Skip to main content

Full text of "Word-formation in Provençal"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 



. (.".ooglc 





\r.^,^' 1^,. I 

CT^HE valupiti af the Hamanistic Series are published by 
-* authority of the Board of Regents af the University of 
Michigan. The csntributors are chiefly, but net exilusively, 
members of the faculties or graduates of the Universitt. 
The expemr is borne in fart by gifts, in part by appropria- 
tions of the Board of Regents. A list of the volumes thus 
far published or arranged is given at the end of this volume. 


QJlniwrsU; of (tlticSigan §tMee 












*ei» i?oi* 


All Rights Reserved 




The following study had its origin as part of the work 
for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Harvard Uni- 
versity. The original plan was to write a complete treatise 
on word-formation in Provengal; but lack of time limited 
the doctoral dissertation to "The Formation of Nouns 
and Adjectives in Provencal by the Addition of Suffixes," 
or chapt^^ i and ii of Part I of the present work. Since 
the time of the presentation of my thesis, however, acting 
on the advice of Professor Grandgent of Harvard, I con- 
tinued to develop the subject according to the original 
plan, while teaching at the University of Michigan. 

This work is intended to be a complete treatment of 
word-formation in Old Provengal. Its purpose is to 
study the various processes by which words were formed 
in that language, and to give complete lists of all such 
formations. The method of treatment differs somewhat 
from that employed by Meyer-Liibke in the second volume 
of his grammar, in studying all the Romance languages, 
and also from those used by Darmesteter and Nyrop for 
French; but I hope that it will be equally clear. The 
main sources for the words given in the lists are, of 
course, the dictionaries of Raynouard and Levy; but 
words from other sources are not excluded.' 

An explanation of the method of treatment is per- 
haps necessary. To be^n with, the work is divided 
into Parts, according to the process of word-formation 

' Thus words found in any critical leasts are included. There are 
very few such words, however. Many of them belonj to the part of the 
alphabet not reached by Levy In hia published volumeB when this work 
went to press. All words not taken from Raynouard and Levy will be 
indicated in the not*H. 



vi Preface 

studied. Thus there are formations (I) by means of 
sufBxeB; (II) by means of prefixes; (III) by means of 
both used at the same time, or the parasyntheta; (IV) 
other methods of formation, including both the post- 
verbal nouns and the compound words; and (V) the 
hybrids, or the words in which the methods of Parts I and 
IV are combined. In each of these latter divisions or 
Parts, there are subdivisions, or chapters, according to 
the part of speech formed by the process under considera- 
tion. Thus there are the Formation of Nouns, the 
Formation of Adjectives, of Verbs, etc, ; and, furthermore, 
in each chapter of the first three parts, each individual 
suffix or prefix is studied separately. Each one is taken 
up in it£ alphabetical order, and traced from its Latin 
origin to Provengal, all the words formed by means of it 
in Proven9al being given in lists. 

A further description of these word-lists, however, may 
perhaps be useful. The derived words are listed alpha- 
betically in the left-hand column, and beside each word, 
in another column is given the simple word on which 
it was formed. The reason for this is obvious: since 
the meanings are given beside both the simple and the 
derived word, any change in meaning conveyed by the 
suffix or prefix is at once apparent. Yet in the case of 
the more complicated suffixes and prefixes, the word- 
lists, themselves are sometimes subdivided. The sub- 
divisions occur whenever these particles are used with 
two or more different parts of speech; and also, less fre- 
quently, when the meanii^s they give the simple word are 
greatly varied. Such, at any rate, is the plan generally 
followed in making the word-lists. In a few cases, bow- 
ever, whole lists have been treated in great detail, as, 
for example, the words in which the suffix -ADOR is 


Preface vii 

apparently added to nouns.' The suffix most subdivided 
in its treatment to illustrate its different meanings is -ON.* 
A few other lista consisting of words whose formation 
is micertain are treated in detail.* 

Although the words formed in Provencal are placed 
in word-lists under the proper suffix or prefix, there is 
another kind of word having suffix or prefix that it would 
be improper to list in this way. These words, are, of 
course, the Provencal developments of words akeady 
existing in Latin: yet as such words are identical in 
form with the true Provencal formations, it seemed unwise 
to neglect them altogether. These words, therefore, 
with their Latin sources indicated, are brought together 
in a note at the end of each word-list. Such notes are 
placed below the ones on individual words, and are indi- 
cated by a d^^er, a corresponding one being placed by 
the last word in the list. Obscure words also are treated 
in these notes, and their probable formation suggested. 
Thus all the words not clearly formed by the suffix, or the 
prefix, or the method under consideration, will be treated 
in notes of this kind. 

Complete indices of all the words treated only in the 
notes, as well as indices both of the Provengal suffixes and 
prefixes and of the Latin ones are given; but as it should 
be a very simple matter to find any word in the lists, 
or, in other words, any Provencal formation, by looking 
under the proper suffix or prefix, it has not been thought 
necessary to make a general index of all these words. The 
only possible cases of difiiculty are found among the words 

' B^aning on p. 45. This list is so treated in order to illustrate 
from the very first how suffixes often came to be added (o other parts of 
speech than those with which they are originally found. 

• P. 243. 

• Pp. 19, 73, 76, 83. 111. 127, 143, 179. 277. etc. 


viii Preface 

having both suffix and prefix. In such cases, it may occa- 
sionally be necessary to look in two places, since the words 
may not be real parasyntheta. Such words are, however, 
listed twice, or even three times, and cross-referenced. 

In order to find easily any word in the lists, neverthe- 
less, a description of the system of spelling used is essential. 
The system adopted here is practically the same as that 
used by Levy in his Provemalisckea Supplement-Wdrter- 
buck. Thus the voiceless sibilant is written s,* the 
voiced one z; palatal i and n are written Ih and nh; c and 
g are written before a instead of ck and gu; i is regularly 
written for y; movable n is preserved whereas movable ( 
(after n) is dropped; ch is used to indicate the develop- 
ment of the Latin ct; open e and o are not diphthongized; 
and the forms -ANSA, -ATGE, -EJAR, and -EZA are 
selected from the number of forms under which these suf- 
fixes are found. To all of these rules of spelling adopted 
from Levy, it has seemed wise to add some others in order 
that words may be found without difficulty. Thus, with 
the exception of double r, no double consonants are used; 
initial k is never used; I is not vocalized to u' {fals, oUra, 
etc.); i is written in gitar and intrar and their com- 
pounds instead of e; and where there is hesitation between 

and u {pojar, pujar, foe, fuc) o is used. All these 
rules make the spelling system adopted here so exact 
that, with very few exceptions, it should be possible to 
find any word at once. Where the rules leave the slightest 
doubt, however, as to the spelling of any word, it will be 
found listed twice and cross-referenced, 

' Double « is written in the few cases in which the prefix ends in 

1 nod the base-word besins with it. This is the only way to distinguish 
the pteHies DE- and DES^. 

' Except in a very few cases in which the form with u is the only one 


Preface tx 

In addition to the spellii^, there are two questioos 
of typography that should be mentioDed — the use of 
italics and of abbreviations. The latter are used only in 
the notes, and a key to them is given below. The italics 
are used for the Provencal words in the lists, and for 
foreign words of all kinds wherever they occur. They 
are also generally used for the verbal endings -ar, -dr, 
etc. But when these ending are used in formii^ new 
words, as in chapter iii of Part I, they are treated just as 

In a work of the length of this one, the writing of which 
has occupied a number of years, it is impossible, I fear, 
in spite of the greatest of care, to avoid occasional incon- 
sistencies of treatment and mistakes, and I am painfully 
conscious of their probable existence. A further difficulty 
lies in the fact that one of my principal sources, the dic- 
tionary of Levy, has been appearing while this work was in. 
progress,* and this has necessitated additions and changes 
in it from time to time. The abridged edition of the 
complete work appeared some time ago, however, and 
has been of much service, particularly for the part not 
yet reached by the larger work. 

In conclusion, I wish to thank all those who have 
helped me with advice and encouragement. First of all, 
to Professor Grandgent of Harvard, who suggested the 
subject, and to Professors Sheldon and Ford, who, with 
him read and made suggestions on the original manu- 
script, I wish here to express my gratitude for advice 
and kindness. To Professor Kelsey of the University of 
Michigan, for bis help in matters connected with the 
printing of the work and his unfEuhng interest in it, 
and to Professor Canfield and Mr. W. A. McLaughlin 

1 It had reached the Utter r when this n-ork weot to press. 


X Preface 

of the same university for suggestions on the proof, I am 
also greatly indebted. And, finally, to Professor Hamilton 
of Cornell, for his great care in reading the whole manu* 
script just before it went to preaa, his invaluable su^es- 
tiona at all times and his encouragement, I can but 
inadequately express my appreciation and gratitude. 

E^wASD L. Adams 
FebniUT, 1913 



Kex to Abbrevutions Used in the Notbs . . xiv 




II. FoRUATioN OF Adjectitbb 266 

III. Formation or Verbs 332 

rv. Formation op Advsrbb 373 

y. Double Sdpfixbb 380 

A. Real Double Suffixes 381 

I. Forming Nouns 382 

II. Forming Adjectives 386 

m. Forming Verba 388 

B. Compound Suffixes 388 

I. Forming Nouns 393 

II. Forming Adjectives 402 

III. Fonning Verbs 403 


Inteoductobt: Prefix-Formation in General . 407 

I. FoBUATiON OF Verbs 409 


tll- Formation of Adjectiveb 481 

rv. Double Prefdeeb 489 

A. Compound Prefixes 490 

B. Real Double Prefixes 491 


zii Contents 


Intboductobt: Parabtntheta in General . 499 


A. The Endii^ -ar Used together with the DiSer- 

ent Prefixes in Formations 504 

I. On Nouns 504 

II. On Adjectives 515 

III. On Verb-stems 517 

B. The Ending -tr Used together with the Differ- 
ent Prefixes in Formations 517 

I. On Nouns 518 

II. On Adjectives 519 

C. Other Endings Used in the Formation of Verbal 
Parasyntheta 522 


A. By the Use of Suffixes Generally Added to Verbs 526 

B. By the Use of Suffiiies Generally Added to Nouns 528 


I. Formations on Verb-stems 529 

II. Formations on Nouns 530 

III. Irregular Adjectival Parasyntheta ... 531 


Introdoctort: Words Forued without the Use op 

Suffix or Prefix 535 

I. Nouns Formed from Verbs 536 

A. Postverbal Nouns 537 

B. Verb-Forms Used as Nouns 548 

II, Compound Words 550 

A. Formation of Nouns 552 

I. Nouns Formed of an Adjective and a Noun 552 

n. Nouns Formed of an Adverb and a Noun . 556 


in. Nouns Formed of Two Nouna ., 557 

IV. Nouns Formed of a Verb and a Noun 561 

B. Formation of Adjectives 566 

I. Formed of a Noun and an Adjective (or 

Participle) 566 

II. Formed of an Adverb (or Adjective) and an 

Adjective (or Participle) 569 

C. Formation of Verba 571 

I, Formed of an Adverb and a Verb . 571 

11. Formed of a Noun and a Verb 571 

D. Formation of Adverbs 573 


. Words in Which the Methods of Parts I and IV 

Are Combined 577 

A. Formation of Nouns 578 

B. Formation of Adjectives 581 

C. Formation of Verbs 582 

D. Formation of Adverbs 582 



I. Titles of Books and Periodicals 
ALL'^Archiv far LatevnUche Lexikograpkie vnd Grammalik, 

herausgegeben von E. Wolfflin, Leipzig, 1884-. 
Appel"Appel (C), Provenzalische Chreslomatiiie. Leipzig, 1895. 
Bonnet = Bonnet (M.), Le Latin de Cfrigoire de Touts. Paris, 

Cooper=Cooper (F. T.), Word-Formation in the Roman Sermo 

Pld>eius. New York, 1895. 
Die. Gen. = Hatzfetd, Darmesteter et Thomaa, DtcHonnaire gfyiiral 

de la ianpue fran^ise du commencemeni du XVII' sUcle 

jusqu'A nos jouTS, pricMi d'un traiU de la formalwn de ta 

langue. Paris. 
Diez = Dieii (F.), ElymtAogiKhes Wdrieihuch der romanischen 

Sprachen. FQufte Ausgabe. Bonn, 1887. 
Du Cange = I>u Cange, Glossarium mediae el infimae latinitatis, 

digessit G. A. L. Henschel. Paris, 1840-50. 
J?s3ais= Thomas (A.), Essais de pkihlogie franfaise. Paris, 

Etym. IForferii. = Meyer-LUbke (\V.), Romamsckee Elymohgi- 

sches Worterbuch. Heidelberg, 1911-. 
Godefroy=Godefroy (P.), Dictionnaire de I'andenTie hngve 

franfaise el de tons sea diakctes, dw IX' ow XV' siicle. 

Paris, 1881-1902. 
Goelzer=Goelzer (H.), Etitde kxicographique el grammaticale 

de la tatinili de Sainl-Jer&me. Paris, 1884. 
Grandgent =■ Grandgent (CH.), An Outline of the Phonoliigy and 

Morphology of Old Provencal. Boston, 1905. 
Gr6ber=Grol>er (G.), Grundriss der romanischen Philologie. 

Straasburg, 1888-97. 
Herrig's Archiv=ArchiT fiir das Studium der neiieren Sprachen 

und Lileraiuren, herausg^eben von L. Herrig. Elberfeld, 

then Braunschweig, 1846-. 
KSrting=K6rting (G.,) iMeinisch-Tomanisches WSTk^rhuch. 

S" Ausgabe. Paderbom, 1907. 


Key to Abbreviations xv 

Len6=Len6 (G.), Les tybstantifs postverbaux dans la langue 
frangaUe. Upeala, 1899. 

Levy— Levy (E.), PTOvermilisches Supplemenl-Wdrterbuck. Be- 
riehligungen und Erg&mungen zu Raynimards Lexique 
Toman. Leipzig, 1894-. Little Levy=Levy (E.), Petit 
Didionnaire Proten^il-Franfais. Heidelberg, 1909. 

Lilbl.^ldteraturblaUfiir gennanische und romanUclie Philologie, 
berausgegeben von. 0. Behagel und Fr. Neumann. Heil- 
bronn, then Leipzig, 1880-. 

Melanges '"Thomae (A.), MUangesd'Uymologiefrancaiae. Paris, 

Meyer-Ltibke = Meyer-LUbke (W.), Grammaire dee languea 
romanes. Traduction fran^aise par E. Rabiet, A. et G. 
Doutrepont. Paris, 1890-1906. 

Mistral = Mistral (F.), Lou Tresor dou felifmge, ou diclionnaire 
propen^al^franfaig. Aix-en-Provence, 1878. 

Mod. Lang. Notes = Modem Language Notes. Baltimore, 1886-. 

Mod. Phil. = Modem Philology. Chicago, 1903-. 

JIfote Compost = Darmesteter (A.), Traiti de la formation des 
mots composis dans la langue frangaise comparie aux aulres 
langues romaneg el au latin. Paris, 1894. 

Mots ^oup. = Darmesteter (A.), De la criation actuetle de mots 
nauveaux dans la langue franfaise et des lois qui la rigiasenl. 
Paris, 1877. 

MurTay=MuiTay (J. A. H.), A New English Dictionary on 
Historical ~Principles, Founded on the Materials Collected 
by the Philological Society. Oxford, 1884-. 

Nouv. £8s.=Tbomas (A.), Nouveaux essais de philologie fran- 
gaise. Paris, 1904. 

Olcott"01cott (G. N.), Studies in the Word-Formraion of the 
Latin Inscriptions: Substantives and Adjectives with Special 
Reference to the Latin "Sermo Vulgaris." Rome, 1898. 
Baynouard = Raynouard, F. J. M . , Lexique roman, ou diclionnaire 
de la langue des troubadours, comparie atec les aulres langues 
de I'Europe latine, pr6cid6 de nouveUes recherchee historiques 
el philologiques, d'un risumi de la grammaire romane d'un 
nouveau choix de po6siea originales des troubadours et d'ex- 
traiu de poimes divers. Paris, 1838-44. 


xvi Key to Abbreviations 

Rev. dea long. Tom.=Revue eUs languea romanea, jnAlUe par la 

aoditi pour VHwIe dea langnes romanea. Montpellier, 1870- . 
Romania= Romania, Remeil trimeslriel conaacri A I'ilude dea 

laTiguea el dea liU6raturea romanea. Paris, 1872~. 
Rom. Forach. = RomanUcke Forschungert, herausgegeben von 

K. VollmoUer. Erlangen, 1883-. 
Rom. Stud. = Romaniache Studien, herausgegeben von Ed. 

Boehmer. Halle, then Strassbui^, then Elonn, 1871-. 
RSnsch = Riinsch (H.), Itala und Vulgata: Daa Sprachidiom der 

UTchriMlichen Itaia uTid der kalholiachen Vvigaia unter Be- 

ruckaichtigung der romiachen Valkasprache durch Beiapiele 

ertaulert. Marburg-Leipzig, 1869. 
Sternbeck = Stembeek (H.), Unrichtige Wortaufalellungen und 

Worldeulungen in Raynouard'a "Lexique roman." I, Tdl: 

Unrichtige Wortaufst«lIungen. 
Stichel^Stichel (K.), Beitr&ge zur LexikographU dea altpro- 

venzalischen Verbuma (in Auagaben und Abharullungen a. d. 

Gebi^Cd.romaniach. Phihkgk.hXXJiVl). Marburg, 1890. 
Stud. Rom.=Sludidijiiologia romama, pubblicati da E. Monaci. 

Rome, then Turin, 1885-. 
Sufixuxmdlungen =Coiin (G.), Die Suffixwandlun^en im Vui^dr- 

laiein und im vorlitterariachen Franzdaiach nack ikren Spuren 

im Neufranzdsiscfien. Halle, 1891. 
Zeitschrifl = Zeitsckrift fUr romanische Philologie, herausgegeben 

von G. Grober. Halle, 1877-. 
Works referred to only once are given with their complete 
titles in the text itself. 

II. Other Abbbevutions 
art. = article 
chap. = chapter 
cf. =confer, compare 
Engl. = English 

Fr. = French; O. Fr. = 01d French; Mod. Fr.= Modem French 
Germ . = Germanic 
Gr- Greek 
It. B Italian 


Key to Abbreviations xvii 

Ijat.=Ijatm; Med. Lat. = Mediaeval Latin; Vulg. Lat.~ 
Vulgar Latin; Class. Lat. = Classical Latin; Eccles. Lat.= 
Ecclesiastical Latin. 

m.= masculine 

n.— note 

p.-page; pp.=pageB 

Port. = Portuguese 

Prov.=Proven5al; 0. Prov.=01d Provencal; Mod. Prov.= 
Modem Provencal. 

sec, —section 

Vol. = volume 

* placed before a word indicates that it is not found 

< is used in giving the Latin sources of Provencal words 

> is used in giving the Romance developments of Latin words 






By suffix-formation in Provengal ia meant the addition 
of suffixes of any origin, whether Latin, Greek, or Ger- 
manic, to Provencal words. In order to be studied here, 
the cases found in Provencal of words ending with given 
suffixes must be not merely Provengal forms of words 
already existing in Latin, but actual Provencal formations. 
• The suffix as well as the simple word itself may be of Latin 
origin, but the joining of the two must have been made 
in Romance times if the word is to be considered here. 
Yet this does not preclude a description of the Latin 
origin and use of each individual suffix. Provengal, like 
the other Romance languages, generally continued to 
make use of processes begun in Latin, but developed very 
extensively certain ones, while allowing other processes, 
and even certain suffixes, to drop out of use. It is difficult 
to name positively any one process as being of Provengal, 
or even Romance, origin: but as the developments of 
processes b^^un in Latin times are so very great, it may 
be worth while to study their aspects in Provengal. 
Suffixes of non-Latin origin, as the Greek and Germanic 
ones, have been mentioned above, but the Germanic 
forms are exceedingly few, and, even when existing, are 
found in relatively few words; and the Greek suffixes 
passed first, of course, throi^h Latin, where they under- 
went some modifications. It is, therefore, to Latin that 
the forms and uses of almost all of the suffixes treated 
here will be traced. 

Since the joining together of the simple word and the 
suffix must have been accomplished in Romance times, 


4 Word-Formation in Provencal 

or after the Latin period, in order to be treated here, it 
is proper to mention the methods of determining this 
important and often difficult point. Frequently the 
form itself of the word gives sufficient indication of Latin 
origin to exclude it from our lists. Yet caution must 
be used in thus excluding words, for often the addition 
of the suffix, especially when it had become popular in 
forming words of any given tj^pe, occurred late. Gener- 
ally, the process is one of elimination: if the source for 
any word is not to be found in any of the dictionaries 
of Latin, Mediaeval Latin, or books on word'formation 
in Vulgar Latin and in the inscriptions, or in works on 
the latinity of late writers such as Gregory of Tours and 
St. Jerome, and is not found in so many of the Romance 
languages as to indicate a common source in Latin, it is 
assumed to be a Provengal formation. 

Before leaving the general subject of suffix-formation 
to study the formation of the different parts of speech, it 
is necessary to describe the forms and the order under 
which the suffixes are listed. In treating Provengal, 
it has seemed appropriate as well as convenient to deal 
with Provencal forms instead of the Latin suffixes from 
which they are derived. The difference in treatment 
thus necessitated may be made clear by an example: 
the Latin -MENTUM added to stems of verbs of the 
different conjugations gave in Provengal the three suffixes 
-AMEN, -EMEN, and -IMEN, or, in other words, -MEN 
plus the stem-vowel of each conjugation. In the same 
way the Latin -TIONE gave -AZON, -EZON and -IZON, 
and -TURA gave -ADURA, -EDURA and -IDURA.' 
Each of these groups, however, will be treated as a single 



suffix and listed under the form of the first conjugation, 
the one beginning with a. 

The first four chapters of this part will treat the 
formation of the different parts of speech by the addition 
of a single suffix, whereas the fifth chapter will deal with 
all the words formed by the addition of two or more 


The suffixes that form nouns constitute by far the 
largest and most important kind of suffix-formations. 
The study of them may be begun by clsissifjing them 
according to the meanings they give the nouns that they 
form. Thus there are abstract sufExes, suffixes denoting 
"the agent of an action or the instrmnent with which it is 
performed, collectives, augmentatives and diminutives, 
and a few suffixes that sometimes give no force to the 
words to which they are attached. Yet it is possible 
to give a general rule concerning the part of speech to 
which each kind of suffix was attached in order to form 
nouns. Thus the abstract suffixes — with the exception 
of -lA, detached from such words of Greek origin as 
philosophia, and later added to nouns to form abstracts — 
were added either to stems of verbs or to adjectives, 
the ones denoting an action being attached to verbs, as 
-AMEN, -ANSA, -ADA, -ADURA, -AZON, etc., and 
those denoting quality, as -EZA, -TAT, -OR, and -URA 
to adjectives. Of the suffixes denoting the agent of 
an action, only -AIX)R, the commonest one, is attached 
to verbs as would be expected; but the other suffixes 
with this force, such as -AN, -ES, and -lER, originally 
formed adjectives, and their use as nouns came from the 
use of these adjectives without the modified noun, which 
was understood. The suffixes denoting the instrument 
with which an action was performed were usually attached 
to verb-stems, The augmentatives and diminutives 
are naturally added to nouns, as are the collectives and 
the suffixes denoting place. 


Formation of Nouns 7 

Before going farther, it may be well to describe the 
confusion that occasionally arises from the fact that the 
same Provencal form is sometimes developed from sufiBxes 
of entirely different origins, and having, consequently, 
different meanings. It should not be assumed, there- 
fore, that because the same form may appear in Pro- 
vencal words of very different meaning, the same sufSx 
is necessarily represented. Several illustrations of this 
possible confusion may be given. Besides -lER, for ex- 
ample, denoting persons, from the masculine form of the • 
adjective ending -ARIUS, and -lER denotii^ things, 
from the neuter form -ARIUM, there is, in addition, 
another -lER with abstract force added to verb-stems. 
This suffix can hardly be derived from -ARIUS, however, 
or we should have an almost incredible extension of 
meaning and use in a single suffix. This last -lER seems 
to come from -ERIUM, which ending is found in Latin 
in impraperium. Properly, it is not a Lathi suffix at all, 
however, and represents only the suffix -lUM added to 
the stems of verbs that end in erare, as seen in 
iviperium, which is formed on imperare; yet it is the 
source of a number of Provencal words. Another ex- 
ample of this same kind of confusion may be seen in 
the Provencal -ALHA, derived from -ACULA, which 
was added to verb-stems, and -ALHA, from -ALIA, 
which was added to nouns, with collective force. One 
more example of this confusion is seen in the Provencal 
suffix -ENC, which seems to be derived both from a Ger- 
manic suffix -ING and the Latin -ENCUM. It is usually 
easy to distinguish in the Provencal word the origin of the 
suffix, both by its meaning and by the word to which the 
suffix is attached, although some words are real puzzles.' 

ues o! coins in -ENC. 



Leaving out of consideration, however, the cases in 
which one Provencal fonn represents different suffixes, 
it may be affirmed that suffixes actually did contract 
new meanit^, a aingie suffix often having several of the 
kinds of meaning mentioned above. This acquiring of 
new meanings by a suffix is a process which had its origin 
in Latin, but which is, perhaps, especially noticeable 
in Provencal, That adjectives were often used sub- 
stantively has been stated, and the various meanings 

■ which some of these new nouns contract may be shown 
by ^ain making use of the convenient -AKITJS. All three 
forms of this adjectival suffix were used substantively, 
the masculine and neuter forms giving -lER, and the 
feminine, -lERA. The word made by the addition of 
the masculine form denotes the agent of an action, and 
that formed by the neuter meant originally a place for 
something, a specialized form of this meaning being 
found in some names of trees. From the meaning of a 
place for a thing to that of an instrument for using it is 
but a step, often a barely perceptible transition.' This 
extension of meaning may be carried still further, from 
the place containing many things to the number of thii^s 
itself, or pure collectives.' 

The developments of meaning found in -lER, from 
-ARIUM, make but a typical example of the extensions 

j of meaning found in certain suffixes. -ATGE, from 
-ATICUM, will illustrate this process still further. This 
ending, ori^oally an adjectival suffix attached to nouns 
with the meaning of a tax to pay, then, apparently, that 
of a feudal right, finally acquirii^ collective force, also 

' As ia «uch words as brtuier, gotier, etc., which might be put in 
either list; seep. 223. 

■ For example, ramur. thicket, from ram, branch. 



forms abstracts denoting action, although in these last 
cases, in accordance with the rules stated above, it seems 
to be added to verb-stems. In these cases, however, it 
is difficult to determine with any certfunty the base of 
the words, since in many cases both verbs and nouns are 
found as possible bases. An example of this may be 
seen in the existence of both the noun aiga, water, and 
the verb aigar, to water, beside the derived word aigatge. 
It is worth notii^, however, that in cases of this kind, 
a verb alone is often found beside the derived word, where- 
as a noun without a correspondii^ verb ia never found. 
The question, then, is how this nominal suffix came to 
be attached regularly to verb-stems. It seems possible 
that some such word as dreckuratge, derived from dre- 
ckura, right, and meaning "rent" or "duty" — that is, a 
kind of tax to be paid— may, from the nature of its mean- 
ii%, gradually have acquired abstract force, and then was 
supposed, like other abstracts, to have been formed on a 
verb, particularly as the verb drechurar, manage or 
direct rightly, existed. Thus a possible starting-point 
may be found for the cases in which abstracts in -ATGE 
were added to verb-stems. At any rate, this is the ordi- 
nary use of the descendants of -ATICUM in the Romance 
languages of today. Just the reverse of this process 
may be seen in the suffix -ADURA, which was originally 
added with abstract force to verb-stems, but acquired 
collective force,' probably through some such word as 
fdhadura — leafing, foliage. Here the suffix was probably 
attached to the verb folkar— pat forth leaves, but as the 
noun folk existed also, it may have been supposed to be 
the base-woM, 

> For B modem example of the way in which a word regularty 
abstract (thaush sometiines used concretely) may acquire collective 
lorce, of, the Pr. jeunettt ot the Engl, "youth." 



The above examples illustrate how in many cases 
other parts of speech than those which might be expected 
are sometimes found as bases for Proven^ formatbns. 
There are two important principles that serve to explain 
these variations: false analogy and sul&x-change. There 
are very few of these peculiarly formed words that cannot 
be explained either by one or the other of these two prin- 
ciples. Often, however, the assumption of the existence 
of some base-word, either verb or noun, when the evi- 
dence seems to make this probable, is possible. Thus, for 
example, out of the 230 Provencal words ending in -ADOR 
and denoting the agent of an action, there are only 19 — 
a comparatively large number — beside which no verb can 
be found. Now, in many of these cases in which a verb 
is not found, all the evidence tends to show that it must 
have existed, as might easily be true without the word's 
being found in any of our dictionaries or texts.' In 
some cases of this kind the assumed word is found in 
Modem Provencal, though not in the language of our 
period. Bilkador, for example, meaning a pack-servant, 
is found, but no corresponding verb appears to exist: 
yet in Modem Provengal we find the phrase biha Vase, 
put [a saddle] on a donkey. In other cases, it is the 
existence in Old French or some other Romance lai^usge 
of a verb-form on which the noun with the sufiSx d^ioting 
the agent might have been formed that makes probable 
the existence of such a verb in Provencal also. So much, 
then, for the assumption of Provencal words not found in 

■ Thus it ia not perhaps necesaary to explain evetythinE by the 
principle which Darmeeteter eipounds : that a au^, being always 
used with one part of speech, came to contain the idea of that part of 
speech in ilselF. According to this principle, therefore, if a suiGx was 
regiilai'ly added to verbs, it gradiially acquired verbal force, and could 
then be aa well added directly to the nouns from which the verbs epraiig 
as to the verb itself. See MoU Noun., 71. 


FoBMATioN OF Nouns 11 

the dictionaries. Of the two principles mentioned above, 
that of false analc^y will be treated first. This principle 
may best be described by an example. Thus there is in 
Provengal a word Imzaiador, meanii^ a buzzard-hunter, 
apparently formed on buzat, buzzard. Here it is unneces- 
sary to assume the existence of a verb buxatar, which is 
not found in any form in any of the Romance languages. 
There is, however, a noun auzelador, bird-hunter, formed 
on the verb auzdar, meaning "to hunt birds," and not on 
auzel, bird, which also existed. But auzelador was prob- 
ably supposed to have been formed on the common form 
auzel instead of on the much less usual word, auzelar, and 
by analogy tntzatador was formed on buz(U. 

The other principle explaining the addition of suflues 
to .other parts of speech than might be expected, that of 
suffix-change, will now be treated. Cohn,^ in his worlc 
on suffix-change in Vulgar Latin and pre-literary French, 
mentions some common types of this phenomenon in 
Latin, and under the general heading of "change of a 
less usual suffix for a more usual one," he enumerates 
several principles which distinguish this process. Thus, 
as an example of one of these principles, namely, that the 
suflix substituted " depends on some word or words 
similar in form to the old one and related in idea," he 
mentions the change of berbex to berbix on account of 
the existence of perdix. Another change of sufHx that 
must have taken place in Vulgar Latin is the one afFect- 
V ing the Classical Latin abstract suffix -tTIA. A vast 
amount has been written in order to explain the forms 
found in Old French, namely -EISE, -ISE, -ECE, and 
•ICE, but the question cannot be regarded as settled. 


12 Word-Formation in Provencal 

1 The Provencal fonns are simpler — only -EZA, the phonetic 
' development of -iTIA, and -ESA (spelled also -ESSA, to 
indicate more clearly the voiceless sound of "s"), which 
< -ITIA could not have given phonetically. This fonn 
could, however, be explained by the change of the suffix 
-ITIA to -ICIA, which substitution has been su^ested 
for French also. The Provencal descendants of the Latin 
pigritia, for example, are jngreza and pigresa, but also 
pigrida in Raynouard, which seems to represent a Latin 
pigrida unchanged. Now, examples of suffix-change 
just like this one are found in ProvenQai as well as in 
Latin. An interesting example of this may be seen in 
the Provencal word for spice-seller or grocer, espeeiador. 
In Italian, the word for grocer is speziak, and there is 
likewise a Provencal form, especial, both of which probably 
come from spedale, the neuter form of the adjective 
epedalia. In the other Romance languages, however, 
as in French and Spanish, and again in Provencal, forms 
are found which must come from -ARIUS {Spicier, 
espedero, eBpeder), this suffix, whose usual force was to 
denote a person carrying on some trade, being substituted 
for -ALIS, with its variant -ARIS. This change may 
well have taken place in Latin: but besides the change 
to -ARIUS, we find also -TOREM, represented in especi~ 
odor mentioned above. Here we see added to a noun a 
suffix that was generally added to verb^items. -ARIUS 
and -TOREM, both describing persons, however, are 
more or less related in meaning, and the change was 
probably brought about by some analogy. Other examples 
of this kind of change may be seen in the substitution of 
-ANSA for -TAT in amistaTisa, CTiemistan^a, and piotonso.' 

'Another change of thia kind which may have taken place in Lat. 
would he in 'cenalorium for cfnaaJum. Thus !□ Prov. beside the learned 
cenacU, we Sad cenador, which exists also in Sp. The adjective c«na- 
loHut exists in Lat. 


Formation of Nouns 13 

In words of the kind just mentioned we find examples 
of a principle whose importance was great in Provencal, 
namely, the addition of suffixes originally verbal to nouns. 
The participial endings -ATUS, -ITUS, and -UTUS' 
(Provencal -AT, -IT, and -UT) are used particularly 
commonly in this way and may have given a startii^- 
point for other formations of the kind. Already in Latin 
we find such words as barbatua, bearded (formed on 
barba, beard) later used substantively to mean "the 
bearded man." In Provencal, also, we find these endings 
attached directly to nouns and forming nouns in such 
words as iranjai, orange-colored cloth, and gabelat, 
goods on which the gabela, a tax, is paid. Both of these 
words were probably originally adjectives used with a 
noun, but later used alone, substantively. Thus adjec- 
tives in -AT, the verbal ending, were built on nouns, and 
were exactly like the real past participles of verbs when 
used as adjectives, in both form and meanii^. This 
addition of the participial endii^ to nouns was probably 
due to the vast number of cases in which simple nouns 
and verbs in -AR existed side by side: the noun may 
easily have been taken for the base-word.* Yet it is 
in the feminine forms that we must look for the greatest 
developments in meaning. Thus the forms -ADA, -IDA, 
and -TJDA, from the verbal ending -TA plus the stem- 
vowel of the verb, give, in the first place, the meaning 
of the past participle used substantively, as in espozada,* 
bride, and then contract abstract force, as in apelada, 
calling, departida, departure, and atendiida, waiting. 

' For the same process in Engl, see Murray, under the suffix -ED(*), 
where the fuDctioQ of the suflix is stated to be identical with that of the 
LHt. -TUS. Eiaraples are '■booted," '■wooded," etc. 

• Or posaUy to Datmesteter'B principle, staled in the note on p. 10. 

• The masculiue fonns also have this 6rst meaning, as in dunal, 
lay brother; baatil, building, and conlenutU. contents. 



But whea attached directly to nouns, just as in the case 
of the masculine forma given above, the feminine forms 
have their widest extension of meaning, and again it was 
the ending for the first conjugation, namely, -ADA, that 
was used in all cases. Its numerous meanings, as, some- 
thing contained by the simple noun, then as much as it 
could contain (brasada), and as far as it could reach in 
space (balestrada), or in time {jnatinada), a tax to pay 
{bladada), and a blow (coUelhada), are all described under 
the suffix -ADA.i 

Another principle of word-formation found in Pro- 
vengal, one which can be traced back at least as far as 
Vulgar Latin, is that of the addition of a suffix which 
gives no change of meaning to the simple word. This 
is especially true of diminutive suffixes, and is men- 
tioned concerning them by Bonnet in his work on the 
Latin of Gregory of Tours.' By the addition of these 
suffixes, objects in common use were designated, no dimin- 
utive force often being intended, and it is only in the 
form with the suffix that these words appear in the 
Romance lar^uages. But besides the words which are 
found only with the suffix attached, Provengal has other 
examples showing forms both with and without the suffix 
existing side by side with no difference in meaning. This 
simultaneous existence of two forms without difference 
of meaning appears to be due to a continuation mto 
Provencal of the Latin process rather than to the addi- 
tion of the suffix in Latin, in which case the simple word 
would probably have disappeared, as in the cases men- 
tioned above. Examples of these pairs of words identical 
in meaning found in Provencal may be seen in ram and 
ramel, and Uiut and laurel, whereas in Modem French it 
■See p. 30. ' P. 459. 



b onlj' the derived words rameau and laurelie that are in 
use. The presence of the suffix in Modem French appears 
to mdicate a repetition of the process that Provengal was 
undergoing at the period here studied — the addition of a 
suffix brii^ng no change of meaning, and the later dis- 
appearance of one of the words. In Modem French it is 
the sunple word that has disappeared, as shown above; in 
Modem Provencal and in Spanish it is the simple word 
that is found today, as in ramo. It seems, therefore, that 
two words with no difference in meaning between them 
could not both per^st lon^. When the suffix was added 
as early as in Latin times, hardly a trace of the simple 
word is to be foimd in Romance. For example, the word 
for "lamb" in the different languages is agneau, anhel, and 
agneUo, but no trace of agnua is found, except in the Italian 
poetic form agno. 

The addition of the suffix that brings no chaise to 
the simple word may be seen in other examples besides 
diminutives. This principle, which has been called the 
addition of a suffix for the greater length it gives a word, 
is very common in the formation of adjectives,' and in 
the case of nouns is found as one of the uses of the suffix 
-lER.* In dealing with the suffix -ARIUS, the source 
of -lER, Olcott* mentions the English word "fruiterer" 
as an illustration of the same principle. The second 
-er does, indeed, appear to be an example of the "un- 
meaning extension" of a word. Thus the word "fruiter" 
(compare the French fruHier and the Provencal fruchier), 
formed on a noun, was extended by analogy with such 
words as "caterer" and "upholsterer," in which the 

■ For it» use in these foinuitioiis, we p. 270. 

> Aa in broe and trroquier, companh and comparthier. See p. 225, 

' P. 139, n. 4. 


16 Word-Formation in Provencal 

suffix was added to verbs already endii^ in -er, but had 
the appearance of being a suffix -ERER.' Exactly 
the same extension takes place in some Provengal words, 
such as bandairier and carrairier. The same suffix 
here appears under two forms, -AIR and -lER, -AIR 
representing its phonetic development, which it always 
has when not bearing the accent, and -lER the usual 
but non-phonetic development, which -ARIUS underwent 
when clearly felt as an individual suffix, and probably 
due to outside influences.* Whether -AIRIER was 
ever added as one suffix or always as two distinct ones is 
a matter concerning double suffixes. 

This last question, the combination of two suffixes 
in Provencal, closely connected as it is with the principle 
of the forceless suffix, is another whose origin must be 
sought in Va^ar Latin. As an example of the way that 
the two suffixes were originally added, Thomas cites the 
Classical Latin natalidus,^ and as examples of two suffixes 
combined and joined as one to the simple word, he men- 
tions gerdHicius and sigiUaricius, the latter formed directly, 
as its meaning shows, on sigillum. Words like this 

' In connectioD with forms like this. Murray gives several examples, 
but "tniiterer" is the only real example of the "unmeauing eitenaion." 
Here is his Btatement as it appears: "In several iostances -ER baa 
the appearsDce of being an uDmeaniog extension oF earlier words denot- 
ing trades or oSices, Most of these nocds are of foreign origin, as 
'caterer,' 'fruiterer,' and 'poulterer.' An analogous case in a native 
word is 'upholsterer.' The real formation of these words is obscure; 
some are probably formed from verbs, while in other cases formations on 
words in -ERY may be conjectured. " This -ElUf. however, is nothing 
but the Fr. suffix -ERIE (Prov. -ARIA) which is. in itself, a compound 
of -ARIUS (dus the suflix -lA. According to this idea, therefore, we 
should here have a triple mifRi, whichitisentirely unnecessary to assume. 

< Thomae suggests as responsible for tho change of -ARIL'S into 
■ERll'.S the suffix found in Gothic as -AREIS. See Sauv. Ee:. 123. 

•For a 


Formation of Nouns 17 

served as a starting-point for the compound suffixes' 
-ALICIUS and -ARICIUS, found in many words in 
French and in some Provencal examples.' This welding 
t<^ther of two or^inaily distinct suffixes may be further 
illustrated by one of the commonest of all Romance 
suffixes, the one which is found in Provencal as -ARIA, 
in French as -ERIE, and in Spanish and Italian as -ERIA. 
This is formed of the abstract suffix -lA added to the 
^^nt-suffix -ARIUS, and was used at first to designate a 
place in which the object denoted by the simple noun could 
be found in abundance, although later it acquired other 
new meanings. Here, it cannot be supposed that the 
two parts of the new suffix were added separately, or 
even that the word with the single suffix necessarily 
ever existed. All the Romance lai^uages give evidence 
against this view, as they have words in -ARIA or its 
other forms beside which no word with the single suffix is 
found or probably ever existed. We therefore have here a 
sit^e suffix attached to a simple noun, whatever this single 
suffix may have come from. This is the theory for the 
compound suffixes' in Provencal, in which language, if we 
exclude diminutives, formations of this type are especiallj' 
common. -ARIUS alone is found as the first part of the 
compound forms in a number of suffixes, as in-AIRADA, 
all of which -ARIUS has its phonetic development, and 
there are numerous other examples of compound suffixes. 
The individual suffixes forming nouns will now be 
studied in alphabetic order. 

■ That U, two origipally diatinct Buflliea added ns one suffix to the 
■imple n-ord. 

> This does not, however, predude the formation of words by two 
suSiiea added sepHrately. There axe many eiamplea of words of this 
kind. See p. 381. 

• For full ti 


18 Word-Formation in Phovencal 

-ac, -ec, -ic, -dc, -dc 

, The Provencal endings -AC, -EC, -IC, -OC, and -UC 
will be treated together here as a group of suffixeB similar 
'in form and identical in meanii^' and development. 
j As a source for the forms found in the Romance languages, 
'it serans necessary to assume the suffixes -ACCUS, 
j-ECCUS, -ICCUS, -OCCUS, and -UCCUS— that b, 
suffixes with a double c, instead of the forms with a single 
c found in Latin.' In Provengal, the suffixes are of 
relatively little importance, the endmgs being found in 
very few words as certain suffixes, and in the masculine 
forms, the endings -AC, -EC, -IC, etc., do not necessitate 
the hypothesis of original suffixes with a double c. It is 
rather the feminine forms -ACHA, -ECHA, etc., but 
more especially the words found in the other Bomance 
languages, that make any such supposition necessary.* 
Just how this change from a single to a double c took 
place is not thoroughly clear. Meyer-Liibke claims that 
the suffix -ICCUS, which he admits as existii^ in the 
Iberian peninsula and in Roumania, was not Latin, 
although he says that both -ICUS and -ICCUS are found 
as early as the Roman period.* It would appear from 
this, rather that the suffixes found all represented the 
Latin -ICUS, and that the forms with the double c 
showed simply s doubling of the consonant, which occurred 
later, also, for the suffixes -ACUS, -ECUS, -OCUS, and 
-UCUS, and produced the forms found in the Romance 
lai«uages. If -AC, -EC, -ACHA, -ECHA, etc., do really 

> Except some of the words in -EC. 

< These will not do phoneticall)', neither will the forms -ACEUS, 
etc., treated below. 

' For lists of words, see Homing in ZeUachHft. XX, 335. 
• il, 590. 


Formation of Nouns 19 

represent, then, the sufBxes -ACCUS, -ECCUS, etc., 
the question arises of bow and why the doubling of the 
consonant took place. Now the suffixes -AC, -EC, etc, 
seem generally to be diminutive in force, sometimes en- 
dearing, sometimes depreciative; and Homing, who has 
treated the question,' finda the reason for the doubling 
of the consonant in the idea that the suffixes pronounced 
with great energy or emotion caused an involuntary 
strengthening, and therefore doubling, of the consonant, 
a process to be seen today in French pronunciation.* 
Another suggestion that he makes also is that -ICCA 
and -UCCA may represent -ICULA, -UCULA, the 
doubling of the c taking place as compensation for the 
loss of the last syllables, a process which he finds occurring 
in some short forms of Greek endearing diminutives, 
which he gives. This last hypothesis would do very 
well were it possible to find any trace of -ICULUM or 
-UCULUM's ever having been in ajiy of the words which 
have in Provencal -IC or -UC, but as they seem not to 
have bad this suffix in Latin, and as no form which could 
represent a development of it* exists in the words which 
have -IC and -UC, it seems more reasonable to adopt the 
first and simpler hypothesis. 

-AC, -EC, -IC, -OC, -UC will be treated again under' 
adjective formations. As nouns with the suffix -AC, we 

creac, sturgeon: The word is also written creal, -AC 
probably bemg confused with -AT< ATTUS, the suffix 
used to designate the youi^ of animals. This latter 
suffix was also added to the full form of the word, giving 

> Zeittchrifl, XX, 336. 

* Ibid., 3S1. In Mod. Ft., however, it is the initial consoaant that ia 
BtreDgthened. The example cit«d by Honung (350, n. 6) ia the p of 



US the word creagal, & young atui^eon.' Mistral derives 
creac from a late Latin creacus. 

buzac, buzzard: Like creac, it is found also with the 
form in -at, buzat. -AC and -AT, then, both seem to 
denote the young of animals. The French word for 
"buzzard" is bu3e< buiia,^ which probably gave also some 
Provencal word to which the suffix -AC was added, the 
derived buzac originally meaning a young buzzard, but 
later losing its diminutive force. See also -OC. 

pa(ac,t a coin: This also is found with -AT in the form 
patat, and is found in Du Cange as pata, patagus, ptUacus, 
patarus, and patatius. 

In the feminine, the suffix -ACCA should give -ACHA 
in Provencal, as indeed it does in most words. One 
word, however, has -ACCA. This is 

boacca, a female ox, as given by Raynouard, and not 
given in Levy. The word is peculiar as showing the 
double c instead of ch or c' 

:s original ditninuljvc 

' For the CIbssic Lat. huteo. Bute (tor buiit) is irregutar, and is 
probably due to the influence of busard. For buteo, see Diei, 536; 
Korling, No. 1,687; and Meyer-LQbke, Bfym. WBrterb., No. 1.423, with 
I references there given. 

' The word is probably, however, an artificial formation, mode lo 
resemble raca. if wc may judge by Raynouard's example: "vaca es 
dita quays Ixiacca" (II. 244). The meaning given by Raynouard seema 
absurd enough, but yet it is b feminine formed on bou, ox, and absurdity 
seems intended, judging from the context. 

tOther words ending in -AC. but not representing an}- auflix, are: 
andrac, rarbuncle (from the Gr. Ar^paf. coal); eisac. sluice (possibly 
a post-verbal formation no eUegar, dry up. its form being due to a con- 
fusion with agar, tO water, and eisec, equal division, probably a post- 
verbal from eiaegar l<exaequareT], divide equally); and pelac, sea. 
probably from the Lat. peloffut, with the accent-shifting often seen in 
learned proparoxy tones. An obscure word ia meiac, miller's boy (?), 
but even its form is unecrtain. 



fomacka, ovea-tax: Here the word has one of the 
principal U8es of -ATGE<-ATICUM. There is also 
a, form fomatja, oven-tax, as well ae the r^ular fomatge<i 
fomaticum, given by Raynouard. Fomatja seems to 
be derived from the feminine fomatica, feminine forms 
being represented in one or two other Provencal words 
also. Fornacha seems to show a confusion between the 
suffixes -ACCA and -ATICA, having taken the meaning 
of fomatja. Fornacha also means a small oven — the 
regular diminutive force which -ACCA should give. Du 
Cange gives a word, /omacuia, which would suit Hormng's 
second hypothesis, except that there he is dealing only 
with -ICULUM and -UCULUM. Fomalka is not found. 

gamacha, a kind of overdress or toga: The stem appears 
to be garnir, from the Germanic •toanyow,' plus the suffix 
-ACCA (compare the Italian guarjiacca). 

orfeocAa,! blind person: From or&, blind. 

-EC appears in several words in Provencal, but its 
use is totally different from that of the other suffixes of 
the group. The only word in which the suffix -ECCUS 
seems at all sure is cavec, sparrow-owl, the meaning given 
by Mistral for the Modem Provencal caveco, "m&le de 
la chevfiche." As Homing points out,° the word cannot 
be connected with caput, but must belong to the same stem 

1 Kortiog, No. 10.357. Here the auilix seems to be added to a 

• Zcit^ehri/l, XX, 340. 

tOther words ending in -ACH(A) are; 

earach, face (KcaraciumT). See Levy, I. 200, Tor a diseusaion of 
the word. 

ucaratach. scarab {<*tcaTafaia« for acarabaeuaT). See Korling. 
No. 8,424. 

ganxch, fallow tand {<xeTcactu'm). 

Oavach, wen, excrescence (<casaticu«0- 

irbacha (.Koperacciaf). See ZeitschHSt, XXIV, 43. 

A vord io -ACA is poiaraca, but it is probably a compound word. 



that produced the French chotieUe. But why the mascu- 
line form should take the suffix -ECCUS and the feminine 
-ISC A {cavesca) is not clear.' 

The other words in -EC, -ECHA, have no diminutive 
force, but are, instead, abstracts. Eiaec, equal division 
of cattle, does not represent a suffix at aU, but Is a verbal 
substantive from eisegar, to divide cattle equally. But 
there are other words — a noun and an adjective — which 
, add -EC with abstract force. Thus 
domec, lordship, rule dom, lord 

lasecit weoriuesB lae, weary 

and with the feminine -ECHA, we find 
etcazteka, property, fortune eKoter, fall due 

-IC is found in some words, but in very few certain 
Provencal formations: 

ca^i»ic, foototep causa, shoe 

garrie,' tt oakwood (Fr. jarris) 

These seem to be the only Provencal formations that 
are at all likely. The stem of garrie is not certfun. 

-OC is found only in imzoc, buzzard, in which it seems 
to represent the diminutive suffix -OCCUS, and in paroc. 
For the source of buzoc, see bueac, under -AC* 

Paroc should possibly be written parec. For parec, 
see note t- 

■ It seems barely possible that -EC ia eaote should itsdt represent 


• Kdrtmg, No. 4,159. and Dies, 583. ■ Pp. 10 f. 

t There is also a word jtarec of obscute origui and seeming to mesa 
a flock. 

tt Other words with the ending -IC, but uncertain in meaniDS as 
well as of obscure origin, are: beetic, chairic, dmzic {or geniic), and ettric, 
all given in Levy. Meric shows a substitution of -IC for 'IT. Erelic, 
heretic (<haerelicus), and iOTMiii, lovage (<fei>M(Jcuin) are Lat., 
which appears to be also the case with Aorie, danewort (_<*ebuliptu, 
derived from ebulumt). FHoric, pillory (Fr, -pUoril. is of obscure 
origin (see KOrting, No. 8,931). The usual Prov. fonn ia eapiltori. 
PUori may be connected with pilar, pillar. 


Formation of Nouns 23 

-OCEA seems not to exist as a suffix.' 

-UC is found only in one word of Latin origin, festuc, 
straw, and in several rather obscure words: 
boudue,* trouble, dispute; mixture hauHt), bold, gay 
eanUene, bad song canii), song 

dtvertue, ulcer, aore 
]NiJAuc,t chopped Btraw paUta, straw 

CarUezuc is peculiar in having an ez inserted instead 
of having the uc joined to the simple word. How it 
crept into the word is not at all clear, but it is possible 
that it came about in this fashion : several words in 
Provencal ended in -ZEL(A) or -CEL(A), coming from 
the Latin diminutive suffix -CELLUS. It appears, how- 
ever, never to have been added as a suffix in Provencal, 
the words in which it is found being common to nearly all 
of the Romance languages, and showing in other ways 
their Latin origin. Such words are: auzel, dimzel, jnoncel, 
parcela, jnui(c)ela. Now if we may assume a *canticeU,us, 
like aviceUiis and the other sources for our Provengal words, 
it would become canlezel, and then camel. In carUezel, -EL, 
due to the extreme commonness of this suffix, may have 
come to be regarded as the suffix instead of -ZEL. Then 
to the stem deprived of the supposed suffix another di- 
minutive but also depreciative suffix was probably added. 

Devertuc, ulcer, is a difficult word to explain. The 
only apparent source is dwerticulum, in which word 
-UCLUM might have been substituted for -ICLUM, giving 
dwertudum. But this etymology is unsatisfactory, for aside 
from phonetic difficulties, diverticulum means a by-road, 
which has no obvious connection in meaning with devertuc. 

' Oalopcha is found, but is probably from galopia. 
> See Rom. Fortch., XXII, S86. 

t Another word in -UC is paue, which appears to be a postverbal 




The next suffixes to be treated form in Provencal 
another group — -ADA, -IDA, and -UDA. This group- 
formatioa is the regular process in all verbal suffixes' 
in Provencal, where the a and i of suffixes come from the 
stem-vowel of the conjugation to which they are attached.* 
I Thus, in this group, it is oi^y -DA which is derived from 
j the Latin form— the sufBx -TA, the feminine of -TUS._ 
The suffix -TUS was also used, givii^ in Provencal the 
forms -AT, -IT, and -UT, but most of the words with 
these endii^ are easily felt to be only verbal adjectives 
or past participles used substantively, and the missing 
noun can easily be supplied.' With the forms -ADA, 
-IDA, and -UDA from -TA, the process had gone a step 
farther than was usual with the masculine form,' and had 
come to be used almost exclusively with abstract force.* 

' -TA, froni which -ADA, etc.. ia derived, is the feminine torm of 
the Lat. past participle. 

'a aad ( arc regular conoectinR vowels; u is found in the past 
parlieipleB of a whole conjugation in Frov., aod ia due to some Lat. 
forms that had it originally and to its analogical extension to past par- 
ticiples in -ITUM. Thus -UDA caroe about. Where a suffix was 
unconnected with participles, but was merely added to verb-stems, 
' the eonnectini vowels in Prov. were a, e, and i. This fact is illus- 
trated under the verbal suffixes -ADOR, -ADURA, -AMEN, -AZON, etc. 

'See pp. 149-51. 

' Masculine abstracts are seen in such rare words as blaemal, ardit, 
and grnii. 

' See Meyer-LBbke, 11, 575; Die. Gen., introduction, sees. 45 and 
119, such clear abstracts as durie being referred to these aections; also 
Murray tor such words as "delivery" and "recovery," which are appar- 
ently derived from the feminine past participle of the Fr. words from 
which the Engl, words developed. The preponderance of feminine 
forms may be partly due to the similarity of the forms of the neuter 
plural, and the preponderance of words with abstract force may be 
due to analogy with other verbal suiBxcH. which almost alwa>'e have 
this force. 


Formation of Noun8 


The great popularity of the feminine fonn is attested by 
its widespread use as a sufEx to be attached also to nouns,* 
in wiiich formations new meanings are contracted. The 
formations on verbs will, however, be given first under 
the respective headings -ADA, -IDA, and -UDA. Under 
-ADA will be given the formations on verbs in -or; 
under -IDA, the ones on verbs in -ir; and under -UDA, 
those made on verbs in -er or -re. 
-ADA is found in: 

aigada, flood 

aibergada, lod^g 
aJbiroAi, aim 
aUrtada, respiration 

atbergar, lodge 
ul&trar, imagine 
aienar, breathe 
apelar, call, name 

ambar, laod 
aeenMar, assemble 
atTopelar, crowd together 
oiwcor, invoke 
agirar, irritate 
bailar, deliver 
6aiar, dance 
brocar, prick 
cairar, square of! 
eaminar, journey 
carbonar, char, turn to as 

eolcar, lie 

cridaT, cry 

croaiT (8e), take the crose 

dalhar, mow, reap 

armada, anny 

arribada, landing, arrival 

MemfrlotJo, aBBembly 

atropelada, union 

anocada,* female lawyer 

aaraia, impetuosity 

bailada, delivery 

boJoiJa, ballad 

broeada, sarcasm, taunt 

eairada, bewn stone 

eaminada, road 

tarbtmada, grill, broil 

ctuada, hunt 

coleada, going to bed; reating- 

eridada, clamor, uproar 
crozada, crusade 
ddhada, space that can be cut 
with scythe 

' See p, 30. 

' Tbig word, though placed here berause it is formed on a verb, ifl 
different from most of the others. It is merely the feminine form of 
atocal (from avoear). a past participle used as a noun. If, as seema ptoh- 
able, the -ADA in all the words goes buok orisiDally to the femioine 
past participle, words of this kind clearly belong here. 




demorada, delay 
detUnada, destiny 
demdada, descent, slope 
deeaada, division 
dinada, dinner* 
dwrada, duration 
eiiarlada, arable bit of land 
errAoecada, ambuacade 
mctmlrada, meeting 
endestinada, destiny 

etpoxada,' bride 
etlaneada, halt 
etlieada,^ lease of live-stock for 

filada,' bed, layer 

fiagdada,* flail of war (kind of 

florada, a coin 
forcada, fork of road 
fretada, sound thrashing 
fumada, amoke 

demorar, delay 
dettinar, destine 
dewUar, descend 
denair, divide 
dinar, dine 
ditrar, last 
eisaTlar, clear (land) 
mnhotear, ambush 

endettmar, destine 

ethuAar, flash 
espoaiT, marry 
ettancar, stop, stanch 
oltBaT, harvest 

filar, spin, let out 
ftagelar, thraah 

fiorar, give splendor 

forcar, fork 

fretaT, strike, rub 

/umar, smoke 
gelada, ice gdar, freeze 

girada, revolution; a kind of c^e ffirar, turn 
gilada,* coping, drip ffilar, throw 

- gotlada, luncheon gottar, have light meal 

intrada,^ entry irUrar, enter 

' Dinada and utivada show meanings which -ADA vaa much more 
likely to give when attached to qouds. Dinada, neverthelese. was formed 
on dinar. Ettitada may have been formed on tiltu. summer (though 
ettimr exists), and certainly shows the influence of the noun. 

* Eapoiada is admitted to the list for the same reason as aiorada. 
It is simply a past participle in the feminine form used as a noun. 

■ Filada may be formed on the noun fila, row. Jvrada, also, has 
a meaning similar to some of those found among the formations on nouns, 
and might bv formed on^ur, oath, although juror seems its probable source. 

' A very peculiar meaning unless the word is formed on the noun 
flood, flail, which would be an example of tlie forceless use of the suffix. 

' Intrada seems to be the usual spelling, though phonetically we 
might expect e instead of i. The change of e to i in the initial syllable 
is exceedingly common, however. See Grandgent. art. 44, sec. 3. All 
words derived from inlmr and giiar (or enfrar and getar) will therefore 
be spelled wilh i. 


Formation op Nouns 

joite(h)ada, double handful joncar, heap up, strew 

Jurada,' ward for chooaiiig alder- juror, swear 

laisoda,' widow 

tiurada, delivery 
martdada, hammerii^ 
metdada, combat, m£l^ 

laUar, leave 

liar, bind 
liurar, deliver 
martelar, hammer 
metclar, mix 

molinada, grindii^; ground com 

monlada, mounting; hill 

murada, wall 

panada,* theft; stolen object 

patada, passage 

ptcada, sin, fault 

pentada, thought 

petcoda, right of fishing 

plarUada, planting 

piombotia, sounding-lead; leaded 

club; leaden ball 
pojada, ascent 

motinoT, grind 
moniar, mount 
mwar, wall up 
ponor, steal 

pen»ar, think 
peicar, fish 
pbtnlar, plant 
plombavi fill with lead 

pojar, ascend 

randonada, rapidity, impetuosity randonar, run swiftly 
Tecobrar, recover 
reaomnaT, name again 
rtlomar, return 
wear, dry 
soldar, pay 
sopar, sup 
lalhar, cut 
tirar, draw, pull 
tomar, turn 
frencor, cut 

recobrada, recovery 

renmntMida,' renown 

refortMufa, return 

secada, dryness 

sotdada, pay, salary 

lopada, supper 

Udhada, cutting 

tirada, reach, cast 

lontada, refrain 

treneada, cutting, crossing 

trepeUtada,* another form of tro- 

tropelhada,* coming together, union tropelhar ( ?) 
'Cf. n. 3. p. 36. 

> Same kind of fonnation as aiocada and eiponubi. 

> For panada from pan. see p. 33. 
Found aiso as renomada, which probably shows Fr. influence 

1 and renommte). 
• Tbeae two words a 
ur, however, only io a 

I Vombulary. They both 




ttiatada, shock 
veniada, sudden wind 
virada, turning 
volada, flight 

-IDA is found in: 
aizida, enjoyment 
baelida, fortified place, city 
cobeida,' covetousneBS 
coUcida, harvest 
cotnj^ida, compliae* 
con»entida, consent 
dejinida, aadgnment, appointment 
demegida, lot, share 
deparlida, departure 
dsiconfida, defeat 
dormida, sleep 
eimda, issue, exit 
eiwaida, attack, 
etibriigida, making 
escarnida, insult, outrage 
eacojida, overthrow, defeat, 
escorrida, expedition 
escremida, covering?' 
esjamida, rejoicing 
eatiMida, dwelling 
eaiamjnda, noise, resounding 
falkida, fault, filing 
{enida, end, conclusion 
fugida, removal, deviation 
ganckida, deception 
gandida, guaranty 
■ garentida, protection 

■ Thomaa (Etaaii. 233-34) 

luKtar, shock 
vaUar, blow 

volar, fly 

colkir, gather 
comptir, fulfil, accomplish 
amsenlir, consent 
definir, determine, describe 
demetir, divide 
departir, depart 
dMconjir, discomfit 
dormir, sleep 

envaiT, invade, attack 
eshrugiT, make known 
escarnir, insult, mock at 
iscofir, kill, murder 
eecom(se), run, flow 
eecremir, fight, defend 
eejawnr, rejoice 
eaUMir, establish 
estampir, resound 
faikiT, fail 
fenir, finish 
fugiT, fly 
ganchir, prevent 
gandir, guarantee 
garentir, guarantee 
examples of this verb. 
■ Cebeir is am found, but probably existed, being iormed o 
'etous. a usual kind of formation. 

'The compline) (originally compline) was the last service of eom- 
mon prayer for the day. Its connection with the past participle of 
com-piir is therefore clear. 

• This seems a peculiar meaning to be derived from the verb eicreinir. 
but the original meaning of the verb seems to have been "to defend" 
or protect, hence cover, whereas the meaning "to fiftht" also comes from 
the idea of "to defend." For source, see KOrting, No. 8,788. See also 
Rom. Forech., XXII, 2U. 


Formation of Nodns 

garida, refuge; help, saving 
gratida, Ihauks 
meniida, he 
parHda, departure 
retentida, reeounding 
sanonida, admonition 
tortida,^ isaue 

-UDA is found in: 
aUnduda, waiting 
caeguda,' fall 
eonogtida,^ acquaintance 
ertgtida,' increase in price 
deicenduda, mnking away ( 

ganr, cure 
grasir, thank 
metUir, tell a lie 
parHr, depart 
TeCeaiir, resound 
gemonir, admonish 

aiendrf, wait 
ta{z)eT, fall 
eonoUer, know 

eslendTe, eiitend 

jagvda,' night-quarters, resting- jtwer, lie 

Tnofuda,' change 
paruda, appearance 

rauiiuda, acquaintance sober, know 

veguda,* mght vezer, see 

■ These forms, however much they may differ from the corrcspond- 
ing inilDitive forms, have the forma of the feminiDe of the past participles. 
Thus the past participle of e{h'ia{t)tr is c{h)a{t)eout; oiconoUtrisconogat; 
of crnwr, crtotit; moter, maout. etc. 

I coding in -IDA also should be mentioned. In 
it appear to represent a past participle. . Such 

t Some obscure word 
these, the endiog does n 

brondo, whose meaning as w 

condd, obscure; Of the san 

anuvfa, thistle: Obscure. 

eonaolida, a kind of plant (see Romania. XII, 101) : From the Lat. 

There are also some words in -lA which seem to belong here. These 
sre: bmia (found also as ftmyda), public noise; carpia, lint; departia 
and paiHa, departure; and repentia, repentance. In these words the 
d of -IDA seems to have disappeared, owing to Fr. influence. They 
should be compared with the Fr. rharpie and partie and the O.Fr. depar- 
lie sad repenlie. The meaniaga are such as -IDA could give, whereas, 
on the other hand, -lA would not be likely to be added to verb-slcms. 
Partida and departida, the regular Prov. forms, eiiat beaide partin and 



We come next to the use of -ADA, or the suffix -TA 
plus the atem-vowel of the first conjugation, as a suffix 
to be attached to nouns and wholly unconnected with 
verbs. This use has been mentioned above.^ Its mean- 
ings in this case are rather varied, but are found in most 
of the Romance languages. The primary idea of the 
suffix seems to be that of something contained (by the 
noun to which it ia attached). With this meaning are 
found brasada, fomada, golada, olada, and many others, 
to be seen in the list below. From this idea of as much 
as a thing can contain, or as far as it can reach, may 
perhaps be drawn such words as balestrada, reach of a 
crossbow, and this idea extended to time as welt as to 
place gives such words as jomada and maiinada, corre- 
sponding in meaning to the French jowmie and mating. 
Other uses are those of a tax to pay {bladada, vinada, this 
meaning not being very common, however), and the 
addition without force {ronhonada, rosada). Another 
meaning that the suffix has is that of a blow, aa coUdhada, 
knife-thrust, though in this particular case the suffix was 
probably added to a verb, coUelar, which, however, is 
not found.' The other words of this kind, as bastonada, 
espazada, and morrada, may have been formed by the 
analogy of coUelhada beside coUelk. The use of -ADA 
here may be compared with the use of -ADA in Spanish 
(as in cuchillada), which has almost the same meaning as 
-AZO,' a real verbal suffix. 

ixdeslrada, reach of crossbow baUstra, crossbow 

baslonada, blows with cane batlon, cane 

bladada, fine in com blal, com 

■ P. 25. 

' It probably existed, Devertheless. Ct. the O.Fr. coiUeler and the 
Prov. verbal derivative coUelador. 

' The Prov. cotreBponding form -AZON has not this meBtuDB of 
a blotv. For this suffix, see p. 165. 


Formation of Nouns 

boada, conveyance by means of bo-u, o: 

,1 mouthful 

boiiada,' bushea 

botsonoda, bushes 

borgada, amall borough 

brasada, armful 

buddada, bowels 

eamada, excrescence 

canmliada, carcass 

carrada, carload 

carretada, carload 

carfairotja,' sort of grain-measure 

caupolada, shipload 

caatada, footpath 

eauginada,' slack-lime 

cenrodd, alkaline adies 

ciergada,* tonsure 

colada, blow 

eoIteUoda, knife-out 

eominada, drink with caraway- 

eoneada, amount of land which 
can be sown with a amea 

eopdada, ann'e length, elbow- 

corada, bowels 
eoTT^ada, whip, lash 
eottada, blow on the ribs 
erampada, roomful, company 
denairada,^ penny's worth 
ia, cloth 

bocirui, mouth 
bois, box-tree 
6oi«m, bush 
bore, borough 
braU, arm 
budela, bowels 
cam, flesh 
caronha, body 

carrela, car 
earlier, quarter 
caupol, ^p 
caiua, shoe 
caiu, linu 

dere, clerk, scholar 
col, neck 
coUelh, knife 
eomin, caraway 

eonea, grajn-measure 

code, co(p)de, elbow 

corr^a, strap 
eo»la, ude 

erampa, cranAa, cavAra, room 
denier, penny 
drap, cloth 
• See double sufGies, p. 382. 

•This ending here would appear to pve a kind of collective force 
to the nmple word, aa in boitonada below, and iu several other words. 
The raeaniag of boiaada appears to have been influenced by that of 

> Cautina is DOt found, but undoubtedly existed. See Mistral 
under caiuitno. CaiMtna probably went back to B Lat. ealeina formed 

' Clergada has a rather unusual meaning contributed by the suffix. 
This seema hero to denote " the siga of, " 

> See -AIRADA under double suffixes, p. 398. 



Word-Formation in Proven5ai. 

erbada, medicated pillow 
e»eambada,^ stride 
e»aiddada, a bowlful 
etpatada, sword-cut 
faldada, lapful 
fy/airada,* fig-tree 

erha, herb 
eamba, leg 
eteudel, bowl 
tM'pavi, sword 
/oMa, skirt 
figuUr, fig-ti 

formaijada, diah of cheeae and ^ge formatje, cheese 

Jaraaia, ovenful ; also tax on ovena Sam, oven 

frotrtenlada, tax for cultivation of /romenl, gtain 

frontada, street in front of house /ron(, front 

iratado, joke, teasing gai, joy 

jTotofJa, mouthful goto, throat 

grunada,' a kind of sour wine grun, grun 

joneada, bunch of flow^s and jone, reed 

jom, day 

Iota, lath 

lega, league 

lentol, sheet, shroud 

linha, Une 

lum,' light 

matin, morning 
meadha, a coin 

j'omadOjday; day's work, etc. 

ialada, length of "lata" 

legada, apace of a league 

ktuolada,' a sheetful; a plant 

linhada, lineage 

luminada, hunting-torch 

manada, handful 

matinada, day's length 

mezaUmda, what is worth a mezi 
ha; agrarian measure 

mojada, amount of land that can 
be sown with a hogshead of grain 

molada, dust formed on a grind- 
stone by its friction against iron 

moUonada, tax op sheep 

morrada, blow with the snout 

' See sIbo parasyntheta, p. 526. 

' See -AIRADA under double suffixes, p. 398. 

■ Not in Raynouard or Levy. See Romania, XXXIV, 204, where 
gnat is eiplained as comiDg from a VuIe- Lat. *irruTiua, due to a cod- 
fusioD between ffranum and (frumuir. 

' For this word, see Romania. XXXVIII, 555. where a Med. Lai. 
ianceotata is givea as source. 

> L-uminada can, however, hardly be formed directly on this word. 
It apparently goes back to a Lat. luminala formed on lumen. Lumina- 
tui is siven in Du Cauge. although of late date. 

moUt, grindstone 
mollon, sheep 


Formation op Nouns 

Tioroda, shipload 


olada, potfu] 

Ota, pot 

ohnada, place grown with elms 


oiiahda, houBGhold, family 

oalai, house, dwelling 

owJAado, tax on sheep 

MieiAa, sheep 

Vaddada, atoveful 

padtia, Btove 

podffM., pan 

VaxrOada, kettleful 

potrol, kettle 

pal, shovel 

paJmada, slap 

pofeio, palm of the hand 

panada, tart, irie 

pan, bread 

jKMada, flattened or pressed 

IM«ta, paste, glue 

wax (7) 

pattelada, remainder of the woad 

ptMfeJ, woad 

pefrre, pepper 

prim, stone 


peiregada. hul or hMlBtoitn 

peirega,^ hail 

■pdada, akin, wool 


plaisada, inclosiire formed of 

pldw, hedge 


plonarfa, «de 

piana, side 

Vlumada, feather baU (need in 

pfunui, feather 

curing falcona) 

pogezada, article worth a "pc^es" 

poffw, a penny ot Puy 

ptigada, thumb's length; a tax 

polga (7), thumb 

pomada, cider 

pom, apple 

ponAada, handful 


poTcada, drove of pigs 

pore, pig 

poscada, sour wine 

'pwca, from Latin pMca, a kind 

of drink 

retdaaiada, lock (on canals) 

resdanta, mill-dam 

ronhonada, kidney 

rottkon, kidney 

Toiada, dew 

ro8, dew 

Munuufo, load of a beast of burden 

sauma, beast of burden 

sestier, a measure 

eamba, leg 

MUoda, vaUey 

DoiA, valley 

vmiroda, beUy-fuIl 

ueiift-e, belly, stomach 

I See double aufGxei. p. 3t 

'See paraayDtheta, p. 526. 



veeprada, evening's length veapre, evening 

cinada,] vintage; tax on vines rin, wine 

Besides -ADA, however, -UDA is found in a very 
few words attached to nouns. As will be seen later, -UT 
was added to nouns to form adjectives, with a special 
meaning in a few cases, being sometimes substituted 
for -ATUS of the Latin word. The words in which -UDA 
appears to be attached to nouns are probably femi- 
nine forms of the adjective in -UT used substantively. 
Such are 

barbuda, kind of helmet barba, beard 

comwdo,' large pitcher or jar com,' horn 

Another Provencal sufBx which may be given here 

■ Referring to the handles on the pitcher. An obecure word ending 
in -UDA is eocuda. a kind at plant. Mtnitda, rough draTt (aleo detailed 
account |T]), and in the plural, meaning "entrails," is the feminine form 
of the adjective menut used subBtantively. 

t There is also a list of worde ending in -ADA beside which no simple 
Prov. word is found, and which are more or lees obscure. Such are: 

bugada, wash; Du Cange gives bugata aa box hUpimica. 

camiOuula, henbane: For this word, see Homania. XXXIV, 200. 
Here Thomas suggests that camilhada is a bad spelling for canilKada< 
caniculiUa for ealt/culata. 

coTooada, service, drudgery: Probably goes back to a Lat. 'corrooata, 
from eorrogare. 

agttiiJiada, a kind of pear: la very obscure. 

faiiaxada, burden : Apparently connected with fait, burden, but 
it is spelled in several ways, and is somewhat doubtful. See Levy, III. 

fegalada. mixture of drugs: Is obscure. 

ferlada, place planted with southern wood: Probably fiomferta. for 

ferrada, entrails: Is obscure. 

;I(uaila, woolen covering : l3u Cange gives jlocuila, ;tau«<i(fa, ^sciofa. 
and fiattada. 

gamada. a bowl: From the adjective gammatut. from (ir. 
gamma (v). 

garavaiada, dry land: Very obscure. The first part is possibly con- 
nected with vertatiam, but the i is difficult to account for. 

oiloiiai woolen cloth: From Engl, "worsted." See None, £m., 311. 

pineanada, lamb's pluck; Obscure. 


Formation of Nouns 35 

ia -ElA, coming, as it apparently does, from the same 
source as -ADA, -TA added to nouns. The form seems 
i to be due to French influence in such words as fumie, 
livrie, etc. The Provengal examples^ are: 
Jumeia, smoke /um, smoke 

liureia, delivery Uurar, deliver 

mareia, tide mar, sea 

nutfeto, DJgbt nuii, night 


/ The suffixes -A-DITZ, -A-DIS, -E-DITZ, -E-DIS, seem 
to represent the Latin suffix -TICIUS with the stem- 
vowel of the verbs to which they were joined. The 
usual process was to form adjectives, as, for example, 
pUgadia; but in a few words we find the suffix used in 
forming nouns, which nouns may be only adjectives used 
substantively. In Latin, a suffix -TICIUS is formed by 
addii^ -ICIUS to the supine or past participle of verbs, 
as in adventicius, aacripticius, coUatidus,* deditidus, thus 
giving -A-DITZ and -E-DITZ in Provencal. 

With the spelbng -ADIS, we see -DIS (representing 
-TICIUS) joined to verbs of the first conjugation in; 
eapladit, carnage caplar, sitiugbter 

jUadi*, tow filar, spin 

ToyadU, ray Tayar, shine 

and with a feminine ending, there is 
Uturadita, plowing (?) lavrar, plow 

There is also a regularly formed adjective from laborare: 
Idboradilz, plowable. Lauradisa looks like a substantive 
use of the feminine form. 

< These words all have corTes|>oii(luig fomiB in Ft. Words besides 
whiab DO simple fona is found are madeia, stoiDB. Euid -pareia, "pui^e." 
The latter is probably an imitation of the Fr. Tmrit, and madeia seems 
to come from the Lnt. maculala, 

■ Goelser, 143. 


36 Word-Formation in Provencal 

With, the spellii^ -ADITZ is found 
cridadiU, uproEtr eridar, ciy 

panadiU, theft panar, eteal 

plaiiadiU, hedge plaUar, Burround with a hedge 

podestaditt, mighty lord ' podeilat, power 

and under -EDITZ, we find 

avenedilt, stranger avenir, come 

egcroicheditz, breaking egeroichir, break 

Both of these words may be regarded also as forms of 
adjectives used substantively; but in both of them, 
according to the rule, we should expect from the infinitive 
in 4r forma in -IDITZ rather than -EDITZ. Thomas 
explains the e in escroichediU, the only word he mentions, 
by the disaimilatii^ influence of the accented vowel i 
on a preceding vowel.^ This principle might also apply 
to aven^itz. The other derived words here have i, as 
avenimen, avenidor, although besides (wenimen, Ray- 
nouard ^ves avenement. Could there perhaps have been 
in Provencal a second infinitive in -er (vener) under the 
influence of lener — as in Gascon, where the infinitive 
is fticr' — and such as is seen in cosir beside coser, with their 
derivatives costdura as well as coseduraf 


The Provencal suffixes coming from the Latin -TOR 
will be treated here together as a group, although there 
are two distinct forms for each conjugation; and as three 
suffixes already have been distinguished according to 
the stem-vowel to which they were attached, as in the 
case of the suffix -TA, there are here six forms in all. 
Thus for the first conjugation we find -AIRE and -ADOR ; 
i> and eacroitedil!. 


Formation op Nouns 37 

for the verbs in -er and -re, -EIRE and -EDOK; and 
for the verbs in -dr, -IRE, and -IDOR.' The first 
form in each of these pairs represents the development 
of the nominative singular; the second, that of the other 
cases. Consequently, each word could be found in both 
forms originally, and if found only once, it might almost 
as well have one form as the other. Later, however, the 
two cases became confused and lost their grammatical 
value. As the forms in -DOR, being used for more cases, 
are far commoner, the Provengal form of the Latin -TOR 
is given under the heading -ADOR, or the form in -DOR 
for the first conjugation. Each word is likewise given with 
the ending in -DOR, but where Raynouard gives only the 
endings -AIRE, -EIRE, -IRE, this is indicated.' 

As for the meaning of the group of sufBxes, there is 
no great difficulty. It denotes the agent of the action ex- 
pressed by the ver1>-stem to which the suffixes are attached. 
All cases where this meaning is not clearly expressed will 
be treated in the notes, and all cases in which the suflix is 
not added to a verb-stem will be given in a separate list. 

' The formB -AIRE, -ADOR, and -IRE, -IDOR go back phoneUcaUy 
to -ATOR, -ATOREM, and -ITOR, -ITOREM, which were added to 
verba of the Lat. firat and fourth conjugatioDS. -EDOR might be de- 
rived from -ITOREM (except that an unaccented vowel juat before the 
primary accent should disappear), but -EIRE cannot possibly be derived 
from -ITOR. Inslefid, it must come from -ETOR, an ending formed 
by analogy with -ATOR and -ITOR. See E»»aii, 25. 

< Many of these worda formed a complete four-form declensioQ in 
-ADOR, and some others had it nith the ending -AIRE, whereas many 
still kept both forms. Levy always gives each word under the heading 
in -DOR, though the word quoted may often appear in bis examples 
with the ending in -AIRE (as in anuptulador) . RayDOUard often 
cites a form as cudiug in -AIRE, but generally gives both forms in the 
vocabulary in the sixth volume of his dictionary. For these reasons 
worda with both endings will be lialfld under headings in -DOR, and cases 
where forma in -AIRE eiiat will be pointed out in the notes. In the 
second and third conjugations, the nominative forma in -EIRE and -IRE 


Word-Formation in Phoven^al 

abetador,' cheat, swindler 
acomunalhadoT, sharer 
adobador,^ arbiter, redresser 
adoUrador, adulterer 

adordenador, * administrator 

ofachador, preparer 

ofanador, workman 

afinadoT, refiner 

agacKadoT, spy 

agUaiador, kidnapper, eoul-eeller 

ajjidador,* helper 

tfjustador,' conciliator 

aibergadar, innkeeper 

aOnrador, judge, critic 

amador, lover (uaual word is aman) 

amaeelTodoT, teacher 

ama»ador,* treasurer 

amiirladoT, destroyer 

amparador, protector, invader 

onodtw,* traveler, one who goes 

abtloT, cheat 
aeomunathar, share 
otjobor, equip, arm 
(uMtrar, commit adultery 

afachar, prepare 
nfanaT(,»e), work 
afinar, refine 
agackar, watch 
aglatiar, kill 
ajudar, help 
ajugtar, adjust 
olb^gaT, lodge 
albirar, imagine, e8timat« 

amaestrar, arrange 
amagar, heap up 
ajnotiaT, deaden 
amparar, protect 

apelar, call 
apropehar, approach 
auzelar, hunt birds 
avarUar, advance 

blasmar, blame 

apdador, appellant (law) 
apropchador, one who approach* 
auzdador, fowler, bird-catcher 
ODanlador, boaster; also man i 

avoutrodor, adulterer 
aiempradar, solicitor 
baitadoT, carder 
btscarUador, slanderer 
blasmador,' one who blames 
boUidor,* (1) one who marks b<dar, limit 

boundaries; (2) limiior (a friar 

Ucensed to beg alms within a 

certain limit;' (3} also seller of 


' This word may not eiUt. It occurs in the tejt, but Levy, follow- 
ing its editor. Stickney, corKcts to adobal, which he soys the rhyme, the 
senae, and eyllable^ount all require. 

■Compare the Middle Engl, "limitour" in the Prologue to Chau- 
cer's Canlerbuty ToUt, 1. 209. 

• In Raynouard with the ending -AIRE. 


Formation of Nouns 

eambiador,* money-changer 
atmirtador, guide 
eartlador; singer 
capdelador, leader 
cardador, carder 
camdor, hunter 
eattiador, teacher 
oaeador, sapper, digger 
eefoadirr, seeker, investigator 
cttddor,* one who quotes 
cnbeztjodor, one who covets 
tdliieador, cultivator 
compiiador, compiler 
cotifetador, confessor 
conjwodor,' enchanter 
amquutador, conqueror 
amreziulcn-, preparer of leather 
tonsdhadoT,'' counselor 
etmnrador,' dreamer 
amtpirador, conspirator 
amlador,* narrator 
amirariador,' contradictor 
amtratlador,* slanderer; 

enemy (L) 
eordador, ropemaker 
eordalador, official who meaaurea 

with a "corda" 
eoTteiadoT,' courtier 
ereador,' creator 

euQodor,' cuidador, thinker 
curador, one who cures 
damnaijadoT, damager 
dechadoT, one who composes 
defemador, defender 
demandadar* one who asks 
demorador, dweller 
demoBtrador, demonstrator, teacher 
deteauaador, one who lays roota 

detliurador, deliverer, liberator 

eambiar, chuige 
caminar, journey 
eanlar, sing 
capdelar, lead 
eardar, card 
coiOT, hunt 

cosfior, correct, reprove 
covnr, dig 

eilar, quote 
cobezejar, covet 
coUivaT, cultivate 
compUar, compile 
confesar, confess 
conjurar, conjure 
conquUtar, conquer 

coneelhar, advise 

amnrar, consider 

eoTupirar, conspire 

eontar, narrate 

conirmioT, oppose, contradict 

contratlaT, resist 

mjar, cmdar, think 

damnatjar, damage 
(fecAor, compose 
defengar, defend 

demmar, dwell 
demottror, demonstrate 
deacauaar, lay bare 

dediurar, deliver 

• In RayDouard with the onding -AIRE. 


Word-Formation in Provencal 

dettnar, tithe 
detpmuar, depout 
detperar, despair 

, put beyond limits 

demiergenar, raviah 
determinar, determine 
detriar,' dlHtiDguieh, talce f 

detmador,'^ t&x-«ollector 
defpauzadoT, depositor 
detperadoT, one who despairs 
datermenador, exterminator 
deetinador, adminiBtrator ( T) 
dettradoT, measurer 
dewergenador,* ravisher 
determinador, arbitrator, umpire 
delriador, judge 

count of 
devinador,' spy, eiqilor^; alan- devinar, guei 

derer, soothsayer (R) 
dezertctuadoT, excuser dexeneuzar, e 

dezeretadcT, spoiler of inheritances 
dictadoT* ' author 
doctrinador, teacher 
domnejador, gallant 
empaehador; one who prevents, 

empenhador, pawnbroker 
empetradoT, grantee, patentee 
enaTtsadoT,* extoller, preacher 
eTiainlador, enchanter 
encaiisador, pursuer 

midreaador,' * redresser { 7) 
tnganador,* deceiver 
engenhadoT, ei^ineer 
engenTodm,' creator, generator 
enjuTiador, inaulter 
enguietador,^ ' inquirer, solicitor 

1 In this word Levy finds only the endioE -AIRE and the atem 
dtim-. See II. 146. 

■This should not be confused with delriar meanins "to stop." Tho 
delriar given above is found also as dettriar, i.e., with the prefix drt- 
instead of de-. 

>Of the same origin as dechador, above. 

> This word is doubtful accordinB to Levy, who does not understand 

> Enquielar is not found except witli a special meaning; enquitlador 
is apparently formed on eaqueat. the past participle of enquerre. 

dkla-T, write, compose 
dnebinar, teach 
domn^ar, pay court to 
empachar, prevent 

empenhaT, pledge 
empetrar, obtain 
enanear, advance, raise 
encantar, enchant 
eneaugar, pursue 
eneolpar, accuse 
endreaar, set right 
enganar, deceive 
engenhar, devise 
engenTar, engender 
er{juriar, insult 

* In Raynouard with the ending -AIRE. 


FoRiUTioN OP Nouns 

tnsegador, foUower, disciple (in 
this word there ih apparently 
a borrowing of -ADOR from 
the first coDJugation) 
eruenhador,* teacher, master 
erUerrador, * grave-digger 
emfoador, emulator, rival; aa en- 
vious person (R) 
envidador, one who invites 
uajador, aaaayer, one who t««ts 
tiharaihador, fighter, brawler 
tKandolhador, one who gauges 
••, cultivator' 
"■^ fighter 
eteuradoT, one who scours 
ufonador, strengthener 
agardodor, onlooker 
etpmxnitadoT, that which terrifies 
aperadoT, * one who hopes 
ttptroRodoT, one who spurs 
aplanadoT, one who explains 
Mproador,* one who tests or 

utimadoT, appraiser . 
ettieadoT, harvester 
examinadoT, examiner 

fennador, witness 
Serrador, farrier, blacksmith 
filadoT, spinner 
fiatadoT,* flatterer 
fiautador, flute-player 
fonador,* seizer, violator 
foljador, digger 

fraudador, defrauder, smuggler 
Srtmdtoador, sling-man 
gabadoT, boaster 
gachador, sentinel 
gaUador, dectiver, seducer 
gardador, keeper 

1 See nomiiuil panuyntheta, E 

emegre, pwsue 

enaenhar, teach 

envejar, envy 

envidar, invite 
Majar, assay, test 
esbaraihaT, fight 
eacaTidalluiT, gauge 


eafonar, strengthen (7) 
esgardar, look on 
eepaventar, terrify 
emperor, hope 
esperonar, spur on 
etplanar, eitplain, smooth 
eiproar, test 

fermar, witness 
/error, bind with iron 
filar, spin 
fiaUiT, flatter 
fiautar, play the flute 

foliar, Ai^ 
Sraudar, defraud 
frond^ar, use a sling 
gabar, boast 
gachw, watch 
galiar, deceive 
gardar, keep 

* In Rsynouard with the eiidin£ -AIRE. 


Word-Formation in Provencal 

gard^ador (oi gardiador),jiroiectoi gardtjar, bold watch 
gastar, lay waste 
galjaT, make a seJEure 
gaujar, weigh 
gatanhar, gaic 
gatardtmar, reward 
gloiar, gloss, explain 
gofemar, govern 
grondilhar, murmur 
gueTTtjjar, make war 

• devastator 
gatjatLn; one who makes 
gavjadirr, \ 
gaamkador, pillager 
gaxardonador,* remunerator 
gtoiodoT, commentator 
goiiemador,^ governor 
grondiliiador, telltale, backbiter 
ffuerrejador, warrior 
guidador,' guide (Bpelled also 

guUador, guiador) 
guUador, deceiver 
iehUhador,* destroyer 

gitiiar, deceive 
iehiUuiT, destroy 

imaginador, one who Carves im- imoffinar, decorate »nth sculp- 

Bges, sculptor 
intrador,' one who enters 
janglador, * chatterer, mocker 
jogador, actor 
jogladcr, "jongleur" 
JMlador, jouster, opponent 
jiutesiadoT, dispenser of justice 
jutjador, judge 
laisadoT, testator 

laiuerijador, liar 

levador, tax-collector 

liador, packer 

Icgador, lodger, hired workman 

intrar, enter 
janglar, chatter 
jogar, play 
joglar, do tricks 
jo*tar, joust 
jutlenar, give justici 
iuljar, judge 
laUar, leave 
lawrar, plow 
laiaenjar, lie 

liar, bind 

Titandador,' messenger, baker's boy mandar, sead 

mantjar, wield, handle 
mtuar, strike 
meimmar, harvest 

menatar, threaten 

maaejadoT, dealer, 
matador, murderer 
mei»onador, harvester 
menador,' conductor 
menaiador,' one who threatens 
Ttienruador, joiner 

> A feminine form in -ORA also exists. 

■ This same word is also found with another meaning. 

■ For mandador with another meaning see p. S5. 

■ The verb as welt as the noun probably had also a m< 
meanins, though this U not found. Cf. the Ft. nunuuer. 

* In Raynouard with the endins -AIRE. 


Formation op Nouns 

mertu^kador,* admirer meravtlhar, marvel 

merc^ador,* suppbant m^ro^ar, ask mercy 

nurcvn^'ddor, sympathetic person mercenejar, be sympathetir 

mtsprezadoT* scoffer metyrtzar, scoff, Bcom 

maiimdor, reaper, harveeter meelvioT, reap 

ntinodor, miner 
minigtrador, administrator 
mtrodor,' * contempUtor 
mondador, cleaner, winnower 
numtadoT, climber 
moitradoT, indicator 
murador, masoQ 
mumturadoT, murmurer 
muaulpr, idler 
nav^ador, sailor 
ntgoeiadoT, merchant 
noneiador, herald 
oUraciijadoT, bold person 
osUrjador, one who takes part in a 

military expedition 
pagadoT, payer, payee 
panadoT, thief 
porador,* preparer 
pariador* companion, partner 
parlador,^ * chatterer, go-between 
panmenlador, paver 
paUjador, toU-collector 

pechador, collector of fines 
pcTiador,' expiahir 
penhm-adar, one who makes 

minUtrar, administer 
mxr-ar, look at 
mondar, clean 
monlar, mount 
rnoitrar, show 
murar, wall up 

tnuzar, waste time 
navejar, sail 
negodar, trade 

oUractijar, be presumptuous 
otl^ar, make war 

popor, pay 

panar, steal 

paror, prepare 

pariar, share 

parlar, speak 

jNiztmeTiIar, pave 

pealjar, submit to toll; peatjor- 

(se) pay toU 
peehar, fine 
penar, punish, expiate 
penhoTor, make a seizure 

peatador, thinker penaar, 

perfoTsador, supporter, aid per5ar»t 

pergador, one who measures with pergar, 

a pole 
pervalador, grave-digger* 

■ For miradoT and pariador with other □ 
origin, Bee p. 55. 

'See nominal paraayntheto, p. 526. 

* In Raynouard with the ending -AIRE. 

leaniags, and o[ different 



pUhador, plunderer pUhar, plunder 

pintador, ptunter pirUar, paint 
pJ(itde/a<ic>r,*litigaQt;alsoattoniey ptaid^ar, go to law 

planiathr, planter, gardener pianiar, plant 

platejadoT,* itinerant peddler plas^ar, seek public squarefi' 

plasmador, creator plojmiar, form, create 

poblador,'' settler, colonist poblar, settle 
ponehador,* an ecclesiastical office ponchar, point 

(Fr. chanoine poinleur) 

porgador, sifter porgar, sift 

poUadoT, drawer poUar, draw, fetch 

prejodor,* suppliant; lover prgar, pray 

prealadcT,' lender prettar, lend 

prezadar, appraise ■ prezar, appraise 

prezBTitadoT, one who offers preientar, offer 

proador,' examiner proar, teat 

probajadoT, layerer of vines probujar, layer (vines) 

profetitador, prophet profetiiar, prophesy 

prononciador, judge, arbiter prononciar, pronounce 
quesladoT, collector of the "questa" quetta, a tax 
quRstiimadoT, person to be put on quesHonaT, put on the rack 

the rack 
rapadoT,' ravisher 
TavbadoT, * robber 

TOztmador, * reosoner nuonar, reason 

regardador,* onlooker regardar, look at 

remendador, one who revives remendar, revive 

reeemblador,* imitator retembUar, resemble 
aeairadoT, one who cuts animals tcairar, quarter 

into quarters 

fegadoT, harvester segar, harvest 

terTnonadoT,' preacher termonar, preach 

tonadoT, crier, preacher sonar, sound, ring 

' With the purpose of sdling goods. The verb ia formed on flata, 
public square, aod the ptaiejador probably indicates one who seeks these 
places, although from another meaning of plata given by Levy, namely, 
a " court of justice," ptaeejador might possibly indicate a member of the 
court. Eaynouard's translalion of "roan out of work" hardly fits the 

> A Lat. populalor exists, but with another roeaning. 

* In Raiynouard with the ending -AIRE. 


Formation op Nouns 45 

enaenador, one who sets bound- termenar, iinut 

ItitimoniadoT, mtneea UatimoniaT, testify 

ttmbador, tumbler, dancer Uimbar, fall 

tomQodor, jouster lomejar, joust 

irafegador, merchant, trafficker irafegar, traffic 

tToagitadoT* juggler, trickster tnugUoT, juggle 

tra*paaador,* transgressor traapa»ar, transgrese, exceed 

trencadoT, cutter trenear, cut 

triador,* a judge (one who appre- trior, sort, choose 


trichador, cheat, deceiver Irickar, cheat 

lrt»Kpador, trumpeter irompar, play trumpet 

trufador,* joker irufar, joke 

vairador,'' * furrier vatror, change 

Banador,* boaster vatuxr, boast 

vei^ador* avenger venjar, avei^e 

ventotador,* cupper verdotar, let blood 

iwtiKfor.'t one who plays the viola tfiofar, play the viola 

Besides the words m. the list just given, which have an 
obvious verb-source, there is a smaller list of words end- 
ing in -ADOR with no apparent verb at their base. Some 
of these must have been formed on verbs, as is often 
clear by a comparison with other languages (dolador, 
vioJeTUador), whereas others seem to have been formed on 
nouns {compesadoT, eapeciador), and some have no appar- 
ent source in Provencal, In many of the noun-formations, 
it is easy to find a startii^-point among the regular 
verb-formations. The list follows: 

bUhador: The word is listed in Levy, where the follow- 
ing translations are given: skittle-player or bowler, pack- 

> Vairador, furrier, has Dot apparently much connectioD with the 
verb vairar, to change, and was undoubtedly constructed from the noun 
Mn'r, a fur of different colors. 

* In Raynouard with the ending -AIRE. 

tWords of Lat. orinin are oblador, contributor<obfafor,' obrmfor, 
artisan <operator: and ponhador, fighter, from pugnalor. For obradar with 
another meaoiDg. see p. 66. 


46 Word-Formation in Provencal 

servant, and wood-cutter, all with interrogation points. 
The only apparent word at the base of the compound 
is Hlha, cudgel-play, and the connection ia not clear. 
Levy, however, quotes from Mistral the phrase "biha 
I'ase"^ = " serrer la charge sur le bdl de I'dne." From this 
be draws the second meaning given above. This would 
seem to point to an old Provencal bUkar, from which the 
word bilhador may have been derived.' 

brezador, bird-hunter, trapper: There is no verb 
brezar, but only the noun breit, a trap. Thb word, as 
also buzatador, a buzzard-hunter (from buzal, a buzzard), 
might have been formed by the analogy of auzelador, 
a bird-catcher, which has, however, a verb auzelkar as its 

buzatador: See preceding word. 

ckarmador, enchanter, charmer: No verb charmar, but 
only the noun charme appears as the base-word. Here, 
again, analogy may explain the form, as, for instance, 
encantador, from encantar, not from encaTU; or conjurador, 
also meaning enchanter. 

colteladoT, one who fights armed with a knife: Only 
coUel{a) is found, but in Old French we find a word cmtieler. 
Coltelar probably existed also. 

comenlador, commentator: Comerdar is not found. 
Compare, however, Latin, French, and Spanish. 

compesador, land-register official: Apparently from 
compes, land-register, without any verb intervening. 

' I, 288, 

■The qUGBtion is just what thia verb meant. It was probably 
either to cut wood or to load it. If the first, bilhador might mean 
wood-cutter; if the second, il might mean pack-aervant, or poadbly 
skittle-player. BUka probably orisinally meant billet and might give 
rise to the verb 'biihar. It was a further development for it to meajti 
the play of billets or cudgels. Bilha with thia meaning may even be a 
poat-verbal derived from the verb when the original bilha disappeared. 


Formation of Nouns 47 

amrezador, one who prepares leather: This comes from 
the verb cowrezor or conrear, to equip. Comezar is not 
found in the lists, but this word and conrear would be 
simply different developments, of course, of the d of the 
source. The specialization of the meaning in the noun 
is worthy of notice.' 

ayntrajogador, opponent in play: This may be a 
compound of the word jogador, player, and the preposi- 
tion amira, against,^ or contrajogar may have existed. 

coTitTarolador, controller: No verb appears here, but 
one probably existed. Compare French canirdler<conlra 
+rotii}are. Contrarole, on which the word b apparently 
formed, has the same meanii^ as contTorolador. 

criminaire, criminal: No verb criminar is found, 
although there is the derived encriminar and the feminine 
noun encriminairUz. The prefix may perhaps have been 
dropped through some confusion, but it seems more 
probable that there was a verb *criminar, or that the 
word criminaire was formed on criminal by the substi- 
tution of -AIRE for -AL,* or by a false analogy with 
the forms ratjbaire from rajibar, and rapaire from rapar. 

dankjador, a soldier armed with a javelin: Here it 
seems as though there must have been a verb *dardejar. 
The Q before the termination seems to point only to the 
verbal ending -EJAR. 

dolador, wood-cutter, wood-worker: Although no verb 
dolar appears in Provencal, it appears in Spanish with the 
meaning of "to plane wood," with a derivative dolador. 
The same verb probably existed also in Provencal. 

' Undoubtedly influenced by coirier, leathsr-dealer. Murray, 
under eurrier, snys: "a confusion between the two words appears already 
in O.Ft., where we find earoier, c/aroier as variants of conier, in which 
the oi ii due to corrot/er, cottoj/but." 

■ See nominal prefixes, p. 468. ■ See also especiaiTe, p. 48. 


48 Word-Formation in Provencal 

especiaire, a spice-seller : There is no verb eapedar, 
and here there is apparently a change of suffix from the 
-ALE of the Italian spedale and Provencal especial < 
Bpedale to the -ATOR represented by the -AIRE of 
this word. This suffix-change might explain also the 
-AIRE of criminaire (see p. 47). 

eslrolomiador, astrologist: This looks like a late 
addition of the suffix -ADOR to the learned csfrolomto. 
There is also, however, a word csfronomejewtor, which 
looks like a formation on a verb *eatronomejar, easily 
formed from eaircmomia- 

estronomejador: See eatrohmiador. 

fezicador, physician: This appears to be formed on the 
noun fezica without any verb intervening, just as estrolo- 
miador was formed. From these two words, this kind 
of formation would appear possible in learned and scientiEc 

ginhador, engineer: Only ginh and not ginhar is found, 
engiTikar, however, existed, as well as enginhador, and 
ginhador is probably due to the analogy of these words. 

luywetoirc,' locksmith: From lugiiet, lock. 

muzicaire-ador, musician: Although there is no verb 
mvzicar, but only the noun muzica, a starting-point for 
this word may be seen both in trompaire, trumpeter, from 
the verb trompar, and violaire, player of the "viola," 
from vioiar. See also orguenaire, below. 

navelhador, novel-writer: Appears to be formed on 
7uwe(Aa, novel. 

■ This word is interesting and peculiar in that it b giveo in Levy 
with the ending -AIRE instead of -ADOR, and is, *ritb orgtimaire. the 
only word Chat denotea persons given there with this speUlng. -AIRE 
here may posaibly represent -ARIL'S, which wbh regularly added to 
nouns. But if so, it is not clear why it escaped the usual non-phonetic 
development into -lER. 



ofwodor, olive^atherer: oKwa, olive. 

orguenaire,^ organ-maker: orgtieina), organ. 

pardador,* sharer, part-owner. 

seglejador, worldly person: No verb seglejar is found, 
but in all probability it existed, just as 'dardejar did. It 
would, of course, have been formed on segU, world. 

mten(a<for, persecutor: The word is apparently formed 
on the adjective viden(,l). There is, however, a verb 
vioUnier in Old French, and *tn'oIentor probably existed 
in Proven cal.f 

The forms in -EDOR and -IDOR foUow. Under 
-EDOR are found: 

acrtiiedor, one who increases (L); 

protector (R) 
coUdoT, worshipper 
amumedor, wamer, adviser 

eoHoiiedor,* "(»imoisseur" eonoUer, know 

eonqaeredor, conqueror conquerre, conquer 

conedor, partisan, runner cone, run 

eoztdor, one who sews eoier, sew 

enndoT,' believer cre(w)r, believe 

d^endedor, defender defendre, defend 

deatrenhedor, official who raJHes tax desUfjiheT, compel 

dvKdor (also diredor), talker dizer, dire, say, speak 

emprendedor, one who undertakes emprendre, undertake 

"Cf.n. I. p.48, 

> Fareiador aeeiae to show a subsUtutiOD of -ADOR for -lER. 

* In Raynouard with the endios -EIRE. 

t There are also two words no 
no simple word — whether verb o 
be lonned. These are; 

borbolhador, deceiver; Cf., however. Sp. borbolhar. It. barbogliare. 
A Prov. borbolhar Boeras probable, therefore. 

dineador, calker: A more obscure word. It may be connected in 
some way with the Dutch klinken. 



Word-Formation in Provencal 

enfranhedoT (R),' oath-breaker 

entendedor, lover 

etmoUdor, grinder 

fiuedor, maker 

fenhedor, hypocrite 

foledor, cohabitor 

fraakedor, one who ^andona, or 

breaks, a rule 
joiedor, sodomist 
jonhedor, fighter 
maldizedoT,* blasphemer 

mayazedor,' evil-doer 
maivaledor,^ ill-wiaher, enemy 
manlenedor,* protector, helper 
metedor, generous person, spend- 

nozedor, one who injures (a person) 
ofendedor, offender 
penkedor, * painter 
perdedor, loser; destroyer 
■poaezedor* possessor 
prendedoT, receiver, cashier 
prenedoT, ravisher, taker 

provider; muuiinpal 

qaeredoT, investigator, solicitor 
rttzedor, shaver, barber 
retpondedor, interlocutor 
■TmendedoT,' retailer 
rezemedor,* redeemer 
Tompedor, one who breaks 
tOitenedoT, suHtainer 
tanhtdoT, relative, friend 
Unedor,* possessor 
Unhedor,' dyer 
tondedor,* shearer 
valedoT* defender 

atfrartker, break (oath, truce) 

enlendre, attend to, court 

estnolre, grind 

fazer (for f aire), make 

fenher, feign 

folre, cohabit 

fraiAer, break 

jonher, join (fight) 
mfddUer (for maldire), blas- 
pheme, slander 
m/dfazer (for mrjfaire), do ill 
Tnotooler, wish ill 
mantener, maintun 
metre, put 

ofendre, offend 
penher, paint 
perdre, lose 
poaezer, possess 
prendri, lake 
prener, prendre, take 
prevezer, provide 

guerre, seek 
rater (for raire), shave 
respondre, answer 
reoendre, retail 
rezemer, redeem 
Tompre, break 
toaUner, sust^n 

tetuT, hold 

lenher, dye 

tondre, shear 

valer, be worth, defend ( ?) 

> Ttiis is the form to be expected, but Levy can find □nljr enfTanhiior. 
■ See also hybrids, p, 5TS. 

* In Raynouard with the ending -EIRE. 


Formation op Nouns 

• vendor vendre, sel! 

vetedor,^ one who sees veier, eee 

and under -IDOR: 

eatttidor," chooser caunr, choose 

colhidor, one who gathers colkir, gather 

eonfplidoT, aocomphsher, executor compUr, fulfil 

eondiixidoT, leader cortduiir (for condttirt), lead 

amaenlidor, one who approves or etmtenli^, consent 

dtQir, choose 


en^uutr, investigate 

eiwair, disturb 

emorir, transgress 

Kceqmr or exaeqwr, execute 

/oWiir, f wl 

/erir, strike 

forhir, equip 

pondt'r, preserve 

gamiT, furnish 

gronhiT, grumble 

reqiT, rule 

liegidor, elector 
enquitidor, investigator 
eiwaidoT, disturber 
ewatidor, transgressor 
exeqiador, executor 
faOttdor, one who ftuls 
ftridor, one who strikes 
forbidor, sword-cutler 
gandidor, preserver 
gamidor, furnisher 
gronhidar, one who murmurs 
regidoT, governor (of a nation) 

The Latin suffix -TOR which, as has been seen,' 
became -AIRE and -ADOR in verbs of the first conju- 
gation in Provencal, and -EIRE and -EDOR in verbs 
of the second, had a corresponding form -TRIX for 
feminine nouns, as seen in imperalor, emperor, and impera- 
trix, empress. This ending -TRIX becomes, in derivatives 

■ See enfranfudor, p 

•P. 3a. 

* Id Rsynouard with the ending -EIRE. 

** In Rsynouard with the eoding -IRE. 

i More or less obscure words ending in -EDOR are doaredor and tt- 
Irtnhedor, In the latter, both form and meamns ore doubtful. Doartdor 
means "cooper," and is clearly connected with doga, stave. As in 
deaT»doT, the disappearance of tha g is seen in do^a, a diminutive of 
doga. and in doalier, also meaning "cooper," and apparently formed on 
ddtn^ not given io the dictionaries. In lUmredor there is probably an 
aatiniilation of the I to the following r. 



of verbs of the first conjugations, -AIRITZ,' and in those 
of the second, -EIRITZ, The Latin word imperatricem, 
therefore, becomes the Provencal emperairitz. Then this 
suffix -AIRITZ was joined to verb-stems to indicate a 
female agent, just as -AIRE and -ADOR had been used 
to indicate a male one, exactly the same thing happening 
with -EIRITZ in verbs of the second conji^ation. Gener- 
ally we find the forms in -AIRITZ existing beside the 
forms in -ADOR; but occasionally only the feminine 
form is found, and in a few cases the masculine and the 
feminine words have taken totally different meanii^. 
These words will be given and treated in the list which 
follows.^ In the first conjugation are found: 

abelairiU, female cheat abetar, cheat 

avocairUz,' female lawyer atocar, invoke 

avoutrairiU!, adulteress avoulrar, commit adultery 

hadairUi, woman who yawns badar, yawn 

balairtU, female dancer bakur, dance 

eamjairUi,* fickle woman camjar, change 

eaidainU, female singer candor, uog 

coUivainU, female inhabitant aitivar, cultivate 

eomaiKtairilz, female commander omumdaT, command 

amtempJairitz, woman who con- conttmplaT, contemplate 


degaatairUz, female spendthrift degatlar, lay waste 

empelrairiU, woman who attains empetrar, obttun 

fneriminavrUz, female slanderer encriminar, incriminate 

enfantairiii, woman who bears enfaniar, bear children 

I Forms like -AIRITZ that represeot DothinK but a Lat. auRuc (here 
-TRIX, -TRICEM) plus the gtem-vowel of a verb are given as simple 
BUflixcti, though at Grot sigbt they mSiy resemble double ones. -AIRITZ, 
for eiaraple, would scorn W resemble -AIRADA, -AIRON, etc. 

■ Words formed in Lat„ as einperairiU<imperalritem, are o( course 

• Beside acocada with the same meaning; the masculioe form is 

• The masculine form means a money-changer. 


Formation op Nouns 53 

tnganairiU, female cheat enganar, deceive 

engenraintt, mother oigenrar, engender 

etUrepretaxrUz, female interpreter erJitvprttaT, interpret 

fiairiii, female spiimer ^'^, spin 

/oTidoiriii' /(mdar, found 

galiairiU, female cheat; prostitute galiar, deceive 

gardairilt, woman teacher, gov- gardar, keep 

gattairift, extravagant woman gatlcr, waste 

gatanhairiU, female farmer gazanhar, plow 

gmiernairiU,' govemeas governor, govern 

UvairiUi' midwife levar, raJae 

minutrairiUi, executrix mintatrar, administer 

mudairitz, fickle woman mudar, change 

orairiU, intercessor (?). (Levy orar, pray 

gives no translation) 

pammairiU,* (female) conjwner (parson, part) 

portairitz, female peddler porlar, carry 
toriejairUx,' sorceresa 

tTiehairiU,* female cheat triehar, cheat 

venjairitz, female avenger venjar, avenge 

Under the suflBx -EIRITZ there is the following list : 

d^ettdeiriti, female defender defendre, defend 

endareteiriU ' 

enseneiriU,'' generator, mother 

1 The word is Dot understood by Levy. It is evideDlty some leial 

'Also govemadora <p. 42). 

■ The masculine form means "tax-collector." both forma, however, 
being derived from I«Kir, to raise. 

• There are qo such verbs as partonar and lorlejar, and the word 
■arl<:iairili is a puiile in form. 

> It seems as though the suffix -AIRITZ was at this time usually 
added to verba of bad meaning. Thua. for example, lAetairili. engan- 
airiU. oaliainU, and trichairilz, all meaning "female cheat." 

•Levy, who gives this word, offers do translation; it ia probably 
from *endeterir, a compound of deiezir. It evidently denotes some 
profession, such as eMorpeirtd, aud had something to do with wool- 

' No verb. Probably formed from the Prov. form of ingignert, in 
imitation of geneiriU<Jientlrix, derived from gignerf. 



esearpeiri'i, female wool-comber eiearpur, alaah, cut 

moj/iuemlz,' female criminal ma^ater, do evil 

menleiriU, woman who lies merUir, lie 

ordeiHti, female weaver ordre, weave 

poaeieirilz, female owner ■poaeoT, possess 

Aside from -AIRITZ, this is the only development of 
the Latin -TRIX that it seems possible to find. -EIRITZ 
seems to be joined to all stems except to those of verbs 
ia -ar, which take -AIRITZ. Thus to verbs in -ir, as 
well as to those in -cr and -re, the suffix -EIRITZ is 

Before leavii^ the Provencal suffixes -ADOR, -EDOR, 
-IDOR, there is to be considered another class of words 
which do not denote the agent at all, but generally the 
place in which an action is performed, and sometimes the 
instrument used in its performance. These words will be 
treated here because of having the same endii^ in the mas- 
culine as the words denoting the agent (-ADOR, -EDOR, 
-IDOR) although their source ia probably different. This 
seems to be the Latin suffix -TORIUS,* which was used in 
forming adjectives* and joined to a verb-stem, as seen in 
amatoriua, formed on amare. The next step seems to have 
been the substantive use of the neuter form to indicate 
a place, as in dormiiorium, for example. Then, also in 
Latin, is found the use of the feminine form in -TORIA as 
a noun, as in naiatoria, also denoting a place. Now, as 
-A-TOREM certainly becomes -ADOR in Provencal, 
and as these words denoting the scene of an action appar- 

I See also hybrids, p. 678. 

& reminina Eorm giving; 

■ See p. 280. The suffii waa probably originally formed by oddiiiK 
the sufBx -I US to words eodins in -TOR (Cooper, 157) . Prov.. however, 
regardB <A)-TORIUS as a mngle suffix. 


Formation or Nouns 


ently go back to -A-TORIUS, we find these two suffixes 
giving the same form in Provencal. In most of the cases 
in which words in -DOK denote place or instrument, 
we may declare the source of the suffix -ADOR to be the 
Latin -A-TORIUM joined to the verb-stem, althoi^h a few 
words in the following list, for various reasons, will call 
for special treatment. 

h^adoT, hies, whistle 
eaifadoT, kettle 
dmador, dimng-room 
dmaodor, dreeeer 
eUagadoT, outflow 

titegador, b&il, guaranty 

In^ar, blow 

calfar, heat 

dinar, dine 

drfiear, set up 

eUegar (for daagar), flow 

out { 7) 
eitegar, arrange, divide ( ?) 

eicoTJador, place for Eddmung escorjar, flay 

etenuador, skiminer, slidng- 

etgoladoT, waste-inpe 
fiianeador, surety, bul 

mtrador, entry 

kgador, smelting-pot 

mandador, surety, bul 

miradcr, mirror 

nozodor,' joining 

obradoT,' workshop 

pariador, parlor 

jxuador, passage 

pettador, pestle 

plegador, instrument for bending 

jx^ador, flight of steps 
■potadoT, place (in river) from 

which water may be drawn 

> NotadoT del col meana "nape 

here the only posable verb 

appears to be et 

comb wool 
e«gotar, empty out 
only fiamaa, the ne 

irUrar, enter 
leiror, smelt 
mandar, summon 
mtror, look at 
Tioair, knot 
obrar, woric 
parlor, speak 
patar, pass 
pettar, crush, stamp 
pUgar, bend 



rtbodor, shore, bank ribar, approach 

/errodw.'t terrace (probably from 

'lerraloHvm for lemtorfutn.' 

There is aioo a verb lerrar) 
Under the suffix -EDOR, also, a word: 
eaetnredor, gutter eseorre, flow 

Under -IDOR there are several words to be added : 
auzidor, acoustic duct aun'r, hear 

boUdor, boiler bo'hir, boil 

etdafidoT,' etdatidor, canal for 

carrying away Buperfluoue 

folpidor,' place where things are 

destroyed or corrupted 
peatridoT, bakery (kneading-place) peitrir, knead 

Under the feminine endings -ADOIRA, -EDOIRA, are 
found the following words, coming from the Latin feminine 
suffix -TORIA: 

doladoira, broadax dolar* is not found in Provencal 

falcadaira, mowing inBtrument faUai* ia not found in Provenfal 

' See Enait, 14. The difficulty coosJBta in the fact tbat there is also 
a {otia terraire. Thia seems, however, to be a nomiiiBtive form Coined 
by analoKY wjib the DomiDative of words in -ADOR cominE from -TOR. 

> No verb ie found. 

■Also felpidoT. No verb found. 

• The Sp. dolar, however, means "to cut wood." 

> But the Fr. faucher means " io mow." 

fAo interestiag word of Lat. origin is cenador. upper atory. The 
usual Lat. word is txriaciilvm, meaning, first a dining-room, and then, 
as these were generally in the upper stories, the word itself came to mean 
an upper story. (See Smith, Did. a/Antiqii., I, 665,) But cenatorium, 
the neuter form of the adjective ceruUoriua, derived from cenare, also 
exists, and underwent the same change of meaning that cenaadum did. 
Sp. has two interesting words, cenador<.cenatorium, and cenaiUra<i 
cenalaria, both meaniuK summer-house, apparently a further dei'elop- 
ment of meaning. DiTtadar, formed in Prov., has only the meaning of 
dining-room. See Etvm. WUrterb., No. 1,808. 

An obscure word in -ADOR is aravladoT, plane. 

Dormidor and Unador are also omitted from these lists, as they are of 
Lat. origin. 


FoBMATioN OP Nouns 

fiamar, flame up 

foladoira, fullu^mAchine 

foUa; full 

towor,' throw 

mmjoAnra, maagfsr, crib 

manjar, eat 

podadoira,' t pnmmg-knif e 

podor, pnine 

And under -EDOIRA, there 


eatrenher, compel 


The next group of suffixes in order is the one containing 
the three forma -A-DURA, -E-DURA, and -I-DURA, all 
coming from the Latin -TURA joined to verb-stems with 
abstract force, the -A-, the -E-, and the -I- of the suffix 
appearing according to the conjugation to which the suffix 
was attached, as was the case id -A-DOR, -E-DOR, 
-I-DOR from the Latin -TOR. Besides these regular 
forms, there are a few words in Provencal coming from 
this suffix but probably formed on past participles of 
irregular verbs in Latin when the connection with the 
original verb was lost. These will be given under -URA.' 
As for the meaning of the Provencal -ADURA, etc., the 
original abstract force has been kept, and the formation 
on verb-stems is likewise the same. There is, however, 
a new use also: the suffixes -ADURA, -EDURA, -IDURA 

> Sea Romania. XXXIV, 199. Thomsa here compaies the Prov. 
norda with the Engl, "shuttle." in which the basic idea is that of throwing 
or shooting. 

■ There is Qo verb on which this is fonned. but only libre, book. The 
word probably ahowa a change of suffix from -ARIUM to -TORIUM. 

• See Romania, XXXTV, 195. 

•Seep. 261, n. 2, where a theory is given as to the origin of -ADURA. 

tAnother word in -ADOIRA is mercadoira, merchandise, which 
seems to have come from the Lat. adjective mereatoriua, used aub- 


58 Word-Formation in Proven5al 

were added to nouns, where they had regularly a collective 
force. The list of verbal formations will be given first: 

Under -ADURA, are found: 
afermadura, guaranty 
ambladura, ambling gut 
aplanadTira, emoothneea, polish 
brodadwra, embroidery 
cabadura, fringe, valaDce 
eargadura, load 
etuadura, flog^g; erasure 
eavakadura, riding 
eomadura, blow with the horns 
eorraladura, broker^e 

creftoduro, crauiy, crevice 
crtmadura, buming, bum 
damitadura, damage 
dauradura, gilding 
d^gadura, displacement 
detboiaadura, sketch, picture 
dettradum, measuring 
dobladura, doubling 
domdadura, taming 
euervigadura, dislocation of the 

em-penhadura, pledge, security 
AnpenAorodura, right of mortg^e 
endoUiduTa, hollow, low place 

enjiadvira, swelling 

ajermar, affirm 

onMar, walk, amble 

ajUanar, smooth 

brodor, embroider 

cahoT,* fulfill, work 

cargar, load 

cowir, break 

eaixUcar, ride 

cornor, gore 

(only eomU^ar found),' deal ij 

erAar, burst, break 

tremor, bum 

damnar, injure 

dauror, gild 

dA>gar, displace 

dtboisaT, but also deiboUar' 

doblaT, double 
domduT, tame, lead 
eiaervigar,' ( 7) 

empenhar, pledge 
mnpeahormr, pledge 
mcioior,' become 

bumps C 7) (L) 
enfioT, swell 

■ Stichel, 23. 

> That is, txrrmlaT is not found. The stem corral, however, is found 
in a number of other words, na oorratier, corralalgt, etc., which see, espe- 
cially corratier (probably formed on wrre, to run, as in damaiitr, p. 218), 
The suffix here being eeeo, corrai was taken for the stem, and gave rise 
U) the other formation. 

> Meaning originally "to carve" or "to chisel," but Levy gives the 
additional meanings ot "to draw" and "to paint," 

' The meaiuDg of the infinitive as found in the example is not dear, 
but the past participle certainly has the meaning "with dislocated neck." 
• See also Stichel, 42. 


Formation of Nouns 

engenradura, progeniture 
entrdinkadura, mterlining 
eiuvzadura, joy, gaiety 
egcaldadura, acald, burn 
eteorjadura, excoriation 
etfatadura, extinction 
eff/ardadura, look, glance 
emteradura, joy 
fennadwa, treaty ; closing ; closed 

ferradtera, ron-work or trim- 

ficadien, nail marks 

I, material for apimiing 
[, eting (of animals) 
1, foliage 
I, fodder, provimonB 

forcadura, forking 

frapadura,' scalloped hem of dress 

fraadura, embroidery 

gardadura, look 

gaijadura, seizure, dietrwnt 

genmdura, sweepings 

giiadura, breaking open 

grafinadura, scratch 
. grosadura, copy, transcript 

laUadura, stains, spots 

lauzadura, tax on sales due to lord 

laradura, dish-wash 

leojdwra, leaven, yeast;* confine- 


enirdinhar, interline 

etwetar,^ rejoice 

eiealdar, scold 

eecoTJar, flay 

e^aiar, efface 

agardar, look at 

esmcrar, adorn, improve, shine 

ferrar, bind with iron 

filar, spin 
fijuir, prick 

foUiar, put forth leaves 
folrar, feed, clothe 
forear, fork 
frapar, strike 
freior, embroider 
gardar, look at 
gatjoT, pledge 
9<n<ar,i ornament (?) 
gitar, throw (open) 
grafintir, scratch 
grotar, engross 
taiiar, soil 

lauzar, prtuae, approve, ap- 
praise, advise 
lavar, wash 
Itvar, raise 

liadura, clothing, warp-thread liar, bind 

' Le\-y finds only encezal, merty. 

' Peculiar meaniag. See Du Cange, frapalura. 

• Cf. the meBnings of the other formations on genaar, as, for ciain- 
pl«, geruum. 

•Thia is surely one of the meanioKS of the word. Mistral has tem- 
duro, roeaninE "yeast." In the example of the word quoted from Flam- 
enca, I. 307, Tobler, in Herrig'e Archie, CX, 464, suggests a 
aletadura. with the meaning of "eiaggeratjon." This seema 
meaning, but is it necesBsry to change the form of the word 7 


Word-Formation in Provencal 

limadura, filings 
maeadura, bad cut of cloth 
mandadwa, psymeDte for Bum- 

mesdaduTa, mixture 
m/Ahiodvra, wetting 
Trumtadvra, mount 
cbradvra, work 

orladiiTa, hemming or trimming 
pageiadura, measuring 
paradara, adornment, decoration 
parelhadura, oouplii^ 
parladura, manner of epeaking 
penkoraduras, tax paid on a Beisure 
pergadwa, tax paid to the "per- 

plaid^adura, pleading, speech 
pkgaduTa, curvature, phability 
ralonadura,' rat-gnawing 
sacrifiadura, aacrednesB; thing 

taladura, salting 
lemjtTadvra, temporiiation 
Irencadura, act of canceling 
versifiadura, versification 
viotadura, playing of the viola 

mesclar, mix 
vwlhar, wet 
tTunUar, moun 
obrar, work 
oriar, hem 

parar, adorn 

pardhar, couple 

parlar, speak 

penliana-, sdie 

pergttT, measure (the pergador 

being a measurer) 
plaidfjar, plead 
pfegar, head 

sacrifiaT, sacrifice 

»aiar, salt 
trenear, cut 
versifiar, verify 
violar, play the viola 

Under -EDURA are the following words: 

coudura, sewing 
escoUendvfa, tear 
fazedura, restoration, recovery 
fendedura, crack 
frankedura, breaking 
nwfendum,* miller's pay 
mordedura, bite 

escm»endre, tear 

fater (for/atre), make, restore 

fendre, crack 

franker, break 

moire, grind 

mordre, bite 

>No verb found; see [ormations oa douiib and p. 62, a. 4. beloK-. 

'This verb is found only with the meaniDgs of " temper '\aiid "dip,"' 
but the existence of a lemprar, to temporiie. from temparare on temjmt 
s(?ems probable. Temporare vnib this meaning is indeed given in Du 
Cange. Fr.. and through it. Engl., have added -IZARE instead of -ARE 
to the noun designating "time." 

■ We should expect moUdura. 


ptmhedura, pricking, prick jxmher, prick 

prmnethira, kind of poor wine premer, preea 

Tompedyra, fracture rompre, break 

and under -IDURA: 

boUdvra, boiling bolir, boil 

eolhidwa, crop, harvest cotAir, gather 

daxttidura, withdrawal of endow- devestir, diveat 

envesHdaTa,^ investiture enveetir, invest 

tsmevtidara, dung ernnevUr, defecate 

jiortdura, spreading jUmr, flourish 

framtdura, furnishing gamir, furnish 

nwiidvra, moldiness monr, become moldy 
Tioiridwra, food; education; family noirir, nouriah 

partidwa, fragment partir, divide 

poiridttra, rottenness poirir, rot 

vetUdura, clothing ve«Hr, clothe 

In the words ending in -EDURA and -IDURA, then, 
the meaning seems to be nearly always purely abstract, 
and the formations are all perfectly regular. Among the 
words in -ADURA, on the other hand, the collective idea 

I seems to have crept in in such words asJicadura,folhadura, 

*■ geriaadura, grafinadura, laizadura, Uwadura, and limadura. 
Most of these words must have been formed on verbs, 
though some of them, as, for eTuaaph, folkadura, might 
have been formed on either noun or verb. The next 
step was the addition of the suffix to nouns with no corre- 

I spending verb-stem, and generally giving a collective 

J force. Such formations are seen in: 

awro, air 

boUm, button 

cabtihadwa, head of hair 

eobett, hair 

com, flesh 

' /nueafifum ia in Du Catige. 

'Aurulura, plding. ia found in the ioKcriptions (see Olcott. C 
this is coQoected with aurutn, gold, whereas the present word, me 
sirineae, lightness, is clearly formed on aura, air. 


62 Word-Formation in Provencal 

femadura, manure-pile f«m, manure 

fiamaduTa, kind of plant fiama, flame 

letradura, lettering on coin lefra, letter 

lobadura' loba, woU 

machaa>ladura,' machicolation maehaeol, machicolation 

mercadura, business, commerce mere, merchandise 

pageladura,' small house ( 7) pagela, dialect 

pezadara, footprint pe, foot 

Talonadura* rat-Knawing raion, rat 

teladura, canvas tela, cloth 

Aside from the list of words in -AIRE with the object- 
case -ADOR (under which heading the words have been 
given), derived from -A-TOR, and denotii^ the Ageat, 
there are several other words with an entirely different 
meaning which cannot be traced to the Latin -TOR,* but 
must be derived from -ARIUM, which would phonetically 
give -AIRE. The complete list will be given, although 
most of the words were pretty certainly formed in Latin: 

doaire, dowry 

eiviaire, intention esiiiar, ewiar (7), send 

fruchaire, fmit-tree frueh, fruit 

luminaire, light 

notaire, notary 

obraire, workshop obra, work 

pemire, scales peatr, weigh 

planlaire, plantain ■platUa, plant 

pozaire, bucket for drawing water pozaT, draw 

> Levy gives no pieaoiDg for lobadura. It is evidently connected 
with an adjective lobai. also uneiplained, and ia used several limes in 
deacribing horses. 

'See also hybrids, p. 578, for machacolamen. 

> The meaning of Ihe aadix here, it seems impossible (o explain. 
Raypouord's citations are too short to be certain that his translations for 
both words are correct. !□ other examples the word means "measuring." 
Seep. 60. 

• From its meaning this should be formed on a verb. RoUmar ia 
not found in Prov., but is in Sp. 

> For two words in -AIRE denoting the agent of an action and 
derived from -TOR. see p. 48, n. I, 


Formation of Nouns 63 

The uau&l development of -ARIUS, -ARIUM, however, 
waa -lER, under which headii^ the sufEx will be treated 
in detail. Theae words would therefore be exceptional, 
although not phonetically irregular. It seems probable 
that none of them are Provencal formations, but that they 
are derived from Latin words ia -ARIUS or -ARIUM. 
Doaire appears to go back to *dotarium (which is in Du 
Cai^e as doUUis, found also in classic Latin). Luminaire 
is from luminarium, nolaire from notariua, ohraire from 
operarium, plantaire from plarUariua (apparently confused 
in meaning with plantago), pozaire from putearium. Fru- 
chaiTe<fruduanum exists beside fruckier, probably a Pro- 
vencal formation. Eiviaire is not clear. Pezaire is the 
only word in -AIRE from -ARIUM that really resembles 
a Provengal formation, but it also is probably Latin. 

The Provencal suffix -AL is from the Latin -ALE, which 
is, in turn, a substantive form of the adjective suffix 
-ALIS.' In most of the derived words which have any 
difference of meaning at all from the simple forms, the 
original adjective use seems clear. For example, in 
fogal, a hearth, it seems as though loc fogal, or something 
similar, might be understood. In the same way the words 
denoting all of the pieces of armor and articles of dress 
might have been formed — that is, each piece would be 
thought of as a covering for the eyes, the nose, or the thighs 
{olkal, nazal, cuichal). Then, next, the adjective would 
be used without the noun, and finally the adjective use 
was forgotten. In this way it may come about that there 
are ao many pairs of words — a form with the suffix -AL 



and one without it, in which there is no perceptible differ- 
ence of meaning — as in cerUenal, ronhonal, and rozal 
existii^ beside cerUena, Tonkon, and ros. Although Levy 
corrects some of Raynouard's words, and thus shows 
a difference of meaning — for example between banc and 
bancal or dent and denial, which had precisely the same 
meaning in Raynouard — the word with a sufHx showing 
no difference in meaning from the simple word is still 
common. It seems probable that this forceless use was 
the latest development of meaning that the suffix 
assumed. The first meanings were probably those of 
place, as in fogal and boal, and, more usually still, 
of objects of dress,' particularly pieces of armor, as 
bocal, brasal, cambal, cuichal, dedal, nazal, and olhal, for 
in all of these the original adjective use is discernible. It 
was probably only after the nouns with which they were 
used had disapi>eared and had been foi^tten, and 
the original force was no longer clear, that the suffixes, 
used more freely, gave no clear development of meaning 
to the word to which they were attached- There are also 
several cases of words in -AL beside which no simple 
word can be found, but they are probably all Latin forma- 
tions. Those, however, which are not actually found in 
Latin are given in the list and treated in the notes. The 
suffix seems to be attached only to nouns: 
agraral,'' cultivated field agrier, field-tithe 

> Meyer-LDbke (II. 524) atatee that this use ot the suffix was com- 
mon in Lat. 

•Tliis noun, if it exists as a noun, is only the adiectjve agraral. 
plOHBble, used substantively. AgraiToiit, plowable, is found in Du 
Caoge, and affmimi is the lorm that we ^ould expect for Frov,. in 
accordance with the othervords that end in -AIR plus a suffix ('AIRADA, 
-AIRON, etc.). -ARAL, both here and In fumaral, given below, is 


Formation of Noons 

boat, ox-atftU 

&mi, oi 

boeal, mouth-hole in hebnet 

boca, mouth 

6nMaI, armpiece 

braU, arm 

cabal, capital, power 

cap, head 

cambai, gaiter 

combo, leg 

corral, roadway for wagons 

corra, car 

eaad* a kind of farmhouse 

caza, house 

cenfenoi, hundred 

cenUna, hundred 

corroi,* tree, open space 

coiTe(T), to run 

«w(al, hill. Bide of fort 

coata, side 

ccUal (cuichal), ttugh-plate 

coiso, thigh 

dedal, tlumble 

det, finger 

denairal,* a penny's worth 

denier, penny 

deplal, rent, tribute 


etpeeial, spice-eeller 

e»pteia, spice 

fannal, flour-dust 

farina, flour 

feiral, market-place 

feira, Isii, market 

ftmettral, window; also wing of 

feneaira, window 


/cmnjoi,' field planted with fod- 

ferratje, fodder 


feual (Jeuial), vaesal 

fen, flet 

/ogal, hearth, fire-place 


foralal,^ foreigner, stranger 

for, out of 

fnmmlal, kind of pear 

fromen(l), wheat 

very hard to eiphuo, although -ARIS instead of -ARIUS would pve the 
form we find. But Du Caoge's aorairalie would seem to indicate that 
a form in -AIRAL hod eiuted ia Prov. Both oorolu and aorariug 
eiuted in Lst., and aOTuraiii Beema to be a combiDsUon of the two forms 
(see double auffiies, p. 308. n. I>. A Bimilar kind of formation in -AIRIL 
ia fromenlairii (see p. 69, n. 1). 

' A simple word beeo it 

> Of Lat. origin. Cf. the O.Fr. eheaal sod the Sp. and Port, catal. 

> This word U the only probable example of a formation in -AL on a 

• See double suffixes, p. 39S. 

• See also double niSiies. As for foratal, it exists beside foratan 
aod also the simpder adjective forma forai and foran. It seems to ba 
an adjective used substantively. 



fruchal, harrcat; tniit garden 

/niM, fruit 

fiiTnaral,' chuuney, fiue 

paWoI, bowl(?) 


groBol, coarse wheat ( 7) 

pros, coarse 

j(«aI,priM(?), present (?) 

joia, jewel 

jomai, day's work, day's pay, 

liural, Bcalee; a grain-measure 

jom, day 

liura, pound 

mereot, maricet 

minal, measure of capacity 

mina, a weight 

molijud, place fit for building 

nwiin, mill 

mills, or one on which mills are 


monjal, nmi 

rmmja, nun 

taoalral,' sign, mark 

mosfra, sign 

TKWoi, nosepiece 

nae, nose 

nemi, nerve 

olhal, eyehole 

oIA, eye 

ombral,^ shade, penthouse 

ombra, shade 

ortal, garden; gardening; pot- 

ort, garden 


paredal, supporting wall 

pca-et, wall 

peail, weight 

peza, weight 

pilatal,> peetle 

ptia, p«stle 

popezol,*'' kind of meaaure 

pojai, hill, ascent 

poi, mi 

porcxd, pig, BOW 

pore, pig 

porUd, portal 

porta, gate 

pradal, meadow 

prof, meadow 

prdmt, provost 

jrresal, mark at which quoit is 

pr«a, quoit 


ribal, shore 

nfta, bank 

ronkonal, kidney 

ronhon, kidney 

rowrf, dew 

ros, dew 

nacal, hull, shell 

rugca, bark 

■ See double suffixes, p. 398. 
> Found also with -ALH. 

■ See also p. 401 for other double suffixes beginnitig with -J 
' Poaeiai is simply an adjective used substantively. 


Formation or Nouns 

•andOral, book of saints aaador, stunts 

temoi,* kind of bowl or vat »em, sowing 

tettairal,' metisure of capacity settitr, a measure 

wiriaipt glass windows veiria, glass 

With -AL from -ALE, the neuter form of the adjective 
-ALIS, used in making nouns in Proven<;al, may be treated 
the suffix -IL, aridi^, similarly, from -ILE, the neuter form 
of the adjective -ILIS.° Again, the adjective use which 
these nouns had or^pnally seems to have given the idea 
of place for s thing, but with a different specialization of 
meamng from that seen in -AL. The latter seems to 

> I.e., a thing for seed. Found only in the Croitade conlre le» Albi- 
geoit, Du Cange gives aemaiu, ooe of his examples being taken from a 
Lat. chronicle of this crusade. A Lat. ttminalii also exists, but $enu^ 
may be a Ptot. formation. 

■ See also double saffixes, p. 398. 

• For -ILHA, from -ILIA, the neuter plural of -ILI3, B«e p. 80. 

t A good many words ending in -AL, but not formed in Prov.. are 
lo be observed: (a) words dealiy fonned in Lat,; canal, canaKcanalu; 
CBrigal, skull < <xrvicalU; dergal, cletk < dmcaiit: coronal, forehead- 
bone <c<mmoIil,- denial, aile-tree of aplow<d*Tiio/ium (we should expect 
dnUoIh); ettadal, taper<<lalafu, instead of ttatariua, Btanding; fituU, 
end<JlniiJu; /ronlol, facade, also a]tar-doth</ronIatt; iMmai, winter 
orop < AtbvTTUilM.' fetal, wine measure < Iwciu, legal; logal, dwelliDg< 
Uxaiu; majal, pig < majalU ; mnettral, north < magitlrali* ; mecinal, 
mvdidne-book < mtdidndtit; otial, lodgLng < hotpitaliM; perdigal, par- 
tridge< ptniicalit (given also under -ALH) ; and peifroj, breoBt-strap 
of a horae<pKtoralu. All of these words seem to be adjectives used 

(6) Words coming from forms probably existing in Lat. : anoal. All 
Souls' MaBB<a>muiiJti (beoauae celebrated every year); barral, barrel 
(Du Cange gives barraU) ; coml, a kind of ship (see Du Cange. ccmJe} ; 
dUtd or eiloar, ledoary (Du Cange gives udoari) . 

{e) Words in which the ending is not a Prov. buSx, but is of other 
than Prov. orii^: eslivol, boot; gaiat, prostitute; manetcai. blacksmith' 
and martgonal, man^e. EiUrat looks like a deformation of the Germanic 
Sti^a. GattU teems to be of CelUo origin (tee KCrting. No. 4.107, and 
Romania, II. 237). Moneioal is from a Germanic marsscAoZc. Mangofiai 
may have been formed in Prov., but probably comes from a Lat. 


68 Word-Formation in Provencal 

have generally given the meaning of place for the parts 
of the body in Latin — that is, objects of dress and pieces 
of armor — whereas -ILE in Latin seems to have meant a 
stable or shed — that is, a place for animals. Meyer-LUbke' 
gives a list of words that bad this meaning in Latin, and 
there are some new words of this kind found, but most of 
the words show a less specialized meaning. Some of 
them denote place in a more general way, whereas most of 
them show little difTerence of meaning from the simple 
noun on which they are based, as was the case with some 
words in -AL origLnally adjective. One or two of the 
words tend toward collective force — camil, cambrii — 
and a few seem to be formed on verbs, although still 
retaining the meaning of place. 

The new formations that have any trace of the meaning 
of a bam or shed are: 

bordil, b&m borda, house 

fenasUi' hayBtacfc (Jenas not found), fen, hay 

firmil, b&kehouse or -room fom, oven 

porcil, pigstye pore, pig 

In the other words that are found, no trace at all of 
this meaning is visible. The words showing little differ- 
ence of meaning from the simple word, or in which the 
original adjective force is otherwise clear, are as follows: 

agaeU, ambueh agaek, agaze, ambush 

camsU, hempen doth camiaa (?), shirt 

capU, gable, housetop cap, top, head 

dapU, heap clap, heap 

eoBlil, couch, bed casta, side 

e»tats/il, a feudal obligation, ac- ealatge, dwellii^ 

cording to Raynouard, though 

Levy queetions the meaning 

I II. 526. 

• Fenil also eiista, but is not a Prov. fomiation, coming from the Lat. 
fenile. Tor feruuil, see double Buffiies, p. 401. 



mercadil, marketr^lace mercal, maricet 

rtaviffU, ahip natieg, ship 

rtagil, band or cloth before the naa, nose 

face; has the kind of meaning 

»o commoQ in words in -AL 

derived fiom adjectives, an 

article of clothing 
oHl, truce, agreement paii, truce 

pcdil^ toU-poot; or land where peaige, toll 

toll is asked 
polpU, fleflhy part pi>lp<i< flesh, musole 

rarnU, branch ram, branch 

lendU, tent tenda, tent 

fergil, t rod verga, rod 

The words mentioned above as showing a kind of col- 
lective force are probably also merely adjectives used sub- 
stantively. Such are: 

cambrU, w^nscotjng ( ?) camera, room 

carail, oanion com, fleeh 

Cambril, however, in Modem Provencal as given by Mis- 
tral, means "small room."' 

Other words that seem to have diminutive force exist 
also, and this meanii^ is harder to explain in a suffix 
which ori^nally simply formed adj ectives on nouns. Some 
of these words are also spelled -ILH, and this form may be 
derived from -ICULXJM, a regular diminutive sufHx — 
thus doal{h), faucet, and branquil{h), small branch, from 
branc — as there is great confusion between words in 
-AL and -ALH, -EL and -ELH, -IL and -ILH, or the pala- 
talized and the unpalatalized I. Fottianil, small fountain, 

' PoEdbty due to a confusion of -IL and -ILH. 

t A word of Lat. origiii is mandil, uiipkiii. niBntle, from manlile. 

A word ending in tlie double suflii -AIRIL ia /ramenlairU, frotn 
/n>m<n(0. CI. the words in -AIRAL given on p. 398, and see also p. 64, 
n. 2. For coTomentariea on the word, eee Romania, XXXVII, 113; 444. 



is another of these diminutive words. We find also /on- 
tanilha but no fonianUh. The word seems to represent 
another confusion between -IL<-ILIS and -IL(H)< 
-ICULUM. Other diminutives in -IL are: 
maumii, fannhouse maio(.n), house 

porUU, email bridge von{t), bridge 

On verbs we find the following words still keeping 
apparently the meaning of place, though showing a tend- 
ency toward abstract force in auzil: 
auni,' ear, beariog aunr, hear 

badil, watch-tower (7) badar, watch, gape at 

eorrU, way, road ccrrer, run 

nsortilgt bit of arable land eitartar, make arable 

A word formed, apparently, on an adjective is: 
planti, flat country (7) plan, flat 

-ai.h(a), -blh(a), -ilh(a), -olh(a), -olh(a) 

The sufl^es of the next group, -ALH{A), -ELH(A), 
-ILH(A), -OLH(A), and -ULH{A), are certainly extremely 
puzzlii^ to deal with from many points of view. The 
suffix -ALH evidently comes from the Latin neuter suffix 
-ACLUM, which was added to verb-stems, and appears 
to have no clearly defined meaning in later formations, 

1 Another word, auiil, birds, baa only an apparent suffix -IL, as the 
word really comes from oitc^Ui, the i being due to the analogy of cabit< 
capilti. Id which a phonetically recular close » bad become i under the 
influence of the following long i. See Grandgent, art. 28, note 3. 

t Other words ending in -IL, but not of Frov. origin, e,Te gangjiii and 
Ittrii. For ganguil, hinge, see Korting, No. 1,S17. and Diei, 374. The 
word seems to come from the Gr, n'yx'^"- And EOrtiug BUppliea a 
Lat. int«nnediary. *canchalu«. Ganguil, dragnet, la of obscure origin. 
Letrii. reading-desk, is from the Lat. leetortte (KSrting, No. S.503). 

EapU, mirror, should likewise he mentioned here. Its souice is the 
Let. speculum, the suffix -IL being therefore only apparent. Spmiiam, 
phonetically, should give upett, which is likewise found. 


Formation op Nounb 71 

although originally it served to designate the instrument/ 
as in govenialk<ffubemaculum. Occasionally the suffix 
appears to be added to nouns without bringiiig any 
noticeable change of meaning, and here it seems as though 
the form -ACLA were need in one or two words. Next, 
there is the suffix -ELH(A) from -ECLUS or -ICLUS, 
and a suffix -ILH(A) from -ICLUS. These suffixes from 
-ICLUS and -ICLUS were early confused, and forms 
representing different suffixes are found in the develop- 
ments of the same word among the various Romance lan- 
guages. In Provencal, the forms in -ELH appear to be 
the commoner, most of the forms in -ILH either going back 
to Latin or being bard to explain, and probably coming 
from some other source than -ICLUS. The meaning 
which the suffixes had in Latin, which is also usually found 
in Proven^, is diminutive, though often their addition 
brings no change of meaning to the Eomple word, as the 
diminutive force was lost. There is also a Latin suffix 
-tJCLIIS attached to stems in «-, and it is found in the 
Provencal -OLH(A) in several words, although most 
of them seem to have been formed in Latin, and some of 
the words with the ending have other sources. The 
ending -ULH(A), from -DCLUS, appears to be found 
only in agtdha<ai:ucla, a Latin formation. There is one 
more word ending in -ULHA — escapulka — but it does not 
appear to represent the suffix -UCLUS. 

Some of the difficulties in treatir^ the suffix are as fol- 
lows: In the first place, the I of the suffixes -AL and -EL 
is sometimes palatalized and written -ALH and -ELH, 
as, for example, we find eortal and cortalk. In such a 
case as this, it does not appear as though the noun cort 
were given a suffix in -ALE and another one in -ACLUM, 

> Meyer-LQbke, II, 510-15. 



but rather that the I is palatalized' in one case and not in 
the other. This palatalization often makes it difficult to 
recognize the suffix added, which has to be determined 
often by the meaning given to the simple word by its 
additioa. The greatest difficulty, however, is caused by 
the identity of form of the suffixes -ALHA<-ACLA, and 
-ALHA<-ALIA; also -ILHA<-ICLA, and -ILHA from 
-ILIA.* -ALIA and -ILIA are plural suffixes generally 
forming collective nouns, often with a touch of contempt, 
as in goHiialha and ribaudcUha, both meaning "rabble." 
Generally, the original suffix can be traced by the meaning 
of the derived word, hut occasionally this is difficult. 
Besides the neuter plural forms -ALIA and -ILIA, the 
singular forms -ALIUM and -ILIUM were used, becoming 
the masculine -ALH and -ILH in Provengal, and complet- 
ing the confusion with -ACLUM and -ICLUM. 

The words in which -ALH represents -ACLUM and 
is attached to Provencal verb-stems to form nouns denoting 
the instrument for the performance of an action will be 
given first. 

afUjlalk, clasp, buckle afiUar, claap 

amagaialh,* hiding-place amagar, bide 

apogalh, support (correction of ap(^ar, support 

Raynouard'a pogalh, wrist) 
balalk, clapper, hammer batre, best 

d^endalk, intrsnctunent defendre, defend 

devendalh,* fan 

< Posaibly through the influeDoe of -ALHA, from -ALI.4. 

= Aa the Prov. form of these euffiies of different origiD is the same, 
they are eiven together. It would be more atrictly logioal to give -ALHA 
and -ILHA under -AL and -IL. 

■ We ahould expect aruioalA. See double Eufluei. p. 3S4. 

' This word ia peculiar in several ways. It seema to repreaent a 
Lat. 'dmenlarvlam. Dettnlar is not found in Prov., the verb being 
tmtniar, coirespoDding to the Fr. itenler, on which tcenlaU was lonned. 
The word is peculiar also in being written with a d inetead of a I {deten- 
UUh not found). The d appears to be due to the analogy of some other 
word, possibly benda, renda, baod. 



eitugalh, vdl with ends to drjr ctaufor, drjr 


wpanlalh, scarecrow espanlar, scare 

ttpoBtnltdh, scarecrow espantntar, scare 

fennaih, buckle fermar, close 

moBiratt, sign, mark mosfror, show 

mwfaih, rampart murar, wall up 

torudh, bell aonor, ring 

MMpiniU, whole sotpirar, breathe, aigh 

venUdk,^ urhole ventar, blow 

Next, there are several words eoding in -ALH and 
-ALHA which do not appear to be fonned on any Proven- 
cal verbs that are to be found, yet which do not appear to 
have the collective idea which -ALIA as a source would 
give. These words will be taken up individually. 

arenalh, sand-beach : Although only the form with the 
ending -ALH is found, the suffix added appears to be -ALE 
and not -ACLUM. Compare, for example, the Italian 
arenale and the Spanish arenal. 

brazalk, coal-fire, from braza, embers: This word ap- 
pears to be formed on a noun, which must be the case 
unless the verb 'brazar be assumed. It is found in com- 
pounds, such as abrazar and emirazar, and Korting gives 
the verb as existing in Rhaeto-Romance.' 

caigalk, jaw-tooth, from caw, cheek: This word really 
appears to be formed on the aoun, there beii^ no verb 
on which it could be formed. -ALH may possibly rep- 
resent here the neuter singular suffix -ALIUM, which is 
occasionally found in Romance words. 

coTtalk, fortification ( ?), from cort, court: This appears 

TProv. word* fonned in Lat. are; miraih (Oleott, 132, miraculum) ; 
eipiralh < apiracuium, and terrath<.ierracutum, Etcalh. splinter, also 
ii not a Prov. formatiiin (see KOrting, No. 8,763, tlcatja). The source 
of motdalh, fiab-book, eeema obsoure. 


74 Word-Formation in Proven5al 

to be nothing other than the word corlal, about the meaning 
of which there is some doubt.^ Possibly it is the same as 
costal, which has the meaning of "fortification." 

ombralk, shade, from ombra, shadow: Here we appear 
to have the sufiQx ALH<-ACLUM added to a noun. 
Ombralk, however, probably comes from umbraadum, a 
late Latin formation, and was probably formed on the 
stem of utnbrare. 

peiralh, stony place, pavement: Seems to have been 
formed on peira, stone, by means of -ALH, from -ALIUM. 

perdigaUi, a young partridge: Here the suffix seems to 
be -ACLUM and to denote the young of an animal, a 
meaning which it has in Italian,^ though no other example 
of such a meaning is found in Provencal. The word is 
also found spelled -perdigal* which, however, goes back to 
the Latin adjective perdicalis. The only simple word 
meaning "partri^e" in Provencal is perdu. 

trebalh, work; In this word the ending -ALH does not 
appear to represent any suffix at all. Tr^xdk was at first 
supposed to be derived from trabaculum, together with tra- 
vail and the other Romance words meanii^ "work." On 
account of the e in the initial syllable, however, Thomas* 
objected to this derivation, and suggested as source tre- 
palium, meanir^ "an instrument of torture." 

The next group of words contains those ending in 
-ELH(A) and -ILH{A), which represents -ECLUS or 
-ICLUS, and -ICLUS. With respect to meaning, they are 
hard to classify. Some of them appear to have diminu- 
tive value, but in most the derived word shows Uttle 
change of meaning.' 

1 See Levy, corlal, I, 384. ' P. 67, n. t- 

' Meyer-LQbLe. II. 511. ' Romania. XVII, 421. 

> Probably orisiiially diminutive. The deiived word shows the 
innial loea of force. 


Formation op Nouns 75 

The words endii^ in -ELH follow: 

arbortlh,' shrub arbrt, tree 

aUmeih,^ heath, plain calm, heath 

faddh, fool fat, fool 

famdh, he&rth /•>i^> oven 

jupelk, petticoat j^pa, skirt 

somdk, summit som, summit 

Imdelh, pavillion tenda, tent 

ten»e!ha,i dispute letua, dispute , 

Under -ILH(A) there appear even fewer probable 
Provencal formations, although there are several words 
of obscure origin. 

The following are apparently Provencal formations: 
cotUha, shred of clothing eola, coat 

croiUha, covering (with crosses) croUe, cross 
falsUka, mckle falta, scythe 

i£ven this word can hardly be formed oo the Prov. simple word or 
we should have orbrett. It voutd appear to be derived from •ar6oric(u)- 
la4. The forms in tbe other languages, however, are svioh as would be 
derived from arboric^ut and arfKrritc^lu*. 

■See £»au, 13, note. 

tit may be seen from the above list that there are comparatively 
few words ending in -ELH that show any possibility of having been 
formed in Prov. There are, notwitliBtaDding, many other worda with 
this suffix, but most of them were certainly formed in Lat.. and all of 
them probably were. These are: <^>dha, hee<,apiela; aiieth, toe< 
artidum; aardJia, ear<ouriola,- corbtth, haaket Kcorbictum; tUnletk, 
battlement <d«Tifu;Iuin; foltlh. Bake < /oUicIurn; mUTieUa, hBiidle< 
manicta; melha, sheep <(i»c{a,* pardh, couple <pariclum; lolelli, eun 
<>oItcIum,' lomM, sleep <io>nnteIuni, and wnlreUt Calso ventrUh), 
vpniricle <ienlric(um. The unaccented u of this suffix -ICULL'S and 
the others is regularly omitted, as it did not exist in Vulgar Lat., where 
-CL'LUS and -CLUS had the same form. There ia also a word sertelh. 
meaning a joint, which appeaia to be from ttrlicitim (though KOrting 
gives only vertida), and a curious word anbolelk, navel, evidently con- 
nected with umbUiaie. -ICLUS appears to have been substituted here 
for -ICUS, a shifting of the accent likewise taking place. But the word 
is furthermore peculiar in the fact that if derived froni umtnlim* both 
the initial and intertooic vowels have been altered. Vaitelh, vessel, is 
undoubtedly from nuceUuni. for taicuium, a diminutive of ta>, vessel. 
ilemvtPui, marvel, is from mirabitia. 


76 Word-Formation in Provencal 

fomilha, cut br&nch (for heating fom, oven 

the oven, according to Levy) 
narilha*,^ nostrils nanu, nostrils, nose 

poiilh, reel on crossbow poI,' chicken 

potUha, pulley (?) 

Also a few words which seem to be built on verb-etems: 

departilk, division departiT, divide 

ettam'pUha ( 7), a stamp or marker mtampiT, resound. Here the 

ending seems to demgnate an 

gandiik,^ refuge gandir, protect 

There are also a few words with the ending -OLH(A), 
but apparently none of them (except janglolh) are Pro- 
ven9al formations, and not all of them even represent a 
Latin -UCLUS. These words are: capdolk, chief-town, 
or county-seat, authority, sw&y<capUolium; fenolh, fennel 
< fenuclum; ferrolh, bolt, also fire-shovel < veruclnm 
(under the influence of femim f There is also a word 
verrolk); granolk, irogKraniiclum,-* janglolh, foolish talk, 

> In the plural because the word on which it was formed was plural. 

'The Latin puUui, beaidee "chicken," seems to have meant "small 
thing." Oi are these words derived from a Germauic root meaning 
"to pull"? 

• K5rtin«. No. 7,756; also ALL, V, 130. where the a is explained as 
due to the influence of anniitt, tree-frog, which word is not in the Prov. 
dictionaries. Grai«an, toad, is, however, found. 

tSome words in -ILH not formed in Prov. by means of -ICLUS 
should be observed. One word appearing to be a post-verbal formation 
(see p. 541) isfrmzilA. tickling, from gratHluir. 

A few words ending in -ILH(A) seem to have been fonned in Lat. 
Thus, anadilha (or nadUha), piece of iron fixed to tbe center of a milt- 
stone <amUfcJ(i (Claaa. Lat., anaOeuta); canitha, caterpillar <eantcf(i; 
cavilha. ankle; peg. pin<Gancfa,' dotHh, faucet <duciclum; emboniU, 
aaveKumbilieue, whose Prov. derivatives are spelled in various ways 
(as atnholelh above) : eemerUh, sparrow-hawk, which appears to leptesent 
a Lat. merula plus the prefix E8-; eitriiha, curry comh<slrigtila (Class. 
Lat.. Blrioiiit). 

Two rather obscure words with the ending -ILH are oorbiilA. trick (?), 
and gomitka, evidently denoting soma fabulous animal. 


Formation op Nouns 77 

nooBense < janglar, talk foolishly, rail at, on the noun 
jangla, foolish talk (this appears to be a Provencal forma- 
tion by adding a Latin suffix to a word of Germanic 
origin) ; peolk, louse < pedttclum; and verrolh, bolt < 

The only word in -ULH(A) is eacajmlha, a kind of cape, 
which appears to be derived from the Latin scapula. 

Next come the words in -ALHA, from the neuter plural 
ending -ALIA. These retain their collective force,* and 
frequently add the idea of contempt to that of number, as 
in the many words meaning "rabble"* — canalha, garson- 
alha, gorinalka, ribaudalha. Frairalha, meaning "com* 
munity," "brothership," appears to be a possible starting- 
point for words where the collective force is less clear and 
the tendency is toward an abstract meaning.* 

The list of words in -ALHA formed on nouns (and ad- 
jectives) follows. Those formed on verbs will be given later. 
baratha, trouble, dispute bar, man 

boairaiha, oollection of oidierda probably from 'boaire, a. regu- 
lar development of bovarium. 
The only word found , however, 
is bovier, oxherd 
from cabeU (also written eabe»), 
meaning also throat or collar^ 

> Tbia iuffil ia the neuter plural form of the suffix -AL (from -ALE), 
giveii above. Thi« was added to douds, uaturally giving collective 
force. It originally denoted nameB of feasta in particular. 

>Tbe word "bowels" also appears under the three forms coralha, 
inlrallia, and ventralha. 

• This tendency is rare in Prov. Cf., however, the O.Fr. arrireaUle, 
arrival, from which the Engl, word comes, and some other irords in 

•On the meaning of eabeaallta, see Mod. Phit., Ill, 543, n. 4, with 
the references. 




eanaiha, rabble 
comunalha, community 
coralha, bowels 
diablaUta, devil's band 
fermalha, betrothal 
ferratha, iron-work 
ferraUiiha,^ old iron 
filadalha,^ spun yam 
fonaaiha, bottom of dish 
/rairalha, oommunity, brother- 

fitsudha, woodwork 

garsonalha, rabble 

gorinalha, rabble 

Umalha, filings 

miiralha,' old iron 

moralha, horse-twitchera 

moTtalha, epidemic; infected 
place; maasacre 

wiOBtalha, taaataiA (a commoner 
form is moalarda) 

obrolha, works 

ortalha, fruits of the garden, vege- 

orloUUha,' fruits of the garden, 

pezonalha, infantry 

pipalka, pipes, casks 

plancaUta, bridge (?) 
up room 

polalha, poultry 

poetaiha, collection of boards 

> See double suffixes, p. 383. 

' Mila, the apparent source of mitraUta (cf . Fr. mitraUU, derived from 
mite), Bs found in the Frov. examples, seems Ut mean only "mitten." 
Mile in O.Fr. means a small coin as well as "mitten." and it seems prob- 
able that a mila with this meaning existed also in Prov. Both apparently 
go bark lo the same Germauic source. See K5rting, No. 6.221, and Die. 

' .^a ortolan, sardener «Lat. hortiitantu), eiiste, -AN may have been 
taken for a Prov. suflix, and the existence of orfol assumed. Then to this 
word -ALHA was joined, juat as it was to the simple ort. 

duAie, devil 
/erm, nrm 

ferrat, iron ptul 

JUada, layer, from fil, thread 

font, bottom 

fraire, brother 

fiat, wood 
gctrson, vagabond 
gorin, sucking pig 
lima, file ■ 

mor, snout 

mort, dead, dead person 

obra, work 
orl, garden 

It boarded- 

peam, foot-Boldier 
pipa, pipe, cask 
planca, plank 

pol, chicken 
post, board 


Formation of Noons 79 

ribaudatha, rabble ribaut, ribald 

nrM»dalha, eervaats sirvenit), servant 

ventraOia,^ entrwls venire, belly 

Many of the above words, the base-words for which 
have been given as nouns, could equally well have been 
formed on verb-stems. The verb limar, to file, exists, 
for example, beside the noun lima, and the verb obrar 
beside the noun obra. Besides cases of this kind, there are 
other words which must have been formed on verb-st«ma, 
or which, at least, are formed on no nouns that are now to 
be found. Such forms as obrar beside o6ra, limar beside 
lima, and also/ermar beside /erma, in which pairs the simple 
word might not always be clear, give a starting-point 
for these formations. Beside the formations ending in 
-ALHA we find, however, many ending in -ALH, which 
ini(!;ht equally well, from their form, find a source in 
-ACLUM. Their meaning, though, seems to speak against 
tliis derivation, as there is no Idea of " the instrument with 
which a thii^ is done" to be found in them. There is, 
on the other hand, no collective idea, but rather an ab- 
stract one; yet the suffix -ALIA seems often to have lost 
its collective force, so that when that idea was intended 
to be expressed, a plural s was sometimes added, as in 
/(mdraUias and levalkas. Moreover, this -ALH does not 
represent the plural -ALIA, but the neuter singular 
-ALIUM, and should not, therefore, be expect«d to have 
collective force. 

t There ia,&lBD another word of non-Prov. formation, fNuo/A']. lease of 
live stock. See Du Cange'a oaeaiia; Etsait, 377; Grdber, Qnindn'ae, I, 
387; alaobelow, p. 110. The word is of Gothic origio. 

A Lat. formfttion is inlralhaa. bowels (for the » see above). In- 
tralia, louad in popular Lat. (aee enlraiilti m Die. Gen.), appears to be a 
defonnation of intranea through the loBuence of -ALIA, Inlranea is 
a neut«r plural, and is due to the analogy of extranaa. See also Meyer- 
LQbke, II, 548, Obscure words in both form and meaning are miitlaUia 
and prentalha. 



^ erbal formatioos ia -ALHA still retaining the -ALHA 
collective idea are seen ia: 

cizalha, clippiosB, pwinp (Mpe- from dawn, for caesum. Prob- 

cially of metal used itrcoinini) ably a Latin formation 

fendalha, clefts, chinka fendre, cleave 

fondralha*, dr^^ sediment fvHdre, melt 

levalhoi, first churchings of * kattr, rise 

woman in childbed 
Here may be added also three more words, curalka, 
divindlka, and mesclalha. These have the plural end- 
ing -ALHA and are formed on verbs, ctirar, divinar, 
and meaclar, but have<no clearly collective force: 
curalha, falling oft, descent cwar, trouble oaeidf 

divinalha, talk, rumor, gosdp (in diirinar, divine 

tJie sense of "divinings" having ' ' 

a perceptibly collective idea) 
meectalka,^ fight, scuffle mesdar, mix, fight 

In -ALH and formed on verbs by means of the neuter 
singular -ALIUM, with certainly no collective force, but 
rather an abstract one, we find: 

arrUxilh, arrival, landing arribar, land 

cercalh, investigation cercar, seeli 

dejinalh, end definar, end 

demoralk, recreation demorar, dally 

devinalh, investigation, search dwinar, guess 

refrenalk, reserve, prudence refrenar, reetrsin 

reletialh,^ prudence, discretion Telenrr, retain 

Like the words in -ALHA, the words in -ILHA are 
generally formed on nouns, though occasionally without 
any noun as source in Proven9al. -ILHA represents 

waa probably a postvcrbal forrostion (sei 

tAziothcr word in -ALH from -ALIL'M is fioofoJA, dreica. havioK 
collective force. It seems to be theonlyeiampleo/theainButat -ALIUM 
with thia force. Il occurs only once, and its nieamng ia not wholly clear. 


Formation op Nouns 81 

the Latin neut«r plural -ILIA. Added to nouns, it is 

seen in: 

acolnilta, swaepiags eseoba, broom 

tsambriOia,' rubbish esamAre, rubbish 

nervilhar nervi, n«rve 

ordiUia, descent orde, oider 

It is found added to nouns and adjectives which are at 
the same time past participles of verbs, in: 
ftuAUha, chamu, aorcery faeh, deed (aim past participle 

fraJiUha, fried stuff /recA, fried (from frejpr) 

UffrachiUui, destitution iofracha, wont (iofraeh, from 


One word is formed on a past participle without the 
intennediary of any noun or adjective: 
r«m(inIAa,t remains from remaa, the past parti<nple 

of femaner, remtkin 

Some words also are fonned on verb-stems: 
jaziiha, childbed yoz^, Ub 

numdUha, siftingB mondar, sift 

-AM, -IM, -CM 

The suffixes -AM, -IM, -UM are found in a few words 
in Provengal, and represent the Latin -A-MEN, -I-MEN, 
and -U-MEN, which were added to verb-stems to form 
abstract nouns, as in aequamen, regimen, documen, although 
already in Latin another meaning had begun to appear — 

■ Another word just like this ta acolilha, dregs, but there is no simple 
Prov. word on which to base it. It appeHra to have been formed id Lat ■ 
Du Ctmge gives iculdlae with the same meanitig. 

• See Du Caage. mrbiiium. The word seems to meaa "group of 
Derves," and is apparently used, together with buddium, bowels, to deaote 
the worthless parts of fish. 

t A word of Lat. origio that might be placed here is otlMa, uteDsil, 
coming from 'uittHia, from *tKetiU, a changed form of utauUe. Ct. 
Fr. outil. 



the collective idea, as seen in cakeamen. Meyer-LQbke' 
explains the origin of this meaning by deriving, in the first 
place, from caUxus, a shoe, the verb calceare, to shoe, and 
from this the noun caiceamen, shoes (collective), which 
takes the idea of the thing, as seen in the ordinal word, 
rather than that of activity, as seen in the verb. This 
word, then, serves as a starting-point for future formations 
made directly on nouns,' without any verb intervening 
as an intermediate stage, and these new formations have 
in almost all cases the collective idea, as seen in caiceamen. 
In Provencal, under -AM there are a good many new words 
with purely collective force: 
agriam, sour fruit o^re, sour, sharp 

bettiam, cattle betHa, animal 

cordam, cordage corda, eord 

dogam, stave-wood doga, stave 

frejam, pluck (heart, liver, etc., of 

funam, ropework fun, rope 

lenham, wood lenha, wood 

peiam, skins pd, skin 

postam,^ boards poeta, post, stake 

And also one word with different force, and formed ap- 
parently on a Provencal verb : 
lauram, workmaitship (?) lauror, to work 

This word, however, may represent a Latin loramen with 
the change of o to au.' 

■ II, 630, where a, IreatmeDt ol these suffiKes is given. 

■ Also on an adjective (used substantively), in aoriam. 

• See Levy, IV, 336. Loramen meant "strap" or "straps" and waa 
formed od lorum, strap. Cf. the O.Fr. lorain. Lorain probably means 

"straps" inBteftd of "workmanship." 

t Other words, mostly with this collective idea, seem to be simply 
descendants of words already formed in Lat. Thus e»lam, carded wool 
<Lat. stamen; eitram, straw, fodder<Lat. itraTnen: liam, fett«r<Lat. 
ligamen (Olcott, 125) ; mairam. staves, probably derii-ed from the, 
en; and peTgam or pargam, parchment, found beside pergamen. 


Formation op Nouns 83 

The suffix -IM, from a Latin -IMEN, is of very infre- 
quent occurrence in the Romance languages, and Pro- 
vencal has only the following words to offer, many of 
which are not real Provencal formations: agtmm, blaslim, 
gaim, nmrim, ordim, revolim. 

aguzim, point: From agvxar, sharpen (?), given by 
Thomas,' but not expluned.' 

blaatim, blame: Appears to be only a post-verbal 
substantive from the verb blaslimar, to blame.* 

gaim, after-growth: Seems to represent the Germanic 
root *waid plus the suffix -IMEN. The derivation is 
not certain, but Thomas makes it appear probable.* The 
other words in the list, except blaatim and noirim, show 
the use of the suffix in Gaul. 

noirim, nourishment; young animals; plant: Seems 
to be only the Latin nu/n'men, and therefore not a Pro- 
vencal formation, although there is a verb Jtoirir, nourish. 

ordim, warp of a tissue; ordir, weave. 

revolim, whirlwind: Is expl«aed by Thomas' as a prob- 
able gasconism for revolum, the form to be expected from 
revolver, to turn about. 

The suffix -UM, from the Latin -UMEN, is of more fre- 
quent occurrence in Provencal, and is added more freely 
to the various parts of speech. For Provencal, we have 
seen -AM added to nouns to form collectives and -IM 
added to verb-stems to form abstracts in a few more or 
less doubtful Proven9al formations.' The regular abstract 

I fudtt, 376. 

' Possibly a gascooism. Thomas saya tbat the auffii -IM was com- 
IDOQ [q Gaacony. 

■ See nouns formed from verba, p. 539. 
• Buaia, 372. 


84 Word-Formation in Provencal 

sufiix of this group for Provencal appears to be -UM, which 
was added both to verb-stems and to adjectives to give 
this idea. It appears to have been added indiscriminately 
to verbs of all conjugations (cf. comolum from comolar, 
and farsum from farsir) and to have taken occasionally a 
collective meaning when added to a verb-stem (cf. gen- 
sum from gensar). In Modem Provencal this suffix ap- 
pears to be still important.' 

On verbs, we find the followii^ formations: 

From art, burnt, from the verb 

-UM on a past partidple 
comolum, full measure comolar, heap up 

farsum, stuffing /oreir, stuff 

fToehum (given by Levy* without 

meaning, and may be another 

formation on a past participle 

— that of the verb franher). 

Here the force would be col- 

gertgum, sweepings gensar, ornament 

On adjectives, the following abstracts are found: 
amarum, bitterness amor, bitter 

allium, height aid, high 

fretcum,] freahnees /r«c, fresh 

In one word, the suffix appears to be attached to a noun 
without bringing any change of meanii^. The word itself, 
however, is a collective noun: 
poWum, people poble, people 

' Meyer-LUbke. II, 535. • III. 678. 

t NoD-Prov. formationa are seen in balum. w&x. putty, possibly from 
the Lat. bitvinen, and legum from Ueumen. EUcnim, a kind of plant, is 
probably also Lat. (connected with alacer [?]) though not found. An- 
other word, n«raum. ia given by Appel in hia vocabulary, but omitted in 
the text, and placed instead in a footnote as not understood. 




The group of suffixes arising from the Latin -MEN- 
TTJM, namely -AMEN, -EMEN, and -IMEN, is, from 
the number of words in which it is found, perhaps the most 
important of all Provencal suffixes. Here are found again 
the connecting vowels A-, E-, and I-, the signs of the con- 
jugation of the verb to whose stem the suffix was ordi- 
narily added (as was the case with -ADOR, -EDOR, 
and-IDOR, -ADURA, -EDURA, and -IDURA), showing 
the suffix to be a verbal one. 

Like nearly all suffixes attached to verbs, the principal 
use of -AMEN, etc., is abstract. Indeed, it may be said 
to be pre-eminently the abstract suffix in Provencal, 
both from the number of words in which it had this force 
and the few words in which any other meaning can be seen. 
Yet it did not always contain this idea exclusively. In 
treating the suffix in Latin, Roediger gives many examples 
of concrete as well as abstract words, and supposes, as is 
natural enough, that the concrete use preceded the 
abstract.' Most of the concrete words that he gives are 
formed on verbs: (1) with the idea of means, or (2) with 
that of some particular thir^ coming as a result of some 
action; but other words are formed directly on nouns. 
Most of these denote the thing resulting from an action, 
and a few denote material, whereas in others the suffix 
brings no change of meaning. The true abstracts, on the 
other hand, are all real verbal formations. 

With such an array of Latin uses before one, it is rather 
hard to find many new uses among the Provencal forma- 
tions. The individuality of Provencal and of the other 
Romance languages lies not so much in the creation of 
new uses for any pven suffix, as in the extent to which 

■ Die Bcdeutting da SvSixe» -MENT, 4, 



certain methods were developed as compared with- the 
relative neglect of others. In the case of the suffix -MEN- 
TUM, the most striking phenomenon is the enormous 
development which the abstract use of the suffix has taken, 
from being in Latin only one of several uses to being in 
Provencal almost the only one. The tendency to give 
verbal suffiixes abstract force is universal in Provencal. 
Even the descendants of Latin words with other meanings 
have, for the most part, this force in their Provencal 
representatives. There are, nevertheless, many words 
formed in Proven9al without any real abstract force, but 
rather the meaning of some concrete thing resulting from 
the action descriijed by the verb on which they are formed. 
Demarmn, for example, means, not "tithing," but "a 
tithe," and dechamen, formed on dechar, means "a 
writing-copy," also "a rule." All words of this kind will 
be pointed out in the complete list of words in -MEN. 
In the vast number of pure abstracts, words of this kind 
are comparatively rare. 

New formations on nouns are also comparatively rare 
in Provencal, numbering, all told, under twenty. For 
words of this kind in Latin, Roediger gives only the mean- 
ings mentioned above, whereas in Provencal most of these 
words also have taken abstract force. Some of th&n 
may have been coined and used only by the authors in 
whose works they are found, but they show, at any rate, 
how important -MENTUM had become as a purely 
abstract suffix. Fermalhamen shows the use of the suffix 
without force. One other use of the suffix in Provengal 
is with collective force, which appears to be a Romance 
rather than a Latin usage. In Provencal, most of the 
words with this force are parasyntheta' rather than simple 

' I.e., they added a preBx as well as a suffu, and simuttaneoualy. 




suffix-formations, although Jerramen is of the latter class. 
But in forming collectives, the plural -MENTA was 
■ gmerally used, giving -MENTA in Provengal. 

The complete lists of the words in -AMEN, -EMEN, 
and -IMEN will now be given in order. Words whose 
meanings are in any way peculiar will be treated in the 
notes. The words in -MENTA, from the Latin plural 
suffix -MENTA, will be ^ven at the end. 

The words containing the sufBx -AMEN are as follows : 

al>jiiramen, abjuration 
afrnuumen, bumiiig 
iJtTivatnea, impetuosity 
acampamen, collection' 
aeaptamen,* recognition 

aeerlamen, proof 
aetiamen, aaHCSBment 
adinamen, bow 
acmndamen, intimacy 
acordamen, accord 
acaatamen, intercourse 
acujamen,* idea 
aeiaamen, accueation 
adoboTneri, adornment 
adoetrinajnai, teaching 
adordenamen (also <u-), 

a/adiamen, artifice, mannt 
afermamen, afBrmation 
afilluimen, affiliation 
afinajnen, end 
ajaameri, agreement 

ttbjurar, abjure 
abraxar, burn 
abrwar, hasten 

adinar, bow 

aeoindar, become acqu^ted 

acoalar, approach 

adoetrinar, teach 
adordenar, order 

afaehar, disguise 
afermar, affirm 
afilhar, adopt, affiliate 
afinar, end 
afixar, assure, intrust 

1 This type of meaniDg in words Li 
laiK Kema to be not so much abetract oi 
U> iodicaM its result. 

* See Du Caoge'B occapfarc and occapilarneiWum,- BiaoEtym.WSrt 
No. 86. The word appears to be forioed directly on the noun oeajj 
post- verbal derived from acapiar. 

■ Apparently formed on cvjar. See, (heretore, parasyotheta, o 


88 Word-Formation in Provencal 

afdamtn, damage, injury aiatat, injure 

agardamen, look, appearance OQardar, look at 

OQentaTntn, diapoution, arrange- agcmar, arrange 

a^eujamen, aggravation agrmjar, aggravate 

otraTnen, anger (see dz-) airar, anger 

ajomamen, adjournment ajornar, become day, adjourn 

ajostamen, arrangement ajiataT, arrange 

alargamen, wUdness,' wantonness aiargar, enlarge, free, deUver 

aZa«cani«n, release 
aO)ergamen, lod^ng 

aleaamen, breathing aUnar, breathe 

tJeujamen, lightening idevjar, lighten 

alinhamen, alignment ottnAor, align 

<dtmgamen, leDgtheDing (L); re- aiongar, lengthen 

moval (R) 

aiascar, release 

alumrtamen, lighting 
amagamen, act of hiding 
amaeatramen, teaching 
amaaamen, amassing 
amelhoramen, improvement 
ametumen, house, lodging* 
amendamen, amend, fine 

en, diminution 
I, admonition 

amoatramen, showing 
ampara>n«n, protection; alsors 

oJummir, light 

amagar, hide 

amaetlrar, teach 

amaaar, amass 

anttUwrar, improve 

amenar, bring 

amendar,' repwr, make amends 

amoneatar, advise 
amoaUur, show 
amparar, protect 


apaiuir, give bread 
aparceloT, divide up 
apariar, join, unite 
opelor, call 
apoblar, populate 
apoderar, surpass, subdue 
to come from the idea of freeinit. 
• There is not ooly concrete force here, but it is hard to see the con- 
ation with the verb, meaoine "to guide," "bring," "lead," on which 
ia apparently fonned. though the meamng giveo appeara correct. 
•SeeStichel, 12. 

apanamen, nourishment 
api^cdamen, diviaioD 
apanamen, association, company 
apelamen, appeal, invocation 
apoblamen, colonisation 
apoderamen, authority, power 
■ The meamog of the ooun seen 


FoEMATioN OP Nouns 

apontamat, treaty 
afrimairamen,' priniBcy 
aprobencaTnen,' reconciliation 
aproumamen, approach, acoeas 
apmpjamen, approach, acocM 
apropriamen,' property 
aqrdtamen, acquittal 
arendamen, renting 
areglamai, arrest 
aretamen, order, preparation 
anbamen, landing, arrival 
amtKamen, fitting out, equip- 

aroainten, watering, irrigation 
artiamen,* art, skill 

apontar, agree 
aprimairar, go to the front 
aprobeneaT, approach 
aproitmar, approach 
apropjar, approach 
apropriar, appropriate 
aqwitw, acquit 
arendar, rmt 
arMlar, arrest, stop 
arttar, order, prepare 

omescar, equip 

oaoborar, delight, savor 

osermor, prepare 

ateijca; Beat 

an{n)baT, asugn 

aeuauar, quiet 

otaientar, derare 

dietror, put in line ( ?) 

aUrmenaT, limit 

aliUar, arrange 

atrachar, arrange, bring about 

atrobor, find 

amguramtn, assurance 

attrmamtn, arrangement 

atetjamen, ritting 

annhamen, aengnment 

awaammtn, stillness, peace 

aiidenUanen, demre 

aiaramea, succeraon 

atermenamea, limit 

atOhamen, chann, consent 

atraehamtn, action, deed 

airobamat, invention 

auzamen, boldness 

amamen, removal, transportation (mar, transport, i 

■ Thii is a veiy intereBting word, in that it appears to be an example 
of a suiEi added to a paraByntheton. Thia is not udusubI (rf, alonga- 
Bwn), but aa prim aa well as primier eiiats. the word has the appearance 
of adding a double suffix to the parasynthetoa. 

tA leas literal meBning than in aproiamamen. A rather obscure 
word is apiaitamen. Levy gives aa meamne; for it, and its formation is 

■ Concrete force. Here we have an example of a thing resulliog from 
the action expreaaed by the verb. 

' No verb ia found, yet the addition of a suffix *-IAMEN to a noun 
hardly seems probable. Raynouard, in the laat volume of his dictionary, 
lists a word arteiar, but gives no meaning or reference. Artiamen, or 
the other spelling, arlejamen, was probably farmed on such a verb. 


Word-Formation in Provencal 

aviiajnen, warning 

baizamen, kisa, kissing 
ban^amen, b&nishinent 
batTQamen, robbery, plunder 
bautugamen, confusion 
blaimanttn, blame 
bobamamen, ostentation 
bolamen, limiting, bounding 
hJtfatnen, breathing 
calcaTnen, trampling 
eaminamen, march, waaderiug 
eapddamen, leadership 
eapiamen,' slaughter 
eavamen, excavation 
ceramdamen, circumference 
coUiamen, binding together 
coUwamen, reverence, adoration 
I, command 
I, be^ning 
compaTamen, comparison (R), 

punishment (L) 
comportamen, conduct 
wnfesamen, confession 
confortamen, courage, encourage- 

amfronlamen,' limit, boundary 
conjuraTnen,' conspiracy 
conortamen, encouragement 

conquiftamen, conquering 
eomethatnen,'' advice 

(, preservation 

omzor, warn, advise 

onrar, anger, hate 

baizar, kisa 

banejar, banish 

barrejar, rob 

bautugar, trouble 

blasmar, blame 

bobamar, surround with porop 

bolar, limit, bound 

bufar, breathe 

calcar, trample 

eaminar, journey 

eapdeiaT, lead, guide 

eaplar, hew, cut into 

cavar, dig 

ceramdar, wander through 

eoUiar, bind together 

coUitiar, respect 

comolanKn, consolation 
coTuolidamen, strengthening 

eonlamen, recital 

r, b^in 
comparar, compare 

eomporUir, behave 

eonfesar, confess 

confortar, comfort, encourage 

amfronlar, confront 
conjuror, conspire 
DonoriaT, encourage 
conquiatar, conquer 
conselhaT, advise 
conaervar, preserve 
corutror, con^der 
comolar, console 
amtoiidar, strengthen 
conlar, relate, tell 

• Apparently denotes the result of an notion: concrete force. 
' This i» the type ol words whose meaning may be either the ai 
itself or the result of an action. 



eoniroponcAamen,' counterpoint 

eantratlamen, oppoaitioii contTiulaT, oppose 

etMienamen, frequenting, also conversar, converse 


eomamen, biuiing eomar, buzs 

corltt/omen, viating ccrtyar, hold court 

creamen, creation crear, create 

ij burning cremar, bum 

.,' surety, bail crezentar, give bail tor 

eridamen, cry, uproar eridaT, cry out 

citramen, care; cure curor, care about, worry 

damnamen, damnation damnar, damn 

dmtramen, gilding datarar, gild 

d^Miiamen, leaeemng ddxtUar, lose value 

ddxitamen, expulsion debotar, reject 

decapUamen, beheading deeapUar, behead 

dtekamen,' writing-copy; pre- deehar, compoee 

cept, rule 
dedonimm, declaration; explana- dedarar, declare 

dtxxMamen,' payment of exp^ises 
de/aaamen,* distortion, defacement 

deformamen, deformity d^ormar, deform 

dtffuUamen* kind, species (also de(,t)guiaiT, make different, dis- 

dea-) tort 

dqimamen, fasting dejunar, fast 

ddediamen, delectation didaehar, delight 

ddiamen, loodng deUar, loose 

demamen* a tentlt, tithe de{9)maT, tJthe 

> ContrajKmduiT ia Dot found. Contrajionduimen is probabl}' formed 
of anUra plus ponchamen. pointing, derived from vonchar. See tlie prefix 
CONTRA-, pp. 467 f. below. It is interesting to DOte the forms without 
suffix in the other languages (Fr. oontrepinnt; It. tOntrajnaUo; Engl. 
eounterjotnJ) . 

■ Result of an action denoted here, 

• Concrete force here. 

' Dteottar is not found. See parasyDtheta, p. 627. 

• DefaaoT is not found, so that the word appears to be a parasyn- 
tbetOD formed on faaa (see parasyntheta, p. 527). Defmar may have 
existed, however. Cf. the 0,Fr. dea/iKier. 

• These words denote the result of an action rather than the action 


92 Word-Formation in Phovencal 

demenamen, disciuaioD, n^otia- demenar, lead, coaduct 

demoramtti, dwelling, remfuoing 
demattramen, demonstration 
denegamen, denial 
denon^amen,^ sped£cation, bill 
deiwmciamen, denunnation 
deportamen, conduct 
depuramen, purification 
derivamen, derivation 
deroeamen, upsetting 
detetAoramen, palenese 
deKonorlamea, distress 
detSaamen, challenge 
detgttizamen, see deguizamen 
detiatamen, separation 
desKuronwn, delivery 

dtmorar, remaio 
demoatrar, dentonstrate 
denegar, deny 

deaoneioT, denounce 
deportar, behave, amuae 
depurar, purify 
derivar, derive 
derocar, upset 
deaeolorar, discolor 
desconoTlar, discourage 
desfizar, challenge 

detmerrAranien, forgetting 
desmemoriamen,' loss of memory 
de*muTamen, breaking open of 

de»pagamen, disappointment (7) 
detpeehamen, scorn 
despoblamen, abandonment 
deapolhamen, spoliation 
despreztamen,' depreciation 
desTozonamen,' unreason 
de»»aboramen, disgust 
demicamen, drying up 
deatardamen, prejudice, injury 
deetempramen, disturbance 
deitermenamen, extermination 

desUurar, deliver 
detmembrar, dismember 
deimenibrar, forget 

a degtnwaT, break open (a wtdl) 

deapagaT, disappoint 
deapechar, scorn 
degpoUar, abandon a place 
deepolhaT, despoil 
despretar, depreciate 

deaaaborar, disgust 
desaicar, dry up 
dealardaT, injure, delay 
deetempraT, unsettle 
dealermenar, exterminate 

1 N'q verb. See parasynlheta, p. 527. 

' See parasyntheta. p, 527. 

• The form of this word as giveii in Raynouard, and not chanRed by 
Levy, ia peculiar. There existed also a learned form, despreciar, from 
which there was formed a post-verbal noun, dtipreeii, Deapmiamen 
Beems to show the influence of these forms. 

' Desrazonar is not found, although it may have existed (cf. Fr. 
diraisoaner and O.Fr. dearaienier) . Or the word may be raumamtn plus 
-DES. See pteBxca, p. 470. 



deitorhawien, disturbance 
dettriamea, sortiiig, chcfoeing 
destrigomen, delay 
ietrencamen, cutting down 
deeatamen, lowering 
ieveiamen, prohibition 
ievinamin, idle speech 
devoramtn, swallowing up 
dezeretamen, disinheritance 
dezexprramen, deeptur 
daobtidamtn, foi^^fulneaa 
detordenamen, disproporUon 
didamen, judgmeat 
. dUalamen, dilation 
ditipamen,'' disturbance 
doclriTuitnen, teaching 
domn^amen, gallantry 
donamen, gift, gi^ong 
doplamen, doubt 

dTesamtn,' putting up, building ( 7) 
tdijicamen, building* 
egalamen, equal taxation 
eisiihamen, exile; injury; puoish- 

deatorbar, disturb 
deitriar, distinguish 
deitrigar, delay 
detrencar, cut in two, split 
devaiar, lower 
devedar, forbid 
deeinar, gueas 
devorar, devour 
dettretar, dimnherit 
dezesperar, make desperate 
deloblidar, forget 
detordmar, put in disorder 
didar,' dictate 
dilalar, dilate 
diaijxtr, dismpate 

dcmng'or, court 

dorua; give 

doplar, doubt 

dresar, set up 

edificar, build 

egalaT, make equal 

einlAar, disturb, destroy, exile 

«wau«on)en, approbation, praise nsausar, approve of 

embanamen, outworks of fortress' embanor, fortify 

embargamen, embarrasam^t tmbargar, embarrass 

embrazamen, burning embmar, bum 

■ From tbe same source aa dtchar, above. It U interesting to note 
the diiTerent meaiijii|[s that these norde and their derivatives, didamen 
and iechamen. have taken in their learned and their popular forms. 

> Levy, like Raynouard, gives the word spelled as above, but states 
that he ran find only the form daivamen. 

•The meaning ia not thoroughly clear, and Levy gives no Iransla- 
tiOD. but from the example it seems to have the force given above. The 
usual form of the verb is dreUar, therefore dreuamen might be expected 
here. The only text in tvhich the word is found is in the Gaacon dialect. 

• Concrete force here (result of ao action rather than the action 

• This trsDsiation given in the little LeiT- The first two are Ray- 
nouard's. The larger Levy does not mention the word. 

' Concrete, with tendency toward collective force. 



embrocamen,* Boft poultice 
empachamtn, empaUamen, atlacfa- 

mpaehoT, prevent, seize, attach 

emparamen, prohibition, protec- 
tion (see also amptB'amen) 

empastramen, hindrance empaetrar, prevent 

emp^oramen, deterioration emp^orar, deteriorate 

empenhamen, pawning empenhar, pawn 

empemamen, undertaking, project empemar, invent, devise 

emperUkamen, peril emperHfiar, imperil 

emplegamen, purchase empl^oar, employ, make pur- 

empoeetamen,^ authority empodeilir, put in poeeesnon 

empontaTnen,' BcaSold, stage 

empreiionameit, imprisonment empreiionar, imprison 

encapor, whet % miUstOttC 
cTicargar, charge 
ertearlaT, inscribe 
encegar, blind 
eneercar, seek, strive 
eneoipar, accuse 
encombrar, encumber 
enamlrar, meet 

endenhar, be indignant 

enariamen,* dexterity, skill 
encapamen, whettiiig of millstone 
encargamen, accusation 
encarlamen,' chart 
eneegamen, blindness 
encercamen, investigation 
eneolpamen, accusation 
encombnimen, encumbrance 
enamtramen, meeting 
encuiamen, accusation 
endenhamen, indignation 
eruioioiTamen,* sufFering 
endreiaamen, guidance 
enebriamen, drunkenness 
enjachamen,' conceit, wlum (?). 

Levy gives no meaning; 

"imagination," as in Bartsch 
1 BmiiroatT e: 

Gr, l^ppoxv). 

' For these words see parasyntbeta, p. S27, below. Enarlar exists, 
but hoa a diHerent mcaniiig. 

■ Concrete force seen here. The result of the action eipreased by 
the verb is showD. 

' The word probably does not eiist, and is in Raynouard owing to a 
coofuaion. See nominal preBies, p. 472, n. 1. 

' See also parasyntheta, p, 527. 


Formation' of Nouns 95 

enfatagaTnen,^ over-fatigue; delU' 

enfivamen,'' loan 

enflamen, ewelling enfiar, ewell Up 

cnfTanchaTnen (?),' hurt; infrac- 
tion; violation (of rule) 
engalamen, see egaiamen 

enganamen, deception enganar, deceive 

engomimen, insult, injury engamr,' injure 

eagfmramen, engendering engenrar, engender 

engorjamen, gluttony engorjtir, cram 

tjigraiaamen,' manure cngraUar, fatten 

tjigroimimen, increaae engroiear, increaw 

enlagamen, entwining eniaaar, entvnne 

erUumenomen, picture erdumenar, illumine 

enmuramen, walling up enmurar, wall up 

enojamen, annoyance enojar, annoy 

eTigenhamen, teaching, treatise tnserJtar, teach 

emtAkamen,' foundations of sill or 

eniaknlaTnen, deare enlatentar, desire 

entaviamen,* beams, timber-work 
enUrgamen,'' question 

enterramen, plastering enterror,* cover with mortar 

erUregamen, truce erUrtgar, have truce 

enfreJaiaamen, interruption enb-elaiaar, interrupt 

entrencamen, breach' enlrencar, break 

' No verb enfatagar found; enfidaoa, however, exists in Mod. Prov. 
(see Mistral, I, 906), and eafaiagar is in Catalan. It probably enisled 
in O.Prov. 

■ Tbis word is very obscure. 

'Vie should expect enfranhemen here, as Ibe verb "to break" is 
enfmnKer, coming from tffrineere. Enfmnchamen and enfrancha are 
found in the same Gascon text a few pages apart, and seem to be dialect 

> Conrreto force, with an idea of the instroment. 

*See parasyntheta, p. 527. Enlaulmnen has collective force. It is 
clearly formed on Inula, table, and not on eTitauiar. 

'As the verb is etUernar. entrrmTTien mi|[bt be expected. Enlergar 
would, however, be the phonetic development of interrogarc. 

' Aa well as the more usual mesniiig of "cover with earth." "bur]'." 



CTUricamen, intricacy, rui 
enujamen, annoyance, eei 
enverenamen, poi Honing 
envUkamen,' che^meae 
emdremamen, drcle 
envolopamen, envelopment 
eretamen, heredity 
erramen, wandering 
esajatTtca, investigation 
eKolgamen, see eitautamen 
eaeatfaTnen, heating 
eteampamen, effusion 
eacoltivamen,* cultivation 
eteomergamen, excommunication 
eaconjwramen,* (charm in conjur- 

esgardamen, glance 
ealeTiegamen, slip, slide 
eilevamen, raimng 
alumenamen, iUiunination 
esmeVioramen, improvement 
Mmendamen, amendment 
etpachamm, sending away 
espaveniamen, flight 
taperamen, hope 
eiperitanen, inspiration, sugges- 

ewtronor, surround 
envaiopar, envelope 
rrelaT, inherit 
error, wander 
en^ax, try 

eacoiSar, heat 

escampar, pour out 

escmHergar, excomniumcat« 
eaamjurar, conjure 

esgardar, look at 
e(s)l«negar, slip, slip down 

alumenar, Hluminate 
eamelhorar, improve 
eSTntndar, unend 
eapaehar, despatch, discharge 
espofenlor, frighten 
eeperoT, hope 

< No verb. Formed on the adjective vilh (T). See pacasyntlieta, 
p. 527. 

> No verb eicoUivar. The word may be a preGx-formatiOD or a 
parasyntbeton. See Domiaal preGies, p. 475; and paraayntheta, p. 527. 

< CoDcrete force. HbowiDB the idea of the inBtniment (for coojuriog). 
• No verb found. The word seems to be formed on the doud eiperil, 

>ShowB collective force. The word is apparently not derived di- 
rectly from the verb esplechar, Eiplicitam eiiated in Lat., and is BJven 
by Du Cange with the meaoing of "implemeut." This would give 
eipieck, aod the collective force may have beeo contributed by the suffix 
-AMEN added to the aoun, 


Formation of Nouns 

etproamen, proof eaproar, prove, try 

ttpurgamen, pu^&tion etpurgar, purge 

aquiiUamen, tearing etquinlar, tear 

eaqviDamen, hiodering, obstacle eaquUmr, avoid 

eilamen, stopping-place' (L) ; state etUtr, stand 


tOatjamen, delay etta^ar, prop up, support 

«stran(oIamen, strangling eatnmgiiaT, Strang 
e^Tonhanen, estrangement 

), examination, test 
faekiihamen, enchaatment fachilhar, bewitch 

tadiaTrten, probibition, protesta- fadiar, take pains 

fendiiliamen,' crevice 
fermalhamm,' buckle 
figvramm* (a term used ii 

firtamen, end 
fiagdamen, beating 
fimvxmtn, foundation 
forgelamen, expulsion 
formigamen, swarming 
forlificameri, fortification 
frmidamen, fraud 
fregamen, rubbing 
fretamen, rubbing 
fruetifiamen, fructification 
fmttmmtn, frustration, dis^t- 

gaiTnenlatnert, groaning 
gard^amen, inspection, survey 
gaelamen, spoiling 
gatjamen, seixure 
gavwUtaTnen, damage, injury 

finar, end 

fiagdar, beat 

fontar, found (T) 

forgetar, cast oat 

formigar, swarm 

fortifiear, fortify 

fravdar, defraud 

fregar, rub 

fretar, rub 

fraetifiar, fructify 

fruttrar, flog; also frustrate, i 

one example 
gaimenlar, groan 
gardejar, contemplate 
gaatar, spoil 
ga^ar, pledge, pay 
gavanhaT, injure 

'The idea of place is exceedingly uouBual in this niffii. 
■ Concrete force here. The thing resulting from the a< 

Q oft) 

verb is seen. 

■ No verb found. The ward seema to be formed on the noun fermalh, 
snd the suffix »dded without force. 

• Formed On the noun figura t Figurar is not found, but may have 

existed. Cf. Fr. and Sp. verbs. No meaning is given in Levy, 



gazankamen, gain gaianhar, gain 

geTMonen, groaning gemar, groan 

getamen, see gilamtn gelaT, thiow 

ffiramen, rotation girar, turn 

giiamen, throwing oveifooard ffHar, throw 

golfjamen, dripping away gtd^ar, drop 

goiienuimen, tretLtment, manage- govenutr, guide, manage 

gnuamen, injury, harm gnwar, injure 

greujamen, grevamea, damage gretijar, injure 

grondilhamen, tale-telling grondilhar, mutter 

guidamen or guisamen, leading, gaidar or guiear, guide 


guierdonamen,' reward, rewarding guierdonar,^ reward 

guinhamen, wink, sign guiTthar, w'lak 

inlramen, entry tnfrar, enter 

itmacamen, viscosity, alimineas inviicaT, catch, ensnare 

iramen, anger imr,' be angry 

UHgamen, instigation iitigar, instigate 

•juljamen, judgment j^<^, judge 

lauamen, spotting laiatr, stain 

largamen, remission, diepensation largar, relax, discontinue 

latamen, binding, joining, fetter laear, bind 
kitinamen,' erudition 

lavzengamen, calumny lauzengar, slander, deceive 

lavamen, washing, etc. lavar, wash 

leujamen, lightening leujar, h^ten 

levamen, elevation levar, nuse 

liuramen, debvery livrar, deliver 

lochamen, struggle, combat lochar, struggle 

lonhatnen, self-removal lonhar, remove 

lotjamen,' quarters, lodging lo^ar, lodge- 
lunaTnen,* lunation 

' Raynouard jpveB only gaioTdonamen. 

' The infinitive probably exists, though it is not certain. See Levy, 
IV, 237, under irat. 

' Formed on the noun lalin, but has abstract force, 

' Ct. the Engl, "lodgjog" or "dwelling." Indeed, the suffii -ING 
may ilaelf be compared with -AMEN. See -ING in Murray. 

■ A formation on tuna, but having abstract force. 


Formation of Nouns 

maduramen, maturity 
maimamen,'^ welcome 
maiionamen,'* lodging 
malmenamen,'' ill-treatment 
moncomm, lack 
mandamen, command, dominion, 

manjamen. eating, food 
maridairurn, marriage 
moTl^men (de dent), chattering 

of teeth 
martinamen, torture 
neiladamm, halving 
mdhoramen, improvement 
tnem6ram«n, remembrance 
mmamen, guidance 
mtndamen, improvement 
mercejamen, indulgence, pity 
maclamen, mixture 

I, measurmg 
ministmmen, lud 
moUiamea, wetting 
montanien, climbing 
mottramen, proof 
mudamen, change 
mtdHplieamen, multiplication 
irairamen, waUii^ up 
niurmuram«n, murmuring 
no/ramen, wound, damage 
navejamen,* ehip, voyage 
iitd^amen, cleansing, purifica 

7ui;amen, denial 

negoeejamen, act of trading 

madiiTar, mature 

malmenar, ill-treat 
tmincar, lack 
mandar, command 

manjar, eat 

maridar, marry 

marielar (de d«n»), chatter 

mortiriw, torture 
mmiadar, halve 
nwIAoror, improve 
membraT, remember 
menar, lead, guide 
mendar, improve 
merc^ar, beg for mercy 
meacUrr, mix 

montar, cUmb 
TnoalraT, ahow, prove 
mudor, change 
muittplicar, multiply 
muror, wall up 

nafrar, wound 
nonpar, navigate 
ned^ar, purify 

nepor, deny 

(only negoeiar, do busineaa, i 

noeejaf, have wedding 
nomnar, name 

■ FormBtions od the noun maiion, but having sbatract force. 

■ See aim hybrids, p. 670. 
' Concrete force. The ii 

preased by the verb is denoted. 

nocejumai, wedding 

ipliahing the action ex- 

u Google 


,' joining, aluance 
noxlamen, knotting 
oblidamen, Forgetfulness 
oUrectyamen, presumption; also 
im^ination, concdt 

orbamen, blinding 
ordenafoen, order, arrai^etnent 
orgtAhamen, pride 
oOamen, shortening 
■panamen, theft 
•paramen, ornament 
porelAameR, interview 
■parlamen, interview 
paiaamea, Test 
pavamen,' pavement 
p^oramen, deterioration 
■penhoramen, pledge, Beciirity 
perbocamen, rough casting 
perdonamen, pardon 
perilhamen, risking, endangering 
perpauzamen, propoaition 
perpensamen, meditation 
perieveramen, perseverance 
perUtrbameti, disturbance 
pe$camen, fishing, right of 

petejamen, act of breaking, 

petamen weighing 
■pUhamen, plundering 

notdar, knot 
Midar, forget 
oUrecvgar, rave 

orbaT, blind 
ordenar, order 
orgolhta-ise), be proud 
otiar, take away 
panar, steal 
paroT, adorn 
pardh,' pair; interview 
parlor, talk 
paiaar, rest 
pavar, pave 
p^orar, deteriorate 
■penhorar, ^ve pledge for 
7>er6ocar, roughcast 
perdojutr, pardon 
pfrdhar, endanger 
perpa'azaT, propose 
■perpensoT, meditate 
pereeivrar. persevere 
pertarbar, disturb 
pescar, &ab 

peafjar, break to pieces 

petar, wei^ 
pUhar, plunder 

' A Lat. nodamen (not nodamenlum) eiisla. 

'A verb pareUuir is Icuad but has the meaniiig of "to prepare," 
and is of different origin. 

■ It is intereetiDg here to compare the Fr. fomiB pavemenl and pac^, 
PaicTtiffnl comes fn>m pavimeTitum, and parer seems to have been derived 
from it through the analogy of several pairs of words. See paver id 
iMc. Geit.. though Diei (p. 656) BUggeBta a chanRe of conjugation to have 
taken place in the ve\fb. Pawtmen ia probably due to the analogy of 
the Ft. form, though it might have come from pavimtn with a change of 
BUffix. See Cobn, 109, note, and for the form ponmen, also the note t al 
the end of the list of words in -IMEN, p. 109. below. 


Formation op Nouns 

plagameny^ wound 
plindg'amen, litigation 
jiUmtamen, planting 
jiUgamen, supplenees 
pioramen, affliction 

plagar, wound 
plaidejar, go to law 
plajitaT, plant 
pUgar, bend 
plorar, weep 

pobfamen, peopling; right of set- pMar, people 

podamen, cutting, breaking 

it), hdght; ascent; 

podar, cut, break 
pojar, Bscend 

polsamen, pulsation poUar, beat 

preffomen,' prayer pregaT, pray 

preptaramen, preparatioa prep^rar, prepare 

pr«pauAtmen, intention, resolution prepavzar, propose, present 

prestamen, taking of oath preatar, lend 

prezeniamen, presentation prezeniar, present 

prrzicamen,* exhortation; sermon prencar, preach 

pTezuramen,' rennet for curdling prezumr, press, squeeie 

proamen, proof 
pTofeehamen, prc^t 
prononciamen, pronunciation 
proUslamen, protestation 
fnnvamen,' purificatiim; pu^e 
Querdhamen, compltuning, com- 
TOioziamen, satiation 
raiifiamen, ratification 
Taubamen, theft 
raumamen, reaaonii^ 

reftantamgn, heating 
r^renamen, prudence, reserve 
TdaUamen, relaxation 
TCTnembratnen, remembrance 

proor, try, prove 
profechar, profit, be useful 
prononciar, pronounce 
proUttar, protest 
purgar, purify 
querelhar, complain 

, satiate 
ratifioT, ratify 
raiAar, rob 

reflamar, heat 
refrenar, restrain 
TelaiaaT, relax 
remembrar, remember 

' Flagamtn. pregamen, and preiuramen seem to have only concre te 
(oroe. i^aiuniinm is one of the few clear examples of a word eodins in 
-AMEN having the idea of the instniment for Bccomplishing the action 
espressed by the verb. 

< Words that seem to have both abstract sod concrete force are 
t, and purgamen. The latter has the concrete force 
Praicamen and pnnwmen (in note 1 ) seem to denote 
things produced by the action of the verbs on which they are formed. 



Word-Formation in Provencal 

renhamen, reign 
Tenondamen, renunciation 
renonelamen, renewal 
Te*inhamen, resignation 
retembiamen, reaemblance 
retardamen, delay 
reUimamen, return 
revocamen, revocation 
rontamen, overturning 
rwmten,' wrinkle 
iocrifiamen, sacrifice 
sadolamen, satiation 
aaleamen, saving 
ioziameii, satiation 
ienhoTamen,' superiority, domi- 

reahar, reign 

renovelar, renew 
rennhar, resign 
retenMoT, resemble . 
retardar, delay 
retornar, return 

Tontar, overturn 
ruor, wrinkle 
taaifiar, sacrifice 
eadolar, satiate 

, superiority, domi- senhorejar, master 

or, preach 
BCTTor, confine 
iignifiar, signify 
sinalinfar, elide 
Hncopar, syncopate 
sincopiiar, faint 

1, preaching 
sn, stricture 
Bt^ifiaTnen, signification 
Hrudinfamen, elision 
nneopamen, syncopation 
gincopizamen, fainting 

I, disdain 
», overflowing 
1, riling, resounding 
tonjamen, dream 
lardamen, delay 
teMomen,* weaving 
lermenamen, limit, bound 
tegtimoniamen, testimony 
tiramen, twitching 
tocamen,' sense of touch 
lorbamen, perturbation 
Urm^amen, tournament 
IrtAaihamfn, trouble, agitation 

' Concrete force. 
' Formed on the noun lenhor, an 
'-AMEN instead of -EMEN. 
■ A specialised meKDiiig here, a 


-, overflow 
sonar, resound 
sonjar, dream 
tardar, delay 

lermenar, Umit, end 
lestimomar, give testimony 
tirar, twitch 
tacar, touch 

torbar, disturb 
lomejar, turn about 
trabalhar, torment 

having abstract force- 
in the Enxl. "hearing"— se 


Formation op Nouns 

trabuear, Btumble 

fnuAomen, treatise 

Irachar, treat 

trasportamen, tranaportation 

traspOTlar, transport 

frtutornor, upset 

(rnnWor, tremble 

Irencamen, cutting, rupture 

trencar, cut 

wdolor, howl 

laamen, usage, habit 

uzar, UBe 

vanmnen, boasting 

vanar. boast 

variar, vary 

VBT^jar, avenge 

varenar, poison 

vmtamen,^ vitat 


Next comes the liat of words with the suffix 

abalre, beat down 

apertener, bdoug 
apremer, compel 
ardre, bum 
otendre, wait 

', fall 

t, mcreaee 

advttmen, oonduct (implies infini- 
tive 'aduter instead of aduire) 

airemea (Levy pves no meaning, 
and the word is not clear) 

aperleneTnen, one's own sphere 

a'prememen, compulsioa 

ardemen, burning 

atendetaea, w^ting 

aueizemen, killing (implies infini- 
tive 'aueiztr instead of aueire) 

coiemen, origin, extraction (no 
meaning of f^) 

coiemen, worehip, reverence 

amtplatihemen, complaint 

complatemen, pleasure, satisfaction 

eomprendemen, inclosed apace' 

' Concrete force denoting a place 

newly bU pure ab«trBct«. 

tWords of Lat. origin are adomamen, adoianient<i adomamentum 
(see Olcott, 128, and recent Lat. dictionariea) : coronamen. crowning< 
coronamentum (see Cooper. 88); enlerprelamen, interpretBtion<in(wpre- 
lamenlum; ferramm. iron tool, having, therefore, concrete foreB</«Ta- 
mentum; liamen, head-dress, interesting on account of its epecialiied 
na:iaaDg<liga7naUum; metjamen. remedy, medicine <>nedicamenfutn,' and 
moderamen, moderatioa<rno(/ertitnen(uni. 

coler, worship 
comptanher, complain 
complazer, accede to 
compreTuire, include, comprise 
The other words in -EMEN are 


Word-Formation in Provencal 

eowpteremen, conquest 

eon^aemen,' foundation, found- 

eonttrenhemen, constrwit 

ecniertemen, mtuntenance 

amtTodizemen, contradiction {im- 
plies infinitive *oontraditer, in- 
stead of conlradire, contradict) 

contraSazemen, counterfeiting (im- 
plies infinitive 'mntrafater, 

eontranhemen, constTMnt 
sn, course 

injuring, corrup- 

constreaher, constrain 
eontena; contain 

eoniranher, < 
eotre, run 
eorrompre, comipt 

:, improvement 

decreUemtn, decrease 
delinquemen,^ evil deed, guilt 

derompemen, interruption 

dtKonoitemen, misunderetanding 

deacorremeji, running about 

degdizemen, deni^ (impUes infini- 
tive 'deaditer, instead of da- 
dire, deny 

deilrenhemen, embarrassment 

deUnemen, detention 

delrazemen, calumny (implies de- 
frayer, for detraire, detract) 

empenhemen, emisuon 

emprendetnen, enterprise 

enclataemen, confinement (im- 
plies enclauxr, for endaure, 
shut ia) 

enfenhemen, deception 

entendemen, intelligence 

entretenemtn, entertainment 

envelheximen, apng 

eebaUmen, gambol, merriment 

, stiiing up, exdte- 

decreiter, decrease, 
delinquir, abandon, be d« 

derompre, interrupt 
detcorunser, misunderatand 
deteorre, run about 

deatrenh^T, press, force 
detener, detain 

empenher, push, put forth 
emprtndre, undertake 

enfenher, C«gn 
entendre, understand 
eTdretener, entertain 
envelheaT, grow old 
e^xUre, gambol 

ve, stir up 

1 -EMEN iD8(«ad of -IMEN. 


Formation of Nouns 

escomprendemen, arson 
eemoixmea, movement 
e»panemen, pouring 
esperdtmen, despondency 

estenhemen, extinKuislung 

Mbn-semen, deliverance 

tstreixmen (R), etirtMedat (ac- 
cording to Levy), narrowness 

etlTinhemen, crowding, preemng 

Stuemen, doing, fashion (implies 
feaer, instead of /otre, do) 

fenhemen, fabrication, fiction 

fTonhemen, breaking 
gemtmen,' also yinwnwn, groaning 
joiemen, lying together 
ntalditemen, malediction (implies 

infinitive 'maHiter, instead of 

maidire, curse 
manUnemen,' miuntenance 
marjondemen,* glanders 
meiemen, putljng, setting 
mordemen, bite 
movemen, movement 
Ttaiaemen, birth, be^nning, race 
nozemen, dam^e 
oTihemen, ointment 
ptrdemen, loss 
ptanhemen, complunt 
plaiemen, will, pleasure 
promelemen, promise 
gveremen, search 
requeremen, claim, demand 
re»plandemen, resplendence 

egcomprendre, bum 
eamover, move 
espargrr, pour out 
Mperdre, distract 
egtendre, extend 
egtenher, entinguieh 
eatorser, twist; free, save 

ettrenher, press 

fenher, feign 
fondre, melt away 
franhtr, break 
gemir, groan 

manlener, m^ntain 
TTiarfondre, chill (a horse) 
metre, put 
nurrdre, bite 

natter, be bom 

■perdre, lose 
planher, complain 
pioier, please 
pTomelre, promise 
guerer, querir, seek 
Tequerre, requerer, claim 

Tdrtaenten, r^p«t, affliction (im- 
plies 'retreuer instead of retraire) 
Tompemen, breaking 
solvenun, discharge, acquittal 

■ -EMEN' inateod of -IMEN. 
) See also hybrids, p. 570. 

D through 

Gemimtn is also found. 



eoilenemen, support 

sostr(u«men, aubtractioa (implies 

infinitive gostrmer, instead of 

sogtraire, subtract) 
tfmdemen, tension 
lenemen, tenancy 
lokmen, separation, removal 
toreejnen, twistin); 
trazemen, act of tbrowinf; (implies 

infinitive 'Irazer, instead of 

veneemen, conquest, victory uencer, conquer 

miemen, sight vezer, see 

Lastly, is given the list of words containing the suffix 

soslener, sustain 

lendre, stretch 
tener, hold 
UAre, take away 
toraer, twist 

abdhimeit, pleasure, BatisTaction 
acdhimen, welcome 
afiffimen, adjunction 
afligimen, ptun 
afoTtimen, solidity, power 
aizimen, adjustment, arrange- 
ment ( ?) 
aparturimen, birth 
a»entimen, assent 

lAelhir, please 
acolkir, welcome 
afigir, adjoin 
ajligir, afflict 
afortir, strengthen 
aizir, welcome 

bandimen, proclamation, ban 
baadimen,' courage, trust 
cabimen, employment; use 

eirconceiimen, cutting 
eojimen, seasoning 
complimen, accomplishment 
ermdimen, seasoning 

conoMtm^n,' acqu^ntance 

eonseguimen, reaching, attainii^ 
consenlimen, consent 

> The verb baudir in not found. 
bandimen by a loaa of the prefix. 
' -IMEN instead of -EMEN. 

bandir, proclaim 

cabir, as well as caber, find place 
for (have space) 

eofir, preserve, season 
compiir, accomplish 
amdir, seaaon 

etmaiser, know 
conteguir, attain 

comentir, consent 


Formation of Nouns 

converliT, convert 

d^alhiT, fail, lack - 

d^agimen, flight 

defugir, fly 

demolimen, demoliehment 

departir, divide 

rfn«riwn, perishing 

deperir, perish 

daazimen, deprivation of prop- 

desazir, let go of 

erty, abandonment 

deseobrimen, diHclawng, exposing 

desconfi/nen, rout 

dtsamfir, discomfit 

de»oonfizemeti, rout 

deaervir, deserve 

dtilerupiimen, relinquishment 

dedmquir, pve up 

deslru(z)ir, destroy 

deeveiUmen, cesmon, abdication 

desvestir, divest, take oft 

dexenmen, division 

devezir, divide 

dezdbezimen, disobedience 

dezobenr, disobey 

eisemimen, wisdom 

ewmiir, discern 

eisimen, erit, end 

einr, go out 

elegimen, election 

etejrtr, elect 

eynbandimen, order, ordinance 

embandir, seise 

emhoktimen, heat, anger 

enantimen, advantage 

enantiT, advance 

enfedmen, infection 

enfeciT, poison, infect 

engordimen, stifiening 

tngordir, stiffen 

enlimmen, whitewashing 

enlunr, whit«wash 

en^utrir, investigate 

emeguimen, followinR, conse- 

enaegtUr, follow 


envtmtnen, attack 

envonr, attack 

erwelamen, humiliation 

eitfergonkimen, causing of shame 

envergonhir, shame 

enveatimen, placing in possession 

enveiftr, invest, put in possession 

esbaimen, anxiety 

M&atr, astonish 

1 Probably is formed of fomime 

^. supply-, provision, plus the nega- 

live ptefii DES-. Dtrfamir is t 

lOt found. See nomioal prefiies, 

■The opposite word, estoUimen, ia derived from a word formed ii 



Word-Formation in Provencal 

esbaudimen, rejoicing, gaiety 
eaeamimen, inmilt 
eicaulrimen,^ slyness, cunning 
etcopimen, spitting 

1, fighting 

t, darkness 
esdevenimen, happeniag 
eyauximen, contentment 

eslobetimen, astonishment 

/aujtmen,* confiscated property 

fathimen, error, fctult 

fenimen, eiccomplishment, end 

ferimen, etriking 

fomimen, provision, maintenance 

foffimen, flight 

gajidimen, refuge, safety 

garimen, safety, protection 

garnimen, equipment 

gUUimen, howling 

grazimen, thanks 

^uniTnen, growling 

guerpimeii, leaving, quitting 

languimen, dejection 

ynalaiaulimen,' discourteous, in- 
sulting words 

ntommen, sadness 

ncj7renm«n, blackening 

obrimen, act of opening 

ordimen, warp, weaving 

jKiTtimen, divinon; departure; 
dislocation; a kind of verse 

pentimen, repentance 

pervenimen, revenue 

podestadimen,* power 

eicopir, eptt, 
eteremir, fight 
McwoT, become dark 
etdeDenir, become 
e^auzir, rejoice 
eamarrir, sadden 
eataheeir, astonish 
faidir, banish 
/otttr, fful 
fenir, end 

fornir, provide 
fugir, fly, flee 
gandir, guarantee 
garir, protect 
gamir, equip 
gUUir, howl 
graxir, thank 
prunir, growl 
guerpir, pack off 
lan^ruir, languish 

ordir, warp, weave 

porftr, divide; remove; p 

petUir, repent 
pervenir, reach, belong 
pode»tat, power 

' No verb a Found. The word is obscure, however. 

' A kind of concrete force is here, denoting the thins coming as the 
■eault of the action expressed by the verb. The other words with this 
uffii are pure abstracts. 

> See also hybrids, p. 678, below 
■ Apparently formed on a noun 

without change of meanins. 


FoRUATioN OP Nouns 1 

pniuCtmen, act of trampling under pratUir, trample under foot 


provenimen, revenue ( ?) provenir, originate, proceed 

jwirimen, rott«nne8s poinr, rot 

pojtnten, polishing polir, polish 

premtmimen, presumption ■presumiT, presume 

pruzimen, itching pruzer,' itch 

raitbimen, raviehment ravbir, ravish 

ngimen, flatulence rugir, roar 

teguimen, accompaniment teguir, accompany 

WTvimen, servitude semr, serve 

mfiimen, suffering, privation tofrir, suffer 

tomeimen, absorption somsir, swallow up 

larimen, drying up tarir, dry up 

tradimen, treachery Iradir, betray 

vaiimen, price, merit foZer,' be worth 

viltimen,] degradation vUair, degrade 

The collectives in -MENTA from the Latin plural 
-MENTA, meDtioQed above,' will now be given. Under 
-AMENTA, joined to the stems of verbs in -or, we find:. 

and, on a noun, 

OMmcnlo, bones im, bone 

Under -EMENTA joined to stems of verbs in -tr, is: 
franh«menla, fragments franker, break 

■ The infinitive is found only with the ending -er. 
'P. 87. 

' lAq intereating word is poiimen, pavement, not ipveD above because 
of lie Lat. origin. Ita source is clearly panmentum, which should give 
panmen. The z for v is difficult to explain. Grandgent (48, sec. 5) 
explains it by the analogy of atzimen, but the connection between the 
two words does not seem clear. His remark that parimen-paromen 
hardly seems exact (see p. 100, D. 3). Another form of panmentum is 
paymen. A word of Lat. origin is munimen; an obscure one is engarzi- 


110 Word-Formation in Provencal 

-AN, -ANA 

-AN and -ANA in Provencal are derived from the Latin 
-ANUS and -ANA, used in Latin in forming both adjec- 
tives and nouns. In fonnii^ nouns, -AN r^ularly gives 
the idea of the inhabitant of a place (as caslellanus> 
Provencal castelan, inhabitant of a castle, lord of a manor) 
and also that of a person addicted to a subject (as negro- 
mancian on negromancia, necromancy). Besides these 
uses, we find -AN has one or two others, that will be fully 
described below. 

As for the feminine form, -ANA, the meanii^ of "the 
inhabitant of a place" seems to be generally absent, 
although such a feminization as casldana is found in Levy.' 
There are only a few words with this endit^, however, and 
moat of these appear to be substantive uses of words 
originally adjectives. 

Under -AN with the meaning of (1) "inhabitant of a 
place" or (2) "person addicted to a thing" attached to 
nouns, are found the foUowmg words: 
arman, armed man, one addicted arma, arm 

to anus 
osfroRomian, asttonomer a^tmomia, astronomy 

etlatjan, Icx^r, dweller etlatge, dwelling 

foreitan, stranger forest, forest 

gazalhan,' one who raises live gaxolha, (1) community; (2) 

Block on shares leaae of live Btock 

geomancian, geomant geomanda, geomancy 

gramairian, grammarian gramaire, grammu" 

letran, master (?), one addicted lefra, letter 

to letters 
marqitetan,' inhabitant of La 

' I. 228. 

> There ia also a feminine form. oataUuma. For gaialha, see above, 
p. 79. n. t. 

• Appaready a dojble BufGi here. 


Formation op Nounb 111 

mertadan, merchant mereal, market 

metaljan, messenger metalge, meaeagfi 

nefpwnancian, necromancer negromanda, necromancy 

mnieidan, murderer oniieidi, murder 

parofian, parishioner parofia, parish 

ptuafjan,] passenger patatge. passage 

Besides the use of -AN just treated, the ending is 
found with other meanings. In a good many nouns 
with this ending, -AN represents nothii^ but the present 
participle of verbs of the first conj ligation used substantive- 
ly; in a few examples the suffix appears not to change the 
meaning of the simple word, whereas in one or two cases, 
the meaning it gives is hard to classify; and other words 
are obscure in form. 

1. In such words as amulan, demoran, levan, maruin, 
marejan, montan, parUm, pezan, and poblan^ the ending 
-AN is the sign of the present participle of verbs ' 
in -or. 

2. In planetan, puian, and vergan the suffix appears to 
give no change of meaaing to the simple nouns planeta, 
planet, -puta, prostitute, and verga, branch. 

In putan, however, -AN seems to represent simply a 
different case-endii^. See puiatui, below. 

In planetan and vergan, the -AN may have been added 
to form adjectives on puta and verga, these adjectives 
later being used substantively. 

3. In aUxiran and bausan the force of the suffix is less 
easy to classify. 

albaran, however, was probably originally an adjec- 
tive. It means scrap of paper or ticket, and was prob- 
ably derived from aU>ar, sapwood, or alimmum (Latm 


112 Word-Formation in Provencal 

aibunium), the new wood next the bark of a tree. Albaran 
was apparently a small article made of this aJbar.^ 

bausan, a kind of horse, also a standard of the Tem- 
plars, is surely not derived from baus, an abyss, and is 
probably not a Provencal formation,* 

4. Clear examples of adjectives used substantively are 
seen in — 

ferran,' gray horse ferran, gray 

foTOtt, foreigner foran, foreign 

per«an,t Peruan peraan, persian 

Words in -ANA are fewer in number than those in 
-AN and will be studied individually. Exclusive of 
such feminizations of masculine words as casleUina and 
gazalkana, these are: 

■ CI. the Lat. liber, book, with ita original mesmiiK of " bast." 

< Kortiug, No. I,I9S, suggeata baiteanut from btUteiu, a belt or girdle. 
HB source. This would be a possible source both as regards tlte form sod 
the meaning. The development ia phouetically regular, aud "belt«d" 
was used to describe dappled horses. The word, therefore, was origi- 
nally an adjective, as might be seen from the phrase cheml bautaTil, Sec 
Somanla. XXIV, 586; also XXXV. 456. The second meaniiig, a stand- 
ard of the Templars, undoubtedly refers to its color. The Pr. baufani 
may be compared nith bawmn, and is, ■□ all probability, a borrowing. 
For ils original form see the note in Romania. XXIV, 588. See also 
Rom. Sliid; I, 260, where the It. baUano, dotted with white, is eiplaioed 
as eoming from balzare, to leap, because one color staoda out from 
another. But even baiiare may be connected with baUtxLa. See Meyer- 
Labke. HI. 20. 

■Pee Rom. Stud.. I, 258. 

t K word of this kind of Lat. origin is crcsltan. cretin, from dtnttianut. 

Other words of Lat. origin are mejan, intermediary<medianiH.- 
mercan merchant <niercan», from tnercor; opidan, citi»eD<(ipp«tonus; 
ortolan gardener <Aflr'uJ(iniu. Still Other words oot Frov. formations 
and probabl) of Lat. origin are nibfnn, kite (a bird of prey), probably 
from 'milranut from tnitvue, and showing a melatheais; parran, back- 
garden (wo Du Cange's paranus): parsan. district, from *par(ianus (7) 
(parfuirOM is found); polait, colt, from *puUanua. derived from pultaa 
{pf Fr poulamj 


Formation of Nounb 113 

bezana: Not clear in meatung. Raynouard gives bee- 
hive, and Levy suggests sheepskin, as in Freach baeane. 
At any rate, it is probably not a Provencal formation.' 

forana, fair, or the place in which it is held: Probably 
here we have the adjective suffix -AN, as in/oron, foreign, 
taking this meanii^ by a false etymology, connecting 
it with feira. 

colana, column: This is probably simply the Latin 
columTia, Provencal colona, in a different form, perhaps 
a bad spelling. Korting' gives the Lombard colafia, from 
Latin columna. 

laizana, dirt, filth: Seems to be a Provencal formation, 
and to be connected with the verb laizar, to soil, althoi^h 
there seem to be no other eases of the attachment of the 
suffix to a verb-stem.* 

lugana, opening in the roof: Seems to be a Latin forma- 
tion — lucana — on the stem luc- 

meluina, noontime: Is simply the Latin jneridiana 
(compare the Old French meriene). 

mercadatui, ut«nsil of commerce, from Tnercat, market : 
Probably originally an adjective, and this word a sub- 
stantive use of the feminine. 

miUma, mitten mila, mitten (compare the 

French mUaine) 
jxtana, foot-disease of fnii nnftlB pe, foot 

prUana, prostitute, from puta, with the same meaning: 
The -ANA is probably here not a suffix but a case-ending, 
the word beii^ declined in Mediaeval Latin, puta, puianis.* 

> No. 2.343. 

■ PoBsibly the feminine form of the present participle used oa a 
Ihrough the disappearance of some accompanying word. 
• See Meyei^Lfibke, 11, 27, 539. 




The en<^gs -ANHA and -ANH are found in several 
words in Provencal, and are derived from a Latin -ANEUS, 
used generally in formii^ adjectives, as extraneus, and its 
opposite of later date, interanetw, whose neuter plural, 
with the meaning of "bowels," "entrwls," is found in 
several of the Romance languages. Then other neuter 
plurals are found used as substantives, giving such 
words as montanha in ProvenQal. Most of the words 
found in Provencal appear to be Latin formations, but 
the following words appear to have been made in Pro- 
vencal by using the suffix -ANHA: 

eoanha, wool of inferior quality from eoa, tul 

fogaTtha, kitchea foe, fire. Foganha, however, may 

be from a, Latin formation 
mala'ttha, injury, evil, pain mal, evil 

metclmiha, roiiiture f metda, miiiture 

Under -ANH, from -ANEUS, the only possible Pro- 
vencal formation is guirfajih, sparrow-hawk, which ap- 
pears to be the same word as the adjective grifanh,^ with 
a metathesis in the first syllable. This, also, may not be 
a Provencal formation, as it is found also in other lan- 
guages. It is not certain, even, that the -ANH here is 
derived from -ANEUS-tf 

■ Originally meaiuiiB "claw-tike," tbea probably u«ed mibatanUvely. 
Proni 0if (a post-verbal from grifar) plus -ANH. See Mod. Lang- 
Nota. XXII. 49. 

t Other words ending in -ANHA, but of Lat. origin, ar« eieanha, 
windlass (,<tcamna [?]), and Ulanha, litany <l(lanta. For tatdaaha, 
see below. 

ttWordsofLat. origin ending in -ANH are coIcanA, heel<calcan<uin; 
auanh, oalc<c(u«iiniufn (£«aau, 75): erarth, spider <aro>uu«,' eteanh, 
bench< scamnum; eetanh, tiD<af(innium (Et»ai», TS). 


Formation op Nouns 115 

-ENHA, -ENJA, and -ENGA (and in ooe word -AN- 
HA), appear to represent the Latin -EMIA in a few 
words. This ending appeared in Latin in blaatemia, for 
blasphemia, and in vindemia. From vindemia, we find a 
Provengal vendanha, corresponding to a French vendange, 
and probably influenced by it in form. The other words 
have the vowel e instead of a. They will be given here 
under the form -ENGA,' which is the most usual, on the 

from bUMtemia for btatphemia 
(Greek puu^itla) 
fiatenga, \yin^ fiotoTi flatter 

laidenga, hateful speech laidir, insult 

lavtenga, flatt«ry lauzor, pnuee 

-ENHA is also found in: 
eswpienha,\ spittle eacopir, spit 

Following, therefore, the meaning which -EMIA has 
in blasphemia, the meaning in Provencal is usually abstract. 
If -ENHA in escopienha represents -EMIA, the meaning 
has changed somewhat. The suffix appears to be regu- 
larly added to verb-stems, which is the usual course 
for abstract suffixes to follow. The only model for the 
new formations to follow was blaatemia, in which no stem 
could have been clear. 

-ENH is found in several words, but is not properly 
a suffix at all. Such words, for example, as defenh, 
mantenh, are substantives derived from verbs, under which 
heading th^r will be treated. 

) Of course these abstracts from -EMIA can have nothing to do 
with -ENGA, the feminine form of the woids in -ENC, treated on 
p. 178. 

t Found aJeo in Bflamenha, sieve, from a Lat. itaminia, baviag 
nothing to do with the ending -EMIA, and in the somewliat obwure word 
aparden/ia, shoe ot teather-grass. formed on tpartum according to KSr- 
ting (No. S,913), who doeenot say, however, wiiat the -ENHA Tcpresents. 



The last suffix of the group -ANHA, -ENHA, -ONHA 
is -ONHA, from -ONEA, probably the neuter plural 
of the adjective ending -ONEIIS used substantively. 
The only example of the suffix in a Provencal word seems 
to be mensonga, mensonja, but this was probably not a 
Provencal formation. Escalonka, shallot, has the ending 
-ONHA, but does not represent the suffix -ONIA. It 
probably comes from the proper name Aaealonia. Mer- 
dmonia, merchandise, is only the Latin merdmonia, 
showing the suffix -MONIUM, which appears not to 
have been used as a Romance suiEx. 


There are but two forms for the verbal suffix of the 
next group, -ANSA and -ENSA, instead of the usual three, 
beginning with a, e, and i, accordii^ to the conjugation 
of the verb, as in -AMEN, -ADOR, -ADURA, etc. The 
reason for this reduction in the number of forms is very 
simple, however. -ANSA and -ENSA are derived from 
-ANTIA and -ENTIA, which are equal to the endii^ of 
the present participle (-ANTEM or -ENTEM) plus the 
suffix -lA. Thus in Latin there were really but two end- 
ings for the participle, and there had been no reduction in 
forms in Provencal. -ANSA and -ENSA being, therefore, 
formed somewhat differently from the other Provencal 
verbal suffixes, have, naturally, different forms. 

As for meanii^, however, this group differs little from 
that of any other verbal suffix, its force beii^ r^ularly 
abstract. In this word are included two kinds of ideas: 
not only the idea of the action expressed in the verb to 
which the suffix is added, but also state or condition, or 
even a thing itself resultit^ from some action. -AMEN 
has both of these meanings also, but in a very large 


Formation of Nouns 117 

proportion of the words ending in that suffix the meaning 
is that of action, whereas in the case of -ANSA the result 
of an action is relatively in much greater use.' Such 
words as acostumanaa, devinansa, donansa, estansa, 
falhaTisa, finansa, jizansa, gravansa, membransa, mes- 
danm,, orrejansa, pensanm, prestanaa, regazerdonaTisa, 
rememfrronsa, and aonansa show this kind of use, some of 
the words becoming almost concrete in force. Some 
words, as asemblanaa, comportansa, and comunalhanaa, 
seem to have collective force, but in none of these cases 
is this contributed by the suiBx. In the first two words, 
we have -ANSA with its meaning of the thii^ resulting 
from the action described by the verb, and the collective 
force, as far as it exists, is contained in the verb. Comu- 
naJhansa is probably also formed in this way on comu- 
jud(a: There is a noun comunaika, and if added to this 
word, we should have an example of the use of -ANSA 
without force — the only example of this use of -ANSA 
— and also of its addition to a noun. Two words only 
show real concrete force — goTanea, madder (a plant), and 
animaTisa, animal. Of these, the second shows a substi- 
tution of -ANSA for -AL. 

One of the most striking peculiarities, indeed, of the use 
of -ANSA is its substitution for other sufHxes, although in 
ail cases except animansa the displaced suffix was -TAT. 
The relations of the two must have been very close. Thus 
we find substitutions of -ANSA for -TAT in amistansa,^ 
«wmiatortsa,' jnatansa, and majoTansa. The next most 

' There is about an equal number of words with this meanins among 
both suffiiesi but -AMEN contains a vastly larger number of pure 

• This is a pair of words with opposite meaDinga, and one would have 
mgKested the other. The etarting-point for these fonnatioos appeara to 
have been inolOiua (found also in B'r.. and through it. Engl, as "pittance," 
in which the meaning haa beooin^ changed and apecialiied). 


118 Word-Formation in Provencal 

remarkable use is that of being joined to compound words 
formed of two short distinct words, of which the first 
was generally ben or mal, as benestansa, hefazenaa, malan- 
anaa, and maUatansa.^ But in real parasynthetic forma- 
tions, or words whose first part was a real prefix, it is 

-ANSA and -ENSA seem to remain true to their 
original use as verbal suffixes, and to show no probable 
examples of formations on nouns or on other words. 
Sometimes the verb is not found in Provencal, as in 60- 
bansa and curiaTiaa, but its existence is always probable 
in cases that may not be explained either by a substitu- 
tion of one suffix for another or by a loss of prefix, as in 
ebrianaa. Comunalkanaa has already been treated. Du- 
renaa seems to be formed on durir and not on dur. The 
only really puzzling word is eertanaa, certainty, which 
appears to be formed on the adjective cert, certwn, ceriar 
not existing with this sense. It seems probable, however, 
either that a verb ceriar did exist or that we have here 
another substitution of -ANSA for -TAT found in cer- 
tanetat. This would mean the disappearance of a syllable, 
as in consirenaa for conatrenhenaa. 

-ANSA is found in the foUowii^ words:' 
acabartta, eod tuabar, end, complete 

aemrulama, acquaintance aeoindar, get acquwnted 

acordaiita, agreement aeordar, agree 

aeoetumansa, custom aeoitumar, accustom 

adordenama, arrangement, eee 

' For theea words, aee the hybrid formatiana, p. 579. 

• As SD illuatratioa of the sumlarity in use of the two abatract suffixes 
-AMEN and -AN9A it may be interesting to point out the verb-etema 
that are found with both suffizes and the few casBS where the meaning 
differs: amind-, otord-, afiz-, ajott-, aiong-, amat-, amvnn,- amonetl-, 
ampar-, atrob-, amrden; comens-, compar-, comport-, eonfyri-, cmuoU, 
demon-, daeomird-, detmerrAr; dailempr-, detiri-, demn~, deutptr-, don-. 


Formation op Nouns 

nJUarua, agreement, accord 
atradania, pleasure 
ajoiUmta, relation, company 
ajudarua, aid 
idegrarua, joy 
oJionea, alliance, union 
alienanta, alienation 
t^oaganta, delay, lengthening 
amarua, love 

antasanaa, piling up, amassing 
amhlaTiga, amblcj ambling pace 
amermaTisa, dying away 
omezurariM, moderation 
amufonaa,' fiiendehip 
amoneeUmsa, warning 
amparanaa,- protection 

afiiar, assure 
agradar, please 
ajoslar, arrange 
ajiidar, aid 
alegrar, rejoice 
aliar, ally 
alienor, alienate 
olimgaT, lengthen 

ameiurar, meaeure 

amparar, protect 

apagama, eatisfaction 
oiemblaiua, assembly 
otTobama, discovery 
aulrejama, concession 
azetmama, estimation 
laordenansa, arrangement 

asemi^r, assemble 
atrobar, find 
autr^ar, grant 

azordenar, arrange 

dopt; egaU. endenh-, enoan-, erdumtn-, eraenh-, eifxisenl-, eeper-, e*qtnv; 
tet-, fin-, gatanh-. tlo»em-, arm-, oreuj-, aaii-. li-, liur-. UmK-, melhor-, 
menAr-, mad-, mont-, moalr-, Mid-, onr-,- orden-, ptjur-. perdon-, praic; 

There are few differencea to 
' noteworthy are: 
eomporlamen, conduct 
egatamen, equal taiatioD 
eigviaimen, obstacle 
tttamen, state; stoppioK-place 
(re)nuTrdirantai, remembrance 
mtadanxen, mixture 

be seen in any of the pairs. The most 

and comporlanta, yield, produce 
and egalatua, equality 
and eaquivatua, aversion 
and eitania, fortune 
and {re)mmAran»a, memory 
and me*ctan»a, quarrel, brawt 
lonamen, sounding and lorumaa, asBonance 

' This word seeras to show a subetitution of -ANSA for -TAT. 
Cf. also its opposite enemiilania, and pialanta. 

> This is a very peculiar meaniDg for -ANSA to have, but the example 
leaves no doubt about it. There is evideotty a substitution of -ANSA 
for -AL, but it is difficult to account for. The plural of animal— animalia — 
became used as a singular, and -ANSA may have been substituted for 
-ALHA, which reaembles it somewhat. 




baihanta, pit 
baptiian*a, baptinn 
benetUmta,^ excellence, perfection 
bobama,* pomp, display 
bonaurama,' happiness 
autejanta, warning 
eertama,* certainty 
cobrarua, recovery of health 
coindanga,* conduct 
eomenMnta, b^inning 
eomparanta, comparison 
eomporlanta, yield, proceeds 
comwuUhania, community 
eoneordansa, contract, agreement 
conforUmaa, consolation 
consolanea, consolation 
amnmaruKi, rhyme 
eogtumanta, custom 
cnjania, belief, opinion 
curiama,* carefulness 
ddiurama, freeii^, deliverance 
ddtmhaiaa, postponement, delay 
dernandanta, request 
demoroTtia, delay 
deaamardanta, discouragement 
desmeoibranaa, forgetting 
detmetVTarua, impropriety 
(ie»ae(tran»o, departure 
demnManta, dissemblance 
degtemprama, disorder 
dettrianta, choosing 

bolhar, deliver 
baplitar, baptize 

caaUjoT, warn, correct 
cobrar, recovM 

eomparar, compare 
comporlar, bear 
connmai{h)ar, share 
coneordar, agree 
conforiar, comfort 
coTusolar, console 
canaonar, harmoniie, rhyme 
eoalumar, be accustomed 
ciy'ar, believe 

deiiuror, deliver 

detnaadar, request 
demorar, stay, delay 
deaeanordar, discourage 
deamembrar, forget 
deanezuTOT, go to excess 
desgebnir, separate 
deaatrntAoT, conceal 
deetemprar, disorder, derange 
deslriar, distinguish 

> Two words plus suffix. See hybrids, p. 579. 

' Cfrlanaa. if it does not go back to s Lat. *cvrlanHa, may have 
been formed on the adjective cert, certain. See, however, p. 1 18 above. 

■ The verb coindar is struck out by Levy. Coindanaa may have 
been fonned on the adjective coinde, but is more probably only 
acoirtdanaa. with loss of prefix due to confusioD with the vowel of the 

> No verb mriar is found in Prov. Cf., however, Sp. euriar, prob- 
ably of the same origin as curar. See KSrting, No. 2,702. 


FoBMATioN OP Nouns 

derinatua,' calumny, noise, uproar 
desagradanaa, dupleasure 
dezamparatua, abandonment 
detegama,' diBtuibance, disorder 
daexperanta, despair 
dtiiranta, dmn 
dtttmransa, dishonor 
dtmarua, ffSt 
doptanta, dai^er 
e&nnrwa,* drunkenness, orgy 
effolama, equality 
tganm, equaliiation, recompense 
emendanta, amends, compensa- 
endtnhanta, indignation 
enemittanaa,* enmity 
tngama, deceptic 

enljirnenaTua, brilliancy 
ensenhanaa, teaching 
ene^anta, striving, leal 

devinar, guess, divine 
detagradar, displease 
dezamparar, abandon 

dezeaperar, despair 
dezirar, desire 
deamrar, dishonor 
doTUir, give 
doplar, doubt, fear 

egalar, equal 
egar, equalize 
emendar, amend 

endenhar, be angry 

engaruxT, deceive 

enlumenor, illunullate 
cTuenhar, teach 
eiw^ar, envy 
etcutar, excuse 
eamar, estimate 
eipaventar, fear 
etperar, hope 
etquivar, avoid, shun 

estar, stand, delay; persist 
ettimar, estimate 
faUiof, ful 
fermar, strengthen 

ttmanta, assessment, valuation 
t*pa»tnian»a, fear 
tvptTanaa, hope 
aqawanta, aversion 
e»qttu)adan»a,* lie, falsehood 
etianta, fortune 
MfimarMa, estimation 
}<Htanta, fault, mistake 
ftrmanta, security, assurance 

finanaa, arrangement; payment; jinar, end; settle or close i 
money account 

Q the other derivatives 

'Daeaaiaa^'D^3--^-eoa'nia. See, therefore, the oamiaal prefix 
DES- on p. 409. 

'BbrioT is not found. Ebrianaa is probably tndrrianta with Ion 
of prefix. 

• Bnemi^ama shows substitution of -ANSA tor -TAT. See ontie- 




jtsatua, oath, eecurity, bail 
, gaiiama, deception 
garansa, madder (a kind of plant) 
gardanta, rule, observation 
gazanhansa, gain, acquisition 
gloriejansa, bOBBting 
ghrifianta, glorification 
govemanea, government, rule 
grcuianea, difficulty 
greujama, stemneee, eeverity 
guisansa, act of guiding 
iUitminansa, splendor, brilliancy, 

also given under en- 
importanta, importance 
jacianw, boaating 
lauroTisa, plowing of field 
liama, alliance 
liuranta, delivery; also doctrines {iurar, deUver 

or traditions 
longama, delay Umgar, remove 

lonkansa, postponement, defer- lonhar, remove 

majorama, majority' 
inalanansa, misfortune' 
maleetama, discomfort' 
manifeitansa, manifestation 
vtaridaTtta, marriage 
mdhmanea, improvement 
membrarwa, memory 

filar, trust 
galiar, decave 

gardar, keep 

gaianhar, gain 

gloriejar («e), glorify (oneaelf) 

gUrrifiar, glorify 

govemar, govern 

gravar. be burdensome, injure 

greujar, be hard on 

puizar, guide 

importar, matter 
jaetar, boast 
launtr, plow 
liar, bind 

mendigama, beggary 
meravelhania, marveling 
merceneiansa, pity 
mermanga, diminution 
mesdaiwa, dispute 
Tooderansa, moderation 
molheranaa, marriage 
montanea, elevation 

maTiifettar, manifest 
rnaridar, marry 
melhorar, improve 
membrm; remember 
mendtiKir, beg 
merauelhar, marvel 
mercenejar, have pity for 
mermar, diminish 
mesctoT, mix, confuse 
moderar, moderate 
mtAheraT, marry 
montar, mount 

I Majoransa seema to ehow another substitution of -ANSA tor 
-TAT. See amiitanta. 

■ Makmanta and mi^aUmta appear to be mat + anar -f aiaa aod mol + 
tttar+ama. Bitanaa eiiata alone but with a different kind of meaiiiDB: 
ee« hybrid formations, p. 579. to oords of this kind, bat and mai are 
treated aa words rather than as mere prefixes. 


Formation of Nouns 

nuMranta, demoiutratioD 

muranaa, foUy, thoughtlessoces 

nafrunia, wound, d&mage 

nomanaa, reputation 

nomenatii>anaa, minor, report 

Midanta, forgetfulness 

(Aran»a, work 

ondajua,'^ profit, advantage (?) 

OTtranta, honor 

ordenanaa, command, arrange- 

otTQ'anra, impurity, Boiling 
parcen^ma, participatioD 
pejonmvi, decline 
peruansa, thought, care 

pardoning; indul- 

moilToT, show 

Ttatfrar, wound 

Tumtenativar, nai 
Midar, forget 
obrar, work 

onrar, honor 
oretenor, order 

peHongansa, prolongation 
perpanmia, offer, presentation 
pialama,* pity, contdderation; 

pUndanta,* fulness 
poderama,* power 
pojanta, ascendancy 
jxnlania, bearing 
pnttanaa, loan 

pmanea, appreciation, esteem 
praenianaa, presentation 
prttieanta, preaching 
pncnanea, procreation 
pubUonia, publication 
pt^ania, see pojanta 
qmlania, discharge, quittance 

remonstrance, obeerva- 

orr^ar, soil 
pafcen^ar, participate 
p^OTM, decline, deteriorate 
pentar, think 
perdonar, pardon 

perUmgar, prolong 
perporar, offer, present 

pojar, rise 
porlar, bear 
preatar, lend 
prezar, priie 
prezenlaT, present 
preeicar, preach 
proarear, procreate 
pubjiar, publish 

qmiar, leave 

rtcordama, commemoration reeordar, record 

regaeerdananaa, recompense regaterdonar, recompense 

Ttmtmbranta, memory r«mem6rar, remember 

1 Ondanaa a probably amdanta with the lost of the prefix o*. 

'Piatanta probaUy shows a aubstitution of -ANSA for -TAT; 
Ke amUtanta, above. In the same way, picndorua appears to show a 
Ribstitution for -TAT in jitendat. Poderar as a dmide verb ii not found, 
thouib it eziB 



Mffuran«a, security, assurance se^rar, assure 

aetrAlanta, reaemblaoce semUar, seem 

»obTeia)ondan»a, superabundance tobrondar, superabound 

lonama, assonance, imperfect sonar, sound 

tarzanta, delay tarzor, delay 

tormertlansa, torment, suffering tormenlar, torment 

tTabuean»a, overturning, upset- tnAuear, upset 


Irianta, choice, distinction trior, choose 

utaTua, custom, usage uzar, use 

vanansa, boasting vanor, boast 

venjansa, vengeance uenjar, avenge 
venemblaTtta,' probability 

vojanta,^ emptying wgor, empty 

Under -ENSA, the following words are found: 

aparienen»a, appurtenance apartener, belong 

alendenga, waiting, delay alendre, wait 

amnema,' attraction, charm ai>enir, please 

be/atema,' charity 

ctAenaa, room, space caber, be conttuned in 

caleiua, care cafcr, care 

caienta, tall eaier, tall 

complanhenia, complaint complanheT, compltun 

concrezenm, concession, admission from conerezer, for cortcreire, 

grant, concede 
coMtrenaa,* constraint (legal term) 

' Renonumaa U aurely formed on the verb rather than the noun, 
although Ihe n of rem/mnar has disappeared. Cf. renomada and the 
Fr. renommfe. The losa of the n may be due lo Fr. influence. 

' Vereemblartia and ftti/aieMa ■ in- +»fm6(or 4-ENSA and 6e + 
/aier +-ENSA. Pee hybrid formations, p. 579. 

■ For the voivel in the stem of avineraa and cm/ineruia, aee Grand- 
Kent, art, 46, sec. 1. 

'A shortened form of coitrenJieiua from eottrenh^T 

t Also of Lat. oricia. aondama, abundance <(i6undaiili<i,' eontiranta, 
care<eon8irferan(ia,- erranso, error <nTan(Ki, listed in Cooper, 33; and 
tobranxt. sorerFignfj/KiiupeTanlia. 


Formation of Noums 

eorrerua, courae, flow 

emnetua,' stipulation 

ectensa, cooking 

ereienta, beliri 

detamoiiema, unfriendlinees (L), 
ingratitude (R) 

defcrexeJiea, unbelief 

dermarUenenta, ab&ndonmeat 

detobedieiua,' disobedience 

doletua, grief, chagrin 

duretna, hardness 

ensqfuenea, following 

enUndema, thought, opinion 

Meazerwa, heritage, inheritance 

tefiueiua,' outflow 

ttpaventa,' fear 

eBlendeitia, extension, expansion 

etUnenaa, reserve, abstinence 

falhema, lack, loss 

/ozensa, making; issuance, publi- 

fiorema,* A coin 

foienta, foUy 

tarenta, guaranty 

jaitensa,' usufruct, possession 

Uzema, allowance, permisdon 

locJenenso,' viceroyahip 

■ For the vowel in the stem of arinerua aad a/nnerua, »ee Grand- 

■ The simple ward obedienia ia of Lat. origio. 

' Formed by analogy with enftue7i»a with no verb intervemng. 

' There is no such verb as wjMcer in Pcov,, but txparire oiisted in 
Lat. and lormB of it still exist in aome dialects (see KdrtiDg, No. 3,44U) . 
One may have existed also in Prov. The simple fono paventa may bsve 
aided in the fonnation of etpatenia. 

■The word comes more directly, of course, from the proper nouD. 

•The only verb isjaurir. Cf., however, the O.Fr. jotr, joUsanl'mtnl, 
joiieMe. and the modern imiUiance. The word appears to be a bor- 
rowing from Pr., but in such case we should expect -ANSA instead of 

correr, run, flow 
awenir, agre« 

detconoiaer, not to know 

descrezer, disbelieve 
de»jytanlener, abandon 
detobetir, disobey 
doler, grieve 
durir, become hard 
emtffuir, follow 
entendre, understand 
excaier, fall due 

Mtendre, extend 
estentr, hold back 
falhir, f aU 
infinitive /ozer, instead ot faii 

florir, flourish 

folir, become foolish, crazy 

' See also hybrids, p. 579. 


126 Word-Formation in Provencal 

liaema, epleodor tuztr, ehine 

mantenenta,' mtuntenance manlener, mtuntain 
menmalensa,^ infeiior value, de- 

1, miefortune mescazer, injure 

aa, ignomnce, ingrati- meaeonoieer, not to know 

nonculerwa,* nonchtdance mmcoler 
jNMJfwrMO, communal forest (7), right 
of paeturiiig; see Du Cange's 
padventiae, under padmre 

paitenaa, right of pasturing paiser, pasture 

parUrua, cUviuon pariir, divide 

parvema,' appearance; conduct purer, appear 

perc^yeruia, inspiration, suggestion percebre, perceive 

pervenetua, revenue, perquisites pervenir, attain, belong 

pervczensa, perspicacity perveter, perceive 

pUaeaga, pleasure, amiability plater, please 

plevenaa, promise, guaranty plevir, pledge 
preconoisema,* foreknowledge 

promeUnta, promise prometre, promise 

reeonoisenta, recognition reconouer, recognise 

reruUnstt, care, attentjon rendre, render, give back 

requerenta, request, demand reqtierir, require, demand 

reaplandertia, re^lendence resplandre, shine, glitter 

liAensa, learning saber, know 

taxenaa, silence iaier, be silent 

Umtnsa, fear Umvr, fear 

lentnaa, possession, enjoyment tener, hold 

wttenwwa,' t scorn 

' See also hybridii, p. 67S. Nimoaler, an which TumcaiavKi is fonn^, 
is u«ed as a noun. 

■ The D in panen is ioaerted. according to Diei, 655, to distJnEuish 
it from paren, parent. Henoe also parceBta. 

■ pTeeonoitenia — PRE- -\-amoiKnta. See nominal prefiiea, p. 476. 

t Of Lat. origjn are aparenia and ereuietita (see Cooper, 34), deltn- 
QUCTua, (fepeTHferum. s.aA excdtata (seeOloott. 75), and ivdigttua, troueruo 
<see Cooper, 34), jmaaa, paventa, prelmtnerua, temenaa (Cooper, 36), 
(O/r^nM (RSnsch, 60; Cooper, 35), and wwlen«rua (RAnBch, 50). Jottnta, 
youth, is probably from *yur«aJ>dforyuKnfa<of.O.Fr.yi>uvene«}. Jtttenlta 
may have been formed on the model of adoletcentia. 


Formation of Nouns 

The Provencal suffix -AR seems generally to have 
developed out of the Latin adjective suffix -ARIS, found 
already in Latin used substantively, as in familiaris, an 
intimate friend, which became the ProvenQal familhar, 
friend, companion. The adjective used substantively 
seems sometimes to have taken the meaning of the nomi 
with which it was originally used, and to have lost all 
trace of its proper meaning. This is the case in anglar, 
bit of stone, from the phrase peira anglar; and in other 
cases, the substantive use of the adjective shows no 
change in meaning to have been contracted by the noun 
on which the adjective was originally formed, as in leon 
and leorutr, lion, pol^a and polgar, thumb. The list in 
which -AR represents the Latin adjective suffix -ARIS 

arvEiir, piece of rock 

/olffar, place grown with ferns 

/ofW, wood for hoope: Is rather 
difficult U) explain. There is a 
word falka, a fault, and also 
}aOta, a board-game, hat falhar 
does not appear to be formed 
on either of them. The cor- 
responding French word is 
feuillard, derived from feuUle.' 
The Provengal word seems 
also to be connected with the 
word for leaf— /ott. 

/oMT, family tomb 

lagremar, lachrymal gland 

leonor, Uon 

nwrendor, lunch 

anfftar, angular 

Tliere ia no word falga in Pro- 
vencal on which to form such 
a word aa foinar, although 
there ia a word falgviera, in 
which the ending represents 
the suffix -ARlUM.i Foijwr 
looks like another form of the 
same word. 

fota, ditch 
(ajrema, tear 
leon, lion 
tnertnda, lunch 

I See KQrtins, No. 3.7i5, filicaria ifilix, fern, plus -ARIA). 
> See Die. Otn. under ftaiUard. 


128 Word-Formation in Provencal 

milhar, field of millet mUh, millet 

molinaT, place fit for building wurfin, mill 

niilb, or oae having milb 
mogdar, fishhook mofda (more commonly nosda), 

ptdhar, sweepings, straw-eupply' t paVta, straw 

Another source from which -AR is derived is the 
suiBx -ARE, the neuter form of -ARIS, akeady used 
substantively in Latin, as in altare. It seems to be used 
to denote objects of dress. 

eipaular, shoulder-piece espaula, shoulder 

0olar,tt neckpiece gota, throat 

-AR is found also in a few words in which it represents 
simply the infinitive ending of the verb of the first con- 
jugation. These nouns are nothir^ but these infinitives 
used substantively.* Such words are: 

txmlar, hymn fdenar, anger fostar, lunch 

' See also aoilns from verbs, p. 548. 

t Other words of Lat. oiiciii are cu;o''>r, hut; wooded plaiiu, an obscure 
word which Thomas derivee from cubiolarit (Noiiv. Ett., 228); famiihar. 
friend. 8ervBnt< /amiliaru; joglar. " jongleur" <jocu^rig,' Undar. thresh- 
hold<(tmifaru,* mdat. large vessel for QiKmdfiirium,- peear, pitaher< 
picarium; pediOiar, pole (also peztOtar, hinge, pivot, pole) < 'jiedtcu/iim; 
pobotar, lower ctaases, people<popuii™,- and polgar, Uiumb<iioUtcori«. 
Mdar is peculiar in ita development of meaning. Mellariut meSDt "pec- 
taiding to honey" in Class. Lat., and the neuter metiarium meant "bee- 
hive." la Du Cange the latter is found with the meaning of vesael in 
whieh honey is kept or wine is placed. Then, in Prov., instead of wine, 
the mcUarium seems to have been used for oil. PedHhor and paelkar are 
also interesting. Both probably come from a Lat. pedicularie, which 
could mean "pertaining to a small foot or to a louse" (pedicuiiu meaning 
both small foot and louse, and peollt from peducului having the latter 
meaning in Prov.). Ptdilhar and pexdhar seem to come from pedieularit 
with the former meaning, though the precise development of meaning is 

^iColar. collar (Meyer-Lfibke, II. 550). luminar (KSrtJng, No. 5.729), 
and toUar. shoe, are Lat. 


Formation of Nouns 129 

The Provengal -AR apparently comes also from 
-ARIUS, and is fomid in some learned formations instead 
of the more usual ending -lER. Thus, 

And representing -ARIUM, -AR is found in; 
cfMdaT,' CBstle, stronghold 
eputolar, collection of letters 

' See words in -AKI also, note 2 below. 

■ There ia also a word catlar, whicli ia at first puisliitg, as Raynouard 
(II, 353) gives examples sbowiiis the meaninK to be different from that 
or auttl. It meant apparently a stronghold belongiiiK to a castle, and 
is an example of an adjective uaed sutwtanlively. It is a phonetic devel- 
opment of oMteUoru uninfluenced by the simple word auteUum {Nout. 
En., 229 for mylor bedde ciuleiar). See also ctulan, beaide aulelan. 

In learned vorda. however, a more usual terminatioD than -AR for 
worde from -ARIUS and -ARIUM waa -ARI. These words are all Lat. 
formations: armari, closet; bettiari, bestiary; brenari. breviary; caTtotari, 
carter; eompromuort, arbitrator; conrsion, head cook; omtrarv, enemy, 
injuiy; datari, necrology (that ia, date-book in which dates of deaths 
are noted. See Du Cange, dalartum); deiman, tithing; Aeima, tithe 
(denna, tenth) ; denari, folly, eitravagance ; doari. dowry (also written 
doairti); donatari, recipient of gift; erbolort, herbal, also herbalist, botanist; 
eieaperloH, acapulaiy; faUari, falsifier; imnan*, hymnal; incetuiiari, 
incendiary; leudari, district in whieb "leuda" is raised; leuda, tax; 
tibran, bookshelf or library; mandatari, book in which the order of 
divine offices is laid down ; ordenaH. usual following of a lord ; ordinary 
judge; peaari, pessary; procenonari, processional; propriari, owner, pos- 
sessor; queationari, Bieoutioaer; wsftort, vestiary. 

And from -ERIUM: ftaptistm, baptistry; eimiieri. cemetery icritteri, 

And from -ORIUM: ticriplon, scriptorium (the popular develop- 
ment of -ARIUM [-ERIUM] and -ORIUM with the Prov. wotda formed 
by means of them will be found under the headings -lER aod -OIRA) ; 
ponolori, theft; poiaori, possession; real estate; predicalori, pulpit; 
preparotori, preparation; proatralori, power of attorney. 


130 Word-Formation in Provencal 


The suifix -ARIa was formed by attaching the suffix 
-lA (which will be treated later') to words already ending 
in -ARIU.' -lA was added to nouns and to adjectives 
to form abstracts generally: -ARIA is added to the same 
parts of speech, but especially to nouns, to designate the 
place in which the object denoted by the simple noun could 
be found in abundance, or was sold. This is its most 
important function, but by no means its only one; for it 
seems to denote certwn offices or trades (camararia, 
celararia, polaria, etc.), and also (as in moUnaria) a cer- 
tain feudal right. In eatcAlaria, fermansaria, etc., there 
is no change in meaning from that of the simple noim, and 
a number of words have abstract force. A difficulty 
in dealing with this suffix occurs in such words as •parlaria, 
where the suffix appears to be joined to verbs to form 
abstract nouns, which was one of the functions of -lA. 
As it seems hardly likely that -lA, which formed abstracts 
on verb-stems in such words as partia, should be joined 
also to the full form of the infinitive,* words like parlaria 
will be treated as being formed by adding -ARIA to verb- 
stems. The abstracts with the ending -ARIA appear to 
be formed in this way.* 

In the first list will be given the words in which -ARIA 
is added to nouns; in the second, the ones in which 
the addition may have been to verb or noun; then the 

' Pp. 201-8. 

■ The perfectly phonetic development of the combination of the two 
Butfiies would be -AIRIA, which is also found. 

' No words are ever tonned od the full form of the infinitive, but 
always on the B(«m. The "ar" of pariaria is clearly a part of the Com- 
pound BuBix -ARIA. 

• This ia certainly the case. -ARIA is thoueht of as a single suffix, 
and not as oriEinally a compound in which the suffix -IA was added only 
to wolds in -ARIUS. See Etaais, 183-34. 



formations on verbs; and then the adjective ones, after 
which some words ending in -AIRIA will be treated. 
'ARIA added to nouns: 

almonaria, office of almoner 
ahidaria, taimery 


barbaria, barbei'^bop 

UUona, Ubrary 

bladaria, corn-market 

boaria, alao boria, ox-8taU; slso 

metairie, th&t is, "a small 

farm whoee produce pays the 

rent." The first meaning 

aeems closer to the umple noun 

bou, ox; but the other meaning 

also could be derived from it 
eabanaria, property eobarta, cabin 

cabntria, herd of goats cobra, goat 

oomoraria, office of chamberlwi eanbra, room 
etutUaria, cavalry; also knightly aufal, horse 

odaniria,' office of cellarer 
eoirataria,' tannery 

almona, alms 
cduda, a kind of sldn 
(flmbaeh<and>aetut, not found, 

though there are still other 

derived words) 
barba, beard 
bibla, bible 
blal, wheat 

edar, cellar from cda, cellar 
(eoirat is not to be found, though 

there is coirier, etc.) 

correja, strap 

drop, cloth 

droga, drug 

dnit, lover 

000, mare 

erha, herb 

eoTTQaria, strapshop 
draparia, dry-goods 
drogaria, drugstore 
drudaria, gallantry 
epirto, troop of horses 
erboria, herb-market 
erbolorta,' v^etable-market 
tKudmia,'' squirehood, i.e., novi^ 
tiateof knight <Mcudt«r, squire, 

■ Bee douUe suffixes, pp. 383 and 395. As for oMaria, erbot is not 
found, but kerbcUriuM, guardian of the herbs, and herbolatira, pastry, are 
in Du Conce. 'Erboia, from the Lat. Kerimta, must have once existed. 

' Clearly the word on which eicudaria is formed is eicvdier, knight, 
and not ttail. ahidd, yet we have -ARIA and not -AIRIA. though -AIR 
is regularly fitund tor -ARIUS plus other suffixes, as seen in -AIRADA, 
-AlBAL. -AIRON, ete. 



Word-Formation in Provencal 

wpeciaria, spice-shop 

etlablaria, stable 

fabraria, amithy 

facharia, lesaebold estate 

faionaria, tolly {fatonia, faUmier, 
also found) 

fermansaria,' eecurity, bail 

ferralaria,^ iroawork 

fitamaria,^ security, bail 

fogaria, hearth, chimney 

formaljaTia,' cheese buainess 

fomaljaria.^ Levy pvea the word 
without meaning. It appears 
from his ex&mple to mean some- 
thing like baking-rights, from 
fomatje. from fom, oven 

fomaria, place where ovena are 

forraria, office of quartennaster 

frucharia, fruit-market 
gaferaria,' hospital for lepers 
galaria,' gallery 
pranataria,' granary 
judidaria, judicial service 
lanaaaria,* wool-factory 
loctentmaria,' deputyship 
logadaria* letting, lease 
moTijKmario, hardware 
tnaomaria, mosque 
marrelaria, churchwardenship 
mercadaria, merchandise; bum- 

eipeeia, apice 
ettable, stable 
/obre, smith 
facha, property 
(falon from /of, fool) 

fermawa, security, bail 
/errat, iron ptul 
fiiajua, security, bail 

furrier, quartermaster, cf . forma- 
tion of esrmdaTia above 
fnieh, fruit 
gqfd, leper 

i*gTanat) from gran, grun 
judici, judgment 
(•ionos) from lana, wool 
loctenenta, deputyship 
logada, rent 
ntangon, a copper coin 
maom, Mahomet (?) 
manelier, churchwarden 
mercat, market 

jnerU {mers), merchandise 
mesaljaria* misfflon meeatge, message 

mezelaria, hospital for lepers; lep- meid, leper 

■ See double suffixes, pp. 3S3-S4. 
' See Du Cange, O'ifi'ria. 

• Probably not a Prov. formation. According to Kdrttog the origin 
of the word is a Lat. *calaria. According to Diez. it is the Gr. yaXg. 

• See double auffiiea, pp. 395, 401, aod 393, n. t 
' See hybrid formations, p. 579. 


Formation of Noons 

milharia, milletr-market (?) 
otjaria,' grain business; gTain- 

oslakaia, hotel 

poiroiaria, trade of tinker C 

panataria,^ bakery 
pareenaria,' common property 
patHaaria, pastry 
peiraria, stone pile 
peiwnaria, fish business 
pelharia, furriery 
penchuraria, ptunting 
perlaria, pearls 
persmtaria, deputyship 
piihardaria, pillage 
pinlaria, making of "pintas" 
podeitaria, office of "podestat" 
potaria, poultry business 
poTcaria, pigsty 
porUtria, ofBce of gatekeeper 
preveiToria, priesthood 
puiaria, prostitution 
Tibaudaria, ribaldry 
Tomaria, pilgrimage 
sabalaria, shoeahop 
torroViaria,' sorcery 
ufanaria,\ self-sufficiency 

tnilh, millet 
orgier, grain-dealer 

o«taZ, hotel 
pairoJ, kettle 

panel, small piece 

pareenier, sharer 

pastit, pie, pastry 

peira, stone 

peinon, fish 

pelh, akin, pelt 

penchwra, painting 

perta, pearl 

pertona, person (of consequence) 

pSharl, trooper, servant 

piida, vessel for wine 

podesta{t), powerful lord 

pol, chicken 

pore, pig 

porta, gate 

preveiri, priest 

puta, prostitute 

Tibaul, ribald 

AoTia, Rome 

aabaUt, shoe 

vfana, arrogance 

The followii^ list contains words whose formation is 
not quite so clear as those in the preceding list, since, 

' No simple word found. Fonaria. mamtaria, orjaria, and parce- 
naria seem to be formed on the correaponding words ending in -lER. 
See acudaria, above. A simple word 'orge may have existed. Cf. the 

■ See double suffixes, p. 3SS. 

' There is no word oq which lonvlharia could be directly based. It 
looks like a mistake for aort^haria, cooaected with toriilkier, sorcerer. 

t An obscure word both in f ono and meanine ia einnlaria. Folataria 
U also obscure, but may not exist at all. or may be incurToct for foUtaria. 
Another word beside which no simple form is found is quinquUkaria, 
hardware. Cf. the Fr. guincailierit beside quincaille. 



Word-Formation in Provencal 

although there is in every case a noun od which they 
might have been built, there is also a verb, as for example 
in fusiaria, carpentry, beside which exist the words /iwi, 
wood, and/tMtar, to repair (woodwork). There exist also 
words which must have been formed on verb-stems, and 
these will be reserved for the succeeding list. The source 
of the words in the int«rmediate list, however, noun or 
verb, it is impossible to state with any certainty, though in 
most cases it seems probable that the noun was the base 
of the compound. In a few cases, as in enfermaria, 
fermaria, and lecaria, instead of the noun it is the adjec- 
tives enferm, ferm, and lee which may have been at the 

Words with a noun (adjective) or verb at the base: 

bamtaria, trafficking, bugfuning bamla, baigain, and baraUtr, 

eUaaria, tKastuyahip; treaeury dau, key, and elaiiar, lock 

eomandaria, sway, command eomanda and eomandar, com- 

detmaria, tithing desma, tenth; desmar, tithe 

diirirtaria, soothsaying divin, eoothsayer, and durinar, 

eisartaria, bit of land made arable ei»art, grubbing, and euarlar, 

make arable 

encarUaria, sorcery 
enfermaria, hospital 

fackilharia, sorcery 
fermaria, fortress 

for»enaria,' fury 

fuaUtria, carpentry 

gtAaria, mockery; also chatter 

ffaljaria, pledge 

encan(f) and encaniar, charm 
enferm, ill, and enfermar, 

make ill 
fackilha and faekUhar, charm 
ferm, firm, and fermar, abut in 
forten, madness, and forsenar, 

fuel, wood, and/uilor, repur 
gab, joke, and gabar, mock 
gatje, pledge, and galjar, pledge 

" See p. 137. 

■ Two words plus suffix. See hybrid formations, p. fi7S. 


Formation of Nouns 


jitnaia, office o£ "jurat" 
jvtjaria, office of judge 

laiaetiiana, flattery 

Uatria, dunties 

I, masonry 

meitadaria, rent amounting to 

half of the produce 
m^'aria, rent conuBting of half 

the produce of a farm 
mercandaria, merchandiae 

motiTiaria, right of grinding 

gaianh, land under cultivation, 

and gaianhaT, plow 
JUT, oalb, and juror, swear 
jittge, judge, and jutjar, to 

lauferya, flatteiy, and laiueryar, 

lee, dainty, and tecor, lick 
maton, mason, and matonttr, 

waU up 
meitat, half, and meUadar, halve 

meg, half 

mtrean, merchant, and mercan- 

dar, do buMness 
molin, mill, and molinar, grind 
Titotuda, coin, and monedar, to 

nota, mark, and nofor, note 


-AIRIA, below 
ptO^aria, toll peatge, toll, and peo^'or, collect 

■penaienaaria,^ penitent pen»itnta, penance, and pene- 

deniar, do penance 
petearia, fishing peaea and pescar, fish 

ponch{a) and poncAur, point 
prec, prayer, and prtgar, pray 
sobraRW, domination, and m)- 

brantar, subjugate (?) (R) 
Uneha and lenehar, dye 

Theo come the words which must have been built on 
verb-Btema, if the idea of the addition of -ARIA and not 
-lA be granted, as there is no noun on which they could 
be formed. Flataria, for example, must have been 
formed by adding the suffix -ARIA to the stem fiai- 

1 An UDUBual meaoiiiB for thie suffix — that of a person, the agent of 
an action. Levy lists the word as feininine. It looks as though the Lat. 
-ARIA had come down to Prov. UDchanged. the word being lesmed. 

I, pomtmg 
I, prayer 
tobnmsaria, boasting 

(CncAoria, dyeehop 



of the verb fiatar. The list is as follows and contains 

mostly abstracts:' 

tMOTJaria, place tor flaying eicorjar, flay 

ftataria, flattery fl/Uar, flatter 

fretaria, rubbing fretar, rub 

leujaria, levity, frivolity teujor, listen 

manjario, victuala, food manjar, eat 

mejaTaaria, partition m^angar, mediate 

menuzaria* carpentry mtnuair, diminish 

pagaria, payment pagar, pay 

parari/i, fulling-room; fuUii^ parar, prepare 

parlaria, chattering; foolish calls parlor, apeak 

(also -AIRIA) 

pOAaria, pillage pOMr, plunder 

•j^idaria, lawsuit, quarrel pUndar, go to law 

jAaidejaHa, lawsuit, quan«l plaidejar, go to law 

raybaria, robbery raubar, rob 

tuaria, slaughter fuar, kill 

In giving the second list,' several words (as enfermaria, 
fermaria, lecaria) were mentioned which might have either 
adjectives or verbs at their base. In such a word as 
fermaria, fortress, for example, we find two possible 
sources, the adjective /erm, strong, and the stem of fermar, 
to shut in. If any starting-point is necessary for the adding 
of -ARIA to a verb-stem, it seems possible to find it in 
this word fermaria. Probably with the original meaning 
of a strong place, from ferm, it could have been later 
associated with the verb fermar, to shut in. Then, like so 

■ It seems likely that the abstract words in the precedins list — 
baralaria, encantaria, lachWtaria. fxaUtria. laiuenjaria, etc. — were formed 
on verb-atema, the fact of the noun's eiiatcnoe beside the verb being 
only accidental. With only a few eicDptions. such as eaairiaria, where no 
noun is found, a rule might be given that abstracts were formed on rerb- 
Btems, and nouna denoting place, office, and collectives on nouns. In the 
few cases where the nouns apparently formed on nouns have abstract 

ly there not have eiisted a verb which is not found in our teits ? 
' Probably not derived directly from this verb, but from nwnimer, 
imidaria from facurfier. See p. 131. n. 2, above. 

■ P. 134. 


Formation op Nouns 137 

many of the suffixes added to verb-stems (-AMEN, -ANSA, 
etc), it was used almost entirely in forming abstracts. 
The list of words with adjectives at their base follows: 

enfermaria, hospital enferm, ill 

fermaria, (ortreas ferm, strong 

lecaria, dainties tec, dainty 

malaudaria, hospital TnalaiU, ill 

meieharUaria, badness meUhan{t), bad 

menudariat, trifles menut, small 

Most of these words have been mentioned in a previous 

One word seems to be formed by adding -ARIA to a 
preposition :' 
conlraria, opposition, obstacle contra, against 

Besides all of the words just given under -ARIA, there 
are several other words ending instead in -AIRIA, which 
appears to be only another development of the compound 
suffix -ARIU plus -lA, and, indeed, a rather more r^ular 
one.' Though -ARIUS generally became -lER in Pro- 
' pp. 134-35. 

' This formatioD, howevar, probably is only apparent. The word 
is probably cannected vith eonlrariut or eoniraria, the femimnc form. 
Thu accentuatioii of the word is difficult to determine from the exampleB. 
Cf. Ihe O.Fr. amCraire. 

I The twin forms -ARtA and -AIRIa are rather difficult to explaiD. 
The combination of -ARIU- plus -lA is found in moat of the Romance 
languages and Mems therefore to have been formed early and to have 
been of frequent use, although not mentioned by either Cooper or Olcott. 
both o( whom seem to ignore double auffiies. The development should 
properly be -AIRIA (cf. -AIRADA, etc.), but for some reason not 
lierfeetly clear we generally find -ARIA instead. The change in form 
niay have been duo to the analogy of the large number of suffixes 
added to verb-slema — ARIA oft«n has this appearance also — having a 
as the slem-vowel, on account of which -ARIA instead of -lA was prob- 
ably taken for the suffix. This theory would likewise account for the 
Sp. -ARIA, which is also peculiar in form. -ARIUS giving -ERO. The 
whole subject seems uncertain, however. -ARIA cannot, however, have 
come about like the Fr. -ERIE (-IE attached to -ER, the unaccented 
form of -IER),as-AIRi8 itself the form in use when unaccented. -AIRIA 
it aporadieally found, possibly helped by the persistence of corresponding 
forms ending in -lER. See above list, corratier, etc. 



venial, -lER is not its phonetic development; this should 
rather be -AIR, which is found, indeed, in a few words, 
as doaireKdolarium, fruchaire< frucluarium, and more 
especially in the cases in which another suffix was attached 
to -ARIU, Thus we have many words ending in such 
compound suffixes as -AIRADA, -AIRAL, -AIRON, etc. 
Under -AIRIA we find: 
beMdairia, dninkeimesB benenda, drink 

borddairia, libertinage bordd, dieraputable house 

eorratoiria,' brokerahip corralier, broker 

eretentaaia,' surety, bail ereeetua, surety 

diablairia, devUtry diable, devil 

ebriairia, drunkenneaa , ebri, drunk 

juraUtiria, college of " jurata" jura(, "jural" 

leudairia, custom-house leuda, a tax 

pardhairia, asaociation parelha, couple 

-ERIA also, which appears to be only another variation 
of the suffix -ARIA, is found in three words:" 
arravberia, robbery arraubar, rob 

/ranqaeria, land exempt from franc, tree 

polattria, poultry-market polaix, chicken 

-ART (-ARDa) 

There are several nouns ending in -ART, but the more 
common use of the suffix was to form adjectives. Coming 
from a Germanic -ARD or -HARD, found at first only in 
proper names, such as Adalhard, and meaning originally 
"hard," it became detached to be used as a regular suffix, 

1 No Hinple word. 9ee double suffiies, p. 305. 

> See double suffixes, p. 384. 

■These seem to be the only examples ia irhich -ERfA is found, and 
it is to be Doted that the first two are G< 
came in (hrouch Frujce, u\d the « ioi 


FoBUATioN OP Nouns 139 

serving to form adjectives on nouns, the proper names 
from which th« suffix was detached possibly having come 
to be regarded as words denoting the dominant char- 
acteristics of the persons whom they named. Then, in 
many words, the suffix took on depreciative force. Later, 
it was also added to the stems of verba denoting action, 
forming adjectives in all of these words. Most of the 
nouns endii^ in -ART appear to be only adjectives used 
substantively. -ART is found added to nouns in : 

borinrt,' bastard ba«l, pack-«sddle 

eoUtart, stallion colk, testicle 

jacomart, clapper in bells on jae(o)me, James 

steeples (in the fonn of the 

figure of a man armed ivith a 

hammer). ■ 

palharl (see also the feminine polha, straw , 

form, -ARDA, (pven below), 

poor man; rogue 
ptnart,* pheasant pena, feather, quill 

ptnart,' double-edged knife pena, feather 

iolart,' sun sol, sua 

The suffix is added to adjectives in: 

baiarl, bay horse 
pelhart, old man 

bai, bay 

and to verbs in:' 

miuart, loiterer, dawdler 

miaar, gape, dawdle 

> The connection between haslart and bast is not clear at first aicht. 
ROrting, No. 1.2flS, explaiiiB the word battart ax a child conceived on a 
pack-asddle. that is, the offspriDg of a runaway match. In the Die. 
Gen., the word is explained by the relatione of muleteers or pack-snddle 
men with maidn at inns. 

■ The connection between penart and pena seems, in the one case, 
to be due to the loni feathers of the pheasant, and in the other, in the 
use of this kind of knife in cuttins quills. 

■ Solart is peculiar in showing no change of meaning from that of 
the ninple word. It is omitted in the little Levy, and RayDOuard'i 
Quotation is too short to do much with. 


140 Word-Formation in Provencal 

pendart, hangmaa pendre, hong 

petaH, petard petar,' burst 

piUuni,'^ trooper, servant pilhar, steal 

The feminine form -ARDA is seen in: 

galkania, a coin (the feminine of 
the adjective gidhart used sub- 
stantively). See adjectives 

palharda, prostitute. See pcd- palha, straw 
hart, above 

The Provencal endings -AS and -ASA are generally 
derived from the Latin suffixes -ACEUS, -ACEA, but, as 
in so many other cases, there are many words ending in 
-AS and -ASA which cannot represent these Latin suffixes, 
and therefore have to be dealt with separately. Most of 
the words in -AS and -ASA appear to be Provencal forma- 
tions, focaceam>fogasa, buttered roll (French, fouasse; 
It&li&n, focacda; Spanish, kogaza), being the only word 
given by Meyer-Liibke* aa Latin, although perhaps 
*cannfAaceum > canabas (Italian, canavacdo; Spanish, 
caHamazo) may be assumed. The suffix gave an idea of 
quantity to the simple word, or greatness in size, and 
then depreciative force. 

, find Raynouard's 

IB probaUy due to the thievish 
troopers aad servants. 
> II, 503. 

tOther words in -ART are triroart, a kind of cloth; esltbarC, steward; 
LoiAart, Lorabaid, and mtnAiirt, afFect«d person. Biroari is obscure, 
citibarl is entirely of Germanic origin, and in Lombart the sufBi is only 
apparent. In minhart the stem is uncertab, but we have -ART, pos«bty 

Bubstiluled for -OT. See minhot. 


Formation op Nouns 141 

The words in -AS representing -ACEUS with this aug- 
mentative (or depreciative) force are as follows: 

eanaibat, hempen cloth eanebe, hemp 

canas, larffi dog can, dog 

duAUu, large hateful devil diable, devil 

ermas, unplowed land erm, deaert 

fedat, herd feda, sheep 

gaUiku,' garret, attic Galata, Galata (a tower in Con- 

goTJaa, lai^ throat Qooa, throat 

gnuias, aandbank grava, shore 

maiufiruu, large mastiff mauatin, mastifT 

tnerdas, blockguajd nierda, dung 
nerlae, place where myrtles nerla, myrtle 


puUot, sweepings palha, straw 

sacat, large sack »ac, sack 

«aJat,*t sieve »eda, silk 

There are also two words that are apparently formed on 

erebas, crevice; see also cr^mxa crebar, crack, pierce 
juaiifftM, ghetto (see Ea»ais, 114) jtuaigar, be a Jew; juduze 

' ProbaUy a borrowing from Fr.. as i 
EuBtache Deschamps, and aa the one Prov. e 
the end of the fifteenth century. 

■ Cf. the Fr. mt. Possibly both words are from a Lst. Klacium. 

t There ia also a word of Lat. oriftln, pnjaa, trifle, from pitaceum. the 
late Lat. form of piOaeeum. Cf. the Sp. pedato. 

There are also several words ending in -as in which these letters do 
not represent -ACEUS at all, and have not its augmentative or depre- 
ciative force. Such words are cabas, /emorai. /erUu, ferritu, ipocriu, 
mofa&M. and maJroa. They will be treated individually: 

eaba», basket, has probably not the auffii -ACEUS. The word 
appears to be due to a substantive use of the adjective capai. cajmcem, 
hecoming cabat, just as jmcem became pat as well as pais and pott, 

fanorat, manure-pile, is a complete pu>ile as regards its ending. 
The word is also written femeraa and fomerat, and is evidently formed 
on the simple word /<nn. Theawould at 6rst sight appear to be the plural s 
added to Jem plus the suffix -ERA; but Raynouard's example (111,301) 


142 Word-Formation in Provencal 

The words in -ASA from -ACEA seem generally to 
have had the same augmentative force as the words in -AS, 
although sometimes this idea is not quite so obvious. The 
list follows: 

boTuua,^ calm at sea 

ixm, good 

eamaaa, much fleeh or dead 

com, fleah 


c(ara3a, pile (of wood) 

eatre ( 7), car 

coaaa, plait of h^, pigt^l 

aw, tail 

coirata, breastplate 

euer, cor, leather 


conh, wedge 

eapinata, bramble-bush {?), i.e. 

etpina, thorn 

place grown with thorns 

fernua, fire-ahovel 

ferra, iron trimming 

/ila, thread 

golasa, large mouth 

?o^, throat 

gotasa, gout 

ffoto, drop 

grimaaa, grimace 

grima, eadaess 

Jornada, day's journey 


f See double suffixes, p. 3S3. 

has 1 femorag, sod Lev}''a eiamplea (111, 433) also clearly prove it to 
be singular. The -AS appears to be the suffix -ACEUS added to /emor, 
a form built od ftmut through its liaving chaoged its inflection because ol 
the aualogj- of itercut, aiercorw f Femor is not found, although fenwre- 
JOT is. Femoriu might be a bad spelling for femeraa. of course (-ERAS ' 
-ARIUM -t-ACEUS). but that would be unlike the usual development 
of -.\ItIUS in combinations {eapairon. denairal, figairada, mfrcadairri, 

feriai, holidays, seems to be the only Lat. word feriae (ace. /mas) 
borrowed in Prov. 

ferrias, bars for hanging pothooks, appears to be the Prov. form of 
the Lat. adjective Serreut. of iron, used in the accusative plural. The 
noun (meaning bars) with which it must have been regularly used 
has disappeared, and the adjective now has the meaning of the lost 

ipocTos, a sweetened drink made of roots, is due to a mediaeval 
deformation of the name of Hippocrates, to whom the drink was attrib- 
uted. See Die. Gen. under hypocras. 

malalat. mattress, and mafrai. javelin, have not the suffix -ACEUS. 
Matraa is of Uncertain origin. 



palhata, litter, stubble patha, straw 

pigata, boai^pear jrU, picktuc 

pj)uua,t pinnace ■pin, pine 

One word appears to be formed on a verb : 
liata, bundle (of. French WuBe) liar, bind 
although it may be Uazon{< ligationem) with a change 
of sufBx that is represented. 

With the suffixes -AS and -ASA from -ACEUS, -ACEA 
may be given -IS and -ISA as coming from -ICIUS, 
-ICIA. The masculine form -IS is rarely found in 
Proven5al, brodis, border, edge, mestis, half-breed, pastu, 
paste, and paUa, fine shoe, seeming to be the only examples 
of it. All of these words, however, may have been origi- 
nally adjectives, in which use the suffix is not uncommon. 
For example, meslis probably represents mixtidua,^ 
of mixed breed, and is merely a substantive use of it; 
postis is probably derived from pa^idua, an adjective 
derived from 'paaUi, paste; brodis, border, ei^e, may come 
from hordo, shore, though the word is not perfectly clear; 
and paUa is obscure. 

The feminine form -ISA<-ICIA is not so unusual, 
and is found in: 

colmua, hedge calm,' heath, uncultivated land 

fraekiaa, joint fractui, fracture 

polisa, palisade, paling pal, stake 

' Lot. (see Goeli«r, 143), and formed on a veib. 
• See Bsmit, 13, note: aUo Levy, I, 189. 

t CrAata, crevice, etccua, crutch, and Utnow, slug, also are found, 
but are probably not Prov. formations. For crebaia, cf. the Fr, criixuie. 
For eteata. Bee Du CaDge's eiekagsa, Limata is probably from 'limacta. 
For correBpODdins vords in other laneuages. see KGrting. No. 5,598, and 
Dira, 197. 



pelis,!. peliaee 

pel, skin 

planUa, esplanade 

pion, plain 

*ebisa,1 hedge 

Sep, hedge 

As is the case with -ITZ,' also from -ICIUS, -IS and 
-ISA have no very well-defined force, although in some 
words diminutive force may be seen. The forms -IS 
and -ITZ appear to be really the same suffix, both repre- 
senting the Latin -ICIUS. When this suffix comes at the 
end of words, as in the masculine forms, -ITZ is rather 
more usual than -IS; within words, -ISA, or a instead of tz, 
is always found. The forms -ATZ and -ITZ, being of 
the same origin as -AS and -IS, will, therefore, now be 


The suffixes -ATZ, -ETZ, -ITZ, -UTZ will be treated 
together here as a group. Of these, -ATZ is fairly com- 
mon; -ITZ also is found in several words; -ETZ is very 
rare; -UTZ, although found in several words, does not 
appear to be a true suffix. As with the suffixes -AS and 
-IS, the source of -ATZ and -ITZ appears to be -ACEUS, 
-ICIUS. In force, the suffix -ATZ appears to be both 

' See the lists immediately following. 

t A Dumber of other words in -ISA, mostly oF Lat. origin, but at 
Bny rate not Prov. fonuationE. should also be meolioned: coriia, snuffling, 
probably through some lost Lat. form, from the Gr. x'P^t^ i"^^- ^^■ 
corizia) : geniea, young heifer, from junicia for junix. shoning the adjec- 
tive (orce that the suflixbad originally; iaironMa, theft, is from tatronida. 
for tofronnium, showing a metatbeais and a change of gender; matriaa ( 7], 
midwife, from malTida, ao adjective derived from matrix ( ?) ; orredUa, 
filth, excrements, from 'horridicia (?), derived from horrUius; ponuo 
(also paniU), panic — grass, from panicia for pantca; podisa, receipt, 
from apoditsa, apodira, (see these words in Du Cange). Most of these 
words, as i/eniaa, malrita. onediaa. and panisa. seem to hai'e been origi- 
nally adjectives. FrofelUa. prophetess, has probably not -ICIUS at all, 
but -ISSA, which rcgulariy became -ESA. 


Formation op Nouns 

lowing words joined to nouns: 

aeclaUi, epUater 

aada, splinter 

atUlatz,^ log, stump 

a»tda, eplint from asta 

eabataU, large basket 

coIku, basket 

eorsegaU, large, hateful body 

eorg, body 

ettopati, linen, tow 

eatopa, tow 

eoeieau, bad bishop 

evMc, bishop 

ferrtili, pail 

fer, iron 

ffiewte, bad clod 

ptewi, glebe 

V«gft*, pitch-calce 

peifa. pitch 

piojatz, heavy nun 

ptoja, rain 

jwtete.t young chickon 

poi, chicken 

-ETZ seems to exist only In cabeU, collar, throat, from 
cap, head, but -ETZ here may possibly represent -iTIUS, 
instead of -ICIUS, and it is probably not a Provencal 

-ITZ* representing -ICIUS is found added to nouns id a 
few words, with perhaps no very well-defined force, 
though probably augmentative: 
etporUtz, kind of basket e»porta, wallet 

goliti { ?), drain ( ?) gola, drop 

pelitt, kind of poor wool pel, skin 

poitiU, ft door posta, plank 

-UTZ is found In three words of more or less doubt- 
ful origin, so that the existence of -UCEUS here is not 
sure in any case. 

aven^Uz, ebony-tree: This appears to be derived from 
the Latin ebenus, coming through the Old French form 
■ See double niffiies, p. 382. 

' For -ITZ ID the combiuationa -ADITZ, -EDITZ. see these suffixes. 
t Of Lat. origin there it lAfrUz, aenac of sniell. from eHJaciut ( ?), 

ttOf Lat. origin there is celiU. hair shirt, from cUicium; naritz, nose, 
from ruirtctus, derived from narii; and noiriU, young of an aoitnal, from 
nutricitu, derived from nulrix. Pattiti has already been treated as patlia 
under -IS, end jnniit under the feminine form paniaa. the two forms 
maluiis tolerably dear the original use an adjective. 


146 Word-Formation in Provencal 

benus. This is the way in which Meyer-Liibke explains 
the Spanish abenuz.^ 

eslruz seems to represent struOiio. 

glandutz, acom, from glan(t), acorn, in which the 
BuiHx makes no change in the meaning of the word. 

The true Provencal suffixes in the above groups are 
-AS, -ASA, and -ATZ; -IS, -ISA, and -ITZ, which are 
all derived from -ACEUS, -ACEA and -ICIUS, -ICIA. 
-ICIUS and -UCEUS are by no means certain in Provenyal. 

There are several words in Provencal with the ending 
-ASTRE, most of which seem to be derived from the Latin 
-ASTER, as seen in ■patraster. Provencal has the de- 
scendant of this word in ■pairaaire, and also the following 

fakattre, dckle-shaped knife. 
The nmple word here is /<de, 
faus. This looks, theo, like an- 
other Latin formation. Com- 
pare the Italian fakailro. 
filhastre, stepdaughter filha, daughter 

/(rfiMire, fool (from fol, tool 1?]). 
Oii^ally used as an adjective, 
however {cf. French foldtre), 
meaning "foolish," and prob- 
ably formed on the adjective 
fol. The word appears to be a 
substantive use of the adjective. 
maiTOilre,} stepmother maire, mother 

The sufHx when added to nouns is thus depreciative. 
There is also one other word with the ending -ASTRE 
which is somewhat puzzling. This is edaiastre, an 
• II, 508. 

I, from mrrUattrum, 


Formation op Nouns 147 

ecclesiastic. The difficulty here is ia the meaoing. If 
the word represents ecclesia plus -ASTER, it should 
mean "bad church," or somethinj;! similar. If the word, 
on the other hand, comes from eccleaiasticue, how account 
for the form? Gleieastgue, churchly, which we should 
expect, exists, and Levy also ^ves gleizastgle^ with an in- 
terrogation point. The I of this word might become r by 
dissimilation, but the disappearance of the g would still 
have to be accounted for. It appears possible that 
we have here gleiza plus -ASTRE, and that becoming 
confused with gleizastgle from ecdesiaaticus, it took its 


The Provencal suffix -AT requires a somewhat detailed 
treatment, as several different Latin suffixes are repre- 
sented in it: there is (1) the suffix -ATTUS, denoting 
the young of animals; (2) a Latin -ATUS, denoting rank; 
more important than either of these, however, is the (3) 
substantive use of the past participle. This gives -AT 
in the first conjugation; but the endings for the others 
(-IT and -UT) will be given here, as the three endings 
together form a distinct group and special kind of forma- 
tion; {4, 5) words apparently formed by using the suffix 
-AT attached directly to nouns, with no verb at their 
base, and in a few cases with a prefix also attached, this 
being inseparable from the word; finally (6), the Latin 
neuter suffix -ATUM appearing in -AT in a few cases 
with exactly the same force as described under the words 
in -ADA from -ATA, the feminine form of the past 

■ IV, 136. 



1. -AT from -ATTUS is found in the following words 
denoting the young of animals: 

aiffronat, young heron aigron, heron 

awMt, young goose ouca, goose 

baltnat, young whale baUna, whale 

cerviat, young deer cervia, deer 

oAoJiAat, young dove edomba, dove 

ertagat, young sturgeon creac, sturgeon 
dragonal, young dragon, thread- dragon, dragon 

galinat, Uttle hen tralino, hen 

irondal, young swallow ironda, swallow 

leonal, young lion Utm, lion 

lebral, young hare Ubre, hare 

U>b<U, young wolf toba, wolf 

muUU,' mule tnul, mule 

poaerai.t young sparrow pasera, sparrow 

Also probably added to an adjective, it is seen in : 
vairal, mackerel voir,'' variegated 

2. Besides -AT coming from -ATTUS,* there is a suffix 
-AT coming from a Latin -ATUS, which was attached to 
notms to denote rank, office, or position, as in consulatxis, 
etc. A number of words in -AT with this meaning are 
found in Provencal, but most of them can be traced 
back to words found in Latin. 

The probable Provencal formations follow for -AT 
denoting rank or position: 

■ The only tranelation given for mutiU is mule, not young mule, 
but -AT roust represent -ATTUS here. The suffix seems lo have lost 
its force, perhaps through being iaQueuced by mulel, in nhii^h the suffix 
-ET had lost its original diminutive force. 

■ There is also a noun tair, denoting a kind of variegated fur. 

' For -IT<-ITTUS, denoting the young at animals, see the sufiii 
-IT, p. 239, below. 

t There are also several words in -AT tieside which no simple forme 
are found. Such are buial and cre/il (found also as buiac and creac, as 
given under -AC aixive). That -AT could be added to -AC may be seen 
in creaaal above, but here it seems to be substituted for it. 


Formation of Nouns 149 

arquidiqumat, archdeaconate. 7>t- 

aeonatui is (ound in Latin (see 

Goelaer, 09), but there seems to 

be no trace of -AT added to the 

compound word. 
doelorat, doctorate. The same 

word is found in other Romance 

languages, but is it Latin? 
daeal, duchy due, duke 

notarial, notoryehip notari, notary 

oficialal, official court ofidal, offidal 

pergoTuU, t)eneficein a cathedral; 

(rom peraona, personage (?). 

Perionatvs as an adjective is 

found in Latin, but -peraonat 

does not appear to be a sub- 
stantive use of the word. 
■prdtogtai, office of provost; court- prebosl, provost 

renhat,^ kingdom renA, reign 

3. Another source of the Proven5al suffix -AT is the 
past participle of verbs in -or.' This was very often used 
substantively, and gives another class of words with the 
ending -at. 

Substantive use of the past participles of verbs in -or: 

apariat, customer apariar, join, unite, couple 

argenlat, a stuff connected with argeatar, to plate 

the restoration of p^nt 

bUumat, blame UatmaT, blame 

coUieat, cultivated bit of land coUwar, cultivate 

' These words, together with the past participles in -IT sad -UT 
given below, belong properly to the nouns formed from verba by a simple 
change of meaning, but they are placed here on account of being closely 
connected with other words in -AT that are not formed on verbs at all, 
the development of which they help to make clear. 

t Words omitted above because found in Latin are: apotloiat, 
aposUesfaip (Goelier, 9S<ajKi((o2afut); dergat, ecclesiastic (Gociier, 99, 
derieatiu); eomtat, courtship <comi(atiu,- congoiat, consulal«<eoiuufa(u«,- 
attcat, bishopric (Goelser, 99, epiicojiat-iis) ; pafriarcol, patriaichste j 
vrimat, primate {Goelser, 99, primalut). 




comeTUal, bepriiting 

amjat, leave 

cozinat, food (something cooked) 

cTOd, child (thing created) 

eroiat, a coin (maiked with a 


deehat and dietat, poetry 

euidat, evjat, thought 

depalat, deputy 

domenjat,^ vassal 

dtnuU, lay brother (one who has 
pven himself) 

eUaunihal, man with dit ears 

embornl, ambaral,* a kind of forti- 

empachat, obstacle 

empattat, pie, pastry 

emprenhat, foetus 

endodrinal, scholar 

endomenjat,^ vassal; also property 

engorgeU, reservoir above a mill 

enavat, disposal, arrangement 

tntenhal, doctrines 

erelal, inheritance, property 

faiaotiat, equipment, outfit 

faUua, person in wrong 

ferrat, pail, bucket 

foTot,' hole 

galiat, deception 

irifiit, throwing; also coping 

goelat,* lunch 

gotat, cloth with spots 

laurat, plowed field 

ImKU, yeast 

r, b^jn 
eomjar, pve leave 
eotinoT, cook 

crraar, cross; bear cross 

dtchar and dtctor, compose 
cuidar, <mjar, think 
deputar, depute 

eiBavrelhar, slit ears 
entbarrar, inclose, fence in 

empachea; prevent 
emptular, cover with paste 
emprerthar, impregnate 
eTidoctrinar, teach 
endomenjar (not found in 

engorgar, stuff up 

eretar, inherit 

faiwnar, equip 

SaJiiar, fail, be in the wrong 

ferrar, bind with iron 

galiaT, decdve 
giioT, throw 
gostar, taste 
gotar, drip 
laurar, plow 
leear, raise 

I The infinitives domenjar and endomtTtjax are not found. 

' Should not be confused with emfcoroWr. The word Is clearly 
connected with emAorrar from barm, which ia given in Raynouard with 
A single r, as well as with the double one. 

>A Lat. tputalut exists with the meaning of "taste"; famtut and 
■popuiaiti* are slso found with different mesDlngs from those found in the 
Prov, fvrat and pohlal. 


Formation of Nodns 151 

Udrai, striped cloth Uatrar, to nuuble 

maOiat, net maihar, make meshes 

meuonal, harveeted fruits, harvest meiaonar, harvest 
Ottalal, host, companion ostalar, lodge 

pcBot, pavement pauar, pave 

paiwza(,Boldicrpn]tectedbyashie!d powawr, cover, protect 
pa^at, breaking peaQor, break to pieces 

plaid^at, pleading piaidy<a; plead 

pcblat, built-up district pobfor, people, Mtablish 

preturat, remKt ■pretwvr, press 

piiUkal, pubUcation pudlicar, publish 

temenal,^ sown Seld iemenat, sow 

As may be seen from the above examples, most of the 
words in the list are not pure abstracts, but represent 
rather the thing or the person acted on by the verb. They 
are in all cases substantive uses of the past participle. 

The same thing is true of the other conjugations, and 
the cases in which their past participles are used as nouns 
will be given here while dealing with past participles. 
Thus for the verbs ending in -ir we find the past parti- 
ciples in -^ used substantively: 
obordU, abortion, miscarriage abardir, miscarry 

ordil, daring ardir, embolden 

hattU, building batUr, build 

hnifffU, noise hrvgir, make noise 

acroieit, shock etcroisir, cruah 

grevit, injury 'greviT' 

partU, arrangement of a difference partir, arrange (a difference) 
piwtf, pledge plmr, pledge 

And for the remaining verbs the past participle in 
-UT is used substantively in: 
eonlengut, contents ccmtener, contaia 

Ttndut, lay brother rendre, surrender, give up 

■ Ortmr is not found. The verb meaniiig "to injure" ia greciar or 

t Other Prov. words in -AT which were formed in Lat. are; eairal, 
four-cornered atone, from the Lat. quadratum, corner; jutjai, judsaient. 
from judicotum; mandai, maadate, from mandaium; nominal, aominative. 


152 Word-Formation in Pboven^ai. 

4. From nouns formed in this way, the next step taken 
appears to have been the formation of nouns on nouns 
without the mediation of any verb, yet having the force 
of the participial nouns just described and given in the 
preceding list. 

Thus we find : 
imnjat, orongenxilored cloth tran^, orange 

eacripturat, learned man eacriptuTa, scripture 

gabdat, goods on which the gobela, a tax 

"gabela" is paid 
juUuU, coin with a lily stamped on 

it, isaued for the first time in 

the kingdom of Naples under 

Charles It. Du Cange has both 

the forms jtdhaiut (and julhala) 

and gigtuUw. The form of the 

word is probably due to the 

lily (Italian ffigtio^) stamped on 

it, influenced also by the name 

of Robert de Juh; or pos^bly 

the form of the word may be 

entirely due to his name. 
pebrat, pepper-«okired cloth p^e, pepper 

pinhalal, confectionery contain- pinhd, pine-seed 

ing pine-aeeds 
poTiwnat, one who has received portion, portion 

hie portion 
pual, weaver's comb 
gabalat, a religious sect. The con- 
nection between the derived 

and the umple word is not very 

clear, but the sect must have 

been named from the shoes they 

wore. See Du Gauge's Mi- 
There are also a few words formed without any verb 
> Cf. eroial, p. 150, above. 


Formation of Nouns 153 

at their base, yet which add a prefix at the same time.' 

Such are: 

emboqviparlal, wag. This seems 

to be made up of em, boca, and 

parlat, from paHar, there being 

no verb with the prefix. For 

the t, compare the Spanish 

compounds barbieipeao, barbi- 

lampiHo, ■pdiiargo, et«, Em- 

boquiparUU looks like a word 

coined for temporary use, 
eiuabatai,^ a religious sect Mbaia, shoe (see gabaiat in the 

preceding list) 
escodat, akin without the fleece ( ?) eoa, tail ( 7) 
egponhal, a man whose wrist is from ponh, wrist ( 1) 

5. Besides the fonns in which -AT appears to indicate 
a substantive use of the past participle, it seems to be 
added in a few cases to nouns to which it gives no real 
change of meaning, or none that can be classified: 
bakal, kiss bait, kiss 

broeat, large pitcher broc, pitcher 

cadauit, chaia cadena, ch^n 

eUdat, lattice, trellis eieda, hurdle, screen 

eomxrUat, convent amsen{t), convent 

coTolal, a kind of ship coral, kind of ship 

cubal, washtub caba, tub 

dogal, tub, canal doga, ditch 

feirat, market ( 7) feira, fail 

fortxU, large fork /ore, fork 

gi^al, young fellow, lad gt^a,' ^1, mtuden 

' These words are, therefore, notnioaJ parnByothetB, under which hend- 
ioi they will Rgtun appear (p. 527). They are given here only to make 
the list ol words in -AT complete. Adjectival paraayntheta are more 
commoD than the nominal ones. 

' A rather obscure word in the same passage, and evidently denoting 
anather religious sect, is eneriv^kat, from crizelar. to sift through (7). 
It seems to be a parasynthetic formation like eniaJHiW, See parasyiitheta 
(p. 527). 

■ In O.Prov. only the feminine form of the simple word is found, and 
the only masculine form is with the suSj. This is also true of the Mod, 
Prov. goujo and goujal. In Fr., only the derived masculine form goujal 


154 Word-Formation in Provencal 

grual, crane, lifting-machine iC"'i, crane 

paluat, palisade palisa, palisade 

ptaital, hedge plais, hedge 

porrat, leek, wart porre, leek 

tenhorat, master genkor, master * 

vaVtcU,^ valley valh, valley 

6. There is also one more case in which the suffix -AT 
is frequently found. This is the case of the Latin suffix 
-ATUM, the neuter form of the past participle of the 
first conjugation detached from verbs and added instead 
to nouns. It generally forms collectives, and in every 
way is similar in meaning to the words ending in -ADA, 
formed with the feminine form of the participle, before 

The list follows: 
ambaduxt, embassy *aTnback (not found) 

bamat, troop of nobles btavn, noble 

cobrionoJ, rafterage eabrion, rafter 

causal, footwear cauaa, shoe 

codonat, quince preserve codon, quince 

etUhieral,* spoonful cuihter, spoon 

detcai, basketful de»c, ba^t 

eteai,' a measure 

espinal, briars, underbrush etpina, thorn 

faiaoruU, bundle of peeled oak /ais,* bundle 

fangai, slough /one, mud 

' Some of the words in the above liHt have slightly augmentative 
force, as brocat and forcat. This may be due to confusion with -AT, 
a form of -ATZ (see above). The confusion of these two suffixes of 
similar sound may be seen in the Fr. cadeTtat. Comdhal (see p. 165, n. t) 
is another possible augmentative form. 

■ The form aJhierai instead of euihaiTot a worthy of observation . 
The word cuihier is not of Prov. fonuation, and there are no Prov. 
formations in -lER adding -AT to give a start! ng-pqiat for words in 

< Formation obscure. 

* Faieon is not found with this meaning, and we should expect /OMOl. 
FaUon may have existed, however, and would be a natural augmenta- 
tive of /ati. 


FoBUATioN OP Noons 

/0B0(, bearth-tax 


folhat. lath, wood 


monol,' handful 

moi», hand 

noffoC, oU-cake 



paim, pahn 

peiml, sidewalk, quay, yard 

peira, stone 

pelhat. dothing 


pomat,' dder 

pom, apple 

ponhal,' handful 

jwiA, fiflt 

pMtoi, paBsade 

po.<, post 


leula, tile 

Possible adjective-formations are seen in rualat, coarse- 
ness, on ruete, coarse, and escartat, greediness, on escort, 
tenacious, in Raynouard. Levy, however, objects to this 
adjective, and strikes it out. The noun also may be a 
mistake for escurtat.* Ruslai may be a shortened form 
ot ruslelai with the suffix -TAT-tt 


The Provencal suffix -ATGE is derived from a Latin 
-ATICUM, the neuter form of the Latin adjective suffix 
-ATICUS. This neuter form, then, is used in formmg 
nouns, generally on nouns, but it is sometimes attached to 
verb-stems, and occasionally to adjectives. The three 

1 CorreBpoDdinK words exist in -ADA. 
•SeeLevy, III, 158-59. 

iEetat, poaitioD, i> from Lat. itatum. 

Also ft word uncertftiD in development of meaning, eomriW, 
Juge cronbow, apparently fonned on comMa, orow. The -AT here is 
apparently augmentative (the crowbow being called a crow on account 
of ita shape) . Thii word might therefore be placed in list 6. 

tt Other words in -AT difficult to classify, oi obscure, are : morat, 
Uack cloth; matruf, child; metcaX, a kind of doth; vdaC, a coin: and 
proetlrat, protostrator, an official in the Bytantine court. Morat ia the 
adjective moral, black, used mbatantively; mainai is probably an imita- 
tion of the Fr. maintt, the name by which the youthful Charlemagne 
was known. The formation of the other words ie more or less obscure. 


156 Word-Formation in Provencal 

kinds of formations will be given in Separate lists, and 
the words which, for example, may have been formed oa 
a noun or on a verb-stem will be ^ven in another list 
between the formations on nouns and those on verbs. 

The ending -ATGE seems, in the first place, to have 
been used with the meaning of a tax to be paid, with which 
meaning, indeed, it is found in Latin.' It also expresses 
the idea of some kind of feudal right, as m teulatge, etc., 
and also occupation, office, or condition {prevetrcUge, 
vasalat^e, etc.). Oftener atill, however, it has collective 
force, as in captalatge, fardatge, graruUge, and raynatge, 
and this meaning can be seen in some words which at 
first sight appear abstract rather than collective (iwim- 
atge, fomatge, linhatge, etc.). 

Nevertheless, a great many words actually have real 
abstract force. These, however, unlike the words with 
other meanings, are generally formed on verbs, espe- 
cially where the abstract denotes action and not state or 
position. Yet some of the meanings conveyed by the 
suffix when attached to nouns are so nearly abstract that 
the distinction is sometimes hard to maintain. Fre- 
quently, also, the English word used to translate the 
Provencal one* furthers the confusion. When words 
have meanings different from those that their formation 
would lead us to expect,* comments will be made on 
them in the notes. 

I Meyer-LQbke, II, 670. 

' That 13. BbstrBcta Tormed on verbs, irorda with the Other meaninss 
on nouoa, and occaaionally od adjectives. EiceptioDS are mostly Id the 
Douns, where the abstract force is often only apparent. There may, 
however, have been some backward inBueoce o[ the verbal fonnalJODB 
on the Domiual ones. 


Formation of Nouns 

1, The noun-formations will be given first: 

tdaige,^ covwed way, gallery 


aaratge, mad 

aura, air 


bamatge, nobility 

baron, baron, noble 

Uada, wheat 

tiorUa<i;e,' goodness 

txmia/, goodness 

bomUge, boM^e (a plant) 

borra, htur, floss 

bMCofffe, hedge 

bOK, woods 



capUanalge, captaincy 

capiton, captain 

eaplalatge, collection of leadeis 

ca^ihij, leader 

cam. flesh 

eazaialse, habitation 

cozoi, house (?) 

euiaikige, tax on oats 

eivada, oats 

anniaiaigt,* tax on meadows (7), 

right of measuring, or dwelling- 
eojxUge, tax on sale of com 

copa(?), cutting 

coroiffe, courage 

(W, heart 

corda. cord 

conaige, form 

COTS, body 

(iMfraJ, pander 

drechalge, right, title 

drtch, right 

erbatgt, meadows; money for pas- erba, herb, grass 


ermtte/^, hermitage ermiia, hertnlt 

eepoTuleratge, admuugtratJon espondier (?), admiiuatrator 

MpO'Iofge, paying of the "esporla" eaporla, a tax 

eiqu^nalge, position of alderman esqtieirin, alderman 

> See Du Gauge, atea, aUua, Levy also cives a refereoce to Rev. 
da Lang- Rom.. XXXII, 528. where the word is diacuBsed. 

> The only Himplc Prov. word is bandeira, banner, which will 
hardly do aa a base-word unless it has some other meaning. I>u Gauge 
gives banderaoium, but only in tate texU, See double suffixes, p. 398. 

' Peculiar in form. There is a substitutiou of -ATGE for -TAT 
(presumably mistakeD for -AT. since the base is boni instead of bon). 

• The only base possible seems to be conUal, "of a count." What is 
the connection between the two words? 




r god- 

fardaige, heap of rags 
farinalge, coin-tax 
fenalge, woven atr&w 
feualge, iofeodation 
jUholalge,' godchildship, 

child's gift 
folatge, f oolishnesa 
ftAhatge, foliage 
foretlalge, forestry 
formalge, cheese 
fomatge, baking 
fomaiatge, tax for use of oven 
fourratge, fodder 
fromeniali)e,' tax on com crops 
fraehatge, fniitA, fruit trees 
galiotatge, coaat-watch eervioe 
garbatge, tax on sheavee 
gleiiaioe, ecdeaaatioal right ; diocese 
graruUge, grain 

guuotuUge, Boie-eonduct 
juaUeial^, juriadiction 
lengalge, language 
maratge, shore, coast 
maialge, hamlet 
meiolge, message, messenger 
mojatge, kind of tax on each hogs- 
head of wheat 
mmlatge, tax in mUHt 
na-atanalge, fare, toll 
navatge, tax on the chartering of 

ntrlatge, lax collected from myrtle 

noiruatge, feeding, nursing 
omalge,' omenatgtj homage 
ombratge, shade 

/(uvJo, garment 

/en, straw 
/eu, fief 
JUAoI, godchild 

/ol, fool 

/oU, leaf 

/oret(, forest 

forma, tana 

/om, oven 

'fornal, from font, oven 

fourre, fodder 

fr<mm(t), com 

fnich, fruit 

galiot, pirate 

gatba, sheaf 

Oleita, church 

gran, grain 

granha, cluster, string (of 

gmzim, guide 
jiaticia, juBtioe 
knffa, tongue 

mot, hogshead 

moat, must 

nerta, myrtle 

noirita, nune 
omle), man 
ombra, shade 

' See double euffiies, p. 3S3. ■ Frommlaffitim is found in Du Cang«. 
■ The meaning of granliatge is not certain. -ATGE, however, hera 
ns to give collective force to granha. 
• A Mediaeval Lat. hominatUtim is found. 


Formation or Nouns 


padomlaige, paeturiDg, right of padom(0, pasturing, right of 

pastuiing purtming 

pauimaige, right of paetuiing pai»on, pasturage 

paJalffe, tax on the mooring of jxd, stake 

pabatratge,' outer part of lock 

paponalge, inheritance from a papon, grandfather 


poToige,* rank par, equal 

parenlatge, relationship; relatjona, paren(l), relstJon 

parofian, parishioner 

patron, patron, model 

pdalge, tail, color of the hwr 


pekfPrin, pilgrim 

'ptrtona, person 

pivedalge, vii^nity 

piawta, vir^ 

poderatge, power 

poefcr, power 

pont, bridge 

ing a bridge 

portanatge,^ entrance fee 

porta, gate 

potatge, soup, stew 


pnAoH, provost 

preveire, priest 

puta, prostitute 

ramalge, branches 

ram, branch 

riiofpe, shore 

riba, bank 

Iwraipe, land, domMn 

terra, hind 

teulatge,' rigtit of setting up a 


booth (7) 

lutor, guardian 

vataUUoe, vassalage 

vai4d. vassal 

ritaf., village 

trtia, village 

vOono^ffe, coarseness 

vilan, villager 

BiMlse, aspect, face 


voUOge,^ pleasure, will 

«.;, will 

' Double EFuffixcT 

■ For paralge with aoother meaiung. see list 3. 

• There it also a word Uulal, 

a roof, from leuU. tile, with whLch 

Iralatgt must be connected. Teviala 

e seems to mean " the right of puttiog 

up some kind of a shelter." 

tOf probable Lat. origin are gramatet, sophist, from arammtUiciu, 
and mainalgt, household, from vuinnonalicum (7). Cf. the Fr. mtnage. 


160 Word-Formation in Provencal 

As in the case of the suffix -ARIA, -ATGE is generally 
found added to nouns; but some words in -ATGE exist 
whose stem appears to have been a verb, as there is no 
noun on which they could have been formed. This class 
of words is not large; but there is another list of words 
ending in -ATGE, whose stem, whether noun or adjec- 
tive or verb is not so clear, as, for example, ctmselhatge from 
conselk or the stem of amselhar plus -ATGE ( ?), mezuralge 
from mesura or the stem of mezurar plus -ATGE (?). 
There are many of these words, and it seems probable 
that the -ATGE, as in the preceding list, was added to 
the noun in most cases, and that the proximity of the 
verb, in some cases in more common use than the 
noun, was the cause of the purely verbal formations, as 
arigolatge,^ etc, 

2. The intermediate list, contuning the words whose 
stem may have been a verb or a noun, follows: 

agrtukUge, act of pleaang 

agrai or agradar, pleasure ; pleaae 

aigatse, nat«img 

aiga or aigar, water 

ajudattt, subsidy 

ajiida or ajWar, ^d 

a'berc or albergar, lodging; lodge 

aiegratge* rejoidng 

aUgre or alegrar, joyous; rejoice 

(mUiige, ehatne 

anta or antar, shame 

barralge, underlinu^ 

(wrro or barrar, bar 

coakUge, coat 

co»la or costar, cost 

demoratge, sojoum 

demOT or demorar, sojourn 

desUruitge, destiny 

dentin or deslinar, destiny; 


deirinaige, chatter 

(fefin or rferanar, diviner; divine 

drechuTolge, rent, duty 

(irecAura or dreckwar, right 


' These verb-formatjooa may at first have had the meaning of office 
or positian. as in gardtjatge below (p. 163), but soon, followiog the 
example of other verb-fonnations, contracted abstract force. 

> See also words formed on adjectives, p. 184. 


Formation or Nouns 

tretatge, inheritance 
tttacalge, tax for buUdmg . 
eUnuiAot)^,' eetnmgement 

fmnatge,' closure 
goianhaige, gain, profit 
guualge, guiding, saTe-conduct 
lohoratge, plowing, plowable field 
limalge, filings 
tinhatge, lineage; alignment 
mandatge, command; tax paid to 
bakers by their customers for 
warning to have bread ready 
for baking. 
ottaidaige, marriage 

eret or ereiar, heir; inherit 
eilaca or eatacar, stake; fasten 
estTonh or eatranhar, strange; 

ferm or fermar, firm; fasten 

gazanh or ffozanhar, gain 

guiza or guizar, guide 

labor or laborar, labor; plow 

lima or linutr, file 

linha or IMiar, line; align 

manda or mandar, order 

martt or mondor, husband; marry 

mmedalgt, coinage 

dbralge, work 

ciialgt, oiling* (?) 

onraige, honor 

oftalotjw. lodging 

ottalge, lodging; rent; pledge 

poifot^, pasture, pasture-land 

paiUuitge, tax on straw 

patturatgt, pasturage 
jxlseratge, kind of toll 

moneda or monedar, coin 
obra or obrar, work 
oil or oliar, oil 

ostal or MltUaT, lod^g; lodge 

osU or o»tar, host 

pats or paM«r, pasture 

palha or poIAur, straw; cover 

with straw 
pastura or pasturar, pasture 
poivera or poiKerar, powder; pul- 

potialQti, bearing; tax pud by pori 

prisoner to jailer 
preiionatge, prison; tax pud by preutnt 

portar, bearing; bear 

preisimar, pnson ; 

Uttimtmialge, testimony 
Ingpaaalge, paaaage through 


renh or renhar, reign 

tetlimoni or teslimimiar, testi- 
mony; testify 

Irespat or trespoior, pass, or pas- 
sage through 

1 Bee alao words formed on luJjeetiveB, p. 
■ The meaniDB is very UDcertain here. 




3. The next list contfuns all the words with only a 
verb at their base, almost all of than being purely ab- 
stract in meaning: 

abeurai^fe, wetting ahmare, wet, aoak 

aferratge, plowed land aferrar U not found, but prob- 

ably exiBted, otherwise this 
word would be a parasyn- 
thetoQ formed on fer. See 
Du Cange'e aferagium. 
aiumerutl^ illuminatii^ aluTnenar, illuminate 

aratge (this word appears to be 
used only in the oombioations 
anar aratge,^ where it has 
two meanings: [1| "to wander 
^Knit"; [2] "to despair," "be 
bende oneself." It appears to 
represent a Latin enaticvm, or 
to be formed on the Provencal 
verb error, with the not un- 
usual change of e to a before r in 
the initial syllable^* 
arigolaige, gluttony arigolar* Batiate 

heuTotge, beverage beure, drink 

companatge, nourishment componor, support, nourish 

corraiatge, broker's business the only verb here, as also for 

coTTatadvra, eorralier, appears 
to be corral^ar, deal in 
dammir, condemn, damn 
damnejar, injure 
dedarar, declare 

damnalge, damage 

damnejatge, damage ( 7 ) 
dedaratge, declaration 

that are not (Mmalge, ettacalge, etc.) are UDdoubtsdty aoUD-formations. 
The abstract words appear to be formed od verb-atema, with some such 
word oa dredoiratge or eretatgt, which have an approach to abstract forc« 
in their meaniogB, and a poasibte noun or verb at the baae, aa a probable 
I Levyi I, 78. 

■ Grandgeat, art. 44, sec. S. The phrase occurs in Bertran de 

■ Arrigotar is a Gascon form of rigotar. See Sticbel, 15. 


Formation or Nouns 


tngrwuilge, tax in beane 

(the only verb to be found is 
engrunar, with the meatung 
"to break to pieces." The 
ward, however, haa the kind 
of tneaning which ia usu&l in 
noun-form&tionB. The only 
noun to be found here is gnm, 
grun (see granada), which 
would account for the verb 
en0w>ar, to break to bits, or 
grains. EngmiuiHie, ftppeara 
to be a formation on the word 
grun by the simultaneouB ad- 
dition of the prefix EN- and 
the suffix -ATGE.> DuCange 
has engnmagium). 

Mlar, be, stay 

gardtijar, watch, guard (fields) 

infror, enter 

jairt for jaterT as inversely /oter 

logar, let 

■parar, adorn 

■pariar, possess in conunon 

paKoirar, graze 

'pastMrgar, graze; make grace 

■pavoT, pave 

paammioT, pavo 

pUhar, steal 

etiatge, extent, space; abode 
gardtjaige,^ office of field-watch 
intralgi, entry, entrance 
jairatge, light of lod^png (?) o. 

tax on this right ( T) 
logatge, letting, lease 
mutalge, vain wuting 
paratge, adornment 
pcaiaige, contract of partnership 
poKairalge, grasing, pasturage ' 
patilwgaige, pasturage 
posaiflB, road-rate, toll 
pagwimUatge, pavement 
pUAaige, pillage 

In the same way that -ATGE appears to be added 
to verbs in -or to form abstracts, -I{T)GE is added to 
other verba.* Thus we find: 

> See pBTaayDtbeta, p. 628. 

' Given id Levy aa gontialBe. For commeDt, see p. 160, above, n. 1. 

>To resemble the other verbal suffiiee, we should expect -ETGE 
to be added to verba in -«r or -re, and -ITGB to verba in -ir. The 
existence of -ETGE aa a suffix ia doubtful, however, as *»lrect>eg> is 
far from certain, and one of the texts pves femenige instead of /anenfge. 
-ITGE WM added to a verb in -tr in glapitge, but to one of another con- 
jufatioD in baligt. and is the only certain suffix formed by analosy to 
-ATGE that is found. 



boHge, palpitation of the heart hatrt, beat 

^pilge, insult; r^rimand glapir does not appear to be 

found in Proven^, but prob- 
ably eidsted. Compaie the 
French glapir, to Bcream or 
squeak. -ITGE is a purely 
analogical formation.' 
Several words in -ETGE also are found, though their 
formation is different from those in -ITGE. They will 
be taken up individually: 

a^lge, siege: Appears to be a post-verbal substautive 
from a verb asetjar, to besiege. 

estrechege, narrowness: From estreck, narrow. 
fetmnege, female heat, comes from femena, woman. 
The meaning of the suffix here is very difficult to account 
for, being unlike any of the meanings of -ATGE. (Levy 
gives the word as ending in -ITGE.) 

4. Besides the formations on nouns and on verbs, there 
are several words ending with -ATGE, in which the stem 
of the words is neither of these. In dealing with the 
words whose source could have been a noun (or adjective) 
or verb' the words alegratge, e^tranhaige, and fermatge 
were mentioned. These may have beeo verbal forma- 
tions; but at least they give a starting-point for new 
purely adjectival ones: 

ermati/e, desert erm, desert«d 

tnfantUhatge, childi^neea er^atUil, childish 

mortaial^, legacy morUU, in danger of death 

nescialge, ^orance nesci, ignorant 
primatge, tight of a aeaj' relative prim, filBt 

to an estate 

vUatge, dirt, coarseness vil, vile 

5. Several words also appear to be formed on 

darreiratge, arrears darreire, behind 

ellralge, outrage oUra, beyond 

"Cf. notes, p. 163. > See list 2. 


PoRsuTioN OP Nouns 165 

This last word, however, is m most of the other Ro- 
mance languages. It may equally well come from 

There are several words in Provencal ending in -AUT, 
most of which seem to represent a Germanic -ALD in 
their sufExes. They seem also to have the suiSx joined 
to Germanic stems. The words are: argaul, smock- 
frock; armatU, enamel; barrv^aut, huckster; borsaut, 
large pocket (?); faraul, herald; gorbaiU, mill-wheel; 
vuirpaut, rogue; jnpaut, rascal, vagabond; aabaid, push. 
Few of these can be Provencal formations. 

-azo(n), -ezo(n)i -izo(n) 

The Provencal suffixes -AZO(N), -EZO(N), -IZO(N), 
represent the regular development of the Latin suffix 
-TIONE, in conjunction with the characteristic vowel of 
each conjugation. This suffix, then, was added to verb- 
stems to form abstracts and seems always to have this 
meaning. One or two words apparently have the meaning 
of the time or season for the act implied in the verb, but 
this seems to be only apparent. Thus fregazon, which 
Levy' translates by "spawning-time," is given under the 
word Jrec in the phrase "en temps de fregazos" in which 
phrase the idea of time or season is expressed by temps. 
The word sazon, season, might give a possible starting- 
point, however, for this kind of meaning. The suffix appears 
to be added to a noun in the word peazon, bit of land. 

This suffix, much used in Classical Latin,* appears to 
have been very common in the vulgar language also with 

1 III, 583. > Accordins lo Cooper, 3, 


166 Word-Formation in Provencal 

this abstract force. Thus Rfinsch gives ten pages' of 
words ending in -10, most of them being in -TIO(NE), 
and Cooper adds to these formations. These words, 
however, are not, for the most part, to be found in the 
Provencal -AZON, -EZON, and -IZON. For besides 
these forms, there is found in Proven<;al the purely learned 
ending -ATIO, -ITIO, as well as the forms -AGIO, -ICIO, 
-ACI, -ICI, and the more unusual -ASION, -ISION. 
The suffix, then, had many developments,' 

Following Levy, the above suffixes will be given with 
the n at the end. -AZO, -EZO, and -IZO are also found.* 

Under -AZON are found : 

afronlazon, conftont&tion e^Tonlar, confront 

bUamaton, blMDe, i«proach blasmar, blame 

dapaton, slaughter elapar, slaughter 

comensaxon, be^nning comenMT, begin 

compmon, purchase compror, buy 

(wroawi,* heart cor, heart 

ddiunaon, deliverance ddivrar, deliver 

, challenge dexfiar, challenge 

gift donor, give 

tacomenjazon, excommunica- tseomenjar, exconununicate 

ettfuipar, equip 
/aftia, story (fablaT, not 
fenaztm, hay-crop fertar, turn (hay), or fen, hay 

fermazon, treaty, assurance fermaT, fix, taaten 

folhazffn, lathing ftAhar, cover with laths 

1 Pp. 69-7S; also Goeliet, 62-78. 

' Zeifchrift. XXIV, 546; and XXV, 736. (or eeroi-leamed words. 

but a 

' Perhaps coralumem ia not represenlcd here, allJiougb this is the 
etymon that Korting (No. 2,500) wvea. The O.Sp. form was coratim, 
pointing to a *C0Tammem as source. See Ford, 49. 

• Cf., however. Sp. hablar and Fr. Mbler. 


Formation of Nouns 

Srtgazon, Bpawning 
JMljtuon, judgment 
In^aam, bleeding 
mattdaton, me«sage, commisi 
mar^aton, longmg, itching 

monlaam, tax p^d by ehips going 
up a river 

n, bit of land 
p^oraatn, deterioration 
pei^aton, act of breaking to piecee 
primaton, time of new moon 

repairaton, return, retreat 
■o^niHm.t consecration 

And under -EZON; 
aiendtaon, vrutiag 

fregar, rub, spawn { ?)' 

jutjta; judge 

Uujar, alleviate; let blood 

rnandar, command 
manjar, eat, devour 


patmar, faint 

p^orar, deteriorate 
pe^ar, break to pieces 
primar, have firet rank ? or p 

Tvpairar, draw back 
soj/raT, oonsecrate 

aUndre, wait 
batre, beat 

pendre, hang 
prendre, take, arreat 

acoOtir, receive 
de^aihir, tM\ 

t, runnii^ out, outflow 
pmdezon, hanging 
prende»m,tt arrest 
And under -IZON: 
ocoJAuon, reception, receipt 
des}alhiz(m, error, fault 

' There is no eiample in which it is oertain that fregar means " to 
spawn," but compare the meaning ot the Fr, fraytrK. Lat. /ricore.. which 
Ukewise gave freaar. As for the meaning of /regazon, l>evy translates 
it by "spawning- time," but it is clear that it is the whole phrase en 
Icnjw dt freaaxoa that should be so translated. 

■A Lat. minaiio is found, but with the meaning of "threatening." 
There is also a Lat. tnirm. meaning a weight. This word is not found in 
Prov., but probably existed and was at the base of minaton. 

t Of Lat. origin, there are ernnujown. correction <«m«n(f(Uuin«n; 
Katon, binding (<.liQalion«m); liunuon, ration (KWiercUionera'); logaton, 
rent «loaifionem); melAoroKm, improvement «tn«Iior(iJian«R); mattra- 
M^i"!?) «mon»(ra(ion«m)i mttdavm, change (< mtdofionem) ; ortuon, 
speech, prayer «(Jro(M>nem)i pflnsoion, care (,<j)en*ationem): poblaion, 
peopling [<popiUatvmem); lemenaion. Bowing (<ieniinafton«)n). 

tt Of Lat. origin is perdeion. i 

a {-CpeTditiontm). 


168 Word-Formation in Provencal 

deveUiion, withdrawal deveatir, diveat 

eisiion, yield, produce eisir, go out 

enveniion,^ coming (there appears to be do verb 


eneeitiion, inveetiture erweatir, invest 

eatabliam, garrison, crew ettMir, establish 

falkizon, lack falhir, fail, lack 

feniton, world's end, life's end fenir, end 

franquuon, freedom franquir, set free 
gariion, cure, care; miuntenance, garir, cure 


gamizon, equipment garnir, equip 

ffuerpiam, leaving, cession ffuerpir, leave 

marrCzon, sadness, affliction marrir, sadden 

fuenlison, lie menhir, lie 
peniam,' penitence 

peiUuon, repentance penHr, repent 

repentiion, repentance repentir, repent 

vestuon, clothing vealir, clothe 

Then there are also the sets of endii^ -ATIO and 
-ITIO and -AGIO and -ICIO; but as the first of these 
is wholly learned, and is to be found in such words as 
comendatio, which existed in Classical Latin, no list of 
these suffixes will be given. Neither is -AGIO a phonetic 
development of -A-TIONE, but a Latinized form of the 
regular phonetic form -AZON.' There are a number 
of words with this ending: 

acomparacio, acquiation 

agregacio, heap, number 

dingregacio, dispersion disgregar, disperse 

deapoihacw, spoliation despoUuir, despoil 

depuracio, purification depuraT, purity 

engrosacio, increase engrosar, increase 

' See paraayntheta, p. S28. 

' There is no verb penir. Both pemdre and penedir eiuat, however, 
and the latt«r should sive penedizo. Cao peniio be a shortened form 
through confusion with ptruirt 

' It probably represented often a school pronunciation of the form 


Formation op Nouns 169 

pendienacio, combing pen^ienar, comb 

Todicacio, taking root radicat, take root 

Tenidaeio, renascence revidar, revive 

auhl^iocio, subtiliiation tttbtiliar, subtilize 

»ucacu>, sucking, absorption tuear, suck 

nejUotacw, cupping centowr, cup 

There are also a few words in -ACI and -ICI. -ACI 
appears to be merely a shortened form of -AGIO in these 

eortfimtad, confirmation eonfirmar, confirm 

deaAiOci, beheading decolar, behead 

tafaci,'^ flood latmr, waah 

-ICI, on the contrary, in the few cases in which it is 
found, does not represent -TIONE at all, but instead 
-ICIUM. Thus: 

foTtoUd,* fortress (also fortoUm) 

Jnironici,' theft 
moTlalici, death, funeral 
ortoiiCT,tt v^etables 

-ASION and -ISION are also found. -ASION is in: 

eseandalhasion, gauging e»candalhaT, gauge 

and -ISION in: 

killing avdr, kill 

ipelUion, compelling compelir, compel 

■ See Zeiltchrifl. IV, 407, and Meyer-Lubke, II, 589, note. 

' See double Buffines, p. 396, tot this type of words. 

' From lalTonidum tor latrodmunt. See also under the HUffii -ISA, 

jn, malefid. eiicbitiier<,maleficiu». 


170 Word-Formation in Provencal 

-ATION is found in: 
mendalum, impcovement mendar, improve 

quiUOian,^ receipt, cession guitar, acquit, yield 

The Latin suffix -ETUM, plural -ETA, which was 
attached to names of plants to indicate a quantity of them, 
appears to have left little trace in Proven^I, though more 
frequent in some of the other Romance languages.' In 
Proven^I, on the contrary, when the idea of a group of 
plants is expressed, the suffix -ADA (from -TA, feminine 
of the participial ending -TUS), one of whose meanings 
was collective, seems to be generally employed, as b(n8ada, 
joncada, plantada, etc. The only certain cases of the use 
of -EDA <-ETA as a suffix appear to be in 
albareda, laburnum grove (dbar, laburnum 

nogairtda,' place planted with nogmtr, walnut tree 
walnut trees 

Other possible Provencal formations are: 
/erleda,' place covered with ferule ferla, ferule 
oIrReda,'tt elm grove otm, elm 

For the suffix -EIA, see under -ADA. 

' As in Sp., where both otmeda and olmedo, aa well bb alameda, are 
found, and in Fr. in such words as aunaie, fougeraie, etc. 

■ A Lat. nuceium exista. but nogaireda is certainly a Prov. forma- 
tion. See double suffiiea tor suffixes begiDoiiig with -AIR. 

> Ferlada is also Found. 

• Found also in Sp. as stated in note 1. above, and also in the Fr. 

t And of Lat. origin. prtioHon, Buperiority<pradalttHiein, and pn>- 
euTOticn, " cathedra ticum"<j>roeuraJM>n<tn, a payment to be delivered 
by priestB on the bi^op's visit. 

It Words ending in -EDA of Lat. origiQ are olatda (olive grove) 
<ol%t)eta, and pintda (pioe groveX ptnela. 

A word ending in -EDA which does not come from the Lat. -ETA 
is gaveda (wooden bowlXtrabola. See Enait, 216, note 3. Plebyntda 
is somewiiBt obscure. 


Formation of Nouns 

All Proven9al formations ending in -EL (and also some 
forms in -ELH through a palatalization of the double I 
in some dialects') represent the Latin suffix -ELLUS, origi- 
nally a diminutive, added at first only to words with 
certain stems, but later to all possible roots.* Many 
of these words, however, did not necessarily imply any 
diminutive idea, but were simply used to designate every- 
day objects, and finally came to be used only "with the 
suiBx, in-which form they have passed into the Romance 
languages.* In Provencal, consequently, there is a moder- 
ate number of words with the suffix beside which no simple 
word is to be found, and the inference is that they were 
not Provencal formations. Indeed, most of these words 
can be found in Latin, and as for the others, it seems 
more likely that they were formed there than that they 
should have been formed later in Provencal, from which 
the simple word disappeared so quickly — especially in the 
cases where the other Romance languages have only the 
derived word. Still, there are many other cases in Pro- 
vencal in which the simple and the derived word both 
exist, and with little or no difference of meaning, and these 
words, or at least many of them, may have been Provencal 
formations. For example, there are corbel and corp, 
both meaning "crow";* kiur and laurel, both meaning 
"laurel," and ramel and ram, both meaning "branch," 
in each of which cases, French, for example, has only the 
derived word at present, although Old French had the 

' Grandgeot, art. 67, sec. 2. > Meyer-LObke, II, 582. 

■ Bonnet, 4JS9. This statement is given for diminutives in general, 
but \a particularly true of -ELLUS. CI. -ET<-ITTUS. 

' Corbel i> generally used as an architectural term, and tliis may 
have been derived from corba, curve. That it ever moans "' crow " ia 



simple word.' In these cases, then, the word came into 
the Romance languages without a suffix. Proven(;al, 
continuing the Latin use of adding -ELLUS to words in 
ordinary use without bringing in any well-defined diminu- 
tive force, added the suffix in these cases. In French, the 
suffix was added later, and its addition without change 
of meaning brought about later the disappearance of the 
simple word. In Spanish, the ordinary words for crow and 
branch are cuervo and ramo, without any suffix. Laurel, 
on the other hand, has the suflix. It seems probable, then, 
that when the suffix -ELLUS was added in Latin, without 
change of meaning, the simple word disappeared entirely, 
leaving no trace in the Romance languages. Thus we 
find anhel, agnello, and agneau in Romance for "lamb," 
but no trace of agnus, the ori^al word, except, in Italian, 
the purely poetical word agno. This accounts for the many 
words found in Proven^l with the suffix beside which 
there is found no simple word. Of course, these words 
might be Provencal formations beside which the simple 
Provencal word disappeared, but it hardly seems Ukely 
that it could have disappeared so quickly in so many 
cases — before the French nouns corresponding to the 
Provencal corbel and ramel had added the suffix at all. 
Words of this kind, then, seem to be Latin formations. 
The suffix, however, continued to be active in forming 
words in Proven^al^ — in the formation of real diminutives 
as well as in continuing the Latin usage of being joined to 
common words without giving any diminutive force. 
We find -EL added in Provencal as a real diminutive in : 

aSmnel, hobby (amaJl falcon) alban, bird of prey 

almucdn, Bm&ll hood olmusa, amice 


Formation of Nouns 

(See Elffm. asla, pike 

ailda, BDiall piki 
W6Herb., 736.) 
aeocadd, little lawyer 
haitond, small cane 
beTidd, small band 
cdbrd, kid 

camjiaTula, small bell 
corhd,^ architectural term 
cordd, Btring 
eoronda^ agaric (a plant) 
CTOttda, small crust 
(mhel, kind of measure 
dardel, javelin 
drapel, swaddbng-dothes 
acusel,' small shidd 
fabld, " tableau " 
fonui, crucible, pot 
forquel, prong 
fratrd, little brother 
garlandd, little garland 
girela, windlass 
laxTonel, young robber 
leond, young lion 
morsd, bite, piece; kiwer part of 

tniuel, veil before the mouth 

oriel, small garden 

■pagd,' small fish 

panel, roll 

pa»tord{a), little shepherd{eBs) 

penonel, little streamer 

poptl, nipple 

poriandaf small door 

■portda, small door 

avocat, lawyer 

henda, band 

cobra, goat 

campana, bell 

eorba, piece of curved wood 

corda, cord 

eolona, column 

croita, crust on bread 

Cuba, vat 

dart, dart 

r/raji, cloth 

escul, shield 

/Ma, fable 

/ore,' fork 
/rotre, brother 
irorlanda, garland 
(fir, turn 
lairon, robber 
Icon, lion 

mjia, mouth (as well a 
OTt, garden 
po^e, page 
pan, bread 
paxtor, shepherd 
peiwn, streamer 
papa, breast 
porla, door 
porta, door 

' For corfiei with another meanine. see p. 175, below. 
' CoroTitia instend of colonelo is due to disaimilatjon. 

See East 


< Btctad (instead of eicudcZ) ia due. appareDtly, to the O.Fr. tteucel, 
fihicb was formed on icu. shield, by means of an interpolated sibilant. 

< There is also a feminine pao'lo, meaning a measure. Is this also 
connected with pagef 

' A double suffix ?. 


174 Word-Formation in Pboven^al 

postel, piUory po8l, poet 

j)ni>otld, provost's servant prdioat, provost 

rabanel, small radish raban, radish 

rauzd, small reed ruut, reed 

roiela, email rose roia, rose 

tomda, small beast of burden soma, beast of burden 

lind, small cask Hna, cask 

tropd, small flock trop, flock 

In some words with the ending -EL the derived 
word shows some modification in meaning, but actual 
diminutive force is not always perceptible. Such words 

boitei,' bushel boit, box, boxwood 

bordtl, house of ill-fame borda, house 

borul, pocket; pune boTKi, puise 

cardonel, goldfinch' cordon, thistle 

facM, charm /"ck, thing 

jarbaudela (also jaubardda), a girbaut, vulgar penon 

ntiM/xuUl, a. kind of pear mutcal, nutmeg* 

palm^i kind of cloth; door- jxdma, palm 

pantla,' panel; cushion placed pan, flap, skirt 

under the saddle 
pansd, stomach partea, belly 

pastel, dyer's woad pasta,' paste 

pofiiel, prop, support ponJ, bridge 

Then come the words with little or no change of mean- 
ing, which, nevertheless, appear to be Provencal forma- 
tions. Beside all of these formations the simple word still 

> Appu^ntly meaaing originally a little box. 

> M'uaeal, too, may have bad the meaning found in rniutduM. Cf ■ 

the Engl. "muBcat" and "inuacadel." 

' There is aim a word panda meaning a wine-meamre. For panel, 
see preceding list. 

* The plant u.'ted in dyeing was crushed into a paste. 


Formation of Nounb 175 

exists, whereas in most Latin formations of this kind it has 
disappeared : 
eaud, jaw 

tais, cheek, jaw 

carcart, collfir, throat 

tarta, letter 

«wo, hut 

ciTtla, ribbon 

corba, basket 

cola, coat 

fenetlra, window 

font, bottom 

/res, lace 

gofon, fishhook 

gona, gown 

grava, sand 

jap, skirt 

JIM, juice 

lama, plate, blade 

jaur, laurel 

■pete, pea 

jAal, metal plate 

ram, branch 

Iroa, package 

Germanic root, tuda 

eand, pipe 

coTtand, throAt 

cartel, document, certificate 

caida, hut 

eiaUl, girdle 

corM,' mill hopper 

cotela, coat 

fertettrd, window 

forud, bottom 

fmti, lace, trimmings 

gafond, fishhook 

goada, gown 

grmel, sand, gravel 

jupel, petticoat 

jiad, soup, gravy, dye 

lamda, blade, sword 

taurel, laurel 

peiel, pea 

plaUl, plate of metal 

ramel, branch 

trotd, package 

fudel.t reed 

' For corbel with another meaning, gee the list on p. 173. Poasibly 
tbii word should be corbdh (-ELH — ICLUM). Corbel, etc., is difficult 
l« treat because of the possible base-words corp, crow; corba, curve; 
snd corba, basket. 

t There is slso quite a considerable list of worda Id -EL or -ELA, 
beside which no simple word ia found. These can hardly be Prov. 
(onnations, and most of them are clearly Lat. Such are: 

eapel (cap)<(»ppelfiu; dacet (nailXcfac'Utu, aod tscudela (bowl) 

bavatttl or bagatiat. puppet, on the origin of which much has been 
written (Zeiltchnft, XIX, 106; K^rting, No. 1,154. etc.). Keller, in Rom. 
Foneh., XXII. 162. thiuks it may be connected with bona, drivel, whirh 
has already been seen as a base-word in bavec. 

Undorda, (small) swallow, must have been formed la Lat.. as the 
various forms in the other Romance languages tend to show. The 
aimple Prov. word is frotufs l<hirundo). and the Lat. source of lendoreia 
ia apparently hirandindla. A rather remarkable metathesis together 


176 Word-Formation in Pkoven^al 

On adjectives used as substantives the following words 
appear to be formed by the addition of -EL: 

caudel, a. kind of fritter CMd, warm 

redondela, roundelay ndonda, fem. of redon, round 

The Provencal suffix -ENA, from a Latin -ENA, the 
feminine form of -ENUS, is seen in a few words of purely 
collective meaning: 

airanUna, about forty earanla, forty 

dotzena, about a dozea doite, twelve 

aelzena,^ about BiTcteen utie, sixteen 

n-ith ihc agglutination of an article must have taken place, however, Vo 
give lejidorela. 

macartl, mackerel, is obacure. but is not a Prov. formation. Cf. 
Fr. maguertau. 

manganel or mangonel, machine for throwing Btonee. The base- 
word seeiDB to bo the Lat. manganutn, sling. 

majtlel, a ahtHl. from the Lat. mantell-um. 

marlel, hammer, from martellam for rnarluJiu. 

inorcet, anot, mucus. A simple word may hava euated. Cf. the 
Fr. morcc and moneau, 

naiJel, young duck (?), for *ancdel, derived from amde. The initial 
a haa disappeared, and the e haa become a, possibly through asaociation 
with Ttadar, tO awim. 

palpelia), eyelid. The Lat. source is palp^ra at 'pcdpttra. A 
number of Prov. forms are found, aa po/perfn and patptTa. The eoding 
-EIRA may have been taken for a suffix and -EL substituted. 

pcBlcl, pestle, is from the Lat. iniJtUum. 

pitord, pillory. -EL. -ET, and -IC are all found, and the whole 
word is a puiile. See pUeric, above. 

piloiela, mouse.«at {a plant). From a Med. Lat. piloeella, derived 
from piloius. hairy. 

piaxpernela, pimpernel, of obscure origin. There is a late Lat. 

rudcta, somersault, aeems to be connected with rodolar or rtdotar, 
to turn, aod with roda, wheel. la either case, the initial vowel changed 

t Also of Ijkt. origin, nomna, about nine, or "novena" (an ecclesio- 
logical term), from the Ldt. adjective novenui, used substantively in the 
feminine form in Eccl. Lat. See Du Cangc, novena. 


Formation op Nouns 177 

But leaving out of consideration the ordinal numerals, 
which will be given under the adjectives, this seems to be 
about the only use of the suffix. Terrentia, of land, of 
earth, and its neuter form tenenum, land, formed on terra, 
seems to be the only clear example of the use of -ENUS 
as a sufiix in Latin, and here the simple and the derived 
words have little difference in meaning. A similar 
formation for which this word seems to be the model is 
seen in the Proven5al 

gravena, sand beach grava, sand beuh 

only here it seems to be the feminine, or perhaps the neuter 
plural form that is used; if the feminine, probably because 
the suf&x -ENA was added to a feminine noun without 
passing through any intermediate stage as adjective, as 
did lerrenum, the suSix -EN, -ENA now being regarded as 
a sufHx used in forming nouns.' The Romance formations 
in the other languages are feminine, and it is this suffix, 
detached from these nouns, that b added to adjectives of 
number to form collectives (as in the list on p. 176), 
perhaps because there is a kind of collective force in most 
of these words, or perhaps through the use of the suffix 
-EN in the ordinal numerals.' 

One other word showing the ending -ena is felena, 
granddaughter, beside which exists a masculine form, 
felen. The ending, here, however, is not the suffix treated 
above, and is probably not a suffix at all.' 

' Or became the word in -ENA always agreed with terra, understood. 

> The nouns in -EN. such as fenhen, jaien, ponen, etc., are simply 
participles used Bjbatantirely. and will be found listed under nouns from 
verba, p. 540. 


178 Word-Formation in Provencal 


The commonest use of the Provengal suffix -ENC was 
that of forming adjectives, under which heading it will 
again be treated/ yet there are also some nouns with this 
ending. In most of these words, however, an origmal 
adjective force is easily discernible, and they are formed, 
like most adjectives, on nouns. Just what the source 
of these endings was is not quite clear. It was long sup- 
posed that the Germanic suffix -ING, used chiefly in 
patronymics, but also by extension to designate kinds of 
coins, was the source of all the words ending in -ENC, 
although in many cases the extension of meaning seemed 
very wide indeed. Recently, however, Philipon,* argu- 
ing partly from the feminine form of the adjective, namely, 
-ENCA instead of -ENGA, which would be expected, and 
partly from the non-existence in French of words whose 
stem is Latin that have this suffix, claimed that the suffix 
represented in the Provencal words of Latin origin is not 
the Germanic -ING, but a pre-Germanic -INCO, which 
would give -ENCA in the feminine. This much seems 
clear: that words whose feminine ends in -ENCA would 
be hard to explain as coming direct from -ING without 
being influenced by another suffix; and that the existence 
of -ENC < -ING in a few words of Germanic origin in 
French does not prove its existence as a Romance suffix.* 
In Provencal, on the other hand, -ENC is very frequent in 
words of Latin origin, and this is the suflix which Philipon 
explains by the pre-Germanic -INCO; for if this suffix 
were the Germanic -ING, why is it not found in words of 
Romance origin in French ?* 

' P. 308. below, > Romania. XXXV. 1. 

• See Romanui, XXXV, 20. 

• The Germanic HufEies beiou added also later to Lat. stemB, but 
extremely early Lat. sutaxea of limited use hardly having time to reach 
notthem FraQce. . 


FoBMATioN OF Nouns 179 

The process seems to have been as follows: Thb suffix 
-INCO, giving -ENC, -ENCA, was added to nouns to 
form adjectives; but in Provencal we find also some 
nouns ending in -ENC which are, for the most part, 
only these adjectives used substantively. There are, 
however, also among these words in -ENC, some of purely 
Germanic orig^ in which -ENC is not the pre-Germanic 
-INCO, and some with a feminine -ENGA which seem 
to be derived, after all, from the Germanic suffix through 
becoming associated with -INCO. The names of coins 
ending in -ENC could be derived in either way, but as 
Thomas states' that the Germanic suffix had this use, it 
seems more natural to derive them from it than from 

The formations on nouns apparently representing 
adjectives used substantively and formed by means of 
-INCO are: 

aJbenc, white cloth : albenc is also found as an adjective 
meaning whitish, and is probably derived from alba. 

doblenc, a kind of bread: doblejic is found also as an 
adjective meaning "double." The feminine form, doblenca, 
is found also with the same meaning and excludes the 
derivation from -ING. From doble, double. 

famolenc, hungry wretch: This word seems to show, 
in the first place, a substitution of the suffix -ENC for -EN 
or -ENT from famulentus, hungry. Then came the sub- 
stantive use of the adjective. 

meiladene,' a kind of meaaure from meU^U, half 

ortiene, descendant; deaoent m-de, order 

patttnc,' pasturage past, food 

plowcxfenc, bushes, hedge piaiiot, hedge 

■ Romania, XXXV, 21. 

> See Eataia, 273. 

< Another word with the same 
padoenl. Du Cause lists both pado^ 



The last two words show little difference in meaning 
from the simple nouns on which they were formed. 

Added to a preposition, the same suffix gives 
forene,' foreigner /or, out o( 

Besides the above examples of the use as substantives 
of adjectives formed by the addition of the suffix -INCO, 
there are other nouns denoting coins in which the suffix 
is not so clear, but seems to be either the Germanic suffix 
-ING, which had this use, or at least shows the influence 
of this suffix on -INCO joined to words of which some are 
of Latin origin. Words of this kind are: aigonenc, amau- 
denc, caorcenc, guilkalmene, oUmenc, quintinenc, raimon- 

A similar kind of derivation is in anfozenc, meaning, not 
a coin made by a person, but his followers, derived from 
Anfos, (Alphonse), also loherenc, from Lohicr.* 

A word of apparently purely Germanic origin is helenc, 
rock, probably from the same source as the Italian fcifenco.' 
The feminine form -ENCA also is found in: 

These words are both apparently adjectives used as 

' The formation of th[B word may have been partly due to analogy 
with s •prt>6CTie <<pn>pinquiM), which may be Been ia the pareaynthetic 
verb aprohencaT. 

' For these words, many of which are not in the dictionarieB, see 
Rtmanta. XXXV, 21. 

> Eimu, 237. 

• Other more obscure words are ffaiene. plowshare, and acodene, 
outer bark of a tree. Cf. with enccdal. 

> See also double suffixes, p. 403. Motlarento may be compared with 
eatarene and cauierenc. given below under the adjective suffix -ENC, 
This suffix, like -IA, -XL'. -XDA. etc., seems to have been sometimes 
joined to lornis of -ARIL'S (here represented by -AR and -Ett), making a 
compound suffix. 


-ERNA is found in several worda in Provengal, and may, 
perhaps, be treated as a suffix, although there are no certain 
examples of its being added to a Provengal word already 
existing, to modify its meaning. It seems to have been 
detached from the few I<atin words in which it existed, to 
form a few new Provencal words, although this is not 
certain. For example, of the Latin words, lucema has 
become luzema, and quaiema {qtuUuor) seems to have 
become cazema, barracks (originally for four), but in the 
one example in which it appears its meaning is very doubt- 
fiil.' Another word, given by Appel,* is softcma, which 
he translates by high water, flood. This seems to repre- 
sent also a Latin adjective, supemus, bigh.t 

Other Provencal words with this ending are: 
buema (bulema, bolema, biuentaj, 

faitema, (?) 

gda-na, northwest wind 
lobema, skin of the lynx 

All of these words are more or less obscure in origin. 
Buema, indeed, seems hopelessly obscure, although, as the 
ending -EKNA occurs in all of its forms, it seems probable 
that we have to do with the suffix.' The next word, 
faUema,' is also very puzzling. Levy gives no transla- 
tion for it, but refers to the Modern Provencal fautemo, 

' Levy. I, 237. The Fr, ctueme Beems to have come Trom this 
word, and the meaniog of barracks Gts as well as anythiDg else suggested 
for the meanius. 

' Vocabulary. 

• The stem may possibly bo the one found in the Fr. 6roii^e and 
bmuillard, which are of Germanic origin, although the disappearani^e of 
the r would be hard to explain. See KOrting, No. 1,589, also No. 7,492 

t Still another word of Lat. origin is laniema, lantern. 



meaning a dazzling, dimness of sight, a Bickering light; 
a phantom; and a frivolous person. In the passage 
quoted, the last is the only one of these meanings possible, 
but the word here aeems rather to mean immodesty or 
shamelessness. If the word is a Provencal formation, 
the only word on which it could be based is falta, a fault 
or lack. It seems possible, however, to derive all of 
Mistral's meanings from this word, and it faltema means 
immodesty, this meaning is acquired simply by using 
a concrete noun (frivolous person) with abstract force. 
There is another faUema, of Latin origin, which should 
not be confused with the word just discussed.* 

Oalema seems to be a formation by means of -ERNA 
on the stem found in the English "gale."' 

Lobemd' is formed on loba, wolf, unless there may be a 
Latin *lupemus. 

The Provencal ending -EB in its ordinary uses seems 
to represent the Vulgar Latin -ESIS and the Classic Latin 
-ENSIS, and consequently gives little difficulty as to 
meaning. It was originally attached to nouns of place to 
designate their inhabitants: 
boTffoea, barges, inhabitant of a tore, citadel ( 7) 

Carcates, inhabitant of Carcas- 

DaineK, Dane 

Eg-panes, Spaniard Espana ( ?), Sp^n 

Frances, Frenchman Fransa, France 

Genoee, inhabitant of Genoa Genoa (?), Genoa 

marguei, marquis marea, march 

I This is a word meaDiDg "aristoiochia," a plant. See Nout. Eti., 
267, and 271, note I. 

> See Die, Otn., galeme. > S«e Mflannu, 102. 



and is found attached to a preposition in 
/orM,' foreigner for, out ot 

All of these words are simply adjectives used sub- 
stantively, and many of them are found in Provencal as 
adjectives also. Another use of the suffix was to make it 
designate things — particularly coins — as well as persons 
from the place indicated by the simple noun: 
AUmta (for ianta ataaeaa), lance 

made in Alava 
gaianet, coin of the duke of Guy- 

■poBtt, large shield Puma, Pavia 

tomet, coin of Touis 

These words are all, then, simply adjectives used 
substantively. In a few other words, however, the suffix 
seems to be somewhat more freely used, without any 
clearly defined meaning: 

coann, a person preferred as conn, relative 


jaqutt, a garment or weapon ( ?) jaea, shirt of mail 

mam, shore mar, sea 

jiagt*, quarrelsome pereon; law- jilag, lawsuit 


the suffix in the last word seeming to denote the agent; 
but these words, again, may originally have been used as 

Now, besides the words in -ES, coming from -ENSIS, 
there are also some words whose meaning is abstract, and 
whose source, therefore, can hardly be this adjective 
suffix. -tTIUM would be phonetically possible as a 

> A Lat. fortraii ia found, but with a different meaning. 


184 Word-Formation in Provencal 

source for -ES, as -ITIA was the source for -EZA, the 
consonant becoming unvoiced at the end of a word. 
-ICIUM would be also possible phonetically (beside 
-ICIA, giving -ESA), as in cotes {cabetz), from capidum. 
Thus it is hard to be certain as to the source of the few 
abstracts we find ending in -ES. -ITIUM, however, 
seems perhaps the more probable, as being the neuter 
form of a regular abstract suffix -iTIA, whereas -ICIUM 
as an abstract suffix would be reached through -ICIA, 
which in turn received its abstract force through a con- 
fusion with -iTIA. Of course, -ICIUM is found in Latin 
in the abstract judXdum, but it seems never to have been 
really used as a suffix, such words having only a learned 
development.' The same, however, is also true of the 
Latin words in -ITIUM, so that the source of the abstracts 
in -ES is difficult to settle. In any case, however, the t 
developed as a short i, so that it is unnecessary to suppose, 
as -seems essential for French, any substitution of -ITIA 
for -iTIA. No case of an abstract noun formed in Pro- 
ven^l and ending in -IS or -IZA is to be found. In 
-ES, however, we find the following abstracts: 
fadea, fatuity, conceit fal, foolish 

laides, base deed ( ?) laid, dirty 

neaoiet, ignorance f nesci, ignorant 

and it is apparently added to nouns in 

diabU*,* deviltry, devilish words diable, devil 

omenet,' homage, vassalage ome{n), man 

■pagezeg, boorish conduct P^Qt^i peasant 

■parentea,' relationahip, relations pnren((). relation 

' Thus judieivm became jatizi. 

'Diabltaa a alao found, but its precise meaniog is not clear. 

' For omeneic and parmtetc. 

t Also, more obscure, lipaudee, flattery. Sec also under -EZA, p. 196. 


Formation of Nouns 

One of the commonest of the femiume suffixes in 
Romance is that which comes from the Greek -uraa, which 
^ves in Proven^l -ESA regularly. Its meanings here 
are exactly the same aa in the other Romance languages: 
it turned into feminines the masculine nouns to which 
it was 'added. Two kinds of words seem to take the 
suffix regularly — those denoting rank of some kind and 
the names of animals — which is very different from the 
use of the other common feminine suffix, -TRIX, always 
used, as might be expected from its addition to a verb- 
stem, to designate a woman who does the particular 
thing denoted by the verb to which it was joined, 
whether a corresponding masculine form existed or not, 
and never, therefore, like -ESA, merely a feminization of 
some masculine form. 

Most of the words denoting rank are found in all of 
the Romance languages, and seem to indicate a Latin 
origin. Such words as coyrUeaa, countess; duqueaa, 
duchess, and princeaa, princess, can hardly be treated, 
therefore, as Proven9al formations. Other words denot- 
ing persons are: 

deatta, goddees deu, god 

favreta, smith's wife faure, smith 

lainmeta, female robber lairon, robber 

nuiettTeaa, mistreea, lord's wife maaiire, master 

majoresa, female ruler majoT, chief 

melgeta, female physiciBn metge, physitnan 

oetaa, hostess oste, host 

pesforua, baker's wife petlor, baker 

preoeireta, priest's concubine pretieirt, priest 

««nJbrua, lady amhor, lord 

the purely passive meaning being seen infauresa, the wife 
of a man who does certain things, rather than a woman 


186 Word-Formation in Provencal 

doing those things herself. Laironesa and pestoreea 
imply more action, but are still only feminine forms of 
nouns originally masculine. -ESA can have hoth of 
these kinds of meaning. 

Names of animals are seen in: 
tiephanieai, fem&le elephant eUphant, elephant 

Uoneta, iioneas Uon, lion 

The Provencal suffix -ESC is one that is somewhat 
difficult to explain. It appears to arise from a confusion 
of the Latin -ISCUS, from the Greek suffix -icx<K, 
with the Germanic suffix -ISK. The Greek suffix, 
used originally as a diminutive, when it became common 
in Latin appears to have been used simply to form 
adjectives, of which there are several examples in Pro- 
vencal. Then this adjective suffix, becoming confused 
with the Germanic patronymic -ISK, appears to have 
given rise to another kind of adjectives, namely, those of 
nationality, of which there are examples in most of the 
Romance languages.* But there are also nouns with 
this suffix, and these are somewhat harder to explain. 
One or two of these words appear to be simply adjectives 
used substantively, and it is probable that most of them 
are of this kind. For example, we find the word /rairesca, 
meaning brother's portion, then inheritance, which looks 
like a substantive made of the feminine form of the adjec- 
tive originally used. The meanings of these nouns seem 
to be of two kinds, abstract and collective. The abstracts 
are as follows ; 

fadeic, folly }ai, fool 

fTavTMca, brother'a portion fraire, brother 

omenfsc, homage omei,n,), man 

1 See -ESC, under adjective sufBxea. p. 310, below. 


Formation of Nouns 187 

pantUtK, relationship porenft), rdative 

privadese, intimacy priBOt, intimate 

rfbawjesea, ribaldry ribaut, ribald 

i^anetea, v/antse, arrogance, pr&- ufoTia, arrogance 

pilanetca,t villiuny viian, nllager 

all of which might easily be adjectives used substantively. 
The use of the two forms, even in the same word, as 
ufanesca beside ufanesc, seems to point to an original 
adjective use. These words, then, were simply different 
forms of the adjective ufanesc, from which the nouns with 
which they were used have disappeared. 

Other nouns not abstract (or collective), but which were 
probably adjectives used substantively, are: 
mageaea, tax on right of selling moQ, May 

wine Qn May [71); cf. magenca 
manetea, bariey planted in March marU, March 

The collectives are as follows: 
emdrttea, ashee cendre, ashes 

juMOMc, Judusm jvzUu, Jew 

ormete,* filth, exorements 
Knnese,tt neighborhood oezin, ndghbor 

■ Formed on orraa instead of onana t Or on OTTtza, the feminine 

t Another word, not an abstract, but nevertheleM notbinc but an 
adjective uaed substanUvely, is balartte. ballad, from bal, ball, dance. 
The -ar is inserted probably by aoatogy with Joglarete. 

tt Other words in -ESC(A) are: alhuetea,beriresea,raB6$ea, and marae. 

aJ&uefca. pumpkin, is probably of the same orisin as the Sp. oitiufeM 
and Port. olbudMca, but influenced in form by the suffix -ESC. The 
Mod. Prov. form is aabUca. See Romania, XXXV, 100. 

bertrttca, wooden faatenins, is probably from the Germanic breU + 
-ESCA. C(. the O.Fr. brttetcht in its various forma. See also Korting, 
No. 1,504. 

aneiea, sparrow-ovl (Fr. chevlehe), seems to have the diminutive 
■uSx -ESC joined to some stem not perfectly clear, but is found again in 
the Mod. Prov. eavMo, in which the other diminutive suffix -ECCUS 
may be seen. Caput cannot be the base-word here. See eherlcke in 
Die. Oen. and in ZeiUchriSl, XX, 339. The same influence of -ESC on 
a word that originally ended in -EC, as was seen in aUruaca, is seen here. 

mareec, swampy land (Fr. marait), is probably of Germanic origin. 



but they are closely related with the above abstract 
forms. For instance, in juzeveac and vezineac it is hard to 
tell whether or not, after all, we have abstract words. 
Some of the words given under abstracts, as parenteic, 
seem to be almost collective in meaning, and the distinc- 
tion is not great in words of this kind. 

-ET, -ETA 

-ET (-ETA), from the Latm -ITTUS'{A), is by farthe 
most important of all the diminutive suffixes as regards the 
number of words which contain it in Provencal and also 
in the other Romance languages. The only other com- 
mon diminutive in Proven^l is -EL, from -ELLUS, and 
this suffix has very frequently lost all diminutive force. 
-ET, however, differs from -EL in that it almost' always is 
a true diminutive, and also in that the simple word to 
which it was joined still existed in the language. This 
would naturally be the case, for had it been joined with- 
out change of meaning, as was the case with -EL, the tend- 
ency would be for the word in less common use, almost 
always the simple word, to disappear. When there was a 
real difference in meaning between the two words, there 
was room for both in the language. There are very few 
words in -ET in Provengal, then, beside which the simple 
word does not exist. Both simple and derived word 

■ As to the source of -ITTUS itself there is some qucstioo. Hornins 
(.ZeiUckrift. XX. 351) auggeata that it may represeot the Lat. -ITU8. 
as io avilut, capritut — adjectives Buperedding other diminutive auSiiea 
{cabridel, etc.). These final suffices later diBuppeared, and -ITTUS, 
whoBe ( was doubled by compenHation for the loss of the other suffii. 
took diminutive force. After the doubling of the 1, -ITUS became 
-ITTUS, which form still exiats in Sp. and Port, ieabriio). In Fr., Prov., 
and It., before the double consonant, the i was shortened (as tUlera — 
titera). Thus we find chenrelle. cabreta, cappreOa. Other diminutive 
suffixes with a doubled I are -ATTUS (p. 148) and -OTTUS tp- 255), 
and another devdopment of -ITTUS, namely, -IT (p. 239). 


Formation of Nouns 189 

may, of course, have come down to us from Latin, or the 
derived one may have been formed in Provencal, the 
exact time of formation always being difficult to deter- 
mine except by the texts in which the derived word 
may be found in Latin, and by the number of Romance 
languages having it 8imultaneoualy. At any rate, the 
use of -ET<-ITTUS as a diminutive persisted in Pro- 
vencal, as it still persists in French. A [wculiarity of 
its use is the frequency with which it' is added to 
words previously containing a suffix, such as -lER, -AS, 
etc., but especially the former diminutive -EL. Nothing 
shows more clearly bow much more of its diminutive force 
-EL had lost than -ET; for -ELET is a very common 
double suffix, probably thought of as a sii^te one, whereas 
-EL is never added to -ET or to any other diminutive, 
and seldom to any suffix at all. 

In the following list all the words ending in -ET(A), 
with purely diminutive force, beside which the simple 
word is to be found, will be placed first, and the more 
difficult words will be reserved for later lists. The mean- 
ings will be given only when the diminutive force is not 
perfectly clear. The sign < is used in this list to mean 
"derived from." 

aguiiiela<agidha, needle anhdePKanhd, lamp 

aiguetaKaiga, water arenetaKarena, shore 

albelaKalba. dawn aurdheta, fritter < a urelAa, ear 

anMadureta^KaTMadura, am- autelePKaiuel, bird 

bling pace oDelanttaKavelana, acom 

amigitela<amiga, friend azen€l<rae(_n), donkey 

atTtorela, love affair, Birtation baladeta<halada, ballad 

<amoT, love barTeta<barTa, bar 

ampoleta Kampala, blister barrileKbarrU, barrel 

atttkC<anel, ring bast<mei<ba3ton, lance 

< See real double auffiies, p. 3S4. 

■ See the compound suffix -ELET, under double suffixes, pp. 391-02. 



bhdel, cornfield 01 

<blal, grain 
boqiieKboc, buck 

boTBeKbrnsa, purse 
boaqvetKboac, woods 
bolonet, email sack, purae< 

bobm, button, bud 
bre«oiet^<bre»ol, cradle 
brevet, piece of WTitiiig<br^, 

brief, wairant 
bvdeUKbueUl, bo web 
bufet, bellows<friV, blowing 
aAateKcAas, basket 
eabel, heBd-faole<cap, head 
aAretaKcabra, goat 
eaddeKcadd, young dog 
eaireUt, Bmali croesbow-ahaft< 

eairontt<cairon, hewn stone 
eambretaKcan^ra, room 
caneKcan, dog 
catumeKcarum, reed 
canioneKcajiton, comer 
eapelet,' garlsind of flowers for 

head<eapel, hat 
earrairebi,' little lane<eiimeni, 

carlela<<XTla, card 
eag<Uet^<caiai, country house 
e(uuUfi<caslel, castle 
cavlet, cabbage < caul, cabbage 

(here no diminutive force) 
eeleta<eela, cell 
eentureKcerUura, belt 

harvest (?) CMd«(,pierdngcry<ct«eIe,chirp- 

clerguet, minister <cler{rue, clerk 
rse cogoTleta<cogord4t,* gourd 

ooguUiaKcofful, cuckoo 
(xdeKcal, hill 
coleKcol, throat, neck 
coUumei^<coUum, testicle 
conhet<conh, comer 
ctmqvet<amea, measure of grain 
cordetaKcorda, cord 
comeKcom, horn 
corrtyeta<correja, strap 
coTsei, doub!et<cora, body 
costetaK casta, coast 
crogueKcroc, hook 
erotieta<crolz, cross 
eulhairet,' small spoonful <cui- 

Ater, spoon 
dedwt<dec{h), property 
denaireff Kdenier, penny 
derUdheeKdenUlK, batlJement 
donelaKdoTui, lady 
dometet^ (o) < donadCa), lord, 

enf(aitet<enfan(t), child 
e^ontonef' <e;^anton, child 
enferneKenfem, hell 
ewflaneta, arrow <enflona 
erbeUi<erba, grass 
escaieia, spring of crossbow < 

eecala, ladder, staircase; Utter 
e8ciuUt<eBcut, shield 
eamagel, picture < esma^ 
eepazela<.eBpaza, sword 

■ See real double suffizea, pp. 382-83. 

' See the compound euffii -ELET, under double auffiies, pp. 3S1-9S. 

> See the compound auffii -AIRET. under double suffixes, p. 393. 

• There was almost certainly a form eogorta. for Mistral cites it for 
O.Prov., but it is in neither Raynouard nor Levy. Mistral, howevsr, 
eivea several nsmea of plants similar in form, but with I instead of d; 
for example, eaueoareUlo. 




es^udeta<esqu^, bell 
etajeKeaai, teet 
e^aiAeKettoMe, ataJ] 
t^tigeKeAug, case 
fajcitKfajol, be&D 
fauet<fait, bundle 
falela</ala, market 
falteKfala, peg 
JaUeKfalt, aick]e 
femnda<fenaia, wonuu) 
Jt/ne»tTela<fene»tra, window 
ferretaKferra, kind of weapon 
jiitKfil, thread 

/tttd(a)<jUA(o), aon, daughter 
ji3Md.'^<fiihtA, godson 
fioquet<fioc, tuft 
fogateU^ <foga»a, kind of roll 
/ofei, goblin </(rf, fool 
/ottet, leaf of book</<rfA, leaf 
f<Ahela<.ftAha, leaf 
fontela<fon(,t), founttun 
forgueta, clamp </orca, fork 
fraekUel Kfirachit, a clasp, buckle 
/utfei!, kind of wood</uet, wood 
0acAe(a<pacAa, watch 
04^cf, tenterhook <Bi[^, hook 
gauKgai, jay 

ganidet,^ gauntlet <()ian<, glove 
jimbUet, ffoHtiKgimbila, wim- 
ble" (?) 
llUizeia<gleua, church 
gUaela<glo2a, gloss 
goleta, small canal<^fa, throat 

gorjaireta,* gorget, Kgorgiera, 

go»et<gog, dog 
0ofe<(i, small drop; also a lund of 

disease <iKXa, drop 
grartet<gnm, grain 
gr<u<Uet(fl)<gnaaHa), bowl 
grilhet<griih, cricket 
Heta, islet <tla, island 
jaieKjcd, jet 
joqueKjoc, game 
joglareKjoglaT, "jongleur" 
jftpet, short skirt <>upa, skirt 
jutUKjufia, cane 
teAufuela<AicAu^, lettuce 
lagr«mtbi<lagrema, tear 
Ian«e(a<2anaa, lance 
laiaeta<laiaa, dish, plate 
legtteta<lega, league 
knffueta<lenga, tongue 
Uonet<Uo{n), lion 
Ielre(a<Ietra, letter 
UameKliam, bond 
Ii6rd<ii6re, book 
lob^<U>p, wolf 
lopueKioc, place 
2umel<ium, light 
hinetKluna, round window 
luquet<lw:, lock 
motzonef a < matzfm, houae 
TtuUkel, mallet <rrH)IA (no change 

in meaning) 
manUkfiKtnarUd, mantle 

'See real double suffixes, p. 383. 

> See the compound suffix -ELET, under double suffixes, pp. 3B1-92. 

' This seems to be the meanini, though Levy does not traDslate the 
word. If ^mMi means wimble, it is the only example of the Bimple word 
in the Romance lansuBges, though the diminutive is found elsewhere. 
See Murray, "wimble.'' 

• See the compound suffix -AIRET, under double suffixes, p. 398. 

niffiies, pp. 3Q1-92. 



Word-Formation in Provencal 

marUlet^ < nuaiel, hammer 
moieta < mata, club 
malineKmalin, morning 
mtrcadairtPKmercadier, mer- 

oiofeta, lispKmoU, mold (?) 
tntMonet<molton, sheep 
moneguelaK'numegue, monk 
mo/eP<moi, word 
mtdeKmvi, mule 
mvxeKmuT, wall 
miuquel, muak<mu«c, muak 
nadalet, week preceding ChriBt- 

maa <nadal, Chiistmas 
navela<nau, ship 
nin«ta<ni>ut, girl 
ofebi<oIa, jar 
olhet<oUt, eye 
omhrefa<omJ>ra, shade 
(»-faJ«t*<(fr<(ii, garden 
o»et<os, bone 
(M(ateC<o«(oi, hotel 
padeUtaKpadela, stove 
potroIe( <pairo(, kettle 
palet<pal, stake 
'paieta, long, flat-handled spoon. 

<pala, Hhovel 
palhet, kind of cloak<p(i{t, a 

kind of material 
paneKpan, piece 
pan£efa<7urMa, belly 
poont f < poon, peacock 
paserela<pa»era, spairow 
pasetKpat, step 
paatoret{a)<paslor(a), shepherd- 

pdretaKpeira, stone 

I See the oompoimd EUffii -ELBT. under double miffixes, below 
(pp. 391-92). The woid ia in Appel and also in the tittle Levy. 

■ See, under double auffiies, the compound suffii -AIRET, p. 308. 

• Has also a more specialised meaning. 

• See real double suffixes, pp. 383-S4. 

peisonet^KpeUon, fiah 
peletKpel, hair 
peUta<pel, skin 
pdi»eta*<pdi3a, pelisse 
penetaKpena, feather 
peolheKpeolIt, louse 
peoTtet, pawn<pe(2)on, foot- 

per(uze(<pertlM, hole 
peseta, small coin<pet, weight 
piloleta<pUt^, piU 
piioteta<pUota, ball 
lAanqvetaKplanea, bridge 
plaaelaKpUiaa, square 
plumxiaKpluma, pen, feather 
pogeKpog, hill 
pojoUta<pojol, hill 
poleKpol, chicken 
polverela<poltiera, dust, powder 
p<mchel<poneh, point 
ponhet, sleeve of coat < pimA, fist 
ponaddfKpoiwel, small bridge 
ponUKponl, bridge 
pfyrcelei,' sucking pig < parcel, 

small pig 
poTtalel,' small door < portal, 

porUta<porta, door 
poalelaKpoela, post 
poleKpol, pot 
preeteKpresl, loan 
TabeCa<Taba, radish 
ratn«ta<ratn(i, frog 
rame(<ram, branch 
roieto <7'Qta, rat 
reaposet, a verse < rapos, re- 




A few words add the suffix without change of meaning, 
or any diminutive force whatever.' Thus there are: 

alaiueta and alauia, lark 
cauUl and eavl, cabbage 
daedet uid elaod, nail 
ftsreta and /vra, female ferret 
malhet and maih, mallet 
vtarmet and marme (or marmre), 

mealhata and meaiha, half-penny 
pampet and pampa, vine, branch 
parentet and paren(i), relation 
pateta and paia, kerchief 
piuedeta and pitieela, maiden 
popela and popa, breast 

Several nouns also are formed on adjectives by means 
of the suffix -ET. Most of these, however, appear to be 
the adjective with the suffix simpty used substantively. 

blanquet, white cloth Uatu, white 

bmcta, bonnet, cap (oi^nally (from bon, good ( 7) This ety- 
fiae cloth) mology, however, is more than 

doubtful, and the word may 
be treated as obscure) 
cmpdet,^ fritter creepd, curled, crisp 

galhardet, a scalloped Sag galhart, merry, gay 

There is also a word laset, weariness, from laa, weary, 
but it seems improbable that this should represent-ITTUS, 
which was never used in forming abstracts. The word 
is also spelled laaee, in which the -EC might represent 
-ECCUS, which was also, however, usually a diminutive. 
The Modem Proven^ words given by Mistral are haaech, 
lassi, and lassige.' See also noveleta below. 

■ At any rate, none ia shoirn in Che translations of them given in 
the dictionary. It ia hard to determine in every case whether there was 
any diminutive force or not. Possibly other words also should be added. 

• See -ELET under double sufExeB, pp. 391-92. 

• II, 190. 



meniukt, small child; brother in 'menul, email 

minor ordera 
moriquet,'^ kind of cloth 
novdeta,* disposseeeion novel, new 

pigvel, kind o( cloth pk, black and white 

A few other words appear to be formed on verbs. 
Such are: 

motquet, horse-net motear, drive away flies 

naJreUt, small wound nafrar, wound 

}nuld,t bird-call 'pivlar, scream 

The Provencal suflSx -EZA is, after -AMEN and 
-ANSA, perhaps the most usual of the abstract suffixes. 
Generally speaking, it presents little difficulty, as it is a 
regular phonetic development of the Latin -iTIA, and 
was added in almost all cases to adjectives to form abstract 
nouns. There are, however, several words containing 
-ESA instead of -EZA, and also several words in which 
the suffix was joined to nouns, each of which cases will 
be treated separately. -EZA joined to adjectives forms 
abstracts in : 

adreeheta, uprightness adrech, upright 

,' bitterness amor, bitter 

' No nmple word fouDd. Appeare to be the same as morttguin, 
and probably changed its miffii on account of the analogy of other woids 
in -ET denotins kinds of cloth. 

■ For the abstract meaninK, see ltu<t, above. 

> Amaritit^ in Lat. See Cooper, 49. 

t Possibly also prealti, loan, Kiven with the real diminutives. 

There are several words ending in -ET that are more or less obscure, 
both in form and meaning. None of them can be Prov. formations. These 
words are; aiheta. girdle, band; falttia (obscure in meaning), connected 
with/aI6, brown; gerUt, a kind of fish; greQUfta, necklace (see Du Cange, 
gteottiiiim) ; grolet, a kind of dish (cf. Fr. graleKgmcitla [ 7]) ; gormet, cabin- 
boy (for gormd cf. the Fr. iiounncf, from the Engl, "groom"); guionet, 
small auger (see ffuimmet in Mistral. II, 111). In all of these words -ET 
probably represents the suffii -ITTUS. 



Word-Formation in Provencal 

apteta, skill 

ardideza, boldness 

avleta, aiioUia, baseness, cowardice 

auUta, height, abundance 

airintnleta, pleamng conduct 

baieeia, baseness 

baudega, boldness 

bdega, beauty 

blaiiem, Itvidity 

breiieza, brevity 

caiUveza, captivity 

ceffueza, blindness 

ccrtezn, certsinty 

,' community 
tiseleta, cruelty 
deeleialega, disloyalty 
deiadrecheia, impropiiety 
tioheza, mildness 
rfrecAezo, uprightness 
egaleza, equality 
en/ru7icza, insatiability 
1, anger 

eaperteza, skill 
eapeiteza,^ thickness 
ettranheza, shyness, timitUty 

fadeat, fooHshness 
fadrineza, youth 
faibeia, paleness 

fMeza, weakness 
feloneza, cruelty 
fereza, horror, fear 
fernteza, firmness 
fineza, purity 
fizalfza, faithfulness 
flaqueza, weakness 
Soleza, folly 

apU, skjlful 

ardU, bold 

avl, ami, base, cowardly 

aiU, h^h 

annen(f), tdeasing 

ha», low 

haul, bold 

bd, beautiful 

Uau, blue, bad 

hrea, brief 

catA'u, captive 

cec, bhnd 

eeri, certain 

co6es, covetous 

eomiTud, common 

cnud, cnael, cruel 

dealeuU, disloyal 

deeadrech, improper 

dole, mild 

drech, upright 

egal, equal 

en/run, insatiable 

engreg, angry 

escara, stingy 

espert, skilled 

etpes, thick 

ettranh, strange 

fal, foolish 

fadrin, vagabond, young fellow 

falb. pale 

/eWe, feeble 

felon, cruel 

fer, wild, cruel, terrible 

ferm, firm 

fin, fine, pure 

fiiol, faithful, trustworthy 

fol, foolish 

I See double auffiies, p. 3S5. 

' Thero is bIbo a verb Mpewar, from *«pi»»iare 

bepD modified in form by this verb. 

Eipeimm may have 



Word-Formation in Provencal 

negreia, blackness 

rKffre, black 

nesctMo, ignorance 

fMwet, ignorant 

nobleza, nobility 

rwHe, noble 

nondeta, newness; unusual aise or 

novd, new 


roiolh, indolent 

nudeza, nudity 

nui, nude 

orbeza, blindiiess 

arp, bUnd 

0TT6| noma 


paubrczo, poverty 

paudre, poor 

peguem, folly 

pec, foolish 

V^U, small 

pfe™«o, fulness 



■pniOieza, pr^^nancy 

yrmh, pregnant 

preondeza, depth 

preon(da), deep 

■prim, thin, smi^ 

prixal, private 

proeta, prowess 

pro, valiant 

pureia, purity 

pur, pure 

roue, hoarse 

redanida), round 

regeia, stiffness 

regt, stiff 

Togeza, redness 

n>ge, red 

rude, rude 

taddeza, satiety 

nadoi, satiated 

aanlexa, sanctity 

sonf, sUDtly 

lomtia, wisdom 

»aw, wise 

s«c, dry 

nAeza, solitude 

soi, done 

stwcwa, gentleness 

SKOU. suave 

lubliieza, subtlety 

tubtU, subtle 

tardeza, slowness 

tart, late 

tebeai, tebczeia,' lukewarmness 

tefte, lukewarm 

Undreta, tenderness 

iendre, tender 

> This ie peculiar in being formed on a word that already baa both 
suffix and prefix (perduroile. formed on dur), but it is a ample auffix- 


Formation of Nouns 199 

vantta, boasting van, vun 

vdhtta, old age velh, old 

wnMlketa, pinkness vermeih, pink 

v&eta,^ baseness i^, vile 

Besides the words in the above list representing the 
phonetic development of -tTIA, there are a few others in 
-ESA or -ESSA, that is, with the voiceless sound of «, 
and spelled -ESA in Levy. These words may be explained 
in various waj^. In no case should -iTIA have pven 
the voiceless « phonetically, and we must look elsewhere 
for an explanation, which may perhaps be found in a 
substitution for -iTIA of -ICIA. This is a suffix which 
hardly appears in Romance except in the combination 
ARlCITJS, as seen in the Provencal -ARES, -AREZA, and 
the French -EREZ, -ERECE. -ICIUS, however, did 
exist in Latin, being added to noun-stems. In Proven^l, 
it b possibly seen in the word coiiea,' cabelz, collar, in 
which the precise meaning introduced by the suffix is not 
clear, though it seems, if anything, diminutive. Yet -ES 
in some words has an abstract meaning, just as -ESA has, 
and the question is how to account for them. It seems 
probable that, in the first place, -ICIA, without any very 
well-defined meaning, became confused, in some words, with 
-ITIA, and was substituted for it, which would account 
for the words in -ESSA, or -ESA, as in Levy. Bonasa 
<b<maeia may perhaps have had some influence in the 
change of bonitia to bon'lcia>bon€sa. This confusion 
and substitution of -ICIA for -iTIA probably occurred 
rather early, as the Provencal descendants of jtigriMa 
seem to indicate. Here Raynouard gives, besides the 

1 Se« p. 146. above. 

t Of Lat. origin i 
duriltet are found. La 
from taiut. 


200 Word-Formation in Provencal 

regular jngreza and jngresa, which should come from pigri- 
da, also pigricia, which seems to represent unchanged a 
Latin pigricia. The Provencal abstracts In -ES probably 
are derived from -ICIUM, which seems itself to have 
taken the abstract meaning which the corresponding 
feminine form had received through a confusion with 

The Provencal words with -ESA instead of -EZA are 
as follows : 

aUgreta, happiness 

akgre, happy, joyful 

ban, good 

dometlic, domestic, familiar 

joineaa, youth 

lUaa, joy. This cannot represent 
directly either laelUia or 'laeli- 
da. It seems to be a borrow- 
ing /rom the French lUtw. 

joint, young 

net, neat 

pigresa (Latin), laziness. See 


■primeaa, primacy 
tortem, crookedness 

■prim, first 
ion, crooked 

In a few cases -EZA (and -ESA) are added to nouns : 
aureza, folly aura, air 

boiseza,' box, case bois, box 

enfanleza, tnTancy en/an((), infant 

fnmtereza,' limit fTordeira, limit, boundary 

laiTonesa, robbery lairon, robber 

The last word represents UUronida for latrocinia, and 
bears out the idea of an abstract meaning for- ICIUS. 
The metathesis may have taken place under the influence 

' ProbBhly. however, not a Prov. formation. Thomas (MiUutg^, 
34) derives the word trotn pyxida. a Latiniiation of the Gr. buJk. 

■ For -AREZA<-ARICIUS, see double auRixes. The base-word 
for fTOnSereta is not front but /TonUxra, to which -AREZA was joined. 
Syllabic Buperposition takes place hero, however, giving fronteraa. See 
Ntmn. Eas., 69, 


Formation of Nouns 201 

of other abstracts in -ICIUS. Kaynouard has only the 
purely learned form laironici. 

Ugeza, right of vasaal lige, vassal 

nienUia, nullity nient, Dottiing 

orlakta,' t vegetable 


The Provencal suffix -lA, coining from a Latin -lA, 
which had been detached from Greek abstract nouns 
with this ending, gives little difficulty as to meaning, for 
it seems to have formed little but abstract nouns, although 
to form them the suffix was joined both to nouns and 
to adjectives, and also, in a few cases, to verb-stems. In 
words like baronia and borgezia, the suffix appears to have 
collective force, but this was probably a later develop- 
ment of meaning, and baronia may have meant ' ' nobility ' ' 
(abstract) before meaning the nobility or nobles. The 
chief difficulty in dealing with the sufHx is found in the fact 
that it was very frequently joined to the suffix -ARIUS to 
form a new compound suffix of varied meanings, -AIRIA, 
or more usually spelled -ARIA, also joined to nouns, ad- 
jectives, and verb-stems. In this suffix, then, originally 
added to the stem of words ending in -lER, all idea of a 
compound was lost very early, and it could be added in- 
dependently of any previous ending. -AIRIA (or -ARIA') 

' For this ward, coatHiaing a double auffii, see double suSics. 
'See -ARIA, in its regular alphabetic position, p. 130, alxive. 

t Aoother word apparently having the buBie -EZA added to a noun 
ia atleza, which Raynouard, translating aa "little pike." derivca from 
(Mil, pike. The word, neverthelegs, is obscure in meaniDg. Still another 
is pageia, farmer's wife, but thia ia simply pagea, peaaant, plus the feminine 

Also a word with an apparent suffix -EZA, lampeta<llampada. 




has therefore been treated as an entirely independent 
single suffix, and no words with that ending will be found 
here. Parlaria, for example, which looks like parlar plus 
-lA at first sight, has been treated under -ARIA. 

A great many simple nouns add -I A to form abstracts: 

abadia ( ?), R&ynouard's meaning, 
forii de sapina, is wrong, but 
the real meaning is not clear. 
It is possibly abbey, built on 
abat, abbot. Levy gives a refer- 
ence to Stembeck, but to an 
unpublished port of his thesis. 

bailia, guardianship > baile, intendant * 

boronio, nobiUty, nobles ■ barorf,''baron ■ -^ s ',"» 

b<yrgezia, "bourgeoisie" borga, "bou^eois" 

canonffia, canonicate caitonge, canon 

coaiania,' castle, defense caslan, lord of csstle 

cierrio,' clergy cUre, clerk 

cogoiaia, cuckoldom cogoti, cuckold 

comandia,' commandery eomanda, command 

eompankia, company eompanh, companion 

coneatablia, constableship eoneslabU, constable 

cridoria,^ clamor, uproar eridor, uproar 

degania, deanship depart, dean 

diabUa, deviltry diabk, devil 

drechuria,' right, title ■ dra^ura, right 

enfantia, childishness, folly en}an{t), child 

eacriiiania, edition, redaction Mcrwan, scribe 

faiiiauTiaa, illusion fantauma, phantom 

folia,' tolly, abuse fd, fool 

Jraina, brothership /raire, brother 

galaubia, cheerfulness galavbei, pomp 

gardia,' watch gorda, guard, watch 

garentia, evidence, testimony garen{t), guaranty 

goTsonia, boy's pra^k ganon, boy 

' See douUe suSixea, p. 3S3. Observe in cfidoria and dredairia the 
double abstract suffix. 

' CUrquia instead of dereia might be expected. 

' For conutndia and oanjta, see also formations on verba. 

■ For folia, see also tormatioDS on adjectives. 


Formation op Nouns 203 

gUtia, clergy gleiia, church 

jogiaria,^ trade of "joogleur" jogtar, "jongleur" 

laironia, theft iairon, thi^ 

UtHa ( 7), right to raise taxes ( 7) leada, kuda, a tax 

ma(j)estria, elaS; trick; power ma(J)e«lre, master 

mereantia, merchandiee mereanil), merchant 

metgia, art of medidoe; remedy metge, physician 

mezelia, leprosy metd, leper 

pageaa, coaraenese W^< peasant 

•paiTonia, fatherhood pairon, father 

paponia, inheritance from a grand- papon, grandfather 


payaiiia, paganism payan, pagan 

peoUtia, disease of lice peiAk, louse 

plauietia, pleading, legal pro- plaidet, wrangler, lawyer 


preBeiria, priesthood premre, priest 

Tibaudia, shamelessness ribaut, ribald 

mmenia, bleeding mnc, blood 

tenetealckia, seneschabhip gatescalc, seneschal 

MnWia, lordship terthor, lord 

lenienHa, service ' aerven{t), servant 
vigoria, vigor ' ngor, vigor 

vUania,' f coarseness viian, peasant 

There are four words also in which the suffix makes 
little change in meaning: 

cairia, comer 

caire, comer 

COT-wo, passageway (i 

n a ship) 

corsa, course 

Oftfia, order 

orde, order 

veiria, pane of glass 

vein, ^ass 

' Here, indeed, we find the eadiiiK -ARIA, but the "AR" represents 
-ARIS and not -ARIUS, for which reason it ia not given with the other 
words \a -ARIA. 

' See double suffixes, p. 385. 

t There are several additional words ending in -IA that are not Prov. 
[onnsUons, and many of them have not the suffii -IA at all. Such 
are: aurta, boltd, brefania, colonia, croitia, aquUansia, fadia, gavia, 
mattatia, jnUavdia, and peztmid. 

auria, lightness, may be derived from aura, air, but the word is not at 
atl certain. 

bolia. strong broth, should probably be written bolka. or trulka, and 


204 Word-Formation in Provencal 

For the last word, in French, Spanish, and Portuguese, 
on the other hand, the double suffix -ARIA is found 
(verrerie, vidrieria, vidraria) but with the meanings of glass- 
works and things made of glass. The simple suffix -lA 
appears to be found only in Provencal — another example 
of syllabic superposition. 

A few words have the meaning of place, but such 
cases are rare. The only words appear to be: 
fauna, smithy /aur«, smith 

monffia, monastery mortge, monk 

prioria,] priory prior, prior 

These are meanings which we should expect to find 
under the ending -ARIA, as, indeed, we do, finding fabra- 
ria meaning a smithy. There may perhaps have been a 
change of meaning from the occupation to the place for 
the occupation in these two words. 

Then come the formation on adjectives, of which there 
is also a number with the same abstract force: 

I. 153). 

brefania, epiphany, is from the La(. epiphania. 

eolonia, &ne. is from the Lat. calumnia. 

crotexa, window-frame, is in Du Cange. Here we have not -lA 
but -EIA. which indicaleB Fr. influence. See -EIA, slMve, under 

etguUaraia ia a tnodiaevat deformation of the Gr. <""^TX^ with the 
V pronounced aai. See Die. Gen., iDtroduction. ftec. 504. There seems 
to he al»o a prefix E8- in this word. 

fadia, weariness (also written fadiga), is a post-verbal formation on 
the verb /adiar or fadigar. 

gauia, cane, is from the Lat. *eacea (Fr. cade). 

In raoiitaiia. mustard, -AZIA represents another suffix. 

palatidia, article of clothing, is obscure, and 

peionia, peony, is the Lat. paeonia, with a z inHertad instead of the 
» which Fr, inserts (pianne). 



aurania, folly auran, light 

azautia, gradouBaess azaat, gracious 


The last-named word is somewhat puzzling, but the 
examples seem to make clear the second meaning, which 
is given by Levy.' The first meaning is pven by Korting,' 
who suggests it instead of "lack," mentioned by Ray- 
nouard. Korting therefore draws the word from "caristus, 
a superlative of caru^ plus the ending -lA, rather than 
derive it from *carestua, a past participle of the verb 
carere, to lack. He is probably right in saying that -lA 
would not be added to a past participle stem, the regular 
stem to which it is added being that of the infinitive. 
Moreover, the second meaning, "love," seems to connect 
the word with the adjective cams, whether we believe 
in the superlative *caristtia or not. It seems possible 
enough that both the meanings of dearness— ^highness in 
price, and love = fondness or deamess^ould be derived 
from the adjective cants, dear, just as caro means "dear" 
in both senses in Spanish and Italian, and cher in French 
likewise has both meanings. As for the derived word, 
caresHa, it is found also in Spanish, Italian, and Portu- 
guese, and there, as in Provencal, serves as base for an 
adjective formed with the suffix -OSUS. 
eoindia, graciousness etrinde, gradoua 

corUzia, courteay eortet, courteous 

cuiverlia, perfidy culii&-l, perfidious 

etimiadia, witchcraft, spell (?) entieiai, merry, happy 

falsia, deceit fids, false 

fatonia,' cowardice 'falon, from/a(, foppish (?) 

folia, folly fol, foolish 

galhanha, cheerfulness gatharl, gay, cheerful 

gelotia, jealousy gelcs, jealous 

' I, 213. ' See rares(iM, No. 1,935. 

> See double suffixes, p. 385, n. t- 




gensotia,'^ geotleaese 
glolonia,' gluttony 
guiscoiia, craft, deceit 
jartgUma,' slander 
Uamia,' gluttony 

(SfiU, gentle) 
glolon, gluttonous 
giiiecos, tricky 
janglot, slanderous 
'learn, from lee, greedy; fcccone 

exists in ItaUan, meaning 

"a fdutton" 
major, superior 
maiavt, ill 
maisoit, bad 
nuinen(Oi powerful 
mdhor, better 
memhrai, prudent 
mewniin, miser^le 
timaort, deceitful 
moiton, decdtful 
muzart, loitering 
■par, ginulaj* 
punoia, stinking 
rieaut, pretentious 

truan(l), vagrant 

mnjoria, superiority 
malaidia, illness 
tnalvaitia, badness 
maneiitia, power 
mellioria,' advantage 
membradia, prudence 
meeqninia, misery 
moiaardia,' deception 
(Turisonia,* trick, deceit 
mxaardia, folly 
paria, resemblance 
punaiiia, stench 
ricawiia,' ostentation 
ricoHa,' pride, insolence 
truandia, vagrancy 

On verb stems, we find the following formation: 
bamia, deception bataar, decdve 

This seems to be the only certain one, but several 
words given in the list of nouns could equally well be 
treated as formations on verb-^tems. Such are comandia 
and gardia.* 

' This word is peculiar. It ia an abstract and has the force of 
Otngaa, which One of the manuacripta givee in its slead (Rayaouard. III. 
462). It would seam to be built od an adiective *genaot, from gen[l), 
which is not found, however, and may not have existed. Probabli' 
genaot, if it existed, was due to a confusioD between the comparative 
forms of 0en — ffenseia and QBritor. 

' Or possibly formed on the verb mclhoTar (?). For another probable 
formation on the comparative of an adjective, see gentotia, above. 

> See double suffixes, pp. 384, 3S5, and 385, n. t. 

• In a few cases, also, -IA is apparently added to the stems of verbs 
in -iV. For such words, however — carpia, dcparlia, pariiii, and repentia 
—see p. 29, n. f, above. 



-lA b also found attached as a suffix to several com- 
pound nouns to form abstracts,' as in: 

bonomia, Idndnesa boname, good man 

prodomia, nobility prodome, valiant man 

pr(tfenmia, womanly virtue prqfemna, good woman 

The Provencal suffix -lER (also -ER, -EIR; femi- 
nine -lERA, -EIRA^ -ERA, and -lEIRA) is one of the 
most difficult and complicated suffixes in the language, 
both on account of the variety of meanings which it has 
in Proven^ and also on account of its numerous forms, 
none of which can be a regular phonetic development of 
the Latin suffix -ARIUS — its obvious source — according 
to the laws of sound-change in Provencal. Much^ has 
been written on the form of the suffix in the Romance 
languages, but the question caonot even yet be regarded 
as definitely settled. The Provencal forms -ER, -lER, 
-EIRA, as also the other forms, through an influence of 
each gender on the other, might be regularly derived 
from a form -ERIUS,* especially as the Latin words with 
this ending have just the same forms* as those whose 
apparent Latin etymon is in -ARIUS. But how did 

■ See hybrid CormatioDB, p. 580. 

■The two longest works are: E. ZiramecmBiin, Die Geachiehle da 
lofrinucAen Suffixei -ARIUS in den romanischen Sprachen (reviewed in 
Romania. XXV, 638), and E. Staaf, Le Suffixe -ARIUS dant let languta 
romana 1890; (reviewed in ZeiUchrifl. XXI. 296, and in Zeilickrifl 
f&T romimiache Sprache, XXI. 55). There are also articles by Marchot 
in ZtiUe/irifl, XVII, 288, and XIX. 61, and two very important articles 
by Thomas in the JVouv. £ai., p. 110 (alao in Aomanta, XXXI. 481). and 
p.119. See also the BaueUine ruT romanitchen Philoloeie, 1905 (Muaiafia 
Ftnlsthrifl}, 641-60. 

■ Cf.. for example, rach words as motUerKnumaalmum, or the 
abstract words given on p. 328. 

' In Provencal. eav(Jeiral is almost the only exception. For this 
word, see douUe suRixes, p. 38Q, n. 2. 


208 Word-Formation in Pboven^al 

-ARIUS happen to change to -ERIUS ? There seems to 
be no good reason for supposing a substitution pure and 
simple of -ERIUM, as the two endings are not closely 
enough allied in meaning to have caused any confusion, 
and as this neuter -ERIUM would have to be substi- 
tuted for the three forms -ARIUS, -ARIA, -ARIUM. 
A stronger reason, however, against supposing this sub- 
stitution of sufiix is that in all the words originally end- 
ing in -ARIUS, to which another siiffix (-ET, -ADA, 
-AL, etc.) was added, -AIR or -AR is found represent^ 
ing -ARIUS and practically never -EIR (<-ERIUS), 
although it seems utterly improbable that if such words 
as mermdarius and denarius, for example, had changed 
to mercaderius and denerius by a substitution of suffix, 
we should regularly find -AIR or -AR in their compounds. 
A still better example of this, perhaps, is found in the 
two words bandairier and carrairier, representing banda 
+ -ARU-ARIUS and carra -I-ARH-ARIU8, in which 
the first -ARIUS has developed regularly and the second 
irregularly, or as if from -ERIUS. Of all the double 
suffixes to be treated later,' we shall find -ARIUS by far 
the most frequent as the first part, to which the second 
suffix was attached, and these forms are -AIRADA, 
-ARIUS, therefore, could change its form only when bear- 
ing the accent. 

If the form -ERIUS does not arise through a simple 
substitution of suffix, its evident presence in words origi- 
nally having -ARIUS in Latin must be explained in some 
other way, and this Thomas," who is one of the most 
recent to write on the subject, explains as due to the 
influence of the Germanic suffix -AREIS, in conformity 
1 Pi>. 3S0^03. ' .Vour. En., 123. 


Formation op Nouns 209 

with which it has undergone the law of the umlaut and 
-ARI has become -ER. First undergoing a change in 
in the mouths of the Franks in Gaul, it was finally taken 
up by the Gauls themselves; and -ARIUS having once 
become -ERIUS, it would have the same treatment as 
the Latin i. The earhest forms seem to be foimd in the 
masculine -ER and -EIR, with -EIRA regularly in the 
feminine. -EIR may have been the original masculine 
form, which later lost the i, whereas the feminine re- 
tained it, or, according to a suggestion which Thomas 
credits to Vising,' -ARIU did not become -ERIU but 
-ER — that is, the umlauting took place at the expense 
of the i of the following syllable. The first rule, however, 
would explain all the forms just mentioned, and as for 
the forms -lER and -lEIRA, they are accounted for by 
a later breaking of the e under the influence of a follow- 
ing palatal element.* The only form remaining to be 
explEuned is -lERA, which might certainly be due to the 
analogy of the masculine form -lER. 

Coming now to the uses of the sufiGx -lER in Proven- 
cal, we find it, when representing the Latin -ARIUS, used 
to denote the agent who performs an action, and joined 
regularly to nouns; -lER representing the neuter -ARIUM, 
denoting place or instrument, or used collectively; -lERA, 
the feminine form, not differing greatly from the uses 
of the neuter; and still another JER, with none of these 
meanings, but abstract force, not representing -ARIUS, 
however, but -ERIUM. 

Although the sufiBx has many forms, as it has been 
necessary to choose one under which to arrange the 
words containing it, the form -lER, as being beyond 
comparison the most common, has been taken. In the 

1 .Vfuv. En., 145. < Grandgcut. art. 30. 




feminine formfi there is greater diversity of spelling than in 
the masculine, but the words will all be found under the 
analogical form -lERA, as resembling the masculine form 
most, though -EZRA is more usual in the texts. 

Under -lER with the meaning of the agent, from an 
origmal -ARIUS, we find: 

a^anier,'' workman 
oputtier, needle-maker 
alhtrgmer,^ innkeeper 
almtmier, almoner 
(dudier, tanner 
aThaUsHer, crossbowman 
argurier, sootheayer 
avenlwrier, strolliog merchant, 

baganer, whoremonger 
hailier, manager, director 
bandairier,' flag-bearer 
handier, country constable; ser- 

baratUr, bargainer, trafficker, 

barbier, barber 
barralier,' cooper 
Mier, keeper of seals 
boquier* butcher 
border, farmer, tenant 
bordonier,' pilgrim, crusader ( ?) 
horsier, purse-maker, treasurer 
6ra«er, workman 
buddier, tripe-eeller 
buTdier, borlier, saddler 

afan, labor 
offtiiha, needle 

<Unu)na, alms 
ahida, a kind of leather 
arhalesta, crossbow 
arjfur,' ouflur, auguty 
aeerUva-a, luck, fortune 

bagata, prostitute 
baiU, intendant 
bandiero, banner 
banda, ban 

bnrat, deception 

barha, beard 
barrtH, barrel 
bcla, papal bull 
hoc, he-goat 
bffrda, small farm 
bordon, staff 
borea, purse 

hudd, bowels 
buret, drugget, fustian 
' Or posnbly formed on a verb. See p. 221. 

> Assimilation to the following r may be seen here. 

< See carratrw and the note on it, p. 211; also double suffixes, p. 309. 

> 9ft>,StiKl. Rom., IX. 160, for an in terestins. account of the develop- 
ment of this word. According to Marchot. the boquier was origjually 
one who dealt in the delicaM flesh of young he-goats; and the words 
came into fashion with the meaning of "tiuteher" through the kind of 
snobbishness that has changed the Fr. barbiert i 


Formation of Nouns 

eabali«r, capitalist 
cabaaier,^ basket-maker 
cabrier, goatherd 
cam6n«r, ohamberltun 
caminier, carrier 
campanier, bell-ringer 
caTiobasier,' weaver 
candelieria), candle-maker 
eapdalier, capdelier, leader 
axpelier,' hatter 

capUtAier, member of municipal 

cariiadUr, cbief of corporatioa 
camifiaer,* butcher 
eanaxTUT* carter ( 1) 
tanetier, carter 
codrasier,' hoop-maker 
eoJieT(,a), cap-maker 

cabal, capital 

cabas, basket 

cobra, goat 

eamhra, room 

oamin, road 

catnpana, bell 

eanabat, hemp 

cand^, candle 

capdal, capM, capital 

Capd, hat 

capilM, municipal couni 

eoladia;^ porter, 

colier, porter 
eoUdier, cutler 
concolon^ter,' disputant 
cordalier,* rope-maker 
corioanxnr, dealer in (Cordt 

cordier, rope-maker 
correiner, strap-maker 
anittrier, courtier 
couturier, dressmaker 

carreta, cart 
codra, hoop 
eofa, cap 

I'coiral, from coir, leather) 
of bur- coliada), (blow on) neck 

eol, neck 
coUda; knife 

adorya, slander 

confo, cord 

cordoan, (Cordovan) leather 

corda, cord 
correja, strap 
(•ccTJuro, from cort, court) 
coetura, sewing 

< See under double 8uffije«, the compound miffii -ASIER, p. 401. 

> See double euffixes. pp. 382, 395, 393, 400. 
« go back U a 

' Levy ajve no traiulfttion for the word. " Carter" seein»to be its 
meaning, and the formation is car +-ARI +-ARIUS. Oicott, 139, 
■peaks of this kind of formation in the inacriptiona, citing ealcariariut, 
and comparing thass words with the Engl, "fruiterer," and describing 
them as formations for greater length. See also double suffixes, p. 399. 

> See parasyutheta, p. 628. 



Word-Formation in Provencal 

eoiinier, cook 

dardier, man armed with javelio 
dardatier,^ man armed with darts 
daunidter,' goldsmith 
daurelter,' goldsmith 
dtfeneier,' defender 
deguier, guardian of land 
deaenier, tithing-man 
desmier, tax-collector 
deapegier,' spendthrift 
domengier, possessor of property 
drapier, draper 
enaenaintr,' standard-bearer 
ermenier, dealer in ermine skins 
etearnier,' mocker 
etcarsdter, pocket-maker 
etdopia; maker of wooden shoes 
escudeiier,' maker (Bnisher) of 

shields (2d mnaning) 
esperortifn-, maker of spurs 
espener, grocer 
espondier,' executor of will 
eaporlalier, basket-maker 
eaquelier, bell-maker or detder 
estanhier, tinsmith 
eatanguier, overseer of pond 
eetesHer* butcher who sells heads 
esHvaTidier,' harvest-worker 
estradier, robber 

evanifdistier, priest (2d meaning) 
fackier, farmer who gives half 

produce as rent 
faisier, porter 
fainlhier, porter 

coHna, kitchen 
dart, javeUn 
(dart, dart) 
('dattrada, from daurar) 

dffenaa, defense 

dec, land, property, boundary 

deten, tithe 

desma, tax, tithe 

despe», expenditure 

dotnenge, property 

drap, doth 

enaenkiera, standard 

escam, mockery 
mcoTtela, pocket 
esdop, wooden shoe 
eacvl, shield 

etperon, spur 
eapeeia, spice 
etponda, edge of bed 
eaportela, small basket 
eaquellia, bell 

Utta, head 

(estivanda ( ?) <RBtwar, harvest) 
eatrada, street 
ewinj/elula, evangelist 
facka, property, land 

fackilha, charms 
fachura, charms 
fais, load 
{'/auilha, from/ai 


> See double suffixes, pp. 401, 393, 401, n. 1. 309. 400, 383. 

■ See also fomiBtions on verba, p. 221. 

■ A queer development of meaning — apparently the one at the edga 
of the bed of a dying person. 

•See paraByntheta. p. 528. 



fargoer, smith fargoa, farga, forge 

farinier, flour-de^er farina, flour 

fatmdier,^ fanner, tenant faienda, affair, occupation 

fdpier, manufacturer of velveteen 

fermaiMer,^ manufacturer of fermalh, buckle 


fermier, farmer ferma, farm 

fenalhier,^ ironmonger ferraiha, old iron 

Jenatier, ironmonger ferraea, fire-shovel 

filadier,* spinner filada, skdn, ball 

filalier* weaver, spinner filala (?), long beam 

flatadier, manufacturer of wool fla*ada, covering 

yloguter, wool-seller jhc, flake, tuft 

fagasitT, one who eells buttered fogasa, buttered roll 


fogati/ier,' collector of hearth-tax fogatge, hearth-tax 

fotradtirier, dealer in skins folradura, fur 

folrUr, plunderer folre, household utensils { 7 ) 
ftmdeffuier,' warehouseman 

fonlanier, inapecter of wells fontana, fountain 

foretlier, forester forut, forest 

formaigier, cheeee^ealer formaige, oheeae 

formier, dealer in lasts forma, last 

former, oven-maker fom, oven 

fomilhier,' dealer in kindling- fomiUia, twig 

fnaretguier,' one who shares with frairetea, brother's portion 

his brother 

frenier, rein-maker /«", rein 

froniadiST,* neighbor froniada, front, facade 

fruekier, fruit-dealer fruck, fruit 

fiudier, sf^ndle-maker ftael, spindle 

gabarrier, sailor of fright ship gabarra, freight ship 

1 See double suffixes, 401, 400, 384, and 383. 

■3«e explanation of the suffix -ADIER, pp. 21S-20; also double 
luffiies, 393. 

< There is do word found in O.Prov. on which to base fondtgui^, 
although in Mod. Prov. we &adi foundenue (Mistral, I, 1160), and /oiujaco 
exists in It. FimdeguUr a therefore probably formed on some corre- 
Bponding baee-word in O.Prov., although fu-ndicariiu is found in Du 


214 Word-Formation in Provencal 

gadier, country policeman; execu- gadi, boundaty; wiU 

ifalnier, sbeath-maker gaina, abeath 

gtUinitr, dealer in poultry galina, hen 

galodner, manufacturer of wooden galocha, wooden shoe 

galupier, stulor of "galup" galup, kind of ship 

ganiier, glove-maker gant, glove 

gaiffier, executor of will (see also galge, pledge 

abstracts, p. 228) 

genhitr, cbeat, swindler genh, trick 

ffipier, manufacturer of plaster gip, plaster 

glaeier, swordsman (also slaugh- glwn, sword 


grafier, writer, chancery-clerk grafi, stylus 

I^nafier,'saltragent; grain-dealer i^an«f, small grain 

grolifT, aboemaker grola, aboe 

gyerrier, warrior (also in otber gtterra, war 

Romance languages) 

javiier, jailer javla, cage 

jupier, skirt-maker J«po, skirt 

juponier* manufacturer of petti- jupon, petticoat 


jutlicier. executioner ju»tici, justice 

lagolier, flatterer Uigot, flattery 

lampier, lamplighter lampa, lamp 

latinier, linguist UUin, Latin 

lautengier* liar, cheat lauxenja, flattery 

Uwandier(a),* laundress lavanda, wash, from lopor 

legendier,' prieat legeuda, legend 

Upavdier, one wbo licks, gorman- (*Upavt, from kpar, lick) 

eudier, tax-collector Undo, a tax 

liaunier, heretic (of Ljrons) Liaun, Lyons 

logadier,* merceoary logada, from togar 

logandier* one who lets (loganda, from hgar, to let) 

> See double si 

> See double sufflxes, pp. 3S3, 393. 

• See also the [ormatiouB on verbs, p. 221, below. 

• See -ANDIER, -ENDIER. p. 400, under double miffiiea. 



mainadier,' bead of family 
Iter, lix^a 
«r, sailor 

mainada, family 

megier, one who conducts a farm meg, half 

OD shares 
meuonier, harvester meigon, harvest 

meUadxer, one who eonducta a meilal, half 

form on slmres 
menegfrier,* minstrel 

mercadieT, merchant 
DMrcodanier,' merchant 
metatgier,^ messenger 
Tfwgier, servant (at table (?]) 
meUdier, metal-worker 
mimlhier, looking-glass maker 
molinier, miller 
moUonier, ahee^ealer 
muiatier,^ muleteer 
muiier, muleteer 
murtrier,' murderer 
naulia',* boatman 
neulier, waSe-vendor ( 7) 
nooelier, newadealer 
obedierttier, monk belonging to 

obrUr, workman, churcbwarden obra, work 

(cf . the French bane dt I'tcuvre) 
oficier, officer 
olier, potter 

olier, manufacturer of oil 
omicidier, murderer 
ordejoer,' executor of a will 
oipUaiier, Hospitaller; director of 

< See double suffixes, pp. 393, a. t, 3S3, 395. 

menaonja, Ue 
mem, merchandise 
tnercat, market 

mercadana, utensil of commerce 
metal^, message 
meg, dish 
mebd, metal 
mirolh, looking-glass 

moUon, sheep 

mvlat, mule 

muj, mule 

mwrtre, murder 

wnde, fare, passage-money 

nevle, waffle 

rwvela, news 

obediema, cloister 

ojKt, office 
oia, pot 

omicidi, murder 
ardenh, will 
ogpilal, hospital 

> Possibly tormsd on verbs. See p. 221, 

' Navlier has possibly become reHtricled in meauing to "boatman," 
ttuough association with nau, boat, iasCead of meamiig any collector of 



Word-Formation in Provencal 

ostali«r,' innkeeper 

oveUiier, shepherd 

padoemier, one who has right of 

pairoHer, tinker 

palafrenier, groom 

paihetier, cloak-maker 

pancfier,' baker (cf. abo panatUr, 
NoJ»i. E»»., 233} 

patedier, - participant 

paredier, master-mason 

porter, participant 

partonier, ehaier 

patatgier, boatman 

patHsier, pastry cook 

panezier, shield-maker 

pazier, peacemaker 

peatffier,' toll-collector 

ptiirier, pepper-seller 

peirofter,' mason 

■peiionier, fisherman 

pelUifT* dealer in skins 

penchenier, maker of combs, or 
wool-comber ( ?) 

perdigtder,'' partridge-hunter 

perponchier, maker of doublets 

pertonier, deputy, representative 

peaquirier,' fisherman 

pestrinhier, baker 

■petier,' one who farta 

piTihotier, one who receivefi alms 
at a charitable institution ( ?) 

pinlier, maker of "pintas" 

pipier, cooper 

pujuier, soldier armed with a irike 

pUansier, almoner 

planer, citizen in comfortable cir- 
1 See double suffiieB, pp. 383-1, 396, 400. 
> Probably from a Lat. 'padiaiTiat, though only verdieolU, ai 

adjective, in found. 

■ Paqmirier ia an ialeresting form. Pacairier would be expected. 
• Probably formed on the \'erb pctar. 

ovetka, sheep 

padoenta, right of pasture 

patrol, kettle 
palafre(n), palfrey 
ptdhet, cloak 
pan, bread 

parcela, lot 
paret, wall 
par, peer, equal 
porsort, part 
patalge, passage 
pattU, tart 
paves, shield 
paU, peace 
peatge, toll 
pedre, pepper 
peira, stone 
peuon, fish 
pdisa, pelisse 
penche, comb 


perponcAd, doublet 

pertona, person 

petquier, fishpond 

pegtrinh, trough 

pet, fart 

pinhota, house where alms s 

pirUa, a measure 
ptpa, pipe, cask 
pic, pike 
pilatMi, pittance 
plata, residence 


Formation of Nouns 

plalier, maker of plate-armor 

plala, plate of metal 

plombier, plumber 

ptam{b). lead 

poiaihier,' poultry-dealer 

polalha, poultry 

polagier,' poultry-dealer 

potatz, chicken 

ponftcr, bridge- watchman 

pont, bridge 

panxlier, breeder of pigs 

parcel, pig 

porlanitT, doorkeeper; toll-collector 

porta, gate 

porta, gate 

chai^ of watoh at city gate 

posfwr, oven-boy 

posl, plank 

polatfieT, innkeeper 

polalge, soup 

pozandifT* drawer 

pozar, draw 

prebend, prebend 

preizon, priiion 

proier, mate on a ship 

proa, prow 

pulana, prostitute 

guintetta, fortnight 

of fifteen daya 

Tnuxier, vendor of refuse 

rawa, refuse 

renwter,* usurer 

rcTiou, UBUry 

rosinier, rider of, or dealer in, naga 

rosin, nag 

™6aher, cobbler 

eabala, shoe 

simier, monkey-trainer 

simi, monkey 

wguier, shoemaker 

soe, shoe 

torttUter. sorcerer 

utrtitha, sorcery 

taOamdier* taUor 

I'Udkanda, from loJAar, cut} 

teitandier* weaver 

{'leisanda, from tewer, weave) 

templier. Templar 

temple, temple 

iendter, shopkeeper 

fenda, shop 

Irafeffuier, trafficker 

trafeg, traffic 

treOhier, lattice-worker 

iret/Ao, arbor 

trotter,* servant 

trot, walk 

aiqiatT,\ cowherd 

wica, cow 

■ See double suffiies, p. 384. 

> See double niffiiea uadei -ANDIER, p. 400. 

• See double niffixei under -ADIER, p. 393. 

• See fonnatiods oo verba, p. 221. 

t Words of Lat. oHeia are: anelier, riDg-maker<anuIariiu (ecc 
Oicott, 142): arquier. archer <orca rim {OlooU, 142); canaUiier. horge- 
mtn < eabaltaritu ; eontdhier, counsellor < consifiariui (Olcott, 149); 
/emCT, ironmonger</CTTor»u» (Olcott, 153); /uafier, carpenter «/u»(i- 


218 Word-Formation in Provencal 

Besides the usual addition of -lER to nouns, it seems 
also in a few cases to have been added to adjectives to 
form nouns denoting the agent. Models for this kind 
of formation are found in Latin' in such words as adver- 
sariue (on odtwaus) > Proven?al (wersier. Provencal for- 
mations in -lER are: 
blanquier, tanner blane, white 

eaninifr, dog^ancier canin, canine 

cartanier, tetrarcb carton, quartan, quadrennial 

enfermier, nurse enftrm, ill 

m^nier,^ mediator mejan, intennediate 

Still denoting the agent, the suffix -I£R, from -ARIUS, 
is found added to verb-stems in a few words, a list of 
which will be given below. Some of these words, how- 
ever, appear to have -ATIER instead of -lER added to 
the verb-stem, and these will be treated first. An example 
of this kind of formation is damaH^; one who complains; 
also creditor or dun, possibly a Latin formation. Clama- 
taritLS, indeed, is ^ven in Du Cange. Levy notes another 
form omitted by Raynouard — damadier — which would 
resemble dauradier, frorUadier, and other words in the 

1 Olcott, 138. See the ndjecUve miffii -lER for s more thorough 
treatment of the origiQ of these words. 

ariue —futtuariut; (aee Olcott. tS3); tanier, wool-dealer < tamirtu* 
(Olcott, 155); lantUr, laDOe-baarer<iaficeoriue (Olcott, 1S6) ; lantemUr, 
lantern-maker <farriemoriu« (Olcott, 156): mairilhier, churchwarden< 
matrtculariui; mauini«r, mercenary < mututonortujr; matelhier. butGher< 
macdlariua (Olcott, 157); peUiier, furrier <jnfanu> (Oloott. 162); polier, 
poultryman< puitariui (Olcott. IS4) ; launiMr, beast of burden<iair- 
mariut; loU-eetkier, maker of 8addle-cloth< tubielliariut (Oloott, 170), 
Bhowing the chanice of the preSx SUB- to SUBTUS-; ueurier, u«irer< 
uturariua; eito carpenlierKcarpentanus. CairauefAter U obscure. 

Of probable Lat. origin are fodier. earth-worker or laborer; man- 
panur, huckster (see Du Cange, mangonariui) ; and naulonier. Bailor. 
PodieT may come from futuiariut. derived from /utufus, although the 
disappearance of the "n" would ba unusual. Nautonier is apparently 
derived from a lat« Lat. nauton (cf, the Fr. navtonier) . 

t formations are aiermer (odHrsonm) and dutrier {dextraritu). 


Formation op Nouns 219 

preceding list. Clamatier and damadier may be compared 
to filatier and filadier in the preceding list, both meaning 
"one who spins. " FiUUier is there given beside filata, long 
beam, but it seems probable that it is connected with 
JUar, to spin, just as much as filadier is. In the same way 
clamatier and damadier are the same worfl, and possible 
to place under the formations on nouns.^ Conversely, 
all the forms in -ADIER might be placed here as verb- 
formations, as, for example, frontadier from frontar, dau- 
radier from daurar. But in the case of frontadier, for 
example, there is also a noun frontada, on which it seems 
natural to build frontadier. In the case of dauradier, 
on the other hand, there is no noun daurada on which 
to build dauradier. This gives us, then, a new suffix 
-AD-IER, from -AT-ARIUS, exactly similar in its origin 
to such sufSxes as -ADITZ, -ADURA, etc. In other 
words, frontadier was formed on frontada, and not on 
frontar, in all probability, but by the analogy of such words 
as these, dauradier was made by attaching -ADIER to 
the stem of daunw.* -ADIER was then treated just as 
any single suffix. In dauradier and daurier, single and 
double suffix are seen side by side. In treating damadier 
and fiiadier, forms with a t instead of a d have been 
mentioned. According to Thomas' there are many others, 
most of which are not given in Raynouard or Levy. 
Thomas gives the following list : boicatier, bovatier, causa- 
tier, coraiier (correct to corratiert), degatier, egatier, filatier, 

' The two foimB clamaiier and damadier miiht be made on the two 
fonoB of the put participle, clairuu and damada. 

I Aoother irord of the tyi>e of dawadivr ia Trumdadier, baker's boy, 
fonoed on mandar, wad, order. Cf., however, the Sp. mandadero, derived 
from mandado. 

• Koia. En.. 233. These cases show ooe more development in the 
use of the suffix. -ADIER now beiag attached to aoUDS instead of to 


220 Word-Formation in Provencal 

graruUier, lobatier, midatier, orsaiier, panalier, pelatier, por- 
catier, telalier.' These are clearly Provencal formations 
with the suffix -ATIER. Some word ending in -AT, to 
which -lER was added, formed a starting-point for the 
compound euffix -ATIER, which is here added to bo8c, 
bov, causa, dec, fil, etc. Thus -ADIER and -ATIER have 
come to be added directly both to nouns and to verbs 
instead of -lER, which had acquired both of these uses. 
It seems probable that the double suffixes -ANDIER 
and -ENDIER' were derived in the same way. Ba/en- 
dier, for instance, from the noun bevenda, drink, from 
*b€ver, for beure, may be the starting-point for nouns in 
-ANDIER and -ENDIER. The list of words in which 
the single suflix -lER was added to verb-stems may now 
be ipven: 

anumedier, inoney'«liaiiger amonedar, coin money. From 

montda, coin 
daurier, goldsmith (see above) elaurar, pid 

escainer, horH&^l&ughterer, From escairar, kill horaes (found 

knacker also with the suffix -ADOR, 

a regular case of the use of 
this suffix). 
«tco^,leather-prepareT or dealer From escofir, kill, murder. Here 
the connection in meaning is 
clear enough if we take etcofir 
to mean to kiU animals and the 
original meaning of eteofier to 
be preparer of leather. 
fiapiier,' baker JUchir, bend, soften 

memizier, carpenter menuzaT, diminish 

parlier, chatterer porinr, to speak 

paatufffuier, shepherd paslurgar, graEe, make grase 

1 This list of course omits such words as baratia- sod TtQnUier, in 
which the of was part of the stem oF the verb. 

' See the worda with these eodinRB under double auffiies, p. 400. 



re/acter, huokflter, peddler re/ocer, for re/ar, do over 

reeralier, huckster, peddler regralar, scratch 

iegrier, follower gegre, follow 

Both refacier and regratier have taken a somewhat 
figurative meanmg, the first perhaps with the idea of the 
repairing of old things for a second sale, the second pos- 
sibly with the idea of scratching out prices (?). 

The words in the above list are the only ones which 
must surely have been formed on verb-stems, but some 
of the words given in the first list may have been formed 
equally well on a verb-stem. For example : 
afanier, from a/an or afanar 
dtfetmer, from d^enta or d^eraar 
deepttier, from de»pe» or dtipeear 
eicamter, from eacom or etcamir 
latuengier, from lattienja or Unaenjar 
murtrier, from n»wrtr« or murtrir 
ordenier, from orden or ordenar 
petuT, from pel or pelar 
rmotrier, from renou or renovar 
trolier, from trot or Irolar 

Most of these words were probably formed on nouns 
according to rule; but they may have served as a starting- 
point for new formations on verb-stems containing no 
correspondii^ nomi to which the suffix might be added. 

Now, besides the -lER with the meaning of the agent, 
from the Latin -ARIUS, we find -lER with other mean- 
ings, derived from words in -ARIUM, the neuter form 
of the adjective in -ARIUS. This kind of formation is 
found in Latin even, with the meaning of a place or 
receptacle for something (aquarium, armarium, etc.), 
and also in a few words with the force of a tax to pay 
(calcearium). But in Provencal it is necessary to sub- 
divide much farther than this the meanings given by the 
addition of -IER=-ARIUM. To begin with, the idea of 
place has been retained and is frequent in new words, 


222 Word-Formation in Pbovencal 

but the meaning of a tax is found only in two words: 
loguier, which is probably Latin (iocariwrnOi and agrier. 
After the words with the meaning of the place for a 
thing comes a larger hst denotii^ the instrument with 
which to perform an action. Then from the idea of place 
containing many things it is only a step to pure collectives, 
and also to names of trees, as places where the fruit 
described by the simple words could be found. A few other 
words offer little change of meaning from the simple word. 
With the meaning of place, there are a few new words 
in Provencal: 
cairier. Levy su^esls only 

"entrepfit,"' warehouse, and 

the only word to which -lER 

oould be added here seems to be 

eaire, comer, edge, with which 

the connection is not clear. 

"E^trepdt" eeems to be the 

meaning required by the t«xt. 
eanabier, hemp-field caruA«, hemp 

earnier, chamel-house; slaughter; corn, fleah 

eecuddhier, receptacle for bowla eacudd, bowl 

foguitrf hearth, fireplace 


formigxiier, ant-hill 


Utrier, choir-desk 

Wra, letter 

liberier, choir-deak 

litre, book 

penier, writing-desk 

p«na, pen 

fAantUr, nuraeiy for trees 

ptatUa, plant 

polier.t poultry-yard 

pol, chicken 

Also dapier, rabbit-burrow, which from both form 

• Cooper, 75. 

' I. 185. 

■ Eiuta alM> in French and Spanish, but is not found aa a Utin 

t Also the following words formed in Lat. times: armier. eepuleher 
graveyard <armartuni (Olcott, 177); alhier, collar, Btable<MUarium, 
a common word found in Olcott, RSnsch, Goelier, and Cooper; petqaitr, 
fislipood<^<>inutn: taarier, aanRtuary<facrariu>n (Oloott, ISO) ; EtnAur, 
vineyard <mnariuBt. 


Formation of Nouns 223 

and meaoiog should belong to this list, but the develop- 
meut of meaning from dap, pile ( ?) is not clear. 

Another meaning which -lER, from -ARIUM, takes 
is that of the instrument or thing containing, or to con- 
tain, the simple noun. In some cases, words might be 
placed either in this list or in the preceding one, the 
difference being slight. For example, letrier, choir-desk, 
might be thought of either as place or instrument, and 
there are many words of this kind: 
□rbner. crossbow stock arbre, tree 

betToier, weapon made in Berry 
bloquier, shield, buckler bUtca, boas; lump 

frrajirier, belt braga, breeches 

bratier, hntaer braia, glowing masa 

bugadier, waeh-basin bugada, wash 

cobeiAter, headgear* cabelh, hair 

cofemjter, calendar (also list fol- calenda, feast^ay 

eamielier, candlestick candda, candle 

eremalhier, hearth cremolh, pothook 

euisier, thigh-plate' cuUa, thigh 

dragier, caody-dish dragai, candy 

eneeniier, cenaer enceru, incense 

escaquier, chessboard etcae, chess 

etpUier, pincushion e»pil, needle 

foraier, large cheet forsa, force, power 

gotier, gutter gota, drop 

Jarmier, coping, drip larma, tear 

abrtcr, crosabow stock (should prob- 
ably be written orfrrter, as above) 
■peirier, instrument for throwiI^; petra, stone 

poncA(er,t pickax ponch, point 

> CabelhUr aod cuUier have the meaoiDg o[ ctothing, more commonly 
found under -lERA. 

t Wotdi of Lat. origin are: aartthUr, pillow<auricu[aritu, found a» 
an adjective (Olcott. 143); cuihier, spoon, probably from eoddearium, 
for eochitare; dMier, doublet, cheeaboacd Kduplariui, lor duplarii 
(Olcott, 151); lampeiier and madier. Lamptzier, candelabrum (alao an 
adiective). ia from lampadarium (Olcott, i55): tnadier, lid of baking- 
trough, is from m 


224 Word-Formation in Pboven5al 

Under either of the precedings Usts, the one denoting 
the place or the one denoting the instrument, might be 
given a few words which are almost collective in force, 
several of them denoting the book containing a collection 
of the thing described by the simple word : 
comlier, calendar of feasts comte, account 

epiatolier, book of epistles epittola, epistle 

legetidier,' t collect-book iegenda, legend 

From words such as these the transition to pure 
collectives is almost imperceptible. This next list con- 
tains not words meaning the book or thing containing a 
number of things, but the number of things itself. 

comuroiUier, association of a muni- comwnaDta, community 

elementier, the elements eUinen{i), element 

escraianier, writing apparatus escriean, writer 

garbier, pile of sheaves garba, sheaf 

lofier, tariff of the fines called lata, a &ne for slowness in pay* 

"lata" ingadebt 

paihier, straw pile palha, straw foliage mm, branch 

A development of the idea of place — place where the 
object denoted by the simple noim could be found in 
quantities — ^is seen in a number of nouns meaning trees.* 
Thus are found : 

aiglantier, wild rose stem (only aiglentitt found) 

avelanier, oak aiieiana, acom 

castanhier, chestnut tree , catUmk, chestnut 

> See double auffiies under -ANDIEB, -ENDIER. p. 400. 
' These were, of course, oriipaaily adjectives. Arbre, tree, was later 
understood and the adjective used subatantively. 

re eicatier, Btaircase<scaIar>'uBi, and caUndiar, 

t1 The following words of Lat. origin are also found: /enter, hay pile 
<ifcnariJim; lenAier, wood piie<i»on<iHii«(01cOtt, 156); niifier, thousand 
<mUliarius (Olcotl. 159). 


FoBMATioN OP Nouns 

eerier, cherry tree 
eodonhier, quince tree 
cornier, cornel tree 
figuier, fig tree 
garravier, wild rose tree 
fffondter, acorn-bearing oak 
lavrier, laurel tree 
wandiAieT, metier, almond tree 
mUgranier,'' pomegraoatc tree 
riMpZter, medlar tree 
palmier, palm tree 
perier, pear tree 
peneguier, peach tree 
pimCTi(t«r,>t tree of sweetness 

cereia, cherry 
eodonh, quince 
com, cornel, cherry 

jm, fig 

garrau or garral ( ?) 
florufa, acorn 
idur, laurel 

amandoia, mela, almond 
milgrana, pomegranate 
nesjita, medlar 
palma, palm 
pera, pear 
■pereega, peach 
jrimen((). kind of diink 

With the meaning of a tax, besides Xoguier <.locarium, 
we find also agrier, a field-tithe, a substantive use of the 
neuter form of the Classic Latin adjective txgrariua. 

Besides all the special meanings given to words by 
the addition of -lER, there is a hst of words to which 
the suffix has brought little or no change in meaning. 
The simple word had a clear enough meaning, and the 
suffix appears to have been added merely for the sake of 
greater length. Such words are : 

aviorier, agent 
hroquier, pot, jUg 
canier, reed 
dergvier, priest 
eompanhier, companion 
etedbUkier, sweepings 
feneatrier, opening, hole 
fiantier, flame, brand 
grangier, bam, shed 
jiaier, bed, couch 

autoT, author 
broc, jug, pitcher 

derc, clerk 
eompanh, companion 
eacobUha, sweepings 
fenestra, window 
jlama, flame 
granja, farmhouse 
jaU, bed, couch 

' See hybrid formations, p. 580. 

■ Oi tOQK-pepper tree. Pimen, kind of drink, sot ite name because 
the basis of the drink was spiced. See Du Csnge, ini7m«n(tint; also 
Romania, XXXI, lSO-51. 

1 Also, of Lat. onitiD. fruchier, fruit trBe</ruclu<iriiM {Olcott, 153). 



ombrier, shade rnnbra, shade 

orruter,' filth orreieia, filth 

parenlier, relatioa paren(0, relation 

panlonier, rascal paiUon, rascal 

patinterUier, paving pazimert, paving 

pezonier,* pedestrian pezon, pedeetrian 

pUmtier, newly planted vine platUa, plant 

pobmier, dust, powder pohera, dust 

pOTbdier,* city gate porfol, dty gate 

tempter,' tempest tem{p), weather 

t>a«ter,t ba^ mm, vessel, vase 

Now, besides all the different meanings of the Provencal 
suffix -lER already given, there b a rather large list of 
words with purely abstract force. This, however, in ail 
probability, does not represent -ARIUS or -ARIUM, as 
the words in the preceding lists do, but rather -ERIUM, 
existing already in Latin in nouns corresponding to verbs 
ending in -er-are, as imperium to tmpemre, r^rige~ 

1 Foe otreieiier. • See double suffixes, p. 384. 

• This does not tepreseot -ARIUM at all. The Lat. word ends in 
-ERIE3, which was later supplaoted by -ERIA. Does this word show 
a chaoce of gender to -ERIUMT See tfauc. E»a.. 115. 

tThe words of Lat. orlKin are: arenier. gravel <ar8Tuin;ui,* ertUtr, 
heaiKhrredHariui; (srnsr, t«rraoe<(«rrariu»i. 

There ate also a [ew words ending io -lER that are soinewbat 
obacure. Such are braguier. eonneneruier. gavamer, gamer, aud grixier. 

braottier, feathers under a bird's tail, if it is derived from tmiga, 
stockiag, as it would at first appear, can be classified in none of the above 
lists. It is probably from a Lat. 'bracariua. derived from bracoe, which 
meant "lega" as well aa "BUickioga." This brocarvu. meaning "per- 
tainins to the less." was probably thep used subHtantively. Thu< we 
have (the feathers) belonging to the legs. 

contcnemier is probably an adjective derived from eoattnaua, 
meaoing "fitting," and used substantively. Or it may be the adjective 
itself. No translation is given in Levy. 

frafarrter, bush or clump, is obscure. 

gasier, crop or craw, is formed on the same stem seen in oanitA. 
Probably "gatui, found in Mistral, existed also in O.Prov. 

grizitr IB probably only the adjective "grayish," formed on grit, 
gray, used to describe the liver. 


Formation of Nodns 227 

rium to T^rigerare, and later deliherium to deliberare} 
To explain its use as a suffix, Meyer-Ltibke puts forward 
the hypothesis of the word reproverium as a starting- 
point, this word being fonned on reprohare, on the model 
of improperium, at the time when the p of improperium 
as well as the 6 of reprobare would be voiced to v.- Hav- 
ing once formed reproverium, -ERIUM could be taken as 
a suffix to make new formations. Thomas, adopting 
Meyer-Liibke's theory of -ERIUM as the source of the 
abstract suffix -lER, points out that intervocalic p did 
not become v in Proven^, and finds the solution of the 
difficulty in the old form reprdber, from *reproperium, 
which is nothing but improperiuin with a change of prefix.' 
Then, adding to Meyer-LUbke's original list of abstracts,* 
he gives a long list of words.^ 

The words in Thomas' list are all abstracts, and formed 
on verb-stems by means of -lER, from -ERIUM. Some 
of the words are given as still being in use. Three words, 
however, cantier, longuier, and panier, are given with 
question marks. 

To the list given by Thomas should be added several 
other words' found in Levy and Raynouard. The com- 
plete list will then be as follows: 
'ffout.Eu.. 113. 
<II, 561, sec. 471; quoted in A^ous. £<«.. 111. 

> !four. £<■., 112. ' II, 661. 

> Hia lUt ia as toUoira : aconiier,adobier,alesrier.aloaaiiier,a»e(iurieT, 
auioreuier, autrtgirr, cattivier, cantier, caplier, caatier, coneidier, contirier, 
Miurier, demorier, lUicordier. <U»lorbier, dezacordier, detirier, empachier, 
empai/riBT, encpmbrier, eiwffier, apawntiBr, ffabier, fjalivr, lonffvier, 
nMirrier, paniar. paxner, peiiorbier, plaidier, podier, reeobrier, reprot/ier, 
and reprodiier, 

•These worda are: atUthier, dtfemif, datTtchier, etiAorgvivr, enco- 
botier, eatgier, grarier, pejorier, poiritUer (al«o poirifftiier). Bad protonguier. 
These words, with their mwaiagt, will be found in their proper alphabetic 
poaitioDB in the complete list. 



Word-Formation in Provencal 

aeorditr, agreement, tr«&ty 

odoMer, reparatioD, arrangemeDt 

aUgrier, \oy 

alonffuier, delay 

aaegurier, guarantee 

aslelhier, splitting, breaking 

autorfui«r, permiaBion 

aiiiregier, oonaent 

eailaUr, captivity 

eanfur, song 

eaplier, daughter 

cottier, punishment; instruction 

eonsidier,^ understanding 

ewitirier, thought, care 

d^etmer, resistance 

defiurier, deliverance, completion 

demorier, delay 

dttcordier, discord 

dMlorbter, trouble 

destrechier,' necessity 

de^acordier, discord 

deztrier, desiie; aim desired object 

aeordar, agree 
adobar, equip, arrange 
alegrar, rejoice 
aJofijKir, lengthen 

empaehier, obstacle 
empastrier, prevention, obstacle 
encobolier, prevention 
entonArier, prevention, obstacle; 

enoffier, annoyance 
expaventieT, fear 

gabier, exaggeration, extravagance 
galier, cheating 
QOtgier, security, pledge 
gravier. wrong, damage 

asleUioT, split, break 
aulorgar, authoriie 
aulrejar, grant, assure 
oaptiirar, captivate 
eanlar, sing 
eaplar, strike 
coiliar, punish, teach 

dt^eruar, defend 
ddiurar, deliver 
demorar, delay, remain 
deteordar, disagree 
dtitorhar, disturt), trouble 

dezaeordar, put into disaccord 

deiirar, desire 

embatgar, embarrasa, prevent 

empackar, prevent 

empaatroT, hinder 

entxAolar, hinder 

encombrar, prevent, embarrass 

enojar, annoy 

espaveniar, terrify 

gabar, joke, mock, exaggerate 

galiar, cheat 

galjar, seiie; impose a penalty 

granar, injure; be painful 

■ From a Lat. contidenui 


I mad« very probable 

■ No translation is given by Levy, and the woid ia puxiUng. If 
[ormed on longar, remove, it should mean "removal." or possibly, in the 
text, have some such meanins as "abaeoce." A correctioa of the word 
to languir, however, seems very plausible. 



melhorier, improvement melkoraT, improve 

panter,' trickery (?) panar, cheat 

p^orier, deterioration pejorar, deteriorate 

■penner, thought penaar, think 

perUfrbier, disturbance pertor6ar, disturb 

jAaidier, pleading ^idar, plead 
podier^ power 

poiridUr,* poirigTuer, rottenness poirir, rot 

prtAonguUr, delay prolongar, put off 

recobrier, recovery Tecobrar, recover 

reprobter, reproach, blame reprobar, reprove 

Tepropckier,] outrage repropehar, reproach 

The Proven^I suffix -lERA (also spelled -ERA, 
-EIRA, according to dialect) is another of the forms 
derived from the -ARIUS group, but it has been placed 
after -lER from -ERIUM on account of having in Pro- 
ven^l a difEerent form from the rest of the -ARIUS 
derivatives together with those from -ERIUM. The 
forms -lERA, -ERA, -EIRA are all derived from -ARIA, 
the feminine of -ARIUS, and were probably used origi- 

' Fouod with thiB meaning only in the phrase faire panier. Else- 
where panier means "basket." 

■Not formed by means of -ERIUM at all. Here we have the Vulg. 
Lat. potere, seen bIbo in the It. polere, 3p. poder. 

' See ^so double aufGies. Ftriridier is a very peculiar form, in that 
the lermination -lER is not added to the stem of the verb, but that we 
have to do with a suffix -IDIER. similar in appearance to -ADIER, 
as seen above io dauradier, etc.. and coQiing from -AT-HARIUS. It 
does not seem very probable that the word poiridier, formed on poirir, 
could be due to the analogy of dauradier. formed on dourer, since in one 
-lER denotes the agent and comes from -ARIUS, whereas in the other 
-lER has abstract force and ia from -ERIUM, but it ia difficult to find 
any other BotutioD of the difficulty. 'Putridaritu (— pufndus +- ARIUS) 
could give the form, and pulricariiu might give poiriguier, but it would 
still be difficult to account for the abstract force. 



nally with some word of place,' which was later omitted 
but implied. The meanings, therefore, do not differ great- 
ly from those of the words in -lER from the neuter 
-ARIUM. First of all, they denote place — the place 
for keeping the thing expressed by the simple noun. 
Like -lER, again, they have the meaning of the instru- 
ment — closely connected in meaning with the idea of 
place — so that some words, as, for example, formatgeiTa 
and Toteira, might equally well be placed under either list. 
A special meaning that these words take is that of an 
article of clothing, as, for example, camfriera, a place for 
the leg, or greaves, in armor. Beginning with the words 
denoting simply place, we find; 

almimera, almoner'a purse almotna, alma 

haiestiera, loophole (for engines of haleala, a war-engine 

hoUera, boxwood grove bou, busk 

eairdiera, loophole for arrows eairti, Bquare, p&ne of glass 

eardimiera, goldfinch* cardon, thistle 

eartiera, measure for holding a cart, quart 

cremiera, small cap for baptism crema, holy oil 

(1st meaniiig) 

fariniera, room for flour, granary farina, flour 

feniera, hay loft, hay pile fen, hay 

feuziera, place grown with ferns feuze, fem 
fumeriera,' dunghill 

gipiera, plaster factory ^p, plaster 

jonguiera, place grown with reeds jone, reed 

Mnera, wolf's den h^, wolf 

> I.e., a bird fond o( the seeds of the thistle, Ct. the Fr. cAanfon- 
neret. which has a diminutive suffix added to -ARIUS. 

■ See double niSies, p. 399. The -trr, which is hard to explain, 
bos already been discussed under femora*, uoder the suffix -AS (p. 141. 
n. t); t and o seem about equally common in Jemonu, Stmera*. and some 
other words. 


Formation op Nouns 

Tnaladiera,' leper hospital 
Tnilhiera, millet field 
olinera,' oil can 
ombriera, shady place 
peinera, quarry 
ponhadUra, kind of measure 
ttdiera, Baltcellar 
tettiero.t headstall 

malaut, ill 
milk, millet 

ombra, shade 
peira, stone 
ponhal, handful 

t, salt 

letta, head 
There is also one word formed on an adjective: 

freiquiera, cool place fretc, cool 

Then, as under -lER, come the nomis denoting the 

instrument for the use of, or to contain, the simple noun. 

There ia a barely perceptible transition from one class to 

the other. Here might be placed: 

aiffmera, ewer 
erapiera, crupper, tail band 
jUtera, drawplate 
formalgiera, cheese press 
gotiera, gutter 
gramera, broom 
marielitra,' lock, floodgate 
mtgiera, measure for liquids 
nutstiera, vessel for must 
mtiera, bag for consecrated 

wafers { ?) 
palombiera, place for catching 

paaliira, trough 

aiga, water 

cropa, croup 

Jil, thread 

formatge, cheese 

goto, drop 

gran, grain, dust 

martd, hammer 

meg, half 

mo»t, must 

o»tia, consecrated wafer 

palomba, pigeon 

poet, food 

> The form of the word is probably due to the influeDce of ladra, 

•Peculiar in form. We should expect olia-a and not oliitiera to 
have this meaoine- 

■ Cf . O.Fr. marUlxire. 

t Words of Lat. orisin are: bntoaiera, heath-covered land<6rucario. 
■od a^quUra, place for burning iinie<e<ilearui. Another word probably 
of Lat. origin, is /oJiratera, fern, from fUioma ( ?). A word having only 
in appearance thsBuSi-IER.^iscatnpafieni. olive grove. See compound 
words, Part IV, p. &58. 


232 Word-Formation in Provencal 

portadiera,' kind of Utter portar, carry 

ratiera, rat trap rata, rat 

veiriera, beehive raade o[ glass veire, glaea 

Any one of these words, however, might be placed in 
the previous liat, the difference between the two kinds 
of formation being very slight. 

Under either of the above lists — the one denoting 
place or the one denoting the instrument — might be 
placed several words, which, from the idea of place, have 
come to possess the specialized meaning of articles of 
clothing, and, more particularly, pieces of armor: 
cabeliera, hfur band eabd, hair 

camhiera, gaitera camba, leg 

cerveliera, helmet cerwl, brain 

espatiera, shoulder-piece espoiAo, shoulder 

gorgiera, neck-piece SO^ja, throat 

■pangiera, part of annor covering panga, belly 
the belly 

Again, as in -lER, there are a few words in -lERA 
with collective force: 

garbiera, pile of sheaves garba, sheaf 

lamiera, plate armor lama, metal plates 

tieviera, covering of aaavf niu, snow 

palhiera, straw pile palha, straw 

There are also several abstracts ending in -lERA, 
which probably is from -ERIA, for the Classic Latin 
-ERIES. The Provencal formations seem generally to 
be on adjectives, though in a few words the root seems 
to be a verb. On adjectives (except naviera), we find: 
calvkra, baldness caiv, bald 

longuiera, length lone, long 

nai'iera, ship's course nau, ship 

paiibriera,'' poverty paxtbre, poor 

I Ot -porladoira { ?). This would Beem a more uaunl kind of formation. 

' PaupHcra is also found, though not bo ooramonly. It is probably 
from pauperia, with the r due to the influence of -pavbre, poor. Paupiera, 
the regular development, is likewise found. 


FoKMATioN OF Nouns 

stguiera, dryness 
And on verb-stems: 
acabiera, perfection 
gatgwra, pled^ng 
lauxiera, flattery (?) 
sobriera, excess, iosult 

aaJiar, complete 
ga^ar, pledge 
laiaar, praise 

iobrar, exceed (or possibly o 
the preposition sobre) 

Again, there is a list of words to which the suffix con- 
tributes little or no change of meaning: 

bandiera, banner 

eazatiera, country seat 

elapiera, heap of stones 

ensenhiera, enugn, banner 

e«cabeiiera,^ bead of bed, 

■ eipondiera, wooden leg (accord- 
ing to Levy) 

etiaigiera, stand, frame, shelves 

froiitiera, forehead 
fumadiera,' puff of smoke 
Jumiera, smoke, vapor 
galiera, galley 
tasiera, bond, snare, knot 
Uchiera, litter, sedan-chair 
lamiera, light 
magorniera, stump of limb 
mainoidieTa, family 
moliera, millstone 
oriera, hem (of garment) 
paaliem, dyer's woad 

Besides all these words denoting things, -lERA is 
found denoting persons, and attached to nouns. These 
nouns Eire mostly simply feminine forms of words ending 
in -lER already given. Examples of such words are: 

mangoniera, merdera, moliniera, obriera, ofidera, oUera, 
' See paraayntheta. p. 528. 
■ See double suffixes, p. 393. 

banda, band 
eazal, country house 
day, heap of stones 
eneenha, battle-cry 
cahea, head of bed 

esponda, edge of bed 

enlalge, place, residence 

front, forehead 

fumada, smoke 

Sum, smoke 

gah, galley 

Uttz, rope, string 

lech, bed 

lum, light 

Tnagvm, leg without a foo 

mainada, family 

mola, roillstooe 

■pastel, dyer's woad 



ordeniera oepitaliera, personiera, pdiaiera, porHera, prel- 
zoniera,^ etc. 

Two words in -lERA have the meaning of a certain 
kind of poem, but this is not a meaning, conveyed by 
the suffix: it is simply the use of this feminine form of 
the agent suffix -lER, with the idea of a poem on the 
person described. Thus : 
aujpaera, (gooaeherd) =poeiii on a auca, gooee 

(female) goOHeherd 
eabriem.j (goatherd) "poem on a oabra, goat 

(female) goatherd 


The nouns in Provencal ending in -IN, from the Latin 
-INUS, are mostly either adjectives used substantively, 
or else the suffix changes the simple word very little, 

> For the meaning of theae words, see the fint list under -lER. 

t There are several other words in -lERA not Prov. tonnatiooa, 
Bome uodoubtedly comiDg down to Prov. from Lat., others being more 
or less obscure. Such words are: 

civiera, litter, probably from the Lat. cibaria. 

comiera. corner, corner-piece, from Let. cornaria; cf. O.Fr. comiirf, 
and Engl, "corner." 

etquiera. apparently meaning a square box, and probably, like the 
Fr. iqutrre, from excuadra. which should phonetically give acaira. The 
word has apparently been influenced by words with the suffix -IERA< 
-ARIA, which phoneticaily gave -AIRA. 

fiviera, screw-auger. The word seems to show a substitution of 
-lERA for -ELA, found in .>!iiel(i, clasp, eyelet (f rom ;!bub) , in which the 
-ELA was taken for a suffix. 

fardiera, rope. This may be a Prov. formation on art, rope-H 
the forceless -lERA, the t representing agglutination of the article. 
But the word is doubtful, 

madiera. wood, timber, from materia, 

mantem, manner, from mannaria, an adjective used substantively. 

modurUra, measure for grain. 

momiera, meaning doubtful; cf. O.Fr. motnerit. 

neciera, lack, dearth, from neceisaria (see Noat. Ett., 114, n. 2). 

pechitra, jug, pilcher, from picaria {?). 

pegidhiera. dowry, from pecultaria ( ?). 

,c b,Googlc 


As the adjective suffix was used very frequently in Latia 
with names of animals, it is not surprising to find names 
of animals in the list of adjectives used sutistantively :' 
aeerin, steel arrow acier, steel 

camelin, a kind of wool stuff catnd, camel 

Jacopin, Jacobin monk' Jacop, Jacob 

moresquin, dark browD cloth more»(,e)i,?), dark 

In a few other words the adjective suffix -IN is 
added, bringing little change other than a more special- 
ized meaning. Such words are: 
etporCin, a kind of basket etporta, basket 

gorgeirin, iron collar for the throat gorgiera, collar 
maTtrin, akin of marten martre, skin of marten 

orfanin, orphan orMn), orphan 

picotin, a measure (for grain) picof, a measure (for grain) 

In a few other words the suffix seems to denote the 
agent. This, again, looks like the substantive use of an 

baralin, cheat barat, cheating 

dratxmin (?),* dragon-tamer dragon, dragon 

Added to a preposition, we find -IN in: 
darreirin, rear, back darreire, behind 

Two other words are found in which the suffix appears 
to be attached to the present participles of verbs: 

o&«erMin(in, FTanciscan o(>«crt>an(()ifroino&8ervar,observe 

jun-en(tn,t beggar querenlf), from qaerre, seek 

> See examples in Meyer-LDbke, II, 540. Another Prov. word of 
this kind is ca&ntltn. tanned soatskiii. from a Lat. axproHniu, given by 
Olcott, 202. 

' For description, see Du Cange, Jacobitae. 

> Meyer-LQbke dassifiea this as a diminutive. 

t'tN is found ID a couple of words of foreign ongin: boiin. booty. 
and eicarin, sheriff, alderman. 

More obecure words are boiin, testicle; alaliin. outflow; and fioin, 
B kind of ^ip. Lopin may be a borrowing from Fr. See hpin in Die. Urn. 



Besides the masculine suffix -IN, we find also the 
feminine form -INA used in the same ways as -IN, and 
also in some others. -INA is already found in some 
Latin words, generally added to verb-stems with abstract 
force, as in ruina. Joined to noun-stems in Latin, it seems 
to have given little change to the simple word, as in 
collina and pedorina. The new words in -INA also, often 
show little change of meaning, the -INA in these cases 
appearing to have had adjectival force originally. But 
another development of meaning arose out of the adjec- 
tival use of the suffix — namely, the diminutive idea. As 
an adjective it denoted similarity, and from this use 
apparently grew the idea of inferiority : hence the diminu- 
tive meaning.' The suffix generally has this force in 
Romance, and the beginnings of the use are probably to 
be found in Vulgar Latin.* 

The following words in which the suffix is added to 
nouns are either diminutive or show little change from 
the simple word; 

bosquina, hedge 

boic, woods 

carina, heart 

cor, heart 

cotina, netting 

coUi, coat 

crapaudina,' precious 


erapaut. toad 

enfaTiiina, young girl 

enfant, child 

fantina, young girl 

(en)fanta, girl 

moire, mother 

megina. pluck 

meg, middle 

nebiina, miat 

neOa, oast 

pudisina, stench 

' .Meyer-LQbke. II 


'Cooper, 141; Olcott, 134 


because the stone was believed tc bar 

a the head of the toad. 


Formation of Noun8 237 

terpentiTta, kind of plant ierpen(t), snake 

telina,^ small nipple Ula, nipple 

Cases in which the suffix is added to adjectives are: 
creipina, fringe creep, curled 

xttvalffina, wild beast tatvaige, wild 

There are also several cases of -INA in which it is cer- 
tainly nothing but the feminine form of an adjective used 
substantively. -IN was a suffix often added to names of 
animals to form adjectives, and these words, all meaning 
skin of an animal, had some such word as "skin" understood : 

boquina, buckskin hoc, buck 

amina, lebraitTui,' rabbit skin conil, lebrat, rabbit 

maTlrina, marten skin martre, marten, marten skin 

Besides all the above cases, there is one more use of 
-INA that is somewhat different: it was added to stems 
of the verbs of Germanic origin to form abstracts, just 
as to Latin stems in ruina. Thus are found: 
ninno, comfort aiiir, welcome 

aptevina,'' security, bail plevir, pledge 

> See double suffiieB, p. 384. ■ Far apUeina, uee parasynthela, p. 528. 

t There are several words ending id -INA. and having no correspond- 
ing simple form, which may be eiiplained in various ways. These words 
are; aiglailina, amina, bergantina, bozina, cardairina, floinna, ffcce/ina, 
jaina. masmudina, and plonina. 

anina, greaae<amna, and boztnn. mouth<6uccina, are elearly Lat. 
Formations, and plorina, heavy rain, is probably one also. Gevelina, 
iaveiia, is probably s Celtic formation. 

aiglentiTM, eglantine, is derived from ^aiglent (cf. O.Fr. aiglenl), 
which Murray takes to come from acuienlui. needle-like. See "etdantine." 

btrganiiaa, shirt of mail, is probably of the same origin as the Pr. 
bn(/arutine, i.e.. derived from the It. brigante. 

cardairina appears to be another form of eardonwra (see p. 230). 

ftoiaina, pillow-case, is Bomewhat obscure, but appears to have its 
source in the Lot. fiUxina, the same word that may have given ihc O. 
Fr. fioenne and the Mod. Fr. jtaint. Sec Mitangei, 77. 

jaina {siao jaiena, and in Du Cange, jai/na). small beam, appears to 
come from a Lat. 'jactTia, derived from the claasical j&cire. 

matmudina, a coin of the Almohades, is probably derived from some 
form of "Mahomet." 


Word-Formation in Provencal 

I, burning 

From are, paat participle 
ardre ( ?), bum 

aiaina,' delay 

detsatina, spoliation deaaatir, take away from 

jagina,' childbed jazer, lie 

moHrta,' mortality, epidemic Tnorir, die 

reDolvina,' refrain reaolixr, revolve 

The Provencal suffix -ION has its source in the Latin 
-10, -lONIS. Not a very common suffix in Provencal, 
as compared with its other form -0, -ONIS,' it appears 
even less so on account of the frequent absorption of the 
i by the preceding consonant.* It apppears in: 

campion, champion 
Eapion, cowl ' 

carpion* carp 
enqueition,' question 
plarUioit,'' planting 
plumion, feather bed ( ?) 
promesion, promise 
primOTi,t itching 

eamp, field 
eapa, cape 

(fittquetU, call, summons) 
plantn or planlar, plant ( ?) 
pluma, feather 
prome»a, promise 
pruzer, itch 

verbal subBlantii 

: built on atainar. See 

'Arcina, jatina, moriTia, and retolcina are founded on Lat. verbs, 
just as was ruina. 

I P. 243. ' See p. 251. 

'Ciirpa<Lat. carpa probably existed. If Dot. the word might be 
an irailation of the It. carpione, 

' This word appears to be only the prefix EN- + quttlion (Bee 
[1.472). though from its form itmightbefromfnijuMta, inquest. Qiuilion, 
which has the sufGx. is, of course, Lat. 

' Levy su(!gests a correction to plantation. This may be unneces- 
sary, however. Fruiion, if a Prov. formaljon. is very similar, 

t Words probably of Lat. origin an 


Formation of Nouns 239 

-ismb, -ista 
The suffixes -ISME and -ISTA are of Greek origin 
and exist only in learned words. -ISME is added to 
nouns to form abstracts, as in the other languages; never- 
theless, terrdame seems rather to have collective force: 

j-udaitme, Judaism Jiida, Judah 

terreigme, land, territory terra, land 

-ISTA likewise is rare in Provencal. It is added to 
describe the occupation of a person, or his ideas or theories; 
dtcnUtla,^ decreUdUta, authority 
on canon law 


The Provencal diminutive suffix -IT is extremely rare, 
but traces of it are still found. It is apparently of the 
same origin as the common diminutive suffix -ET, going 
back probably beyond -ITTUS to the adjective suffix 
-ITUS.' Besides cabridet, in which we see this sufEx+ 
the diminutive -ITTUS, there are two other words in 
which -ITUS, used alone, shows diminutive force: 
autelii, little bird autel, bird 

bnmquit, little branch branc, branch 

Under the suffix -OA, the following words may be 
found, perhaps coming from a Latin -UUS: 
perdoa, Iobb perdre, lose 

rendoa, rent rendre, return 

segoa, Bucceaaion segre, follow 

vendoa,*\ sale vendre, eell 

■ Neither o( these words ia a real Prov. formation. 

' For B treatment of the development ot -ITTUS, see ppte lo the 
introduction to -ET, its usual development (p. 18N). 

• For these words, see Romania, XXV, 392. 



The suffix found in Provencal as -OIRA represents 
the Latin -ORIA, the feminine form of -ORIUS, which 
will be treated under its Provencal development of -OR. 
This suffix -ORIUS, -A, -UM was added to the stems of 
past participles, giving the forms -SORIUS and -TORIUS, 
the latter of which became the regular auffix to be added 
to verb-stems, and together with the st«m-vowel gave 
the forms -ADOR, -ADOIRA, and -EDOR, -EDOIRA, 
already treated. As in the case of other suffixes,' the 
formatioos on the verb-stem became much more numer- 
ous than the original kind of formation on the past par- 
ticiple, -OIRA is found in few words in Provencal: 
escUiuiaira, sluice-gate esdauza, sluice-gate 

(No verb is to be found for thie word, but one probably exiated. 
There is no chfinge in meaning from that of the nmple word.) 
esparsoira, holy water sprinkler espareer, sprinkle 
fickoira, three-pointed lishhook jScftar, fix 

foioira, bit of land that can be dug fotar, dig 

in one day' 
moUoira,' milk-pail mi^a,* froth, foam 

The suffix was originally added to verb-stems to form 
adjectives, but the substantive use of the feminine and 
the neuter is very common. 

-OL, -OLA 

There are a few words in Provencal with the ending 
-OL, -OLA, which is purely diminutive in force when it 
brings any change in meaning to the simple word. The 

1 As, for eiamplc. -UR.^, on p. 261, l^low, 

> Undoubtedly this word ahowa a. substantive use of the adjeclive 
in the phrase "terra fonnra." 

'MoUoira sppniit Iq be formed dirertlj' on moUa, though *m<)liar 
may have cxi3ti>d. 


Formation op Nouns 241 

Latin suffixes from which the Froven^l form is descended 
are -EOLUS and -lOLUS, or -OLUS (the old form of 
-ULUS), which had come to be used only after e and 
1.' As for -ULUS itself, it is of little importance as a 
suffix in Provengal, the u being unaccented and con- 
sequently disappearing, as did the u in -ACULUS, The 
suffixes -EOLUS and -lOLUS, on the other hand, per- 
sisted, but the accent shifted from the e and the i to 
the o, the e being treated like the i, which developed 
as a 3/-eleraent. This yod seems to have disappeared in 
all popular words; and the reason for this seems to be 
a confusion In the case of filiolus, the most impor- 
tant Latin example of the sufBx. Taking into considera- 
tion the shifting of the accent, filiolus regularly became 
filkol, whereas filius became j{//i. The suffix that is added 
is apparently -OL, and the word through its common- 
ness could serve as an example for new formations. Since 
m Classic Latin the suffix -OLUS could be added only 
to stems in e or i, we find not only the suffixes -EOLUS 
and -lOLUS, but also an c or i in hiatus in the simple 
word, and some of these other combinations of a conso- 
nant-|-i/ became in Provencal simply the palatalized 
consonant, as ny>n'. This also might help bring about 
the usual development of -lOLUS to -OL in Proven5al. 
There are only two words found retaining the y-element — 
besliola and cambriola, the former of which is of Latin 
origin and the latter learned. As a popular diminutive 
of cambra, we should expect cambrola. 

The suffix, however, appears never to have been much 

in use in popular formations, there being a number of 

other equally useful diminutive forms to take its place. 

It is no longer used in forming new words in French. 

I Die. Gfn., I. 53, bcc. 86. 



The suffix -OL is found in the following Provencal 
formations : 

albola, white baptismal clothea aOm,' alb 

aitola,' small ax aua, ax 

bamiola, company, party banda, band 

btaiola,' barbed hook barba, beard 

bresoj, cradle breCz, cradle 

eambriola, small room cambra, room 

CTtuvl,' pitcher cntga, pitcher 

eatankol, small pond eaUmk, pond 

flaujol, small flute; also deception fiaiija, flute 

fiaviol, email flute Jfaufa, flute 

fogasol,* small buttered roll fogaaa, buttered roll 

la*cA., cord loix, string 

ffUMoIa, club in««a, club 

truMoIa, winter wheat m<i«, mow < 1) 

nudiioia, screech-owl nuch, night 

orfanol, orphan or/e(n), orphan 

pii/W,Ghildbed; womaninchildbed poIAa,' straw 
pttol, wool remaining after the re- pet, weight 

moval of tie web 

petal, pea peM, pea 

plitmosoi,' reather-broom quill pluma, feather 

put^ol, hill puoi, hilt 

eer«oI,'t male falcon terU, third 

For words in -AIROL, see double suffixes, p. 399. 

' Alba in Du Cange has, however, the special meBning that albola has 

■ For a probable Lat. source, see Noui. Eti., 162. 
< See Die. Oen., introduction, sec. 86. 

•The c is peculiar in this word. Another derivative of erujM is 
crtigon (likewise cruol). Mod, Prov. has both cruco and erofo, and it 
would appear as though there might have been a form eniea as well ss 
cniga, from the Germanic k in kruka. C would be the regular develop- 
ment of this letter. 

> See double suffixes, p. 3S3. 

■ Fatha. straw, is here apparently used with the meaning of heA, 
' Possibly a Lat. formation. See K6rtiDg (No. 9,488), ItrtitAMi. 

t There is also a large list of words ending in -OL<A) not formed 
in Prov. Many of them ore simply the Prov. forms of Lat. words. 
The list is bs follows: aaTiol{a), oriole; art»tol, rest tor a Umce; 6«/ioJa, 
small animal; bredoia, footstool; bretol, vain hope(T); bntfol, buffalo; 


Formation of Nouns 

The Provencal suffix -ON is one that must be divided 
and subdivided a good deal in order to' show all of its 
meanings and changes of meaning. The Latin suffix 
-ONE, from which it is derived, seems to have been rather 
vague in meaning and use, for not only do we find -ON 
added indiscriminately to nouns and to verbs, but its 
meanings are different in the various languages in which 
it is used, its principal use in most of them being augmen- 

camola, boreworm; captota. small boi: caupel, a kind of ship; dranol, 
drogOD; ajxA, spool; faitola, belt, band; fongol, funsus; /ramola, jaw; 
arifol, TouatltiD; maihol, viae, cuttiog; mezol. marrow, pitb; majol, beaker; 
naujoi, tedium; niola, uvula; nozol. kind of bird; orsol, pitcher; patrol, 
kettle; pampoi, vine-branch; panol, child; pegola, piteh; pibol. poplar, 
poplar wood. 

Of these words, in auriot, baliola. cavtola, faitola, fongol, maihol, 
mtiot, mojol, oTtol, patrol, pareol, and pegola, the Lat. oriipnalH aureolut, 
betliola, eapttiia, fateiola, funattlut, malleolus, medulla, modioiut. urceoltia, 
*parioliim (K6rtiii(, No. 6,872), panrulua, and picula are sufficiently 
obvious, though it must be noted that simple words eapte, fait, fonge, 
miilh, ona, pan, and pega eiieC in Prov. beside Che ones with the Buffix, 
and that para^ ia an adjective used subBtantively. Other words of Lat. 
orif^n. whose source is not quite bo obvious, are brtdola.tootBlool<.pTedella 
(see Diss, 391), bru/ol, buffalo, from 'biA/dlua (Class, Lat. butia^iM) , in which 
the penultimate syllable appears to have been dropped and incorrectly 
replaced (cf . Fr. bouffle); cauptd, a kind of ship<toupu/iM (aee Du Cange) : 
camola, boreworm < *camu[ua, from camur, bent, curved; niota, uvula, 
which appears to spring from a confusioo between umito and tiirula (see 
BieaU,327). jMiBipot, vine-branch, from pampinua. vine-branch; and pibot, 
poplar< populum. In most of these words the accent has shifted in the 
Lat. word, and there have been other changes. Arealol, rest for a lance, 
appears to be formed on the noun re»la, rest, either parasynthetically 
(see below) or possibly through the medium of the verb areetar. The a 
might, however, be due only to agglutination of the article, in which case 
the word would be a suffix-formation and belong here. 

Of the remaining words, dragol and grifol seem to show substitutions 
of -OL for -ON in dragon and grifon; apol probably comeB from the 
Germanic spuolo (see "spool" in Murray); naujol, tedium, appears to 
come from a dialect form rumja [(instead of nauza), from miuieii)-|— OL; 
Tvaal. a kind of bird, given as a type of uglineBB,.may be nuchola, changed 
through association with nozer, injure; brelol, vain hope (?), is doubtful 
even in form, and framoia, jaw, is obscure. 


244 Word-Formation in PnovENgAL 

tative, whereas it is the opposite force — diminutive — 
that is common in Provencal, where the augmentative 
force is unknown. In many words in Latin, then, the 
suffix must have added little to the original word, as is 
still the case in many words in Proven^l. The suffix 
was particularly common in the vulgar language, as 
Cooper and Olcott seem to agree, but it seems to have 
had various and rather ill-defined meanings. Olcott' 
gives four with which it is found in the inscriptions; 
(1) titles of reli^on and civic government; (2) mili- 
tary terms; (3) trades and occupations; (4) terms of 
abuse; yet none of these meanings can be said to be com- 
mon in Provencal, if found at all there. Meyer-Liibke* 
says that -ONE in Latin served to individualize, and 
was added to nouns to denote the person who performed 
an action with particular predilection, or who is noticed 
by his occupation. All of these uses, therefore, are to 
form names of persons, which, indeed, seems to have been 
the most important use of the suffix.' In Provencal, 
nevertheless, as also in French, the names of persons with 
the suffix are rare, and those that are found are not 
formed by the addition of -ON, but instead, -ON is added 
to some simple word denoting the name of a person, 
either to give it diminutive force or else without per- 
ceptible chaise of meaning. The total disappearance of 
-ON as a suffix forming names of persons is worthy of 
note, but might perhaps be accounted for by the tre- 
mendous extension of the more specific -lER, from 
-ARIUS, The uses of -ON which have persisted in Pro- 
vencal may all be developments of the original vague 

'P. 83. >lr, 543. 

■ For B detailed treatment of the n&meB of persons tornied by use of 
(he suffii, see Fisch, Nomijia Pereonalia auf -O. -OXIS. 


Formation of Nouns 245 

tendency toward individualisation. Although there are 
few new names of persons with -ON, the suffix is Bome- 
what commoner with names of animals, many of these 
showing diminutive force, and many others no change in 
meaning. In the names of things formed on nouns, there 
is exactly the same distinction, which seems to be a 
Romance development, being rare in Latin — the suffix 
has either diminutive force or adds little to the meaning 
of the word. Like -EL, for example, and other diminu- 
tives, the sufiix was frequently used to designate objects 
in common use, and this usage continued in Romance 
beside the forming of diminutives in some languages and 
of augmentatives in others — ^processes growing out of the 
original use. 

The names of persons will be given first, then the 
names of animals, and finally the names of things. 
I. Names op Pebsons 

ciweon,' rascal, servant 

cute, rascal 

fricon,' fool 

frk. fool 

geldon, infantry 

(jeMo, infantry 

fpiidon, guide 

guida, guide 

mainaton, chUd 

vtainat, child 

maxchn,] male 

masde, male 


donzel, pafce 

enfanlon, small child 

enfan{t). child 

Jitttm, little son 

filh, eon 

nuutran, yovmg master, 


maetre, master 

' In cute aod cuactm. Jric and fricon, probaUy two forms of the same 
word are represented. Cute probably comes from a Lat. coclio, and 
aacon from its acCUBative, cactionem. In the case of /rie and fricon. 
Lev}', under the word fricon, givea a reference to Raynouard, and the 
example cited gives /ric and not fricon. This survival of both forms is 
seen in other words, aa companh and companAon, bar and baron. 

i Another word, patron, is from the Lat. palronia. 




hudon, guide, pilot (7); highway- (poeaibly from a Basque stem 

roan and fonned on an adjective) 

fricon,' young man frie, youi^ 

II. Names of Anuials 



onJicIon, lamb 

anhd, lamb 

aurion, kind of eaf^e; mmx- 

change for ouriof (7) 

eretUm, see formations on verbs, 

p. 250 

erUon, see formations on verl:>3. 

p. 250 

\ampredon, Icimprey 

lampre(d)a, lamprey 

vibfim,\ viper 

iiibra, viper 

b) DIMU 

otfrJon, eaglet 


oiffia, ea«le 

cowOon, piclcet. tent-pole ( 7) 

aivat, horse 

fedon, lamb 

/Kte, sheep 

gahn,* little hen 

sal, cock 

goton, pug-dog 

ffos, dog 

ntounb, mosquito 

nadon, young (of an animal) 

rua, (thing) born 

onoa, young bear 


paaeron, sroall sparrow 

ptMcra, sparrow 

n'mton, young monkey 

Hmi, monkey 

trinkm, young tiger 

trida, tiger 

< See fricon in the precediDg list. 

■ Here the suffix seeniB to change a, masculine noun to feminine as 
II aa to add diminutive force. 

t The words eodiDi in -ON deoDtinK aoimals. not formed id Prov. 
■: corgoum, furon, norooUum, gri/on, and garanlum. The first four 
tra to be of t^t. origin: 

eorgoton, a kind of insect< *corcactua (derived from corcui) +aaSix. 

furon, ferret</uro, onw. See Ronmnia, XXXV. 174. 

goroolhon, corn-wonn<carraiioB™. See KQrtine, No. 2,8B9. 

grifon, eryphen<gruphtu +fluffix. See Mod. Lanu. Nola. XXII, 49. 

Qoranhon, Htallion, seems to eome from a Germ, inranlio. See K<)r- 

tins, No. 10,414. 


III. Nahes of Thinos 


baeon, trough, hod {bae, bowl, in Mistral) 

bamulon, basket, h&mper banaala, basket 

bolon, counterweight bola, ball 

cauon, box, chest caita, box 

canon, pipe, leed carut, reed 

cordm, quarter, piece earl, quarter 

cotton, slope eo^a, slope, hiU 

dexcon, basket 
faron,^ aigool'light 
fiascon, bottle 
fimdon, depth 
ff(lft>»(?), hook 
ffnmbaizon, stuffed doublet 

Ml, dyer's broom 
gonelon,* gown 
labm, lath 

malicion, wickedness 
monJon, mantle 

detc, basket 

far, signal-light, tower 

fiasc, bottle 

/on, depth 

gafa, hook 

gambaia, stuffed doublet; a 

genetta, broom 
0cme(a, gown 
fata, lath 

Titalicia, wickedness 
Tnanta, mantle, 
TTKtoUi, marrow 
■poleja, reel on crossbow 
popel, nipple 
KOJA, valley 

poison, reel on orossbow 

popetott, mpple 
valhon,] valley 

bluaudon, dim. of MixaiU 
boiton, hedge 
cfulelon, small castle 
eteanhon, small bench 
Mchpon, chip, sphnter 

■ See also /union in d. ti 
I See double Buffixes. p. i 

t A word of inteteat of Lat. origin ia faichon. face. It appareotly 
comes from faeHonem, whose regular development would be faiton, 
which is likewise found. The spelliog faichon is Riven by Levy ■□ one of 
the examples under faUon, which is given with a number of meanings, 
of which "face," "form" is one. Faieha and fachon look like dialect 

blixaul, an undergannent 
bosc (boil), woods 
eastel, castle 
eteanh, bench 
esdap, log 


248 Word-Formation in Provencal 

eacudeUm,' small bowl eMtulel, bowl 

cgparron,' stake; a kind of cord esparra, cross bar 
eeporta, basket 
faU, scythe 

ferraiq, field lying Callow 
fiuela, clasp, buckle 
formalge, cheese 
gerla, basket, hamper 
jup, skirt 
laTiaa, lance 
laH, bacon 
Tnadaiea, skein 
moTidha, horae-twitcherB 
mon{t), mountain 
olh, eye 
ort, garden 
padena, pan 
paisiera, barrier 
poila, paste 
pena, feather 
plala, plate 
podux, pocket 

A few words meaning things cannot be classified in 
either of the above groups. The tendency toward indi- 
vidualization is seen in these words, but they can hardly 
be classed as pure diminutives. 

> See double suffixes, p. 3S3 and p. 300, n. ftf. 

'The little Levy lists two distinct Prov. words, one maspulioe and 

one feminine, having these two meanings, whereas the larger work 

' gives esparron only once. It would appear possible, however, for a word 

derived from egpana, which has only one meaoiDg. to acquire both the 

meanings given above. 

• The fitelon seems to be the pin of the buckle, whereas the fivtla 
apparently was the whole buckle. 

■ .See double suffiies, p. 400. 

t In -ALHON, besides the words given above, there are also medd- 
lAon, haystack; pabailuin. lent, And parpaihon, butterfly. Both of the last 
two words are from the Lat. papaiionen, butterfly. The tneaning of 
"lent" is a later development. As for medalhon, it seems to be derived 
from mc{i)allia, mesh. 

espOTlon, small basket 
faUon, sickle 
fermion, dim. of /errata 
fivelon,' bodkin 
formatjon, small cheese 
girlon, small ptul 
jupon, petticoat 
Earwon, small lance 
lardon, slice of bacon 
madaUon, small skein 
maralkon,' clasp 
monton, heap, pile 
moscalhtm,' small fly 
olkon, small eye 
orton, small garden 
padenon, small pan 
patserott,' small barrier 
pasUm, bit of pastry 
peTitm, banner 
plalon, small plat^ 
pocAon,t measure for fluids 


Formation of Nouns 249 

c) unclabbified 
brcuon, upper part of the arm brai£, arm 

doblon, double candle dobU, double 

ettahn, pillar, poet e»lat, place 

gmniMm, grape gmnh, grain 

tinhon, thread Hnha, liac 

iiurodon,' measure of 1 of bushel liurada, pound 
peiron, flight of Btepa peira, stone 

randtm,* impetuosity randa, firmness 

U)alhon,j towel loaUia, tablecloth 

So far, the words listed have been formed on nominal 
stems, and all of the words, with the exception of fncon, 
have been clear formations on Provencal nouns. There 
are also, however, some words formed on verb-stems, 

1 See double autfiies, p. 384. 

' Cf. the O.Fr. randon. which the Dit. Oen. derives from randir. 
Id Prov.. however, the noun randa, of Germ, origin, is found, and is the 
probable base-word. 

t Other words endins in -ON, but not having the Piov. suBtx, are 
as follows: 

aranhon. wild pluni' See Mistral, ara^oun. 

aviron, tiller = prefii A--finron. See prafii-forroalion, p. 464, below. 

bodoiton, raBCal; stopper; excrement. These meaninss are tpvea 
in Mistral, under boudusoun. The word is very obscure. It seems to 
have some oonnection with the Fr. bouclum, but just what is not clear. 

bordon, 8tafr<6urdo, onw, 

cairalon, a kind of ship. From cairat (carai), four-cornered block. 

eoTTialon. Obscure both in form and meaning. 

darbon. mole. From Lat. darpia. See Romania. XXXV, 172, 

ttponiim, a kind of spear. Ct. It. apunlone, derived from apurUare 
<.expu7Klare. SeeKfirting,No,3,47I. fnpimtormay haveexistedinProv. 

faraon, signal-liBht. From the Gr. input, an island with a liEht- 
tower, giving far in Prov. and the derived form faron (see above). 
It is difficult to account for the !oim faraon except as having been influ- 
enced by Faraon, Pharaoh, though the connection is not very clear. 
It may possibly be with the pillar of fire that helped Moaes lo escape 
Pharaoh. Faroa and farot (sec -OT, below) are other forms of the word. 

tUum, fiauion. flat cake. From an OHG ftado (see K6r(ing, No. 
3,806}. Flaon is the regular form. Flataon appears to show the influ- 
ence of ftauia. white cinder, if not directly derived from it. 

go/on, hinge, hook. Apparently written (ot gafon, from ga/ar (see 
below), under the influence of gomphia, hioge. 

touron, spring on a level with the ground. See Rooiania, I, 06. and 


250 Word-Formation in Provencal 

Here, the words denoting persons and animals are rare, 
and it is the words denoting thii^, especially the instru- 
ment of an action, as in the other verbal suffixes -ADOR 
and -ALH, that are commonest. 

The division into words denotii^; persons, animals, 
and things will be made in the verbal as well as in the 
nominal formations. 

I. Naues of Pebbons 

As for the names of persons, there seem to be only 
two possible formations on verbs : 
predon, robber predar, prey on 

eulhtm, slut, bcuIUoq eulhar, soil 

II. Names op Aniualb 

There are also three names of animals with the ending: 

creiton, castrated lamb creslar, castrate 

eriton, hedgehog erisar, stand erect 

pepion, dove pepiar, chirp 

III. Names of Things 

The names of things generally denote the instrument 
with which to perform the action indicated by the verb; 
eorehan, piece o( bread corchar, cut 

(Here the meaning is not that of the instrument, but rather the 
result of the action of cutting.) 
etcaTTogcm, litter, pole-ladder; iron eeearragar, card wool 

carder' (?) 
eicoson, thresher, flail (escosar is not to be found in 

Raynouard or Levy, but it 
probably existed. Cf. etcoa- 
*er in Old French) 
■ For his tranalation of poie-ladder, lievy cites Mistral, who has: 
" eicalaetoun, etcarraiaou —randier, 4clUlier: ichalm tU irione; eiviire, 
Btc." Mistrnl also haa, however: "eecarrosao. escordajM, etcarnatto 
(It. ttardaenj •^drouiieUe, grotse carde de fer, dont on at ««rl pour com- 
mencer U cardage," In the pitsaage cited io Levy, either translation is 
possible, but the second is the only one showing any coDDection with the 
verb 6fcaiTa*»or, The word meaning "ladder" is probably an augmenta- 
tive of •egcarrai (cf. the Fr. iclialai<i*eclutracium) . 


Formation of Nouns 251 

ttparaon, holy water sprinkler etparter, aprinkle 

Mlaon, support; chain e»Utr, stand 

esliTon, turrow eslirar, stretch out 

fiean, dart, sticker .^''i stick on, prick 

gufon, hook ff^/ar, fast«a, seiie 

irutnAon, eyebrows guiakar, wink 

piam, smaU pickax piear, prick 

piion, pestle of mortar petar, crush 

prenhon, foetus prenhar, impregnate 

This concludes the list of words the source of whose 
auflSx is the Latin -0, -ONIS.' 

For -AIRON, see double suffixes, p. 399. 

As under the heading -ON, however, all the words 
having this ending, whatever be its source, should be 
grouped, it is necessary to mention another set of words 
coming from a Latin -10, -IGNIS. The word-lists in 
Cooper and Olcott give the words with the two kinds of 
endings in the same lists, showing the same kind of use, 
and in Provencal, words the source of whose suffix is 
-10, are sometimes found with the ending -ON. This 
occurred whenever the preceding consonant formed a 
combination -to absorb the i/-element. Thus we hnd the 
following words coming from -10, -IGNIS: 
eT\fan3on, child enfanU), cliild 

ttcuton, small shield escut, shield 

peismt,*] Sab pets, fish 

' This does not include, of course, the words ending in -TIONE 
added to verb-st«ins, which, together with the stem-vowel of the verb, 
have been treated under the forms -AZON. -EZON, -IZON, pp. 165 B. 
Nevertheless, this abstract -TIONE gives some words ending in -ON 
in Prov. Thus /aiKm<.factionem and deretemaon, redemption, which 
seems to come from de redempli/me, 

■ The words in the other laneuageB. pouaim, pUcione, etc., would 
seem to point to the enatence of a pUcumtm in Lat., though peimm is 
appareotly formed in Prov. 

tAlso of Lat. origiD are parion, part, from partitiontm (?>, and 
troiuon, fragment, from truncionem. Companhon beside eompanh looks 
like a Prov. formation, but is simply an interesting case ol the survival 
of the nominative as well as the accusative case, both words going back 
to companio, -onii. See p. 245, u, 1. 



There are alao a few words in which the i of the 
suffix was not absorbed, thus giving the suffix -ION.' 

-OR, the ProvenQal suffix, is descended from the Latin 
-OR, -ORIS, and is, Hke the latter, used in forming ab- 
stracts, although not nearly as common as the longer 
forms -AMEN, -ANSA, and -ATGE. Cooper says that 
words in -OR were characteristic of elevated style, and 
therefore not numerous in Vulgar Latin, and found in 
very few new words.' Like most abstracts, the Latin 
words in -OR were formed by adding the suffix to verb- 
stems, and there are in Provencal some formations of 
the kind ; but the more usual process was the formation 
of new words on adjectives. AU>or, dawn, found in 
Latin, and apparently built on albus, white, would (pve a 
starting-point for such formations. 

Words in which -OR is added to adjectives: 
agror, sh&rpaess 
baudor, gaiety; boldness 
beior, beauty 
brunor, brownness 
doUor, sweetness 
estrechor, narrowness 
feror, wildnesa 
folor, tolly 
forlor, strength 
fregeor, freshness 
fframor, chagrin 
fpret'or, pain, injury 
jrosw. thickness 
largor, extent 
UmgoT, length 
negroT, blackness, affliction 
pijror, annoyance (?), disadvan- 
tage (T) 

' .'*eo p. 238. 

afp-e, sharp 
bmd, gay; bold 
hel, beautiful 
bran, brown 
(lofi, sweet 

/er, wild, fierce 

fol, foolish 

fort, strong 

fretc, fresh 

gram, sad 

grm, painful 

grot, thick 

lore, broad 

lone, long 

negre, black 

■pigre, eurly, annoyed; lary 

Cooper, 25. 


Formation of Nouns 253 

rxcor, nobility, power ric, noble, powerful 

roaor, redness roa, tfA 

tartloT, sanctity gajll, saintly 

UndroT, tendemeBB Undre, tender 

tritlor, sadness tritU, sad 

vdhor, old age vdh, old 

verdor, greennesa «ert, green 

The formations od verbs are as follows: 
ofoor, hdght ahar, rwse. Ct. Sp. alxar<'tU- 

tiart, Fr. hautaer 
tiasmor, blame blatmar, blame 

tremor, bumii^ cremar, bum 

eridor, uproar eridar, cry 

doptor, doubt doptar, doubt 

fontor, depth /onaar, bury, dig 

iror, fury, rage (irar [ ?],' rage, rave) 

lataor, praise iavxar, praise 

Jeujor, wantonness; lightening, leajar, lighten 

Utor,^ leisure leter, be at leisure (infinitive is 

found only as noun) 
{uxor,' Ught of the eyes lutir, shine 

pendor, inclination -pendre, hang 

petoT, weight peiar, weigh 

pnaoT, itching ■pruxer, iteh 

Tavbor, pillage rau&ar, rob, plunder 

«o6rar, superiority aobrar, subjugate 

totlTor, depreciation aostrar, lower, depredate 

(rijor,t delay trigar, delay 

Many of tbe words in the above list could, from their 
appearance, be formed as well on a simple noun as on a 

■ There ii a past participle iraJ<Lat, trofut, and there is a compound 
lUirar. These things make a simple verb *irar seem possible. 

■Beside Utor and Itaor exist two other interestiiis forma, legor 
and bigor. These words would seem to indicate that the suffii -OR 
was added to the Lat. stems tec and lac. The other words, on the other 
hand, latr and Iubit, seem to point to a later addition of the auffix. Still, 
formations on leter and lutir in Prov. beside the rarely used tegor and 
lugor would not be impossible. 

t Also of Lai. origin, friorK/rigortm, 



verb, but as the Latin process in the case of this suffix 
was the addition to verb-stems, which is the regular 
process for the formation of abstracts in Provencal, it 
seems natural to suppose that in these cases also the 
verb was the source. In the case of iror, the noun iro< 
Latin ira exists, whereas the verb irar is uncertain. It 
probably existed, however, though irai may come from 
iratus, the past participle of irasci. Tester, extremity, and 
brunurr, mist, are somewhat puzzling, being apparently 
derived from testa, head, and bruma, mist, without any 
verb intervening. 

There is another suffix -OR in Provencal which cannot 
come from the Latin -OR, but must represent -ORIUM, 
the neuter form of -ORIA, which has been treated above 
under -OIRA.' The cases of -OR with this meaning, 
however, are far from numerous. In most cases the 
form found represents -A-DOR from -A-TORIUM.* 

Cases of -OR: 
fosor, hoe, mattock fo»ar, dig. Cf. also the remi- 

nine form fotoira (p. 210, 

pretor, renoet prea* (paat participle of prendre, 

(A pecuUar word given in Levy is ttudor, raiser of the leada, a 
tax, but it JB Kiven with a quegtion-mark, with lender "letidier sug- 
gested as a correction, which seema probable. Faehor, which looks 
like /acA+-OR, is, of course, only a development of the Latin /ocfor. 
EscosoT, thresher, probably cornea from a Latin excuttor' and mesor, 
reaper, harvester, from the Latin meator.) 

Still another class of words ending in -OR must be 
mentioned, although in these words no Latin sufHx is 

■ See p. 240. • See p. 36. 

' Or possibly fortned on a Lat. *yrwu* (Claasio Lat. prentut), Cf. 
the Ft. priture, 

* See Du Cange. Fotor 'm, therefore, the only real example of the 
suffix -ORIUM, and that is found be^de the feminine form in -OIRA. 



represented. Instead of a suffix it is a trace of a case- 
eadiiig that is found here — that of the genitive plural 
orum of the second declension. It is not Strang, there- 
fore, that most of these words have collective force, 
being ori^nally plural, nor is it surprising that many of 
them are really adjectives, for if pa^anor meant "of the 
pagans," it was equivalent to the adjective pagan. It 
is, on the contrary, the use as nouns that is new, being 
one of the usual substantive uses of adjectives. New 
formations are rare. For convenience, the whole list 
will be given here: 

ajtffiloT, angels angel, angel 

caiendor, ChriBtmaa adend, colead 

eompanhor, companions compank, companion 

comlar,' rank aft«r viscount (?) comte, count 
crealianor, Christiana crestiati, Christian 

enfentor, of hell enfem, hell 

erboT, herbe erba, herb 

martror, feast of the martyrs mariyr, martyr 

nadalor, Christmas nodal, Christmas 

pernor, land of pagans (?) or pagan, pagan 

parenlor, relations, race, family paren(Q, parent 
pa$cor, apring ptuca, Easter 

lenebror, darkness tenebre, darkness 

vavasor, vassal of a vassal {vomu^ 

Belonging to the same group of diminutive suffixes 
as -AT, -ET, and -IT, is -OT, from -OTTUS, somewhat 
more usual than -IT, though not nearly so much so as 

< It is, difficult to state from which of the three sources of the Prov. 
EufBx -OR the ending of this word comes. Its meaning is tolerably 
dear from the example "come, varomg, ni amilori" (Raynouard, II, 
453). comlor appears to come from some nich phrase as comes 
comUorum, due to the analogy of taitua vaasorum (>cavaaoT) and imi- 
talinB the geoitive plural in -ORUM, already found in so many words. 
See Du Cange, comiiorei. 




the commoner form -ET. The use of the suffix is clear 
enough, giving diminutive force every time that it adds 
anything to the meaning of a word. It was regularly 
added to nouns, and probably in Provencal to nothing 
but nouns, though in French there seem to be cases in 
which it was added to verb-stems. The list of forma- 
tions on nouns follows : 

cabot, bullet-bead (Geh) 

eabrot, goat 

eatola, little cap 

clapot, rabbit-butch 

eoitot, leg (of beef) 

eubelol, small cask 

dagot, small dagger 

JdTot} bght tower 

falsol, garden knife 

JUkotia), small son or daughtei 

gaharrol, small freight ship 

gafot,^ hook 

galiot, outlaw, galley-slave 

garrol, crossbow, stick 

Umaol. lance 

mercerot, little mercer 

nasol, small bow-net, weir 

oslatot, smtdl bouse 

paUita, small shovel 

■pegot, pitch-torch 

pelot, shell, bark 

picot, measure for wine 

pipot, small cask 

plasol.i small square 

cap, head 

cabra, goat 

cola, cap 

dap, heap of stones 

coda, thigh 

dojfa, dagger 

far, bght tower 

fal», scythe 

filhia), son, daughter 

gabarra, (frdght ship) lighter 

gufa, hook 

galea, galley 

gana (?), leg 

lansa, lance 

nata, weir 
oslal, house 
pala, shovel 
pega, pitch 

{pic, pike) 
pipa, cask 
ptasa, square 
' See also /aron and go/on, p. 247. 

t Olher words, ending in -OT, but not formed in Prov. by means of 
this suSii. ate: 

alcamt, arcabol. pimp, from the Arabic o^-gouRicA. See Romania. 
XXXIV. 197. 

angdot. aarcocolla. from an Arabic amarol. See Nouv. Eu., 161. 
euot, flowing away, which looks like a poat-verba] noun derived from 
'cgatar. which may be assumed. Cf. the Fr, igoulter. drain, and igoui, 
gutter. Sec nouns formed on verba, p. 540. 

ciaalot, iialol. southeast wind, is from the Arabic t»h-aharq, the latter 


The ending -TAT, from the Latin -TATEM, is found in 
a great many words in Proven^, but in most of them the 
existence of the i of -ITATEM makes certain the learned 
character of the formations. Such words as these are 
caritat, penalilat, and mgorosUat, which, with all others 
of the kind, will be omitted from the lists. Had the 
word caritat, for example, been a popular formation, 
the intertonic vowel i would have disappeared entirely, 
as happened in many words in Provencal, as, for example, 
in egaltat, representing an aeqvalitatem.^ Besides these 
two cases, first of the retention of i and then of its total 
disappearance, there is another type of words, namely, 

/iJua, pendulum, is obscure. It may be MtDoeclcd with the verb 
folir. become craiy (therefore run back and [orth), and /of iof miBht mean 
"the little thing running back and forth," but it is \-ery uncertain. 
Poliol iH likewise in O.Fr. 

lacat, flattery, eiislB beside lagoteaT, flatter. Lagot is probably a 
poet-verbal noun formed on lagotear. but the formation ia not certain. 
See Kening, No. 5,394, and Diei, 623. 

lingot, ingot. Cf. the O.Fr. linfiot and the Sp. linaoie: obscure aa 
to source. Du Cango's lingotua dates only from 1440. and therefore can- 
not be taken as the source. The Engl, word probably dropped Ihe I 
through its being supposed to represent the Fr. article. The Engl. 
word is found in Chaucer. See Murray, under "ingot." 

Still other words beside which no simple word ia found, and probably 
not of Prov. origin, are madvAa, owl; mofolol, sailor; minhot, cushion; 
fanhota, kind of roll, and ptiata. ball. Of these, madiota ia somewhat 
□bacure. Malatot and minhol arc of the same origin as the Fr. maletol 
and mvnof, the original form of mignon, Petota seems to come from a 
Lat. 'pUaUa, and paiJuita is probably from •paniotta. Du Cange gives 
a late form, panAofiu. 

Possible formations on verbs are jMot, machine for throwing missiles, 
from pilar, crush, and picoia. amallpos, from jncar, prick. 


258 Word-Formation in Provencal 

those in which this i of the intertonic syllable becomes 
e instead of disappearing. There are several causes which 
could bring about such a result. In the first place, in 
such words as ca«Hiatem, aaticHtatem, the disappearance 
of the intertonic vowel would have brought together 
two t'a, one belonging to the word proper and the other 
to the suffix, in a particularly difficult combination of 
consonants.' This seems to have been one of the reasons 
for the retention of the vowel as e in French, where, from 
such a starting-point as these forms, the c which was 
here developed came to be thought of as part of a suffix 
-ETfi, giving rise to the belief that the suffix -Xfi from 
-TATE, was added to the feminine form of the adjective,* 
In Proven^, from the word caatitaiem we find two forms 
in Raynouard — the learned development castitai, and the 
form with e — caaUdat. We find also dezoneatal beside de- 
zonestetat, showing a good deal of confusion in the treat- 
ment of words of the kind, the usual development appar- 
ently being, however, the change of i to e, as in French. 
This change was then made in other words in which there 
was no difficult combination of consonants, being aided 
probably by the number of Provengal adjectives already 
ending in e, for whenever -TAT was added to one of 
these forms, we have, to all appearance, again a suffix 
-ETAT. The appearance of this e is often so capricious 
that it is difficult to account for it at all, but this much 

> Aoother reason for the persiHtence of the inlertooic vowel ia tho 
conTusioD that its disappearance would bring about in Frov. in such cases 
between the suifixea -AT and -TAT. Both these causes would help the 
development of the intertonic vowel; but possibly the model of learned 
and semi-learned words in which the sufEs was recogniied would be 
■ufGcient to preserve it in some words as e and to cause its insertion in 
some popular words. For further discussion of the int 
the verbal suffii -EGAR, p. 355, below. 

' Me>-er-LQbke. II, 586. 


Formation of Nouns 259 

may be said : In learned words i remained as i. In 
popular words formed in Latin, the intertonic vowel 
disappeared; and in popular Proven^ formations an 
e, due to the reasons given above, was often, but not 
always, inserted. 

As for the use of the suffix, it regularly formed abstracts 
and was added, except in very few cases, to adjectives, 
especially to those ending in -ABLE, -IBLE, and -OS. 

Formations on adjectives without e: 
amarial,' bittemeas amar, bitter 

betiat, beftuty bel, beautiful 

deugaitat,' inequality deugal, unequal 

dexonettat, dishoDesty dezoneet, dishonest 

maUiesUU, badness malvaii, bad 

proddial,' heroea' deeds pro, valiant 

ridoi, power, nobility ric, powerful, noble 

feUo^it old age vetk, old 

Cases in which the simple adjective ends in e: 
agradabl^at,* harmony aifradabU, agreeable 

aprovechabletat,* perfectibility aprovechable, profitable 

ddxmairetat,* kind-heartedneas 

< It is iotereating to note the different suffixes that the word for 
"lutter" (Lat. amantg) adds to eipresa abstract foroe: in Frov., we find 
besides amartat. amarum and amareta; in Fr,, amertume; and in Sp., 

' Or formed od egaltat by meaEU of the prefix DES-. 

< The -el- in proddlal ia a, puEzie, ai prodd la not found. It may have 
eiiited, however (cf , creepd and falbtl, p. 305, in which we see adjectiveB 
in -EL formed on adjectives). In order to have the d, however, prodtl 
must have been formed in on pmdtm. For a comment on the mean- 
ing of prodeUaS. see text at the end of the word-list, p. 260. 

• See double suffixes, p. 385. 

' See hybrid formations, Deftonatre is not given in either Raynouard 
or Levy, and probably did not eiiat as a single word, but only in the 
phrase da bon aire. Debonairitat seems to be a coinage of the author 
of Flamenat. 

t Also, of Lat. origin, dmklai, diEnity<(fv'ittofeni; durlal, hardness 
Kdvritalem; fertaKferilatem; maltal, badoeBs<mafi(a(«n,- pimto/, tul- 
DtteKplenitatrm; purlat.vantyKvuntatem. 


260 Word-Formation in Provencal 

orrelal, dirtinesB, filth orre, dirty 

orriiAelat, horror orribU, horrible 

terribUlal, terrible things lerribU, terrible 

Cases in which e is inserted: 

avarelat, avance ova 

eertaneUU, certainty certan, certun 

egalieretal, cheapness egalier, equal 

emxnetal, disagreeableness enveri, reveraed 

eaearselat, avarice eseart, stingy 

eeqverreUU, refractoriness ( ?) etquer, refractory ( ?) 

fumoKlal, vapor, smokiness fumoa, smoky 

franquetat, frankness franc, frank 

leagierelal, frivolity leugier, frivolous 

neidelat, ignorance netci, ignorant 

labxUit, safety aalv, safe 

tobiranelal, pride, elevation nobeiran, proud 

vunuedal,\ vivadty vivaSz, vivacious (being itself the 

comparative of adjective vif) 
prodeltat, heroes' deeds, and terr^letat, terrible things, 
have strayed from the strict abstract sense to a more 
concrete one, almost coUectiTe in force. There are also 
three words in -TAT which have gradually acquired the 
meaning of place: 

atpretai, rough r^oa aspre, rough 

ermetat, unplowed land erm, deserted 

taiaedal, abandoned place or house laue, abandoned 

Besides these words with e there are also some words 
with i, yet which do not seem to have been formed in 
Latin :' 

mesquinilat, misery meaquin, miserable 

potiarUat, right of first mortgage ( 1) 

queslalitat, poution of one who has queatal, submitted to the 
to pay the "queeta" "questa" 

■ They were fonned in Prov. timce in imitation of L»t. words. 

t Words eliding in -TAT formed in Lat. are eobetetai. cupidity< 
cupiditeUan, and Tnadurtlal. malurity<nia(urtla(eni; notrtlelal. novelty< 
nocililalem: pau^uetat, pBUcity< paucUatem, and mrezetai, probably from 


There are also a few formations on verbs: 
empreniUU, impregnatioD emprenhar (?) 

eruxquelal, blindoesa ericecar, blind 

eBlatiatal, order, decree egtaluir, order 

greugetat, difficulty greujat, m&ke heavy 

The fonnatioa on verbs is unusual, however, in al> 
straets of this kmd. -AMEN, -ANSA, or -AZON would 
be more oatural as suffixes. 

The two following words appear to be formed on 

mairetal, mayoralty maire, mayor 

onortlal, honor, honorable powtioD oner, honor 

The Provengal suffix -URA, Uke -ADURA, etc., 
treated above,' is derived from the Latin suffix -TURA, 
which was used to form abstract nouns on verb-stems in 
Latin, and when used in forming new words in Provengal, 
was added to the stem of the infinitive. Latin words, 
such as dnctura, mtxtura, and strictura, in which it is 
not the infinitive but the supine stem to which the end- 
ing is added, have given the suffix -TURA, which was 
later, in accordance with Romance principles of word- 
formation, to be added to the infinitive stem, giving in 
Provencal -ADURA,' etc. Then, apparently from some 
such word as strictura, existing beside the past participle 
atrictus, was detached a suffix -URA, remaining -URA in 
Provengal. But strictus was used as an adjective; hence 
slriclura, narrowness, resembles slriclus, narrow -|-the suffix 

' This Prov. -ADURA. added to vurb-ateniB in Prov., may, however, 
have come originalty from the past participle of regular verbs, that ia, 
those in -AT,-I— URA. thus being just like the tormatJoQs on the irregular 

past participles cinclua and atrirtus. 


262 Word-Formation in Provencal 

-URA. Thus -ADURA and -URA come from absolutely 
the same source, and are a good example of the different 
uses of a suffix. -TURA > -ADURA continued to be 
added to verb-stems and formed abstracts denoting the 
action indicated by the verb. -URA, detached from a 
past participle which had come to be used as an adjec- 
tive, and then added to other adjectives, also had abstract 
force, but denoted a condition — that of the quality 
described by the adjective. These are the two kinds of 
abstract meanings that are found, and the development 
this suffix has taken illustrates the principle that abstracts 
formed on verbs denoted action,' whereas those formed 
on adjectives denoted condition. 

Another less usual kind of formation, that on nouns, 
is due to the use of past participles as nouns. The sufBx 
-URA seemed to give little change to nouns of this kind, 
and this may explain why it is found in a few new forma- 
tions joined to nouns whose meaning it changes but 

Before turning to the Proven^l formations on both 
adjectives and nouns, it might be well to enumerate the 
possible Provengal formations on past participles. These 
we find to be ; 

apmlura, addition. The past participle ot aponre b apost, but there 

is also a noun apoala, meaning "addition." 
coberCura, covering. The past participle of eobrir is cobert, but 

there are also the nouns cobert, covered place, and coberla, 

de«coberlura, discovery. The past participle ot descobrir ia'desoAert. 
desconfitiira, discomfiture. The past participle of de%eonfir is 

deaconJU, but there is also the noun desamfida, discomfiture. 
ojertura, sacrifice. The past participle of o/rir is oJeH, but the noun 

ojerla, offering, also exists. 



perfracAura, picture. The past participle of periraire is perlraeh, 

but the noun pertrach also ensts. 
repoafura, reepoQBe{7) (Raynouard translates "retreat"). The past 

participle of retpondre is repail, but the nouns respoit and respoila 

both exiat, meaning reBpoDse.f 

It seems probable that the Provengal examples may 
have been formed on past participles in imitation of 
Latin models, but the existence of the noun in every 
case would give a starting-point for formations on nouns. 
Such formations are seen in: 
aurura, gold-colored trout aur, gold 

Sraigura, grease graiaa, grease 

pendiura, head of hair (penehe, comb) 

One other word is somewhat puzzling. This is cor- 
romjmra, which apparently adds -URA to an infinitive 
stem instead of adding -TURA, which here would have 
^ven -EDURA. Levy, however, suggests that the word 
should be corrected to corrompedura} Unless the sug- 
gestion b adopted, the formation of the word is entirely 
exceptional and contrary to all principles of word-fonna- 
tion in the language. 

The origin of the formations on adjectives has already 
been stated, as well as their meaning, which is abstract, 
and denotes a condition: 
altura, hdght all, high 

baimra, lonnees, low position baa, low 

(The i, as in baiteza, may be due to the influence of baiiar.) 

tThe forms of certain Lat. oripn ahouid also be mentioned: ariura, 
bumini! < armira; ctnlura, belKnncfura; coltura. culture< cottura; 
comaura, joint, Beani<cojnBii«»ura,- estrechura, DaiTowne8*<8(ric(ura; 
fachura. form < /octura; bimIu™, inixture<inii(u™; onckura, ointineot 
<undura; pennhura, painting <jnnrfuro for pieiura; ponchum. prick- 
ing< jntncfura,' MneAuro, dyeing < fincfura. Other words also almost 
certainly of Lat. origin are eottura, sewing<*cim«uJura (T). and etcotira. 
tlireshing<*excu«ura, juat as etcotot was derived from ej 
.Voui. £».. 2dl.n. 2). 



doUura, aweetnesa 

dab, meet 

drechura, righl, title 

d«cA, right 

fohura. talMty 

/al«, fake 

f(^tura, foUtura, tolly, 


to be formed od foUl. 


frivolous, derived from/ol 

fr^ura, coldness 

freg. cold 

laidura, dirt; outrage 

Utid, dirty 

largura, breadth 

fare, broad 

longura, length 

tone, loag 

negrura, blackness 

negre, black 

planum, amoothness, plai 


plan, smooth 

jdenura, fulDess 

plen, full 

aomura, obscurity 

son, dark 

verdura, vefdure 

vert, green 

vilhura,^ bafieneea 

>yah, vile 

Also, like -ADURA joined to nouns, -URA contracts 
a collective meaning in agrura, sour fruit, from ogre, sour. 
The contracting of a concrete meaning is to be seen 
even in many of the words formed on verb-stems.' . 

' Aa in aome of the worda in -AMEN, given in the notss — enear- 

I Also, of Lat. origin, ttlreckur 

See above, p. 263, n. t- 



The sufiixes that form adjectives may be classified 
according to the kind of adjectives they form, just as the 
noun-suffixes were classified according to the kind of 
nouns they formed, although the different kinds of adjec- 
tives do not, perhaps, stand out so clearly as did the 
different kinds of nouns. The adjectives may be divided, 
nevertheless, into those expressing possibility, those 
denoting possession of a quality, those denoting resem- 
blance or having the idea of "belonging" or "pertaining 
to," and diminutives. Thus there are suffixes that give 
these various meanings to the words to which they arc 
attached, and again, as was the case with the nouns, there 
is the suffix that changes in no way the meaning of this 
word — the forceless suffix. It is once more possible, also, 
to give a general rule for the part of speech to which each 
of these kinds of suffixes was added. Thus the suffixes 
denoting possibility are regularly attached to verb-stems, 
the ones denoting possession, to nouns as well as to verbs, 
those denoting resemblance, etc., to nouns, the diminu- 
tive suffixes to adjectives, and the forceless suffix always 
to adjectives. 

Most of the questions that required study in dealing 
with the nouns may briefly be dismissed here. For 
example, there is but little confusion as to the source of 
adjectival suffixes.' The acquiring of new meanings by 
individual suffixes is also unusual, although sometimes 
the original meaning may be extended a little. This is 


266 Word-Formation in Provencal 

the case with the sufSx -ES from the Latin -ENSIS, 
which was added only to names of places to denote the 
inhabitants thereof, but is found in Provengat, as well as 
in the other Romance languages, added, in one or two 
cases, to other words than nouns of place,' and in these 
words it has simply the meaning of "belonging to." The 
use of double suffixes is just the same here as that de- 
scribed in the chapter on nouns.^ 

A classification of the sufhxes according to the part of 
speech to which they were added has been made above. 
It remains now to examine more in detail the formations 
on each part of speech. 

1. The suSixes added to verb-stenas will be treated 
first. Here we find -ABLE, -ADOR, -ADITZ, and -lU 
added only to verb-stems; -AT added to nouns as well 
as verbs; and -lER and -OS added to nouns, adjectives, 
and verbs. The suffixes added exclusively to verb-stems 
regularly denote possibility— that of performing the action 
expressed by the verb. This possibility may, indeed, 
be either active or passive. It is active in such words 
as endurable, everlasting (that which can last forever), 
and passive in such words as amable, lovable (that which 
may be loved), the passive adjectives naturally having to 
be formed on transitive verbs, and the active ones being 
generally formed on intransitive ones. A few words have 
both active and passive force, as amoneaUAle, meaning 
both "persuasive" and "persuadable."* A noteworthy fact 
concerning these suffixes, considering the great similarity 

' Aa in canones, for example, or leartei. given under -ES, p. 309, 

' Al[ parts of apeeph formed by meana of double suffiiea nill be 
treated together in chap. v. 
hatjal and rufvelel may be men 
coladier and baitlaTet. 

■ See pp. 273 and 274 for 


Formation of ADJEcnvia 267 

in their use, is the scarcity of examples of stems showing 
two or more of these endii^.' Examples of the inter- 
change of -ABLE and -ADOR are seen in ensenkable 
and ensenhador, which are, however, different in meaning,* 
and in espaventt^le and espaveniador, of which the latter, 
however, appears to be used only as a noun. -lU is 
found in agradiu beside agradabU, both meaning "pleas- 
ing." It does not, however, appear ever to have the idea 
of passive possibility seen in -ABLE and -ADOR, and, 
rather than the idea of possibility, it seems often to mean 
"performing" the action expressed by the verb, as in 
adomniu, domineering, asoiagiu, entertaining, cargiu, 
burdensome, etc., which is almost precisely the force 
seen in -ABLE and -ADOR' when attached to intransi- 
tive verbs. 

The suffix that is attached to nouns as well as to verbs, 
-AT, denotes possession of a quality, as has been stated. 
It was originally a participial ending and not a suffix at all, 
but past participles were often used as adjectives, and an 
adjective suffix -AT was thus created. Later on, it 
became attached to nouns as well, owing to the coexistence 
of nouns similar in form to the verbs to which it was 
added.* Here it may be well also to mention -UT,detached 

' The examples given here are almost the only ones, whereas under 
nouns, for eiample the abstracts, compare the Qumbcr of eiamples of 
(he aamo Hlom having -AMEN. -ANSA, aud -AZON added to it, and 
givitiK the same meaning. 

) Enatnhabie ^teachable, and ensenhador apparently means "about 

■The difFerence in idea between "performing" and "capable of 
performing" being a rather slight one and often hard to define. 

' As, for example, molhtr beside motherar. Molheral, married, the 
past participle of moUierar, was used as an adjective in such a phraBe ame 
iriolKerat, married man. and then, through oonfusion with moUier. woman, 
wife, the suffix became attached to nouns as well nx to verbs. See 
Meyei^Lubke, II. 565. where coron<Uu> is given as an example of this 
process. For suffix -AT, see p. 20S below. 



from the past participles of verbs ending in -er and -re. 
It is found added only to nouns, with a specialized de- 
velopment of the idea of possession.' 

The only other sufExes ever attached to verbs are -lER 
and -OS, the former meaning "pertaining to" or "bear- 
ing," and the latter generally meaning "full of," Both 
of these suffixes, however, were originally attached to 
nouns. The extension of their use to verbs may have 
been due to some such confusion as that found in the 
case of -AT. 

2. Next, turning to the suflixes added to nouns, we find 
them forming the adjectives expressing resemblance or 
having the idea of "belonging" or "pertaining to" men- 
tioned above. No very strict classification can be made 
of their meanings, as these shade into each other much 
more than meanings of the nouns, which could be classified 
as abstracts, collectives, etc. The adjectival suffixes added 
to nouns, on the other hand, all give the same kind of 
force to these words — that of "pertaining to," "like" or 
"of" the noun to which they are attached, although these 
may be described as ideas of beloi^ing, resemblance, and 
material. The suffixes of this kind are -AL, -AN, -AR, 
-ENC, -ES, -ESC, and -IN. Examples may be given to 
show how nearly alike the ideas just mentioned really 
are. Almost every word can be translated in ways 
showing more than one of these ideas. Thus we find fogal, 
of fire or fiery; rozan, of rose, pink; kichenc, of milk, 
milky, milk-giving, and uvenc, of grapes, grape-colored; 
espanes, of Spain, Spanish, and hones, of a lion, lion-like; 
mulin, of mules, mulish, etc. As there is so little differ- 
ence between the different ideas which the suffixes added 
to nouns express that many words had more than one 
' See p. 330, below. 


Formation of Adjectivbb 269 

of them, it is natural to Snd these suffixes sub- 
stituted freely for one another. They appear, indeed, 
to be almost interchangeable. Thus we find with the 
same meaning, fogal and foguenc; rozan and rozenc; 
lachin and lachenc; espanes and espaneBC. It may be 
seen from this list that the suffix -ENC is added to the 
same words that take also -AL, -AN, and -IN, and with 
the same meaning: the only perceptible difference is in 
the kind of noun to which each suffix was most frequently 
added. -AL, for example, retains enough traces of its 
original use to be found added to some nouns denoting 
rank, as conUal, coneoUU,^ etc. -ENC, originally denoting 
material, was added to many names of things of decided 
color, as lack, milk, nieu, snow, sane, blood, which may 
have been the cause of a later addition of the suffix to 
many adjectives of color.' -ES is the commonest suffix 
denoting nationality, retaining thus its Latin usage of 
being attached to nouns of place, though this usage has 
been extended. -ESC, generally meaning simply "per- 
taining to," shows its twofold origin in a few adjectives 
of nationality formed on nouns of place; and -IN express- 
ing the idea of "pertaining to" and "like" is very fre- 
quently added to names of animals and metals, again 
following Latin ust^. 

3. Finally, we come to the suffixes attached to adjec- 
tives. These are, for the most part, the same as the ones 
just studied as being attached to nouns, -AL, -AN, -AR 
and -ESC, as well as -lER and -OS, which, in addition to 
verbs, were attached to both nouns and adjectives. Aside 
from the suffixes -ET and -EN, -EL is the only one attached 
' From the Lat. eojuidarii. 



exclusively to adjectives, and this and all the others just 
named, when attached to adjectives, change in no way these 
words, and are, therefore, examples of the forceless suffix 
mentioned above. It is thus possible to deduce from these 
examples the rule that adjectival suffixes, when attached 
to adjectives, have no force whatever. The only excep- 
tions would be -ET and -EN. -ET, as has been seen in 
the first chapter, b a true diminutive suffix, and turns 
into diminutive forms the words to which it is attached, 
whether nouns or adjectives. -EN is attached to numeral 
adjectives, and changes canUnals into ordinals. 

The individual suffixes forming adjectives will now be 
studied in alphabetic order. 


-ABLE and -IBLE are the forms which we find in 
Provencal derived from the Latin adjective suffix -BILIS. 
In Latin, the suffix was regularly attached to verbs, 
generally to the present stem, and the Romance languages 
have continued that process; they have, however, failed 
to form many new words on the stem of the past participle, 
one of the processes of formation in Latin. The forma- 
tions in Proven^ are made on the infinitive stem, as 
might be expected from the other verbal suffixes that we 
have studied. Yet instead of finding the forms -ABLE, 
-EBLE, and -IBLE which we might expect from joinuy; 
-BLE<-B(I)LIS to the stem-vowel of the three con- 
jugations, we find practically nothing but -ABLE and 
-IBLE, -EBLE being found in only one word (of Latin 
origin). Yet on examining the lists more closely, there 
are found very few words in -IBLE, and these are all 
evidently learned formations in Provengal. The reason 



18 that in Latin there was no •IBILIS, the suffix being 
added only to a, S, I, and il. -UBLE is not found at all 
in Provencal, -EBLE only in iraiseble (found also as 
iraiaable), and -IDLE only in the few learned formations 
mentioned, one of which— /im6fc — is evidently formed 
on a past participle, fiuxum, from the verb fluo. This 
leaves, then, only -ABLE, which has not only persisted in 
adjectives derived from verbs of the first conjugation, 
but has also extended its use so as to be joined to verbs 
of other conjugations and to take the place of -EBLE and 
-UBLE. Thus the development of the suffix -BILIS is 
entirely different from that of -MENTUM, -TIONE, 
-TOR, and -TURA, all of which have taken three forms in 
Provencal — one beginning with a for verbs in -or, one 
with e for verbs in -er or -re, and one with i for verbs 
in -ir, the whole ending being added as a single suffix — 
for instance, -ATOREM, -ATURAM, -ETOREM, -ETU- 
RAM, to the steam am-, cred-, etc. -BILIS, though 
frequent in Vulgar Latin, does not appear to have formed 
many new words in Provencal, or ever to have been 
felt sufficiently as a suffix to have been influenced by the 
verb to which it was joined. It had come down in a 
great many words from very early Latin,' and as the 
forms in -ABLE were much more numerous than all the 
others, -ABLE came to be used in many words which had 
originally ended in -IBILIS or -UBILIS, and all of the 
new popular formations took this ending. 

The process for this suffix seems to have been, then, 
the reduction of -BILIS to one form used in all new popu- 
lar words — the form added rightly to stems of verbs of 
the first conjugation, -ABLE. -IDLE wa-s used in new 
words, but only in learned ones modeled on Latin words 
1 Cooper, p. 96. 


272 Word-Formation in Provencal 

such as avdibilis, which, however, had a short i} 
Formations on nouns are very few. 

The meanii^ of the sufiix is to denote possibility or 
capability, but a possibility of two kinds. Thus amoneal- 
able means "persuasive" or "capable of persuading," 
but it means also "capable of being persuaded" or "per- 
suadable," the first being the active, and the second the 
passive use. Words with both of these meanings are, 
however, rare, the rule being that -ABLE added to an 
active verb like amonestar should give the passive meaning; 
whereas an intransitive verb could have of course only the 
active meaning in the derived adjective. In Latin, the 
usual meaning was passive, althoi^ the active meaning 
is not uncommon. 

The Provencal formations* with passive meaning are 
as follows: 

aTnontttable,' persuadable amonettar, persuade 

oztrob/e, detestable onror, liat« 

eomprehendabk, comprehensible comprebender, understand 

(The Latin word ie in -IBILIS 

and formed on the perfect stem) 
conlribuable, assessable con/n6utr, contribute 

corrompMe, corruptible- This 

word is changed from a Latin 

word in -IBLE, which is formed 

on a perfect stem. 
damnatjabU, damageable damna^ar, damage 

domesjable, tameable domeejar, tame 

engardable, noticeable engardar, look at 

enaenkabU, teachable emenhar, teach 

' Not in Harper's Dictionary, but White and Riddle give a reference 
to BoGthius. Murray derives the Eng. " audible" from a Mediaeval Lat. 
aadibilit with a long t. 

> Worda of Lat. origiD are included in these lists when they show a 
change of -IBLE to -ABLE, making the words ae we End them really 
Prov. formations. 

• See also the list on p. 274. 



eTUmdMe, intelliipble 

entender, understand 

«VanJa6J«, viable 

esgardar, look at 

fiffurahU, capable of receiving a. 

figurar, give figure to 


fixabU, trUBtworthy 

Jfaor, trust 

flairar, smell 

poTbAU with negative prefix 

inartzabU, incredible: Latin in- 


invent/Me. invindble: Latin tn- 


juaiieiar, do justice 

feudobie, taxable 

leudar, tax 

Tnottor, hammer 

penhcrar, pledge 

petaiAe, weighable 

pezar, weigh 

pialtMe, pitiable 

jnattir, pity 

pUgabU, pliable 

piegar, bend 

prendre, take, accept 

and on perfect atem). 

Most of the adjectives in -ABLE that are active in 

meaning are formed on intransitive verbs: 

a^radar, please 

beumhar, be neeeasary (also ac- 


eonaonar, be of one accord 

eonUnuabk, continuous 

c&ntinuar, continue 

eorrabk, able to go correr, run 

t Also, of Lat. origin, we fiadi amable. colpable, coji^Broable, corboble^ 
CunbU, detirtAU, endedinabU. goattAla. {p-acable, importable, inlerpretable. 
Riutttpltcoble, vroatiU, and term»iutiile. Another word in -ABLE is 
ttjiedtiAle. This is, however, a subetantive, the only aae ynOt thia end- 
ini. It* original adiectival force is of course clear. It means a man 
whose property may be wised judicially. Its substaotive use undoubt- 
edly comes from the disappearance o( ome in the phrase ome w^chdbU. 
From etpUchoT, levy, a legal term. 



cotlumalAe, euatomaiy coatumar, be customary 

eorwenaiAt, miitable comxnir, suit 

detagradMe, unpleaaing demgradar, be impleasiiiK 

detffuiiable, ch&ngeable desffuuar, change 

enduroMe, everlasting endurar, endure 

eaeoU>rj(AU, elippery escolorjar, slip 

eeaporatAe, volatile eraporar, evaporate 

greixMe, burdensome greoar, weigh down 

meravethabie, marvelous meravelhar, marvel 

nctaUe, weighty noier, injure 

penabU, painful penar, torture 

perdurable, lasting (perdurar,^ last) 

profelizable, prophetic profeHiar, prophecy 
servitM^ (instead of tenMe), eer- aervtr, serve 


vergoniuAU,^ shameful ixrgonhar, be ashamed 

A few, however, of these adjectives with active meaning 
are formed on transitive verbs, and these, therefore, but for 
the beginnings of the opposite process in Latin, we should 
expect to find with passive force. Thus avumestoble, from 
amoneatar, means persuasive as well as persuadable: 
decevable, deceitful deeebre, deceive 

defensdbte, defensive. For Latin defendre, defend 

degastable, wasteful degaslar, waste 

egpaveitltdiU, frightful espavenlar, frighten 

Many verbs, however, such as penar and degaslar, are 
used both transitively and intransitively, which makes 
it hard to classify the derived adjectives.* 

' Not found in Prov., but existed ip Lst. 

■ Possibly through influence of>]»iu>bI«(f),BccordinE to the Die Gen. 
See under eerviable. 

' Another similar word is aaladable. healthful. The verb on which 
it is apparently formed is taltidar, to greet, having no connection with 
it in mcBDing. If formed on taludar, it was doubtless because it had 
originally a meaning of "give health to," hence greet. 

t A word of Let. origio belonging to this list is tniroble<miTabilia. 



One word in -EBLE has already been mentioned — 
iraiaeble. This, however, is Latin, from irasdbilis. 
Raynouard has iraisable. 

The Provencal words in -IBLE, all learned formations, 
are as follows : 

entxmbU, mvadable enwinr, invade 

franhibU, fragile /ranker, break 

marcezibk, perishable mtiTcenr, wither, fade 

percorrUjU, h&ring currency pereorre, run through 

polibU, poliahable polir, polish 

laxible, mlent later, be sileiit 

unible, f fit to be joiued unir, join 

The same rule of formations with passive force on 
transitive verbs, and formations with active force on 
intransitive verbs, may be seen here also. 

-ABLE and -IBLE are also found added to nouns in 
a few words. -ABLE is seen in : 
jTietable, fit, suitable mela, limit 

paeumabU, capable of paamon' potion, passion 

guetlabU, subject to the "queeta" queala, a, tax 
-IBLE ia seen in: 
paiiiMe, peaceable paU, peace 

Such formations might easily be due to the influence of 
such forms as vergimhable, beside which the noun vergcmha 
as well as the verb vergonhar existed. 

Before leaving the Provencal forms of the Latin -BILIS, 
it is necessary to mention another set of forms found m a 
few words, namely, -A VOL (found in two words), -EVOL 
(found in three), and -IVOL (in all other cases). These 
forms clearly represent the same Latin sufiix as is seen in 
-ABLE, -EBLE, and -IBLE, and are different develop- 


276 Word-Formation in Provencal 

ments of it. A large number of these words are found 
in a Waldensian text, and probably were influenced by 
the Italian form -EVOLE (<-BILIS) as well as by 
-OL <-ULUS. The other words are limited to a few other 
texta, apparently showing the dialect of the same region. 
The frequency with which -IVOL is found may be due 
to the fact that these words are learned formations made 
by usmg -IBILIS. In the words in -EVOL, two of which 
are found in the Waldensian text mentioned above, the 
influence of the Italian -EVOLE appears to have been 
even stronger. The list of the formations on verbs follows : 
cagimA, perishable eager (for auert), fall 

dtUchwol, delightful dtlechar, delight 

encreUwol, disgusting enereiier, be displeasing 

etpavteixd, frightful etpavtar, frighten 

etpaventivol, frightful etpaveniar, frighten • 

ettimivol, calculable etHmar, calculate 

frucHjiaoU, fruitful fruclifiaT, bear fruit 

menxuriiiol, measurable mensuraT, measure 

mot/evol, moveable mover, move 

noixiiiol, injiirioua norer, injure 

odorivol, odoriferous odorar, smell 

onorivol, rich, magnificent onorar, honor, celebrate, adom 

perdonaiiol (in phrase an p. — perdonar, pardon 

profechivol,^ profitable proftchar, profit 

A formation on a noun is: 
baronii'ol, manly, virile baron, man 

-AC, -EC, -IC, -OC, -UC 

For the adjectives in Provencal endit^ in -AC, -EC, 
-IC, -OC, and -UC, as well as for the nouns with these 
endii^,' it is necessary to assume as a source for the 
> P. IS. 

B also seeD in the adverb tnttemtolmtn, in 


Formation of Adjectives 277 

suffix a Latin -ACCUS, -ECCUS, -OCCUS, and -UCCUS, 
instead of the forms with a single c. 

There are no real examples of -ACCUS in Provencal, 
ebriac being nothing but the Latin word ebriacits. For 
words in -AIC, see -IC, just below. 

•EC, however, is found in three words in which it appears 
to represent a sufiix -ECCUS : bavec, talkative, connected 
with bavar, to chatter, both of wiiich are apparently 
derived from *b(wa, drivel, not found in Provencal, but 
coming from a Latin *baba, found in other languages as 
baoa, have, from which many other words are derived, as 
in French, baver, bavard, bavarder, etc.; canec, gray, can 
being found in Provencal, translated by lUiynouard as 
ardent, though the meaning is not quite clear;' and manec, 
fixed, stopping, evidently connected with the verb maner, 
to remain. 

-IC b found in several words in Provencal, but in moat 
of them, it is evidently not a Proven9al suffix that is to 
be dealt with, but instead, a remodeling of learned words 
existing in Latin.* 

The complete list of the words in -IC is as follows: 
algaraniC, deific, ebraic, foraaic, juzaic, laic, vwzaic, nizaic. 

In this list, the number of words in which the -IC is 
preceded by a, making probable a suffix -AIC instead 
of -IC, is at once obvious. The words in which -IC is not 
preceded by a, and the suffix -IC is clear, will be treated 

■ Con, given in Levy I, 195, is probably corrupt. Levy here refers 
to a aonunentary of his own in Litbl., XI, 344, on the text of the Ameli 
Catadon. In 11. 2725 and 2726 wa find bianoa and oaat rhyming. Yet 
it is quite poaaible that, although not found, can, gray, from oaniM. may 
have eziited and have been the base of can*c. 

■ Ah there are peculiarities in the formation of all of these words, 
however, eaoh one will be treated individually, as though it were an 
ordinary Prov. formation. 


278 Word-Formation in Provencal 

Ddfic, godlike, devout, comes from the Latin deificus, 
and shows, therefore, a shifting of the accent. It is a word 
modeled in Provencal times on the Latin source.' 

Another word showing a shifting of the accent, making 
possible the ending 'IC, is aigaravic, arabic. Raynouard 
gives aratn and arabit, and Mbtral arabi and, arabic. 
Arable certainly must have existed also in Old Provencal 
and have been formed, like the above words, with a 
shiftily; of the accent, on arabicus. Aigaravic seems to 
point to a transfer of the suffix from arabic to the word 
found in Spanish as cUgarabia (from an Arabic algarabia), 
and probably borrowed in ProvengaJ from Spanish. 

Three of the other words in the above list' are simply 
regular developments of the Latin unaccented suffix 
-ICUS, preceded by a, and giving therefore -AIC and not 
-IC in Provencal, and another b likewise a Latin forma- 

The only word still remaining to be treated is therefore 
forsaie, strong, powerful. This is beyond doubt a Pro- 
vencal formation, and its meaning, which there are many 

' And to this word should bUo be added, though -IC is preceded by 
a, jutaic. JewUb, which ahowB a mmilar Hhifting of the accent. (Observe 
the rhyine-wordB given in Levy.) The word is from the Lat. jwMciu, 
from Juda. It is interesting to compare it with sbraic, given below, in 
which apparently the accent did not shift (compare its rhyming with 
late, which is often written Uc), though we find the shifting in the re- 
modeled Ft. fonn AJbrolTua. 

• These are, of couise, ^iraic (Hebrew) <Ae6raicu>,- late (lay)< 
laicut; and motaic (Mo«aic)<*n«Maicu<. derived from AftwM. Cf. in 
Mod. Fr. laigue, instead of lai, the learned remod^Dg seen above in 

■ f/itaic. silly, inexperienced, is apparently from the Lat. nidar, 
from nidtu, nest, and is, therefore, about the only probable example of 
the eiisteoce of the suffix -AX in Prov. See Cooper, lOS. The Prov. 
word has the same source as the Fr. ntau, but is peculiar in form. We 
should expect ni(i)aU, Several words ending in att, aa for example, 
putnaii. stiukiog, are found, but do not appear (n represent -AX. 



examples to make clear, connects it with forsa, strength. 
The examples, however, do not make the accentuation of 
thewordclear, though it must of necessity be /orsafc. This 
-IC was detached from such words as deific and added as a 
Provencal suffix, which must naturally have borne the 

-OC representing a Latin -OCCUS is found in only two 

badoc, silly, foolish, connected with the verb badar, 
to gape at. 

buzoc, dull, foolish, the same word as ffven under nouns 
with the meaning of buzzard.' As a noun, it had also the 
suffixes -AT and -AC, diminutives. -OC shows by its use 
for -AT its diminutive force also. 

The suffix -UC is the best represented of any of the 
suffixes of the group, being found in a number of words. 
The forms found in the other languages apparently are 
derived by means of both -UCUS and -UCCUS. Italian, 
for example, has forms both in -UCO and in -UCCO. It 
is difficult to determine the origin of the Provencal forms 
without finding an example of the feminine. Homing 
names acertuc and faiatu? as being derived by means of 
-UCCUS, and astrue is probably formed by using -UCUS 
(compare Spanish jnalasinigo). The suffix, like the others 
of the group, had generally a kind of diminutive force 
and built adjectives on nouns. -UCCUS seems to be 
the source of -UC iu most of the words. 

aeertuc, strong, sure acert, certitude 

rutruc, fortunate (with its com- 
pounds benattrtic, fortunate 
and mclastruc, unfortunate), by 
meoiu of 'UCUS, from atlre, star 

I See pp. 20 and 22 above. > Zeiliehnfl, XX, 34S. . 



damnue, defective 

fad»c, Billy 

/at, fool 

/ais, burden 

frttjuiuc, Beneitive to cold. The 

word seems to show a dueimila- 

tioa for/rejuruc built onfr^wa, 

paonie. fearful 

poor, fear 

peeue, heavy 

peai, weight 

One word appears to be formed on an adjective: 
frevolw:, bad, breakable frevol, wreak 

Two rather obscure words are badaluc and caluc. 

Badaluc, dawdling, silly, is evidently connected with 
the verb badar, gape at, wwt, and possibly with the 
derived word badalhar, yawn. Various auggestions have 
been made* but none satisfactory. 

caluc, shortsighted, is also puzzling. It is hard to 
connect it with codes having this meaning in Latin. 
Caducue has been suggested, but can hardly be the 

For words in -ADITZ, see under -ITZ, on p. 321. 


The adjective suffix -ADOR is in development exactly 
like the nominal suffix -ADOB, already treated,' both in 
coming from the Latin -TORIUS,* and in havii^ the three 
forms -ADOR, -EDOR, and -IDOR according to the 
conjugation to which the suffix was added. The original 
use was, of course, the adjective one, and the use as nouns, 

' See K&i-Unc. No. l.ISO. 
• P. 64 above. 




as in SO many other cases, was a later substantive use* 
of the neuter form. 

The meanings ipven by the sufiix are not very differ- 
ent from those belonging to -ABLE. Thus it denotes 
a possibility, either ability to perform some act, or 
Qurely passive possibility, the meaning generally con- 
tributed by the suffix when added to a transitive verb. 
The latter meaning, however, is not nearly as regular in 
this case as it is with -ABLE. Amatoriua, for example, 
existing in Latin, means "amatory" or "loving," a per- 
sonal characteristic, a meaning which is frequent with 
this suffix, whereas amabilis has the meaning of " lovable," 
or "worthy of being loved." The adjective with active 
force has other extensions of meanii^, as, in some words^ 
it denotes the iwc of the noun which it modifies, as in 
brUador, etc. 

Adjectives used actively, denoting ability, a char- 
acteristic, an inclination, or futurity, are seen in: 
abdvrador, able to endure much. 

loi^-flufferiog; from abdvrar, 


edar, conceal 

ereador, creative 

erear, create 

dezanar, ceaae to go 

durador, lasting 

fJurar, last 

enaenhador, ready to teach 

enaenhar, teach 

eapaverUar, frighten 

ffuerr^ador, food of war 

ffuerrejar, make war 

larguejador, generous 

larg^ar, give largess 



menador, about to lead 

menor, lead 

mere^ador, (dndly (ready to ask 

merc^ar, aak or grant pardon, 


be mereiful 

wwgor, sail 

' Cooper. 166. poiuU ou 

t thea: 

itreme rarity o! these words id the 

clasaic period. 



negaior, able to deny negar, deny 

parador, able to prepare (cloth) parar, prepare 

■paaador, about to pass 'paaar, pass 

pojadoT, about to ascend TWjor, ascend 

porgador (foi jmrfodort), KSidy to purgar, pui^e, justify oneself. 

justify oneself Porgar in Levy means "sift." 

profechador, able to serve profechar, be useful, serve 

remembrador, mindful remembrar, remember 

M/erbufor.t patient, resigned toicrtar, suffer, endure 

Adjectives meaning "serving to" (perform the action 

of the verb to which the suffix is added) are as follows: 

harraAoi^ (in the phrase daetA bamr, bar 

6arTad(i/-=bolt with nut) 

qruadoT, serving to break hrUar, break 

earr^ador, serving tor tranaporta- camjar, cart, transport 

ferrador (in the phrases davel jet- Serrar, shoe horses 
Todor and marUt ferrador) serv- 
ing to shoe horses 

hladar (in the phrase davd lata- lalar, put on latbs 
dor) serving to put on latits 

tnezurador, for measuring meturar, measure 

pegoidor, for fishing peaear, fish 

Under -EDOR, the foUowii^ adjectives with active 

force are found : 

deaconoUedor, ignorant de»conoi»er, be ignorant 

mordedoT, biting mordre, bite 

naUedor, to be bom naiser, be bom 

paTcedor, pardoning parcer, pardon, spare 

perlanhedor, to belong to perlanher, belong 

ponhedor, sharp, pointed ponher, prick 

aabedor, knowing taber, know 

torzedor, gushing aoner, gush forth 

volvedor, stirring, agile voteer, turn 

' For patabarrador p. 6&4, n. 1. 

t Another interesting adjective found only in the femioiae is encan- 
tairiU, eDcbsntiQB, which comes from the Lat. ituxmtalrix, the feminine 
[orm of intaTttator, not inoantatoriut. This clear example of a noun 
used aa an adjective, quite the reverse of the usual process, makes it seem 
possible that some of the other adjectives given above may have been 


Formation or Adjectives 283 

Under -IDOR, there are the following ones, many of 
them derived from the verb venir and its compounds, 
and expressing regularly futurity: 

anenidor, future, bound to hftppea averUr, happen 
devenidoT, future, bound to hftp- deiienir, happen, become 

eieidoT, about to be bom emr, be bom 

endevenidor, having to happen endevenir, happen 

tscremidor, cautious, prudent 

e»ere^ir, fight, take 


fenidor, about to end 

fenir, end 

monr, die 

perir, perish 

proeexiT, proceed 

venidor, coming, futitte 

venir, come 

Then come the words containing -ADOR, -EDOR, 
and -IDOR, used passively. These words generally show 
the possibility of a thing's being done, and sometimes a 
thing about to be done. The force here is almost exactly 
equal to -ABLE. Under -ADOR, are found: 
ajMcodoT, to be applied, destined aj^iear, apply 
anvuar, to be gathered amasar, gather 

hiagmadoT, blameable lAtKmar, blame 

carUador, dngable eartlar, ung 

ooUivador, tillable cdtivar, cultivate 

comeModor, to be begun comensar, begin 

condemnadoT, to be condemned eondemturr, condemn 
deliurador, to be despatched deliurar, deliver, despatch 

demandador, requirable demandar, ask, require 

depulador, determinable deputar, depute 

deroeador, to be taken down deroear, c 

detpackador, despatchable deMpachar, despatch 

delermenador, determinable determenar, determine 

donador, to be given donw, give 

Douni oriEiiially' Thus entenhador and ereador exiat also as nouns vith 
feminineB in -AIRITZ. Aa the feminine form of the adj^ctivea listed 
above in not given, it is impoBsible to stale with certainty theiT origin. 
Also, of Lat. orisin. amadoT<amatoriut. 



doptor, doubt, fear 
empautar, tax 
enUvar, raise 

4o^advt, to be fetved 
empautador, taxable 
enleeador, raisable 
esauador, excusable 
eMmador, sppraisable 
explicador, to be explained 
gardador, observable 
ffilador, removtible 
govsmador, governable 
jurador, to be sworn 
jvijador, judgeoble 
iavzador, praiseworthy 
levadoT, raisable 
liurador, deliverable 
manjador, edible 
maridadoT, maniageable 
moderador, to be determined 
murador, to be walled up 
nomador, iumi{i)nador, to be 

obrador, to be manufactured 
onrador, to be honored 
otlador, to be removed 
pagador, payable 
paitfodtfT, to be applied or fixed 
■pereantadoT, to be administered 
petador, to be weighed 
planiadoT, fertile (capable of being 

portador, portable 
prepauiador, to be presented 
pregtador, to be loaned or paid 
preientadcr, to be offered 
prononciador, t to be pronounced 

ttUmar, appraise 
expUear, explain 
gardar, observe 
gilar, throw adde 
govtmar, govern 
jurar, swear 
itdjar, judge 
laxtzar, praise 
UvoT, raise 
Hurar, deliver 
manjar, eat 
maridar, many 
moderar, moderate 
muror, wall up 


oitar, take away 


paiuar, fix, establish 

percantar, officiate, serve 

■pezar, weigh 

plantaT, plant 

porfcir, carry 

prepatiiar, present, aubmit 

prwlar, lend 

prezm/or. offer 
■pronoTiciaT, pronounce 

Under -EDOR, the following adjectives with passive 
force are found : 

combaUdor, to be fought 
eomeUdor, committable 
conoUedor, determinable 

t Also, of Lat. origin, examinador. See Cooper. 160. 


FomuTioN OF Adjectives 

convertedor, changeable (instead 

of aoiuiertidor) 
ereiedor, credible 
d^endedor, defennble 
dupendedor, spendable 
detenedor, detainoble 
eneorredor, iacurrible 
endiiedor, to be impoaed 
entendedoT, intelligble 
etcritiedor, to be written 
fatedar, poeuble to acoompliah 
fendedor, aplittftble 
menlavedor,' to be mentioned 
metedor, to be pUced 
moiKdoT, mov^le 
nonerewdor,' incredible 
percAedor, to be collected 
penUdoT, which will be lost 
prendedor, to be taken 
proferedoT, to be pronounced 
temedor, dangeroUB 
vendedor, sale able 

«r, believ 

detpendre, spend 
detener, detain 
ertanre, incur 
'eadetir for endire, impoee 
entendre, understand 
'etcrwer for «*mure, write 
Voter tor f aire, make 
fendre, split 

'menUwer for >n«nlaure, mention 
metre, place 

{noti)ereter, (not to) believe 
pereebrt, collect (a tax) 
perdre, lose 
prendre, take 
proferre, pronounce 
teiTier, fear 
vendre, sell 

And under -IDOR, the following passive adjectives 
formed on verbs ending in -ir: 

diriffidor, dirigeable 

diintidor, divisible 

degidor, eligible 

entfueridoT, to be investigated (ia 
stead of -EDOR) 

to be glorified 
o be established 
a be determined 

eiigidor, requirable 

nonaundor,' unheard of 

ordidoT, weavable 

partidoT, to be shared 

dirxgir, direct 

ditrair, divide 

eligir, elect 

enquerre, seek, but also enquerir 

exclarnr, brighten 
eslMir, establish 
eslatuir, determine 
exigir, exact 
(non)aunr, (not to) hear 

partir, share 

■ See bIbo hybridB, p, 681. 

■ Noncreerr and tumamir cannot be said to be touDd in Prov., 
although they may have enaled, just as rumcaler did. Nonauxidor 



prefigidoT, to be previously fixed prefitir, fix 

preiumidor, presumable pregumir, ptmuine 

jnmidoT, punishable, to be pun- pimir, puouh 

It may be seen from the above lists that without 
exception the suffixes -ADOR, -EDOR, and -IDOR are 
added to verb-stems, and that cotwerUdor and enquendor 
are the only words at all exceptional in formation. In 
all other cases, -ADOR is added to verbs in -or, -EDOR 
to verbs in -cr or -re, and -IDOR to verbs in -ir. A 
very common meaning is that of some act to be done. 
Compounds are found in rumcrezedor and nonauzidor. 

One word is apparently not formed on a verb but a 
noun or adjective: 

my'anador, to be cootinued Tnejan, in the middle; middle 

This word, like ensenkador and creador treated above may 
have been a noun originally. 


It is necessary to mention here the ending -AIS on 
account of its occurrence in a number of words, although 
it is doubtful whether it was ever really a Proven^l 
suffix. The only words in which there is any probability 
of its having been so used are: 

lecais,' dmnty Uc, dainty person; fawner 

moraia,' Moorish mor. Moor 

* This Beems to be a real example of a Prov, auffii -AIS, used, far 
some reasoQ or other, instead of the usual mffiiea of DatioDality, -E8 aod 
-ESC. MoBt o[ the other words with thia ending -AIS have conterapt- 
UOU8 force, and a depreciative suffix -AIS may have been supposed to 
exist aod have been here aubetituted for -ESC. There is a Lat. word 
maraz, which would give moraU, but it is formed on marior and means 


Formation of AsjEcnrES 

The Provengal sufiix -AL has already been treated 
under the nouns,' where it was seen Jihat most of the 
formations were nothing but adjectives used substantively 
in Provencal itself. -AL represents the Latin -ALIS, a 
suffix used to form adjectives on nouns, and exceedingly 
common in the popular language. Its use was very broad 
and varied ; perhaps most commonly it served to indicate 
a similarity or resemblance to the noun to which it was 
attached, as abiscU (formed on aW8)=like an abyss, or 
deep. It also meant "belonging" or "pertainii^ to," and 
denoted beside, suitability and relationship. In short, 
it became one of the principal adjectival suffixes, in 
Romance as well as in Latin. Olcott^ notes also its use 
in the official terminology, particularly in the inscriptions, 
to denote rank, which use is also found represented to a 
certain extent in Provenijal. 

-AL is added to nouns in Provengal in: 


.ab«, abyBB 

aceiral, of steel 

octer, steel 

agraral, cultivated.' 

aiodiat, allodia] 

<dodi, aUode 

auerUwal, enterprinng, bold 

aiienfura, adventure 

boston, line 

boaral? beloDging to oien; rough 

bou, ox 

■'dBlajrimi." Still, if it did pereifltuntaProv. times, 

it may 

have helped 

in Che developmeDt of morait, MoorUh. 

The other words euding in -AI8 ate all of Lat. origiD, and are as 
lollowa: btait. slope, slant, ahilt (a noun), poedbly fnini bifax; punaia, 
■tinJung, probably from putinanut or patinacaie; maltaia, probablj- 
from malttaUa*, though ita origin is somewhat uncertain; and ttrais. 
true, probably from tierax, -acem. though the forms of the accusative 
masculiDe. verai, and the feminine veraia are difficult to explain. 

■ P. 63. ' See Olcott, 237. 

> See double suffixes, p. 398, a. 1 ; aorarai us«d as a noun is also given 
on p. 64, above. The formations in -ARAL are treated in the note to 
this word given there as well as under double suffixes. 




eabal, capital, excellent 

ealendal, calendal 

eampal, "in the open" (found 
only in the phrase batalha 
eampal, pitched battle) 

eancrgal, belonging to yearly tax 

canlanai, pertaining to a comer 

carai,^ equaie ■ 

caretmal, of Lent, lenten 

cariaironid,^ pertaining to a quai^ 

eaealeinU,' belon^g to knights 

eolpal, guilty 

(wtbof, lying in a valley 

comlal, pertaining to a count 

coraolai,' consular 

ajral, he&rtrending 

costumal, customary 

diablal, diabolical 

diaral,^ daily 

didional, concerning words 

domergal, of the donuun; of Sun- 
day. Domefgne is found mean- 
ing Sunday, but not with the 
meaning of domain. Domergal 
looka like 'dominicolit. 

■ The form carol ioitsad of cairtd is worthy of note. Whether com- 
ing direct from the Lst. qaadndii, or derived from catr«, oaimJ would 
be the reEuUr form. Quadrale. wine-meatnire, U found in Du Cange. 
In late learned words, d did not change to >< and quadn^a may have had 
some influence on the form of coral. 

• See alao double suffixes, p. 3S6, a. 1. 

I aD assimilatjon of r to I. and represent 

< See double sufBiea, p. 308, n. 1 . Dialtt is found in Olcott, 230, and 
asdiariut a also Lat., the conditions that formed nffraroj are reproduced. 
See also aoraral under nouns, p. 64. 

cap, head 
agenda, calends 
camp, field 

eanorga, canonicate; canonry, 
prebend (having a yearly 

conbm, comer 

caire, square 

caTesma, Lent 

cartairon, quart«r>-pound 

cavalier, knight 
eolpa, guilt 
eomba, valley 
conUe, count 
comol, consul 
eor, heart 
cosfumo, custom 
diabU, devil 

diction, diction 



eeUnal, ecoleeiaatic. Selena u not 
found in Proven^nl, but only a 
more popular development of 
eedetia, diurcb. Ed^ial is cer- 
tainly a learned fonnation in 
Provengol on the Latin eedeaa. 
-AL could therefore be used in 
learned aa veil ae in popular 

eaeienlal, sensible 

eeporlal, belonging to the etporla 

eilorwU, historical 

Serial, ferial 

figvral, figurative 

(Oloott pveeyiyuraiiKr, 

Jiliil, ffannable 

fogal, fiery 

Jondal, deep 

fimaol, bottom 

fontal, of a spring 

frmral, brotherly 

fumal, gnioky 

grtgoruii, Gregorian 

Unhatjrd,'' ancestral 

lobal, greedy 

motral, principal 

monoi, of the hand 

mariiTial, bloodthirsty 

mercadal, mercantile 

mt{t)aUuU, worth a "me(s)alha" 

molinal, of a mill 

ntuncol,* musical 

nooenoJ, pertaining to a "novena" 

tumial, nuptial 

nueehal, nocturnal 

oblial, subject to the "obha" 

ont(d, wdghing an ounce 

organal {found in the phrase vena 
o., meaning jugular vein) 

escienit), knowledge 
etporla, a tax 
estoria, history 
feri, weekday 
fiiPira, figure 
' though not figuralit) 
foe, fire 
fontjl), depth 
font, bottom, depth 
/and), spring 
fraire, brother 
/um, smoke 
Ortgori, Gregory 

martiri, torture 

mereat, market 

nu(,i)allta, a coin 

molin, mill 

mvxiea, musio 

novena, a religious exercise 

nueeh, night 
oblia, a tax 

I P. 23. 

> See double suffiiea, p. 387. 
y of the Romanee lanKuagea, but mutitalit 



palmed, a span long palma, span 

palwkU, swampy paiui, awamp 

papoTud, belonging to a grand- papon, grandfather 


parofianal, parochial paro^n, parishioner 

pataeal, worth a "patac" paiac, a coin 

patritd, belonging to one's native patria, native land 


pobM, public poble, people 

pogezai, north a "poges" Vtei, a coin 

poliial (found in phraae anguiia p. {potna), potgar,' thumb 

meaning "swamp^el") 

ponhal, large as the fist ponh, fist 

porcarwaP(fouiidinphrase(iarlp., pore, pig 

a kind of spear) 

procenanal,' of a prooesaiou proee»ion, procession 

profeclud, useful profech, use, profit 

provmonal,* provisional promMon, provision 

queilal, subject to the "queeta" qutsla, a tax 

terral, of earth lara, earth 

i/enai, veinous wna, vein 

vergonhal, shameful vergonha, shame 

vilanal,^ rustic vilan, villein 

' The anguila polgal was a short, thick eel, probably shaped some- 
what like the thumb. If jtolga ever meaat thumb, which is not certain 
(see Levy, VI, 430) but probable, (compare other fomifttionfl,aa potgada), 
polpaJwM anadjective meaiiing"like the thumb," formed OD it. Other- 
wise jMlgal and polgada are difficult to explain, 

> This is a most puiiliog word. Thomas {Nout. Bu., 92) auegests 
that porcaritat may be an eloncated form ot porcarit representinic por- 
cariciut, thus Biipposmg a triple suffix added to pore. But in all the 
adjeotives ending in -AIUC1U8 this suffix has become -AREZ, as in 
*baelarei, ceearti, crocara, etc. We should expect, therefore, poreareM 
instead of poroarii, and, with -AL added, a form 'porcaToxU, It seems 
pOBBible that porcarital is derived from poTcaritz +-AL, the porcariii 
being formed of pore, pig, and ariU, hedgehog, just as porcapin. porcu- 
pine, was formed. Forearisai is always used with dart and the dart 
porcantai may have been the spear pertaining to (or used in hunting) 
the 'poreariU (—wild boar?). 

< These words are found in late Lat,. though a Prov. simple word 


Formation of Adjectives 291 

Besides, however, the formations on nouns just given, 
there are a number of words also that are formed on adjec- 
tives, and in most of these, as might be expected, the 
suffix brings little perceptible change of meaning to the 
simple word. It is merely a case of the addition of a 
suf&x for a greater length, of the kind that has been met 
with so often: 

a(d)ver9al, adverse aid)vera, ftveree 

eintal,' fifth cine, five 

deUal,^ tenth dett, ten 

duerted, diverse divers, diverse 

dtvinol, divine dwin, divine 

franotU, tree franc, free 

/rej'al, hard. 1( the Provencal /rep, freg, cold 
like the Latin frigidu», ever 
meant "stiff," there is no diffi- 
culty in the meaning of frejal. 
fretcal, fresh fresc, frcah 

itatmanal, inhuman, inuman, inhuman 

majoTol, priudpal, superior major, larger, principal 

tnanfima', maritime mariiim, maritime 

oehal,^ eighth och, dght 

perfondal, deep perfonid), deep 

pobHcal,* public pofdic, public 

protmcU, next protme, next 

quirtbU, one-fifth of the produce g^uint, fifth 

of which is to be p^d as a tax 
quintal,' fifteenth quiJize, fifteen 

> Iq cinooJ, (Midi, oekai. and quintal the adjective of number changea 
from caidlaal to ordinal. 

■ There is also a form pobUjtU. This may have been formed on the 
verb pobiejar. because of confusion in the fonoatioa of poblical, beside 
which the verb poblitar as well as the adjective poblic eiist^d. 

lacrimal <.laerimalit; mairenal, matemaKmotemoits,' moruKoi, moDldsh 
<.numackalit ; ]>atrena(I)i paternaK potsrnalu ,- paironal. patronal < 
patronalit; penal, peoaKpenali*; pntbiltral, piieatly <pretbutiiralit. 

Other more obscure words but probably sIho of Lat. origin are 
faiduU, joined together i<fa*ciati»); fatial and enfaiial, feaaible, and 
infeBSlble</(icuiJu and infacialit{t); gauxinhal (in the phrase eelela g. — 
morning Htar) obscure, but probably connected with gauzir, rejoice: and 
untoiu, unique < *untcoJv« ? 


Word-Formation in Provencal 

la the following words -AL is added to a preposition: 
fond, outer /or, out of 

jostoi, nearby 3o»l», new 

-IL will be given here with -AL, as was done with the 
two suffixes when they formed nouns. With -IL, as with 
-AL, the formation of adjectives was, of course, the original 
use, the Latin -ALIS and -ILIS having just about the 
same uses and giving almost the same meanings. The 
suffix is not BO important in Romance generally in its 
adjectival use as -AL, however; and many of the words in 
Provencal have found a special use for the suffix. It seems 
to be added to nouns denoting persons, especially to those 
indicating position or rank in life, and to have formed 
adjectives on them. Almost all of the words in Provencal, ' 
and many in Spanish are of this kind, and their starting- 
point seems to have been the form femenil} a dissimila- 
tion oi Semininus, together with such adjectives applying 
to persons as servllis and ho^Uia. The list of Provencal 
words is as follows : 

abadil, coDceming an abbot 

agradil, agreeable 

bamil, noble 

ctercil, clerical 

e^ladii, settled, dwelling 

femil, womanly, reminine 

gatoonil, Gascon 

iaironil, seemB to mean "atolen" 
from the example, though "per- 
taining to robbers" would be 
more to be expected in the ad- 
' Meyer-LQbke. II, 5S«. 

abal, abbot 
offrat, satisfaction 
6ar, baron, knight 
cl«re, clerk 
eakU, Btate 

Oascon, Gascon 



maettrii, masterly mae«tre, master 

monjpl, monkieh numge, monk 

jpoironU, patera^ pairon, father 

payanil, pagan payan, p^an 

preveiril, priestly preveire, prieet 

prioril, pertaining to priors 7>nor, prior 

senAoril, lordJy, Seconal senlwr, lord 

sobraienkoril, superior 3obreseahor, overlord 

tolpU, t cowardly, fox-like volp, fox 

and formed on an adjective without change of meaning: 

boTcU, good-natured bort, good 

The adjectival sufBx -AN, derived from a Latin -ANUS 
is found joined to some nouns in Proven9al (as might 
be expected from the usual Latin process of formation, 
seen in urbanua, mundanua, etc.); and here it regularly 
expresses the idea of "belonging," which existed in these 
original Latin words. Although the suffix also formed 
nouns, under which heading it has already been met, 
even in these cases, it formed, probably, at the beginning, 
adjectives. Thus, in Latin, castellanua has both the 
meaning of "belonging to a castle" and the occupant 
of (or person belonging to) a castle, which meaning of 
person, therefore occupant, the adjective regularly took 
when used substantively. 

Another use of the suffix, however, as early as Latin, 
is the forming of adjectives on adjectives, tuid here, as 
usual, the addition of the suffix brought no change of 
meaning. It was merely tacked on for greater length. 

t Also o[ Lst. oriKin. lextil. sixth <ntzlilM. 

Likewise there is a word not a Prov. formatioD, of some interest. 
This is titrU, liostile, uiitoward( ?). It is obscure in form and meaning. 
Levy Buuests aa source strtffilu. scraper, which would do phoueticaliy, 
but It seems unlikely that itshould be used as an adjective. It might, 
however, come from hoililit under the influeuce of ilHjfiiit. 


294 Word-Formation in Provenjal 

Thus, in Latin, we may find medianus beside medius, 
and probably also, from the evidence of the Romance 
languages, we should find *certanus beside certus. This 
process has been continued in Provengai, and the suffix 
has also been added to prepositions and to adverbs to 
turn them into adjectives, although this process too, prob- 
ably began in Latin. Another appearance of -AN is in 
the present participle of verbs. 

-AN is found added to nouns in: 
alban, white alba, dawn 

auran, foolish aura, air 

coraijan, resolved, courageous airalje, courage 

/orettan,' atrange, foreign forett, forest 

joian, joyouB joi, joy 

Tozan,\ pink roza, rose 

The formations on adjectives, mostly with absolutely 
no change in meaning from the simple word, are: 
amaran, bitter amor, bitter 

aUan,' haughty all, high 

haian,' silly, insipid bat, bay, brown 

I Cf. the Fr. foralier. It. fortilitn, Sp. fonuUro, in which -ARIUS 
is seen, and see Du Caage, foraUriut. It would seem that when -AN 
waa a4ded, forest was still an adjective meaaing outaide of ( -/omtu 
from forie.) The difference of the Prov, suffix from that found in all the 
other languages is worthy of note. 

■ Found in Lat. as nouns, alfaniia meaning southwest wind, and 
lolanum meaning nightshade (a plant). 

' Here the change in meaning, if brought about by the suffii. is 
not very clear. It is not certain, however, that the word is fonned as 
given above. Baian might be the present participle of a Prov. verb 
'baiar (cf. the Fr. aboyer, bark. O. Fr. abaier from 'adbadiart, probably 
derived from badart, gape). Now, if for Prov. we might suppose a 
source 'badiare. instead of 'adbadiare, but likewise derived from (adore, 
it would account for 'baiar; and baian, gaping, the present particlpde of 
such a verb might alone have survived, just as in Mod. Fr. we find in 
common use only the present participle bSartI, gaping. 

f Also aduUeran, which, fudging from its form, must be either of 
Lat. origin, or a learned imitation. It is not found in the Lat. diction- 
aries or word-lists. Cf.. however, advUerin-iis, 


Formation of Adjectives 

doUan, sweet 

doU, eweet 

eaqueran, refractory 

esguer, left 

ettremieTf extreme 

EonA, far 

majoran, higher, superior 

major, larger, superior 

primeiran,' first 

prtrnwr, first 

■pTomnan, next 

progme, nert 

santan, SMntly 

santf), saintly 

seffuron, certain 

segw, certain 

soian,^ aolitary 

sol, aJone 

taram/t late 

(taW, late?) 

On prepositions, the following words are fomw 

(tereiran, rear 

de«ere, behind 

foran, outer, exterior 

/or, out of 

juwn, ft tower 

jua, below 

The only ease of -ANH appears to be grifanh* scowling, 
but it is not certain that it represents -ANEUS as do 
most of the nouns in -ANH. 

' See double Buffiiea, p. 402. 

) See note 2, p. 294. 

* Probably Lat., from 'Uirdaniu, 

tOf Lat. origiD are meijan, int«niie<iiBt«<mediant(8. and Urtan, 
tertian < teriianu*. Probably also eertan, certain <c«rJantu, 

tt Words probably formed io Lat., but irregularly, some of tbem on 

adverbs, are ionhdan < longitanxa from loninf «r( f) from which by analogy 

propitmvttt, givinE propdan, near; and toteiran and totranKmiblerraKOt. 

Other words are: famolan (probably for /oinoIen<Vamnien(u») and 

ffro/an, tad, gloomy ( T), an obscure word. Mistral gives Orafan as a family 

Words like dttaeordan, discordant, etfortan. strong, ete., are simply 
present participles of verba of the first conjugation. (For those of the 
second conjugation, see p. 30G. n. 3.) Other woids of this kind, in which 
the particyile is used as an adjective are matttreian, clever, periikan, in 
danger, fttan, troubled, and pro/ecAan. useful. 



The Provengal suffix -AR represents the Latin -ARIS, 
which was exactly like -ALIS, already studied under its 
Proven5al form -AL'. In meaning, the two suffi^tes were 
interchangeable, and the one used depended, therefore, on 
the word to which it was added. If this word contained 
an I, -AR was to be used, and if an r, -AL was added.' 
This rule, however, had lost its force long before Provencal 
times, greatly to the advantage of -ALIS, which has prac- 
tically supplanted -ARIS in Provencal, especially in the 
original adjectival use. tt is found in very few new words. 
Joined to nouns, it is seen in : 
eanrlor, fluted canela, pipe 

favor (in phrase cotomb faaar ^ faun, bean 

ring-dove). The bird was given 

this name because of being fond 

of beans. 
maiwlar (in phrase den m.), molsj* mauela, jaw 
mdmar, belonging to a mill moiin, mill 

ffluiar (in phrase heatia m.), mule imd, mule 

Added to adjectives, the suffix of course gives no 
change of meaning: 

novdar, new novel, new 

prosmoT, next proeme, neirt 

The suffix appears to be added to an adverb in : 

■pluzar, plural jrfu«, more 


Several words ending in -ARI and also -ORI may well 
be mentioned here. These are, of course, only learned 
developments of Latin words ending in -ARIUS and 

1 See Olcott, 227. 


Formation of Adjectives 

la ARI-, we find: 

feudari, feitdatari, feudal 
pUnari, full, complete 

In -ORI, there are: 
detmeriUtri, undeserving 
eiladim, living 

The suffix -ART, from a Germanic -ARD or -HARD, 
has already been treated under the nouns, where its 
original adjectival use was shown. In fact, this use was 
very clear in most of the words there given. Words that 
have retained their adjectival use are as follows: 

gcUhart, gay (Celtic stem 1) 

ttatart, obstinate Uita, head 

mouorf, false, deceitful 

auzart, bold, daring 
muzart,' loitering, dawdling 
jMiAuri,' thievish 
((^art,t deceitful 

a^T, dare 
fre/n, falae? 

' Previouriy siven under nouns. 

See p. 130-40. 

t There are also two words of 

more otracure fo 

Liart means variegated, and appeatv to apply to horses and to mean 
"with hair of different colors or "dappled." 

For (tarl see Boehmer, Ram. Stud., I, 264. Ott, ^Ivde lur let 
tmdtun en oncMn /ranfoii, p. 46, translates the word as "gray." It is 
supposed to be from fttraranum, from liga, dregs. 

Fifarl, thick-bellied, may have been influenced by the lUlian jriffero 
in its form. It seems to be derived from 'p*V'''' *^ Play the flute, or from 
pijn, flute, the meaning of the adiectivii being "with a stomach tike that 
of one who plays the flute." 


Word-Formation in Provencal 

There are very many adjectives ending in -AT in 
Provencal, comir^ from tlie Latin -ATUS, the past 
participle of verba in -are. When, however, these words 
remain past participles in meaning, as amat, loved < 
amaiiis, they have no reason to be treated here, but rather 
under verbs, even when the verb from which they were 
derived was a Proyen^al formation. It is only when they 
are real adjectives that their place is here; and these 
words may properly be regarded as examples of adjectives 
formed by means of suffixes, for although these adjectives 
are generally formed by adding -AT to the stems of verbs, 
as would be expected from the origin of -AT, quite fre- 
quently -AT is added to nouns instead. Nor is it diffi- 
cult to see the reason for this extension in use. Very 
frequently, a noun corresponding in form existed beside 
the verb, and in the vulgar speech could be mistaken for 
the base to which -AT was attached. Meyer-Liibke 
gives the example of cototkUus existing beside corona and 
coronare, in which it would be natural to see a formation 
on the common corona rather than the much less usual verb , 
coronare. At any rate, the formations on nouns were very 
frequent in Vulgar Latin, if not in the classic writers. In 
Provencal, there are not very many adjectives in -AT that 
are known to be formed on nouns, but there are many 
cases, like the Latin coroTiatus, in which a verb and a 
noun both exist beside the derived word. And although 
most of these words are in all probability merely past 
participles used as adjectives — or -AT added to verb- 
stems — in some cases, the verb may have been a later 
formation than the word in -ATUS.' In view of all these 
facts, then, it seems better to treat -AT as an adjectival 

' OlcoW, 245, 


Formation of Adjectives 299 

suffix than as a past participle used here as an adjective.' 
The meaning of the suffix was generally to denote posses- 
sion^a possession of some quality or thing denoted by the 
simple word, verb or noun. It was added, then, to verbs 
and to nouns, and it was also used, in some cases, only 
when a prefix was used at the same time with the word. 

The suffix will be treated and classified according to 
the various kinds of formations which it made, as: the 
cases where it was (1) added to verb-stems; (2) added to 
verb-stems, but only in connection with a prefix used 
at the same time; (3) added to nouns; (4) added to nouns 
together with a prefix. 

1. -AT is added to verb-stems in the following list. 
Many of the derived words had prefixes, yet these were 
not used in the formation of the adjective, but existed 
in the verb on which it was formed. 

abandonaC, geneioua dbandimar, allow, grant, give up 

abdurat, hBrd, t«rrible abduTor, undergo, endure 

acabiU, petfect, complete ocoiar, complete 

aeoratjal, ready, determined aayraljar, eocourage 

acorsat, swift aeonar, urge, incite' 

afaitndaC, busy afatendar, occupy 

aizinal, fitting, suitable aizinor, arrange 

ajoslat, adjacent ajotlar,* arrange 

I Since all real pBTticEpial fonns are oniitled, no attempt can be made 
here to give a complete list of the worda ending in -AT and -IT. Rsy- 
uouard does not list past participle forms. The words selected are talicn 
almost entirely from Levy. 

■ The Donatt Frovenxde (p. 28, col. a. 40) gives as s translation for 
atm-tar, "ad curium provocart." The word is listed in both Raynouard 
and Levy, but aiamples are given of only the past participle acoriat. 
This seems to come to mean "swift" from the original idea of "hastened, 
spurred on." 

• The verb, however, has the different sense of " arrange." AJoital 
is probably formed on lotta, near. Others among these words are also 
probably paraaynthetic formations, as apodertU, empeiuat, dencoral, and 
Bncolpal, although in all of these cases, a corresponding verb in -or does 
exist. See also p. 531, n. t. 



apoderat, mighty 

arendal, rich 

ami, arranged 

aaedat, greedy 

atenat, sendble 

asenhal, suitable 

eotlumal, custom&ry 

deseorat, heartless 

lUscrinal, with disheveled hair 

de^aittmat, unusual 

deipoderat, powerless 

ewemjriif, with dislocated neck 

empensal, thoughtful 

encliruU, inclined, ready, humble 

ejicolpal, guilty 

encora/, willing, ready 

eneoraijal, incliaed, willing 

enflamat, angry (inflamed with 

enforcal, foriced 
enrairiat, raging 
entenhat, informed, i 
eniesUU, obstinate 
enveaU,^ happy 
esajai, tnwty 
esearpiat (inBl«ad i 

Mco&ol, naked 
eacoUitKU,' tilled 
eacolat,' cut out 

escursal,' shortened 
csgUuiat, murderous 
exlaUat, impetuous 
eam^rat, pure 

11 bred 

apoderar, surpass 
arendar, rent 

arrar (k), provide oneself with 
atedar, be thirsty 
atenar, make int«lligjble 
avenhar, happen ( ?) 
costumar, be accustomed 
deBcorar, dissatisfy 
descrinar, loose the hair 
detfaUonar, distort 
detpoderar, rob of power 
eitenigar, sprain the neck(?) 
empenaar, contrive, invent 
endinar, incline 
encolpoT, accuse 
encorar, touch the heart 
encoraijar, encourage 
enfiamoT, inflame 

enrabiar, rage 
etiMenhiOT, teach 
enlettar, persist 

etcarpit), escarpir, ( 

eseobar, sweep, clean 

eslaitar (u), hurry 
esmerar, purify 

> BicolliTar is not found, but must have existed, to Eive etcoUitamtn 
and eteoUivador, sb well sa etoaUivat. So many independeatly formed 
parasyotheta vould be eitremely unliliely. 

■ Eieotar is not found, but cf. the Sp. and It. ucolor. 

' Eacursar is Dot found, but see eicuna in Mistral. 


FoRifATioN OP Adjectives 

e*tiral, in diBtiees 
eaUmal, confused 
eairunai,^ wild, savage 
mutrral,' confused 
egvenlat, floating in the wind 
Jaimnai, fine, well fonned 
figuTot,' allegorical 
/oreat,' forked 
/requenial, frequent 
S/olat, speckled 
grevjal, suffering 
jurat, under oath 
laval, empty-handed 
lUtat, striped 
. tiial, smooth 
Tnaetlral,* well wrought, artistic 
mtUBtrejat, clever* 
molherat,' roamed 
morHfieal, exhausted 
periUtat, perilous 
pretat, able, capable 
Knot,* intelligent 

esCtror, stretch, lengthen 
estonar, stun, deafen 

eeoenUar, blow 
faitonar, fashion 
jiguTor, form, picture 
fwcar, fork 
frequeniaT, frequent 
polar, drop 
greujar, injure 

lavar, wash 

lislar, stripe; marble 

Itzor, smooth 

wuMsfr^r, repress, sub 
mciherar, marry 
morlificar, mortify 
perilhar, imperil 
preiar, prize 
senar, give sense to 

All of the words in the above list are apparently 
formed on verbs, and in some of the words, the participial 
force rather than that of the adjective may staad out. 
The distinction, however, is a fine one, and the line 
between the two classes of words is hard to draw, as almost 
any past participle may be used as an adjective. Words 
with any passive force, as, for example, amal, loved, 

1 Seema to be found only in this form, though attrunar probably 
existed. It a listed in both Rayuouard and Levy. Bitrunat. form^ on 
the adjective (wfrun, would Dot be a likely tomiBtioD, though not 

' Eaamir, though given in Stichel (p. 57), probably doesn't exist, 
and utarral itself seema to be the same aa esgarat (Fr. ^onr^). Ei- 
garar in Prov., however, means to look at. 

., might, like 

< JVaeilrar i 
• Must conn 

from some other meaning of the verb. 




which might, nevertheless, be used as an adjective, have 
very generally been omitted. 

Words of the same kind as those in the preceding list, 
but ending in -IT, from being formed on verbs in -dr, 
follow : 
ademplit, Bated 
adolit,' afflicted 
afortit, obstinate 
agratit? pleasing, agreeable 

ademplir, fill 

adokr (fie), be tifflicted 

afoTtir, fortify 

agraziT is apparently not to be 

found meaning "to please." 

Levy suggests correction of 

agrazit to graait. 

cauiii, kind, friendly cauiir, distinguish, choose 

deageiozit, free from jealousy deageiozir, to free from jealousy 

deegrazH,^ umrwarded desgrazir, curae, grumble, be 

detapedil, abandoned 
etnbait, troubled 
eneobit, covetous 
ertcoralffit, courageous 
enfrevolit, weaJi 
tngeloni, jealous 
engiAU, greedy 
engrenit, angry 
ennAgit, raging 
tmenhit, distinguished 
enUndril, soft, freah-baked 
envermetit, full of worms 
eibcUautit, stunned 
eabarril, confused 
escatrit, escafit, slender, well 

' Here -IT IB added to a verb in -er. -UT is comparatively rare. 

' Id spite of the eiist«Dce of detgnaiT, this word, from its meaniag, 
would appear to be a parasyDtlietic farmatioD on grarxr. 

• Escabir or etcafir is not found, but etehevir, eiecute, perfonn. is 
found in O. Fr.. aod encafit means (well) formed, or carried out. See 
Diet, 573. Another word of this kind is ttloTdit, confused. Eilordir 
is not found, but compere eslortire in O, Fr,. and etlordir la O, 8p. 
Compare likewise ttordire. in It., tlouTdir in Mod. Fr.. and oturdir in 
Mod. Sp. 

enfrevoUr, become weak 
engeloiir, become jealous 
engoUr, swallow 

etbaUtmir, stun 


Formation of Adjectives 303 

excarU, separated, atone esearir, have divided 

MCarsil, robbed of sense escurair, darlcea 

espajutU, disheveled (of hair) eapandir, strew about 

eslordil,' confused 

/aidil, wretched, unhappy faidir, banish 

ftdkii, short of goal falhir, fail 

/[>rfrtt,t smooth, polished forbir, equip 

-UT ia fouud with adjectival force in the following past 
participles of verbs in -er and -re: 
decatut, weak decaier, fall 

etOendul, attentive, eager enlendre, att«tid 

etamoffut, anxious, uneasy escomover, agitate 

etmogut, exdted egmover, move 

eaperdiU, silly, craey esperdre, distract 

2. Here might be mentioned another kind of formation 
of which a complete list of examples will be given under 
parasynlheta.' In this kind of formation, the prefix is 
joined as well as the suffix— the type of word which decazut, 
for example, would be, if only cazer, and not decazer 
existed. These adjectival parasyntheta formed on verbs 
probably made the next step in the use of the suiBx -AT. 
It should be observed that nouns of corresponding form 
exist beside most of the simple verbs. 

' Se« note 3, p. 302. > See p. 529, below. 

t Id the cases of (teiapcrfif, enorenit, ejiiendrii. envermeiit, B.Dd etbarrit, 
DO verbs are found of which these adjectives in -IT could be the paat 
participles, but tlie verb can geDerally be assumed. Compare, however, 
for detapadit, enteadrit and etbarrit, the Sp. dapedir, the Catalan en- 
leadriT, and the Bearneiie etbarri. Detapedir it, however, peculiar in 
having a possible douUe prelix. Engrenit aeeniB Ui show a change of pre- 
fix, from A- of agrenir to the common -BN. Sec Stichel. pp. II and 44. 
Entermetit seems to indicate a verb em^ermeiir, bujlt on verm, worm. 

-IT is found in mcoraloil. enrabgit, and tTuenhii instead of -AT. 
In all of these cases, however, the fonn in -AT eiista also. Why this 
second form in -IT should exist too, ia not quite clear, but it shows 
that the suffixes had lost their participial force, hence their close connec- 
tion with their respective verlw and conjugations. Enraboit is a rather 
puiiling form, but the rhyme-words in the examples given show the 
irregular accentuation of the verb from which it is derived. 



3. Next come the formations on noims by the addition 
of -AT, -IT, and -UT. Under -AT are found: 

artal, old an, year 

anclat, dishonored anda, ehame 

armaudai, enameled armaul, enamel 

attrat, fooLsh aura, air 

bracat, breeches-wearing hraca, breeches 

caudoi, flat;iiipBira(usedof rhymes) cauda, tail 
cUclaioT\at, made of "oisclaton" dadalon, a kind of silk 
edral, angry coI<e)ra, anger 

coratjat, resolute ajratje, courage 

cordoanal, at (Cordovan) leather cordoan. Cordovan 
crooil, latticed (of windows) aroU, croaa 

dechat, possessed of bad qualities decha, fault 
demumial, bedeviled dettrumi, devil 

egcacal, torn, cut eteae, spot 

etUmai, tinned ettanh, tin 

/azfTidal, afflicted, instead of fazenda, affair, need 

"made," "formed," the past 

participle of an assumed verb 

fiocat, tasseled fioc,^ tassel 

lKiMaf,examinedbycuskims-officer gahela, a tax 
genuU, studded with gems gema, gem 

granal, full of grain gran, grain 

binat, woolly iona, wool 

Utrat, ornamented with letters, letra, letter 

written; learned 
paoiuitA feathered like a peacock ■paon, peacock 

-IT is found added to nouns in the followii^ words: 
acerit, like steel aoier, steel 

aibit, perfect dtp, good quality 

maeetril, artificial nwestre, master 

fraidil, rascally (Germanic /roitfi, rascal ?) 

poeeladit, powerful poestat, power 

voUil. vaulted volta, vault 

For -UT added to nouns, see p. 330, below. 
1 Flocar eiiistB, but with a different meaning. 
t Also the tollowinB words ot Lat. origin are found; eoUffiat, cal- 
legiate. denial, toothed, and eaklat. starry. For words like aurpttol, 
formed on aurpel, see hybrid fomiatione, p. 6S1. 


FoRiuTioN OF Adjectives 305 

4. Finally come the cases in which the suffix is added 
to noima, with a prefix joined at the same time, true 
parasyntheta, which will therefore be treated under that 


The suffix -EL has been treated too fully under nouns 
to require any detailed treatment here, especially as there 
are very few words containing it. Those found are 
words which have added the suffix to adjectives, and, as b 
invariably the case in such formations, the derived word 
shows no change of meaning. Notms, noveUtts, is an example 
of this same thing in Latin. The Provencal formations are : 
CTMpel, curled ereip, curled 

faibel, pale falb, pcile 

mavrel, dark-brown, black maur, black 

m^attel, i^ddle, half mQan, middle, half 

mwjuinel, poor Tnesyuin, poor 

•AREL is found in several words and will be treated 
under this form among the double suffixes.* 

The Provencal suffix -EN, not a present participle 
of verbs,* is derived from a Latin -ENUS, and its most 
important use is in forming the ordinal numerals on the 
cardinals, just as, in the case of nouns, it formed nouns 
of number: 

daen, 10th 

deU, 10 

mifcn, 1,000th 

mil, 1,000 

rumen, 9th 



oeh, trit, S 

«(m, 7th 


■ P, 630 below. 

• Se« p. 402, b 

■ Such Bdjeolivea ae manen, rioh. poden, powerful, and ponhen. sharp, 
are merely preaeot participles of verba in -er. just as detacordan, etc. 
(p. 295. note tt)> are preteat participleB of verba in -or. 



and probably many other forms. Otherwise -ENUS was 
hardly in use as an adjective. Terren is found coming 
however from the Latin terrenus. The other words are: 

moren, dark tnor, Moor (cf. Sp&niah moreno) 

vermen, wormy verm, worm 

The source of the suffix -ENC has already been dis- 
cussed under nouns,' in which place it was stated that most 
of the words ending in the suffix were adjectives, and 
many of the nouns themselves only adjectives used sub- 
stantively. There is, indeed, a fairly large list of adjec- 
tives in -ENC, to be given below. In most cases, the 
suffix is added to nouns to form adjectives denoting 
material. It also denotes belonging and resemblance. 
Still another meaning that the suffix has— that of nation- 
ality or place of origin— is clearly to be derived from the 
Germanic suffix -ING, as opposed to the pre-Germanic 

aerenc, of the air, aerial aer, air 

albene, white alba, dawn 

eoorsenc, or Cahora Caort, Cahors 

cotwerenc,' of or for lime caia, lime 
eaawenc,' pertaining to (dried in) 
a cheese-baaket ? 

' P, 178, 

> For B discusaioD of tbe two suffiiea, see pp. 178-79. 

> Double BuffiieeT The farm&tion of these words is peculiar. For 
cautetenc the simide word caiM appears to be the base-word, and there is, 
therefore, a double suffii -ERENC, instead of simply -ENC. I^obahly 
*caii»ier or •camer. roeaning a lime-ldln, eiiated (cf. chauchiert in Gode- 
froy). and to it was added -ENC, making an adjective. In the same kind 
of way, caaxTenc was probably formed on an O. Prov. form of chateiro. 
a word which Mistral gives, meaning a cheese-basket. No such 0. Piov. 
word is found, however, so its form is unknown. The or syllaUe is 
interesting. Cf. famaral, etc.. p. 398, a. 1. 



commc, of hom 

com, hom 

dwWe, devil 

dMenc, doubled 

doMe, double 

estivenc, of summer 

e«fiu, summer 

/eiriCTic,' ferrenc, of iron 


foffuene, foguiene, fiery 


Joan, June 


laekene, milk-giving; milky, milk- 

lacA, milk 

white , 

moQene, of May 

Afof, May 

meUadenc, divided into equtd 

mritat, half . 



numianhenc, mountainoue 

runxnc, snowy, of snow 

n«u, snow 

tuWCTu;,' ninth (for noven ?) 

nou, nine 

ortenc, of a. garden 

OTt, garden 

ptnenc, of pine 

■pin, pine 

pl<wi(6), lead 

ramene, wandering (moving from 

ram, branch 

branch to branch) 

roiene, rose, pink 

roienc, dewy, wet with dew 

riM, dew 

euyuretic,' aulphurous 

eolSre, sulphur 

un«nc,' joined, united 

un, one 

iivenc, grape-colored 

woo, grape 

MTjtnmc,' vii^nal 

vergein), virgin 

.eir«™c,' of glass 

veire. glass 

vinenc, winy, wine-colored 

1^71, wine 

In a few cases, adjectives of nationality appear 
to be formed on other adjectives with no change of 

' Novenc and unvnc are torraed on (nuinecal) adjectiveB. Noient, at 
any t&t«, appears to be due to a confusion of -ENC with -EN, the sufiix 
regularly forming ordinal numerals. 



aTabienc, Arabian arabi, Arabian 

dermanenc, Germanic gerwan (though not found in 

Provencal with the meaning 
of Gennan) 
Loarenc, of Lomune (a word of 
Germanic ori^n) 

In these words -ENC appears to be derived from the 
Germanic -ING. 

There b also another small list of words formed on 
adjectives, namely those describing color. Here the 
function of the sm&x seems to be that of modifying very 
slightly the meaning of the original adjective — about the 
meaning which -dtre gives in French. Even this, however, 
is more of a change than is usual ia a sufHx added to an 
adjective to form an adjective. The suflix in the list 
just givCTi, however, is already added to a number of 
nouns denoting things of decided color, as in lacbeTic, 
foguenc, nevenc, and uvenc; and thus -ENC, ^ving the 
meaning of likeness to the noims to which it is added, has 
already in this list the idea of color. Then added to 
adjectives already denoting color, and keeping its idea of 
similarity, it necessarily has the meaning of the I^Vench 
-dfre. Just why the suffix when used with adjectives 
should be limited to those denotii^ color is not thoroughly 
clear, however. The Ibt follows: 

aUtJigineTu:, whitish aSnigine, white' 

blavenc, bluieh blau, blue 

faSienc,'' slightly pale /af6, pale 

Tiegrenc, black negre, black 

purpurene, purple purpra, purple 

ropejic, reddish Tog, red 

Ml]iu0a,-ini«. IBS nounioLat. Tbia seem) 
the Lat, auffii -UGINE in Prov., though Meyer 
some trorda in -UZl from this suffii. 

• For the form with a prefix — ttibSaS>eiu: — see also the parasynthets. 


FofiUATioN OP Adjectives 

aanffuinene,^ blood-colored tanguin, bloody, sai^uiiie 

»vbaU>enc,* whit«iuDg slightly aib, white 

ttd^albene,'' slightly paie tubfalb, slightly pde 

As stated under the nouns, the Provengal -ES ia derived 
from the Latin -ENSIS, used in forming adjectives, par- 
ticulariy those of nationality, on nouns, the cases given 
under nouns being, for the most part, only adjectives 
used substantively. The list of words found in Provencal 
as adjectives of nationality follows; 
arabies, Arabian artdri, Arabian 

campanea, of ChampagDe Campana, Champagne 

eorteet, Cordovan Cordova, Cordova 

etpanet, Spanish Espana, Spain 

/roncw, French Fraraa, France 

pabie«, ot Pavia Pabiaf,?), Pavia 

With a wider meaning, several other words are found, 
in which the suffix appears to have the force of "pertain- 
ing to," a meaning seen in the more specialized develop- 
ments in which the suffix was attached to the name of a 
country. Such words are: 
eantmea, of reeds canon, reed 

leonee, t lion-like lean, lion 

1 This word, howerer, U probably the Lat. lanouiltnltu diaguised 
by an asaJmilation oS I to n and by a subaCitution of -ENC lor -ENT, 
nhieh Huffiiea were often confused. 

Here should be mentioned also this apparent suffix -ENT. which 
cannot be treat«d as a real suffix. It is found in manant. etc., which 
forms repreaeati however, only a dialect difference from the forms in 
-EN, which are nothing but the present participles of verbs in -flr, used 
as adjectives. -ENT is found also in pairient and eorporenl. Peirieal 
(in Raynouard peyrieni) should probably be corrected to pexriene which 
would be a regular formation (cf. seirienc) . Corporent, of course, represents 
corpuUntut. FamoUn given also under -AN (p. 296, □■ tt) represents 
»fimuUntui (see the suffix -OLEN, pp. 323 f). 

■ See also adjectival parasyntheta (p. 529. n. 1), and pre&x-formations. 



In still other words -ES is seen to be added to adjec- 
tives. Here there is, as usual, no change of meaning to 
be found in the derived word : 
enteres, perfect, entire enlier, perfect, entire 

fdonet, bad, vindictive /don, treacherous, vindictive 

gteUmea, ((luttanous gloUm, gluttonous 

majone, prindpal major, prindSpal 

manjadorea, edible manjador, edible 

mores, black Tnor (maur), black 

mortaiet, mortal mortal, mortal 

pToenmlei,^ Pravengal proerual, Provengal 

The Provencal suffix -ESC, as stated under the nouns, 
is derived both from the Greek t<rx'>^ and the Germanic 
patronymic suffix -ISK. ttrx"^' originally diminutive, 
came to form ordinary adjectives, generally meaning 
"pertaining to." It is probably seen in: 

folesc, foolish fol, fool 

j;(uanft««c, pertaining to the plou^; jjozan^r, plough 


jogtaregc, low-bred joglar, mountebank 

though possibly these words represent a confusion of the 
two suffixes.* 

The influence of the Germanic suffix is seen more 
clearly in the following adjectives of nationality: 

espaTieae, Spanish Eapana, Spain 

fraruxM, French Fransa, France 

> See also proenealetc under -ESC. Protn»aUa is the only adjective 

languaaes (Fr. coarlerii. Sp. coritt. It. cortese), was probably fotmed ii 
Lat. timea. The -ES of maret is probably a subetitution for -ESC, a 
the source of the word is the Germ. mariA, Cf. the Fr. maraii. 



grettte, Greek Grecia,* Greece 

■pro»MaU»c, Provencal -proetttai, ProveoQCkl 

aarraxintte, Saraoea tarrazin, Saracen 

the last two formations being made on adjectives, con- 
sequently givii^ no change in meaning. Espanesc 
and franeeac are found also with -ES<-ENSIS, which 
probably had also an influence in giving -ESC<-ISK its 
meaning, through similarity in form. 

The suffix -ET (<-ITTUS} has been fully discussed 
under nouns, where it was attached to simple nouns to 
fonn diminutives. In the case of the nouns, it was pointed 
out that -ET, unlike many other diminutive suffixes, con- 
tinued in Provencal its functions as a true diminutive, 
instead of being added merely to give a greater length 
to the word. Added to adjectives to form new adjectives, 
-ET still retained its diminutive force, and seems to be the 
only example of a suffix retaining its force under such 
conditions. Yet this formation of diminutive adjectives 
on adjectives was the regular function of -ET, as will be 
seen from the list below.' 

-ET is added to adjectives (and adverbs) with diminu- 
tive force in: 

agudet, eomewhat sharp Of^, sharp 

aigret, somewhat &cid aigre, acid, tart 

' Is there also a form Greia t See ZeilndtHfl. XXIV. 545, uid XXV. 
736. Hornins here shows that in many words, as geographical nameB, tu 
aed cv became ( in a large aection of Romance territory. 

> Compare this use with that of other adjectival suffixes added to 
adjectives, which, when their meamags were not changed by the suffix, 
disappeared in the modern languages. Compare with the Prov. /reae 
aad/retcal the Sp./retco and freecal. which two last words differ in mean- 
ing. Even -ET, the most important diminutive sutGx, when added to 
adjectives, ollen had very Uttle force, which would give a possiUe start- 
ing-point for this use in other adjective suffixes. 




oiquanM,' a little 
amorotet,* Bomewh&t loving 
hotel, somewhat low 
btanqaet, somewhat white 
caivtl, somewhat bald 
caudef, somewhat hot 
darel, somewhat clear 
caindet, somewhat gracious 
coriel, somewhat short 
eortezet,'' somewhat courtly 
fadet, somewhat silly 
faUxlet,' somewhat pale 
foiialet,* somewhat strong 
fortel, somewhat strong 
freget, somewhat cold 
fretquenel,' freeh 
fresguel, somewhat fresh 
frevolel, somewhat weak 
gentu, somewhat gentle 
ginhoiet,' fine, slender; clever 
graiiet, somewhat slender 
ffratel, somewhat fat 
grevet, somewhat hard 
griiet, somewhat gray 
grwmet* somewhat gray 
grosel, somewhat large 
jooenet, somewhat young 
largv«l, somewhat large, broad 
level, somewhat light 
longTiet, somewhat long 
ionhet, somewhat distant 
wKyiwei.'somewhat greater 
nientMfef,-'somewhat small 
tnaquinet, somewhat shabby 
"loEef, somewhal^Hoft 
morelet, somewhat black 
notie2«f,'. somewhat new 
nudet, somewhat .bare 

<dquant, somewhat 

amoroe, loving 

bat, low 

bianc, white . 

calv, bald 

eavi, hot 

doT, clear 

coinU, gracious 

cort, short 

corfcs, courtly 

/a(, silly 

faS)A ( <falb), pale 

ijoiialt), fort, strong 

fori, Strang 

freg, cold 

/r««c, fiesh 

frese, fresh 

frevol, weak 

genl, gentle 

giTihoB, skilful 

graik, slender 

grot, fat 

greu, hard 

grU, gray 

gruson ( < gra),fgny 

grot, large, stout 

j<we<n), young 

fare, large 

hu, light 

lone, long 

lonh, distant 

major, greater 

meruit, small 

mesquin, mean 

mol, soft 

morel, dark(?) 

novel ( <nou), new 

nut, bare, naked 

1 Really ao adverb lormed on on adverb. Cf. also ti 

• See double miffiiea, p. 3 

• See double^BuBiies, p. 3t 


Formation of Adjectives 

petiM,' somewhat Bmall petO, smaU 

planet, eomewhat plain, smooth plan, plain 

prinut, somewhat fine prim, fine 

rauqitet, eomewhat hoarae ratic, hoarse 

redimdet, eomewhat round Tedon(da), round 

Mitt, eomewhat sohtary, alone eol, only, soUtary 

lovendet,* somewhat often «<weft(0, often 

tvbtUet, somewhat subtle tvbtil, subtle 

lanUt,'' just BO much, a Uttle lant, so muidi 

Irnidret, somewhat tender Imdre, tender 

Irejanel, eomewhat deceitful trefan, decdtful 
verdel, somewhat green, greenish iwrf, green 

nenneUitt,^ eomewhat venniUon vermdh, vennilion 

The origin of the suffix found in Provencal as -lER has 
been 30 fully treated under nouns that its development 
from -ARIUS will not be treated again here, but, instead, 
its use as an adjectival suffix in Provencal will be noted. 
-ARIUS in Latin, of course, formed adjectives originally,* 
altboi^h the use of these as nouns denoting persons, 
which later became so common, is foimd there also. 
But in Proven^l, as in the other Romance languages 
also, the adjectives in -lER, although formed on nouns, 
adjectives, and verbs, have become rare, so great was the 
tendency toward their use as substantives, all three forms 
of the adjective being used thus. The adjectives formed 
on nouns have the usual adjectival force, meaning 

'PetiUt seem* to show Uie reduplication of a suffix. See KSHiag, 
No. 7,106. 

' An adjeotivB formed on an adverb. C(. atquaTiiel above. 
• Sea Cooper, 148. 

t Another word possibly beloDginer'here is moflet, found only in the 
phrase, pan mojitt, indicating s kind of bread, the Fr. pain moUet. We 
should expect pan molet in Prov., but the word baa probably been 
inBuenced by some other word, possibly *mB/la (Fr. moufie) from the 
Lat. muffula. mitten. 



generally "pertaining to" the nouns to which the suffix 
is added> evidently the force the suffix had in Latin. In 
the case of the suffix joined to adjectives to form adjectives, 
GoeUer and Cooper' both see a use of the suffix solely 
for greater length, which b undoubtedly the case in 
Proveni;al. Olcott' sees in many words not "a mere 
fondness for longer words." According to him these 
words fill "a real want in the language." These words, to 
be sure, were used in speaking of the adjectives formed 
on nouns to denote trades, where they are certainly true; 
but he immediately adds: "this commercial use of 
•ARIUS being established, the formations are extended 
to adjectives derived from adjectives." Several examples 
of this usage are given in adjectives of trade and of nation- 
ality: camUdarius, maurarius, privataritis, etc., in which 
cases Olcott is undoubtedly right in pointing out a dis- 
tinction of meaning from the simple adjectives candidus, 
prwatus, and maurus. But these words did not remain 
adjectives in Provencal: the noun with which they were 
used disappeared and they became regular nouns. The 
Provencal words caninier, dog-fancier, bla?iquier, tanner, 
etc., instead of meaning "dog-fancying," "of white," 
tend to show this, as well as the relatively small total num- 
ber of adjectives in -lER. And yet there was certainly 
also in Latin the type which Goelzer and Cooper noticed— 
the adjective formed on an adjective without change of 
meaning. Adversarius beside adversus seems to prove 
this. The adjectives formed on adjectives in Provencal 
are of this class, those on nouns and other parts of speech 
being adjectives meaning "referring," or "pertaining" to 
this simple word — generally a noun — and sometimes 
meaning " fond of " when applied to a person. 
•Goelier. 147: Coo|>er, 151. 'P. 138. 


Formation of Adjectives 

Adjectives of this kind formed on nouns are: 
a^mer, gland-bearing agtan, glaDcl 

agraditr, pleaaing 

agrat, satisfaction 

au/orier, consenting; with the 

autor, author 

authority of 

baraUner. pugnacious 

baraUm, fight 

babdhier,^ bold, warlike; of war, 

baialh, battle 



hiadier, pertaining to crops 

blot, wheat 

bobansa, pomp 

capdal, leader 


caronha, carrion 

amfntiTiirr, pertaining to a 

amfraire, brotherhood 


eoraier, able to go? 

coria, course, way 

coetter, passing at the side 

cotta, side 

drechvrier, upright 

drudier, unchaste, amorous 

drut, lover 

alalgier, romaining standing 

estaige, stay, position 

ferrier, iron-color, gray 

/er, iron 

frommtier, of wheat 

fromen(_t), wheat 

fron{t), front 

/urtter, thievish 

/wrt, theft 

gaiinuT, hen-hunting (used of birds) g<dina,bea 

(fiioier, cruel, bloodthirsty 

gUai, sword 

grader, ready to ask favors 

gracia, favor 

granur, grun-bearing 

gran, grain 

lachier, milk-^ving 

kcA, milk 

loQoLier, lying, false 

tagot, flattery, deception 

lardier (in phrase dimara I, = 

lart, bacon, fat 

Shrove Tuesday) 

Iwrier,' rich 

logre, lucre 

mmier, of the hand; tamed (used 

man, hand 

to the hand) 

iThis word shows the two kinds of meanins: (1) fond of, 

bantlhier. above it, and (2) pertainiDg to. 

■ LucrUr. of course, cannot be a popular formatiOD on logre. It seem 
to be formed by a late addiug of the popular suffix ■IEE<-AR1US t< 
the Lat. lucrum. 




', early-rismg 

meaihier, wortK a "meaUia" 

nuffier, in the middle 

meoioffuitr, belonging to the 
middle cIsm 

m^ladier, in the middle; divided 
in halves; eharing equally 

m^anxier, of middle siie or qual- 
ity; middle-class 

mercadier, marketable 

Tnerdter, dirty 

monlanhier, of the mountains; 
appealing over the mountaine 
(used of the sun, etc.) 

monUer, for hunting (cf. Spanish 

nifier, still in the nest 

mfanier, orphaned 

oatalier, hospitable 

paaitffier, pasaing 

p(amer,' out of work 

rabinier, impetuous 

rafter, rat-catching 

gobratifier, arrogant 

toiaaier, joyous 

taientier, desirous 

Utriurier, nrooked 

fre&oIAier, aJinoying 

Ufanier, arrogant, proud 

vertadieT,\ true 

matin, morning 
tneaUia, a coin 
men, middle 
meifioc, middle 

meiiiU, half 

m^amia, interval 

mereat, market 
merda, dung 
rmmtanha, mountain 

nion<0, mountain 

m{«), neat 
orfan, orphan 
oaUd, lodging 
poMlge, passage 
pUua, place, portion 
rabina, ardor 
rata, rat 

sobranta, superiority 
solaU, enjoyment 
lalen{t), desire 
torlura, twisting 
Irebalh, trouble 
ufana, pride 
vertat, truth 

Thus, in this comparatively short list there are various 
meanings with which the suffix appears. Besides the 


ptace-huntiDK, a luad of meamns secD in galinier aikd ratier. 

tOf Lat. origiD there la mercenier<niercenariut, meroeoary. An 
obscure word is ianitr, which Levy takes tomean" common," "ordinary." 
Diei. 188, and Appei, aclectioa 98, I. 37, both translate it, however, as 
"greedy," The context could bear either interpretation. Diei and 
Appel evidently connect the word with the O. Fr. and Prov. lanier, a 
bird of prey, from *taniarim (K6rtinK> 5.426) and with Umiart, «eea in 
the O. Fr. laienier and the Prov. larthar te, complain. It is difficult to 
see with what Levy connects hia meaning al the word. 


FottBiATiOK OF Adjbctitbb 317 

meanings of "pertaining to" and "fond of" or "addicted 
to," it often means "bearing" or "producing" the noun 
to which it b joined. Thus aglanier, lackier, etc., whereas 
the nouns denoting trees, as figmer, perier, etc.,' seem 
to be only a substantive use of this kind of adjective. 
The suffix is seen also to be attached to abstract nouns 
to denote qualities or characteristics, aad in one adjec- 
tive, ferrier, it gives the idea of color. 

Joined to adjectives, as stated, little change in meaning 
can be observed in the derived word : 
eomwuUier, common eomuaal, common 

dometguier, domestic dometffite, domestic 

ty(dier, equal eQol, equal 

ettranhier, Btrange ettroTth, stnmge 

etquerrier, left-handed etquer, left 

gritier, gray grit, gray 

moiignier, bad, wicked moiiirna, bad, wlclced 

meimdxer, email menia, small 

mortalur, mortal, deadly mortal, mortal, deadly 

'parier, equal par, equal 

UtrdUr, alow, late tart, late 

ttrner, third lert, third 

froverner, oblique, transverse travert, traoeverse 

vivacitT, vivacious vinaix, vivacious 

ixAalgieT,\ fickle voUtige, fickle 

There are also several words formed on verb-stems, 
and among the total list of possible formations of this kind, 
some words, such as eakneguier, could have had no other 
base-word than a verb, and many others, given, for the 
most part under nouns, might have had a verb at their 
base, as, for example, baralkier, baialhier,^ etc. The 

■ See above, doudb. p. 325. 

■ P. 316. »bove. 

t Words of this kind formed in Lat. are aieriier (we p. 218] and 
ItugitT, light, evidently oominE from Uviariut and not formed on leu < 
Itvit. Cf. the Fr. Uger and the It. legaiero. 


318 WoRD-FoHUATioN IN Provencal 

verb-formations probably came about through some such 
confusion as to the base-word as may be seen in these 
examples. And their development was facilitated in 
cases where a common verb and a less usual noun exist«d 
side by side. The verb-formations follow : 

^frontier, inaoleot afnmiar, face, iiuult 

owifMter, puehing forward avansar, advance 

esknegiiier, slippery, smooth edenegar, slip 

gainer, bragging, boasting gahar, boast 

Uchadier,' dainty leehttr, lick 

logadUr,* to rent or hire lagar, lodge 

manner, alert wiareir( ?), (not dear) 
praerUier, pressing forward; pretenUiT, present 

On other parts of speech the following words are 
formed : 

aeaniier, bold, courageous avant, before, forward 

tobrier, excessive aobre,' over 

tovendier, assiduous «(wen(0, often 

The Provencal sufiEx -IN from a Latin -INUS is fairly 
clear as to its meanings, generally indicating resemblance, 
and being added to names of animals. Thus elephanHn = 
elephantine or elephant-like. This use is, of course, 
found in Latin in such words as equinus, caninus, etc. 
Joined to the names of several metals and other objects, 
it serves to point out the material of which a thing is 
made, as in peirin, from the Latin petrinus. Another 
use found in Latin and in some of the other Romance 
languages — that of indicating the native of the place to 
the name of which the suffix is added — does not appear 

■ Here we have the double suffix -ADIER, already treated under 
nouDB (see p. 219). See also double sufBies, p. 393. 
•OrissofrKfT possibly formed on the verb tcbrarf 


Formation op Awectivbs 


to exist in Provencal. Joined to adjectives, the suffix 
changes the meaning of the word as little as usual. 
-IN b added to nouns in the following list of words: 

1, of steel, st«ely 
, of dill 

r, steel 
e, diU 

armalin (in phrase beatia arma- 
Una, homed beast), appears to 
be derived on animal, the woid 
being used to denote some spe- 
cial animal as the cow or the ox 

aurirt, of gold, golden (Lat. ai^ 

boquin, of a buck 
brtgain, quarrelaome 
eorin, hearty, heartfelt 
eomalin,' carnelian 
/oletin, dUy 
jumenUn, for burdens 
locAtn, milk-giving 
marbrm, of marble 
moUonin, of sheep, sheepish 
morUadin,' of the mountains 
mulalin, of mules, mulish 
potprin, of purple cloth 
aatxnin, savory 
ceirin, t of glass 

hoc, buck 
brega, quarrel 

folel, goblin 

>u)nen(0, beast of burden 

lack, milk 

jnarbre, marble 

molUm, sheep 

montada, hilt, mount 

muiat, mule 

polpra, purple cloth 

tabor, savor 

veire, glass 

' The example in which this word is found ia p^ra comaiina. It 
was therefore, at this time, an adjective. Comalin would appear at 
first Bisht to be formed of com and the compound auSi -ALIN, but 
probably *comda existed in Prov. (cf. the O. Fr. comelie an wliich the 
corndine, referred to in theZ>ii;. Gen,, though not Eiven in Godefroy, was 
formed). The change of -ELIN to -ALIN it not quite cleat. For Prov., 
armalin, horned, which is almost what conuJin must have meant 
originally, may have had some influence. 

* Found also as montarin, numioffin and moTtlarin. 

t Several words of Lat, origin are found, most of them being formed 
on namea of animals. Such are canin, canine <ca»inu*; tquin. equine < 
equin-ut; eJ«pAiinf in, elephantine < e/epAanliniur; loptn, wolfish<'upinui,* 
niu'in. muUBh<mufinui.' (train, beBrlike<iH'sinua; and onn. sheepish < 
annus. Ptcorin, sheepish, is also a Lat. formation built on the analoKj' 
of otiaiu, though fecorinus is not found. Words of Lat. origin not 
formed on names of animals are marin, marine < 'nurtnuj, and peirin. 



The words formed on adjectives are; 
bianquin, white blanc, white 

cdexHn, blue celeste, celeetjjj 

enteirin, entire entier, entire 

-ION is found in a very few words in Provencal, the 
only apparent representatives of the Latin suffix 
-{I)BUNDUS, which Cooper' calls "one of the archaisms 
preserved in popular speech for the sake of the heavy 
syllables, rather than for any distinctive meaning that 
the suffix properly had." The Provengal words are: 
fadion, deprived of, frustrated /adiar, lack 
»ano»,t satiated laMar, be satisited 

-16, -ITZ (-ADITZ, -IDITZ) 

The suffixes -IS, -ITZ, and -ADITZ have all been 
treated under nouns, although originally adjectival 
suffixes. All three are derived from the Latin -ICIUS. 
-IS and -ITZ are different spellings of the same suffix, 
and -ADITZ, -IDITZ represent AT-ICIXJS and IT- 
ICIUS, or Provencal formations on the past participle of 
a Provencal verb, 

\ye find -IS added as a suffix to the stems of past 
participles m: 

faiiU, well-made, shapely Jail, from far, make 

fenhtU, false ferJU, (raiafenher, feign 

ol stone <ptirinu», and probably also moimn, miBeiable<*i7iii«rinu> 
(cf. theO.Fi., miterin). Jinn, fittinBibu not the suffix -IN. as it seems 
to be a post--verba] fomiatioa on aiHnar, with the same raeamnB that is 
found ia airinai. 


Formation op Adjectives 321 

frachU, flexible /mcA, from fnmher, break 

mesfu, of mixed breed meat, from Tnetcer, mix 

tortit, twigted tort, from torwr, twist 

-ITZ also is found in a few words; 
apostUx, made^p, artificial apott, from aponre, add, join 

eteosliti, secret etcosl, from eacoruJre, hide 

malauttii, sickly malavl, ill, from male luAilutn 

TuUilx,' native tuU, from notaer, be bom 

-IS or -ITZ is apparently added alao to simple verb- 
stems^ in: 

braidu,' aeighing braidif, ndgh, cry 

dobliU, double doblar, double 

The formations in Provengal in -ADITZ (or -ITZ 
added to the past participles of regular instead of irregular 
verbs) are: 

exorjadiU, to be flayed esa/rjar, flay 

espotadiU, (onele. = wedding-ring) apoaar, marry 
eatadilx, spoiled atar, stand, stay 

/eT7na/Iifz(ane2 /.'•betrothal-ring) fermar, cloae, betroth 
giladUz, poured out, spilled giiar, throw, pour out 

labm-aditz, ploughable laborar, plough 

potadilz, that may be drawn pozar, draw 

and under -IDITZ: 
fugidiiz, fugitive, fleeing /"ffir, flee 

this last and possibly some of the others showing a substi- 
tution of -ICIUS for -IVUS (Latin /wffitwTM*). 

The meanings of the sufiBx in the above lista are rather 
difficult to classify. 

In a few words -IS b added to nouns : 
laekit (also laehin), milk-^ving tach, niilk 
laim, woolen laTia, wool 

1 Found in Appel, but not id RaynouBrd or Levy, It is found as 

> This new kind of formstiOD is probably due to a subetitution of 
-ITZ for -lU from -IVUS (cf. remark on fugidm. 

■ Braidiu also exists (see under -lU). This suffix, originally attached 
to past participles, was joined also to verb-stoms in Lat. times. 



romu, br&nched ram, branch 

-ITZ also is found in: 

mairiU, of a mother, auising moire, mother 

■podettadiU, having in one's power podesUU, power 

-lU, from the Latin -IVTJS, is found as a suffix in 
Provengal, but it b used much more freely than -IVUS, 
which was added in Latin usually to the stem of the past 
participle.' Provencal has a great many words of this 
kind, but they are mostly descendants of Latin words, or 
else learned formations on the Latin model, corresponding 
to many of the words in -IF in French.* New words were, 
however, formed on the stem of the verb* in many cases, 
and these words will be given here : 
adomnia, dominating, encellent, dominar (not domnar), dominate 

adoniu, generoua adonar; give, intrust 

offradiu, agreeable, pleasing offradar, please 

aiHu, near, ready ain'r, receive 

agoloMU, entertaining luoJasar, entertain 

braidiu, eager braidir, cry out 

earyiu, onerous cargar, load 

celiu, hidden, secret celar, hide 

cridiu, tearful cridar, cry 

envaziu, serving for invasion enmzir, invade 

e^oriiu, zealous, energetic e^orsar, strive 

faidiu, banished faidir, banish 

forsiH, strong fortar, force 

jamiu, rejoicing jauxir, rejoice 

penhoriu, pledgeable penhorar, pledge 

■ Later, however, added also to adjectives and nouns, as in tacimii 

' As iignificati/, adhieif. etc. 

• This kind ot tormotion may have been aided by the number of 
cases in which the verb-flt«m was ramilar in form to nouns, as in the case 
of forsar besidu forta or cridar beside crU. 



jjegiu, weak, capricious piegar, be&d 

preziu, precious preior, prize 

regardiu, waiting, disposed regardar, look at, wait for 

rtmembriu, mindful remeiiArar, remember 

Besides the above words, pretty certainly formed 
on verb-stems, there are a few words formed in other ways. 
Thus there are some words formed on Provencal past 

qjotlaliu, uniting ajottat, joined 

amfortatiu, comforting conforlat, comforted 

deteobertiu, uncovered, open deseobert, uncaver«d 

enlentiu, att^itive enien(l), attentive 

ItoHenlaliu, lamenting, compliuning lamenlat, lamented 
moetratiu, demonstrative moslral, shown 

portaHu,i portable porfoi, carried 

A word formed on an adjective is 
umiliu, humble umil, bumble 

Here, as always in this kind of formation, the suffix is 
without force. 

For the ending -I VOL, see under -ABLE, -IBLE, p. 276. 


The Provencal ending -LEN, or more properly -OLEN, 
occurs in very few words, but as it is derived from the 
Vulgar Latin suffix -LENTUS,' and as it ie found in at 

t These words, which seem to be Prov. formations, and different, 
therefore, from such words as tivnifieatiu, show the continuation in Prov. 
of the Lat. process of adding the suEBi to past participles. The addition 
of the suffix -lU makes little difference in the meaning of deecobtri and 
entenl. which were used as adjectives: the fonnation of deicobertiu and 
eiUeniiu is, therefore, in accord with the general rule. In the other 
words, the suffix in question aeeine to be -ATIU (or -AT, ttie participial 
ending of tJie verbs of the first conjugation. +-IU) added to the stem of 
the verb. It is to be observed, however, that the combination -ATIU 
cannot have been formed early enough for the 1 to have become voiced 
as it did in -ADITZ. given above. 


324 Word-Formation in Pbovekcal 

least one new word, it must take its place among the 
suffixes used in Provencal. The possible new words are: 
famokn, huogry. It has been im- 

post^le to find 'famulentut 

in Latin, but such a formation 

almost certainly existed, aa 

derivatives of such a word are 

found in French, famolent, and 

Italian, famolento, as well as 

in Provencal. 
merdolen, dirty merda, dung 

pwM^n, stinking ptidor, stench 

siaolen, greasy, sweaty, appar- rtaor, perapiration 

ently a new formation 

The suffix -OL b found In one word, mespezol, poorly 
weighed, from mespezar( f), weigh badly. See the nominal 
suffix -OL for the use of -OL as a suffix. 

The Provengal suffix -OS, although exceedingly com- 
mon, contains no great difficulties. It is derived from 
the Latm -OSUS joined to nouns to designate (1) quality 
and (2) abundance. This was its proper use in Latin, 
but, aceordii^ to Cooper,' in Plebeian and Late Latin, it 
is found added both to adjectives and to verbs, the latter 
kind of formation being very rare, but the former of some 
frequency on account of giving an elongated form of a 
word without changing its meaning materially. 

The following words are formed on nouns: 
agiiihoi, pointed agulha, needle 

aiboa, endowed (with a qusJity) aip, quality 
aUos, disgusted, uneasy aita, sadness 

amoTM, loviug (amorotva not amor, love 

found, but compare the other 

Romance languages) 
' P. 124. 


FoBBiA-noN or Adjectives 

angoisot, full of anguish 
artiikog, dexterous, clever' 
arUn, sly, cunning 
aurios, craiy 

autoroi, weighty, important 
aventuros, fortunate 
avrilhos, of April 
azirot, choleric 
hamlhot, quarrelsome 
betonhoa, needy 
hdtadot,* beautiful 
MtMtwM, blameworthy 
6onat4rM,* luck-bringing 
hoKot, woody 
hrof/oa, muddy 
earesliol, of famine, want 
eavalaiToa,' knightly 
damo*, complaining 
coehos, in hute 
amortot, satisfied 
coraijos, courageous 
euros, careful 
damwUjoi, injurious 
dangierot, dangerous 
defeeios, powerless 
ddechiM, delightful 
detdeHhoB, disdainful 
detv^UuroB, unfortunate 
datoivK, devoted 

angmta, anguish 

artUha, fortification 

art, art 

auria, frivolity 

auim; guarantee, voucher 

(oentura, adventure, fortune 

avriHh), April 

tmr, hate 

bartdh, quarrel 

betonh, need 

bdlal, beauty 

blatma, blame 

borufur, luck 

boac, wood 

brae, mud 

eavalier, knight 
dam, complaint 
cocAo, haste 
conort, encouragement 
carafe, courage 

damna^e, injury 
dangier, danger 
defect, weakness 
deUch, delight 
deedenh, disdain 
dtsventwra, misfortune 
deBotion{ f),* devotion 

■ Here the coanection appears to be with art rather than with artilha. 
The meanins "fortification," however, it probably a late and a apecial- 
iied tTBndatioD of artilha, the original meamng being "arts." and due 
to the addition of the collective suffix -ILHA<Lat. -ILIA (see p. SO. 
above). Artillun. therefore, would naturally mean full of arts, just aa 
arloi above means full of art, aly. For aTtilhoii, see also double suffixes, 
p. 386, below. 

■ See double suffixes, p. 386. below. 

■ See hybrid formations, p. S81. below. 

' There exists also Uie adjective decol, on which devoiioa mittht be 
(ormed. Its peculiar form, however. tUvotiot instead of devoloi. makes 
it seem likely to have been formed from a confusion of the two words. 
There seems to be only one example of the word, in which It is spelled 


Word-Formation in Provbncai. 

dim, aged 

encombrot, tMnbairassed 

enganoa, deceptive 

/angos, muddy 

fattigoB, tireaome ( ?) 

ferezos, ferocious, frightful 

fiantoa, trusting 

ficoa, covered with fig-warts 

filoa, hairy 

jlemoa, phlegm&tic 

/orfachoa, guilty, criminal 

/raehuros, indigent 

frtjuros, frosty, cold 

(fdujW, joyful 

ginkoB, skilful 

goloa,' greedy 

golot, gouty 

graUoK, greasy 

greujos, injurious 

iron, angry 

janglos, slanderous 

iogo«, jocular 

joio*, joyous 

lebroB, leprous 

kngoi, talkative 

Uxrot, at leisure 

lugoroi, gleaming 

moteuro*,' unfortunate 

malencolioa, melancholy 

meravelhoa, marvellous; astonished 

miaerioi, miserable 

moriaog, sickly 

moetos, dirty 

nunmcrioB, complaining 

neceiws. needy 

negoctos, busy 

nelcchon, guilty, wrong 

nozelos, knotty 

niirUhoB, laay 


substantively and formed oi 

' See also hybrids, p. S81, below. 

rfta, day 

entombre, embarrassmeDt 
ertgan, deception 
escien{l), knowledge 
fane, mud 
faatic, annoyance 
Jema, fear, honor 
fiansa, trust 

JU, thread, hair 
JfeTna, phlegm 
forfach, Clime 
frach-ura, want 
frejura, cold 
gauch, joy 
ffinh, skill, artifice 
gola, gluttony 
gola, gout 
graiaa, grease 
greveh, injury 

jangla, slander 

joi, joy 
lepra, leper 
lenga, tongue 
leier, leisure 
lugor, light 
malaur, misfortune 
maienailia, sadness 
meravdka, marvel 
miseria, misery 
morina, mortality; epidemic 
most, must 
mwrtmiri, murmuring 
tKceira, lack, dearth 
negoci, afTair, business 
neleCk, wrong, fault 
nozei, knot 
niuUhia), laziness 
apparently only an adjective used 



omicidio*, murderoue 
orUos, shameful 
ordaros, dirty 
orgothoa,^ proud; savage 
paiaziTuta, lame 
paraljm, diatiiiKuished , 
■perezos, lasy {pezerot also found) 
■periutM, porous 
peamao*, aoA; suspicious 
pezolhot,' louay 
piaiadoa, pityii^ 
pioTos, tearful (also ploirot) 
poderot, powerful 
podragoi, gouty 
poUot,' powdery, dusty 
profeekoa, powerful 
raino*. quurebome 
r, rancorous 

TOiiihoa, rusty 
mfrachot, needy 
»onho», careful 
m»peehoa, suspicious 
tacoa, soiled 
talentot, desirous 
tenaonot, quarrelsome 
trfbalhoa, painful 
vaioros, valorous 
vertxtdos, virtuous 
vohaUadoH, f desirous 

omicidi, murder 
<mla, shame 
ordiara, dirt, filth 
orgolh, pride 

poratge, lineage 
■pereta, laiinees 
pertut, hole 
petania, thought, care 
peiolh, louse 
piaiat, pity 

plor, teat, lamentation 
poder, power 
podraga, gout 
pola, powder, dust 
profecb, power 
raina, quarrel 
rancura, rancor 
Toztik, rust 
eofracha, lack, want 

'soapecha,* suspicion 
laea, spot 
taUn(t), desire 
lenton, quarrel 
IrdxUh, pain, torture 
nalor, valor 

voiuiUat, desire 

■ This and other words, such as ploroi, valoroe. and Tertvdot, pvea 
above, are found in most of the Romance laoKUBKeB. but no common 
Bource ia to be found in Lat. 

• Pediculotia U found in Cooper, 129, with peduailoiua, the source of 
peiolhot, menUbned in a note. 

• For po(»(w, with another raeanioc, see the formations on verba. 

• Altiiough this poun is not found in Prov., its eiiateace may be 
asnimed (cf. Sp. toipeclta and correspondioB words in other languages). 
It would be formed from the past participle tutpectut, from rutptcert, 
and probably gave rise to the verb Knpechar, 

t Also, of Lat. origin are gracui'. gracious <tmiii<MiH; maliciot, 
wicked, angry < moZifuwiu; peloi, hairy < pi!onui; penoi. painfuK 
(wnotui,* piumoi, feathery < pjumosui; poiveroi. powdery < pufierosus; 


328 Word-Formation in Provbnsal 

The words formed on adjectives have, as usual, hardly 
any change in meaning from that of the single word: 

catotiot, Catholic catoli{c), Catholic 

dwoi, hard ifur, hafd 

escoToa, dark tteur, dark 

falbdoa,^ pale falbel, pale 

fetos, stinkiDg fel, loathsome, fetid 

grtvoe, difficult greu, hard 

mali^tioa, spoiled, tainted maliffne, bad, maleficent 

paurugos, fearful pawuc, fearful 

largot, generoua tare, broad, liberal 

rtcoa, proud, powerful ric, rich, powerful 

leguros, asaured, tranquil segur, sure 

tardiog, f tardy, alow, appears to be 

derived from lanti (not found), 

a form of lardiv<tardivu», in 

the same way that jolt from 

joliu (French j'oli from jdif) 

has come about. 

The formations on verb-stems are as follows: 
abautoa, prostrate dbautar, upset 

abduroa, long-enduring abdurar, endure 

rU>ominoa, abominable abominar, abominate 

abondot, abundant abondar, abound 

aorUot, ashamed aontar, degrade 

cobejot,' covetous cobejar, covet 

cobezejos, covetous eaheujar, covet 

' See double Buffixes, p. 387, 

' Aoother word in -OS meaning covetou* — cobei/ot—e video liy 
cornea from the Lat. cuptdilonu, but not directly. Paris {Romania. 
XXIII. 2S5} would explain such forma bb this by •cujMtftcftwtu. brought 
about by confusion with cupedia (found for cuppedia. a clainty). 

lancnoi, bloody <san(ruinoaui,' tomelhoi, sleepy <8cminii:uI<MU«; aod 
sereruK. poi90noiiB<rencnonM, Probably iipoj, bleared, should be placed 
here also. Lippia, dripping (used of the eyes), is found in Lat., and 
lippotui seems to be a late aod learned formation od it. O. Fr. haa such 
tearoed words aa HppotiU. An obscure word ia fntUartros, meaaled 
(used of pigs) . Ouitcrn, sticky, seems to represent ntcosus under Germ. 

1)1, d runic, both coming from 


Formation of Adjectives 329 

eremot, (earful cremer, tear 

eniaiot, crafty, sly enarlar (meaning not clear, but 

Levy suggeeta "arrange 


endenhoa, indigDant endenhar, be indignant 

enctjos, annoying entyar, annoy (or possibly formed 

on noun miieg) 

enlaieniot, desirous enlaleniar, be eager, hasty 

enverinos, poisonous enverinar, poison 

ueandalixos, scandal-raising escandalUar, scandalize 

eipanlot, full of terror etpanlar, terrify 

trosto*, Uberal gaelar, spend 

iraitot, irritable iraUer, grow angry 

morioi (in phrase cam m., fleah morir, die 

of an animEd dead of diaease) 

piatm,* pitying piadar, make pious ( ?) 

pUgos, inclined pUgar, bend 

poUos, suffering from palpitation poltar, beat, palpitate 

of the heart 

Irauquilhot,^ full of holes trauqailhar, pierce holes 

Dormilhoa, sleepy, seems to be derived from a "dormil- 
har, to take naps (not found). 

-OTGE must be placed here as an adjective suffix, 
though found in very few words in Provencal. For 

■ This word from its meaains, however, seems rather to be formed 
on piatca, pity, which would give regularly piatadoi (see p. 327). - Its 
(onnation is the same as that of the Fr. pileux, which the Hatifeld- 
Danuesteter dictionary derives from a Lat. *ptefo«uni with the meaning 
of jnalal+ -OSU8. Other formations exactly similar lo pialoa (i.e., the 
suffix -TAT has disappeared) are denhiloa. full of worth, apparently 
from denhilat: carilm, charitable, apparently from earitai; necaUoe, 
□eedy, apparently from necesiiai; and pUnladoi, rich, apparently from 

t Other more obscure words iu -OS are: famelhoi, huDgry, from 
*famiculotu>t (cf, fameUlo; -eui, etc., in O. Fr.); fertioa, wild, savage. 
cruel, possibly from /erocia -f the suffix ~OS. with the intertooic syllaUe 
dropped. Another intereBtlng word la poiregoa. rolten<pu(ncotu*( .')- 
For commentary, nee p. 356, below. 


330 Word-Formation in Provencal 

these, the source must have been a Latin -OTICUS, 
probably modeled on the commoner suffix -ATICUS, 
For example, in Provencal there is a word ferotge, ferocious, 
which must have been derived {rom feroticus, a form which 
would account for the words in the other Romance lan- 
guages — French farouche, etc. — OTICUS undei^oing a- 
similar development to that of -ATICUS. This word 
feroHcus itself, however, b only a deformation of ferox, 
due probably, to the analogy of Kihaticus. Then the 
similarity of meaning might easily lead to the creation 
of irotge on ira, anger. Ivemotge, of winter, is evi- 
dently a Provencal formation by means of -OTGE 
on iver{n), but no starting-point for such a creation 
is evident here. Eetiuvotga (a noun) also exists, but its 
meaning is not clear. The probable Provencal formations, 
then, are: 

irotge, angry ira, anger 

ivernatge, of wint«r iveT{n), winter 

The Provencal -UT is derived from a Latin -UTUS, 
which differs in meaning from the other suffixes of the 
group, -AT and -IT, and therefore has been registered 
here separately. These three suffixes in their adjectival 
use were treated above, and then the words in which -AT 
and -IT were added to nouns were listed, in which cases 
the idea of possession was always ciear.' But -UT has 
taken a new development of meaning. It not only 
indicates possession, but generally possession of some 
physical characterLstic of prominence. Latin had manu- 


Formation op Adjectives 

lus and nasutus^ as a starting-point for new formations of 
the kind': 

alut, winged 

ttarbut, bearded 

brancut, branching, forked 

earnbarut,' eambuf,' long-l^^ed 

eamui, fleahy 

caput, hoUnw (of cups and plates) 

crinut, hairy 

espalul, broad-shouldered 

/olhtU, leafy 

golitl, greedy 

ffuinhontU, bewhiskered 

lanut, woolly, wool-bearing 

lengul, talkative 

maucul, fat 

numbrut, large-limbed 

morut, thick-lipped 

nozut, knotty 

pelkut, hairy 

ponchul, pointed 

ramui, branching 

sober ul, learned 

ma, wing 
barba. beard 
branc, branched 
cam6a, leg 
c<irn, flesh 
copa, cup 

eapala, shoulder 
folk. leaf 
gola, throat 
guinkon, whiskers 
lana, wool 
lenga, tongue 
mawa, belly 
memire, limb 
mor, snout 

pelh, hair 
poneh, point 
row, branch 
sober, knowledge 

Added to an adjective with no change in meaning, it i 
seen in: 

ealmU, bald 
•Also can 

cola, bald 

' canal, white-haired. 

<, represented in Prov. I 

> Other nords. too, which in Lat. had -ATUS or -ITUS are found 
with -UT in Prov., showing the restriction of this mesiUDg to the suffix 
-UT. Thus, we find barbut, camiU, and ramvl id Prov. as opposed to 
barbalue, cantatus, and ramofiu in Classic Lst.; also crinut in Prov. and 
crinilus in Lat. 

< Cambut would of course be the word regularly farmed on camba. 
This inserted -or-, however, though found in O. Prov. only iu this word 
before -UT, is very common iu the modern lauguage, as is seen from the 
list given in the Enait, 250. It is found also in Sp. in teslanido. This 
-OT-, probably due to a false etymology, is found also in other words, as in 
balarenc (p, 187, n. t)- See Dies. Orammaire des lanouei romanea, II, 2S9. 


The third kind of words commonly formed by the 
addition of suffixes is the verb, whose formation in Pro- 
vengal, as elsewhere in Romance, ia somewhat different 
from that of the noun and the adjective, in that most of 
the suffixes found are not simple developments of single 
Latin suffixes, but, on the contrary, compound ones 
made up of a nominal suffix plus the verbal endings 
-are or -ire,' These verbal endings in their Proven9al 
forma -or and -ir are themselves used as suffixes to 
form new words, and are practically the only examples 
of simple suffixes found.* The other suffixes, as -ALHAR, 
-ASAR, -EJAR, and -INAR, were formed by adding 
-AR in a number of cases to nouns already endit^ in 
-ALH, -AS, or some other suffix, which suffix came to be 
r^arded finally as part of the verbal ending.* The simple 
suffixes or verbal endings, -AR and -IR, will be treated first; 
then will follow in alphabetieal order the compound forms. 


The suffix -AR was added generally to nouns and 
adjectives* to forms new verbs. It was added especially 
commonly to nouns, as will be seen from the following 

> Thus then verbal endingB are used ae suffiiea in this chapter. 
They will consequently be ^ven here, and here only, in the type ragulaiiy 
used for Euffiies. The same is true of the compound forma. 

' ThuB the Lat. -lARE ia oot found as a suffix in Prov., nor U 
-ESCERE in new words, and even the more popular -ICARE is rare. 

' Aa with all compound Buffiiea. this was probably due to the dis- 
appearance of the word with the single suffix: or its minor importanoe 
as compared with the simple word. 

' .\lso occasionally to past participles. See p. 344. 


Formation of Verbs 


lists. -AR was added so very freely and indiscriminateiy to 
nouns that its uses are somewhat difficult to describe, It 
may be said, however, that the force given to the noun by 
the suffix may often be rendered by to "cover with," 
"fill with," "put on," "have," "use," "equip with," 
etc.! The various meanings will be seen in the following 

abU, ahyea 

afar, affair 

aga{aiga), water 

agalha, needle 

aitina, comfort, commodity 

atberc, lodging, dwelliog, home 

aUrir, opinion 

(Utnoma, alms 

angoisa, auguiab 
arUa, ahame 
a^HMlura, joining 
argen{l), wlver 
amese, equipment 
arpo, harp 
(tatda, aplint 
attre, star 
autberc, hauberk 
au2el, bird 

abitar, sink, swallow up 

acetrar, cover with steel 

afarar (*e), set to work 

agar, water 

agjiihoT, sew 

aiztnar*(«e), approach; arrange 

aUtergar, lodge 

albirar, ima^e 

altrtomar, give alma 

amorar,' feel love tor 

angoitar, be pained 

aniar, dishonor 

aposturar, unite 

argerUar, plate with silver 

arpar, play the harp 
agtelar, break 
oHrar, predestine 
ausbergar, put on hauberk 
auielar, hunt birds 
azemprar, Bolicit 
balantar, weigh 

■ It id impoBsible to give all the meaninga that the bu£Sx may have. 
m these depend on Che noun itself. Thus. Che meaning is generally, 
but not always, clear, from the meaning of the noun. The force given 
by the sufl^ seems to be practically that which is found in Engl, in 
the use of nouns as verbs without change, aa cement and to cement; 
a button and to button; a hammer and to hammer, etc. 

< The development of meaning here ia somewhat peculiar. Thomas, 
Eiiait, 234, in B long article on the Fr. aite and the Prov. aiie. says 
nothing about tbiH. There is also a noun aui'n, dwelling, and an adjective 
aiim. comfortable, ready, from which the verb might be derived. The 
meaning of "approach" may be connected with the word for "dwelling." 

•Also reflexive, meaning "to fall in love with." 



Word-Formation in' hoven(;al 

batrar, close, bar 

torufeiar, bolt, nft (flour) 

bailar, saddle 

batalhar, fight, atruggle 

batuvxar, stop up witb cemeDt 

bec(h)aT, peek at 

beJieficiar, benefit 

beordar, joust 

bezonhar, need 

biai»ar, slant, use shifts, evasioiu 

biseelar, delay 

bittenear, trouble, annoy 

blocar, emboss, indent, bruise 

bobansar (<e), boast 

bolar, limit 

ftofemar, button 

bozinar, make a noise, murmur, 

rail at, act foolishly 
bozolar, limit 

branear, put forth branches 
breaar, rock 

br«n('uir,' break, break up 
brocar, prick 

&rumar, form mist, be misty 
bugadar, wash, whitewash 
cadtnar, chain 
caminor,' journey 
capdetar, govern 
carbonar, turn into coal 
cavalhar, ride, practice knightly art 
caviChar, use subterfuges or 

cazar, provide 
cembar, strike cymbals 
cenbetar, decoy, allure 
cicatrUar,' heal over 

' KSrting (No. 1,576) and Raynouard, II, 260, connect this word with 
briiar, break, but it is hard to see bow the form will allow it. See Die. 
Gtn., -britiUrrr 

' Poasibly of Lat. origin, aa it is found in most of the Romance 

' The noun *cicalrii is not found in the Prov. dictionaries, but 
probably esialod. _ Cf. Fr. dcalrice. 

barra, bar 

barutel, bolter 

b<ut, pack-saddle 

balatha, fight 

balum, cement 

bee, beak 

ben^fici, benefit, kindness 

beoH, tourney 

btionh, need 

biaU, slant, shift 

biseit, bissextile day 

btsteriBa, hesitation 

blcea, dent, lump 

bobansa, ostentation 

bola, limit, boundary 

boUm, button 

borina, trumpet 

boiola, limit 
brane, branch 
bre*, cradle 
brenlk, brazil-wood 
broe, spit, rod 
bruma, mist 
bugada, lye, washing 
cadena, chain 
camin, road, way 
capdel, lord, owner 
carbon, coal 
aumlh, horse 
cfmlha, banter, nullery 

caza, house, but 
cemba, cymbal 
ceinbel, decoy, lure 



ctedar, provide with pens 

cloear, ring 

colar, embrace 

coioTor, color 

colpar, strike 

comaiTar, make weekly vimt 

comjadar, dianuBS, pve leave to 

companAar, accompany 

conhoT, strengthea with a wedge 

amtornar, clasp, encloae 

cordalar,' measure with a "corda" 

cordurar, aew 

eomar, play the horn 

coTTejar, bind together 

ctmnor, cook 

cresiionor, convert 

doIAw, cut with scythe 

cleda, pen 
doea, bell 

oA,, neck 

color, color 

ca2p, blow 

comoire, gossip 

comjat, leave 

companh, companion 

con A, wedge 

amtom, surrounding, outline 

corda, a kind of measure 

Cardura, sewing 

correja, strap 
cotina, kitchen, o 
creatian, Christian 
dalh, scythe 
damnalje, damage 
decha, fault 
defaut, lack, fault 

dechaT, deceive 

dejaviar, be lacking 

dettrar, measure 

deinzar, tell, relate 

doctrinar, preach 

domanor,* possess 

donor, thrash 

dTediuTOT, tum at right goal 

elhmuar, bghtai 

enihanar, fortify with "embans" 

em^Uulrar, put on a plaster 

etuxntar, sprinkle incense 

eJKonar, confiscate 

enfantar, bear (children) 

ertgenhaT, contrive 

entreaerJuir, decorate with flags 

eretar (eredtlor), inherit 

eacar, eat 

escaiar, scale, climb 

' Cardid ia not to be found, apparently, though it probably existed. 

• A word ending in -AR, but formed by means of another suffix is 
doitnrar, suffer, eiiating t>eeide doioT, pain. The i before the -AR makes 
it clear that it is uot -ARE but -lARE that is represented in the nord. 


devia, speech 
dodrina, doctrine 
domaine, domtun 
dors, back 

drec^ura, uprightness 
elhaus, lightning 
^nban, enclosure 
emplattre, plaster 
eneent, incense 
encore, confiscation 
en/an(0, child 
engenh, spirit, genius 
entresenh, ensign 
eret, heir 
eac, nourishment 
ucaia, stiur 



eeealhar, break to pieces 
eecaramutar, Bkirmieh 
etclapar, cut, split 
etcobar, sweep 
excombrar,^ cleaa up 
escrinar, support, prop 
escrinhar, put in a chwt 
escadar, cover with a shield 
escudelar,' empty a bowl 

esglaiar,^ frigbt«n 

eaparroriar, provide with poets 

eapatmar, faint 

e»pazaT, equip with a sword 

espelhar, mirror oneself 

esperonar, spur on 

espieckar, exploit, use 

eaquilgachar, hold watch 

eatacar, fasten 

estalbiar, save, spare 

estarthar, tin 

ealaljar, support 

etlivar, play pipe 

esh'rar, harvest 

esloriar, state, represent 

ealradar, cover 

eitrilhar, curry 

eafropar, wrap up in swEtddUng- 

es'rurtor, encourage 
esludiar,' study 
esdijar, put in a cose 
fathilhar, bewitch 
fachurar, bewitch, enchant 
faisar, bind 

faUonar, fashion, form, etc. 
fargnr, foi^e 

eeclapa, splinter 
ucoba, broom 
Mcom&re, rubbish 
eecrin, box, case 
eeerin, box, case 
eacuf, shield 
escudela, bowl 

e«(r^ii fear, pain 
Mpamm, poet 
esptunte, spasm 
etpata, sword 

esperon, spur 
eapUcha, rent 
es^iJj/acAa, watch 
esfoca, fastening 
esfottti, saving, sparing 
esfonA, tin . 
eslatja, stay 
estiva, pipe 

Mtoria, history, story 
e«(rada, platform, cover 
egtrilha, curry-comb 
eslrop, strap 

eatrun, courage 
esludi, study 
eslug, case, box 
fachUha, charm 
fachura, charm 
faisa, band 
faison, fashion 
/arjM, forge 

it of the Romance laaicuBges. but not in Lat. 



Jazendar (only /ozendof found) 

/enar, make hay 

/mar, to celebrate, Wte 

JerroT, provide with iron-work 

/Mtar, celebrate 

fiansar, guarantee, promise 

fiihar, adopt 

fiaidelar, play the flute 

JUnUjciar, play the flute 

fleetdar,' play the flute 

fiocar,' spread about 

flarar, bloom 

foetar, whip 

fogaaar, cook "fogasaa" 

folhar, put forth leaves 

Mear. fork 

foresiar, exercise right of foresting 

{ormaljaT, make cheese 

formigar, swann 

fomilhar, provide with tw^ 

foTBoT,' force 

fTachuTOT, want, lack 

frangar, fringe 

frevolar (ir), weaken 

freiar, shell beans 

frontodar, border upon 

fugar, put to flight 

furetari hunt with ferret 

furonar, hunt with ferret 

fustar, provide with woodwork 

gabar, joke, boast 

g<Khar, spy on 

galonar, trim, face 

garerdaT, guarantee, pledge 

galjar, pl^ge 

feavnda, occupation 
/en, hay 
feria, festival 
/er, iron 

/eBfa, feast, festival 
fiartta, trust, faith 
filh, son 
Jin, end 
^uM, flute 
fiauijot, flute 
^(d, flute 
^c, flake 
flor, flower 
foel, whip 
fogata, kind of roll 
/oIA, leaf 
fore, fork 
forest, forest 
formatje, cheese 
formic, ant 
fomilha, twig 

fraekura, lack 

franga, fringe 

frevol, weak 

/reza, a kind of shelled bean 

fronlada, border 

/u^, flight 

/ure(, ferret 

/ua(, wood 
pa6, boast 
gacktt, sentinel 
ffoJon, stripe, bonder 
garen(t), guaranty 
galje, pledge 

' There is still another verb of this meaning, jTourar, but it is not 
formed on a Prov. noun by use of the suflix -AR. Poaaibly we have 
-lARE. not -ARE, in/taunr. 

' Flotica in Mistral has a meaning more closely connected with the 
noun. It means "to provide with tufts or flakes." 

< Or possibly from a forHare. 



ga^}a, measure; also a tax 
gavank, gull 
gataiha, association 
gaiardon, reward 
gema, gem 
gbnotk, kne« 
giron, turn, belt 
giuTe, viper 

glena (in phrase g. de gel), idcle 

glota, gloss 

gorbel, basket 

gola, drop 

graci, pardon * 

gran, grain 

grapa, claw 

graHia, complaint 

greta, a thick dirt ( ?) 

gnlik). sieve 

grop, knot 

guila, deceit 

gvirlanda, wreath 

ipoteca, mortgage 

jonc, reed 

jutlida, justice 

laidenja, insult 

iotron, robber 

fcirt, lard, bacon 

lata, lath 

loiin, Latin 

lauza, slab 

laazenja, flattery 

Unha, wood 

fetm, lion 

ierwui, tear 

huda, a tax 

lexer, leisure 

liam, bond 

1 GaionAar ia rather obscure, but appears to be connected with 
gatanh, gull (a bird of prey, hence the meaning). Then from ffaranAor 
was formed the abstract 3manharnt:n and appareoUy also a postverbal 
gananh. with the same abstract meaiUDg. "injury." Compare gi 
men and gaianh on gazanhaT. 


ffuoanAar,' injure, harm, destroy 

gatalhar, associate with 

gataixUmar, reward 

gemoT, stud with gems 

genolhaT, kneel 

gironar, turn about 

giurar, prick like viper (?) 

gUuar, freeze 

glenar, glean 

glozaT, gloss 

^orbelar, measure with basket 

golaT, drop 

graciar, pardon 

irranar, produce grain 

grapar, scratch, t«ar 

graCzar, murmur, complaint 

grezar, pave with stone 

grUar, sift through 

gropar, knot, bind 

ffuilar, decdve 

guiriandar, wreathe 

ipotecar, mortgage 

jonear, strew with reeda 

juiticiar, do justice 

UndenjaT, insult 

lairoTiaT, rob 

lardar, interlard 

lofar, cover with laths 

latinar, speak Latin 

Uiutar, cover with slabs 

lataenjar, flatter 

tenftar, collect wood 

leonnr, bring forth lions 

hrmar, weep 

leudar, raise the "leuda" tax 

lezerar, have leisure 

liamar, bind, attach 


Formation of Verbs 

linhar, set in line 
litlar, cover with stripes 
lograr, make a present 
Unrar, lure 
lotjar, lodge 

maeslrar, arrange skilfully 
maizonar, build a house 
maUneoniar (se), became sod 
moUor, make links of a shirt of m^ 
moUoIar, wrap up, swaddle 
mandilar, handle, manipulate 
manegar, provide with a handle 
manUlar, wrap up 
marear (also merear), border on; 
trample on, marcbjStamp; arrest 
maridhar, hammer 
martiriaT, torture 
motor, strike 
motonar, wall up 
maudar,' subdue, soften ( ?) 
maalhar, kill, butcher 

medaihonar, put in piles 
meUadar, divide in half 
meraodhoT, marvel 
mercndor, bargain 
mereandar, trade 
nwaianAor, quarrel 
mtglivoT, glean 
meljor, take medicine 
mezinar, take medicine 
nuAdvTor, collect tax for grinding 
nuAkerar, many 
mdinaT* sink, fall in 

linha, line 

H»ta, band, stripe 

logrf, present 

loire, snare, lure 

lolja, lodge 

matitre, master 

maiion, house 

rrudeneonio, sadness 

moUa, link of a shirt of mail 

iTuUhol, slip, cutting 

maneUe, maniple 

manegue, handle 

nMintel, mantle 

TRarca, boundary; stamp; arrest 

Tnarlelh, hammer 
morliri, torture 

moMti, mason 
vtogeda, farmhouse 

mozelh, slaughter 
tneatha, halfpenny; medal 
medoDum, pile of hay 
meittU, half 
mtTOKdha, marvel 
mereat, market 
meTcan{l), merchant 
meslanha, quarrel 
mwtivoi, harvest-time 
metje, physician 
meiina, medicine 
nuMuTa, grinding 
mother, woman, wife 
molin, mill 

' Apparently the meamng, although Levy gives no tranolation. The 
noun mtutda, itself, is found only in the little Levy. The verb used of 
animals aeaa, to have the force of "accustom to the farm." 

■ The conneo^n with the simple word may not be obvious, but the 
development of the verb seems to have been "to grind," "to whirl about," 
"to nuh along whirling." and. used as the verb is, of a mountain, in the 
only eisjQple, it has come to mean "to sink away." This translation, 
however (Ft. t'iboider), is given only in the little Levy. 


Word-Formation in Pbovencal 

vumjariae), become a nun 
morirtar, perish, be consumed 
moscoT, drive away flies 

neblar{ae), be destroyed by fc^ 
nerviar, provide with nerves 

nidar, enamel 

noicar, put in beams 

tutielar, knot 

<Aiar, oil < ?) 

dtratjar, insult, outrage 

opreaaf, oppress 

ordiihaT (se), supply oneself with 

organar, oi^anise 

orguUtar, make proud 
ortigar, prick with nettles 
oacar, make or become jagged 
oiUdar, lodge 
ostaljar, kfdge 

or gather wood 

paironar, see patronar 
paiselar, set up stakes 
polar, spade, dig 
paUiaT, cover with straw 
pamonar, torment 
■pa»tar, crush, make paste of 
pnsturor, pasture, feed 
patiar, come to an agreement 
ptUronoT, make according to tl 

pavetar, protect 
peatjar, pay toll 
peckar, pay a fine 
pecolhar, provide with legs 
pedasar, fill with trifles 
pelhar, flay 
penar, punish 

' See also the fonnatioDS on p 

moTteda, money, coin 
monja, nun 
morijia, mortality 
mo*ea, fly 

nebla, fog, mist 

ntef, enamel 

nout, knot 

oUratge, insult, outrage 
opreta, oppression 
ordiiha, tool 

'organ, organ. Only orgue < 

organum is found 
orguih, pride 
oriiga, nettle 
oaca, dent, breach 
oitiU, lodging, inn 
oetatge, lod^ng 
padoensa, common wood; right 

of cutting or gathering wood 

paisel, stake 
palu, spade 
palha, straw 
panon, passion 
patUi, paste 
paglura, pasture 
pott, agreement 
patron, standard, model 

pai>es, shield 
peatge, toll 
pecha, fine 
pecdh, leg (of table) 
pedas, trifle 
pdha, skin 
pena, punishment 
t participles. 



penehenar, comb 

pendie(n), comb 

penedensar, do penance; absolve 

penederua, penance 

penhora, pledge 

VentUmar, pay, give salary to 

pennon, salary, wage 

perezar, be laiy 

perexa, laziness 

pemar, aharpen 

penw, thin board (?) 

pertoruUjar, represent, act 


part of 

peaor, break to pieces 

peso, piece 

pesUlar, lock in, confine 

pesUl, pestle 

pilar, pound, crtlah 

pHa, mortar 

plaiaar, supply with trees 

plauia, hedge 

pUtnear, cover with boards 

jdanea, board 

plaUmar, provide with plates of plofon, plate of metd 

pieckar, bind with hoops plecka, hoop 

pUvinarise), pledge oneself plevina, guaranty 

pUmnar, rain frequently piovina, frequent rain 

poitonaT, give potion to, intoxi- poiion, potion 

pontar, put forth fruit ( 7) poma, apple 

pomelar,'^ throw apples into the pomel, email apple 

pontelar,' support pontel, support 

popar, give suck to T>opa, pap 

porcelar, bring forth piga parcel, p^ 

ptaar, draw (water) potz, well 

preiamaT, make prisoner preiion, prison 

premier, reward premi, reward 

prendor,' receive pledge from 

pregar, value, prize - pretz, value 

prezurar, press, compress prerura, pressure 

principar, surpass, excel princep, prince 

pTiifedtar, profit profech, profit 

proverinar, rebuke proverbi, proverb, parable 

puoiar, raise, excel pwn, faiU 

qverethariae), complain guerelha, complwnt 

' Fometar might b« formed on 
OD pont, etc., eivinK a compound si 


342 Word-Formation in Provencal 

raina, quarrel 
ram, braoch 
rancura, bitterness 
randa, end, edge 
randon, start, efibrt 

ar, be angry, dispute 
ir, be covered with leaves 
ar, reproach 

rondor, cover with lace 

randorutr, nm, hurry 

razinar, produce grapes 

renjK"', arrange 

rimor, rhyme 

TotTumaar, translate into 

tabalaT, beat, strike' 

aenar, give sense to 
senUtuar, judge, sentence 
termonar, discourse 
sitialit\far, elide 
tineopar, syncopate 

aofiamaT, subtilize 

solar, establish 

Bolaear, rejoice, divert 

goldadar, pay 

aolelhar, shine, be in sun 

■somor, sum up 

taboniar,' strike 

'Mcar, spot 

lofcntar, be eager for, desire 

laular, ait at table 

lempeatar, ruin, destroy 

umiar, testify 
'elar, suck 

rar, tonsure 
'rabar, attach,- bind 
'Telhar, spread like trellis 

?i>or, have truce 

osar, pack up; break to 

valadar, surround with drains 

trerbar, talk 

Tomant, Romance 

sinalinfa, elision 
sincopa, syncope 
tobranaa, domination 
iofigma, sophism 
sol, ground 
aolatt, diversion 
soldada, pay 
solelk, sun 

tabor, drum 

iaten((), desire 
laula, table 
tempest, storm 
Uttimoni, testimony 

Centura, tonsure 

trdha, vine 
(rewj, truce 
trota, bundle; piece 

valhat, drain, ditch 
verba, word 

t Beems to mean strike (with a 

• This word appears l< 

Q the diminutive laboria. 


FoRUATioN OF Vbrbs 343 

vtmitar, varnisb cemtfz, vamiah 

veiar, accustom veU, time, custom 

vigorar, give vigor, fortify "igor, vigor 

ptolorit play the violin oiola, violin 

The total list of formations on all other kinds of 
words is relatively very small indeed. There are some 
formations on adjectives, but -IR seemed to be a much 
more usual suffix for these words to take. There are 
also some formations on the past participles of simple 
verba, which became new infinitives by adding -AR, but 
most of these past participles had become used as nouns, 
which makes this kind of formation very much like the 
first and most usual one. 

The adjectival formations are as follows: 
amnor,' arrange amn, comfortable 

aitiear, approach oizt'u, near, ready 

atatiiar, charm azavl, charming 

eaninar, become angry cnntn, doggish, bad 

dezazavlar, dislike, be displeoaii^ detiuaiil, displeasing 
detleiaiar, disgrace deeleial, faithlcBs, inadequate 

egatar, equal egal, equal 

ert/runoT («e), stuff oneself enfrvn, greedy 

tieamutar, take oB prominent egcamiu, rough, scaly 

parts, scale* 
esioncor, stanch etlanc, stagnant 

JalsoT, falmfy, counterfdt faU, false 

' See also fomiBtioas on nouns, [>. 333, 

'The meanine is doubtful, but judging from the translations given 
in Mistral ot Mcamunt, this is the meaning which also belongs to the 
O. Prov. etcamutaT. Escamui appoara to come from a I^t. iquamotun, 
and not to be connected with camus (or samua). silly, which in turn 
appears to be differeut from the Fr. camut, Sat-noeed. 

tThe I^v. words of Lat. origin will not be given here, as the -ar 
was not a suffix but only a conjugation ending. 

More oi lees doubtful words areooroolkonaronooroolhoTi. com-wonn. 
and a somewhat obscure word gracairtmar, apparently formed on 
grmairim, which, from its formation, would seem to mean a sandy 
place, but leaves the derived verb obscure. 

For maleorar and manabrar, see hybrids, p. 582. 


Word-Formation in Provencal 

/efenar,' be angry 

frevolar, weaken 

/retW, weak 

genlUar, please 

penW, gentle 

largar, let loose 

to-c, free 


io«, tired 

manear, lack 

mane, crippled 

nufUhar, be idle 

nuoU, laiy 

nulhar, annul 

nutt, null 

orrexar,' soil 

orre (tem. omMo) 

planar, make smooth 

jAin, amooth, level 

primaT, excel, lead 

pfxttif tmt 

redonAar, round off 

redon, romid 

aafranar, grow yellow 

Mfran, saffron 

sonpIen((), bloody 

eefjurar, aMure 

■effuT-, sure 

sordejar, decline, degenerate 

sordei, sordid 

tre/anar, betray 

(re/'an, deceitful 

truandar, ramble, beg 

iruanil) rascally, poor 

vojar, empty 

WM, empty 

w)Iayar,t flit about 

volalje, flitting 

The new verbs built on past participles derived directly 
from those of Latin verba are as follows: ducar, cobertar, 
conduckar, amversar, farsar, musar (?), mntar, profechar, 
and sofertaT. They will be treated individually, 

Cbicar, close (the eyes), blink, is derived from the past 
participle clue, shut, closed, of a verb cluire. The past 
participle clue, which is used only in reference to the eyes, 
is given in Levy as well as in Raynouard. 

ifefen with the meaning of "angry" or "oniel" is not found. 
FeUnar ifl probably a corruption of f donor, formed on fdan. angry. In 
many words the o had disappeared, as in fetnet beaide fdontt. and the e 
may be due to an iocorrect Teatoration of the vowels, possibly Basiated 
by a confusion with feUn, grandchild. 

< The precise formation of this verb is not clear. There is confusion 
in several of the words derived from orrt < hmridiu. Orraar might 
come from korridart. 

t Other words apparently formed on Prov. adjectives, but of Lat. 
formation, are: etcurar. darken; Jermat, fix. attach; and pejorar, become 
worse. Piadar, make pious, is peculiarly formed, the adjective "pious" 
being in Prov. pio> and not pial, which would give the form we find. 
Piadar appears to be due to a confusion between pioi and indfoa, pitying. 


FoBUATioN OF Yerbs 345 

Cobertar, to cover, built on the past participle cobert of 
the verb cobrir, cover. 

Conduchar, lead; also entertain guests, built on con- 
duck, the past participle of the verb conduire, to lead. 
There are also nouns cimduck and conducha. 

Conversar, torn around ; built on convera, turned around, 
comingfromtheLatincontrerAus. A nouncom>ersoalso exists. 

Farsar, to stuff, cram, from a past participle fars, 
coining from the Latin farsus of the verb fardre, which 
gave farsir in Provencal. Thus there is in Provencal 
farsir, from the Latin verb direct, and farsar, formed on 
the derivative of its past participle.' 

Musar, to gape at or muse, has already been given 
under formations on nouns, where it probably belongs. 
Kdrting, however, gives it also under morsus,'^ the past 
participle of mordere. 

Onchar (tn'ntor), anoint, from oticA {oint), the past 
participle of the verb onher, anoint. 

Profechar, profit. The word is formed on profieg, 
from profedus, the past participle of proficere. There 
is no word, however, in Provencal from the infinitive 
proficere. Profieg is used, not as a past participle, but as 
a noun meaning "profit." 

So/ertar,t to suffer. From sofert, the past participle 
of the verb sofrir, suffer. 

There are also a very few words formed on other 
parts of speech : 

aamUtT, extol, glorify atxin((), before, forward 

vironar, go around firon, around 

■ This word is, therefore, bd eianlple or the extension of the auffii 
-AR Id place of -IR. Fartar might repreaent nathing but a simple sub- 
atdtution ot -AK for -IR. 
' No. 6,307. 



The formatioD of verbs in -IR differs in several respects 
from that of the verbs in -AR. There is not a very large 
total of tlie verba in -IR formed in Provencal on other 
words without any prefix, and of these a very large pro- 
portion is formed on adjectives instead of on nouns.' 
There is, however, a very much larger list of verbs formed 
by the addition of a prefix such as A-, EN-, or ES- at the 
same time that the termination is added;* and of these, too, 
the great majority of the simple words on which the verb 
is built consists of adjectives. Thus, there Is a great 
difference in the two conjugations as to the word at the 
base of the formation; but there is a much greater differ- 
ence in the number of formations by the addition of both 
prefix and infinitive termination. In the verbs in -AR, 
thb process barely exists, and is seen in a few verbs formed 
on nouns; for the verbs in -IR, it is. the commonest of 
all formations. 

There are also a few words having both the endings 
-AR and -IR, belonging largely to the class which adds a 
prefix together with the suffix. This appears to be an 
extension of the use of the termination -AR, by all odds 
the commonest verbal termination, into the field where 
-IR was originally alone. The cases of this kind will all 
be pointed out below, and treated individually. 

' Another diilereDce worthy ol notice lies ia the fact that moat of 
the formations in -IR are intTftnmtive in force, whereas those in -AR are 
resularb' transitive, as may be seen from the liat of meaninga that theae 
have, ipvea above. -IR, on the other haad. generally gives the meaning 
of "to become" to the adjective to which it ia added. When it became 
necessary to give transitive force to an adjective, this was usually done 
by adding -AR to it, but at the same time using one of the verbal pre- 
fixes. Thus we find alargar, alongar, etc. 

> For words of this kind see the parasyntheta. pp. 517-21, below. 


Formation of Verbs 347 

The termination -IR is used to form verbs on adjec- 
tives in the following cases : 
bUwir{t) (ao example ^ven), grow pale blau, blue 
brwitr, brown, dariien bnm, brvwD 

durtr, harden dur, hard 

eretnir, become heretical ereige, heretical 

Mcurir, KTow dark escur, dark 

fermir, fasten ferm, finn, fast 

folir, become foolish fol, foolish 

fobiiir,' be waaton. The word is 
of doubtful existence. Polai ia 
not found. 
/raTiyuir, tree fnme, tree 

freiwlir, weaken; become weak freeol, weak 

jovenir, rejuvenate joven, young 

laidiT, insult laid, ugly 

jnagrir, grow thin magre, thin 

oryolhotir, make proud orf/olhoa, proud 

riqiw; enrich, increase rie, rich 

TogxT,^ redden rog, red 

It will be seen from the above list that there are two 
meanings for formations of this kind: (1) active and (2) 
passive. In the case of the first, the meaning is, to make 
a thing acquire a certain quality, as in jovenir, make 
young; according to the second, the meaning is, to acquire 
that quality, as in folir, magrir, etc. The latter seems 
to be the more usual kind of formation. 

The few formations on nouns by means of -IR are as 
follows : 

awtr,* approach, bring near aizt, prcudmity 

iwtlir,' govern, steer baiU, bailiff 

■ The word occurs only once. Fosaibl]' it should be /oletir and the a 
be attributed to a oonfumon with foliulre. 

■The formation of both of theea words is more or leas doubtful. 
AlQiough aitxT does really appear to be a formation on aiie (see EisaU, 
232). bailir is probably not formed on baiU, but baiU on bailir. Bailir 
appears to be another lonaol baUar<baiulare. 

t Another poasiblB formation is 
beads egqaiti, but the adjective whs 
which is of Germ, origin. 


348 Word-Formation in Provencal 

bordir,' tourney, joiut bort, toumey, joust 

coloriT,^ become colored coior, color 

ixnifrairir, unite closely; [rat^niiie eonfraire, partner 

garentir, guarantee, pledge gaTen(i), guaranty 

golvr, swallow up g(Aa, throat 

maeatrir, teach maeitre, master 

nientir (fie), be destroyed nten(f), nothingness 

'pUrmxT, fall fhm, lead 

jKiverir,* pulveriae poiwra, powder 

Formations on other parts of speech are seen in: 

QBaniiT, advance m>an{t), forward 

enanXir,t advance, celebrate enan(t), forward 


Besides the simple suffixes -AR and -IR with their 
different meanings and methods in forming words, there 
are several other suffixes of a compound nature, formed 
generally by adding -ARE to some noun already ending 
in a suffix. Thus -ACULARE (>-ALHAR) was formed 
originally by adding -ARE to nouns ending in -AC{U)LUS; 
but as there were a good many of these, the verbal suffix 
was taken to be -ACULARE instead of merely -ARE, and 
was thenceforth added to simple nouns to form new verbs. 
-ALH AR < -ACULARE is a typical example of the whole 
class of compound suffixes. Each of these compound 
suffixes will be treated individually. Most of them, how- 
ever, give no very well-defined or classifiable meaning to 
the words to which they are joined other than that of 
turning them into verbs. 

> Probably the formation ia due to the aoalogy of the words in which 
•IR was added to adjectives of color, bb brunir. Colorar is also found. 

' Found also as poherar and potverejar, 

t As was the case with -AR. and for the same reason, words in -IR 
of Lat. oriBJi will not be given here. 


Formation of Vebbb 349 

-alhar, -elhar, -ilhar, -olbar 

The suffixes-ALHAR, -ELHAR, -ILHAR, and -OLHAR 
will be treated together, as were the nominal forms 
-ALH, -ELH, -ILH, and -OLH, from -ACLUM, ICLUM, 
and -UCLUM. Generally speaking, however, the verbs 
were not formed on the nouns ending in these suffixes. 
Had they been so formed, there would be no need of con- 
sidering -ALHAR, etc., as compound verbal suffixes: 
the formation would be brought about by adding -AR, 
not -ALHAR, to the noun. The actual formation seems, 
on the other hand, to be quite different. Badalhar, 
for example, was not formed on badalh, which exists,' 
but on badar, gape, open, by the addition of -ALHAR 
C<-ACULARE) to the stem. Yet this does not exclude 
all influence of the noun in -ALH on the verb, and indeed 
-ACULARE must have been originally formed by the 
combination of -AC(U)LUM-|--ARE ; but being very 
early regarded in its complete form as a new verbal 
suffix, it came to be substituted for the ordinary infinitive 
endings,' with a slight modification in meaning. -ALHAR, 
as in badalhar and crizdikar, seems to express the idea 
of frequent repetition. -ELHAR and -ILHAR, express- 
ing this idea also, have often diminutive force, which could 
have originated through the usual meanings of -ELH and 
-ILH, and then spread to verbs in -ALHAR. Sometimes, 
again, this group of suffixes adds little change to a verb, 

' This word is. on the contrary, a poatverbal formation on badalhar. 

' -ALHAR wBH added to vcrb-stemB, such successive derivations 
as hatre, balalh, then baialhar. finally leading to such direct formations 
an badailiar on badar. -ELHAR was apparenUy added also to vetb- 
Btems. There seems, however, to have been a good deal of confuaion 
between the suffixes of this group. They have to some eileot inler- 
changed their meaninga, and the processeB used in the formation of 
the verbs of this croup have likewise liecome somewhat confused. 


350 Word-Formation in Provencal 

showing, as in the case of nominal suffixes originally 
diminutive, how common the suffix had become in the 
vulgar language.* 

A circumstance that adds some confusion to the verbs 
of this group is that there was another Latin suffix which 
might give the same results in certain cases. This is 
-ILLARE (found in a few words in Latin),* which became 
very common in French, where it is found at present 
under the form -ELER, and forms verbs on nouns as well 
as on verb-stems. Now this suffix would become -ELAR 
or -ELHAR in Proven^, having therefore the same form 
as might be derived from -lC(U)LARE. Its traces 
are, however, few in Provencal, though some apparently 

-ALHAR is added to verb-stems in: 
badtdhar, y&wn badar, open, g&pe 

criiolhar, keep crying, bawl eridar, cry 

U>malhar, \ whirl around tomar, turn 

-ELHAR is added to verb-stems in: 

deslorbelhar,' trouble, torment deslorbar, disturb 

g(U>ethaT,* boast, brag gabar, boast 

penddhaT, hang lightly pendre, hang 

pUvelhar, f f assure, guarantee ( ?) jAevir, guaranty 

1 Cooper, 243, and reference there to Funok, ALL., IV, 68. 
■ Such words as canliUare, wiciUan, etc. 

• Cf. also ettcrbeOtat (repiesenUng a preGz-cbauEe T). 

• Some ooDfusioD exists between -ELHAK and -EJAR, studied 
fartJier on. Thus we find gabtihar and gabejar with the same meaning, 
and Levy gives eabaudaUiar "eabatidejar. Cf. also tordMar mentioned 
in note t, p. 361. 

t For auch words as batalhar, fight, e»calhar, scale oS, and gataUuxr, 
aasemble, see the suffix -AR, as these words are tormed on the noun 
balatha, etcalli. and gazaiha by means of this suffix and not by -ALHAR. 
Another word, coralhar, is obscure in meaning, and may not exist. 
See Le%-y, I, 363. 

ft A word obscure in form end meaning ia mercMar. 


Formation of Verbs 351 

It ia apparently added to nouns in: 
dtrUelhar, take by the teeth denl, t«oth 

toTe(,i)lhar, barricade, bolt lor, tower 

and to an adjective in: 
raugudhar, f choke raw, hoarae 

-ILHAR is added to verb-etems in: 
etlendilhar, stretch out ettendre, extend 

fendiihar, crack, chap fendre, split 

fotilhar, dig fo^er, for/otre, dig 

grortdiihar, mumiur grondxr, murmur 

trauqiiiihaT, pierce trmuxT, pierce 

It is apparently added to nouns in : 
crotUhar, weave into b croaa ervbs, cross 

grttUhar,' hail greia, hail 

maetlrUhar, teach maetire, master 

TanquUkar*]f, grieve, lament rone, rancid 

-OLHAR b found in: 

jan^EoUar.ttt slander, rail at jan{)lar, slander 

' Like this word is brenUar, to break (like wood), from brttSh, bisxil- 
wood, the suffix being -AR, therefore.iuatead of -ILHAR. OruiUar itself 
iapTobablyformedinthesameway.OD'ijrttiiA, which, though not found, 
probably eiistad. CI. the Ft. orttil. 

* For B discussion of thia word see ranqutjar, given under -E^AR. 
p. 361 betow, and the note on it. 

t Another word apparently formed in the game way is tordtlhar, 
dechne. but it is probably the some as amdejar, from lordei < tordidut, 

tt Other words ending in -ILHAR but not formed by means of this suffix 
are camlhar, etlrilhar, and pontUhar. CavUhar may have been formed by 
attaching -AR to cortUa <see -AR above), but it more probably came 
direct from the Lat. catiUan. Bitriihar, meaning "stretch oneBelf"(?) 
(or t'ilnlUr, curry oneself, as Meyer translates it in tiie vocabulary to 
Flammca), has evidently the same souree seen in a'ttriller, namely 
lirifpilare, formed on ilrigula. The e in the Mod. Frov. eattrilha, like- 
wise in the Flamenca passage, must have come through some analogy. 
Pontiihar, support, appears to have come from pundUlare. perhaps 
influenoed by pontd, small bridge. 

or, soil, cover with dirt. It 



In the "Traits de la formation de la langue fran^aise," 
or Introduction to the dictionary of Hatzfeld and Darnies- 
teter/ -ASSER ia given under the heading of "French 
suffix." This classification is correct in the sense that 
-ERIE, -ERON, etc., are French suffixes — they are not 
simple Latin suffixes — but such a suffix as -ERIE, corre- 
sponding forms of which are found in Spanish, Italian, and 
Provencal, cannot be treated as belonging peculiarly to 
any one Romance language. This is the case with many 
of these double suffixes, and is certainly true of -ASAR 
(or -ASSER). It is derived from a Latin '-ACEARE ia 
much the same way that -ALHAR was derived from 
-ACULARE— by adding -ARE to nouns in -ACEU(M) 
originally — and then was regarded in its complete form 
as a new verbal suflix to be added to verb-stems, the 
intermediate step having been forgotten. Thus we 
have crebasar, for example. Cr^iaaa exists in Provencal, 
and crivasse in French, coming from *crepacea;* but as 
crefcoaar is found in Proven^l, crivmser in French, and 
crepacciar^ in Italian, it seems natural to suppose that 
-ACEARE was formed in Latin, rather than that exactly 
the same process should be followed independently in each 
of these languages. Now *crepaceare must have existed 

' Vol. t, p. 71 of Introduction. 

1 That is, the at«m of erepart +-ACEA. Ab a matter of fact, erepacea 
is not found, an'd crdmea may have been formed by adding the Prov. 
Buffii -ASA (<-ACi:A) to the Prov. verb crdiar. See crebm under the 
suffix -AS, p. 141 above. 

< Meyer-LQbke (II. 659) giveB this word as the only example in 
which -ACEUS gives ee in It., all the other words giviog u. These 
words giving « may, however, represent -ATIARE < -— ATIO -H-ARE). 
or. it -ACEUS ever gave -AZZO, as Meyer-Lflbke states, they would be 
regularly descended from -ACEARE. and crepacdare would still be 
irregular. -ACCIO and not -AZZO appears, nevertheless, to be the 
usual phonetic development of -ACEUS in IL 


Formation of Verbs 353 

beside crepare, or crebasar beside crebar, and -ASAR had 
therefore the appearance of being in itself a verbal suffix 
added to stems of verbs in -or. Hence the new Pro- 
ven^ formations on verb-etems: 
espinataT,' crown or cover with espiruir, cover with thorns, prick 

imwar,' twitch, draw tirar, draw 

A word formed oa a noun is; 
reumatar,^ catch cold reuma, cold 

This kind of formation has already been seen in 
-ALHAR. It may have been aided by the frequent 
existence of simple nouns to which the compound suffix 
could be added, beside the verb-stems. Thus, for example, 
eapina and eapiitar. 

From the few examples, -ASAR seems to have 
contributed little individual meaning, and has just about 
the force of -AR. Had -AR been added separately, 
however, to nouns in -AS, some more distinct trace of 
the augmentative meaning of -ACEUM would probably 
be observable, 


Several verbs are found in Provengal with the ending 
-EI8ER, also a few in -AISER and -OISER, but it is 
doubtful whether any of these forms was used as a suffix 

' Posaibly formed on the noun «tpina, thorn. EtpCnata, place grown 
with thorns, abo exiBts, but ita meaning makes it improbable sa a base- 
word for eipiniuar. 

t Another word which at first siiiht Beema to belong here is pedatar, 
patch, mend. It is Formed, however, on pedat, trifle, by meaoB ol the 
simple verbal ending -AR. Still another word in -ASAR is eatraaar, for 
which see the parosyntheta, p. 513. 



to form new words. These forms are not at all common in 
Provencal, and the few words found appear to have lost 
all of the original force of the suffix, or at least that which 
it had in many Latin verbs — of beginning an action. 
They have exactly the same meaning as the corresponding 
verbs in •ir, this weakening of the force of the suffix 
appearing to go back to Late Latin times. Thus in 
French the -iss- of the verbs in -ir has come to be nothing 
but an inflectional ending. 

Iraiaer appears to be the only form in -AISER in 
Proven^, from irascere for iraaci. 

In -EISER we find langueiser from languescere; par- 
eiser and despareiser from *pareacere and 'disparescere, 
which are not found, but to whose existence the forms 
in all the Romance languages point; espereiaer, awake, 
which Stichel derives from *experffiscere for experffiaci; 
and perhaps a verb eacameiser, existing beside escamir. 

In -OISER is found coTunser from cognoscere. 

Thus there seem to be no Proven9al formations with 
these suffixes. 


The Proven5al suffix -IGAR or -EGAR is derived from 
a Latin -ICARE, probably formed originally by adding 
-ARE to adjectives ending in -ICUS or to nouns whose 
stems ended in -IC, as nutrix {nvtricis), for example. But 
like -ALHAR, -ASAR, and the other compound suffixes, 
-ICARE was soon regarded as a whole — a new simple 
verbal suffix to be added to verb-stems, nutricare possibly 
being supposed to be formed on nutrire. Yet -ICARE 
in such words as nutricare did not ordinarily give either 
-EGAR or -IGAR, as the intertonic vowel regularly 
disappeared in alt popular words very earlj'. This is 


Formation of Verbs 355 

seen in most of the words derived from -ICARE, in which 
a number of forms are found, depending on the time of 
the disappearance of the vowel, or, in other words, on 
whether it remained long enough to allow the conBonant 
to voice.' Thus we find so many different results from 
this suffix that the idea of a common origin, or even of the 
existence of a suffix at all in these words, must have soon 
become totally effaced. Yet long before this, the idea 
of the existence of a suffix must have given way to a great 
extent, for had the suffix been clearly felt as such, the inter- 
tonic vowel would have remained as it remains in the 
suffixes -ADOR, -AMEN, -ADURA; -EMEN, -EDOR, 
-EDURA, etc. The words ending in -ICARE were 
exceedingly common in popular Latin, as the Romance 
languages show, and the suffix had no clearly defined 
force, nutrire and nvtricare meaning the same thing. 
Though the -ICARE may have had its starting-point in 
adjectives in -ICUS, or in noun-etems in -IC, when it 
came to be regarded as a suffix -ICARE to be added to 
verb-stems, it seems frequently to have been substituted 
for -IRE or -ARE, simply on account of the popular 
tendency toward greater length in words. There having 
been no real difference in meaning from -ARE, finally 
only a vague idea of the suffix -ICARE may have been 
retained, which would account for the disappearance of 
the intertonic vowel. As words of this kind have no 
one Provencal form, and as they were beyond doubt Latin 
formations, they need not be given here. 

There are, however, several words in Provencal with 
the endings -EGAR and -IGAR, thus showing the reten- 
tion of the intertonic vowel, and they may be explained in 
two ways. They may have been learned words of Latin 
' ThUB. fot example ciiri;ar<i:iiiTtcara, cavt^(iaT<.eabaUieare. etc. 


356 WoRD-FoRMATioN IN Froven^al 

formation, or they may have been Provencal imitations of 
auch words. Nviricare existed in Latin beside nvirire; 
and it seems to have given rise to the analc^cal fonna- 
tion *puhicare beside jnitrire. This form b made more 
probable by the existence of a form poiregoa,^ rotten, in 
Provencal, apparently derived from 'puirMwaws. Puiri- 
care may have given rise to *petricare, no derivative of 
which is found in Old Provencal, but whose existence is 
made probable by the Modem Provencal word peirega,' 
to stone, and the Spanish word pedregoso from *petricosus. 
Peiregar seems not to be found in Provencal, but this 
word is found joined to the prefix A- in apeiregar,* stone. 

Two words of somewhat similar formation, appar- 
ently, are: 
Ufamegar, famiah 
amolegar, soften 

Afamegar* is probably formed on famejar, hunger, with 
the substitution of -EGAR for -EJAR, which is not un- 
usual. This is also found in enmalegar for enmalejar,^ 
and possibly in espezegat* from expeditare with a substi- 
tution of -ICARE for -ITARE. Amokgar* seems to 
represent a *moUicare formed on mollis or on moUire 
+the prefix A-, due to the analogj- of amoUr, a real para- 
syntketon therefore. Then are found other words of this 
kind having suffix and prefix: 
demtnlegar, forget men(l), mind 

espcsegar, break to pieces peia, piece 

■ See p. 329. n. t above. ' See Mistral's dictionary. 

• Probably peiretror and poiregar both eiisted, though only poiregar 
ia found. -EGAR has been conmBtently used in these words, though 
-IGAR is found also. Nulricare formed on nu(rti has a long i and we 
should eipect -IGAR from thia alarting-point. -EGAR, uevertheieBS, 
BeemB rather commoner. 

■ See paraeyntheta. p. 523. > Paraayntheta. p. 622. 

• This should be distinguished from apetegar, given in the list. 


FoEMATioN OF Vebbs . 357 

There appear to be only three formations without 
prefixes, one of these words {lenegar) being formed on 
an adjective : 

leittyar (?), give judgment leia, law 

lenenar, slip, slide Jen, smooth 

ro«ei;ar,'t thrash rosa, nag 

The Proven^l suffix -EJAR is derived from the Greek 
verbal ending -i^eiv through the popular Latin form 
-IDIARE. These verbs in -EJAR differ little in meaning 
from the corresponding ones in -AR, and it appears prob- 
able that during the Christian period, when this sufGx 
was introduced into Latin, it was often substituted for 
the regular -ARE in verbs already formed, and took its 
place in many new formations in which -ARE might be 
expected. The force of the suffix seems to be exactly 
the same as that of -AR, and, like -AR, it is added both 
to nouns aJid to adjectives, but very much more frequently 
to nouns. 

' This word may be compared with the Fr. rojger, which has the 
same meaniDg. According to the Darmeeteter-Hatif^ld dictionary. 
rotter ig derived from Totte. oag. The force of the verbal Bufiix here is 
appareutly that of "treat like." the verb meaning "to treat like a horse," 
i.e., to beat. This meaning is occasionally found among the verbs in 
the Fr. -ER and the Prov. -AR. KBrUng (No. 8.215) and Diei, 
(p. 672) derive rosier from mpliart, but thin would not account for the 
Prov. word. The Fr. and Prov. words seem to be based on the same 
word (raite, rota), but the Prov. word has -ICARE instead ol -ARE. 
Appel, in the vocabulary to his Chreilomaiku, translates rosegaT by 
"tehiafen," "liehen," but the meaninR of the word appears to be "to 
beat." Confusion is due to the fact that there is another word roteoar 
(or rozegar), meaning to gnaw, nibble, found in It, as roaicare. and 
probably derived from a Lat. *ro»ieart (K6rting. No. 8,149). 

t Another word o( Lat. origin ending in -EGAR is eitigar, become 
dry, from exticairt. An obscure word, both in form and in meaning, is 


58 Word-Formation in Provencal 

The worda formed on aouns follow : 

amorejar (se), fall in love with 

amcr, love 

arqii^ar, bend oneeelf Uke a 

arc, bow 


baUejor, govern 

baiU, buUa, steward 

handcar, wave 

handa, band, atrip 

barrejar, rob, plunder 

iwr™, toU 

bduga, flash 

hordejoT, joust 

borl, joust 

breUmejar, stammer 

Breton, native of Brittany 

camftro, privy 

eoTpmUjar,^ do carpentry 

caTTog^jar, float, cause to float 

carraa,' pile of wood 

eaut^ar, trample on, destroy* 

caiua, stocking 

datejar, ring a bell 

c^, ringing, peal 

dergti^ar, harat^e 

derc, clerk 

coUukjar, strike 

cotdda, blow 

cott^ar, strike 

coiie, blow 

cordejar,* pull at cord, strike with 

arrda, cord 


eoTtejar, visit court, pay court 

cor(, court 

domn^ar, pay court 

domna, lady 

etponda, edge 

SadejaT. act foolishly 

/o(, fool 

JinnejaT, to hunger 

/om, hunger 

/one, mud 

Satonejar, jokeC?), apeak (ooUshly 

/"ton. (n 

faul^ar, tell stories 

/aub, tale, fable 

favorejoT, favor 

favor, favor 

febr^ar, have a fever; rave 

/eftre, fever 

' No simple word is found in Prov.. but correspoadini fonna are 
seen elsewhere, as in the O. Fr. charpvnt, wagon (not the modem char- 
pentt, which is probably a poBtverbal formation). Charpent, etc., 
come from the Lat. eorpm/uni, coach, from which was derived car- 
pemariiu (Prov. carperUier). Carpenit) probably existed \a Prov. and 
gave rise to carptnteiaT. 

' Mistral has earrai, raft. Probably the O. Prov. fonu bad such 
meaning also, hence the meaning found in the verb. 

'Apparently by stepping on a thing. 

■ The precise meaning is somewhat obscure. For a discueaion of the 
word, see LeiT, I, 367. 



fAnejoT,^ commit a felony 
femejar,* go to Btool 
feal^ar, celebrate 
fiam^ar, sparkle 
fond^ar, lue a sling 
formiffu^jar, ewana, itch 
fomjar, for^e, pillage 
fraehur^ar, suffer want 
frewjar, chain, link, be linked 
froni^T, border on, adjran 
fumejar, smoke 
fyxttjar, cut wood 
gabfQaT, chatter, rail at, ridicule 
gard^oT, look at 
gaTdi^ar, protect fields 
garenUjaT, guarantee 
gerb^jar, cut grass 
girbaudonejar, d^auch 
glan^ar, collect acorns 
^oritjar, boast 
gUfton^ar, be a glutton 
golejar, long for, desire 
gol^ar, distil 
gratiejar, blow trumpet 
guerrtjar, make war 
jogUxr^aT, be a minstrel 
lagretofjaT, weep 
maegtrejar, repress 
manQor, touch with the hand, 

mart^'ar, navigate, stul 
matnuefar, slaughter 
mercejar, implore mercy 
mo»qu^aT, clear of flies 
mvl^ar, ride a. mule 
naul^or, charter a boat 
nertQar, gather myrtles 

felnia, felony 
fern, manure 
feita, feast 
jtama, flame 
fonda, sling 
formiga, ant 
foire, forage 
fraehura, want 

/ron((), front 

/u«(, wood 
gab, boast 
garda, guard 
gardia, watchman 
garenil), guaranty 
gerha, grass 
girhmidon, rascal 
gUm, acorn 
gloria, glory, fame 
gloUm, glutton 
(Toiq, gluttony" 
gota, drop 
graiie, trumpet 
guerra, war 
jogloT, minstrel 
lagrema, tear 
TnaestTe, master 

matraa, projectile 

meree, mercy 

mora, fly 

muf, mule 

nauie, chartering of a boat 

■nerla, myrtle 

t perfectly clear in form. Fttniar is ^so found. 

« the diBcussion ol 

• Primitive meBDing is "throat." 



nosefor, marry 
obrejarif), be at work 
odejar, wink (for olh^r t) 
ombrejar, give shade 

onsejar, draw in the toes 

talejar, make war 

pairejaT, act as or resemble i 

panejar, wave 
paralgejaT, be of value 
pareenejar,' participate, share 
■perionejar, associate with 
petejar, break to bits 
peUjar, craclde 
piaid^ar, dispute, contest 
ptaeejar, wander about publii 

poliieTfjar, pulverize 
putoTiejar, fornicate 
aagramenUjar, blaspheme 
tabnrjar, sing psalms 
tenhorejar, command 
aeUjar, be thirsty 
gobresenhor^ar. rule over 
ta{m)borejar, play the drum 
taakjar, play castanets 
lornejar, tourney 
valadejar, make a ditch 

nosa*, wedding 
obra, work 
oik, eye 
onAra, shade 

orua, filler- (or toe- ?) 
oata, army 
poire, fathO' 

pan, 6up 

paralge, birth, rank 
pareela, share 
pereotia, person 
pe»a, bit 

plaid, lawsuit 
plata, public square 

polvera, powder 
piitana, prostitute 
tcgrametiil), oath 
talme, psalm 
Benhor, lord 

scbretenhor, oveilord 
la(m)boT, dnun 
laiUa{-tla), Castanet 
torn, turn 
rato, ditch 

The verbs in -EJAR which are built on adjectives a 
as follows: 

amarejar, be bitter; also make amar, bitter 

bitter ( ?) 

balbejar, stammer balb, stammering 

bhnqiiejar, be or become white blanc, white 

Waifjar, become blue Wau, blue 

eabalejar, be excellent ca6ai, excellent 

eiarfjar, shine dor, clear 

dopejar, limp dop, lame 

' The n instead of I d 

I in other words also, i 


Formation or Verbb 

cofrejor,' covet, long tor 
contrariejar, be opposed to 
egalejar, equalise 
endign^ar, scorn 
fadejar, act foolishly 
/aUejar, be false, deceive 
/albejar, grow pale 
ferfjar ( 7), become frightened 
flaguejar, become weak 
foUjar, do fiKtIish things 
foralejar, treat unlawfully 
laidejar, insult, offead (?) 
Utrffu^ar, make largesses 
malaudejar, be or become ill 
mal^ar, be angry, rage 
menvdejar, cut into small 

neiciejar, be ally 

nedejor,' clean, purify 

noblejar, shine, be resplendent 

OTTejar,' soil 

peifuejar, be dlly, wander 

plaientejar, be agreeable 

ranqu^ar, Ump* 

Togejar, redden 

vantiar, trifle, joke 

' There is also another word, cobezejar, which appears to be formed 
OQ the femiDine of cobe — cobcza (-Kcapida) . rather than aa cobea. which 
is found in the nominative form, or on the noun cobeteia, on which is 
formed the adjective cobeitzot. Cobtzaa would not give the proper 
form or meaning to the verb, however. 

' For another fonn of this verb (dene;nr) , see paraayntheta, p. 522, o. t. 

' There is also a form ordejaT, which appears to come from a Lat. 
*horT{i)didiare. The adjective korridus had a different development 
from this verb derived from it. In the adjective the t pereiBted, and the 
word became orre, with a feminine orreai. 

' There is also a verb rawratjaT, meaning "to mutter, to be angry" 
(also "to ruminate"?), whose base seems different. The word given in 
the list above is baaed on an adjective of Germ, origin, hut there is 
another adjective having the same form (janc), and yet apparently of 
the same origin aa the Fr. ranee, rancid ( < rancidiu) . This second 
raTiquejar, like ranquUhaT. listed under -ALHAR, p. 351, seems to be 
derived from this adjective ra«c. 

cobe, greedy, covetous 

contrari, oppoeite 

egol, equal 

endigne, unworthy 

fai, foolish, absurd 

/oil, false 

f(Ji, pale 

/«r, wild, untamed 

jlac, weak 

fiA, foolish 

foTol, outer, external 

laid, ugly 

laTC, liberal 

malaut, ill 

tnol, angry 

mentd, small 

Txetci, rally, igborant 
net, clean 
noble, noble 
one, dirty 
■pec, silly 

pUuenit), agreeable 
Time, crippled 



verd^ar, become green vat, green 

vermdhejar, become (ank vermdh, pink 

viianejar, become coarse oifan, ooarae 

On another part of speech — an adverb — is: 

sovendfjoT, mention often mven{t), often 

There are also a few words that are not formed on any 

one simple word, but which seem rather to be due to a 

substitution of the suffix -EJAR for some other endings. 

Such words are: 

damnejar, damage, ingtead of 

fremejar, tremble, inetead oifremir 

manUnejar, keep, maintain, in- 
stead of Tnanteaer 

oprim^ar, press down, instead ot 

trepejar', stamp, inst«ad of (repar 

vaguejar, t wander, instead of vagar 

'There is also a verb tttTtptjar, to tear out, in appearance the pre- 
Si 'ES-+tTejirjaT, but probably of difTerent origiD. It seems to come 
(roiD exttitpaTe. If so, the endinE -EJAR may be due to the iDfluence 
of tre-ptjar, stamp. 

FemoTtiaT. clear away manure, seeras to have been formed on 
*fetnor. For this word see femoras under the suffix -AS, p. 141, n. t, 
Mercvnejar. have pity on, is formed on the stem seen iu m«rcenisr< 

Paiotejar, sldnnUh along the palisades protecting a town, is un- 
doubtedly formed on *p<dot, a diminutive of pof, stake. Cf. the Fr. 

Fapitjar, wander back and forth, is doubtful in form. One com- 
mentator suggests a correction to palejar. Mistral, however, has a form 
ptpieja. meaning "act foolishly." which meaning would fit the passage 
in which papiejar is found. The origin of the verb seems obscure. 

Pttejar, dishonor a woman, seems to be of the same origin as (he 
Sp. pelear, fight. KSrting (No. 6789) and Dies, p. 475, suggest a Gr. 


Formation of Verbs 363 

-Ezia, (-zm) 
The Provencal suffix -EZIR, -ZIR, is somewhat 
difficult to treat, as its source itself is not perfectly clear. 
The earliest theory, that of Diez,' who derived it from 
-ESCERE, is clearly impossible on account of the devel- 
opment of the sc into z, which it would be necessary to 
assmne only for words of this class, and which elsewhere 
becomes a, as in the regular development of -ESCERE 
into -EISER.' A more plausible theory is the one advoc- 
ated by Meyer-Liibke in his Grammar,* which accounts 
for -EZIR by a few verbs ending in -IDIRE, of which 
^tepidire is a type. Tepidire, sa^ Meyer-LUbke, would 
give in Provencal tebezir: which, existing beside (ehe from 
tepidus, gave rise to a belief in a suffix -EZIR added to 
adjectives to form new verbs. Yet there are several 
difficulties with this hypothesis. In the first place, it 
accounts for the French words in -CIR by a different 
process from the one employed for Provencal. But a more 
serious objection is that, as Thomas shows, d became z 
only in certain dialects, whereas the ending -EZIR is com- 
mon all over the Provencal territory.* Thomas also shows 
that in a text filled with verbs ending in -EZIR (Girart 
< Grammaire da» lanffaen romanet, II, 374. 

■ The inceptive meaning found in a number o( these nords gax-e 
a very good basis far thia supposition. 

■ II, a«e. • Ettait, 284. 

TsAa.iii. as source, and Calx sugEeeta p<l<.pilut. hair. PeKpeilit, 
skin, has also been suggested as the base-word {Sliul. Rom., VIII, 3T7). 
Pel, besides ekin, means acrotum, and the envelope containing the 
embryo. This, therefore, is surely the source of the 8p. and Prov. 
words. Peltjarie has the meaning of "to fight." which the Sp. word 

PMejar, proclaini. eeeras to come from puWicore, which would 
regularly give pobleoar. PobHoar is, indeed, found. It may have become 
pobtei'ar through being supposed to have been formed on pobU, people, 

PoTutjar, quarrel over trifles, is obscure. 



de Roasilhon) we find a verb encobeir from ineupidire 
showing the other development of d — its disappearance. 
It is extremely unlikely, then, that -EZIR can come about 
as Meyer-LUbke suggests, and its source has to be sought 
elsewhere. The most plausible theory, perhaps, is found 
in the introduction to the Didionnaire Gin^cJ} of Darmes- 
teter and Hatzfetd, where a suffix -ICIRE is assumed to 
have existed in Vulgar Latin beside -ICARE. Such a 
sufiix would account for the forms found in both Proven^l 
and French. The few words found in French end in 
-CIR,* thus showing the disappearance of the intertonic 
vowel, the first i of -ICIRE, just as this vowel disappears 
in the words having the ending -ICARE. Most of the 
Provencal words, on the other hand, have the ending 
-EZIR, in which the intertonic vowel is retained, 
though the ending -ZIR is found in a few words. The 
history of the suffix seems to have been as follows: In 
Latin, words in -IC-IRE were formed beside those in 
-IC-ARE, probably on the analogy of the simple verbal 
endings -ARE and -IRE. In these words, the intertonic 
vowel naturally disappeared, leaving the suffix -ZIR, 
as seen in durzir and clarzir. Yet the majority of words 
in Proveni;al show the ending -EZIR rather than -ZIR, 
a fact which is difficult to explain. In many of the words 
ending in -EZIR, the presence of the e in the suffix may 
be regarded as only apparent, as the adjectives to which 
the suffix was added ended in e. Such words are aigrezir, 
alegrezir, feblenr, negrezir, noblezir, paubrezir, and tebezir, 
formed on aigre, alegre, feble, etc. Yet in many cases, we 
find verbs in -EZIR beside adjectives ending in a conson- 
ant, as in faibezir beside faib, and flaquezir beside fiac — 

' Vol. I. p. 70 of the IntroductioD. 
' Aa in durcir, ictaircir, and Ttoircir. 


FoHMATioN OF Veebs 365 

thus a real suffix -EZIR. Several possible explaoationa 
of these words may be offered, though none seems thor- 
oughly satisfactory. The large number of words in which 
the e of the suffix was due to phonetic reasons, as in the 
words given above, may have influenced the form of the 
suffix when added to words ending in consonants, particu- 
larly if they ended in consonant-groups, as velk and blanc, 
or in s, as in dots and espes.^ Or the e may have been 
due in some eases to the formation of learned words in 
Provencal times by means of the Latin suffix -ICIRE.* 
The whole matter, however, even the form of the suffix 
from which the Provencal -{E)ZIR is derived, is purely 

The following verbs end in -EZIR, and their base is 
in each case an adjective: 
aigreiir, become sour aigre, sour 

alegreitT, make happy alegre, happy 

Uanquetir, whiten blanc, white 

hntnenr, become brown bnin, brown 

doUezir, soften, sweeten dol», sweet 

egpeaezir, thicken etpea, thick 

falbear, become pale /alb, pale 

fehUoT, grow weak, weaken /e&Ie, weak 

feretir, frighten, drive wild /er, wild 

fiaquetir, become weak fiac, weak 

fredeiir, become cold frel, cold 

gtareHr, become gray iffarre is in Mistral) 

taidetir, make ugly laid, ugly 

maleiir, become bad, deteriorate nud, bad 
mclhegir, moisten molh, moist 

negreziT, become black negre, black 

noWerir, ennoble ruMe, noble 

' la ttpettir or eipuztr the suffix would apparently have been -IR 
not -ZIR. In Fr., only tpaittir is now found. This is probably, how- 
ever, only a fonnation ■□ -IR on the adjective ipait. 

' As, for eiample. *fer<ciTe, Some such form as niericire ( > I^v. 
ntgrerir) may have served aa a model for formations on Genn. adjectivea 
of color, such as blanc and brun. 


366 ■ Word-Formation in Provencal 

paUziT, grow pale palt, pale 

paabreiir, make poor paubre, poor 

iwUcnr, t grow old velh, old 

One word appears to be formed on a noun: 
iiergonhetir,' make ashamed vergonka, shame 

Vergonhar, showing one of the usual types of formations, 
also exists. The addition of this suffix to a noun appears 

Several words add -ZIR' instead of -EZIR. Such are : 

amariir, make bitter amar, bitter 

eoTtiT, make dear car, dear 

dartir, make clear dar, clear 

durtir, become hard dur, hard 

vUtir, make vile vii, vile 

The Latin suffix -lARE was very commonly used in 
forming verbs on adjectives, as is made clear by the forms 
in the Romance languages, as well as by the words found 

■ Although thiB word may really exist, it appears to be nothing but 
a corruption of vtrgimhoiiT, formed od Tergonlun. sahamed, just as we 
Bad orgoUioar, make proud, formed on orgolho*, proud. 

■ These words are quit« possibly Lat. formations, in which case the i 
of -ICIRE — the iDtertonic vowel — would aaturaUy disappear. It is to 
be noted that amancare, liancare, and nlioire are actually found, and 
the forms in -ICIRE are analogical formations. In the case of durtir, 
dttntctre is the Lat. word found, and the Sp. words correspondiDg to 
-CIR and -EZIR having -ECER {<-ESCERE) may have helped to 
bring about the confusion with -ESCERE, from which the Pr. and Prov. 
words cannot phonetically be derived. 

t Other words ending in an -EZIR that cannot possibly come from 
-ICIRE are eslobeciT. lUchtiir, {remeiir. marcttir, ItUiiT. and lorttiir. 
Bslobeiir, be Bstoniahed, and tebetir, become warm, may possibly oome 
from *attimdire and lepidirc, formed on atiL-pidxu and Upiditt (see p. 363). 
Yet this process could not have spread much farther. FUchmr, bend, 
and /reiof ti>. tremble, may show substitutions of -EZIR for -IR. Uarce- 
rir, wither, fade, appears to represent mareeteert, though not a perfecdy 
pbonetio development of it. In loriear, twist, -EZIR seems to be 
added ki the past participle lort (probably used as an adjective) of the 


Formation of Verbs 367 

in Latin itself. But it is never found as a suffix in Romance 
for the reason that its unaccented i or ^ element combined 
regularly according to phonetic laws with the preceding 
consonant, ^ving a (Afferent result in each case according 
to the consonant. The force of the suffix was about the 
same as that of -AR, and there was nothing to make it 
strongly enoi^h felt as a suffix to prevent the accomplish- 
ment of phbnetic laws. It appears not to have been used 
in learned words, and could not be used as a suffix to 
form new words. Several words in Provencal end in -lAR 
but these may all be explained in other ways. The list 
is as follows: 

amtrariar, oppoee; erinar, weed out; espemar, break to pieces; 
tatreriar, compreea, confine; magriar, became thin; maiUnaT, 
torture; meiliar, divide in half; negociar, trade; pHncipiar, begin; 
and raiiqmar, cry hoarsely. 

Conlrariar and martiriar appear to be formed by means o( the 
suffix -AR, not -lAR, on the learned words contTari, opposite, and 
martin, torture. 

Erbiar and rauquiar probably should be erbejar and Taaqaejar. 
The latter is found in Old ProvenBal, and the former in the modem 

Espesiar shows a change from -EGAR to -lAR, or else a 
dropping of the g. Espetegar has been treated under -EGAR. 

Estresiar is probably only a learned development of slricliare, 
tight«n, the popular form being estreuar. The form of the word is 
doubtful, however. Levy points out that Rochegudc has eslreeiar, 
which would be the regular learned development of tlnetiare. 

Magriar and pHndpiar are undoubtedly the Latin 'maenare 
and *prineipiare (the latter gjving the Spanish prindpiar) . Negociar 
is from negoliiai. 

Mtiliar is a peculiar formation. We should expect meiladiar 
from meUat. It appears to represent a iMdietare. ■ 


There is a good-sized list of words in -IFICAR in 
Provencal, but they cause little difficulty, as such a suffix 
is obviously learned, and the words which end in it are 



either developments of Latin words in -IFICARE, 
practically unchanged, or else are Provencal imitations of 
these words,' similar to some of the verbs m -IFIER in 
French. The sufBx was formed both on adjectives in 
-IFICUS, as Tnagnificus, by adding -ARE, and also by 
adding -FICARE (for facere) to nouns and adjectives and 
even to verb-stems.* In Provencal, -IFICAR is always 
found in all of these uses. The list follows: 

albeficar, whiten (oHi); damnificar, injure (damnar); deificar* 
deify; dignificar,* ii^^iy {digne); e«ampii/icar,'ejcemplify (CT»ampie); 
loHficar, broaden {lot); lenificar, eohen (ten); rtudeficar, bewitch 
{mat); vumdificar,* purify (Tnonde); nurrdeficar,' prick; ramificar,^ 
ramify (ram); ratificar,* ratify {ralaT);rubifiear,* redden (rvbcm); 
lattclificar,' sanctify (sancf); eentificar,' make senative {sent); 
vilificar,'' vilify (uii). 


The sufiixes -INAR and -ONAR, which are of about 
equal frequency in Provencal, will be treated t<^ther 
here. -INARE, from which the Provencal -INAR is 
derived, is found as a suffix in Latin, but -ONAR seems 
to be of more recent and probably analt^cal formation. 
-INARE is, for example, given by Cooper in his list of 
Latin verbal sufQxes, but it is mentioned as a suffix par- 
ticularly common in Vulgar Latin, though found occasion- 
ally in Cicero. It is foimd in Classical Latin in such words 

' That ia, the suffix in never found in any really popular Prov. 

* To Douna in auoh words aa atdificare; to adjectives in Euch words as 
lanclificare, and to verb-stems in horrificarf, etc. It has the meanings 
of " to make," "to bring to a certain state," and "to canse." 

■ Found in Class. Lat, 

* Of Low Lat. origin. 

■ Found in scholastic Lat, 

* Clearly a Lat. forroalion. 

' Given by Gociicr. 90, together with many of the other words 
listed al>ovc. 


Formation of Verbs 369 

as deatinare and obaiinare, the latter of which, throi^h its 
existence beside obstare, would ^ve the appearance of a 
suffix -INARE added to the stem of the verb. This suffix 
was then added to verb-stems. 

The Romance languages in general show how common 
-INARE must have been, but in most of them the fall 
of the mtertonic vowel prevents it from appearing clearly 
as a suffix. It nevertheless was frequent enough in Vulgar 
Latin to be substituted for other suffixes, as -ITARE, for 
example. The Spanish word voznar clearly shows this 
substitution, and Spanish graznar and Italian gracidare 
show -INARE and -ITARE existing side by side in their 
modem developments.' The Spanish maznar (for macer- 
aref) also shows a substitution of -INAR for another 
ending. The words which show -INAR in Provencal, how- 
ever, cannot, of course, be formed in this way, in which 
case the vowel would have disappeared as in the other 
words. Some of them are really only verbs formed by 
adding the verbal ending -AR to nouns ending in -IN; 
others seem to have continued the Latin process of sub- 
stituting -INAR for other verbal suffixes; and one word 
apparently shows the suffix added to a noun within 
Romance times. Thus the suffix continued to be felt, 
although in the popular words formed in Latin, it 
gradually lost the appearance of a suffix. 

The Provencal words in -INAR (which will be treated 
individually below) are as follows; 

boiinar, englulinar, girbavdinar, grafinar, and languinar. 

Bozinar and grafinar appear to be formed by adding 
-AR, and not -INAR, to the nouns bozina and grafi. 
Bozinar is found with the meaning of "to make a noise," 

1 Lai., see Meyer-LUbke. II, 663. sec. 597; 


370 Word-Formation in Photbn5al 

"rumble," etc., similar to the meaning which Mistral 
gives for bon»ina, and could be formed on bozina,^ trumpet, 
although it has another meaning of "to act foolishly," 
according to Levy,* which may represent a word of 
entirely different origin. Grafinar, to scratch, may have 
been formed on graji, stylus. 

Languinar, to languish, yearn after, shows -INAR 
added to a verb-^tem, that of languir, and substituted for 
-IR with little or no change of meaning. Englulinar is 
only the Latin glviinare with a prefix. Words like this, 
reaching the Romance languages practically unchained, 
together with such common words as the derivatives of 
o6s(inarc, give rise to the use of -INAR as a suffix added 
to verb-stems.* 

One other Provencal word with this suffix is gir- 
haudinar,* to outrage, insult. This appears to be formed 
on girbavt, vulgar fellow. Girbaudar is not found. 

-ONARE does not appear to have been used as a 
suffix in Latin, but the forms derived from it, -ONAR 
and -ONNER, are found used as suffixes in Proven5al and 
French. In Provencal, -ONAR occurs in several words, 
but in most of them, as was sometimes the case with 
-INAR, it is not a compound verbal suffix that is repre- 
sented, but only the simple suffix -AR attached to a noun 
in -ON. As these words were fairly common, and because 
of the influence of the suffix -INAR, there may have come 
about the use of -ONAR as a real suffix,' 

■ From biKcina. 

' I, 160. 

' Cf. the Fr. words ending in -INER, m trottiTier, pUtiner, etc.. jd 
wbicb -INER is BUbstituted Sot -ER. 

< Or possibly enauirbaadinar. See Levy, III, 2. 

> If such use eiiflts. Tiutonar seemB to be the ODly probable example 
of it. In Fr., however, .ONNER ia much commoner than -INER. 



The words in which -ONAR is found, the verbal suffix 
being, however, only -AR, are: 
ogiKkorutT, provide witneeees agachim, witnesH 

amcionar, pile up 

The word may be aparaaynthe- 
ton formed on molon, a mass, or 
it may poasibly be a real example 
of the uae of the verbal suffix 
-ONAR, being fonned on the verb 
amolar, pile up. 
merteionar,^ mention tnencion, mention 

The only word that is a certain example of a suffix 
-ONAR is: 
butonor,' grope latlar, touch 

The Provencal words ending in -IZAR give httle 
difficulty. They are few in number and are regularly 
formed by adding the suffix to nouns. The source of the 
sufRx is the same as for -EJAR, the Greek -i^uv, 
which became -IZARE in Latin. This form was first 
added to words of Greek origin, and then to Latin words. 
On the one hand, both the form of the suffix and the kind 
of word formed remained very nearly the same as at the 
beginning, as in -IZAR; on the other, in popular words, 
the suffix must have changed into -IDIARE, whence the 
Provencal -EJAR, abeady treated. -IZAR from -IZARE 
was not, then, a popular suffix, as indeed our Provencal 
words show. These are either words formed in Latin, or 
Provencal imitations of such learned words. Some 
of them, as escandalizar, scandalize, evangelizar, evai^^elize, 
organizar, organize, and sincopizar, faint, have Greek 

' Cf . the Ft. lAtonnet, beside iAter. 

t Also eteairmiBT, from acairim, but the word is doubtful. 



words at their base, and appear to have been formed in 
Latin. Polvenzar also may be derived from a word 
already formed in Latin.' 

A few words seem to be formed in Provencal in 
imitation of the Latin learned formation : 
cotizoT,* pay a tax coia, price, share 

foDorixar,' favor fanor, favor 

inoffntarizaT, make inrtntory invenloTi, inventory 

marlirizaT,' maasacre mariiH, torture 

mereandiiar,^ cairy on businese mercanil), merchant 

The later history of the suffix may be seen in French — 
in which new verbs In -IZAR, often taking the place of 
those in -ER, are formed on modem French words, both 
nouns and adjectives — and in English where it exists as 


1 A correBpoQdins fomi exists also in Fr., !□ which language the 
simple word developed inlo poudre. The Fr. verb might, of course, be 
a late imitatioD of a Lat. word, but Bimilar forms exist in too many 
languages for this to be probable. 

■ Found also in Fr. From Lat« lAt. words T 

t Other words not formed in Prov. are paefaar, make an agreement 
(found also in Fr.), and preconuor, make known, from a Late Lat. 


The last of the great divisions containing words formed 
by the addition of suffixes consists of adverbs. Here, 
however, though one other ending will be mentioned, 
there is only one suffix requiring detailed treatment, hav- 
ing become in all Romance practically the only one used 
in the formation of adverbs. This is, of course, the Latin 
suffix -MENTE and the Provencal -MEN, which, on 
account of being added to the feminine form of the 
adjective'— generally ending in a — may be given as 


The numerous adverbs in -AMEN and -MEN formed 
on adjectives present little interest, being always regularly 
formed.' Adverbs formed by means of this suffix on 
words other than adjectives and past participles are very 
rare and hard to explain. For example, there are a few 
words formed on nouns: 

■ The raaeOD being that -MENTE represented the Lat. femioiue 

■ There are several words with these endings beside which no coire- 
Bponding adjectives are found, examples of such nrords being; onorifl- 
cablamen. to the full value: plazibiamen. in a pleasjns manner; plori~ 
solmen, lamentably: preienciolmen, as being present: and prodvmialmen, 
honorably. Probably the adjectives onorificable. piorivot, el«.. existed, 
but it seems unnecessary to assume tbeir existence. Since -ABLE and 
-AL are two of the commonest endinga for adjectives, and -MEN is 
very often attached lo words with these endings to form adverbs, 
-ABLEMEN and -ALMEN were found very frequently, and may have 
come to be added as single suffixes to the proper base-words when need 
tor such formations arose. Thus prtaeadalmen may have been formed 
directly on pretencia, etc. They would in this case be double suffixes. 



374 Word-Formation in Provencal 

domenjamen, in particular, pri- domenge, property 

ligemen,^ like a vassal life, liege 

mercandamen, in a businesslike fn«rcan(() merchant 
There are also words apparently formed on verb-stems: 

de{s)liiiramen; Levy translates by 
"free, unliinclered," thus mak- 
ing the word an adjective; it 
also has the meaning "immedi- 
ately"; from (I«(«)iiuror, deliver 

enreviTonamen, roundabout enrevironaT, suiround 

-MEN is added to other words in : 
eisetrwDMn,* together eUem», together 

Here the suffix has uo force. 


This brings us to the words formed on past participles. 
These are numerous enough to have given rise in the regu- 
lar past participles to apparent suffixes -ADAMEN, 
-IDAMEN, and -UDAMEN, which are, however, only 
the feminine form of past participles in -AT, -IT, and 
-UT-|-the adverbial suffix. Past participles being often 
used precisely as adjectives, it was natural to form adverbs 

■ £i|W, on which this adverb is formed, is used in the eiampleB 
both aa adjective sad nouQ, and would be a proper starting-point for 
the formation of the other words, if they need any nich starting-point. 
When a need for this particular land of formation arose, however, the 
ordinary adverbial ending was used, its original use apparently .being 
forgotten. Another adverb possibly formed on a doud is faAamea, 
found in the phrase: com fackamtm, just as. Possibly formed on fach, 
deed 7 

' Etmamen, likewise, may also be mentioned here. The word 
is obscure, but appears to be a deformation of euam«n<ip«i menJe, 
perhaps owing to a confusion with etaenwnm. Still another word of 
this kind is maimofnen, especially. This appears to represent a borrow- 
ing of the O, Fr. mlmemvnt, probably influenced in its forms by the 
Prov. mai. 




on them by means of the suffix -MEN. Fonuations on 

irregular past participles are seen in: 

derolamen, bitterly derot, past participle of derompre, 

tear, tear away 
endtaamen, induave endtu, included (endure) 

eteotlamtn, secretly teedet, concealed {uooadTt) 

obertamen, clearly oberi, clear, open 

The above forms clearly show adverbs formed on past 
participles. In the words to follow, the formation is the 
same, but the participial endings+the adverbial suffix 
give the longer apparent forms. The first conjugation is 
represented, therefore, by the ending -ADAMEN. It 
is found in : 

(Areujadamen, in shortened form 
abrivadamen, quickly 
aatrdadamen, in harmony 
aeaaelhadamen, attentively 
ajottadamen, conjoiatly 
amadamen, with love 
amat^adamtn, secretly 
amenradamen, sparingly 

amezuradamen, reasonably 
apareUtadamen, in order 
apenaadamen, intentionally 
afAaladamen, secretly 
apoderadamtn, mightily 
apropriadamen, suitably 
aiendiladamen, together 


I, properly 
annhadainen, pimctually 
atomadamen, summarily 
aleiradamen, successively 
aeiadamen, qmckly 
atordenadamen, with order 
eontinuadamen, continuously 
curadamen, carefully 
ddilieradamen, dehberat«ly 
deputadamen, in fixed order 

abrevjar, shorten 

abrinax, hasten 

aeordar, be in accord 

acotethar, counsel 

ajotbxr, bring together, reunite 

amttgar, hide 
(Only the forms 
amenudar, diminish) 

aptmlhaT, paix, fit 
apentar, think 
aplatar, flatten, hide 
apoderar, force, strain 
apTopriar, adapt, suit 
asemblar, assemble 
atetiar, make intelligible 
atermar, prepare, arrange 
atiT^r, assign 
atomar, sum up 
dtetror, put in rows 
oftar, lead, journey 
aiordenar, order, put in ord 
eontinwiT, continue 
curor, take pains 
detiberar, deliberate 
deputar, determine 



Word-Formation in Provencal 

detpltifadamen, expUcitly detpUgar, displ&y 

de»i)erg<mkadamen, ahameleesly dewergonhar, become dissolute 

determenadaTnen,with det«nlunBtion determenar, determine 
detriadamen, preferably detriar, distjnguish, choose 

dezeaperadamen, hopelessly dezetperar, deepttir 

n disorderly way dearrdenaT, behave improperly 

enuezor, rejoice 

e^oreoT, strive 

eapreaar, express 

tiproar, try, teat 

Menhar, teach 

jiaor, fix 

foTtdar, found 

tror,' become angry 
memhrar, remember 
metdar, mix, confuse 

mtturoT, measure 
vtoderar, moderate 
nomenativaT, name 

eBfoTsadamen, with effort 
espregadamen, distinctly 
eipToadamen, in tried manner 
etenhodamen, knowingly 
fitodamen, fixedly 
fondadamen, thoroughly 
forsadamen, under compulsion 
iradamen, angrily 
Tnembradamen, wittingly 
mesdadamen, pell-mell 
mezuradamen, with moderation 
moderadamen, rooderatdy 
nomffiinatiiKidamen, mentioning 

the name 
Ttomeradamen, for cash 
nomnadamen, by name 
onratUanen, honorably 
ordenadamen, regularly 
poKidamen, past 
paTixadamen, sedately 
pobladamen, pubUcly 
ponchadamen, punctuated 
regladamen, regularly 
sebradamen, separately 
tempradamen, moderately 
vzadamen, f usually 

enumerate, count 

pauzar, place 
pobtar, populate 
ponchar, punctuate 
regiar, regular 
sebror, separate 
temprar, moderate 


tainly existed, and of a 


t A few words in which -ADAMEN ia added to words other than 
verbs of the first conjugation are worthy of note. In atTaaaja4anim, 
certainly, the suffix is added to the adverb nlnuua, surely, and brings no 
change in meaning. In fattadamen, hastily, and pariiciUadamen. by 
particles, tbe sufBx is added to the nouns /osfa and partical, and in uno- 
damen. by ones or singly, to an adjective. This is certainly because 
•ADAMEN was taken to be a dmple adverbial suffix. Another inter- 
esting word is deiegadamtn, powerfully, apparently formed on egar, to 
equal. Thia would be a rstber peculiar psrasynthetic formation. 


Formation of Adverbs 377 

-IDAMEN is the ending found in adverbs built on 
verbs of the second conjugation: 

afortidamea, courageously afortir, Btrengthen 

complidamen, completdy eompliT, complete 

departidamen, separatdy departir, divide, separate 

devezidamen, (Uviubly devefir, divide 

esclareidamen, clearly etdartir, clear up 
ealaTtguidamen,' in full, to com- 

/oUidomen, faultily falhir, fiul 

graiadamen, willingly ■ fframr, thank 

marridamen, sadly Tnarrir, sadden 

partidamen, separately partir, divide 

polulamen,! politely potir, polish 

-UDAMEN is found in a few adverbs formed on the 
past participles of verbs in -re and -er: 

atendvdamen, attentively aleitdre, wait for 

COTTompudomen, corruptly corrompre, corrupt 

entendudamen, intently enUndre, hear, understand 

etamdudamen, secretly esamdre, hide 

veneadamen, as a conquered man fencer, conquer 

Besides the common suffixes -AMEN and -ADAMEN, 
there is one more adverbial ending that should be men- 
tioned with the other suffixes. This is the ending -AS, 
used apparently as an (Ordinary Provencal suffix in such 
it found, may have existed, Cf. atanqui in 

t A word in -IDAMEN not formed on a verb is eecaulridamen, 
■lyly. built on eieaufrtl. ely — a normal formation on an adjeclive, -IT 
being found as a suffix in cases other than the past participle of 
tbe verb of \he SBoond conjugatioD. Formatiooa in -ADAMBN, 
-IDAMEN, and -UDAMEN in which the verb at the base is not to be 
distinguished are very rare, however, ^though there is no reason why 
tbey should not have existed. The large number of forms in which 
-AT, -IT, and -UT represented the past participle endings may have 
caused the long adverbial suffixes to be associated almost eicluaivel]' 
with verbs. Yet such forms as /agladamen (see p. 378, n. t)i are quite 
clearly formations on nouns, faslat not being found. 



words as longas from lone, certaa beside ceri, (a)tnvidas 
beside eTivit, and primas beside prim. This suffix is 
somewhat difficult to explain, but its origin seemiS to be as 
follows: Many adverbs in their regular developments 
from their Latin source happened to end in 8, as men8< 
minus, alhors<ali<yrsum, inta<iTUus, and the compara- 
tive forms mais and plus. By analogy, therefore, s was 
added to other words not having it etymologically, as 
in enaemps < in aimul, and it is even found added to the 
ending -AMEN described above. Some of the words to 
which s was thus added must have ended in a, as *poisa, 
the regular development of poatea, and aora, probably 
from ad koram. Now, as shortened forms of these words 
probably existed also, as 'pots' (from *postiumf), the 
-AS may have been taken for the ending. It is found, 
at any rate, with the force of an adverbial suffix in the 
words mentioned above. The complete list of the adverbs 
ending in -AS follows: 

oonu, now " (utra (from ad horam) 

cerbu,' certainly eert, certain 

davertu,' in truth ver, true 

{a)enmdas, in spite of oneself; 
from 'erwif (<tw««)+AS 

•The form of davenu ib very puiiling. There seems to be no 
phonetic reason for the a in the first syllable, which seems to show the 
influence of the It. danero. Vera* might have been fonned on *er by 
the analogy of poinu, «U., and it was probably strengthened by the 
prefiziDg of the preposition dt (cf. the Sp. dt verot, d nUu, etc.). Later on, 
dawnu WHS further atreogthened by the addition^ use of a and par, 
as seen in the phrases a dareraa and per daverai. See Levy, II. 16. 

* Envil, a noun, of different origin, is found in Prov. 


Formation op Adverbs 

/ohm, outside. The ending is here 
etymological; from the Latin 

longai, & long time la. 

UrrM, at that time; from 'hrti 
(<ad tUdm Aoraffi)+S 

nemuM, exceedingly. The s is ety- 
mological, but the develop- 
ment has been influenced by the 
analogy of the other words in 

onaa, ever; from 'mwo (<im- 

poitai, then; from *poi»a 

primal, at first p, 

pTopdat, near; from 'proptUaim ( t) 





In dealing with the different kinds of words formed by 
the addition of suffixes, reference has often been made to 
a Ifet of double suffixes. Words of this kind were ^ven 
without explanation under the suffix in which they ended, 
since the use of double suffixes in Proven9al is important 
enough and of great enough interest to deserve a. chapter 
by itself. 

In the first place, it will be necessary to explain what 
is meant by double suffixes. This term is used in a 
broad sense to include both words that have had (1) two 
suffixes added to them separately at different times, and 
(2) an ending originally composed of two distinct suffixes 
but probably added later as one indivisible sufiix to the 
simple word. Thus the broad term, double suffixes, may 
be divided into two classes, the first of which will be called 
"real double suffixes," and the second, "compound suf- 
fixes." Although it isnot always easy to tell in just which 
way the suffixes were added, there are several principles 
to aid us. One of these is the numbers in which certain 
combinations of sufiixes are found. Take, for example, 
the combinations whose first part is -AIR-, and we find 
numerous examples of each of the following: -AIRADA, 
-AIRON. It appears, then, from this list, that -AIR- 
from -ARIUS is a form that was particularly used in 
connection with other suffixes. As early as the Latin 
inscriptions, we find examples of -ARIOLUS, and even 


Double Suffdcbs 381 

-ARIARIUS,» in which -ARIUS is reduplicated. Besides 
-ABIUS, the suflJxes to which others were most commonly 
joined are -EL, -AT, and -ADA, -ANDA, -ANSA, and -AS. 
Mere number is not, however, the only teat as to the 
existence of compound suffixes. Often the meaning makes 
it clear that it is to the simple word that the combination 
is added, and often the word with the sii^le suffix has 
disappeared altogether. 


The "real double suffixes" will be studied first. Two 
of the words from the list below may be given as examples. 
Jomadasa, long day's journey, and frairesquier, sharer 
of a brother's portion, iUustrate the type well. In both 
of these words, each individual suffix has a well-defined 
force of its own. The words containing real double 
suffixes, therefore, are those in which the force of each of 
the two suffixes is perceptible, and in which this is made 
clear by the simultaneous existence of the simple word, 
the word with the single suffix, and the word with both.' 

The Ibts of words containii^ real double suffixes^ will 

'Olcott, 139-iO. 

> In some of the examples in which an adjective was formed on a 
aimple word which was also an adjective, the Grat luffix gave little change 
of meaning. This is usual, however, in this kind of a formation, aod 
no compound auffii enn be seen in these isolated examples. On the other 
band, sometimes alt three forms are found in examples given under 
compound suffixes: but when two suffiies are frequently combined, the 
first being one that changed the simple word but little, the inference is. 
that though originally added separately, they became finally a single 
suffix. Whether the word with the simple suffix exists or not. in most 
cases of these compound suffixes the formation is seen to be made on the 

'All, words ending in -ELET and all words ending in -A1R + 
another suffix have been excluded from this list and treated under com- 
pound Buflixes. In the case of -ELET, it is doubtful whether it was ever 
added as a single suffix, but the words ending in it are so numerous that 



be given t<^tber, first the nouns, then the adjectives, 
and then the verbs, after which the compound suffixes 
will be studied in detail. 

/, Nouns. — First come the nouns; Here the last of 
the two suffixes may be attached either (1) to a noun or 
(2) to an adjective. 

1. The word to which the last suffix is aiiacked being 
a noun. — When the base to which the second of two 
suffixes forming a noun is attached, is a noun, this noun 
may itself be derived either from (a) a noun or (6) a verb. 

(a) First come the cases in which it is a noun : 

slbaran, «crkD Ol PAper albar, nprnxxl (alba, white pop- 

aililati, log ailila. apllnter aila. pike 

barroliir, cooper barral. enak barra. twr 

ADcinaf'a, mouthful bocina. mouth bata, mouth 

bordtlairia. llberdoagfl bordit, brothel borda, ruittc house 

br>f<iM,>maUcndle brml, crkdle brt; cndle 

cairdnci, small heim stoae eairm, hewn stoae coin, comer 

canabuitr. weaver eanabai. hempen cloth canebi, hemp 

eapeiitT. hatter cap«l, hat cap. hat 

corretada, cartioMl catrtla. small cart cor, cart 

(or convenience of treatment they have all been KTOUped together under 
compound suffixes and eiplaioed there. As tor the suffixes beginniog 
with •AIR', representinE -AJUUS, it may be sud that Olcott (130-40) 
gives eiamples of -ARIARIUS and -ARIOLUS in the inscriptions, thus 
ahowing the early tendency of -ARIUS to attach another suffix to itself. 
Such forms as these, which rcKularly developed into -AIRIER and 
-AIROL, finally becoming attached as one suffix (see compound suffixes), 
formed a model for a new Prov. compound suffix. Generally the Prov. 
word shows in its meaning that the two suffixes were added as one to the 
simple word, and the form proves that the last suffix csonot have been 
added to a Prov. word ending in -lER. Such words as cairain'er and 
earraireta, though their meaning seems to indicate a separate addition 
of the two suffixes, thus real double suffixes, are, therefore, though 
difficult to explain, listed, under the proper heading, among the words 
begiuning with -AIR-, ot compound suffiiss. In other cases, as in that 
of bandiera, which persists beside banda and bandairw (although ban- 
dairier appears to have been formed directly on bajida), the persistence 
of the word in -lER is perhaps due to the influence of such words aa 
adiiier and denier. In these cases, the simple word, i.e., without -ARIUS, 
had disappeared very early, so that we have in culhairada and dnuiinuJo, 
etc., really only one suffix added. 


DonBLB Sdffixes 3! 

cailani 3. defense ot csMIm eailaa, lord of ■ cutle eailet. caatle 

canlil. small comitry-hotue eaml. caontry-houae caia, house 

c4lararia, office ot cellkrer cilar. cellkT cda, cull 

edhinul, testicle colhan, tMtlde colli, dcrocum 

eridoria. upro&r eridcr. cry eril. cry 

cubilot. unftll rat cubtt. soikll T*t cuts. T«t 

liiBidAti. anui] bMtlemeat daniilk, bftitiement; <l<n(i). Moth 

driehuria. rigbt. title draeAura, rlgbt drteh, rlsht 

m/nnJsnd. Bmall cblld entanim. child eVan(t). child 

Mcobilttir, snreepliigB eicobiiha, nreeplng ncofra. broom 

ittudilitr,' stkad tor bowls ( j , t _■ , l. u 

. , . . „ L _, t ueiidd. bowl «ctiJ. shield 

nctidtton,' ntBll bowl j — .. . .~ 

uponderalBc execution Ot B wUl upsndin-, execntor «t»nda. bedald 

/ocAiflticr. sorcerer fachilha, charms l / i • 

/oeAunVr, sorcerer /oeliuro, chmrm f/oe*. I»ce 

JtrralKitr. Ironmonger /»itoI*o, old Iron 

{trratalha. old Iron ) 

ferToiaria, Ironware Wirraf, Iron pkil 

ferratiiiT. Iroamonger ) 

filadatha. spun yam filada. layer ;ll, tbread 

molm*. «loptlon t 

^lAoisi, small godsoa ( ■""— ' ^ -" 

fofaitia, small roll I , _,,, 

/,^a«I.Mn.UroU [/*««■.. roll j 

foaatfitr, collector ot hearth logatgt, hearth tax \fi'- Ire 

fornaljatia. store tax SoToatja, stove tax i 

/orniUiMr. vendor ot kbld- /afnilAa, lilnilllng-wood Warn, oven 

ling-wood ' 

trairttqaitT, sharer of /rairMca. brother's por- /ra ire, brother 

brother's portion tlon 

avnelon,^ coat gotiila. lown psna, gowQ 

ir?rnada>a. long day's Journey Jornada, day's Joiinwy j'orn, day 

iHpDnirr, petticoat maker jupin, petticoat iup, sldrt 

jurofairia, college ot "Jurats" /urat, "Jurat" >ur. oath 

Isbrofina, rabbit skin Ubrat. young rabbit Ubrt. rabbit 

mfrearfairW, Utile marcfaant niArcarfiw, merchaal ] 

mtrcadana, utensil of V mfreac. market 

ortaUt, little garden orlnl. garden 

oifolcf, small house i 

D«ali<r. hotel keeper Voifal, house 

oiialot. small house ) 

pomiril, loU paiiira, passa 

piatnicr, toU-coUecUir 

pialgit, place where toll Is f 

Vtaljaria, toll 

' Treated also under compound sulBxes, p. 392. n. t- 



ptlaUr. d«»ler in skliu 

p^^u.. pellicle 


I peh-M. hir coat 


IKtiner. dealer In fur ca»tB 


p..™. OaWag 

pttonalia. inftultry 
ptienitr. pedeMrlui 


p>. toot 

Itigaitla. small aie 

pipaio. aie 

pi=. pidcaie 

piRAolot. candy made of plne- 

poioffto. poultry 

\ pol. chlclcen 

palaiitr, poultry dealer 

pctaii. cblciien 

) pofiiel. small bridge 

pond), bridge 

pojwlon. nipple 

p»p.l. nipple 

pspo. t»ea8t 

parcelel. SUCldDg pl8 (p. 392, D. t 

) porr,I, pig 

pure, pig 

p<trlalil, small door 

poTln. door 

pufonitr. libertine 

pvtana. proeUtute 

pula. prostitute 

tclarcl. story, tier 

•Dior, Htorr( 7), ground 

.oi. soil. gri»und 

(6) In other cases, in which the word with a single 
suffix, when found, is a noun, the base-word is a verb. 
Examples of such words are : 


ir. hide 


r, to ainbl« 

aioeadel, little lawyer 

«5<ai. lawyer 


cr.«B,a. guaranty 


ofui'tadanaa. Ue, evaalon 


sr, BfaOD 

tilaiiamea, delay, sojourn 

>«<«((,.. dwelling: 

«t«.d, «ay 

ftrmantaria. fiianiaria. se- 

Mm-Uh. buckle 
/«-ii«into,;lM»io. se- 




Ijurodon, a measure of 

tiurada, pound 


, doUver 

pilliardaria, plunder pithart. trooper pilhar, {dunder 

2. TAe uiorij to which the last suffix is attached being an 
adjective. — There are also some words ending in double 
sufBxes in which the base to which the second of the two 
suffixes 13 attached is an adjective. This adjective may 
itself be derived from (a) a noun, (6) another adjective, 
or (c) a verb. 

(a) In the following cases it is derived from a noun: 

lursnio. tolly 
fumoidal. smoldness 
ianaiotia. cbatler 

n. light, frivolous a 
•. amolty / 

01, chattering ;'< 


DoCBLB Suffixes 385 

protBtaiM, ProvengKllanRumw proininl. Provenc*! Protnia, Provence 

tueilalUal, condition ot being euttlnl. subject to the gueila, k tsi 
subject to the " quests " "questa" 

(b) Next come the cases in which the word at the base 
is an adjective. The adjective derived from this simple 
word shows little or no change of meaning, as is usually 
the case in such formations. The second suffix regularly 
changes these adjectives into abstract noims. 

ctrlantlal, certainty ctrlan. certain eerl. certain 

cominaiiM, community cominal. common comun. oomman 

toaliiTital, equttUty cealitr. equal wal, eQU&l 

/ranealaa,> freeliold pn>p- franeal. tree franc, free 

Btntit, gentle, noble ?'n(i|, gentle 

. '' I false moil, tabe 

ricauifia. pride ricaul, proud I , . , 

r.c,„a.t taughtlness rico.. liughty W"' '^"'^ 

(c) In the following ca^es, the base-word appears to 
be a verb. On this was formed an adjective, and upon 
this adjective an abstract noun by means of the abstract 
suffixes -TAT and -lA. Thus we find: 

agro'labMal. suitability, pro- auraclaUs, agreeable, affradar, please, 

prlety suitable suit 

afrt/iehabUlat.tmproyamtat ajrm/echabli. profitable aprofechar. proflt 
aiinanOia, pleasing conduct aiinand), p1eaalng< avtnir, happen 

man inlia. wealth man.™ (I), rich" monw, live 

mtmbrodia. prudence mimbral. prudent membrar. remem- 

muiardia. tolly nuurl, loitering nuur. loiter 

■ See also -ALEZA under compound suffixes, p. 396. 

■ Rather peculiar devetopmenta of meaning. Avenir, however, 
probably had some such meaning as "to please," which idea is found in 
O. Fr. The development in meaniog seen in manen and manenlia ja also 
common to other languages. 

t There are also some other words of this kind apparently having 
double suffixes. Such are fetonia. treachery, and glotonia and teconia, 
i^uttony. Both /el and feion, giot and gloton exist beside the derived 
nouns, but the two forma represent simply remains of the nominative 
and accuaative caacs. In the other example, however, only Uc and not 
lecon is found, but leconia may have been an imitation of glotonia. which 
has the same meaning. On the other hand, it ia oven possible that lecon 
may have existed. Cf. the It. lectoae. 



//. Adjectives. — ^The formation of adjectives by the 
addition of double suffixes does not differ ^atly from 
that of nouns. Here again, the distinction between the 
real double suffixes and the compound ones may be made. 
In the case of the real double suffixes, the final suffix, 
when added to a noun, simply charges the noun with a 
swgle suffix into an adjective, as, for example, aobranaa, 
pride, into sobranmer, proud, the adjectival suffix having 
its usual force. It makes little difference, however, 
whether the noun to which the adjectival suffix is added 
was originally derived from a noun or a verb: the case, 
in the addition of the last suffix is simply that of changmg 
a noim into an adjective. When the word to which this 
suffix is added is an adjective, the suffix, if -ET, as it 
practically always is, has diminutive force; if any other 
suffix, it is without force. -ET, here, as when used sii^fly, 
is thus the only adjectival suffix that kept its original force 
when added to adjectives. 

1, The word to which the last suffix is added being a 
noun. — 

artilho; clever, sklllul arlilho. fortlfiotdon art. art 

Initade: beautiful biUat. beauty b<I. beautUul 

carlairpRol.i ot A quadroon cainairon, quadrooD carl, quart«r 

„,„WraI,. of. knight ;«.«'.»'. knight «..«!, ho™, 

ceratjal rcourageou« caraiB'. courage eor, heart 

/trtmt. cruel ftreta. tear, hoiror /ar, eavise 

>Iiaiiioi,> awured fiianta. trust fitar, truat 

/rncfturoi, miserable, needy fiachuTa, lack /tacKa, loas 

■ Really a triple euffii — compound fluffii+auffix. 

' -EIRAL for -AIRAL, the (onner apparently being due to a back- 
ward influence of canister, on which the word was formed, probably late. 
There ie a form primeiran as well as jmmairan given below (p. 402). and 
due to primier, 

> Here the noun on which the adjective ia finally formed is baaed on a 


DocBLE Suffixes 

lr^ur«. mid (rfl.) 

A^uro. cold (noun) 

Aw. cold 

(0Btnibir. wlnkr) 

linhaiM. iimerltMl trom 


Unka. line 

-^;;; {mo«^.U^, 

morUI, mortal 

mart, demtb 

M.^. mnle 


p(ianjo>.> BBd 

IMMnra, cue 

vnar. welsb. 

p>'c. plckue 

P«Tri. pie 

pore, pig 

«fcr«r, conquep. 

2. The word to which the last suffix is added being an 
adjective. — Next come the suffixes added to adjectives. 
Here we probably have to deal again with real double 
BuflSxes rather than with compound ones, but it is hard 
to say with any certainty that such endings as -ELET, 
-ELOS, and -ONET were never added as one suffix. 
It is possible, much more so, indeed, than was the case 
with the nouns of the same kind, that they are compound 
suffixes, but there are few examples of any one of them, 
and the word with the single suffix persists; whereas if 
-ELET, in particular, had been understood as a single 
suffix, the word in -EL would have been likely to dis- 
appear.* The adjectives formed on adjectives will 
therefore be given here under the real double suffixes: 

anffraul, (somewlut) lovlns a nsro*. loving amer, loTO 

corffHt, courU7 cvrlH. Courtljr corl. court 

iertalu,' aotaewbU, strong fort, itrong 

< Here the noun on which the adjective is finally formed is baaed on 

■ Especially true, however, of the cases in which -EL was added Xo 
nouns. In moat of the cases given, the iMkse-word as well as the one 
with a single suSx is an adjective. 

> A peculiar form. FortaUt appears to be raada up of -ET added to 
'fortal, which may have been supposed tc exist in fortaUta, i.e., /orlol + 
•EZA instead olforl+tdeia. Fretqutnet (p. 388) may possibly be a cor- 
ruption ot/raealet. freieat being found. 


388 Word-Formation in Provbncai, 

/mqutna.t <lKBlde /rtiqutll. /me, freah 


^infioiel. Que. alender ( 7) ptnAoi. One ( T) einh. urtlOce 

irriiDRiC (beside uriid) , Bomo-,y (rrtf.erfty 

what BT&f 

nBwtltt, rsther new naxl. new nau. new 

primoiraJ.'t prlodp&I primiir. flnt jm'm. flnt 

///. yer&«, — The verbal double suffixes give little 
difficulty. The second or verbal suffix simply jrhanges 
the noun or adjective already having a single suffix into 
a verb. The verbal suffix itself, however, may be simple 
or compound. The only simple ones are -AR and -IR, 
the conjugation endings; the compound ones — ALHAR, 
-ASAR, -EJAR, -EZIR, etc.— have ah^ady been fully 
treated in the chapter on ordinary verbal suffixes. So 
important a part of the formation of verbs have they 
become that it would have been impossible to reserve their 
treatment- to the chapter on double suffixes. All that 
remains to be given, therefore, is the list of words ending 
in a suffix, which add -AR and -IR in order to become 
verbs. -AR is fomid added to nouns and -IR to adjectives. 

-AR is found in: apoaturar, damnatjar, dreekurar, 
flautelar, fornaljaT, fomilhar, frachuTOr, frmitadar, furetar, 
furonar, laidenjar, lauzenjar, medalkonar, ostalar, osUUjar, 
peatjar, pedasar, personaijar, pomelar, ponlelar, porcelar, 
romansar, sobransar, soldadar, and valadar. 

-IR is found in orgolhozir. 


We now reach the second class into which the double 
suffixes have been divided — the compound suffixes. 
The origin and development of suffixes of this kind have 
been explained by Thomas in his article on the suffix 

I Se« note 3, p. 387. 

■ Found also as primairan under compound suffixes, p. 402. 

t Falonier, craiy, is similar in rormation to i^ohnia and teconia 


DoDBLB Suffixes 389 

-ARICIUS.' As an illustration of the birth of suffixes 
of this class, Thomas takes the word naialicius. First, 
derived from the past participle tuUus, we find the adjec- 
tive rtatalis, natal, and from this word, used substantively 
in the sense of "birthday," is derived the adjective 
naialicius, pertaining to one's birthday. Then the con- 
nection of this word with natut and its resemblance to 
it brings about the supposition that it was formed on It 
by means of the sufiBx -ALICIUS rather than on the less 
usual natalis. This, then, is an example of the growth of 
compound suffixes in Latin: the whole development is 
complete. Yet also in Latin, we may find the compoimd 
suffix in full bloom, without any intermediate stage in 
view, as in gentilicius for example, formed— as its meanmg 
proves — on gene and not on genHMs, and in HgiUaricium, 
clearly formed, in one example, on sigiUum. -ARICIUS, 
or -ALICIUS, was, therefore, added as a simple suffix, 
just as -ICIUS, for example, to the simple word. 

Now, there are several types of compound suffixes 
in Provencal. -AREZA, found in a few words, is from 
-ARICIUS, -A, mentioned above. -ARfA (-ARIUS-(- 
-lA) is, of course, likwise really a compound suffix, but as 
it was formed so very early as to be practically a simple 
suffix in Latin, it has been treated as a simple suffix and 
given with these. Yet -ARIUS, the first part of this 
suffix, seems to have been peculiarly suited to the super- 
position of other suffixes.' It sometimes merely changed 
a noun into an adjective, and often was added to both 
nouns and adjectives without chan^g their meanmg. 
This may account for the list of compound suffixes formed 
-AIROL, -AIRON, and, strangest of all, -AIRIER, in 

> NouT. E»., 62. < See p. 381, nole, above. 



which -ARIUS, -UM ia twice represented. It will at 
once be observed, of course, that in all these words, 
-ARIUS has the form -AIR, its phonetic development, 
instead of -lER, the form it has when used alone. The 
difference seems to be one of accent. When used alone, 
-ARIUS bore the accent and seems to have undei^ne 
foreign influences by which it became -lER,' but with 
other suffbces attached, it did not bear the accent, and 
simply developed phonetically. These suffix-combinations 
were probably first formed, therefore, after the y element 
of -ARIUS had begun to influence the precedii^; vowel, 
but before the foreign influences were exerted. In some 
cases, the word in -lER exists beside the word endii^ 
in -AIR-|-suffix, but the connection between the two was 
probably forgotten. Seatier exists beside se^irada and 
sestaiTol, and these two last words may have been formed 
on it, but the existence of sesl probably caused that 
more usual word to be taken as their base. Thus may 
have come about such words as eapairon and golairon. 
The case is the same as that of Jiaialicius. 

The same thing is true of the double suffixes beginning 
with -ADA or -AT attached to verb-stems. In these 
cases, -ADA and -AT often had no very clear force, and 
as -lER was often added to them, possibly because of an 
earlier use with the words formed on nouns by these 
suffixes, there arose the compound suffix -ADIER or 
-ATIER, of very frequent occurrence. The verbal suffix 
-ANDA also combined with -lER in the same way. 

A nominal suffix that combined with -lER very fre- 
quently is -AS, which sometimes had no very clear force, 
though generally augmentative. The combination is 
perhaps common enough to be treated as a compound 
suffix (-ASIER), particularly as the intermediate word in 
■ See p. 208, above. 


Double Supfdces 391 

-AS is often not to be found. -AS sometimes combines 
with other final suffixes also. 

-EL ia another suffix which was very frequently com- 
bined with other suffixes, particularly -KT, the ending 
-ELET being of conmion occmrence in Provencal. Yet 
in spite of its frequency, it is doubtftil whether this was 
a real compound suffix added at once to the simple word. 
-EL has already been treated as a single suffix,' and it 
has been shown that when added in Latin, it gave very 
little force of any kind to words to which it was attached, 
which simple words, being so nearly like the derived ones, 
tended to disappear in favor of the word with the suffix. 
We find, therefore, few groups of words containing the 
simple word as well as the one ending in -EL and the one 
in -ELET. If, therefore, the simple word disappeared 
very early, so shortly after a word ending in -EL had been 
formed on it, there was nothing left to which a compound 
suffix -ELET could be added. The words ending in -EL 
were thought of as simple words, and a new suffix -ET was 
added. The persistence of the simple word, in a number 
of cases, rather than that of the word with the single suffix, 
would seem to be a necessary requirement to bring about 
the addition of compound suffixes. As illustrative of 
this point, a word containing -ARIUS may be compared 
and contrasted with the words in -EL. Beside cartairada, 
for example, cart, as well as earlier (quartariiis) still per- 
sists, and gives a good starting-point for words having the 
compound suffix -AIRADA, It is only in a few cases that 
the simple word to which -ARIUS was added has dis- 

>3eep. 171. above. 

'One of these words is denier (,<denariu») , which exists beside 
denairada. denairal. and denairtt. Here, aa mentioned above (p. 382, 
note), we have to all intente and purposes a single suffix. 


392 Word-Formation in Provencal 

For these reasons, therefore, -ELET and the other 
apparent compound sufiBxes beginning with -EL, such as 
-ELON, can hardly be considered as such, but for con- 
venience, the words in -ELET will be given here. The 
only words in -ELET beside which a simple word is 
foimd are: capelet, crespelet, gantelet, and tropelet, and in 
the case of gantekt, it is the simple word instead of the 
word in -EL that is found, whereas in the other cases, 
both persist. The persistence of both cap and capel 
may be due to the fact that there was a real difference 
in meaning between the two words. Crespel is an adjec- 
tive formed on an adjective, and in such cases the simple 
word generally persists, in spite of the fact that it does 
not differ in meaning from the derived one. Tropel 
is formed on a word of Germanic origin, and is therefore 
a later formation than most of the words in -EL. This 
is likewise true of 'gantel. Both gantel^ and tropelet 
are probably borrowed from French, but gaTitelet was 
probably borrowed direct, whereas the suffix -ET may 
have been added in Provencal to the French loan-word 
tropel. t 

The lists of words ending in compound suffixes will 
now be given. The suffixes will be dealt with in alpha- 
betical order, complete lists of words being given under 
each headmg. As with the real double suffixes, the nouns 
will be given first, then the adjectives, and finally the 

t The other words in -ELET are formed on words in -EL existing in 
Lot.; therefore it is natund to had no simple word in Prov., -ET alone 
being added here. Such words are anelel, ankelet, auieltl, cairelel, 
caaldel. doiDf/et, marUlel {ponwiet, porcflel. p. 384), and naUdet. lo the 
same way, atiAeion, auielit, etc.. have only single sufBies added to words 
which in Lat. had -ELLUS. Eacudelier. eecudelon. and gonelon are either 
to be treated in the same way, or else contain real double suffixes, under 
which head they have already been listed. See p. 383, above. 


Double Suffixes 393 

/. Nouns 
'ADiER (-idier), -atieb; -adaria, -ataria 
The first compound suffix to be treated is -ADIER 
(-IDIER), found also aa -ATIER. However this 
combination of single suffixes may have originated,' 
there can be little doubt that the two finally were added 
as a single suffix to the simple word. Their very number, 
as well aa many other reasons, tends to prove this. Most 
of the words ^ven in Raynouard end in -ADIER, whereas 
the list given by Thomas' has -ATIER. The words in 
-ADIER will be given first: 
coladier, porter (also an adjective) col, neck 
dauradxer, goldsmith daurar, gild 

filadier,' spinner jWa', spin 

frontadier, neighbor fron{t), front 

fumadiera, puff of smoke fum or/umar, smoke 

iogodier, hired workman; lodger logar, let, hire 
■ponhadiera, kind of a measure pmh, fist 

porUidiera, litter parlar, carry 

soldadier, f soldier aoldar, pay 

■ For a full treatroent of this suffix, see -ADIER under the simple 
suOii -lER, p. 21S, above. 

■ .VouB. Ee>., 233. • See also filalier. p. 395, below. 

t Words of this kind have beea studied under clamatier, on p. 21S, 
above, where their formation was fully treated, Ponns in -ADA exist 
beside those in -ADIER in all of the above ca*e9 except dauradier and 
portadiera (thMa colada. fitada, frarUada, fumada, logada, ponhada. and fle^- 
dadn), so that -lER may have been added separately io each individual 
case. But the number of cases, together with the fact that in most of 
them the meanins seems to indicate a formation on the simple word. 
causes thero to be treated as compound Buffixes. A word io -ADIER in 
which the -lER was added separately is mainadier, bead of a family. 
from mairuida, family, probably formed in Lat. No simple word is found 
in Prov. Another word having -ADIER not added aa a single suffix is 
bugadier, wash-basio (which is also so adjective meaning "for washing"). 
This word ie formed on bugada, wash, which in turn possibly is derived 
from *buoar. wash (cf. the Fr. burr). A word in which -ARIA is sub- 
stituted for -tER, giving the compound suffix -ADARIA is locdaria, 
letting, hiring. 


394 ' Word-Formation in Provencal 

One word in -IDIER instead of -ADIER is found— 
poiridier, rottenness.* 

Thomas' list of words in -ATIER, which b nearly 
complete, has already been given.' These words, with the 
exceptions of JUatier and granaiier,' are not in Raynouard 
or Levy. With the exception of corraHer, broker {given 
by Thomas, Nouv. Ess., 233, as coratier, and not fomid 
elsewhere) which appears to be formed on ciyrre, to run 
(compare the French cmirtier), and beside which should 
be mentioned the further formations corralairia and 
conatatge, they all appear to be formed on nouns, as will 
be seen from the list. Beside a few of the words, such as 
causatier and JUatier, are found verbs from which they 
might have been derived, but all the other words could 
have been derived only from nouns. This fact distin- 
guishes them from the words ending in -ADIER, which 
could have been formed on either noun or verb. The 
words in -ATIER, or those in which the suffix was clearly 
added to nouns, may have been influenced in their form 
by the number of words denoting the young of animals 
that ended m -AT. There were a good many of these, 
although in the list given below there are only two words 
of this kind, namely lobat, young wolf, derived from Mm, 
wolf, and mulat, mule, derived from mvl. By analogy 
with these words, in which -ATIER may have been sup- 
posed to have been added to loba and mul (instead of 
-lER to lobat and mu!at), other words in which -ATIER is 
joined to names of animals may have been formed, as, for 

' For formslion, see p. 229, n. 3, above. 

> P. 219, above. The list ran as foUowa: botcalier, fcoroder, cautalier, 
eoralier. deaalier, egalieT, filalier, granatier, loboticr, malalier. oraatier, 
panalier, pelalier, porcalier, teUUier, 

• Beside which tlie formHtioa granataria, similar to /o(nitfcirtti men- 
tioaed above (p. 393, d. t). 


Double Suffixes 395 

example, ors(Uier {or8+-ATIER instead of *w«af+-IER). 
The complete list of words in which the compound suffix 
-ATIER is found is as follows: 

boicatier, woodBman ( ?) 

bo9C, woods 

bovalier, oxherd 


cowo, shoe 

elamatier,' complaintuit 

dam or damar, complain 

eoiratier, tanner 

car, leather 

cofTofier,' broker 

anre, run 

dec, boundary 

egatier, one who tends mares 

ega, mare 

filatier. weaver 

jiJ, thread, or jUor, spin 

granittier, grain dealer 

fffon, grain 

lobatier, one in chai^ of young 

(lobo/p young wolf) loba, wolf 

wolves (?) 

tntdalier, muleteer 

(mulot, mule) mul, mule 

or»atier, one in charge of young 

ors, bear 

bears (?) 

panaiier, baker 

pan, bread 

petatier, furrier 

pei, skin 

petcalier,' fisherman 

pe«ca, fishing 

porcatier, pork butcher 

POTC, pig 

Idatier, cloth merchant 

Ida, cloth 

imco/wr.'t cowherd 

vaea, cow 

-ATARIA is also found 

as a compoimd 8uffix, and 

we find: 

ctrraiaria. brokerage 

cgrre, to run 

Mralaria,' Iron bualneas (fen-at, 

Iron pall) /«-, Iron 

aran. grain 

panataria. bakery. bre«d-rciom 

pun. bread 


We now come to the compound suffixes -ALES and 
-ARES, from the Latin -ALICIUS and -ARICIUS, the 

' Xot in the list given by Tliomas in Nout. E»t.. 233. 

> See (Ubo the IJat of real double suffixes, p. 383. 

t Another word eadlng in -ATIER (/erralier) is given under the 
real double suffixes, p. 383. Fr. words corresponding to words in this list 
are chauatctUr, coarlier, muletier, paneticr, and pelUtivr. 


396 WOHD-FOHMATION IN Pboven^al 

formation of which has been described above as an example 
of the compound suffix. -ALICIUS does not appear to 
have been in very common use in Provencal. It seems to 
be foimd only in its feminine form, -ALEZA. Probablj' 
the only examples are: 

/rancaUia tor -ESAT). (1) (/rancal. free) /rone, tree 

hold (.fariariMa ttlso exists) 

lueUaliia, abimd&iice mall, much 

orlaliml lor-E3A T). & vege- (orlol, garden) art, garden 


The meanings of these words, except moUaleza, are 
such as would come from -ALICIA and not -ALITIA, 
yet the forms are such as would come from the latter 
suffix. There seems to be a good deal of confusion in the 
spelling of the words, however. Thus Thomas, in his 
list of words coming from -ARICIA, in his article on 
-ARICIUS,' spells all the Provengal ones with the ending 
-AREZA, although cy regularly gives s and not z in Pro- 
vencal. Thomas mentions a confusion of -ARICIUS with 
-ISSA in some words denoting occupations of women, but 
he says nothing of a confusion with -ITIA, which has 
already been shown to have existed, and which alone can 
explain the forms in -AREZA. This form, with -AREZ 
for the masculine words, appears, however, to be a kmd 
of heading under which to place the Provencal words. 
For example, he gives the name Chaumaresse under the 
heading calmareza, and cites from Raynouard the phrase 
arbalesias cromTesaas, which he puts under croearez.^ 

' .VouB. £(»., 62. 

' Also many other coses, as tinharee, spelled this way in Thoroaa' 
eiaraple, but placed by him under (he heading linAarei. 

t A word of different form in Proi-., but representing -ALICIUS, is 

morlalici. (uneral service ( ?)■ 


DOOBLB Sdpfixbs 397 

Practically all of the words in Thomas' lists indicate 
place, and none of them are abstract. -ITIA cannot, 
therefore, be their source, but confusion with it may 
account for the z in such words as have it. Most of the 
words, doubtless, are only adjectives used substantively, 
and all but a very few are proper names. The few 
common nouns ending in -ARES, -AREZA, but spelled 
as Thomas gives them, are: 
(1) Masculine Nouna: 

boearet, a vMiety of bl&ck grape 

cabraret, a bird that sucks milk 

from goats 
vinharez, vineyard 

hoc, buck (Bour 

cabm, goat 
vinha, vine 

ce according to 

and on a verb-stem we find: 

parlarei, t an instrument for cutting 

partir, divide 

(2) Feminine Nouns: 

hnvareza. ox path 
fortareza (as well as forlateia) 

ftM, strong 

poreareza, piggery 
iecoreai,' dry place 

pore, pig 
sec, dry 

and also, spelled with e instead of a, we find: 

/nmfcreza, tt boundary [JTofdiera, fTont,itoat 
boundary, is also found) 
1 Cf. the Mod. Fr. aicheretit, which has come to have abstract force. 

e fig trees; lobarei, place where there are 
:e for cows. 

mtouc. Bit.. S9. The proper names endingin -AREZA are as follows: 
betareta, place having birches (cf- baara); botcareia, place covered with 
bushes; ca6r<ire2a, place where goat« are; coitnareza. place with untilled 
land; ivtmaraa, place havJDR hard winlera; loboTtza. place where wolves 
are; rodaroa, place where wheels are made; and mearota, place for cows. 
(These words, and also the ones given in the note on the preceding list, 
being given with their original meanings as common nouns, are not spelled 
with capitals.) 


398 Word-Formation in Fbotbncal 

The e mey be accounted (or 
by the hypotheeis that this was 
formed on fronlera and not on 
fTOTtl bj: the addition of -AREZA, 
making really a triplex euffix. 
The -AR might have disappeared 
by a syllabic superposition. 


The next group of words, in alphabetic order, is that 
in which the first suffix, from the Latin -ARIUS, is repre- 
sented in Provencal by -AIR^. Here we find that 

-AIRADA is found in: 

rlairoda. agnlnmMSure 


iir. quarter) 

tairada, pennyworth 


tr, penny 

figaiTa.da. flg tree 


.-.r. Dg tree) 

.rto.Vada, herd Of awlne 



-AIRAL> is found in 


■nairal. pennyworth 


tr, peony 


>.t(<<r. service) 


>r, a measure) 


-AIRATGE is found 


ndairaiee.' right of platur- 


iiir. country c 

-AIRETisfoundin: alley (camera, way) car, cart 

cuthttirtl, small apoontul culhitr, spoon 

dtnairtl, small penny denier, penny 

aoraaireta. goTget (gartiifTa, gorget) ^Drpa, throat 

mtrcadairtl, small merchant Imrrcadirr, merchant) m.rcal, market 

The words ending in -AIRIA have been given under 
-ARIA, which, on account of its very early formation, 

' For two nouns in -ARAL {ograTal and {umarat) see the simple 
nomitia] suffix -AL (pp. 64-66), and for three adjectives vith this end- 
ing (.agraral. hoBTal. and diarol), see the simple adjectival suSii -AL 
(pp, 2S7-88) and the compound adjectival suffii -ARAL (p. 402). 

' Mao found as bandeiralge. 


Double Suffixes 


has been treated as a single suffix. -AIRIA, as has been 
remarked, is only a variation of -ARIA, and the words 
with this ending have, therefore, no place here. 
-AIRIER is found in: 

<lHindi>ra. b4iiiier) bands, B»t 

baadairitr, sMnduil b«trar 
carrairier, dty OOcer in 

charge of the atr«eta 
raitnhairitr. stkndtrd beuer 
/'umericra.t dunghUl 

-AIROL is found m: 

6laninil. bruise 
tarnairot, gnaebag 

linla. little n 


ptUaiml, hinder put smtll f&lcoil (r 

-AIRON is found in: 

r. chunel-hoiue) 
■a. street) 
r. thousand) 

mil. thousand 


o«. mUe hat 

cap. head 


Di., quadroon 

ieatlier, quarter) 

carl, quarter 


•n. bennh: »nall are 

(/oouiVr, hearth) 

/DC, Bre 


rsn. heap of sheaves 

(aarbiiT. cart for 

tarba. sheaf 


>», throat 

D«t°. throat 


■on. sandj- piMe 

(ffranVr, beach) 


on. small greyhound 

(Itbriir. greyhound) 

I<6ra. hare 

iron, mlller-a boy 

mMn. mill 


The suffix -AL is found sometimes with -lER and 
with -ATGE attached to it, forming finally the probable 

tA word obscure in formation is pechairier. tinsmith. Pfckatritr 
may be from 'pechier. pitcher (of metBl)<piMrium. Cf. the Fr. picker. 

A word having -IRIER instead of -AIRIER is petguirier (aee p. 3»4). 

tt A word obscure in formation iamcrcairol, translated by Raynouard 
as "shop." but tbe word is obscure in meaning as well as in form. 

ttt A word-hai-ing the spelling-ERON instead of- AIRON is paiicron, 
small dam, formed on paitiera, dike. 

In some of the words in -AIROL and -AIRON, -OL and -ON simply 
(rive diminutive force to previously eiisting words ending in -lER. 
An example of this is mttcadairon: but in such words as raiairol and 
capairon, and also foaairon in one of its meanings, the whole compounds 
-AIROL and -AIRON have this force. 



compound suffixes -ALIER and -ALATGE. Barralier, 
formed on bairal, but existing beside barra, and cazalatge 
formed on cazal, but existing beside caza, may be taken 
as possible starting-points for the compound suffixes. 
-ALIER is found in: 

cordalier, ropemEiker corda, rope 

■pemdier, mason peira, stone 

-ALATGE is found in: 

catnalatge, chunel-houoe {carnal. camkO ram, Seah 

martalatat. legacy (morfnt, demdly) ni>rl, death 

The suffixes -ALH and -ILH are often found with 
other suffixes attached to them, -ALHIER and -ILHIER 
being frequently found. These combinations do not, 
however, ever appear to have been added as a single suffix. 
The combination -ALHON, on the other hand, may have 
had this use. It is found in: 

noralAsn. claap maralha, dup 

moicalAon. goM. small fly mutca, Qy 


The sufi^ -lER is often found attached to the verbal 
endings -ANDA and -ENDA, thus forming the compound 
suffixes -ANDIER and -ENDIER. The words in 
-ANDIER are: 

eattvandier, harvester eslwar, harvest 

tanandiera, laundress Uwar, wash 

Icgandier, lodger (see also logadier) iogar, lodge 
poiandier, drawer (of water) poiar, draw 

talhaiidier. tailor Udhar, cut 

iewandwr,' weaver leiter, weave 

' -.\NDIER where we might expert -ENDIER. This may be due 
to the analog]- of the other forms, in which -ANDIER probably came to 
be regarded ns the suHiH denoting the agent of an action, to be attached 
to verb-a terns. 


Double Suffixes 

-ENDIERb found in: 
Saiendier, rural workman fmer (Jaire), do, work 

Ugendier, lectionary Itffir, read 

-AR (whether from -ARIS or -ARIUS) ia found several 
times combined with -ENC, forming the compound sufifix 
-ARENC. Thia seems to have been an adjectival suffix 
originaliy. The example given here was undoubtedly an 
adjective originally, and examples in which it forms 
an adjective will be given later on (p. 403). It is found 
forming a noun in: 
moelarenca, wine measure moat, must (unfermented wine) 


Finally, the suffix -AS is found frequently with -lER 
and with -ARIA attached to it, and, more remarkably, 
with -IL also. Such a word as canabasier formed on 
canabas, but existing beside canebe, could well have been 
the starting-point for the words in which -ASIER was 
used a^ a single suffix. 

-ASIER is found in: 
todragier, hoopbinder eodra, hoop 

dardtuier, archer dart, dart 

•ASARIA is f oimd in : 
Uaiagaria, wooleD mill larta, wool 

•ASIL is found in: 
fenaail, haystack /en, hay 

-EL, which occurs so frequently in the combinations 
-ELET, -ELIER, and -ELON, has already been treated, 
and can hardly be regarded as forming compound suffixes.^ 

■ In daurtlier there docs seem to be an example of a compound 
BufRi -ELIER added to the slem ot daurar. but this is probably the only 
case. Other apparent combinationB ot suffixes hard to explain ore seen 


402 Word-Formation in Provencal 

//. A^ectives 

There are not many compound suffixes that are added 
to adjectives, and most of the ones that are found have 
been given above as forming nouns also. The suffixes 
will be given in alphabetical order. 

-ADIER is found in: 
coladieT,' portable eol, neck 

Uehiadier, greedy Uehar, lick 

logadier, Tor hire togar, to hire 

and the other form of the suffix — -ATIER — is found in: 
damatier,' compltkining damar, complain 

-AIRAN is found in : 
etlremairan, last (ettremier, last) estrem, end, side 
primairan (also -eiran*), first (pri- prim, first 
tnier, first, is aleo found) 

-ANDIER is found in: 

paatar, kn 

-ARAL is found in: 

agrarai, cultivated 

<V«, field 

hoaral,* of oxen, rough 

fwu, ox 

diaral* daily 

dia, day 


This suffix is found only in adjectives and not in 
nouns. It may have been added to nouns or to verb- 
stems. Probably, the suffix -AR (<-ARIS) was added 
originally to nouns,* making adjectives, and these were 

in eaiuiTtoiia, femoras. and coraeoaU, which have been treated above. 
Panetier, baker, existing beside pan and not panet is probably a mis- 
spelling of panatier, given above, and the foim may be due to the influ- 
ence of the Fr. panetiir, 

1 See also under douds, pp. 218 sad 3B3, above, 

' See note 2, p. 386, above; primairal, of firat rank, is also found. 

•See n. 2. p. 64; n. 1. p. 398. 

■ To an adjective in coindard in the list. 


Double Sitphxes 403 

made diminutive by the addition of -EL. Then the word 
ending in -AR disappeared and -AREL was added as a 
single suffix. The case is, therefore, exactly that of 
-ARICIUS. The examples follow: 
bufarel, empty (full of wind) btif, blowing 

eantarel, always eingii^ ean(l), song 

coindarel, gallant, vain coinde, cultivated 

-ARENC (or -ERENC) is found in: 
causerenc,' of lime coua, lime 

catarent,' of or pertaining to a 

-AREZ is added to nouns in ■? 
batlarei, fit for sewing pack-saddles bast, pack-saddle 
eeearet, paid in virtue of the "cens" ceg, " cens," a tax 
crocam, provided with a hook croe, hook 
draparet, fit for fulling cloth drap, cloth 

vacarez, where cows pass vaca, cow 

It is added to verb-stems in : 

malharei, serving to full cloth malhar, hammer 

■petaret, bunting ' •petar, burst, snap 

///. Verbs 

As has been stated, the compound verbal suffixes 
-ALHAR, -ASAR, -EJAR, -EZIR, etc., have already 
been fully treated imder the simple verbal suffixes.' 

A compound suffix is seen in parasyntheta in : 
aprimairar,* go to the front prini, first 

enlimairar,' cover with mud Hm, mud 

escariairar* quarter carHier), quarter 

1 FoT a discussion of these words, see the adjectival sufGz -ENCi 
p. 30e, n. 3. 

■ All of the words given are found in Thomas, Nouv. En,, 73-81. 

■ These suffixes are seen added to words already ending in suffiies 
in: totadtjaT, fatimtjar, fitralejar, frachurejar, giTbaudoTUJar, putanejar, 
taladejar, and invenlaritar, 

' See parasyDthata, p. S16. 

> See parasj^theta, p. 611, n. S, below. 

< See parasyntheta, p. 613. 






Since prefix-formation, as it will be treated here, is so 
very much like suffix-formation, very few remarks on the 
general subject will now be found necessary. By prefix- 
formation is meant the addition of prefixes to Provencal 
words, just as by suffix-formation was meant the addition 
of suffixes to Provencal words. The essential point to 
determine, in either case, is not the ori^ of suiBx or 
prefix or of base-word, but whether the joining of the two 
took place in Provencal times. In order to be treated 
here, this must always be the case. But as the methods 
for determining the time of the formation of Provengal 
words, whether formed by means of suffix or prefix, have 
been described above,' they need not be repeated here. 
In some ways, however, the matter of prefixes is not 
quite so difficult to treat as that of suffixes. In the first 
place, the total number of prefixes b much smaller than 
the number of suffixes, and, with one or two possible 
exceptions, the number of examples to be given imder 
each particular prefix is also considerably less than those 
to be given under each individual suffix. There is also 
another difference between the two kinds of particles which 
makes comparatively simple the treatment of prefixes. 
• This is that a prefix never made of a word formed by 
it a different part of speech than the simple word to 
which it was joined had been, whereas a suffix almost 
always modified the simple word in such a way. Thus in 
prefix-formation, in treating newly formed verbs, for 
example, it is unnecessary to consider whether the base is 
' Port I, general introduction . p. 4. 



a noun or adjective, as is essential in dealing with suflixes. 
The prefixes which we find in Provencal were almost 
always simply the Latin prepositions, and their relation 
to the words to which they were joined was a syntactical 
one; whereas in the case of suffixes, the suffix seems to 
have more of the value of an independent word {bs it 
was originally), and could therefore modify the word to 
which it was joined. 

Chapters on the different parts of speech formed by 
prefixes will now follow in the order of their importance: 
first the verb, then the noun, and finally the adjective. 
Under each of these larger divisions, each individual pre- 
fix will be studied in alphabetic order. In the chapter 
on verbs, the formations ending in -ar will be given first 
in treating each prefix, then will follow the verbs with 
each of the other conjugation-endings. Aft«r the three 
chapters dealing with the different parts of speech formed 
by the addition of single prefixes, all the words formed by 
using two or more prefixes will be studied in a separate 



The verb, being the lai^eat and most important part 
of the whole matter of prefix>formation, will be treated 
first, and will be followed by the shorter chapters on 
nouns and adjectives. Even in the case of the verb, 
however, comparatively little comment is necessary, as 
prefixes almost always retained the force which they had 
in Latin as prepositions. When there was any change 
at all in meaning, this was simply a weakening of the force 
of the prefix, leaving the new word formed by it practically 
the same in meaning as the simple word. 

It may be well, nevertheless, to examine a little more 
closely this loss of force seen in verbal prefixes, and, 
incidentally, the relations of the various prefixes with 
each other. In the less common prefixes, this loss of 
force is unusual; ENTRE-, FOR-, MES-, OLTllA-, 
PER-, PRO-, SOBRE-, SOTZ-, and TRAS- have ahnost 
always the same force as the Latin prepositions from 
which they are descended. Other prefixes, however, as 
CONTRA-, DE-, DES-, and RE-, are frequently seen 
to be without force ; and for still others, as A-, EN-, and 
E3-, the forceless use is the commonest one. In the ease 
of A- and EN-, however, there seems to be no real loss of 
force in Provencal, since the Latin AD- and IN- as pre- 
fixes were vague in meaning, and contributed little to the 
words to which they were attached. The lack of meaning 
seen in ES-, on the other hand, represents a loss of force, 
which is, moreover, seen in most of the other prefixes, 
although not so frequently. In some cases, this loss of 
force may be explained by the vague meaning which the 


410 Word-Formation in Pbovencal 

prefix originally had,' or its fine distinctions, as in the case 
of RE-, which would be imperceptible to the popular mind ; 
in other cases, it may have been due to the use of the 
prefix with a word which had already the force of that 
particular prefix. An example of this is the use of DES-, 
meaning "out of," "from," with the verb sebrar, meaning 
"to separate." In such an example, it is impossible for 
the prefix to have any real force, and the word serves 
as a starting-point for the use of DES- in other words 
without force. 

Here it may be well to compare the uses of some of the 
more important prefixes. Thus DES- and ES-, already 
mentioned, both meant, originally "out of," "away 
from," and consequently "away from" the action of the 
verb to which they were attached. Both of them thus 
acquired negative force, which is, however, more usual in 
DES-, the regular negative prefix, than in ES-. The 
latter, possibly from the idea of movement away from, 
gained the idea of completion, or intensive force. This 
is seen in escocer, cook to pieces, that is, cook out, or cook 
thoroughly. E^ niay, therefore, be compared also with 
DE-, which had both intensive and privative or negative 
force. Being, as has been seen, so much alike both in 
meaning and in lack of meaning, it is natural to find these 
prefixes often substituted for each other, as well as for 
the forceless EN-. The two forceless prefixes A- and 
EN- are also nearly interchangeable. 

This use without force has abeady been described in 
treathig the suffixes. There are various other resem- 
blances, as well, in the Proven9al treatment of suffixes and 
of prefixes. Most of the peculiarities of suffix-formation 
were especially conspicuous in the formation of nouns, and 

I Often glighlty intensif'e ia (t>rce. 


Formation of Verbs 111 

were treated in the chapter on that subject. In the same 
way, the corresponding peculiarities of prefix-fonnatioD 
are most prominent in the formation of verba, and may, 
consequently, be treated here. 

The first of these reeemblances between suffix- and 
prefix-formation may be seen in the disappearance of 
certain Latin prefixes from use, as OB- and RETRO-, 
just as certain suffixes disappeared and the scope of 
others was enlarged. Another resemblance to the suffixes 
is in the substitution of one Latin prefix for another,^ 
aa CON- for IN- in cojundar* (Latin imrUare), just as 
among the suffixes we find -ICIA substituted for -ITIA. 
There seem to be also Provengal examples of this substi- 
tution of prefixes, just as there were Provencal examples 
of the substitution of suffixes.* This phenomenon may 
be seen in deslenquir for relenquir with the meaning of 
relenquir, and therefore not connected with the Latin 
ddinquere.* . 

There is, however, one other point peculiar to the ^^ 
formation of words by prefixes and totally unlike any pro- 
cess found under suffixes or elsewhere, nameiy the process 
of decomposition or recomposition. This is the changing 
of the vowel of the word formed by the prefix back to the 
form which it had in the simple word. In Latin, when a 
word was formed by use of a prefix, the vowel of the verb 
(or other word) to which it was attached underwent a 
weakening, which may be seen, for example, in refringere 

' Exclusive of the inMrchaDge of forceless pre&iea meotioned above. 

■ Thii cbanse is aammied to have taken place already in Ijit. because 
of the Dumber of the Bomance languages in which the preBi CON- is 
found with this verb. 

■ See Part I, chap, i, p. 12, on the substitution of -ADOR for -AL. 

■ Found in Prov. aa dtlinquir, t 



and conjkere beside the simple verbs frangere and facere. 
There are some exceptions to this, but it ia the usual 
process. The weakening of the vowel of the verb was 
caused by shifting the stress to the vowel of the prefix 
in early formations.' After the vowel had become 
weakened, however, the accent returned to the base- 
word.' Now, much later on, in Romance times, the 
composition of the word being clear, perhaps owing to 
the presence of the simple verbs, as frangere and fcuxre, 
the prefix received the same amount of stress as the 
verb.' The two elements being thus thoroughly distinct, 
each one returned to its original form.* Thus refringere 
became in Provencal rt^ranher instead of refrenher. 
Thb shows only the verb changing its form; but the 
prefix changed as well, EX- being preferred to E- and 

The individual prefixes will now be studied in alpha- 
betic order. 

The force of the prefix A-* from the Latin AD- may 
be seen much more clearly m the examples of parasyn- 

> For this law of accentuatioii, see Lindeay, Latin Lcmouaae, 158. 

• I.e., the Peuultiina law came into operation. 

• See Mol» Compotft, B2; also Meyer-LQbke, II, 669. 

■ There aie, however, examples of words that did not become 
decomposed, which are especially commoo when the prefix was CON-. 
Thus we see the Lat. condudere and conficere becoming eonclure and 
confire. whereas deficere and eictudere became de/aire and tsclaure. 
The absence of decomposition in words formed with CON- is probably 
due lo the fact that the prefix CUM- was fast diaappeariUR from the Lat. 
of Gaul except as an inseparable particle. It forms few if aoy eerlain 
new words in Prov,. and in Lat., even, in certain cases, it early became 
fused with the rest of the word, as may be seen from the Prov. conUar 
representing the Lat. compulare^ 

' This is the form into which AD- has developed except when added 
to verbs beglDning with a vowel, tor which see p. 417, below. Ehewhere 


FoHMATioN OP Verbs 413 

theta than in the cases in which it is added to an already 
existing verb. In cases of the latter kind, or prefix- 
formations, the two verbs existing side by side generally 
have no perceptible difference of meaning. This mean- 
ingless use of the prefix, however, was true of AD- when 
added to verbs in Latin, and the lack of force in the 
Proven9al A- b but a continuance of the Latin usage. 
Indeed most of the Provencal verbs beginning with A- 
are simply the descendants of Latin words in AD-, or 
else parasyntheta ; yet there surely were some new 
formations on verbs by means of this prefix in Provencal, 
and these will be given in the following list. 

Besides the verbs in A- showing no difference of mean- 
ing from the simple verb, there are other classes of verbs 
in which a slight difference in meaning between the two 
forms may be distinguished. In some of these cases the 
prefix appears to change the simple verb from intransitive 
to transitive. These formations are probably parasyntheta 
with a simple noun or adjective as the base-word.' Other 
words beginning with a prefix, and beside which a simple 
verb persists, are, nevertheless, even more clearly parasyn- 
theta, as their meaning proves.* There are also some pairs 
of words having miscellaneous differences of meaning.' 

the d of AD- wu assimilated to the following coDsonant, even in Lat. 
These words are found spelled both with the nngle and the double 
consonant in Prov.. but listed here only with the sinitle one. This 
gives us therefore A- as the development of AD' in these words. 

' Sueh verbs are acoalumar, anuathar, olruarufar, and aveTQimkar. 

'A» in afilar, a/ondar, apUar, aptombar. aprimar, arenhar, and in 
asolar and atatcntar in one of the meaninge of each. Thus, for example, 
afilar is probably formed on fit, thread, and not on fiiar. In this and in 
other lists, however, such words will be given, wheuevcr a simple verb 
exists beside them, with a reference to the paissyntheta. See Part III 
(pp. 601-3) lor a discussion of the reasons for this ciassifieation. 

<As in agreujar, o^uilar. etc., although in these cases the difference 
in meaning is very slight. 



Word-Formation in Peovbncal 

The list of the verbs in -ar formed by the use of 
the prefix A- wilt now be given. It is to be noted that 
in this list and also in those containing the prefixes DE-, 
EN-, and ES-, the simple verb is omitted when the 
compound differs in no way from it in meaning. 
abaitar, lower 
tAaalar, suffice 
abaUUkoT, battle 

ablatmar (««}, (aint bUtmar, blatmar, cause to fdnt 

(bUamar [at]), faint 

aboUtnar,^ button 
acotoT, embrace 
acolpar,' accuse of 
ocomerisaT, begin 
acompanhar, accompany 
oeam'paTar, compare 

acoTwrtor, encourage, console 
acorbar, bend, curve 


conorlar, comfort, exhort 

addechar,' delight 

be accuBtomed- 

ditrar, last; but also endure 

' Poasible paraeyDtheta. 

'Th^re are four distiDCt verba with this [orm, Ijut the verb ocolar 
appears to be farmed on the douc eol, neck. See parasyntheta, p. 606. 

■ Adurar has just the salnB meaning to be seen in endurar<iiidurvre. 
It may simply repreaent a prefix-change in tndurar. 

• Sec also under AD- and AZ-, pp. 417-18, below. 

• Pound only in the past participle afiuendat which seems to mean 
"in Deed." The simple verb is likewise found only in the past participle 
ftatndat, which may have the same m 

adeprat/ar, spoil, corrupt 
adoctrinar, teach, instnict 
adomeggar, tame 
odonar, entrust 
adreckurar, etrtughten, rectify 
(ub-eiBor, set up 
tujuror,' endure 
aeamar,* value, estimate 
afaitonar, fashion 



afiantar, guarantee 

afieor (se), be attached 

afyfuroT, depict, portray 

u^Uar, sharpen 

afinoT, end, settle; afinof {m), con 

to an end 
afiiar, aaaure, guarantee 
afiatar, flatter 
afondar (««), sink 
qfonglar, have right of forestry 
aformoT, form, shape 
afrenar, bridle, Bul>due 
nfrewtoT, weaken 
aJruchoT, profit, fructify 
afumar, blacken, stain with 

agaehar, watch 
agafar, catch, hook, grasp 
agaraT, wait, await, observe 
agardar, look at 

agensar, beautify, adorn; please 
agotar, drip, drain 
agreujar, annoy, moleet 
airaT,' imtal«, auger 
ajotlar, bring together, couple; 

(ajoatar [se], come blether) 
alatchar, slacken, relax 
aliamar, bind, attach 
alitarar, deliver 
aiogar, lease, rent 
aloirar, lure 
amaridar, marry 
amettadar, divide in haJf 
amenasar, threat«n 

5 finar 

farmof, form, create 

garar, look at, watch o 

gret^jar, load, burden; torture 

amezuTOT, moderat«, regulate 
amolheraT, marry 

* 9ee also under AZ-, p. 41S, below. 




amMlrar, teaeh, show 

anualhar (te), become l&ty nuaihaT, be laiy 

apagar, Appease, calm pagar, pay, satisfy 

aparMar, associate; prepare, 

aporlor, address, apostrophize parlar, speak 

■paxtzar, place 

■penar, torture 
pmaar, tlunk 

I give pasture to 
apauxar, affix, apply 
ap^ror, become worse 
apenoT (ae), take pains 
apensar (8e), reflect consider 
apitar, pile up 
a-pimpar, dress up, adom 
aptombor, upset, knock down 
apMar, colonise, populate 
aprimar, make thin or fine 
aprofechar, profit 
aprvpdiar («e), approach 
aquitar, deliver, acquit 
arapor, snatch away 
araubar, steal, pillage 

r, demand, claim, apostro- nuonar, explain, address, talk 

plomlwr, lead or load; plunge 


guitar, leave 

arengar, arrange 

arenhar, attach by the bridle renhar^ 

oTomansaT, translate into Romance 
aiadolar, cram, stuff 

', be in season 
atenar, make intelligible 
aserrar, confine 
oiolar,* consoUdat« 
agolaear, divert, amuse 
atottar, give up, deliver 
aaolilar, make fine or subtle 

' PHar, primar and renAar eiist, but are not connected with apilar, 
aprimar, and arenhar. the resemblance being only accideat&l. For these 
verba, see paraayntheta, pp. 606 and 516. 

< Aiolar is also found with the meaoing of "throw to the uround," 
which meaniog msy be seen in the Lat. ai»olarc, formad on loium, gtOMad. 


Formation of Verbs 417 

aialetUar, please; alaienlar w, fimd tatenlar, deaire 

pleftsure in 

alaxtiar (se), sit down at table tauiar, arrange, b^in (a game) 

atensar, tender, protect tensor, quarrel, dispute 
alirar, attract 

atomar (w), return tomar, turn; tomar «e, return 

atrobar, find; observe; compose froiwr, find; make verse 

atromr, load, pack up 

atniandar, attract, allure truandar, wander about like a 

anergonhaT, ehame; avergonhar te, 

T,j go around, surround 
Before a vowel at the begimiing of the verb, the d 
of the prefix AD- regularly remains or becomes z according 
to dialect, but also disappears sometimes, just like any 
medial d.' Thus from the Latin audire are found the 
forms audir, aiuir, and also auir; and in the case of the 
prefix AD-, all three developments are found in the words 
adesmar, azesmar, and aexmar. The words with d or z 
are, however, the usual development; d is the most 
frequent of all. Thus are found the words: 
(idam'plar, amplify, augment amplar, augment 

adoTUar, dishonor 

adagirar* favor, endow aatrar* determine by fate ( ?) 

adestimar, adetmar (also azesmar, 

aesmar), value at 
aderelar,' make heir to eretar, inherit 

1 See Grandgent, sec. 65. 

Very probably a para- 

is found, may be a past participle 

' Probably a parasynthetoQ. 

t Verba of Lat, origin are ajurar. adjure <aij;urare; anulhar, Hnnul< 
annuUare; apregar, pray, tatmKapprecari; tuonar, make assonaDce 
<iuionare; and attmprar, lempeKaJMmpraiT. 


418 Word-Formation in Provencal 

adobrar, work, fasfaion obrar, work 

adonorar, hoAot onorar, honor 

adordenari {ei90aonieTiar),ivgai»te orrfenor, order 

AZ- is found in azesmar beside adeamar (see list above), 
in (mrar beside airar (see p. 415), and in many of the 
parasyntheta fonned by using this prefix in connection 
with -ar {azonglar, etc.). 

Besides being found in the verbs ending in -ar, there 
are many examples in which the prefix A- was joined to 
verbs of other conjugations; and although most of these 
words were formed in Latin, there seem to be a few cases 
in which the prefix was added later. 

The new fonnations in verbs in -re are as follows: 
aeonduire,^ bring up amduire, lead 

acomegre,^ pureue (also aconseffuir) 
aderdre,^ raise 
afendre, split, cleave fetum 

There appears to be only one possible Provencal forma- 
tion in -er: 
araier,'ttf know 

The words in -aiser, -eiser, and -maer are all of Latin 

1 See double pre&iee, p. 491. 

'This is the same kind of formation eeen in aoreire and acreUer 
(Fr. accrmre and aeemUre) of Lat. origia, and may be compared atao 
with the Fr. aiaoK/ir. Ataber. likewise, probably dates back to Vulgar 
Lat. All of these words generally depended on /aire. 

> Thus aconoiier. recogniie. acreieer. increase, apaiaer, feed, and 
ajwreiser, appear, probably going back to a Vulgar Lat.* apparttcere. 

t Of Lat. origin is adamar. lave<adamare, 

tt Descendanta o( words already formed in I^t. are: aeorrt, run up, 
acreire, believe, amelre. put, place, apendre, belong, aprendre. leam 
and oiTaire. draw, come near, resemble, 

ttt The other words in -er of Lat. origin are; ofrarAer. break, bend, 
ajaitr, be delivered of a child, ai«er, seat (Fr. awanr), and atener, bold. 


Formation of Verbs 419 

Provenga! fonnatioDa in -ir are somewhat more 
usual. Thus we find: 
aeonaeguir'i pursue 
a(,d)emplir, mempUr, fill 

afenir, approach the end fenir, finish 

afugir, flee 

amawir, give at once, be ready marvir, hasten 
r,t disgrace, diehonor 

Next in alphabetic order are two prefixes of learned 

origin, AB- and BIS-. AB- appears to exist as a verbal 
prefix only in : 

abaittir,' suit, please aueir, hear 

BIS-* is found only in: 
biitentar, delay, disturb lensar, dispute, disturb 


There are many words in Provengal showing the prefix 
COM- or CON-, but exceedingly few of them show any 
signs of having been formed in Provencal times. Taking 
the whole Ibt into consideration, few of the compounds 
have any difference at all from the simple words, thereby 

'SeealaooconM^coap. 418, and double profiles oa p. 491. 

■ The AB- here reproeents the Lat. 0B-, tiie verb coming from 
ohaudire. In abivemar, we have an example of AB- in a paraeynthetOD. 
A very obecure word is abauiaT, prostrate, upset. K6iUng (No. S144) 
conaects the word with boia, belly, which is not Id Rayaouard or Levy. 
Am far aa the meanitig is concerned, the formation might be AB- -faiuar, 
raise, or A-+bau« (abyss) -t-AR, but either combinaliOD would give 
abmuar instead of abataar, 

■ Or BE:S-. under which heading the prefix is given in the formation 
of nouns. 



tending to show that these words were of early formation, 
and had time to lose the force which the prefix originslly 
contributed.' Such, indeed, is known to be the case.* 
Nevertheless, in spite of the extreme weakening in force 
of the prefix, it continued to form new words in some of the 
Romance languages, notably in Spanish and Italian, in 
which cases the prefix regularly has its original meaning 
of "in company with,"' as in the Spanish words amcenar 
and concomer. Yet in Provencal, there are few words 
with COM- or CON- as prefix whose formation may not 
with certainty be ascribed to Latin, since these words are 
either actually found there, or else similar forms are 
found in so many of the Romance languages as to indicate 
a common origin in Latin. 

The only words having the prefix COM- or CON- that 
appear to have been formed in Provengal are as follows : 

Verbs ending in -or: 
eomjMvzar,* compose pauair, put 

eonforear, compel forsar, force 

eonloear, fall upon, eurpriHC tocar, touch 

eotmiilar, t scrutiniie carefully vitilar, visit 

Verbs ending in -re: 
conderdre, ft pile up, raise ikrdre, raise 

'The other jireSxea, often uaed without force, A-, DE-, tad EN-, 
gave DO decided force to the simple verb, even in Lat. 

'See Cooper, 262-71. 'See Meyer-LQbke, II, 673. 

> Borrowed from the Lat. comptmere, but formed under the influence 
of the simple verb pauutr. 

t Words of Lat. origin ending in -or are: contao"''''- Boi^<eoneaeare; 
concatar, crush <con(7U(uaar«,' conAltirar. make BimiiBr<eorU!irurar«; 
ixngitar, sarmaoaKconjectare; conortar, encourage <cor^orlarc,' and 
coTttribidar, torture <c(mlnbulare. Other words in -A probably having 
sources in Lat. are: romensar, begin aud compasar, compase. 

tt Wordsof Lat. origin ending ia-r< arc comordre, Beiie<annmordtre; 
and concTeire, trUflt<eonfTedere. A word in -er is amplaier, plea8e< 
compiaeere. -tiaer is seen in compareiter, appear <comparet<XTt. 


FoR&fATiON OF Verbs 421 

Verbs ending in -ir: 
conoriAtr.H gather together colhir, gather 

Thus there are no new words formed in which the 
prefix preserves the meaning of "in company with," 
The only change of meaning that it b possible to see in 
the above words is a strengthening of the original verb and 
this is not always clear. Even these words may have 
been formed in Latin, though not found in the other 
languages, or they may show an imitation in Provencal of 
the usual Latin development of the prefix.' Such words 
as the Spanish concenar, concamer, etc., seem to be formed 
in the modem language with the Spanish preposition con, 
with. The other languages— Italian and Portuguese — 
that have words of this kind also have am and com as 
the word for "with." 


The Provencal prefix CONTRA- (Ijatin contra), when 
joined to verbs, has several different meanings, but only 
one of very frequent occurrence. For the French pre- 
fix CONTRE-, likewise from the Latin CONTRA-, 
Darmesteter* distinguishes four kinds of meanings — 
"in opposition to," "in contradiction with," "in return 
for," and "opposite to" (position) — but it is difficult to 
find examples of anything but the first two meanings in 
Provencal, with the idea of opposition being by far 
the most important. This idea is seen in such words as 
contradeniejar,* contrastar, contraferir, and, with a slight 

' This word really has CON- eipressed twice. 

• I.e., it WB« found to be practically forceless iD words formed in Lat., 
and the Prov. fonnations may have imitated this instead of the original 
use of the prefix. 

• Molt Compoait, 107. < See parasyntheta. p. SOT. 

t A word of Lat. origin in -ir is eon/aurir, welcome <«»««""'"■«- 



extension of the idea, in cotUrapezar and corUravaler. The 
eecond meaning is seen in coniramandar, contraminar, 
and contrapelaT. Real reciprocal force, such as is seen 
in the French cortir' aimer, is not found in Provencal, 
but contravaler might perhaps be placed under the heading 
of "in return for." The varioua Romance meanings of 
CONTRA- may be found, for the most part, in the 
Latin preposition or adverb, but only when used singly. 
CONTRA- b rare in Latin compounds, where it had the 
force of opposition, as in corUradicere. 

It is necessary, however, to point out one more use 
of the Provengai prefix CONTRA-, i.e., that of giving no 
force at all to the word to which it was attached, leaving 
it with its ori^al meaning. This is common, of course, 
in other Romance languages for such prefixes as A-, HE-, 
EN-, and ES-, but Provencal goes farther in weakening 
a prefix with as much meaning and individuality as 
CONTRA-. Yet it is difficult to see any meaning in it 
in such words as contranaiser, and even also in canira- 
gardar and contresperonar, although some one of the 
meanings of CONTRA- may have been originally felt. 

CONTRA- is prefixed to verbs ending in -ar in the 
following examples: 

contragardar, keep, preserve gardar, keep, take care of 

contralasar, meddle with, ei^age in laxar, bind, tie 
eontramaTidar, countermand mandar, order 

omtramiTiar, countermine minor, mine 

eontrantontar, mount ( 7) mori/ar, mount 

conirapaumr, oppoee, put against pautar, put 
conlrapflar, reclaim apelar, call 

eimtrapezar, wei^, balance petar, be heavy 

eonlroiUir, resiBt etlar, stand 

confj-fsperonar, 'strike with epur etjteronar, spur 

' PosBibly a parftsyntheton on tsperon. spur, but no words of this 
kind with CONTRA- ns prefix aeem certain. The formatioD eeems 
inalsad to be on the verb etperonar with the practically forcelesa uec of 


Formation op Verbs 

Prefixed to verbs in -re, CONTRA- is found in: 
eofUracorre, run in opposite direc- com, run 

tions; run toward 
eofUrafaxre, counterfeit /aire, malce 

Joined to verbs in -er, it is found in : 
corUranaUer, begjn, originate, arise rutiter, be bom 
emtraUmer, beware, miatruBt (enter, fear 

emUravtder, be equivalent to valer, be worth 

Joined to verbs in -ir, it is found in: 
eontn^erir, strike against f^i^, strike 

Joined to verbs in -ejar, it is found in : 
conlTapair^oT, be like a father patrt^ar, be like a father 

The Provengal prefix DE^' is an interesting one chiefly 
on account of the two entirely contrary ideas that it 
expresses: one intensive, and the other privative.* 
Examples, to be sure, may be found in Latin, with both 
of these meanings, as: deamare for the first, and deesse 
for the second. Indeed, the prefix, when used in compo- 
sition, seems to have originally given to the verb the 
force of movement from or removal, and thus privation. 
From the idea of completion, which it may have gained 
from the idea of leaving, or moving away from, it perhaps 
derived the intensive force. At any rate, both of these 
meanings existed in Latin, as well as a third usage, i.e., 
that of having no force at all. What difference is there, 
for example, between frattdare and d^raudare, or between 
nominare and denominare? These cases seem to illus- 
trate a loss of force in the prefix from the intensive force 
which it had in such words as deamare, and perhaps 

' From a Lat. DE- unchanged. ■ See Mola Compotia, 100, 


424 Word-Formation in Provencal 

deaWare, exactly equivalent to the loss of force under- 
gone by diminutive suffixes when attached to words in 
common use, except that in the case of the prefix, the 
weakening of meaning extended to Classic Latin', whereas 
the use of a diminutive suffix with no force at all belonged 
rather to the vulgar language. 

The meaning of privation, or force exactly opposite to 
that of the simple verb, is seen in dearestar, decoipar se, 
degraruir, demarcar, and degarentir. In the other words, 
simple verb and compound have exactly the same mean- 
ing. The lists follow. The prefix DE- is used with verbs 
in -or in the following examples: 

dearetbir, set free 

oreafar, arrest 

(Je6aMar, go down in price 

baUar, lower 

ifctmar, break 

demlpar (se), excuse oneself 

eolpar, accuse 

definar, end, cease 


degotar, drop 

degranar, take grain from hopper 

granar, produce 


dejanar, fast 

maUmr, hammer 

marcar, mark 

demenar, lead, direct 

depintar, paint, depict 

deplumar, strip Of feathers 

deranhar, strip, steal 

(fe«iar,t forbid 

' For this loss of force in preGxes in general, see Cooper. 247; for 
a diarus<ion of diminutive BufGies, see above, p. 14. 

t Verba in -or of I^t. origin are decanlar, administer <dBean(ore; 
de/raudar, ches.i,<dt/Taadare: denomnaT{ae}, be c ailed <d«nan»*t«ir«; de- 
preffar entTGrit<deprecari and dcDOffar <*devocilare^7). See Ronvtnia, 
XXXIV, 196. (or tbia last word. 



Joined to verbs in -er, DE>- is found only in: 

derezemer,^ rooeom rexemer, ransom 

Joined to verba in -ir, we find : 
dehaatir, demolish 
defaUur, fail 
degarenUr, free a person of the re- garentir, guarantee 

sponsibility of pledging his 

property as a guaranty 
departir,^ sepaj«t«, divide 

The prefix DES-,* although very much commoner 
in Provencal than DE-, has much the same meaning. 
This similarity, however, may be traced back to Latin, 
where it brought about a confusion between the two 
suffixes. DIS-, the source of the Provencal DB3S-, 
indicates in Latin separation and also negation, but there 
are some words in which the prefix conveys no such force. 
Disjectare, for example, beside jadare, to throw, seems 
to mean only to throw around, whereas disseparare has 
precisely the meaning of the simple verb separare, separate. 
This lack of force may have been due to the very meaning 
of the simple verb, which made impossible for the prefix 

' SomelimeB the form DEIS-, nhich also seems to represent DtS-, 
is found. Thus dtisarrttaT. disarraoge, and deUaiegar, dislocate, from 
arreiar, sad aieoar, D&+-EX haa also been suEgested as a source 
for DES-. but is not certain in any case, whereas in most cases DIS- 
is the certain source of the prefix. 

t Verbs in -cr of Lat. origin are decaier <ife<r(dcre and df /ranker 
Kdffrinetre, showing the breaking-up of the compound; also ilfpenher< 
dtpiTigert and detlrenhtT<deetH7teert, 111 -aiser, of Lat. origin, there 
is depaUerKdepatcere. and in -re, there are decmrKderumre, dfnre< 
deridtrt. and derompre Kderumpere. 

ft or Lat. oriRin there are found the following verbs in -IR: deglolir 
<deoiuUirt, demadir<demetiri, demenir<deminuere, demeniir<demenlirf, 
demerir <.denterere. 


426 Word-Formation in Provencal 

any force other than intensive,' for although DIS- finally 
acquired negative value, changing completely whatever 
meaning the simple verb had so that we should expect 
disseparare to mean to bring together, this change came 
about only gradually from the original idea of separation. 
The idea of negation is the one contained in the great 
majority of Proven9al verbs, but there are some verbs 
beginning with a meaningless DES-, perhaps formed 
under the influence of such words as disseparare. Thus 
the meanings of DE- and DES- were almost identical, 
and as far as meaning was concerned, the prefixes could 
be substituted for each other. Now, in the recomposition 
of compound words which took place in Vulgar Latin and 
in Romance times,* whenever the compound nature of the 
word was recognized, prefixes might be interchanged or 
substituted for one another, the longer or more sonorous 
form having the preference. Hence DES- is found in 
many words which in Latin had DE-,' just as SUBTUS- 
was substituted for SUB-.* 

Descaminar and descenturar, as well as desvazer and 
destolre, and possibly a few other words which may be 
parasyntheta, show the original meaning of separation 
when compared with the simple word; desgaimentar, des- 
longar, dezobltdar, despesar, destardar, destrencar, destriar, 
desirigar, desvariar, desvelhar, descrupir, dezeisir, desgiquir, 

' This iateirave force, however, wbb not strong enough to show anj' 
decided difference in meaning between the simple and the compound 
verbs. Cooper. 275. suggests as a starting-point for the intensive forms 
such verbs as ditcoquert. cook to pieces, and dUputvcrve. make powder 
of. both having originally the idea of separation. Thus the two ideas, 
the intensive and the idea of separation, merge, and it is impossible to 
divide them sharply. 

' Molt CompotU. 90-S5. ■ Itnd.. 93. 

Some verbs are found with either DE- or 


Formation of Verbs 


and deasalhir show no change of meaning. In the other 
words, the force of the prefix is that of negation, the 
compound word being directly opposite in meaning to 
the simple one. 

DES- is found prefixed to verbs ending in -or in the 
following cases : 

dezabricar, uncover abrioar, cover, protect 

dezadomar, rob of ornament adcmtir, adorn 

rfezatrinar,' make uneasy aizinar, approach, put near 

dezalbergar, dislodge aUtergar, lodge 

deiamaTTar, unmoor, unfasten amarrta; fasten 

deiarmar, disarm orauir, arm 

deiaulorgar, disapprove 
deiavoar, disavow, repudiate 
deauauiar,'' be disagreeable to; 

desbalansaT, upset. Unbalance 
desbaToiar, put to rout; sell cheap; 

deebendar, unbind, loosen 
deibhcar, take off lumps 
detbranear,' tear tree 
detbruelkar, strip of leaves 
deacaminar,' turn aside 
deicarUar, make fun of; make a 

song ridiculing a person 
deseapdelar,' deprive (of a leader) , 

deacapdothar, be wanting, fail 

descauaar,' take off shoes 
datcaxalcar, dismount 
deacelar,* disclose, reveal 
descentuTar,^ take off girdli 

avlorgar, authorise 

OAiutor, charm 

balaruar, balance 
baTotar, traffic 

hendar, bind 
bloear, bruise, indent 
branear, put forth branches 
bruelhar, put forth leaves 
r, journey 

Mpdelar, govern 

capdolhar, stand out, project 

caiialaiT, ride 
cefar, conceal 
centurar, gird on 

■ Probably a parasyntheMn formed on aitin, comfortable. 

< Detaiautar, fUibrancur and dacaminar might be parasyntheta 
formed on azaut, graoious, hranc, branch, and camin, road. 

■ 8e« nlso parasyntheta, p. 607. 

• The past participle diacalcealut is found in Lat. but not the infini- 
tive. For de«caiMtir, however, cf. the Fr. dtchauiaer, and for deicelar 
the Fr. dtUter. 

' A possible parasyDlliEton. 


Word-Formation ix Provencal 

degebuioT, urnuul; unhinge 
detclanelor, unnoil; get out of joint 
deseologar, diaploce, tear out 
deteoirar, discolor 
(jenwmbrar, disencuinber 
deKompanhar, abandon 
degeonortar, discourage 
detcottihar, not to counsel 
descoter, rip open 
descopidar, not to invite 
degcuidar, disbelieve 
desdamiuitjar, indemnify 
deiegaiar,' make unequal 
dttenfiar, deflal« 
deieretar, disinherit 
de^aimmar, deform 
desfermoT, open 
detferrar, take off 
deafiiAoT,' unclasp 
deaficar, tear off 
desfyurar,' dis6gure 
deifilar, unravel 
dea/re{n)or,' unchain, free 
de^retar, rip open 
desgainunlar,' groan, lament 
detgelar, thaw 
deaguidar, lead astray 
ded/aar, untie, unbind 
dealauzar, disapprove, despise 
desliar, unbind 
desliamar, unbind 

i; unshoe 

(jowir, nail 

clavdar, nail 

cologar, place 

ccItw, color 

amArar, encumber 

companhar, put in company with 

coadhar, counsel 

detloljar, dislodge 
desmandar; countermand 
desmarchar, march away 
deamembrar, foi^t 
detmeedar, destroy 
detmezuTor,' disorder, debauch 

■ Possible parasyatheta. 

■ Here we God the forceless prefix. 
' The meaning shows dttmentrar U 

cuidar, think, believe 
damna^ar, damage 
egaiar, equal 
enflar, inflate 
erelar, inherit 

/error, bind with iron 
j!6Iiir, clasp 

figarar, figure 
filar, spin, sew 

freiar, embroider 
gaimenlaT, lament 
geUiT, freeie 
guidar, guide 
laaar, bind 
lauxar, praise 
lior, bind 
liamar, bind 

htjar, lodge 
mandar, command 
morcAar, march 
membrar, remember 
mesdar, mix 
mezuTor, measure 

be, in all probability, a parasyn- 


FoHidATiON OP Verbs 

detmondar, eoil 

demnontoT, dismount 

detmurar, break open a wall 

detoblidaT,' lose the memory, forget 

deatrdenoT,' act in disorderly way 

deepagar, diaaatiafy, disappoint 

deepaTelhar, separate 

despasar,' dominate, eurmoimt; 

deepauiar, put down 

deipesar,'' ' divide, put in pieces 

deepoblar, depopulate 

despopar, deprive of suck 

dexramar* strip of leaves 

desregUa* (se), act immoderately 

denrengar, disturb 

detsaborar,' disgust 

deesagelar, unseal 

detsalvar, damn 

dettfuonar,' disturb, dieooncert 

desstTutr* lose senses 

detserrar, unfasten 

dettardaT,^ delay 

deatemprar, disturb, disorder 

destrencar,' cut to bits 

destriaT,' distinguish, choose 

dettrigar,' prevent, delay 

dettrotar, unload 

deaoariar,' diversify 

demdAor, awaken 

demergonhai', be or make shameless 

dtwojar,^ empty 

demolopar,] take away, disclose 

mondar, dean 
montar, mount 
mtiror, wall up 
oblidar, forget 
OTffenor, order 
pagoT, pay 
parelhar, couple 
pruor, pass 
pauair, place 
peaar, break 
poblar, populate 
popar, give suck to 
ramar, put forth leaves 
reglar rule 
rengar, arrange 
saboTOT, taste 
sagdar, sea] 
galvor, save 

aatonar, come in season 
aenar, be sensible 
aerrar, lock up 
lardar, delay 
lemprar, moderate 
trentar, cut 
Iriar, choose 
trigar, delay, defer 
troiar, pack up 
variar, vary 
vdhar, be awake 
vergonhar, be ashamed 
vojar, empty 
volopar, envelop 

> Possible paraayntheta. 

in as parasyntbeta 

t Words with DE8- ending in -ar of Lat. orj^n are: dtacordar, 
diBunite«it>c(iTdar«; detgitar, throw awftj-<rfi«j>c(are; degiebrar. sepa- 
rate <diMepara re; dettorbar, disturb <di»l«r6arf,- and de*lermenar. put 
an end ta<diaUrminare. Probably also of Lat. oriRin is dealegar, dilute 
<*diiliquart ( T}. A word obscure both in meaning sod origin IB dcatugar. 


430 WoRD-FoRMATroN IN Provencal 

DES- is found as a prefix joined to verbs in - 
the following cases: 

deiaver, leave, quit aver, h&ve 

descapUner, deprive of support eapUner, retain 
deteoeer, rip open eoeer, sew 

desdoler («e), console oneself d^^, grieve 

dezerztT,^ humiliate, lower 

deananlener, abaodon numtener, maintain 

dapaTer, disappear purer, appear 

dealenher,^ loee color 
desiHder, despise 
demazer, withdraw, escape fozer, go 

desvoler, be unwilling voler, be willing, will 

desKolver, f untwist, unwind folver, turn 

And joined to verba in -aiser, -eiaer, in : 
deapereUer,' wake up 

Joined to verbs in -re, it is found in: 
hab-e, beat 
dire, say, speak 
duire, lead 

de^aire, undo, destroy faire, do 

(fastoire,'f f take away, turn aside toire, take away 

Joined to verbs in -ir, it is found in : 
de»bandiT, recall from exile bandir, sequester, confiscate 

descanlir,* extinguish 

' The verb crier is not found eicept vrith the prefix DE- in dtrier. 

< A Lat. diatinguere eiists, but with a different meaning. Deitenher 
appcara to be a Frov. formation. 

' This ia probably a Lat. formation, however. No aimple word is 
found in Prov., and the fonn and the meaning ol the word are such as 
would come from a Lat. *((wpt(jr6»ewe. 

' Forceless prefix. 

• DescaniiT Beema to be only tacanliT with a cbange of prefix. See 
racantir under ES-, p. 446, o.t 

t Words of Lat. origin having the prefii DES- and ending in 
-er are: descenher. ungird <disrinccre.' desplazer, displease <dt»pft cere; 
dcaloreer. uar6l\<dUlorqueri: and deatrenh^, pTesKdUtringere, 

It Words of Lat. origin having the prefix DES- and the ending -rt 
are: deiclaure, open <disdudere: descreire, disbelieve <di8eredere; d«- 
pendre, unhang<rftsptiirffre; and dolendre, unbend, teloKdislendtre. 


Formation of Verbs 

deeeausir.' insult, outrige 

tautir, see, cbooee 

deserupir,' squat, cower 

crupir, squat 

deseiair,' go out, retire 

ei»i>, go out 

detgamir, disarm, deprive of 

gamir, equip 

giquir, leave 

detgraziT, be ungrateful for 

gTvzir, be thankful 

meiUir, lie 

ohedir, obey 

dr^poeeziT, dispoBBcaa 

poienr, pogBesa 

proveiir, provide 

deataihir,* go out, leave out 

aalhir, go out 

dessanr, abandon, let go of 

aasir, seize 

dettervir, do ill turn; clear 

aervir, eerve 


(Jetnwentr,t forget 

And joined to verba in -ejar, DES- is found in: 
dezatitr^ar, refuse autrejar, grant 

deamercejar, refuse mercy mertxjar, aak mercy 

detplaidejar, repair, indemnify ptaidejar, dispute, go to law, 

EM-, EN- 

The prefixes EM- and EN- representing the Latin 
IM- and IN- are very common in forming verbs in 
Proven9al, as in the other Romance languages. The pre- 
fix was also very usual in Latin;* but it is difficult to 
define the precise meaning that it had there. Meyer- 
Liibke explains its functions rather vaguely, but perhaps 

1 Tbe change of meaniOE in the compound is to b« observed. 
' Forceless prefix. 

■ DES- ID deiUTiquir seems to be a change of prefix for RE- in relen- 
quir < relinqnere- 

t or probable Lat. origia is deecobrir, discove 



as definitely as is possible,' From the idea of place con- 
tained in IN-, some Latin verbs are formed, as includere, 
shut in, from daudere, shut, ineingere, gird on, from dngere, 
gird, surround. Yet there is no great difference in mean- 
ii^ between the simple verb and the compound. It is 
the same with the verbs formed in Provencal: there is 
hardly any tan^^ble distinction between simple word 
and compound. Other verbal prefixes have tended, as 
has been seen, to lose their original force, as for example 
DE-, and also EX-, but it seems as though IN- never had 
any very well-defined force to give to a verb, and that the 
Provcngal examples of this prefix show about as much 
force as those found in Latin, 

What has been said of the lack of force of the prefix 
IN- does not apply, however, to the formation of para- 
syntheta, in which, as will be seen, the prefix is of com- 
mon occurrence, used with both nouns and adjectives. 
With nouns, it generally has its original meaning of posi- 
tion. Thus engorjar, swallow up, and enterrar, bury, 
formed on gorja and terra. In words formed on adjec- 
tives, it means to endow with the quality expressed by 
the adjective. 

In the following list, EM- is used before verbs beginning 
with the labials b and p, and EN- everywhere ebe.* As 
was the case with A-, the simple word is given only when 
the derived word shows some difference from it in meaning : 
embaiiar, kiss 

^nbaratar, negotiate, cheat baralar, traffic 

embarrar,' iaclose, fence ia barrar, bar 

III, 67S: '"II marque !e lieu, eipriroe I'idfce d'introduire. de x 
reodrc dana quclque chose, puis d'entrer daoa quelque £tat: de \h dicoule 
directenient celle d'Stre d^pourvu d'une quality." 

■ In texts there is some oonfusion. ao that aometimes EM- and aoaie- 
timcH EX- is UEipd before labials, and Rayoouard often gives two forma. 
When not before iahials, howevtT, EN- is always found. 

' A possible parasyntheton formed on barra. 


Formation of Verbs 433 

emblMmar, accuse blasmar, blame 
emborrar, stuff, pod 

errAriar,' hasten brivar, baaten 

embntiar,* stumble ( ?) brucar, stumble 
empaUus;* cover with str&w 

empasar, make pass, swallow pasar, pass 

empaeUtr* cover with paste paslar, make paste 

empaiaar, impose pauatr, put 

empenear* invent, devise pentar, think 
emplumor,' provide with feathers plumar, pluck off feathers 
empoiionar,* poison 
empujar,] riee 

With the prefix EN- are found : 
emmrcmdoT, eolai^ 
enaniar, dishonor 
enaairar,' endow with happy star attrar, influence by stars 

enaiadar, bunt birds 

ar, release, acquit; draw avansar, advance 

encadenar,* enchain eadenar, chain 

encambiar, deceive eamhiar, change 

encaptivar* take captive 

encOfttrar,'' castrate 

eneaiigar, drive away 

endavar, injure (horse in shoeing) ctavar, nail 

> For the disappearance of the v, see the remark under bria, in Levy, 
I. 165. 

•SeeSUcbel, 39. 

■ Possible parasyntheta formed on paiha nnd patta. 

• A Lftt. imperuare is found, but with a different meaning. Empen- 
»ar seems to have been formed on the Prov. penaar, to think. 

■ Possible parasyntheta. 

* Both tnattrar and atlrar are found only in the post participle. 

' The noun inaulraiura ie found in Lat., but no verb. Enautrar, 
inclose, enshrine, is a suffix-formation on encaiUe. pyx. 

tVerbs beginning with EM-, beside which a simple verb is found, 
but whose meaung clearly proves them to be parasyntheta, are emftotor 
(beaide bolar), embregar (beside bregar), and tmbrocar {beside brocar). 
See the paraayntbeta (p. 509) for these words. 


434 Word-Formation in Provencal 

encolpm,^ accuse 
tncompanhar,* accompany 
encorbar,' beod, curve 

encordoT* provide with cords, atntar, o 
bind with <wrd8 

endisciptiTutr, disdpUn 

endresar,' set up 

enfdenar, atir up, incite 

/efenar, be angry (?)' 

e^f error, provide with iron or bind 

enfiar,' tnwt 

enfixar, sew in, fix in 


enfiww* fi]l with smoke 

fumoT, smoke 

en/wtar* cover with planka 

engarduT, protect 

engatjar, engage, pledge 

galjar, attach, fine 

gavanhar, destroy 

englotar, reveal, disclose 

gtozar, gloss 

granoT, produce corn 

graar (?) {greta, tartar?) 

engrmtar,' become stout 

gro^ar, engross 

enfpaar, guide 

eairar' get angry at 

enjonaa; scatter, atrew 

etUaitar {se), become dirty 

laUoT, BOi\ 

enfanjar,' stuff with lard 

lardtiT, to Itad 

eidamar, cover with stonee 

■ The post participles inculpalia sod incororuiliM are found ia Lat,, 
but the in is here merely the negative particle prefixed to the past parti- 
ciple of cufpare and coronare, 

' The Himilarity ol the prefixes A- and EN- is shown by the enatence 
of GTicompaTiAar, encorbar. endre{{)iaT. and enfiar beside acompanhar, 
acorbar, adreitar, and afiar, with eiaclly the same meanings. In the 
case of ^li- companhar, the form with A- is found in the other languages, 
and the one with EN- seems limited to Prov. In that of ig. Mr, the 
other languages show, instead of either of these prefiies, forms with CON-. 

■ Enconfar ia a probable parasyntheton. 

■ In the example, ftlenar is used aa a noun, but it is probably the 
infinitive used as a noun. See p. 129, above. Levy, II, 4S8 and III, 428. 

t The past participle tn/umolui is found in Lat. but not the infinitive. 
• Possible parasyntheta. 


Formation or Verbs 

enfewoT,' take away 
enliajnar, biod, entwine 
enmaiholar,' wr&p up, envelop 
enmewlor, mingle 
etiJiMlkar, eoak, soften 
enmtmtar, mount 

enoUar, ffve pxtreme unction ti 
emuar, bind, tie 
enraigar, enroot 

enrigotar, curl (hair) 
enrolar, enroll 
ensanglentaf, make bloody 
ensangnat, redden with blood* 

muj-or, wall Up 
oliaT, oil, anoint 

'raigar, enroot (only radigai* 

roTnar, grow green 

sangnar, bleed 

aolasar, cheer 

enitrmanar, advise, warn 

enserrar, lock up 

enteiaaar,* give comfort 

eniacar,* soil, spot 

entaUntarf desire 

entdhar, notch, cut 

enlaviaTf put on (or sit at) table laular, put at table 

entravar, shackle, fetter 

enlramrsar («e), place oneself trofersar, cross 

across (7) 
entrdhar, spread like vines 
enlrenear, break, cut 

eniretar, intertwine tresar, weave 

entrUlar,' sadden 
tm-emi»ar,* varnish 

> The difference in meaning between the simple and the derived 
verb is due to the tact that EN- here represents not IN- but INDG-. 

> Variants are enmalkoTar and enmaiholar (cf. Ft. emmaiilcier). 
' P06sil>le psTsayntheta. 

• Anotbe;' example of the similarity and confusion between A- and 
EN-. as described above in encGmpanhar^ encorbar^ etc- Here, as there, 
the form with A-, instead of EN-, is the one that is found in the other 

■Possible parasyntheta. Enlalentar is found only in the past 
participle enlalental. 


436 Woao-FoBMATiON in Provencal 

«nvernir, overturn vertar, turn, spread 

envtronar, go around 

eitmhpar, envelop 

mvoludar' (se),t wallow, welter voludar, roll 

New formations are rare among the other conjugations 
except that ending in -dr. 

Of the verbs ending in -er, there is apparently only- 
one formed by the prefix EN-: 
ert/WiAcr, ft feign 

EM- and EN- form new verbs in -re in the followii^ 


embatre (se), pliuge, rush balre, beat 

emprendre, undertake prendre, take 

1 The past participle inToliUum eiists id Lat.. but envolvdar seems 
simply to be rormed on vatttdarKvotulare by means of EN-, an ordinary 
preGx-f onnatioD . 

t Words of Lat, origin tiaving the prefii EM- or EN- and the ending 
-or are: tmpachar (or empedegar) prevenK imped ware; empegar, gtarch 
<ttnpic(ire,' emptorar,iinph)TV<implorare: enamarar, euaraoiKiaamorare; 
encanlar, enchant <incn7i(ore; encrimiiuv, incriminate<incriininore,* 
endurar, harden <iR(iunire,' enebnar. inebriate <tn<tiriare,- eneacur, 
entice <ine8core,' enfieiar (apparently an alteration of en/eetr, infect) 
<inflcere; enformar, inform <tn/i>rmare; entutar, entwine <titnnMa™; 
eniumenor. ilIuniinate<iUuminare,- enombrar, darken <inunibrore,- enor- 
lar, eT.hoit<inhortaH; eraerlar, graft <»n*er(are; and tnvocar, invoke< 
invocare. Words probably of Lat. oriitin are empelUir, graft <*»mp«)Ii- 
(ore(T) and emprumlar. borrow < •imprumutore. Obscure words are 
etnploirar. eicitef?), endoacar, make soft(?) or poli8h(?). and emoiar 
(obscure in meaning). Stichei. 43, derives endoscar from Hndulaeare, 
but this seems improbable. £nsotar is possibly only a galiicisni for 
enpior. See Levy, III, H3. A word in which EM- has been substi- 
tuted for something else is emblidar. The usual form is oblidar, coming 
regularly from oblitare. Levy lists also a form omblidaT. This last 
form probably represents a confudon between the other two, the con- 
fusion being furthered by the common interchange of e and o in an initial 
syllable, particularly before m. See Grandgent, art. 44, sec. I. 

tt For the other Prov. words in -er, I,at. etymons are found, as 
empenAer<inipini;ere, ffnfranhtrKtnfringere, enlCTiherKintinoeTe. It is 
worthy of note that empenker did not split up into its elements and 
become empanher, like the others. This ia possibly due to confusion 
with another verb penA«r<jitn(jere. Enfenher is probably of Lat. origin 


Formation of Vbbbs 437 

enereire, believe erea^, believe 

enderdre,] set up, nuse 

Used with verbs in -ir, EM- and EN- are found in: 
embair^ (se), be full of care 
etiAattir, biing about batHr, build 

enAmpr, divulge, rumor t>ru(7tr, make noise 

empentir, repent 
enaigrir, become sour 
enardir, emboldeu 

enavatUir,' celebrate ovOTiftr, advance 

encobir,' covet 
eneonAtirir, burn 

enfoUttT,* make fun of fciatir, sport 

enfrevoliT, weaken 
enienir* soften 
enorgMotir,* make proud 

enrAaudir,* lead a ribald life ribaudir, make aliamelesB 

«nngutr,>tt become or make rich 

Used with verbs in -ezir, EM- and EN- are frequently 
used. Other prefixes are scarcely ever found in combina- 
tion with this suffix. 

tmaigrexiT,* make tlun maigreaT, grow ttiin 

vrtfeUezir, weaken 

a oQS etampls 

■ £ncoJnr is a hacd focm to accouot (or. SncoJKir is the form quoted 
by Tbomas {Enais. 283) from Foenter's edition of Girart de RosnUon, 
and this could come regularly from *ir>cuindire, 

' More probsbty a parasyntheton formed on folel. 

> These words are all possible parasyntheta formed on the simple 
adjective, as is tnie of the words in -EZIR also. 

• Etnacretcere and tniepescere eiiat in Lat. with the meaninss of the 
Prov. verba, but these words will not do phonetically as sources. See 
p. 303, above. 

t Of Lat. origia are enAeure<imb^xre, endire<indicere, empendrt 
Kimptndere, and enmetre<immillere. 

tt Words of Lat. origin having the prefii EN- and the ending -ir 
are: sndormir, put to sleep<indormfre,' en/ectr, infect <i7y5eere,- etiferir, 
utter, proclaim <iti/nTe (with change of conjugation) ; enaenoir. engender 
<injfenuere; and engerir, intrude <tn(rer«re. 



emmdefir, become bad 

etmoblenr, ennoble 

enteberir,' become warm 

enmrgonheHr, be ashamed vergonhezir, shame 

Used with verba ending in -attar, -elhar, etc., the only 
sure case of the use of EN- as a prefix 13 seen in: 
engnmddhaT (se),t scold, grumble 

Used with a verb ending in -ejar, EN-forms: 
ensenhorejar, become mighty aenhorejar, master, rule 


The prefix ENTRE- from the Latin INTER- has three 
well-defined uses in French, which have been explained by 
Darmesteter,' who has pointed out that from the original 
meaning of "between" — a contact between one thing and 
the middle of another — could come the idea of reciprocity 
when the verb was used with the reflexive pronoun, and 
also, as ENTRE- means "between," "in the middle of," 
the idea of half-doing a thii^ — uncompleted action. A few 
examples, also, show the original meaning of "between." 
Provencal has all of the meanings found in French. Recip- 
rocal verbs are formed by the prefix ENTRE- in connec- 
tion with se, the origm of which usage Meyer-Ltibke finds 
in the Latin construction, inter se, with a verb.* The 
use of ENTRE)- as "half" is also found in a few verbs in 

> 8m n. e, p. 437. 

t MoU Compoait, 112. 

'II. 680. Meyer-LUbke U wroog, 
pbenoroeiioii ie almost eotirely limited t< 
UDumial ID Prov. 

t For enderUeOiaT, eee parasyiilheta, p. filO. Another word. nWor- 
rottar, however, is a puwle. Levy corrects it to entortolfcor, which brings 
it Dear in form to tlie Fr. enlortiHer, whose meaning it haa. This was 
probably formed on the adjective iortilit. as wsa the Sp. tniorivar. 
EtUorioUiaT, if such a word exists, was probably formed on (ortuJut, 
instead of iarlilit, from Corliu. 


Formation of Verbs 439 

-tr, as eniravzir, eribredormir, and the original force of 
"between," "among" in entrelamr and eniremeaclar. 
Provencal seems also to have added the prefix to words 
which it chaises in no way, perhaps bemg originally 
added to verbs which by themselves had something of 
the force of ENTRE-, as forear. Eniregachar and enire- 
muzar do not differ in meaning from gachar and muzar. 
The lists follow. 

ENTRE- is prefixed to verbs in -ar in : 
enlramar (se), love one another amar, love 
enlr^ialhar, leap aroimd balhar, donee 

enlrecetar, warn, protect celar, conceal 

entreforear, fork, branch o£f forear, fork 

etUregachar, watch, guard gachar, watch 

entregelar, haJf-freeze gelar, freeze 

e7ilrelais<s; interrupt Icisar, leave, let 

entr^asar, interlace la^ar, wind, bind 

entremescJar, intermingle mexdar, mix 

en/r«muzar, be idle tmaar, trifle, loiter 

enlr(e)oUidar,> forget Midar, forget 

ertlreparaidar, converse paraular, talk 

enlrepautar, intetpose pountr, put, place 

mUrequilar* (fie), converse freely guUar, quit, abandon 

with one another 
enlrebUhar, carve out Udkar, cut 

entTetriar, unload, relieve, gather trior, gather, harvest 
entrwiTanar,\ encompass, sur- mronar, go around 

ENTRE- is used also with verbs ending in -re and -ir. 

^ B'otTobtidaT is translated by Raynouard as "inwardly forget," 
and the O. Fr. enlT'ovblier by Godefroy as "forget for Boroe time," i.e., 
" half-rorget." The oaly meaning that can be gleaned from the Prov. 
eiamplea, however, is simply " t« forget." 

■ Id spite of the form of the word, its base is undoubtedly a^itar 
and not quHar. We should expect entToquxtar as the derived word, but 
there muat have been some confuuon with quitar, leave. The Ft. 
t'entrequtiter, formed on guiUer, means only " leave one another." 

t An obscurely formed word is entr^/eicar, which seema to mean 


440 Word-Formation in Provencal 

Prefixed to verbs in -re, it is found mostly in verbs 
formed in Latin. A probable new formation is: 
«ntrepr«ndre,t seiee, grasp' prendre, take 

It is prefixed to verbs in -ir in; 
entrautir, half-hear autir, hear 

entredormiT, do« dormir, sleep 

entreferiT (ge), strike one another Sfir, strike 
entregamiT, adorn, ornament gamir, furnish 

enJr(«)(ibrtr, half-open otrir, open 

The Provencal ES-' from the Latin EX- may be 
classed with the prefixes A-, DE-, DES-, and EN- as a 
form that frequently became so weakened as to bring 
no change to the verb to which it was added. Of these, 
it is closest in meaning to DE3S-, and there are many 
pairs of words beginning with DES- and ES- that have 
exactly the same meaning. The development of meaning 
of the two is also very similar. EX- had at first just the 
force which belonged to it as a preposition — that is, 
it meant "from" or "out of," and is found in such words 

■ The same mesning as in O. Fr. Meyer-Lobke, 11, 680, expluna 
the meanins of the Mod. Fr. word aa being influeaoed by the Germ. 

■ ES- IB reKularly found aa the Prov. prefix in words at Lat. orisiii 
having in Lat. both EX- and E-, the latter having changed back at the 
time of the word's recompoHiiioD to EX-, for which it stood. Thus 
Meyer-LQbke points out in Lat. times examples of eileccra and exmuZ|Ki*« 
for ^egere and tmvigere. ES- ia not, however, the only form of EX- found 
in Prov. Grandgent (art. 55) states tliat EX- became ES- tiefore any 
coDwnaDt but s, but that EX--f8 apparenUy became EX- or ESS- 
(Prov, EIS- or ES-). Grandgent says nothing about the development 
of EX- when preceding vowels, but Levy seems to follow the rule of 
writing EIS- before a vowel or t and ES- before all other conaonanta. 
This is the rule that will be followed here. 

\ Bntrecluire, shut iD<t>i<ercIudere; enSredire, iDterdicKinJerdvccrc,' 
tntremttre (ae), interpose <i7i[«7mJoer*; entrerompn, interrupt <tn(errufn- 
pere; and enlTetraire, derive <inleriraAere are of I*t. origin. 


Formation of Verbs 441 

as exdudere, excurre, etc. From this, it nught easily 
pass to the meanmg of negation, as did DIS-, and this 
meaning is found, but in other languages rather than in 
Provengal, as for example in Italian, in which S- from EX- 
came to be the principal prefix of negative force. In 
Provencal there are several words, such as eseargar, 
eacelar, esfiiar, and esliar, which are the direct opposites 
of the verb without the prefix, but in most of them the 
original separative force may clearly be seen. Thus 
e^Uar, utu*avel, as opposed to jUctr, spin, or eafolhar, strip 
off leaves, as opposed to folhar, put forth leaves. DES- 
from the Latin DIS- remains the important negative 

Thus the original force of the prefix is more persistent 
in the Proven9al representative of the Latin EX- than 
of DIS-, It is preserved in full vigor in such words as 
esbranao', eadapar, esgotar, eslargar, eattrar, estrencar, 
esdire and esmetre, besides, of course, m many parasyn- 
theta. Yet ES-, like the other prefixes mentioned, has 
undergone a weakening in many cases so that there are 
words in which it adds nothing at all to the original 
verb, and this loss of force, if not as usual as in A- and 
DE-, is much more common than in DES-. Even inten- 
sive force may be found in some words, such as espesar, 
break to bits, and could come about in the same way 
that it originated in the other prefixes, from the nature 
of the word to which the prefix was added. To give an 
example of a word already existing in Latm, excoquere 
(Provencal escocer) means "to cook to pieces," in which 
case both meanings of the prefix may be seen.' It is 
thus clear that there can be no exact dividing line between 
the various meanings of any of these prefixes,- but that 
> That is, asparative and il 



they merge into one another.' All of the words in the 
list will come under one head or another, although there 
are some words which appear to have rather special 

Since so many prefixes had lost their force and gave 
no new meaning to the verb with which they were used, 
the substitution of one for another was natural. Thus, 
besides the interchange of ES- and DES-, ES- with its 
loss of force is sometimes substituted for EN-. Thus 
beside enmurar (Latin Hmmurare) is found esmurar, beside 
envelopar, esvelopar, and beside erriblesmar, e^iesmar. 
Other kinds of substitution will be noticed in the lists. 

EIS- (or EX-+vowel or s) is found in the following 
verbs lq -or: 
eisaitffraT, cheer, rejoice 

eisampliar, increase < 7) ampliar, make ample 

eisaTTOT,' confuae 
eisauior, raise, exaJt 

ei»ivemar,' support during winter ivemw, to winter 
euoblidar, forget 
euorbar,^ blind 

ES- is found in the rest of the verbs in -or: 
etbadar, yawn badar, open 

etbUismoT, become weak blatintu; turn pale 

etborrar* take away the floss or borrar, provide with floss, stuff, 

flock pad 

esbranear,' strip of branches, take bremcar, put forth branches 

' Cooper. 275. 

> Thus e^cambiar, esfaisarr esforsar, e^tiolaT. eabatre, uprendre, and 

' The past participle eitarrat Ib the only form found, and Beems to 
mean "coofused," "irresolute," and to be formed on a verb arrar, 
moHDing "to artange." 

" Probable patasyntheta formed on irem, borro, and branc. Etbatlar 
will be found \mtad only under parasyntheta {p. fi]2), althoush baalar 
exists, but with a totally different meaning from that of the compound, 

tor Lat. origin there is eittugar, wipe<«xnMiire. 


Formation of Verbs 
esbriixir, become violent, quarrel brivar, press 

escaboaar, plunge under 

eacairar, equare 

escoitoor, conquer 

eaUivar {only eaplioaf found), 


eseathaT,^ break apart 

coMar, unite 

exambiaT, exchange 

comWor, change 

caneelar, cancel 

escargar, diacharge 

cargar, charge, load 

eaceior, dear up, enJighten 

txUiT, conceal 

etdapar, hew, cut down 

escolpar. accuse 

eaeontiraT, view, consider 

COTWtrar, think 

erear, create 

Mcridca-, call 

eridar, cry out 

esdreUar, make Htraight 

e^ofeor, fail, perieh ( ?) 

falsar, falsify 

t^denar, irritate; (w), strive 

feUnar («), be angry 

eifilar, lUkravel 

JUar, spin 

eafolhar,' strip of leaves 

folhar, bloom 

e^ormar, form, portray 

eafonar, strengthen; with m— 

/orsor, force 


Mgachar, look at, notice 

esgaraT, look at 

agardar, look at, consider 

Mjwtor, drain 

gotar, drop 

etgrajmar, scratch 

eAaUta- (se), let oneself go, hurry 

iaisor, let, allow 

ealaTgar, spread out 

largar, let run 

Miewr, r^BC, exalt 

idioT, detach, unbind 

(iar, bind 

esIoTiffor, remove, delay 

• 3ee Stichel. 24 and 49. 



esmuror, wall up 

espaear, pass, finish, go away 

e«7>auiar,' expose pautar, put 

etpdar, strip of hair 

etpeaar, break to pieces petar, break 

eepUtnar, polish 

etpresar,^ Specify, say expressly 

eaproar, test, verify 

expndar* spit out 

ettalenUjT,' take away inclinatioD Uiimtar, desire 

eeterwr,* clean { ?) or divide into tertar, divide into three 

three (?) 
eetirar, stretch tirar, pull 

estemor, turn aside fornar, turn 

eelrencar, cut off, separate (reneor, out 

ettrepar, crush, trample on 

M(ro6ar,' re^t { ?) frobar, find; compose 

Cilvdar,' put out 
emeriiaT, be windy, blow 
esvergonhar, humiliate, dishonor 
emotor (una maiam), break t-iolar, violate 

into (a house) 
enrironar, encompass, surround 
eimlopar, envelop 
etfct/or.t annul, declare null vojar, empty 

1 S«paunir like patimr was influenced in meaning by the past psrti- 
oiple of ponere. 

■ Btprtiar and etpudar are formed on the past participle of the Lat. 
verbs exprimvre and txepuert. 

■A possible parasyntheton. 

• Levy gives the meaning of "clean," and BUSBests the correction to 
ttierier (<LBt. cxtergere). But the formation on teriar from tors, a third, 
seems more probable, and the ineaning of "divide into three" fits the 
passage well. (See Levy, III. 321.) 

• Levy given the word with a (juestion-mark. 

• Given by Raynouard as eiiumr, but corrected by Levy. The 
formation u dear. 

t There ace also many words having the prefix ES- and ending in 
-or that are not of Prov. formation. 

The words cleariy of Lat. origin are: eaealfar, he&Kexail/acere: 
etcomenjar and acumcrgar, excommunicate <ezc<Hnniuni(ire and excom- 
espachar, expedite <exp(icti(ire,' 


FoBMATioN OF Verbs 445 

Aside from the verbs in -or, ES- is hardly found as a 
Proven<;al prefix, except when used with the verbs in -tr. 

Thus, joined to the verba in -er, it is found only in: 
tioiter, devolve on, befaU cazer, fall 

Mten«rt («e), hold oneself back tener, hold 

and joined to verba in -re, only in: 
eabalre («e}, gambol, frolic bahe, beat 

«tpenjre, discourage perdre, lose 

esprendrej^i inflame, set afire prendre, take 

mpeetar, aMtiKeapedare; etpen$ar, spend <«zperuare. Here should 
be included certain words of Lat. origin recomposed ill Prov,, as: eemen- 
dar, emend <nn«ndiire.' ttraigar, uproot <enidtoare; and etvigorar, 
MrenslheaKeoieoTan. In ceitain other words, a new prefix ie found to 
have been avbiHtuUd in Prov. for the Ijit. one, as ES- for DE- in etcapilar. 
behead, and fAr IN- in eaearporaT, incorporate. In etmagituiT, the ES- 
is due to a confusion of the e of emaeinar ( Lat. imaginare) with the « 
lepresenting EX-. 

Words probably of Lat. oriain are as follows: eacardiar, toar< 
^exqaarticare; McorcAor, Bhorten<*B«eurl>ear<( f); etcorchar, flay (see 
also eaeorjaT, above) <*Kceorfteare,' <spancAiir, pour <yaX<*expand\caTt; 
and ettonar, stun (only past participle found) <*ezfi>nare. 

Words in which only a stem can be seen are eaiuffor, lisht up, formed 
on luc (seen in lucert, eta.) and nmiioaT, disturb, formed on the Genn. 
stem ma^- 

A word in which the prefix -ES is only apparent is ettreiaar. tighten 

A word obscure in formation is eaUUvar, happen. Sibaudanar ia 
obscure in meaning as well. 

For atalbiaT and «ilanAar see the verbal suffix -AR, p. 336. 

t Other words in -er of Lat. origin are afranker, eetei\htr. eiterter, 
and ealrenher, Etfranher is effringtre recomposed. Eatenher is from 
tiinaxure, estencr from txiergere, and eairenher from glringere. The 
ES- of etlenher and eitrenhsr is therefore not a prefix at all. 

tt All of the above words, and acaier in -er have corresponding forms 
in Fr. There are a good many words in -re of Lat. origin.; etbeart< 
AU>ert. ttiUaurt<exdudeTe. eieodre<exeulere, eacotre<exco{u<rc, acorre 
Kexpcndfre. Etbeure, oclaure, etdire, etmelre, and esmolre are recom- 
posed. Eslntire is from irutravre, with the n aasimilated (o the «. 
Ettuire, shut in, is obscure. 

A word with the prefix ES- and endipg in -eiser is also found — 
etpereiier, apparently derived from expiareictre. 


446 Word-Formation in Provencal 

It is used with verbs in -ir in : 

eriwtttr (m), become heated bolhir, boil 

eiimtgir, become known bni^ (brusir), make noise 

esbrunir, become dark tTunir, darken 

eecauzir, remark cauzir, see 

eseobrir, disclose, make free tobriT, cover 

escolhir, prepare eoUtir, collect 

escolcrir, discolor colorir, become colored 
', break, crush 


esffrazir, receive with pleasure graiif, accept 

e^aimr, rejoice 

esmomr, sadden 

eipoTtir, divide, separate 

estremir,\ make tremble tremtr, tremble 

Used with verbs in -ezir, ES- is found in; 
esbnineziT, become dark frrunear, darken 

endaTXir, brighten 
esferezir, anger, frighten 

It is found prefixed to a verb in -ejar in: 
espet^oT, unroll, release pevtjar, break 

The Provengal prefix FOR^ from the Latin FORIS- 
gives little trouble as to roeaniiq;. FORIS-, wjiich was 
not used in composition in Latin, meant "out of," "out," 
and these meanings are seen in the Provencal and also 
the French forma. The only development of meaning is 
seen in the fact that from the meaning "out of," "out of 
reason," it has come to mean "wrongly." hiforeisir, the 

+ Of Lat. origin (recompoaed) is aluHr, shine forth <eItl<^ere. 

An obscure word is eacantir, eitinguish. KCrting (No. 3,336) 
derives it Tram ezcandere. which, of course, does Dot account for the 1. 

Words of Germ, origin in which the prefix ES- is only apparent 
are esearir, accord, destine; e««imir. ridicule ; «aCT-eniir, protect; wneuJtr, 
defecate; and egpamir, split. 

Eamair. esqttizir. (see p. 347, d. t), alomvr, and ettranoir, are prob- 
ably formed by means of the suffii -IR. 


Formation or Verbs 447 

prefix, from the nature of the simple verb, can have no 
force. The examples are: 

forgUar, throw out (fitar, throw 

forJMTOT,' abjure, renounce jia-ar, swear 

forjuljaT, judge wrongly jutjar, judge 

forotlar, put out; excite otlar, take aw&y 

fonenar, | rave, be craiy seTMr, be aeusible 

FOR- is also prefixed to verbs of other conjugations. 

It is prefixed to verbs in -re in : 

fordawre, shut out elaure, close 

fardvre, show out, refuae duin, lead 

forfaire, forfeit, fail faire, do 

fortraire, take away (secretly?) traire, draw 
and to verbs in -ir in : 

forbandir, banish bandir, proclaim 

foreitir, go out eitir, go out 

foTvenir, put out, overturn wntr, come 

The Proven9al prefix MES- is clearly derived from the 
Latin MINUS-, and has depreciative force — that is, it 
frequently denotes a decline or retrogression from some 
better position, thus retaining to some extent the original 
force of the adverb mimis. Sometimes only negative 
force is perceptible, as in mesconoiser, but more often the 
other force also may be seen, as in mescomtar, metparlar, 
etc. The examples of verbs ending in -or are as follows: 
mescabar, lack codor,' finish, achieve 

meteonitar, miscount comtor, count 

metparlar, speak badly, slander pariar, apeak 
metpretar, scorn, disdain pmar, prize 

I Compare with peijurar in meamng. FOR- still has here its mean- 
iugof "out of," "away from," whereas PER- has the idea of " wronBiy " 
or "falsely." 

< Foreiamplesi)fc<i(Kir,seeStichel.23, JlfMcobar was probaUy formed 
OD eabar, though it may have been a parasyntheton formed on cap. head. 
I( is probably not. however, formed on macap as K&rting <No. 6194) 
lives it. The latter is either a postverbal or an independent formHtiOQ. 

t An obscure word is /orticapiar. 



MES- is prefixed to verbs in -re in: - 
meicreire, disbelieve ereire, believe 

ni«^atr«, do wioDg, oSeod faire, do 

metprendre, deceive; be misttikeii prendre, tfike 

and to verbs in -eiser, -oiser in: 
meeeonMter, not to know ammser, know 

and to verbs in -ir in: 
fMsSal>>^ir,'' fwl /aiAw, fail 


The Provencal prefix OLTRA-, OUTRA-, from the 
Latin uilra is used in forming a few popular verbs. Its 
meaning is that of " beyond," " beyond reason," as is seen 
in oUrocuj'ar, rave. It is fomid in the following forma- 

oUraenjar, rave e^^jar, think 

oUrapata^, pass limits pasar, pass 

oUraaalhir, pass beyond talhir, go out 


The Provencal prefix PER- comes from the Latin 
prefix PER-, which seems to have had several different 
meanings. Ordinarily, in composition it had the force of 
"thoroughly," "through and through," or "to the end," 
"completely,"* and also, as Darmesteter points out,' it 
seems in some verbs to have had the force of "here and 
there," "around." Most of these meanings are found in 
the Provencal words which have come down from Latin.* 

> The prefix has no perceptible force here, owing to the nature of 
the verb to whicb it was added. For mm, often civen ae a pre&i, aee 
compound words. 

'But this purely intensive force was often loBt, «o that frequently 
the compound hardly differs from the mmple verb. Thia ia al»o true of 
the Prov. forraatioDS. In perjuror, the prefix had the l 
"falsely" in Lat. 

' MoU CompoUa, 114. < As pereeore, perperttar, e 


Formation of Verbs 449 

In the Provencal formations, of which there are but few 
examples, as in the other languages, the prefix again shows 
the idea of "thoroughly" or carrying to an end. The 
meaning of "here and there" seems to be lacking. 

PEIU was sometimes substituted for other prefixes, 
as for PRO- in perlongar. All cases like this will be 
indicated in the following lists. 

PER- is found prefixed to verbs of the first conjugation 
in the following examples: 
percantar,' manage, adminUter eaniar, aing 
percasar, aeek, seek to obtain cosor, drive away 

pa-colar,' embrace (color) 

perdonar, paidoa dtmar, give 

per^iar,' give a border to fii"'', Bpin 

■perfondar,' plunge, precipitate (fondar) 

perforsar (te), make an effort fonar, force 

perfumar, perfume fumar, smoke 

pergardar, look at, iuapect gardar, look at 

pvrgifar( t) gitar, throw 

pergosiar, taste carefully goetar, taste 

perhngar,' prolong 

peroliar, give extreme unction to oliar, oil 
perpmaar, propose, resolve paumr, put, place 

perporba-, report, declare poriar, carry 

perqailoT, give satisfactioD quitar, free, acquit 

perUioar,\ touch, concent Ukot, touch 

' Cf. decantar with the same maaning. This word was formed in Lat. 
OD cantor, and meant origiaally "to atop ainKios." The devdopment in 
meaaing ia not thoroughly clear, but as PER- and DE- both often had 
the idea of thoroughneaa, PER- may have been substituted for the 
originBl prefix. 

■ Percotar and perfondar are almost certainly formed on the nounl 
col, neck, and fon, bottom. See parasyntheta (p. 514), therefore. The 
verbs colar and fondar eiiat, but are not directly connected with the de- 
rived verbs. Perfilar may also be a parasynthelon formed on fil, thread. 

■ Here we have a aubatitution ol PER- for PRO- (Lat. prolonoare). 

t Verba ending in -or of Lat. origiD are: perdurar, last forever< 
perdurart; pencruiar, ioveatigate thoroughly <jjer8cruiare; perjuror, swear 
falsely <jjerjUTOre,- permudaT, exchange <peTmu(arB,- pernOcAar, spend the 
night <pemocfara; and perpentar. reflect <perp<niiira. 



PER- is found prefixed to verbs in -er apparently 
only in verbs of Latin origin, f It is prefixed to Provencal 
formations in -re, however, in the following examples: 

perestendre, Btretch out ettendre, extend 

perfendre, cleave completely fendre, cleave 

perprendr«,tt gra^! underataud; prendre, take 

and to verbs in -ir in the following examples: 

perbolhir, parboil bolkir, boil 

percomptir, fulfil wmpltr, fulfil 

perofriT, offer ofiir, offer 

perregir («e), pass one's life, live regir, rule 

per«rwr,tft deserve «emr, serve 
and to verbs in -eiaer in: 

■perereUer, increase creiier, grow 

The Provencal prefix POIU seems to be found in but 
one word, in which it means "out of," "away." In this 
case, it is also written PORREl-, and seems clearly to come 
from the Latin PORRO-. The example is : 
poTffilar,^ throw away, dissipate ffH*^, throw 

The prefix PRO- from the Latin PRO- is almost as rare 
as POR^ in Provengal. It is found in a number of words 

' This id also wiitteo as two words, as gilar por. It is clearly a 
Prov. formation. 

t The verbs of Lat. origin in -er are: perplater, p]xaae<perpla/xre; 
pertmer, belong <j>eriin«re; pertenier. overr:oiae<pernncert; and pervarr, 
forsBee, apparently from providere with change of prefix. 

tt Verbs of Lat. origin in -re are: percorre, run throuBh<j>«rcurT«,- 
pemumre, promote <promovere (with PER- substituted Cor PRO-); 
and pertrairc. drag, draw<pn-(TaAere. 

ft+ Verba of Lat. origin ending in -ir are: perftcir, hidah <perfitere; 
perlegir. readKpertegere; and perqutrir. aeek oixKptrquirere. 


Formation of Verbs 451 

derived from Latin,' but apparently in onty one new 
formation. Ck>nsequently it is difEcult to determine its 
precise force. It is found in: 
prodenhar, aid, defend denhar, deign, approve 

The Romance prefix RE-, coming from the Latin RE-, 
has been studied with particular care by Darraesteter in 
bis Mots Compoais,* where the uses of the Latin prefix 
have been classified under six headings In order to compare 
them with the uses of the French prefix. For the various 
meanings of the prefix in Latin, which Darmesteter 
classifies as (1) repetition, (2) re-establishment in a 
former condition or position, (3) augmentation, (4) retro- 
gression (retirement or deterioration), (5) reaction or 
opposition, and (6) reciprocity or exchange, he finds 
examples in both Old and Modem French, showing how 
clearly most Romance processes of word-formation are 
but continuations of processes originating in Latin.* 
To be sure, Darmesteter does give one usage in French 
not existing in Latin, according to which the prefix has 
the force of "on my part," "on your part," etc., acconUng 
to the subject of the verb, but this usage seems to be 
peculiar to Old French; at least it is difficult to find any 
positive examples of it in Provencal. The various 

■ Tbus procunir<procurare, fToUmQaTKprolongaTe, promelreKpro- 
mitUre, promoter <promevtTt, and prohibir<prohtiiere, 

' Pp. 1 15-20; another treatment goiog ioto much grealer detail is 
Dru Praftx RE im FramSiiichen (Weimar, 1904) by Mm Meinicke. 
The beAdinga are subetantiaUy those o[ Danneateter, whose simpler 
clasaification will be followed here. 

> Mejrer-LObke, II, 681. says that the idea of repetilion, or doing a 
thine again, has disappeared completely in Romance, and that the idea 
in words apparently of this Idnd is always one of change. Surely this 
is a rather broad statement, however. Observe, for eiample, the list 
of Prov. words under Group I, and compare also the new words formed in 



meaninga of the prefix are closely allied, however, and 
it is often difficult to decide under which heading to place 
individual verba. Darmeateter has traced back all the 
■ meanings, except the one just mentioned, to the original 
idea of repetition, the clearest and most usual employment 
of RE-,^ and his study of the question, although purely 
theoretical, seems clear and plausible. It shows how the 
various meanings were derived ftom a sii^le idea in Latin, 
and the words formed in Romance show, for the most part, 
some one of the Latin meanings. The new meaning 
^ven for Old French appears to be exceptional, but it 
also can easily be derived from the original ones. 

The prefix RE-, with its great diversity of meanings, 
did not escape the fate of some of the simpler prefixes — 
that of losing all force whatever. In the Provencal of our 
period, which was probably not very different from the 
spoken lai^uage, RE- still has most of the Latin mean- 
ings in its new formations, besides existing in several 
words in which it shows no force at all. This loss of 
force, however, took place naturally enough in a suffix 
with such varied and delicate distinctions of meaning 
as to be not always intelligible to the common people, who 
saw in some of these words no force in the prefix. Con- 
sequently, we find in Provencal of this period cases where 
the simple word and the meaningless compound exist 
side by side, just as was the case with diminutive suffixes. 
In Modem French, on the other hand, there is more of 
a distinction to be made between the literary and the 
[Ktpular language. The latter has continued to form 
meaningless compounds by means of RE-, to be used 
instead of the simple verb. The Uterary language has 
attempted to keep out compoimds of this kind, and to use 

> MoU CompoUa, 117. 


Formation of Verbs 453 

RE- ftith iterative force only. Yet in a few cases the com- 
pound word has crept into the language, and in these 
cases, the simple word tends to disappear, as, for example, 
emplir is giving way to remplir, and enconlrer to rencordrer. 

The uses of the prefix RE- might profitably be studied 
separately for each of the Romance languages. Pro- 
vencal is distinct from French, Italian, and Spanbh in 
not using RE- before other prefixes,' although double pre- 
fixes are common in the langu^e. RE-EM- is very fre- 
quent in the other three, as REM-, REN- in French, 
RIM- in Italian, and RE-EM- in Spanish.^ Another 
difference from French is that there are scarcely any clear 
cases of words in Provencal with the ideas of opposition 
or reaction, or of re-establishment. 

To illustrate the different uses of the prefix in Pro- 
vencal, the words will be given under the different head- 
ings according to meaning, although shades of meaning 
are often so delicate that classification is sometunes 

1. Repetition {Verba in -or) 

rebaitar, kisa again baizar, kies 

reecdar, calm again caUar, calm, ulence 

redatiar, oloee agun, dose up dot/or, close 

TeeomtoT, tell again, recount comlar, count, relate 

reemprenhar,* reimpregnate emprenhar, impregnate 

refeTTOT, re-iron ferrar, bind with iron 

Tefilar, spin again fi^'', spin 

remanjar, eat again matijar, eat 

Tenunidar, remarry maridar, marry 

renornnar, rename nomnar, name 

■ Cf. also the modem language. 

8 A-+RE-. DE- + 


454 Word-Formation in Provencal 

Of the verbs ending in -re, tliere is only refaire, not 
formed in Latin, and this is a recomposition of rejicere. 

Under -tr there is: 
recobrir, recover eobrir, cover 

2. Re-establiskmeni 

Verbs of this class seem to be entirely lacking, with the 
possible exception of: 

rebailar, give bfick, or give agEtin ( 7) bailor, deliver, give 

3. AiigmerUation 

reeonfortar, strengthen, revive eon/arCar, comfort 

redoptar, fear, dread doptar, doubt 

remolhar, wet through molhar, wet 

relToncar(t), cut ahort, cut off Ironear, cut 

4. Retrogression (removal, retirement) 

rebolar, push back bolar, puah 

TemenaT, lead back menaT, lead 

repropchar, reproach propckar, approach 

retirar, draw back, take tirar, draw 

relomar, return lomar, turn 

remrar, return, turn virar, turn 

Under verbs in -er, there b only r^ranker, a recom- 
position of the Latin refringere. 

5. Reaction, Opposition 
Verbs of this kind seem entirely lacking in Provencal.' 

6. Reciprocity, Exchange 
resemblar(t), resemble senAhr, seem 

Thus it is doubtful whether there are any Provencal 
formations of either of the last two classes. 


Formation of Verbs 


7. Prefix vnth no force ai all 

Words of this kind are much more numerous in Pro- 
Ten^al than those belonging to any of the classes given 
by Darmesteter. Those in -ar are as follows: 

refinar, end, cesse 
refizm; trust 
Ttyardar, look at 
TegazardoTtar, reward 
T^ostar, bring together 
TelargoT, relax, free 
remirar, look at 
repautor, place, put, rest' 
ruauUir, bound, stamp 
(retauteJAor),' leap, bound 
reBoziar, satiate 
Teslancar, staunch, stop Up 


Under -re are found: 

fiatr, trust 
gardar, look at 
gazardojiar, reward 
jostoT, assemble 
largar, let run 

pausor, put 
ntutor, leap 

aaziar, satiate 
etlancoT, staunch 
lonibaT, fall 
tnronar, go around 

Under -ir are found : 
rtblandir, flatter 
Te}Tenr, cool 
re'pentir, repent 
Tttmtir, (eel, experience 
retenltr,' resound 

Under -ejar are found: 

Ttfiamejar, shine 
TemerctQOT, thank 

bUmdir, flatter 

pentir, repent 
sentir, feel 
lenHr, resound 

fiamejar, shine 
mercejar, thank 

> Sometimes with the meBQiag of "reat oneself," 

< No simple verb tautelhar is found, though lauiiUer exists ii 



The Proven5al prefix SO- from the Latin SUB- is 
very rare in new formations, just as the representatives of 
SUB- are in the other Romance languages. French does 
not appear to use SUB- at all to fonn new verbs, and 
Italian and Spanish have it in very few forms, as, for 
example, in Spanish in aocakar and sofreir, and in Italian 
in succhiudere, etc. The only new formation that Pro- 
vencal appears to possess is aopartir, divide, distribute, 
with little difference in meaning from the simple verb 
partir, perhaps, however, having a trace of the idea of 
subdivision. Another word formed in Provencal, with no 
Latin word as source actually found, is sojomar, but 
*subdiumare must have existed,' The real Latin forma- 
tions, on the other hand, tend to disappear in Provencal, 
though many of them have persisted in French and else- 
where. Of the Provengal words with SO-, then, sojomar 
and sopartir have been treated, the latter probably 
having been formed on the analogy of mthdividere, which 
later disappeared. Sofranher is a recomposition of the 
Latin auffringere; and sobrendre, which app>arently shows 
SOB- instead of SO- from SUB-, probably represents 
SOBRE- from SUPER- with a dropping of the RE- before 
the re of rendre. SUB- tended greatly to disappear on 
account of the gradual substitution of the longer form, 

The Provencal prefix SOBRE-, in forming new verbs, 
gives little difficulty as to meaning. It merely retains 
the meaning of the Latin preposition super, from which it 



is derived, in all of the new formations, whether SUPER- 
means "over" with the idea of place, as in sobredaurar, 
or, as is much more frequent, with the idea of excess, 
or at least large quantity, as in aobrelamar, aobretarzar, 

SOBRE- is prefixed to verbs in -ar- in: 

sobramar, love too much eanar, love 

aobravantar, aurpaaa, go avansar, advance 

ahead of 

sobrecoehar, hasten (greatly) eochar, hasten 

sobrecujar,' be presumptuous (?) cujar, think 

aobredaurar, gild over daurar, gild 

iohrefoTgoT, make great effort forsar, force, strive 

sobrdauzar,' overpraise lauzor, praise 

sobrennmlar, siirmouiit montaT, mount 

eo6r(e)onror, honor highly onrar, honor 

sobreparlar, talk too much parlor, talk 

aobreportar, sunnount porlar, carry 

»ab<reUa-xar, delay greatly tartar, delay 

eobreUmprar, moderate greatly lemprar, moderate 

sobreversar, t overflow, super- ver»ar, spread 


SOBRE- is prefixed to verbs in -cr in : 

sobreltaer, shine much luter, shine 

sobresaber,' know much aaber, know 

sobrelemer, fear much lemer, tear 

aobremler, be superior to vtder, be worth 

> Only the past participle is found, 

n Georges' dictionary, as 

■ Superiaptre, from which eohraabrr could come, is found, but has 
the nteatiing of "have an excellent taste," "to taste" being the original 
meaning of aaptrc, Sobre»aber with the roeaning here given appears to 
be u Prov. formation. 

t Words with the prefin SOBRE^ and the ending -ar of Lat. origin 
ere, lobreTtadar. float <supemalare, and (i>6re(()ond>ir, superabound< 


458 Word-Formation in Phovbn^al 

and to verbs in -eiser in : 

tcbrepareigtr,^ appear over pareiter, appear 

to verbs in -re in: 

tobreprendre,i^ surprise, surround prendre, take 
60ST-, 60TZ-, 80Z-, SOB- 

The Latin prefix SUB-, as stated above,' was generally 
replaced by the longer form SUBTUS-, Even this form, 
however, was rarely used in Provengal, and is found in very 
few words. SUBTUS- took several developments in 
Provencal, as SOTZ-, the phonetic development, and 
another fonn SOST-, which occurs in very few words 
and was probably only a dialect difference from SOTZ-, 
showing a metathesized form.' The only real examples 
of the form appear to be sostmonir, found in the Bur- 
gundian Girart de Rossilbm, and sostcavar in Peire Cardenal. 
Sostmonir is, of course, only the Latin submonere with a 
change of prefix from SUB- to SUBTUS- in the meta- 
thesized form, and sostcoDor, to mine, also exists in Latin 
imder the form of suhcavare. Cavar, to pierce, exists in 
Provencal, and sostcavar might have been formed from it, 
but the change of prefix in the Latin verb is more probable, 
as other examples of the change of SUB- to SUBTUS- 
are so common. Another frequent form of the prefix is 
SOS-, also found in one word as SOZ-,' both of which 
forms indicate SUBTUS- as their soiu-ce. The form 

■ P. 456. 

■ Sozmoveroi^mtoMTe, 

1 Of Lot, orijon is aobrecreiaer , increase <supercr««cert. 

tt Of Lat. origiD are aabracriure, aaptiTBcrihtXiuperteribere, Bud tub- 
retltadrt, eil«nd oyer<superextejtdere, showing a Lat. double prefix. 

A word with the prefix SOBRE- and the ending -ir o( Lat. origin is 
lobrevenir, corae upOTtpervemrt. 


Formation op Veebs 459 

SOS- ia found in sosfoire, sosjazer, sosplantar, sosrire, 
sostraire, which words exist in Latin with SUB- as prefix, 
as subfoedere, sybjacere, aupplatiiare, suhridere, svblrakere.^ 
How common this change of prefix was is seen in some 
Old French words, which in their more recent develop- 
ments have lost all outward sign of the prefix SUBTUS-. 
Such words are sosmeUre, soslever, soalegier.' The analogy 
of sospirar and sostener from the Latin susptrare and 
sustinere has been su^ested for the Provencal words 
sosrire, sosterrar, and sostraire.^ It would be equally pos- 
sible for the French words, as suspirare became n Old 
French sospirer. This analogy with sua = sursum may 
perhaps have influenced some words, more particularly 
the French soaUver, soslegier, since the SUB- of sublevare 
and aubJeviare seems to have been equal in force to SUS- = 
up; nevertheless in most of the words SOS- still means 
"under," and must go back to SUBTUS-, substituted for 
SUB- of like meaning, on account of its length and 
sonority. When SUBTUS- had become SOTZ-, SOS-, 
other new words may have been formed by analogy 
with them, but such cases are very rare. With the form 
SOTZ-, a few words are found — soUescriure, sotzintrar, 
and sotzportar, but these again are but the Latin words 
subscribere, sutnntrare, and supportare with a substitution 
of SUBTUS- for SUB-. Sotzpauzar, put under, seems to 
be the only example of SUBTUS- in a word in which it is 
not merely a substitution for SUB- found in words exist- 
ing in Latin. 

' Is there also a (orra eiibslrahcre t This is the etymon which the 
Dii:. Gen. pvee for the Ft. touatraire. The subs-, however, appeats 
to be a contracUon ot SUBTUS-. 

■ Soumetlre, souleier. aod amttagtr in Mod. Fr. See Molt Compoeta, 

■ Graadgent, art. 66, sec. 1. 


460 Word-Formation ik Phovencal 

TRAS-, (trans-), TRE8- 

The Latin prefix TRANS- is found under several 
forma in Provengal: (1) as TRANS-, in words coming 
from learned words formed in Latin, as iransfigurare;' 
(2) as TRAS- in developments of a few words formed in 
Latin, mostly of a more popular formation, as trasvazer 
from b-ansuodere*— although some of the learned words are 

found with TRAS- as well as TRANS and in popular 

words formed in Provengal; (3) as TRE(S)- in one or two 
words showing the influence of the French TRES-, as 
tresanar as well as trasanar; (4) as TRA- in a very few 
words,* most of them having TRA- in Latin, and becom- 
ing so closely welded together as not to allow the prefix 
to be recognized as such and so turned back to TRAS-. 

Thus the only form of the prefix used in making new 
words is TRAS-, but there are several examples of this 
kind of formation in Provengal. 

TRAS- is joined to verbs in -or in: 
tr<ucujar, be full of arrogaace eujar, think 

traepoior, go beyoad; die patar, pass 

' A list of the worda of thia kiud would contain tramfigar, (ronn- 
fieurar, tranaforar (found also with TRA3-), tranaformar, Irantolotir, 
Iraiulatar (formed oq irangUtium), trangmMdar (also with TRAS-), 
tratitnomnar, iraniplantar (also with TRAS-), and traniporlar. 

' Also traecolar and tnuluter and tbe woida having TRAS- bb well 
ae TRANS- given in note 1. 

• As tragiiaTKlTajtctaTe (bIbo found aa (roiffitar); (raBer«ar<*(ran»- 
tersare. formed on Iratuwrstte; and trapcnar, fiunt{T) <*(rapenore(/) - 

• This word is listed by Raynouard. but only the past participle 
tratmeliai is found. Raynouard translates tratvtdiar by "to trouble." 
The word is also found in Appel'a Chreatomalhu (No. 100, line 20), but 
no translation of it is given in the vocabulary. It seems probable that 
tbe word should be corrected to Inuaomelhal. which would give the right 
number of syllables to the line. Tratiomtlhat, would be a parasyntheton 
formed on somelhar, be sleepy, and the meaning which such a formation 
would have fits the passage exactly. 


Formation of Verbs 461 

Iraesautar, leap beyood saatar, leap 

iTossuzar, sweat through suzar, sweat 

traelombar, overturn, upset lombar, fall 

Irattomar, upset, overturn Icmar, turn 

It is prefixed to verbs in -«■ in: 
Iraieenher, giid on cenher, gird on 

t« verbs in -re in : 

tratlolre, transport, lolre, take 

and to verbs in -tr in : 
traataihiT, transgress talkir, go out 

The meaning of TRAS- in the various formations ^ves 
little difficulty. It is regularly that of "through" or 
"beyond," with an occasional figurative use. 


In the formation of nouns, almost exactly the same 
prefixes are employed as in the formation of verbs, but 
nouns formed by means of prefixes are much less numer- 
ous than the verbs have been seen to be. The general 
principles applied to the formation of both seem to be the 
same, with the one exception that loss of force in the prefix 
is much less usual in the noun-formations than among the 
verbs. Here it was seen that most of the really common 
prefixes were sometimes, at least, used without force, 
whereas in the case of nouns, such prefixes as CON-, 
CONTRA-, and DES- are never forceless. The only 
nominal prefixes that seem to be used in thb way are 
EN-, ENTRE-, and ES-. Of these, EN- b only occasion- 
ally used without force, ENTRE- is so used in all but two 
words, and ES- seems always to have that use. The two 
words with ENTREl- referred to are enirecilh and entre- 
uelh. ETitredlh seems to have been formed in Latin,' 
and entreuelh was probably formed by analogy with it. 
The other words m ENTREl- may have had entreforc 
as a starting-point. This is probably a poatverbal noun 
formed on entrejorcar, and from the nature of the verb, 
the prefix could have little force. This postverbai 
formation seems to be the explanation for most of the 
examples of the forceless prefix, with ES- as well as with 
ENTRE-, although often no verb is found. The force of 
EN-, as seen in the verbs, was at best very VEtgue; it is, 
therefore, not surprising to find among the nouns examples 
in which it has no force. All of these may, indeed, be 

1 See p. 473. n. I. below. 



Formation of Nouns 463 

postverbals. There are, however, also other examples 
in which EN- has its prepositional force, in which cases 
adverbial phrases gradually became used as simple 
nouns. This same kind of formation is also true of the 
prefix A-.^ 

The nominal prefixes will now be studied in alphabetical 

Although there are many noims in Provencal begin- 
ning with the prefix A-, it is sometimes difficult to deter- 
mine whether the prefix was used to form the noun, or 
whether it was made in some other way. There seem 
to be very few examples of noims formed by using the 
prefix A- with any part of speech. Ajar comes 
probably from a word formed in Latin,^ in which language 
there are some examples of this kind of formation, although 
most of them appear to be from the classical speech. 
Most of the nouns with the prefix A- that are found 
are, however, beyond doubt, merely nouns formed by the 
use of the stem of the corresponding verb. This was one 
of the commonest ways of forming abstracts, and will 
be described fully farther on.* Abstract nouns exactly 
like the infinitive of a verb, except for the absence of the 
termination, nearly always belong to this class. Thus 
such words as adop, afan, ajost, and aseTisa hardly belong 
here. Even arrenc appears to come from arrengar, 
formed on rengar from renc, and not directly from renc. 
Arrega, line, furrow, appears to be formed on rega, but 
the A- may be nothii^; more than a case of agglutination 

■ See the lists or words under A- and EN-, pp. 464 and 471. 
> Mott Comprait, 146. 
•Part IV, chap. i,. below. 



of the article.' The word exists in the simple form in the 
other languages. This leaves only the following possi- 
bilities of cases of the formation of a noun by prefixing A-, 
and not all of these are certain: 
abandon, freedom, "abaadon" bandtm, penniaaion 

apoeilal, potentate poeelat, power 

aratieura, affiictioD raneura, bittemees 

asenhal, banner senhal, signal 

aviron, tiller viron, around 

The prefix ANTI- is found in very few new formations 
in Provencal. Of purely learned origin, coming from the 
Greek ami. and passing through the Latin ANTI-, it 
is found in some learned Provencal words descended from 
the original Greek words,' or in imitation of them; but 
Provencal formations are rare. Two at most are found : 

It is to be observed that words formed by use of ANTI- 
refer only to persons, CONTRA- beit^ used elsewhere. 
A ntipapa means (the man) against or opposed to the pope. 
Antiirobador, the one opposed to or opposite to a (good) 
troubadour. From such words as anticrist and antipapa, 
ANTI- seems to have contracted contemptuous force. 

' The same ia possibly true of some of the words listed as having 
the prefix A-, but the changed meaaing of the derived word makes it 
appear less probable. Atenhal and atn'ron (maBculine words in whieh 
this would be impossible) may be post-verbal oouns formed on aimhalar 
and arironar, although the (onner is not found. The latter erisis, 
however, as doea avironer, in O. Fr„ and these verbs may be the sources 
of the Fr. and Prov. noun asiron. although Diei and the Die, Gtn, give 
the Fr. DouD as formed by the prefix. 

) Such words aa antx/raaxt. anlilkeaie. aniilheton, etc., are of course, 

' Even this is found in Late Lat., and in the text in which the Prov. 
word is found, it is probably a translation of a Fr. word and verj- late. 
This would leave anlitrobador as the onlj- probable Prov. formation. 



The prefix BES- from the Latm BIS- is found in only 
a few words in Provencal, but moat of them are interesting 
on account of their meaning. BIS- originaHy meant 
"twice," and this meaning is found in some of the Pro- 
vencal examples, as in beacalon and beaeueg. But the 
depreciative force which it contracts in Provencal as 
elsewhere is equally common, as in beslei. In other ex- 
amples, as beaealme and bestor, the precise force of BES- 
b not clear. In heacambi, it changes the simple word 
very little. Yet the most interesting change of meaning 
is the one from doubleness to depreciation. Darmes- 
teter* in treating this suffix considers this change as 
a general process of lai^uage, arising from the cases 
where the diversity was a fault, and not due to any one 
particular word. From his examples, thb seems likely 
enough. The process is one found in nearly every 

The Provencal nouns found with the prefix BES- are 
as follows: 
bttcaire, irregularity, atrange caire, square 

betccdmt, open hole or gar- calm, heath, bare land 

ret (?)» 

beicaltm,' double step escalon, step, round 

bescambt,' change, exchange eanM, change 

' MoU Compotit, 127-29. 

> Even examples in which no prefix at all is involved tend to show 
this, la Engl., torinatBDce, the word "duplicity" often has a bud aeuse. 

'The precise mcHoing la doubtful, but calm from the Lat. calmit 
(in Du Cauge) Is clearly at the base. 

■ We Hbould expect bauadon. There is . 
here, a kind of syllabic superpoeition, as BES- ii 

a verbal eubatantive from 


Word-Formation in Pboven5al 

beteueg} biscuit 
6e«Iet, iDJustice 
bettor, '^ bastion, turret 

The prefix CON- is used to form a few nouns in Pro- 
vencal, mostly on nouns, alttiougb cormron appears to 
be otherwise formed. The total list of nouns m Pro- 
vencal with this prefix b not large, and aside from the 
words clearly coming from words formed in Latin, 
several others of our Provencal words seem to have been 
formed there. Such are coheiritz, comaire, confraire. The 
masculine coheres is found in Latin, and Du Cange gives 
examples of commater and confratTes — the latter, it is 
to be observed, only in the plural. He also gives one 
example of co?icuba, and other words on this stem, con- 
cubina, concvbare, concubatio are common. Concoa can 
hardly be a Provengal formation. 

In Provencal noun-formations with CON-, the prefix 
.may keep its prepositional force. Thus we have: 
eoTieotol, co-consul cosol, codbuI 

eons«rt>,tt companion in service serr, slave 
All of the examples thus far have therefore denoted 
persons. A formation denoting a thing is seen in coti- 
tensa, dispute. It appears to be formed on tenea, but the 
word is of peculiar formation. The Latin contenlionem 
gave covtenson, and, by dropping the prefix, it may have 

1 A past participle (meaning " tniee-cooked ") used as a noun. 
' The chaoge of meaning here ia not very clear. 

t Another word apparently having BES- ii haimh or htzonk. ESr- 
ting (No. 8.878} gives &t« xmium as source, but this would DOt account 
lor the voidDg of the "a" in Fr. and Ital. as well as in Pniv. 

tt The words of Lat. origin, as meutioned above, are coAeinlJ. comairt, 
ooncoa. and confrain. 


FoauATioN OP NouNB 467 

given both tenson and tensa, the two forms representing 
the two cases. Conlensa,^ may be an addition of the 
prefix in imitation of contenson beside tenson, or, like tensa, 
it may simply have indicated another case. 

On a preposition {viron) is formed : 
coneiron, direction, vicinity viron, around 

The prefix CONTRA- is used to form several new 
nouns in Provencal by being joined to simple nomis. As 
to meaning, CONTRA- is not difficult to describe. Its 
most important meaning, as was the case when joined 
to verbs, is that of opposition. Thus c&nlraelau and 
corUrajogador have this force. From this meaning of 
"against" or "counter," comes, as in the verbs, the idea 
of a balance between the things opposed. Thus we have 
eoiUrapas and conirapea. Contraporta means the outer 
door as opposed to the inner one. Contrataras seems to 
mean owners of lands opposite each other.^ This meaning 
of "opposite to" (in position) is more clearly seen in 
contrasagel, counter-seal. The meanings are all closely 
related, however, and arise from the idea of duality. The 
list of formations of this kind is as follows:' 
contraclau, counter-keystone clan, key, keystone 

contradich* opposite, reverse, con- dick, speech, decision 

1 Du CaDge gives conlenlia, but he merely infers its existence from 
an O. Ft. word found in Joiaville. See Korting, No. 2.482. 

• See eiamples in Levy. I, 350. ContTaterras probably meant origi- 
nally "lands opposite or adjoimng each other," but in botti examples 
given in Levy, the vrord appears to bo personified to mean the owner of 
the land. 

> Almost all of the examples here given seem to be of the type in 
which the prefix ia used as an adverb and not as a preposition. HS con- 
trapei, contrajooador. etc. 

< Perhaps simply the past participle of coniradire used as a noun. 



eontrqfort,' reMstaiice( ?) , unpleaa- 

ftntn«83(?), di8gust(?) 
conlrajogador, opponent id play jogador, player 
amtrapag, counter-movenient{ 7)' pas, step 
confrapes, counterweight; retribu- pea, weight 

tion (see also postverbals) 
eonlraponehajnen, counterpoint ponehatnen, pointing 
amtraporta, outer door porta, door 

cantraTol^ ) controller, inepec- 

amtrasagd, counter-eeal sagel, ( 

conlraUrrag, owners of adjoining terra, I 
or opposite lands ( ?) 

The Provencal prepoaition DA VAN-, from the com- 
bination of Latin prepositions de+c^+ante, is found 
used as a prefix in two words, in both of which it has 
its adverbial force of "before," or that of the English 
prefix "fore":* 

barri, rampart 
corredor, runner 

> The word U not entirety clear, but ita meaniag. judging from the 
examples in Levy, I, 34S, seems to be as given above. Conlra/oH seems 
to have meant originally "strong against" or "equally strong," and 
it was probably later used aubstan lively, tu one of the examples 
in Levy, it seems to have preserved its adjectival force. See adjectives 
(p. 482, n-t). below. 

■ The meaning is not thoroughly clear. Id the one example given, 
it evidently has something to do with the working of a clock, and the 
word may have become confused with eontrapet (literally counterweight) . 
See Levy, I, 347. 

' CotxlraroU ^contra rolula. On eonirarole were probably formed 
*amtrarolar aod amlrarolador. CantmroU, probably originally denoting 
a thing, may have been later used to denote a person. Finally contra- 
rolador was probably formed by analogy with the other words denoting 
the agent of an action. 

• This use seems peculiar to Prov. None of the modem languages 
use tbe preGi in compounds, and O. Fr. has only one or two examples of 
it. Cf. Godefroy. Mod. Fr. uses instead avani. 


Formation of Nodns 

Another ProveD^al prefix that may be given here on 
account of being formed from a similar combination of 
Latin prepositions {4e+in+ante) is the preposition 
denan. As a prefix, however, this appears to be found 
in only one word: 

denoTitabenta, forekoowledge tabensa, knowledge 

The meanii^ of the prefix seems to be "fore" like that of 
DA VAN-, although in this one example, it refers to time 
whereas DA VAN- refers to place.^ 


DE- is found in a few words apparently used as a nom- 
inal prefix, but it is very doubtful whether it ever really 
had this use. Thus detalk appears to be a postverbal 
formation, degrat is probably not a Provencal formation, 
but comes from the Latin *degradtia,* and defortuna, mis- 
fortune, one of the few other possible examples, is nothing 
but a substitution of DE- for DES-, Desfortuna, which 
is also found, shows the usual prefix. 


DES-, which has been studied as a prefix added to 

verba, is also added to nouns, where it is much more 

regular in meaning than when used with verbs. With 

nouns, DES- always has negative force, although in some 

words, as dezunion and dezestansa, the separative value 

is also perceptible. The list follows: 

detaite, dUcomfort atie, ease 

. y disatfectioD > love 

aaamor \ amor \ 

1 In Euljectives, however, tbe two seem (o be used iatercbsugeably. 
See p. 483, below. 

■ Apparently a popular Lat. (orm used jnslead of the elaasical 
oradut. It was probably due to the eKistcnce of the verb deoradare. 
KQniDS, No. 2,834; Diei, 560, 


Word-Formation in Pboven^al 

degtaiantaige, disadvantage 
deteapdel, misconduct 

descoTtezia, diecourtcBy 
deedansa,' kind of song 
dexegaUat, in equality 
dezegansa, disorder 
deieaUm&a, absence 
dtrfomimen, wrong, injury 
desgral,' ill-will; discontent 
detorde, disorder 
deipoder, powerlessness 
desrazon, injustice 

avanlatge, advantage 

capdd, leadership, administra- 

cortetia, courtesy 

dansa, dance-song 

e^ailat, equality 

eganaa, equality 

Mhmsa, situation 

fomimen, equipment, provision 

gral, will, wish, liking 

orde, order 

poder, power 

rozon, reason 

Totonamen, reasoning 

The preposition EN- from the Latin IN- is found 
in very few words as a nominal prefix, common as it is 
in forming verbs. There are apparently about twenty 
formations of this kind, but a closer examination shows 
the number to be in reality much smaller. Many of the 
words resembling formations of this kind are really post- 
verbal formations,' and others are descendants of words 
formed in Latin,* whereas still others are only adjectives 
used as nouns.' 

■ Here the meaning seeins to be that of a song composed in opposi- 
tion to the BODgBof certain advGrBaries, and similar in maaniog, therefore, 
to detcan, by analogy with which it may have been formed, though this 
i E a poBtverbal formed on de»caniar, 

) There ia a verb degradar sometimes found as detgnulor, but uncon- 
nected with detorat. 

' Thus, for example, embosca, encombrt, encorta, eTiglvl, and eiannbre. 

'Thus embirf, funnel <*tmlm[uin from imbuere, and empUcha, 
waxes <implicita. Cf. eipUc/ia<explicita, also the Fr. tmpUlU, origi- 
nally emjilnle. 

• Thus, for example, the nouaa endcmenjal and cnwr*. Etitrack, 
t tic king-plaster, may also be placed here. It is probably the past 



In most of the formations on nouns, EN- has its preposi- 
tional value, and the formation is of the kind that has 
been seen in abandon, etc., an adverbial phrase gradually 
becoming used as a noun.^ In a few words, the prefix 
shows no force, but it is doubtful whether any of these 
are real nominal formations with EN-.' In enobedienaa 
EN- represents the Latin negative prefix IN-, which was 
common enough in forming adjectives. The negatwe EN-, 
however, ia rare in Provencal even in forming adjectiveB, 
and enobedieiisa seems to be the only noun in which it is 
used. DES- is the usual prefix of negation. 

The list of possible nominal formations with EN- is as 

emdonc, shed banc, bank, bench 

endaiutre,' cloister tiauslre, cloiater 

eneorda, string for crossbow ( 7) corda, cord 

eudalk, stroke, swath ddIA, scythe 

endec, fault, defect; disease* dec, Fault, defect 

endiluvi^ (endolobi), flood ctilim, flood 

participle of *entraire used subBtan lively. It ia this form that is seen in 
tbo Fr. mtrait, with the eaine meaniog as is seen in the Prov. word. Tbe 
verb entraire is found in O. Ft. 

> As, for example, in enfrvch, tpven in the list. 

■ See the individual note |[iven with each of these words. 

■ Endaiittre may be only a postvetbal formatian on enc2au<trar, 
shut in, but thefonnation by means of the prefix EN- seems, on the whole 
probable, as some of the certain preG«-formations given above are eiacUy 
like it. Cf. the O. Fr. enctoiifre. 

' From the two examples given in Levy, these seem \o be the mean- 
ings, although the second example is fat from clear. An adjective 
endeiJu^, defective (which would seem to imply a verb 'endechar, a 
parasyothetic formation on the noun dec), is also found. If endtchcU 
is thus formed, endee would be a postverbal formation. But the reverse 
procedure, the formation of endechat on the noun endec (EN-+dec), 
would not be impossible. See the auffii AT-, p. 304. 

' There are a good many forms of this word, most of them, however, 
having ES- instead of EN-. 


472 Word-Formation in Provencal 

endoUfiramen,^ Brief, BufTering doioiramen, grief 

enfruck, produce, revenue fmeh, fruit 

BTiobedieTtsa,'' disobedience obediensa, obedience 

erupieelum, question, speech gveitum, question 

entorcAo,' torch toreha, torch 

enfrentotd.t trough tremoia, mill-hopper 


Several words with an apparent prefix ENDE- are found 
in Proven9al, but these words are probably all due to the 
analogy of endeman, the next day, in which the prefixes 
EN- and DE- were added separately, EN- being prefixed 
to demon, tomorrow, in its use as substantive. Now, 
endeman existed beside the simple word man, morning, 
and some such force as "the next" was seen in the com- 
poimd prefix EN+DE- which was used later as a single 
prefix attached to words meaning "day" and "morning" 
with the force of "the next." This use of ENDE- 
seems almost peculiar to Provencal,' The list follows: 
endedie, the next day dia, day 

endejorn, the next day J^m, ^y 

endeman, the next day tiwn, morning 

endemalin, the next morning matin, morning 

1 The existence of tbia word is very doublful. Its ezutencc in the 
dictioDaries la probably due to a confusioD with emptriUtainen in the 
followiDg line. See Levy, II, 472, and II. 271. 

■ See introductory remarks on this preGi, p. 471. 

■ ToTciKja probably comes from a Lat. *toTca [rom tonxre (CIbee. 
Lat. lorguerej. Eniorcha would therefore be a preGi-fonnation. This 
word and enqvetlion Beein to be the only fairly certain examples of the 
forceless use of the prefix EN-. All the other words beginning with a 
forcelesR EN- may be explained as having been formed in some other way. 

• Of course tendemain exists in Fr., but there are no analogical forma- 
tions as in Prov. The I of tendemain, of course, represents only tbe 
agglutination of tbe article. Raynouard gives lendeman for Prov., but 
Levy (II, 460) corrects it to endeman. 


Formation of Nouns 

The ProveiKjal prefix ENTRE- (INTER-) is used 
in forming nouns bs well as verbs, but with nouns it seems 
to be much more restricted in meaning. In two words 
it has real prepositional force, meaning (the space) 
"between." Thus erUrecUh and entreuelh both mean 
the space between the eyes. In the other words, ENTRE- 
shows the loss of force which is so peculiarly noticeable 
in Provencal prefixes, both verbal and nominal. The 
other meanings which ENTRE- has when used with 
verbs are not found among the nominal formations. The 
complete list follows: 

eniredlh,^ space betneen the eyes eilk, eyebrow 
enlreeiTn, top, siUQinit cim, top 

entreforc,' crossroad fore, forking, crossroad 

aenh, sign 

entresoipir, sigh totpir, sigh 

en(Teiielh,'\ space between the eyes uelA, eye 

ES-, like EN-, is rare in Provencal as a nominal prefix. 
Most of the nouns that begin with ES- are either post- 

' Compare the Sp. entreeejo. The Lat. ^nJerciliutn. though not 
found in the ordinary dictioDaries, is cit«d in Du CacgR as being from 
Isidore of Seville. This word, like enfreuelA, denoting a single de&nil« 
space, is peculiar in meaning. 

■ This is possibly a postverb&l formatiuo derived from entTcforcaT 
in which, from the nature of the verb, the preGi ENTRE- could add but 
little to the meaning. Some word such as this probably gave rise to 
tntrttim and tntrettnh, in which the preBi is without force. 

• Possibly (onned by the analogy of evJ,Ttciih. described above. 

t Other worde beginning with ENTREE, but already formed in Lat., 
are: eiarev<d<intenallam and etdraxmaxinUraneai. Enlerusde, inner 
bark of a tree ( ?) may possibly also come from a Lat. *intemiaciilum, a 
diminutive of inlerniecum. Inlemuiculum would give entrenucle, which 
probably became enttnade by diaaimilatioo. See Romania, XXXVII, 119. 

An apparent formation with ENTRE-, but one in which the prefix 


474 Word-Formation ra Provencal 

verbal formatiotis,' or else ES- represents the Latin s 
before a consonant plus the prosthetic vowel.* Never- 
theless, there are a few words in which ES- seems 
to be a real nominal prefix, and in these it adds 
nothing in meanii^ to the simple noun.* This use 
of ES- has been seen in the case of verbs, where, how- 
ever, ES- had also its original prepositional meaning 
of "out of," "from." Yet this latter meaning is 
hardly to be expected in nouns, and in the few words 
that have any such meaning, the place of ES- was 
taken by some preposition whose force was more clearly 
felt.' The use of ES- without force may have come 
about through the existence of substantives derived from 
verbs, in which ES- had no force, beside simple nouns 
with almost the same meaning. Yet even so, formations 
of the kind are rare. The only examples of it seem to be 
in the foltowii^ words, and one or two of these are 
doubtful : 

I Ab m etglai from aglaiar, etvM trom enethar, etcoitibre from etcom- 
bTOT. and probably tadee from *adegar. This laat word, together with 
etdeoameit, \a found only in Mod. B^atnaia. 

' Words of tfaia kind are MeaJtrM, thole <8caZmu*,' Bscapla. Bhoulder(?) 
Ocapula; «aj»nzon, wager ojMruioiKm. Besidea the words of thia 
kind, there are also, of course, words in which the Prov. ES- is from 
the Lat. EX-, as gaduza<excluta. The learned use of EX- or ES- to 
denote "former" (cf. tho Fr. aroi) does not exist in Prov. 

• An example of this in O. Fr. may be seen in nchaTbonde. 

• As FOB- in /oraen, for eiaraple. 

is really EN-, is eniremoia. trough. (EN-+(remoia<(rtnu>dia). See EN- 
above. More obscure words are etUretelk and enlrmc. The meaning ot 
VntTeoelh is uncertain. Levy suggests no meaning at all, and Chabaneau 
Bubstitutes entreneih. which does not help much in translatinK. The 
substitution of entrewd, interval, seems to be much more plausible. 
Entrevic. mesentery, is very hard to explain. MiatraJ compares its 
modem form with the Sp. eniTcaijo, which has the aame meaning, but it 
would be difGcutt to find a common etymon for forms so different as 



escaiafdc,'^ scaffold cadafaU;, acaffold 

{escoilivamen,' cultivatioD coUivamen, cultivation) 

{etdec,' plticiDg of boundary-mark dec, boundaty) 

eadilvn, esdolabi* etc., flood diluvi, fiood 

esponcha,' sharp pain poneka, point 

eitraiea,' trace, veetige traisa, train, net 

Miro6t«iw,tpoet(7),atory-teller{?) trobador, troubadour 

FOR-, MEB-, PRE-, EB- 

The next prefixes^ used in forming Provencal nouns 
are, taken in alphabetic order, FOIU, MES-, PER-, PRE-, 
and RE-, but, with the exception of PER-, none of these 
seem to be found in more than one example, and therefore, 
hardly require detailed individual treatment. Thus 

' Cf. the Ft. ichafaud, bedde wUoh no simple word eiista {eo(o/ol<fu« 
being a TorelgQ bontiwinB). Tbui we see here again the tendency of the 
simple word to disappear when existing beeide a derived one identical in 
meamng. Other Fr. eiamplee of this phenomenon as seen in this preGi 
are IchatUiUon, tcharde, etc. 

■ For eacoUivamen, see also the suffix AMEN- and the parasj'ntheta. 
If escoltimir existed, as seems probable, etcolUnamen would, of course, be 
a suffix-fonnation. 

> The meaning makes it clear tbat e$dtc is not a prefix-formation. 
It must be a, poBtverbal noun formed on etdegar. 
' See also eruliluti under the prefix EN-. 
< Possibly a poatverbal noun formed on e»ponchar, dull a point. 

■ If this is a prefix-formation, the development in meaning would 
certainly be unusual. There may have existed a verb 'atraxtar, pull out. 
and if so. atrauia would probably be a poatverbal noun derived from it. 
Biiraisar would be the phonetic development of extratiiare, from which 
other Romance verbs of the same meaning come. InsMad of estTaUar, 
eitnuar is the form found. This clearly shows some outside inSuence, 
probably a confusion wiUh eatraaar, follow, evidently formed on Irasa. 

' BEN- and MAL-, as found in bene»(ar and mdUttar and the words 
derived from them, are not regarded aa prefixes but as individual words 
meaning "well" and "ill," and are, therefore, treated in the chapter on 
composition. This is also true of non. See Part IV, chap. 2. 

t More or less obscure words beginning with et that does not repre- 
sent the prefix ES- btp, e8ca;!nAon,lightshoe; esaolalt): eaputol, kind of 
cloth; and eipeluca (f). This last may perhaps come from the Lat. 
ipdunca, case. Cf. Mistral, etpelueo. 



FORr (Latin FORIS-) is found only in forsen, madness, 
and in nouns derived from it; MES- (Latin MINUS-) is 
foundonly in mescop,' misfortune; PRE- (Latin PRAE-) 
is found only in precorunsensa,^ foreknowledge; and RE-, 
although found Ln several nouns, was probably not used 
in forming nouns in Provengal.' 

PEH^, however, b found iu more examples than the 
other prefixes just mentioned, and must be treated sepa- 
rately. As in the cases in which it was used with verbs, it 
gives an idea of completeness to the noun, as will be seen 
from the following examples: 
•prrrxncha, incloBUre(7) cencha, girdle 

perfil, border (last thread) fit, thread 

perfin,' very end fin, end 

pemnction, extreme unction ondion, UDctioD 

perorde, preBident*( 7) orde, order 

perpaf,t lever pal, stake 

> Found only in the phrase a la perfin. 
example ol parfin as found in this phrase. If it 
due to Fr. influence. 

do not 

doublet, perpreza, earth's surface, and ptTtrach, equipment, merchandise, 
seem to he only the past participles of the verba pera/rir, *perpimheT, 
perprendre, and perlraire used substantively. Fftpar. offer, and perporl, 
conduct, are poutverbal nouns formed on perparar and perporlar (ae« 
p. 542). Feroiina, resin, has PER- only in appearance. It is to be 
found among the compound words in Part IV, p. 659. 


Formation of Nouns 


The next prefix used to any extent in the formation of 
nouns in Provencal is REIR&, from the Latin RETRO-. 
In all of the examples, its use is adverbial rather than 
prepositional. Thus, for example, reiregarda means 
"the guard which is in the rear," and not something 
behind the guard. REIRE- appears to be used generally 
in Provencal with words denotu^ feudal relations and 
military terms. Thus: 
TeireacapU, tax to be paid by the aeapte, feudal holding 

sub-tenant on the death of his 

mreouditor,' sub-auditor auditor, auditor 

reireeonaelh, aft«rthougfat conulh, counsel, thought 

retre/eittai,' under-tenant }ev2al, vassal 

reiregadi, rear-watch gack, watch 

reiregarda, rear-guard garda, guard 

reiretempe, past tempa, time 

reirevendaa, second tax on a sale venda, sale 

Thus REIREI- means literally "behind" in reiregach 
and reiregarda; it means "after," in the sense of time, in 
reirecoselk; and it means "under," "of lower rank," 
in reireauditor and reirefemal. 

SOBRE- is found in a number of nouns in Provencal, 
where it b used in two different ways: as preposition, and 
as adverb. As preposition, it is of common occurrence, 
and generally has the meaning of "beyond" or "over" 
as in sobrabtmdansa and sobrefais, and is sometimes best 
translated by the adjective "great," as in sobra/an and 

As adverb, SOBRE- is seen in sobrarbilre, aobreces, 
sobrecot, sobreden, sobrefren, sobrenom, sobresenhal, and 
< Cf. the Engl. " rear-ad mirsl," etc. 




sobresenher,' in all of which an ellipsis may be seen: 
aobreden means a tooth (which is) over (another), and 
sobresenker, a lord (who is) over (another). The list of 
words with the prefix SOBRE- follows: 

sobr<Aondanga, superabundance 
gobrafan, over-anxiety 
gobrafar, excess of afFaire 
gobrarbitre, auper-arbiter 
tobrecee, additional tax 
Mibrecot, surcoat 
aobreden, large irregular tooth 
lobrefais, overload 
gobrefack* excess 
sobrefren, double rein 
gobregcAaire, boaster 
eobregatge, second pledge or mort- 
gage (?) 
tcfyreglaU* tnxeD thing 
aobrelaiaoT, overpraise 
tohremeravilha, great aetonish- 

gobremezwa, excess 
Bohrenom, sumame 
sobrepinhore, second pledge or 

mortgage (?) 
iobreten, extravagance 
tobreaenk, breastplate 
sobretenhal, plume 
aobregenher, overlord 
tobrelemor, great fear 
»obrCTen,t great wind 

1 All the other words in the list have SOBRE- aa preposition. 

' The verb 'tobrefar, correspoDdiDg to the Fr. luT/aire (from which 
came the O. Fr. »urfail), ia not found la Frov, It may have existed, but 
it is unnecessary to assume it. Sobrefaeh is exactly like the other forma- 
tions on nouns in the above list. 

■ That is, " (a thins which is) on the ice," a prepositional use of the 
prefix. It would be possible, however, to Eiod the adverbial use of 
SOBRE^ here, with the meaning of "a thinit froien over." 

t Also of Lat. ori^ tii6rcci'A<superci(iuni. 

abondanea, abundance 

ufan, anxiety 

<ffar, affair 

arbtfre, arbiter 

ces, atax 

eot, coat 

den, tooth 

fait, toad, burden 

fach. deed, fact 

fnibaire, mocker 
galge, pledge, mortgage 

glalz, ice 
lautor, praise 
meranUha, marvel 

mezura, moderation 

ptTthora, pledge 

senh, breast 
genhal, sign, standard 
tenAer, lord 
lemor, fear 
ven, wind 


Formation op Nouns 

The prefix 80TZ-, whose form has been explained under 
verbs,* is used in formii^ a few nouns, in which it has 
exactly the meanii^ of «ub or "under." The prefix 
SUBTUS-, the source of SOTZ-, is frequent, under its 
various forms, in the other Romance languages, where it is 
very commonly attached to nouns denoting the professions 
or offices of persons (Italian soUomaestro, French soua- 
nuAlre, etc.), fts well as to names of thmgs {soUocoppa, 
soucoupe, etc.). Proven^jal has formations of both kinds: 
»ols-baile, Hub-bailifF bails, bailiff 

«ob-cencAa,* under-ginlle cencka, ^rdle, belt 

toUntayer, eub-mayor mayer, mayor 

toteprior, sub-prior prwr, prior 

«oiztefa,> saddle-cloth selo, SEiddle 

stAxwnevcoic, sub-seneachal teaexcalc, seneschal 

The prefix TRAS- (Latin TRANS-) is found in very 
few if any nouns formed in Provencal, although usual 
enough in verbs. The only possible examples of it appear 
to be trasdosa, Iraslutz, and Irastmnba. This last, meaning 
"a turn," is probably a postverbal formation drawn from 
traatombar, overturn. Trasdosa, meaning probably, "a 
burden," is more puzzling, as dors and not dosa is the word 
for "back," with which this word is evidently connected.' 

1 p. 468, abovo. . 

>Sotuda~th6 hoUHing or saddle-cloth, i.e. (the thing) under the 
saddle. SoUcencKa, from the example (Raynouatd, II, 377), seenu to 
be the same kind of lonnation — prepoBitional. The other words all 
refer to persona, and words of this kind are eiven by both Meyer-LQbke 
and Dannesteter as formations in which the first pact is an adverb. 
Nevertheless lott-baile. for example, seems to mean "(the man] under 
the bailiff" rather than "the bailiff under some other nan," and this ia 
true of QiaDy of the other words. 30TZ- in these cases seems, therefore, 
to be prepositional in value. 

■ The little Levy gives dot as well as dore for " back." 


480 WOBD-FOBMATION IN Pbovencal 

Du Cange gives doaaa, but dating only from 1400. Trans' 
darsa is also given there, with the meaning of "sitting 
behind someone on horseback,"' but dates only from 1243. 
From this literal meaning of behind, or on, the back, 
evidently came the meaning of burden, which the French 
endoase, a postverbal noun fonned on endoaaer, has. 
Provencal has endoear, but not trtudosar. Could any 
traces of it be found, traadoaa would be easy of explana- 
tion. Even so, however, trasdoaa, (the thing) on the 
back, or burden, was probably a postverbal noun derived 
from this •/roadosar, similar in formation to endosar. In 
tradule, transparency, we seem to have an example of 
TRAS- as a nominal prefix. 

' Post equUem tederu, GoU. porli en croupe. 


Very few of the prefixes that have been discussed 
in dealing with the formation of nouns were used at 
all freely in the formation of adjectives. SOBREJ- is 
perhaps most important of all as an adjectival prefix, 
and DES- is also used with ftill negative force, EN- 
is found in a few words of varying structure, and 
with different meanings, whereas ES- can hardly be 
said to be found at all. It should be clear, however, 
that it is only as real adjectival prefixes that these 
forms are so rare, for DES-, EN-, and ES- are all 
common in parasynthetic adjectives. In these cases, the 
suffix that was used in conjunction with the prefix was 
almost always AT-, borrowed from the past participle 
of the verb of the first conjugation. Such forms, then, 
as deabrasat, ertiemorat, and, espeitrinat will be given under 
parasyntheta. The various prefixes will now be studied 
in order: 

A- (<AD-) is hardly found as an adjectival prefix. 
The only possible example appears to be 
<ifrontUT,^ inaulting, bold frontier, bold, Bhameless 

in which the prefix has little force. 

. ' Even this word is doubtful, however, and should probably be 
corrected to fnmlier. Cf. also adrtcK, skilful, though this evidently 
comeg from a Lst. •odrfirecftu, from which came also the Fr. adroit and 
the It. odifriUo. There ia also &□ adverb, aratotudiUunen, in which the 
prefix contributes do chaoge of mcamng. 



CON- appears to be found as a prefix in two adjectives, 
in one of which CON- has its original prepositional force 
of "with": 
eonwien,' privy to taben, knowing 

CONTRA- also is rare as a prefix forming adjectives 
in Provencal. There are probably only two certain 
examples of its use in this way. In these words, the 
simple adjective is not changed much by the prefixing of 
CONTRA-: it serves simply to brii^ out a little more 
clearly the idea of duality, emphasizing somewhat the 
contrast between the two things considered. Thus 
there are: 

amlraengalier, equal t«, a match for engalier, equal 
conirapaT,] equal, similar par, equal, like 


DAVAN-' and DENAN-* are both used in formii^ 
one adjective by being prefixed to the adjective derrier, 
last. In this new word, they are used with exactly the 
same meaning that they gave to nouns, that of "before" 
or "next to." Thus: 

, , - }- next to the last derrier, last 
aenandemer ) 

' The other word is amdaxn, GtUag, proper, in vhich CON- fasB 
no force. Deceit \a not found in Prov. Condecen coiresiraiids to the I,at. 
condecent derived frotn decent. 

■ For the source of these prefixes, Bee the nominal fonnatioDB. 

t See aUo contTofort, p. 468, n. 1. A trandation given for the word 
in one of the passages in which it occurs is plut fort que Im. Even in 
this example, the word may be a noun, and its apparent use as an 
adjective only a matter of translation. On the other hand, the word 


' Formation of Adjectives 

DE- can hardly be said to have been used as an adjec- 
tival prefix at all, being even less usual here than in 
forming nouns. Derazonai is found, but DE- here appears 
to be a substitution for DES-, the usual negative prefix, 
found in desraeowU, existing beside desrazonar. One 
other word with the prefix DE- is denofezat, which may 
be accounted for in several ways. Raynouard gives a 
verb nofezar or Tiofegar,^ and also a verb desnofezar, 
whose existence, however, he assumes from the adjective 
desnofezal. In denofezat, DEI- may be a substitution for 
DE3S-, or it is possible that the DE- does not belong to 
the word at all,* and that the word which we have here 
is nofezat, simply the past participle of nofezar.^ 

The use of DES- as an adjectival prefix is very simple 
and regular. As was the case with verbs and nouns, in 
forming new adjectives DES- is pre-eminently the nega- 
tive prefix. Thus, added to any adjective already 
existing, it -simply reversed its force. There seems 
to be only one word in which the prefix shows the lack 
of force so common in its use with verbs. This b dezavera, 
adverse, inimical, exactly the meaning of the adjective 
avers. Here the lack of force is due probably to the 

1 Nofegar probably does not eiiat. See Levy and Sternbeck. 

■ See the examples in Levy, II, 92. Whichever word {denofeiat or 
dtfiuifetaf) exists, the prefix is practically forceless, aa the no would 
bave already contributed the force which DES- rcEularly gives. 

< Meanins "to be without faith." Ita Lat. etyraoa would be 

may here be actually an adjecUve meaning "equally atrouf," and having 
the idea of balance described for CONTRA- when used in forming douds. 
See Levy, I, 345, for the passage in which contraforl occurs. 


484 Word-Formation in Peovbn^al 

separative idea contained in the adjective itself, just as in 

the verb deasebrar.^ Tiie other words are all regular in 

form and meaning. Thus: 

daeiAal, poor oAal, eitcellenC 

descarc* uokitKled core, burden 

deawmuTial, exceRsive conunaZ, common 

detetmfes, without confession eonfea, confeBBed 

■degraioTiaUe, unreasonable razoruMe, reasonable 

dezadrech, improperly behaving adreck, straight, upright 

daaverB, adverse, inimical overs, adverse 

denaaul,' unpleasant (person) atatil, gracious 

dttobedien, disobedient obedien, obedient 

detonesl,^ dishonest oneet, honest 

EN- is a little more varied in its use than is DES-, 
especially, perhaps, on account of being attached both 
to nouns and adjectives to form adjectives. The possible 
cases in which EN- was added to nouns are rather rare, 
however, and EN- was apparently used as a preposition 
in them, the whole phrase later becoming used as an 
adjective,-* in the cases in which EN- was added to 
adjectives, it showB that absence of force so noticeable tn 
the formation of verbs. 

■ See p. 425, above, and p. 429 t- 

• This is the only adjective in DES- formed on a noun, yet daeargat 
instead of deacaToadat occurs in two oiamples and beside the simple 
form cargadaa. Can it possibly be due to the common expression lener 
a care =IO find burdcnsomo, with the care alone mipposed to have adjec- 
tival force ? The word is difficult to explain otherwise. 

/, but it seems to be only an 

• All possible examples of this kind might be considered as post- 
verbal adjectives, the verbs being formed parasynthetically on the simple 
adjectives. But as the two words given here would be the only examples 
of poatverbal adjectives, this seems unlikely. 

t For such words as demfiblal, etc., see the parasynthetit, p. 629. 


Formation op Adjectives 

The formations on nouns are as follows : 
embrmtc, surly, sullen bronc, harshnesa 

enfrun, greedy, insatiable */"*" (</ruTnen)', thro&t 

Attached to adjectives, EN- is found in; 

( vflsst 
. I lordly 

JsubmiMive as a domenffier f . 

vassal; belonging (noun j 

to oneself and adj.) ( 

endur, hard dur, hard 

end'urable, lasting, eternal diirabU, lasting 

emsalonlos,^ resolute volontm, desirous 


ENTREl- is found in a very few adjectives in Provencal, 
where it has both the reciprocal force and the absence of 
force of the verbal prefix. In enirecamjohle it has recipro- 
cal force; in entremeeh, intermediate, from mecft, middle, 
there is little force contributed by the prefix. This is, 
however, Latin, coining from iniermediua. A similar 
formation, probably imitat«d from entremedi, is: 
tntremejan, intermediate mejan, mean 

Ejitrecamjable, mutual, from camjable, changeable, 
is the only word showing any reciprocal force. Words 
containing ENTRE- denoting unfinished condition, so 
common in other Romance languages, seem to be lacking 
in Provencal.' 


ES- is exceedingly rare as a prefix forming adjectives. 
Only one word seems probable as a formation of this kind, 
eiperjur, perjured perjur, perjured 

' See Levy, II, 497; also Virgil's Aentid, i. 178 lot /rumen, throat. 

' Cf, the Fr. entr'ouvert and the Sp. entreabierUi. 

t Two other words are to be meaCioned here: enientMe, insensible, 
with the Lat, negative adjectival prehi IN- (which vrits, however, a Lnt. 
foimatioD) and engree, impatient, violent, hard, which is a rather obscure 


486 Word-Formation in Pboven^ai, 

In the one example, then, the prefix has no force what- 


PER- is found as an adjectival prefix in a very few 
words. Here it has the same idea of completeness which 
it had when used with verbs and with nouns. It there- 
fore intensifies the adjective and may be translated as 
"very" or "exceedingly." The list follows: 
permrinen, very agreeable avinen, agreeable 

perelar,] very clear dor, clear 

The prefix SOBRE- (Latin SUPER-) is perhaps the 
most important of all the Provengal adjectival prefixes, 
and this adjectival use is perhaps also the most important 
use of SOBRE- in Provencal. Verbs and nouns having 
the various forms descended from SUPER^ as prefixes 
are frequent in most of the Romance languages, but 
adjectives with this prefix are much rarer.' They are 
not found in Classic Latin, and it is hard to find traces 
of them even in the vulgar language;' yet in Provencal 

> Words like etcuichal, ei/Tonlal, etc., are common. For these, hoir- 
ever, see the parasyntheta, p. G3I. 

< Their almost complete absence from Ft. should be noted. 5p. has 
a few eiatDples, as aobreaetido and lobTdleno. In It., words of this kind 

> Some examples are, however, given in Du Cange. 

word, but is apparently formed from *engTetar<ingTeiiare, rush in. 
Cf. Fr. engrciscT {Kortiog, No. 4.975). For such words as eiaagdat, 
enlemoral, etc., see paraHyotheta, pp. 52ft-31. 

t There are several other adjectives beginning with PER-, but 
these all seem to be derived from verbs beginning with this prefix. Thus 
by means of the suffix -ABLE the adjectives penJuroUf, everlasting, and 
perfaiable, efficacious, are derived from the verbs perdurar and jwr/atVe. 
Pervieil), careful, clever, is the past participle of the verb pmtire used 
as an adjective. 


Formation of Adjectives 


they were exceedingly common. In meaning, SOBRE- 
had regularly the force of the adverb "very," or of the 
prefixes "over" or "super" as in "over-sensitive," 
"supersensuous." The list is as follows: 

abwtdoB, abundant 
animos, courageoue 
ardii, bold 

lobrabundos, superabundant 

»<Aragul, very sharp 

gobranirnos, very audaoioua 

«o6mr(Ji(, very bold 

tobratmr, very stingy 

n>bre6el, very beautiful 

icbrebon, very good 

tobrecabal, very distinguished 

sobreddfol,' very slender 

sobredificil, very hard 

sobrefer, very wild 

eobreferolge, very ferocious 

sobr^ervert, very fervent 

sobrefort, very strong 

sobr^rvclvw, very fruitful 

tobregai, very gay 

sobregran, very large 

tobrdimc, very long 

^obrelurninos, very luminous 

gobremal, very bad 

gobrerunrioral, much enamored 

aobrenoble, very noble 

sobrenoctv, very injurious 

lobrepretios, very precious 

lobresan, very sound 

gobreevbtlaTicial, very substantial subsland^, substantial 

mbraiil,^ very vile vil, viie 

There is, however, another meaning that SOBRE- 
sometimes gives to adjectives in Provencal, though much 
less usual than the one already cited. This second use 
is the one that is common in French, and is typified 
by mmaturel which means, not "very natural," but 

' Given in the vocabulary to Appel's Ckreitinnathy. 
t For tobretlorial, see the pacnayDtheta, p. 531. 

bet, beautiful 

ban, good 

ca6a2, distinguished, excellent 

delgai, slender 

dificil, hard 

fer, wild, savage 

feroli/e, ferocious 

ferven, fervent 

fori, strong 

fTucluos, fruitful 

gat, gay 

gran, large 

lone, long 

luminos, luminous 

mal, bad 

enamoral, enamored 

noMe, noble 

Tiociu, injurious 

precioB, precious 

san, sound 


488 Word-Formation in Provencal 

" more than natural," "beyond the natural." Darmesteter 
explains this as a parasynthetic formation consisting of 
aur-nature-el, the termination -EL being here equivalent 
in meaning to "that which," and giving rise to other 
adjectives which from their form cannot possibly be 
parasyntheta, and yet have the same kind of meanii^ 
as sumaturel. Of this type is surkumain, formed when 
«umaturel was supposed to consist of sur-\-tiatwel and 
not sur+nature+el. Thus gurkumain is an adjective 
with a prefix in form, but it is parasynthetic in meaning. 
Of this type, we have in Proven5al : 
9obre(h)uirum, superhuman uman, human 

gobre/orsiu, excessive, extreme /oniu, firm 

atArremortal, immortal vwrtai, mortal 

The prefix SUB- (Latin SUB-) is found used with 
several adjectives denoting color. SOTZ-<SUBTUS- is 
not found. SUB- merely modifies slightly the meaning 
of the adjective : 

mibalbenc,^ whitening slightly aUm, dftwn 

giAfalb, a. little pale faff), pale 

mibfalbenc,^ a little pale faJhene, pale 

tvbrog, a little red Tog, red 

TRAS-{< TRANS-) appears to exist in only one word, 
in which it has the force of SOBRE>-, that is, it means, 
"very" and is the opposite of SUB-. The example is: 
tmtanal, very old anat, old 

e 1 , and Buffix-fonuationa, 


Before leaving prefixes, it will be necessary to discuss 
the phenomenon of double prefixes, which is very similar 
to that of double suffixes, treated under suffixes.^ The 
question of the prefixes, just as that of the suffixes, is 
far from clear, particularly as concerns compound pre- 
fixes. For the suffixes, it was seen that certain combina- 
tions, both from the frequency with which they were 
found, Eind from their evident connection with the simple 
word, were nearly certainly attached to this all at once as 
one suffix, however distinct the two parts might have been 
originally. These were called compound suffixes. In 
the case of prefixes, certain combinations, such as A-RE-, 
DES-A- (DEZA-), and DES-EN- (DEZEN-) are equally 
frequent, yet it is extremely doubtful whether these were 
ever added at the same time, which b all that distinguishes 
a compound suffix or prefix. The question b thus a 
fine one and hard to determine. It has been said that 
the word with its two sufiixes or prefixes must show a 
close connection with the simple word to be supposed 
to have been a compound combination. Thus dezagensar, 
displease, is surely DES-+agensar, please, and not 

' The double suffixes, it will be remembered, were atmost always 
added to DOUDB, though examples were given of their addition to adjec- 
tives and to verba, just sa single Bufiiies are used more often in formitig 
Douns, though very common Id both adjeetiveB and verba. The single 
prefixes, on the other hand, were employed most freely in verbs, although 
used also to form both nouna and adjectives. It might be assumed, 
therefore, that the double prefixes would be most commonly used in 
verbs; but that they should not be found elsewhere, as is (he case (with 
the possible exceptions of DAVAN-, DENAN-, and ENDE- given 
above under single prefixes, because of very early use together), is an 
unexpected peculiarity. 


490 Word-Formation in Phovencial 

GEZA'+gensar, omameiit, therefore not a compound 
prefix ; but most of the words beginning with the simple 
prefixes A- and EN- and RE- have changed the simple word 
little, which makes it harder to determine their forma- 
tion, Dezmaborar, for example, might equally well be 
fonned on saborar by means of DEZA-, or on asaborar by 
means of DES-, both saborar and asaborar havii^ the same 
meaning. Yet this very persistence of the word with the 
single prefix beside the simple word and the one with two 
in nearly all cases renders doubtful the idea of a compound 
prefix. Many Latin simple verbs had forms with the prefix 
A- existing beside them, and any other prefix of real force 
such as DES- could be attached to the latter to change the 
meaning, but a prefix DES-A- joined to the simple word 
seems not to have been thought of either m Latin or 
later.' Instead, it is the simple word which tended 
to disappear, though it generally has persisted in the 
Provencal of our period.* 


The few cases in which, owing to the non-existence of 
any word with a single prefix, it is possible to see com- 
pound prefixes are as follows: 

acondormir, put to sleep. The dormir, sleep 

same meaning that adormir haa. 

Condormir doea not exist. 

dezadolorar, soften doloirar, grieve 

dezalotjar («c), withdraw loijia; lodge 

dezemboUmar, unbutton hotonar, button 

I To illustrate this, the Prov. words may be compared with BOme 
Up. ones. Sp. has the three most usual Prov. double prefixes (DE3-A-, . 
DES-EN-, and A-RE-}. but beside eiampleB of words with double 
prefixes, we regularly Rod here correspoDdiDg forms with a single prefix. 
Thus we find arroIJar Ijeside detarroUar, enearQaT beside detencargar, 
and rcbomr beside arrebatar. 

• CI. in Mod. Fr. the gradual disappearance of lentr before luieoir 
nd in Sp. the disappearaoce of roUor l^ore arroUar. 


Double Prefixes 491 

A very few other examples of this kind occur among 
the nouns and adjectives, where DA VAN-, DENAN-, 
and ENDE-, compomid prefixes fonned in Latin, have 
ab«ady been treated as single prefixes.' 


This brings us to the real double prefixes, of which a 
complete Ust will be given, the word with both prefixes 
being listed beside the simple word. In every case, the 
word with a sii^le prefix exists also. 

Con^TtaUons Beginning mtk a- 



urdar, look at Wti/aTdar) eardar. look at 

Knar, direct {rtmtnar) nmiar, iBftd 

lancar. Rtop. atauncb (ntlanrar) iilaacaT, staunch 

iner, retain [rtltner) Itnir, hold 

■airt, retain lrt(rair<) (rair«, draw 

CombiTKUicma Beginning vnth de- 


dtrmitir. dlvrat, deprive Irtviilir) ttilir, clothe 

1 See BJDBle prefiiea. pp. 468-69, 472. and 482, above. 

• This is the only word in which we find AD- as a preSi. although 
the corabiDatioQ A-RE- occurs io a number of words. Adremirar is 
found only once, and for this case, a correction to adrtchurar has been 
lusgesled, and seems plausible. 


Word-Formation in Provencal 
Comlnnaiiana Beginning with des-* 



colhir. oollecC 

daadordmar. put Id dlBorder 


ordtnar, onteT 

diiafiearar.' dlaflKure ( ? ) 

jlBBi-ar, Ogure 

(o(p(i.tor. please) 

«tntar. ornament 


{nmpnrnr, protect) 

poror. prepare 

diiapariiicT, dlB>pi>ear 


parintcr. appear 


parur. appear 

it'iapauHir. lay ulde 

pa«ar, place 


pohlar. people 

dtiapanhtr. lower 

(aponlin-. Join ?) 

ponKtr. prick 

dttaprtndrt, unleant 

{aprtndrs, loam) 

prtniri, take 

dinrtngar. dlBamnge, dis- 




ri6or. approach 


««p. seat 

diutolar. Isolate 


dtatalUar. blunt, dull 


dtiattnir.1 dteagree 

(a«n,r. please) 

renir. come 

diitneadenar. atrip Ot Chains 


cad«nar, chain 

(enearaar. charge) 

en roar, load 

deitnial jnr. exculpate 


daindreitar. put In disorder 


drri'iar, straighten 

dtUnfirrar. unchain 


/trrar. bind with 
irons, or chains 

Combinations Beginning witk em- and ek- 

romtlre, promise ipronetn, promise) mitrt, put 

) prtndrt, take 

1 As the second prefix aJways begins with a vowel, being either A- 
or EN-, DES- has been written DEZ- in these combinations. Thus 
DEZA- and DEZEN-. 

■ This word appears to be doubtful. 

t A past participle detapedit, abandoned, is found, and would seem 
to indicale the eilalence of a verb daapedir which is not found. Cf. 
however, the Sp. despedir, discharge, dismisB. 


DoiTBLE Prefixes 

rnlraiiiMr, Intermlnsle 


gitar, throw 

Combinations Beginning wiih entbe- 

enirticridar, call one uiother ieieridar) eridar, cry 

Combinations Beginning with ES- 


tteombalre, subdue 
etcsnetra. defy 

itevttqutTTi, gtin, obtain 

comprendre, bnm] 
eanianiV, iult) 

trt, best 

endrt, take 

r, take ptiOR, strive (perfori 

CombitialioJis Beginning with for- 

Combinations Beginning with mes- 

r. happen ill (aiiriir. happen) cini'r. 


Word-Formation in Provencal 
Combinations Beginning toitk heJ 

recommend (camandar) mandar. onter. 

uk again (dinandar) mnndar 

Cominnationa Beginnitig wUk reire- 


Cominnations Beginning vntk sobre- 


tobredeitelhar. be awake long Idattlhar) ttlhar, walch 

lobTenardir. be VMT bold (tnardir) ardir, embolden 

CombiTiatione Beginning witk sotz- 


js<i(a)m<nar, lead below (aintniir) menar. lead 

There are a few other words which for convenience 
may be placed here, as they have the two prefixes seen in 
the words given above tind form verbs. They are not 
formed on verbs however, a noun (or adjective) being 
the base of the word. Deforbanir, for example, is DE1-+ 
ifor)baniir). These words might therefore be called 
parasyntheta with prefixes. The list follows: 

dtJvTbaaiT, tree trom ban- (/Dr6anir) ban, ban 

dttatorar. discourage (acsror) cor, bearl 

ditalachar, strip. undresB (n/ocAar) faetia. UtX 

' Foe Ttemprenhar, see p. 496; also the ringle prefix RE-, p. 453. 
•This word as well as aobrtdetToaurar are listed in Raynouard, 
but the eiampleH given show only the adjeotives tobrtamtxanit and 
tiArcdramefitrat, apparently parasyntheta formed i 


Double Prefixes 

dttafilar. Wunti. dull 


itia/orlir. OStCOung), 


dttaguitar, disturb 



Jti.BcorBor. wewi (rom the 



diMnwimor, eiculpate 



dtttneraitar, become Chin 


inaffrandiir, Incraue 


mrffl-Dcor, owtbrow 


fduMar. ttnodon the right 


•s6ra)KHln'ar,t overpoirra 


ftama. fl&me 
0r(in(i).> large 

■ Filar exists, but only with the meuiinE of "to tpio." * 

• Id deiaforiir, enagra'tdaT, and TeempreTthar, the psrasyiitlietan to 
which the preBi was added was tonned on an adjective. 

t All of the words begimuDB with DE3- in the above list are the 
oppoute of the verbal parasyatheta on which they were formed. The 
preGx EN- bripgs about no change in such words. RE- gives them the 
idea of repetition, and 80BRE1- the force of "over." The exact meaning 
of E3- in the one example in which it is found is less certain. Another 
word which it would be possible to place in the above list is dczemjHUtrqr, 
but it 







The formation of words by the addition both of suffixes 
and of prefixes has now been fully treated, but it still 
remains to discuss another kind of word-formation, and 
one which is of importance in Provencal — the formation 
lot words by a simultaneous addition of both suffix and 
\prefix. This kind of formation can be well illustrated 
by an example: afrnwor, to embrace, is formed very 
clearly on the noim hraa, arm. There is no verb brasar 
and no noun obros,' to which a prefix or a suffix could be 
added to make it conform to the kinds of formation 
studied above. Our base-word is bras, and from this 
ohrasaT, having both prefix and suffix, is derived. Words 
formed in this way will be called parasyntheta. 

All three classes of words treated fully above in sepa- 
rate chapters — the nouns, adjectives, and verbs — ^may 
be formed parasynthetically just as they may be formed 
by the use of either suffix or prefix alone, and in the forma- 
tion of parasyntheta, as in every other kind of formation, 
one kind of word is of particularly common occurrence. 
In suffix-formation, nouns, and, after them, adjectives 
were especially important, although by means of the end- 
ings -ar and -ir verbs were very commonly formed. In 
prefix-formation, nouns and adjectives both occupy a 
minor position, and the verbs are to be observed most 
attentively. It is not surprising, therefore, that the 
verbs, which in these two kinds of formations taken 



together were most frequent, should be of prime impor- 
tance in the formation of parasyntheta also. Nouns of 
this kind are very rare; and adjectives formed in this 
way can scarcely be said to exist at all, with the ex- 
ception of those havmg the participial ending -AT. The 
verbal parasyntheta, on the other hand, fulfilled a real 
need of the language, as will be shown. These will be 
treated in the first chapter. 


By the formation of verbal parasyntheta, Provengal 
was often enabled to express in a sin^e word ideas which, 
but for this means of expression, would have to be 
expressed by a phrase. In such words, for example, as 
eslengar, tear out the tongue, sufiBx and prefix each has 
its own function — the suffix that of turning the noun 
lenga into a verb, and the prefix ES- its true prepositional 
force. Most of the prefixes used in forming parasyntheta 
have this force, although there are prefixes which have 
little force of any kind. This is particularly true of the 
prefix A-; and EN- too does not always preserve its 
prepositional force.' It is, therefore, particularly difficult 
to distii^uish true parasyntheta from other kinds of 
formiations. The verbal ending -ar, and, to a less extent 
other verbal endings, were, as has been seen, used to turn 
nouns into verbs, but changed the meaning of the nouns 
to which they were joined as little as possible.* So much 
for suffix-formation. Now, as has also been seen, certain 
prefixes, especially A-, EN-, and RE^, were also used with 
the verba thus formed. That, clearly, is prefix-formation. 
But let us suppose, on the other hand, that a word is 
I found having both prefix and suffix and that no corre- 
.sponding form without the prefix appears to exist. The 

1 That U to B»y, this force is not always very apparent, particulacly 
when the suffix used with it is -IR. but such force ib gener&lly in the 
base-word itself and can easily be discovered. 

' This is similar to the use of a noun as a verb so cominoD in Eogl. 
There we fiad, for Mam pie, the verb ■'to button" beside the noun "but- 
ton" and the verb " to cement " beside the noun "cement." In theProv. 
words correspondiog to these verbs, we find forros both with and with- 
out a prefix. Verbs are naturally not found in Romance without the 
iofiniUve ending of some conjugation. 


502 Word-Formation in Provencal 

verb would then appear to be a parasyntheton. Yet it 
is not necessarily such a formation, for it might well be 
supposed that the verb without the prefix had disappeared 
after a new and longer word with no difference in meaning 
had been formed on it by means of the forceless prefix, 
a phenomenon that is not at all unusual. Another possi- 
bility would be that the parasyntheton and a verb with 
a prefix should have been formed independently of each 
other, although this is not so probable, and is indeed, im- 
probable where the two words have the same meaning. 
That the parasyntheton should have been formed first, and 
the verb without prefix made out of it is equally unlikely, 
as the fall of a prefix is very rare in Provencal. In con- 
sequence of all these obstacles, it is somewhat difficult to 
make any hard-and-fast division into groups of prefix- 
formations on the one hand and parasyntheta on the 
other. A still further difficulty is contributed by the 
postverbal formations to be studied later. For example, 
if erUalhar exists beside talhar, talk, and entalk, can we 
say at first sight whether entalhar is a prefix-formation, 
a parasyntheton, or a suffix-formation, or indeed, whether 
it might not be, on the other hand, the base on which 
the nouii ertialh was formed ? This last difficulty is, 
however, less than would first appear, for from the 
Latin base-word it is easy to see whether the noun was 
formed from a verb or the verb from a noun; and there 
are other means also of ascertaining this. The only 
serious difficulty, then, in the way of a recognition of the 
parasyntheta is the possibility of the disappearance of the 
simple verb on which a prefix-formation might have been 
made. If there were many such cases, the number of 
parasyntheta would be materially reduced. In nearly 
all cases, however, except the words having the prefix 



A-, the prepositional force of the prefix in its relation with 
the noun reveals parasyntheta. In the cases with A-, 
and some cases with EN- which have not this force, the 
problem is more difficult, and, though a comparison with 
the other lai^uages is often helpful, we cannot always 
be certain of the formation of words. In view of all 
these difficulties, words will be placed according to their 
apparent formation. If beside abataihar, for example, 
baUdhar as well as baialha exists, the word will be placed 
under the prefix A-, in the chapter on the formation of 
verbs, in the Part dealing with prefix-formation. If the 
simple verb does not exist, or is not found, the verb, 
derived apparently from a noun, will be given with the 
parasyntheta, as is the case with adiar or ajomar, for 
instance, formed probably on dia and on jom. Occasion- 
ally, too, where a simple verb does exist, if it has gained 
from the noun on which it was built an entirely different 
meaning from that seen in the form of the verb beginning 
with a prefix, it may be assumed that the latter is a para- 
syntheton formed on the noun. Such is the case in afiiar, 
sharpen, certainly formed on fil, ec^e, instead of on filar, 
which means only "to spin." But omitting such obvious 
exceptions as this, words will be classified as above stated. 
Where there is any reason, however, for supposing that 
the formation roay, perhaps, not have taken place accord- 
ing to the way in which the word is classified, the word 
and its formation will be discussed in the notes. 

The verbal parasyntheta will now be given. They 
will be classified principally accordii^ to the suffix in 
which they end. Each of these divisions will be sub- 
divided into two classes, according as the base-word is a 
noun or an adjective-. The final subdivision will be 
according to the prefix that begins the word. 


504 Word-Formation in Provbnsal 

a. butfdc -ah 
The first case to be treated is that of the words formed 
by the use of the verbal ending -ar together with the 
different prefixes. Here, as was the case with this suffix 
when used without a prefix, in a very large majority of the 
cases the new formation is made on a, noun. Yet there 
are cases, numerous enough to be considered, in which the 
base-word is an adjective. In these circumstances, the 
suffix -IR might be expected, and is actually found in a 
large proportion of the words beside the form in -AR. The 
question is how these forms built on adjectives came into 
being, and it seems probable that as -AR was incomparably 
the most important verbal suffix and formed transitive 
verbs, it gradually extended its power to the domain of 
-IR and formed verbs on adjectives, -IR already being 
used to make transitive verbs in the parasynthetic forma- 
tions, thus giving a starting-point for possible confusion. 
At any rate, there are several pairs of verbal parasyntheta 
ending in -ar and in 4r and having precbely the same 
meaning : such are afortar and afortir, OTnortar and amortir. 
There are also adjectival formations having only -ar.' 


The following formations in -AR with the prefix A- 
are found: 

abagtaTdar, debfise, corrupt baslart, bastard 

abauiar, upset, knock down baus, abyss, precipice 

abebicar, dazzle beluga, flash 

obladaT, sow, sirew bUU, grain 

' The complete list ia made up of: adolerU -ar, -ir; adolt -ar. -ir: 
afoTt -ar, -ir; afranic) -ar, ifpt) -»r; (dtni -or, -ir; amort -or, -tr; and 
apUU -ar, -ir. These words are iDtereBting as showiDg uncertainty in the 
verbal ending to be added at the time of their fonnatioo. For all 
of the corresponding Fr. words, only the endjng-ir is found. In Mod. It.. 
on the other hand, some of these words have the ending -art and others 
-ire, aa adMcire and affortirt beside affrancare and aUenlart, 



obnuor, embrace 

aoAalar, provide 

acampar, bring together 

adapar, pile up 

acoatar,^ join, unite 

acodar, lean 

acoUiT, embrace 

tKomjadar, dismiss; aeomjadar 

(ee) , take leave of 
acorar, Icill, pierce; encourage 
acorsar, establieh 
aeottar, accost 
a{d)eicar, allure, entice 
adioT, become day 
afachar (se), adorn (oneself) 
afaisar, bind up in bundles 
aJaUar, wear out 
afamar, famieh 
ajangar, put into the mud 
afibir, sharpen 
aJUhar, adopt 
aflamar, inflame 
afogar, light, Icindle 
afondar (ee), unlc 
(ffonmr, eink 
afroniar, attack from in front; 

agarsonar, treat like a servant 
aginkar, reflect, meditate 
ajomar, become day 
oIocAar, to milk 
alezeraT, distract 
idinhaT, align, adjust 
iduQOTaT, illumine 
amaetfrar, arrange, elaborate 

bras, arm 
cabal, capital 
camp, field 
dap, pile 

coa, tale 
code, elbow 
ctrf, neck 
eomjat, leave 

eor, heart 

cosia, side 
e«ca, bait 
dia, day 
facha, face 
faisa, bundle 
fait, burden 
Sam, hunger 
/one, mud 
>i, edge 
fiih, son 
fxima, flame 
/oc, fire 
fon(d), bottom 
fon{s), base 
fTon{t), front 

garson, servant 
ginh, genius, spirit 
jam, day 
lack, 1 


leier, leisure 
linha, line 
lujfor, light 
maeetre, master 

jnasa, mass 
in, mastiff 

amoKlinar, couple a bitch with a 
mongrel; then a woman with 
an unworthy man 
' For tbe formation of acoatar, although it is connected with e 
Bee also the formationB OD adjectives, p. G15, □■ 1, below. 
' Or possibly formed on the adjective marin. 




amongar, make a monk 
anientar, annihilate 
anochar, be benighted 
a(2)onplor, ding to with the nails 
aorfenar, make an orphan 
aparaelar, parcel out 
apaTBonar, share; endow 
apilor,' pile up 

oplonAar,^ strike to the ground 
apoderar, subjugate, surpass 
aposturar, adjoin 
apreizonar, imprison 

orenAor,' attach by the bridle 
aTolar, put to rout 

asedar, be thirsty 

aienhoTor, dominate 

aserar, become late 

agetjar, ait, besiege 

ufenwrar, terrify 

aterrar,' overturn, knock down 

atitar, kindle 

ab'apar, catch in a trap 

atropdar, flock together 

aiKitar,' lower; descend 

avermar, engender worms 

avertiidar, fortify ( ?) 

oveaprar,' become late veapre, evening 

aresvar,' widow veuva, widow 

amar,t lead, guide 1*1, way 

' The verba pilar, primar, and renAur are found, but apilar, aprimar 
(9ce p. SIS), HDd arenhar aie dearly not derived from them. 

■ Much more probably derived from the adjective ranc, crooked, 
twisted. See formations 00 ndjectiveB, p. 515. 

■ There Ib also a verb alerrir, or, at least, a form alerril. 

• The verb is probably formed on the root seen in this word. 
> Atalir Bod asuprir are also found. 

• Found only in the past participle atettaJa, for which a correction to 
aveutada has been suggested. Mistral gives a form aztuta for Mod. Prov. 

monspu, monk 
nUnil), nothing 
Twch, night 
ongia, nail 
orfe(n), orphan 
parsela, parcel 
parson, share 
pila, pile 
piom(6), lead 
poder, power 
poxlura, position 
preizon, prison 

renh, rein 
rota, rout 

sel, thirat 
senhor, lord 
aera, evening 
setje, seat, siege 
lemoT, fear 
terra, land 
tizon,* firebrand 
trapa, trap 
tropel, flock 
vol, valley 
verm, worm 


Formation op Verbs 507 

The prefix AB- is found in one Provencal formation; 
abiwemar, turn from winter ivem, winter 

CON- is found in a number of words, but probably 
in not more tlian one Provencal formation;' 
companar, nourish, support pan, bread 

CONTRA- appears to form one parasyntheton: 

contradentejar, turn the teeth den{t), tooth 
against, bite at 

DE- is found in the following words : 
defonsar, knock out the bottom of fone, bottom 

deglaxiaT, kill 0l<ui, sword 

delinhar, deviate linha, line 

derancar,' tear out ranc, rock, reef 

derocar, demolish, overturn roc, rock 

denaUxT, fall, descend vol, valley 

DEIS- is found in only a few verbs, in all of which it 
appears to have been prefixed to a simple verb. It is 
therefore treated only under verbal prefixes. 

Under DES- are foimd: 

dezaTsonar, unhorse anon, saddle 

cM^agar, unbreech braga, breeches 

dcMhregar, help, defend brena, quarrel, fight; troop 

dewabar, lose( ?) cap, head 

detea'pdelaT, deprive of leader eapdel, leader 

dacapUilar, deprive of one's lord capiat, leader, chief 
dttcamar, strip off flesh; divert earn, flesh 

from booty 
descavilhar, make useless (a war- cavUha, pin, bolt 

deicaxemar, drive away, dispossess eaterna, barracks 
deseoblar, uncouple cobla, couple 

' The other words are given under the verbal prefixes, Confinar 
and con/roniar appear at first sight to be Prov. parasyntheta, but con- 
frontare was probably formed in Mediaeval Lat. and confinare may have 
been formed there also. For prefix-formations, see p. 420. 

■ like aranear, probably formed on the adjective rime. For arancar, 
see p. S15. 


508 Word-Formation jn Pbovencal 

iewi^T, embr&ce' aA, neck 

deacrinar, loose the hair ain, hair 

dacroear,' spreEid about croc, hook 

de^oMT, efface /<Ma, face 

de»florar, deflower Jlor, flower 

detgmTiar, uiiBheatbe gaina, sheath 

detglaioT, kill with the Bwoid plot, eword 

detgonlar, unhinge (gonla)' hinge 

desgraiuiT, pick out grains IT^", grain 

dagrofOT, clear of sand, clean ffrava, stuid 
ife8[;ru>Mir,takeaway,grainbysrain fruit, gnun 

de»lalar, lay aside tat, side 

detleiar,* defame, decry lei, law 

detmaTtiar, wean •manw,' breast( ?) 

demtuzdaT, set free muzel, snout, mouth 

desnatwar, distort natura, nature 

detotar, free of bones o», bone 
detpaUar (<e), leave one's country pats, country 

deapenar, throw down pena,* rock, gable 

deapersonar, depopulate peraona, person 

deepiucelar, ravish, deflower jnucda, virpn 
despoderar, take possession of; poder, power 

detrenar, wear out ren, reins, back 

detrontar,^ pour out, let flow 

' DES- has rather unusual force here, the meanitiK being the same 
as that of ocolar. The meaniag "iDstruct," which StJchel givM for 
deacolaT, probably belongs to tecolar, which is oot a paraayntheton at all. 

' A confliderable development in meaning from the idea of "unhook." 
wtiicb we should expect from the fonoBtion of the word. 

' Not found; of., however, the Fr. gond. 

' Pretty certainly a parasyntheton, although deriet, wrong, exists. 

' Only the derived words mamel and mamda are found in Prov. 

* Cf. the Sp. daptnar formed on jwfta. 

' The word ia obscure, but it appears to be a parasyntheton. It is 
probably tonned in the same way as the Fr. dtrmUer (on the Prov. 
development of the Lat. nipla). Levy has a note on de»ronfar in which 
he quotes Lespy as saying that the Bcamese rfesron/ar has the same 
meaning as derrounlaT. which Lespy lists bende derroutar. This last 
word certainly resembles the Fr. dirouter. The n might be due to con- 
fusion with desrompre, tear out. the m of this word becoming n before i. 

As for the meaninic. the O. Fr. dirouter meant "break" ot "scatter," 
which last is not bo very different from the meaning which the Prov. 
desTontar appears to have. 


Formation of Verbb 509 

deitentbrar, stupefy, stun tenebrat, darkness 
dtiterrar, drive liom the land, terra, land 


destrapar, break camp trap, tent 

dettropar, unpack, unfold trop, troop 

detunar, disunite un, one 

desmar, deviate via, way 

Under EM- and EN- are found: 
embaeinoT, blind (with hot I>seiii 7) bacin, basin 
embaltamar, spread with balsam balsam, balsam 
embarcar, embark barca, barque, boat 

embarUtr, soil bart, mud, filth 

embatlonar, arm, equip batUm, staff 

etrAatuvuo', cement batitm, cement 

embautar, throw down bavt, abyss 

ernboraar, put in the purse bor*a, puree 

emboicar, put in ambush boac, woods 

OTiiofor,' fill a cask bola, tub, vat 

embraiar, draw on the stoddngs braia, stocking 
embnaar, embrace brag, ann 

embregar,^ embarrass brega, dispute 

ettJmdar, tame, fetter brida, bridle 

embrocar,' pour out by the pitcher broc, pitcher 
emfrponcor,''' bend, incline brone, projection 

embugar, satiate, drink immodei^ buga,' 

emmaiselaT,* break the jaws maitela, jaw 

emp<danear (ae), barricade one- palanca, foot-plank, gangway 

empenor, feather pena, feather 

tmpenhaT, mortgage penh, pledge 

' The verbs botar, bregar, (trocar, sod hraacar all exist, yet the verbs 
having the prefix EM- are clearly not formed on them, but on the nouns. 

' There is aUo a word enAronhar or embrovmtir, which may really be 
another form of embroncar, but the passage in which it is found is too 
obscure to be pertain of its origin. Sec Levy, II. 365. 

■This word is found only with the meaning of "a kind of fish." 
The base of embuoaT. however, is buga, the root of bugada, wash, bugadier, 
for washing, etc. 

* Listed here with two m'a, because the prefix ends in m and the 
word ilaelf beKins with it. 

' Cf. the It. ipalancare aod the Sp. etpalanear. 



Word-Formation in Provenjal 

empencnar, decorate with flaga penoti, flag 
tmpinhar,' seize 

emptaslTaT, put on a plaster piastre, piaster 

empreigar, press in or on preisa, press 

empreitonar, imprison preiton, prison 

enagar* (<«), embarli aga, water 

enathrar (te), enarbraT («), stand arbre, tree 

enarcar, bend, curve arc, arch 

enarrar, give earnest-money arras, earnest-money 

enaslar, put on a spit asta, spit 

encQ^asor, put in a basket caba», basket 

encajUdar, be inclined to cantel, side 

encapar,* reach, attain cop, head 

encarlairar {encarterar), quarter earlier, quarter 

encaslelar, provide with fortifica- catlel, stronghold 

or, drive away 

endedar, pen up 
encoblar, to couple 
encoirar, cover with leather 
encolar, glue 
mamhar, cut into 
enconventar, promise, settle 
eneorar, strike in the heart; tor- 

eneortinar, hang curtains 

(eaua, sidewalk) ? 
cent, quit-rent 
ckda, screen, hurdle 
cobla, couple 
cuer (coire), leather 
cola,' glue 
conA, stamp 
e(inv«n((), & 

cortina, curtain 

endenairar, convert into coin denier, penny 

eidenlethar, cover with battle- dentelh, battlement 

' Undoubtedly a variBtioo of tmpunhar or emporthar formed on 
punh or pifnh, fist. 

* Inaguare. fram which this might be phonetically descended, is 
found in Latin, but with a totally different meaning. Enasar (««) ia 
clearly a parasyntheton formed on the Prov. aga. 

' There is also another verb mcapar meaning "to repair (T) a mill- 

• Not listed in the dictionaries, but may be found in the example 
given Tor tncolar (Levy, II, 444). 

> The noun inmminofto ia lound in Lat., but enertmor appears to 
be a Prov. formation. 


Formation of Verbs 

[ plunge into debt 


erutiaHaT, bedevil 
endoaar, put on the bock, endorse 
en(n)emar, cover with sinews 
eafangar, cover with mud 
enfeminar, make effeminate 
engairar, wound in the knee' 
eni/inkar, plot, deceive 
engorjar, stuff, cram 
engravar, run aground 
engregar, heap up 
engnmar, separate, detach 
erdimaiTar,' soil with mud 

enmorfotrar,* ptast«r 
etumgUtr, pip, cling to 
enraWar, enrage 

deuda \ 
diabU, devil 
do{r)s, back 
nerf, nerve, sinew 
fane, mud 
Jemna, woman 
garra, leg 
ginh, trick 
(r»o'a. throat 
prova, sand 
grec, flock 
ffrun, grain 
lim, mud 

in«r8, merchandise 
ffl«rfier, mortar 
oagla, nail 
roMa, rage 

Toana, root 

^ enronnor, put forth roots 
enredar, envelop 
enriottar, provide with braces 
enrviar, moisten, bedew 
enruddar,' provide (wagon) with a 

entaear, put into a sack 
ensapar,' stumble, sink down 
emelhar, saddle 
enaenhalar, signal 

' Cf. the meaning of e 
p. 95, D.4, above. 

> Entimairar and enmoriairar both have the CDdioE -airar. In 
ennujrtoiror the -air represents a different development of the -ler of 
mortier. The Bsme is also true of endenairar above. Limier is not 
found, however, and the word appears to be formed od Um by means 
of a verbal double suffix. See p. 403. It was probably influenced in 
ita form by the ansiosy of ennwrtairar, which had much the same 

' Many verbs are given in this list tieside which no simple noun is 
found. Thus there is enmdelar beside which rudtla (with the meaniug 
of "truck") is not found. RiddU, however, is found with this nieauiug ' 

*no«( (rioaU) is given in Mistral) 

eelka, saddle 
senhal, signal 
listed under the suffix -AMEN, 



e7t»erpelhar,' pack in sackcloth 
enmUterranhar,' put in the cellar 
enlaiar,' cover with dirt 

enlapitar, decorate tapu, carpet, hai^ng 

entafemar, put in a tavern toBema tavern 

enlerrar, bury, inter terra, land, earth 

enteatar, affect the head, infatuate testa, head 
etUorraT, lock up in a tower tom, t«wer 

entTegwtT, make peace Ir^wt, truce 

or, interlace Irena, tresB, braid 

', poison Fcrin, poison 

nr, catch with bird-lime vitc, bird-lime 

enMiIcar,<t wrap up 

Under ENTRE- may perhaps be placed: 
entrepackaT{ie), occupy oneeeli' 

Under ES- and EIS-: 

eisauTdbar, cut the eara off auTdha, ear 

eisenrigar,* sprain the neck 

esba«(<ir(f}, takeaway the "bast" boat, a dwarf reed 
eabrctsar, raise the arms bras, arm 

etbudelar, disembowel budel, bowels 

esbuenwT, to obscure buema, mist 

eshuacaT, to clear (a ditch) of haaca, straw, reed 

I The only noun found is serptlhieTa, Backcloth (Fr. ttrpiUiin), 
whose origin seems doubtful. A form without the suffix -lERA may 
possibly have existed. 

■ Sottterranh is not found in Prov,. nor is even terratiA. 'Sotiterranh 
(an imitation of the Lat. tubterraneut with SOTZ- from 5UBTUS 
substituted for SUB) probably existed, meaning "cellar" (cf, the Fr. 
louterrain), and tnsottterranhar may be a parasyntheton formed on it. 

'Again no dmple noun is found. £nfaiar is, however, apparently, 
only a variation of entacar (see p. 435) from toco, spot. 

< Confusion with envoloparl The simple word wlc means "volcano.', 

> Cemigai, nape of the neck, is found, but not cenic. 

t A word somewhat obscure in form is enlauacar, put on a bier. This 
should apparently be corrected to entaucar. which would be formed on 
(auc, bier, Enlalugar is obscure both in form and meaning. Eneobolar, 
prevent, also is obscuie in form. 

A word of I«t. origin U tncomar, incarnate <tnc(irn<lre. 


Formation of Verbs 

eacabdhaT, dishevel (hair) 
etcabesar, decapit&te 
etcouar,' bre&k with the teeth 
etcampar, spread abroad 
eKanUlar, strike off comere 
etearrasar, card wool, comb 

excarlairar,' divide into tour 
escauduTar, become warm 
eacogosar,* make cuckold 

ewoiaar, tear apart, divide at thighs coita, thigh, hip 
esdedeiar,' violate the law 
eefoaar, efface 
eifelar, be angry 
esfmrar, have diarrhoea 
e^Ttdar* confuse, aanoy 
esgUindar, strike off acorns 
eiglimaT, kill 

esgolar, moke a slit or scollop 
' clothes 

egffrul(k)ar, strip of bark 
ealeiar, justify, vindicate 
eilsTigar, tear out tlie tongue 

eabdk, h^ 
eabe* (cabeU), head 
(eais, cheek) ? 
camp, field 

(con-Qsa,' woodpile, 

CQrt(wr) quarter 
amdura, heat 
eogolt, cuckold 

fa«a, face 

/ei, gall 

foire, diarrhoea 

(Germanic frida, peace) ? 

glazi, swoid 
gola, throat 

espanar, wean a child 
wpolsar, beat the dust out of 
etponchar, break the point of 

espreizonar, take out of prison 
eairasar, follow 
Mwirror,' confuse 

gru{e)}a, bark 

hnga, tongue 
merda, dirt, filth 
■pan, bread 
pois, dust 
ponch, point 
preiion, prison 
trtwd, trace 
(Germanic icara) f 

> There is bIbo Bnothec verb eaaiiiar of different formation, meaning 
"to ridicule." 

' Probably eacarrtuar is unconnected with thia word and the resem- 
blonce is accidental. Eicanatar appears to be formed on some simple 
word coming from rardua, thistle {the only word found being cardan), 
by means of the prefix EA- and the verbal ending -aiar. Cf. the It. 
tcardaasare. See also Kfirting, No. 1933. 

■ The verbal douUe sufBi -AIRAR may be seen here. See p. 403. 

■ There is also another etcogotar meaning "to cut down (a tree)." 
' Treated also under double prefixes, p. 495. 

• Cf. the O. Fr. etfrea-. 

* Pound only in the past participle enairat. 



etventrar, eviecerate 
etvertydar, take away one' 

strength, conquer 
eaiiar, f aet out on the way 

Under FOR-: 
forlinhar, fall oS, degenerate 
forviar, mislead, turn astray 

Under PER-: 

linka, line 
via, nay, path 


fm(d), bottom 
teila, he&d 

cuf, back 

gorja, throat 

linha, line 

Tnenda, fault; improvement ( ?) 

poBlTiTa, position 

tram, trace 

ptrhoear, roughcast (a n 
percolar, embrace 
perfogar, suffocate 
pafondar, precipitate 

pertMUtr, assure 

Under RE-: 

recercelar,' curi 
reeulaT, recoil 
regorjar, over6ow 
relinhar, resemble 
Temendar, fix up 
repoaturaT, hide 
re(ra«Qr,tt retrace 

Under REIRE-: 
reiT(e)olhar, look back uelk, eye 

Under TRAS-: 
trasbucar (also (robuivir), stumble buc, stump, trunk 
traadoaar, burden dos, back 

Iragnuechar, be awake all night nutck, night 

1 ProbaUy formed on *cercel (cr. the Fr. cerc«au)<Lat. eireetium, 

t An obscure word is etcarar, ornftment(T) or mBccrate(?). 

tl Other words beginniog with RE]- that should be observed are 
reviicotar. revive. resuscitBte. and remlinar. turo about. Revitcolar 
is probably the Prov. development of a parHsyathcton already formed 
in Lat. This Lat. word would be ^renieerare {the noun renactraiio 
is found), showing dissimilation in its Prov. development. Retoltnar 
is placed here for convenience. Revoltina, derived from reto/oeT-, is 
found in Prov., and recolvinar would be the ordinary verbal derivative of 
it. Recoiinar may be due to confusion with retolare. 




The prefix A- is found in 

aeoatar,^ join, unite 
aeoindar, make acquainted 
acomunalaT, divide with 
adolenfar,' torment 
adoUar,' sweeten, soften 
oermaT, devastate 
o/ortar,' fortify 
afranear,' tree, soften 
agradar, delight, please 
alargar, enlarge, open 
oUiidaT, justify 
ojenfar,' delay, slow down 
attmgar, lengthen, prolong 
amenitdar, diminish 
amorlar,' extinguish 
apUUar,' level 
apretlar, prepare 
aprimoT,' make fine or thin 
apritnairar,' approach, advance 
aprwadar, tame 

artdar, stiflFen 

axabentar* inform, acquaint with 

atruandar, allure, bewitch (fruan- 

I PosBibly formed on *eoai, tailed. The usual form of the word is 
caudal, but coai (which might regularly have been formed on coa) is 
found in the coropound form capcaat beside capcaudal.' For another 
example of the kind of forniation seen in acaatar, see aprivadaT in tiie 
same list. The preservation of the f &b 1 in oooataT may poEBibly be due 
to the late formation of the word. 

' A similar verb in -ir also exiata. See -IR. 

' Primar exists too. hut only with the meaning of "dominate," 
"nirpass," on which aprimar cannot be formed. 

" An eiample of a possible compound verbal suffii -AIRAR. See 
p. 403, above. 

■ See also formations on nouns, p, 500. 

■ The little Levy has aeabtnaar. 

the following words: 

eoinde, pleasant 

comunal, common 

dolen(,t), grievous 

doU, doU, sweet, 

erm, barren 

fori, strong 

/rone, tree 

grot, grateful 

fare, large, broad 

ieial, loyal 

len{t), alow 

lone, long 

menat, small 

nwH, dead 

plal, flat 

presl, ready 

prim, fiiHt, fine 

prim (ter), first 

privai, private, intimate, tame 

ranc, crooked, twisted 

rede, stiff 

saben, wise, knowing 

truan, poor, wretched 




averar, aver, certify 
amtar, make vile 

oroipilAor.t make afraid 

Under DES-, we find: 

deeleialaT, disgrace 
detunar* disunite, separate 

Under EIS-: 
eitto-pinar, l>end backwards 
ei»{t)oTdar, deafea 

Under EM- and EN-: 
emmancar, shut in( ?)» 
empirar* become worse 
tncaJx^T, make powerful 
enaadoT* advise, warn 
eftcerfur,* make certain 
engrosar, become stout 
enrot4car,*tt become hoarse 

Under ES-: 

or,ttt eut off the hand 

txApilh, cowardly 

{de9)leiai, (diB)loyal 

mane, crippled, defective 

cabal, powerful 

cert, certwi 
f/rm, stout 
rmte, hoatse 

mane, one-handed, crippled 

1 Dievnirt a found in Lat, 

* Piobably the meaning, although the coimection with mane, which 
appears to be the base-word, is not vety clear. "To clean" has also 
been auggested as a tranalatioo. 

• The form of the word indicates Fr. influence, and it is, indeed, 
found in a text which shows traces of this influence. The Prov, form 
naturally to be expected — CTnp«)oror — is not found, but a noun emftjo- 

■ The adjectives incaalut. inrcrlui, and iTrauctia are found in Lat. 

t For such words as anuottar. ap^orar, aaadolar, atotUar apparently 
formed on adjectives, see the verbal preflx A-, p. 416. 

tt A parasyntheton beginning with EN- that is formed on an adverb 
instead of an adjective is encantar, put a price on. The base-word ia 
cant, how much (?). 

A word of Lat. origin having the prefix EN- is emprenhar, impregnate 

ttt Words of Lat. origin having the prefix ES- are acaldar, heat< 
ezcaldare and eeclaraT. shine <ej:cfcirarc. 


Formation of Verbs 

Under RE-: 

Tteraaar, grow worse crufe,' rough, raw 

rwiDar, revive viu, living 


It seems to be necessary to make this division on 
accoimt of one word : 
obeurar,* drench, eoak beure, drink 

The next, and practically the only other sufBx used 
in forming paraayntheta is -IR, which is, however, of con- 
siderable importance. In the chapter on suffix-formati<m, 
-IR was shown to have formed many verbs, such as 
brunir and rogir, on adjectives, nearly all of these verbs 
being intransitive. But besides these intransitive verbs, 
there are other transitive ones ; only these verbs are formed 
by using a prefix as well as a suffix with the adjective, 
and are therefore real parasyntheta. In these cases, the 
prefixes have real force, even A- and EN-, just as they 
did in the parasyntheta in AR^, except that here, the 
base-word being an adjective instead of a concrete noun, 
their prepositional force is not so clear. We may say that 
abdir means "to turn (-ir) to (a) the beautiful ibeVf," or 
er^eblir, "to turn into the weak," by which rendering 
the adjective is seen to be used as an abstract noun. The 
same thing is true of the other parasyntheta in the list. 
r Tfcnuar, see also FlttmenCB, 

■ OwiDB to the Dumber o( correspond ing f onus in the other Roinance 
laniuages. the Fc. oAreuwr, the It. abbeneTare, and the Sp. abrenar, it 
eeeniB neceiisary to aupposo ao *adlnberare formed in Latin. Atffiibere 
is [ound, but has left do trace, 'Ad-biberare was probably formed On 
this word by the addition oT -ARE. See KSrting, No. 1359, and ALL, 


518 Word-Formation in Phoven5al 

There are also several parasyntheta ending in -ir 
built on nouns, and these are transitive likewise.' It is 
rather surprising to find -^r in any formations on nouns, 
as it was so rare in the verbs formed on nouns without a 
prefix, but -or being used in formations on adjectives as 
well as on nouns, and the confusion of verbal endings 
beii^ seen in certain duplicate forms, -ir, possibly by a 
kind of reflex action, was used to form certain parasyn- 
theta on nouns. Bastarl, an adjective, but also used as a 
noun, may have helped also as a starting-point for the 
formations on nouns. It is to be observed that a very 
few nouns are at the base of all these formations, joglar, 
podest and aenhor,^ as well as bastard, being each used with 
two different prefixes. 


A- is found in : 

aboilardir, debase, corrupt baslarl,' bastard 

aboTzezir, become a bui^her boriea* burgher 

ajogfarir (se), beinme a minstrel joglar, minstrel 

anochir, become night tuxh, nu(e)ch, night 

apoderir, overcome, conquer poder, power 

avalkir, faint, disappear valk, valley 

DES- is found in: 
deapodeilir,' renounce; withdraw 

dettenkorir, deprive of lordship »ejthor, lord 

■ -EZIR. pre-eminently the suffix used in formiog intransitive verba, 
is the only one which appears to be regularly intraoBitive in the parasyn- 
thetic formations. 

■ All of these are feudal terms, which shows the time of the fonoatiOD 
ol these words. 

■ .4l9o an adjective. Cf. a6ardtr given in the list of formations 
on adjectives. The simple word bort is found only as an adjective, 
whereas baslarl was used lioth as an adjective and as a noun. 

• L'aed as adjective and noun. In abtntetir. the suffix -EZIR ia 
only apparent. 

t Deepodetlir and eTnpodealiT appear to be formed on a noun podtat 
that is not found, although podalat (KpeUitaUrm) eiista. It is possible. 



EM- and EN- are found i 

embandir, cover with bands or 

embatlardir, debase 
embetptinir, make devout 
emibottT, fill, stuff 
emparalffir, raise, enhance 
empodetUr,' put in poBseseioo 
enffoUr, swallow 
tngranir, plant seeds 
enjo^arir (<e), become a nunatrel 
enorgolhir, become proud 
tmerthorir, act as lord 
emiergonhir, be ashamed 

ES- is found in : 

banda, band 

baslarl,' bastard 
beguina, bigot 
bota, cask 
paralge, rank 

gola, throat 
(fran, seed 
joglar, minstrel 
orgolh, pride 
tenhoT, lord 
vergonha, shame 

ubair, be amazed 

ba( f) (an exclamation 7) 


tinder the prefix A- a 
abdir, beautify 
oftordtr,' miscarry 
luMentir, grieve, afflict 
nfeblir, weaken 
ofortir, strengthen 
^frangmr, free 
^frwolir, weaken 
agdoxir, make jealous 
alentir, slacken, retard 
amalir, make bad, ham 
ajuoTHr, kill, deaden 
aruMir, ennoble 
apaubrir, impoverish 
aplanir, level, smooth 
aptalir, flatten 
aredondir, round 

bd, beautiful 

bort, illegitimate, false 

dolen{t), painful, lamentable 

/eWe, weak 

/or(, strong 


frevot, weak 
gdos, jealous 
len{t), slow 
mat, bad 
mort, dead 
noble, noble 
paubre, poor 
plan, smooth 
plof, fiat 
redon, round 

however, that the ending -at may have been taken for a suffix, particularly, 
perhaps, because of the eiistence of the word podettaditi, apparently 
havJDS the double suffix -ADITZ. 

■ Bee note 3, p. G18. ■ See note 5, p. 518. 



aUndrir, touch, make tender 
atrUanir, niEike vile, degrade 
avilir, make vile, 

Under the prefix EM- 
etiAelkir, beautify 
emblanquir, whiten 
empavbrir, impoverish 
empeguir (»e), act foolishly 
encabatir, make powerful 
enatTXT, become dear 
eJKwtenr,' become courtly 
enArviT (se),' become fftt(?) 
enduHr, become hard 
enfadir,' disgust( ?) 
enJMiT, weaken 
enfelonir, make cruel; irritate 
en/olatir,' drive or go mad 
enfolir, drive mad 
enforCir, strengthen 
enfosqair* darken 
enfrevolir, weaken ; grow weak 
engalkardir, fortify, encourage 
engelonr, make jealous 
englotottir, make gluttonous 
engordir, fatten 
engroieir, thicken 
tnleconir, covet 
enlenir, soften 

' The verbal ending -erir is only ftpporent, as the meaning of the 
word shows. 

■The base-word is apparently the adjective corresponding to the 
Fr. dru, compact, thick, strong. The only simple word given in the 
dictionaries, however, ia the adverb drut, hard, (oBt: tnit probably this 
represents nothing but an adverbial use of what was really an adjective, 
such as is seen in the Fr. iwutaer dru. Cf. also in Mistral B'«ndrudt, 
become fat. 

■ Cf. en/adi in Mistral and the translations of it. Cf. also mfadenr. 

' One of several words formed on *foUxt. which probably was derived 
from /ol and meant "crasy." 

' Infuscare, found in Lat., would give enfoicar. When mfotguir 
was formed on fosc according to the usual Prov. process, en/otcar may 
have disappeared. 

tendre, tender 
vtian, coarse, rustic 

(and EN-) we find: 
hdh, beautiful 
Uane, white 
pau6re, poor 
pec, foolish 
cabal, rich, powerful 

corUs, courtly 

dur, hard 
fat, silly 
febk, weak 
feton, cruel 

fol, crazy 
fort, strong 
fosc, dark 
frewA, weak 
galhart, gay, bold 
gehe, jealous 
(rlofon, gluttonous 
gort, fat 

groa, large, thick 
lec(,on), greedy 
fen, soft 


Formation op Verbs 

mt^tU, ill 

mal, bad 

mancn(0, rich, powerful 

orgothos, proud 

Tedon, round 

tibaut, ribald 

at^tiatge, wild 
taiM, saintly 
sort, deaf 

truanil), vagrant 
vermdh, vermilion 
vUan, rustic, coarse 

enmaiautir, become ill 
cnnuijtr, become angry; irritate? 
tnmaneniir («e), become rich 
enargaikoziT, make proud 
enTtdonir, make round 
enrihattdir, lead life of ribaldry 
mriquir, make rich, powerful 
enwdsatgir, drive wild 
etaanhtxT, sanctify oneself 
ejiMrdir, become deaf 
erwuperWr,' become proud 
entnandir, live like a vagrant 
eniierntetttr, become red 
tmrilaniT, degrade, insult 

And under ES- are found: 
eAaudiT, rejoice, brighten 
eadarir,^ brighten 
es/elnir, become furious 
taflauir,' become soft 
erfotir, befool, delude 
etfortv, strengthen 
ernnanentit, become rich 
etPwrtiT, extinguish 
tmianir, t degrade, outrage 

And under RE-: 

refrei/ir, to cool freg, cold 

re/resquir, refresh fretc, fresh 

Tfjovenir, rejuvenate Jovea, young 

reverdir, become green again; vert, green 

baiit, bold, gay 
dor, bright 
M/eton, cruel(7 
JlOM, 8oft( ?) 
fol, foolish 
fort, strong 
ma7ten(l), rich 
mort, dead 
Mian, coarse, rus 

■ Superb is not found in Prov. The word looks like a learned forma- 
tion OD the Lat. lUperhiu. 

' Etdairir ia also found, as veil as etdaraTKeidaTaTe, given above, 
p. 516. n. m. 

> See Stichel, 51. 

t An obscure word. mWaiianir. faint ( 7) or become faint ( ?), may alao 
be placed here, as it appears to be formed on the adjective Dan, feeble, 
exhausted. Etmnir would, of course, be the reKular formation. Seo 
atamni in Mistral, and Zeittchrift, XV, 539. 




Other suffixes found in parasyntheta are •BJAR, 
-EGAR, and -EZIR. 

Under the verbal suffix -E^AR, several words of this 
kind are found, formed both on nouns and on adjectives. 
When joined to adjectives, -EJAR generally seems to 
give the force of "to become." 

Used together with the prefix A-, we find: 
HfeMejar («e), become weak /eWe, weak 

asopUjar {se), bend, incline sopU, supple 

atordejar,^ become deaf tort, deaf 

With COM-: 
eompayuyar, prepare or eat food pan, bread 

With DES-: 
detun^ar, disunite un, one 

With EN-: 
enmalejar, anger? mal, bad, evil 

entenhorejar, become mighty senhor, lord 

With ES-: 
««6au(fe(ar, t rejoice baut, bold, gay 

-EGAR also is found in three words, two formed on 
nouns and one on an adjective. 

t Abother verb rather obscure in formBtion amy be meDtioned here 
because of the apparent prefix DE-. This is dentjar, clean, purify, and 
its form seeiDS to be due to a metathewB in nedejar. In this case, there 
is no prefii, and, consequently, no pBrasyntbeton. The prefix DE- can 
be part of the word only if we suppose some shorlening to have taken 
place in a verb 'denedejar, Porned^ar, see p. 3fll. 


FoRUATioN OF Verbs 523 

It is found together with the prefix A- in: 
ofamegar, starve fam, hunger (noun) 

awuAigar, softeo mol{h), soft (adjective) 

With the prefix DE- in: 
demenUgar, forget men(t), mind 

which may be compared with the parasynthetic adjective 


Under the suffix -EZIR, there is a fairly long list of 
parasyntheta, formed, with very few exceptions, on adjec- 
tives, and mostly intransitive. 

Derived in connection with the prefix A- we find : 
(Aonear, improve bon, good 

afranqxierir, tree /ranc, tree 

afrtDoUMr,' weaken /reuof, weak 

otWAeztr, soften molh, soft 

amortezir,'' deaden mart, dead 

In cotmection with EM- are found: 
embdhenr, beautify bel(,k), beautiful 

eTrAtanqueiir, whiten btanc, white 

empaleziT, become pale poje, pale 

With EN- are: 

encanerir,' make dear car, dear 

enduTzeziT,' harden dur, hard 

enfadezir, play the fool fat, fool, foolish 

ertfoUtir, drive craey fol, craiy, foolish 

enfreuUHr, put out of power frevol, weak 

engratidear, glorify gran{t), great 

engrogezir, become yellow groc, yellow 

entagezir, become dirty lag, laid, ugly 

1 Cf. also a/remiliiT, as well as afrevolar and afrmolir. 

* For the formation on a past participle, cf. also torteiir under verbal 
suSixes, p. 360. 

■These two verba are peculiar in form. The forms cartir and 
endtiTiir, in which the suffix is once represented, are also found. It 
seems just possible that in these words -ZIR may have been taken for 
-IR (i.e.. carn'r for can -i—lR), and the longei -E^IR substituted for it. 


524 Word-Formation in Pbgvenjal 

enregetir, stiffen rege, stiff 

ennqtietir, enrich He, rich 

enrogeiir, redden rog, red 

enteunenr, weokeo feune, weak, thin 

enfmlezir, sadden trill, sad 

Formed in conjimction with ES- we find: 
esgaieir, beconie glad, cheer up gai, gay 

In contrast with all of these formations on adjectives, 
very few formations are made on other words. On 
nomis we find : 

With EM-: 
empeirerir, petrify " peira, atone 

empoisenr, soil, darken poU, dust 

With EN-: 
enfugueiir, kindle fuc, fire 

There are also words apparently formed on verb-stems: 
engemesir,' sigh gemir, groan, lament 

erUoTUtir, twiat, wrench terser, twiet 

' Jngtmitcert ts found in L&t. 


The nouns formed by the simultaneous addition of 
suffix and prefix to some simple word are very few in 
number. This simple word may be either a noun or a 
verb-stem, just as in the formation of verbal parasyntheta 
it might be either noun or adjective. Nouns based on 
adjectives are, however, rare. The reasons for the forma- 
tion of nouns of this class are the same as those which 
aid in bringing about the formation of verbs — ^there was a 
real need for them in the language. This has been illus- 
trated in the case of the verb ealeagar; and it is easy to 
imagine a further step forward by which eslengamen 
might be formed. In fact, it is the natural thing to form 
abstracts by adding the suffix -AMEN to the stem of 
verbs in -ar. Eslengamen in this case would of course 
be only a suffix-formation on eslengar; but such words 
might give a starting-point for the formation of nominal 
parasyntheta, for lenga instead of eslengar might be under- 
stood as the base-word, or, to take an actual case, setje 
instead of asetjar might be supposed to be the base-word 
in asetjamen. Yet the proximity of the verb and the 
regularity with which -AMEN had come to be added 
to verb-stems would prevent any such confusion from 
becoming great. Formations based on nouns may have 
come about as described, whereas the formations on verbs 
are simpler, being exactly the same as that of the verbal 
parasyntheta studied above. That is, denombramen, 
bill, b formed by DE^+nombr{or)+-AMEN, nombrar 
being the base-word. Denombrar is not found and may 
not exist, but a need for the noun was felt, and it was 



probably formed on the analogy of verbs beginning with 
DE- and taking the suffix -AMEN. Here again, as in 
other cases, the abstract denombramen may be a sufiBx- 
formation on *denombraT, but it is unnecessary to assume 
the existence of such a word. Nominal para^yntbeta as 
well as verbal ones could be formed when needed. 

The use of -AMEN with a kind of collective force has 
already been mentioned. This is a meaning that may 
have developed out of the abstract use,' but it is particu- 
larly common in the parasyntheta in connection with 
the vague prefix EM- (EN-).' 

The parasyntheta formed by means of suffixes regularly 
added to verbs will be given first. The sufhxes of this 
kind found in forming nominal parasyntheta are -ADA, 
-ADOR, -AMEN, and -AT, and, in single examples, 
-ATGE and -AZON. 

-ADA is found in: 
contragelada' (for eontracdada f) Mlar, conceal ( 7} 

feint ( ?), avoidance ( ?) 
eteambada* ) . ■, , , 

, I J 1 f atnde camba, leg 

-ADOR is found in: 

eeeoUivadoT,' cultivaUir eoltivar, cultivate 

pervalofhr, ditch-digger vatai, ditch 

' See the other abstract Bufliies, such as -ATGE, etc. 

■ Cf. the Engl, word "embaokment." 

■A dancing term? (see Flamenca, line 1275). 

' a. the Pr. formation with EN- (enjambie) instead of ES- or TRAS-. 

• EseoUinar is not found, but its eiiatence is made probable by the 
appearance of other possible derivatives, as escoUitamen and escoUital. 
It is hardly probable tbat so many parasynthetio fonnationa would be 
made on one word. 



-AMEN is found in: 

oeujaTnen,' idea eujar, believe 

tUcottamen, defrayal eotlar, cost 

de/atamtn, disfigurement fata, fikce 

detunnbramen, specificatioD, bill rutmbrar, Dame 

detmemoriamen, forgetting meTnoria, memory 
empoestamen,* authority 

empontamen, scaffold, atage ponOi bridge 

enarlamen,' dexterity art, art 

enfachaTnen* conceit, whim{ ?) faeha, face 

enioUtamen, foundations of sill soUh), tbreehold 

enlaulamert, beams, timberwork laula, table 

esccUioamert,* cultivation a>Uivar, cultivate 

Also apparently formed on an adjective: 

enviliamen, cheapness viHh), vile 

-AT is found in: 

encrimlhal, a religious sect ( ?) (erioelar, sift through ?) 

ensabalal, a religious sect sabot, shoe 

eteodat, stripped slcin of animal coa, tail 

etponhal,^ one-anned man ponk, fist 

all of these words being only adjectives used substan- 
tively. Enmbaiat seems to be a variation of aabatat, 
but formed independently on s(d)at. 

> Aa enjamen exists also, this may be a preSx-tormatioD, though this 
kjod of formation is unlikely. 

■ This word is puiilinK, and is probably not a parasyntheton at all. 
It may be s suflii-formation on empodeiHr, put in poBsegaion. with 
-AMEN inaMad of -IMEN, due to the analogy of the a of the apparent 
suffix in empotttadat, empoetladit. 

' Bnarlar exists, but has a rather different meanins from that seen 
in Ote noun. 

■ The meaning is not at all clear. 

> For the rormatioo, see the nole on acoUicador, p. 526. 

t For all of the words in -AT. see also the nominal suffix -AT. 
Another word in -AT is arfidiquenat. archdeaconry, Digutnal is not 
found in Prov., but undoubtedly existed, coming from the Lat. diaeo- 
nalui. In this case, arguidiguenat, if not entirely formed in Lat.. might 
be taken as a kind of prefix-formation. It cannot, of course, be a Prov. 
parasyntheton, as the word for "deacon" is diaere. 



-ATGE is found only in: 
et^p^natge,' a tax on besne grun, grain 

-AZON (-IZON) is found only in: 

envenizon,' comiag iienir, come 


Next come the few formations by means of suffixes 
generally added to nouns, of which the most important 
is -lER. In these words, both suffix and prefix generally 
have real force. 

-lER is found in: 

eoncatongier. disputant calonja, slander 

escabeniera, head of a bed cabes, head of a bed 

eateatier, butcher who sells heads Utta, head 

-INA is found in: 
apteeina,' security, pledge plevir, pledge 

-OL is found in: 
arestol,* rest for the lance resta, rest, fork 

-URA is found in: 

lra(n)slach\ira, crevice Zute, light 

A sufGx of the kind regularly added to adjectives, 
-EZA, is found in one example: 

imperdurableza perdurable, everlasting 

' £ncruniirexislB. but with a different meaning, fnoruno'ffe appears 
to be directly fonned on onin, althouEh it may have been influenced in its 
form by the verb. The simple *sruTuitgt would have the same meaning. 

' There ia no evidence for the existence of tnvenir. Enteniion seems 
to mean "cominE" in a special sense. It is found only in a work on geo- 
nianey. The Lat. invenire seems to have left no traces in Romance. 

A general observation that may be made about the nominal para- 
syntheta as yet studied is that sufiiies which have beeo seen to be added 
almost exclusively to verbs are here very generally added to nouns. 

> This word may not exist. One ol the manuscripts has pUvina. 
which would be a normal formation on plerir. 

' The verbs reslar and oreaiar both are found, and nreg(o( might be 
a formation on the latter except for the fact that the suffix -OL seems 
always to have been added to nouns. For a description of the ar«s(o{. 
see Sohulti, Hofieche Uben. II, 24, 


The formation of adjectives of this kind is similar to 
that of the nouns, but it is even more limited in extent. 
Indeed, the only certain adjective parasyntheta are formed 
by means of the participial suffixes -AT, -IT, and -UT.' 
The way these formations were evolved has been men- 
tioned in dealing with the adjective suffix -AT. 


The list of parasyntheta probably formed on verb- 
stems follows. 

Under -AT, there are: 

de (or deejfortuwU,* unfortuoate /ortunar (forluna), make happy 

deranmal, unreasonable raicnar (raion), reason 

deiafiblat, uncloaked afihiar, clasp, wrap up 

emparUU, eloquent parlar, speak 

enfaaligat, satiated jasligar {Jagtic), feel diflguat for 

enfazendat, busy, occupied fazendar, make 

enmeravilhat, astonished meraviUvir (meravUha), marvel 

entoQelat, sealed tagdar (aaget), seal 

prerwmnat, previously mentioned nomnar, name 
Bobr (ej amezural 

, , , f immoderate , . , 

Bobredesmezurat \ desmezurar, go beyond measure 

> There are, however, a few words ending in other suSiiea that should 
be mentioned here. BenOBlruc Had Tnalatlruc, for example, are listed 
by Meyer-LQbke under the parasyntheta. They are. indeed, formed on 
attre, star, but as oslruc (and its derivative (utJruirueza) is also found, they 
camiot well be placed here. They may be compared with the Fr. 
bienheureux and Taalheureui, which are certainly not parasyntheta. 
Both Fr. and Prov. forms are compound words, under which head the 
Prov. words will be given. Other apparent paraayntheta are aubalbenc 
and aub/albenc. These might be taken to be formed on alb and falb, 
yet both falbenc and eub/alb are found. Subfalbenc might, therefore, 
be taken either as prefix- or sulfix-formation, Subalbenc is probably 
formed on the analogy of tub/albenc. See pp. 309 and 488 above. 

* ForiuTuU is not found in Prov., although similar forms are in most 
of the other languages. 



530 Word-Formation in Phovenqal 

Under -IT, there is found: 
dezapedit, abandoned apedir, long for, desire. 

(See adjective suffix -IT) 
oltraiaihil, overweening talkir, dart out 

And under -UT, there is: 
dezapereeabut, unprepared ( ?) aperctbre, perceive 


Next, parasynthetic adjectives formed directly on 
nouns are seen. The nouns that existed beside nearly 
all the simple verbs given in the list above may be the 
starting-point for this. Such adjectives in -AT are: 
deno/eiol,^ unbelieving /e, faith 

desbnuol, without anns brat, arm 

embanat, wearing rings 

empo^TUif,* dull, surly pagina, page 

emp^trat, peppery pefcre, pepper 

enaibat,' deformed aip, good quality 

eiuameteat, equipped arneae, equipment 

eneanonat, reed-§haped eanmi, reed 

enearat (preceded by mal)= with cora, face 

dark face 
encopenal or eniopinat T* plumed ( ?) 

I A peculiar formation, as no/eiat, which also eiistB, expieMM this 
idea Bufficiently well, io addition to its meaning of "disloyal." The 
DB- of deno/aat appears to have no force, therefore. The word may 
have been formed, however, by the addition of -AT to the phrase de no 
/e. aod the i due to the Bnalogy of nofetal. 

' A queer development of meaning. The form seems tt> indicate 
the mood of one always poring over the pages of a book. 

■ EN- here would appear to be the negative particle sometimes pre- 
fixed to adjectives. Aibat, however, does not appear to eziet, though 
ailtit is found. See note on endedial (p. 531, below). 

* If the word in question ia eniopinal, it would seem to be formed on 
lopina, saucepan, and, indeed, eni<yupina, put in the pot, wrap up, etc., 
ia found in Miatral. But even if the word should be corrected to entopi- 
nal, there is no clear connection in meaning with topina, saucepan, as the 
meaning " plumed " seems to fit the passage in which the word is found. 
Couldnot theroot be, rather, that found in the FT.Imipst (and/oupi«/)T 
Fosaibly there may have existed a Prov. *lopin with the meaning of 
toupei, or "tuft." The word is very obscure, however. 


Formation of Adjectives 531 

endechat,^ full ol good qualities deeha, fault 

endeirumiat, demoniacal demoni, demon 

enlatinal, learned, versed in Ian- talin, Latin 


entolfrat, sulphured aotfre, sulphur 

eraucat, wounded in the head auc, head 

ertlemorat, god-fearing Umor, fear 

etcuichat, hipped, hipshot euicha, hip 

egdental, toothless den(t), tooth 

e^otat, dug(?), or containing /osa, grave 

graves (?) 

t^Tonlat, bold, daring /ron(0, forehead 

ti-pdirinat, with bared breast ■peitrina, breast 

Ttf^ezat, faithless }e, faith 

nAretloriat, f overadomed, over- etloria, history 


An adjective of this kind eudii^ in -IT is: 
aterrit, worn out, infirm Urra, earth 


A few words appear to be of even more complicated 
formation, however. These appear to have, besides the 
preSx and suffix such as are seen in the preceding list 
joined to the simple noun, another syllable interpolated 
between this noun and the sufiSx. Such words are 
esmerUeg(U, espezotat, and engratonat. 

EmnentegiiU, crazy, appears to be the past participle of 
a verb ^eamentegar. This is derived by Stichel* from 

' Endeehai ia formed in the same way aa enaibal, in which the EN- 
has negative force. There ia a verb dtcAar which seema to mean "to 
sin," and endechat may be formed of EN- and dechat, the past participle 
of dtchar. Even in Buch a caae. however, the eilBtence of the noun decha 
would give a starting-poiat for the formation of enaSial on a noun. 

> P. S2. 

t Ajottat probably formed on jiata, near; apoderal probably formed 
on poder, power; deacorat probably formed On cor, heart; and eJicolpat 
probably formed on coJpa. ain. guilt, should be mectioDed here with 
the parasynthets, although, aa the verb with the prefix eiiata, they have 
already been ^ven as BufGx-Eormations. 



EX-+m«nte+-ICARE and compared with the Spanish 
meniecato. This etymology seems to be correct, making 
the word a pa.rasyntheton with the suffix -ICARE. 
*Esmeniegar may be compared with deTrtentegar, forget, 
which is found. 

Espezotat, with broken foot, appears to be the same 
kind of formation, although the source of the -ol- is not 
entirely clear. Mistral lists a word espeeoula. 

EngraUmat, wrinkled, appears to be formed on a 
noun *gTaton derived from the verb gralar, scratch. 
Mbtral has a verb gratouna, scratch slightly. 







As a convenieat as well as logical system for the classi- 
fication of the diEFereut kinds of word-formation found, 
the addition of sufiGx or prefix has been adopted and ' 
followed hitherto. Words have been regarded as formed 
by the addition of either one of these, or of both of them 
at the same time, and classified accordingly. It is, more- 
over, possible to continue on the same basis by styling all 
the other ordinary methods of word-formation "Words 
formed' without the use of either suffix or prefix." 

This classification, or grouping-together of all the words 
formed by other methods than the addition of suffix or 
prefix contains two very distinct kinds of formations. 
There are the words formed by composition, or the union 
of two individual words, to be treated later, and there is 
also another type of word, peculiar to the Romance 
languages and particularly common in French and Pro- 
ven9al, in which there is an apparent droppii^ of a suffix. 
These are the words which have been generally known as 
postverbal nouns. Here, however, they will be given the 
broader title of "nouns formed from verbs." They will 
be treated first. 

,;,zcc ..Google 


These words, geoerally known as postverbal nouns, 
as stated above, are, in appearance, never anything but 
the stem itself of the verb from which they are formed. 
There haa been some discussion of this class of words and 
of the name that should be given them. Egger, who was 
one of the first to treat this kind of nouns, called them 
nouns formed by the apocopation of the infinitive,' and 
Len^, who has treated the formation of these words in 
French more recently,* while ^ving the words their usual 
name of postverbal nouns,' has adopted E^^r's view of 
their formation. 

However words of this kind may have come to be 
formed in French or in Proven9al, their origin is described 
by Len6 in what he calls a "proportional formation." 
To illustrate: From the past participle canius of the 
ancient verb canere, to sing, was formed the frequentative 
verb cantare. Now cantus, like many other past parti- 
ciples, was used substantively, meaning "song," and when 
carter e later disappeared and cantare persisted,* the 
appearance is that of a noun formed on a verb by dropping 
some ending. Such, at least, is the appearance of the 
words in French and Provencal, where we find the nouns 

■ "Let tubtianiift nerbaux formtt par a-poeope de VinfiniHf," Rm.l 
lang. rom., VI. 333-80. 

'Let subjifan/^8 pottverhaux dant la tangue franfatse, UpBala. 1S09. 

> This name is criticized in a review of Lena's work by Paiia in 
Romania, XXIX, 440. The name ttibiiaiUi/i dtvfrbaux is there sug- 


Nouns Formed frou Verbs 537 

chant and can{l) existing beside the verbs chanter and 
cantor. The proportion is between cantus, denoting 
the action of the verb — and caviare, the verb itself. 
When thb proportion happened to become frequent, 
as it did in later Latin, new nouns on this model 
were formed, and as the original method of formation 
had been foi^tten, they were formed according to 
appearances, by using nothing but the stem of the verb. 
The question whether it is the stem of the infinitive or 
that of the present which appears in these words has been 
much discussed. For Provencal, it is the infinitive 
stem that is seen in every word, so that from all appear- 
ances these words might easily be called "substantives 
formed by apocopation of the infinitive." But it is 
doubtful whether any ending of any particular form was 
ever really dropped.' 


There are, in Provencal, three classes of postverbal 
nouns: (1) those showing only the stem of the verb; 
(2) those ending in -e; (3) those ending in -a. The second 
class is really only a subdivision of the first one, as the 
-e is probably never anything but the supporting vowel 
after a difficult combination of consonants. The case is 
simpler, therefore, than in French, where -e appears as 
a feminine ending as well as a supporting vowel. Aside 
from the forms in -e, there are, then, only two classes of 
words: the mascuhne, or verb-stem forms, and the 
feminine forms in -a.* A very large proportion of the 
words in both the lists is abstract, and it is i 

> Romania. XXIX, 443. 

'Names of male persons in -a, however (as guia und eacha), a 



to find any rule for their choice of gender, as Len^ declares.' 
In the Provencal of our period, there was apparently a 
good deal of hesitation as to the gender of these words, 
since for the same word there is frequently a form in -a 
and a form without it.* The masculines are more numer- 
ous, however, and seem to have been the original form. 

First will be given the m^culine or verb-stem forma. 
Of these the list is rather large, 

obric, shelter, refuge abricar, shelter 

aetap, piling up, pile adapar, pile up 

aeort, peace, union acordar, agree 

ocus, ground for complaint aauar, accuse 

adop, arrangement adr^xcr, equip 

a/an, labor afanar, work 

afic, attachment, effort a.^<!(w(ge), support, attach oneself 

agach* unbush, trap agaehar, watch 

agart, waiting, expectation agardw, guard, watch 

oyrot, will, wish agradar, pleaoe 

air," anger airar, irritate 

ajost, collection, assembly ajotlar, adjust 

amas, pile, heap amamr, amass 

apel, appeal apelar, call, appeal 

aprest, preparation apre»tar, prepare 

' P. 43. 

' C(. the foUowiiiB pairs of words: 
eoman and comaTUta enguetl and en^ota 

canauU and amtuUa tnttn and mtaiia 

deman and demanda etdai and ttdiUa 

demor and deitutra etper and etpera 

deiirie and datriga ettora and etloria 

empach and empacha jtir and jtira 

endrea and fndrtia eoan and loana 

In Ft., in almost all of the cases in which one of these words or of 
any other pair has persisted to the present, it is under the feminine form. 
These probably became popular later than the period studied here 
through their closer resemblance to the verb-stem. 

> The word has also personal force, meaning "a watchman." 

• See also atir, below, another form of the word. 


Nouns Forued from Verbs 

aquU,' acquisition , purchase 
amp, leaziag 
araxon, reasan 
arett, arreat, stop 
atoU, forgivenem, gift 
alur, application 
autore, permiaaion 
aiilrei, ptmuBsion 
anr, anger, hate 
bUutim, blame 
bure, push 
eaguet, chatter 
etutei, remonstrance 
clam, complaiDt 
a)man{t), conunand 
compat, compass, measure 
comport, conduct 
concoTt, unanimity 
conforl, comfort 
eonjur, mipplication 
eonort, encouragement 
cormr, chagrin, care 
coruuti, consultation 
conle*t, reply, objection 
amlrapet,* counterweight 
amlraal, contrast 
creban((), shock 

cug (cjiit), thought 
debait, decay, ruin 
declin, decline 
defii, challenge 
deUch, delight 
deman{t), demand 
demor, dwelling 
deTiec, denial 
deport, amuaement 
deroc, nuBchance, trouble 
de*ean{t), mocking song 
dueare, dischai^, release 

aguiiar, acquit, pay off 
arapar, snatch away 
arxuorKo; demand, require 
areslar, arrest, stop 
agoUar, give over 
alurar, fix 
auiorgar, grant 
atUryar, grant 

blattimar, blame 
bwcar, push 
caquetar, chatter 
caatejar {-igar), warn . 
damar, complain 
eayjiandar, command 
eompaaar, measure 
comportar, behave 
eoncordar, agree 
eojifortar, comfort 
eonjurar, implore; conspire 
conorlar, encourage 
eonnrar, seek, long for 
consvliar, consult 
conietlar, reply 
corUrapetar, oountert>alance 
wntratlar, resist 
crebaTitar, overwhelm 
eridar, cry 

cttjar i-cuidar), think 
debaitar, debase 
dedinar, decline 
defidoT, challenge 
dtUehar, delight 
dtmandar, demand 
demorar, dwell, remiun 
denegar, deny 

deroear, upset 

deteaniar, ridicule 
descargar, discharge 


Word-Formation in Provencal 

e of kind of poetry dwconortar, trouble 

deacoTt, discord 

detcug, negligence 

tUidenh, disdain 

detfit, challenge 

desffral,' ill-will 

detlaof, blame 

de«ki, wrong 

detmani,!), counter-order 

de«pent, expense 

desprezi, Bcom 

datenh, unreaaonablenesa 

dettric, embarrassment 

deveU, forbiddance 

devit, discowve 

deziT* desire 

domnei, courtesy 

egol, gutter 

eitee, equal diviwon (ot cattle) 

etiAare, obstacle 

empack, prevention 

empelt (empeul), graft 

encaus, pursuit 

endrm, leading, guidance 

enfoTc,* croBswaya 

enget, assignment 

^iglut, paste, coating 

eneerl, tree newly grafted 

enUUh, notch, gash 

en(re/orc,' crossroad 

entrepaue, joining, insertion 

emieg,* annoyance 

envit,' invitation 

escamp [d'abelhat), beehive 

etdal, heavy fall; uproar 

descordoT, disagree 
dacujar {-cwdar), be careless 
desdenhar, disdain 
desfizar, challenge 

deslaiaar, disapprove 

dedeiar{»e), n(^ect one's duty 

detmandar, oountermand 

detpensar, spend 

despreiiar, depredate 

deasenar, drive cnuy 

dealrigar, delay 

devedar, forbid 

devitar, tell, relate 

detirar, desire 

domntjar, court 

egotar, drain 

eiaegar, arrange, order 

embargar, embarrass 

empaekar, prevent 

empeUar, graft 

encausor, drive away 

endretar, set up 

enforcar, become foriced 

engetar, assign 

engludar, glue 

emerlar, graft 

entalhar, notch 

erUreforcar, interfork 

enlrepauxoT, join, insert 

eicampar, pour j 
esdalar, burst forth 

' This ia the probable formation, but as conort exists, it would be 
possible to see in the word a prefix-formation. 

■ See prefix-formation, p. 470. 

> For a discuBsioD of this word, see Len^, 78. 

■ Or a possible prefix-formation in EN- as given on p. 472, above. 

> See also nomioai prefixes, p. 473. above. 
•Sec Len6.S 1-33. 


Nouns Fobmbd frou Vebbs 

eieoU, hiding-place for listening 
etgar, etgari, look 
esgUti, terror 

esgol, drainage, flowing ofT 
eslait, start, outburst 
esUi, justification 
eamai, trouble, emotion 
eaparpaik, acatterii^, dispersal 
eapaul, filing, fault 
etpaven, terror 
e«per, hope 

eipurc, rubbish, sweepings? 
etiielh (in estar en e,, pay attention) esu^har (se), awake 
,' revocation 

eacoUar, listen 
eagarar, eagardar, look at 
eaglaiar, terrify 
etgolar, drain 
esUii»€a; dart forth 
edeiar, justify, clear 
esmaioT, trouble, disturb 
esparpalhar, scatter about 
tapaular, trouble 
eapaeenUxr, terrify 
esperar, hope 
eapurgar, purge 

faific, disgust 

favH, talk 

fomen{t), nouiishment 

fitragiet, advancement 

/roil, rumpling, bruising 

gach, watch 

ga\men{l), groaning 

galop, galop 

gap, mocking, joke 

gatanh, g^n 

govern, guidance, government 

gragel, noise, uproar 

graxUh, tickling 

graOs, compl^nt? 

grondilk, murmur 

guink, leer, peep 

guit,' guide 

jangluelk, slander 

jur, oath 

malaeech, illness; hardship 

man, order 

moTiteu,* borrowing 

fattigar, feel disgust for 
favekar, talk 
fomeniar, foment, exmte 
foTogilaT, throw forth 
froiaar, bruise, rumple 
gaehar, watch 
gaimentar, lament 
galopar, galop 
gabar, mock 
gazanhar, gain 
governor, govern 
gragelar, murmur 
graiilhar, tickle 
grantor, complain 
grondilhar, murmur 
ffuinhar, peep 
puidor, guide 
JanglolkaT, slander 
j'urar, swear 
maiavejar, be ill 
Tnandar, order 
manlaiaT, borrow 

1 Bvoear is not found id Prcv., although it undoubtedly existed, 
coming from a l^t. etocart, Evoc has the meaning that 'revoc (which 
would be derived from retocare) would be expected to have. Thus there 
JB coofuBion between the two setaof words. Eiocar diHappeared and etoe 
acquired tlie idea seen in the longer verb. *Retoc a ay not have existed. 

■ One of the vary few formations of this kind denotioB a person. 

>See note at the end of the list of words eoding in -a, p. 548. 



Word-Formation in ProvbN5ai. 

meKop, miachief, harm 
mespec, ne^igeace 
meeprelt, Bcom 
nee, denial, refusal 
Mic, pled^g, pawning 
Mil, Forgetfuluew 
panlaU, exh&tution 
pereat, perealt, striving 
per/ori, striving 
permut, exchange 
perpar, offer, presentation 
perporl, behavior 
perliu, hole 
pesi, breaJiing? (pern de n 

plor, tear 
port, bearing 

prepaiu, resolution, design 
prett, loan 
pretie, preaching 
quil, piercing ciy 
redam, claim, demand 
TdaU, relaxation 

Tenou, usury 
Tepropch, reproach 
reUdh, cutting 
revelh, awakening 
Torilh, rust, rusting 

talk, cutting 
tatt, trace 
loe, touch 
lorn, turn 
tomei, tourney 
(re6o(,' trouble 
tremol, trembling 

meepeear, be negligent 
meepretar, scorn, deapise 
nejor, deny 
Miffor, pledge, pawn 
obltdar, tOTget 
panlaiBar, swoon 
pereatar, strive 
perfonar, strive 
permudar, exchange 
perparar, offer, present 
perportar (k), behave 
pertusar, pierce 
petiar, break to pieces 

plorar, weep 
porUv, bear 
prepauxar, resolve 
prewar, lend 
pretiear, preach 
quiiar, shriek 
redamar, cltum 
relaitar, relax 

', name again 

retalhar, cut 
reveUiar, awake 
ronlhar, rust 
soaitar, disdun 
lalhar, out, trim 
latUiT, try, touch 

tomejar, turn about 
fre6ofeir, trouble 
tremolar, tremble 

1 Not a certain postvetbal formation, although the Fr. renotn is 
claaaed as such by Len£ (p. 92). For the Frov. renon, as well as for the 
derived rerumuida, we should expect an infinitive 'rauimar instead of 
-. The Prov. words, may, however, have been influeaoed by the 

Tvnom and rtnommi. See renomada, under -ADA, p. 37. 

■ Cf, Fr. trmAU, Uiai. 97. 


Nouns Formed frou Verbs 543 

trep, dance Irepar, Btatnp 

trie, trickery tricar, trick, cheat 

tron, thunder Ironar, thunder 

trot, trot trotar, trot 

vet, Forbiddance vedar, forbid 

vol, flight volar, fly 

FormatioDB of this kind among verbs endisg in -er 
areas follows: 

eapUtA,' conduct eapUner{te), behave 

compIanA, complaint complanher, complain 

deicreii, decrease tUtcreiser, decrcaee 

etIoTt, dishirtiOD, dislocation eslorser, twiat 

jail,' lodging JotWi lie 

ntanienA,' m&intenance manUner, muntain 
Tttort,' spring 

tenh, tint lenher, dye, tint 

vol, value voter, be worth 

vol, wish voler, wish 

Several nouns drawn from verbs in -re are also foimd: 
alenit), waiting alertdre, wut 

dettolk, deU>ur dettoire, take off 

endtrt, elevation 

enf«n(f)tW^ting,*intentJon,deugii eniendre, hear, intend 

esbal, play, sport eebaire, rejoice; takepainst?) 

There are also many nouns drawn from the conjuga- 
tion in -dr: 

CToU, crackling croinr, crush, crackle 

defuch, see dtfucha 
depart, departure departir, depart 

I See DoM at the end ol the liata ol the words ending in -o, p. 548. 

•See note at the end of the Ugts of verb-atflni formatiops. 

■ The only verb found is morier from Teeurgere. The dmpte verb 
lOTtir exists, however, sad reeartir may possibly be assumed, giving the 
postverbal noun reaorl just as in Fr. rtaaorl. The Prov. word, as well as 
the Fr. one, has also the legal meuning of "jurisdiction." 

' Enten seems to have, therefore, in one eiample the meaoiog of 


544 Word-Formation in Provencal 

eeatrn, mockery, derision escamir, mock 

eacop, spittle escopir, spit 

McroU, thunderclap eseroiMT, crack, cmah 

glat, yelling gfoetr, yell 

gronh, growling; snout gronhir, growl 

Tetenit), tinkling Tetentir, resound 

Note. — In the above lists, although the greater part of the 
words is purely abstract, many of them t«nd toward concrete 
force, especially with the meaning of something made or formed by 
the action of the verb.' From this meaning may have been developed 
the idea of place seen in some words,' and a kind of collective force 
seen in others.' Instrumental force is seen in some words,' and the 
idea of the agent in a very few others.' 


Besides all those words which are in form purely and 
simply the stems of verbs, there are the words ending in 
-e and the ones ending in -c. Of the former there are not 
many examples, and in all of them except esclaire and 
repaire,' the -e may be explained as the vowel of sup- 
port for the combination of consonants which precedes 
it. The list follows:' 

atempre, proportion, moderation alemprar, moderate 
camje, change candor, change 

■ For example, dttean, deseonori, embarc, encasirt (see foUowiog list), 
en/orc, enifrt, entreforc, perlu», traae, 

' As repairs, f ram aaeb a, Btarting-point aa found in enfore and enlrt- 


' Such as eacon^re (see followlDg list) and eipurc. 

• Eacop and aronh. 

' Ab !□ smit. Btcamp is hard to classify. 

■ The -e in these two words is rather more difficult to eiplain. It 
may have been due to the influence of the Fr. forma tdaire (existing 
beside Idair) and repaire. It is worthy of note, however, that -air never 
stands at the end of words in Prov. We find, for example, doaire and 
eiciaire. in which the -aire comes from -ARIUM. It may, therefore, 
be unnecessary to assume Fr. influence. 

' For tnctauttre, a possible poetverbal formation on ttulauttrar, 
see the nominal preSx EN-, p. 471. 


Nouns Formed from Verbs 545 

eaple,' blow capfar, cut into, strike 

dopU, doubt doptar, doubt 

enta»tre, window-frame; pyx encaglrar, inlay 

encombre, hindrance, obstacle eneombrar, hinder, encumber 

enamtre, encounter encontrar, encounter 

esdaire, brightening eiclairar, brighten 

cecombre, cleanings, rubbish escombrar, clean 

esccmenge, excommunication eaeomenjar, exconununicate 

meiconOe, miscount, mistake metcomUtr, miscount 

repaire, abode repairar, return, repair 

aetge, seat seljar, seat 

tempre, tempering temprar, temper 

There is only one word formed on a verb not ending in 
-ar. This is: 

mwtre, murder murfrtr, murder 

Next should come the words ending in -a. These, as 
might be expected from the ending, are feminine.' In 
many cases, which will be given below, both a mascu- 
line (or verb-stem form) and a feminine form in -a 
exist. The list of words in -o follows, the words formed 
from verbs in -or coming first. 
acenta, assessment acen»aT {acaar), assess 

ajuda, aid ajudar, aid, help 

arqiMja, arrow arquejar, bend like a bow (also 

shoot [with bow* 7i) 
alaina, care, trouble aUtinar (se), trouble oneself 

annanda, command comandar, command 

eompra, purchase comprar, buy 

' Levy aivea chaple, but caple seema more in accordanr^ with the 
Bpelling adopted both here and in his dictioDary. There is alao another 
word, captei, having real abstract force, meaning "a cutting down." or 
"slaughter." It is evidently connected in some way with capiar. but 
the ending -ei is not thoroughly clear. It seeme b» though 'capUsar 
must have eiiatcd, posaibly formed by the analogy of cattejar {Kcaaligare). 
Captei would then be an ordmarily formed postverbal noun. 

' Except the words denoting male persons. 

< Cf. O. Fr. arehoiier as given in Levy I, 85. 



(WMwUa, advice 

con»iiiUir. advise 

demora, dwelling 

demorar. dwell 

dw/CTTO, remaine 

dexferrar, take iron off 

dMtnua, hindrance 

dtttrisar, hinder 

disjntta, dispute 

dUjuitar, dispute 

enAotea, ambush 

emboKor, put in ambush 

emvacha, prevention 

empachar, prevent 

emjienxa, undertaking, design 

emperuMT, plan 

eneoTga, incurrence of penalty, 


emptejro, purchase 

empUgar, purchase 

endreta, guidance 

endretar, straighten, set right 

endura, suffering 

endio'ar, endure 

enflorto, deceit 

enganar, deceive 

enlerva, question 

eniervar, question 

erwtrta, deceit, fraud 

erwersar, turn around, over 

eKiala, lineage 

esdatar, burat forth 

eactita, place for listening 

etcoUar, listen 

ttpmxnla, scarecrow 

eapaverUar, terrify 

etpera, waiting 

etperar, wait, hope 

«epta, spy 

Mpiar, spy out 

e%proa, test, proof 

eetima, estimation 

eslimar, estimate 

exonia. exoneration 

exoniar. exonerate 

gacha, sentinel 

gachar, watch 

gauja. gauge 

poiyar, gauge 

ffraluza, grater 

graluzar, scratch, scrape 

grama, dispute, controversy 

graiaar, complain 

guida, guide 

fuidar, guide 

jangla, slander 

janglar, rail at, mock 

josta, joust, tourney 

jotlar, joust 

jvra, oath 

juror, swear 

laiaa, testament 

laitar, leave 

lanha, groan 

lanhoT, groan 

tne»cUt, mixture 

>7>«8dar, mix 

nu>stm, sign, proof, play 

mtatrar, show, display 

mtida, change, retreat! space of 

mudar, change 

jimsa, vain waiting 

mtiiar, loiter, dawdle 

papo. pay 

VogaT, pay 

peca, fault, sin 

pecar, sin 


Nouns Formed from Verbb 

permtUa, exchange 
petea, fishing 
proUtIa, protest 
loana, repulse, rejection 
lobra, exceaa, remainder 
Udna, delay 
lalha, cutting 
(oca, touch 
lortta, return 
tratlomha, gymnaatic art 
Iretca, dance 
tria, sorting 

permular, exchange 

pescar, fish 

proletlar, protest 

aoanar, disdain 

sobrar, exceed 

tainar, defer 

teUkar, cut 

locar, touch 

(dmor, turn 

tToatombar, fall, tumble; upset 

bttcar, dance 

tria, sort 

uear, cry, call 

vedar, forbid 

vedaf, forbiddance 

Among the words in -a, as well as among those formed 
of verb-stems alone, there are a few formations on verbs 
other than those m -or. Those formed oh verbs in -er 
are as follows: 

ettorger, twiat, tear away 

Those formed oa verba u 
canienda,^ high price 
dacenda, humiliation 
etperda, loss 
venda, sale 

-re are: 
earvendTe, sell dearly 
deaeendre, lower 
etperdre, lose completely 

veTidre sell 

And on verbs in -ir, there are: 
d^alka, default d^aihvr, fail, be missing 

deviia, division dct^ietr, divide 

" See now at the end of the liBts of words ending in -ti, p. 648. 

t Another word reBembling a postverbal is amola, a amall botUe, 
but it aeepis impoasible to connect it with amoUtT, Bhari>en. formed on 
molo, millstoDe. 

It will be obwrved that not alt of these words are pure abetiacts, 
and that many of the non-abstract words denote the instruineut with 
which the action waa performed. Words of this kind are arqueja, eapa- 
ttnta, gaiija. grahaa, laita, and lua. Other words denote persona — ' 
the agent of an action. Such words are crida, etpia, gaeha, guida, sad 
uca. three of which are of Germ, origin. The only word denoting place 
is ttoAla, for which cf , the Fr. tcoule. which has not, however, the same 
mesoing. See Lea6, pp. 2g, 33, and 116. 



eaquema, mockery 

falha, fault 

falhir, f&il 

o/TO,t offer 

i^rir, offer 

Note. — The words eaplenh, canenda, manleu, and manlenh 
have been lUted in their proper places above. Such words are 
poBtverbal nouns formed from compound verbs. , 


Under the general heading of nouns formed from verbs, 

the use as nouns of certain forms of the verb with no 

change in form may be included. The verb-forms used 

in this way are the infinitive, the present participle, and 

the past participle. 

Infinitives in -ar and -er are found used as nouns. 

Those in -ar are: 

canlar, song 

fdenar, anger 

goitoT, lunch 

Those in -er are: 
maner, manor 
jAaxfT, pleasure 
poder, power 
sober, knowledge 
pofor, desire tt 

The present participles of the verbs ending in -ar and 
-er are also used as nouns. 

Present participles of verbs in -or are seen in : 
aiuu^n,' flatterer 
demoran, remainder iemorar, remain 

1 AtaaUtT is DOt found, but undoubtedly existed. Another fonna- 
tion OD this same hypothetical verb is auntbufor. given under the miffix 
-ADOR. *Aia<iiar would come from the Lat. adulaTe. though *(uular 
would be the tegular form comiog from this verb. 

f Another word that resembles a postverbal noun derived from a 
verb in ir- ie defneha, flight, evasion, but it ia probably formed by the 
analogy of ct^nduc/ui, a past participle used as a noun. This use is common 
and should be carefuUy distinKuished from the postverbal formatiou. 
For tbis and other examples of past participles used as nouns, see p. 649. 

tt All of these words have the same use in Ft. 


Nouns Formed from Verbs 549 

leiian, riee; East' levar, raise 

morgan, sailor marejar, sail 

montan, increase montar, mount 

jxtrlan, place for speaking parlar, speak 

pezan, weight peiar, weigh 

poblan, inhabitaot pobiar, inhabit 

Present participles of verbs in -er are seen in : 
fenhen, idler /enher, Teign, pretend 

joien, woman in childbed jaxer, tie 

moTian,' inhabitant maner, stay, rem^n 

ponen, West' poner, put, set 

The use of the past participle as a noun is much more 
usual than that of either infinitive or present participle. 
Nouns having the usual endings for this form — -at, -it, 
and -vi — have, however, already been treated under the 
suffix -AT.* There are, nevertheless, a few examples 
of insular past participles used as nouns which should 
be mentioned here. Such are: 
berulich, fine speech, eulogy bendir, praise, bless 

coruluclui, conduct conduire, conduct 

eonfidt, preserve confire, preserve 

dejacha, flight; subterfuge dtfaire, undo, ruin 

d<frocft, division {ot property) de/ranher, break, lack 

d^iicha, subterfi^ d^utpr, flee 

dettoria, wrong, error, perversity desUnser, untwist, turn aside 
enJicA, tax, duty endire, impose 

enduch, plastering, coating enduire, coat, cover over 

entrach,* sticking-plaster 

opreaa, oppression itpremir, oppress 

promwa.t promise 

iThe meanings of tenan and ponen are due to their use in the phr. 
lot Uvan and sol ponen. 

' Manan inatsad of manen appears to indicate Fr. influence, 
the Ft. manant. 

■Part I, cliap. i. p. 149, above. 

• No Prov. verb is found, and the word probably conies fror 
Lat. inlractut from inlrahere. 

t Many of the words in this li 
some of which were already used a 
Pro v. has Uttle that ia new. 



The last of the regular methods of word-fonnatioD to 
be treated is that of composition. All of the methods 
thus far described may be classed under the general head- 
ii^ of derivation, for hitherto the suffix and the prefix 
have been the distinguishing marks in the formation of 
words, which have been shown to be formed by the addi- 
tion — or, as in the case of postverbals, the removal — of 
one or both of them. In the case of composition, how- 
ever, there is neither suffix nor prefix to consider: the 
component parts are individual words, recognised as 
such, and welded together by different processes, which 
will form the subject-matter of this chapter. 

An exhaustive study of composition in French has been 
made by Darmesteter, who divides his compounds of 
French origin into three main divisions which he calls 
"juxtaposition," "composition by particles," and "com- 
position proper," each of which main headings has its 
particular subdivisions. Darmesteter's scheme cannot be 
followed closely here, however, since his second division — 
the composition by particles — ^has already been fully 
treated under the title of prefix-formation. If composi- 
tion be the formation of words from two or more other 
words recognized as such, this process does not belong 
here, but is, instead, rather one of derivation. There 
remain, then, the other two processes called by Darme- 
steter "juxtaposition" and "composition proper." The 
difference between these two processes is explained by 
Darmesteter in his introduction. The essential feature 
of a compound word, according to him, is ellipsis. In the 


Compound Words 551 

French it'wifrre-poafe or the Provencal aiganeu, aome prepo- 
sition, probably de, although not expressed, is to be under- 
stood. This is the simplest case; in other true compounds 
the ellipsis is not, perhaps, so obvious, but it is present in 
every case in one form or another. Words formed by 
juxtapo^tion, on the other hand, contain no ellipsis. 
They are formed of an adjective and a noun used together, 
which, through constant association, have become one 
word. The adjective consequently agrees with the noun, 
and this agreement sometimes is the distii^:uishing mark 
of juxtaposed words as opposed to the compound proper. 
Darmesteter divides his chapter on juxtaposition into 
several sections, as "Formations by Co-ordination," 
"Formations by Subordination," etc., but for Provencal 
it seems unnecessary to make any such subdivisions. 
In the Provenga! formations by juxtaposition, practically 
all the nouns, which, of all the parts of speech treated, 
have the most comphcated methods of formation, are of 
the adjective-noun or the noun-adjective type above 
mentioned; and the type of which chef-d'ceiwre is an 
example for French, the type with the preposition appear- 
ing in the compound, is scarcely to be found in Provencal, 
In the cases in which there is a subordination of one noun 
to another, the preposition is oniy understood and not 
expressed, wherefore there is an ellipsis, and the word 
would be classed by Darmesteter as a compound proper. 
What .Darmesteter calls "composition by synecdoche" 
can be found at most, also, in a very few words. It is 
clear, therefore, that the words formed by juxtaposition, 
being all of one type, can best be treated together as one 
section under the general heading of compound words. 
In the case of nouns, which, as has been said, are the most 
complex of the parts of speech treated, juxtaposed words 



are simply those formed of a noun and an adjective, 
(or adverb) as opposed to two different cases in which the 
component parts are two nouns, and one in which they 
are a verb and a noun. 

Instead, therefore, of the main divisions of "juxta- 
position," "composition by particles," and "composition 
proper," in accordance with the plan pursued throughout 
this work the principal divisions will be made according 
to the kind of word formed, and will consequently be; 
"Nouns," "Adjectives," and "Verbs." Under these 
headings, the different methods of formation will be 
studied independently for each part of speech. 


The first case to be treated is that of the noun formed of 
an adjective and a noun, which, as has already been stated, 
is the type of the formations by juxtaposition, and is 
probably the only example of this process in Provencal. 
The question as to which of the two parts of the compound 
precedes the other is a delicate one, and seems to be con- 
nected with the whole subject of the position of adjectives. 
This is a rather broad subject, as there are so many things 
which may influence an adjective's position, such as con- 
siderations of style, emphasis, etc. Nevertheless, the 
modem Romance languages are similar enough in regard 
to position to show certain imderlying principles which 
must have prevailed in the earliest times. Certain adjec- 
tives, as those for "good," "bad," "saint," or "holy," 
and numerals regularly precede their nouns, and other 
adjectives, as for example the one for "new" (Latin novus), 
depend on their precise meaning for their position in 
respect to the nouns they modify. The evidence of the 


Compound Words 553 

Romance languages would tend to show also that certain 
kinds of adjectives, as those of color, shape, adjectives 
derived from proper names, and past participles must 
always have followed their nouns,' uninfluenced by con- 
siderations of style. These are,in fact, the only rules which 
can possibly govern the position of the adjective and noun 
in words formed by juxtaposition. To be welded together 
in a single word, the adjective and the noun must have 
been used together often in the form in which we find them. 

The above rules are borne out by the examples we find 
in Provengal of the formations by juxtaposition. Darme- 
steter states that in French, the determinant {here, adjec- 
tive) precedes in a lai^e majority of the examples.* 
This ' is in accordance with what Meyer-LUbke says 
of the usual position of the adjective in post-Classic 
Latin,* In Provencal, the number of examples of the 
two types of words is still more more evenly divided; 
yet both lists are too small to prove anything but a 
submission to the main rules mentioned above. 

o) In the following cases, the adjective precedes the 

behcara,* good cheer; table- 
service, place at table 

bonaur, good fortUDe 
faUarenha, nearhand rein 

' Yet even these must have depeoded to aome eitent on the time and 
plane of their formation. Thus in albaspina (Ft. aabfpine) we have (he 
adjective of color preceding. 
" ' MoU Compoti). 23. ' III, 814. 

• Froni beta, fine, and cara, face. This last is, however, of the same 
orJEin as the Engl, "cheer," which in the phrase "good chccc" has often 
come to mean "food and drink" or "entertainment." thus not differ- 
ing much in meaning from the Prov. n-ord. 

' Not listed in Raynouard or Levy, hut given in the example placed 
under caulpree as another illustration of a compound word. It would 
appear from ila formation to mean " fair guardian." See Levy. I, 230. 



mataeordarua, quarrel 
malaue, discomfort 
nmlopaga,' debtor's prison 
malaveiina, en^ne of war 
makor, aoger 

mdtprofeck, disbonest gains ( ?) 
megdia, noon 
megfraire, half-brother 
megjom, noon 
megloc, middle 
mtjawroT, half-uster 
midtms, my lady 
mi^olh, milfoil, yarrow 
mii^rajta, pomegranate 
moetetthor, my lord 
orremal, epilepsy 
prim-caTegnte, Ash Wednesday 
primver, Spring 
aaivagarda, f safeguard 

' Another word ending in pao<i is moriapaga, meaning "a company 
of 12,000 infantry." It would appear to be formed of moria, dead, 
and paga, pay. and the order of words would be unusual. 

' The precise meaning is not made clear by the example. 

t Also probably of Lat. origin are atbapina, hawthorn, and auribon., 
gold iiBDner, auriflama. oriflamnie, auriflor, banner with a flower of 
gold, and auripel or aurpef. tioBel. The use of atiri from auretu in these 
last words indicates Lat. origin. Aurifiitr is. indeed, found in the t«its 
as auria fior. Cf. bIbo the Ft. oriflammt and orf^ieau. In the iioU 
Compotlt. tbiB last word is listed under another kind of fonnstiOD. Mors 
or less olMeure words belonging here are pfnu^to, ewer, watering-pot, and 
princol. wine that comes from the press before the grapes have been 
pressed. Plmga has been suggested as a correction for pfentv". in 
which case the word would be formed of a verb and noun, the verb 
being pleure, rain. But unless the meaning is only "watering-pot." 
this formation is hardly probable. On the other hand, fUnega would 
have to be formed of pisn. full, and tga, water, and as "ewer" would 
indicate a formation of "full of water" rather than "full water," there 
would seem to be a case relation between the two words, which indioataa 
formation in the Lat. period, PrincU seema to be formed of prim, 
Grst. and eol. Bow. Col with the meaning of "Bow" is not found. It 
would seem to be a postverbal noun formed on color. 

It may be observed that in almost all the words in this list the adjeo 
tive ia oue meaning "good," "Bne," "bad," "half," or a nunteral or 
possessive adjective. 


Compound Wohds 555 

b) In the following cases, the adjective is placed after 
the noun: 

onnou, New Year 

arevoUtU, arch, niche, embrasure 

(eompoiiera,' olivc'^rove) 

copvan, a kind of verae 

eorpmarin, cormorant 

facabela, fair face 7* 

f<B?afraeha* (aim favf rack), broken bean 

fe»tantd, ye&rly festival 

junert, verjuice 

matafachi^ (alaomo^ocA), misdeed; 

damage done to fields 
manmeta,* aeizure, execution 

margriM, Shrove-Tuesday 

ormter, pure gold; alao gold ornament 

paxaaguda, bitter grape(?} 

pedrech, pier, upright 

peUgala,' soft flesh 

• ApparenUy formed of camp aod oliera, olive-betuinB, the word is 
iuatead probably formed of two nouns. For fuller treatment see the 
douhb formed of two nouns, p. 658, n, 2, below. 

■ Apparently the name of a hone, the original form of the first part 
possibly being /a{a. The position otbtla aflei the noun instead of before 
it. aa in belacam which originally had the swne meaning, is to be 

> Favufracha and nuUa/acha, as may be seen from the list, are found 
also as laufrach and midfach, or in other words, a masc. and fern, form 
exist side by side in these two cases. Faufrach and matafacha appear 
to be only analogical forms, however. The former is posdbly due (o the 
analogy of naufToch (Lat. Tiau/roiTium). Mal/ach is from the Lat. 
maU/actum, an adverb-noun eombination. 

•From man, haDd.'l-mea(a), placed. A similar formation, manu- 
mUtio, exists in Lat,. Iiut manmeaa is independent of it, as may be seen 
both in its form and in ita meaning. 

'From man, hand. -Herwi. smooth, polished? r«rs is not in Ray- 
nouard. and the little Levy gives only the translation denui under the 
heading of the verb terwr. Tera is, however, of the same origin as the 
Sp. ierio, and would seem to have a similar meaning. 

• This word is very pusiling and may not belong here, as it is possible 
that it is of Lat. origin, coming from some such form as *petlicata. U 
a Prov. formation, it may be a combination of pel, skin, and the past 


556 Word-Formation in Provencal 

penegre, blackfoot (a kind oT bird) 
pevermelh, a kind of bird 
prettfack, forfeit 
ToUxpenada, bat 
terramajor,'^ Holy Land 


Another kind of formation similar to the one just 
described is that in which the component parts are an 
adverb (instead of an adjective) and a noun. Almost 
the only adverbs used in this way, however, are hen, mal, 
and non, and the nouns used with ben and mal are ones 
derived from verbs. The relation in such cases between 
the two parts of the compound is again, therefore, simply 
one of juxtaposition, as above described. 

There are not very many examples of this type of 

henpiaiemen,^ pleasure, satisfaction 
benvenffuda, welcome 
maisixden*a, greater value, advantage 

participle of ItfjaT, l« melt or boII£D. The form should then be pdegada. 
The difficulticB are further increased by the eiistence of a word pele- 
gantier, eldn-dealer — which thus has an n to be accounted for — and a 
form pcteffanlo in Mistral. 

' The formstiOD of this word appears U) be ben +ptazemen, although 
ptattmen is not found. Neither is there found, on the other hand, a 
verb benptaier on which the noun might have been formed by means of 
the suffix -EMEN, Yet a parasynthetic formation with ben as preGi 
seems least probable of all. as nominal porasyntheta even with the com- 
monest prefiiGS are unusual. See also hybrids, p. 578. 

t Compound words of this type of Lat. origin are atirfra, Orphrey< 
aurum phrys^ium, later phTj/aium; ausiarda. bustard<ani lartia; ova- 
Irm, ostrich<at>u tlnithio; etiafimoria, stavesacre<uf(i;!2 agrio; and 
navfrach, shipwreck <nau/mfrium. 

In the above list, many of the adjectives are past participles, as in 
OrcMi(u(, fawifracha, malaSacha. manmeia, manleria. pretifrack, and 
ratapenada; some are adjectives of rolor, as seen in junerl, pattffrr, and 
pftermdh, and the others are all deseriptive adjectives, which seem to 
have had in O. Prov.. as in the Romance languages of today, the po«tioD 
after the noun. 

Compound Words 

ga, smaller value 
noncura, indifCereace 
nonfe, infidelity 
nongarda, negligence 
nimre(n), nothing 

Tumsenhor,] unlawful posseBBOr 

To this list should be added a few other words in 
which the second part of the compound has the form of a 
verb. It is, indeed, in all cases, the infinitive used as a 
noun. The examples are: 
bene«taT, well-being 
midestar, discomfort 
inal«(iJ>er, digsatisfsction 
nonpoder, impotence 
Tumsaber, ignorance 
nonvaier, lack of value 


This is the kind of formation which is called compo- 
sition proper by Darmesteter as distinguished from the 
formations by juxtaposition above treated. Not that 
all French nouns composed of two nouns would neceeaarily 
be placed by him under that heading, but if the distin- 
guishing mark of a compound proper is an ellipsis, then 
for Provengal, a compound proper and a noun formed 
of two nouns are practically synonymous.' 

The most obvious case of ellipsis among the words 
formed of two nouns is that in which one of the two 
appears to be in the genitive case. In other words, the 
preposition <k, or occasionally some other preposition, is 

' The only certain eiamplee of words formed of two douqb with do 
ellipgig, but having a prepoution between them. Rppeac to be coragola 
(one with) hie heart in hifl mouth, and capajoc, andiron. 

t All of the worda beginiuDS with non have as their second part a 
simple Doun. In theother cases, the second part is a noun derived from 
a verb, la the second list, this part is a simple verb-form used as a noun. 



understood, but not expressed. Here again, sometimes 
the modified word (ditermini), and sometimes the modi- 
fying word {determinant) precedes. In this case, however, 
it seems impossible to dbcover any rule of order. 

a) In the following examples, the principal or modified 
word precedes: 
aiganeu, anow-water 
aigaro»{a), rose-water 
arcs. martUn), runbow (literally 

bow (oT] St. Martb) 
barbajohan,^ homed owl 
eampoliera,* olive-grove 
ditdui, Monday (dikes, Friday, 
etc.) (literally day [of] Moon, 
f-umterra, fumitory (a plant) (liter- 
ally smoke [of) earth. Cf. 
Engl, "eartb-emoke") 
intrat-caretmt, Shrovetide (liter- 
ally entrance [of] Lent) 
lachusda, wolf's milk 
monjoia, war-cry of the French' 
palagrUh* a kind of implement 
(literally handle [for] gridiron) 
pidfer, iron lever 

' Found also in Ft. and writtea by Darmesteter, in MoU Compotti, 
barbe-it-Jean aa well aa barbajan. 

' Campotiera ia decidedly peculiar in form, but the fern, ending of 
-o/iera makea it imixwaible for this word to be an adjective. Bince in the 
formatioDa by juxtaposition, as has beee Been above, there ia Bgreemeot 
between the two parts. If the second part of this compound is a noun, 
however, -oiinera inBtaad of -(^iera would be the proper forin. The 
form we find appears to be due to some confusion, possibly with the 
adjective alier, oil-producing. The worda for "oil" and "olive" are, 
indeed, badly confused in Prov. I^evy gives an example of oltu instead 
of Olivier, meaning "oUve-tree"; also an example of ottnem instead of 
olitTa. meaning "oil-can." 

' The Fr. monjoie. probably for vuml-ldej-joie, hence listed here. 
See Karting. No. 6275; also Rormmia, XXXI, 416. 

• Formed of pala (atick or handle) -(-praA (gridiron). With this 
meaning, however, only grilha and not ariih is found. Yet grilh probablf 
had this mcsDiag too, Cf. the Ft. grit. 


Compound Words 559 

peirafuga,' flint (literally atone 
[for] fire. Cf. English "fire- 

rampaEm,t Palm-Sunday (liter- 
ally branch [of] palm, Elnglish 
b) The modifying word precedes in the examples in 

the following list; 

capmoZA, head-armor 

cordolor, pity, compassion 

deraWor, toothache 

formictdeon,'' ant-catcher 

galean, gaieantar, cockcrow 

.pelpartidura, part in the hair 

perwnrut, resin 

lerragaTikt,* keeping up of stand- 
ing crop 

terratrtmol,]^ earthquake 

> Pvirafvffa is peculiar in form Id that it is clearly made up of peira, 

stone, aod f-uc, fire, probably conaected by the preposition a — just like 

the Ft. pinT«-d-/<ni — and yet has the chHnge of /uc to fuga. Just why 

fue should have taken a feminine endins is not clear, and Thomas, who 

first lists the word, offers no explanation of it (see Romania, XXXIV. 

200). The only possible one seems to be that the preposition was lost 

sight of owing to confusion with the femioine ending of peira, and that 

then fxic. from its use as an adjective, came finally to be taken for one 

and made to agree as the adjectives in th« formations by juxtaposition 

did. A case in wtiicb the second noun appears to have two forms is 

aiaato», aiooTima. 

' Possibly Lat. Cf. the Ft, /oarmi-lion. 

' Poidbly a poetverbal formation on terraoaTdaT. 

t There are also to be mentioned a few fornuttions of this kind, but 
whose parts were joined io times. Such are harbajiAh, house leek; 
cabitcol, choir-director : and vawuor. vassal of a vassal. Forms corre- 
sponding to barbajolh and vatxuor exist in Fr., only in the first case, the 
Fr. joubarbt. the order of the two parts is reversed. The hai. sources are 
the phrases barha jotU and vairut rtuuorum. The source of cabiscol 
appears to be caput icholae. Both this phrase aad the compound 
capitchotu* are found in Du Caoge with the meaoing which ccAiacol has. 

tt There are also some words of this kind that are not Prov. forma- 
tions. Of these cabre/oth, honeysuckle {<caprifoiium) and cordolh, 
grief, sorrow {KcontoUmn), are descended from Lat. formations. Eatoc- 
fich, stockfish, appears lo be a borrowing of Germ, origin. Other words 


560 Word-Formation in Phoven5al 

c) There is also a second kind of composition by which 
compound nouns are formed of two sii^le nouns, called 
by Darmesteter composition by apposition. In tiie words 
formed in this way, neither noun serves to modify the 
other by any case-relation as was true of those in List o. 
The idea of two distinct objects is conceived at the same 
time, and the two are used together to describe some 
single object. This necessarily gives a kind of adjective 
force to one of the nouns, which is often best rendered in 
English by an adjective. Thus, for example, ramfvel 
(leaf+branch) may be translated "leafy branch," There 
are not a great many compounds of this kind in 
Provengal.' The list follows: 
arqwUxtnc, bench serving also aa a 

capcazal, chief country-house 

' Cf. with this brief list the great development this kind of formation 
has takeo in the Romance langUBEea ot today, particularly Fr. Observe 
for example the voiAa denoting the railway conveniences: wagon-lil. 
aagon-Teitauranl. wofron-cuirine, xeagon-im'pHmear, elc. In Bnsl-i on 
the contrary, it ia by the precedinu process that these and moat other 
words are formed. 

' A word found in several ot the Romance languages, aa in Fr.. 
Sp.. and It., as well as Prov., thus indicating a probable Lat. oriKin- 
Du Cange. indeed, does give coraamtua, but only in very late eiampies, 
and the other forms are probably all borrowings from Fr. instead of 
coming from Lat. The first part of the word is clearly coma, horn, 
and the second a *Riu«e which is found nowonly in its diminutives riuswu 
and miwEUe. This last word has now the meaning which mute must 
ori^nally have had in the compound. 

almost certainly ot Lat. oriEin. though no Lat. etymon is found, are 
vncogola and paneatier, baker (which seem to come from 'panuocuta 
and 'panidxiarixu) and ynatavan. a small box, apparendy for carrying 
either letters or candy. For pancogoUi and vancoaier, see Euait, 
343-44. Maxapan is ot the aame origin aa the Fr. maeitpain, the Sp. 
maiapan, the It. morMpone, and the Engl, "marchpane," though the 
precise source of the series appears uncertain. The meaning of the 
Prov. word, however, is different from that ot most of the other words, 
which is "a kind of paste made ot almonds and sugar." 


Compound Words 561 

eaquilfiMha,^ watch, sentioel 
foldal-mAer, mixture of folly and 

merdofer,* scrsp-iroD 
porc-espin,' porcupine 
porUifenettra, window extending 

to the level of the floor 
Tamfud, let^y branch 
lerramotFe,! Mother Earth 


The only remaining kind of compound nouns ,con- 
8i8ta of those fonned of a verb and a noun.' Almost all 
of the words of this class denote concrete objects or instru- 
ments, although a few denote persons. In other words, 
they denote the thing or the person performing the special 
function described by the compound. Thus, for example, 
bufa-foc (blower) means "that which blows the fire" 
and bufa4izon "the person who blows a firebrand." 
There is apparently, therefore, an ellipsis of "that which" 
or of "the one who," and it nught easily be supposed that 
the verb in the compound was in the indicative. This, 
however, does not appear to be the case. Darmesteter 
has very clearly shown that this kind of ellipsis would 
be incredible, and that, whatever tense may seem obvious 

■ From ufuifa, bell, and gacha, watch? Both these words are of 
Germ. origiD, and the compound may have been a Germ, fonnatioa 
borrowed in Prov. like etiocfiek above, which might possibly be placed 
El this list. 

' For this word, see Romania. XXXIV. 196. 

■C(. the Ft. porc-tpie and similar forms in other languaces. 

■ Aside from the posuble case of a word formed of two imperatives, 
the only example of which appears to be ean-ptor (gully-hole ; water- 
pot) also written eajUaplora, probably under the influence at the Fr. 



when these forms are analyzed, when the words were 
formed, nevertheless, not the indicative but the imperative 
was used. The indicative was supposed to be present in 
the forms when they were examined later on, and conse- 
quently appears in new anal6gical formations. But the 
simple people who made the first forms, being more imag- 
inative, personified inanimate objects, and addressed them 
and made them speak. Hence the use of the imperative. 

If inanimate objects, therefore, be personified, they 
may speak or be spoken to, as well as be spoken of, and 
Darmesteter gives examples of each type for French. For 
Provencal, however, all of the words are of the type of 
buforfoc and bufa^izon, in which the object as well as the 
person may be supposed to be addressed. Thus: "You 
[object], blow the firel" and "You [person], blow the 
firebrandl" The other classes are lacking in Provewjal. 

In the two examples given above, the verb has a direct 
object as its complement, which is the case in the great 
majority of examples. There is, however, one case at 
least, in which the object is not direct but is connected 
with the verb by means of a preposition, and several 
probable cases of a verb accompanied not by a direct 
object, but by a noun in the vocative. In other words, 
the verb in these cases is intransitive, and the noun form- 
ing part of the compound is the one addressed. The 
lists follow. 

a) The verb is accompanied by a direct object in 
bufafoc, blover 

bitfa-Hztm, one who blowe a firebrand 
cachapech, parapet 
catcatrepa, fltar-thiBtle (cover-trap) 
eercapoU,^ a hooked stick ueed in 
cleaning wells 

■ The word is given by Thomas (Romania, XXXIV, 180). 


CoupouKD Words 563 

eobricap, veil for covering the 

coeha^ignar, cook 

eomtwin, the one who gives the 

signal for vnne-driDking 
crebacor, a heart-rendiag thing 
crebamostitT, oae who breaks into 

a monastery 
dettrui-ecrtesia, one who disturbs 

entumor^man, towel 
escalfaUch, bed-warmer 
gachafoe, andiron 
gacha'porta, sentinel 
garAAraU, aimJet; splint 
gardaeoTB, long shirt (j/arda, pro- 

tect-t-cOT*, body) 
gardamanjar, pantry, larder 
gardtdaaa*, one in charge of cups, 

lavamant, towel 
liahratz, sling 
liacaniba, garter 
liapd, head-dress 
mattajdvn, whip used in flogging 

sailors (mada, kill+Zeton, rascal) 
mandagach, one who calb the 

watch t<^ether 
mctiagiloi, lance (killer of jealous 

nega-barrwUge, destroyer of nobil- 

parahanda, parapet, balustrade 
{v<'^^i protect H-banda, side) 

pan^ol,' scantling 

parapeck, parapet (para, protect + 
pech, breast) 

paropen, screen (para, protect 
[from] +WCTI, wind) 

' Fol is found for the second part, but it probably should be corrected 
to -falh, meaiUDit "plank." Parafolha is also found meanins 



patabarrador,' a kind of metal ( 7) 

(for heavy barring ?) 
ptualimalha, sieve for iron filings 
■pataUndada, a kind of nail {vata, 

pass thtOUg^+Uadada, plank 
pa»atemp», pastime 
picaplach, seeker of lawsuits 
portaeiaxsd, shield-bearer 
poriafaii, porter 
porUiUtrae, lett«r-carrier 
portapanier, basket-carrier 
portapesa, punch (porta, carry 

|awayl+pe«a, piece) 
UUhapena,^ pencutter 

6) The verb is accompanied by an indirect comple- 
ment. The only example appears to be: 
crop-en-camtn, coward {one who 
cowers on the way) 
■ Barrador is fouiid both in the phraM davd barrador mad ia the 
phrase claetl de barrador, and, in the same passage with the latter, ii the 
phrase davd de patabarradaT. Thus barrador is used first as ao adjec- 
tive, then as a noua; but the phrases d« barrador Bud de patabanador tjn 
adjective pbrasea modifying daeel. De barrador aeetat lo mean "for 
baniDg" and dt pataharrador would appear from this to mean "for 
heavy barring." pata here having the intensive force that it has in 
patagran, etc. 

t Several other words whose formation is uacertain should be 
mentioned here, although, in some cases, the formation of the words ia 
BO obscure that they may not belong to this list at all. The less obscure 
ones, which probably belong here, will be treated first. 

Such words are maehaeol, maehnferre, and pieapt. Of these. jitcaiK, 
if it exists, should give do difficulty. It denotes a kind of weapon, and 
would be formed of pica (imperative of picar, to prick), +IK, Coot: but 
Levy questions the form. Macha/erre, slag, droaa, seems to be composed 
of the same first part that is in mactuieol, and /er(re) , iron. Maciiacot, 
machicolation, is a most difficult word to explain because of the other 
forms found in Prov. and in Fr. It appears to be formed of madiar, 
bruise, crush (a dialect form of macart), and col, neck, the machicola- 
tion being an opeoiog in the floor, of a balcony through which missiles 
were cast on the beads of the euemy. No corresponding simple form is 
found in O. Pr., but a verb maehecoUer appears. Now, by supposing the 
exiBtence of a similar verb *Maehacolar in Prov., the remaining verba) 
derivatives machaadada, nutchacotadura, and tnaehatolamen (see hybrids) 


Compound Words 565 

c) The verb is accompanied by a noun in the vocative. 
The only examples appear to be: 

ffimjloT, sunflower 

graUAoiia,^ scratch-brush 
moU-molon, battering-ram 
marcape, step (on caniagea) 

d) Besides all the words denoting persons or concrete 
things, such as are given above, there are a few words 
abstract in force, which may be given separately. In 
three of the four words* found, the noun appears to be in 
the vocative, as in List c), whereas in the other word, it 
is the object of the verb with which it is used. In batieor 
&a<i fenimon, the i of the verb may be explained as due to 
the influence of the Italian baUicuore and finimondo, of 
which the Proven<;al forms appear to be imitations. The 
other two words have regular uuperative forms : 

batieor, beating of the heart 
bolacaia, swelling of the cheeks 
Jenimon, end of the world 
fai-mi-drech, jurisdiction 

> The usual form ai the word for "biush" is brota. Cf., however, 
the Ft. i/raU»-boe»e in which the word for bnuh is represented by a 
dialect form. 

* Batieor, boiacaii, and fenivwn. 
may be explained, as welt as the Engl- "machicolBtioa," from the verb 
"to machicolate." The worst difGculty occurs in BttemptiDg to explain 
the Fr. mocAecoulM or TruKhicouli$, which appears as machecoleit in O. Fr. 
(see Godefroy. aupplemeat), and seems to indicate some association with 
the verb covier, to flow. This verb (in Prov. coiar) may be the real 
source of the second part of the Fr. and Prov. words both, but the exist- 
Bnce of the Prov, nvKhacol (and the Engl. " machecole"), as well as the 
meaoinB, seems to make eol, neck, as the source of the second part of the 
word, more probable, and the appearance of the verb for "to flow" io 
the Fr. forms due to a later association. 

The more obscure words are picompan, a kind of dance, Bod pitafle, 
armorial beorinsa. This last word appears thoroughly obscure. Picom- 
pan seems to be formed of picor, to strike, and some other word, possibly 
plan, market-place, toumament-fleld. Malafitaia. anis, which resembles 
in form some of the words in the above list, is not a compound at all. 

A word of Lat. origin is cobrnel, lid<Coopereei(um. 


566 Word-Formation in Pbovencal 

e) There ia one more class of nouns formed of a verb 
and a noun differing sightly from the preceding words, 
but represented by very few examples. Here the noun 
precedes, and the form of the verb is clearly the present 
participle. In bensienen and logatenen, the formation is a 
simple juxtaposition, and the combination forms the 
adjectives meaning property-holding and place-holding. 
The nouns of this class are simply adjectives used 
substantively : 
benttenen, heir 
loffotenen, deputy 
TnatUerten, balustrade 
viandart, wayfarer 


There are some words composed of a noun and an 
adjective that are difficult to classify. Most of these 
words are translated by Levy as adjectives, but in the 
examples that he ^ves of them, they are apparently 
nouns with a specialized meaning. These nouns, however, 
always designating certain kinds of verse, could hardly 
have been formed as nouns for this purpose, particularly 
as adjectives of precisely the same formation and con- 
taining the noun cap, which occurs in most of the nouns, 
exist beside them.' These words seem, on the contrary, 
to have been used before this as adjectives with certain 
words indicating verse, as vers, cobla,^ etc. Then, as was 

' It would be possible to aasuDie that certain of these namea of