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Full text of "Word formation in the Roman Sermo Plebeius; an historical study of the development of vocabulary in vulgar and late Latin, with special reference to the Romance languages"

WORD FORMATION 



IN THE 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS 



AN HISTORICAL STUDY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OP 
VOCABULARY IN VULGAR AND LATE LATIN, WITH 
SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE ROMANCE LANGUAGES 



BY 

FREDERIC TABER COOPER 
A.B. (HAKVAKD), A.M., LL.B. (COLUMBIA) 



SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS 

FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY 

IN THE 

UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF PHILOSOPHY 
COLUMBIA COLLEGE 



3 



NEW YORK 
1895 




: ! 



COPYRIGHT, 1895, BY 
F. T. COOPEK 



PREFACE. 

WHEN in the Spring of 1891 I chose a subject for my Doc- 
tor's Dissertation, my somewhat ambitious design was to col- 
lect whatever the industry of modern scholarship had contrib- 
uted to our knowledge of Plebeian Latin, and to recast the 
whole in the form of an Historical Grammar of the Sermo 
Plebeius, under the four heads of Sound-Change, Inflection, 
Word-Formation and Syntax. The collection of the necessary 
material was undertaken with the courage of ignorance, but it 
became evident from the overwhelming mass of material 
accumulated in the course of two years, that my plan could 
could not be carried out within the reasonable limits of any 
dissertation. I accordingly have confined my attention to 
the single division of Word-Formation, which is the most 
fruitful, and in many respects the most interesting branch of 
the subject. I have not, however, entirely lost sight of my 
original design, and if the present work should be fortunate 
enough to meet with approval I shall be encouraged to fol- 
low it with a volume on Plebeian Syntax, the material for 
which, already accumulated, nearly equals that of Word-For- 
mation. 

My endeavor has been to trace the development of those 
classes of words which have been regarded by the leading 
authorities as characteristic of the sermo plebeius, with spe- 
cial reference to their position in post-classical literature and 
their relation to the Eomance languages. For the purpose of 
a consistent historical treatment I have gathered my material 
from literary sources, and relied mainly upon writers like 
Plautus, Vitruvius, Petronius and Tertullian, whose style 
approaches the border-line between the classical and popular 
speech. I have intentionally neglected the inscriptions as a 
source of Plebeian Latin, for aside from the consideration of 
the difficulty of assigning dates in a large number of instances, 



iv PREFACE. 

their chief value lies in tracing dialectic peculiarities, and this 
cannot be done profitably until the general history of the dif- 
ferent forms has been established. A separate study of "Word- 
Formation in inscriptions would however form a useful sup- 
plement to the present volume. 

The progress of the work has often been hampered by the 
difficulty of obtaining the necessary special treatises: thus 
Schmilinsky, De Proprietate Sermonis Plautini, Barta, Sprach- 
liche Studien zu den Satiren des Horaz, and Nipperdey's Cae- 
sar were only obtained after several years' search, while many 
others of equal importance, such as Paucker, De Latinitate 
Scriptorum Historiae Augustae Meletemata, Kretschmann, De 
Latinitate L. Apulei Madaurensis, have remained inaccessible. 
My endeavor throughout has been to give full credit for all 
aid received from the authorities consulted, and a list of 
the most useful ones is given below. I desire however to 
reiterate here my especial indebtedness to separate articles 
contained in Wolfflin's Archiv far Lateinische Lexicographic, 
and to the indefatigable labor of Carl von Paucker, without 
whose word-lists a work like the present would be wellnigh 
impossible. 

In regard to citations from Latin Authors, the system of 
abbreviations and the editions followed are in the main those 
adopted in the German-Latin Lexicon of K. E. Georges (7th 
ed., Leipzig, 1880). A few exceptions however deserve men- 
tion : the references to Plautus have as far as practicable been 
revised in accordance with the text of the large edition of 
Loewe, Goetz and Schoell, (Leipzig, 1884-94) ; 1 for the B. B. of 
Cato and Varro, I have followed the edition of H. Keil, 1882-94 ; 
for the ecclesiastical writers, the Corpus Scriptoi*um Ecclesi- 
asticorum Latinorum has been used as far as it has yet ap- 
peared (Vols. I-XXVII, Vienna, 1866-94). The following 
recent additions to the Bibliotfieca Teiibneriana have also been 
followed : Marcelli de Medicamentis, ed. Helmreich, 1889 ; 
Pelagonius, ed. Ihm, 1892 ; Firmicus Maternus, I, ed. Sittl, 
1894 ; Sidonius Apollinaris, ed. Mohr, 1894 ; Theodorus Pris- 
cianus, ed. Bose, 1894. The last three, however, were received 
too late to be of service in the earlier portion of the work. 

1 The last two parts were received too late to be of service in the first fifty pages of 
this work 



PREFACE. V 

It is due to the printers of these sheets to acknowledge the 
care and fidelity with which they have performed their part, 
and I cheerfully assume the responsibility for whatever errors 
may remain. I am also under lasting obligations to Dr. 
Charles Knapp, of Barnard College, who has kindly assisted 
me in the arduous task of proof-reading, and has also allowed 
me the use of numerous manuscript notes on Aulus Gellius, 
which his familiarity with that author has rendered especially 
valuable. 

In conclusion, I wish to express my sense of gratitude 
towards my honored instructor and friend, Professor Harry 
Thurston Peck, to whose suggestion the present work owes its 
origin, and whose kind attention and advice have never failed 
me ; my best wish is that it may prove worthy of the interest 
he has taken in it. 

FBEDEKIC TABEE COOPER. 

NEW YORK, March, 1895. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

LIST OB 1 AUTHOKITIES, . . . . . . . . xi 

INTRODUCTION, xv 

PART L 

DERIVATION. 

I. Substantives. 

% 1, Abstract Substantives, 1 

2, Substantives in -tio, -sio, .3 

3, " " -tus, -BUS, 17 

4, " " -or, 25 

5, " " -tura, -sura, ........ 27 

6, " " -ela, 31 

7, " " -ntia, 32 

8, " " -ntium, 86 

9, " " -monia, -monium, 36 

10, " " -tas, 37 

11, " " -tudo . 44 

12, " " -edo 46 

13, " " -itia, -ities, .48 

14, Concrete substantives : a. Nomina, Personalia, .... 50 

15, " " b. Substantive use of adjectives, ... 51 

16, Substantives in -o, -onis, . 53 

17, " " -tor,-sor,-rix, 58 

18, " " -arius, -aria, 70 

19, " " -arium, . 74 

20, " " -turn, -etum, 77 

21, " -ile, 79 

22, " " -ina, 80 

23, " ' -go, (-ago, -igo, -ugo), 81 

24, " " -men, -mentum, ....... 84 

25, " " -bulum, -culum, 89 



II. Adjectives. 

26, Adjectives in -bundus, 92 

27, " " -bilii, 96 



viii TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

28, Adjectives in -iuus 105 

29, " " -ax, 109 

30, ' " -c-eus, -c-ius, . . Ill 

31, " " -osus 122 

32, " " -lentus, .... .... 132 

33, " " -urnus, -turnus, .... .... . . .134 

34, Participial adjectives in -atus, . . ' 134 

35, Adjectives in -inus, 139 

36, " " -anas 144 

37, " -arius, .......... 147 

" " -oriu ; : . . 155 



III. Diminutives. 

39, Diminutives in general 164 

40, Gender of Diminutives, 170 

41, Diminutive Substantives, 172 

42, Diminutives in -uncula from Verbal Substantives in -tio, . . 181 

43, Irregular Diminutives in -unculus, 183 

44, Irregular Formations in -culus, -cellus 184 

45, Diminutive Adjectives : a. From the Positive, 185 

46, " " b. " " Comparative, . . . .191 

47, Diminutives, etc., in -aster, -astra, -astrum, 192 

IV. Adverbs. 

48, Adverbs in -im, . . . ..'... : . . 196 

49, " " -ter from Adjectives in -us, . . . . . . 200 

V. Verbs. 

50, Frequentative Verbs, . 205 

51, Inchoative Verbs . 216 

52, Desiderative Verbs, . 223 

53, Denominative Verbs in General, 225 

54, Verbs in -are from Substantives in -do, -go, 236 

55, " " " " Superlative Adjectives, 237 

56, " " " " Comparative Adjectives, 288 

57, " " -icare, . . .289 

58, " " -inare, -cinare, . 241 

59, " " -Ulare, 243 

60, " " "-antare, *-entare, . . . . . . . .245 

PART H. 

COMPOSITION. 

I. Prepositional Compounds. 

% 61, Prepositional Compounds in General, . . . , . 246 

62, Substantives Compounded with in- Privative, . . . . 250 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. ix 



63, Adjectives Compounded with per-, 252 

64, " " " sub-, 256 

65, Verbs Compounded with ad-, 258 

66, " " " con-, 262 

67, " " " de-, 271 

68, " " dis-, 275 

69, " " "ex., 277 

70, " " "ob-, 281 

71, " " " per-, 283 

72, " " " sub-, 286 

73, Bi-Prepositional Verbs, 289 

74, Kecomposition, 294 

II. Nominal Composition. 

75, Nominal Composition in General, . 298 

76, Derivative Compounds in -ium, ....... 302 

77, Compound Verbal Adjectives in -us, -a, -urn, 306 

78, Verbs in -ficare, 310 

in. Hybrids. 

% 79, The Greek Element in the Sermo Plebeius, 315 

80, Verbs in -are from Greek Substantives, 319 

81, Verbs in -issare, -izare, 321 

82, Greek Suffixes in Latin, 323 

83, Hybrid Compounds, 326 



LIST OF AUTHORITIES. 



Barta, F., Sprachliche Studien zu den 

Satiren des Horaz, Progr., Liuz, I., 

1879 ; II., 1881. 
Bernhardy, G., Grundriss der R<5m- 

ischen Literatur, Halle, 5 1872. 
Boissier, G. , Cornmodien, in Melanges 

Reuier, Paris, 1887. 
Bonnet, Max, Le Latin de Gregoire de 

Tours, Paris, 1890. 
Brugmann - Delbrtlck, Grundriss der 

vergleichenden Grammatik der in- 

dogermanischen Spracheu, I.-III., 

Strassburg, 1886-93. 
Buck, C. D., Der Vocalismus der Osk- 

ischen Sprache, Leipzig, 1892. 
Budinsky, A., Die Ausbreitung der 

Lateiuschen Sprache, Berlin, 1881. 
Buecheler, Fr., Vmbrica, Bonn, 1885. 
Degenhardt, J., De Auctoris Belli 

Hispaniensis elocutione et fide liis- 

torica, Wiirzburg, 1877. 
Dietze, L., De sermone Catoniano, 

Diss. Lips. Tanglimi, in Libr. Diet- 

ziana, 1870. 
Diez, Fr., Grammatik der Romanischen 

Sprachen, Bonn, 5 1882. 
Dra'ger, A., Historische Syntax der 

Lateinischen Sprache, Leipzig, 

1881-2. 
Dressel, H., Lexikalische Bemerk- 

ungen zu Firmicus Maternus, Zwick- 
au, 1882. 
ICtienne, E., De deminutiuis, etc., in 

Francogallico sermone nominibus, 

Paris, 1883. 
Fisch, R., Die Lateinischen nomina 

personalia auf o, onis, Berlin, 1890. 



Fischer, E., De uocibus Lucilianis 
selecta capita, Halle, 1881. 

Goelzer, Henri, La Latinite de Saint 
Jerome, Paris, 1884. 

Gorges, O., De quibusdam sermonis 
Gelliani proprietatibus obser uationes, 
Diss. Hal., 1882. 

Grober, G. , Grundriss der Romanischen 
Philologie, I., Strassburg, 1888. 

Guericke, A. v. , De linguae uulgaris 
reliquiis apud Petronium et in in- 
scriptt. pariet. Pompeianis, Gumbin- 
nen, 1875. 

Hartel, W. v., Patristische Studien zu 
Tertullian, I. -IV., Wien, 1890. 

Hauschild, A. R., Die Grundsatze und 
Mittel der Wortbildung bei Tertul- 
lian, Leipzig, I., 1876 ; II., 1881. 

Hauschild, O., De sermonis proprie- 
tatibus quae in Philippicis Ciceronis 
Orationibus inueniuntur, Diss. Hal., 
1886. 

Hellmuth, H., De sermonis proprie- 
tatibus quae in priorum Ciceronis 
oratiouibus inueniuntur, Erlangen, 
1877. 

Jeep, Ludwig, Zur Geschichte der 
Lehre von den Redentheilen bei den 
Lateinischen Grammatikern, Leip- 
zig, 1893. 

Keller, O., Lateinische Volksetymolo- 
gie und Verwandtes, Leipzig, 1891. 

Knapp, Charles, Archaism in Aulus 
Gellius, in Classical Studies in Honour 
of Henry Drisler, New York, 1894, 
pp. 126-71. 

Koehler, Albr., De Auctoris Bell. 



xii 



LIST OF AUTHORITIES. 



Afric. et Bell. Hisp. Latinitate, Er- 

langen, 1877. 
Koffmane, G., Geschichte des Kirch- 

enlateins, I., II., Breslau, 1879-81. 
Korting, G., Lateinisch-romanisclies 

Worterbuch, Paderborn, 1891. 
Koziol, H., Der Stil des Apuleius, 

Wien, 1872. 
Kraut, K., Ueber das vulgare Element 

in der Sprache des Sallustius, Blau- 

beuren, 1881. 
Ktlhner, R., Ausftihrliche Grammatik 

der Lateinischen Sprache, Hannover, 

1877. 
Landgraf, G., De Ciceronis elocutione 

in oratt. pro Quinctio et pro Roscio 

Amerino couspicua, Wtirzburg, 1878. 
Lattes, E., Saggi e appuuti intorno 

alia iscrizione Etrusca della mum- 

mia, Milano, 1894. 
Liesenburg, Fr., Die Sprache des Am- 

mianus Marcellinus, Blankenburg, 

I., 1888 ; II., 1891. 
Lindsay, W. M., The Latin Language, 

Oxford, 1894. 
Lorenz, Aug. O. Fr., Ausgewahlte 

Komodien des T. Maccius Plautus, 

II.-IV., Berlin, 1876-83. 
Ludwig, E., Bericht fiber die in den 

Jahren 1878-76 erschienenen Schrift- 

en iiber Vulgar! atein und spatere 

Latinitat, in Bursians Jahresber. , 

VI., (1876), p. 238 sq. 
, De Petronii sermone ple- 

beio, Diss., Marburg, 1869. 
Miitzner, E., Franzosische Grammatik 

mit besonderer Berflcksichtigung des 

Lateinischen, Berlin, 1885. 
Meyer-Liibke, Wm., Grammatik der 

Romanischen Sprachen, Leipzig, I., 

1890 ; II., 1-2, 1893-4. 
, Italienische Grammatik, 

Leipzig, 1890. 
Monceaux, Paul, Le Latin Vulgaire 

d'apres les dernieres publications, 

Revue des Deux Mondes, July 15, 

1891, pp. 429-48. 



Nagelsbach, H. F. v., Lateinische 
Stilistik, Niirnberg, 8 1890. 

Nipperdey, K., Quaestiones Caesar- 
ianae, (in his Editio Maior of the 
Commentarii), Leipzig, 1847. 

Ott, J. N., Die neueren Forschungen 
im Gebiete des Bibel-Latein, in 
Neue Jahrb. f. Philol., 1874, pp. 
757-92; 833-67. 

Paucker, C. v., Addenda Lexicis Lat- 
inis, Dorpati, 1872. 

, Subindenda Lexicis Latinis 

e. V. potiss. p. C. seculi scriptt. in 
Melanges greco-romains de 1'Acad. 
Imp. des Sciences de St. Peters- 
bourg, tome III. , pp. 399-158. 

, Spicilegium Addendorum 

Lexicis Latinis, Mitauiae, 1874. 

, Beitrage zur Lateinischen 

Lexicographic und Wortbildungs- 
geschichte, I. -III., in Melanges Gr. 
Rom. etc., t. III., pp. 457-95 ; 496- 
545; 599-687. 

, Erganzungen zum Latein. 

Lexicon, I. -III., in Zeitschr. f. Oes- 
terr. Gymnas., XXIV., (1873), pp. 
331-45 ; XXV., (1874), pp. 97-105; 
106-118. 

, Nachtrage zu Erg. z. Lat. 

Lex. I. -II., in Zeitschr. f. Oest. 

Gymn., XXIV., pp. 506-7; XXV., 

pp. 565-76. 
, Materialien zur Geschichte 

der Lateinischen Worterbildung, I.- 

II., in Zeitschr. f. Oesterr. Gymn., 

XXVI., pp. 891-8; XXVII., pp. 

595-614. 
, De Latinitate Hieronymi ob- 

seruationes ad nominum uerborum- 

que usum pertinentes, Berlin, 1880. 
, Materialien zur Lateinischen 

Worterbildungsgeschichte, Berlin, 

1884. 

, Uebersicht des der soge- 

nannten Silbernen Latinitat eigen- 
thximlichen Wortschatzes, Berlin, 
1884. 



LIST OF AUTHORITIES. 



xiii 



Paucker, C. v., Supplementum Lexi- 

corum Latinorum, Berlin, 1885. 
Peck, H. T., Onomatopoetic words in 

Latin, in Classical Studies in Honour 

of Henry Drisler, New York, 1894, 

pp. 227-239. 
Planta, R. v., Grammatik der Oskisch- 

umbrischen Dialekte, I., Strassburg, 

1893. 
Plew, J. , De diuersitate Auctorum His- 

toriae Augustae, Regimonti, 1859. 
Prix, F. , Sprachliche Untersucliungen 

zu Columella, Baden, 1883. 
Rassow, H., De Plauti substantiuis, 

Leipzig, 1881. 
Rebling, O. , Versuch einer Charakter- 

istik der Romischen Umgangs- 

sprache, Keil, 2 1883. 
Regnier, Ad., De la Latinite des Ser- 
mons de Saint Augustin, Paris, 1886. 
Ronsch, Herm., Itala und Vulgata, 

Marburg und Leipzig, 1889. 
Schmalz, J. G., Lateinische Stilistik, 

in Iwan v. Mullers Handbuch der 

Klassischen Altertums-wissenschaft, 

Band II. , 2 Munchen, 1890. 
Schmidt, J. , Commentatio de nom. 

uerbal. in tor et trix desinentium 

apud Tertullianum copia et ui, Er- 

langen, 1878. 
Schmilinsky, G., De proprietate ser- 

monis Plautini usu linguarum Ro- 

manicarum illustrato, Halle, 1866. 
Schultze, P., De archaismis Sallus- 

tianis, Halle, 1871. 
Schulze, E. T., De Q. Aurelii Sym- 

machi uocabulorum formationibus 

ad sermonem uulgarem pertinenti- 

bus, Diss. Hal., 1886. 
Sittl, Karl, Die lokalen Verschied- 

enheiten der Lateinischen Sprache, 

Erlangen, 1882. 
, Jahresbericht fiber Vulgar- 

und Spatlatein 1884 bis 1890, in 

Jahresbericht uber die Fortschritte 

des klass. Alterthumswissenschaft, 

LXVIII., pp. 226-86. 



Slaughter, M. J., The substantives of 
Terence, (Diss. Johns Hopkins), 
Boston, 1891. 

Sorn, J., Die Sprache des Satirikers 
Persius, Leibach, 1890. 

Stange, C., De Arnobii Oratione, Saar- 
gemtind, 1893. 

Stephani, A., De Martiale uerborum 
nouatore, Breslau, 1889. 

Stinner, A., De eo quo Cicero in 
epistolis usus est sermone, Oppeln, 2 
1879. 

Stolz, Fr., Historische Grammatik der 
Lateinischen Sprache, I., 1 (Einlei- 
tung und Lautlehre), Leipzig, 1894. 

Stuenkel, L., De Varroniana uerborum 
formatione, Strassburg, 1875. 

Teuffel, W. S., Geschichte der Rom- 
ischen Literatur, Leipzig, 6 1890. 

Thielmann, Ph., De sermonis proprie- 
tatibus quae leguntur apud Cornif- 
icium et in primis Ciceronis libris, 
Strassburg, 1879. 

, Stilistische Bemerkungen 

zu den Jugendwerken Ciceros, in 
Blatter f. d. bayer. Gymn. wes. 
XVI., (1880), p. 202 sq.; 352 sq. 

, Ueber Sprache und Kritik 

des Lateinischen Apolloniusromanes, 
Speier, 1881. 

Ulrich, H., De Vitruuii copia uer- 
borum, I.-IL, Schwabach, 1883-5. 

Vogel, Th., De A. Gellii sermone, 
Zwickau, 1862. 

Weise, K. H., Lexicon Plautinum, 
Quedlinburg, 2 1886. 

Wolfflin, E. , Bemerkungen liber das 
Vulgarlatein, inPhilol. XXXIV., pp. 
137-65. 

, Ueber die Latinitat des 

Afrikaners Cassius Felix, in Sit- 
ungsberr. d. k. b. Akademie der 
Wissenschaften z. Munchen, Philos.- 
Histor. Cl., 1880, pp. 381-432. 

, Archiv fiir Lateinische 

Lexikographie, I. -VIII., Leipzig, 
1884-94. 



INTRODUCTION. 

1. DEFINITION OF THE SERMO PLEBEIUS. Notwithstanding 
the strides made by modern philology toward a knowledge of 
the Boman sermo plebeius, there is still a surprising lack of 
unanimity in regard to its nature and extent. The various 
and confusing senses in which different scholars have used 
and understood the terms sermo plebeius, sermo cotidianus, 
lingua rustica, etc., have been justly deplored by Ott, 1 in his 
able article on modern researches in the field of Bible-Latin, 
and such inconsistency is not lessened by the attitude re- 
cently assumed by scholars like Bonnet, 2 who maintains that 
Vulgar Latin, in the sense of a dialect distinct from the clas- 
sic speech, never had an existence, save in the brain of a few 
savants, and Sittl, 3 who similarly asserts that the whole struct- 
ure with which the Bomancists are now dealing is a pure crea- 
tion of phantasy. In view of these conflicting opinions, it 
has seemed advisable at the outset to define carefully the 
position which will be maintained throughout the present 
work. 

It may be regarded as an established doctrine that the 
Bomance languages are the descendants, not of the classic 
Latin, as seen in Cicero and Caesar, but of the sermo plebeius, 

J Ott, Neue Jahrb. f. PhiloL, 1874, p. 759, " Vulgarlatein 1st heutzutage ein -del 
gebrauchtes und verschieden verstandenes Wort. Gewohnlich bezeichnefc man jede 
Spracherscheinung spaterer Zeit, die den aus den besseren Classikcrn hergenommenen 
Sprachgesetzen, oder richtiger gesprochen den subjectiven Ansichten, die man sich 
heriiber gebildet, zuwiderlauft, als Vulgarlatein. Einige identificieren es geradezu mit 
Spatlatein, wieder andere verstehen darunter eine Art Mittelding zwischen dem hoh- 
ern oder Litteratur- und dem niedern oder Volkslatein, eine conventionelle Tiber alle 
Provinzen des Reiches verbreitete und iiberall verstandene Vekehrs- nnd Umgangs- 
eprache, also eine Art romischer Reichssprache. " 'Bonnet, p. 31, "On prete 
trop volontier ce qu'on appelle le latin vulgaire les charact^res d'une langue verita- 
ble, d'une langue a part, qui aurait existe a c6t6 de la langue latine proprement 
dite, . . . Le latin vulgaire ainsi compris n'a jamais existe que dans les cerveaux de 
qnelques savants." a Sittl, Jahresberichte, 58, p. 236, "Das Vulgarlatein, mit wel- 
chem die Latinisten operieren, ist ein Phantasiegebilde." 



XVI 



INTRODUCTION. 



the speech of the common people, at Rome and in the prov- 
inces. 1 The prevailing view of the relation existing- between 
these two forms of speech is the one recently reiterated by 
, Miodonski : that the sermo plebeius is neither the parent nor the 
' offspring of the Classic Latin, but that the two developed side 
by side, as the twin product of the common speech of early 
Eome, the prisca Latinitas? Accordingly, there is no question 
of two distinct and separate languages, but of two kindred 
dialects, which, while steadily diverging, continued to exert a 
more or less unconscious influence upon each other. 

With the dawn of literature began the differentiation be- 
tween the cultured and the popular speech. Too much weight 
cannot be given to the circumstance that the earliest develop- 
ment of a national literature was controlled by a foreign ele- 
ment: Livius Andronicus, Naevius, and Ennius were all 
natives of Magna Graecia, and even the Bellum Punicum, the 
first Eoman epic of purely national interest, owed much to 
Greek sources. 3 Classical Latin was largely shaped by these 
early poets, who strove, with a degree of success surprising in 

1 Wolfflin, Philol. 34, p. 137, " Die romanischen Sprachen sind die Fortbildung, 
nicht des lateinischen, wie es die Klassiker geschrieben haben, sondern desjenigen, wie 
es im taglichen Leben gesprochen worden ist ; " cow/. Diez, p. 1 ; Meyer-Lubke, 
Gramm. d. Roman. Spr., I., p. 6; Stolz, Hist. Gramm., p. 21 ; even Bonnet concedes 
this point : p. 30, " On est generalement d'accord aujourd'hui pour afSrmer que ce qui 
forme la base, ou, si 1'on veut, la substance des langues romanes, n'est pas le latin qne 
nous connaissons par les livres, le latin litteraire, mais celui qne parlait le peuple, le 
latin populaire." 2 Miodonski, ALL. VIII., p. 146, "Die plebejische Latinitat ist 
weder aus dem sermo urbamis, . . . noch der sermo urbanus aus dem Plebejerla- 
tein entstanden : beide wurzelten als ZwJlingsdialekte in der urromischen Volks- 
sprache, in der prisca Latinitas; " conf. Schuchardt, Vokalismus des Vulgiirlateins, I., 
p. 47, " Der sermo plebeius steht zum sermo urbanus in keinem Descendenz-, in keinem 
Ascendenz-, sondern in einem Collatsralverhaltnisse. In der urromischen Volks- 
sprache, in der prisca Latinitas, wurzelten beide, es waren Zwillingsdialekte ; " Reb- 
ling, p. 14 ; Wolfflin, Philol. 34, p. 149, " Bekanntlich kann das plebeische Latein weder 
schlechtweg die Mutter, noch viel weniger die Tochter des classischen genannt werden ; 
vielmehr gab es vor dem entstehen der Litteratur nur ein Latein, und erst von diesem 
Zeitpunkte an beginnen sich Schrif fcsprache und Volkssprache zu scheiden : " Ott, 
Jahrb. 109, p. 759, " Verfolgt man den Entwicklungsgang der romischen Sprache von 
seinem Ende riickwarts bis zu seinen Anf angen, so findet man dasa sich derselbe in 
zwei grosse Arme gespaltet hat, Litteratur- und Volkssprache, die von einander unbe- 
irrt, im Fortschritt der Zeit immer mehr auseinander giengen ; " Stolz, Hist. Gramm. 
I., p. 23, "Aus dem archaischen Latein stammen als gleichberechtigt nebeneinander- 
stehende Erzeugnisse die Volks- und Schriftsprache." 3 Stolz, Hist. Gramm., L, p. 29, 
citing v. Scala, Festgruss aus Insbruck an d. Wiener Phil.- Vers., p. 119 sq., and 
Maass, Deutsche Liter aturzeitung, 18S3, 1351 sq. 



INTRODUCTION. xvii 

view of their difficult task, to adapt the somewhat unwieldy 
and heavy forms of archaic Latin to the ease and grace of 
their Greek models. It is true that Livius Andronicus and 
Naevius still retained for epic verse the primitive Saturnian 
metre, and with it much of the roughness and irregularity 
characteristic of an uncultured speech. 1 It is Ennius, before 
all others, who succeeded in developing the natural resources of 
Latin along the lines of Greek literature, and without whom the 
high perfection of rhythm seen in the prose of Cicero and the 
artistic finish of the Augustan poetry would have been impos- 
sible. 2 How far the style of these early poets was artificial is 
best seen by comparison with the plays of Plautus, who, 
although not wholly free from the influence of the literary 
tendency, gives a fairly true picture of the popular speech of 
his time, with all its advantages and imperfections. 3 

The schism between the classic and the popular speech, 
once established, widened rapidly. The famous literary circle 
which gathered around the younger Scipio continued to polish 
and refine the language, always in accordance with Greek 
rules : and the best measure of their success is seen in the con- 
trast offered by the comedies of Terence, trained under the 
influence of this school, to those of his predecessor Plautus, 
for in most respects his style approaches far nearer the Cicero- 
nian than the Plautine standard. 4 In the following century 
the literary language reached its highest point in the harmoni- 
ous periods of Cicero and the subtle versification of Horace. 
Fostered by the orators and poets, and elaborated by the gram- 
marians, it was indeed a magnificent product : but it was es- 
sentially artificial. 5 Its forms had been crystallized and its 

1 Stolz, Lat. Gramm., in I Miiller's Handb., IP., p. 245. a Conf. Schmak, Lat. Syn- 
tax, in I. Mailer's Handb. IP., p. 386. 3 Lorenz ad Most., Einleit., p. 26, " Die Plautin- 
ische Sprache ist, dem griechischen Habitus und der einzelnen Graeca zum Trotz, em 
Abbild der rornischen Umgangssprache, mit der grossten Treue und Wahrheit weider- 
gegeben . . . bei B'amtlichen Personen herrscht die echte romische Volkssprache, 
mit alien ihren eigentumlichen Vorziigen und Mangeln;" conf. Schmalz, 1. I., p. 387. 
* Conf. Engelbrecht, Studia Terentiana, Vindobonae, 1S83, and especially Slaughter, 
Ter., with comments on the latter by Stolz, Hist. Gramm., I., p. 30. 6 Paul Monceaux, 
Le Latin Vulgaire, in Revue des Deux Mondes (1891), 106, p. 434, " Le Latin class- 
ique etait une oeuvre d'art crcee par la patience et le talent de plusieurs generations 
de lettres : a mesure qu'il se developpe ou tente de se fixer, on en voit mieux apparaitre 
le characture artificiel." I wish here to express my indebtedness for much in the pres- 
ent section to this excellent article of M. Monceaux, in regard to the merits of which 



xviii INTRODUCTION. 

progress checked before its natural resources had attained 
their fair development ; its rules for quantity and accentua- 
tion were borrowed ; while its vocabulary was so limited that 
even the genius of Cicero was unequal to the task of adapting 
it to the wider horizon of Grecian culture. Already in Livy 
one can perceive foreshadowings of the approaching deca- 
dence. The structure so laboriously reared was destined to a 
slow but steady disintegration, and the chief factor in its 
downfall was the unconscious but unremitting influence of the 
sermo plebeius. 1 

To understand the relation existing between these two 
branches of the language it is necessary to keep in mind the 
familiar linguistic doctrine that the amount of divergence 
between neighboring dialects depends directly upon the ex- 
tent and facility of communication. 2 Thus even in the case of 
two distinct languages the idioms spoken near the border-line 
bear a much closer resemblance to each other than to the 
written speech of their respective countries : for instance, the 
North Italian dialects to-day resemble more closely the neigh- 
boring dialects of France than they do that of Tuscany or the 
Italian written language; and in like manner the Gascon 
idiom shows the transition from Provencal to Spanish. Still 
less can two dialects coexist in the same territory without 
exerting a marked influence upon each other. Accordingly 
it is evident that such reciprocal influence existed to a greater 
or less degree between the classic and popular speech through- 
out the entire extent of Latinity. In the early period it was 
necessarily slight, for the literary circle was strictly limited, 
and while the children reared within its radius naturally ac- 
quired the elegance of diction which prevailed in their home- 
life, 3 the great mass of the Roman people, artisan and trades- 
man, farmer and soldier alike, lived practically untouched by 
the new culture, except through casual contact with the upper 
classes, and continued to speak with little alteration the lan- 
guage of their fathers. 4 But as the power and prestige of Home 

I am quite in accord with Miodonski, who says, (ALL. VIIL, p. 149), "Die anzieh- 
ende Darstellung und die richfcige Betonung der wirksamen Motive des Volkstumlicheu 
verdienen hervorgehoben zu werden." 

1 Conf. Stolz, Hist. Gramm., I., p. 49. 2 Conf. Paul, Principles of Language, Engl. 
Transl. by H. A. Strong, New York, 1889, p. 30 sq. " Conf. Schmalz, 1. I., citing Cic. 
Brut. 58, 210 sq. * Conf. Wolfflin, Philol. 34, p. 149, " Der Mann aus dem Volke da- 



INTRODUCTION. xix 

increased, the dissemination of knowledge became more gene- 
ral ; scholars from the East flocked to the capital, which thus 
became the centre of learning in Italy. In the time of Cicero 
urbanitas, the language as spoken in Rome, became synony- 
mous with the highest excellence in Latin speech, just as 
'ATTIKICT/AOJ denoted the perfection of Greek. 1 As the influence 
of this higher Latinity filtered slowly downward through the 
successive social strata, some tinge must soon have reached 
even the lowest classes within the city, whose language, while 
not ceasing to be plebeian, lost something of its native harsh- 
ness of accent and uncouthness of phraseology. In the coun- 
try districts the sermo plebeius remained longer unmodified, 
and it is a significant fact that the most usual antithesis to 
urbanitas is not the sermo plebeius, but the lingua rustica, or 
rusticitas. 2 Conversely the cultivated speech of the higher 
classes could not wholly escape contamination. As time 
steadily widened the breach between these two forms of speech, 
communication between the upper and lower classes was facili- 
tated by a compromise in the shape of the sermo cotidianus, the 
free and easy medium of daily conversation, which, as Quintil- 
ian significantly points out, was used not alone between friends 
and relatives, but in communication with the slaves. 3 

Thus, while the view which Bonnet so strenuously assails, 4 
of an early separation of the classical from the vulgar speech, 
is to be maintained, the line of demarcation must not be too 
sharply drawn. It has been well pointed out by Meyer-Liibke 
that between the sermo cotidianus and the crudest form of the 
sermo rusticus the language shaded off in countless gradations, 

gegen . . . nahm von diesen Wahrspriichen der obersten Jury wenig Notiz und 
vererbte hartniickig mancb.es auf die Kinder weiter, wie es die Eltern und Grosseltern 
gesprochen batten." 

1 Conf. Quint. 6, 3, 107, Nam meo quidem iudlcio ilia est nrbanitas, in qua nihil 
dbsonum, nihil agreste, nihil inconditum, nihil per egrinum neque sensu neque uerbis 
neque ore gestuue possit deprehendi ; utnon tarn sit in singulis dictis quam in toto 
colors dicendi, qualis apud Graecos ammo-pos ille reddens Athenarum proprium sa- 
porem. a Conf. Sittl, Verhandl. d. 40. Versamml. deutcher Philol. u. Schulm. in Gor- 
litz, Leipzig, 1890, p. 385 sq. , " Vor allem schied sich Stadt und Land ; denn Cicero 
und die SpUteren stimmen darin iiberein, dass selbst der ungebildete Bewohner Horns 
an der urbanitas teil hat und dessen bewusst die Sprache des Bauern, die rusticitas, 
selbstgefallig verhahnt," cited with approval by Seelmann, Volkslatein, in Krit. 
Jahresber. U. d. Fortschritte d. Roman. Phil., I, p. 51. s Quint. 12, 10, 40, cotidiano 
sermoni . . . , quo cumamicis, coniugibus, liberis, seruis loquamur, 4 Bonnet, 
p. 31, not. 1. 



xx INTRODUCTION. 

according 1 to social position, calling 1 in life, education, etc. 1 I 
am quite in accord with Professor Stolz that with these limita- 
tions the distinction to be emphasized is that between the lit- 
erary speech on the one hand, and the popular speech on the 
other, or that at the furthest we cannot with certainty make 
more than a triple division : viz., sermo urbanus, cotidianus, and 
plebeius? 

This triple division is in the main the one adopted through- 
out the present work. The relation between the sermo cotidi- 
anus and sermo plebeius is best illustrated by the Cena Trimal- 
cMonis of Petronius, in which, as pointed out by Friedlander, 3 
the main narrative reflects the conversational style of the 
cultured class, while the language of Trimalchio and his colli- 
berti, although somewhat toned down to adapt it to its literary 
setting, remains the best extant specimen of vulgar Latin. 
Another term which deserves a word of explanation is the 
sermo rusticus. As used in the present work it is neither dis- 
tinct from, nor altogether synonymous with the sermo plebeius. 
It refers rather to the question of provincial distinctions in 
the sermo plebeius, discussed in the next section, and is used to 
denote those features which seem to prevail especially in the 
rustic speech of Italy itself, and which for the most part have 
remained prominent in modern Italian. 

1 Meyer-Liibke, Deutsche Literaturzeitung, 1891, p. 413 sq. 2 Stolz, Hist. Gramm., 
L, p. 23, " Mit der eben ausgesprochenen Einschrankung glauben wir an der alteren 
Ansicht, dass zwischen Volks- und Schriftsprache zu unterscheiden sei, fcsthalten 
zu diirfen," citing Schwan, Gramm. d. Altfranzosischen, Leipzig 2 , 1883; Id., p. 42, 
" Nach dem oben Bemerkten ist streng genommen weder Seelmann im Unrechte, wenn 
er neben der allgemeinen Volkssprache noch eine Pobelsprache unterscheidet . . . 
noch Sittl, der in einem auf der Philologenversammlung zu Gorlitz (1880) abgehaltenen 
Vortrag die drei Abstufungen sermo cotidianus odor consuetudo (Umgangssprache der 
Gebildeten), oppidanum genus dicendi (Mundart der kleinen Stadte), rusticitas (bau- 
erische Sprache) unterschieden wissen wollte. Mit einiger Sicherheit lassen sich jedoch 
nur Schriftsprache, Verkehrsprache der Gebildeten, allgemeine Volkssprache unter- 
scheiden ; " con/. Seelmann, 1. L, p. 51, " Insonderheit aber spielt das Moment der Bil- 
dung eine Rolle, und danach hat man die ' gebildete Umgangssprache,' die Alltags- 
sprache des vornehmen Homers, den sermo cotidianus, . . . von der Sprache der 
niedern Plebs und des eigentlichen Vulgus, von ' Vulgiirlatein ' im engern Sinne, . . . 
wohl zu scheiden," citing Sittl, 1. I. 3 Friedlander, Petr. 9, " Die Sprache der Erzah- 
lung ist die Umgangssprache der Gebildeten der damaligen Zeit, die sich manche in 
der strengern Schriftssprache nicht zulassige Freiheiten gestattet . . . Dagegen 
ist die Sprache, in der Trimalchio und seine Mitfreigelassenen reden, die damalige 
suditalische Volkssprache, allerdings nicht rein, sondern so welt ' stilisirt,' dass eie 
nicht zu stark mit der Eleganz der Erzahlung kontrastirt." 



INTRODUCTION. xxi 

2. THE SERMO PLEBEIUS IN THE PROVINCES : "While the 
classic speech was pushed rapidly forward to maturity and 
came to an early and definite stand-still, the sermo plebeius, left 
to itself, remained a living, ever-changing- source of free and 
untrammelled development. 1 It thus afforded an inexhaust- 
ible fund of new forms and phrases, apt turns of expression, 
the current slang of the streets of Borne, hardy neologisms and 
daring compounds, from all of which the literary language 
borrowed with increasing freedom throughout the progress 
of the Decadence. 2 Conversely, its early growth having 
been slower and more natural, the sermo plebeius retained in 
vocabulary and syntax, as well as in accent and pronuncia- 
tion, many features of the prisca, Latinitas, long after they 
had been discarded by classic Latin. In the time of Cicero 
archaism had become to a great extent synonymous with vul- 
garism. 3 

These two opposing characteristics of the popular speech, 
conservation of the old and creation of the new, are of prime 
importance in explaining the development of those local dif- 
ferences in provincial Latin which laid the foundation for the 
divergence of idiom resulting in the separate modern Eomance 
languages. As the different provinces were successively ac- 
quired, it was the policy of Rome to further their rapid Latin- 
ization, and to this end Latin was made the official language, 

1 Conf. Ott, Jahrb. 1874, p. 759, " Wahrend ... die Schrif fcsprache, von Zeit 
zu Zeit in seinem Lauf reguliert, zu einem gewissen Stillstand gekommen und im gros- 
sen und ganzen auch darin verblieben ist, bis er miter den triimmern der zusammen- 
brechenden romischen Cultur verschuttet wurde, ergoss sich der andere zum tail in 
wildem Lauf unauf haltsam wieder, um sich schliesslich in neue Anne, die romanischen 
Sprachen, zu teilen; " Paul Monceaux, 1. I., p. 432, "Le latin d'ouvrier et de paysan, 
relegue aux champs, a 1' atelier, au bouge, a 1'office, absolument rebelle aux lemons des 
maitres d'e'cole, poursuivit son evolution naturelle, d'autant plus rapide que plus rien 
ne le retenait" 2 Conf. Miodonski, I. I., " Wie die lebenden Volksmundarten rnehr 
Quellbache als Nebenkanale, die Zuleiter also nicht die Ableiter der Schriftsprache sind, 
so war auch im alten Rom der Volksgeist ein Sprachschaffendes und der Literatur 
ein sprachbildendes Element : die Schriftsprache bedurf te einigermassen einer Ausgleich- 
ungmit dem Volksidiom." 3 Wolfflin, Philol. 34, p. 149, u So blieb das Vulgarlatein viel- 
fach hinter den Fortschritten der gebildeten zuriick, aber es bewahrte sich auch einen 
grosseren Reichthum an Formen und Worten. . . . Darum ist das vulgsire oft mit 
dem archaischen identisch, obschon weder alles archaische vulgar ist (denn manches 
starb doch im Laufe der Jahrhunderte im Volke ab), noch alles vulgare archaisch zu 
sein braucht;" conf. Rebling, p. 15; G. Landgraf, Philol. Anz. XV., p. 608, "(citing 
Symm. Ep. 3, 44, ipxaur^ov scribendi non inuitus adfecto), Archaismen aber sind in der 
Regel identisch mit Yulgarismen." 



xxii INTRODUCTION. 

in which all the local legislative and judicial proceedings 
must be conducted. 1 But while this system forced Latin 
upon the provinces, it naturally could not control the stand- 
ard of Latinity. The senatus consulta and the procedure of the 
law courts were not the medium through which the new 
language was acquired, while the high officials from Home, 
however correct their own speech may have been, played a 
minor part in promulgating it within their several juris- 
dictions. Among the families of rank in Spain, Carthage, 
Gaul, etc., a large proportion undoubtedly took pains to 
have their children learn Latin systematically, either at 
Rome, 2 or in the various schools which had been founded 
in the colonies. 3 A good example is afforded by the school 
founded by Sertorius at Osca, in Spain, where the sons of 
leading families of the different tribes could be trained in 
the culture of Greece and Rome ; Plutarch tells of the pride 
felt by the parents in seeing their children attending this 
school in the purple-bordered toga praetexta, and presented 
by Sertorius himself with the golden bulla, the distinctive 
ornament of the sons of Roman patricians. 4 The libraries 
also, which Rome in pursuance of her policy had founded 
in the different provinces, tended to promote the use of 
classical Latin ; but these also appealed chiefly to a limited 
cultured circle ; compare, for instance, the one mentioned by 
Pliny, established in Africa soon after the conquest, con- 
fessedly for the benefit of the Carthaginian nobles (regulis 
Africae). 5 

The great mass, however, of the non-Latin population 
acquired the language by degrees from the class of Romans 
with whom they necessarily came in immediate contact, the 
petty officials, common soldiers, tradesmen, and artisans, the 

1 Conf. Ott, 1. I., p. 760, commenting on the statement by Val. Max. that the mag- 
istrates in Greece and Asia Minor were prohibited from using Greek, " Was hier von 
den Griechen gesagt ist, gilt natilrlich auch, wenn nicht in noch hoherm Grade, von 
den Puniern. So hatte also der Provinciale, wenn er verstehen und verstanden werden, 
wenn er seinen eigenen Vorteil wahren oder Einfluss und Ansehen sich erringen wollte, 
keine andere Wahl als sich die Sprache des Siegers und Herschers anzueignen." 
2 Conf. Bonnet, p. 36, " sans doute les jeunes gens des grandes families gauloisns 
allaicnt a Rome pour apprendre le latin ou pour se perfectionner dans 1'usage de cette 
langue." 3 On the question of schools in the provinces compare Budinsky, pp. 55 (Nth. 
Italy) ; 71 (Spain) ; 104 (Gaul) ; 257 (Africa). * Plutarch, Sertorius, 14 s Plin. 18, 
23; cow/. Ott, I Z.,p. 760. 



INTRODUCTION. xxiii 

rank and file of the lower classes. 1 Accordingly, while it was 
not exclusively the Roman army which was responsible for the 
form of Latin spoken in the provinces, yet the importance in 
this connection of the sermo militaris, the common idiom of 
the camp, must not be underrated. 2 Aside from stray phrases 
learned from itinerant merchants, the first germs of Latin 
were sown in each land by the invading legions, and after 
conquest the Latinizing influence radiated most strongly from 
those garrison towns which sprang up around the permanent 
military stations. In Spain alone no less than 150,000 troops 
arrived from Italy in the brief period between 196 and 169 B.C. 
and many of these afterward settled permanently in the new 

1 Sittl, Verhaudl. ... in Gorlitz, I. I, " Die Aristokratie und Plutokratie der 
eroberten Lander hatte die Moglichkeit Hauslehrer kommen zu lassen, um sich und 
ihren Kindern die korrekte Latinitat anzueignen, wie denn auch berichtet wird, dass 
achon friihzeitig viele Grammatiker das reiche Gallien aufsuchten ... die grosse 
Masse der Provinzialen aber empfing das Lateinische im taglichen Verkehr . . . 
Cicero zahlt^ro Fronteio 12 die Leute, die das Lateinische in die Provinzen trugen, 
auf : Kaufleute, Kolonen, Steuerpachter, Ackerknechte und Hirte." 2 Stolz, Hist. 
Gramm. L, p. 23, "Die romische Soldateska bei der Verbreitung der Lateinischen 
Sprache von den friiher genannten Centren (den an die romischen Standlager sich 
anschliessenden Lagerstadten) romischen Wesens und romischer Cultur aus eine 
gewiss nicht zu unterschatzende Rolle gespielt hat ; " W. Meyer, in Grober's Grun- 
driss, L, p. 353, " Die militarisch am starksten besetzten Gegenden werden daher am 
schnellsten romisch : Spanien, Ostgallien (Trier) ; " conf. Pott, Zeitschr. f. vergl. 
Sprachf. 12, p. 162. This view is assailed by Bonnet, p. 35, not. 3, who cites Ott, 
Jahrb. 109, p. 579, with the comment, "Pourtant deja Ott de'chargeait le legionnaire 
du soin d'enseigner le latin aux provinciaux, en faisant remarquer tres justement qu'il 
entrait sans doute peu en rapport avec eux. . . . Dans les ouvrages de seconde 
main, la legende est accreditee et subsistera longtemps." This comment seems hardly 
justified, for while Ott considers that too much weight has been attached to the part 
played by the soldiers in Latinizing the provinces, he is far from denying them a share in 
it ; his views are quite moderate and deserve to be quoted in full : " Insgemein nimmt man 
an dass es vorzuglich die romischen Heere gewesen, welche in den unterworfenen Landen 
iiberhaupt die Kenntniss des lateinischen nnd zwar in der gemeinen Sprechweise des 
niedern Volks verbreitet haben. Ohne im mindesten beziigliche Einfliisse bestreiten zu 
wollen, bin ich doch der Ansicht, dass man den Anteil des romischen Heeres bei der 
Einfiihrung der neuen Sprache viel zu sehr Uberschfttzt. So eben und Einfach gieng 
die Sache denn doch nicht. Ich will ganz davon absehen, dass der Verkehr zwischen 
dem Soldaten und dem Provincialen wol nicht so vertraut und ausgedehnt gewesen, als 
man ihn sich denken mag, und dass der Schmerz und Ingrimm des letztern ob des 
Verlustes seiner nationalen Selbstandigkeit sich moglichst lange und energisch gegen 
die Sprache des Eroberers gestraubt hat ; aber darauf lege ich Gewicht, dass der rom- 
ische Soldat bei der Vielsprachigkeit des Heeres und dem zumeist niedern Bildungs- 
stand der Elemente, aus denen es zusammengesetzt war, nicht der geeignete Missionar 
war, das Lateinische auf den Boden des eroberten Landes zu verpflanzen und dort zur 
Herrschaft zu bringen." 



xxiv INTRODUCTION. 

land. 1 The earliest of the Roman cities in Spain, Italica, was 
founded 206 B.C., by P. Cornelius Scipio, for the benefit of the 
veterans of his army ; while the story of Carteia, another of 
these Latin colonies, established to provide a home for up- 
ward of four thousand illegitimate children, the offspring of 
Boman soldiers and of Spanish women who frequented the 
camp, is significantly pointed out by Budinsky as a single 
instance of a widely active cause, through which a steadily 
increasing proportion of the inhabitants were speedily and 
simply Latinized. 2 

In this sermo militaris, or castrensis, which thus underlay 
the Latin of the provinces, the influence of local Italic dialects 
may be disregarded ; I am quite in accord with Bonnet that 
the Romans who came to Gaul, civilians and soldiers alike, did 
not import the language of Praeneste or Lanuvium, of Tea- 
num or Iguvium, any more than the French soldiers of to-day 
spread the patois of Picardy, Champagne, or Gascony in 
Algeria and Senegal. In individual cases, undoubtedly, cer- 
tain peculiarities of accent or vocabulary may have persisted, 
but in the army especially all such local differences were 
gradually assimilated in the universal idiom of the camp. 3 
But it is equally preposterous to claim that the latter was the 
language of Latium according to the standard of Home, the 
proper form of communication between citizens throughout 
the empire : on the contrary, it was the sermo plebeius pure 
and simple, less extreme perhaps than the sermo rusticus, but 

1 Budinsky, p. 70, citing Ihne, R. G. IIL, p. 319 Anm. "Liu. 43, 3, Ex militibm 
Momanis et ex Hispanis mulieribus, cum quibus conubinm non esset, natos se memo- 
rantes, supra quatluor milia hominum orabant, ut sibi oppidum, in quo habitarent 
daretur. Saitatus dccreuit . . . eos Carteiam ad Oceanum deduci placer e ; conf. 
Budinsky, p. 70, " die Stadt Carteia, offenbar nur die vereinzelte Folge einer ganz 
allgemein wirkenden Ursache, durch die ein stetig wachsender Theil der Einwoh- 
nerschaft auf kiirzestem Wege der Romanizirung zugefuhrt wurde." 3 Conf. Bon- 
net, p. 34, " Si 1'on veut essayer de prendre une idee plus juste du latin qui se repan- 
dit dans les provinces, et specialement en Gaule, il faut faire abstraction des patois 
ou dialectes italiques aussi bien que de leur influence sur la langue commune. Les 
Remains qui venaient en Gaule, fonctionnaires civils, officiers de 1'armee, soldats, 
negociants, industriels, n'y parlaient pas la langue de Prcneste ou de Lanuvium, ni 
celle de Teanum ou d'Iguvium, pas plus que nos militaires et nos colons ne vont parler 
picard, champenois ou gascon en Algerie et au Senegal." 1 cannot, however, agree with 
M. Bonnet's conclusion, that "ils y parlaient latin, c'est-a-dire la langue de Latium 
telle qu'elle ctait parlee a Rome, et telle qu'elle devait servir dans les relations entre 
citoyens des diffcrentes parties de 1'empire." 



INTRODUCTION. XXV 

many degrees removed from the sermo cotidianus, the current 
speech of the upper classes. 

Accordingly, since the Roman element in all the provinces 
was essentially the same military encampments, colonies of 
veterans, tradesmen, skilled laborers, etc., all speaking a 
distinctly plebeian Latin, it is not surprising that many vul- 
garisms of form and syntax are found throughout every part 
of the Roman Empire, in the inscriptional, as well as the lit- 
erary monuments. Indeed, the coincidences are so numerous 
and so striking that some scholars have been led to deny the 
existence of local differences. 1 This view was adopted by as 
early an authority as Erasmus, who maintained that in all the 
provinces the Roman tongue was equally intelligible, provided 
that the speaker affected a plebeian style, 2 while Niebuhr has 
declared that the African Latin shows no more marked charac- 
teristics than those which distinguish the French of Geneva 
from that of Paris. 3 Such a view, however, is not only opposed 
to all linguistic principles, as we see them working at the 
present day, but is directly contradicted by the testimony of 
ancient authorities. Cicero speaks of the prevalence of pro- 
vincial expressions in Gallic Latin, and adds, sed haec mutari 
dediscique possunt, 4 implying that the Gallic accent of which 
he next speaks, was ineradicable ; similarly Augustine remarks 
the lack of discernment shown in African Latin in the quality 
and quantity of vowel-sounds, 5 while Spartianus is authority 

J Bonnet, p. 40, " Frappe's de la predominance de certains caracteres identiques de 
toutes les provinces, plusieurs savants sont alles jusqu'a nier toute influence locale. 
Pour quiconque a eu 1'occasion d'observer 1'etonnante persistance de certains accents 
etrangers, une telle negation equivaut a 1'affirmation d'un miracle ; " Boissier, Com- 
modien, p. 51, "II faut croire que le latin s'est corrompu d'apres certains loia 
generales, qui ont agi partout de la meme facjon et produit dans tons les pays du monde 
des resultats semblables ; " B. Kanlen, Handbuch d. Vulgata, p. 4, " Was man ofter 
Africanismus der Latinitat genannt hat, ist einfach der Charakter des Vulgarlateins 
und kann als solcher mit gleichem Recht Gallicismus, Pannonismus oder Italicismus 
heissen : " conf. Kiibler, ALL. VIII., p. 162, "Maa hat selbst vom Vulgarlatcin be- 
hauptet, dass es durch das ganze romische Gebiet im wesentlichen die gleichen Erschei- 
nungen zeige. Solchen Ausspr lichen gegeniiber erwachst die Notwendigkeit, die Spuren 
provinzieller Farbung in der schriftlichen Ueberlieferung nachzuweisen. " 2 Eras^ 
mus, Epist. 633, Vol. III., p. 723 D (Lugduni, 1873), "Constat autem apud Hispanos, 
Afros, Gallos, reliquasque Romanorum prouincias, sic sermonem Romanum fuisse 
uolgo communem ut Latine concionantem intelligerent etiain cerdones, si modo qui 
dicebat paululum sese ad uulgarem dictionem accommodarent." 3 Niebuhr, Vortrage, 
bearbeit v. Schmitz und Zeuss, II., p. 334. * Conf. Cic. Brut. 46, 17. 6 Augustin. 



xxvi INTRODUCTION. 

for the statement that the speech of the emperor Septimius 
Seuerus retained to his dying day strong evidence of his Af- 
rican origin. 1 Considerable attention has been devoted in 
recent years to this question of provincial Latin, and espe- 
cially to the sermo Africus. Of particular importance in this 
connection are the recent articles in Wolfflin's Archiv, Die 
Lateinische Sprache auf Afrikanischen Inschriften, by B. Kiib- 
ler (Vol. VIII., pp. 161-202), and Die Lateinische Uebersetzung 
des Bucfies der Weisheit, and Die Lateinische Uebersetzung des 
Buches Sirach, by Ph. Thielmann (Ib., pp. 235-277 ; 501-561). 

In attempting to account for these local differences, some 
authors have been inclined to overrate the importance of the 
influence exerted upon Latin by the native speech of the con- 
quered peoples. 2 The evidence of the Eomance languages 
tends to show that such influence was comparatively slight, 3 
and mainly confined to peculiarities of pronunciation and to a 
limited number of loanwords. The local differences in the 
Sound-System of Vulgar Latin are much more striking than in 
any other department, and it has been ingeniously suggested 
by W. Meyer that this was in part due to the fact that a large 
proportion of the male inhabitants of the conquered lands 
were pressed into military service, and being constantly trans- 
ferred from post to post, and thrown in contact, in their 
camp-life, with a great variety of other nations, all acquired 
a certain uniformity of speech, the sermo castrensis already 
mentioned, while the women, left behind, learned the lan- 
guage more imperfectly, and the children, as they grew up 
naturally spoke after the fashion of their mothers, Latin with 
a pronounced foreign accent. 4 

Doct. Chr. 4, 24, Afrae aures de corruplione uocalium uel productione non indicant : 
conf. Boissier, Commod., p. 56. 

!Spart. Seuer. 19, 9, canorus uoce, sed Afrum quid dam usque ad senectutem so- 
naiis. a Compare for example Paul Monceaux, 1. I., p. 441, "Le voisinage de ces trois 
langues se'mitiques (le libyque, le punique, 1'he'breu) nous explique bien des characteres 
du latin d'Afrique ; " Id., p. 445, " Pourquoi ce meme patois (le latin vulgaire) est-il 
devenu, ici le portugais, la le roumain, en Italic le toscan ou le milanais, en Espagne le 
castillan . . . ? Pour resoudre surement le probleme, il nous manque un element 
essentiel, la connaissance des langues qui en Gaule, en Espagne, en Italic, au bord au 
Danube, ont prece'de le latin et agi sur lui; " conf. further the criticism of Miodonski, 
ALL. VIII., p. 149. s Conf. Stolz, Hist. Gramm. I., p. 5, citing Meyer-Lubke, Gramm. 
d. Roman. Spr., I., p. 29 sq. 4 W. Meyer, in Grober's Grnndriss, I., p. 353, "Die 
Translokationen und Mischungen bedingen Gleichraassigkeit der Sprache in Flexion und 
Wortschatz. Das stabile Element bilden die Frauen. Namentlich in neu eroberten 



INTRODUCTION. xxvii 

The principal cause, however, of the differences in provin- 
cial Latin lay in the instability of the sermo plebeius itself, 
which, as we have already seen, changed materially from year 
to year ; the Latin which Caesar's legions first made familiar 
to the Gauls was richer in its variety of forms, and less 
archaic, and in every way quite different from that which a 
hundred years earlier had been naturalized in Spain and 
Africa. In and around Borne this influence of classicism 
gradually tended to modify the harsher archaisms of the pop- 
ular speech, but the latter, when isolated in the provinces, 
was practically beyond the radius of this influence, and free to 
develop unrestrained. Accordingly the idioms of the separate 
Boman provinces represent a varying degree of archaism, in 
the order of their dates of conquest. 1 This view is amply cor- 
roborated by the numerous dialectic peculiarities now recog- 
nized in the style of Boman writers from the separate prov- 
inces, and in inscriptions ; especially notable is the strongly 
archaic element of the sermo Africus, which, as seen in Fronto, 
Apuleius, Tertullian, etc., presents so many striking analogies 
with the language of Plautus. This phenomenon is easily ac- 
counted for, when we remember that the first germs of Latin 
were carried to Africa by the Boman soldiers and colonists 
who flocked there after the fall of Carthage, in 146 B.C. 2 

LSndern wird nahezu die gauze Jungmannschaft, sofern sie nicht gef alien oder zu 
Sklaven gemachfc war, ausgehoben und versetzt, so in Dakien, Ratien. Kinder und 
Prauen bleiben und nehmen in fast ganz romischer Umgebung bald die neue Sprache 
an, sprechen sie aber mit einheimischem Accente und conservieren diesen besser, da die 
Nivellierung, die nur bei haufigem Wechsel der Umgebung moglich ist, fehlt. Kinder 
von Colonen und Soldaten, mit fremden Weibern erzeugt, sprachen naturgemass die 
Sprache der Mutter, lateiniscb mit fremden Accente." 

*G. Gr6ber, ALL., I., p. 21.1, " Die am weitesten entwickelte, demLatein am fern- 
sten geriickte Vulgarsprache lebte danach auf dem heimatichen Boden Italiens fort, wo 
sie ihre Gesammtentwicklung durchlief ; eine etwas weniger vorgeriickte Vulgarsprache 
wurde dagegen nach den, erst in der Kaiserzeit der romischen Sprache erschlossenen 
Gebieten der rumanischen und ratoromanischen Sprache getragen : eine noch weniger 
entwickelte gelangte nach den schon in republikanischer Zeit unterworfenen ausserital- 
ischen Provinzen, nach Gallien, Siidfrankreich, Spanien und eine vom archaischen und 
Schriftlatein kaum abweichende nach dem f iir Rom gewonnenen Sardinien ; " conf. J. 
A. Hagen, Sprachl. Erorterungen zur Vulgata, p. 61 ; W. Meyer, in Grober's Gruudriss, 
I., p. 359, " Die Verpflanzung des Lateins auf fremden Boden hat einen Stillstand oder 
eine Entwickelung in anderer Richtung zur Folge, die Sprache der zuerst kolonisierten 
Gegenden weist auf das alteste, die der spateren auf jiingeres Vulgarlatein zuriick ;" 
Stolz, Hist. Gramm. I., p. 24. a Ott, 1. I., p. 767, " Die Anfange der Latinisierung des 
proconsularischen Africa fallen in die Zeit bald nach der zerstorung Karthagos, also 



xxviii INTRODUCTION. 

But the best demonstration of this theory in its entirety is 
afforded by a comparison of the system of phonetics in the 
modern Romance languages, so admirably set forth by Grober, 
in his article Vulgarlateinische Substrate Romanischer Wor- 
ter, in the first volume of Wolfflin's Archiv. It is there pointed 
out that the dialect of Sardinia, the earliest acquired territory 
outside of Italy (including Sicily), possesses the greatest num- 
ber of archaisms of all the Romance languages, while Spanish, 
Portuguese, Catalonian, Provengal, French, Rhaeto-Romanian 
and Rumanian show in the order given successive stages of 
the sermo plebeius, and Italian, representing the vulgar speech 
in its native land where its ultimate development was attained, 
is furthest removed from the classic Latin. 1 Thus for instance 
the k sound before e and i ; accented i and u ; final s and t in 
declension and conjugation, are all retained in Sardinian ; 
the first three sounds however have undergone changes in the 
other Romance languages, even in the earliest records ; 2 final s 
has survived in the inflectional systems of all but the two 
latest branches, Ruman. and Ital., and final t is retained in 
French, and to some extent in Old Span., Old Port., and 
Proveng., but has entirely disappeared in Rhaeto-Rom., Ru- 
man. and Ital. 

This principle of the conservation of archaism in provincial 
districts is aptly illustrated at the present day by many so- 
called Americanisms, which in reality were in good usage in 
Elizabethan English, but have died out in the mother-country, 
while they survived in the speech of the New England colo- 
nists. 3 Bonnet, however, while conceding the analogous ar- 

noch in die archaische Periocle des Lateins. Das Sprachmaterial ist darum wesentlich 
archaisch, bin und wieder von hochster Altertiimlichkeit und Urspriinglichkeit ; " Ph. 
Thielmann, ALL. VIII., p. 241, "Interessant sind waiter namentlich diejenigen Ele- 
mente, die seit dem Ende der archaischen Periode aus der Litteratur verschwanden, 
um dann erst bei den Afrikanern wieder aufzutauchen. Wir mussen annehmen, dass 
solche Bestandtheile seit dem J. 146 v. Chr. mit den romischen Soldaten und Beam ten 
nach dem liberseeischen Land kamen und sich dort erhielten, wahrend sie in Italien 
selbst im Laufe der Zeit ausstarben." 

1 Grober, 1. L, p. 210 sq. 2 Excepting accented u in Ruman. and Albanian ; conf. 
Meyer-Lubke, Gramm. d. Roman. Spr., L, p. 120; conf. Id. ib., pp. 81, 318. 3 Com- 
pare for instance the entertaining and suggestive article by Henry Cabot Lodge, 
Shakespeare's Americanisms, in Harper's Monthly (Jan., 1S95), XC., p. 252 sq.; 
the case is well stated on p. 253, " The English speech was planted in this country 
by English emigrants, who settled Virginia and New England at the beginning of the 
seventeenth century . . . The language which these people brought with them to 



INTRODUCTION. xxix 

chaisms in the French of Quebec and of the colonies of refu- 
gees in Germany and Holland, claims that in these instances 
the loss of political identity and the consequent interruption 
of communication were the proximate causes, while in the case 
of Home, there was a constant coming 1 and going of travellers 
soldiers, and officials, a continuous political, commercial, and 
personal connection. 1 It is, however, a well-settled linguistic 
doctrine that uniformity of language demands a geographical 
as well as a political continuity. 2 The ties of government 
which bound the Roman possessions to the Capital were more 
than offset by the intervening distances and the consequent 
delays and dangers of communication. Carthage, which as a 
hostile state was considered an unpleasantly close neighbor, 
was a three-days' voyage from Eome, while the distant parts 
of Gaul and Spain were a matter of several weeks' journey. It 
must also be borne in mind that in ancient times communica- 
tion, as a factor in linguistic development, was primarily oral 

Virginia and Massachusetts, moreover, was, as Mr. Lowell has remarked, the language of 
Shakespeare, who lived and wrote and died just at the period when these countrymen 
of his were taking their way to the New World. ... It followed very naturally that 
some of the words thus brought over the water, and then common to the English on 
both sides of the Atlantic, survived only in the New World, to which they were trans- 
planted." 

1 Bonnet, p. 41, annot. 4 (citing Hagen, Sprachl. Erort. z. Vulg., p. 61), "H 
y aurait done Ik le meme phenombne que nous observons chez les franpais du Can- 
ada et chez nos rcfugies en Allemagne et en Hollande. On oublie que dans ces exam- 
ples modernes tous les liens avec la mere-patrie ont etc longtemps rompus, tandis 
qu'entre Rome et ses provinces, il y avait un va et vient de voyageurs, un echange de 
population civile et militaire, des rapports politiques, commerciaux et personnels inces- 
sants. M. Groeber . . .. va bien plus loin dans la meme voie. . . . II parait 
croire que chaque province s'est ouverte une fois pour laisser entrer le vainqueur et s'est 
aussitot refermee a jamais pour garder pieusement le de'pot du latin que lui enseigna la 
premiere legion emplantee sur son sol." 2 Conf. Paul, I. L, p. 25, "Individual languages, 
therefore, are driven to form groups according to the natural environing circumstances 
which determine the relations between them, as well as according to their political 
and religious circumstances." The article by Lodge, above cited, contains so good 
an illustration of the effect of geographical isolation that it deserves to be quoted in 
full : after citing Shakespeare, As You Like It, Act. I., Sc. 1, "They say many young 
gentlemen flock to him every day, and fleet the time carelessly," he says (1. I., p. 256), 
" 'Fleet,' as a verb in this sense of 'to pass ' or ' to move,' . . . has certainly dis- 
appeared from the literature and the ordinary speech of both England and the United 
States. It is still in use, however, in this exact Shakesperian sense in the daily speech 
of people on the island of Nantucket, in the State of Massachusetts. I have heard it 
there frequently, and it is owing no doubt to the isolation of the inhabitants that it 
still lingers, as it does, an echo of the Elizabethan days, among American fishermen in 
the cloeJng years of the nineteenth century." 



XXX INTRODUCTION. 

communication. Education was, to a large extent, a privilege 
of the upper classes, while the price of books made them inac- 
cessible, excepting to the favored few; indeed the develop- 
ment of the sermo plebeius presupposes a wide-spread ignorance 
of the literary language. In the provinces the proportion of 
the population whose speech would be influenced through the 
medium of the written language must have been still smaller, 
since many, even of the upper classes, undoubtedly acquired 
a knowledge of spoken language, long before they could read 
or write it. In modern times facilities for direct communica- 
tion are supplemented by a higher general standard of learn- 
ing, the telegraph and the press ; a speech delivered in Lon- 
don one evening may appear the following morning in the 
leading journals of the English-speaking world, and even 
among the lower classes those lacking the ability to read it are 
the exception and not the rule. Thus a powerful check has 
been placed upon local differentiation in the formal and syn- 
tactical aspect of language and the survival of provincial 
archaisms is to be regarded not as due to, but rather in spite 
of, modern conditions. 

Another line of opposition is adopted by Sittl, who raises 
the historical objection that in the year 19 A.D. the province of 
Sardinia was not yet wholly subdued, to say nothing of its 
being Latinized. 1 This objection, however, has been well an- 
swered by Stolz, who justly claims that the Eomanization was 
at first confined to a comparatively small territory within which 
a local dialect developed, and that this local dialect, whose ex- 
treme archaism is well attested by linguistic evidence, after- 
wards prevailed over the whole island, in spite of more or less 
regular intercourse with Borne. 2 Accordingly, as none of the 
objections hitherto raised appears convincing, the present in- 
vestigation has been conducted from the standpoint of Grober's 
theory. 

3. WORD FORMATION IN CLASSIC LATIN : In a study of 
the sermo plebeius the relative importance of vocabulary can 
hardly be overestimated, both on account of its intrinsic inter- 
est, and of the abundance and continuity of material afforded 
by literary records, throughout the whole extent of Latinity. 
It is true that Accent and Sound-Change played an even 

1 Sittl., Bursiana Jahresbericht, 68, p. 320 sq. Stolz, Hist. Gramm. I., p. 24. 



INTRODUCTION. xxxi 

greater part in the separation of the plebeian from the classic 
speech, and especially in the differentiation of local dialects, 
but errors of pronunciation leave only sporadic traces in the 
literature of a language, and we must rely for our knowledge 
mainly upon inscriptional evidence ; and the same may be 
said, to a large extent, of irregularities of inflection. Word- 
Formation and Syntax stand upon a somewhat different foot- 
ing ; plebeian words and phrases are to be detected even in 
the most careful writers, while their steady encroachment 
upon the literature of the decadence was the chief factor in the 
gradual transition from the prose of Cicero to that of Gregory 
of Tours. 1 The syntax, however, of any fully developed lan- 
guage, such as Latin, possesses a flexibility which insures 
considerable permanence ; but in any progressive community 
additions to vocabulary are essential, to keep pace with the 
advance of civilization. This was especially the case at Eome, 
where the rapid dissemination of Greek culture created an 
insatiate demand for new words, with which to express the 
newly acquired ideas. 2 In the prlsca Latinitas the vocabulary 
was a somewhat limited one, as was natural among a people 
whose time was largely divided between simple pastoral pur- 
suits and local warfare. They inherited, however, from the 
common Indo-Germanic stock abundant facilities for forming 
new derivatives and compounds at pleasure. When the 
schism arose between the classic and plebeian speech, the 
latter naturally retained these facilities, and, if we may take 
Plautus as a criterion, availed itself of them with characteris- 
tic license. 3 The literary language here presents a marked 
contrast : the early poets, it is true, Naevius, Ennius, etc., 
hampered by the poverty of the existing vocabulary, fre- 
quently took advantage of the greater freedom which the 
popular speech afforded, so that in this respect their style 

1 Bonnet, p. 751, " C'est la syntaxe, avec le vocabulaire, qui s'cloigne le plus du 
Latin classique." 2 Conf. Draeger, Hist. Synt., I., Einleit., p. x., "Die Lateinische 
Sprache hat wahrend der langen Zeit in welcher sie zu den lebenden gehorte und eine 
Literatur hervorbrachte, ... in ihrer grammatischen Gestaltung verhaltnissmas- 
sig geringe Veranderungen erfahren. Anders steht es mit dem Wortschatz der 
Sprache ; hierin hat sie wahrend ihrer ganzen Lebensdauer und besonders in der nach- 
klassischen Zeit unaufhorliche Anstrengungen gemacht, urn filch zu bereichern." 
3 Draeger, 1. I., p. xi., "Die kiihner Neubildungen, besonders in den Compositis, 
welche Plautus sich erlaubt, beweisen, dass das Latein in hohem Grade bildungsftthig 



XXXii INTRODUCTION. 

often had a somewhat plebeian coloring 1 . 1 But under the 
formalizing influence of classicism, Word-Formation, in com- 
mon with all other linguistic growth, came to a standstill, at 
the very time when Borne was most in need of a wider vocab- 
ulary. The consequent inferiority which Latin, in this re- 
spect, shows to Greek has been frequently acknowledged by 
Roman writers ; Gellius dwells at length upon the difficulty of 
properly rendering Greek compound words, either by a single 
word or a periphrasis, 2 while his citation of the diverse at- 
tempts of the early grammarians to render wpocrujSiai, by notae 
uocum, moderamenta, accentiunculae, uoculationes, aptly illus- 
trates the inaptitude of the language for technical expres- 
sions. 3 Lucretius, Cicero, and Seneca, in turn complain of the 
lack of a philosophic terminology : yet philosophy is but one 
instance of the many avenues of Greek thought opened to the 
Koman mind only by deliberate coinage of the necessary vo- 
cabulary. 4 The same difficulty confronted the medical writers ; 
Celsus expressly deplores the superiority of the Greek lan- 

'Stolz, Hist. Gramm., L, p. 32, " Andererseits aber lehnt sich doch wieder die 
Sprache der Dichter unmittelbar an die lebende Sprache an, insbesondere in der Wort- 
bildung, die eine grossere Mannigfaltigkeit aufweist als in der classischen Sprache. 
Man vergleiche z. B. die Substantive auf -ela -monium -tudo und die zahlreichen 
spUter ausser Curs gesetzten Adverbien auf -iter von adjectivischen o-Stammen. 
"GelL 11, 16; conf. infra, p. 293. 3 Gell. 13, 6; conf. Draeger, 1. I., p. xx. 
4 Lucr. 1, 138, Multa nonis uerbis praesertim cum sit agendum Propter egestatem 
linguae at rerum nouitatem ; Id. ib. 830, homoeomerian Quam Grai memorant nee 
nostra dicere lingua Concedit nobis patrii sermonis egestas ; Cic. Nat. Deor. 1, 4, 8, 
Complures enim Graecis institutionibus eruditi, ea quae didicerant, cum ciuibus suis 
communicare non poterant, quod ilia quae a Graecis accepissent, Latine did posse 
difflderent; Id. Tusc. Disput., 2, 15, 35, Graeci, quorum copiosior est lingua quam 
nostra ; Id. Acad. Post. 1, 2, 4 sq.: Sen. Ep. 6, 6, 1, Quanta uerborum nobis pauper- 
tas immo egestas sit, numquam magis quam hodierno die intellexi ; conf. Quint. 1, 5, 
32, feliciores fingendis nominibus Graeci : Id. I., 5, 70; 12, 10, 33 sq., Itaque tanto est 
sermo Graecus Latino iucundior, ut nostri poetae, quotiens dulce carmen esse ttoluer- 
int, illorum id nominibus exornent. His ilia potentiora, quod resplurimae carent ap- 
pellationibus, ut eas necesse sit transferre aut circumire ; ctiam in Us, quae denominata 
sunt, summa paupertas in eadem nos frequentissime reuoluit ; compare Prof. Peck's 
comment, in his article Onomatopoetic Words in Latin, p. 227, " It was quite natu- 
ral, in a field which had been first opened to the Romans by Greek instructors, and in 
which the models, the text-books, and the traditions were all of Greek origin, that the 
highest excellence should be found only in the closest approximation to the Hellenic 
ideal. . . . And so, in his linguistic criticisms, Quintilian is thoroughly convinced 
of the inferiority of the Latin language to the Greek, of its comparative poverty, its 
inflexibility, its unwillingness to receive new and expressive formations into its vocab- 
ulary." 



INTRODUCTION. xxxiii 

guage, 1 while both he and his successors adopt the expedient 
of introducing- Greek medical terms in their writings, usually 
accompanied by an attempt at translation or paraphrase. 2 The 
ecclesiastical writers were still more hampered, owing to the 
wider gulf which separated their teachings from the daily life 
and thought of classic Borne. In spite of the industry of Ter- 
tullian, who is rightly regarded as the creator of ecclesiastical 
Latin, 3 his successors, like Hieronymus, often felt the poverty 
of the language, in contrast with the richness of the Greek 
and Hebrew, which they were striving to interpret. 4 

There were, as Cicero himself has pointed out, three ways 
in which the deficiencies of the vocabulary could be supplied ; 
either by the transfer of a Greek word bodily into the Latin, 
by the use of an existing Latin word in a new sense, or by the 
formation of a new word. 5 But in the classic period the use of 
foreign words was felt to be contrary to good taste 6 and was 
accordingly avoided as far as possible, while unusual expres- 
sions, either archaisms or neologisms, were severely discoun- 

1 Conf. for example, Gels. 6, 18 (paries obscoenae), quarum apud Graecos uocdbula, 
et tolerdbilius se Jiabent, et accepta iam usu sunt ; quum id omni fere medicorum 
uolumine atque sermone iactentur ; apud nos foediora iterba, ne consuetudine 
quidem aliqua uerecundius loquentium commendata sunt ; Id. 5, 26, 81, Id genus 
(cancer) a Graecis diductum in species est ; nostris uocabulis non est. 2 Conf. Pauck- 
er, Spicilegium, p. 227, annot., " Coelius Aurelianus, sollertissimus nocabulorum, ut ita 
loquar, technicorum de graeco translator," citing Gael. Aur. Chron. 1, 1, 40, ptarmicum, 
quod sternutamentum dicer e poterimus ; Id. ib. 2, 4,84 (pdontagogum=*dentiducum); 
Id. Acut. 2, 28, 148 (dyspnoicus =- anhelosus) ; Id. ib. 8, 9, 98 (pheughydros = aqui- 
' fuga), and many others. s Conf. B. Aube', Revue Arche'ologique 41 (1881), p. 250, 
" Ce sont les peres et les docteurs de 1'e'glise d'Afrique qui ont fonde, si Ton peut 
dire, le latin ecclesiastique. . . . Le genie le plus puissant, le plus libre, le plus 
inventif et le plus original comme ecrivain est incontestablement Tertullian. II est, 
on peut le dire, le createur de la langue de 1'eglise d'Occident ; " Paucker, Zeitschr. 
f. Oest. Gymn, 1881, p. 484 " (Tertullianum) ecclesiastici eloquii quasi informato- 
rem." Conf. Hier. in Galat. 1, ad 1, 11 sq., Si hi, qui disertos seculi legere con- 
sueuerunt, coeperint nobis de nouitate et Militate sermonis illudere, mittamus eos ad 
Ciceronis libros, qui de quaestionibus philosophiae praenotantur ; et uideant, quanta 
ibi necessitate compulsus sit tanta ucrborum portenta prof err e, quae numquam Latini 
hominis auris audiuit, et hoc, cum de Graeco, quae lingua uicina est, transferret in 
nostram. Quid patiuntur illi, qui de Hebraeis difficultatibus proprietatcs exprimere 
conantur ? 6 Cic. Acad. Post. 1, 7, 25, quin etiam Graecis Ucebit utare, cum uoles, si 
te Latina forte deficient. . . . Dialecticorum uero uerba nulla sunt publiea, sttis 
utuntur. Et id quidem, commune omnium fere est artium ; aut enim noua sunt re- 
rum nouarum facienda nomina aut ex aliis transferenda. Quod si Graeci faciunt, 
qui in his rebus tot iam saecula uersantur, quanto id nobis magis concedendum est, qui 
haec nunc primum tractare conamur? conf. Quint. 1, 5, 58, confessis quoque Graecis 
utimur uerbis, ubi nostra desunt. ' Conf. infra, % 79, p. 315 sq. 



xxxiv INTRODUCTION. 

tenanced. 1 Even Cicero, who did more than anyone else 
toward giving currency to new formations, introduced many 
excellent and sorely needed words with hesitation and apology. 2 
Quintilian, while admitting that new words must occasionally 
be risked, says frankly that even when received into the lan- 
guage they brought little credit to their author, and if rejected 
led only to ridicule ; 3 and Gellius, still more emphatic, declares 
that new and unknown words are worse than vulgarisms. 4 

This extreme attitude, however, had become untenable long 
before the time of Gellius ; a point had been reached where 
growth of vocabulary was essential to the life of the language. 
But it was a natural consequence of such conservatism that no 
process existed for forming a literary vocabulary possessing 
distinctive features which might stamp it as a cultured prod- 
uct ; no scientific nomenclature corresponding to the -ologies, 
-isms, and -anas of our own language ; there was not a single 
suffix which could be regarded as distinctly classic, and which 
was not comparatively more abundant in authors of inferior 
Latinity. Even the words coined by Cicero, including nu- 
merous a-Trag eipr/^eva, belonged principally to certain classes of 
verbal derivatives, such as those in -tio, abundant at all pe- 
riods, and which in plebeian Latin seem to have been formed 
from any and every verb at will ; 5 indeed we are not in a po- 

1 Conf. Pauorin. ap. GelL, 1, 10, 4, Vine ergo moribus praeteritis, loquere uerbis 
praesentibus atque id, quod a C. Oaesare . . . scriptum -est, habe semper in 
niemoria atque inpectore, ut tamquam scopulum, sicfugias inauditum atque insolens 
uerbum ; Quint. 1, 6, 41, ul nouarum optima erunt maxime uetera, ita uetcrum 
maxime noua : Id. 8, 3, 30, Fingere, ut primo libra dixi, Oraecis magis concessum 
est, . . . Nostri autem in iungendo aut in deriuando paulum aliquid ausi uix in 
hoc satis recipiuntur. 2 Conf. for example, Cic. Tim. 7, uix enim audeo dicere 
medietates, quas Oraeci fieo-dnjras appellant ; sed quasi ita dixerim intelligatur ; Id. 
Acad. Post. 1, 6, 24, iam corpus et quasi qualitatem quondam nomindbant ; dabitis 
enim prof ecto, ut in rebus inusitaMs . . . utamur uerbis interdum inauditis ; Id. 
Nat. Deor. 1, 34, 95, aut ista siue bcatitas, sine beatitudo dicenda sunt (utrumque om- 
nino durum, sed usu mollienda nobis uerba sunt) ; compare especially Goelzer, p. 19. 
3 Quint. 1, 5, 71, Vsitatis tutius utimus, noua non sine quodam periculo Jlngimus. 
Nam si recepta sunt, modicam laudem afferunt orationi ; si repudiata, etiam in iocos 
exeunt. Audendum tamen ; namque, ut Cicero ait, etiam quae primo dura uisa sunt, 
usu molliuntur ; conf. Id. 8, 3, 35, audendum itaque ; neque enim accedo Celso, qui ab 
oralore uerba fingi uetat. * Gell. 11, 7, 1, sed molestius equidem culpatiusque esse 
arbitror, uerba noua, incognita, inaudita dicere quam innolgata et sordentia. 
8 Goelzer, p. 24, " Le Latin obeissait deja inconsciemment a cette loi dont nous voy- 
ons lea effets dans les langues romaues, oil chaque verbe est capable de donner naissance 
a un nom d'agent." 



INTRODUCTION. xxxv 

sition to determine in any given case whether a word is a neo- 
logism, or a borrowing from the sermo plebeius. What was 
more natural than that the latter should become a favorite 
source from which to replenish the overtaxed resources of the 
classic speech, and that, beginning with Livy, an ever broad- 
ening stream of popular words found their way upward into 
literature? There was, moreover, a growing proportion of 
writers on architecture, surveying, medical and veterinary 
topics, gastronomy, etc., whose attainments were too meagre 
to enable them to write correctly, however much they wanted 
to, and their works naturally contained a strong coloring of 
plebeian vocabulary. 1 An important influence was also exerted 
by the no less numerous class of writers whose birthplace was 
outside of Italy, and whose speech, in spite of education and 
long residence at the capital, retained, to a varying degree, 
traces of their alien origin. 2 Even Livy, born in Northern 
Italy, incurred censure for his Patauinitas? Under the empire, 
the provinces became even more fertile than Home itself in 
the production of men of genius ; Spain and Africa especially 
became the centres of veritable schools of literature, possess- 
ing marked characteristics, which reacted strongly upon the 
literature of Rome ; thus the two Senecas, Columella, Quintil- 
lian, and Martial, all Spaniards by birth, did much toward shap- 
ing the development of Silver Latin, and the comparatively 
archaic character of Spanish Latin is indicated by the numerous 
analogies which Thielmann has pointed out between their vo- 
cabulary and that of the sei*mo Africus* But the chief contri- 
bution which provincial Latin made to the literary vocabulary 
came through the African ecclesiastical writers. The Latin 
which was first carried to Carthage, as Ott very justly empha- 
sizes, was still highly archaic, and the differentiation between the 
classic and popular speech had but just begun. 5 Consequently, 
even in the narrow literary circle which afterward sprang up 

Conf. Miodonski, ALL. VIII., p. 146. " Conf. Paul Monceaux, 1. I., p. 437. 

3 Quint. 1, 5, 56 ; 8, 1, 3. * Conf. Thielmann, ALL. p. 513 sq., concluding (p. 515), 
" Darait ist die These betr. den Zusammenhang des Afrikanischen Dialekts mit dem 
spanischen und oberitalischen erwiesen. Es 1st auch klar, dass die Provinzen, in die 
das Latein seit 222 bzw. 206 und 146 gebracht wurde, einen gewissen Grundstock in der 
Sprache gemeinsam haben miissen, namlich alle diejenigen Elemente, die sich bis 222 
entwickelt batten und seitdem in Italien bis mindestens 146 sich erbielten." 6 Conf. 
Ott, Jahrb. 109, p. 767. 



xxxvi INTRODUCTION. 

in that province, the language remained many degrees behind 
that of Borne, and preserved far more of its native vigor and 
spontaneity. Tertullian and the unknown translator of the so- 
called Itala did not write in Vulgar Latin, pure and simple, 
although the latter formed a large ingredient of their style. 
Their vocabulary especially contained a curious mixture of 
archaic, poetic, and vulgar elements : l but its distinguishing 
feature was its freedom of Word-Formation, and in this it had 
a positive advantage over the language of the Golden period. 
Undoubtedly this power was abused by the African writers, as 
it was wherever the influence of the sermo plebeius was felt ; we 
can see this in their needless use of prepositional compounds, 
their false analogies, their preference for derivatives in place 
of primary forms, merely for the sake of greater length. But 
a considerable proportion of the neologisms of Tertullian and 
the other early African fathers were valuable additions to the 
language, and the only wonder is that they were not formed 
much earlier. With the spread of Christianity, many pecul- 
iarities of African vocabulary were adopted as the common 
property of ecclesiastical writers throughout the whole ex- 
tend of the empire, and so eventually came to play no small 
part in the development of the Romance languages. 

Thus, while it is true that the vocabulary of the literary 
language was never actually stationary, it is not too much to 
say that the history of Word-Formation, as seen in Eoman 
literature throughout its full extent, is in the main only a re- 
flex of its history in the Roman sermo plebeius. 

4. LITERARY SOURCES OF PLEBEIAN VOCABULARY : It is 
clear, from the preceding section, that the literary sources 
available for the history of plebeian Word-Formation are ex- 
tensive. The process of eliminating vulgar and archaic forms 
from the vocabulary continued down to the time of Cicero ; 
with Silver Latin, plebeian formations began once more to 
creep into the literature. Accordingly all authors of the 
archaic period and, with few exceptions, the entire literature 
of the decadence, are available for our purpose ; even in the 

1 CV>/. Ott, 1. I., "Der Wortschatz 1st vom Standpunct der classischen Zeit 
ana besehen ans archaischen, vulgaren, poetischen, neologischen Elementen zusammen- 
gewiirfelt, verliert aber viel von dieser Buntscheckigkeit, wenn man im Auge behalt 
dass derselbe noch nicht differenziert vom Mutterlande heriiberkam," 



INTRODUCTION. xxxvii 

interval of classicism, considerable material is afforded by the 
more colloquial tone of the epistolary and satiric style, and by 
writers of inferior Latinity, such as Vitruvius and the authors 
of the Bellum Africanum and Bellum Hispaniense, all of 
which are particularly valuable, not merely because they 
bridge the gap in the chain of historical evidence, but be- 
cause, being contemporaneous with the masterpieces of Roman 
literature, they illustrate most forcibly the gulf which then 
separated the two forms of speech. 

The lists contained in the following pages, however, are not 
intended to be exhaustive ; indeed, the mass of material af- 
forded by the above-mentioned sources is so great, and their 
relative value so unequal, as to make any such design imprac- 
ticable. Accordingly it has seemed advisable to select a lim- 
ited number of authors, at least for the post-classical period, 
relying chiefly upon those, who, like Tertullian, are recognized 
as representing definite epochs in the language. For archaic 
Latin there is no such superabundance ; since the literary re- 
mains, even including the various Fragmenta, are unfortu- 
nately scanty. A supplemental collection of rare and curious 
words belonging to the older language might be gathered from 
the lexicographical writers, such as Festus, and the recension 
of the latter by Paulus, Nonius Marcellus, Isidorus, etc., and 
from the Glossaries, 1 but the exact periods to which such 
words belong are too far a matter of conjecture to make them 
available for careful historical treatment. The literary ma- 
terial, on the contrary, is all too valuable to be spared, espe- 
cially in view of the close connection between archaism and 
vulgarism. Accordingly, for the archaic period all the follow- 
ing authors have been utilized: Livius Andronicus, Naevius, 
Ennius, Plautus, Terence, and the other early dramatic poets, 
as contained in Eibbeck's edition of the Fragmenta ; the early 
historians, in the edition of Peter, Cato (whose De Agri Cul- 
tura is especially valuable, as affording the earliest specimen 
of the sermo rusticus)* and Lucilius. Lucretius and Varro, 

1 Conf. Stolz, Hist. Gramm., I., p. 40, "Die vorziiglichsten Fundgruben des altla- 
teinischen Sprachschatzes sind des Verrius in dem doppelten Auszuge des Festus und 
Paulus Diaconus erhaltenes Werk ' de uerborum significatu,' die alten Dramatiker, die 
Reste der daktylischen Poesie und die Glossensammlungen, die vieles Alterthiimliche 
erhalten haben." a Conf. E. Hauler, Lexikaliscb.es zu Cato, ALL. L, p. 583 sq. 



xxxviii INTRODUCTION. 

although their lives cover the earlier portion of the classic 
period, stand upon the border-line, and in Word-Formation at 
least, are closely identified with archaic Latin. 1 But for the 
period as a whole there is one central figure, Plautus, who 
stands out as the best criterion of the early sermo plebeius ; all 
the others are chiefly valuable in corroboration. How far he fell 
short of the accepted standard of Latinity was evidently rec- 
ognized by Quintilian, who lamented the poverty of Roman 
comedy, 2 while the enthusiasm which he inspired in Aulus 
Gellius is undoubtedly due, as Stolz suggests, to the latter's 
well-known love of archaism. 3 

For the classical and Silver Latin periods we have a much 
wider range from which to choose. The Cena Trimalchionis of 
Petronius, " that artistic mosaic of the Campanian dialect," as 
it has been styled by Ott, is and must remain our chief source 
in ante-Hadrian Latin. 4 Second only to this in importance are 
the Letters of Cicero, especially those to Atticus. The lan- 
guage of these, as Sittl rightly insists, 5 is far from being ple- 
beian Latin, in spite of Cicero's jesting admission to the con- 
trary ; they form, however, the best extant specimen of the ser- 

1 Conf. for example Draeger, Hist. Synt., Einleit. p. xvii, " Varro gehort nur der 
Zeit nach und well er nicht anders unterzubringen 1st, zu den Klassikern ; die Form 
der Darstellung scheint ihm ziemlich gleichgultig gewesen zu sein, seine Neigung zu 
Archaismen wirkt ausserst storend, und oft ist er vulgar ; " Stolz, Hist. Gramm., 1, p. 
45, " Die Sprache der epischen Dichter gestatett auch manche Archaismen. In dieser 
Richtung steht obenan Lucretius, der nicht nur in der Formenlehre sondern auch in 
der Wortbildung sehr haufig nach alteren Mustern greift," citing Draeger, 1. I., p. xi. 
5 Quint. 10, 1,99, In comoedia maxime claudicamus, licet Varro musas Aelii Sti- 
lonis sententia, Plautino dicat sermone l^cuturas fuisse si Latine loqui uellent. The 
Latinity of the early comic poets was often criticized by classic writers ; conf. Cic. ad 
Alt. 7, 3, 10, non dim Caecilmm, . . . mains enim auctor Latinitatis est ; Id. 
Brut. 258 nam illorum (i.e. (J. Laelii, P. Scipionis) aequales Caecilium et Pacuuium 
male locutos uidemus ; Veil. Pater. 2, 9, 6, Pomponium, sensibus celebrem, uerbis ru- 
dem ; Fronto ad M. Caes. 4, 1, p. 62 ./V"., Nouium et Pomponium et id genus in uerbis 
rusticanis et iocularibus ac ridicitlis, etc. 3 Stolz, Hist. Gramm., L p. 30, "Sich- 
erlich mehr auf Rechnung archaistischer Liebhaberei ist es zu setzen, wenn Gellius 
VI. 17, 4 Plautus als ' homo linguae atque elegantiae in uerbis latinae princeps ' und 
xix. 8, 6 als 'linguae latinae decus' bezeichnet; " conf. Knapp, Cell., p. 132. < Ott. 
Jahrb. 109, p. 763 : " Ein sprechender Beweis hierfur ist uns die Cena Trimalchionis 
des Petronius, dieses kunstreiche Mosaikbild des campanischen Dialekts " : conf. 
Wolfflin, PhiloL 34, p. 145 " (Petronius) ist durch und durch vulgar, auch noch durch 
die Form der Satura Menippea, die er sich gewahlt ; vulgar und nicht archaisch, weil 
in seinem Jahrhundert niemand daran dachte kiinstlich einen alterthiimlichen Stil zu 
copiren." 5 Sittl (Verhandl. d. 40. VersammL ... in Gorlitz), cited by Seelmann, 
Vulgarlatein, Krit. Jahresb., I, p. 51. 



INTRODUCTION. xxxix 

mo cotidianus, showing 1 , as they do, the lapses from good usage 
which even the master of Latin prose permitted himself in the 
private relations of life. They are especially valuable in then- 
bearing upon Word-Formation, for in this department the dis- 
tinction between colloquial and plebeian Latin is least obvi- 
ous. The separate supplements to Csesar's Bellum Gallicum, 
already mentioned, are also of high importance, while the ple- 
beian element in the poems of Catullus, the Satires of Horace, 
Persius, and Juvenal, and the epigrams of Martial, is too gen- 
erally admitted to need further comment. 1 There are also nu- 
merous writers on technical subjects, whose importance, as a 
class, has already been pointed out in the preceding section. 
Foremost among these is Vitruvius, who (notwithstanding 
Sittl to the contrary) must be recognized as distinctly vulgar. 2 
For the sermo rusticus we have Columella, whose Spanish ori- 
gin also tends to give his vocabulary an archaic tone (conf. 
for instance his fondness for compound verbs in con- and 
ex-, neither of them characteristics of rustic Latin). The 
medical work of Celsus, although comparatively pure in style, 
owes considerable to plebeian Word-Formation. 3 But the 
most fertile source of technical terminology is undoubtedly 
the elder Pliny, whose Historia Naturalis is confessedly a piece 
of literary patchwork. With what impartiality he borrowed 
from all the separate treatises which came under his notice, we 
may infer from the statement of the younger Pliny, that his 
uncle considered no book so poor that it did not contain some 



Compare in general Wofflin, Philol., 34, pp. 138-153. Stolz, Hist. Gramm., I., 
p. 44, "Mir kommt die Annahme vollkommen wahrscheinlich vor, dass es auch Schrift- 
steller gegeben hat, die nicht gelehrte Bildung genug besassen, um ihre Schriften in 
vollstandig correctem Schriftlatein abzufassen, und daher aus der ihnen gelaufigen 
Volkssprache Anleihen fur ihre Bchriftstellerischen Leistungen machten. Dazu geho'rt 
vor Allen der Architekt Vitruvius, der nach Sittl Burs. Jahr. LXVIII. 277 nur ge- 
sucht und schwerf allig geechrieben haben soil. Ich stimme in dieser Hinsicht mit den 
Ausf iihrungen von Miodonsld Archiv f. Lat. Lex. VIII. 146 f. uberein und halte die 
Besonderheiten des Vitruvianischen Stils wenigstens zum grossen Theil, so z. B. die 
EigenthUmlichkeiten in der Wortbildung, fUr vulgar " ; conf. Wolfflin, Philol. 34, p. 
148 ; Teufiel, I., 264 ; Schmilinsky, p. 2 ; and especially Miodonski, I. ?., citing Vitr. 
p. 8, 8 B., non enim architectus potest esse grammaticus ; Id. p. 11, 1 peto ut si quid 
parum ad regulam grammaticae fuerit explicatum, ignoscatur. 3 Conf. Helmreich, 
ALL. L, p. 323, "Celsus dessen Sprache Klassizitat erstrebt und sich von Vulgaris- 
men ziemlich frei gehalten hat, gebraucht hirudo nicht mehr " (using in place of it the 
vulgar form sanguisuga). 



Xl INTRODUCTION. 

passages worthy of quotation. 1 Accordingly, it is not surpris- 
ing, when statistics show that, in treating such special topics 
as architecture, botany, medicine, etc., his vocabulary contains 
a larger plebeian element than that of any other writer of Sil- 
ver Latin. 

The authors selected from the later period vary somewhat 
with the different lists ; for the rarer suffixes, it has been nec- 
essary to take material from wherever it could be obtained ; 
but in the longer lists, such as substantives in -tio, a few 
writers are sufficient to show the general course of develop- 
ment. Of first importance is the group of archaistic writers, 
Fronto, Gellius, and Apuleius, whose style is the outcome of 
the retrogressive movement, which began under the Emperor 
Hadrian, 2 mingled with a large element of the sermo Africus. 
Although the birth-place of Gellius is still an open question, 
Sittl's hypothesis of his African origin has much to recom- 
mend it, 3 and for practical convenience, has been assumed 
throughout the present work. This assumption is still fur- 
ther justified by the results, for although many of his pecul- 
iarities can be explained as due to intentional archaism, or the 
influence of Fronto, there are numerous points in "Word-For- 
mation where Gellius's usage closely coincides with that of 
Tertullian and other later African writers, as, for instance in 
his fondness for substantives in -ntia, adjectives in -bills, 
-bundus, -iuus, verbs compounded with con-, etc. Apuleius 
is certainly the foremost figure of this epoch. It would seem 
at first sight as though his Metamorphoses must rank in im- 
portance second only to the Cena TrimalcMonls of Petronius, 
being the only other surviving specimen of the Latin Novel ; 
yet Wolfflin's view is undoubtedly correct, that in an author 
who claims Greek as his native tongue, and acquired Latin 
only by painstaking efforts, errors of style must not be too 
rashly identified with plebeian Latin. 4 Yet in Word-Formation 

1 Conf. Plin. Ep. 3, 6, 10, Nihil enim legit quod non exccrperet ; dicere etiam 
solebat nidlum esse librwn tarn malum ut non aliqua parte prodesset. "Knapp, 
Cell., pp. 137-39, and authorities there cited. 3 Sittl, Lokalen Verschiedenheit., p. 144, 
sq. 4 Wolfflin, 1. I., p. 145, "Der Stil des vielgereisten und vielbelesenen Apuleius 
dagegen (i.e. in contrast to Petr.), der das Griechische seine eigentliche Muttersprache 
nennt und das Lateinische mtthsam erlernt hat, ist ein solches mixtum compositum, 
dass es iibereilt ware, alles was uns stilistisch in seinem Werke auf stosst, sofort mit dem 
Vulgarlatein zu identifizieren." 



INTRODUCTION. xli 

at least Apuleius contains a large plebeian element, while al- 
most every page reveals his African birth. 

In tracing the development of the ecclesiastical vocabulary, 
I have relied mainly upon Tertullian, Arnobius, Ambrosius, 
Hieronymus, and Augustinus. The early versions of the 
Scriptures, the so-called " Itala," and the Vulgate, notwith- 
standing their great importance, have been omitted, as the 
ground has already been ably covered by Ronsch, in his ad- 
mirable work, the Itala und Vulgata, to which cross-references 
have constantly been made. The remaining writers utilized 
may here be briefly catalogued ; the Scriptores Historiae Au- 
gustae, Ammianus ; the medical writers Plinius Valerianus, 
Theodoras Priscianus, Marcellus Empiricus (important for 
Gallic Latin), and the two Africans Caelius Aurelianus and 
Cassius Felix ; and for the sermo rusticus, Gargilius Martialis, 
Palladius, and the two veterinary treatises by Pelagonius and 
Vegetius. 

The plan pursued throughout the lists has been to group 
the words under the writer in whose works they first appear, 
adding in the notes below as complete a list as possible of the 
authors who have subsequently used them. For all authors 
earlier than Cicero, the lists contain only such words as seem 
to have been subsequently avoided in the classical period; 
but, beginning with Vitruvius, the design has been to present 
complete lists of the neologisms which each of the above-men- 
tioned authors has contributed to the Latin vocabulary. Of 
course it would be preposterous to assert that each and every 
one of the words thus included is in and of itself distinctly 
plebeian ; such a claim can be made only in the comparatively 
rare cases where the Roman writers themselves have stigma- 
tized a word with some such expression as uerbum sordidum, 
rusticum, castrense, ex consuetudine uolgi, ut uolgo dicitur, etc. 
All which we can reasonably maintain, from a long series of 
examples, is that a given suffix is or is not characteristic 
of the sermo plebeius. 

Accordingly the main characteristics of plebeian vocabu- 
lary, which can thus be deduced, may be briefly summarized in 
the following section. 

5. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OP PLEBEIAN VOCABULARY : 
All popular dialects, unchecked by a literary standard, are 



xlii INTRODUCTION. 

naturally prolific in new formations ; indeed, it is not possible 
to conceive of a spoken language apart from continuous differ- 
entiation. The action of analogy tends constantly to develop 
new derivatives, but such analogical new formations have not 
the power at once to drive out of use pre-existing forms of 
similar meaning ; l accordingly where parallel methods of der- 
ivation arise, as for example, in Latin, the formation of 
abstract substantives in -tas and -tudo, a divergence of usage 
must ensue, since certain individuals persistently maintain the 
older forms, while others give preference to the new ; the 
method which must ultimately prevail depends, as Paul has 
well expressed it, "upon their relative strength." 2 In the Ro- 
man sermo plebeius, and to a growing extent in post-classical 
literature, the relative strength of Latin words depended 
chiefly upon their length and volume of sound ; quantity, 
rather than quality, set the standard which controlled alike the 
formation of new words and the conservation of archaisms. 3 
Accordingly plebeian Latin differed in its vocabulary from the 
literary language, not alone in the extent to which it permitted 
neologisms, but especially in its inordinate love for ponderous 
derivatives and compounds. The language was burdened 
with substantives in -bulum, -mentum, and -monium, adjec- 
tives in -arius, -icius, and -osus; cumbersome archaic suffixes 
here play a prominent part ; compare the abstract substan- 
tives in -ela and -tudo, adjectives in -bills, -buudus, and 
-lentus, and adverbs in -ter from adjectives in -us, all re- 
tained apparently for the sake of their length. Frequenta- 
tive, inchoative, and desiderative verbs, diminutives and prep- 
ositional compounds, are, from the earliest period, freely 
used in place of the simple word, with little or no distinction 
of meaning. On all sides there is the same apparent effort to 
conceal, by an exaggerated and bombastic diction, the lack of 
dignity and poverty of thought which characterize the popu- 

1 Paul, Principles of Language, p. 106. a Paul, 1. I., p. 103. s Compare for in- 
stance, Guericke, p. 30, " Homines plebei graniores longioresque uerborum exitus ualde 
adamabant, ut uocabulis et ita orationibus maior sonus et dignitas redderetur, quo 
factum est, ut sermo plebeius urbanum et copia uerborum et rationibus formationum 
longe antecederet, quia scriptores urbani ut Quinctilianus dicit, nihil generare aude- 
bant, rustici autem non solum ilia uerba antiqua quae apud Catonem et poetas tragicos 
comicosque legimus, retinuerunt, sed etiara uel eisdem suffixis noua formauerunt, uel 
interdum uni suffix o alterum addiderunt, itaquo uocabula longiora rediderunt." 



INTRODUCTION. xliil 

lar mind. It was a natural consequence of such misuse of lan- 
guage that the words themselves quickly wore out ; the value r^ 
of prepositions and suffixes became so weakened from being 
constantly employed without cause, that even when used in the 
right connection they ceased to convey their proper meaning. 1 
It accordingly became necessary to strengthen them, either 
with some qualifying word or phrase, such as saepe, uehemen- 
ter, etiam atque etiam, with frequentative verbs ; paruus, pai^uu- 
lus, minutus, with diminutives ; or by some further process of 
derivation or composition. Hence arose the double diminu- 
tive, like homullulus, lapillulus ; double frequentatives like 
cantitare, ductitare ; bi-prepositional verbs, and in some cases 
reduplication of the same preposition, as adalligare, concolli- 
gere ; and compound prepositions and adverbs, such as circum- 
circa, desub, praeterpropter ; all of which occur with growing 
frequency in the later language. Another instance of double 
formations is afforded by the addition of derivative adjective 
suffixes directly to genuine adjectives, without modification of 
meaning : compare forms in -alis, aeternalis, hibernalis, perpet- 
ualis ; in -anus, medianus, uarianus ; in -osus, improbosus, rabi- 
dosus, scabrosus, etc. The same striving for increased empha- 
sis is seen in the analogous lengthening of endings, either 
through a process of secondary derivation, as in -bili-tas, 
-osi-tas, -tor-ius, -ill-are, by the deliberate compounding of 
separate suffixes, as -ast-ellus, -ul-aster, -idini-tas, -eli-tas, 
(seen in libidinitas, cautelitas), or as a result of false analogy ; 
compare diminutives in -culus, -cellus from stems of the first 
and second declensions, and in -imculus from the stems other 
than those in -o, -onis ; adjectives in -ianus from consonant 
stems, etc. Furthermore, the two processes of derivation and 
composition are largely used conjointly, especially in the later 

1 Conf. Paul Monceaux, I. ?., p. 447, "Puis, dans le latin populaire, les mots s'usai- 
ent tres vite : on devait remplacer le simple par le compost : on abusait du comparatif et 
du superlatif, des diminutifs et des f re'quentatifs : on redoublait les pronoms, les ad- 
verbes, les propositions. Tout cela entrainait une certaine emphase. En revanche, le 
latin vulgaire conservait beaucoup de liberte' et d'initiative ; il creait sans cesse des 
mots composes ou derives, des termes abstraits souvent emprunte"s a la langue des 
metiers ou du droit. Sous des influences de toute nature, le sens de ces noms et de 
ces verbes se modifiait rapidement : on le voit s'etendreou se restreindre, passer du con- 
cret a 1'abstrait, ou rdciproquement. . . . La langue populaire, n'etant retenue ni 
par la litterature ni par tradition du bon usage, portait infiniment plus d'activite et de 
mobilit^ dans la vie des mots." 



zliv INTRODUCTION. 

language : a growing proportion of the frequentative and in- 
choative verbs are compounded with prepositions, while a 
notable share of the derivative substantives and adjectives are 
formed from compound verbs, both prepositional and nomi- 
nal ; compare famigeratio, Plaut., morigeratio, Afran., aequila- 
tatio,Viir., uiuijicatio, Tert.,stultiloquentia, uaniloquentia,~PlB,\it. ) 
blandiloquentia, Enn., maleficentia, graueolentia, Plin., muttinu- 
bentia, multiuora?itia, subtililoquentia, Tert., suauifragrantia, Au- 
gustin., famigerator, lectisterniator, ludificator, Plaut., sanctifi- 
cator, uiuificator, uociferator, Tert., etc. Conversely, many 
derivatives from compound verbs are still further compounded 
with prepositions, notably with in- privative ; compare such 
examples as incommobilitas, Apul., incongruentia, inexperientia, 
inrecogitatio, Tert., incomprehensibilitas, inconstdbilitas, Intpr. 
Iren., inaccessibilitas, Augustin., incoinquinabilitas, Fulg. Rusp. 
Similar formations result from derivatives of biprepositional 
verbs, such as excommunicatio, Hier., superdbnegatiuus, Boeth. 

But, aside from this fondness for lengthened forms, the ser- 
mo plebeius shows a far greater general freedom than the classic 
speech, both in the formation and the use of words. Even the 
line of demarcation between the separate parts of speech is far 
less rigid in the former. Aside from such questions as the 
substantive use of the infinitive, as tuom amare, Plaut. Cure. 28 ; 
hoc ridere meum, Pers. 1, 122, or the substitution of adjective for 
adverb, which belong to the province of plebeian syntax, the 
interchange of substantive and adjective presents much which 
bears directly upon Word-Formation. Several of the most 
numerous classes of substantives are formed directly from ad- 
jectives, such as those in -arius, -orius, -inus, etc., while in 
the later language almost any derivative adjective might 
(by aid of a simple ellipsis) be used as a noun. Another evi- 
dence of plebeian license in the use of words is the absence of 
a sharp distinction between abstract and concrete derivatives : 
thus the suffix -tura, (-sura), comes in late Latin and in the 
Komance languages to denote concrete objects, while con- 
versely -iuxn, -men, -mentum were used by the ecclesiastical 
writers with growing frequency to form abstract substantives. 

Turning from a general consideration of the sermo plebeius 
to the Latin of the separate provinces, we find that the dis- 
tinctions due to the different dates of settlement are much less 



INTRODUCTION. xlv 

marked in the department of Word-Formation than in that of 
Phonetics, since the principles of the former exhibit a much 
greater degree of permanence. Nevertheless, there are certain 
classes of words prevalent in early Latin, which reappear as 
part of the archaic element in the later Spanish and African 
writers, and in the modern Romance languages are most abun- 
dant in the older branches, Spanish, Portuguese, Proven9al, 
French, but rare, and often wanting altogether, in Rumanian. 
Thus, substantives formed with -ities, in place of -itia, are 
distinctly archaic, and in later Latin are confined almost wholly 
to the sermo Africus, (Apul.; Tert. ; Arnob. ; Ps.-Lact. ; Fulg. 
Myth.) ; in the modern languages -ities has not survived out- 
side of the Span. -Port, territory. Substantives in -tor are nu- 
merous in Plautus, and are especially characteristic of the Afri- 
can writers Apuleius and Tertullian ; they are, however, rare 
in Silver Latin, outside of the Spaniards, L. Seneca, Columella, 
and Martial. They are abundant in all the modern branches, 
excepting Euman., where the suffix is largely replaced by the 
later form -torius. Adjectives in -eus and in -bills are both 
frequent in early writers, but rare in Silver Latin ; in the later 
language the former gradually went out of use, while the latter 
remained as a marked characteristic of African Latin. Both 
suffixes are wanting in Human. Conversely, the abstract sub- 
stantives in -tus, (-sus), whose period of greatest fertility be- 
gins with the elder Pliny and ends with Tertullian, and accor- 
dingly coincides with the conquests along the Danube, have 
left scanty traces in the Eomance languages, excepting in Eu* 
man., in which they can be formed from almost any verb at 
pleasure. 

But the greatest number of provincialisms in vocabulary are 
either those which are peculiar to the African territory, or 
which, originating there, overspread their boundary only at a 
comparatively late period. Unfortunately the sermo Africus 
has left no representative in the family of Eomance languages 
which might serve us as a guide and a corrective, 1 and much 

i Conf. Thielmann, ALL. VTIL, p. 234, "Speziell afrikanische Vulgarismen zu 
entdecken, 1st Bchvrer, nicht mir, weil hier die Grenzen zwischen Schrift- und Volks- 
sprache viel weniger scharf gezogen sind als in andern Landern, sondern auch, weil das 
afrik. Latein keine Tochtersprache hinterlassen hat, an der wir Kontrolle iiben konn- 
ten. 



xlvi INTRODUCTION. 

must rest upon conjecture ; there are, however, a certain num- 
ber of peculiarities in Word-Formation which are now gener- 
ally recognized as characteristic of the African writers, and 
these may be briefly summarized as follows : 

I. Derivatives, a. Substantives : abstracts in -utia (notably 
compounds, compare multinubentia, etc.) ; in -bilitas and -osi- 
tas ; l datives in -tui from substantives in -tus ; nomina per- 
sonalia in -tor, -trix very numerous, especially in Tert. and 
Augustin. Diminutives of all classes are abundant. 

b. Adjectives : most distinctive are those in -aneus, 2 -bills, 
-osus, and -icius ; forms in -iuus and -torius are also frequent 
in the later African writers, notably Caelius Aurelianus. 

c. Verbs : a large share of the frequentatives in the later lan- 
guage are due to African Latin ; the substitution of the end- 
ing -escere for -ascere in inchoatives is also an African ten- 
dency ; the most prominent features, however, are the denom- 
inative verbs formed from substantives in -do, -go, and from 
adjectives in the superlative. 

II. Compounds : a. prepositional compounds of all kinds 
are abundant ; most distinctively African are compounds with 
con- of all kinds, substantives with in- privative, adjectives 
with sub- and bi-prepositional verbs. 

b. Nominal composition is also much freer than in classic 
Latin ; especially frequent are the verbs in -ficare, adjectives 
in -ficus, substantives in -ficatio. 

Finally the African, like the Campanian Latin, has a large 
element of Greek words. This is only one of the many points 
of resemblance between these two dialects, which have often 
been commented upon ; and undoubtedly depend in part upon 
the comparatively easy communication between Southern Italy 
and the African coast, but partly also upon the element of 
archaism which the two localities had received and retained in 
common. 3 

In conclusion a few words must be said in regard to the 

i Thielmann, ALL. VITT., p. 527. B. Kiibler, ALL. VIII., p. 170. Conf. 
Ronsch, p. 7; Budinsky, p. 361 ; Kubler, ALL. VHI, p. 202, " Aus den Analogieen 
Petrons (mit dem afr. Lat.) folgt welter nichts, als dass das campanische Latein in 
ahnlicher Verwandtschaft mit dem Afrikanischen stand, wie das spanische, und dass, 
was wohl nicht bestritten wird, in afrikanischen Latein vulgare und, was ziemlich 
dasselbe 1st, arcnaische Elemente besonders stark vertreten sind ; " Thielmann, AL.T;. 
VIII., p. 244. 



INTRODUCTION. xlvii 

sermo rusticus in Italy. As has already been observed, its his- 
tory in the main coincides with that of the sermo plebeius, but a 
few distinctive features may be pointed out ; such are, substan- 
tives in -tura (-sura), in -ago, -igo, -ugo; in -aca, -ica, -uca; 
nouns denoting- localities in -etum, -ile ; adjectives in -arius 
(especially in the earlier language), in -aceus, -icius, -uceus, 
and in -osus. All of these have survived in large numbers in 
modern Italian, notably the forms in -c-eus, which are some- 
times even found in combination : conf. -itcci-accio. 



PART I. 

DERIVATION. 

I. SUBSTANTIVES. 

1. ABSTRACT SUBSTANTIVES : One marked characteristic of 
classical Latin is the predominance of concrete expressions. 
The Eoman mind was by nature practical and little inclined to 
abstruse speculation, and consequently the language, while 
rich in verbal forms, was poor in means of expressing- abstract 
ideas. 1 Classical writers, in their constant strife for accuracy 
of expression, preferred to employ various periphrases, such 
as relative clauses, indirect questions, ace. with infin., etc., 2 all 
of which tended to give the language the concrete precision 
and clearness which fitted it to become the vehicle for legal 
utterance rather than philosophical or religious controversy. 
This was a weakness in the language, and was recognized as 
such by the Eoman writers, notably by Cicero, 3 who, in his 
philosophical writings, enriched it enormously with verbal 
abstracts, but so foreign were they to the spirit of classic 
Latin that a large share either failed to maintain themselves 
in the language, or reappeared only in the literature of the 
decadence. 

The sermo plebeius in this respect exhibits quite a contrast 
to the classic usage. Its partiality for abstract substantives 
is apparent in the vocabulary of Plautus, 4 who employs freely 

1 " Une langue Men pauvre en abstractions," Goelzer, p. 16. a Klotz, Stilist., p. 
90 ; Nagelsbach, Stilist. 8th ed. 35 sq. ; Goelzer, p. 16. 3 Comp. supra, Introd. 
1, not. 3. 4 "In der Sprache des Volkes waren die Subs, abstr. gerade nicht unbe- 
liebt, wie ein Blick auf den Wortschatz des Plautus zeigt," Schmalz, Stilist. p. 534, 2. 



2 WORD FORMATION IN THE [1. ABSTB. SUBS. 

large numbers of these words, which do not recur in later 
literature ; such as : in -tio, amatio, clamitatio, muttitio, risio, 
rogitatio, uelitatio ; in -tus, extersus, obsonatus, frustratus ; in 
-tura, cubitura, desultura, insultura, polluctura ; in -ntia, inco- 
gitantia, stultiloquentia ; in -tas, eruciabilitas, confirmitas, uaci- 
uitas, etc. The preference for verbal abstracts is especially 
noticeable : the popular speech, in which archaism plays so 
large a part, retained in this class of derivatives much more 
of the original verbal force than was felt in the classic lan- 
guage, forming them from verbal stems almost as freely as 
supines or infinitives, and in the case of substantives in -tio, 
attributing to them some purely verbal functions. 1 

Another feature which identifies these substantives with 
the sermo plebeius is their prevalence in rustic Latin. Agri- 
culture was the one pursuit approaching the dignity of a nat- 
ural science for which the Eomans were not, in a greater or 
less degree, indebted to Greek culture. Its methods and con- 
sequently its terminology were of purely Latin development, 
and it is instructive to note that the nomina actionis expressing 
the various processes of farming, viticulture, and other rustic 
pursuits, are formed with the same suffixes (notably -tio, 
-tura), as the technical vocabulary of philosophy, medicine, 
or religion. The agricolatio, frondatio, plantatio, porculatio, 
stercoratio, etc., of the Scriptt. B. B., do not differ organically 
from the demonstratio, euolutio, definitio, infinltio, intellect, of 
Cornif. Rhet., and Cic., the corporatio, exaltatio,flagellatio, ieiuna- 
tio, profanatio, resurrectio, of the Scriptt. Eccl., or the cruditatio, 
exsudatio, purulentatio, sanguinatlo, of Gael. Aur. But the 
philosophers, the medical writers and theologians felt it nec- 
essary to apologize for their use of such formations ; 2 the 
Scriptt. B. E. did not. The former were conscious that such 
words were unclassical and justified only by the exigencies of 
new and abstruse subjects ; the Scriptt. E. E. were conforming 
to the language of the class for whom they wrote. 

The following sections, from 2 to 13, inclusive, will treat 
of all the important classes of abstract substantives, followed 
by lists of the rarer forms. Those in -tas and -or have been 
more briefly treated, as presenting little of importance to this 
subject. 

i See infra, a "See supra, Introd. 1, sq. 



2. -TIO, -sio.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 3 

2. SUBSTANTIVES IN -tio, sio : The words of this class are of 
peculiar interest. Their number in classic Latin far exceeds 
that of any other class of abstract nouns, as the needs of a 
philosophical vocabulary were chiefly supplied by this suffix : 
Thielmann 1 cites nearly 50 words in -tio, from Cornif . Rhet. 
alone, used to translate Greek philosophical terms, while Cic- 
ero's additions amount to several hundred. 

On the other hand, the fondness of the sermo plebeius for 
verbal abstracts in -tio, -sio has often been noticed. 2 With 
esse they filled in the earlier language many verbal functions, 
and must have been felt to be true verbal forms derivable from 
any verb at pleasure. Thus they stood for the infinitive, as 
Plaut., Poen. 1096. acerba amatiost = acerbum est amare ; for the 
gerund, as Id., Pseud. 170, cautiost mihi = mihi cauendum est; 
but most frequently in questions, in place of the simple verb, 
either transitive or intransitive, as Id. Amph. 519, quid tibi 
Tianc curatiost rem, uerbero, aut muttitio f / Caecil. Com. 62, 
quid tibi aucupatiost argumentum aut de amore uerbificatiost 
patri ? ; Ter., Eun. 671, quid hue tibi reditiost ? quid uestis 
mutatiost f 3 

Such constructions must have given rise to a continual coin- 
age of new forms, though only a limited number maintained 
themselves in literature. Thus, out of the 94 in Plaut., 25 were 
avoided by the classic writers. Cic., however, was the first 
and the last classic writer to make an extended use of these 
words. Paucker, 4 fixing the total number at 3124, uett. 1450, at- 
tributes 862, or more than two-thirds of the uett., to Caes. and Cic., 
chiefly to the latter. Many, however, are found only in his 
philosophical works, as translations of Greek words, e.g., Fin. 
1, 6, 21, infinitio = aTmpta ; 5 many others, borrowed from the 
sermo cotidianus, are confined to his letters, 6 early writings, 7 
or Philippics ; 8 but the strongest proof of the unpopularity of 
these substantives is the large number of them which not even 

1 Thielm. Cornif., p. 95. a " Verbalsubstantiva auf to, die die Handlung des Verb- 
nms bezeichnen miissen in der Volkssprache sehr beliebt gewesen sein," Lorenz ad 
Most. 6 ; comp. Id. ib. 34 ; 377 ; Id. ad Pseud. 141 ; " Quamnis horum substantiuorum 
tabula generalis mihi non praesto sit, persuasum habeo, longe plurima snbstantiua hoc 
suffixo deriuata sermonis esse uulgaris," Schulze, Diss. Hal. VI., p. 133, citing Scb.mil. 
p. 32 ; Stinner, p. 7 ; comp. Ronsch, p. 69 sq. ; Slaughter, p. 24. 3 Schmalz, Stil. 1 2 ; 
Kiihner, II. , p. 195 ; Slaughter, p. 27. * Pauck., Silb. Lat. p. 8. Nagelsb. Stil. p. 222. 
Stinner, p. 7. T Hellmuth, Act. Sem. ErL L 125. " Hauscbild, Disa. HaL VL p. 246. 



4 WORD FORMATION IN THE [3. -TIO, -BIO. 

the authority of Cic. could bring into general usage. Goelzer 
gives a list of 45 occurring in Cic. alone, and of an odd hundred 
found in Cic. (or Cornif. Khet.), and elsewhere only in late Lat- 
in Tert., Hier., etc., and his lists do not pretend to be com- 
plete. 1 There were scarcely 500, or less than one-fifth the entire 
number, in general usage. Vitr. added 94 and writers of Silver 
Latin 2 339, Plin. 97, Sen. phil. 74 (like Cic., largely as trans- 
lations of Greek words), Col. 34, Cels. 21 ; Gell. has at least 20, 
Apul. 40 ; Tert. 136 ; 8 Arnob. 32. Hier. has over 60 new forms, 
and Paucker, commenting on his fondness for derivatives of 
this class, old and new, does not hesitate to place the total 
sum in the neighborhood of a thousand. 4 

An interesting feature of these words, already alluded to, 
is their prevalence in the sermo rusticus. The Scriptt. B. K. 
are full of such forms, referring to agricultural pursuits. Thus- 
Varr. has arundinatio, messio, porculatio, stercoratio; Col., agri* 
colatio, castratio, desectio, frondatio, germinatio, pampinatio, pas* 
tinatio, sarritio, stdbulatio ; Plin., fruticatio, incubatio, plantatio, 
regerminatio, saginatio, sarculatio, uermiculatio ; Pall., infossio, 
inspersio, subligatio, superfusio ; and many others. There is 
one striking passage in the Colo Maior of Cic., in which he de- 
scribes the pleasures of agriculture, perhaps in conscious imi- 
tation of the rustic style of Cato's JR. J?., which for the num- 
ber of substantives in -tio, can hardly be paralleled elsewhere 
in Cic. : "Cuius quidem non utilitas me solum, ut ante dixi, sed etiam 
cultura et natura ipsa delectat : adminiculorum ordines, capitum 
iugatio, religatio et propagatio uitium, sarmentorum ea, quam disci, 
aliorum amputatio, aliorum immissio. Quid ego irrigationes, quid 
fossiones agri repastinationesque proferam . . . ? ... Nee 
consitiones modo delectant, sed etiam insit'iones," Cic. Sen. 15, 54. 
It is interesting to observe that out of the ten words in the 
above passage, religatio is a arrag Xeyd/ievov ; amputatio, consitio, 
immissio, insitio, iugatio, repastinatio, are not found elsewhere 
in Cic., but occur in Varr., Col., or Plin., and propagatio is else- 
where used by Cic. only in a figurative sense ; irrigatio occurs 
again de Off. 2, 4, 14 ; fossio, N. D. 2, 9, 25. These ten words, so 
thoroughly in keeping with the character of the speaker, but 
elsewhere avoided by Cic., are full of significance, and certainly 

1 Goelzer, p. 79 sq. Pauck., Silb. Lat. 8. Schmidt, Tert. I. p. 17. 

4 Panck. Hier. p. 24 ; conf. Goelzer, p. 25. 



3. -TIO, -SIO.] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



sustain the view that the substantives in the -tio, -sio, are pre- 
valent in the sermo rusticus. 

The number of these words is so large that it has been nec- 
essary to confine the following list within somewhat narrow 
bounds ; of the recc. only those from Gell., Apul., Tert., the 
Scriptt. Hist. Aug., Arnob., Chalcid., Ambros., Amm., Hier., 
Augustin., and Gael. Aur. are cited ; but they will serve as a 
general index to the astonishing fertility of the later language 
in words of this formation. 

PLAVTVS. 
abitio, 1 Rud. 503 
amatio, Merc, 749 ; al. 
anscultatio, 2 Rud. 502 
circumductio, 3 Capt. 1031 
clamitatio, Most. 6 
conduplicatio, 4 Poen. 1155 
consuetio, 5 Amph. 490 
edictio, Pseud. 143 ; al. 
famigeratio, Trin. 692 
frustratio, 6 Amph. 875 
indicatio, 1 Pers. 586 
inscensio, 8 Rud. 503 
muttitio, Amph. 519 
palpatio, 9 Men. 607 
parasitatio, Amph. 521 
partio, 10 True. 196 
pultatio, Id. 258 
risio, Stick. 658 
rogitatio, Cure. 509 
suauiatio, 11 Bacch. 116 ; al. 
subigitatio, Capt. 1030 
uelitatio, Rud. 525 ; aL 
nentio," True. 622 

TEBENTIVS. 
deambulatio, 13 Haut. 806 



exclusio, 14 JEun. 88 
integratio, 15 Andr. 555 
monstratio, 16 Adelph. 714 
raptio, 17 Id. 336 

OATO. 

depngnatio, 18 Re Mil. Fr. 10 
educatio, 19 Id. Fr. 12 
euectio, 20 Fr. Or. 2 
pelliculatio, Oratt. Inc. Fr. 9 
politic," R. R. 136 
usio, M /c?. 149,2 

I/vcnjvs. 

deletio, Sat. 29, 1 

AFBANIVS. 
morigeratio, Com. 380 

VARRO. 

admissio, R. R. 1, 1, 18 
anquisitio, L. L. 6, 90 ; aL 
apertio, M R. R. 1, 63, 1 
arundinatio, Id. 1, 8, 3 
attraction L. L. 5, 6 
calatio, Id. 5, 13 
cattatio, 25 Id. 5, 20 ; al. 



1 Ter. ; Paul ex Fest.; luL Val. Sen. Vifcr.; Hygin.; Quint.; Macr.; CocLTheod.; 
Boeth. Cornit Rhet. * Ter. Varr. ; Plane, ap. Cic. Ep. ; Liu. ; Col. ; Quint. ; 
lustin. ; Dig. 1 Plin. ; Vlp. Dig. 8 Auct. Itin. Alex. Cypr. Ep. ; Vulg. ; Cassian. 
10 Afran.; Varr.; GelL " GelL M. Caes. ap. Front. 13 Vulg. ; Hier. ; Augustin.; 
Cael. Aur.;Pelag. Vet. " Vitr. ; Vlp. Dig. 1S Symm.;Nou. Val. Vitr. Arnob.; 
Auson. " Veget. ; Firm. Math. " Lact. ; Pall. ao Paul, ex Fest. ; Apul. ; Symm. ; 
Augustin. ; Cod. lust. Vitr. Scaeu. ap. Gell. ; Varr. ; Arnob. ; Dig. " ApuL ; 
Pall. ; Sent, ad Verg. ; Gael Aur. ; Th. Prise. * PalL Seru. ad Verg. 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[ 2. -TIO, -BIO. 



cursio, Id. 5, 11 
demptio, 1 Id. 5, 6 ; a/. * 
depolitio, Sat. Men. 589 
dormitio, 2 Id. 485 
exemptio, 3 R. R. 3, 16, 34 
februatio, L. L. 6, 13 
hiematio, R. R. 3, 16, 84 
imposifcio, 4 L. L. 10, 51 ; al. 
irrugatio, ap. Seru. ad Aen. 1, 

648 
litteratio, 6 ap. Aug. de Ord. 2, 

12, 35 

messio, 6 JR. R. 1, 50, 1 
nutricatio, 7 Id. 1, 44, 3 
opertio, L. L. 5, 72 
passio, 8 ap. Charis. p. 241, 33 
porculatio, R. R. 2, 4, 13 
praebitio, 9 Sat. Men. 143 
praefectio, L. L. 7, 70 
praegnatio, 10 R. R. 1, 44, 4 
scansio, 11 L. L. 5, 168 
stercoratio, 12 R. R. 2, 2, 12 
uinctio, 13 L. L. 5, 62 

CATVLLVS. 
argutatio, 6, 11 
basiatio, 14 7, 1 
fututio, 16 32, 7 



circumuentio, 19 ad Ait. 2, 16, 4 
compilatio, ad Fam. 2, 8, 1 
consalutatio, 20 ad Alt. 2, 18, 1 
conuictio (conuitta), ad Q. Fr. 1, 

14, 12 

delegatio, 21 ad Att. 12, 3, 2 
deuitatio, 22 Id. 16, 2, 4 
eiectio, 28 7d 2, 18, 1 
erogatio, 24 /d. 4, 3, 3 
impugnatio," /e?. ib. 
inhibitio, Id. 13, 21, 3 
introductio, 26 Id. 1, 16, 5 
obiratio, Id. 6, 3, 7 
pacificatio, 27 ad .Fam. 10, 27, 2 
pellectio, ao* -4tt. 13, 1, 1 
prensatio, Jo". 1, 1, 1 
properatio, 28 ao* Fam. 5, 12, 2 
reductio, 29 Id. 1, 7, 4 
remigatio, ad Att. 13, 21, 3 
ruminatio, 30 Id. 2, 12, 2 
nelificatio, 81 ad Fam. 1, 9, 21 

VJ.TKVVJLVS. 
aequilatatio, 9, 7, 3. 
aggeratio, 82 10, 16, 9 
alligatio, 33 7, 3, 2 ; al 
apportatio, 2, 9, 16 
arenatio, 7, 3, 9 
catenatio, 3 * 2, 9, 11 ; al. 
circinatio, 1, 6, 6 
circumactio, 95 9, 8, 15 
circumlatio, 36 9, 4, 8 
coaxatio, 37 6, 3, 9 
coctio, 88 8, praef. 2 



ClCBBO, (EPISTT.). 

aberratio, ad Fam. 15, 18 ; al. 

abrogatio, 16 ad Att. 3, 23, 2 

apparitio, 17 ad Fam. 13, 54 ; al. 

assessio, 18 Id. 11, 27, 4 

1 Itala; Gloss. Labb. * Tert. ; Arnob. ; Hier. ; Vnlg. ; Augnstin. ; Inscrr. 3 CoL ; 
Symm. ; Dig. ; ICt. * Vulg. ; Angnstin. * Mart. Cap. Hier. ; Vulg. T GelL ; Apul. 
8 VeU. ; ApnL ; Arnob. ; Angustin. ; Sulp. Sen. ; CaeL Aur. ; Th. Prise. lust. ; Atir. Viet. ; 
Vulg. i Apnl. Vitr. ; Donat. ; Seru. ; Baeda. ia CoL ; Plin. ll Cels. ; Tert. ; 
Arnob.; Gael. Aur. "Mart. 16 Mart. " VaL Max. 1T Symm.; Amm.; Augustin.; 
Dig. 18 Augustin. ; Cod. lust. 19 Arnob. ; Hier.; Augustin.; Cod. lust. ; Dig. * Tac.; 
Suet. ai Sen. Ep.; ICt M Angustin. Vitr. ; Firm. Math. ; Vnlg. ; Gael. Aur. 
* Plin. ; Frontin. ; Tac. ; ApnL ; Tert. s * Hier. ; Cassian. S8 Tert ; Vulg. Gell. * Q. 
Cic. ap. Cic. Fam.; Sail.; Amm. Vitr.; Augustin. so Plin.; Seru. ad Verg. $1 Amm. 
32 Instin. Hyg. ; CoL ; Ambr. ; Augnstin. 34 Petr. M Gell. ; Chalcid. Tim. ; Mart. 
Cap. * Tert. ; Chalcid. Tim. ; Hier. ; Seru. ad Verg. " Plin. Plin.; PanL ex Feet.; 
Vulg.; Cassiod.; Cod. Theod. 



2. -TIO, -SIO.] 



ROMAN SERHO PLEBEIVS. 



commodulatio, 3, 1, 1 
comportatio, 1, 2, 8 ; dL 
concameratio, 1 2, 4, 2; al. 
confornicatio, 5, 6, 5 
congest! o, 2 6, 8, 5 
decussatio, 1, 6, 7 ; al. 
*deformatio, 8 (1. deformo), 1, 1, 1 
depressio, 4 1, 3, 2 
*dilatatio, 8 9, 8, 1 
directio, 6 1, 6, 8 
disparatio, 7 2, 9, 1 
ductio, 8 10, 13, 6 ; al. 
duplicatio, 9 3, 4, 3 ; al. 
erectio, 10 10, 6, 4 
examinatio, 11 10, 3, 4 
expertio, 8, 4, 1 
expressio, 13 9, 8, 4 ; al. 
extentio, 13 9, 1, 13; al. 
exuberatio, 14 1, 4, 8 
fibulatio, 10, 2, 3 
figuratio, 15 3, 3, 6 
fistucatio, 10, 3, 3 
f ormatio, 10 2, praef. 3 
fornicatio, 17 (fornicatus), 6, 8, 3 
*fricatio, 18 7, 6, 2 
fundatio, 19 3, 4, 1 ; al. 
intersectio, 3, 5, 11 
inuolutio, 20 10, 6, 2 
laxatio, 21 4, 7, 4 
leuigatio, 22 (1. leuigo), 7, 1, 4 
libratio, 23 8, 5, 3 
*limitatio, 24 10, 16 



lineatio, 28 9, 1, 13 ; al. 
loricatio, 2 " 7, 1, 5 
lotio, 27 7, 9, 1 
maceratio, 28 7, 2, 1 
materiatio, 4, 2, z'n. 
ministratio, 28 6, 6, 2 
mixtio, 30 1, 4, 7 
modulatio, 31 5, 9, 2 
moratio, 32 9, 1, 11 
multiplicatio, 33 9, praef. 4 ; al. 
nodatio, 2, 9, 7 
operatic, 34 2, 9, 9 
ornatio, 35 5, 8, 8 
palatio, 2, 9, 10 
pandatio, 7, 1, 5 
percolatio, 8, 6, 15 
perductio, 8, 5, 1 
perlibratio, 8, 5, 1 
*pistatio, 7, 1, 3 
ponderatio, 36 10, 3, 7 
praecinctio, 37 2, 8, 11 
praecipitatio, 38 5, 12, 4 
praeclusio, 39 9, 8, 6 
praeseminatio, 2, 9, 1 
proclinatio, 5, 12, 4 ; al. 
profusio, 40 10, praef. 
quadratic, 4, 3, 9 
recessio, 41 1, 6, 9 
redtmdatio, 42 9, 1, 15 
refectio, 43 6, 3, 2 
retractio, 3, 4, 4 
roratio, 44 8, 2, 2 



1 Plin. ; Frontin. ; Dig. ; Insert. * Mamert. ; Pall. ; Ambros. ; Augustin. ; Macr. ; Dig. 
3 Hyg. ; Firm. Math. ; lul. Bufin. ; Mart. Cap. * Macr. Tert. ; Vulg. ; Eccl. 6 Quint. ; 
Apul.;Vulg.; Prise.; Cassian.; Boeth. Amm. Cels. ; Vlp. Dig. Chalcid. Tim., 
Gai. Inst. ; Vlp. Dig. ; Mart. Cap. " Vulg. ; Amm. ll Cypr. ; Vlp. Dig. ; Mart. Cap. 
12 Acron ad Hor. ; Chalcid. Tim.; Pall. ; Ambros. ; Augustin. Gael. Aur. ; Prise. 14 Th. 
Prise. 16 Hy gin. ; Plin. ; Quint. ; Frontin. ; Fr onto ; Gell . ; Apul. ; Arnob. ; Lact. 16 Sen. 
Ep.; Philastr.; Augustin. Sen. Ep. Col.; Plin.; CaeL Aur. " Chalcid. Tim. 
20 Cael. Aur. Gael. Anr. 22 Chalcid. Tim. ; lul. Val. ; Diom. Vulg. ; Min. Fel. 
2 * Col. Firm. Math. Paul. Dig. Plin. VaL 28 Arnob. M Vulg.; Inscrr. 
so PaU. ; Vulg. si Sen. Suas. ; Quint. ; GelL ** Cael. Aur. Col ; Sen. ; Frontin.; Boeth. 
31 Fest.; Tert.; Lact.; Vulg.; Prud.; Heges.; Donat.; lul. Val.; Inscrr. S6 Inscrr. 

Vulg. ; Fulg. Myth. ; Th. Prise. = Caelestin. Pap. Ep. s Sen. ; Apul. ; Vulg. s Ve- 
get. * Cels. ; Plin. Ep. ; Suet. ; Tert. ; Lact. ; Inscrr. Hier.; EccL 4S Plin. ; Quint. 
43 Sen. ; Cels. ; Col. ; Quint. ; Plin. Pan. ; Suet. ; Amiri. ; Cassian. * 4 Plin. ; Apul. ; Cassiod. 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[ 2. -TIO, -8IO. 



rotatio, 1 8, 3, 1 

rotundatio, 1, 6 

mderatio, 7, 1, 1 

septio,* 5, 12, 5 ; al. 

solidatio, 7, 1, 7 

statuminatio, 7, 1, 3 ; al. 

statutio, 10, 2, 10 

sudatio, 3 5, 11, 2 

suffossio, 4 1, 5, 5 

suggrundatio, 4, 2, 1 

superatio, 5 1, 4, 8 

*supputatio, 8 3, 1, 6 ; coniect. 

Schneid. 

suspensio, 7 5, 10, 2 
tentio, 8 1. 1, 8 
terebratio, 9 9, 8, 9 
trullissatio, 10 7, 3, 5 
uersatio, 11 10, 1, 4 ; aZ. 
uisitatio, 12 9, 2, 3 

CELSVS. 

anhelatio, 18 4, 4, 21 ; al. 
concoctio, 14 1, 8 ; al. 
destillatio, 15 4, 2, 4 
distentio, 16 2, 4 ; a. 
exulceratio, " 4, 17 
frictio, 2, 14 ; al. 
gargarizatio, 18 6, 7, 8 
glutinatio, 7, 27, 28 
inunctio, 19 7, 7, 14 
perfusio, 20 4, 8 
punctio, 21 8, 9, 2 
rosio, 22 5, 28, 17 ; erf. 
suffusio, 23 7, 7, 14 ; al. 



suppuratio, 1 * 2, 8 ; al. 
ustio, 28 5, 28, 2 ; a/. 

COLVMELLA. 

ablaqueatio, 28 4, 4, 2 ; of. 
agricolatio, l^raef. 6 ; aL 
caesio,* 7 4, 33, 1 
castratio, 28 4, 32, 4 ; aJ. 
*corporatio, 2 6, 2, 13 
cummitio, 30 12, 52, 17 
curuatio, 4, 12, 2 
defusio, 3, 2, 1 
desectio, 31 6, 3, 1 
emplastratio, 8 " 5, 11, 1 ; al. 
*expopulatio, 3, 2, 18 
exstirpatio, 2, 2, 13 
fricatio, 33 6, 12, 1 
frondatio, 5, 6, 16 
germinatio, 84 4, 24, 18 ; al. 
impedatio, 4, 13, 1 
limitatio, 3, 12, 1 
medicatio, 35 11, 10, 16 
mellatio, 84 11, 2, 50 
metatio, 31 3, 15, 1 
obtruncatio, 88 4, 29, 4 
pampinatio, 39 4, 6, 1 ; al. 
pastinatio, 3, 13, 9 
proscissio, 2, 13, 6 ; al. 
pullatio, 8, 5, 9 
pulueratio, 40 4, 28, 1 ; al. 
resectio, 4, 22, 5 ; al. 
rigatio, 41 11, 3, 48 
runcatio, 42 2, 9, 18 ; al 
saritio," 3 2, 12, 1 ; al 



J Boeth. Vopisc. s Cels. Sen. Bp.; Vulg. Firm. Math.; Th. Prise. 
' Arnob.; Hier.; Vulg.; Augustin.; Mart. Cap. 7 Tert.; Hilar.; Vulg.; Augustin.; Gael. 
Aur.;Diom.;Isid. 8 Prise. Col. 10 Compend. Vitr. " Sen.; Plin.; Mar. Victo- 
ria. " Tert. ; Ambros. ; Hier. ; Vulg. ; Cassian. J 3 Plin. ; Gael Aur. " Plin. Scrib. ; 
Sen. ; Plin. ; Amm. " Scrib. ; Vulg. "Sen.;Plin. " Scrib. ; Plin. Scrib.; Col.; Plin. 
so Plin.; Lact. ai Plin.; Ambros.; Gael. Aur. M Plin.; GargiL Mart. 23 Sen.; Scrib.; 
Plin. ; Veget. ; Ps.-Apic. ; Pall. Sen. ; Col. ; Plin. 2S Scrib. ; Plin. ; Veget. ; Th. Prise. 
28 Plin. 7 Tert. * piin. ; p a u. ; Dig. Tert.; Mart. Cap. Plin. = Hier.; Salu. 
82 Plin.;PalL " Plin. ; Cael. Aur. MPlin.;Rufin. ss Plin. Plin.; Solin. 

37 Frontin. s Rufin. Plin. Pall.; Seru. ad Verg. PaU. Plin. Seru. ad 
Verg. 



2. -TIO, -8IO. ] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



scarificatio, 1 4, 12, 1 ; al. 
stabulatio, 2 6, 3, 1 
tertiatio, 12, 50, 11 
uersificatio, 8 11, 1, 2 
uillicatio, 4 11, 1, 13 ; al 

PETKONTVS. 
gustatio, 6 21 
pensatio, 6 141 
sciscitatio, 7 24 
*sopitio, 8 22 

PLINIVS. 
ablutio, 9 13, 74 
abundatio, 10 3, 121 
accumulatio, 1 ' 17, 246 
adoratio, 1 " 28, 22 ; al 
adulteratio, 13 21, 32 ; al 
adustio, 14 32, 34 ; .al. 
aduectio, 9, 169 
ambustio, 15 23, 87 
articulatio, 16 16, 101; al. 
astrictio, 11 27, 83 
auulsio, 18 17, 58 ; al 
bullatio, 34, 148 ; al 
caligatio, 29, 123 
caprificatio, 15, 81 
carbunculatio, 17, 222 
carminatio, 11,77 
catlitio, 16, 94 
circumrasio, 17, 246 
coagulatio, 23, 30; al, 
colostratio, 11, 237 
confarreatio, 19 18, 10 
coniectatio, 20 2, 162 ; al 
corriuatio, 31, 44; al 



crematio, 51 23, 64 
decacuminatio, 17, 236 
decorticatio, Id. ib. 
densatio,'* 31, 82 
dentitio," 28, 257 ; al. 
depastio, 17, 237 ; al 
detruncatio, 24 24, 57 
dissociatio, 25 7, 57 
edissertio, 10, 190 
effascinatio, 19, 50 ; al 
equitatio, 28, 54 
erosio, 23, 70 
erugatio, 28, 184 
euiratio, 29, 26 
exacutio, 17, 106 
excalfactio, 31, 105 
exinanitio, 17, 13 
exosculatio, 10, 33 
exscreatio, 28, 195; al 
exspuitio, 23, 20. 
extuberatio, 31, 104 
fascinatio, 2 " 28, 35 ; al 
fastigatio, 27 17, 106 
fluctio, 31, 127 ; al. 
formicatio, 28 28, 71 
fruticatio, 17, 7 
generatio, 8 ' 8, 187 
gloineratio, 8, 166 
grassatio, 80 13, 126 
imaginatio, 81 20, 68 
incubatio, 32 10, 152 
insolatio, 21, 84 
instillatio, 83 29, 133 
interlucatio, 17, 257 
interpolatio, 34 13, 75 
labefactatio,* 5 23, 56 



1 Plin. Gell. ; Apul. ; Macr. * Quint. Petr. ; Hier. B Plin. Val. ; Cassiod. ; 
Boeth. ; Intpr. Iren.;Hist. Apol. Quint. ; Amm. ; Dig. r Chalcid. Tim. ; Hier. 8 Marc. 
Emp. Macr.;Eccl. "Flor. "Ambros. "Apul. "Eccl. " Jjact. ; Gael. Aur. ; 
Cassiod. "Cypr.; Augustin. Ep. "Fulg.Myth. "Gael. Aur.; Chalcid. Tim. 18 Cypr. 
19 Gai. ; Seru. ad Verg. ; Lampr. ao Gell. ; Pacat. Pan. 21 Prud. M Gael. Aur. ; Schol. 
Bern, ad Verg. M Veget. a4 Tert. ; Augustin. Tac. M GelL ; Vnlg. ; Augustin. 
17 Apul. a8 Gael. Aur. Ambr. ; Lact. ; Gael Aur. 30 Auson. ; Commodian. 81 Tac. 
M Cod. lust. 3S PalL Tert.; Intpr. Iron. s Quint. ; Ennod.; Cod. Theod. 



10 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[ 2. -TIO, -sio. 



lacrimatio, 1 11, 147 
latrocinatio, 2 19, 59 
lymphatic, 3 34, 151 ; al. 
mancipatio, 4 9, 177 
nictatio, 5 11, 156 
nudatio, 8 28, 69 
obliteratio, 7 34, 47 
pensitatio, 8 19, 103 
perunctio, 9 24, 131 
piatio, 10 28, 27 
plantatio, 11 21, 17 
praediuinatio, 8, 89. 
praenauigatio, 4, 57 ; al. 
progeneratio, 12 8, 167 
purificatio, 13 15, 138 
radiatio, 14 36, 32 
reciprocatio, 15 9, 29 
recisio, 16 21, 21 
recreatio, 17 22, 102 
redormitio, 10, 211 
regerminatio, 17, 147 
repumicatio, 17, 246 
restagnatio, 2, 168 ; al. 
reuulsio, 13, 80 
saginatio, 13 8, 207 
sarculatio, 19 18, 184 
scintillatio, 20, 80. 
strangulatio, 20 20, 162 
subatio, 21 8, 205 
sufflatio, 9, 18 
suffrenatio, 36, 169 
suspiratio, 22 prae/ r . 9 
transfiguratio, 2 ' 7, 188 
turbinatio, 15, 85 
uentilatio, 24 23, 10 



uermiculatio, 17, 218 ; al. 
uernatio, 29, 101 ; al. 

GKLUVS. 

aequiparatio, 5, 5, 7 ; al. 
causatio, 45 20, 1, 30 
circumstatio, 6, 4, 4 
commurmuratio, 11, 7, 8 
consistio,* 16, 5, 10 
conuexio, 27 14, 1, 8 
culpatio, 10, 22, 2 
diffissio, 14, 2, 1 
discertatio, 10, 4, 1 H. 
excerptio, 17, 21, 1 
habitio, 1, 4, 7 
illectatio, 18, 2, 1 
incentio, 4, 13, 3 ; al. 
interstitio, 28 20, 1, 43 ; al. 
obsignatio, 29 14, 2, 7 
opprobratio, 2, 7, 13 ; al. 
peccatio, 13, 20, 19 
perpensatio, 2, 2, 8 
requisite, 80 18, 2, 6 
transfretatio, 31 10, 26, 5 

APVLETVS. 

adiuratio, 82 Met. 2, 20 
alternate," Ib. 10, 10 ; al. 
benedictio, 84 Trism. p. 82, 11 
*blateratio, 85 Met. 4, 27 
circumcursio, Id. 9, 13 
collurchinatio, 86 Apol. 75 
columnatio, 37 Flor. 18 
commixtio, 38 Apol. 32 
commodatio, Asclep. 8 



J Vulg.;CaeL Aur. 'Augustin. 'Solin. 4 Gai. Inst. 6 Solin. Ambros. ; Hier. 
T Arnob.;Amm. 8 Emnen.; Snip. Sen.; Ps. Ascon. "Gael Aur.; Th. Prise. "Lact. 
"Vulg.; Augustin. "Mart. Cap. "Mart.; Cypr. Bp. " Arnob. ; Firm. Math. Gell.; 
Terfc. ; Amm. ; Prise. 16 Vlp. Dig. ; Mart. Cap. " Chalcid. Tim. 18 Itala ; Tert. Pall. 
80 Vulg. 21 Fulg. 2S Quint Tert.; Chalcid. Tim.; Cassiod.; Mar. Victorin. M Ar- 
nob. ; Augustin. as Tert.; PalL ; Angustin. ; Salu. ; Cod. Theod. S6 Macr. 27 Arnob. 
28 Gromat. Vet. "Tert. s Inscrr. 31 Ambros.; Veget.; Augnetin. 3S Lact. ss Ar- 
nob. ; Augustin. ; Macr. ; Prise. ; Dig. Tert. ; Vulg.; Hier.; Paul. Nol. ; Eccl. 3S Auct. 
de Idiom. *C1. Mam. S7 Vulg. 38 Arnob.; Hier.; Augustin.; Cassiod. ;Th. Prise.; 
Marc. Emp.; Non.; Compend. Vitr.; Fulg. Rusp. Ep. 



2. -TIO, -SIO.] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



11 



coquitatio, Met. 4, 22 
decoctio, 1 Herb. 77 
detestatio (2 testis), Met. 7, 23 
disclusio, Deo Socr. 1 
disseminatio, 2 Met. 11, 30 
emicatio, de Mund. 29 
eructatio, 3 Id. 8 
famulatio, 4 Met. 2, 2 H. 
hiatio, de Orthogr. 22, p. 100 



illatio, 5 DO^TO. Plat. 3, p. 269 #". 
innouatio, 8 Asclep. 30 
inordinatio/ /d. 26 
insecutio, 8 Met. 8, 16 
iubilatio, 9 Id. 8, 17 
maculatio, 10 Apol. 50 
marmoratio, jFYor. 18, p. 28 Kr. 
mussitatio, 11 Met. 8, 4 
oblatio, 12 /d. 10, 5 ; al 
ostensio, 1S Id. 3, 9 
participatio, 14 Dogm. Plat. 2, 11 ; 

a/. 

pauitatio, de Mund. 18 
penetratio, 15 Flor. 18 p. 30 JTr. 
procatio, Apol. 72 
*protensio, 16 DO^TO. Plat. 3, p. 262 

ed. Hilde. 

reflexio," Id. p. 268 H. 
repugnatio,' 8 Id. 1, 12 
reuictio, Id. 3, p. 266 H. 
ruratio, Apol. 56 ; al. 
subreptio (subripio), Met. 10, 15 
tubulatio, Flor. 9, p. 11, 12 Kr. 



uegetatio, 19 Met. 1, 2 
uestigatio, /c?. 6, 1 

TEBTVUJANVS. 
ablatio, 20 <&. Jfarc. 4, 19 
abominatio, 21 C?M. /we?. 5 
acceptatio, adu. Marc. 5, 9 ; al. 
adaequatio, ad Nat. I, 1 ; al. 
adagnitio, adu. Marc. 4, 28 
adimpletio, 22 Id. 5, 17 
aduersio, Id. 2, 13 
amentatio, ad Nat. 1, 10 
aporiatio, adu. Haer. 49 
benefactio, adu. Marc. 4, 12 
blasphematio, Cult. Fern. 2, 12 
cohibitio, 23 [cited in Schmidt, 

Tert. I, p. 18] 

compassio, 24 Res. Cam. 40 
compulsatio, 25 Apol. 21 ; al. 
concarnatio, 26 Monog. 9 
concatenatio, 27 Apol. 19 
concorporatio, Bapt. 8 ; al. 
confabulatio, 28 ad Vxor. 2, 3 ; al. 
configuratio, Pudic. 8 
conflatio, 29 Fug. in Per sec. 3 
contesseratio, adu. Haer. 20 
contribulatio, 30 adu. lud. 13 ; al. 
contristatio, 31 adu. Marc. 2, 11 ; al. 
connallatio, adu. lud. 8. 
corporatio, 32 Cam. Chr. 4 
cothurnatio, adu Valent. 13 
cruentatio, adu. Marc. 4, 39 
decussio, Cult. Fern. 2, 9 



1 Gael. Aur. ; Plin. Val ; Cassiod. ; Isid. ; Cod. lust. ; Cod. Theod. Tert. ; Hier. ; Eccl. 
3 Firm. Math. 4 Cassiod. ; Placid. Gloss. s Arnob.; Hier. ; Augustin. ; Vlp. ; Cod. The- 
od. ; Val. Imp. ap. Vopisc. ; Cassiod. 6 Tert. ; Arnob. ; Hier. T Vulg. ; Cod. lust. 
8 Hier. ; Augustin. ; lul. VaL B Ambros. ; Vulg. ; Cassian. ; Eccl. 10 Firm. Math. 
"Tert.; Hier.; Cael. Aur. "Tert.; Ambros.; Ps.-Ascon.; Gael. Aur.; Amm.; Isid.; 
Vlp. ; Cod. Theod. ; Cod. lust. " Tert. ; Intpr. Iren. ; Hier. 14 Spartian. ; Hier. ; Cypr. ; 
Cod. Theod. 5 Augustin. "Hilar.; Hier.; Cassian. ; Ennod.;Boeth. " Macr. ; Mart. 
Cap. " Cael. Aur. ; Greg. M. ; Gloss. Labb. i Oros. ; Mythogr. Lat. so Hier. ; Eccl. 
81 Hier. ; Lact. ; Sulp. Seu. Hier. ; Lact. ; Vulg. Lact. ; Augustin. ; Boeth. 4 Hier. ; 
Cass. ; Prise. Fulg. Myth. " Cypr. Augustin. ; Cael. Aur. ; Chalcid. Tim. 
88 Hier. ; Symm.; Sidon. Ep.; Eccl. Vulg.; Hier.; Augustin.; Cael. Aur. s EccL 
31 Hier. ; Hilar. Mart. Cap. ; Eccl. 



12 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[ 2. -TIO, -SIO. 



dedecoratio, Anim. 34 ; al. 
defaecatio, 1 Id. 27 
defloratio, 8 adu. Valent. 12 
defraudatio, Anim. 43 
degustatio, 8 Res. Cam. 34 
dehonestatio, Pudic. 18 
dehortatio, 4 adu. Marc. 4, 15 
deieratio, 6 de Poen. 4 ; al. 
delibatio, 6 adu. Marc. 1, 22 
delineatio, 7 adu. Valent. 27 
demandatio, Res. Cam. 78 
despoliatio, 8 Id. 7 
desponsatio, 9 Virg. Vel. 11 
despumatio, Cam. Chr. 19 
detectio, adu. Marc. 4, 36 
deuictio, 10 Poet. adu. Marc. 1, 

108 

deuinctio, de Sped. 2 
deuoratio, 11 Res. Cam. 54; al. 
dilatatio, 18 Anim. 57 
dilectio, 13 adu. Marc. 4, 27 
diluuio, 14 Anim. 46 
dimidiatio, ac?w. J/arc. 1, 24 
discretio, 15 Anim. 51 
dispectio, Res. Cam. 39 
dispertitio, adu. Hermog. 39 
dispunctio, " Apol. 18 ; aZ. 
diuulgatio," Test. Anim. 5 
ducatio, 18 Cor. Mil. 11 
emundatio, 19 adu. Marc. 4, 9 
eradicatio, 20 Res. Cam. 27 
euacuatio, 21 adu. Marc. 4 
exaltatio, 22 Cult. Fern. 2, 3 



exorbitatio, 88 de Idol. 14 
expunctio, Id. 16. 
exquisitio, a4 ac? .ft/atf. 1, 3 ; al. 
fabrificatio, Apol. 12 
factitatio," adu. Hermog. 31 
figulatio, Anim. 25. 
flagellatio, ad Martyr, 4 
fornicatio, 46 (fornico), Pudic. 1 ; 

aZ. 

fructificatio, 47 adu. Marc. 39. 
geniculatio, 88 ac? Scap. 4 
hmniliatio," Fmj. Fe/. 18 
ieuinatio, 80 leuin. 13 
illuminatio, 81 adu. Hermog. 15 
inauguratio, adw. Val. 11 
incantatio, 82 fla&. JlfuZ. 2 
inclamatio, ac?w. Jlfara 4, 41 
inconsummatio, adu. Val. 10 
incorruptio, 83 Res. Cam. 51 
increpatio, 84 adu. Marc. 4, 7 ; al. 
incriminatio, Res. Cam. 23 
inculcatio, Apol. 39 
infestatio, 86 7<tf. 1 
infrenatio, adu. Marc. 1, 29 
inhabitatio, 86 Id. 3, 24 
inspectatio, 87 Id. 2, 17 
interlectio, ad Vxor. 2, 6 
interuersio, 88 adu. Marc. 1, 20 
intinctio, 89 de Poen. 6 
irrecogitatio, Exhort, ad Cast. 4 
iuratio, 40 efe Idol. 21 
lucratio, flrc? Fa;o?'. 2, 7 
maletractatio, 41 Pudic. 13 



1 Hier . ; Pacian. a Cassiod. ; Ambros. 3 Vlp. ; Inscrr. Diom. 8 Inscr. Fratr. 
AruaL Intpr. Iren.; Vulg. ; Florentin. Dig. r Hier. 8 Cod. Theod. Vulg. ; 
Augustin. 10 Hilar. u Hier. ; Rufin. ; Cassian. ; Heges. 12 Hier. ; Vulg. ; Angus- 
tin. ; Oros. ; Eccl. " Hier. ; Angustin. ; Salu. ; Sidon. " Censorin. Lact. ; Chalcid. 
Tim. ; Pall. ; Amm. ; Ambros. ; Vulg. ; Macr. ; Prise. ; Mar. Victorin. Vlp. ; Dig.; ICt. 
17 Chalcid. Tim. ; Cassian. 18 Intpr. Iren. Intpr. Iren. ; Hier. ; Vulg. ; Hilar. ; Rufin. 
20 Hier. ; Vulg. ; Augustin. 21 Ps. -Cypr. ; Hier. ; Gael. Aur. M Cypr. ; Chalcid. Tim. ; 
Hier. 2S Chalcid. Tim. ; Augustin. a Vulg. ; Diom. ; Cod. lust. S5 Ps. -Soran. 
88 Hier. ; Vulg. ; Eccl. 2T Seru. ad Verg. 2B Hier. s Vulg. ; Hier . ; Cassian. ; Gloss. 
Eccl. 31 Ambros.; Hier.; Macr. " Hier.; Vulg.; Firm. Math. 33 Augustin. 4 Hier.; 
Vulg. ; Augustin. ; Donat. ad Ter. 3 Heges. ; Salu. ; Cassiod. 3 Hier. " 7 Chalcid. Tim. 
88 Cod. lust. " Hier. ; Ecol. ; Isid. Augustin. ; Macr. ; Eccl. Arnob. 



3. -TIO, -SIO.] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



13 



mortiflcatio, 1 adu. Marc. 5, 9 
motatio, Anim. 45 
nouatio, 8 adu. Marc. 4, 1 
nullificatio, Id. 3, 7 ; al. 
obiectio, 3 ad Vxor. 2, 5 
obtusio, 4 Res. Cam. 57 
offuscatio, 5 ad Nat. 1, 10 ; al. 
parentatio, de Spect. 12 
peraequatio,' adu. Marc. 4, 29 
perpetratio, 7 Poen. 3 
praecogitatio, 8 adu. Marc. 4, 39 
praedamnatio, Apol. 27 ; al. 
praemonitio, 9 adu. Marc. 2, 4 
praenuntiatio, 10 Anim. 46 
praeputiatio, 11 adu. Marc. 5, 4 ; al 
praestructio, 12 Id. 4, 14 
profanatio, Idol. 18 
prostitutio, 13 Apol. 26 
prostratio, 14 cfe Praescr. 41 
racematio, _4po. 35 
readunatio, Res. Cam. 30 
recorporatio, 15 Id. ib. 
redanimatio, Id. ib. 
reliquatio, 16 Anim. 56 
reprobatio, 11 Apol. 13. 
rescissio, 18 Res. Cam. 57, 5 
resurrectio, 19 Id. 1 
resuscitatio, Id. 30 
retributio, 20 4po/. 18 
reuelatio, 21 adu. Marc. 5, 4 
reuisceratio, Res. Cam. 30 
sanctificatio, M Exhort, ad Cast. 1 
sectatio, 23 ac? Frror. 1, 6 



segregatio, 24 Anim. 43 
sementatio, cfe Spect. 8 
signatio, ad Vxor. 2, 9 
structio, 26 de Patient. 3 
sublectio, adu. Marc. 4, 31 
subministratio, 2 * Apol. 48 
subsignatio, 27 Poen. 2 
succensio, 28 .Res. <7ar. 12 
suscitatio,' 9 (7am. C%r. 23 
tinctio, 80 Cbr. Jftf. 13 
transactio," Anim. 55 
tribulatio,* 2 ao*M. /we?. 11 
Tuuificatio, 83 adu. Marc. 5, 9 

SPABTIANVS. 
accubitatio, Hel. 5, 8 
cameratio, Carac. 9, 5 
censitio, Pesc. Nig. 7, 9 
commanipulatio, Id. 10, 6 

CAPITOLINVS. 

abligurritio, Macr. 15, 2 
decimatio, 84 Id. 12, 2 
insusurratio, 36 u4nton. Phil. 19, 11 

TKEBEUJ. POL. 

allisio, 88 Trig. Tyr. 8, 5 
attestatio, 37 Id. 30, 4 ; al. 
inhiatio, Gallien. 9, 5 

ABNOBIVS. 
abnegatio, 1, 33 
abstrusio, 5, 37 



1 Ambros. ; Lucif . ; Hier. * Arnob. ; Paul. NoL ; Vlp. Dig. ; Inscrr. 8 Arnob. ; Ps. - 
Ambros. ; Hier. ; Vulg. ; Augustin. ; Mart. Cap. 4 Lampr. ; Augustin. ; Gael. Aur. 6 Vulg. 
8 Solin.;Cod. Theod.;Cod. lust. T Augustin. 8 Eccl. Eccl. 10 Eccl. Hilar. 
ia Augustin. > 3 Arnob. ; Lact. u Amm.; Cassian. ls Cael. Aur. 18 Paul. Dig. ; 
Inscrr. ir Hier.; Vulg.; lul. Rufin.;Isid. 18 Augustin. ; ICt. 19 Intpr. Iren.; Lact.; 
Hier. ; Vulg. ; Augustin. ; Eccl. ao Lact. ; Hier. ; Vulg. ; Augustin. " Arnob. ; Lact. ; 
Hier. ; Vulg. ; Augustin. M ffilar. ; Vulg. ; Hier. ; Sidon. M Vulg. 24 Chalcid. Tim. 
Arnob. ; Firm. Math. ; Pall. ; Inscrr. 2 Hier. ; Vulg. ; Eccl. Paul. Dig. M Hier. ; 
Vulg.; Amm.; Augustin.; Greg. M. M Ambros.; Hier.; Rufin. so Cypr.; Thorn. Thes. 
31 Ennod. ; Dig. M Intpr. Iren. ; Cypr. ; Ambros. ; Hier. ; Vulg. ; Augustin. ; Sulp. Seu. 

3S Cypr.; Am broB.; Augustin. M Vulg. ; Cassian. ss Chalcid. Tim. 3 Vulg. ST Am- 
bros. ; Macr. 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[ 2. -TIO, -SIO. 



allusio, 1 7, 23 
circumiectio, 4 2, 43 
circumuentio, 3 5, 3 
concrepatio, 2, 42 
consertio, 3, 13 
contamination, 4 5, 18 
*contractatio, 1, 47, cod. 
delusio," 4, 1 
dilaceratio," 2, 45 
dissignatio, 1 7, 9 
eneruatio, 3, 10 
euaginatio, 1, 50 
excitatio, 8 7, 32 
illigatio, 9 5, 2 
immersio, 10 2, 7 
impertitio, 11 2, 3 
*incTimulatio, 3, 14 H. 
interstinctio, 6, 12 ; al. 
intortio, 12 3, 14 
mactatio, 13 7, 4 ; al. 
munctio, 3, 13 
nexio, 14 5, 2 
obluctatio, 1 * 2, 50 
obsecutio, 6, 17 ; al. 
obtentio, 5, 36 ; al. 
obumbratio, 18 5, 41 
perrectio, 7, 24 
pulsio, 4, 4 
submersio, " 5, 35 
subrectio, 18 5, 39 

LAMPRIDIVS. 
attritio, 19 Heliog. 19, 5 
rumigeratio, Id., 10, 4 



VOPISCVS. 

constipatio, 80 Aurel. 21, 1 
liquatio, Id. 46, 1 

CHALCIDIVS. 
absconsio," Tim. 123 
assecutio, M Id. 46 A. 
circumuolutatio, Id. 43 D. 
conuegitatio, Id. 93 
detuitio, Id. 239 
effulsio, Id. 71 ; a/. 
excussio, 23 Id. 52 27. 
exsaturatio, Id. 166 ; a/. 
extricatio, Id. 120 ; a/. 
insertio, 24 Id. 12 
intuitio, Jd. 239 ; al. 
obliquatio, 86 Id. 87 
praecessio, 26 Id. 86 ; oZ. 
praeponderatio, Id. 352 
raptatio, /d 81 ; al. 
regradatio " (regrador) /<Z. 
restrictio, 28 /c?. 3 

PALLADIVS. 
affusio, 3, 28, 2 
aggestio, 29 2, 13, 3 ; al. 
annexio, 30 4, 10, 36 
infossio, 3, 16, 1 
inspersio, 4, 9, 13 
pollutio, 31 9, 10, 2 
subligatio, 1, 6, 10 
superfusio, 32 1, 17, 1 

AMMIANVS. 

anteuersio, 21, 5, 13 



74 ; 



i Cassiod. a Gael. Aur. ' Augustin.; Cod. lust.; Dig. * lul. Obseq.; ICt. 
Auct. Schem. Dian. Vulg.; Oros.; Cod. Theod. 7 Inscrr. 8 Chalcid. Tim.; Heges. 
Mart. Cap. 10 Schol. Gron. in Cic. n Julian, ap. Augustin. "Augustin. 1S Symm. 
Ep.; Isid. u Mart. Cap. 15 Lact.; Ambros.; Mart. Cap. Chalcid. Tim.; Vulg.; 
Rufin. ; Augustin. ; Max. Taur. " Firm. Math. ; Chalcid. Tim. ; Augustin. 18 Arator. 
19 Augustin.; Mart. Cap. 20 Nazar. Pan.; Amm. ; Augustin. ai Vulg. 2S Augustin. 
53 Hier. ; Vulg. ; Gael. Aur. " Augustin. ; Macr. ; Isid. Macr. 28 Augustin. ; Boetb. 
Augustin. Augustin.; Plin. in. VaL Mart. Cap. so lul. Rufin. 31 Vulg.; EccL 
sa Ambros.; Amm.; Seru. ad Verg. 



2. -TIO, -SIO.] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



15 



*connectio, 14, 10, 4 
lacessitio, 19, 3, 1 
obnmrmuratio, 1 26, 2, 3 
praescitio, 29, 1, 31 
*scitatio, 18, 5, 1 
submigratio, 25, 9, 1 

AMBBOSIVS. 

acclinatio, in Ps. 118, Serm. 4, 19; al. 
auxiliatio," Id. 61, 17 
commaceratio, Id. 27, 59 
exutio, in Luc. 8, 64 
iactitatio, De Helia 8 
intextio, in Luc. 10, 23 
offusio, Hexaem. 1, 8, 32 ; al. 
praecognitio, 3 de Fide 2, Praef. 14 
reclinatio, 4 de Bona Morte, 2, 12 
refusio, 5 Apol. Dauid. 8, 42 
semiperfectio, Ep. 44, 8 
subaemulatio, in Ps. 36, 10 
subrogatio, Ep. 13, 2 
superordinatio, Id. 12, 5 
umbratio, De Sacram. 1, 6, 22 

HIEKONYMVS. 

abactio, 6 in lerem. 1, ad 5, 15 
ablactatio, 7 Hebr. Qu. in Gen. 21, 14 
absconsio, 8 Nom. Hebr. col. 23 ; al. 
accensio, in Ezech. 14, ad 45, 10 
accinctio, Ep. 78, m. 29 
adapertio, 9 .ZVbm. Hebr. col. 42; a/. 
aggeniculatio, Hebr. Qu. in Gen. 

41,43 

aggrauatio, 10 in Ezech. 8 oo? 27, 25 
amplexatio, 11 in Abac, praef. 
annumeratio, 12 adu. Rufin. 3, 6 
antepassio, Ep. 79, 9 



appensio, 13 in Dan. 5, 25 
apprehensio, " in Ezech. 5, 25 
circumdatio, 15 Id. 29, 13 
clamatio, 16 in Ps. 119 
coangustatio, in Ezech. 9, 1 
coargutio, Ep. 41, 4 
comminutio, 17 in Is. 51, 6 
comparticipatio, in Eph. 3, 5 
complacitio, Nom. Hebr. col. 69 
completio, 18 in Abac. 1 c? 2. 5 ; al. 
compugnatio, in Ezech. 11, ad 38, 

col. 451 

confortatio, w Zacch. 8, 13 
consessio, w Sophon. 1, 4 
consutio, 19 m Ezech. 2, ac? 7. 23 
conuictio, 20 (conuinco), in OseeS, 3 
crucifixio, 21 in Galat. 5, 24 
dealbatio, 22 in Ezech. 27, 4 
deosculatio, adu. Rufin. 1, 19 
depompatio, Id. 1, 31 
desponsio, 23 adu. louin. 1, 3 
detrusio, in lesai. 6 ac? 13, 6 
dilutio, c. loann. 5 
ebullitio, 24 in Naum. 2, 10 
edissertio, in Matth. 21, 6 
efflatio, Ep. 65, 5 
ermtritio, in Matth. 24, 19 
exauditio, 25 in Osee, 1, ac? 2, 20 
exceruicatio, in Naum. 3, 1. 
excommunicatio, 28 adu. Rufin. 2, 

21 

exMlaratio, 27 in Abac. 1, od 2, 5 
expansio, 28 *n Ezech. 16 ; a/. 
exspoliatio, 29 a<7w. louin. 1, 38 
exsufflatio, 30 in Malach. 1, 10 
extorsio, in. Matth. 8, 30; a/, 
fixio, m Ezecli. Horn. 1. 5 



Isid. 2 Cassiod. ; Non. Ennod.;Boeth. 'Augustin. 8 Macr. Thorn. Thes. ; 
Gloss. Lab. 7 Vulg. 8 Vulg. Vulg. ; Augustin. 10 Salu. ; Arnob. lun. ; Greg. M. 
11 Cassiod.; Isid. J2 Cod. Theod.; Rufin. 13 Lilian, ap. Aug. 14 Macr.; Gael. Aur. 
18 Vulg. ; Augustin. Philaster. ; Gael. Atrr. 17 Cl. Mam. 18 Vulg. ; Augustin. ; lust. 
Inst. ; Paul. Diac. " Ps.-Soran. Augustin. ai Prosp.; Alcim. Auit. M Augustin.; 
Isid. 23 Gael. Aur. ; Gloss. Lat. -Gr. Fulg. Myth. ; Mythogr. Lat. ; Ps. -Soran. ; Seru. 
ad. Verg. ; Gloss. Paris. Vulg. ; Augnstin. 2 Augustin. 2r Augustin. 23 Arnob. 
lun.; Gael. Aur. 29 Acron ad Hor.; Augustin.; Isid. 30 Gennad.; Caelestin. Pap. 



16 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[ 2. -TIO, -SIO. 



floritio, Homil. 2, m Cantic. 
foederatio, 1 Ep. 117, 2 
illisio, id. 98, 13 ; al 
immemoratio, Intpr. Sap. 14, 26 
illuuio, in loel. 2, 1 
impactio, in Matih. 15, 12 
imperturbatio, Ep. 133, 3 
incircumcisio, in lerem. 9, 26 
indisciplinatio 2 in lesai, 18, ac? 65, 
minoratio, 3 m Ezech. 10, 1 
oblatratio, .>. 133, 13. 
obuersio, Id. 66, 5 
offinnatio, Ep. 121, 5 ; a/, 
pausatio, Id. 28, 2 
placitio, Orig. in Ezech. horn. 9, 5 
pomatio, Ep. 57, 11 
praestolatio, 4 Nom. Hebr. col. 100 
prolongatio, Id. 13 
propassio,* in Matth. 5, 28 
prospectio,' m Ezech. 7, 5. 
redactio, 7 /c?. 9, 1 
rediscussio, m Naum 2, 10 
rememoratio, 8 Chron. Euseb. 37 
reseratio, 9 in ja7i. 3, 17 ; al. 
reuolutio, 10 Ep. 120, 6 
serratio, In lerem. 1, 11, 12 
stannatio, in Amos. 7, 7 
stillatio, 11 in Mich. 2, 6 
subdiusio, Ep. 58, 8 
subrisio, 1 " in Amos. 5, 8 
tonsio, 13 Nom. Hebr. col. 62 
transanimatio, 14 Ep. 124, 4 
transcensio, 16 in Ezech. 11, 1 
tripartitio," Id. 1. 16 
uacuefactio, Nom. Hebr. col. 24 

AVGVSTINVS. 
abstentio, 17 Ep. 81 
admemoratio, Id. 59, 1 



breuiatio, Id. 199, 20 
candidatio, 18 in Ps. 71, 18 
coaptatio, Ciu. Dei 22, 24 ; al. 
complicatio, 19 Mus. 1, 19 
concalefactio, de Ord. 1, 8, 24 
confricatio, Conf. 4, 8 ; al. 
conscissio, Ep. 51, 3 ; al. 
contemperatio, Doctr. Chr. 2, 30 
6 conuictio, (conuinco), Trin. 13, 1 ; 

al. 

cubitio, Ep. 3, 1 

depropiatio, Qu. in Heptat. 2, 133 
diffamatio, Ciu. Dei, 3, 31 
dilapsio, Id. 22, 12, 2 
euigilatio, Id. 17, 18, 1 ; aL 
excaecatio, Ep. 88, 12 ; al. 
excommunicatio, 20 Fid. et Opp. 2, 

3; al. 

exhonoratio, Ciu. Dei, 21, 6, 1 
imperfectio, in Galat. 12 
incrispatio, Ep. 112, 22 ; al. 
irreptio, de Ord. 2, 38 
manducatio, Tract. 27 in loann. 
mansuefactio, Nat. et Grat. 15, 16 
peremptio, c. Faust. 19, 23 ; al. 
perfructio, Quant. Anim. 33 
perfruitio, Ep. 102, 27 ; al. 
ploratio, Serm. 351, 1 
praeposteratio, Mus. 3, 9, 20 
reportatio, de Gest. Pelag. 5 
retrocessio, Quant. Anim. 22, 37 
saturatio, Tract, in loann. 24 
secutio, de Mor. Eccl. Cath. 1, 11 
trituratio, Tract, in loann. 27, 11 

CAELTVS AVBELIANVS. 

aflricatio, Acui. 1, 14, 106 ; al. 
appropriatio, Chron. 2, 13, 151 
asperatio, Acut. 2, 7, 33 



1 Cassiod. 2 Vulg. ; Cassiod. ; Greg. M. ; EccL * Vulg. ; Hilar. ; Alcim. Auit. ; Boeth. 

* Ps.-Cypr. Isid. Intpr. Origin, in Matth.; Cod. Theod. 7 Boeth. 8 Am. lun. 

Ennod. 10 Augustin. ; Mart. Cap. ; Dion. Exig. ; Fulg. Serm. ; Schol. Luc. Plin. Val. 
12 Auct. Com. in Amos. u Vulg. "Gloss. IS Cassiod.; Isid. Augustin.; Aggen. 
Verb., Gloss. " Cael. Aur. Cassiod. ' 8 Cael. Aur. 2 Gest. CoUat. Carthag. 2. 28L 



-TVS, -SVS.] 



ROMAN 8ERMO PLEBEIVS. 



17 



calculatio, (calculus) Chron. 5, 4, 

60 

carnatio, Id. 1, 4, 113 
concubatio, Acut. 2, 37, 193 
condensatio, Id. 3, 18, 187 
crassificatio, Id. 1, 14, 115 ; al. 
cruditatio, Chron. 5, 2, 29 
cucurbitatio, Jc?. 2, 1, 32 
defricatio, .4cM. 1, 1, 96 ; al. 
delocatio, Chron. 2, 1, 14 
depurgatio, Acut. 3, 4, 34 
desponsio, Id. 2, 32, 167 ; al. 
detersio, Chron. 2, 14, 203 
eliquatio, Acut. 2, 32, 166 
elutio, Chron. 1, 1, 12 
exsudatio, Id. 5, 10, 105 
extimatio, Id. 3, 4, 56 
fortificatio, JcJ. 4, 3, 44 
fumatio, Id. 1, 4, 136 ; aZ. 
grauatio, Acut. 2, 32, 171 ; al. 
humectatio, 1 Chron. 3, 2, 18 
impalpebratio, Id. 2, 5, 87 
incoctio, Id. 4, 3, 62 
insertatio, Id. 1, 1, 43 
iuteruallatio, Sig. Diaet. Pass. 

42 
limatio, Chron. 5, 4, 141 



masticatio, Id. 4, 3, 70 
meatio, Acut. 2, 18, 105 
obdensatio, Chron. 1, 1, 47 
perforatio," Id. 2, 1, 59 
praecantio, Acut. 1, 15, 131 
praetectio, Chron. 3, 8, 131 
purulentatio, Id. 5, 10, 95 ; al. 
pustulatio, Acut. 3, 16, 135 ; al. 
rasio, Chron. 1, 4, 134 ; al. 
reclusio, 3 Id. 2, 1, 8 
rugatio, Id. 2, 1, 3 ; al. 
saliuatio, Acut. 3, 2, 7 
sanguinatio, Chron. 4, 6, 87 
spumatio, .4cw. 3, 2, 8 
subunctio, Id. 3, 3, 22 
superpositio, Chron. 1, 1, 18 ; al. 
superunctio, Acut. 3, 4, 34 
supinatio, Chron. 4, 3, 64 
suprapositio, Chron. praef, 1 
tardatio, Chron. 2, 1, 28 
tenebratio, /d. 1, 2, 51 ; a 
tenuatio, Id. 2, 1, 3 
transforatio, Id. 1, 3, 56 
transuersio, Acut. 2, 39, 225 
uentriculatio, Id. 3, 17, 143 
uentrificatio, Chron. 3, 8, 142 
uncatio, Acut. 2, 32, 168 



3. SUBSTANTIVES IN -tus, -sus: Abstract substantives in 
-tus, -sus, were often formed in Latin from the same verbal 
stem as those in -tio, -sio, as motus, motio ; actus, actio. In 
classic times these forms were not quite synonymous, but the 
ones in -tio denoted the action of the verb, those in -tus the 
result of the action ; 4 consequently the two sets of words de- 
veloped side by side, though they were to some extent inter- 
changeable, even in Cicero, who uses forms in -tio to supply 
those cases in which words in -tus were not used, as concursus, 
concursionibus. 5 On the whole, however, the preponderance of 
forms in -tio over those in -tus is considered characteristic 
of the sermo quotidianus* Thus in Plautine Latin, out of 70 

1 Cassiod. ; Isid. * Inscrr. 3 laid. 

4 Goelzer, p. 86, citing Gossrau, Lat. Sprachlehre 2, 206, 7 ; comp. Schmalz, Stil. 1, 
2. < Goelzer, p. 86 ; Nagelsbach 8, Stil. p. 218. Slaughter, p. 24. 
2 



IS WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 3. -TVS, -svs. 

words where the language affords a choice, three-fifths are in 
-tio, where the classic language employs three-fifths in -tus, 1 
while in tragic and epic poetry the preference for the latter is 
still more marked. 2 But beginning with Silver Latin it ceased 
to be characteristic of a more elevated style, and came into gen- 
eral use. Paucker, in summing up his careful computations on 
this point, gives the ratio of Seneca's preference for forms in 
-tus as 2 to 1, compared to the Ciceronian usage, and that of 
Plin. as 4 to I. 8 No other class of substantives in Plin. is 
more numerous, and in Apul. they outnumber the new forma- 
tions in -tio. But after Tert. formations in -tio again pre- 
vail, effectually checking further development of those in 
-tus. 

It has been claimed that this class of substantives, like the 
preceding, is far more numerous in the plebeian than the 
classic language, 4 but this is probably equally true of nearly 
all classes of derivatives. The sermo plebeius, unrestrained by 
scholastic rules, availed itself to the utmost of whatever oppor- 
tunity for flexibility and expansion the language afforded, 
especially in vocabulary, but this tendency alone is not suffi- 
cient to stamp any particular suffix as plebeian. In the present 
case statistics indicate that -tus was far from being a favorite 
suffix in plebeian Latin. Paucker 5 placing the whole number 
at 1004, uett. 695, recc. 309, attributes 149 to Silver Latin, (Plin. 
74 or one-half the entire number, Col. only 7, Cels. 5, Petr. 4), 
and double the number to Cic. or Caes., or about three-sevenths 
of all the uett. Plaut. 6 has 99, all but 21 of which become 
classic : the Scriptt. B. B. add very few ; in the following list 
Cato gives 2, neither from the R. R.; Varr. 23, but only 7 from 
the R. R.; Col. 6. ; Pall. 2. The vulgar writer Vitr. has a pal- 
try 11, against an odd hundred in -tio. But after Plin. the 
formation becomes more frequent; Apul. has an odd 50 and 
Tert. 7 38, when the derivation again weakens; The Scriptt. 
Hist. Aug. add a scant half dozen, and Hier., usually prolific, 
has only 8 new forms, 5 verbal, 3 denominative, and of the 309 

1 Slaughter, p. 25. a Ploen, p. 43, cited by Slaughter, counts 52 in -tns and 2 in 
tio introduced by epic poets, 25 in -tns and 9 in -tio by tragic poets. 3 Paucker, 
Oesterr. Gymn. 1847, p. 112, not. * "Etiam horum snbstantiuorum copiam in sennone 
uulgari multo maiorem fuisse quam in bono dicendi genere persuasum habeo," Schulze, 
Diss. Hal. VI, 126, citing P. Boehmer, d. Latein. Vulgarsprache, Oels, 1869, p. 14, 
8 Pauck. Silb. Lat. p. 10. Rassow, p. 28. " Schmidt, Tert. I, p. 14. 



3. -TVS, -STB.] ROMAN SEKMO PLEBEIVS. 19 

recc. verbal, employs barely a dozen. 1 Amm. and Sulp. Seu. z are 
the last friends of this formation, the former adding only 3 or 
4 new words, but employing over 180 of those already in use. 3 

It seems then that this class of words is only plebeian to 
the extent that the sermo uulgatis employed all classes of ab- 
stracts more freely than the classic language. One feature 
however, worthy of note, is that a large number of these words 
occur only in the abl. case, and were probably formed on an- 
alogy with the 2nd supine. 4 Although many new words occur 
in Cic. only in the abl., as deductu, respiratu, yet the prevalence 
of this usage in later writers tends to support Boehmer's view 5 
that such forms were especially frequent in the sermo quotidianus. 
A special feature of the African Latin, (Apul., Tert.), is the 
frequent use of the dative singular, e. g., Apul., amictui, cinctui, 
demersui, sustentatui ; 6 Tert., concalcatui, conspectui, cruciatui, de- 
ceptui, defunctui, gustui, intellectui, retractatui ; compare fies. Cam. 
4, hanc et uisui et contactui et recordatui tuo ereptam uideo? A 
characteristic of late Latin is the use of plural forms, notably 
the ablative, which rarely occurs in classic writers : e. g., 
Tert., censibus, estitibus, ritibus, usibus ; Sulp. Seu., coetibus, con- 
uentibus, fletibus, nexibus, plausibus, questibus, saltibus ; Amm., 
congressibus, lapsibus, mugitibus, successions? 

In conclusion, it would seem that the popular character of 
substantives in -tus, -sus, as far as they were popular at all, 
lay in the use of special cases, or was confined to particular 
periods or localities, as is instanced on the one hand by the 
writers from Plin. to Tert., on the other by the absence of 
this suffix from the Romance languages, except the Rumanian, 
where it is still frequent. 9 

In the following list no attempt has been made to distin- 
guish between the verbal and the denominative forms. The 
latter are not numerous, barely half a hundred in all, and aside 

1 Pauck. Hier. p. 26, " 11 uel 12 apud Hier., qui utique multo est pronior ad -io fini- 
.torum usum ; " conf. Goelzer, p. 85, sq. * Schmalz, Stil. I, 2 ; Liesenberg, Amm. I, p. 
14 ; Lonnergren, Sulp. Seu. p, 2. 3 Liesenberg, Amm. I, p. 14, "in grosser Anzahl bei 
A. vorhanden." Stuenkel, Varr. p. 13 ; Schulze, Dis. Hal. VI, p. 127. Boehmer, 
Die Lat. Vulgar spr., II, p. 14, " Die Ablativendung auf -u scheint in der gemeinen 
Verkehrssprache eine der beliebtesten gewesen zn sein." Koziol, Apul. p. 267 sq. 
7 Schmidt, Terfc. I, p. 14. 8 "Usus . . . uniuersae posteriori latinitati tribuendus, 
cuius generis licentia praeter Tertull. sane apud Appuleium maxima extat," Schmidt, 
ib., citing Apul. Flor. p. 121, cd. Bipont.; conf. Neue, FormenL 319, sq.; Lonnergren, 
Sulp. Seu. p. 2. 9 Meyer, in Grober's Grundriss, I, p. 373 ; Diez 5, p. 665. 



20 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[ 3. -TVS, -8VS. 



from a few instances like centurionatus, Val. Max., licentiatus, 
Laber., belong to Post-Hadrian literature. 1 They belong 
largely to ecclesiastical Latin, as Tert., discipulatus, episcopatus ; 
Hier., apostolatus, clericatus, diaconatus, presbyteratus. These 
forms are especially numerous in Hier., who, according to 
Paucker, has one-eighth of entire number of recc. 2 

PLAVTVS. PACWIVS. 

algus, 8 Vidul Fr. 15 ed. Studem.; al, attrectatus, Tr. 266 
allegatus, 4 Trin. 1142 
cibatus, 5 Mil. 224 
concubinatus, 8 Trin. 690 
contutus, Id. 262 
cubitus, 7 Amph. 1122 
datus, 8 Trin. 1140 
*depeculatus, 9 Epid. 511 ed. Both. 

et lacob. 

extersus, Cure. 578 
frustrafrus, Men. 695 
illectus, 10 Bacch. 55 
ludificatus, Poen. 1281 
memoratus, 11 Bacch. 62 
nutricatus," Mil. 656 
obsonatus, Men. 288 ; al. 
pedatus, 13 Cist. 255 



quassus, Id. ib. 
spectns, Id. 147 
succussus, 1 * Id. 257 

TERENTIVS. 
abortus, 20 Hec. 398 
captus, 31 Ad. 480 
neglectus," Haul. 357 
screatus, Id. 373 
suasus, 53 Phorm. 730 

AFBANIVS. 
comptus," 4 Fr. Inc. 21. 



piscatus," End. 911 ; al. 
suspiritus," Merc. 124 ; al. 
tonsus, 16 Amph. 444 
tributus," Epid. 228 
uomitus, 18 Most. 652 

CATO. 

*granatus, E. E. 60 
opinionatus, Oratt. 5, Fr. 2 



LiVCEETlVS. 

adactus, 5, 1330 
adhaesus," 3, 38 ; al. 
adiectus, 28 4, 67 ; al. 
auxiliatus, 57 5, 1038 
collectus, 28 3, 198; al. 
commutatus, 1, 795 
conciliatus, 1, 575 ; al. 
concussus, 29 6, 290 
coorttts, 2, 1106 ; al. 
eiectus, 4, 956 



1 Goelzer, p. 98, Substantifs en -atus. 2 Pauck. Hier. p. 27, " recc. c.,%-" 
3 Ace.; Lucil.; Lucr.; Varr. Sat. Men. Gell. Lucr.; Varr.; Plin.; Cell.; Apul.; 
Solin. ; Macr. Suet. ; Vlp. Dig. r Cato B. R. ; Plin. ; Vulg. 8 Vulg. ; Augustin. See 
Buech. de DecL, p. 56. "lul. Val.; Auct.Itin. Alex. "Capit.; Vopisc. "Varr. R. R. 
13 Cato. 14 Pompon.; Tuipil.; Cic., semel, (Fin. 2, 23); Vitr. ; Plin.; Apul.; Augustin. 
"Cic. Ep.; Liu.; Apul. Met. 18 Acc. "Cato. "Cels.; Plin.; Curt.; Sen. Rhet.; Augus- 
tin. ; Eccl. ; Cael. Aur. ; Marc. Emp. Apul. ; Tert. 2 Cic. Ep. ; Gels. ; Col. ; Plin. ; 
Plin. Ep. 21 " Saepius occurrit in locutione ut captus est c. gen. personae ap. Ter. Afran. 
Cicer. semel, Tusc. II, 27, Caes. semel, Gell. Quae locutio sine dubio sermoni cotidiano 
attribuenda est " Schulze, Diss. Hal. VI, 127. 22 Plin. ; Symm. ; Greg. Ep. ; Cod, Theod. 
Apul. ; Tert. ; Dig. 24 Lucr. M Comp. Non. 73, 6. " Vitr.; Macr. * Arnob. 
Frontin. ; Tert. Plin. 



3. -TVS, -8V8.] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIV8. 



21 



gannitus, 1 5, 1070 
initus," 1, 13; al. 
iutactus, 1, 454 
*linctus, s 6, 971 
mactatus, 1, 99 
offensus, 4 2, 223; al 
opinatus, 4, 463 
oppressus, 6 1, 851 
proiectus, 8 3, 985 
refutatus, 3, 525 
subortus, 5, 303 
summatus, 5, 1140 

VARKO. 

aduectus, 7 L. L. 5, 43 
agitatus, 8 Id. 5, 11 ; al. 
ambecisus, Id. 7, 43 
commotus, 9 Id. 5, 71 
declinatus, Id. 6, 36 ; al. 
delapsus, R. R. 1, 6, 6 
detritus, L. L. 5, 176 
esus, 10 R. R. 1, 60 
*foratus, u ap. Lact. Opif. Dei 8, 6 
f usus, L. L. 5, 123 
indutus, 1 " Id. 5, 131 
iunctus, Id. 5, 47 ; al. 
mulctus, R. R. 2, 11, 2 
nominatus, L. L. 8, 52 ; al. 
nuptus, 13 Id. 5, 72 
obseruatus, R. R. 2, 5, 3 
pipatus, L. L. 7, 103 
primatus, 14 R. R. I, 7, 10 
rasus, L. L. 5, 136 
rutus, Id. ib. 
stratus, 16 R. R. 1, 50, 3 
suctus, 18 Sat. Men. 
uinctus, R. R. 1, 8, 6 



AVCT. BELL. HTSP. 
collatus, 17 31, 2 
excubittts, 18 6, 4 

Aver. BELL. ALEX. 
ausus, 19 43, 1 

ClCERO, (EPISTT.). 

*dispersus, ad Alt. 9, 92, Cod. M. 
inuitatus, ad Fam. 7, 5, 2 

VlTKVViVS. 

bullitus, 8, 3 
commensus, 1, 3, 2 ; al. 
comparatus, 7, praef. fin. 
emersus, 20 10, 22 
exemptus, 9, 8, 6 
expressus, 8, 6, 6 
*percursus, 9, 8, 4 
perfectus, 81 1, 2, 6 ; al. 
perflatus," 4, 7, 4 
responsus, 23 1, 2 
significatus," 9, 7, fin. 



CELSUS. 
renisus, 3 



5, 28, 12 



al. 



COLVMELLA. 

bimatus,* 6 7, 3, 6 ; al. 
conditus (condio), 2, 22, 4 
illapsus, 27 2, 2, 11 
quadrimatus, 28 7, 9, 2 
superiectus, 6, 36, 4 
trimatus, 29 8, 5, 24 

PETKONTVS. 
(bonatus, 30 74) 
seuiratus, 31 71 



1 Plin. ; Mart.; Apul. Met. ; Auson. a Ou.; Plin. 3 Plin. * Stat. Th. ; Tert. 6 Pe- 
lag. Vet. ; Augustin Ep. ; Sidon. Ep. Plin. T Tac. s Macr. Cael. Aur. 10 Plin.; 
Cell. ; Tert. ; Symm. ; Vulg. Tert. ; Gloss. Labb. " Tac. ; Apul. ; Symm. ; Amm. 
Stat.; Hyg.; Gell.; Aur. Viet. " Plin.; Tert.; Augustin. Stat.; Gell.; Hier.; Vlp. 
Dig.;Inscrr. " Plin. Censorin. 18 Vulg. " Petr.;VaL Flac.; Augustin.; Sidon.; 
Symm. ; Cod. Theod. Col. ; Plin. Tert. ; Vulg. 2 Col. ; Gels.; Plin. M Dig. 
84 Plin. ; Gell. ; Arnob. 2a Augustin. 26 Plin. ; Mythogr. Lat. ; Macr. ; Vulg. a7 SiL ; 
Ambros. = 8 Plin. PHn. ; Inscrr. Cf . Pauck., Silb. Lat. p. 9 B. s Insert. 



22 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[ 3. -TVS, -SV8. 



PLDUVS MAJOR 
accenstts, 1 37, 103 
auimatus, 11, 7 
aspersus, 8, 134 
astipulatus, 7, 152 
calceatus,* 8, 221 ; al. 
calcitratus, 8, 174 
calfactus, 3 29, 48 
circumflexus, 4 2, 1 ; al. 
circumplexus, 8, 32 ; al. 
concretas, 12, 70 
contuitus, 6 11, 145 ; al. 
decoctus, 37, 194 
decussus, 11, 163 
defossus, 19, 163 
distentus, 8, 138 
enarratus, 2, 206 
enixus, 7, 42 ; al. 
exstinctus, 7, 43 
fluxus, 8 9, 79; al. 
fotus, 7 23, 14 
fricatus, 13, 99 ; aL 
germinatus, 15, 34 ; al. 
gestatus, 15, 103 
illisus, 8 2, 132 
illitus, 26, 151 ; al. 
implexns, 9, 164 
impositus, 28, 41 
incisus, 16, 60 
incitus, 2, 116 
incubitus, 9 28, 54 ; al. 
infectus, 7, 193 
insitns, 15, 52 
instratus, 8, 154 
intermissus, 10, 81 
intextus, 2, 30 
intinctus, 20, 65 ; al. 
inuentus, 10 17, 162 
linitus, 20, 118 



Htus, 33, 110 
luctatus," 8, 33 
lymphatus, 37, 146 
mancipatus, 1 " 9, 124 
nepotatus, 18 9, 114 ; al. 
obtritus, 18, 258 
olfactus, 21, 156 ; al. 
palpitatus, 9, 90 
permeattts, 20, 228 
portatus, 14 9, 114 
praecursus, 18 16, 104 
praetentatus, 11, 140 
pruritus," 9, 146 ; al. 
quaesitus, 5, 57 
quinquennatus, 8, 178 
*recubitus, 1T 14, 13 ed. Ian. 
reptatus, 18 14, 13 
respersus, 10, 9 
strangulatus, 20, 197 ;al. 
subactus, 18, 67 
subditus, 32, 28 
subiectus, 26, 154 
submotus, 8, 85 
substratus, 19 24, 61 
suffitus, 32, 142 ; al. 
sufflatus, 32, 28 
superuentus, 80 7, 64 
tinctus, 10, 134 
titillatus," 11, 198 
unctus," 30, 90 
uerberatus, 31, 39 
uociferatus, 10, 164 
uolutatus, 93 10, 17 

IWENAI-IS. 

furtus, 8, 113 

GELLIVS. 
conspiratus, 1, 11, 8 



1 Symm. a Suet. * Lact * A mm. 6 Curt.; Ambros. ; Amm.; Angustin. ; 
Inscrr. Quint. ; lustin. ; Tert ; PalL 7 Lact. ; Prud. ; Mart. Cap. ; Gael Anr. 8 Sil ; 
ApuL 'Solin. 10 Tert. " ApuL Cod. Theod. Suet. ; Porph. ad Hor. 
14 Si! Ambros.; Vulg. " Ser. Samm.; Mart. Cap. 17 Hier. ; Vulg. "Tert. 
Auct. Itin. Alex. ao Tac.; Veget. MiL ai CaeL Aur. M ApuL "ApuL 



3. -TVS, -SVS.] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



23 



derelictus, 4, 12, 1 
inclinatus, 3, 12, 2 
obtrectatus, praef. 16 
pronuntiatus, 4, 17, 8 
relictus, 3, 1, 9 

APVLETVS. 

adhortatus, Apol. 102 
afflictus, de Mund. 15 
appensus, Id. 3 
auscultatus, 1 Met. 6, 13 
boatus, 9 Id. 3, 3 
cauillatus, Id. 8, 25 
cogitatus, 3 Id. 4, 5 
cognitus, /a 7 . 9, 13 
communicatus, Deo Socr. 4 
conditus, 4 (condo), Hag. 24 
deductus, Met. 1, 16 
defluxus, Deo Socr. 11 
deluctatus, Dogm. Plat. 1, 2 
demersus, -4poZ. 21 
dilectus, 6 Ascl. 9 
effigiatus, .FZo?'. 15, p. 17, 4 

iTr. 

elaboratus, Id. 9, p. 10, 17 Kr. 
*excitus, Met. 6, 27, cod. Flor. 
gelatus, de Mund. 9 
genitus, Apol. 36 
increpitus, 8 Deo Socr. 19 
indagatus, Met. 7, 7 
inbalatus, /d 2, 10 
inscensus, Id. 7, 14 
inspersus, Id. 7, 22 
insutus, Id. 7, 4 
locutus, Mor. 15, p. 19, 1 Kr. 
machinatus, 7 Apol. 74 
matronatus, Met. 4, 23 
meditatus, Id. 3, 14 
menstts, de Mund. 3 
monstratus, 8 Met. 1, 22 



natatus, 9 7<i 5, 28 
opertus, 10 Apol. 56 
oppexus, .3ferf. 11, 9 
possessus, Apol. 13 
praegnatus, 11 Met. 6, 4 
prosectus, 7c?. 8, 28 ; al. 
refectus, 18 Id. 8, 18;aZ. 
reflexus, 13 Flor. 6 in. 
repertus, Met. 11, 2 ; aZ. 
retrocessus, Dogm. Plat. 1, 8 
ruditus, 14 Jl/e<. 8, 29 
sacrificatus, Id. 7, 10 
scortatus, Id. 5, 28 
separatus, Flor. 15, p. 17, 7 ./Tr. 
sessus, /(?. 16, p. 21, 7 .fiTr. 
spretus, 15 Deo Socr. 3 
strictus, J^-a^m. 21, 3, p. 639 H. 
structus, 16 Met. 11, 16 
sustentatus, " Apul. 21 
tersus, Met. 1, 7 ; aZ. 
uolutus, Flor. 10 

TEETVLLIANVS. 
*admissus, 18 [qp. Schmidt, Tert. 1, 

p. 14] 

antistatus, adu. Valent. 13 
conculcatus, J?es. Cam. 22 
deceptus, ac?w. Jfarc. 3, 6 
defunctus, adu. Valent. 26 
denotatus, Pall. 4, wee?, 
detentus, adu. Valent. 32 
detractatus, Spect. 3 
educatus, J2es. Carn. 60 
effatus, 19 Anim. 6 
episcopatus, 20 Bapt. 17 
eruditus, c?. FaZenf. 13 
explains, Id. ib. 
*exploratus, [ap. Schmidt, Tert. 1, 

p. 14] 
incolatus," Apol. 22 



1 Pulg. 2 Auson. ; Mart. Cap. 8 Tert.; Hier.; Augustin. 4 Censorin. ; Inl. Val ; Auct. 
Itin. Alex.; Auson. 5 Chalcid. Tim. Tert. r Sidon. Ep. 8 Auson. Stat.; lul. 
Val. ; Pall.; Auson.; Claud. ;Fulg. Paul. Nol. ; Macrob. "Tert. 12 Dig. "Cassiod. 
"Mythogr. Lat.; Adelh. Sidon. Bp. 18 Arnob. " Hier.; Auson. 18 Pall; Salu.; 
Veg. "Hier. 40 Vulg.; Eccl.; Amm. Dig. ; Cod. Theod. ; Inscrr. 



24 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[ 3. -TVS, -8VS. 



ingestus, Ees. Cam. 42 
i *initiatus, [ap. Schmidt, Tert. 1, 

P- 14] 

inquilinatus, 1 Anim. 38, fin. 
iaculatus, de Sped. 18 
*motatus, [op. Schmidt, Tert. 1, p. 

14] 

mutatus, de Pall. 4 
obnexus, adu. Marc. 4, 37 
obuentus, Anim. 41 
operatus, ae/w. Prax. 16 ; ^. 
perculsus, jinira. 52 
pertractus, rfe 0?*. 5 
posfrumatus, adu. Valent. 55 
praegnatus, adu. Marc. 3, 13; a/, 
praescriptus, Exhort, ad Cast. 3 
praetractatus, Fug. in Pers. 4 
praeuentus, a adu. Marc. 5, 12 
prioratus, adu. Valent. 4 
prolatus, 3 Id. 33 
promotus, (7or. Jfz7. 3 
recidiuatus, Anim. 28 ; al. 
recogitatua, aofw. .Marc. 4, 43 ; al. 
recordatus, Res. Cam. 4 ; al, 
reformatus, adu. Valent. 13 
*regnatus, adu. Prax. 13 
retractatus, 4 Apol. 4 ; al. 
retractus, 6 adu. Gnost. 1 
secundatus, Anim. 27 
spadonatus, Cult. Fern. 11, 9 
submersus, Anim. 32 
submissus, ac?z. JSfarc. 5, 16 
suggillatus, 7(Z. 4. 34 
supergressus, Res. Cam. 40 
uiduatus, Virg. Vel. 9 
nniuersatus, ad Vxor. 1, 9 ; al. 

SPABTIANYS. 
direptus, Seu. 19, 6 

CAPITOLINVS. 

*aucupatus, Anton. Phil. 4, 9 



ABNOBIVS. 
ambulatns, 1, 48 
*ancillatus, 7, 13 
coalitus, 6 4, 150 
copulatus, 1, 2 
gingritus, 6, 20 
inflictus, 3, 18 
structus, 7, 15 

LAMPBIDIVS. 
*animaduersus, Alex. Seu. 25, 2 

VOPISOVS. 

iocatus, Aur. 23, 3 

CHALCIDIVS. 
dilectus, Tim. 135 
raptatus, Id. 43, (7. 73, 81 
snccentuSj 7 Id. 44 

PALLAPIVS. 
calcatus, 8 7, 13, 17 

AVCT. ITIN. ALEX. 
caesus, 44 
fixus, 49 
obnisus, 16 
septus, 46 

SYMMACHVS. 
adflexus, Or. 2, 20 
admorsus, Ep. 1, 15 
annisus, /c?. 5, 75 
consultus, 9 Id. 3, 39 
demensus, Id. 1, 1, 1 
expostulates, Id. 9, 13 
fretus, Id. 2, 82 
impensus, Id. 1, 5; a/, 
praefatas, Eel. 9, 5 

AMMIANVS. 

circumgresstis, 22, 2, 3 ; aZ. 
difflatus, 15, 11, 18 



1 Sidon. Ep. CaeL; Aur.; Prise. Donat. 4 Hier. lBid. Hegea. T Mart 
Cap. 8 Auct. Itin. Alex. 8 Isid. 



$ 4. -OB.] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



25 



*intronocatns, 29, 1, 25; codd. 
traductus, 18, 8, 2 
transcensus, 1 19, 5, 6 

AMBBOSIVS. 

impetratus, de Fide, 5, 6, 77 
rigafcus, de Isaac, 1 ; al. 

HIEBONTMVS. 

accinctus, in Ezech. 10, 3, 4 - 
adoratus, 2 Ep.22, 6; al 
clericatus, Id. 5, 1 ; al. 
diaconatus, 3 in Ezech. 10, 1 ; al 
extensus, Id. 11, 1 
occubitus, 4 J5>. 108, 34 
presbyteratus, 5 Id. 22, 38 
prolapsus, 6 Id. 98, 12 



AVGVSTINVS. 

reciprocatus, Genes, ad Litt. 11, 1 
sputus, 7 Civ. Dei 18, 23, 2 



HABITANTS CAPELIIA. 
blateratus, 8 9, 999 
frictus, Poet. 8, 805 ; al. 
micatus, 4, 331 
netus, 2, 114 

CAELIVS AVBELIANVS. 
attentus, Chron. 3, 1, 3 
conclusus, Id. 1, 4, 77 
conductus, Acut. 2, 15, 95 
exscreatus, Chron. 7, 11, 128 ; a 
sibilatus, 9 .dcuf. 2, 27, 144 

SEDONIVS APOLLINABIS. 
concitatus, Carm. 23, 366 
garritns, Ep. 8, 6 
indultns, Id. 1, 11 
reseratus, Id. 9, 11 
nulgatus, Id. 8, 1 

BOETHTVS. 
assumptus, in Porphyr. 1 ; exir. 



4. SUBSTANTIVES IN -or : Abstract substantives in -or, as a 
class, have little bearing upon this subject, as they are dis- 
tinctly characteristic of an elevated style. 10 They belong 
chiefly to the early period, and although a large majority are 
retained in the classical language, comparatively few new 
forms come into use. Paucker 11 has collected 103 of these 
words, uett. 85, recc. 18, derived chiefly from verbs, (verbal =84, 
of which 68 % are from the 2nd conj.), and of the uett. at least 
61, or 70 #, occur before Cic. Plaut. 12 has 34, of which all but 6 
are retained by Cic. Ter. has 12, all classic, and Lucr. has 49, 
almost 50 $ of the entire number. Cic. uses 45, all of which 
occur in earlier authors, excepting 7 : clangor, fauor, foetor, 
furor, stupor, tenor, *torpor ; and there is no reason to suppose 
that he coined any of these ; indeed of tenor he says, uno tenore, 
ut aiunt, (Or. 6, 21). 

1 Hier. ; Vulg. ; Auct. Carm. de Fig. Greg. Mag. Sulp. Sen.; Eccl. * Vulg. 
Ps.-Augustin. Rufin.; Augustin. ; Eccl. 1 Cael. Aur. 8 Sidon. Ep. " Prob. 

10 Slaughter, p. 21, citing Ploen, p. 42. " Paucker, Hier. p. 28, not. ia Rassow 
gives 35, including /naior, potior, but omitting nidor, Most. 5. 



26 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[ 4. -OK. 



The following- is a list of the substantives in -or, used by 
Cic., which occur in earlier writers r 1 



amor, Plant.; Ter.; Lucr. 

angor, Lucr. 

calor, Plant.; Lucr. 

candor, Naeu.; Plant. 

clamor, Plant. ; Ter. 

color, Plant. ; Titin. ; Lucr. ; Varr. 

cruor, Lucr. 

dolor, Plant.; Ter. 

error, Plant.; Ter. 

feruor, Varr. 

fulgor, Lucr. 

honor, Plant.; Ter. 

horror, Plant.; Lucr. 

humor, Plant.; Lucr. 

labor, Plant.; Ter. 

languor, Plant.; Ter. 

lepor, Plant. 

liquor, Plant.; Lucr. 

maeror, Plant.; Ter. 



nidor, Plant.; Lucr. 
nitor, Plant.; Ter.; Lucr. 
paedor, Poet. op. Cic.; Lucr. 
pallor, Plant.; Lucr. 
plangor, Cornif. Rhet. 
pudor, Plant.; Enn.; Ter. 
rubor, Plant. 
rumor, Plant.; Ter. 
sapor, Lucr. 

splendor, Plant.; Lucr. 
squalor, Plant.; Lucr. 
stridor, Ace. ap. Cic. 
sudor, Plant.; Enn.; Lucr. 
tepor, Lucr. 
terror, Plant. 
timor, Plant.; Ter.; Lucr. 
uapor, Ace.; Lucr. 
odor, Plant.; Varr. 
pauor, Naeu.; Enn.; Lucr. 



The following forms are interesting as further proof of the 
archaic nature of this suffix : 2 



PliAVTVS. 

claror, Most. 645 

ENNIVS. 

uagor, 3 Ann. 408 

CATO. 
putor, 4 R. R. 157, 3 

PACWIVS. 

macor, Tr. 275 
nigror, 5 Id. 412 

Accrvs. 
aegror, 6 F>-. 349 



LVOILITS. 

pigror, Sat. 10, 1 

VAEKO. T 

curuor, L. L. 5, 104 ; al. 
olor, 8 (oleo), Id. 6, 83 
tardor, Sat. Men. 57 
uuor, L. L. 5, 104 

LVCEETTVS. 

canor, 4, 182 
stringor, 3, 687 

LABEBIVS. 

pluor, Com. 59 



1 1 have not attempted to distinguish the cases in which the form found is the old 
nominative in -os. 3 Comp. Ronsch, p. 63 sq. 

* Lucr. Lucr.; Varr.; Stat.; Apul.; Arnob.; Itala ; Hier.; Augustin. s Lucr.; 
Gels.; Gell.; Cypr. Lucr. 7 Comp. Steunkel, p. 20. 8 *Apul. Ou.; Verg.; Petr. 



5. -TVIU, -SVBA.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 27 

Silver Latin adds only 8, of which 3 are in Col., acor, floor, 
mucor. The African wiiter, Apul., however, has 4 new words, 
ningor, rudor, tum\ tundor, and over 14 old forms are cited from 
him by the lexicons. Tert., on the other hand, adds only 2 
forms, dulcor, frendor, thus indicating that their frequency in 
Apul. is best regarded as an archaism and not a feature of 
African Latinity. Goelzer, however, gives a list of 16 late for- 
mations, showing that the suffix was still employed in the time 
of Hier. 1 

The great majority of forms in -or are verbal derivatives, 
and only such appear to have been employed by the writers of 
the best period. The only words which can be cited which 
are unquestionably denominative belong to early, rustic or 
late Latin (3, Silv. Lat.) : 

LTTCIL., lymphor, Fr. Inc, 86 

LTJCB., amaror, 4, 224; a/./ *Verg.* Ge. 2, 247 

laeuor, 4, 552 ; al. Gels. ; Plin. 
VABB., caldor, R. R. 1, 41, 1 ; Gell. ; Arnob. 
QUINT., tonor, (TOVOS), 1, 5, 22 
FuLa., acror, Cont. Verg. init.; Isid. 
PS.-SORAN., frigdor. , Qu. Medic. 109 ; Gloss. Paris, (comp. Fr., froideiir). 

It is interesting to note that the new formations in -or in 
the Romance languages are largely formed from adjectives, 3 as 
Ital., believe, forzore, tristore; Sp., blancor., dulcor ; Fr., amp- 
leur, hauteur, verdeur. 

5. SUBSTANTIVES IN -tura, -sura: This class of verbal deriv- 
atives belongs especially to the sermo plebeius. Their preva- 
lence in the Scriptt. B. B. was first noted by Stuenkel, (p. 27), 
who accordingly assigned them to the sermo rustieus* and his 
view is sustained by statistics contained in the list prepared 
by K. Paucker : 5 according to this list, the total number of 
subss., in -tura, -sura, is 282, uett. 147, recc. 135, only 27 of 
which, or barely 19 % uett. occur in Cic. Of all abstract nouns 
they gained the least acceptance in classic Latin ; Cic. has of 

1 Goelzer, p. 99. 

9 Comp. Gell. 1, 21, 5, Non enim primus flnxit hoc uerbum Vergilius insolenter, 
sed in carminibns Lucreti inuento usus est, non aspernatus auctoritatem poetae 
ingenio et facundia praecellentis. 

3 Diez, p. 658, " Die rom. Schopfungen entspringen haufig ans Adj." 4 Comp. 
SchTike, Diss. Hal. VI, p. 144 ; Slaughter, Ter., p. 23 ; Ronsch, Itala, p. 40 ; Golzer, 
Hier, p. 88. Zeitachr. f . ostr. Gymnas. XXVI, p. 891 sq. 



28 WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 5. -TVBA, -SVRA. 

subs, in -tas, 66 % of uett., -tio, 59 # ; -ntia, 50 % ; -us, 42 $ ; 
-tudo, 37 <f>. Of the 147 uett. t in -tura, -sura, Plaut. used 18, 8 of 
which are given by Schmilinsky, (p. 33), as vulgar ; Cato, R. R., 
added 3, and Varr. 14, 9 in the R. R. ; Vitr. has 20 new words, 
and Silver Latin added 50, the largest number, 14, being due 
to Plin., always a fertile source for rustic vocabulary, and about 
a dozen more to Col. One notable feature of this class, is the 
large number, 203, or more than two-thirds of the whole, which 
have corresponding forms in -tio ; the consequent superfluous- 
ness of these forms, together with their rare usage, (125, or 44 
% are aira i/37?/Ae'va, uett. 33 ; recc. 92) is the strongest evidence 
of their vulgar character. In later Latin, however, when for- 
mations in -tio became general, those in -tura failed to main- 
tain themselves in opposition, and the new formations are pro- 
portionately few. Thus Tert., the most prolific of all Latin 
writers in word-building, adds only 12, and Hier. only 4. 

The use of these substantives in a concrete sense is a pecu- 
liarity of the later language important in its bearing upon the 
Romance languages. This change first became noticeable in 
Tert., 1 in a few words like creatura, genitura,paratura, scriptura ; 
but the usage widened steadily, until a large share of the new 
forms were concrete. Goelzer 2 gives a list of 44, chiefly recc., 
which are so employed, and emphasizes the fact, already 
noted by Ronsch, 3 that the concrete sense predominates in de- 
rivatives of this class in modern Fr., as borditre, cemture, 
enflure, tournure, etc.; so also in Ital., arsura, lettura, morsura, 
etc., and the Romance languages in general. 4 The general 
prevalence of these derivatives, in both senses, in the modern 
languages, It., Sp., Port., ura, Fr., ure, Rum., ur$, is the 
strongest proof of their firm hold upon the language of the 
people. 

PLAVTVS. desultura, Mil. 280 

cubitura, Fr. ap. Non. 198, 25 fictura, 6 Trin. 365 

cursura, 6 Asin. 327; a/, insultura, Mil. 280 

1 Schmidt, Tert., I, p. 21, "(Tert.) nonnullis uim attribuit iusolitam, concretam, 
contra naturam terminationis actionem quandam significantis." 2 Goelzer, St. Je- 
rome, p. 89. 3 Ronsch, Itala, p. 43, not. , citing paratura, assatura, r.onditura ; comp. 
Diez, p. 657, " der active Sinn leicht in den passiven Ubergeht, wie pictura, das 
Malen und das Gemalte heisst." * Diez, ib. 

6 Varr. ; Apul. ; Amm. Gell. ; Chalcid. Tim. 



5. -TVRA, -SVRA.J ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



29 



polluctura, Stick. 688 
salsura, 1 Id. 92 
textura, 2 Id. 348 
uenatura, Mil. 999 

TEBENTIVS. 
curatura, 1 Eun. 316 

CATO. 

commixtura, R. R. 157, 1 
compos(i)tura, 4 Id. 22, 3 
fractura, 5 Id. 160 

LVCRETIVS. 

dispositura, 1, 1027 ; al. 
flexura,* 4, 336 
formatura, 7 4, 550 

VABBO. 

admissura, 8 R. R. 2, 5, 12 ; al. 
caelatura, 9 Sat. Men. 420 
carptura, R. R. 3, 16, 26 
fartura, 10 Id. 3, 83 
*moderatura, de Vit. P. R. 1, 5, ed. 

Kettner 

partura, R. R. 2, 1, 26 
pensura, L. L. 5, 183 
temperatura, 11 Sat. Men. 23 
tonsura, 12 R. R. 2, 11, 9; al. 
tritura, 13 Id. 1, 13, 5 
uelatura, Id. 1, 2, 14 
uinctura, 14 L. L. 5, 62 
uolatura, 15 R. R. 3, 5, 7 
uulsura, Id. 2, 11, 9 



VITKWIVS. 

apertura, 16 4, 6, 6 ; al. 
calcatura, 10, 10, 1 
coctura, 17 7, 9, 1 
*compactura, 4, 7, 4 
conclusura, 6, 8, 3 
contractura, 3, 3, 12 
corporatura, 18 6, 1, 3 
curuatura, 19 2, 8, 11 
directura, 20 7, 3, 5 
flatura, 21 2, 7, 4 
foliatura, 2, 9, 13 
fossura, 22 5, 9, 8 
fricatura, 23 7, 1, 4 
inuersura, 5, 3, 5 
materiatura, 4, 2, 2 
membratura, 8, 5, 1 
praecinctura, 24 10, 21, 6 
proiectura, 3, 2, 3 
striatura, 25 4, 3, 9 
traiectura, 4, 7, 5 

CELSVS. 

fissura, 88 7, 12, 1 ; al. 
scissura, 27 6, 18, 9 

SENECA, (Apoc.) 

dilatura, Apoc. 14, 3 
latura, 28 Id. ib. 

COLVMELLA. 

ceratura, 29 12, 50, 16 
coactura, 12, 52, 1 
confectura, 30 9, 14, 5 



1 Varr. ; Col. ; Fulg. Myth. a Lucr. ; Prop. ; Sen. Ep. ; Lucan. ; Vulg. ; Prud. 3 Prise. 
Lucr.;Capitoap. Gell. 6 Gels.; Plin. Varr. ; Sen. ; Col. ; Suet. r Arnob. 8 Col.; 
Plin.;Stat.; Vulg. Sen. Ep. ; Quint. ; Plin. ; Suet ; Vulg. 10 Vitr. ; CoL ; Tert. "Vitr.; 
Sen. Ep. ; Plin. ; Vulg. " Ou. ; Plin. ; Gael. Aur. 13 Verg. Ge. ; Col. ; Apul. Met. ; Pseud.- 
Apic. ; Plin. Val. " Gels. ; Plin. CoL ' Vulg. ; Dig. 17 Sen. Ep.; Col.; Plin.; 
Pseud. -Apic.; Pall. ; Ambros. 1B Col. 19 Ou.; Sen.; Plin.; Hyg. 20 Frontin.; Gromat. 
Vet. 21 Petr.; Plin.; Arnob.; Inscrr. Col.; Suet.: Pall.; Inscrr. " Apul. Met. 10, 
21, fragm. , p. 230, ed. H. a* Macr. Sidon. Ep. " Col. ; Plin. 2r Sen. ; Plin. ; Prud. ; 
form eisswra.Gromat. Vet. 88 Augustin. ; Mart. ; Schol. luu. ; Gloss. Labb. 29 Gloss. 
Labb. 30 Plin. 



WORD FORMATION IN TEE [ 5. -TVBA, -SVRA. 



domitnra, 1 6, 2, 1 
fluxura, 2 3, 2, 17 
incisura, 3 12, 54, 1 
rasura, 4 4, 29, 9 
salitura, 12, 21, 3 
sanitura, 6 11, 2, 27 

PETBONTVB. 
conditura," (condo), 51 

PLINIVS. 

caesura, 7 16, 230 
capillatura, 8 37, 190 
castratura, 9 18, 86 
circumcisura, 16, 219 
circumfossura, 17, 227 
diuisura, 10 16, 122; al. 
factura, 11 34, 145 
fusura, 12 33, 106 
genitura, 13 18, 202 ; al. 
indicatura, 37, 18 ; al 
lotura, 14 34, 128 
nomenclatura, 3, 2 ; al. 
pisfrura, 18, 97 
plicatura, 7, 171 
tinctttra, 37, 119 

GELIJVS. 
alitura, 12, 1, 20 

APYIiEIVS. 

agressura, 1 * Met. 7, 7 
*lacunatura, Flor. 2, 15 
*mollitura, de Mag. 9 

TEKTVHLIANYS. 
concussura, ad Scap. 13 
creatura, 18 Apol. 30 



delatura," adu. Marc. 5, 18, fin. 
farsura, adu. Valent. 27 
fixura, 18 adu. Gnost. 1, med. 
inscriptura, adu. Valent. 30 
laesura, 19 de Patient. 7 
paratura, 20 Apol. 47; al. 
piscatura, adu. Marc. 4, 9 
praeparatura, Id. 4, 18, al. 
suffectura, Id. 1, 28 
supparatura, Res. Cam. 61 

LAMPRTDIVS. 
praepositura, 21 Heliog. 6 

VOPISCVS. 

assatura, 28 Aurel. 49, 9 

PALLADIVS. 
cretnra, 1, 24, 3 
serratura, 3, 17 ; in. 

AMMIANTS. 
*praetentura, 14, 3, 2 ; al. 

AMBKOSTVS. 

discissura, Serin. 13 

HIEEONYMVS. 
frixura, 23 in Amos. 7, 7 
*messura, in Galat. 6, 9 
pastura, 24 in Osee, 4, 15 
stannatura, in Amos, 7, 7 

AVGVSTINVS. 

conscissura, in Ps. 49, 9 
munitura, 25 adu. lulian. Pelag. 2, 
6,16 



JPlin. 2 Tert. 3 Pall.; Vulg. Hier.; Veget.; Cael. Aur. 5 Plin. Isid. 
i Diom. 497,(metr.). 8 Tert.; CaeL Aur. Pall. 10 Pall.; Cael. Aur. Gell.; 
Vulg.; Prud. "Vulg. 13 Suet.; Apul.; Arnob.; Spart.; Amm.; Angustin.;Eutrop. 
Mart. > 5 Vlp. Dig. ; Cod. lust. Hier. ; Vulg. ; Prud. 17 Vulg. 18 Hier. ; Vulg. 
Vulg. ; Inscrr. 20 Auct. Vit. Cypr. ai Augustin. ; Cod. lust. " Vulg. ; Ps. -Apic. ; 
Plin. Val. M Ven. Fort ; Greg. M. \form frictura, Anthim. 24 PalL 5 Inscrr. 



6. -ELA.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 31 

6. SUBSTANTIVES IN -la : This class of derivatives, like 
those in -tudo, is an archaism which the demand for abstracts 
revived in post-classical literature ; l they are at best very rare, 
and with the exception of two or three in general use, as 
querela, tutela, (both in Cic.), confined to early and late Latin. 
Their comparative frequency in early comedy, (7 in Plaut., 3 
in Ter., 1 in Turpil. and Afran.), their avoidance by classic 
writers, and revival by writers of Silver Latin and by the 
archaists sustain the view of Rebling 2 that this suffix was a 
characteristic of plebeian Latin. Even in post-classical times 
it failed to become prevalent in literature : Silver latin, 8 so 
fertile in vocabulary, added only 2, Gell. and Apul. 1 each, 
(the latter however employed 5 from archaic latin, cautela, cus- 
todela, suadela, turbela, from Plaut., fugela from Cato); Tert., 4 
first and alone, used the suffix freely, increasing the list by 5, 
and using 2 others, both post- Augustan, (medela, Gell., sequela, 
Frontin.), so that with him the usage could not have been a con- 
scious archaism, but must have been borrowed from popular 
speech ; for Tert., while enriching most extensively the Latin 
vocabularly, drew largely from plebeian sources. Later 
writers, while not adding materially to the number of these 
substantives, continued to show a partiality for those already 
in use: thus Hier. has medela, obsequela, sutela; Augustin., in- 
corruptela, turbela ; and Amm. no less than 8, cautela, dientela, 
corruptela, medela, querela, sequela, turbela, tutela. These forms 
have been retained in Bom. languages only in isolated in- 
stances as Fr. querelle, chandelle ; Sp. querella ; Pg. candea ; 
but Diez, 5 notes the allied suffix -eale, frequent in Daco- 
Ruman. 

i "Die Neigung zur Abstraction in den Zeiten des Verfalls zeigt sich ... in 
Wiederaufnahme der nur im Altlat. ublichen Endung ela," Schmalz, Stilist., p. 534 2. 
y Rebl. p. 23 ; comp. Schulze, p. 156, " Rebling recte docuit substantiua suffixo -ela de- 
rivata a priscis scriptoribus et deinde in sermone uulgari admodum adamata fuisse : " 
Ronsch, p. 45 ; Schmilinsky, p. 32 ; Goelzer, p. 90. 3 1 cannot agree with Slaughter, p. 
23, that -ela is a "favorite suffix in Silver and late latin:" it was revived in Silver 
Latin, but the 2 instances given by Paucker, Silb. Lat. p. 16, hardly prove it a favorite. 
* Schmidt, Tert. I, p. 22. * Diez, p. 641. 



32 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[ 7. -NTIA, 



PliAVTVS. 

*cautela,' Mil 601 
custodela," Capt. 457 ; al. 
loquela, 3 Cist. 741 
*obsequela,* Asin. 65 
suadela, 5 Cist. 296 
sutela, 6 Capt. 692 ; al 
(turbel(l)a, 7 Pseud. 110) 

CATO. 
fugela, 8 Oratt. 12, .FV. 1 

I/VCBKT1VS. 

luela, 3, 1028 

PUNIVS. 
cicindela, 9 18, 250 

PAVLI FEST. EPIT. 
assidela, p. 17 ed. Mul. 
confugela, 10 Id. 39, 9 

GELUVS. 
medela," 12, 5, 3 

FBONTINVS. 
sequela, 12 Strat. 2, 4, 8 



APYLEIVS. 

*nitela, 13 Mag. 9. 

TEBTVLUANVS. 
captatela, Pall. 5 
fouela, Anim. 7 

incorruptela, 14 Res. Cam. 52 ; al. 
monela, 15 adu. Marc. 4, 34 ; al. 
peccatela, Anim. 40 

GAIVS. 

mandatela, 16 Inst. 2, 104 

MABIVS VICTOKINVS. 
assequela, p. 2500 

SALVIANVS. 
incautela," Gub. Dei. 6, 10 

ISIDOEVS. 

antel(l)a, Or. 20, 16, 4 
postel(l)a, Id. ib. 

INTPR. AD COD. THEOD. 
conductela, 4, 12, 1 

THOMAE THESAVBVS. 
subtela, p. 561 



7. SUBSTANTIVES IN -ntia : This derivation also was a 
favorite in the sermo plebeius, although a large proportion of 
these words were in use in the classical speech. It was fre- 
quent in early latin (Kassow assigns 26 to Plaut.), and its 
plebeian character is noted by Lorenz, 19 who also notes the 
number of these words which were dropped from the classic 

1 ApuL Met. ; Min. FeL ; Vlp. Dig. ; Amm. ; Symm. * Formul. Vet. ap. Gai. Inst. ; 
Apul. 8 Lucr.; Varr.; Verg.; On. ; Tert. ; Vulg. ; Prob.; Intpr. Iren. 4 Turpil.; Afran.; 
Sail. Fr. ap. Non. ; Prud. ; Hilar. ; Hier. * ApuL ; Intpr. Iren. ; Vulg. ; Nom. propr. , Siu 
adela*= Gk. neiflw, Hor. Ep. 1, 6, 38. Paul, ex Fest. ; Symm. ; Hier. ' Apul . ; Amm. ; Au- 
gustin.; " only in Vnlg. lang." L. & S. 8 Apul. 9 Paul ex Fest.; Isid.; Not. Tir.; Gloss. 
Labb. 10 Cited as archaic. " Apul.;Iustin.; Tert.; Cypr.;Prud.; Veget.; Amm.; Hier.; 
Vulg. ; Cod. ; Gael. Aur. ia GelL ; Tert. ; Lact. ; Amm. ; lustin. ; Dig. ; Inscr. J 3 Solin. 
14 Intpr. Iren.; Ambros.; Vulg.; Augustin. 15 Lucif. Cal. "Prise. 17 Eccl. 

18 Compare Schulze, Diss. Hal. VI, p. 154 Lorenz ad Pseud. 381, " der Volks- 
spracbe angehorige z. Th. von den Archaisten wieder aufgenommene Bildungen sind^oZ- 
lentia,fraudulentia,flagrantia, incogitantia, etc." 



7. -NTIA.] ROMAN SERNO PLEBEIV8. 33 

speech, but revived by the archaistic writers. The chief activ- 
ity of this formation belongs, however, to post-classical times : 
the language contains altogether over 342 examples, recc. 203, 
uett. 139, of which about 65 occur in Cic., or Caes. Silver 
Latin J affords only 21 (Plin., Sen., and Quint. 4 each), but with 
the African writers the formation becomes frequent. From Gell. 
I can cite 9 new words; Apul. gives the same number, and 
Tert., 2 at whose hands the suffix received new life, is most fer- 
tile of any Latin author. He not only revived 13 from the Sil- 
ver Latin, but added to the language 37 new forms, of which 
30 do not occur again. Many of these, especially compounds, 
which are alien to the spirit of the classic language, Schmidt 
notes are formed by him in order to render words from the 
Greek, as multimibentia = Tro\vyap.ia, multiuorantia = TroXv^ayt'a. 
In Hier. we find 7 new forms, of which 5 are peculiar to him, 
and Ronsch 3 cites 11 late forms, occurring in the Vulgate. 
Most significant of all, however, as an indication of the vulgar 
character of these words is, that out of the dozen occurring 
first in the vulgar writer Vitr., some words peculiar to him, 
as crescentia, resonantia, have reappeared in the Romance 
languages. 4 

NAEVIVS. ENNTVS. 

ualentia, 8 Tr. 3 blandiloquentia, 14 Tr. 305 

Acoivs. 

PLAVTVS - errantia, Tr. 469 

essentia, 6 Fr. Dub. et Susp. 4 fauentia, 15 Id. 510 
flagrantia, 7 Eud. 733 

*fraudulentia, 8 Mil. 193, Br. Novivs. 

(habentia, 9 Anct. Prol. True. 21) tolutiloquentia, Com. 38 
incogitantia, Merc. 27 

Inbentia, 10 Pseud. 396 ; al. SISENNA. 

pollentia, 11 Eud. 618 ; al. aduenientia, Fr. p. 281, 15 P. 
queentia, 12 Fr. Dub. et Susp. 4 

stultiloquentia, Trin. 222 Niomivs. 

uaniloquentia, 13 Eud. 905 imminentia, 16 ap. Gell 9, 12, 6 

i Pauck Silb. Lat. p. 17. Schmidt. Tert. I, p. 22 sq. a Ronsch, p. 50. * Wolffl., 
ALL. I, p. 127, citing Ulrich, Vitr. Cop. Verb. pt. L 

5 Titin. Com. ; Tert. ; Macr. ; Boeth. Comp. Quint. 8, 3, 33; Sen. Ep. 58, 6; Halm, ad 

loc. 7 Cic., semel, (Cael. 20, 49).; Gell.; Apul.; Arnob. ; Prud.; Mart. Cap. 8 Hilar. ; Am- 

bros.; Hier.; Vulg. 9 Quadrig. ap. Non.; Augustin. 10 Gell. > Liu. " Conf. not. 6, 

supra. 13 Liu.; Tac.; lul. VaL 14 Hilar. 16 Cypr. Faust, ap. Augustin.; Greg. Ep. 

3 



34: 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[ 7. -NTIA. 



LVCKETIYS. 

dissipientia, 3, 499 
repetentia, 1 3, 863 
retinentia, 3, 675 
uariantia, 1, 654 ; al. 

ViTuwrvs. 
candentia, 9, 2, 2 
concrescentia, 8, 3, 18 
considerantia, 6, 1, 10 
crescentia, 9, 9, 7 
decrescentia, 9, 2, 2 
iudecentia, 2 7, 5, 6 
nascentia, 3 10, 6, 2 
obstantia, 9, 5, 4 ; al. 
peruolantia, 9, 7, 1 
prominentia, 4 6, 11, 6 
resonantia, 5, 3, 6 ; al. 
subsidentia, 8, 3, 18 

COLVMELLA. 

extantia, 5 5, 5, 12 

PLINIVS. 

accidentia, 6 32, 9 
corpulentia, 7 11, 118 
graueolentia, 22, 87 ; al. 
malificentia, 8 9, 34 
procidentia, 9 23, 161 

GELLIVS. 

circumspicientia, 14, 2, 13 
competentia, 10 1, 1, 3 ; al. 
deuergentia, 14, 1, 8 
exsultantia, 11 12, 5, 9 
exuberantia, 2, 26, 9 ; al. 
ignoscentia, 12 6, 3, 47 
inualentia, 13 20, 1, 27 



maledicentia, 3, 3, 15 ; al. 
praecipitantia, 7, 2, 11 ; al. 

APVLEIVS. 

allubentia, Met. 1, 7 
circumferentia, Id. 4, 18 
erubiscentia, 14 Frag. 21, p. 631 H. 
irascentia, Dogm. Plat. 1, 13 
parientia, 16 Met. 11, 22 
placentia, 16 Id. 2, 6 
praepotentia, 17 de Mund. 26 
*pudentia, :8 Dogm. Plat. 2, 3 
refulgentia, 19 Flor. 18, p. 28, 6, Kr. 

TEBTVLLIANVS. 

aequiparantia, adu. Val&nt. 16 
apparentia, 20 adu. Marc. 1, 19 ; al. 
concupiscentia, 21 Anim. 38 ; al. 
defetiscentia, Id. 43 
delinquentia, Res. Cam. 24 
discentia, 22 Anim. 23 
disconuenientia, Test. Anim. 6 
hiantia, Anim. 10 
horrentia, adu. Marc. 4, 24 
immoderantia, Bapt. 20 
impraescientia, adu. Marc. 2, 7 
improuidentia, Id. 2, 23 
incongruentia, 23 Anim. 6 
inconuenientia, 24 adu. Marc. 4, 16 
inexperientia, Anim. 20 
inobaudientia, adu. Marc. 4, 17 
insufficientia, 26 ad Vxor. 1, 4 
iurulentia, de leiun. 1 
multinubentia, adu. Psych. 1 
nmltiuorantia, Id. ib. 
nocentia, Apol. 40 ; al. 
nolentia, adu. Marc. 1, 25 
obaudientia, Exhort, ad Cast. 2 



1 Arnob. " Cael. Aur. 3 Vulg. 4 Solin.; Cael. Aur. 6 Cael. Aur. 6 Tert. 
7 Tert.; Solin.; Augustin. Lact. 8 Prise. 10 Chalcid. Tim.; Macr.; Fulg. Myth. 
11 Paul. Nol. 12 Tert. I3 Apul. 14 Tert. l5 Cassiod.; Cod. lust. \ form par entia,=- 
Chalcid. Tim. 270. 1B Intpr. Iren. 17 Tert. 18 Gloss. Cyrill. 19 Eccl. 20 Firm. 
Math. 21 Cypr. ; Hier. ; Vulg. ; Paul. Nol. M Hier. 23 Lact.; Augustin. 24 Macr, 
5 Boeth. 



I 7. -NTIA.] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



35 



obuenientia, adu. Valent. 29 
offerentia, adu. Marc. 4, 24 
olentia, Id. 2, 2 
peccantia, adu. lud. 10 
praecellentia, Apol. 23 
praescientia, 1 ac?w. Marc. 2, 5 
purulentia, 1 Pa?/. 5 
refrigescentia, Anim. 43 
reminiscentia, 3 /</. 24 
renidentia, Id. 49 
squalentia, Exhort, ad Cast. 10 



HIERONYMVS. 
beneolentia. in Didym. de Spr. 

Set. 11 

complacentia, in lerem. 3, 14, 10 
dissonantia, 12 Ep. 112, 22 
esculentia, Id. 79, 7 
impeccantia, ac?w. Pelag. 1, 25 ; a. 
impoenitentia, 13 in lesai. 18, 65, 23 
splendentia, Ep. 57, 11 

AVGVSTINVS. 



subtililoquentia, Adu. Marc. 5, 19 adiacentia, de Nat. et Grot. 59 



sufferentia, 4 Id. 4, 15 
sufficientia, 5 ad Vxor. 1, 4 
turbulentia, adu. Herm. 41 

CAPITOLINVS. 



diflEluentia, Serm. 9, 15 
dignoscentia, M Ciu. Dei 14, 17 
faeculentia, 15 ^). 108, 6 
manentia, Id. 11, 3 
praepollentia, Serm. 1, 15 ; al. 



honorificentia, 6 Anton. Phil. 20, 2 resistentia, ofe Peccat. Merit. 2, 22 

resplendentia, J^p. 155, 14 
sttaueolentia, 10 Ccmf. 8, 6, 15 
suauifragrantia, Serm. ad NeopTi. 

fin. 
somnolentia, " Pr. 8, 56 



ABNOBIVS. 

luculentia, 7 3, 6 
repetentia, 2, 26 ; al. 

CHALCIDIVS. 

carentia, 8 Tim. 283 ; al. 
exsistentia, 9 Id. 25 D.; al. 

SYMMACHVS. 

conualescentia, Ep. 3, 11 
noscentia, Id. 4, 9 

AMMANTS. 

armipotentia, 18, 5, 7 
fluentia, 10 30, 4, 10 

AMBKOSIVS. 

exundantia, 11 Hexaem. 2, 1, 1 
recordantia, de lob. 4, 7, 19 



CAETJVS AVRELIANVS. 

superantia, Signif. Diaet. Pass. 9 
tumentia, Acut. 1, 10, 74 ; al. 

BOETHTVS. 

aequisonantia, de Music. 5, 11 ; al. 
colligentia, 18 de Syll. Hyp. 1, p. 

623 
expedientia, Aristot. Top. 6, p. 

708 

iuuantia, Id. 6, 4 ; al. 
praenidentia, Cons. Phil. 5, 6, p. 

113, 10, Obb. 
seqnentia, 19 Inst. Arith. 1, 10; al. 



1 Lact.; Augustin.; Mart. Cap.; Boeth. 2 Hier. 3 Arnob. 4 Vulg. B Vulg.; Sidon. 
Ep. Spart.; Vopisc.; Symm. Ep.; Vulg.; Eccl., (con/. R6nsch, p. 50). 7 Oros. 
* Boeth. 9 lulian. ap. Augustin . 10 Gael. Aur. n Augustin. 12 Augustin. ; Cl. Mam.; 
Boeth. 13 Augustin. 14 ltd. Val. 15 Cresc. Donat.; Sidon. Ep.; Fulg. 18 Sidon. Ep. 
17 Sidon. Ep. 18 Cassiod. 19 Schol. Bob. ad Cic. 



36 WORD FORMATION IN THE [9. -MONIA, -MONIVM. 

8. SUBSTANTIVES IN -ntium : The single instance of this 
form of derivation in use in classical Latin is silenlium. Ronsch, 
however, who has collected the following examples from late 
Latin, regards them as survivals of the vulgar speech : 1 

sementium, Liuit. 18, 23, Cod. peculantium, 3 Commodian. Instr. 

Ashburnh. 2, 28, 13 

serpentium, Isid. Or. 19, 31, 12 errantium, Gloss. Paris, (Hildebr.) 

psallentium," Greg. Tur. H. F. concinentium, Gloss. 

1, 43 ; al; Fredegar. 

9. SUBSTANTIVES IN -monia, -monium : Since Nipperdey 
first noted the unclassical ring to the word tristimonia in the 
Auct. B. Afr., 4 these substantives have been generally admitted 
to belong to the category of plebeian formations. 5 A distinc- 
tion, however, should be drawn between the feminine and neu- 
ter forms : Paucker G gives a list of 31, (omitting caerimonium), 
uett. 24, recc. 7 ; of these only 11 in Cic., (one in the Epistt.} ; of 
these, however, only 4 are in -monium ; matrimonium, patri- 
monium, testimonium, uadimonium, all of which belong to cum- 
bersome legal terminology. Of forms in -monia he has 7, 5 
of which, aegrimonia, caerimonia, castimonia, querimonia, sancti- 
monia, have corresponding forms in the neuter, while those in 
-monium used by Cic., have no corresponding forms in the 
feminine, so the inference is natural that where there was a 
choice Cic. preferred the feminine termination. The remain- 
ing two, acrimonia, parcimonia, have no corresponding forms 
extant. Outside of Cic. only 4 forms in -monia are known, 
against 16 in -monium ; in other words, he uses 63 % of the 
former and but 20 % of the latter. But the words in -monia 

1 " die wenigen die es noch ausserdem gibt kommen erst in spateren Zeit vor, und 
sind, wie es scheint, Ueberbleibsel der vulgar Sprache," Ronsch, Oesterr. Gymnas. 30, 
p. 15. 

2 Comp. Pauck. Add. Lex. Lat. p. 69, " figura insolentiore, sed cf. silentium, et 
praeterea serpentium, . . . peculantium ; " L. Qnicherat, Add. Lex. Lat., s. w., 
" uox fere portentosa ; " Contra, Bonnet, p. 461, " ce mot ra' rien de monstruenx, comme 
on Vaprdtendu ; Psallentium est un gtnitif pluriel devenu nominatif singulierpar un 
proce'de' qu'on a appett hypostate" citing R. Usener, N. Jahrb. f. Philol. 95, p. 71. 
3 Contra, Georges Worterb. , " peculantia, <re." 

4 "a Ciceronis Caesaris Hirtiique cousuetudine abhorrentia," Nipperdey, Caes. 
praef. p. 18. 6 Rebl. p. 14 ; Ludwig, Petr. 29 ; Gnericke, p. 31 ; Landgr. n, p. 319 ; 
Koehler, p. 9 ; Schulze, Diss. Hal. VI. p. 157 ; Goelzer, p. 31 ; 92. Paucker, Mate- 
rialien, II, p. 4, not. 3 ; cow/, lists, Ronsch, p. 28 ; Goelzer, p. 93. 



10. -TAS.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 37 

are too sparingly used to be regarded as classic ; they belong 
rather to the colloquial language, while those in -monium are 
to be consigned unhesitatingly to the sermo uulgaris. 
The following are the forms not in good usage : 

a. Substantives in -monia. 

PLAVTVS. AVCT. BELL. Antic. 

falsimonia, Eaccli. 541 tristimonia, 10, 3 

aegrimonia, 1 Stick. 3, 1, 5 

GLOSS. ISID. 

VAERO. alacrimonia. 

alimonia, 2 Sat. Men, 260 

b. Substantives in -monium. 
PLAWVS. ITALA. 

rnerciruonium, 3 Most. 912, al. aegrimonium, 7 Matth. 8, 17 

VARRO. 

T * T-> 75 -i o r, APVLETVS. 

ahmomum, 4 R. R. 1, 8, 7 . ,,-.,-, 1Q 

,. . . T T a r-i castimonium. Met. 11, 19 

dicimonium, L. L. 6, 61 

LABEKIVS. CTPRIANVS. 

mendicimonium, Com. 150 sanctimonium, 9 Ep. 21, 4 ; al. 

miserimonium, Id. 18 

moechimonium, Id. 150 VENANT. FOBT. 

Yrrnvvivs. querimonium, Vit. S. Mart. 2, 

*sessimonium, Praef. 8, 16 ^01 
PETRONIYS. 



gaudimonmm/ 61, 3 plangimonium,' de Poenit. 6 

tristimonium, 63 

INSCRR. POMPEH. GLOSS. PARIS. 

regimonium, 6 C. I.L. IV, 918 caerimonium, 11 p. 50 ; ed Hildebr. 

10. SUBSTANTIYES IN -tas : The frequency of words in -tas, 
which marks the writers of the decadence, is due as in the case 
of substantives in -tio, to the growing need of expressing ab- 
stract ideas. 12 Out of a total 13 of 889, uett. 377, recc. 512, 250 oc- 
cur in Cic. and Caes., from which number Schulze subtracts 10 

1 Cic. ad Att. ; Hor. Epod. ; Plin. 2 Gell. ; Apul. ; Itala ; Lack ; Prud. ; Cod. Theod. 
3 Turpil. ; Tac. ; Ambros. ; Capitol. ; Augustin. ; Cod. Theod. " Suet. ; Tac. ; Paul. Dig. 
s Vulg. Gloss. Vatic. ; Gl. Isid. ; Gl. Arab. 7 Intpr. Iren.; Gloss. Labb. * Gl. Labb. 
9 Augustin. 10 Comp. Panck. Spicileg. p. 121. ll Inscrr. 

12 Goelzer, p. 104 ; Schmalz, Stilist. 2. 13 Paucker, Ztschr. f. vergl. Sprachf., 

XXIII, p. 138 sq. ; comp. Schulze. Diss. Hal. 6, 145. 



38 WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 10. -TAB. 

forms not again found until Post-Hadrian times, and claims 
but 25 % as in good usage, and on this ground adds -tas to 
the list of plebeian suffixes. 1 But while it is true that the sermo 
plebeius was fertile in formations of this class, as in all classes 
of abstract nouns, there is no class of which a larger proportion 
of the older words are in good usage. Thus of the uett., 250 or 
nearly two-thirds, are classical, and subtracting the 50 be- 
longing to Silver Latin, we bring the proportion up to three- 
fourths. Plaut. has 72 words in -tas, of which only 16 are un- 
classical ; 56 or seven-ninths become classical, while of his 
forms in -tudo only 9 out of 23, barely three-eighths, recur in 
the best Latin. Terent., whose Latinity was always more fin- 
ished than Plaut., has 50 words in -tas, of which all but 4 are 
classic. 2 The vulgar writer, Vitr., added only 9, Plin. 14, Col. 
9, and Petr. none at all. This suffix, like so many others, re- 
ceived a fresh impulse at the hands of the archaists, and later 
writers : Apul. added 22, Tert. 51, Hier. 7, Augustin. 26. 
These figures simply tend to prove the greater freedom of 
plebeian and late Latin in all classes of derivatives. Far from 
showing a special tendency towards nouns in -tas, statistics 
indicate that these words were largely replaced in the sermo 
uulgaris by forms in -tudo : for while the two suffixes had no 
material difference in signification, 3 the heavier ending better 
satisfied the plebeian love of redundancy. 

In some cases however the phenomenon is reversed : there 
are certain forms in -tas confined to ante- and post-classical 
latin, which are replaced in the classical language by corre- 
sponding words in -tudo ; as Ace. Tr. 640, dulcitas, (Cic., dulci- 
tudd); Caecil. Com. 55. pulchritas, (Cic.,pulckritudo); Ace. Tr. 
354, Apul. ; Tert., solitas, (Cic., solitudo). Such diversity of 
formation is inevitable where concurrent methods of deriva- 
tion exist, and with only usage as a guide, considerable con- 
fusion must have arisen in the popular mind. These unusual 
forms in -tas are to be assigned to the sermo quotidianus, which, 
standing nearer to the classic speech, tended to extend by 
analogy the scope of the dominant suffix -tas. 

Another class of these nouns worthy of note comprises 
those derived, not as usual from adjectives, but irregularly 

1 Schulze, ib.; comp. Hanschild, Diss. Hal. 6, 250, "baud scio an erret Schlz.,'' 
ecc. Slaughter, Ter., 18. " Comp. GeU. 13, 3. 



10. -TAS.] ROMAN 8ERMO PLEBEIV8. 39 

from nouns, verbs or adverbs. 1 Especially rare are those 
formed from abstract nouns, as Laber., Com. 81, libidinitas, 
(libido) ; Apul. Met. 6. 14 ; salebritas, (salebra), Ennod. Ep. 8, 8, 
cautelitas, (cauteld). Such a doubling of derivation also savours 
of plebeian Latin. 

It follows from the preceding that in and of itself the suffix 
-tas is characteristic of an elevated style. There are, however, 
two sub-classes of these substantives which are important as 
tending to show the plebeian nature of adjectives in -bills, 
-osus : i.e., the substantives formed from such adjectives, in 
bili-tas ; -osi-tas. The number of these somewhat cumber- 
some formations is for the entire period of Latinity remarka- 
bly large, being 203 (-bilitas, 95, -ositas, 108), or more than 
22 % of the entire number in -tas. Of these the great majority 
are rax?, (from -osus, recc. 88 % ; from -bills, 78 #) ; of the 'uett., 
Cic. employs 12 in -bilitas, 5 in -ositas, mostly of rare occur- 
rence and formed in every instance from adjectives found in 
Cic. The following is a list of the forms used by him : 

admirabilitas, bis. probabilitas, saepe. 

aequabilitas, freq. stabilitas, saepe. 

affabilitas, semel, de Off. 2, 48 uolubilitas, saepe. 

ignobilitas, freq. 

immutabilitas, semel, Fat. 17 curiositas, semel, ad. Alt. 2, 12, 2 

innumerabilitas, semel, Nat. Deor. ebriositas, semel, Tusc. 4, 27 

1, 26, 73 fonnositas, semel, de Off. 1, 126 

mobilitas, freq. (et Gaes.) niorositas, bis, Sen. 18 ; Off. 1, 25, 
mutabilitas, semel, Tusc. 4, 76 88 

placabilitas, semel, de Off. 1, 88 nitiositas, bis, Tusc. 4, 13, & 15 

Of these two classes of adj. derivatives, those in -bilitas are 
the older and more classical. I have failed to find an instance 
of forms in -ositas earlier than Cic. Both classes reached 
their greatest fertility in African Latin, which was so partial to 
adjectives in -bilis, -osus. Thus of -bilitas, Apul. introduces 
8, Tert. 4, Arnob. 2; of -ositas, Gell. 1, Apul. 3, Tert. 13, Arnob. 
2. They are found, however, throughout the entire extent of 
the later literature, and in the Romance Languages ; in Ital., 
as is noted by Meyer-Liibke, 2 words in -abilta, -osita, have 

1 Goelzer, p. 103; Pauck. Add. Lex. Lat., p. 8, not. 17, a. u. cautelitas, "men- 
strum nocabuli, cuius plane simile non inuenio nisi forte ut defigurata ipsa quoque a 
subst. abstr. libidinitas, . . salebritas." 2 Meyer-Lttbke, Ital. Gramm., p. 278. 



40 WORD FORMATION IN THE [10. -TAS. 

come to be characteristic of the more cultured language, al- 
though adj. in -oso are still of a popular character. 

The following lists of substantives in -tas are limited to 
Gell., Apul., and Tert., to show the fertility of formation in Af- 
rican Latin, and to the forms derived from adjs. in -bills, -osus. 

a. Substantives in -bilitas : 

PLAVTVS. corraptibilitas, 10 adu. Marc. 2, 16 

amabilitas, l Stick. 741 ; al. inuisibilitas, adu. Prax. 14 

cruciabilitas, Cist, 202 uisibilitas, 11 Cam. CJir. 12 
nobilitas, Capt. 299 ; al. 

Accivs. INTFB. IKEN. 

ductabilitas, ap. Non. 150, 13 aptabilitas, 1, 4, 5 

incomprehensibilitas, 12 4, 9, 3 

VARRO. inconstabilitas, 1, 4, 3 

inaequabilitas,* L. L. 9, 1 indecibilitas, 2, 4, 2 

sensibilitas, 13 Paucker 

VITKWTVS. sensuabilitas, Id. 

tractabilitas, 2, 9, 12 

SOLINVS. 

IVSTINVS. *flexibilitas, 14 52, 36 

immobilitas, 3 36, 3, 6 

CLAVDIVS MAMEBTINVS. 

PLINIVS. insensibilitas, 15 Stat. Anim. 1, 3 

instabilitas, 4 24, 162 secabilitas, Id. 1, 15 

APVLEIVS. AKNOBIVS. 

exsecrabilitas, Dogm. Plat. 2, 16 passibilitas, 2, 26 

impossibilitas, 5 Met. 6, 14 possibilitas, 16 1, 25 
incommobilitas, Dogm. Plat. 2, 4 

incredibilitas, 6 Axel. 27 LACTANTTVS. 

*indocibilitas, 7 Dogm. Plat. 2, 4 mirabilitas, 7, 4 ; in. 
irrationabilitas, 8 Ascl. 26 ; in. 

irritabilitas, Dogm. Plat. 1, 18 PALLADIVS. 

rationabilitas, 9 Id. 1, 13 dnrabilitas, 1, 36, 2 

TEBTVLLIANVS. GENNADIVS. 

accessibilitas, adu. Prax. 15 nascibilitas, Paucker 

1 Symm. 2 Arnob. 3 Tert.; Lact.;Vulg.; Gael. Aur. 4 Arnob.; Ambros.; SchoL 
Pers. 5 Tert. 8 Vlp. Dig.; Gloss. Labb. 7 Rufin. * EccL 9 Mythogr. Lat.; EccL 
10 Eccl. Fulg. Cont. Verg. 12 Fulg. Rusp.; Dyon. Exig. Greg. Nyss. I3 Fulg.; Ps.- 
Soran. ; Isid. ; Non. 14 Augustin. ; Cassiod. l5 Ambros. ; Augustin. ; Boeth. " Pall. ; 
Amm.; Mart. Cap.; Vulg. 



1C. -TAS.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 41 

HILAKIYS. incomparabilitas, c. Maxim, p. 

innascibilitas, Paucker 729 M. 

miserabilitas, Id. ineffabilitas, Ep. 147, 31 

nocibilitas, 1 in Galat. inuertibilitas, de Mor. Eccl. Caih. 

1, 13, 23 

AMMIANVS. spectabilitas, 7 Ep. 129, 7 

irnplacabilitas, 2 14, 1, 5 ; al. 
insatiabilitas, 31, 4, 11 SIDONIVS APOLL. 

insolubilitas, Ep. 4, 11 
PRISOIAXVS. 

pompabilitas, de Metr. Terent. 4, BOETHIVS. 
p. 419, 8 K. risibilitas, Paucker 

SERVIVS. FVLGENTIVS. 

inesorabilitas, ad Aen. 12, 199 pollucibilitas, Myth. 1, 2 

HlEBONYMVS. FVLGENT. BvSPENSIS. 

impassibilitas, 3 Ep. 133, 3 comprehensibilitas, ad Trasim. 

2,1 

AVGVSTINVS. incoinquinabilitas, Paucker 
coinmutabilitas, 4 in Ps. 109, 12 

conuertibilitas, 5 Ep. 169, 11 IORDANES. 

formabilitas, Gen. ad lit. 5, 4 terribilitas, Get. 24, 127 
inaccessibilitas, 6 c. Maxim, p. 732 

M. GKEGOEIVS MAXIMVS. 

incapabilitas, Id. 1, 9, 2 ; al. irreprehensibilitas, Reg. Pas- 

incommutabilitas, Conf. 12, 12 tor, 8 

b. Substantives in -ositas. 

CICERO (EPISTT.). generositas, 8, 50 ; al. 

curiositas, 8 ad Att. 2, 12, 2 neruositas, 11 19, 9 

CoLVMEIiLA. QviNTIIjLIAirVS. 

scrupulositas, 9 11, 1 operositas, 18 8, 3, 55 

SCBEBONIVS. GEOMAT. VET. 

callositas, 10 36 flexuositas, 342, 9 

PMNIVS. GELMVS. 

fabulositas, 4, 1 ; al. negotiositas, 11, 16, 3 

1 Eccl. 3 Cassian. 3 Leo Senn. 4 Ps. -Eucher. 6 Rufin. 6 Arnob. lun.; Ps.- 
Hier. 7 Cod. lust. e Apul. ; Tert. ; Spart. ; Vopisc. ; Vulg. ; Augustin. ; Macr . Tert. ; 
Hier.;Mar. Victorin. "Tert.; Veget. " Cael. Aur. ia Tert.; Vopiso. 



42 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



10. -TAB. 



APVLEIVS. 

pretiositas, 1 Met. 2, 19 
religiositas, 2 Dogm. Plat. 2, 7 
uentositas, 3 Herb. 126 

TEBTVLLIANVS. 

cauositas, Anim, 55 ; al. 
famositas, Sped. 23. 
gratiositas, adu. Marc. 1, 9 in. 
infructuositas, 4 Res. Cam. 33 
irreligiositas, 5 Apol. 24 
lanositas, cfe Pa#. 3 
lapidositas, Hab. Mul. 6 
inalitiositas, adu. Marc. 3, 15, al. 
numerositas, 6 Monog. 4 
*onerositas, Cult. Fern. 2, 7, in. 
rugositas, Patient. 15 
tortuositas, 7 (7am. Chr. 20; a. 
uinositas, /ez'wn. 1. 

INTPB. IBEN. 
uerbositas, 8 2, 31, 1 

CYPBIANVS. 

animositas, 9 c?e Zelo, 6 

AENOBIVS. 

nebulositas, 7, 28 
populositas, 10 3, 5 

CHALCIDIVS. 

confragositas, Tim. 37 
globositas, 11 /J. 62 

PALLADIVS. 

morbositas, 1, 16 



uirositas, Ep. ad Athan. 1417, t. 
8M. 

PHILASTBIVS. 
fructuositas, 14 Haer. 132 

BVFINVS. 

oliiciositas, Paucker 

AVOVSTINVS. 

annositas, 13 Ep. 269 
caenositas, 14 c. Ep. Manich. 36 
mendositas, J^>. 71, 5 ; al. 
monstrositas, Ciu. Dei, 7, 26, p. 307, 

18 D. 2 
nodositas, (7on/. 2, 10 

BACCHIABIVS. 

copiositas, Paucker 

CAEMVS AVBEUANVS. 

aquositas, Acut. 2, 35, 185 
pannositas, Id. 1, 11, 86 
saxositas, Chr cm. 3, 6, 82 
succositas, Acut. 2, 29, 151 
tenebricositas, Chron. 1, 4, 73 

SALVIANYS. 

incuriositas, 15 Paucker 
inofficiositas, Ep. 4. 11 
probrositas, 16 Gub. Dei, 3, 9, 46 

SIDONIVS. 

ceruicositas, Ep. 7, 9 
sumptuositas, Id. 9, 6 



ABNOBIVS IUN. 

tenebrositas, in Ps. 103 & 118 
POTAMIVS. 

glebositas, Tract. 1, p. 1412, t. CASSIODOBVS. 

8 M. ascerbositas, Amic. 6 

1 Tert .; Capit. ap. Macr. Sat. a Eccl. 3 Cael. Aur.; Oribas. Fragm. Bern.; Th. 
Prise.; Augustin.; Pulg. Myth. 4 Cassian. 6 Eccl. 6 Augustin.; Macr.; Sidon.; Cod. 
Theod. 7 Intpr. Iren. 8 Augustin. ; Pmd. ; Eccl. 9 Aram.; Vulg.; Macr.; Augustin.; 
Sidon. "Pulg. Myth.; Sidon. "Macr. * Gaudent.; Thorn. Thes. 1S Cod. Theod. 
1 4 Fulg. ; Cassiod. J 5 Eccl. 3 Ps. -Cypr. 



10. -TAS.] 



ROMAN SEBMO PLEBEIVS. 



VENANTTVS FOKTVNATVS. 

tenerositas, Vit. S. Medard. 2 



GBEGOBIVS MAXIMVS. 

degenerositas, in 1 Reg. 4, 4, 25 
gulositas, 1 Id. 5, 1, 4 



c. Substantives in -tas in GelL, Apul., Tert. 



GELMVS. 

improprietas, 1, 22, 21 
infortunitas, 7, 1, 5 
insuauitas, 2 1, 21, 2 
intempestiuitas, 3, 16, 21 
parilitas, 3 14, 3, 8 

APVLEIVS. 

crassitas, Met, 7, 5 ; al. 
falsitas,* Dogm. Plat. 3 
fuscitas, de Mund. 33 
liquiditas, Id. 1 
nimietas, 6 Met. 3, 10 ; al. 
obaequalitas, Dogm. Plat. 1, 17 
prolixitas, 6 de Mund. 7 
salebritas, Met. 6, 14 
sempiternitas, ' Ascl. 30 
summitas, 8 Id. 7 
ualiditas, 9 Id. 33 

TEKTVLLIANTS. 

contrarietas, 10 adu. Marc. 4, 1 ; al. 
corporalitas, 11 adu. Herm. 36 
duplicitas, 12 adu.. Marc. 5, 11 
imbonitas, ad Martyr. 3 ; in. 
incorporalitas, 13 Anim. 7 
incorruptibilitas, 14 Apol. 28 ; a/. 
indiuiduitas, 15 Anim. 51 ; a/. 
informitas, 16 adu. Herm. 42 



inhonestas, acfa. Marc. 5, 5 
inuoluntas, vlpoZ. 45 
intellectualitas, Anim. 38 
mendacitas, Praescr. 31 
mulieritas, Finj. Fe/. 12 ; al., ed. 

Oehler 

natiuitas, 17 adu. Marc. 4, 27 
naturalitas, 18 Anim. 43 ; al. 
nouellitas, Id. 28 ; al. 
noxietas, Apol. 2 
nuditas, 19 Virg. Vel. 12 
passiuitas (pander e), Pall. 4 ; al. 
postremitas, 20 Anim. 53 
principalitas, 21 Id. 2 
profanitas, 22 Pall. 2 
profunditas, 23 ^4?2^?7z. 55 
pueritas, ad Nat. 2, 9 
pusillitas, 24 Res Cam. 6 ; al. 
rationalitas, Anim. 38 
romanitas, Pall. 4 
sensualitas, 25 Anim. 37 ; aZ. 
singularitas, 26 ac?t<. Valent. 37 ; aZ. 
spiritalilas, 27 adt. Marc. 5, 8 
supernitas, ac??. Valent. 7 
temporalitas, 28 Res. Cam. 60; al. 
trinitas, 29 adu. Valent. 17 
uniformitas, 30 Anim. 17 
utensilitas, Hob. Mul. 5 
uisualitas, Anim. 29 



1 Ps-Augustin. 2 Tert. ; Gael. Aur. 3 Apul.; Auct Itin. Alex. 4 Arnob.; Lact.; 
Amm.; Macr.; Cael. Aur.: Isid. 5 Arnob.; Capitol.; Pall.; Macr. Symm.; Edict. Di- 
ocl. ; Augustin. 7 01. Mam. 8 Arnob. ; Pall. ; Amm. ; Macr. 9 Ambros. ; Heges. 10 Plot. 
Sacerd. de Metr. ; Prise. ; Macr. ; Seru. ad Verg. u Eccl. 12 Lact. ; Augustin. 13 Macr.; 
Boeth. 14 Eccl. 15 Boeth. 16 *Solin.; Chalcid. Tim.; Augustin. 17 Vulg.;ICt. 
18 Eccl. '" Lact.; Vulg.; Sulp. Seu.; Augustin.; Auson.; Cod. Theod. 20 Aquil. Rom.; 
Chalcid. Tim.; Macr. 21 Macr.; Seru. ad Verg. 22 Pelag. Vet.; Augustin. 23 Vopisc.; 
Macr. ; Casaiod. 24 Lact. ; Eccl. 25 Augustin. ; My thogr. Lat. 28 Chalcid. Tim.; Mart. 
Cap.; Charis. 27 Alcim. 2 Eccl. 2 Prise.; Eccl. 30 Ambros. ; Macr. 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[ 11. -TVDO. 



11. SUBSTANTIVES IN -tudo : The use of substantives in 
-tudo is one of the many archaisms which have maintained 
themselves in the vulgar Latin, and reappeared in the litera- 
ture of the decadence. 1 A large proportion of the words of 
this class belong to the early period, the classic language 
forming in most cases corresponding substantives in -tas, 
while the plebeian Latin, true to its principles, clung to the 
more cumbersome forms in -tudo. The entire number of 
these forms is given by Paucker 2 as 137, uett. 91, recc. 46, and 
of these only 30 in Cic. or Caes., against 40 in the early dra- 
matic writers, Oato, etc. Thus Plautus introduces 23, of which 
13 are wanting in the classic writers ; Pacuu. 7, Ace. 8, Caecil., 
Ter., and Turpil., 1 each. The derivation survived in rustic 
Latin ; Cato has 3, Varr. 5, of which 4 are from the R. R.; Silver 
Latin avoided the archaism, and added only 7, Plin. 2, Gels., 
Veil., Sen., Petr., Traian. ap. Vlp., 1 each. The African writers 
use the derivation sparingly : Gell. gives the new form acerbi- 
tudo ; even the archaistic Apul. adds but 2 new formations, 
and Tert., 3 usually so copious in new coinages, none at all, 
using the old forms rarely, as asperitudo, hdbitudo, plenitudo, 
similitude* (concrete). In the later literature the formation is 
revived ; Eonsch 4 cites 7 rare forms in use in the Vulgate, and 
Golzer notes St. Jerome's evident predilection for these words, 
as he not only coined laodtudo, but used 15 of those already in 
the language. Liesenberg 5 cites 17 occurring in Amm., mostly, 
however, words sanctioned by Cic. The usage survived in the 
popular speech, as words of this formation occur in the Ro- 
mance languages, though they are not numerous. 6 



PLAVTVS. 

albitudo, 7 Trin. 873 
aritudo, 8 Rud. 524 
canitudo, 9 Fr. ap. Paul, ex Fest. 
62, 1 



hilaritudo, Mil. 677 ; al 
*macritudo, 10 Capt. 135 
maestitudo, 11 Aul. 732 
partitudo, 1 " Id. 75 
saeuitudo, 13 Fr. ap. Nbn. 172, 3 



1 Schulze, Diss. Hal. VI, p. 152, " est autem forma in -tudo antiquior, quae saepe 
in sermone uulgari seruata est, cum apud bonos auctores forma in -tas inueniatur," 
citing Corssen, Beitr. p. 524; Guericke, p. 30; compare Goelzer, p. 106 sq., Slaughter, 
Ter., p. 18, "distinctly a mark of the sermo familiaris;" Knapp, Gell., p. 147. 
a Paucker, Silb. Lat. p. 15, not. 3 Schmidt, Tert., I, p. 25. 4 Ronsch, p. 66. 6 Liesenb. 
J, p. 22. Diez, p. 651. 

7 Sulp. Seu. 8 Enn.; Varr. Sat. Men. 9 Varr. Sat. Men. 10 Non. 136, 2. "Ace.; 
Pall. ; Ambros. ; Sulp. Seu. ; Cael. Aur. " Sulp. Seu. ; lul. Val. ; Cod. Theod. 13 luL Val. 



11. -TVDO.] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



45 



seueritudo, 1 Epid. 609 
sorditudo, Poen. 570 
suauitudo, 2 Bacch. 28 
tarditudo, 3 Poen. 532 
uanitudo, 4 Capt. 569 

PACWTVS. 

desertitudo, Inc. Fab. Fr. 63 
gerainitudo, Tr. 61 
lenitudo, 5 Id. 247 
orbitudo, 6 Id. 135 
paenitudo, 7 Id. 313 
prolixitudo, Id. 124 
uastitudo, 8 /rf. 314 

CAECILIVS. 
ineptitude, Com. 61 

TERENTIVS. 

habitude,* Eun. 242 

TTTKPILIVS. 

sanctitudo, 10 Com. 114 



perperitudo, .FV. Inc. 2, 2 
squalitudo, 2V. 340 

VABRO. 

amaritudo, 13 R. R. 1, 66 
celeritudo, 14 Id. 3, 12, 6 
pinguitudo, 15 Id. 2, 4, 6 
raritudo, 16 L. i. 5, 130 
teneritudo, 17 R. R. 1, 36 

VITETVIVS. 

acritudo, 18 2, 9, 12; al. 
grauitudo, 19 1,6, 3 
salsitudo, 20 1, 4, 11 

PETBONIVS. 
scabritudo, 21 99, 2 

PUNIVS. 

nigritude, 22 10, 107 
tabritudo, 23 22, 129 



GELUVS. 

acerbitudo, 13, 3, 2 
CATO. 

aletudo, 11 ap. Paul, ex Pest. 27, 12 APTOEIVS. 
claritudo, 12 ap. Gell. 3, 7, 19 ambitudo, Aesc. 31 

duritudo, Id. ib. tristitudo, 24 Met. 3, 11 ; al. 



Accivs. 

castitudo, Tr. 585 
gracilitudo, Id. 88 
honestitudo, Id. 16 ; al. 
laetitudo, Id. 61 ; al. 
miseritudo, Id. 79 ; al. 
noxitudo, Id. 162 



AENOBIVS. 

crispitudo, 2, 42 

LACTANTIVS. 

leuitudo, de Ira, 10, 7 

SPAETIANVS. 
insuetudo, Seuer. 16, 2 



1 Apul. Met. 2 Turpil. ; Cornif . Rhet. ; Lact. 3 Ace. 4 Pacuu. 5 Turpil. ; Cic. , se- 
mel, (Verr. 4, 136); Aur.Vict. 8 Turpil. ; Ace. 7 Hier. Ep.; Vulg.; Auson.; Ambros.; Au- 
gustin. ; Gael. Aur. ; Sid. Ep. ; Cassiod. 8 Ace. ; Vet. Carm. ap. Cato R. R. ; Varr. Sat. Men. 
Cornif. Rhet. ; Apul. ; Tert. ; Hier. ; Vulg. ; Gael. Aur. ; Sulp. Seu. 1 Ace. ; Af ran. ; Cic. , 
semel, (Rep. fr. ap. Non. 174); Apul.; Hier. Gloss. Labb. 12 Sisenn.; Sail.; Veil.; 
T&c.,freq.; Hier.;Macr. " Sen. Rhet.; Col.; Plin.; Quint.; Val. Max.; Plin. Ep.; lus- 
tin. ; Apul. ; Lact. ; Vulg. Conf. Non. 533, 32. 15 CoL ; Plin. ; Quint. ; Pall. Col. 
" Suet. ; Pall. 8 Gell. ; Apul. 18 Ps.-Apic.; Hier. ; Gael. Aur. 2J Plin. ; Ps. -Augustin. 
ai Formsca6Mdo, Marc. Emp. 8; Plin. VaL "Augustin. 23 Vulg. "Sidon.Ep. 



46 



WORD F OHM ATI ON IN THE 



[ 12. -EDO. 



AMBBOSIVS. 

dissuetudo, Cain et Abel, 2, 6, 22 



HIERONYMVS. 
disertitudo, 1 Ep. 50; al. 
hebetude, 2 Id. 147, 3 



12. SUBSTANTIVES IN -edo : Words of tliis class are rare and 
largely post-classical; Paucker 3 has placed the whole number 
at 40, inclusive of those in -ido, uett. 19, recc. 21. The few 
forms in -ido are nearly all uett. and in good usage : as cupido, 
formido, libido, some of which have corresponding forms in 
-edo, of distinctly vulgar usage, as cupedo* (Lucr. ; Varr. ; 
Apul.) ; liuido is rec., (Edict. Diocl. praef. 20). The forms in 
-edo may be conveniently classified as denominative and 
verbal : the former are to be regarded as a shortened form of 
words in -tudo, and of the nine instances given by Paucker, 5 
7 have corresponding forms in -tas, and -tudo, as acritas, 
acritudo, acredo, (so aspredo, claredo, crassedo, dulcedo, grauedo, 
salsedo,) and 2 in -tas,s,lone,pigritas,pigredo; raucitas, raucedo. 
Of these, 3 are uett.,' aspredo, Cels., dulcedo, grauedo, Plaut., 
both occurring in Cic., (grauedo in JEpp. ad Ait., bis). The 
others are confined to late authors, Pall. 2, Plin. Yal., Yulg., 
Fulg., Gloss. Isid., 1 each. 

Of the verbal forms a still smaller proportion are Cicero- 
nian ; I can mention only intercapedo, uredo, and the concrete 
subs, capedo, and torpedo the Electric Kay. Intercapedo, 
however, is said by Cic. and Quint, to have been often used in 
a vulgar and obscene sense. 6 The remaining words of the class 
are rare, many of them owra et/nj/ieVa, as faredo, tussedo. Their 
relation to the sermo plebeius has been noticed indirectly by 
Schmilinsky, 7 who cites absumedo from Plaut. ; by Stuenkel, 8 
who classes frigedo, pinguedo, among the vulgar and rustic 
words used by Yarro ; and by Eonsch, 9 who gives no less than 
10 words in his lists of plebeian forms. 

In its relation to the Romance Languages this suffix is 
of little importance. Diez 10 cites a few survivals in the 
leal., acredine, albedine, salsedine, torpedine ; and Span., pin- 

1 Vulg. ; Augustin. ; Cassiod. 2 Gael. Aur. ; Augustin. ; Macr. ; Ennod. 

3 Pauck. Add. Lex. Lat. not. 63, " omnino in -edo, inis inueni 40." 4 Comp. 

Schuchardt, Vocalismus, 2, p. 75. s Pauck., Ztschr. f. vergl. Sprachf. 23, p. 159. " Cic. 
Ep. 9, 22, 4, "non honestum uerbum est 'diuisio ? ' at inest obscoenum cui respondet 
'intercapedo ' ; " con/. Quint. 8, 3, 46. 7 Schmilinsky, p. 32. 8 Stuenkel, p. 31. 

9 Ronsch, p. 68. 10 Diez, p. 651. 



12. -EDO.] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIV8. 



o, torpedo; and a new word in Ital., cavedine, a species 
of fish. 



PLAVTVS. 

absumedo, Capt. 904 
grauedo, 1 Asin. 796 

CATO. 
torpedo, 2 ap. Gell. 11, 2, 6 

LVCRETTVS. 

cupedo, 3 1, 1082 ; al 



VARRO. 

frigedo, Sat. Men. 77 

*pmguedo, L. L. 25 ed. Wilm. p. AVGVSTINVS. 



PALLADIVS. 
acredo, 18 2, 15, 19 
salsedo, 13 11, 14, 2 

PLINTVS VALERIANVS. 
faredo, 3, 22 
*raucedo, 14 1, 53 Ed. Horn. 

VVLGATA. 

pigredo, Prou. 19, 15 

*turbedo, 15 Nahum. 1, 3 God. Tolet. 



167, 35 

CELSVS. 
aspredo, 5 5, 28, 2 ; al. 

GELUVS. 

mulcedo, 6 19, 9, 7 
oscedo, 7 4, 20, 9 

APVLEIVS. 
nigredo, 8 Met. 2, 9 
putredo, 9 Mo?-. 15, p. 19, 2 .STr. 
scabredo, 10 Herb. 73 
tussedo, .5fe2. 9, 13 
unguedo, 11 Id. 3, 21 

FIEMICVS MATERNVS. 
rubedo, 2, 12 



turpedo, 16 Serm. 120, 13 

CAELIVS AVRELIANVS. 
albedo, 17 Chron. 5, 10, 96 

PSEVDO-SORANVS. 

*curuedo, 2, 18, 9 

MARCELLVS EMPIRICVS. 
*corcedo, 18 21, 3 

FVLOENTIVS. 

crassedo, Verg. Cont. p. 143 M. 

ISIDORVS. 
serpedo, Or. 4, 8, 5 

THOMAE THESAVRVS. 
claredo, 19 155 



1 Cic. Att. bis; Gels.; Plin.; Apul.; Nemes. Cyn.; Ps.-Augustin.; Pelag. Vet.; Fulg.; 
form -ido Lucil.; Catull. 2 Sail., Tac.; subst. concr. =the Electric Ray, Varr.; Cic.; 
Plin.; fec. 3 Varr.; Apul.; form -ido Cic., Ac. 4 Paul, ex Fest.; Pliu.; Pall.; Plin. Val.; 
Th. Prise.; Pelag. Vet.; Ps.-Apic.; Augustin. 6 Ps.-Cypr.; Sex. Placit. 6 Cypr.; 

Ps.-Cypr.; Sidon.; Boeth. 7 Ser. Samm.; Isid. 8 Hier.; Vulg.; Marc. Emp.; Mart. 
Cap.; Pelag. Vet.; Cass. Fel.; Arnob. lun.; lordan.; Greg. Tur. 9 Veget.; Ambros.; 

Hier.; Vulg.; Prud.; Macr.; Gael. Aur.; Ven. Fort. 10 Coripp.; Hier. " Sulp. Seu. 
12 Th. Prise.; Plin. Val. 13 Rufin. 14 Gael. Aur.; Cassiod.; Isid. 15 Rustic.; Conf. 
Ronsch p. 67;/orm -ido =- Augustin. ; Veu. Fort.; Gloss. Paris. 1S Marc. Emp. 17 Cas- 
aiod.; Schol. luuen. 18 Conf. Pauck., Add. Lex. Lat., s. u. 19 Gloss. Isid. 



48 WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 13. -ITIA, -ITIES. 

13. SUBSTANTIVES IN -itia, -ities : These two forms of der- 
ivation are so closely related that they could not be properly 
treated apart. It has already been pointed out by Paucker, 1 
that about 75 % of the words in -itia have corresponding- forms 
in -ities, and the latter a like proportion in -itia. As a re- 
sult of my own researches, including- compounds, as in-imici- 
tia, re-caluities, which Paucker disregarded in his computa- 
tions, I attain about the same proportions : out of a total of 
40 words in -itia, 37 in -ities, 27 occur in the double form, 
as blanditia, blandities ; planitia, planities, or 67| % -itia, 73 % 
-ities. There remain without corresponding form, 13 in 
-itia: im-pigritia, (comp. pigrities), im-pudicitia, im-puritia, 
in-imicitia, (comp. amicities), in-iustitia, iustitia, latitia, lautitia, 
longitia, maestitia, pudicitia, puritia, surditia ; and 10 in -ities : 
albities, almities, crassities, lenities, magnifies, pullities, re- 
caluities (comp. caluitid), tardities, uanities, uastities. 

But while these classes are so closely connected in form, 
there is a wide difference in the position they hold in the 
classic literature. Substantives in -itia are nearly all classic 
and largely Ciceronian, while those in -ities belong to early 
or late Latin, and are perhaps to be attributed to the influ- 
ence of the ser?no plcbeius. Of the 40 in -itia, 33, or nearly 83 % 
are uett. ; while of the 37 in -ities, only 21 are uett., 16 rece 
Plaut. employs 19 in -itia, of which Cic. retains all except 3 
compounded with in-: im-imunditia, im-pudicitia, im-puritia; 
and of these he has the simple form of 2, munditia, pudi- 
citia. Altogether Cic. employs at least 22, or 66 1 % of the 33 
uett. in -itia, 16 out of the 22 having corresponding forms in 
-ities ; out of these he gives exclusive preference to -itia, in 
the following 12 : amicitia, auaritia, blanditia, laetitia, malitia, 
munditia, ne-quitia, pigritia, pueritia, saeuitia, stultitia, tristitia, 
while in the remaining 4 he uses both forms ; durities, *Dom. 
101 K. ; mollities, Epp. ad Att. ; planities, segnities, *Or. 1, J^l, 
185 B. & K. In no case does he give exclusive preference to 
a form in -ities. 

On the other hand, forms in -ities are distinctly archaic, 
or post-classical. Of the 4 cited above from Cic., 2 at least 
are doubtful ; Catull. has amarities, elsewhere found only in 
Inscrr. ; Liu. has pigrities, a a7m eip^/xeW. The only forms 

i Pauck., Zfcschr. f. vergl. Sprachf. 23, p. 163. 



13. -ITIA, -ITIES.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 49 

quite classic are planities (Cic. ; Caes. *, etc.), and canities, (poet. 
and post-Aug. prose). The remainder of the 21 uett., are either 
ante-classical, (including- Varr.), or belong to the Silver Latin, 
(nequities, semel, Hor. Sat.). Of the 16 recc., the archaist Apul. 
has the greatest number, 3, besides using, of the uett., spurci- 
ties, tristities ; the remaining recc. are isolated, and chiefly a7ro 



From the evidence afforded by the Eomance languages, it 
is plain that both these suffixes gained a new activity at a 
later period. 1 The derivatives in -itia are most numerous, 
(Ital. -ezza, -izia ; Fr. -esse, -ice ; Sp., Pt., -eza, -icia), while 
those in -ities are confined almost wholly to the southwest. 2 
In Ital. especially, -ezza retains the lead among the active 
abstract suffixes, 3 while forms in -izie are rare ; in Sp. and Pt., 
the latter forms (-ez) are more numerous, as durez, grandez, 
rigidez ; but are becoming obsolete. 4 

PLAVTVS. CATVLLVS. 

segnities, 5 Trin. 796; al amarities, 12 68, 18 

uastities, Pseud. 70 

LIVIVS. 

PACWIVS. pigrities, 44, 42, 9 

tristities, 6 Tr. 59 

CELSVS. 

TERENTIVS. nigrities, 8, 4, 19 ; al. 

nequities, 7 Ad. 358 ; al. 

C/OLVMEIiLA. 

Accra. scabrities, 13 7, 5, 8 

tardities, Tr. 278 

AVCTOB AETNAE. 

LVCKETIVS. lentities, 14 544 

amicities, 8 5, 1017 

auarities, 9 3, 59 PAVLI FEST. EPIT. 

spnrcities, 10 6, 977 almities, 15 7, 20 

VARBO. APVLEIVS. 

pullities, 11 R. R. 3, 7, 6 blandities, 16 Mel. 9, 28 

1 Diez, p. 668. 2 Meyer, in Grober's Grundr. I, p. 373, 51, " auf den Siidwestern 
beschrankt." 3 Meyer-Lubke, Ital Gram. p. 277, "Von den eigentlich Abstrakte 
bildenden 1st . . . -ezza das bei weitem lebenskraftigste Suffix. " 4 Diez, p. 669, 
" haufig, aber fast veraltet." 

6 *Cic., semel, (Or. 1, 41, 185 B. & K.); *Verg. ; Liu. ; CoL ; Suet. Ter.; Turp.; Tac.; 
Apul.; nom. propr., Tristities, Apul. Met. 6, 9. 7 Hor. Sat. e Conf. Plin. ap. Charis. 
118,15. 9 Claud ; Solin. " ApuL "Col. 1S Inscrr. "Plin. " *Plin. 16, 70 D. 
15 Charis. 16 Augustin. 
4 



50 



WORD FORMATION IN THE [14. CONCK. SUBS. 



saeuities, 1 Id. 6, 19 
stultities, Apol. 53 Codd. F < 

TERTVUJANTVS. 

immundities, 2 Monog. 7 

ABNOBIVS. 
pinguities, 3 7, 20 

PSEVDO-LACTANTIVS. 

magnities, Carm. de Phoen. 145 

AVSONIVS. 

puerities, Prof. 10, 16 

AMMIANVS. 

uanities, 29, 1, 13; al. 



KVFINVS. 

recaluities, Orig. in Leuit. Horn, 
8, 10 

FVLGENTIVS. 

sordities, Myth. 2, 16 

VIRGIUVS GBAMMAT. 
laetities, de Nom. 5 

SCHOL. AMBK. AD ClC. 

lenities, ad Cic. in Clod, et Cur. 
5, 1, p. 20 ed. Mai. 

GLOSS. LABB. 
malities. 



14. CONCEETE SUBSTANTIVES : a. Nomina Personalia : As 
has been seen, one marked characteristic of plebeian vocabu- 
lary was its wealth of abstract derivatives of all classes. In 
treating of the concrete substantives, however, a general dis- 
tinction is not practicable, although here as elsewhere the 
longer forms prevail ; thus masc. and fern, in -arius, -aria, are 
more popular in the sermo plebeius than those in -tor, -trix ; 4 
neut. in -arium replace the shorter forms in -ar, asltal. Marc. 
14, 20, boletariuin, (elsewhere boletar, conf. Konsch, p. 31) ; numer- 
ous forms in -bulum, -mentum, such as fundibulum =funda; 
sessibulum=sedes ; coronamentum corona ; sputamentum= sputa, 
and many other examples are cited by Bonsch, Itala, p. 471. 5 
Then again there are a large number, belonging to no special 
class, which are to be attributed to the sermo plebeius, either on 
authority of ancient writers, as botulus, obba, (cited by Gell. 16, 
7, 4 sq., as obsoleta et maculantia ex sordidiore uulgi usv), or from 
analogy with the Romance languages, as caballus = equus ; 
bucca os, (comp. Fr. cheval, louche) ; these however belong 
rather to the question of change in Word-Signification than to 
Word-Formation, and so lie outside of the province of the 
present chapter. 6 

1 lul. Val. 2 Eccl. 3 Th. Prise. 

4 Conf. infra, 18. 5 Here also belong many words already given in the lists of 
abstr. subst. , but which in late latin became concrete, as alligatura = uinculum ; fos- 
sura = fossa ; poenitudo poena ; conf. Ronsch, p. 472. 6 Comp. Diez, p. 4, sq. ; 
R"nsch, p. 472. 2 "Manche Worter der Schriftsprache warden . . . im Munde 
des Volks durch andere ersetzt." 



15. USE OF ADJ.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 51 

There are however two points in connection with concrete 
substantives which compel attention, a. the abundance of nom- 
ina personalia, b. the freedom with which adjectives are used 
substantively. 

Of the nomi?ia personalia the important classes are those in 
-o, (-cnis,) -tor, (-sor,) -trix, and niasc. and fern, of adjs. in 
-arius, taken substantively. The words given in the accom- 
panying- lists will be found to fall largely under two heads, 1. 
terms of contempt, abuse and in malampartem in general; 2. 
those designating the followers of the various trades, handi- 
crafts, etc. The substantives in -o, -onis, which of all deriva- 
tives are perhaps most closely confined to the sermo plebeius, 
belong as a whole to the former class. Those in -tor, -trix, 
and in -arius, -aria, while largely used to denote trades, and 
the like, are also used not infrequently in malam partem ; 
thus, basiator, fellator, fututor, masturbator, scortator / ama- 
trix, coliabitatrix, fututrix, permastrix, potrix, seductrix ; alica- 
ria, nonaria. Yet even in such cases the contemptuous force 
lies in the implication not merely of committing a discredit- 
able act, but of making a business of so doing : compare Engl. 
news-monger, scandal-monger, whore-monger. 

That designations of artisans, etc., should be more frequent 
in the language of the people than in Classic Latin, seems 
hardly to need an argument. A large proportion of such 
words were naturally taken in to the literary language as oc- 
casion demanded, and the absence of any individual word from 
the extant literature is no proof of its plebeian nature ; the 
various trades, however, then as always, had certain technical 
distinctions between the different grades of workers, quite un- 
important to the outside world ; thus Cicero very largely gen- 
eralizes in speaking of artisans, using either artifex with a limit- 
ing adjective, or the circumlocution is qui . . . facit. The large 
number of this class of words which never found their way in- 
to literature, but have been preserved in inscriptions, as for in- 
stance those of the shops in Pompeii, are a good indication that 
the sermo quotidianus was especially rich in such formations. 

15. SUBSTANTIVE USE OF ADJECTIVES : As this whole ques- 
tion belongs rather to the domain of Syntax than of Word- 
formation, it will be considered here only briefly, and in con- 
nection with certain classes of derivatives. 



52 WORD FORMATION IN THE [15. USE OF ADJ. 

In the Lido-Germanic languages the line of demarcation 
between substantive and adjective has never been clearly de- 
fined, and transfers from one category to the other are natural 
and necessary. In Latin however the stereotyping tendencj r 
of the classical language limited such fluctuation within much 
narrower bounds than were observed in other Ind.-Ger. 
branches, e. g., in Greek, where this usage was almost unlimited, 
and in recent times, in German. 1 Meanwhile the sermo plebeim 
preserved much of its archaic freedom in this regard, and 
nouns in apposition readily served as adjectives, (compare Pers. 
Prol. 13, coruos poetas et poetridas picas ; Id. 6, 74, popa neuter)? 
and conversely almost any adjective could do duty as a noun. 
The plebeian character of this usage has been well demon- 
strated by Ronsch, 3 who pointed out its prevalence in the 
Itala and in writers of the decadence, as well as the evidence 
afforded by the Romance languages. The foundation of 
the usage rests to a great extent upon some simple ellipsis, 
which in itself is prevalent in colloquial Latin; a certain 
number of every-day expressions, however, are quite classic, 
as calida, frigida, (aqua) ; dextra, (manus) ; tertiana, quartana> 
(febris). 

In the sermo plebeius the usage was so free that not only the 
simple adjectives, but also many classes of derivatives did 
duty as substantives, and this is true to a still greater degree 
of the Romance languages. 4 The most copious, and therefore, 

V 

1 Brugmann, Vergl. Gramm. , II, 154. 2 Sorn, Pers. p. 5, " Die f reiere Sprache der 
satirischen Dichter aussert sioh auch in der Anwendung der Substantiva als Attribn- 
tiva," citing further, heroas sensits, Pers. 1, 69 ; artificem uultum, 5, 40 ; luuenes iocos, 
6, 6 ; Ligus ora. Id. ib. 3 Ronsch, Itala, p. 472, " Dass die Zahl der beim Volke gebrau- 
chlichen svtbstantivirten Adjektiva eine betracbteliche gewesen sein muss, ergibt sich 
theils aus Belegen der Itala selbst, theils aus romanischen Formen," citing ficulnea-* 
ficus ; fontana fons ; tnontana mons ; hibernum = hiems ; matutinum =- mane ; 
nolatile = auis ; Ital., inverno, mattino, volatili ; Fi.,fontaine, montagne, hiver, ma- 
tin, volatile ; Goelzer, Hier, p. 113, " toutes les restrictions que le bon usage mettait 
en latin a 1'emploi des adjectifs comme substantifs disparurent peu a peu a partir du 
siecle d'Auguste," sq. See in general Draeger, Synt. I, 16 sq. ; Kuhner, Gram, 2, 
p. 168 ; Nagelsbach, Stil. 20, sq. ; Riemann, Tite-Live, p. 61 ; Holtze, Synt., I, p. 341 ; 
Koffmanne, Kirchenl. I, p. 50, not. I regret having been unable to obtain a copy of J. 
N. Ott's, Ueber die Substantivirung lateinischer Adjectiva durch Ellipse, Programm, 
Rotwell, 18, cited by Koffmanne. 4 " Substantiva konnen ohne irgend eine Form- 

veranderung aus Adjektiven hervorgehen, d. h. letztere, einfache wie abgeleitete, treten 
unter einer der beiden Geschlechtsformen unmittlebar in die Kategorie der ersteren 
iiber," Diez, p. 613. 



16. -o, -ONIS. ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 53 

for our purpose the most useful, classes of these derivatives 
are the masc. and fern, in -arius, -aria, (i.e.,faber, artifex, etc.) 
neufc. in -arium, and fern, in -ina (caro, etc.), and these will be 
considered more carefully in the following sections. Ronsch, 1 
however, in his comprehensive list cites numerous examples 
from adj. in -aris, -alls ; as militaris, Cod. lust. ; salutaris, 
Yulg. ; coniugalis, Cod. lust. ; officialis, Tert. ; Al. ; principalis, 
Dig. ; rationalis, Lampr. ; Al. ; sanciimonialis, Augustin. ; testi- 
monialis, Yeg. Mil. ; uentralis, Dig. : in -icius, as mi?ierualicium, 
Gl. Phil. ; nutricium, Sen. ; Dig. ; iienalicium, Petr. ; Al. : in 
-icus, as pulueraticum, Cod. Th.; Cassiod.; uolaticum, Tert.: 
-iuus, as donatiuum, Plin. Pan. ; Suet. ; Tert. ; Al. ; incentium, 
Pass. Cyprian. ; legatiuum, Dig., and one instance from adj. in 
-acius, uinacium, Vulg. A glance at Diez, Gramm. d. Roman- 
isch. Spr., 2 shows to how much greater an extent the popular 
speech must have gone than is betrayed by even the most vul- 
gar of the extant literature. So -aceus, -icius, are especially 
numerous, chiefly late formations : 3 Fr., ganac/ie, moustache, 
pistaclie ; Jiachis, logis, caniche ; It., ragazzo, vignazzo, tempaccio, 
gallinacda ; aquereccio, ferrareccio, ladroneccio / Sp., hoi^mazo 
(formaceus), pinaza, tewaza, caballerizo. Compare also -aneus. 
It., campagna, cuccagna, montagtia ; Pr., campagne, montagne, 
chataigne. Sp., arana, castana; -osus, Pr., pelouse, ventouse ; 
It., maroso, petrosa ; Sp., raposa. -ignus, Ital., patrigno, gra- 
migno. -ndus, Fr., legende, offrande, viande ; It., bevanda, 
leggenda, mvanda ; Sp., hacienda, etc. 

16. NOMINA PERSONALIA IN -o, -onis : Derivatives of this 
class, common to all the Italic branches, 4 were numerous in 
archaic Latin and appear to have been of common gender, 
and to have borne a good or bad signification according to 
that of the words from which they were derived. 5 Thus the 
names of deities, unquestionably of early origin, are partly 
masculine, as Aquilo, Incubo, Talassio ; partly feminine, as 
Juno, JVatio, Ossipago : the classical matrona and uirguncula 
point as suggestively to archaic feminine forms *matro t 
*uirgo, -onis, as patronus, auunculus, to the masculine forms 

i Ronsch, p. 100 sq. * Diez, pp. 623-688. 3 Diez, p. 634, "Neue in grosser Zahl." 
4 Buck, Vocalisnms, p. 127, . u. -on-, " umbr.-osk. verallgemeinert, auch da, wo im lat. 
in . . . steht;" con/. Stolz, Gramm., p. 327 ; Buech. Vmbrica, p. 126, s. u. abru- 
nu ; Fisch, Norn. Pers., p. 183, sq, 6 Fisch, ALL. V, p.. 57. 



-O, -OKIS. 

*patro, *auo. 1 In the classical language, however, the need 
of expressing definite gender probably led to the rejection 
of these words in favor of other classes of derivatives, and 
words in -o, -onis were largely abandoned to the sermo ple- 
beius. Here they survived and flourished, chiefly as comic 
or vulgar expressions of abuse, and in malam partem in gen- 
eral. 2 They pervaded the popular speech in every depart- 
ment of life, the sermo castren&is? as baro, calo, centurio, com- 
milito, decurio, perduellio, tiro ; the s.seruilis, 4 as erro, flogrio, 
mango, spado, uerbero, uernio, and the numerous proper names 
of slaves, in Plant, and elsewhere, as Grumio, Congrio, 
Turpio, (Cic. in Verr. 2, 3, 40, 91) ; the s.circensis, 5 as accendo, 
condo, kamotraho, murmitto, pugillo, quinquertio, scurrio ; the 
s.rmticus, 6 as aratrio, glebo, ouilio, sulco, tcrrio, upilio ; be- 
sides a large class of words which are the common property 
of all branches of the s.plebeius, such as bibo, edo, esurio, man- 
duco, popino, adulterio, amasio, paedico, etc. A convincing proof 
of the vulgar nature of these substantives, if proof were need- 
ed, is afforded by the overwhelming testimony of the Roman 
writers themselves ; e. g. agaso ; uulgo agasones uocamus, Sern. 
ad Aen. 3, 470 ; cotio ; cotionem peruulgate dicit, Gell. 16, 7, 12 ; 
folio ; appellantur uulgo fullones, Fest. 166, 2, 2 ; glutfo ; uulgo 
glutto appellatur, Lowe, Prodrom. 417 ; morio ; quos moriones 
uulgo uocant, Hier. Ep. 2, 130, 17 ; mulio ; uulgo mulio uocaba- 
tur, Suet. Vesp. 4 ; talabarrio ; talabarriunculos dicit quos uulgus 
tcdabarriones, Gell. 16, 7, 6, and many other instances collected 
by Fisch. 7 But the best evidence is afforded by a survey of 
the actual use made of these words in the extant literature. 
Paucker, (Worterschatz der silbernen Latinitat, p. 64, sq.) gives 
an extensive list of forms in -o, -onis, which he characterizes 
as " eine Sammlung von Beispielen der meist mehr volksthum- 

1 Pisch, ALL. V, p. 50, sq. s. u. matrona, patronus, etc.; Conf. Id., Nom. Pers., 
p. 159, " So 1st dem auunculus gegeniiber ein entsprechendes *auo, *auonis sebr frag- 
lich." 2 Wolffl, ALL. I, p. 16, " Die Formen auf o soheinen vorwiegend der Volka- 
sprache angehiirt zu liaben ; " Fisch, ALL. V, p. 57, " Die Volkssprache erhalt die subs, 
pers. auf o, onis, uud der Volkswitz vermehrt sie ; " conf. Landgr. Bltt. f . d. Bayer. 
Gymn. XVI, p. 319; Stinner, p. 6; Stuenkel, p. 20; Pauck. Hist. Aug. p. *14; Schulze. 
Diss. Hal. VI, p. 119. Ronsch, p. 65, sq.; Slaughter, Ter., p. 27; Goelzer, Hier., p. 
45, "La langue vulgaire va jusqu'k donner cette terminaison, qu'elle aime, a des mots 
existant de'ja sous une autre forme, comme amasio au lieu de amasius, nutricio pcmr 
nutricius." 3 Fisch, Nom. Pers, p. 18, sq. 4 Id. p. 10. 6 Id. , p. 24, sq. Id., p. 34. 
1 Id. p. 115, sq. 



816. -o, -OHM.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 55 

lichen und daher um so mehr sprachengeschichtlich interes- 
santen Formation," and which includes 335 forms, ue.it. 200, Cic. 
47, Silv. Lat. 47. A more exhaustive collection, limited to 
nomina personalia, is given by Fisch, in his excellent treatise 
on this subject, already cited, (Die lateinischen Nomina person- 
alia auf " o, onis," Berlin, 1890). Out of the odd 275 words 
there cited, exclusive of conjectural forms, barely 25 have the 
sanction .of Caes. or Cic., and of these, 6 occur only in the 
Epistt. : combibo, epulo, sacco, salaco, tocullio, tierbero. Only 7 oc- 
cur with any frequency in the best writers, caupo, helluo, histrio, 
latro, leno, praeco, praedo, to which may be added commilito, cato, 
decurio, often used by the historians, (Caes. ; Sail. ; Liu.). On 
the other hand, the early comic writers, the satirists, and 
all authors of questionable latinity abound with these forms ; 
Ploen, (p. 38), attributes not less than 47 to comedy alone, and 
10 to the satirists; tragic and epic poetry 2 each ; lyric poetry 
3. Turning- again to the tables compiled by Fisch, we find 
that Plaut. alone used 31, while Terent., " viel feiner als Plau- 
tus," has but 9, and only 5 of them new forms. 1 Of the satir- 
ists, Lucil. employs 13, Horat., (Sat. c& JEpp-\ 13, Pers. 7, luuen. 
14. Petr., always a fertile source for plebeian forms, has 27, 
of which 9 are new, and Apul. 34, new 7. The Scriptt. Hist. Aug. 
have 17, of which three are new, commanipulo, linifio, *procerto. 
Of the Scriptt. Eccl., Tert. has only 8, 3 new, 2 alone ; Hier. 9, 
all old ; Augustin. 12, 1 only new, (fdbulo). That the ecclesiasti- 
cal writers were sparing in the use of these words is an indica- 
tion that, unlike most plebeian derivatives, their vulgar char- 
acter was not diminished by the course of time, while their 
unabated prevalence in the speech of the people is evidenced 
by the large number of them preserved by the grammarians and 
Glossaries, 2 and by their survival in the Romance languages. 
Pr., -on, Ital., -one ; as gluto = Fr. glouton ; macliio, = macon. 3 
Examples of such survival are rare, but the modern languages 
abound with forms from which many Latin words now lost may 
be conjecturally reconstructed. Thus the Pr. champignon sug- 

1 It is to be regretted that Herr Fisch did not distinguish in his lists, between the 
words already in use and those which each author added to the literature ; had he 
done so, my own work would have been indeed superfluous. 2 Fisch, Nom. Pers., p. 
145 sg. , cites from the glossaries 141 words, the great majority of which are not known 
from other sources. 3 Diez, p. 653 ; Wolffl., ALL. I, p. 16. 



56 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[ 16. -O, -ONIS. 



gests *campinio; lumignon, *luminio; echelon, *scalo ; Ital. 
piantone, *planto, etc. But as the suffix is still an active one it 
is difficult to decide in individual cases whether a word is de- 
rived directly from the Latin, or a recent formation by an- 
alogy. 1 



Xiivivs ANDBONIOVS. 
quinquertio, ap. Fest. 257 (a) 11 



aleo, 3 Com. 118 
ganeo, 3 Id. ib. 
lustro, Id. ib. 



restio, 18 Most. 884 
saturio, Pers. 101 
silo, 19 Rud. 317 
sublingio, Pseud. 893 
trico, 20 Bacch. 280 
uerbero, 21 Amph. 284 ; al. 



ENNIVS. 

*debilo, Ann. 329 
subulo," Sat. 41 



CAECILIVS. 

truo, 23 Com. 270 

TEKENTIVS. 
babylo, Ad. 915 
homuncio, 24 Eun. 591 



Accivs. 
mirio, 



ap. Varr. L. L. 7, 68 



PLAVTVS. 

agaso, 4 Merc. 852 

buco 5 (bucco), Bacch. 1088 

calcitro, 6 Asin. 39 

capito, 7 Pers. 60 

congerro, 8 Most. 931 ; al. 

cotio, 9 (coctio), Asin. 203 

curio, (euro), Aul. 567 

esurio, Pers. 103 

fullo, 1 " Aul. 504 

gerro, 11 (cerro), True. 551 

legirupio, Rud. 709 

linteo, 14 .4wZ. 512 

lurco, 13 Pers. 421 

opilio, 14 (upilio), Asin. 540 

optio, 15 (sM&stf. masc.), Id. I, 1, 

pellio, 16 Jlfe. 404 

phyrgio, 17 (prygio), Id. 426; a 

1 Goelzer, Hier. p. 45 ; W. Meyer, ALL. V, p. 231. 

* Catull.; Tert. Ter.; Varr. Sat. Men.; die., semel, (Cat. 2, 7); SalL Cat.; Sen. Ep ; 
Lact. ; Prud. 4 Enn. ; Hor. Sat. ; Liu. ; Pers. ; Plin. ; Apul. ; Porphyr. ; Seru. ad Verg. ; ICt. 
6 Pompon.; Apul.; Isid. Varr. Sat. Men.; Apul. ' Cic., semel, (N. D. 1, 29, 80); Arnob. 
8 Fulg. 9 Laber. ; Paul, ex Pest. ; Petr. ; Gell. ; Porphyr. ad. Hor. 10 Titin. ; Pompon. ; 
Nou.; Varr. Sat. Men.; Petr.; Mart.; Plin.; Gell.; Apul.; Tert.; Lampr. ; Ambros.; Firm. 
Math.; Dig. Caecil.; Ter.; * Auct. B. Alex.; Paul, ex Fest. ia Lampr.; Firm. Math.; 
Cod. Theod.; Seru. ad Verg.; Inscrr. IS Lucil.; Suet.; Apul.; Seru. ad Aen.; Mar. Plot. 
Sacerd. 14 Varr.; Verg. Ge.; Col.; Apul.; Vulg.; Firm. Math.; Augustin.; Dig.: Isid. 

15 Varr.; Tac. ; Veget. Mil.; Isid. 16 Lampr. ; Firm. Math.; Cod. Theod. " Titin.; Varr. 
Sat. Men.; ApuL; Tert. ; Arnob. Suet. ; Fronto. Varr. Sat. Men. Lucil. ; lul. 
Capit. Ter.;Cic. Att.; Apul.; Hier.; Diom. M LuciL 23 Paul, ex Fest. " 4 Cic., sem- 
el, (Acad. 2, 134); Petr.; Sen.; Apul.; luuen.; Ambros.; Augustin. " 5 Tert. * Cic. Ep. 
Varr. Sat. Men.; Donat. ; Cassiod ; Prise. " 8 Varr. Sat. Men. 



Lvcnjvs. 

combibo, 28 Sat. 26, 66 
comedo, 87 Id. 5, 41 
impuno, Id. 2, 1 
mando, 28 Id. Fr. Inc. 163 



16. -O, .-ONIS. ] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



57 



mango, 1 Id. 29, 88 

muto, 2 Id. 8, 7 

uaro, 3 (baro), Id. Fr. Inc. 108 

AFRANIVS. 

flagrio, Com. 391 
tenebrio, 4 Id. 109 

POMPONIVS. 

*baso, 5 ap. Prise. 2, 1, p. 213 K. 
manduco, 8 Com. 112 
particulo, Id. 140 

VAKRO. 

balatro, 7 ^. R. 2, 5, 1 
edo, Sat. Men. 529 
equiso, 8 Id. 118 ; aZ. 
libellio, 9 Id. 256 
longurio, 7<Z. 562 
phago, 10 Id. 529 
popino, 11 Id. 308 
rapo, Id. 378 

LVCKKTIVS. 

pumilio, 13 4, 1160 

ClCEBO (EPISTT.). 

salaco, ad. Fam. 7, 24, 2 
succo, acf J.M. 7, 13, 6. 5 
tocullio, Id. 2, 1, 12 

L/ABERIVS. 

adulterio, Com. Inc. Fab. 17 
appeto, Com. 96 

HOBATTVS. 

ciniflo, 13 Sat. 1, 2, 98 
erro, 14 Id. 2, 7, 113 



PHAEDBVS. 
ardelio, 15 2, 5, 1 

PEKSIVS. 
*cachinno, 1, 12 
cerdo, 16 4, 51 
glutto " 5, 112 
palpo, 5, 176 

PETKONIVS. 
capo, 18 59 
cicaro, 46 
felicio, 67, 9 
graeculio, 76, 10 
lanio, 19 39 
lucro, 40 60 
*mascarpio, 134, 5 
occupo, 58, 11 
*scelio, 50, 5, Cod. Trag. 
uauato, 63, 8 

MABTIAMS. 

anteambulo, 31 2, 18, 5 ; al. 
paedico," 6, 33, 1 ; al. 
nespillo," 1, 47, 1 

GELLIVS. 
uitupero, 44 19, 7, 16 

APVLETVS. 

amasio," Met. 3, 22 
*geralo, Id. 3, 28, Ed. Eyssenh. 
gulo," 6 Mag. 32 
nugo, Met. 5, 29 
rnpico, Flor. 7, p. 8, 15 K. 
nillico, Mag. 87 
uulpio, Id. 86 



1 Varr. ; Hor. ; Plin. ; Mart. ; luuen. ; Quint. ; Capit. a Hor. Sat. 3 Pers. ; Petr. ; Au- 
gustin.; Isid. * Varr. Sat. Men. 5 " Ribbeck falschlich ' uaso,' " Fisch, Nom. Pers. p. 
48, citing Lowe Prodrom. p. 66. 6 Apul. ; Non. 7 *Lucr. ; Hor. Sat. ; Vopisc. ; Hier. ; 
Acron.; Gloss. Labb. 8 VaL Max. ; Apul. 9 Stat. ; Non. 10 Vopisc. " Hor. Sat.; Suet. 
12 Sen.; Plin.; Mart.; Fest.; Gell.; Inscrr. 13 Tert.; Seru. ad Verg.; Porphyr. ad Hor. 
14 On. ; Tib.; Sen. ; Col. ; Plin. ; Dig. ; Diom. 15 Mart. 16 Petr. ; Mart. ; luuen.; Inscrr. 
"Paul, ex Fest.; Ambros.; Isid. 18 Mart.; Ps.-Apic. 19 SeduL; Charis.; Dig. Paul 
ex Fest. 21 Suet. 3a Firm. Math. ;formpendico, Auct. Priap. 68, 8. " 3 Suet.; Apul.; 
Tert.; Vlp. Dig.; Firm. Math.; Amm.; Not. Tir.; Sidon.; Fulg. Myth. 24 Sidon. Ep. 

25 Arnob.; Prud. 3S Macr. 



58 WORD FORMATION IN THE [17. -TOB, -SOB. 

TEKTVLLIANVS. VOPISOVB. 

accendo, Pall. 6 liniflo, Saturnin. 8 

commisero, adu Marc, 4, 9 ; al. 

homerocento, 1 Praescr. 39 AMMIANVS. 

literio, 4 17, 11, 1 ; al 

CAPITOLINVS. *praescio, 18, 4, 1 

*procento, Maximin. duo 2 reposco, 22, 16, 23 

AENOBIVS. AVGVSTIKVS. 

mento, 3, 14 falmlo, 3 de Haeres. 88 

SPABTIANVS. SEDONTVS. 

commanipulo, Pesc. Nig. 10 hortulo, Ep. 5, 14, 2 

17. SUBSTANTIVES IN -tor, -sor, -rix: This class of deriva- 
tives, which have been aptly called Personal Participial Sub- 
stantives, 4 denote persons as supporting 1 a given condition, as 
amator = is qui amat, taking the place of an explanatory rela- 
tive clause, and thus making the language briefer, and at the 
same time more ponderous. 5 Paucker has computed the total 
number of these substantives at 2,294 ; uett. 779, recc. 1,515, Caes. 
and Cic. 340, or three-sevenths of uett. Such a large propor- 
tion shows that these derivatives were current in the classical 
language, owing no doubt to the convenience of condensed 
expression. The popular language, however, treated these 
words, like verbal abstracts in -tio, with a peculiar freedom, 
so that every verb was probably capable of giving its corre- 
sponding nomen agentis. 6 Already in Plautus we find 158, (125 
in -tor, 33 in -trix, or nearly one-fifth of the uett., a large pro- 
portion when compared with other classes of words, as -tio, of 
which he has only 94 out of 1,450 uett. or less than one-fifteenth. 
Terent. has a much smaller proportion, 36, -tor 27, -trix 9. 
Stinner 7 has noticed the much greater freedom with which 
Cic. used these words in his letters than in his more finished 
writings, and cities 24, (-tor 23, -trix 1), many of them desig- 

1 Hier. s Augustin. 3 Gloss. Isid. 

4 Paucker Material. II, p. 2, Das Verbalnomen anf t*or, s-or, . . . das wir per- 
sonliches Participialnomen benennen mochten. 5 Comp. Schmidt, Verb, in -tor, etc., 
ap. Tert. p. 12, "simulque illomm nsu creberrimo ponderosa Tert. orationis gra- 
uitas et sententiosa breuitas adinnatur. " 6 Goelzer, p. 24, notes this freedom in the 
latin of Hier., " Le latin obeissait deja inconsciemment a cette loi dont nousvoyons 
les effets dans les langues romanes, oil chaque verbe est capable de donner naissance 
a un nom d' agent." 7 Stin. p. 6. 



17. -TOR, -SOB.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 59 

nating trades, as glutinator, inferior, olitor, etc., and words of 
this class were undoubtedly of popular origin. They were 
however more in accordance with the spirit of the classic 
language than the corresponding formations in -arius, so 
abundant in the sermo plebeius, and consequently gained a more 
ready acceptance in the literature. The rarity of these words 
in the vulgar writer Vitr. is a further indication that they 
are by no means an essential characteristic of the vulgar 
Latin : while he added an odd hundred of words in -tio, he 
has but five new forms in -tor and none in -trix. The writers 
of Silver Latin showed a marked preference for these words, 
introducing 194, -tor 153, -trix 41, or more than one-fourth of 
uett. The greatest number of these is due to L. Seneca, 34, the 
next to Plin., 26. The large number in Mart., 22, many of them 
distinctly vulgar, is worthy of notice. 

But it is chiefly in the ecclesiastical writers that this for- 
mation obtains its full development ; J. Schmidt, in his pains- 
taking monogram on the use of these words by Tert., above 
cited, 1 attributes to him the surprising number of 198 forms first 
used by him, -tor 150, -trix 48, 81 of which (-tor 50, -trix 31), 
are not found in later writers. Paucker a assigns to Hier. 46, 
-tor 32, -trix 14, of these 33 peculiar to him, -tor 21, -trix 12. 
Augustin. 3 has 94, -tor 81, -trix 13. This surprising fertility 
indicates that, at least at this period of the language, words 
iu -tor and -trix had taken a firm hold upon the popular 
speech. 

One point of importance in its bearing upon the Romance 
languages is the change in signification undergone by these 
substantives in later Latin : in classic times they served to 
denote a permanent condition or quality of the person or thing 
referred to : Cic. N. D. 2, 15, 41, ignis confector est et consumptor 
omnium, denotes permanent characteristics of fire ; Id. de Sen. 
4, 10, Fabius Maximus suasor fait legis Cinciae, means not 
merely suasit legem Cinciam, but that he was known to history 
as the one noted for his support of that measure. 4 A particular 
case, or transient event could not be expressed by these words. 
In later Latin this distinction began to disappear ; the language 
was approaching the freedom with which French employs cor- 

1 See supra, p. 58, not. 5. 2 Paucker, Hier. p. 29. 3 Pauck. Spicileg. p. 134 not. 
26. 4 Nagelsbach, Stilistik, p. 210. 



60 WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 17. -TOR, -SOR. 

responding forms in -eur, to denote single actions or temporary 
conditions : thus Goelzer cites from Hier. numerous phrases 
such as uirtutis assumptor ; distributator possessionum ; oblator 
munerumfuit ; l etc. 

While the masculine ending -tor, -sor, has survived in full 
vigor, the Romance languages have retained the feminine 
-trix only in occasional examples : as Fr., actrice, nourrice; 
Sp., emperadriz, nutriz. Italian alone has kept the freedom of 
forming a corresponding feminine in -trix out of every mas- 
culine in -tor, and even here it is a question whether this license 
does not belong rather to the language of literature and of lexi- 
cons than to the speech of the people. 2 In Sp. it is replaced 
by -ora, in Fr. by -euse (-osa), and throughout the Romance 
languages, to a large extent by the Vulgar Latin suffix -issa, 
as Fr., prophetesse, deesse ; Sp., dtiquesa, poetisa ; Prov., prin- 
cessa, senhoressa ; Ital., dottoressa, pittoressa, poetessa, etc. 3 

NAEVIVS. derisor, 16 Capt. 71 

olitor, 4 Com. 19 despoliator, 16 Trin. 240 

praemiator, 6 Id. 17 dissignator, 17 Poen. 19 

dormitator, Trin. 862 

PiiAvrvs. duellator, Capt. Prol. 68 

acceptor, 8 Trin. 204 exercitor, 18 Trin. 226 

aduentor, 7 Asin. 359 ; al. famigerator, Id. 215 

calator, 8 Pseud. 1009 flagitator, 19 Most. 768 

castigator, 9 Trin. 187; al. fugitor, Trin. 723 

*caulator, True. 683 gestor, 20 Pseud. 429 

cauillator, 10 Id. 685 indagator, 21 Trin. 240 

*circumductor, " Most. 845 R. inductor, 22 Asin. 551 

clanator, 12 Rud. 805 infector," Avl. 521 

collator, 13 Cure. 474 iurator, 24 Trin. 879 ; al. 

dator, 14 True. 20 ; al. lectisterniator, Pseud. 162 

1 Goelzer, p. 56, citing authorities. s Meyer-Liibke, Ital. Gramm. p. 270. 3 Meyer- 
Liibke, Ib.; Diez, p. 620 sq.; compare infra, 82. 

4 Plant. ; Varr . ; Cic. Ep. ; Col. ; Plin. ; Inscrr. Ambros. Lucil. ; Cypr. Ep.; CoA 
lust. ;Boeth.; Gloss.; Inscrr. 7 Apul. Met. ; Prise. ; Inscrr. 8 Charis.; Inscrr. 9 Hor.; 
Liu. 10 Cic. Ep.; Sen.; GelL Tert. 12 Paul, ex Fest. ; Gl. Labb. 13 Augustin.; 
Greg.; ICt. 14 Verg.; Arnob.; Augustin.; Eccl. 15 Hor. ; Phaedr. ; Sen.; Suet.; Mart.; 
Inuen.; Inscrr. i Cod. Theod. 17 Hor. Ep.; Sen.; Suet. Fr.; Inscrr. Macr.; ICt.; 
Inscrr. 18 Cic., semel, (Brut. 18); Liu.; GelL; Amm. 20 Scaeu. Dig.; Augustin. 21 Varr.; 
Vitr. ; Col. ; Ser. Samm. ; Macr. ; Isid. ; Boeth. ; (-trix, Cic. , Ac. ) . 22 Augustin. ; Gloss. 

Labb. * Cic. Ep. ; Sen. ; Plin. ; Marc. Emp. ; Gloss. Labb. Cato. ; Liu. ; Sen. Apoc. ; 
Symm. ; Macr. 



17. -TOR, -SOB.] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



61 



luctator, 1 Id. 1251 
ludificator, Most. 1066 
lusor, 2 Amph. 694 
malefactor, 3 Bacch. 395 
oblocutor, Mil. 644 
obsonator, 4 Id. 667 
occator, 5 Capt. 662 
occisor, 6 Mil. 1055 
ominator, ^IwzpA. 722 
osor, 7 Asin. 859 
ostentator, 8 Cure. 476 
palpator, 9 Jfew. 260 
percontator, 10 Id. 933 
*perf orator, 11 -Rsewd. 979 E. 
perquisitor, 12 Stick. 385 
pollictor, 13 Asin. 910 
postpartor, TVwc. 63 
potator, 14 Men. 259 
praestigiator, Amph. 830 ; 
pransor, 15 Men. 274 
precator, 16 ^dst'n. 415 
responsor, Rud. 226 
sarcinator, 17 vlw/. 515 
scortator, 18 Amph. 287 
screator, Mil. 648 
sputator, /<i. i>. 
textor, 19 Aul. 519 
uirgator, vlsm. 565 
uitor, 30 Rud. 990 
unctor, 21 Trin. 252 



CATO. 

ambulator," J2. B. 5, 2 
penator, Ora. 13, Fr. \ 

TEKENTIVS. 

contortor, Phorm. 374 
exorator, 23 jffec. 10 
extortor, 24 Phorm. 374 
inceptor, 26 .Sun. 1035 
praemonstrator, Haut. 875 

Lvcmvs. 

bouinator, 20 Sat. 11, 27 
*expilator, 27 Id. 27, 54 <7odd 
glutinator, 28 Id. 28, 41 
succussator, /o?. 3, 33 

VABRO. 

cantator, 29 L. L. 8, 57 
desponsor, Id. 6, 69 
impositor, 30 Id. 7, 2 
obstrigillator, /Satf. 3fen. 436 
porculator, 31 R. R. 2, 4, 1 
putator, 32 L. L. 7, 63 
urnatov, 33 Id. 5, 126 
uestigator, 34 Id. 5, 94 

CICERO, (EPISTT.). 
adiunctor, ad Ait. 8, 3, 3 
*aemulator, s6 Id. 2, 1, 10 
approbator, 36 Id. 16, 7, 2 
cessator, 37 ad Fam. 9, 17, 3 



1 On.; Sen.; Gell. * Oa; Sen.; Anr. Viet.; Insert. 3 Vulg. 4 Sen. Ep.; Inscrr. 
6 Col.; Fest.; nom. propr., Occator, = Seru. ad. Verg. 8 Cypr. Ep.; Augustin. 7 Paul, 
ex Feet.; Apul.; Pacat.; Auson.; Augustin. 8 Cornif. Rhet.; Liu.; Tac. 9 Cypr. Ep.; 
Cassian. 10 Hor. Ep. ; Augustin. Ep. " *perfossor = Cod. Arribr. 12 Amm. 13 Varr. 
Sat. Men.; Mart.; Tert.; Vlp. Dig.; Vulg.; Firm. Math.; Fulg. Myth.; Sidon. Ep. 
14 Tert.; Vopisc.; Hier. Ep.; Vulg.; Firm. Math. 15 Veran. ap. Macr. Sat.; Augustin. 
16 Ter.; Symm.; Macr.; Donat. 17 Lucil.; Gai. Inst.; Vlp. Dig.; Seru. ad Verg.; Inscrr. 
i Hor. Sat.; Hier.; Vulg. Hor. Ep.; Mart.; luuen.; Firm. Math.; Vlp. Dig. 20 Ar- 
nob.; Donat. ad Ter.; Gloss. Labb.; Inscrr. 21 Cic. Ep.; Quint.; Mart.; Augustin.; 
Inscrr. as Col; Mart; Augustin. 23 Tert. 24 Cypr. Ep. 25 Auien. 2 Placid. 
Gloss.; Gloss. Labb. 27 Cic. Q. Fr.; Vlp. Dig. 28 Inscrr. 29 Mart.; Gell. 30 Vlp. 
Dig. " Col. 32 Ou.; Col.; Plin. 33 Liu.; Callistr. Dig.; Firm. Math. 34 Col.; Sen.; 
Apul. Met.; Seru. ad Verg.; Vlp. Dig.; Isid. 36 Sail.; Sen. Ep.; Apul.; lustin.; Vulg. 
36 Gell.; Augustin. 37 Hor. Sat. 



62 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[ 17. -TOR, -SOR. 



consponsor, 1 Id. 6, 18, 3 
designator, 3 ad AtL 4, 3, 2 
ioculator, 3 Id. 4, 16, 3 
litigator, 4 ad Fam. 12, 30, 1 
peregrinator, 5 Id. 6, 18, 5 
propagator, 6 ad Alt. 8, 3, 3 
structor, 7 ad Q. Fr. 2, 6, 2 
traductor, ad Alt. 2, 9, 1 

HOBATIVS. 
modulator, 8 Sat. 1, 3, 130 

VlTRWTVS. 

demolitor, 10, 13, 3 
locator, 9 1, 1, 10 
officinator, 10 6, 8, 9 
prouindemiator, 9, 4, 1 

CELSVS. 
professor, 11 2, 6, 1 ; al 

CoiiVMELLA. 

allector, 8, 10, 1 
alligator, 12 4, 13, 1 ; al. 
arborator, 13 11, 1, 12 
concinnator, 14 1, Praef. 5 
cubitor, 6, 2, 11 
fenisector, 11, 1, 12 
gesticnlator, 1, Praef. 3 
pampinator, 4, 10, 2 ; al. 
pastinator, 3, 13, 12 
runcator, 2, 13, 1 
nentilator, 15 2, 10, 14 

PETBONIVS. 
auxiliator, 18 Poet. 89 



circitor," 53, 10 
coctor, 18 95, 8 
deuersitor, 79, 6 ; al. 
leuator, 19 140 
scissor, 20 36, 6 

PMNIVS. 

anhelator, 21, 156 ; al. 
auulsor, 9, 148 
cauator, 21 10, 40 
circumfossor, 17, 227 
exemptor, 36, 125 
exercitator, 23, 121 ; al. 
infestator, 22 6, 143 
inoculator, 18, 329 
proscriptor, 7, 56 
subarator, 17, 227 
sudator, 23, 43 
suffitor, 34, 12 

MABTIALIS. 

basiator, 11, 98, 1 
calctdator, 28 10, 62, 4 
celebrator, 8, 78, 3 
conturbator, 24 7, 27, 10 
dormitor, 10, 4, 4 
esuritor, 3, 14, 1 
fellator, 25 11, 66, 3 ; al. 
fututor, 26 1, 91, 6 ; al. 
gestator, 27 4, 64, 18 
inuitator, 28 9, 91, 2 
malleator, 29 12, 57, 9 
masturbator, 14, 203, 2 
motor, 30 11, 39, 1 
plorator, 14, 54, 1 



1 Paul ex Fest. ; Gloss. Isid. a Vlp. Dig. 3 Firm. Math. * Quint. ; Tac. ; Plin. 
Pan.; Lact.; Amm. 5 Apul. Met.; Firm. Math. Apul.; Inscrr. 7 Petr.; Mart.; 
Apul. ; Tert. ; Lampr. ; Capit. 8 Col. ; Apnl. Plin. 10 Apul. Met. ; Inscrr. " Col. ; 
Quint. ; Plin. Ep. ; Suet.; Spart. ; Amm. ; ICt. ia Augustin. 1S Plin. 14 Arnob.; Auson. ; 
Sidon. Ep.; Vlp. Dig. 15 Quint. ; Prud. ; Vnlg. ; Augustin. 16 Tac. ; Quint. ; Nazar. 
Pan.; Auson.; Amm. 17 Frontin, 8 CIL. 4, 1658; Cod. Theod. " Auct. Epit. Iliad. 
20 Inscrr. 21 Inscrr. M Auct. Itin. Alex. ss Isid. ; Acron. ad Hor. ; Modest.; Rufin. 
4 Ps. -Quint. "CIL. 4,1825. 2(t CDL. 4, 1503; aL 27 Plin.Ep. Tert.; Vulg.; 
Augustin. ; Sidon. Ep. ; Cod. lust ; Inscrr. 2a Inscrr. 30 Vitr. ; Gromat. Vet. 



17. -TOR, -SOU.] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



63 



sciscitator, ] 3, 82, 16 
sititor, 2 12, 3, 12 

GELLIVS. 

*argutator, 17, 5, 13 
considerator, 3 11, 5, 2 
locator, 4 1, 15, 1 
pensitator, 17, 1, 3 
praelector, 18, 5, 6 

APVLEIVS. 

aduector, Flor. 21 
aduorsator, Deo Socr. 44 
coemptor, Mag. 74 
comrneator, Met. 11, 11 
commentator, 5 Mag. 74 
complanator, Id. 6 
conformator, Ascl. 8 
comierritor, Mag. 6 
degulator, 6 Id. 75 
depector, Id. 79 
dilector, 7 Flor. 9 
disterrninator, De Mund. 1 
distributor, 8 Ascl. 27 
emasculator, Mag. 74 
exsector, J/ei. 8, 15 
frequentator, 9 Ascl. 29, eatfr 
fulminator, 10 De Mund. 37 
gloriator, Flor. 17 
hospitator, -3/etf. 4, 7 
improbator, 11 .Deo /Sbc?\ 16 
incensor, 1 ' 2 De Mund. 26 
inuisor, 13 Flor. 9 
insecutor, 14 Jfei!. 7, 2 
insimulator, 15 J/agr. 30 
lustrator, 16 Id. 22 



mediator, 17 .Merf. 9, 36 
modiflcator, Flor. 4 
nuncupator, Id. 15, p. 19, 9, Kr. 
oblectator, 18 Id. 17 
opitulator, ia M 16 
piator, Id. 15 
pocillator, Met. 6, 15 ; aZ. 
praecentor, 20 De Mund. 35 
praemonitor, Deo Socr. 16 
praestitor, .4scZ. 27 
prospector, 21 Deo Socr. 16 
purgator, 22 Mag. 22 
retentor, 23 jFYor. 6 
serenator, De Mund. 37 
sospitator, 24 Id. 24 ; aZ. 
subiugator, Dogm. Plat, 2, 7 
tributor, Ascl. 27 
triumphator, 25 ^IpoZ. 17 
tundor, Met. 4, 24 
tutator, 26 Deo Socr. 16 

TEKTVLLIANVS. 

abnegator," Fug. in Persec. 12 
abolitor, 28 Cult. Fern. 1, 3 ; al. 
absconditor, 29 adu Marc. 4, 25 
acceptator, 30 de Pat. 4 
adamator, Hob. Mul. 2 
adauctor, Anim. 2 
aduocator, 31 ac?w. Marc. 4, 15 
adulterator, 32 C"ar. Chr. 19 
afflator, ac?w. Hermog. 32 
afflictator, ac?w. Marc. 5, 16 
alienator, /rf. 4, 36 
animator, 33 Anim. 48 
amrantiator, 34 adu. Marc. 4, 7 
apertor, Id. 2, 3 



"Amm.jPrud. 2 Apul. Met.; Mart. Cap. 3 Augnstin. * Apul. Met.; Augustin. 
5 Tert. ; Cod. lust. ; Sidon. Ep.; Seru. Isid. 7 Tert. ; Augustin. 8 Hier. Ep. ; Firm. 
Math. ; Cassiod. " Tert. I0 Arnob. Tert.; Augustin. 18 Amm.; Augustin. ; Claud. 
13 Ambros. "Tert. ' 5 Pacat. Pan. 1S Schol. luuen. 17 Tert.; Lact.;Vulg.; Augus- 
tin. ls Tert. 19 Hier.; Augustin. ; lupiter Opitulator, = Paul, ex Fest. 20 Augustin.; 
Isid. 21 T ert> 22 pjj,,,^^ Math . Anthol- Lat . Augustin. Augustin. * Arnob. 
25 Min. Fel.;Inscrr. 26 Auct. Epit. Iliad. 27 Ps.-Hilar. s Auson. 29 Firm. Math. 
30 Lucif . Car. ; Inscrr. 31 Marius Mercator. 33 Cod. Theod. ; Dig. 33 Prud. ; Mart. Cap. 
34 Vulg. ; Augustin. 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[ 17. -TOR, -SOU. 



argumentator, 1 Anim. 38 
aspernator, 2 adu. Marc. 4, 15 
allocator, Cam. Chr. 5, extr. 
baptizator, 3 Bapt. 12 
castrator, 4 adu. Marc. 1, 1 
circumlator, b Id. 1, 19 ; al. 
collocutor," Prax. 5 
comesor, 7 adu. Marc. 1, 1 
commemorator, Id. 4, 26 
comminator, 8 Scorp. 9; al. 
compossessor, 9 Idol. 14 
concussor, 10 Fug. in Persec. 12, 13 
condesertor, Cam. Chr. 1, extr. 
confessor, 11 Prax. 26 ; al. 
consecrator, 12 Pudic. 21 
conspector, 13 Cult. Fern. 2, 13 
contaminator, 14 Pudic. 13 
cremator, adu. Marc. 5, 16 
darnnator, 15 Id. 5, 17 ; al. 
dedecorator, Apol. 14 
dedicator, 16 Id. 5 ; al. 
deditor, Orat. 13 
definitor, 17 adu. Marc. 5, 10 
demutator, Res. Cam. 32 
depalator, adu. Marc. 5, 6 
depostulator, Apol. 35 
depretiator, adu. Marc. 4, 20 
derogator, 18 Id. ib. 
despectator, ad Vxor. 8 
despector, 19 adu. Marc. 2, 23 
destructor, 20 Apol. 46 
detector, adu. Marc. 4, 36 ; aL 
determinator, Pudic. 11 



detestator, 21 adu. Marc. 4, 27 ; al. 
dimissor, 22 Id. 4, 10; al. 
discussor, 23 ad Nat. 1, 3 
dispector, Anim. 15 ; al. 
dispunctor, 24 adu. Marc. 4, 17 
dubitator, adu. Haeret. 33 
ducator," adu. lud. 13 
elimator, adu. Marc. 4, 35 
enodator, Pall. 6 
erogator, 26 Pudic. 16 
eruditor, 27 Pall. 4 
euangelizator, 28 adu. Marc. 5, 5; 

al. 

examinator, 29 Anim. 2 
excultor, 30 Monog. 16 
exhortator, 31 J^wy. in Persec. 14 
exorbitator, ae?u. Marc. 3, 6 
expiator, 32 Pudic. 15 
expressor, 33 4p^ 46 
expunctor, Orat. 1 
factitator, JVao;. 18 
furator, Apol. 46 
illuminator, 34 /c?. 21 ; al. 
illusor, 35 adu. Marc. 5, 35 
incantator, 36 Id. 5, 9 ; al. 
incubator, Anim. 9 
inculcator, 38 adu. Onost. 6 
indultor, 39 adu. Marc. 4, 9 
inebriator, Id. 5, 18 
informator, 40 Id. 4, 22 
initiator, 41 Id. ib. 
inquietator, 42 Spect. 23 
insinuator, 43 Nat. 2, 1 



1 Augustin. 2 Ambros. 3 Augustin. 4 Anthol. Lat 5 Porphyr. ad Horat. " Au- 
gnstin. 'Vlp.Dig.;Vulg.;Isid. 8 Augustin. 'Augustin. 10 Ennod. ; Eccl. I'Lact.; 
Hier.;Prnd.; Augustin. ;Sidon. " Firm. Math. ; Hier. 13 Vulg. 14 Lampr. Firm. 
Math.;Sedul. 16 EccL 17 Augustin. ; Innocent. 18 Sidon. ia Xystus Pap. 21 Hier.; 
Augustin.; Cassiod. 21 Augustin.; Cassiod. 22 Augustin. M Sjinm.; Macr.; Ennod.; 
Cassiod. ; Cod. lust. 24 Inscrr. S5 Intpr. Iren. ; Bar. Phryg. ; Vlp. Dig. ; Ps. -Augus- 
tin. 2 Augnstin.;Cod. lust. a7 Hier. ; Vulg. " 8 Hier. 39 Intpr. Iren.; Augustin.; 
Cassiod. 30 Hier. ; Cassiod. 3 Cypr. ; Augustin. S2 Augustin. 33 Auien. ; Augustin. 
34 Lact ; Vulg. ; Augustin. 35 Vulg. ; Augustin. ; PauL Nol. 3 " Ambros. ; Hier. ; Vulg. ; 
Augustin.; laid.; Schol. Bern, ad Verg. Ge. 37 Macr.; Cod. Theod.; Seru. ad Aen. 

38 Cassiod. 3 Augnstin.; Iid.; Eccl. 40 Pall. ; Augustin. 41 Intpr. Iren. ; Noua- 
tian. ; Ambros. ; Hier. ; Augustin. 4 " Cod. Theod. " Arnob. ; Salu. ; Cod. 



17. -TOR, -SOR.] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



65 



institutor, 1 adu. Marc. 5, 5 
integrator, Apol. 46 
interdictor, 2 leiun. 15 
interpolator, Apol. 46 ; al. 
interpretator, 3 Monog. 6; al. 
intinctor, Bapt. 4 
minator, ad Nat. 2, 3 
miserator, 4 adu. Marc. 5, 11 ; al. 
motator, & Anim. 12 
negator," Praescr. 33 ; al. 
nunciator, 7 ad Nat. 1, 7 
oblator, 8 adu. Marc. 2, 26 
oblitterator, 9 Id. 4, 26 
obsecutor, I0 Id. ib. 
operator, 11 Apol. 23 ; al. 
ostensor, 12 Id. 11 
peccator, 13 Res. Cam. 9 
permeator, Apol. 21 
permissor, adu. Marc. 1, 22 
persecutor, 14 Patient. 6 
plagiator, 15 adu. Marc. 1, 23 
plasmator, 16 adu. lud. 2 
pollicitator, 17 Id. 1 ; al. 
potentator, Res. Cam. 23 
praeclusor, adu. Marc. 4, 27 
praeformator, Praescript. 30 
praelator, Pudic. 2 
praeparator, 18 ao?w. Jlfarc. 4, 33 
praesumptor, 11 * Cor. JlfiV. 2 ; a/. 
profusor,* adw. Marc. 1, 24 
prosector, .Anim. 25 



proseminator, ac? JVa/. 2, 13 
prostitutor, Cult. Fern. 2, 9 ; al. 
protector, 21 Apol. 6 ; al. 
recreator, 22 Anim. 43 ; al. 
redintegrator, 23 Id. ib. 
refragator, 24 adu. Gnost. 1 
remediator, 25 adu. Marc. 4, 8; al. 
renuntiator, 26 Anim. 37 
repraesentator, adu. Prax. 24 
repromissor, 27 Praescr. 20 
repudiator, 28 adu. Marc. 1, 14 
resuscitator, 29 Res. Cam. 57; al, 
retractator, 30 leiun. 15 
retractor, 31 Id. ib. 
retributor, 32 adu. Marc. 4, 29 
reuelator, 33 Id. 4, 25 
rigator, 34 adu. Valent. 15 
sacrificator, 35 Sped. 8, extr. 
salutificator, Res. Cam. 47 ; al. 
sanctificator, 30 adu. Prax. 2 
separator, 37 Praescr. 30 
sepultor, 38 adu. Marc. 4, 43 
solutor, 39 /d. 4, 17 
superseminator, Anim. 16 
suscitator, 40 cfa. Prax. 28 
transfigurator, 41 ac?w. Marc. 5, 12 
transgressor, 42 .Res. (7arn. 39 ; 

al. 

uiuificator, 43 Id. 37 
uociferator, adu. Marc. 4, 11 
uorator, 44 ad Nat. 2, 12 



1 Lampr. ; Trebell. ; Amm. 2 Fulg. Salu. Ep. ; Augustin. 4 luuenc. ; Hier. ; 
Vulg. ; Augustin.; Cassiod. ; Ven. Fort. 5 Amob. 8 Prud. ; Sidon. ; Augustin. ; Insert. 
7 Arnob. ; Dig. 8 Ambros. ; Ennod. ; Fulg. 9 Paul. Nol. lo lul. VaL Firm. Math.; 
Paul. Nol.; Sedul.; Vulg.; Lact.; Ambros.; Sulp. Seu.; Hier.; Augustin. 12 Intpr. Iren.; 
laid. i s Vulg. ; Eccl. * Capit. ; Hier. ; Vulg. ; Augustin. ; Sidon. J 5 Hier. ; Isid. 
18 Ambros.; Intpr. Iren. 17 Augustin.; Insert. 18 Augustin. I9 Amm.; Augustin.; 
Cassiod. ; Paul. Nol.; Cod. Theod. 20 Augustin. 21 Cypr. ; Spart.; Lact. : Amm.; Hier. ; 
Vulg.; Augustin.; Oros.; Cod. M Eumen.; Augustin.; Inscrr. 2S Inscrr. 24 Ascon. ad 
Cic. 25 Decret. Episcop. in Concil. Turon. 2. M Dig. 27 Ambros.; Vulg. 28 Angus- 
tin. 29 Augustin.; Chrysolog. 30 *Spart. ; Isid. 31 Isid. s - Hier.; Augustin. 
33 Augnstin. 34 Dracont.; Augustin. 35 Cassiod. s " Hier. ; Vulg. ; Augustin. 37 Hier.; 
Vulg. ; Augustin. 3S Heges. ; Vulg. ; Augnstin. 3e Augustin. 40 Augustin. ; Sidon. 
' 1 Intpr. Tren. 42 Arnob. ; Hier. ; Vulg. ; Augustin. ; Alcim. 4S Augustin. 44 Ambros. ; 
Hier.; Paul. Nol.; Ennod. 
5 



66 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[ 17. -TOB, -SOU. 



CAPITOUNVS. 
intimator, Pertin. 10 

ARNOBIVS. 
appetitor, 1 4, 14 
congregator, 2 6, 13 
conscriptor, 3 1, 56 ; al. 
cruciator, 4 1, 40, extr. 
exhibitor, 5 7, 42 
figurator, 6, 10 
iugator, 5, 25 
offensor, 7, 8 
pugilator, 6 1, 36 
refutator, 1, 32 
rimator, 5, 8 
ruminator, 7 7, 24 
sedator, 3, 26 
tutelator, 8 3, 24 
uinctor, 6, 13 

LAMPKIDIVS. 

ambitor, 9 Alex. Sen. 28, 5 
circumuentor, Id. 66, 2 
necator, 10 Comm. Anton. 18, 13 
subactor, Reliog. 5, 4 ; al. 

AMMIANVS. 

discursator, 14, 2, 6 ; al. 
distinctor, 11 18, 1, 2; al. 
eruptor, 24, 5, 9 
excursator, 24, 1, 2 ; al. 
instaurator, 12 27, 3, 4 
*praecursator, 16, 12, 8 
praeuentor, 18, 9, 3 
proculcator, 27, 10, 10 
proruptor, 24, 5, 5 
scitator, 22, 8, 10 G. 
transitor, 13 15, 2, 4 



AMBKOSIVS. 

abligurritor, Ep. 42 
assumptor, 14 Id. 70 
compotator, de lob. 3, 5, 17 
congressor, Ep. 27, 16 
extensor, de lacob, 2, 11 
impugnator, 16 in Ps. 118, serm. 

13, 6 
interrupter, 10 de Excess. Fr. 

Satyri. 1, 72 
meditator, 17 in Ps. 118, serm. 

13,8 
praecognitor, de Fide 2, Prol. 

14 

remissor, 18 in Ps. 39, 10 
repulsor, 19 in lob, 4, 11, 29 
rosor, Serm. 81 
supplantator, 20 Ep. 69, 6 
transmissor, de Tobia, 20, no. 76 

HIEBONYMVS. 

ascensor, 21 in Naum. 2, 3 ; al. 
attrectator, 23 Nom. Hebr. col. 21 
cohabitator, 23 Id. 116 
compeccator, Ep. 112, 5 
compilator, 24 Praef. Hebr. Quaest. 

in Genes. 

conflator," in lerem. 6, 29 ; al. 
conf utator, Vir. 111. 33 
defensator, Galat. 1, 13 
desolator, 26 in Amos. 7, 4 
dictor, 27 adu. Pelag. 2, 5 
dissipator, 28 in lesai. 19, 5 ; al. 
exaggerator, Ep. 22, 28 ; al. 
excantator, in loel. Prol. 
expletor, 29 adu Pelag. 1, 32 
exstnictor, in lesai. 18, 66, 1 
falsator, 30 adu. Rufin. 3, 26 in. 



1 Lampr. ; Amm. ; Vulg. 
tin. 4 Firm. Math. 5 Non. 



2 Ambros. 3 Intpr. Iren.; Ps. -Quint. Decl. 277; Augus- 
6 Gloss. Labb. 7 Eccl. e Mart. Cap. " Salu.; Ambros.; 
Paul. Nol. ; Inscrr. 10 Vulg.; Macr. n Augustin. 12 Alcim. Auit. ; Inscrr. 13 Vulg.; 
Augustin. 14 Hier.; Ennod. 15 Cassiod. ls Gloss. Labb. 17 Paul. Nol. 8 Hilar.; 
Augustin. ; Inscrr. 19 Amm. 20 Hier. Ep. 21 Augiistin. 22 Gloss. Paris. 33 Augus- 
tin. ; Cassiod. ; Eccl. 24 Isid. 20 Vulg.; Cod. Theod.; Gloss. Labb. 2 Augustin. 
27 Augustin. - s Prud.; Augustin. 29 Inscrr. 30 Augustin. 



17. -TOR, -SOR.] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIV8. 



67 



fascinator, 1 in Galat. 3, 1 ; al. 
gustator, 2 in lesai. 40, 12 
inclusor, 3 in lerem. 5, 24 ; al. 
iugulator, 4 ^). 60, 15 
lacerator, 5 in Ezech. 29, 1 
lucrator, 8 Comm. ad Tit. 1, 11 
nuptiator, 7 Ep. 123, 7 ; al. 
perscrutator, 8 in Galat. 2 in. 
peruersor, 9 Ep. 57, 4 
plantator, 10 in lesai. 65, 21 
praereptor, " Ep. 36, 15 
significator, Orig. in Luc. 35 ; al. 
thesaurizator, Orig. in lerem. 5, 

col. 796 
uulnerator, in lesai. 14, 12 

AVGVSTINVS. 

accensor, Tract, in loann. 23, 3 
acquisitor, Serm. 302, 7 ; earfr. 
ademptor, Tract, in loann. 116, 1 
appensor, Id. 20 fin.; al. 
attestator, Serm. 288, 2 
beatificator, 1Q in Ps. 99, 3 
blasphemator, 13 Serm. 48, 5 
captiuator, Ep. 199 
confortator, Serm. 264 in. 
confusor, in .ft. 32, 2, 5 
conuersor, /(?. 84, 8 
comiocator, Serm. 95, 6 
coronator, in Ps. 134, 11 
decerptor, c. /S'ec. /wL 1, 16 
dehortator, in Ps. 80, 11 ; al. 
enuntiator, Qu. in Heptat. 2, 17 
exaltator, u Paucker. 
excaecator, 5erro. 135, 1 
exclusor, JcZ. 37, 2 ; al. 
excruciator, c. Gaudent. 1, 21 
excusator, CZ'M. Dei 3, 20 ; al. 
exstirpator, in Ps. 95, 5 extr.; al. 
exsufflator, Tract, in loann. 11, 13 



fatigator, Paucker. 
formidator, Serm. 23, 18 
fotor, Id., 23, 3 

impeditor, C'iu. Dei 10, 10 ; al. 
impletor, Serm. 170, 2 ; al. 
indutor, c. Faust. 8 
insanifusor, /of. 19, 22 
insibilator, Tract, in loann. 8, 6 
insignitor, Giu. Dei 21, 4, 4 
instiltator, Serm. 105, 8 ; a/, 
intellector, Ep. 148, 15 ; a. 
irrigator, Id. Ill, 1 ; al. 
iustificator, Spir. et Litt. 26 ; al. 
lacerator, 16 de Mar. Eccl. Cath. 1 
luminator, c. Faust. Manich, 20, 

12 

manducator, Tract, in loann. 27 
naufragator, Serm. 53, 1 Mzi 
numerator, Conf. 5, 4, 7, n. 
obeditor, Serm. 23, 6 eatfr. 
obtemperator, in Ps. 134, 1 
occursor, de Music. 6, 6, 16 ; al. 
oppignerator, Ep. 215 
parator, c. Cresc. 1, 8 
percepfcor, Soliloq. 1, 1,/fn. 
pertractator, c. Faust. 3, 2 
plantator, .E^. 89, 20 ; a?, 
praecantator, Tr. in loann. 7 med. 
praecantor, in Ps. 117, 11 
praecipitator, c. Duas Epp. Pelag. 

1,4 

praefignrator, Coni. Adult. 6 
praenuntiator, Conf. 9, 5 ; al. 
progenerator, Paucker. 
progressor, de Music. 6, 6, 16, al. 
propinator, Paucker. 
propositor, Tr. in loann. 19, 16 
reconditor, Serm. 178, 2 
redhibitor, in Ps. 58, 2, 1 
ref actor, Tract, in loann. 38, 8 



1 Primas.; Gloss. Labb. 2 Gloss. Philox. 3 Vulg. 4 Salu.; Gloss. Plulox. 5 Au- 
gustin. Arn. lun. 7 Gloss. Philox. Augustin.; Cassiod.; Patr. Chrysol. 9 Greg, 
M. 10 Augustin. ; Prosp. " Heges.; Paul. Nol. 12 Eccl. 13 Eccl. " Eccl. 16 lul. ap. 
Augustin. 



68 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[ 17. -TOR, -SOB. 



sensificator, Ciu. Dei 7, 3 
sperator, Serm. 20, 4 
superintentor, in Ps. 126, 3 
tactor, Id. 95, 6 
terminator, Ciu. Dei 4, 11 



tolerator, in Ps. 99, 11 
tmcidator, Ciu. Dei 16, 43 ; al. 
triturator, ad Donat. 10 
turificator, c. Lift. Petil. 2, 187 ; al. 
vientricultor, Ep. 36, 11 



PLAVTVS. 

aecusatrix, 1 Asin. 515 
admonitrix, True. 448 
aduersatrix," 3/ostf. 257 
amatrix, 3 Asin. 511 ; a/. 
*ambestrix, 4 Cos. 778 
assentatrix, 6 J/bsi. 257 
cantrix 8 Trin. 253 
circumspectatrix, 7 Aul. 41 
*cistellatrix, THn. 253 
coniectrix, Mil. 692 
contemptrix, 6 Bacch. 531 
dictatrix, Pers. 770 
*factrix, 9 True. 571 c7*oe#. 
ianitrix, 10 CWc. 76 
oblatratrix, Mil. 681 
obstetrix, 11 Capt. 629; Z. 
persnastrix, 18 Bacch. 1167 
plicatrix, .MZ. 693 
praecantatrix, 13 Id. 692 
praestigiatrix, Amph. 782 ; 
restitrix, TVt/c. 690 
spectatrix, 14 Merc. 842 ; aZ. 
stimulatrix, 15 Most. 203 ; a/, 
subigitatrix, Pers. 227 
suppostrix, T>MC. 735 
tonstrix, 16 Id. 398 

PACWTVB. 
hortatrix, 17 TV. 195 



b. Substantives in -trix. 

TITINIVS. 

pilatrix, Com. 77 



TEBENTIVS. 

compotrix, 18 Andr. 232 

APBANIVS. 

assestrix, 19 Cbw. 181 
possestrix, Id. 204 

VAKBO. 

praecantrix, qp. Non. 494, 26 
sarcinatrix, 20 -^a^. Men. 363 

CICERO (EPISTT.). 
corruptrix," ad Q. Fr. 1, 1, 6, 
19 

CELSVS. 
contemplatrix," 1 Proem. 

PHAEDKVS. 

nemoricnltrix, 2, 4, 3 
potrix, 4, 5, 25 

PETBONIVS. 

balneatrix, Fragm. 2 erf. Buech. 



1 Plin. ; Augustin. 2 Ter. ; Tert. 3 Mart. ; ApuL ; Augustin. ; Salu. ; Prise. ; Insert. 
* Amm. * Adelh. Land. Virg. Varr. R. R; Tert.; Inscrr. 7 Apul. Ou.; Sen. Ep.; 
Plin. ; SU. 9 Bust. Hexaem. 10 Plin. Ter. ; Hor. Epod. ; Val. Max. ; CoL ; Plin. ; 
Apul.; Paul. Sent. ; Amm.; Vulg. 1S Mart. Cap. 13 Porphyr. ; Augustin. 14 Ou.; Sen. ; 
Lucan.; Apul. ; Amm. ; Hier. ; Augustin. 1S Bocl. 16 Mart.; Non.; Prob. Inst.; Prise.; 
Charis.; Amm.; Inscrr. I7 Stat.; Quint.; Augustin. 18 Sidon. 19 Vulg. ao Cypr. Ep.; 
Gai. Dig. ; Paul ex Fest. ; Gloss. Labb. ; Inscrr. 21 Amm. 2a Apul. 



8 17. -TBIX.] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



69 



PliINIVS. 

concitatrix, 1 19, 154 
duratrix, 14, 17 
exulceratrix, 27, 105 
hebetatrix, 2, 57 
olfactatrix, 17, 239 
piscatrix, 2 9, 143 
refrigeratrix, 19, 127 
sectrix, 36, 116 

MARTIAUS. 

circulatrix, 3 10, 3, 2 
fututrix, 4 11, 23, 4 ; al. 
ructatrix, 10, 48, 10 
salutatrix, 5 7, 87, 6; al. 
sudatrix, 12, 18, 5 
tractatrix, 6 3, 82, 13 



afflictrix, de Mund. 15 
agitatrix, 7 Dogm. Plat. 1, 9 
captatrix, 6 Id. 2, 8 
condifcrix, 9 Mag. 18 
consiliatrix, 10 Met. 5, 24 
diindicatrix, Dogm. Plat. 2, 6 
ducatrix, Id. 2, 4 
inductrix, Dec. Sow. Prol. p. 110 

H. 

ostentatrix, 11 Mag. 76 
repertrix, 12 Id. 18 
restitutrix, Ascl. 2 
sospitatrix, Met. 11, 9 ; al. 
ueteratrix, 13 Id. 9, 29 

TEBTVLMAXVS. 
actrix, 14 Spect. 18 
adulatrix, 15 Anim. 51 
affectatrix, Praescr. 7 



animatrix, corp. 12 
arbitratrix, adu. Marc. 2, 12 ./m. 
argumentatrix, Spect. 2 
auctrix, 18 Id. 17 ; al. 
auersatrix," Anim. 51 
auocatrix, Id. 1 
cessatrix, adu. Marc. 1, 24 
confirmatrix, 18 Cor. Mil.k 
conflictatrix, adu. Marc. 2, 14 
consecratrix, adu. Gnost. 3 
debellatrix, 19 Apol. 25 
debitrix, 20 Anim. 35 
defectrix, adu. Valent. 28 
defraudatrix, leiun. 16 
deprecatrix, adu. Marc. 4, 12 
desertrix, Hab. Mul. 1 
despectrix, Anim. 23 
desultrix, adu. Valent. 38 
dissolutrix, Anim. 42 
diuinatrix, 21 Id. 46 
enecatrix, adu. Marc. 1, 29 fin. 
exspectatrix, Id. 4, 16 
formatrix, 22 Monog. 17 
fraudatrix, Res. Cam. 12 
f rictrix, Id. 16 ; al. 
fugatrix, adu. Gnost. 12 
initiatrix, 23 Nat. 2, 7 
interemptrix, 24 Spect. 17 
interpolatrix, 2 ^ aefa. Haeret. 7 
instificatrix, adu. Marc. 4, 36 
modulatrix, Bapt. 3 
negatrix, 29 Idol. 23 
negotiatrix, 27 ac?w. Marc. 2, 3 
obseruatrix, 28 Cbr. Mil. 4 
obumbratrix, -4poZ. 9 
operatrix, 2 " Anim. 11 ; a?. 
peccatrix, 30 Pudic. 11 
perditrix, 31 !r/i. ad Cast. 13 



i Amm. " Inscrr. Auct. Priap.; Mart. Cap.; Gloss. Labb. * GIL. IV, 2304. 
5 luuen. Con/. Charts. 44, 7. r Arnob. 8 Tert. 9 Tert.; Lact.; Eumen. Pan.; 
Augustin. ; Seru. ad Verg. ; Macr. 10 Ambros. ; Hier. n Prud. 12 Tert. ; Hier. 
is Gloss. Isid. i* Cod.; Inscrr. Treb. Pol. 16 Chalcid. Tim.; Vulg.; Cod. lust.; 
Charis. ; Seru. ad Verg. " Vulg. ; Augustin. " lul. Viet. Lact. ao Hier. ; Paul. 
Dig. 21 Mart. Cap. M Claud. Mam. 23 Salu. " Lact. 23 Nazar. Pan. 2C Prud. 
s" Paul. Dig.; Inscrr. 23 Ps.-Soran. 29 Ambros. 30 Prud. ; Vulg. ; Paul. Nol. 31 Hier. 



70 



WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 18. -ARIVS, -ARIA. 



peremptrix, 1 Anim. 42 
pollicitatrix, Apol. 23 
postulatrix, Cor. Mil. 13 
praedicatrix, 8 Anim. 46 
purgatrix, 3 Bapt. 5 
reliquatrix, Anim. 35 
reprobatrix, adu. Marc. 4, 36 
resignatrix, Hob. Mul. 1 
seductrix, adu. Marc. 2, 2j/?n. 

AKNOBIVS. 
incitatrix, 4 2, 16 
publicatrix, 1, 36 

solidatrix, 4, 8 

i 

AMMIANVS. 

inflammatrix, 5 14, 1, 2 
insidiatrix, 6 23, 5, 21 
praemiatrix, 14, 11, 25 

AMBBOSIVS. 
cunctatrix, Ep. 67, 5 
dispensatrix, 7 Offic. 1, 12 
inspectrix, Ep. 5, 10 
inuectrix, Ep. 63, 3 
remuneratrix, Serm. 14 ; aZ. 
stipatrix, Hexaem. 5, 16, 53 

HlERONYMVS. 

apostatrix, 8 in Ezecli. 2, 3 
apparatrix, Ep. 18, 14 



auguratrix, 9 in lesai. 16, 57, 3 
cobabitatrix, Nom. Hebr. col. 63 
demonstratrix, Didym. Spir. Set. 4 
distributrix, Id. 23 
exasperatrix, 10 in Ezech. 2, 8 
ilium matrix, " Nom. Hebr. col. 21 ; 

al. 

incentrix, in Tit. 2, 3 
insultatrix, in lesai. 5, 23, 1 
interpellatrix, 18 Ep. 60, 11 ; al. 
iurgatrix, 13 Ep. 117, 4 ; al. 
lamentatrix, 14 in lerem. 9, 17 
receptatrix, Didym. Spir. Set. 5 

AVGVSTINYS. 

coniunctrix, Trin. 11, 10 
consolatrix, 15 in Ps. 55, 21 
dissipatrix, Serm. 30 
exactrix, 16 Ep. 110, 1 
examinatrix, Sanct. Virg. 47 
mundatrix, Trin. 15, 44; aZ. 
oppugnatrix, c. Sec. Resp. lul. 6, 

6; al. 

ordinatrix, Ep. 118, 24 ; al. 
persecntrix, Consens. Euang. 1, 

25 

restauratrix, Serm. 30 
separatrix, Trin. 11, 10 
suffragatrix, (7iw. Det 18, 9 ; aZ. 
tdolatrix, Coni. Adult. 2, 2 ; al. 



18. SUBSTANTIVES IN -arius, -aria : A third important group 
of nomina agentis consists of those formed from adjectives in 
-arius, the prevalence of which in the senno plebeius has often 
been noticed, and will be considered in detail in the chapter on 
adjectives, infra 37. The abundance of these substantives in 
vulgar Latin was observed by Guericke, 17 but he expressly ex- 
cluded from that category all words denoting artisans, trades- 
men, etc., as argentarius, lanijicarius. Schulze, (Diss. Hal. VI, 

1 Augustin. a Ambros. ; Maxim. Taur. 3 Hier. 4 Lact. ; Nazar. Pan. 5 Cl. Mam. 

Ambros.; Edict. Diocl. 7 Hier. ; Inscrr. 8 Vulg. Vulg. 10 Vulg. ^Isid. 

ia Vulg. 13 Isid. 14 Vulg. 15 Cassiod. ] Ennod. 

17 Guericke, p. 31. 



S18.-AKIVS.-ARIA.] ROMAN 8ERMO PLEBEIVS. 71 

p. 173), citing Guericke, takes issue with him on this point, 
maintaining that the majority of such appellations are avoided 
by the classic writers. 1 A detailed consideration of these 
words tends to confirm the latter view: of those found in 
the best period a large proportion may be attributed to the 
senno cdstrensis, as alarius, Caes., Cic. Ep. etc.; classiarius, Nep.; 
legionarius, Liu., etc.; naumachiarius, Suet.; Sagittarius, Caes.; 
Cic.; others again came to designate certain parts of Rome, and 
so crept into literature, as inter falcarios, Cic. Cat. 1, 8, (" in der 
Sichel- od. Sensenstrasse," Georges "Worterb). But the ma- 
jority remained on the outskirts of literature, and like substt. 
in -o, -onis, pervaded every department of the sermo plebeius. 
So from the s. seruilis we may cite ergastularius, fugitiuarius, 
lorarius; from the s. rusticus, asinarius, columbarius, herbarius, 
iugarius, mellarius, porcinarius, salictarius , suarius ; from the 
s. circensis, exodiarius, gesticularius, petauristarius?- The In- 
scriptions abound with these forms : from C. I. L. IV alone, 
(Inscrr. Pompeian.), we have : 

*caetario, C. L L. IV, 2084 uinaria, Id. ib. 1819 

clibanarii, Id. ib. 677 saccari, Id. ib. 274 & 497 

lanifricari, Id. ib. 1190 sagari, Id. ib. 753 

plagiaria, Id. ib. 1410 stationarius, Id. ib. 30, 81 

A further evidence that these substantives are abundant in 
plebeian Latin is the passage in Plaut. Aul. 508-516, where for 
comic effect 16 words in -arius are heaped together : 

linarius, 

Caupones patagiarii, indusiarii, 
Flammarii, uiolarii, carinarii, 
(Aut manulearii, aut murobatharii) 
Propclae linteones, calceolarii, 
Sedentarii sutores, diabathrarii, 
Solearii adstant, adstant molocinarii, 
Petuntfullones, sarcinatores petunt, 
Strophiarii adstant, adstant semisonarii .... 

The following are partial lists of the forms not sanctioned 
by the best writers. The comparative rarity of feminines in 
-aria is noteworthy. 

" Guer. dicit ea adiectiua non esse uulgaria quae opificea omnis generis signifi- 
cent .... mihi non probatur.," Schulze, 1. 1. 2 In this connection the partiality of 
Plaut. for these forms as names for plays is worthy of note ; conf. : Asinaria, Aulu- 
laria, Cistellaria, Mostellaria, Vldularia. 



72 



WORD FORMA TION IN THE [ 18. -ABIVS, -ARIA. 



a. Substantives in -arius : 



PLAVTVS. 

admissarius, 1 Mil. 1112 
ampullarius, 2 Rud. 756 
arcularius, Aul. 514 
calceolarius, Id. 512 
carbonarius, 3 fas. 329 
carinarius, Aul. 510 
cellarius, 4 Capt. 895 
diabathrarius, Aul. 515 
flammarius, 5 Id. 510 
indusiarius, 6 Id. 509 
limbolarius, 7 Id. 519 
linarius, 8 Id. 508 
(lorarius, 9 CWc. 1, 2) 
materiarius, 10 Mil. 920 
molochinaiius, n Aul. 515 
*murobatharius, .M. 511 
olearius, 12 Capt. 489 
patagiarius, 13 ^4w. 509 
porcinarius, u Capt. 905 
scutarius, 18 Epid. 37 
semisonarius, ^M?. 516 
solearius, 16 Id. 514 
strophiarius, Jrf. 516 
Tiinarius," Asin. 436 
uiolarius, 18 Aul. 510 

CATO. 

asinarius, 19 R. R. 10, 4 ; al. 
calcarius, Id. 16 
quartarius, 20 Id. 95, 1 
salictarius, /c?. 11, 1 



TEKENTIVS. 
cuppedinarius, 21 



. 256 



Lvcmvs. 

alicarius, 22 Sat. 15, 38 
caeparius, Id. 5, 23 
mixtarius, Id. 5, 33 
scripturarius, Id. 26, 16 
scrutarius, 7d. Fr. inc. 77 

AFKANIVS. 
scriblitarius, Com. 161 

VAKEO. 

cinerarius, 23 i. L. 5, 129 
columbarius, .R. R. 3, 7, 7 
fugitiuarius, 24 Id. 3, 14, 1 
macellarius, 26 Id. 3, 2, 11 
mellarius, Id. 3, 16, 17 
plumarius, 26 ap. -A r 0n. 162, 27 
quinarius, 27 L. L. 5, 173 

CICERO (EPISTT.). 
pedaiius, 28 ad Alt. 1, 19 
pigtnentarius, 29 ad Fam. 15, 17, 2 
piscinarius, oc?-4W. 1, 19, 6; al. 
plagiarius, 30 ad Qu. Fr. 1, 2, 2, \ 6 
topiarius, 31 lc?. 3, 1, 2 

LABERITS. 
mannarius, (7om. 46 

CATVIiLVS. 

mulierarius, 32 25, 5 



HORATIVS. 
pomarius, 



Sat. 2, 3, 227 



1 *Cic., semel, (Pis. 28, 69) ; Sen. Qn. a Inscrr. 3 Inscrr. ; Gloss. Labb. 4 Sen. Ep.; 
Col.; Plin.; Vlp. Dig.; Paul Sent. ; Inscrr. 5 Oonf. Paul, ex Pest. 89, 11. Gloss. Isid. 
'Inscrr. Inscrr. 9 GelL 10 Gloss.; Inacrr. " Inscrr. 12 Col. 13 Paul, ex Fest ; 
Inscrr. 14 Inscrr. 16 Marc. Aurel.; Lact.; Vulg.; Amm.; Cod. Theod. I6 Inscrr. 
i- SaU. Hist. Fr.; Suet.; Vlp. Dig. 8 Insorr. Varr. R. R. ; Suet. ; Edict. Diocl. ; Tert. 
20 Liu.; Col.; Plin.; = mularius, LuciL; Fest. 21 Lampr. 22 Paul, ex Fest. 23 CatulL; 
Sen. ; Tert ; Porphyr. ad Hor. ; Charis. ; Gloss. Labb. 4 Flor.; Vlp. Dig. ; Cod. Theod. 
25 Suet, ; Veget. 2 Vitr. ; Firm. Math. ; Vulg. ; Gloss. Labb. ; Inscrr. 27 Plin. Laber. 
99 Firm. Math. ; Hier. ; Vulg. ; Inscrr. 30 Sen. Tranq. ; Mart. ; Vulg. ; ICt. 31 Plin. ; In- 
BCIT. Capitol.; Isid. ; adi., Cic. Cael. 38, 66, et Al. 33 Lampr.; Inscrr. 



18. -ARIVS,-AKIA.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



73 



VlTBWIVS. 

marmorarius, 1 7, 6 
phalangarius, 2 (phalangae), 10, 

3,7 
statuarius, 3 6, 10, 6 

CJ;LSVS. 
auvicularius, 4 5, 26, 12 ; al. 

COLVMELLA. 

ergastularius, 6 1, 8, 17 
iugarius, 1, 6, 6 
salgamarius, 8 12, 56, 1 
ueterinarius, 6, 8, 1 

PETBONIVS. 
antescholarius, 7 81, 1 
ceutonarius, 8 45, 1 
insularius, 9 95 
lapidarius, 10 65, 5 
nutnmularius, 11 56, 1 
petauristarius, 12 47 
puellarius, 43, 8 
saltuarius, 13 53, 9 

PiiiNrvs. 

apiarius, 21, 56 
coriarius, 14 17, 51 
crustarius, 33, 157 
herbarius, 20, 191 
medicamentarius, 15 19, 110 
suarius, 1 ' 8, 208 
trigarius, 28, 238 ; al 
tutelarius, 17 34, 38 
uerbenarius, 22, 5 
nulnerarius, 29, 13 



MARTIALIS. 
carnarius, 11, 100, 6 
helciarius, 18 4, 64,22 
locarius, 5, 24, 9 
pinguiarius, 11, 100, 6 
salarius, 18 1, 41, 8 ; al. 

GELMVS. 
ridicularius, 4, 20, 3. 

TERTVUJANVS. 
condimentarius, Anim. 23. 
fornicarius, 20 Id. 35 ; al. 
infantarius, ad. Nat. 1, 2 
manticularius, Apol. 44 
partiarius, 21 adu. Marc. 3, 16 ; al. 

ABNOBIVS. 
*cybiarius, 2, 70 
quadragenarius, 2, 60 

LAMPKTDIVS. 

arcarius, 22 Alex. Sen. 43 
bracarius/ 3 Id. 24, 3 
caligarius, 24 Id. 33 
claustrarius, Id. 24, 5 
lactuarius, 25 Heliog. 27, 3 
lupinarius, Alex. Sen. 33, 2 
mansuetarius, 26 Heliog. 21 
popinarias, 27 Id. 30, 1 

VOPISOVS. 

draconarius, 28 Aurel. 31, 7 
epigrammatarius, Florian. 3, 3 ; 

al. 



i Sen. Ep. ; Finn. Math. 2 Non. ; Inscrr. 3 Sen. Ep. ; Plin. ; Quint. 4 Vlp. Dig. ; 
Vulg.; Insci-r.;formoricularius, *Petr. 43. 5 Adi. = Amm.; Sidon. 8 Salu. 7 Inscrr. 
Cod. Theod. ; Inscrr. 9 Pompon. Dig.; Inscrr. 10 Vlp. Dig.; Vulg.; Inscrr. u Suet.; 
Mart.; Paul. Dig.; Vlp. Dig.; Ambros.; Vulg.; Inscrr. 12 Firm. Math. 13 Dig.; Inscrr. 
11 Scrib.; Hier.; Vulg.; Inscrr.;/orm corarius, Inscrr. 15 Cod. Theod. 16 Cod. Theod.; 
Symm. Ep.; Inscrr. jr Adi., *Schol. Pers.; Inscrr. J8 Sidon. 19 Inscrr. 20 Hier.; 
Vulg.; Isid. 21 Inscrr. 2 Gai.; Symm. Ep.; Sidon.; ICt.; Inscrr. S3 Edict. Diocl.; 
Cod. lust. 24 Firm. Math. 23 Gloss. Labb. 28 Firm. Math. a7 Firm. Math. 
58 Amm. ; Veget. ; Inscrr. 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[19. -ABITM. 



AMMIANVS. 

cunicularius, 1 24, 4, 22 
exodiarius," 28, 4, 33 
gesticularius, 24, 4, 26 



quaestionarius, 4 in loel. 2, 21 
qmnquagenarius, 6 in lesai. 2, 

3, 3 
scordiscarius, Ep. 57, 5 



HlEKONYMVS. AVGVSTINYS. 

caementarius, 3 Ep. 53, 6 circissarius, 8 in Ps. 39, 8 

cncurbitarius, Id. 112, 22 laturarius, Berm. 18, 4 ; <&. 

gallicarius, Praef. in Reg. S. Pa- telonearius, 7 Id. 302, 17 
chom. no. 6 

b. /Substantives in -aria : 

PLAVTVS. IWENALIS. 

alicaria, 8 (meretrix) Poen. 266 antiquaria, 6, 454 

operaria, 9 (meretrix), Bacch. libraria, 14 6, 476 

74 
toraria, Mil. 694 



PERSIVS. 
nonaria, 10 (meretrix), 1, 133 

PETBONTVB. 
quasillaria," 132 

PLINIVS. 

emboliaria, 14 7, 158 
tmguentaria, 18 8, 14 

MAETTALIS. 

glabraria, 4, 28, 7 
infantaria, 4, 88, 3 



GELLTVS. 
gesticularia, 1, 5, 3 

TEKTVLMANVS. 
fornicaria, 15 (meretrix), Anim. 35 

AMBBOSIVS. 
ostiaria, 16 in Luc. 10, 75 

HIEBONYMVS. 

tabernaria, 17 adu. Heluid. 21 

SOHOIi. IWEN. 

sellaria, 18 (meretrix), ad luu. 3, 
136 



19. SUBSTANTIVES IN -arium : Like the masc. and fern., the 
neut. of adjs. in -arius gives rise to numerous substantives. 
The suffix -arium is especially frequent in the Scriptt. E. B., 
denoting, like -etum, the locality where an object the stem- 
word is found, as rosarium = rosetum, and with this signifi- 
cation had begun to encroach upon the latter suffix in Latin, 

1 Veget. " Schol. luu. ; Inscrr. s Vulg. 4 Augnstin.; Cod. Theod.; Schol. 
Iuuen.;Boeth.; Insert. 5 Vulg. " Gloss. Paris. ' Cod. Theod. ; Non. 8 Conf. Paul, 
ex Feet. 7, 17. 9 In bonam par tern =- Cassian.; Inscrr. 10 Schol. luuen. n Inscrr. 
18 Inscrr. 13 Inscrr.; (ars) nnguentaria, Plaut. 14 Mart. Cap.; bibliotheca, (Jell. 
16 Augustin.; Gloss. Vet. > Vulg. 17 Nou. Martian.; Schol. luuen. 18 zotheca* 
Plin. 84, 84;al 



19. -AKIVM.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 75 

although both were popular in the sermo plebeius : l in the 
Romance languages the latter suffix has been largely super- 
seded by the former, or to a greater extent by the fern, -aria, 
which has assumed the same function.* Fr., grenier, verger, 
fern., chatter e, riziere, sabliere ; Span., armario, fern., higuera, 
porquera; Ital., columbajo, viridario, fern., abetaja, capraja, col- 
umbaja, gallinaja, sorciaja. In Ital., where all rustic suffixes 
linger longest, -etum is still prevalent, but according to 
Meyer-Liibke, has a decidedly literary tone, while -aja be- 
longs to the language of the people. 3 

In connection with the last two sections compare infra, 39, 
on adjs. in -arius. 

PLAVTVS. LVCTLTVS. 

*auctarium, 4 Merc. 490 frigdaria, 16 omm, ( penus), Sat. 

ballistarium, Poen. 202 8, 12 

bellaria, 5 orum, True. 480 VAKBO. 

carnarium, 6 Pseud. 193 columbarium," R. R. 3, 7, 4 ; al. 

granaria, 7 orum, True. 523 glirarium, Id. 3, 15. 1 

xnortarium, 8 Aul. 95 laniarium, Id. 2, 4, 3 

ninarium, 9 Trin. 888 *legarium, 18 (lego), Id. 1, 32, 2 

ENNIVS. leporarium, 19 Id. 3, 3, 2 

stlataria, 10 orum, Ann. 469 locarium, L. L. 5, 15 

CATO. mellarium, R. R. 3, 16, 12 

*aquarium, R. R. 1, 3 panarium, 80 L. L. 5, 105 

miliarium, 11 (milium), R. R. 20 ; pomarium, 21 R. R. 1, 2, 6 
al saginarium, Id. 3, 10, 7 

pulmentarium, 12 Id. 58 turdarium, L. L. 6, 2 

tertiarium, 13 Id. 95, 1 urnarium, Id. 5, 126 

torcularium, 14 Id. 13 ; al. CICERO (EPISTT.) 
TEKENTIVS. balnearium, 22 ad Qu. Fr. 3, 1 ; al. 

pulmarium, 15 Eun. 930 diaria, 23 orum, ad Alt. 8, 14 

1 " (-arius) im Ntr. bezw. Fern. = Ntr. Plur. den Ort wo sich das Primitir be- 
findet : uiridiarium Baumpflanzung, es verdrangt etum schon im lat., wie iiberhaupt 
beide Suffix sehr beliebt sind," W. Meyer, Gramm. d. Vulgarlateins, in Grober's Grund- 
riss, 1, p. 373. Meyer-Liibke, Ital. Gram., 501 ; Diez, p. 660. 3 "-aia mehr volks- 
thUmlich ist," Meyer-Liibke, Ital. Gram., 503 ; conf. infra, 20. 

4 Paul, ex Fest. B Ter . ; Suet. ; Gell. Cato R. B, ;' Var. R. R. ; Col. ; Plin. ; Petr . 
' Varr . ; Cic. , semel, (Fin. 2, 26, 84) ; Hor. Sat. ; Vitr. ; Col. ; Pers. 8 Cato. ; Vitr. ; Plin. ; 
Iuuen.;Pall. 9 Hor. Sat. ; Petr. 10 adj., luuen. " Sen. Q. N.; Pall. I2 Varr.; Hor.; 
Sen.; Col.; Plin. ;Vulg. "Vitr. 14 Vitr.;Col. 15 Vlp. Dig. 16 Form -ium, ( =- bal- 
neum), Vitr. 5, 11, 2. " Vitr. ; Col. ; Plin. ; Pall. 18 legarica, ed. Keil & Codd. P A B. 
19 Conf. Gell. 2, 20, 4, 'Fmaria' quae nunc uulgus dicit; conf. Id. ib. 8, 'apiaria' 1 
quoque nulgus dicit. 20 Plin. Ep. ; Stat. ; Suet. 21 Cic. , semel, (de Sen. 15, 54); Col. 
Sen. ; Col. 23 Hor. ; Sen. ; Petr. 



76 WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 19. -AKIVM. 

uaporarium, 1 ad Qu. Fr. 3, 1, 1, pampinarium, 17, 181 ; al. 

I 2 plantarium, 14 17, 109 

uiridarium, 3 ad Alt. 2, 3, 2 spartaria, omin, 11, 18 

trigarium, 15 37, 202 

LABEKIVS. ulmarium, 17, 76 

dictabolarium, Inc. Fab. 19 
lauandaria, orum, Id. 17 MARTIALIS. 

graphiarium, 14, 21 

HOBATIVS. muscarium, 1 ' 14, 67 

cetarium, Sat. 2, 5, 44 

ptisanarium,' Id. 2, 3, 155 i VVENAIjIs . 

uiuarium,' Ep. 1, 1, 79 lw larinm f 4, 122 



b 

albarmm,'' 5, 2, 10 , . 10 n o 

' ' glossarmm, 18, 7, 3 

caldanum, 6 5, 10, 1 

farraria, orum, 6, 9, 5 APVLEIVS. 

immissarium, 87, 1 promptuarium," Met. 1, 23 

laterana, orum (lotus), 10, 14, 3; secrefcariuni)19 ^ 3> 81> 17 . al 

subitaria, orum, Deo Socr. 104 
tepidanum, 7 5, 10, 1 

TEBTVLUANVS. 

(JOLVMELLA. . , , T , n 

. . 8 . cucumeranum, adu. Ittd. 3 

.' ' ' .. _ custodiarium," 1 oc? Martyr. 2 

defrutanum, 12, 10, 2 , .. n ,,.. 1/4 

dracontannm," Cor. Jtfi/. 14 

fumanum," 1, 6, 19 exemplarium," Idol. 5 ; al. 

ga hnanum " 8, 3, 1 hastaSum, ^oZ. 13 ; al. 

palearmm, 1, 6, 9 

PERSIVS. LAMPBIDIVS. 

pecuaria, orum, 3, 9 fabatarium, Heliog. 20, 7 

lararium, Alex. Sen. 29, 2; al. 
PIJNIVS. 

acetaria, orum, 19, 58 VOPISCVS. 

escaria, 11 orum, 14, 42 orarium," Aurel. 48, 5 ; al. 

igniarium, 13 16, 207 

miniarium (metallum), 33, 121 PSEVDO-APIOIVS. 

ostrearium, 13 9, 74 moretaria," orum, 6, 4 

1 Sen. 2 Gels. ; Petr. ; Plin. ; Suet ; Lampr. ; Dig. Conf. Plin. 18, 71. 4 Sen. ; 
Plin.; luuen.; cow/. Gell. 2, 20. Plin. Cek.; Sen. Ep.; Plin.; Pall. Qels. 
8 Cbw/ Gell. 2, 20, 8. Mart.;Vulg. 10 Plin. luuen. 13 Gloss. Labb. 13 Macr. 
14 Vulg.; Eccl. 16 Gloss. Philox. 1S Veget.; Inscrr. Pomp. Amm.; Inscrr. I8 Am- 
bros. ; Vulg. ; Macr. 1 Lact. ; Paul NoL ; Sulp. Seu. ; Cod. Theod. 20 Intpr. Iron. ; Hier . ; 
Vulg. 21 Intpr. Iren. ; Vulg. ; Inscrr. M Inscrr. 83 Arnob. ; Dig. ; Schol. Lucan. 
21 Prud. ; Hier. Ep. ; Augustin. 35 Donat. ad Ter. Phorm. 



20. -TVM, -ETVM.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 77 

AMMIANVS. Avavsnuvs. 

itinerarium, 1 24, 1, 1 lucernarium, s in Reg. Cleric. 2 

HIBBONYMVS. 

atrarnentarium, 11 in Ezech. 9, 2 CAELTVS AVKEUANVS. 

cbartarium, adu. Rufin. 3, 6 motaritim, Chron. 3, 8, 134 

sudarium, Ep. 120, 5 specularium, Acut. 2, 37, 192 

20. SUBSTANTIVES IN -tuna, -etiun : These substantives, de- 
rived chiefly from the names of plants, to denote localities where 
they abound, as oliuetum, rosetum, are numerous in Latin, and 
while not infrequent in classic writers, are especially prevalent 
in the Scriptt. R. R. Paucker, in a note to his collection of 
adjs. in -orius, 4 gives a list of 72 nouns in -turn, omitting- cor- 
netum, uaspiceium,, including which we have uett. 58, recc., 21. 
Of these only 7 occur in Cic. : cupressetum, dumetum, oliuetum, 
aalictum, saxetum, vinetum, uirgetum, of which all but 2 occur in 
Varr., or Col. They are more frequent in the Augustan poets : 
Verg. first uses spinetum, uirecium, and has a number of the 
older forms in the Georgics and Eclogues. Ovid adds corylo- 
tam, pinetum, rubetum ; Hor. palmetum, fruticetum ; Stat., nuce- 
tum. On the other hand no less than 27 are found in the 
Scriptt. R. R. and 7 more in the elder Pliny, whose botanical 
chapters are so rich in rustic vocabulary. Cato uses 4 first, 1 
alone; Varr. has 11; 9 first, 3 alone; Col. has 12; 8 first, 4 
alone ; Plin. 12 ; 6 first and alone ; Pall. 9 ; 5 first, 4 alone. It 
is interesting to notice that this suffix, like many others prev- 
alent in the sermo rusticus, occurred also in the Osco-Umbrian 
dialects ; 5 compare Plin. 17, 171, Ymbri et Marsi ad uicenos inter- 
mittunt arationis gratia in his quae uocant porculeta, and the 
numerous names of towns within Osco-Umbrian territory, as 
Eretum in Samnium ; Neretum, Veretum, in Calabria. 

The wide-spread use of these substantives is indicated by 
their conservation in the Romance languages, under the double 
form -etum, and -eta, 6 It., arloreto, oliveto, palmeto ; Sp., olivedo, 
vinedo, Pt., arvoredo, figueiredo ; Pr., numerous names of places 
in -ai, -ay, -oi, -oy, etc., as Aunay, from alnetum, or personal 

1 Veget. 2 Vulg. ; Gloss. Labb. 3 Cassiod. 

4 Pauck. Material. II, p. 17, not. 9. 6 Comp. Huschke, Iguv. Tafeln, p. 6B8 ; Bue- 
cheL Vmbr., Index, s. v. porculetum. " Diez, p. 666 ; Meyer-Lubke, Ifcal. Gramra. p 
374 ; Goelzer, p. 98. 



78 



WORD FORMATION IN THE [20. -TVM, -ETVM. 



names, as Chatenay, from castanetum ; Coudray from cory- 
letum. 

Very rare and especially vulgar are the words formed by 
analogy from words other than names of trees, plants, etc., as 
for instance, Argilletum, tho popular name for a district in 
Rome, olenticetum, Apul. ; busticetum, Arnob. Such formations, 
however, are not unknown in the modern languages ; 1 comp. 
It. macereto, fontaneto. 

The few substantives of this termination in Latin, not de- 
noting locality, belong almost exclusively to the sermo plebeius. 
Such are : 

cocetum, Paul, ex Test. ; Tert. ; Placid. Glosa. 

moretum, Pseud.-Verg. ; Quid. ; Plin. Val. 

temetum, 2 Plaut. ; Cato ; Nou; Varr. ; Cic. Fr. ; Hor. Ep.; luuen. 

tuccetum, Pers. ; Apul. ; Arnob. 

Forms in -etuzn denoting locality. 

PLAVTVS. querquetum, 10 R. R. 1, 16, 6; al. 

murtetum, 3 Rud. 732 *rosetum, H Id. I, 35 

senticetum, 4 Gapt. 860 uiminetum, L. L. 5, 51 



CATO. 

arundinetum, 6 R. R, 6, 3 
cupressetum," Id. 151, 1 
oletum (olea), Id. 3, 5 ; al. 

QUADKIGARIVS. 

arboretum, ap. Gell. 17, 2, 25 

VABBO. 

aesculetum, 7 L. L. 5, 152 
bucitum, 8 Id. 5, 164 
cornetum, Id. 5, 146 ; al. 
ficetum, 9 R. R. 1, 41, 1 
iuncetum, Id. 1, 8, 3 
lumectum, L. L. 5, 137 



CATVLLVS. 

sepulcretum, 59, 2 

IVSTINVS. 
opobalsametum, 36, 3, 3 



COLVMELLA. 

candeturu, 12 5, 1, 6 
castanetum, 19 4, 30, 2 ; 
filictum, 14 2, 2, 8 
frute(c)tum, 15 3, 11, 3 
glabretum (pi.) 2, 9, 9 
rumpotinetum, 5, 7, 2 
uepretum, 4, 32, in. 
ueteretum, 2, 10, 4 



al. 



1 Meyer-Lubke, Ital. Gramm. p. 275. 

2 Archaic ; comp. Gell. 10, 23, 1, iti.no . . . quod temetum prisca lingua appel- 
labatur. 3 Verg. Ge. ; Sail. ; Hor. Ep. ; Mart. ; Cels. ; Gloss. Labb. 4 Apul. 6 Varr. 
R. R. ; Col. ; Veil. ; Plin. ; Suet. ; Vulg. ; Inscrr. Cic. , semel, (de Legg. 1, 15). ' Hor. ; 
Plin. s -etum, Lucan.; *Gell. ; Sidon. 9 Plin.; Mart.; Vulg. ' Hor.; Fest. J1 Verg. 
Ecl.;Claudian. " Gromat. Vet. "Pall. " PaU. 15 Plin.; Gell.; Apul. Met.; Solin.; 
Hier. ; Seru. ad Verg. 



21. -ILE.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 79 

PljINIVS. PSEVDO-APICIVS. 

fimetum, 17, 57 ; al. "uaspicetum, 1, 23 

masculetum, 17, 182 

populetum, 14, 61 ABNOBIVS. 

porculetum, 17, 171 busticetum, 1, 41 ; al 

sabuletum, 27, 64 

MAKTIAUS. PALLADIVS. 

buxetum, 3, 58, 3 ; al. cannetum, 2 3, 22, 2 ; al. 

ilicetum, 12, 18, 20 carduetum, 4, 9, 4 

citrettun, 3, 24, 14 
APULEIVS. lilietum, 3, 21, 3 

olenticetum, > de Mag. 456, 8 pometum, 1, 36, 3 

21. SUBSTANTIVES IN -ile : These substantives, properly 
neuters of adjs. in -ills, are quite rare. They include the 
names of things and of places, and several of the former are 
quite classical, as cubile, hastile, monile, sedile ; late Latin gives 
aquimanile, Paul. Sent. 3, 6, 56 ; sicbuentrile, Marc. Emp. 28, fin. 
Like -etum, however, this suffix usually denotes locality, 
specifically the habitations of animals, as ouile, sheep-fold, 
suile, pig-sty ; and in this sense it prevails in the Scriptt. K. E. 
Thus: 

PLAVTVS : bubile, Pers. 319; Cato, B. B.; Varr. B. B.; Col.; Vitr.; 

Phaedr. 

Cato: bouile, 3 ap. Cliaris. 104, 29; Veget.; (form bobile Hyg. 

Fab. 30). 

equile, B. B. 14, 2 ; Varr.; Suet. 
VABBO : (auile, 4 L. L. 8, 34.) 

caprile, B. B. 2, 3, 8; Vitr.; Col.; Plin. 

ouile, L. L. 8, 54 ; Verg.; Ou.; Tibull.; Liu.; Col.; Lnc. 

suile, Id. ib.; Col. 

VERGILIVS : fenile, Ge. 3, 321 ; Ou.; Col.; Plin.; Gloss. Labb. 
Acron : hoedile, ad Hor. Carm. 1, 17, 9 ; Gloss. 
Gloss : agnile, ap. Pauck. Spicilegium. 

Further proof of the use of these words in the rustic dia- 
lects of Italy is furnished by the survival in Italian of a larger 

1 Claud. Mam. 2 Cassiod. 

3 " a boue Bouile non dicitur, . . . neque . . . ab sue Auile," Varr. L. L. 
8, 54, but comp. Charts, p. 104, K. "bouile uetat dici Varro, . . . sed Cato de abro- 
gandis legibus bouile dixit " ; it is possible that auile, like bouile, was a form actually 
used improperly, for auiarium, so, for sake of completeness, it is introduced bracketed 
in above list. 4 Comp. preceding note. 



80 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



number than in the other Komance languages ; l i.e., Ital., bo- 
vile, capi'Ue, fenile, ovile / and new formations, canile, porcile ; 
Fr. laasfenil ; Span, henil, and the classical cubil, sedii. Diez 
cites from the Fr., Span., Port., a number of new formations 
denoting things, but none of places except Pr. chenil. 

22. SUBSTANTIVES IN -ina: These substantives, formed 
from the feminine of adjs. in -inus, while not closely identi- 
fied with plebeian Latin, are certainly more numerous in the 
serrno quotidianus than the classic speech, as the following list 
indicates. They will receive more detailed treatment in con- 
nection with the adjectives from which they come, infra, 35. 



PLAVTVS. 

accipitrina, 4 Bacch. 274 
agnina, 3 Capt. 819 
latrina, 4 Cure. 580 
porcina, 6 Capt. 849 
* scobina," ap. Varr. L. L. 7, 68 
tonstrina, 7 Asin. 343 ; al. 
ueruina, Bacch. 887 
uitulrna, 8 Aul. 375 

CATO. 

*porrma, 9 E. R. 47 
rapina, 10 (rapa), Id. 5; al. 

Lvcnjvs. 
pistrina, 11 Sat. 16, 17 

VABBO. 

Sglina," E. E.I, 2, 22 
sutrina, 13 (ars), Sat. Men. 211 
ueterina, 14 E. R. 1, 38, 3 

COLVMELLA. 

caepina, 11, 3, 56 
napina, 11, 2, 71 



PETKONIVS. 
anatina, 56, 3 
ursina, 66, 5 

PUNIVS. 

catulina, 29, 58 

INSCRK. POMP. 
capratina, 4, 1555 
pnsina, 4, 1405 

APVLEIVS. 

colubrina, Herb. 14 
coquiua, 15 (ars), Dogin. Plat. 2, 4 
furatrina," Met. 6, 13; al. 
hirundinina, Herb. 73 
mnndicina, Poet. Apct. 6 
rapina, Met. 6, 26 ; al. 
textrina, 17 Flor. 9, p. 11, 17 Kr. 
uiperina, Herb. 5 
nstrina, 18 Met. 7, 19 

TEETTLLIANVS. 

cadauerina," Anim. 32 
iuridicina, Pott. 3 extr. 



1 Diez, p. 643 ; Meyer-Lubke Ital. Gram., p. 275. 

3 herba, Apul. Herb. s Hor. Ep.; Ps.-Apic. ; Anthol. Lat. 4 Lucil. ; Col.; Suet. ; 
Apul.;Tert. ^CaeLAur. Tert.;Plin. 7 Plin. s Nep.; Ps.-Apic. Arnob.; Dig. 
10 CoL;InBcrr. " Varr .; Plin.; adi. = Gloss. 14 Plin.;Lact.;Inscrr. 13 Lact.; = offl- 
cina; Varr.; Plin.; Apul.; Tert. 14 Plin. 1S = culina, Arnob.; Pall.; Non. 1S luL Val. 

17 Boeth. 18 Solin.; Arnob.; Porphyr. ad Hor.; Seru. ad Verg.; Augustin.; Inscrr. 

18 adi., Augustin. 



23. -GO.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 81 

laterina, adu. Marc. 2, 21 AATMTANVS. 

ueruecina, 1 Id. 4, 40 molina, 3 18, 8, 11 

uestificina, Pall. 3 
uoratrina, 2 ApoL 39 CAEUVS AVREUANVS. 

haedina, 4 Acut. 1, 11, 95 

23. SUBSTANTIVES IN -go, (5go, -igo, -ugo) : Although a cer- 
tain number of substantives in -go are quite classical, I have 
no hesitation in assigning the class as a whole to archaic and 
rustic Latin. Their vulgar character was evidently recognized 
by Bonsch, 5 who cites a large number of them in his lists of ple- 
beian words, and Stuenkel 6 includes esurigo among the words 
used by Yarro, which "uulgaris et rustici sermonis uidentur 
propria fuisse ." Cic. has few of these words, and with the excep- 
tion of caligo, imago, they are for him mostly a7ra eip^eVa. Thus, 

aerugo, *Tusc. 4, 14; (Hoi'.; Plin. ; luuen. ; Vulg.) 

fuligo, Phil 2, 36, 91; (Plant.; Verg. Eel; Col; luuen.; Quint.; 

Gell) 

lolligo, Diu. 2, 145; (Varr. ; Plin.; Hor. Sat.) 
propago, de Sen. 15, 52 ; (Fab. Pict. ; Lucr. ; Verg. ; Hor. ; Ou. ; 

Nep.; Col.) 

With the exception of aerugo, all these occur earlier than 
Cic.; propago, in its primitive sense is apparently archaic ; in 
the sense of proles it is poetic. Plaut. has 7 of these words : 
caligo, fuligo, imago, remeligo, robigo, uesperugo, uirago ; of these, 
remdigo is archaic, (Afran., Paul, ex Fest.). Robigo, as the 
name of a goddess, is evidently of considerable antiquity. Two 
archaisms are cited by Gell. ; stribiligo, " uetustioribus Latinis 
' stribiligo' dicebatur " 5, 20, 1 ; Mppagines, cited among the " uo- 
cabula, quae in historiis ueteribus scripta sunt " 10, 25, 1, sq. 

But it is in the sermo rusticus that they abound. The ma- 
jority are by signification appropriate to the rustic language, 
those in -ago denoting chiefly plants, as lappago, plantago, se- 
lago ; those in -igo diseases of animals, mentigo, ostigo, or blights 
on plants, robigo, impetigo (Plin.). Many are characterized by 
the Scriptt. B. B. as of local or rustic usage ; e.g., consiligo, 
" radicula quam pastores consiliginem uocant," Col. 6, 5, 3 ; cor- 
iago, " coriaginem rustici appellant," Id. 6, 13, 2 ; ostigo, " men- 

1 Augustin. ; Not. Tir.; Gloss. Labb.; acli., Lampr.; Arnob.; Edict Diocl ; Pelag.Vet. 
"Amm. 3 Cassiod. 4 Pe.-Apic. 

8 Ro'nsch, p. 66, sq. Stuenkel, p. 31. 
6 



82 WORD FORMATION IN THE [23. -GO. 

tigo quam pastores ostiginem uocant," Id. 7, 5, 21 ; suffrage, 
" suboles quam rustici suffraginem uocant" Id. 4, 24, 4 ; salsilago, 
" appellatur in salinis salsugo ab aliis salsilago," Plin. 31, 92; 
lampago, " alii lampagiuem uocant," Apul. Herb. 96. 

It is interesting to note in this connection that of the adjs. in 
-osus, which are generally admitted to be characteristic of the 
sermo rusticus, no less than 21 are formed from substantives in 
-go. 1 The close relation existing between the suffixes -ago, 
-ax and the undoubtedly rustic -aceus, has been well demon- 
strated by K. Thurneysen, (Zts. f. v. Spr. 26, p. 205). 

These words have survived in the Komance languages, Ital. 
-gine, Fr. -ge, -gine; Span., -gen, -ge, etc.; but, as usual with rus- 
tic derivatives, are prevalent chiefly in Ital., which is rich in new 
formations ; names of plants, as cappraggine, farragine ; of dis- 
eases, as bolsaggine, cascaggi?ie, mellugine ; and especially in ab- 
stracts formed from subs, and adjs., as asinnagine, tristaggine? 

PLAVTVS. VAKRO. 

remeligo, 3 Gas. 804 aurigo, 18 ap. Isid. Origg. 4, 8, 13 

uesperugo, 4 Amph. 275 esurigo, Sat. Men. 521 

uirago, 5 Merc. 414 inter trigo, 18 L. L. 5, 176 

uligo, 14 ^. R. 2, 2, 7 
CATO. 

aspergo, 8 R. R. 128 HIBTIVS. 

depetigo, 1 Id. 157 indago, 16 B. G. 8, 18 

siligo, 8 Id. 35, 1 

similago, 9 Id. 75 

HOKATTVS. 

LvdLivs. porrigo,i^.2,3,126 

uitiligo,'" Sat. Fr. Inc. 38 tentigo," Id. 1, 2, 118 

LVCEETIVS. VITRVVJ.VS. 

lanugo, 11 5, 817 salsugo, 18 2, 4, 2 

1 Comp. infra, 31, -osus. Diez, p. 652 ; Meyer-Lubke, ItaL Gram. 533. 

" Afran. Com. ; Paul, ex Fest. Varr. ; Vitr. ; Quint. ; Tert. 5 Verg. ; Ou. ; Sen. ; 
Lact.; Fulg. Lucr.; Verg.; Ou.; Vitr.; Petr. ; Plin. ; Plin. Ep. ; Fronto ; Tert.; Solin.; 
Amm. ; Prud. ; Cael. Aur. ; ICt. 7 *LuciL ed. Mull. 8 Varr. ; Cels. ; Col. ; Plin. ; luuen. 
9 Plin.; Ambros.; Vulg. Cels.; Sen.; Plin.; lustin.; Apul. " Verg.; Ou.; Cels.; Sen. ; 
Col.; Plin.; Suet.; luuen. 12 Apul.; Cael. Aur.; Gloss. Vat.; Gloss. Labb.; form -ugo 
= Scrib. ; Vulg. ; Gloss. Labb. " Col. ; Plin. 14 Verg. Ge. ; CoL ; Sil. ; Tac. ; Seru. ad 
Verg. I5 Verg. ; Liu. ; Lucan. ; Tac. ; Plin. Pan. ; Flor. ; Gell. ; Tert. ; Amm. ; Cod. lust. 
1(1 Cels.; Plin.; Scrib.; luuen. " Mart. ; luuen. ; Auct. Priap. ' pUn. ; Tert.; Solin.; 
Vulg. 



23. -GO.] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIV8. 



83 



CELSVS. 

cartilage, 1 8, 1 
impetigo, 3 5, 28, 17 
plantago, 3 2, 33 
prurigo, 4 5, 28, 3 ; al. 

COLVMELLA. 

consiligo, 5 6, 5, 3; al. 
coriago, 6 6, 13, 2 
mentigo, 7, 5, 21 
ostigo, Id. ib. 
scaturigo, 7 3, 13, 8 
suffrage, 8 4, 24, 4 

PEKSIVS. 
sartago, 9 1, 80 

PJDINIVS. 
albugo, 10 32, 70 
asperugo, 26, 102 
cunilago, 19. 165 
lappago, 26, 102 
lentigo, 29, 90 ; al. 
melligo, 12, 131 
mollugo, 11 26, 102 
plantago, 18 25, 80 
plumbago, 34, 50 ; al. 
pulligo, 8, 191 
salsilago, 31, 92 
selago, 24, 103 
trixago, 13 24, 130 ; al. 
tussilago, 14 26, 30 

PAVLI TEST. EPIT. 
forago, 15 90, 12 

GELUVS. 

(stribiligo, 16 (strobiligo), 5, 20, 1.) 



APVLETVS. 

caprago, Herb. 108 
lactilago, Id. 27 
lampago, Id. 96 
laurago, Id. 58 
lustrago, Id. 4 
ostriago, Id. 28 
solago, Id. 49 ; al. 
uernilago, Id. 109 
urigo, 17 Met. 1, 7 ; al. 
ustilago, Herb. 109 

TERTVLLIANVS. 
capillago, Anim. 51 

TBEBELMVS POLIJO. 
carrago, 18 Oallien. 13, 9 

AKNOBIVS. 
pendigo, 19 6, 16 

NONIVS MARCELLVS. 
putrilago, 21, 23 

PALLADIVS. 
citrago, 1, 37, 2 ; al. 

PLUOVS VALEKIANVS. 
astago, 5, 27 
bucellago, 1, 20 
capsilago, 2, 28 
chrysolago, 2, 59 
uitrago, 2, 18 

PELAGONTVS. 

ossilago, 20 491 ed. Ihm. (= ap. Veg. 
Vet. 6, 14, 3) 



1 Plin. ; Pelag. Vet. * Col. ; Plin.; Paul, ex Fest. ; Tert. * Plin. ; Th. Prise. * Petr. ; 
Plin.; Mart.; Auson.; Pelag. Vet.; Maro. Emp. 5 Plin.; Veget.; Pelag. Vet. 6 Veget. 
7 Plin.; Frontin.; Apul.; Solin.; Eumen. Pan.; Amm.; Augustin.; Mart. Cap.; Isid.; 

(Liu. 44, 33, 3, ed. Weissenb scaturiges). 8 Plin. Plin.; luuen.; Ambros.; Pelag. 

Vet.; Augustin. 10 Vulg.; Marc. Emp.; Pelag. Vet. " Form -igo Marc. Emp. 
" Th. Prise. " Veget. " Apul. Herb. Symm. Ep. ; Gloss. Isid. 18 Arnob. 
17 * Arnob.; Peleg. Vet. s Vopisc.; Amm. " Veget.; Cass. Fel. 3 Veg. Vet. 1, 
32,1. 



84: WORD FORMATION IN THE [24. -MENTVM. 

VEGETIVS. MABCELLVS EMPIBIOVS. 

claudigo, Vet. 1, 26, 1 surdigo, 9, 66 ; al. 

PBVDENTITS. 

respergo, adu. Symm. 1, 503 THEODOBVS PRISCIANVS. 

mucilago, 4, 1 

CAELIVS AVBELIANVS. 

ferulago, Acut. 2, 12, 84 ISIDOEVS. 

serrago, Id. 1, 14, 107 ; al. milage, (miluago), 12, 6, 36 

24. SUBSTANTIVES IN -men, -mentum : The relation of 
these suffixes to plebeian Latin, and to each other, is by no 
means as clear as that of most of those already treated. 
Stuenkel, following Corssen's view that -men is the older suf- 
fix from which -mentum was afterwards developed, 1 contends 
that the former was retained in the sermo plebeius in a large 
proportion of words where the literary language substituted 
-mentum, yet his own researches show that Varr., especially in 
the Sat. Men., gave preference to -mentum, while Lucr., writ- 
ing in a more elevated style, preferred those in -men. Paucker, 
in his Subindenda Lex. Lat., (p. 430), 2 has given a clearer ex- 
position of the relationship; according to his figures the 
whole number of uett. in -mentum is 182, in -men 132 ; of 
these, 51 forms are concurrent, cognomen, cognomentum, etc., the 
form in -men being in 27 cases the younger. Of the words not 
having corresponding forms, those in -mentum outnumber 
the others by nearly 2 to 1, (-mentum = 104 ; -men = 58). This 
preference for the longer suffix is most apparent in the more 
vulgar writers : Plaut. has 45 in -mentum, of which only 25 
are classic, (Cic. or Caes.); 19 in -men, of which all are in Cic. 
excepting flemen, praesegmen, sarmen, svbtemen, sumen, spectamen, 
and for only one of these does Cic. use a corresponding long 
form, siibtementum. Cato, according to Slaughter, adds 10 in 
-mentum, and only 2 in -men, a remarkable anomaly if the lat- 
ter were an archaism. 3 Ter., always more correct than Plaut., 
uses out of 14 in -mentum only 2 not found in Cic., while all 
of his words in -men are classical. Slaughter, therefore, 

1 Stuenkel, p. 33, citing Corss. Krit. Nachtr. p. 124, but conf. Brugmann, Vergl. 
Gram. II., p. 234. "Im Uridg. gab es einige Bildungen auf -to- als Erweiterung von 
Stammen auf -men-," sq. 2 I regret that being unable to obtain a copy of the Sub- 
indenda, I have been forced to rely upon the extract contained in Goelzer's St. Jerome, 
p. 62, not. 'Slaughter, p. 23. 



24. -MENTVM.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 85 

agrees with Ploen, " that -men belongs to an elevated style of 
writing*, tragedy and epic poetry, and there are not so many 
forms in comedy and satire ; -mentum is characteristic of a 
less elevated style of writing-, comedy showing- fifty-two ex- 
amples of new forms, tragedy three." l The vulgar writer Vitr. 
adds 4 in -mentum, 4 in -men; Silver Latin, which as a 
whole, seems to reflect the later tendency of the sermo plebeius, 
has 42 in -mentum, 26 in -men. The African writers show a 
preference for the longer suffix : Gell. 9 ; Apul. 17 ; Tert. 10, as 
compared with -men, Gell. 1 ; Apul., 13 ; Tert., 6 ; both suf- 
fixes however are favorites in African Latinity, and -men has 
been claimed as a distinctive feature of it. 2 

From the foregoing statistics it seems clear that Stuenkel 
was wrong in assigning -men to the list of vulgar Latin suf- 
fixes, and that on the contrary -mentum, like other heavy 
terminations, was the favorite in the sermo plebeius ; this view 
was evidently favored by Schmilinsky, 3 who included -mentum 
among the suffixes " quas Romanorum sermo vulgaris praeierat; 
and by Ronsch, 4 who gives no less than 78 in -mentum as 
vulgar, and only 32 in -men. The same view is taken recently 
by Goelzer, 5 who regards the prevalence of these forms in 
Hier. as due to the influence of the popular speech, and those 
in -men as distinctly poetic. 

Especially noteworthy is the use of words in -men, and 
-mentum as equivalent to abstract substantives in -tio, a 
peculiarity usually regarded as characteristic of African Latin, 
but attributed by Schulze to the sermo plebeius in general. 6 
It was first observed in connection with -mentum by Ott, 7 who 
cites dissimulamentum = dissimulatio, Apul.; cunctamentum = 
cunciatio, Mart. Cap.; fricamentum, confricamentum = fricatio, 
confricatio, Gael. Aur.; tutamentum=tutatio, Vulg. ; he is cited by 
Sittl, who also regards this as African Latin. 8 Schmidt 9 on the 

1 Slaughter, Ten, p. 24. 2 Sittl, Lokal. Verschiedenb, , p. 140, " Betrachten wir. . . 
die dem nachklassichen Lateiu eigenen Substantiva auf men, so sind unter 43 mir 
bekannten Bildungen 23 bloss afrikanisch, 6 zuerst von Afrikanern gebildet, dagegen 
nur 4 in anderen Provinzen entstanden und 10 den Afrikaners fremd." 3 Schmilinsky, 
p. 34. * Ronsch, p. 25. * Goelzer, p. 32 ; 61 . Conf. Schulze, Diss. Hal. VI, p. 158 ; 
Hauschild, Id. ib. p. 252. Schulze, Diss. Hal., VI, 158, " Substt. in -men, quae eo- 
dem modo ac substantiva in -mentum non solum apud Af ricanos scriptores sed omnino 
in sermone uulgari saepius in locum substantiuorum in -tio successerunt. " 7 Ott, 
Jahrb. 1874, Vol. 109, p. 843. Sittl. Lokal. Verschiedenh., p. 14:3. Schmidt, Tert., 
I, p. 26. 



86 WORD FORMATION IN THE [24. -MENTVM. 

contrary regards it as late Latin, but especially frequent in 
Apul., and Tert., and cites from the latter deuotamentum = deuo- 
tio, aspernamentum = aspei^natio, exsecr amentum = exsecratio, 
supplicamentum = supplicatio; and of forms in -men, ostentamen 
= ostentatio. "Whether this usage first arose in African Latin or 
not, Schulze is evidently right in assigning it to the sermo ple- 
beius, as is well shown by the force of this suffix in the Romance 
languages, where it regularly denotes an action or condition, 
but is rarely concrete : Ital. conoscimento, sentimento, tradimento, 
udimento ; Fr., commencement, jugement, sentiment, etc. 1 

PLAVTVS. CATO. 

cognomentum, 2 Mil. 1038 ; al. antepagmentum, 18 R. R. 14 

cruciamentum, 3 Capt. 999 ; al. coronamentum, 17 Id. 8, 2 

deliramentum, 4 Id. 598; al. iugumentum, Id. 14 

explementum, 5 Stick. 173 lax amentum, 18 Id. 19 

fermentum, 6 Cos. 325 ; al. *lutamentum, Id. 128 

hostimentum, 7 Asin. 172 operimentum, 1 * Id. 10 

inanimentum, Stick. 173 sicilimentum, Id. 5, 8 

nidamentum, 8 Hud. 889 substramentum, Id. 161, 2 

opprobramentum, Merc. 420 

praepedimentum, 9 Poen. 606 CAECILIVS. 

ptamentnm, 10 Aul 316 ; al. commemoramentum, 20 Com. 166 

ramentum, 11 Bacch. 680 peniculamentuin, 21 Id. 132 

scitamentum, 12 Men. 209 

sinciputamentum, Id. 211 TERENTIYS 
stabilimentum, 1 ' Cure. 367 * iu ramentttm, 22 Andr. 728 

termentum," Bacch. 929 salsamentum, 28 Ad. 380 

tinnimentnm, Rud. 806 

ENNIVS. AFRANIVS. 

peniculamentum, 13 Com. 363 delenimentum, 24 Com. 378 ; al. 

1 Diez, p. 682, " diiickt. . . eine Handlung oder einen Zustand, selten einen concre- 
ten Begriff aus." 

2 Poet. ap. Cic. Fin.; Sail. Fr.; Messala ap. Sen.; Tac.; (JelL 3 Cic., semel, (PhiL 11, 
8 ; comp. Hauschild, Diss. Hal. VI, p. 253, " cruciamentum uulgaris sermonis esse decla- 
rat frequens Plauti usas " ); Arnob. * Plin.; Ambros.; Sulp. Sea.; Prud.; Hier.; Vulg.; 
Augnstin.;/orw *delerarnenta, Laber. 135. s Sen. Ep. ; Frontin. ; Lact.; Cassian. 
6 Verg. Ge. ; Gels. ; Sen. ; Col. ; Tac. ; luuen. ; Arnob. ; Pall ; Macr. 7 Enn. ; Ace. ; Seru. 
ad Verg. 8 Arnob. 9 Cl. Mam. ; Sidon. Ep. 10 Hor. Sat. ; Apnl Met. ; lust. ; Cael. Aur. ; 
SchoL Pers. Lucr.; Sen. ;Scrib.; Plin. 12 Gel].; Apul. " Plin. ; Val. Max. ; Augus- 
tin. "Fest. 15 Caecil. ; LuciL ; Arnob. Vitr.;PanL exFest. 17 Plin.; Tert. "Tre- 
bon. ap. Cic. Ep.; Cic., semel, (Clu. 33, 89) ; Liu. ; Vitr. ; Sen. l Varr. ; *Cic. Leg. 2, 22, 
56; Sail Fr.; Plin.; Ambros.; Vulg. 20 Fronto. ai Enn.; LuciL; Arnob. "Cited 
by Donat. ad loc. as vulgar ; Amm. ; ICt. " 3 Var. ; Col. ; Plin. ; Gell. ; alio sensu, Cia , 
temel, (Diu. 2, 117). " Laber.; Sail.; Liu.; Plin. Ep.; Tac.; lustin.; Fronto ; ICt. 



24. -MENTVM. ] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



87 



VARRO. 

crementum, 1 Sat. Men. 199 
eqtiimentum, Id. 502 
fulmentum, 2 ap. Non. 206, 24 
retrimentum, 3 R. R. 1, 64 ; a. 
tomentum, 4 L. L. 5, 167 

NIGIDIVS FIGVLVS. 

inclinamentum, ap. Gell. 4, 9, 2 

LVCRETIVS. 
forniamentum, 5 2, 819 

VlTKVVIVS. 

auripigmentum, 6 7, 7, 5 
capillamentum, 7 4, 1, 7 
inquinamentam, 8 8, 4, 2 
loculamentum, 9 10, 9, 2 

CELSVS. 

linamentum, 10 2, 11 m.; a. 
omentum, 11 4, 1 wee?. 
recrementum, 18 6, 8 in. 
strigmentum, 13 2, 6 med. 

CoLVMELLA. 

aeramentum, 14 12, 3, 9 
calamentum, 4, 27, 1 
crassamentum, 15 12, 12, 1 
excrementum, 16 (excerno), 8, 5, 25 
odoramentum, 17 11, 2, 17 

PETBONIVS. 

interpretamentum, 18 10, 1 



PLINTVB. 

coassamentum, 16, 210 D. 
conamentum, 19, 27 
glutinamentum, 13, 81 
incantamentum, 19 28, 10 
meditamentum, 20 ap. Paucker 
nucamentum, 16, 49 
obturamentum, 21 16, 34; al. 
placamentum, 22 21, 42 ; al. 
recisamentum, 23 34, 111 
secamenta, orum, 16, 42 
sedimentum, 36, 73 

GELLIVS. 

annotamentum, 1, 7, 18 ; al. 
decrementum, 24 3, 10, 11 
figmentum,* 5 5, 12, 12 
frequentamentum, 1, 11, 12 ; al. 
moderamentum, 13, 6, 1 
legumentum, 26 4, 11, 4 
moderamentum, 13, 6, 1 
modulamentum, 1, 7, 19 
simulamenttim, 27 15, 22 lemm. 

FBOKTO. 

reuimentum,p. 211, 21 ed. Naber. 
spectamentum, Diff. Foe. p. 359 
ed. Rom. 

APVIjEIVS. 

agnomentnm, Mag. 56 
antecantamentum, Met. 11, 9 
concrementum, Mag. 49 
dissimulamentum, Id. 87 ; al. 



1 Tert. ; Vulg. ; Ps. -Cypr. ; Augustin. ; Gael. Aur. ; Isid. ; Boeth. 2 Vitr. ; Gels. ; Ps. - 
Apic. ; Solin. ; Amm. ; Sidon. Ep. 3 Gels. ; Macr. 4 Sen. ; Plin. ; Mart. ; Tac. ; Suet. ; Apul. 
* Arnob. Gels. ; Plin. ; Scrib. ; Gael. Aur. ; Isid. ' Sen. ; CoL ; Petr. ; Plin. ; Solin. ; Suet 
Tert. 8 Paul. exPest.; Gell.; Ambros.; Tert.; Hier.;Vulg.;Sulp. Seu. ; Gael. Aur. 8 Sen.; 
Col.; Veg. Vet. 10 Col.; Plin.; Not. Tir. Plin.; Pers.; luuen.; Suet. ; Ps. -Apic. ; Macr. 
12 Plin.; Gell. 13 Plin.; Val. Max. " Plin.; Hier.; Vnlg.; Augustin. ; Edict. Diocl. 
15 Gell. 18 Plin.; Tac.; Apul. 17 Plin.; Hier.; Vulg.; Augustin.; Gael. Aur.; Inscrr. 
18 Gell. I9 Amm. 20 Tac.; GelL; Amm. 21 Gael. Aur.; Past. Herm. 22 Tac.; 
ApuL 23 Auct. Palimps. in Maii Praef. ad Cic. Rep. p. 32 ed. Rom. a4 ApuL; Hier.; 
Angustin. " Apul. ; Tert. ; Cypr. ; Spart. ; Lact. ; Hier. ; Vulg. ; Amm, 2 Gloss. Labb. 
27 Auct. Itin. Alex.; EccL 



ss 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[ ~'4. -MESTVM. 



erudimentum, Met. 9, 11 
exercitamentum, l Flor. 15 
l'ulcimentum, s Met. 1, 16 
illectamentum, Mag. 98 
inkonestamentum, Id. 3 
intrimentum, Met. 10, 13 
moramentum, Flor. 21 
nugarnentum, Met. 1, 25 
obiectamentum, Mag. 1 
protrimentum, Met. 8, 31 
rogamentum, (Ps.-Jf>Mi.) Dogm. 

Plat. 3. p. 265 H. 
supplicamentum, 3 Met. 11, 20 
terriculamentum, 4 Deo Socr. 15 

TEBTVTJJANVS. 

abominamentum, 5 ac?w. /wrf. 13 
aemulamentum, (Ps.-Tert.) Poet. 

adu. Marc. 4, 10 

aspernamentum, 6 adu. Marc. 3, 23 
decoramentum, 7 Cult. Fern. 2, 12 
deuotamentum, 8 Scorp. 2, 349 
exsecramentum, 9 Apol. 22 ; al. 
factitamentum, 10 Anim. 18 ex. 
obligate entum, 11 adu. Marc. 3, 22 ; 

al. 

sputamentum, ia Sped. 30 
strumentum, Vxor. 1, 7 
superindumentum, 13 adu. Marc. 3, 

24 

INTPK. IREN. 

contemperamentum, 2, 14, 8 
erudimentum, 2, 19, 2 

AENOBIVS. 

castellamentum, 2, 42 

CHALCIDIVS. 

nun cupamen turn, TYm. 306 



PALLADIVS. 

linimentum, 11, 14, 6 

AMMIANVS. 

allenimentum, 27, 3, 9 
palpamentum, 27, 11, 6 
regimentum, 25, 9, 7 ; al. 

VEGETTVS. 

iuuamentum, Vet. 3, 4 extr, 
liquamentum, Id. 3, 66, 5 

HIEEONTMVS. 

alliamentum, Ep. 121 Praef. 
superuestimentum, Id. 29, 4 

AVGVSTINTS. 

implicamentum, Serm. Dom. 1, 

3 med. 

laniamentum, Ep. 2, 26 
liberamentum, Ciu. Dei, 6, 91 
respiramentum, Gonf. 7, 7 ; al. 

CAEMVS AVRELIANVS. 

confricamentum, CJiron. 2, 4, 78 
fiicamentum, Aeut. 2, 6, 27 ; al. 
illinamentum, Chron. 3, 8, 132. 
nocumentum, Id. 1, 1, 31 

MARCELLTS EMPIRICVS. 
caldamentum, 5, 18 

FVLGENTIVS. 

compulsamentum, Myth. 3, 6 
imbutamentum, Id. 1, p. 15 M. 

ISTDORVS. 
praecisamentum, 19, 22, 18 

VENANUVS FORTVNATVS. 
saluamentum, Vit. S. Alb. 9 



1 Cael. Aur. 2 Macr.; Augustin.; Dig. 3 Tert. ; Arnob. ; Vnlg. Sidon. 
Augustin.; Oros. * Vulg.; Collat. Legg. Mosaic, et Roman. ~ Arnob. ; Sidon. 
9 Vulg.; Augustin. 10 Vulg. ll Hier. " luL Val.; Vulg.; Augustin. Hier. 



Vulg. 



25. -BVLVM.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIV8. 89 

25. SUBSTANTIVES IN -bulum, -culum : Although these 
suffixes have occasionally been claimed for plebeian Latin, 1 
they cannot be regarded as distinctively vulgar. All classes of 
words with heavy suffixes will be found to be more numerous 
in the semno plebeius, even when, as in the present case, a large 
proportion are classical. For these suffixes Paucker gives 
the following figures : 2 -bulum (including -bulus, -bula), 57, 
uett. 33, Cic. 13 : -culum, (-culus, -cula), 114, uett. 72, Cic. 32. 
The number not found in the historians, (Caes. ; Sail. ; Nep. ; 
Liu.), or the Augustan poets, is comparatively small. Of the 
two suffixes, -bulum seems of a more popular character in 
early Latin ; (Plant, has 9, avoided by classic writers), -cu- 
lum is more prevalent in the African Latinity, where the ten- 
dency toward abstract expressions has given rise to its use in 
place of -tio, the same phenomenon as has been already no- 
ticed in the case of -mentum; Schmidt cites from Tert. ob- 
strepitaculutn = oblocutio ; potacula = potationes ; resignaculum 
= reuelatio. 3 

One characteristic of the recc. forms, of some importance in 
relation to the weakening in plebeian Latin of frequentative 
verbs, is the number of these substantives formed from them. 
Goelzer cites among others, Gell., lutMtaculum, Apul., occursa- 
culum, offensaculum, Tert., exceptaculum, obstrepitaculum, uecta- 
culum, etc. 4 

The following forms are the only ones which are of any in- 
terest to our subject : 

a. Substantives in -bulum : 

NAEVTVS. dentifrangibulus, -urn, Bacch. 605; 

rutabulum, 5 Com. 127 al. 

desidiabulum, Id. 376 
PLAVTVS. exorabulum, 7 True. 27 

conciliabulum,' Trin. 314; al. mendicabulum, 8 Aul. 703 

1 Conf. Schulze, Diss. Hal., VI, p. 162, " Substantiua hoc suffixo fonnata, quorum 
pauca in bonum dicendi usum recepta sunt, in sermone cotidiano usitatiora fuisse 
uidentur," citing Ronsch, p. 39; conf. Goelzer, p. 81, "C'est a 1'element populaire 
qu'on peut rapporter 1'emploi frequent fait par saint Jerome des formes en mentum 
. . . culum, . . . etc." 2 Pauck. Silb. Lat. , p. 29, not. 10. 3 Schmidt, Tert. , 
L, p. 27. 4 Goelzer, p. 92. 

5 Cato R B. ; Nou. Com. ; Fest. ; Suet. ; laid. " Paul, ex Fest. ; Liu. ; Fronto ; Tert. ; 
Hier. 7 Apul. 8 ApuL Met. 



90 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



25. -CVLVM. 



nucifrangibulum, Bacch. 598 APVLETVS. 

prostibulum, 1 Aul 285 medicabulttm, Flor. 16, p. 20, 5 

sessibulum, 2 Poen. 268 Kr. 

tintinnabulum, 3 Trin. 1004 ; al. natabulum, 12 Id. 16 in. 

*pulsabulum, 13 Id. 15, p. 53 
CATO. Oud. 

acetabulum, 4 R. R. 102 
infundibulum, 6 Id. 10, 1 TERTVUJANVS. 

dicibula, 14 adu. Valent. 20 

VABBO - mandibula, 16 Anim. 10 

cartibulum, i. L. 5, 125 

*digitabulum, fi 1?. R. 1, 55, 1 cod. T 

LAOTANTIVS. 

uertibulum," Opif. Dei, 5, 8 
suffibulura, 7 L. L. 6, 21 

susci tabu! urn, 8 Sat. Men. 848 

tribute, 9 R. R. 1. 22, 1 ; of. VVLGATA. 

fundibulum, 17 1 Macch. 6, 51 

GELLIVS. 

*ignitabulum, J0 15, 2, 3 GKEGOBIVS TUKONENSIS. 

uectabulnm," 20, 1, 28 pedibulum, H. F. 3, 15 

b. Substantives in =culum: 



PLAVTVS. 
puguaculum, 16 Mil. 334 

TITINITS. 

farticulum, Com. 90 

VAKRO. 
obiectaculum, B. E. 3, 17, 9 



PETRONTVB. 

tomaculum, 20 31, 49 

PLINIVS. 

conceptaculum, 21 11, 138 
cooperculum, 22 23, 109 
staticulum," 34, 163 

GEUJVS. 
habitaculum, 24 5, 14, ll 



COLVMELLA. 

crepitaculum, 19 9, 12, 2 



MINVCIVS FELIX. 
notaculum, 31, 8 



1 Capit. ; Lampr. ; Vulg. ; form -la, = Plant. ; Tert. ; Gloss. Paris. 2 Apul. Met. 

3 Phaedr. ; Petr. ; Plin. ; Suet. ; lunen. ; Mart. ; Apul. ; Paul. Nol. ; Yen. Fort. 4 Cels. ; 

Sen. ; Petr. : Plin. ; Quint. ; Vulg. ; Cassiod. ; GIL. 4. 6 Vitr. ; Col. ; Plin. ; Vopisc. ; Pall. 
6 Gloss. Labb. ; Gloss. Paris. 7 Fest. 8 ApuL Flor. Verg. Ge.; Plin.; form -la, Col.; 
Vulg. 10 Solin. ; Macr Sat. " Non. 12 lul. Val. 13 (Fulg.) Serm. 54. ^formdica- 
bula, = Mart. Cap. ; -um, = Seru. ad Verg. I5 Vulg. ; Macr. ; Isid. 10 form -la, Au- 
son. 17 Gloss. Labb. 1S Amm. 19 Quint.; Mart. Cap.; Arnob. 20 Mart. ; luu. ; Fron- 
tin. 21 Gell. 22 Apul. ; Pall. ; Gloss. Labb. M Tert. 24 Tert. ; Pall.; Pacat. Pan. ; 
Amm.; Vulg.; Prud. ; Augustin. 



25. -CVLVM.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIV8. 91 

APVLEIVS. pinnaculum, 8 adu. lud. 8 

demeaculum, Met. 6, 2 potacnlum, Apol. 39 ; al. 

memoraculum, Mag. 56 uectaculum, Anim. 53 ; al. 
occursacultim, Id. 64 

offensaculum, ' Met. 9, 9 ABNOBIVS. 

remeacuhim, Id. 6, 2 furfuraculum, 4 6, 14 
reuerticulum, Id. 3, 11 ; al. 

signaculnm, 2 Flor. 9, p. 11, 6 Kr. CHALCIDIVS. 

temperaculum, Id. 6, p. 5, 18 J?r. emissacnlum, Tim. 39 ; of. 

TEBTVLMANVS. VBNANTIVS FOBTVKATVS. 

exceptaculum, Sped. 2 retentaculum, Vit. S. Menard. 

obstrepitaculum, adu. Marc. 1, 20 12 

1 Eccl. 2 Tert. ; Vlp. Dig. ; Prud. 3 Vulg. " Glosa laid. 



II. ADJECTIVES. 

26. ADJECTIVES IN -bundus : These adjectives hardly need 
any further commentary than the accompanying list, to prove 
their vulgar character. 1 Out of a total of 141, 2 (uett. 52, 
recc. 89), I have found but 7 in Cic., and 2 of these confined to 
his letters and the oration against Yerres. The great majority 
are confined to writers of inferior latinity, largely as a7ru />>/- 
/aeW, and to glossaries. Plaut. has 7, of which 2, ludibundus, 
moribundus, recur in Cic. ; Cato, besides the Plautine ridibun- 
dus, has the two extraordinary forms tuburchinabundus, lur- 
chinabundus, the use of which Quint. 3 condemns ; Sisenn. has 
populabundus ; Claud. Quadrig. cunctabundus, Mnnibunde, Cor- 
nif. Rhet. tremebundus ; Sail., full of archaisms, adds two, 
praedabundus, uitabundus, and Laber. amorabundus, cited by 
Caesellius Vindex 4 in his commentarium lectionum antiquarum / 
so that the formation, like so many others in plebeian Latin, 
may be reasonably regarded as archaic. Yery few, as errabun- 
dus, moribund-US, were retained in general use. Livy forms a 
striking exception, using not less than 17 of these words, and 
it has been suggested that this peculiarity constitutes part of 
his characteristic Patamniias? Of these 17 words only 6 are 
found before Liu. ; of the remaining 11, two, tentabundus, 
deliberdbundus, are not found later ; the rest are rare and for 
the most part confined to the historians, who naturally fall 
more or less under the influence of his style and vocabulary. 
Thus Tac. has 7 ; 5 from Liu., contionabundus, minitalnmdus, 
moribundus, uitabundus, cunctabundus; 2 new, deprecabundus, 
specidabundus ; Suet, has 6 ; 4 are from Liu., gratulabundus, in- 
dignabundus, ludibundus, uenerabundus. The remaining two 
are speculabundus, from Tac., and osculabundus, not previously 

1 See Landgraf , Blatt. f. Bayer. Gymn. VIE. p. 320 ; Guericke, p. 32 ; Schmilinsky, 
p. 39; Ronsch, pp. 338-9 ; Frolich, B. Afr., p. 58; Ulrich, Vitr., II., p. 5. 2 Paucker, 
Hier. p. 65 sq. 3 Quint. 1, 6, 42, neque enim tuburchinabundum et lurchinabundum iam 
in nobis quisquam ferat, licet Cato sit auctor. 4 GelL XI., 15, 1. 5 Klotz, Stilist. p. 83. 



36. -BVNDVS.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 93 

found. Curt, has 6 : 2 new forms, bacchabundus, mlrdbundus ; 
the rest from Liu., comissabundus, errabundus, iienerabundus. 
A strong argument that this is an archaism retained in the 
historians, is that they have also retained the unclassical con- 
struction of a transitive accusative after these adjectives ; the 
earliest extant instance is in Sisenn. ap. Gell. 11, 15, 7, popula- 
bundus agros, and this construction is imitated by Sail, with 
uitabundus, Liu. with contionabundus, uitabundus, Curt, uenera- 
butidus, Suet, speculabundus, lust, meditabundus, and is espe- 
cially frequent in the archaist Apuleius. 1 Aside from this con- 
struction, the latter is very fond of adjectives in -bundus, using 
not less than 16, of these 11 not previously found, and 9 of 
these peculiar to Apul. In the later language these deriva- 
tions are not infrequent, and the unusually large proportion 
found in Glossaries show how many more must have been in 
use than gained admittance into literature. Paucker's list con- 
tains 17 from Glossaries, including the Thorn. Thes. Nou. Lot. : 

cadabundus, imperitabundus, parabundus, 

cessabundus, inpndibundus, pugnabundus, 

conciliabundus, luctabundus, rixabundus, 

consolabundus, minabundus, sitibundus, 

exsulabundus, mussitabundus, stabundus. 

fabundus, negabundus, 

Yet as is always the case with the Glossaries, it is impossi- 
ble to say how many of these words belonged to the older lan- 
guage. At any rate, the later literature, while containing a 
comparatively large number of new forms, seems to have 
avoided their use : many are U7ra e^/iem ; many more are con- 
fined to one or two authors ; Tert. who usually outnumbers 
Apul. at the rate of 3 to 2 in new formations, has only 7 as 
against the latter's 11 ; and lastly the Romance languages, while 
showing a number of forms in -undus, -cundus, avoided those 
in -bundus ; Diez cites only Fr. vagabond? 

This suffix belongs then to the sermo plebeius, but chiefly 
to its earlier period. It was one of the many archaisms pre- 
served in popular speech, for the sake of the heavy syllables, 
rather than for any distinctive meaning that the suffix properly 
had. Caesellius Vindex, in quoting from Laberius the form 

1 Compare Draeger, I, p. 357. 2 Diez, p. 679. 



94 WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 26. -BVNDVS. 

amordbund-am, already cited, says that it was used as an equiva- 
lent for the present participle, " eafigura, scriptum, . . . qua, 
' ludibunda ' et ' ridibunda ' et ' errabunda ' dicitur ludens ct 
ridens et errans" and for this he was censured, according to 
Gell., by the grammarian Terentius Scaurus. 1 He was speak- 
ing however of Laberius, a distinctly vulgar writer, and may 
have had in mind the current popular usage of his day. But 
at the time when literature began to throw off the classic fet- 
ters, and suffixes became living agents of linguistic growth, 
adjectives in -bundus had lost their popularity, if we may 
argue from Tert., whom Paucker calls, " ecclesiastici eloquii 
quasi informatorem" 2 and it is not surprising to find them 
gradually disappearing from the later language. 

NAEVTVS. LVCRETIVS. 

cassabundtis, 3 Com. Fr. 120 errabundus, 10 4, 692 

uersabundus, 11 6, 437 
PLAVTVS. 

*deplorabtmdus, Aul. 316 VAKEO. 

lixabundus, 4 Stick. 288 uertilabnndus, 18 Sat. Men. 108 

ludibundus, 6 Pseud. 1275 

plorabundus, 6 ^J. 317 CICERO, (Epis-rr.). 

ridibundus, 7 Epid. 413 noctuabundus, ad. Ait. 12, 1, 2 

uerberabundus, Stick. 444 

LABEBIVS. 

CATO amorabundus, ap. Gell. 11, 15, 5 

lurchinabundus, Inc. Libr. Fr. 49 ., 1S 

tubnrchinabundus, Id. ib. commissabnndns, " 9, 9, 17 

QVADKIGABIVS. contionabundus, > 3, 47, 3 ; al 

cunctabundus, 8 Ann. 1, Fr. 106. deliberabundus, 1, 54, 6 ; al. 

hinnibunde, Ann. 16, Fr. 78 p. gratnlabundns, " 7, 33, 18 

indignabundus, 17 38, 57, 7 

SISENNA. lacrimabundus, 18 3, 46, 8 

populabundus, 9 Hist. Fr. 55 minitabundus, 19 39, 41, 3 

i Gell. XI., 15. 2 sq. a Paucker, Ztsch. f. ost. G. 1881, p. 484, cited by Sittl, Lokal. 
Verschiedenh. p. 141. 

3 Macr. eat.; conf. Paul. ex. Fest. 48, 4. 4 Paul. Diac. ; Gl. laid. ; con/. Paul, ex 

Fest. 116, 19. 5 Cic. Verr. 3, 156; Bp. 16, 9, 2; Liu.; Suet..; Gell. 6 Porph. ad Hot. 
(adu.) ^ Cato, Oratt. Fr. ; conf. Ter. Scaur, ap. Gell. 11, 15, 3. 8 Lin.; Tac.; Apul. ; 
Eumen. Pan.; Mamert. Julian. Liu. 10 Auct. B. Af r. ; Catull. ; Verg. ; Liu. ; Curt.; Vitr. ; 
Lact. " Vitr. Chalcid. Tim. 13 Conf. supra, p. 92. " Curt.; Plin.; Porphyr. ad 
Hor. Sat. 15 Tac.; Capit 1S Justin.; Suet. "Suet; GelL 18 Cypr. Ep. ; Lact. ; 
ChariB. 19 Tac. 



26. -BVNDVS.] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



95 



mirabundus, 1 25, 37, 12 ; al 
peregrinabundus, 2 28, 18, 10 
tentabundus, 21, 36, 1 
uenerabtmdus, 3 1, 16, 6 

IVSTINVS. 

exsultabundus, 4 18, 7, 10 
meditabundus, 38, 3, 7 

VALERTPS MAXIMVS. 
festinabundus, 5 2, 8, 5 
iocabundus, 6 2, 4, 4 ; al. 

FENESTKLLA. 

uagabundus. 7 ap. Fulg. Myth. 3, 
9 

INSCRB. POMPEIANAE. 

rnibundns, GIL. IV. 1688 

PETROJOVS. 

cantabundus, 62, 4 

GELLIVS. 

cogitabundus, 8 2, 1, 2 
gloriabundus, 9 5, 5, 4 
iactabundus, 19, 1, 1 ; aJ. 
laetabundus, 10 11, 15, 8 
nitibundus, 11 1, 11, 8 
noscitabundus, 5, 14, 11 
oscitabuudus, 12 4, 20, lemm. 
saltabundus, 20, 3, 2 
stomachabundus, 17, 8, 6 
tmdabundus, 13 2, 30,3 

APVtEIVS. 

auxiliabundus, Deo Socr. 11 
certabundus, de Mund. 22 
excusabundus, Apol. 79 



gaudibundus, 14 Met. 8, 2 
imaginabundus, Id. 3, 1 
munerabundus, Id. 11, 18 
murruurabundus, 7rf. 2, 20 
nutabundus, 16 Jd. 9, 41 
periclitabundus, Id. 5, 23 ; al. 
rimabundus, 16 Id. 2, 5 ; al 
spumabundus, ^4po/. 44 



TEKTVLLIANVS. 
aucupabundus, Anim. 39 
cauillabundus, Id. 34 
commentabundus, Paucker 
cornruinabundus, adu. Marc. 4, 

15 

contemplabundus, Id. 4, 40 
famulabundus, 17 Id. 3, 7 
palabundus, 18 Apol. 21 

CYPRIANVS. 

balabundus, jE^>. 45, 3 
cniciabundus, Id. 59, 3 
fluctuabundus, 19 de Laps. 25 

ABNOBIVS. 
pauibundus, 20 7, 13 

Ivuvs VALEKIVS. 

amplexabundus, 2, 32 
aurigabundus, 1, 17 
eiulabundus, 2, 16 
natabundus, 12, 24 
nixabundus, 1, 11 

CHAIiCIDIVS. 

rotabundus, Tim. 40 B. 
scrutabundus, Id. 26 B. 
uentilabundus, Id. ib. 



1 Curt.; Apul. Met. 2 Fulg. Myth. 3 Suet. ; Curt. 4 Solin. * Macr. ; Augustin. ; 
* Auct. Itin. Alex. 6 Lact. ; Mart. Cap. 7 Solin. ; Augustin. 8 Hyg. Fab.; Firm. Math.; 
Gloss. Labb. 9 Lact. 10 Hyg. Fab. ; Vulg. ; Mart. Cap. ll Solin. ia Sidon. Ep. 
"Amm. 14 Cypr. Ep. 15 Salu. ; Lact. 16 Fulg. Myth. 17 Vulg. l8 Cypr. Ep. 
Auct. Itin. Alex. la Ambros. ; Augustin. ; Rufin. 20 *Augustin. 



96 WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 27. -BILIS. 

PALLADIVS. HABITANTS CAPELLA. 

aestuabundus, 11, 17, 2 conspicabundus, 8, 803 

flammabundus, 1, 90 

Aver. ITIN. ALEX. fluibundus, 1, 88 

adminiculabundus, 8, (21) salutabundus, 7, 729 

uisabundus, 23 uibrabundus, 8, 880 

AMMANVS. SIDONIVS APOLLINABIS. 

uastabundus, 31, 8, 6 carminabundus, Ep. 8, 11 

iactitabundus, Id. 3, 13 extr. 

AMBBOSIVS. latitabundus, Id. 1, 6 extr. 

fluctuabundus, 1 de lob, 4, 10, 27 ludificabundus, Id. 7, 14 

otiabundus, Id. 4, 18 
AVGVSTTSVS. 

contremibtmdus, in Ps. 17, 20 ALDHELMVB. 

extr. rudibundus, de Re Gramm. in 

insultabundns, Ep. 35, 3 Class. Auct. 5, 568 

mendicabundns, Id. 261, 1 rngibundus, Carm. de Virg. 1226 

27. ADJECTIVES IN -bills : That the frequent use of adjec- 
tives in -bills is a feature of the sermo plebeius has been gen- 
erally conceded, 3 and statistics tend to establish this view. 
The entire number in the language, as given by Paucker, 3 is 
1082, recc. 801, uett. 289, and of these only 89 in Cic., barely 7i# 
of the whole. Of the remaining 200 uett. a number are poetic ; 
thus Verg. gives 10 ; Ou. 27. 70 occur first in Silver Latin : 
L. Sen. 25, Plin. 16, Col. 3, Mart., Imien., and Pers. 1 each. 
The majority however belong to writers of inferior Latini- 
ty. They are numerous in early Latin, and Knapp 4 is un- 
doubtedly correct in regarding them as another instance of the 
retention of archaisms in the sermo plebeius. The frequency in 
Plautus of these acljs., and of advs. in -biliter is often noticed 
by Lorenz, 5 and Schmilinsky (p. 38), gives a list of 22, which 
he attributes to the vulgar Latin. The prevalence of such 
adverbs in the wall-inscriptions of Pompeii has been cited by 

1 Augustin. ; Cypr.; (Rufin. ) Comm. in Oseam. 

Rebling, p. 24; Thielmann, Cornif. Rhet., p. 98; Stumer, p. 11 ; Koliler, p. 378, 
Schulze, Diss. HaL VI., p. 169 ; Regnier, St. Aug. p. 6, " ce sont encore la des mots 
bien populaires ; " Guericke, p. 33. 3 Paucker, Materialien III., p. 18. 4 Knapp, 
Gell., p. 155. s Lorenz ad Mil., 60; Id. ad Pseud. 933 ; Id. Kr. Anm. ad Most. 24; 
Id. ad Mil. 260, citing Plant, dissimulabiliter, perplexabilitcr, pollucibiliter, Naeu., 
exanimabttiter, Pacnu. , minitabiliter ; Ace., indecorabiliter, Cato, imperabiliter ; 
Varr. Sat. Meu., mutabiliter. 



27. -BILIS.] EOMAN SEEMO PLEBEIVS. 97 

Munro, 1 as an evidence of their frequent use in the sermo 
plebeius. 

It is chiefly however in the later language and first of all 
in the African writers, that this formation becomes promi- 
nent. 2 Gell. adds 15, Apul. 28, Tert. 74, Arnob. 10. From 
this time on, these adjs., like the verbal abstracts in -tio, -sio, 
seem to have been formed from any verb at pleasure. 3 Their 
number grew steadily under the Scriptt Eccl.; Hier. seems to 
have been especially fond of them, adding 20 to the list, and 
employing no less than 122 of those already in use. 4 As late 
as the 5th cent., a single author, Gael. Aurel., added 44 new 
words to this class, 5 and their frequency in the Eomance lan- 
guages shows that the suffix maintained its activity uninter- 
rupted, until modern times. 

These adjs. are regularly derived from the present stem ; 
irregular formations from the part, per/., as flexiUlis, Cic., are 
rare in classic Latin, but become very frequent in the later 
language, (uett. 9, recc. 130) 6 thus, Tert., accessibilis, diuisibilis, 
indiuisibilis, interemptibilis, irreprehensibUis, etc.; Hier., con- 
temptibilis, impassibilis, irremissibilis, etc. 

The forms from verbs in -scere are worthy of note, as being 
evidence of the plebeian weakening of inchoative verbs : such 
forms are unknown to the classic Latin, and appear first in the 
literature of the decadence ; thus, Tert., immarcessibilis ; Hier., 
putrescibilis, concupiscibilis, Cassiod., erubescibilis, etc. 7 

Another evidence of the plebeian character of these adjs. is 
afforded by the large proportion compounded with prepositions, 
or formed from compound verbs. Thus in Paucker's list, 

i Munro, ad Lucr. VI, 1176, cited by Knapp, Gell., p. 155. 2 Sittl, Lokal. Ver- 
schiedenh., p. 141, " Bei den. Adjektiven haben namentlich die Ableitungen mit . . . 
-bilis den Afrikanern sehr viel zu danken." It has been sometimes suggested 
that the prevalence of these forms in Gell. is due to conscious imitation of the 
old writers. The large number however found in Tert., five times that of Gell., 
tends to prove that the latter was simply following the tendency of his age. In con- 
scious archaism of Gell. and Apul. (as subs, in -or, adjs. in -bundus) their formations 
usually outnumber those of Tert. 3 Diez, p. 644, " Die spiitere Latinitat scheint auch 
dieses suffix wie einzige andre, fast an jeden belebige Verbum gefugt zu haben," conf. 
Bonnet, p. 466, "H eemble qu'on les ait aimes pour lenr longeur meme, car on ne 
craint ni Fablatif en abilibus, ni surtont 1'adverbe en abiliter," citing from Greg. 
Tur.: execrabiliter, fauor abiliter, horribiliter, inccssabiliter, inrationabiliter, inre- 
preTiensibilater, terribiliter, trlumphabiliter, uenerabiliter. 4 Pauck. Hier., p. 64. 
5 Comp. Goelzer, p. 169. Goelzer, p. 139 ; Pauck., Material. Ill, p. 2, not. I. 7 Goel- 
zer, p 140 ; Pauck. Material. Ill, p. 19, " 22 doch nur recc." 
7 



98 WORD FORMATION IN THE [27. -BILIS. 

about 600, or over one-half, are so compounded. These were 
much rarer in the classic language : thus Cic. has but 31 ; 4 
with ad-, accusabilis, admirabilis, affdbilis, aspectabilis ; 4 with 
con-: commemorabilis, congregabilis, comparabilis, comprehensi- 
bilis ; Iwithde-: detestdbilis; 2 with dis-: dissipabilis, disso- 
liibilis ; 2 with ex- : exitiabilis, exorabilis ; 17 with in- : inae- 
quabilis, inaestimabilis, incommutabilis, indissolubilis, inexora- 
bttis, inexpiabilis, inexplebilis, inexplicobilis, inexpugnabilis, 
immobilis, implacabilis, incredibllis, innumerabilis, insanabilis, 
insatiabilis, insaturdbilis, intolerabilis ; one with per- : perflabilis. 
Of the entire number of these adjs., there are over 350 com- 
pounded with in- negative; of these Cic. has barely 5 per 
cent. 

It is noteworthy that these adjs. are rare in the Scriptt. 
B. B., and consequently do not belong to the sermo rusticus. 
In the following list, out of 4 words from Cato, only one, resti- 
bilis, is from the B. B. Varro, B. B., gives only one, alibilis ; 
Col. 3, and Pall., writing at the period of greatest fertility of 
derivation, only two. 

Before leaving this class of adjs. a few words must be said 
about their use in an active sense. The normal value of the 
suffix is passive, but in archaic and in late Latin the active 
meaning is not uncommon, and Paucker has indicated 277 
adjs. which are so employed, either wholly or in part. 1 Of 
these, all are recc. but 63, and the majority of those are from 
early Latin. Very few are classical ; Cic. has 9 ; amabilis, ela- 
mentabilis, flebilis, incredibiliter, lamentabilis, patibilis, stabilis, 
terribilis. Plaut. on the contrary has 12, adjutabilis, conducibi- 
lis, discordabilis, dissimulabiliter, excruciabilis, immemorabilis, 
impetrabilis, incogitabilis, lucriftcabilis, ludificabilis, perplexabilis, 
prostibilis ; Cato adds 1, imperabiliter ; Pacuu. 1, minitabilit&r ; 
Ter. 1, placabilis ; Ace. 3, horrificabilis, indecorabiliter, tabifica- 
bilis; Lucil. 2, genitabilis, monstrificabilis ; Afran. 1, intolerabilis ; 
Quadrig. 1, exsuperabilis ; Varr. 3, alibilis, significabilis, uigabi- 
lis ; Lucr. 2, mactabilis, manabilis. A few are first found with 
active meaning in the Augustan poets : Verg., lacrimabilis, 
penetrabilis, Hor., illacrimabilis, Ouid., durabilis, resonabilis, so- 
nabilis ; and the usage gains ground in Silver Latin: Val. 
Max., uenerdbilis / Scrib., irrequiebilis ; Col., medicabilis / Pers., 

1 Conf. Pauck Materialien, HI., passim. 



27. -BILIS.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 99 

repardbilis ; Plin., generabilis, medbilis, spirdbilis, uisibilis, Stat., 
remedbilis, Quint., persuasibilis, Tac., delectdbilis ; Inscrr. Pom- 
peian., festinabiliter, irrumabiliter. But it is above all in the 
African writers that this usage flourished : Paucker cites from 
Gell. consolabilis, crutiabilis, impeccabilis, incongelabilis, inuita- 
bilis, obsequibilis, uocabilis ; and from Apul. eiulabilis, inerrabilis, 
inexplebilis, mutabilis, uitiabilis, ululdbilis; and Sittl 1 attributes 
7 to Arnob. frustrabilis, irreuocabilis, irrecordabilis, penetrabilis, 
cruciabilis, uenerabilis, genetabilis. 

As all three of these authors are noted for their love of ar- 
chaisms this active use of adjs. in -bills may have been a con- 
scious imitation of the older writers. 

NAEVIVS. ludificabilis, Cos. 761 

exanimabiliter, Com. 35 perplexabilis, Asin. 792 

pollucibiliter, Most. 24 ; al. 

PLAVTVS. prostibilis, Pers. 837 

adiutabilis, Mil. 1144 ; al. sepelibilis, Gist. 62 

aequiperabilis, 2 Trin. 466 spefabilis, Capt. 518 

castigabilis, Id. 44 ntibilis, 18 Merc. 1005 

conducibilis, 3 Id. 36 uerberabilis, Aul. 633 

cruciabiliter, 4 Pseud. 950 noluptabilis, 13 Epid. 21 
discordabilis, Capt. 402 

dissimulabiliter, Mil. 260 ENOTVS. 

donabilis, 6 Bud. 654 adulabUis, 14 ap. Non. 155, 30 

excruciabilis, 6 Cist. 653 propitiabilis, 16 Com. 6 

exoptabilis, 7 Stick. 395 ~ 

illocabilis, Aul. 191 ,.,. ,. _ n _ __ 

,,.,,,.,.,. , r ^Q cognobilis, 16 ap. Gell. 20, 5, 13 

*illutibilis, Men. 168 . , .,., _,, . ' _ ,^ 

' .. . A ..-- imperabiliter, ap. Chans. 202,11 
immemorabms, 8 Cist. 538 

immutabilis, Epid. 577 *. ,' ,.,.,. , T ,. nn , 

*inductibilis," ap. Phn. 29, 14 

inamabihs, 9 Bacch. 614 A -u-v , T> oc ^ 

., ,.'. 10 .,.. _.. restibilis, 18 R. R. 35, 2 

incogitabilis, 10 Mil. 544 

indomabilis, 11 Cos. 811 PACWIVS. 

intestabilis, Cure. 30 ; al. *lnctificabilis, Antiop. 14 

lucrificabilis, Pers. 712 minitabUiter, 19 Tr. 15 

I " Wahrscheinlich sind die Afrikaner anch bei der aktiven Verwendung der Adjek- 
tiva auf bilis in hervorragendem Grade beteiligt." Sittl, Lokal. Verschiedenh. p. 142. 

II ApuL; Prud. * Cornif. Rhet. ; Cael. Aur. ; Eccl. Auct. B. Afr. ; Amm. ; adi. 
GelL ; Apul. ; Prud. 5 Ambros. Prud. T Lucil. Sat. ; SiL 8 Lucr. Verg. ; On. ; 
Plin. Ep.; Sen. 10 Lact.; Amm.; Mart. Cap.; Fragm. lur. Rom. Vat. Mythog. Lat.; 
Vulg.; Augustin. Ter. ; Auct. Itin. Alex. "Amm. "Amm. "Prud. " CrelL 
" CaeL Aur. " Varr. ; CoL ; Plin. Ace. 



100 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[27. -BILI3. 



TERENTIVS. 
uincibilis, 1 Phorm. 225 

Accivs. 

*alternabilis, 2 Tr. 264 
aspernabilis, 3 Id. 555 
*horrificabilis, Id. 617 
indecorabiliter, Id. 258 
*inorabilis, ap. Nan. 487, 15 
odibilis, 4 Didasc. 1, 7 JtfM. 
tabificabilis, Tr. 421 

I/vcmvs. 

genitabilis, 5 ySatf. 1, 1 
*monstrificabilis, Id. 26, 50 

POMPONTVS. 
ascendibilis, Com. 18 

QVADBIGAKIVS. 

exsuperabilis, 6 Ann. 1 JV. 7 

VAEKO. 

alibilis, jR. . 2, 11, 1 ; ctf. 
famigerabilis, 7 L. L. 6, 55 
inexstingtribilis, 8 ap. Non. 131 
inuitabilis, ap. Gell. 13, 11, 4 
significabilis, 9 L. L. 6, 52 
uigilabilis, Sat. Men. 485 

LVCKETIVS. 

aerumnabilis, 10 6, 1228 
allaudabilis, 5, 158 
auersabilis, 11 6, 390 
insedabiliter, 6, 1174 
manabilis, 1, 534 



ClCEKO (EPISTT.). 

consolabilis, 12 Ep. 4, 3, 2 
irritabilis, 13 Alt. 1, 17, 4 

HOKATIVS. 

immersabilis, Ep. 1, 2, 22 
insolabiliter, Id. 1, 14, 8 

VlTKVVlVS. 

perspicibilis, 9, 1, 11 
sensibilis, 14 5, 3, 6 

CELSVS. 

inuisibilis, 16 Praef., p. 3, 27 D. 
sorbilis, 16 2, 18 med. 

COLVMELLA. 

inexputabilis, 9, 4, 6 

PERSIVS. 
plorabilis, 17 1, 34 

PLINIVS. 

arabilis, 17, 41 
cocibilis, 16, 25 
computabilis, 19, 139 
exscreabilis, 20, 157 
friabilis, 18 17, 29 
fricabilis, 31, 113 D. 
inefiabilis, 19 5, 1 
ineffugibilis, 28, 20 
inexstirpabilis, 15, 84 
inflexibilis, 20 28, 192 
ingestabilis, 7, 41 
ingnstabilis, 2, 238 
meabilis, 2, 10; al. 
nisibilis, 21 11, 146 



1 * CoL ; Apnl. ; Anthol. Lat. 2 Mnscrr. => aeternabilis. 3 Gell. ; Capit. ; Augustin. 
4 Lampr.; Ambros.; Eccl. 6 Arnob. 6 Verg.; Stat. 7 Apnl. Met.; Gloss. Labb. 
w Itala; Arnob.; Lact.; Vulg.; Scrib.; Augnstin.; Heges. 9 Augustin. 10 Apul.; Ps.- 
Augnstin. u Arnob. 12 Gell. ; Ambros. " Hor. Ep. ; Amm. ; Lact. 14 Sen. Ep. ; Apul. ; 
Lact. 16 Lact. ; Chalcid. Tim.; Macr. 18 Scrib.; Col.; Gael. Aur. " Claud, in Eutr. 
18 Gael. Aur. 19 Apul.; Augustin. ao Sen.; Plin. Ep.; Amm.; Gael. Aur. Apul.; 
Prud. ; adu. = Paul. NoL 



27. -BILIS.] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



101 



MABTIATJS. 
delebilis, 7, 84, 7 

INSCKB. POMPEIAN. 
festinabiliter, Ephem. Epigr. 1, 

177 no. 271 

fratrabiliter, C. I. L. IV, 659 
irrumabiliter, Id. 1931 

IWENAMS. 
curabilis, 1 16, 21 

GELUVS. 

illatabilis, 1, 20, 9 
impeccabilis, 17, 19, 6 
imprensibilis, 11, 5, 4 
inadulabilis, 14, 4, 3 
incongelabilis, 17, 8, 16 
indissimulabilis,' 10, 22, 24 
indeprecabilis, 1, 13, 3 
inopiaabilis, 3 17, 19, 18 
insensibilis, 4 17, 10, 17 
*insperabilis, 5 4, 18, 3 
obsequibilis, 2, 29, 12 
nocabilis," 13, 20, 14 

APYIiETVS. 

adorabilis, Met. 11, 18 
appetibilis, 7 Dogm. Plat. 2, p. 

19 

cachinnabilis, Met. 3, 7 ; al. 
cogitabilis, Apol. 64 
conuersibilis, 8 Dogm. Plat. 3, p. 

267 H. 

culpabilis, 9 Mag. p. 223 
creabilis, 10 Ascl. 15 
densabilis, 11 Herb. 59 
effabilis, Apol. 64 



eiulabilis, Met. 4, 3 
hinnibilis, 14 Dogm. Plat. 3, p. 265 

H. 

improcreabilis, Id. 1, 5 
inauersibilis, Ascl. 40 
infinibilis, 13 Dogm. Plat. 1, 5 
innoininabilis, /<#. ib. 
inoptabilis, Met. 9, 12 
interfectibilis, Herb. 89 
inerrabilis, u Dogm. Plat. 1, 11 
irrationabilis, 15 Id. 2, 16 
irremunerabilis, Jfei. 3, 22 
iiTeposcibilis, 16 Apol. 92 
irresolubilis, Dogm. Plat. 2, 13 
liquabilis, 17 Apol. 30 
multiforabilis, 18 M?r. 3 in. 
naturabilis, Dogm. Plat. 2, 12 ; al. 
nutabilis, Deo Socr. 4 
pronuntiabilis, Dogm. Plat. 3, p. 

262 

tutiabilis, 19 de Mund. 3 
ululabilis, 30 ilfei. 5, 7 

TKBTVZiLIANVS. 

acceptabilis, 21 cfe Or. 1 ', al. 
accessibilis, 22 Prax. 15 
agnoscibilis, 23 adu. Valent. 27 
apprehensibilis, 24 Id. 11 
blasphemabilis, (7u^. i^em. 2, 12 
commiscibilis, -4ni7K. 12 
compassibilis, 85 adu. Prax. 29 
concussibilis, adu. Marc. 1, 25 
conseruabilis, Id. 2, 13 
contaminabilis, 26 /c?. 4, 20 
contradicibilis, Cam. C^r. 23 
*coodibilis, 27 adu. Marc. 4, 9 ; al. 
demutabilis, 88 Anim. 2, 1 
determinabilis, adu. Herm. 41 
dispartibilis, Id. 39 



1 Gael. Aur. 2 lulian. ap. Augustin. s Aur. Viet. ; Amm. 4 ApuL; Lact.;Ser. Samm. 
6 Amm. Firm. Math. * Hier.; Augustin.; Macr. Sat. 8 Chalcid. Tim. ; Augustin. 
Tert.; Arnob.; Hier. 10 Augustiii.; Hier.; EccL " CaeL Aur. 1S CaeL Aur. " Mart. 
Cap. 14 Am bros.; Augustin. 16 Lact. 16 Sidon. Ep. " Prud. " Sidon. Ep. "Prud.; 
CaeL Aur. 20 Amm. 21 Lact; Hier.; ICt. 22 Eccl. " Augustin. a4 CaeL Aurel. 
*EccL a Augustin.; EccL EccL a8 EccL; Prud. 



102 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[27. -BILIS. 



diuisibilis, Anim. 14 
docibilis, 1 Hon. 12 ; al. 
exspectabilis, 2 adu. Marc. 3, 16 
fas tid ibilis, Anim. 33 
fatigabilis, Id. 32 
illaesibilis, 3 adu. Valent. 27 
immarcescibilis, 4 Cor. Mil. 15 
immundabilis, de Pudic. 20 
importabilis, 5 adu. Marc. 4, 27 
inapprehensibilis, 6 adu. Valent. 

11; oJ. 

incommiscibilis, .4ra'?ra. 12 
incompassibilis, 7 Prax. 29 
inconcessibilis, de Pudic. 9 
incongressibilis, aetfw. Marc. 2, 27 
incontaminabilis, 8 Jrf. 4, 14 
inoontemplabilis, 8 JBes. <7am. 55 
incontemptibilis, Apol. 45 
incontradicibilis, adu. Marc. 4, 39 
inconvertibilis, Hermog. 12 ; Z. 
incorporabilis, adu. Marc. 3, 17 
incorruptibilis, 10 Anim. 50 
incusabilis, ac? .ZVatf. 1, 12 
indemutabilis, 11 Hermog. 12 
indeterminabilis, 12 adu. Haer. 7 
indiuisibilis, IS J.nm. 51 
ineffigiabilis, 7d. 24 
inemeribilis, Res. Cam. 18 
inexcogitabilis, 14 adu. Valent. 37 
informabilis, adu. Prax. 27 
inhonorabilis, ac?w. Marc. 3, 17 
ininterpretabilis, 15 oc?. Valent. 

14 

ininuentibilis, aofw. Herm. 45 
ininuestigabilis, 16 adw. Herm. 45 
innascibilis, 17 ac?w. flaer. 46 
interemptibilis, adu. Marc. 3, 6 
interminabilis, 18 Id. 2, 3 ; aZ. 



interpretabilis, adu. Valent. 14 
inobscurabilis, ^wim. 3 
inuincibilis," adu. Herm. 11 
irrecuperabilis, Pudic. 14 
irreformabilis, ac?w. Valent. 29 ; 

a/. 

irreprehensibilis, ao Res. Cam. 23 
irrespirabilis, /c?o?. 24 
iterabilis, adu. Marc. 2, 28 
nascibilis, 21 adu. Marc. 3, 19 ; al. 
noscibilis," ad Scapul. 2 fin. 
passibilis, 23 adu. Prax. 29 
perpetrabilis, ad Vxor. 2, 1 
placibilis, Res. Cam. 43 
properabilis, Anim. 43 
recussabilis, adu. Marc. 4, 35 
remissibilis, 24 Pudic. 2 
reuincibilis, JSes. (7a7-w. 63 
scibilis, 45 adu. Marc. 5, 16 
strangulabilis, Anim. 32 
tardabilis, Id. 43 
transfigurabilis, (7a?*?i. C%r. 6 
usurpabilis, adu. Marc. 2, 6 
inuituperabilis, 88 adu. Marc. 2, 

10; al. 
indemutabilis, 117 adu. Hermog. 12 

TREBELLIVS POLMO. 
damnabilis, 88 2V^r. Tyr. 17 
pompabilis, 7c?. 30, 24. 

ABNOBIVS. 
altercabilis, 5, 3 
auspicabilis, 4, 7 ; a/, 
commeabilis, 3, 13 ; al. 
contemptibilis, 29 4, p. 155 
corruptibilis, 30 2, 68 ; al. 
frustrabilis, 2, 22 



1 Ambros. ; Vulg. ; Eccl. a Auct. Itin. Alex. 3 Lact. ; Eccl. 4 Vulg. ; Hier. ; PauL 
Nol. 6 Cassiod. Cael. Aurel. ; Eccl. 7 Eccl. 8 Eccl. ; Augustin. Eccl. 10 Lact.; 
Eccl. EccL 1S EccL " Diom.; laid.; Eccl. " Eccl. ; Lact. 15 Eccl.; Vulg. 
"Eccl. "EccL 18 Sid. Ep.;Salu.;Boeth. odw. ApuL 20 Arnob. ; Vulg. ; adu. 
Cl. Mam. 21 EccL 2a Augustin. ; EccL S3 Arnob. ; Prad. ; Vulg. ; Eccl. 24 Cael. 
Aurel. ss Mart. Cap. 2 Eccl. 27 adu. Ennod. as Sidon. Ep. ; Salu. ; Augustin. ; 
EccL a Lampr.; Vlp. Dig.; Eccl. 30 Lact.; Augustin.; EccL 



27. -BILIS.] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



103 



inexsaturabilis, l 2, 40 
irrecordabilis, 2, 28 
irrefutabilis, 2 4, 18 
suspicabilis, 3 1, 48 

LAMPKIDIVS. 
pudibilis, 4 Heliog. 12, 2 

CHAIJCEDIVS. 

complexibilis, Tim. 168 
contionabilis, Id. 223 
deriuabilis, Id. 51, E. 
formabilis, 5 Id. 203 ; al. 
incommunicabilis, 6 Id. 3 
infitiabilis, 7 Id. 15 
irrefrenabilis, 8 Id. 106 ; al. 
perceptibilis, 9 Id. 27, D. 
porrigibilis, Id. 44, JJ. 
replicabilis, 10 Id. 105 ; aZ. 

PAIiIiADIVS. 

condemnabilis, Poet, de Insit. 11 
curuabilis, 12, 15, 2 

AMMIANVS. 

celebrabilis, 11 29, 5, 56 
despicabilis, 14 26, 8, 5 
inexpedibilis, 31, 13, 15 
infigurabilis, 24, 4, 15 
letabilis, 19, 4, 7 
nexibilis, 29, 2, 11 
permutabilis, 31, 2, 11 
pensabilis, 31, 13, 11 
perspicabilis, 13 14, 8, 3 
potabilis, 14 18, 9, 2 
regibilis, 16, 12, 10 
rotabilis, 15 23, 4, 2 
uegetabilis, 16 22, 8, 28 



VEGETIVS. 
irregibilis," 2, 3 

AMBKOSIVS. 

absolubilis, in Ps. 118, Serm. 12, 7 
consociabilis, Ep. 7, 1 
defensabilis, /<#. 56, 5 
enodabilis, in Luc. 10, 147 
*gestabilis, 18 de Noe et Area, 15, 52 
impraeuaricabilis, de Fug. Saec. 3, 

16 

indocibilis, 19 in Ps. 47, 21 
inexsolubilis, Ep. 9, 70 ; al. 
inintelligibilis, 20 Off. 1, 14 
inueniabilis, 21 in Ps. 35, 12 
odorabilis, 28 de Noe, 15, 52 
receptabilis, Ep. 44, 1 
refutabilis, in Luc. 8, 49 
resolubilis, 23 in Ps. 118, m. 13, 

20 
sulcabilis, Hexaem. 3, 4 

HJEKONTMVS. 

capabilis, 24 Didym. Sp. Set. 5 
concupiscibilis, 26 Quaest. inParal. 

1, 1 

contemptibilis, 26 .>. 146, 2 
desperabilis, 37 inlerem. 3, ac? 17,9 
diligibilis, PM. 5, 1 
indicibilis, 28 Orig. in lesai. 7, 1 
inconvincibilis, Orig. in lerem. 

Horn. 3 

infrangibilis, in lerem. 3, ad 17, 1 
inuenibilis, in lesai. Horn. 2, 2 
genibilis, in Ezech. 11 oc? 5, 15 
immensurabilis, 20 in Ephes. 47 
imparticipabilis, in Didym. de 

Spir. Set. 61 



1 Oros. a adw.==Iul. ap. Augustin. 3 Chalcid. Tim. * Auct. Itin. Alex. 6 Eccl. 
B Vulg. 7 Augustin. 8 Augastin. 9 Augustin.; Cassiod.; Boeth. 10 Sern. ad Aen. ; 
Ven. Fort. " Ambros. Ambros.;Sidon. "Augustin. 14 Auson. ; Cael. Aur. 
Augustin.; Insert. "Mart. Cap. " CaeL Anr. 18 Cassiod. "Eccl. Q0 EccL 
51 Greg. M. Isid. Prud. ; Sidon. 2 * Augustin. ; Cassiod. ; Cassian. as Eccl. 
2 < Vulg.; EccL 47 Vulg. M Maxim. Taur. a9 Cl. Mam. 



104: 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[ 27. -BILIS. 



impotabilis, Ep. 78 
imputribilis, 1 Id. 64, 9 
intransibilis, in lesai. 4, 11, 15 
irrecusabilis, 2 Ep. 60, 14 
motabilis, 3 Norn. Hebr. col. 90 
putrescibilis, in lob. 17 
terminabilis, Ep. 98, 17 
uolutabilis, Nom. Hebr. col. 95 

AVGVSTINVS. 
amissibilis, 4 Trin. 5, 4 
capabilis, 5 contr. Maxim. 2, 9, 2 
conuertibilis, Ep. 169, 11 
dicibilis, erm. 188, 22 
discemibilis, 6 Enchir. 90 
exaudibilis,' Serin. 351, 4 ; al. 
fabricabilis, Genes, ad Litt. 15 
gratulabilis, Serm. 285, 6 
imperturbabilis, Conf. 2, 10, at 
inamissibilis, 8 Ciu. Dei, 22, 30, 3 
inconuersibilis, Music. 5, 21 
inscmtabilis, 9 Ep. 106, 4 
insiccabilis, 10 in Ps. 41, 2 
insonabiliter, Ep. 147, 37 
irregressibilis, G'zw. Dei, 8, 22 
irrisibilis, /Serm. 87, 9 ; al. 
permirabilis, Genes, ad Litt. 1, 10 
perprobabilis, Music. 1, 6, 12 
portabilis, 11 Ep. 31, 4 
recordabilis, 12 Music. 6, 6 
seductibilis, in Ps. 54, 22 ; al. 

CAELTVS AVBELIANVS. 
apertibilis, Acut. 3, 3, 24 ; al. 
ascensibilis, 13 Chron. 3, 1, 4 
bibilis, Acut. 2, 11, 81 
commobilis, Id. 2, 9, 48 
conabilis, Id. 3, 1, 4 
digestibilis, 14 Chron. 1, 4, 88 
excitabilis, Chron. 1, 5, 175 



exercibilis, Id. 3, 8, 151 
existimabilis, Acut. 2, 35, 185 ; al. 
febribilis, Chron. 4, 8, 112 
fingibilis, Id. 2, 4, 104 
formicabilis, Acut. 2, 27, 145 ; al. 
grauabilis, Acut. 1, 15, 136; al. 
immitigabilis, Chron. 4, 3, 33 
implebilis, Id. 3, 8, 139 
inapprehensibilis, 15 Acut. 1, 3, 

38 

incurabilis, 18 Id. 2, 37, 191 ; al. 
indicabilis, Id. 2, 3, 13 
indigestibilis, 17 Id. 2, 9, 55 ; al. 
innutribilis, Acut. 2, 9, 55 
intemperabilis, Chron. 1, 4, 124 
leuabilis, A cut. 3, 7, 71 
mitigabiliter, Id. 1, 11, 76 
nauseabilis, Chron. 3, 2, 18 
nutribilis, Je/. 5, 1, 9 ; al. 
pausabilis, Id. 2, 13, 150 
percussibilis, Acut. 1, 16, 163 ; al. 
praefocabilis, 18 Id. 2, 6, 30 
prouocabilis, Id. 3, 21, 198 
recussabilis, Chron. 3, 6, 88 
reflabilis, Id. 4, 1, 6 
remissibilis, Id. 2, 13, 164 
repercussibilis, Id. 1, 1, 45 ; al. 
siccabilis, Id. 3, 8, 138 ; al. 
suffocabilis, Acut. 1, 9, 59 
uulnerabilis, Id. 3, 17, 171. 

SIDONIVS APOUJNAKIS. 
defaecabilis, Ep. 1, 5 
monubilis, Id. 2, 2 
peruagabilis, Id. ib. 
plectibilis, 19 Id. 4, 6 
prolectibilis, Id. 4, 18 

BOETHIVS. 
umbrabilis, Cons. Phil. 3, 4 



l Rufin.;Attgustin.Ep. 2 Cod. lust. 3 Vulg. EccL Cassiod. Eccl. 
7 SchoL luuen. 8 Eccl. 8 Hilar. ; EccL Sidon. Ep. " Sidon. Ep. * Cl. Mam.; 
EccL 13 Arnob. Ion. " Ps.-Apic. 5 EccL " Th. Prise. ;Cassiod. 17 Th. Prise. 
Th. Prise. ; Plin. VaL " Cod. Theod. 



88. -ivvs.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 105 

28. ADJECTIVES IN -iuus : That a large proportion of these 
adjectives are plebeian was first claimed by Guericke, 1 in con- 
nection with the word absentiuus occurring- in the speech of 
the vulgar Trimalchio, in place of absens. His position is 
sustained with reason by Schulze, who cites in support of his 
view the tables prepared by Paucker in his Materialien z. 
lat. Worterbildungsgeschichte VI. 2 According to the latter, 
the language contains 527 of these words, uett. 93, recc. 434, 
and only 26 quite classic, so that five-sixths of the whole are 
found in late Latin, and barely one-fourth of the remainder, or 
4 % of the whole, are classic. In Cic., aside from lucratiuus, 
found in his letters only, and the old word soniuius, 3 occurring 
in formulaic expressions, I have found only the following 24 : 

adoptiuus, festiuus, natiuus, 

aestiuus, fugitiuus, praerogatiuus, 

assumptiuus, furtiuus, ratiocinatiuus, 

captiuus, insitiuus, subditiuus, 

comparatiuus, instaurathras, subsiciuus, 

definitiuus, intempestiuus, tempestiuus, 

deliberatiuus, internecrous, translatiims, 

demonstratiuus, lasciuus, uotiuus. 

Of 434 recc. not less than 124 occur first, or alone in the 
grammarians, e.g., Priscian 34 ; many others occur in earlier 
writers, but have been retained by grammarians in a technical 
sense, as positiuus. Those introduced by the grammarians I 
have excluded from the list. It seemed on the other hand 
advisable to include in full the words due to Gael. Aurel., and 
to Boeth., (as given by Paucker), to show the enormous extent 
to which these two -late writers employed the suffix. Like 
most suffixes freely used in late Latin, it has given rise to 
numerous new formations in the Eomance languages, 4 and is 
especially frequent in Fr., as appreciatif, craintif, fautif, mala- 
dif, oisif, tardif,joli, = O. Fr., jolif ; Sp., altivo, pensativo, som- 
brio ; Ital., attentive, sensitive, etc. 

The comparative frequency of these forms in the Scriptt. 
E. E. is worthy of note: out of the 19 which occur earlier 

i Guericke, p. 32. Schulze, Dies. HaL VI, 176 ; Paucker, Mater. VI, p. 12 ; 
conf. Ronsch, p. 129 sq. 3 For the form -iuius Paucker compares lixiuus, lixiuius ; 
conf. Gael. Aur. Chron. 2, 3, 70, uolgo lixiuium uocant. 4 Diez. p. 669 ; Meyer-Ltibke, 
ItaL Gramm. p. 297 ; Matzner, Fr. Gramm. p. 27S 



106 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[23. -iws. 



than Cic., Cato lias 5, Van. 5 ; Col. adds 3, and Plin. 8, while 
the late rustic writer Agennus Vrbicus, in the few pages ex- 
tant, has no less than 5 new forms. In conclusion I have no 
hesitation in attributing this suffix to the plebeian, and espe- 
cially to the rustic speech, excepting so far as grammarians 
availed themselves of it, to form a technical vocabulary. 



PLAVTVS. 

abditiuus, 1 Poen. 65 
ascriptiuus, 2 Men. 184 
collatiuus, 3 (act.), Cure. 231 
uaciuus 4 (uociuus), Gas. 29 ; al. 

CATO. 

conditiuus, 6 R. R. 6, 1 
irrigiuus, Id. 8, 1 ; al. 
lixiuus, 6 Id. 23 
sementiuus, 7 Id. 1 , 3 
strictiuus, Id. 146 
tortiuus, 8 Id. 23, 4 

VAKKO. 

conceptiuus, 9 L. L. 6, 26 
incentiuus, 10 R. R. 1, 2, 15 
indictiuus, 11 L. L. 5, 160 ; aL 
satiuus, 12 ap Gell. 17, 3, 4 
succentiuus, R. R. 1, 2, 15 

CICERO (EPISTT.). 
lucratiuus, 13 ad Att. 7, 11, 1 

HOBATIVS. 

abortiuus, 14 Sat. 1, 3, 46 
optiuus, 15 Ep. 2, 2, 101 



ViTBwrvs. 

infectiuus, 7, 14, 2 
interpensiua, orum, 6, 3, 1 

COLVMELLA. 

arbustiuus," 3, 13, 6 ; al. 
primitiuus," 9, 13 ; al. 
sectiuus, 18 11, 3, 30 ; aL 

PETEONIVS. 

absentiuus, 33, 1. 

PLINIVS. 

annentiuus, 19 28, 232 
cadiuus, 20 15, 59; al. 
coctiuus, 21 15, 94 
exortiuus, 7, 160 ; al. 
impositiuus, 22 28, 33 
intergeriuus, 23 13, 82 ; al. 
nociuus, 24 20, 12 
pruritiuus, 19, 157 

FROOTO. 

*internatiuus, (nates), ad Amic. 

1, 13 ed. Mai. 
uoluptatiuus, Ep. ad Antonin. 

Imp. 2, 6, p. 164 ed. Rom. 



1 Paul. exFest. a Varr. L. L. 3 Paul, ex Fest.; pass., Cod. Theod. ; Macr.; Nazar. 
Pan.; Ambros. * Ter.; adu. Phaedr. Varr.; Col.; Sen. Ep.; Macr.; Insert. 

Varr. ap. Plin. ; Col. ; Scrib. ; Pall. 7 Varr. ; Ou. ; Plin. ; Tert. ; Macr. ; Cloat. ap. Macr. 
8 Col. ; Plin. ; Cael. Aur. 9 Paul, ex Fest. ; Tert. 10 Arnob. ; Ambros. ; Prud. ; Mar. Vic- 
torin. ; Donat. ; Oros. " Paul, ex Fest. la Plin. ; Rufin. ls Quint. ; Fronto ; Ambros. ; 
ICt. " Mart.; luuen.; Plin.; Hier.; Vulg. Gai. Inst. " PalL " Solin. ; Vulg.; 
Prud. ; Prise. 18 Plin. Veget. 20 Marc. Emp. ai Ps.-Apic. M Prise. 23 Inscrr. 
84 Phaedr.; Vulg.; Thorn. Thes. 



28. -iws.] 



ROMAN SEIiMO PLEBEIVS. 



107 



GEUDIVS. 

complexiuus, * 10, 29, lemm. 
connexiuus, 10, 29, 1 
disiunctiuus, 2 5, 11, 8 ; al. 
f requentatiuus, 3 9, 6, 3 
infestiuus, 1, 5, 3 
pluratiuus, 4 19, 8, 4 ; al. 
positiuus, B 10, 4 lemm. 
priuatixius, 6 5, 12, 10 
uocatiuus, 7 14, 5, 1 ; al. 

APVLEIVS. 

abdicatiuus, Dogm. Plat. 3 
abiudicatiuus, Id, ib. 
declaratiuus, 8 M. ib. 
dedicatiuus, 9 Id. ib. 
glutinatiuus, Herb. 72 ; al. 
illatiuus, 10 Dogm. Plat. 3 
negatiuus, 11 Id. ib. 
odoratiuus, Herb. 79 extr. 
passiuus, 12 (pando), Met. 6, 14 
praedicatiuus, 13 Dogm. Plat. 3 
subiectiuus, 14 Id. ib. 
substitutiuus, Id. ib. 

TEETYIjUANVS. 

antecessiuus, Virg.Vd. 4 
comminatiuus, adu. Marc. 

25 

concupiscentiuus, Anim. 16 
confirmatiue, 16 adu. Marc. 
coniunctiuus, 16 adu. Herm. 26 



2, 



defectiuus," Id. 14 
deuestiuus, Id. ib. 
distantiuus, 18 Anim. 9 
dubitatiuus, 19 adu. Marc. 2, 25 
imputatiuus, Id. ib. 
indignatiuus, 20 Anim. 16 
inenarratiuus, adu. Valent. 27 
interrogatiue, 21 adu. Marc. 4, 41 
ordinatiuus, 22 adu. Herm. 19. 
potestitatiuus, Id. ^b. 
praescriptiue, 23 adu. Marc. 4, 1 
procreatiuus, Anim. 39 
promissiue, 24 adu. Marc. 4, 10 
prouocatius, 25 Anim. 37 extr. 
putatiuus, 28 adu. Marc. 3, 8 
sitiue, adu. Prax. 29 
substantiuus, 37 Id. 26 ; al 
successiuus, Paucker. 

SOLINVS. 
sponfciuus, 2, 36 

ABNOBIVS. 

relatiuus, 28 7, p. 221 
i 

LAMTBIPIYS. 
uacantiuus, Alex. Seu. 15, 3 P. 

CHALCIDIVS. 
motiuus, 29 Tim. 57 ; al. 



consubstantiuus, adu. Valent. 12 VEGETTVS. 



fin. 



comitiuus, 30 Mil. 2, 9 



1 Mart. Cap. ; Fortunat. a Ascon. in Cic.; Seru. ad Verg. ; Papin. Dig. ; African. 

Dig. 3 Diom. et al. Grammatt. 4 Gai. Dig.; Arnob. 6 Chalcid. Tim.; Grammatt. 
Boeth. 7 Charis. et al. Grammatt. Mar. Viet.; Mart. Cap. " adu. = Mart. Cap. 
10 Diom.; Charis. " Gai ; Chalcid. Tim.; Seru. ad Verg. ; Schol. luuen. 12 Tert. ; Au- 
gustin. ; Schol. luuen. 13 Mart. Cap.; Boeth. Tert. ;Ter. Scaur.; Mart. Cap. 15 adj., 
Diom.; Prise.; Seru. ad Aen.; Ambros.; Schol. luuen. 16 Agenn. Vrb.; Mart. Cap. et al. 
Grammatt. " Amm.; Augustin.; Cael. Aur.; Grammatt. 18 Chalcid. Tim. 19 Prise, 
et al. Grammatt. 20 Dosith. ; Diom. 21 Schol. luuen.; Ps.-Ascon. ; adj. = Dosith. et al. 
Grammatt. 2 " Diom. et al. Grammatt. 23 adj. Sulp. Seu. ; lul. Viet. " Diom. et al. 
Grammatt. 25 Cael. Aur. 2 Intpr. Lren. ; adu. _ Hier. ; Hilar. S7 Prise. M Augustin.; 
Mart. Cap. ; Prise, et al. Grammatt. S9 Gloss. Labb. 30 Cod. Theod.; L. Paulin. Carm. 
Euchar.; Cassiod. 



108 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[38. -ivvs. 



AMMIANVS. 

inuectiuus, 1 28, 1, 20 ; al. 
irrisiue," 16, 12, 67 

HlEBONYMVS. 

* concupiscitiuus, in Ezech. 1, ad 

1,7 

dispensatiue, 3 Ep. 112, 14 
incorrupfciuus, 4 Id. 152 

* irrascitiuus, Id. 14, 11 
optatiuus, 6 in Osee III, ad 14, 1 

AVGVSTINVS. 

desideratiuus, 8 de Gram. 2006 P. 
intellectiuus, 7 de Gen. ad Litt. 12, 

7 

musiuus, 8 Ciu. Dei, 16, 8 
operatiuus, Quaest. 63 
praenuntiatiuus, 9 c. Faust. 6, 9; 

aZ. 
praesumptiue, 10 /rf. 24, 1 

AGENNVS VKBICVS. 
deiunctittus, p. 68 
expositiuus, p. 69 
iniectiuus, p. 67 
recuperatiuus, >. 69 
spectiuus, p. 68 ; aZ. 

MABTIANVS CAPELLA. 
compositiuus, 9, 945 
denominatiuus, 11 4, 381 
deprecatiuus, 12 5, 457 
occassiuus, 13 6, 594 

CAELTVS AVKELTANYS. 
apertiuus, Acut. 3, 4, 40 
corporatiuus, C/iron. 1, 6, 183 
densatiuus, Acut. 2, 37 



denuntiatiuus, Chron. 1, 4, 67 
depurgatiuus, Acut. 3, 16, 134 
districtiuus, Id. 2, 29, 159 ; al. 
euaporatiuus, Id. 3, 8, 93 
inductiue, 14 Chron. 1, 5, 157 
interfectiuus, Acut. 1, Praef. 12 ; 

al 

mitigatiuus, Id. 1, 5, 45 al 
mordicatiuus, Chron. 3, 8, 144 
piaedicatiuus, Acut. 1, 12, 100 
recorporatiuus, Id. 3, 16 
recusatiuus, Salut. Fraescr. 22 
resumptiuus, Chron. 2, 1, 47 ; al. 
siccatiuus," Id. 2, 3, 69 
purgatiuus, 1 ' Acut. 2, 19, 123 
temperatiuus, Chron. 4, 1, 11 
uexatiuus, Acut. 2, 29, 156 ; al. 

BOETHIVS. 
acquisitiuus, 17 Arist. Top. 5, 1, p. 

680 

aegrotatiuus, ap. Paucker. 
agitatiuus, Id. 
aucupatiuus, Id. 
circumductiuus, Id. 
comprehensiuus, 18 Id. 
congregatiuus, 18 Id. 
consematiuus, Id. 
constructiuus, Id. 
conuersiuus, Id. 
cooperatiuus, Id. 
descriptiuus, 20 Id. 
designatiuus, Id. 
determinatiuus, Id. 
disgregatiuus, Id. 
dissolutiuus, Id. 
distributiuus, 21 Id. 
diuisiuus, Id. 
exercitatiuus, Arist. Top, 1, 9, p. 

667 



1 Prise. ; Fortunat. 2 Schol. luuen. s adj. Augustin.; leid. 4 Eccl. 6 Charis.; 
Diom. 9 Prise. 7 Boeth.; Prise. 8 Inscrr. Isid. 10 Prise. ; Cassian. " Boeth.; 
Prise. ia Boeth.; Prise.; Isid. 13 Gloss. Labb. " adj. Boefch. ; Prise. 15 Th. Prise.; 
Cassiod. Fortunat. ir Prise. 18 Prise. 19 Prise. 80 Fortunat. ai Prise. 



29. -AX.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 109 

generations, l ap. Paucker. perspectiuus, Id. 

habituatinus, Id. progenitiuus, Id. 

inquisititnis,* Id. propositiuus, Id. 

insignitiuus, Id. sanatiuus, Id. 

inspectiuus, 3 Id. speculatiuus, 7 Porpliyr. Dial, 1, 

instantiutts, Id. p. 2 

innocatiuus,*/>^7-oc?. ad. Syllog. p. subscriptiuus, ap. Paucker. 

561 superabnegatiuus, Id. 

indicatiuus, ap. Paucker. susceptiims, Id. 

machinatiuns, Id. tentatiuus, Id. 

medicatiiras, Id. nenatiuus, Id. 
monstratiuus, Id. 
multiplicatiuus, 5 in Porphyr. Dial. 

l,p. 27 Aimmrvs. 

perf ectiuus, 6 ap. Paucker. crudiuus, 74 ; al. 

29. ADJECTIVES IN -ax ; Owing- to their intimate phonetic 
relation with the suffixes -ago, -aceus, both of which are so 
prevalent in the sermo riisticus, adjs. in -ax might well be ex- 
pected a priori to belong to plebeian Latin, and some author- 
ities have so regarded them. Ludwig 8 first advanced this 
view, in connection with the word abstinax, in Petr., and cited 
such forms as potax, Gloss.; catax, uatrax, Lucil.; olax, etc., in 
support of his claim. His opinion has been followed by 
Guericke, 9 and more recently by Schulze, 10 who cites as usual 
Paucker's tables, to prove his case. According to the latter, 
the whole number of adjs. in -ax is 93, recc. 43, and of the re- 
maining 50 Cic. has 26, or more than half. Schulze however 
claims that some of these belong to the sermo familiaris, such 
as uorax, sagax, furax, words which certainly lack the tone of 
an elevated style. But a class of words sparingly used by 
Plautus, rare in Silver Latin, (only 5 new forms), neglected by 
the archaists (Gell., Apul., 1 each), and the later writers, (with 
exception of Sidon. Apoll. and Fulg.), and of small importance 
in the Eomance languages, 11 but which reached its highest 
activity in classical times, with 50$ of the uett. in Cic., can- 
not be regarded as inherently vulgar. Still they are rare 
words at all periods, and a certain number of them are inter- 

1 Dionys. Exeg. a Prise. 3 Prise. ; Gromat. Vet. ; Cassiod. 4 Seru. ad Verg. 
5 Beda. Prise. 7 Cassiod. 

8 Ludwig, p. 30. Guericke, p. 31. 10 Schulze, Diss. Hal. VI, p. 183, citing 
Pauck., Materialien II, p. 19, Epimetr. I. Diez, p. 632. 



WORD FORMATION IN THE [29, 

esting for our purpose, as at least savoring of the popular 
speech. 

PLAVTVS. APVLEIVS. 

ferritribax, Most. 356 sonax, Met. 4, 157 ; al. 
mordax, 1 Bacch. 1146 

nugax," (adu. superl.), Trin. 819 Murvcivs FELIX. 

trahax, Pers. 410 *lucifugax, 8, 4 

CATO - SYMMAOHVS. 

uendax, 3 R. R. 2, 7 retinaX) Ep ^ ^ 

TEKENTIVS. 

percontumax, Hec. 3. 5, 54 

inferax, 9 Horn, ex Orig. 2 

Accivs. 

peruicax, 4 Tr. 8, sq. SIDONIVS. 

incursax, Ep. 8, 12 
LVCIIJVS. persequax, Id. 4, 9 

catax, 6 Sat. 2, 19 trebax, Id. 1, 11 

tagax, 6 Id. 30, 86 uomax, 10 Id. 9, 3 

uatrax, Id. 28, 55 

BOETHTVS. 
Niarorvs. putrimordax, ap. Paucker. 

bibax, ap. Gell. 3, 12, 2 



VABBO. 

salax,' R. R. 3, 9, 5 SfS ?7' 

petax, Myth. 2, 1 ; a/. 

CAELIVS. praegnax, JA 2, 3 

efficax, 8 ap. Cic. ad Fam. 8, 10, 3 

VENANTTVS FOETVNATVS. 

PETKONIVS. luciferax, Carm. 2, 4, 3 

abstinax, 42 falsiloquax, Vit. 8. Mart. 1, 101 

1 Labeo ; Plin. ; Pers. ; Hor. Ep. ; On. ; Phziedr. ; Sen. ; Hier. ; Augustin. ; Sidon. 2 Gael 
ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 15, 1; Petr.; Ambros. Bp. 3 Turran. ap. Diom. 368, 26. <Ter.; Liu.; Flor; 
Col. ; Tac. ; Plin. 6 Mythogr. Lat. 1, 176 ; conf. Paul ex Fest. 45, 4. Cic. Att. , 6, 3, 1. 
7 Hor. Sat. ; On. ; Col. ; Auct. Priap. 8 Liu. ; Hor. ; Cels. ; CoL ; Curt. ; Tac. ; Plin. ; Plin. 
Pan. ; Veil ; Treb. Pol. ; Mela ; Apul. Met Boeth. " form wonc-Prisc. 4, 39. 



30.-c-Evs,-c-ivs.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. Ill 

30. ADJECTIVES IN -c-eus, -c-ius, (-aceus, -icius, -uceus) : 
These adjs., like the kindred subs, in -ago, -igo, -ugo, are a feat- 
ure of the sermo rusticus. The simple suffix -eus was chiefly 
productive of denominative adjectives denoting material, which 
were not rare in the classic language but were especially prev- 
alent in the Scriptt. R E., who formed them freely from the 
names of plants and trees, as buxeus, cedreus, fageus, fraxineus, 
laureus, orneus, etc. They were especially adapted to pastoral 
poetry, and were freely introduced by Verg. and other Augustan 
poets whose authority has given the class as a whole a more 
elevated tone. Paucker has computed that out of 190 uett., 60 
(more than 31 $) occur first, and many of them exclusively, in 
poetry. 1 Meanwhile the activity of the simple suffix declined; 
post-Hadrian literature has produced only 87 new forms, while 
examples in the Romance languages are rare and chiefly po- 
etic : in Rum. they are wanting altogether. 2 

Very different is the history of the strengthened form of the 
suffix in -c-eus : the epenthetic syllable -ac-, (-ic-, -uc-), seems 
almost universally characteristic of the sermo rusticus. The 
relation existing between subs, in -ax, -ix, (-ex), -ox, and in 
-aca, -ica, -uca with adjs. in -aceus, -iceus, -uceus, has been 
discussed by Corssen ; 3 the connection between these adjec- 
tives and subs, in -ago, -igo, -ugo, already treated, was pointed 
out by Buecheler, 4 who compares uir : uirago : *uiraceus = far: 
farrago : farraceus, and subsequently at greater length by 
Thurneysen and Paucker. 5 But a brief inspection of these 
various classes of substantives makes it evident that while 
rare in classic Latin, they were prevalent in the speech of 
the people, and principally in the rustic language, where 
the prevailing forms were those in a. The forms in -x seem 
to be another instance of archaisms conserved in the sermo 
plebeius. Of those which I have collected only 3 are recc., 
sentix, and the hybrid formations, mastix, granomastix ; several 
are distinctly archaic, as struix ; struices antiqui dicebant, Fest., 
p. 310 Mull.; rumex, celox, cited by Gell., 10, 25, 1-5, among 
words quae in Tiistoriis ueteribus scripta sunt. Very few of these 
formations are classical ; Cic. has cicatrix, cornix,fornax, fornix, 

1 Pauck., Materialien, V, p. 109. Diez, p. 623. a Corssen, Aussprache, 2, p. 195. 
* Buech., Rhin. Mus. 20, 441. * K. Thurneysen, Zts. f. Vergl. Sprachf., 26, p. 205. 
Pauck. Material V, p. 10, not. 10. 



112 



WORD FORMATION IN THE [30.-c-Evs,-c-ivs. 



radix, ueruex, appendix, and a few others. On the other hand 
many are used by vulgar writers in a distinctly obscene sense, 
as Umax = meretrix, (Plaut., cited below) ; filix, in a similar 
sense, Petr. 45, 9 ; fornix in its later sense, (which gives rise to 
numerous derivatives, fornlcator, -trix, etc.) A large number 
are plainly rustic, such as matrix, iunix, and various names 
of plants, culix, filix, larix, sentix, etc. The following partial 
list, taken chiefly from Corssen, 1 will give a general idea of 
these forms as a class. 



Lmvs ANDRONICVS. 

cimix, 9 ap. Fest. 210, 17 
struts, 3 Id. 1, 1 

PLAVTVS. 

celox, 4 Capt. 874 ; al 

coturnix, 5 Id. 1003 

culex," Cure. 500 

hallex, 7 Poen. 1310 ; al. 

iuuenix, 8 Mil. 304 

Umax, 9 ( = meretrix), Cist. 405 

pulex, 10 Cure. 500 

ramex, 11 Pseud. 815 

salix, 18 Fr. Fab. Inc. 27. 

uiuix, 13 Fr. 90 

VAERO. 

matrix, 14 R. R. 2, 5, 12 



VEKGIUVS. 

filix, 18 Ge. 3, 297 

HORATIVS. 
fornix," ( = brotliel), Sat. 1, 2, 30 

Vrnvwrvs. 
lavix, 18 2, 9, 14 
tiitex," 2, 9, 9 

PLINIVS. 

culix, 20 (Tierbd), 19, 68 
nlex, 33, 76 

APVLEIVS. 

sentix, 21 Herb. 87 



ISIDOEYS. 

mastix, 17, 8, 7 
granomastix. 



ASINIVS 

lodix, 15 ap. Quint. 1, 6, 42 

The subs, in -ca are still more largely confined to the 
Scriptt. R. E. A few of those in -ica are classic and frequent, 

i Corssen, Aussprache, II, p. 195. 

a Varr R R; Catull.;*Hor. Sat.; Col.; Plin.; Petr.; Mart.; Veget. 'Naeu.; Plaut.; 
Itala;Solin.;Arnob. * Coel. Antip.;Enn.; Turpil.; Varr. Sat. Men.;Liu.; ApnL; ;conf. 
Gell 10 25 5 6 Lucr.; Varr. B. R. : Ou. ; Quint. ; Fronto ; Lact. ; Vulg. ; Edict. Diocl. 
Lucr. ; Hot. Sat. ; Plin. ; Mart. ; con/. Pseudo-Verg. Culm. * WA 8 form iunix - 
Pera 2 47 Paul. Nol ; Inscrr. alio sensu, Col. ; Plin. " Cels. ; Col. ; Pbn. ; Mart. 
' ' Lucil Ps -Verg. Moret. ; conf. Gell. 10, 25, 2. " Cato R. R. ; Varr. R. R. ; Lucr. ; Verg. 
Ge Col Plin. ; Prud. Cato ; Pers. ; Plin. ; Prise. Col. ; Suet. ; Tert. ; Inscrr. ; = vter- 
ns. Sen. Veget. ' 15 Mart. ; luuen. ; Augustin. " Hor. Sat. ; Cels. ; CoL ; Pers. ; Petr. ; 
Plin. ; Gl. Labb. 1T Sen. ; Petr. ; Mart. ; luuen. ; pathicus, Suet ; alio sensu Cic. , etc. 
" Plin. ;Lucan.; Pall.; Veget. Mil. "Plin. *>/orm -ex - PalL "laid. 



80.-c-Evs,-c-ivs.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 113 

as arnica, formica, lectica: but arnica in the sense of meretrix 
had acquired so bad a meaning that according to the jurist 
Paulus, citing Masurius Sabinus, (Dig. 50, 16, 144), the title 
concubina was the more honorable of the two. Corssen cites 
the following examples of these forms : 

PJJAVTVS. HORATIVS. 

brassica, 1 Pseud. 815 eruca, 13 ( =.brassica), Sat. 2, 8, 51 

festuca, 2 Mil. 961 

lingulaca, 3 Cos. 497; aL VITEWIVS. 
"mastruca, 4 Pom. 1313 aeruca, 7, 12, 1 

pertica, 5 Asin. 589 

rubrica, 6 True. 294 

A - 7 D ,j ono pastmaca, 14 2, 18; aL 

urtica, 7 Rud. 298 

PUNIVS. 

CATO> *uruca, 16 18, 154 

alica, 8 R. R. 76 uerbenaca," 25, 105 

fistuca, 9 (festuca), Id. 28, 2 
uerruca, 10 op. <?eW. 3, 7, 6 IVVENAIJS. 

*curruca, ir 6, 276 
VABBO. 

lactuca, 11 L. L. 5, 104. VEGETTVS. 

portulaca," ap. Non. 551, 15 balluca, 18 1, 20, 3 

Turning again to the adjs. in -aceus, -icius, -uceus, we 
must first notice certain differences which exist between these 
three sub-classes, in formation and usage. Those in -icius, 
(rarely -iceus), are the most numerous, 197 in all, but are 
largely verbal derivatives, (i.e., 131, recc. 86). The denomina- 
tives, 66, recc. 34, are outnumbered by forms in -aceus, while 
those in -uceus are of purely sporadic occurrence. 

The forms in -aceus are by far the most foreign to classic 
Latin. Paucker gives a list of 87, exclusively denominative, 
uett. 46, only 10 of which are ante-Augustan, and 8 of these be- 

i Cato R. R. ; Propert. ; Col.; Plin. ; Veget. ; Plin. Val. Varr. ; Col. ; Pers. ; Plin. 

3 Varr. Sat. Men.; Paul. exFest.; (herba), Plin. 4 Cic., semel, (pro Scaur. 45; core/. 

Quint. 1, 5, 8, mastrucam, quod est Sardum, irridens Cicero ex industrla dixit); Prnd.; 
Arnob. 6 Varr. R. R. ; Ou. ; Propert.; Curt. ; Col. ; Plin. ; Plin. Ep. ; ApuL ; Gromat. Vet. 
Cornif . Rhet. ; Hor. ; Vitr. ; Col. ; Pers. ; Quint. ; Charis. ; Paul. Dig. 7 Catull. ; Plin. ; 

luuen.; Ps. -Apic. 8 Cels.; Plin.; Mart.; Ps. -Apic. Caes., semel, (B. G. 4, 17, 4) ; Plin. 
o Hor. Sat. ; Plin. ; -ucula, -= Cels. ; Col. ; Arnob. ' Hor. Sat. ; Cels. ; Col. ; Plin. ; Mart. ; 
Auct. Priap.; Ps. -Apic. ; Pall a Cels. ; Col. ;formporcillaca Plin. 20, 210 ; al. " Cels. ; 
Plin. ; Mart. ; luuen. ; = caterpillar, Col. ; Plin. ; Hier. 14 Plin.; Isid. ; Edict. Diocl. 

16 Schol. luuen. ; Gloss. Labb. 18 ApuL Herb. 17 Gloss. 18 Cod. Theod. ; Cod. lust. ; 
Gloss. Labb. 

8 



114: WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 30. -C-EVS, -c-ivs. 

long to the rustic writings of Cato and Yarr. 1 Cic. uses only 
3 : mustaceus, in the Epistt. ; uinaceus, semel, in the de Sen., 
(elsewhere confined to the Scriptt. B. B.), and the Plautino 
gallinaceus, usually in the stereotyped expression gallus gal- 
linaceus, (de Diu. 1, 34, 74 ; Id. 2, 26, 56 ; pro Muren. 29, 61), 
which elsewhere is confined to more plebeian writers : Plaut. 
Aid. 472, factast pugna in gallo gallinado ; al., Lucil. 8, 15, 
gallinaceu? cum uictor se gallus honeste sustulit in digitos ; Varr. 
Sat. Men. 348-9, . . . cantatiumque gallus gallinaceus, with 
which uir *uiraceus, Id. 300, is compared by Buecheler. 2 With 
this exception, these adjs. belong to vulgar Latin, chiefly to 
the sermo rusticus. Cato gives 3, Yarr. adds 5, Col., Pall., and 
Veget. 2 each, Pelag. Yet. 1, and Plin., who in regard to vo- 
cabulary may be regarded as one of the Scriptt. B. B., has 25, 
about two-thirds of all post-Aug. forms. African Latin is here 
deficient ; Apul. and Tert. have 1 each, Gell. none at all. 

The adjs. in -icius, (rarely -iceus), have gained more ac- 
ceptance in the classic literature, but have nevertheless been 
frequently held to belong to the sermo plebeius. 3 Those de- 
rived from verbs have properly no place in the present sec- 
tion, but as no material distinction can be drawn in significa- 
tion, they are included as a matter of convenience. Of the 
two classes, a somewhat larger proportion of the denom. are due 
to the Scriptt. B. B., but at the same time a greater number are 
found in Cic. Of the 77 uett. the latter first employs 5 verbal, 
(less than 6 $), adscriptidus, commendaticius, conuentidm, 
dediticius, editidus ; and 9 denom., (over 25 $), aedilicius, com- 
pitalicius, gentilidus, natalidus, nouidus, patridus, sodalidus, 
tribunidus, uenalidus. Caes., however, far more conservative 
in his vocabulary than Cic., first uses two of each, verbal, con- 
gestidus, deditidus ; denom., eridus, lateridus. The Scriptt. 
B. B. favored both classes ; Cato introduced 6, 3 verbal ; Yarr. 
16, 9 verbal ; Silver Latin neglected this formation, having 
only 19, of which 10 are denom.; of these Col. has only 1 
denom.; Plin. 8, 5 of them verbal. African Latin neglected 
the verbal derivatives ; Fronto, Gell., Tert., have one each, 
Apul. none. In denom. forms however they were fertile; 

1 Paucker, Materialien, V, p. 10, not. 10. * Buecheler, Rhein. MUB., 20, 441. 

3 W6lffl., ALL. 1, p. 415 sq., "... so wird man wohl schliessen durfen, dass 
sie vorwiegend der Volkssprache angehorten," citing Kohler, Act. Sem. Erlang. 1, 376. 



30.-c-Evs,-c-ivs.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIV8. 115 

Gell. had 1, Apul., and Fronto 2 each, Tert. 10. It is note- 
worthy that the popularity of forms in -icius, and -aceus, 
varies in inverse proportion at different periods ; e. g., in Sil- 
ver Latin when the suffix -aceus, was at its height, -icius was 
neglected, while in African Latin the converse was true. 

Of adjs. in -uceus, (-ucius) I am able to cite only 3 ex- 
amples, 

cannuciae, Gromat. Vet. 315, 16 

masucius, Paul, ex FesL 139, 1 

panmiceus, Pers. 4, 21 ; Petr. ; Plin. ; Gloat, ap. Macr. ; Paul. Nol. 

Of these the first is elsewhere found in the form canniceus, for 
which it is evidently a rustic variant, while of pannuceus, the 
Scholiast says pannucea uulgariter pro pannosa dixit. The 
same formation however has survived from earlier times in 
numerous proper names, among which Corssen : cites Albu- 
cius, Genudus, Vinucius, Lassuccia. 

In this, as in all characteristic features of rustic Latin an 
interesting question is how far they are due to the influence of 
other Italic dialects. In the present instance such influence 
may have been considerable ; not only are these suffixes found in 
the Osco-Umbr. branch, 2 (Osc., luvkiiui " Jovicio," Vestirikiiui 
" Vestricio," Kastrikiieis " Castricii" Umbr., Kastruciie " Castri- 
cii "), but Lattes, in his valuable study of the Etruscan Mummy- 
Wrapping at Agrarn, 3 has recently pointed out numerous 
words with these endings occurring in that manuscript and in 
Etruscan inscriptions : in -acius, FesOixuaxa, Tlenace, both 
names of female deities, with which he compares Prpserpinacia, 
in an incantamentum magicum given in Fleckeisens Jahrb. Sup- 
plb. XIX, 2, p. 488 ; in -icius, Apice, urice, muOikus, ceri\u, 
A.\a,prialice : in -ucius, lupuce, marunux, JbTunQux, suOce, etc. With 
the present knowledge of Etruscan morphology these forms 
are open to question, 4 but they certainly are suggestive, espe- 
cially those in -ucius, which would help to explain the fertility 
of that suffix in the modern Italian. 

These suffixes are all prevalent in the Romance languages, 
where they have acquired some new and special meanings: 

1 Corssen, Aussprache. II, p. 195. a Brugmann, Grundriss, II, p. 343 ; Huschke, 
Osk. u. Sabell. Sprachdenkmaler, p. 330 ; Buck, Vocalismus, p. 52. 3 E. Lattes, Saggi 
ed Appunti intorno all' iscrizione Etrusca della mummia, Milano, 1894, pp. 38, not. 43, 
189, not. 136, 219. 4 e. g., lupuce may be a verbal form ; cf. Lattes, p. 213. 



116 WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 30. -C-EVS, -c-ivs. 

thus -aceus not only denotes source and resemblance, but fre- 
quently has an augmentative and derogatory force : compare 
Ital., acquaccia, figuraccia, grandaccio, poveraccio, vecchiaccio ; 
Fr., bestiasse, grimace, paperasse, vinasse ; Span., animalazo, 
bastonazo, bestiaza, etc. -icius, -uceus, form diminutives in 
Italian and Rumanian ; thus Ital., alticcio, bianchiccio, secche- 
riccio ; boccuccia, cartuccia, febbretuccio / Human., corfiffi, fetitfi, 
porumbtya ; acrug, albu, olcu^a, etc. -uceus is frequent in Ital. 
with proper names, as terms of endearment, as Carlo, Carluc- 
cio, jLaura, Lauruzza. The Italian, in its fondness for these 
suffixes not infrequently uses them in combination, -ucti-accio, 
as accidentucciaccia, casucciaccia. Whether -uceus has sur- 
vived in the north and west is questionable ; Spanish has ca- 
puz, caperuza, gentuza, testuz, terruzo, all, except the last, bor- 
rowed from Italian; Diez cites from the French coqueluche, 
guenuche, peluche. But its main activity is in Italian, where its 
survival certainly suggests some non-Roman influence. 1 

I have given, in connection with the forms in -aceus -icius, 
a list of rarer forms in the simple suffix -eus, to show their 
prevalence in the Scrip tt. R. R. In the list of adjs. in -icius, 
those from nominal stems have been italicized, in order to show 
more readily their relation to the verbal forms. 

a. Adjectives in eus : 

NAEVIVS. pugneus, Hud. 763 

musteus, 8 Com. 34 pulmoneus, 10 Id. 511 

PLAVTVS. scirpeus, 11 Aul. 595 

blitens, 3 True. 854 stercoreus, 1S Mil. 90 

faeceus, Trin. 297 stimttleus, Id. 511 

ferrngineus, 4 Mil. 1178 ; al testudineus, 13 Aul. 49 

floreus, 5 Men. 632 uerbereus, Pers. 184 ; al. 

herbeus, Cure. 231 ulmeus," Asin. 363 ; al. 

iunceus, 6 Stick. 639 CATO. 

loreus, 7 Mil 157 adorens, 15 R. R. 83 ; al. 

Ittteus, 8 True. 854 cornens, 16 (co?-ns), Id. 18, 9 

oculeus, 9 Aul. 555 fagineus, 17 Id. 21, 4 

1 Compare in general, Diez, p. 633, sq., cited by Sfcuenkel, p. 46, and by Wolffl., 
ALL. 1, p. 416; Meyer-Lubke, Gramm. d. Roman. Spr. H, pp. 457-64; Id., Ital. 
Gramm., 559, 561. 

2 Cato ; Col. ; Plin. ; Plin. Ep. 3 Laber. Verg. ; Plin. <> Verg. ; Tibull. ; Val. Fl. ; 
Arnob. 6 Ter. ; Ou.; Col.; Plin.; Prud. r Cato ; Plin. Cic., semel, ( Verr. 4, 32); Ou. ; 
Vitr. ; Plin. ; Mart. ; Hier. Apul. ; Mart. Cap. 10 Plin. Varr. ; Ou. ; Arnob. 
"Arnob. 13 Varr.; Prop.; Tibull.; Mart.; Dig. "Cato; Col. 15 Varr. ; Col.; Verg.; 
Stat. ; subst. fern, adorea Plaut. ; Hor . Carm. , etc. " Verg. ; Ou. 17 Ou. ; Plin. 



30.-c-Evs,-c-rvs.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



117 



graneus, 1 Id. 86 
iligneus, 2 Id. 18, 9 
mulleus, 3 Origg. 7, Fr. 7 
nuceus, 4 R. R. 31 
oleagineus, 5 Id. 48 
querneus, 8 Id. 5, 8 
*siliceus, T Id. 18, 3 Codd. 
siligineus, 8 /c?. 121 
sparteus, 9 Id. 11, 2 ; al. 
uitigineus, 10 Id. 41, 3 

Accivs. 
alneus, 11 TV. 261 

LVCILIVS. 
aereus, 18 Fr. Dub. 7 

VABRO. 

*buxeus, 13 Sat. Men. 489 
charteus, 14 Id. 519 
ficulneus, 15 R. R. 3, 16, 37 
pancarpineus, Sat. Men. 567 
rubeus, 16 (ruber), R. R. 2, 5, 8 
scorteus, 17 i. L. 7, 84 Jf. 
terreus, 18 R. R. 1, 14, 2 
uiteus, 19 R. R. 1, 31, 4 

NlGEDIVS. 

cerreus, 20 op. Pfo'w. 16, 25 

LVCRETIVS. 
creteus, 4, 295 

VlTJttV VIVS. 

*palmeus, 21 10, 20, 3 



*querceus, 2a 7, 1, 2 
robusteus, 5, 12, 3 
saligneus, 23 10, 11, 2 ; al. 
sappineus, 24 2, 9, 7 

HTGINVS. 

aprineus, Fab. 69 

CELSVS. 

cinereus, 45 6, 6, 7 
subcaeruleus, 6, 5 

COLVMEIiliA. 

canneus, 12, 50, 8 
carpineus, 26 11, 2, 92 
consemineus, 3, 21, 7; al. 
orneus, 11, 2, 82 
roburneus, 9, 1, 5 
subereus, 27 9, 1, 3 
tiliagineus, 12, 47, 5 

PETBONIVS. 
coccineus, 28 32, 2 
eboreus, 29 32, 4 
fuligineus, 30 108, 2 
russeus, 31 27, 1 

PLINIVS. 

fageus, 16, 37 ; al. 
felleus, 32 26, 124 
feruleus, 33 16, 226 
*iaspicleus, 37, 156 Ian. 
melleus, 34 15, 51 ; al. 
sambuceus, sa 29, 57 



Hier. a Col. 3 Titin.;Plin.; Vopisc. * Hier. 5 Varr.; Nep.jCoL; Plin.; Paul, 
ex Fest. ; Veget. ; Gromat. Vet. ; Ven. Port. 8 Verg. ; Ou. ; Prop. ; Suet. ; Col. ; Pall. 

i Vitr. 8 Varr. ; Sen. ; Plin. ; Mart. ; Auct. Priap. - Col. ; Apul. ; Donat. 10 Col. ; 
Plin. Vitr. " Varr. Sat. Men. ; Verg. ; Liu. ; Vitr. ; Curt. ; Plin. ; Gai. ; Treb. Pol. ; 
Ampel. "Col.; Plin.; Mart. ; Solin. " Auson. Cels.;Col.; Vulg.; Eccl. " Col.; 
Pall. 17 Cels. ; Paul, ex Fest. ; Petr. ; Mart. ; Placid. Gloss. 1S Verg. Ge. ; Prud. 

1 9 Verg. ; Solin. ; Ambr os. ; Prud. Col. ; Hyg. ap. Plin. ai Col. ; Plin. M Col. ; Tac. ; 
Aur. Viet. ; Acron ad Hor. ; Seru. ad Verg. ; Inscrr. Col. ; Vlp. Dig. Col. Col. ; 
Scrib. ; Plin. 2S Plin. 27 Ser. Samm. 28 Mart. ; lustin. ; Vulg. 29 Plin. ; Quint. ; ICt. 
so Arnob. 31 Plin.; Lampr.; Apul.; Pall. Augustin.; Gael Aur. 3S CaeL Aur. 
3 * Apul. ; Chalcid. Tim. ; Auson. 3 ^ Aur. Viet 



118 WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 30. -C-KVS, -c-ivs. 

MABTIALIS. PALLADIVS. 

membraneus, 1 14, 7 Lemm. albumens, 4, 13, 4 

amvgdaleus, de Insit. 157 
GELUVS. 

furfureus, 11, 7, 3 VEGETIVS. 

impuluereus, 5, 6, 21 galbineus, 3, 2, 22 

incorporeus, a 5, 15, 1 

HlEBONTMVS. 

APVLEIVS. adipeus, Ep. 147, 8 ; al 

cinnameus, 3 Met. 8 carneus, 5 Id. 36, 16 ; al. 

lanugineus, Herb. 62 sacceus, 6 Vit. Hilar. 44 ; al. 
sublutetts, 4 Ftor. 12, p. 14, 12 Kr. 

AVGVSTINVS. 
OOUNVS. - ~ on o 

__ ., uaporeus, 7 Serm. 80, 3 

nigrogemmeus, 22, 1 

SPABTIANVS. CAEMVS AVBELIANVS. 

gypseus, Sen. 22, 3 aurngineus, Chron. 2, 11, 132 

fellineus, Id. 4, 7, 92 

nitreus, 7d. 2, 7, 108 
. 46, 4 

FIBMICYS MATEBNVS. SrooNIVS APOI-LTNABIS. 

aqueus, Math. 2, 12 himndineus, Ep. 2, 1^ 

CHALCTDIVS. VENANTIVS FORTVNATVS. 

stirpens, Tim. 31 acerneus, 8 Ep. 1, ad 6^?-^. Pap. 



b. Adjectives in -aceus, (-acius) : 

PLAVTVS. farraceus." Id. 1, 31, 5 

gallinacius, 9 Aul. 465 ; al. loliaceus, Id. 3, 9, 20 

Geryonaceus, Id. 546 testuacium, L. L. 5, 106 

*uiraceus, Sat. Men. 300 ed. 
hederaceus, 10 R. R. Ill Buech. 

hordacens," Id. 157, 5 



. 

mnstaceus,- ( S m.), Id. 121 * pO pulacius, op. JVbn. 150, 24 

uinaceus, 18 Id. 25 
VAKBO. C/OBNEMVS NEPOS. 

betaceus, 14 R. R. 1, 2, 27 uiolaceus, 16 ap. Plin. 9, 136 

1 Vlp. Dig.; Gloss. Labb. *Macr.;Eccl. s Anson. 4 Arnob. s Augustin.; Prud.; 
Prosp. Arnob. lun. 7 Th. Prise. 8 Inscrr. Form -aceus, LuciL Sat. ; Varr. 
Sat. Men.; Id. R. B.; Liu.; Hyg.; Col.; Petr.; Plin.; Suet.; Inscrr.; Cic., freq., but 
chiefly in the phrase gallus gallinace-us, (Diu. 1, 34, 74 ; Id. 2, 26, 56; pro Mur. 29, 61). 
10 CoL ; Vopisc. ; Gallien. ap. Treb. P611. " Varr.; Cels. ; Col. ; Sen. ; Hier. " luuen.; 
form -urn = Cic. ad Att.; Caper 103, 1 K; Ps.-Apic. 13 Varr. H. B.; Cic., semel, (de 
Sen. 52);Col.;Pall.;Vulg. Arnob. ;Ps.-Apic.; Gloss. Labb. 15 Plin, ' Plin. ; Solin. ; 
Ps.-Apic. s. n. uiolacium. 



30.-c-Evs,-c-ivs.] EOMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



119 



IMP. AVGVSTVS. 
pulleiaceus, ap. Suet. Aug. 87 

HYGINVS. 
apiacius, Fab. 74 M. 

VITKVVIVS. 
aeracius, 1 3, 1, 82 
miniaceus," 7, 4, 4 
silaceus, 3 7, 5, 1 ; a?. 
testaceus, 4 2, 8, 18 ; o. 

CELSVS. 
murtaceus, 7, 17 

C/OLVMEDLA. 

ampulaceus, 6 8, 2, 15 
pampinaceus, 12, 20, 5 

PETKONTVS. 
balaenaceus, 21, 2 

PLINIVS. 

arenaceus, 8 17, 43 
argillaceus, Id. ib. 
arundinaceus, 18, 58 
auenaceus, 22, 137 ; al. 
bulbaceus, 21, 170 
capillaceus, 7 12, 114 
cineraceus, 27, 44 ; al. 
cretaceus, 18, 86 
ferulaceus, 34, 170 ; al. 
foliaceus, 19, 42 ; al. 
fonnaceus, 35, 169 
furnaceus, 18, 105 
herbaceus, 19, 110 
intubaceus, 27, 106 
lappaceus, 22, 41 
maluaceus, 21, 19 
membranaceus, 8 10, 168 ; al. 



oleraceus, 26, 85 
papyraceus, 6, 82 ; al. 
pauonaceus, 36, 159 
porraceus, 21, 117; al. 
rapacius, 18, 127 
resinaceus, 24, 99 
rosaceus, 21, 8 ; al. 
tofaceus, 9 17, 43 

APVLEIVS. 

lupinaceus, Herb. 21, 2 
sebaceus, Met. 4, 18 

TEKTVLLIANVS. 

cacabaceus, 10 adu. Hermog. 41 
limaceus, Res. Cam. 49 in. 

VLPIANVS. 
chartaceus, " Dig. 32, 52 in. 

GARGUJVS MABTIAMS. 
personacia, 12 (kerba), Cur. Bourn. 
5 

SoiilNVS. 

fanillacius, 35, 8 

CAPITOIiINVS. 

tiliacius, Anton. Pii 13 in. 

MAECELLVS EMPIKICVS. 
alntacius, 23, 77 ; al. 

PAIJIA.DTVS. 
fabaceus, 13 12, 1, 2 
liliaceus, 14 6, 14 Lemm. 

PLINTVS VALEBIANVS. 
rutaceus," 2, 28 
silignaceus, 1, 46 
uerminaceus, 1, 45 



i/orm-a?ws='Not. Tir.; Not. Bern. "Gloss.Labb. 3 Plin. 4 Plin. ; Pall. ; Hier.; 
Inscrr. 6 Plin. Isid. ' Itala ; Augustin. 8 Cassiod.; Insert. 8 Form -ius, -= 
Pall. Augnstin. Caseiod. 12 Plin. Val. ; Marc. Emp. ; Pelag. Vet. 13 Veget.; 
Ps.-Apic.; Macr. Sat. 14 Th. Prise. 1B Marc. Emp.; Th. Prise. ;form -ins, = Gael. Aur. 



120 



WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 30. -C-EVS, -c-ivs. 



AMMIANVS. 
coriaceus, 1 24, 3, 11 



faecacius, Vet. 59 

VEGETTVS. 

frumentaceus," 3, 57 
pulmonaceus, 1, 12, 2 

AMBKOSIVS. 

farinaceus, 3 in Luc. 6, 81 
plumacium, 4 Ep. 26, 12 



HlEKONYMVS. 

piracium, adu. luu. 2, 5, extr. 

THEODORVS PBISCIANVS. 
cucumeracius, 2, 3 ; al. 

MARTIANYS CAPELLA. 
lymphaceus, 6, 569 

CAEUVS AVBELIANVS. 
columbinaceus, Acut. 2, 18, 111 



c. Adjectives in -icius : 



PLAVTVS. 

adoptaticius, Poen. 1045 
caesicius, Epid. 230 
conducticius, 6 Id. 313 
confusicius, Cist. 472 
cornienticius, 6 Id. 40 
demissicius, Poen. 1303 
emissicius, 7 Aul. 41 
expositicius, Cas. 79 
paniceus, 8 Capt. 162 
proiecticius, 9 Cist. 191 
subrepticius, (subrepo), Cure. 205 
subrepticius, (siibripio), Men. 60 ; 

al. 
suppositicius, 10 Pseud. 1167 

CATO. 

depsticius, R. R. 74 
rapicius, 11 Id. 35, 2 
recepticius," Oratt.fr. 32, 1 

VARKO. 

afficticius, JS. .R. 3, 12, 1 
armenticius, 13 Id. 2, 5, 16; al. 



cinericius, 1 * Id. 1, 9, 7 
circumcisicius, Id. 1, 54, 3 
compositicius, 15 L. L. 6, 55 ; al. 
*effuticius, Id. 7, 93 
empticius, 16 R. R. 3, 2, 12 ; al. 
fossicius," 1, 7, 8 ; al. 
impositicius, 18 L. L. 8, 5 
insiticius," R. R. 1, 2, 5 
pastoricius, Id. 1, 2, 16 

CICERO (EPISTT.). 
collecticius, 21 J?p. 7, 3, 2 

AVCT. BELII. AFB. 
importaticius, 20, 4 

Aver. BELL. HISP. 
stramenticius," 16, 2 

Vl'l'KVVlVS. 

caementicius,* 3 2, 8, 16 ; ai. 
cratirius,** 2, 8, 20; a/. 

COLVMELLA. 

sarmenticitis, 6, 26, 3 



1 Placit. de Medic. 2 Hier. 3 Ps-Augustin. ; Thorn. Thes. ; Gloss. Labb. 4 Cassiod. 
8 Van-.; Nep.; Porcius ap. Suet.; Vulg. Cic., semel, (Rep. 3, 47). 7 Anthol. Lat.; 
Tert. 8 form -ius Seru. ad Verg. * Amm. 10 Varr.; Mart. Plin. 12 Gai. Dig.; 
Cod. lust. 1S Prise. " Itala; Cypr.; Cassiod.; Placid. Gloss. " Tert. " Sen.; 
Petr.; Inscrr. "Vitr.; Plin.; Pall. 18 Paul. Dig. ; Vlp. Dig. ; ICt. 10 Plin. Ep.; Apul. 
20 Cic. adAtt.;Id.CaeL;ApuL Sen. Nat. Qu. Petr. Inscrr. Vlp. Dig.; 
PalL Tert. 



30.-c-Evs,-c-ivs.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIV8. 121 

PETRONIVS. ostentaticius, Virg. Vel. 3 

lanisticius, 45, 4 prouocaticius, adu. Marc. 2, 3 

superinducticius, Id. 5, 3 
PLINIVS. 

artopticius, 18, 88 ; al. INTPB. IREN. 

canalicius, 33, 68 alleuaticius, 1, 30, 2 

eiecticius, 11, 210 

excepticius, 18, 115 SPAKTIANVS. 

facticius, 1 31, 81; al. sigillarieius,* Hadr. 17 

ficticius, 2 14, 98 ; al. 

Palilicius, 18, 247 CAPITOMNVS. 

stillaticius, 3 16, 54 cespiticius* Anton. Pius, 5 

coctilicius, Pert. 3, 3 P. 

MAKTIALIS. genitalicius, Id. 15, 5 

cathedralicins, 10, 13, I tqfMwt, Maxim. 6, 9 

Floralicius, 8, 67, 4 

missicius,' 3, 91, 1 AKKOBIVS. 

praetoricius,' 8, 33, 1 caepicium, 10 5, 1 J?. 

FBONTO. 

erraticius, de Diff. Voc. 2200 P. LAM fR roivs - . 

... JTTO-I ino 11 subditicius, Hehog. 17, 9 
rogaticius, ac? Fer. 2, 1, p. 123, 11 ' * ' 

jy. tractaticms, Id. 17, 5 P. 

GELLIVS. PALLADIVS. 

pacticius, 1, 25, 8 acinaticius, 11 1, 6 

praedaticius, 13, 25, 28 ' canniciae, 1 * 1, 13, lemm. 

pellicius, 13 1, 43, 4 
APVLEIVS. 

capillicium,* Met. 2, 2 VEGETIVS. 

concinnaticius, Id. 2, 11 sideraticius, 3, 35 

panaricium, Herb. 42 

AMMIANVS. 

TEBTVLLIANVS. uenaticius, 29, 3, 3 ; al. 

additicius, 7 Res. Cam. 52 

compacticius, adu. Valent. 31 HIEKONYMVS. 

comparaticius, Id. 13 mixticius, in lerem. 5, 25, 19 

damnaticius, Praescr. 34. subcinericius, 1 * in Osee, 2, 8, 7 

elementicius, Anim. 32 

nundinaticius, Virg. Vel. 3 AVGVSTINVS. 

obuenticius, adu. Marc. 2, 3 arrepticius, 15 Ciu. Dei, 2, 4 

1 Faust, ap. Augustin. ; Prise. ; Cassiod. s Vlp. Regul. 3 Marc. Bmp. 4 Suet. ; 
Inscrr. 6 Inscrr. 6 Mart. Cap. 7 ICt. 8 Vopisc. 9 Vopisc. 10 Adj., -ius. Caper, ap. 
Prise. u Plin. Val.; Cassiod. 12 Augustin.; form -uciae Gromat. Vet. 13 Lampr.; 
gulp. Seu. ; laid. ; ICt. " Vulg. ; laid. Eccl. ; Schol. Lucan. 



122 WORD FORMATION IN THE [31. -osvs. 

duumuiralicius, 1 Cur. pro Hfort. SEDONIVS APOUJNABIS. 

Oer. 12 circumlaticius, Ep. 2, 2, extr. 

immolaticius, Ep. 47, 4 ; al. locaticius, Id. 6, 8 

indncticius," de Duab. Anim. 18 oblaticius, 8 Id. 7, 9 

31. ADJECTIVES IN -osus : These adjectives form one of the 
most numerous classes in Latin, but in proportion to their 
number are used sparingly by the best writers. Paucker 4 has 
collected altogether 844, (which might be considerably in- 
creased by Addenda published in the Archiv f. Lat. Lex. 6 ), uett. 
406, of which he attributes 118, barely 30 $, to Ciceronian or 
equivalent authority ; of these I have found only 97 in Cic. 
They are regularly derived from substantives and in general 
only such have the sanction of classic usage. On the other 
hand these adjectives abound in plebeian Latin, being espe- 
cially prevalent in the rustic and the African writers, and are 
formed alike from subs, and adjs., and occasionally even from 
verbs, the sonorous suffix being well adapted to satisfy the 
plebeian craving for lengthened and intensified formations. 
Guericke 6 first connected them with the sermo plebeius, ob- 
serving their frequency in Cato and the early dramatists, and 
citing the admonition in Prob. App., " rdbidus non rabiosus" 
Stuenkel subsequently called attention to their special fre- 
quency in the Scriptt. R. R., and regarded them as a charac- 
teristic of the sermo rusticus, an opinion which a casual glance 
at those writers will confirm. 7 The opening pages of the 12. 
R. of Cato show numerous examples, e. g. ; periculosum . . . 
studiosumque . . . periculosum et calamitosum . . . ne calami- 
tosum siet . . . sumptuosumque . . . quamuis quaestuosus siet, si 
sumptuosus erit, . . ., and so passim. I have counted in Cato 16 
forms, most of them occurring frequently. Varr. has 13, the 
majority from Cato ; 6 are new. Col. uses 31, of which 18 are 
new, and is especially fond of using them in the comparative 
and superlative ; from the opening pages I can cite laboriosis- 
simus, scrupulosissime, luxuriosius, generosiora, etc. Plin. is as- 

1 Insert. Gloss. Labb. 3 Cod. TheocL 

4 Paucker, Materialien, IV, p. 15. s Conf. Schonwerth-Weyman, ALL. V, p. 192. 
8 Guericke, p. 32. r Stuenkel, p. 50, " (adjs. in -osus) quae praeter Varronem Cato 
ceterique rei rusticae scriptores in deliciis habebant " ; conf. Koehler, Bell. Hisp., p. 
11; Schulze, Diss. Hal., VI, p. 180, "Haec adiectiua in sermone cotidiano usitatis- 
sima fuisse constat " ; WSlffl. Cass. Fel., p. 407 ; Kraut, Sail., p. 4, citing discordiosus, 
as vulgar ; Ulrica, Vitr. , II, p. 4. 



31. -osvs.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 123 

tonishingly fertile ; I have counted in the Hist. Nat. over 87, 
of which 48 are new. Taking the Teubner texts as a basis of 
comparison, this gives to Plin. an average of one in every 20 
pages, while Cic. with 97 words has barely one in 50. Many 
of these words Plin. has taken from the Scriptt. B. B.; many 
of the new ones bear on their face evidence of their kinship 
with the sermo rusticus, and were probably borrowed from 
works on agriculture : such are buxosus, foliosus, glebosus, ligno- 
sus, petrosus, racemosus, radicosus, sarmentosus, etc. The same 
fondness for these adjs. is seen in the veterinary and medical 
writers, whose vocabulary has many points in common with 
rustic Latin. Pelag. Vet. has 5 new words ; Yeg. Yet. has 11 ; 
Gael. Aur. is especially fertile, adding 24. 

The prevalence of these adjs. in African Latin was observed 
by Kretschmann in connection with the language of Apul., 
and he called attention to the occurrence in African Inscrip- 
tions of numerous proper names in -osus, which have since re- 
ceived special treatment at the hands of Mommsen, and are 
noticed by Kiibler, in his study of those Inscriptions in the 
Archiv f. Lat. Lex. 1 This is all the more interesting, because 
the relation between rustic and African Latin is not by any 
means clear, and points of analogy in vocabulary are rare ; in 
adjs. perhaps the only other instance is furnished by denomi- 
natives in -icius, which as has been already seen, are rarer in the 
sermo rusticus than those in -aceus, while the latter are avoid- 
ed by African writers. 2 It has been shown by Bonsch that 
the sermo Africus and the Campanian Latin, as exhibited in 
Petr. and the Pompeian inscriptions, have many idioms in 
common, owing to the more direct communication by sea, 
and possibly this served as a connecting link. 3 

A less probable theory has been advanced by Lattes, 4 in 
explanation of the presence of an Etruscan manuscript in the 

1 Kretschmann, de Lat. Apul., p. 50, cited by Sittl, Lokal. Verschiedenh., p. 141; 
Mommsen, Afric. Eigennamen, Ephem. Epigr., IV, p. 520 sq.; Schuchardfc, Vocalis- 
mus, II, p. 451, " Die namen iu -osus erscheinen nirgends haufiger als in afrikanischen 
Inschriften ; " Rubier, ALL. VIII, p. 201. a Conf. supra, 30, p. 114. 3 Eonsch, 
p. 7 ; conf. Budinsky, Atisbreitung d. Lat. Sprache, p. 261. * E. Lattes, Saggi ed Ap- 
punti intorno all' Iscrizione Etrusca della Mummia, p. 189, not. 136, ' Qui espongo bre- 
vemente alcune osservationi, circa la predilezione dell' onomastica latino-africana pei 
derivati in -osa, -ica, -itta, e della latinita africana per gli aggettivi in -alis, -icius, 
perche tutto cio, il confesso, mi sa assai d'etrusco," citing Mommsen, KUbler, Schu- 
chardt. 



124 WORD FORMATION I2V THE [31. -osvs. 

African provinces. He seems inclined to admit the existence 
there of an Etruscan colony, and wishes to trace the prevalence 
of adjs. in -icius, -osus, to Etruscan influence. With our present 
knowledge such a claim can neither be admitted nor denied, 
but if it were to be admitted it would be hard to show why 
the same influence developed adjs. in -aceus on Italian terri- 
tory, and -icius in Africa. However, the theory is suggestive. 

It is worth while in this connection to glance briefly at the 
adjs. used by the African writers, and see how far they drew 
upon the vocabulary of the Scriptt. E. E. Fronto is not fond 
of the suffix and adds no new forms, but borrows one from Cato, 
which is probably to be regarded as an intentional archaism. 
Gell. has 9 new forms ; of the older ones used by him, none is 
from the Scriptt. E. E. Apul. adds 21 of these adjs. and uses 
over 40, only one of them from the Scriptt. E. E., (but five from 
Plin., callosus, fdbulosus, glebosus, laciniosus, salinosus). Tert. 
has 10 new forms, and uses none from the Scriptt. E. E. A 
marked coincidence in the employment of these words would 
have pointed strongly to some direct relationship between the 
African and rustic dialects, while the absence of such coinci- 
dence is at least good negative evidence that the suffixes de- 
veloped independently. 

A few points in regard to the formation of these adjs. are 
worthy of notice. As has been said, they are normally formed 
only from substantives, but in the plebeian and late writers nu- 
merous exceptions occur. Those formed from verbs are rarest, 
there being but five instances in the older language, and one 
of these is doubtful. Gell. in the well-known passage, 3, 12, 1, 
citing bibosus from Nigidius, directly censures this method of 
formation ; " nondum etiam usquam repperi, nisi apud Laberium, 
neque aliud est, quod simili inclinatu dicatur" and on the 
strength of this opinion C. Fr. Hermann emends Cic., Acad. 2, 
143 *opinosissimi to *spinosissimi, which is accepted by Schon- 
werth-Weyman, in the article already cited, where the few other 
examples of this improper formation are discussed. 1 Here 
again the license of the sermo cotidianus may be seen surviv- 
ing in the Eomance languages; compare Human, lunecos, 
sparios ; Ital., adontoso, rincrescioso ; Port., abduros, etc. 3 

1 Schonwerth-Weyman, ALL. V, p. 303. Diez, p. 663; Meyer-Liibke, Gramm. 
d. Rom. Spr. II, p. 514. 



31. -08V8.] EOMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 125 

Derivatives from other adjectives are more numerous, 
although they also were avoided in the best period. Out of 
the 73 examples cited by Paucker, 9 only are uett., and of these 
only 3 are classic : bellicosus, ebriosus, tenebricosus. In later 
Latin, however, such methods of derivation became more and 
more common as a means of making adjectives longer and pro- 
portionately more forcible. 1 The derivation from adjectives is 
still common in the Romance languages, where it has retained 
an intensifying force, thus in Human., umedos; Ital., cuvidoso, 
freddoso ; Span., caudaloso, rancioso* 

Of the derivatives from substantives, one or two classes 
are interesting. Formations from the rustic substantives in 
ago, -igo, -ugo, 3 seem to have been avoided by classic writers 
as carefully as the substantives themselves. Cic. has only 
caliginosus (bis). The general character of the remainder is 
best seen from the following list : 

PLAVT. robiginosus, Mart.; Apul.; AVCT. PBIAP., pruriginosus, Dig. 

Pronto. APVL. IVN., auriginosus, 

VAKR. B.R.,tiliginosus, Col.; Plin.; PLIN. VAL., porriginosus, 

Arnob. VEG. VET., coriaginosus, 

BELL. HISP., uoraginosus, Fron- VVLG., aeruginosus, 

tin.; Apul.; Amm. PRVDENT., fuliginosus, 

CATVLL., imaginosus, Ps.-Tn. PRISC., petiginosus, 

GELS., carfcilaginosus, Plin. CASS. FEL., mucilaginosus, 

COL., scaturiginosus, DIG. Ivsr., impetiginosus, 

PLIN., lanuginosus, NOT. TIB., intertriginosus, 

uertiginosus, GLOSS. LABB., depetiginosus. 
VAL. MAX., lentiginosus, 

In derivatives from abstract substantives in -or, African 
Latin shows a peculiarity quite in keeping with the tumor 
Punlcus, adding the suffix directly to the stem, without loss of 
the final syllable as is usual in classic Latin, (compare clamor, 
clam-osus, fragor, frag-osus). Thus from Apul. we have uapor- 
osus, from Tert. nidor-osus ; Augustin., clamor -osus ; Cass. Fel. 
and Ps. -Apul. humor-osus, and 15 others are cited by Paucker, 4 

1 SchSnwerth-Weyman, 1. 1., p. 200, " Von Adjektiven wurden weitere Adjcktiva 
gebildet, um die Bedeutung zu verstarken, beziehungsweise zu niiancieren oder und 
dies war in Spatlatein und damit in den romanischen Sprachen der leifcende Gesiehts- 
punkt um das "Wort zu verlangern und dadurch lebenskraf tiger zu machen." 2 Diez, 
p. 663 ; Meyer-Liibke, Gramm. d. Rom. Spr. II, p. 514 ; Id. ItaL Gramm. 540. Conf. 
supra, 23, p. 82. 4 Paucker, Materialien IV, p. 5, not. 4. 



126 WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 81. -osvs. 

several of which have found their way into the Romance lan- 
guages, e.g., amorosus, sapor osus, uigorosus, Fr., amoreux, sav- 
oureux, vigoreux. 

Lastly, plebeian Latin seems sometimes to have added this 
termination to diminutives, although this is a question of dis- 
pute. Compare the following forms : 

amaricnlosus, Thes. Nou. Lot. 
lacticulosus, Petr.; Gloss. 
meticulosus, Plant.; Apul.; Vlp. Dig. 
segniculosus, ap. Paucker. 

siticulosus, Hor. Sat.; Vitr.; Col.; Plin.; Auct. Priap.; Sidon. 
somniculosus, Cinna, Fr. ap. GelL; Labor.; Cic., semel. (de Sen.); Col.; 
adu. = Plant. 

Schonwerth-Weyman include these forms among those in 
-ic-osus, -in-osus, and other strengthened forms, "somniculo- 
sus, . . . siticulosus, . . . sind hier zu nennen, da die de- 
minutiva somniculus und siticula nur in den not. Tiron. u. 
Bern, nachzuwiesen sind," but cite against their view Bech- 
stein, 1 Stud. VIII (1875) p. 373. 

Lmvs ANDKONICVS. ieiuniosus, Capt. 466 

septuose, 2 ap. Non. 170, 17 illecebrosus, 9 Bacch. 87 

impendiosus, Id. 396 

NAEVIVS. inopiosus, Poen. 130 

citrosus, B. Pun. Fr. Inc. 4 lienosus, 10 Gas. 414 

luscitiosus, 11 Mil. 323 

PLAVTVS. metuculosus, 12 Amph. 293 

aestuosns, 8 Bacch. 471 mulierosus, 1 " Poen. 1303 

axitiosus, 4 ap. Varr. L. L. 7, 66 obnoxiosus, 14 Trin. 1038 

cicatricosus, 5 Amph. 446 obsequiosus, Capt. 418 

confragosus, e Men. 591 peculiosus, 16 End. 112 

elloborosus, Most. 952 ; al. periuriosus, True. 153 

fluctuosus, 7 Rud. 910 podagrosus, 16 Merc. 595 

hircosus, 8 Merc. 575 propudiosus, 17 Stick. 334 

i Conf. ALL., V, p. 209. 

a Form saeptuosa Pacuu. Tr. 5. 3 Pacuu. ; Cic. Att. ; CatulL ; Hor. ; Col. ; Plin. 
4 Ser. Claud, ap. Varr. 6 Sen. Rhet.; Quint. Varr.; Liu.; Sen.; Col.; Quint.; Prontin.; 
Mall. Theod. ; Pall. ; Veget. ; adu. Mar. Viet. 7 Plin. 8 Sen. ; Pers. ; Mart. ; fom 
-uosus Apul. Met. ' Amm. ; Pr ud. ; Augustin. 10 Cels. ; Plin. ' l Varr. ; F alg. ; Isid. 
12 Apul. Flor. ; Vlp. Dig. 1S Af ran. ; Cic. , semel, (Fat. 10). " Enn. 16 Auguetin. ; 
Sidon. Ep. " Lucii. ; subst. masc. Hadr. ap. Vopisc.; Lampr. 17 GelL; Apul.; Min. 
Fel.; Arnob.; Butil. Nam. 



31. -osvs.] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



127 



radiosus, Id. 365 
repudiosus, Pers. 384 
robiginosus, 1 Stick. 228 
scruposus, 2 Capt. 185 
sycophantiose, Pseud. 1211 
uentriosus, 3 Asin. 400 ; al. 

CATO. 

aquosus, 4 R. R. 34 
cariosus, 5 Id. 34, 2 ; al. 
consiliosus, 6 ap. Gell. 4, 9, 12 
cretosus, 7 #. R. 128 
disciplinosus, 8 Jfe. M/. Fr. 14 
fistulosus, 9 .#. #. 157, 3 
insomniosus, (insomnia) Id. ib. 
lutosus, 10 ap. Plin. 18, 176 
manupretiosus, Or alt. Inc. Fr. 10 
*medicamentosus, n R. R. 157, 2 
morbosus, 12 Id. 2, 7 
praemiosus, 1S Oratt. Inc. Fr. 7 
rubricosus, 14 R. R. 34, 2 ; al. 
sentiuosus, 15 Origg. 2, Fr. 31 
stercorosus, 18 .R. Jf?. 45, 1 
ueternosus, " ap. Gell. 1, 15, 9 
uictoriosus, 18 Id. 4, 9, 12 

CAECIUVS. 
gramiosus, Com. 268 

TERENTTVS. 
cadauerosus, 19 Hec. 411 

TrrtNivs. 
pedicosns, Com. 177 

CASSIVS HEMINA. 
literosus, ap. Non. 133, 5 

CAELIVS ANTIPATEB. 
bellosus, ap. Non. 80, 32 



LVCIMVS. 

acerosus, 20 Sat. 15, 29 
labosus, Id. 3, 10 
rugosus, 21 Id. 12, 26 
scelerosus, 22 Id. 1, 20 
squarrosus, .FV. Inc. 108 

AFRANIVS. 
senticosus, 23 Cbjra. 1 

VABBO. 

agrosus, L. L. 5, 13 
alsiosus, 24 .R. #. 2, 3, 6 
argillosus, 25 /d 1, 9, 2 
dictiosus, i. L. 6, 61 
glareosus, 26 #. R. I, 9, 3 
mammosus, 27 Id. 2, 9, 5 
paeminosus, Id. 1, 51, 1 
suspendiosus, 28 op. /Sterw ac? 

12, 603 

tuberosus, 29 Id. 1, 49, 2 
uliginosus, 30 Id 1, 6, 6 

LVCBETIVS. 

labeosus, 4, 1161 

NlGIDIVS FlGVLVS. 

bibosus, 31 ap Gell. 3, 12, 2 

ClCEKO (EPISTT.). 

pannosus, 32 ad Alt. 4, 3, 5 
per-luctuosus, ad Q. Fr. 3, 8, 5 
per-odiosus, ac? Att. 10, 17, 2 ; al. 
per-officiosus, ad Fam. 9, 20, 3 
per-tumultuose, Id. 15, 4, 3 
sub-contumeliose, ad Att. 2, 7, 3 
sub-odiosus, /c?. 1, 5, 4 



3 Plin. ; Cassiod. Varr. ; Verg. ; Hor. ; 
6 Afran.; Lucil.; Manil. ap. Varr.; Varr.; 



1 Mart. ; Fronto ; ApuL 2 Lucr. ; Apul. 
Ou. ; Prop. ; Sen. ; Col. ; Plin. ; Mart. ; Pall. 

On. ; Gels. ; Phaedr. ; Col. ; Plin. ; Mart. ; Ambros. ; Eccl. Fronto ; Sidon. Bp. 7 Varr. ; 
Ou. ; Plin. ; Hygin. ; Pall. * Conf. GelL 4, 9, 12. Vitr. ; Sen.; Col.: Plin. 10 Lucil.; 
Col. " Vitr. " Labeo ap. Gell. ; Varr. ; Masur. Sabin. ap. Gell.; Catull. ; Auct. Priap.; 
Petr.;Veget. "Ace. "Col.; Plin. "Ambros. "Sen.; Col. "Ter.; Sen.; Plin.; 
Augustin. ; Sidon. 19 Quint.; lul. Val.; Amm.; Augustin., Sidon.; Inscrr. " Ambros. 
20 PauL ex Fest. S1 Hor. ; Ou. ; Tibull. ; Val. Max. ; Gels. ; Pers. ; Mart. ; Hier. 22 Ter. ; 
Lncr. ; Apul. 23 Apul. Flor. ; lulian. ap. Augustin. 2 * Plin. ; Gloss. Labb. 25 Col. ; Plin. ; 
Pall. ; Vulg. 2 Liv. ; Col. ; Plin. Laber. ap. Gell. ; Plin. Plin. ' Petr. 3 Plin. ; 
Arnob.; PalL 31 Laber. ap. Gell. aa Sen.; Mart.; luuen.; lust.; Apul. Met.; Augustin, 



128 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



-osvs. 



Avor. BELL. HISP. 
uoraginosus, 1 29, 2 

CATVLLVS. 
araneosus, 8 25, 3 
arundinosus, 36, 13 
cuniculosus, 37, 18 
febriculosus, 3 6, 4 
imaginosus, 41, 8 
spumosus, 4 64, 121 

HOBATIVS. 

callosus, 6 Sat. 2, 4, 14 
nodosus, 8 Id. 2, 3, 70 ; al 
plagosus, 7 Ep. 2, 1, 7 

VITKVVIVS. 
aluminosus, 8 8, 3, 4 
bituminosus, Id. ib.; al. 
calculosus, 9 3, 3, 1 
nitrosus, 10 8, 3, 5 
pumicosus, 11 2, 3, 4 
sabulosus, 12 2, 6, 5 
sulphurosus, 8, 2, 8 
terrosus, 2, 1, 1 ; al. 

CELSVS. 

biliosus, 13 5, 26, 10; al. 
camosus, 14 4, 22 init. 
cartillaginosus, 18 8, 8, 2; al. 
glutinosus," 5, 26, 20 ; al. 
labrosus, 7, 26, 2 fin. 
medullosus, 8, 1 p. 327 ; al. 
mucosuSj u 2, 8, p. 50 ; al. 



musculosus, 18 5, 20, 1 
pustulosus, ]9 5, 26, 31 
spongiosus, 20 4, 1, p. 121 
suc(c)osus, 21 2, 18, p. 65 
uenosus, 92 4, 1, p. 121 
unguinosus, 43 5, 26, 20 

PHAEDRVS. 
comosus, 24 5, 8, 2 

COLVMELLA. 

aestiuosus, 25 5, 8, 5 
caenosus, 26 7, 10, 6 
calcitrosus," 2, 2, 26 
carbunculosus, 3, 11, 9 
*cesposus, Poet. 10, 130 
compendiosus, 28 1, 4, 5 
cymosus, Poet. 10, 138 
dispendiosus, 29 2, 20, 1 
frutectosus, 80 2, 2, 11 
fungosus, 31 4, 29, 6 
glandulosus, 7, 9, 1 
glomerosus, 9, 3, 1 
graminosus, 3 '- 1 7, 9, 8 
grandinosus, 3, 1, 6 
*humerosus, 3S (Immerus), 3, 10, 5 
lanosus. 84 7, 3, 7 
pampinosus, 35 5, 5, 14 
pectorosus, E9 8, 2, 8 
pulicosus, 7, 13, 2 
resinosus, 37 12, 20, 3 
rixosus, 38 8, 2, 5 
scabiosus, 39 11, 2, 83 
scaturiginosus, 5, 8, 6 



1 Frontin. ; Apul. ; Amm. a Plin. ; Auct. Priap. s Cell. ; Fronto. 4 Ou. ; Pers. ; 
Plin. ; Scrib ; Pelag. Vet. ; Cland.; Gael. Aur. & Plin. ; Gell. ; Apul. ; Ps.-Apic. ; Pall.; 

Anthim. ; Eccl. Ou. ; Val. Max. ; Sen. ; Curt. ; Pers. ; Gell. ; Augustin. ; Macr. 7 Pass. 
Apul. 8 Subst. Plin. Cels. ; Col. ; Plin. ; Cloat. ap. Macr. Sat. ; Scrib. ; Pall. ; 
Veget. 10 Plin. " Sen.; Plin. " Plin.; Pall 13 Scrib.; laid.; Schol. Pers. Plin. 
s Plin. "Col.; Pall.; Pelag. Vet.; Veget. Col.; Plin.; ICt. Col. "Col. 
o Plin. Col. ; Petr. ; Plin. M Pers. ; Plin. as Plin. Plin. ; Auct. Priap. pu n . 
a luuen. ; Solin. ; Hier. ; Salu. Petr. ; Vlp. Dig. ; Pelag. Vet. 2 s lustin. ; Apul. ; Am- 
bros.;Prud. Pall. ; Cassian. ; Cod. Theod. so Plin. ^ Plin. Pall. as quos h. 
rustici uocant, Col. I. L; (humeros, ed. Schneider). 34 Apul. Met.; Pall. 3 Plin. 
3 Plin. ; Auct. Priap. 37 Plin. 38 Tert. ; Vulg. 3 Pers. ; Plin. ; Gai. Dig. 



31. -06V3.] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



129 



strumosus, 1 7, 10, 3 
suffraginosus, 6, 38, 2 
suspiriosus, 2 6, 38, 1 
tineosus, 3 9, 14, 20 

PETKONIVS. 
dignitosus, 4 57, 10 
fastosns, 6 131 
inspeciosus, 74, 8 
lacticulosus, 6 57, 8 
linguosus, 7 43, 3 ; al. 
stigmosus, 8 109, 8 

PLINIVS. 

acinosns, 12, 47 ; al. 
aerosus, 9 33, 95 
algosus, 10 32, 95 
angulosus, 11 16, 86 ; al. 
argentosus, 33, 93 
articulosus, 12 24, 150 
assulose, 13 12, 105 
bulbosus, 21, 102 ; al 
buxosus, 12, 119 
cauernosus, 14 26, 58 ; al, 
centrosus, 37, 98 
cerosus, 32, 27 
corticosus, 15 12, 58 
crustosus, 12, 36 
cumminosus, Id. ib.; al. 
foliosus, 25, 161 ; al. 
formicosus, 10, 206 
furfurosus, 12, 125 
globosus, 18 35, 191 
granosns, 21, 14 ; al. 
iliosus, 20, 26 



laciniosus, 17 5, 62 
lanuginosus, 29, 85; al. 
lignosus, 13, 112 ; al. 
loculosus, 15, 88 
lusciosus, 18 28, 170 ; al. 
marmorosus, 33, 159 ; al. 
*myrtuosus, 12, 48 
nauseosus, 26, 59 
oleosus, 19 27, 106; al. 
petrosus, 20 9, 96 
plumbosus, 34, 175 ; al. 
pluuiosus, 21 18, 225 
racemosus, 14, 40 ; al. 
radicosus, 16, 151 
ramitosus, 30, 136 
ramnlosus, 16, 92 
saliuosus, 22 16, 181 
saniosus, 23 7, 66 
sarmentosus, 25, 140 
sebosus, 24 11, 214 
siirculosus, 19, 98 
thymosus, 25 11, 39 
uerminosus, 20, 146 
uermiosns, 17, 261 D. 
*uertiginosus, 23, 59, Ian. 

MAKTIALTS. 
ficosus, 28 7, 71, 1 
pediculosus, 27 12, 59, 8 
pertricosus, 3, 63, 14 
polyposus, 28 12, 37, 2 

Aver. PKIAP. 
fascinosus, 79, 4 



luuen. ; Schol. Bob. ad Cic. a Plin. ; Gargil. ; Pelag. Vet. ; Veget. s Th. Prise.; 
Augustin.; Marc. Emp. Gloss. Labb. B Mart.; Auct. Pan. ad Pis.; form -uosus 
= Mart. Cap. Gloss. Labb. 7 Augustin.; Cassiod. ; Eccl. 8 M. ReguL ap. Plin. Ep. 
1,5,2. Paul exFest.;ICt. 10 Auson. "Augustin. "Quint. 13 Form astulo- 
sus = Marc. Emp. 36 ; asclosus = Pelag. Vet. 384 ; conf. Veget. 6, 14, 5. u Augustin.; 
Prnd. "Solin, 18 Apul. " Apul.;Tert.;Hier.; Arnob. lun.; Eccl. ;SchoL Bob. ad Cic. 
18 Gloss. Labb. 1S Cassiod. 40 Hygin.; (petrosa, -orum, Ambros.; Vulg.; Eccl.) 

*' Porphyr. ad Hor. M Apul.; Cael. Aur. " Augustin.; Cael. Aur.; Th. Prise. ** Nom. 
Propr. Sebosus = Cic., etc. S5 Plin. Val. ; Macr. a Auct. Priap. a7 Form ptducu- 
losus = Gloss. Labb. M Vlp. Dig. 
9 



130 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[31. -OSV8. 



membrostts, 1 praef. 5 
prariosus," 62, 18 
seminosus, 51, 17 

GELLIVS. 

ambagiosns, 14, 1, 33 
annentosus, 11, 1, 2 
dubiosus, 3, 3, 3 ; al. 
fallaciostts, 3 14, 1, 34 ; al. 
gesfruosus,* 1, 5, 2 
iurgiosus, 6 1, 17, 1 ; al. 
ludibriosus, 6 6, 11, 5 
praestigiosus, 7 6, 14, 11 ; al. 

APVLETVS. 

botruosus, 8 Herb. 66 
cinerosus, Met. 7, 27 ; al. 
elephantiosus," Herb. 84, 3 
folliculosus, Id. 54 
floccosus, Id. 63 
furcosus, Id. 8 ; al. 
furculosus, Id. 57, 2 
gemmosus, Met. 5, 8 
genienlosus, Herb. 78 
humorosus, 10 Id. 51 
incendiosus, 11 Id. 59 
instudiosus, Apol. 40 
pascuosus, J7er&. 92 
populosns, 1 " Met. 8,6; a/, 
pulposns, Id. 7, 16 
sarcinosus, /d. 8, 15 
silentiosus, 13 Id. 11, 1 
stipidosus, Herb. 67 ; al. 
naporosus, Met. 9, 12 ; al. 
uiriosus, 14 7, 18 H. 

TEKTVLLIANVS. 
affectiosus, Anim. 19 
colubrosus, adu. Vaknt. 4 
foraminosus, de Patient. 14 



inaquosns, 16 .Boptf. 1 
incopiosus, de leiun. 5 
nidorosus, 18 adu. Marc. 5, 5 
opiniosus, Id. 4, 35 
tabidosus, Apol. 14 
tabiosns, de Pudic. 14 

GABGILIVS MAKTIAMS. 
amaritosus, 17 c?e Arb. Pumif. 3, 7 
J3. 68 ed. Rom. 

SOLINVS. 

abominosus, 18 1, 40 
dorsnosus, 19 27, 3 M. 
pabulosus, 22, 2 

liAMPKIDIVS. 

aurosus, 20 Heliog. 31 

Fmjncvs MATEENVS. 
cauillosus, 5, 8 
crapulosus, 8, 20 
gibbosus, ai 3, 5, 6 ; al. 

PALLADIVS. 

nermiculostis, 12, 7, 14 
nirgosns, 1, 24, 2 

PlJNIVS VAIiEBIANVS. 

effectuosus, Praef. 
porriginosus, 1, 4 

AMMXANYS. 

caerimoniosus, 22, 15, 17 
inlacrimosus, 14, 11, 24 
instilostis, 23, 6, 10 ; al. 
maniosus, 28, 4, 16 G. 
tumidosus, 21, 10, 3 



1 Gloss. Labb. 2 Gael Anr. 3 ApuL 4 ApnL 6 adu. lul. Viet. ad u. Tert. ; 
Amm. ; Augustin. T Arnob. 8 laid. Augustin.; Marc. Emp.; Th. Prise. 10 Cael. 
Aor. Cael. Anr. ia Solin. ; Chalcid. Tim.; Atnm. ; Veg. Mil " Cassiod. " Tert. 
16 Eccl. CaeL Aur. 1T Form amareco&e Thorn. Thes. Nou. Lat. p. 52. 1S Diom. 
" Amm. M PalL ; Veg. Vet ; Herm. Past. ; Plin. VaL ; form -eosus Cassio A ai Isid. 



31. -O8V8.] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



131 



PELAGONIVS. 

ap(p)iosus, 1 Vet. 405 ; aL 
bulimosus, Id. 188 
coriaginosus," Id. 26 
farciminosus, Id. Ind. Cap. XXXV. 
ozaenosus, Id. 216 

VEGETTVS. 

aurosus, 8 Vet. 3, 17, 1 
conglutinosus, Id. 2, 12, 2 
contagiosus, Id. 1, 14, 2 
*dolorosus, 4 Id. 6, 22, 1 
farinosus, Id. 2, 30 
febricosus, Id. 1, 38, 4 
gambosus, Id. 3, 10 
ossuosus, 6 Id. 3, 13, 4 
roborosus, Id. 5, 23 
stipendiosus, Mil. 1, 18 
strophosus, 6 Fe. 3, 57 
nomicosus, 7 Jc?. 11, 10, 3 ; al. 

AMBKOSTVS. 

actinosus, lob. et Dau. 2, 4, 6 
dissidiosus, ^p. 76, 9 
opprobriosus, 8 Cain et Abel, 1, 
4, 14 

HlERONYMVS. 

fetosus, (fetus) adu. louin. 1, 19 ; 

al. 

inherbosus, Nom. Hebr. col. 14, 4 
leprosus,' in Eccl. 10, col. 472 ; 

aZ. 
uenenosus, 10 adu. louin. 1, 3 

AVGVHTUN VS. 

anfractaosus, 5erm. 59, 6 ; al. 
clamorosus, 11 de Oratt. p. 1115, 
47 



conuiciosus," c. Sec. Resp. lul. 1, 

11 

frontosus, Ciu. Dei 7, 4 ; al. 
imbecillosus, Ver. Relig. 15 
inactuosus, 13 Ciu. Dei 4, 16 
staturosus, Id. 15, 23 ; al. 

MAKCELLVS EMPIKIOVS. 
carcinosus, 4, 45 
liqxiaminosus, 5, 18 
malandriosus, 19, 23 ; al. 
mentiosus, 33, 8 
ramicosus, 33, 23 ; al. 
stranguriosus, 26, 66 ; al. 

THEODOBVS PKISCIANVS. 
alopeciosus, 1, 6 lemm. 
catarrliosus, 2, 2, 1 
derbiosus, 1, 10 
fermentosus, 4, fol. 317 b. 
foetosus, 14 (foetor), 1, 21 
materiosus, 15 4, 317 a. 
petiginosus, 1, 12 
serniosus, Id. ib. 

CAELIVS AVKEUANVS. 
anhelosus, Acut. 2, 28, 148 
anxiosus, Chron. 3, 8, 103 ; al. 
bromosus, 18 Acut. 2, 37; al. 
cachinnosus, Id. 1, 3, 41 
capillosus," Chron. 5, 4, 53 
corporosus, Acut. 3, 17, 148 
fellosns, Chron. 4, 6, 91 
flammosus, Acut. 3, 17, 174 ; al 
iecorosus, 18 Chron. 3, 4, 49 
medicosus, Id. 2, 1, 59 ; al. 
mellosus, Acut. 2, 29, 151 
mortuosus, Id. 1, 3, 38 ; al. 
panosus, Chron. 1, 4, 91 ; al. 



i Veg. Vet. Veg. Vet. " Lampr. ; Pall. ; Plin. Val. ; Eccl. Gael. Aur. Form 
ossosus -= Cael. Aur.; Thorn. Thes. Ven. Port. "> Cael. Aur. 8 Cod. lust. 'Prud.; 
SeduL 10 Augustin.; Ps.-Cypr.; adu. = Cassiod. " Ps.-Ambros. ia Gloss. Hildebr. 
13 Seru. ad. Aen. l4 Form -erosus, = Zeno 1, tr. 15, 6. " Gloss. Philox. 18 Form 
brumosus, conf. Pauck. SubreL Add. Lex., s. u. " Prob. App. 199, 28. 1S Sidon. 



132 WORD FORMATION IN THE [32. -LESTVS. 

pulsuosus, Acut. 2, 14, 91 ; al. praesumptiosus, Id. I, 11 

putruosus, Chron. 2, 14, 205 tofosus, Id. 3, 13 

ramentostts, Id. 4, 3, 41 tribulosus, Id. 3, 2 ; a/, 

ruginosus, j4cw. 1, 11, 86 uluosus, Id. 1, 5; al. 

sanguinosus, Id. 3, 4, 30 uoluminosus, Carm. 9, 76 
soraniosus, Id. 3, 5, 51 

stimulosus, Chron. 5, 9, 90 ; al. VENANTIVS FORTVNATVS. 

tractuosus, 1 Acut. 2, 32, 167 aristosus, Misc. 10, 3, 325 M. 

tussiculosus, Id. 2, 13, 90 florosus, Carm. 5, 6, 7 

uentriculosus, .Z#. 3, 17, 143; 

7 ALDHELMVS. 

uesiculosns, /rf. 3, 17, 171 bombosus, Laud. Vvrg. 20 

coulosus, de Gram. (Class. Auct. 

SIDONTVS APOLMNAEIS. Vol. 5, p. 579). 

cantilenosus, _>. 3, 14 ; al. lapillosus, Septen. 218 t. 89 Jf. 

32. ADJECTIVES IN -lentus : These adjectives, like those 
in -bundus, are both archaic and vulgar. 2 Out of a total of 
63 cited by Paucker in his Materialien, 3 only 14 are counted 
by him as of " ciceronischer oder gleichwerther Attestation," 
and of these I have failed to find more than 11 in Cicero : 
fraudulentus , luculentus, lutulentus, opulentus, potulentus, pul- 
uerulentus, temulentus, truculentus, turbulentus, uinolentus, uio- 
lentus. As but 28 of the 63 are recc., uett. 35, Cic. used less than 
one-third of uett. Plautus has 11, of which only 5, luculentus, 
lutulentus, fraudulentus, opulentus, truculentus, became classic. 
Cato and Titin. each added 2 to the language, Enn. and Laeu. 
1 each. Silver Latin has only 3 new forms, Cels. 2, Scrib. 1. 
With the archaists Gell. and Apul. they become more numer- 
ous : the former uses not less than 7, two of them new, amaru- 
lentus, uirulentus; Apul. has 14, 5 from Plaut., luculentus, 
macilentus, mustulentus, pisculentus, truculentus ; 6 are new and 

3 peculiar to Apul., farinulentus, glebulentus, iussulejitus ; only 

4 out of the 14 are Ciceronian. Later formations are compara- 
tively rare but are sufficiently frequent to show that the suffix 
lived in the popular speech ; in so late a writer as Aldhelmus 
one example occurs, pompulentus. The suffix has survived in 
the Romance languages; 4 compare ItaL, sonnolento ; Fr., 
sanglant ; Span., feculento, sonoliento ; and as new formations, 

1 Plin. VaL 

2 Compare Landgraf , Blatt. f. bayer. Gymn. VII, p. 320 ; Schmilinsky, p. 39 ; 
Ronsch, p. 138 sq. 3 Pauck. Material IV, p. 20 sq. . Diez, p. 681 ; Meyer-Lubke, 
Gramm. d. Rom. Spr., II, p. 483. 



32. -LENTVS.] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



133 



ltal.,famulento,puzzolento; Span., friolento ; O. Fr. } famolent, 
pullent ; Prov., suzolen, famolen. 



PLAVTVS. 

bucculentus, Merc. 639 
corpulentus, 1 Epid. 10 
frustulentus, Cure. 313 
macilentus," Capt. 647 
mustulentus, 3 Cist. 382 
pisculentus, 4 Bud. 907 
truoulentus, 5 True. 265 ; ai. 



. 259 



ENNIVS. 
gracilentus, 



CATO. 

rorulentus, 7 R. R. 37, 4 
pumlentus, 8 7c?. 157, 3 

TmNivs. 

lotilentus, Com. 137 
obstrudulentus, Id. 165 

LAEVIVS. 

pestilentus, Fr. ap. Gett. 19, 7, 

7 
sileutus, To?. ii. 

VARKO. 
aquilentus, Sat. Men. 400 

CELSVS. 

faeculentus," 5, 26, 19 
iurulentus, 1, 6 ; al. 

GELLIVS. 

amarulentus, 10 3, 17, 4 
uirulentus, 11 16, 11, 2 



farinulentus, Met. 9, 5 
foetulentus, 12 -4poi. 7 
glebulentus, Deo /Sbcr. 8 
iussulentus, Apol. 39, erc^r. 
soiunolentus, 1 * Met. 1, 26 ; Z. 
suc(c)ulentus, u Jc?. 2, 22 

TEIJTVLMANVS. 
caermlentus, 16 PaZ^. 4 
sordulentus, (^e Poen. 11 in. 

SOLINVS. 

camulentus, 18 2, 41 ; a?. 
florulentus, 17 7, 18 
spinulentus, 46, 4 

AlEMIANTS. 

crapulentus, 29, 5, 54 

PliVDEOTTVS. 

aurulentus, 18 n-epl crrf0. 12, 49 
rosulentus, 19 Id. 3, 199 
terrulentus, Ham. Praef., aL 

MAKCELLVS EMPIBICVS. 
febnculentus, 22, 13 

FVLGENTIVS. 
marculenfras, 2, 8 
meralenfcus, 1 Praef. p. 13 M. 

AuDHEIiMVS. 

pompulentus, de Re Gramm. (in 
Auct. Class. 5, 565). 



i Paul, ex Pest. ; Col. ; Quint. ; Gell. ; Tert. ; Chalcid. Tim. ; Hier. ; Vulg. * Apul. ; 

PaU. ; Pelag. Vet. ; Non. ; Hier.; Vulg. Varr. ; Apul. Met. 4 Cato ; Solin.; subst. 
=- Apul. B Ter. ; Cornif. Rhet. ; Cic. Sest.; Catull. ; Hor. ; Ou. ; Plin. ; Tac. ; Quint. ; Val. 
Max. ; Apul. ; Spart. ; Augustin. 6 Gell. 7 Ace. Tr. ; Col. ; Plin. ; Solin. 8 Cels. ; Sen. ; 
Plin. ; Pelag. Vet. Plin. ; Apul. ; Solin. ; Veget. ; Arnob. ; PalL ; Augustin. 10 Macr. 
11 Cassiod. " Arnob. 13 Solin.; Ambros. " Hier.; Prud.; Paul. Nol. l8 Ambros. 
18 Prud. 17 Ambros.; Prud.; Salu.; Peruig. Ven. 18 Ven. Fort. 18 Mart. Cap. 



134: WORD FORMATION IN THE [34. -ATVS. 

33. ADJECTIVES IN -urnus, -turnus : In the classic language 
these adjectives were limited to diurnus, diuturnus, nocturnus, 
taciturnus. A few other sporadic examples occur : 

alburnus, 1 Gloss. Mai. Gl. Auct., Vol. 6 ; s.m. = Auson. ; .. = Plin. ; 

nom. propr., conf. infra. 
longiturnus, Vulg. Baruch. 4, 35 
mensurnus, Cypr. Ep. 34, 4 ; Nouat. 
somnurnus, Varr. Sat. Men. 427 

These words have been treated by Pott, 2 who points out 
that somnurnus is formed regularly on the model of diur- 
nus, while mensurnus is the result of false analogy. In early 
Latin the suffix must have had a wider scope, as is indicated 
by the numerous proper names of this form, of deities and 
localities, as 

Alburnus, (deus), Tert, adu. Marc. *Liburnus, (deus), Arndb. 4, 9 

1, 18 Manturna, (dea), Aug. Ciu. Dei 6, 9 

luturna (dea), Verg. Aen. 12, 146 ; Saturnus, (deus), passim. 

al. Alburnus, (mons), Verg. Ge. 3, 146 

Lacturnus, (deus), Aug. Ciu. Dei. Taburnus, (mons), Id. 2, 38 

I am inclined to believe that the suffix survived in the rus- 
tic language. Ronsch 3 has cited longiturnus, mensurnus, som- 
nurnus, in his lists of plebeian forms, and the presence of sev- 
eral unmistakable instances of this formation in Italian seems 
to justify his view. Diez cites Ital., musoiTio, piorno, sajorno ; 
Span., piomo* 

34. PAETICIPIAL ADJECTIVES m -atus : These adjectives are 
formed on the model of participles from denominative verbs 
in -are, and logically they should be considered under that 
head. 5 But as they are treated like adjectives in the sermo 
plebeius, and formed at will from almost any substantive, appar- 
ently without thought of the corresponding verbal forms, it 
has seemed best to group them separately, so that the abun- 
dance of them in plebeian authors will be more apparent, 
reserving a detailed discussion of them for the section on 

1 Cited by Nettleship, Contrib. Lat. Lex., p. 114, comparing somnurnus, taciturnus. 
* Conf. Stuenkel, p. 52, citing Pott, E. P. II, p. 1036 ; Corssen, Aussprache, I, p. 
236. 3 KSnsch, p. 138. 4 Diez, p. 685. s Conf. infra, 51. 



34. -ATVS.] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



135 



denominative verbs. Their plebeian character has been fre- 
quently noticed by the authorities. 1 



PLAVTVS. 

aculeatus," Bacch. 63 
aleatus, 3 Most. 48 
amussitatus, Mil. 632 
ansatus, 4 Pars. 308 
anulatus,' Poen. 981 
argentatus," Pseud. 312 
caesariatus, 7 Mil. 768 
columnatus, 8 Id. 211 
eburatus, 9 Stick. 377 ; al. 
hostiatus, Rud. 270 
impluuiatus, 10 Epid. 224 
ingoniatus, 11 Mil. 731 
iubatus, 13 Amph. 1108 
mamileatus, 13 Pseud. 738 
nimbatus, Poen. 348 
oculatus, 14 True. 490 
ostreatus, Poen. 398 
patibulatus, Most. 56 

Emravs. 

runatus, .4n. 576 
tutulatus, 16 Id. 124 

CATO. 

alueatus, R. R. 43, 1 
arenatus, 1 ' Id. 18, 8 
faecatus, Id. 11, 4 
laserpiciatus," /c?. 116 



CAECUJVS. 
atratus, 18 Com. 268 

TiTiNivs. 
fimbriatus, 1 ' Com. 138 

CASSIVS HEMINA. 
citratus, (citra), 4, jFV. 37 

I/VCTLTVS. 

aceratus, 30 #otf. 9, 47 
adipatus, 31 Id. 5, 10 
capitatus," Id. 2, 21 
papaueratus, 33 /we. Fr. 139 

POMPONIVS. 
coleatus, Cbm. 40; at. 

VARBO. 

compluuiatus, 34 .R. R. 1, 8, 2 
costatus, (costa), Id. 2, 5, 8 
decemplicatus, L. L. 6, 38 
fabatus, 25 ap. Non. 341, 28 
loculatus, R. R. 3, 17, 4 
murtatus, 38 Z. Z. 5, 110 
ocellatus, 37 Sat. Men. 283 
petasatus, 38 Id. 410 
reticulatus, 39 .R. R. 3, 7, 3 



iSchnlze, Diss. Hal., VI, p. 181, "Reblingius (p. 25) recte affert, adjectiua in 
-atus, quae fere omnia sunt participia perfect! passiui, praecipue uulgaria aunt." conf. 
Ronsch, p. 142 ; Guericke, p. 36. 

* Cic. ad. Att. et semel, (Acad. 2, 75) ; Plin. 3 Donat. Ter. Phorm. * Enn.; Varr. 
L. L.;Col.;Decret. Vet. B Apul. Met. Liu.; Lampr.; Vopisc. ' Apul. ; Tei-fc. 
Ambros.; Ampel. Lampr. lo Non. " Gell. ; Apul. ; Chalcid. Tim. Cornif. 
Rhet. ; Varr. L. L. ; Liu. ; Plin. 1S Sen. Ep. ; Suet. Plin. ; Tert. ; Arnob. ; Hier. ; Fulg. ; 
Mart. Cap. ; Cassiod. ; Ven. Fort.; Adhelm. Pompon. Com. " Vitr.; Plin. " Plin. 
*Acc. Tr. ; *Cic. semel, (Vat. 30) ; Prop. ; Tac. ; Suet ; Amm. ; Macr. Sat. " Plin. ; 

Apul. ; Auct. Itin. Alex.; Schol. Inn. ao Paul. exFest. ; Non. 21 Cic., semel, (Or. 25); 
Inuen.; Charis. M Varr. ; CoL; Julian, ap. Augustin. 2S Conf. Plin. 8. 195. a Plin. 
Fest. ; s. /., fdbata, ( puls), Plin. 18, 118 Ian. * Plin. Suet.; Gl. Labb. Cic. 
Ep.; Suet.; Inscrr. Vitr.; Plin. 



136 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[ 34. -ATVS. 



sculponeatns, Sat. Men. 457 
ualuatus, 1 L. L. 8, 29 
undulatus," op. Nan. 189, 25 

LVCKETIVS. 

uiuatus, 3 3, 409; al 

CATVIiLVS. 

uirgatus, 4 64, 319 

HOBATIVS. 
ocreatus, 5 Sat. 2, 3, 234 

ViTKVVlVS. 

displtraiafros, 6, 3, 1 
frontatus, 2, 8, 7 
lingulatus," 8, 6, 8 
*mammatus, 7 7, 4, 2 
puluinatus, 8 1, 2, 6 ; al. 
securiclatus," 10, 10, 3 
stacliatus, 5, 11, 3 
stolatus, 10 1, 1, 5 
sulfuratns, 11 8, 3, 2 
testndinatus, 111 2, 1, 4 

CELSVS. 

capitulatus,"8, 1 
piperatus, 14 4, 26 
resinatus, 1 * 2, 24 ; al. 

COLVMELLA. 

brachiatus," 5, 5, 9 
cantheriatus, 5, 4, 1 
cliaracatus, 5, 4, 1 ; al. 
corticatus, 17 12, 23, 1 
denticulatus, 18 2, 20, 3 ; al. 
malleatus," 12, 19, 4 



nitrattts, 20 12, 57, 1 
*normatus, ai 3, 13, 12 
paleatns, 22 5, 6, 13 
scabratus, 4, 24, 22 
scalpratus, 9, 15, 9 
uericulatus, 2, 20, 3 

PEESIVS. 

balanatus, 48 4, 37 
cirratus,' 4 1, 29 
farratus," 4, 30 
peronatus, 5, 102 

PETBONIVS. 
prasinatus, 28, 8 
rnbricatus,* 6 46, 7 
stamiuatus, 41, 12 

PLIKIVS. 

albiceratns, 15, 18 
aluminatus, 87 31, 59 
apiatus, 28 13, 97 
bifruminatus, 31, 59 
canaliculatus, 19, 119; al. 
caneatus, 9, 13 ; al. 
colostratus, (s. m.) 28, 123 
conchatus, 10, 43 ; al. 
crebratus," 9 11, 81 
cultellatus, 30 8, 91; al. 
cultratus, 13, 30 
cylindratus, 18, 125 
digitatus, 11, 256 
ecbiuatus, 15, 92 ; al. 
fluuiatus, 31 16, 196 
foliatus, 82 13, 15 
gradatus, 83 13, 29 
mucronatus, 32, 15 ; al. 



1 Vitr. Plin. Conf. Pest. 376 (a), 15. 4 Verg. ; Sen. ; SU. ; VaL FL Plin. 
IsidL ^Plin. Plin. Plin. " Calig. ap. Suet.; Petr.; Mart.; Hier.; Inscrr. 
11 Sen.; Gels. ; Mart.; Tert.; *. n. pi. Mart.; Plin. 13 Conf. Feat. 243, 7 ;form -eatus 
= CoL Plin.; (-are, Gloss.) " CoL; Petr.; Mart.; Ps.-Apic.;Sidon. Plin. ; Mart. ; 
luuen. "Plin. " PalL " Plin. "Vlp. Dig. ao Mart. Sl Diom. M Plin. 
23 Prise. ; Thorn. Thes. a4 Mart ; Capit. ; Amm.; Augnstin. 2S Inuen.; Spart. a Anct. 
Priap.;Itala-, Augustin. ; Marc. Emp. 27 Marc. Emp. 28 Th. Prise. 39 Alcim. *Gro- 
mat Vet S1 -are Gloss. 82 Mart ; luuen.; ApuL Met. S3 Plin. Ep. 



34 -ATVS.1 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIV9. 



137 



muricatus, 1 20, 262 
ouatus, 15, 85; al. 
persollata, 25, 113 ; al. 
rigoratus, 17, 211 
ruderatus, 21, 20 
russatus, 7, 186 
rutatus, 8 19, 156 
sandaracatus, 35, 177 
scutulatus, 3 11, 81 ; al. 
solatus, 4 (so/.), 29, 118 
teporatus, 38, 199 
thoracatus, 35, 69 
tubulatus, 6 9, 130 
turbinatus, 6 37, 56 ; al. 
nertebratus, 11, 177 ; al. 
uirgulatus, 9, 109 
umbilicatus, 13, 32 

MABTIALIS. 

amethystinatus, 2, 57, 2 
baeticatus, 1, 96, 5 
canusinatus,' 9, 23, 9 
cemssatus, 8 7, 25, 2 ; al. 
coccinatus, 9 1, 96, 6 ; al. 
galbinatus, 3, 82, 5 
guttatus, 10 3, 58, 15 
mntuniatus, 11 3, 73, 1 ; al. 
palliolatus, 1 " 9, 33, 1 
pexatus, 2, 58, 1 
sistratus, 12, 29, 19 
spleniatus, 10, 22, 1 

IWENALIS. 

caligatus, 13 3, 321 
segmentatus, 14 6, 89 

Aver. PRIAP. 
*fibratus, 51, 22 
mentulatus, 36, 11 



APVIJEIVS. 

caloratus, 16 Met. 6, 23 
caseatus, " Id. 1, 4 
cauliculafcus, H&rb. 90 
lenticulatus, Id. ib. 
tesseratus, Met. 8, 28 

MINVCIVS FELIX. 
ungulatus, 17 22, 5 

TEETVLMANYS. 

disciplinatus, 18 Fug. in Persec. 1 
feturatus, adu. Valent. 25 
linguatus, 19 Anim. 3 
lucernatus, ad Vxor. 2, 6 
luridatus, adu. Marc. 4, 8 
pigmentatus, 20 Cult. Fern. fin. 
praeputatus, 21 adu. Marc. 5, 9 
quadrangulatus," Anim. 17 
speciatus, adu. Herm. 40 
squamatus, 23 Apol. 21 
stuporatus, Cult. Fern. 2, 3 

SOLINVS. 
amiculatus, 52, 19 

SPAETIANVS. 

bucellatum, 24 s. n., Pesc. Nig. 19, 
4; al. 

LAMPBIDIVS. 

dalmaticatus, Comm. 8, 8 ; al. 
mastichafrus, Heliog. 19, 4 
puleiatum, 28 s. n., (uinum) Id. 19 
suminatus, Alex. Seu. 22, 8 
uasatus, Heliog. 5, 3 ; al. 

VOPISOVS. 

specillatus, Prdb. 4, 5 



1 Fulg. Myth. Mart.; Pelag. Vet. 3 Pall.; Schol. luuen.; laid.; s. n.pl. ~Iuuen.; 
Vulg.; Cod. Theod. s. n., Fest.SOOsq. 6 Plin. Ep. Inscrr. T Suet. 8 Cod. Theod. 
9 Suet. 10 Pall. n Auct. Pria.p.;fomn mutoniatus, Gloss. Labb. 12 Suet. ; Vopisc. 
3 Suet. ; Vlp. Dig. " Symm. Ep. ; Isid. ; Act. Fratr. Arual. s Psued. -Apic. ; Fulg. 
Myth.; Porphyr. ad Hor.; laid. Hier. Ep. 17 Tert. ; Mart. Cap. 18 Vulg. ; Alcim. 
Auit. " Vulg. ; Augustin. ; Anthol. Lat. ; (-are Gloss. ) 20 Prud. ; Hier. SI Eccl. 
aa Vulg.;Eccl. M Vulg.;s. m. =.*Isid. "Amm.; Augustin.; Cod. Theod. adl. 
Veget. 



138 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[ 34. -ATVS. 



Fnanovs MATEKNVS. 
sensatus, l 3, 10 ; al. 

PAIiLADIVS. 

cuminatus,* 12, 22, 5 
gummatus, 11, 12, 6 
manubriatus," 1, 43, 2 

PLINIVS VALEBIANYS. 
auisatum, s. n., 5, 34 
chymiatus, 2, 18 
laseratus, 4 1, 21 
thymatus, 1, 22 
uiscellatus, 2, 17 

PEI-AGONIVS. 
furnatus, Vet. 29 
mixturatus, Id. 71 
uermigeratus, Id. 278 

AMMIANVS. 
tropaeatus, 23, 5, 17 

VEGETIVS. 
acutatus, Vet. 1, 22 

AMBKOSIVS. 
toxicatus, 9 rfe Tob. 7, 26 

HlEKONTMVS. 

farinafrus, Nom. Hebr. col. 8 
fuliginatus, Ep. 54, 7 
inuittattts, .Re*?. Pack. 101 

AVGVSTINVS. 

liciatus, (Ti'tt. Dei 22, 14 ; aJ. 
situatus, adFr. Erem. Serm. 37 
uxoratus, Sei'm. 116, 4 Jfai / al. 

MARCELLVS EMPURIOVS. 
caniculatus, 14, 64 
ficatum, 6 s. n., 22, 34 
susinatus, 7, 20 

THEODOKVS PRISCIANVS. 
sambticatus, de Diaet. 12 
saponatum, s. n., 1, 16 



PSEYDO-APIOIVS. 
anetbatus, 6, 239 ; al. 
conchiclatus, 5, 4 
coriandratus, 8, 388 
insiciatus, (esiciatus), 8, 402 ; al. 
iuscellatus, 8, 394 
liquaminatus, 8, 373 ; al 
oenogaratus, 8, 329 ; al. 
omentatns, 2, 40 > 
rapulatus, 4, 153 

MABTIANVS CAPE&LA. 
perpendiculatus, 6, 593 
sertatus, 1, 35 ; al. 

CAELTVS AVREMANYS. 
carnatus, Chron. 1, 4, 95 
meratus, Id. 1, 1, 17 ; al. 

SlDONIVS APOLIjINAiaS. 

aureatus, Carm. 9, 396 
castorinatus, Ep. 5, 7 
foraminatus, Id. 2, 2 
sapphiratus, Poe^. ^>. 2, 10 
tiaratus, .EJ). 8, 3 
tintiunabulatns, Id. 2, 2 

FvTjGENTIVS. 

centratus, Myth. 1, 11 
pecuatus, in Moral. 35 

VENANTTVS FOBTVNATVS. 
margaritatus, 8, 6, 266 
sculpt oratus, 9, 15, 8 

ISIDOKVS. 

cncullatns, 19, 24, 17 
laculatus, 22, 19, 11 
manicleatus, 19, 22, 8 
phoenicatus, 7 12, 1, 49 
sphingatus, 20, 11, 3 



1 Vulg. a Ps.-Apic. s A mm. Ps. -Apic.; Beda. 8 Mythogr. Lat Ps.- 
Apic.; Gael. Anr.; AnthoL Lat. 7 Form -ciaiws, Seru. Verg. Ge. 3, 83. 



J85. -IMVB.] ROMAN SEBMO PLEBEIVS. 139 

35. ADJECTIVES IN -inus : Aside from the nomina gentilia 
in -Inus, as Latinus, Praenesiinus, etc., forms in -inus, -a, -urn 
are not numerous, and although belonging largely to the older 
language, are rare in writers of the best period. Paucker's list, 1 
which, while not exhaustive, is sufficiently complete to form a 
basis for comparison, contains, exclusive of the distributive 
numerals bini, trini, etc., 192 forms. Of these, 135, or over 70$, 
are uett., yet I have been able to find in Cic., aside from the 
Epistt., only the following 23 examples, most of them preva- 
lent throughout the language : 

caprinus, inquilinus, pistrintim, 

clandestinus, intestinus, popina, 

concubinus, -na, libertkms, pruina, 

ctilina, marinus repentinus, 

equinus, matutinus, sagina, 

genuinus, medicinus, -na, sobrinus -na, 

haedinus, officina, supinus. 

haruspicinus, peregrinus, 

A majority of the adjectives of this termination are derived 
from the names of animals, and in these the importance of the 
class centres, in regard to the sermo plebeius. Out of Pauck- 
er's list, 104, considerably more than half, are thus formed, 
uett. 65, recc. 29. Of these the majority occur in early comedy 
and in the Script! B. B. Their use by classic writers is chiefly 
confined to proverbial expressions, in which they are frequent 
at all periods of the language, a farther evidence of their pop- 
ular character. I have found only 5 in Cic., caprinus, *equinus, 
haedinus, miluinus, columbinus, the last two in the Episit., and 
both used proverbially, plures pauones confeci, quam tu pullos 
columbines, ad Fam. 9, 18, 3 ; Liciniumplagiarium cum suopullo 
miluino, ad Qu. Fr. 1, 2, 2, 6, with which may be compared 
Plant. Pseud. 851, an tu inuenire postulas quemquam coquum, 
nisi miluinis aut aquilinis ungulis f ; Petr. 42, mulier quae mulier 
miluinum genus ; Apul. Met. 6, 27, miluinos oculos effugere? 

I have found no occurrence of such adjectives in Caes. or 
Nep. Sail, has two instances, ferinus, caninus, the latter quoted 
from Appius, in the phrase canina facundia, which is an espe- 
cially frequent popular metaphor; compare Ouid. Ib. 230, 

1 Paucker, Spicilegium, p. 203, not. 53. 2 Otto, Tiersprichwortern, ALL., in, p. 
395, u Der Falke erscheint sprichwSrtlich aJs gierig und hungrig." 



140 WORD FORMATION IN THE [35. -INVS. 

latrare canina uerba in foro ; Quint. 12, 9, 9, canina, ut ait Ap- 
pius, eloquentia ; Pers. 1, 109, canina littera ; Colum. 1, praef, 9, 
sed ne caninum quidem sicut dixere ueteres locupletissimum 
quemque adlatrandi ; Petr. 42, ego uerum dicam, qui linguam 
caninam comedi / Hier. Ep. 50, 1, libros canino dente rodere, etc. 1 

On the other hand these adjectives are frequent in all the 
usual sources of plebeian Latin. Plaut. is fond of them, using 
no less than 15, of which 4, catulinus, formicinus, noctuinus, 
soricinus, are a?ra ei/o^cVa. They occur largely in proverbial 
expressions and metaphors; e.g., Kud. 5B3,utinamfortuna nunc 
Me anetina uterer ; True. 780, quamquam uos colubrino ingenio 
ambae estis; Men. 888, moue formicinum gradwn ; Pseud. 967, 
Heus tu, qui cum hirquina bar ba astas ; Cure. 191, Tune etiam 
cum noctuinis oculis odium me uocas f Epid. 18, caprigenum 
Tiominum non placet mihi neque pantherinum genus, etc. The 
satirists, as usual, are well represented. Lucil. has 3, 1 from 
Plaut., 2 new ; Hor. has 5, only one of which occurs in the 
Carm., and that in a proverbial phrase, Carm. 1, 8, 9, sanguine 
uiperino cautius uitare ; In Ep. 1, 18, 15, he has another prov- 
erb, de lana caprina rixari, with which compare Yarr. Sat. 
Men. 71, caprinum proelium. Pers., besides the canina littera 
above cited, has the undoubtedly vulgar form caballinus, in his 
Prologue. From luuen. may be cited Sat. 14, 251, longa et 
ceruina senectus ; Id. 16, 21, dignum erit . . . mulino corde 
Vagelli ; Id. 10, 271, canino rictu. As further instances of such 
popular phrases, compare Phaedr. App. 23, (Anth. Lat. 822 R.), 
ubi leonis pellis deficit uolpina est induenda ; Yarr. Sat. Men. 
575, prandium caninum ; Apul. Met. 2, 9, coruina nigredine, 
(conf. Petr. 43, niger tamquam coruus)* ; Dig. 17, 2, 29, 2, 
Aristo refert : Cassium respondisse, societatem talem coiri non 
posse ut alter lucrum tantum, alter damnum sentiret, et Jianc so- 
cietatem leoninam solitum appellare. 

But it is in the Scriptt. B. B. that these adjectives abound. 
Thus Yarr. has 14, only 8 of which are found earlier ; Col. and 
Pall, have 7 each, the majority from Yarr., while Plin. is the 
most prolific of all, using 23 from the older language, and add- 
ing 11 others. In the Scriptt. B. B. these words are largely 
used in connection with stercus, or fimus, as s. asininum, Yarr. 

i Otto, I. L, p. 390. * Otto, I. I, p. 384, " Wie der Weisse Schwan, so 1st auch der 
schwartze Babe sprichwortlich." 



35. -INVS.] EOMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 141 

1, 38, 2 ; /. caballinus, Plin. 29, 102 ; s. caprinus, Cato R. JR. 36 ; 
s. equinum, Varr. R. R. 1, 38, 3 ; /. murinus, Plin. 29, 106 ; /. tau- 
rinus, Id. 28, 232 ; etc. It may have been partly this association 
which caused these adjectives to be avoided by the best writers. 
Like some other classes prevalent in rustic Latin, these ad- 
jectives have given rise to numerous names of Divinities ; e. g., 

Cnnina, Varr. ap. Non. 167, 32 ; Nemestrinus, Id. 4, 7 

Lact.; Augustin. Potina, Varr. ap. Non. 108, 19; 

Fabulinus, Varr. ap. Non. 532, 27 Augustin. 

Ingatinus, Aug. Ciu. Dei 6, 7 Kusina, Augustin. C. D. 4, 8 

Libentina, Varr. L. L. 6, 48 ; al. Eumina, Varr. R. R. 2, 11, 5 ; al. 

Liinentina, Tert. Idol. 15 ; al. ; Ar- Sentinus, Id. ap. Aug. Ciu. Dei 7, 
nob. 2; Tert. 

Lucina, passim, Statina, Tert. adu. Nat. 2, 11 ; al. 

Meditrina, Paul, ex Fest.p. 123, 15 Tutilina, Varr. L. L. 5, 163 ; et AL 

Montinus, Arnob. 49 Volutina, Aug. Ciu. Dei 4, 8 

As has been said, these adjectives became less popular in 
the later language ; they occur abundantly, however, in the 
Romance languages, 1 owing partly, perhaps, to their fusion 
with forms in -inus, caused by the shifting of accent to the 
short vowel in the latter suffix. Like some other suffixes de- 
noting resemblance, -inus acquired later a diminutive force, the 
idea of resemblance merging in that of not quite equaling, and 
so of being inferior to, or smaller than, the object of compari- 
son. 2 That the transition began in Latin is shown by the ex- 
amples cited by Paucker, mollidna (uestis), quoted from Nou. 
Pedio by Non., and a still stronger case from the Nott. Tir. 
1 geminus, gemettus, gemininus.' 3 In the modern languages the 
prevailing force of the suffix is diminutive, especially in Ital. 
and Port., where it is frequent both with subst. and adj.; 4 
thus Ital., subst. bambino, bottegJiino, cMesino, principino, signo- 
rino, tavolino ; adj. bellino, bonino, pianino ; Span., subst. col- 
larin, Idbrantin ; anadino, palomino, porcino ; adj. verdino ; 
Port., copkino, filhino ; adj. branquinho, docezhino, rotinho, etc. 
In Fr. the diminutive force is less frequent ; Diez cites only 
fortin, ignorantin. 5 

1 Diez, p. 649 sq. ; Meyer-Lubke, 490. Conf. infra, 39 ; Meyer-Liibke, 
Gramm. d. Bom. Spr. II, p. 493 ; conf. contra Goelzer, p. 154, " II y en a un autre en 
Latin ; c'est un suffixe plutot grec que latin ; il a la valeur d'un diminutif et se retrouve 
non senlement dans les langues romanes, mais meme dans le latin du moyen-age (caaina 
vallina)," citing Schwabe, De deminutiuis graecis et latinis, Gissae, 1859, p. 57. 
3 Paucker, Spicilegium, p. 204, not. 53. * Meyer-Lubke, Gramm. d. Rom. Spr. II, p. 
493. s Diez, p. 651, but compare Etienne, de Deminutiuis, etc. in Francogallico s?r- 
mone nominibus, Paris, 1883, p. 61, sq. 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[35. -INV8. 



In the following list, forms not from names of animals are 
italicized. 



NAEVIVS. 
*orcinus, 1 ap. Gett. 1, 24 Codd. 

PLAVTVS. 

agninus," Pseud. 319 
anetinus, 3 Hud. 533 
aquilimts, 4 Pseud. 852 
caninns, 5 Gas. 973 
cantherinus,' Men. 395 
catulinus, ap. Paul, ex Fest. 45, 3 
clurinus,' True. 269 
colubrinus, 8 Id. 780 
formicinus, Men. 888 
furinus, Pseud. 791 
hircinus, 8 Id. 967 
hirundinimis, 10 Rud. 598 
leoninns, ll Jtfen. 159 
miluinus," Pseud. 852 
noctuinus, (noctua), Cure. 191 
pantherinus, 13 .E^id, 18 G. 
soricinus, Bacch. 889 

CATO. 

caprinns, 14 R.R. 36 
columbiniTS, 15 Id. ib. 
pecninus," Id. 132, 2 
ueterinus," qp. Fest. p. 369 

PACWIVS. 
anguinus, 18 TV. 3 



TEKENTIVS. 

mustelinus," Eun. 689 

TITUSIVS. 
femininus, 10 Com. 171 

Accrvs. 
uiperinns, 81 TV. 552 

LVCHJVS. 

aprinns," Fr. Inc. 121 
equinus," Sat. 5, 21 

POMPONIVS. 
passerinus, Com. 177 

VARBO. 

asininns, 54 R. R. I, 38, 2 
ceruinns, 85 7cZ. 3, 9, 14 
figlinus, Id. 3, 9, 3 
leporintrs,* 7 /rf. 2, 11, 4 
murinus, 28 Sa*. .Men. 358 
pauoninus, 2 ' R. R. 3, 9, 10 
paupertinus, 30 ap. Non. 162, 23 
ricinus, (rica), Sat. Men. 433 
*sninns, 31 R. R. 2, 4, 8 codrf. 
sutrinns, M Z. L. 5, 93 
tibinus, Sat. Men. 132 



Suet. ; ICt. Titin. ; Varr. ; Plin. ; Pelag. Vet. ; ICt. *./. Petr. * Apnl. ; Tert. ; 
Dar. Phryg. Appius ap. Sail ; Lucil. ; Varr. ; On. ; Gels. ; CoL ; Pers. ; Petr. ; Plin. ; 

lunen. ; Val. Max. ; Tert ; Aur. Viet. ; Hier. ; Augustin. Col. ; Plin. ; Pall. 7 Arnob. 
8 Tert. ; s.f. A pul. Hor. Sat ; Plin. ; Apnl. ; Solin. ; Arnob. ; Prud. ; Amm. ; *./. =Gloss. 
Labb. >Plin.;Mart " Varr.; Vitr.; Plin.; Val. Max.; Vlp. Dig. "Cic.Q. Fr.;Col.; 
Plin. ; PanL ex Fest.; Solin. 1J Plin. 14 Varr. ; Ci&, semel, (N. D. 1, 29, 82); Hor. Ep. ; 
Liv.; CoL "Varr.; Cic. Ep.; Hor.; Gels.; Plin.; PalL; s. m. Mart.; Edict. Diocl. 
18 Apul. " Lucr.; Plin.; Arnob.; s.f. Varr.; Plin. 18 Varr. ; Catull. ; Plin. 19 Plin. 
ao Varr. ; Plin. ; Quint. ; Apol. ; Vlp. Dig. ; Arnob. ; Vnlg. ai Hor. ; Plin. ; Oros. ; s/. Apul. 
M Solin.; Angustin. ; Gloss. Labb. " 3 Varr.; Cic., semel, (*Tusc. 5, 21, 62); Hor.; Vopisc.; 
Solin. ; Vulg. Plin. ; Gael. Anr. Hor. ; On. ; Calp. ; Col. ; Plin. ; Inuen. ; PalL ; . /. 
Edict Diocl. Vitr. ; Plin. ; Gael. Anr. ; form -ulinus Arnob. ; s. f. Varr. ; Plin. ; 
Inscrr. Gels. ; Plin. ; Lampr. ; ICt. ; s. f. Gloss. Labb. 2 CoL; Plin.; lustin.; Pall. 
29 CoL ; Petr. ; Mart.; Tert. ; Pall. GelL ; ApuL ; Arnob. ; Symm. ; Ampi. ^ Prise. ; Th. 
Prise. " Vitr.; Tac.; *./., con/, supra, 



I 35. -INVS.] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



143 



LVCRETIVS. 

ferinus, 1 5, 1418 
taurimis, 3 6, 1069 

VlTRVVlVS. 

mulinus, 8 8, 3, 16 



anserinus, 4 5, 21, 4 
felinus, 5, 18, 15 

PHAEDKVS. 

masculinus, 8 4, 14, 15 
uulpinus, 8 1, 28, 3 

COLVMELLA. 

pristinus, (pristis), 11, 2, 5 ; al. 
ursinus, 1 Arb. 15 

PERSIVS. 
caballirras, 8 Prol. 1 

PUNIVS. 

*abacinus, 35, 3, ed. Detl. 
aluinus, 21, 172 
camelinus, 9 11, 261 ; al. 
coruinus, 10 10, 32 
fibrimis, 11 32, 110; al. 
maiorinus, 1 * 15, 15 
uitellinus, 16, 177 
palumbinus, 13 30, 110 
pullinus, 14 8, 172 
scrofinus, 15 28, 163 
spadoninus, 15, 130 
struthocamelinus, 29, 96 



subalpinus, 25, 71 
tigrimis, 13, 96 
uaccinus, 16 28, 185 
Tralturinus," 29, 123 

GELMVS. 
beluinus, 18 19, 2, 2 

APVTiETVB. 

naccinus, Met. 9, 27 
simininus, 19 Herb. 86 

TEBTVIiUANYS. 

molinus adu. Marc. 4, 35 

PALLAJDIVS. 
phasianinus, 31 1, 29, 2 

PLINIVS VALEBIANVS. 
capreolirms, 5, 30 
ericinus, 22 5, 33 
gruinus, 33 Id. ib. 
ibicinus, 5, 45 
pecorinus, 24 5, 43 
struthioninus, 2, 30 

AVCT. ITIN. AI-EX. 
subaquilinus, 6 

VEGETIVS. 
bubulinus, 26 Vet. 3, 4, 29 ; al. 

AMBBOSIVS. 

serpentinns, 36 in Luc. 2, 2, 51 
castorinus, 37 de Dign. Sacerd. 4 



i Sail. ; Verg. ; On. ; Sen. ; Plin. ; GelL ; Amm.; Porphyr. ad Hor. ; s./.=Verg. ; Val. Fl. ; 
Plin. * Catull. ; Verg. ; On. ; Cels. ; Plin. ; Stat. ; Claud. ; Edict. Diocl. ; s.f. =Anthol. Lat. 
Hin. ; luuen. 4 Col. ; Petr. ; Plin. ; Gloss . Labb. * Plin. ; Casell. Vindex ap. Gell. ; 
Quint. ; Apul. ; Charis. ; Grammatt. ; adu. =Paul. ex Fest. ; Arnob. e Plin. ; Grat. 7 Plin. ; 
Veget. Mil. ; Gell. ; PalL ; Isid. ; Edict. Diocl. ;./.=- Petr. Plin. Arnob. 10 ApuL 
Met.; Vulg.; worn, prop r., Coruinus, freq. "laid. " Cod. Theod. 1S Lampr.; Edict. 
Diocl. 14 Lampr. ; Oribas. ;./. = pg. -Apic. 16 Marc. Emp. ; s. /. Plin. Val. ; Gloss. 
Labb. i Marc. Emp. " Mart. s p ru d. ; I u l. Val. ; Augnstin. *IuL Obs. s. f. 
Amm.; Cassiod. ai Plin. Val. 22 Augustin. S3 Marc. Emp. M On. Lat. Gr. 
35 Marc. Emp.; Gargil.; Anthim. 2 Anguetin. " Marc. Emp. 



144 WORD FORMATION IN THE [36. -AKVS. 

HIEBONYMVS. ouillinus, Id. 3 ; al. 

eunuchinus, Ep. 22, 27 porcellinus, 3 Id. 6 

sturninus, in lesai. 66, 20 

SIDONIVS APOLLINABIS. 

AVGVSTINVS. barrinns, Ep. 3, 13 

cfoocwuw,' c. Faust. 20, 11 ciconinus, Id. 2, 14 

MARCELLVS EMPIRICVS. 

leopardinus, a 36, 5 GREOORIVS TVKONENSIS. 

taxoninus, Id. ib. suillinus, H. F. 10, 24 

THEODORVS PRISCIANVS. ANTHIMVS. 

bouinus, de Diaet. 15 agnellinus, 5 

36. ADJECTIVES IN -anus : There are two groups of these ad- 
jectives which are of some interest in connection with the 
sertno plebeius : a. those derived from other adjectives ; b. those 
formed by false analogy in -ianus. 

a. Adjectives in -anus are formed normally from substan- 
tives. A few however occur, derived from adjectives, with 
no further difference in meaning- than the increased emphasis 
gained by additional syllables, a class of formations thoroughly 
in keeping with the spirit of the sermo plebeius. They were 
first treated as such, by H. Schnorr v. Carolsfeld, who dis- 
cusses them at some length in the Archiv f. Lat. Lex., (I, p. 
188), and has been followed by Ulrich in his Programm on the 
use of words in Yitr. 4 The few examples which they are able 
to cite are confined chiefly to writers of inferior style. Lucil. 
affords the first, decimanus, in the sense of magnus, as decimus 
is often employed ; compare Ou. Met. 11,530, decimae ruit im- 
petus undae. Cic., aside from a single instance of Punicanus, 
has only rusticanus, usually coupled with a slight tinge of con- 
tempt, which suggests its kinship with the sermo rusticus ; 
compare Apul., rusticanus upilio. Only the forms from nu- 
merals, primanus, secundanus, etc. have come into general use, 
and these always in some specialized sense, generally that of 
milites primae, secundae, etc., legionis ; and even here the origin 
may be assigned to the sermo castrensis. 

1 (Venus) Cloacina, freq. Edict. Diocl. s Ps.-Apic.: Anthim. 

* H. Schnorr v. Carolsfeld, 1.1. " Diese Erscheinung gehort natiirlich der Vblks- 
sprache an;" cow/. Ulrich, Vitr. n, p. 4, "Scrmonis uulgaris proprium fuisse adi- 
ectiui primitini syllabarum mimernm aignificatione non mutata augere comprobatur 
uocabulis in anus cadentibus." 



36. -ANVS.] 



ROMAN 8ERMO PLEBEIVS. 



145 



The relation of these forms to the Romance languages is 
well established. Compare with medianus, Ital. mezzano, Pr., 
moyen, Span, mediano, and numerous new formations, Ital., 
certano, lontano, provano ; Fr., certain, lointain, prochain, Sp., 
certano, tardano, etc. 1 

The following 1 are the more important forms cited in the 
Archiv : 

LVCILIVS. TKEBELMVS POLLIO. 

decimanus, 8 (= magnus), Sat. 4, 6 Daciscarms, Claud. 17, 3 

Illyricianus, 7 Id. 14 

VAKBO. 
Punicanus, 3 It. It. 3, 7, 3 



ClCEBO. 

rusticanus, 4 freq. 

VITKVVIVS. 
medianus, B 5, 1, 6 ; aL 

PLINIVS. 

siccanus, 8 16, 72 
uarianus, (uarius), 14, 29 

MAKTIAUS. 
orcinianus, 10, 5, 9 



CHAIJCIDIVS. 
aquilonianus, Tim. 66 ; al. 

AVGVSTINVS. 
Italicianus, 8 Conf. 6, 10 

MAETIANVS CAPELLA. 
secundamis, ( = secundus) 1, 47 ; 
al. 

COD. THEOD. 
Castrensianns, 9 6, 32 

INSCBB. 

Asiaticianus, Inscrr. Orell. 2642 



b. Formations in -ianus, like Caesarianus, Ciceronianus, 
first arose through false analogy with forms from stems in 
-io-, -ia, the -i- being treated as if belonging to the suffix and 
not to the stem : thus Augustus : Augusianus Julius : luliamis 
Caesar : Caesarianus. Such usage was undoubtedly an out- 
growth of the sermo plebeius. No example is to be found 
earlier than Cic., who aside from the Epistt., admits no such 
forms in -ianus, except a few derived from nouns in -o, -onis, 
like Milonianus, Orat. 165, Neronianus, de Oral. 2,248, Pisoni- 
anus, Har. Resp. 2. Such a form as Caesarianus is not to be 

i Conf. Dicz, p. 647 ; ALL., I, p. 188 ; Meyer-Lubke, Gramm. d. Rom. Spr. II, p. 490. 

a Paul, ex Fest. p. 71, 5, decumana oua dicuntur et decuman! fluctus, quia sunt ma- 
gna. 3 Cic., semel, (Mur. 36, 75), P. lecluli, " also bei Gegenstanden des taglichen Le- 
bens," ALL., I, p. 188. Apul.; Butr.; Hier. Ep. 5 Vlp. Dig.; Veg. Vet ; Ps.-Apic.; 
Inscrr. Pelag. Vet. 1 Cod. Theod. 8 Cod. Theod. Cod. lust. 
10 



146 WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 36. -ANVS. 

found in either Caes. or Cic. 1 The latter uses the adj. Cae- 
sarinus, ad Alt. 16, 10. In the Auctt. Bell. Alex., Air., and 
Hisp., however, the form Caesarianus becomes common, prob- 
ably, as is suggested by H. Schnorr v. Carolsfeld, being bor- 
rowed from the sermo castrensis? The same would seem prob- 
able of many of the instances found in the later historians, 
as they are largely designations of political factions, as the 
JSrutiani, Crassiani, of Veil. Patr., or the Galbiani of Tac. 
Among the rare examples not derived from proper names, two 
deserve to be emphasized as originating in the sermo circensis, 
prasiniani, uenetiani. In later Latin this suffix largely re- 
placed the original one -anus, and is common in the modern 
languages ; compare Ital., italiano, prussiano, russiano, Fr., 
indien, italien, phenicien, prussien. 

The following forms, cited in the Archiv, will serve to show 
the development of this suffix : 

CICEKO (EPISTT.). VALEBIVS MAXIMVS. 

Lepidianus, 3 ad Alt. 16, 11, 8 Paulianus, 8 8, 11, 1 

Aver. BEE*. AFB. g^^ 

Caesarianus/ 59 Pliryxiana," ,./., Ben. 1, 3, 7 

Labiemanus, 21, 2 Seianianus, ad Marc. 1, 2, 3 

COBNELIVS NEPOS. 

Tamphilianus, Att. 13, 2 COLVMEOLA. 

Dolabellianus, 10 5, 10, 18 ; al. 
CATVLLVS. 

Thyonianns, 5 27, 7 PETRONIVS. 

T prasiniamis," 70, 10 

IVSTINVS. 

Histrianus, 9, 2, 1. PUMVS. 

SENECA RHETOR. Pseudodecimianus, 15, 54 

Montanianus, Contr. 9, 5, 17 Variamis, 14 7, 149 

VELLETVS PATEKCVIIVS. MARTIAMB. 

Brutianus, 6 2, 72 ; al Capellianus, 11, 31, 17 

Crassianus, 7 2, 82, 2 Catulliantts, 11, 6, 14 

1 ALL. , I, p. 185. " ein Caesarianus 1st also weder bei Cicero noch bei Caesar 
moglich, fehlt auch wirklich bei beiden ! " 2 ALL. I, p. 185, " oflfenbar der Soldaten- 
sprache entnommen." 

8 Macr. Sat. 4 Auct. Bell. Hisp. ; Auct. BelL Afr. ; Nep. . semel, (Att. 7, 1); Cels. ; 
Vopisc. ; Seru. ad Verg.; Cod. lust. 6 Auson. Val. Max.; Lact. r Plin.; Flor. 
8 ICt. *Adj., Plin. "Pirn. Capit. "Suet. 



87. -ARIVS.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 147 

Cosmianus, 3, 82, 26 ; al. Macrinianus, Anton. Diad. 1, 1 

Patroclianus, 12, 78, 9 Probianus, Alex. Seu. 40, 6 

TAOITVS. AMMIANVS MABCELUNVS. 

Augustianus, 1 Ann. 14, 15 Constantinianus, 9 27, 5, 1 ; al. 

Drusianus, Id. 2, 8 praefectianus, 10 17, 3, 6 ; al. 
Galbianus, Hist. 1, 51 

Lucullianus," Ann. 11, 32, 37 SEBVIVS. 

Deiotariamis, ad Aen. 9, 546 
SVETONTVS. 

Marcellianus, Fesp. 19 AVGVSTINVS. 

praetorianus, (praetor), Gonf. 6, 10 
TEBTVUJANVS. 

Chrestianus, Apol. 29 extr. MAKTIANVS CAPELLA. 

Valentinianus, 8 adu. Valent. I Caeciniana, s.f., 5, 527 

sq. Murenianus, 5, 525 

VLPIANVS. SIDONIVS APOLMKAEIS. 

Sabinianus, 4 Dig. 24, 1, 11 SymmacManus, Ep. 8, 10 

Theodoricianus, Id. 2, 1 extr. 
Iviovs PAVLVS. 
Pegasianus, 5 Sent. 4, 3, 4 FVLGENTTVS. 

magistrianus, Cant. Verg. p. 160 
SPARTIANVS. M. 

Commodianus, 8 Nigid. 6; al. 
Marcianus, 7 Setter. 7 INST. Ivsr. 

Largianus, 11 3, 7 extr. 
CAPITOLINVS. 

Faustinianus, Anton. Pii 8, 2 ; al. COBIPPVS. 

uenetianus, 8 Ver. 6, 2 lustinianus, loh. 5, 58 

LAMPBIDIVS. INSCBB. 

Agrippianus, Alex. Seu. 26, 7 Paelignianus, Inscrr. Or ell. 5466 

37. ADJECTIVES IN -arius : These adjectives, comprising 
one of the most numerous classes in the language, are propor- 
tionately rare in the literature of the best period, but like all 
words in heavy suffixes, were popular in the sermo plebeius. 
As has already been shown, the masc. and fern., used substan- 
tively as nomina personalia, to denote tradesmen, artizans, etc., 

i Tert. ; Gromat. Vet. ; Inscrr. a Suet. Tib. 73 = Lucullanus, " also von Georges 
tmrichtig Lucullianus zitiert," Schnorr v. Carolsfeld, ALL., 1, p. 186. 3 Lact. ; Cod. 
Theod. ICt 6 lust. Inst. CapitoL "> Capitol ; Inscrr. 8 Inscrr. Cod. 
Theod. 10 Cod. lust. Cod. lust. 



148 WORD FORMATION IN THE [37. -ARIVS. 

gained some acceptance in Ciceronian Latin, and became prev- 
alent in the later literature. 1 On the contrary the purely ad- 
jective use of these forms belongs principally to the earlier 
period, as a study of Paucker's tables makes apparent. 2 He 
gives a total of 1170 forms in -arius, -a, -um, of which 499, 
about 42 $, are uett., 671 recc. Of the former all but 25 % occur 
as adjectives, while of the recc. 409, or over 60 $, are found only 
as substantives. The remaining 262 are largely confined to 
the Inscriptions, or to the cumbersome phraseology of the 
jurists, which is a frequent vehicle for the preservation of 
archaisms. In the best period the limited number of these 
forms which occur as true adjectives fall largely into two 
categories : a. those borrowed from legal or mercantile phrase- 
ology ; b. those pertaining to military matters, and therefore 
presumably due to the influence of the sermo castrensis. Of 
the 18 occurring in Caes. all but 6 (aerarius, contrarius, extra- 
ordinarius, pecuniarius, temerarius, transuersarius), may reason- 
ably be assigned to the latter class : 

actuarius, (nauigium), frumentarius, (res, nauis), sexcentarius, (colors), 

alarms, (miles), legionarius, (miles), stipendiarius, (Aedui), 

ancorarhis, (funis), onerarius, (nauis), subsidiarius, (coJiors), 

beneficiarius, (miles), sarcinarius, (iumentum), uoluntarius, (miles). 

Cic. is somewhat more liberal in his use of these adjectives, 
employing outside of the Epistt., 49, or about 10 % of the uett., 
(4 fo of the whole). Besides 9 forms, which he uses in common 
with Caes., (actuarius, aerarius, contrarius, extraordinarius, fru- 
mentarius, pecuniarius, stipendiarius, temerarius, uoluntarius), 
I have found the following forms, many of them evidently be- 
longing to the legal (Leg.}, or military (Mil.) speech : 

admissarius, semel, compendiarius, semel, 

aduersarius, consectarius, semel, 

agrarius, (Leg.), coronarius, (Mil.), semel, 

anniuersarius, (Leg.), dodrantarius, (Leg.), 

aquarius, (Leg.), extrarius, 

arbitrarius, (Leg.), Februarius, 

anctionarius, (Leg.), gregarius, (Mil.), 

bustuarius, semel, hereditarius, (Leg.), 

Catilinarius, semel, honorarius, (Leg.), 

1 Conf. supra, 18. a Paucker, Spicilcgium, p. 233 sq. 



37. -AKIVS.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 149 

lamiarius, quadrantarius, (Leg.), 

iudiciarius, (Leg.), secundarius, 

librarius, semel, solitarius, 

mercenarius, statarius, semel, 

raulierarius, semel, talarius, semel et Epp. 

necessarius, testamentarius, (Leg.), 

nnmmarius, (Leg.), tignarius, bis, 

olearius, semel, tributarius, (Leg.) 

penarius, bis. tiicarins, semel, 

primarius, semel, uinarius, 

protelarius, (Leg.), uoluptarius. 

But the chief activity of these adjectives belongs to ar- 
chaic and rustic Latin. The prevalence in Plaut. of such forms 
as datarius, carcerarius, uirginarius, etc., many of them amx 
etp-fyueVa, has been noticed by Lorenz, and Stuenkel has pointed 
out their abundance in the JR. R. of Varr. and of Cato. 1 The 
latter is especially fertile in these forms, as is well exemplified 
in the llth chapter : operarios X, bubulcum I, asinarium I, salic- 
tarium I, . . . asinos plostrarios II, asinum molarium I : 
. . . frumentaria XX, . . . urceos mustarios X : . . . 
iugum plostrarium I, iugum uinarium I, iugum asinarium I, 
. . . urceos aquarios, . . . situlum aquarium /, . . . 
a/ream uestiariam I, armarium promptarium I, . . . rotam 
aquariam I, Idbrum lupinarium I, sportas faecarias III, molas 
asinarias III, . . . falces . . . arborarias III, . . . 
crates stercorarias IIII, sirpeam stercorariam 7", ... faculas 
rustarias X, etc. With this it is interesting- to compare a line 
in the Cato Maior of Cic. where the archaic style of Cato 
seems to have been imitated: semper enim boni assiduique 
domini referta cella uinaria, olearia, etiam penaria est, uillaque 
tola locuples est, dbundat porco, haedo, agno, gallina, lacte, caseo, 
melle, C. M. 18, 56. Of the 3 forms in -arius here occurring 
and all frequent in the Scriptt. B. B., olearius and penarius are 
found nowhere else in Cic., while a further proof of the ar- 
chaic tone of the passage lies in the remarkable instance of 
asyndeton, which is a distinct characteristic of early Latin and 
of Cato in particular. 2 

1 Lorenz, Pseud. 852; Staenkel, p. 43; conf. Schulze, Diss. Hal. VI. p. 173. 
s Holtze, Syntaxis, II, p. 212, " Maximo frequens est asyndeton in libro Catonis de re 
mstica" ; conf. Nagelsbach, Stilist., p. 656. 



150 WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 37. -ABIVS. 

Further evidence of the prevalence of these forms in the 
sermo rusticus is afforded by the large number of names of 
plants formed from the feminine in -aria, with or without her- 
ba ; e.g., h. canaria, Plin. 24, 176 ; h. ladaria, Id. 26, 62 ; h. la- 
naria, Id. 24, 168 ; piuitaria, Id. 23, 18 ; sanguinaria, Id. 27, 113 ; 
h. uerrucaria, Id. 22, 52 ; uesicaria, Id. 21, 177 ; h. pedicularia, 
Scrib. 166 ; arboraria, Apul. Herb. 98 ; parietaria, Id. 81 ; sata- 
naria, Id. 94 ; h. serpentaria, Id. 5 ; uitriaria, Id. 81, (h. perdica- 
lem Latini . . . parietariam, alii uitriariam appellant) ; ul- 
ceraria, Id. 45 ; pulicaria, Th. Prise. 1, 10 ; lucernaria, Marc. 
Emp. 20 ; h. balsamaria, Plin. Yal. 3, 15 ; hortaria, Ps.-Apic. 6, 
224 ; al. Compare also the words in -ariuxn, denoting- locality, 
so abundant in the Scriptt. H. 12., apiarium, columbarium, and 
which have already been considered in the chapter on substan- 
tives. 1 That these forms are largely archaic or vulgar is ap- 
parent from Gell. 2, 20, who cites roborarium from an oration of 
Scipio, and leporarium, mellarium, from the R. R. of Yarr., 
and expressly characterizes apiarium, uiuarium, as not in good 
usage : ' Viuaria ' autem quae nunc uulgus dicit, . . . kaut um- 
quam memini apud uetustiores scriptum ; ' Apiaria ' quoque uulgus 
died loca, in quibus siti sunt aluei apum, sed neminemferme, qui in- 
corrupte locuti sunt, aut scripsisse menini aut dixisse. Compare 
Yarr. JR. R. 3, 3, leporaria te accipere uolo non ea quae tritaui 
nostri dicebant . . . ; Id. 3, 12, nomine antico aparte quadam, 
leporarium appellatum. It is also worthy of note that while 
Col. employs apiaria, auiaria, uiuaria, he introduces them as 

translations of the Greek //.eAio-cruivcs, /oporpo^eta, Aayorpo^eta, with 

an apologetic ut Latine potius loquamur, 12. It. 8, 1, 3. 

Statistics also tend to confirm the rustic character of these 
adjectives. From Cato I have collected 22 ; Yarr. adds 15 ; Col. 
13 ; Plin., who was the last friend of these forms, 28. With Silver 
Latin their activity declined ; African Latin is poorly repre- 
sented ; Fronto adds 2 ; Apul. 8 ; Gell. and Tert. 4 each. Their 
rarity in later literature is striking; aside from the jurists, 
with whom these forms, both adjective and substantive, were 
popular, the greatest number in any author subsequent to Apul. 
is in the rustic writer Yeget., who adds 5, while Hier., in far 
more voluminous writings, gives only 1. The result of this 
tendency can be seen in the Romance languages, where the 

i Conf. supra, 19. 



37. -ARIVS.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 151 

substantives in -arius greatly outnumber the corresponding 
adjectives. 

Like certain other adjective suffixes prevalent in plebeian 
Latin, -arius was sometimes used to form derivatives from 
other adjectives, without any change in meaning-, but solely 
for the sake of the added syllables. 1 An example of such abuse 
of the suffix is already afforded in preclassic Latin, in the Plan- 
tine manifestarius, in place of the classical manifestus. Plin. 
has the a7ra Xey. crudarius = crudus, as a technical term used 
in mining- silver (argenti uena in summo reperta crudaria appella- 
tur, N. H. 33, 97). In the literature of the decadence they be- 
come more numerous ; Goelzer cites plenarius, Ennod., Cas- 
siod. ; mittendarius, Cod. Theod. ; referendarius, Cod. lust. 
Breuiarius, which as an adjective is not found outside of Dig. 
33, 8, 26, is frequent in Silver Latin as the s. n. breuiarium, of 
which Sen. says nunc uulgo breuiarium dicitur, olim, cum Latine 
loqueremur, summarium uocabatur (Sen. Ep. 39, 1). Such forma- 
tions are still found in the Romance languages ; Diez cites Fr. 
leger, plenier ; Ital. leggiero, plenario, etc. 

The following list comprises the more important adjective 
forms in -arius, grouped under the authors in whom they first 
occur as such, omitting for the sake of historical treatment all 
those which first occur in the language in the form of substan- 
tives. 

PLAVTVS. heptaiius, Cure. 239 

aurarius," Bacch. 229 lamentarius, Capt. 96 

carcerarius, 3 Capt. 129 lapidarius, 8 Capt. 723 

catapultarius, Cure. 689 manifestarius, 9 Aul. 479 ; al. 

cellarius, 4 Mil 845 * manubiarius, True. 880 

clitellarius, 6 Most. 780 patellarius, 10 Cist. 522 

consiliarius, 8 Epid. 159 patinarius, 11 Asm. 180 

crapularius, Stick. 230 piscarins, Gas. 499 

corcotarius, Aul. 521 polentarius I2 Cure. 295 

datarius, Pseud. 969 ; al. pollinarius, 13 Poen. 513 

escarius, 7 Men. 94 praesentarius, 14 Most. 361 

1 Goelzer, p. 147, " Quelquefois ils n'ajoutent aucune idee a 1'adjectif dont ils deriv- 
ent : la langue ne les choisit que parce qu'ils sent plus longs, et cela bien entendu, a 
1'epoque de la decadence." 

a Varr.; Plin. ; ICt. 3 s. m. Donat. ad Ter.; Inscrr. 4 Col. ; s. m. Plin. 6 Cato ; 
Col. Sen. ; Gell. 7 Varr. ; Plin. ; Vlp. Dig. ; s. n. Plin. ; luuen. 8 Petr. ; Inscrr. 
9 Gell. " Schol. Pers. Suet. ; P. Viet, de Reg. Vrb. ApuL Plin. > Gell. ; 
ApuL 



152 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[ 37. -ARIVS. 



promptuarius, 1 Amph. 156 
ridicularius," Asin. 330 
sectarius, Capt. 820 
sedentarius, 3 Aul. 613 
singularius, 4 Capt. 112 
nsurarius, 5 Amph. 498 ; al. 
uirginarius, Pers. 751 

CATO. 

amurcarins, R. JR. 10, 4 
arborarius, 6 Id. 10, 3 
articularius, 7 Id. 157, 7 
assarius, Id. 132, 2 
calcarius, 8 Id. 38, 1 
fabarius, 9 Jc?. 10, 5 
faecarius, Id. 11, 4 
faenarius, 10 M 10, 3 
farinarius, 11 Id. 76, 3 
fan-arias, 1 " Id. 10, 5 
glandarius," 7c?. 1, 7 
lupinarius, 7t7. 10, 4 
mustarius, /c?. 11 
pomarius, 14 Id. 48, 1 
quadragenarius, 15 7c7. 105, 1 
qtunquagenarius, 16 Id. 69, 2 
remissarius, /d. 19 ; fin. 
ruscarius," Id. 11, 4 
stercorarius, 18 Id. 10, 3 
straruentarius, Id. ib. 
subductarius, Id. 12 ; al. 
nestiarius, 1 ' Id. 11, 3 

TvKPiuvs. 
uulgarius, 110 Cbro. 205 



LVCILIVS. 
gradarius, 21 



. 14, 23 



VABBO. 

acinarius, jR. R. 1, 22, 4 
auiarius," 7rf. 3, 5, 13 
dossuarius, Id. 2, 6 fin. ; al. 
fructuarius, 2 ' Id. 2, 4, 17 
ganearius, /d. 3, 9, 18 
glebarius, L. L. 7, 74 
lactarius, 24 R. R. 2, 1, 17 
lumarius, L. L. 5, 137 
nouenarins," Id. 9, 86 
octingenarius, 48 J2. R. 2, 10, 11 
septingenarius, Id. ib. 
surcularius, 87 Id. 1, 2, 17 
torcularius, 88 Id. 1, 22, 4 
trecenarius, /rf. 1, 2, 7 
uectarius, Id. 2, 7, 15 

CICERO (Ensrr.). 
fenicularius, ad Att. 12, 8 
sumptuarius, 29 Id. 13, 47 ; al. 

CATYLLYS. 

semitarius, 37, 16 

VITKVVIVS. 

albarius, 30 5, 2, 2; al 
antarius, (dvraipat), 10, 2, 3 
arietarius, 10, 19, 6 
arrectarius, 2, 8, 20 
ductarius, 10, 2, 1 
muscarius, 31 7, 3, 11 



1 Cato ; ApnL ; Ambros. ; Symm. ; Auson. 2 Cato ; . m. Gell. 3 Col. ; Plin. 
Pan. ; Apul. Met. 4 TurpiL Com. ; GelL 5 Vlp. Dig. ; s. m. ICt. Varr. ; Plin. ; 
Solin. > Plin. * Plin. Macr. ; Inscrr. ' Varr. "Plin. Plin. " Varr. R R. 
14 *. w. = Lampr. ; Inscrr. ;..= Scriptt. R. R. ; Cic. , etc. ' 5 Vitr. ; Sen. Ep. ; Vnlg. 
" Varr. R. R. ; Vitr. 17 Varr. R. R. 18 Varr. ; Fest. " Scaeu. Dig. ; s. m. = Vlp. Dig. ; 
Inacrr. ; Porphyr. ad Hor . ; s. n. Sen. ; CoL ; Plin. ; Vopisc. ; Augustin. ; Cassiod. ; Gloss. 
Labb. so Af ran.; Nou. ; Gell. ; ApuL S1 Sen. Ep. w *. m. CoL ; . n. Cic. Ep. ; Verg. 
Ge. ; Col. ; Plin. 23 Cael. ap. Cic. Ep. ; Col. ; Plin. ; Gai. Inst : ICt. S4 Plin. ; Paul, ex 
Fest ; Lampr. ; lul. VaL ; Cassiod. Plin. ; Macr. ; Anson. 2 Prise. Plin. se Col. 
18 Suet ; Gell. so Tort. ; s. m. Cod. Theod. ; s. n. Vitr. ; Plin. Plin. ;.. Petr. ; 
Mart.; Veget. ; Inscrr. 



37. -AIUVS.] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



153 



phalangarius, ' (palangarius), 10, 

3,7 

plumbarius, 2 8, 7, 11 
quintarius, 8 3, 1, 6 
tepidarius, 4 5, 10, 1 
tricenarius, B 8, 6, 4 
nectiarius, 6, 6, 3 

CELSVS. 

aurictilaritis, 6 5, 28, 12 ; al. 
ocnlarius, 7 6, 6, 8 



defrutarius, 12, 19, 3 ; al. 
dupondiarins, 8 4, 30, 4 
lanarius, 9 11, 2, 35 
loliarius, 8, 5, 16 
oliuarius, 10 12, 49, 11 
pampinarius, 11 5, 6, 29 ; al. 
pnlmonarius, 12 7, 5, 14; al. 
qaaternarius, 13 11, 2, 26 
racemarius, 3, 18, 4 
ternarius, 14 11, 2, 28 
neterinarius, 7, 3, 16 
uiciarius, 8, 5, 16 
uinearius, 15 5, 6, 36 

PETEONTVS. 

caligarius, 18 74, 14 
laserpicarius, 35, 6 
micarius, 73, 6 
sestertiarius, 45, 8 & 11 
nenerarius, 17 61, 7 



PLINIVS. 
anatarius, 10, 7 
auenarius, 11, 94 
camerarius, 19, 70 
ceruarius, 18 27, 101 
condimentarius, 19 19, 105 
coquinarius, 20 32, 140 
coriarius, 24, 91 
cribrarius, 21 18, 115 
crudarius, 33, 97 
ducenarius,* 2 7, 83 
frondarius, 23 18, 314 
glaesarius, 4, 97 ; al. 
incendiarius, 24 10, 36 
laterarius 2B (later), 19, 156 
lutarius, 32, 32 ; al. 
inedicamentarius, 26 7, 196 
miniarius, 33, 118 ; al. 
naumacliiarius, 16, 190; al. 
nundinarius, 27 12, 80; al. 
odorarius, 28 12, 70 
ollarius, 29 34,98 
ostrearius, 30 18, 105 
porcarius, 31 11, 210 
purpurarius, 32 35, 46 
riparius, 33 30, 33 
spartarius, 31, 94 
stupparius, 19, 17 
uulnerarius, 23, 81; al. 

MARTI ALIS. 

dulciarius, 84 14, 222 Lemm. 



Non.; Inscrr. 2 Plin.; s. n. = Not. Tir. s Gromat. Vet. 4 Inscrr. 3 Sen.; 
Frontin. ; Paul, ex Fest. ; Tert. ; Arnob.; Augustin. ; Inscrr. 8 Vlp. Dig. ; Inscrr.; s. m. 
Vulg. "> Val. Max. ; Scrib. ; Hyg. ; Solin. ; Inscrr. Petr. ; Plin. Plin. ; Hier. ; 
Inscrr.; . m. Arnob.; Firm. Math.; Hier.; Inscrr. 10 Pompon. Dig. ll Plin. 

"Veget. " Plin.; Tert.; Lampr.; Mart. Cap.; Prob. 14 Auson. 15 Vlp. Dig.;s. m. ~ 
Rufin. " Plin. ; Charis. ; Inscrr. ; s. TO. Lampr.; Firm. Math.; Inscrr. " Schol. Bern, 
ad Verg. EcL " Paul, ex Fest.; Edict. Diocl. i Tert. *> PB.-Apic. (title) ; s. m. = 
Thorn. Thes. ai s. m. Gloss. Labb. 23 Suet. ; Cypr. ; Cod. lust. ; Inscrr.; a.m. 
Veget. ; s. /. = Apul. Met. 23 Gloss. Labb. 24 Lampr. ; Veget. ; Amm.; s. m. Tac. ; 
Suet. as s. m. Non. 2 s. m.&f. Cod. Theod. a7 Vlp. Dig. M Inscrr. * 9 Inscrr. 
30 s. n. Plin. ; Macr. ; Inscrr. ; s. m. = Thorn. Thes. 31 s. m. Firm. Math. 32 ICt. ; 
Inscrr. ; s. /. Vulg. ; Inscrr. 33 Suet. 3 * ApuL Met. ; Firm. Math. ; 5. m. Lampr. ; 
Valer. ap. Treb. Poll. ; Veget. ; Gloss. Labb. 



154 



[37. -ARIVS. 



infantarius, 1 4, 87, 3 
Diuarins, 14, 103 Lemm. 

FBONTO. 

fidicularius, de Eloq. 1, p. 146, 9 

if. 
usuarius, 2 ad Amic. 1, 14 

GELMVS. 

coniectarius, 3 13, 3, 1 
crepidarius, 13, 21, 8 
festucarius, 20, 10, 10 
septemtrionarius, 2, 22, 15 

APVMJIVS. 

iumentarius, 4 Met. 9, 13 
machinarius, 5 Id. 7, 15 
magnarius, 6 Id. 1, 5 
momentarius, 7 Id. 10, 25 ; al. 
monumental-ins, Flor. 4, p. 5, 4 

Kr. 

mntuarius, Apol 17 
parietarius, 8 Herb. 81 
ruderarius, Met. 8, 23 

TERTVLLIANYS. 

collegiarius, Spect. 11 
singillarius, Anim. 6 ; al. 
supputarius, Apol. 19 
nictuarius, Monog. 8 



thynnarius, /c?. 8, 4, 13 
uenaliciarius, 13 32, 1, 73 

SPARTIANVS. 
uehicularius, 14 Sever. 14, 2 

CAPITOUNVS. 
coactiliarius, 15 Pert. 3, 3 
trientarius, 16 Anton. Pn, 2, 8 

TBEBELIJVS POLLIO. 
ludiarius," Gallien. 3, 7 

LAMPKIDIVS. 

binarius, 18 J.fee. Sen. 39 
claustrarius, Heliog. 12, 2 ; aZ. 
itinerarius, 19 .4/ea;. Seu. 27,4; 

VOPISCVS. 
tenebrarius, Firm. 2, 2 

FIBMICVS MATEBNVS. 
spadicarius, Math. 3, 7, 1 

PALLADIVS. 

quartanarius, 20 2, 11 

AMMIANVS. 

clabnlarius, 21 20, 4, 11 
planarius, 22 19, 5, 2 
scenarius, 23 28, 2, 32 



VLPIANVS. 

caducarius, 9 Lib. Reg. 28 
casearius, Dig. 8, 5, 8, 5 
formacarins, Id. 9, 2, 27, 9 
peculiarins, 10 /< 15, 1, 4, 5 
Sagarins, 11 Id. 14, 4, 5, 15 
stationarius, 12 Id. 1, 12, 1; al. 



VEGETIVS. 

arcuarius, 24 Mil. 2, 11 
Dianarius, Vet. 3, 6, 7 ; al. 
quingentarius, Mil. 2, 6 
supermini evarius, 25 Id. 3, 18; al. 
trepidiarius, Vet. 2, 28, 37 

1 Tert. 2 ICt. 3 Gloss. Labb. 4 lauol. Dig.; Inscrr.; Gloss. Labb. 6 Solin. ; 
ICt.; Inscrr. 8 Inscrr. 7 Lampr.;ICt. 8 Aur. Viet.; Firm. Math.; Edict. Diocl.; In- 
scrr. 8 Augustin.; s. m. =Gloss. Labb.; Gl. Paris. 10 Pompon. Dig.; Marcian. Dig. ; 
Inscrr. " Schol. luuen. ; Inscrr. 12 Amm. ; Augustin. ; Cod. Theod. ; Cod. lust. ls ICt. 
14 Capit.; Amm.; Inscrr. ls s. m. = Gloss. Labb. 16 Lampr. "Inscrr. 18 Augustin.; 
Prob.;Isid. 19 Amm.; Veget. 20 Sex. Placit.; Greg. Hist.; Schol. luucn. 21 Cod. 
Theod. M Cod. lust. 23 Inscrr. s.m. Dig. Augustin.; Cod. Theod. 



3&-OBivs.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIV8. 155 

AMBBOSIVS. CAELIVS AVKELIANVS. 

decimarius, in Ps. 128 Serm. 8, calycularius, Chron. 2, 13, 159 
4 ; al. litorarius, Chron. 5, 11, 134 ; al. 

HlEKONYMVS. SlDOMVS APOLUNARIS. 

millenarius, 1 in Am. 2, ad. 5, 3 colonarius," Ep. 5, 19 

prosarius, Id. 3, 14 ; al. 
AVGVSTINVS. 

conditarius, Ciu. Dei, 22, 8, 10 ISIDOKVS. 

dominicarius, Ep. 36, 21 ceroferarius, 7, 12, 29 

retrarins, Serm. 105, 5 trinaiius, 3, 6, 4 ; al. 

undenarius, Id. 83, 7 ; al. trigonarius, 18, 69, 2 

38. ADJECTIVES IN -orius : A survey of the prevailing ple- 
beian adjectives would be incomplete without some discussion 
of those in -orius, if only because of their prevalence in Tert., 
who is generally a safe criterion for the usages of the later 
popular Latin. Like the kindred adjectives in -rims, (conf. 
calef actor ius, calefactiuus ; concertatorius, concertatiuus ,' horta- 
twius, kortatiuus), the forms in -orius belong principally to 
the post-classical period. Paucker has devoted an interesting 
monograph to these words, containing a list of 554 forms, of 
which 420 are recc., while of the uett. only 34 occur in Caes. or 
Cic. 3 He is able to cite only 6 from pre-classical literature, 
but notes particularly their abundance in Plin. and later writers, 
and especially in juridical Latin. The neuter substantives in 
-orium are notably rare in writers of the best period ; out of 
a total of 120 forms, comprising almost one-fourth of Paucker's 
list, Cic. uses only 2, deuersoriiim, tectorium. They have ac- 
cordingly been frequently classed among vulgar substantives, 4 
while Schulze, after carefully recapitulating the statistics of 
Paucker, does not hesitate to assign the adjectives in -orius as 
a whole, to the sermo plebeius. 5 It is not surprising that they 
were in the main avoided by the classic writers, who show a 
marked aversion for compound suffixes (conf. -bili-tas, -osi- 
tas, -ul-aster, etc.), to which category these adjectives proper- 
ly belong. They are regularly formed from verbal stems, 
through the medium of nomina agentis in -tor, (-sor), the 

1 Augustin.; Prise.; Cassiod. 2 Cod. lust. 

3 Paucker, Materialien, IL, p. 1 sq. 4 Conf. Ronsch, p. 33 sq.; Goelzer, p. 31. 
'Schulze, Diss. Hal. VI., p. 178, "non dubito haec adjectiua sermoni uulgari imprimis 
posterioris aetatis adscribere." 



156 WORD FORMATION IN THE 

force of -which suffix has been quite lost in the great majority 
of these derivatives. A comparatively small number however 
retain a denominative force, notably those derived from words 
denoting social or official rank, such as senatorius, quaestorius, 
etc., and some others in which the notion of the agent predom- 
inates over that of the action, either always, or in certain con- 
nections, as in the case of prouocatorius, cited by Paucker, which 
in the phrase dona prouocatoria is denominative, (= prouocatori 
data), but is verbal in medicamentum prouocatorium uentris, (= 
quod uentrem prouocaf). The great majority, however, more 
than 86 $, are purely verbal. According to Paucker, the latter 
are neither confined to, nor proportionally more numerous in 
the later period, but his own statistics fail to sustain this as- 
sertion. 1 Of the 76 examples which he cites as wholly or in 
part denominative, 44, or more than four-sevenths, are uett., a 
proportion which at first sight does not seem remarkable. 
They form however 32 % of all the itett., while the remaining 32 
denominatives are only 7 fo of the recc. The ratio in classical 
Latin is still more significant. Silver Latin, including Vitr., 
has 69 forms in -orius, of which 10 are denominative ; the 6 
pre-classical forms include 2 denominatives ; consequently, by 
making the requisite subtractions, we find that during the 
Ciceronian and Augustan period there was a proportion of 
54 % in favor of the denominative forms. The usage of Cic. 
is in this respect especially instructive. Aside from the Epistt., 
he uses as adjectives only the following 24 forms in -orius : 

accusatorius, dictatorius, praediatorius, 

aleatorius, gladiatorius, praetorius, 

amatorius, imperatorius, quaestorius, 

censoritis, meritorius, recuperatorius, 

concertatorius, messorius, saltatorius, 

damnatoritis, nugatorius, senatorius, 

declamatorius, oratorius, tonsorius, 

desultorius, pacificatorius, ueteratorius. 

The forms italicized in the above list are given by Paucker 
as denominatives, and perhaps messorius might be included 
also. Of the remaining five, only accusatorius is of frequent 
occurrence ; the others occur but once each, and damnatorius, 

1 Conf. Paucker, 1. I., p. 14, "die grosse Masse der auf -orius ausgehenden . . . 
verbale Bedeutung aufweist, und zwar nicht etwa erst oder mehr nur in spilterer Zeit." 



38. -OEIVS.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 157 

a doubtful reading, (in Verr. 2, 3, 22), is not cited from Cic. by 
Paucker. Caes. is still more conservative : I have found but 
tliree instances of verbal adjectives; naues piscatoriae, Bell. 
Ciu. 2, 4 ; nauigia speculatoria, Sell. Gall. 4, 26 ; nauigia uec- 
toria, Id. 5, 8, (thus only in connection with ships ; conf. nauis 
praedatoria, Plaut. ; sulcatoria, (nauis), Cassiod.). On the 
other hand in writers of inferior style the verbal force predom- 
inates ; e. g. out of 4 cited below from Plaut., 3 are verbal ; 
so also all the forms cited from Cato, the Epistt. of Cic., 1 the 
Auct. Bell. Alex., and Vitr.; in Silver Latin the proportion of 
verbals is about 5 to 1. In view of these facts it would seem 
as though the classic writers regarded the forms in which the 
notion of the agent was retained as simple derivatives in -ius, 
the syllable tor being- here felt to belong rather to the stem 
than to the suffix, as senator-ius, (caliga) speculator-ia, while in 
those in which the verbal notion predominated, tor having 
lost its special force became merged in the suffix; thus 
salta-torius, (nauis) specula-t(yria. If such a distinction existed in 
the minds of the Romans it would account for the prevalence 
of the latter class in popular Latin, according to its admitted 
preference for heavy terminations. 

It is important in connection with the preceding, to notice 
the considerable number of forms in -orius for which corre- 
sponding substantives in -tor, (-trix), did not exist, or at least 
are not found in extant Latin. It is natural to infer that a large 
proportion of these were formed by analogy directly from verb- 
al stems. Paucker has grouped together 100 such forms, of 
which all are recc., excepting 18, which are plainly confined to 
the sermo cotidianus. Aside from the Epistt., Cic. has the 
single example meritorius, (in the phrase pueri meritorit), 
which finds its excuse in the substantive meretrix, so closely 
connected in signification as well as form. Of the remaining 
17, 2 are pre-classical, Plaut. uorsoria, Cato, praeductorius; Yarr. 
has 1, seclusorium, Cic. Ep. 2, candidatorius, legatorius ; Vitr., 
tractorius. The remainder belong to Silver Latin : Sen. Eh., 
defunctorius ; Sen., decretorius, opertorium ; ~Pet,T.,perfunctorie; 
Plin., astrictorius, concalf actor ius, extractor ius, gemitorius, suppu- 

1 Among them 2 formed directly from the verbal stem, legatorius, candidatorius, 
which Paucker cites, (1. Z., p. 15), adding " wozu als drittea monstrum das spatlatein- 
ische praefectorius kommt." 



158 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[ 38. -ORIVS. 



ratorius ; Mart., amictorium ; Plin. Ep., bellatorius. The popular 
character of this mode of formation is further indicated by the 
usage of the Romance languages, which freely form these ad- 
jectives from verbs, in absence of forms in -tor. Diez com- 
pares ItaL, bravatorio,pe?isatojo ; Span., embaxatorio, moriuo-rio, 
etc. 1 They are most frequent in Rumanian, which forms them 
from any verb at pleasure. 2 

In post-classical Latin the denominatives are proportion- 
ately so few that it is unnecessary to treat them separately. 
The suffix becomes far more frequent and is noticeably prev- 
alent in the jurists, ranking next in popularity to the similar 
ending -arius, as is shown by the following list of new forms 
due to juridical Latin : 



adjuratorius, 

aestimatorius, 

appellatorius, 

aratorius, 

assertorius, 

assessorius, 

balneatorius, 

captatorius, 

circitorius, 

cognitorius, 

commissorius, 

compromissorius, 

confessorius, 

constitutorius, 

curatorius, 

delegatorius, 

deportatorius, 

derisorius, 

derogatorius, 

digestorius, 



dilatorius, 

dimissorius, 

exclusorius, 

exMbitorius, 

fldeiussorius, 

fraudatorius, 

fmstratorius, 

halucinatorius, 

indutorius, 

institutorius, 

iuratorius, 

mandatorius, 

moratorius, 

nominatorius, 

obligatorius, 

perlusorius, 

petitorius, 

possessorius, 

praefectorius, 

praeparatorius, 



procuratorius, 

protectorius, 

redhibitorius, 

refutatorius, 

rescissorius, 

restitutorius, 

rosorius, 

sectoring, 

secutorius, 

successorius, 

tributorius, 

admonitorium, 

armifactorium, 

citatorinm, 

coopertorium, 

directorium, 

piperatorium, 

repertorium. 



Aside from the jurists, the use of forms in -orius belongs 
largely to the African writers. Their prevalence in Tert. and 
Cass. Fel. has been noted by Paucker, 3 while "Wolfflin and 
Kiibler have both regarded the use of the subst. adlutoriwn for 
adiumentum as characteristic of the African medical writers. 4 

1 Diez, p. 662, "Analoge Adj. entstehen fast schlechthin aus Verbis, ohne der 
Subst. auf tor zu bediirfen." a Diez, I. I. 3 Paucker, 1. 1. p. 14. 4 Wolfflin, Cass. 
Fel. p. 395 ; Kiibler, ALL. VUL, p. 167, who also cites under his Lexicalische Be- 



3a -OBIVS.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 159 

It is true that in Fronto, Gell., and Apul. the suffix is compar- 
atively rare, as it also is in early Latin, a coincidence which 
agrees with the recognized archaic tendency of these writers. 
Nevertheless they each add two forms to the language, and 
Fronto has a third, olfactorius, which occurs previously only as 
a neuter substantive. In most of the other African writers ad- 
jectives in -orius abound, although the substantives in -orium 
are less characteristic. Tert., the chief source of ecclesiastical 
vocabulary, introduces 34 new adjectives ; his fellow-country- 
man, Augustin., adds 20, while Hier. on the contrary, who 
usually ranks next to Tert. in fertility, adds only 3 ; Gael. Aur. 
gives 6, Cass. Fel. 13. In substantives in -orium the propor- 
tions are quite different. Tert. gives only 4, Augustin. 3, Gael. 
Aur. 2, Cass. Fel. none at all, while Hier. has not less than 5, 
and Bonsch cites 21 found in the Vulgate. 1 The Gallic 
writers Greg. Tur. and Ven. Fort, give respectively 2 and 1 
new substantives, but no adjectives, a fact interesting in rela- 
tion to modern French, which is fertile in new substantives, 
but has few adjective forms. 2 

In the following list the substantives in -orium have been 
grouped separately. 

a. Adjectives. 
PLAVTVS. CICERO (EPISTT.). 

deuersorins, 3 Men. 436 ; al. assentatorie, ad Qu. Fr. 2, 14, 3 

praedatorius, 4 Id. 345 candidatorius, ad Att. 1, 1, 2 

pugilatorius, Rud. 721 consolatorius," Id. 13, 20, 1 

sudatorius, 5 Stick. 229 obiurgatorius, 10 Id. 13, 6, 3 

CATO. Aver. BEMJ. ALEX. 

praeductorius, R. R. 134 ambulatorius, 11 2, 5 

VARBO. Vmtvvivs. 

olitorius, 8 L. L. 5, 146 oppugnatorius, 10, 12, 2 ; al. 

sutorius, 7 (Atrium), Id. 6, 14 repugnatorius, 10, 16, 2 

uindemiatorius, 8 R. R. 3, 2, 8 scansorius, 10, 1, 1 

merkungen, p. 184 sq., from African Inscrr. accubitorium, exceptorium, repositrium, 
uiatoria. 

1 Konsch, Itala, p. 33 sq. 2 Diez. p. 662, " ubrigens ist der Nordwesten zur Schop- 
fung neuer Adj. wenig geneigt." 

3 Suet.; s. n. = Cic., freq., et Al. * Sail.; Liu.; Tac.; Amm. 6 Cassiod.; s. n. 
= Sen. Bp. Plin.; Vlp. Dig. 7 Cic. Ep., bis; Gels.; Plin.; Inscrr. 8 Vlp. Dig. 
8 Suet. ; Pelag. Vet. ; Vulg. ; Augustin. ; Cassiod. 10 Gell. ; Amm. " Vitr. ; Plin. ; Apul. ; 
Tert.; Vlp. Dig.; Veg Mil.; ICt. 



160 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



tractorins, ' Id. ib.; al. 
uiatorius," 9, 9, 1 

CELSVS. 

excisorius, 8, 3 
pistorius, 3 2, 18 
scriptorius, 4 5, 28, 12; al. 

COLYMELLA. 

occatorius, 2, 13, 2 
pabulatorius, 6, 3, 5 ; al. 
pressorius, 5 12, 18, 4 
sarritorius, 2, 12, 2 
sa tori us, 2, 9, 9 ; al. 
uiuitoiius, 4, 25 in. 

PETBONTVS. 

comatorius, 21, 1 

cubitorius, 30, 11 

perfunctorie, 6 11 



PMNIVS. 

astrictorius, 24, 115 
aucupatorius,* 16, 169; al. 
clamatorius, 10, 37 
concalfactorius, 21, 141 
depulsorius, 8 28, 11 
discussorius, 30, 75 
dormitorius, 9 30, 51 
excussorius, 18, 108 
extractorius, 24, 87 
exulceratorius, 23, 126 
gemitorius, 8, 145 
mitigatorius, 28, 63 
potorius, 10 36, 59 ; al. 
refrigeratorius, 11 22, 145 
salutatorius, 13 15, 38 



suppuratorius, 28, 51 
tinctorius, 7, 44 
uomitorius, 13 21, 128 ; al. 

MABTIATJS. 

aduentorius, 14 12, Praef. 
ministratorius, 14, 105, Lemm. 

FBONTO. 
deletorius, 16 de Fer. Als., p. 224, 20 

jr. 

rixatoritis, ad M. Caes. 4, 12, p. 74, 



GELLTVS. 

oblectatorius, 18, 2, Lemm. 
prouocatorius, 14 2, 11, 3 

AFVTLEIVS. 

occursorius, Met. 9, 23 
peremptorius," Id. 10, 11 

TEBTVT.TJANYS. 

aedificatorius, 18 A nim. 47 ; al. 
corruptorius, adu. Marc. 2, 16 
*cruciatorius, Praescr. Haeret. 2 
defensorius, adu. Marc. 2, 14; al. 
dehortatorius, Apol. 22 
examinatorius, adu. Gnost. 7 
exercitatorius, 19 de Poenit. 12 
expugnatorius, Anim. 57 
exstructorius, Cam. Chr. 17 
famulatorius, 20 ad Nat. 2, 14 
generatorius, 21 adu. Valent. 27 
incorruptorius, adu. Marc. 2, 16 
insultatorius, Id. 5, 10 extr. 
interpretatorius, ad Nat. 2, 4 



1 s. f. Augnstin. ; Cod. lust. * Plin. ; Capit. ; Veget. ; Placid. Gloss. ; Inscrr. 

3 Plin. ; Chalcid. Tim. ; Vulg. ; ICt. ; Inscrr. . n. laid. * Amm. ; Plin. VaL Adj. 
Ambros. ; Nou. Val. ; Cod. Theod. 7 Mart. ; Gloss. Labb. 8 Amm. Plin. Ep. ; BccL ; 
ICt. ><> Pelag. Vet. ; Arnob. ; ICt. ; Inscrr. " Gargil. Mart. ; Pelag. Vet. 12 Cassiod. ; 
AnthoL Lat.; Prise. 1S Macr. "Inscrr. 5 Vlp. Dig.; Cod. Theod. 16 Plin. Val. 
"Tert; Chalcid. Tim.; Ambros.; Augustin.; Seru. ad Verg.; ICt; adu. CL Mam. 
18 Hier.; Boeth. African. Dig. 20 Ambros. 31 Ambros. 



38. -OBIVS.] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



161 



interrogatorius, 1 adu. Marc. 2, 25 
inuitatorrus," Anim. 57 
motorium, 3 Anim. 14 
mutatorius, 4 Res. Cam. 56 
occisorius, Anim. 33 in. 
pacatorius, adu. Marc. 4, 29 extr. 
peccatorius, Id. 2, 24; al. 
pictorius, 5 Id. 1,3 
placatorius, de Patient. 13 
praemonitorius, Anim. 3 
receptorius, 6 Res. Corn. 27 
reuelatorius, Anim. 47 
significatorius, 7 adu. Hermog. 32 
structorius, Apol. 14 
transfunctorius, adu. Marc. 1, 27 ; 

al. 

transmeatorius, adu. Valent. 27 
transpunctorius, Id. 6 eartr. 
triumphatorius, adu. Marc. 5, 10 

extr. 

nltorius, Id. 2, 24 
uocatorius, Anim. 97 

SOLINVS. 

praecentorius, 5, 19 
puellatorius, Id. ib. 

CAPITOMNVS. 
gratulatorius, 8 Max. et Balb. 17, 1 

ARNOBIVS. 

tistulatorius, 2, 42 

LAMPRHIVS. 

exsuperatorius, Comm. 11, 8 ; al. 
negotiatorius, 9 Alex. Sen. 32, 5 

VOPISCVS. 

suppositorius, 10 Carin. 17, 4 



CHAIX3IDIVS. 

fictoria, Tim. 329 

PAIJJADIVS. 

fusorium, 11 1, 17, 1 ; al. 
putatorius, 12 1, 43, 1 

PLINIVS VALEBIANVS. 
allectorius, 4, 29 
calefactorius, 13 1, 38 
mtmdatorius, 14 2, 25 
potatorius, 16 3, 53 

AMMTANVH. 

commonitorius, 16 28, 1, 20 
concursorius, 16, 9, 1 ; al. 
iurgatorius, 27, 1, 5 
repulsorius, 17 24, 4, 7 
serratorius, 23, 4, 4 
uastatorius, 18, 6, 9 ; al. 

VEGETIVS. 

chalatorius, Mil. 4, 15 
coucisorius, 1, 56, 31 

AMBBOSIVS. 

deriuatorius, ap. Paucker. 
descensorius, Spr. Scto. 1, 10, 118 
hortatorius, 18 in Luc. 8, 30 
illusorius, 19 Id. 10, 23 
interfectorius, 20 de Mia et leiun. 

10,37 

operatorius, Hexaem. 1, 1, 1 ; al. 
praelusorius, de Elia, 13, 47 
purificatorius, in Ps. 118 ; al. 
refectorius, Ep. 67, 14 
seductoritis, 21 de Bon. Mart. 9, 4 
simulatorius, 22 Hexaem. 1, 2, 7 
usurpatorie, 23 Id. 3, 15, 64 ; al. 



Calistr. Dig. a Hier. Ep. ; Gennad. 3 adj. Donat. ad Ter. ; s. /. Prise. 

Vulg. ; Pelag. Vet. ; Inscrr. ^ jet. ; s. /. = Chalcid. Tim. e s. n . -= Sidon. Ep. T Am- 
bros. 8 lul. Val. 9 Vopisc. 10 Marc. Emp.; Greg. Ep.; Gloss. Vulg. I3 Paul. Sent. 
13 Th. Prise.; Macrob. " Augustin. "Isid. 16 Sidon. Ep.; Cod. lust. " Ambros.; 
Heges. 18 Augustin. 1B Augustin.; Inlian. ap. Augustin. * Isid.; adu. Auguatin. 
41 Augustin. 22 Augustin. ; Cassian. M adi. Cod. lust. 
11 



162 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[ 38. -ORIVS. 



HlERONTMVS. 

dispensatorius, 1 Ep. 112, 4; al. 
exhortatorius, 2 Id. 52, 1 ; al. 
subsannatorius, in lob, 15 

AVGVSTINVS. 

affectorius, Gen. ad Litt. 16 
circumuentorius, Conf. 3, 3 
deceptorius, Doctr. Chr. 2, 23 ; < 
disputatorius, 3 Solil. 2, 19 
emendatorius, Ep. 211, 11 ; al. 
-excitatorius, Id. 26, 2 
.excusatorius, 4 Id. 83, 2 



contradictorius, " Id. 2, 33, 173 
explanatorius, Id. 3, 1, 5 
mictorius, 13 Id. 3, 8, 86 ; al. 
raptorius, Chron. 3, 6, 88 
resumptorius, Acut. 3, 8, 95 

CASSIVS FELIX. 
condigestorius, 42, p. 97 
confortatorius, Id. ib. 
decoriatorius, 13, p. 20 
desiccatorius, 8, p. 16 ; al. 
eiectorius, 52, p. 136 
excallatorius, 20, p. 31 
incensorius, 13, p. 20 



-expiatorius, (7i. Dei, 21, 13 

<exsecutorius, c. Zritt. Petil. 3, 29 eotfr. iniectorius, 48, p. 127 

fabricatorius, Ciw. Dei, 12, 26 eatfr. / putrificatorius, 13, p. 20 

ol. 

imitatorius, c. lulian. Pelag. 6, 77 
inductorius, 5 Contr. Acad. 1, 4 
interemptorius, 6 ii'6. Arbitr. 3, 25 
irrisorius, 7 Don. Perseu. 2 
iudicatorius, -EJ>. 153, 10 
ludificatorius, Ciu. Dei, 11, 26 
mansorius, Doctr. Chr. 1, 35, no. 39 
narratorius, de Diners. Quaest. 80, 3 
nutritorius, 8 Serm. 25, 1 



proditorius, /c?. 161, 3 Mai. 

MABCELLVS EMPIRICVS. 
delacrimatorius, 8, 200 
infectorius, 9 4, 24 ; al. 

THEODOBVS PKISCIANVS. 

euocatorius, 10 1, 9, 24 ; al. ed. Rose. 
reuocatorius," 2, 107 ed.Rose. 

CAELTVS AVKELIANVS. 
baiulatorius, Acut. 1, 11, 83; al. 



relaxatorius, 76, p. 184 
respiratorius, 39, p. 85 
suffumigatorius, 21, p. 36; etf. 
superinunctorius, 29, p. 59 

SIDONIVS APOI/LINABIS. 

commendatorius, Ep. 9, 10 
fatigatorius, Id. 5, 17 
gratulatorius, /c?. 5, 16 
increpatorius, Id. 9, 7 
metatorius, 7c?. 8, 11 
refusorius, Id. 9, 10 

CASSIODOKVS. 

consumptorius, in Ps. 65, 10 
introductorius, Inst. Diu. Litt. 24 
retentorius, Anim. 6 
sanatorius, op. Paucker. 

BOETHTVS. 

cauillatorius, ad Ci'c. Top. 1, p. 761 
priuatorius, op. Paucker. 



b. Substantives. 
VABKO. HIBTIVS. 

seclusorium, K. B. 3, 5, 5 tentorium, 14 Bell. Gall. 8, 5 

1 Cassian. ; Mar. Merc. " Augustin. 3 Schol. Bern. 4 Gloss. Labb. 5 s. n. = Plin. 
Val. 6 Isid. 7 Cassian.; Mart. Cap.; adu. Seru. ad Verg. 8 Th. Prise, de Diaet. 
Gloss. Labb. lo Cod. Theod. ; Sidon Ep. n Cod. lust. 12 Ps.- Cypr. ; Cassiod. ; Cod. 
Theod. 13 Isid. " Verg.; Ou.; Liu.; Tac.; Suet.; Rutil. Nam.; (cow/, tentoriolum, 
Auct. Bell. Afr.). 



i 38. -ORIVS.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 163 

PETBONIVS. deuoratorium, Ep. 4, 5 extr. 

conditorium, 1 110, 2 ; al. epulatorium, Fug. Saec. 8, 45 

gustatorium, 2 34, 1 responsorium, Hexaem. 3, 5, 23 

sessoriurn, 3 77, 4 subiunctorium, 10 /nipr. lob et Dem- 

id, 2, 5, 20 

PLINIVS. 

diribitorium, 4 16, 201 HIERONTMVS. 

olfactorium, 5 20, 92 infusorium, 11 in Zach. 1 ad 4, 2 

locutorium, in Ephes. 1 ad 2, 19 

MARXIANS. meditatorium, Ep. 78 ; a/, 

amictorium," 11, 149, Lemm. su fflatorium, in lerem. 2 ad 6, 27 

scalptorium, 14, 83, Lemm. suffusorium," in lesai. 2, 4, 1 

TEBTVLLIANYS. 

.... ^ i-i 7 AVGVSTTNVS. 

cogitatonum, Amm. 11 ; al. , T _ 

... , D ~ oc , exoratonum, QM. in Leuit. 53, 2 
consistorium, 7 Res. Cam. 26; al. ' * 1K 

,., , . r . a hauritorium, Tract, ^n loann. 15, 

praemeditatorium, leiun. 6 

sequestratorium, Res. Cam. 52 extr. ', ' 

praecinctonum, adu. luhan. 2, 6; 

GARGIMVS MABTIALIS. a ^ 

punctorium, Arb. Pom. 2, 5, p. 61 
ed. J?oro. CAELIVS AVBEIOANVS. 

discretorium, Chron. 2, 12, 143 

CAPITOLINVS. liquatorium, Acut. 2, 39, 229 

deambulatorium, Gord. 32, 6 

SIDONIVS APOLMNABIS. 

PAI^LADIVS. tractatorium, Ep. 1, 7 

calcatorium, 8 1, 18, 1 & 2 
factorium, 11, 10, 1 CASSIODOBVS. 

uisorium, Var. 5, 24 
PLINIVS VALEBIANVS. 

frixorium, 9 2, 7 GBEGOKIVS TVBONENSIS. 

traiectorium, 1, 37 ; al. missorium, 13 Hist. Fr. 6, 2, p. 245, 

19; al. 

VEGETIVS. regestorium, Id. 6, 11, p. 255, 27 

circumcisorium, Vet. 1, 26, 2 
cisorium, Id. 3, 22, 1 VENANTIVS FOBTVNATVS. 

recubatorium, Carm. 5, Proem. 
AMBBOSIVS. 

acclinatorium, cfe Firg'. 3, 5, 21 ISEDOBVS. 
commemoratorium, de Off. 25 reconditorium, 15, 5, 8 

1 Plin. ; Plin. Ep. ; Suet. ; Tert . ; lul. Val. ; Amm. ; Inscrr. a Plin. Ep. 3 Gael. Aur. 
4 Suet. 6 Adj. = Pronto. Hier. ; Cod. Theod. ; Gloss. Labb. 7 Amm.; Auson. ; Sidon. 
Ep. ; Cod. Theod. ; Inscrr. Isid. ; Gloss. Labb. 9 Augustin. ; Macr. ; Arnob. lun. ; 
Gloss. Labb. 10 Cod. Theod. " Vulg. " Vulg. ; Gloss. Labb. 13 Venant. Fort. ; Gloss. 
Isid. 



m. DIMINUTIVES. 

39. DIMINUTIVES IN GENERAL : An excellent example of the 
loss of force sustained by many derivatives through their 
immoderate use in the sermo plebeius is afforded by the history 
of Latin diminutives. Their comparative rarity in classic 
Latin has been generally attributed to their having been re- 
garded as inconsistent with an elevated style, 1 but the prevail- 
ing prejudice against neologisms was probably an equally 
potent factor. The utility of diminutives depends largely 
upon the ability to attach them to any substantive or adjective 
at pleasure, and in this respect the popular speech seems to 
have been unrestrained. Such license however was foreign to 
the spirit of classic Latin, which accordingly formed new 
diminutives sparingly, while it was conservative in its use 
even of the oldest and commonest forms. Consequently 
where they did occur they were doubly effective, and at the 
hands of such a master of style as Cic. were capable of ex- 
pressing the most delicate shades of meaning, from the ten- 
derest affection to subtle irony and contempt. Such fine dis- 
tinctions are not to be expected in the speech of the people, 
whose profuse and often indiscriminate use of all classes of 
diminutives is well in keeping with their wonted love for 
lengthened forms and exaggerated modes of expression. The 
prevalence of diminutives in Petr., many of them quite devoid 
of any notion of smallness, was already observed in the seven- 
teenth century by Burmann, 2 while Nipperdey, in the introduc- 
tion to his edition of Caes., commenting on their frequent use 
by the Auct. Bell. Afr., was among the first to characterize the 

1 Conf. e.g., Bonnet, p. 459, " On sait que la gravite de la langue classique, dans le 
style soutenu, evitait ces mots, de meme que notre langue classique du XVIle siecle 
s'en est privee et nous en a prives." 2 Burmann ad Petr., c. 52, "permaxime solens 
Petronio uti deminutiuis quae deminutiue tamen non significant," cited by Barta, I. 
p. 16. 



f 39. DIMINUTIVES.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIV8. 165 

usage as "familiaris et uulgaris sermonis proprium." 1 The 
whole question has since received detailed consideration by 
Wolfflin, 2 and by Lorenz 3 in his valuable introduction to the 
Pseudolus of Plaut., both of whom emphasize the loss of di- 
minutive force in forms of everyday use, resulting from constant 
employment, as is shown, first, by the tendency to reinforce 
such forms by secondary derivation, as liber, libellus, libellu- 
lus, or by the addition of some adjective possessing diminu- 
tive force ; secondly, by the frequent retention in the Romance 
languages of diminutives in place of the primary forms. 
This position has been well sustained by subsequent authori- 
ties, who have generally recognized that the inordinate use of 
diminutives is a marked characteristic of the sermo plebeius.* 
This view has recently been criticized by Bonnet, 5 who main- 

1 Nipperdey, Cues., p. 18. "Wolfflin, Philol. 34, p. 153. 3 Lorenz. Pseud., Ein- 
leifc., 16, p. 57 sq. * Conf. Schmilinsky, p. 34, "Sermonem Romanorum uulgarem 
multo aptiorem ... ad deminutiua fonnanda quam linguam cultam ; " Stuenkel, p. 
52, " in uulgari potissimum et familiar! sermone," citing inter alia Schwabe, de Demin. 
Or. et Lat. p. 13 ; Ludwig, Petr., p. 28; Guericke, p. 29, " Vocabulis deminutiuis . . . 
sermonem rusticorum abundare notissimum est," citing G. Mueller, de Ling. Lat. 
Demin.; Ronsch, p. 93; Stinner, p. 9, "Nomina turn deminutiua maxime ease quoti- 
diani sermonis inter omnes constat ; " Barta, I., p. 15 ; Wolfflin, Cass. FeL, p. 406; K6h- 
ler, p. 6; Vogel, Gell., p. 11 ; Dietze, Cato, p. 14, ''nominum deminutiuorum frequen- 
tissimum usum uulgari sermoni addicimus;" Thielmann, Cornif. Rhet., p. 96; Hell- 
muth, Prior. Cic. Oratt. Serm., p. 23 ; Schulze, Diss. Hal. VI., p. 163, " deminutiua 
marxime in sermone cotidiano qui omnino formas pleniores adamat, plane pro nominibus 
primitiuis usurpantur ; " Hauschild, Diss. Hal. VI., p. 244 ; Kiihner, Gramm. Lat., I., 
p. 667, " Die Bildung der Dimunitive scheint vorzugsweise in der Volkssprache ihren 
Ursprung zu haben;" Stolz, Lat. Stil., p. 574, " (Diminutiva) sind sehr zahlreich in 
der Sprache des Volkes und haben sich in derselben zu alien Zeiten und so auch ins 
Romanische herein erhalten ; " W. Meyer, Geschichte d. Lat. Volkssprache, in Grobers 
Grundriss, I., p. 372, "Vor allem sind die kosenden Verkleinerungsworter beliebt, in 
vielen Fallen verdrangen sie das Primitiv ganz," citing Prob. App., catulus, non catel- 
lus ; Keller, Volksetymologie, p. 170, " Die besprochene unleugbare Vorliebe der 
lateinischen Volksetymologie fur Deminutivbildungen hangt zusammen mit der grossen 
Freiheit welche sich die Volksetymologie Uberhaupt hinsichtlich der Endungen bei den 
Lehnwortern gestattet ; " A. Weinhold, ALL. IV., p. 169, " Die Bildung und Verwen- 
dung der Deminutiva gehort vorzugsweise dem gewohnlichen Leben an ; daher . . . 
die Unregelmassigkeit in den Bildungen ; " Lindsay, Latin Language, p. 333, " Dimin- 
utives were a feature of Vulgar Latin, as we see from the forms censured in the Probi 
Appendix," citing "neptis non 'nepticla,' anus non 'anucla,' " etc. Slaughter, p. 16; 
Knapp, Gell., p. 156, "This use of diminutives without any special meaning is a pecul- 
iarity of the sermo plebeius:" Goelzer, p. 129, "On sent Ik 1'influence de la langue 
populaire : " Regnier, Augustin., p. 5, "la langue populaire de la decadence en effet en 
faisait un grand usage ; " in view of the above authorities it is rather startling to find 
in Bonnet, p. 459 (regarding the rarity of diminutives in classic prose), "C'est ce qui a 
fait pretendre qne le latin vulgaire en possedait davantage ; " it is however quite con- 
sistent with that writer's usual attitude towards the sermo plebeius. 5 Bonnet, I. I. 



166 WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 39. DIMINUTIVES. 

tains that diminutives, " aside from public discourses and di- 
dactic works, continued to circulate freely, though in less 
abundance than in ancient times." It is undoubtedly true 
that diminutives are more numerous in all the lighter forms of 
literature, as is well exemplified in the poems of CatulL, and 
the letters of Cic. They were naturally prevalent in the sermo 
cotidianus throughout all grades of society, in the familiar 
conversation of friends and relatives, and above all in the lan- 
guage of love, and praise of beauty. 1 It was reserved however 
for the sermo plebeius to first rob them of their proper signifi- 
cation. Bonnet here objects that even in the writings of so 
late an author as Greg. Tur. the diminutive force remained un- 
diminished in such words as did not usually take a diminutive 
suffix. 2 This fact however, far from forming a valid objection, 
is quite in accordance with the established view. It must be 
borne in mind that the weakening observed in certain classes of 
derivatives in plebeian Latin did not take place uniformly ; it 
was the result, and not the cause of their inordinate use, and 
consequently began with those words most habitually em- 
ployed. That the diminutive suffixes themselves never entirely 
lost their force is shown by the Romance languages, in which 
many of the new formations have a diminutive signification, 
as Ital., bestiuola,sassuolo,asinello, campanella, letticello ; Span., 
aceruelo, asnillo, frutilla, hombrecillo ; Fr., chevreau, renardeau, 
larronneau, etc., while others are quite devoid of such force, as 
Ital., bracciuolo, camiduola, anello, cappello, uccello ; Span., 
panuelo, capelo, ciudadela, martillo ; Fr., reseuil, tilleul, anne.au, 
bateau, flambeau, etc. 3 On the other hand, the process of weak- 
ening began in archaic times, as is evidenced by certain words 
whose diminutive force was practically forgotten before they 
were received into the classic speech, as auonculus,puella, ancilla, 
capetta, etc., while in the popular language the gradual prog- 
ress of the phenomenon continued uninterruptedly through- 
out the whole extent of Latinity. But it cannot be too strongly 
emphasized that the ever increasing number of diminutives is 
chiefly recruited from the words denoting objects of every-day 

1 Lorenz, Pseud., Einleit. p. 61, "Die Sprache der Liebe, die Schilderung weiblich- 
er Jugend und Schonheit tritt hier selbstverstandlicb. in die erste Reihe." 2 Bonnet, p. 
459, " H serait plus juste de dire que, en dehors du discourse public et des livres didac- 
tiques, lea diminutifs continuerent a circuler librement, bien qu'en moindre abondance 
que dans 1'ancien temps." 3 Conf. Diez, p. 673, sq. 



39. DIMINUTIVES.] ROMAN SEEMO PLEBEIVS. 167 

life and of common interest. This has been admirably shown 
by Lorenz, 1 who gives an extensive list of such diminutives, 
drawn chiefly from Plaut. and Apul., grouping them under 
four general heads : 1st, The Family, as matercula, sororcula,fili- 
olus, puellula, nepotulus, infantulus, nutricula, seruolus, ancillula; 
2d, Parts of the Body, corpusculum, capitulum, auricula, label- 
lum, ocellus, digitulus, unguiculus, mammicula ; 3d, Natural 
Objects, Animals, Plants, 2 etc., colliculus, fonticulus, grumulus, 
monticulus, riuulus, asellus, catellus, equola, porculus, arbus- 
culum, flosculus, herbula, ramulus ; 4th, House and Home, Ar- 
ticles of daily use, Clothing, etc., aedicula, aedificatiuncula, 
casula, cenaculum, cubiculum, *posticulum, tegula, uillula, am- 
pulla, arcula, armariolum, cistula, lectulus, mensula, speculum, 
uasculum, *cincticulus,flabellum,pallula, tunicula, etc. 

This tendency of the plebeian class to add diminutive suf- 
fixes to all objects with which they came in daily contact 
extended naturally to the familiar details of their various 
means of livelihood ; accordingly the technical vocabulary of 
farmer and artisan alike exhibits the same abundance of super- 
fluous diminutives. 3 Such for instance are the numerous ar- 
chitectural terms used by Vitr., as apicula, buccula, canaliculus, 
denticulus, modiolus, etc., and the names of various agricult- 
ural implements, such as arcula, corbula, rastellus, tribulus, 
cited by Stuenkel from Yarr. 4 The same tendency appears to 
some extent in the higher professions ; ~Wolfflin, 5 in his treatise 
on the Latinity of Cass. Fel., has an interesting discussion on 
the fluctuation between certain primary and diminutive forms 
in the medical writers, citing among others auricula, cucurbi- 
tula, febricula, tussicula, (ingens tussicula, Cass. Fel. 40, p. 89, 

'Lorenz, Pseud. Einleit., p. 57. 2 Diminutives as names of plants are especially 
frequent in the sermo rusticus ; e.g., Cato, f abulus, filicula ; Col., cicercula, digitellum, 
irtiola, lactucula, sticula; Plin., coroniola, spineola, uinaciola; Plin. Val., gladiola, etc. 
3 Wolfflin, ALL. L, p. 127, (reviewing Ulrich, Vitr., Pt. I.), " Unbestreitbar ist 
auch dass viele termini technici des Banhandwerkes Deminutiva waren, auch wo an 
Kleinheit gar nicht gedacht wird, . . . Darin liegt allerdings die Tendenz des gemeinen 
Mannes alles was bei ihm durch tagliche Beschaftigung vertraut geworden ist deminu- 
tiv zu bezeichnen ; " conf. Kiihner, Gramm. Lat. I., p. 667, Anm. 6, " sehr haufig sind 
Deminutive als technische Ausdriicke in einer Bedeutung die von der des Stammwortes 
wesentlich verschieden ist." 4 Stuenkel, p. 53, u eodem modo nomina instrumentorum 
rusticorum forman deminutiuam habent, in quibus notio deminuendi non inest." 
5 Wolfflin, Cass. Fel., p. 408, sq.; conf. Rose, Cass. Pel., Index II. Latinus, s. u. tussi- 
cula, " = tussis, ut febricula." 



168 WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 39. DIMINUTIVES. 

9). But wherever such weakening of the suffix is noticed it is 
in words which either in a general or a technical capacity must 
have been in constant employ. A majority of the diminutives 
which the senno plebeius seems to have coined so freely, un- 
doubtedly retained to a greater or less degree the original 
force of the suffix. An absence of diminutive signification 
from all the forms in Greg. Tur. would have been indeed a 
curious anomaly, but a uniformly correct use of them would 
have been stranger still. Thus he fluctuates between corpus, 
corpusculum ; genu, geniculum ; hospitium, hospitiolum, while 
the weakening of the suffixes is apparent in his use of redu- 
plicated diminutives, as ampullula, arcellula, fenestellula. 1 

The existence of such reduplicated forms, together with 
numerous irregularities of structure, is clearly due to plebeian 
influence, and renders a brief survey of the methods of forming 
Latin diminutives desirable. While lacking the fertility of 
the Romance languages, Latin was far from deficient in the 
variety of its diminutive suffixes, as was already recognized 
by the Roman grammarians : Thus Prise., p. 102, 5 sq., cites 
the somewhat incongruous array of examples, " culus, ulus, olus, 
ellus, ocillus, ullus, do, aster, leus, tulus." a The language retained 
two Ind.-Germ. diminutive suffixes, -LA-, appearing in the sim- 
ple form -lus, a, um, used mainly with stems of the 1st and 2nd 
decls., and -CA-, found in the isolated homu?i-cio* and in the 
double suffix -cu-lus, a, um, the compound character of which 
was forgotten in the early Italic period, 4 and which formed 
simple diminutives from stems of the 3rd, 4th, and 5th decls. 
Similar compound suffixes are observed in other Ind.-Germ. 
branches : Brugmann compares Gk. -K-IO. ; Lat. -c-ulo-, -l-ulo-; 
Germ, -l-ina-; Lit. -le-la-. 5 Latin however did not stop here, 
but continued to combine and reduplicate its suffixes still 
further, in order to add new force to the constantly weakening 

1 Bonnet, p. 460 sq. * Conf. Jeep, Gesch. d. Lehre v. d. Redetheilen bei d. Lat. 
Grammatt. , p. 158. 3 The suffix -c-io appears also to have been a double diminutive, 
combining with -ca- the suffix -ien-, which elsewhere has an occasional diminutive 
force in Latin : e. g. pumil-io, pus-io, senec-io ; con/. Brugmann, II., p. 436. * Brug- 
mann, IL, p. 193, " Ein anderes, ursprunglich doppelt deminuierendes, in der historischen 
Zeit des Lateins aber nur als einfach deminuierend empfundenes Suffix entstand in der 
nrital. Periode durch antritt von -lo- an das Deminutiv Suffix -ko-," comparing die- 
cula, Osc. zicolois diebus ; conf. A. Weinhold, ALL. IV., p. 173; Lindsay, Latin 
Language, p. 333. 6 Brugmann, II., p. 436. 



39. DIMINUTIVES.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 169 

diminutives. The addition of a second -lus, with the necessary 
phonetic changes, gave -ellus, -illus, -cellus, -cillus ; a third 
-lus gave -ellulus, -illulus, etc. 1 These different degrees 
were recognized by the Roman grammarians : thus Diomed., 
325, 25, cites, " area, arcula, arcella, arcellula" while Prise. 102, 
3, attempts a still more extensive series in the example " homo, 
homuncio, homunculus, fiomullus, homullulus" 2 This usage how- 
ever is most prominent in the sermo plebeius, which here as 
elsewhere gives preference to the longer forms. Especially 
rare in the classic writers are the forms of the third degree, 
-ellulus, etc., while numerous examples can be cited from the 
usual plebeian sources and from late writers in general : com- 
pare Plaut. bellulus, cistdlula, pauxillulus ; Tert., flabdlulum, 
puellula ; Laeu. tenellulus ; Petr., lamellula ; Apul. tantillulus ; 
Solin. cultellulus, lapillulus ; Arnob. asellulus ; Lampr. porcellu- 
lus ; Marc. Emp. pastillulus ; Mart. Cap. libellus, etc.; ancil- 
lula, (Cic.), is defensible on the ground that in the time of 
Plaut. ancilla had already ceased to be regarded as a dimin- 
utive. Further instances of plebeian fondness for lengthened 
diminutive forms are found : I. in irregular formations in -uncu- 
lus from stems other than thosa in -on- ; II. in the substitution 
of -culus in place of the usual -lus, with stems of the 1st and 
2nd decl. ; III. in forms in -usculus from the comparative de- 
gree of adjectives ; IV. in the endings -ul-aster, -as t-ellus. 
All of these will receive separate treatment, infra 43, 44, 46, 47. 
As to the general prevalence of diminutive forms in the 
sermo plebeius, ihe Romance languages form a valuable criterion, 
being not only prolific in all classes of diminutives, but rich 
in their variety of formative suffixes. The Latin suffixes, as 
previously noticed, have in the main survived, and have re- 
tained at least an occasional diminutive value. 3 Their impaired 
force however, coupled with the growing demand for diminu- 
tives, rendered them inadequate to the needs of the Romance 
languages, which largely increased their number. The new 
suffixes were acquired either by adoption from other languages, 
e.g., in Ruman. -i^a from the Slavonic, -as., -is., from the Hun- 
garian, in Span, -arro from the Iberian ; * or by extension of 

1 Conf. in general A. Weinhold, ALL. IV., p. 174. * Jeep, I. I. 8 -ulus however, 
with diminutive value, is rare outside of Ital. and Ruman. ; con/. Meyer-Lubke, Gramin. 
d. Rom. Spr., H, p. 566. Meyer-Lubke, I. I. 



170 WORD FORMATION IN THE [40. GENDER OF DIM. 

the meaning- of other Latin suffixes, notably of adjectives orig- 
inally denoting resemblance, which by a simple and natural 
transition, acquired the idea of incompleteness, and hence of 
smallness : compare -inus, (Ital. -ino, Span, -in, Port, -inho), 
and to some extent -icius, -uceus, (Ruman. -e\, -u, Ital. 
-uccio). 1 The same development may be ultimately traced in 
most diminutives : thus Ind.-Gerni. -CA-, (dimin. = O. Ind. 
-ka-, Gr. -a/c-io-. Lat. -cu-lo-, Balt.-Slav. -uqo-), originally de- 
noted simply resemblance ; 2 so also Gk. -io-i/, (ao-Tri'Stov, etc.), 
Germ, -ma-, (Got. gditein, etc.). 3 In Latin the tendency to use 
such adjective suffixes as -aceus, -aster, -inus, -leus, in a 
diminutive sense is clearly shown by the grammarians, al- 
though instances of such usage do not occur in literature. 
Thus Charis. 37, 16, cites among diminutives the forms beta 
betaceus, malua maluaceus, with the comment " ut Varro dixit," 
and Prise. 102, 3, gives parasitaster as an example of diminu- 
tives in -aster ; while for -inus we have the example already 
cited from the Nott. Tiron. 4 " geminus, gemellus, gemininus." In 
like manner -leus, of which Prise. 1. L, cites the examples acu- 
leus, eculeus, is now regarded as an adjective suffix denoting- 
resemblance. 5 

The Romance languages also show the same fondness 
as the sermo plebeius for compound diminutives. Not only 
have the simple forms in -ulus, -culus been largely replaced 
by those in -ellus, -cellus, etc., 6 but the separate languages 
show many new combinations, as Ruman -i-or, -u-or, (cftnisor, 
frigusor), Ital. -att-olo, -ett-uolo, -icci-uolo, (scojattolo, eivettuola, 
guerricciuola) ; Span, -iqu-illo, (hombreciquillo), etc. 7 

40. GENDER OF DIMINUTIVES : Before proceeding to a con- 
sideration of the separate classes of diminutives a few words 
must be said about irregularities of gender. The whole ques- 
tion has been so exhaustively treated by A. Weinhold, in the 
article " Genuswechsel der Diminutiva, (Archiv f. Lat. Lex. 

1 Meyer-Liibke 1. I. 2 Brugmann, II., p. 347, "nur etwas Aehnliches wie das 
Grundwort." 3 Conf. Bnigmann, II., pp. 121, 149. 4 Conf. supra 35, p. 141. 5 A. 
Weinhold, ALL. V., p. 175 citing Schwabe, Demin. Gk. et Lat., Paucker, Lat. Demin., 
Mitau, 1876. 6 Meyer-Liibke, Gramm. d. Rom. Spr., II., pp. 543-5; Diez, p. 670, 

"Dieses suffix (ellus, illus) gewann als Verkleinerungsform ... in den jlingern 
Sprachen grosse Verbreitung und verdrftngte ulus aus den moisten Wortern," compar- 
ing martulus, ramulus, etc., O. Fr. martel, ramel, etc. ' Meyer-Liibke, Gramm. d. 
Rom. Spr., EL, p. 566 ; Diez, p. 619. 



40. GENDER OP DIM.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIV8. 171 

IV., pp. 169-88), that it may here be considered only briefly. 
Latin diminutives, unlike the Greek in -iov, regularly retained 
the gender of the simple noun. Numerous exceptions to this 
rule are cited, from Plaut., the Scriptt. E. E., Cic. Ep., Vitr., 
and especially from the later writers. A large proportion, how- 
ever, are only apparent exceptions : a number of those cited as 
such are not properly diminutives at all, but instrumentalia, 
as cenaculum, sediculum. Of the genuine diminutives many 
can be explained as having preserved the original gender of 
the primary word, and for this reason may be regarded as a 
species of archaism : compare gladiolum, for the use of which 
Messala is censured by Quint., 1, 6, 42, but which is to be 
referred, not to gladius, but to the older form gladium? (Lucil. 
Fr. Inc. 85 ; Varr. L. L. 9. 81 ; al.) ; lintriculus, Cic. ad Att. 10, 
10, 5, (linter, s. m., conf. Prise. 5, 8, 42). 2 In other cases the 
irregularity is due to the uncertainty and fluctuation of gen- 
der of the simple noun in the classical and post-classical 
periods : as for instance diecula, Plaut. Pseud. 710, Ter., (dies, 
s. /., passim); deliciolum, Sen. Ep. 12, 3, (delirium, Phaedr., 4, 1, 
8, et Al.}; lauriculus, Marc. Emp. 30, 72, (laurus decodus, Id. 
8, 36 ; substrata lauro, Pall. 12, 22, 4). In all such cases how- 
ever the more careful writers make the diminutive conform in 
gender to what is considered the best usage for the simple 
word ; the unusual forms should be attributed to the laxity of 
the popular speech. 

Besides these apparent exceptions there are certain classes 
of forms which are evident infringements of the rule, and 
which plainly show the influence of the sermo plebeius. Most 
important among these are the words in which change of gen- 
der is due to change in signification. Such words are largely 
technical terms, in which we have already seen that the 
diminutive force had become blunted, so that they may not 
have been thought of as diminutives at all. From architectural 
language we have geniculus, (genu), Vitr. 8, 6, 6 ; scamillus, 
(scamnum), Id. 3, 4, 5 ; al. ; from the rustic speech certain, 
names of plants, as digitellum (digitus), Col. 12, 7,1; Plin.; 

1 A. Weinhold, I. L, p. 180, "dieseForm (gladium) von Altertiimlern bewahrt 
wurde, die demgemass auch gladiolum brauchten." 2 A. Weinhold, I. ., " Kein andrer 
Grund als dass man wohl in der Sprache des gewohnlichen Lebens linter noch als Mas- 
kulinum brauchte, bestimmte Cicero . . . zur Bildung lintriculus.^ 



172 WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 41. DIM. SUBS. 

gladiola, Plin. Val. 1, 13 ; and the technical word campicellum, 
(campus), from the Gromat. Vet. 312, 9 ; al.; lastly, numerous 
examples from medical terminology : fasciolum, (fascia), Veg. 
Vet. 3, 57, 1 ; hordeolus, (hordeum), Plin. Val. 1, 18, Marc. Emp. 
et AL; saccellum, (saccus), Plin. Val. 2, 18 ; urciola, (urceus), 
Pelag. Vet. 12, 205 ; fellicula, (fel), Isid. 4, 5, 4. Closely con- 
nected with this class are the various diminutives used as 
nomina* personalia and formed to some extent at least from 
names of animals: these certainly originate in the sermo 
cotidianus. Such are simiolus, (simia), Cic. ad Fam. 7, 2, 3 ; 
turturilla, (turtur, s. tn., buts./. semel, Plin. 30, 68), Sen. Ep. 96, 
5 ; passercula, (passer, s. m.}, M. Aurel. ap. Front, ad M. Caes. 
4, 6. Still more irregular are the forms which assumed by 
attraction the gender of some synonomous substantive, as ter- 
gilla (tergum), Ps.-Apic. 4, 174, through the influence of cutis ; 
uitellum, (uitulus}, in sense of ' yolk,' Varr. ap. Prob. ad Verg. 
Ed. 6, 31, due similarly to ouum. 1 

Lastly the late writers furnish a supply of miscellaneous 
examples, for which no definite explanation can be given: 
such are circulum, lordan. 55, 3 ; furfuriculae, Marc. Emp. 5, 
45 ; herediolus, Apul. Flor. 11 ; pernunculus, Not. Tir. 167, and 
numerous others cited by Weinhold. These are in some cases 
accompanied by a corresponding change, in late Latin, in the 
gender of the simple word : compare cerebellus, Oribas. 20, 17 ; 
Al. ; cereber, Caper de Orih. 7, 103, 6 K. 

This growing laxity in the gender of diminutives has con- 
tinued in the Romance languages, where masc. diminutives 
frequently come from fern, stems and conversely; compare 
Ital. casa, casone ; perla, perlino; bestia, bestiuolo ; Span. 
aguila, aguilucho ; espada, espadin ; etc. 2 

41. DIMINUTIVE SUBSTANTIVES : The following is a gene- 
ral list of the rarer diminutive substantives, exclusive of such 
as will receive separate treatment in subsequent sections. It 
is far from complete, except perhaps for the authors of the 
silver Latin period, but will serve to show the enormous fertil- 

1 Weinhold cites also statunculum (statua), Petr. 50, 6, as due to the influence of 
tignum ; it seems, however, more likely that it was one of the numerous Grecisms in 
the speech of the semi-Greek libertus Trimalcliio, to whom the Latin signum would be 
less apt to occur than the Greek 4 tiav = statua, with its corresponding diminutive 
TO tMviav statunculum. a Diez, p. 617; Meyer-Liibke, Gramm. d. Bom. Spr. II., 
p. 430. 



41. DIM. SUBS.] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



173 



ity of these formations, in all authors who exhibit any laxity 
of style. 1 



PLAVTVS. 

aerumnula, Fab. Inc. Fr. XI 
agnellus, 4 Asin. 667 
amatorculus, Poen. 236 
anaticula, 3 Asin. 693 
anellus, 4 Epid. 640 
anguilla, 5 Pseud. 747 
animulus, Men. 361; al. 
apicula, 8 Cure. 10 
auricula, 7 Asin. 668; al. 
blandicella, orum, Fab. Inc. Fr. 

XIII. 

buccula, 8 True. 290 
caltula, Epid. 231 
cauilla," Aul. 638 
celocula, Mil. 1006 
cincticulus, Bacch. 432 
cistella, 10 Gist. 637; aZ. 
cistellula, ud. 391 
cistula, 11 Amph. 420; a?. 
corculum, 14 Most. 986 ; a/. 
corolla, 13 Bacch. 70 
crepidula, 14 Pers. 464 
*crocotillus, op. Paul, ex Fest. 52, 

20 
crocotula, 15 Epid. 231 



crumilla, Pers. 687 
crusculum, 16 Cist. 408 
culcitula, 17 Jfos*. 894 
curculiunculus, Rud. 1325 
diecula, 18 -Ffeewd. 503 
ensiculus, 18 Rud. 1156 
fabula, (/&), Stick. 690 
guttula, ao ^pic?. 554 
liaedillus, Asin. 667 
hamulus, 21 tfc/i. 289 
horiola, 22 Trin. 942 
inducula, .Z^tcZ. 223 
lenunculus, 23 (leno), Poen. 1286 
lenullus, Id. 471 
linteolum, 24 ^d. 230 
lolliguncula, Cos. 493 
lupillus, Stick. 691 
lusciniola, 25 Bacch. 38 
manicula, 28 -Rd 1169 
matula, 27 M>stf. 386 
mammicula, Pseud. 1261 
mamilla, 28 Pseud. 180 
mellilla, Cos. 135 
mensula," 9 Most. 308 
murmurillum, -Rd. 1404 
nepofrulus, Mil. 1413 ; al. 



1 1 have received much help from the articles by Paucker, Demimitive mit doppel- 
tem 1, Ztschr. f . vergl. Spr. 23, p. 169 sq. : Deminutive mit d. Suffix -c ulus, a, um, 
Ztschr. f. Oest. Gymn. 27, p. 595 sq. ; but have not had access to that on the Deminu- 
tive auf einfaches -ulus, -ula, -ulum, Mitau, 1876. 

2 Prise. ; Pompei. Gramm.; Cassiod. 3 Cic., semel, (Pin. 5, 15, 42). 4 *Lucr.; Hor. 
Sat. 5 Varr. ; Plin. ; luuen. ; Isid. Plin. ; Pronto ; Ambros. ; Augustin. ; Thorn. Thes. 
7 Lucr. ; Cornif . Rhet. ; Cic. Ep. ; Hor. Ep. ; Pers. ; Plin. ; Suet. ; Vulg. Liu. ; Vitr. ; 

luuen.; Suet.; Apul. Met.; Capit.; Arnob.; Anthim.; ICt. 9 Mart. Cap.; form cauillits 
=-Apul. Met.; caulllum =Paul. ex Fest.; Apul. Met.; abl., caulllo = Aur. Viet.; Julian, 
ap. Augustin. > Ter. ; Cornif. Rhet. J Varr. ; Mart. ; Apul. Met. ; Arnob. 12 Apul. ; 
Solin. ; conf. (Scipio Nasica) Corculum. 13 Enn. ; CatulL ; Petr. ; Plin. ; form coro- 

nula Vulg. " Conf. Gell. 13, 21, 5. 15 Verg. Catal. > Conf. Paul, ex Fest. 53, 1. 
17 Lucil. ; Diom. Ter. ; Cic. Ep. ; Apul. Met. ; Seru. ad Aen. ; Ps. - Ascon. 19 Conf. 
Charis. 155, 17. 20 Lampr. ; Fulg. Myth.; Paul. NoL 21 Gels. sa Gell. 23 Conf. Prise. 
3,34. " Col.; Plin. ; Scribon. ; Tert. ; Vulg. ;Prud.;Cael. Aur. "Varr. = Laeu. ; Varr. ; 
Vitr. 27 Varr. Sat. Men. ; Vlp. Dig. ; Hier. 28 Varr. R. R. ; Veil. ; luuen. ; Vulg. ; August- 
in. Petr. ; Apul. Met. ; Pacat. Pan.; Mart. Cap. ; Gromat. Vet. 



174 



WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 41. DIM. SUBS. 



numella, 1 Asin. 550 
ocellus," Rud. 422 
palliolum, 3 Epid. 194 
pallula, True. 52 
peniculus, 4 Men. 391 
persolla, Cure. 192 
pistillum, 5 Aul. 95 
porcella," Mil. 1060 
porculus, 7 J?wcf. 1170 
posticulum, TVm. 194 ; al. 
*recula, 8 ap. Prise. 3, 33 
schoenicula, Cist. 407 
scrutillus, Fab. Inc. Fr. XXXIX. 
securicula, 9 Rud. 1158 
sororcula, ap. Prise. 3, 30 
staticulus, 10 (status), Pers. 824 
tegillum, Rud. 576 
tigillum, 11 Aul. 301 
torulus, 14 J.mp. 144 
tusculum, (lus), Aul. 385 
*uatillum, Trin. 492 
uerculum, <7as. 837 
ungulus, 11 Epid. 623 
uolsella, 14 CW-c. 577 
uxorcula, 16 Gas. 844 



ENNIVS. 

apriculus, 16 Hedyph. 5, 
Vahl. 



166 ed. 



CATO, 
asserculum, IT R. R. 12 ; a/. 



catella, 18 (catena), Id. 135, 1 
cauliculus," (coliculus), Id. 158, 1 
craticula, 20 Id. 13, 1 
cupula, (2. cupa), Id. 21, 3 
fabulus, 21 (fabus), Id. 70, 1 
fllicula," (filix), Id. 158, 1 
fiscella, 33 Id. 88, 1 
fossula," Id. 161, 4 
iusculum, M 156, 7 
matella, 25 /d. 10, 2 ; a*, 
mateola, /d. 45 

moscilli, oruin, Inc. Libr. Fr. 33 
orbiculus, 28 R. R. 22, 2 ; a/, 
pocillum," Id. 156, 3 
pugillus, 48 Jrf. 158, 1 
punctariola, 0ra. 28 
mdicula,' 9 R. R. 95, 1 
sauillum, Id. 84 
trabecula, 30 /</. 18, 5 

PACWIVS. 

tonsilla, 31 Tr. 218 

TEKENTIVS. 
cellula, 32 Eun. 310 
flabellulum, Id. 598 
flabellum, 33 /d. 595 
pistrilla, Adelph. 584 
puellula, 34 Phorm. 81 

TlTiNlVS. 

cerebellum, 36 Com. 90 



1 Col.; Placid. Gloss.; cow/. Fest. 175, 18. " Cic. Ep.; Catull.; Ou.; Plin.; luuen.; 
Aug. ap. Gell. 3 Caecil. ; Ou. ; Sen. ; Mart. ; luuen. ; Quint. ; Apul. Met. 4 Ter. ; Fest. ; 
Marcian. Dig. s Nou. Com.; Col.; Plin. 6 Th. Prise. 7 Plin.; Gell.; allo sensii = Cato. 
B Donat. Vit. Verg.;/orm rescula Apul. Met.; Saluian. 9 Vitr.; Plin.; Mart.; Not. 
Tir. 10 Cato Oratt. > CatuU. ; Tibull. ; Liu. ; Phaedr. ; luuen. ; Apnl. Met.; Aur. Viet. 
12 Varr. L. L. ; Vitr. ; Apul. Met. ; Amm. 1S Pacuu.; Auct. Atellan. ap. Fest. 14 Varr. 
L. L.; Mart.; Gels. J5 Varr. Sat. Men.; Apul. Met. ; Hier. Ep. 16 Apul. 17 /orm -culus 

Col. ; Gloss. Labb. 18 Caecil. Com. ; Hor. Ep. ; Liu. ; Plin. 19 Varr. ; Vitr. ; Cels. ; 
Col.; Plin.; Scrib.; Suet.; Gargil. Mart.;/orm colidus -=Ps.-Apic. 20 Mart.;Petr.; 
Vulg. ; Augustin. ; Ps. -Apic. 31 Varr. R. R. ; Gell. Cels. ; Col. Verg. Eel. ; Ou. ; 
TibulL ; Col. ; Plin. ; Pall. Col. ; Gromat. Vet. Varr. Sat. Men. ; Sen. ; Petr. ; Mart. 
28 Vitr. ; Col. ; Inscrr. 27 Liu. ; Suet. Plin. ; Prud. ; Vulg. < CoL ; Plin. form -icula 

Vitr. ; Auct. Itin. Alex ; Inscrr. ** Att. 33 Sen. ; Col. ; Petr. ; Apul. Met. ; Min. Fel. ; 
Arnob. ; Hier. ap. Augustin. 3S Cic., semel, (Flacc. 54); Prop.; Mart.; Augustin. 
s* Pompon. Com. ; Catull. ; Arnob. ; Hier, 35 Cels. ; Petr. ; Tb, Prise. 



41. DIM. SUBS.] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



175 



farticulum, Id. 90 
heluella, 1 Id. 162 
pinrmlus, 2 Id. 140 
rapula, 3 Id. 164 

TVRPIMVS. 

remulus (remus), Com. 97 
ricula, 4 Id. 74 

LVCIIJVS. 

austeUus, Sat. 16, 8 
canalicula, 5 Id. Fr. Inc. XTJX. 
*ficella, 6 Id. 29, 87 
rutellum, Id. 9, 68 
tesserula, 7 Inc. Fr. 33 

LAEVIVS. 
*manciola, ap. Gell. 19, 7, 10 

POMPONTVS. 

ueprecula, 8 Com. 130 

VAEKO. 

anicilla, i. L. 9, 74 
anicula, 9 7d 8, 79 
catirmlus, 10 ap Charts. 80, 3 
*cincennulus, Sat. Men. 184 ed. 

Riese. 

clauula, R. R. I, 40, 4 
cultellus," R. R. 1, 69, 2; al. 
eqtmlus, Id. 2, 7, 13 
foricula, Id. 1, 59, 1 
fundula, L. L. 5, 145 
fundnlus, 12 Id. 5, 111 
furcilla, 13 R. R. 1, 49, 1 



geniculum, 14 L. L. 9, 11 
homullus, 16 Sat. Men. 92; al. 
langula, 18 L. L. 5, 120 
mammula, 17 R. R. 2, 3, 2 
motacilla, 18 L. L. 5, 76 
nuptula, Sat. Men. 10 
offula, 19 L. L. 5, 110 
ollula, 20 R. R. 1, 54, 2 
*opicillum, op. JVbn. 83, 25 
pastillum, 21 ap. Charts. 24, P. 
paxillus, 4 * ap. Non. 153, 9 
pectunculus, 83 Sat. Men. 403 
plostellum," R. R. 1, 52, 1 
porcellus, 25 Id. 2, 4, 14 
rastellus, 26 Id. 1, 22, 1 ; al. 
scrobiculus, 21 ap. Non. 225, 9 
silicula, R. R. 1, 23, 3 
tegeticula, 28 Id. 3, 8, 2 ; aZ. 
tubulus, 29 Id. I, 8, 4 

LVCKETTVS. 

angellus, 30 2, 428 
crepitacillum, 31 5, 229 
latusculum, 32 4, 305 
opella, 33 1, 1106 
uermiculus, 84 2, 899 

CICERO (EPISTT.). 
actuariola, ad Ait. 10, 11, 4 ; & 

16, 3, 6 

cerula, 35 Id. 15, 14, 4 & 16, 11, 1 
chartula, 36 ad Fam. 7, 18, 2 
classicula, ad Att. 16, 2, 4 
deliciolae, 37 arum, Id. 1, 8, fin. 



1 Cic. Ep. Maecin. ap. Suet. ; Plin.; Vulg. ; Gloss. Labb. *form rapulum -= Hor. 
Sat. Fest.;Isid. Varr. R. R. ; Gell. *Iuuen. * Varr. R.R.; Pers.; Gell. 8 Cic., 
semel, (Sest. 72) ; Prise. Suet. ; Pronto ; Gell. ; Apul. ; Salu. ; Amm. ; Gael. Aur. 10 Gonf. 
Diom. 326, 7. " Hor. Ep. ; Vitr. ; Val. Max. ; Plin. ; Veil. ; Ps. -Apic. ; ICt. 12 Vitr. 

Cic. Ep. ; Catull. " Plin. ; Tert. ; Veget. ; Vulg.; Mart. Cap. ; Greg. Tur. ; form -culus 
= Vitr. 5 Lucr. ; Cic. , semel, (Pis. 59). J 6 form lancula = Vitr. 10, 3, 4. 17 Cels. ; 
Inscrr. 8 Plin. ; Arnob. " Col. ; Petr. ; Claud, ap. Suet. ; Apul. Met. ; Veget.; Pall. ; cow/. 
Suet. Claud. 40. 20 Apul. Met. ; Arnob. ; Gargil. Mart. ai Paul, ex Fest.;/orm -lus, -= 
Hor. Sat. ; Cels. ; Plin. ; Mart. Col. ; Plin. ; Vulg. 23 Col. ; Plin. 24 Hor. Sat. ; Augus- 
tin. 26 Varr. ; Phaedr. ; Plin. ; Suet. " 6 Col. ; Suet. " Col. ; Plin. 8 Col. ; Mart. 
a Vitr.; Plin. 30 Arnob. 31 Tert. 32 Catull. 33 Hor. Ep. 34 Plin. ; Grat. Cyn. ; 
Lampr. ; Vulg. ; Inscrr. 35 Inscrr. 3 Gai Inst. ; Fronto ; Prud.; Arnob. 3T Form 
deliciolum Sen. Ep. 12, 3. 



176 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[ 41. DIM. SUBS. 



dextella, Id. 14, 20, 6 
laureola, ad Fam. 2, 10, 2 ; al. 
lintriculus, ad Alt. 10, 10, 5 
litterulae, 1 Id. 7, 2, 8 ; al. 
memoriola," Id. 12, 1, 2 
nauseola, Id. 14, 8, 2 
olusculum, 3 Id. 6, 1, 13 
oppidulum, 4 ad Q. FT. 2, 10, 2 
pagella, 5 ad Fam. 11, 25, 2 
plebecula,' ad Att. 1, 16, 11 
ripula, Id. 15, 16 &. 
rutula, ad Fam. 9, 22, 3 
sedicula, 7 ad Att. 4, 10, 1 
seruula, Id. 1, 12, 3 
simiolus, ad Fam. 7, 2, 3 
ttindemiola, ac? Att. 1, 10, 4 
tralticulus, Id. 14, 20, 5 

LABERTVS. 

camella, 8 ap. Gell. 16, 7, 9 
foriolus, Com. 66 



Aver. BETjL. AFBIC. 
nauigiolum, 8 63, 2 
tentoriolum, 47, 5 

CATVLLVS. 
auricilla, 25, 2 
femella, 55, 7 
medullula, 25, 2 
pupulus. 10 56, 5 
salillum, 11 23, 19 
sarcinula, 12 28, 2 



sauiolum, 13 99, 2 ; al. 
scortillum, 10, 3 
sicula, 67, 21 
zomila, 14 61, 53 

HOKATIVS. 

cornicula, 16 Ep. 1, 3, 19 
fonticulus, 18 Sat. 1, 1, 56 
pileolus, 17 Ep. 1, 13, 15 
popellus, 18 Id. 1, 7, 65 

VlTKVVlVS. 

axiculus (I. axis), 10, 2, 1 ; al. 
buccnla, 19 10, 15, 3 
canalicnlus, 20 10, 9 
denticulus," 1, 2, 6; al. 
fornacula," 7, 10, 2 
glebnla, 23 8, 3, 13 
lamella, 24 7, 3, 9 
scamillus," 3, 4, 5 ; al. 
transtillum, 5, 12, 3 
turricula, 116 10, 13, 6 

CELSVS. 

bullula," 2, 5, extr. 
cerebellum, 28 2, 22 
cicatricula, 2, 10, extr. 
cucnrbitula, 89 4, 27, 1 ; al. 
glandula, 30 4, 1 
habenula, 7, 4, 4 
lanula, 7, 27 in./ a/. 
lenticula, 31 2, 33 
micula, 32 2, 5 extr. 



1 Sexies in Epp., et semel, (in Verr., 4, 43, 93). 2 Inscrr. 3 Hor. Sat. ; luuen. ; 
Pronto ; Gell. * Hor. Sat. ; Hier. ap. Angnstin. & Vulg. Hor. Ep. ; Hier. Ep. ;/orm 
plebicnla= luL VaL 7 Form sediculurn cited ap. Varr. L. L. 8, 54. 8 Ou. Fast.; Petr. 
9 Lentul. ap. Cic. Ep. 10 Sen. Ep. ; Arnob. " Plaut. Trin. 492 ed. Ritschel _ uatillum. 
12 Petr. ; luuen. ; Plin. Ep. ; Gell. ; Apul. ; Vulg. ; Augustin. 13 Apul. Met. " Seren. ap. 
Non. ; Alex. Seu. ap. Lampr. 1S Vulg. ; Hier. 18 Vitr. ; Col. ; Plin. n Col.; form -olum 
= Hier. Ep. 18 Pers. 1S Lin.; Suet.; luuen. ; Apul. Met. ; Arnob.; Capitol. 20 Cels.; 
Col. ; Pall ApuL ; Pall. luuen. ; Fronto ; Apul. VaL Max. ; CoL ; Petr. ; Scrib. ; 
luuen.; Plin. Ep.; Apul.; Arnob. S4 Sen.; Pelag. Vet. as Formscamellum -= Apul.; 
Not. Tir. " Mart.; Pall. "Hier. Petr. ; Th. Prise. *> Scrib. so Mart.; Charis.; 
Prise. ; Ps. -Apic. 31 Scrib. ; Plin. ; Pall. ; Veget. ; Vulg. ; Isid. 32 Fronto ; Arnob. 



41. DIM. SUBS.] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



177 



panniculus, 1 7, 29 
pediculus, 2 (pedis), 6, 6, 15 
pulticula, 3 2, 30 ; al. 
pusula, 4 5, 28, 15 ; al. 
pyxidicula, 6, 6, 5 
saccellus, 5 4, 4 med. 
sertula, 6 5, 11 
squamula, 5, 28, 17 ; al. 
trunculus, 2, 20; al. 
tuberculum, 7 5, 18, 16 ; al 
tussicula, 8 4, 5 
uenula, 9 2, 6 in. 
uerrucula, 10 5, 28, 14 
ulcusculum, 11 5, 28, 15 
utriculus, 111 (uter) 3, 27, 2 ; al. 

PHAEDRVS. 

auritulus, 1, 11, 6 

CoLVMEIJiA. 

alecula, 6, 8, 2 ; al. 
anserculus, 8, 14, 7 
areola, 13 Poet. 10, 362 
cantlieriolus, 11, 3, 58 
cicercula, 14 2, 10, 19; al. 
cliuulus, 16 6, 37, 10 
corfciculus, 12, 49, 10; al. 
cristula, 8, 2, 8 
digitellum, 16 12, 7, 1 
dolabella, 17 2, 24, 4 
fiscelhis, 12, 38, 6 
gladiolus, 18 9, 44 
hamula, 19 Poet. 10, 387 
heluolus, 3, 2, 23 ; al. 



herediolum, 80 1, Praef. 13 
irtiola, 31 3, 2, 28 
lactucula, 82 Poet. 10, 111 
lacusculus, 12, 52, 3 
massula, 23 12, 38, 2 ; al. 
ostiolum, 24 8, 14, 1 
plumula, 25 8, 5, 19 
pondnsculum, 38 12, 51, 1 
pullulus, (3. pullus), 2, 2, 19 
puluinulus, Arb. 10, 4 
radiolus, 37 12, 19, 2 
rostellum, 28 8, 5, 14 
scirpula, 89 3, 2, 27 
sihrala,3 8, 15, 4 
spongiola, 31 11, 3, 44 
sticula, 3, 2, 27 
taeniola, 11, 3, 23 
taleola, 3, 17, 1 ; al. 
ualuola, 3a 2, 17, 7 
uisulla, 83 3, 2, 21 

PKBSIVS. 

cuticula, 34 4, 18 
seriola, 35 4, 29 

PETBONIVS. 

alicula, 36 (<?AXi) 40, 5 
amasiuncula, 75 
amasiunculus, 45, 7 
*arietillus, 39 
basiolum, 87 85, 6 
capsella, 38 67, 9 
casula, S9 44 ; al. 
catella, 40 (catula'), 64, 6 



1 luuen.; Intpr. Iren.; nom.propr. Panniculus = Mart. 2, 72, 4. a Col.jPlin. ;form 
peduculus => Plin. ; Pelag. Vet. ; Gloss. Philox ; Not. Tir. 3 Arnob. " Sen. ; Col. ; Plin. ; 
Paul, ex Fest. 5 Petr.; Veget.; Coripp.; Augustin. Plin. 7 Plin.; Scrib. 8 Plin. 
Ep. ; Gael. Aur. Quint. ; Cl. Mam. 10 Arnob. "Sen.; Plin. 12 Apul. Met. "Plin. 
Bp. ; Vulg. ; Lampr. ; Inscrr. " Plin. ; PaU. ; Pelag. Vet. ; Gloss. Labb. 1 5 Apul. Met. 
i Plin. " Nom. Propr. Dolabella, passim. 18 Plin.; Gell.; Apul.; Pall.; Plin. VaL 
form-um = Messala ap. Quint. 19 Vulg. 20 Gell.; Apul.; Auson.; Placid. Gloss. 

81 Plin. M Suet. ; PaU. Marc. Emp. 3 * Petr.; Plin. ; Vulg. 2S Apul. Met. ; Pelag. 
Vet. 26pii n . ; Solin. " 7 Plin. ; Apul. ; Amm. M Plin. Plin. 30 Sidon. 31 Plin. 
32 Pest. 33 Plin. 34 luuen. 35 Pall. 3 Mart. ; Vlp. Dig. 3r Apul. ; Not. Bern. 
*> Vlp. Dig. ; Vulg. 3 Plin. ; Apul. ; Ven. Port. Mart. ; luuen. ; Hier. Ep. 
12 



178 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[ 41. DIM. SUBS. 



clostellum, 140, 11 
comula, 1 58 
corcillum, 75, 8 
cucumula, 136, 2 
lamellula, 57, 6 
lodicula," 20, 2 
*rnachilla, 64 
ossiculum, 3 65 
sterilicula, 35, 3 
taumlus, 39, 6 

PLINIVS. 

*ardeola, 10, 164 ; al 
arenula, 4 30, 24 
bacula, 5 25, 96 
cauemula, 27, 98 
coroniola, 21, 19 
coticula, 6 33, 126 
dracunculus, 7 32, 148 
forficula, 8 25, 58 
gerricula, 32, 148 
grumulus, 9 19, 112 
hirculus, 10 12, 46 
iuniculus, 17, 182 
lumbulus, 11 28, 169 
nodulus, 12 21, 36 
perniunculus, 26, 106 
pullulus, 13 (1. pullus), 17, 65 
sanguiculns, 28, 209 
serratula, 25, 84 
spineola, 21, 16 
strophiolum, 14 21, 3 
surcula, 14, 34 
uaginula," 18, 61 
uericuhim," 33, 107 
uerticillus," 37, 37 
uinaciola, 14, 38 



uiriola, 18 33, 40 
utriculus, 18 (uterus) 11, 31 

MARTIALIS. 

botellus, 20 5, 78, 9 ; al. 
bucella," 6, 75, 3 
galericulum," 14, 50, Lemm. 
lecticariola, 12, 58, 2 
mannulus, 33 12, 24, 8 
ofella, 84 10, 48, 15 
sestertiolus, 1, 58, 5 
thermula, 6, 42, 1 
tunbella, 25 11, 73, 6 

IWENALIS. 

bracteola, S6 13, 152 
foruli, orum, 27 (forus), 3, 219 
haedulus, 11, 65 
petasunculus, (petaso), 7, 119 
unciola, 28 1, 40 

FEONTO. 

anulla, 2 " ad Amic. 1, 15, p. 185, 2 

N. 
formicula, 30 ad Ver. Imp. 2, 8, p. 

137, 3 JV. 
naeuulus, 31 ad Anton. Imp. 1, 2, p. 

98, 18 N. 
prunulum, de Oratt. p. 155, 20 

N. 

GELUVS. 

argutiola, 2, 7, 9 ; al. 
barbasculus, 15, 5, 3 
lineola, 10, 1, 9 
rusculum, 19, 9, 1 
saltatricula, 1, 5, 3 



1 Commodian. 2 Suet. 3 Plin. ; GelL ; Veget. ; Ps. -Apic. ; Inscrr. Diom. 5 Ar- 
nob.; Cael. Aur. 8 Isid. 7 Lampr.; lul. Val.; Insorr. 8 Apul. Met. Apul. Met. 
10 Auct. Priap. " Ps.-Apic. ia Aptd. Met. 1S Apul. Met. " Tert. 15 Not. Tir. 
16 Veget. 17 Apul. Herb. " Vlp. Dig. ; Scaeuol. Dig.; Isid. ; Gloss. Labb. 19 Ps.-Apic. 
20 Sidon. Ep.; Ps.-Apic. 21 Vulg.; Ps.-Cypr.; Ps.-Apic.; Cod. Theod.; Anthim. ; Gloss. 
Labb. ; Not. Tir. M Suet. ; Frontin. ; Charis. ; Gloss. Labb. 23 Plin. Ep. 2 * luuen . ; Ser . 
Samm. ; Prud. 2S luuen. 2 Lampr. ; Arnob. ; Prud. 27 Suet. ; Paul, ex Feat. " 8 Hier. 
Ep. 29 Prud. Apul.; Arnob.; Augustin. 31 Gell.; Apul. 



41. DIM. SUBS.] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



179 



APVLEIVS. 

aquariolus, 1 Apol. 78 
astulus, Met. 9, 1 
*aucella, 2 Id. 9, 33 
aulula, (olla), Id. 5, 20 
colliculus, Flor. 1 
dammula, 3 Met. 8, 4 
domuscula, Id. 4, 26 
fenestrula, Id. 9, 42 
floscellus, 4 Herb. 50 
flucticulus, _4po/. 35 
foliolum, 6 Herb. 61 
frustulum, Jlfetf. 1, 19 
fusticulus, 8 7c?. 6, 18 
gallinula, 7 /J. 2, 11 
gingiuula, 8 ^po?. 6 
grabatulus, Met. I, 11 ; aZ. 
gustnlum, Id. 9, 33 ; al. 
infantula, 9 Id. 10, 28 
infantulus, 10 Id. 8, 15 
mercuriolus, Apol. 61 & 63 
operula, 11 Met. 1, 7 
palumbulus, 7sf. 10, 22 ; al. 
pannulus, 12 Id. 7, 5; al. 
papauerculum, Herb. 7 
posticula, Met. 2, 23 
puerculus, 13 Herb. 25, 3 
ranula, 14 Met. 9, 34 
retiolum, 15 /d. 8, 4 
rotundula, Herb. 13 
saepicula, (saepes), Met. 8, 20 
sagittula, Met. 10, 32 
scurrula, 16 Id. 10, 16 
seniculus, /t?. 1, 25 
spicula, Herb. 26 
spinula, 17 Met. 10, 32 
strigilecula, Flor. 9, p. 11, 11 Kr. 



thyrsiculus, Herb. 98 
tuguriolum, 18 Met. 4, 12 
turbula, 7o?. 10, 35 ; al. 
ueretilla, Apol. 34 
uiricula, 19 Met. 11, 28 

TERTVLUAKVS. 
aurula, 20 J.im. 28 
caccabulus, 21 Apol. 13 
flocculus," ad Nat. 1, 5 
fumariolum, Poenit. 12 
gesticulus, JpoZ. 19 
histriculus, 21 PaZ^. 4 
iuuencula, 24 arfw. /we?. 9 ; al. 
materiola, Bapt. 17 
ouicula, 25 Pall. 5 
papiliunculus, Anim. 32 
scortulum, ac? JVa^. 2, 10 
seruiculus, Jc?oZ. 10 
sparteolus, 28 Apol. 39 
strophulus, Fir^. Vel. 10 

VLPIANVS. 
cupula, 37 (1. cupa), Dig. 33, 6, 3, 

1 

bospitiolum," 8 Id. 9, 3, 5 
uulnusculus,* 9 Id. 21, 1, 1, 8 

SOMNVS. 

cultellulus, 35, 6 
lapillulus, 10, 12 
pulmunculus, 30 49, 9 
punctillum, 15j^n. 
unguilla, 27, 56 

TKEBELIJVS POI.LTO. 

*costula, Maxim. Duor. 27, 8 



i Tert.; cow/. Paul ex Fest. 22, 12. a Ps.-Apic.; Anthim.; Gloss. Labb. 3 Vulg.; 
Not. Tir. Not. Bern. 5 *Araob. Pall. 7 Arnob. 8 Veget. 9 Sidon. Ep. 
10 Nazar. Pan.; Hier.; Augustin. " Vlp. Dig. ; Arnob. ; Augusfcin. 12 Amm. ^Ar- 
nob. 14 Veget. 15 Augustin. Ep. ; Seru. ad Aen. ' Arnob. "Arnob. 18 Arnob.; 
Hier. 19 Ps.-Cypr. M Hier. Arnob.; Ps. - Apic ; Pelag. Vet. M Auct. Inc. de 
Magistr. et Sacerd. P. R. , p. 4 Huschke. 23 Gloss. Labb a * Vulg. Aur. Viet. ; Hier. 
Ep. ; Augustin. 2 Schol. luuen. S7 Inscrr. 28 Hier. Ep. 29 Veget. ; Hier. Ep. ; 
Augustin.; Sulp. Sen. 30 Pelag. Vet.; Veg. Vet. 



180 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[ 41. DIM. SUBS. 



ABNOBIVS. 

asellulus, 3, 16 
cantharulus, 1 6, 26 
cubula, 7, 24 
falcicula," 6, 26 
frusfcellum, 2, 58 ; al. 
gratiUa, 7, 24 
ingeniolum, 3 5, 4 
lacernula, 2, 19 
lancicula, 2, 23 
mimulus, 2, 38 
resinula, 7, 27 
scientiola, 4 2, 18 
sigilliolum, 6, 11; al. 
spatiolum, 6 4, 37 
spimla, 6 2, 42 
textricula, 5, 14 
tympaniolum, 6, 26 

LAMPBIDIVS. 

pabilhis, Heliog. 29, 2 
porcellulus, Alex. Seu, 41, 5 

Fnoncvs MATERNVS. 
cantulus, Math. 3, 12 

PALLAIHVS. 
*basella, 1, 18, 2 
cepnla, 7 3, 24, 2 ; al. 
corbicula, 3, 10, 6 
cribellum, 8 3, 24, 6 
cupella," 3, 25, 12 
farriculum, 11, 21 in. 
fesfrucula, 5, 8, 2 

PLESTIVS VALERIANVS. 

cucurbitella, 2, 30 ed. Rom. 
*mediolum, 1, 24 ed. Rose 



nucleolus, 1, 48 ed. Rom. 
nascellnm, 3, 17 ed. Rose 

PKLAGONTVS. 
duritiola, Vet. 252 
fistella, Id. 305 

AMMTAIIVS. 
posterula, 10 30, 1, 13 

VEGETTVS. 

scaphula, 11 Mil. 3, 7 

HlEEONTMVS. 

caricula, in Amos. 3, ad 7, 14 
cellariolum, adu. louin. 2, 29 
ciliciolum, Ep. 71, 7 ; al. 
cochleola, Id. 64, 19 ; al. 
commonitorioluin, Id. 120 in. 
contrcmersiola, 12 in Rufin. 1, 30 
cuculla, Vit. Hilar. 44 
facultatula, Ep. 117, 1 
familiola, Id. 108, 2 
fuscinula, 13 ^Tom. Se6\ co/. 68 
gallicula, 14 in Reg. S. Pachom. 

101 ; al. 

humerulus," inEzech. 12, ac?41, 23 
leunculus, 18 Id. 6, ad 19, 1, al. 
litteratulus, adu. Rufin. 1, 31 
lucernula, Ep. 107, 9 ; al. 
mappula, Id. 128, 27 
monasteriolnm, 17 Id. 105, 4 
mortariolum, 18 Id. 52, 10; a/, 
nmrenula, 18 Id. 24, 3 ; al. 
olfactoriolum,'*" in lesai. 2, 3, 18 
patrimoniolum, Ep. 54, 15 
panpertatula, Id. 127, 14 
pectusculum,^ Id. 22, 30 



1 Paul. Nol. *Pall.;Augustin. 3 Hier. Augnstin. * Pall. Sera. adAen. 
' form -pulla = Plin. Val. ; Ps.-Apic. * Th. Prise. ; Marc. Emp. Testam. Porcell. ed. 
Buech.; Chronogr. ed. Mommsen.; Not. Tir.; Gloss. Labb. ; Insert. !0 Cassian. n Paul. 
No!.; Cael. Aur. ' 2 Diom. Vulg. "Gloss. > Vulg. '" Vulg. Not. Tir.; 

Not. Bern. 18 Vulg. la Vulg.; Julian, ap. Augustin. ao Vulg. 21 Fulg. Myth. 



43. -VNCVLA.] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



181 



pittaciolum, 1 in Matth. 33, 6 
schedula, 5 in Rufin. 3, 2, 5 
scriniolum, in Abd. pr. ; al. 
steUula, Ep. 112, 19 
substantiola, Id. 108, 26 ; al. 
tectulum, Id. 117, 9 

AVGVSTINVS. 

gregiculus, Ep. 93, 49 
muscula, (musca), Trin. 7, 3 
rotella, 3 in Ps. 76, 20 
scabiola, Op. Imperf. c. lullan. 4, 
13 

MAKCELLVS EMPIRIOVS. 
burduuculus, 4 5, 17 
clauellus, 34, 48 ; al. 
furfuricula, 5, 17 
lapisculus, 8, 45 
lauriculus, 30, 72 
pastillulus, 16, 60 
reuiculus, 26, 36 ; al. 
sordicula, 8, 170; al. 



strumella, 15, 11 
uarulus, 8, 190 ; al. 

MABTIANVS CAPEDLA. 
herbuscula, 2, 100 

CAELTVS AVKELIANVS. 
plagella, Chron. 3, 2, 22 

CASSIODOBVS. 
agnulus, de Or. p. 562 
fabricula, Var. 8, 28 
tonsicula, Id. 12, 4 

VENATTVS FOKTVNATVS. 

graphiolum, Carm. 5, 15 ; Lemm. 

ISEDORVS. 

amphorula, 19, 31, 12 
fellicula, 4, 5, 4 
imbriculus, 19, 10, 14 
nucicla, 17, 7, 23 
socellus, 19, 34, 12 
uiticella, 17, 9, 92 



42. DIMINUTIVES IN -uncula FBOM VEBBAL SUBSTANTIVES IN 
-tio : As this class of diminutives presents certain distinguish- 
ing features it has seemed best to discuss them separately. 
The prevalence of substantives in -tio in the popular speech, 
together with the cumbersome nature of the ending -uncula, 
would seem to justify the presumption that these forms were 
favorites in the sermo plebeius. Statistics however fail to sus- 
tain this view. Of the 99 examples collected by Paucker, 5 58, 
barely three-fifths, are recc., a ratio nearly proportional to that 
of the primary forms in -tio. Of the 41 uett., Cic. has no less 
than 18, 6 in the Epistt. alone, the following 12 in his more fin- 
ished writings : 



cantiuncula, 
conclusiuncula, 
contiuncula, 
contradictiuncula, 



interrogatmncula, 
offensiuncula, 
oratiuncula, 
quaeatiuncula, 



ratiuncula, 
rogatiuncula, 
sessiuncula, 
stipulatiuncnla. 



1 Adelh. Rufin. 3 con/. Isid. 14, 2, 1. 4 Not. Bern. 
8 Paucker, Ztschr. f. Oesterr. Gymn., 27, p. 597, sq. 



182 WORD FORMATION IN THE [42. -VNCVLA. 

On the other hand, they are rare in all the usual sources of 
plebeian vocabulary. Early comedy is poorly represented : I 
have found but 6 examples, (all from Plaut.), which do not 
recur in the classic period. They are also wanting in Vitr., 
Plin., and the Script. R. B., while Petr. furnishes only 2 new 
forms. Their avoidance by the satirists would also be signifi- 
cant, if it were not readily attributable to the exigencies of 
the metre. They seem to have belonged chiefly to the sermo 
cotldianus of the more cultured class, and especially to the 
epistolary style : Cic. has 6 new forms in the Epistt., Sen. Ep. 
5, Plin. Ep. 3. Of the 6 forms from Plaut., 2 occur in the letter 
of Phoenicium, Pseud. 67 a -68, and a third seems to have been 
lost J from the mutilated line 67 b . Many of the examples above 
cited from Cic. are used with a slightly colloquial tinge, as 
Tusc. 2, 42, contortulae quidem et minutulae conclusiunciilae. 2 In 
the later language only Gell., Salu., and Hier., show fondness 
for these forms, and neither of these authors is especially ple- 
beian. 

PLAVTVS. COLVMELLA. 

aratiuncula, 3 True. 148 pensiuncula, 10, Praef. 1 

assentatiuncula, 4 Slick. 226 

morsiuncula, 5 Pseud, 67" SENECA (EPISTT.). 

occasiuncula, 6 Trin. 974 disputatiuncula, 10 Ep. 117, 25 

oppressiuncula, Pseud. 68 a exceptiuncula, Id. 20, 5 

*peieratiuncula, Stick. 227 motiuncttla, 11 Id. 53, 6 

procuratiuncula, Id. 31, 9 

CICERO (Eraser.). punctiuncula, Id. 53, 6; al. 

aedificatiuncula, ad Qu. Fr. 3, 1, 

2, 5 PETBONTVS 

ambulatiuncula, ad Att. 13, 29, 2 ; 

. potiuncula, 18 47, 7 

captinncnla,' Id. 15, 7 sponsiuncula, 58, 8 
commotiuncula, Id. 12, 11 extr. 

lectiuncula, 8 ad Fam. 7, 1, 1 PIJNIVS MAIOB. 

possessiuncula, 9 Id. 13, 23, 3 portiuncula, 13 28, 83 

1 Variously amended as *condupUcatiunculae, *osculatiunculae, etc. Conf. Goetz 
ad loc. 2 Conf. infra, 45, p. 186. 

Vulg. " Cic. Ep.; Ambros. 5 Apul. Met. Hier.; Schcl. Bob. ad Cic. T Gell. 
8 Paul. Nol. ap. Auguetin. ; Thorn. Thes. Hier. ; Vulg. ; Salu. ; Not. Tir. ; Placid. Gloss. 
' GelL ; Hier. ap. Augustin. Suet. 12 Suet. ; Tert. " Vlp. Dig. ; lul. Bp. Nou.; 
Ores. 



43. -VNCVLVS.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 183 

PLINIVS MINOR (Episir.). expositiuncula, 3 adu. louin. 1, 37 

actiuncula, Ep. 9, 15, 2 habitatiuncula, in Abd. ad 1, 4 

cenatiuncula, 1 Id. 4, 3, 20 interpretatiuncula, Ep. 112, 19 

indignatiuncula, Id. 6, 17, 1 mansiuncula, 4 adu. louin. 2, 29 ; 

^ aL 

praefatiuncula, 5 Ep. 64, 8 ; a/. 
perfrictiuncTila, ad M. Goes. 4, 6 sorbitiuncula, 6 Vit. Hilar. 6 ; al. 

GELMVS. 

annotatiuncula, 17, 21, 50; al. AVGVHHNVS. 
auditiuncula, 13, 20, 5 contradictiuncula,* Cans. Euang. 

declamatiuncula, 2 6. 8, 4 t 1} 8 ' 13 ' al , 

, , , , . , ,> ' . 00 *conuentiuncula, Ep. 56 fin. 

delectatiuncula, Praef. 23 

inauditiuncula, 5, 21, 4 

inuitatiuncala, 15, 2, Lemm. DALVIANVS. 

connersiuncula, Ep. 4, 6 

VOPISOVS. deprecatiuncula, ad Eccl. 3, 8 

saltatiuncula, Aurel. 6, 7 excusatiuncula, /c?. ib. 

HBEEOKYMVS. SIDONIVS APOLUNAEIS. 

dictatiuncula, adu. Vigil. 3 contestatiuncula, Ep. 7, 3 

43. IEREGTILAE DIMINUTIVES IN -unculus : The irregular for- 
mations in -unculus are undoubtedly of plebeian origin : 8 Cic. 
has only two examples, ranunculus, (Diu. 1, 15 : ad Fam. 7, 18, 
3), which is sometimes explained as coming from an early form 
*rano, 9 (conf. auonculus, from *auo ?) ; and the a7ra Aey. menda- 
ciunculum, (de Or. 2, 241), which is undoubtedly a malforma- 
tion. 10 Caes. has lenunculus, (lembus), probably due to the 
sermo castrensis and presumably an instance of popular ety- 
mology, through association with leno. n The remainder of 
the twenty-four examples given by Paucker 12 are post-Cicero- 

1 Sidon. Ep. 2 Sidon. Ep. 3 Auct. Comment, in Boeth. 4 Vulg. 6 Cassian. ; 
Consent, ap. Augustin. 6 Vulg.; Marc. Emp.; Not. Tir. 7 Vigil. Taps. 

8 Corssen, Aussprache, II, p. 188, " ahnliche Diminutivformen finden sich noch 
mehr in der spatlateiuischen Volkssprache. " 9 Paucker, Ztschr. f. Oest. Gymn., 27, 
p. 600; so furunculus is to be referred back iofuro, (Isid. 12, 2, 39), Paucker, 1. I., p. 
598; contra, A. Weinhold, ALL. IV., p. 185. 10 Paucker, 1. I, p. 601, "unzweifel- 
haft eine Missbildung." n It is not unnatural that the ship's cock-boat should have 
been thought of as the " go-between" which brought the sailor to his ship : the same 
association of ideas is seen in Plaut. Men. 442, ducit lembum dierectum nauis praeda- 
toria, where the n. praedatorla = meretrix ; in Gk. the constant attendance of the 
Ac>0o$ upon the larger vessel has similarly given rise to its secondary meaning of 
irapao-iTos, (conf. Anaxandr. OSvoxr. 2, 7) ; for other instances of popular etymology in 
nautical terms conf. O. Keller, Volksetymologie, p. 105, sq. ia Paucker, 1. ., p. 599. 



184 WORD FORMATION IN THE r44.-cvLvs,-cLLvs. 

nian, and largely from the Nott. Tiron. and Glossaries. The 
following occur in literature : 

VITBWIVS. AuNosrvs. 

domuncula, ' 6, 7, 4 petasunculus, (petasus), 6, 12 

HlEBONTMVS. 

COLYMELLA. tuguriunculum, Vit. Hilar. 9, p. 

laguncula,* 12, 38, 8 33 Mign ^ 

tinnnnculus, 3 8, 8, 7 

VVLGATA. 

ranunculus, Leuit. 3, 4 
PETKONIVS. 

sauiunculum, 66, 2 ACTT. S. POLYCARPI. 

statunculum, 4 50, 6 gladiunculus, ap. Paucker. 

The Nott. Tiron. give further aprunculus, niicunculus, pan- 
nunculus, pernunculus ; the Gloss., Jidunculus, rapunculus, while 
one example is found only in Inscrr.: porticunculus, Inscrr. Orell. 
4821. 5 

44. IRREGULAR FORMATIONS IN -culus, -cellus : Formations 
in -culus, -cellus, from stems of the 1st and 2nd decls., are 
rare and belong to post-classical Latin. Paucker 6 gives a list 
of 30 forms, of which 12 are uett. Many of these however are 
probably not diminutives, but nomina uerbalia, as seruiculus 
from seruire, cuniculus from cunire ; saepicule (Plaut.), is hardly 
an irregular form, being derived from an adverb, and schoen- 
icule, (also Plaut.), may be from *schoenicus. Of the forms 
unquestioned by Paucker, only 3 are uett.: inaminicula, Plaut.; 
apriculus, Enn., (perhaps from *apro ; conf. aprunculus) ; galer- 
iculum, Frontin.; while Wolfflin 7 asserts broadly that this form 
of derivation from the 2nd decl. belongs neither to archaic, 
classic, nor Silver Latin. In later literature there are a num- 
ber of unquestioned instances ; thus : 

APVJJ., thyrsiculus, Herb. 98, E. ABNOB., agniculns, 8 7, 12 
Ps.-Apic., codicula, ap. Paucker. TH. PRISC., ollicula, 4, 1 

i Val. Max. ; Apul. Met. ; Vulg. ; Symm. ; ICt. 2 Plin. Ep. ; Vulg. ; Augustin. Plin. 
4 Tert ; Cypr. ; Ps. -Cypr.; Donat. 

* Two other forms, sarcinuneula, sorbuncula, are cited by Paucker I. L, on author- 
ity of Schwabe, Demin. Gr. et Lat., a work to which I have not had access. " Paucker, 
1. Z., p. 605 sq. 7 Anmerk zu A. Weinhold, Genuswechsel d. Deminutiua, ALL. P7, 
p. 172. 

8 Ambros.; Augustin. ; Cassiod. ; form -cula = AmbroB. 



45. DIM. ADJ.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 185 

CHARIS., montaniculus, 155, 12 GROMAT. VET., carnpicellus, 312, 9 
CASSIOD., tonsicula, Far. 12, 4 POMPEI. GRAMM., agnicellus, -cellu- 

lus, 143, 29, K. 

The formation may have arisen through false analogy with 
2nd decl. stems in -co- : thus Charis, (I. L), compares montanus, 
montaniculus ; scholasticus, scholasticulus. That the usage be- 
longed to the sermo plebeius is indicated by the greater freedom 
of the Romance languages in this respect ; compare the use in 
Ital. of the suffix -cello ; acquicella, (aqua), orticello, (hortus), 
venticello, (uentus), etc. 

45. DIMINUTIVE ADJECTIVES : a. FROM THE POSITIVE : "With 
the Ind.-Germ. suffixes in -CA- and -LA-, Latin inherited the 
power of attaching them to substantive and adjective alike. 
The diminutive adjectives however are far less numerous than 
those formed from substantives, and seem early to have lost their 
popularity. They were in the main avoided by classic writers, 2 
were revived to some extent in Silver Latin, notably by the 
archaistic emperor Hadrian, and are abundant in the later ar- 
chaists, Fronto, Gell., and Apul. They were however chiefly 
prevalent in the early language : of the 203 collected by 
Paucker, exclusive of forms from comparatives, only 87 are 
recc., and of the uett. only 27 are due to Silver Latin. 3 A large 
majority of the remainder belong to the preclassical period, 
and especially to early comedy, which here again shows the 
influence of the sermo plebeius ; Plaut. alone has nearly one- 
half of the uett. forms. Still more marked is the preference 
of early Latin for the forms from comparatives, plusculus, etc., 
(treated separately below), which are distinctly an archaism 
of the popular speech. Diminutive adjectives are not numer- 
ous in the later language, but have nevertheless survived to 
some extent in the Romance languages, with occasional loss 
of diminutive force : compare Ital. parecchio, rubecchio, cati- 
vello, grandicello, f orticello ; Span., grasuelo, agrillo, ciguecillo, 
etc.; as with substantives, the suffixes are sometimes doubled, 
e.g., Ital. gravicduolo, magricduolo, etc. 

Like the diminutive substantives, these adjectives began 

1 Cassiod. 

J Schmilinsky, p. 39 ; conf. in general authorities cited for climiii. substt., supra, 
39, p. 155, not. 4. Paucker, Add. Lex. Lat., p. 46, not. 40. 



186 WORD FORMATION IN THE l 45. DIM. ADJ. 

early to lose their special significance and finally came to be 
used side by side with the simple forms with no apparent dis- 
tinction : * compare lapides candidi et nigelli, Ampel. 8, 21 ; myr- 
tae nigellae, ellebori nigrl, chamadeonis nigri, Cass. Fel. 17, 11 ; 
nouellas et inauditas sectas ueteribus religiofiibus opponere, Mos. et 
Bom. Leg. Coll, 15, 3, 3. In the sermo plebeius and late Latin 
they were illogically strengthened by adverbs, thus neutraliz- 
ing the diminutive force, as tarn feroculiis, Auct. Bell. Afr. 16, 
1 ; oppido quam paruuli, Vitr., 8, 3, 11 ; ualde audaculus, Petr., 
63 ; satis ad loquendum promptulus, Hier. in Dan. pr. etc., or 
they were modified like the simple adjectives, with per- and 
sub-, as for instance, per-pauxillo, Plaut., per-astutulus, Apul.; 
sub-paetulus. Varr. Sat. Men.; sub-argutulus, Gell.; suf-fusculus, 
Apul.; sub-crassulus, Capit. Still more interesting is the ad- 
dition of diminutive suffixes to both noun and adjective, e. g. 
fmgiduli ocelli, where the force of the adjective is not that of 
sub-frigidus, but merely serves to strengthen the diminutive 
idea in the substantive. 2 In Cic. the construction is very rare : 
aside from the Epistt., I have found only aureolus, bis, used in 
a secondary sense, a. libellus, Acad. 2, 135 ; a. oratiuncula, Nat. 
Deor. 3, 43, paruulus, semel, inpisciculip., Nat. Deor. 2, 123, and 
the aua Xc-y. eberneolus, in e. fistula, de Or. 3, 225, which how- 
ever is quoted by Gell. 1, 11, 16, as eburnea fistula. The usage 
is distinctly colloquial, and to a certain extent an archaism, as 
is shown by its prevalence in early comedy and in the archa- 
ists Gell., Apul., and Arnob. Compare further the following 
instances : 

NAEVTVS : uiridulus adulescentulus, Com. 126 

PLAVTVS : pupilla bellula, Cas. 848 ; paruola puella, Cist. 123 ; muliercula 
exornatula, Id. 306 ; inducula mendicula, Epid. 223 ; lunulam at- 
que anellum aureolum in digitulum, Id. 640 ; seruoli sordiduli, Poen. 
270 ; papillarnm horridularum oppressiunculae, Plseud. 68 ; scitula 
aetatula, Rud. 894 ; ensiculus aureolus, Id. 1156 ; silioula argenteola, 
Id. 1169 ; crocotilla crascula, Fr. op. Fest. 52, 20. 

CAEOIUVS : tuguriolum pauperculum, Com. 82 

Trruuvs : togula obunctula, Com. 138 

1 Conf. Wolfflin, Cass. Fel., p. 407, citing further nigellus . . . albus, Gael. Aur. 
Chron. 2, 33. *Schmalz, Stilist., p. 575, " Spielerei mit Dim. trieben heisst es, wenn 
znm Subst. dim. noch ein solches Adj. tritt.; " conf. Kilhner, Gramm. Lat, L, p. 667; 
Koehler, BeU. Afr., p. 7. 



9 45. DIM. ADJ.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 187 

Lvcmvs : scutula ligneola, Sat. 5, 25 

AFBANIVS : bacillum corneolum, Com. 224 ; inscitula ancillula, Id. 

385 
VABRO : nigellum amiculum*, de Vit. P. R. 3, Fr. 20 ; nigellae pupulae, 

Sat. Men. 375 

CICEKO (EPISTT.): cerula miniatula, ad Alt. 16, 11, 1 
CATVLLVS : turgiduli ocelli, 3, 18 ; molliculi uersiculi, 16, 4 ; imula auri- 

cilla, 25, 2 ; aridula labella, 64, 318. 

AVCT. BELL. AFR.: paruula causula, 54, 1 ; paruulum nauigiolum, 63, 1 
VERGIL. GIB..: frigiduli ocelli, 347 
VITBWIVS : fonticulus oppido quam paruulus, 8, 3, 11 
VALEBIVS MAXIMVS : filioli paruuli, 8, 8, 1 

MAKTIALIS : uernulas libellos, 3, 18, 4 ; rusticulus libellus, 10, 19, 2 
PLINIVS MINOB : lagunculae paraulae, Ep. 2, 6, 2 
HADBIANVS IMT.: animula uagula blandula, ap. Spart. Hadr. 25, 9 
SVETONTVS : cultellos paruulos, Claud. 34 
GELLIVS : trepiduli pulli, 2, 29, 8 ; porculi minusculi, 4, 11, 6 ; surculi 

oblonguli, 17, 9, 7 
AFVLETVB : breuiculus gratabulus, Met. 1, 11 ; formula scitula, Id. 3, 15 ; 

paruuli infantuli, Id. 8, 15 ; casula paruula, Id. 9, 35 
ABNOBIVS : paruula frustilla, 2, 58 ; paruula formicula, 4, 26 ; (paruuli 

pusiones, 7, 8 ; al.) 

CAPITOLINVS : russulae fasciolae, Albin. 5 fin. 
MABCELLVS EMPIBICVS : catulus nouellus, 29, 52 

Diminutives from adjectives in -ax, -ox, -osus, -cundus, 
are distinctly plebeian. Guericke 1 included among his list of 
vulgar forms dicaculus, Pla,ui.;feroculus, Turp.; audaculus, Petr., 
" quae hac forma in sermone urbano non reperimus," and 
Koehler 2 adds the s. f. celocula, Plaut., and maintains that 
*feliculus must have been frequent in the sermo cotidianus, 
" quoniam saepe hoc cognomen muliebre in inscriptionibus 
obuiam fit Felicula . . . Felicia," citing Inscrr. Pomp., C. I. 
L. 4, 2199 ; al. : to these may be added loquaculus, Lucr. Com- 
pare from adjectives in -osus, rabiosulus, Cic. Ep.; religiosulus, 
spinosulus, torosulus, Hier.; in -cuudus, rubicundulus, luuen. 

1 Guericke, p. 30 ; he is criticized by Schulze, Diss. Hal. VI, p. 164, " Putat enim 
distinguendum esse inter deminutiua ' sermonis urbani et cotidiani ' et ' sermonis pleb- 
eii. ' Quod mihi non probatur ; " Schulze however failed to observe that the list given 
by Guericke is mainly composed of double diminutives, lamellula, etc., irregular for- 
mations, such as sauiunculum from sauium, and forms from adjs. in -ax, -ox, all of 
which are at least rare outside of the sermo plebeius, 2 Koehler, Bell. Afr., p. 8 ; conf. 
Lorenz, Einleit. z. Pseud., p. 62, not. 51. 



188 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[ 45. DIM. ADJ. 



The following is a list of the diminutive adjectives : 

primulas," Amph. 737; al. 
putillus," Asin. 694 
quadrimulus, Capt. 981 ; al. 
quantillus, Id. 193 ; al. 
regillus," 2 Epid. 223 
rufulus," Asin. 400 
*saepicule, s4 Cas. 703 Codd. 
scitulus," 5 Rud. 565 ; al 
sordidulus, 26 Poen. 270 
tantillus, 47 Rud. 1150 
tenellus, 28 Cas. 108 
ualentulus, Id. 852 
uenustulus, 29 Asin. 223 
uesculus, 30 Trin. 888 
uinnulus, Asin. 223 



NAEVTVS. 
pauxillulum, 1 s. n., Com. 49 

PLAVTVS. 

aeneolus," Fab. Inc. Fr. 8 
aliquantillulum, Capt. 137 
aliquantulum, 3 Merc. 640 
argenteolus, 4 Rud. 1169 
aureolus, 5 /< 1156; al. 
belliatulus, Cas. 854 
bellulus, 6 M/. 989; al. 
blandiloquentulus, Trin. 239 
breuiculus, 7 Merc. 639 
clanculum, 8 d., Amph. 523 ; a/. 
commodulum, 9 adu., Mil. 750 
dicaculus, 10 .4sm. 517 
dulciculus, 11 Poen. 390 
ebriolus, Cure. 192 ; a/, 
exornatulus, Cist. 306 
grandiculus, 13 Jben. 481 
limulus, Bacch. 1130 
mendiculus, jE^zc?. 223 
minutulus, 13 Poen. 28 
misellus, 14 Rud. 550 
molliculus, 18 Cos. 492 
mundulus, 16 True. 658 
pauperculus," Pers. 345 
pauxillus, 18 Capt. 176 
perpauxillo, adu., Id. 177 



CATO. 

helueolus, 31 R. R. 6, 4 
miscellus, 38 Id. 23 

TrriNivs. 
obunctulus, (70w. 138 

TVBPUJVS. 

feroculus, 33 Com. 107 
miserulus, 34 Id. 211 

Lvcnjvs. 
eminulus, 36 Sat. 3, 7 ; 



placidule, 19 Rud. 426 

1 Ter.; Solin.; Sidon. Ep.; adj. Plant. s Petr.; cow/. Paul, ex Fest. p. 28 M. 

3 Ter.; Gell.; ad/. =Ter.; *Auct. B. Afr.; Vnlg.; Anr. Viet; Auson.; adu. -lo = Vopisc. 

4 Fronto ; SchoL Imaen. 8 Lucil.; Varr.; Catull.; Cic., 6t, (a. libellus, Acad. 2, 135 ; a. 
oratiuncula, Nat. Deor. 3, 43); Col.; Mart.; Prud. 6 Insert. ; adu. = Plaut.; Apul. Met. 
T Fronto ; Apul. Met. 8 Enn. ; Atta Com. ; Afiran. ; Ter. ; Lucil. ; Auct. Bell. Hisp. ; Gell. ; 
form -culo = ApuL ; Tert. ; Amm. ; Augustin. ; Macr. Form -le = Plant. ; Arnob. 
10 ApuL Met. ; Spartian. " Cic. , semel, (Tusc. 3, 46). ia Ter. 13 Vopisc. ; Macr. ; ICt. 
14 Lucr. ; Catull. ; Cic. Ep. , bis ; Petr. ; Tert. 15 Catull. ; Ambros. ; Chads. l adu. 
Ace. Tr.; Apul. Met. "Ter.; Varr.; form -cZ? = Commodian.; s. /. = Hier. Ep. 
"Afran.; Lucr. ;Cels.; Solin. ;Vulg. 1( Adj. Auson. 20 Adu. = Plaut. ; Ter. "Varr. 
Sat. Men. M Varr. Sat. Men.; Fest. S3 Plin.; Rufuli, (tribuni militum), =Liu.; Ps.- 
Ascon. a4 Apul. Met. 25 Apul.; Arnob. 26 Iuuen. 27 Ter.; Catull.; Cek 
58 Varr. ; ApuL ; Vulg. ; Domit. Mars. a9 Auson. 30 Paul, ex Fest. 31 Varr. ;/orm 
heluolus = Col. 32 Varr. ; Col. ; Suet. ; Sicul. Fl. de Condit. Agror. ; form miscillus = 
Mart. Cap. Anct. B. Afr. !4 Laeu.; Catull. 35 Varr. ; Apul.; Prud.; Non. 



45. DIM. ADJ.] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



189 



ligneolus, 1 Id. 5, 25 
macellus," Id. 6, 11 

LAEVTVS. 

bicoduhis, Erotop. Fr. 10 
lasciuiolus, Id. Fr. 4 
tenellulus, 3 Id. ib. 

AFRANIVS. 
inscitulus, Com. 386 

VABKO. 

albulus, 4 R. R. 3, 14, 4 
macriculus, L. L. 8, 79 
nigellus, 6 Sat. Men. 375 ; al. 
pullus, (parus), Id. 462 
(Romamilus, (porta), ap. Varr. 

L. L. 5, 164) 

rusticellus, ap. Plin. 7, 83 
satullus, R. R. 2, 2, 15 
subpaetulus, Sat. Men. 375 
tacitulus, Id. 187 & 318 
turpicnlns/ L. L. 7, 97 
nnctulus, 7 Catus 20, p. 250 ed 
Riese. 

LiVCEETIVS. 

loquaculus, 4, 1157 
simulus, 6 4, 1161 

ClCEKO (EPISTT.). 

argutulus, 9 ad Att. 13, 18 -' 
integellus, 10 ad Fam. 9, 10, 3 
miniatulus, ad Att. 16, 11, 1 
pulchellus, 11 ad Fam. 7, 23, 2 ; al. 
rabiosulus, Id. 7, 16, 1 

LABEBIVS. 

ebriatulus, Com. 52 



CATVLLVS. 

frigidulus, 18 64, 131 
imulus, 25, 2 
mollicellus, 25, 10 
pallidulus, 13 65, 6 
turgidulus, 14 3, 18 

COLVMELLA. 

cereolus, 15 Poet. 10, 404 
flammeolus, Id. 10, 307 
inerticulus, 16 3, 2, 24 

PEKSIVS. 
beatulus, 3, 103 
rancidulus, 17 1, 33 
rubellus, 13 5, 147 

PBTBONIVS. 
aeneolus, 73, 5 
audaculus, 19 63, 5 

PUNIVS. 

acidulus, 15, 56 ; al. 
rabusculus, 14, 42 

MABTIAMS. 
putidtdus, 20 4, 20, 4 
sellariolus, 5, 70, 3 

IWENALIS. 
improbulus, 5, 73 
litddulus, 11, 110 
rubicundulus, 6, 424 

HADBIANVS IMP. 

blandulus, ap. Spart. Hadr. 25, 9 
ntidulus, Id. ib. 
uagulus, Id. ib. 



i Cic. Ep. ; Apnl. ; Augustin. 8 Varr. 3 Catull. 4 Catull. ; Mart. ; Albula = Tiber 
fluu., passim. 5 Pall.; Ampel.; Augustin.; Ven. Fort. Cic. , semel, (de Or. 2, 348); 
Catull. ' s. n. ApuL Met. Verg. Moret. "April. Met. 10 Catull. ll Craasusap. 
Cic. Ep. 1S Verg. Cir. 13 Hadrian, ap. Spartian. 14 Paul. Petr. 15 Sitbst. = Hier.; Ps.- 
Augustin.; Isid. "Plin. 17 Mart.; luuen.; adu. =Palaemon. 19 Plin.; Mart. 
19 GelL ; Firm. Math. 3 Capit. 



190 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[45. Dili. ADJ. 



FBONTO. 

pinguiculus, ad M. Goes. 4, 12 
uetusculus, de Eloq. 3, p. 151, 8 
JF. 

GELTJIVS. 

diutule, 1 5, 10, 7 ; al. 
oblongulus, 17, 9, 7 
subargutulus, 15, 30, 1 
trepidulus, 2, 29, 8 

AFVLEIVS. 

astutulus, Met. 6, 26 
ansterulus, Flor. 20 
blandicule, Met. 10, 27 
glabellus, 3 Id. 2, 17 ; o. 
perastutulus, Id. 9, 5 
pressulus, Flor. 9, p. 11, 10 ; Kr. 
succinctulus, Met. 2, 7 
suffusculus, 3 JB. 2, 13 
tantillulus, Id. 2, 25 
tempestillus, Id. 8, 2 
uastulus, Jcf. 2, 32 

TERTVLLIANVS. 

hystriculus, 4 PaK. 4 
ignitulus, ac? .$aZ. 1, 10 
itraenculus, 6 Monog. 13 
linguatulua, ad Nat. 1, 8 
nralleolus, PaS. 4, eatfr. 
nouiciolus, J[po/. 47 ; al. 

SOLINVS. 
prominulus,* 27 fin. 



russulus, 7 Albin. 5, 9 
subcrassulus, Gorrf. 6, 1 

ABNOBTVS. 

callidulus, 2, 68. 
lippulus, 7, 34 



PAIiLADIVS. 

albidulus, 3, 25, 12 

AMMIANVS. 

grauidulus, 23, 6, 85 
putredulus, 22, 16, 16 

AMBBOSIVS. 

pusillulus, Cant. Cantic. 2, 62 

HlEBONYMVS. 

ciucinnatulus, Ep. 130, 19 
comatuhis, Id. 54, 13 ; al. 
comptulus, Id. 128, 3 
histriculus, 8 adu. Rufin. 1, 30 
literatulus, Id. 1, 31 
promptulus, in Daniel, Praef. extr. 
raucidulus, Ep. 40, 2 
religiosulus, adu. Rufin. 3, 7 
sanctulus, Id. ib. 
spinosulus, Ep. 69, 4 
torosulus, in louin. 2, 14 ; al. 

PEVDENTIVS. 

linteolus, ntpi <rrl>. 3, 180 
russeolus, Id. 11, 130 
turbidulus, Apoth. 208 

PAVMNVS NOLANVS. 
egenulus, 29, 12 

AVGVSTINVS. 

diuscule, Trin. 11, 2 
iactanticulus, 9 arfw. Acad. 3, 8 ; a2. 

MAKOELLVS EMPIBIOVS. 
ripariolus, 15, 34 

MABTIANVS CAPELLA. 
cerritulus, 8, 806 
lepidulus, 7, 726; al. 
marcidulus, 7, 727 



1 Apul. Flor.; Macr. * Mart. Cap. 'Amm. 4 Arnob.; Hier. 5 Ambros.; Vulg.; 
Augustin. Capit. ; Mart. Cap. 7 Vopisc. 8 Gloss. Labb. Schol. luuen. 



46. DIM. ADJ.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIV8. 191 

rapidulus, 8, 804 SIDONIVS APOLLINABIS. 

rubellulus, 5, 566 rauulus, Ep. 9, 13 

ISIDORVS. 
*subalbulus, 12, 1, 50, ed. Otto. 

46. DIMINUTIVE ADJECTIVES : b. FROM THE COMPAEATIVE : 
This class of diminutives deserves to be treated separately, 
as belonging peculiarly to colloquial and early Latin. Their 
archaic character has been discussed by Knapp, 1 who cites 
from Gell. plusculus, complusculus, minusculus, while Priebe 2 in- 
cludes meliuscule, tardiuscule, among the archaisms of Fronto. 
But as was already observed by Thielmann, these forms belong 
chiefly to the sermo plebeius ; 3 Cic. admits only two in his more 
finished writings, plusculus, (bis, Or. 2, 24, 9 ; Hep. 2, 33, 57), 
longiusculus, (semel, pro Arch. 10, 25), while in the Epistt. we 
find meliusculus, minusculus, maiusculus, putidiusculus. Recently 
Ulrich has maintained the same view, citing minusculus among 
the adjectives used by Vitr., " quae ad sermonem cotidianum 
spectent," and comparing the corresponding forms in the 
modern Romance languages, Ital., minuscola, majuscola ; Fr., 
minuscule, majuscule ; Span., minuscula, mayuscula* 

The following list amply demonstrates the colloquial char- 
acter of this class : 

PLAVTVS. tardiusculus, 9 Fr. ap. Non. 198, 26 

complusculus, 5 Rud. 131 uuctiusculus, Pseud. 221 
liquidiusculus, Mil. 665 
meliusculus, 6 Cure. 489; al. 

minusculus, 7 Trin. 888 TEEENTIVS. 

nitidiusculus, Pseud. 220 *grandiusculus, l And. 814 

plusculus, 8 Amph. 283 maiusculus, 11 Eun. 527 

1 Knapp, Gell., p. 156. 2 Priebe, de M. Cornelio Frontone Imitationem prisci Ser- 
monis Latini adf ectante, Stettin, 1885, cited by Knapp, 1. 1. 3 Thielmann, Cornif . Rhet. , 
p. 98, "paene omnes uulgaris sunt serrnonis ; " conf. Goelzer, p. 128, "Ces formes se 
rencontrent surtout chez les comiques et dans le langage de la conversation ; " B. Hauler, 
ALL. V., p. 294, "solche verkleinernde Komparativbildungen, welche den volkstum- 
Hchen Anstrich nicht verleugnen konnen . . . ; " Landgraf, Cic. Epp., p. 319 ; 
Stinner, p. 11 ; Lorenz, Pseud. 207-9 ; Brix ad Mil. 665 ; and list given by Paucker, 
Ztschr. f. Oest. Gymn. 27, p. 601. 4 Ulrich, Vitr., Pt. II.. p. 1, u comparatiua huius 
uocabuli (minusculus) notio nt apud Vitruuium ita in linguis recentioribus amissa est." 

8 Turpil. ; Ter. ; lul. Val.; adu. = Gell. Ter.; Varr. ; Col.; Sen.; Petr. ; adu. = Cic. 
Ep. ; Fronto. 7 Cato ; Varr. ; Cic. Ep. ; Vitr. Ter. ; Cic. Ep. , et bis, (Or. 2, 24, 99 ; de 
Rep. 2, 33, 57); Apul. 8 Ter. ; Augustin. ; adu. = M. Aurel. ap. Fronto. lo Augustin. 
Cic. Ep.; Sen. Ep. ; Plin. 



192 WORD FORMATION IN THE [47. -ASTER, ETC. 

SVTRIVS. frigidiusculus, 3, 10, 16 

fortiusculus, ap. Fulg. Myth. 3, 8 grauiusculus, 1, 11, 13 

COKM.FIO.IVH RHETOR. APVUETVS. 

celeriuscule, 1 3, 24 ampliusculus, 4 Apd. 75 

lautiusculus, Met. 7, 9 
CICERO (EPISTT.). 
*putidiusculus, ad Fam. 7, 5, 3 SOLDTOS- 

largiusculus, 6 7, 4 

PMNIVS. 
duriusculus,' Praef. 1 1 IB VAMUVH. 

auctiusculus, 2, 15 

SVETONIVS. AVGVSTINVS 

altiuaculus,* A*. 73 salsiusculns, Conf. 8, 3 

GELLIVS. CAEUVS AVBELIANVS. 

doctiuscule, 6, 16, 2 mitiusculus, Acut. Praef. 18 



47. DIMINUTIVES, ETC., IN -aster, -astra, -astrum : Forma- 
tions from this suffix are usually classed under the head of 
diminutives, and that they sometimes had a simple diminutive 
force we know from Priscian, 3, 26, who cites Antoniaster, Catu- 
laster, used adulationis causa, et maxime puerorum* Generally, 
however, the suffix has a contemptuous or derogative force, 
which is especially important as being the prevailing one in 
the modern languages. 

This suffix belongs distinctly to the sermo plebeius. Its 
occurrence in classic literature is limited to sporadic instan- 
ces in early comedy, the Epistt. of Cic., and in Vitr., and to a 
few names of plants, due probably to the influence of the 
sermo rusticus. In the speech of the people it must have been 
in current use at all periods, for the scanty material which can 
be collected is distributed throughout the whole extent of 
Latinity, from Plaut. to Aldhelm., while Du Gauge cites 
numerous forms from the medieval writers. Its kinship to the 
sermo plebeius was first observed by Lorenz, in his note on 
peditastellus, Plaut. Mil. 54 and Brix, commenting on the same 
passage, points out its connection with the Romance Lan- 

1 adj. = Prise. 2 Plin. Ep. 3 Augustin. ; adu. = Apul. Met. 4 adu. = Cl. Mam. ; 
Sidon. Ep. adu. Gramm. Vat. 7, 531. 
Conf. Seek, ALL. I, p. 390. 



47. -ASTER, ETC.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 193 

guages, citing 1 Ital. poetastro, criticastro. 1 A special study of 
these words lias been made by Studenmnd in the Hermes, I., 
283 sq., and more recently by Seek and Schnorr, in the Archiv 
f. Lat. Lex., I., p. 390 sq. In the latter article the plebeian 
nature of the suffix is convincingly maintained, 2 and its pre- 
vailing derogative force clearly indicated, as e.g., in the rela- 
tionships of step-son, -daughter, etc., piaster, -astra, patraster, 
matrastra, and in the unmistakably vulgar cailaster, catulastra, 
used in malam partem by Vitr. and Dracont., 3 and in numerous 
derivatives from the names of plants, denoting the inferiority 
of the wild species, 4 as olea, oleaster ; apium, apiastrum. With 
these may be compared Fr., mardire, pardtre (O. Fr., Jfflastre, 
frerastre), gentilldtre, muldtre ; Span., padr astro, madrastra, 
hij astro, kermanastro, olivastro ; Ital., figliastro, medicasfro, 
poetastro, olivastro, etc. Instances of these forms with diminu- 
tive meaning do occur, although rarely; Ital., polastro, porcas- 
tro ; Span., cochasiro, camastro. 5 

Examples of Adjectives in -aster are especially rare. The 
few which can be cited chiefly denote resemblance, as caluaster, 
crudaster, canaster, fiduaster, nigellaster. With the last three 
may be compared the numerous similar adjectives denoting 
colors, found in modern Fr., as blanchdtre, bleudtre, verddtre; 
Ital., biancastro, rossastro, verdastro. 9 

The plebeian fondness for double suffixes is well exempli- 
fied in this class of words by the forms in -ell-aster, 
-ul-aster, as nigellaster, nouellaster, Catulaster, pullastra ; or in 
reverse order, -ast-ellus, tispeditastellus, oliuastellus,pinastellus, 
which Seek designates as diminutive-deteriorative substantives, 
and which have a close parallel in meaning in the Ital. forms 
in -ucci-accio, already referred to. 7 Conversely, the suffix -aster 
is sometimes strengthened in Ital., by addition of the augmen- 
tative ending -one, as gallastrone. 

1 Cow/. Stinner, p. 9, citing Fuluiaster : Etienne, de Deminutiuis, p. 8, "immerito 
. . . aliquis credat ea non ab pura dicendi ratione abesse : sunt enim ea aetate quae 
media fit inter postremos rei romanae annos et barbarorum incursus in imperii molem 
ruentium." s Seek, 1. I. p. 396, "Noch mehr aber muss man betonen, dass . . . 
die bildungen auf aster der Volkssprache angehorten und daher in der allein uns er- 
haltenen Litteratur nur sparlich auf fcauchen ; " Lindsay, Latin Language, p. 330, "es- 
pecially in vulgar or colloquial Latin." 3 Contrasted respectively with puella matura 
and jpwer tener. * Oonf. Seek, 1. ?., p. 392. s Diez, p. 687 ; Meyer-LUbke, Ital. Gramm., 
566; Matzner, Fr. Gramm., p. 269. Diez, p. 638; Matzner, p. 282. 7 Conf. 
supra, 30, p. 116. 
13 



194 



WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 47. -ASTER, ETC. 



A complete collection of forms in -aster, -astra, -astruxn, 
including those found in the glossaries, inscriptions, and in 
the lexicon of Du Cange, has been given by Seek, in the article 
already cited. The following list contains only the principal 
forms found in the Roman literature, arranged historically, 
for ready reference. 



PLAVTVS. 

grauastellus, Epid. 620 
peditastellus, Mil. 54 

TEKEMTJ.VS. 
parasitaster, 1 Ad. 779 

TITINIVS. 

formaster, 2 Com. 166 

CATO. 

mediast(r)irnis, 8 op. Non. 143 
*ungula(s)ter, 4 ap. Fest. p. 379, 8 

VAKRO. 

apiastram, 5 R. E. 3, 36, 10 
seliquastmm, 6 L. L. 5, 128 
serperastra, 7 Id. 9, 11 
*pullastra, R. R. 3, 9, 9, ed. 
Schneid. 

CICERO. 

Antoniaster, 8 Fr. Orat. pro Var- 

eno 2, 10, p. 232 ed. Mull. 
Fuluiaster, ad Alt. 12, 44, 3 
surdaster, 9 Tusc. 5, 116 

V-LTKVV1VS. 

cat (u) laster, 10 8, 3, 25 



CELSVS. 

mentastrum, 11 5, 27, 7 

COLVMELIiA. 

alicastrum, 14 2, 6, 3 
oleastelhis, 12, 51, 3 

PLINIVS. 

pinaster, 14, 127; al. 
salicastrum, 23, 20 
siliquastrum, 20, 174; al. 

APVZ/ETVS. 

apiastellnm, Herb. 8, 66 
fuluiaster, Id. 110 
palliastmm, Met. 1, 6 ; al. 
pinastellus, Herb. 94 
porcastrum, Id. 103 

PRISCIANVS. 

apiaster, 13 2, 444, 11 H. 
Catulaster, 3, 26 

SEEVTVS. 
apiastra, ad Georg. 4, 14 

AVGVSTINYS. 

philosophaster de Ciu. Dei 2, 
27 in. ; al. 



1 Prise. a Gloss. Placid. 3 Lncil.; Hor. Ep.; Col.; Plin.; Vlp. Dig.; Prise.; Grut. 
Inscrr. ; Gloss. Labb. 4 Conf. Studemund, ALL. L p. 146 ; Seek., ib. p. 404. 6 Sail.; 
Col. ; Plin. ; Lampr. ; Isid. Fest. ; Hyg. ; Arnob. ; Paul. Dig. 7 Cic. ad Att. 8 Quint. ; 
Prise. Augustin. ; Prise. ; Sext. Placit. 10 Charis. ; Prise. ; Gloss. Labb. ; Thes. Nou. 
Lat. ; CL Nomin. Amplon. 1 CoL ; Plin. ; Ser. Samm. ; Pa. -Plin. a Isid. 1S Gloss. 
GaU.-Lat; Thorn. Thes. 



47. -ASTEB, ETC.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 195 

MACKOBIVS. DRACONTIVS. 

asinastra, Sat. 3, 20 catulastra, Lib. 2, fin. 

MABCELLVS EMPIRICVS. ANTHIMVS. 

nouellaster, 8, 94 crudaster, 21 

ALDHELMTS . 
porcaster, 14, p. 234 



IV. ADVEEBS. 

48. ADVERBS IN -ixn : In these adverbs we have another 
archaism of the sermo plebeius. Their prevalence in early Latin 
is apparent from a glance at the accompanying 1 list, while in 
the classic period they are chiefly conspicuous for their rarity. 
Out of a total of 428, itett. 175, Paucker l has been able to cite 
only 44 occurring in Caes. or Cic. (including Cornif. Ehet.), 
and aside from a certain number in general use, confestim, cur- 
sim, furtim, interim, nominatim, olim, paulatim, praesertim, 
priuatim, saltim, separatim, statim, uicissim, I have found in Cic. 
only the following 22, the majority of which occur in earlier 
writers : 

acertiatim, (Lucr.) gregatim, raptim, (Nbu. Com.) 

affatim, (Liu. Andr.) incisim, sensim, (Plaut.) 

articulatim, (Plaut.) membratim, (Lucr.) singillatim, (Ter.) 

centuriatim, (Pompoti. Com.) minutatim, (Lucr.) strictim, (Plaut.) 
certatim, ostiatim, syllabatim, 

curiatim, pedetentim, (Cato) nicatim, (Sisenn.) 

generatim, permixtim, uiritim. 

gradatim, (Varr. R. R.) 

Silver Latin added only 27 new forms, so that the majority of 
the uett. belong in a greater or less degree to the early period. 
Their occurrence as archaisms in later writers has often been 
noticed : among others by Schultze, 2 in connection with the vo- 
cabulary of Sail. ; by Lorenz 8 ad Plaut. Pseud. 1261, who notes 
the recurrence of palliolatim in Fronto, and the prevalence of 
like forms in Apul.; by Knapp, 4 who cites among the archaisms 
of Gell. uniuerdm, and the adverbial phrase ad amussim, com- 
paring the Plautine exammsim ; and by Stange, 5 who includes 

1 Paucker, Materialien, VII., p. 135. a Schultze, p. 57, " aduerbia in -im desinentia 
praecipue in antiquiore sermone et apud huius imitatores . . . frequentissimum 
est." 3 Conf. Muell. ad Lucil. 3, 8, " fartim aduerbium Appuleium qui eo post Lucil- 
ium primus utitur, nt immmer.i ex priscorum scriptorum monuraentis repetisse ap- 
paret." As an instance of Apuleian fondness for these adverbs, COM/. Flor. 9, non 
singillatim et discretim seel cunctim et coaceruatim. * Knapp. Gell., p. 167 ; con/. Vo- 
gd, Gell., p. 30. 6 Stange, Arnob. p. 7. 



48. -IM.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 197 

guttatim (Plaut. ; Enn.) among the words used by Arnob. 
" quae exprisca Latinitate deprompta sunt" But that their prev- 
alence in later literature was not due solely to an affectation 
of archaic style, is shown by their extraordinary fertility (more 
than 60 % of the whole are recc.)? and by the evident predilec- 
tion shown for them at all periods by writers of inferior style. 
Their use in place of customary forms in -e has been classed 
by Eonsch 2 among the vulgarisms of the Itala, while Guericke ;i 
regards them as characteristic of the sermo plebeius in general. 
Landgraf, 4 quoting Ronsch, cites from Varr. dispersim, exquisitim, 
cumulatim, used in place of the Ciceronian disperse, exquisite, 
cumulate ; while conversely, Cic. uses no form in -im, for which 
the classical language had a corresponding form in -e, and 
very few for which such corresponding forms occur in the later 
writers : Paucker is able to cite only strictim, Cic. ; stride, Gell. ; 
Dig. Recently these adverbs have been classed among the ple- 
beian characteristics of Symm., by Schulze, who cites many 
authorities. 5 

It may be noted in conclusion that among the few forms 
found in Caes., five are regularly used in connection with mili- 
tary matters, and are perhaps to be attributed to the sermo 
castrensis : centuriatim, Bell. Ciu. 1, 76, c. producti milites idem 
iurant ; cuneatim, Bell. Gall., hostes . . . c. constiterunt ; 
generatim, Bell. Ciu., 3, 32, 1, hostes suas capias. . . . g. con- 
stituerunt ; ordinatim, Id. 2, 10, 5, (musculo) o. structo ; turma- 
tim, Id. 3, 93, equites se t. explicate coeperunt. 

Livrvs ANDEONIOVS. uicissatim, 10 Bell Pun. 4, Pr. 2 

disertim, 6 Tr. 35 Vahl. 

iuxtim, 7 Id. 11 *uniuersim," Id. 3, 7, ed. Span- 

genb. 
NAEVIVS. 

datatim, 8 Com. 75 PLAVTVS. 

efflictim, 9 Id. 37 assulatim, 12 Capt. 832 ; al 

1 Paucker, I. I. ; conf. Goelzer, p. 202. a Ronsch, p. 473. 3 Guericke, p. 33. 
* Landgr. Cic. Bpp., p. 320, citing Ronsch, 1. I., Stuenkel, p. 59. 8 Schulze, Diss. 

Hal. VI., p. 184, citing Kohler, p. 14, Landgr. I. I., Neue, II., p. 662, Ronsch, 1. 1. 
Conf. A. Funck, ALL. VIII. pp. 77-110. 

Plaut. ; Titin. ; Ace. > Lucr. ; Sisenn. ; Suet. ; Apul. ; lul. Val. * Plaut. ; Afran. ; 
Pompon.; Nou. 9 Plaut.; Pompon.; Laber.; Apul. "Plaut. "Gell. " Sueius, 
ed. Mull. 



198 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[f 48. -IM. 



ductim, 1 Cure. 109 
examussim, 2 Most. 102 ; al. 
follitim, Epid. 351 
frustillatim, 3 Cure. 576 
guttatim, 4 Merc. 205 
*istim, 5 Capt. 658 
manip(u)latim, 8 Pseud. 181 
offatim, 7 True. 613 
palliolatim, 8 Pseud. 1275 
puuxillatim, Rut I. 929 ; al. 
peratim, Epid. 351 
perplexim, 8 Stick. 76 
recessim, 10 <7os. 443; al. 
tolutim, 11 Asin. 706 
tractim, 13 Amph. 313 
tuatim, 13 Jd. 554 

CAECIMVS. 
incursim, 14 Com. 46 
ossicnlatim, Id. 50 
populating" /<2. 125 
properatim, 16 Id. 167 

ENNTVS. 

fortunatim, Ann. 112 
uisceratim, 2V. 106 R. 

TEBENTIVS. 
cautim, 17 Haut. 870 
tmciatim, 18 Phorm. 

TlTJJNlVS. 

semitatim, Com. 14 

IVVKNTIVS. 
testatim," Com. 7 



CATO. 
minutim, 40 R. R. 123 

CAEUVS ANTTPATEB. 
dubitatim, 41 Ann. Lib. 3, Fr. 30 



*fartim, w Sat. 2, 14 
zonatim, /(/. 6, 28 

AFRANIVS. 

fluctnatim, Com. 237 
perditim, Id. 354 
restricting Id. 333 

POMPONIVS. 

cossim, 83 Cbro. 129 
festinatim, 24 Id. 13 
frustatim, 26 Id. 177 
rusticatim, /c?. 7 
taxim, 2 ' Id. 23 
urbauatim, M 7 

CliAVDIVS QvADEiaAEIVS. 

alternatim, 27 ^nw. 1, .Fr. 50 

SISENNA. 

celatim, 28 Hist. 6, J?K 126 
enixim, Id. 4, .Fr. 110 
nostratim, ap. Charts. 221, 6 
praefestinatim, Hist. 5, .Fr. 117 
saltuatim, 29 Id. 6, .FV. 127 
uellicatim, Id. ib. 
uicatim, 30 Id. 3, Fr. 47 

NIGIDIVS. 
bouatim, op. Non. 40, 26 



1 Col. 2 Apul. s Pompon. Enn. ; Suet. ; Apul. ; Prud. ; Arnob. ; Gael. Aur. ; Poet. 
Aeu. Car. 6 * Cic. ad Att.;GrelL Sisenn.;Liu.;Plin.; Tac. 7 laid. 8 Pronto. 
Cass. Hemin. 10 Chalcid. Tim. " Nou.; Varr.;Lucil.; Pompon.; Plin.;Fronto. 
18 Lucr. ; Verg. ; Sen.; Gell. " Charis. ; Donat. , et al. Grammatt. 14 Pronto. " Pom- 
pon.; Arnob. 16 Pompon. ; Sisenn. ; Inscrr. 1T Ace. 18 Plin.; Diom.; Donat. 
" Pompon. Plin. ; Gell. ; Ps. -Apic. ; Veg. Vet. Sisenn. " Apul. Met. ; Auson. ; 
cow/. Funck, ALL. VIII, 103. ApuL Met. * Sisenn. Plin.; Apul.; Prud.; Ps.- 
Apic, a Varr. Sat. Men. 27 Amm.; Augustin.; Charis. ;Boeth. 28 Apul. Met,; cow/. 
Sisenn. ap. Non. p. 87 celeratim. M Aram.; Sidon. so Cic., semel, (de Dom. 129),- 
Hor. Epod. ; Liu.; Plin. ; Suet. ; Tac. 



-IS. -IM.] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



199 



canatim, Id. ib. 
expulsim, 1 Id. 104,32 
suatim," (sus), Id. 40, 26 

VABBO. 

confusim, L. L. 9, 4 
cumulatim, 3 R. R. 3, 15, 2 
discriminatim, Id. 1, 7, 7 
dispersim, 4 Id. 1, 1, 8 ; al. 
exquisitim, Sat. Men. 18 
indiscriminatim, 5 Fr. Willm. 33 
particulatim, 6 Sat. Men. 17 
stiUatim, 7 L. L. 5, 38 

LVCBETIVS. 

adumbratim, 4, 363 
cateruatim, e 6, 1144 
filatim, 2, 831 
grauatim, 9 3, 387 
mixtim, 10 3, 564 
moderatim, 1, 323 
propritim, 2, 975 

CICEKO (EPISTT). 
oitatim, 11 ad Alt. 14, 20, 5 

LABEBIVS. 
mauricatim, Com. 16 

HOBATIVS. 
singultim, Sat. 1, 6, 56 



COLVMEUJA. 

iugeratim, 3, 3, 3 
liratim, 11, 3, 20 

PLINIVS. 

arcuatim, 15 29, 136 
assultim, 8, 90 ; al. 
*canaliculatim, 9, 103 D. & M. 
cancellatim, 18 7, 81 ; al. 
contexim, 17 10, 147 
cuspidatim, 17, 102 
domesticatim, 18 
fornicatim, 16, 223 
geniculatim, 21, 68 
imbricatim, 9, 103 
muricatim, 9, 102 
orbiculatim, 19 11, 177 
pedatim, 11, 253 
scripulatim, 22, 118 
squamatim, 16, 49 
undatim, 20 13, 96; al 

PETBONIVS. 
circulatim, 21 67, 8 
ttrceatim, 44, 18 

GELLIVS. 
sparsim, 23 11, 2, 5 



al. 



aggeratim, Met. 4, 8 
agminatim, 23 Id. ib. 
angulatim, 24 Id. 3, 2 
bacchatim, Id. I, 13 
capreolatim, Id. 11, 22 
coaceruatim, 25 Flor. 9 
congesting Apol. 35 
cunctim, 28 Flor. 9 
directim, 27 Deo Socr. Prol. 
3 Prud. Suet. ; Intpr. Iren. ; Mythogr. 



VITKVVIVS. 

decussatim, 13 1, 6, 7 ; al. 

pectinatim, 13 1, 5, 7 

seriatim, 14 6, 8, 7 

1 Varr. Sat. Men. 2 g eru> j n D ona t. 
Lat. * Varr. ap. Non. Cornif Bhet. ; Sen. Ep. ; Plin. ; Lact. ; Augustin. ; Marc. Emp. ; 
Cod. Theod. ; Paul. Diac. 1 Diom. 8 Sail. ; Verg. Ge. ; Plin. ; Tert. ; Augustin. ; Greg. 
Tur.; Poet. Aeu. Carl. Liu. 10 Donat. n Auct. Bell. Afr. 12 Col.; Plin.; Mart. 
Cap.;Ps.-Apic. "Plin. " Apul. Herb.; Augustin. "Pest. " Sidon. "Au- 
gustin. Ep. 18 Suet. 19 Macrob. ao Prud. ; Amm. ; Oros. ; Freculf . 21 Suet. ; CaeL 
Aur. M Apul.; Amm.; Lact.; Poet. Aeu. Carl. M Solin. ; Amm. a < Diom. ; Sidon. 
25 Augustin. ; Gael. Aur. 2 Sidon. Ep. 27 Augustin.; Macrob.; Viet. Vit.; Isid. 



200 WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 49. -TEB. 

discretim, 1 Met. 6, 1 ; al. inordinatim, 19, 7, 3 

eiflictim, J Id. 5, 28 secretim, 29, 1, 6 

fistulatim, Id. 4, 3 

granatim, Id. 6, 10 HJEEONTMVS. 

laciniatim, Met. 8, 15 commixtim, 6 in Naum. 2, 3 

pressim, 3 Id. 2, 16 ; al. diuisim, 7 Ep. 100, 14 

reflexim, 4 Deo Plat. 3 *sacratim, in Ezech. 1, 879 

rotatim, Met. 10, 253 

AVGVSTINVS. 

TEKTVLLIANVS. conglobatim, Conf. 7, 7 extr. 

graecatim, Pall. 4 continuatim, 8 Doctr. Clir. 4, 7, 

praestructim, Id. 3 20 ; al. 

solutim, Id. 5 perstrictim, 9 in Ps. 41, 10 ; al. 

templatim, Apol. 42 

temporatim, Pall. 2 ; al. Broosivs APOLUNABIS. 

transuersim,* Bapt. 8 caesuratim, Ep. 4, 3, 3 

cauernatim, 10 Id. 5, 14 
ABNOBIVS. coactim, /d. 9, 6, 2 

propriatim, 3, 43 cochleatim, Id. 4, 15, 3 

emicatim, Id. 2, 13, 8 
PALLADIVS. indef essim, n Id. 3, 2, 4 

tabulating 3, 9, 11 nnncipatim, 12 Id. 7, 9, 13 

salebratim, Id. 2, 2, 17 
AMMIANVS. trochleatim, Id. 5, 17, 8 

consociatim, 15, 11, 3 tumultuatim, Id. 1, 5, 4 

globatim, 27, 9, 6 uniuersatim, Id. 8, 2, 2 

49. ADVERBS IN -ter FKOM ADJECTIVES IN -us : Like the pre- 
ceding class, these adverbs are both archaic and vulgar. Their 
prevalence in the early literature has often been noticed, 13 and 
their recurrence in Gell. and Apul. has been reckoned among 
the conscious archaisms of those writers. 14 The vulgar nature 
of these forms seems beyond question. Their use was cen- 
sured by the grammarian Dosith. (Art. Gramm. ed Keil, p. 40), 
illud est uitiosum, quod multi dicunt largiter, duriter, cum et illi 

Ps.-Tert.; Ps.-Cypr.; Auien.; Amm. Ennod. ' Rhet. Min. (Albinus). < Mart. 
Cap.; Isid. 6 CL Mam. Vulg. 7 Dig. 8 Charis.; Seru. in Donat. EccL 10 Isid. 
Ji CL Mam. " Cl. Mam. 

13 Paucker, Add. Lex. Lat. p. 86, not. 70, " nsnrpatione priscorum potissimum, quam 
recolunt recentiores ; " Brix ad Plaut. Trin. 1060 ; Lorenz ad Mil. 260 ; Munro ad Lucr. 
1, 525 ; Ellis ad CatulL 39, 14 ; Neue-Wagener, 2, 725. " Conf. Kretschmann, Apul. 
p. 62, citing 13 examples ; Knapp, Gell., p. 167; Draeger, Hist. Synt, 69, giving list, 
" Hiernnter mogen die flinf von Gellius gebildeten worter der alterthiimelnden Richt- 
ung desselben zuzuschreiben sein." 



49. -TBK] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 201 

auctores qui semel largiter et duriter dixerunt, saepius large et dure 
dixerint, 1 and by Non. Marc., who cites a number of these forms 
in his chapter De Indiscretis Aduerbiis. Modern authorities 
are quite unanimous in assigning them to the sermo plebeius- 
and statistics certainly tend to confirm this view. Interesting 
collections have been made by Draeger, Paucker, and Neue, 
and from them I have prepared the accompanying list, which 
is sufficiently complete to form a basis for comparison. Out 
of a total of 79, 54 are uett., 42 occurring earlier than Cic.; of 
these Plaut. has the largest number, 11, Enn. coming next 
with 7, while the comparatively scanty fragments of Nou. 
Com. furnish 5. Ter., as usual, shows his more careful style, 
having only duriter (Enn.), and the new form uiolenter, which 
hardly belongs in this list, as it is usually regarded as coming 
from uiolens, and not from uiolentus. Of the recc., Gell. stands 
at the head with 6, while Apul. and Tert. add but 2 each, and 
subsequent writers only 15 altogether, some of which, as blas- 
phemeter, cited by Charis., belong properly among the uett. 
The classic writers, with but few exceptions, avoided these 
forms. Cic., aside from the Epist., has only nauiter in the early 
work Oeconom. (ap. Col. 11, 1, 16) Jirmiter, Us, de Rep. 1, 69 ; 6, 
2; (in which he is thought to affect an archaic style), 3 inhu- 
maniter, II. Vetr., 1, 138 ; luculenter, Fin. 2, 15 ; * de Off. 3, 14, 
60. Caes. has largiter, semel, (Bell. Gall. 1, 18, 6), in the evi- 
dently colloquial expression I. posse ; 4 Sail, has the single ex- 
ample, opulenter, lug. 85, 34, which, considering his numerous 
archaisms, is not surprising. Aside from these few instances, 
such malformations remained distinctly outside of classic lit- 
erature, as the following list abundantly proves. 

LIVTVS ANDKONICVS. NAEVTVS. 

raventer, 5 Tr. 24 superbiter, 6 Bell. Pun. 6, Fr. 49 

1 Cited by Paucker, Add. Lex. Lat. p. 86. 2 Rebling, p. 24, " besonders in der volks- 
sprache erhielten sich Adverbial bildungen auf ter von Adjektiven auf us aus der alten 
Latinitat;" conf. Ludwig, p. 30; Guericke, p. 83; Kohler, p. 12; Landgraf, Cic. 
Epp., p. 320 ; Barta, Hor., I., p. 25 ; Schulze, Diss. Hal. VI., p. 183 ; Ulrich, Vitr., II., 
p. 6 ; Ronsch, p. 473. = Conf. Landgraf, Cic. Epp., p. 320, " firmiter zweimal in der 
Schrift de Repnb. ... in welcher er iiberhaupt seiner Sprache einen archaischen 
Anstrich zu geben sucht," citing Kohler, p. 379 Amn. * Schulze, Diss. Hal. VI., p. 
184, " (largiter) Cic. semel in uulgari dicendi usu." 

Enn.; Cato; Cacil.; Nou.; Pompon.; Fab. Pict. ap. Gell.; Varr.; Gell.; Apul. 
Flor. Afran. 



202 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



-TEE. 



PliAVTVS. 

amiciter, 1 Pers. 255 
ampliter," Bacch. 677 ; al. 
asperiter, 3 ap. Prise. 15, 13 
auariter, 4 Cure. 126; al. 
blanditer, 6 Asin. 222 ; al. 
firmiter," Epid. 83 ; al. 
largiter, 7 True. 903 ; al. 
maestiter, Rud. 265. 
munditer, 8 Poen. 235 
prognariter," Pers. 588 
saeuiter, 10 Pseud. 1290 ; al. 

ENNIVS. 

duriter, 11 Tr. 348 ed. Vahl. 
inimiciter, 18 ap. Prise. 15, 13 
iracunditer, 13 ap. Id. 15, 35 
proteruiter, Com. 8 
reuerecunditer, 14 Inc. Libr. Fr. 
temeriter, 16 Id. ib. 
toruiter, 14 Ann. 79 

CATO. 

fraudulenter, 17 Oratt. 70, Fr. 3 
puriter, 18 R. R. 112 

PACVVJLVS. 
properiter, 19 Tr. 332 

TEBENTIVS. 
uiolenter, 20 Phorm. 731 

Trroravs. 

benigniter, Com. 49 
seueriter," Id. 67 



Lvcmvs. 

ignauiter, M Sat. 16, 2 

AFBANTVS. 
saniter, Cbwi. 220. 

LAEVIVS. 
lasciuiter, Fr. 5 M. 

Novivs. 

festiuiter, 33 Com. 40 
insaniter, Id. 17 
parciter, 34 /rf. 179 
primiter, Id. 70 
*uerecnnditer, ss Id. 75 

CliAVDIVS QVADBIGARTVS.^ 

praeclariter," Ann. 3, .FV. 48 



ANTIAS. 
auiditer, 37 Fr. ap. Arnob. 5, 1 

SISEHNA. 
nauiter, 88 ap. Charts, p. 185 P. 

VABKO. 

caduciter, Sat. Men. 576 
mutuiter, Id. 346 
probiter, Jd 342 

IiVCKETIVS. 

longiter, 3, 674 ; al. 
uniter," 3, 844 ; al. 



1 Pacuu. a Pompon.; Ace.; Lncil.; Gell.; ApuL 3 Caecil.; Sueius. 4 Cato;Cl. 
Quadr. 6 Titin.; CL Mamert. Lucil.; Caes., semel, (B. G. 4, 26, 1) ; Cic., bis, (Rep. 
1, 46 ; Id. fr. ap. Non. 512, 23) ; Gell. 7 Lucr.; Caes., semel, (B. G. 1 18, = sermo cas- 
trensis; conf. Schulze, Diss. HaL VI., p. 184); CL Quadr.; Auct. B. Afr.; Munat. ap. 
Ascon.; Hor.; Auct. Bell. Afr.; Hor. Sat.; Munat. ap. Ascon. ad Cic. 8 Apul. " Enn. 
10 Afran. Caecil.; Ter.; Lucr.; Cornif. Rhet.; Vitr. " Ace.; CL Quadr.; Tubero 
Hist. Fr. is CaeciL " *Pompon. Com. 75, ed. Xibb. " Ace. " Pompon. lus- 
tin. ; CoL ; Pirn, ; Ambros. 18 CatulL 19 Ace. ; Seren. ap. Diom. ; ApuL ; Auson. 
s SalL, semel, (lug. 40, 5); Hor.; Liu.; Cela.; CoL; Plin, Ep.; Tac.; lustin.; Suet. 
S1 Apnl. Met. CL Quadr. ; Hirt. ap. Cic. ad Att. ; Gell. ; Apul. ; Amm. Gell. 4 CL 
Mamert. 25 Conf. reuerecunditer, Enn., supra. M Conf. Prise. 15, 13. 27 ApuL 
Met.; Gloss. Placid. 28 Lucr. ; Cic., bis (Ep. 5, 12, 3) ; Liu.; Gell. 2 SchoL luuen. 



49. -TER.] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



203 



CICERO (EPISTT.). TEBTVLLIANVS. 

humaniter, ad Att. 1, 2, 1 ; ad aequanimiter, 8 de Patient. 8, 9 

Fam. 7, 1 unanimiter, 9 Id. Ifin. 

inhumaniter, 1 Qu. Fr. 3, 1, 6, 21 
hiculenter, 8 Id. 3, 5, 1 
perhumaniter, ad Fam. 7, 8 in. 



turbulenter, Id. 2, 16, 7 



INTPK. IBEN. 
masculiuiter, 1, 5, 3 



opulenter, lug. 85, 34: 

LABEBIVS. 
miseriter, 3 Com. 149 

VITRV vivs 

crebriter, 4 2, 8, 2 ; al. 
magniflcenter, 1, 6, 1 ; al. 

COLVMEDIiA. 

temulenter, 8 8, 8, 10 

PETBONIVS. 

improbiter, 66, 7 
ualgiter, Fr. 10 ed. Buech. 

GKLLIVS. 

amoeniter, 20, 8, 1 
concinniter, 18, 2, 7 
intempestiuiter, 4, 20, Lemm. 
inconcinniter, 10, 17, 2 
infestiuiter, 9, 9, 9 
sinceriter, 8 13, 16, 1 

APVLEIVS. 

cruenter, Met. 3, 3 
decoriter, 7 Id. 5, 22 ; al. 



ABNOBIVS. 
*numerositer, 2, 42 
infirmiter, 10 7, 45 

CLAVDIANVS MAMEBTVS. 
parciter, Stat. Anim. Praef., p. 
19, 17 ed. Engelbr. 

MABIVS VIOTOBINVS. 
blasphemiter, adu. Arium 1, 46; 
al. 

CHABISIVS. 
teneriter, 182, 22 

HlEBONYMVS. 

amariter, 11 Ep. 23, 1 
somnolenter, 18 In Ps. 118 

AVGVSTINVS. 

inurbaniter, c. Faust. Manich. 12, 

1 extr. 
securiter, in loann. Ep. ad Parih. 

tr. 10, 8 



SCHOIi. 

rariter, 11, 208 



i Cic., semel, (II. Verr. 1, 138) ; Spart. a Cic., bis, (Fin. 2, 15 ; * de Off. 3, 14, 60). 
sCatull.; Apul.; luL Val.; Prise. 4 Apul. Met. 5 Donat. ad Ter. ; Cassiod. 6 Au- 
gustin.; Cod. lust. T lul. VaL 8 Symm.; Amm.; Ambros.; Macr. 8 Cypr.; Arnob.; 
Vopisc.; Vulg.; Oros.; Greg. Tur.; " sed et adi. unanimis recc., ut Claudian. sch. luu.," 
Pauck. Add. Lex. Lat., p. 86, not. 70. 10 Vulg. ; Augustin. Augustin. 12 Cited 
by Pauck. , Spicil p. 219, among forms "in -ter irregulariter pro -e ; " compare Goelzer, 
p. 200, " nous ne trouvons pas d'adverbes en -ter formes irre'gulierement d'adjectifs 
de la premiere classe ; . . . formes qui se rencontrent dans les contemporaius de 
saint Jerome." 



204 WORD FORMATION. [49. -TEK. 



MAECELLVS EMMBICVS. FVLOENTIVS. 

snmmiter, 21, 11; al. nouiter, 1 Myth. 3, 1, p. 103 

ALCIMVS AVITVS. INSCBB. 

immensiter, Hom.il. de Rogat., ant. indigniter, C. I. L. 1, 1008, 4 
med. 



V. VEEBS. 

50. FREQUENTATIVE VEKBS : 1 One of tlie most striking- 
features of the sermo plebeius is the prevalence of its verbal 
derivatives. This tendency has already been seen in consid- 
ering- the verbal abstracts in -tio, -tus, -tura, etc., but is still 
more noticeable in the case of derivative verbs. Not only are 
the frequentative, inchoative and desiderative verbs more nu- 
merous than in classic Latin, but, like diminutive substantives, 
are frequently not to be distinguished from the simple forms. 

The prevalence of frequentative verbs is especially inter- 
esting, being further proof of the archaic character of the 
sermo plebeius : that the formation belongs largely to early 
Latin is conclusively shown by the statistics of Paucker, 2 who, 
out of a total of 550, (including prepositional compounds), uett. 
394, assigns 135 exclusively to the ante-Ciceronian period, 
while of the remainder barely 148 occur in the best classic 
writers. On the other hand such archaistic writers as Gell., 
Apul., Arnob., abound with them : according to Knapp, 3 Gell. 
alone uses not less than 60 frequentative verbs, of which 7 are 
undoubted archaisms, and 4 others a7ra Xcy. ; among the archa- 
isms cited by Stange 4 from Arnob. these verbs hold a conspicu- 
ous place : a glance at the list at the end of this section will 
show how many of the early forms first reappear in post-Had- 
rian literature, such as 

abnutare, Plant. ; Enn. ; Arnob. esitare Cato. ; Varr. ; Gell. ; Apul. 
annutaae, Naeu. ; Plaut. ; Apul. inceptare, Plant. ; Ter. ; Gell. ; 
apertare, Plaui.; Arnob. Lampr. 

1 As has been well shown by Wb'lfflin, ALL. IV., pp. 209-12, the old distinction be- 
tween uerbafrequentatiua and intcnsiua is without foundation. Accordingly they are 
all included, in the present chapter, under the single appellation Frequentative Verbs : 
Conf. Lindsay, Latin Language, p. 482, "The distinction of (1) 'Iteratives' in -tito, 
(2) ' Intensives' in -to, -so, is untenable." 2 Paucker, Ztschr. f. Vergl. Sprachf., 26, p. 
243s?.; 421 sq.; conf. Schulze, Diss. Hal. VI., p. 185; W6lffl., ALL. IV., p. 204, 
" Wie Paucker ausgerechnet hat, fallt nahezu ein Drittel ausschliesslich der archaischen 
Sprache zu." 3 Knapp, GelL, p. 161. * Stange, Arnob., p. 7. 



206 WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 50. FBEQ. VERBS. 

loqnitari, Plaut.; Apul. tortare, Pompon.; Lucil.; Arnob. 

lusitare, Naeu.; Plant.,- Gett.; Tert. nictitare, Plaut.} Ter.f Gett.; 
subigitare, Plant.; Ter.f Pronto; Amm. 
Apul. 

Like so many archaisms, the frequentative verbs were grad- 
ually relegated to the sermo plebeius, and approximated more 
and more in meaning to the simple verb. 1 Their prevalence in 
early Latin was so great that many of them survived in the 
best period, yet the classic writers avoided using them and did 
little toward increasing their number. Sail, alone shows a 
predilection for them, which is generally included among the 
archaisms due to his imitation of Cato. 2 Caes. and Cic. both 
use them sparingly, and in general only where justified by the 
sense of the passage. Cic. shows special care in his orations, 
with the exception of his earlier ones, from which Hellmuth 
cites : Itosc. Am., fugitare, reclamitare, munitare, (the last prob- 
ably quoted from some comic poet) ; in Verr., meritare, all used 
where the simple verb would have sufficed. 3 Cic. used alto- 
gether an odd 120 forms, but the great majority are from the 
earlier language. Thus he retained from Plaut. no less than 
74, i. e.: 

i Ludwig, p. 31 ; Kebling, p. 28 ; Wolfflin, Philol. 34, p. 157 ; Lorenz ad Mil 312, 
" Frequentatiua f iir Simplicia sind nicht bloss in der stets auf Nachdruck zielenden 
Umgangssprache sehr allgemein, . . . sondern treten auch sonst in der alteren La- 
tinitat, z. B. bei Cato, stark hervor ; " Id. ad Most., 116 ; Id. Einleit. ad Pseud., p. 58, 
Anm. 48; Dietze, Cato, p. 14, "uerba iteratiua et frequentatiua, quorum aeque ac 
nomintim deminutiuorum freqnentissimum usum uulgari sermoni addicimus ; " Kraut, 
Sail., p. 5 ; Stuenkel, p. 62 ; Ronsch, p. 474 ; Schmilinsky, p. 44 ; Koehler, Bell Afr., 
p. 8; Stinner, p. 16; Thielman, Cornif. Rhet., p. 101, "uerba frequentatiua . . . 
in germ. Cotid. saepissime usurpata;" Hellmnth, Prior. Cio. Oratt., p. 23; Schulze, 
Diss. HaL VI. p. 185, ' ' haec uerba ... in sermone cotidiano usitatissima fuisse, 
inter omnes qui hanc rem tractauerunt constat," citing inter alios Jonas, De Verbis 
Frequent, et Intens. ap. Comoed. Lat. Scriptorr., 1871-2; Ulrich, Vitr., H., p. 6; 
Wolfflin, ALL. IV., p. 205, " die Volkssprache sie mehr verwendete als derf einere sermo 
urbanus ; " Goelzer, p. 176, " (concerning prevalence of these verbs in Hier. ) H faut voir 
dans ce fait 1'influence de la langue vulgaire dans laquelle les fre'quentatifs remplacent 
tres souvent les verbes simple ; " Kiihner, Gramm. Lat., I., p. 644, " die Volkssprache 
welche iiberhaupt die starkeren und volleren Formen liebt, eine neigung hat die Inten- 
siva und Frequentativa statt der Stammverben zu gebrauchen ; " Lindsay, p. 482, " they 
seem to have been regarded as a part of the uncultured speech." a Kraut, Sail., p. 5 ; 
Schultze, SalL, p. 68, " multum crebrumque horum uerborum (uerb. freq. ) usum auctori 
archaismo tribuere non dubito ; " Wolfflin, ALL. IV., p. 206, " Unter den klassischen 
Prosaikern hat nur Sallust als Nachahmer Catos die Vorliebe f ttr die Fr. beibehalten." 
Hellmuth, Prior. Cic. Oratt, p. 24. 



50. FBEQ. VERBS.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 207 



adiutare, 


excitare, 


pertractare, 


aduentare, 


exspectare, 


potare, 


afflictare, 


factitare, 


praemeditari, 


agitare, 


flagitare, 


prolectare, 


amplexari, 


fugitare, 


prospectare, 


aspectare, 


gestare, 


qnassare, 


attrectare, 


habitare, 


raptare, 


auersari, 


hortari, 


respectare, 


cantare, 


iactare, 


retentare, 


captare, 


imitari, 


ructare, 


cessare, 


incursare, 


saltare, 


citare, 


insectari, 


sciscitari, 


clamitare, 


inspectare, 


sectari, 


cogitare, 


labefactare, 


spectare, 


consectari, 


latitare, 


sustentare, 


consultare, 


meditari, 


tentare, 


contractare, 


minitari, 


territare, 


cubitare, 


natare, 


tractare, 


dehortari, 


negitare. 


tutari, 


delectare, 


nutare, 


uenditare, 


deuotare, 


obiectare, 


uisitare, 


dictitare, 


oblectare, 


uocitare, 


dispensare, 


obtrectare, 


uolutare, 


diuexare, 


occultare, 


usitatus. 


donnitare, 


ostentare, 




To other early 


writers Cic. owes the following forms : 


ENHTVS. 


conquassare, 


propulsare. 


adsectari, 


meritare. 




certare, 




ZjVCBETTVS. 


ttolitare. 


TEKENTIVS. 


concitare, 




cantitare, 


exsultare, 


PACVVIVS. 


coeptare, 


flu (i) tare, 


adtentare. 


conflictare, 


perpotare, 




cnrsare, 


prolatare, 


CATO. 


cursitare, 


refutare, 


coliortari, 


insultare, 


uexare. 


compensate, 







Altogether Cic. has barely 30 which are not found earlier, 
and there is no reason to suppose that any of these were added 
by him to the language. 

The Augustan poets are equally unproductive of new 
forms ; Verg. adds circumuectare, conuectare, domitare, exhortari, 



208 WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 50. FREQ. VERBS. 

insertare, lapsare, motare, praenatare, resultare, scitari, strepitare, 
subuectare, and uses quite a number of the older verbs, prob- 
ably through the influence of Enn. and other earlier poets. 
Ou. adds colldbefactare, inhabitare, praecontractare, praetentare, 
and Hor. in the Odes has only two new forms, denalare, iniio- 
litare. 

In post-classical Latin we find these formations once more 
numerous : not only did the influence of the Archaists bring 1 
again into use many obsolete forms, but the plebeian fondness 
for fulness of expression tended continually to increase the 
number. 1 Here as usual African Latin takes the lead, Apul. 
and Tert. contributing the largest share, with additions by 
later African writers, as Arnob., Fulgent, and Coripp. 2 

With the increased prevalence of these derivatives the 
weakening of the suffix becomes more pronounced, until in the 
time of Greg. Turon. it is a question whether frequentative 
verbs can properly be said to exist. 3 This weakness, as has 
often been pointed out, 4 is shown in three ways : I. by rein- 
forcement with the help of adverbs, as saepe, uehementer, etiam 
atque etiam, etc., or of other verbs, as solere ; 5 e. g., uiatores 
pransitare solent, Vitr. 8, 3, 16 ; agitare solitus est, Gell. 20, 8, 1 ; 
solitauisse iientitare, Id. 6, 1, 6 ; H. by reduplication of suffix, as 
cano, canto, cantito ; HI. by retention in the Romance languages 
of frequentatives in place of the simple verbs, as cano, Pr. 
chanter, etc. Strong evidence is also afforded by certain de- 
rivative substantives, and notably by verbal abstracts in -tio, 
-sio, formed from frequentatives, which do not differ appreci- 
ably from the corresponding forms derived from the simple 
stems, as motio, motatio. In the great majority of these pairs 
of words the forms from frequentatives belong to a later period, 
a fact which is important not only in showing the progressive 
weakening of frequentative stems, but also their prevalence in 
the later popular speech. Paucker gives 48 such pairs, in 28 of 
which the simple form belongs to an earlier period, and in 12 

1 Wolfflin, ALL. IV., p. 208, "Das SpStlatein nahm also die von den Klassikern 
verponten Freqnentativa des alien Lateins nicht nur wieder in Ehren auf, sondern bil- 
dete zahlreiche neue dazu." 2 Wolfflin, I. I. 3 Bonnet, Greg. Tur., " On pent merne se 
demander s'il existe encore pour Gregoire des verbes frequentatifs ; ou, en d'autres 
tcrmes, si le suffixe tare, itare, ajoute chez lui quelque chose a 1'idee du verbe. 4 Conf. 
Wolfflin, PhiloL 34, p. 157, and other authorities cited supra, p. 206, not. 1. 8 Ulrich, 
Vitr. IL, p. 6. 



50. FREQ. VEBBS.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 209 

botli forms are confined to late Latin, while in only 8 instances 
are the forms from frequentatives uett. and relatively older 
than those from the simple verbs. 1 A survey of these double 
forms shows that the frequentative forms, both uett. and recc., 
belong principally to the more vulgar writers, while Cic. and 
Caes. use the corresponding shorter forms. As is apparent 
from the following table, Caes. and Cic. each give preference 
to the longer form in only two instances. African Latin, on the 
contrary, shows a marked fondness for the longer suffix ; Gell. 
uses 4, Apul. 2, Tert. 9, Augustin. 3, Gael. Aur. 2. 

In this list the relatively older form is in each instance 
printed in heavy-faced type, to make the relation of the two 
classes more apparent : 

PLAVTVS : clamitatio ; (clamatio, Hier.; Philastr.; Gael. Aur.) 

CORNIF. BHET.: offensatio, Quint.; Sen.; (offensio, Caes.; Cic.; Liu.; Tac.; 

&c.) 
VABBO : cantatio, Apul.; Firm. Math.; Vulg.; (cantio, Plant.; Cato; Cic.; 

Suet.; Apul.} 
CAESAR : obiectatio, semel; Ennod.; Schol. Pers.; (obiectio, Tert.; Vulg.; 

Augustin.; Ps.-Ambros.; lul. Riifin,; Mart. Cap.; Schol. luuen.) 
ostentatio, Cic.; Liu.; Sen.; Plin. Pan.; (ostensio, Apul.; Tert.; 

Intpr. Iren.; Hier.) 
CICERO: occursatio, bis ; (occursio, Sen.; Augustin.; Sidon. Ep.) 

afflictatio, Tert. ; Cod. lust. ; (afflictio, Sen. ; Augustin. ; Greg. M. ; 

Cassiod.) 
SENECA: discursatio, Frontin.; Tert.; Lact.; (discursio, Chalcid. Tim.; 

Amm.; Firm. Math.) 

intentatio, Tert.,' (intentio, Cornif. Rhet.; Cic.; Plin. Ep.; Tac.; Quint.) 
nectatio, Suet.; Th. Prise.; Augustin.; (uectio, Cic.) 

PETRONIVS : pensatio, Quint.; Vlp. Dig.: Amm. ) (pensio, Cic.; Liu.; 

PLINIVS : pensitatio, Ps.- Ascon.; Eumen.; Sulp. Seu. ) luuen.; Mart.; &c.) 
coniectatio, Gell.; Pacat. Pan.; (coniectio, Cic.; Vlp. Dig.; Paul. Dig.) 
GELLIVS : dissersatio, (dissertio, Liu.; Gell; Hier.; Fulg. Myth., &c.) 
illectatio; (illectio, Cassiod.) 
perpensatio, (perpensio, Augustin. Ep.; Doeth.) 
APVLETVS : mussitatio, Tert.; Hier.; Gael. Aur.; (mussatio, Intpr. Vet. ad 

Verg. Ge.) 
TERTVHJANVS : acceptatio, Th. Prise.; Facund.; (acceptio, Cic,; Sail; 

Apul.; Eccl.) 

compulsatio, Fulg. Myth.; (compulsio, Cassiod.; ICt.) 
ducatio, Intpr. Iren.; (ductio, Vitr.; Cels.; Vlp. Dig.) 

1 Paucker, Add. Lex. Lat., p. 84, not. 68. 
14 



210 WORD FORMATION IN THE t 50. FREQ. VEBBS. 

inspectatio, Chalcid. Tim.; (inspectio, Sen.; Col.; Quint.; Apul.f Am- 
bros.; &c.) 

motatio, (motio, Cic.; Gels.; Vlp. Dig.) 
SPABTIANVS: accubitatio, (accubitio, Cic.; Lampr.) 
IVL. VAL. : defensatio, (defensio, Caes.; Cic.; Nep.; &c.) 
CHALCID. TIM. : circumuolutatio, (circumuolutio, Baeda.) 

raptatio, (raptio, Ter.; Arnob.; Auson.) 
DONAT. AD TEK. : cursatio, (cursio, Varr. L. L.) 

AMBBOSIVS : minitatio, Auien. Arat.; (minitio, Plant.; Cic.; Tiro ap. Gell.) 
HEGESIPPVS: incursatio, (incursio, Cic.; Hirt.; Liu.; Sen.; Lact.) 
VVLGATA : deuotatio, Heges.; Augustin.; (deuotio, Cic.; Liu.; Nep.; ApuL; 



dormitatio, Augustin.; (dormitio, Varr.; Arnob.; Hier.; Eccl.) 
KVFINVS : cubitatio, (cubitio, Augustin. Ep.) 
Ps.-EvoHEBivs : complexatio, (complexio, Cornif. EJiet.; Cic.; Quint.; 

Firm. Math.) 

GAEL. AYBEL. : insertatio, (insertio, Chalcid. Tim.; Augustin.; Macr.) 
PS.-SORAN. : eiectatio, (eiectio, Cic.; Vitr.; Vulg.; Gael. Aur.) 

reiectatio, (reiectio, Cic.; Plin.; Quint.; Pall.; Rufin.) 
FVLGENTIVS : tiocitatio, (uocatio, Varr.; Catull; Hier.; Augustin.) 
CASSIODOKVS : amplexatio, (amplexio, Mar. Viet.) 

inuectatio, (inuectio, Cic.) 

usitatio, (usio, Goto; Arnob.) 
SCHOL. GBONOV.: excursatio, Gl. Labb.; (excursio, Cic.; Liu.; Nep.; 

Quint.; <fec.) 
GLOSS. LABB.: subditatio, (subditio, Varr.) 

In the Eomance languages the extent to which frequenta- 
tives have supplanted the simple verbs is too well known to 
need special comment. Not only have many forms in -tare, 
-sare, familiar to Latin literature, thus survived, as adiutare, 
cantare, iactare, (Ital. ajutare, cantare, gettare ; Fr. aider, chan- 
ter, jeter ; Span, ayudar, cantar, ecfiar ; Port, ajudar, cantar, 
deitar), but the Romance languages give evidence that many 
others, which do not occur in extant Latin, must have been 
prevalent in the sermo plebeius : Meyer-Liibke * cites among 
others, *ausare, *oblitare, *refusare, *usare, etc., comparing Ital. 
osare, rifusare, usare : Ruman. uitd, refusd ; Fr. oser, oublier, 
refuser, user ; Span, osar, olvidar, rehusar, usar. The survival 
of forms in -itare is not so general, but sufficiently frequent 

1 Meyer-Liibke, Gramm. d. Roman. Spr., EC., p. 612; con/. Diez, p. 695, "Das 
Freqnentativ empfahl sich den jllngern Sprachen durch seine klang voile Form," sq. 



50. FREQ. VERBS.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



211 



to prove that they also were favorites in plebeian Latin : * as 
drdtare, Ruxnan. cercetd ; cogitare, Ruman. cugetd, O. Ital. 
coitare, O. FT. cuidier, Span., Port, cuidar ; *flaidtare, *mis- 
citare, *pigritare, *seditare, Ital. fiutare, mestare, peritarsi, as- 
settare, etc. 



Lmvs ANDKONICVS. 

nexare, 2 ap. Diom. 369, 20 
ommentare, 3 Odyss. Fr. 10 Guenth. 

NAEVIVS. 

annictare, Com. 76 
annutare, 4 Id. ib.; al. 
confictare, ap. Varr. L. L. 7, 107 
ititare, Bell. Pun. 3, Fr. 5, p. 61, 

ed. Klussm. 

lusitare, 6 ap. Non. 139, 25 
rumitare, ap. Paul, ex Fest. 271, 3 

PLAVTVS. 

abnutare, 6 Capt. 611 
acceptare, 7 Pseud. 627 
acceptitare, Fr. ap. Non. 134, 29 
accusitare, Most. 712 
adiutare, 8 Cos. 580 ; al. 
aduersare, Rud. 306 
apertare, 9 Men. 910 
artare, 10 (7ap*. 304 
auctare, 11 Amph. 6 
auditare, 12 Stick. 167 



auersari, 13 Trin. 627 
calefactare, 14 Rud. 411; al. 
cassare, Mil. 852 ; al. 
circumcursare, 1S Rud. 223 
circumuectari, 16 Id. 933 
commetare," Cqpj. 185 
conclamitare, Merc. 47 
*coquitare, Fr. Dub. et Susp. 1 
crepitate, 18 Men. 926 ; af. 
culpitare, Cist. 495 
datare, 19 JJfos^. 602 
defensare, ao Bacch. 443 
depulsare, Stick. 286 
*deuotare, 21 tfas. 388 
diffunditare, 22 Merc. 58 
ductare, 23 (7oprf. 641 ; al. 
ductitare, 24 Poen. 272; al. 
edictare, Amph. 816 ; al. 
edissertare, 25 Id. 600 ; al. 
electare, (elicio), Asin. 295 ; al. 
*electare, 26 (eligo), True. 508 
erogitare, 27 Capt. 952 
esitare, 28 Id. 188 ; a^. 
excisare, p. p. p., Cist. 383 



1 Meyer-Ltibke, 1. Z., " itare ... 1st nach Ausweis des Bomanischen in der lat- 
einischen Volkssprache ziemlich beliebt gewesen : Diez, I. L 

Conf. Neue, Formenl. 2, 421. Gloss. Placid. * Plant. ; Apul. * Plant.; Ge 11.; 
Tert. Enn. ; Arnob. 1 Varr.; CoL ; Quint. ; Mela ; SU. ; Curt. ; Tert. ; Vnlg. ; ICt. 
8 Pacuu.; Ace.; Ter.; Varr.; Cic., semel, (Fragm. p. 47 ed. Kays.); Petr.; Gell.; Hier.; 
uerb. depon. -= Pacuu. ; Afran. 9 Arnob. 10 Lucr. ; Tibull. ; Liu. ; Gels. ; Col. ; Mela ; 
Veil.; lustin.; Petr.; Plin.; Lucan.; Stat.;Mart.; Sil.; Plin. Pan.; Pacafc. Pan.; Pall.; ICt. 
" Lucr.; Catull. " Paul ex Fest. " Enn. ; SaU. Fr. ; Auct. B. Hisp.; *Cic., semel, (Clu. 
177); Ou. ; Liu. ; Curt. ; Quint.; Tac. " Hor. Ep. ; Capit. 15 Ter. ; Lucr. ; Catull. ; Pacat. 
Pan.; Cypr.; Lact.; Amm.; Diet.; Heges. 16 Verg. Ge.; Liu.; uerb. act. Sil. 17 Ter.; 
Afran.;Nou. 18 Lucr. ; Verg.; Ou.; Prop.; Sen.; Petr.; Plin. ; Mela ;Augustin. 19 Plin.; 
Fronto; Apul. 23 Sail. ; Ou. ; Tac. ; Stat. ; Augustin. ai Cic. , semel, (Farad. 1, 12); Min. 
Fel. ; Apul. ; Augustin. M Amm. a3 Enn. ; Sail. ; Quint. ; Amm. ; Hier. 2 Hier. ; Eccl. 
Liu.; Fest.; Tert. a6 Ed. Schoell letat. a7 Acc.;SiL " Cato B, B. ; Varr. ; Gell. ; 
Apul. 



212 



WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 50. FBEQ. VERBS. 



frigefactare, Rud. 1326 ; al. 
funditare, ' Asin. 896 ; al. 
gestitare, 2 Mil. 7 ; al. 
halitare, 3 .BaccA. 22 
hietare, 4 Men. 449 
imperitare, 5 Capt. 244 
inceptare, 6 Trin. 1030 ; al. 
inclamitare, 7 Epid. 711 
incubitare, 8 Pers. 284 
insputare, Capt. 553 
introspectare, Most. 936 
lactare," (lacio), Cist. 217 
licitari, 10 Merc. 441 
loquitari, 11 Bacch. 803 
lutitare, Trin. 292 
*madefactare, 12 Pseud. 184 
mantare, 13 .Afosrf. 116 ; al. 
mussare, 14 Aul. 131 
mussitare, 16 Mil. 311 ; a?, 
mutuitari, Merc. 48 
negitare, 16 Bacch. 1193; Z. 
nictare," Jism. 784; al. 
noscitare, 18 Trin. 863; a?, 
obductare, Merc. 786 
obreptare, 19 Pers. 79 
occeptare, Men. 916; J. 
occlamitare, Cure. 183; a. 
occursare, 20 Mil. 1047 
olfactare, 21 .Jferc. 167 
palitari, Bacch. 1123 
paritare, 3/erc. 649; al. 



perductare, Must. 846 
perreptare,' 2 Amph. 1011 ; erf. 
perspectare, 23 Most. 815 
(pinsitare, 24 ^Ism. 32 6.) 
placitare, Bacch. 1081 
pollicitari, 25 Mil. 879 ; <rf. 
potitare, Id. 836; aZ. 
pressure, 28 Pers. 312; a. 
promptare, Bacch. 465 ; o. 
pultare, 27 ^sin. 382 ; al. 
*purgitare, ap. Non. 190, 10 
quaeritare, 28 Epid. 436 
recursare, 29 Most. 581 
reptare, 30 Cos. 98 
requiritare, J/osi. 1003 
responsare, 31 Mil. 964 ; oZ. 
restitare, 32 Capt. 503 
retentare, 33 -4sm. 591 
rogitare, 34 Aul. 117 ; al. 
sputare, 35 Merc. 138 ; al. 
snbigitare," Id. 203 
sublectare, Mil. 1066 
subsialtare, 37 (7as. 433 ; al. 
subttentare, Rud. 231 
tonsitare, Bacch. 1127 
uictitare, 38 Jtfi?. 321 ; al. 
tiisitare, 39 Trin. 766; al. 
tmctitare, 40 Most. 274 

FABIVS PICTOB. 

detonsare, ap. Gell. 10, 15, 11 



1 Flor. ; Amm. a Treb. Poll. ; Solin. ; Arnob. ; Hier. 3 Enn. 4 CaeciL ; Laber. ; Gn. 
Mattius ap. Diom. ; Gloss. Labb. * Sail. ; Hor. Sat. ; Liu. ; Curt. ; Tao. ; Plor. Ter. ; 
Gell.;Lampr. 7 Gloss. Amplon. 8 CoL Ter.; Ace.; Varr. " Enn.; CaecU.; Curt. 
11 Apul. "Ven-Fort. 13 CaeciL ; Gael. Com.; Paul, ex Fest. " Enn.jluuent. Com.; 
Varr. L. L.; Sail Fr.; Verg. Ge. ; Liu.; Plin. Bp.; Fronto ; Sern. ad Acn. Ter.; Liu.; 
Pacat. Pan. ; Apul.; Cl. Mam. ' Lucr. ; Cic. , semel, (Ac. 2, 69) ; Sail ; Hor. " CaeciL ; 
Nou. ; Lncr. ; Plin. Catull. ; Liu. ; Plin. Ep. ; Tac. 9 Plin. ao Sail. , semel, (lug. 85, 
3) ; Verg. ; Liu. ; Plin. Ep. ; Tac. ; GelL ai Plin. M Ter. 2S Pompon. ; Sen. ; Suet. 
2 Thorn. Thes. Ter.; Sail.; Vlp. Dig.; Aur. Viet Lucr.; Verg.; Hor.; Ou.; SH.; 
Ambros. 27 Ter. M Ter.; Pompon. Com.; CatulL; Amm.; Hier. ; Saluian. 2 Lncr.; 
Verg.; Tac. Lucr.; Hor.; Plin.; Plin. Ep.; GeU.; Claud. Verg.; Hor.; Val. PI.; Stat. 
33 Enn. ; Ter. ; Liu. ; Plin. S3 Cornif. Rhet. ; Lucr. ; Liu. ; Cic. , semel, (Poet, de Diu. 1, 17); 
VaLFl. "Ter.; Verg.; Liu. Ou. Met. 3 Ter.; Fronto ; Apul.; Baeda. 
Tert. ; Hier. 3 8.Ter. ; GeU. ; Amm. ; Hier. 3 Cic. , semel, ( to visit, Fin. 5, 31, 
Vitr. ; Suet. ; ApuL ; Ambros. ; Hier. ; Vulg. ; Augnstin. 40 Cato. 



50. FBEQ. VERBS.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 213 

ENIOVS. LAEVTVS. 

fossare, 1 Ann. 569 *missitare, 10 Fr. 19 M. 

opertare, Id. 500 
tuditare, 2 Id. 138 POMPONIVS. 

*lauitare, u Com. Fr. ap. Calp. Pis. 

CATO - tortare," Com. 40. 

confutare, (futurus), ap. Paul, ex 

Fest. 89, 3 

dissertare, 3 Omit. 40, Fr. 6 CLAVDIVS QVADKIGABIVS. 

dolitare, R. R. 157, 7 comprehensare, 4nn. 2, Fr. 39 

*emptitare, 4 Oratt. 72 exsertare," Id. 1, *K 10 6. 

flexare, R. R. 49 

meritare, 5 ap. Paul, ex Fest. p. 152 VAKKO. 

obsonitare, Oratt. 27, 2fi\ 1 exercitare, 14 i. i. 5, 87 

redemptitare, ap. Fest. p. 286 indigitare, 18 ap. Non. 4, 319 

subrectitare, Oratt. 57, Fr. 2 lutare, 16 (luere), Sat. Men. 100 

offensare, 17 Id. 12 

PACWIVS. pascitare, .#. 22. 3, 16, 19 

initare, TV. 1 salitare, . Z. 5, 85. 

perrogitare, Id. 315 subiectare," A & 52, 2 
TEKENTIVS. 

carititare, 6 ^4d. 750 LVOBETIVS. 

cursitare, 7 Eun. 278 circumtiersari, 19 5, 520 ; <tf. 

locitare, Ad. 949 circumuolitare, 20 2, 329 

*productare, And. 615 coactare, 6, 1120 ; al. 

receptare, 8 Haut. 968 discrepitare, 3, 801 ; al 

suspectare, 9 Eun. 584 disiectare, 21 2, 553 ; al. 

Accmj dissultare, 22 3, 396 

succussare, Tr. 568 extentare, 2 ' (extenders), 3, 488 

intercursare, 24 (in tmesi), 3, 262 

LVCIMVS. mersare, 25 5, 1005 

eiulitare, Sat. 6, 16 nixari, 2 ' 4, 504 ; a?. 

secubitare, Id. 26, 93 persultare, 87 1, 15 

1 Capitol. ; Pall. ; Veg. Mil. ; Gromat. Vet. ; Gloss. Labb. 2 Lucr. 3 Tac. ; Gell. 
* Col. ; Plin. Ep. ; Tac. Cic., semel, (Verr. 3, 119) ; Paul, ex Fest. ; Plin. ; Sil. Afran. ; 
Varr.; Cic., semel, (Brut. 75) ; Suet.; Apul.; Augustin. 7 Cornif. Rhet.; Cic., semel, 
(Nat. Deor. 2, 115) ; Hor. ; Suet. ; Plin. Ep. 8 Lucr. ; Verg. ; Liu. ; Lucan. ; Tac. ; Auct. 

Itin. Alex. Plin. ; Tac. ; Aur. Viet. ; Aram. Sail., semel, (lug. 38, 1) ; Lin. ; Plin. ; 
Solin. Ap. Munk de Atellanis, p. 150 Fr. 2 ; conf. Georges Worterb., s. u. 12 Lucr. ; 
Arnob. 13 Verg. ; Stat. ; Amm. " Ps. -Sail, de Rep. ; Sen. ; Mela ; Suet. ; Aur. Viet. 
15 Paul, ex Fest. ; Tert. ; Seru. ad Aen. ; Macr. l " Form luitatum = Paul, ex Fest. 116, 5. 
17 Lucr. ; Liu. ; Quint. ; Min. Pel. 18 Lucr. ; Verg. ; Hor. Sat. ; Ou. Met. 1 9 Auien. 

23 Verg. ; Sen. ; Col.; Sil. ; Tac. ; Mart. Cap. ; Ven. Fort. "i Amm. 22 Verg. ; Plin. 

23 Amm. ; (ex-tentare = Plaut. ). ** Liu. ; Plin. 25 CatulL ; Verg. ; Hor. Ep. ; Sen. ; CoL ; 
Tac. ; Mart. Cap. 28 Verg. 27 Liu. ; Tac. ; Apul. ; Prud. 



WORD FORMATION IN TEE [50. FBBQ. VERBS. 



peruolitare, 1 6, 952 ; al. 
reiectare,' 2 2, 326 ; al 
renutare, 3 4, 598 
repulsare, 4, 577 ; al. 
*subditare, 4 6, 604 

ClCEKO (EPISTT.). 

circumgestare, 6 ad Q. Fr. 1, 2, 

2,6 
consputare,' Id. 2, 3, 2 

Aver. BELL. AT.TET. 
anuatare, 7 20, 6 

CATVLLVS. 

reflagitare, 42, 6 & 10 
*trusare, 56, 6 

HOBATIVS. 
pensare, 8 Ep. 2, 1, 29 

COLVMEUJA. 

*confreqnentare, 9 9, 13, 13 
euolitare, 8, 8 ; in. 

PETKONIVS. 
sternutare, 10 98 ; al. 

PUNIVS. 

aduolitare, 11 11, 65 
circumuolutare, 8, 59 
interuersari, 9, 157 
mansitare, 12 10, 7 
reuisitare, 18, 13 
sumptitare, 25, 51 

MAKTIALIS. 
expulsare, 13 14, 46, 1 
*lactitare, 7, 101, 3 



GELIOVS. 

*antispectare, 9, 4, 6 
deuersitare, 17, 20, 6 
(motitare, ap. Gell. 9, 6, 3) 
(raptitare, Id. ib.) 
solitare, 7, 1, 6 
(uectitare, 14 ap. Gell. 9, 6, 3) 

APVT/RTVS. 

commorsitare, Met. 7, 16 ; al. 
compulsare, 16 Id. 7, 21 
curitare, Met. 7, 14 
demorsitare, Id. 2, 21 ; al. 
inhortari, Id. 8, 17 ; al. 
obructare, de Mund. 59 
pistare, 16 Herb. 75 
progestare, Met. 6, 28 
proquiritare, 17 Apol. 82 

TEBTVUJANYS. 
compressare, 18 Scorp. 3 
constrictare, adu. Marc. 2, 16 
conuentare, 19 Anim. 54 
desultare, Id. 32 
excussare, Virg. Vel. 7 
inoblectari, adu. Hei-mog. 18 
mergitare, 20 Cor on. 3 
nuptare, Carm. de Sodom. 45 
obmnssitare, Pall. 4 
sponsare, 21 Virg. Vel. 11 

COMMODIANVS. 

congestare, 22 Instr. 2, 22, 15 
tinnitare," Id. 2, 22 

SOLINVS. 

consaeptare, 32, 37 
conuentare, 27, 7 



Verg.;Vitr.;Flor. "SiL; Capit.; Spart. 3 Prad. Gloss, Labb. AptiLMet. 
Tert. ; Ambr. ' Phaedr. ; Sen. Poet. ; Plin. ; SiL 8 On. ; Liu. ; Val. Max. ; CoL ; Plin. ; 
Curt.; Lucan.; Tac.; Veil; Calp. EcL PruA; Inscrr. i Plin.; Macr. Prud. 
18 Tac.; Pronto; lul. VaL; Hier. 13 Amm. Solin.; Arnob. 16 Tert. " Veget. 
17 Sidon. Ep.; Claud. Mam. 8 Porphyr. ad Hor. Sat. Solin. Hier. ai Vulg.; 
Augustin.; Paul NoL M Augustin. 2S AnthoL Lat 



50. FBEQ.VEKBS.] ROMAN 8ERMO PLEBEIVS. 



215 



fellitare, 1 45, 17 
feritare, (ferre), 56, 18 
lambitare, 15, 12 
mersitare, 45, 18 
occursitare, 25, 6 
subternatare, s 32, 26 

ABNOBIVS. 

conceptare, 3 4, 21 
flatare, 4 2, 38 
saltitare, 5 2, 42 

Ivurvs VALEBIVS. 
praesuspectare, 1, 43 
reuectare, 6 3, 27 
snbmersare, 3, 26 
*transuectare, 2, 34 ed. Rom. 

IWENCVS. 

correptare, 2, 192 

PMNIVS VALEBIANVS. 
minutare, 7 2, 30 ; al. 
reuersare, 8 1, 21 
tostare, 2, 28 

AVEENVS. 

perterritare, 9 Aral. 1170 
protentare, Id. 285 

VEGETIVS. 

obuolutare, p. p. p. , Vet. 3, 4, 30 
tmlsare, Mil. 5, 41 



complexare, 10 c. louin. 1, 3 
distentare, in lesai. 15 ad 54, 2 
exclamitare, J^>. 39, 5 
uescitari, in Eccl. 4, p. 421 

AVGVSTINVS. 
inuolutare, 11 in Ps. 57, 7 



renatare, Ciu. Dei 18, 17 
satare, Serm. 199, 1 

MABCELLVS EMPIKICVS. 
peruersare, 28 

THEODOBVS PBISCIANVS. 
commotare, 1, 8 
passare, (|?a^), 1, 30 



MAKTIANVS CAPELLA. 
recursitare, 1, 25 
saeptare, 2, 208 

SEDVUVS. 
accubitare, in Carm. Pasch. Prol. 

2 
deuectare, Carm. 5, 345 

CAELTVS AVEELIANTVS. 
frixare, Acut. 1, 11, 77 
praeuexare, Ghron. 1, 1, 18 ; al. 

SEDONIVS APOLIONAKIS. 
prensitare, Ep. 2, 8 

CLAVDIANVS MAMEBTVS. 
obstrepitare, Rapt. Pros. 2, 355 
perquiritare, p. p.p-, Stat. Anim. 
1, praef. 

ENNODIVS. 

illicitare, Vit. S. Epiph. p. 412 ed. 
Sirmond. 

FVLGKNTIVS. 

creditare, Myth. 1, p. 6 M. 
expromptare, Verg. Gont. p. 137 ; 

al M. 
inuersare, Id. p. 141 M. 



1 Arnob. a lsid. 3 Amm. Anmi.; Augustin. 6 Vopisc.; Macr. Hier. r Th. 
Prise.; Intpr. Orig. in Leuit. 8 Augustin.; Isid. 9 Coripp. 10 Vulg.; Coripp.; Gloss. 
Labb. *Ps.-Apic. 



216 WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 51. INCHOATIVES. 

CASSIODOBVS. sepultare, Carm. 8, 6, 167 

inuisitare, in Ps. 134, 6 ; al. subincrepitare, Vit. S. Mart. 1, 

praeiactitare, Id. 36, 14 259 

VENANTIVS FOKTVNATVS. COBIPPVS. 

concursitare, Vit. 8. Badeg. 24 conterritare, loann. 2, 54 

instrepitare, Carm. 3, 9, 26 impressare, Id. 5, 371 ; al. 
monitare, Vit. S. Mart. 2, 387 

51. INCHOATIVE VERBS : Of the various classes of derivative 
verbs, none has gained a more general acceptance in classic 
Latin than that of the so-called inchoative verbs. Paucker's 
list, including prepositional compounds, and counting sepa- 
rately the double forms in -escere, -ascere, contains al- 
together 694, uett. 440, recc. 254 (of which 398 are compounds, 
uett. 264, recc. 134), and Sittl's more critical list gives similar 
results. 1 Of these, Cic. alone has no less than 120, or nearly 
28 % of the uett., and many of them of frequent occurrence. 
The Augustan poets also show a fondness for these forms, 
Verg. adding 23, Ouid. 14. Nevertheless they are on the 
whole much more numerous in the sermo plebeius than the 
classic speech, another instance, as Guericke rightly observed, 
of the plebeian fondness for unnecessary fulness of expression. 2 
The latter, however, went too far in claiming that inchoative 
and frequentative verbs never lost their distinctive meaning 
in vulgar Latin : the weakening of verbs in -tare has already 
been seen in the preceding section : that it was equally true in 
the case of verbs in -escere, at least in the later popular 
speech, is shown by the Romance languages, where the suffix 
has to a great extent sunk to a mere inflectional ending. It is 
worthy of note that no inchoative force seems to have been 
attached originally to the suffix -SCO, but was acquired from 
certain verbs, as crescere, adolescere, in which an inchoative idea 
was inherent in the root. 3 Properly speaking, the term " in- 

1 Paucker, Spicilegium, p. 252; Sittl, ALL. I., pp. 465 sq. 2 Ludwig, p. 31; 
Ronsch, p. 213 ; Schmilinsky, p. 47, " Plautus etiam complura habet inchoatiua eodem 
fere significatu, quo doctus sermo simplicibus utitur ; " Guericke, p. 34, "In sermone 
plebeio uerba formae intensiuae et incohatiuae ualde usitata erant, ubi formae 
simplicis uerba sententiae iam suffecerunt ; " Schulze, Diss. Hal. VI. , p. 190, 
"uerba inchoatiua in sermone uulgari saepe pro uerbis simplicibus ponuntur, oriendi 
ui plane obscurata; " Hauschild, Diss. Hal. VI., p. 257, "recte Schulze monuit in ser' 
mone uulgari saepe uerba inchoatiua pro illo plebis studio usnrpandi formas ampliores 
iuueniri pro simplicibus posita." s Brugmann, Grandriss, II. , p. 1036. 



51. INCHOATIVES.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 217 

cohative," or " inceptive," is inappropriate and misleading- : as 
recently expressed by Lindsay, 1 "It is only verbs of the second 
conjugation uncompounded with, a preposition, such as cales- 
co, liquesco, to which a notion of ' beginning ' can be attached, 
and even there the notion conveyed by the suffix is rather 
that of passing into a state or condition, of ' becoming- ' than of 
' beginning '; ... Its sense of ' passing into a state or condi- 
tion ' suited it for acting as the Present Tense-stem of Intran- 
sitive Verbs." Accordingly, aside from derivatives from the 
second conjugation, the suffix was chiefly used in forming in- 
transitives in -escere from nominal stems such as dulti-, igni- 
graui-, etc., and in -ascere, from a-stems, etc., as gemmascere, 
uesperascere, ueterascere. Forms in -ascere from verbs of the 
1st conjugation are purely archaic, 2 as amascere, Naeu., Mascere, 
Cato, etc., and so for the most part are the forms in -iscere, 
from the 4th conjugation, which are also quite devoid of in- 
choative force. 3 As for inchoatives in -escere, formed from 
intransitives of the 2nd conjugation, the distinction between 
the simple and the derivative forms is not always prominent, 
even in the best period. The intransitives, when compounded 
with a preposition expressing the idea of " becoming," as con-, 
de-, ex-, regularly assume the inchoative suffix : thus rubere, 
erubescere ; ualere, conualescere, etc., and not erubere, conualere, 
(unless the preposition retains a separate force ; compare e- 
lucere, co-haerere = lucere ex, fiaerere cum). In the later sermo 
plebeius the distinction is still less marked, even the uncom- 
pounded derivatives from the 2nd conjugation being used in- 
discriminately in place of the simple intransitives : thus for 
the sake of an example compare Schulze, who cites arere, 
arescere ; horrere, horrescere, used interchangeably by Symm. 4 
In the Romance languages, as already noted, the use of this 
suffix belongs largely to the question of conjugation rather 
than of word-formation ; in Span, and Port, almost every 

1 Lindsay, Latin Language, p. 480, citing Sittl, ALL. I., p. 465 sq. a Sittl, ALL. 
I., p. 492, "Scriptores igitur qui post Plauti Catonisque tempora florebant, nee ullum 
uocabulum nouum illis addidisse anim aduertimus an quis Columellam ipsum iudicat 
consudasco (12, 48, 2) finxisse ? nee in aliorum scriptis ea permansisse nisi qui antiqua 
dicendi forma atque usu delectabantur." 3 Sittl, 1. I., "inchoatiua a nerbis quartae 
coniugationis petita, . . . inceptiua ui prorsus carent et prisci maxime sermonis 
propria snnt." 4 Schulze, Diss. Hal. VI., p. 190, adding "Hunc usum qni ex studio 
plebis ampliores fcrmas usurpandi natus est, nondum satis obseruatum esse uideo." 



218 WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 51. INCHOATIVES. 

verb in -ir has a corresponding form in -ecer, so also to some 
extent in South-Ital. dialects, while in Human., Ital., and 
Fr., -isc- survives as an inflectional element. 1 

In regard to the number of these forms, the later popular 
speech is remarkably fertile in new formations, as the following 
list abundantly shows : their prevalence is especially notice- 
able in the later African writers, as has already been observed 
by that far-sighted authority on African Latin, Wolfflin. 2 The 
latter also notes the tendency in African writers to substitute 
the termination -escere for -ascere, citing tenerascere, Lucr., 
-escere, Tert.; Porphyr.; Ps.-Cypr.; Augustin.; vzterascere, Col.; 
Ambros.; -escere, Cass. Fel. 3 

The causative use of inchoatives seems to have been dis- 
tinctly a feature of plebeian Latin, belonging to a very late 
period. In classical times only suescere and its compounds are 
so employed, and the later usage is evidently an extension 
from these verbs. The usage has been discussed by Muncker, 
Ott, and Lowe, 4 and more recently by Sittl., who in his Lokalen 
Verschiedenheiten d. Lateinischen Sprachen regarded it as a 
peculiarity of African Latin, citing inolescere, Gell., innotescere 
Tert., hilarescere, Augustin., pauescere, Coripp., but in his ar- 
ticle on Inchoatives, in the Archiv, after a more critical survey 
of the examples usually cited, holds that there are no indisput- 
able instances earlier than the fifth century. 3 Lowe cites from 
Glossaries the undoubted instances ferascit = ferum fadt ; 
descens = aperiens ; fatescunt = feriendo dissipant, etc., and a 
few others occur in late literature, as pulcrescere, tepescere, from 
the Trag. Orest. In the Romance languages the suffix is to 
some extent causative ; Diez cites Span, apetecer, bastecer, 
Port, avilsir, etc. 6 

1 Meyer-Lubke, Gramm. d. Bom. Spr., II., p. 615. The numerous forms in Fr., 
such as eclaircir, enforcir, noircir; and Prov., such as amarzir, clairzir, magrczir, 
etc., formerly included under this head, are now otherwise explained : according to 
Meyer-Lubke the suffix -cir is due to false analogy, a few verbs, such as enforcir, from 
force, estressir, from estresse, being wrongly taken as coming from fort, estroit, etc. 
So Prov. -zir arose from wrongful association of tebezir (tepldire), with the adj. tebe, 
etc. 2 Wolfflin, Cass. Fel., p. 416, " Wie lebenskraf tig hier die afrikanische Latin- 
itat noch neue Schosse trieb, zeigen ihre Neubildungen." s Wolfflin, 1. I. * Muncker 
ad Fulg. Verg. Cont. p. ] 41 ; Ott, Jahrb. 1874, p. 843, citing Wannowski, Promiscuo 
uerborum actiuorum et neutrorum usu apud scriptores Latinos, Posen, 1867; Lowe, 
Prodromos, p. 362, " uerbis in -sco lingua uulgaris factitiue ut grammatici loquuntur 
utitur." * Sittl, Lokal. Verscbiedenheit., p. 41 ; Id. AT.T. I., p. 519. Diez, p. 699. 



351. INCHOATIVES.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



219 



Lmvs ANDKONICVS. 
frigescere, 1 ap. Seru. ad Aen. 1, 
92 

NAEVIVS. 
amascere, Com. 138 

PLAVTVS. 

allubescere, 2 Mil. 1004 
collabascere, Stick. 522 
commiserescere, 3 Rud. 1090 
compescere, 4 Bacch. 463 ; al. 
condonniscere, Cure. 360; al. 
conquiniscere, 6 Cist. 657 ; al. 
consilescere, 8 Mil. 583 
desudascere, 7 Bacch. 66 
dispalescere, Id. 1046 
edormiscere, 8 Amph. 697 ; al. 
exputescere, Cure. 242 
feruescere, 9 Capt. 917 
frunisci, 10 J?MC?. 1012 
implicisci, 11 Amph. 729 
indipisci, 12 .Rwc?. 1315 ; al. 
labascere, 13 Id. 1394 
macescere, 14 Capt. 134 
miserescere, 15 Trin. 343 ; aZ. 
obtaedescere, Stick. 732 
occallescere, 18 -4sin. 419 
peracescere, Bacch. 1099 ; a/, 
perdormiscere, Men. 928 
permanascere, TVm. 155 
perpruriscere, 17 Stick. 761 
persentiscere, 18 Merc. 687 
redipisci, 2Hn. 1020 



ENNIVS. 

*incuruiscere, 2>. 194 ec?. Vahl. 
*longiscere, 19 Ann. 480 
remorbescere, ap. Fest. 177 (6), 23 
russescere, Ann. 266 

CATO. 

condeliqttescere, R. R. 23, 3 
dishiascere, Id. 12 
distabescere, 20 /c?. 24 
fracescere, 21 Id. 128 
hiascere, Jc?. 17, 2 
inferuescere, 22 /< 90 
pertaedescere," Id. 156, 6 

PACWIVS. 

aggrauescere, 24 Tr. 69 
fatisci," 6 7rf. 154 
*matrescere, S8 Id. 139 
mitescere, 27 Jet 142; al. 

TERKNTIVS. 
algescere, 28 .4c7. 36 
integrascere, Andr. 688 
*praesentiscere, Haut. 769 
silescere, 29 Jd. 785 

CASSTVS HKMTNA. 
computescere, ap. Plin. 13, 86 

ATTA. 
celebrescere, Tr. 274 



1 Cato ; Lucr. ; Gels. ; Curt. ; Pers. ; Quint. ; Tac. ; Hier. Ep. 2 Paul, ex Fest. ; ApuL ; 
Mart. Cap. 3 Enn.; Pacuu.; Turpil.; Ter. *Titin.; Verg.;Hor.;Tibull.; Sen.; Col.; 
Plin. ; Plin. Pan. ; Augustin. ; Prise. 6 Pompon. Enn. ; GelL ; Hier. r Gloss. Labb. ; 
form -escere Comp. Vitr. ; Glosa Placid. 8 Ter. Lucr.; Sen. ; Plin. ; Arnob. 

10 Cato; Cl. Quadrig.; Nou.; LuciL; Petr. ; Commodian. ; Inscrr. Fronto; Gloss. Phi- 
lox. 1S Lucr.; Liu.; GelL ; ApuL; Snip. Seu. ; Augnstin.; Cod. lust. 13 Ter. ; Ace. ; Varr.; 
Lucr. " Varr. ; Col. ; PalL 15 Ter. : Verg. ; Prud. 18 Cic. Att. ; Ou. ; Gels. ; Col. ; Plin. Ep. 
17 Apul. Met. 18 Ter. ; Lucr.; Solin. ; Augustin. " Gloss. Labb. 20 Fest.; Veget.; Au- 
gustin. Varr.;CoL; Pelag. Vet. *> Hor.; Gels.; Plin.; Sil.; Augnstin. a Gell. 
34 T er . 25 ACC.; Lucr. ; Varr. ; Fronto; uerb. act. Titin. ; Verg. ; CoL ; Tac.; Snip. Seu. 
a Gloss. Labb. * Ace. ; Poet. ap. Cic. ; Varr. ; Hor. ; Ou. ; Liu. ; Curt ; Col. ; Plin. ; Tac. 
28 Prud. ; Fulg. " Catull. ; Verg. ; Ou. 



220 



WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 51. INCHOATIVES. 



Accrvs. 

perdolescere, 1 Tr. 317 
pergrandescere Id. 440 
sanctescere, Id. 163 
uastescere, Id. 600 

Lvcmvs. 
obturgescere, 2 Sat. 4, 43 

Novivs. 

aurescere, 8 Com. 66 
gallulascere, Id. 21 
roborascere, Id. ib. 

POMPONIVS. 
ocquiniscere, Com. 126; al. 

FVKIVS ANTIAS. 

lutescere, 4 ap. Gell. 18, 11, 4 
noctescere, Id. ib. 
opulescere, Id. ib. 
ulrescere, 6 Id. ib. 

SlSENNA. 

laetiscere Hist. 4, Fr. 123 
perstibhorrescere, Id. ib. 104 

VABKO. 

assudescere, L. L. 5, 109 
colliquescere," ap. Non. 334, 27 

29 
commacescere, 7<Z. 137, 3 



confracescere, R. R. 1, 13, 4 
contenebrascere, 7 7d. 2, 2, 11 
eliquescere, 8 R. R. 1, 55, 4 
euirescere, <Sa*. yVe;i. 425 
hilarescere, 9 ap. Non. 121, 11 
macrescere, 10 .R. J?. 2, 5, 15; 

al. 

perarescere, 11 Id. 1, 49, 1 
perfrigescere, 18 2, 9, 13 
puellascere, Sat. Men. 44 
*tonescere, Id. 56 

LVCKETIVS. 
aborisci, 5, 731 
aegrescere," 5, 349 
ardescere, 14 6, 178 ; al. 
candescere, 15 1, 490 
clarescere, 18 1, 1115 ; al. 
flammescere, 17 6, 669 
generascere, 3, 743 
haerescere, 18 2, 477; al. 
linescere," 3, 527 
mollescere, 20 5, 1014 
obbrutescere, 21 3, 543 
obhaerescere, M 4, 420 
percalescere, 23 6, 281 
rarescere, 24 6, 875 
renidescere, 2, 326 
sentiscere, 3, 393; al. 
serescere, (serenus), 1, 306 
spissescere, 25 6, 176 
nigescere, 86 1, 674 ; al. 
ntrescere, 27 1, 252 
niuiscere, 28 4, 1138 



1 Caes. , semel, (BelL Ciu. 2, 15). a Lucr.; Paul, ex Fest. 3 Varr. * Col 5 Cited by 
L. & S. under ulresco. 6 CoL ; Pronto; ApuL ; Boeth. 7 Form -escere = Vulg. lerem. 
13, 16. 8 Solin. Augustin.; EccL I0 Hor. Ep.; Col.; Paul, ex Fest.; Veget. " Col. 
12 Cela.; Scrib.; Mart.; Fronto; Plin. Val. 3 Verg.; SU.; Stat.; Plin.; Tac.; Lact.; 
Ambros.; Macr.; Inscrr. 14 Oo.; Verg.; Sen.; Plin.; Tac.; Vulg.; Hilar.; Gael. Aur. 
15 Ou.; Tibull.; Vitr.; Claud. l Verg. ; Sen.; Quint.: Suet.; Tac.; Cl. Mam.; Capit; 
Macr. "p s ._Eucher. Paul Nol. Scrib. ; Cl. Mam. '<> On.; Plin. " p au ]. 
ex Fest.; Prud. * a Sen.; Suet; Apul.; Aur. Viet " Ou. 24 Verg.; Ou.; Prop.; 
Tac.; Sil.; Tert.; Lact; Amm. ss Gels. a8 Catull. ; Censorin. ; Amm. " Verg.', 
Ou. ; Sen. ; Plin. ; Cl. Mam. ; Ambros. Col. ; Plin. 



51. INCHOATIVES.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



221 



CICERO (EPISTT.). 

consanescere, 1 ad. Fam. 4, 6, 2 
oblanguescere, Id. 16, 10, 2 
recrudescere, 2 Id. 4, 6, 2 

CATVLLVS. 

incandescere, 3 64, 13 
notescere, 4 68, 47 
uanescere, 6 64, 199 

HOBATIVS. 

acescere, 8 Ep. 1, 2, 54 
conferuescere, 7 Sat. 1, 2, 71 
inamarescere, Id. 2, 7, 107 
pallescere, 8 J<5?. 1, 1, 61 
sordescere, 9 Id. 1, 20, 11 

VITBVVIVS. 

redurescere, 1, 4, 3 
solidescere, 10 2, 6, 1 
subarescere, 7, 3, 5 

CELSVS. 

compntrescere, 11 4, 12 
emacrescere, 2, 4 
inalbescere, 12 5, 28, no. 1 ; al. 
inalgescere, 3, 3 
infrigescere, 13 5, 25 
latescere, 14 8, 1 
sanescere, 15 3, 18 ; al. 
tenerescere, 16 6, 6, 4 

COLVMELLA. 

assiccescere, 12, 9, 1 
caluescere, 17 6, 14, 7 ; al. 
commaturescere, 12, 49, 7 



consudascere, 12, 48, 2 
defrigescere, 12, 20, 4 ; al. 
emitescere, 9, 14, 10 
*glabrescere, 2, 19, 2 
ingrandescere, 2, 10, 15 ; al. 
praeualescere, 18 5, 6, 17; al. 
pullulascere, " 4, 21 extr. 
repubescere, 2, 1, 4 
repullescere, 4, 22, 5 ; al. 
retorrescere, 3, 3, 4 ; al. 
uetustescere, 1, 6, 20 
uiescere, 12, 15, 1 ; al. 

PETRONIVS. 
detumescere, 20 109, 5 ; al. 

PLINIVS. 

arborescere, 19, 62 
cornescere, 11, 261 
decaulescere, 19, 122 
dispescere, 21 2, 173 ; al. 
fermentescere, 17, 15 ; al. 
fruticescere, 17, 257 
gekscere, M 14, 132 
gemmescere, 37, 138 
glaciescere, 20, 230 
*ilactescere, 16, 98 D. 
*impttbescere, 23, 130 
inclarescere, 83 35, 130 ; al. 
lapidescere, 16, 21 ; al. 
lassescere," 4 7, 130; al. 
mascnlescere, 18, 129 
mucescere, 14, 131 
plumescere, 55 10, 149 
reflorescere, 26 18, 146 
*repatescere, 13, 70 ed. Mayh. 



1 Gels. ; Col. Liu. ; Curt. ; Sen. ; Cypr. ; Hier. 3 Verg ; Ou. ; Frontin. ; Solin. ; Cl. 
Mam. ; Symra. Prop. ; Tac. ; Suet. ; Lact. 8 Ou. ; Pers. ; Tac. ; Plin. Ep. ; Quint. 

Plin. ; ICt. ; form aciscere -= Gargil. de Pom. 5. 7 Vitr. ; Gels. ; Plin. 8 Ou. ; Prop. ; 
Plin. ; Val. PI. ; Quint.; Gell. ; Diom. Plin. ; Gell. ; Min. Fel. ; Vulg. ; Boeth. 10 Plin. 
11 CoL; Plin.; Gael. Aur.; (Lucr. 3,343, in tmesis). 12 Arnob. I'Veget. " Col. ; Manil. 
16 CoL ; Plin. 18 Plin. ; Tert. ; (but/orm *-ascere Lucr. 3, 765). " Plin. J8 Augustin. ; 
Eccl. " Prud. ao Stat. ; Augustin. Apul. ; InL Val. ; Auct. Itin. Alex. ; Prise. 
M Adelh. Tac. ; Suet. ; Plin. Pan. ; Solin. ; Amm. ; Vulg. Prud. ; Symm. ; Hier. ; 
Vulg. 25 Hier. ; Vulg.; Eustath. = Sil. ; Vulg. 



222 



WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 51. INCHOATIYES. 



rufescere, 28, 194; al. 
rutilescere, 1 8, 217 
serescere, (serum), 11, 238 
siccescere, 18, 339 
stirpescere, 19, 149 
superflorescere, 19, 70 
unescere, 2 17, 161 D. 

FBONTO. 
illuculascere, Ep. ad Anton. 1, 5 

GELUVS. 

compauescere, 1, 23, 9 
conflaccescere, 2, 30, 2 
congelascere, 3 17, 8, 8 ; al. 
exsordescere, 9, 2, 11 

APVLETVS. 

depudescere, 4 Met. 10, 29 
exacerbescere, 6 Apol. 85 
extumescere, " Id. 78 
nratescere, 7 Asd. 25 extr. 

TEKTVLLIANVS. 

assenescere, Exhort, ad Cast. 13 
cinerescere, 8 Apol. 40 
*coaegrescere, Anim. 5 
congemiscere, 9 Spect. 30 
decinerescere, Apol. 48 extr. 
deuigescere, Anim. 27 
euigescere, Id. 38 
fmgescere, 10 JRes. Cam. 22 
ignauescere, Anim. 43 
inaccrescere, adu. Gnost. 1 
lapillescere, ac? Nat. 2, 12 
niuescere, c?e Pall. 3 
reputescere, ^Inim. 32 
retorpescere, adu. Gnost. 1 
tenebrescere, 11 adu. lud. 10 



Mmvcivs FELIX. 
pndescere, 18 28, 10 
taedescere, Id. ib. 

SEBENVS SAMMONICVS. 
pulcrescere, 18 44 

SOLTNVS. 

cassescere, 14 22, 21 
febrescere, 19, 16 
occlarescere, 2, 54 

ABNOBIVS. 
rancescere, 1, 21 extr. 

IVLIVS VALEKEVS. 
consplendescere, 3, 42 
conuirescere, 3, 36 
indilucescere, 3, 27 
praestupescere, 1, 52 

VOPISCVS. 

effrondescere, Prob. 19, 3 

FIKMICVS MATEKNVS. 
fulgescere, 1, 4 extr. 
obatrescere, Praef. p. 1 ed. Basil. 

PATJjATOVS. 

amarescere, 16 2, 15, 9 

AMMIANVS. 

commarcescere, 17, 10, 1 
ouruescere, 16 22, 8, 5 
eflferascere," 18, 7, 5 
gracilescere, 17, 4, 7 ; al. 
inanescere, 18 23, 6, 86 

VEGETTVS. 

inturgescere, 1, 56, 19 



1 Mart. Cap. a Cl. Mam. 3 Ambros.; Amm.; Macr.; Augustin. 4 Placid. Gloss. 
5 Sidon. Ep. Buanth. r Mart. Cap.; Cod. Theod. ; Paul. Nol. * Fnlg. Myth. ; Augus- 
tin. ; Gael. Aur. Augustin. ; Cod. Theod. 10 Prud. ; EccL n Hier. ; Vulg. ; Auguslin. 
12 Prud. 13 Ps.-Auguetin. ; Cassiod. ; Anthol. Lat. ; Orest. Tr. " Amm. 15 Augustin. ; 
EccL "Ambros. 17 Heges. "Augustin.; Gloss. Labb. 



53. DESIDER. VBS.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



223 



AMBROSTVS. 

effluescere, de Off. 2, 21, 109 
germinascere, 1 Cain et Abel, 2, 8, 

26 

iuuenculescere, Id. 2, 1, 2 
uiridescere, 3 in Luc. 7, 16 

HlERONTMVS. 

demarcescere, in Ps. 89 
desipescere, 3 Nom. Hebr. p. 42 
immitescere, Ep. 100, 15 
impinguescere, in lesai. 16 ad 58, 

10 

lippescere, in Sophon. 3, 49 
pertremiscere, in lesai. 3, 7, 2 ; 

al. 

PAVMNVS NOLANVS. 
planescere, 5, 318 

AvGvsmrvs. 

fluescere, Ciu. Dei 21, 5 ; al. 
granascere, Serm. 223, 3 
indormiscere, Ep. 1, 2 
obdulcescere, 4 CTon/. 7, 20 extr. 
obrubescere, Serm. 107, 7 
surdescere, -Ep. 157, 4, 25 
uermescere, Trin. 3, 17 ; al. 



MARTIANVS CAPELLA. 
autumnescere, 6, 605 
furuescere, 1, 30 
spinescere, 6, 704 

OAELIVS AVBELIANVS. 
carbonescere, Ghron. 2, 13, 168 ; 

al. 

contumescere, Id. 2, 4, 71 
edurescere, Acut. 2, 34, 182 
elentescere, Id. 2, 18, 108 
pustnlescere, Ghron. 5, 1, 17 
segnescere, Acut. 2, 18, 110 

SIDONIVS APOLMNABIS. 
crepusculascere, Ep. 8, 3 
detepescere, Id. 5, 17 
familiarescere, Id. 7, 2 
refrondescere, Carm. 22, 46 
retabescere, Id. ib. 

FVLGENTIVS. 

fauillescere, Verg. Cont. p. 152 M. 
fistulescere, Myth. 2, 19 

VENANTIVS FOBTVNATVS. 
extorpescere, Vit. S. Mart. 1, 120 
morbescere, Carm. 5, 6, 1 
recipiscere, Vit. S. Germ. 16 



52. DESIDEEATIVE VEBBS : This class of verbs belongs dis- 
tinctly to the popular speech. With one or two exceptions 
they are confined to early Comedy, the Epistt. of Cic., Petr., 
luuen., Mart., Apul., and late Latin, and were carefully 
avoided by writers of an elevated style. Their plebeian char- 
acter was first noticed by Ludwig and Schmilinsky, and has 
since been generally conceded : 5 Guericke alone wonders that 

1 Gloss. Labb. a Anthol. Lat.; Th. Prise. * Not. Tir.; Thes. Nou. Lat. * Gloss. 

5 Ludwig, p. 38 ; Schmilinsky, p. 44 ; Stuenkel, p. 64 ; Landgraf , Blatt. f . Bayer. 
Gymn., XVT., p. 321, "Ebenso ist in der Volkssprache beleibt die Bildung von De- 
siderativea ; " Stinner, p. 16; Wolfflin, ALL. I., pp. 408-414; Schulze, Diss. Hal. VI., 
p. 192, " Verba desideratum in sermone uulgari prioris aetatis adamata fuerunt ; " 
Friedlander ad Petr. 64, " in der hohern Sprache wol vennieden ; " Lindsay, Latin 
Language, p. 482, " They were avoided in the higher literature and went out of use in 
late Latin." 



224: WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 52. DESIDER. VBS. 

Ludwig characterized canturire, Petr., 64, as rusticanum, and 
adds ' talia enim uerba in sermone quotidiano frequentiora 
fuisse res ipsa iam ferebat,' * a view which he would hardly 
have expressed had he had before him the list compiled by 
Wolfflin for the Archiv f. Lat. Lex. 2 The latter has not only 
pointed out their vulgar nature, as indicated by such forms as 
cacaturire, micturire, but has especially emphasized the de- 
gradation of these verbs, in plebeian and late Latin, to the 
level of the simple verb, citing the melica canturire of Trimal- 
chio, (Petr. 64), which evidently means nothing more than cant- 
are? The formation belongs mainly to the earlier period of the 
language, yet only three forms are classic, esurire, habiturire, 
parturire, all three in Cic. Of the examples from later writers, 
a few, such as amaturire, lecturire, are confined to the gram- 
marians, and probably are cited from the earlier literature. 

According to Diez and "Wolfflin these verbs have left no 
survivors in the Romance languages. 4 Grober, however, in his 
Vulgarlateinische Substrate romanischer Worter, cites *pistu- 
rire, as evidenced by Prov. pestir, O. Fr., pestrir, Fr., petrir, 
adding " so vielleicht ital. scal^rire aus scalptum." 5 

So few of these verbs have been preserved to us that the 
following list, taken from Wolfflin, has been kept complete, 
including the few forms which have been accepted by the best 
classic authors. 

PLAVTVS. NIGEDIVS. 

adesurire, Stick. 180; al nixurire, 9 op. Non. 144 M. 

esurire, 8 Gas. 795 

habiturire, 7 Amph. 1039 ; al. CICERO. 
TEBENTIVS. morturire, Fr. ap. A ugustin. Eegul 

parturire, 8 Hee. 413 516 ' 17 K ' 

petitunre, ad Att. 1, 14, 7 

VAEKO. proscripturire, Id. 9, 10, 6 

empturire, E. R. 2, Praef. 6 Sullaturire, Id. ib. 



, p. 85, " Quare Ludwig, p. 32 uerbum desideratiuum canturire rustica- 
mim esse putet nescio." 2 Wolfflin, I. I.; conf. Paucker, list of denoni. verbs in -ire, 
Ztschr. f. VergL Sprachl 26, p. 415. Wolfflin, 1. 1. p. 410 ; Friedlander, 1. 1. * Wolfflin, 
1. I., p. 409, " Die Komanischen Sprachen keine Spur derselben erhalten haben ; " conf. 
Diez, p. 691. 6 G. Grober, in ALL. IV., p. 438; conf. Korting, Worterbuch, p. 565, 
s. M. *pisturire. 

Ter. ; Varr. R. R. ; Cic. ; Plin. ; et AL ' Ter. ; Cic. ; Hor. ; Liu. ; et AL Cic. ; Verg.; 
Hor. ; On. ; Liu. ; et AL Gloss. Labb. 



53. DBNOM. VBS.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 225 

LABEKTVS. PBISCIANVS. 

adulescenturire, Com. 137 dictaturire, 8, 74 

PETKONIVS - , AMBBOS^S. 

canturire, 6 eomparturire, de Fide 1, 14, 87 ; al 

MARTIALIS. 

cacaturire, 11, 77, 3 MACKOBIVS. 

cenaturire, Id. ib. dicturire, 5 Sat. 2, 3, 16 ; al. 

nupturire, 3, 93, 18 

SIDOKIVS APOLMNABIS. 

IWENALIS. scripturire, Ep. 8, 11 

imctunre,' 6, 309 ; al. taciturire, Id. 8, 16 

DIOMEDES GRAMMAT. 

amaturire, 3 346, 2 AJJOIMVS Avrrvs. 

lecturire, 4 Id. ib. reparturire, Poem. 6, 71 

53. DENOMINATIVE VERBS IN GENERAL : The plebeian ten- 
dency to form neologisms is again seen at its height in the 
denominative verbs. As is to be expected, these formations 
are fairly numerous in classic Latin : thus out of a total of 
1777, (inclusive of participial adjectives in -atus), Caes. and 
Cic. have no less than 401, more than 22 % of the whole. 6 In the 
sermo cotidianus, however, they are much more prevalent, while 
in the sermo plebeius every substantive and adjective, and even 
the adverbs, seem capable of forming- a corresponding denom- 
inative verb. 7 Usually these verbs are formed by simply adding 
the inflectional endings to the nominal stem, yet there is a 
marked tendency towards strengthened suffixes, either with or 
without modification of meaning : such are -ic-are, (conf. infra, 
57), -in-are, -cin-are, (infra, 58), -ill-are, (with diminutive 
force : infra, 59), *-ant-are, *-ent-are, (infra, 60), -iz-are, 
(properly a hybrid formation, and accordingly treated under 
that head, infra, 89), all of which endings are in the main 

1 Conf. Paul, ex Fest. 68, 16. " Schol. Pers. ; Prise. 3 Prise. ; Consent. ; et al. 
Grammatt. 4 Prise., et al. Grammatt. ; Sidon. Apoll. s Eutyches. 

6 Paucker, Ztschr. f. Vergl. Sprachf. 26, p. 289. T Conf. Ludwig, p. 32 ; Schmil- 
insky, p. 43, " Verba a nominum stirpibus ducta . . . magno numero florent in 
linguis Romanicis, item ut in sermone rustico," citing Diez, II., p. 364 ; Guericke, p. 
35, "mirabilis copia uerbomm transitiuorum in-are desinentium, in sermone plebeio 
notanda est ; " Rebling, p. 25 ; Stuenkel, p. 64 ; Miiller, Varro, p. 67 ; Plew, p. 28 ; 
Wolfflin, Cass. Fel., p. 413 ; Schulze, Diss. HaL, VL, p. 192 ; Hauschild, Diss. Hal., VI., 
p. 258; Goelzer, p. 31 ; Ulrich, Vitr. IL, p. 7. 
15 



226 WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 53. DKNOM. VBS. 

avoided by the best writers. A characteristic of vulgar and 
late Latin, and notably of the sermo Africus, is the tendency to 
form verbs from derivative substantives and adjectives, such 
as those in -tio, (all late, excepting auctionari, contionari, 
Cic.), -do, -go, (post-Augustan, and mainly African : conf. infra, 
54), -xneutuxn, (post- Augustan, excepting fermentare, Varr., 
Gels., Col., et Al.j argumentare, coagmentare, lamentare, Cic.; 
iugmentare, Vitr.), -ura, such as feturare, Tert.; mensurare, 
Veget.; liturare, tristurare, Sidon.; -ax, as loquacitare, Ono- 
mast.; -osus, iterbosare, Intpr. Iren., Augustin., et. AL; -len- 
tus, as opulentare, Hor. Ep.; turbulentare, Apul. Met.; -urnus, 
diurnare, Quadr. ap. Gell., etc., and from adjectives in the com- 
parative and superlative degree, (chiefly in African Latin, 
conf. 55, 56). In all of these derivatives the desire for 
lengthened forms is evidently the underlying principle. 

Another interesting feature is the prevalence in plebeian 
Latin of denominative participles in -atus. These cannot 
logically be separated from the verbs, and accordingly their 
discussion has been reserved for the present section, but as 
many of them had a purely adjective value and were so regarded 
by the people, a separate list of them has been given in the 
chapter on adjectives, (supra, 34), to show their great abun- 
dance in the plebeian writers. But the list there given is 
limited to participles from verbs whose other parts are lacking 
in extant literature. All forms which at any period of the lan- 
guage occur as verbs are included in the present section, their 
earlier occurrence as participles, where such is the case, being 
carefully noted. Such a division, however, is more or less arbi- 
trary, for many denominatives which occur only as partici- 
ples in the simple form, are in good usage as verbs when 
compounded with a preposition. Compare the following in- 
stances : 

arenatus, ex-arenare, malleatus, con-malleare, 

argentatus, de-, in-argentare, praeputiatus, in-praeputiare, 

capitatns, de-, in-, prae-capitare, ruderatus, e-ruderare, 

capitulatus, re-capitulari, squamatus, de-squamare, 

carnatus, con-, de-, ex-, in-car- tesseratus, con-tesserare, 

nare, naluatus, e-ualuare, 

corticatus, de-, ex-corticare, uasatus, con-uasare, 

foliatus, de-, ex-foliare, ungulatus, ex-ungulare. 



53. DENOM. VBS.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 227 

Yet when taken separately, it is surprising to find how rare 
such participial formations are in the best writers. A certain 
number are in common use, which relate to soldiers, and per- 
haps originated in the sermo militaris : the following collection 
will serve as an illustration : 

caetratus, (caetra), Caes.; Liu.; Sil.; et Al. 

chlamydatus, (chlamys), Plant.; Cic.; et Al. 

ephippiatus, (epkippium), Caes. Bell. Ciu. 4, 2, 5 

falcatus, (fake), Auct. Bell. Alex.; Verg. ; Liu.; Curt.; et Al. 

gaesatus, (gaesum), Hyg. Nun. Castr. ; Oros.; Seru. ad Aen. 

hastatus, (hasta), Caes. ; Cic. ; Veg. Mil. ; et Al. 

paludatus, (paludamentum), Caes,; Cic.; Liu.; et Al. 

parmatus, (parma), Liu. 4, 38, 3 ; al, 

sagatus, (sagum), Cic. ; Mart. ; Capitol. ; et Al. 

sagulatus, (sagulum), Suet.; Flor. Vergil. Or at. 

scutatus, (scutum), Caes. ; Verg. ; Liu. ; et Al. 

Aside from these, Cic. has only the following 23 : 

aeratus, curiatus, paenulatus, 

barbatus, dentatus, personatus, 

bracatus, filicatus, pinnatus, 

calamistratus, fornicatus, praetextatus, 

cincinnatus, hamatus, soleatus, 

conchy liatus, lemniscattis, togatus, 

crepidatus, mastracatus, uictoriatus. 

cretatus, moratus, 

On the other hand their use in the sermo plebeius has often 
been noticed : Lorenz * commented on their prevalence in 
Plaut., who often coined them for comic effect. Guericke, 4 
citing numerous examples from Petr., also notes their fre- 
quency in early Comedy. In the later period they flourished 
undiminished : Ronsch 3 gives an extensive list, and observes 
especially, as characteristic of the language of the Itala, forms 
in -or-atus, from verbal substantives in -or. 

In marked contrast with the verbal derivatives in -tare, 
-escere, -urire, considered in the preceding sections, all of 
which belong chiefly to the older language and were more or 

1 Lorenz ad Pseud., 300. a Guericke, p. 36, " adiectiua in -atus desinentia . . . et 
apud poetas scaenicos antiquissimos creberrima." 3 Ronsch, p. 473, "die Hinneigung 
zur langeren und volleren Form erschien nicht minder ... in den von Substantiven 
auf or abgeleiteten Participial adjectiven : " compare further Bebling, p. 25 ; Schulze, 
Diss. Hal., VI., p. 181. 



228 WORD FORMATION IN THE [53. DENOM.VBS. 

less obsolescent in late Latin, the denominative verbs and par- 
ticiples flourished at all periods of the language, down to the 
latest times, where we can trace the beginning of their pro- 
fusion in the Romance languages. To cite a single example 
from among the late writers, Greg. Tur. uses few frequentatives 
and avoids intensives, in some instances employing an unused 
primitive in preference to the usual intensive : e.g., reuirere,Conf. 
50, p. 778, 11, in place of reuirescere ; while on the other hand 
the predominance of verbs in -are, formed from substantives 
and adjectives, is the most striking feature in his use of de- 
rivative verbs. 1 The Romance languages are a good criterion 
of the great license in the later sermo plebeius, showing by sur- 
viving words that practically any substantive or adjective, 
primary and derivative alike, could receive the verbal suffixes. 
Of forms from derivative words Diez 2 cites a vast array of ex- 
amples, of which the following are especially instructive : from 
substantives in -tio, -tura, -ntia, -ela, -tas, -itia, -mentum : 
Ital. cagionare, tenzonare, avveniurare, naturare, jidansare, 
cautelare, guerelare, capacitare, facilitare, carezzare, 
giustiziare, alimentare ; Span, ocasionar, questionar, aven- 
turar, mixturar, esperenzar, sentenciar, capadtar, posibilitar, 
codiciar,justiciar, parlamentar ; Fr. faponner, questionner, 
fiancer, faciliter, caresser,justider, complimenter ; from 
adjectives in -bundus, -bills, -anus, -inus, -aceus, -uceus, 
-osus : Ital. vagabondare, agevolare, piacevolare, lontanare, 
camminare, mulinare, abbonacciare, corrucciare, ventosare / 
Span, caminar, emharazar ; Fr. moyenner, assassiner, badiner, 
embarasser, tracasser, courroucer, jalouser, O. Fr. doloser, 
goloser. In regard to the formation of new denominatives the 
modern languages have retained this freedom practically un- 
diminished, and in some respects have gone further than the 
Latin, forming verbs from other parts of speech ; thus from 
numerals : Human, mdoi, (duo), tntrei, (ires); Ital. squarciare, 
(quartus); O. Fr. entercier, (tertius); Span, quintar, (quintus); 
from pronouns, Human, asqui, (suus) : Fr. tutoier, etc. 3 It is 
a question whether all derivative substantives and adjectives 
can still give corresponding verbs ; instances are cited of such 

1 Bonnet, pp. 472-3, adding "On voit poindre ddjh la riche production de verbes 
fran^ais." 2 Diez, p. 690. 3 Diez, p. 688; Meyer-Lubke, Gramm. d. Roman. Spr., 
IL, pp. 604-5. 



53. DENOM. VBS.] ROMAN SERNO PLEBEIVS. 



229 



formations from words ending in suffixes which are still ac- 
tively productive, such as Ital. ag-evol-are, frant-um-are. But 
it is claimed that such denominatives are formed from de- 
rivatives only where the primitive word has been lost to the 
language, or in other words where the derivative has come 
to be regarded as a primitive word. 1 

The following is a general list of denominatives, omitting 
those treated separately in subsequent sections : 



LIVIVS ANDKONIOVS. 
*anclare, 2 Tr. 30 
procare, 3 Id. 14 

NAKVTVS. 

*suppetiari, 4 Tr. 12 

*uenustare, 6 j9. 151 ed. Klussmann. 

uitulari, 6 Tr. 34 

PLAVTVS. 

aduersari, Hud. 306 
argutari, 7 Amph. 349 
arietare, 8 True. 256 
artare, 9 Capt. 304 
baiulare, 10 Merc. 508 ; al 
bubulcitari, 11 Most. 53 
catillare, ia p. p. p., Gas. 552 
cerare,"p. p. p., Asin. 763 
clatrare, l4 p. p. p., Mil. 379 
culpare, 15 Bacch. 397 



dapinare, Capt. 897 
furcillare, 18 Pseud. 631 
impurare, 17 p. p. p., Rud. 543 
incertare, 18 Epid. 545 
iucestare, 19 Poen. 1096 
infelicare, 20 End. 885 ; al. 
laruare, 21 p. p. p., Men. 890; 
limare, (limus), Poen. 292 
lineare, 22 p. p. p., Mil. 916 
pandiculari, Men. 834 
pauperare, 23 Pseud. 1128 
peculiare, 24 Pers. 192 
perplexari, Aul. 259 
quadruplicare, 25 Stick. 405 
rugare, 26 Gas. 246 
nu-are, 27 Capt. 84 
suburrare, 28 p. p. p., Cist. 121 
scintillare, 29 Men. 829 
scortari, 30 Asin. 270 
sibilare, 31 Merc. 407 



al. 



1 Meyer-Liibke, I. 1. 

2 Verb, depon. = Liu. Andr. ;form anculare = Paul, ex Pest. 3 Varr. ; Fest. ; Paul, 
ex Fest. ; uerb. depon. = Cic., semel, (Rep. 4, 6); Sen. 4 *Cic. Ep.; Apul. Met. 6 Heges.; 
Firm. Math. ; Ambros. Plaut.; Enn.; Varr. Fr. 7 Bnn.; *Titin. ; Nou., Lucil. ; uerb. 
act. -= Prop. ; Petr. ; Non. * Att.; Verg. ; Curt. ; Sen. ; Plin. Lucr. ; Liu. ; Gels. ; VelL ; 
Col.; Mela; Lucan.; Petr.; Plin.; Sil.; Mart.; Plin. Pan.; lustin.; Pacat. Pan.; Pall.; ICfc. 
i Phaedr. ; Quint. ; Veget. ; Prob. ; Th. Prise. ; Gloss. Labb. Verb. act. = Varr. ; Apul. 
Flor. " Auct . i nc ap Fulg 13 * Cic f seme ^ ( Diu in Caecil. 7, 24); *Hor.; Ou.; Col. 
" Cato B. R. ; *Vitr. ; Col. ; Inscrr. " Ter . ; Lucil. ; Verg. ; Hor. ; Ou. ; Quint. ; Col. 
p.p. p. =Varr. L. L. Ter. ; Apul. ; Isid. 1S Pacuu. ; Apul. l9 Verg.; Stat.; Suet.; 
Claud. ; Capit. 20 Caecil. i Apul. ; Firm. Math. Cato ; Vitr. ; Hier. ; p. p . p. -= Sol- 
in. ; Isid. 23 Titin. ; Varr. ; Hor. Sat. ; Firm. Math. ; Sidon. Ep. 24 Asin. Poll. ap. Cic. 
Ep. ; Apul. ; Auct. Priap. Boeth. 20 Prop.; Plin.; Hier.; Optat. 27 Verb, depon. . 
Varr. Sat. Men. 2 8 p]i D . . Solin. ; Arnob. ; Ven. Fort. M Verg. ; Plin. ; Calp.; Sil. ; Am- 
bros. ; Augustin. 30 Ter. ; Varr. L. L, ; Vulg. 31 Cic. Ep. ; Verg. ; Hor. Sat. ; Ou. ; Lu- 
can.; Vulg.; Fulg. Myth.; Sidon. Ep. 



230 



WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 53. DENOM. VBS. 



sororiare, 1 Friuol. Fr. VIII. 
sospitare, 2 Aul. 546 
Btri&re, 3 p. p. p. , Rud. 298 
superstitare, 4 Pers. 331 
terebrare, 6 Bacch. 1199 
uelitare," Men. 778 

ENNIVS. 

cauponari, 7 Ann. 201 
nitidare, 8 Tr. 116 
poetari, 9 Sat. 8 
snblimare, 10 2V. 319 
nerare, (uerns), Ann. 370 
nruare, 11 Tr. 141 

CATO. 

auerruncare, 12 R. R. 141, 2 
bullare, 13 Id. 105, 9 
defratare, 14 Jrf. 24 
festucare, 15 (fistucare), Id. 18, 7 
lutare, 16 /d. 92 
luxare," Id. 157, 4 
nubilare, 18 Id. 88, 2 
pampinare, 19 7d. 33, 3 
periculari, Oratt. 23, J^V. 2 
piaculare, R. R. 141, 4 
picare, 20 Id. 23, 1 ; al. 
tribtilare, Id. 23, 4 

PACWIVS. 
amplare, Tr. 330 



causari, 23 Id. 23 
cicurare, 28 /< 389 
clipeare, 24 Id. 186 
grandinare, 85 Praetext. 4 
manticulari, 86 TV. 377 
tetrare, (taetrare), Id. 303 

CAECILIVS. 
sentinare, 87 Com. 4 

TEBENTIVS. 

phalerare, 28 ^. ^>. p., Phorm. 500 
secundare, 29 .4efe/p&. 994 
susurrare, 30 Andr. 779 

TITINIVS. 

ancillari, 81 Com. 72 

TVKPIMVS. 

diuitare, 32 Com. 198 
torporare, 33 JS. 76 
nilitare, Id. 148 

Aocivs. 

pigrare, 34 Tr. 267 ; aZ. 
mtilare, 36 Id. 675 
nanari, 86 /c?. 66 

LVCUJVS. 
lupari, 87 Sat. 5, 38 
pumicare, 38 Id. 7, 12 



J*Plin. a Enn.; CatulL ; Liu. Vitr. ; Sen. ; Plin. ; Apnl. 4 Bnn. *Cato;Verg.; 
Vitr. ; Col. ; Pers. ; Suet. ; Liu. Epit. Gell. ; Apul. r Vulg. ; Cassiod. 9 Ace. ; Col. ; 
Pall. ; Marc. Emp. 9 uerb. act. -= Verus ap. Fronton. ; Auson. 10 Cato ; Vitr. ; Apul. ; 
Min. Pel.; Tert.; Inl. Val.; Aur. Viet.; Amm.; Vulg.; Prud.; Macr.; Cl. Mam.; Cassiod.; 
Cod. Theod. Pompon. Dig. 1S Pacuu.; Lucil. ; Cic. Ep.; Liu.; Apul.; Amob. 

13 Cels. ; Plin. ; Calp. > CoL 16 Vitr. ; Plin. 18 Pers. ; Mart. ; Calp. ; Lampr. 17 Cels. ; 
Sen. ; Plin. 18 Varr.; Plin.; Augustin.; Paul. Nol. " Varr. ; Col. ; Plin. Verg. ; 
Vitr. ; Col. ; Plin. ; Mart. ; Suet. 31 Tert. ; Ambr. ; Hier. ; Vulg. M Af ran. ; Att. ; Lucr. ; 
On. ; Sail. fr. ; Liu. ; Curt. ; Tac. ; Suet. ; Vlp. ; Cl. Mam.; Salu. " Nigid. 24 Verg. ; Ou. ; 
Liu.; Curt. as Sen.; Aur. Viet.; Augustin. 26 Apul. ; uerb. act. _ Gloss. 27 Fest.; 
Augustin. ; Paul. Nol. 28 Liu. ; Suet. ; Mart. ; Prud. ; Ambros. 29 Verg. ; Ou. ; Prop. ; 
Lucan. ; Tac. ; lustin. ; Vopisc. ; IuL Viet. 30 Verg. ; Ou. ; Mart. ; Calp. ; Amm. 3l A cc. ; 
Plin.; Apul.; Tert.; uerb. act. Ps. -Cypr. S2 Ace. 33 Lact. 34 Lucr.; uerb. 
depon. -= Cic. Ep. 3 Verg.; Liu.; Tac.; Plin.; Min. Fel.; Ven. Fort. 3 Dosith.; Gloss. 
Labb. ST Att. Catull ; Mart. ; Piin. Ep. ; ApuL ; Hier. ; Augustin. ; Isid. ; Sidon. 



53. DENOM. VBS.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



231 



simare, 1 Id. 7, 14 
nermiculari, 2 p. p.p., Id. Fr. Inc. 
34 

POMPONIVS. 

aedituari, 3 Com. 2 
lirare, 4 Id. 158 
uerminare, 8 Id. 56 

CLAVDIVS QvADBiGAKiva 
cognominare, 6 1 Fr. 10 
copiari, 7 ap. Gell 17, 2, 9 
diurnare, ap. Id. 17, 2, 16 

VARBO. 

abortare, 8 R. R. 2, 4, 14 
adolescentuari, ap. Nan. 71, 30 
aestiuare, 9 R. R. 2, 1, 16 ; al. 
aeternare, 10 ap. Non. 75, 20 
asperare, 11 R. R. 3, 16, 20 
aurigari, 18 Sat. Men. 316 
aurorare, 13 Id. 121 
bucinare," R. R. 2, 4, 20 
carminare, 15 L. L. 7, 50 
cernuare, 18 Fr. ap. Non. 21, 8 
conuiciare, 17 .R. .R. 2, 5, 1 
exsequiari, Sat. Men. 47 ; al. 
februare, 18 L. L. 6, 34 
fenestrare, 19 Id. 8, 29 
gallari, 80 Sat. Men. 119 ; al. 



loricate," 1 R. R. 1, 57 in. 
marmorare, M p. p. p., Id. 1, 57, 1 
mulierare, 83 Sat. Men. 205 
nidulari, 24 ap. Non. 145, 7 
praenominare, Id. 352, 29 
racimari, 26 R. R. 3, 9, 1 
runcinare," 8 L. L. 6, 96 
satullare, Sat. Men. 401 
*scirpare, Id. 116 ; a/. 
stabulare, 87 R. R. 1, 21 
sulcare, 28 Id. 1, 29, 2 
tudiculare, 8 ' Sat. Men. 287 
Tiacuare, 80 op. Prob. ad Verg. Eel. 

6,51 

ninctilare, 31 p. p. p., Sat. Men. 534 
tralpinari, 38 Id. 327 

LVCBETIVS. 

articulare, 33 4, 551 
diluuiare, 5, 387 
saccare, 34 4, 1021 
niduare, 36 5, 840 

Aver. BELL. HISP. 
lapidare, 38 22, 4 

Aver. BELL. ALEX. 
infestare, 37 3, 2 

ClCEBO (EPISTT.). 

fruticari, 88 ad. Aft. 15, 4, 2 



1 Vitr.; AnthoL Lat. a Plin. ; Mart. Cap. 3 Gloss. Labb. ; uerb. act. = Inscrr. 
4 Varr. ; Col. ; Plin . ; Au son. 6 Cl. Quadr. ; Sen. ; Mart. ; Auct. Priap. ; Arnob. 6 Varr . ; 
Val. Max.; lustin.; Plin.; Liu. Epit.; Gell. * Non. 8 Firm. Math. Plin. ; Suet. ; Stat. 
10 Hor. ; Schol. Arat. Verg. ; Gels. ; CoL ; Tac. ; Val. Fl. ; Lucan. ; Stat. ; Pall. ; Prud. ; 
Gael. Aur. 12 uerb. act. = Plin. ; Suet. ; Gloss. Labb. ; p . pr. a. = Gell. ; Auct. Itin. Alex. ; 
lul. Val. " Gloss. Vat. " Sen.; Apul. ; Vulg. ; Gloss. Labb. 15 Sen. ; Plin. ; Ven. Fort. ; 
Marc. Emp. 18 Fronto ; Apul. ; Prud ; uerb. depon. = Solin. 1T Liu. ; Quint. ; Suet. ; 
Paul. Sent. ; Vulg. ; Dig. Paul, ex Fest. ; Schol. luuen. I9 Vitr. ; Plin. so *Anthol. 
Lat. ed. Burm. 21 Plin.; p. p. p. = Liu. et Al. M Stat. ; Petr. ; Plin.; Lampr. ; Veget.; 
Pelag. Vet. 23 Gloss. Labb. 24 Plin.; Gell.; Gloss. Lab. " Augustin.; Dosith.; uerb. 
act. Itala. > Min. Pel.; Arnob. 37 Verg.; Stat.; Apul. S8 Verg.; Ou.; Tibnll.'; 
SU.; Sen. Poet.; Plin. Ps.-Apic. 3 Lucr.; Stat.: Anthol. Lat.; Col.; Mart.; Sil.; 
Quint. ; Frontin. ; Ambros. ; Aur. Viet. 31 Ambros. ; * Mart. Cap. ; Gael. Aur. 32 Apul. 
Met. 33 Apul. ; Solin. ; Arnob. ; Prise. ; Isid. 34 Sen. ; Mart. ; Plin. ; Ser. Samm. ; Arnob. ; 
Isid. Verg.; Hor.; Vitr.; Sen.; Col.; Stat.; Sil.; Tac.; Mart.; Suet.; Apul. Met 
38 Liu.; Flor.; Petr.; Suet.; Vulg.; Macr. 37 Sen.; Cels.; Col.; Plin.; Frontin.; Suet.; 
Veil ; Mela ; lustin. ; Liu. Epit. ; Lact. 3f > uerb. act. CoL ; Plin. 



232 



WORD FORMATION IN THE [53. DENOM.VBB. 



gypsare, 1 ad Fam. 7, 6, 1 
miniare, 2 ad Att. 15, 14, 4; al. 
suppetiari, 3 Id. 14, 18, 2 
tricari, 4 Id. 14, 9, 14 

LABEKIVS. 

iniquare, Com. 65 
maestare, Id. 91 
puellitari, Id. 140 

CATVLLVS. 

angustare, 6 64, 359 
basiare, 6 7, 9 
fascinare, 7 7, 12 
meridiare, 8 32, 3 

HOBATIVS. 

ampullari, Ep. 1, 3, 14 
auctorare, 9 Sat. 2, 7, 59 
curtare, 10 Id. 2, 3, 124 
graecari, 11 /*! 2, 2, 11 
opulentare, 12 j^>. 1, 16, 2 
scurrari, /c?. 1, 17, 19 ; al. 

Vrmwrvs. 

asciare," 7, 2, 2 
imbricare, 14 ^). p. p., 2, 8, 1 
iugnmentare, 2, 1, 3 
octare, p. pr. a., 10, 6, 1 
pandare, 15 6, 11, 3 ; al. 
pectinare, 1 '^. p.p., 5, 1, 10 
spicare, 17 7, 1, 4 
statuminare, 18 7, 1, 3 



CELSVS. 
febricitare, 19 3, 6 



caucellare, 20 4, 2, 2 
cibare, 31 8, 10, Jin.; al. 
colare, 22 9, 16, 1; al. 
fetare, 23 (fetus), 8, 8, 8 ; al. 
fibulare, 24 1, 6, 13 
glabrare, 12, 55, 4 
*meretricari, a5 11, 1, 16 
normare, 1 " 3, 13, 12 
obesare, 7, 7, 4 
obsidian, 97 9, 14, 10 
operculare, 12, 30, 1 ; al. 
opimare, 28 8, 7, 5 ; al. 
pastinare, 29 3, 13, 6 ; al. 
pedare, 30 4, 12, 1 
pelliculare, 31 12, 39, 2 ; al. 
prolixare, 4, 24, 22 
radicari, 3 " 4, 2, 2 ; al. 
saliuare, 6, 5, 2 
sebare, 2, 21, 3 
stilare, 4, 33, 4 
surculare, 33 5, 9, 11 
tertiare, 34 2, 4, 8 
uberare," 5, 9, 11 
uindemiare, 36 12, 33, 1 

PEBSIVS. 

cornicari, 87 5, 12 
tratiraari, 38 3, 82 



1 Ou.;Tibull.;Fest.;Ps.-Apic. s Plin. ; Ps.-Apic. 3 Apul. Met. uerb. act. = 
Vulg.; Not. Tir. 6 Sen. ; Plin.; Lucan.; Stat.; Bccl. Mart.; Petr.; Apul. 7 Verg. Eel.; 
Tert.: Veget.; Vulg. Suet.; uerb. depon. Cels.; Vulg. Liu.; PUn.; Quint.; Veil.; 
ManiL ; Tert. ; Vlp. Dig. ; Pompon. Dig. ; uerb. depon. ApuL ; Tert. 10 Pers. ; Pall. ; 
Cledon.;Boeth. " ApuL; Tert. 12 Col. ; Vatic. Fragm. lur. 13 Augustin. I4 Plin.; 
Sidon.Ep. " Col. ; Quint. ; Plin. " Plin.; Paul. Sent.; Apul.; Marc. Emp. "Plin.; 
Grat. ; Min. Fel. ; Vulg. lf > Plin. 19 Sen. ; Col. ; Mart. ; Vulg. Plin. ; Gromat. Vet. ; 
ICt. 3I Liu. Epit.; Tert.; Commod. ; Cypr. ; Cael. Aur.; uerb. depow.=ApuL Apol. 

S3 Plin.; Manil.; Scrib.; Apul. Flor.; Tert.;^3.p.^. Veget.; Pall M Vulg.; Augustin. 
24 Ps.-Apic.; Valerian. Imp. ap. Vopisc. ss Rufin. ; Augustin. M Diom. 2T Commod. 
28 Apnl. ; Vopisc. ; Mart. Cap. ; Auson. ; Sidon. Ep. Plin. ; Salu. so Plin. 31 Gloss. 
Philox. M Plin.; uerb. act. Cassiod.;p. p.p . =-PalL; Vulg.; Sidon. 33 Ps.-Apic. 
34 Apnl. Met. ; Pall. S5 Pall. 3 Plin. ; Arnob. ; Salu. ; Vulg. ; Porphyr . ; Cassiod. " Hier. 
Ep. s Hier. ; uerb. act. Eccl. 



53. DENOM. VBS.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



233 



PETKONTVS. 

gesticulari, 1 36, 6 
libidinari, 2 138, 7 
naufragare, 3 76, 4 
serrare, 4 j?. p, p., 136, 4 

PLINIVS. 

acuminare, 5 p. p. p., 11, 79; 

al. 

arbustare, 17, 201 
artrare, (aratrare), 18, 182 
autumnare, 2, 124 ; al. 
bituminare, 6 p. p. p., 31, 32 
camerare, 7 10, 97 
caminare, 16, 23 ; al. 
caprificare, 8 16, 114 
capulare, 9 15, 22 
carbunculare, 24, 113 
carinare, 9, 103 
centuplicare, 10 6, 101 
clauare, n ^>. p. p., 9, 130 
coagulate, 12 12, 123 
cuspidare, 11, 126 ; al. 
formicare, 30, 120 ; al. 
globare, 13 2, 163; al. 
gyrare, 14 5, 62 
mangonicare, 32, 135. 
oliuare, 15, 11 
pecfcinare, 15 18, 50 
plantare, 18 17, 67 
rigorare, p. p. p., 17, 211 
rufare, 17 15, 87; al. 
sahiare, 18 17, 178 
sementare, 18, 259 
semitare, 17, 169 



siderari, 19 9, 58 ; al. 
siliquari, 17, 54 ; al. 
spiculare, 20 11, 3 
stellare, 31 37, 100 
stipendiari, 22 6, 68 
tepidare, 17, 250 
teporare, p. p. p., 36, 199 
tergorare, 8, 212 

MABTIALIS. 

fasciare, 23 ^?. p. p., 12, 57, 12 
guttare, 24 ^). p. p., 3, 58, 5 
nauculari, 3, 20, 20 

FBONTO. 

ludicrari, ad Amic. 1, 12 Mai. 
trigeminare, Eloq. 1, p. 139, 8 N. 

GELLIVS. 

ignominiare, 8, 15, Lemm. 
illudiare, 1, 7, 3 
interuallare, 26 p. p. p., 17, 12, 5 
(sermonari, 28 17, 2, 17). 
uenerare, (Venus), 13, 25, 8 

APVLEIVS. 

acetare, 27 (acetum), Herb. 3, 8 
alumnari, 28 (-are), Met. 10, 23; 

al. 

anilitari, Mund. 23 
anxiari, 29 Met. 4, 27 
araneare, p. pr. a., Id. 4, 22 
assare, 30 (assus), Id. 2, 10 
buxare, p. p. p., Id. 8, 21 
crassare, 31 Id. 3, 24 



1 Suet. ; Fronto; Apul. ; Tert. ; Solin. a Mart. ; Suet. ; Tert. ; Porphyr. ; Anthol. Lat. 
3 Itala; Cypr. ; Ambros. ; Vu'g. ; Salu. ; Sidon. ; Augustin. ; Not. Tir. ; Gloss. Labb. 4 Plin.; 
Tac. ; Veget. ; Ambros. ; Hier. ; Vulg. 5 Lact. ; Sidon. 6 Ambros. ; Vulg. ; Eccl. 7 Seru. 
ad Aen. ; Cassiod. "Pall. " sed -tio iam Cato," Paucker, Silb. Lat., p. 49. 10 Vulg.; 
Prud. ; Fulg. ; luuenc. n Paul, ex Fest.; Lampr.; Vopisc. ; Paul. Nol. ; Isid.; Gloss. Labb. 
13 Pall. ; Vulg.; Augustin. ; Inscrr. " Solin. " Veget. ; Ambros. ; Fulg. Myth. ; Vulg. 
6 Apul. ; Vulg. 16 Vulg. " *Tert. ; Onom. Lat. Gr. 18 Quint. ; Gargil.; Augustin. ; Bccl. 
19 Veget. 20 Solin. Symm. Ep. ;p. p. p. = Cic. et Al. 22 Tert. a3 Capit. ; Vulg. 
M Pall. 8S Amm.;Cael. Aur. 3S uerb. act. C. I. L. I., 118, c. 1, 1. 3 & 6. 27 Gloss. Labb. 
28 Mart. Cap. *>> Tert. ; Arnob. ; Vulg. ; Gloss. 30 Gargil. ; Vulg. ; Ps. -Apic. 31 Amm. 



234 



WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 53. DENOM. VBS. 



*effigiare, 1 Fl. Ill ; al. 
extraneare, 2 Apol. 97 
foUicare, 3 Met. 9, 13 
herbare, p. pr. a., Id. 7, 15 
liciniare, Id. 10, 31 
luminare, 4 Id. 9, 12 
madidare, 6 Met. 8, 19 
praesagare, 8 Id. 9, 38 ; al. 
pugilari, 7 Id. 7, 16 ; al. 
splendidare, Apol. 103 
tenebrare, 8 Met. 8, 15 
turbulentare, Id. 5, 12 ; al. 
uictimare, 9 Id. 7, 11 
uigorare, 10 Id. 9, 21 

TEBTVLLIANVS. 

coaetaneare, Res. Cam. 45 
compendiare, 11 adu. Marc. 4, 1 ; 
cruditare, Apol. 9 ; al. 
dimidiate, 1 " Cam. Chr. 5 
feturare, p. p. p., Id. 25 
fiduciare, 13 Idol. 23 
figulare, Cam. Chr. 9 ; al. 
flabellare, Pall. 4 
galaticari, adu. Psych. 14 
incolare, Res. Cam. 26 ^in. 
infantare, adu. Marc. 1, 14 
lanceare, 14 adu. lud. 9 ; aZ. 
obsoletare, 18 adu. Gnost.6; al. 
obstetricare, 1 ' ad Nat. 2, 2; aZ. 
procliuare, adu. Herm. 41 
propaginare, 17 efe Pall. 2 
saporare, 18 j?. p. ^., Sped. 27 
sequestrate, 18 .Res. (7orn. 27 



al. 



taediare, 20 adu. lud. 11 
tibicinare, 21 Anim. 38 
titnlare,"/d. 13 
nitginari, Virg. Vel. 12 
tmare, adu. Prax. 27 

INTPB. IBEN. 
angariare, 23 1, 24, 4 
dementare, 24 1, 23, 1 
uetbosari, 28 1, 15, 5 

GABGILIVS MABTIALIS. 
crocinare, Cur. Bourn 13 
imbricate," Id. 23 

SOLINVS. 

escare, 40, 27 
maciari, 27 15, 18 
turbidare, 48 49, 11 
nesperari, 11, 9 

SPABTIANYS. 
magistrate, Hadr. 10 

CAPITOLINVS. 

*agricolari, 29 Albin. 11, 7 ed. Peter. 
annonari, 80 Gord. 29, 2 
centesimare, Macrin. 12, 2 

TBEBELUVS POLLIO. 
popinari, Trig. Tyr. 29, 1 

LAMPBTDIVS. 
tauroboliari, 31 Heliog. 7, 1 



1 Min. Fd. ; Tert. ; Chalcid. Tim. ; Amm. ; Non. ; Eccl. 2 Cassiod. 3 Tert. ; 

Veget.; Hier.; Gloss. ; /orw -eare = Isid. 4 Cypr.; Mart. Cap.; Cael. Aur.; Auien. 

6 Claud.; Arnob. Hier. ; Augustin. ; Cassiod. 7 Treb. Poll.; Augustin. ^ Lact. ; 
Amm.; Vulg. 9 Vulg. Tert.; p. p.p. = Chalcid. Tim. "Augustin. 2 Vulg.; Eccl.; 
(p. p.p. Plaut.; Cic.; Caes., etc.). 13 Insert.; Gloss. l *p. p. p. -= Vulg. 

15 Gloss. Isid. J " Intpr. Iren.; Vulg. Isid. 18 Amm.; Fulg. Myth.; Dracont. " Vo- 
pisc. ; Treb. Poll. ; Macr. ; Veg. Mil. ; Prud. ; Sidon. ; Boeth. ao Intpr. Iren. ; Lampr. ; Am- 
bros.; Veget.; Vulg.; Gloss. Cyrill. 21 Schol. luuen.; Fulg. Myth.; uerb. depon. = Dos- 
ith. ^ Hier. ; Mart. Cap. ; Eccl. 23 Vlp. Dig. ; Vulg. ; Augustin. ; Paul. Nol. 21 Lact. ; 
Vulg.; Ps. -Cassiod.; Gloss. Labb. 25 Augnstin. S6 Form inibricitur <= Gloss. Labb. 
57 uerb. act. -= Eutych. Gramm. ; Gloss. Labb. S8 Mart. Cap. ; Sidon. Ep. 2 Augustin. ; 
Eccl. 30 uerb. act. = Augustin. 31 Inscrr. 



53. DBNOM. VBS.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



235 



VOPISCVS. 

samiare, 1 Aurel 7, 6 

Fmmcvs MATEKNVS. 
artuare, 2 jp. p. p., 6, 31 
augmentare, 3 5, 6 
proportionare, 4 p. p. p., 4, 13 
sordidare, 5 ^). p.p., 4, 12 

CHALCIDIVS. 

calculare, 6 Tim. 35 

PAT.T.ADTVR 

gumminare, 2, 15, 20 
mellare, 8, 7, 1 
menstruare, p. pr. a., 1, 35, 3 
sarculare, 7 2, 9, 1 
simplicare, 2, 15, 15 

PIJNIVS VALEBIANVS. 
ouicare, 1, 17 
psilothrare, 3, 52 
subtiliare, 8 5, 17 
sncidare, 2, 9 ; al. 

Aver. ITIN. ALEX. 
tabulate, 33 (77) 

PELAGONIVS. 
auenare, Vet. 12, 207 
cauteriare, 9 Id. 9, 180 
hordiari, Id. 5, 47; al. 
scabiare, Id. 26, 347 
tortionare, Id. 31, 469 



mnrare, 13 Mil. 1, 21 
semissare, Vet. 1, 26, 4; al. 
serrare, 14 Mil. 2, 25 extr. 
snffimentare, Vet. 3, 2 extr. 
uadare, 15 Mil. 2, 25 

HlEKONYMVS. 

*pronubare, (pronubus), Vit. Mal- 
chi& 

AVGVSTINVS. 

campestrari, Ciu. Dei 14, 17 
cauernare, 16 Quaest. in Heptat. 2, 

177,7 

exemplare, Ep. 149 
ieiunare, 17 Id. 36, 5 
ignobilitare, 18 Serm. 166, 3 
illecebrare, 19 Id. 310, 1 
salsare, 20 Ep. 108, 14 
tumidare, Spect. 30 
udare, S1 Jfor. Manich. 2, 

MAECELLVS EMPIBICVS. 
scalpellare, 22 12, 22 

THEODOBVS PBISCIANYS. 
uesicare, 1, 28 
netustare, 23 1, 10 

MAKTIANVS CAPELLA. 

balteare,"p. p. p., 5, 426 
cariare, p. pr. a., 1, 10 
culminare, Poet. 9, 914 
fidicinare, 25 9, 928 
indusiare, 1, 65 ; al. 
stupidare, 6, 572 ; al. 
torridare, 28 6, 602 
uicinare, 27 6, 608 
uiuidare, Poet. 9, 912 



VEGETTVS. 

fomentare, 10 Fei. 2, 25, 3 
limpidare, 11 Id. 2, 18 ; al 
mensurare, ia Mil. 1, 25 

JVeget-iNon. 2 Gloss. Labb. s Hier. ; Greg. M. ; Verecund. 4 Baeda. 5 Cypr.; 
Lact.; Hier.; Sidon. Prud.; Sidon. Ep. 7 Prud. Oribas. Fragm. Bern. 9 EccL 
10 Gael Aur. " Thorn. Thes.; Gloss. Paris. 12 Gromat. Vet. ; Vulg.; Acron ad Horat.; 
Gloss. " Hier.; Cassiod. " Ambros.; Hier.; Vulg. 15 Sulp. Seu. 16 Gael. Aur. 
"Sidon. con/. Not. Tir. 12. 19 Isid. 20 Gloss. 21 Macr. 2 Gloss. Labb. M Boeth. 
" 4 Gloss. as Gloss. 26 Non. 2 'Cael. Aur.; Sidon. 



236 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[54. -ABE. 



MACROBIVS. 
annare, Sat. 1, 12, 6 

CAEUVS AVKELIANVS. 

alterare, 1 Chron. 2, 8, 115 
cicatricari," Id. 4, 8, 118 
elogiare, Id. 2, 1, 16 ; al. 
feminare, Id. 4, 9, 133 
fluidare, Id. 5, 11, 136 
frigidare, Acut. 1, 17, 168 ; al. 
frigorare, Id. 3, 21, 298 
latinare, Chron. 5, 4, 77 
palpebrare, Acut. 2, 10, 70 
populare, Chron. 2, 1, 34 
regulare, s /d 3, 4, 62 
tmcare, 4 p. p. p., Id. 5, 3, 57 

SIDONTVS APOELINAEIS. 
absentare, 5 Ep. 9, 13, 6 
altare, 6 /d 2, 2, 1; al. 



cassare, 7 (cassus), Id. 1, 11, 13 
dulcare, Id. 5, 4, 2 ; /. 
facetiari, /d. 3, 13, 1 
liturare, 8 Id. 9,3,7 
nouercari, 9 Id. 7, 14, 3 
rhoncare, Id. 1, 6, 3 

FVLGENTIVS. 

garrulare, Myth. 1, Praef. p. 20 

VENANTTVS FOBTVNATVS. 
apothecare, Carm. 5, 6, 2 
cruminare, Vit. S. Mart. 2, 380 
longaeuare, Vit. S. Medard. 13 
necessare, Vit. S. Mart. 2, 412 
torculare, Carm. 5, 6, 2 

Isnxmvs. 

merendare, 20, 2, 12 
obelare, 1, 20, 21 ; al. 



54. VEEBS IN -are FROM SUBSTANTIVES IN -do, -go : The few 
denominatives formed from the stems of substantives in -do, 
-go, are grouped by themselves, as being almost exclusively of 
African origin. As already shown by Paucker 10 and empha- 
sized by Goelzer, 11 they are all post-Augustan, and all recc. 
excepting the two deponents imaginari, libidinari. The former 
of these, the earliest instance of such derivatives, is assignable 
to Spanish Latin, (closely connected with the African dialect), 
being first used by Sen. and Col., both natives of Spain, and 
its compound coimaginari is used only by Hilarius, from the 
adjoining region of Aquitania. libidinari first occurs in Mart., 
(also a Spaniard), and in Petr., (another point of contact be- 
tween African and Campanian Latin). The remaining exam- 
ples are due to African writers, with the single exception of 
the a7ra Aey. futiginatus in Hier. Such forms must have gradu- 
ally spread throughout the whole sermo plebeius : thus caligi- 
rcare(Itala) is later employed by the Gallic writer Marc. Emp., 

1 Boeth. a Sidon. Ep. s Dosith. Sidon. ; Gloss. 5 Cl. Mam. ; Cod. Theod. 
Eccl. T Cassiod. ; Cod. Theod. ; ICt. 8 Inscrr. Gloss. 

10 Paucker, Add. Lex. Lat. p. 7, not. 15. Goelzer, p. 174. 



55. VBS. FR. SUPEKL.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



237 



while in the Romance languages they are well represented : 
Diez cites Ital. aeruginare, capprugginare, originare ; Span. 
originar ; Prov. eruginar. 1 



GELLIVS. 

imaginare, 2 16, 18, 3 



ferrnginare, p. pr. a., adu. Valent. 

15 
uertiginare, de Pall. 3 



APVLEIVS. 
discapedinare, Flar. 3, p. 3, 13 HILABIVS. 

g r coimaginare, Trin. 8, 48 

robiginare, Id. 17, p. 26, 14 



iTAJjA. 

aeruginare, 3 lac. 5, 3 
caliginare, 4 3 Regg, 4, 14 

TEBTVLMANVS. 
auruginare, Anim. 17 



HEEBONYMVS. 

fuliginare, p. p. p., Ep., 54, 7 

AVGVSTINVS. 

lanuginare,p. pr. a., Annot. in lob. 
38, 36 

MAKTIANVS CAPELLA. 
intercapedinare, 5 9, 921 



55. VERBS IN -are FROM SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES : Like 
the verbs discussed in the preceding section, the verba desuper- 
lativa, or those derived from adjectives in the superlative de- 
gree, are a characteristic of the sermo Africus. This was 
first pointed out by Wolfflin, in his study of the Latinity of 
Cass. Fel., and recently in a separate article in the Archiv f. 
Lat. Lex.; it has been reiterated by Sittl and Thielmann, while 
Kiibler has pointed out the occurrence of coiisummare in Af- 
rican inscriptions. 6 With the exception of consummare, (Liu.; 
Ou.; et Al.), which is derived not from summus, but from the 
substantive summa, 1 and therefore is hardly an exception, no 
instance occurs until the end of the second century, and then 
they appear first in African writers. The formation is still 

1 Diez, p. 690. 

2 Apul.; Lacfc.; Firm. Math.; uerb. depon. iam in Sen.; Plin.; Plin. Ep.; Suet.; Au- 
gustin. 3 Vulg. * Ps.-Cypr. ; Gargil. Mart.; Marc. Emp.; Fulg. Verg. Cont. 5 Gael. 
Aur.;Fulg. Myth. 

Wolfflin, Cass. Fel., p. 418; Id., ALL. II,, p. &55; Sittl, Lokal. Verschiedenh., p. 
103; Thielmann, ALL. VIII., p. 517; Kiibler, ALL. VIII., p. 170; con/. Paucker, 
Zeitschr. f. vergl. Sprachf., 26, p. 272, annot. 47; Ronsch, p. 172. 7 Thielmann, I. L, 
' ' das von summa (nicht summus), abgeleitete consummare, in Africa das eigentliche 
Wort fur ' vollenden.' " 



238 WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 56. VBS. FB. COMPAK. 

unknown to the Latin of Fronto and Gell., 1 but in Apul., Tert., 
and the Itala a number of these verbs come into use, in which 
no trace of a superlative force can be detected. 2 These for- 
mations continued to be popular with the later African writers 
such as Mart. Cap., Fulgent., Gael. Aur., but are not confined 
to them : conf. for instance intimare, frequent in Gallic Latin ; 3 
Ital. intimare ; Fr. intimer ; Prov. and Span, intimar.* 

APVLEIVS. TEBTVLLIANVS. 

infimare, 5 Deo Socr. 4 extimare, 11 Cor. 5 

intimare, 6 Dogm. Flat. 2, 5 postumare, Apol. 19 ; cd. 

proximare, 7 Met. 2, 16 ; al. ultimare, de Pall. 1 extr. 

(*summare, 8 Id. 11, 1 Cod. Florent.) 

VALEKIVS ABBAS. 

ITALA. extremare, Patrol. 87, 437 C. Migne 

approximare, 9 Genes. 27, 16 
pessimare, 10 PUlipp. 6, 2, 3 & Ephes. CAPITVL. CAKOU M. 

16, 2, (ap. Ignat. Epp.) minimare, p. p. p., 65, 21 Bar. 

EOMVLVS NILANTI. 
improximare, 26 

56. VEEBS IN -are FROM COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES : Unlike 
the desuperlative verbs, those formed from adjectives in 
the comparative degree have regularly retained a com- 
parative force, and are not especially characteristic of 

1 Wolfflin, ALL. II., p. 355, "Zwar Fronto 1st von denselben unberiihrt und 
auch Gellius nimmt die Neuerung nicht an ; wohl aber sind die Ifcala und Apuleius 
von Madaura die ersten Freunde der Bildungen." a Sittl, 1. I., "die von Superlativen 
abgeleiteten Verba, in denen ebenfalls keine Spur einer Steigerung mehr vorhanden 
1st;" Thielmann, 1. 1., "die verba desuperlativa, in denen j a ebenfalls der Superlativ 
zur Bedeutung eines Positivs herabgesunken ist. " 3 Sittl, 1. I., "Wolfflin . . . gent zu 
weit, wenn er sie auf die Latinitat Afrikas beschrankt," citing intimare, " besonders 
in Frankreich." 4 Conf. Littre, Diet. Francais, s. u. approcher, " On a dit dans 1'an- 
cien francjais aproismer, d'approximare." 

6 *Tert. ; Mart. Cap. ; con/. Wolfflin, ALL. H. , p. 361 . Tert. ; Arnob. ; Cypr. ; Com- 
modian. ; Solin. ; Capit. ; Spart. ; Trebell. ; Firm. Math. ; lul. Val. ; Mart. Cap. ; Hier. ; Au- 
gustin.; Fulg. Myth.; Ennod.; Sulp. Seu. ; Ambros. ; Amm.; Cod. Theod.; Cod. lust.; 
Symm. ; Chalcid. ; lordan. ; Capitul. Caroli M. 7 Solin. ; Vulg. ; Ennod. ; Ps. -Fulg. ; Cas- 
siod. 8 Schol. Bob. ad Cic.; conf. Wolfflin, 1. I., " Apul. Met. 11, 1 hat zwar der bessere 
codex Florentinus summatam deam, die Herausgeber aber mit Recht summatem." 
9 Tert.; Cypr. ; Hier. ; Augustin. ; Arnob. lun. ; Cassian. ; Paul. Hist. Langob. 10 Vulg. ; 
conf. Wolfflin, 1. I., p. 363, " muss aus der Itala stammen ; " Thielmann, ALL. VIIL, p. 
517. " Cael. Aur. 



$ 57. -ICABB.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 239 

African Latin. Thielmann l indeed has claimed that minorare at 
least arose in Africa, but if the doubtful reading minorato pretio, 
Scaeuol. Dig". 18, 7, 10, is accepted, its first occurrence, like 
that of most of these forms, is in juridical Latin. Yet, as has 
been observed by Wolfflin," the Africans by no means avoided 
these forms, but used them, as they did many other denomina- 
tives, both transitively and intransitively. Ronsch 3 includes 
them in his lists of vulgar forms, and with reason, for such 
formations would have been an impossibility in Ciceronian 
Latin and are to be attributed to the great freedom with which 
all classes of denominatives were formed in the later popular 
speech. 

Only five of these verbs are cited : 

SAITVIVS IVLIANVS: certiorare, ap. Vlp. Dig. 13, 6, 5, 8; (Oai.; FZp., et al. 

ICt). 
CERvrDrvs SCAEVOLA: *minorare, Dig. 18, 7, 10; (Tert.; Intpr. Iren.; Am- 

bros.; Vulg.; Augustin.). 

VLPIANVS : meliorate, Dig. 7, 1, 13, 6 ; (Ambros.; Cassiod.; Cod. lust.). 
Iviiivs PAVLVS: peiorare, Sent. 2, 18, 1 ; (Gael. Aw.; Cass. Fel.). 
SYMMACHVS : deteriorate, Ep. 4, 68; (Vulg.; Ambros.; Claud. Mamert.; 

Cod. lust.). 

57. VERBS IN -icare : The prevalence of these verbs in the 
sermo plebeius is revealed chiefly by the Romance languages, 
for the number in extant Latin is not large. 4 The suffix was 
added to verbal and nominal stems alike, the former class, as 
vellicare, splendicare, having usually an intensive force which 
has survived to some extent in the modern languages. The 
denominatives on the contrary have in many cases a diminu- 
tive force, as candicare, nigricare ; others usually grouped 
under this head owe the syllable -ic- to their primitive word, 
and not to the suffix, 5 as nutricare, (nutrix), rusticari, (rusticus), 
rhetoricare, (rhetor or rhetoricus ?) and such forms naturally do 
not differ in meaning from other simple denominatives in -are. 
Of genuine formations in -icare very few occur in Cic. I have 

1 Thielmann, ALL. VIII., p. 525, "Die an Komparative sich anschliessenden 
Bildungen sind zwar nicht spezifisch afrikanisch, sondern haben auch anderwarts Ver- 
breitung gefunden, immerhin muss minorare zuerst in Afrika aufgekommen sein." 
2 Wolfflin, Cass. Pel., p. 418, "von den Afrikanern nicht vennieden, aber durchaua 
nicht characteristisch fur sie." 3 Ronsch, p. 171. 4 Conf. Paucker, Ztschr. f. Vergl. 
Sprachf ., 26, p. 290 ; Id. Spicilegium, p. 220, not. 17. 6 Kiihner, Lat. Gramm., I., p. 645. 



240 WORD FORMATION IN THE [57. -ICAKE. 

found only the following : denom., claudicare, dis-, ex-, com- 
municare, (alter-care) ; verbal, fodicare, uellicare. The majority 
are found in later writers, while the Eomance languages indi- 
cate that they were great favorites in the late period of the 
popular speech : Meyer-Liibke * cites *auct&ricare, Span, otor- 
gar, Port, outorgar; *carricare, Pr. charger; Span., Port, car- 
gar ; *ferricare, Ruman. ferecd ; O. Pr. enfergier ; *quassicare, 
Prov., Span., Port, cascar ; and a host of others both verbal 
and denominative. The suffix was used concurrently with 
-izzare, (Vulg. Lat. -idiare), by which it was ultimately 
superseded to a large extent in France, Italy, and to a less 
degree in the Spanish peninsula. 2 New formations are not 
numerous : compare Ruman. adurmecd, sorbecd ; Ital. dimen- 
ticare, gemware, rampicare, etc., (mostly intensive) ; Span. 
aungar, forzgar, and a few others. 

In the list here given the forms which may come from ad- 
jectives in -icus are indicated : 

ENNIVS. nigricare, 37, 161 ; al. 

albicare, 3 Tr. 336 pastillicare, 21, 49 

CATO. FRONTINVS. 

deuaricare, 4 R. R. 45, 3 clauicare, p. p. p., Gromat. Vet. 

U, IS ; al. 

Novivs. 

rhetoricare, 5 (rhetoricus?),Com. 5 GELMVS. 
crispicare, p. pr. a., 18, 11, 3 

candicare, 6 .pr. a., ap. Non. 213, APVLETVS. 

24 claricare, de Mund. 15 

subalbicare, E. R. 3, 9, 5 follicare, 8 Met. 9, 13 

naricare, 7 (uaricus ?), L. L. 5, 117 splendicare, Id. 5, 9 ; al. 

CICERO (EPISTT.). TEBTVLUANVS. 

*uir(i)dicare, p. p. p., ad Qu. Fr. galaticari> ( g a i at icus?), adu. Psych. 
3, 1, 2, 3 ^ 

PLINIVS. tenebricare, 9 (tetwbt'icus ?} , adu. 

mangonicare, (mangonicus ?) 32, 125 lud. 13 

1 Meyer-Liibke, Gramm. d. Rom. Spr., II., p. 607. 2 Schuchardt, Literaturbl. , Feb. 
1884, in which Diez's views are criticised ; W. Meyer in Grober's Grundriss, L, p. 374. 

3 Varr. Sat. Men. ; CatulL ; Hor. Carm. ; Col. ; Plin. Varr. ; con/, not. 7, infra. 

6 verb depon. =- Tert.; Hier. e Plin.; Scrib.; Apul.; Mart. Cap. 7 Quint.; Cassiod.; 
conf. Stuenkel, p. 66, " ab adiectiuo uaricus uidetur profectum esse, nisi potius id ab 
adiectiuo uarus suffixo -ic-, sicut claudicare a claudus ortum esse censes." 8 Tert; 
Veget. ; Hier. 9 Augustin. 



58. -INAKE.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 241 

GABGILIVS MABTIAUS. VVLGATA. 

imbricskre,(imbricus?), Cur. Bourn, manicare, 1 (mane), Luc. 21, 38 
23 

CAEUVS AVEEMAKVS. 
IVMVS VALEBIVS. mordicare," Acut. 2, 8, 34 

ignicare, 3, 21 

VENANTIVS FOBTVNATVS. 

bombicare, Misc. Praef. p. 62 M. 

THEODOBVS PBISCIANVS. discaricare, Vit. S. Medard. 1 

amylicare, 4 Pol 316 a. rubicare, Carm. 8, 9, 12 ; al 

PLINIVS VALEBIANVS. ANTHIMVS. 

ouicare, 1, 17 caballicare, Praef. p. 67, 2 R. 

58. VERBS IN -inare, -cinare : It has been well observed 
by Ronsch tliat the majority of these comparatively rare for- 
mations bear on their face the impress of their vulgar origin. 3 
Not only does Gell. stamp the class as plebeian in his com- 
ment on the word sermocinari, Noct. Att. 17, 2, 17, sermonari 
rusticius uidetur, sed rectius est, sermocinari crebrius est sed cor- 
ruptius, but statistics amply confirm this view : only 37 occur 
in extant Latin, several of which are confined to the glossa- 
ries, and the remainder distributed principally between Early 
Comedy, Lucil., Petr., Tert., and later authors, while Cic., out- 
side of the JBpistt., has only six, alucinari, semel, (2T. D. i, 26, 72 ; 
bis in Epistt.}, latroci-nari, lenocinari, semel, (Diu. in Caecil., 15, 
48), destinare, freq., sermocinari, bis, (Inu. 2, 17, 54 ; Verr. 2, 1, 
52, 138), urinari, semel, (Acad. Fr. 10 Halm.}. With the excep- 
tion of destinari, latrocinari, these are all rare in good Latin, 
and it is noteworthy that their derivatives are for the most 
part unclassical ; compare aliicinatio, archaic, according to 
Non. 121, 20, alucinator, cited in Paul, ex Fest., destinator, En- 
nod., destinate, Amm., lenocinator, Tert., lenocinamentum, Sidon. 
Ep., lenocinatio, Cassiod., etc. 

Many of these verbs have been separately cited as vulgar : 
thus coquinare, sujfarcinare, by Schmilinsky, aginare by Gue- 
ricke. 4 The Romance languages 5 also indicate that the for- 

1 Schol. luuen. 2 Gloss. 

3 Ronsch, Ztschr. f. Oesterr. Gymn. 33, p. 588, " Von diesen 37 Verben mit erwei- 
tertem Stamme sind . . . etwa 6 Nominalderivata ; die ilbrigen sind von anderen 
Zeitwortern gebildet. Nicht wenige derselben tragen unverkennbar das Geprage der 
VolksthUmlichkeit an sich." 4 Schmilinsky, p. 43 ; Gnericke, p. 35. 5 Meyer-Lubke, 
Gramm. d. Rom. Spr., II, p. 611. 
16 



242 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[ 58. -INABE. 



mation was common in the senno plebeius : Meyer - Liibke 
cites *uisinare, Fr. vener / Span, graznar, maznar, voznar, 
as compared with Ital gracidare, Lat. macerare, uodtare, 
etc. 

In forming a list of these words it is sometimes hard to 
determine whether they are derivatives in -inare, or simple 
denominatives in -are from substantives in -go : thus propa- 
ginare, which Paucker derives from propagare, may come from 
propago, inis ; 1 pataginare may be either hompatagus or patago, 
inis? It is possible that the forms from words in -go had their 
influence in extending the range of the verbs in -inare, and 
that the two classes became confused in the minds of the 
people. 



PLAVTVS. 

coquinare, 3 Pseud. 853 ; aL 
obstinare, 4 Aul. 267 
praestinare, 5 Pseud. 169 
suffarcinare, 6 Cure. 289 
tuburcinari, 7 Pers. 122 

CATO. 

natinari, 8 op. Fest. 166 

ENNTVS. 

carinare," Ann. 181 

TEKENTTVS. 
patrocinari, 10 Phorm. 939 

ATTA. 

muginare," Com. 4 

Lvcmvs. 
imbubinare, 14 Fr. Inc. 54 



VARKO. 

musinari, ap. Plin. Praef. 18 
urinare, 18 L. L. 5, 126 

PETBONIVS. 
aginare, 14 61, 9 

FESTI PAVL. EPIT. 
bouinare, 15 30, 12 
bubinare, 18 32, 1 

TEBTVLLIANVS. 

oflfarcinare, p. p. p., adu. Marc. 

4, 24 in. 
propaginare, de Pall. 2 fin. 

CAPITOLINVS. 
leuiginare, Pert. 8, 5 

CHAEISTVS. 
apinari, 17 ap. Dosith. 58, 17 K. 



i Paucker, Subindenda, p. 141. > Conf. Ihm ad Pelag. Vet. 335. 

3 Pmd.; Non. MarcelL; Itala. 4 Pacuu.;Liu.; Tac. 5 Apul. ; " Das Vulgarwort p. 
findit sich nurbei Plaut. u. ApuL," Ronsch, 1. 1., p. 593. Apnl. ; Cassiod. 7 Turpil.; 
Apul. Met. " Ausserdem lasst sich sowohl der archaische als auch der volksthtimliche 
Charakter dieses Wortes aus dem. Adj. tuburchinabundus erkennen," Ronsch, 1. 1., p. 596. 
8 Gloss. laid. Paul, ex Fest. ; Seru. ad Verg. 10 Auct. Bell. Hisp. ; Quint. ; Tert. ; Lact. 
11 Lucil.; Cic. Ep.; Gel!.; *Amm. conf. Paul, ex Fest. 32, 1. form -art Cic., 
semel, ( Acad. fr. 10 Halm.); Plin. 14 Gloss. Philox. ; Gloss. Labb. 15 Gloss. Philox. ; 
Gloss. Amplon.; conf. Lowe, Prodr. p. 317, sq. > 8 Gloss.; conf. Lowe, Prodr. p. 313. 
*Gloss. Isid. 



59. -ILLABE.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 243 

Aver. ITIN. ALEX. MAETIANVS CAPELLA. 

continari, 6, p. 4, 6 Volkm. farcinare, 3 9, 998 

ISIDOKVS. 
PELAGONIVS. coracinare, 12, 7, 43 

pataginare, Vet, 335 

GLOSSAKIA. 

HEGESIPPVS. alipinare, Gloss. Cyrill 

intaminare, 1 Bell. lud. 2, 10, 4 lacinare, Gloss. Paris. 

luciaare, Gloss. Mai. 

VVLGATA. ruspinare, Gloss. Philox. 

scrutinare, 2 4 Esdr. 13, 52 scarpinare, Gloss. Amplon. 

59. VEBBS IN -illare : Among the denominative verbs it 
is not surprising to find some formed from diminutives. They 
are rare in the best authors, but must have been frequent in 
the sermo plebeius, where diminutives had so largely sunk to the 
level of the primary word. 4 Thus we find from forms in 
-ellus, a, um, cribellare, (cribellum), Pall., Th. Prise., Marc. 
Emp.; cultellare, (cultellus), Plin., Gromat. Neb.;flabellare, (fldbel- 
lum), Tert.; nouellare, (nouellae), Suet., Isid., Paul. Nol. ; from 
forms in -illus, a, um, scinlillare, (scintilla), Plaut., etc.; oscil- 
lare, (oscillum), Santra, Schol. Bob., etc. Formations of the 
latter class must have been especially numerous, for the sylla* 
ble -ill- came to be regarded as part of the verbal ending, and 
accordingly the suffix -illare was used to form derivatives 
from verbal as well as nominal stems. Examples of true di- 
minutive verbs are very rare in extant literature : Funck, 5 who 
has made an exhaustive study of this class of verbs, cites but 
three which are unquestionably derived from verbal stems, 
conscribillare, (conscribere), occ-lllare, (occare), sorbillare, (sorbere). 
In the popular speech, however, such forms cannot have been 
uncommon, as numerous examples may be cited from Italian 
and French : compare Ital. balzellare, dentellare, saltellare, Fr. 

1 Gloss. Philox. a Ps.-Augustin.; Lucif. Calar.; conf. Pauck. Subind., p. 441. 

3 Cassiod ; Rufin. 

4 Funck, ALL. IV., p. 68, " Auch fur das Lateinisch hat man langst beobachtet, 
dass die Deminutiva bezeichnend filr die Volkssprache waren, und eben von dort aus 
oft mit Einbusse an ihrer eigentlichen Bedeutung ihren Weg in die romanischen 
Sprachen fanden (vgl. Wolfflin, Philologus 34, 153). Es lasst sich also auch fur unsre 
Kenntnis des Vulgarlateins aus einer Besprechung deminutiver Verben Gewinn er- 
warten ; " Ulrich, Vitr. II., p. 6, "(uerb. demin.), quae in optimorum scriptis raro de- 
prehenduntur ; " conf. supra, 39. 5 A. Funck, ALL. IV., pp. 68-89, 233-246, citing 
Schwabe, Demin. Gk. et Lat., Gissae, 1859 ; Kessler, Lat. Demin., Hildburghausen, 1869 ; 
Kiihner, Gramm. Lat., I., p. 644; conf. Lindsay, Latin Language, p. 487. 



244: WORD FORMATION IN THE [59. -II.LABE. 

chanceler, grommeler, sauteler. 1 The Romance languages show 
some analogous instances of nominal suffixes which have be- 
come merged in the verbal ending : *-aceare, from -aceus, as 
seen in Ital. gMgnazzare, innamorazzare, Fr. crevasser, fricas- 
ser, rimasser, etc.; *-ittare, from the late diminutive suffix 
-ittu, Ital., bombettare, Jiorettare ; Fr. chuchoter, feuilleter ; 
Span, balitar, peditar, etc. 2 

Funck, in his treatment of the Latin verbs in -illare, has 
grouped them under five heads, (a.) from stems in -ilia ; (6.) 
from stems in -illo ; (c.) those of undoubted verbal origin ; 
(d.) of apparent verbal origin ; (e.) of uncertain origin. This 
classification has been indicated in the following list, by means 
of letters preceding the words, which refer respectively to 
these five divisions. It is interesting to observe that of the 7 
verbs cited by Funck from Cic., none can be traced to a verbal 
source, 5 being denominative and 2 doubtful : thus (a.) capilla- 
tus, (a.) cauillari, (a.) instillare, (a.) stillare, (e.) titillare, (b.) tran- 
quillare, (e.) uacillare. This fact sustains the view that the 
forms from verbal stems belong especially to the sermo coti- 
dianus. 3 

PLAVTVS. TITINIVB. 

(b.) catillare, 4 Gas. 352 (a.) ancillari, 10 Com. 72 

(a.)*expapillare,/>.p. j?., Mil. 1180 

Ritschl. SANTRA. 

(a.) furcillare, 5 Pseud. 631 (&) oscillare," ap. Fest. 134 (&), 9 

(b.) murmurillare, 6 ap.Non. 143, 2 * 10 

(e.) occillare, Ampli. 183 

(a.) scintillare,* Men. 829 VABRO. 

(c.) conscnbillare,"/^. Men. 76; 

ENNTVS. a ^ 

(d.) obstri(n)gillare, 8 Sat. 5 () destillare, 18 L. L. 5, 22 

(d.) focillare, 14 ap. Non. 481, 12 
TEEENTIVS. (e.) *strittilare, L. L. 7, 65 

(c.) sorbillare, 9 Ad. 591 (d.) sugillare, I& ap. Non. 171, 13 

1 Meyer-Lubke, Gramm. d. Rom. Spr., II., p. 613; Diez, p. 696. 2 Meyer-Luhke, 
1. I., pp. 609, 613. 3 Funck, I. L, p. 223, " Es sind Verbs, deren Bedeutung auf die 

Sprache des taglichen Lebens hinweist" 

4 Auct. Inc. ap. Fulg. b p.p. p. = Varr. L. L. 6 Onom. Gr. 7 Verg. Ge. ; Pers. ; 
Sil. ; Calpurn. ; Ambros. ; Sednl. ; Augnstin. ; Aldhelm. 8 Varr. ; Sen. ; Isid. Apul. Met. ; 
Cledon. 10 Ace. ; Plin. ; Apul. ; Arnob. ; Gloss. Vet.; uerb. act. Ps.-Cypr. " Schol. 
Bob. ; Mythogr. Lat 12 Catull. ; Inscrr. I3 Verg. ; Tibull. ; Lncan. ; Fronto ; Ambros. ; 
Hier.; Augustin.; Gael. Aur; Ps.-Soran.; Greg. M. 14 Sen. Ep.; Plin.; Fronto ; Cypr.; 
Pelag. Vet. Liu.; Sen.; Plin.; VaL Max.; Prud. ; Cledon. ; ICt. 



j 60. *-ANTAKB.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 245 

FESTVS. DOSITHIVS. 

(.) fucillare, 371, 46 (b.) imbecillari, 4 60, 2 

GELLIVS. VEGETIVS. 

(a.) incauillari, 1 5, 5, Lemm. () subterstillare, 3, 7 



APVZ.EIVS. 



PBVDENTTVS. 



(b.) sigillare,' p. p. p., Met. 2, 19 (*) restiUare, c. Symm. 2, 287 

HTERONTMVS. 

TERTVLLIANVS. , . .... fi , ~ 

(.) *exancillari, Apol 17 *r. ^T^^Tr 

Pachom. 3, 86, 88 C. 

CENSOKINVS. PsEVDO-Apicivs. 

(e.) *irquitillare, 14, 7 (fl } subinsti ii are , 3, 95 

VOPISOVS. CAEMVS AVKELIANVS. 

(6.) *specillare,j?. p. p., Prob. 4, 5 ( a .) superdistiUare, 6 C%ron. 5, 1, 18 

SEKVIVS. NOTT. TIBON. 

(e.) cillare, 3 ad Verg. Ge. 2, 389 (b.) bacillare, 115 

60. VERBS IN *-antare,* -entare : These suffixes are im- 
portant only from the standpoint of the Romance languages, 
in which they have attained considerable prominence. Diez 7 
makes the broad statement that the formation of verbs from 
present participles is not known in Latin, as parentare is from 
the noun parens and praesentare from praesens in its adjectival, 
rather than its participial sense. Meyer-Liibke 8 however cites 
the latter verb as an example of this class, and points out that 
other forms must have occurred in the sermo plebeius, as is evi- 
denced by the Romance languages, as for example *expauen- 
tare, Ital. spaventare ; Fr. epouvanter ; Span., Port, espantar ; 
and a host of new formations, mainly in the Southwest : Span. 
habilentar, levantar, mamantar, aparantar ; Port, acalentar, 
endurmentar, amolentar, etc.; less numerous in Ital. addormen- 
tare, piacentare ; and Fr., creanter ; Ruman. has only infie?'- 
bentd. 

1 Gloss. Ven . Fort. ; Pulg. Myth. ; Aldhelm. ; conf. ALL. IV. , p. 84. 3 Mythogr. 
Lat.;Isid. * Gloss. Labb. 5 Vulg.; Augustin. Oribas. 

7 Diez, p. 697, ' ' Verbalableitung aus dem Part. Pras. ist nicht lat." 8 Meyer-Lubke, 
Gramm. d. Rom. Spr. II, p. 614 " Die lateinische Schriftsprache hat von solchen Verben 
nur praesentare gegenwartig machen aufgenommen, dass aber die Volkssprache mehr 
besass, zeigen die romanischen Sprachen." 



PART II. 
COMPOSITION. 

I PEEPOSITIONAL COMPOUNDS. 

61. PEEPOSITIONAL COMPOUNDS IN GENERAL : While true 
composition between two or more word-stems became neg- 
lected in the Italic branch of the Ind.-Germ. languages, 1 prep- 
ositional compounds continued to flourish at all periods, and 
were thoroughly in accordance with the spirit of classic Latin. 
This must be understood however with two limitations : first, 
classic Latin here showed its wonted reluctance to form neo- 
logisms ; secondly, the compounding of verbs with more than 
one preposition, as in Greek and Sanskrit, was avoided, and as 
a rule tolerated only where a preposition had lost its force and 
had come to be regarded as an integral part of the stem. 2 The 
sermo plebeius on the contrary preserved much more of the 
license of the Ind.-Germ. speech, freely compounding its prep- 
ositions and attaching certain favorite ones to any stem, ver- 
bal or nominal, at pleasure. The greatest fertility is seen in 
the department of compound verbs, which form one of the 
marked characteristics of the sermo plebeius : 3 the immoder- 
ate and often superfluous use of these forms, notably in the 

i Conf. infra, 75. 3 Conf. infra, 74. Wolfflin, Philol. 34, p. 157 sq.; Rebling, 
p. 17; Schmilinsky, p. 40 sq.; Lorenz ad Plaut. Pseud., Einleit. pp. 37-8, annot. 36; 
Ronsch, p. 474; Guericke, p. 38; Koehler, p. 15; Thielmann, Cornif. Rhet., p. 5 sq.; 
Kraut, Sail., p. 6; Hellmuth, Prior. Cio. Oratt. Sermo, p. 25; Koffmanne, Kirchenlat., 
p. 102. " Noch mehr zeigt sich der Einfluss des unteren Volksthums in der Misshand- 
lung des Verbums. Da sind zunftchst die auffalligsten Composita zu finden," citing 
abrenunciare, deexacerbare, discredere, etc.; Landgraf, Blatt. f. Bayer. Gymn. 16, p. 
321 ; Schulze, Diss. Hal. VI, p. 202 ; Hauschild, Diss. Hal. VI, p. 259 ; Goelzer, p. 31, 
" C'est a 1' element populaire qu'on pent rapporter 1'emploi frequent fait par saint Je- 
rome des formes en -mentum . . . et enfin et surtout des verbes composes ; " even 
Bonnet concedes the popular nature of these verbs : p. 229 u d'assez bonne heure deja, 
et probablement dans le langage familier plus que dans le style eleve, on employa sou- 
vent le compose a la place du simple ; " Ulrich, Vitr. II, p. 7. 



61. PREP. COMP.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 247 

case of the prepositions ad-, con-, de-, ex-, led to a loss of 
significance analogous to that already observed in diminu- 
tives, frequentative verbs, etc., until they sank to the level of 
the simple verb. In the course of time such loss of force ex- 
tended in some instances to classic Latin, which shows a ten- 
dency in such cases to discard the superfluous preposition and 
revive the simple verb in place of the wonted compound. 
The sermo plebeius on the other hand chose to retain the 
longer form, preferring to add an extra preposition rather 
than relinquish one already in use. This resulted in a constant 
increase of verba decomposita, and in some instances in the 
reduplication of prepositions, as ad-al-ligare, Plin.; con-col- 
ligere, Intpr. in Math.; per-per-ire, 1 etc., while combinations of 
even three prepositions sometimes occur, as cor-res-sus-citare, 
Tert.; co-ad-im-plere, Rustic. 2 

Here, as elsewhere, the popular speech lacks consistency : 
the weakening observed in the prepositions ad-, con-, de-, 
etc., shows the same want of uniformity as is seen in the de- 
cline of the diminutive suffixes. Thus Bonnet points out in 
Greg. Tur. a number of recent compounds in con-, such as 
con-pauper, con-duis ; col-laetari, con-catenare, where the prepo- 
sition adds a new sense to the word, while conversely con-den- 
sus, con-dignus ; co-aptare, com-manere have practically the 
value of the simple form. 3 Here also the analogy with the di- 
minutives continues ; the greatest degree of weakening is gen- 
erally found in the older and consequently more familiar forms. 
Bonnet however observes that of the examples above cited 
coaptare is no older a form than concatenare and accordingly 
that the difference cannot be explained on the ground that 
prepositions lose their force through lapse of time, but is an 
example of " that remarkable faculty possessed by language of 
trusting to the intelligence of the hearer, and making the same 
means serve for different ends, as occasion requires." 4 It is 

1 Cited by Paucker, Subrelicta Add. Lex. Lat., Dorpati, 1872, to which I have not 
had access. 2 Conf. infra, 74 3 Bonnet, p. 233, " n ne faudrait pas croirs cependant 
que cet affaiblissement des prefixes se fasse sentir d'une maniere unifonne. Loin de 
la. Non seulement un grand nombre de composes anciens, ou plutot la majorite", con- 
serve la signification speciale que renfenne le prdfixe, mais il y a une grande difference 
a cet egard entre les composes nouveaux eux-memes." 4 Bonnet, p. 233, " cette faculte 
si remarquable dont jouit le langage, de pouvoir se fier a 1'intelligence de 1'auditeur 
pour f aire servir les memes moyens a des fins differentes suivent les besoins. " 



248 WORD FORMATION IN THE [61. PREP. COMP. 

not always safe to judge of the age of words by their first oc- 
currence in literature ; a more natural presumption is, that the 
weaker form is considerably the older. But in any case such 
divergence of usage is only the natural and logical result of 
the gradual process of decay which is first indicated in Plau- 
tine Latin, where the compounds were freely used in place of 
the simple forms, but as is well observed by Guericke, had not 
altogether lost their distinctive meaning. 1 While the progress 
of the decay received a check in classic Latin, it continued in 
the sermo plebeius uninterrupted, the older compounds being 
the first to lose their identity, the later ones succumbing in 
their turn. In late Latin so large a share of prepositional 
compounds had sunk to the level of the simple word that the 
new formations were as likely to be made by analogy with 
those in which the preposition was valueless as with those in 
which it retained its value. In late literature especially, 
where the popular speech had made serious inroads upon the 
classic models, and provincial vulgarisms stood side by side 
with Ciceronian forms, such inconsistencies are to be expected 
as a necessary incident to language in a highly transitional 
state. It is instructive to note, in connection with the exam- 
ples above cited, that in the Romance languages new forma- 
tions with con- are uniformly consistent : the prefix has re- 
mained productive only in Ital., Span., and Port., and in 
these languages regularly retains its original Latin signifi- 
cance. 2 

The importance of the compound verbs in relation to the 
Romance languages is too well known to need comment. Many 
simple Latin verbs have survived in Fr., Ital., etc., only in 
the compound form, while instances of the reverse phenome- 
non are practically unknown. 3 The majority of the preposi- 
tions have remained productive, and the separate languages are 
rich in new formations. Yet on the whole the Romance lan- 
guages are scarcely richer in this respect than the Latin of the 
fifth century ; the gain has been offset by the loss. A few new 
prefixes have been added to the list : thus minus-, seen in 

1 Guericke, p. 38. * Meyer-Lubke, Gramm. d. Rom. Spr., II, p. 622. 8 Diez, p. 
708, " Dass viele Worter, hauptsachlich Verba, nur noch in der Partikelcomposition 
fortleben, ist cine alien Sprachen gemeine Thatsache, und es bedarf nur der Anzeige, 
dass Bsp. hier in grosser Menge vorliegen. Umgekehrt ist aber an ein Wiederaufleben 
erloschener Simplicia kaum zu denken." 



61. PREP. COMP.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 249 

Ital., misavvenire, misfare, misprendere; Fr. meconnaitre, medire, 
tnesinterpreter; Span, menoscabar, menospreciar ; and bis-, found 
only in Ital., as biscantare, bistentare, etc., and in Fr., bescuire, 
besjugier, etc. On the other hand, some of the old prefixes have 
fallen into disuse, as ob- and retro-, which have not only 
ceased to form new compounds but have practically disap- 
peared from the modern languages, the former being regularly 
replaced by a-, as in Ital. ajfogare, assediare, etc., the latter 
surviving only in Sard, trokere, from retrocedere. 1 

While the tendency of the later Latin was in favor of prep- 
ositional compounds, the retention of a simple verb, for which 
the classical language had already substituted a compound, is 
much rarer, and in the main is to be regarded as another ar- 
chaism of the sermo plebeius. Instances of such usage occur 
in the best period, chiefly in the poets, who, as Schmalz aptly 
points out, 2 avoid the precision which the prepositional form 
affords, and thus leave more to the imagination. A few others 
have survived in legal formulae, such as capere for accipere, 
uidere for prouidere, in the phrase consult uideant, ne quid detri- 
menti res publica capiat, (Cic. Cat. 1, 4, Phil. 5, 34). The great- 
est number of examples, however, occur in the popular speech, 
notably in the language of the camp, as exercitum, legiones, etc. 
scribere, for conscribere (Cic. Up., Liu. et Al.), milites legere, for 
deligere, and other instances cited by Schmalz. 3 

The nouns and adjectives compounded with prepositions are 
less important, though here also Latin is on a par with the other 
Ind.-Germ. branches. 4 On the whole, the instances of direct 
composition of prepositions with substantives are neither nu- 
merous, nor especially characteristic of the sermo plebeius. The 
compound verbs and adjectives afforded derivative substantives 
with the same freedom as the simple forms, particularly in late 
Latin ; such derivatives, however, show no distinctive feature 
and accordingly have been grouped with the uncompounded 
forms. One class of substantives compounded with preposi- 
tions which certainly originate in the popular speech are de- 
rivatives in -ium, such as ante-Indium, Apul. Met.; inter -femin- 

i Conf. especially Meyer-Liibke, 1. L, pp. 617-620. 2 Schmalz, Stilist. p. 552, 

" Wenn nun an Stelle des Kompos. das Simpl. gesetzt wird, so wird damit der Phan- 
tasie des Lesers iiberlassen, dass selbst herauszufinden, was sonst die PrSpos. besagt. 
Hieraus erklart sich, dass der Gebrauch der Simpl. an Stelle der Kompos. vorzuglich 
der poetischen Sprache eigentumlich 1st." 3 Schmalz, 1. I. * Brugmann, II, p. 55. 



250 WORD FORMATION IN THE [62. IN-PRIV. 

ium, Id.; inter -natium, Fronto; super-pondium, Apul. These 
forms are not direct compounds, but are derivatives, whose 
primitive word is not found in the compound form. They are 
moreover so closely connected in form and usage with other 
derivative compounds in -ium, such as ferri-terium, Plaut.; 
semi-funium, Cato ; fratri-cidium, Tert., that the two groups are 
treated together, infra 77. 

The only other class of substantives deserving of separate 
notice are those compounded with in- negative, which are in- 
teresting because characteristic of the sermo Africus, and will 
accordingly be briefly considered, infra, 62. 

Among verbs and adjectives the prepositional formations 
are so much more numerous that a complete survej^ of all the 
classes would be beyond the scope of the present work. Ac- 
cordingly this chapter will be confined to the most important, 
the adjectives in per- and sub-, the verbs in ad-, con-, de-, 
dis-, ex-, ob-, per-, and sub-, and those with two or more 
prepositions. 

62. SUBSTANTIVES COMPOUNDED WITH in- privative : It is 
well settled that while the preposition in is freely joined to 
verbs, formations with in- privative are as a rule restricted to 
adjectives and participles. It has been claimed by Schulze, 1 
that even the latter compounds are more abundant in the ser- 
mo plebeius than the classic speech, and he cites with some 
show of reason the prevalence of such forms among adjectives 
in -bilis, -osus, and other plebeian suffixes. Adjectives formed 
with in- privative however cannot as a whole be regarded as 
unclassical, and accordingly the substantives and verbs derived 
from them present no irregularity ; compare from insanus, im- 
mortalis, ineptus, infamis, the substt. insania, immortalitas, in- 
eptia, infamia ; verbs, insani?'e, ineptire, infamare. Direct com- 
position of in- privative with substantives, unaided by any 
intermediate adjective, stands upon quite a different footing : 
such usage belongs mainly to a late period, and is generally 
admitted to be characteristic of African Latin. This view was 
advanced by Sittl, 2 who pointed out the large number of these 

1 Schulze. Diss. Hal. VI., p. 223, "Mea quidem sententia uocabula cum in- ' pri- 
uatiuo ' composita neque soli ingenio singulorum auctorum neque soli imitationi sermo- 
nis Graeci attribuenda aunt sed praecipue Romanorum sermoni uulgari. " 2 Sittl, 
Lokal. Verschiedenh. , p. 118, "Bine griechische Weise der Wortbildung ist es auch, 
wenn die Afrikaner Substantiva mit negativem in zusammensetzen, wobei selbst-ver- 



63. SUBS. COMP.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 251 

forms due to Gell., Apul. and Tert., and regarded the usage as 
a Grecism. He has been ably sustained by Wolfflin, 1 in an 
important article on these substantives in the fourth volume of 
the Archiv, and most recently by Thielrnann, 2 in his study of 
the " Latin Translation of the Book Sirach," who cites ineru- 
ditio, inhonoratio, used to render djraiSewia, an/Aia. 

The conclusions reached by Wolfflin, who is the principal 
authority on these forms, embody all which is of importance 
to our subject, and are briefly as follows : 

I. That only five instances of direct composition of a sub- 
stantive with in- privative occur in the archaic period : intem- 
peries, Plaut.; Cato ; Cic.; Liu.; Col.; Sen., etc.; insatietas, Plaut. 
Aul. 487; ingratiis, s. /., Plaut., adu. Ter. ; Cic.; etc., (in- 
gratia, Tert.) ; *irreligio, 3 Cornif. Ehet. ; iniussus, u, (only 
in abl.), Ter. Phorm. 231 ; Cic. ; Auct. Bell. Afr. ; Liv., 
etc.). 

II. That the Latin of the Golden and Silver periods retained 
the forms intemperies, iniussu, but with the single exception of 
inquies, Plin. 14, 142, did not add to the list. 

HI. That with the African writers a great number of new 
forms arose, such as : Gell., insuauitas, (Tert.: Gael. Aur.) ; 
inualentia, (Apul.) ; Tert., immisericordia, immoderantia, im- 
praescientia, improuidentia, inexperientia, inhonestas, inualitudo; 
Intpr. Iren., indictobaudientia, etc. 

IV. That derivatives in -ia, -ium, -ies, such as incuria, from 
in- and cum, also belong mainly to the sermo plebeius. Com- 



stiindlich einfache Ableitungen von negativen Adjektiven ausgeschlossen werden mus- 
sen:" cow/. Schulze, 1. I., "Hanc componendi rafcionem Sittl, L 1. ex imitatione 
sennonis Graeci fluxisse put at ; quod ei fortasse concedendum est." 

1 Wolfflin, ALL. IV., p. 400, "Eine neue fruchtbare Aera eroffnet Tertullian, und 
wenn ihm Apuleius, Gellius und Cyprian zur Seite stehen ... so wird man dieses 
Latein wohl als ein afrikanisches oder als ein zuerst in Afrika anerkanntes bezeichnen 
diirfen : " conf. Id. ib., p. 405, "die sogen. Africitas besteht . . . zum Teil um dem 
griecbischen Originale moglichst treu zu bleiben." 2 Thielmann, Die lateinische 
Uebersetzung des Baches Sirach, ALL. VIII., p. 505 ; according to him, inhonoratio, al- 
though African Latin, does not belong under this head, being directly derived from 
inhonorare = ariiidfetv it shows, however, the tendency to render the Greek a privative 
by the Latin in- privative. 3 Wolfflin, 1. I., p. 403, " Mit Klotz nach schlechteren 

Handschrif ten religio zu schreiben . . . lasst sich durchaus nicht rechtfertigen ; " 
contra, Sittl, 1. I., p. 118, " Cornif. rhet. 2, 34 irreligio angefochten wird," and the 
new edition of Cornif. Rhet. "Incerti Auotoris de Ratione Dicendi ad C. Herennium 
Libri IV," ed. Fr. Marx, Leipsiae, 1894, reads religio. 



252 WORD FORMATION IN THE [63. PER-, ADJ. 

pare the archaic infortunium, Plaut.; Ter.; Liu.; Hor.; Apul.; 
etc., inbalnities, inperfundities, Lucil. 

63. ADJECTIVES COMPOUNDED WITH Per- : These compounds, 
like all formations with superlative force, are appropriate to 
the exaggerated language of the sermo plebeius, and their use 
has accordingly been frequently regarded as a plebeian char- 
acteristic, notably by Wolfflin. 1 The latter claims that at least 
one-half of these compounds used in the classic period belong 
to the popular speech, and points out that a large proportion 
of those used by Cic. occur only in his letters, especially those 
to Atticus ; that Hor. avoids them in his Odes, but uses them 
in the Epistles and Satires ; and that the forms used by Plaut. 
and Ter. have almost all disappeared in the classic period. 
He is accordingly led to attribute this class of compounds as 
a whole to the influence of the sermo plebeius, and compares 
the traces which it has left in the modern languages, as Ital. 
percaro, permaloso, etc. Somewhat more recently "Wolfflin's 
position has been reviewed by Dutilleul, in an able article in < 
the Revue de Philologie (Vol. 13, p. 133). The latter admits 
that such formations were prevalent in the popular speech, 2 
and adds further evidence from the Romance languages, com- 
paring with such phrases as per mihi gratum est, Cic. ad Att. 1, 
20, 7 : per fore accommodatum tibi, Id. ad Fam. 3, 5, 3, the simi- 
lar usage in O. Pr., mult par est pruz, Roland, 546 : mult par 
est grant la feste, Id. 142. He criticises Wolfflin's claim, how- 
ever, as too general, and refuses to admit that the forms found 
in the classic period, when taken as a whole, all belong to the 
sermo plebeius, or even to the sermo familiaris. Dutilleul care- 
fully reviews the forms found in Cic., distinguishing between 
those adjectives which in Cic. always form their superlative 
with per- and those which also have a regular inflectional 
superlative. The former class he sets aside as affording only 
negative proof : of the latter he cites on the one hand about a 
dozen forms in per- from the Epistt., and 10 more from the 
early orations, for which Cic. uses a regular superlative in his 

1 Wolfflin, PhiloL 34, p. 163 : Lorenz ad Pseud. 1196, " Bekanntlich liebt die R6m- 
ische Umgangssprache solche verstarkende Bildungen mit per ausserordentlich : " 
Kraut, Sail., p. 4, citing as vulgar percupidus, pergnarus, perincertus ; conf. Hellnmth, 
Prior. Oratt. Cic. Serm., " Adiectiuorum unum sufficit commemorasse, rarum admo- 
dum et familiaris sermonis colore tinctum : perbonus." 2 Dutilleul, 1. I. , " Wolffllin a 
raison de penser que cette formation existait dans la langue vulgaire." 



5 63. PER-, ADJ.] 



ROMAN 8ERMO PLEBEIVS. 



253 



finished works, but on the other, he gives no less than 26 from 
the most finished orations, used side by side with the superla- 
tive forms. 

Even Dutilleul did not notice the inordinate fondness which 
Cic. shows for these forms. I have been able to collect only 
an odd 225 adjectives, (and adverbs), with per- from the entire 
language ; of these Cic. (including the pistt.) employs no 
less than 106, or almost one-half of the entire number : only 
19 are confined to the Epistt. The following 87 occur in his 
more finished works, many of them being of frequent occur- 
rence, e.g. perpaucus, 9 times (4 times in the OratL in Verr.), 
permultus, 55 times, persaepe, 15 times, etc. : 



per-absurdus, 
-acerbus, 
-acutus, 
-aeque, 
-ampins, 
-angustus, 
-antiquus, 
-appositus, 
-arduns, 
-argntus, 
-attentus, 
-beatns, 
-bene, 
-blandus, 
-bonus, 
-breuis, 
-cams, 
-celer, 
-comis, 
-commode, 
-cnriosns, 
-difficilis, 
-diserte, 
-dines, 
-doctns, 
-elegans, 
-eloqnens, 
-excelsns, 
-exignns, 



per-facetns, 
-flagitiosns, 
-frigidus, 
-grandis, 
-gratus, 
-grauis, 
-honorificns, 
-indulgens, 
-infamis, 
-infirmis, 
-ingeniosus, 
-iniqnus, 
-insignis, 
-inuisns, 
-incnndns, 
-lenis, 
-liberaliter, 
-longns, 
-magnns, 
-mediocris, 
-mirns, 
-modestus, 
-moleste, 
-multns, 
-necessarius, 
-necesse, 
-nobilis, 
-obscurns, 
-opportunus, 



per-optatns, 
-ornatns, 
-paruulus, 
-paruus, 
-panculus, 
-pancus, 
-paulus, 
-propinquus, 
-pugnax, 
-pusillus, 
-raro, 

-reconditus, 
-ridicnlus, 
-saepe, 
-salsns, 
-sapiens, 
-scienter, 
-scitns, 
-similis. 
-stndiosus, 
-snbtilis, 
-tennis, 
-tristis, 
-tnrpis, 
-narie, 
-netns, 
-netnstus, 
-nrbanns, 
-utilis. 



254 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[ 63. PER-, ADJ. 



These statistics tend to show that, while this method of 
formation may have originated in the sermo plebeius, it had 
become in the classic period very far removed from a vulgarism, 
and belonged rather to the easy tone of the sermo cotidianus of 
the upper classes. This is made more apparent by the fol- 
lowing list, where the forms from Ter., relatively more numer- 
ous than those in Plaut., are significant. In silver Latin, also, 
the greatest number are found, not in Col., or Plin., the usual 
sources of plebeian vocabulary, but in Gels., whose Latin is 
remarkably pure for the period at which he wrote. 



NAEVIVS. 
per-sibus, 1 Com. 116 

PLAVTVS. 

per-doctus, 2 Mil. 258 
-dudum, Stick. 575 
-graphicus, Trin. 1139 
-iratus, 3 True. 656 
-lepide, Cos. 927 
-longinquus, Bacch. 1194 
-longus, 4 Trin. 745 
-meditatus, Epid. 375 
-niger, Poen. 1113 
-pauxillus, Capt. 177 

ENNIVS. 
*per-altus, 5 Ann. 192 

CATO. 

per-aridus, 6 R. R. 5, 8 
-iniurius, 7 Oratt. Fr. 21 
-macer, 8 ap. Plin. 18, 34 
-sanus, R. R. 157 extr. 

TEBENTTVS. 

per-benigne, 9 Ad. 702 
-contumax, flee. 504 



per-fortiter, Ad. 567 

-liberalis, 10 flee. 864 ; oZ. 
-opus, Andr. 265 
-parce, Id. 455 
-pulcher, Eun. 468 
-sancfce, 11 flee. 771 
-scitus, 12 Andr. 486 

AFKANTVS. 
per-panper, 13 Com. 160 

ACCTVB. 

per-propinquns, u Tr. Brut. 36 

VARBO. 

per-ferus, R. R. 2, 1, 5 
-imbecillus, 15 Id. 3, 10, 5 
-mtmdus, Id. 3, 7, 5 
-purus, Id. 3, 16, 28 
*-rimosus, Id. 1, 51, 1 

LVCKETIVS. 
per-delirus, 1, 692 
-hilum, 6, 576 
-subtilis, 16 3, 179 



> Plaut. ap. Varr. s Ter.; Lucr.; Cic., semel, (Balb. 27, 60) ; Stat. s Cic. Ep. 
4 Cic. Ep. ; adu. = Ter. B *Liu. ; *ApuL ; (Enn. ed. VahL per alto). Col. 7 Min. 
Pel. Cels. Cic. Ep. 10 adu. Cic. ad Alt. et semel, (Rose. Am. 108). Suet. ; 
adj. = Inscrr. Afr. ia Cic.. semel, (de Or. 2, 271, in tmesis). 13 Cic. Ep. " Cic., 
semel, (Clu. 23). 15 Cic. Ep.; Sulp. Sen. Cic., semel, (Plane. 58). 



63. PEK-, ADJ.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIV8. 255 

CICEKO (EPISTT.). per-siccus, 10 3, 6 

per-accommodatus, ad Fam, 3, 5, -uiridis," 5, 19, 4 

3 

-acer, Id. 9, 16, 4 COLVMELLA. 

-amans, ad Att. 4, 8, b. 3 per-densus, 3, 12, 2 

-belle, ad Fam. 16, 18, 1; -exilis, 13 11, 2, 60 

al. -mitis, 12, 42, 1 
-beneuolus, Id. 14, 4, 6 

-cautus, ad Qu. Fr. 1, 1, 6, PLINIVS. 

18 per-gracilis, 25, 159 

-cupidus, ad Fam. 1, 7, 2 -translucidus, 13, 79 
-dignus, Id. 13, 6, 4 

-diligens, 1 ad Qu. Fr. 3, 5, MABHALIS. 

6 per-inanis, 1, 76, 10 

-eruditus," ad Att. 4, 15, 2 -tricosus, 3, 63, 14 
-fidelis, 3 /d. 2, 19,5 

-humanns, 4 Id. 16, 12 in. FKONTO. 

-inuitus, ad Fam. 3, 9 *per-atticus, ad M. Caes. 1, 8, p. 

-luctuosus, ad Qu. Fr. 3, 8, 23, 13 N. 

5 

-male, ad Att. 1, 19, 2 GELLIVS. 

-odiosus, Id. 10, 17, 2; a. per-inconsequens, (m tmesi), 14, 

-officiose, ad J^ZTW. 9, 20, 3 1, 10 

-tumultuose, Id. 15, 4, 3 -mirandus, 13 (in tmesi), 3, 6, 

-uesperi, Id. 9, 2, 1 1 

Aver. BELL. AFBIO. APVLEIVS. 

per-impeditus, 58 extr. per-albus, 14 Met. 1, 2 ; al. 

-astutulus, Id. 9, 5 

VITKWIVS. -egregius, Apol. 37 
per-crudus, 6 10, 14, 3 

-quadratus, 5, Praef. 4 POMPONIVS POEPHYKIO. 

per-ineptus, ad Hor. Epod. 5, 1 
CELSVS. 

per-asper, 6 5, 28, 14 CAPITOLINVS. 

-candidus, 7 5, 19, 24 *per-trepidus, Max. et Balb. 1, 1 

-liquidus, 2, 4 extr. ed. Jordan. 

-maturus, 8 2, 30 ; al. 

-modicus, 9 4, 2 extr. ABNOBIVS. 

-pallidus, 2, 6 in. per-honestus, 2, 49 

1 Porphyr. ad Hor. a Plor. ; Licin. Calu. ap. Ascon. * Aur. Viet. 4 Apul. Met. 
Col. Iul. Val. 7 Solin.; Paul, ex Fest. 8 Col. 9 Suet.; Vlp. Dig.; Capit.; Aur. 
Viet.; adu. = Col. 10 Pest.; Paul, ex Fest. Plin. ; Mela; Frontin. ; Solin. ia Boeth. 
" ltd. Val. i Gromat. Vet. 



256 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[ 64. SUB-, ADJ. 



LACTANTIVS. 

per-opacus, Inst. 1, 22, 2 

Ivuvs VALEBIVS. 
per-suauis, 1 3, 18 

VOPISOVS. 

per-friuolus, Aurel. 6, 6 
-tepidus, Carin. 17, 5 
-turbidus, Saturn. 7, 3 

IWENCVS. 

per-congruus, in losue 566 
-docilis, in Exod. 1184 
-minimus, 3, 584 

PUNIVS VAIiERIANVS. 

per-calidus, 2, 29 
-lippidus, 1, 34 

Aver. ITIN. ALEX. 

per-amicus, 22 

-pinguis, 18 

AVKELIVS VICTOR. 
per-fonnidolosus, de Caes. 4, 9 



DICTYS CBETENSIS. 
per-laudabilis, 6, 14 
-maestns, 1, 23 

AMMIANVS. 

per-anceps, 29, 5, 36 
-humilis, 16, 10, 10 
-ualidus, 11 29, 1, 2 

VEGETIVS. 
per-pamm, s 4, 4, 9 

HlEBONYMVS. 

per-litteratus, Ep. 52, 8 

AVGVSTINVS. 
per-fattras, 4 c. Duas Epp. Pelag. 2, 

4,7 

-feruens, in Ps. 147, 2 
-mirabilis, de Gen. ad Litt. 1 

10 
-probabilis, Music. 1, 6, no. 12 

SIDONIVS APOLLINARIS. 
per-sequax, Ep. 4, 9, 4 



64. ADJECTIVES COMPOUNDED WITH sub- : A close analogy 
exists between the superlatives in per-, and the opposite for- 
mations in sub-, which have a diminutive force. Like the pre- 
ceding, these compounds have been sometimes assigned to 
the sermo plebeius, although on no stronger grounds. They are 
numerically less than the forms in per-, but the proportion in 
good Latin is large enough to justify the view that these 
also belong mainly to the sermo cotidianus. 5 Cic. has only 8 

1 adu. Augustin. 2 Vulg.;Eccl. 3 Augustin. * Innoc. Pap. 

5 Conf. Thielmann, Cornif. Rhet., p. 15, "uocabula in bunc modum composita 
prope ad nominum deminutiuorum accedunt significationem ; quorum usus cum late 
patuerit in sermone uulgari, ilia quoque uerba copulata in sermone cotidiano non minus 
saepe usurpata esse probatur," citing Stuenkel, p. 74, Stinner, p. 13, Wolfflin, Philol. 
34, p. 163; conf. Schnlze, Diss. Hal., VI., p. 216, "in sermone cotidiano et prioris et 
posterioris aetatis admodum adamabantur," citing further Lorenz ad Plaut. Pseud. 
401 ; 1201 ; Wolfflin, Cass. FeL, p. 407. 



64. SUB-, ADJ.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 257 

new forms in the Epistt., and in his other writings the follow- 
ing 14 : 

sub-absurdus, sub-difficilis, sub-rancidus, 

-agrestis, -insulsus, -ridicule, 

-amarus, -obscenus, -rusticus, 

*-arroganter, -obscurus, *-turpis. 

-crispus, *-par, 

Like all forms with diminutive force, adjectives in sub- 
seem to have been popular in African Latin ; "Wolfflin notes 
their prevalence in Cass. Fel., but fails to find any instance of 
the corresponding formations in per-. 1 They are compara- 
tively rare in Silver Latin, except in Cels., who adds 15 ; this 
again stamps these forms as colloquial rather than vulgar. 

These compounds must be carefully distinguished from the 
other class in sub-, where the preposition has a local force, 
such as subdialis, Plin., subcaelestis, Tert. 2 The latter are rare, 
and have no special bearing upon the present subject. 

PLAVTVS. CICEKO (EPISTT.). 

sub-aquilus, 8 Rud. 423 sub-comtumeliose, ad Att. 2, 7, 3 

-crotillus, 4 ap. Fest. 301 M. *-debilitatus, Id. 11, 5, 1 

-mems, Stick. 273 -grandis, ad Qu. Fr. 3, 1, 1, 2 

-niger, 5 Pseud. 1218 -impudens, ad Fam. 7, 17, 1 

-rufus, 6 Capt. 648 -inanis, ad Att. 2, 17, 2 

-uulturius, Rud. 423 -molestus, Id. 16, 4, 4 

-odiosus, Id. 1, 5, 4 

CATO. -turpiculus, Id. 4, 5, 1 
sub-acidus, 7 R. R. 108, 2 

-crudus," Id. 156, 7 CEIISVS. 

-stillus, 9 Id. ib. sub-albidus, 19 5, 28, 8 

-asper, 5, 28, 19 

TEBENTIVS. -austerus, 13 3, 6 ; al. 

sub-tristis, 10 Andr. 447 -caeruleus, 6, 5 extr. 

-emeritus, 4, 18 ; al. 

VABKO. -humidus, 3, 6 

sub-paetulus, Sat. Men. 375 -liuidus, u 3, 28, 1 ; al. 

-simus, 11 R. R. 2, 5, 7 -pallidus, 5, 26, 20 ; al. 

-tenuis, Id. 2, 7, 5 -pinguis, 10 6, 4 

1 Wolfflin, 1. I a Conf. Goelzer, p. 167. 

s Treb. Poll. Afran. Com.; Titin. Com. * Varr. ; Cels. Vitr. ; Plin. ; Vnlg. 
Plin. 8 Cels. subst. Tert. " Cypr. Ep.; Amm.; Hier. Ep. Gloss. Labb. 
Plin.; Gael Aur.; Cass. Pel.; *Isid. Dynam. " Donat. ad Ter. Th. Prise. 
17 



258 WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 65. AD-, VEBB. 

sub-rotundus, 5, 28, 14 SPABTIANVS. 

-ruber, 5, 28, 5 sub-balbe, Get. 5, 1 

-rubicundus, 1 5, 28, 4 

-salsus," 5, 12 CAPITOLINVS. 

-similis, 3 5, 26, 20 sub-crassulus, Gord. 6, 1 

-uiridis,*5, 28, 13 

LAMPBIDIVS. 

COLVMELLA. sub-sericus, 13 Heliog. 23, 1 
sub-rectus, 6 Arb. 4, 1 

Aver. ITIN. ALEX. 

TO sub-aquilinus, 6, (15) 

sub-auratus, 6 32, 3 

PLJNIVS. AHMIANVS. 

sub-breuis, 21, 43 sub-curuus, 26 9 11 

-candidus, 27, 120 ; at - maestus ' 30 ' S ' 11 '> al ' 

-dulcis,' 26, 58 ; al. '^T^* \' ' 

-riguus, 17,128 -tebidn.,28,6,16 

-rutilus, 8 10, 8 

COIOIODIANVS. 

GELLIVS. sub-tutus, Instr. 1, 30, 18 

sub-argutulus, 15, 30, 1 

-frigide, 9 2, 9, 4 CASSTVS FELIX. 

sub-acer," 67, p. 164, 20 

APVLEIVS. -longus, 48, p. 127, 15 

suf-fusculus, 10 Met. 2, 13 

-lucidus, 11 Id. 6, 3 VENANTIVS FOBTVNATVS. 

-luteus, 12 Flor. 12, p. 14, 12 Kr. sub-occulte, Vit. S. Radeg. 4 

TEBTVLLIANVS. ISTDOBVS. 

suf-fermentatus, adu. Valent. 17 *sub-albulus, 12, 1, 50 ed. Otto. 
-limus, Patt. 4 -coloratus, 6, 10, 3 

65. VEEBS COMPOUNDED WITH ad-: Of the prepositional 
verbs, those compounded with ad-, con-, de-, have been most 
frequently associated with the sermo plebeins, owing to their 
marked tendency to sink to the level of the simple verb. 15 In 

1 Sen. s Plin. 3 Vlp. Dig. < Plin.; Scribon. B Gromat. Vet. Schol. luuen. ; 
Inscrr. 7 Augustin. ; Marc. Emp. 8 Suet. <> adi. -=Amm. 10 Amm. n Amm.;Cas- 
siod. "Arnob. > Gallien. ap.Treb. Poll; Vopisc. "laid. 

15 Rebling, p. 29 ; SchmUinsky, p. 40; Wolfflin, Philol. 34, p. 157 ; Guericke, p. 38 ; 
Stuenkel, p. 70; Kfihler, p. 15; Thielmann, Cornil Rhet., p. 5; Landgraf, Cic. Epp., 
p. 276 ; Schulze, Diss. Hal., VI., p. 202 sq.; W. Meyer, in Grobers Grundriss, L, p. 374, 
" die verbalprafixe, namentlich ad, de, cum, verblassen, wie sch on Bell. Afr. n. a. zei- 
gen ; im Ganzen gehort ad Spanien, cum Italien und Gallien an." 



66. AD-, VEBB.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 259 

the case of ad- this weakening began at an early period, as is 
evidenced not only by the usage of Plant. 1 and other plebeian 
writers, but by the occurrence in Plin. of the reduplicated form 
ad-al-ligare, the earliest undoubted instance of such reduplica- 
tion of a preposition found in the language. But aside from 
such weakening of the prefix, these verbs are far more numer- 
ous in the sermo plebeius than in classical Latin. Like all 
prepositional verbs, excepting those in super-, subter-, they 
were most abundant in the earlier period of the language. 2 
According to Paucker's computation, the entire number in the 
language is not less than 402, 3 and of these more than two- 
thirds are uett., while among the later formations those from 
denominatives largely preponderate. Paucker's list of prepo- 
sitional verbs, which excludes compounds of denominatives 
and intensives, shows only 26 in ad- from post-Hadrian liter- 
ature. The prevalence of all classes of verbs in ad-, in the 
early period, is also indicated by the large number which had 
become fixed in the language prior to the classic age. I have 
found not less than 140 of these verbs in Cic. alone, the great 
majority of which already occur in Plaut., or other early au- 
thors. That they continued to flourish in the sermo plebeius 
throughout the whole extent of the language is shown not 
only by the accompanying list, but by the usage of the Ro- 
mance languages, in which the fertility of the prefix has con- 
tinued undiminished. As already stated, the formations in later 
Latin were chiefly denominative, and in this respect point the 
way to the prevailing modern method of forming the compound 
verb directly from preposition and substantive, without the 
intervention of the uncompounded denominative verb : 4 thus 
from ad and ripa come Ital. arrivare, Fr. arriver, Span., Port. 
arribar. This class of formations is remarkably large, with 
the single exception of Human. : Meyer-Liibke cites among 
others : Ital. abballare, abbellire, aggrandire, arrosire ; Fr. ac- 
climater, qffamer, amasser, Span, dbalsamar, aclarar, agravar, 
etc. That the prefix was a favorite one in the Romance lan- 
guages is further indicated by its frequent substitution for 

1 Lorenz, Einleit. ad Pseud., p. 38, Annot., "Auch ad diente ursprnnglich in der 
Umgangssprache zur Verstarkung, erscheint aber in den Beispielen der Palliaten meis- 
tensentwerthet." 2 Paucker, Materialien, I., p. 21. 8 Paucker, I. Z., p. 22. 4 Meyer- 
Lubke, Gramm. d. Rom. Spr., II., p. 621. 



260 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[ 65. AD-, VERB. 



ex- : e. g. for exspectare ; Human, agteptd, Ital. aspettare ; for 
elegere ; Human, alege, O. Ital. allegere, etc. 1 

Lmvs ANDBONICVS. 
ac-cantitare, Tr. 9 



NAEVIVS. 

an-nictare, Com. 76 
-nutare, 2 Id. 76; al. 

PLAVTVS. 

ad-ambulare, 3 Bacch. 768 
-bibere, 4 Stick. 382 ; al. 
-bitere, 5 Capt. 604 
-ceptitare, ap. Nan. 134, 29 
-ciere, 6 Mil. 935 
-credere, 7 Asin. 627 
-cubitare, Most. 713 
-cndere, Merc. 432 
-decere, 8 .Rwc?. 1391 ; al. 
-esurire, Trin. 169 ; al. 
-flere, 9 Pers. 152 ; al 
-formidare, Bacch. 1078 
-glutinare, 10 Aul. 801 ; oJ. 
-latrare, 11 Po&n. 1234; aZ. 
-landare, Merc. 85 
-lubescere," Jfz7. 1004 
-Incere, 13 Pers. 515 
-ludiare, /&;. 382 ; al. 
-migrare, Pers. 347 
-moderari, Mil. 1073 
-moenire, Pseud. 384 
-moliri, 14 ^Isin. 570 
-mordere, 15 Pers. 267 ; aZ. 
-mutilare, Mil. 768 ; aZ. 



*ad-olere, 18 Cos. 236 

-plaudere," Pseud. 1334 
-radere, 18 V. 94 
-stitnere, 19 Capt. 846 
-tigere, 50 .SaccA. 445 
-trepidare, Poen. 544 

ENNIVS. 
ad-itare, sl Tr. 433 

CATO. 

ad-aggerare," E. R. 94 
-arescere, /c?. 98 
-cessitare, Origg. 1, jFV. 20 
-indere, R. R. 18, 1 
-serere, 23 (-sewz) 7c?. 32 

PAOWIVS. 

ag-granescere," 4 T?\ 69 
-iugare," Id. 93; aZ. 
-ttdere, 1 " 7<i. 228 

TEBENTIVS. 
ap-poscere, 2T Eaut. 838 

Accivs. 

ad-auctare, Tr. 14 
-petissere, Id. 160 

VABKO. 

af-friare, J?. R. I, 57, 1 
-mere, Id. 1, 35, 1 



1 Meyer-Lubke, 1. 1. 

Plaut.;Apul. 3 Aptd. Ter.;Hor. Ep.; Ou.jGeU.; Sidon. Placid Gloss. 
8 Id. ap. Diom. 366, 33 ; conf. contra, Fleckeisen, Lorenz, and Brix. 7 Lucr.; Nep.; Cic. 
Ep.; Hor. Ep.; Col. 8 Enn.; Publ. Syr.; Sen. Poet. Hor. Ars Poet. 10 Cic. Ep.; Vitr.; 
Gels. ; Plin. ; Nazar. Pan. ; Vulg. ' Hor. Sat. ; Liu. ; Col. ; Plin. ; Sil. ; Quint. ; Mart. ; Aur. 
Viet. " Paul, ex Fest. ; Apul.; Mart. Cap. '" Sen. Ep. ; Suet.; Augustin. " Curt. ; 
Apul. 15 Verg. Ge. ; Prop. 16 Enn. ; Lucr. ; Val. Antias ; Verg. ; Ou. ; Col. ; Tac. ; ApnL 
17 Ou. ; Tibull.; Nemes. ; Apul. ; Lampr. ; Hyg. ; Vulg. > Hor. ; Col. ; Plin. Ep. Ace. 
Pr.;Apul. Pacuu.;Tnrpil.;Ter.; Ace. ; Varr. ; Col. a'Col. M Col.; Plin. M Varr.; 
CatuU.;Hor.Ep.;ICt "Ter. Col.; Plin. ;Lact. "Nou.Com. 27 Hor. Ep. 



65. AD-, VERB.] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIV8. 



261 



ad-significare, 1 Id. 2, 11, 10 ; al. 
-sudescere, L. L. 5, 109 
-tiaeri, Id. 7, 7 
-uenerari, 2 R. R. 1, 1, 6 

LVCBETIVS. 

ad-augescere, 3 2, 296 
-opinari, 4, 813 
-parere, 2, 1110 
-sugere, 4 4, 1186 

HOEATIVS. 
ad-docere, Ep. 1, 5, 18 

ViTKvvrvs. 
at-temperare, 5 10, 7 

COLVMEIIiA. 

al-leuare, 3, 15, 3 ; ail. 
-siccescere, 12, 9, 1 

PHAEDKVS. 
ad-testari, 6 1, 10, 3 

PETKONIVS. 
ad-cognoscere, T 69 

PUNIVS. 
ad-alligare, 17, 211; al 

-aquare, 8 17, 64 

-densare, 20, 234 
*-diuinare, 35, 88 

-fodere, 2, 174 

-halare, 22, 95 

-nauigare, 9 36, 76 ; al. 

-nutrire, 17, 202 

spuere, 28, 39 

-subrigere, 9, 88 

-tumulare, 10 9, 14 
*-uolitare, n p. pr. a., 11, 65 



GELLIVS. 
af-figurare, 4, 9, 12 

APVLEIVS. 

ad-blaterare, Met. 9, 10 
-luctari, Id. 10, 17 ; al 
-pronare, Id. 1, 19 
-scalpere, Id. 6, 9 
-suspirare, Id. 4, 25 ; al. 
-tolerate, Id. 2, 4 

MINVOIVS FELIX. 
ad-strangularc, 30, 2 

TERTVLLIANVS. 

ag-generare, adu. Marc. 4, 19 
-geniculari, 12 de Poen. 9 
-inuenire, 13 adu. Gnost. 1 
-postulate, de Monog. 10 
-pretiare, 14 Res. Cam. 20 
-proximare, 15 adu. lud. 11 
-relinquere, Id. 1 
-senescere, Exhort, ad Cast. 13 
-solare, Apol 15 ; al 

SOLINVS. 

ac-corporare, " 37, 8 
-operari, 2, 26 
-pectorare, 26, 5 

AENOBIVS. 
at-terminare, 3, 13 

PAIiLADIVS. 

ad-mulcere, 4, 12, 2 

Aver. ITIN. ALEX. 
ap-pascere, 75 M. 



1 Non. ; Veil. Long. 2 Sil. ; Auson. ; uerb. act. = ApnL 3 Cic. , semel, (Poet, de Din. 
1, 13. ) 4 Cael. Aur. 6 Sen. Ep. Sen. ; Plin. ; Paul ex Fest. ; Gell. ; Gael. Aur. ; uerb. 
pass., Paul. Patroc.; Ambros. "> Quint. 8 Suet. ; Cypr. ; Vulg. ; Augustin. Vulg. 
"Ambros. "Prud. 12 Vulg. 13 Vulg. ; Seru. ad Verg. ; Inscrr. 14 Hier.; Vulg. 
15 Cyprian. ; Ambros. ; Vulg. 18 Paulin. in Augustin. Ep. ; Amm. ; Cod. Theod. 



WORD POEM ATI ON IN THE [66. CON-, VEEB. 



VEGETTVB. 

as-sellari, 1 Vet. 1, 50; al, 
-tinguere, Id. 1, 11, 7 
-tundere, Id. 5, 2, 4 

AMBBOSIVS. 
ap-propiare, 3 

HIERONYMVS. 
an-niliilare, 3 Ep. 106, 57 

AVGVSTINVS. 

af-fabricare, p. p. p., de Music. 6, 
7 

-fauere, Serm. 312, 2 
-inflare, CZM. Dei 19, 23, 1 

MAKCELLVS EMPIBICVS. 
al-lactare, 8 



MABTIANVS CAPELLA. 
ag-garrire, 1, 2 

CASSIVS FELIX. 
ad-dulcare, 6, p. 13 ; aZ. 

CAEUVS AVBEUANVS. 
ad-dormire, 4 Acut. 1, 11, 83 
-escare, Id. 1, 11, 95 
-pendere, 6 Id. 2, 38, 222 
-propriare, Chron. 4, 3, 22 

BOETHTVS. 
ad-inuestigare, Art. Geom. p. 400, 



ANTTTTMVH. 
ad-mollire, 86 



66. VERBS COMPOUNDED WITH con- : These verbs form the 
most numerous class of compound verbs in Latin. According 1 
to Paucker 6 the language possesses 668, yet here again we 
find that the great majority belong to the older period. Cic. 
uses not less than 225, of which a list is here given, to show 
how large a portion occur in earlier authors, notably in Plaut.: 



co-aceruare, et Caes., 
-ascescere, (Van.), 
-aedificare, 
-aequare, (Cato), 
-agmentare, 
-angustare, (*Varr.), 
-arguere, 
-artare, 

-bibere, (Cato), 
-burere, et Caes., 

(Plaut.), 

-calefacere, (Varr.), 
-calescere, (Plaut.), 
-callescere, 



con-cedere, (Plaut.), 
-celebrare, (Plaut.), 
-cerpere, 

-certare, et Caes., 
-cldere, (Lucr.), 
-cidere, (Plaut.), 
-cipere, (Cato), 
-citare, et Caes., 

(Lucr.), 

-cludere, (Plaut.), 
-coquere, (Cato), 
-credere, (Plaut.), 
-crescere, (Lucr.), 
-culcare, (Cato), 



con-cumbere, (Ter.), 
-cupiscere, 
-currere, et Caes., 

(Cato), 

-cursare, (Lucr.), 
-cutere, (Ter.), 
-demnare, et Caes., 

(Plaut.), 
-dere, (Plaut.), 
-dicere, (Plaut.), 
-discere, (Plaut.), 
-docefacere, 
-dolescere, (Plaut.), 
-donare, (Plaut.), 



1 Plin. Val. s Lucif . CaL ; Snip. Sen. s Cassiod. ; lordan. ; Gloss. Labb. ; Augustin. 
4 BccL 6 Ps.-Apic.; Metrol. Script., p. 114, 5. 
6 Paucker, Materialien, I., p. 22. 



66. CON-, VERB.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIV8. 



2C3 



con-ducere, (Plant.), 
-edere, (Plant.), 
-em ere, et Caes., 
. (Ter.), 
-ercere, (Varr.), 
-fercire, et Caes., 

(Varr.), 
-ferre, et Caes., 

(Plant.), 
-ficere, et Caes., 

(Plant.), 
-fidere, et Caes., 

(Plant.), 
-figere, et Caes., 

(Cato), 

-fingere, (Plant.), 
-firmare, et Caes., 
-fiteri, et Caes., 

(Plant.), 
-flagrare, 
-flare, (Ter.), 
-fligere, et Caes., 

(Lncr.), 

-fluere, (Lucr.), 
-fodere, (Plant.), 
-formare, 

-fricare, (*Plaut.), 
-fringere, (Plant.), 
-fugere, et Caes., 

(Ter.), 

-fnndere, (Plant.), 
-futare, (Plant.), 
-gelare, (Varr.), 
-gemere, (Lucr.), 
-gerere, (Plant.), 
-glaciare, 
-globare, (Varr.), 
-glutinare, (Plant.), 
-gredi, (Plant.), 
-gregare, 
-gruere, (Ter.), 
-haerere, (Ter.), 
-haerescere, 
-hibere, (Plant.), 



co-honestare, 
-horrescere, 
-hortari, et Caes., 
-icere, et Caes., 

(Plant.), 

-ire, et Caes., (Ter.), 
-iugare, 
-iungere, et Caes., 

(Cato), 
-iurare, et Caes., 

(Plant.), 

-lacrimare, (Plant.), 
-laudare, (Plant.), 
-libere, (Plant.), 
-lidere, (Lncr.), 
-ligare, et Caes., 

(Plant.), 
-ligere, (Plant.), 
-lineare, 
-liqnefieri, p. p. p. , 

(Van-.), 
-locare, et Caes., 

(Plant.), 
-loqui, et Caes., 

(Plant.), 
-Incere, 
-Indere, 
-Instrare, 
-macnlare, 
-meare, et Caes., 

(Plant.), 
-meminisse, 

(Plant.), 
-memorare, 

(Plant.), 
-mendare, et Caes., 

(Ter.), 

-merere, (Plant.), 
-metiri, (Plant.), 
-migrare, (Plant.), 
-minisci, (Plant.), 
-minuere, (Plant.), 
-miscere, (Cato), 
-miserari, 



com-mittere, et Caes., 

(Plant.), 

-monere, (Plant.), 
-mons trar e, 

(Plant.), 
-morari, et Caes., 

(Plant.), 

-mouere, (Plant.), 
-munire, et Caes., 
-mnrmurari , (Varr. ) , 
-mutare, et Caes., 

(Plant.), 

-nectere, (Plant.), 
-niti, (Plant.), 
-operire, (Plant.), 
-optare, 
-oriri, et Caes., 

(Plant.), 
-parare, et Caes., 

(Plant.), 

-parere, (Plant.), 
-pascere, (Varr.), 
-pellare, (Plant.), 
-pellere, (Plant.), 
-pensare, (Cato), 
-perire, et Caes., 

(Ter.), 

-pilare, (Plant.), 
-pingere, (Plant.), 
-planare, (Cato), 
-plecti, et Caes., 

(Plant.), 
-plere, (Plant.), 
-plicare, (Plant.), 
-plorare, 
-ponere, (Cato), 
-portare, et Caes., 
-prehendere, et 

Caes., (Ter.), 
-primere, (Plant.), 
-probare, (Plant.), 
-promittere, 
-pungere, (Lncr.), 
-putare, (Plant.), 



264 



WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 66. CON-, VEBB. 



con-qnassare, (Cato), 
-queri, (Plant.), 
-quiescere, (Plaut.), 
-quirere, et Caes., 
-repere, (Plaut.), 
-rigare, (Plaut.), 
-ripere, (Varr.), 
-roborare, 
-rodere, 
-rogare, et Caes., 

(Cornif. Rhet.), 
-ruere, (Plaut.), 
-rumpere, et Caes., 

(Plaut.), 

-saepire, (*Enn.), 
-salutare, 
-sanescere, 
-scendere, (Afran.), 
-scindere, (Plaut.), 
-sciscere, (Plaut.), 
-scribere, et Caes., 

(Plaut.), 
-secrare, 

-sectari, (Plaut.), 
-senescere, (Plaut.), 
-sentire, (Lucr.), 
sequi, (Plaut.), 
-serere, serui, et 

Caes., (Enn.), 
-serere, s e u i , 

(Plaut.), 
-seruare, (Ter.), 
-siderare, (Ter.), 
-sidere, (Plaut.), 
-signare, (Plaut.), 



con-sistere, et Caes., 

(Plaut.), 

-sociare, (Plaut.), 
-solari, et Caes., 

(Ter.), 

sopire, (Lucr.), 
-spergere, (Plaut.), 
-spicere, et Caes., 

(Plaut.), 

-spirare, et Caes., 
-sputare, 
-stare, et Caes., 

(Plaut.), 
-sternere, et Caes., 

(Cato), 

-stipare, et Caes., 
-stituere, et Caes., 

(Plaut.), 

-stringere, (Plaut.), 
-struere, (Sisenn.), 
-stuprare, 
-suescere, et Caes., 

(Plaut.), 

-sultare, (Plaut.), 
-sumere, (Ter.), 
-surgere, et Caes., 

(Lucr.), 

-tabescere, (Plaut.), 
-taminare, (Ter.), 
-tegere, et Caes., 

(Ter.), 

-temnere, (Ter.), 
-templari, (Plaut.), 
-tendere, et Caes., 

(Enn.), 
-terere, (Plaut.), 



con-terrere, (*Lucr.), 
-testari, et Caes., 
-texere, et Caes., 

(Lucr.), 

-ticescere, (Plaut.), 
-tinere, et Caes., 

(Ter.), 
-tingere, et Caes., 

(Plaut.), 
-trahere, et Caes., 

(Plaut.), 
-tremiscere, 
-trucidare, 
-trudere, (Varr.), 
-torquere, (Lucr.), 
-tueri, (Plaut.), 
-tundere, (Plaut.), 
-turbare, (Plaut.), 
-ualescere, 
-uehere, (Varr.), 
-uellere, et Caes., 

(Cato), 
-uenire, et Caes., 

(Plaut.), 

-uerrere, (Plaut.), 
-uersare, 
-uertare, et Caes., 

(Plaut.), 
-uestire, (Enn.), 
-uincere, (Plaut.), 
-uisere, (Lucr.), 
-uocare, et Caes, 

(Plaut.), 
-uolare, (*Ter.), 
-uoluere, et Caes., 
-uomere, 



The preceding list affords a good illustration of the reluc- 
tance shown by classic writers to add to the already large num- 
ber of compound verbs. As has been intimated, the chief 
fertility of these forms belongs to early Latin : compounds 
with con- especially, both nominal and verbal, abound in all 
the pre-classical writers ; their prevalence in early Comedy 



66. CON-, VERB.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 265 

was noticed by Lorenz, 1 who points out the large number of 
airag Xfy. and other rare forms apparently coined by Plaut. 
without regard for the meaning, but solely for the sake of as- 
sonance ; compare compsissume confido confuturum, Mil. 941 ; 
concastigabo pro comm&rita noxia, Trin. 26 ; congerrones consulto 
consilio, True. 101 ; ne quid tecum consilii commisceam, Mil. 478 ; 
etc. A fondness for this same form of assonance is seen in the 
archaist Gell., and is doubtless due largely to a conscious im- 
itation of early writers ; compare concentu conspiratuque, 
JVbct. Att. 1, 11, 8 ; co?istantiam confidentiamque, Id. 1, 19, 8 ; 
cognatae coniunctaeque, Id. 2, 4, 6 ; compare et contendo, Id. 2, 23, 
22 ; congrediuntur et consistunt et conserebantur, 9, 11, 6, and so 
passim. This tendency of Gell., however, may also be regarded 
as one of the many evidences of his African origin, for while 
compounds in con- are recognized as prevalent throughout the 
sermo plebeius? they are in later Latin especially characteristic 
of the sermo Africus, 9 which is confessedly more archaic than 
the dialects of the other provinces. They are most numerous 
in Tert. and in his imitator, the Sardinian bishop Lucif. Calar., 
whose Latinity shows many analogies with the African 
writers. 4 The latter, especially in his denunciation of Con- 
stantius and the followers of the Arian heresy, is fond of 
using such invectives as coriblasphemus, condesperatus, con- 
detestabilis, cohaereticus, coinmundus, comperftdus, consacrilegus, 
consceleratus, conspurcatus, contyrranus, etc., in which the prep- 
osition is used rather for the sake of giving the epithets a 
weightier sound, than for any additional meaning contained in 

1 Lorenz ad Plaut. Pseud., Einleit. p. 38, "Ueberhaupt sind Zusammensetzungen 
mit con sehr beliebt in der ganzen alteren komischen Poesie und miissen also in der 
damaligen romischen Volkssprache iiberaus haufig gewesen sein, wofttr auch die fast 
liberal! stattfindende Verblassung der Bedeutung der Praposition spricht ; das Composi- 
tum ist = das Simplex, verdrangt auch o'fter dasselbe . . . Nicht wenige unter fol- 
genden, nur bei ihm vorkommenden, Composita scheint Plautus aufgennomen oder neu- 
gebildet zu haben dem Buchstaben- und Silbenreime zu Liebe." 2 Conf. authorities 
cited supra, 65, p. 258, not. 15. 3 B. Kiibler, ALL. VIII., p. 202, cites "competens, 
concurialis, congentilis, und andere Bildungen mit con," among "eine Reihe von Wor- 
tern, die wirklich in Afrika besonders gebrftuchlich gewesen zu sein scheinen ; " conf. 
P. Thielmann, ALL. VIII., p. 523, " Besonders Reichthum zeigt Afrika an Kompositis 
mit cum, in denen die Praposition ihre Bedeutung bewahrt : ... in andern Zusam- 
mensetzungen ... ist zwar die Bedeutung in Schwinde." 4 W. Hartel, ALL. TTT., 
p. 3, " Lucif er zeigt, wie es scheint, grossere Belesenheit nur in den Werken der Af- 
rikaner, unzweifelhaft in Tertullian und Cyprian, deren Sprache er redet" 



266 WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 66. CON-, VERB. 

it. 1 W. Hartel, in his interesting study of the style of Lucif. 
Calar., 2 regards this fondness for compounds in con- as one of 
his direct imitations of Tert., and cites from the latter a long 
array of examples, such as coadulescere, coaetaneus, coaeternus, 
coangustare, coinquinare, collactaneus, commiser, compar, compas- 
sio, compinguescere, compossessor, concarnare, confermentare, con- 
spurcare, constuprare, etc. It is not improbable, however, that 
the sermo plebeius had retained in Sardinia, to the same extent 
as in the African provinces, its original fondness for these 
compounds : the connection between African and Campanian 
Latin has often been noticed, 3 and modern philology shows 
that a close relationship must have existed between the 
Sardinian Latin and that of Southern Italy. Furthermore, 
Sardinia, having been acquired at an early date, naturally re- 
tained a larger proportion of archaisms than the provinces 
which were added later, 4 a presumption corroborated by nu- 
merous points in which the modern dialects of Sardinia differ 
from the other Romance languages. In connection with verbs 
in con-, it is interesting to observe that Sardinia from its 
geographical position forms a connecting link between the 
language of Italy and Spain, and that Ital. on the one hand, 
and Span.-Port. on the other are the only modern branches in- 
which composition with con- has survived. 6 

NAEVIVS. con-castigare, 9 Bacch. 497 

con-cipilare, 6 op. Paul, exFest. 62, -centuriare, Pseud. 572 ; al. 

6 -cessare, 10 Asin. 290 

-fictare, op. Varr. L. L. 7, 107 -clamitare, Merc. 47 

-spondere, 7 Com. Fab. Inc. XXVI. -comitari, 11 p. p. p. , Mil. 1103 

-criminari, Id. 242 

PLAVTVS. -curare, Bacch. 131 

*-co-addere, 8 Cos. 518 -cttstodire, 11 Aul. 724 

-calere, Pers. 88 -decere, 13 AmpJi. 722 ; al. 

1 Hartel, 1. I., p. 16, "Es scheint ihm bei diesen Bildungen, . . . nicht so sehr urn 
einen pracisen Ausdruck des Verhaltnisses der Gemeinsamkeit zu thun, als um den 
gewichtiger in das Ohr fallenden Klang." s Hartel, 1. 1. 3 Ph. Thielmann, ALL. 
VIII., p. 244 ; conf. supra, 31, p. 123. * Conf. Stolz, Historiche Grammatik, I, p. 
24. * Meyer-Liibke, Gramm. d. Rom. Spr., IL, p. 622, " Con 1st nur im Italienischen 
und Spanisch-Portugiesischen produktiv geblieben, wahrend die anderen Sprachen zwar 
eine Anzahl der lateinischen Bildungen bewahrt aber keine neuen geschafFen haben." 

8 Plaut. ; *ApuL 7 SC. de Bacch. ; Apul. ; Vulg. ; Auson. 8 Cato R. R. M. AureL 
ap. Fronton. ' Pronto ; Tert. "Yen. Fort. ia Inscrr. 13 Turpil. Com.; Pompon. 
Com.; Anthol. Epigr. Spec.; Vulg. 



66. CON-, VEKB.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



267 



con-decorare, 1 Capt. 878 

-docere, 3 p. p. p., Poen. 580 
-dormiscere, 3 Cure. 360 ; al. 
-duplicare, 4 Pseud. 1261 
-fabulari, 6 Merc. 571 ; al. 
-fore,' Mil. 941 
-fulgere/ Amph. 1067 
-geminare, 8 Id. 786 
-gliscere, Trin. 678 
-graecare, Bacch. 743 
-gratulari," Men. 132 
-labascere, Sticli. 522 
-linere, 10 3fos*. 291 
-lutulentare, Trin. 693 
-mercari,' 1 Capt. 27 
-mereri, 12 vlwf. 738 
-metare, 13 (meo), Capt. 185 
-metare, Men. 1019 
mingere, 14 Pers. 407 
minari, 16 Aul. 417 
-pacisci, 16 Pseud. 543 a ; a/. 
-percere, 17 (parcere), Poen. 350 
-placere, 18 J?d 727; a/. 
-precari, 19 Amph. 740 ; aZ. 
-quiniscere,* Cist. 657 
-radere, 21 Poen. 1363 
scindere,* 2 True. 52 
-screari, Pers. 308 
-silescere, 23 Mil. 583 
-somniare, Most. 757 
-spuere," CWc. 503 



con-stabilire, 25 Capt. 453 
-suadere, Jferc. 143 ; al. 
-sudare, 26 Pseud. 666 
-suere, 27 Amph. 368 ; al. 
-tabefacere, Pseud. 21 
-teclmari, Id. 1096 
-tollere, 4uf. 814 
-tonare, Amph. 1094 
-truncare, 28 Bacch. 975 
-uadari, CW-c. 162 

ENNIVS. 

con-cupere," 9 Ann. 80 
-glomerare, 30 ZV. 408 
-miserescere, 3l Id. 222 

CATO. 

con-deliquescere, R. R. 23, 3 
-depsere, 32 Id. 40, 2 ; al. 
-Mare, 33 Jet 7, 5 
-futare, (/MO), qp. PawZ. 

Fest. 89, 3 

-librare, 7?. R, 19, 2 
-lucare, 14 Id. 139 
-luere," Id. 100 
-madere, Id. 165, 5 
-sarrire, 36 Id. 48, 1 
-secere, 37 /c?. 157 
-sedare, Oratt. 1 1?V. 21 

PACWIVS. 
con-tremere, 38 TV. 413 



1 Enn. ; Ter. ; Vitr. ; Sen. ; Auct. Bpigr. ap. Plin. 3 Augustin. s Gell. 4 Pacuu. ; 
Ter.; Lucr. ; Augustin. Ep.; Prise. Ter.; Varr. Fr.; Vulg. luuenc.; Diet.; Symm.; 
Amm. ; Gael. Aur. ; lulian. ap. Augustin. i Cinna ap. Isid. 19, 2. 8 Verg. ; ApuL 

s Pore. Latro Decl. in Cat. ; Liu. ; Gell. ; Vulg. w HOT. ; Ou. ; GelL l Sail. ; Afran. Com. 
12 Ter. ; GelL ; Arnob. ; uerb. act. Cic. , &c. 13 Afran. Com. ; Nou. Com. ; Ter. 14 CatulL; 
Hor. Sat.; Dosith. "Auct. B. Afr.; Liu.; Suet.; Fronto; Apul.; Vlp. Dig.; Paul. Dig.; 
ICt. " conf. Charis. 197, 8. " Ter.; Turpil.; Fronto; Paul, ex Fest.; Pacat. Pan.; 
Solin. is Ter.; Col.; Nemes. Cyn.; Gell.; Apul.; Vulg. " Pacuu.; Ter.; Catull.; Ou.; 
Sen. ; Plin. Ep. ; Mar. Victorin. 20 p omp on. Com. ; conf. Prise. 10, 17. 21 Ter. ; Lucr.; 
ICt. M Ter. ; Cic. Ep. Enn. ; Gell. ; Hier. Hor. Sat. ; luuen. ; Petr . ; Fur. Bibac. 
ap. Quint. ; Apul. ; Lact. ; Hier. ; Vulg. Ter. ; Tert. ; Vulg. " Cato B. B, . ; Col. 

37 Varr. ; Vitr. ; Plin. ; Vlp. Dig. ; Ps. -Apic. ; Hier. " Lampr. ; Apul. 20 Capit. ; Com- 
modian. =0 Pacuu. ; Lucr. ; Gels. si Pacuu. ; Turpil. ; Ter. a2 Pompon. 33 Varr. 
R. R. "4 Col. 35 Ou.; Pers. ; Plin. ; Fronto; Pompon. Dig. ; Ps.-Apic. ; Cael. Aur. 

36 Col. v Varr. ; Ou. ; Petr. ; Plin. as 



268 



WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 66. CON-, VERR 



CAEOIUTS. 
com-moliri, 1 Com. 207 

TEBENTTVS. 

*col-licere, Hec. 842 Fl. 
-locupletare, 2 Haut. 258 
-mitigare, 3 Eun. 1028 
-mori, 4 Ad. Prol. 7 
-suefacere, 6 Id. 414 
-susurrere, Haut. 473 
-uasare," Phorm. 190 

CASSIVS HEMINA. 
com-putescere, ap. Plin. 13, 86 

CAELIVS ANTIPATEB. 
con-genuclare, 7 Hist. 7, Fr. 44 

Accrvs. 
co-inquinare, 8 Tr. 207 

LVCILIVS. 

com-manducari, 9 Sat. 4, 42 ; al. 

AFKANIVS. 
con-fouere, 10 Com. 144 

Novivs. 
con-quadruplare, (7<w. 63, 1 

POMPOOTVS. 

con-forire, Com. 64 

CLAVDIVS QVADKIGAKIVS. 
con-germanescere, 11 Ann. Fr. Inc. 
93 
-sermonari, ap. Oell. 17, 2, 17 



VAKKO. 

con-densare, 12 R. R. 2, 3, 9 
-fracescere, Id. 1, 13, 4 
-gelare, 13 /d. 1, 2, 4 
-liquescere, 14 op. JVbn. 334, 27 
-malaxare, 15 Sat. Men. 177 
-pendere, L. L. 6, 183 
-pluere, 16 Id. 5, 161 
-quadrare, 17 /Satf. Men. 96 
-rixari, /Sentf. .M>. 47 ed. Chap. 
-scribillare, 18 Sat. Men. 76 
-tenebrascere, 19 R. R. 2, 2, 11 

LVCBETIVS. 

co-actare, 6, 1120 & 1159 
-cruciare, 3, 148 
-durare, 6, 668 
-feruefacere, 6, 353 
-fulcire, 2, 98 
-laxari, 20 6, 233 
-meditari, 81 6, 112 
-putrescere," 3, 343 
*-spurcare, 23 6, 22 
-tingere, (-tinguere), 2, 755 ; al. 

CICEEO (Epistt.) 

con-cerpere, 24 ad Att. 10, 12, 3 
-sanescere, 25 ad Fam. 4, 6, 2 
-sputare," 6 ad Qu. Fr. 2, 3, 2 

LABEKIVS. 

con-cumare, Com. 118 
-labellare, Id. 2 

CATVLLVS. 
con-futuere, 37, 5 



1 *Lucr. ; Fauorin. ap. Cell. s CorniL Rhet. s Augustin. 4 Sail. ; Liu. ; Val. Max. ; 
Plin.;Flor.; Vulg. 5 Sail. ; Varr.; luL Val. Sidon. ' Sisenn. 8 Col.; Val. Max.; 
Prud. ; Arnob. 8 uerb. act. = Val. Max. ; Plin. ; Scrib. ; Vulg. 10 Apul. ; Hier. ; Augus- 
tin.; Cod. Theod.; Isid.; Inscrr. Apul. Met. 12 Auct. Bell. Afr.; Col.; form -densere 
Lucr. 13 Cic. Ep.; Ou.; Vitr.; Col.; Plin.; Mart.; Scrib. "Col.; Fronto; Apul.; 

Boeth. 15 Pelag. Vet. 16 Solin. ; Cypr. ; Vulg. ; Augustin. 
Ep. 18 Catull. ^form-tenebrescere=- Vulg.; Hier. 



CoL ; Augustin. ; Sidon. 
20 Gael. Aur. 21 Cornif. 



Rhet. M Gels. ; Col. ; Plin. ; Gael. Aur. CoL ; Suet. ; Tert. * Cael. ap. Cic. Ep. ; Liu. ; 
Plin.; Suet. 5 Cels. ; Col. 28 Tert 



66. CON-, VERB.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



269 



AVCT. BELL. AFBIC. 
con-uulnerare, l 5, 1 ; al. 

HOKATIVS. 

con-feruescere, 2 Sat. 1, 2, 71 
-rugare, 3 Ep. 1, 5, 23 
-scire, 4 Id. 1, 1, 61 

VlTKVVlVS. 

co-axate, 2, 8, 17 ; al. 
-camerare, 6 5, 11, 2 
-crispare, 6 4, 1, 7 ; al. 
-fornicare, 5, 5, 2 ; al. 
-solidare, T 2, 8, 7 

CELSVS. 
con-feruere, 8 8, 10, 1 

PHAEDBVS. 
con-cacare, 9 4, 18, 11 

COLVMELLA. 

co-aggerare, 10 8, 6, 1 
-figurare, 11 4, 20, 1 
*-frequentare, 12 9, 13, 13 
-maturescere, 12, 49, 7 
-molere, 13 12, 28, 1 
-mundare," 12, 18, 3 
-sanare, 4, 24, 22 ; al. 
-spissare, 16 2, 17, 5 ; al. 
-sudascere, 12, 48, 2 



PETBONIVS. 
com-pilare, 18 ( = T 
-spatiari, 7, 3 



, 62, 12 



PMNIVS. 

con-corporare, 17 27, 112; al. 
-ferruminare, 27, 69 
-flectere, p. p. p., 2, 115 
-gignere, 18 ^). p. p., 11, 230; al. 
-murmurare, 19 10, 62 
-purgare, 20, 127 

FBONTO. 
congarrire, ad Amic. 1, 12, p. 182, 

3N. 
-stagnate, p. 2198 P. 

GELLIVS. 

con-celare, 11, 9, 2 ; al. 
-create, 20 19, 5, Lemm. 
-fabricari, 3, 19, 3 
-flaccescere, 2, 30, 2 
-gelascere, 21 17, 8, Lemm.; al. 
-germinate, 20, 8, 7 
-misereri, 6, 5, 6 ; al. 
-pauescere, 22 1, 23, 9 H. 
-pugnare, 23 12, 5, 3 ; al. 
-sarcinare, 24 13, 25, 19 
-sarcire, 26 2, 23, 21 H. 
-strepere, 2 ' 4, 1, 4 
-nallare, 27 12, 13, 20 
-nelare, 28 19, 9, 10; al 

AFVLEIVS. 

con-fluctnare, Met. 11, 3 
-foedare, Id. 7, 28 
-humidare, Id. 8, 9 
-luminare, 29 Deo Socr. p. 45, 39 
-masculare, 30 Met. 2, 23 
-mentiri,3i Id. 7 



1 Curt.; Gels.; Sen. ;Plin. Vitr.;Cels. 3 Col. * Tert. ; Commodian. 8 Plin. 
11 Amm. 7 Vulg. ; Hier. ; Augnstin. ; Ven. Fort. ; ICt. 8 Pall. Sen. Apoc. ; Petr. 
i"Seru.adVerg. Cell.; Tert.; Lact.; Vulg. Prud. ; Inscrr. "ffier.; Vulg.;In- 
scrr. 14 Vlp. Dig.; lul. Obseq. "Plin.; Auct. de Diu. Fabr. Arcb.it. 30, p. 312, 33 R 
18 Apul. Met. 1T Tert. ; Amm. ; Marc. Emp. 18 Eccl. " Sil. ; uerb. depon. Cic. semel. , 
(Pis. 61) ; Varr. Sat. Men. Vulg. ; p. p. p. Claud. Mam. S1 Ambros. ; Augustin. ; 
Amm. ; Macr. Sat. Macr. Sat. * Veget.; Sulp. Seu. 24 Amm. Intpr. Iren. 
2'Apul. 27 Ps.-Tert.;Iul. Val.;*Amm. Sulp. Seu. Prud. 30 Macr. "Intpr. 
Iren. 



270 



WORD FORMATION IN THE [66. CON-, VERB. 



com-minare, Id. 7, 11 
-mulcare, 1 Id. 8, 28 
-partiri, 2 Deo Socr. Prol. p. 107, 

in. 

-pauire, p. p. p., Met. 7, 21 
-plexare, 3 Id. 10, 18 
-ponderare, 4 Ascl. 22 
-pulsare, 6 Met. 7, 21 
-suauiare, Id. 16, 22 
-temperare, 6 Id. 10 
-uariare, 7 Apol. 50 

TERTVUJANVS. 

co-adolescere, 8 Anim. 19, 16 
-aetare, Res. Cam. 45 
-camare, 9 Cam. Christ. 20 
-cinerare,^.^). p., Pudic. 13 
-dolere, IO / > oen. 10 
-fermentare, ac?w. FafenZ. 13 
-flabellare, Sped. 25 
-gaudere, 11 adu. Gnost. 13 
-gemiscere, 12 /S]pectf. 13 
-glorificare, 13 Res. Cam. 40 
-laborare, 14 Poen. 10 
-laetari, 15 JcfoJ. 14 
-nasci, 18 e?w. Valent. 21 
-pati, 17 jRes. Corn. 40 ; al. 
-pinguescere, Anim. 25 
-pressare, 18 Scorp. 3 
-rectimbere, Testim. Anim. 4 
-regnare, 19 ac?w. JMC?. 8 
-resuscitare, 20 Res. Cam. 23 
-sepelire, 41 Id. 23 ; aZ. 
-strictare, adu. Marc. 2, 16 
-temporare, Res. Cam. 45 
-tesserare, adu. Haer. 36 



co-testificari, Testim. Anim. 1 
-tribulare, 22 ao?w. JMC?. 5 
-uiscerare, (7am. Christ. 20 
-uorare, acfo. Jfarc. 1, 1 

ABNOBIVS. 
co-articulare, 1, 52 
-ceptare, 23 4, 21 
-emendare, />. ^?. p., 2, 18 
-imbibere, 5, 30 

CHALCTDIVS. 

con-faecare, p. p. p., Tim. 237 
-negetare, Id. 40 A., 104, 297 

IVLIVS VALEBIVS. 
con-splendescere, 2, 42 
-tiirescere, 3, 36 

AMMANVS. 

con-cateruare,^.!).^., 29, 5, 38; a/. 
-cmstare,f?. p. p., 17, 7, 11 
-marcere, 31, 12, 13 
-marcescere, 17, 10, 1 
-marginare, 31, 2, 2 
*-togare,p.p.p., 29, 2, 22 
-torrere, 18, 7, 4 
-turmare, 16, 12, 37 

AMBEOSIVS. 

co-adorare, 24 Spir. Sanct. 3, 12 
-crucifigere, 25 Sacram. 6, 2, 8 
-descendere, 26 Cant. Cantic. 6, 9 
-epulari, Ep. 19, 15 
-macerare, 21 m Luc. 5, 6 
-partmire, cfe Hexaem. 4, 8, 31 ; 
al 



1 Gloss. Paris. 2 Vulg.; Augustin.; Gloss. Labb. 3 Coripp.; uerb. depon. = Vulg. 
Marc. 10, 16. * Ps. -Verg. ap. Class. Auct. 5, 85 sq. 6 Tert. Apul. ; Augustin. ; Ps. - 
Apic. ; Dracont. ; Boeth. ; Anthim. 7 Gael. Aur. 8 Eccl. 8 Veget. 10 Cypr. Ep. ; Vulg. ; 
Hier.; Augustin.; Jordan. n Alcim. Auifc.; Cypr. Ep.; Jordan. ; Greg. Tur. 12 Hier.; 
Augustin. ; Cod. Theod. 13 Hier. 14 Vulg.; Hier. 1S Eccl. ie Cassiod.; Inscrr. 
17 Cypr. ; Vulg. ; Hier. ; Augustin. ; Sulp. Seu. ; Gael. Aur. ; Cass. Fel. ; Alcim. Auit. 18 Por- 
phyr. "Paul. NoL 20 Vulg. ; Hier. 21 Ambros.; Hier.; Hilar. M Hier.; Vulg.; 
Schol. German. Arat. 3S Amm. a Cod. lust. 25 Sidon. 28 Cassiod. 27 Heges.; 
Marc. Emp. 



67. DE-, VERB.] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



271 



co-plantare, 1 de Abrdh. 2, 11, 80; THEODOEVS PKISCIANVS. 



al. 

HJEBONTMVS. 
co-adiuuare, 4 Galat. 6, 5 
-aegrotare, ad luuin. 1, 47 
-flere, adu. Lucif. 5 
-spoliare, Ep. 93, 21 extr. 

AVGVSTINVS. 

con-cernere, Conf. 5, 10 
-florere, Id. 4, 4 
-gestare, 3 de Peccat. Merit. 1, 28 



con-cingere, 4, 1 
-frixare, 1, 6 
-motare, 1, 8 

CAELIVS AVRELIANVS. 
con-crassare, Chron. 4, 3, 62 
-flammare, Id. 4, 7, 98 
-peccare, ^cwrf. 2, 12, 84 ; a/, 
-saluare, p. p. p., Chron. 4, 3, 

39; al. 

-terebrare, Id. 2, 3, 65 
-tnmescere, Id. 2, 4, 71 
-uitiare, Id. I, 4, 22 



67. VEEBS COMPOUNDED WITH de- : The authorities on this 
class of verbs have already been cited, in the section on verbs 
compounded with ad-. 4 They occur in large numbers at all 
periods of the sermo plebeius, but as in the case of the prepo- 
sitions already considered, the later compounds are chiefly 
denominative. This tendency has continued in the Romance 
languages, in which, with the exception of French, de- is 
actively employed in forming new verbs from substantives, 
but seldom enters into composition with existing verbs. 5 



NAEVTVS. 
de-puuire, 6 Com. 134 

PLAVTVS. 

de-amare, T Epid. 219 ; al. 
-artuare, Capt. 641 ; al. 
-asciare, 8 Mil. 884 
-blaterare, Aul. 268 
-charmidare, Trin. 977 
-colare, 10 Capt. 497 ; al. 



de-conciliare, Fr. Fab. Inc. 33 
-crescere, 11 Cure. 219 
-dolare, 12 Men. 859 
-errare, 13 Id. 1113 
-faecare," Aul 79 ; al. 
-fieri, 15 Men. 221 
-floccare, Epid. 616 ; al. 
-gerere, 16 Men. 804; al. 
-glubere, 17 Poen. 1312 
-gunere, 18 ap. Fest. 71, 21 



1 Vulg. 2 Augustin. ; Rustic. 3 Commodian. 

* Conf. authorities cited supra, p. 258, not. 15. 6 Meyer-Liibke, Gramm. d. 
Roman. Spr., II., p. 623. 

Lucil. Sat. T Afran. ; Ter. ; Labor. * Prud.; Inscrr. Lucil. Sat. ; Cell. 10 Varr. 
R. R. " Lucr.; *Cic., semel, (de Diu. 2, 14, 33); Hor.; Ou.; Cels.; Plin.; Stat.; Plin. Ep.; 
Sil. ; Claud. Col. ; Plin. ; Mart. ; Apul. ; Tert. ; Hier. Ep. * Lucr. ; Cornif . Rhet. ; Cic., 
semel, (Fragm. ap. Lact. 624.); Auct. B. Afr.; Sail., semel ; Verg.; Sen.; Col.; Veil.; Plin.; 
Quint. ; Tac. 14 Col. ; Plin. ; Ambros. ; Augustin. ; Schol. Bern, ad Verg. Ge. 1S Enn. Tr. ; 
Ace. Tr. ; Verg. ; Prop. ; Liu. ; Vitr. ; Sen. ; Auct. Priap. ; Gell. 16 Cato R. R. 17 Varr. 
R R. ; Suet. ; Auson. ; Marc. Emp. ; form -glubare = Tert. ; Gloss. Labb. ie Gloss. Labb. 



272 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



t 67. DE-, VEBR 



de-hibere, Trin. 426 

-ierare, 1 Rud. 1336 ; al. 

-iuuare, Trin. 344 
*-lacerare, Capt. 672 

-lassate, 2 Asin. 872 

-lingete, 3 Pers. 430 ; al. 

-liquate, 4 Mil. 853 

-luctare, Trin. 839 ; al. 

-ludificare, Rud. 147 

-merere, 5 Pseud. 1186 

(-mutate, 8 Trin. 73; etf.) 

-nasare, Capt. 604 

-numetate, 7 -4szn. 453 ; al. 

-osculari, 8 Cos. 136 
*-polire, 9 Epid. 93 

-properare, 10 Cos. 745 ; a/. 

-pulsate, Stick. 286 

-putgate, 11 7c?. 5. 

-putate, 1 " (2) Amph. 158 ; al. 

-runcinare, Capt. 641 ; al. 

-siccate, 13 True. 585 

-spuete, 14 Asin. 38 

-squamate, 19 -4w/. 398 

-sudascete, 16 Bacch. 66 

-tetete, 17 Merc. 952 

-tondere, 18 SaccA. 1128 

-uellete, 19 Poen. 872 

-ungete, Psewc?. 222 
ENNIVS. 

de-gtumate, 20 Ann. 430 

-spetnere, 21 Id. 213 



CATO. 

de-acinare, p.p. p., R. R. 26 
-ambulate, 22 Id. 127 ; ^. 
-fetuefacete, 23 Id. 157, 9 
-fingete, 24 Id. 74 ; a/. 
-ftutate, 25 Id. 24, 4 
-hauiite, 26 7d. 66 
-lapidate, 27 Id. 46, 1 
-lutate, 28 Id. 128 
-plete, 29 Id 64 
-putaie,' (1) /d. 49, 1 ; a/, 
-radere," 7d. 121 
-suete, Id. 21, 3 

PACTVTVS. 
de-iugare, Tr. 110 

CAECHJVS. 

de-collate, 82 Com. 116 
-integtate, /o?. 255 
-uomete, Id. 162 

TEKENTTVS. 
de-bacchati, 33 Adelph. 185 

-mulcete, 34 Saw*. 762 
-munetati, Id. 300 .PI 
-nattate, 35 Phorm. 944 
-uetbetate, Phorm. 327 

TrriNrvs. 

de-licete, 3 * (Zacio), Cbra. 190 



1 Ter.; Lucil.; Cornif. Bhet.; Nep.; Gell.; Tert.; Lact.; Mela; ub. depon. =- Apnl. 
Met. "Hor. Sat.; Mart. 3 Lucil.; Gels.; Tert.; Lampr. 4 Caecil. ; Ace. ; Titin. ; Varr. ; 
Cels.; CoL 5 Turpil.; Ou.; Sen.; Suet.; Gell.; ub. depon. =Liu.; Sen.; Col.; Quint.; 
Tac. ; Plin. Ep. ; Veil. ; Tert Cato K B. ; Tac. ; Gell. ; Apul. ; lul. VaL > Ps. -Cypr. 
s VaL Max. ; Apul. Plin. ; Ps.-Apic. ; (Plant. Epid. 93, ed. Goetz = dispoliet. ) 10 Hor., 
semel. (*Carm. 2, 7, 24); Sil.; Mart. " Cato ; Vitr.; Col.; Cael. Aur. ; Commodian. 1J On. ; 
CoL; Gloss. Placid. " Apnl. Herb.; Ser. Samm.; Gromat. Vet. " Varr.; Catull.; 
Liu. ; Tibull. ; Sen, Ep. ; Pers. ; Plin. ; Gell. ; Claud. ; Mart. Cap. Plin. ; LucU. ; Apul. 
16 Gloss. Labb. 17 Lucr. ; Hor.; Prop. ; Tibnll.; Phaedr.; Sen. ; Col.; Plin. ; Quint. ; Tac. ; 
GelL 18 Enn.; Cato; Lucil.; On.; Curt.; Sen.; CoL; Pers.; Plin. Ep.; Nemes.; Tert. 
CatulL;Ou.;Suet.; Capit.; PaU. " LuciL CoL Poet. M Ter. ; Suet.; GelL ; 
Vnlg.; Augustin. as Varr. Pr.; Vitr.; Plin. " Hor. Sat. 26 Col. 2 Tert. 2T Alio 
sensu =- PauL ex Fest. ; Glosa Labb. * Diet. a Plin. ; Stat. ; Manil. ; Pelag. Vet. ; Veg. 
Vet. 30 Ou. ; CoL ; Placid. Gloss. " Plin. Ep. ; GelL M Lucil. ; Fenestell. ap. Diom. ; 
Sen. Apoc. ; Petr. ; Scrib. ; Suet. ; Vopisc. ; Anr. Viet. ; SchoL luuen. ss Hor. ; Capit ; Hier. 
34 Liu. ; Gell. ; Lact. 35 Hor. Sat. ; GelL LuciL 



67. DE-.VERB.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 273 

TVEPHJVS. LABEBIVS. 

de-gulare, 1 Com. 217 de-pudicare, Inc. Fab. 17 

CASSIVS HEMINA. AVCT. BELL. HISP. 

de-nasci, 2 Ann. 2 Fr. 24 de-postulare, 16 1, 5 

LVCUJVS. VITKVVIVS. 
de-argentare, 3 Sat. 26, 71 de-feruere, 17 7, 2, 1 

-calauticare, Id. 26, 72 

-pilare, 4 Id. 29, 40 PHAEDRVS. 
-poculare, 7rf. 26, 71 de-grunnire, 5, 5, 27 

-uerrere, 6 Id. 27, 58 

COLVMELLA. 

AFKANIVS. de-cacuminare, 4, 7, 3 ; al. 

de-laborare, Com. 11 -florere, 18 5, 6, 36 

-frigescere, 12, 20, 4 ; al. 

VABBO. -lacrimare, 4, 9, 2 

de-flare, 6 R. R. 1, 64, 1 -Isuare, ^lr&. 6, 4 

-iungere, 7 i. . 10, 3, 45 -mutilare, Id. 11, 2 
-nigrare, 8 .R. jR. 1, 55j^?z. 

-pinnare, p. p. p. , ap. Fulg. Exp. PEESIVS. 

Serm. Ant. No. 12, p. 562, de-mordere, 19 1, 106 

12 M. *-pungere, 6, 79 

-plautare, 9 R. R. 1, 40, 4 -stertere, 6, 10 
-pontare, Sat. Men. 493 

-repere, 10 Id. 115 PETKONTVS. 

-scobinare, 11 Id. 89 de-battuere, 69, 3 

-serere, (-situm) R. R.I, 23, 6 -ponderare, 80 Poet. Fr. 26, 3 

-subulare, Sat. Men. 483 -tumescere, 21 17, 3 ; al 

-uirginare, 14 Id. 409 

PLINIVS. 

LVCBETIVS. de-caulescere, 19, 121 

de-cellere, 2, 219 -corticare, 82 16, 188 

-pangere, 13 2, 1087 -culcare, 23 17, 61 

-surgere, 14 5, 701 *-gemere, 21, 9 D. 

-glutinare, 25, 163 

CICEBO (EPISTT.). -Hmare, 34, 111 

de-mitigare, ad Alt. 1, 13, 3 -occare, 18, 137 

-mere, 16 Id. 16, 11, 2 -sacrare, 24 28, 112 

> Afran. Com. 2 Va rr. L. L. s Hier.; Oros. * Sen.; Mart.; Tert.; Ps.-Apic.; 
Pall.; Vulg. 6 Varr. Fr.; Col. Plin.; Arnob.; Ambros. Ep. 7 Tac. vitr.; 
Plin.; Scrib.; Ps. -Augustin. ; Vulg.; Firm. Math. Col.; Plin.; conf. Verg. Ge. 2, 65. 
10 Phaedr. ; Plin. ; Apul. Met. " Arnob. Petr. ; Paul. Dig. ; Hyg. Fab. ; Vulg. ; Prise. ; 
Schol. luuen. "Col.; Plin. " Hor. Sat. ; Plin. ; Scrib. "Sen.; Apul. Met. "Tert. 
17 Plin.;Ps.-Apic. i nscrr> npiin. no Augustin. Stat. ; Augustin. "Vulg.; 
Ps.-Ascon. 23 Stat.; Tert. S4 Stat. 



274 



de-tornare, 1 13, 62 
-turpare, 9 15, 59 

GELUVS. 

de-luere, 3 15, 2, 8 
-uenustare, 4 12, 1, 8 
-uersitare, 17, 20, 6 

AFVLEIVS. 

de-contari, Met. 7, 24 
-flammare, Id. 5, 30 
-lustrare, Herb. 84 
-meare, 5 Met. 10, 31 
-morsitare, Id. 2, 22 ; al. 
-mussare/^.p.p., Id. 3, 26 
-pudescere, 7 Id. 10, 29 
-tundere, Id. 2, 32 
-nergere, 8 Deo Soar. 9 
-uestire, Met. 4, 7 ; al. 

TEETVLMANVS. 
de-aurare, 9 Idol 8 

-bucinare, Virg. Vel. 13 
-cachinnare, Apol. 47 ; a/, 
-cinerare, p. p. p., adu. Valent. 

32 

-cinerescere, Apol. 48 extr. 
-coriare, 10 Anim. 33 
-cremare, (Ps.-Tert.?), Poet. 

adu. Marc. 2, 101 
-entire, (de-cutis), ad Nat. 1, 14 
-damnare, Pudic. 15 
-farinare, p. p. p., adu. Valent. 

31 

-minorare, Anim. 33 
-palare, 11 Apol. 10; aZ. 
-petere, ac?w. Marc. 4, 20 
-scrobare, .Res. Cam. 7 
-sorbere, 18 Idol. 24 
-sultare, Anim. 32 
-nigescere, 7c?. 27 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 
ARNOBIVS. 



[ 67. DE-, VEBB. 



4, 37 



CHAICIDIVS. 
de-praesentare, Tim. 159 

PELAGONIVS. 
de-brachiolare, 291 
-pectorare, 6 
-spicare, (de-spied), 88 
-temporare, 6 

PALLADIVS. 
de-sugere, 1, 9, 4 ; al. 



AMMTANYS. 

de-frustrare, M 31, 2, 5 



al. 



VEGETTVS. 

de-carnare, 15 Mil. 2, 27, 2 
-matricare, Id. 6, 7, 3 
-sternere, 18 Jfe7. 3, 10 

HEEBONYMVS. 
de-pompare, in NaJium c. 3 

AVGVSTINVS. 
de-suadere," Serm. 171, 2 



MAETIANVS 
de-mersare, 8, 846 
-mulcare, p. p. p., 8, 807 

SEDONIVS APOLMNABIS. 
de-cemicare, p. p. p., Ep. 3, 3, 7 
-tepescere, Id. 5, 17, 4 
-torrere, Id. 1, 7, 1 



1 Gell. a Suet. 3 Angustin. 4 Mamert. ; Auson. ; Sidon. Ep. 6 Mart. Cap. 6 Amm. 
7 Gloss. Placid. 8 Gromat. Vet.; Tert. Augustin.; Cod. Theod. 10 PaU.; Eccl. 
"Inscrr. ia Mart. Cap. "Inscrr. 14 Sidon. "Ps.-Apic. Vulg. "Gloss. 
Labb. 



68. DIS-, VERB.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 275 

68. YEBBS COMPOUNDED WITH dis- : Unlike the verbs com- 
pounded with ad-, con-, de-, verbs of this class have main- 
tained their prefix unweakened : nevertheless it is now recog- 
nized that they belong almost exclusively to the sermo plebeius. 1 
Lorenz was the first to point out the frequent occurrence in 
Early Comedy of dis- with an intensive force, 2 in such forms 
as discupere, dispudere, distaedere, and Landgraf, maintaining 
the vulgar nature of such compounds, censures Opitz for dis- 
cussing under the separate heads of Syntax and Phraseology 
the two forms discruciare and discupere, which occur in the 
Epistt. of Cic., instead of grouping them together under Word- 
formation. 3 Recently Hauschild 4 has attempted to draw a 
sharp distinction, specifically limiting the list of plebeian 
forms to those with dis- intensive, and criticises Schulze for 
confusing them with the forms where dis- has a separative 
force, as in difflare, diffugare, etc. Such a distinction is some- 
what difficult to maintain, as the two classes merge into one 
another. In such forms as dispuluerare, to grind to atoms, to 
pulverize completely, discoquere, to cook to pieces, to cook 
thoroughly, etc., where the two meanings of dis- seem to coin- 
cide, it is easy to see how the intensive force developed out of 
the earlier idea of separation. It is true that a larger propor- 
tion of the compounds with dis- intensive are confined to the 
colloquial language, especially in the early period ; but few of 
either class found their way into classic Latin, while in the 
Romance languages, where dis- remained one of the most pro- 

1 Schmalz, Stilist., p. 552, "Besonders scheinen Kompos. mit dis, de, und con in 
der Volkssprache beliebt gewesen zu sein, wahrend die ersteren in der klassichen 
Sprache so gut wie keine Aufnahme fanden," citing "discrucior bei Cic. Att., sonst 
nicht ; " conf. Id. , iib. d. Sprachgebr. der nichtciceron. Brief e i. d. ciceron. Brief samm- 
Igg., Zeitschr. f. d. Gymn. wes. XXX. (1881), p. 87; Schmilinsky, p. 42; Landgraf, 
Cic. Epp., p. 321, " Mit besserem Erfolge (als de) hat die Praposition dis in Zusam- 
mensetzungen ihre steigernde Kraft erhalten ; doch gehoren auch diese Komposita vor- 
zUglich dem Umgangstone an ; " Schulze, Symm., Diss. Hal. VI., p. 218. 2 Lorenz ad 
Pseud. 1201, adding "ganz verschieden sind naturlich Bildungen wie disconducit, 
Trin. 930, disconuenit, Hor. Epist. 1, 14, 18 und ahnliche." 3 Landgraf, 1. I., p. 277, 
citing E. Opitz, quo sermone ei qui ad Cic. litteras dederunt usi sint, Naumb. , 1879. 
4 Hauschild, Diss. Hal. VI., p. 261, " praecipue sermoni cotidiano et plebeio uindi- 
canda esse uidentur uerba composita praepositione dis- effecta, ita ut dis- non habeat 
uiin segregandi, sed potius corroborandi. ... cf. Schlz., p. 106, qui quidem in eo 
mihi displicet, quod non seiunxit notioncs segregandi et corroborandi," citing Wagner 
ad Plaut. Aul., p. 108, " all these expressions belong to every-day life, which is always 
fond of exaggeration." 



276 WORD FORMATION IN THE [68. DIS-, VERB. 

ductive prefixes, and has to a large extent replaced de-, it 
regularly has a separative or negative force, as in Ital., disab- 
bellire, dischiavare, discolorare; Fr., deborder, deboutonner, 
decharger, etc. 1 

NAEVIVS. VARBO. 

dis-puluerare, Com. 57 dis-pendere, 13 L. L. 5, 183 

-planare, Sat. Men. 291 

PI^AVTVS. -plicare, R. R. 3, 16, 7 

dis-conducere, Trin. 930 -plodere, 14 Id. 2, 9, 4; al 

-cupere, 2 Id. 932 -saepire, 18 L. L. 5, 162 
-flare, 3 Mil. 17 

-fringere, 4 Asin. 474 LVCEETIVS. 
-pandere, 5 (-pennere), Mil. 407; dis-cidere, 3, 659 ; al. 

al. -madescere, 6, 479 

-percutere, Cos. 644 -serpere, 6, 547 
-pudere, 8 Bacch. 481 ; al. 

-stimulare, Id. 64 CICEBO (Episir.). 

-taedere, 7 Amph. 503 di-laudare, ad Alt. 6, 2, 9 ; al. 
-truncare, True. 614 

CATVLLVS. 

GATO. dif-futuere, p. p. p., 29, 14 
dis-hiascere, R. R. 12 

-tabescere, 8 Id. 24 HOBATTVS. 

-terere,' Id. 75 dis-conuenire, 16 Ep. 1, 1, 99 ; al. 

-uaricare, 10 Id. 45, 3 -quirere, 17 Sat. 2, 2, 7 

CAECILIVS. Vmtvvivs. 

di-balare, Com. 249 dis-sonare, 18 5, 8, 1 

TEBENTIVS. CELSVS. 

di-lapidare, u Phorm. 898 dis-coquere, 1 ' 6, 9 

SISENNA. PHAEDBVS. 

dis-palari, 13 Hist. 3, Fr. 35 di-grunnire, 5, 5, 27 

1 Meyer-Liibke, Gramm. A Eom. Spr., II., p. 624, "Das Prafix ist sehr beliebt 
und verdrangt im Franzosischen vollig, im Spanischen fast vollig das alte de. Mit der 
Trennung verbindet sich der BegrifF des Wegnehmens, Auflosens und dann geradezu 
der Negation einer Thatigkeit." 

* Gael. ap. Cic. Ep.; Catull. 8 LuciL; Amm.; Auson.; Prud. Vitr.; Suet. 

5 Lucr. ; Plin. ; Suet. ; Verns ap. Fronton. Ter. ; Apul. 7 Ter. 8 Veg. Vet. ; Augustin. 
9 Petr. 10 Varr. ; Cic., semel, (Verr. 2, 4, 40) ; Vitr. ; Amm.; Prud. J1 Col. ; Firm. Math. 
18 Nep.;*Ps. -Sail; Cell.; Amm. IS Prud. '* Lucr. ;Hor. Sat.; Arnob. Lucr.;Cic., 
semel, (Rep. 4, 4) ; Ou. ; Sen. ; Stat. Lact. " Claud. ; Lampr . ; Vulg. 18 CoL ; Amm. ; 
Ambros. " Plin. ; Vulg. 



BX-, VERB.] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



277 



COLVMKLLA. 

dif-fluuiare, Arb. 7, 5 
-rarare, 1 4, 32, 4 ; al. 

PLINTVS. 

*dis-cuneare, p. p. p., 9, 90 
-secare, 4 9, 121; al. 
-serenare, 3 18, 356 

APVTiKTVS. 

dis-capedinare, Flor. 3 

-sternere, Met. 10, 34 ; al. 

TEBTVLIjIANVS. 

di-lucidare, 4 adu. lud. 1 
-uentilare, Anim. 5 

COMMODIANVS. 

dis-credere, 6 Praef. 3; al. 

AKNOBIVS. 
di-iugare, 5, 9 
-scobinare, 6, 14 
-uastare, 5, 5 



AMMIANVS. 
di-uoluere, 26, 4, 3 

HIEBONYMVS. 
dis-glutinare, Ep. 66, 12, 

-tentare, in lesai. 15, c? 54, 2 

AVGVSTINVS. 
dif-fugare, 6 41, 10 

THEODOBVS PKISCIANVS. 
dif-fumigare, 4, 1 

MABTIANVS CAPELLA. 
dis-gregare, 3, 289 ; al. 



SlDONIVS 

dif -fulgurate, Carm. 11, 20 

CASSIODOBVS. 
dis-parere, T in Ps. 106, 29 



69. VEEBS COMPOUNDED WITH ex- : Compounds of this 
class are cited much less frequently, by authorities on plebe- 
ian Latin, than those with ad-, con-, de-. They are deserving 
of more careful consideration, since statistics show that they 
were favorite formations with all plebeian writers. They were 
not only prevalent in Early Comedy and again in Silver Latin, 
notably in the rustic writer Col., but hold a prominent place 
among the neologisms of Apul., Tert., and other African 
writers. Like the prepositions previously considered, ex- 
frequently shows a loss of force, as is well pointed out by 
Kohler, 8 who cites from the Auct. Bell. Hisp. 30, 5, the substi- 
tution of efficere for the simple verb, in the formulaic expres- 
sion potestatem sui facere. Kraut 9 similarly cites among the 
vulgarisms of Sail, the use of exaequare in the phrase exaequare 
facta dictis, Cat. 3, 2, etc., comparing aequare dictis, Liu. 6, 20, 
8, and dicendo, Plin. Ep., 8, 4, 3. In late Latin such weakening 

1 Gael. Aur. a Suet.; Apul. Met.; Vulg. * Augustin.; Cassiod. 4 Hier. ; Vigil. 
Taps.;Cassiod.;Eccl. 6 lul. Val. Marcel. Com. Chron. ' Baeda ; Thes. Nou. Lat 
8 Kohler, p. 20. Kraut, Sail., p. 6. 



278 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[ 69. EX-, VERB. 



becomes more apparent. Schulze * cites from Symm., efflagitare, 
emittere, exambire, exasperare, exaugere, etc., used in place of the 
simple verbs, and the same phenomenon is pointed out by Bon- 
net, 8 in Greg. Turon. ; conf. abbatem exorant ut . . egrederetur, 
Hist. Fr. 2, 37, where exorant=orant, as the abbot is not pre- 
vailed upon. 

In the Komance languages ex- is chiefly important in 
Human, and Ital. In the latter its prevalence is remarkable, 
and it frequently shows the same weakening as in the sermo 
plebeius ; compare the parallel forms sbiasire, basire; scorn- 
metere, commetere ; sfendere, fendere ; snudare, nudare, etc. The 
same tendency is also seen in Ital. adjectives : sbiescio, biescio, 
etc. 3 



PliAVTVS. 

ex-anclare, 4 Stick. 273. 

-asciare, p. p. j>., Asin. 360 
-augere, 6 Stick. 304 
-balistare, Pseud. 585 ; al. 
-bibere, 8 AmpJi. 631 ; al. 
-concinnare, Cist. 312 
-curare, p. p. p., Pseud. 1253 ; 

al. 

-dentare, 7 Rud. 662 
-dictare, Amph. 816; al. 
-dissertare, 8 Id. 600 
-dormiscere, 8 Id. 697 
-dorsuare, 10 Aul. 399; al. 
-enterare, 11 Epid. 320 ; al. 
-fligere, 12 Asin. 818 
-gurgitare, Epid. 582 



ex-lauare, 13 Rud. 537 ; al. 

-lectare, Asin. 295 ; al. 

-linguare, 14 Aul. 250 

-moliri, 15 Bacch. 762 

-mungere. 18 Most. 1109; al. 

-obsecrare, Asin. 246 
1 -oculare, 17 Rud. 731 

-ossare, 18 Amph. 320; al. 

-palliare, p. p. p., Gas. 945 

-palpare, 19 Poen. 357 

-peculiare, p.p. p., Id. 843 

-petessere, Rud. 258 ; al. 

-putare, ao (2. putare), Trin. 234 

-putescere, Cure. 242 

-rogitare, 21 Capt. 952 
*-scissare, p. p. p., Cist. 383. 

-sculpere, 2 " Id. 541 



i Schulze, Dies. Hal., VI., p. 210. 2 Bonnet, p. 231. s Meyer-Lubke, Gramm. d. 
Roman. Spr., II, p. 626, " Wie man sieht, wird s- oft zu einem fast bedeutungslosen 
Vorachlag, was sich aua Fallen wie nudare und snudare leicht erldiirt ; " conf. Id. , 
Gramm. Ital., p. 313. 

4 Pacuu. ; Enn. ; Ace. ; Lucil. ; Cic. (four times, but archaic ace. to Quint. 1, 6, 40). 
5 Ter. ; Enn. ; Lucr. ; Cornif . Rhet. Cato ; Ter. ; Hor . Sat. ; Ou. ; Phaedr. ; Mela ; Plin. ; 
Gell. ; lul. Val. ; Vul g. ; Augustin. ; Sidon. 7 Macr . Sat. s *Li u . ; Tert. : Arnob. ; Fest. 
Ter. 10 Apul.; conf. Non. 27, 29. Lucil.; Hyg. Fab.; Petr.; Plin.; lustin.; Vulg.; 
Ps.-Apic. Cic. Ep. ; Sen. ; Gell. ; Apul. ; Macr. 13 Gels.; Col. "Tert. "Sen.; 
Gels.; Col. l9 Poet. ap. Cic.; Cornif. Rhet.; Varr.; Hor.; Phaedr.; Quint.; luuen. 
17 ApuL Met. 18 Ter.; Lucr.; Pers.; Vulg.; Ps. -Apic. Pompon. Com. 20 Trag. 
Inc. Fr. ; Plane, ap. Cic. Ep. ai Ace. ; Sil. M Ter. ; Cato ; Lucil. ; Varr. ; Cic. Ep. ; Nep. ; 
Quint; Apul.; Treb. Poll. 



69. EX-, VERB.] 



ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



279 



ex-signare, 1 Trin. 655. 
*-spernere, p. p. p., Bacch. 446 
-STigere, 11 Poen. 614 
-tentare, Most. 594 
-texere, Bacch. 239 
-tnmere, True. 200 
-ungere, Trin. 406 ; al. 
-urgere, 3 Rud. 1008 

ENNIVS. 

e-dolare, 4 ap. Van: Sat. Men. 59 
-liminare, 5 Tr. 215 
-pectorare," Id. 43 

CATO, 
ex-augurare, T JS. .K. 2, 4 

TITINIVS. 

*ex-cratire, (7om. 47 
-uallare, 8 Id. 76 

Accivs. 
ex-pergere, 9 Tr. 140 

LvcrLivs. 
*e-linire, <Sto. Fr. ap Non. 103, 30 

AFBANIVS. 

ex-peiurare, Com. 192 

VABBO. 

ex-calciari, 10 Sat. Men. 439 
-candifacere, R. R. 3, 4, 1 ; a/, 
-curiare, Sat. Men. 221 
-liquescere, 11 R. R. 1, 55, 4 
-promittere, 12 Jc?. 2, 2, 5 



ex-ruderare, 13 Id. 2, 2, 7 
-uirare, 14 ap. Non. 46, 12 
-iiirescere, Sat. Men. 425 

LVCKETIVS. 

e-gignere, 2, 703 
-tentare, 16 (tender e), 3, 488 

CICEKO (EPISTT.). 

ex-hilarare, " ad Fam. 9, 26, 1 
*-monere, Id. 1, 7, 9 

LABEBIVS. 

e-lncificare, Com. 78 
-lutriare, 17 Inc. Fab. 17 

CATVLLVS. 
ef-futuere, 18 6, 13 
-mulgere, 19 80, 8 ; al. 

HOBAUVS. 

e-latrare, 30 Ep. 1, 18, 18 
-metere, 81 Id. 1, 6, 21 

-surdare, 52 Sat. 2, 8, 38 

VlTKWIVS. 

ex-clarare, 1, 2, 7 
-sanguinare, p. p. p., 8, Praef, 

3 

-scalpere," 1, 6, 4; a/, 
-siccescere, 2, 9, 3 

CELSVS. 
ex-crescere, s * 

-macrescere, 2, 4, 5 
-saniare, 35 5, 27 



1 Liu. a Cato ; Varr. ; Vitr. ; Sen. ; Col. ; Inuen. ; Plin- ; Gell. ; Amm. 3 Paul, ex Fest. 
4 Varr. Sat. Men.; Cic. Ep.; Cels.; Col. 6 Pacuu.; Pompon. Com.; Ace. Tr.; Poet. ap. 
Quint. ;Hor.Ep. Acc. Tr. * Liu.; Gell. 8 Varr. Sat. Men. ; Gargil. SantraTr.; 

GelL "uerb.act Sen.; Suet.; Mart.; Veil "Solin. " Dig. lust. ; ICt. "Vitr.; 

Ambros.; Sidon. Ep. 14 Catull.; Mart.; Arnob.; Veget.; Gael. Aur.; Schol. Pers. 
is Amm. ; p.p.p. Hor. ; Sil. ; Liu. ; Plin. ; Solin, Col. ; Mart.; Plin. ; Vulg. " Plin. 
18 Auct. Priap. ; Poet. ap. Suet. CoL; Seru. adVerg. 20 Tert. S1 Manil. Val. 
Max.; Sen.; Plin.; Marc. Emp. 23 Auson. a4 Sen.; Col.; Frontin.; Plin.; Quint; 
Lucan. ; Suet ; Augustin. ;p.p.p.> Laot. " 6 Sen. ; CoL 



280 



WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 69. EX-, VERB. 



ex-spumare, 6, 7, 8 
-torrere, 3, 7, 2 
-tussire, ' 2, 8 med. 

COLVMELLA. 

ex-acescere, 12, 17, 1 
*-altare, 3, 13, 4 ; al. 
-durare, 8 11, 1, 7 
-gerininare, 4, 17, 4 ; al. 
-herbare, 11, 3, 11 
-horrere, 3 Poet. 10, 154 
-luxuriari, Arbr. 3, 2 
-maciare, 2, 10, 1 ; al. 
-mitescere, 9, 14, 10 
-nmscare, 11, 2, 41 
*-plantare, 4, 14, 1 
-putare, (I. putare), 3, 15, 3 ; a/. 
-rancare, 2, 11, 5 ; al. 
-uentilare, 4 1, 6, 23 
-uolitare, 8, 8 in. 

PEBSIVS. 
e-largiri, 5 3, 71 
-molere, 6 6, 26 

PETRONTVS. 
e-legare, 7 43, 5 
-opinissere, 62 fin. 
-pudorare, p. p. p., 39, 5 

PLINIVS. 

ex-aluminare, p. p. p., 9, 113 
-alburnare, p. p. p., 16, 204 
-arefieri, 26, 103 
-arenare, 33, 65 
-fascinare, 8 7, 16 
-iuncescere, 17, 182 
*-lactescere, 16, 98 D. 
-lapidare, 17, 30 ; al. 



ex-maculare, 9 21, 129 
-marginare, 28, 147 
-medullare, 10 ^. p. p., 22, 87 
-pauere, 11 34, 151 
*-riuare, 17, 249 
-rugare, 13, 82; al. 
-nacuare," 20, 52 
-nallere, (uallus), IS, 98 

GELUVS. 

ex-pergificare, 17, 12, 1 
-sordescere, 9, 2, 11 
-uibrare, 13 1, 11, 1 

APVLEIVS. 

ex-acerbescere, u Apol. 85 
-amnrcare, Met. 4, 14 
-aptare, Id. 11, 27 
-comedere, 16 Herb. 2, 1 
*-coriare, 16 Met. 10, 21 
-cuneare, p. p. p., Flor. 16, p. 

21, 10 Kr. 
-faecare, p. p. p., Dogm. Plat. 

2,20 

-masculare, 17 Mel. 7, 23 
-obruere, p. p. p., Id. 9, 6 
-tumescere, 18 Apol. 78 

TEETVLMANVS. 

ex-albare, 19 adu. Marc. 4, 8; al. 
-cerebrate," Id. 4, 11 
-condere, Id. 5, 18 
-cremare, ad Nat. 1, 10 
-educere, p. p. p., Pall. 4 
-florere, 81 ludic. Dom. 8 
-fruticare, Anim. 27 ; al. 
-fumigare, ad Martyr. 1 
-limare, M (limus), Poen. 11 
-nundinare, Idol. 9 



1 Plin.; Cael. Aur. a Tac.;Gell. sAugustin. Plin.;Iustin.; Hier.; Sidon. Ep. 
* Firm. Math. Veget. ; Ambros. 1 Gai. Inst. 8 GelL Gell. ; ApuL ; Amm. ; Macr 
"Sidon. Ep. Sfat. ; Mart. Cap. " Vulg.; Cod. lust.; Augustin.; Cad. Aur. "Amm. 
M Sidon. Hier. Ep. J Hier. ; Vulg. ; Cassiod. ; Gloss. Labb. Seru. ad Verg. 
18 Euanth. de Trag. Com. "Itala. 20 Vulg. 21 Ambros.; Vulg. as Macr. 



70. OB-, VERB.] 



ROMAN SEBMO PLEBEIVS. 



281 



ex-nubilare, 1 ApoL 35 
-odorare, p. p. p., Pall. 4 
-orbitare," adu. Marc. 3, 2 
-pumicare, adu. Valent. 16 
-solescere, Virg. Vel. 17 
-sufflare, 8 Idol 11 ; fin. 
-nigescere, Anim. 38 
-uigorare, Pall. 4 ; al. 

AKNOBIVS. 
e-uideri, 2, 52 

VOPISCVS. 

ef-fecundare, Prob. 21, 2 
-frondescere, Jc7. 19, 3 

CHALCIDIVS. 

e-uenustare, Tim. 40 a. 

PALLADIVS. 
ex-colare, 4 8, 8, 1 

AMMIANVS. 
ex-abuti, 25, 7, 8 
-ferascere, 5 18, 7, 5 
-laqueare, 6 30, 1, 11 
-meare, 7 29, 5, 5 

VEGETIVS. 

e-limpidare, 1, 26, 2 ; al. 
-pausare, p. p. p., 2, 10, 9 
-ungulate, 2, 57 in. 



AMBKOSIVS. 

ef-fluescere, de Off. 2, 21, 109 
-longinquare, Enarr. in Ps. 43, 

45 

-longare, 8 in Luc. 3, 32 
-mulcere, in Ps. 118, 7 

HrEKONTMVS. 

*ex-anhelare, in lob. 15, 41 
-clamitare, Ep. 39, 5 
*-strangulare, in lob. 30 

AVGVSTHTVS, 
ex-alapare, in Ps. 49, 6 

-corticare, Quaest. in Genes. Qu. 

93 

-foedare, Serm. 150, 2 
-palmare, 9 Id. 103, 6 ; al. 

MABCELLVS EMPIBICTS. 
ex-salare, p. p. p., 29, 54 ; al. 

CAELIVS AVKELIANYS. 
*e-durescere, Acut. 2, 34, 182 
-gelare, Id. 3, 5, 58 
-humorare, Chron. 4, 1, 12 
-lentescere, Acut. 2, 18, 108 

SEDONIVS APOIILINABIS. 
e-gelidare, Ep. 4, 1 
-luminare, p. p.p., Id. 8, 11 



70. VEEBS COMPOUNDED WITH ob- : Verbs of this class be- 
long largely to the category of archaisms. They are rare in 
the classic period and in Silver Latin, but abound in Plaut. 
and other early writers, and reappear in considerable numbers 
in the African Latinity. Schulze 10 includes them among the 
compounds which, while preserving the original force of the 

1 PauL Carm. 2 Lact. ; Finn. Math. ; Augustin. ; Sidon. Ep. 3 Pelag. Vet. ; Am- 
bros.; Augustin.; Hier. ; Cael. Aur.;Sulp. Seu. 4 Vulg.;Rufin. 8 Heges. e Sidon. Ep.; 
Julian, ap. Augustin.; Prud. 7 Augustin. 8 Vulg.; Hier. Gloss. Gr. Lat.; Gloss. Isid.; 
Thorn. Thes. 

10 Schulze, Diss. Hal., VI., p. 218. 



WORD FORMATION IN THE 



[ 70. OB-, VERB. 



preposition, are much more numerous in the sermo cotidianus 
than in the classic speech, and cites from Symm. a number of 
examples, such as dbgannire, obnixe, obtundere, as borrowed from 
the archaic speech. The best evidence of the archaic nature 
of compounds of this class is that they are wanting- in the 
Komance languages, ob- being largely replaced by a-, as 
obdurare, Prov. abdurar, O. Fr. adurer, etc. 1 This view is 
further confirmed by the following list : 



PLAVTVS. 

ob-ambulare, Trin. 315 
-cedere, 8 Id. 1138 ; al. 
-centare, 4 Cure. 145 ; al. 
-cipere, 5 Cist. 68 ; al. 
-clamitare, Cure. 183 ; al. 
-cubare, 6 Mil. 212 
-figere, 7 Most. 360 
-flectere, Bud. 1013 
-gannire, 8 Asin. 422 
-gerere," True. 103 ; al 
-ludere, 10 Id. 107 
-olere," Men. 384 ; al. 
-pectere, Pers. Ill 
-pingere, Cure. 60 
-probrare, Most. 301 ; al. 
-pugnare, (pugnus), Cos. 303 
-rodere, 13 Amph. 724 
-scaeuare, Asin. 266 
-sipare, Cist. 309 
-sonare, Pseud. 205 
-sorbere, 14 Mil. 834 ; al 
*-taedescere, (vb. impers.), Stich. 

732 PL 

-trudere, 1 * Cure. 366 ; al. 
-truncare, 18 Amph. 415 



ob-tueri," Most. 840 ; al 
-uagire, Poen. 31 
-uigilare, Bacch. 398 

ENNIVS. 

ob-agitare, ap. Non. 147, 9 
-strigillare, 18 Sat. 5 
-Harare, Tr. 3 

CATO. 

oc-cnlcare, 19 R. R. 49, 2 
-mouere, Id. 134 ; al. 
-picare, Id. 120 
-pilare, 20 Id. 100 

TEKEOTIVS. 

ob-saturare, Haut. 869 
-serare, ai Eun. 763 
-ticere, Id. 820 

Lvcruvs. 
ob-s!dere, M Sat. 7, 15 

POMPONIVS. 

oc-qniniscere, Com. 126 & 149 



1 Meyer-LUbke, Gramm. d. Eoman. Spr., II., p. 617 ; con/, supra, 61, p. 249. 

s Ou. ; Liu. ; Suet. Varr. 4 Pers. ; Feat. ; Amm. ; Legg. XII. Tabb. B Ter. ; Lucr. ; 
Sail. Fr.; Liu.; Tac. "Verg.; Liu.; Sen. Poet. 7 Cato ; Liu. ; ApuL Ter.;Apul. "Aur. 
Viet. JO Prud. "Suet.; Apul. IS Gell.;Porphyr.; verb. depow.=- Auct. Inc. de Idiom. 
Cas. 567,8 K "Tert.; Ambr. Plin.;Hyg.;Lact. "Ter.; Ou.; Apul.; Prud.; 
CaeL Aur. " Trag. Inc. Fr. ; Sisenn. ; Sail. Fr. ; Verg. ; Liv. ; Col. " Ace. Tr. 8 Varr. 
Sat. Men. ; Sen. Ep. ; Isid. " Varr. ; Liu. " Varr. ; Lucr. ; Cic. , semel, (Phil. 2, 21) ; 
Vulg. ; Augustin. Z1 CatulL ; Hor. ; Liu. ; Suet ; Amm. ; Augustin. Ja Lucr. ; Sail ; Verg.; 
TibulL 



71. PER-, VERB.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 283 

VABBO. TERTVLLIANVS. 

of-fringere, 1 R. R. 1, 29, 2 ob-aemulari, 7 adu. Marc. 4, 31 

-fuscare, 8 Id. 2, 12 ; al. 

LVCRETIVS. -humare, Pall. 2 

ob-brutescere," 3, 543 -laqueare, 9 (laqueus), Res. Cam. 7 

-mussare, Anim. 18 

CICERO (Episrr.). -trahere, Virg. Vel 15 

ob-languescere, ad Fam. 16, 10, 2 

SOMNVS. 

HOBATIVS. oc-clarescere, 2, 54 

op-pedere, s Sat. 1, 9, 70 -rancare, 10, 13 

ViTHVVivs. LACTANTIVS. 

ob-solidare, p. p. p., 2, 3, 2 ob-arescere, Opif. 10, 3 

CoTjVMELLA. LAMPBIDIVS. 

ob-laqueare, 4 (lacus), 2, 14, 3 ob-stuprare, Comm. 3, 4 

PLINIVS. FIBMICVS MATEKNVS. 

ob-atrare, p. p. p., 18, 349 ob-atrescere, Praef. p. 1, ed. Basil. 
-putare, 17, 156 

PAT.TIADIVS. 

INSCKR. POMPEIAN. ob-uiare, 10 1, 35, 14 ; al. 
ob-lingere, G. I. L. IV, 760 

VEGETTVS. 

APVLEIVS. ob-uolutare, p. p. p., 3, 4 
ob-audire, 6 Met. 3, 15 

-aurare, p. p. p., Id. 11, 8 AVGVSTINVS. 

-can tare, 6 Apol. 84 oc-crescere, Ciu. Dei 2, 3, Lemm. 

-fulcire, Met. I, 13 ; al -dulcescere, 11 Conf. 7, 20, 2 

-ructare, p. pr. a., de Mund. 59 -rabescere, Serm. 107, 7 

-sibilare, Met. 11, 7 -sericare, p. p. p., Serm. 61, 8 

-stemere, Apol. 97 -surdare, p. p. p., in Ps. 57, 15 

-tinnire, Id. 48 

-ungere, p. p. p., Met. 2, 9 ; al. CASSIODORVS. 

-uerberare, Id. 7, 25 ; al. ob-uelare, Hist. Eccl. 10, 26 

71. VERBS COMPOUNDED WITH per-: These compounds seem 
to have been popular in the earlier period of the sermo ple- 

'Col.jPauL exFest. 'Paul. exFest.; Prnd. * " Ausdr. des gemeinen Lebena," 
Georges Worterbuch, s. u. 4 Isid. 5 Tert. ; Ambros. ; Vulg. "Paul. Sent. 7 Vulg.; 
Gael. Aur. 8 Intpr. Iren. ; Herm. Past. ; Arnob. ; Ambros. ; Vnlg. Ps.-Tert. de lona. 
10 Veget. ; Hier. ; Vulg. ; Macr. ; lul. VaL " Gloss. Philox. 



284: WORD FORMATION IN THE l 71. PEE-, VERB. 



Out of a total of 351 forms, 2 the great majority of 
which belong- to ante-Hadrian literature, Cicero uses barely 
75, and most of these occur in Plaut. or other early writers. 
Silver Latin adds only 46, the Spaniard Col. taking- the lead 
with 8. Among the scanty additions of later writers, African 
Latin is well represented, Tert. giving 6, Apul. and Augustin. 
2 each. This form of composition, accordingly, seems to 
have reached its greatest height in archaic times, and was 
never popular in classic Latin. Even in the sermo plebeius it 
seems to have died out in Italy at a comparatively early date, 3 
although it survived to some extent in the provinces. This 
view is confirmed by the Romance languages. The prefix is 
nowhere especially productive, yet a few new forms occur in 
all the branches of the Romance group outside of Italy, even 
in Rumanian, which represents the latest form of the sermo 
plebeius in the provinces. In Italian, however, this method of 
formation has been lost ; the form perdonare, which is some- 
times cited, undoubtedly goes back to the Vulg. Lat. *perdo- 
nare, as is proved by Fr. pardonner, Span, perdonar, Port. 
perdoar, while p&rmischlare, perseguitare are but developments 
of Lat. permiscere, persequi* 

LIVIVS ANDEONIOVS. per-cruciare, Bacch. 1099 

per-bitere, 6 Tr. 27 -cupere, 10 Asin. 76 

-dormiscere, Men. 928 

PLAVTVS. -ductare, Most. 847 

per-acescere, Bacch. 1099 ; dl. -fabricare, Pers. 781 

-ambnlare, 6 Most. 809 -frigefacere, Pseud. 1215 

-bibere, 7 Stick. 340 -graecari, 11 Most. 22 ; al. 

-cidere, 8 Pers. 283 ; al -ham-ire, 13 Mil. 34 

-coquere, 9 Rud. 902 *-lauare, 13 Most. Ill R. 

'"Wolfflin, PhiloL, 34, p. 165; con/. Stinner, p. 17; Landgraf, Epp. Cic., p. 821; 
Hellmuth, Prior. Cic. Oratt., p. 28; Kohler, p. 21; Schulze, Diss. HaL, VI, p. 215; 
Lorenz ad Plaut. Pseud., 1198; Stnenkel, p. 72. "Pancker, Materialien, L, p. 22. 
3 W6lfflin, 1. I. (commenting on the lack of examples in Italian, etc.), "es macht 
iibrigens den Eindruck, als ob die Bildungen mit per- in der Volkssprache der romi- 
schen Kaiserzeit selbst schon zuriickgetreten seien." 4 Meyer-Lubke, Gramm. d. 
Roman. Spr., II., p. 631, u Per . . . ist iibrigens nicht sonderlich fruchtbar, 
namentiich diirfte es dem Italienischen ganz abzusprechen sein," et sq. 

4 Plaut. , Enn. ; Pacuu. 6 Varr. ; Lucr . ; Catull. ; Hor . Ep. ; Phaedr. ; Sen. ; Plin. Ep. ; 
Vulg. 7 Cato R. R. ; Ou. ; Col. ; Sen. ; Quint. ; Lact. 8 Sen. ; Mart. Cato ; Lucr. ; Ou. ; 
Vitr. ; Sen., 'Col.; Plin.; Plin. Ep. 10 Ter.; Gell.; Augustin. Titin. Com.;Paul. ex 
Fest. ^ipnl. ; Tert. 13 Tert. ; Pelag. Vet. 



71. PER-, VERB.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



285 



per-lubere, Copt. 833 ; al. 
-madefacere, Most. 143 
-manascere, Trin. 155 
-numerare, l Epid. 632 
-pauefacere, Stick. 85 
-placere, 2 Most. 907 
-pluere, 8 Id. 164 
-pruriscere, 4 Stick. 761 
-putare, Gist. 155 
-reptare, 8 AmpTi. 1011 
*-sectari, 6 Jtfi7. 430 ed. Brix. 
-sentiscere, 7 Merc. 687 
-tegere, 8 Rud. 123 
-tundere, 9 Pseud. 170 
-uenari, Jbferc. 818 
-uiuere, 10 Gapt. 742 



ENNIVS. 

per-macere, Ann. 524 

CATO. 

per-spergere," jR. J?. 130 
-spirare, 12 Id. 157, 7 
-taedescere, 13 156, 6 

TEBENTIVS. 

per-dolere, 14 Eun. 154 
-fluere, 18 Id. 105 

Accrvs. 

per-fremere, Tr. 403 
-grandescere, /e?. 440 
-pedire, Id. 279 
-tolerare, 16 Id. 91 



Lvcniivs. 
per-crepare, 



. 26, 57 



per-mingere, 18 Id. 3, 55 
-olere, 19 Id. 30, 131 
*-serpere, ao Id. Pr. 165 Lachm. 

AFBANIVS. 

per-torquere, 31 (7oz. 1 

VARBO. 

per-arescere, 22 R. R. 1, 49, 1 
-calefacere, 23 Id. 1, 27 
-cumbere, L. L. 9, 49 
*-feruefieri, R. R. 1, 9, 2 
-inungere, J2. J?. 2, 11, 7 
-pascere, 24 i. i. 5, 95 
-serere, R. R. 1, 41, 5 

LVCEETIVS. 

per-calescere," 6, 281 
-figere, 6, 350; al. 
-fluctuate, 3, 719 
-scindere, 48 6, 111; al. 
-sidere," 1, 307 ; al. 

ClOEBO (EPISTT.). 

per-gaudere, ad Qu. Fr. 3, 1, 3, 



CATYLLVS. 
per-depsere, 74, 3 

HOEATTVS. 
per-molere, 28 Sat. 1, 2, 35 

VlTBWIVS. 

per-aequare, 29 7, 9, 3; al. 
-candefacere, 8, 3, 1 
-dolare, 80 2, 9, 7 ; al. 



J Liu. ; Mart. ; Vlp. Dig. a Cic. Ep. ; Nebrid. ap. Augustin. Ep. 8 Cato R. R. ; 
Vitr. ; Fest. ; Quint. ; ApuL Met. 4 Apul. Met. 6 Ter. 8 Lucr. ; Frontin. 7 Ter. ; 
Lucr.; Solin.; Augustin. 8 Varr. Sat. Men.; Vitr.; Gael. Aur. Cato ; Lucr.; Catull.; 
Liu.; Sen.; Scrib.; Pers.; luuen. Ace. Tr. " Cic., semel, (Or. 1, 159) ; Tac.; Solin. 
12 Plin. " Gell. " Cl. Quadrig. Lucr. ; Tibull. ; Petr. ; Plin.; Mela ; Apul. ; Arnob. 
16 Lucr. Cic., semel, (Verr. 5, 31). 18 Hor. Sat. "Lucr. 20 Fulg. Verg. Cont. 
21 Lucr. MCol. 23 Lucr.; Vitr.; Val. Max. Auct. Aetnae. 0u. "Liu. ^Verg. 
Ge. 88 Ser. Samm. aa Solin.; Comraodian. 30 Arnob. 



286 WORD FORMATION IN THE [73. SVB-, VERB. 

per-librare, 1 /). p. p., 8, 6, 2 AFVLEIVS. 

-limare, 5, 9, 5 per-efflare, Met. 8, 14 

-macerare, 7, 2, 1 -quiescere, Id. 8, 22 
-struere, 4 7, 4, 1 

TEBTVLLIANVS. 

CELSVS. per-delere, 9 adu. lud. 11 

per-rodere, 3 5, 28, 12 -formare, Apol. 1 

-indigere, ac?w. Gnost. 13 

COLVMELLA. -luminare, Cfo'tt. (77s/ 1 . 4 

per-aedificare, 4 4, 3 in. *-pastinare, p. pr. a., Cult. 

-cudere, 8, 5, 14 Fern., 2, 9 

-friare, 12, 38, 5 -seruare, de Patient. 5 ; al. 
-gliscere, 8, 7, 4 

-hiemare, 11, 7, 4 INTPE. IEEN. 

-linere, 6 7, 5, 4 per-exire, 10 2, Pra<^. 1 
-linire, 6 9, 12, 2 

-terere, 12, 38, 7; aJ. AMMIANVS. 

per-monstrare, 18, 6, 9 
PETBONIVS. 

per-basiare, 41, 8 

HIEHONYMVS. 

-colopare, 44, 5 . T . _ n 

per-tremiscere, tw Jesae. 3, 7, 2 : 

*-uaporare, 73, 5, comect. Kel- . 

ler. 

PLINIVS. AVGVSTINVS. 
per-cognoscere, 4, 98 ; al per-necare, fiferm. 17; al. 

-nauigare, 2, 167 *-patere, Id. 100, 1 Jfof. 

-sorbere, 31, 123 

-transire,' 37, 68 CAELIVS AVBELIANYS. 

per-stipare, Acut. 3, 8, 93 
MAKTIALIS. 

per-nere, 8 1, 88, 9 SEDONIVS APOLLINAKIS. 

-osculari, 8, 81, 5 per-serere, (1), Carm. 7, 386 

72. VERBS COMPOUNDED WITH sub- : These verbs, like the 
preceding 1 , are most abundant in the earlier period of the pop- 
ular speech, down to the Augustan age, notably in Plaut. and 
Cic. Epistt. 11 They become less frequent in Silver Latin, but 
unlike the forms in per-, which gradually died out in Italy, 

1 Sen. ; Col. ; Sil. 2 Rufin. sPlin. 4 Vulg. 6 Apul. ; Pall. ; Amm. 6 Vulg. 
7 Itala; Hier. ; Vulg. 8 Sidon. Carm. Veget. 10 Chalcid. Tim ; Cassiod. 

"Schulze, Diss. Hal., VI., p. 216, citing Wolffl in, Philol. 34, p. 165; Lorenz ad 
Plaut. Pseud. 401; Stuenkel, p. 74; Stinner, p. 18; Landgraf , Cic. Epiatt. , p. 321 ; 
conf. Schmilinsky, p. 42 ; Hauschild, Dias. Hal., VI, p. 62. 



72. SVB-.VKBB.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 287 

are found to some extent in all periods of the language, and 
in later times are conspicuous in African Latinity. Accord- 
ingly their frequency in Apul. and Arnob. is not to be attrib- 
uted to intentional archaism, as Lorenz seems to suggest. 1 
The Romance languages have all retained sub- as a formative 
prefix, although only to a limited extent, and often replace it 
by subtus-. Instances of new formations are : Ital. succliiu- 
dere, sugghignare, sugguardare / Span, sodormir, sofreir, sosanar, 
etc. 2 

NAEVIVS. sub-rectitare, Oratt. 57, Fr. 2 

sub-sernire, 8 Com. 112 -tendere," R. R. 10 ; al. 

-tenere, Id. 25 

PLAVTVS. -terere,w Id. 72; al. 
sub-blandiri, 4 Asin. 185; al. 

-cernere, 6 Poen. 513 TBBENTIVS. 

-domare, Asin. 702 sub-monere," Eun. 570 

-edere,' Fr. Fab. Inc. 26 -sentire, Haul. 471 

-flare,' Cos. 582 _ stare>!!0 Andr ^ 9U 

-fulcire, 8 Epid. 83 

-furari, True. 566 ; al. . 

-lectare, Mil. 1066 A C: , K ._ 

9 ir eni , suc-cussare, Tr. 568 

-linere, 9 Merc. 604 ; al. 

-olere, 10 Pseud. 421 ; al. 

-palpari," Mil. 106 Lvcmvs. 

-parasitari, Amph. 993 ; al. suf-fercire,.p. p. p., Sat. 15, 37 

-pilare," True. 566 -plantare," Id. 29, 50 

-pingere, 13 (pangere), Trin. 720 -pndere,- Id. Fr. Inc. 154 

-silire, 14 Cure. 151 

-sultare, 15 Capt. 637 ; al. Novivs. 

-uentare, Rud. 231 sub-labrare, Cam. 13 

CATO. VAEBO. 

sub-radere, 18 R. R. 50, 2 sub-albicare, p. pr. a., R. R. 3, 9, 5 

1 Lorenz, 1. I., " Solche Znsammensetznngen mit sub . . . finden sich ofters 
in der Umgangssprache (und bei Archaisten). Meyer-Liibke, Gramm. d. Rom. Spr., 
IL, p. 633. 

3 Plant. ; Ter. ; M. Caes. ap. Fronton. ; Apnl ; Pacat. Pan. ; Augustin. Ep. 4 Ter. ; Lu- 
cil. Cato; Vitr.; Auct. Aetnae;Plin. On.; Hier. 7 Cato; Varr.; Petr.;Pers.; Plin.; 
Mart. ; Gell. ; Vulg. ; Marc. Emp. Lucr. ; Curt. ; Mart. ; Apnl. Cato ; Plin. 10 Form 
-olere Ter. Haut. 899. J1 Symm. Ep. "Pompon. Com. 13 Fronto; Symm. Ep. 
"Lucr.; Varr.; Prop.; Sen.; Apul. "Quint.; Tert; Hier. 18 Pall.; Amm. "Gromat. 
Vet. 18 Col; Plin. " Suet. ; Donat. ad Ter. =">Cels. "Suet. M * Cic. , semel, (Off 8, 
10, 42) ; Vitr. ; Sen. ; Col. ; Plin. ; Pers. ; Quint. ; Ambros. Cic. Ep. 



238 WORD FORMATION IZV THE [ 72. SVB-, VEKB. 

sub-cinere, 1 Id. 1, 2, 16 sub-lanare, 18 6, 18, 10 

-collare," Id. 3, 16, 8 -salire, "p. p.p., 5, 12 
-dealbare, Sat. Men. 171 

-ftimigare, 3 E. H. 3, 16, 36 COLVMHQLA. 

-fundare, Sat. Men. 524 sub-admouere, 6, 36, 4 

-secare, 4 JR. S. 1, 23, 3 ; al. -iacere," 1, 2, 3 

-sipere, L. L. 5, 128 -rtunare, 1 ' 7, 4, 3 

-serere, 17 (1), 4, 15, 1 

LVCBETJLVS. 

suc-cutere, 5 6, 551 PBTBONIVS. 

-oriri,' 1, 1036 sub-aurare, 18 p. p. p., 32, 3 

-olfacere, 45, 10 
CIOEKO (EPISTT.). 
sub-accusare, 7 ad Alt. 13, 46, 3 ; PEH^S. 

a ' sub-aerare, p. p. p.. 5, 106 

-diffidere, Id. 15, 20, 2 

-docere, 8 Id. 8, 4, 1 

-dubitare, Id. 14, 15, 2 ; al V*- 

-inuidere,' ad Fam. 7, 10, 1 sub-femefacere, 18, 104 ; al. 

-inuitare, Id. 7, 1, 6 ' arare > 16 > 116 ' al ' 

-negare, Id. 7, 19 in. 

-offendere, ad Qu. Fr. 2, 6, 5 APVUJIVS. 

-pedere, ad Fam. 9, 22, 4 sub-cubare, Met. 1,12 ; al. 

-ringi, ad Att. 4, 5, 2 -feruere, Eerb. 115 

-uereri, a<? J^am. 4, 10, 1 -neruare, 19 Apol. 84 

-patere, Met. 8, 20; al. 

HOEATIVS. -petiari, Id. 4, 10 ; al. 

snb-suere, 10 ^a^. 1, 2, 29 -serere, 30 (2), Id. 7, 28 

-strepere, Id. 5, 18 

VlTKVVTVS. 

sub-arescere, p. pr. a. t 7, 3, 5 TEBTVLUANVS. 

-cuneare, 6, 8, 2 sub-diuidere, 21 adu. lud. 8, 11 

-lidere, 11 ib. -fermentare, p. p. p., adu. 

-rotare, p. p. p., 10, 13, 4 Valent. 17 

-intellegere, S11 adu. Marc. 5, 3 

CELSVS. -intrare," Id. 5, 3 

suf-fricare, ia 6, 6, 26 -introire, 54 Id. 5, 13 

1 Hor. Ep. ; Pers. ; Petr. ; Calp. Eel. a Suet. ; Commodian. s Gels. ; Col. ; Plin. Val. ; 
GargiL Mart. *Ou.; Cels.; Col. ^QU.; Sen.; Val. Max.; Apul. Plin.; Arnob. ; Boeth. 
7 et Cic., semel, (Plane. 86). 8 Augustin. 9 p. p.p. Cic., semel, (Rab. Post.). 

10 Intpr. Iren. Prud. ia Col. 13 Capit. " Plin. 15 Plin. ; Curt. ; Quint. ; Plin. Ep. ; 
Apul. ; Lact. ; Vulg. ; Cod. lust. 16 Paul, ex Fest. 7 ICt. 18 SchoL luuen. ; Inscrr. 
19 Tert.; Vulg.; Gloss. 20 Amm. ai Augustin.; Eccl. aa Hier.; Augustin. ; Greg. M. 
sa Angustin. 44 Arnob. ; Vulg. 



73. BI-PREP. VBS.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



289 



sub-ostendere, 1 adu. Valent. 1 ; 

al. 
-parare, (parare), Cult. Fern. 2, 

7; al. 

-parare, (par), adu. Valent. 4 
-radiare, Res. Cam. 29 
-remanere, 3 Anim. 18 
-residere, ad Vxor. 2, 1 
-spargere, Res. Cam. 63 
-tinnire, de Pall. 4 

AKNOBIVS. 
sub-aperire,* 2, 58 
-exhibere, 6, 8 
-explicate, 7, 46 
-inflare, 4 2, 46 
-iugare, 5 7, 24 

PELAGONIVS. 

sub-siccare, Vet. 24; al. 

AMMIANVS. 

sub-frendere, p. pr. a., 15, 12, 1 
-stridere, 16, 4, 2 

VEGBTTVS. 
sub-glutire, Vet. 3, 60 



sub-lacrimare, p. pr. a., Id. 1, 30 
*-tussire, Id. 3, 25, 2 

AMBEOSTVS. 
sub-aemulari, in Ps. 36, 10 

HIEBOKIMVS. 
suf-fumare, 6 Ep. 29, 1 

-mtilare, 7 in lesai. 15, 54, 12 

AVGVSTINVS. 

sub-crepare, Vit. Beat. 3 
-haerere, de Trin. 12, 3 
-relinquere, Ciu. Dei 18, 33 
-stomachari, Con/. 3, 12, 21 
-nelare, de Lib. Arb. 2, 14, 38 

MABCELLVS EMPIBIOVS. 
sub-meiere, 8, 128 

CAELIVS AVBEMANVS. 
sub-assare, 8 Chron. 4, 3, 65 ; al. 
-latere, Signif. Diaet. Pass. 
136 

SIDONIVS APOMJNAKIS. 
sub-flammare, Ep. 4, 6, 4 ed. Mohr. 



73. BI-PBEPOSITIONAL VERBS : The fondness of the sermo 
plebeius for prepositional compounds is best seen in the so- 
called uerba decomposita, or bi-prepositional verbs. 9 The ten- 
dency to combine two or more prepositions, either alone as ad- 
verbs, 10 or in composition with verbs and verbal derivatives, 
cannot properly be included among plebeian archaisms, as 
the great majority occur in late Latin. Nevertheless a suf- 
ficient number of both classes occur in archaic writers to 
indicate that Latin had inherited this form of composition, in 

"Bccl. lul. Roman, ap. Charis. 3 Pseud. -Apic. 4 CaeLAur. Eutr.;Iul 
Val.; CL Mam.; Lact.; Firm. Math.; Ascon. Gloss. Labb. * Cl. Mam. 8 Pseud.- 
Apic. 

9 Schmalz, Stilist., p. 553, " in die Volkssprache begiinstigt ; " cow/. Ronsch, pp. 
206-213 ; Wolfflin, Cass. Pel., p. 414 ; Koffmanne, Kirchenlat. , I., p. 140 ; Hamp, ALL., 
V., p. 326, annot.; conf. supra, 61, p. 247. 10 Conf. Hamp, 1. I. pp. 321-36a 
19 



290 WORD FORMATION IN THE [73. BI-PREP. VBS. 

common with Greek 1 and Sanskrit, and did not owe its later 
development entirely to Grecian influence : 2 compare tircum- 
circa, Plaut., Cato, etc., praeter-propter, Cato, Enn.; dis-con- 
ducere, *per-co-gnoscere, Plaut., con-de-liquescere, Cato, etc. The 
classical writers on the other hand show little fondness for 
such formations. 3 Paucker 4 gives the entire number of these 
verbs as 490, of which only 142 are uett., divided chiefly 
between archaic and Silver Latin ; a very small proportion 
occur in the best period, principally in the Augustan poets, 
Tvhere they are directly attributable to the influence of the 
Dearly Latin and Greek poets, who were their models. In Cic., 
aside from the Epistt., I have found only the following forms : 

abs-con-dere, com-pre-hendere, de-pre-hendere, 

ap-pre-hendere, con-su(r)-r(e)gere, de-re-linquere, 

ap-pro-mittere, co-o-per-ire, re-pre-hendere. 

ad-su(r)-r(e)gere, de-per-ire, 

As a general rule, therefore, classical Latin rarely allowed 
the addition of a second preposition, and only where the verb 
had ceased to be regarded as a compound, either because it 
had acquired a different meaning from that of the simple verb, 
as e.g. ad-surgere, (= -sur-reyere), con-surgere, etc., or where the 
simple verb had gone out of use, as co-o-perire, Cato, ad-im- 
plere, Liu. 5 The same principle applies to the sermo plebeius, 
in which the retention and steady increase of these forms seem 
directly attributable to the popular weakening already 
observed in many of the prepositional prefixes, 6 notably ad-, 
con-, and de-, and a glance at the accompanying list shows 
that a majority of the forms from early plebeian sources are 
from verbs compounded with these prepositions. 

With Liu. and Silver Latin such compounds become more 
frequent in literature, but until the time of Plin. they are 
largely confined to the combination super-in- ; 7 compare Cels., 
who affords 5 examples. In the late language, however, and 

1 Conf. Brugmann, Griechische Grammatik, p. 218, 199. a Draeger, Hist. Synt. , 
L, p. 138, " (uerba decomposita) sind zwar nicht alle durch griechischen Einfluss 
enstanden ; da sie jedoch in der alten Zeit ausserst selten vorkommen, claim aber, je 
welter die Sprache vorschreitet, um so reichlicher gebildet werden, so ist die Mitwirk- 
nng des Griechischen bei diesem Bildungsprocess anzunehmen ; " Schmalz, 1. 1., " in der 
alten Komodie ziemlich zahlreich. " 3 Schmalz, 1. I,, "Man kann wohl sagen dass 
Decomposita der klassischen Sprache nicht besonders sympathisch sind." 4 Paucker, 
Materialien, L, p. 24. * Wolfflin, Cass. Pel, p. 414; con/. Schmalz, Stilist., p. 552. 
Conf. supra, 61, p. 247. 7 Schmalz, 1. I., p. 553. 



73. BI-PKEP. VBS.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIV8. 291 

especially in African and Bible Latin, 1 where the Greek influ- 
ence is always prominent, the compounding- of prepositions 
was practically unrestrained, and many combinations were al- 
lowed which were unheard of in the earlier period. Such are 
ab-re- (3, all recc.), ad-inter- (1 recc.}, circum-con- (1 recc.), 
co-in- (5, all recc.), in-ad- (3, all recc.), per-de- (5, all recc.), 
per-ex- (13, all recc.), prae-inter- (2 recc.), re-ad- (5, all recc.), 
super-ab- (2 recc.), trans-per- (1 recc.), and many others. 2 Re- 
duplication of the prefix sometimes occurs, of which Paucker 3 
cites examples in ad-ad-, con-con-, and ex-e-. Instances of 
the combination of more than two prepositions, such as co-ad- 
im-plere, cor-re-sus-citare, already cited, are confined to post- 
classical Latin. 4 Yet it is interesting- to observe, in view of 
their plebeian origin, that in spite of the growing profusion 
of these compounds, they were, at a comparatively late period, 
still felt to be contrary to the best usage of the time : thus in 
regard to the verb exsufflare, we find in Sulp. Seu. Dial. 3, 8, 2, 
quern eminus, ut uerbo . . . parum Latino loquamur, exsufflans? 
This practice of combining prefixes is of great importance 
in the Romance languages, where the principle is carried to a 
much greater extent. Forms with dis-, and with re-, are very 
common, and instances of three and even four prepositions in 
combination may be cited ; compare Ital. r-in-con-vertire, in- 
com-in-ciare, r-in-com-in-ciare. Reduplication is also more fre- 
quent than in Latin, showing a more general weakening of the 
prefix : e. g., Fr. con-cuellir (con-col-ligere), Span, con-comer (con- 
com-edere), cor-cusir (con-con-suere), Ital. sc-e-gliere, (ex-e-ligere), 
etc. 6 

PiiAvrvs. *per-co-gnoscere, T True. 151 Codd. 

dis-con-ducere, Trin. 930 C D L 

dis-per-cutere, Gas. 644 re-com-mentari, Trin. 915 

ex-ob-secrare, Asin. 246 re-com-minisci, Id. 912 

1 Ph. Thielmann, ALL. VIII., p. 525, " Bei ihrem Hang zu breiter, voluminoser 
Ausdrucksweise bevorzugen die Afrikaner die Dekomposita, die zum Teil schon aus 
fruherer Zeit ubernommen sind," citing abscondere, derelinquere, deperire, disperdere, 
etc.; COM/. Wolfflin, 1. I.; Ronsch, p. 474 ; Koffmanne, p. 102. 2 Paucker, I. I. 3 Pauck- 
er, 1. I., p. 25 ; conf. supra, 61, p. 247. 4 Paucker, I. I.; Draeger accordingly errs, in 
saying (L, p. 138), "Eine dreifache Zusammensetzung, wie sie der Grieche z. B. mit 
uire/cirpo bei sieben Verbis schuf, hat das Latein nie gewagt." 8 Conf. ALL., VIII. , p. 
525, "liber die Volkstumlichkeit des letzten Wortes (exsujfto) belehrt uns Sulpicius 
Seuerus." 6 Diez, p. 707; conf. Wolfflin, I. I. 

'Plin. 



292 



WORD FORMATION IN THE [73. BI-PREP. VBS. 



CATO. 

ad-in-dere, R. R. 18, 9 
co-ad-dere, Id. 40, 2 
con-de-liquescere, Id. 23, 3 

TEKENTIVS. 

*pro-de-ambulare, Ad. 766 ed. 
Fleckh. 

AFRANTVS. 
ex-per-iurare, Com. 192 

SlSENNA. 

per-sub-horrescere, Hist. 4, Fr. 
104 

VAKKO. 

ex-pro-mittere, 1 JR. R. 2, 2, 5 
per-in-ungere, Id. 2, 11, 7 
sub-de-albare, Sat. Men. 171 
CM. 

LVCKETIVS. 

re-con-flare, 4, 924 

ClCEBO (EPISTT.). 

re-col-ligere, 2 ad. Att. 1, 5, 5 
sub-dif-fidere, Id. 15, 20, 2 
sub-in-uidere, 3 ad .Faro. 7, 10, 1 
sub-of-fendere, 4 ac? Qu. Fr. 2, 6, 5 

CAT\TLLVS. 
super-in-pendere,^). pr. a., 64, 286 

HORATIVS. 

dis-con-uenire, 6 Ep. 1, 1, 99 
in-e-mori, Epod. 5, 34 

Vri'Kvvivs. 

prae-ob-turare, 10, 7, 1 



CELSVS. 

super-ac-commodare, 8, 10, 1 
super-de-ligare, 7, 7, 8 
super-in-cldere, 7, 31 
super-in-crescere, 8, 10, 7 
super-in-fundere, 5, 25, 4 ; a/, 
super-in-linere," 3, 19 ; al. 
super-in-ungere, 1 7, 7,' 1 ; aJ. 

COLVMELIiA. 

ad-ob-ruere, 8 4, 15, 3 ; al. 
sub-ad-mouere, 6, 36, 4 
super-in-gredi, Poet. 10, 344 
super-in-struere, 9 9, 7, 3 

PBTKONIVS. 
ad-co-gnoscere, )0 69 
re-cor-rigere, 11 43, 4 
re-por-rigere, 51, 2 

PLOTVS. 

ad-al-ligare, 17, 211 ; al. 
ad-sub-rigere, 9, 88 
circum-ad-spicere, 8, 121 
circum-ob-ruere, 19, 83 
per-trans-ire, 12 37, 68 
prae-oc-cldere, 18, 285 
re-con-ducere, 13 29, 22 
super-e-mori, 10, 4 
super-in-cernere, 17, 73 
super-il-ligare, 18, 47 

GELMVS. 

per-ex-optare, p. p. p., (in tmesi), 
18, 4, 2 

APVLEIVS. 

ad-sub-spirare, Met. 4, 25 ; al. 
ex-com-edere, Herb. 8 
ex-ob-ruere, p. p. p., Met. 9, 6 



'ICt. 2 Ou. ; Sen. ; Col. ; Lacan. ; Plin.;Iustin.; Plin. Ep. 3 p.p.p. Cic., semel, 
(Rab. Post. 40). Plane, ap. Cic. Ep. ; Suet. ; Vulg. ; Boeth. 5 Lact. ; Gromat. Vet. 
Plin. ; Apul. 7 Scrib. Gargil. Cod. lust Quint. ; Tert. ; Vulg. ' Tert. ; 
Gromat. Vet. ; Ter. Scaur. ia Itala ; Hier.; Vulg. Quint. ; Vlp. Dig. 



73. BI-PBEP. VBS.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIV8. 



293 



in-co-gnoscere, Flar. 19, p. 32, 20 

Kr. 

per-ef -flare, Met. 8, 14 
super-in-curuare, p. p. p., Id. 9, 7 

TEKTVLLIANYS. 

ab-re-linquere, p. p. p., adu. 

lud. I 

ad-in-uenire, 1 adu. Gnost. 1; al. 
co-ad-olescere, Anim. 19, 16 
con-re-cumbere, 2 Test. Anim. 4 
con-re-supinare,p. jp.p., Anim. 48 
con-re-auscitare, s Res. Cam. 23 
ex-con-dere, adu. Marc, 5, 18 
ex-suf -flare, 4 Idol. 11 
in-ac-crescere, adu. Gnost. 1 
in-ob-audire, 6 ae?M. Marc. 3, 16 
in-ob-lectari, e adu. Hermog. 18 
per-de-lere, 7 adu. lud. 11 
per-ind-igere, 8 adu. Gnost. 13 
re-con-cludere, adu. Prax. 16 
re-com-pingere, Res. Cam. 30 
re-con-signare, Id. 52 
red-in-duere, p. p. p., Id. 42 
red-in-nenire, -4ra'7n. 46 
sub-re-manere, 9 Id. 18 
super-ex-tollere, 10 Res. Cam. 24 
super-ill -undare, Jc?. 63 

INTPK. IBEN. 

circum-ob-seruari, 1, 13, 6 
co-ab-ducere, 3, 25, 1 
co-ob-audire, 2, 13, 9 
per-ex-ire, n 2, Praef. 1 

ARNOBIVS. 

*sub-ex-hibere, 6, 195 
sub-ex-plicare, 7, 46 
sub-intro-ire, 12 6, 12 



PATJiADIVS. 

super-ad-icere, 13 11, 14, 15 

PLINIVS VALEKIA.NYS. 

super-ad-spergere, 14 3, 12 

THEODOBVS PRISCIANVS. 
super-ad-hibere, 2, 1 

AVIENVS. 

super-ab-luere, Perieg. 881 
super-at-trahere, Phaenom. 1250 
super-in-uehere, Id. 1158 

AVSONIVS. 

super-ex-ire, Edyll. 18, 1 

AMMIANVS. 
ex-ab-uti, 25, 7, 8 
praeter-in-quirere, 15, 5, 12 

AMBBOSIVS. 

con-de-scendere, 15 Cant. Cantic. 

6,9 

re-con-uincere, Parad. 8, 39 
red-o(b)-perire, 18 de Noe et Area, 

20, 72 ; al 
super-ef-ficere, in Ps. 118, Serm. 

14, No. 9 

super-ef-fluere, 1T Id. ib. 
super-e-gredi, Ep. 6 

HlEKONYMYS. 

co-ad-iuuare, Galat. 6, 5 
dis-co-o-perire, 18 in lesai. 7, 20, 

16 

re-ac-cendere, Ep. 5, 1 
re-com-paginare, (Ps.-Hier.) Ep. 

2, ad Am. Aegr. 7 



Intpr. Iren.; Vulg. Vulg. Hier. 4 Pelag. Vet. ; Ambros. ; Augustin.; Cael. 
Aur. Intpr. Iren. ; Vulg. Vulg. ' Veget. " Vulg. luL Roman, ap. Charia 
"Vulg. "Chalcid. Tim.; Cassiod. l2 Vulg. "Ps.-Apic.; Macr. 14 Veget.; Ps.- 
Apic.; Cael. Aur.; Isid. " Cassiod. ' Heges. 17 Vulg.; Cl. Mam.; Paul. Nol.; Inscrr. 
18 Vulg. 



294 WORD FORMATION IN THE [74. REOOMP. 

STib-intro-dncere, 1 Ep. 112, 6 prae-di-gerere, p. p. p., Chron. 5, 

super-cor-rigere, Ep. ad Tit. 1, 5 2, 41 

prae-in-fundere, Acut. 2, 24, 136 

PAVLJNYS NOLANVS. re-col-locare, Chron. 1,1,31 

co-ex-sultare, Ep. U, 4 super-de-stillare, Id. 5, 1, 18 

AVGVSTINVS. ~. T, 

A a /v n in no i CASSIVS FEUX. 

ad-m-flare, Ciu. Dei 19, 23. 1 . . , __ 

,. , . . ' ' ,_ circum-m-cidere, 67, p. 164, 8 R. 

circnm-ad-iacere, Tnnit. 12, 15, , , , 

2 . sub-de-ducere, 71, p. 170, 2 jR. 

super-af -ferre, 75, p. 179, 19 R. 

circum-au-ferre, Ouaest. in Lemt. '. 

go o , super-com-edere, 48, p. 124, 4 R. 

super-pro-icere, 30, p. 60, 15 R. 
circum-in-sidiari, in Ps. 139, 11 

co-at-testari, in Ep. ad Rom. Ex- a 

10 blDONIVS APOLIiINAKIS. 

pos. 18 
ex-a-perire, Conf. 2, 10 per-ex-phcare, p. p. p., Carm. 23, 

prae-e-minere, Id. 6, 9 

, ,. ._ ' ._, prae-e-hgere, jE>>. 7, 4, 3 ed. 

sub-e-hgere, (ft.-^lt^.) adFratrr. , & 

Vero. Serm. 39 

, . , . super- e-micare, Carm. 15, 75 

sub-im-plere, c. Epist. Manich. . . ^ , , , 

00 * super-m-spicere, Ep. 6, 1, 1 ed. 

' ?if ^ 

sub-re-linquere, Ciu. Dei 18, 33 

eatfr. ._ 

, _ BOETHIVS. 

super-ex-cedere, (Ps.-Aug.) Spec- -, T . , r . , 

super-ad-nectere, Inst. Mus. 4, 17 

extr. 

super-ap-ponere, Id. 4, 9 
MACBOBTVS. 

super-oc-cYdere, Somn. Sap. 1, 
to in FYLGENTIVS. 

super-ap-parere, Myth. 2, 16 

PSEVDO-APIOIVS. 

per-e-lixare, 7, 289 CASSIODOBVS. 

re-ex-inanire, 4, 135; al re-con -struere,' Var. 2, 39, 9, p. 

sub-in-stillare, 3, 95 69 12 ed - Momms. 
*super-com-ponere, 4, 144 

ALDHELMVS. 

CAELIVS AVBEMANVS. subter-in-serere, Septen. col 219 

circum-pro-iicere, Acut. 2, 37, 193 t. 89 M. 

74. RECOMPOSITION : Although Becomposition, that is, the 
restoration in compounds of the original form of the simple 
stem, as con-sacrare, suc-canere, for consecrare, sitcdnere, is usu- 
ally considered under the head of Sound-Change, yet its im- 

1 Vulg. ; Augustin. a Jordan. 



74. RBCOMP.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIV8. 295 

portance in relation to Word-Formation in the Romance lan- 
guages is so great that a brief discussion here will not be out 
of place. It is a familiar fact that in the early Italic period 
the original Ind.-Germ. accent had already been largely 
replaced by a new system, in which the principal stress reg- 
ularly fell upon the first syllable 1 and consequently the sec- 
ond, or accentless, syllable frequently exhibits a weakening of 
the stem-vowel, especially in verbs compounded with preposi- 
tions : e.g.,facere, con-Jicere ; habere, prae-hibere, etc. Yet side 
by side with these forms, at all periods of the language, instan- 
ces occur in which the original vowel has been restored ; even 
the archaic period affords a few examples ; 2 compare conquaesi- 
uei, C.I.L., I., 551 ; exaestumauerit, Id., 198, 15, and others in 
the subjoined list. Such recomposition, which is now recog- 
nized as belonging mainly to the sermo plebeius? is evidently the 
result of a sort of etymological reaction, and forms a good 
illustration of the important part played by etymology in 
popular speech. It has been aptly suggested by Stolz that 
the concurrent usage of the simple form of the verb, separated 
from its preposition by tmesis, as in the archaic phrases 6b uos 
sacro, siib uosplaco, cited by Fest. 218, from religious formulae, 
must have encouraged the employment of analogous forms 
such as uos *obsacro, HAS *subplaco. i The prevalence of recom- 
position in the semno plebeius may also have been due in a 
measure to Osco-Umbrian influence. Von Planta, who has 
pointed out several parallels between these dialects and ple- 

i Brugmann, Grundriss, I., p. 548, " Nichts wiederstreitet der Annahme und vieles 
spricht f iir dieselbe, dass die uridg. Accentuation schon in der Periode der italischen 
Ureinheit eine vollige Umwalzung erfuhr. Die Anfangssilbe in mehrsilbigen Wortern 
wurde Tragerin des Wortaccentes, und dieser war exspiratorisch ; " conf. Stolz, Hist. 
Gramm., I., p. 95. a Stolz, 1. I. p. 187, " Wir konnen solche recomponierte Formen bis 
indie alteste Literatur zuriickverf olgen. " 3 Pott, Zeitschr. f. vergL Sprachf., I., p. 
335; Schuchardt, I., p. 36; Corssen, Krit. Beitr., p. 52, "In der spatlateinischen 
Volkssprache unterblieb die Vokalabschwachung im zweiten Gliede von Compositen 
haufig," citing from Monumentum Ancyranum several forms from consacrare, and from 
the Ms. Florent. of Pandects, adspargere, detractare, infacere, etc. ; Rousch, p. 406 ; 
Paucker, Subindenda, p. 411, annot. 4, "Sequior Latinitas -a- (uel diphth. ) radicalem 
reaeruare amat in uerbis cum praepositione compositis . . . derinatisque inde 
nominibus; " Stolz, 1. I. p. 187, " exaestimo verwirft Marius Victor. Gr. L., VI., 22, 7 
K. , woraus man neben anderen Grunden schliessen darf , dass die recomponierte For- 
men besonders volksthumlich waren : " conf. Lindsay, Latin Language, p. 199 ; Von 
Planta, L, p. 241, "Im Volkslatein war mehr als im classischen schon seit friiher Zeit 
die Recomposition beliebt." * Stolz, 1. I., citing Brugmann, Grundriss, I., p. 551. 



296 WORD FORMATION IN THE [74. RECOMP. 

beian Latin, cites numerous examples of recomposition in both 
Osc. and Umbr., e.g. Osc. aamanaffed (conf. Lat. com-mendo) ; 
kumparakineis, (conf. Lat. comperco) / Umbr. procanuretit, 
(conf. Lat. occino) ; prqpartie, (conf. Lat. dispertior), etc. 1 

In the transition from the Latin to the Romance epoch the 
great majority of Latin compounds were replaced by recom- 
position, and the regular practice of the modern languages is 
to attach the prefix directly to the unmodified verb : a thus we 
find Ital. de-cadere, dis-piacere, tra-salire ; Span, des-hacer, es- 
parcir ; Fr. de-faire, tres-saillir, etc., (conf. Lat. decidere, refi- 
cere, transsilire, etc.). 

In forming the following list I have been obliged to rely 
upon Georges, 'Lexicon der Lateinischen Wortformen, and 
upon the scanty collections made by Paucker, and for the early 
period, by Stolz. 3 An exhaustive collection has yet to be made, 
and affords a good field for special research. 

NAEVIVS. SENECA RHETOR. 

in-quaerere, Com. 12 ac-cadere, p. pr. a., Suas. 6, 3 

PLAVTVS. PUNIVS. 

ex-aestimare, Merc. 566 prae-canere," 29, 69 

re-quaerere, Id. 633 

TACITVS. 

CATO. . , . n - 

_ rt/ .- inter-iacere, Ann. 2, 10 

per-emere, op. Fest. 2bo 

VABRO. FESTI PAVL. EPET. 

suc-canere, (op. Varr.) L. L. 6, 75 circum-caedere, 20, 3 

CICEBO (EPISTT.). AMPEUVS. 

re-cadere, 4 ad Alt. 4, 18, 4 a(d)-spargere," 8, 16 

VrrBwrvs 

K IT 11 i APVtiETVS. 

con-s P argere,7,ll,l ob^ndiie," Jfe. 8, 15 

SAIiLVSTIVS. 

de-tractare, 6 lug. 53, 8 D. TERTVLTJANVS. 

oc-canere, 7 Hist. Fr. 1, 71 di-spargere, 11 adu. Marc. 2, 20 

i Von Planta, I. , Einleit. , p. 39 ; p. 341. * Stolz, 1. 1. ; Diez, p. 707 ; Meyer-Liibke, 
Gramm. d. Rom. Spr., II., p. 619. 3 Paucker, Subindenda, p. 411, annot. 4; Stolz, I. L 

* Suet. ; Gai. Inst. ; ICt. Apul. Met. ; Plin. Val. ; Marc. Emp. Verg. Ge. ; Frontin. ; 
Flor. ; Ser. Samm. ; Lact. T Tac. Ann. 8 Tert. 8 Ps. -Apic. ; Marc. Emp. Tert. ; 
Cypr.; Vulg.; obaudiens Ambros. Ep. ll Itala ; Conf. Ronsch, p. 406. 



74. BBCOMP.] 



ROMAN 8ERMO PLEBEIV8. 



297 



CTPKIANVS. 

con-tractare, Ep. 65, 3 

COMMODIANVS. 

con-tangere, Apol. 556 
*re-tacere, Instr. 1, 18, 10 Cod. C. 

SOIJNVS. 
con-satus, 9, 18 

PLINIVS VALEBIANVS. 
re-iactare, 4, 42 
super-spargere, 1, 56 ; al. 

AMMIANVS. 
in-causare, p. pr. a. t 22, 11, 5 



VEGKTIVS. 

prae-facere, Mil. 3, 6 

PSEVDO-APICIVS. 
circum-spargere, 8, 406 

CAEUVS AVRELIANVS. 
circum-claudere, Chron. 4, 7, 103 

CASSrVS FKTiTX. 

con-cadere, 51, p. 132, 1 R. 

MAOEOBIVS. 
prae-carpere, Sat. 3, 19, 4 

VENANTIVS FOBTVNATVS. 
re-claudere, Carm. 3, 2, 1 ; of. 



II NOMINAL COMPOSITION. 

75. NOMINAL COMPOSITION IN GENERAL : It is a familiar 
fact that in the formation of nominal compounds the Italic 
group was far inferior to the remaining Ind.-Germ. languages. 1 
The scanty remnants of the Osco-Umbrian inscriptions afford 
practically no examples, 2 while in Latin this kind of compo- 
sition, as an active principle of word-formation, is confined 
within very narrow limits. This poverty of the language was 
recognized and regretted by the Romans themselves : conf. 
Liu. 27, 11, 5, quos "androgynes" uulgus, ut pier ague, faciliore ad 
duplicanda uerba Graeco sermone, appellat ; and the familiar pas- 
sage in which Quint, censures the attempts of the early poets to 
reproduce Greek compounds in Latin, Quint. 1, 5, 70, Sed res tota 
magis Crraecos decet, nobis minus succedit, nee id fieri natura puto, 
sed alienis fauemus / ideoque cum Kvpravxcva mirati simus, incur- 
uiceruicum uix a risu defendimus / Gellius also, in an interest- 
ing chapter on the difficulty of finding an equivalent for the 
Greek iroAvTrpay/iocrvn/, plainly states the inferiority of Latin in 
this respect : Noct. Att. 11, 16, 1, Adiecimus saepe animum ad 
uocabula rerum non paucissima, quae neque singulis uerbis, ut a, 
Graetis, neque, si masdme pluribus eas res uerbis dicamus, tarn 
dilucide tamque apte demonstrari Latina oratione possunt quam 
Graeci ea dicunt priuis uocibus, and regrets his own infacundia, 
(Id. ib. 9), qui ne pluribus quidem uerbis potuerim non obscurissime 
dicere, quod a Graecis perfectissime uerbo uno et planissime dici- 
tur. 

There are indications, however, that in the archaic period 
this form of composition was not so foreign to the genius of 
the language. Among the names of localities, public festivals, 
and religious ceremonies, all of which go back to a remote 

1 Conf. Brngmann, Grundriss IL , p. 54 ; Lindsay, Latin Language, p. 359. 2 Brng- 
mann, 1. I., p. 58, "In den DenkmSlern des IJmbr. -samnitischen Zweiges iat diese 
CompositionBclasse nur ausserst durftig vertreten." 



75. NOM. COMP.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 

period, the large proportion of compounds is striking- ; thus 
su-oui-taurilia, stru-fer(c)tarii, the only two instances of co-ordi- 
nate compounds in Latin, both belong to religious terminol- 
ogy. Compare further Aequi-melium, Caeli-montium, Sepli- 
montium, Septi-zoniurn ; Armi-lustrium, Capiti-lauium, Fordi- 
cidia, Popli-fugia, Regi-fugium, Selli-sternium, Tubu-lustrium, 
etc. Many of these words, from the nature of the case, must 
have been as common in the popular speech as the names of 
our own national holidays and the nomenclature of our city 
streets are at the present day. That the senno plebeius not only 
retained but favored such compounds is indicated by the 
proneness of popular etymology to attribute a compound 
origin to many words where none existed; e.g., Argi-letum, 
(conf. Mart. 2, 17, 3, Argique letum) Capit-olium, (conf. Arnob. 
6, 7, ex Oli capite Capitolium). 1 

Again, while compounds were, at all periods of Latin litera- 
ture, employed more freely in poetry than in prose, it has 
been pointed out by Stolz 2 that they are especially charac- 
teristic of early dramatic poetry (at a time when in other re- 
spects the Roman poets were furthest removed from their 
Greek models), and that the usage steadily declined, until in 
Verg. it is confined within narrow bounds. Thus the latter 
often uses periphrases like (Auerna) sonantia siluis, Aen. 3, 
442, where an earlier poet would have coined a compound like 
*siluisonus? The early dramatic writers, in trying to force the 
unwieldy archaic Latin to assume the ease and grace of their 
Hellenic models, were glad to avail themselves of the greater 
freedom afforded by the popular speech, 4 and it is the latter, 

1 As farther instances of compounds by popular etymology, compare the frequent 
modification, in Vulg. Lat., of foreign names, such as Si(x)-terrae = Baeterrae, 
Da-nubius (dare -f- nubes) =- Danuuius, Porci-fera Procobera, Tri-uiclum _ 
Taruisium, and others cited by Keller, Volksetymologie, pp. 7-25. The tendency 
was by no means confined to proper names ; conf. ali-pilus = aliptes ; latro-nicium 
(necare) latrocinium, etc.; Keller, I. L, p. 129 sq. Stolz, Die Lat. Nominalcom- 

position in formaler Hinsicht, Innsbruck, 1877, p. 9. "Zwei Thatsachen ergeben 
Rich fur unsere Prage : (1) dass die altlateinische Volkssprache entschieden nicht die- 
selbe Abneigung gegen die Zusammensetzung hatte, wie die spatere Schriftsprache 
und dass (2) von den ersten scenischen Dichtern an, welche die Composition entschieden 
begunstigsten, dieselbe allmalig riickwarts geht und mit Vergil eine gewaltige Einform- 
igkeit erreicht. " 3 Lindsay, Latin Language, p. 360, compares silui-fragus, Lucr. 
4 Conf. Guericke, p. 37, " Sic iam Plautus audacia et temeritate componendi inter om- 
nes scriptores poetasque praeditus est. Nam non permultas uoces hybridas solum et 
mirimodis multimodisque compositas ipse formauit sed etiam multis uocabulis, qnae 
uulgi consuetudine uidentur composita usus est ; " Schulze, Diss. Hal., VI., p. 230, 



300 WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 75. NOM. COMP. 

quite as much as the example of Aristophanes or Menander, 
which is responsible for such ponderous compounds as tolutilo- 
querdia* Naeu. ; damnicupidus, munerigerulus, stultiloquentia, 
suauisauiatio, tragicomoedia, turpilucricupidus, uerbiuelitatio, 
Plaut. ; incuruiceruicus, repandirostrum, Pacuu. ; dulcioreloquus, 
subductisuperciliicarptor, Laeu.; scytalosagittipelliger, Poet. Vet. 
ap. Tert., many of which are veritable literary curiosities. A 
language capable of producing such formations undoubtedly 
possessed a decided tendency for free development, but few 
will agree with Draeger that it deserved a better fate than that 
prepared for it by the spirit of classicism, which held this 
tendency in check. 1 The great proportion of Latin compounds 
are distinctly unmusical, and the more fastidious poets of the 
Augustan age rightly avoided the harshness of forms which 
followed the letter but missed the spirit of the Greek. It is 
true that certain classes of compounds, such as adjectives in 
-fer and -ger, which from their greater natural smoothness 
were better adapted to the exigencies of verse, were largely 
relegated to the poets. In the main, however, statistics show a 
preponderance of compounds in authors of inferior Latinity. 
An interesting array of examples is cited by Guericke 2 from 
Petr. and the Inscrr. Pompeian., while the Appendix Probi, 
which with the Cena Trimalchionis of Petr. is the most im- 
portant source of the sermo plebdus preserved in Latin litera- 
ture, 3 contains the significant admonition, aquae ductus non 
aquiductus, terrae motus non terrimotium. Schulze has ob- 
served that Cic., Orat. 49, 164, has stigmatized the use of this 
class of compounds as asperitas, yet in his correspondence 
does not hesitate to use such forms as breuiloquens, leuidensis* 
A good example of the position occupied by them in classical 
Latin is afforded by the word sanguisuga, 5 of which Plin. says 
s. uulgo coepisse appellari aduerto, N. H. 8, 29. 

" Pnto poetas hanc licentiam ut alia sibi ex uulgari sennone assumpsisse cui re uera 
attribuenda est." 

1 Draeger, Hist. Synt., L, Einleit., p. XL, "Eine Sprache aber, die seiche Gebilde 
hervorzubringen vermag, und aollten dieselben auch nur zu komischen Efiecten ver- 
wendet werden, besass cine entschiedene Anlage zur freien Entwickelung und verdiente 
in dieser Beziehung em besseres Schicksal als die nun bald auftretenden von griech- 
ischen Einfluss beherrschten Koryphaen des Klassicismus ihr bereitet haben." * Guer- 
icke, I. I. 3 Conf. Stolz, Lat. Gramm., I., p. 44. 4 Schulze, 1. 1., citing Stinner, p. 17. 
6 Conf. Cael. Aur. Chron. 3, 2, 25, hirudinurn appositio, quas uolgo sanguisuga^ ap- 
pellant. 



75. NOM. COMP.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 301 

One notable feature, indicating- that even in the Plautine 
period Latin composition was past its prime, is the large pro- 
portion of compounds which occur only in derivative forms. 
Thus no example of a primary co-ordinate compound has sur- 
vived: suouitaurilia, strufer(c)tarii, above cited, are both de- 
rivatives. Other classes belong mainly to archaic Latin, as 
for instance compound present participles, the majority of 
which occur first in early writers, (although many became per- 
manently fixed in the poetic vocabulary) ; conf, arcitenens, 
Naeu.; caelipofens, multipotens, salsipotens, uiripotens, Plaut.; al- 
titonans, altiuolans, sapientipotens, signitenens, *ueliuolans, Enn.; 
armipotem, Ace. On the contrary their derivatives in -ntia 
belong chiefly to Post-Hadrian Latin : aequiparantia, multinu- 
bentia, multiuorantia, subtililoqiientia,, Tert.; honor ifieentia, Capi- 
tol.; suauifragrantia, suauiolentia, Augustin.; omnicognoscentia, 
omniintelligentia, omniuiuentia, Mar. Victorin.; aequisonantia, 
Boeth.; and many others. 1 The most important class of sub- 
stantives among nominal compounds, those in -ium, are deriv- 
atives, and the same is true of the largest class of verbs, those 
in -ficare, which, in theory at least, come from adjectives in 
-ficus. 2 Of course the majority of these forms are the result of 
analogy, and do not in each case imply the pre-existence of a 
primary form ; but the large number of these compound de- 
rivatives does imply that at an earlier period of the language 
primary compounds were prevalent, and shows that the ten- 
dency of the language was away from composition and towards 
derivation. 

Accordingly it is not surprising that composition should 
have survived most persistently in the most archaic branch of 
the language, the African Latin ; the fondness shown for forms 
in -ficus, -ficare, -ficantia, has often been noticed, 3 while 
Thielmann 4 cites from the Book of Sirach such forms as uitu- 
perare, alienigenus, pusillanimus, prauicordius, horripilatio, etc., 
as characteristically African. Kiibler 5 strengthens this view 
by an interesting collection of curious compounds from Afri- 

1 Conf. Paucker, Subindenda, p. 418, annot. 7. 2 Conf. Wolfflin, Cass. Pel., p. 410, 
" Verben auf ficare, welche dem Sinne nach blosse ableifcungen sind." 3 Conf. infra, 
78. * Thielmann, ALL. VIII., p. 512; Id. ib. p. 243, "Von der archaischen Zeit 
her hat sich das afrikanische Latein auch eine grossere Fahigkeit in der Zusammensetz- 
ung, insbesondere in der Nominal-komposition, bewahrt." " Kiibler, ALL. VIII., p. 
170. 



302 



WORD FORMATION' IN THE [76. COMPS.IN-IUM. 



can inscriptions, such as florisapus, rudimaturus, unicuba, uni- 
uira, etc. 

76. DERIVATIVE COMPOUNDS IN -ium : These substantives 
constitute one of the most popular classes of compounds in 
Latin, and are of especial importance in the sermo plebeius. Sim- 
ple derivatives in -ium, (excepting, of course, the lengthened 
forms -ar-ium, -or-ium), 1 are comparatively rare, and are no 
more characteristic of one department of Latin than another, 
but the compounds abound at all periods of the language, and 
many of them bear on their face the evidence of their pop- 
ular origin. Thus in addition to the names of localities, 
public festivals, etc. cited in the preceding section, compare 
the numerous articles of every -day use, such as auriscalpium, 
dentifricium, dentiscalpium, facitergium, manitergium, pannuuel- 
lium, the various unmistakably rustic terms such as f enisle- 
ium, mellifidum, opifici.um, *spicilegium, cited from Varr. by 
Stuenkel, 2 and names of plants, acrifolium, Macr. Sat., millefol- 
ium, Plin., nardifolium, Id., misereuiuium, Apul. Herb., solse- 
quium, Id., etc.; so also technical terminology, e.g. of archi- 
tecture, as aequipondium, interscalmium, intertignium, semifas- 
tigium, semimetopium, etc., used by Vitr. Some of these 
compounds are unmistakably vulgar, such as interfeminium, 
Apul., * inter natium, Fronto, lumbifragium, Plaut., triscurrium, 
luuen. The numerous forms in -ficium, many of them denot- 
ing trades, are, like the adjectives in -ficus and verbs in 
-ficare, found chiefly in the popular speech. 3 The classic 
writers seem in general to have avoided such forms, although 
a few, such as benejicium, munidpium, sti(pi)pendium, were in 
general use. Quint. 1, 6, 28, tells us that ueriloquium, ipse 
Cicero, qui finxit, reformidat, and the admonition of Prob. App. 
already cited, terrae motus, non terrimotium, is of special signifi- 
cance for this class of compounds. Modern authorities have 
rather strangely overlooked these words. Meyer-Liibke, 4 
however, has recently devoted an interesting section to them, 
proving by the Romance languages that they must have been 

1 Conf. supra, 19, 38 fin. 2 Stuenkel, p. 77, " Addo nonnulla substantiua com- 
posita, quae. . linguae rusticaeomninopropriafuisseuideantur." 3 Conf. infra, 78, 
p. 310. 4 Meyer-Liibke, Gramm. d. Rom. Spr., II., p. 450, " Es scheint nun, dass in der 
Umgangssprache mehr seiche Bildungen (auf -ium) bestanden haben als die Litteratur 
uberliefert, " con/. Grobers Grundriss, I. , p. 373, " -ium hat seine Stelle urspriinglich an 
zusammengesetzten Substantiven, die Vulgarsprache uberschreitet die Grenze selten." 



3 76. DER. COMPS.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIV8. 303 

common in the late senno plebeius, and citing *accordium, 
*concordium, *discordium, as evidenced by Sicil. akkordiu, 
Sardin. Jcunkordiu, Ital. discordio, Prov. accordi, concordi, dis- 
cordi, and similarly *conuenium, Sardin. Jcumbeniu, Prov. co- 
ve^', O. Fr. co-vine ; *singluttium, Ital. singhiozzo, Span, sollozo, 
etc. 

As already observed, the words of this class are not 
formed by direct composition, but are properly speaking- de- 
rivatives, such as abluu-ium, from ab-luere, benefic-ium, from 
bene-ficus, fenisic-ium, from feni-sex ; in a large number of in- 
stances, however, the primary word does not occur. They are 
formed in a great variety of ways, a large proportion being 
prepositional compounds : but as the latter exhibit no distinct- 
ive features they are included in the following list. It is to be 
noticed, however, that the prevailing type of these forms is 
pentasyllable, the first member having two syllables, and 
accordingly the dissyllabic prepositions, such as inter-, 
super-, are largely in the majority. 

PLAVTVS. TITINIVS. 

bi-clinium, 1 Bacch. 720; al. tenti-pellium, 11 Com. 173 

centum-pondium,' J Asin. 303 

cor-dolium, 3 Cist. 65 ; al. Acorvs. 

ferri-terium, Most. 744 pro-lubium, 12 Tr. 106; al. 

lumbi-fragium, Amph. 454 

*male-suadium, Cure. 508 ed. Brix. VAKEO. 

multi-loquiurn," Merc. 31 alieni-loquium, 1S Sent. Mor. No. 51, 

pro-scaenium, 5 Amph. 91 p. 267 R. 

sacci-perium," Rud. 548 ambi-uium, Sat. Men. 276 

stulti-loquium, 7 Mil 296 armi-lustrium, 14 L. L. 6, 22 

assi-pondium, Id. 5, 169 

CATO. bi-sellium, 15 Id. 5, 128 

geli-cidium, 8 R. R. 65, 2 feni-sicium, 18 R. R. I, 172 

prae-furnium, 9 Id. 38 fordi-cidium, 17 L. L. 6, 15 

semi-funium, Id. 135, 5 inter-nodium, 18 R. R. 2, 9, 4 

stiri-cidium, 10 Oratt. Fr. 65 melli-ficium, 19 Id. 3, 16, 4 

i Quint. Cato R. R. 3 Apul. Met. Ambros. ; Hier. ; Vulg. ; Augustin. 6 Verg. 
Ge. ; Liu. ; Vitr. ; Claud. ; Ps. -Prosper. Aquit. ; Inscrr. Form saxi-perium = Ps. -Pulg. 
Serm. 74 ; con/. Itala 1 Reg. 17, 40. 7 Vulg. ; Eccl. ; Gl. Labb. 8 Varr. ; Vitr. ; Col. 
9 Vitr. ; Compend. Vitr. 10 Conf. Fest. 344, 13 ; Paul, ex Fest. 345, 3. " Afran. 

12 Gell.; Apul. ls laid. " Paul, ex Fest. l5 Inscrr. 18 Col. ; Plin.; Gloss. Labb. 
i 7 Paul, ex Fest. 18 Ou. ; Plin. ; Calp. EcL 19 Col. 



304 



WORD FORMATION IN THE [76. DEE. COMPS. 



opi-ficium, 1 Id. 3, 16, 20 
pani-ficinm," L. L. 5, 105 
pannu-uellium, Id. 5, 114 
parti-cipium, 3 Id. 8, 58 
prae-uerbium, 4 L. L. 6, 38 ; al. 
Septi-montium, 5 Id. 5, 41 ; al. 
spici-legium, R. R. 1, 53 
tubi-lustrium, 8 L. L. 6, 14 

LVCRETTVS. 

post-scaenium, 4, 1178 
pro-fluuium,' 6, 1205 

CATVLLVS. 

quadri-uium, 8 58, 4 
haru-spicium, 9 90, 2 

HOBATIVS. 

inter-hmium, 10 Carm. 1, 25, 11 
di-ludium, J^p. 1, 19, 47 

VlTRVVJLVS. 

aequi-pondium, n 10, 3, 4 
inter-scalminm, 1, 2, 4 
inter-tignium, 4, 2, 4 
inter-uenia, 12 orum, 2, 6, 1 ; aZ. 
quadri-fluuium, 2, 9, 7 
semi-laterium, 2, 3, 4 

CELSVS. 
mali-corium, 13 2, 33 ; oZ. 

COLVMELLA. 

bi-pallium," 11, 2, 17 
inter-ordinium, 3, 13, 3 ; al. 
lani-ficium, 15 12, Praef. 9 
pleni-lunium, 1 ' 11, 2, 85 

SENECA (Apoc.). 
prae-putium, 17 Apoc. 8, 1 



PETRONIVS. 
*arci-sellium, 18 75, 4 
bi-saccium, 31, 9 
galli-cmium, 18 62, 3 
ne-sapium, 50, 9 
semi-cinctium, 30 94, 8 
*uesti-contuburnium, 11, 3 

PLINIVS. 

denti-fricium, 21 28, 178 
exti-spicium," 7, 203 
melo-folium, 15, 52 
miUe-folium, 23 25, 42 
tri-folium, 21, 54; al. 
uati-cinium, 84 7, 178 

IWENAUS. 

tri-scurrium," 8, 190 

MABTIAUS. 

auri-scalpium, 86 14, 23, Lemm. 
denti-scalpium, 7, 53 
domi-cenium, 5, 78 ; al. 

FKONTO. 

*inter-natium, ad Amic. 1, 17 

N. 

GELLIVS. 
pro-luuium, 57 4, 11, 10 

AFVUSTVS. 

ante-cenium, 28 Met. 2, 15 
ante-ludium, Id. 11, 8 
asse-folium, Herb. 77 
fati-loquium, Deo Socr. 1 
inter-f eminium, Apol. 33 ; al. 



1 Apul. ; Lact. ; Chalcid. Tim. ; Augustin. * Cels.; Suet. ; lustin. s Quint ; Cod. 
lust. 4 Gell.; Charis 5 Pest.; Tert.; Pall.; Seru. ad Aen. On. Fast. ; Verr. PL 
' Cels.; Col.; Plin.; Arnob.; Aur. Viet.; Eutr. 8 luuen.; Boeth.; Schol. Vindob. adHor. 
Suet.; Censorin.; Auson. 10 Plin.; Veg. Mil.; Not. Tir. 1! Augustin. 12 PalL 
13 Plin.; Petr. > Plin.; Scriptt. R. R. ls Plin.; Suet.; Aur. Viet.; lustin.; Paul, ex 
Fest; ApnL Met.; Augustin. ;Inscrr. 16 Plin.; Amm. 17 luuen.; Lact.; Vulg.; Not. 
Tir. ' 8 Not. Tir. ; Not. Bern. ' 9 Apnl. ; Censorin. ; Amm. ; Macr. ; Seru. ; Placid. Gloss. 
Mart.; Vulg. ; Isid. 21 Scrib.;Mart.; ApuL " Suet.; Apul. *"g er . Samm. "Gell.; 
Not. Tir. Prise. * 8 Scrib. " 7 Seru. ad Verg. Isid. 



76. DER. COMPS.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



305 



lori-ficium, Met. 9, 40 H. 
mani-folinm, Herb. 36 
misere-uiuium, Id. 18 
nidi-ficium, Met. 8, 22 
ori-ficium, 1 Id. 2, 15; al. 
parci-loquium, Id. 5, 13 
prae-rupium, 2 Apol. 8 
semper-forium, Herb. 123 
sol-sequinm, s Jc?. 49 
sub-labium, Id. 96 
super-pondium, Met. 7, 18 
tri-furcium, flerft. 77 
uerti-pedium, /o?. 4 

TEETVLUANVS. 

aqui-licium, Apol. 40 
as-sacri-ficium, /cfoZ. 16 
f ratri-cidium, 4 Monog. 4 
infant! -cidium, Apol. 2 
inter-spatium, Orotf. 20 in. 
mali-loquium, 6 Apol. 45 
minuti-loquium, 6 Anim. 6 
risi-loquium, c?e Poe. 10 
sancti-ficium, 7 Res. Cam. 47 
spurci-loquinm, Id. 4 
turpi-loquium, 8 cfe Pudic. 17 
oiui-coruburium, vlmwz. 33; al. 

INTPB. IBEN. 
portenti-loquium, 2, 16, 4 ; a. 

VLPIANVS. 



CHALCIDIVS. 
di-iugium, Tim. 193 ; al. 

Aver. ITIN. ALEX. 
cor-riuium, 8, (19) 

PALLADIVS. 
per-pluuium, 1, 11 

AVSONIVS. 
tri-horium, Edyll. 10, 87 ; al. 

STMMACHVS. 
tri-cinium, Ep. 1, 41 

AMMIANVS. 
pro-ludium, 28, 1, 10 ; al. 

VEGETTVS. 
circnm-cisorium, Vet. 1, 26, 2 

HIEBONYMVS. 

morti-cinium, in Ezech. 1, ad 4, 13 
soli-loquium, 12 ^3. 105, 5 

AVGVSTINVS. 

blandi-loquium, Ep. 3, 1 ; al. 
falsi-loquium, Lib. Retract. Proem. 

extr. 
nani-loquium, Ep. 134, 4 ; al. 

MABCELLVS EMPIKICVS. 



inter-usurium, 9 Dig. 35, 2, 66 ; al. bi-sextium, 29, 41 

inter- digitia, orum, 34, 26 ; al. 
SoiiEsrvs. 

CAEUVS AVBELIANVS. 



boui-cidium, 1, 10 
col-limitium, 10 49, 6 
col-Indium, 11 9, 17 

AKNOBIYS. 
con-spolium, 7, 24 



manu-tigium, Chron. 1, 4, 121 

ISIDOBVS. 

inter-necium, 13 5, 26, 17 
sub-linguium, 11, 1, 59 



1 Veget. ; Th. Prise. ; Plin. Val. Tert. ; Seru. ad Verg. <> Isid. < Hier. ; Salu. ; 
Fulg. "Eccl. Intpr. Iren. 7 Hier. Ep. ; Vulg. 8 Ambros. ; Hier. ICt. 10 Amm. 
11 Amm.; Symm. Ep. 12 Augustin. i Not. Tir. 
20 



306 WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 77. COMP. V. ADJS. 

77. COMPOUND VERBAL ADJECTIVES IN -us, -a, -um : The 
compound adjectives of the 1st and 2d declensions fall natu- 
rally into two classes, according as their second member is 
formed from a nominal or verbal stem. The former, such as 
a?igui-manus, Lucr., auri-comus, Verg., are fewer in number and 
found mainly in poetry. The latter, on the contrary, espe- 
cially compounds with -dicus, -ficus, and -loquus, belong 
largely to the popular speech, which here again shows its fond- 
ness for verbal derivatives. They were naturally numerous in 
early poetry, especially in Plaut., who shows a partiality for 
forms in -loquus, many of which are distinctly archaic. 1 The 
classic poets retained a number of these forms, in imitation of 
their predecessors, but are moderate in their use : Lucr. is the 
last to coin them with any freedom. In the poetry of the 
Golden and Silver periods I have noted only the following ne- 
ologisms : 

aeri-sonus, SiL; StaL; Vol. PL; miti-ficus, Sil. 

et AL nidi-ficus, Sen. Tr. 

armi-sonus, Verg.; Sil.; Claud.; portenti-ficus, Ou. 

et AL quadri-fidus, Verg. 

casti-ficus, Sen. Tr. rori-fluus, Ps.-Verg. Catal. 

flucti-sonus, SiL; Sen. Poet. sacri-ficus, Ou.; Sil.; Sen. Poet. 

incesti-ficus, Sen. Tr. saxi-ficus, Ou.; Sen. Poet. 

lani-ficus, Ou.; Tibull.; et AL septem-fltras, Ou. 

lucti-sonus, Ou. snperbi -ficus, Sen. Tr. 

magni-loquus, Ou.; Stat.; Mart.; undi-sonus, Stat.; Vol. Fl. 

et AL uulni-ficus, Verg.; Ou. 
multi-fidus, Ou.; Plin.; Mart.; et AL 

In classical prose they are still rarer : in the prose of Cic. 
I have found only the following 17, although others occur in 
the lines of poetry which he was so fond of interspersing 
through his writings : 

bene-ficus, hosti-ficus, muni-ficus, 

falaci-loquus, magni-ficus, nau-fragus, 

fati-dicus, male-dicus, paci-ficus, 

flexi-loquus, male-ficus, tabi-ficus, 

foedi-fragus, male-uolus, ueri-dicus. 

grandi-loquus, miri-ficus, 

1 Paucker, Add. Lex. Lat., p. 94, annot. 78, "Composita cum -loquus inter ueteres 
Plauto imprimis familiaris sunt ; " Knapp, p. 158, citing Munro, Lucr. 4 II., pp. 16, 1? ; 
Paucker, (I. I.) however, cites 15 forms from late Latin. 



77. COMP. V. ADJS.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



307 



In post-classical writers, on the contrary, they are abundant, 
and notably in African writers ; the appended list shows a 
surprising number of new forms due to Apul., Mart. Cap., and 
Gael. Aur. Among 1 these, forms in -ficus are prominent, whose 
plebeian character has often been noticed, and which Wolfflin 
has included among the characteristics of African Latin. 1 



PLAVTVS. 

blandi-dicus, Poen. 138 
blandi-loquus, 2 Bacch. 1173 
busti-rapus, Pseud. 361 
confidenti-loquus, Trin. 201 
damni-ficus, 3 Cist. 728 
deleni-ficus, 4 Mil. 192 
falsi-dicus, 5 Trin. 770 
falsi-flcus, Mil 191 
falsi-loquus, 6 Copt. 264 
fumi-ficus, 7 Fr. Fab. Inc. 1 
furti-ficus, Pseud. 887 
inani-loquus, 8 Id. 256 
largi-loquus, Mil. 318 ; al 

*lucri- ferns, Pers. 515 
magni-dicus, 9 JRud. 515 ; al. 
male-suadus, 10 Most. 213 
mendaci-loquus, 11 Trin. 200 
multi-loquus, 12 Pseud. 79 ; al. 

*nugi-uendns, ap. Non. 144, 30 
noctu-uigilus, Cure. 196 
plani-loquus, True. 864 
scrofi-pascus, Capt. 807 
socio-fraudus, Pseud. 362 
spurci-dicus, Capt. 56 
spurci-ficus, Trin. 826 
stulti-loqttus, Pers. 514 
stulti-uidus, Mil 335 



uani-dicus, 13 Trin. 275 
uani-loquus, 14 Amph. 379 
uesti-plicus, lft Trin. 252 
urbi-capus, 16 Mil. 1055 

ENNIVS. 

alti-sonus, 17 Ann. 561 
docti-loquus, IS Id. 568 
laeti-ficus, 19 Id. 451 ; al. 
regi-fice, 20 Tr. 122 
saxi-fragus, 21 Ann. 564 

PACWIVS. 

*flexi-loquus, 22 Tr. 152 
largi-ficus, 23 Id. 414 
tardi-gradus, 24 Id. 2 

TEBENTTVS. 

saeui-dicus, Phorm. 213 

Accrvs. 
fallaci-loquus," Fr. ap. Cic. Fin. 4, 

68 

hosti-ficus, 86 Tr. 80 
ingrati-ficus, Id. 364 

LVCUJVS. 

contemni-ficus, Sat. 26, 41 



1 Conf. Schulze, Diss. Hal., VI., p 228, and authorities cited ; Wolfflin, Cass. Fel., 
p. 410. 

2 Sen. Tr. 3 Pall. 4 Comic. Vet. ap. Fulg.; *Turpil. Com.; Fronto; Auson.; Symm.; 
Ennod. 5 Ace. ; Auson. ; Eccl. Vulg. ; Prud. ; Cl. Mam. 7 Ou. Met. ; Prud. 8 Gloss. 
9 Amm. 10 Verg. ; Sidon. ; Paul. Nol. [ 1 Tert. ; Augustin. 12 Augustin. ; Cael. Aur. 
13 Amm. u Liu. ; Sil. ; Ambros.; Auson.; Vulg.; Oros. 15 Quint. ; Inscrr. "Coripp. 
" Cic., seme?, (Poet, de Diu. 1, 106); Sen. Poet.; luuen. ; Claud. 18 Mart. Cap.; Ven. 
Fort. ; Cledon. 19 Lucr.; Sen.; Stat. 20 Adi. Verg. ; Val. Fl. ; Ambros. Plin.; 
Apul. ; Ser. Samm. ; Plin. Val. M Cic. , seme?, (de Diu. 2, 115) ; Amm. Lucr. Isid. ; 
Mar. Viet. ; Not. Tir. 25 Cic. , seme?, (Fin. 4, 68). 28 Cic. , seme?, (pro Dom. 23, 60). 



308 



WORD FORMATION IN THE [77.COMP.V. ADJS. 



LAEVIVS. 

dulciore-loquus, ap. Gett. 19, 7, 
13 

VABKO. 

aeri-fice, Sat. Men. 201 
ardi-fetus, Id. 204 
olli-coquus, L. L. 5, 104 
omni-carpus, Id. 5, 97 
*ueneri-uagus, Sat. Men. p. 164, 5 
R. 

LVCRETIVS. 

aucti-ficus, 2, 571 
flucti-fragus, 1 1, 305 
largi-fluus, 5, 596 
nocti-uagus, 2 5, 1191 
paci-ficus, 3 7, 63 
rauci-sonus, 4 5, 1082 
silui-fragus, 1, 275 
suaui-dicus, 4, 178 
tabi-ficus, 6 6, 737 
terri-ficus, 6 2, 632 ; al. 
terri-loquus, 1, 103 
ueri-dicus, 7 6, 6 

LABEKTVS. 
testi-trahus, Com. Inc. Fab. 20 

TRACK INC. 
uersuti-loquus, 8 Fab. 114; R. 

CATVLLVS. 

fluenti-somis, 64, 52 
insti-ficus, 64, 406 
multi-uolus, 9 68, 128 



COLVMELLA. 

melli-ficus, 9, 13, 14 ; al. 
nubi-fugus, Poet. 10, 288 

PETBONTVS. 
septi-fluus, Poet. 133, 3 ed. Buech. 

PLINIVS. 
feti-ficus, 9, 161 
humi-ficus, 2, 223 
monstri-ficus, 10 2, 7 
somni-ficus, 11 25, 150; al. 
ueli-ficus, 13, 70 

MABTIALIS. 

cunni-lingns, 14 12, 59, 10 
multi-sonus, 13 4, 53, 9 

IWENALIS. 

pinni-rapus, 14 s. m., 3, 158 

GELLIVS. 

algi-ficus, 19, 4, 4 
calori-ficus, 17, 8, 12 
frigori-ficus, 17, 8, 14 
ieiuni-dicus, 6, 14, 5 

APVKEIVS. 

amori-ficus, Herb. 123 
beati-ficus, 16 Dogm. Plat. 1, 5 
candi-ficus, Poet. Apol. 6 
dulci-loquus, 18 Id. 9 extr. 
expergi-ficus, Flor. 13 
omni-canus, Id. ib. 
oui-parus, 17 Apol. 38 
uiui-ficus, 18 Ascl. 2 
nini-parus, Apol. 38 
uomi-ficus, 19 Herb. 108 



1 Cypr. 2 Vei^. ; Stat. ; Val. Fl. ; Faust, ap Augustin. *Cic. Att. , semel ; Mart. ; 
Vulg. ; adu. = Cypr. Ep. 4 Cafcull. 5 Cic. , semel, (Tusc. 4, 36) ; Lucan. ; Suet. ; Augustin. 
e Verg.; Ou.; Val. Fl.; Plin. Ep.; Solin. > Cic., semel, (Diu. 1, 45, 101); Liu.; Plin.; 
Lact.; Augustin.; Eutych. 8 Ambros. 8 Vulg. 10 Val. Fl.; Solin. Mart. Cap. 
12 Auct. Priap.;/onwcMn(w)i%MS C. L L., IV., 1331. " Stat. ; Boeth. 14 Schol. lu- 
uen. 15 Augustin. ; Eccl. lt Auson. ; Sidon. Ep. ; Augustin. ; Anthol. Lat. ; Gloss. Labb. 
17 Auson. ; Fulg. I8 Amm. ; Eccl. 19 Cael. Aur. 



77. COMP. V. ADJS. ] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 



309 



TEBTYLT/IANYS. 

aqui-genus, adu. Marc. 2, 12 
aqui-legus, 1 Anim, 33 
dei-ficus, 2 Apol. 11 
subtili-loquus, adu. Marc. 5, 19 
terri-genus, 3 Id. 2 
uentri-loquus, 4 Id. 4, 25 ; al. 

COMMODIANVS. 

caeli-loquus, Instr. 2, 18, 3 

SOLINVS. 

aesti-fluus, 5 ap. Paucker. 
uersi-ficus, 6 11, 6 



flucti-genns, Aral. 1157 

IWENCVS. 

luci-fluus, 3, 294 ; al. 
multi-fluus, 1, 586 
sancti-ficus, Praef. \fin. 

CHALcrorvs. 
silui-caedus, Tim. 128 

AVSONIVS. 
langui-ficus, Eel. in Vers. Qu.Cic. 

6 

limi-genus, Mosell. 45 
modi-ficus, Parent. 27, 2 
pulti-ficus, Edyll. 12, 5 
uesti-fluus, Id. 2 ; al. 

AMMIANVS. 
male-fidus, 7 30, 7, 8 

HEEBONYMVS. 

mali-loquus, 8 Ep. 148, 16 
multi-nubus, Id. 123, 10 



PKVDENTIVS. 

quadri-fluus, 9 Cath. 3, 105 
sancti-loquus, 10 Apoth. 1070 
saxi-genus, Cath. 5, 7 
tabi-fluus, 11 Apoth. 891 
urbi-cremus, flam. 726 

PAULINVS NOLANVS. 
bacchi-sonus, Carm. 26, 289 
belli-sonus, Id. 23, 424 
caeli-fluus, Id. 30, 780 
hymni-sonus, Id. 22, 200 
uermi-fluus, Id. 22, 134 

AVQVSTINVS. 

luci-ficus, 18 c. Faust. 22, 9 
mari-ambulus, in Ps. 39, 9 
psalmi-dicus, Alterc. Eccl. et Syn. 

p. 1137 M. 
terri-crepus, Conf. 8, 2, 3 

MACBOBIVS. 

sensi-ficns, 13 Sat. 7, 9, 20 
sicci-ficus, Id. 7, 16, 34 

THEODOBVS PBISCIANVS. 
uisi-flcus, 4, 2 

MABTIANVS CAPELLA. 
astri-ficus, 6, 584 ; al. 
astri-loquus, 8, 808 
astri-lucus, 9, 889 
astri-sonus, 9, 811 
blandi-ficus, 9, 888 
docti-ficus, 14 6, 569 
igni-uagus, 15 9, 896 
multi-nidus, 2, 109 
nocti-uidus, 6, 571 



1 Cassiod. ; Insert. 2 Cypr. ; Eccl. ; Cael. Aur. 3 Ven. Fort. ; Hilar. ; form -na subst. 
masc.=Lucr.;Ou.;Sil. etAl. 4 Hier. 6 Anthol. Lat. 720, 3. Optat. Ep.;Schol. 
Bern, ad Verg. ' Rufin. 8 Arnob. lun. Eccl. 10 Paul. Nol. Ven. Fort. Cael. 
Aur. 13 Th. Prise. 14 Prise. : Ven. Misc. " Coripp. 



310 



WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 78. VBS., -FICARE. 



omni-sonus, 1 9, 912 
suaui-loquus, 8 1, 3 

CAKLTVS AVEELIANVS. 
aqui-ducus, Chron. 3, 8, 119 
ari-ficus, Id. 4, 1, 9 
felli-ducus, Id. 3, 4, 63 
felli-fluus, Acut. 3, 19, 188 
luci-ficus, Id. 2, 9, 45 
molli-ficus, Chron. 4, 1, 9 
omni-pauus, Acut. 3, 12, 108 
uentri-fluus, Chron. 1, 4, 134 

CASSIVS FELIX. 
leni-ficns, 34, p. 73, 12 R. 

SEDONIVS APOLLINABIS. 

docti-sonus, Carm. 15, 180 
rhonchi-sonus, Id. 3, 8 

SEDVLIVS. 

grandi-sonus, Carm. 1, 2 

DBACONTIVS. 
splendi-fluus, Hexaem. Epil 2 

BOETHIVS. 

aequi-soniis, de Music. 5, 6 ; al. 



frondi-fluus, Consol. Phil. 1, Metr. 

5,14 
multi-uocus, in Aristo. Praedic. 1, 

p. 115 

scienti-ficus, ap. Paucker. 
speci-ficus, ap. Paucker. 
nni-sonus, Inst. Mus. 5, 5 ; al. 

ENNODIVS. 

Tiersi-loquus, ap. Paucker. 

FVLGENTIVS. 

Christi-genus, (Ps-Fulg.), Serm. 

52 

maesti-ficus, Id. 14 
splendi-fice, Myth. 1, Praef. 25 

M. 

CASSIODOBVS. 

bi-nubus, Hist. Sacr. 9, 38 

VENANTIVS FOBTVNATVS. 

(almi-ficus, Carm. Spur. 3, 2) 
igni-uomus, 3 Carm. 3, 9, 3 
undi-fragus, Id. 3, 4, 1 ; al. 
undi-uagus, 4 VU. S. Mart. 3, 485 

ISIDOKVS. 

luci-petus, 12, 8, 7 



78. VEEBS IN -ficare: The verbfacere plays an important 
part in the sermo plebeius, both in Word-Formation and Syntax. 
Its periphrastic use with nouns or adjectives, in place of a 
simple verb, formed a favorite means in the speech of the peo- 
ple for adding greater length and weight to their utterances. 
Abundant proof of this is furnished by the plebeian authors 
in a long line of examples such as aequdbile facere, Plaut., 
Capt. 302, (= aequare) ; saucium facere, Sisenn. Fr. 36 ; Turpil., 
(= sauciare) ; trucidationem facere, Cato, p. 39, 15 lord., (=tru- 
cidare); iugulationem facere, Auct. Bell. Hisp. 16,5; 16, 6, (=iu- 
gulare) ; iactus facere, Id. 9, 3, (= iacere) ; regressus et morationes 



1 Paul. NoL 



2 Inscrr. 



Gloss. Labb. 



Coripp. 



78. VBS.,-FICARE.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 311 

facere, Yitr. 9, 4, 11, (=regredi et morari) ; and others cited by 
Wolfflin and Kohler. 1 

Similarly compound verbs formed with -facere, and more 
especially with the modified stem -ficare, were common in 
the sermo plebeius, and frequently indistinguishable from the 
simple verb : 2 conf. humilificare = hu?niliare, clarificare = clar- 
are, etc. The forms in -ficare were noticeably avoided by the 
best authors ; the language possessed altogether 125 of these 
verbs (146,' including prepositional compounds), 3 but of these 
96 were recc., while the classic writers have barely 9 % of the 
whole : I have found in Cic. only the following 15 : 

aedificare, laetificare, sacrificare, 

amplificare, ludificare, -ri, significare, 

excarnificare, p. p. p., mitificare, testificare, 

exsacrificare, modificare, turpificare, p. p. p., 

gratificare, praesignificare, uelificare. 

They first become numerous in the African writers, 4 who 
show a fondness for all classes of derivatives horn facere, such 
as those in -ficium, and -ficus, already considered, and the 
still more cumbersome substantives in -ficatio, such asfructi- 
ficatio, nullificatio, sanctificatio, uiuificatio, Tert.; clarificatio, 
Cypr.; Augustin.; tabificatio, Augustin.; crassificatio, fortificatio, 
Gael. Aur. That they were regarded with disfavor in the liter- 
ary language, even at a comparatively late period, may be 
inferred from Prise. 8, 5, 25, who relegates ludificare to archaic 
Latin, 5 and from Hier.'s sweeping condemnation of nullificare, 6 
Ep. 106, annihilisti uel nullificasti et si qua alia possunt intteniri 

Conf. "Wolfflin, Cass. Fel., p. 421; Koehler, Bell. Afr., p. 84; Landgraf, Cic. 
Rose. p. 21; Thielmann, Apoll. -Roman., p. 15. - Rebling, p. 25, " Ausgebreitet war 
die Bildung transitiver Verba aus Adjectiven auf ficare," citing inter alia "magnifi- 
care, das Heumann Poecile in seinem Aufsatz uber den sermo plebeius zur Zeit Ciceros 
anfubrt ; " Wolfflin, 1. I., p. 425, " Dass diese Bildungen ihren Boden vorwiegend in der 
Vulgiirsprache batten, scheint daraus hervorzugeben, dass sie einmal im Kirchenlatein 
. . . sehr ausgedehnt, und dann, dass sie in den romanischen Sprachen . . . erhalten 
sind; " Ronsch, p. 175 sq. ; Kraut, Sail., p. 6; Landgraf, Cic. Rose., p. 32; Schulze, 
Diss. Hal., VI, p. 228. 3 Paucker, Zeitscbr. f. VergL Sprachf. 26, p. 410 annot. 

4 Wolfflin, 1. I.; conf. Thielmann, ALL. VIII. , p. 244, " an magnifico . . . schloss das 
afrikanische Latein die so haufigen Bildungen auf -ficare ; Id. ib. p. 512. 6 Land- 
graf, Cic. Rose. p. 32, " Verbum ludificare, quo Cicero uno loco, p. Qu. 54 utitur, 
Priscianus . . . in uetustissimis numerat; " Hellmuth, Prior. Cic. Oratt., p. 29, "(com- 
pos, cum -facere, -ficare) potius uetustiorem colorem ducere uidentur." 6 Conf. For- 
cell. Lex. ed De Vit, s. u., " Hier. damnat monstrnm uerbi." 



312 



WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 78. VBS., -FICARE. 



apud' imperitos portenta uerborum. They had, however, taken so 
strong- a hold upon ecclesiastical Latin, through the influence 
of Tert., and the early African translations of the Scriptures, 
(the so-called " Itala"), and it is not surprising to find a few re- 
curring in the writings of Hier. himself, 1 such as mortificare, 
mnctificare, uiuificare ; one at least is coined by him : prodifi- 
care, of which he says apologetically, nos dicere possumus prodi- 
Jicatam. Porro Graece melius appellatur w^eA^ao-a, Noun. 
Hebr. col. 102. 

As is well shown by Wolfflin, a further proof of the fond- 
ness of the sermo plebeius for these verbs is found in the abun- 
dance of them in the Romance languages. According to 
Meyer-Liibke, however, the modern examples belong rather to 
the literary than the popular speech, although new formations 
by analogy are made with comparative freedom : conf. Ital. 
diversificare, personificare, ramificare; Fr. cocufi&r, doctor-ifier ; 
Span, amortiguar, averiguar, santiguar, etc. 2 



POMPONIVS. 
notificare, 9 Tr. 4 



PLAVTVS. 

causificari, 3 Aul. 755 

deludificare, Rud. 147 

fumificare, Mil. 412 SISENNA. 

laetificare, 4 Pers. 760 ; al carnificare, 10 Fr. Inc. 1 

ludificare, 6 (-cari), Bacch. 642 ; al. 

magnificare, 6 Men. 371 ; al. ,, 

pacificari, 7 Stick. 517 

adsignificare, 11 E. E. 2, 11, 10 

_ uocificare, 14 Id. 3, 16, 8 

ENNIVS. 

augificare, Tr. 105 



Accivs. 
orbificare, Tr. 421 

AFBANIVS. 
*uelificari, 8 Com. 267 



LVCRETTVS. 

munificare, 2, 625 
terrificare, 13 1, 134 

LABEETVS. 
elucificare, Com. 78 



1 Goelzer, p. 190. 2 WoMin, 1. L; Meyer-Liibke, Gramm. d. Rom. Spr., II., p. 609. 
3 ApuL Met. Cic., bis, (Nat. Deor. 2, 102 & 130) ; Lucan. ; Plin. ; Vulg. ; PalL 

6 Verb. act. -= Cic., semel, (Quinct. 54) ; Lucr. ; Sail. ; Anien. ; uerb. depon. = Cic., semeZ, 
(Rose. Am. 55) ; Ter. ; Liu.; Plin. Ep. ; Tac. Ter.; Cornif . Rhet.; Plin. ; Vulg. ; Eccl. 

7 Sail.; Liu.; lustin. ; uerb. act. Catull.; Liu.; Sen.; Claud. inRufin. 8 CaeL ap. Cic. 
Ep.; Cic., semel, (Agr. 1, 27) ; Prop.; Flor.; Mela ; uerb. act.= Prop.; Plin.; Hyg.; luuen.; 
Schol. luuen. 9 Oeil. Serg. ap. Poet. Lat. Min. 10 Liu. ; Tert. ; uerb. depon., ap. Prise. 8, 
15. " Veil Long. Gell. 13 Verg.; Stat. 



78. VBS., -FICARB.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 313 

CATVLLVS. CYPBIANVS. 

horrificare, 1 64, 269 turificare/'p. p. p., Ep. 55 

HTGINYS. COMMODIANVS. 

donificare, Fab. 112 liymnificare, Instr. 2, 19, 22 

AENOBIVS. 

Ponravs- auctificare, 7, 27 ; at. 
cerificare, 9, 133; al. 

circumscarificare, 30, 21 ; al. LACTANTIVS. 

fetificare, 2 10, 22 ; al. clarificare," Inst. 3, 18 

internidificare, 10, 95 honorificare, 13 Id. 7, 24 ; al. 
purificare, 3 30, 93 ; al. 

MABIVS VICTORINVS. 

GBLLIVS. potentificare, adu. Arium 3, 7 

expergificare, 17, 12, 1 

PALLADIVS. 

_ scarificare, 14 4, 10, 28 
TEBTVLLIANVS. 

angelificare^.p.p., Res. Cam. 26 DW ABIVS 

castificare, 4 Pudic. 19 n -. - 

, _ . dulcmcare, in Ps. 54, . 13 

concorporificare, p.p.p., adu. Val- lllciflcare>16 JA n8> n> l 

ent. 2o 

conglorificare, Res. Cam. 40; al. AvsoNIV g 4 

contestificare, Anim. 1 , .' ^^77010 

gloriflcare,' Idol. 22 humificare, J^IZ. 8, 12 

humilificare, Poen^ 9 AMBBOSIVS. 

lustificare. 6 adu. Marc. 2, 19; al. , .,, Cy< 

odonncare, p. p. p., Jfo. 8, 64. 
lucrificare, Praescr. 24 

mortificare, 7 Jte. Cbm. 37 HIEBONYMVS. 

naturificare^.^., adu Valent. 29 difi 16 jy^ 5-^. 

nullificare, 8 adu. Psych. 15 , 1Q2 

reuiuificare, p.p.p., Res. Cam. 19 Bi ^ ti& Ori in Ier . ffom . 5 

sanctificare, 9 de Oral. 3 ; al. 

uiuificare," arf M . Valent. Ufin. uili fi ca re, in /esai. 15, 54, 56 



INTPB. IBEN. PBVDENTIVS. 

heredificare, 4, 22, 1 falsificare, Ham. 549 

1 Verg. ; Sil. ; Flor. ; Claud. Solin. Suet. ; Cell. ; Lampr. ; Lact. Augustin. 
8 Did. Spir. Sanct. ; Prud. ; Vulg. ; Augustin. 6 Hier. ; Vulg. ; Prud. ; Augustin. ; Coripp. ; 
Inst. lust. 7 Vulg. ; Augustin. 8 Intpr. Iren. ; Commodian. ; con/. Hier. Ep. 106. 

Hier. ; Vulg. ; Prud. ; Augustin. Chalcid. Tim. ; Hier. ; Prud. ; Paul. NoL ; Auien. 

" Augustin. Bp. 12 Hier. ; Augustin.; Sedul. ; Paul. Nol. 3 Augustin. " Pelag. Vet. 
i 5 Onom. Lat. Gr. 18 Intpr. Orig. in Matth. 



314 WORD FORMATION. [ 78. VBS., -FICAKE. 

AVGVSTTNVS. CAZMVS AVKELIANVS. 

candificare, 1 Ciu.DeiZl, 7; al crassificare, 10 Chron. 2, 14, 208; 

damnificare," in Ps. 118, Serm. 31, al. 

2 morbificare, Salut. Praecc. 19 

deificare, 3 Ciu. Dei 19, 23, 4 

fortificare, 4 Serm. 46, 9 CASSIVS FELIX. 

imbrificare, 6 in Ps. 101, Serm. 2, leniflcare, 73, jp. 177, 9 ; al. B. 
14 

maestificare, 6 Ep. 121 ; a/. CLAVDIANVS MAMEKTVS. 

pinguificare, Serm. 361 sentificare, Stat. Anim. 1, 17 ; al. 

sentificare, 7 Conf. 1, 7 

tabificare,' M. 5, 15, 54 BOETHIVS. 

MABCELLVS EMPIKICVS. diuersificare, p. p. p., de Vnit.p. 

nigrificare, 35, 21 966 

specificare, in Porphyr. 4, p. 84 
THEODOBVS PBISCIANVS. 

bellificare, 4, Fol 316 a. CASSIODOBVS. 

MACBOBIVS. ditificare, Far. 8, 26 

mundificare,' 3, 12 

VENANTIVS FOKTVNATVS. 
MABTIANYS CAPELLA. unlnificare, Misc. 10, 2 

astrificare, 6, 585 

splendificare, 9, 912 

ISIDOBVS. 

CASSIANYS. amarificare, 17, 8, 6 

tristificare, Coll 16, 19 pnlcrificare, 17, 8, 7 

i Gloss. Labb. a Greg. M. ; Cassiod. Caesiod. 4 Cael. Aur. ; Th. Prise. 3 Mart. 
Cap. " Mart. Cap. ; Sidon. ''form sensificare .= Mart. Cap. e Cassiod. "Cassiod. 
i Cass. FeL 



HI. HYBRIDS. 

79. THE GREEK ELEMENT IN THE SEEMO PLEBEIVS : No sketch 
of the sermo plebeius would be complete without some survey 
of the numerous Greek loanwords, more or less Latinized in 
form, which pervade certain localities and periods. In the 
classical language Greek was always an alien element : the 
spirit of antagonism toward Hellenic culture, which found its 
chief exponent in the elder Cato, was slow to die out, 1 and the 
prejudice against the Greek language survived down to the time 
of the Empire. Thus Roman magistrates were required to 
reply in Latin to the Greeks who addressed them, not only at 
Rome, but in Greece and the Asiatic provinces, 2 and Cic. was 
once violently attacked for having spoken Greek before the 
Greek senate at Syracuse. 3 Suet, is authority for the state- 
ment that the Emperor Tiberius apologized to the senate, 
before using the word monopolium, and on another occasion 
ordered that the word ^ft\r]fw. } which he had used in drawing 
up a decree should be stricken out. 4 

The same careful avoidance of Greek words is characteris- 
tic of classical literature : one of the principal blemishes 
which Hor. finds in the style of Lucil. is the intermixture of 
the two languages, 5 and Cic. is equally emphatic in favor of 
preserving the purity of Latin. 6 In regard to philosophical 
terminology, however, the latter claims the right to supply the 

1 Conf., for example, the words of Marius, preserved ap. Sail. lug. 85, negue literas 
Graecas didici : parum placebat eas discere ; quippe quae ad uirtutem doctoribus 
nihil profuerunt." 8 Val. Max. 2, 2, 2; conf. Suet. Tib. 71, militem quoque Graece 
testimonium interrogatum, nisi Latine respondere uetuit. 3 Cic. Verr. IV., 147, ait 
indignum facinus esse, quod ego in senatu Graeco uerba fecissem ; quod quidem apud 
Graecos Graece locutu.s essem, idferri nullo modo posse. * Suet. Tib. 71 ; conf. Dio 
Cass. 57, 15. 5 Hor. Sat. 1, 10, 20, quod uerbis Graeca Latinis miscuit ; conf. Id. 
ib. 29-30, patriis intermiscere petita uerba foris malis, Canusini more bilinguis? 
8 Conf. Cic. Off. 1, 111, sermone eo debemus ^lt^, qui innatus est nobis, ne, ut quidam, 
Graeca uerba inculcantes iure optima rideamur; Id. Tusc. 1, 15, Dicam, si potero, 
Latine. Scis enim me Graece loqui in Latino sermone nonplus solere quam in Graeco 
Latine. On this whole question, conf. Goelzer, p. 221, sq. 



316 WORD FORMATION IN THE [79. GK. ELEMENT. 

deficiencies of his own language by borrowing the Greek word 
where no convenient paraphrase could be found. Yet even 
here he is reluctant to avail himself of this license, preferring 
to resort to the lesser evil of coining a new word in Latin. 1 

Other writers on technical subjects were less conservative : 
thus the Greek words contained in the comparatively scanty 
amount which we possess of Varro's writings considerably 
outnumber all those used by Cic., and are largely grammatical 
or botanical terms. 2 Similarly the technical terms of archi- 
tecture, medicine and other sciences, for their knowledge of 
which the Bomans were indebted to Greece, were largely bor- 
rowed, but were usually accompanied by an attempt at trans- 
lation, e.g. Cass. Fel. 41 in., dypsnia a Graecis dicitur id est 
difficultas respirationis, and other instances passim. 

To the hostility shown by classicism toward Greek the 
sermo plebeius, and notably the closely connected Campanian 
and African dialects, offer a marked contrast. It must be 
borne in mind how completely Greek civilization had per- 
vaded southern Italy ; all Sicily, Bruttium, Lucania, lapygia, 
had come under Hellenic control, 3 while it appears from 
Strabo that even under the empire Greek manners and speech 
were still in the ascendancy in Bhegium, Naples and Taren- 
tum. 4 With this foreign element the Eomans must have been 
brought into more or less regular intercourse through the 
natural growth of commerce, but it was only in consequence 
of the second Punic war, when all Magna Graecia served for 
years as a camping-ground for the whole Roman army, and 
thirty thousand Greeks from Tarentum alone were sold into 
slavery, 5 that Greek could exert a direct influence upon the 
popular speech. Good evidence of the extent of this influence 
is afforded by the plays of Plaut., (covering this period), 
which are full of curious Greek compounds, and hybrid forma- 
tions, notably patronymics in -ides, verbs in -issare, etc., 
evidently borrowed from the slaves' dialect at Home, while 
African Latin, which represents the condition of the sermo 
plebeius down to 147 B.C., includes the Greek element among 

1 Conf. Cic. Acad. Post. 1, 25-26. * Conf. Gabel-Weise, Die Lehn- nnd Fremd- 
worter Varros, ALL. VTIL, p. 338 sq. 3 Stolz, Hist. Gramm. 1, p. 7, citing Nissen, 
Italische Landeskunde, 1, 553 ; conf. Budinsky, p. 41 sq. * Strabo, 6, 253. 6 Liu. 
27, 15 sq. 



79. GK. ELEMENT.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 317 

its best defined characteristics. 1 In Italy the influence con- 
tinued to gain ground : in the time of Liu. Greek compounds 
were common in the popular speech, 2 while even under the 
Republic Greek words and phrases held a place in the sermo 
cotidianus of the higher classes analogous to that of French 
expressions in social small-talk of the present day. The letters 
of Cic. abound with them, 3 and Hor., in spite of his condemna- 
tion of the same fault in Lucil., uses them with some freedom 
in his Satires. 4 Lucr. 4, 1160 sq. seems to ridicule this ten- 
dency, citing such expressions as melichrus, chariton mea, cata- 
plexis, ischnon eromenion, rhadine, philema, etc. At a later period 
the affectation of Greek became so fashionable among the 
Roman ladies that luuen. (Sat. 6, 185 sq.) exclaims in disgust : 

quid rancidius, quam quod se non putat ulla 
formosam, nisi quae de Tusca Graecula facta est, 
de Sulmonensi mera Cecropis ? Omnia Graece, 
cum sit turpe magis nostris nescire Latine. 

This tendency, however, of the sermo cotidianus is due to the 
increased study of the Greek language and literature, rather 
than to the influence of the popular speech, in which the Greek 
element was naturally most prominent within the limits of 
Magna Graecia, after the latter came under Roman dominion. 
This is well shown in the Pompeian wall-inscriptions, and es- 
pecially in Petr., 5 who is lavish of Greek words and phrases such 

1 Conf. Sittl, Lokal Verschiedenh. , p. 117, "Der Wortschatz (des Afr. Lat.) 
wurde erheblich aus der griechischen Sprache bereichert. Nicht etwa bios die Ge- 
lehrten schmiickten ihre Rede mit griechischen Wortern, selbst der Prediger, der un- 
mittelbar zum gemeinen Volke sprach, konnte es in Afrika wagen, dem Volke zehnmal 
so viele griechische Worter als Cicero seinen Mitbiirgern zu bieten ; " Thielmann, ALL. 
VIII, p. 520, " Ueberhaupt bekundet bei den Verben die freie Art ihrer Bildung, wie 
tief griech. Blemente im afrikanischen Dialekt eingedrungen sein mussten." 2 Liu. 
27, 11, 4; conf. Ott, Jahrb. 109, p. 762, " Wir haben noch das directe Zeugniss eines 
competenten Gewahrsmannes, des Livins . . ., dass die romische Volkssprache zu- 
sammengesetzte griechische Worter mit einer gewissen Vorliebe recipiert habe." 
3 Conf. Stinner, p. 6, "(Graeca uocabula) quibus quantopere Cicero delectatus sit in 
epistolis ita, ut ne ueniae quidem petendae causa adderet, quae in ceteris scriptis solet, 
ut aiunt, quod uocant, quod appellant Graeci, et quae sunt generis eiusdem, satis inter 
omnes constat," citing numerous authorities. 4 Conf. Barta, I., p. 17, "Im Umgange 
mieden selbst vornehme Romer griechische Ausdrucke nicht ; . . . Auch die Musa 
pedestris unseres Dichters weist eine betrachtliche Anzahl von solchen aus dem Griech- 
ischen entlehnten Ausdrucken auf ; " conf. Gildersleeve ad Pers. Prol. 6, "Greek was 
the language of small talk, love talk, parrot-talk." 6 Conf. Stolz, Hist. Gramm., I., p. 
43, " Diese siiditalische Volkssprache ist mit mancherlei griechischen Wortern durch- 
setzt ; . . . ferner sind hiiufig griechische Wortstamme mit lateinischer Ableit - 
ungssilbe," citing numerous examples. 



318 WORD FORMATION IN THE [79. GK. ELEMENT. 

as: alogia, peristasis, spatalocinaedus, topanta, (=ra Travra), zelo- 
typus, etc., besides many hybrids, derived from Greek stems, 
with Latin endings, as apoculare se, (= dTroKvAiw), excatarissare, 
(= ex + Ka#apt(jL>), percolapare (=per + /cdAa^os), and conversely 
lupatria (from Lat. lupa, on analogy with Gk. Tropvevrpia = iropvy, 

eTcupicrrpia : erpaux), etc. 1 

The question of these hybrid derivatives is an especially 
interesting one as they show how completely certain Greek 
words have become naturalized in the popular speech. They 
are not confined to any one locality, although outside of the 
Campanian dialect they are most common in the African 
writers : Plaut. however is no stranger to such forms ; 2 conf. 
ballist-ari^, Poen. 202 ; catapult-arius, Cure. 689 ; ellebor-osus, 
Most. 952 ; Geryon-aceus, Aul. 554, etc. In classic Latin the 
tendency was to preserve the original form of Greek words, 
even to the inflectional endings. 3 The latter usage was first 
adopted by the poet Accius, as we know from Varr. (L. L. 10, 
70), who quotes the line from Valerius : Accius Hectorem nollet 
facere, Hect&ra mallet ; in the time of Quint, the same rule was 
in vogue, although the latter declares himself in favor of the 
Latin forms of inflection. 4 But even in the classic period hy- 
brids had penetrated the sermo cotidianus ; thus Cic. in the 
Epistt. employs the unique form facteon, modelled on the Greek 
TToajriov, and in his earlier orations admits the use of a latin- 
ized Greek adverb, tyrannice, (rvpavi/tKois), Verr. 2, 3, 115, like 
the Plautine basilice, dulice, euscheme. 

In later Latin this custom of deforming Greek words with 
a Latin suffix became general : 5 thus among substantives and 
adjectives compare such forms as the following, due largely to 
ecclesiastical writers ; -tio: agonizatio, Greg. Tur.; cothurnatio, 
Tert.; exorcizatio, Greg. Tur.; malaxatio, Th. Prise.; normatio, 
Gromat. Vet.; pausatio, Hier.; trullissatio, Vitr.; Fauorin.; -tus: 
clericatus, Augustin.; diaconatus, Sulp. Seu. et Al., episcopatus, 
Tert. et Al.; sub-diaconatus, Greg. Tur.; -tor, -trix: apostatrix, 
Vulg.; Eccl.; baptizato?', Tert. et Al.; rebaptizator, Augustin.; 
syntonator, Inscrr. ; zelator, Ven. Fort. ; Ambros. ; adjectives in 
-alls: bibliothecalis, Mart. Cap. et Al.; chronicalis, Greg. Tur., 

1 Conf. Friedlftnder ad Petr. 37 ; Stolz, I. I. " Conf. Lorenz ad Most., Einleit, p. 
38, Anmerk. Stolz, I. L, p. 32. Conf. Quint. 1, 5, 63. * Conf. Paucker, Add. 
Lex. Lat., annot. 22; 58; Goelzer, p. 224 sq.; Bonnet, p. 474. 



80. GK.DENOM.VBS.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 319 

* 

episcopalis, Amm.; Eccl.; gehennalis, Cassiod.; hypotenusalis, 
Boeth.; laicalis, Greg 1 . Tur.; paschalis, Augustin. et Al.; pyctalis, 
Seru. ad Verg.; -arius, basilicarius, Isid. Ep.; chrismarium, 
eleemosinarius, martyr arius, Greg. Tur.; naumachiarius, Plin.; 
petaminarius, Firm. Math.; Salu.; pyctomacharius, Firm. Math.; 
-osus: alopeciosus, Th. Prise.; bromosus, Gael. Aur.; Eccl.; 
bulimosus, Pelag. Vet.; catarrliosus, Th. Prise.; dactylosa, (s. /.), 
Isid.; hystricosus, Mart.; ozinosus, Pelag. Vet.; stigmosus, Petr.; 
Al.; thymosus, Plin.; Macr.; -aneus, euerganeus, Vitr.; etc. Es- 
pecially important are the hybrid verbs in -izare, (-issare), 
and denominatives in -are from Greek substantives, which will 
be considered separately, (infra 80, 81). Conversely a number 
of Greek suffixes have passed into the sermo plebeius, largely 
through the influence of ecclesiastical Latin ; such are -issa, 
-ista, -ismus, which, owing to their importance in the modern 
languages, also deserve separate mention, (conf. infra 82). 
Lastly a small number of true hybrid compounds, bastard for- 
mations, as they are aptly termed by Draeger, 1 occur scattered 
throughout the language, which are certainly at variance with 
good usage ; a list of those will be given, infra 83. 

80. VERBS IN -are FROM GREEK SUBSTANTIVES : Among the 
Greek loanwords in Latin the proportion of verbs is inconsid- 
erable : a on the other hand the number of Greek substantives 
from which hybrid denominative verbs in -are have been 
formed is quite large : Paucker estimates them at not less than 
123, or about 7 $ of all the denominatives. 3 But like all hybrid 
formations, they were avoided by classical writers ; the only 
forms in good usage were machinari, purpurare, rhetoricari, 
stomacliari* A few others came into general use in Silver Latin, 
but the great majority belong to the post-Hadrian period. 
The following list, which is fairly complete for the earlier lan- 
guage, will serve to show the character of these formations. 

PLAVTVS. *pausare, 6 (iraivis) Trin. 187 

parasitari, (napdo-iros), Pers.SQ ; al. purpurissatus, 7 (iropfyvp'i&v), True. 
patagiatus, 5 (iraraytlov), Epid. 231 290 

1 Draeger, Hist. Synt. I, Einleit, p. XX, " Voces hibridae, Bastardbildungen aus 
greichischen und romischen Elementen. " 2 Gabel-Weise, ALL. VIII, pp. 340. 

s Paucker, Ztschr. f. Vergl. Sprachf., 26, p. 294. < Goelzer, p. 225. 

* Conf. Paul, ex Fest. 321, 2. 6 Arnob.;Veg. Vet.; Vulg.; Gael. Aur.; Inscrr. T Cic., 
semel, (*Pis. 25) ; Apul.;Sidon. Ep. 



320 WORD FORMATION IN THE [SO. GK.DENOM.VBS. 



sycophantari, (o-v/co^dvr^r)* Trin. APVIJEIVS. 
789; al. diphthongare, (8i'00oyyos), de 

Dip/ah. 29 

PACWTVS. musicari, 9 (/xouo-tKos), Ascl. 9 

paedagogare, 1 (n-atSayaydj), Tr. 192 

TEBTVIjUANTS. 

Novivs. galaticari, (raXdrat), adu. Psych. 14 

rhetoricare," (prjropiKos), Com. 6 plasmatus, 10 (nAdo-^), adu. lud. 13 

prophetare, 11 (TT/HX^TTJJ), odw. 
VAKRO. Jfarc. 3, 19 

eunuchare, (evvovxos),Sat. Men. 235 zelare, 12 (7X05). Cferm. adu. Jfarc. 

4, 36 

CATVLLVS. 
moechari, 3 (ju>i\6s), 94, 1 INTPK. IBEN. 

angariare, 13 (dyyapf'a), 1, 24, 4 

COLVMELLA. 

characatus, (\<*pa), 5, 4, 1 ; a/. TBEBELLIVS PoiiLio. 
emplastrare, 4 (e/xTrXaorpoi'), 5, 11, epitomare, 14 (<Vtro/iij), I 7 ^. Tyr. 
10 30, 22 

PIJNIVS. PELAGONIVS. 

caUiblepharatus, (uXWM^v), cauteriare > l& C^'). F ^- 180; al. 
on gi clysteriare, (fcXvor^p), Id. 132 

caminare, (icd^ti/or), 16, 23 ; al. VEGETIVS. 

diadematus, 6 (StdSeua), 34, 79 i 8 / ' \ \ rr_i 

cataplasmare, 16 (ara7rXacr/Lta), Frf. 
echmatus, (f^ij/oj), 15, 92 522 

gyrare," (yDpo,) ,5, 62 phlebotomare," (0Xe^or^o P ), A 

malthare, 7 (^dX^a), 36, 181 j 2 4 

pyxidatus, (TTV!/,), 31, 57 syncopare, ((rvy^o^), Id. 2, 25, 1 



MAETIALIS. AVGVSTINVS. 

entheatus, (evfcos), 12, 57, 11 anathemare, (di/d%ia), Serm. 164; 

leucophaeatus,(XeuKd^)aio$), 1,96, 5 a ^ t 

sardonycliatus, (o-apSdwl), 2, 29, 2 encaeniare, 18 (eyxatVui), 2Vac/. 84 

in loann. 
FRONTO. 

palaestrare, 8 (TraXm'orpa), c?e -D?y. MARTIANVS CAPELLA. 

Foe. 2202 P. tetraplare, (TfrpaTrXo'of), 9, 952 



1 Fulg. Verg. Cent. a 76. depon. -=Tert.;Hier. 3 Hor. Sat.; Mart.; Mos. et Rom. 
Leg. Coll. 4 Pall. 6 Suet. Ambros. ; Veg. Vet ; Fulg. Expos. Serm. 7 Schol. 
luuen. 8 Fulg. Myth. Rhemn. Paleaem. 10 Vulg.; Prud. n Lact. ; Augustan. ; 
Eccl. ; Insert. ia Vulg. ; Augustin. 13 Vlp. Dig. ; Vulg. ; Augustin. ; Paul. Nol. 14 Veg. 
Mil ; Nepot. Ep. 15 Vulg.;EccL 10 Vulg.jCael. Aur. " Augustin. ; Cael. Aur. ; Th. 
Prise. ; Fulg. Myth. '* Cael. Aur. 



81. VBS., -ISSAKE.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 321 

OAELIVS AVBELIANVS. FVLGENTIVS. 

amylare, 1 (a/zXoi>), Chron. 2, 13, enthecatus, (fvd^Krj), Myth. Praef. 

177 p. 18 
elleborare, (XXe'/3opos), Id. 4, 3, 77 

VENANTTVS FOBTVNATVS. 
&EDVLIVS. 



sarcophagare, (vapKofbdyos), in Ep~ 
pompare, (^), tarm. 1, 2 ^ ^.^ 6> 5 



SIDONIVS APOLLINARIS. 
endromitatus, (j/Spo/'s), ^?. 2, 2 ISIDOBVS. 
thecatus, (%ij), Id. 1, 2 obelari, (oXo's), 1, 20, 21 

81. VERBS IN -issare, -izare : The verbs in -izare (in 
early Latin -issare) are neither purely Latin, nor purely 
Greek, since the verbs in -tv upon which they are modelled 
would be more properly represented in Latin by the third con- 
jugation. Accordingly whether formed from Greek verbs, bap- 
tizare, Pairrifev, or from Latin substantives, as Latinizare, they 
partake of a hybrid nature. Their abundance in Plaut. shows 
that they were received into the sermo plebeius at an early 
date, 2 a view sustained by their frequency in the later African 
Latin. The literature of the classical period is almost barren 
of examples ; Cic. and Caes. scrupulously avoid them, but the 
vulgar writer Vitr. has the single form trulissare and its deriv- 
ative truiissatio, while Suet, has preserved two others from the 
same period, betizare, lachanizare, both of which he character- 
izes as vulgar, (citing- the former among the vulgarisms of the 
Emperor Augustus). 3 In late literature the suffix becomes far 
more common, but chiefly in the medical and ecclesiastical 
vocabularies. It has survived in all the Komance languages, 
principally in the late Vulg. Lat. form -idiare, while survivals 
of the form -izare have a distinctly literary tone. 4 

This whole class of verbs has been exhaustively treated 
by A. Funck, in articles in the Archiv f. Lat. Lex., III., pp. 
398-442 ; IV., 317-320. The following list is not intended to 
be complete, but simply to give a general perspective of their 
use at different periods : 

1 Ps.-Apic. 

a Rebling, p. 35, "besonders fand das Suffix i, lat. -isso, Eingang in die Um- 
gangssprache ; " Guericke, p. 35 ; Ludwig, p. 32 ; O. Weise, Ein Beitrag zum Vulgar- 
latein, Philol. 1889, p. 49. s Suet. Aug. 87. 4 Conf. Meyer-Lubke, Gramm. d. Roman. 
Spr., I., p. 610 sq.; Id. ib. p. 613, "Izare, die buchwortlich Form zu dem 583 bespro- 
chenen -idiare ; " Schuchardt, Lit. Blatt., Feb. 1884, p. 63. 
21 



322 



WORD FORMATION IN THE [81. VBS., -ISSABE. 



PliAVTVS. 

apolactizare, Epid. 678 
atticissare, 1 Men. 12 
badizare, Asin. 706 
comissari, 11 Most. 317 ; al. 
cyathissare, 3 Men. 303 
*drachumissare, Pseud. 808 
graecissare, 4 Men. 11 
malacissare, 6 Ampli. 315 
moechissare, Gas. 976 
patrissare, 6 Pseud. 442 ; al. 
purpurissare, 7 p. p. p., True. 290 
sicilissare, 8 Men. 12 

PAOWIVS. 
*matrissare, Tr. 139 

TEBENTIVS. 
pytissare," Haiti. 457 

TmNrvs. 
uibrissare, qp. Fest. 320, 2 

CASSIVS HEMINA. 
cymbalissare, ap. Non. 90 



VAEBO. 
gargarissare, 



L. L. 6, 277 



AVGVSTVS IMP. 
betizare, 11 ap. Suet. Aug. 87 

VlTUVViVS. 

trulissare," 5, 10, 3 ; al 



PETRONIVS. 

catomidiare, 13 132 
exopinissare, 62 

PLINIVS. 

amethystizare, p. pr. a., 37, 93 
astragalizontes, s. m., 34, 55 
celatizontes, 14 s. m., 34, 75 
hepatizare, p. pr. a., 34, 8 
hyacinthizare, 15 .p. < pr. a., 37, 77 
lignyzare, p. pr. a., 37, 94 

APVLEIVS. 

Pythagorissare, Flor. 15, p. 19, 17 
Kr. 

ITALA. 

agonizare, 18 1 Cor. 9, 25 (Boern.) 
anathematizare, 17 Leuit. 27, 29 

(Lugd.) 
architectonizare, Exod. 37 (Mo- 

nach.) 

baptizare, 18 passim. 
catecbizare, 19 Gal 6, 6 
eunuchizare, 80 Math. 19, 12 (Cod. 

Gall., etc.) 

iudaizare, 81 Gal. 2, 14 (Boern.) 
prophefcizare," Ezecli. 25, 2 
fcabbatizare, 53 2 Macch. 6, 6 
thyiniamatizare, iwc. 1, 9 

TEKTVMJANVS. 
Christianizare, adu. Mare. 1, 21 



1 Pest. ; Apul. ; Mart. Cap. ; Sidon. Ter. ; Afran. ; Liu. ; Petr. ; Quint. ; Suet. ; Ambros. 
3 Donat. ; Macr. 4 Donat. ; Diom. ; Prise, et al. Grammatt.; Aero ad Herat. ; Schol. Pers. 
8 Cassiod. Ter.; Apul.; Donat.; Prise. etaL Grammatt. r Apul. ; Sidon. Ep. e Con- 
sent.; Paul. Diao. 9 Diom.; Donat. et al. Grammatt. 10 Cels.; Plin.; Fronto; 
Scrib.; Th. Prise.; Marc. Emp.; Gael Aur.; Cass. Fel.; Ps.-Apul.; Dynam.; Raban. 
Maur. " Conf. Suet. l.L, " betizare "pro languere, quod uulgo " lachanizare " dicitur. 
"Compend. Vitr.; Fauent. Spart " Conf. Funck, ALL. III., p. 419, "Dieofter 
ganz griechisch belassene Endung des Particeps zeigt deutlich dass man diese Worter 
nurals halblateinisch empfand." "Solin.; Isid. 18 Intpr. Iren. ; Lucif . Calar. ; Au- 
gustin. ; Eccl. 17 Vulg. ; Hier. ; Eccl. Tert. ; Hier. ; Eccl. Vulg. ; EccL so Hier. ; 
Eccl. 21 A mbroa ; Hier. ; Cassiod. a2 Vulg. ; Augustin. ; Cassiod. ; EccL Tert ; Hier. ; 
Augustin.; Eccl. 



INTPK. IBEN. 

cathernatizare, 1, 13, 4; al. 
cauterizare, 1 1, 13, 7 ; al. 
eomoedizare, 2, 1-1, 1 
dogmatizare," 2, 32, 1 



THEODOBVS PEISCIANVS. 
reumatizare, 5 2, 58 ed. Rose. 



CASSIVS FELIX. 
ereinizare, p. p. p., 51, p. 135, 9 R. 

CYPEIANVS. 
pseudo-baptizare, Sent. Ep. 4, p. SALVIANVS. 



438, 4. 

LAMPRIDIVS. 
pandurizare, Heliog. 32, 8 

AMBKOSIVS. 
coagonizare, 4, 533 0. 

VEGETIVS. 

acontizare, Vet. 1, 26, 4 
clysterizare, 3 Id. 2, 15, 5 
puluerizare, p. p. p., Id. 2, 26 
sinapizare, 4 Id. ib. 

CAEUVS AVREUANVS. 
Latinizare, Acut. 2, 10, 65 ; al. 
phrenitizare, Id. 1, Praef. 10 



epicurizare, Gub. Dei 1, 15 

BOETHIVS. 

catasyllogizare, M. 64, 705 B. 
syllogizare, Id., 675 A; al. 

IOBDANIS. 

tyrannizare, 6 p. pr. a., Roman. 
308, p. 39j 27 ed. Mommsen. 



ambizare, ^>. 303 
bombizare, ib. 
teretissare, ib. 
tmtissare, ib. 



82. GREEK SUFFIXES IN LATIN : As we have already seen, 
the bulk of all the hybrid derivatives in Latin are formed by 
the addition of Latin terminations to Greek stems. There are, 
however, a few Greek suffixes which became more or less natu- 
ralized in Latin, and are deserving- of separate consideration, 
such as -ades, used in patronymics, and in the later language 
the nominal suffixes -issa, -ista, -ismus. 

a. HYBRID PATRONYMICS: An extreme example of hybrid 
formations is afforded by the compounds so numerous in 
Plaut., formed on analogy with Greek patronymics/ evidently 
for the sake of comic effect. Such monstrous formations as 
many of those cited below, were only possible in a semi-Greek 
play, addressed to a cosmopolitan audience, to whom such 
words were merely an absurd exaggeration of what was prob- 

1 Veg. Vet. ; Marc. Emp. a Angustin. ; Eocl. s Gael. Aur. ; Th. Prise. ; Dynam. 
Oribaa. ; Gael. Aur. 6 Marc. Emp.; Oribas. Isid. 

T O. Weise, PhiloL 47 N. F., p. 46 ; con/, list in Lorenz ad Plaut. Most. 356 ; Id. 
ad Mil. 314 ; Fischer, Lucil. p. 11. 



324 WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 82. GK. SUFFIXES. 

ably familiar to them in the slaves' dialect at Home. Outside 
of Plaut. hybrid patronymics are practically confined to Lucil., 
Lucr., and Verg., and in the case of the last two writers are 
probably in conscious imitation of Homeric phraseology. At 
all events the instances are too few to outweigh the undoubt- 
edly plebeian character of the Plautine forms. 1 

PliAVTVS. LVCILIVS. 

Argentumextenebronides, Pers. 704 Apulidas, Sat. 3, 32 

coUicrepida, Trin. 1022 Luciliades, Fr. Dub. 8 

cruricrepida, Id. ib. Scipiades, 2 Fr. Inc. 6 

glandionida, Men. 210 Tuscolides, Id. ib. 

Nugicrepiloquides, Pers. 703 

Nummosexpalponides, Id. 704 

Numquameripides, Id. 705 LVCBETIVS. 

Pernonides, Men. 210 Memmiades, 1, 27 

plagipatida, Capt. 472 Romulides, 8 4, 681 

Quodsemelarripides, Pers. 705 

rapacida, Aul. 370 CLAVDIANVS. 

Tedigniloquides, Pers. 704 Honoriades, Nupt. Honor, et Mar. 

Virginesuendonides, Id. 702 341 

b. SUBSTANTIVES IN -issa: Another Vulg. Lat. suffix, 4 to 
which the weight of authority attributes a Greek origin, is 
-issa. Its history, however, is by no means clear, and indi- 
rectly involves the vexed question of the relation of Etruscan 
to Latin. Corssen, who claims the kinship of these two lan- 
guages, regards -issa as a purely Italic suffix, citing the Latin 
carissa, (Lucil.), which he derives from the root car- (seen also 
in car-in-are), and compares the numerous Etruscan names of 
women in -isa, -esa, such as Aesialisa, Aihialisa, Arnihalisa, 
Larissa, Marcanisa, Apicesa, Sepiesa, etc. 5 Other authorities 

1 O. Weise, I. Z., "Was wollen gegen solche Formen diewenigen ahnlich gebilde- 
ten Patronymika besagen, deren sich Lucilius, Lucrez und Vergil bedienen . . . ? 
Vielleicht sind sie nach Plautus' Vorbild geschaffen ! " 

2 Lucr.; Verg.; Hor.; Prop.; Manil.; Claudian.; Sidon. ApolL 'Verg.; Pers.; 
Prud.; Eutil. Nam. 

4 Corssen, Krit. Beitr., p. 484, " Aus der spatlateinischen Volkssprache sind dann 
zahlreiche Bildungen auf -issa, -essa, -isa, -esa, u. a. in die Romanischen Sprachen 
Ubergegangen ; " Meyer-LUbke, Ital. Gramm., 496, "Aus dem Griechischen dringt 
-issa ins sptttere Vulgttrlatein und ins Romanische ; " con/. O. Weise, 1. I., p. 53. 
5 Corssen, 1. I., p. 484, " Unrichfcig ware es anzunehmen die lateinische Sprache h&tte 
diese Endung von der Griechischen tiberkommen. Dass dieselbe vielmehr in Italieu 
von Alters her heimisch war zeigen eine menge Etruskischer Frauennainen, die von 
Nameii des Mannes mit dem suffix -isa, -esa, gebildct sind." 



83. GK. SUFFIXES.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 325 

regard carissa as of Greek origin, (= mulier Carica), 1 while the 
source of such forms as diaconissa,prop7ietissa, is unmistakable. 
Eecently Lattes has claimed the identity of the Etruscan suf- 
fixes with both the Lat. -issa and Gk. -iWa, all of which he 
thinks originally had a diminutive force. 2 

But accepting the prevailing view that -issa is a Greek 
suffix, we ought perhaps to see, in its application to purely 
Latin stems in the sermo plebeius, the influence of popular ety- 
mology ; the suffix might readily have been identified in the 
minds of the people with the pronoun ipsa (Vulg. Lat. issa), s so 
common in the slaves' dialect, in the sense of domina. Such 
an hypothesis would explain the extent to which the suffix 
was used in the late sermo plebeius, an extent quite inade- 
quately shown by the few forms preserved in literature, but 
which is proved by its prevalence in the Romance languages, 
where it has largely replaced the classical -trix. 1 

Lvciuvs. ISIDOBVS. 

carissa, 6 Sat. Fr. Inc. 59 fratrissa, 9, 7, 17 

COBNELTVS NEPOS. GREGOBTVS TVKONENSIS. 

Scytkissa, Datam. 1, 1 abbatissa," H. F. 4, 26 ; al. 

SCHOL. LVCAN. 

TEBTVLLIANVS. sacerdotissa, 7, 778 

propnetissa, ae Praescr. 51 

THES. Nov. LAT. 

HIEBONTMVS. decanissa, p. 167 

Aethiopissa, Ep. 22, 1 equitissa, p. 185 

diaconissa, 7 Id. 51, 2 Leuitissa, p. 306 

1 Conf. Jordan, Krit. Beitr, p. 88 ; Fisch, Lucil., p. 24 2 Lattes, Saggi ed Ap- 
punti, p. 173, " di gran lunga i piii fra codesti nomi in -sa son di donne, giacche cio 
indica dovere essere stati diminutivi. . . . Ma insieme quella considerazione ci richi- 
ama al' altro f atto, che i Greci p. e. per ' regina ' dissero /SoaiAiWa , e che nel volgare la- 
tino s'uso fratri-ssa perfratr-ia, ossia 'moglie del fratello ; ' e fucome dire, 'la piccola 
/SaeriAev's ' e ' la piccola, f rater ; ' " with this view it is interesting to compare the derog- 
ative force which the suffix afterwards acquired in Ital. ; conf. Meyer-Liibke, Gramm. 
d. Roman. Spr., II., p. 413, "in Ubertragener Bedeutung, zur Angabe des Minderwer- 
tigen, wird das Suffix auch in der alteren Litterarsprache verwendet," citing madri- 
galessa, sonettessa, pistolessa, etc. * For ps = ss in Vulg. Lat., conf. Stolz, Hist. 

Gramm., p. 320. 4 Conf. Diez, p. 673; Meyer-Liibke, I. I. 

6 Paul, ex Fest.; Gloss. Isid.; Gloss. Philox. Hier.; Augustin.; Bccl. T Cod. 
Theod.; Cod. lust.; Inscrr. 8 Greg. M.; Gloss. Labb.; Inscrr.; conf. All. II., p. 446. 



326 WORD FORMATION IN THE [83. HTBR. COMP. 

c. SUBSTANTIVES IN -ismus : A large number of Greek words 
of this class were adopted into Latin, but they belong in the 
main to the technical vocabularies of grammar, medicine, or 
theology, such as barbarismm,soloecismus, Cornif. Rhet.; Quint.; 
Gell., etc.; CliTistianismus^fiidaismus^Qyi.] Eccl.; catherismus, 
croddismus, dropacismus, eunuchismus, gargarismus, hydropis- 
mus, Gael. Aur., and many others. The chief importance of 
the suffix is in relation to its bearing upon the Romance lan- 
guages, and even here it belongs almost exclusively to the cult- 
ured speech. Only a few forms in Ital. give evidence of a 
popular origin, such as Christianesimo, paganesimo. 1 In litera- 
ture, however, instances of words formed with this suffix from 
pure Latin or Romance stems are not rare ; conf. Ital. Cesaris- 
mo, imperialismo ; Pr. Cesarisme, italianisme ; Span, france- 
cismo, etc. Such forms were not unknown in the Vulg. Lat. 
period ; two instances are cited from the later literature : 2 

cerebrismus, Th. Prise. 2 denarisnms, Cod. Theod. 12, 1, 107 ; al. 

d. SUBSTANTIVES IN -ista; Like the preceding, the chief im- 
portance of this suffix is in relation to the Romance languages, 
where it is fairly frequent. 3 Conf. Ital. artista, dentista, papis- 
ta ; Fr. Bonapartiste, jkuriste, etc. Two hybrid forms are 
found in late Latin : 4 

tablista, Anthol. Lat. 196, 7 computista, Mythogr. Lat. 3, 1, 5 ; al. 

83. HYBRID COMPOUNDS : As has already been pointed out, 5 
true hybrid compounds are very rare in Latin. They are not- 
ably absent from writers of the best period, as the following 
list amply testifies : 

PLAVTVS. flagritriba, (flagrum + rpl^eiv), 
antelogium, " (ante + Xoyor), Men. 13 Pseud. 137 

biclinium, 7 (bis + <cXi'wj), Bacch. inanilogista, (inanis + Xoyiorijy), 

720; al. Id. 256 

ferritribax, (ferrum + rpifieiv), mantiscinari, (pavris + canere), 

Most. 356 Capt. 896 

1 Conf. Meyer-Lubke, Gramm. d. Roman. Spr., II. , p. 559. 2 O. Weise, 1. I, p. 51. 
Meyer-Lubke, I. 1. * O. Weise, I. I. 6 Conf. supra, 79, p. 319. 
Auson.; Fulg. Cont. Verg. ' Conf. Quint. 1, 5, 68. 



83. HYBR. COMP.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIVS. 327 



pultifagus, (puls + (pdyfiv), Most. dialutensis, (8m + lufum ?), 9, 

828 131 

Scytholatronia, (Sw'tfj/f + latro), melofolium, (pfj\ov + folium), 15, 

Mil. 43 52 

ulmitriba,(wZmws + rpi^etv), Pers, pseudodecimianus, (\Juo- + cfe- 

278 b. cimianus), 15, 54 



. 

philograeous (#Xo, + Graecus], ^ llopoi&> (8pTW + po , are)> 2 , 

it. Ji. 3, 10, 1 gg 

ClCEEO (EPISTT.). 

Pseudocato, (^cvSo- + Coto), ac? TEKTVLLIANVS. 

Alt. 1 14 6 protosedere, (rrparos + seder e), 

Pseudodamasippus, (v/rrvSo- + Cor - ml - 15 

Damasippus), ad Fam. 7, 23, 3 zelouira, (CijXos + uir), Exhort, ad 

Cast. 9 

CATVIiIiVS. 

ealaputtium, 1 (salax + ir6<r6iov), 53, INTPB. IBEN. 
& primoplastus, 6 

2, 9, 1 

VlTKVVlVS. 

pseudourbanus," (J^euSo- + ur- 



banus), 6, 5, 3 COMMODUNYS. 

semimetopium, (semi + p****,), *"**? ( + K6irp s}> 
435 1, 19, 6 

protolapsus, (irpuTos + labi), Id. 



commeletare, (c 
165 CAPITOLINIVS. 

dextrocherium, 8 (dexter + x fl 'p) 

SENECA (Apoo.). Max. Duo 6, 8 ; al 

praeputium, 3 (prae + n-do-^tov), phallouitrobulum, (0oXXo's + i- 
c. 8, 3 irum), Pertin. 8, 5 



PETRONIVS. 

bilychnis/ (^ + X^ os ), 30, 3 TBEBEI^S 

excatazissare, (ex + wA^'fro,), 67, ^gochlamys 

.. Q Claud. 14, 5 

PLINIVS. LAMPBIDIVS. 

caerefolium, 8 (x<upe'(0uXXoj/) + /o- Pseudoantoninus, (^cuSo- + An- 

lium), 19, 170 toninus), Heliog. 8, 4 

Conf. Sen. Contr. 7, 4, 7. * Col. luuen.; Lact.; Vulg.; formpraepudium=~ 

Not. Tir. Inscrr. 6 PaU.; Ps.-Apic. Prud. 7 Gloss. Isid. 8 Treb. Poll; 
Schol. luueu. 



* 
328 WORD FORMATION IN THE [ 83. HYBB. COMP. 

VOPISCVS. VVLGATA. 

diloris, (8is + lorum), Aurel. 46, euroaquilo, (tvpos + aquilo), Act. 

6 ; al Apost. 27, 14= 

monoloris, (novas + lorum), Id.ib. scenofactorius, (a-Kfjvos + facere), 

penteloris, (vreWe + lorum), Id. ib. Id. 18, 3 



FIBMICVS MATERNVS. MABCELLVS EMPIEICVS. 

monoculus, 1 (p.6vos + oculus), 8, pseudocalidus, tytvbo- + calidus), 

19; at 36,74 

pseudoflauus, (\^evSo- + flauus), 

PLINIVS VALERIANVS. 8, 128 

substypticus, (sub + onwri/co'r), pseudoliquidus, (^euSo- + liqui- 

5, 31 <M> 16, 12 



AVSONIVS THEODOKVS PKISCIANYS. 

myobai-bum, ^ s + barba), Epigr. se P tidromus . (P* 

31 4 ' 3 

SEKVIVS. MABTIANYS CAPELLA. 

artigraphus, 2 (ars + yp^a*), ad auadrisemus, ( 2M M or + 

Aen. 1, 104 ; al. 9 ' 9j 

SIDONIVS APOLLINAKIS. 

VEGETIVS bimeter, (&^ + Me Vpo,), ^. 9, 15, 

Bemispathmm, 3 (semi + <nra^), j ^ j^^ 

J^z^<. A, 10 centimeter, (cen/wm + 

AMBROSIVS. Carm. 9, 264 ed. Mohr. 

primigenes, (primus + yvr,s), de satirograplius, (satira + 

Noe et Area, 29, 107 E P- ^ X1 > 8 ed - Mohr - 

HIEBONTMVS. CLAVDIANYS MAMERTVS. 

coeuangelista, (con + tlayyt\ur- q^adrigona, (quattuor + yS> vos ), 

TT, S ), in Philem. 8 Stat - Anim " 3 15 

cohaereticus, (con +at>-ico'f), Ep. p SEVD o-Apicivs. 

' tractogalatus, (tractum + yaXa), 5, 

compropneta, (con + irpo(f>r)TT)s), -too . _/ 

in Ion. adl,Z tractomelitus, (tractum + /x^Xt), 

pseudomagister, (^evSo- + ma- Q otrg 

gister), in Ephes. 2, ad 4, 11 tyropatina, (rvpA* + patina), 7 
pseudopastor, (^evdo- + pastor), 

Id. ib. CODEX THEODOSIANVS. 

quadrigamus, (quattuor + yapos), dinummium, (8is + nummus), 14, 

adu. louin. 1, 8 extr. 27, 2 

1 Mythogr. Lat.; Gloss. Labb. 2 Pompei. Comment.; Eutych.; Cassiod.; Isid.; 
conf. artigraphia, Anecd. Helu. * Isid. 



83. HTBB. COMP.] ROMAN SERMO PLEBEIV8. 329 

holouerus, 1 (oXos + uerus), 10, 21, VENANTIVS FOBTVNATVS. 

Lemm. archisacerdos, (apx*- + sacerdos), 

limitrophus,* (limes + rpofalv), Carm. 3, 13, 1 

5, 13, 38 
paraueredus, 3 (napd + ueredus), 

8, 15, 7 CODEX IVSTINIANVS. 

pseudocomitatenses, (\^fu8o- + melloproximus, (/^teXXetj/ + proxi- 

comitatus), 8, 1, 10 ) 12, 19, 5 

BOETHIVS. 

semidiametros, (semi + SidptTpos), ISIDOKVS. 

Art. Gramm. p. 424, 3 <fi 5 Fr. euroauster, (evpos + auster), 13 

semispherium, (semi + afaupiov), 11 

Inst. Mus. 4, 18 penteremis, (nivre + remus), 19, 

1,23 

FVXGENTTVS. 

contheroleta, 4 (co?i + 
i. 3, 2 



1 Cod. lust. 2 Cod. lust 3 Cod. lust.; Cassiod. * Mythogr. Lat. 



THE END. 



VITA. 

Natns sum Fridericus Taber Cooper Noui Eboraci, quae urbs in Ciuitate 
eiusdem nominis locata est, ante diem VI Kalendas lunias anno Domini 
MDCCCLXIV, patre Varno, matre Maria ex gente Taber, quorum 
alterum adhuc superstitem esse laetor, alteram morte mihi puero ereptam 
doleo. Fidei euangelicae addictus sum. Cum a primis annis iniqua uale- 
tudine affectus scholam adire non possem, litterarum elementis a uariis 
magistris domi imbutus sum ; deinde confirmato iam corpore anno quat- 
tuordecimo ad Scholam Linguarum ut appellabatur me contuli, quae turn 
hac urbe florebat auspiciis LAMBEBTI SAUVEUB magistri doctissimi mihique 
semper uenerandi, quod primus animum meum ad amorem studiorum 
philologicorum aduertit, ibique per duos annos linguis Latinae, Graecae, 
Francogallicae operam dedi. Inde in scholam quae Auglice The Fifth 
Avenue School dicta est, transii, cui turn praefuerunt uiri escellentissimi 
GIBBENS et BEACH. Tres post annos in Vniuersitatem Harvardianam 
ahnam matrem meam adii quae Cantabrigae in Ciuitate Massachusitense 
collocata est, ut inter ciues acciperer academicos. Ibi audiui per quattuor 
annos illustrissimos uiros, inter alioa CHITTD, CROSWELL, DYER, HILL, LANE, 
LOWELL, MAC VANE, NORTON, PALMEB, PARKEE, PIERCE, WENDELL, YOUNG, 
quibus omnibus gratias ago quam maximas, atque anno MDCCCLXXXVI 
probatione rite habita, ad gradum Baccalaurei in Artibus admissus sum. 
Turn consiliis patris atque amicorum adductus studiis iurisprudentiae me 
totum tradidi, atque ab initio auctumni sequentis per octo menses lectiones 
frequentaui clarissimi atque benignissimi professoris THEODORI W. 
DWIGHT, qui turn facultati Iurisprudentiae in Collegio Columbiae Noui 
Eboraci praefuit atque nuper plenus annis abiit, discipulis longe quaeren- 
dus ac desiderandus. Vere anni MDCCCXXXVII post probationem habi- 
tant, a curatoribus Collegii Columbiae ad gradum Baccalaurei in Legibus 
admissus sum atque anno sequente probatione altera habita in lurisconsul- 
torum ordinem in Ciuitate Nouo Eboraco rite adscriptus sum. Mox autem 
amore linguarum ita adductus sum, ut officio iurisconsulti relicto, ad Col- 
legium Columbiae redirem, quam quasi alteram almam matrem nunc colo. 
Anno MDCCCLXCI admissus sum ad gradum Magistri in Artibus, eodem- 
que tempore Adiutor in Schola Linguae Latinae factus, eo officio per 
triennium functus sum. Per quattuor annos lectiones audiui doctissi- 
morum uirorum, PECK, PERRY, MERRIAM, JACKSON, EGBERT, McCREA. 
Quibus omnibus quos commemoraui uiris gratias et nunc ago et semper 
habebo maximas. Praematura morte nuper erepti professoris MERELUI 
semper seruabo memoriam. 



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