9, 19, 40, 47, 50, 07, 08. 
Sacramento River, 10, 18, 23, 75, 77, 81, 100, 

103, 100, 108, 109. (Range and limit of 

distribution.) 
Sacramento Valley, 101. 
Saddle-trees, 19, 22, 71. 
Saffron Plum, 58. 
Saguaro, 48. 
Saguenay River, 21, 97. 
Saint Augustine, Fla., 07, 123. 
Saint Domingo, 7. 
Saint John T.ake, 21. 
Saint John River, 22. 

Saint John's River, 11, 12, 18, 48, 80,81, 123. 
Saint Lawrence, Gulf, 03, 97. 114. 
Saint Lawrence River, 20, 21, 24, 34, 42, 49, 

71, 72, 70-80, 83, 95, 100, 118, 129. (Range 

and limit of distribution.) 
Saint Louis, Mo., 41. 
Saint Mary's River, 50. 
Salem County, N. J., 92. 
Salix amygllaloides, 100; tables (307) 150, 

(305) 156, (308) 161, (283) 165, (265) 168, 
•(307) 172, (277) 175. 
Salix cordata, 102. 
Salix cordata, var. vestita, 102; tables (315) 

150, (244) 155, (243) 160. 
Salix discolor, 101; tables (312) 150, (382) 

156, (380) 161. 



198 



INDEX. 



Salix Jlavescens, 102; tables (313) 150, (321) 

15G, (321) 161, (72) 163, (130) 167, (201) 

171, (254) 175. 
Salix Jlavtscens,\Sii' . Scoulenana, 102; tables 

(3131) 150, (290) 155, (2t)0) 160, (22) 163, 

(86) 166, (132) 170, (210) 175. 
Salix Harticegi, 103. 
Salix Ilookeriana, 102; tables (3U) 150, 

(292) 155, (291) 160, (178) 170, (228) 175. 
Salix Icevlf/ata, 100; tables (308) 150, (331) 

156, (33()) 161, (287) 165, (221) 168, (286) 

171, (219) 175. 

Salix Iceviyata, var. angustifolia, 100. 

Salix Icevigata, var. congesta, 100. 

Salix lasiandra, 100; tables (309) 150, (341) 

156, (341) 161. 
Salix lasiandra, var. Fendleriana, 100, 101; 

tables (309-^) 150, (-^SG) 156, (354) 161, (309) 

165, (284) 168, (297) 172, (274) 175. 
Salix lasiandra, var. lancifolia, 101 ; tables 

(3091) 150, (361) 156, (372) 161, (147) 164, 

(206) 168, (270) 171, (263) 175. 
Salix lasiolepis, 103; tables (316) 150, (278) 

155, (281) 160, (145) 164,(125) 167, (190) 175. 
Salix lasiolepis, var. angustij'ulia, 103. 
Salix lasiolepis, var. latifoUa, 103; table (228) 

171. 
Salix longifolia, 100, 101; tables (310) 150, 

(324) 156, (325) 161. 
Salix longifolia, var. argyrophylla, 101; 

table (3102) 150. 
Salix longifolia, var. exigua, 101; tables 

(3101) 150, (293) 155, (298) 161. 
Salix nigra, 99; tables (306) 150, (371) 156, 

(371) 161, (305) 165, (297) 168, (314) 172, 

(258) 175. 
Salix nigra, var. angustifolia, 100. 
Salix nigra, var. latifolia, 100. 
Salix nigra, var, longifolia, 100. 
Salix nigra, var. marginata, 100. 
Salix nigra, vai'. Wardii, 100. 
Salix nigra, var Wrightii, 100. 
Salix sessitifolia, 101 ; tables (311) 150, (374) 

156. 
Salix sessilifolia, var. Hindsiana, 101; tables 

(.3111) 150, (373) 161. 
Salix Sitchensis, 103; tables (317) 150, (311) 

156. (311) 161. 

Salix Sitchensis, var. angustifolia, 103. 
Salmon Eiver Mountains, 107. 
Saltillo, Mex., 57, 109. 

Sambucus glauca, 51; tables (156) 147, (310) 
156, (316) 161, (308) 165, (304) 168, (302) 

172, (192) 175. 

Sambucus Mexicnna, 51; tables (157) 147, 

(353) 156, (361) 161. 
Sand-bar Willow, 101. 
Sand Jack, 92. 
Sand Pine, 123. 

San Antonio Eiver, 6, 24, 28, 36, 42, 71, 76. 
San Bernardino County, Oal., 106. 



San Bernardino Mount, 110. 

San Bernardino Range, 6, 20, 23, 31, 38, 39, 
44, 49, 63, 73, 81, 87, 89, 93, 98, 106, 110, 
115, 116, 120, 122, 131, 132, 136. (Range 
and limit of distribution.) 

San Diego Countv, Cal., 20, 33, 44, 85, 116, 
118. 

San Francisco Bay, 18, 36, 38, 54, 63, 77, 81, 88. 

San Francisco Mountains, 37, 82, 86, 87, 109, 
110, 117, 127. (Range and limit of dis- 
tribution.) 

San Gabriel Range, 6, 85. 

San Jacinto, Mount, 120. 

San Jacinto Mountains, 6, 38, 39, 93, 120- 
122, 132. (Range and limit of distribution.) 

San Joaquin River, 130. 

San Luis Obispo, Cal., 18. 

San Luis Obispo County, Cal., 124. 

San Luis Re}' River, 16. 

San Pedro River, 48, 60, 75. 

San Saba, Texas, 32. 

San Simeon Bay. 121. 

Santa Barbara, Cal., 16, 98, 103. 

Santa Catalina Mountains, 26, 27, 38, 57, 82, 
87, 109, 116, 117, 119. (Range and limit of 
distribution.) 

Santa Cruz Bay, 16. 

Santa Cruz Mountains, 16, 122. 

Santa Cruz River, 32. 

Santa Lucia Mountains, 6, 36, 54, 88, 103, 

115, 133. (Range and limit of distribution.) 
Santa Rita Mountains, 27, 54, 86, 92, 109, 

116, 119, 120. (Range and limit of dis- 
tribution.) 

Santian River, 108. 
Sapindaceai, 17-23. 
Sapindus marginitus, 18; tables (54) 145, 

(80) 153, (82) 159, (173) 164, (116) 167, 

(129) 170, (60) 173. 
Sapindus Sapnnaria, 19 ; tables (55) 145, (65) 

153, (83) 159. 
Saponin, 19. 
Sapotacece, 56-58. 
Sarsaparilla, 8. 
Sasbes, 115. 

Saskatchewan River, 20, 23, 42, 45, 62, 99, 
100, 102. (Range and limit of distribution.) 

Sassafras, 69. 

Sassafras officinale, 69; tables (217) 148, 
(314) 156, (312) 161, (281) 165, (242) 168, 
(232) 171, (196) 175. 

Satin-Avood, 9. 

Savannah River, 13, 18, 41, 123. 

Savin, 111, 114. 

Savine cerete. 111. 

Scarlet Haw, 42. 

Scarlet Oak, 88. 

ScJmferiafrutescens, 14; tables (41) 145, (99) 

154, (111) 159. 

Scott Mountains, 116, 118, 120. 
Screw Bean, 32. 



INDEX. 



199 



Screw-pod Mesquit, 32. 

Scrub Oak, 82, 'JO. 

Scrub Pine, 120, 123, 125. 

Sea Ash, 8. 

Sea Grape, 68. 

Seaside Alder, 98. 

Sebastiania lucida, 70; tables (220) 148, (8) 

153, (9) 158. 
Sedatives, 36. 
Seeds: manufacturing uses, 19; edible, 117. 

118, 121. 
Selkirk Ilange, 129, 134. 
Sequoia forests, 16. 
Sequoia gic/antea, 112; tables (341) 151, (-127) 

157, (428) 162, (295) 165, (288) 168, (224) 

171, (300) 176. 
Sequoia sempervircns, 112; tables (342) 151, 

(387) 156, (386) 161, (241) 165, (246) 168, 

(196) 171, (287) 175. 
Service Tree, 45. 
Seven-year Apple, 52. 
Shad-bush, 45. 
Shag-bark, 77. 

Sharpies, S. P., viii, 141-143. 
Shasta Couutv, Cal., 108. 121. 
Shasta, Mount, 21, 68, 116, 122, 134. 
She Balsam, 131. 
Sheep-berr\', 51. 
Shell-bark," Big, 78. 
Shell-bark, Bottom, 78. 
Shell-bark, Hickor}', 77. 
Shingle Oak, 92. 

Shingles, 3, 91, 93, 106, 107, 112, 113. 
Ship-building, 11, 19, 22, 34, 57, 68, 69, 71, 

74, 81, 87, 97, 108, 126, 127, 134. (See 

Boat-building^ Skiffs.) 
Shittini-wood, 10, 57. 
Shoes: soles, 6; lasts, 22, 59, 95, 96; pegs, 

22; wooden, 97. 
Short-leaved Pine, 124. 
Shoshone Mountains, 105. 
Sliovel-handles, 21. 
Shrubby Trefoil, 9. 
Shucks, Honey, 29. 
Shuttles, 59. 
Slderoxylon Masticliodendron, 56; tables 

(176) 147, (15) 153, (20) 158, (63) 163, (70) 

166, (26) 169, (2G) 173. 
Sierra Blanco, 127. 
Sierra County, Cal., 100. 
Sierra Madre, 109. 

Sierra Nevada, 6, 10, 18, 20, 21, 30-38, 44, 49, 
50, 03, 69, 81, 85, 87-89, 99, 102, 103, 110, 
112-116, 120, 122, 130, 132, 134. (Range 
and limit of distribution.) 
Silk-top Palmetto, 136. 
Silky Willow, 103. 
Silliman, Mount, 116. 
Sills, 71, 72, 111. 
Silver-beli Tree, 60. 
Silver Maple, 22. 



Silver top Palmetto, 1-36. 
SimarubeoB, 10. 

Simaruba glauca, 10; tables (28) 144, (392) 
156, (393) 161, (127) 164, (259) 168, (180) 
170, (264) 175. 
Simaruba officinalis, 10. 
Siskiyou Mountains, 128, 132. 
Sitka', 127. 
Sitka Cypress, 108. 

Skiffs, 69. {'i^at Boat-building, Ship-building.) 
Skin-diseases, 96. 
Slash Pine, 126. 
Slippery Elm, 6, 71. 
Sloe, 35. 
Sloe, Black, 35. 
Small-fruited Haw, 43. 
Smooth Alder, 101. 
Snaths, 74. 
Snowdrop Tree, 60. 
Snow-shoes, 20. 
Soap, 19, 56, 137. 
Soapberry, 18, 19. 
Soda Lake, 108. 

Soft Maple, 22. 

Soledad River, 118. 

Sonora, Cal., 27, 37, 38, 48, 92. 

Sophora offinls. 28; tables (84) 145, (60) 153, 
(58) 158, (107) 164, (127) 167, (51) 169, 
(30) 173. 

Sophora secundijlora, 28; tables (83) 145, 
(19) 153, (19) 158. 

Sophoria, 28. 

Sore throat, 59. (See Throat.) 

Sorrel Tree, 54. 

Sour Gum, 50. 

Sour Tupelo, 50. 

Sour-wood, 54. 

South Atlantic States, 39, 90, 112. 

South Carolina, 30, 35, 41, 44, 52, 53, 60, 79, 
123, 125, 129. (Range and limit of dis- 
tribution.) 

Southern Buckthorn, 58. 

Southern Crab Apple, 39. 

Southern Pine, 125. 

Southern States, 42, 80, 90. 

South, the, 78, 94. 

Southwest, the, 82. 

Spanish Bayonet, 136, 137. 

Spanish Buckeye, 18. 

Spanish Oak, 90. 

Spanish Oak, Swamp, 91. 

Spanish Stopper, 47. 

Spear-handles, 113. 

Specific gravity, tables, 153-157. 

Speckled Alder, 99. 

Spicket River, 97. 

Spice Tree, 69. 

Spindle Tree, 14. 

Spirits of Turpentine, 126. (See Turpentine.) 

Sponge-crawls, 136. 

Spoois, 96. 



200 



INDEX. 



Spoonvvood, 55. 

Spruce, Black, 126. 

Spruce, Blue, 128. 

Spruce Pine, 120, 123-125. 

Spruce, Tide-land, 128. 

Spruce, White, 127, 128. 

Stag-bush, 52. 

Staghorn Sumach, 24. 

Starving Kock, 114. 

Staten Island, 93, 123, 124. 

Staves, 105. 

Steam, 32. 

Sierculiacece, 6. 

Stinking Cedar, 114. 

Stopper, 48. 

Stopper, Gurgeon, 47. 

Stopper, Red, 48. 

Stopper, Spanish, 47. 

Stopper, White, 48. 

Storax, 46. 

Strength, tables, 166-1G8. 

Striped Dogwood, 20. 

Striped Maple, 20. 

Strong Back, 65. 

Sty)'acace<e, 59, 60. 

Sugar-barrels, 105. 

Sugar-berry, 72. 

Sugar, Horse, 59. 

Sugar Maple, 21. 

Sugar Pine, 115. 

Sugar Tree, 21. 

Sumach, Coral, 25. 

Sumach, Dwarf, 24. 

Sumach, Poison, 25. 

Sumach, Staghorn, 24. 

Summer Haw, 44. 

Superior, Lake, 40, 49, 71, 97, 99, 125. 

Suwarrow, 48. 

Swamp Cottonwood, 104. 

Swamp Hickory, 79. 

Swamp Laurel, 1. 

Swamp Maple, 22. 

Swamp Pine, 126. 

Swamp Post Oak, 83. 

Swamp Spanish Oak, 101. 

Swamp White Oak, 83. 

Sweet Ba}', 1. 

Sweet Birch, 97. 

Sweet Buckeye, 17. 

Sweet Gum, 45. 

Sweet-leaf, 59. 

Sweet Locust, 29. 

Sweet-scented Crab, 39. 

Sioietenia Mahoffoni, 11 ; tables (31) 144, 

(146) 154, (149) 159, (76) 163, (59) 166, (22) 

169, (39) 173. 
Switch-bud Hickorj-, 79. 
Sycamore, 75. 
Symplocos tinctoria, 59; tables (186) 147, 

(295) 155, (297) 161, (256) 165, (237) 168, 

(229) 171, (173) 174. 



Syphilis, 7, 8. 
Syrups, 36, 46. 



Table-mountain Pine, 124. 

Tacamahac, 104. 

Tallow Berry, 7. 

Tallow Nut, 11. 

Tamarack, 120, 134. 

Tamarind, Wild, 34. 

Tampa Bny, 1, 8, 12, 29-31, 35, 36, 44-46, 50, 

64, 68, 78, 81, 90, 91, 95, 122, 125. (Range 

and limit of distribution.) 
Tan-bark Oak, 93. 
Tan Bay, 5. 

Tannin,' 24, 25, 45, 84, 89, 90, 93, 128-131. 
Tanning, 54, 82, 84, 89, 90, 93, 128-131. 
Tar, 126. 

Tassel-moulds, 97. 
Taxod'lum distlchum, 112; tables (340) 150, 

(362) 156, (360) 161, (90) 163, (201) 168, 

(184) 170, (278) 175. 
Taxus brevifolia, 113; tables (343) 151, (222) 

155, (216) 160, (208) 165, (35) 166, (117) 

170, (67) 173. 
Taxus Floridana, 113; tables (344) 151, (229) 

155, (222) 160. 
Tejon, Fort, 16. 

Telegraph-poles, 107, 111, 113, 134. 
Temiscaming, Lake, 129. 
Tennessee, 2, 3, 7, 17, 20, 24, 25, 28-30, 35, 

42, 43, 54, 66, 84, 89-94, 97, 104, 112, 124, 

129, 131. 
Tennessee River, 24. 
Tents, 96. 

Teredo, attacks of, 19, 135. 
Ternstrcemiacece, 5. 
Texas, 1, 4, 6, 8, 9, 12, 13, 15, 17-19, 22-26, 

28, 30-37, 41-46, 49-54, 57-66, 68-95, 97, 

99-101, 105, 106, 110-112, 116, 117, 119, 122, 

124, 126, 130, 136, 137. (Range and limit 

of distribution.) 
Thatch, Brickley, 136. 
Thatch, Brittle, 'l36. 
Thatch, house, 136. 
The Joshua, 137. 
Thorn, Black, 42. 
Thorn, Cockspur, 42. 
Thorn, Washington, 43. 
Thorn, White, 42. 
Thousand Islands, 19. 
Three-thorned Acacia, 29. 
Thrinax argentea, 136; tables (407) 152, 

(156) 154, (168) 159. 
Thrinax parviflova, 136; tables (406) 152, 

(249) 155, (263) 160. 
Throat ailments, 16. (See Sore throat.) 
Thuya, 107. 
Thuya gigantea, 107; tables (328) 150, (411) 

157, (411) 162, (87) 163, (161) 167, (152) 

170, (297) 176. 



INDEX. 



201 



Thuya occidentalls, 106; tables (327) 150, 

(425) 157, (425) 102, (278) 1G5, (275) 168, 

(289) 171, (311) 176. 
Tide-land Spruce, 128. 
Tiliacece, 6, 7. 
Tilia Americana, 6. 7; tables (17) 144, (361) 

156, (364) 161, (169) 164, (249) 168, (307) 

176. 
Tilia Americann, var. pubescens, 6; tables 

(171) 144, (398) 156, (399) 161, (189) 164, 

(263) 168, (205) 171, (266) 171, (312) 

176. 
Tilia hetcrophylla, 7; tables (18) 144, (383) 

156, (382) 161, (166) 164, (255) 168, (214) 

171, (299) 176. 
Tinctures, 28, 107. 
Titi, 13. 

Tobacco-boxes, 75. 
Tollon, 44. 

Tonics, 2, 10, 27, 36, 49, 64, 104. 
Tool-handles, 19, 39, 54, 55, 59, 95. 
Toothache Tree, 8. 
Torch-wood, 11. 
Tornilla, 32. 
Torreya Calijornica, 114; tables (346) 151, 

(340) 150, (343) 161, (303) 165, (251) 168, 

(262) 171, (213) 175. 
Torreya taxifolia, 114 ; tables (345) 151, (309) 

156, (309) 161, (176) 164, (98) 167, (142) 

170, (174) 174. 
Toxicodcndric acid, 25. 
Toyon, 44. 
Travis County, 54. 
Tree, Bean, 65. 
Tree, Beaver, 1. 
Tree, Bee, 6. 
Tree, Black, 67. 
Tree, B]g, 112. 
Tree, Buckwheat, 13. 
Tree, Cabbage, 135. 
Tree, Cigar, 65. 
Tree, Cucumber, 2, 3. 
Tree, Fringe, 64. 
Tree, Geiger, 64. 
Tree, Hop, 9. 
Tree, India-rubber, 73. 
Tree, Joshua, 137. 
Tree, Judas, 31. 
Tree, Lime, 6. 
Tree, Paradise, 10. 
Tree, Service, 45. 
Tree, Silver-bell, 60. 
Tree, Snowdrop, 60. 
Tree, Sorrel, 54. 
Tree, Spice, 69. 
Tree, Spindle, 14. 
Tree, Sugar, 21. 
Tree, Toothache, 8. 
Tree, Tulip, 3. 
Tree, Umbrella, 2, 3. 
Treenails, 26. 



Trefoil, Shrubby, 9. 

Trinity River, 1, 18, 22, 31, 43, 45, 68, 71, 72, 

79, 83, 84, 94, 95, 97, 99, 126. (Course and 

limit of distribution.) 
Tsufja Canadensis, 129; tables (387) 151, 

(384) 156, (384) 161, (142) 164, (171) 167, 

(230) 171, (276) 175. 
Tsuf/a Caroliniana, 129; tables (388) 151, 

(380) 156, (379) 161, (230) 165, (287) 168, 

(207) 171, (211) 175. 
Tsufja Mertensiann, 129; tables (389) 151, 

(305) 156, (304) 161, (14) 163, (87) 166, (64) 

169, (249) 175. 
Tsufja Pattnniana, 130, 135; tables (390)151, 

(372) 156, (370) 161, (201) 164, (181) 167, 

(238) 171, (244) 175. 
Tulare County, Cal., 88, 112, 114. 
Tulip Tree, 3. 
Tupelo, 50. 
Tupelo-gum, 50. 
Tupelo, Large, 50. 
Tupelo, Sour, 50. 
Turkey Oak, 90. 
Turnery, 6, 7, 12, 22, 23, 26, 39, 49, 51, 53-55, 

59, 96, 103, 104. 
Turpentine, 105, 126. (See Spirits.) 
Turtle-crawl, 136. 
Typhoid fever, 100. 



Uintah Mountains, 130. 

Ulmus alata, 72; tables (226) 148, (121) 

154, (127) 159, (280) 165, (155) 170, (73) 
173. 

Ulmus Americana, 71; tables (224) 148, (212) 

155, (211) 160, (211) 165, (114) 167, (158) 
170, (162) 174. 

Ulmus crassifolia, 70; tables (222) 148, (150) 

154, (153) 159, (232) 165, (148) 167, (148) 

170, (72) 173. 
Ulmus fulva, 71; tables (223) 148, (170) 154, 

(172) 159, (117) 164, (106) 167, (69) 169, 

(179) 174. 
Ulmus racemosa, 71; tables (225) 148, (149) 

154, (145) 159, (64) 163, (37) 166, (41) 169, 
(118) 174. 

Umbdlularia Calif ornica, 69; tables (218) 
148, (210) 155, (206) 160, (75) 163, -(132) 
167, (52) 169, (128) 174. 

Umbrella Keys, 4, 48. 

Umbrella Tree, 2, 3, 17. 

Umpqua River, 132. 

Underpinning, of houses, 32. 

Ungava Bay, 126, 127. 

Unynadia speciosa, 18; tables (53) 145, (230) 

155, (231) 160, (215) 171, (180) 174. 
United States, 4-8, 10, 17, 19, 23, 25-27, 32, 

34, 37, 46-48, 51, 67, 71, 108, 117, 125-127, 

134, 135. (Special references.) 
Upland Willow Oak, 92. 
Urticacece, 70-76. 



202 



INDEX. 



Utah, 21, 23, 27, 31, 32, 38, 41, 51, GO, 62, 
82, 96, 100, 106, 110, 111, 116-118, 121, 
128, 132, 133, 137. (Course and limit of 
distribution.) 

Uterine complaints, 107. 



Vaccinium Arboreum, 53 ; tables (164) 147, 

(HI) 154, (110) 159, (212) 171, (53) 173. 
Valparaiso Oak, 87. 
Vancouver's Island, 36, 37, 49, 51, 81, 111, 

115, 132. 
VauqucUnia Torreyi, 38; tables (114) 146, (5) 

153, (4) 158. 
Veneering, 46. 
Verbenacece, 66, 67. 
Verde Paolo, 30. 
Vermont, 3, 22, 23, 34, 50, 69, 71, 89, 94, 105, 

125, 127. (Course and limit of distribution.) 
Vihuimum Lenta (/a, 51; tables (158) 147, 

(140) 154, (139) 159, (56) 169. 
Viburnum prunij'olium, 52; tables (159) 147, 

(69) 153, (66) 158, (137) 164, (73) 166, (40) 

169, (38) 173. 
Vicksburg, Miss., 1. 
Vine Maple, 21. 
Virginia, 3, 5, 6, 8, 12, 25, 40, 43, 44, 50, 58, 

62-64, 68, 72, 86, 131. (Course and limit 

of distribution.) 



Wabash River, 3, 4, 23, 39, 62, 66, 94 . 

Wabash Valley, 4. 

Wafer Ash, 9. 

Wagon-hubs, 29. (See Hubs, IVJieels.) 

Wagons, 61, 63, 87. 

Wahoo, 7, 14, 72. 

Wahsatch Mountains, 21, 23, 38, 51, 62, 82, 
110, 117, 127, 130, 133. (Course and limit 
of distribution.) 

Walnut, 77. 

Walnut, Black, 46, 76. 

Walnut, White, 76. 

Ware River, 82. 

Washingtonia JiUfera, 135; tables (405) 152, 
(306) 156, (310) 161, (270) 165, (293) 168, 
(313) 172, (303) 176. 

Wnshington Territory, 16, 20, 21, 36, 38, 41, 
42, 49, 54, 63, 81, 96, 98, 102, 104, 105, 
107, 108, 110, 113, 115, 116, 119-121, 127, 
128, 130-135. (Course and limit of dis- 
tribution.) 

Washington Thorn, 43. 

Washita River, 18, 43, 62. 

Water Ash, 62. 

Water Beech, 75, 95. 

Water Elm, 71. 

Water-flumes, 106. 

Water Hickor}', 79. 

Water Locust, 30. 

Water Maple, 22. 



Water Oak, 91. 

Water White Oak, 83. 

Water-pipes, 123. (See Pumps.) 

Water-tanks, 113. 

Wax Myrtle, 80. 

Wedges, 41. 

Weeping Oak, 81. 

Western Catalpa, 66. 

West Indian Birch, 10. 

West Indies, 4, 5, 7, 9-11, 14, 15, 17-19, 25, 

28, 32, 34, 37, 46-48, 52, 53, 55-58, 62, 60- 

68, 70, 73, 126, 136. (Trees.) 
Western States, 74. 
West, the, 62. 

West Virginia, 25, 26, 36, 60, 122. 
Weymouth Pine, 114. 
Wharf-piles, 19, 40, 50, 135. (See Piles.) 
Wheel-hubs, 97. (See Wagons.) 
Wheels, 32, 49, 50, 93. 
Wheel-stock, 71, 72, 75, 84, 85. 
Whistle-wood, 20. 
White Ash, 61. 
White Bass-wood, 7. 
White Bay, 1. 
White Birch, 95, 96. 
White Buttonwood, 47. 
White Cedar, 100-108. 
White Cypress, 112. 
White Elm, 71. 
White Fir, 132. 
White-heart Hickory, 78. 
White Iron-wood, 19. 
White Laurel, 1. 
White Mangrove, 47. 
White Maple, 22. 

White Mountain region, Arizona, 10. 
AVhite Oak, 80, 81, 83-86. 
White Oak, Mountain, 85. 
White Oak, Swamp, 83. 
White Oak, Water, 83. 
White Pine, 114-116, 125. 
White River, 4. 
White Spruce, 127, 128. 
White Stopper, 48. 
White Thorn, 42. 
White Walnut, 76. 
White-wood, 3, 5, 70. 
Whitney, Mount, 118. 
Willow^! 100, 102, 103. 
Willow, Black, 99. 
Willow, Desert, 66. 
Willow, Diamond, 102. 
Willow, Glaucous, 101. 
Willow Oak, 93. 
Willow Oak, Upland, 92. 
Willow, Sand-bar, 101. 
Willow, Silkv, 103. 
Wild Black Cherry, 36. 
Wild Cherry, 37. 
Wild China, 18. ' 
Wild Cinnamon, 5. 



JNDEX. 



203 



Wild Dilly, 58. 

Wild V]<r, 73. 

Wild Lime, 9, 11. 

Wild Orau^^e, 8, 37. 

Wild Peach, 37. 

Wild Plum, 34. 

Wild Red Clierry, 35. 

Wild Tamarind, 34. 

Wind River, 128. 

Wine-butts, 113. 

Winged Elm, 72. 

Winnipeg, Lake, 23; 63, 82, 106. 

Winnipeg River, 114, 118. 

Winooski River, 23. 

Wisconsin, 40, 45, 89, 91, 92, 94, 99, 118, 129. 
(Course and limit of distribution.) 

Witch-hazel, 45. 

Wood: properties, 141-143; (tables) qualities, 
144-152; specific gravity, 153-157; fuel 
value, 158-102; elasticity, 103-108; longi- 
tudinal compression, 109-172; resistance of 
indentation, 173-170. 

Wood-engraving, 49, 59. (See Engraving.) 

Wooden slioes, 97. (See Shoes.) 

Wooden ware, 3, 0, 17, 23, 51, 97, 104, 105, 
107, 114, 115, 128. 

Woods, Lake of the, 22. 

Wood, Naked, 17, 47. 

Wood-pulp, 90, 103, 104. (See Paper-pulp.) 

Wyoming, 38, 30, 121, 128. 130, 132. (Course 
and limit of distribution.) 



Xanthoxylum Americana, 8; tables (22) 

144, (275) 155, (274) 160. 
Xanthoxylum Caribaium, 9; tables (24) 144, 

(47) 153, (47) 158, (151) 164, (157) 167, (16) 

169, (21) 173. 
Xanthoxylum Clava-Herculis, 8; tables (23) 



144, (312) 150, (314) 101, (22.3) 165, (226) 

108, (153) 170, (172; 174. 
Xanthoxylum Clava-JIerculis, var. frulico- 

sum, 9; tables (231) 344^ (250 ) 155, (250) 

100. 
Xanthoxylum Pterota, 0; tables (25) 144, 

(131) 1.54, (133) 109. 
Ximenia Americana^ 11; tables (32) 144, (40) 

153, (30) 158. 



Yaupon, 12. 

Yazoo River, 23, 80. 

Yellow Ash, 28. 

Yellow-bark Oak, 89. 

Yellow Birch, 97. 

Yellow Cypress, 108. 

Yellow Fir, 130, 131. 

Yellow Haw, 44. 

Yellow Locust, 26. 

Yellow Oak, 84, 89. 

Yellow Pine, 119, 125. 

Yellow Poplar, 3. 

Yellow-wood, 14, 28. 

Yew, 113. 

Yopon, 12. 

Yosemite Valley, 21. 

Yucca baccata] 137; tables (412) 152, (428) 

157, (430) 162. 
Yucca brevl/olia, 137; tables (410) 152, (413) 

157. 
Yucca canaliculata, 136; tables (409) 152, 

(197) 155, (232) 100. 
Yucca data, 137; tables (411) 152, (370) 156, 

(398) 101. 
Yukon River, 96, 103, 104, 127. 



Zygojjhyllacece, 7, 8. 



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