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OFFICE OF NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION 
DIVISION OF REVIEW 






FINANCIAL AND LABOR DATA ON THE 
WOMEN'S NECKWEAR AND SCARF INDUSTRY 

By 

W. A. Gill 



WORK MATERIALS NO. THREE 



INDUSTRY STUDIES SECTION 
March, 1936 



/ 

\ 



OFFICE OF ITATIOilAL RECOVERY ADimTISIRATIOlI 
DIVISION OF REVIEW 



FIlTAifCIAL A1TD LAB OF FATA 037 IKE 
tfCMEK'S lIECEnEAH AID SCARP IITDUSTRY 

By 

W. A. Gill 



IEDUSIHY STUDIES SECTI017 
March, 1936 



9770 



?CECff(KJ 

3y Adnini strati ve Order Number 538-2 approved on February 19, 1935 
the author was appointed r member of a Commission provided for in Article 
III, Section 3 of the Code of Fair Competition for the TTomon's ITeckwe; r 
end Sc^rf Manufacturing Industry, to study the Industry and obtain facts 
neccss-ry to determine the -rage differential bet-wen the several areas 
in the Industry. 

In making the study, information was obtained on -productivity of 
labor, wages paid and hours worked, as well as financial data regarding 
the concerns in the various areas. The necessity of making recoiTionda- 
tions regarding the differential was obviated by the Supremo Court deci- 
sion in the Schechter Case; "but it was considered wise to ire iare this 
report containing certain of the information obtained in that study. 

Examination of the productivity data throws some doubt on its valid- 
ity on account of the small size of the statistical sample, and therefor 
this information is not included herein. 

This report is valuable for the following reasons: 

1. It contains perhaps the only financial data 
available on the Women's I!eckwea.r Industry. 

2. Presented are data regarding the earnings of 
employees by occupations - a field where there 
is a paucity of information. 

The Hational Women's lleckwerr and Scarf Association in its applica- 
tion for a. Code for the Industry estimated that there ^ere 105 manufac- 
turing establishments in the Industry in 1^33. Usable replies to the 
questionnaire which was sent out rere received from 65 establi slime nts 
for the financial data, and from 37 establishments for labor data. The 
author regards the information contained herein fairly representative of 
the Industry. 

At the back of this report will be found a brief statement of the 
sttidies undertaken by the Division of Review. 

L. C. Marshall, 
Director, Division of Review. 

March 9, 1936. 



/ 



9770 






TABLE OF C II T E II T S 



PAGE 



FOREWARD 

CHAPTER I 

FINANCIAL CONDITION 1 

PROFIT AND LOSS 1 

OPERATING EXPENSES 1 

Materials 1 

Labor 4 

Rent 4 

Selling Costs 5 

Freight 5 

CHAPTER II 

LABOR 6 

CHANGES 1933 TO 1935 5 

MEDIAN HOURS 10 

ICEDIAN HOURLY EARNINGS 10 

MEDIAN WEEKLY EARNINGS 12 

DISTRIBUTION OF HOURS 

New York City 14 

East 14 

'Jest 13 

DISTRIBUTIONS OF HOURLY EARNINGS 19 

Net? York City 19 

East 19 

'..'est 22 

DISTRIBUTIONS OF WEEKLY EARNINGS 24 

New York City 24 

East 24 

West 27 



• li- 



9770 



TABLES 



TABLE I 
TABLE II 
TABLE III 

TABLE IV 

TABLE V 

TABLE VI 

TABLE VII 

TABLE VIII 



TABLE IS 



TABLE X 



Summary of Profit & Loss, 1934 
Operating Expenses, 1954 . . . 



Total Uuraber of Factory Employees, Tan-hours 
worked, and weekly payroll, for weeks ending 
Feb. 16, 1933 and 1935 



Average Hours -per week, average weekly 
wages, and Average Hourly Wage Rate, for 
Weeks, Ending Feb. 16, 1935 and 1935 . . 



Median Hours Worked per Week by 
Employees - by Occupations for weeks 
Ending Nearest Feb. 15, 1933 and 1935 . 

iiedian Hourly Earnings of Enployees- 
by Occupations, for a " r eek ending- 
nearest, Feb. 16, 1953 and 1935 . . . . 



Iiedian Weekly Earnings of Erroloyees- 
by Occupation, for a Week Nearest 
Feb. 16, 1935 and 1935 



Number and Percentage Distributions 
of Factory Employees by Occupation, 
according to Hours forked Per Week- 
Hew York City 



Number and Percentage Distributions 
of Factory Employees by Occupation, 
according to Hours Worked Per Veek- 
Eastern Area 



Number and Percentage Distributions 
of Factory Employees by Occupation, 
According to Hours Worked Per Week- 
Mid-West and Far West Area 



PAGE 
2 
5 



11 



11 



15 



15 



16 



17 



-lii- 



9770 



PAGE 



TA3LE XI 



Number and Percentage Distributions of 
Factory Employees by Occupation, 
According to Hourly Wage Rate, Feb. 16, 
1933 and 1934 
New York City 



20 



TABLE XII 



Number and Percentage Distributions of 
Factory Employees by Occupation, Accor- 
ding to Hourly Wage Rate, Feb. 16, 1933 
and 1934 
Eastern Area 



21 



TABLE XIII 



TABLE XIV 



TABLE XV 



TABLE XVI 



Number and Percentage Distributions of 
Factory Employees by Occuoation, Accor- 
ding to Hourly Wage Rate, Feb. 16, 1933 
and 1934 
Western Area 23 

Number and Percentage of Factory 

Employees by Occupation, According to 

Weekly Earnings, Feb. 1933 and 1935- 

New York City 25 

Number and Percentage of Factory 

Employees by Occupation, According to 

Weekly Earnings, Feb. 1933 and 1935- 

Sastern Area 26 

Number and Percentage of Factory 

Employees by Occupation, According to 

Weekly Earnings, ?eb. 1933 and 1935- 

Western Area 28 



■IV- 



9770 



-1- 

CHJUfOSH I 
FINANCIAL CONDITION 



PROFIT AND L OSS 

Table I shows a combined profit and loss statement for firms in 
the Women's Neckwear Industry replying to the Research and Planning 
Questionnaire, The strong financial position of the Industry in 1934 
is at once apparent with a gross profit of 13.2 per cent for the 65 
firms reporting. Only 4 of the reporting firms showed a gross loss 
for the year, and this loss was comparatively small, amounting to only 
bl6,238, compared with a total gross profit of 1-1,342,784 for the 61 
firms showing a profit. 

It is further apparent that firms located in New York City, with 
a combined gross profit of 14.fi per cent, made greater profits- than 
the midwest and far west firms, whose combined gross profit was 7.1 
per cent. * 

It should be remembered that many of the establishments in the 
East are not strictly comparable to those in other areas because most 
of the New Jersey firms are making a slightly different product, namely 
schiffli and lace neckwear. 

OPERA TING- EX PENSES 

Materials . . . . 

Table II shows the combined operating expenses for the firms re— • 
porting. It is seen from this table that by far the most important 
item is raw material cost. Eor New York City raw material cost amounted 
to 55.2 per cent of total expenses. 

The relatively high (62,4 per cent) proportion this item bears in 
the East is probably explained by the different type of product made 
in this section. In the manufacture of ordinary lace or tailored neck- 
wear the raw materials, taffeta, crepe, pirue, cotton net, lace, etc., 
are not usually further processed ~by the necOcweaf manufacturer,* In the ■ 
New Jersey plants where they manufacture a large amount of schiffli lace 
neckwear, on the other hand, net gray goods are 'either processed by the 
neckwear manufacturer in a division of his plant or are sent out to be 
processed by schiffli and embroidery establishments to a pattern pre- 
pared by the neckwear manufacturer. 



9770 



TA3LE I 

Women's Neckwear and Scarf Manufacturing Industry 

SUMMARY OF PROFIT AND LOSS, 1934 

_ , ___ ___„ All Firms __ ____ _ 

Increase 

in Inven- Gross Profit or ..L_qs.sH 
Area tory of Total , Per cent 
Total Total Net Finished Operating of 
^_ _ ___J0__5_1 Sal_ et__ __ __ Goods _ J_L^jense Amount sal e s_ __ 

Total... 65 $10,011,567 $13,229 $8,698,702 01,326,094 13.2 

New York 
City, . . . 



West**.. . 



__ ______ . . . ... Xi. r , m , G ,- v ^-^.A r -, -?- s - P ro f.lA ._ 

Total... 61 $ 9,797,729 316,337 $8,471,784 $1,342,332 13.7 
Hew York City 53 8,331,456 25,492 7,134,062 1,232,886 14.8 

East 4 904,935 -3,233 855,134 46,568 5.1 

West** 4 561,280 -5,872 492,533 62,878 11.2 



55 


8,401,960 


22,256 


7,194,657 


1,229,559 


14.6 


L.N.Y. 4 


904,985 


-3,233 


855,184 


46,568 


5.1 


6 


704,622 


-5,794 


648,361 


49,967 


7.1 















__, ,._ , . _. Firms, wi th __Los s . 

Total. 4 $ 213,338 $-3,158 r $ 226,918 $ -16,233 -7.6 

New York City.. 2 70,504- -5,236 70,595 -3,327 -4.7 

East '■ - - - - 

We 5 t** 2 143,334 78 156,323 -12,911 -8.3 

Source: Compiled by Industry Reporting Unit from Questionnaires sent out by 
Research and Planning Division, NRA, supplemented by data gathered 

__ A 1 L___Le jf _j§__.d J3x_y_. e . .%' J : t }___ r > 

* Gross Profit or Loss was obtained by adding to total sales an increase in 
the inventory of finished goods (or subtracting any decrease), and sub- 
tracting from this figure total operating expenses. 

** Combined mid-west and far-west. 

9770 



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LABOft 

Next in imoortance is the item of direct labor cost amounting 
to about 27 per cent of total expenses in both New York City and 
the East. Especially noteworthy is the fact that, in snite of the 
higher wage rates existing in New York City, the direct labor cost 
is higher (32.5 per cent) in the West. 

While reasons for these differences are not as clearly defined 
and as obvious as one would desire they are at least partly attribu- 
table to the following: 

1. Higher labor costs in the West are partly due to 

lack of successful cooing with the hand to mouth sfaall orc.er buying 
of the retailers who make up a sizeable prooortion of the trade 
of the western firms. 

2. The relatively lower Eastern labor sosts are due to: 

a. The disorooortionately high material cost due to 
factors explained above which would make labor cost 
a smaller uortion of total costs. 

b. The fact that some manufacturing operations are 
slightly different from orthodox neckwear manufacture, 
for example, instead of men cutters at a high union wage 
scale cutting in block as in New York City and the West, 
designs are usually individually scissor-cut at low wage 
rates by girls in the New Jersey Plants. 

c. As shown by the wage distribution tables which follow 
later in this reoort over 30 per cent of the employees 
in this area were receiving less than the basic minimum 
of 37.3 cents per hour ($14.00 tier week) 

C "ter this investigation had been started this group petitioned 
the Administration for a wage differential. Final action was never 
taken on this subject). 

BENT 

Despite the fact that the New York City. firms have consistently 
argued that they have higher rent than those in the West it appears 
from the tabulation that this item for both areas is 2.0 per cent of 
the total expenses but because of their greater volume of business, 
despite the fact that New York firms do have higher rent pe* estab- 
lishment, this item is relatively no larger in New York than in the 
West. 

Office salaries (excluding executives) likewise apoear to be 
comparable in the two areas. 



977t 



-5- 



SELLING COSTS 

It seems that it really costs the West more to sell its mer- 
chandise; 7, r 6 per cent of ios e:cpenses is absorbed "by this item 
compared with only 6.6 per cent in 1-evj York City. This is probably 
explained by the fact that a large -proportion of the Hew York merchan- 
dise is sold in the show room of the factory while in the West it is 
necessary to rely more upon salesmen. 

FREIGHT 

The explanation for the higher freight percentage for Hew York 
Citv is not clear. Freight charges on raw materials should be lower 
due to their closer proximity to sources of supply. 

It may be possible that prior to the Code the New York City 
firms were carrying on an extensive trade in areas remotely located 
and were paying transportation charges on finished goods, a prac- 
tice later forbidden by the Code. 



9770 



-6- 



CEAPTER II 

LABOR 



CHANGES 1953 TC 1 935 

Table III shows the changes in employment, man hours and weekly 
payroll for groups of identical concerns in the Somen's Neckwear Indus- 
try in the New York City and Eastern Areas in the pre-code and Code 
periods of 1933 and 1935. 

In New York City employment increased 11 percent in this period, 
and although the total man hours worked per week declined nearly 5 per- 
cent the total weekly payroll increased slightly over 29 percent. 

Even greater changes cccured in the Eastern Area where increases 
amounted to 37 percent for employment, 10.4 percent for man hours, and 
56.3 percent for total payrolls. 

Unfortunately data are not available making possible similar com- 
parisons for the Western Area. 

Table IV shows changes in the average hours per week, average 
hourly wage rate and average weekly earnings in the New York City and 
Eastern Areas in the pre-code and Code periods of 1933 and 1935. 

In Nov/ York City although the average hours per week declined 
14.1 percent, the average weekly wages increased 16.5 percent, because 
of an increased hourly wage rate of 35.6 percent. 

In the Eastern area in spite of a 19.5 percent shortening of the 
length of the work week the average weekly wages increased 14.1 percent, 
largex flue to a 42.3 percent increase in the average hourly wage rate. 

Although it is not possible to shew changes occuring in the 
Western area during this period, a comparison of conditions in the 
various areas in 1935 is shown by Table IV. 

At that time the average work week in the West was 34.6 hours, 
while in the New York City it was 36.7 and in the East 38.0 hours per 
week. 

The hourly wage rates were 37, 43 and 61 cents per hour for the 
Eastern, Western and New York City Areas, respectively, resulting in re- 
spective average earnings ol $14.18, $15.00 and $22.33 per week. 

MEDIAN H OURS. HOURLY AND WEEKLY WAGES BY OCJUPATIO N, 1935 & 19 35 

Later in this report are tables showing distributions of hours 
worked per week, hourly wage rates, and weekly earnings by occupation 
of employees in the Women 1 s Neckwear Industry. 

9770 



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-9- 



In order to summarize this information and thereby make. possible 
its "better visualization the medians of each of these distributions 
have been calculated and used in the following tables and discussions. 



9770 



-10- 



MESIAN H0U3S 

Table V, shows a summary of the median hours per week by occupa- 
tions for employees in the Women's Neckwear and Scarf Industry for a 
week ending nearest February 16, 1933, and 1935, for Hew York City and 
the Eastern Area (exclusive of New York City), and for a representative 
week in the latter part of January and beginning of February 1935 for 
the Western Area. 

The median hours per week for all employees in New York City declined 
from 45.2 hours per week in 1935 to 37.5 hours per week in 1935, a de- 
crease of slightly over 17 per cent. In the Eastern Area, median weekly 
hours for all employees declined from over 50 hours per week in 1933 to 
40.8 hours per week in 1935. In the Western Area, the median hours per 
week for all employees in the early part of 1935 '-'ere 38.3 hours per 
week. 

The median hours do not vary extremely among the various occupations. 
In 1933, in New York City, operators worked the shortest week, 44.4 hours 
and finishers the longest 46.4 hours. 

In 1935, in New York City, there wore no differences in the median 
work week of individual crafts, all crafts having a 37.5 hour median 
work week. In the East in 1933 all crafts except "others" had a. median 
work week longer than 50 hours. In the East the variation in the median 
work week by craft wps small in 1935, the shortest being 40.5 hours for 
pressers and the longest 40.9 hours for finishers. The median hours per 
week of the employees in various crafts in the West in 1935 showed greater 
variation than those in either of the other two a,ruas, ranging from 37.0 
hours for finishers to 30.9 hours for pressers. 

MEDIAN HOURLY EARNINGS 

Table VI shows the median hourly earnings of employees, by occuoa- 
tions for a week ending nearest February 16, 1933 and 1935, for New York 
City and the Eastern Area and for a representative week in January or 
February 1935 for the Western Area. 

Median hourly earnings for o.ll enrol oyees in the New York City area 
increased from 41 • 7^ per hour in 1933 to 56,9^ per hour in 1935, an in- 
crease of slightly over 30$. For the Eastern Area in the same rieriod, 
median hourly earnings of all employees increased from 27.5r5 'per hour to 
39»4rf per hour, an increa.se of slightly over 43 per cent. Median hourly 
earnings for all employees in the Western Area, in the early part of 1935 
were 40»6rf per hour. 

Examining the median hourly earnings of the various crafts, we find 
the greatest improvement in the earnings of the finishers, thcise in the 
New York City and the Eastern Area., respectively, increasing from 26.9 
and 21.1 cents per hour in 1933 to 46,9 and 35.3 cents per hour in 1935, 



9770 



-11- 

Earnings of "other employees in the Eastern Ares show almost as 
great an improvement, increasing from 23.8 to 35.9 cents per hour in this 
period. 

TABLE V 

WOMEN'S NECKWEAR AND SCARF INDUSTRY 

MEDIAN HCURS WORKED PER WEEK BY EMPLOYEES BY OCCUPATIONS 

FCR A WEEK ENDING NEAREST FEB. 16, 1933 & 1935. 









mt bmm 






Occupation 


New York 


City 


. EAST 


) 


WEST 




1933 


1935 


1933 


1935 


1935 (a) 


T»tal 


45.2 


37.5 


over 50.0 


40.8 


38.3 


Cutters 


44.6 


37.5 


_ 


— 


38.8 


Operators 


44.4 


37.5 


over 50.0 


40.7. 


38.1 


Pressers 


45.5 


37.5 


over 50.0 


40.5 


38.9 


Finishers 


46.4 


37.5 


over 50.0 


40.9 


37.0 


Others (b) 


35.3 


37.5 


49.4 


40.8 


38.7 



(a) For a representative week iri -January or February 1935 

(b) Included other factory employees only. 

SOURCE: Compiled "by Industry Reporting Unit .from Questionnaires sent out 
by N.R.A. Research and Planning Division, supplemented "by data 
collected "by the author in -the field. 

•TABLE VI 

» « 

WOMEN'S NECKWEAR & SCARF INDUSTRY 

MEDIAN HOURLY EARNINGS OF EMPLOYEES BY OCCUPATIONS FOR A WEEK 

ENDING NEAREST FEBRUARY 16, 1933 and 1935. 



Occupation 


New Yi 


Drk 


City 




EAST 




WEST 




1933 




1935 


1933 




1935 


1935 (a) 


Total 


4i. y 




56.94 


• 27.54 




39.4.4 


40.64 


Cutters 


■'■133.3 


over 


' 100.0 


- 




- 


81.3 


Operators 


48.6 




64.7 


31.4 




45.3 


46.2 


Pressers 


35.3 




50.2 


27.5 




39.0 


39.0 


Finishers 


26.9 




46.9 


21.1 




35.3 


38.6 


Others (b) 


31.3 




46.4 


• 23.8 




35.9 


39.0 



(a) For a representative week in January or February 1935 

(b) Includes other factory employees only. 



SOURCE: 



Compiled by Industry Re-oorting Unit from Questionnaires sent out 
by N.R.A. Research and Planning Division, supplemented by data 
collected by the author in the field. 



9770 



-12- 

Median earnings of all crafts other than finishers in the New York Area 
were, above 30<£ per hour in 1933, increasing to over 46rf per. hour ih"l935. 

Attention is called to the high earnings of cutters in this area, 
earning 83.3<£_p.er hour in 1933 and increasing over $1.10 per hour in 
1935. ' _, 

That important class of employees, the operators, in 1933 received 
median earnings of 48.6 and 31.4 cents per hour in New York City and the 
East. In 1935 they received 64.7, 45.3 and 46.2 cents per hour in New York, . 
the East and West, respectively. 

MEDIAN WEEKLY EARNINGS 

Table VII shows the median weekly earnings of =mplqyees, by occupations 
for a week ending nearest February 16, 1933 and 1935,. for New York City 
and the Eastern Area, and for a representative week in January or February 
for the Western Area. 

Median weekly earnings for all employees in the New York City Area 
increased from $18.12 in 1933 to $20.85 in 1935, anuincrease of slightly 
over 15$. Median weekly earnings for all employees in the Eastern Area 
increased from $13.44 in 1933 to $15.41 in 1935, an increase of slightly 
over 14-5 per cent. Median weekly earnings of all employees in the West 
in 1935 were $15.82 per week. 

Examining the earnings by crafts, we again find the greatest improve* 
ment in the earnings of the finishers, their earnings in the New York City 
Area increasing from $12.31 in 1933 to $14.89 in 1935, and in this Eastern 
Area increasing from $10.83 to *14.47 in the same period. 

"Other" employees also showed large increases in earnings, improving 
in the New York City Area from $13.80 in 1933 to $18.11 in 1935, and in 
the Eastern Area from $11.33 to $14.00. 

Pressers in the Eastern Area also made large gains, their, median 
weekly ^rnings increasing fram $12.50 in 1933 to $15.25 in 1935. 

In 1933 median weekly earnings of operators were $20.42 and $16.00 
per week in New York City and the East. 'In 1935 they were $23.29, $17.08 
and $17.32 in New York City, the East and West respectively. > 

Many of these large increases in the earnings in the New York City 
Area may be partly attributed to the almost complete unionization of the 
industry in that area during the N.R.A. The other areas do not show such- 
large increases since unionization had affected them very little, if at all. 



9770 



TABLE VII 

WOMEN'S NECKWEAR AND SCARF INDUSTRY 

MEDIAN WEEKLY EARNINGS OF EMPLOYEES BY OCCUPATION. 

FOR A WEEK NEAREST FEB. 16, 1933 and 1935. 



Occupation 


New York C: 


Lty 




East 




West 




1933 




1935 


1933 




1935 


1933 


1935(a) 


Total 


$18.12 




$20.85 


$13.44 




$15.41 




*15.82 


Cutters 


37.50 


Over 


45.00 


- 




- 




30.00 


Operators 


20.42 




23.29 


16.00 




17.08 




17. ?2 


Pressers 


15.41 




18.43 


12.50 




15.25 




15.15 


Finishers 


12.31 




14.89 


10.83 




14.47 




14.14 


Others (h) 


13.80 




18.11 


11.33 




14.00 




15.10 



(a) For a re-ore sentative week in January and February 1935 

(b) Includes other factory employees only. 

SOURCE: Compiled by Industry Reporting Unit from Questionnaires sent out by 
N.R.A. Research and Flannirg Division, suTroleraented by data collect- 
ed by the Author in the field. 



9770 



-14- 

DisTHiBUTiors of ::ouas 

Mew York City 

Ta"ble VIII Shows distributions of the hours worked per week by 
occupations of Hew York City employees of the Industry fora week 
nearest February 16, 1933 and 1935. 

In 1933 the 40 to 42.4, the 42.5 to 44.9 and 45 to 47.4 hour 
groups were the most important with 16.1, 20.9 and 43.3 percent of 
the total employees falling in these respective groups. 

Although the size of the sample for some occupations is rather 
small, no great difference between the working hours of the different 
occupations is apparent for this year. The distributions all follow 
the same general pattern with high concentrations in the groups 
mentioned. 

The almost complete lack of any part-time employment in 1933 is 
strikingly shown in these distributions with only 4 per cent of the 
total employees working less than 30 hours per week. 

A shortening of the work week in all crafts is apparent in the 

latter year. A definite median appears in 1935 distribution with 50 

per cent of the total employees working 37-g- hours per week. The 1935 

distributions show a wider scattering of the employees among the 
various brackets than those of the earlier year. 

Furthermore, there appears to have been sn increase in part-time 
employment in 1935 with 16 per cent of the total employees working 
less than 30 hours per week.- This part-time employment is especially 
noticeable to the distribution of the operators, pressers and 
finishers with 11.9 per cent of the operators and 29.6 per cent of 
the finishers working 25 to 27.4 hours per week and 14.3 per cent of 
the pressers working 23.5 to 24.9 hours per week. 

East 

TaK.e IX shows similar distributions of the hours worked per week 
by employees in the East. 

In 1933, 66.4 per cent of the total employees were working 
longer than 50 hours per week. A large percentage of the employees, 
over 60 per cent in each craft except the "other" employees, were work- 
ing more than 50 hours per week in this period and 45.4 per cent of 
this latter occupation were working this long work week. A definite 
median appears in the 1935 distribution with 60.3 per cent of the 
employees falling in the 40 to 42.4 hour group. 



The distributions for the different occupations follow the sane 
general pattern as that for the total, with this same hour group the 
most important, over 50 per cent of the employees in each occupation 
falling in this group. 



9770 



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5770 



-18- 



ITo appreciable amount of part-time employment is apparent in this 
area in either period. 

West 

Table X shows distribution by occupations of the hours worked per 
week by employees in the Western Area for a representative week in the 
latter part of January and early pa.rt of February, 1935. 

The less than 20 hour, the 35 to 37.4, the 37.5 to 39.9 and the 
45 to 47.4 hour groups are the most important with 12.2, 13.6, 33.3 
and 18.6 per cent of the total employees in these respective groups. 

The distributions of the individual occupations "by no means 
follow the same pattern as that of the total. The cutters are fairly 
well concentrated in the 37.5 to 39.9 hour group with 66.7 per cent 
in that bracket. 

The 35 to 37.4, the 37.5 to 39.9 and 45 to 47.4 hour groups are 
the most important for the operators with 22.1, 33.6 and 16.8 per cent 
of these employees in those respective groups. 

The size of the sample of the ;oressers is probably too small to 
warrant too definite a conclusion, but in general, it seems to follow 
about the sane pattern as that of the operators. 

The distribution of the hours worked by the finishers is most 
striking, since among this class of employees we find 29.6 per cent 
working part-time of less than 20 hours per week, yet on the other 
hand, 24.2 per cent working over-time, that is 45 to 47.4 hours per 
week. While the reason for this peculiar condition is not definitely 
known, it is probably due to the fact that some of the plants in this 
area were in the midst of their rush season, while other plants had 
not yet gotten under way with their spring production. 



9770 



-19- • 

i iiistrieuti on^f' ^h ^t j^ly earnings 

New York City I 

Table XI shows distributions of the hourly earnings of New York 
City employees by occupations for a week nearest February IP, 1935. 
No' well defined grouping 'exists in. the distribution for all employees 
for either period. - '• 

These distributions show improvement injthe earnings of all crafts 
(of employees) in the year 1935 when compared with 1933. The improvement 
is especially noteworthy among the lower-paid occupations. In 1933 
nearly one-fourth of all the employees received less than 30 cfe'nfcs per 
hour, while in 1935, only three-tenths of one per cent of all employees 
were receiving less than this amount. In 1?35 the top of the lower 
auartile of the distribution had moved up unt^l at that time it had 
reached 47.4 cents per hour. /. 

As would be expected, the cutters are phe best paid employees 
in both periods. In 1933, the most important* bracket for this class 
of employee was $1.C8 to $1.C69 per hour with* 31.9,1 of this class 
of employee in this group. In 1935 improvement was such that $8 per 
cnet of this class of employee were receiving over $1.10 per hour. 

The size of the samole for the hemmers and gauge ; runners 
is rather snail. However, their earnings appear to be .very similar to 
those of operators. ' 

In 1933 the operators were fairlv well scattered among, a large 
number of brackets. The 40 to 44.9 and 59 to 54.9 and' the 6i to 69.9 
were the most important with 16.2, 13 and 14 per cent of this class of 
employee in each of these respective groups; Probably, the reason for 
such wide diversification -in the earnings of operators 5 is the fact that 
this class of employee is usually paid on a. piece-work basis, and since 
it is likely that wide. differences in their, efficiencies and willingness 
to work exists, their earnings, -naturally would vary tremendously. In 
1935 a general improvement is noted in the earnings of these employees. 
Thev are fairly well concentrated in two brackets with 54.2 per cent 
of the total in the brackets between 60 and 79.9 cents per hour. 

In 1935 the most important bracket for the pressers was that 
between 25 and 29.9 cents per hour with 28-. 6 per cent of these employees 
in this bracket. In addition thereto, all other brackets from this 
point up to 44.9 were important, each of these brackets having over 
11 per cent of the employees in this occupation. In 1935, a definite 
median occurs in the distribution with 79.9 per cent of this class 
of employee in the groups between 47.5 and 54.9 cents per hour. 

East 

Table XII shows similar distributions of the hourly earnings 
of employees in the Eastern Area.. 'The size of the sample in many of the 
distributions is rather small, Of the' tojbal employees in 1933 24 per 
cent, were earning 2© to 24.0 .cents per hbur. This! concentration of 
the employees in this lower bracket is largely due to a large percentage 



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of the -pressers, finishers, paid "others" in low earning brackets. In 
1935, the earning of all employees increased considerably; especially 
noteworthy are increases among the pressers, finishers and" others*" 

In 1933 the largest concentration of operators were in the 
"brackets between 20 and 37.2 cents per hour, with over 90 per cent 
of the operators in these brackets. The earnings of the operators 
show the general upward shift in 1935 with high concentrations in the 
brackets between 40 and 49.9 cents per hour. 

The pressers in 1933 were more poorly paid than the operators 
with 23.1 per cent receiving between 10 and 14.9 cents per hour. Both 
the finishers and the other employees show high concentrations- in the 
lower brackets in 1933 with high concentration in the brackets bet^eeii 
15 and 24.9 cents per hour. Anong the 1935 distributions of pressers, 
finishers and "other" employees, high concentrations are found in the 
brackets between 30 and 39.9 cents per hour. 

TTest 

Table XIII shows the distributions of the earnings of employees by 
occupations according to hourly earnings per week in the Western Area for 
a representative week in the latter part of January and early part of 
February, 1935. In the distribution of all employees a definite median 
with over 80 per cent of the employees concentrated in the brackets 
between 37.3 and 47.4 cents per hour is apparent. High concentration 
in the lower of these three brackets is caused by a large number of 
pressers and finishers and "other" employees falling in this low end 
with S3. 3 and 76.9 per cent and 68 per cent of these respective occupa- 
tions in this lover bracket earning between 37.3 and 39.9 ce?its per 
hour. 

Concentrations in the higher of these three brackets was brought 
about b T a high concentration of operators in the 45 to 47.4 cents per 
hour brackets, nearly 70 per cent of this craft being in this one 
bracket. 

The earnings of the cutters seem to be scattered well over the 
whole distribution ranging from 30 to 99.9 cents per hour which is 
quite different from conditions found in t he He- York City Area. 
However, a concentration ap sears in this distribution with 44.4/S in the 
80 to 89.9 cents per hour bracket. 



9770 



-23- 



TABLE XIII 

Women's ITsckwear and Scarf Manufacturing Industry 

N0MBE2 AiJD PERCENTAGE DISTEI3UTI01IS OP FACTORY EMPLOYEES BY OCCUPATIOIIS ACCOEDIITG 

TO HOUELY WAGS RATE, 
^or A Representative Week in January or Febrauary, 1935 
(8 Reporting Firms) (l.iid-¥est and Far-West Areas) 

Hourly 

Earnings Cutters Henmers Operators Pres- Finishers Others Total 

Ho. ( ,o ers He* ', 

Less than. 25. . . _ 

25.0-29.9 1 .9 - 1 .4 

30.0-34.9 1 1 .9 2 9 2 15 0.4 

35.0-37.2 14 5 1.8 

37.3-39.9 9 8.0 19 70 17 115 41.2 

40.0-44.9 1 2 7 3.2 7 7 4 28 10.0 

45.0-47.4 2 79 69.'.' 11 2 85 30.4 

47.5-49.9 1 6 5.3 7 2.5 

50.0-54.9 ,1 '8 7.1 9 3.2 

55*0-59.9...... 2 1.7 2 .7 

60.0-69.9/ 1 1 .4 

70.0-79.9 1 1 .4 

80.0-89.9 8 8 2.S 

90.0-99.9 2 2 .7 

l.OOor over.... 

Total 18 2 113 100.0 30 91 25 279 100.0 



SOURCE: Compiled by Industry Reporting Unit from Questionnaires sent out "by 
Research and Planning Division, II.R.A. 



9770 



-24- 

DISTRIBUTIONS OF TffiEKLY IIARhIHG-S 
hew York City 

Table XIV sho^s distributions of the hew York City factory employ- 
ees by occupation according to weekly wages paid for week ending nearest 
February 16, 1933, and 1935. In 1933, over 50 per cent of the employees 
earnings ranged from 12 to 21.50 per week. In 1935, the earnings of 
all crafts show improvement when compared with 1935. In this year they 
had increased until over 70 per cent of the employees fell within the 
brackets bet'-een $14,00 and $27.50 per week. 

The distributions of the hemners and gauge runners and operar- 
tors appear to have been very similar in both years. Therefore, the 
contention raised at one time by some Hew York ianuf .^cturers that these 
crafts should have been separately classified and receive a lower 
minimum wage, appears to have been unjustified. Among the hemmers, gauge 
runners, and operators' occupations in 1933, high concentrations occur 
in the brackets between $14.00 and $27.50 per week. In 1934, a general 
shift upwards in the distributions of these employees is apparent, high 
concentrations occurring in the brackets between $19,00 and $27,50 per 
week, 

Presaers appear to have been slightly lower paid than operators. 
In 1933, they are highly concentrated in three brrckets between $12.00 
and $16,50 per week. In 1935, they "ere highly concentrated in the t^o 
bra.ckets between $16.50 and 21.49 per week, 

The distributions of the finishers and other employees appear to 
be very similar in both years. In 1933, ,;these employees show higher 
concentrations in the brackets between $12,00 and $13.99 per week, 
but in 1935, they show high concentrations in the brackets between 
$12,00 and $18,99 per week with highest concentration for both occupa- 
tions in the $14.00 to $16.50 bracket with slightly over 31 per cent of 
each of these occupations in .this .bracket. 

East 

Table XV shows similar distributions of weekly earnings of em- 
ployees in the Eastern Area. In this Area, the earnings of the operators 
appear to have been slightly higher than those of the )ressers, finish- 
ers, and "other , the distributions of these latter three occupations 
being very similar. 

In 1933, the operators were largely concentrated in the three 
brackets between $12.00 and $13.99 per week. In 1935, they were con- 
centrated in three bra.ckets between $14,00 and $21,50 per ™eelc 

In 1933, the pressers, finishers and operators roughly 
concentrated in the brackets between $6,00 and $16.50 per week. In 
1935, they were concentrated in the brackets between $12,00 and $18,99 
per week. 



9770 



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-27- 

\7est 

Table XVI shows similar distributions of weekly earnings of employ- 
ees in the Western Area "but only for the 1935 period. In this year, all 
eniploj r ees appear to have been concentrated in the "brackets "between $12.00 
•and $21»»5Cper week with three-fourths of the employees in these "brackets. 
A definite median appears in the earnings of all groups except the finish- 
ers and the cutters. 

In the bracket between $16.50 and $18.99 per week, a large number 
of operators, 36.3 per cent, are concentrated. 

Tor the pressers, the concentration occurs in the ne::t lower 
bracket, 23.4 per cent falling in the bracket between $14.00 and $16.49 
per week. 

The "other" employees are also concentrated in the same bracket with 
68 per cent of " others" falling therein. 

A large number of finishers are also concentrated in this bracket, 
28-}r per cent falling here. 

Due to -oart-tine employment, there is a large concentration of 
finishers in the brackets of less than $5.00 oer week ^ith 26.4 per cent 
of the occupations in this low bracket. 



-28- 



IABLE XVI 

Women's Neckwear and Scprf ilanuf acturing Industry 

NULE3ER AlID PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTIONS OP FACTORY EMPLOYEES BY OCCUPATION ACCORDING 

TO WEEKLY WAGES EABiiED 
For Representative Week in January or February, 1935* 

(8 Reporting Firms) I lid-West and Far-West Areas) 



Weekly Earnings 






















Cutters 


Hemmers 


Ooci 


•ators 


Pres- 


Finishers 


Others 


Total 








No. 


to 


ers 






no. 


J 


Less than $6 (a 


) 








1 


24 


1 


25 


9.3 








4 


3.5 


1 


3 


1 


9 


3.2 








1 


.9 




5 


1 


7 


E) 


$10.00-11.99... 






2 


1.8 


4 


3 




9 


3.2 


$12.00-13.99... 


1 




16 


14.2 


3 


9 ' 


2 


31 


11.1 


$14.00-16.49... 


1 


2 


20 


17.7 


13 


26 


17 


79 


28,3 


$16.50-18.99... 


, 4 




41 


Z6.3 


6 


19 


3 


73 


25.2 


$19.00-21.49... 






26 


23.0 


2 


2 




30 


10.8 


$21.50-23.99..., 






3 


2.6 








3 


1.1 


$24.00-27.49... 


2 














2 


.7 


$27.50-29.99..., 


1 














1 


.4 


$30.00-32.49..., 


4 














4 


1.4 


$32.50-34.99..., 




















$35.00-37.49..., 


5 














5 


1.3 


$37.50-39.99..., 




















$40.00-42.49..., 




















$42.50-44.99..., 




















$45.00 and over, 






















18 


2 


113 


100.0 


30 


91 


25 


279 


100.0 



SOURCE: Compiled "by Industry Reporting Unit, from Questionnaires sent out bj 
Research and Planning Division, N.R.A. 

(a) These workers were part-time workers. 



9770# 



OFFICE OF THE NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION 
THE DIVISION OF REVIEW 

THE WORK OF THE DIVISION OF REVIEW 

Executive Order No. 7075, dated June 15, 1935, established the Division of Review of the 
National Recovery Administration. The pertinent part of the Executive Order reads thus: 

The Division of Review shall assemble, analyze, and report upon the statistical 
information and records of experience of the operations cf the various trades and 
industries heretofore subject to codes of fair competition, shall study the ef- 
fects of such codes upon trade, industrial and labor conditions in general, and 
other related matters, shall make availeble for the protection and promotion of 
the public interest an adequate revie-,7 of the effects of the Administration of 
Title I of the National Industrial Recovery Act, and the principles and policies 
put into effect thereunder, and shall otherwise aid the President in carrying out 
his functions under the said Title. I hereby appoint Leon C. Marshall, Director of 
the Division of Review. 

The study sections set up in the Division of Review covered these areas: industry 
studies, foreign trade studies, labor studies, trado practice studies, statistical studies, 
legal studies, administration studies, miscellaneous studies, and the writing of cede his- 
tories. The materials i.hich were produced by these sections are indicated below. 

Except for the Code Histories, all items mentioned below are scheduled to be in mimeo- 
graphed form by April 1, 1936. 

THE CODE HISTORIES 

The Code Histories are documented accounts of the formation and administration of the 
codes. They contain the definition of the industry and the principal products thereof; the 
classes of members in the industry; the history of code formation including an account of the 
sponsoring organizations, the conferences, negotiations and hearings which , r .ere held, and 
the activities in connection ,vith obtaining approval of the code; the history of the ad- 
ministration of the code, covering the organization and operation of the code authority, 
the difficulties encountered in administration, the extent of compliance or non-compliance, 
and the general success or lack of success of the code; and an analysis of the operation of 
cz'li provisions dealing with wages, hours, trade practices, and other provisions. These 
and other matters are cinvassed not only in teruis of the materials to be found in the files, 
but also in terms of the experiences of the deputies and others concerned with code formation 
and administration. 

The Code Histories, (including histories of certain NRA units or agencies) are not 
mimeographed. They are to be turned over to the Department of Commerce in typewritten form. 
All told, approximately eight hundred and fifty (350) histories will be completed. This 
nuaber includes all of the approved co"':3 cr.d some of the unapproved codes. (In Work M ate- 
rials No. 18, Contents of Code Histories , will be found the outline which governed the 
preparation of Code Histories.) 

(In the case of all approved codes and also in the case of some codes not carried to 
final approval, there are in NRA files further materials on industries. Particularly worthy 
of mention are the Volumes I, II and III which constitute the material ofticially submitted 
to the President in support of the recommendation for approval of each code. These volumes 
9768—1 . 



- ii - 

set forth the origination of the code, the sponsoring group, the evidence advanced to sup- 
port the proposal, the report of the Division of Research and Planning on the industry, the 
recommendations of the various Advisory Boards, certain types of official correspondence, 
the transcript of the formal hearing, and other pertinent matter. There is also much offi- 
cial information relating to amendments, interpretations, exemptions, and other rulings. The 
materials mentioned in this paragraph were of course not a part of the work of the Division 
of Review. ) 

THE WORK MATERIALS SERIES 

In the work of the Division of Review a considerable number of studies and compilations 
of data (other than those noted below in the Evidence Studies Series and the Statistical 
Material Series) have been made. These are listed below, gr:uped according to the char- 
acter of the material. (In Work Ma terials No. 17, T entative Outlines and Summari es of 
Studies in P rocess , these materials are fully described). 

I ndustry S tudies 

Automobile Industry, An Economic Survey of 

Bituminous Coal Industry under Free Competition and Code Regulation, Economic Survey of 

Electrical Manufacturing Industry, The 

Fertilizer Industry, The 

Fishery Industry and the Fishery Codes 

Fishermen and Fishing Craft, Earnings of 

Foreign Trade under the National Industrial Recovery Act 

Part A - Competitive Position of the United States in International Trade 1927-29 through 

1934. 
Part B - Section 3 (e) of NIRA and its administration. 
Part C - Imports and Importing under NRA Codes. 
Part D - Exports and Exporting under NRA Codes. 

Forest Products Industries, Foreign Trade Study of the 

Iron and Steel Industry, The 

Knitting Industries, The 

Leather and Shoe Industries, The 

Lumber and Timber Products Industry, Economic Problems of the 

Men's Clothing Industry, The 

Millinery Industry, The 

Motion Picture Industry, The 

Migration of Industry, The: The Shift of Twenty-Five Needle Trades Froi New York State, 
192S to 1934 

National Labor Income by Months, 1929-35 

Paper Industry, The 

Production, Prices, Employment and Payrolls in Industry, Agriculture and Railway Trans- 
portation, January 1923, to date 

Retail Trades Study, The 

Rubber Industry Study, The 

Textile Industry in the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, and Japan 

Textile Yarns and Fabrics 

Tobacco Industry, The 

Wholesale Trades Study, The 

Women's Neckwear and Scarf Industry, Financial and Labor Data on 

9763—2 



- iii - 

Women's Apparel Industry, Some Aspects of the 

T rade Prac tice Studies 

Commodities, Information Concerning: A Study cf NRA and Related Experiences in Control 
Distribution, Manufacturers' Control of: Trade Practice Provisions in Selected NRA Codes 
Distributive Relations in the Asbestos Industry 
Design Piracy: The Problem and Its Treatment Under NRA Codes 
Electrical Mfg. Industry: Price Filing Study 
Fertilizer Industry: Price Filing Study 

Geographical Price Relations Under Codes of Fair Competition, Control of 
Minimum Price Regulation Under Codes of Fair Competition 
Multiple Basing Point System in the Lime Industry: Operation of the 
Price Control in the Coffee Industry 
Price Filing Under NRA Codes 
Production Control in the Ice Industry 
Production Control, Case Studies in 

Resale Price Maintenance Legislation in the United States 

Retail Price Cutting, Restriction of, with special Emphasis on The Drug Industry. 
Trade Practice Rules of The Federal Trade Commission (1914-1936): A classification for 
comparison with Trade Practice Provisions of NRA Codes. 

Labor Studies 

Cap and Cloth Hat Industry, Commission Report on Wage Differentials in 

Earnings in Selected Manufacturing Industries, by States, 1933-35 

Employment, Payrolls, Hours, and Wages in 115 Selected Code Industries 1933-1935 

Fur Manufacturing, Commission Report on Wages and Hours in 

Hours and Wages in American Industry 

Labor Program Under the National Industrial Recovery Act, The 

Part A. Introduction 

Part B. Control of Hours and Reemployment 

Part C Control of Wages 

Part D. Ccntrol of Other Conditions of Employment 

Part E. Section 7(a) of the Recovery Act 
Materials in the Field of Industrial Relations 
PRA Census of Employment, June, October, 1933 
Puerto Rico Needlework, Homeworkers Survey 

Adm inistrative Stu d ies 

Administrative and Legal Aspects of Stays, Exemptions and Exceptions, Code Amendments, Con- 
ditional Orders of Approval 

Administrative Interpretations of NRA Codes 

Administrative Law and Procedure under the NIRA 

Agreements Under Sections 4(a) and 7(b) of the NIRA 

Approve Codes in Industry Groups, Classification of 

Basic Code, the — (Administrative Order X-61 ) 

Code Authorities and. Their Part in the Administration of the NIRA 
Part A. Introduction 
Part B. Nature, Composition and Organization of Code Authorities 

9768—2. 



Part C. Activities of the Code Authorities 

Part D. Code Authority Finances 

Part E. Summary and Evaluation 

Code Compliance Activities of the NRA 

Code Making Program of the NRA in the Territories, The 

Code Provisions and Related Subjects, Policy Statements Concerning 

Content of NIRA Administrative Legislation 

Part A. Executive and Administrative Orders 

Part B. Labor Provisions in the Codes 

Part C. Trade Practice Provisions in the Codes 

Part D. Administrative Provisions in the Codes 

Part E. Agreements under Sections 4(a) and 7(b) 

Part F. A Type Case: The Cotton Textile Code 
Labels Under NRA, A Study of 

Model Code and Model Provisions for Codes, Development of 

National Recovery Administration, The: A Review of its Organization and Activities 
NRA Insignia 

President's Reemployment Agreement, The 

President's Reemployment Agreement, Substitutions in Connection with the 
Prison Labor Problem under NRA and the Prison Compact, The 
Problems of Administration in the Overlapping of Code Definitions of Industries and Trades, 

Multiple Code Coverage, Classifying Individual Members of Industries and Trades 
Relationship of NRA to Government Contracts and Contracts Involving the Use of Government 

Funds 
Relationship of NRA with States and Municipalities 
Sheltered Workshops Under NRA 
Uncodified Industries: A Study of Factors Limiting the Code Making Program 

Legal Studies 

Anti-Trust Laws and Unfair Competition 

Collective Bargaining Agreements, the Right of Individual Employees to Enforce 

Commerce Clause, Federal Regulation of the Employer-Employee Relationship Under the 

Delegation of Power, Certain Phases of the Principle of, with Reference to Federal Industrial 
Regulatory Legislation 

Enforcement, Extra-Judicial Methods of 

Federal Regulation through the Joint Employment of the Power of Taxation and the Spending 
Power 

Government Contract Provisions as a Means of Establishing Proper Economic Standards, Legal 
Memorandum on Possibility of 

Industrial Relations in Australia, Regulation of 

Intrastate Activities Which so Affect Interstate Commerce as to Bring them Under the Com- 
merce Clause, Cases on 

Legislative Possibilities of the State Constitutions 

Post Office and Post Road Power — Can it ^o Used as a Means of Federal Industrial Regula- 
tion? 

State Recovery Legislation in Aid of Federal Recovery Legislation History and Analysis 

Tariff Rates to Secure Proper Standards of Wages and Hours, the Possibility of Variation in 

Trade Practices and the Anti-Trust Laws 

Treaty Making Power of the United States 

War Power, Can it be Used as a Means of Federal Regulation of Child Labor? 

9768—4. 



■ - V - 

THE EVIDENCE STUDIES SERIES 

The Evidence Studies were originally undertaken to gather material for pending court 
cases. After the Schechter decision the project *as continued in order to assemble data for 
use in connection with the studies of the Division of Review. The data are particularly 
concerned with the nature, size and operations of the industry; and with the relation of the 
industry to interstate commerce. The industries covered by the Evidence Studies account for 
more than one-half of the total number oi workers under codes. The list of those studies 
follows: 



Automobile Manufacturing Industry 

Automotive Parts and Equipment Industry 

Baking Industry 

Boot and Shoe Manufacturing Industry 

Bottled Soft Drink Industry 

Builders' Supplies Industry 

Canning Industry 
Chemical Manufacturing Industry 
Cigar Manufacturing Industry 
Coat and Suit Industry 

Construction Industry 
Cotton Garment Industry 
Dress Manufacturing Industry 
Electrical Contracting Industry 
Electrical Manufacturing Industry 
Fabricated Metal Products Mfg. and Metal Fin- 
ishing and Metal Coating Industry 
Fishery Industry 

Furniture Manufacturing Industry 
General Contractors Industry 
Graphic Arts Industry 
Gray Iron Foundry Industry 
Hosiery Industry 

Infant's and Children's Wear Industry 
Iron and Steel Industry 



Leather Industry 

Lumber and Timber Products Industry 

Mason Contractors Industry 

Ken's Clothing Industry 

Motion Picture Industry 

Motor Vehicle Retailing Trade 

Needlework Industry of Puerto Rico 

Painting and Paporhanging Industry 

Photo Engraving Industry 

Plusbing Contracting Industry 

Retail Luaber Industry 

Retail Trade Industry 

Retail Tire and Battery Trade Industry 
Rubber Manufacturing Industry 
Rubber Tire Manufacturing Industry 
Shipbuilding Industry 
Silk Textile Industry 
Structural Clay Products Industry 
Throwing Industry 
Trucking Industry 

Waste Materials Industry 
Wholesale and Retail Food Industry 
Wholesale Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Indus- 
try 
Wool Textile Industry 



THE STATISTICAL MATERIALS SERIES 



This series is supplementary to the Evidence Studies Series. The reports include data 
on establishments, firms, employment, payrolls, wages, hours, production capacities, ship- 
ments, sales, consumption, stocks, prices, material costs, failures, exports and imports. 
They also include notes on the principal qualifications that should be observed in using the 
data, the technical methods employed, and the applicability of the material to the study of 
the industries concerned. The following numbers appear in the series: 
9768—5. 



Asphalt Shingle and Roofing Industry Fertilizer Industry 

Business Furniture Funeral Supply Industry 

Candy Manufacturing Industry Glass Container Industry 

Carpet and Rug Industry Ice Manufacturing Industry 

Ceisent Industry Knitted Outerwear Industry 

Cleaning and Dyeing Trr-de Paint, Varnish, and Lacquer, Mfg. Industry 

Coffee Industry Plumbing Fixtures Industry 

Copper and Brass Mill Products Industry Rayon and Synthetic Yarn Producing Industry 

Cotton Textile Industry Salt Producing Industry 

Electrical Manufacturing Industry 

THE COVERAGE 

The original, and approved, plan of the Division of Review contemplated resources suf- 
ficient (a) to prepare .some 1200 histories of codes and NRA units or agencies, (b) to con- 
solidate and index the NRA files containing some 40,000,000 pieces, (c) to engage in ex- 
tensive field work, (d) to secure much aid from established statistical agencies of govern- 
ment, (e) to assemble a considerable number of experts in various fields, (f) to conduct 
approximately 25% more studies than are listed above, and (g) to prepare a comprehensive 
summary report. 

Because of reductions made in personnel and in use of outside experts, limitation of 
access to field work and research agencies, and lack of jurisdiction over files, the pro- 
jected plan was necessarily curtailed. The most serious curtailments were the omission of 
the comprehensive summary report; the droppir.g of certain studies and the reduction in the 
coverage of other studies; and the abandonment of the consolidation and indexing of the 
files. Fortunately, there is reason to hope that the files may yet be cared for under other 
auspices . 

Notwithstanding these limitations, if the files are ultimately consolidated and in- 
dexed the exploration of the NRA materials will have been sufficient to make them accessible 
and highly useful. They constitute the largest and richest single body of information 
concerning the problems and operations of industry ever assembled in any nation. 

L. C. Marshall, 
Director, Division of Review. 
9768—6 .