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BOSTON PUBLIC L'BRARJ', 



3 9999 06542 02 



lllillllll ' /^U^PP^^^ 



OFFICE OF NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION 
DIVISION OF REVIEW 



EARNINGS OF FISHERMEN AND OF FISHING CRAFT 

Appendix to 
THE FISHERY INDUSTRY AND THE FISHERY CODES 

By 
John R. Arnold 



WORK MATERIALS NO. 31 
(Appendix) 




df^; 



Industry Studies Section 
January, 1936 



OrFICE 01^ NATIu:Ti\L RECOVEP.Y ADI : 1 1^1 STRATI Oi'I 
DIVISION OF REVIEW 



EARNINGS OF FISHER] :e1i AlII3 OF FISHIITG CRAFT 

Appendix to 
TIIE FISHERY IllDUSTRY AuD TxIE FIS.'IERY CODES 

John R, Arnold 



Industry Studies Section 
January, 1936 



9680 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

Boston Public Library 



http://www.archive.org/details/workmaterials035unit 



I sx E M R I) 



This report on "Th'?. Earnings of Fishermen and. of Fishin,^ Craft" 
was prepa,red by John P., Arnold- of tne Ino.ustr^.^ Studies Section, 
Li, D. Vincent in charge. 

This is the first study of the subject to he atte-Tpted, It 
was undertaJcen originally in connection vdth the niniin"'ain wage 
provisions of the LIRA Fishery Code. It is no-: made an Ap'oendix 
to Work Materials ilo, 31 on "The Fisherj'^ Industry and the Fishery 
Codes", in the \-riting of ■■rhich it served as an iiaportniit source 
of statistical information. The study nil! he found of interest 
to the Fishing Industry and to investigators in the fields of 
industry and lauoro 

The report has "been made possible "by extensive cooperation 
on the part of the Industry. The information c-'lled for hy the 
questionnaire sent out was supplied "by the owners of more than 
five hundred fishing vessels; and the recipients of many supple- 
mentary inquiries, v/ith the rarest of exceptions, gave the hest 
assistance in their power. The study is also under heavy obli- 
ga.tions to the st.-iff of the Bureau of Fisheries of the Department 
of Commerce — especially to the Division of Fishery Industries 
and the Alaska Division in the Washington Office, and to the 
statistical and technolo ;ical field force. 

A pioneer study of so couplex a subject must necessarily be 
somewhat provisional. Its publication will, it is hoped, invite 
comment from the Industry and encourage further investigation \)y 
other agencies. 

At the back of this report ^7ill be found a brief statement 
of the studies undertaken by the Division of Review, 



L. C. Marshall, 
Director, Division of Review. 



13 



%36 



9680 -i- 



TABLE OF C01IT£1TTS 



Pa<s:e 



I, The ScOT^e and Metliods of the StuC.v 



Sources of Inf orna.tion 1 

Limitation of Ori;'?:inal Stud^ to 

Vessels 1 

Returns to the (Questionnaire 1 

Definition of the Industry 2 

The Years Represented 2 

Merits and Defects of the Schedules ,..,, 2 

The Geographical Areas 2 

The "Fisheries" 3 



• ••••••• 



(C ontinue d) 
9680 -ii- 



II, The Number and T^rpes of Fishing Craft 

and Their O-v^mership and Command • 

Sources of Information 

Scope of the Bureau of Fisheries Data 

Vessels and Boats 8 

Sport and Transporting Vessels 9 

The Number of Fishing Craft 9 

Long Tim.e Variation in the Number 

of Vessels 13 

Relative Numbers of Vessels and Boats , 16 

The Size of Fishing Vessels ,. 16 

Types of Fi shing Gear 18 

The Ownership of Fishing Craft 18 

Ov/nership by Wholesale Dealers 22 

Omiership and Command 22 

Single and Multiple Oiimership 22 

The Output of Fi shing Craft 24 

Modes of Propulsion of Fishing Vessels 24 

Idle Fishing Vessels 27 

III, The Personnel and Occuoations of the 

Fisheries , 29 

Definitions of "Crew" pjid "Fishermen" 29 

Number of Fi shermen • 29 

Numbers of Vessel and Boat Fishermen 32 

The Long-time Trend in Personnel 32 

The Productivity of Fishery Labor 35 



Ti ffiLE OF C GilTElITS 
( Continued) 

Regular and Casual Fi shermen 38 

Non-liigratory Chai'acter and Low 

Turnover of Personnel 41 

Distinctions of Se::, Ra.ce and 

National Origin 41 

Si 26 of Fishing Crews 42 

Employers, Employees and Independent 

Operators 42 

Distinctions of Rpjik and Occupation 44 

Shore Workers 45 

IV, The Production of the Fisheries 48 

Sources of Information o 48 

(Quantity and Value of the Catch 48 

Production of the Fisheries in 1954 50 

The Long-Time Trend of Production 50 

Output of the Vessel ?and of 

the Boat and Shore Fisheries 50 

V. The Compensation of Fishing Crev/s 54 

Variety of I.:odes of Payment i,. 54 

Fi shing Lay s . . , . o 54 

The Payment of Straight Wages 54 

P.qyment at Piece Rates 55 

Intermediate Systems of Pa^onent 55 

Relative Importance of the 

Various Modes of Compensation 55 

Reasons for the Predominance of 

the Share System . . . . o 56 

Effects of the Share System 57 

VI, The Operation of Fishing Vessels on Shares , 59 

The Gross Stock 59 

The principal Factors in a Lay 59 

Specimen Operating Statement of 

a Fishing Vessel Working on a Lay 60 



(Continued) 



9680 



•111-' 



TA2LE OP CGi^T£NTS 
( Continued ) 



Operating Expense 60 

Overhead or O^'mer ' s Expense , 61 

Characteristics of Fishing Lays 61 

Factors Governing the Earnings 

of Crev/s 62 

Classification of the Lays in Use 62 

Estimates of Grev7 Earnings on 

Share Vessels 67 

The Estimates for 1934 and 1329 67 

VII, The Earnings of Fishernen on Share Vessels ....,, 68 

The '3r sic Data 68 

Classification hy Tonnac© and 

Its Significance 68 

Missing Data for Operating Expense 

and Their Sirniiican.ce 76 

Comparison of Operating Ezcpense 

and of Vessel mid Cre^rr S'iiares 79 

The Data for Individual Crew Shares • 79 

The Factor of Food Cost 80 

Wages in Addition to or in Lieu of 

Share s 81 

VIII. Earnings on TJage and On Piece-Rate Vessels ,..,,, 86 

Comparison of Share and Wage 

Earnings 86 

Relation of Wages to Value of Cat-^^n o........ 87 

Lack of Expense Da.ta for Wage Vessels 87 

Vessels Working on Piece Rates ,. 87 

IX, Other Considerations Relating to Fishermen's 

Earnings 88 

Geographical Vari<'^tions 88 

Periods of Actual Emplojrraent 88 

Seasonal Variation in Active Emploj^- 

ment , 90 



( Continued ) 
i680 -iv- 



TA3LE or C OHTZH TS 
( Continued ) 

Income From So^jrces Other Than 

Fi shing ■ 91 

The Total Volume of Earnings 91 

X, The iil-^.rnings of Ranks and Occ"u:pations 92 

The Compensation of Captains 92 

Recipients of VJages in Addition to 

Share s 95 

Occupations and Compensation of 7age 

Earners on Share Vessels •.... 95 

Distribution of "7 age Rates on 

Wage Vessels •.. 102 

Summary of Coijpensat ion by RarJ-: 

or Occupation 102 

XI, O'-'ners' Expense and l^et Return and 

the Capitalization of the Fisheries 105 

The Data on O^-mer ' s E^roense , 105 

Reliability of the Ovmer's Expense 

Data 105 

Practice with Respect to Depreciation 106 

The Estimated Vifrite-Offs for Deprecia- 
tion 106 

Treatment of Repl cements of Gear 106 

Fixed Capital of the Fisheries 106 

Working Capital of the Fisheries 110 

The 1908 Census Data on Investment 110 

Profit and Loss in 1933 113 

Conclusions suggested by the Data on 

Ovmer ' s Expense ,.... 114 

XII, The Earnings of Fishermen and of Vessels 

in 1934 and 1929 115 

Mode of Malcing Estimrtes for 1934 and 

1929 115 

Individual Crew Shares in 1934 and 

1929 116 

Changes in Crew Share and in Value 

of Catch 116 



( Continued ) 
9680 -V- 



TigLE OF CO'ilTIN TS 

( Continued) 

Page 

Return to Vessel Garners in 1934 

ajid 1929 120 

i7ages in 1934 and 1929 122 

XIII. The Earnings of Employee Fishermen and 

Trapmen in the Salnon Ca,nning Industry 123 

Scope of the Data 123 

Sources of information 123 

Inclusion of Boat and Shore Fishermen 123 

Huraher of Fishermen and Trapmen 123 

period of Employment 124 

Method of Compensation , 124 

Average Earnings of Employee Fishermen 125 

Earnings of Trapmen « 125 

Special Conditions of the Vfork 125 

The Volume of Compensation 126 

Compensation of Non-Employee Fishermen 126 

Total Compensation of Alaska Salmon 

Cannery Fishermen 127 

XIV, Earnings in the Boat and Shore Fisheries 128 

Distinction "between the Boat and 

the Shore Fisheries 128 

Number of Fishing Boats and Boat 

Fishermen ,. 128 

Employees and Entrepreneurs • , 129 

The Value of the Boat and Shore Catch 129 

Boat Fisheries of the liississippi Area 131 

Size and Gross Income of Boat and 

Shore Enterprises 134 

Summary of Data on Typical Boat 

Operations . 134 

XV. The Returns to the Questionnaire and the 

Si ze and Nature of the Sample 140 

Difficulties of the Project , 140 

Limitation of the Survey to Vessels 140 

Seasonal Factor in the Voliome of 

Re turns , 140 

The Mailing List ' 141 

The Returns to the Questionnaire 141 

Supplementary Studies and Data 143 

( Continued ) 

9680 -vi- 



TaBLj: of COITTEIITS 
( Continued ) 

Fa!g:e 

Size and Representativeness of the 

Saraple s 143 

Tests of the Data for Internal 

Consistency 149 

Representation of Large and Snail 

Vessels 150 

Correction of Distortion "by 

Weighting , , 151 

General Reliability of the Data 153 



APPEM)IXES 



I, Additional Data on ii;a.rnings 

In the Menhaden Fishery 155 

II, The Schedules Used in Connection 

with the Study 157 

III, Breaicdovm of Classification of Lays or 
Share Agreements (Tahle XIHl) "by Area 
and Fishery, with Name of Lay "There 
Reported „ , . 167 

IV» Provisional Index of Monthly 
Variation in the Nuinher of 
Fishermen Actively Engaged in 
Fishing and Earning Shares or 
fege s , , 170 



9680 -vii- 



LIST 0? T ABLES 
TABLE Pa^-^e 



I - Vessel Fisheries Covered by the Study, 
With Principal Species Caught and Types 
of Gear Employed, and Periods of Normal 
Seasonal Operation, "by Area and 
Fishery 4-5-6-7 

II - Number and Net Tonnage of All Pishing 

Vessels, by Area, 1929 - 1933 11 

III - Number of All Fishing Boats, by 

Area, 1929 - 1935 . 12 

IV - Number and Net Tonnage of All Vessels 

in Use in the Fisheries, by Area, 1908 - 

1933 14 

V - Distribution of All Fishing Vessels on 
the Atlantic and G-ulf Coasts, by Net 
Tonnage , 1929 17 

VI - Average Value of Catch per Vessel, per 
Ton and per Man for Sample Vessels, 
by Tonnage Class and By Area and Fisherj'-, 
1933 19-20 

VII - Prooortion of All Vessels in the Fisheries 
HThich Mere Onned by Corporations, by Area, 
1926 21 

VIII - Fleets of Sample Fishing Vessels Which 

Tfere Reported as O^Tied by Single Persons, 

Firms or Corporations, by Area and Size, 

1933 23 

IX - Average Value of Catch of All Fishing 

Craft, by Area, 1929 - 1935 25 

X - Number of All Vessels and Boats in Use 
in the Fisheries, by Mode of Propulsion, 
1908 - 1933 26 



( Continued ) 
9680 -viii- 



LIST OF TA3LES 

( Continued ) 

TABLE Pa/^e 

XI - N-umlDer of All Fisherinen, on Vessels and 
on Bo?„ts and Ashore, hy Area, 1929 - 
1955 50-51 

XII - Niimber of Persons Conposing the CrerTS of 
All Vessels in the Fisheiies, "by Area, 
1908 - 1955 , . . , 55 

XIII - Num'ber of Persons Report inf-^ the Occupation 
of Fisherman or C^'-storraan in Connection 
vath the Censuses of Population, in the 
United States Proper and in Alaska, 1870 - 
1950 \ , 54 

XIV - Average Value of Catch per laan, All Fishing 

Crpjft, hy Ai-ea, 1929 - 1955 56 

XV - Q,uantity and Value of the Catch of the Fisheries, 
i902 - 1904, 1908 and 1929 - 1954 57 

XVI - Number of Regular and Casual Fishermen on 
Boats and Ashore, Atlantic and Gulf Coasts 
and the Great Lakes, 1929 - 1955 59 

XVII - Estimated Classification of All Fishermen 

by E]aplo;^nnent Status, 1955 , 45 

XVIII - Estimated Huraher of Persons in Each Panic or 

Occupation on All Fishing Vessels, 1955 47 

XIX - Q;j.antity, Value and Average Price Per Po-ond 
of the Catch of the Fisheries, "by Area, 
1929 - 1955 49 

XX - Estiraded Segregation of the Value of the 

Catch of the Vessel and of the Boat and Shore 
Fisheries, "by Area, 1955 51 

XXI - Estimated Proportions of All Fishing Vessels, 

of all Vessel Fishermen, and of the Total Value 

of the Catch, of Vessels Using V-^rious Modes 

of Compensating Their Crews , 56 

XXII - Classification of Lays or Share J\greements in 

Use on SaraDle Fishing Vessels, 955 65-64-65 

( Continued ) 

9680 -ix- 



LIST OF TA3LES 

( Continued) 

TABL£ Page 

XXIII - Principal Factors C-overnin^ the Basic Earn- 
ings of the Cre^TS of Sample Share Vessels, 
ty Area and Fishery, 1933 66 

XXIV -- NumlDer of Vessels, Avera/'e Tonnage, Niimber of 
Fishermen and Average Crew for All Vessels 
Included in the Sanple , by Mode of Compensa- 
tion and by Tonnage Class, 1933 69 

XXV - Number of Vessels, Average Tonnage, IJumber of 
Fishermen and Average Creu, for All Vessels 
Included in the Sample, by Mode of Compensa- 
tion and by Ai^ea and Fishery, 1933 70-71-72 

XXVI - Value of Catch and Earnings of Cre^7s, With Num- 
ber of I'en and Earnings Per Kan, for All Sample 
Vessels, by Mode of Compensation and by Ton-iage 
Class, 1935 74 

XXVII - Value of Catch and Earnings of Cre^,7S, V/ith Num- 
ber of Men 8.nd Earnings Per Man, for .all Sample 
Vessels, by Mode of Compensation and by Area and 
Fishery, 1933 75 

XXVIII - Value of Catch, Operating Expense, and Vessel 
and Cre^T Shares, for Sample Share Vessels for 
which Operating Expense was Reported, by 
Tonnage Class, 1933 77 

XXIX - Value of Catch, Operating Expense and Vessel 
and Crew Shares, for Sample Share Vessels 
for v;hich Opera ing Expense was Reported, by 
Area and Fishery, 1933 78 

XXX - Recipients of l/Vages in Addition to Shares on 
Sample Share Vessels, "Jith the Value of 
the Catch, The Crew Share and the Volume of 
Additional "Yages, by Area and Fishery, 1933 .. 82 

XXXI - Recipients of V/ages in Lieu of Shares on 
Sample Share Vessels, with the Value of 
the Catch, the Crew Share ajid the Volume of 
"vYages, by Area and Fishery, 1933 83 



( Continued ) 
9680 -X- 



LIST OF TABLES 

(Continued) 

TABLE Pafc-e 

XXXII - All Recipients of 7/ages on Sanple Share 

Vessels, With tht= Value of the Catch, The 
Crew Share and the Tot-^.l Volwne of Wages, 
by Ai-ea and Fishery, 1953 84 

XXXIII - iNTurnber of Wage Earners on Sanple -.Va.^'^^e 

Vessels, V/ith ^^.ver.-^ge 'iTeelcs of Er.ployraent 
and Aver-.ge Annual and Weekly Earnings, "by 
Rpjik or Occupation and "by Area and Fishery, 
1933 ". 89 



XKXIY - Percentage Bonuses in Additi(vi. to Shres Paid 
to r."em'bers of Sample Share Vessel Crews, 
V/ith 1^'ura'ber of Vessels, N^jinber of lien, Value 
of Catch and Vessel pjid Grew Snares, "by Area, 
1933 93 

XXXV - Recipients of Wages in Addition to Shares on 
Sample Share Vessels, by Raiilc or Occupation 
and "by Area and Fisher;/, 1933 96-97 

XXXVI - Recipients of Vfeges in Addition to Shares on 
Sample Share Vessels, ".Tith Volume of Wages 
and Averr.ge Per iCan, "b,y Ranlc or Occupation and 
"by Area ano Fishery, 1933 98 

XXXVII - Recipients of WsLges in Lieu of Shares on 

Sample Share Vessels, with Volume of Wages 
and Average Per Man, by Pianlc or Occupation 
and by Area and Fishery, 1953 99 

XXXVIII - Distribution oi Wage Earners on Sanple Wage 

Vessels According to Average "Teekly Earnings, 

by Ai-ea, 1933 100 

XXXIX - Distribution of Wage Earners on Sample '.7age 

Vessels According to Average Jp.ehly Earnings, 

by Rank or Occupat ion, 1935 , , 101 

XL - Average Total Compensat ion for the Year of the 
Principal Hanlcs or Occupations on Sample Share 
and Wage Vessels , 1953 103 



(Co ntinue d) 



9680 -XI- 



LIST OF TABLES 



( Continued ) 



TABLE 



'Pa.ff.e 



XLI - Ormers' or Overhead Expense Reoorted for 
Saraple Share Vessels, with iJumber of Men, 
Value of Catch and Vessel and Crew Shares, 
Classified as Showing Inclusion or Exclusion 
of Depreciation and Net Profit or Net Loss, 
hy Area, 1933 



107 



XLII - Estimated Original Cost of All Fishing Ves- 
sels in Use in 1933, With the Normal Annual 
Write-Off for Depreciation and the Normal 
Annual Cost of Replacing Fishin'.;-- Gear, "by 
Area 108 

XLI I I - Distrihution of All Vessels in Use in the 

Fisheries, by Age, 1926 109 

XLIV - Capitalization of the Fisheries as Reported 

hy' the Census of 1908 111-112 



XLV - Estimated Average Share per Share Fisherman 
on Sample Vessels, Crude and Weighted Ac- 
cording to the Total Number of Lien in Each 
Fishery, 1934 and 1929 Compared with 1933, by 
Area and Fi shery 



117 



XLVI - Relation of Change in Average Crew Share Per 
Man to Change in Aver.^g;e Value of Catch 
per Vessel, for Sample Share Vessels, by 
Area, From 1929 to 1935 , 



118 



XLVI I - Average Vessel Share ajid Estimated Aversge 
Or.iier's or Overhead Expense, Per Sample a/ 
Share Vessel, Crude and Weighted According 
to the Total Number of Vessels in Each Fisherjr, 
1934 and 1929 Compared with 1933, by Area ... 121 



XLVI I I - Outstanding Data for the Boat and Shore 

Fisheries, 1933 .and 1929 (1931 in the Case 
of the Mississippi River Area) Compared with 
1908 



130 



( Continued ) 



9580 



-Xll- 



LIST 0? TA3LES 

( Continued ) 

TABLE Page 

XLIV - Value of the Catch of the Boat and. Shore 

Fisheries, Excluding the Mississippi River 

Area, by Area and Fishery, 1933 132-133 

L - Summary of Data for the Operation of T;;.?pical 

Boats in Representative Boat Fisheries 135-136- 

137-138- 
139 

LI - Nuri.her of Vessels for Which Returns u'ere made 
to the Ori^-^inal Q;Aestionna.ire, Classified Ac- 
cording to the Disposition of the Schedules 
with Reference to the Sample, and the Reasons 
Therefor 142 

LII - Numher of Vessels in the Final SaiJiple, hy 

Source of Do.ta 144 

LI 1 1 - Number of All Fisliing Vessels and Vessel 

Fishermen Compared with the Numbers Included 
in the Final Spjuple, Kith Average Tonnage and 
Average Crew, hy Area, 1933 145 

LiV - Value of C^'tch of All Fishing Vessels and of 

Sample Vessels, by Area and Fishery, 1933 .... 146-147- 

148 

LV - Distribution of Sample Vessels, 1933, and 
of All Fishing Vessels pn the Atlantic and 
Gulf Coasts, 1929, by Tonnage Class 150 

LVI - Average Total Earnings per Man on Sample Share 
Vessels, Crude and Weighted According to the 
Total Number of Vessel Fishermen in Each 
Fishery, by Area, 1933 152 



9680 -xiii- 



EARKINGS OF FISIIERliM 
MID O F 
FISHIIIG CRAFT 



9680 -XIV- 



-1^ 

3A.EimiGS OF FISHEPJA3IT 
AilD CF 
FISEirG CMFT 

C'ilAPTi^H I 

TH3 SCOPE AlID I/GTHODS OF THE STUDY 

SOURCES OF IITFOPJvATIOlT 

This study of the earnings of fishermen and of fishing craft was 
originally iindGrtaV:en in connection with the minimum wage provisions 
of the IT.R.A. Fishery Code, ap-orovcd "by the President on FeTDruar^^ 20,1934 
The main "body of the data was obtained by means of a questionnaire sent 
out in August, 1934, to recorded owners of fishing vessels of five net 
tons and over. This is the scixcdule referred to in the tables that will 
be introduced as the rciort proceods as the "IT .P. A. questionnaire on 
earnings in the fishing industry." 

Tlie difficulties of this inquiry, v/hich was the first of its 
kind to be attempted, were considerable. The questionnaire, hov;ever, 
produced what are believed to be rcorescntativo spjnples of infonna.tion 
for most of the important vessel lislierics; and only in the case of a 
few subdivisions were the returns, for various ropsons, less satisfac- 
tory. Steps wore later tahen to fill tnese gaps oj special inquiries, 
which are listed in Chapter XV. The data obtained "by means of these 
supplementary studies wore consolidated with the returns to the original 
questionnaire, and are incorporated in the tables. 

LIMITATION OF OHIGIiTAL. STUDY TO VESSELS 

For reasons exnlained in Chaoter XV tht> -original survey was con- 
fined to the earnings of fishej^on on vessels- that is on craft of five 
net tons or more- and did not "cover earnings in the boat and shore fish- 
eries^, Y.-hich v/orh v-ith craft of les^. tlia.n five tons or v/ithout any 
floating equipment. I^ter, however, it was forjid practicable to gather 
figures of -a somev/hat different sort for representative boat fisheries. 
These data are presented and discussed in Chapter XIV. 

RETUPITS TO THE QUESTIOI-TlTAIPd] 

The basic qucstionna.irc brovight in returns for 894 vessels in 
active use for commercial fishiiig in 1333. The special conditions of 
the industry, however, caused a considerable pro'oortion of these sched- 
ules to be unusable. In txie end material relating to 302 of these ves- 
sels was taken as the sanralc to be analysed. Subsequently, through the 
medi-om of the suD'olementary studies above mentioned, comparable infor- 
mation with regard to 55 additional vessels was obtained from other 
sources, mailing the number included in the final sam^-jle 567. Data re- 
lating to a groiri of 23 '?dditional meniiaden vessels in the South Atlantic 
States were received toQ late to be incorporated in the body of the re- 
port, but are summarized^.!! Appendix I 



)680 



~2- 

The study deals only rith the fisheries in the popular sense 
of the inu-ustry tliat catches or collects fish and other aquatic pro- 
ducts. The -processing and the wholesale distribution of such products, 
though covered "by the H .R A. Fishery Code, have "been disregarded for 
present purposes. 

Since the study was initiated in the summer of 1034 the origi- 
nal questionnaire called for l'.v33 data. In the case of vessels v/orlc- 
ing on shares, however, which constitute 7.''> ;oer cent of the total, it 
has "been posciDle, by the use of subsidiary data on the prices of fish 
and shellfish and of the supplies consiiined, ano on tJie terms of the 
share agreements in use, to convert these 1933 figures into estimates for 
1934 and also for 1322, which are believed to ap-^roximate the actual re- 
sults of those years. Precisely corresponding estima.tes could not be 
made in the case of vessels tiiat wor.'. on v/ages; bu.t some information has 
been obtained with respect to the earnings of the latter and of the la- 
bor employed on them, in 1934. 

laZRITS AiTD DSITZCTS OF T?a SCHZDUL:^ 

Both the original Questionnaire and the supplementary schedules 
by wiiich were obtained the information for converting the 1933 returns 
to the basis of other years and the special data for the boat and shore ilsherie 
are" repro-ducadin,.Appehdix II, They are there accompanied by comments on 
the adequacy and effectiveness of the inquiries, and on the arrangement 
of the forms. Since these were the first schedules ImowTi to ha-ve been 
prepared for obtaining information Vidth regard to the earnings of fish- 
ermen and of fishing craft, it is felt thia.t a record should be made of 
the experience gained from their use. as a guide for similar projects in 
the future. 

TIE G30GRAP}:iCAL AR^S 

In classifying the data geographically the United States has been 
divided into six areas: 

iTew England 
middle Atlantic 
South 

Great L-akes 
California 
ITorthv/est and Alasl^ 

The Hiddle Atlantic area comprises the st'-^tes of IJew York, Penn- 
sylvania, Hew Jersey and Delaware except the lake shores of the first 
t\70 named^ which are included in the Great I^kes area. ITo returns to 
the questionnaire v;ere received from Maryland, and it is consequently 
convenient to make the break betv/een the i.iiddle Atlantic area and the 
South at that point. The only fishing vessels in Maryland of five net 
tons or over are small oyster dredges, and the Chesapeake region has 
been a difficult one from which to obtain data of the kind called for 

9630 



"by tliG study. 

The South, as the ter.Ti is used lor present purooses, includes all 
the seacoast States from Virf:inia to Texas. The Pacific I'Torth\7est - 
that is, the States of Oregon and Wasliini^'ton - has "been conuined v;ith 
Alaska, "because the fisheries of the latter are so largely carried on 
"by vessels working out of pijget So'ond that it is possible to distin- 
guish them from the Washington fisheries only oy an arbitrary line. 
Such"^a line is dra^-m "by the Bureau of Fisheries for the purpose of its 
own publications; but its method is not airplicable to the present data. 

The breakcTown of the country into areas vrhich is employed by 
the Bureau of Fisheries is slightly different from timt just described. 
The States of i.ia.ryland and Virginia are grouped in a separate Chesapeake 
area. Washington and Oregon are consolidated into a Pacific area with J. 
California; and Alaska is treated separately. Where the Bureau's fi- 
gures are corirpared with data obtained in connection vith the study they 
have been reclassified accordingly. In so.no of the tables, hoV'/ever, 
the Bureau's ovra classification is used. 

The Bureau of Fis.ieries has collected data v.-ith regard to one 
area - the Missrssippi River and its tributaries - v/hich vi/as not covered 
by the original study. Hot only has but one survey of this region been 
made in recent years - for 1931 - but its fisheries are nov? carried on 
entirely by boats of less than five tons. In discussing the boat and 
shore fisheries in Cha.pter XIV, hov;cver, consideration lias been given to 
the iviississippi Eiver fisheries. 

Except where other'/;dse stated the name "United States" in this 
report includes Alaska but excludes the Mississippi River area. 

TH3 "FISHERIES 

The six. areas above listed have been subdivided for the purooses 
of the study into "fisheries". The latter ^-'ord is here used in a tech- 
nical sense to mean a group of vessels or boats engaged regularly dur- 
ing a substantial part of each year in taking fish or shellfish of one 
species, or of a grouo of related or associated species, within well- 
defined v/aters. 

A li&t of these fisheries is given in Table I. Along with the 
name of each appear the "orinciDal s-^ecies of fish or shellfish. 



96G0 



«4- 
TABLE I 

V3SSEL risH;5Hi::s ooy^-r3d by Tii:: study, vjith principal s?3CI3S 

CAUGHT AIID TYP3S OF GHAH Zf^PLOYZD, AJ.ID P:]RI0DS OF WORI/iAL 
SIASGIIAL 0P3RATI01J, 3Y A?:iA AITD FISHERY 



Area and Fishery Pi-i?ici^al Si-^ocies 



'rincipal Types Period of Hormal 
of Gear Seasonal Q-oeration 



II3W 3iT&IAlTD 



Gro"u.ndf ish 



Oyster 
Scallop 

Miscellaneous 

iiiDTj: ATL.::^Tig 

Oyster 
Scallop 
Pound net 

Lis cellaneous 

SOUTH 

Red snapper 

Oyster 
Shrimp 
Menhaden 



Cod, haddock, 
cush, hake, pol- 
lock, halilDut, 
flounder 



Mackerel a/ iaackerel 



Squeteague, sea 
"base, scup 

Oysters 

Scallo"os 

Flo "L'jid o r , ha d \o cl : 

Swordfish 

Oysters 

Scallops 

Sque t eague , s cup 
"butt erf ish 
T,7hiting 

Flounder 

Red snap'oer and 
grouper 

Oysters 

Shrinrp 

Lenliad.en 



Line trawls; 
otter trawls 



Purse seines 
Otter trav/ls 

Dredges 
Dredges 
Otter trawls 
Harpoons 

Dredges 
Dredges 
Poimd nets ■ 

Otter trawls 

Hand lines 

Dredges 
Otter trawls 
Purse seines 



Year round 



Atd r i 1 -He V emb e r 
December-April 

Year roLind W 
Yo9.ll. round 
Year round 
July-Septemher 

Year round b/ 
Year round 
Year round 

Year round 

H o V e m e r- i/ay 

Year roujid b/ 

Year roimd 

ITorth Carolina - 
Virginia ; 
July-Ho veml) c r 
Florida ; 
A-oril-Deceraher 



)680 



-5- 
TABLE I (Cont^d) 



Area and Fishery Principal S'lecies 



Principal Ty^es Period of liormal 
oi" G-ear Seasonal Orjcration 



SC'JTH (Continued) 
Liscellaneous 

GHHAT iai:es 



Lake irie 



Lakes Huron 

and MichiiS^an 



CALIFCMIA 



T'-ong. 



Squeteagi^e, flo"-m- 
der,scup,sea bass, 
rnul lei, i-ln^.;^ f i sii 



? ike , p e rcli , ca rp , 
sar^er, slieepshead, 
wlii t e 1 i sk , sucke r 
rnul lot 



Wni t e 1 f i sh , lake 
herring, lake trout, 
p e r ch , sucke is, inul let, 
carp, T)ike, chulD 



Tuna 



Haul Seines; 
:-:ill nets 



Year rorjid c/ 



Shoal sill nets; Year roimd d/ 
"TOTJ-nd nets; 
tra-D nets 



Shoal gill nets; Year roimd d/ 
";)0uiid nets, 
tra"o nets 



T"un.a and Sardine e/Tuna 



Sardine 



liackerel 



Sardine , konterc;/ Sardine 



Sardine, Soutxiern 
California 

Paranzella 



Alaska cod 
Aiiscollaneous 



Sardine 

Flounder, gray fish , 
rockfishes, 
skate, halibut, 
ling-cod 

Cod 

Ja ra cuda , f lo'oiide r , 
r o ck f i s he s , s a Imo n , 
sea "bass, shad, 
halibut, sablefish, 
smelt 



Hand lines 

Purse seines; 
liand lines; 
lanpara nets 

Purse seines; 
lam^ara nets 

laimara nets; 
h.9,nd lines 

Purse seines; 
laTP^iara nets 



x^iirse semes 

Paranzella 
nets 



Hand lines 

Set and hand 
lines; ._ill 
nets 



Year round 
Year round 



ITo vemb o r-Au r i 1 
Year Pound 

Augu.st - 
February 

Hove nb e r -A •" r i 1 
Year roLind 



April-August 
Year rouiid c/ 



)680 



-6- 
"TABLE I (Cont'd) 



Area and Fishery Principal Species 



CALIFOn-IIA (Continued) 

Abalone 

NOHTHVJZST Ai'ID 



Principal Types Period of llonnai 
of Gear Seasonal operation 



Abalone outfits Legal season, 
subject to 
variation 



ALASia 



Halibut 



Salmon 



Halibut, sable- 
fisli, ling-cod, 
rockfishes 

Salmon 



Alaska herring 
Alaska Cod 
Miscellaneous 



Herring 

Cod 

Shrimp 

Flouiiders, lialibut, 
sable fish, 
ling-cod, rockf ish, 
shad, smelt, steel- 
head, trout 



Line trav;ls 



Traps; parse 
seines; gill 
nets; troll 
lines 



x'urso seines 

Hand lines 

Beam trav;ls 

Travvl and set 
lines; pound 
nets; beam 
trav/ls 



i.^a rch-lTo vemb e r 

Washington and 
Oregon ; Ray- 
I'lovember 
Alaska: June - 
Augus t 

June - S cp t emb e r 

April-August 

Ivkrch-October 

Year round c/ 



a/ The figures for 10 of the 14 vessels in the mackerel fishery, which 
are included in the tables in this report, cover the operations of 
the mackerel fishing season only, and not the v/inter trawling opera- 
tions . 

b/ Oysters are dredged for the consuming market in the ITorth Atlantic 
area from Se-otembor to April only; but many of the vessels and a 
considerable proportion of tneir crcr/s are employed during the sum- 
mer also in transplanting, starfisning and ether subsidiary work. 

c/ The season varies for the different species and types of gear, but 
the vessels ccnccrnod tend to operate in some way throughout the 
year. 

d/ Subject to interruptions of varying length in the winter. 

These are due partly to the presence of ice on the lakes, and partly 
to legal restrictions in the interest of conservation. 

c/ The tuna vessels for which reports were received fell into t^o very 
distinct groups, one consisting of large vessels engaged in the tima 
fishery only, and the other of smaller vessels engaged in both the 



36 80 



^7- 

TABL3 I 
(Contiimed) 

t-una and the Southern California sardine fishery. The classifi- 
cation in tne ta"ble has been adopted to keep the data for these 
groups separate for present purposes. It does not reflect a 
practice of the industry. 



that it produces, the principal tjnoos of fishing gear that it employs, 
and the approximate duration of the season during v;hich its o^)erations 
are normally carried on. In some cases a group of vessels constituting 
a fishery in the sense just defined devotes itself to the catching of 
different species of fish, sometimes with distinct types of gear, at dif- 
ferent seasons. Important distinctions of this kind are shown as subheads 
in Table I. The groups listed as "Liscellaneous'' in the table tend each 
to include several minor fisheries. This is particularly trxie in the 
South and in California. 

In one instance- that of the groundf ishery of Hew England - a 
systematic distinction has been dra^m in the size of the vessels engaged, 
the data for those of less than 50 net tons being shown separately from 
the data for those of 50 tons and over. This segregation has been made 
because it nearly coincides with an important distinction in o^^nership. 
All but three of the 49 vessels of 50 tons and over in the samrole for this 
fishery consists of fleets o;;Toratcd by laige corporations, while those of 
less than 50 tons are owned singly or in small groups by individuals or 
partnerships or occasionally^ by small corporations. 

The cxclujion from Table I cf some famil-iar fishery products is 
explained by the fact tliat they arc v/holly or mainly taken by boats or 
from the shore and not by vessels. This applies tc the bulk cf the catch 
of lobsters, crabs, clams, mussels and soonges, of almost all river fish 
and of some marine species like smelt. 

The Bureau of Fisheries uses the term "fishery" in a sense slight- 
ly different from the foregoing, though pernaps more correct from_ a 
technical standpoint. In this usage the emphasis is put on a ty:oe of gear 
rather than on a group of vessels. The result is, of course, that a ves- 
sel is often included in more th^an one fishery, and this produces dupli- 
cation which would be difficult to handle in connection with a study like |^^ 
the present. 



If"** 



~8- 

CFAPTZR II 

THE NLlvBLR AND TYPL3 OF FISHIl^G CRi^^ET Ai'D TIEIH OYmLHSlIIP 

AID C0I.I:A.1:D 

This Ciia.pter discusses tlie niunber and ty^pr/s of tlie craft en^^aged 
in the fisheries of the . United States and their owner-ship and command. 
The data to be considered relate mainly to the fisheries as a whole and 
not to the samrole obtained for the purpose of the present study. These 
fii^ures have been drawn from publications and -ujipublished records of 
the Bureaus of i'^isheries and of the Census. 

SOU RCES OF IlIFOPJvIATIOH 

The bulk of the data, gathered by the Bureau of Fisheries ap jears 
in its annual report, Fishe ry Industries of th e UTiited States . Before 
the apoearance of this each year the most important tables are published 
in separate advance bulletins. The latter series,^however, includes 
some material which is not reproduced in the annual publication. 

The Bureau of the Census, under authority of a special act of 
Congress, made a conrplete survey of the fisheries for the year 1908. 
This v/as published in 1911 as a S.:)ecial Report uiider the title 
Fisheries of the United S'tates 1908. Tne Censuses of Water Trans- 
portation of 1916 and 19^:^5 also contain data of pvhich use has been made. 
The Censuses of Populo.tion since 1870 have included incomplete but 
a'Toroximately comx-jarable figures on the number of persons engaged 
in the fisheiues* 

SCOPE OF TII5 BUREAU OF FISHERIES DATA 

The Bureau of Fisheries made co'ontrywide surveys of fishing craft, 
their crews, and their c.tch for each year from 1929 to 1932, except tkat 
^he Mississippi River area v/as covered only fd.v 1931. The survey for 
1933 omitted the South Atlantic and G-u.lf and the G-rea,t Lakes areas, ao 
that the figaires for the latter for that year in several tables have 
had to be estimated. 

At the time of writing 1934 data liad been assembled by the Bureau 
only for Alaska and for fragments of some other areas. The 1934 figures 
referred to in the report are conseouently astimates, but have a 
substantiaJ basis in unpublished mi^^terial. 

Surveys made by the Bureau of Fisheries for years prior to 1929 
covered only portions of the country at a time. 

VESSELS AhD BOATS 

The Bureau of Fisheries classifies fishing craft into vessels 
and boats. The former, as already stated, are those of five net tons 
and over, and the latter the small cra^ft which do not have to be 
documented and rated for tonnage under the navigation lav/s. It is 
believed^ however, th-^it in practice an appreciable number of fishing 
vessels of more than five net tons escape documentation. Vi/'herever 

9G80 



.-9- 

the term "vessel" or ""boat" is employed in this report it si ould be 
understood as follov/ing the usage just indicated. T/Vhere reisrence to 
vessels or boats indifferently is meant the terra "craft" is substituted. 

The vessel and boat fisheries do not account for the whole output 
of the industry, since substantial quantities of aquatic products are 
taken from the shore, without the use of ciny floatin;-?; equipment. 

SPORT Al^ro TRAlISPORTirG VESSELS 

There are two IdLnds of vessels or boats connected with the fisheries 
v/hich are not classified by the Bureau as fishing;; craft. The first includes 
those used for sport only, and the second those emplo'/ed for transportation 
and other auxiliary \ises, subsidiary to commercial fishing. 

1^0 emuaeration seems ever to be rnacJ.e of the craft used only for 
sport fishing. They are fairly numerous in parts of the country, especially 
Florida and southern California. Within the last few years the depressed 
market for fishery products has caused some vessels and boats formerly 
used for commercial fishiri;^ to be devoted to this purpose. In some instances 
vessels aiid, .boats used/i or 'sport compete with the local cominercial craft 
by more or less frequent sales of their catches. During the depression 
this was the cause of hard feeling in the places where the practice is 
commonest . 

There are several types of vessels or boats used for transportation 
purposes. luany such craft, uaider the name of "buy boats", "run boats", 
"pick-up boats" or "tenders", operate between wholesale establishments or 
processing plants and fishing craft which are working offshore. They 
may be owned by the shore establishments or may be independent enter- 
prises. They are not often owned by the fishermen themselves. Small 
pov/er vessels are at times used for towing fleets of dories, skiffs 
or rowboats to fishing grounds, and in such cases are classed with these 
transporting craft. 

In Al:.-ska the locations of the plants that process almost the whole 
of the catch is such as to make necessary the use of a large number of 
tenders and other transporting craft. The Bureau of Fisheries, moreover, 
puts the vessels and boats employed in connection with salmon traps in 
Alaska in the transporting classification. 

Many craft used by oyster cultivating conT[:anies for transplanting, 
starfishing, dredging seed oysters, etc., are also included in this 
c..,te; ;ory. 

During the Depression some vessels and boats formerly used for 
commercial fishing have been transferred to transportation and allied 
services, as they have to sport fishing. 

Except where otherwise stated vessels and boats used for sport 
or transportation have been e xclu6.ed from the present study. 

THE lIULfflLR OF FISHIjTG CRAJT 

Table II shows, by area, the number of vessels engaged in the 

9680 



-10- 

fisheries from 1929 to 1953, with their net tonnage. Table III shows for 
the' same years the number of fishing boats. 

Table II indicates that from 1929 to 1933 there v/as a decline of 
16 or 17 per cent in the number of vessels engaged In the fisheries of 
the" coiintry. Table III shows that the number of fishing bon.ts in use 
declined about 18 percent from 1929 to 1932 . Tiiere v;as no further change 
of consequence in 1933. In some fisheries the la.tter was the low year 
of the depression v/ith respect to consumer demand and the prices paid to 
fishernian, vmile in others 1932 v/as the worst. Taken together, tha 
changes just mentioned seem to indicate a tendency in 1933, and perhaps 
a little earlier, to substitute boats for- vessels as being cheaper to 
operate 'under depression conditions. 



!680 



-ll- 



TA5LE II 



NUi:.IB2:n AI'jD IiET TOiri^AGE OF ALL FISHIA^C- VESSELS a/, 5y Area, 

1929-1935 



Area 



193: 



1932 



1931 



1930 



1929 



^ew Ensland 
Vessels 
Net Tons 

Middle Atlantic 
Vessels 
iJet Tons 

Chesapeake 
Vessels 
IJet Tons 

South Atlantic 
and Gull' 
Vessels 

i\Iet Tons 



595 620 7C6 718 731 
19,528 31,025 26,116 27,666 26,430 



407 415 525 575 583 
9,164 8,216 8,953 11,244 11,599 



287 322 320 391 406 
6,521 5,794 6,108 -7,370 7,359 



470b/ 512 605 670 614 
7,285 b/ • 7,487 9,487 10,645 10,349 



Pacific 
Vessels 
Ilet Tons 

Great Lakes 
Vessels 

Net Tons 

Alaska 

Vessels 

Net Tons 

United States and 
Alaska 

Vessels 
Net Tons 



929 937 940 863 799 

27,155 26,432 25,134 24,931 21,362 

459b/ 49 S 505 467 500 

5,967b/ 6,419 6,585 6,100 6,700 

507 446 532 690 734 

7,587 6,364 3,416 12,225 12,609 



3,654 3,750 4,181 4,374 4,367 
83,007 81,737 91,799 100,181 96,488 



Source: Bureau of Fisheries, Fishery Industries of the United States , 
a/ Five net tons and over.. 
b/ Estimated by the author. 



9680 



-12- 

TABLE III 
mJlvBSR OF ALL FISHING BOATS a/, BY A2Zk, 
1929 - 1933 



Area 1933 1932 1931 . 1930 1929 



• 


New England 


3,400 


8,395_ 


8^874 _ 


3,787 


11,617 


Middle Atlantic 


3,870 


5,639 


3,882 


4,050. 


4,596 


Chesapeake 


13,429 


14,230 


14,099 


"13,820 


13,415 


South Atlantic 
and Gulf 


12, 8-1-9 b/ 


12 , 849 


14,437 


14,515 


17,541 


Pacific 


6,547 


6,029 


6,749' 


7,556 


7,659 


Great LaJ'es 


3,1.59 b/ 


3,159 


3,236 


3,879 


3,479 


Alaska 


4,218 


4,138 


4,960 


5,253 


5,420 


Total of 

Above Areas 


52,472 


52,439 


56,237 


57,850 


63,527 


Mississippi 
Iiiver 


£/ 


0/ 


14,546 


£/ 


c/ 


United States 
and Alaska 


- 


•>*• 


70,783 


" 


0^ 


Source: Bureau of 


Fislieries, 


Fishery 


Industries of 


the United 


States. 



a/ Under five net tons. 

by 1933 figure not available; it is believed not to vary materially 

from the year preceding. 
cj Data available for 1931 only. The fishing craft of this area 

arc nov; all under fivo net -tons. 



9680 



-13- ■ ■ 

It may be that the figures for 1934, when they 136001116 available, 
will show a reversal of this tendency. But the coct of operating the 
larger types of fishing vessels is a serious problem under present 
conditions, and may continue to be so even in the face of a considerable 
rise in prices above today's level. J'or this reason the advantage of the 
smaller and more cheaply operated boat may continue to show itself in the 
relative numbers of the two classes. 

LONG TIME VAPJATIOiJ IH TKJ Fu1.S,.:R OF VESSELS 

To compar'j the nutnber of vessels in use in the fisheries over a 
longer period than the -past five or six years it is necessary to include 
those employed for transportation purpo.ses as well as fishing vessels 
in the strict sense, since the Censuses of V/ater Transportation have not 
segregated the two. A comparison on this basis, by area, is made in 
Table IV. 

Vessels which are used for sport fishing only are classified 
under the navigation lav^^s as yachts, and a.re apparently not included 
in the Census totals. 

Cki the Atlantic and G-ulf coasts the proportion of transporting ■ 
vessels hardly changed from 1908 to 1929. In the case of the Great Lakes, 
however, allov/ance has to be made for a relative increase in that item, 
and in the case of the Pacific coast for a corresponding decrease. 



-14- 



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-15-. 

Table IV shows that hy no means all the decline in the number of 
vessels in use in the fisheries durin;;,; ti.e past thirty years has been due 
to the depression. Between the Censun of Water Transportation of 1926 and 
the Bureau of Fisheries' survey of 1929, indeed, the fi.-;;ures indicate an 
increase of 10 or 12 per cent; but from the Fisheries Census of 1903 to 
the earlier Water Transportation Census of 1916 there was a drop of 28 
per cent. Fr«im 1916 to 1926 the number was about stationary, This, hov;« 
ever, was because a hea"wy increase on the Pacific coast offset a decrease 
•f not far from the same amoujit in the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. 

The net decline in the n-'oinber of vessels in use on the Atlantic and 
Gulf coasts from 1908 to 1929 was just under 50 per cent. The nuniber in 
the fisheries •f the Great Lalces, on the other hand, increa,sed more than 
tw»~.thirds during this period, and the number on the Pacific ctast nearly 
quadrupled; but these areas did not then account for large enough propor- 
tions of the total t© permit the gains registered in them to offset the 
greater part of the loss in the East and South. There were four principal 
causes for the heavy decline in the number of vessels «n the Atlantic 
and Gulf coasts: 

(1) There was an extensive drop in the output of oysters in all •v 
nearly all the producing States. From 1908 to 1920 this falling tff 
amounted to 69 per cent in Connecticut, to 42 percent in New Y«rk,to 

59 per cent in Maryland, to 14 per cent in Virginia, to 58 per cent in 
South Carolina, to 82 per cent in Georgia, a^nd to 53 per cent in Florida, 
The causes varied in different parts of the country. Ptllution of the 
cultivated beds near large cities, popular fear '^f such pollution where 
it may not really have occurred, the depletion tf natural beds, relatively 
high prices to the consumer, and the closing of many old-fashioned 
oystersbars under prohibition, all played a part. As a resU^t this one 
devision of the industry accounted for more tlian half the gr«ss decline in 
the nwnber of fishing vessels on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts from 1908 
to 1929. 

(2) The transition from sail to power propulsion, which is discussed 
later in the chapter, made it possible to maintain a given ©r even a larger 
catch with a smaller number of vessels, because of the reduced time spent 
en route between ports and fishing groxmds, 

(3) There was a heavy decline in the demand for salt fish, both for 
domestic consumption and for export. This tended to eliminate vessels 
operating from minor ports whica were not favorably situated to distribute 
fresh fish. The effect v/as particularly marked in Massachusetts and Maine. 

(4) There was a pronounced improvement in the efficiency of fishing 
gear, especially through the introduction of the otter trawl. The effect 
of this change in increasing the productivity per man is commented en in 
Chapter III; but there was a more or less parallel effect in raising the 
productivity per vessel, and consequently in reducing the number of 
vessels required to maintain a given or even a larger Cctch. * 



#This summary of the causes of the long-time decline in the number ©f fishing 
vessels is largely based on material contributed by 0. E. Sette, Bureau of 
Fisheries, Cambridge, Mass. 

9680 . 



-16- 

Since the mid-1920 's the n-anbrr of fishing vessels on the Atlantic 
and Crulf coasts has remained quite stahle, exce'ot for the decline due 
immediately to the depression. 

Table IV also rnalies plain the extent to which the fishing fleets 
of the Pacific coast and of Alaska a,re creations of the past thirty years. 
The number of vessels increased by 70 per cent from 1908 to 1916, and 
then considerably more than doubled from the latter year to 1926. As the 
proportion of transporting vessels on this coast v/as at the same time de- 
creasing, the (Gxrjansion in the nuraber of fishing vessels proper was even 
greater than these figures imply. Since 1936 the change on the Pacific 
coast has been com-parativelv slight. 

The '"vessel fishing fleet of the Great Lakes v/as much increased ^ 
during the years just before the v/ar. The number in use in 1929 was 12 
or 15 per cent below that -of 1916; but since 1929 the change has been 
relatively small. 

RELATIVE NUliBERS OP VESSELS M^ BOATS 

Table ''I I and III make it plain that the number of boats in use in 
the fisheries o*f the United States enormously exceeds the number of 
vessels. Prom the standpoint of -'the value of the cc^tch, of course, the 
discrepanciy becomes much reduced, sijice the capacity or efficiency of the 
average f ishmg'-'vessei is ten or" tvrelve times that of the average boat. 
Still, the triie im'?(§rtance of- t-he boat' and shore fisheries, especially 
in certain areas and departi.ieits, is substantially greater than might 
be inferred by those v/hose familiarity is clAefly with, for instance, the 
large scale fisheries of New. England or of California. 

THE SIZE OP FISHI-JCt VESSELS 

The tonnage of fishing vessels varies all the way from the legal 
minimum of five net tons to a» maximum of six or seven hundred. Vessels 
of the latter size are few, but those of a hundred to three hundred net 
tons are relatively numerous in the groundiish fleet of New England, in 
the menhaden and red snapper fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf 
Coasts, and in the tuna fishery of southern California. 

The only accessible data on the relative nui'iibers of fishing vessels 
of various tonna';,es, other than those obtained for the purposes of the 
present study, were published by the Bureau of Pisheries for 1939, and in 
connection with the Census of \7ater Transportation of 1926. The former 
breakdovm covers only vessels on the Atlantic and G-olf coasts; but as the 
average tonnage of the latter does not appear to differ substantially firom 
that of ^he country at large, the resulting proportions of vessels of 
various sizes are probably r epresentative . These figu.res are shown in 
Table V. 

There has been so little change in the average tonnage of the fishing 
vessels In use since 1929 that the data in Table V may be regarded as 
usable for present purposes. 

The size breakdown of the Census of Water Transportation of 1926 
was based on gross tonnage, and is therefore difficult to compare with that 

9680 



-17- 

either of the Bureau of Fisheries or of the present study. ?he returns 
showed vessels of less than 50 f^ross tons as accounting for 86 per cent 

of the total nuiviber. This is equivalent to ahout 33l/3 tons net; so that 
the proportion may be re^^arded as checking roU;;\;hly with the 81.4 per 
cent of vessels of 30 tons and less shown by Table V. 

The sample vessels for vmich d...ta have been obtained in connection 
with the present study have been bro]:en down into four tonnage classes 
of 5 to 14, 15, to ^9, 30 to 49, and 50 tons and over, respectively. It 
would have been advantageous to split the latter class into two at the 
line of 80 or 90 tons; but the advisability of this did not become apparent 
at a sufficiently early stage to take the step. 

TABLE V 
DISTRIBUTIOiJ OF ALL FISHING- VESSELS OH THE 
ATLANTIC AilD GULF COASTS, BY IIET 
TOFilAGE, 19:-39 



Net Tons 



Per Cent 

of Total Clumber 



Cumulative 
Per Cent 



§5 to 10 

11 to 20 

21 to 30 

31 to 40 

41 to 50 

51 to GO 

61 to 70 

71 to. 90 

91 to 120 

121 to 160 

161 to 200 

201 and over 



46.2 

27.7 

7.5 

2,3 

2.9 

3,3 

2.7 

1.8 

2.3 

.8 

..1,0 

.9 



73.9 
81.4 
84.3 
87.2 

■ 90.5 
93.2 
95.0 
97.3 
98,1 
99.1 

100.0 



Total 



100.0 



Source: Compiled from data in Bureau of Fisheries, Fishery Industries 
OF THE UI-IITED STATZS, 1950. 



9680 



... -.18- 

Ta.lile VI shOT^s, alone v.dth other rslationshiips 'hich '-"ill "be cov:~ 
nenteo. on later", the value of the 1933 catch -ler net ton for the sanple 
vessels of each of the fo'j.r tonnage clashes .jiist s-oecified. These aver- 
a:;jes indicate strongly that the .;;:..-oss ;.iroductivity of fishin:;^ vessels 
does not increase "(■ro-.-^ortionatoly ^-^ith their size, 

TYPES OF riSHIl^O GEAE ' ' .._. 

The Bureaxi of fisheries :ahes en elaoora,te cla- sif ication of fish- 
ing' craft according tr the tj-DCs of gear or fishing ao^aratus employed. 
These fi.;;o.res have "been extensively used for suosidiary calculations in 
connection v^ith the "oresent study. The t^^je of gear used ^.'dth each 
veTsel --jas ashed for on the original questii nnaire, and v.'as in iiost cases 
reported, But since a cliissif icat ion of gear tends to correspond rrith 
a classification o"^ fisheries, it has seeined s'ufficient to indicate the 
principal tjrpes used in Table I, nitho-at tabulating the questionnaire 
dato. on the subject, 

THE OTJIIEHSHIP OF FISHJiTG Cx^JTT ' . . __l 



A large majority- of fishing craft are evened bjr individuals or by 
partneiTships; and the latter are, in a high proporti-^n of cases, con- 
posed of rela,tives or of neighbors, 

OvaersJiii^ by cor^) orations is naturally more frequent in the case 
of vessels thmi of boats, liost of the larger vessels in the He--' England 
gro-QJidfish and the Southern red sna-iper fleets, and all those in the 
paranzella fleet of California a"'e ovued 'bj fish i-holesaling corporations. 
The vessels enga.ged in fishing the po'and nets rlong the IJev Jersey coast 
also fall largely in this class. The sal; ion cniming corTOanies operating 
in Alaska O'-ti sone of the vessels thrt su v-l-- .their establishments, and 
the nenhaden processing conce. ns of the South Atlantic coast ov/n almost 
all of theirs. 

VJith -'uliese exceptions, ho^-'ever, tne number of fishing vessels ovrned 
by ■ co]r;^iorations is com-oarat ivcly sriill, and the companies themselves are 
local end. unira^^ortant. Even the larger vessels in the California tuna 
fishery, rhich are often of more thn tv.ro hundred tons burden, nhich .may 
go tiTO thousand miles from their home ports to carry on the\;r vrork, and 
rrhich -rnay cost individually uell over $100,000, are n^^rly all ovTned by 
their captains or oy grou2:is of men among their cre^Ts, The tuna canning 
compcmies, hovever, and also tlie sardine canneries and reduction plants 
of California, have sometimes assisted in finajicing, on a mortgage basis, 
the purchase of vessels e^c-jected to sup-^ly then ^'ith ravr material. 

The only specific figures available on the o^.Tnership of fishing 
vessels by 0017? orations - those of the Census of Water Transportation 
of 1926 ~ are given in Table VII. The inclusion of transporting vessels 
in this table raises somewhat , the -oroportion ov.nied 'oy corporations, 
particularly in the case of Alaska. The high percentage in the latter 
Territory is due primarily, ho^.-^ever, to the domination of its fisheries 
by the salm.on canning industry. The high proportion of corporation- 
o^.Tiied vessels on the G'olf coast reflects the situation in the red snap- 
per fishery and in the fleets supilying the shrimp canneries. 



9680 



-19- 



TA3LE VI 



ATiZ'SAGE VALUT. Q? C.TCH T^ET^. :^SSEL» PER TOi: AlID PER I LAM 
rOR SAMPLE a/ VE'SELS, BY 'TGIiTSAGE CLASS /JTD RY AREA AlH) FISHERY, 1933, 







Value of Catch 






Per Vessel 


Per Ton 


Per Han b/ 





TOIRTAC-5 CLASS: 
Under 15 tons 
15 to 29 tons 
30 to 49 tons 
50 tons and over 

Average 



$5,151 
11,143 
12,876 

26,887 

13,492 



528 
348 
226 

299 



$1,383 
1,600 

. 1,463 
1,532 

1,515 



AREA AITD FISHERY; 
ileu Enc^land 
C-ro-ondf ish 
Mackerel 
Oyster 
Miscellaneous 



32,709 
8,646 

26,095 
9,073 



307 
196 
323 
626 



2,054 

716 

3,340 

1,830 



Average 



24,362 



313 



1,992 



Middle Atlantic 

Oyster 
Scallop 
Po'ond net 
Miscellaneous 

Average 



15,085 

17,684 

6,872 

6,804 

10,868 



677 

717 

1,066 

321 

552 



3,168 
2,526 
1,145 
1,094 

1,892 



South 




Red SnaT)-;jer 


5,280 


Ivieniiaden 


12,473 


Shrinp rjid oyster 


4,114 


i.Iiscellaneous 


8,621 



118 
121 
372 
354 



660 

353 

1,327 

892 



Average 

Great Lsices 
Lake Erie 
Lakes Huron and 
Michigan 

Average 



5,902 

7,877 

5,036 

•^ OCT 



147 

290 
309 
306 



536 

1,358 
1,187 
1,205 



( Continued) 



9630 



-SO- 
TABLE VI 
(Continued) 



Per Vesr-el 



Value of Catch 
Per Ton 



Per I.Ian 'hj 



California 

T\ma . $44, 105 

Tuna ejid sardine 19,489 

Sardine, llonterey 9,238 
Sardine, Southsim 

California 12,019 

Paransella net . 21,620 

Alaska cod 20,615 

iiiscellaneous 3,128 

Average 24,589 



$40 
397 
513 

546 

1,382 

50 

280 

391 



4)3, 6 £5 

1,886 

840 



1,265 

4,036 

555 

569 

2,379 



Northnest and Alaska 




Halil)ut 


11,718 


Salmon 


3,471 


Alaska lierriYig , ' 


7,610 


Alaska cod 


29,053 


i.^^iscellaneous 


6,404 


Average . • 


8,012 



Average, United States 

and Alaska 13, 4P' 



444 

207 

274 

64 

114 

249 



299 



1,739 
666 

1,095 
732 

1,144 

1,197 



1,515 



Source: Ret'orns to I'.RoA, questionnaire on earnings in the fishing 
industry. 

a/ Vessels for vrhich U5a,ble data were obtained for the purposes of 
the study, 

h/ Based on the total n'omber of 2:)ersons in the crews, irrespective 
of the node of compensation. 



9680 



-21- 

T.U;LE VII 

PHOPOPJion o: ;^l m^sszls i:' the tiskiries a/ xniicd uepe 
anjiD BY co:{PO..ATi.iis, :3Y a:^a, 1926 



Percentccge of 
Area Vessels o^Tiied 
by Corporations 



Atlantic Coast 16,0 

Gulf Coast 34.1 

Pacific Coast 29.9 

Alaska 53,6 

Great Lakes • 9,7 

United States and. Alaska < 28,3 b/ 



Source: Cc/. mited fron data in Bureau of the Census, Uater TrnnsT)orta- 
tion, 1926 

aj Includes "both fiGhinc: vessels and those/ased for t^ans]^o^tation 
purposes incidental to the fisheries. 

by Excluding Alaska, the percentage of corporation-owned vessels 
uas 20,3, 



9680 



-'22- 

OWKEESHIP 3Y MQLESALS DSALERS 

In the South the snaller fishiii;^ vessels and "boa-ts are to a con- 
sidsrable extent o\med "b"y wholesale houses other then canners. Else- 
:-;here, and particularly'- in the case of the snaller craft, such ormership 
is nuch less cor,ir>on; and in so-ae parts of the country,' it is neprly or 
o;aite imlinov/n. It is Innossihle to say vith any certainty uhat the pro- 
portion is for the United States at lar.';^e, out it probably does not eyy^ 
ceed 10 per cent. That such ownership by v/holesalers is particularly 
com: ion in the South seems to have been due to the fact tliat many fisher- 
men in that section are enga^^ed in the industry casua-lly only, and that 
a large proportion have lacked resources for the purchase of their c.vn 
equipment, 

OrrlERSHIP AND COl.miAITD 

Of the fishint2; craft not omied 'ay wholesalers or processors a jood 
many are naturally,, for one reason or ajiother, not operated by their 
o\Tners, The proportion, honever, in the case of '.:hich the ormer com- 
mands his own vessel is large. A survey in Florida in the summer of 
1934 indicated that about 95 per cent of the craft belonging to persons 
not wholesalers for which reports v^ere received were commanded "oy their 
orrners. Th^.re is no detailed information with regard to the correspond- 
ing situation in other parts of the country; but it is probably safe to 
say thrt in the case of 90 -ner cent of the fishing craft of the United 
States not the property of wholesalers or processors the ovTier and the 
captain is the same T)erson, The other ten per cent, however, is made 
up of relatively large vessels. 

The original questionnaire did not call for information respecting 
the status of the owners of the s'^jr-ile -,'essels as wholesalers, processors, 
caDtains, or others; and except ^"^hero such o^-ners were obviously cor- 
porations no exact information is available on the subject. It seems 
probable that between 50 and 60 per ce rb of these vessels were commanded 
by ovrners or part owners, '"or the vessel fisheries at large, however, 
the proportion is higher, 

SIITG-LE Aira kULTIPL::: OVriTERSHIP . 

A substantial majoritj^ of all fishing vessels are owned ningly. 
The largest fleet owned b^.^ one company for which reports were received 
in connection vrith the study consisted in 1933 of 20 active vessels. 
This concern was located in New England. The returns for that area also 
covered a fleet of 11 vessels, another of nine, and a fourth of seven. 
Two companies in the South reported on fleets of 15 and 11 red snapper 
vessels, respectively. Another Southern concern reported on a total of 
13 vessels, engaged partly in the red snayroer and partly in the shrimp 
f isherjr. 

Apart from these relatively large fleets there are comparatively 
few cases of the multiple ownership of more than four or five fishing 
vessels, and not a great manj^ of the latter. Table Viil summarizes all 
cases of the kind for v^hich information has ''oeen obtained as a result 
of the present survey. 



-23- 
TABLE VIII 



FLEETS Oy SA...PLE a/ EISKILIG VESSELS T7HICH UERE 
2EP0RTED AS 'OWI-'ED :jY SI:.:GLE PEHSOiiS, Tim.lS OR 
COPPORlTIOIiS , 3Y Ai^ AHD SIZE, 19So 



Ij'un-foer of Fleets 



NiomlDer of Vessels Ne\7 l.iddle GreB.t Call- llorth^-^ent United 

in Each Fleet En.-jland Atlojitic Soath La-:es fornia and States and 

Alaska Alaska 



2' 5 3 4 4-. 5 21 

3 131-1 - 6 

4 1. 1 8 - 2 2 14 
511--1 1 4 

6 •.«-.«- 1 1 

7 1 - - - ^ - 1 
9 1- „'..^ ., 1 

11 1 - 1 - « . - 2 

13 " .„ 1 ^ - „ 1 

15 ~ „ 1 - - - ,.1 

20 1 - « „ ^ - 1 

Total 12 8 16 4 4 9 53 



Source: Returns to IT, L, A. questionnaire on e^^rnings in the fishin.'^ 
industry-, 

a/ ■Vessels for which us-ii.ole data trere) obtained for the pur-oose of 
the study. 



9680 



-24- 

The total niinber of vessels in the 53 fleetn "onder the ormership 
of sir-Sle -o:. rsons or finns uhich a"o -lear in the toble is 228, or 40 -oer 
cent of all the vessels included in the sarrole,- This rrast "be a cooi 
deal in excess of the proportion orm.ed in such fleets in the vessel 
fisheries as a trhole, since the ntud;^- 'bro-aji-.ht in returns for a dis'oro- 
portionately large snaple of the ve-^sel;.-; "beloni^ing to the chief cor- 
porations i:''. the fen fisheries in "^iiidh such enterprises are prcdominent* 

In sone of the instances of i,ralti;ole ovniershii) shovm in Table VII 
the vesnels oper:-.ted in 1933 did not include all those ormed bj^ the 
companies or persons in o^uestions The ;;*e-r covered b^^ the o_uestionnaire 
uas a period of such unreiT-'Jierative prices that a. ^oocl nany fishing 
vessels uere not put into coiar.d scion; and this tended to ap;)ly e:cDecially 
to the Ir.rger ones, which are rela.tivelj'- expensive to operate, 

THE OUTPUT 01 FISHING- CRA?T 

The fishing industry is one of small "onits. This fc.ct is brought 
out in Table IX, which shows the average vo.lue of the catch of all fish- 
ing craft ;oer vessel or boat for the years 1929 to 1933, 

Even in 1929 the average for all vessels and boats failed to reach 
$3,000 in a,ny area. In the Chesapefice and the. South Atlantic and Gulf. 
State, in that yeo.T of great econonic activity and relatively high prices, 
it was only a little over 08OO. In 1933 the average did not reach $2,000 
for any area, a:.id for the Chesapealie States it sank belo^T $400, 

Table VI, to which reference has alreadj'- been nade, gives figures 
similar to those in Table IX for the vrlue of output per unit in the 
case of the craft included in the sciirole. Since the latter consists 
exclusivelj^ of vessels, and since it is rather heavily weighted with the 
larger tonnages, the averrges in Ti'ble VI are considerably higher than 
those lor all fishing craft. Yet even in ITew England and in California, 
v;here the i:,roportion of larger vessels in the fisheries is highest, the 
average value of the catch per vessel ^-as LUider $25,000, The 1935 catch 
of highest value for any individual vessel for which a report w^s re- 
ceived \7as a little under $80,000, 

MODES QE FROFULSIOK OF FISHING VESSELS . ■ .. 

All the chief types of ves' els ?xid boats '"'ith trespect to the node 
of propulsion are represented in the fisheries. The number of each type 
and the change that has taken place in its relative inportance over tVie 
past 30 j/ears are shoi,7n in Table X, For the same reason as in the case 
of Table IV the vessel figures include transporting craft, as well as 
fishing vessels in the strict sense, 

T.c^ble X shows that xn the case of vessels motor power (Diesel oil, 
fuel oil or gasoline) has of late years conpletely replaced hand pro- 
pulsion, and that to a considerable extent it has replaced steam and 
sail power. The prO;jortion of steai^i vessels in the total has been under 
four per cent of recent years, as conpared vrith nine per cent in 1916. 
The -iroportion of sailing vessels has been about six per cent recently, 
as conpared with 33 per cent in 1916 and 61 per cent in 1908. 



9680 



AVERA.GE YAL'iJI] OF CAT CI: 0~ ALL :iSni:'C- C^/l^'T, BY AREA, 

1929 - 1933 



Area 1933 1932 1931 1930 1929 





lieu England 


$1,4-99 




$1 , 553 


$2,102 


$2,892 


$2 , 354 


Lidc-le Atlantic 


1,125 




1,148 


2,093 


2,825 


2,039 


Chesapealie 


369 




406 


515 


807 


833 


South Atlantic 














and Ocli 


585 


£/ 


401 


537 


729 


821 


Great Lakes 


1,291 


a/ 


1,185 


1,612 


1,392 


1.796 


Pacific 


1,871 




' 1,361 


1,757 


2,740 


2,960 


Alaska 


1,938 




1 , 541 


1,812 


2,146 


2,776 


Average of 


1 , 












Above Areas 


1,049 




926 


1,232 


1,687 


1,747 


ivli s s i s s ipp i Hi ve r 


y 




W 


199 


W 


W 



Ave"af;e, United 
States and 



1,032 



Source: Comuted fro^'i data in !3urer,u of fisheries, Fishorj In du s 1 1" i e s 
of the United States. 



a/ Estinated "b^ the author, 

b/ I'lot available. 



;630 



-26- 



TABLE X 



ITUlviBEP, or ALL VESSELS AFD ."^OATS I" USE IT THT. FISHERIES, 3Y IIODE 

or P2.0PULSI-1T, 1908-1933 a/ u/ 



T^noe of Crait 

and Lode of 

Pro;mlsion 1933 e/ 1931 1930 1929 1325 1916 1903 



Steam 


199 


205 


258 


i.iotor 


4,337 


4,861 


4,S87 


Sail 


272 


382 


535 


Other 


— 


- 


- 



Vessels a/ 

276 335 487) 

4,939 4,042 2,980) 2,725 

567 404 1,738 4,246 

453 104 183 

Boats 3J. \l 

llotOT c/ 25,837 29,695, 30,840 31,617 t/ b/ 10,944 

Other d/ 25,635 26,542 27,020' 31,910 '■ hj ;b/ 61,328 

All Craft fi ' 

Vessels" 4,808 5,448 5,780 5,782 5,234 5,309 7,154 

Boats 52,472 56,237 57,860 63,527 b/ b/ 72,272 



Sources: Burea-u of Eisheries, Eishe ry Industries of the United States; 
Bureau of the Census, Eisi-er ies of the United States, 1908 and 
TJater Trmis'oortation, 1936 , 

a/ The vessel data include trr-.ns;)0:;ti '".;?; ves'.;els. The boat data 

do not, but the nmnber of trcnsoortin^' boats is too snail to 

affect the comparisons naterially. Data are not available for 

transport in.s vessels in 1932» 
b/ To data for boats vrere collected b^^ the Water Transportation 

Censuses of 1915 and 1926, 
c/ Includes steaii boats. T-ie pro-oortion has probably been small 

in recent years, but r/as substantijil in 1908 and 1916, 
d/ Includes sailboa^ts. The latter acco-unted for a third of the 

class in 1908. The -j report ion in recent years is not IciOTm, 

but has probably been much smaller, 
e/ Partly estimated by the .a-^thor, 
f/ Excludin^s the Mississippi P^iver Area, 



9680 



The decline,, both absolute and relr.tive, in the use of steam 
vessels m the fisheries has been dvie to their high cost, fron. the 
stsjid;ooin.t both of original investnent and of operation* .The jirQjcess— --.- 
has been accelerated \rj the i.;icrea,sed im"oortance of the fisheries of 
the Pacific coast, v/here coal is ,ex,'ensivo,, v;hilo fuel oil has of late 
years been ijlentiful and cheap* 

The steam fishing vessels that norz remain in use are concentrated 
dispx-oportionately in the ilei7 En^^land :j:ro-jjidf ishery, in the Virf^'inia 
menhaden fishery, and on. the f-reat Lckes. In the first tvo of these 
cases the stear.i yessels are ovmed by old established co^iponies '-'hich 
have heavy investments in -them. On the Great Lalies the stesj.i vessels 
are of a special t;;rpe ]niov.Ti as "tu^^s", thou^jxi they are not used for 
toninr. This area has easy access to a cheai) coal sup ily, and steajn 
vessels of the sort rientioned usrj be suited, to local conditions. Their 
continued use, ho^vever, has not in-o rob ably been a factor in the bad 
situation on the Lakes vith respect to the financial return to fishing 
vessel o\'niers» 

The use of the lar;r;;er steam vessels in the llcj England ground- 
fishery is associated v-ith lo^r individual cre^-' earnings. The relation- 
ship has not yet been studied carefully; but it seems -robable that the 
cost of operating these vessels has been a factor in repressing the com- 
pensation of the mass of the rrorkers. 

The use of sailing vessel'. s has of recent yea,rs been concentrated 
chiefly in the liiddle Atlantic, the Chesapealze and the South Atlantic and 
Gulf areas, \7here they are almost all snail oyster dredges.* The Alaska 
cod fisher^'-, however, still emploj'-s a small number of larger sailing 
ships - the largest crc-ii't, indeed, no\7 operated in the industry, 

IDLE nsi-iiNa VESSEL S ■ ■ ' '• 

The Censuses of Water Transportrt Icn of 1916 and 1926 reported t lie . 
n'lijnbers of activo . and idle fishing vessels. The "proportion idle in 
1916 mas 12,5 per cent of the total, vrhile in 1926 it \/as 13,2 per cent. 
Since these were both years of considerable activity in the industry'-, 
sojiething like this percentage of idle vessels vrould a"ppear to be a 
normal phenomenon. The ..jroport ion v/ould apparently have to rise at 
least above 15 per cent to afford a definite .Lndication of depression. 

It may be assumed that the vessels v/hich are thus idle in tines of 
nor^ial fislxing activity are mostly the oldest and least seaworthy that 
are kept on the register at all, A large proportion of them should pro- 
babl3/- be considered, for practical purposes, as no longer part of the 
indu^. t rjr ' s eo:uipment , 

There are no data on idle vessels in recent years to conpare vith 
those of the Water Transportation Censuses, Son.ething can be inferred, 

*These vessels usually have aiQzilia^ry r.otors for going to and from oyster 
gro"an6.s; but those oiperating on public beds in the Chesapeake area are 
required by L'iaryland and Virginia State la^"-, as a conservation measure, 
to use sails vhile actually dredging, 

9680 



' -28- 

hov/ever, fro:i the fact that the numlDer of fishing vessels in use de- 
clined from 1929 to .1933 "by e.'binit 700. If it is assumed that all these 
sho-old be included vrith the vessels idle in 1933, anc. if the percentage 
idle in 1929 was about that of 1926 and 1916, the pro]iortion in 1933 
must have been ap-vroximatelj'' 27 per cent. This exaggerates sone^-^hat 
the effect of the de^ores^-ion, liouever, since so^ie of the decrease from 
1929 to 1933 represented vessels 'hich \7ere lost end not replaced, or 
r'hich l:ad becone too ■onsea-'orthy to be kept on the register. 

It is safe to assume that in 1934 there '7c,s some reduction in the 
percentage of idle fishing vessels as compared with 1933, Tlie change 
v;as probably not large, but it is impossible to do more than guess at 
its amount. 



9680 



-29- 

CHAPTER III 

THE PESSOMSL AIID OCCUPATIONS OF THE FISHERIES 

DEFIIIITIONS OF " CBJ:i7" AIID "FIS HEPMAI?" 

The vTord ''crew", as used in this report, covers all persons who 
talie part in the working of a fishing vessel or boat, including the 
captain, even when the flatter is also the onner. 

The term "fishermah" is here used, as in the puDlications of the 
Bureau of Fisheries, to include all persons engaged in commercial 
fishing operations, irrespective of their precise duties. With reference 
to fishing vessels or "boats it means the same as "crew memher". In the 
industry at large, hovvever, the class of fishermen includes many persons 
v/ho are engaged in talcing fishery products from the shore, and who use 
craft of any kind only in a limited and subsidiary way. 

Wliere reference is made in this report to the subordinate members 
of fishing crews who ha.ve no special ranl<: or occupation, the term 
"ordinary fisherman" is used. This includes such classifications as 
"sailors", "seamen", "deckhands" and "helpers", 

mJIvSEl^ OF FISHEPJaE:! 

Table XI sho'.vc the number of fishermen in the United States and 
Alaska, by area, for the years 1929 to 1933, inclusive. 



9680 



-30- 



TABLE XI 



iraOER OF ALL FISI-Ui;r.M£iT, OH VESSELS AL-HD ON BOATS 
AIJD ASEOPJi;, BY AREA, 1929-1':>33 a/ ' 



Area 



1933 



193: 



1951 



1930 



1929 



New England 

On vessels 5,049 

On boats and ashore 12,024 



Total 



17,073 



Middle Atlantic 

On vessels 2,442 

On boats and ashore 6,138 



5,142 


5,880 


6-, 192 ■ 


6,199 


11,330 ■ 


12,008 


10,885 


10,961 


16,472 


17,388 


17,077 


17,160 


2,862 


3,925 


4,565 


4,787 


5,508 


5,679 


5,940 


5,704 



Total 



8,580 8,370 



Chesapeake 

On vessels 2,125 

On "boats and ashore 18,017 



2,056 
18,890 



Total 



20,142 . 20,946 



South Atlantic and Gulf 

On vessels 2,2llh/ 2,409 

On boats and ashore 19,916b/ 19,151 



Total 



22,127 21,560 



Pacific 

On vessels 6,512 6,132 

On boats and ashore 12,204 11,750 



Total 



18,716 17,882 



G-reat Lckes 

On vessels 1,570b/ 1,705 

On boats and ashore 5,370b/ 5,227 



Total 



6,940 6,932 



Total of above areas 

On vessels 19,909 

On boats and ashore 73,669 



Total 



93,578 



2 
13 

20 



2 
20 



12 
19 



604 



106 

533 

689 



895 
827 

722 



454 
781 

255 



697 

142 

839 



10,605 10,491 



2,579 2,586 

16,812 15,884 

19,391 18,470 



3,454 
20,136 



1,660 
5,320 

6,980 



3,298 
23,345 



23 , 590 26 , 643 



6,165 5,822 

13,409 14,170 

19,574 19,992 



1,769 
5,390 

7,159 



20 , 306 


22,957 


24,715 


24 , 461 


71,356 


75,020 


72,502 


75,454 


92,162 


97,977 


97,217 


99,915 


(Continued) 









9680 



TASLE XI 
(Contin ued) 



Area 



1955 



1932 



1931 



1930 



Mississippi River 
On boats ajid 
ashore 

United States and 
Alaska 



e/ 



ey 



15,884 
122,775 



e/ 



1929 



Alaska 












On 


vessels 


2, 06 2c/ 


d/ 


dy 


d/ 


d/ 


On 


boats and 














ashore 


' D,534cy 


^ 


d/ 


c/ 


c/ 




Total 


8,65G 


8,069 


3,914 


10,189 


10,921 


Total 


of above areas 












Oil 


vessels 


21,971 


- 


- 


- 


- 


On 


boats and 














ashore 


80,263 


- 


- 


- 


- 




Total 


102,234 


100,221 


106,891 


107,406 


110,836 



e/ 



Source: Bureau of Fi:;;heries, Fishery Industries of the United States. 

a/ Exclusive of shore workers whose compensation is not paid by 
individual crpf t - e. f:. , the office staffs and dockyard and 
beach crews of corr)orations operating fishing fleets, 

b/ Estimated by the author. 

cj Segregation of vessel and boat crews estimated by the author. 

d/ Segregation of vessel and bo-^^t fishermen in Alaska not computed, 

ej Fot available. 



9680 



-32- - 

The numlDer shov/n "by the table declined over the four j'-ears from 1929 
to 19L62 "by not quite ten per cent. In 193o there v/as a snail recovery in 
comparison "fith the year precedinf=^. This depression decliiie in emloinaent, 
with respect both to its extent and its duration, was extremely moderate 
in comparison with the correspondinp: drop in man"' other industries. In 
general, the serious effect of the depression on workers in the fisheries 
ap-oears in the fibres for their income, ,and not in those for the volume 
of employment. 

NU].aii:RS OF VESSEL AiC D BOAT ■FISH01E--T 

The Bureau of Fisheries dees not -ouhlisii separate figures for vessel 
and boat fishermen in Alaska; and for the purposes- of the present study 
an estimated segregation has been made for 1953 only. Outside of Alaska 
the number of vessel fishermen declined from 1929- .to 1933 by nearly 21 
per cent. TJith Alasl:a included the falling off was probably a little 
less than this « . ' 

The number of boat and shore fisnermen of the United States proper 

declined from 1929 to 1933 by only two and a half per cent. With Alaska 

included tiie decrease was lar£.;er than this, but considerably less than in 

the case of the vessel fisheries. 

Table X"! compares the^ nuiaber of vessel fisherman over a longer 
period, from 1900 to 1933, As in the correspondin.;; case of Table IV it 
has been necessary to include transporting^: vessels, as well as fishing 
vessels in the strict sense. 

The trend in the number of vessel fishernen over the past 30 years 
has been so nearly the same as the trend in the number of vessels in use, 
that 'with some changes in detr?il the comiirnts on Table IV may be applied 
here, 

DHE LOUG-TIllE TrLEND III PE^SOlTLEL 

A still longer view of the volume of emplo^'-ment of the fisheries is 
furnished by the occupation returns of the Censuses of Popula.tion since 
1870. Table XIII sho-.vs the number of persons at each of these Censuses 
who reported the occupation of fisherman or oysterman. 

There is a large discrepancy between the 1930 figure in Table XIII 
and the total mimber of persons engaged in the industry in that year as 
shown by Table XI. This difference is due mainly to the omission from the 
Census classification of (l) most persons with whom fishing is a casual 
occupation only; (2) many v;ho have special duties on fishing craft and 
•v;ho were consequently classified by occupation as engineers, cooks, radio 
operators, etc; and (3) members of fishing crews who reported themselves 
under such indefinite designations as seamen, sailors and deckhands. 



9680 



-33- 



TABLE XII 



NUI.IBER or PERSONS COI.IPOSING TILE CREWS OF ALL VESSELS 
Il-T THE FISHERIES, BY AREA, 190G - 1353 a/ 



Area 



1933 



1931 



1930 



1929 



1926 



1916 



1908 



Atlantic and 
Gulf Coasts 

Pacific Coast 
(Including 
Alaska) 

Great Lal:es 

United States 
and Alaska 



13,416 15,401 18,546 18,596 15,155 19,326 32,592 



10,102 10,519 10,659 
1,589 1,716 1,736 



10,109 10,109 4,900 2,613 

1,847 2,240 1,809 1,572 



25,107 28,636 30,891 31,102 27,504 26,035 36,777 



Sources: Bureau of Fisheries, Fishery Industries of the United States , 

and Bureau of the Census, Fisheries of the United States, 1908 
and Water Transp ortatio n, 192 6. 

a/ Includes "both fishing vessels and those used for transportation 
purposes incidental to fishing, the figures for which were 
not segregated in the Water Transportation Censuses of 1916 
and 1926. Data are not available for transporting vessels in 
1932. 



9680 



-34- , 

TABLE. XIII, 



NUIBER OF PEIiSOjS REPOP.TIli:^ TT-IE OCCUPATICIT OF FISHEPJ.IAII OR 
OYSTi']MAI^I IN COlf-IECTIOlI V/ITH TKi CEIISJSES OF PO:^ULATION, 
IN THE UiTITeD STATES P"^CP£Il JilH) IJ /iLSSKA, 1870-1950 



Year 



1930 
1920 
1910 
1900 
1890 
1080 
1870 



NTim>jer of Fishe rnen and Oystermen 
United States 

Proper a/ Alaska 



7o,280 


4,775 


52,836 


3,643 


68,275 


3,519 


68,945 


4,563 


60,162 


^ 


41 , 352 


^ 


27,106 


by 



Scarce: B"'jj.-eau of .the Cf^jisas, Ce-isases of Po-oulation. 
a/ Includin,^ the l.isr-issipoi River area, 

'bj Not available 



9680 



-35- 

Allov/ing for the omission of these j;^oups, the fi^.^'ires for the 
United States proper in Table XIII appear to be comparable, at any 
rate from 1870 to 1920; -and for those years the series may he taken as 
indicatinjA the true trend. 

These Census returns shov/ a. rapid increase in the nujii^Ter of per- 
sons engaged in the fisheries up to the turn of the century. From 1900 
to 1910 the number v;as about stationary, this "being a "oeriod of develop- 
ments v/ith respect to living, costs which ?/ere unfavorable to an in- 
creased demand for fishery products. 

The decline in emplo^nncnt from 1910 to 1920 corresponds roughly 
with the falling off in the n^llnber of vessels and boats in use during 
that period. The latter, hov;cver, fails to reflect the increase in the 
number of fishermen in 1950 as compared v;ith 1910, which appears on the 
face of the Census figures. It seems probable that the 1950 Census re- 
sulted in the classification of a somewhat larger proportion of the per- 
sonnel of the industry as fishermen, instead of concealing them under 
other designations, and thai/ there was no actual increase, 

IgL PJlO.DUQTIXrTY ..,0F_ JFJ_SJiER Y LA3 _0R 

Table XIV shov/s the value of the total catch of txie fisheries, 
by area, for ea.ch yoar from. 1929 to 1953, per person engaged. In 1929 
this average failea to reach '"1,700 in any e.rea. For the Grca,t Lakes 
it was under 51,000, for the Chesa.peake area a little over $^00, and 
for the South Atlantic and Gulf area about 5550, In 1953 an average of 
SI, 000 per man was sli^ihtly exceeded in Alo^ska only. For the South 
Atlantic and Gulf area the 1935 average was under 5400, and for the 
Chesapea\':e o,i-ea only about 5250, Such figures for gross out"out per man 
obviously put low maximum limits on the earnings of the mass of persons 
in the industry,* 

The third column of Table VI, to v/hich reference has already been 
made in another connection, shows in a similar way the dollar output 
per man in 1933 for the vessels for which data have been obtained in 
connectii^n with the present study. As these averages relate to ves- 
sels only, and tn a group rather heavily weighted v/ith the larger ton- 
nages, they arc higher than those in Table ZIV. Yet even so the gross 
output per man did not reach 52,400 for any area. On the Great Lakes it 
was only 51,205, and in the South only 553^, 

Countryv/ide data for the catch of the fisheries, on v/hich to base 
a long-tine comp.r.rison of the productivity of labor, are available only 
at considerable intervals. Table XV, however, shows that since the 
early years of the century there has been a very substantial increase in 
the quantity output - about 44 percent from 1908 to tho average of 1929- 
1934, 'iVhen this is compared with the decrease of I'O percent in the num- 
ber of Fishermen over the same period, it becomes plain that there must 
have been a substantial improvement in the productivity of the labor 
concerned. 



* Since the number of fishermen on ?/hich these averages are based in- 
clude casual workers, the reference is to earnings from the fishing 
industry, and not to the total earnings cf the persons concerned. 
The distinction, however, does not much affect the conclusions sug- 
gested by the table^ 

9fi80 



-36- 



TABLE XIV 



average: value of catch per j.iat", all fishihg craft, 

BY ^jEA, 1929-1933 



Area 



1933 



193: 



1931 



1930, 



1929 



New England I 


$790 




$850 


$1,126 


$1,610 


$1,694 


laddie Atlantic 


551 




556 


959 


1,232 . 


1,348 


Che sape alee 


251 




282 


' 359 


592 


627 


South' Atlantic 






• 








and Gulf 


352 


a/ 


298 


341 


• 469 


559 


Great Lakes 


28S 


a/ 


626 


1,033 


867 


948 


Pacific 


747 




530 


702 


1,178 


1,252 


Alaska 1 


,058 




877 


1,127 


1,252 


1,564 


Average of 














Above Areas 


576 




518 


696 


977 


1,070 


Mississippi River 


k/ 




^ 


182 


k/ 


k/ 


Average, United 










. 




States and Alaska 


- 




- 


630 


-. 


~ 



Source: Computed from data in Bureau of Fisheries, " Fishing Industries 
of the United States . 

a/ Estimated by the author. 

b/ " Not available. 



i580 



-37- 



TABLii XV 



QJJMTITY Aim VALUE OF THE CATCH OF THE FISHERIES, 1902-1904, 

1903 aJid 1929-1954 
(In thousands) 



Year 



Catch of the Fisheries 



Quantity 
(pounds) 



Value 



Average, 
1929-1934 a/ 

1908 

1902-1904 t/c/ 



3,043,269 
2,111,267 
2,080,775 



$87,559 
57,389 
60,936 



Sources: Data for 1929-1932 and 1933 in part iron Bureau of 

Fisheries, Fisher-'- Industi-ies of the United States ; 
■ for 1902-1904 and 1908 from Bureau of the Census, 
Fisheries of txhe United States . 1908. 

a/ Average of six years; 1933 partly and 1934 nholly 
estimated oy the author. 






The data for some p.reas nere obtained as of 1902, 
for some as of 1903, and for sone as of 1904. 

(Quantity and value of Alaska catch estimated. 



9680 



-38. 



This improvement has ^oe.p.n the result mainly of the substitution of 
motor craft for sailing vessels nncl rovT'ooats, and of the introduction or 
adoption on an extended scale of more efficient t;;/pes of fishing gear. 
When Kipling wrote his classical descriotion of life on the G-loucester 
groundfish fleet on the j'ewfoujidland "banl's in l&S?, the t.^oical unit 
was a schooner whose crew fished mostly '.vith jiandlines from dories. Now 
all the vessels of that fleet are po'-^er-propelled, and all but a negligi- 
ble fraction of the catch is tal';:e:o. with the labor-saving line trawl or 
otter trawl. 

The use of these more efficient types of fishing gear has created 
problems of v/a.ste and depletion, which fall outside the scope of the 
present study, but which should not be ignored in considering the pro- 
ductivity and displacement of fis'aing labor and their effects, 

REGULAH AITD CASUAL ?'ISHE?J,'.£:: . ■ 

For the boat and shore fisheries of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts 
and the Great Lalces the Bureau of Fisheries compiles separate data for 
regular and for casua.l fishermen. The latter, who are much less im- 
portant in the vessel fisheries, are those with whom fishing is a 
secondary occupation. The numbers of these two classes, so far as re- 
ported, are shown for the years 1929 to 19o3 in Table TVI. 

This ■'■able indicates that the proportion of regular workers in 
the boat and shore fisheries declined considerablj?- from 1929 to 1933 
in Nevf England .and in the Middle Atlantic and Gropt LaJces aren.s. These 
sections contain many large industrial cities, all of which during the 
depression had much unemploym'^nt. The felling oif in the proportion of 
regular fishermen is believed, consequent Ij'-, to reflect a tendency for 
unemployed persons to take to part-time fishing in the lack of other 
means of mailing a living. 



9680 



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-40- 

The Chesapealce arid the South Atlantic -and G-ulf areas, on the other 
hand, sho\7 approximately stationary proportions of re;-alar and casual 
fisherraen in recent years. These States, or at least the parts of them 
in which fishing is maanly carried on, are non- industrial, .and have had 
less absolute unein-olojnrient during the pact few years than have New 
England or the Middle Atlantic or the Great Lakes States, 

The casual fishermen of the eastern United States, ?/ho are included 
in the figures piihlished "by the Bureau of Fisheries, tend to he found in 
laxger proportions on the Great Lahes, in the Chesapealie Bay area and on 
the South Atlantic and Gulf coasts. They are largely small farmers or 
farm la-horers; ajid the fact that some important fisheries of the South 
and the oyster fis-iery of Chesapealce Bay are most active during the \7inter 
facilitates a conoination of the t'-;o callings. 

In the rlortheastern Sta.tes the iDrincip'-'l fisheries, when not pursued 
more or less the year a,ro-und, tend to he concentrated in the summer and 
early fall. The season when the lerst fishing is being carried on in 
that section is also, m gre•^t pa.rt, a slack time in industrial activity; 
and in any case comparatively few industrial estahlishments are so locat- 
ed as to raaJce it easy for fisherraen to work in them. In Nev; England and 
on the Hiddle Atlantic coast commercial fishing is to some extent com- 
bined with employment in the siu"amer resort trades; "but here again there 
is a tendenc;^ to conflict. 

The lack of figures for the number of casual fishermen on the Pacific 
coast is a result primarily of the manner in wh-ich the data for that part 
of the country are obta.ined by the Bureau of Fisheries. There are reasons 
for tninlcing, however, that the proportion on the Pacific coast of the 
United States proper is actually not large. The fisheries of that area 
are to a great extent carried on in deep water and for the large-scale 
supply of canneries ajid redaction plants; and this t}rpe of enterprise is 
not easily undertalien by the ca.sua.l worker. In these States, moreover, 
the agricultural population - the class from which casual fisherraen in 
other parts of the ccantry are mainly drawn - is for the most part not 
settled immediately on the seacoast. 

The salmon fishermen of the Columbia Ii'.iver, however, mF^.y represent 
a pa.rtial exception to these stateraents, and tl:.ere is a s^oecial sit-^Jiation 
in Alaska. Fishing is not as a rule the sole occupation either of the 
men brought to the Territory/" from the United States proper for the salmon 
canning season or of the local residents, whetiier white or native. The 
term "casual", hov/ever, hardly describes their fishing operations. It 
would be more correct to speak of a seasonal alternation or series of 
occupations. 

Cp-,S""LLal fishermen, oj definition, obtain the greater part of their 
income from sources other than fishing. Since workers of this class 
are much less numerous on vessels, the question of their income from 
other employments v/a.s of secondary interest only in connection with the 
original study. The extent, however, to which the income of regular 
fishermen, including those on vessels, may be drawn from sources other 
than fishing is of some importance, especially as the present data are 
for a depression year. This subject will be touched on again in 
Chapter IX. 

9680 



-41- 

NON-MIGRATORY CIJ^RACTSR MP LP /J TUMQVSH Off P3RS0NNEL 

The foregoirii^ discussion of tiie corabination of fisliing wit.i other 
employments suggests that there is little tendency for any class of 
fishermen to migrate * for the purpose of obtaining supplementary in- 
come. Until the depression of the 1930' s became acute fishermen, as a 
clas.s, were fairly well adjusted to programs of work that kept them 
busy at their own calling most of the year; and v/hen market conditions 
cut down . hea.vily the periods during which it paid them to engage in 
fishing, other employment also became hr.rd to obtain. Fishing on any but 
the smallest scale requires some investm.ent, and in many -cases a relativ- 
ely lieavy one. As a result the industry has tended to select a type 
that does not talce kindly to inter-industry migration. 

These same conditions have combined to account for what is believed 
to be the very low turnover in the personnel of the fishing industry. 
Fishermen constituto an essentially conservative class, which sticks to 
its own mode of earning a living, to its own enterprises and to its own 
social groups. In t'le older parts of the coiintry young people have 
drifted away from fishing communities during the last generation or two; 
but those who have once started in the business tend to remain in it. 
For this reason, the average age of fishermen is believed to be high; 
and this accentuates their reluctance to change their calling or to 
migrate in search of employment outside the industry. 

DISTINCTIONS OF SaX, :: ^C3 AI^ID ilATIONiLL ORIOIN 

Some fishing craft are owned by Y/omen, and in such cases the bus- 
iness may be managed by them. The vrarking personnel is practically all 
male, though the Census of 1908 reported two or three hundred females. 

The personnel of tae fisheries of New England, of the northern 
Middle Atlantic States and of the Great Lakes is all white and largely 
of long settled Anglo-Saxon stock, though' with a considerable admisture 
of Italians, Portuguese and Scandinavians. T^.ie same is true in the 
main of the South, althougn here and there considerable numbers of 
Negroes are found. The Fishermen on the menhaden vessels of the South 
Atlantic coast are mainly colored; and many Negroes operate or are em- 
ployed on oyster craft in that section. The fishing crews of the Pacific 
Nortnwest include a very large proportion of Norwegians, with some Finns, 
Icelanders, Italians and Japanese. In the fisheries of California there 
are some Norwegians and a good many Japanese, but the crews of that 
State are overwhelmingly Italians, Jugoslavs from the Adriatic coast, or 
Portuguese. About two-thirds of the local residents engaged in the 
fisheries of Alaslca are Indians or Eskimos. The remainder are white 
settlers, and largely Norwegian, Icelandic or Finnish by nationality. 



This refers only to migrations for the purpose of supplementing 
earnings from fishing by participation in other industries, expecially 
under unusual economic stress. Seasonal inigrations for the purpose 
of engaging in different fisheries at different times are common 
phenomena. 



9680 



-42- 



SIZE OF FISHING CT^MS . 

Tho crev; of a fisMng vessel or "boat may n"umber anything from one 
man to a maxim-urn of alDout 40. Crews in excess of 30 are very excep- 
tional, and those exceeding 20 are confined to the go^undfish fleet sf 
Hew England, to the menhaden fleet of the South Atlantic coast, and 
to the vessels in the Alaska, cod fishery that work out of San Francisco 
and Puget Sound. The average crew of a vessel is seven or eight strong, 
while the average to a boat is only one and a half. 

The Bureau nf Fisheries does not classify fishing craft according 
to the size of their crews, and such a hroakdown can he made only in 
the form of an estimate. Something of this kind, however, had to he 
undertaken in connection with the present study as a ha.sis for dis- 
tinguishing employees from employers. .' 

The results indicate that ahout seven and a half per cent of 
all fishing vessels in 1933 were operated "by one person or "by two or 
three part owners, who ora^oloyed no additional workers. Of the per- 
sonnel of the "boat fisheries ahout 33 per cent operated one-man "boats, 
about 43 per cent two-man beats, and only four per cent boats with 
crews of t'lree or more. The siDonge-diving boats of Florida, each 
of which ^ses seven or eight men, are almost the only. ones having 
crews of more than four. 

EMPLOYERS, EIvDPLOYEES AND IHDEPBNpailT OPERATORS 

On the basis of this cstima^ted breakdown by size of crew it 
is possible to segregate the personnel of the industry roughly into 
the three classes of independent operators of one-man and partnership 
units, employers and employees. The first and second of these groups 
taken together constitute, of course, the entrepreneurs of the in- 
dustry. The results of this segregation are shown in Table XVII. 



9680 



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TASLS XVII 



ESTIMTED CMSSIFICATIOn OF ALL FISHERIvIM BY 3MPL0YME1-TT 

STATUS, 1933 



Employment 
Status 



On Vessels 



Number 



Per Cent 
of Total 



On Soats and 

Ashore 



IT-umber 



Per Cent 
of Total 



On All Fishing Craft 



IT'UiTa'ber 



Per Cent 
of Total 



Employers 2,925 

Employees 18,646 

Operators of 
one-ra£in and 
partnership 
units, with no 
errrplcyoes 400 



Total 



21,971 



13.3 
34.9 



1.8 

100.0 



17,417 21.7 
21,430 -26.7 



41,416 51,6 
80,263 100.0 



20,342 19.9 
40,076 39.2 



41,816 40.9 
102,254 100.0 



Source; Totals from Bureau of Fisheries, Fishery Industries of the 
United States. 



9680 



-44- 



For the purposes of this talDlo all fishermen who are not o^Tners 
or part owners of the craft on 'v;hich thejr -work have "been taken as 
eniployeos, irrespective of their raanhcr in which their compensation 
is determined. In the case of those who work on shares, hov/ever, 
and especially of share fishermen on the smaller vessels and on "boats, 
there is room for argiomen-t as to tiie propriety of the term employee.. 
The point is further discussed in Chaptor Vj in connection v;ith the 
modes of determining fishermens' compensation. 

Tahle XVII indicates that while the employees of the fisheries, 
¥;hen the term is used in the broadest possible sense, constitute a 
substantial body of workers, they acco'ont for less than half the total 
personnel. In the vessel fisheries, however, the proportion of em- 
ployees is much higher. Less tlian two T)er cent of the total vessel 
personnel appear to be operators of one-man or "partnership units with 
no omployeos, and only 13 or 14 ;oor 6ent ?).re to be classified as 
orrrployers. In the boat and shore fisheries only about 27 per cent of 
the total are employees in any sense. 

The total number of "oersons who ma.y be classed as entrepreneurs 
constitute about 15 per cent of those engaged in the vessel fisheries, 
about 73 per cent of the ^personnel of the boat and shore fisheries, 
and about 61 per cent of _ the grand total. This proportion of entre- 
preneurs, even in the vessel fisheries, is high enough to affect greatly 
the economic and social conditions of the industry. 

The returns of the Census of 1908, the only data available for 
comparison with the estimates in Table XVII, put the proportion of 
employees in the vessel fisheries at 87 "oer cent of the total per- 
sonnel, as compared with 85 -ner cent in the table; at 35 as compared 
v/ith 27 per cent in the boat and shore fisheries; and at 48 as com- 
pared with 39 per cent in the industry at large. : 

It is evident either that the conception of an employee in the 
boat and shore fisheries which was adopted for Census purposes was 
somewhat different from the one as sunned in connection v/ith the present 
study, or that the proportion of employees in tha.t division of the in- 
dustry has declined during the past q^uarter century. In view of the 
close correspondence of the tv/o sets of data in the case of the vessel 
fisheries the latter appears the more likely explanation. It seems 
possible that, with the increase in the investment in inshore fishing 
enterprises made necessary by the advent of the motor boa,t and of in- 
creasingly efficient and elaborate types cf gear, there has been an 
appreciable tendency to substitute operation by partners for operation 
by single owners vdth hired helpers, while the number of men to a 
boat has remained about the same. 

DISTIIICTIOHS OF HAITK MTD QCCUPATIOI^I 

The crew of every fishing craft v/hich consists of more than two 

or three persons may be said to incKide a captain. In a large 

proportion of cases the latter, as already remarked, is also the owner. 

But on fishing craft with crev/s of only two or three men the duties 

9680 



•45« 



and authority implied "by the position of captain "become simplified out 
of recognition, if tliey can be said to exist at all. 

S'oecializcd occupations other than tliat of captain "begin to 
exist, as a rale, only when the ere?; of a fishing vessel consists of 
as many as six or seven men. The ranks of next m.ost frequent appear- 
ance are those of cook and of engineer. The crew of a vessel that 
m^kes trips of any consideralDlc duration usually includes a cook, who 
is an important and relatively well-paid personage. The ranks of mate, 
pilot and assistant engineer are largely confined t© steam vessels. 

., ' Eadio operators are employed on raanj^ of the large vessels of 
the Hew England groundfish fleet and on some of the California tuna 
vessels; "but otherwise they are rare. The 40 radio operators reported 
in connection with the present study probably account for a substantial 
majority ^f the class. The San Francisco vessels which vrork in pairs 
with thegear laiown as paranzella nets have the special ranks of "boss 
fisherm.an" and "second boss fisherman". The former, who have complete 
control of the fishing operations as distinguished from the navigation, 
outrank the captains and receive higher "i^ay. 

On the menhaden and some of the red snapper vessels of the South 
Atlantic and Gulf coasts, and occasionally in other instances, there is 
a petty officer, roughly corresponding to a boatswain or quartermaster 
on a merchant vessel, v/ho is knov/n as the "striker" or "first hand". 
The form.er name is also used ina somewhat different sense in '^ther 
branches of the indu.stry. 

SHORE W05KEHS 

In general, the personnel reported in connection with the present 
study included only the crews that actually worked the vessels and gear 
for which data was obtained. In the case of the wage vessels, however, 
a few "shore hands" were included. All but one of these were employed 
in connection with vessels on the Great Lakes, The principal duties 
of such a shore worker are to care for whatever plant the vessel owner 
employing him may maintain at the port out of which he operates, and 
to assist in packing and shipping the catch. 

No cases were reported in which owners of vessels working on 
shares, other than corporations which combine the opcra,tion of fishing 
fleets vdth wholesale or processing businesses, maintained regular em- 
ployees on shore. If such a thing occurs it is not common. The re- 
ported operating expense of some share vessels probably include ,4 wages 
paid to casual shore labor, to assist in unloading the catch, etc. 
This, however, is a minor ma.tter. 

The office, wliarf and dockyard forces maintained by the corpora- 
tions that combine fishing with wholesale or processing business were 
not included in the scope of the present study. 

The Gcnmis of 1908 reported under the head of "shoresmen" 
10,590 persons. Nearly three-quarters of these, however, were in 



9680 



-46- 



^aska, and imist have reprcsGntcd mainly the l)each crews of the 
salmon canneries, V/hcther these latter should be refjarded as part of 
the personnel of the fishing industry is a matter of definition. They 
are in any case on the "borderline of the class. 

Of the 2,850 shoremen reported "by the Census of 1903 for the 
United Stated proper more than one-third, j)^o^D3-^ly» v;ere acco'ujitcd 
for "by the oyster cultivating osts^blishments of the llorth Atlantic 
coast. This again is a "borderline group. It is not altogether 
easy to account even for the remaining two-thirds of the 2,850. The 
operators of the larger fleets do crirploy, on a limited scale, shore 
workers whose time is given wholly or mainly to the fishing "business; 
"but "because of the uncertainties of classification just mentioned it 
is hardly worth while to attempt to estimate their present num"ber. 

Ta'ble XVIII surama.rizcs the "best estim.ates that can "be made, 
with the information now avs.ila'blc, of the total numbers of men in 
the more important ranks and occupations on fishing vessels. 

In the case of fishing boats, except in so far as they can 
be said to have captains, there is little or no distinction of 
rank or occupation. 



9680 



-47-. 



TABLE XVIII 



SSTII;iAT3D 1TUL3EE OF PEHSOHS IIT EACH Rmi Oli OCCUPATIOIT Oil ALL EISHIIG 

VESSELS, 1933 



Ha.nk or Occupation IJ-uiiibGr . Per Cent 

of Men of Total 



Captains 3,650 16.6 

MatGS • 175 .. .8 

Engineers and Assis- 
tant EntZ;inoers 2,150 3.8 

Firemen 575 ■ 2.6 

Radio O'pe renters 50 .', • .2 

Coohs 1,950 8.3 

Ordinary Fishermen 13,200 60.0 

Others dJ 250 ' 1.1 

TTtal 22,000 • 100.0 



Source: Estirriited fror.i returns to H.- R. A. questionnaire on 
earnin.-js in the lisnin:^- industry and Bureau of Fisheries, Fishing 
Industries oft h o jni ted States . 

a/ Includes "boss fishermen, pilots, strihors, first hands and other 
minor classifications. 



9680 



-48- 

CHAPTEru IV 

'THE PRODUCT 10], ■ ot' TiiE "FISHERIES 

SOURCES Qj? IlIFORI ATIOli 

As has alren.cl.7 been str.ted the Siireaii of Fisheries rnrde 
countrywide surveys of the produetion of the industry for the years 
1929, 1930, 1931 aiid 1952. For 1933 the survey omitted the South 
Atlantic rnd G-ul"' and the Great Lakes areas. Previous complete surveys 
vrere made in con-iection nith rer;ulr.T decennial Gensusses or, in 1908, by 
the Census Bureau as a S'oecial ;)roject. 

QXJAi lTITY A1:D VALUE OF TIIS CAT CH 

Tabl-e XIX shorj the quantity and value of fishery products of 
all species Irnded in the United States, by area, fron 1929 to 1933, 

This table brinjgs out clearly the effect of the depression on 
the out;out of the fisheries. Fron 1929 to 1933 tlie quantity landed fell 
off by 19 per 'cent, \7hile the value of the cs.tch to the fishermen \7as 
cut in half. The trouble, evidently, has lain in the prices paid for 
the product miich raore than in t'he droo in the quantity demand. 

This latter statement applies, moreover, to all sections of 
the country individually except the C-reat Lakes, '.-/hose crtch has 
brought relatively high "Drices and has 'been sold in considerable prrt, 
under very special conditions, to the Je'7ish trade in ITev; York City. In 
the Middle Atlantic and Chesapeake areas the price decline from 1929 to 
1933 was exceptionally heavy, while the falling off in the quantity of 
the catch v/cns'only moderate. 

17hen all due e-..TOhasis has been -out on the ^o re dominance of the 
price factor, hov;evor, tlie i'norta:ice of the drop in the qurntity de- 
mand for fishery products durin,;; the deioression should not be under- 
estimated. For a larfrce class of basic foodstuffs it must be called 
heavy. Its causes need to be studied more tlian they have been; but the 
strongest influence wrs the sharp concurrent decline in the price of 
meat, the most directly competing class of com'iodities. 

The data in Table XIX merit study in the present connection, 
because of the close relationsnip between the changes from year to year 
in the landed vrlue of fishery 'n-oducts cand in the earnings of the 75 
per cent of the ;:)ersonnel of the industry who wor]: on shares. This 
relationshi J is further discussed in Chax)ter XII. 



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PRODUCTION OF THE YV^'^Z lES III 1934 / ■ ' 

At the tine this re;oort ^7as written no [production dt^ta for 
1934 had been corroiled 'by the Jutopw of Pisherieo exce'ot for Alaska. A 
good deal of the ;n-eliminar,./ data, hovever, had been aG?5e..ibled; pnd on 
the basis of this and frora a variet:/ of sup- elementary i:iforns.tion 
estimates have been :ir.de of the v.-^lue of the cr.tch of the vrrious 
fisheries in 1954, 

These \7ere needed prirnfiril;" in connection with the estimates 
of creu and vessel earnings in thd.t /ear, ',7hich are "oresented in 
Chapter XII, The/ rre hardly precise enough to tc?bulpte in detail. 
They indicate, hoivever, a total landed value of fishery products for the 
United Strtes, excluding the Llississippi area, of about $77,000,000 or, 
including that rrea, of $79,300,000. The total corresponding to the 
prrt of the industry covered '^oy the original study - that is, excluding 
the catch of cannery- orned or operated craft and geo.r in Alaska - may 
be -out at $39,500,000, Of this latter fig-ure the catch of the vessel 
fisheries accounted for about $53,500,000. 

These estimates i.idicrto an increase in the value of the 
total catch of about 33 per cent over 1953 or, if the catch ^7ith Ala-ska 
cannery craft and gear is excluded, of about 34 per cent, 

THE LOiTG-^TII.'E TEEIH) OF PROPTJCTIOiI 

The data available for a long time comparison of the quantity 
and value of the catch of the fisheries of the United Strtes have been 
presented in another connection in Table XV. It rould appear that the 
increase in living costs r.-hich characterized the first two decades of 
the century was unfavorable to the development of the demand for 
fishery products, ^-.^hich tend to be relatively e:-:pensive in a time of 
rising prices, and r'hich rre not regnrded by a large pa.rt of the 
population as necessities. 

From 1920 to 1930, however, conditions were much more favor- 
p.ble. The prodiictivity of the fisheries per man and per unit of gear 
continued to improve, ;')urchasing power was in the main rising, and the 
radius over v/hich fresh fish cand shellfish could be shiooed from the 
principal ports of landing was materially extended, as '^ result of im- 
proved methods of preprring and packing and of better transportation 
facilities, 

OUTPUT OF THE VESSEL ill;i) OF THE BOAT aIZ) SHOBE FISHERIES 

The Bureau of Fisheries has not tabulated the production data 
resulting from its countrywide surveys for the years 1929 to 1933 for 
the vessel and the boat and shore fisheries separately. In connection 
with the present stud;'-, hovjever, it has been necessary to break down 
the 1933 data with reference to this distinction. Table XX shows the 
results of the segregation. 

In the case of Alaska there appears in this table a comiDli- 
cation, which requires explanation. The salmon canning industry, which 

9680 



-51- 



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consiimes' much the .{greater part of the Alaska catch, had an IT.R.A, code 
se-^arate frojn thpt of the rest of the fisheries, Iloreover, the catcli 
of saliaon \7ith cr-ft or gear owned or operated "by Alaska canneries is 
reported' with reference to the land esta])lishi]ients and not the vessels 
or boats enployed. 

These t^vo conditions nade it inpracti cable tO' survey this 
hraiich of the industr^^ 'by means of* the original questionnaire. In 
Table XXy coiiseoiiently, the catch of salnon vdth ca,nnery eqUipnent is 
separated froii the iiain tabulrtlon of the vessel and boat catch. To 
complete ;the lattervsegre^^a^tion, hov/ever, the Alaska cannery'' iten has 
been brol?:en ■ down by estinate into a vessel, a boat said a trap catch. 
The latter is shown 'separately because of its relrative inportance, and 
o.lso because the workers employed .in connection with these traps are not 
classified as flshernon in the Bureau of Fisheries' reports. 

, The men who operate the Alaska cannery craft -^^hd gear are con- 
veniently referred to as "em;oloyee" fishermen, to distinguish then from 
the "independents" vrho trke the remrinder. of the salnon consumed by the 
industry.. Infer: lat ion regarding the latter class -only ,'^as gathered by 
means of the original queGtionnaiie; but' drta have subsequently been 
obtained from other sources ^vitii respect to the ea:rnin^si of the employee 
fishermen and the traixaen. ;These ^Iptter are. discussed 'iili Chapter XIII. 

'In the United States T-)rorier 'the: craft a.nd no'n -ern'oloYed in 
connection with tra;is (usually called Tocjind nets on the Atlantic and 
Gulf coasts) rre included in the Bureau of' Fisheries' tabulr-'tions of 
fishing vessels or boats and of fisherr^'en. 

Table XX shows fhot about 43 per cent of the total value of 
the catch .of the fisheries- o-f the country is • accounted for ^oj vessels, 
although the l-'tter constitute only six .and a half per' cant of the total 
crai't. : TTlien the catch of the craft and gear owned or operated by salnon 
canneries in Alaska is„e:jcluded the ::)roportion taken by vessels rises to 
47 or 48 per cent. ■ ' ' 

The vari- tions in the percenta.^e of the vessel! catch in the 
different' rreas ore the result of local conditions. The fisheries which 
make the Irrgest scale sliipments over the ^"'idest radiuses show high 
percentages, fnd vice versa. California has chiefly deep water 
figjieries, in which the oossibility of usin;/; small craft is limited. 
The. fisheries' of the Great Lai<:es are on a modest scale, and a.re carried 
on in Irrge ;;jrrt ia comparatively shallo'"' wrters. The small scale of tlie 
fisheries of the South results largely from the general economic con- 
ditiong and the distribution of the population of that area. In Hew 
England and in the lIorth^:'est and Alaska.' as a whole the proportion of the 
vessel catch is a little above the average for the country at large. In 
Alaska itself, however, for speci.al reasons, the "oroportion is smaJl. 

..In 1908 the vessel fisheries of "the United St' tes proper 
accounted for '43.5 -oer cent of the total dollar volume of production, 
llo segregat.ion was made for the value of the Alasica. crtch, the inclusion 
of -which v.'o'uld have lowered the percentage a little. These f ignores in- 
dicate that the proportion of the total cftch accounted for by the vessel 

9 680 



fislieries has not cha,nged in-'^terially auriri:'; the ^Do.st tv/enty-f ive years. 
Air," decrease that ..li.'^ht hp.vo resultel .froii the fact that the nurn'oer of 
vessel.:! ill uGe has decliii^cl nore than the niiinoer of hofits ha.s a-yoarently 
bioen offset by the yrSater relative i-'provenent in the efficiency of 
the vessel ^-^ear. 



9 580 



CHAPTER V 

THE COIvIPENSATION OF FISHING CEEWS 

VARIETY OF MODES OF PAYMEMT 

There is more variety in the methods whereby the crews of fishing 
craft are coiapensated than in the correspondint^ arrangements in ordinary 
industrial plants. Compensation both by straight wages on a time basis 
and by piece rates exists. In the marine fisheries, however, much the 
most conmon plan is to pay each member of a crew oy a share in the value 
of the catch. The compensation received by individual fishermen, in 
such cases, becomes dependent primarily on the quantity of fish caught 
and on the unit price received for than, and secondarily on the items 
deducted from the gross revenue before arriving at the crew's share. 
The latter is, in all but a very small proportion of cases, a residual 
suin. 

FISHIIIG L^iYS 

The arrangement whereby the value of the catch of a fishing craft 
working on shares is distributed among the persons and interests con- 
cerned is laiown as a "lay." 

A share fisherman may receive a wage or a bonus on a time or per- 
cent age basis in addition to or in lieu of a share in a lay. Such a 
person ordinarily has exceptional responsibility, as in the case of a 
captain, mate or pilot, or is engaged in specialized work, like that 
of an engineer, fireman, radio operator or cook, 

THE PAYl.IEI^'T OF STRAIGHT WAGES 



Straight wages on a time basis in the vessel fisheries are confined 
chiefly to the following cases; 

(1) The crews of most oyster dredges. 

(2) The crews of the craft used in connection with pound nets on 
the coast of ilew Jersey. 

(3) The crews of the meniiaden vessels operating out of Reedville, 
Virginia. This was the nome port of approximately a third of the ves- 
sels actively engaged in this fishery in 1933. The menhaden vessels 
working out of Middle Ailantic ports north of Virginia operate in some 
cases on wages and in others on shares. On the coast south of Virginia 
a modified share system which will be described more fully later on is 
the coinrnonest arrangement. 

(4) The crews of the paranzella vessels working out of San Franc- 
ois co. 

(5) On the Great Lakes, and especially on the upper lakes (Huron ^ 
Michigan and Superior), a straight time wage appears to be commoner 

than a lay. Of the vessels on the Lakes for which reports were ob- 
tained for the purposes of the study 67 per cent, with 63 per cent of 
the men and 62 per cent of the value of the catch, were working in 1933 
on wages, 
9680 



-55- 

This sample is not very large, but there is no positive evidence that 
it does not reflect the situation roughly, 

(6) The crev7s of one important trawling fleet worki,ng out of 
Norfol}c, Virginia, arc^ com;f5 en sated on a wage "brisis. Th«; method is 
also used on some shrimp vessels on the Gulf coag.t and in Alaska, and 
in other occasional instances. ' 

TXmEm AT PIECE RATES 

Compensation at piece rates (that is, so much for every fish 
caught by the individual •?7orker) is the universal basic method in the 
case of the employoe fisherman of salmon canneries in Alaska* These 
piece rates may be accompanied, however, by the payment of fixed sums, 
in some cases knonn as "run money*'. For reasons already explained 
these recipients of piece loayinents were not covered by the study in its 
original form; but information obtained with regard to them at a later 
stage is discussed in Chapter Xlll, 

The only other vessels whose crev/s are compensated en a straight 
piece basis ar.e those in the Alaska cod fishery, working out of Puget 
Sound and San Francisco^ The number of ths'^s vessels -is small, and 
reports were obtained for all those operating in 1933. They are, however, 
the largest craft in the industry, and emvloy a relatively substantial 
nuiaber of men, 

INTEMEDIATE SYSTEI^S OF PAYMENT . 

The compensation of fishing crews on a straight piece basis shades 
off intc systems intermediate between a piecft payment, a wag<» and a share* 
Such a type,' of remuneration appears in the cas<5 of many menhaden 
vessels working off the coast of North Carolina, G-eorgia and Florida, 
in the shrimp fishery of the Gulf coast, and in the Alaska herring fish- 
ery. In all th'J'^G cases the catch is used by processing establishments 
which own or charter the vpissels, but buy the catch from the crews at 
prices fi"«:d-. in. advance. 

The proceeds of such a sale may be snared among the fishermen 
concerned as an independent transaction, and the terms of the distri- 
bution may not be af footed by the unit orice. In other cases, however, 
as on some menhaden vessels - the processing establishment pays the 
fishermen individually, but on a sliding scale of sn much per thousand 
fish caught by the wiiole crew, according to the rank or occupation of 
each man. Data with regard to earnings on some- vessels of this latter 
class were obtained in connection with the study, but too late to be 
incorpor'^ted in the main tables. The figures, however, are summarized 
in Appendix I, 

PJILATIVE IMPORTANCE OF THE VARIOUS MOIjES OF COIfl^ENSATION 

The relative imioortance of these modes of compensation can only 
be figured on the basis of the foregoing description and of the data 
in connection ^ith the present study. Estimates of t he kind, which 
are probably near the truth, are shown in Table XXI. 



/ 



56 

These proportions are in any case not fixed, as there has "been some 
tendency for firhing craft to r.hift f,xori.a. sh.are to a wage "basis and vice 
versa, in the hope thr.t the altered arrangement .'ill be more satisfactory 
to the ovners or the crevvs. Such changes v/ere especially coinnon on the 
Great -L-al'es during Uh-G' '-depress ion; hut they have occurred" elsev/here as -. 
veil, . ...... . , , 

TABLE XXI 

. ^. :E3TIMATED PHOPORTICNS of ALL' FISHING VESSELS, OF iiLL ^VESSEL FISILT:PvlffiN, 
i^^^MD OF THE TOTiL V:^\I.UE OF THE CATCH, OF VESSEI,S USIKO VARIOIJ? MODES 

OF COlvIPENSATIJIg THEIR CEE\7S ■ ■ 



Mode of CoM- 
peniiation 



Per cent of 

Total 

Nunher of 

Vessels 



Per cent of 
Total 
Number of 
l.len 



Per cent of 
Total 

V; lue of 
Catch 



Share 



79 



72 



74 



Wage 



19 



>iece-rc,te a/ ' 2- 

Toted 100 



25 
3 

100 



24 
2' 

100 



Source: 
\ 



Estinated from' returns to N. R* A» questionnaire on earnings 
in the fiching industry. 



In the main the compensation of fishermen on a wage basis is confined, 
to particular fisheries, v/here conditions vary more or less decidedly fron^. 
the norm of the industry. There seems to be no marked general tendency to 
substitute the- wage, systeiii for lay agreements. 

REASONS FOR THE PRSD0I-;i r;A NCE OF :THE SK.VRE SYrTEII • • - 

The predominance of the ?hare system in the compensation of the'fi^x- 
ermen is customarily e::p,lo.ined by the need^providing them -with a. special 
incentive, in vievT of the dangers and hardships to which they .are e>7pos^ 
and the laboriousness of their work* In some instances in which, in the 
earlier days of the -aperation of large steam fishing vessels by corporations, 
attempts were made to substitute straight v^ages for lays, it is claimed that 
the ijien cetsed to be -willing to malce the exertions or to iiin the risks : 
necessnry to recover fishing gear in bad weather. There is no doubt sonc 
truth in this e:-7plaiiatio-n; but the continuing predominance of share opera- 
tion is probably clue -also, to a-^.'-^- ' ic".e:.'r...^le s\:---e:\t^ i^ &tx0 influence -of 
habit and tradition on a very conservative class. 



Induces piece-^rate vessels o\'ned or operated by salmon canneries in 
Alaska, which were not covered by original questionnaire. The propor- 
tions represented by piece-rate vessels in this table are, therefore,^ 
l&x,s:er thaii those indicated in Tables XXIV to XXVI I, 



9680 



-57-^ 

E? F5CTS OF TrlE SrlAHE SYSTEM 

The fisheries in which coimoensation cy shares is the rule constitute 
nov7ada;/s the onlv large group of industrial enterprises in the United 
States to use such a method. The variations in earnings v/hich result, 
and the eiitent to whicn such compensation causes the return to the mass 
of workers to depend directly on fluctuations in commodity prices, have 
import int effects on the status and on the mental attitude of those con- 
cerned. 

To some economists the fact that the earnings of share fishermen are 
thus derendent on tne volum.e of sales a,nd of ooerating expense of the 
enterprises with which they v/ork me. ns tnat they are properly entrepreneurs, 
and not employees at all. The legal attitude, on the other hand, has "been 
the reverse of thisc In the early part of the ninteenth century a series 
of court decisions, relating chiefly to vessels of the New England Tjhaling 
fleet, established the doctrine that share fishermen who do not partici- 
pa,te in the actual sale of the catch are employees in the same sense as 
wage earners in a factory. It is -.claimed that a desire to insure to 
such workers the "benefits cf vrage earners' liens, and of other legal 
p"ivileges which they would not normally enjoy if they were regardad. as 
participating in the entrepreneurial risk, lay back of these decisions. 

The actual status of share fishermen varies a good deal with the 
size of the Vessel and v/ith the area and the fishery concerned. In the 
case of the large coriooration-owned vessels in the Ilew England ground- 
fishery and the red snanDoer fishery of the South their "oosition, as un- 
derstood by all concerned, undoubtedly approximates that of employees in 
the ordinary sense. 

To a very considerable extent, however, the legal doctrine just 
mentioned is not only opoosed to economic theory, but is unrealistic as 
well, A large proportion of fishermen working on shares, and especially 
those comTjcsing the crews of the smaller crafi, do not really regard 
themselves a^i employees. The difference is a matter partly of mental 
attitude and partly of interests and responsibilities inconsistent with 
a strict employee status. 

Crew members may have interest s^^jg fishing gear when they do not own 
a vessel or boat itself; and tx^ere/instances where the investment in gear 
is greater than that in the hull. In the case of some California tuna 
vessels a group of the crew are jointly responsible for the loan with 
which the vessel was built, and are jointly engaged in repaying it. In 
some instances, where no such money interest in the vessel or its equip- 
ment exists, it is at least claimed that the fishermen are customarily 
consulted with rejpect to the operation of the vessels, the sale of the 
catch, or the purchase of supplies. 

One disadvantage of the entrepreneur, to which share fishermen have 
been subject in a large number of cases, especially during the depression* 
is that of being forced to wait for the liquidation of their shares, when 
the Durcliaser of the catch has been unable to make payment in cash or 
within the period originally stipulated. Such workers certainly cannot 
be said to have enjoyed effectively the benefits of an employee status. 

9690 



-58- 

On the whole it is hard to avoid the conclusion that the real 
nosition of share fisiierien is neither that of employees nor of entre- 
preneurs, "but something intermediate between the two^ 



9680 



CHAPTERJ^I 

THE PPSRAT I Oil „0? FISHING- VESSELS ON SHAKES 

THE GR 0_5S _STOCK 

\innen a fisiiing vessel is operated on a lay or share "basis the 
proceeds of the sale of the catch constitute the "gross stock" from 
which the expense of operation is paid and the shares of the vessel 
and of the crev/ are derived. In sorie instances the net proceeds, after 
deducting consignee's commissions and transportation charges on prod- 
ucts not sold at the point of landing, are regarded as the gross stock 
for these purposes, 

THE PRINCIPAL FACTORS IN A LAY 

• The principal items into v/hich the gross stock is subdivided in 
the settlement of a lay or share enterprise arc as follows: 

(a) The operating or trip expense, which may in its turn 
consist of either ©r iDoth of: 

-^» Jo int expense , which is deducted from the gross 
stock before taking out the share due the vessel, 
or the crew, and is conseouently a, charge on the 
vessel or its ovmer and the crew jointly, 

2» C rew exr ^ense, v/hich is taken out after deducting 
the share due the vessel, and is therefore a 
charge against the crew alone, 

■("b) The vessel s hare, which corresponds in many respects to 
the gross income from operation or the gross profit of 
an ordinary industrial business. 

(*^^ Th e crew s hare, which in 9i^ or 97 per cent of all cases 
is the residue after deducting the preceding items from 
the gross stock, v/hile in three or four per cent it is 
an agreed percentage of the gross. It corresponds to the 
waf:e volume of the production department of an industrial 
business. 

The amount remaining after deducting the first item or items 
to be taken out of the gross stock, particularly the joint expense, 
may be referred to as the "net stock". 

The fo].lowing specimen operating statement or "settlement of a 
lay" shows how these items are taken out in an illustrative case. 
The figures are of course imaginary, and the form of the statement may 
vary considerably in detail. Commissions and transportation charges 
are often lacking, and all opera.ting expense may be a joint charge, 
or a charge on the crew along. There is a wide possible variation in 
the proportions of the various items in individual cases. 

9fi80 



- -0 - 



SPECIIGN OPERATI. NG- S TATEMSFT j2F A Th^ISHING VESSEL WOR KING ON A LAY 

GROSS STOCK before Gomy:iission & Transportation' 

Charges $12,000 
LeGc: Consignee's CoiniT.ission $1,500 

Transportation Chcu'ges 500 2,000 

GROSS STOCK after Comnission c; Transportation 

Charges $10,000 

Less: Joint Expense 1 , 000 

NET STOCK frr Vessel and Crcv7 $9,000 

VESSEL SHAF^ 3,5P_0 

l^IET STOCK for Crew cd5,500 

Less: Crew Expense 2,000 

GREW SHARE o3,500 



OPERAT IHG SXPEN_SE 

The operating of a fishing vessel is made up of some or all of 
the following items, - food for the crew while out of port, ice or salt, 
barrels, baskets, boxes or other container.s for the catch, bait, coal, 
fuel oil or gasoline for the engine, and lubricants and other engine 
suppl i e s . 

Whether any of these is included in the operating expense of a 
given craft depends on circumstances. Vessels that go rut only for a 
day at a time do not as a rule provide food for their crev/s: and in some 
cases v/here longer trips arc taken the maintenance of the mess is re- 
garded as an affair of the crew as distin-i^cuished from the vessel, and 
the cost is not recorded as part of the latter' s operating expense. 

Salt is now a comp-.ratively unimportant item, and many fishing 
vessels do not carry ice, even wiien they might well do so to keep 
their catch in good conaition. Some products are loaded in bulk, so 
that no containers are needed* : : 

Whether bait has to be purchased de-oends on the kind used and nn 
the gear. Practically all fishing craft of vessel size except two or 
three hundred sailing vessels include in their operating expense sub- 
stantial items for coal, diesel or fuel oil or gasoline, and of lubri- 
cants. 

•Wages paid to the crews of share vessels in lieu of or in addi- 
tion to shares are usually regarded as operating expense, and are 
charged to the crev/ alone and not to the vessel. Percentage bonuses 
paid to captains, however, are as a rule paid out of the vessel share. 



9^80 



-61- 



OVEPJIE.AI) .OF^ .OWI\M'_S _EXPENSE. 

In contra.st v/ith the operating or trip expense, the overhead or 
ovmer's e>rpense on a fishing vessel is a charge against the vessel share. 
This includes, in addition to the captain's "bonus just mentioned, the 
following - the repair and upkeep of the hull, engine and gear, marine 
and sometimes employer's liability insurance, and State or loca]. taxes 
on the vessel, its gear or its catch. Since so large a majority of fish- 
ing enterprises are unincorporated, Federal income tax does not usually 
appear as an item^ of expense. Taxes on members of a fishing crev/ as in- 
dividuals, such as the fishermen's licenses required in some States, 
may or may not "be taken into account in settling a lay. 

A special item which is often charged against the vessel share is 
the loss that v/ould theoretically "be borne by the crew in a case v/here 
the proceeds of a trip are not sufficient to cover the operating ex- 
pense and thp; normal vessel share. Such a charge is called "a broken 
trip. " 

Depreciation on fishing craft and their gear, in the minority of 
cases where it is formally written off at all, is a part of the ovmer's 
expense. 

Replacements '^f fishing gear that normally lasts less than a yea.r, 
and often piecemeal replacements of more durable gear that v/ould, under 
standard accounting rules, be covered by depreciation reserves, are 
treated as current overhead cx-oense. 

The foregoing description shov/s that in the main the logical 
distinction between the ite'ns included in operating expense and charged 
to the crev/ of a fishing vessel or to the crev/ and the ov/ner jointly, 
and those included in owner's or overhead expense and charged to the 
vessel share, is maintained in practice in the vessel fisheries. Ex- 
ceptions to this statement occur chiefly among small vessels particularly 
those in the salmon fis"hery of Washington and Oregon and on the Great 
Lakes, In these cases all expenses are pa.id indifferently ''oy the ov/ner 
out of the vessel share. The net result not infrequently seems unfair to 
the ov/ner as against the rest of the crev/, consisting often of a single 
person, 

CHARACTERISTICS OF FISH I.MG _L_AYS. 

The miles determining the shares received by the ov/ner and the 
crev; of a fishing vessel constitute the lay nr share agreement under 
v/hich it operates, Nearly all fishing lays are ma.tters of tradition or 
of custom: and v/ritten agreem.ents exist only in the case of fleets ov/ned 
by corporations, and in the few instances v/here a lay takes the form 
of a contract v/ith a fishermen's union. Minor variations in the terms 
of these agreements have been made frequently- by individual owners and 
crev/s esTiecially in recent years of depression. But the main provisions 
of the more important lays ha,ve scarcely been changed within the last 
generation, or even since the eighteenth century. These agreements con- 
stitute the most inforaia.l and at the same time the most stable class of 
economic relationships existing in the United States, 

9^80 



62 



FACTCHS GOVERlTINa TIIE EARNINGS OF CREWS 



The net compensation received by the cre\: of a shcTe fifrhing vessel 
is governed chiefl.v "by the follo' inr vniiibleK: (l) the ouantity of the 
catch; (2) The vdi'it or ice received fo:.- it; (3) the ainc-'Lmt of the operat- 
ing expense; (4) thu proportions- of ^loint a^id ere'./ ezcoen^.e; and (5) the 
ratio of the vessel shai'e to ti.? gross of the net stock. The "variations in 
these factors depend on the t-.no3 of the vessel and the genr, on the size 
of the crer;. on the length of the t:^ios trJzen, on the species caught and 
the mode of preserving then, and on the r/aters in which fishing is carried 
on, 

CLASSIJj'TCaTION of TFS lays III USE 

The number of lays in use is considera'ble, especially in the areas 
and fisheries which employ chiefly cra-t. No systematic compilation of 
the terms of existing agreemente has ever "oeen made; "but in the questionnaire 
sent out in connection v/ith the present study a statraent of the chief items 
in 'the settle-ient of ohe lay in use on each reporting vessel in 1933, and 
also a C0TD3'" of "the a^:reenent, vere asked for. 

The information submitted' as a result was very unsystematic; hut it has 
proved suf.;'^-cicnt to identify with fair certainty the a,greements in use in 
1933 on 93 per cenb of the vessels for i"hich usa"ble returns were made. From 
this material the classification of lavs in Table XXII has '"oeen worked out. 

Since this classification of Irys is, to tlie best of the writer's 
knowledge, the first evor attempted, it i'3 subject to correction in the 
light of further information: Iii f^s present form, however.,., it probably 
represents the situation --'ith ff,;".r accur^c'-. 

To reduce the con-olexit-^ of l-.-^de XXII a further geographical break- 
down, with the nar.ies of the lays Fhore reported, has ''oetn. transferred to 
AiDToendix III, 

The use of a name for a ley ap'^ears to be confined to the older fish- 
eries of the North Atlantic coast. The statements v/ith regard to" such 
names in the Appendix III are for the most "oart derived from the question- 
naires. It is not certain, hoi^ever, thrt these naues are in general use 
even in the fisheries to ^diich they were there atta,ched. It may be also 
that these ss^ne lays- are known by other names vjhich did not happen to be 
reported. 

The percentage of the gross or net stock which constitutes the vessel 
or the crew share under the terms of a given lay may vary somewhat in in- 
dividual cases. In making ur) Table XXII the rule has been followed of 
classifj/ing a vessel as using, for instL.nce , P" ''fif t7'-f if ty" lay if the 
proportions were any.'^here bet^-reen 45 and 55 per cent of the base. The 
effect of such variations on the conclusions dravm from the classification 
is slight; and the nature of the data in any case makes unlikely an exact 
check with the specifications of a lay. 



9860 



-63- 



TA3L2] XXII 
CLASS IFICATIOH 07 LAYS 02 SHAPJ]] AGRZI^MEIITS III USH ON 
SAIVlPLE a/ FISHIUa V7.SSELS , 1933 b/ 



T^rms of Lay 



IJumb-r of Vesnels 



Ifuinber of Value of 
Men Catch 



I Crev; share a fi?:ed per- 

cent o,{^e of the ^'^rosG Stock 

(1) 20 or P/o "oer cent 

(2) 50 per cent 

Tot 0.1 (1) 

II Crev.' share the residuQ.1 item: 
A-Vessel share a fixed 

percent "<;;;e of the gross 
stock 

(1) Under 20 ->:r cent 

(2) 20 per cent 

(3) 25 per cent 

(4) 30 Or 33 1/3 per' cent 

(5) 40 per cent 

Tot.-l (II^A) 



4 
9 

13 



16 

9 

21 

77 



14 

54 

68 



9,905 
69,015 

73,920 



28 


12,780 


102 


131,506 


117 


78,953 


61 


90,733 


188 


382 , 830 



496 



696,802 



B- Vessel she.re a ii::ed T^er- 

centa .e of n^^-t stock 
(1) Joint expense included 
replacement of lost ge-^r 
onlj 
(p) Vessel share 20 per 
cent 



51 



422 



751,361 



(2) Joint exT^ense inclLided 
"bait only 

(a) Vessel share 20 to 23 
40 per cent 
('3) Joint er';)ense 50 to 75 
per cent of total 
operating expense c/- 
(a) Vei-isel share 25 per 

cent 8 

("b) V'^ssel shr.re 50 per 

cent 42 

Total (I 1-3-3) 50 



207 



144,660 



153 


149,827 


707 


1,653,760 


360 


1,803,587 



Continued 



;630 



-64- 

TABLZ XXII 
(Continued) 



Terms of Lay 



NiiiTiber of 
_3rafLs.eJLj3_.^ 



"uinber of 
Lien 



Value of 
Catch 



4. All operating exjpense 
joint 

(a) Vessel s^iare 20 ^-'Or 

cent or less 

(b) Vessel snare 30 or 

33 1/3 percent 

(c) Vessel snare 40 per 

cent 

(d) Vessel share 50 per 

cent 
Total (II-B-4) 



Total (11-3) 

C-All operating expense joint 
and vessel received a 
fixed number of shares in 
the net stock 

(1) One share 

(2) Two shares 

(3) Three but less than four 

shares 

(4) Pour hut less than five 

s'lares 

(5) Six or seven Sxiares 

Total (II-C) 
Total, where crew s-.nre 
was the residual item 
(11) 

Crrand total, Sample a/ 
share vessels for 
which information was 
supplied sufficient 
to indicate terras of 
lay 

Sample a/ share vessels 
net included in above 
tabulation d/ 

Grand Total e/ 



6 

35 

25 

41 
107 

231 



15 



7 
14 

46 



35.' 



367 

•27 

394 



33 

225 

174 

404 
826 

2,315 



58 
38 

46 

58 
151 

351 



3,162 



3,230 



201 



3,431 



•;;13,625 

274,260 

416,158 

1,016,161 
1,720,204 

4,419,312 



39,059 
20.780 

27 , 329 

48,231 
186,434 

321,333 



5, '^■38,447 



5,517,567 

197,023 
5,714,390 



. ( Continued) 



9680 



-65- 

TXBLZ XXII 
(Continued) 



Source: Returns to INT. H.A. questionnaire on earnings in the fishing 
industry. 

a/ Vessels for which usa'ole data were ootained for the purposes 
of the study. 

t/ For a. bresicdown of tnese groups hy area and fishery, with the 
names of the various lays where reported, see Appendix III. 

c/ Re.^larly incluies fuel f;jid lubricants and often ice, salt 
and bait, but not food or wages. 

d/ Includes one vessel in the New England groundf ishery , v/hich 
in 1933 was experimenting with a modified share arrangement 
that dees not fit into the foregoing classification, and 26 
vessels for which the information furnished was insufficient 
to determine t"-ie lays in use. The latter group includes one 
vessel in the Middle Atlantic miscellaneous fishery; one in 
the SxirLnp fishery of the South; five in the Great Lakes area; 
three in California (one tuna and two tuna and sardine vessels) 
and 16 in the Northwest ,and Alaska area (four in the halibut 
and 12 in the salmon fishery). 

_e/ These gr,gjid totals a.re the sums of: (l) in all areas except 
the Great Lalces, the corresponding totals for share vessels 
reporting operating expense (Table XXIX); (2) in the Great 
Lakes area, the corresponding totals for all share vessels 
(Table XXVII). 



Table XXII, whicli is based en the terms of the lays in use with 
only incidental reference to their geographical distribution, does not 
show specifically the effect that t/iese types of agreements have in 
practice on the earnings of vessels and' their crews in the various areas 
and fisheries. In Table XXIII, consequently, the sane data are 
analyzed from the latter point of view. 

A high ratio to gross stock of operating expense or of vessel 
share, or of both, in the case of any fishery in this table will be 
found as a rule, though not invariably, to imply low earnings per man. 
The same tendency will appear where a high proportion of the operating 
expense is charged to the crew alone instead of to the crew and the 
vessel jointly, as shown in the right hand section of the table, un- 
less the ratio of the vessel share to the gross is reduced as an off- 
set. This latter adjustment appears in the case of the ITorthwest and 
Alaska halibut fishery. 'JVhere two or more of these conditions combine, 
the effect on the proportion of tne gross which goes to the mass of the 
fishermen, and as a rule on the earnings per man as well, is still more 
adverse. 



9680 



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'Xiere the deductions for ^peratin^; expense and for vessel s.iare are 
rela-tively small, the effect on t.ie crew share and on crew earnings is, 
by contrast, normally favorable. 

More detailed illustrations of the effect in practice of the vari- 
ous types of share agreement, as classified in Table XXII and XXIII, 
on the earnings of the crews subject to them will be furnished by the 
questionnaire data to be discussed in the next Cxiapter. 

llSTIi/iATSS Ox 03S«7 5A5NI1IGS I-W 3V-IARE V33SSL3 



The foregoing explanation sh-^ws how it is p:ssible to estixiiate 
the earnings of tlie crew of a -^hare vessel in a given fishery or area 
from one year to another, provided that any important changes in the 
other factors of the situa.tion, from the base year to the one for 
wiich an estim/^xte is to be made, are known. Such changes can be de- 
termined if tie following informatim is available: the value of the 
catch; the principal commodities and services accounting for the 
operating expense; the unit prices of these latter; a,nd the changes, if 
any, in the m^de of ciiarging the operating expense, and in the relation- 
ship of the vessel share to the gross or the net stock. As already re- 
marked, substantial chan,.,es of the latter sort have been ra.re. 

T;G E^TI MAT^S 7CH 1934 A2TD 1929 

The original questionnaire wa„s sent out before the expiration of 
1934; and for the salce of simplicit;/ as well it seemed desirable to 
confine the information s,sked for to a single year. Later, however, it 
was felt advisable to supplement tne 1933 data with estimates of crew 
and vessel earnings for 1934 and for 1929, worked out by the method 
just outlined. These estimates are presented and discussed in 
Chapter XII. 



9630 



~68« 

CHAPTER VII 

TKS EAJmiNGS 0? FISHEP^iEN ON SHARE VESSELS 

THE BASIC 3DATA . 

The preceding chapter has defined the items into which the proceeds 
of the sale of the catch or the fross stock of a fishing vessel that 
works on share are divided. The present one discusses the data for 
these items ths.t have "been collected in connection with the study. It 
considers their relation to one another and the ext^ft^i to which they 
var^'", in individual areas and fisheries, from the apparent norms of the 
i^jdustrj'-. These "basic data are set forth in Tables XXIV to XXIX, 

In these tahles various ratios and averages are shown not only for 
each fishery, hut also for the large geographical areas and for the 
country as a whole, . These derived figures must he compared with one 
another and conclusions must he drawn from them with due reference to 
the rerr-arks, in various chapters of the report on the effect of the 
disproportionate representation in the sample of individual fisheries 
and of vessels of the larger tonnages, and in the light of Tables JLY, 
XLVil and LVI, which show some of these averages weighted to offset 
the distortion. 

On the whole, however, the effect of such weighing, though much more 
than negligible, does not alter fundamentally the conclusions suggested 
by the crude data, 

CLASSIFICATION BY TONNAGE ANS ITS' SiaillFICAIICE 

Table XXIV shows by tonnage classes rnd Table XXV by area and 
fishers'" the average tonnage and average crew of all vessels, for which 
usuable returns were received. These figures are chiefly for refer- 
ence and do not require much comment. 

As might be expected, the average crew tends to increase with the 
tonnage of a vessel, though not proportionately. Vessels of less than 
15 tons show an average crew of 3,7 men and of ,40 men per ton. Vessels 
of 15 to 29 tons show an average crew of 7,0 men, but only ,33 men per 
ton. Vessels of 30 to 49 tons show an average crew of 8,8 men, but 
,24 men per ton. Finally, vessels of 50 tons and over show an average 
crew of 17,6 men, but only ,15 men per ton. 



9680 



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TA3LE XX7 

ITO/IBER CF VESSELS, A^/EPJIC^E TCI'lIAGS, FJl.QER OE EISHEEIErT 
AiTD AVERAGE CPJEW, FOR ALL VESSELS IITCLUDED I1-' THE SAJIPLE a/, 
3Y IIHDE OE COliPENSATIOlI ALD 3Y AREA AlH) FISHERY, 1933 



Mode of CompenGation 
and Area and Fishery 



Hwn"bcr 
of Vessels 



A-7era£:;e 
Tonna{;,e 



Ilijin'b er 
of Men 



Average 
Crew 



Share Vessels 
Hew England 
Groundf i sh 

Vessels under 50 tons 
Vessels of 50 tons and 
over 
To tal , Groundf i sh 
Mac-ierel 
iliscellaneous 

T'tal, I'Tew England 

Middle Atlantic 
Scallop 
Miscellaneous 
Total 

South 

Red snap;oer 
Shrimp 

Miscellaneous 
Total 

Great Lalces 
Lal^e Erie 

Lalces Huron and Michigan 
Total 

Ca.lif ornia 
Tuna 

Tuna and sardine 
Sardine, Monterey 
Sardine, Southern Cali- 
fornia 
Miscellaneous 
Total 



i. u 



21.3 



133 



43 


133,0 


934 


19 


n? 


10-^. <^ 


l,0fi7 


Ifi 


14 


^-.1 


189 


12 


?A 


14.5 


119 


5 


105 


77.2 


1,355 


13 


P> 


24.7 


42 


7 


23 


21.2 


1^3 


fi 


29 


21.9 


185 


fi 


37 


44.fi 


29fi 


8 


11 


11.4 


24 


2 


9 


24.3 


87 


10 


57 


35.0 


407 


7 


5 


27.0 


29 


P, 


1^ • 


IG.- 


73 


5 


21 


20.5 


102 


5 


24 


110.3 


289 


12 


12 


49.1 


124 


10 


10 


18.0 


110 


11 


r-, 


28.7 


57 


10 


n 


11.2 


33 


fi 


58 


^3.0 


hi 3 


11 



9^80 



(Continued) 



71 





TABLE 


xxc 










( Co.it inued) 








Mode of Compe.isation 


Number 




Average 


NTjjnber 


Average 


and Area and ?if:'hery 


of Vessel 


s 


Tonnage 


of Jien 


Crew 


Share Vessels (Continued) 












Northuest and Alaska 












Halibut 


59 




26.4 


465 


7 


Salmon 


65 




16.8 


339 


5 


Alaska herring 


19 




27.8 


132 


7 


Miscellaneous 


7 




71.6 


49 


7 


Total 


160' •■ 




24.7 


985 


6 



Share Vessels, United 
States and Alaska 430 



43.6 



California 

Paranzella net 

Ilorthrest and Alaska 
Miscellaneous 



14 



3 



Wage Vessels United 

States and Alaska b/ 132 b/ 



Piece-rate Vessels 
California 
Alaska cod 

Northuest and Alaslca 
Alaska cod 

United States and 
Alaska 



15.5 
19.7 

35.6 

412.0 
448.7 
434,0 



3,647 



Wage Vessels 












ITew England 












Oyster 




16 


80.9 


125 


8 


Middle Atlantic 












Oyster 




21 


22.3 


100 


5 


Pound net 




9 


6.4 


54 


5 


Total 




30 


17.5 


154 


5 


South 












Menhaden 




18 


103.1 ' ■ 


" 636 


35 


Oyster and s 


,hrimp 


9 


10.5 


38 


4 


Total 




27 


73.3, 


674 


25 


Great Lalces 






' ■ 






Lalres Huron 


and 










Michie;an 




42 


15.5 


173 


4 



75 



1,208 b/ 



77 



119 



196 



39 



40 



39 



9680 



-72- 

TABLE :Cs.7 
(Contimied) 



Mode of Conpisiisatipn 
and Area aiid Fishery 



7uinber Avera;_.,e I'lUTiber 
of Vessels Tonnage of Hen 



A^€trace 
Crev; 



All Vessels: ?,ecapitulation 
"by Area 



ITew England 






121 


77.7 


1 , ^::S0 


12 


riddle Atlantic 






59. 


19.7 


339 


n 


South 






C.4 


47.0 


i,or.i 


13 


C-reat La :es 






o3 


1-.9 


275 


4 


California 






7-: 


o3.5 . 


7^^5 


10 


North\7est and Alas-ca 




if^-A 


52.2 


1,111 


7 


United States 


and 


Alaska 


5fi7 


-^5.2 


5,051 


9 



SOURCE: -.e turns to IT.?.. A. questionnaire on earnin^^'s in the 
fishing industry. 

a/ Vessels for which usable data were obtained as a basis 

for the study, 
b/ The disagreement between these totals for wa, e vessels 

and the totals of Tables' XCXIII , ICmrill and ."XXIX 

is explained in the text. 



9*=^ 80 



Proul the ctancVnoint of Ir.'bT costf;, therefore, it v/oult^ ajipeo.r 
that fi£;hir.;': vessels hecone RO.;iev/hat che'iper to operate with increase 
in size, thoiL h \'ith resr^ect to otlier costs tho reverse is "oelieved 
to he '■ ei^erall / triie. Unher these circu istancos it v/oula seen nnr- 
r.ial iDr the coiT^eiiGati,;!! of lahor to present a souev/hat lor/er pro- 
portion of tne ;-:;ross in the cp.se of la.r; e vessels, v/hen compared v/ith 
th e smal 1 e r o n e s . 

Tne averji e crevrs of shai-e and of v;--.; e vessels are not closely 
com'oarable. Ih.e reason for this will hecone clea.- later in dealing- 
v:ith a,vera":e ea:nii:if;s in tlie case of the two classes. 

Tallies ::::YI and hXVII , lihe Tables TIV ano. X^T, cover all 
vrssols for v/hich usaole data have 'been obtained. Table Jlv'! shov/s 
b.y tonnape class and Table h' .^'IT 'b;-^ area and fishery the tonna e, 
the TiLLhber of nen, the v.aliie of the catch and the crev/ earnirf^s from 
shares and wa, es of these vessels. 

Of the titoA value of the irb)3 catch of the vessels included, 
ii'i the scinple, wnich ajnoun'oed a-i" roi.i.iately to 7, '■50,000, 1-- ]oer 
cent ve.Q accounteo. for "oy vessels of less than 15 tons; 21 per cent 
by vessels of 15 to .-3S tons; l-'. "'Tcr cent b-j vessels of 30 to -:9 tons; 
and ;'.)'-J ;oer cent 'o:j vessels of 50 tons a,nd over. .bnere a:.e no com- 
pileo. L'.ata for tno industry at lon-i^ie witn Wxiich tiiis oreo^ydown can be 
coLriared. 



;fi80 



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TABLE XXVn 

VAUnt or CATCH AND EAHHINGS CF CRIUS.nTK raJUBSR OF UEN AITO EARBIHCa PER MAfl, FOR ALL VB83EL8 IHCLUOKD ffl THt 
8AUPLE a/, BY UODE OF COlffEHaATIOS aBD BY AREA AilD FISHERY. 1935| 



i^v w t^ y 9^ M gP 

On Shares 

RecelV- On wages 
ing addl- In lieu 



OrmerB 
not on 
NUnbeT of ing addl- in lieu sbarea Value From 

vessels Total Total tional wages of ahares or wages of catch Total b/ shares 



From From 
addition- wages 
al wages only 



froa 

shares Ftoiq From 

and From . addition- Wages 

wages b/ shares al wages Only 



Total Earnings 
Crew. from 

Eamlnge Shares 



Share Vegsels 












Hew England 












Croundfleh 












Vesaele under 50 tons 


10 


133 


132 


n 


1 


Vesaels of 50 tons 












and over 


S 


934 


806 


i& 


128 ft/ 


Total. GTOundflsh 


1.0*7 


93« 


129 4/ 


Mackerel 


lit 


l» 


169 


a 




Uiscellaneoue 


SK 


119 


as 


« 


1 


Total, New En -land 


105 


1,355 


i,225 


230 


130 0/ 


Kiddle Atlantic 












Scallop 


6 


42 


42 


- 


- 


Ulecellaneoue 


23 


14? 


141 


5 


- 


Total 


29 


l»5 


1»3 


5 


- 


South 












Red snapDsr 


37 


296 


292 


e 


4 


ShrlfflD 


u 


24 


24 






Ulecellaneoue 


9 


«7 


»7 


- 


- 


Total 


57 


407 


403 


2 


4 


Great LaVea 












Lake Erie 


5 


^ 


29 


. 


- 


L^.lcee Huron and Ulchlgan 


16 


60 


2 


10 


Total 


21 


102 


»9 


2 


10 


California 












Tuna 

Tuna and sardine 


24 
12 


!I2 


?s 


2 

3 


15 


Sardine, Uonterey 


U) 


110 


110 






Sardine, Southern Calif. 


6 


57 


56 


« 


_ 


lUecellaneous 


6 


33 


33 


- 


- 


Total 


5« 


613 


597 


5 


15 


Sorthfiest and Alaska 












Halibut 


9 


465 


465 


. 


- 


Salmon 


tig 




321 


- 


3 


Alaska herrlncr 






'n 






Ulscellaneous 


7 


^ 


- 


_ 


Tot^l 


160 


9«5 


967 


- 


3 


Share Veseels. United 












States and Alaska 


H30 


3.647 


3.464 


244 


162 0/ 


Wage Vessels 












Hew Enplp.nd 












Oveter 
Middle Atlantic 


16 


125 






124 












Oyster 


21 


100 


_ 


, 


96 


Pound net 


9 


54 


- 


- 


54 


Total 


30 


154 


- 


- 


150 


South 












Uenhaden 

Oyster and shrln^) 


U 
9 


^6 


; 


: 


IJ 


Total 


27 


674 


- 


- 


670 


Cre'vt Lakes 












Lakes Huron and iilchl^an 
California 


w 


173 


- 


- 


14C 


P&r3Ji2ella net 


lA 


75 


_ 


_ 


75 


HortQTrest and Alaska 








Lliscellaneous 


3 


7 


- 


- 


7 



1J2 a/ 1, 208 g/- 



Place-rate vessels 
California 

Alsoka ood 
Rortbneet and Alaska 
Alaska cod 

United States i>nd Alaska 



77 - 
U9 - 
19« - 



» 349.473 

1,842.070 

2,191,543 

121.047 

217,7112 

2.530.332 



» 137,995 ) 132.376 



397,946 
530.322 

44,988 



638,533 

50. 6« 
80,728 

769,930 



79,602 

654,912 



68.133 
115,206 



< 4,059 
40.301 

44,360 
5.681 
1,050 

51.091 



980 
980 



t 1,560 $ 1,038 I 1.003 



♦ 135 « 1,5« 



76 
63.927 



52,135 I 
13,798 
29,125 29,125 
97,37s 95,05s 



39,385 
87,099 47,508 
126,444 67.254 



,184 
63,930 



120 i/ 2.200 1/ 



2,904 

2.904 



1.058.529 

233.8g 
92.380 
72, U4 
18,766 
1.475,656 

808,558 

144! 600 

54,5»9 

1.233.384 



121,970 L .^. , 

55,311 55,511 

40,9?6 40,996 

12.^ 12.899 

615.676 599.825 



398.371 

Ul,820 

100,772 

26,342 
637,305 



398,371 
110,825 

100,772 

26,342 

636.310 



5,928.210 2.303.729 2,165,241 



''i:^ 


3^6:S 


TH.Sii 


107,612 


%-^l 


143.255 
19.801 


279,966 


163.056 


205,000 


94.901 


302,679 


104,166 


9.450 


3,675 



1,168 ,/ 40^ 1,593.245 1/ 561,537 g/ 



U9 
1»6 



41,229 28,313 

87,158 58,116 

128,387 86,429 



99* 



88,127 

107,02 

143,255 
l),80i 
163,056 

94,901 

104,166 

3.675 



243 

CM 

1,3*9 
525 



5«l,537 tl ^^ t/ 



28,313 


368 


58, U6 


488 


86,429 


441 



494 

565 
2*6 4/ 

675 

535 



5« 
335 
236 



736 
718 



658 

625 



258 4/ 

175 
221 



196 
W6 



76 
492 



3>.'5 

m 

41.9 

37.1 
30.8 

«:! 

44,8 



60 4/ 550 •/ 



290 
290 



50.1 
54.6 

53.2 



36.3 
52.2 

59.9 
56.8 
88.7 
41.7 



*4:'6 
51.7 

38.9 



SI 


22.3 
99.6 


717. 


28.4 


^ 


3I:? 


243 


58.2 


6«8 


4«.J 


l,3«? 


».» 


525 


3«.» 


4«1 s/ 


35.2 


»3« 


68.7 


Wi 


«*.! 


Ml 


«t.} 



21.6 
24.2 

37.2 
36.6 
25.9 

44.4 

43.5 

43.9 



37. J 



55.0 
51.5 

^l 
68.7 
40.6 



49.3 

ll 

3«.5 



11 Vessels: Recapitulation 
toy area 

New England 

L'lddle"Atl!^ntlc 

South 

Croat Lakes 

California 

Borth^ct and Alaska 

United States and Alaska 



121 

i 


1.480 

i,?M 
275 

l.lU 


"1 

967 


567 


5.051 


3.4«4 



!|5^ 

167 

129 

1.526 0/ 




580 
242 



7,649.842 2.951,695 2,165.241 54.990 731.504 



i 


II 


22.0 

18.0 
16.4 


stJ 


48.4 
41.1 


II 


4*7 


52.6 


479 


38.6 


28.3 



y68,o 



Source: Returns to S.R.A. questionnaire on earnings In the fishing industry. 



Vessels for which usable data were obtained as a basis for the present study. 

Excluding percentage bonuseg charjccd to gross stock or veesel share. 

Two men on n Hew England gr.7.jndfl8h veesel of imre than 30 tons who were reported as receiving additional wages, hut without a etateaent of the aiBOUDt paid, 

have been excluded fron tola figure. , • 

The extra half shares allotted to most mates, engineers and first hands on red an&pper vessels, In lieu of additional wages, are included in the crew share 

and not In the additional lege item. 
These iB^-ee were reported as at the rate of |50 per trip. The item In the table aseuaep the aaJtiDJuii probable number of trips during the year, and may be sone- 

what hli^her than the oAOunt actually paid. 
Including extra shares os half ehares allotted to four captains In lieu of bonuses charged to the vessel share or the operating expense. 
The dlsag,reeinent between ttieee totals for wage vessels and the totals of Tables XXXIII, XZXTIII and ZXUZ is explained tn the text. 
The data for 10 of the lU vessels In the oackerel fishery covered only the cBCkerel season proper, and not the winter participation in the Southern trawl 

fishery (see Table I). Tbe lattar was the more profitable part of the operation of these vessels In 1933, a^<l because of the omission the average eam- 

Inga per mDm shown above rihnUd be raised about 75 per cent for comparison with the other fisheries. 



-7S~ 

Table VI has already shovm that the value of the average 
catch of the sample vessels increased steadily v/ith their size. 
For vessels of less tlian 15 tons this avera;;.,e v/as 35,1'^1; for those 
of 15 to 29 tons it v/as nil,l^:-o; for th^se of 30 to 49 tons, 
tl2,o7i=>] and for those of 50 tons and over, ^.;ifi,C87. 

The value of the catch por crev/ nenber varied coraparatively 
little v/ith the size of a vessel. 

The fi^-ures for total earnings in Taoles XiOIl and .XX"''.''II rep- 
resent the v/hole labor cost of the vessels concerned, except that 
in tne case of those v/orkinj^ on sliares they do not include tiie per- 
centage bonuses y/hich are f reque :tly paid, chiefly to the captains. 
Data for these latter TDayrnents ai.'e presented and discussed in 
Chapter X. 

Table *CIVI shov.'s that eai'uinfs ryer i.ian tended to increase with 
the size of vessels up to 50 tons. Individual earnings for those 
of 50 tons and over, however, showed a iclxin^; off in this respect. 
This class is heavily v/eighted v/ith the cjrporation-ov/ned vessels 
in the ITev/ r.n£la,"nd r^^Toundfishery and in the red snapper fishery of 
t]ie South. 

MISSIl^G BI^I!A JOR S^ZRMri]yPr_ EXPEFS;] AIH) THEIR _SIG1IIFICA;TCE 

In the case of so e s-ia.re vc-ssels for v/hich the value of the 
catch ana the earnings of the creiTs v/ere reported no data for ves- 
sel share or for operating expense v/ere given. This accounts for 
the differences betv/een Tables XXIV to ^CCVII and Tables X^\VIII and 
X.XIX. . The latter show vessel share and oioerating expense, in ad- 
dition to the nuinber of men, the value of the catch and crew earnings, 
but cover a sonev/hat smaller number of vessels than Tables X/vIV to 

x:{vii. 

Failure to report vessel siiare or operating ex -.ense v/as due 
in a few cases to oversight. Host of the instances in v/hich these 
items v/ere not returned however, were concentrated in a few fish- 
eries in v/hich soecial conditions made -it difficult to sup'ily fig- 
ures comparable witn those for the rest of the industry. This ap- 
plies partic-Lilo.rly to the Alasha herrin' fishery and to a company 
in the Soutn . v/hich operated ooth red sn^.o ler and shrimp vessels, 
anc. v/hich v/as unable to se.^regate coiiroletsly the figures for the 
tv/o . 

Except in these special cases it i.ialies little difference whether 
the data for gross stock and crew earniu; s in Tables XXVI ■ and XXVII 
or those in Tables XXVIII and XXIX are used, as far as the represen- 
tativeness of the samples are concerned. 

For reasons to be explained later ooeratin,_ expense v/as not 
generally reoorted for vessels worhin^ on v/ages. Tables X^CVIII and 
XXIX, thereiore, iiicliide data for sh<^ie vessels only. 

Th-'. remainder of this chapter deals in i.iore detail with the 
share vessel data in Tables XXVII and XFJX . 

9f^C0 



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C0MPMI50N OF ofi;ra -I 1'& jJt'vPiiTSi] AiHD Ox-' vzss::l ait) cr:^y^ st^ares 

Table >ZXIX sliov/s that in 1933 cacli of the thre- items of o'lerau- 
in^ expense, vessel si.iare and crew snare ca:ne near to representin;'. one- 
third of the ' ross of the sample share vessels. This ap'^roximate 
equality of the luain financial factors in sha.re operation, v/hich seems 
to be naintained witnout substantial change from -/ear to year, furnishes 
a convenient basis for comparing the results in the various areas and 
fisi'ieries. 

The tables slio'.v no fisheries in which o"3eratin^" expense in 1033. 
materially exceeded one-tldrd of the ;_,ross. If such a case had occurred 
the result woulr. ha.ve been abnormally unfavorable with respect to the 
earnin^js of either the vessel or the crew, or both. Tliere v/ere a number 
of fisheries - chiefly auion,^, the smaller ones - where opel'ating expense 
was i.iaterially lesG than one-third. This was notably the case with the 
scallop fishery of the Middle Atlantic area, on the Great Lakes, in the 
sardine fisheries of California,, and in some of the miscellaneous minor 
fisheries. In none of these cases was the proportirn of the ^'^_,ross 
accounted for by the vessel share particularly lar e . The proportion 
re^resentin , the earnin/;;;s of the crev;s, therefore, v/as relatively hii;;,h; 
and since the mairiber of men reauired to operate the /j:ear that these 
vessels employ is not lar^e, '^^':^: indlviL.ual earnin,;,s of their workers 
were relatively good for the areas concerned and for the year. 

Even tl;ou_h the percenta,,e of the .^^iross stock of a share vessel 
required for o"jera.tin^ expense is not hi^h, the earnings of the crew may 
be adversely affected by the r)ro"oortions char _ed to 'the vessel and the . 
crew jointly and to the la.tter alone, as shovvTi in Table XXIII- Again, 
even where the percentage of ooeratin;^ expense charged to the crew alone 
is not particularly lar^e, the percenta'.e of the crew's earnings will be 
reduced if the vessel sha,re represents a hi'h "proportion of the gross or 
the net. YHiere the averav'-e crew sha^re in a fishery in 1033 was much 
below the norm.al third of the gross, the fact was associated in some 
cases v/ith the first of these conditions, in some with the second, and in 
some with the two cohibined. 

The most strikin-; cases of a low proportion of crew share in 
1933 were supplied bv the vessels of L'O tons and over in the IJew En-:;land 
groundf ishery and' by the red snap3er fishery of the South. In both these 
instances the proportion of operating expense charged to the crev/ alone 
is hi(^h. In the Hew England grcondf ishery the proportion of the gross 
represented by the vessel share is also rather large. In the red snapper 
fishery the latter proportion is low, but the ratio of operating expense 
to the gross in 1933 was particularly hi'-h. 

THE DATA FOfi I III' I VI DUAL CREW SliA.^S 

In Table XXVII there is also shown for each area and fishery 
the average share per individua.l crew member. The general rule is that 
the members of the crew of a la.y vessel are allotted one share each, and 
that any v/hose duties or responsibilities are considered as entitling 
them to additional or higher compensation receive it in the form of a 
v-/a;,e or bonus, Eor this reason the fig'o.res for average individual shares 



9680 



■80-- 



in T;:-blc XXVII come very near to representin-. the c.,ctual avcra/^e 
earniivjs of the oro.inary fishermen on the vessels in question, a;nd of 
the other laemuers of their crews who did not receive special condensa- 
tion. 

There is,, however, a little difference between the two avera;2;es. 
In the case of a few California tuna and sardine vessels the crew share 
includes an extra share or half share paid to the ca;otain,or occasionali3^ 
to the niate or en^lne^r, in lieu of a )ercenta .e bonus. In tlie case of 
most of the red snapper vessels, the crew share incliides extra half 
shares paid to the mate, the en.^pneer and the first hand or striker. 
As a result the actv^a-l earnin^2;s of ordinary fishennen anc'. of others not 
receivin;^ special comioensation avera e a little sn^iller than the indiviuual 
shares shov/n in Table SvVII. 3ut except in the red snapper fishery the 
difference is not of consequence. 

A coiriparison of the ratios borne hj the total crew she.re in 
the various fisheries to the value of the catch, a,s shown ,in Table 
XXVII, with the averajie share per men indicates a tendenc- to a cor- 
relation. Both the New England groundf ishery and the red snapper 
fishery of the South, "oarticularly the latter, showed lov/ individual 
earnin^js as well as low propertions of crev*/ share. 

There are, however, exce"Dtions to this relationship. The 
crev/s of the llew^nglaBS mackerel vessels in 195o received a normal 
share of the gross, but b.eca.use of lov; prices for their procuct 
realized coniparatively small individual earnings. Their total ea.rnin.';,'S 
for the year, hov/ever, averaged 75 per cent higher than indicated in 
Table XXVII, since in ohe case of ten of the vessels in the saiiiple for 
the mackerel fishery the shares realized from the winter trav/lin 
operations in the South v/ere not included in the data. Since the prices 
received for this trawl catch were relatively much better in 19G3 than 
were those received for mackerel, the excluded shares are believed to 
have represented about half the earnings for the year of the crevvfs of 
these ten vessels. 

In the Monterey sardine fishery in California, and in the salmon 
fishery of the Pacific Northwest also, normal ratios of crew share to 
gross stock were combined in 1953 with absolutely low earnin; s per man, 
though the discrepancy was less extreme than m the case of the mackerel 
fishery. 

THE FACTOR OF FOOD COST 

In comparing these tiverage shares per man allov/ance has to be made 
for the fact that the cost of food for the crews while out of 'port has 
been deducted from the gross stock before arriving at the crev/ share shov/n 
in Tables XXVII and XXIX in some cases and not in others. On the Great 
Lakes, in the shrimp ffishery of the south and in the salm.on troll fishery 
of Washin^,ton and Oregon the vessels represented by the samrple are not out 
as a rule for more than a day at a time, end the men ordinarily sup'^ly their 
own food. In the Monterey sardine and the Alaska herring fisheries, and 



-81- 

in other occaaionc.l instances, the amonnt of the crev/ share shown in 
the tables was arrived at before deo.uctin--; the cost of the mess. 

In all these cases, consequently, the individual shares shown 
in Table X.XVII are somewhau hi her than they shoulo. be for strict 
coLToarison with the corres ^cndin , figures for the share vessel 
fisheries of llew I]n,_,lancl and Middle Atlantic area, for the California 
tuna fishery, for the Pacific halibut fishery, and for soiiic others. 

IJo data, are at present available for adjusting; the ina.ividual 
share f i, urcs accurately to offset this difference. It does not 
appear, however, that if the cost of food, where it has not already 
been deducted, could be specifically allowed for, the correction would 
affect materially the principal conroarisona which are sli^: ested by 
Table XXVII as it stands. 

WAG^S IH ADLITIOIT TO C\ III LTV OF oEX.XS 

The ea.rninjs of the crews of share vessels which have thus 
far been discussed are those from shares in a lay only. These rep- 
resent in nearly all instances the sole earnings of at least 70 uer 
cent, and in a lar'e ,oro":?ortion of cases of 80 to 100 per cent, of 
such cre?;s. To arrive, however, ct fi;:,ures for the total compensa- 



■"-T^ 



tries, it is necessary to tahe into account the v/a;;es paid on some 
of these vessels in addition to or in' lieu of shares. The -jross 
earnings from shares and wages t>.d:en tor'-ether, consequently, are 
also shown in Tables XXVI and XXVII. The a.d'„ition of these v/ape 
items does not, however, chan/je the ratio of crew earnin;^s to .,;;,toss 
stock in any case enoufn to necessitate farther coimaent . 

The o.istriouticn of wa.^-e paym':nts on share vessels by 
area anu fishery, £i,nd their relation to the '"p-oss stock and the 
crew share of the si^ecific , roups of vessels on v/hich they are 
paid, are shovm in further detail in Tables UJi, XXXI, and X^IXII. 
These make it ol^rin that such payments are concentrated heavily in 
Hew Sn_;land - primarily in the /3roundfish fleet and secondarily in 
the mackerel fishery - and to a smaller extent in the tuna fishery 
of California. Plsev/here the practice' of ;oa3.^ing' wa, .es to the 
crews of share vessels is occasional only. 

Vfiien the share vessels thac -jav their crews partly in the 
form of v/a_^es are taken by themselves, the proportion of their 
total labor cost represented b^- the wa e item of course becomes 
much more substantial than appears in Table XXVII. Of the total 
crew comroensation shown in Table XX-ill ten per cent is accounted 
for by payments of v^a^^jes in lieu of shares, and six per cent by 
payments of war^es in addition to shares. Put even when the share 
vessels on which wa/^es are jaid a.re thus segregated, 8^- per cent of 
the total comuensation -^aid their crews in 193Z was in the form of 
shares. 

The com-oensation in addition to shares which is shown in Tables 
iOCX and XXXII includes only that which is paid at fixed rates, and 
which m^y therefore be classified as wa.';es in the ordinary sense. 



82 



TABLE XXX 

RECIPIENTS OF WAGES IN ADDITION TO SHARES ON SAMPLE a/ ■ SHAP^ VESSELS WITH THE 
VALUE OF THE CATCH THE CREW SHARE AND THE VOLUME OF ADDITIONAL WAGES, 

BY AREA AND FISHERY, 1933. 



▲r«a 
and 
flsberjr 



I«w Eaglaad 
(Irouadflfl]^ 
Teasels \mdex 
50 tons 

Vessels of 50 
teas and orer 

TotiAv grouadflsh 

Mackerel 
Slecellaneous 
Total, lew Xagland 

Middle Atlantic, 
South, and Great 
iakos 2^ 

Oalifoxnia 
' Tuna, and Tuna and 
sardines g/ 

suited States 

and Alaslca 



Hwkm Total Mua^ex of 

ber ATe»» nt«iber Men en SMaros 

of age of total Roooivinc value 

▼eo» to»* non -U addition^ 

sols nago ^ al wages 



of 
Catch 



Crew 
Share 



Volume of 
Additional 
Wages 



6 20*1 

W 139.3 
561/ 122.5 



72 72 29 $ 112,1«* ♦ J7,«57 IM55 



915 787 17? 1,«2S,«70 35;2,170 
$^i/Wt/ 2022/ l,9»^o,^5>^ »^30,o©7 



11 
3 



15.3 



il 



13< 
25 



22 

6 



50,1110 
29,37*^ 



32,^76 

12,503 



70f/ 105.4 l,lH^,020f/ 230 e/2,060,038 480,7W 



28.8 



51 



40,301 
44,3« 

1,050 
51,051 



43,645fi/l7,«l2 1,5204/ 



3 92.3 35 34 5 ll7,2^a/ 39,555 2,3551/ 

78f/ 100.0 1,234^,1051/ 24|^ f/*,220,551a^3<.153 5>^,950a^ 



source: Returns to N.R.A. questionnaire on earnings in the fishing industry. 



a/ 
t/ 

2/ 



d/ 
2/ 



9680 f/ 



Vessels for which usable data were obtained for the purposes of the study. 
The difference between the figures in these colxinins are accounted for by 

men working on wages only, who are not shown on this table. 
Thip group includes two vessels, averaging 4-9 tons each, with 29 men, in the 

Middle Atlantic miscellaneous fishery, two averaging I3 tons each, with 15 

men, in the red snapper fishery of the South, and one of 20 tons, with 7 

men, in the Lakes Huron and Michigan area, consolidated to avoid disclosing 

individual financial data. 
This group includes two tuna vessels, averaging II3 tons each, with 25 men, 

and one tuna and sardine vessel of 5I tons, with 10 men, consolidated to 

avoid disclosing individual financial data. 
The extra shares or ha.lf shares paid to most mates, engineers and first hands 

on red snapper vessels and on foiir tuna, or tuna and sardine, vessels are 

included in the item of crew share and excluded from the item of additional 

wages. 
Excludes a coqk and an engineer on a New England groundfish vessel of more 

than 50 tons, for whom the rates and amount of the wages paid in 1933 were 

not reported on the schedule. 



■83. 



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-85- 



The extra shares or half chares paid to most niates, en-' inecrs and 
first hands of red sna vter vessels, anc on coue California tuna 
and sardine vessels, are not shown in. these tablos, but are included 
in the crew share itevas of Tables >DCVI it'^\ X:CIX. 



00 



86 

CHAPTER VIII 

EiRlTI^GS 01^ WAGE Al-iD OIT PIECE-RATE VESSELS 

COIJ^ARISOII OF SHARE Al^ WAC-S E.-iHITIl-GS 

The data on O'oer -ting e>roense aiid on crew er'rnings vrhich v-ere dis- 
cussed in the preceding chc?.pter v/ere thee for share vessels only. 
Tables XXIV, to XXVII, ho^vever, also include data for the sojiple vessels 
vforkin^ on na^jes and on "oiece rr.tes. 

The crude average ecO.rnings per -lan on share and on ^'age vessels in 
1933, as shov:n 'oy Table ICXVII, do not differ materially. The conparison 
of the two classes, hov.^ever, is not a*' simple as this fact might appear 
to indicate. 

In the case of the Great L^ilces the anDroxinate ecuality of avera,ge 
earnings per man on share and on -'age vessels seems to reflect the direct 
competition of the tvro classes, which take the sane species for the same 
markets. The available evidence indicates that the average in this area 
were also about eaual in 1934, and it is probable that the saie was true 
in 1929, 

The fa'^t, however, that in 1933 the crude average earnings -ner nan 
in the wage vessel fisheries else\fhere than on the Great LaJres differed 
so little from the average for share vessels is an accidental condition 
due to the composition of the sample pnd pecu]ia.r to that yer-r. These 
fisheries do not constitute anything like a honogsrtcaus group, and the 
average earnings of the fishermen engaged in them is much affected "bji 
the proportions acco-'anted for by the specialized oyster and menhaden industries 

Horeover, the decline in average earnings on X!a/;e vessels from 1929 
to 1933 was certainly much less than the correr-ponding decline in the case 
of share vessels, although not much detailed information is available on 
the subject at the moment. (*) 

In 1929 and again in 1934, consenuentl'% the average earnings of wage 
vessel crews \7ere in general below those of share workers. This is probc.- 
bly a normal condition, for '-hich it ip easy to see reasons. The average 
for wage vessels, hov/ever, is a good deal affected by the rates D.aid to 
the crews of menhaden vessels in the South, v;ho are largely colored. TIb 
paranzell net fishery of San Erancisco, indeed, pavs high wages; but it 
does not employ emough men to affect the average correspondingly. 



(*) The weighted average increase from 1933 to 1934 in a group of 

specimen weekly wage rates v/as only about six per cent; but allowance 

ought probably to be made also for recovery in the average number of 
weeks v;orked, 

9680 



-S7- 

HELATiniT OF iTA-C^ES TO ^^ALLE' ^V CATCH 

The nare vessels included in the sample shov/, on an average, 
about the same ratio of total crev/ earnings to value of catch as the 
shs.re vessels. There are, hor/ever, pronc^inced differences in the 
various \fB.r/e fisheries. In the o;'ster fisher":^ this ratio is very 
lov/. This ir hecause in the Uorth Atlantic area, from which the 
data for oyzter vessels obtained in connection with the study v/ere 
mainly received, the production comes entirely from privately owned 
or lea,sed and artificially propa/ated heds,. The industry in that 
re/:don, conseqviently , has analogies v/ith farming and with stock 
raising as :.iuch as v/ith fishing; and the labor required for its pri- 
mary production constitutes a considerably smsiller element in its 
total cost than in the case of tne fishing industry proper. In the- 
i.Iiddle Atlantic pound net fishery, on the other iiand, in the meiihaden 
fishery, and to a less pronounced de;_,ree on the v/age vessels of the 
;?reat La:es, tne ratio of wa-^e pannents to gross operating revenue 
in l:'y3o was high. 

LACK OF EXKErS:^ DATA FOR :7AGE VESSE}^?, 

The fact that operating expense data v/erc not obtained for v/age 
vessels in connection v/ith the present study v/as largely, in the 
first instance, an accidental result of the form of the questionnaire. 
In any event ,■ however ,, the problem of obtaining such information is 
diifere.it iron that arising in the case of share vessels. 

Since the earnin/^s of sliare fishermen usually depend on the 
amount talcen out for operating e:>rpexise and for vessel share, it has 
been assumed that they \";ere entitled to be informed regarding the 
various itCi-is; and some degree of loublicity v/ith respect to the 
firiances of share vessels has tlierefore been usus.1. But efforts to 
obtain data on expenses and on owners' profits of lo'sses in the case 
of vessels that do not Av^rh on shares meet v/ith the scjne difficulties 
as in the case of ordinary industrial enterpri'ses. A systematic 
attem.pt to assemble financial data with reg-ard to v/age vessels, there- 
fore, v/'i'uld have to be handled in a manner somev/hat different from 
that found adequate in connectioii '.Ti'tn- the present study. 

VESSELS ^"OZKl:^C■ 0¥. PIECE RATES 

The data in Tables ICiVI and h.'"VII v/ith regard to the earnings of 
the crev/s of vessels v/orking on piece rates do not call for much com- 
ment. Yne group is small anu. very homogeneous. The fishing' is done 
v/ith hand lines from dories, and the proportion of the value of the 
catch a,ccounted for 'by wages is high - an'oroximately tv/o-thirds of the 
tota.l. In tliis case, hov/ever, tn.e compensation reported includes the 
v/ages of the dress gangs. The v/ork of the latter, v/hich clea.n and salt 
dov/n the ca.tch on board, is not strictly part of the fishing operations, 

The crev/s of these vessels are relatively large and the price of 
the single s;occies of fish that they bring in has been lov/. For these 
reasons the average inaividual ea.rnings in 1933 v/ere not high, and 
v/ere particularly- lov/ for txie Pcacific coast. 



•::fi80 



-88- 

CHAPTER IX 

OTHER CONSIDERATIOITS RELATIITG TO EISIffiR-iElI' S EAHUiTGS 

GEO&RAPi:iCAL VARIATIONS 

Tlie recapitulation "by area which, constitutes the last section of 
Table XXVII provides crude data for a comparison of the average earnings 
of fislierruen in 1933 in various parts of the United States. As pointed 
out at the "beginning of Chapter VII, however, such a comparison is af- 
fected by the variation in the percentages of the total numbers of vessels 
and of men, which are accounted for by the questionnaire samples for in- 
dividual fisheries. The extent of this variation is indicated in Table 
LIV. To make it possible to allow for its effect Table LVI shows an ad- 
justed fi.';^re for the average earnings per man for each area and for the 
United States and Alaska, arrived at by weighting the crude averages for 
the various fisheries in Table XXVII by the approximate total number of 
men engs^gcd in each. 

The changes in those averages and in their relation to one another 
which result from the v/eighting do not affect fundamentally the main con- 
clusions suggested by the crude figures. They are significant enough, 
however, to make it preferable to base an analysis on the weighted data. 

The ilew England average ($680 per man for the yoar(l933) is not far 
from the 1933 mean of $655 for the country as a vrhblc. The figure for the 
groundfishery ($869) is considerably changed from the crude average be- 
cause the latter was overweighted v/ith corporation-owned vessels showing 
1 o w crew shar e s . 

Tlie weighted average for the Middle Atlantic area ($690) is almost 
the saiiie as that for New England. The figure for the South ($338) would be 
the lowest in any case; but the state of the rod snapper fishery made the 
discrepejicy particularly great in 1933. 

Average earnings in the fisheries of the Great Lakes $598) were ten 
per cent below the mean for the country at large. The high average for 
California ($919) is due partly to the fact tliat the tuna fishery, and in 
a less degree the sardine fisheries of southern California, were in 1933 
among the few relatively profitable ones, and partly to the wages paid on 
the San Francisco paranzella vessels. In the case of the Northwest and 
Alaska earnings in the halibut and herring fisheries were relatively good, 
but the average v/as pulled below the level of the Northeastern areas and 
of the country as a whole by the low return to the salmon fishermen. The 
salmon fishery sai'nple, it must be rem.eiiibered, does not include cannery 
owned or operated craft and gear in Alaska, which are discussed separately 
in Chapter XIII. 

PERIODS OF ACTUAL EMPLOTi :E]:iT 

The information obtained as to the portions of 1933 during v/hich the 



5680 






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crewG of the sajnple vessels were actively employed and actually earning 
is inoomplete. A specific statement of the n-umbcr of v/ceks of omploy- 
inent was ashed for in connection with v/a;i;c vessels tut not, "by oversight, 
in the case of those working on shares. 

T.\G data regardin;^ the niTj-abcr of v.eeks of operation of wage vessels 
appear in Table XXXIII.* The average for the class is only 26 v.'oeks or 
half the year. 

SEASOII-AL VARIATIOI-I IN ACTIVE EMPLOTviElTT 

Tlie statcaients with regard to nojriual seasons of operation in 
Table I, -/hen taken with the figures for the value of the 1933 catch of 
the various fisheries in Table LIV, siiggest a seasonal movement in active 
employ.nent in the industry at large with its perfc in the late surnraer or 
early fall and its I'^w point in mid-winter. Appendix 3^11 shows a pro- 
visional series of monthly index numbers for this movement.** 

Tl^ough there is no positive reason for supposing that this index 
as it_ stands does not rcDresent the situation with approximate correct* 
ncGs, thn da.ta which were availableas a basis for it were very incom- 
plete, For many parts of the industry such figures hardly exist; and 
those that do need further analysis. The fact that the index is a com- 
posite of data for 1934 and 1929 only, however, is not necessarily of 
importance. The seasonal movement of emploj'raent in individual fisheries 
is subject to sharp fluctuations of a random nature; but it is not likely 
that the corresponding movement in the industry at large has undergone 
much change, either random or secular, since 1929, 

Since the seasonality of cmiployment in the fishing industry at large 
is a composite of hi,g^ily varying movements in individual fisheries, with 
winter activity in somo partly offsetting sui^-Pier and fall activity in 
others, the practical significance of an overall index for the whole in- 
dustry is open to doubt - except perhaps as a factor in measuring the 
seasonal movement of industrial employment in general. It was for this 
latter purpose that the index in Appendix IV was computed. 

* Table XXXIII doesnot cover quite as large a number cf men or quite 
the sa:nc volume of wages as appear in the sections for wage vessels in 
Tables XXIV to XXVII. This is due to two items. In the first place, the 
data for oyster vessels which were obtained from returns to the question- 
naire sent out by the Code Executive Committee of the Eresh Oyster Indus- 
try in the fall of 1934 did not permit their inclusion in a brealcdown by 
rank or occupation. This accounts for the omission from Table XXXIII 
of 77 men who received a total of $61,544 in wages. In the second place, 
as indicated on Table XXVII, the crews of wage vessels include a group of 
owners not receiving wages who do not belong in Table XXXIII, since the 
latter is a breakdovm of wage earners only. This accounts for the omis- 
si'^n from the table of 40 men. The tv/o ^Mnissions together account for the 
differences of 117 men and of $61,544 in T/ages between the totals for wage 
vessels in Table XXVII and the totals of Table XXXIII. Tables XXXVIII 
and XXXIX show the same omissions, 

** 

Computed by the American Federation ^f Labor on the basis of sugges- 
tions from the author, 

9680 



i 



IITCQH5 THOU SOURGSS OTIISH ^'AII I'lSIrirG 

Tlie fact that the period of actual euiplo^ynvient of vessel crews in 
1933 appears to have "been so short raises in a more acute form than 
v/ould otherwise have "been the case trie question as to what extent, if 
any, the modest iiio.ividu.al oariiin7;s shown for 1933 in Ta^ble XvVII 
were supplenented hy income .from other sources. No information on t.iis 
point was ashed for on the original schedule; and it is much to he de- 
sired that further inquiries be made. It must he said, however, tliat 
the evidence of the receipt of such additional income in material 
amounts or in the case of substantial j^roups of vessel fisherr;;en is 
exceedingly slif^ht. The reasons for this have "been discussed in 
Chapter III. 

TUB TOTAL VOLUl.iE OF EAKinhGS 

V.lien the data with re.-^ard to the earnin.;;^s of vessel fishermen in 1933, 
which have been presented in this chapter rnd tlie two preceding;, a.re 
corrected for the variation in the size of the sa^'iiples for individual 
fisl.\eries, they imply a total vol'curie of compensation for the year of 
about $10,351,500. This represents 41.5 per cent of the estii.:ated value 
of h-e 1933 vessel catch. 

" Tne Census of 1908 collected the sole previous figures available for 
comparison with the fore^-oinf;. The compensation of the crews of fishing;; 
vessels in that year was reported as aggregating $3,230,000. The value 
of the vessel catch was $22,150,000; and of this the compensation of t?ie 
crews reijresented 37,2 per cent. These figures exclude Alaska, for which 
the volume of crev/ compensation was not reported. If figures for Alaslia 
had been includecl the ratio of such compensation to the value of the 
catch in 1908 v/ould have ''ocen raised 8 little. 

This comparison indicates a close checlc betv/een the ratio for the 
present survey and the Census of a quarter of a centrury ago, Tlie fact 
that th.e two do agree so well reflecbs of course, the general stability 
of the industry's organization, and above all the rarity of substantial 
cnanges in the terms of the lays or share agreements that fpvern the 
compensation paid to 75 per cent of the personnel, 

T-ie estimates for the individual crew shares earned in 1934 and in 
1929, which will be presented and discussed in Chapter XII, indicate that 
the percentage of the value of tho shiare vessel catch represented by the 
comipensation of their crews tends to be materially iiigiicr in years of 
relatively large catches and high prices like 1934 and 1929, than in a 
year like 1933, For the vessel fisheries at lar;;e, however, this tendency 
a;opears to be offset to a great extent by the concurrent changes in the 
earniiigs of the crews of wage vessels. Tlie compensation of all vessel 
crews in 1933, as stated above, was about h-1,5 per cent of the value of 
the catch. In 1929 the proportion probably did not reach 45 per cent. 



9580 



-92- 

chaptt:r X 
T;-Di: eah:ii:-gs or raiiks a:'d C'Ccupai'IOI'S 

The data thus far discuoced have dealt with the average earnings 
of all workers on the ves.sels covered "by the tables. "ITnere figures 
for wages paid to individixi-ls in yd^ition to or in lieu of shares 
have been given they liave not been broken doY/n with respect to specific 
ranks or occupations. 

t:iD comfe''sation of capt ai'-^s 

In going on to coi'.sidcr in detail the earninjis of the latter it is 
natural to deal first with the compensation of captains. On skare 
vessels the rule is th,it the commander either receives merely the 
same share a.s other members of the crew, or that he gets in addition 
a percentage of -che value of the eaten or of the vessel share, which 
is usually referred to as his bonus. In cases v/nere a captain has 
received only one share the e>?planation is normally either tliat the 
gross revenue has not permitted an additional pa?,Tnent, or that he, 
being himself the owner of the vessel, lias received as his extra 
compensation wliatever net profit lias remained from the vessel share. 

The captain of a fishing vessel who is also the ovmer therefore, 
may receive three items of compe.isation iri his various capacities: (1) 
nis casic share in the lay; (2) s percentage bonus for his services 
as commander; and (3) the net profit, if any, accr;->i-ng from the vessel 
siiare, in ret'orn for his investment in the enterprise. 

The bonuses paid in 1933 to the captains of vessels for v;hich 
reports were obtained in connection with the present study, and in 
a very few instances to other officers, are summarized in Table XXXIV. 

From this table it apuears that bonuses were reported for 158 out 
of 399 share vessels for \7hich the amount of the vessel share was re- 
ported, or about 40 per cent. In the case of 104 vessels no statement 
on the subject was made; but from supplementary inquiries it seems 
highly probable tiiat rio bonus was paid or credited in those instances. 
The vessels whose captains received a bonus tended to be the larger 
ones, as appears from the figures for average tonnage in the second 
column of Table X}LX1V. As a result this grpup accounted for 54 per 
cent of the crews and of the gross stock of. -the 399 vessels, as against 
40 per cent of the vessels bv number. 



968( 



93 

TlBLS IXXIV 

PERCENTAGE BONUSES II! ADDITION TO SHARES PAID TO IEUBER3 OF SAMPLE a/ SHARE 'ffiSSEL CREWS, WITH 
NUMBER OF VESSELS, NUMBER OF IIEN, VALUE OF CATCH,AND VESSEL AND Cl&U SHARES, BY AREA, 1933- 



Nunber Total Number 

of Average Number Average of Men Value Vessel 

Vessels b/ Tonnage of Men Crew on Shares of Catoh Share 



Average 
Total 
Average Compensation 

Average Volume Bonus of Recipients 

Crew Share of per of 

Share per Man Bonuses Recipient b/ Bonuses 



New England 
Bonus paid 
No Bonus paid 
No Statement Re- 
garding Bonus c/ 



Total 

Middle Atlantic 
Bonus paid 
No Bonus paid 
No Statement Re- 
garding Bonus c/ 

Total 

South 

Bonus paid 
Mo Bonus paid 
No Statement Re- 
garding Bonus c/ 

Total 

Great Lakes 
Bonus paid 
No Bonus oald 
No Statement Re- 
garding Bonus 0/ 

Total 

California 
Bonus paid 
No Bonus paid 
Ho Statement Re- 
garding Bonus c/ 

Total 

Northwest Eind Alaska 
Bonus paid 
No Bonus paid 
No Statement Re- 
garding Bonus c/ 

Total 

United States 4 Alaska 
Bonus paid 
No Bonus paid 
No Statement Re- 
garding Bonus c/ 

Orand Total 



11 
12 

6 

29 

3S 
k 

15 

57 

5 

12 
6 

19 

33 

53 

31 
71 

.37 

139 

15s b/ 
137 

104 
399 



102.6 
24. S 



17.9 
77.4 



35. 1* 
13. S 



13.3 
21.9 



47.0 
12.3 



10.7 
35.0 



10.0 
29.2 



69.2 
51^.9 



66.5 
62. S 



33.2 

25.4 



15.1 
24.4 



69.1 
26.2 



31.4 
45.2 



1.119 
17s 



39 
1.336 



33s 
14 



55 
407 



26.4 26 

26.4 70 



63 

ISO 



365 
613 



251 

454 



144 
849 



1,872 
932 



656 
3,460 



4 
7 

6 
6 

5 
6 

11 
10 

11 
11 

8 
6 

4 

6 



990 
177 

39 

1,206 

39 
67 

27 

183 



331^ 
14 



55 
403 



63 

179 



355 
597 



248 

444 



139 
S3I 



58 1,730 
39 910 



J2,165,?92 i 867,721 $512,167 « 51^ 
277, VO 90,920 106,535 602 



73,670 

2.516,332 



164,465 
66,411 



31,725 
262,601 



249,472 
6,364 



43,957 
299,793 



6,479 
52,868 



33,725 

93,072 



155,796 
402,962 



916,898 
■1,475,656 



376, 721 
546,245 



162,038 
1,085,004 



21,716 
980,357 

51,504 
17,584 

7,901 

76.989 



94,393 
1,576 



13,886 
109,855 



2,851 
28,479 



17,136 
48,466 



44,034 
130,332 



31"+, 213 
488,579 



80,404 
124,801 



1+4,535 
249,740 



30,434 
649,136 



12,964 
115,206 



68,502 
3,577 



22,979 
95,058 



3,628 
22,359 



16,466 
42,453 



69 . 287 
177,897 



188,366 
271,957 

73,837 

534,160 

914,084 
612,433 



780 
539 



72,134 811 
30,108 449 



480 
630 



205 
256 



418 
236 



6C3 
771 



633 
696 



1,100 
994 



352,641 993 
599,825 1,015 



760 
610 



535 
642 



529 
672 



641 
3,281 



3,118,225 1,140,907 

1,352,220 393,692 

1,262,013 419,387 509,321 796 

5,732,458 1,953,986 2,035,838 620 



$105,067 $ i,4«o 



8,039 



17,874 



5,361 



13,1+71 



150,200 



731 



470 



194 b/ 



894 



1+35 



945 b/ 



$ l.S 



1,542 



675 



799 



1,99"+ 



1,195 



1,474 



Source: Returns to N.R.A. cuestionnalre on earnings in the fishing industry. 

&/ Vessels for which usable data were obtained for the purposes of the study. 

b/ The number of recipients of bonuses wa^ the same as the number of vessels except in the Great Lakes 
area, where bonuses were paid to two men (a mate and an engineer) on one vessel. The total num- 
ber of recipients was therefore 159, on 158 vessels, and comprises I56 captains, two mates and 
one engineer. 

c/ It is believed that with possible rare exceptions no bonus -ras paid in these cases. 



»680 



-94- 

The avertif:e "bonus paid to all persons (156 captains, tno mates 
and. one engineer) j who received such additional conpensa,tion in 1933, 
v/rs $945, as against $529 for the averrge basic share in the l^y 
on the same vessels. Consequently, \7hile the average income of 
cpptains as a clrss v/as "by no means large, a considerable grom^ nas 
relatively v/ell paid. The average share of captains who did not re- 
ceive a bonus, hov/ever, rras considerably larger than the average 
basic sha,re of those vrlio did receive one* This rras because so large 
a prooortion of those to whom bonuses v/ere paid were on Her; England 
groundf ish and on red snapper vessels vrith low individual crew shares» 

Sxce-otions to the rule that compensation paid to the captain of 
a fishing vessel in addition to his basic share in a lay takes the 
form of a percentc?ge of the gross stock or of the vessel share are 
rare. The questionnaire, however, did result in reports of two in- 
stances in '-rhich cao tains in 1933 received fixed sums in addition to 
their shares. These prynents have been classified as -^ages and are 
included in the v/age columns of Tables "~vC\ri and ]CvVII. In the case 
of a fev.r California tima and sardine vessels, moreover, the caiotain 
received an extra share or half share in the lay in lieu of a bonus. 

The bonuses received by ;oersons other than captains which are 
included in Table i^CXXIV amounted to $620. They were paid to three 
men on two vessels - one in the Middle Atlantic miscellaneous fishery 
and the other on Lalce I.iichigan. 

The bonuses shown in Ta<.bl-; XiCilV represent ?•? per cent of the 
corresoonding vessel share. It is commonly stated that the normal 
captain's bonus is ten --^er cent of the vessel share; and in any but 
a year of acute de ^ression that proportion \70uD.d very likely have 
appeared in the returns. In most of the reported cases the bonuses 
were actually charged against the vessel share; but there were a 
few instances in which they were taken out of the gross stock as 
items of joint o;oorating expense. 

It v/as intended that only bonuses which vrere actually pa,id should 
be entered on the schedules. In some of the cases, however, in which 
the vessel share was insufficient to cover current overheac - and these 
were numerous in 1953 - the reported bonuses may have been merely 
credited to those ea^rning them. The probable number of such instances, 
ho^/ever, is reduced ''oy the fact tha„t a la.rge -oro^oortion of the vessels 
for wiiicli bonuses ^^ere rcroorted were owned oy wholesaling or "orocess- 
ing corporations, which may have been in a -oosition to make the pay- 
ments from reserves. 

The fact that the bonuses re;oorted for 1933 reioresented only 7*7 
per cent of the corresponding vessel share, as against a typical 10 
per cent, suggests that in years of nornal industrial activity the 
proportion of vessels v/hose ca.ptains received bonuses would be ar)- 
iDreciabl-'^ in excess of the 40 ;3er cent shovm on Table :i]QIIV. 



9680 



I 1 !••> , . 

R ECIPIENTS OF WAG?:S III ADDITIOiT TO SliAKS S 

Ta"bleG XXXV nnd X7XV1 show in detail the r.-umbers of men on cliarc 
vessels in the vai-ious ranks or occupations, other than that of cap- 
tain, v;ho received v/ages in addition to shs.res. In some cases the 
amo-ont of wages paid to vrorl^pr? of this class v/as not reported on the 
schedules; and for this reason Table XXXV 1 , which gives figures for 
wage voliame, does not cover quite as many persons as Table XXXV.v/hich 
gives only the niambers of men receiving additional wages. 

Of the total of 244 persons to v/hom such wages were paid the 
rank or occupation of seven was not specified on the schedules. Of 
the remainder 222 v/ere classified as captains, mates, engineers, 
assistant engineers, radio operators, cooks, first hands or firemen. 
The remaining 15 consisted of the crews of two vessels of less than 
50 tons in the Now England groundfishery, all members of which re- 
ceived a wage payment in addition to their shares. In one case this 
was given as a sort of bonus; in the other it v;as specified as a 
payment for the extra heavy v;ork of reeling in the nets. 

These tables shov/ that e:.gineers and cooks are by far the largest 
of the occupational groups remunerated by the payment of v/ages in ad- 
dition to shares. Table XXXVl brings out the relatively good wages 
v/hich cooks receive on fishing vessels, and emphasizes the importance 
attached to this ordinarily hnmble occupation* 

The individual wages specified in Table XXXVl are those paid in 
addition to shares only. The average total compensation of the workers 
concerned can be arrived at by adding to any of these figures the 
average individual share for the same fishery, from the data in Table 
XXX. The latter shows, for example, 859 men on sliares in the New 
England groundfishery, with an aggregate crew share of $430,007, This 
gives an average share f'5r the year of $501; which, added to the aver- 
age ann-aa.1 wage of $189 per man for the same fishery in Table XXXVl, in- 
dicates average total earnings in 1933 for the men who received ad- 
ditional wages of $690, For all fishermen on this sample group of 
vessels the average total earnings v/ere $19,816 (last column but one 
of Table XXXVl) divided by 859 plus $501, or $524. 

OCCUPATIONS AND COMPENSATION OF WAGE EARI-ERS ON SMKS VESSELS 

Table XXXVll gives details by rank or occupation with regard to 
the total and average wages paid in lieu of shares on s'narc vessels. 
Table XXXlll, which gives similar data for the wages paid on wage 
vessels, has already been mentioned in another connection. The data 
in these tables differ from those ih Table XXXVl in tiiat they re- 
present the total compensation of tlae workers concerned. 

The average weelcly wage paid in 1933 to all wage earners on 
wage vessels included in the sample was $17,62, The average earnings 
of this class for the year were $458, The average earnings for the 
year for workers receiving wages in lieu of shares on share vessels 
were $516, The compfsition of the tv;o samples, hov/ever, is quite dif- 
ferent, and caution should be used in drawing conclusions from the dis- 
crepency in earnings that they show. The average weeks of employment 

9680 



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-104- 

In the case of sha.re vessels the figures for each rank or oc- 
cupation in Tahlc XL cover only those who received total compensa- 
tion a"bove that of ordino.ry fisherhien on the same vessel, the remain- 
der teing lumped vdth "Others". The proportion of each ran^r or 
occupation included in the first of these categories is indicated 
in the third colunn of the ta"ble. The latter means tlia.t 40 per cent 
of the captaii'.s, for instance, on the share vessels included in the 
sample, received compensation in excess of that of ordinary fisher- 
men on the s.ame vessels - that is, in excess of a sin^^le share in 
the lay. The other 60 per cent received merely a share - except, 
of course, that the large proportion who neve themselves owiers 
of their vessels got also v,hatcvcr net profit accrued from the vessel 
share • 

On wage vessels, ;".s in ordinary industrial plants, all ranhs or 
occupations are normally remunerated outright on schedules of single 
rates considered appropriate to the duties, responsibilities, or 
personal competence of those who fill them. In interjoreting the 
figures for wage vessels in Tahle XL, therefore, the complications 
just mentioned in connection ?;ith the share vessel data do not arise. 

'iTJhile, as remarked ahove, the figiires for average compensation 
in this table are shov/n on ba.ses as nearly the same as Dossible, 
caution needs to te used in com'oaring one or two of them. Assistant 
engineers on share vessels, for instance, are sho^^^n as receiving 
a materially larger average cormensation than engineers -oro^er. This 
is explained "by the fact that the limited number of assistant 
engineers re^oorted in connection with the study were all on relatively 
large vessels in New England, a.nd were probably all regularly 
qualified men; while the group of engineers proper includes many of 
a semi-professional ty-ie, v/ho were eiiroloyed on smaller vessels and 
in fisheries where the level of compensation is comparatively low. 



4 



I 



CHAPTER XI 

OWNERS' EXPETISE AMD NET RETURN MTD THE 
CAPITALIZATION OF TEE EISIIEIilES 



Tim DATA ON OTOTER' S EXPENSE 

When the present study xras planned some importance was attached to 
the question whether, in case the earnings of fishermen in 1933 should he 
shown to have run "below an accepted living standard, the financial posi- 
tion of the owners of the craft on which t]icy worked would, in any 
conslderahle proportion of ca.ses, Tna]:e possible an upward adjustment of 
their compensation. In the ori£"ins.l questionnaire, consequently, inform- 
ation was asked for not merely with regard to the principal items entering 
into the settlement of the various lays, hut also with respect to the 
vessel owners' - that is, the overhead - expense. The difference between 
the latter item and the vessel share should represent the net profit or 
net loss of an enterprise. 

Apart from the light which the data obtained as a result of this 
inquiry threv/ on the possibility of adjusting the compensation of vessel 
crews, they proved sufficiently complete and consistent to be used as a 
basis for a preliminary general discussion of the earnings of fishing 
vessels considered as economic enterprises, and of the return on their 
ov/ners' investment. To such a discussion the present chapter is devoted. 

Usable figures for ovmers' expense were submitted in the case of 
339 out of the 430 share vessels included in the final sample, or 79 per 
cent. In size and in the average value of their catch these 339 were 
adequately representatii'^e of the whole class, Failure to supply this 
information in other cases seems to h?ve been due in part to lack of 
records and in part to a misunderstanding of what was desired. 

RELIABIL I TY OF TIIE OW NER'S EXPENSE D ATA 

The reported items of owner's exoense have been examined with con- 
siderable care, vath a view to ascertaining whether they show signs 
either of exaggeration or of the reverse. Some of them, though a decided 
minority, are unquestionably rough approximations. No case ha,s been 
fo-iond, however, where a statement of ovmers' expense appears impossibly 
large. 

There are a good many instances where this item seems very small 
and may be incomplete. It is quite possible, however, to keep overhead 
exnense on a small fishing vessel within ver;^'- moderate limxits during a 
considerable period of bad business. Repairs and overhauling may be 
kept dorm to the indispensable minimum, and the owner and crew may do a 
large part of the work themselves. If the waters in which the vessel 
fishes are not particularly da.ngerous, and if reasonably good fortune is 
encountered, this policy may be followed without disastrous results for 
a number of years. 

Marine insurance has ceased, during the depression, to be carried 
on many fishing vessels, the rates being regarded as prohibitive. The 

QAnn 



-106- 

"burden of taxation varies greatly in different States and localities, "but 
in most instances is not heavy. Interest paynients are seldom of conse- 
quence, except in the cases - fairly n-anerous in the tima and sardine 
fisheries of California - where money has "been loaned, to "build vessels "by 
the canning concerns that expect to piircliase their catch, 

FRACT IC3 WITH :"ffiSPg CT TO D5PRECIATI0N 

In one respect the reported iteus of ovners' e:-7pense are kno^vn 
definitely not to "be compara"ble. Of the .'339 ver4sels for r;hich siich a 
figure was given the inclusion of a write-off for depreciation was re-nort- 
ed in the c^i-se of only 86, or 25 per cent. In the ma,in, however, the 
omission of such a write-off v/as not due to carelessness, "but reflected 
the a.ctual accounting procedure of the owners concerned. The practice of 
formally allowing for deprecia-tion on individually. owned fishing vessels, 
and especially on the smaller ones, is undouhtedly exceptional, 

TEE ESTIMTED ¥RIT E-OF?S FOR DEPR ECIATION 

If the proportions of vessels showing net profit and net loss in 
1933, and- the amount of the latter items, were to "be arrived at on an 
approximately compara"ble "basis, it was necessary to raal^ze an allowance for 
depreciation in cases where it had not already "been written off. To do 
this there v;ere o"btained from the field staff of the Bureau of Fisheries 
and from other persons having e:^^pert acquaintance with the industry data 
from which a normal write-off on a typical vessel in each important fish- 
ery could "be calculated, 

TREATMENT OF REPLACEIffiNTS OF GEAR 

The questionnaire contained no specific instructions with respect 
to the classification of replacements of fishing gear as current ormer's 
expense or as new investment. In ma.king the estimates of the write-offs 
for depreciation just mentioned the rule was followed of treating the 
replacement of gear tha.t normally lasts more than one year as new invest- 
ment. Where, on the other hand, a type of gear ordinarily has to "be 
replaced at least once a year, it has been assumed that the cost of so 
doing is included in the reported figures for current owner's expense. 
So far as the schedules throw any light on the matter they indicate that 
this is what was done. 

The data for owners' expense, with certain other information for 
the vessels to which they relate, a*.nd with added, estimates of the normal 
write-off for depreciation where such a,n item wa^s not already included, 
are shorm in Table XLI. 

FI XSD CAPITAL OF THE FISHERIES 

Before going on to analyze the situation indicated by this table 
it will be well to discuss briefly the capitalization of the fisheries. 
The fixed investment may be classified into the following items: 

(a) fishing craft and their immediate non-expendible equipment; 

(b) fishing gear; and (c) shore plant. In connection with the present 
study data have l:ieen gathered with reference only to the investment in 
fishing vessels and their gear, 

9680 



107 



OWNERS' OR OVERHEAD EXPENSE REPORTED FOR SAMPLE a/ SHARE VESSELS, BITH 
mniBER Of MEN VALUE 07 OATOH AND VESSEL AND CREW SHAffiS, CUSSIFIED A3 SHOWINO 
INCLUSION OR EXCLUSION OF DEPRECIATION AND NST PROFIT OR llEI LOSS, BY AREA, I933. 







Total 












Niimber 


Average 


Nximber 


Value 


Vessel 


Oimer • s 


Crew 


Net Profit 


of Veeeele 


Tonnage 


of Men 


of Catch 


Share 


Zxpenae 


Share 


or LOBB 



Catlimuted 
Write-off for 
Depreciation b/ 



New Enp-land 

Owner** expense: 

■ Includes Depreciation 

Showing profit 3 

Showing I068 35 

Total 33 

Excludes Depreciation 

Showing profit 39 

Showing loss S 

Total kl 

Total, New England 83 

Middle Atlantic 
Owner's expense; 

Includes Depreciation 

ShoTTing profit - 

Showing loss 1 

Total 1 

Excludes Depreciation 

Showing profit IQ 

Showing loss q. 

Total 23 

Total, Middle Atlantic 2k 

South 

Owner's expense: 

Includes Depreciation - 
Showing profit 
Showing loss 22 

Total 22 



Excludes Deoreclation 
Shoring profit 
Showing loss 

Total 

Total, South 

Great Lakes 

OvTier's expense: 

Excludes Depreciation 
Shovrlng profit 
Showlng^ lose 

Total 

Total, Great Lakes 

California 

OvTier' 6 exnenee: 

Includes Deorecip-tlon 
Showing profit 
Shoring loss 

Total 

Excludes De'ireciatlon 



Showlnr riroTlt 
Showing loss 


27 
9 


Total 


36 


Total, California 


54 


Korthtiest and Alaska 




Omer' s ej^ense: 

Includes Depreciation 
Showing profit 
Showing loss 


7 


Total 


7 


Excludes Depreciation 
Showlne profit 
Showing loss 


94 
21 


Total 


115 


Total, Northwest 
and Alaska 


122 


Recapitulation, United 
States and Aleslia 
Owner's eijfense 

Includes Depreciation 
Showing profit 
Showing loss 


2U 
62 



Excludes Depreciation 
Showing profit 
Showing loss 



Grand Total, share 
Tes«plc for T»hich 
owner's expense was 
reported 

Sajnple a/ Share Vessels for 
which owner's ej^ense was 
not reported 



Grand Total, eample 
a/ share vessels 



201 
52 



339 

91 

i*30 



86. 3 
19.6 


36 
58U 


$192,186 
1,081,61*6 


«90,387 
463,163 


877,520 
981,934 


$64,1*68 
227,963 


♦ 


#12,867 
518,771 


16.9 


620 


1,273,832 


553,550 


1,059,454 


292,4?1 


- 


505,904 


52.1 
83.1 


3W 
89 


864,454 
66,894 


332.118 
21,476 


220,788 
32.521 


242,255 
18,901 


♦ 


111,330 

11,01*5 


57.4 


433 


931, 34« 


353.594 


253.309 


261,156 


* 


100,285 


84.0 


1.053 


2,205,180 


907,144 


1,312,763 


553,587 


- 


405,619 



28.0 


11 


3,694 


911 


1.758 


1.103 


- 


847 


28.0 


11 


3.694 


911 


1.758 


1,103 


- 


8U7 


24.1 
20.3 


121 
27 


201,085 
27.169 


"7:i^x? 


45.835 
9.504 


89,987 
9,673 


■f 


14,704 
2,193 


23.4 


IW 


228,251* 


67,850 


55.339 


99,660 


♦ 


12,511 


23.6 


159 


231,91*8 


68,761 


57.097 


100,763 


+ 


11.664 



37.5 


170 


122,103 


35,323 


60,533 


32.534 


- 


25,210 


37.5 


170 


122,103 


35.323 


60,533 


32,534 


- 


25,210 


41.2 
36.7 


127 
60 


105,534 
27.70-} 


39.434 
6.511 


30,605 
11,371 


31,162 
6,217 


♦ 


8,829 

4^860 


39.6 


187 


133,237 


45.945 


41.976 


37,379 


♦ 


3.969 


39.2 


357 


255,340 


81,268 


102,509 


69.913 


- 


21,241 


30.2 
13.7 


55 
16 


76,578 
18,91s 


40.494 
5.513 


33,133' 
7,832 


33,654 
11,315 


+ 


7.361 
2,319 


28.0 


71 


95,1*96 


46,007 


40,965 


44, ■569 


♦ 


5,042 


28.0 


71 


95, "96 


46,007 


40,965 


44,969 


♦ 


5,042 


98.9 
106.8 


'^ 


627.988 
140,697 


217,508 
46,104 


123,946 
60,458 


223,796 
41,899 


: 


93,562 
14,354 


100.6 


207 


766,685 


263,612 


184,404 


265,695 


* 


79,208 


40.1* 
59.4 


T7 


478.389 
155.217 


127,621* 
41,143 


78.520 
53.639 


220,693 
76,615 


* 


1*9,104 
12,496 


45.2 


370 


633 . 606 


168,767 


132.159 


297,308 


♦ 


36,608 


63.6 


577 


1,402,291 


1*32.379 


316,563 


5^,003 


+ 


115,816 


32.9 


45 


76,907 


26,142 


22,921 


40,649 


♦ 


3,221 


32.9 


45 


70.907 


26,142 


22,921 


1(0,61*9 


+ 


3.221 


26.1 
37.0 


593 
1&5 


55.126 
103.460 


199,179 
22,931 


107.935 
28,608 


420,731 
62,750 


+ 


91,244 

5,677 


28.1 


738 


158,586 


222,110 


136,543 


483,1*81 


♦ 


85,567 


28.1* 


783 


235,1*93 


24«,252 


159.461* 


5?u,l30 


♦ 


88,788 



78.0 
88. 7 



2U0 
813 



85.7 1,053 

45! 9 '434 
36.5 1,947 



897.081 334,037 224,387 328,913 * 109,650 

1,348,140 545,501 1,104,683 303,499 - 559,182 



2,245,221 



1,781,166 
399,361 



2,180,527 



879,53s 1,329.070 632,412 



449,532 



799.388 516,816 1,038,1*82 ♦ 282,572 

104,885 143,475 ,185.471 - 3«,590 

904.273 660,291 1,223,953 ♦ 243,982 



48.9 3,000 i*,l*£5,7it^ 1,783,811 1,989.3611,856,365 - 205,550 

23.7 647 1,502,1*62 170,175 - ■ 308,876 ♦ 170,175 

43.6 3,647 5^928,210 1,953,986 1,989,361 2,165,241 - 35,375 



$207,207 
42,504 



249.711 



34,81*6 
7,336 



1(2,182 



7.228 
3,892 



11,120 



28,45« 
9.486 



37,944 



161,271 
53.757 



215,028 



171.362 
38,283 



209,645 



610,372 
155.258 



765.630 



968'0 



Source: aetume to N.R.A. questionnaire on earnings in the fishing Industry. 

a/ Vessels for idiioh usable data were obtained for the purposes of the study, 
^ Where not already included in owner's e^^nse. 



-108- 

Table XLII presents estimates of the original cost of the vessels 
and the fishing gea,r used at the i^rer.ent time, of the anniial write-off 
for dc"oreciation as computed for t^'Tjical vessels, and of the cost of 
replacing gear whose normal life is not m.ore than a yeOir, 

Tahle XLIII gives a percentage dlstrihution of the only data loiovm 
to have "been collected with regard to the age of vessels in use in the 
fisheries. They a,re taken from the re-oort of the Census of Water Trans- 
portation of 1926. The average age shovm 'oy the taole is a trifle under 
15 years. These figures are nearly ten years old, and the age distrihu- 
tion must change somewhat from time to time. It seems likely that in 
1929 the avera.ge was a little less than in 1926, while at present, prohah- 
ly, it is aiipreciahly more. For rough computations, however, it is near 
enough correct to assume an average age of 15 years. 

The supplementary questionnaire "by means of T.'hich the data for 
estimating the normal write-offs for depreciation in Tahles XLI and XLII 
were ootained asked for the approximate years of life of a typical vessel 
in each importa,nt fishery. These data yield an average of aoout 19 years 
for the hulls, ten years for the engines, 16 years for the hulls and 
engines together, and two and a half years for the fishing gear. 

TABLE XLII 

ESTIMTED ORIGIIIAL COST OF ALL FISHIIIG VESSELS IN USE IN 1933, 

WITH TIiE 1T0E3.1AL AMUAO IRITE-OFF FOR DEPRECIATION MTD THE 

NOmiAL Al^WJAL COST OF PJEPLACINC FISHIN(> GEAR, BY AREA 

(in thousands) 













No 


rmal Annual 


Normal Annual 








Orir?:inal 


Cost 


1 


Trite-off 
■ For 




of 


Cost 


Area 


• Hull and 


All Fish- 


Replacing 








Engine a/ 


ing Gear 


Depreciation 


b/ 




Gear c/ 


New England 






$48,938 


$1,699 




$2,864 






$1 , 745 


Middle Atlant 


ic 




12,804 


1,124 




835 






2,644 


South 






9,430 


739 




1,518 






207 


Great Lal:es 






4,59? 


4,794 




1 , 565 






— _ 


California 






16,014 


1,254 




1,972 






692 


Northwest & Alaska 


14,937 


1,645 




1,897 






349 


United States 


& 


Alaskal06,720 


11,256 




10,651 






5,637 



Source: Returns to N.R.A. questionnaires on earnings in the fishing 
industry, 

a/ Includes equipment other than fishing gear. 

b/ Includes depreciattion on hull, engine and equipment other than 
fishing gear, and on gear having a normal life of more than a 
year. 

c/ Covers only gear having a normal life of a year or less. 



9680 



-109-- 

. TABLE XLlil ,; 

DISTRIBUTION OF ALL VESSELS IN USE IN TIIE FISHERIES, 
BY AaE a,-' , 1926 



Per cent Ciirnulative 

Years of Total Number Per 

of Vessels cent 



t 



One or less •' 9.6 .9.6 

2 to _,6 16.1 E5.7 

7 to 11 22.3 48.0 

12 to 16 ■ 18.4 66.4 

17 to 21 10.2 76.6 

22 to 26 9.0 85.6 

27 to 31 3.9 89.5 

32 to 36 3.2 92.7 

37 to 41 2.5 95.2 

42 to 46 2.4 • 97.6 

47 to 56 1.9 99.5 

More than 56 0.5 100.0 

Total 100.0 



Source: Computed from data in Bureau of the Census, Census of 
77ate r Trans-portation. 192 6. 

a/ Includes "both fishing vessels and those used for trans- 
Toortation imroosep incidental to the fisheries. 



A corparison of the first of these fi,^ares with the average age of 
15 years for all vessels indicates that at any given time, under present 
day conditions, from 75 to 80 per cent of the cost of the industry's 
plant and equipment would have "been written off, if regular allowances 
for depreciation had "been made in accordance with standard accounting 
practice. Actua.lljr, the original fixed im'-estment has not been written 
dovm to anything like this extent. 

Applying the percentage just given to the data in Table XLII, the 
book value of fishing vessels in recent years, with their engines and 
equipment other than fishing gear, may be placed, on a standard account- 
ing basis, at approximately $22,251,000. 

There is no corresponding information as to the age of the fishing 
gear in use. But since the average life of such equipment is short, and 
since much of it has to be replaced several times a year, it is probably 
fa,ir to put its current value at about one- third its cost. This would 
give a provisional estimate of investment in vessel gear in recent years 
of about $3,752,000. 

The efforts made, in connection with the study to find out what if 
any deflation there had been since 1929 in owner's e:-qoense on fishing 
vessels did not cover the cost of replacements of gear. The best avail- 
able information, however, indicates that there had not been much change* 

9680 



-110- 

WOHKINO C A PITAL OF TIIE FISHERIES 

Ho data for the working capital of fishing enterprises have "been 
collected in connection with the present study; but a "brief discussion 
will clarifjT- the matter, as it "b^ars on the return to vessel owners. 

There is an extreme variation in the rapidity of the turnover of 
working capital in various fisheries. In the case of those whose product 
leaves the primary producer's hands in a fresh state, however, this item of 
of investment is a minor one, The working capital of such enterprises 
is limited to the money tied up in the expendible supplies, chiefly food, 
engine fuel, bait and ice, required for single trips. The period of 
tie~up may be anyrrhere from one day to a maximum of three or four weeks 
- with the average, probably, well under a v;eek. Vessels which go out 
only for a day at a, time have as a rule no investment in food, and fre- 
quently none in ice; and many use no bait. In a great many cases, there- 
fore, it may be said that working capital is restricted to the investment 
in engine fuel and accessories, 

A radically different situation exists in the case of enterprises 
whose ovmers themselves put their catch into a nonperishable form. Most 
of these fisheries are highly seasonal, and the tie-up of working capital 
often represents a large part of the value of a whole season's catch. 
This situation exists in the casp of nearly two-thirds of the catch of 
salmon for canning, of almost the T/hole of the menhaden catch, and of a 
substantial part of the shrimp and oj'-ster catch used by the canneries of 
the Gulf coast. It does not exist to any considerable extent, hhowever, 
in the sardine fisheries either of New England or of California, or in 
the tuna or mackerel fisheries of the latter State, where the owners of 
the fishing craft are rarely processors. 

In the cases v/here a heavy tie-up of working capital exists fishing 
constitutes merely one department of what are primarily processing or 
manufacturing businesses, and their catches are not normally sold in a 
fresh state. It is not easy, therefore, to segregate the part of the 
working capital chargeable to the fishing operations. 

~ THE 1908 C E NSUS DATA ON IF/ESTMENT 

The last previous data to be collected with regard to the capitaliza- 
tion of the fisheries were those of the Census of 1908, They are sum- 
marized in Table XLIV. These figures appear to be complete except that 
they do not include the working oiitfi't of fishing boats or either outfit 
or cash capital for Alaska. 

The only item in this table which can be compared with data on 
current capitalization gathered in connection with the present study is 
that for the value of fishing vessels. The Census figure was $11,454,000; 
the current estimate is $22,251,000, 

These two valuations are for years a quarter century apart, and 
could not, therefore, be expected to agree closely. The simplest way of 
verifying them is to compare the ratios they bear to the value of the 
vessel production of the corresponding years. 



-111-. 

TABLE XLIV 

CAPITALIZATION OF THE FISxIT^^HIES AS PiEPORTED 
BY THE CEIISUS OE 1908 
(in thousands) 







■ Amount 








Capital item 




of Capitf 


\1 






Fixed capital 






Eisiiing craft 












Vessels 




511, -.54 








Boats 




7 , 35'^ 


a/ 






Total 




* IS ,^8 10 








Transporting: vessels 




'4,""9V0 


i/ 






Eiching gear 












Vessels 




1,S17 


c/ 






Boats and ashore 




fi,g84- 


c/ 


• 




To tal 




8,901 


' 






Shore and accessory property 




"ll',?81 


.4/ 






Total, fized capitp 


,1 






.$:^b^l:^ 




Worlcing capital 












Outfit ej 












Eishing vessels 




3,5^.7 








Transporting vessels. 




^i-.l 








Totrl, outfit 




4,008 


.2/ 






Cash f / 




'2, "4-42 








Total, v/orlring ca;oi 


tal 






^u^O 





Grand total, ,50i902 

Recf:pitulation - . ■ •-- 

Hulls, equipment, gear a,nd outfit 

Vessel fisheries 1^,938 

Boat and shore fisheries 14,34-0 

Transporting trades 5,401 

Total ^.^.xr73. 

Other capital , l^-,223 

Grand total " ^1^9^?9A 

Source: Bureau of the Census, I^slie^rJ-_cs__qf __thj3^ Unit__e_^d ^S_ta^^ 
a/ Includes a small proportion of transporting boats, 
_b/ The item for Alaska, accounting for nearly half this figure, 
is heavily v/eighted vdth the value of the large vessels used 
for bringing cannery workers and supplies to and from the 
Territory, 
cj Totals of State items adjusted slightly to fit the grand total 
for the United Sta.tes, as there is a discrepancy in the pub- 
lished figures v/hich cannot nov/ be corrected, 
d/ A large proportion of this item represents shore property of 
salmon canning companies in Alas::a and of oyster cultivating 
companies in the North Atlantic area. The relevance of much 
of it to a statement of the capitalization of the fisheries 
is open to oucstion. Because cf this the segregation of the 



9^80 



lit.tle significance, and is omitted from the table, 

(SoTirfce Continued) 



-112- 



_e/ "Outfit" is the Census term for operating supplies, such as 

provisions, ice, salt, liait and engine fuel and accessories. 
The value of non-erciTcndilDle eouipment, such as dories, tools, 
anchors and ri^,^-ing, is included with that of vessels and 
'boats as fixed capital. The Census fi^-^ure for the value of 
outfit is incomplete, as the item \7as not reported for 
Alaska or for "boats in the United States proper. 

f/ For the United States proper only; not reported. for Alaska, 

Prohabl.y includes accounts receivable and other non-physical 
Y:oTlzlnr; assets. 

The value of the 1908 vessel catch, excluding Alaska, was 
322,150,000. The corresponding reported value of fishing vessels 
represents 50,9 percent of this figure. 

The ratio which 'the fixed investment of an industry bears to 
the value of the product 'fluctuates v/ith the degree of productive ac- 
tivity, since the hook valuation of fixed assets changes v/ith relative 
slovmess. In the case of the fishing industry the ratio for 1929 - a 
year of very active business ~ should normally "be lower than that for 
1908, while the ratio for 1931, 1932 or 1933, which were depression 
years, should be a good deal higher. 

Actually, the recent value of fishing vessels, as estimated 
above, is 43,2 percent of the value of the 1929 vessel catch, in com- 
parison v/ith 50,9 percent for 1908. The ratio for 1931 is f^^.2 per- 
cent. That for 1930 is 48.8 percent, and that for the average of the 
three years 1929 to 1931 is ol.l percent, rr very nearly the same as 
the ratio for 1908. 

These figures show strikingl;/ little change in the relation- 
ship of the value of fishing vessels to the value of their cp.tch, from 
that of twenty-five years ago. This would be expected from the gen- 
erally stable character of the industry, and tends strongly to indicate 
that the independent figures for the investment in fishing vessels in 
1908 and in recent years are approximately comparable, and that they 
may be taken as confirming one another. 

The data, for the capitalization of industry Y/hich used to be 
collected by the Census represented, as a rule, averages of individual 
practices v/ith respect to book valuation. In the case of the fisheries, 
hov/ever, v/here the forma^l assignment of any book value to assets is 
someivhat exceptional, the returns to the 1903 Census 'more probably rep- 
resented the assijmed sales values of the vessels in the open market, 
v/hich is normally a.ctive enough to make such a basis of reporting pos- 
sible. If so, the values reported to the Census were arrived at by 
much the same procedure as the estim.ated valuation v/hich has been 
v/orked out for recent years. 

The Census of 1908 put the value of vessel fishing gear at 
$1,910,000. '^is v/as approxim.ately 17 percent of the value of the 
vessels them.selves in use in th^it year, and t'.''^ percent of the value 
of the vessel catch. 

9fi80 



-113- 



^''he ori/^^ir.'il cost of the vessel gear in use in recent years 
has "been estirnatecl. as Sll, 2i.3oj 000, and its average life at about two 
and a half yea.rs. There are no data on the age of this equipment by 
means of vmich its present value can be figured from the original cost. 
But if it is assui.ied that the former is about one— third of the latter, 
the present value v/ould bee.r approxim.atel/ the same ratios as in 1908 
to the current value of the vessels them.s elves and to the average value 
of the vessel catch in 1929 - 1931, Such an assumption v/ith regard to 
the present investment in vessel fishing gear seems reasonable enough 
to be adopted tentatively. 

There a.re no recent data with which tc compare the items in 
Table XLIV for the value of shore and accessory property and for work- 
ing ca,pital. The former is a very substantial figure. More than half 
of it, hov/ever, is a,ssigned to Alasl:a, where it must be accounted for 
by some portion of the plant of the salmon canneries; and a great part 
of the remainder evidently represents the establishments of the North 
Atla.ntic oyster-cultivating compa.nies. ^he rest of the item for the 
United States proper m.ust consist chiefly of the shore property of the 
minority of incorporated enterprises in places like Boston, Gloucester, 
Pensacola, a.nd San Francisco, which combine wholesale or processing 
business v/ith the o"Deration of fishing fleets. There is a good deal of 
doubt as to how much of any of these items is really part of the invest- 
ment in the fishing industry proTDer, 

The rema.rks tha^t have been made with regard to the working 
capital of the fisheries suggest tha,t that item is not very large in 
comparison with the fixed investment. The omissions from the 1908 
Census da.ta, far capitalization, of course, mioan that the 87 percent of 
fixed ca.pita.1 sho\/n "oj Table !/ZLIV is som.ewhat too high. But it seems 
clear that, even after a.llowance for this error, the proportion is very 
much above the corresponding one for manufacturing industry at large, 
v/here only a-'oout half the total investment is fixed. The higher per- 
centage of fixed a.ssets in the case of the fisheries affects their 
financia-l picture materially. 

.P?-QIiI. A^D _LO_S.S_JN 1953 

Returning to Table XLI, it appears that on the 339 sha.re ves- 
sels for which owner's expense in 1933 v/as returned in connection v;ith 
the present study there was realized, in the aggregate, a net loss of 
vl, 017, 933, as agaiiist a tota~l vessel share or gross profit of 
'^'l, 783, 311, This ain'sunted to an average net loss of 33,191 per vessel. 

For 225 of the 339 vessels a net profit in 1933 was reported. 
In the case of 201 out of the 225, however, this profit was taken be- 
fore depreciation. The profit axiounted in the aggregate to 3392,222, 
out of a. total vessel share of :1, 133, 425. This was an average of 
s)l,743 per vessel. 

The addition, however, to the ov/ner's expense for the 201 
vessels just mentioned of an estimated write-off for depreciation has 
the effect of converting the net profit on the 225 vessels into a net 

9^80 



-114- 

loss of L21G,100, or an averai_,e of v970 -oer vessel. Individually, of 
course, some of these vessels continued to shov/ a profit after adding 
the \7rite-off. 

The addition of the cstiinates for depreciation also has the 
effect of converting the net profit ori;. i.^ally re"oortcd into a net 
loss in all areas individually ei.cept the South, y/here a very sraall 
profit remains after adding the v/rite-off. The final loss is rela- 
tively heavy in all the other areas exce;3t California, v/here the ves- 
sels for y;hich owner's expense v/as reported come not far from brealring 
even after depreciationo 

.CQIiCLUSipjiS _SUGq;^,STED ^3Y Tm jDATA_Oii JlViT^h '.S. SJ-CPKISE 

The priiaary purpose of the stud/ thus far has "been to "bring 
out as clearly and accurately as possible the fa.cts relatin/3 to the 
earnin;;^s in 1933 of vessel fishermen and of the craft on which they 
\7or/:, rather than to evaluate them. It is impossihle to deny that the 
picture is a, pretty dismal one; but, "before generalizing too. "broadly 
on the results for that year it will be v/ell to take into account the 
estimates for 1929 and. 1934 \/hich are to "!je presented in the next 
chapter, 

Lince inost fishing enterprises are unincorporated, it v.'as 
difficult or impossible to o'btain "by Questionnaire information as to 
the financial reserves of vessel owners, 'by resorting to y^hich upv/ard 
adjustments in the coraiDensation of the crcv/s of their vessels might 
have "been made during the acute phase of the depression. In general 
it seems safe to say that such -reserves y/ere small or non-existent. 
In the main, moreover, this v:as irj.e of the corporate enterrjrises as 
v;ell; though in the case of the latter it would 'bo desira"ble to mal.e 
an examination of tlie more com-olete figures v/hich presuinably exist, 
"before arriving at a final judg/ient. 



o.a 



f^QO 



-115- 

GPAPTI^R XII 

THE ZAR'^INCrS OF ?I SPIER] ISN AFP 0? V3SSSLS U: 1934 

And 192 9 

Tnen the collection of data, for the purposes of the "oresent study 
7as begun 1933 wrs the lapt calendar j'^ear for which reports could be 
isked. As the v/ork progressed, however, the completion of another year 
Qade it desirable to use the returns to the Questionnaire as a basis for 
3stimating the corresponding earnings of fishermen and of fishing vess- 
3ls in 1934. This wr^s particularly the case because there had been in 
ihe course of tae latter year a substantial recovery in the quantity and 
Ln the average landed price of fisherj'- products. In the case of vessels 
working on shares this recovery would, of course, produce automatically 
some degree of improvement in the earnings of their crews. At tne same 
:iem, since estimates for 1934 were to be made, it v/as felt that int- 
erest would a.ttach also to corresponding figures for the pre-depressi on 
md high price year 1329. 

ilOES OF IvIAKIFG ESTIL/IiiTES FOR 1934 and 1929 

The discussion of the share system in Chapter VI has made it plain 
that, when the terms of the la;-' in use on a fishing vessel, the value 
jf its catch, and the operating expense incurred on it in a given year 
ire known, the amount of the vessel and crev- shares can be determined. 

In the present case the amount of ope"'"ating expense and the terms 
f the laj'-s in use on the vessels included in the sample were known for 
933. There was reason to thinlc that with occasional oualifi captions 
he share agreements '.'•.? re the same in 1934 and in 1929. As a precaution, 
jcwever, the supplement, r"'" schedule asked v,'hether tnere had been in each 
Jisheri'-, between those years, an^^ change in the lays to affect mater- 
ally the relation of tne vessel and crew chares to one another and to 
he gross stock. For practical purposes the replies v.'ere negative, tho- 
^h a few insta.nces ^-ere r-^eported in which the relative frequency of tv/o 
a-ys had changed sufficiently betv:een 1929 and 1934 to call attention 
D the fact. The tendency to the substitution of the "Italian" for the 
American" lay* in tlie Atlantic macherol fisher'/- furnisiies an example. 

The value of the catch of the va.rious fisheries in 1929 was ob- 
lined from publications of the Bureau of Fisheries in the same manner 

those for 1933. The estimates of the value of the 1934 catch which 
re made priraarilj^ for tne present purpose have been referred to in 
lapter IV. 

» 

The operacting expense of a. fishing vessel fluctuates independent- 

' of the value of the catch and of the terms of the Isljs in use. This 

pense can, ho^''ever, be estimated wit . tolerable accuracy for a given 

shery from, or.e ^^-ear to another, provided that the changes in the pri- 

s of a few commodities, a.nd the relative importance of the latter in 

counting for the totaA OToerating expense in the case vear, are known. 



ee Table XXII and Appendix III, 
— — ' 

80 



-116- 

These commoditieR are coal, fuel oil, irsoliiie, luDricrnts, foodstuffs, 
ice rnd salt.* In a fev inrtonce's tne rr'.tes of '-;-^.'^es paid ir. addition 
to or in lieu of Sxia.res hrve alno to Lie cal.;en into account. 

Data for there itepis v'ere o'btarnec' for the iiT-o^rtant fisheries 
covered by the stud"^ throvi,j.h the mediur.i of the HU-0;jlenenbrr-' schedule 
to v/hich reference "las been "-.ade, r.nd -..^e^e then iised to arrive at es- 
timates of o-oeratin.:: enpense in lG-:'4 -md in 1929. 

'Ifrith these erpense items &j.ic the estinates of the value of the 
catch in tnose 3^errs as a bo sis, tjie irtormation derived from the re- 
turns to tlie main questiojinaire T.ith -^egnyd. to the lays in use v,'as ap'o- 
lied to obtain figui^-es for the rverage 191j4 and 1929 vessel and crew 
shares. It must be emphasized c\<-:ain that the result irg figiires are es- 
timates. In the main'^ ho-./ever, the^- a?vo been fo-ond consistent with 
one another and v/ith tae ot h^r dpta r/ith rhich there lias been occasion 
to compare' them; and there is prooabl"- no serious risk in using them 
as the'^ ste.nd. 

irPr/IDUAL C:^"." ^b A^ZS ir 19:34 m d__1929 

Compari sons , of the average crev/ share "oer man in 1934 aiid in 1929, 
which result from these estimates, aopear with tne corresponding base 
figures for 1933' in Table XLV. 

The decline in the average C'^ew share per man from 1929 to 1933 
in the country at large was 57 per cent. The corres-oonding decline in 
the average annual compensation of '" -rre earners in manufa.cturing ind~ 
ustn'- over the srme ;oeriod. was 34 per cent. It is plain, therefore, 
that a sharp deflation in tlie rjriczs of fish and shellfish, such as took 
place from 1929 to 1935, is d^'a:^tLc:ll3'- ^inf avorr-ble to the earnings of 
the sha^re workers concerned,. 

On the other hand, tr!.e iirice . ccoverj'- Miich ^'eveloped from 1933 
to 1934, though verj^ prr'cial wnen con'^dderecL witxi reference to the 
1929 level, nad unouestionablj- a greater effect in restoring workers' 
earnings than did the concurrent -^nrice increases in the case of manu- 
facturing industries. The increase in average ere'" share -oer man from 

1933 to 1934 for the \7hole countr"/ v.^as 51 per cent; and the level in the 
latter year v:ps about 35 per cent :-ielov/ that of 1929, instead of 57 per 
cent as in 1933. 

The workers in most branches of the fishing industr^'- benefited sub- 
stantially" from this recover','". The percentage of improvement vras com- 
paratively small in a fev; ca.ses; but these were nearly all fisheries in 
which the average crew share in 1929 had been relatively/ high. A 
single instance of an apparent I3/ Unfavorable development from 1933 to 

1934 in a fishery in wlxich the average crew shai-'e had been absolutely 
low in 1929 occurred in the red snapper fisher],/ of the South. 

CHM'JGES IH C^S:: SHA^jD Ai-T) IF VALUl 0? CATCH 



Even if the fact had not oeen specif icall"/ viointed out, the desc- 



*Bait is sometimes an item of conseouence, but it is rarely practicable 
to obtain a record of cost or prices. 

£680 



117 

TABLE ILV 

ESTIMATED AVERAGE SHARE PER SHARE FISHERMAU OH SAMPLE a/ VESSELS, CRUDE AMD WEIGHTED ACCORDING TO THE 
TOTAL NUMBER OF UEN IN EACH FISHERY, I93I*. AND I929 COMPARED WITH I933, BY AREA AND FISHERY 



Area and Fishery 



Average 

Share 

per Man 

1934 



Percentage of 
Increase (/) 

or 
Decrease (-) 
1933 to 1934 


Average 

Share 

per Man 

1933 


/ 63.9 
/ 16.2 
/ 41.5 


% 565 , 
266 b/ 
675 


/ 57.8 
/ 43.5 


535 
708 


/ .2 
- 2.7 


1,121 

485 


: 111 


630 
608 


- 6,1 
/ 98.6 
/ 36.7 


179 
575 
335 


/ 80.9 


236 
434 


/ 52.9 
/ 21).. 1 


681 
736 


/ 44.7 
/ 29.1 


71s 

72 c 


/ 78.4 , 

/ 139.U 0/ 

/ 58.8 


1,351 
S9S 

503 
391 


/ 86.4 
/ 76.1 


1,005 
923 


/ 13.5 
/ 30.4 
/ 22.9 
/ 31.6 


857 
345 
763 
538 


/ 21.0 
/ 19.5 


65s 
605 


/ 51.5 
/ 47.9 


625 
700 



Percentage of 
Increase (/) 

or 
Decrease (-) 
1929 to 1933 


Average 

Share 

per Man 

1929 


- 


62.1+ 
71.2 b/ 
79.6 


$1,504 
923 b/ 
3.309 


- 


65.9 
66.9 


1,571 
2,11*2 


- 


46.3 
74.2 


2,086 
1,874 


. - 


67.5 
68.3 


1.937 
1,915 


- 


69.6 
66.6 
80.1 


5Sg 
1,724 
1,681 


- 


75.1 
68.9 


943 
1,395 


- 


26.0 
39.1 


920 
1,209 


- 


36.2 
37.9 


1,125 
1,155 


- 


211.6 
67.6 
19.5 
30.1 


1,792 

2,782 

625 

559 


- 


35.9 
2g.l 


^'567 
1,284 ^ 


- 


38.9 
6a. 1 


1,827 
668 

1,242 
1,687 


- 


52.2 
53.0 


1,376 
1,287 


- 


57.4 
52.7 


1,467 
1,479 



Percentage of 
Increase (/) 


or 


Decrease (-) 
1929 to 1934 


- 38.4 

- 66.5 b/ 

- 71.1 


- 46.3 

- 52.6 


- 46.2 

- 74.9 


- 67.5 


- 71.4 

- 33.8 

- 72.8 


- 70.9 

- 43.7 


i g:l ^ 


:.l:l 


/ 34.5 
- 27.4 , 
/ 92.3 0/ 

/ 11.1 ii 


4; 19.5 
/ 12.7 


- 46.7 

- 32.6 

- 24.8 

- 58.0 


- 42.2 

- 43.8 


. - 35.4 
- 30.0 



New England 
Groundf ish 
Llackerel 
Miscellaneous 

Crude 
Weighted 

Middle Atlantic 
Scallop 
Miscellaneous 

Av-rae;e 

Crude 
Weighted 

South 

Red snapper 

Shrimp 

Miscellaneous 

Aver.-ige 

Crude 
Weighted 

Great Lakes 
Lake Erie 

Lakes Huron and Michigan 
Average 
Crude 
Weighted 

California 
Tuna 

Tuna and Sardine 
Sardine, Monterey 
Miscellaneous 
Averatie 

Crude 
Weighted 

Northwest and Alaska 
Halibut 
Salmon 

Alaska Herring 
MlscellanecfuB 
livertif^e 
Crude 
Weighted 

United States and Alaska 

Average 

Crude 
Weighted 



% 926 
309 b/ 
955 

844 
1,016 



1,123 
470 



627 
597 



168 

1,142 
458 

785 



1,041 
913 

1,039 
937 



2,410 

2,021 

1,202 

621 

1,873 
1,625 



973 
450 
93s 
708 

796 
723 



947 
1,035 



Source: Computed from returns to N.R.A. questionnaires on eaumings in the fishing industry. 



»6tt0 



i^ 



2/ 



Vessels for which usable data were obtained for' the purposes of the study. 

As explained In footnote (H) on Table XXVII and in the text (Chapter VII) these average earnings per man In 

the mackerel fishery cover only part of the year in the case of 10 of the 11; vessels in the sample. The 

deficiency is greater In 1933, and probably also in 1934, than In 1929; and the percentages of decrease 

shown in the table are consequently somewhat exaggerated. 
These large increases In crew share per man, which In the case of the Monterey sardine fishery raised the 

1934 figure to nearly double that for 1929, were the result of a disproportionate recovery In the sardine 

reduction Industry. 
These cases in which average crew share per man In 1934 exceeded that of 1929 may be the result of the 

small size and peculiar composition of the 'Bamplee. 



-118- 



cription of the share syotera in Chapter VI would have made it obvious 
that a relationship exists "betv/een the fluctuations from year to year in 
the value of the catch in anj?- fishery or area, and in the shares received by 
the men engaged in it. The nature of this relationship is brought out in 
detail in Table XLVI . 

This table shows that from 1929 to 1933 the decline in the average 
operating expense of fishing vessels v;as a good deal less than the decline 
in the prices of fishery products. It vjps therefore to be expected that 
the drop in the average crew share would be somewhat sharper than the 
corresponding decline in the value of the catch. The degree to which this 
is true, however, varies considerably in the different parts of the coun- 
try. In the Middle Atlantic area, as in the United States at large, the 
decline in the average crew share per man from 1929 to 1933 was only a 
little greater than the drop in the value of the catch. 3n the Great 
Lakes and in California the falling off in the former was practically the 
same as the relatively moderate decline in the latter. In the three re- 
maining areas, however, the drop in individual crew share was very decided- 
ly greater than the decline in the value cf the catch. 



TABLE XLVI 

RELATION OE CliAl'IGE IN AV^I^GE CEE7/ SHARE PER IJlAl^ TO CHAi^GE IN 
AVERAGE VALUE OE CATCH PER VESSEL, EOR SAIvIPLS a/ SHARE VESSELS, BY 

AREA, PROM 1929 to 1933 



Area 



Decrease(-) or Increase(-) 

from 1929 to 1933 

In Aver- In Value In Oper- 
age share of Catch ating Ex- 
per Man per Ves- pense 

sel per Ves- 
sel 



Percentage of Fisher- 
men on Vessels on 
Which 50 Per cent or 
More of Operating Ex- 
pense is Charged to 
Crew Alone, 
1933 



Percent- 
age of 
Value of 

Catch Rep- 
resented by 
Vessel 
Share, 1933 



(per cent) (Per cent) (Per cent) 



New England 



-65.9 



-49.4 



Middle Atv 


-67,5 


-52,5 


1 antic 






South 


-75.1 


-57.6 


Great Lakes 


-35.2 


-36.5 


California 


-35.9 


-37.4 


Northwest and 






Alaska 


—52.2 


-43.5 


United States 






and Alaska 


-57.4 


-53.3 



-19 . 3 



-20.5 



-21.9 



- o. 



t 5.9 



-19.0 



-13.9 



76.5 
29.7 

84,3 

^/ 

6,5 

59.5 
57.8 



39.0 
29.4 

35.9 
23.5 
33.2 

22.8 

33.7 



Source: Computed from returns to N.R.A. questionnaires on earnings 
in the fishing industry. 



9680 



I 



-119- 

a/ Vessels for T;hich usable dc. . -. nere obtained for the purposes of 
the studAr, 

_b/ So large a proportion of operating expense in the case of vessels 
on the G-reat Lakes is charged to the owners alone that a percentage 
in this column would not be comparable with those for other areas. 

An inspection of the data in the third column of Tpble XLVI leaves 
little or no doubt that these differences are due primarily to the extent 
of the change in the expense of operation in the various cases. On the 
G-reat Lal:es and in California operating expense changed very little from 
1929 to 1933, while in all the other areas there was a drop of about 20 
per cent. The difference was due mainly to the extent to which the expense 
in a given area included the cost of food. The prices of foodstuffs 
dropped sharply'- from 1929 to 1933, while those of petroleum products, which 
constitute collectively the largest single item of the operating expense of 
fisliing vessels, remained stable or even increased. 

B The relationship between the change in the average crew share per man 
^nd the change in the value of the catch, however, v;ould appear to be af- 
fected also by the proportion of operating expense v/hich is customarily 
3harged to the crews alone, as distinct from the crews and the owners joint" 
Ly. This a.ppears from the fourth col-'Jimn of Toble XLVI. In New England, in 
the South and in the Northwest and Alaska, where the decline in individual 
share earnings from 1929 to 1933 v/as very decidedlv greater than the de- 
cline in the value of the catch this proportion is high. In the Middle 
itlantic area, where the discrepancy between the two changes was compara- 
tively small, the proportion of opera.ting expense charged to crews alone 
is much lower. In California, where there was no discrepancy of cense**' 
luence, the latter proportion is still smaller. 

For the sake of making the comparisons in Table XLVI complete, per- 
centages indicating the relative amoun't of the vessel share have been added 
n the last column. It would appear, however, that this latter factor is 
)f secondary importajice. It is true that in New England and the South, 
fhere the decline in individ"aal crew share was very sharp in comparison 
rith the decline in the value of the catch, the ratio of the vessel share 
the gross is high; while in the Middle Atlantic area and on the Great" 
»akes, where the discrepancy was sma.ller, the percentage accounted for 
ly the vessel share is low. In California, moreover, both the discrepancy 
letween the change in the average crew share and in the vn.lue of the 
atch, and the percentage represented by the vessel share, are intermediate. 
n the Northwest and Alaska, however, the very moderate percentage represented 
ty the vessel share in the halibut fisher^,'" causes the correlation to fa,il. 

To s-om up, when a decline develops in tiie value of the fishery 
:atch, a concurrent drop in the average earning of share fishermen is 
.0 be expected. ¥hether this decline tends, however, to be sharper than 
he decline in the value of the catch, as it did from 1929 to 1933, or not, 
'ould depend on the degree of change in operating expense over the same 
kriod and on the terras of the la.ys in use. 

The estimates of individual crew earnings in 1934 which are given 
n Table SLV shov;, as night ha.ve been e xpected, that a relationship 
nalogous to the one just discur.sed, exists when there has been a rise 
n the value of the fishery catch, 

680 



-120- 

The estimate of the. 1934 production which was given in Chapter IV indicates 
an increase of about 5o per cent over 1933. During^ the same period the 
average increase in operating expense v/as small - less than five per cent. 
This "being the case, the increase in the average crew share per man from 

1933 to 1934 should apparently have e'zceeded the increrse in the value of 
the catch to a considershly ^-jrer^ter degree than the decreo.se in the former 
exceeded the decrease in the latter from 1.9^9 to 1933. 

Tiie data in Treble XLV ber.r out this exT)ectation. They indicate 
that the increase in the average individual cre\/ share from 1933 to 1934 
for the countr37- as a whole \wr.s aho^it 51 per cent, as against the estimated 
increase of 33 per cent in the value of tiie catch. 

The estimate of the ve^lue of the 1934 catch just referred to, which 
is the only one available at present, is too tentative to justify a detailed 
comparison with the corresponding iniprovement in the averrge share per 
man over 1933, area by area. 'It seems safe to arsume, however, that the 
recovery in the individual share was particularly pronounced, relatively 
to the recovery in the value of the catcu, in New England, the South 
and the Northv/est axid Alaska. In California and on the G-reat Lakes the 
improvement in crev/ share per man was probably about the same a.s the im- 
provernent in the value of th^ catch; while in the lliddle Atlantic area 
the former exceeded the latter to a comparatively small extent. 

RETUElNi TO VESSEL OTiIE"RS IN 1934 AIQ 19 29 

Similar estimates v/hich have been made of average vessel share in 

1934 and 1929 are shown, by area, in Table JCLVII, compared with the cor- 
responding questionnaire data for 1933. In order to give a rough idea 

of the effect of the changes thus' sho\;n on the net return to vessel owners, 
an effort v/as made to obtain, taroufii the mediu-^- of the supplementary 
schedule, dc„ta on tne rcla.tions vip ^.liich the principal items of owners' 
expense incurred in 1934 bore to the -3 of 1929. Tlie questions on this 
point v/ere difficult to draft and probably not very easy to answer; and 
the returns were only moderrtely satisfactory'-. They did, however, ade- 
quately confirm the previously existing impression that these items of 
owners' or overhead expense have been very inelastic, even under the 
drastically vrrying conditions of the past ten years. 

The net change in overhead cost during this period appears, in fact, 
to have been so small that it is believed sufficient to show a single 
column for it in Table XLVII, applicable to all three years for which 
figures for average vessel sha.re are given. These data for overhead in- 
clude the normal v;rite-offs for depreciation described in the preceding 
chapter. 

The table also shows the average vessel share and average overhead 
for the geographical areas and for the coimtry at large after weighting 
by the approximate total number of vessels engaged in each fishery. 



9680 



-121- 



TA3LE XLYII 



AVSP-A.G-E VESSEL SHARE AITD SSTIi.lATSD AYEIjiC-E omiEJl'S OH CVEPP^SAjj 
EXPENSE, PEl^ SAI.IPLS a/ SHA23 VESSEL, Gi^TJLE A1>ID WEIGHTED AC- 
CORDILTG T'^ TP3 TOTAL^VjlvIBER OE TESSSLS IIT EACH EISHSRY, 1934 
AlH' 1929 COMPATiED UlTE 1333, 3Y APEA 



Area 



Average Vessel S^are 

per Ve^s^sel^^ 

l"9*3'4 l'933' T9*29 



Average 0?/ner ' s 
Ex-oense per Ves- 
sel y £/■ 



lien England: 
Cru-de 
Weighted 




1*^,594 
7,590 


13,95fi 
7,270 


27,fi36 
14,395 


23 , 7f^9 
15,7^4 




Middle Atlantic: 
Crude 
Weighted ' 


3,091 
2,811 


2,8-'^.5 
2,779 


7,958 
7,720 


3,753 
3,888 




South : 

Crude 
Weighted 




1 , 921 
1 , 309 


1 , 935 

1 444 


4,850 
3,508 


2,A3fi 
2,220 




C-reat Lalres: 
Crude 
Weighted 




3,020 
2,200 


2,231 
1,782 


3,138 
2,230 


3,414 
3,708 




California: 
Crude 
Weighted 




15,3'::9 
14,110 


8 , 007 
7,172 


12,852 
11,511 


9,100 
7,185 




Horthv/est and 
Crude 
Weighted 


Ala slip. 


1/ 

2,259 

1,783 


2,035 
1,755 


4,007 


2,794 
2,228 




United States 
Alas]:a: 
Crude 
Weighted 


and 


(^,.^74 
5,^11 


^,940 
4,332 


9,479 

3,315 


8,189 
7,448 





Source: Computed from returns to H.P.A. questionnaires on earnings in 

the fishi.i^: industry, 
a/ Vessels for v/hich usable data were obtaiited for the purposes 

of the sti.dy. 
t_/ Including v/rite-off for depreciation on vessel and fishing jear. 
c/ -hese figiures apply without material change to 1929, 1933 

and 1934. 
d/ This appai-ent average loss in ITev; England in 1929 is discussed 

in the te;;*';, Chapter XII. 
e^l Excluding the Alaslia herring fishery, the conditions of which 

make it difficult to figure vessel share Cn a oasis comparable 

with the remainder of the industry. 

9^30 



-122- 
It has not seemed advisable, in Table XLVII, to attempt to compute 
profit or loss specifically; "but in a general way the differences between 
the figures for average vessel share and those for overhead are believed to 
indicate correctly the situation with respect to the net return of fishing 
vessel owners over the years specif iedo 

The following comnents are based on the weighted data,. They indicate 
a failure in 1933, on aii averrige, to cover oimers' or overhead expense 
after depreciation, in all sections of the country except California. 
In the latter State in that year the vessel fisheries approximately broke 
even. 

The same was true in 1934, even after a considerable recovery in 
the prices of fish and shellfisn, again with the exception of California, 
8Jid with the qualification that in the Northwest and Alaska the average 
loss was not large. In the case of California in 1934 there was a very 
pronounced spurt in t he sardine reduction industry; most of the other 
fisheries of the State continued to show a loss. 

In 1929 a net profit was realized b^'' vessel owners, on an average, 
in all areas, with the exceptiony on the face of the estimates, of a 
small loss in Ne\7 Englando Even there a profit is indicated in 1929 
for all fisheries excejot the miscellaneous group, which includes a re- 
latively large number of vessels and consequently affects substantially 
the weighted averagees in Table XLVII, The sar.ple for this group, on 
the basis of the number of vessels, was not very large; ?nd it may be 
that the los^ which it indicates for 1929 was not really representative. If 
so, a profit may well have been actually realized, on an aver-ige, by New 
England vessels in that year, though it cannot have been a large one, 

For the fishing industry as a whole to show an cppreciably net profit 
gigain, there will have to be a recovery in the value of the catch of about 
20 percent over the level attained in 1954 - -Linless, of course, the fixed 
investment should bo drastically reduced by scrapping the least profitable 
vessels or otherv/ise. Even vi th a 20 percent price increase there would 
still be a loss, on an aver-ige, in xTev/ England ano. the South, and probably 
on the Great Lal<:es, 

WAGES IN 1934 AM) IN 1929 

The procedure used in arriving at the estimates for 1934 and 1929 in 
Tables XLV and XLVII applies, of course, only to vessels working on shares. 
The plan of presenting figures for those years was not formed early enough 
to include in the original questionnaire a specific request for data on the 
wages paid in 1929, 

Subsequently some information was obtained with regard to the rates paid 
in the principal wage vessel fisheries in 1934, as compared with 1933. These 
figures have been discussed in Chapter VIII; and as a result it has been 
pointed out that the earnings of v;age fishermen were far less elastic during 
the depression years than were those of share workers. It is safe to assume 
that, with the recovery in the prides of -.fish and shellfish which developed 
from 1933 to 1934, the increase in labor cost for the owners of wage vessels 
was materially less than the corresponding increase for the owners of share 
vessels. In part, no doubt, the increase in the former case was merely defer- 
red as a result of the accepted tendency of wa,ge adjustments to lag behind 
the movement of commodity prices. 

In general, however, the position of the o^.Tners of w^ge vessels with 

respect to labor cost w.as improved in 1934 as compared with 1933, while the 

reverse was the case with o\7ners of share vessels. Looking back^ar d, these 

remarks apply also, with minor qualifications to 1929 as compared with 1933, 
9680 



-123- 

THE ZARI'IilCrS OF EiTLOYLE 71 SHEHLE:! AITD THAPr^IEK IIT TEE 
SALIIGII CAiVrim irDIJSTHY 
SCOPE 0? THE .DATA 

In a ;'orecedin-' ch-^iDter it has been r)ointed out that the 
orit^inal body of data gathered in connection with the present study did 
not cover the so-called "employee" fishermen of salmon canneries in 
Alaska. The present cha.-oter will -oresent the information \7ith regard 
to the earnings of this class v/hich was obtained subsequently from 
other sources. As a matter of convenience it will also deal with the 
men employed by these same concerns in connection with salmon tra'is. 

The estimated value of the salmon caught in 19Z3 by employee 
fishermen and trapmen has been given in Table XX as $5,795,983. This 
is 77 -oer cent of the value of the v/hole Alaska salmon catch in that 
year, and 64 per cent of the total value of the fishery catch of the 
Territory. 

SOIiaCES OE IlTF0..iA.TI01I 

The informp.tion available at iirescnt with regard to the 
earnings of employee fishermen ii". Alaska is derived from two s~oecial 
inquiries. One of these covered ca.nneries v/hicli accounted for about 
97 per cent of the salmon pack for the 1954 season only. The other 
obtained data for the years 1933 and 1929 as well, but covered only 41 
or 42 T)er cent of the 1934 pacJc, and still smaller proportions in the 
case of the earlier years. These sn;aller sam2oles, moreover, were over- 
weighted with the establishjnents of a few large companies. The figures 
e>iven in this chapter a^re estimates for the whole industry, based on 
a combination of the t\ o sets of data. 

inCLUSIOlT OE 30AT Al'D SHORE FISHERI,ffi'^ 

A high ;iroportion of salmon fishermen in Alaska, and of 
canning, company em^.jloyees es'oecially, v;ork on boats or from the shore 
and not on vessels. The inquiries just mentioned covered this class 
as well as the vessel fishermen - the boat and shore v/orkers, indeed, 
constituting the bul:-: of the samples. For this reason the data on 
earnings in this cha.ioter are comDarable with those thus far presented, 
and particularly with the figures that have been ,.:iven for the North- 
west and Alaska salmon fishery, only \':ith considerable qualification. 

MJIQER OE EISHERLEH Al^D TRAPIEi' 



The total number of fishermen en^a.ged in su-)r)lyin^ the 
salmon canneries in Alaska in 1934 was 6,227, and in 1933, 5,398. 
To these, for the "ourpose of comioarison with the data, for the United 
States prober v;hic:i have been ^.-,iven in earlier cha-ntf rs of this report, 
there should be added the men employed in connection with salmon 
traps. In the case of Alas': :a these are not included in the Bureau of 

9680 



-124- • 

Fisheries' figures for fir-hermen. The mimlDer of rien era^-jloyed in connoc- 
tion \7ith cannery- ov.'ned or operated tra^os in 1954 a-onears to ha.ve "been 
in the neighborhood of 500. This does not include the men emioloyed in 
connection v;ith the independent or non-cannery tr?o3, v/ith regard to 
v/hose nijinber no inforriation seems to be available. If ]:novm, hov.'cver, 
the latter item would not increase the total volume of employment al- 
ready indicated materially. 

The nu..iber of emrilo-'-ee firdiermen in Alaska in 1334 may be 
put, approximately, at 4,576. This -^as 73\ ver cent of the total num- 
ber Pf fishermen engaged in su-ril;-inj the salmon cannin^^ industry. The 
corresponding^ num.ber in 1935 is difficult -co estimate, but appears to 
have been only a little lower - perharis 4,500. 

Of the employee fishermen in Alaska in 1934 not quite a 
half v/ere brought from the Tinited St'^tes by the cannin^ companies for 
the season, IS per cent v-err^ whii^e residents of the Territory, and 
35 -per cent were natives - Indians or Eskimos. These oroi:)ortions vary 
£,reatly in different parts of Alasl:a. In the thinly populated Western 
division practically all the fishermen are emiiloyees of the cannini^- 
companies; and in 1934 GO per cent of these were brought from the 
United States. In Southeastern Alaslia, hov;evor, v^hore the bulk of 
the local poi-^ulation is concentrated, not much over a third were 
em:oloyees in 1934; and of these onl'^ two -oer cent were brought from the 
United Stages, while nearly 95 loer cent were natives. 

PERI OS 0? E'.iPLQYIiErT 

The work of the fisheriiien who su-nly the salmon canneries 
in Alaska is concentrated in a short season of not more tlian tv^elve 
or thirteen v^/eeks, durin^:. the months of June, July and Au-^ust. Some 
of those who are broUjiht from the United States may be t alien to Alaska 
early in May and brought back toward the end of September, so that they 
are absent altogether for about five month;-. ; while on the other hand 
both the fishing season propter and tnc whole "oeriod of absence may be 
shorter. 

Most of these residencs of the United States pror>cr, among 
the employee fishermen, and also of the white residents of Alaska, 
normally have other employment durin^ the remainder of the year; but no 
detailed information with regard to the latter has been obtained in 
connection with the study. 

The earnings of the native employee fishermen during the 
cannery season nrobabdy represent, in many cases, their only money 
income. These men are still, in lar^_,e ^oart, pursuing their primitive 
community life, with comparatively little change. 

METHOD 0? CQLEPEIISaTIQI-I 

For the actual \;crk of fishing employee fishermen in Alaska 
are compensated at a i^iece rate of so much -ler fish caught. For work 
at the canneries before and after the fishing season proper, and on 
the vessels v/hile travelin^^ to and from the Territory, they receive 



9680 



-125- 

extra compensation on a time basis. In the Bristol Bny district of 
V/estern Alaska the latter is called "ran money". Elsewhere it seems to 
have no sT)ecial name, but amounts to the same thing, The work remuner- 
ated by these additional time payments includes the overhauling of fish- 
ing craft and gear and the handling of cargo. 

AV£EAG£ EARNINGS 07 EMPLGYE£ FISHER MEN 

The following figures for the earnings of emroloyee fishermen, so 
far as kno^Ti, include run money and other time payments, ps x^ell as the 
basic, compensation per piece. 

The results of the inquiries above mentioned indicate that the aver- 
age earnings of employee fishermen from the salmon canning industry 
amounted in 1934 to $747 for the season, and in 1933 to $518. One of 
the questionnaires brought in some data on earnings in 19?9. The 
sample, however, is small, and there is some doubt as to the represen- 
tativeness of the figures for earnings. It does not, consequently, seem 
advisable to include them h-^re. 

The earnings of employe^ fishermen are materially higher in Western 
Alaska than in other loarts of the Territory, and higher in Central Alaska 
than in the Southeastern division. This is largely a consequence of 
the relative scale of the fishing operations concerned; but it is also 
associated with the percentages of employee fishermen brought from the 
United States, and with the pror)ortions of ^i^ites and' of ' nat ives. 

For these s?ime reasons the average earnings of emplcyee fishermen 
are considerably larger in the case of the canneries operated by big 
companies than in those of the smaller establishments. In the Bristol 
Bay district, where the fishermen are practically all employees and 
all work for large concerns, the average in 1934 was- about $1,073 for 
the five months or less during which the men were absent from the 
United States. For 1933 the equivalent figure would appear to have 
been about $750. Co-ses of individual employee fishermen who earn 
$2,000 in the course of a season under favorable circumstances are 
said to have been not ■ancommon, 

EARNINGS OF TRAPMEN 



The returns to the questionnaire above mentioned indicate that 
the average earnings of tue men employed in connection with salmon 
cannery traps were about $400 for the season in 1934 and $325 in 1933, 
These are monthly wages ^ not piece payments. There are no data for 
the earnings of workers employed in connection with the independent 
traps, 

SPECIAJ. CONDITIONS OF THE T/ORK 

In drawing conclusions from these figures for employee fishermen's 
earnings the special conditions of the work must be borne in mind. All 
the men brought from the United States proper and most of those employed 
in the Territory receive board and quarters in addition to the above- 
stated money compensation. In 1934 the cost of board rer man ran 

9680 



-126-^ ' ■ 

SlOO or a little less for. the season in Southeastern Alaska, and ollO 

to $120 in the more remote sections. 

♦ ■ ■ ■ , .■ 

Eraployee fishermen also, a.s a rule, receive -some free med- 
ical service, and those brought to Alas'ca are trans^^orted to and fro 
without char.^e, providing they remain throu/nout the season. Their 
work v/hile actual fishing is in progress is- likely to "be hea\'y, v;ith 
a proportion of very long days; out this is not a continuous state of 
affairs', and for as much as a third, of the whole period of eaTployment 
the work may not be' heavy, with a ^ood deal of free time. It must be- 
remembered that the work.^at the longest, lasts less than half the year 
and a-lso that the eraployee fishermen class includes a high ;-)ercentagc 
of natives. For the latter the resulting money income .'is probably to 
be looked on as really substantial. 

The cost of the fishin,^, licenses and the amount of the 
-school tax, from which the Territory of Alaska, derives a 'good deal of its 
income, are in mai-iy 'cases paid oy "the ca.nnin,^, com-mnies and deducted from 
the payments to the fishermen. The figures for earnin^.s ^.iven in this 
chapter are understood to be after all such deductions. 

THE VOLUIVE OF COIIPEITSATIQIT ' 

The total money com~oensation na.id to em^iloyee fishermen in 
Alaska in 1934 may be estimated at S3,41:,000, and the total paid to 
trapmen'at about $200,000. A corresponding figure for 193S is not so 
easy to arrive at, both on account of the less re^oresentative character 
of the data for that year and because the forecast of the value of the 
pack that was probably used as a bar-is for setcinc^ the piece rates to 
be paid to employee fishermen at the. beginning of the season would 
appear to have been 'affected adversely -oy the pa.nicl:y state of business 
in the late winter and early spring. Tentatively, however, the volume 
of compensation of employee fishermen in 1933 may be ■;out at $3,331,000, 
and that of trapmen at '$130,000. • ' • 

COIvIPSi'SATIOk OF NON-EMPLOYEZ FISKEK-gh 

One of the tv;o inquiries meitioned above also brought in 
some data with re_:ard to the earnings of non-em-?loyee or inde^oendent 
fishermen in Alaska. There were a-onroxinicitely 1,650 such persons in 
1-934, but apparently only about 900 in 1933. Th.e reported average 
earnine-s for this class were #335 for che 1934 season, and $293 for 
1933:. 

The average earnings for the 1933 season in the Northwest 
and Alaska salmon fishery as a whole, as indicated by zhe returns to. 
the main questionnaire sent out in connection with the urescnt stud;'- 
ana stated m Table XXVII, were $345. The difference between this fig- 
ure and the $293 cited in tlie precedin.: pars.graph reflects the difference 
in the composition of the two samples. The'- $345 average covers only 
the earnings of vessel fishermen, who are- all white and who include 
a substanti'al proportion of residents of 'the tJnited States' proper. It 
is, 'moreover, based in part on the" salmon fishery of Washington and 
Oregon, where -the' season is longer than it is in- Alaska. The average 
of $293, on the other hand, represents the earnin^,s of a group of whom 

9680 



-127- 

mp,ny r^ere Ijo^.t fishermen, Fhile nearly half ^"ere Ale.'-ike n?tives. 

There is another c omolicc'^tt ion v/hich has to he taken into 
accorjit i:i compp.ring the stated earning'S of the employee and inde- 
pendent fishermen A^ho supply the Ala ska s si mon^ canneries . In the 
case of the Ir.tter the fi=?-oTes ohtained "by means of the main ques- 
tionr-ai-3 ^-ere to.ken after the deduction of the cost of operating the 
vessels. The emuloyee fishermen, ho'^evet, have in some cases to pay 
for tJie fuel reauired. to ope;Late the craft on which they work. This 
is hecauye of the difficulty of keeping a check' on the use of cannery"- 
owned "oor/ts for the employees' jx ivate purposes. The extent, however, 
to \hich the figures for earnings given above include the cost of 
engine fuel, r.s a result of this practice, is at present unknoi^rri. 

TOT;lL COIPSI ^SATfoy of AXASFA SALKQ]' CAJf^TE R Y F ISPISRI-^N 

The "best estimates that can "be made of the total compensation 
of the fishermen who supply the salmon cannei'ies in Alaska are ahout 
$4,169,000 for the lS34~season and ahout $2,724,000 for that of 1933. 
The first of these figures is 11.3 per cent of the value of the 1934 
pack at pre-season prices, as reported "by the Bureau of Fisheries. The 

1933 estimate represents a materially smaller ;oercentage of the corres- 
ponding va3-ue for that yea.r, owing to the apparent underestimate of th2, 
value of the pack at the "beginning of the season. 

Since much the greater part of the salmon "osed "by the can- 
ning industry is not sold in the raw, s,ny figure for the value of the 
whole suoply in that condition is somewhat artificial. However, for 
the purpose of supplying ratios for comparison with those already 
sho\;:i in Ta'ble XXVII for other "branches of the in3.ustry, it may "be 
said that the volume of fishermen's compensation just indie ted for 

1934 works out at 44.0 per cent of the estimated value of the raw 
supply, did th.?t for 1933 at 37.9 "per cent. These ratios are ^'ell in 
line ■■it'll those for other fisheries. 



-128- 

chapt:^r XIV 

EARlIIIiGS Ii; THE 130AT AID SHOHE ?ISH:]RI:]S 



It ha.s already "been stated thp.t the "present survey e.s original- 
ly planned, covered only the vessel fisheries. The rer^sons for this 
limita.tion are ex":Dlained in Chapter IIV. T'le present chp^'oter presents 
and discusses the information rjhich has since "been obtained with regrrd 
to the "boat and shore fisheries, 

D I ST 11 1 CT I Oil 3ET17SZIT THE 30AT AD "IS Si mia I^ISHEP.IES 

The term "hoa.t and shore" fisheries inplies that the part of 
the industry now under consideration consists of two divisions. The 
line of demarcation is not very distinct, "but in a general U3,y the shore 
fisheries include those in rrhich no "boats nre used, or in which the 
ratio of boats to men is very low. Clam digging, eel spearing ajid 
fishing off beaches with haul seines are activities typica,l of this 
class. 

Since no survey of the fisheries of the Mississippi River and 
its tributaries has been made for any recent year except 1931, the 
following statement regarding the boat and shore division of the in- 
dustry exc"-ude that region. Alaska, however, is included; and the 
summary, therefore, is complete for the marine and lalce fisheries. 

'■' Number of Fishing "Boats and Boat Eishermen 

The nvjnber of fishing boats in use in the area Just defined 
declined from 1929 to 1932 by 18 ~jor cent, but in 1933 was approximately 
the same as in the preceding year - that is, about 52,500. The 
corresponding number of boat '\nd shore fishermen declined perhaps five 
per cent from 1929 to 1932, but increased appreciably from the latter 
year to 1933, when it was ap'proxinr tely 80,250. Of this total approxi- 
mately 62,800 -oersons, or 77 ocr cent, -jere engaged in the boat 
fisheries proper, and 7,450 in the shore fisheries. The few hundred 
men employed iii connection with saJmon traps in Alaska are excluded. 

Prom 1908 to 1933 the number of boats in use declined by 30 
per cent, and the number of boat fishermen by 18 ;oer cent. In 1929 the 
average number of fishermen per boa.t was almost exactly the same as in 
1908, but in 1933 it had risen by about 15 per cent. This increase was 
probably due mainly to doubling up in the use of boats to reduce costs 
under depression conditions. 

The proportion of po-^er fishing boats increased greatly from 
1908 to 1933 - from 13 to 51 per cent. It would be not unnatural to 
suppose that this change was a cause of the increase in the average 
number of men per boat, due to the attention required by the engines. 
Such, however, does not seem to have been the ca.se. T/hether the in- 
crease in the number of men per boat v/hich develooed from 1929 to 1933 
will be maintained, it is ir.roossible at ^resent to say. 

The class of casual fisherman, which constitutes about one- 
9680 



-129- ■ 

third of the total personnel of the boat and shore section of the 
industry on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts and the Qrea.t Lakes, and a 
some^^hat lower proDortion for the country at Inrge, has "been described 
in Chapter III, 

EMPLOYEES AJ'JD EI^TREPRSIJSim S 

It has been pointed out thpt the proTDortion of employees as dis- 
tin^'a^uished from entrepreneurs in the boat and shore fisheries is low - 
about 27 per cent - while the "oroDortion of ' i.nd©.Dendent operators of 
one-man and loartnership units '^ith no employees is high - over 50 -oer 
cent. The employee status in this branch of the industry, moreover, is 
modified by special conditions even more than in the fisheries at large. 

There can scarcely be said to be any ranks or occupations on fish- 
ing boats exceiDt that of captain, and even the latter exists only in a 
qualified sense. 

In some of the bopt fisheries it is not uncommon for "oersons who 
are not owners of the bor-ts on which they "'ork to o^^n shares in the 
gear; and it is claimed that such men are in many cases consulted with 
resnect to the ODeration of the boats and the sale of the catch, \»'herG 
boats fish with nets of the more elaborate tyoes the investment in the 
gear may be greater than the investment in the craft itself. 

Ownershi-D of fishing boats in fleets oy single i^ersons or firms 
occurs; but in this division of the industry, it is not a factor of 
importance. Such boats are rarely owned by corporations, except where 
they are operated on the side by '-'holesaling and processing companies. 
The latter condition exists in the case of a large number of salmon 
boats in Alaska and of many owned by wholesalers and processors in the South 
especifiUyinthe shrimp-canning industry and in Florida. 

THE VALUE 0? THE BOAT MID SHORE CATCH : 

In 1935 the boat and shore fisheries, including salmon traps in 
Alaska, accounted for 57 per cent of the total value of the industry's 
catch, or about $33,055,000. The proportion has changed little in 25 
years, but the absolute value of the boat and shore catch declined about 
12 oer cent from 1908 to 1933, Of the value for the latter year about 
$26,300,000, or 80 per cent, represented the catch of the boat fisheries 
proper, about $3,378,000, or 10 per cent, the catch of the shore 
fisheries, and about S3, 374, 000 the catch of salmon traps in Alaska. 
The latter is an item of a special character. 

The number of boats and the number of boat fishermen have declined 
during the twenty-five years so much more than the value of the boat 
catch that the average of the latter per boat and per man has risen 
substantially. 

The figiares for the long-time changes in the equipment, personnel 
and output of the boat and shore fisheries, which have been discussed 
in the last few paragraphs, are summarized in Table XLVIII, 



9680 



-130- 



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-131- 

BOAT FISHERIES OP THE MISSIS SIPPI A K EA 

While the fisheries of the Ilississippi River ?.nd its tri- 
butaries have "been excluded from the foregoing sunmar:/, they cannot, in 
dealing with the "boat and shore division of the industry, be ignored 
entirely^ Since the recent data for that rrea, however, are confined 
to the year 1931, they are shoun in Table UjVIII in separate columns. 

The Kississippi River are--; accounts for only six or seven per 
cent of the total value of the bos.t pnd shore catch, but for 22 or 23 
per cent of the boa.ts in use and for 15 or 17 per cent of the. fishermen. 
The value of the catch caiopears to have fallen off since 1908 by about 
the same amount as in the ca.oe of the other boat fisheries, but the 
number of boats and of fishernen has increa.sed appreciably. The average 
value of the catch per boat a:id per man in this area, therefore, has 
declined considerably from levels already low. The average of a trifle 
more than one man per boat has remained practically unchanged. 

TI-IS BOAT AID SEORE CATOK 3Y l^IS:rj:]RY 

In Ta.blc XTJX the value of the boat and shore catch in 1933 
is shown by area. a.nd fishery. The latter term is in this case used 
somewhat arbitrarily, and with a vievr chiefly to classifying the catch 
in a manner xikely to be informative to the non-specialist. The kinds 
of fish ana shellfish caught could not be used as a sole basis because 
in some cases, as in the pound net fisheries in general and in the haul 
seine fisheries of the South, the Sc.me men and gear take a great variety 
of species. 

Since the only a.vailrble data for the catch of the Mississippi 
area are for 1931 and not 1933, they could not be included in Table 
XLIX. Nearly 94 per cent of the value of the Ilississippi catch in 1931 
was made up of half a dozen iter..:;: catfish and bullheads (30.3 per cent), 
buffalofish (23,7 per cent), car^ (15.7 per cent), mussel shells (14.6 
per cent), and frogs (4,5 r:)er cent). The mussel shells are raw material 
for the pearl button industry. 



(*) For the purposes of the compr-Tison with 1929 and 1908, the data 
for which cannot be segregated between the boat and the shore fisheries, 
the averages per boat, in Table XLVIII are based on the value of the 
catch of this division of the industry as a whole, and not on that of 
the boat fisheries in the strict sense, as in the last paragraph but 
one of the text. 



9580 



-132- 



TABI£ XL I A 



VALU3 OF Hm CATCPI OF TFS BOAT AlID SHORT FISK3RIES, SXCLUDINa 
TIE i:iSSISSI?PI PJTJR iiPjiA, BY JiBIJi MD FISIIEHY, 

1933 



A rea end f ishery 



Value of catch 



Ne\7 England 

G-roojidf ish 

Pound net 

Mackerel 

Herrin:? 

S\-'ordiish 

Lobster 

Clam 

ScpHoit 

Eel 

Or 8;o 

Miscellaneous 

Total 

Middle Atla.ntic 
G-roundf ish 
Pound net 
Bluef ish 
Shpd 
Lobster 
Clam 
Oyster 
Scallop 
Crab 
Eel 
Miscellaneous 



Total 



a/ 



South 

Haul seine 
Pound net 
Mullet 
' Red snapper 
Shad 

Kingf ish 
Oyster 
Shrimp 
Sponge 
Crab 
Clam 
Miscellaneous 



$2,280 

222 

388 

103 

196 

1,612 

1,029 

413 

25 

39 

234 

6,551 



3,839 



508 

1,181 

651 

205 

217 

120 

1,810 

1,525 

697 

458 

133 



0O5 
818 

333 
793 
077 
906 
161 
624 
943 
766 
513 

944 



365, 


,815 


643, 


,429 


126. 


,308 


89, 


,240 


168 


,374 


642. 


,823 


742 


,531 


155, 


,010 


569 


,693 


51 


,847 


284 


,237 



312 



596 
878 
101 
100 
840 
935 
319 
516 
044 
389 
393 
260 



Totrl 



7 ,,933, 371 



9580 



( Continued ) 



-133- 

TASLS XL IX 
(Continued) 



A rep aind fish ery Value of cat^h 



Grec't Lakes a/ 

Ontario $39,209 

Erie ' 1,353,354 

Huron 1,007,065 

Michigan 439,343 

Superior 336,056 

Other W 104,291 

Total 3,279,334 

Ca.lifornia 

H-^nd line 262,669 

Gill net 164,355 

Sardine 194,766 

Sfilmon 188,941 

T^jina 32,475 

Flounder 53,721 

Crp.D 256,187 

Lobster ' 74,505 

Ct^ster . 50,569 

Miscellaneous 113,877 

Total 1,377,067 

NorthT7est and Alaska 
Salmon: 

Cannery boats 2,590,804 

Independent boats 3,081,825 

_ Traps, Alaska , 3,373,877 

Total, Salmon 9,046,506 

Hal ibut 355 , 255 

Crab 187,359 

Oyster 301,166 

Clajn . 159,198 

Miscellaneous 22,282 

Total ro, 071, 765 

United States and A].aska 33,052,794 



Source: Cora'^uted fron dnta in B^oreau of Fisheries, Fishery Industries 
of the Uni te d States . 
a/ Estimated by the author. 
b/ Lake of the T/oods, Rainy Lake and ITamakan Lo.ke. 



9680 



-134- 

SIZE AKD GROSS IITC OI IE OF ?;OAT AIID . SKO?J] i:HTI]KPaiSi :S 

The vnlue of the average catch per "boat in the iDOat fisheries 
in 1933 (excluding the Mississir)::i River erea) uas $392. The average 
niira"ber of men per boat ^7as 1.33, and the average value of the catch ver 
man T7as $290. In the shore fisheries the averr^^^-e value per nnn ^las 
$167, The remarks already made v/ith regard to the sofII size of the 
typical fishery enterprise, therefore, apply with accentuated force to 
this division of the industry. The linit placed by these a.verages of 
gross earnings on the average net incoiie of the persons concerned is 
evidently very lo\7. 

One or two qualifications, however, have to he borne in mind 
in interpreting the figures just given. In the first pla.ce about a 
third of all boat and shore fishernen are engaged in the industry on a 
casual basis only. The available data regarding the vjro-oortion of their 
incomes that these men derive from callings other than fishing are scat- 
tered and difficult to sur.i:"na.ri^^e; but the caverage tot?l ea.rnings of the 
class probably exceed;^ the net income drawn from the fishing industry '\:>y 
25 per cent, or rather more. 

In the second Dlace the figures for gross revenue given above 
are averages for the power boat and the sail and rowboat fisheries taken 
together. It has not thus far been "oracticrble to segregate the Vralue 
of the catch of tiie two divisions; but the average value per power boat 
is m.uch higher than the rverage per sail or rowboat. The opera-ting ex- 
pense of the latter i's little more than nominal, and a very large pro- 
portion of the persons using then engage in fishing on r. casual basis 
only. 

Sm.n./IARY OF MTA Oil 'rfPI CiLL BOAT OPERi lTIOI TS 

The data, obtained by means of the supplementary quest ionna.ire 
on typical craft in the boat and shore division of the industry are sum- 
marized for a. number of representative fisheries in Table L. 

These figures, which are the first of their kind to be assembled, 
are somewhat provisional. Further corres'Dondence moreover, for which 
time has thus fa.r been lacking, is needed to make clear in detail the 
distribution of the net stock as between the boat owners and the sha.re 
workers in their employ. From the table as it stands only rough averages 
of the net earnings of all participants can be inferred. 

It seems probable thct e.verages of the data for the various 
groups of power boats in Table L, weighted with the total numbers of 
boa.ts in each fishery, would be fairly representative of the motor boat 
division of the boat and shore fisheries, excluding cannery-owned or 
opera.ted craft in Alaska, with its 2S,000 motor boats and 40,000 fish- 
ermen. For the present, however, such general averages should be re- 
garded as tentative only, and it has not seemed a^dvisable to incorpora,te 
them in the re")ort. 



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-157- 

'(IIOTSS TO TikBLS L) 

GSirsrUilj IIOTE ; This ta'mlr,tio:.i oi trie returns to the N.Pl.A. 
supplementary questionnaire on the "bort fisheries is provisional. Addi- 
tional investigation is needed to clarify the inter^oretation of the data, 
and to make it prncticaole to utilize rarterisl on sone points not covered 
"by Tahle L as it stands. This applies ^particularly to the details of the 
distribution of the net stock of fishing "boats between owners and shere 
workers, 

a/ The data in the first five and the seventh coliiLins are for 
1933, except in the South and the Great Lakes, v;here they are for 1932, 
The remaining drta were asked for as of 1934, but for practical purposes 
are applicable to any of the Isist four or five years. 

IdJ The suppleraenta.ry questionnaire, in most cases, called for 
data on each fishery in a single specified State or jDort. To a consider- 
able extent, however, the returns are applicable to other parts of the 
same areas. The figures in these columns are for the largest groups of 
States to which it is believed that the questionnaire data ca.n safely be 
taken as applying, and' except where otherwise 'stated they are for the 
whole of the areafe concerned. 

cj The rowboats included in this classification p.re to a con- 
siderable extent subsidiary to the motor boats, and do not represent in- 
dependent enterprises, 

d/ These figures for total and average value of catch have 
been segregated by estimate to correspond as nearly as practicable with 
the types of boat (motor or other) specified in the sixth column. They 
are comparable with the numbers of "boats in the first or the second 
column, or with both, accordin;;; to circumstances, but not in all cases 
with the numbers of men in the third column. 

Not only a^re these value of ca.tch f igu.res for a year of acute 
de;oression, but the avera.ge values per boat, in a number of cases, re- 
present smaller and less efficient craft than the "tyoical" boats to 
which the questionnaire data on costs and expense aoply, and are there- 
fore too low for comparison with the latter as they stand. The adjust- 
ment of the data, for this discrepancy ;oresents problems which cannot be 
solved without additional information and study, 

ej Kind of boat to which the quentionnaire data, in the eighth 
and follo\7ing colioinns relate, 

f/ The first of these figures for the average number of laen 
per boat in each fishery is based on Bureau of Fisheries data, for motor 
and other boasts taken together. They tend to be somewhat belov; the true 
a-verages for the former, a.nd so;aev7hat above the true ai-verages for the 
latter. 

( Continued ) 
9680 



IJoteo to Table L ( continued ) 

' ■ " The differences bet^Teen these and the t;roical niinher of men 
per "bbat from the questionnaires, in the follov/ing colunin, are in most 
cases not rap.terial. T/here they rre suhstantis.l, hoiTCver - as in the 
ca.se of the first t-jc fisheries in the table - the FJveT8.Qe value of the 
catch shown in the fifth column is probably particularly loxr in pro- 
portion to the cost r.Ticl e.->:pense fi-j:ures for the corres;oondin'£: tj^ical 
boats. 

g/ Round figures; to be used with caution. 

h/ Life indefinite. 

ij Not stated in schedule. 

jj In addition to board while actively em;Dloyed. 

k/ Sailboats and ronboatss 

!_/ Interpolated; not stated in schedule. 

m/ Substituted for the statement in the schedule that the 
life is indefinite. 

n/ As tiiey stand these figures are inconsistent. It seems 
probable that the assignment of 100 ;oer cent o± the personnel to boasts 
with no employees is nearly correct, raid that the number on wages is 
not important. 

gj Hot stated in scliedule, btit presumably small, if not 
negligible. 

jo/ ITot stated in schedu3.e, but unimportant. 

qJ Omitted because of uncertainty as to how far the motor 
and other boats in this fishery work together in the same enterprises. 

r_/ ■ These averages are not comparable. The second one is 
probably the number of men to a seine. 

s,/ Q,uestionnaire data fron the single schedule returned from, 
the Great Lakes area.. The extent to which these figures are represen- 
tative of all the motor boat fisheries of the Lakes is uncertain. So 
far as they can be checked they appear fairly typical. 

t/ For all boo.t fisheries of the Great Lakes. 

u/ For all motor boat fisheries of the Great Lakes. 

vj If the first of these averages for men per boat on the 

Great Lakes v/ere based on motor boats only, the discrepancy would 

ID rob ably disaD-oear, . . 

( Continued ) 

9680 



-139- 

Notes to Table L 
( Continued) 

w/ The catch ^ler "boat in thin fishery is small, "but the total 
value of the "boat catch cannot "be satisfactorily segregated, with the 
inforrnation at present available, fron the nuch larger vessel catch. 

2c/ Paid chiefly to boys, "jho see]: the era_oloy?nent largely for 
the exoerience rnid t"ne s;oorto 

-^ Verification of this radical difference fro)! the general 
practice of the "boat fisheries vdth res'oect to the carriage of marine 
insur.once would "be desira'ble. 

tJ This average can hardly "be correct, as all the other data 
indicate 100 per cent of "boats v/itii no employees. 



9680 



-140- 

CHAPTER :CV 

TIIE ISTUi^S TO THE qUESTIOHHA-IHS AHD THE SIZE 

Al^lD MTUSE OE THE SAMPLE 

So far as the v/riter is aware this study represents the first 
attempt to collect comprehensive datp. on the earnin/^'s of fishermen, 
and the first to na2:e a large scale survey of a-ny phase of the fish- 
ing industry "by a nail quest ionna,ire £ind hy correspondence, 

SIE^ICULTILS or L^HE FEDJECT 

Wlien the project nas first pl^.nned it '.7as realized tlir.t the oTd- 
stacles to its success were fornidable. The questionnaire was to "be 
sent to a la,ri[;e numuer of persons, of whom the great mo,jority had pro- 
ha'bly never filled out such a form. The educa,tion and e::perience of 
these persons would tend inevita'blj'' to be ina-dequate for the purpose. 
The enterprises on which a large proportion of then would he asked to 
report are small; and "because of this exact records would not, in 
many cases, he available to supply the information desired, 

LIMITATION OF THE SUHVEY TO VESSELS 

In view of these obstacles it was thought be^it not to attempt too 
much at the beginning, and for that reason to confine the present sur- 
Yey to vessels of five net tons or more. To have covered the boat and 
shore fisheries as well would have meant sending out a total of about 
70,000 question: laires. It did not seem probable that the schedule em- 
ployed, which was complex even for the smaller vessels, could have been 
used at all for boats. 

The original purpose of the study was to obtain information re- 
garding the earnings of the employees of the industry, and in the boat 
fisheries only a minority,'' of enterprises have such persons in their 
service. Many of the members of boat crevrs who cp:a be classified as 
emplo3''ees, ::ioreover, deserve that na.me only in a ver^; modified sense, 
Finally, the proportion of boats for which no records of opers.tion would 
be available was believed to be so large as to make it doubtful v/hether 
the sample of information obtainable through the mediiri of a survey by 
mail vrould be representative enough to malie the attempt T'orth while. 

Subsequently it v/as found possible to gather some information of 
interest vdth regard to the operation of fishing boats. These data 
have been discussed in Chapter XIV, Reallir systema.tic and detailed 
figures on the boat and shore fisheries and the earnings of their crews, 
however, can be obtained only by means of field work. A beginning on such 
a study is nov; being maae ''oy the Bu.reau of Fisheries as a part of the 
Federal vrork relief program, 

SEASOl'AL FACTO?. IE THE VOLUIIE OF 5ETU5ITS 

Apart from these inevitable difvicultien the results of the survey 
were somewha-t affected ''oir the tine of year a,t which the questionnaire 
was sent out. The vessels in some of the most important fisheries are 

96SO 



-141- 

very "busy duriiv; the nonths of Auriist, SeptemlDer r.ncl OctolDer; and it \7as 
in this season that the cchcdule r/as receivecT. This caused special 
difficulty in the case of SLia.ll vessels uhich had no representatives on 
shore to fill in the forii for then, A good many rho received the ques- 
tionnaire atte-.ided to it at the end of the season, c\nd replies drifted 
in as late as the spring of 19;; 5» I-^ this -particular difficulty had 
been realized in tine, however, it would pro'bahl}'' have oeen possihle, 
"by a syste:natic follov'-up in Novenher or Decenhei', to raise the pro- 
portion of usahle returns appreciaoly, 

Without a radical change in the conditions of the industry, how- 
ever, a rather lo\/ naxirnum li^iit on the size of the sa:x)le of fishing 
vessels for v/hich it would "be possiole to gather data, of the kind and 
in the detail sought oy the present study is imposed hy the prevalent 
lack of records, : 

THE I-iAILII'IG LIST 

Tifhen the study was originally plan:ied the nones of the fishing 
vessels in active operation in 1933 '-ere not availa'ble. Use was there- 
fore made of the 1S32 schedules of the Bureau of Fisheries as a nailing 
list. It later appeared that, except ,- inAla.ska., the nunher of vessels 
actively engaged in cora::iercial fishing in 1933 ^'^^^ everywhere somewhat 
smaller than i.t had "oeen the year "before. To this e;:tent, therefore, 
the mailing list, contained dead ncj:ier:,. 

The 1932 schedules for the Pacific coast were not on file in 
Washington, For California a list of the actual schedules was ohtained. 
For the Pacific Northwest and Alaska this could not he done, and use had. 
to "be made of a list compiled from other sources. This contained a 
relatively large niixihor of dead najnes and duplications. 

THE BSTURhS TO TEI] CUESTIOmiAIldB 

Altogether these lists contaiiied the nameG of a"oout H, 7OO vessels, 
of \7hich 3*650 a.re estimrated to have "been in actual use for commercial 
fishing in 1933« --l^e total nur.iher of vessels for which some_ return 
v/as made was S9'+, excluding a few v/ith regard to which statements were 
received in the form of letters, of which no record was kept, Tahle 
LI shovfs in detail the nmnher of vessels for vrhich usahle and u.nus- 
able returns were received, and the reasons for the inc?-r".sion of var- 
ious groups in the latter category. 

The returns for the vessels constituting one— i.ian or partnership 
units with no emploj^'ees were not used, primarily, "because the main pur- 
pose of the study vras to ohtain information on the ea;,rningG of employed 
workers. In dealing with the expenses and income of vessel ovrners these 
reports might he.ve "been utilized; hut the data vrhich they supplied was 
so incomplete that the effort did not seem vrorth ^-^hile. 



96SO 



-142- 

TATLE LI 



mn.IBEIl OF VESSELS FOR "THIGH n^TUia^'S I7EEE ilADE TO THE OPJGIHAl QUESTION- 
miRE, CLASSIFIED ACOQBDim TO THE DISPOSITIOH OF KIE SCI^IDULES WITH 
KEFS3EITCE TO THE SAiIPLE a/, AID THE RSASOITS TFiEPJiFOR 



Classific .a jbion l\Tiirn]^er oiLXaas-al^ 

Vessels engaged in co ^-lerciaJ. 
fishing in 1933 5 

Supplying usalDle data: 

'Jith employees 5^2 b/ 

"FJith no emploj'-ees ^9 

Total 551 

Fa-iling to supplj^ usaole data: 

Data, inconplete or inconsistent 77 
Vessel chartered a.nd da.ta not ■ 

availalDle to owner 1 

Oyster vessels c/ 32 c_/ 

Ho records for supplying data 21 
Ho data. on earnings or finances 

reported, and no -reason given 

for non-completion 32 

Total 163 

Total vessels engaged in 

coi-iinercial fishing in 1933 71^ 

Vessels not engaged in commercial fishing 
in 1933: 

Out of commission 1U6 

In use for sport fishing only 12 

In use for transportation pui^poses only 22 

Total IgO 

Grand Total for uhich returns were made S9H 



SOURCE: Returns to H.R.A. cuestionnaire on earnings in the fishing industry, 
a/ Vessels for v^hich usaole data vrere o"btained for the purposes of the 

study, 
h/ This item hecaiie the oasis of the final sample. The other items in 

the table nere excluded, as e:rolained in the te::t. 
c/ These schedules were returned hlanl-: through a misunderstanding as t( 

the scope of the study. Equivalent data vrere suhsequently obtained 

from another source indicated in Table LII. 

96go 



-143- 



The returning of 32 unfilled schedulec for oyster vessels v;as the 
result of a misunderstanding of the scope of the study. The I>areau of 
Fisheries includes oyster dredges in its classification of fishing vessels. 
They "belong under that hea.d, hov/over, only in a qualified sense; and the 
recipients of the schedules just mentioned assumed that their vessels r/ere 
to "be excluded. A fair sample of information regarding this group having 
"been obtained from other sov.rces, the matter was not follovred up. 

The relatively large nu-.foer of returns nhich \iere not usa-"ble "because 
of the incompleteness or internal inconsistency of the date, reflects the 
small average size of a large proportion of fishing enterprises, and the in- 
adequacy of the records that are kept. Such efforts as v;ere made to o"btain 
corrections in schedules of this hind proved more successful than was at 
first expected; and if this plan had "been followed more systematically and 
from an earlier date the proportion of returns unusa'ole on this account 
could pro'ba'bly have "been rediiced considera"bly. 

The vessels reported as in use only for sport fishing or for- trans- 
portation purposes in 1933 ^'^^id presuma"bly "been engo.ged in commercial fishing 
the previous year, "but had "been transferred to the other emrolojinents because 
of the st?-te of the marhet for tlieir products. 

SUPPLEi.lEiTTAIlY STUDIES AlID DATA 



For reasons s.lready errplained the original questionnaire failed to o"b- 
tain usa"ble samples of information with regard to several important fisheries^ 
To fill these gaps as fa,r as possible, use was made of part of the returns 
to a questionnaire sent out in the fall of 193^ "by the Code Executive Com- 
mittee of the Fresh Oyster Indus trj'', on errroloyment, working hours and wages. 
Besides this, several special inquiries were undertajien with the cooperation 
of other code adiainistrative "bodies and. of the Sureau of Fisheries. The 
nature of these latter, and the num"bers of vessels with regard to which 
information was o'btained "by meciic of them and of the original q_uestionnaire, 
are shown in Table LII. The cl^ta for the vessels incl^ided there constitute 
the final sample used for the purjoses of the study, 

SIZE AW BEPRESEIITATIVEITESS OF THE SA.,I?LES 

The nuTiiber of vessels covered '"o-y this sample and the number of persons 
in their crews can be com.pared with totals for each area, but not for each 
fishery. Such a coinparison is made in Table LIII. The value of the catch 
or the gross stock of the sample vessels, however, can be compared with 
totals for each fisaery as well. This comparison appears in Table LIV. 

These tables show that the final sample includes ly per cent of the 
vessels operating in the com :ercial fisheries in the cov.ntry in 1933j 2U or 
25 per cent of their crews, and 33 pei" cent of the value of their catch. 



9680 



-144- 



TALLE LI I 



MTLlBEil or VESSIILS IN THE FIKAl S.UIPLE, d 
'SL SOUPuCE OF DAi^A 



Source Itoi.i'ber of 

Vecsels 



Returns to original raiestionnaire 5^^ 

Returns to labor questionnaire of 

Fresh Oyster Inc'ustry IS 

Special surve*' of Atlantic 

mackerel vessels 10 

Special survey of nenliaden 

Vossels lo ]d/ 

Special survey of Alaslia herring 

vessels IS 



Total includec. in the • 

final saople a/ 567 ;b/ 



a/ Vessels for v/hich usahle data vrere obtained as a iDasis 
for the stud.y. 

h/ Data for 23 additional nenhaden vessels, uhicJi \7ere re- 
ceived too late to "be incorporated in the "body of the 
report, are su:ina.rized in Appendix I. 



9620 






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9680 



-146- 

TABLE LIV 

VALUE OE CATCH OF ALL FISHING VESSELS AiH) OF SAI.IPLE a/ 
VESSELS, LY AEEA AW FISHERY, 1933 



Area and Fishery 



Ne\7 England 

G-roundf ish 
Mackerel 
Oyster 
liiscellaneoiis 

Total 



Value 
of Vessel Ca.tch 



All 
Vessels 



Sample 
Vessels a/ 



$5,093,^' 



391,000 
677,116 . 
772,06^1 

6,933,606 



$2,191,5^3 
121,0^7 
Ui7,5iS 
217,7^2 

2,9^7,250 



Per cent of 
Total Value 
Represented "by 
Sample a/ 



U3.O 
31.0 
61.7 
2g,2 

U2.5 



Middle Atlantic 








Oyst er ( excluding 


, . 






Maryland) 


1,3^7, 6go 


316, 7S0 


23.5 


Scallop 


215, SU7 


106,10s 


i+9.2 


Pound net 


273,190 


61,352 


22.6 


• Miscellaneous 


66^,0^2 


156,1^93 


23.6 



Total 

Not represented "by sample 
Oyster ( Mary 1 and) 

Grand Total 

South b/ 

Red Snapper 

M enhs.de n 

Shrimp and oyster 

Miscellaneous 

Total 

Great Lakes t/ 
Lake Erie 
Lakes Huron 
and Michigan 

Total 

Not represented "by sample 
Lakes Ontario and 
Suoerior 



Grand Total 



96SO 



2,500,759 

ios,3o6 
2,609,065 



3^5,661 h/ 

602, 6S7 ^/ 

1,116,963 t/ 

362,507 'oj 

2,U27,glS h/ 



119, S7^ b/ 

1,197,720 by 



1,317,59^ i/ 

7U,Ugg 

1,392,0S2 
(Continued) 



6^9,233 



195,3SS 
257,37^ c/ 

S2,2S5 

UU,732 

579,759 



39,3S5 
292,059 



331, ^^^ 



2^5.6 



56,5 
U2.7 

7.^ d/ 

12,3 ^f 

23.9 



32.9 



25.2 



-147- 





TAJ3LE LIV 












(Continuec.) 












Value 






Pel 


• cent of T( 


Area and Fishery 


of Vessel Catch 




Value Re'oresei 




All 


Sample 




■by 


Sajiplc a/ 


r <' 


Vessels 


Vessels 


a/ 






California 












Tuna 


$2,9oU,390 


$1,052,529 






36,U 


Tuna and sardine, 












Southern California 


925, sog 


305,921 






33-1 


Sardine, llonterey 


959,690 


92,320 






9.6 e/ 


Paranzelia net 


^!-5i,97i 


302,679 






67.0 


Alaska cod 


53,590 
U2i,7i+i 


Ul,229 






f/ 


Miscellaneous 


IS, 766 






\^ ^l 


Total 


5,717,190 


1,219,56^ 






31.2 


Northwest and Alaska 










• 


Kal itut 


1,991,09^ 


SOS, 55s 






Uo,6 


Salnon (seining and 












trolling) 


1,699,299 


225,637 






13.3^ 


Alaska herring (for 












reduction plants) 


270,195 


iUU,6oo 






53.5 


Alaska cod 


106,^23 


27,152 






1/ 


I.iiscellaneous 


5^,^+77 W 


6U,039 


n/ 




1/ 


Total j_/ 


U,121,USS 1/ 


1,329,992 


1/ 




32.3 



l\io{; represented "by 
sample 

Salnon (traps) 
Alaska herring 
(for salteries and 
"bait plants) h/ 

Discrepancy in value of 
herring for reduction 
plants h/ 

Grand Total j_/ 

Recapitulation! 

Catch of Fisheries: 
Represented "by sample 
Not represented "by 
saiiiple 
Discrepancy in value of 
herring for reduction 
plants h/ 
United States and Alaska j_/ 



1,0^3,775 
7U, 50s 

352,199 
5,597,970 J./ 

23,013,^55 

1,301,077 



352,199 
2^,677,731 i/ 



7,6U9,sU2 



32.2 



9680 



( Cont inued) 



-148- 

TA3LE LIV 
( Continued ) 

a./ Vescels for -/hicli usa'ble data \-'cre olDtained as a, "basis for the study, 

'h/ Estimated "by the author. 

_c/ Ttto Eienliaden vessels ^-'orking on shares, r^hich are included in the 

miscellaneous group in Taoles XlllY to XXIX, a.re here, for purooses 
of conroarison, grouped v'ith the menhaden nage vessels in the South. 

d/ These fisheries are carried on oy sr.aJ.l vessels, in many cases only 

just aoove the five-ton line, Hecords are scanty and the response 
to the questionnaire was poor. The representativeness of the sample 
is open to some douht, 

_e/. This is not a random sample, the 10 vessels nhich it includes having 
iDeen selected "by a qualified informant on the ground as supplying 
a fair cross section of the fishery. It is "believed therefore, that 
though it accounts for a relatively small percentage of the totc.l 
catch, it is not less representative than the other saxrples, 

f_l It is "believed that the scj.rple includes all the vessels engaged in this 
fishery in 1933 > s^c. that tlie difference loetueenthe ti;o figui.res 
for the value of the catch is dae to methods of computation. 
As the catch is not sold in an unprocessed state the value is in 
any case artificial. 

g/ This fishery includes many small vessels for \7hich the records are un- 

satisfactor^''. The sample, hor/ever, though it accpiints for a relatively 
small percentage of the total valtie, includes returns for 65 vessels, 
and is "believed to "be smficiently representative, 

h/ The value of the total catch of herring reduction plants in Alaska is 

"based on the average "orices reported "by the individual companies in- 
cluded in the sample. These prices are consideralDly lower than that 
used "by the Bureau of li'isheries in arriving a,t its estimated value of. 
the whole catch. The value of tlie catch of salteries and "bait plants 
in the ta"ble is "based, in the lack of other da,ta, on the Bureau pricSi 
It is oonscquently too high in proportion to the item for the reduction 
plants, 

_i/ Both the sample and the totc-1 values in this case are residual figures, 

and are not com.para'ble, I 

j_/ Excluding the catch of all salmon traps and of other vessels e:nd. gear 
ovmed or 0"oerated "by salm.on canneries in Alaska, 



There are arguments for measuring the size of the samples on any 
of these three "bases. It is :"best, proha'dy, to keep all of them in mind. 

In ma,king the foregoing , stateyients uith regard to the size of the 
sample, the items specified in Tahle LIV as not represented at all have been 
excluded. These latter account for only eight per cent of the total number 
of fishing vessels, for six per cent of their crews, 'and for less than six 
per cent of the value of their catch; and with respect to the countr3'- as a 
whole their inclusion or exclusion does not much affect the size of the 
sararple. In the case of a few individual fisheries, hovrever, the segregation 
of these items does influence the re'oresentation ao-orecia"bly. 



96SO 



-149- 

No special steps nere talzen, for various reasons, to fill the gaps 
corresponding to these excluded ite^is. The oyster fishery of I.Iaryland - 
the only vessel fishery in that St?.te ~ \7orks on a snail scale, and the 
collection of data nas hampered "by local difficulties connected uith the 
1T.R.A, codes. The vessel fishery of Loi:e Ontario is negli^^jihle, and that 
of Lake Superior is of very secono^ry importance. The unrepresented Alaska 
herring plants a.re for the nost part too inaccessihle to "be reached hy the 
methods of the study. 

The samples ohtained for the miscellaneous fisheries of the South and 
of California, for the salmon fishery of TiTashington and Oregon, r^id for the 
shrimp and oyster fisheries of the South a,re a good deal helor; the standard 
of size for the survey as a nhole. These all involve ma.ny small vessels, 
v;hich are orrned "by persons ill eouipped to fill out complex questionnaires 
and for v/hich the records are inadecuate. It does not necessarily follow, 
however, that the samples a.re not representative. In the cr.se of the salmon 
fishery of Washington and Oregon in particular no reason is kno^vn for 
supposing that such is the case. T"ne saxiple of the shrimp and oyster fish- 
eries of the South, houever, is especially small, and six of the total of 20 
vessels were ov/ned "by a single co' roany. No positive reason is knovm for 
thinl'ing that these data are unrepresentative; Irat they need to he used Tilth 
special caution. 

The representation of the ilontere;: sa.rdine fishery is also small. This 
is not, houever, a random sample, hut na.s selected "by a qua-lified informant 
on the ground as constituting a fair cross section of the fisherjr, 

TESTS OF THE MTA FOR IHTERML COIXISTEITCY 

In view of the limitations on the volume of data ootainaole uhich vrere 
imposed "by the conditions of the industr;/ it ha.s seemed advisahle, _ hesides 
measuring the size of the samples a^ssemoled, to test them fiirther hy analyzing 
certain internal relations of the iteyis called for hy the schedii.le, 

(1) The ratio to the value of the catch of operating expense, vessel share 
and crew share was computed for each share vessel, and the resulting percent- 
ages were distributed in frequencies, hy area. In every case there resulted 
a distribution with a v;ell-def ined .lode, which resemhled a normal frequ.ency 
curve sufficiently to estahlish likelihood that the data constitiited a 
representative sample. Such peculiarities of distrihution a.s v;ere met with 
appeared to "be a.dequatel;'- accoiuited for hy known conditions. 

(2) The operating expense and the vessel and crew share for each share 
vessel were added together, and the total compared with the value of the 
catch. Theoretically this correspondence should he exact, "but fnere are 
legitimate reasons for many minor discrepancies. In all hut a small pro- 
portion of cases - perhaps five to ten per cent of the total nimher of 
vessels - the sum of the three items varied from the gross stock hy not more 
than five per cent. Cases v/here tlie va.riation vras greater than this have 
"been included in the sample only v/hen the figures supplied appeared reliahle 
on other grounds, or when a prooa-hle explanation of the excess discrepancy 
suggested itself. For all share vessels included in the final saxiple the 
sum of operating expense, vessel share a^nd crew share varies from the value 
of the catch hy only one-half of one per cent. 



-150- 



EEPBES ENTATION 0? LAHGE AID Si iAL L ^/ESSELS 

The fact that the percentaces of vessels, of nen, anJ. of the Collar 
output covered "by the sample differ :iaterially indicates in itself that the 
larger vessels are disproportionatel;.' represented. It is uiiliL-icly that this 
result coiild have heen avoided, ^2he larger vessels are tae ones for vrhich 
the most complete and consistent records existed, and in the case of which 
there were r.iost likely to he persons on shore conpetent to reply to a 
questionnaire. The o^-ners of such vessels, moreover, tended, on an average 
to "be suoerior in education and in "breadth of e:rperience to the owners of 
the snail er units. 

The extent of this overrepresentation of large vessels 'oir the study is 
indicated roughly in Tahle LV. A part of the difference in the proportions i 
of the various tonnage classes which the ta"ble shows, however, is due to the " 
discrepancy "between the classifications and the areas covered, 

TA3LE LV 

DISTRIBUTIOH OF SAI.IPLE VESSELS a/, I933, Ai'ID OE ALL EISIIIHG 
VESSELS ON TIE] ATLiUITIC Al'JD GULF COASTS, 1920, 
3Y TOlLlAGE CLASS 



Sanole Vessels a/ 



Per cent 
Tonnpgc of lto.i"ber of 
Class Vessels 



All Fishing Vessels, 
Atlantic and Gulf Coasts 
Per cent of 
Tonnage l^jaVoer of 
Class Vessels 



Under I5 tons 3U.O ) 
15 to 29 tons 2^.^ ) 

30 to U9 tons 1^.3 

50 tons and over 2b, 3 

Total 100.0 



30 tons and 

under Cl,^ 

31 to 50 tons 5,g 
51 tons and over 12,8! 

Total 100.0 



SOURCES: Computed from data in Eureau of Fisheries, 

Fishery Industries of the United, States, 1930 , 
and returns to 11,'R.A. questionnaire on earnings 
in the fishing industry. 



sJ 



Vessels for which usa"ble data were obtained as a "bp.sis 
for the study. 



9620 



-151- 

CORRECTION OF DISTORTION BY WSIGHTIN& 

The unequal representation of the various fisheries in the sample, 
v'hich is shown "by Table LIV and the over-representation of large ves- 
sels which has just been commented on, are the two things most likely 
to have a distorting effect on averages and ratios derived from the 
data which were obtained for the purpose of the study. The former, 
however, v/hich only affects the derived figures for the large geogra- 
phical areas and for the country as a whole, is much more important 
from this standpoint than the latter. 

The average tonnages of the sample vessels in individual fisheries 
do not in most cases vary materially from the tonnages of the corres- 
ponding typical vessels reported on the supplementary schedule. More- 
over, even where such a variation exists, it need not affect the re- 
presentativeness of the sample seriously, as long as the terms of the 
lays in use, the distribution of operating expenses, the length of the 
fishing season and the species caught were the same, as they v;ould tend 
to be within a given fishery.* 

The distortion due to the unequal size of the samples for the var- 
ious fisheries, while it does not affect fundamentally the conclusions 
suggested by the crude averages and ratios for the large areas, and 
still less those for the United States as a whole, is much more than 
negligible. Its effect, however, can be corrected for by weighting the 
averages and ratios in question with the total numbers of vessels or of 
men in each fishery, or with other appropriate factors. Such a correc- 
tion, moreover, effects the very large part of the distortion due to the 
over-representation of large vessels, which results indirectly from the 
fact that the latter are concentrated in comparatively few fisheries. 

It has not been practicable to carry out systematically such a 
weighting of the area and countrywide averages and ratios in the tables 
of the report. Tables XLV, XLVII and LVI , however, which have already 
been commented on, show the effect of weighting the figures . for av- 
erage earnings per m;an, and for average vessel share and average own- 
er's expense per vessel. The resulting modifications are interesting 
and by no means negligible; but as remarked above they hardly change 
fundamentally the conclusions suggested by the crude averages. 

(*) The miscellaneous fisheries distinguished for the purposes of the 
study would be the ones most likely to furnish exceptions to this 
statement. There is reason to think that the miscellaneous fish- 
ery of New England actually does so. Further study of the data 
would be advisable. 



9680 



-152- 



TAZLI] LVI 



AVERi^GE TOTAL EASITINGS PER l.XI Oil SA1.IPLE a/ SHARE VESSELS, CRUDE 
AlO) T7EIGHTED ACCORDIIIG TO THE TOTAL MJl.IBER OF VESSEL 
FISKERl.IEN IN MCH EISIOIRY, 3Y APJEA, 153 3 



Area 



AYerag:e Earnii%'':s 'oer lian 
Crude TJeiehted 



Kew England 

Groundfish ]b/ 
lliddle Atlantic 
South 

Great Lakes 
Call Tornia 

North\7est and Alaska 
United States and Alaska 



$520 


$6go 


59S 


S69 


672 


690 


2U2 


33s 


673 


59s 


979 


919 



639 
591 



603 



&55 



SOURCES: Computations fron data in l\i,R,A, questionnaire on 
earnings in the, fisliing industry, e.nC- in the 
Lureau of Eisneries, Eishory Indu.stries of the 
United Stc tos . 

a/ Vessels for nhich, usE^jle da-ta r;ere ol^tained for the 
purposes of the stv.dy, . 

^/ Average of vessels under 50 tons and those of 50 tons 
and over. 



9680 



-153- 



GEIvERAX FJILIA3ILITY OF THS MgA 

Sone concideration has hac. to "be given, of cor.rse, not only to the 
adequacy of the samples from the standpoint of size and of representative^ 
ness, "but also to the accurac'^ of the data coy.iposing ther.i, 3ecau.se of the 
United e^ipcrience and facilities of a large proportion of the persons rjho 
replied to the questionnaire the schedules inevitahly required a good deal 
of editing, A su"bstantial a.nount of lahor has "been devoted, to this; and 
rrhere it has not "been possi"ble, "by coin"bining all the information that could 
l3e obtained uith rega.rd to a given vessel fron the schedule and fron other 
sources, to arrive at reasonahly cor.iplete and consistent figures, it has 
"been excluded fron the final sanple, 

Sone of the data supplied are acuiittedly estimates, l)ut uhere these 
have appeared internally consistent no reason has "been seen for not using 
them. Here and there gaps have "been filled "by su"btraction. 

In general, the inpression o"btained from the editing and analysis of 
the original schedules, fron a large rj.i0Lint of su"bsenuent correspondence 
and from many personal intervieus, is that a substantial and fairly 
representative proportion of tlie 0'.7ners of fishing vessels in the United 
States and Alaska have made an honest effort to cooperate in the study "by 
supplying adequate and relia'ble data, and that in the main and for practical 
purposes the result has heen a success. 



9680 



-15^ 



APPENDIXES 



QA 



58J 



-155- 



APPSNLIX I 



ADDITIONAL DATA ON EASTINGS IN THS 
'V. ' ICENHADEN FISHERY 

The data for the menhaden fishery vrhich appear in the body of 
the report all relate to the State of Virginia, except that tv/o vessels 
v7orking on shares have been included in the miscellaneous group of the 
Middle Atlantic area, and tv/o in the same group in the South, Efforts 
to obtain fuller information on the menhaden fishery of the South 
Atlantic coast did not bear fruit until the tabulation of the original 
returns had been completed. Subsequently, hov/ever, reports were received 
on an additional group of vessels in Georgia and Florida; and these will 
now be summarized briefly. 

Reports were obtained with regard to 2Z vessels, owned and operated 
by five companies. These comprised six vessels of less than 15 net tons, 
four of 15 to 29 tons, eight of 30 to 49 tons and five of 50 tons or more. 
Their aggregate capacity was 841 net tons, and their crews totaled 357 men. 
Rank or occupation was specified in the case of 291 on 17 vessels. These 
included 17 caiDtains, 17 mates and 17 chief engineers, six pilots, four 
assistant engineers, one fireman, 13 cooks, six strikers, five boat- 
keepers, 18 seine setters, and 187 ordinary fishermen. 

The 23 vessels operated for an average season of 24.1 weeks in 1933, 
and 25.8 weeks in 1934. In the former year they caught 58, 112,000 
menhaden, valued at $96,204, and in the latter 74,381,000, valued at 
$123,443. 

The owners of these vessels -oaid for the fish caught at an agreed 
rate per jrhousand - 75 cents in the case of three companies, and 87 cents 
in the remaining instance. These payments were divided among the men on 
a scale based on rank and resT)onsibility. In a t^'pical case the 75 cents 
per thousand fish was divided to give ten cents to the caiDtains, six cents 
to the engineers, four cents each to the cooks, strikers and seine setters, ajid 
three to three and a half cents each to the ordinary fishermen. All 
expenses, including the cost of the crev;»s food, were borne by the owners. 

Complete data on employees' e?^rnings v/ere supTolied in the case of 
only nine of the 23 vessels. These nine had an average capacity of 35.3 
tons and an average cre'j of 12.7 men, as against 35.6, tons and 15.5 men 
for the larger group, T'vo of the three companies owning them paid for the 
catch at the rate of 75 cents, and one at the rate of 37 cents. The 
average operating season in 1934 was nearly the same as that of the 23 
vessels (24.5 weeks), but in 1933 it was shorter (19.4 weeks). In the main 
the smaller group was fairly representative of the larger. 

The 114 men on the nine vessels received a total volume of compensa- 
tion of $29,522 in 1933, and of $37,793 in 1934. The former figure 
represented 38,9 per cent of the corresponding value of the catch, and the 
latter 38.4 per cent. These ratios are quite normal for the fishing industry. 



Q^or) 



-156- 



The c.vera;^e wage per ma,n for the season on .the nine vessels was 
approximately $259 in 1953, and $332 in 1934, The average \7a^e per week 
per man for all ranlcs or occupations was about $13<,50 in "both years. For 
ordinary fishermen, however, the average money wage per week only slightly 
exceeded $7c00o 

The payment of "bonuses, in which all neraljers of a crew might share, 
was formerly common in this fishery, "but has "been rare of recent years. 



9680 



< 
-157-^ ' 

APKEMDIX II 

THE 'SCHEDULES USED IFsG^^CiEOIKDOlir 

WITH THE STUDY 

Since the schedules or questionnaires sent out in connection with 
the present study are "believed to have "been the first ever drafted for 
ohtaining detailed information with regard to earnings in the fishing 
industry, it has seemed advisahle to append copies of them to the report. 
They will be found at the end of this Appendix, 

Ouing to the pioneer and experimental character of these schedules 
it was found, inevitahly, when the returns were edited and tabulated, 
that changes in the arrangement^ and the wording would have facilitated 
the work, and would prolDahly have improved somewhat the volume and 
quality of the data. Since the forms may "be consulted in connection with 
further investigations: on the same subject, it seems advisable to des- 
cribe these defects briefly here, 

A. ORIGIIIAJ. QUESTIONNAIRE ON EISHSmiEN'S EAMINGS IN 1953 

Inquiry I . A question regarding the vessel owner's status as a 
wholesale dealer, processor or independent fisherman, as a corporation, 
partnership or individual, and as commander of the vessel or otherwise, 
should have been added here. 

Inquiry II . The instruction should preferably have read, "State the 
earnings of members of the crew which took the form f^f time wages (per 
hour, day, trip, week, month or season), whether those receiving them 
also had a share in a lay or not. Exclude all earnings from shares and 
from percentage bonuses ." A line should have been provided for stating 
the total vol-urae of wages paid during the year. 

The form of Inquiry II resulted inadvertantly in the submission of 
interesting data with regard to the- number of weeks in 1933 during 
which wage earners were actively earning, while in the case of the 
much Dore numerous share fishermen no such information was obtained, 
A question on the latter point should have been included. 

Inquiry III . It is doubtful whether the inc3iusion of these questions, 
which v/ere inserted at the request of the Labor Adviser on the N, R, A, 
Fishery Code, was advisable. They were widely misunderstood, and there 
was danger that the replies would be affected by bias. As a result, it 
has not been thought vrorth while to use them in the present report. In 
any case the wording of the questions should have been fuller and more 
precise. 

Inquiry IV-^j .. The definitions of the accounting terms used in this 
question were not adequate. The distinction between owners and operat- 
ing or trip expense; the fact that the latter should be the sum of the 
joint and the crew expense; and the fact that the boat or vessel share 
should include all shares accruing to the owner under whatever name, and 



9680 



-158- 

should be stated "before drductiri:^ the caT^tain's "boniis or any other item 
of expense, ought to have "been nade clearer.- "Crew share" should have 
read "Total crer share." 

The arrs-n^p-e-ient of the talile under Qiiea'ti'on !■ of Inquirj^ IV 
to pernit the entry of the drta for 193o- "by individual trii-)S ^'as adopted 
at the ingtan'ce"- oT'-an. ,£vdviser \-^ell acquainted ^-'ith' the industry. The 
proportion ^f das-e?, '.haTrever, in ^.-'liich. those nho returned the schedule 
put th^ir fi.^resin such a forri nas very, snallo it v-oul d have "been 
"better" to devote .t'lis space to a for-n for. enterin.^ the totals for the ' 
year only, as an inco;-ie and e^rpence .stater.ent . This v.'ould have .^iven 
more space to write ancT roo.i for -full e.r. and clearer definitions, and for 
su'ototals calculated.- to-. provide a checl: on the consictencj'' of the figures. 

In quiry XV^S . It wotild xisve been desira'ble to -nrovide a simple 
method of indicating- the relative Quantities of two or more s"oecies in- 
cluded in the catch,. . , 

Inquiry IVrr.^^o The replie-s to this apriarently pimple question 
required a great deal cf intsrtoretation and editing. The request for 
the nu'ilDer of porspn s on shares only should' have "b'een omitted, while 
those for the nLr-'"beiG on wages only -and- on wages in addition to shares 
should have "been o.ccor.yB.n.ied. by a r'^orm for stating the. ra-n-'s and the rates 
of wages o"*: those inoliided. There were asked for in Qiiestion 5, "but 
the latter was frequently overlooked,-; , "TJages" should have "been defined 
to exclude percentage "bonuses, ■ . ' 

< 

The "p.se of, the am'bigous term "average size of the crew" in- 
stead of the- "usual .nun"ber b"^ .Ten., in the crew" "brought its OTJn punish- 
ment from a Japanese owner in C-alifornia, who ans'^ered "5 ft, 3 in," 

Inquiry - 17-4 . A standard, list of items- o:^ "both o^oerating and 
overhead expense should have been given ^'^ re ^ 'with.- the means of indicat- 
ing whether each was 3ncui*i''edv and if . -op j ' whether it \ms charged to 
joint, to crew or to owner- s expense. Provision should have been m-a.de 
for stating whether tots.l ovner*-s sxpens^ did or did not include a write- 
off for depreciation on the vessel and gear, ■ '. 

The req^uest to "enclose a co'oj"' of your lay agreement" was made 
for reasons connected with code administration, -Such copies as were 
sent in, however, proved of value in supplementing incomplete or con- 
fusedi data in th(3 body of- many schedules. 

B. and C. ' SU?PLEI.:3NTMY SCHEDULE S ' ,' : 

"''■: -The. two sup clement -0.1 y schedules on the vessel and on the boat 

and shore fisheries were experiments, in obtaining data, which probably 
could not have been collected at all bv broadcast questionnaires, by 
asking for re;oprts or. t^'^:)ical vessels or boats in important fisheries 
from a limited and selected list of exnert informants - chiefly field. agents 
of the Bureau of fisheries. The results ^"ere on the v/hole very satis- 
factory, and. the metho-d is believed, to c?eserve more consideration than 
it has received for d.ealing with comioarable situations. 



9680 



-159- 



Experience r/ith the earlier su-oplementary questionnaire on 
the vessel fisheries (p) indicated that somewhat "better results light 
have oeen olDtained "by amplifying and particularizing the inquiries. 
This was cone in the later foin (C) for the "boat and shore fisheries. 
The lengthening of the schedule was prolDably not a serious ohjection 
in view of the special qualifications of the correspondents. The later 
schedule (C) should consequently he taJcen as indicating the form shown 
"by experience to "be more desira'ble for a questionnaire of this type. 



9680 



- leo- 

A. QEIOIHAL QUISTiaSHAIICE CB FISHEBMXStS 
EABSmas DT 1933 

3-7-29 COKFIDEMTIAL QOYERNMENT HEPOBT 

, THE NATIONAl RECOVERY ADMINISTHATIOH 
Washington, B. C. 

FISHEBUEN'S EARNINOS IN 1933 

ThJB report covers bot^ts oneratln/^ on a, lav aOSL aJ-ao S& A !&££ ]2aBil< 

In accordance witn Sections 3a and 6a of the National Industrial Recovery Act, you are reqieoted aid 
required to fill out the following schedule. Please return the questionnaire in the enclosed emelope 
(whicn requires no postage) to the Division of Research and Planning, National Recovery Adtainiatration, 
Washington, 0. C. as proo^tly as possil^le. The additional schedule is for your files. Hda report will 
^e available only to sworn en^loyees of the National Recovery Administration, and of other Oovvmrnent 
Orgsnizationa officially interested in the subject matter. 

If the person receiving this form owns a fishing boat but does not opera^ it, he should see that the 
nuestionaaire is put in the hands of the Captain or other person rho does operate the boat and is rssponslols 
for the settlement of the lay. 

REaPORT ON A SEPARATE TCBiJ rOH'EACU BOAT TOU OWI^ A.'.'x) OPERATE. 



Administrator 



THIS IS TO CKrt'i'IlT that the information supplied on this form is correct and complete to tie best 
of my toiDwled^e and belief. 



])at« 



., 1934. 



Signed 



IWqUIR? I - DESCRIPTION OF BOAT 



Oode Division of the Flshinf Industry 

1. Nft-ne of boat 3. Set tonnage 

4. Name of owner or owners 

6. Type of flshinfj gear 



3, Port from which operated_ 



_5. Post office address of owner or owners. 



8. Does this boat vork on a lay or share agreement?. 



9. Name of l;iy, if a name is ooirnioaly used 



C?es'«»r Ho) 



IMi^UIRY II - EARftlNSS OF CMirf/^ MOT ON LAT IN 1933 



State tne earnings of members of flsnirie crews who did not work on a lay in 1933 but on wa^s. 





Position 

or rank 

( Soecif y) 


Waaes - 1933 




Number of 

eac>^ r;^rik; 


Number of 
weeks vrarked 


Total wage* 
received 


Cat) tain 


1 






















, 









INgUIHY III - MISClXIJUiECUS 



1. Is any minimum su-n ^uf.ranteed to any members of the crew under the layT If so, for ifcat 

members of the crew was there such a guarantee in 1933 and in what a-aountsT Were such 

guarantee sums deducted from a later ssttlementT . 

(Tes or No) 

2. Who pui-chases tne supplies for the boat? Who receives any reoate or discount given on 

such purchases? 

3. Is the catch sold at the current price after landing? _ 

iTes or No) 

4. Is n price ever erwiranteed before sailing? If eo, is the quantity that will be taksn 



specified? 



practice?. 



(Tes or No) 



(Tes or No) 
Is it a coCTDon practice? 



What is tne reason for, the 



(usual or unusual) 



5. Is any part of the crew share ever held back to cover xiqusual or special current or future expenses? 

If 80, cite instances and the- reasons therefor , . 

(Tes or No) 



9680 



• IfL.. 
nomg IT , naxmn at ux t* hm 



1. 8Utt IB tho tabl* b«lo« tht rcflulti of t6« ligr for Moh trip flutda durlnf lOSS ^^ the ^ni r«poH«d 
for OB thli form. If jroup booki permit you to give aflaaMflv the total flguwB for saAb oeltuto for tlw 
«tael« jr«ar, you niy omit tho data Dy trlpt and furalih th« totals only on the tottea llae. 

Joint teaaaiai Xnolud* la Joint axpaBM all Itwi pftld from groM tto^ yrief to i^lettlflibaAl iliAN 

or orm ahar*. 

Bqat or owa«f » « «h*i'>i Ownar't •Aaro takts aftar Joint axpaaaa paid. 

Qraw amanaai Include all lt«nt. If any, teOten out after deduction of 9«&6r'e ehAre Ihit before alltttll g 
orM ahare. Btparate thie Into (1) er«w wacei (in addition to aharet) and (8) all stMf enw eiptaMti 

QBBtain'i bonuei Any boaui paid to Captain from any ahara. 
grew aharai Share nlloitod oraw f^tar all o^her axpfaMt oatd. 



i 
Trlpi 


B 

Sate 
of 

land- 
ing 


C . 
?rinol- 
pol 

kind* 
of fleh 
cau£ht 


ITufflber In crew (lb- 
. eluding oantain) 


1 

Sales 

' value 
of 

oat oh 
(srosB 
stook) 


t 

CmnnaBa 


reoelvln* 


Joint, 
expense 


Boat 
shars 


Ofen Sroaaae ^ . 


rirOTir 


Owner's 
(kfe- 

pense 


CaptaUU 

bonu« 


.Shares 
only 


Wacei. 

only 


Wa«ea 

and 

eharei 


Crew 
wa«es 
( in add! 
tion to 


Other 
■ penses 


itkare 


1 




























2 




























■ 3 




























4 




























8 




























* 




























7 


















^ 










R ■ 




























9 




























■ 10 




























11 




























12 




























13 




























14 




























16 




























16 




























17 




























IE 




























19 














( 














20 






















, 






21 




























22 




























23 




























24 




























TOTALS 


i:-T-r-T= 


yxx 


xxx 


XXX 




. 




..... 











3. List th"? principal kinds of fleh caught during the year_ 



3. Stete t)ie average size of the crew (including captain)_ 
oeived siiaree only? ___^ Wages only? 



How many of the crew r»- 



fagee and eharesT , . 



4. Vliet were your principal Itema of expense which you lncli*d In the above table undert 
Joint ezpeneeT Crew expeg— T Owner's expense? 

(fie sure to state to which expense food, fuel, aalt and lo«,and captain's bonus were cha:rged 

5. If any aiembers of the crew received wages in addition to their shares list their rank and 



FI£ASK SHCLOSE a OjOPT or TOUB UT JkOSXBOt 
9680 



B. SUPPLEU1MIAH7 QpESTIOMAIiLE 0& 
THE VESSEL J*ISHSRI£S 

FbTm 1^^-68 Confidential Gfrp wssssnt B.eryort . File yp,,. 

' MTIOSAL RS00VEH7 lOMIinS^BCIUDS 

Division of Recearcli and Planalng 
Washington, D. C» 

fecial Report on . 

Area „ 

The information reqaeated below is for purposes of supplementing data aecur^ 
from individual boat-owners in the above finery in your 2a*ea. You are r^<meste4 
to fill out j^ separate questionnaire for each fishery for which you have received 
a questionnaire . 

Your replies will be held strictly confidwitial. Althoti^ answers to oaxy of 
the questions below can be at best estimates and often matters of opinion, you are 
asked to furnish your estimates as to the most typical situation lir this partlaa- 
lar fishery in your area. 

Your cooperation in returning this qaestionnair© properly filled out to the 
Division of Research and Planning, National Recovery Administration, Waahin|5toxi» 
D, C. will be greatly appreciated. 

Note: All questions refer to the f i hery in the area gpecified above and relate 
to the year 1934 unless otherwise specified. 

Name of respondent _ ^ . 

Address ^ . ^ , 

l.(a) Indicate whether in this fishery in your area each of the following ej^enef 
items are generally deducted from gross stock before boat share or from net 
stock after boat share (use "B" for before and "A" for after). 

Crew wages or bonuses (other than shares) 

Food Bait 

Ice __»_______«. Engine fuel 

Salt Lubricants __________„ 

Barrels, baskets,, 
boxes, etc. 

(b) Were any of the above items customarily handled otherwise in 1929? (Explain) 

— — I II I Ill ■ I I ■ ■ > < 1 .1 . 11 ■»■ 

2* Estimate the percentage of operating or trip eixpenses normally accounted for in 
this fishery in your area by each of the follov/ing items: 

Item Per cent of operating or trip 

expense 

Crew wages or bonuses (other than shares) T o 

Food ^ 

Ice. ■ 

Salt 

Barrels, baskets, boxes, etc 

Bait 

Engine fuel: 

Coal , ^^ 

Diesel Oil 

Gasoline " 

Lubricants . 

Other ( specify). . . . ; ____«___-, 

Total . 100 

9680 



mMtm^ 



-168-. 



3. kThat is the net tonnage and size of the crew of a "typical" vessel in this 
al)ove fishery in your area? 
Nuniber of tons (net) 
NiJnher of crew members (including Captain) 



4, Estimate the original cost and the number of years' life commonly used in writ- 
ing off depreciation on this' typical vessel: 

Item Estimated original Estimated number of 

_______j_,,.._^ cost years* life 

Hull $ years 



Sngine 
Nets 



5 Eitlmate the cost per $1,000 of value of each item listed below for this typical 
vessel in 1929 and in 1934: 



Item 



Repair and maintenance (per $1,000 
original cost) 

Marine insurance (per $1,000 

apprai sed value) 

State and local taxes (per $1,000 
assessed value) 



Cost per $1,000 value 



1934 



1929 



6, Estimate (or secure fi-om a recognized seller of these items) the average price 
paid by vessel operators for tc^ch of the following items in this fishery in 
your area during the years listed: 



Item 


1934 


1933 


1929 


Engine fuels 
Coal (per ton) — . 


$ 


$ 


t 


Diesel oil (per gallon) 








Gasoline (per gallon) 








Ihibricants (per gallon) 








Ice (per cwt, ) 








Salt (per cwt, ) 








Bait (per cwt. ) 









7» Estimate in the table below the n-umber of vessels which pay their crew members 
on a wage basis exclusively and the number which pay on a lay basis. 



Method of payment 


number of 
vessels 


Total number of crew 
members on these vessels 


On a wage basis exclusively. . . . 






On a lay basis 






Totals 













8,- Have any important changes been widely made since 1929 which have significantly 
affected the relative shares of the gross stock received by the crew and by the 

boat owner in this fishery? . If yes, indicate on the reverse side^ 

(yes or no) 
the nature of each change, its effect, and the year in which it occurred. 



D-&-101 



-164» 

C« gaSTLMUMCAEi ^pMBtinreiTBI on TSS. BQiS 
AHD SBOOBX 7ISHmXi 

Confidential Goremiwnt Report 



HATIONAL EBCOVEHT ADUTSlSTajaiOS 
Indastrj Reporting Unit, Division of Review, 
Washington, C. C. 

SPECIAL REPORT ON BOIIP AND SHORE yiSHERIES 
Fisheiy .«.««««.»._«______ Area . 



Tile No* • • • 



The information reqaeeted in the qfuestionnalre refers only to Voate of less 
than 5 net tons. All C[u«»tion8 refer to the fishery in the area specified ttoove 
and relate to the year 1934 xmlees otherwise indicated. A separate report is re- 
quested on each fishery. 

All replies will he held strictly confidential* Tour cooperation in return- 
ing this questionnaire properly filled out to the Industry Reporting Unit, Statis- 
tics Section (LaSalle Building), National Recovery Administration, Washington, D. C. 
will be groatly appreciated. The additional copy is for your files. 



Nar.e of respondent 
Address ____«_^__ 



DatP 



Note: In filling out this questionnaire It shotild he "borne in mind that the aajojl ty 
of questions refer to the "typical* sitnation in this fishery. 



!• Description of "typic 


sal" power and 


noi>*power boats 


in this fishery in your area. 




Power Boat 


No]>.power Boat( sailing or oar) 


Descriptive items 
of typical boat 


Number 


'J' t 


Original 
cost 


Normal 

yrs.of 

life 


Number 


Unit 


Original 
cost 


Normal 

yrs.of 

life 


Hull., 


TX 


xir 


<^ 




•rr 




± 




Bngine........ ..^, 


•nr 


■nr 


k 




n 


"tpi 




77 


Gear reqoi red-one boatj 
Nets..,,.*..., 


















Dredges.*.. ••••••••... 


















Pots ., 


















Uisc. gear............ 






































1 














Age of hull (1934) 


, years 


mil 1 y***"^ 


Men roqulred(Capt,& Crew) 


•neT*'5on" 


^ ^, , nereons 



2. 



4. 



5. 



Indicate by circling the proper months, 
the fishing "season" of this fisheiyj J. F. M. A. M, J. J. A. S. 0, N. D. 

State the normal length of a trip In this fisheryt a. Power boats...... ..«„ days 

b, Noikxpower hnAtn days 

Stat« the nunjber of trips taken by a typical boat in this fishery during the fish- 
ing season: a* Powerboats •'O?^ 1^-'^'^ 

b. Non-powerboats.... i9gA 1933 

Are boats in this fisheiy customarily engaged in other fisheries during the off- 
season in this fishery? «.«..«_«»«. If yss, indicate fisheries and relative im- 
portance of movement, (yes or no) 



Name of other fisheries 



Per cent of total boats in this fishery engs.ged at in- 
dicatod fisheries when not active in this fishery 



Power Boats 

r 



Non-power B oats 



6. Estimate the percentage of total boats (of each type) in this fishery which are: 



a. Manned by one person. , •,•••,..••... 

b. Manned (crew plus capt. ) by two or 

more persons.,, ...•••,•••......... 



Total boats in fisheiy. 



Power Boats 


Non-T30wer Boats 










1005t 


100^ 



9680 



-16s;. 



7. 



Estimate the percentage of the total number qX, lUBftiS ffl@Jl^«4 lOL jwQ QZ OfiSft 
peraQna idiich operated on each of the follovlng plans! 



a. Boats In which member* of crew (inclndlng 

captain) are part owners •• 

h. Boats in which members of crew are pd» wages 
c. Boats operating on share or lay basis 



PQinr BQfttf 



Total boats operated by two or more persons 



1001^ 



Wnih'aQwgr S^ata 



1005^ 



8. 



Of the total boats in this fishery oi)erating on a share or ley basis estimate 
the proportion in which: 



Power Bnata 



a. Owner receives part of diare alloted to crew*. 

b. Owner receives aa part of share alloted to 

cirew* •• ••••••••••.«•••••.••••••. 



Total boats on share or lay baslsi 



100^ 



WoTV-poway -RoAta 



100^ 



9. 



Estimate the rates of wages most conmonly paid and the percentage of the total 
number of workers employed on a wage basis receiving indicated rates. 



Most prevalent 
rates of wages 


Unit (per day, 
week, etc*) 


Estimate per cent of total eo^loyees 
(worWng on waiEre basis) receiving irjr- 
dlcated rates 


19;j5 


1934 


1933 


1929 


i 












i 












i 












$ 












Total en^loyees work>- 
in^; on wage ba&is •«• 


txx 


ioo<i 


1001^ 


100^ 


lOOjf 



10« state the approJcimate nuniier of weeks for which wages were paid on a typical lege 
boat in this fishery: 1934 ^ ., . , weeks 1933 __«»«.«..«««.««»...^ weeks 

11, a. Sstitnatc the proportion of pereons engaged in this fishery tAio received any 

material addtional money income from occupations other than fishing during 

1934? 5^ 

b. What proportion of the total money income in a typical case was derived from 
fishing in 19347 5^ 

12. Indicate by check i^) in coliimns 1 and 4, the items wAiich are usually included in 

the operating or trip espense of a typical power boat and a typical non-power 
boat; and in columns 2, 3, 5, and 6 indicate the quantity and cost for 1934 of 
the items so included. 



Item 



Power Boat 



Items in- 
cluded in 
operating 
expenses 

(/) 
Col, 1 



Qaantity 
used per 
trip 

Col. 2 



Non-poiger Boat 



Cost per 
trip 



Col. 3 



Items In- 
clxided In 
operating 
expenses 

To 

Col. 4 



Quantity 
u^ed per 
trip 

Col. 5 



Cost p< 
trip 

Col, 6 



Food. .,•,•»••••, 
Bait...,.....,,. 

Ice,,*««.,«,. ,, , 
Engine fuel*..., 
Lubricating oil* 



Total, 



XX 



JCL. 



JOL 



cirti 



.^aL 



JiXhrn, 



xz 



JOL 



JQL 



JBC 



JSM3L 



JOL 



JES. 



xz 



JO. 



jaL 



13* Indicate by check (>-') irtiether the cost of current replacements of gear are cus- 
tomarily: a. Charged as operating expense,... •••••• ••••••,•..,, .._....._«_»«. 

b. Charged against owners* share or net profit • «___.«.««. 



9680 



14* Indicate the practices in this flsheiy with regard to State tr..xBv f,jxd ? Icenses 
OB hoate or persons engaged in fishing. The "tbiit" coltunn refers to the Unit 
hase from irhinh the tax is coniprated - for exEusple, the fisherman's license ra^ 



be on the TMit basis 


of "per person". 


etc. 










Items 


Check (/) years in 
which Indicated 
taxes or licenses 
were in effect 


Cost of indicated taxes c~ 
licenses 




1934 


1933 


1929 


Unit 


1934 


1933 


1929 


Boat license .^^. 








i 


i 


S 


Tlshenien*s licsnse*.*..*. 










i 


i 


il 


Tax on catch.,.*..*,,,.,,. 










i 


^ 




General property- boat tax. 










* 


^ 


U 



16, 01 ve the following Info tuition with regard to owners or overhead e^.-jense In this 
fishery in 1934: 



Iten 


Power 


Boa 


ts ■ "1 


Hoii>»power Boats 


a. State approximately the minlinuB azintial 
ont-of-pocket cost of niy-keep and re- 
)< Ir for a typical boat-Including stq>- 
pries need in repair work on boat;nets,etc 


t 


i 


b, j^proxlnately what percentage of boat own- 
ers (of each type) carry marine insurance. 


i 


i 



16, ^ere a la;^ or share arrangement is in use in this fishery state i^ether the 
captain, when he is alsr the ov^er of the boat, takes a share in the general 
crew share, in addition to whatev r he receives from the share alloted to the 
boat or the net? ___.i_ (yes or no) 

17» Check {/) on the following classifications the type or types of lays commonly 
used in this fishery, Indicating the percentage of the gross Cr the net stock, 

or the nvmiber of share*, takro by the boatt 



!type of lay 



Check (/) type 
or types of 
lays connonly 
ased in this 
fishery 



Share taken 
by boat 



B, 



Crew share a fixed percentage of gross stock.,*. 
Crew share the residual Item: 

1. Boat share a fixed percentage of gross stock, 

2, Boat share a fixed percental of net steek: 
a.tJolnt expense Includes x«placement of gear on^. 
b, Joint e:Q)en9e Includes bait only* ••,,...••• 



J> gr, stock 



c, Joint expense 50 to 75 per cent of total operf 
atlng expense (regularly Includes fuel and 
lubricants and often ice, salt and bait but 

not food or wages) •••..*, •,,,••*•,,,•• 

d. All operating expenses Joint, .••••••••••*•** 

3* All operating escpenses joint and boat received 
a fixed number of shares in the net stock. »•* 



.-^ gr. stock 

^ net stock 
'^ net stock 



b net stod 
- met 8 toe) 

no, shares 



(Votet The above classification Includes all the types of lays used on 400 fishing 
vessels for which data have been obtained. It is thought that the lays used in the 
more iBqwrtant boat fisheries will fit into this classification. If there are any 
idiich do not appear to fit, describe thssi on the other side of the sheet.) 

18* Have there been any changes in the usual texms of these Is^s since 1929 of enou^ 
importance to affect materially the shares received by the boat owner and by 
other members of the crew? .__««»» If so, describe on reverse side of sheet. 

(yes or no) 



9680 



-167- 

APPEIIDIX III 

BREAKDOWI OF CLA.SSIFICATION OF 
lAYS CR SHAEE AGREEK-EIITS (TABLE XXII) 
BY AREA AND FISHERY, WITH MICE 
OF LAY WHERE REPORTED 



Type of Lay "I'T-um'bGr ef vessels "by area and 

(Ta"blc XXII) fishery, and name of lay 



I-l All in Northwest and Alaska salmon fishery 
1-2 All in the Great Lakes Area 



II-A-1 Four vessels in the South (red snapper fishery)* 
remainder in the lTorth-"'/est and Alaska salmon, and 
miscellaneous fisheries. 

II-A-2 Eleven vessels in the Northv/est and Alaska Area 
(3 salmon and 8 halihut); remainder in the Mew 
England and Iliddle Atlantic miscellaneous fisher- 
ies, in which this is the "Swordfishing" l-iy, 

II-A-3 Ten vessels in the New England and Middle Atlantic 
areas (groundfish, scallop and miscellaneous 
fisheries), where this is the "Hip Quarter" or 
the "Q,-'jarter Clear" lay); 2 vessels in the South 
(red snapper fishery; and 4 in the Horthwest and 
• Alaslra salmon fishery). 

II-A-4 • One vessel in the New England miscellanetus fishery 
and 4 in the Middle Atlantic scallop fishery, 
where this is th© "Third Clear" or "Clean Thirds" 
lay; 3 vessels in the South (red snapper fishery); 
. and one in the Horthvest and Alaska salmon 
fishery. 

II-A-5 Twelve vessels in New England and the Middle 
Atlantic area (groundfish and miscellaneous 
fisheries), where this is the "Netting" lay; 
4 vessels in the South (one in the red sna'pper, 
2 in the menhaden, and one in the miscellaneous 
fishery); and 4 vessels in the Northwest and 
Alaslia miscellaneous fishery, 

II-B-l-a Three vessels in the New England Groirndf ishery, 

where this is the "Fifths" lay; all the remainder 
in the Northwest and Alaslca lialihut fishery. 



9680 



-168- 



Tj'pe of Lay • - • Niunber of vessels by area and 

(Table XXIl) . fishery, nnd name of lay 



II-B-2 All in the South (red snapper fishery): the vessel 
share is 20 per cent in one case and 25 per cent 
in one other, but otherv/ise 40 per cent. 

II-B-3-a Six vessels in the Mew En^cland groundfishery, 
where this is the "Q,-uarters" lay; and 2 in the 
Northwest and Alask-i (one in the halibut and one 
in the salmon fishery) . 

II-B-3-b All in the New Sn.::;'land groundf ishery , vfhere this 
is the "Fifty-fifty" lay. 

II-B-4-a Three vessels in the New Engiland ground fishery; 
remainder scattered. 

II-B~4-^b Two vessels in the. New England mackerel fishery, 
where this is the "Italian" lay; 9 in the New 
England and ^(iiddle Atlantic miscellaneous fisher- 
ies, where this is the "Broken Third" or "Broken 
Thirty" lay; 7 in California (scattered); 4 in the 
South (one in the shrimp and 3 in the miscellan- 
eous fishery) ; ano 12 in the Northwest and 
Alaska (2 in the halibut and 10 in the salmon 
fishery.) 

II-B-4-C Fifteen vessels in New F^nglrind and the Ii'iddle. 
Atlantic area (groundfish, scallop and mis- 
cellaneous fisheries) , v/here this is the "Broken 
• 1?'orty" lay; 2 in the South (red snapper fishery); 
4 in California (tuna fishery) ; and 3 in the 
Northv.'est and Alaska salmon fishery. 

II-B-4-d Ten vessels in the New England mackerel fishery, 
where this is the "American" lay; 19 in the 
California tuna fishery; 5 in the New England 
and Middle Atlantic miscellaneous fisheries; and 
3 in the Northwest and Alaska salmon fishery. 

II-C-1 Four vessels in the South, (scattered); 6 in the 
G-reat Lakes area; 2 in the California miscellan- 
eous fishery; and 2 in t he Northwest and Alaska 
(one in the halibut and one in the miscellaneous 
fishery) . 

II-C-2 Three vessels in the California the tuna and 

sardine and miscellaneous fisheries; and 2 in the 
Northwest and Alaska salmon fishery. 

9680 



• 169- 



Type of Lay Nurr,ber of vessels by area and 

(Table XXI I ) fishery, and name of lay 



II-C-3 One vessel in the sardine fishery of Southern 

California; reuj.-fi.idei." in t he Northv/est and Alaska 
area (one haliout aiid 3 salmon vessels). 

II-C-4 Two vessel.s in the California tuna and sardine 
fishery; and 5 in the Northwest and Alaska 
■ ' Salmon fishery. 

II-C-5 All in Calif '^rnia (.3 ves.iels in the tuna and 
sardine fishjry; 10 in the Monterey sardine 
fishery; and one in the sardine fishery of 
Southern California) . In the last case the 
vessel received 7 shares in the net stock; 
in all the others 6 shares. 



9680 



-170- 

APPEHDIX IV 

PROVISIONAL IIIDEX OT MONTHLY VARIATION IN THE NUMBER OF 

FISKE^^SN ACTIVELY ElIGArrED IN FISIlINCr AND EARNING 

SHARES OR WAGES a/ 

(Average of the 12 rr.onths = lOO) 





Index 




Index 


Month 


NumlDer 


Month 


Number 


January 


71.0 


July 


110.5 


February 


76.0 


August . 


132.5 


March 


76.5 


September 


129.5 


April 


86.5 


October 


121.0 


. May 


111.5 


November 


94.5 


June 


120.0 


December 


70.5 



Source: Prepared by American Federation of Labor on the basis 
of suggestions from the author. 



a/ Based partly on 1929 and tartly on 1934 data. There 
is more or less r.-ndom chnnge in Gae seasonal 
variation in the rnrnber of fishermen from one year 
to another; but in a general \vay this index is prob- 
ably representative of any recent year. 



968'0;f 



OFFICE OF THE NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION 
THE DIVISION OF REVIEW 

THE WORK OF THE DIVISION OF REVIEW 

Executive Order No. 7075, dated June 15, 1935, established the Division of Review of he 
National Recovery Administration. The pertinent part of the Executive Order reads thus- 

The Division of Review shall assemble, analyze, and report upon the statistical 
information and records of experience of the operations of the various trades and 
industries heretofore subject to codes of fair competition, shall study the ef- 
fects of such codes upon trade, industrial and labor conditions in general, and 
ot.ier related matters, sha'l make available for the protection and promotion of 
the public interest an adec^uate review of the effects of the Administration of 
Title I of the National Ina .strial Recovery Act, and ti j principles and policies 
put into effect thereunder, and shall otherwise aid the ^resident in carrying out 
nis functions under the said Title. 

The study sections set up in the Division of Review covered these areas: industry 
studies, foreign trade studies, labor studies, trade practice studies, statistical studies, 
legal studies, administration studies, miscellaneous studies, and the writing of code his- 
tories. The materials which were produced by these sections are indicated below. 

Except for the Code Histories, all items mentioned below are scheduled to be in mimeo- 
graphed form by April 1, 1935. 

THE CODE HISTORIES 

The Code Histories are documented accounts of the formation and administration of the 
codes. They contain the definition of the industry and the principal products thereof; the 
classes of members in the industry; the history of cede formation including an account of the 
sp )ns ring organizations, the conferences, negotiations and hearings which were aeld, and 
the activities in connection with obtaining approval of the ;cde; the histcry of the ad- 
ministration of the code, covering the organization and operation of the code authority, 
the difficulties encountered in administration, the extent of compliance or non-compliance, 
and the general success or lack of success of the code; and an analysis of the operation of 
code provisions dealing with wages, hours, trade practices, and other provisions These 
and other matters are canvassed not only in terms of the materials to be found in the files, 
but also in terms of the experiences of the deputies and others concerned with code fc relation 
and administration. 

The Code Histories, (including histories of certain NRA units or agencies) are not 
ttimeo graphed. They are to be turned over to the Department of Commerce in typewritten form. 
Ill told, approximately eight hundred and fifty (850) histories will be completed. This 
lumber includes all of the approved codes and seme of the unapproved codes. (In Work Mat e- 
rials No 18. Contents of Code Hi st o rie s, will be found the outline which governed the 
reparation of Code Histories.) 

(In the case of all approved codes and also in the case of some codes not carried to 
'inal approval, there are in NRA files further materials on industries. Particularly worthy 
f mention are the Volumes I, II and III which c nstitute the material officially submitted 
;o the President in support of the recommendation for approval of each code. These volumes 
)675— 1. 



- 11 - 

set forth the origination of the code, the sponsoring group, the evidence advanced to sup- 
port the proposal, the report of the Division of Research and Planning on the industry, the 
recommendations of the various Advisory Boards, certain types of official correspondence, 
the transcript of the formal hearing, and other pertinent matter. There is also much offi- 
G^^al information relating to amendments, interpretations, exemptions, and other rulings. The 
materials mentioned in this paragraph were of course not a part of the work, of the Division 
of Review. ) 

TKE "ORK MATERIALS SERIES 

In the work of the Division of Review a considerable numter of studies and compilations 
of data (other than those noted below in the Evidence Studies Series and the Statistical 
Materials Series) have been made. These are listed below, grouped according to the char- 
acter of the material. (In Sork Materials No IJ, Tentative O utlines and Summaries of 
S tudi gs in P rocess , these materials are fully described). 

Industry S tudies 

Automobile Industry, An Economic Survey of 

Bituminous Coal Industry under Free Competition and Code Regulation, Economic Survey of 

Construction Industry and NRA Construction Codes, the 

Electrical Manufacturing Industry, The 

Fertilizer Industry, The 

Fishery Industry and the Fishery Codes 

Fishermen and Fishing Craft, Earnings of 

Foreign Trade under the National Industrial Recovery Act 

Part A - Competitive Position of the United States in International Trade 1927-29 through 
1934. 

Part B - Section 3 (e) of NIRA and its administration. 

Part C - Inports and Importing under NRA Codes. 

Part D - Exports and Exporting under NRA Codes. 
Forest Products Industries, Foreign Trade Study of the 
Iron and Steel Industr^ , The 
Knitting Industries, The 
Leather and Shoe Industries, The 

Lumber and Timber Products Industry, Economic Problems of the 
Men's Clothing Industry, The 
Millinery Industry, The 
Motion Picture Industry, The 

Migration of Industry, The: The Shift of Twenty-Five Needle Trades From New York State, 
1926 to 1934 

National Income, A study of. 
Paper Industry. The 

Production, Prices, Employment and Payrolls in Industry, Agriculture and Railway Trans- 
portation, January 1923, to date 
Retail Trades Study, The 
Rubber Industry Study, The 
Statistical Background of NRA 

Textile Industry in the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, and Japan 
Textile Yarns and Fabrics 
Tobacco Industry, The 
Wholesale Trades Study, The 
9675. 



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Women's Apparel Industry, Some Aspects of the 

Tra^e P ractic e Stud ies 

Commodities, Information Concerning: A Study of NRA and Related Experiences in Control 
Distribution, Manufacturers' Control of: A Study of Trade Practice Provisions in Selected 

NRA Codes 
Design Piracy: The Problem and Its Treatment Under NRA Codes 
Electrical Mfg. Industry: Price Filing Study 
Fertilizer Industry: Price Filing Study 

Geographical Price Relations Under Codes of Fair Competition, Control of 
Minimum Price Regulation Under Codes of Fair Competition 
Multiple Basing Point System in the Lime Industry: Operation of the 
Price Control in the Ccffee Industry 
Price Filing Under NRA Codes 

Production Control Under NRA Codes, Some Aspects of. 
Resale Price Maintenance Legislation in the United States 

Retail Price Cutting, Restriction of, with special Emphasis on The Drug Industry. 
Trade Practice Rules of The Federal Trade Commission (1924-1936): A classification for 

comparison with Trade Practice Provisions of NRA Codes. 

Latior Studies 

Employment, Payrolls, Hours, and Wajes in 115 Selected Cede Industries 1933-1935 

Hours and Wages in American Industry 

Labor Program Under the National Industrial Recovery Act, The 

Part A. Introduction 

Part B. Control of Hours and Reemployment 

Part C. Control of Wa^es 

Part D. Control of Other Conditions of Employment 

Part E. Section 7(a) of the Recovery Act 
PRA Census of Employment, June, October, 1933 
Puerto Rico Needlework, Homeworkers Survey 

A dmin is trativ e S tudie s 

Administrative and Legal Aspects of Stays, Exemptions and Exceptions. Code Amendments. Con- 
ditional Orders of Approval 

Administrative Interpretations of NRA Codes 

Administrative Law and Procedure under the NIRA 

Agreements Under Sections 4(a) and 7(b) of the NIRA 

Approved Codes in Industry Groups, Classification of 

Basic Code, the — (Administrative Order X-61) 

Code Authorities and Their Part in the Administration of the NIRA 
Part A. Introduction 

Part B. Nature, Composition and Organization of Code Authorities 
Part C. Activities of the Code Authorities 
Part D. Code Authority Finances 
Part C. Summary and Evaluation 

9675. 



y:!!Ti::n%&.-. .::. 



- iv - 

Code Compliance Activities of the NRA 

Code Making Program of the NRA in the Territories, The 

Code Provi ions and Related Subjects, Policy Statements Concerning 

Content of NIRA Administrative Legislation 

Part A. Executive and Administrative Orders 

Part B. Labor Provisions in the Codes 

Part C. Trade Practice Provisions in the Codes 

Part D. Administrative Provisions in the Codes 

Part E. Agreements under Sections 4(a) and 7(b) 

Part F. A Type Case: The Cotton Textile Code 
Labels Under NRA, A Study of 

Model Code and Model Provisions for Codes, Development of 
National Recovery Administration, The: A Review and Evaluation of its Organization and 

Activities 
NRA Insignia 

President's Reemployment Agreement, The 

President's Reemployment Agreement, Substitutions in Connection with the 
Prison Labor Problem under NRA and the Prison Compact, The 
Problems of Administration in the Overlapping of Code Definitions of Industries and Trades. 

Multiple Code Coverage, Classifying Individual Members of Industries and Trades 
Relationship ;f NRA to Government Contracts and Contracts Involving the Use of Government 

Funds 
Relationship of NRA with other Federal Agencies 
Relationship of NRA with States and Muncipalities 
Sheltered Workshops Under NRA 
Uncodified Industries: A Study of Factors Limiting the Code Making Program 

Legal Studies 

Anti-Trust Laws and Unfair Competiti n 

Collective Bargaining Agreements, the Right of Individual Employees to Enforce Provisions of 

ommerce Clause, Possible Federal Regulation of the Employer-Emplo yee Relationship Under the 

Delegation of Power. Certain Phases of the Principle of, with Reference to Federal Industrial 
Regulatory Legislation 

Enforcement, Extra-Judicial Methods of 

Federal Regulation through the Joint Employment of the Power of Taxation aid the Spending 
Power 

Government Contract Provisions as a Means of Establishing Proper Econ mic Standards. Legal 
Memorandum on Possibility of 

Intrastate Activities Which so Affect Interstate Commerce as to Bring them Under the Com- 
merce Clause. Cases on 

Legislative Possibilities of the State Constitutions 

Post Office and Post Road Power — Can it be Used as a Means of Federal Industrial Regula- 
tion? 

State Recovery Legislation in Aid of Federal Recovery Legislation History and Analysis 

Tariff Rates to Secure Proper Standards of Wages and Hours, the Possibility of Variation in 

irade Practices and the Anti-Trust Laws 

Treaty Making Power of the United States 

War Power, Can it be Used as a Means of Federal Regulation of Child Labor? 

9675. 



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THE EV IDEN CE STUD IES SERIES 

The Evidence Studies were criginally undertaken to gat..er material for pending court 
cases. After the Schechter decision the project was continued in order to assenible data for 
use in connection with the studies of the Division of Review. The data are particularly 
concerned with the nature, size and operations of the industry-; and v/ith the relation of the 
industry to interstate commerce. The industries covered by the Evidence Studies account for 
more than one-half of the total number of workers under codes. The list of these studies 
follows: 



Automobile Manufacturing Industry 

Automotive Parts and Equipment Industry 

Baking Industry 

Boot and Shoe Manufacturing Industry 

Bottled Soft Drink Industry 

Builders' Supplies Industry 

Canning Industry 

Chemical Manufacturing Industry 

Cigar Manufacturing Industry 

Coat and Suit Industry 

Construction Industry 

Cotton Garment Industry 

Dress Manufacturing Industry 

Electrical Contracting Industry 

Electrical Manufacturing Industry 

Fabricated Metal Products Mfg. Industry and 

Metal Finishing and Metal Coating Industry 

Fishery Industry 

Furniture Man ifacturing Industry 

General Contractors Industry 

General Contractors Industry 

Graphic Arts Industry 

Graphic Arts Industry 

Gray Iron Foundry Industry 

Hosiery Industry 

Infant's and Children's Wear Industry 

Iron and Steel Industry 



Leather Industry 

Lumber and Timber Products Industry 
Mason Contractors Industry 
Men's Clothing Industry 
Motion Picture Industry 
Motor Vehicle Retailing Trade 
Needlework Industry of Puerto Rico 
Painting and Paperhanging Industry 
Photo Engraving Industry 
Plumbing Contracting Industry 
Retail Lumber Industry 
Retail Trade Industry 

Retail Tire and Battery Trade Industry 
Rubber Manufacturing Industry 
Rubber Tire Manufacturing Industry 
Shipbuilding Industry 
Silk Textile Industry 
Structural Clay Products Industry 
Throv/ing Industry 
Trucking Industry 
Waste Materials Industry 
Wholesale and Retail Food Industry 
Waste Materials Industry 
Wholesale and Retail Food Industry 
Wholesale Fresh Fruit and vegetable Indus- 
try 
Wool Textile Industry 



THE STATISTICAL MATERIALS SERIES 



This series is supplementary to the Evidence Studies Series. The reports include data 
on establishments, firias, employment, payrolls, wages, hours, production capacities, ship- 
i-ents, sales, consu:iiption, stoc/.s, prices, material costs, failures, exports and imports. 
Thej also include notes on the principal qualifications that should be observed in using the 
data, the technical laethods employed, and the applicability of the material to the study of 
the industries concerned. The following numbers appear in the series: 
9675. 



Asphalt Shingle and Roofing Industry 

Business Furniture 

Candy Manufacturing Industry 

Carpet and Rug Industry 

Cement Industry 

Cleaning and Dyeing Trade 

Coffee Industry 

Copper and Brass Mill Products Industry 

Cotton Textile Industry 

Electrical Manufacturing Industry 

9675. 



Fertilizer Industry 

Funeral Supply Industry 

Glass Container Industry 

Ice Manufacturing Industry 

Knitted Outerwear Industry 

Paint. Varnish, and Lacquer, Mfg. Industry 

Plumbing Fixtures Industry 

Rayon and Synthetic Yarn Producing Industry 

Salt Producing Industry 



I