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BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



^ 



3 9999 06317 350 2 



OFFICE OF NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION 
DIVISION OF REVIEW 



REPORT OF THE SPECIAL COMMISSION ON 
WAGE DIFFERENTIALS IN THE CAP AND 
CLOTH HAT INDUSTRY 

By 

Paul F. Brissenden 

Chairman 

Max Meyer 

Wirt A. Gill 



WORK MATERIALS NO. FIVE 



March, 1936 



OFFICE CF EAriG-.VLL F.ECCVEHY ABi.' I IS I STRATI ON 
Division OF R^VI£W 



P.FPOF.T OF THE SPECIAL COiv^I'ISSlON 0!T 

TvAGE DIFF£PE1:TIALS IN THE CAP AND 

CLOTH HAT IalDUSTFY 

By 

Pr-ul F. Brissenden 
Chairman 
Max Meyer 
".7irt A. Gill 



March, lr/5b 



9751 



I G 5 £; iV ORE 

This report of the Speciil Comnisbion on "iVapfi Differentials 
in the Cap and Cloth ''at Industiy x«^?s prepared by Messrs. Pau.1 
F. Brissenden, Chairman, Lax i.^^yev a.rid Wirt A. Gill, 

The report vras made in January 19C'>5 and a STnall number of 
copies was released at that time. It is here reproduced in order 
that it may be i;iade widely av-ilaole to students in the labor 
field. 

At the back of this report will be found a brief statement 
of the studies undertaken by the Divir;ion of RfvIpw. 



L. C. i'.arshp.ll, 

Director, Divii-ion of Review 



March 6, 1936 



9751 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Recorainendations of the CoLimicision 1 

Findings of Fact 4 

CommentG on the Commission's Recommendations 7 

Report 

The Industry 11 

Soiirces of Information 15 

Trends in Business Volui"ne "by Areas 18 

Distribution of Sales According to Area in 

which Products are Sold 20 

Distribution by Type of Outlet 31 

Production of Various Types of Caps 34 

Total Cost (Excluding Overhead) 38 

Material Costs 38 

Direct Labor C?sts , 40 

Labor Costs for Individual Operations 40 

Mark-Up 43 

Selling and Freight Costs 44 

Sex of Employees and Sectionalization of 

Shops 46 

Wage Rates, Earnings and Employment , 48 



-oCo- 



1171-11 



TABLES 



Page 

TABLE I - Distritution of 535 Reporting Firms 

According to Jl-jn.'bers of Workers Em- 
ployed, 1934 13 

TABLE II - Type of Plant Operation 16 

TABLE III - N-omber of Reporting Firms and Em- 
ployees in Cities of Specified 
Sizes 17 

TABLE IV - K-umber and Per Cent of Changes in 

Man-Hours Worked, in 12<:i Identical 

Firms, in July and August, 1934, 

and 103 Identical Firms in August 

and September, 1934 , 22 

TABLE V - Distribution of Sales According to Area 

A. Number of Firms and Amount of 

Sales o 24 

B. Per Cent of Total Number of Firms 

Selling in Each Area and of 

Total Sales Made in Each Area 24 

C. Per Cent of Total Number of Firms 

Prcducing in Each Area and of 

Total Production in Each Area 25 

D. Distribution of Sales of Caps 

Produced in New York City by 

Areas 26 

E. Distribution of Sales of Cnps 

Produced in the Eastern States 

by Area s . , 27 

F. Distribution of Sales of Caps 

Produced in the Western States 

by Areas 28 

TABLE VI - Distribution of Firms According to 

Per Cent of Sales through Various 

Outlets 52 

TABLE VII - Production of Various Caps, by Areas 

A. Number of Firms and Dozens of 

Caps Produced 35 

B. Per Gent of Total Caps vf Each 

Type which are Produced in 

Each Area 36 

C. Per Cent of Total Caiis Produced in 

Each Area which are of Each 

Type ..,...., 36 



1171-III 



TABLE VIII 



TABLE IX - 



TABLE X - 



TABLE XI - 



TA3LE XII 



TABLE XIII - 



TABLE XIV - 



TABLE XV - 



TABLE XVI 



TABLE XVII - 



Page 

Summary pi Averrige Total Direct 

Costs, Material Costs, and Prices, 

Per Dozen far Various Price Golf 

GapE!, t;y G-eor;raphical Areas 39 

Averafi;e Total Direct Labor Costs 
and productivity of Lator for 
Various Price Golf Caps 41 

Summary of Average Labor Costs and 
Efficiencies for Major Operations 
for Various Price Gclf Caps, "by 
Geographical Area 42 

Proportion of Total Overhead of 

Freight and Selling Costs 45 

llumher of Male and Female Employees 

During the ^,7eek of August 11, 1934 47 

A. Frequency Distrihu+ion of Hourly 

Earnings of Employees for Week 

Ending July 13^, 1934 49-51 

B. Frequency Distribution of Hourly 

Earnings of Employees for Week 

Ending August 11 , 1934 52-54 

Frequency Distributions of Prevailing 
Weekly Earnings of Employees, Weeks 
Ending July 14, August 11, and 
September 15, 1?34 5G-58 

Frequency Distribution of Prevailing 
Hours af Work of Employees, Weeks 
Ending July 14, August 11, and 
September 15, 1934 Gl-62 

Average Annual Earnings of Wage 
Earners in Cap Factories in 
Selected States, 1927 - 1S33 S4 

Extent of Full-Time Employment in 1933 

A. Number of Firms and Employees 65 

B. Per Cent of Firms and Employees 67 



-oOo- 



117HV 



SUPPtSl-SNTAEY TABLES 

Page 

TABLE VIII - A. IndividToal Plant Total Direct La- 
tor Costs, Total Material Cost, 
Wholesale Price, and Selling 
Outlet, by G-eographical Areas - 
25^ aolf Cap . . . /. 68 

B. Individioal Plant Total Direct La- 

bor Costs, Total Material Cost, 

T^holesale Price, and Selling 

Cutlet, by G-eo£:raphical Areas - 

39^ Golf Gap ....'. 70 

C. Individual Plant Total Direct La- 

bor Costs, Total ?Iaterial Cost, 

Wholesale Price, and Selling 

Outlet, by C-eographical Areas - 

59«f Golf Cap 71 

D. Individioal Plant Total Direct La- 

bor Costs, Total Material Cost, 

Wholesale Price, and Selling 

Outlet, by Geographical Areas - 

69;!f Golf Cap 72 

E. Individual Plant Total Direct La- 

bor Costs, Total Material Cost, 

Wholesale Price, and Selling 

Outlet, by Geographical Areas - 

100<# Golf Cap 74 

TABLE IX - Individual Plant Total Direct Labor 

Costs and Efficiencies 76 

TABLE X - A. Individual Plant Labor Costs and 

Efficiencies by Geographical 
Areas - 25(z! Golf Cap .'. 77 

B. Individual Plant Labor Costs and 

Efficiencies by Geographical 

Areas - 39<;^ Golf Cap 78 

C. Individual Plant Labor Costs and 

Efficiencies by Geographical 

Areas - 5^(f: Golf Cap 79 

D. Individual Plant Labor Costs and 

Efficiencies by Geographical 

Areas - 69(f Golf Cap 8G 

E. Individual Plant Labor Costs and 

Efficiencies by Geographical 

Areas - lOOy/^ Golf Cap 81 



-oOo- 



1171-V 



CIIAHT3 



r'age 

Figure A - Distriliution Among the Markets 
of. Total Physical Volurne of 
Crp EuDinesE ,..., 21 

Figure B - Frequency Distribution of Em- 
ployees by Vi^'eekly Earnings for 
the Week Ending August 11, 1934, 
"by Area , 59 

Figure C - Frequency Tistritution of Em- 
ployees by IiQ-'urs Worked the 
Week of August 11, 1934, 
by Area , , 63 



1171-VI 



RECOfMENDATIOWS OY THE COMMISSION 

In the li.'^ht of its findings, tne Commission 
recommends: 

First , that Article IV of the Code "be amended, 
establishing- the following areas in place of those new in 
the Labor Provisions: 

Area "A" - to include the following counties in New 
York State: 

Soroughs of Manhattan, Kings, Queens, Bronx, 
Richmond and the County of Westchester. 
Area "B" - to remain the same with the following ■ 
exceptions: 

1. That it exclude Area "A" as defined above, ■ 
and 

2. That it exclude Buffalo and Pittsburgh 
Metropolitan Districts. 

Area "C" - to remain the same as at present pro- 
vided in the Code with the addition of the Metro-ooli- 
tan Areas of Buffalo and Pittsburgh. 

Second , that no employee engaged in cutting,. 
blocking, operating or lining making in the several areas 
shall be paid less than at the rates specified ja ihe fol- 
lowing schedule: 



1171-1 



Area "A" - 55 cents per hour or at the rat^ of 

not less than $22 for a 40 hoiir week. 

Area "B" - 47-1/2 cents per hour or at the rate 

of not less than $19 for a 4C hour week. 

Area "C" - 44 cents per hour or at the rata of 

not less than $17,50 for a 40 hour week. 

Third, that Article IV, Section 1 of the Code 
with respect to unskilled labor remain unchanged, speci- 
fying a rate of 32-1/2 cents per hour for these employees. 

Fourth , that Article IV, Section 5 of the Code 
dealing with apprentices remain unchanged. 

Fifth, that to alleviate distress and undue 
hardships in special and exceptional cases, wherein a 
worker properly "belonging to this Industry is threatened 
with loss of employment or inability to secure employment 
because he or she is admittedly of abnormally low pro- 
ductive capacity, a special Board be established under the 
Code and be authorized t» permit the employment of such 
a worker at a wage less than the basic minimiam wage. 
This power may be given to "the special Millinery Bo^d" 
of the Millinery Code Authority if the necessary arrange- 
ments can be made. 

Sixth , that the Industry seriously consider the 



1171-2 



possibility of cornbinin,?^ this Code v/ith one of the major 
apparel industries, preferably the Millinery Code. 



1171-3 



FINDINGS OF FACT 

After due considerc.tion of (l) the statistical 
analyses of payroll and other factu.al material submitted, 
(2) the testimony presented at its Hearing and 'brief s sub- 
mitted and (c) its ovm direct observations and inquiries in 
shops which it has visited; the Commission finds: 

Firs t, that avera;^© t-otal costs (of direct labor 
plus material) ai-e higher in New York City than elsewhere, 
with one exception. 

Secondj that direct labor costs for every impor- 
tant grade of cloth caps, are consistently lower in the 
East and West than in New York City, The differences in 
labor costs vary for etxh type of c£i.p. In the West the a 
average total direct labor cost is from 5 per cent to 10 per 
cent lower thaji in New York City in the case of three grades 
of golf caps, and 25 per cent and 32 per cent lower in the 
case of two very important grades. In the East the average 
total direct labor cost is 4, 11 and 32 per cent lower than 
in New York City for three important grades in cloth caps. 

Thirdjj^ that average material costs per dozen 
caps are somewhat lower in the West for all grades of 



1171-4 



caps and for all but one grade of caps in the East. 

• I!£j:?;riii» that frei£:ht costs and selling expenses 
are slightly lower in New Yorl: than elsev/here, the former 
averaging 9.3, 7.2 and 6.3 i->eT cent of total overhead m the 
East, and West and New York City, respectively, ,nd the lat- 
ter 37.2, 33.8 and 49.4 per cent of overhead in the West, 
the East e.nd New York Cit^s respectively. 

Fifth, that the avera,j,e per cent gaross mark-up in 
the \7est for every type of cloth c>-ip, v/ith one exception, 
was foundi to he at lec.st 'fe-i.^-ice as large as the marlcap in the 
East and ITe-.v York City. 

Sixthj that the average efficiency of workers in 
the East is from 15 per cent to 20 per cent "below that of 
workers in Hew York City, uid x,hrxt the average efficiency of 
workers in the West is fi-ora 15 per cent to 40 per cent be- 
low that of v.'orkers in I'lev; York City, being about 35 per 
cent lower for three important grades of golf caps and 13 
per cent and 22 per cent lower for two other grades. 

Seventh^ that in spite of the superior labor ef- 
ficiency of Hew York City firms, average direct labor costs 
are considerably higher in this area due to the higher rates 
of pay. 

Eighth , that in spite of the fact that the 



1171-5 



average niimber of weeks of full-time employment furnished 
workers in the ;7est is greater (averat'ing forty-one (4l) 
weeks to a majority of employees) than in the East, (thirty- 
six (36) weeks) or New York City (thirty-three (-33) weeks), 
the annual earnings of New York City workers are larger. 
This again is due to the much higher wage rate paid in New 
York City. 

Ninth, that there is a great volume of unemploy- 
ment in the Indu.stry ,:-nd that even the employed workers are 
employed for a short week and for only part of the year. 

Tenth , that the Cap and Cloth Hat Industry is so 
small and is made up so predominantly of small and widely- 
scattered producing units that the prohlem of Code enforce- 
ment is one of extraordinary difficulty; that adequate en- 
forcement has not, so far, "been accomplished and is txnlike- 
ly to he achieved, even after amendment along lines recom- 
mended hy this Commission, so long as the hurden of enforce- 
ment rests v^holly u.pon the sho'olders of any Code Authority 
that has no greater financial resources than this small In- 
dustry is ahle to ^jrovide, ' 



1171-5 



COMKEIITS OK TH2 COm.IISSIOil'S PJlCOMviEMDATIONS 

Tlie Coiuaissicn Relieves thit the incorporation in 
the Goc.e cf c.n a.T.endment emliod^'in^,' the foretroing, recommenda- 
tions wovJd tend to iuprove conditions in the Industry. It 
is tneir opiiiion that the nev; r-.nd narro-ver difi'erentials 
sa^'-^.epted ^?ovJ.d tend to diminish unfair £nd destnictive com- 
petition in the Industr/ and woiild therefore mcke the prob- 
ler.! of code enfcr cement a much more mana^eaule one. If 
these reco-.'iiacndations vjere adopted the differential for the 
West instead of bsinr 32 per cent luider th^.t in riew York 
City v;ouid he 20 :-er cent lov;er ,^nd vrould he 7 per cent low- 
er tlian the wa-ue rates in the Zast. The differential for 
the 3.;.st outside of jTev York City rovJ.d be 14 per cent he- 
low that of tne wa^e rates in hev; York Cxt:". 

Xic t the proposed re:.d.jastment in areas and rates 
Vfould mean to tlie Industry if adopted will "be hetter under- 
stood "by examining the dj ta on hourly ea,rnings, and Tahles 
XIII A and 3. It ap-Tcar:-, that in the East the hourly eoi'n- 
in^s cf ruo'-'-t t'-''-thirui of the v/arkers equaled or exceeded 
4'% cents -oer hour. Application of the new rates would mean, 
therefore, that these producers, :aany of whom are now oioerating 



xxnder stays at 41:|- cents per hour vrould have to raise the 
wages of ahorit one-third of their vrorkers "by amo'onts not 
greater than 6 cents per hoixr. 

In the West, indications t-re that in Jvly and 
Afj^.st b-f 1934, over 45 per cent of the workers had earnings 
equal to or greater than 45 cents per hovjr. The proposed 
rainirn'om of 44 cents per hour for this area, v/ould mean, therefore, 
that v.'Sstern producers wov-ld he ohli.,.-ed..to raise somewhat 
less than half of their workers from 37-^ to 44 cents per 
hour . 

In the case of the Bxiffalo firms, many of v/hich 
are nov/ operating under a stay, under the proposal they 
would have to ra.ise their minimiun ^vage rite from 41^ to 44 
cents per hour. 

The Commission does not think that the proposed 
rate adjustment need jrove und-oly burdensome to western man- 
ufacturers in view of the recommendation for special provi- 
sions for handicapped and slow vrorlcers ^nd especially in 
view of the possibility of bringing aboxit reduction in costs 
"OJider the new rate by enhancement of efficiency. In the 
production of a staple article like caps, it should be ^sos- 
sible, in the opinion of the Comirdssion, to attain almost 
as high a level of efficiency in the i7est as has been reach- 
ed in llew York City. 



1171-8 



Althoti^h it is true that tlic Gap Industry is in a 
deplorable state as a wliole, man/ firms are doing very v^ell 
financially t-nd amont.; txiese are seme of t^ie concerns which 
have been most emphatic in registering protests against any 
ch£.nges in minimum ho-orly rateso 

More favoraole labor provisions in the major codes 
to v/hich the Cap Code is closely rel._,ted m^^y be urged as a 
circumstance favoring the liberalization of its labor pro- 
visions. i.Iost of the major in.lustries in the apparel field 
have much higher v;age and shorter hour provisions than does 
the Cap and Cloth Hat Code. This markedly true of the 
Dress, Coat and Suit, Lien's Clothin^ and iiillinery Codes. 
The only major ap'oarel code vdzn no more favorrbie Itibor 
provisions is the Cotton Garment Code and even its hour 
provisions are now shorter than those fo^ond in the Cap 
Code. 

The relations betv/een the Cap Industry and the 
Millinery Industry are close in many ways. The processes 
and mg-chinery used are simile r or identical. There is 
a considerable raovem.ent of workers back and forth between 
cap and millinery factories. Tnene facts malce pertinent 
not only the suggestion that the proposed handicapped 
workers provision might be {administered by the special 
Millinery Boc.rd but also the propisal th,..t it might be 



1171-9 



well in the best interests of the Cap Industry to amalgamate 
its Code, for ptirposes of enforcement at least, with some 
other code like that of the Millinery Industry. The Com- 
mission believes that for many small industries the only 
solution of their enforcement problem is raore or less com- 
plete affiliation with a lar.-^er, closely related industry. 
Although it has not made a formal recommendation 
on the point, the Commission vdshes to emphasize the ur- 
gent need for serious consideration of an early action upon 
the contractor problem, the serioxisness of which in New York 
City is f^^lly appreciated in the Industry. The Commission 
wishes informa.lly to su.£gest that some plan for the regis- 
tration of contra-ctors be worked out after study of the ■ 
experiences of the coat and suit and other apparel indus- 
tries now trying to cope v/ith this problem. 



1171-10 



REPORT Oi' THE SPECIAL CO! It.JSSIOK 
POR THE CAP AlTD CLOTH IIAT INDUSTRY 



The Industry 

The Cap 1:1. duo try is small and is mf.de up for the 
most pp.rt of small and highly competitive units. For a de- 
cade the Industry/ has "been ^rov.'ing smaller. Its decline is 
not merely a depression phenomenoii; the d.eprpssion served 
merely to accelerate a dovmward trend th;,t was a orocess in 
the middle '20s. The record is indicited by the Census 
figures on dollar volioine (valixe of products) since 1935, 

1925 $43,822,729 

1927 41,213,965 

1929 35,900,564 

, ■ 1931 16,367,181 

1953 12,658,883 

The following table, compiled from Census data 

shows the trend of the distriVation of t^ie dollar volum.e of 

business among the various areas. The figi^xes shown are a 

percentage of the total dollar volume of business done by 

each area: 

1933 1931 1929 1927 1919 

New York State 27.7 38.7 40.5 37.6 49.5 

East (excl. N.Y. State) 26.2 19.3 17.3 20.7 20.7 
West ■ 45.1 42.0 -^-1.7 41^7 2'.1.8 

U. S. 100.0 1*^0.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 



1171-11 



These figures shov; that New York City's share of 
the cap business declined from one-half in 1919 to a little 
over one-foua~th of the total business in 1933, The ea.stern 
f.rea appears to have maintained its share of the total cap 
business. Qv.ite noticeahle are the gains made by the manu- 
facturers located in the Western area, who have increa.sed 
their proi:)ortion of the total c^p "business from 30 per cent 
in 1919 to 46 per cent in 1933. 

Wages disbursed by the industry dropped from $9,- 
242,937 in 1925 to $2,968,064 in 1933. Similar though less 
pronounced declines have taken place in th-: number of es- 
tablishments and the number of workers in this industry. 

The payroll retiirns availc.ble to the Commission 
indicate that the Industry now employs about 5,000 workers 
in abov.t 535 establisliments, and does about $13,000,000 
worth of bu.siness annually. 

The ore-depression decline in the Industry ?/as 
probably due in mt. jor ;oart to the som'ewhat v'/idespread habit 
of going bareheaded, and partly due to a style trend showing 
a tendency to wear hats instead of caps. 

Table I indicates the size of firms in this 
Industry. It is seen that roughly half of the firms 
in the Industry employ ten workers or less. Furthermore, 
ind.ications rre that the Western shops are larger than 



1171^.^^2 



TA3LE I 

SPECIAL COmiSSION FOH THE CAP AlID CLOTH HAT INDUSTRY 

Distribution of 535 Beporting Firms According 
to Numbers of Workers Bnployed, 1934 



Nxim"b 


ers of 




W-omber^of Firms 






Employees 


United 


New York 
















■'States 


_ Citz. 


Bast , 


^ West_ 


1 - 


5 


295 


118 


83 


94 


6 - 


10 


125 


50 


28 


47 


11 - 


15 


33 


9 


7 


17 


16 - 


20 


27 


9 


4 


14 


21 - 


25 


16 


4 


4 


8 


26 - 


3,1 


•8 


1 


3 


4 


31 - 


40 


13 


2 


1 


10 


41 - 


50 


6 


2 


3 


1 


51 - 


75 


6 





3 


3 


76 ^ 


100 


2 








2 


101- 


159 


1 








1 


151- 


200 


.1 





e 


1 


Over 


200 


2 


1 


1 






Total 535 196 137 202 



Source: <^estionnaire sent out by the Code Authority. 



&:din 
1/7/35 



1171-13 



those in Kew York ,nd the East, since 85 per cent of the shops 
in Kew York City c.nd 80 per cent of those in the East employ 
ten workers or less, while only a"bo"ut 70 per cent of the v;est- 
ern firms are tiiis small. 

The principal manufacturing centers are: New Yor^:, 
Chicago, Stp Louis, and Phil:..delphia, These four markets in 
1933 were responsisle respectively for 28, 13, 11 and 5 per 
cent of tne Dusiness, and accounted alto'-;ether for 57 per cent 
of tlie total doll.- r volume attained in that year. 

The cap workers in the IJev; York markets are strong- 
ly unionized, their union having signed up most of the firms 
in the New York City area in an agreement v/hich provides fi»r 
weekly wa^es (and for piecev/ork rates) ranging from $27 to 
$40 for a <0-hour week. The other important cap making areas 
ai .e not as highly unionized as the IJew York City area. 

This small scale Industry, in contrast to such other 
apparel industries manufacturing apparel such as cloaks and 
suite, dresses and millinery, makes a fairly staple product. 
Except for Few York, there is practically no contract \7ork, 
the goods "being mtmufactured principally "by firms ovming or 
leasing their -own quarters, .nd from their o\7n materials, 
and not for the accounts of others. 

. Both "tailoring" and "sectionalized" methods 



1171-14 



of production are followed and this seemi; to "be true of all 
section, "but tailorint-j predoriiin;ites in llev: York City, and in 
the very small shops vmerever loc.ted, v/hile sectional! zation 
maiilis tne western centers of tiie Industry, especially in the 
larger plants, (S'^e Table II for f-orther details on sectional - 
ization). 

It is an ur"ban Industry. More than that, it is not 
an Industry fo-a::d to any appreciable e::tent in small toiims. 
It is a big-city Inf'ustry. Table III shors tnat clorje to 90 
per cent of the firms and about the s^j^ne proportion of the 
workers are foiond in cities of over 250,000 poriulation. 

Sources of, Inf qrrnatipn 

The facts which emerj;e from the inquiries conducted 
by the Commission derived from: 

1, Public hearings, supjjl ement ed by briefs, report 
and letters from raanufactui'ers, or their re- 
presentatives. 

2, Visits by the Commission to c.p factories in 
the various markets, and interviews with em- 
ployers and employees in these factories, 

3, Statistical analysis of (l) payroll retv.rns 
to the Code Authority supplemented by addi- 
tional returns direct to the Commission, and 
42) returns received upon tv/o questionnaires 
distributed to members of the Industry, 

Tne last-named sovsce is the cliief basis of tne re- 
sults outlinte below. The Commission considered 



1171-15 



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11; important, hov/ever, to appraise e;nd iyterpret the fig-ores 
in the light of what was said at hearings and in "briefs there- 
on, and even more important, in its judgment, in the light of 
its own first-hand observations ;-.nd contacts in the shops. 

Trends in Business VolLi-me by Areas 

The acid test of whether or not a given market has 
suffered from the ("fair" or "imfair") competition of firms 
in other markets can he made by examination of the reports 
of members of the Industry on their unit and dollar volume of 
production. 

Using information supplied by 183 firms reporting 

to the Code Authority v/e find the available business as 

shown by dollar volume for 1933 and the first nine months 

of 1934 distributed in the various areas as follows: 

Area Per Cent of Total Dollar Volume 

in Area Indicated 

Jan. --Sep t. 1954 1935_ 

llew York City 24.9 27.7 

East (e.xcl. N.Y. State) 23.4 25.2 

West. 51.7 46.1 

U. S. '. 100.0 100.0 

This shows that ITew York City's share of 



1171-18 



■business has appreci ."bly diminished, ; nd the -western areas 
share of it apprecit-bly increased, since 1933, As to the 
position of the East the dolla" vclu..ie data a~re inconclu- 
sive, Viit indications are thjt certain -ocrtions of this 
area like Boston and Philadelphia have mcide gains at the 
expense of other portions of the eastern area. 

Using unit vol'jme of ■jroduction as a measure of the 
trend \ie find the following distrihution by areas for 1933 
and nine months in 1934: 

Year and Month PerCent^of Total Unit Vol"aine in Ai'ea 

Indicated 

U. S» .-^.gr_"^o rl: City East West 



1933 100 37.4 ,33.7 43.9 

27.8 
26.1 
27.7 
28.2 
26.7 
29.7 
29.7 
32.2 
25.8 
22.8 

These unit Volume figures indicate, as "between 



Jan .-Sept. 
(incl.) 


1934 


100 


Jan, 




1934 


100 


FelD. 




1934 


100 


March 




1934 


100 


April 




1934 


IGO 


May 




1934 


100 


June 




1934 


100 


July 




1934 


100 


August 




1934 


100 


Sept, 




1934 


100 



23.9 


48.4 


18.6 


55.3 


19.5 


52.8 


24.1 


47.7 


25.4 


46.9 


23.5 


46.8 


24.4 


45.9 


19.4 


48.4 


28.8 


45,4 


28.9 


48,3 



1171-19 



1933 and the nhole nine month period in 1934, not so much a 
loss of business by any area to any other as an aJr.- ,t com- 
plete maintenance in 1954 of the 1033 apportionment. (For 
details see Figure A). 

Another indication of shift in "business after the 
adoption of the Code is foijaid in the following tabulation, of 
man-hours worked in each area. 



Man-Hours^ Worked in per Cent 

Change 
September July to 



Area 


lIural5or ■ 
of :: 


Man-] 




Reporting 


July 




Firms 




United States 


87 


105,812 


New York City 


'26 


16,024 


East 


14 


28,950 


West 


47 


60,858 



Septe mber., 



109,583 3.6 

14,760 7,9 

. 29,595 2.3 

65,225 7.2 

This table indicates that gains have been made 
in the West at the expense of the New York City maimfac- 
turers, the percentage loss in man-hours in New Yor^; City, 
being almost the same as the gains in the West. (Further 
details are given in Table IV) . 

Distribution of Sales /Iccorain g to Areas 
in Which Products are S old 

The extent to v/hich maniifacturers located in one 
area sell in that area and other acreas is shown in Table 
V-A, B.,C. D. E. and F. Inasmuch as actual sales 
figures are not available a '.hypothetical distribution 



1171-20 



FIGURE A 
SPECIAL COMMISSION FOR THE 
CAP AND CLOTH HAT INDUSTRY 



zj 



DISTRIBUTION AMONG THE MARKETS OF 
TOTAL PHYSICAL VOLUME OF CAP BUSINESS 



JOO 



I 

Z 

CO 
OL 

< 

o 

o 

Ui 

P. 



z 



It. 

o 



a: 

UJ 




SOURCE: «95^ 1934 

REfHDRTiS TO SPECIAL COMMISSION AND RCPOBTS TO COOE AUTHORITY. 



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of sa.les was obtained "oy raultiplyini;; act-aEd production 
fig^ures by the percenta<.:e3 vnich individual maniif acturers 
estimated as the proportion of their sales made in each 
ar ea . 

These tables indicc^te the follo'.7ing facts: 

1 . Three-fourths^ 2 f _ a]J._ ca^ s,,£rpduced_ar e_ sold 
iig the eastern and v;estern areagj_ about t v'o- 
thirds f the rernsi ni n.f;- -prod uction beinis: so Id 

in_ the souther n -._nd one--th_ir d in__the far - 

western areas. 

'The 174 firms reporting have an average 
monthly produ.ction of 178,800 dozen caps; 
approximately 58,000 dozen of these caps 
are sold in the East, abcat 74,000 dozen 
are sold in the Mid-West, 17,500 dozen 
in the Par-West, end about 30,000 dozen in 
the South. (Table V A) . 

2, The total sales in each area are distributed 
among New York City, eastern and v/estern 
manufacturers as follov;s: 

a. Almost three-fourths of all the caps 
sold in the East are producEd inl'Iew 
Ysrk City, the remainder being almost 
evenly divided betvi'een the eastern 
and western manufactiurers. (Ta.ble V B) 



1171-23 



CAP MP CLOTH HAT yiAMJFACTIIRIKG INDUSTBY 

TABLE V - DISIRI3UTI0II OF SALES ACCOaDIIJ& TO ABEA 

This ta'Dle shows the extent to which man-afact^irers located in one area sell 
in other areas. In part A, are given the actual numlDer of fims and a 
hypothetical monthly figure on sales ohtained "by ra-altiplying each manu- 
facturers "oroduction ty the percentage of his sales made in each area. Thus 
61 of the 64 reporting firms located in New York City sell monthly in the 
East 41,569 dozen of a total production of 87,116 dozen caps, 29 firms sell 
23,622 dozen in the Mid-West, etc. 

In i^art E, the percentages of tne total caps sold in. the East "by firms locat- 
ed in rTew York City, the East and the V/est are -shown; and similarly for the 
Mid-Jest, Ear-i7est, and South. 

In TDart C, the percent of the total caps produced in New York City which are 
sold in each of the areas is shown, and similarly the percent of total caps 
produced in the other areas which are sold in each area. 

A. Num"ber of Jirms and Amount of Sales 



Area in which Area in which sold 
Produced 



OT/iL 



EAST 



MID-WEST 



FAR-TrTEST 



SOUTH 



Num"ber Number Num"ber Num"ber Numher Num'oer Num'ber Num'ber Nuraher ]]vnoi 

of of doz- of of doz- ^f of doz- of of doz- of of d( 

firms en caps firms en caps firms en caps firms en caps firms en a 

sold sold sold sold scl( 



New York 






















City 


64 


■ 87,115 


61 


41,569 


29 


23,633 


9 


7,188 


18 


14,73' 


East 


39 


24,220 


38 


8,898 


11 


6,178 


10 


3,603 


13 


■5 , 54: 


West 


71 


67,463 


11 


6,871 


57 


44,580 


24 


6,65C 


14 


9,36, 


Total 


174 


178,799 


lie 


57 , 333 


97 


74,380 


43 


17,441 


45 


29_i64( 



B. Percent of Total Sales In each Area Made "by 
New York City, Eastern and Western Firms. 



New York City 48.75^ 

East 13.6 

West 37.7 

Total 100.0 



72. &p 
15.5 
12. 



100.0 



31.8^/i 

8.3 
59.9 

100.0 



41. 2f. 

20.7 

38.1 

100.0 



1171-21+ 



4S.7fs 

18.7 

31,6 

100.0 



C. Percent of Total Production of llev; York City, 
Eastern ^md ViTestern Firms, Sold in Eacti Area. 



Area in which 
Produced 


Area in 


v/hich sold 










llumter 

of dozen 

caps 

sold 


ll-am"ber 

of dozen 

caps 

sold 


llumlier 
of dozen 
. caps 
sold 


number 

of dozen 

caps 

sold 


iJumter 

of dozsn 

caps 

sold 


New York City 

East 

V/est 


lOOfo 
100 

100 


47.7^ 
36.7 
. 10.2 


27.1^ 

25.5 

66.1 


8 . 3fj 
14.9 
9.9 


16.9/. 

22.9 

13.5 



Total 100 32,1 ' 41.6 - 9.8 16.5 



Source: CJaestiohnaire sentov.t by the Industry Reportin™ Unit, Research 
and Planning' Division. 



1171-25 



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b. Sixty per cent of all caps sold in 
the Mid-West are produced by western 
manufactiirers, about half as much by 
New York City foanufacturers, and less 
than 10 per cent by eastern rnanu- 
fact\irers. (Table V B) . 

c. Of all the caps sold in the Far-West, 
New York City and western manufactur- 
ers produced about the same amounts 
(40 per cent) and eastern manufactur- 
ers approximately half as much. 
(Table V B) . 

d. Of all the caps sold in the South 
approximately one-half were raanu- 
fa'^-tured by New York City firms, 
about a third by western manufactur- 
ers, and the remainder (19,9 per 
cent) by eastern manufacturers, 
(Table V B) . 

3. New York City, eastern and we s-tern firms 
/ >> — "t-j — . — . 

each dispose of their total production in 
the varioTJ-S areas as follows : 

a. New York City firms sell almost half 
of their caps in the eastern aros,' 
about one-fourth in the Mid-West, 
and the remaining fourth in the 
South and Far-West. (Table V C). 
1171-29 About half of the I'ew York City firms 



reporting sold all of their product 
in the East. Those remaining New 
:York City firms selling in the Mid- 
West, Far-West and South sold indi- 
vid'ually a comparatively small pro- 
portion of their sales in these areas. 
(Tatle V D). • 

b. Eastern firms sell a little over one- 
third of their production in the East, 
one-fourth in the Mid-YJ'est and one- 
fourth in the South, and the re- 
mainder in the Far-West. (Table V C) . 
About two-thirds of the reporting 
eastern firms sold all of their pro- 
duct in the East. Those remaining 
eastern firms selling in the other 
areas sold individually a relatively 
small pro-ocrtion of their total sales 
in. these areas. (Table V E) . 

c. Western firms sell two-thirds of their 
production in the Mid-West, and the 
remainder about eqioally in the East, 
Far-West and S«uth. (Table V C) . 
Three-fourths of the reporting western 
firms sold all of their -oroducts in the 



1171-30 



Mid-¥est or J'ar-West. Those remain- 
ing western firms selling in the 
i 

East and South sold individually a 
relatively small proportion of their 
total sales in those areas, i, ' ble V E). 

4 f 

Distribution by Type of Outlet ■ 

The outlets through which the firms in each area 
distribute their production are shovm in Table VI. 
The outstanding facts revealed are: 
1. Jobbers serve as the principal cutlet for 
Kew York City manufacturer s. , 
Of the total of 71 reporting firms in this 
area 56 sold some of their products through 
this channel as compared vith 19 t^f the 49 
eastern manufacturers and 29 of the 83 
; western manufacturers using this outlet. 

Moreover, 40 of the 71 i:ew York City firms 
sell all of their production. through Jobbers, 
as, cempared with only 5 of the 49 ea. -'n 
I and 7 of the 83 western manufacturers using 
i this outlet for all of their product. This 
is still f-urther emphasized by the fact that 
43 of the 71 New York City firms sell more 
than 80 per cent of their production through 
jobbers contrasted with 7 of the 49 eastern 



1171-31 



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and 10 of the 83 western manuf actiirers 
selling this amoimt through this outlet. 

2. . Retail stores serve as the most important 
outlet for manufacturers in the eastern 
and western areas . 

Whereas only 16 of the 71 rlew York City 
firms make some of their sales to retail 
stores, 37 of the 49 eastern and 65 of 
the 83 western firms use this outlet for 
at least some of their sales. Moreover, 
15 of the 49 eastern firms ?nd 27 of the 
83 western firsas sell 100 per cent of their 
production throut;h retail stores as com- 
pared with only S of the 71 New York City 
firms. This is even more clearly brou,?;ht 
out "by a comparison of the number of firms 
in each area selling more than 80 per cent 
of their production through retail stores: 
24 of the 49 eastern, and 45 of the 83 
western firms fall in this ,5:roup as com- 
pared v,-ith only 7 of the 71 New York City 
firms. 

3 . Departm e nt. Chain and Mail Order Houses 
serve as a more important outlet for 
New York City than they do in the other 



1171-33 



areas Tput even here they are, relatively 
lesn important . 

This is shown ty the fact that 12 of the 
71 New York City firms as compared with 3 
of the 49 eastern and 7 of the 83 western 
firms maive more than 60 per cent of their 
total sales throiigh these outlets. 

ILr oducWon of Vari ous T:/ T 3es of Caps 

The average monthly production of the various 
types ef caps and the extent to which each type of cap 
is produced in each area is shown in Tatles VII A, B 
and C. • ■ 

The follo?/ing facts are "brought out by the 



tables: 



1. Of the total produ:;tion of all types of 
caps . the western manufacturers produced 
almost 45 per cent, the New York City manu- 
facturers 41 per cent and the eastern manu- 
fact-urers 14 per cent. (164 firms report- 
ing an average total production of 152,428 
dozen monthly — Table VII — A and B). 

2. The most important types of caps in order 
of dozens produced are: (Table VII C) . 

a. Specialties such as hunting, helmets, 
shop caps etc.-~27 per cent of the 



1171-34 



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Table VII (Cont'd')' ; ; 

B. Percent of T_qtal Car)s of Ec-^ch Type v.- hich are Produce d in Each Area 

Percent of Total Gaps of Each Type Produced wMcx i: a^ - Produced In ; 

Type of Cap Uew York City East West ' T ; 1 

Golf Ca-QS 



$ .25 
.39 
.59 
.69 
.79 
1.00 
1.50 

Others 

TOTAI 



39. 7<^. 
61.6 

35.6 

41.3 
37.4 

42.7 

41.0 



29.4<b 
6.8 

10.4 
8.2 
9.1 

10.1 

18.9 
-14.4 



30. 3<^ 
31; 6 

54 vO 
91 JS 
49.^6 
52.? 

38.5 

44.6 



100. Ofb 
100.0*^. 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 

100.0 

100.0 



_C. Percent _of Total Caps Produced in Each Area^Hch are _of Erch T ype 



Type of 
Cap 



'ercent of Total Caps Produced in Each Area which are of r^ach Type : 



Few York City 



Golf Caps 



East 



West 



Total 



$ .25 

. .39 

.50 

.59 

.69 

.79 

1.00 

1.50 

Others 

TOTAI 



14. 


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-16. 


S- 


4, 


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0. 


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14. 


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19. 


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1. 


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28. 


,4 



•30.lfi' , 


■■ 10. 5-;^ 


5.2 


7.9 


2.4 


9.0 


1.3 


4.9 


11.6 


■ 19.5 , 


" 0.4 


1.3 


12.2 


21.4 


1.4 


2.3 


35.4 


23.4 



14. 8f. 

11.1 
6.2 
2.7 

16.1 

0. : 

19. J' 
2-.0 
27.0 



100.0 



100.0 



100.0 



Source: Questionnaires sent out hy the Industry Reporting Tnit, Division of 
Research and Planning, National Recovery Adninistra tion. 
Supplementary Questionnaires sent out hy Special Commission, and 
Production Reports made to the Code Authority. ■• ': 



1171-36 



total production. 

b. $1 golf cap - 19.3 per cent of the 
total production., 

c. 69 cert {?;cll! cap - 16.1 per cent of the 
total production. 

d. 25 cent golf car) - 14,3 per cent of the 
total product-ion. 

e. 39 cent golf cap - 11.1 por cent of the 
total production, 

3. The most important golf caps in re s-oect to 

the total dozens produced in each area are: 

(Tahle VII C) 

a. New York City - Specialties; over 

one-fourth of all caps produced here. 
Golf caps priced at tfl, and at 39 cents 
are next in importance, comprising 19 
and 17 per cent respectively of the total 
production of this area. 

"b. East - Atout one-third cf all the caps 

produced in this area are specialties and 
almost one-third are 25 cent golf caps. 

c. 'Vest - The most important caps pro- 
duced in this area are specialties, 
$1 golf caps and 69 cent golf caps, each 
comprising about 20 per cent of the 
total production in this area. 



1171-37 



Total Cost (Excluding: Overhead ) 

The average total cost of manufacture for 
a dozen caps (excluding overhead) is shown in Tatle VIII. 

It will be noted the cost for western manu- 
facturers is in every case lower than New York City; 
it is about 13 per cent Icwer in the case of 25 cent 
and 59 cent golf caps and about 7 per cent lower for the 
39 cent and $1 caps. 

In the Sast the total cost is 17 per cent lower 
for the 25 cent golf cap than in New York City, and 3.5 
per cent lower for the $1 golf cap; it is 3 per cent 
higher, however, in the case of the 69 cent cap. It 
should also be pointed out that for the 25 cent cap the 
difference in cost is the greatest both in the East and 
in the West. As brought out later the differences in 
total cost are more largely accounted for by the dif- 
ferences in the total direct labor costs than by differ- 
ences in material costs - this in spite of the fact that 
material costs comprise more than twice as large a part 
of the total costs (excluding overhead) . 

Material Costs 

The average total material cost per dozen caps 
for firms in the various areas is shown in Table VIII. 

It is seen that the average material cost in 
the West is for every important grade of golf cap 3 to 

1171-38 







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4 per cent lower than in New York City with the exception 
of the 59 cent golf cap v/here it is 10 per cent lower. 

In the East the average material cost is 3 
to 4 per cent lower than in l>Tew York City for the 25 cent 
and the $1 cap hut 15 per cent higher for the 69 cent 
cap. 

Direct Lahor Costs 

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firms in each area is shown in Table IX. 

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cap; for the 25 cent and $1 cap it is 25 per cent and 
32 per cent lower res-nectively. 

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cost is 4 per cent lower than New York City for the $1 
golf cap, 11 per cent lower for the 69 cent cap and 32 
per cent Icwer for the 25 cent cap. 

It should be pointed out that the difference 
in labor costs are greatest for both the East and the 
West in the case of the, 25 cent golf cap. 

Labor Casts for Individual Operations 

The average labor costs for the firms in each 
area for individual operations are shovm in Table X. 



1171-40 



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The outstanding fact brought out by this table is that a 
few operations are responsible for the major part of the 
differences in total direct labor costs pointed out 
ab ove • 

There are practic-illy no differences in labor 
costs in every grade of golf cap for the operations of 
blocking and packing. In the cases of linine making and 
incidental operations such as button rnaJcing, etc., 
classed under Others, costs are slightly lower in the 
East and West than in New York City, 

Cutting costs vary considerably due to the 
use of a wide variety of cutting machines and are not 
consistently higher or lov/er in any one a.rea. 

The differences in total labor costs are almost 
completely . .acco'onted for by the differences in operations 
comprised under the term "Operating,'' In the West 
operating costs are consistently about 26 percent lower 
than New York City for every grade of golf cap. In the 
East operating costs 'ire 40 to 50 percent lower than in 
New York City for the 25 cent and 39 cent golf caps and 
about 50 percent lower for the 5S cent and 69 cent caps 
and 13 percent lower for the $1 cap. 

Mark- Up 

Table VIII shows the average percent gross 

1171-43 



mai-l:-up for CacL t2Q3e of -olf c?p in e?.cla area. 

It is Geoii tiat the average ver cent gross 
ai3/j.i:-up in th.c 'Test for every iraoortant grade of golf 
Can is over twice as luucl. as ixi i'^cv.' York City, except 
for t'-e 69 cent golf cap v.'liere it is 25 per cent higher. 

Tl^.c ir.arh-up in the East is a:':)proxi;-iatcly the 
seme as in ITev/ York Cit^^ with the exception of the 25 
cent cap. 

Attention is callec to the fr^.ct that for the 
25 cent cap an average of all tJ.e mark-ups of reporting 
fin-fls in New York City gives an average mark-up 3 per 
cent '5g1o^^ total costs not comiting overheacT. In this 
city 4 of the 9 reporting fin.is v/ere selling this cap 
at a loss, r.iis cor.iparcs with an average mark-up of 
9.6 per cent for this cap in the East and 20.6 per cent 
mark up in the West. 
Selling and Freight Cost s 

The relative magnitude of selling ex onses 
and freight charges in the three areas are indica.ted 
in Tatle XI. From this taole the following- conclusions 
:'iaj" he drawn: 

1. Selling costs comprise slif-hitly smaller 

"oer cent of the total overhead in hew York 
City than in the e -'.stern or western areas. The 



1171-44 



CAP AND CLOTH EAT I;IA1.TIIFACTU3I !"& IlIDUSTP-Y 
Ta^le XI - PHOPOETION OF TOTAL OVSHHSAD OF PPEI&HT MB SELLING COSTS, 1934 

TliiG Tatlc . slicv/s t.xC relative proporation of tlie total overhead consiUTaed 
"by selling and freigrit expenses in eacli area. 



i 


Iroaiiher of Firms with 


specified per cent 


cf total 


i 
overhead 


Per cent of ' 
overhead 

i 


liEW YORK CITY 


EAST 


WEST 




Selling 


Freight 




Selling 


Freight 


Selling 


Freight 


1 


cost 






cost 




cost 




I 

- 9.9 ! 


3 


21 




2 


18 


2 


39 


10 - 19.9 


2 


2 




2 


12 


12 


13 


20 - 39. 'J 


4 






8 


1 


19 


S 


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5 


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11 


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23 




24 


33 


55 


63 


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33.8fo 


9.3fo 


37.0fi 


7.2^ 



Source: Q,uestic-.-i-aaire sent out hy the Industry Reporting Unit, Division of 
Eesearch and Planning. 



1171-45 



average jier cent of the total overliea'd 
consumed "by selling expense is 29.4 per 
cent in New York City, 33.8 per cent in 
the eastern area and 37 per cent in the 
western area. Selling expenses constitute 
from 10 to 50 per cent of the total over- 
head for 9 of the 18 New York City firms, 
16 of the 24 eastern firms and 42 of the 
65 western firms reporting. 
2. Freight casts comprise a slightly smaller 
per cent of the total overhead in New York 
City than in the eastern or western areas . 
The average per cent of the total overhead 
which freight costs comprise is 6.3 per cent 
for New York City firms, 9.3 per cent for 
eastern firms and 7.2 per cent for western 
firms. 
Sex of Employees and Sectionalization of Shops 

Ta"ble XII indicates the relative proportion of 
male and female workers employed in the various sections 
of the country. This tahle shows that about one-fourth 
of the workers in TSsrr York City, half of those in„the 
East, and 60 per oen'b of those in the West are women. 

Closely related to the large number of female 
employees in the Industry, especially in the West, ia 



1171-46 











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the spread of the so-called "section work" shops. 

Both in New York City and in the West ahout 
43 per cent tf the reporting firms and 57 per cent of 
the eastern firms followed section viovk methods. In 
New York City 43 per cent, in the East 62 per cent and 
in the West 65 per cent of the employees are working in 
section shops, 

WaiE;e Rates, Earnings and Employment 

Hourly wage rates are highly important in this 
Industry for tv;o reasons: 

1. It is in terms of hourly rates rather 
than in terms of weekly or monthly rates 
that the minimxim standards ef wages pre- 
scribed by the Code are set* 

2. Assuming that the efficiency of labor 
remains the same, hourly wage rates reflect 
direct labor «osts. Tables XIII A and B 
show the number and percentage of employees 
receiving designated amounts per hour for 
the weeks ending July 14 and August 11, 1934. 
Thus in July, 87 per cent of al 1 of the 
workers in the reporting firms in New York City, 
48 per cent of those in the East and 30 per 
sent of those in the West, earned 55 cents per 
hour ar more. In August, the fcorresponding 

1171-48 



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percentages earning this amount or more were 92 per 
cent in New York City, 63 per cent in the East and 
27 per cent in the West. 

In view of the fact that this Code does not 
provide for a weekly wage rate, earnings of employees 
working only 10 hours a week are $5.50 in Hew York City, 
area and $3.75 in the v;estern area. The data on weekly 
earnings show to wliat extent employees in this Industry, 
on account of lack of employment for full weeks, fall 
short of making the nominal weekly- minima corresponding 
to the mandatory hourly minima prescribed by the Code 
and no less importantly to what extent they receive 
weekly earnings adequate to cover the cost of a decent 
livelihood. 

In Table XIV there are shown the number of 
^employees in each area who received in the designated 
week amounts of earnings within the ranges specified. The 
cumulative percentages of employees earning designated 
amounts fcr the v;eek of August 11 are put in graphic form 
in Figiire B. The graph shows that 40 per cent of the 
cap makers in New York City, 74 per sent of those in the 
East and 84 per cent of those in the West made earnings 
of less than $20 during the v/eek ending August 11, 1934. 
Referring ta Table XIV it is seen that the correspanding 
percentages for the week ending July 14 are 64, 78 and 81 
per cent for New York City, the East and the West, re- 

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spectively, while for the week ended September 14 they 
were 67, 79 end 87 per cent respectively. Figiore B 
further indicates that the proportions of the workers 
earning less tlian $10 and less than $15 per week, re- 
spectively, are higher in the East and in the West than 
in IJew York City. 

The reasons for these low weekly earnings imder 
the prevailing rales are easily seen hy referring to the 
relatively short number of hours worked per week "by these 
employees. The earnings referred to above, therefore, 
should be examined in connection with the data in Table XV 
and Figure C. This table, for example, for the week 
ending August 11, 1934, indicates that in New York City 
and the West about 17.5 per cent of the "workers were 
working less th^n 20 hours per week while in the East for 
the same period, more than 35 per cent p,f the workers were 
employed for this short work v/eek. The percentages fer 
those working less than 30 ho'ors per week were much larger 
being 36.6, 63.9 and 39.2 for ITew York City, the East and 
the West, respectively. 

Unfortunately, no data were secured from members 
of the Industry in regard to yearly earnings. However, 
some data have been compiled from the Census reports. 
Table XVI shows the anniial average earnings ef cap em- 
ployees in certain states. Kers again the eastern centers 



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Sjpecial Coimui ssipn ^J"_The__Cap_&._ Clo th_Hat_ Industry 

TABLE XVI 

AVISAGE AIHiJAL ELUITIITGS Oi' WAC-E Ej'JllTZRS IN CAP 
PAC^'OiilES, DI SELEC'xED STaTES 



STATE 



Connecticut 

Maryland 

Massacliusettc 

Wev; Jersey 

Nev/ York 

Pennsylvania 

Ohio 

California 

Illinois 

Missouri 

United States 



$749 
725 
759 
5?5 
710 
763 
729 
8S5 
896 
713 
732 



^1231 ■1929_ 

Average Ann-aa.1 Ea.rniiitS-^ 



1927 



$1111 

.1028 

1096 

923 

•.1221 

1105 

877 

1253 

1064 

871 

1043 



$1153 

1100 
1325 
1150 
1635 
1315 
1110 
1310 
1290 
1000 
1342 



51410 
1285 
1345 
1525 
1330 
1485 
1135 
1390 
1500 
1115 
1610 



SOUECE: Census of I.''anufact-arers 



1. Figures shovm are estimates obtj.ined ty dividing the Census 
figures for the amount paid in v;a'''es "by the average number 
of \7age earners. 



WAG : o q 
1/10/34 



1171-64 



are shown to te providing not only higher hourly rates 
and weekly earnings but also for the most part higher 
annual earnings than western areas. Tahle XVII indicates 
the amount t»f employment in the various areas. This tahle 
shows that for the 153 reporting firms the average number 
of weeks that the majority jf employees were employed full 
time in 1933 was, in Few York City, 32.9 weeks, in the 
East 35.5 weeks and in the West 40.8 weeks. They indicate- 
the western workers have a differential advantage in re- 
spect of amount of employment of 24 per cent over New York. 
This differential is only a little more than 2/3 as wide as 
the differential disadvantage they are under with respect 
to. hourly rates. The worker in the East outside of New 
York City appears to have about S per cent more employment 
during the year than does the New York City employee, an 
advantage v/hich, it should be noted, is not offset by 
any differential in hourly rates under the Code as now 
written. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Special Commission for the 
Cap and Cloth Hat Industry 

P. F. Brissenden, Chairman 

Max Meyer 

Wirt A. Gill 



1171-65 



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STJPPLEMEHTARY TABLES 



Th.8 Tatles contained in this supplement 
support with more detail summary tables contained 
in the body of the report. For convenience in re- 
ferring to them ea.ch tatle in the supplement is 
given the same nur-iber as the Table to which it per- 
tains (with the addition of a letter thereafter). 
Thus IX-A refers tc Table IX in the body of the 
report. 



1171 



CAP JUm CLOTH HAT lUUraTiCTUMHO IHtUSTHI 
TABLE H - A. rWJrViriJAL PLAST TOTAL DIRECT LABOR COSTS AMD EFTICIENCIES 



yi. 



Tbe labor efflclenoy le compared rlth the labor coat (by dozene of caps) in the followlrig table. Each labor coat figure and the 
oorreBpondlng ef£lclency figure appllee to one factory. Thle relation to one factory doee not hold true for the different price 
groupB, I.e., one line aorose the page does not represent one factory only. 

The labor costs are azTanged in ascending order. 





25l< 


Golf Cap 


39(< 001/ C»P 


59l« 


ttolf Cap 


69|i: Oolf Cap 


tioo. 


Golf Cap 




Ar«a Coc 


JV 


Effloiency^ 


Labor,, 

Cost y 


4 

Efflclencji/ 


Labor , 
Co.t i/ 


Efficiency^/ 


Labor 
Cost i/ 


Efflclenoy 2/" 


Labor 
OOBt 1/ 


Erflolenoy2/ 


% 


55 


• 


t .76 


. 


»1.07 


21.4 


« .63 


30.1 


81.51 


16.6 






59 


- 


■ 83 


32.6 


1.11 


_ 


1.06 


26.7 


1.61 


19.7 






62 


28.7 


.89 


33-'* 


1.11 


20.0 


1.19 


22.0 


1.68 


16. 5 






90 


•^•7 


.98 


27.1 


1.15 


21.5 


1.30 


20.2 


1.74 


21.0 






92 




1.04 


22.5 


1.15 


29.0 


1:1'; 


18.6 


1.79 


IS. 8' 






9U 


25 


1.06 


28.2 


1.16 


27.0 


18.8 


1.80 


21.8 






9U 


32.7 
27.4 


1.06 


30.3 


1.19 


19.3 
25.4 


1,46 


22.5 


1.81 


21.8 




1 


0* 


1.13 


18.8 


1.23 


1.48 


22.0 


1.83 


16. 7 




1 


04 


31. S 


1.13 


29.0 


1.27 


19.1 


1.49 


21.5 


1.85 


19.7 




1 


04 


32. S 


1.16 


26.5 


1.28 


25-5 


1.5^ 


17.6 


1.S5 


20.1 




-ow Tork City 1 


28 


23.6 


1.17 


25.0 


l-M 


26.7 




A7.7 


1.86 


18.6 










1.28 


23.0 
24.0 


19.8 




10.9 


1.92 


15.7 










1.30 


1.60 


18.6 


1.56 


26.1 


1.99 












1.31 


22.6 






1.61 


18.6 


2.02 


- 










^■'4 


25-3 






l:'d 


21.4 


2.07 


15.4 
14.3 










l!40 

1.44 


20.3 






18.9 


2.20 










21.1 
21.1 






1-72 
1.99 


lU 














1.48 


21.0 






















1.62 


30.4 






















2.04 


21.4 


















50 


32.3 


.64 


27.8 


.75 


11.5 


■67 


25.0 


.83 


_ 






35 


24.2 


1-54 


22.0 


1.07 


10.0 


.90 




1.23 


- 






56 


14.1 




- 


1.47 


15.0 


1.11 


14T2 


1.45 


- 






61 


31-7 










1.29 


22.4 


1.56 


20.1 






83 


29. 5 














l.OO 


14.1 


















15.0 


1.74 


- 


















1.49 


15-5 


1.83 


17-3 




aat 














1.50 




2.02 


- 


















I'H 




2.08 


- 


















13-5 


2.11 


11.8 


















l.i4 


19.0 


2.12 
2.16 
2.28 


13.9 
17.6 

9.2 






52 


35.1 


-.11 


25-2 


.89 


21.2 


.98 


20.1 


1.15 


15.0 






55 




18.4 


.99 


17-7 


.99 14.2 


1.21 


17-9 






55 


25.1 


1.01 


. 


1.00 


20.8 


1.16 16.8 


1.22 


13.6 






% 


36.8 


1.04 


15.1 


1.09 


16.9 


1.18 15.5 


1.26 


15.7 






25.0 


1.06 


12.3 


1.22 


14.3 


1.23 15-2 

1.24 13.0 


1.44 


11.8 






64 


30.0 


1.14 


15.6 


1.22 


15. S 


1.48 


17.3 






65 


28.8 


1.19 


13.8 
14.1 


1.31 


17. s 


1.25 11.7 


1.49 


11-3 






66 


28.8 


■ 1.27 






1.25 l't.6 


1.50 


iU 






68 


- 


1-53 


11.3 






1.32 17.6 


1.50 






68 


- 










1.32 15-5 


1.52 


lU 






68 


m 










1.32 15-8 


1.53 






71 










1.37 ' 13.3 


1.56 


11.7 




test 


I 
I 


25"? 
29.2 

21.0 

19.2 










1.3s , 10.0 
1.41 11.2 

1.44 

1.44 15.1 

1.47 12. 7 

1.50 14.0 
1.53 13-0 


1^58 
1.61 
1.63 
1.63 

i:67 

1.67 

1.70 


11.6 
8.0 
10.0 
12.0 
12.4 
19.1 
9.8 


















1-55 


- 


1.71 


16.1 


















1.56 


12.0 


1.73 


9.2 


















1.57 


17.5 


1.75 


14.0 


















1-57 


18.1 


1.81 


9.6 


















1.62 


10.7 


2.00 


10.0 


















1.75 


11.5 


2.18 


10.6 


















1.80 


11.1 


2.20 


6.0 


















1.85 


13.0 


2.25 


11.5 





























2/ Labor Coe t - Amount of Total Direct Labor Coat per Doseo of Cape. 
2/ Efflolaooy - Munber of Dozens of Cape per Eliployee per 40 Hour Week. 



Source; Questlonoairea eent out by the Industry Rep^rtln^ Unit, 
DlvlBlon of Research A Planning 






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._ 5 



OFFICE OF THE NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION 
THE DIVISION OF REVIEW 

THE WORK OF THE DIVISION OF REVIEW 

Executive Order No. 7075, dated June 15, 1935, established the Division of Revievif of the 
National Recovery Administration, The pertinent part of the Executive Order reads thus: 

The Division of Review shall assemble, analyze, and report upon the statistical 
information and records of experience of the operations of the various trades and 
industries heretofore subject to codes of fair competition, shall study the ef- 
fects of such cedes upon trade, industrial and labor conditions in general, and 
other related natters, shall make available for the protection and promotion of 
the public interest an adequate review of the effects of the Administration of 
Title I of the National Industrial Recovery Act, and the principles and policies 
put into effect thereunder, and shall otherwise aid the President in carrying out 
his functions under the said Title. I hereby appoint Leon C. Marshall, Director of 
the Division of Revie*. 

The study sections set up in the Division of Review covered these areas: industry 
studies, foreign trade studies, labor studies, trade practice studies, statistical studies, 
legal studies, administration studies, miscellaneous studies, and the writing of cede his- 
tories. The materials which were produced by these sections are indicated below. 

Except for the Code Histories, all items mentioned below are scheduled to be in mimeo- 
graphed form by April 1, 1936. 

THE CODE HISTORIES 

The Code Histories are documented accounts of the formation and administration of the 
codes. They contain the definition of the industry and the principal products thereof; the 
classes of members in the industry; the history of code formation including an account of the 
sponsoring organizations, the conferences, negotiations and hearings which were held, and 
I'l-.c activities in connection Aith obtaining approval of the code; the history of the ad- 
ministration of the code, covering the organization and operation of the code authority, 
the difficulties encountered in administration, the extent of compliance or non-compliance, 
and the gener?.l success or lack of succesr.^ of the code; and an analysis of the operation of 
code provisions dealing ,vith wages, hours, trade practices, and other provisions. These 
and other matters are canvassed not only in terms of the materials to be found in the files, 
but also in terms of the experiences of the deputies and others concerned with code formation 
and administration. 

The Code Histories, (including histories of certain NRA units or agencies) are not 
mimeographed. They are to be turned over to the Department of Co-nmerce in typewritten fora. 
All told, approximately eight hundred and fifty (850) histories will be completed. This 
number includes all of the approved codes and some of the unapproved codes. (In Work Mate- 
ri al.° No. 18, Contents of Code His tori es, will be found the outline which governed the 
preparation of Code Histories. ) 

(In the case of all approved codes and also in the case of some codes not carried to 
final approval, there are in NRA files further materials on industries. Particularly worthy 
of mention are the Volumes I, II and III which constitute the material oflicially submitted 
to the President in support of the recomiiiendation for approval of each code. These volumes 
9768—1 . 



- 11 - 

set forth the origination of the code, the sponsoring group, the evidence advanced to sup- 
port the proposal, the report of the Division of Research and Planning on the industry, the 
recoimendations of the various Advisory Boards, certain types of official correspondence, 
the transcript of the formal hearing, and other pertinent matter. There is also much offi- 
cial inforination relating to aaiendinents, interpretations, exemptions, and other rulings. The 
materials mentioned in this paragraph were of course not a part of the work of the Division 
of Review. ) 

THE WORK MATERIALS SERIES 

In the ,vori; of the Division of Review- a considerable number of studies and compilations 
of data (other than those noted below in the Evidence Studies Series and the Statistical 
Material Series) have been .lade. These are listed belojv, grcuped according to the char- 
acter of the materia] . (In Work Materials No. 17, Ten tative Qutline^ and Summaries of 
S tudies in Process, these materials are fully described). 

Industry Studies 

Automobile Industry, An Economic Survey of 

Bituminous Coal Industry under Free Coopetition and Code Regulation, Econojiic Survey of 

Electrical Manufacturing Industry, The 

Fertilizer Industry, The 

Fishery Industry and the Fishery Codes 

Fishermen and Fishing Craft, Earnings of 

Foreign Trade under the National Industrial Recovery Act 

Part A - Competitive Position of the United States in International Trade 1927-29 through 

1934. 
Part B - Section 3 (e) of NIRA and its administration. 
Part C - Imports and Importing under NRA Codes. 
Part D - E.xports and Exporting under NRA Codes. 

Forest Products Industries, Foreign Trade Study of the 

Iron and Steel Industry, The 

Knitting Industries, The 

Leather and Shoe Industries, The 

Lumber and Timber Products Industry, Economic Problems of the 

Men's Clothing Industry, The 

Millinery Industry, The 

Motion Picture Industry, The 

Migration of Industry, The: The Shift of Twenty-Five Needle Trades Free New York State, 
1926 to 1934 

National Labor Income by Months, 1929-35 

Paper Industry, The 

Production, Prices, Employment and Payrolls in Industry, Agriculture and Railway Trans- 
portation, January 1923, to date 

Retail Trades Study, The 

Rubber Industry Study, The 

Textile Industry in the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, and Japan 

Textile Yarns and Fabrics 

Tobacco Industry, The 

Wholesale Trades Study, The 

Women's Neckwear and Scarf Industry, Financial and Labor Data on 

9768—2 



Women's Apparel Industry, Some Aspects of the 

T rade Prac tice Studies 

Commodities, Information Concerning: A Study cf NRA and Related Experiences in Control 
Distribution, Manufacturers' Control of; Trade Practice Provisions in Selected MRA Codes 
Distributive Relations in the Asbestos Industry 
Design Piracy: The Problem and Its Treatment Under MRA Codes 
Electrical Mfg. Industry: Price Filing Study 
Fertilizer Industry: Price Filing Study 

Geographical Price Relations Under Codes of Fair Competition, Control of 
Minimum Price Regulation Under Codes of Fair Competition 
Multiple Easing Point System in the Lime Industry: Operation of the 
Price Control in the Coffee Indastry 
Price Filing Under NRA Codes 
Production Control in the Ice Industry 
Production Controi , Case Studies in 

Resale Price Maintenance Legislation in the United States 

Retail Price Cutting, Restriction of, with special Emphasis on The Drug Industry. 
Trade Practice Rules of The Federal Trade Commission (1914-1936): A classification for 
comrarison with Trade Practice Provisions of NRA Codes. 

Labo r Studies 

Cap and Cloth Hat Industry, Commission Report on Wa_e Differentials in 

Earnings in Selected Manufacturing Industries, by States, 1933-35 

Employment, Payrolls.- Hours, and Wages in 115 Selected Code Industries 1933-193? 

Fur Manufacturing, Commission Report on Wa;es and Hours in 

Hours and Wa7;es in American Industry 

Labor Program Under the Katior.al Industrial Recovery Act, The 

Fart A. Introduction 

Part B. Control of Hours and Reemployment 

Part C. Control of Waies 

Fart D. Control of Other Conditions of Employment 

Fart E. Section ^(a) of the Recovery Act 
Materials in the Field of Industrial Relations 
PRA Census of Employment, June, October, 1933 
Puerto Rico Needlework, Homeworkers Survey 

Adm i nist rative Stud ies 

Administrative and Le^al Aspects of Stays, Exemptions and Exceptions, Code Amendments, Con- 
ditional Orders of Approval 

Administrative Interpretations of NRA Codes 

Administrative Law and Procedure under the NIRA 

Agreements Under Sections 4(a) and 7(b) of the NTRA 

Approve Cedes in Industry Groups, Classification of 

Basic Code, the — (Administrative Order X-61) 

Code Authorities and Their Part in the Administration of the NIRA 
Part A. Introduction 
Part B. Nature, Composition and Organization of Code Authorities 

9768—2. 



- iv - 

Part C. Activities of the Code Authorities 
Part D. Code Authority Finances 
Part E. Summary and Evaluation 
Code Compliance Activities of the NRA 
Code Making Program of the NRA in the Territories, The 
Code Provisions and Related Subjects, Policy Statements Concerning 
Content of NIRA Administrative Legislation 
Part A. Executive and Administrative Orders 
Part B. Labor Provisions in the Codes 
Part C. Trade Practice Provisions in the Codes 
Part D. Administrative Provisions in the Codes 
Part E. Agreements under Sections 4(a) and 7(b) 
Part F. A Type Case: The Cotton Textile Code 
Labels Under NRA, A Study of 

Model Code and Model Provisions for Codes, Development of 

National Recovery Administration, The: A Review of its Organization and Activities 
NRA Insignia 

President's Reemployment Agreement, The 

President's Reemployment Agreement, Substitutions in Connection with the 
Prison Labor Problem under NRA and the Prison Compact, The 
Problems of Administration in the Overlapping of Code Definitions of Industries and Trades, 

Multiple Code Coverage, Classifying Individual Members of Industries and Trades 
Relationship of NRA to Government Contracts and Contracts Involving the Use of Government 

Funds 
Relationship of NRA with States and Municipalities 
Sheltered Workshops Under NRA 
Uncodified Industries: A Study of Factors Limiting the Code Making Program 

Legal Studie s 

Anti-Trust Laws and Unfair Competition 

Collective Bargaining Agreements, the Right of Individual Employees to Enforce 

Commerce Clause, Federal Regulation of the Employer-Employee Relationship Under the 

Delegation of Power, Certain Phases of the Principle of, with Reference to Federal Industrial 
Regulatory Legislation 

Enforcement, Extra-Judicial Methods of 

Federal Regulation through the Joint Employment of the Power of Taxation and the Spending 
Power 

Government Contract Provisions as a Means of Establishing Proper Economic Standards, Legal 
Memorandum on Possibility of 

Industrial Relations in Australia, Regulation of 

Intrastate Activities Which so Affect Interstate Commerce as to Bring them Under the Com- 
merce Clause, Cases on 

Legislative Possibilities of the State Constitutions 

Post Office and Post Road Power — Can it be Used as a Means of Federal Industrial Regula- 
tion? 

State Recovery Legislation in Aid of Federal Recovery Legislation History and Analysis 

Tariff Rates to Secure Proper Standards of Wages and Hours, the Possibility of Variation in 

Trade Practices and the Anti-Trust Laws 

Treaty Making Power of the United States 

War Power, Can it be Used as a Means of Federal Regulation of Child Labor? 

9768—4. 



- V - 

THE EVIDENCE STUDTES SERIES 

The Evidence Studies were originally undertaken to gather material for pending court 
casec. After the Schechter decision the project itas continued in order to assemble data for 
use in connection with the studies of the Divisi:n of Review. The data are particularly 
concerned with the nature, size and operations of the industry; and with the relation of the 
industry to interstate comoierce. The industries covered by the Evidence Studies acctunt for 
more than one-half of the total number ol workers under codes. The list oi those studies 
follows: 



Automobile Manufacturing Industry 
Autojiotive Parts and Equipment Industry 
Baking Industry 

Boot and Shoe Manufacturing Industry 
Bottled Soft Drink Industry 
Builders' Supplies Industry 
Canning Industry 
Chemical Manufacturing Industry 
Cigar Manufacturing Industry 
Coat and Suit Industry 
Construction Industry 
Cotton Garment Industry 
Dress Manufacturing Industry 
Electrical Contracting Industry 
Clortrical Manufacturing Industry 
Fabricated Metal Products Mfg. and Metal Fin- 
ishing and Metal Coating Industry 
Fishery Industry 

Furniture Manufacturing Industry 
General Contractors Industry 
Graphic Arts Industry 
Gray Iron Foundry Industry 
Hosiery Industry 

Infant's and Children's Wear Industry 
Iron and Steel Industry 



Leather Industry 

Lumber and Timber Products Industry 
Mason Contractors Industry 
Men's Clothing Industry 
Motion Picture Industry 
.Votor Vehicle Retailing Trade 
Needlework Industry of Puerto Rice 
Painting and Pap^rhanging Industry 
Photo Engraving Industry 
Plumbing Contracting Industry 
Retail Lu.aber Industry 
Retail Trade Industry 

Retail Tire and Battery Trade Industry 
Rubber Manufacturing Industry 
Rubber Tire Manufacturins Industry 
Shipbuilding Industry 
Silk Textile Industry 
Structural Clay Products Industry 
Throwing Industry 
Trucking Industry 
Waste Materials Industry 
Wholesale and Retail Fcod Industry 
Wholesale Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Indus- 
try 
Wool Textile Industry 



THE STATISTICAL MATERIALS SERIES 



This series is supplementary to the Evidence Studies Series. Ih? reports include data 
on establishments, firms, employment, payrolls, wajes, hours, production capacities, ship- 
ac.il.-, sales, consumption, stocks, prices, material costs, failures, exports and imports. 
They also include notes on the principal qualifications that should be observed in using the 
data, the technical methods employed, ar.d the applicability of the material to the stidy of 
the industries concerned. The following numbers appear in the series: 
9768—5. 



it;_; 5... 



" r - *■ 






•■;< p.3ilqq„. 



Sr.^Sd 



- vi - 

Asphalt Shingle and Roofing Industry Fertilizer Industry 

Business Furniture Funeral Supply Industry 

Candy Manufacturing Industry Glass Container Industry 

Carpet and Rug Industry Ice Manufacturing Industry 

Cement Industry Knitted Outerwear Industry 

Cleaning and Dyeing Trade Paint, Varnish, and Lacquer, Mfg. Industry 

Coffee Industry Plumbing Fixtures Industry 

Copper and Brass Mill Products Industry Rayon and Synthetic Yarn Producing Industry 

Cotton Textile Industry Salt Producing Industry 

Electrical Manufacturing Industry 

THE COVERAGE 

The original, and approved, plan of the Division of Review contemplated resources suf- 
ficient (a) to prepare some 1200 histories of codes and NRA units or agencies, (b) to con- 
solidate and index the NRA files containing some 40,000,000 pieces, (c) to engage in ex- 
tensive field work, (d) to secure much aid from established statistical agencies of govern- 
ment, (e) to assemble a considerable number of experts in various fields, (f) to conduct 
approximately 25% more studies than are listed above, and (g) to prepare a comprehensive 
summary report. 

Because of reductions made in personnel and in use of outside experts, limitation of 
access to field work and research agencies, and lack of jurisdiction over files, the pro- 
jected plan was necessarily curtailed. The most serious curtailments were the omission of 
the comprehensive summary report; the dropping of certain studies and the reduction in the 
coverage of other studies; and the abandonment of the consolidation and indexing of the 
files. Fortunately, there is reason to hope that the files may yet be cared for under other 
auspices. 

Notwithstanding these limitations, if the files are ultimately consolidated and in- 
dexed the exploration of the NRA materials will have been sufficient to make them accessible 
and highly useful. They constitute the largest and richest single body of information 
concerning the problems and operations of industry ever assembled in any nation. 

L. C. Marshall, 
Director, Division of Review. 
9768—6.