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BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



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7 351 

OFFICE OF NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION 
DIVISION OF REVIEW 



REPORT OF THE SPECIAL COMMISSION ON 
WAGES AND HOURS IN THE FUR 
MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY 



By 



Paul Abelson 
Chairman 
Willard E. Atkins 
H. LaRue Frain 



WORK MATERIALS NO. SIX 



March, 1936 



office of naiio:al recovery admin I station 
Division OF review 



REPORT OF TIE SPECIAL COMMISSION ON 
WAGES AND HOURS IN THE FUR MANUFACTURING 
INDUSTRY 



By 

Paul Abel son 

Chairman 

Willard E. Atkins 

H. LaRue Frain 



March, 1936 



9752 



FOREWORD 

This report of the Special Commission on Wages and Hours in 
the Fur . Manufacturing Industry was prepared by Messrs. Paul Abelson, 
Chairman, UTillard 3. Atkins and K. LaRue Prain* 

The report "as made in January 1935 and a small number of copies 
was released at that time. It is here reproduced in order that it 
may "be made widely available to students in the labor field. 

At the back of this report will be found a brief statement of 
the studies undertaken by the Division of Review. 



L. C. Marshall 
Director, Division of Review 



March 6, 1936 



9752 



January 22, 1935. 

Mr. Leon Henderson, Director, 
Research and Planning Division, 
National Recovery Administration. 

Dear Sir: 

Herewith, we submit our report containing our findings and 
recommendations and the data on which said findings and recommendations 
are "based. 

The Special Fur Commission was authorized by Administrative 
Order, August 7, 1934, to recommend on the basis of study, investigation 
and public hearings, modifications of Article IV of the Code of Fair Com- 
petition for the Fur Manufacturing Industry as approved on May 19, 1934. 
The Commission was authorized to make such recommendations for the modi- 
fications of definitions of the respective areas and recommendations for 
the modification, change, increase or decrease of the differentials of 
the different areas as are deemed necessary to promote conditions of fair 
competition. The Order further authorized the Commission to investigate 
the labor conditions in the related industry engaged in the manufacture 
of fur articles on a custom basis and in remodeling and repairing of fur 
articles directly to the consumer. (See Appendix I, Administrative Order 
#436-10) 

The functions and duties of the Special Fur Commission were 
subsequently modified by the Order of the National Industrial Recovery 
Board on October 15, 1934, malting the work of the Commission a project 
of the Division of Research and Planning. (See Appendix II) 

Work of the Commis s ion : The work of the Commission consisted 
of the following phases: (a) studying transcripts of the hearings held 
before the fur codes were adopted; (b) study of the methods and pro- 

1351 i 



-2- 



cesses of manufacture in typical establishments; ( c) preparation of the 
questionnaire; (d) analysis of the briefs; (e) study of compliance; ( f ) 
study of statistical materials available; (g) comparison of standard gar- 
ments; (h) public hearings; (i) study of the petitions filed with the Ad- 
ministration requesting exemptions from the provisions of the Code. (See 
Appendix III) 

The Commission held public hearings in Boston, Buffalo, Detroit, 
Chicago, St. Paul - Minneapolis, Seattle, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Kan- 
sas City, Memphis, Washington, and New York City. Additional investiga- 
tions were held at Columbus, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, and Philadelphia. The 
hearings began on October 24, 195- , and concluded on December 2, 1934. 

Since the hearings, the Commission has held numerous conferences 
to get a complete picture of the situation and to study such other ele- 
ments in the economic situation as tend to impair the conditions of fair 
competition in this Industry. 

The appendices made part of this report fully reveal the com- 
plexities involved in the situation and the inherent difficulties which 
the Commission has met in reaching the conclusions which we herewith . 
present. 

Respectfully submitted, 

/S/ Paul Abel son, Chairman 
/ s/ Willard E. Atkins 
/s/ v. LaPue Frain 



13 51 ii 



TABLE OF COiTTEIJTS 

Page 

sscTicn • 

Recommendations of the Special Fur Commission 1-3 

SECTION II ' ■ ' ' 

Description of the Industry. ; . . . i 

A. IJature of Fur Work : 1 

B. Types of Establishments Doing Fur Work 2 

I. Fur Garment • Manufacturing 2 

1. Wholesale' Establishments 2 

2. Custom Fur Establishments 3 

5. Retail Fur Shops 4 

4. Specialty Shops and Department Stores 4 

5. Miscellaneous Establishments 5 

- • • 6. Summary 5 

1 1 . Fur Trimming Manufacturing 6 

1. Wholesale Establishments 6 

2. Cloth Coat and Suit Establishments 6 

III. Fur Piece Plate Manufacturing 6 

Summary 7 

C. Specialization Within Branches of the Industry 7 

1. Type of Fur. 7 

2. Price Range 7 

D. Competitive Aspects of the Industry 8 

1. Major Branches of the Industry 8 

2. Between Branches of the Industry 8 

3. Between the Industry and Cther Lines of Busi- 

ness 9 

4. Between Geographic Areas 9 

5. Between Employers and Employees 10 

6. Between Employees 10 

E . Craft Work 11 



1351 



in 



TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont'd) 

Page 
F. Size of Business Units 12 

1 . Number of Craft Workers 12 

2. Volume of Business 12 

3. Investment 12 



G-. Specialization of Labor. . 1 



o 



In New York City: 

A. Cutters 13 

B. Operators 14 

C. Nailers. 14 

D. Finishers •. . . . 14 

E. First and Second Class IS 

Outside New York City: 

A. Cutters i5 

B. Multi-Craft Workers I 5 

C. Operators 15 

D . Fini slier s 1° 

Class of Work 1& 

H. Seasonality 17 

1 . Climate 1 ' 

2. Style ....'. 17 

3. Speculative Nature of Prices 17 

4. Credit 13 

I. Prevailing Vifages •. 18 

1. Average Hourly Earnings I 9 

2. Weekly Wages. 19 

J. Prevailing Hours 20 

K. Mobility 21 

1. Mobility of Establishments * 21 

2. Labor... 22 



2 



L. Compliance » 

M. Statistical Information 22 



1351 iv 



TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont'd) 
s Page 



SECTION III 

Reservation 



Issues Involved in Classification ^ 

Zones of Agreement 2 

The Issues 3 

G-eneral Considerations ^ 

Complexity of the Industry 

Conditions in New York City: 

Wholesale Manufacturing in New York City 

New York Custom Work 

Department Store 

Conditions Outside New York. City: 

Wholesale Manufacturing 6 

Custom Work 6 

Classified Wages 7 

Problems Involved 9 

The Plate Makers - An Illustration of Classification 10 

Various Systems 12 

A Fighting Tool for Labor 13 

The Problem of Taking Sides 12 

Standards and Enforcement 14 

Legal Power Versus Economic Power 15 

Suggested program 18 

Conclusions 19 



Diagrams - Section II 

Page 

Diagram I Types of Fur 7/ork 1(a) 

Diagram II Type of Establishments 2(a) 

Diagram III Interrelation of Fur Work and Type of Establishment. 7(a) 
Diagram IV Competitive Points Between Fur Manufacturing Industry 

and other Branches of Business 9(a) 



1351 



APPENDICES 



Page 



. . . Appendix I 

Fur Manufacturing - Order 1-2 

Appendix II 

Section A - Statistical Analysis 1 

I - Size of the Sample 1 

II - Wages 6 

.III - Hours 26 

IV - Size of Establishments 29 

V - Importance of Repairing 

. and Remodeling Work 33 

Section B - List of Petitioners for 

Exemption 34 



1351 vi 



LIST OF TABLES 
Appendix II 

Table Page 

I NUMBER OF QUESTIONNAIRES MAILED, UNCLAIMED RETURNS, USABLE 

A1TD UNUSABLE REPLIES 3 

II NUM3ER AND PERCENTAGE OF FIRMS AIT) OF CRAFT WORKERS, BY 

STATES AND IN NEW YORK CITY, COVERED BY USABLE REPLIES TO 
QUESTIONNAIRE 4 

III NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF OF AFT WORKERS COVERED BY QUESTION- 
NAIRE REPLIES 5 

IV NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF WORKERS COVERED BY QUESTIONNAIRE 

REPLIES IN AND OUTSIDE NEW YORK CITY, BY CRAFTS 5 

V MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY AND DISPERSION OF AVERAGE 
HOURLY AND FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS IN AND OUTSIDE NEW 
YORK CITY BY CRAFTS AS SHOWN EY REPLIES TO COMMISSION'S 
QUESTIONNAIRE AND FOR AVERAGE HOURLY AND ACTUAL WEEKLY 
EARNINGS OF ALL FUR FACTORY WORKERS AS SHOWN BY CENSUS DATA 6 v&) 

VI DISTRIBUTION OF AVERAGE HOURLY RATES FOR FACTORY WORKERS 
IN THE FUR TRADE AS SHOWN BY CENSUS DATA FOR REPRESENTA- 
TIVE WEEK IN OCTOBER 1922, A^D BY SPECIAL FUR COMMISSION 
DATA, WEEK OF SEPTEMBER 24-2? , 1934 n 

VII NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS FROM WAGE DATA AND OF FACTORY 

WORKERS COVERED BY CENSUS DATA FOR REPRESENTATIVE WEEK IN 
OCTOBER 1932, AND' BY COMMISSION DATA FOR WEEK OF SEPTEMBER 
24-29 , 1934 12 

VIII AVERAGE HOURLY A1TD WEEKLY EARNINGS FOR MALE, FEMALE AND 

TOTAL FACTORY WORKERS IN RETAIL FUR- TRADE BY MAJOR SECTIONS 

OF TEE COUNTRY, 1929 , 1932 and 1933 l3 

IX-A DISTRIBUTION OF AVERAGE HOURLY RATES IN AND OUTSIDE OF NEW 

YORK. CITY BY CRAFTS, SEPTEMBER 24-29, 1934 (10^ Intervals) 14 

IX-B PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF AVERAGE HOURLY RATES IN AND OUT- 
SIDE OF NEW YORK CITY BY CRAFTS, SEPTEMBER 24-29, 1934 (10(£ 
Intervals) ....,,,,..,..,... ^° 

IX-C CUMULATIVE PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF AVERAGE HOURLY RATES 
IN AND OUTSIDE. NEW YORK CITY, BY CRAFTS, SEPTEMBER 24-29, 
1934. ( 10£ Intervals) 16 



1351 vii 



LIST OF TABLES 
(Cont'd) 

Table _ Page 

X-A DISTRIBUTION OF AVERAGE HOURLY RATES IN AND OUTSIDE OP HEW 

YORK CITY BY CRAFTS, SEPTEMBER 24-29, 1934 (15£ Intervals) 1? 

X-B PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF AVERAGE HOURLY RATES III AND OUT- 
SIDE OF NE"w YORK CITY BY CRAFTS, SEPTEMBER 24-29, 1934 (15fJ 
Intervals) 13 

X-C CUMULATIVE PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF AVERAGE HOURLY RATES 
IN AND OUTSIDE OF NEW YORK CITY, BY CRAFTS, SEPTEMBER 24- 
29, 1934 (15(£ Intervals) 19 

XI-A DISTRIBUTION OF AVERAGE HOURLY RATES FOR FACTORY WORKERS IN 
THE RETAIL AND WHOLESALE EUR TRADE 3Y SPECIFIED STATES AND 
CITIES FOR A REPRESENTATIVE WEEK IN OCTOBER 1932 T 20 

XI-B PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF AVERAGE HOURLY RATES FOR FACTORY 
WORKERS IN THE RETAIL AND WHOLESALE FUR TRADE BY SPECIFIED 
STATES AND CITIES FOR A REPRESENTATIVE WEEK IN OCTOBER 1932 21 

XII PERCENTAGE OF CRAFT WORKERS RECEIVING SPECIFIED AVERAGE 

HOURLY RATES OR LESS 22 

XIII DISTRIBUTION OF AVERAGE HOURLY RATES FOR FEMALE FINISHERS 

IN AND OUTSIDE NEW YORK CITY, SEPTEMBER 24-29, 1934 23 

XIV DISTRIBUTION OF FULL TIME WEEKLY WAGES FOR CRAFT WORKERS IN 

FUR MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY, SEPTEMBER 24 T 29 , 1934 24 

IV AVERAGE YEARLY EARNINGS FOR FACTORY WORKERS IN "./HOLE SALE 
AND RETAIL ESTABLISHMENTS, BY STATES OR CITIES, 1929-1933 
INCLUSIVE 25 

XVI DISTRIBUTION OF .i'ORKING TIME PER WEEK IN AND OUTSIDE NEW 
YORK CITY BY NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS AND BY NUMBER OF 
CRAFT WORKERS , SEPTEMBER 24-29 , 1934 27 

XVII AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS OF MALE, FEMALE AND TOTAL FACTORY 

WORKERS IN THE RETAIL FUR TRADE, BY MAJOR SECTIONS OF THE 
COUNTRY, 1929 , 1932 and 1933 28 

XVIII SIZE OF FUR MANUFACTURING ESTABLISHMENTS 3Y NUMBER OF CRAFT 

WORKERS , SEPTEMBER 24-29 , 1934 30 



1351 viii 



LIST OF. TABLES 
(Cont'd) 



Table 



Page 



XIX AVERAGE NUMBER OF MALE, FEMALE AND TOTAL FACTORY WORKERS 
IN TILE RETAIL FUR TRADE BY MAJOR SECTIONS OF THE COUNTRY, 
1929 , 1932 and 1933 sl 

XX SIZE OF FUR MANUFACTURING ESTABLISHMENTS BY VOLUME OF MAN- 
UFACTURING-. . 1933 32 

XXI VOLUME OF REPAIRING AND REMODELING COMPARED WITH TOTAL 

VOLUME FOR MANUFACTURING IN NEW YORK CITY AND OUTSIDE NEW 

YORK CITY, 1933 37(a) 



1351 



IX 



SECTION I 



1351-A 



section i 

NECOMLCNDATIONS OF SPECIAL FUR COMMISSION 

a. IF A POLICY OF CLASSIFICATION is- adopted for this Industry, if is 
unanimously recommended: . . 

I. That, in general, the major branches of fur article manufactur- 
ing be treated as a unit, these branches include the wholesale and cus- 
tom manufacturing ox fur garments, the manufacturing of fur trimmings, 
and the repair and remodeling of fur garments. 

11(a). That basic hours be made uniform for the entire Industry, 
and that provisions for overtime be uniform. 

11(b). That the basic week shall be .35 hours. _ 

II (c) That 10 hours overtime per week for 10 weeks in a calendar 
year at one and one-half times the basic rate of pay be permitted. 

11(d). That further overtime, at not less than twice the classi- 
fied rate of t>ay shall be permitted upon application to a neutral body, 
providing (1)^ applicant is complying with the Code, and (2) snows in- 
ability to obtain the type of labor required. 

III. That the following areas be established: 

(a) For' fur garment manufacturers: 

Area A to include Hew York City. 

AreaJB to include Chicago and Hew York Metropolitan Area 
outside of Hew York City. 

Area C to include the entire country outside of Area A and 3. 

(b) F-)r fur trimming manufacturers: 

Area A to include Hew York City Metropolitan Area. 
Area 3 to include the entire country outside of Area A. 

(c) For fur piece plate manufacturers: 

That the entire country be treated as a unit. 

IV. That the v/age rates set forth in the following table be estab- 
lished: 

V, Exceptions. 

(a) Establishments in Area 3 whose fur work is in direct response 
to orders or instructions of ultimate consumers and not employing more 
than two craft workers shall be subject only to the general minimum rate 
of 40 cents per hour. 



1351-A 



-2- 

(b) Establishments in Area B doing only custom work, including 
repairing and remodeling, and employing not more than six craft work- 
ers including proprietors, partners, and executives who do craft work, 
shall be subject to the wage provisions of the General Retail Code. 

(c) Establishments in any area whose fur work is limited to the 
alteration of fur garments at the time of sale to the ultimate consumer, 
or establishments in which such work is segregated from manufacturing 

of new garments and the repair' and remodeling of old garments, may be 
subject to the horn- and wage provisions of the General Retail Code for 
such work. 

VI. Neutral .Agency. There shall be a neutral body to consider and 
recommend to the Administration relief in cases of: 

(a) Applications for overtime in excess of 10 hours a week for 
10 weeks in a calendar year. 

(b) Applications of establishments for exemptions from speci- 
fied rates in cases of undue and unusual hardships. 

VII. Definitions. 

(a) A multi-craft worker is a craft worker doing any two or 
more of the following: (l) operating, (2) nailing, (o) finishing, and 
(4) cutting on skins of inferior grades below Hudson Seal and in con- 
nection with repairing ■ and remodeling work. 

(b) A finisher's helper is one who sews in linings and does 
other work on garments, of an incidental nature, such as sewing en 
buttons and making loops, either on new garments or on repair and re- 
modeling jobs. To be entitled to a 'finisher's helper, an establish- 
ment must have at least one finisher. 

(c) A learner is one who has had no previous experience in the 
Industry. During the first. 16 weeks of learner's status, the rate of 
pay mast be advanced according to the schedule, and if enrol oyment con- 
tinues after the 16th week, the individual must be classified not low- 
er than a finisher's helper. An establishment may have at least one 
learner if it has a finisher. If it has a finishing force of more than 
six finishers and helpers, it may have one learner for each six, not 
including apprentices. 

B. - IE A POLICY OE CLASSIFICATION is not adopted, it is the. majority 
recommendation. 

I. That all branches of fur article manufacturing be treated as 
a unit. .. , 

Il(a). That basic hours be 40 ioer week throughout the Industry. 

11(b). That overtime shall be corrroensated for at a rate of not 
less than one and one-half times the basic minimum rate. 

III. That the country as a whole be treated as two areas. 
1351-A 



-2-A- 



I 

i 



1351-i, 




-o- 



IT. That the basic minimum rate of -oay shall not "be less than 
$14.00 per week in cities of 100,000 population or more and not less 
than $12.00 in other places. 

C. These recommendations are to be considered as minimum, scales only, 
The- in no sense are to exclude the possibility of workers, eitxier' 
by individual or collective contracts, arranging for higher scales. 



1351-A 



S 3 C T I 



II 



1351-B 



SECTION II 
DESCRIPTION OF THE INDUSTRY 

. A. NATURE OF FUR WORK 

Skins of fur-bearing animals, after "being dressed and dyed, are 
used in making a variety of fur articles. The main use occurs in making 
coats, and to a lesser extent, such wearing apparel as capes, scarfs and 
muffs. They are also used in making collars, cuffs and other trimming 
for cloth coats, suits, and dresses. Other uses include caps, robes, 
and fur novelties such as kittens and dogs. 

In mailing wearing apparel, especially coats, the usual separation 
of wholesale and custom manufacturing does not disclose satisfactorily, 
for the present purpose, the nature of work done in fabricating furs. 
Possibly, the most hopeful approach distinguishes work done on new as 
against old garments. 

New articles may be made under two conditions with respect to sale. 
They may be made in anticipation of demand, or they may be made in res- 
ponse to demand, particularly of ultimate consumers. (See Diagram No. I) 

Those garments made in anticipation of. demand may be either com- 
pletely or partly finished, prior to sale. The completely finished gar- 
ment, made in advance of sale, may be made for stock *r for sample and 
display purposes. Nothing in the manufacturing process indicates the 
purpose for which a garment is being made. The key to the difference is 
generally the number of garments made to a given size and pattern. Only 
one or a few garments of a kind are made for sample or display purposes, 
whereas a larger number is likely to be made for stock. 

Partly finished garments are made in anticipation of sale. Usually 
the body of the garment is made with rather standardized sizes and pat- 
terns in mind. At a subsequent time, these "shells" are turned into 
finished garments as occasion requires by adding collars and sleeves of 
such patterns as buyers dictate. 

Then garments are made in advance of sale, there is usually some 
alteration necessary to meet the requirements of individual users. These 
alterations are similar in nature to those designated as "busheling" in 
the altering of cloth garments. For example, the sleeves may be too 
long and require shortening, the body may be too full and must be taken 
in or the collar is too high and must be lowered. Thus, the alteration 
extends from changing the location of a button to altering the shape and 
size of the garment itself. In custom manufacturing, the alterations 
are done in the process of making the garments, 

TTnile the most important work on new articles occurs in the fabri- 
cating of skins into wearing apparel, either as garments or as trim- 
mings, there is also some fur work done in making " piece plates ." In 
the course of making garments or trimmings, there are waste cuttings 
which are sewed together into piece plates. These waste pieces are pur- 
chased and collected by establishments specializing in manufacturing 
piece plates. The plates themselves are used in making lining for coats, 

1351-3 



-2- 

especially men's coats, trimmings, caps and novelties. In some instan- 
ces, even garments have been made from them. 

The more valuable the fur in a garment, the more likely the garment 
is to be remodeled from time to time in conformity with style changes. 
In this process, new skins may have to be inserted, and new parts may 
be added, such as collars and cuffs. Nearly all fur articles, especial- 
ly the cheaper ones, require repairing from time to time. This may in- 
volve sewing a rip, replacing worn r.kins or altering the garment to con- 
ceal the worn parts. There is virtually no remodeling of cheaper gar- 
ments, since the cost of remodeling would be proportionately high in 
relation to a new coat. 

The relative importance of repairing and remodeling may be judged 
by both the number of establishments doing it and the extent to which 
they do it, An analysis of questionnaires indicates that for reporting 
firms, repairing and remodeling is (1) more important for establishments 
outside of New York City than in New York City and (2) more important 
for the smaller than the larger establishments. A further analysis of 
thjs point is found in the Appendix. 

prom the above description, it appears that a variety of work is 
involved in fabricating skins of fur -bearing animals into useful ar- 
ticles, mainly wearing apparel. Such variety of work gives rise to, and 
is accompanied by, different types of establishments. The resulting 
interrelation is important in formulating a workable concept of manu- 
facturing for codal 'regulations in this Industry. 



B. TYPE 0? EST A31I3M^i^S DO INS FUR WORK 

Not only is there a wide variety of fur work, but this work is done 
by various kinds of establishments. In some of these establishments, 
fur work is. the predominating business, while in others it is combined 
with an appreciable amount of retailing, either of furs alone or of 
other merchandise also, as in department stores. In these retailing 
establishments, fur work may be a small or even negligible part of the 
entire business. There is no currently accepted terminology which is a 
satisfactory clue to the nature of the fur work done in these various 
establishments. (See Diagram No. II) 

I. PUR GARMENT MANUF AC TURING 

l a Wholesale Establishments 

Wholesale manufacturing of garments is centered almost entire- 
ly in New York City. It is doubtful if as much as ten per cent of the 
total is done outside of this city. For the most part, these establish- 
ments manufacture stock garments in quantities in anticipation of, and 
in response to, orders received from jobbers, department stores, special- 
ty shops and fur shops, etc. 

Few, if any, establishments confine themselves to wholesale 
business. Most of them engage to some extent in doing custom work or 

1351-B 



-2-B- 



DIAO«AM I 



R 1A 



New Articles « 



Garments and 
Trimmings 



In anticipation 
of demand 



' In response 
I to demand 



Plates - - In anticipation 
of demand 



FOR WORK ON < 



Old Articles - Garments 



In response 
to demand 



("Completed (stock 

article 1 Sample or display 

[Partly fin- 
l ished article 

{Altering 
stock articles 
Mew articles 
{Skin 
Piece*, 



Remodeling 



[Repairing 



DIAGRAM SHOWING TYPES OF FUR WORK 



1351-3 



-2-C- 



P. 4A 



DIAGRAM II 



TIPS OF 
SSTABUSaUttT 



Pur Business — 

Entire, or 
Predominate 
Part of entire 
business 



Pabrication < 



Retail 



Wholesale (Garment & 

establishments 1 

^Trimming 

Custom establishments 



Custom establishments 
Retail fur shops 



Pur Business - 
Part of entire 
business, but not 
a major part 



Fabrication 



Retail 



Specialty stores 
Dept. stores 

(Tailoring 
liu J Cleaning 
Mlsc - | Laundry 

[storage 



[specialty stores 
I Dept. stores 



DIAGRAM SHOWING TYPE OF ESTABLISHMENT 



1351-3 



-3- 

its equivalent. In part this arises from the fact that many of the 
furriers in the small cities and towns throughout the country advertise 
themselves as custom furriers, "but are not equipped to do the actual 
custom work themselves. They take the measurements for the individual 
customers and send these measurements to a wholesaler in New York City. 
If the specifications conform fairly well to a garment in stock, such a 
garment is vised with appropriate alterations. If a stock garment can- 
not he used, then a new garment is built especially for this customer. 
The wholesale establishments not only do such work for members of the 
trade, but also for sxich ultimate buyers as may come to them directly 
through the suggestions of friends and acquaintances. Thus, so far as 
new work is concerned, the wholesaler carries on fur work both in antici- 
pation of demand and in response to demand, for both trade customers 
and individual consumers. 

TTholesale establishments also do remodeling and repairing work on 
old garments. Such activities do not ordinarily constitute an important 
part of a wholesale establishment's business. In periods of inactive 
business, the wholesaler is more likely to encourage such business than 
when he is reasonably busy with new work. Generally, repairing and re- 
modeling work is done on a more or less service basis to his trade cus- 
tomers. Thus, if a specialty store in say, Columbus, Ohio, obtained an 
order to remodel a mink coat, the local establishment would probably 
send the job to its mink wholesale house in Hew York City and that es- 
tablishment would do the remodeling as a service activity for its cus- 
tomer in Columbus. Such ' servicing is one of the means by which contacts 
are maintained between the wholesaler and his retail outlet. 

From the above, it appears that the wholesale establishment does 
not restrict itself to wholesale manufacturing. In addition, some houses 
do custom manufacturing, retailing, repairing and remodeling. Some do 
these things secretly while others do thorn openly. Some of them claim 
that they do it only under special circumrtances, while others admit 
that they will accept any business they can get. In short, the activ- 
ities carried on by wholesale establishments tend to run the entire 
gamut of activities with respect to fur work. . • 

2 . # Custom For Establishments 

Custom establishments are distinguished from wholesale estab- 
lishments not so much by what they do, as by the extent to which they do 
it. Especially with fine garments, the entire garment is likely to be 
made after the order has been received and in conformity with the cus- 
tomer 1 s. measurements, and specification as to style, finishing, etc. 
Such completely individual attention is not given to perhaps most of the 
garments made by the custom furrier. In the first place, the furrier 
can anticipate some of his requirements. He can, for example, make skin 
plates, which means he can sew skins together into pieces sufficiently 
large to permit the subsequent cutting of various parts of a specially 
ordered garment. Indeed, he can anticipate even more than this. Most 
custom garments call for clearly standardized parts, such as backs, and 
sides. Consequently, these parts, called a "plate", may be made in 
advance of demand. The genuinely custom or individual attention is most 
likely to occur in giving shape to the coat, style -to the collar and 

1351-B 



-4- 

cuffs, and in finishing the garment. Thus, on garments made for indi- 
vidual customers, some of the work is generally done in advance of the 
order while the "balance of the work is done in response to the order. 

In addition to such work, the custom furrier is likely to make 
some new garments in advance of demand. He makes some for display pur- 
poses; these garments are used for much the same purpose as the sample 
garments of the wholesaler. But the custom furrier is likely to go 
further, and in the off season makes garments of such styles as he "be- 
lieves will "be sold rather easily. This work is similar to that done "by 
the wholesaler, except that the wholesaler is likely to make more gar- 
ments from a single pattern then the custom furrier is likely to make. 

Most custom furriers sell not only the garments they make, "but also 
those purchased from wholesalers and jobbers. Indeed, in many cases, 
the custom furriers sell more ready-made than custom-made garments. 
Seldom do the ready-made garments fit the customers satisfactorily. 
Consequently, alterations are necessary. These alterations may extend 
from minor changes, such as shortening the ceat, to rather extensive 
alterations and in some cases, require remodeling. 

Remodeling and repairing of old garments is a rather important 
part of the custom furrier's "business. Especially is this the case with 
the smaller furrier and for many of them, the repairing and remodeling 
work constitutes their entire manufacturing activities. . 

For the custom furrier, repairing and remodeling is advantageous as 
a means of keeping in contact with prospective customers for new gar- 
ments, and it also "brings in some "business which can "be done, at least 
in part, in the off season. Thus, it appears that custom furriers en- 
gaged in virtually all the types of fur work previously mentioned, al- 
though the propertion of the various kinds of work differs widely as 
between establishments. 

3. Retail Fur Shops 

With changes which have been occurring in the Industry, a 
number of retail fur shops have come into existence. For the most part, 
these- establishments sell stock merchandise which they have purchased 
from wholesalers or jobbers. They may also cater to the custom trade in 
that special measurements will be taken and sent to the wholesale manu- 
facturers. In most of these establishments, tiie fur work consists of 
slight alterations of stock garments and the repair of old garments. If 
any extensive alterations of a new garment, or remodeling of an old gar- 
ment, are necessary, the wo¥k is sent to a wholesaler or perhaps given to 
a contractor. 

Such shops, doing virtually no new work, constitute the con- 
necting link between those enterprises or establishments whose business 
is mainly in furs and those establishments with which fur business is 
only a part. 

4. Specialty and Department Stores 

In those establishments selling wearing apparel mainly, and in 
1351-B 



those selling a wider variety of merchandise, the fur "business may "be 
large in absolute volume, out small in relation to the total "business. 
In some cases, the fur department is under the ownership and operation 
of the r.tore management, while in other cases, the department is a 
leased department. The extent to which leased departments exist is 
extremely difficult to determine. In such cases, an outside party, 
such as a manufacturer or jobber, is likely to conduct the fur business 
of the store under the general supervision of the store management. 
Customers are seldom aware that they are dealing with a third party. 

In any case, the type of fur work done in these stores varies quite 
widely, extending from alterations on new garments at the time of sale 
up to the mailing of new merchandise. Any store selling new garments 
must have some facilities for altering them as occasion requires. Many 
stores, however, have discontinued work on new garments either for stock 
or for display purposes. Insofar as stores have this work done, they 
are likely to have it done by wholesalers or perhaps by local contrac- 
tors. 

Most stores seek repair and remodeling work. They generally do at 
least the repair work in their own establishment and they also do the 
remodeling work, although if the remodeling is extensive and the garment 
is valuable, they are likely to have it done either by wholesalers, con- 
tractors, or perhaps by arrangement with some local custom furrier. 

Some stores cater to the custom trade and maintain a staff of craft 
workers with high skill. In order to maintain this corps of skilled 
workers, an attempt is made to furnish employment in the off season. In 
that period, plates, shells and even entire garments of a stock nature 
are made. 

5. Miscellaneous Establishments 

Some fur work, especially repairing, is done by a miscellaneous 
group of individual's and enterprises such as tailors, dry cleaners, 
laundries, storage warehouses, and even banks. The fur work done by most 
of these establishments is a small part of their total business and in 
many cases is incidental to their main business. For example, some 
banks are using their vaults for storage purposes and are offering clean- 
ing and repairing service as a means of attracting customers. 

These miscellaneous establishments may have fur workers as 
employeesj but more frequently arrangements are made with some fur work- 
ers or with some fur establishments to do the fur work 9n a csntracting 
basis. Comparatively few of these establishments are equipped or able 
to do fur work of a high grade such as is required with remodeling good 
garments and doing new work. Insofar as occassion arises for such re- 
modeling ^r new work, this is likely to be given to contractors or others 
better prepared to do it. 

Diagram II shows these types of establishments graphically. 

6. Summary 

The dual relation of different kinds of work and different 
1351~B 



-6- 

types of establishments gives rise to such numerous and conflicting 
combinations, that.it is not feasible to separate most fur work, either 
on the basis of' the kind of work clone or on the basis of the type of 
establishment doing; it. Consequently, if garment manufacturing is to 
be regulated, it must be regulated in the main, as a unit.' 

II. EUE TRIMMING- IvlANUE AC TURING 

1 . wholesale Establishments 

Trimming manufacturing, like garment manufacturing, is cen— ' 
tered in New York City, but to a lesser extent. Trimming manufacturing 
is likely to occur wherever cloth garments, especially women's coats 
and suits, are made in any appreciable quantity. These establisliments 
make stock merchandise but also manuf acture largely in response to 
orders received from cloth garment manufacturers. In some cases, the 
trimming manufacturers also make other articles such as caps, scarfs, 
muffs, lap-robes, and even garments. These are sold mostly to the 
trade, but many places sell directly to ultimate buyers. Repairing and ■ 
remodeling is done to some extent in these establishments, but usually 
not to any important degree. 

. The variety of work which these establisliments are likely to. do is j 
conditioned mostly by the activity of their main business. If ths-main. j 
business is slack, an attempt is made to reach into other .fields and j 
get such business as their existing facilities permit them to handle. 
On the other hand, when their main business is active, they concentrate' " 
on it. . ... 

2. Cloth Coat and Suit Establishments 

Some manufacturers of cloth garments requiring fur trimming* : 
do not rely on fur -establishments for the. .fur trimming, bu-t -manufacture - ■ 
these trimmings themselves. In such instances, the 'fur -work done is 
likely to be restricted to that required 'o~j the establishments .themselves 
for their own manufacturing of cloth garments. In some -instances, a 
cloth garment manufacturer who is also manufacturing -his. own trimmings 
may sell these to other cloth coat manufacturers, who are not manufac— ■ 
turing their fur trimmings. 

while there is an appreciable interrelation between trimming 
and garment manufacturing, it appears reasonably feasible to separate ' 
these activities for eodal regulations. 

III. EUR PIECE PLATS MANUFACTURING 

Eur piece plate manufacturing is confined almost entirely to- 
New York City. In no other place is the volume of small waste piRC-as of 
fur sufficiently large to warrant their collection and manufacture into 
"piece plates". These plates are used in a variety of ways, but-es— 
pecially in making the lining for men's coats, trimmings, fur caps. -and 
miscellaneous novelties. To some extent these plates are now being- used 
in the making of fur garments. 

In many cases, fur piece plate establishments do not confine 
1351-B 



-7- 

themselves to the manufacturing of plates but also manufacture trim- 
mings and even garments. 

Despite this overlapping, it appears feasible to separate 
piece plate manufacturing from other fur manufacturing for the purpose 
of codal regulations, because, of the low grade* of skill required and 
the kind of article made. 

SUMI.1AHY 

The foregoing description of the establishments doing fur work 
indicates that there is substantial interrelations within and between 
the various branches of fur manufacturing, This is shown graphically 
by Diagram III. This suggests that any regulation of wages and hours 
designed to establish fair competitive conditions must seek a balance 
between different branches of the Industry. 

C. SPECIALI ZA TION T7ITHIN BRANCHES OF THE INDUSTRY 

Not only is there specialization within the Industry as be- 
tween garments and trimmings, but within each of these major branches 
tnere is further specialization. 

1. T;-pe of Fur 

Especially in wholesale manufacturing in Hew York City there 
is a growing tendency to restrict activities to one or a few kinds of 
furs. Thus, some establishments are known as "mink houses" , and others 
as "squirrel houses". Similar specialization is found among the whole- 
sale manufacturers of trimmings as with "fox houses". 

2. Price Range 

Closely akin to specialization by furs, but not identical 
with it, is specialization within a price range.. Thus, some places 
specialize in a group of extremely fine and valuable furs, such as 
ermine, broadtail, chinchilla and sable. There is a second group of 
establishments specializing in some one of such valuable furs as mink, 
caracul, Persian lamb, or squirrel. The next group takes in the 
"muskrat" houses, or those specializing in Hudson seal, neutria and 
m jural muskrat. The lowest is the rabbit group, manufacturing garments 
under various trade names, such as French seal, Northern seal, sealine 
and lapin. 

Along with such specialization there continues to be estab- 
lishments making "general lines". Seldom is it advantageous for these 
nouses to include the cheapest garments in their lines. Outside of New 
York City most wholesale manufacturing is general line work except on 
the western Coast. 

Such specialization in a measure explains the relatively nigh 
wages in New York City. Through specialization an opportunity exists^ 
i or workers to attain maximum earnings through development of dexterity 
and productive speed within a limited range of work. This in turn means 
tnat general line and custom establishments mast pay similar wages in 
1351-1 



-8- 

order to have competent workers capable of doing diversified work. 
Furthermore, the distinction "between first and second class craft workers, 
as set forth in labor agreements especially in New York City, is "based 
largely on the types of fur worked upon and the speed with which the 
work is done. 

D. COMPETITIVE ASPECTS OF THE IMDUSTBY 

Intensely keen is the competition in this Industry. The intense- 
ness may he accounted for in large part "by two circumstances. In the 
first place, the depression in this Industry "began about 1927 which was, 
of course, before the general decline in business activities. This 
longer period of poor business has operated as an incentive to shifting 
in lines of specialty, thus creating keener competition in those lines 
which are most popular at a given time. In the second place, the ease 
with which this business can be entered has made it highly competitive. 

The most pronounced competition may be viewed from at least six 
angles: 

(1) Within major branches of the Industry 

(2) Between branches of the Industry 

(3) Between the Industry and other lines of business 

(4) Between geographic areas 

(5) Between employer and employees 

(6) Between employees 

1. Major Branches of the Industr?/ - 

G-arment houses compete with garment houses. Establishments special- 
izing in making mink garments, for example, compete not only with other 
mink houses, but with houses malting other high priced garments of a 
similar kind. These houses compete with those making more moderately 
priced garments, such as Hudson seal (muskrat) and these houses in turn 
with establishments making both similar garments from other types of 
furs and establishments still making lower priced garments, such as 
sealines (rabbit) . 

A similar chain of competition is found in fur trimming manufactur- 
ing. 

Then there is competition between establishments designating them- 
selves as wholesale manufacturers and those designating themselves as 
custom manufacturers. The stock garments of the wholesaler are sold in- 
directly to consumers through departments stores, specialty stores and 
retail fur shops, etc. Thus, these garments compete with the custom 
garments sold directly to consumers by the custom manufacturers. More- 
over, establishments specializing in mailing stock garments also make 
custom garments and custom garment manufacturers also make stock garments. 

Thus, the interrelation of types of work and types of establishments 
doing fur work gives rise to Intense competition. 

2. Between Branches of the Industry . 

1 „e 1 ffhile fur garments and fur trimming manufacturers, as such, do not 



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compete directly so far as their respective products are concerned, 
they do come into direct competition when trimming manufacturers make 
garments end garment manufacturers make trimmings. Similarly, piece 
plate manufacturers, as such, do not compete vith either garment or 
trimming manufacturers, but when the plate manufacturers also make 
trimmings and garments, there is direct competition especially in the 
range of low priced garments and trimmings. 

3 . Between the Industry and Other Lines of Business . 

Here, as in other fields, there is overlapping as between 
different lines of business. ■ In garment manufacturing, especially in 
the lower price range of garments, furs come into competition with cloth 
garments. The custom manufacturers of garments come into competition 
with such retail outlets for the wholesale manufacturer's garments, as 
department stores, specialty shops and fur shops. These retail outlets 
also compete with custom manufacturers for repair and remodeling work. 

The wholesale manufacturers of trimmings come into competition 
with those manufacturers of cloth coats and suits who make fur trimmings 
themselves, either for their- own use or for sale to other coat and suit 
manuf ac tur er s . 

The fur piece plate manufacturers come into competition, at 
least to some extent, with skin dealers. To some degree, fur piece 
plates are used where new skins would be too expensive to be used. But 
there is a range within : which substitution is feasible. 

In doing repairing and remodeling work, garment manufacturers 
especially come in conflict not only with retail establishments but with 
branches of the service trades such as tailors, cleaners, laundries, 
storage establishments. (See Diagram IV) 

4. Between Geographic Areas 

In garment manufacturing, the New York City wholesalers fear 
the outside wholesale and custom manufacturers, while the outside whole- 
sale and custom manufacturers' fear the Hew Yofk City wholesalers. The 
competitive influence of the Hew York City wholesaler is felt outside 
by way of jobbers, resident buyers, commission men and traveling sales- 
men. The outside manufacturers, on the other hand, reduces the possible 
market for New York City products. 

There is reason to believe that the competitive fears of Hew 
York City wholesalers are much less justified than are those of manu- 
facturers outside New York City. Hot only recently, but for a period of 
years, out.side manufacturers have been losing ground to Hew York City, 
especially in the lower priced garments. Only one instance came to the 
attention of the Commission of outside wholesalers selling their product 
in Hew York. Boston, once a wholesale area has ceased to be such. 

In trimming manufacturing, the situation is somewhat different. 
Here, as with garments, the bulk of the business is done in Hew York 
City, but for different reasons. Trimming manufacturing arises wherever 

1351-3 



-10- 

coat and suit manufacturing is done on any appreciable scale. The major 
localization of cloth coat manufacturing is in New York City and this 
carries with it a major localization in the manufacturing of fur trim- 
ming. However, an appreciable fringe of fur trimming manufacturing is 
done in the other cities in which cloth garment manufacturing exists. 

5. Between Employer and Employee 

Both in and cutside New York City a condition exists by which the 
employee competes with the employer. Especially in New York City, 
craftsmen have business cards stating that they design and make new gar- 
ments raid also repair and remodel old garments. If these craftsmen are 
employed at the time, they may turn their order over to their employer 
on a commission basis. More generally, whether employed or unemployed, 
they do the work themselves. In some instances, the work is done in 
their homes, although at times employees are permitted to use the em- 
ployer's equipment and facilities at noon and after closing hours. 
Usually such enterprising employees obtain the assistance of their fel- 
low-workers to do part of the job. Thus, a cutter may engage fellow- 
workers to sew the skins and finish the garment. When craft workers 
lose their jobs, they are likely to become self-employers rather promptly. 

6. Between Employees 

A somewhat different aspect of the competition created by employees 
becoming self-employers arises in the case of "contracting". In most 
establishments, the fur work is done on the employer's premises and by 
employees who are paid by the week or the day. At times work is given 
to employees to be done in the shop on a piece or contract basis. In 
New York City, for example, union contracts forbid such work. 

On the other hand, fur work may be entrusted to individuals to be 
done off the premises on a piece work basis. The piece rates so paid 
are designed to give the manufacturers lower costs than if established 
rates were paid in the shoins. Such work is designated as "outside con- 
tracting." 

Outside contracting is likely to arise under any one of several 
circumstances. In some establishments at the height of the season, 
there may be inadequate space for the employer to bring sufficient work- 
ers into his shop. An alternative is to have the work done outside of 
the shop. More generally, outside contracting arises as a means of evad- 
ing established rates of pay, whether rates set by union contract or by 
codal provisions. Especially in periods of slack employment is there 
considerable incentive for the employer to resort to outside contracting. 
In some cases, the evasion of established rates is deliberate, as where 
an employer seeks to get his work done in the cheapest way possible. In 
other cases, it is done as the sole means of meeting competition. Thus, 
when an employer who is willing to pay established rates provided com- 
petitors are paying the same rates, find competitors evade these rates 
by contracting, then he may find himself forced to resort to the same 
device of evasion. 

Not all manufacturers are in a position to take advantage of outside 
contracting even though they might desire to do so. Manufacturers making 

1351-B 






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garments from Valuable furs cannot afford to run the risk of having 
their contractors substitute even one, to say nothing of more, shins. 
Consequently, outside contracting is confined to garments made of the 
Ipw©? grades of furs, where the incentive for substitution is relatively 
small and where the possible disadvantage of the manufacturer is com- 
paratively small. The advantage to a contractor in substituting a skin 
worth 15 cents for one 25 cents is quite different than substituting a 
skin worth $1.00 for one worth $5.00 

_kese conflicting aspects of the Industry must be evaluated in 
forming codal regulations designed to aid the Industry as a whole. To 
some extent, immediate interests of different groups are in irreconcil- 
able conflict, and to a lesser extent it is likely they will continue 
to be so indefinitely. However, the existing conflicts within the Indus- 
try and within branches of it loom so large and impressive to most 
individuals in the Industry that they are unable to recognize such com- 
mon interests as exist. Under such circumstances it is not surprising 
that either of two general proposals are usually advocated as the nec- 
essary means of establishing and maintaining fair competition: (l) Let 
others do as they want but let us alone, or (2) make others conform to 
our policies, practices and standards. Consequently, any codal regu- 
lations based upon conditions in the Industry as a whole will be viewed 
by those in the Industry as purely arbitrary. 

E. C2AFT WOSK 



Despite the inroa Ls of machinery in many lines of business, the 
fabrication of furs continues to be essentially a hand craft industry. 
In some operations no mechanical assistance is available. This is 
especially true in the selection, matching and cutting of skins, in the 
nailing and stretching of them, and in some parts of the finishing work. 
In other processes hand fed machines have come to be used. Virtually 
every shop has a specially designed machine for sewing furs and also an 
ordinary sewing machine for sewing parts of a cloth lining together. A 
less widely used mechanical machine device is the "staying-machine" de- 
signed to attach an inter-lining to the skins. Such machinery has been 
of assistance entirely in speeding up the time required for certain 
operations on a sin.-;lc garment. In no instance has this machinery made 
it possible for an individual to perform an operation .simultaneously on 
a number of garments. 

The nearest approach tc multiple work occurs in those comparatively 
few establishments which have devices for cutting a number of cloth lin- 
ings for a garment simultaneously by means of a mechanically operated 
circular blade. It is also possible to do some part of the cleaning work 
simultaneously on a number cf garments oy means of a revolving drum. 

3ven where the maximum mechanical equipment is used, it is sub- 
stantially true that every garment is individually made from the original 
matching of the skins to the insertion of the lining of the finished 
garments. This is true of the lowest and the highest price garment 
whether made by wholesale or custom manufacturers. 

From the foregoing two pertinent observations may be made: First, 
with such little opportunity for mechanization in this Industry, codal 

1351-3 



-13- 



regulations can not result in any important substitution of machinery 
for hand later. Second, the apparently inevitable reliance of the In- 
dustry upon handwork mates it easy for small establishments, family 
enterprises and self-employers to operate in the Industry. This con- 
dition creates very real limits to effective codal regulations of wages 
and hours. 



F. SIZE OF 3USIH3SS UMTS 

whether the size of establishments is measured by the number of 
factory workers, or "o'j the dollar volume of manufacturing, it appeal's 
clearly that small establishments predominate in this industry. Along 
with them is an insignificant number of large establishments. 

1 . Uumber cf Craft To rkers 

Viewing the Industry as a whole, about a quarter of the workers 
are in establishments with one or two shop workers and about half of 
the establishments have four or less workers. 

V,hen Hew York City is separated from the rest of the country sever- 
al different tendencies appeal', (l) Establishments with one or two 
workers are relatively more numerous outside than in New York City. (2) 
Establishments with four to seven workers are about equally prominent 
both in and outside of New York City. 

These tendencies are set forth more fully in the Appendix. 

2. Volume of Business 

About 25 per cent of the reporting establishments did $5,000 worth 
of fur manufacturing or less, including repairing .and remodeling in 1933 
and about 40 per cent did less than $10,000.00. This is considered more 
fully in the Appendix, 

Here the tendencies in" and outside of Hew York City are quite dif- 
ferent. Establishments tend to be smaller outside the city than in it. 
While only 15 per cent of the Hew York establishments did $6,000 or less 
in manufacturing, 30 per cent of the outside establishments did a 
similar amount. Twenty-three per cent did less than $10,000 in Hew York 
City, as against 47 per cent outside and 66 per cent did less than 
$60,000 in Hew York City compared with 90 per cent outside of Hew York 
City. 

3. Investment 

Ho statistical information has been obtained as to the investment in 
fur manufacturing establishments but common knowledge and observation 
discloses one very important fact. Anyone with the required craft skill 
can engage in fur work with an investment for machinery and equipment 
of less than $100. In many instances second hand equipment would be 
used. 

In many industries extremely small concerns are likely to be highly 
inefficient and high cost producers. Under such circumstances a policy 

1351-B 



-13- 

of regulation designed to serve the industry and the public might well 
eliminate these concerns. But in this Industry the small concern is 
not necessarily inefficient. Indeed the productive efficiency of small 
units here may "be as great as or greater than that of larger units. In 
other respect's such as credit, lower prices for purchase of volume of 
supplies, 'etc., small concerns operate under a disadvantage compared 
with the larger ones. 

The comparative importance of small concerns depends somewhat on 
whether they are concentrated or scattered geographically and some what 
on the types of work done with a highly localized market as in New York 
City. A considerable volume of work is done by small establishments. 
This is especially done in trimming manuf acturing. But in the absence 
of such concentration the main work of the small establishments is re- 
pairing and remod-jling. Thus, many of the small establishments deal 
exclusively with individuals in their own communities. . 

This' analysis of business units leads to several conclusions: 
First, any codal regulation v.hich would either intentionally or uninten- 
tionally drive small enterprises out of existence would be both un- 
desirable and ineffective. It would be undesirable because the promin- 
ence of hand work permits small establishments to operate rather effi- 
ciently. It would.be ineffective because it is too easy for individuals, 
family, and partnership enterprises to carry on fur work in homes, 
garages, and not easily discovered lofts. Most of these establishments 
do not keep books, shift rapidly" from place to place, and lock their 
doors against inspection. Consequently if the bulk of small establish- 
ments is regulated to any important extent, preparations must be made 
for a very heavy enforcement burden. 

G. SPECIALIZATION OF LABOR 

Ail analysis of the typical steps 'taken in manufacturing fur gar- 
ments discloses about twenty very distinct operations, extending from 
matching the skins to final inspection of the finished garment. 

The old, all-around craftsman, of which a few still exist was able, 
to, and actually did, perform all these operations himself. But today 
a single craftsman seldom, if ever, performs all of them himself. The 
extent cf division of labor depends upon the location, size, and type of 
establishment. 

Speaking in general terms, the most extensive division of labor 
occurs in Hew York City, and here, with the larger establishments, which 
means mainly, the establishments engaged in some specialized line of 
wholesale manufacturing, such as Hudson Seal. 

Four more or less distinct "types of activities ar© generally recog- 
nized, at least where collective agreements exist. In many instances, 
the activities are not nearly so clearly defined as the common termin- 
ology might suggest. 

A. Cutters 

Ir.e most highly skilled craft is that of cutters. In addition to 
1351-3 



j 



-14- 

actually cutting the skins, this individual, who is almost always a male 
worker, frequently matches the fur. In the larger establishments, the 
cutter is not engaged in ether activities, _but in the smaller places he 
may nail the skins and even sew them on the machine. He may also do 
cleaning and glazing, "but seldom does he do finishing work. In the 
small e st ab li slime nt the 'proprietor is, likely to "be the cutter. 

This craft, together with others, is at times found divided into 
first and, second classes, and in some instances, into even more classes. 
To this point, attention will be given later, 

B. Operators 

Next to the cutter, the "operator" is the most skilled worker in 
the fur establishment. This individual sews, the skins at two or three 
stages in the manufacturing process. With some skins, such as Mink, 
for -example, garments ,are made by cutting .individual skins into small 
strips* These strips are then sewed together into long strips. Caere 
such "let ting-cut" 'is required, the first sewing occurs in the recon- 
struction of in/ididual skins. The next process is to sew a number of 
whole, or reconstructed skins, into plates or jdeces sufficiently large 
for a section of a garment, finally, the sections of the garment, such 
.as -back, sides, sleeves, etc. are sewed together. This work is done on 
a specially designed type of sewing machine. In New York City operators 
are usually men. Especially outside New York City operators may nail 
and finish garments as veil as cut them. 

C. Nai I er s 

The Nailer wets the skins and stretches them sp that they cover 
the pattern for the particular garment. The stretching is done by nail- 
ing the skins, which at this- stage have been sewed into plates, to a 
board and putting them away to dry. If this operation is performed 
properly, it requires skill and considerable care. Except in wholesale 
establishments and the larger custom ones, the nailing is done mostly as 
incidental work by cutters and operators. In some establishments it is 
done Irj shipping clerks and apprentices,. After the skins are dry they 
are then cleaned raid ironed. This operation is often spoken of as 
glazing, .and may be performed by the nailer or by giazers, or by others, 
including even the cutter. ;. .: 

D. finishers 

The most heterogenous groiip working on fur garments is the finishers. 
The shell is made by the "cutters" "operators," "nailers," "squarers" 
vmo are cutters, and the"closers" who are superior .operators. After 
these individuals have performed their operations upon the garment it 
goes to the finishing group or department. ■ Here '"fining .makers," ' 
"stayers," "tapers," and "finishers," work upon it.. , The lining makers 
cut and sew the cloth lining' together ; the stayers attach an inner lin- 
ing to the skins '"oj the use of a "staying machine;" the. -tapers attach 
cloth strips around the garmont to assist it in holding its shape; fin- 
ishers prepare the lining, .. "work-in" the lining to fit the shell and 
perform other incidental operations such as making pockets and sewing 

1351-B 



-15- 

on buttons. From these workers the garment goes for final cleaning, 
ironing, glazing and inspection. 

S. First and Second Class 

Especially in New York City and in those establishments operating 
under agreements with the union, a further distinction is drawn between 
first and second class workers. Presumably, this distinction is based 
mainly on the kind of fur worked upon and to a lesser degree, the 
productivity of the worker. It has been maintained that wholesale es- 
tablishments tend to specialize on the basis of furs and this calls for 
a corresponding specialization on the part of the worker. Thus, for 
example, some cutters are known as "Mink," "Sable," "Eox," or "Rabbit." 
Eirst class workers tend to be those specializing on the more valuable 
furs and the finer garments. Generally, this means skins ranging from 
Hudson Seal up. Second class workers tend to be those specializing in 
the making of garments of cheaper furs such as sealine. Even in New 
York City, most custom furriers do not recognize this distinction. In 
making a piece plates, a third class worker is recognized in a union 
agreement. 

Outside of New York City, the situation is quite different. In 
those establishments doing any considerable amount of work, there tends 
to be some division of labor and usually along craft lines. Where union 
agreements exist, craft lines are recognized but most of the establish- 
ments do not do a considerable amount of new work, and even when repair- 
ing and remodeling work is added, their total volume is not sufficient 
to warrant division of labor on strict craft lines. 

A. Cutters 

The most clearly defined craft is cutting and in many places the 
proprietor is the cutter. But whether proprietor or employee, the 
cutter is likely to perform other work, such as nailing, glazing and 
operating. Under such circumstances, there is no opportunity to develop 
the speed that fellow craft workers can develop under more extensive 
specialization. 

3. l.ulti-Craft Works 

Outside of New York City, the individual performing a variety of 
activities is more characteristic than the specialized craft worker. 
This is partly due to the quantity of work and partly to the type of it. 
Small volume of work, of which repairing and remodeling constitute an 
appreciable part, does not lend itself to craft specialization. 

C. Q-oerators 

Outside of New York City, and a few other places, the sewing of 
skins is often done by women. These women do finishing work and may 
even do cutting in connection with repairing and remodeling jobs. Then 
too, a different and slower technique of sev/ing is found in most of 
these places. 



1351-3 



-16. 



Pir.1 skiers 



Finishing work outside of Hew York City is done almost entirely by 
women. Uhereas about fifty per cent of the finishers reported in New 
York City were women, ninety per cent cf those reported outside of Hew 
York City were female workers. For the most part, these finishers are 
not capable of cutting and operating a complete lining, but are engaged 
mainly for straight needle "*work. In some peaces,* the finishers are 
called " sewers," arid are frequently drawn from other branches of the 
needle trades as occasion demands. 

Class of V-ork 

To some extent, outside of Sew York City, craft workers are found 
divided into classes, Ther.e union agreements exist, first and second 
classes are generally recognized and sometimes a third class. In some 
shops as many as four classes of workers are found in a craft. IJo 
uniform definitions of class are found even between establishments, to 
say nothing of between different localities.. 

She foregoing descriptions seem to justify the following observa- 
tions: 

1. ■ More or less division of labor along craft lines is found 
throughout the industry. 

2. The extent of specialization depends largely upon the 
volume aid kind of work,.. 

3. Craft lines are more clearly drawn in wholesale manufacturing 
areas, especially in Hew York City, than elsewhere. 

4. The classifications prevailing in Hew York City are not those 
prevailing in most places outside of Hew York City. 

5. Both in end outside New York City there is in practice devia- 
tion from the classification. 

S. If a policy of codal classifications is adopted, its general 
lines should take into account the existing practices through- 
out the country. 



13G1-B 



-17- 

S2ASG13AXITY 



i. Climate: 

InS3 far as climate.con^tions are -SrSn^f-n^i^r 
,re abundant opportunities to an ticipa *J J^^ shelis ln anticipation 

Requirements .and manure ture at leas-, plat e |g ■ ^ To the e x- 

of demand, as well as to do repairing ^ for overtime 

tent that such work is done in bhe off., sea 
in season is reduced. 

2i__StYl§ 

nf the sarment and tne 
The style factor inclines hoth -ne shape 01 ^ tn , Qelieve 

tyoe of fur" So far a, shape is ^^J^; 1 It is true that with 
tS-innortanoe of W-£j£ ™> ^.garments there is a ten- 
the more expensive ana distinct y generally some time m 

dency to wait until the P f\" I*^f ^2 of garments made hy_the 
September. ?rom the standpoiru °; ^ e ^\ ned gjments are in a dis- 
InLstry as a whole, sue n ^J^'J^^ tne style which ends one 
tinct minority. For the oulk of new S*J™£ . g a 

season tends to pe the style which ope «*£JJ£ to ant ici P ate future 
continuity of style which P erni ^^ "^t^rally admitted. It is 
retirements with greater accurac ^JJ^-^^i, they have a modi- 
true that when Paris models have oeen ™**™ ^ , hat Dy this time 
fying influence on S^ral styles ^a. it x« al gQOds to tie 

most manufacturers have sold a large part o ^ tail-end work of 

trade. Consequently, the new styles influence y 
the manufacturer's season. 

, , . ^ f i a often asserted that 
Tn the natter of repairing and *^}™*l^ s l 3SQn De cause the fall 
a t least remodeled work cannot he done ™£** ' cond itions exist 

styles are not then known, here a*ain ~ _ coiapa ratively few in- 
as with new garments, namely, that exc ; - ers want their re- 

stances, the style which preva Is jnoa mqs, foe previouS 

modeled garments in the fall, is «ne s^y.e 



season. 



The influence of. changing popularity °£ j^ i B ^° Consequently, 
.., popular this year may not % P^^Simmings on the 
if , manufacturer makes alates shells *arm ^ ^ lf 

tasis f the popular fur or furs of the J? a ^ with difficulty and 

tort season with merchandise which ne -anj ^ Manufacturers to post- 
losses. From this angle it is advon tageeus ior ^ ^ .^^ 
pone as much of their operation as possioie 
tion of the popular fur. 

3. Speculative ITature _g fj^c£g. 

~" ' . . , „vvis and for both gar- 

prices fluctuate widel;' for =any »' « — _ Ells corJCS aD out 



1351-3 



-18- 

for example, the lynx fur is popular this will tend to boost che price 
of chese skins. Moreover, once a particular fur begins to "take" the 
demand for it increases very quickly because of. the shortness of the 
season. On the other hand, if badger skins suddenly lose their popular- 
ity, a sharp break will occur in prices for this skin. On the other 
hand, the available quantities of individual furs may fluctuate widely. 
Thus it is alleged that i.Ianchurian dog skins are dumped on the market at 
any time and sold for whatever prices can be gotten with no opportunity 
for anyone to predict when this may happen. Such circumstances tend to 
detract from other possible advantages which might be gained through 
extensive manufacturing operations as might otherwise be undertaken in 
advance of the season. 

These fluctuations in prices of skins reflect themselves in the 
prices and popularity of garments and trimmings made from them. At the 
same time, sudden increase or decrease in the popularity of a fur has a 
marked influence on the prices that can be obtained for the finished 
goods. A manufacturer who happens to be in a line that becomes popular 
makes a killing, while one whose specialty has fallen in popularity goes 
into b ankrup t cy . 

4 . Credit 



An important part of the seasonal problem lies in the credit 
situation. Many manufacturers, both wholesale and custom, have little, 
if any, credit facilities. Therefore, they are not in a position to 
finance the purchase of skins and to pay labor much in advance of the 
time when they will be reimbursed "oy their customers. Concerns which do 
have credit facilities show a more pronounced tendency to do work in the 
off-season. 

Tnis seasonality means that most workers in the Industry have an 
opportunity to work in it only about four months in a year. However, 
tnis does not mean, 'as many assume by implication, that this is the only 
opportunity these workers have to obtain employment. At present fur 
workers with others, may find extreme difficulty in obtaining outside 
employment but in periods of ordinary employment there are opportunities 
for supplemental work. Hot only do some workers do fur work in the off- 
season on their own account, but they find employment in other lines of 
work. It has not been possible to ascertain the extend to which, prior 
to the depression, fur workers had supplemental employment and income. 

Seasonality in this Industry has a bearing on codal regulations 
in two respects: First, whatever ultimate improvement may occur, at 
present,, seasonality is beyond the control of most establishments and 
tnis fact must be taken into account in codal regulations of v/ages and 
hours. Second, in allowing for seasonality, it cannot be assumed that 
ordinarily there is no opportunity for fur workers to obtain supolemen'o- 
ary employment. 

I . PREVAILING WAGES 

Information as to prevailing wages, both hourly and weekly has been 
obtained through a questionnaire covering 292 establishments with 1983 
factory workers during the week of September 24-29, : 934. Some ccm- 

1351-3 



-19- 

pari sons are drawn "between the figures so obtained and those obtained 
by the Census Bureau. 

1. Average Hourly Earnings 

If the payrolls for factory workers throughout the country, as re- 
ported 1 to the Commission, were divided evenly among the workers, each 
worker would have received 87.4 cents as his average hourly earning. 
However, more than half the workers did not receive this amount. In 
fact, half of them received less than 80 cents per hour. 

These figures appear to be considerably higher than those found by 
the Census Bureau for a. representative week in October, 1932. here the 
average was 51 cents an hour with half of hie workers receiving less 
than 53 cents an hour. Not only is there a two-year difference in time 
between the periods covered by the Census and ohe Commission's study, 
with codal regulations intervening, but the Census figures cover an 
extremely large portion of workers in retail or custom establishments. 
Out of a total of 183 establishments with 1005 factory workers, 150 of 
the establishments with 792 of the workers were in the retail or custom 
branch of the Industry. 

A separation of the establishments in hew York City from those out- 
side the city discloses that wages are considerably lower outside than 
in hew York City. Considering all craft workers together, the average 
hourly earning for New York City is 31.23 as against 65 cents outside. 
On this basis, outside earnings are 47 per cent lower than in Hew York 
City. It also appears that half the workers in hew York City received 
$1.20 or less while half the workers outside received 57 cents or less. 
In this case, outside rates are 53 per cent lower than hew York City 
rates. The lowest ten per cent of the workers in New York City received 
$1.00 or less as against 32 cents outside New York City. 

In a general way, the Census figures confirm this tendency. Those 
figures show that the average hourly earnings for a representative week 
in October, 1929, 1932, and 1933 to be 94 cents, 74 cents, and 73 cents 
respectively for the Eastern states as against 59 cents, 49 cents and 54 
cents for the other states. In these instances, the rates outside the 
Eastern states are only -27 -per cent, 37 per cent and 31 per cent lower 
respectively then in the Eastern states. 

2. T7eekly "aves 

huch the same tendency is found with weekly wages. 

Again, considering all craft workers throughout the country, it 
appears that their full time weekly wages averaged $32.55, with 50 per 
cent of the workers getting $31.73 or less. In hew York City, the 
average is $43.70 as against $25.85 outside, and half the workers in 

York City receive $42.28 or less compared with $23.33 or less out- 
side. 

On the basis of Census data, the average actual weekly earnings for 
a representative week of October, 1929, 1932 and 1933 were $35.41, 
325.95 and 324.32 respectively. Separating Eastern from other states, 

1351-B 



-20- 

the respective averages for Eastern states were $41.11, $31.33 and 
$29.55 compared with. ^3.2.60, $23.23 and $22.93 for the other states. 

It appears therefore that in Eastern states, and especially in 
New York City, wage levels in this Industry are higher than in other 
parts of the country. Any codal regulation of wages to he effective 
must take account of such differences. 

Further analysis of wage data will found in the Appendix. 

J . PREVAI LING HOURS 

In general, the prevailing hours worked per week are snorter in 
New York City than is generally the case outside New York City. 

In New York City, the "Predominating time for workers in about 95 
per cent of the reporting establishments was 35 hours, while outside 
New York City the predominating time was 40 hours in about SO per cent 
of the establishments and 35 hours in about 30 per cent. 

Actual hours worked ranged from less than 20 to more than 50. The 
average time for all workers, in mid outside of New York City, was 35.5. 
In New York City, 59 per cent of the factory employees were reported as 
working 35 hours with about 37 per cent working less than 35 hours. 
This amount of short time may be at least partially explained on the 
basis of certain minor Jewish Holidays occurring the week the data, was 
covered. 

Outside Hew York City, about the same proportion of factory em- 
ployees worked 35 hours as worked A hours - about 40 per cent in each 
case. The average hours actually worked outside New York City were 
37.7 hours. (See Appendix) 

This tendency for Hew York hours to be longer than the hours out- 
side of New York City has some support from the Census data. Average 
hours for factory workers in the He tail Fur Trade are considerably 
lower in the Eastern §tates than in the other sections of the country. 
In 1933, the average for the entire country was 40.8. (See Appendix) 

These statistical data confirm the observations and testimony pre- 
sented to the Commission to the effect that outside New York City and 
some of the larger fur manufacturing cities, in which there are union 
agreements for 35 hours, the prevailing hours per week are between 40 
and 43. 

It has also been pointed out to the Commission that the reduction 
in hours of the National Industrial Recovery Act was relatively greater 
in many places than in New York City. Thus, in New York City and other 
places formerly working 40 Hours, the reduction to 35 hours was only a 
12fj per cent reduction. While for those establishments formerly working 
44 or 48 hours and now working 40, a further reduction to 35 would be a 
total reduction of between 25 and 27 ner cent of the original working 
time. Expressed in terms of cost, the increase in wage costs were 
relatively less in New York City and other similar places than in those 
formerly working longer hours. 

1351-B 



-21- 

There are diverse attitudes with respect to overtime allowance, "but 
a fairly uniform course of action is followed. For example, wholesale 
manufacturers and labor alike in Hew York City oppose overtime whereas 
other manufacturers deem' overtime e^To.itial said in some insbsnces'-'lahor 
agreements recognize this need, Whatever views may be expressed, it 
appears from a stud;/ of codal compliances that when the seasonal pres- 
sure arises, overtime is worked despite union agreements or codal 
regulations. 

The foregoing is significant in several respects: (l) There is at 
present a spread of at least five hours in working time between places 
in which appreciable fur manufacturing is done. (2) Both in and outside 
of hew York City an appreciable proportion of factory workers were re- 
ported as actually working 35 hours during the week covered, 59 per cent 
in hew York City and 39 per cent outside, (o) Codal provisions with 
respect to working hours cannot be made without regard to wage provi- 
sions. 

K. MOBILITY 

. 1 . liability of Establishments 

From the standpoint of investment, most establishments in this 
Industry could move easily from one locality to another, and many of 
them could move overnight. Actually, such freedom does not exist either 
because of the nature of their work or the character of their market or 
the source of material and labor supply. 

In hew York City, many establishments cannot even leave the heart 
of the "fur district" advantageously. In a few city blocks, bounded by 
Twenty-third and Thirty-second Streets on the north and south, by Eighth 
Avenue and Broadway on the east and west, the bulk of the nation's fur 
work is done. Indeed most of the work is done in two dozen buildings 
in. this area. It is estimated that ten per cent of the workers in hew 
York City are in one building - 150 West Thirtieth Street. This area 
includes not only fur manufacturing but fur dealers, offices of dressers 
and dyers, lining establishments and subsidiary lines such as pointing 
and head work. As soon as an establishment, especially wholesale, 
leaves this district, certain disadvantages arise. These vary somewhat 
with the lines of work done. Manufacturers of cheap lines may find 
certain advantages in places outside of the fur district or even outside 
hew York City that more than offset the accompanying disadvantages. The 
location of trimming manufacturing is influenced by the advantage of 
being near the Coat and Suit Industry. 

Outside ITew York City, most establishments cannot easily leave their 
present localities. For the most part, these establishments are custom 
manufacturers, or at least do considerable repairing and remodeling 
which arises in the local community. Most wholesale garment manufactur- 
ing is carried on by concerns with long established places of business. 
However, many fur trimming establishments can move rather easily. 



1351-3 



.22- 



Laoor 



In s general sense, workers in any branch of the Industry are drawn 
from a common pool. For e::am;;>le, workers in wholesale establishments 
may go , at the end of the season in this branch of the Industry, to the 
custom manufacturing branch whose season is then opening. Furthermore, 
workers often work for one establishment by dry and another by night, 
especially during the height of a season. However, there is not entire 
freedom. Many workers specializing in garments are disinclined to do 
trimming work and many specializing in one grade of fur are reluctant to 
work en another, especially cheaper, grade. As between individual 
establishments, there is complete mobility and a very high rate of labor 
turnover exists in the Industry, especially in Hew York City. 

As between sections of the country, there does not appear to be 
much mobility. Many hew York City workers are reluctant to leave the 
city and even the "fur district." However, workers do go out of the 
district and city - preferably to nearby places. Many workers outside 
the cit3^ do not wish to work in 'the city and many others would be unable 
to obtain work in the city. 

In view of sue 1 conditions, it appears that codal regulations are 
likely to have little influence on mobility of labor between areas, 
although such regulati sus might have more influence on mobility between 
and vithin branches of the Industry. So far as branchps of the Industry 
are concerned, different codal regulations between areas would affect 
some branches more than others, and establishments doing some type of 
work more than those doing other types. 

L. COMPLIANCE 

. State K.P..A. Compliance Officers throughout the country have found 
insuperable difficulties in enforcing the provisions of the Eur Manufac- 
turing Code because of the inroossibility of determining what is manufac- 
turing for stock as distinguished from made-to-order work. The diffi- 
culties were enhanced by the fact that difference in hours under the Re- 
tail Code and the Fur Manufacturing Code created confusion. Manufac- 
turers claimed to be custom retailers 'and refused to recognize the Fur 
Code or "resigned" after signifying compliance. In a measure, this 
overlapping conflict was found to be the case in hew York City where 
some forty important firms in the heart of the wholesale market claimed 
they were custom fur manufacturers and as such were entitled to work 
longer hours than wholesale manufacturers. 

These facts furnish force to the view that, from the standpoint of 
enforcement, the major branches of the Industry must be treated as a 
uni t . 

r 

M. ST AT I ST ICAL I INFORMATION 

Statistical informpotion in this Industry is cons-nicious by its 
absence. Most individuals engaging in the Industry are not conscious of 
any common interests of the Industry as a whole, and hence no incentive 



1351-B 



-23- 

lias existed for accuaulatiug even elementary trade information. The 
data obtained by the Commission may be significant, within limits, as a 
straw indicating tendencies, but it is too inadequate to constitute a 
factual basis for dealing with man:/ problems of the Industry. 

In view of this situation, code recommendations cannot be based 
solely upon statistical data, but must be supplemented by information A 
obt-ined from .other sources. 



1351-3 



SECTION III 



1351-C 



-1- 



SECTION- III 

:.J3^V ATlO.;i 3Y MR. ATKINS 

In view of the questions raised 
as to the merits of wage classification, 
Mr. Atkins has undertaken to set forth at 
this point the problem, as he sees it, of 
classification and the alternative, a mini- 
mum wage. 



1351-C 



— 2-> 
SECTION III 

ISSUES INVOLVED IN CLASSIFICATION 

Tlie formal Administrative actions by which the Special Far Commis- 
sion was created and its obligations were described at the outset of 
this report. The Commission has traveled around the United States, 
holding hearings in all the areas covered by the Industry. As recounted 
in the fore part of this report, it has collected statistical informa- 
tion, some of which is appended to this report. It has interviewed, 
personally, literally hundreds of people who are supposed to have an 
expert knowledge of the Eur Industry. 

It is possible to get any number of different decisions out of the 
evidence and experience of this Commission, each of which will have con- 
siderable logic to defend it and each of which can be indicted for its 
lack of logic. 



ZONES OF AGREEMENT 

Most of those acquainted with the Fur Industry will t ree to the 
following: 

1. The existing Code wages set up by the wholesale manufacturing 
code are so much out of line with going wages outside of New York 
City that they cannot be enforced. 

2. As far as wholesale fur manufacturing is concerned, New York 
City dominates the situation. It has not been losing, however, to 
the outside markets. Rather during the past 10 years there has 
been an increasing concentration of such manufacturing in New York 
and an attending loss in manufacturing in other parts of the country. 

3. The Industry is observing the entrance of cheap fur coats, 
sealine in particular, which may introduce a competition with the 
Cloak and Suit Industry. This Industry may develop outside of New 
York, if near-by areas are given low wage standards. 

4. Wholesale manufacturing involves -a production pace which is 
more strenuous than the work in custom shops, department stores, 
and specialty shops. 

5. The Cloak and Suit Industry through manufacture of fur-trimmed 
coats may seriously compete with the Fur Industry. 

6. There is a marked tendency toward a labor surplus in New York 
City and a concentration in New York City of highly skilled workers, 
whereas outside of New York, in most areas, the labor market is 
tight at <the height of the season, labor is less ski j:d in the 
main, and' production methods are less advanced than they are in 

New York. 



1351-C 



7. In New York City, the department store and, to somewhat lesser 
exte.it, the custom manufacturer is in a position to supply more 
yearly work than the fur manufacturer and that outside of New York 
employ workers who tend to "be employed for a longer interval of 
time than is the practice in New York. 

8. Labor organization in New York is much more effective than it 
is in the few other scattered cities in which organization either 
exists or is being attempted. In the main, the Par Industry out- 
side of New York is an unorganized industry. 

9. The existing Code has "been almost without any effect whatsoever 
outside of New York and enforcement of the Code in New York is far 
from satisfactory. 

10. Cutside of the New York area there is a greater tendency to 
col tinue in employment people of advanced years, 

11. The ranges of skill in the various parts of the country vary 
greatly from place to place; likewise, wages. 

12. The classification existing in the New York market is not fol- 
lowed in other markets and there is no consistent classification 
outside of New York City. 

1't, The cases where department stores engaged in manufacturing 
for stock constitute a comparatively few cases. 

14. The department store does not compete with wholesale manufac- 
turing, "but with the selling function and the repair and remodeling 
work of the custom shot). 



THE ISSUES 
The real issues that the Commission has faced have "been two: 

(1) Whether classified wage schedules should be recommended, 

(2) Whether simply a basic minimum wage should be recommended. 

This part of the report, therefore, is devoted to a critical anal- 
ysis of classified wage scales and the possibilities of a basic minimum 
v/age. 

GENERAL CCNSIISIIATIONS 

There is room for considerable doubt as. to whether classified wage 
schedules are desirable. The complexity of the Industry makes their 
determination largely arbitrary and unscientific, They are subject to 
manipulation by interested groups and drag the authority of the Govern- 
ment into the Industry's quarrels, disputes, and conflicts. The exist- 
ing classified wage schedules have not been enforced, indicating, perhaps 

1351-C 



-4- 

that classified wage schedules are largely unenforceable short of a de- 
gree of coercion which the Government at present either is unwilling or 
unable to exercise. 

It night he concluded, therefore, that wage regulations in the Code 
should "be United to the establishment of an enforceable basic minimum 
wage. Support for this conclusion is given in the concluding sections 
of this report. 



THE COMPLEXITY OF THE INDUSTRY 

There are two ways of studying the Fur Industry. First, the Fur 
industry in Hew York (embracing all types of producers) wi 4- !! the Fur 
Industry in the country as a whole. Second, the different types of fur 
producers compared with each other - that is, fur manufacturers as com- 
pared to the custom shops and department stores. 



WHOLESALE MAHUFACTURIHG IH HEW YORK 

'Jholesale manufacturing is characterized by a high degree of sea- 
sonality. Although the amount of work varies from season to season, 
8, 12, 16 weeks of work has been the lot of most employees in the whole- 
sale manufacturing in the Hew York market where the manufacturing in- 
dustry is concentrated. 

Hot only is work highly seasonal, but the job tends to be brief, 
after the fashion of the building trades. A worker hired at 9:00 o'clock 
may find himself discharged at 10:00 the same day. An emoloyer located 
on the 10th floor wishing a cutter may find one either by going down to 
the 3th floor, or to a street corner in the wholesale district. 

Labor turnover grinds along at a fearful pace even in the active 
season and, coupled with the ease with which workers can be turned over, 
the employer, even though under a collective contract, finds it i^ossible 
to intimidate individual employees into accepting wages and hours that 
violate union contracts. 

'Contracting out is rampant and, to the degree that the union 
presses, the individual employer is under' an incentive to resort to con- 
tracting. Moreover, individual employees out of jobs solicit work which 
they perform either in their own homes or in the homes of thers, work- 
ing alone or in combination with their aco^uaintances. 

Contrasted with the outside market and contrasted particularly 
with the operations in the custom shop and department store, the speed 
of work in the Hew York factories is greater. Having access to a large 
labor supply of the most skilled mechanics in the fur business, manage- 
ment finds it possible to line these men up in a system of production 
that drives the worker 'along from cutter to finisher in a dove-tailed 
series of processes. 



1351-C 



-5- 

The manufacturing unit typically is small. For the fur workers as 
a whole 40 per cent of the worker's according to our figures were in es- 
tablishments of three or less workers. A room for wholesale manufactur- 
ing, LI ' :■: 26', which accommodates eight workers is characteristic. 
Oftentimes the "boss and one or two partners constitute the "bulk of the 
work, force. Sometimes this leads to a miniature cooperative in which 
the workers in effect are owners and share the risks attending owner- 
ship. 

To this description must "be added the fact that the death rate and 
birth rate of the business enterprise in this Industry Is exceedingly 
high, that financial responsibility in this Industry is such that the . 

-:ers approach it with fear and trembling. The worker of today may be 
the employer of tomorrow and also the worker of the day after tomorrow. 
Investment in capital e -uipment is negligible, a shop can be opened on 
a few hours' notice. Ho a remarkable extent in this Industry, losing 
one' s job does not mean that he leaves the Fur Industry, but rather that 
he becomes a self-emol'r, r ^r, thus intensifying the competition and making 
more difficult the succossfui establishment of labor standards. 



NEW YORK CUSTOM WOES 

In the custom field in Hew York, the pace is somewhat slower than 
in the factory. From the standpoint of arduousness of toil, it is 
thoroughly possible that a custom worker can work 40 hours with less 
fatigue than a factory ^orker can work 35. The work in the custom houses 
does not involve the division of labor to the extent that it exists in 
wholesale manufacturing, At the same time, repair and remodeling and 
high class custom work calls for skill and perhaps a greater variety of 
skill than is needed in the worker who devoted himself to a single 
manufacturing operation. 

In the provisions proposed for the Fur Code, the custom workers are 
placed in the same category as the factory worker. This over-lapping 
classification is based uoon the following: 

1. There is some inter change of workers between custom and manu- 
facturing work. 

2. Although custom work does not call for that kind of skill which 
makes speed possible, it does call for an all-around craft skill. 

3. There is always the possibility that if differing standards are 
placed upon these two industries in Hew York City, the manufacturer 
nay allege that he is a custom retailer or the custom retailer ma.y 
allege that he is a manufacturer. (it is recognized that there are 
very few manufacturers at nresent who do not engage in retail busi- 
ness on the side. ) 

4. The union contract in Hew York City,- insofar as it is effective, 
applies similar wages to both industries. It should be observed, 

■.ever, that the unions have always recognized the need of the 
retailer for some concession on the matter of hours. 

1351-C 



-6- 

D UPARTMENT STORE 

• Department stores in New York City as a whole are not unionized. 
Their operations are not greatly dissimilar from those of the custom 
retailer. Their chief "business is repair and remodeling with some oc- 
casional custom work. In a few cases, they manufacture some goods for 
stock. In certain other cases, they contract work out. 

The work force in the department store usually is paid less than 
union wages. The hours of work commonly follow those of the master re- 
tail code. The work is varied and the term of employment is much more 
certain than it is in the manufacturing side of the fur business. De- 
partment store executives point out that they have workers who work the 
year round, some of them get two weeks' vacation with pay. They point 
o\it workers who have been with the firm constantly employed for 10, 15, 
25 years. 



EUR MANUFACTURING- OUTSIDE 0? NEW YORK ' 

Outside of Hew York City, there is very little wholesale fur manu- 
factxiring. The evidence presented to the Commission indicates that there 
has been a constant loss of wholesale fur manufacturing from the Boston 
area, from Buffalo, from the Northwest, from California, and from the 
Chicago regions to the New York area during the past ten years. The 
evidence with respect to this transfer has been included in the appen- 
dices of this report. In wholesale fur manufacturing, ITew York concen-r 
trates nearly 95 per cent of the manufacturing of the United States. 
This growing concentration is in sharp contrast with the development 
in tne other needle trades. Moreover, this concentration has occurred 
despite the fa.ct that for the last 20 years Hew York has been engaged 
in dealing with unions and paying union scales on the whole, if any- 
thing, more faithfully than they have been paying in the past year. 

This trek to Hew York is to be explained in terms of accessibility 
to the skin market, accessibility to a large skilled labor reserve, ac- 
cessibility to the market where buyers concentrate, and the development 
in ITew York City of a manufacturing technique which no other part of the 
country has yet found it possible to equal. 

The factual material showing the present dispersion of fur manu- 
facturing is included at the end of this report. 



CUSTOM WORK OUTSIDE OF NSW YORK 

Custom work outside of Hew York City presents a sharp contrast both 
to manufacturing in New York and custom work in New York. Workers are 
less specialized. The distinction between first and second class cutters 
first and second class operators, first and second class nailers, first 
and second class finishers, exists in few places and where it does exist, 
it is not defined in the same manner that it is in the New York market. 
Nailers, as such, outside of New York are practically non-existent. Pro- 
duction methods stand out in sharp contrast. The pace of work is slow- 
er. The work is not as routinized as it is in New York. 



-7- 

Perhaps some idea of the situation outside of New York can be se- 
cured from considering the observations of our technical expert who in- 
vestigated shop conditions. Consider but one example: Boston. Boston 
is a relatively high class and alert production center compared with 
other parts of the country. Yet in even this case only a relatively 
small proportion of the workers possess the speed and skill which would 
enable them to hold ccirpafsCble jobs in New fork Ci'ty. Specifically, the 
opinion of our expert was that out of 16 cutters whom he observed at work, 
6 could get regular jobs in a Hew York custom house. The remainder could 
get jobs helping out the retail at the height of the season only for about 
$30.00 per week instead of the $50. o0 for which a first class cutter in 
New York qualifies. Watching operators at work and comparing them with 
New York, it was his opinion that 15 out of 19 observed could qualify for 
retail work, but none of them for wholesale work. Four out of the 19 

he would call apprentices, 

t- 

Cf 41 finishers, 30, according to. his judgment, would qualify as 
second class finishers at the height of the season, and 11 would qualify 
as tapers. Hone '/ore really first class finishers. Not, but what they 
were incapable of good work; rather, they were slow. In summary, our 
expert adds this significant statement: "They (the Boston furriers) 
live up to production methods of 20 years ago." Excluding Chicago, this 
brief thumb-nail sketch of Boston could be followed with comparisons less 
favorable in almost all the other parts of the country with the exception 
of a few plants. 

One additional point should be added. Whether fur work be custom or 
department store work or specialty shop work, outside of New York work is 
likely to be more stable. The shortage of skilled labor makes it neces- 
sary for management to maintain a good part of its work force throughout 
the year a::d when highly skilled cutters are hired, they commonly are 
paid even higher wages' than are paid in Hew York City. This is simply 
testimony to the fact that workers have to be paid to be attracted away 
from Hew York. 

Surplus labor to take bare of a seasonal peak load outside of Hew 
York is usually unskilled, casual labor not primarily dependent upon the 
Par Industry for a livelihood. At the height of the season, both in the 
fields of manufacturing, custom and department store work, management 
finds it necessary to hire seamstresses - old women and young girls who 
are handy with needles but who know very little about furs, to add to the 
work force when the pressure for repair and remodeling arises in the fall 
of the year. These operatives, manifestly incapable of being used in a 
market like Hew York, are frequently married and retire; from their jobs 
at tne end of the busy season, resume their duties as housewives, some 
taking an occasional job of dressmaking for their friends or acquain- 
t"..ices. 

CIASSIBIBD WAGES - FB.0 AND CON 

In view of the complexity of this Industry as described in preced- 
ing paragraphs and the uolicy job which any detailed system of control 
will involve it is pertinent to raise the question: What is the policy 
of the H.H.A. with respect to classified wage scheduels? 

1351-C 



-8- 

Since the inception of the N.R. A. it has "become the practice in a 
number of industries, especially in the needle trades, to set up wage 
scales'' which classify the workers in a variety of ways. In some cases, 
the wage differentials are "based upon geographic location, in others, 
they are "based upon skill, and in still others, they are "based upon a 
combination of geographic location and skill. 

The argument for differentials generally is based upon a number 
of different things: 

1. It is asserted that tne cost of living varies widely from one 
section of the country to another and that the wages which are 
fixed ought properly to take cognizance of such different costs 
of living. 

2. It is said that it has been customary for many decades to pay 
different wages in different parts of the country, and that these 
long established practices of the Industry ought not be lightly 
disturbed. 

3. Perhaps most important, the argument for wage differentials 
proceeds on the notion that the purpose of the N. R. A. is to lay 
down conditions upon which different producers may compete fairly. 
A wage scale which sets one part of the country above another is 
presumably based on the feeling that the lower wage scale serves as 
an off-set to the handicaps under which the particular employer may 
be suffering because of his distance from the market, the availa- 
bility or the absence of skilled workers, the development of high 
speed production technique, etc. 

Against wage differentials, it can be argued: 

1» They are almost invariably highly unfavorable; arrived at un- 
scientifically and in haphazard fashion they reflect far more the 
pressure of groups seeking to gain special advantage than they do 
the actual conditions which exist and which should determine the 
wage differentials, if any. 

2. Wage differentials are capable of infinite manipulation. They 
lend themselves easily to attempts by unscrupulous interests to use 
them for their own advantage and thus to distort the purpose for 
which they were laid down. 

3. The setting up of wage differentials for a large number of dif- 
ferent classes of workers and for a number of different parts of 
the country, and for a large number of different kinds of producers 
creates a situation in which, if these wage differentials were to 
mean anything, an enforcement machinery must be brought into ex- 
istence which in size and in cost would be prohibitive for the 
Industry as at present constituted. For wage differentials with- 
out enforcement are meaningless. 

A realistic view of the history of the Fur Industry leads to 
the inescapable conclusion that perhaps more than any 'other industry 
it is in need of policing if the rules and regulations which have 
been prescribed are not to be flagrantly violated. 
1351-C 



-9- 

4. If wage differentials are to "be justified, they must be "based 
i such a Variety of factors including, for example, the com- 
petitive nature of the Industry, the size and ? efficiency of the 
different plants, the speed and the skill of the worker's, the 
ccst of living, etc. To reach a thoroughly scientific and im- 
partial conclusion from such an imposing list of factors, is a 
task which is well nigh impossible. 

5. '.Vage' differentials are more easily justified in the case of the 
lowest r>aid wage earners thin in the case of the more skilled work- 
ers, since it is ^resumed that the more highly skilled workers may, 

, the coercive action of collective bargaining, effect for them- 
selves conditions which to them are more satisfactory. 

6. The establishment of a system of classified wage rates which 
must needs be e :tramely complex may result in stratification of 
conditions which, even if reasonable at the present time, would 
soon become unreasonable aid which would as a consequence lead to 
considerable discontent and often violation. 



PHG.HI'MS IITV0LV3D I IT CLASSIFICATION 

In working out a system of classified wages for the various kinds 
of occupations and the varying degrees of skill and the varying degrees 
of conditions in the different parts of the country, it may be asked: 
Are not difficulties being raised which will result in ceaseless pro- 
tests and c&asaless adjudications if any real attempt is made to en- 
force such scales? 

Classified wage schedules call for: 

1. A detailed description of the duties of each item that enters 
into the classification. 

2. It involves a comparison of such items as degree of skill, re- 
sponsibility, speed of work, degree of supervision involved, the 
cost of work not performed up to standards, work conditions, the 
period of time necessary to become a craftsman in the particular 
line. This should be worked out for each element in the classifi- 
cation, and the comparison should be made between the various 
items in the classifications. 

3. In describing the basis of wage payments, there should be a 
determined attempt made to avoid any sort of ambiguity. Ambigui- 
ties are loop-holes which defeat the purpose of classification. 

In other words, each classification must be distinct and incapable 
of confusion with other items which are classified and any regula- 
tion with respect to hours and overtime must be in unequivocal 
language, language which is understandable both to the employer and 
to the worker. If this is not done any reasonably smart employer 
can resort to various tricks of reclassification and get around 
the terms laid down in the Code. 



1351-C 



-10- 

It is questionable whether classified wage schedules supply a 
satisfactory answer to the problems raised- in the preceding paragraphs. 
In addition, in this Industry in particular, the question is pertinent: 
Granting that you do define the various classifications am define wages 
and hours, how can you prevent people from escaping by resource to the 
various forms of contracting which exist in the Industry? 

The Fur Industry at present is shot full through and through with 
the institution of contracting. Hew York - union wage scales are fre- 
quently flaunted in the New York market through a variety of devices and 
tricks. They exist as realities in those shops where the unions are a 
real factor, where the unions have power. At the present time, the 
N.R.A. Code- is not the real force controlling wage' scales in Hew York. 
To the extent that individual craftsmen have skill that is badly needed, 
and hence possess individual bargaining ability, and to the extent to 
which the unions possess power, the N.R.A. wage scales have real meaning. 
(A note on the union situation in New York is included in the appendix 
of this re;oort.) In other words, primarily it is not the N.R.A. Code 
that is functioning in Hew York; the N.R.A. Code has meaning largely to 
the extent that labor possesses power, and at the present time there is 
a life and death struggle going on between a right and left wing move- 
ment with the employers playing one against the other to the detriment 
of both. 

THE. PLATE L1AKSRS - AH ILLUSTRATION OF CLA S SIFICATION 

Here are the manufacturers of plates in Hew York City. The Ameri- 
can Fur Plate and Trimming Manufacturers ' Association,. Inc. has furnish- 
ed us with a list of 209 firms engaged in this business in the City of 
Hew York with the note: "The names of many firms, are not included in 
this list due to the difficulty '■ in locating them. Accordiiv; to our 
estimation, there are approximately 300 more manufacturers.' 

The existing Code requires of the plat'e makers the same standards 
that are applied to other fur work in Hew York City, but the plate 
makers have steadfastly refused to observe the Code terms. They have 
refused to purchase labels for their merchandise. They have refused to 
recognize that the Code Authority had power to police them. They feel 
that they should be granted special terms'. 

What reasons can be given for establishing a separate classifica- 
tion for plate makers? It can be argued: 

1. That plate making does not compete with the fur garment and 
trimming manufacturing. This is tiue. Plate making is in competi- 
tion with skins and skins are outside the review' of this study. 
Therefore, the parties at interest with respect to plate making 
have not been heard on the question of what should be done with 
respect to plate-making wages. ' 

2. The. plate makers inasfar as they have been organized have, 
rather consistently,: played with the right wing union. This has 
resulted in developing a friendly -attitude toward them on the part 
of fur interests which have been trying to fight the left wing. 

1351-C 



-11- 

In other words, this group meets with little opposition amongst the 
fur interests and it is easy to* grant them low classified wages. These 
wage's are in the fore part of this renort. 

$33 for cutters 
28 for operators. . . 
23 for retailers 
25 for finishers 

And this is the decision despite, the fact that the Code scale in Hew 
York City for fur manufacturing is 350.60 for first class cutters, 
sM-l-.OO 'for second class cutters; 341.80 for first class operators, 
535.20 for second class operators, etc. 

But the problem is even more complicated. Insofar as fur plate 
makers stick to the making of fur plates, they are in competition with 
the skin trade alone. But inasfar as they make trimmings on coats tney 
are a part of the Fur Industry and in competition with the other branch- 
es of the Pur Industry. 

So far this practice of making of trimmings, collars, cuffs and^ 
scarfs is not widespread; but to the extent to which it does exist, it 
is a competitive threat to the Trimming Industry which is asked to pay 
the higher scales. Obviously, the answer is to require that plate 
people inasfar as they are engaged in trimming work, meet the regular 
scales. But even such a decision, if made, must recognize the fact that 
these people do not recognize the Code Authority; they do^ not contribute 
to its support; they refuse entrance to inspectors. And always there is 
the 'chance to say: "We can't separate plate making from trimming work; 
the workers do both work." In any case, there arises a real policing 
job. 

Perhaps it should also be placed upon record that the United Fur 
Manufacturers' Association which claimed 70 members that while Code 
making proceedings were going on at Washington, they were assured that 
their demand would be granted but would not be placed in the formal 
record because, if such an attempt were made, it would hold up proceed- 
ings. In other words, they allege something of a gentleman's agreement 
which is now binding on the 1J.R.A. Also, it is alleged that in the 
hearings of January 12 and 13, 1934, "It was agreed by all the repre- 
sentatives of the proponent associations and the Administration offi- 
cials not to include in the Code the third class minimum rates, prevent- 
ing thereby any confusion that might result among the out-of-town mem- 
bers of the Industry who are not working on skins." 

On the other hand, it is maintained that the representatives of the 
plate makers were told that the Code would approve' any wage schedule 
proposed by the plate makers which was approved by the President of the 
international Pur Workers Union. The welter of letters and reported 
conversations can not be satisfactorily unscrambled, -but these things 
can not be in doubt: The Pur Code on its face does not grant exemption 
to these -people; the fur plate people have refused to abide by the Code 
as it is written. 



-12- 

In effect, in granting these people third class rates, the decision 
simply adjusts itself to the fact that the employers in this • Industry 
can not "be made to pay first or second class rates. But it illustrates 
the point that as soon as classifications are set up more classifica- 
tions are needed; and as more classifications are worked out the "basic 
standards are undermined and nullified. • 

VARIOUS SYSTEMS OF CLASS IF ICATIOHS 
..-' POSSIBLE I1T ?■■-'•£: FUh INDUS THY 

Despite' the fact that classified wages in this Industry will pro- 
duce a problem immediately of granting exceptions through a rental 
agency it can be argued: 

1. That the N.R.A. should set up a minute classification of wages 
in the Fur Industry for •various classes of workers, not only for 
unskilled, semi-skilled and skilled, difficult as these terms may 
be to define, but also for cutters, first and second class; 
operators, first and second class; nailers, first and second class; 
finishers, first and second class; general craft workers, finish- 
ing assistants, and learners, with differing wage scales in differ- 
ent .geographical areas, and with a distinction made between whole- 
sale and. custom on the one hand, and trimming manufacture on the 
other.... .... .■■ .- 

2. t . It is possible to arrange a somewhat similar or dissimilar 
division of .crafts and la?/ down one set of regulations covering 
fm - . manufacturing and another set for retailers of furs. Con- 
sideration might be given to various groups , particularly the 
department store, and to a somewhat lesser extent, to the out-of- 
town custom houses who employ their workers for longer periods of. 
time during the year than the wholesale manufacturing industry 
commonly does., and who have upon their staff, workers who have had 
full-time work for years, -In contrast to the rather typical six, 
twelve and eighteen Week-employment period in the New York Manu- 
facturing .industry . It might be possible also to recognize that 
the department stores -employ old people and, in many cases,, give 
two weeks' vacation with "jay, 'and allot them special considerations 
on the ground that if they are treated like manufacturing enter- ■ 
prises, they will 1jq 'forced to- discharge -some of their present 
workers. Also, : SQnie- consideration might be given the fact that the 
department . stores .are already operating under, retail codes and that 
standards which apply to them should not seriously interfere with 
existing setup of hours within their plants. 

3. It is possible to compromise on even more simple classifica- 
tion. But to the extent the classification is made less compre- 
hensive, to the extent it will distort and less realistically re- 
flect the variety of condition's in the Industry." In any "case,, the 
Fur Industry does .not; present a simple picture and classification, 
if attempted in this Industrjr, cannot be a simple matter." 

4. Classifications may be established in terms of some base area, 
arbitrarily chosen or fixed by successful pressure of an interested 
group. It should be observed that the wholesale code wrote the 

1351-C 



-13- 

wages of cutters and of the other crafts of the Industry to a high 
per cent of the Hew York price. The Commission is agreed that 
these wages are unworkable. Obedience to the stimulations in iTew 
York has "been deplorably deficient and outside of Hew York 
practically no one has paid any attention to the Code. And this, 
regardless of the fact that the Code to date applies only to 
wholesale manufacturers. 

All of these variations are possible if classiciation is attempted 
and all of them could be defended. 

CLASSIFIED ?AGS SCHEDULES AS A FIGHTIHG TOOL EOT. LABOR 

The classified wage schedule recommendations at the outset of this 
report accept the wages set in the collective contracts between em- 
ployers and one of the two contending unions located in hew York City. 
It is possible x,o build the rates for the areas outside of ITew York 
City using such contract wages as the base of the pyramid. 

Conceivably, such a policy might play into the hands of organized 
labor who could declare that the employer, when he does not obey code 
regulations, is not only fighting the union and the union scale de- 
manded (where a union exists) but that the employer is also fighting 
the Government of the United States. 

It is common for organized labor to insist upon nominal wages in 
collective bargaining contracts during the periods of depression when 
the going wages are all out of line with what the collective contracts 
stipulate. Labor feels commonly that there is a psychological value in 
holding the wages of carpenters, for example, at $1.75 an hour, even 
though they are actually working at a given moment for 73 cents. 
Standards on paper in the collective contract may represent especially 
in time of depression, aspirations and constitute as such an announce- 
ment of an intention to get the nominal wages at some future date, as 
soon as- the unions achieve or accumulate power by themselves, or receive 
it as a legacy from improved industrial conditions. 

The Problem of Talcing Sides 

"ne need but look at the matter of Federal Relief, concessions to 
ex-service men, the A. A. A., our banking legislation, and our money 
manipulation to realize that government is a function of pressure groups. 
3ut whether the Government should consciously align itself with any 
given pressure group in modern society is a real question. 

In the case of hours and wages although there may be certain 
limited areas within which the interests of employers and employees are 
identical, the intentions and aspirations of workers, both unorganized 
and organized, in the main are in conflict with the intentions and 
aspirations of employers unorganized and organized. This is true 
despite the antagonisms within the groups themselves. Traditionally, 
the attitude of the Government toward this opposition interest has been 
to lay down a few rules to the effect that the fighting would be carried 
on without too much social disorder. The parties at interest have been 
allowed to fight each other and whatever the result was, it was commonly 
accepted as the result. 

1351-C 



-14- 

The Government lies seldom intervened to coerce either party in any 
direct fashion. The activities of the Bureau of Labor were largely 
those of offering mediators to Taring the. parties together. 

It is no.t the purpose here to pass judgment -anon these matters. 
Whether one thinks the traditional governmental attitude is right or 
wrong depends upon one's personal philosophy, and that is determined, 
in most cases, by whether or not one is an employer or an employee. 
The most disturbing point here is that when a break is made with this 
traditional attitude, the antagonisms and oppositions which arise multi- 
ply in power and effectiveness to the extent which the break with the 
past is widespread. To this must be added the question of whether 
classified wage schedules, so proposed in this report, will accomplish 
what they are intended to accomplish. 

STJUTDA?Jj5 AHD Blh?03.CEi\iEIIT 

While it is thoroughly possible to set standards (l) to serve a 
fi hting weapon in the hands of organized labor, or (2) to bring about 
a transfer of power to labor, any policy which sets such standards 
should be adopted only after careful consideration of the problem of 
enforcement . 

If labor standards are set at such a level that 85 per cent of the 
employers concerned are recognized offenders, (see appended information 
on compliance) the process will bring into disrepute the whole operation 
of the ii.H.A. as far as the lur Industry is concerned. On the matter of 
hours alone and for wholesale fur manufacturing alone, (not custom shops 
or department stores or specialty shops), there were 1,992 violations 
in Hew. York City discovered in the period from September 4 to October 
12, 1934, a period of but 40 days. 

In addition to the cases before the National Compliance Board, at 
the date this is being written, there are 118 cases pending at 43 Broad- 
way, the Hew York headquarters of the iT.H.A. It is obvious that this 
process of piling up cases, especially of those in the magistrates' 
courts cannot go on indefinitely. 

At the same time it is thoroughly possible that enforcement in this 
Industry, especially in "lev/ York City, is a function of the nature of 
the Industry and its members as well as the particular wage scale or 
scales that may be established. Any control program which seeks to 
guide the Pur Industry will meet rough going. 

On the other hand, however, if standards are set up, standards 
which are lived up to in 90 per cent of the cases, the recalcitrant 10 
per cent can be sat upon which the approval and support of the 90 per 
cent, which in effect means that the 10 per cent can be disciplined 
within limits. 

ITor should the .U.K. A. expect more than this. The IT.H.A. can not 
overnight overcome the opposition arising from the ideas and beliefs 
not only of business men, but of lawyers, judges, professional people 
and the great mass of people who have inherited the habits and tradi- 
tions of society .which thinks deminantly in business terms. 

1351-C 



- i 15'-' 

I5GAL F0W5R YZP.SUS ZCO'JOMIC POWER 

The annoying fact that faces one who is interested in protecting 
labor's interest in matters of this kind is that in regard to enforcing 
a complicated system cf wage standards, government can not achieve the 
power of a labor union. 

Approach a department store in Hew York City. The union scale 
which is written in the collective agreement has no meaning to it. For 
first class cutters, instead of $50.60, they may be paying $34.00, and 
so on through the list. The union scale calls for 35 hours; they are 
working 40 and 44 hours. You ask them, "Can't you operate on 35 hours 
a week?" "Can't you pay union scales?" Their answer is: "We cannot 
treat cur fur workers differently than we treat our other workers on 
the matter of hours. We ear-not VW the wages in the Code and we cannot 
separate manufacturing operations or repair and remodeling from such 
busheling operations as attend the sale of a finished garment." 

These answers you rather expect. You recognize that any code you 
draw up with respect to them will be a great inconvenience. You listen 
while they tell you they do not hire their workers for six or eight 
months during the year. They hire them all year round, giving them two 
weeks' vacation with pay. They point to gray-haired workers have have 
been in their employ twenty to thirty years. They say: "Our conditions 
are not like those of the Fur Industry on Seventh Avenue. 

It is all very true. It is also true that if the union comes along 
and pulls the shop, the department store will make some sort of arrange- 
ment that will meet the demands of the union which for New York City are 
identical with the code provisions. The sad part of it is that in the 
absence of the union, little can be done. The N.R.A. cannot pull a 
shoT) and must rely on courts and public opinion, both of which agencies 
have proven inadequate in regard to the Fur Industry, and in Hew York 
City the unions have succeeded in unionizing but few department stores. 

In the absence of present power union officials can insist on paper 
scales even though they are not paid. They have some psychological 
value. For the union official to say: "Yes, we are down and out right 
no-.:, and the employers are getting away with murder, but we'll get them 
when times improve," is one thing. It is quite another for the Govern- 
ment to say the rules it has laid down are "down and out" but they will 
have meaning at some future date* 

This Industry, taken as a whole, is not well organized. In ITew 
York where the strongest degree of organization exists, and where tnere 
exists the greatest possibilities for collective action in the Industry, 
there is constant warfare between the two groups: The International Fur 
Workers Union and the Fur Workers International Union, commonly described 
as the right and left wing, respectively. 

Outside of Hew York, both organizations appear at different spots, 
and sometimes in the same city, each claiming more power than the other. 

At the hearings in hew York the Fur Workers International Union 
claimed to represent 95 per cent of the workers in the ITew York market- 

1351-C 



-15- 

The International Fur Workers Union claimed to represent 5,000 workers 
out of the total, generally estimated from 11,000 to 14,000 workers.!/ 
In any case unionism in this Industry is badly split. 

It is thoroughly possible, despite the past history of the social 
legislation in this country, that the IT.?.. A. wiUh its provisions for 
hearings can avoid the due process provisions of the Constitution of the 
United States. It is not impossible that a wage for the first class 
cutters in 'Jew York City of $50.60 per week for a five-day week of 35 
hours can, in the end, run the gamut of the court processes. But it is 
not certain that they will be -enforced short of extended court pro- 
cedures unless there is developed in this field a strong union organiza- 
tion. 

It is a sad fact to those who advocate classified' wages , accommo- 
dating those^ who have the highest degress of skill, that the Crovernment 
is less powerful than a, well-established trade union. In other words, 
it cannot "pull a shop." 

This point of view simply recognizes, whatever may be the wishes of 
particular groups, that we are still operating a capitalistic societ3^ 
and the N.K.A. musb operate within the limits of what is a capitalistic 
society. It would seem doubtful if much more can be done for the time 
for the Fur Industry than to set bottoms and those bot corns must be 
arrived at carefully through a consideration of how high those bottoms 
can be set and still be achieved. 



1/ A letter was sent to both organizations asking each for any evi- 
dence they wished to submj t in sixp^ort of their respective claims. 
The President of the Fur '."'orkers International Union stated that 
he would recommend a thorough investi Ration inside the union; he 
- would open all the union books co the Commission, let them look over 
dues, collections, unemployment insurance, collection, contracts with 
employers, etc. He suggested that the rignt wing union send along 
a representative to point out anything suspicious or misleading, 
providing that the left wing union was allowed to do the same thing 
when the books of the right wing were examined. He -suggested that 
their claims could be verified by going to the shops, seeing the 
shop chairman, etc. The President of the International Fur Workers 
Union declined to give any information except to reassert the claim 
made in the hearings that he represented 5,000 workers. He desired 
to know whether the letter which was sent ^oy the present writer 
represented his own actions as an individual -Derson or the Commission 
as a Yidiole. Secondly, the International Fur Workers Union wanted to 
know for what the information would be used. They claimed that the 
investigation into unions was oiitside the proper suhere of the Fur 
Commission. It is only fair to say that they did not definitely 
refuse an investigation but apparently wanted assurance with respect 
to their two questions before they decided. 



1351-C 



-17- 



In the absence of a strong' established and recognized unionism, 
one must recognize that standards and enforcement will he separated to 
the e::tent that scales deviate from going wages. If the difference be- 
tween the going wages and the schedules is great enough, .the man who 
defies the H.R.A. win social approval, and oy dc3re.es it is first 
opposed, then, second completely ignored. The Code provisions is re- 
gard to wages and hours constitute just so much description upon, sheets 
of paper. 

To those who reply that this description is the counsel of defeat, 
the reply is that minimum wage for Industry should he written as high 
above going wages as the N.H.A. can enforce. The U.S.A. should seek all 
that is possible at the present moment of time and moves forward as the 
situation justifies it, to ask for more next year and even more in the 
years to follow. This process is one of ascending, step by step, rather 
than throwing out the sandbags and mounting into' the stratosphere. 



1351-C 



SUGGESTED PRO GUAM 



If the N.R.A. desires to do some tiling along these lines for labor 
in the Fur Industry, the situation presents these alternatives: 

1. Reduce the labor provisions of the codes to 
the maximum that is administratively pos- 
sible to achieve. 

2. See that labor in this Industry is given all 
the opportunity to organize and bargain that 
is provided in Section 7 (a) and (b) of the 
National Industrial Recovery Act* 

3» Openly declare that wages above the union set 
are to be worked out by collective bargaining. 

4. Recognize the right of labor to be represented 
on any code authority in this Industry. 

Public opinion, and by public opinion is meant those attitudes which 
are commonly reflected in the newspapers, magazines, and radio speeches, 
can be depended upon to support a minimum wage. It will not support a 
trade union contract, trade union relations, etc. If these are to be 
supported they will be supported by the strength of trade unionism* 

The experience of other countries does not constitute, of course, 
the final word in guiding us in our policy in the United States. But 
perhaps it is not unreasonable to point out here that in neither New 
Zealand, Germany or Sweden, or in any other industrial country, have 
steps been taken to establish classified wages. In these cases, the 
Government functioned in building up a procedure whereby unions could 
be organized and whereby unions and employers could get together and 
work out an agreement which was recognized by the Government and became 
legally binding upon the parties thereto. But the State did not primar- 
ily write the agreement, regardless of the parties. First, there was 
a union. 

Unfortunately, in this country, despite the growing collective 
nature of business activities, it still remains true in many industries 
that there is not first of all a union of any great importance or any 
considerable power and prestige among the workers attached to the Indus- 
try. In the Fur Industry, we find two unions. Outside of New York 
uiv -nrism is sporadic and in most areas non-existent. 

The union scale in many cases has little meaning. Union officials, 
to get collective contracts,' in some cases have made secret concessions. 
Employers have signed agreements that they knew would not be insisted 
upon in matters of detail. Contracting to avoid union scales is rampant. 
Individual agreements by workers to work at less than the scale by the 
week, and also to accept less than time and one-half for overtime, is 
admitted to exist. The typical business unit employs two to four work- 
ers and both the death and birth rates of business enterprises are ex- 
ceedingly high. Shops can fold up or open up over night. Workers dis- 

1351-C 



-L Zi 

charged and even while working, solicit personal work to be done by them- 
selves outside of regular work hours* 

Adddto this picture of the so-called unionized part of the Industry, 
the vest hinterland where organisation is practically non-existent, and 
add to this the fact that for the first time an attempt is being made to 
control wholesale manufacturing but the c as ton house, the department 
store (alread- under a code) and the specialty shop. These character- 
istics must be calculated in accepting a complicated series of classified 
wage schedules for these industries which, although they are related in- 
sofar as they deal with furs, have also wide dissimilarities in produc- 
tion methods and personnel problems. Particularly, despite the problems 
that might be raised there is much merit in the contention of the depart- 
ment stores that they continue in all areas under the Retail Code. Also, 
the custom can argue for the same treatment. Undoubtedly, to grant such 
requests means that certain problems will continue to exist but it is 
also true that in putting them under terms similar to that applying to 
wholesale manufacturing certain problems will be raised. 

In any case it would seem an act of wisdom to attempt to establish 
only such rules as represent not wishful thinking, but mandates to which 
the" U.S.A. intends, and has the power to compel obedience. 

Standards and enforcements are inseparable problems. 



CONCLUSIONS 

The writer of this report agrees that if it is the policy of the 
N.R.A. to adopt classified wage schedules for this Industry the scales 
set up constitute a thoughtful attempt to meet the problems which pre- 
sent themselves in related industries of manufacturing, custom building 
and the retailing of furs. They attempt to deal with the obvious short- 
comings of the existing codal rates of the wholesale manufacturing in- 
dustry. They suggest a classification of workers and of areas which 
attempt to take into account the peculiarities of custom building, re- 
pairing, and remodeling activities of the custom houses, the specialty 
shops and the department stores as completely as they can be accommodated 
by a scheme of classification which groups these industries as one. 

however, for the reasons set forth above, the writer doubts the 
wisdom of attempting to apply classified wage schedules in the Sur In- 
dustry. 



1351-C 



APPE II DICES 



1351-D 



-1- . 
■Ap paroix.i ■ 

Fin .MAiiUFACTtnaX 

Order 

CODE OF FAIR COMPE TI TIOiI FOP, IftlE FUR MAlIUFACTJRIIICr INDUSTRY 

Appointing Special Commission as provided in Section 7 of Article 
IV, and otherwise, of said Code of Fair Competition, and vesting said 
Commission with certain additional powers and duties. 

A Code of Fair Competition for the Fur Manufacturing Industry hav- 
ing been heretofore approved on- May IS, 19o4, and it "being provided in 
Section 7 of Article IV of said Code, in part, as follows: 

ii * & * the Administrator shall appoint a Special Commission which 
shall undertake a study and investigation of the various markets and 
areas of the Industry and shall, if necessary, conduct hearings in such 
various markets and areas for the purpose of determining the extent to 
which (the provisions of this Article, and in particular, the extent to) 
which the differentials herein established, tend to promote conditions 
of fair competition between the various markets and areas of the Indus- 
try. Said Special Commission on the basis of such study and investiga- 
tion shall have power to recommend to the Administrator any modification 
of the provisions of this Article which it may deem necessary to promote 
conditions of fair competition, including recommendations for the modi- 
fication of the definitions of the respective areas, recommendations 
for the creation of new arer.s, and recommendations for a modification, 
change, increase or decrease of the differentials between the respective 
areas. Said Special Commission shall report to the Administrator with 
its recommendations, as hereinabove set forth, on or before July 1, 
1934, and any and all of such recommendations upon approval of the Ad- 
ministrator shall become effective as part of this Code. 

"Said Special Commission shall also have such other and further 
duties and be vested with such other and further powers as the Adminis- 
trator may from time to time delegate to it, and any such further recom- 
mendations, upon the approval of the Administrator, shall also become 
effective as part of this Code." And 

Administrative Order No. 436-3, dated July 3, 1934, having extended 
the date on which said Special Commission may report with its recommen- 
dations from July 1, 1934, to September 1, 1934; and 

It appearing that said Special Comrdssion, in addition to the 
powers and duties specifically conferred upon it by said Section 7 of 
Article IV and by the other provisions of said Code of Fair Competition 
may also be convenient^/ vested with the power and duty of investigating 
the labor conditions in the related industry engaged in the manufacture 
of fur articles on a custom basis and in the repairing and remodeling 
of fur articles directly to the consumer; 



1351-D 



-2- 

HOW, THEREFORE, pursuant to authority vested in me "by Executive 
Orders of the President, and by the Code of Pail' Comoetition for the 
Fur Manufacturing Industry, I, Hugh S. Johnson, -Administrator for Indus- 
trial Recovery, do hereby appoint as members of Said Special Commission 
the following persons: 

Dr. Paul Abel son, Chairman 
Dr. E. L. Frain 
Dr. Willard Atkins 

and 

ORDER that said Special Commission shall, in addition to its other 
powers and duties, be vested with the fttrther -tower and duty of inves- 
tigating the labor conditions in the related industry engaged in the 
manufacture of fur articles on a custom basis and in the remodeling and 
repairing of fur articles directly to the consumer; and I do further 

ORDER that said Special Commission shall report to the Administra- 
tor with its recommendations on or before September 1, 1934.* 

The provisions of this Order may be modified or revoked at any time 
hereafter. 



Hugh S . Johnson 

Administrator for Industrial Recovery 



Approval Recommended: 
William P. Farnsworth 
Acting Division Administrator 



August 7, 1934 



* This date has been extended. 



1351-D 



«. 1 fc 



S3CTI01I_A 

s^is^^J^^ 1 -^ 
I. siZE_giim-^^ 



t to approximately 10,000 indi- 

U». ** e ^Sf iSSJHnd interested P*f/f '^ and speci- 

but after consulting iniora llisluneil ts and ox d eparo , the flhole- 

sentatives of custom-retail es^aox ^^ compiled V 

aSy stores, it was decided ^ t It was deemed pro^le^ 
fa/e Par Manufac^ring o^t.orx ^ ^ ^ «*^ , 

the original compiling o x to be do ing, ^.^ * d inc iude names of 

establishments ^^^iSicated that the £f f Vetail estaolish- 
plies to the qaesti onnaire s isbments out strictly 

not only fur manufacturing 

ments also. Yorlc ci ty sep- 

m v. t .hows for most of the States, ana xor ^ returned 

Table I shows lor tionnaires mailed, ^ whe ther in 

arately, the number ox (1) ge (4) usatle .. replies w nded 

unclaimed, ( 3) unusaM e * ^pi i > ^ country « a wt^^ 

w hole or in part It is ^? onnai re than did , ew York Ci^^ aside 
relatively Detter to the qu evident that tne Des 

r^^O^-from California. ^ 

2,145 craft workers. Bie ^f*'^ of the former and 1,015 o± 
d l vide between ^S«S^» °* male wooers was -ch^ rger^ ^ 

latter. ^ 7eve ; ^e rest of the country. Outside the city. 

York City than in the re, 4Q per ce , lt ou tsiae 

per cent were male as agam^ ^ 

,.a & e~ »■"& qR q,.-^ £ tne Ojj-i'j n „nivds ot nouiij 

volume * ***»». *»' of ^nem were usaole i»J^ e *£f finings. Tahle 
tion relating to 1,933 o ^ of full-time w el ly a> ^ y 

earnings and 1,953 in * tPgs f firms and ol cr<* 

II gives the ^^Xcftyrc -red hy usaole replies. 

States and in New York City, ^ ^^ 

TMs is showajy Tahle III.J^ ^^ cent nailers, ^ 

per cent, oper ator-j^ ^ d „ er ,i W or*e rs« are ^ fy clasS 

^giirar^erar; aS-lly finishers. 



■^ 71R1-S 



~ 2 - 



More of the workers covered "by the replies are outside New York 
City than are inside. About two-thirds are outside the City. Within 
the individual crafts the proportions vary, hut only in operating and 
nailing is the proportion of workers greater in New York City than out- 
side. This is shown by Table IV. 



1351-E 



-or 



TABLE t 



- ...BEE OE QUESTIONNAIRES MAILED, UNCLAIMED RETURNS 
UNUSABLE 1/ Aim USABLE HEPLIES 2/ 





T/uestion- 


& 


Lestion- 


Unusable 


U suatle 




L re s 


ii' 


lires 


Replies 


Repli es 




Mailed 


?.- 


j turned 










Unclaimed 






New York City 


4,498 




136 


35 


142 


Pennsylvania 


625 




32 


69 


28 


Illinois 


615 




23 


43 


16 


California 


453 




12 


38 


60 


IT.Y. (excl. N.Y.C.) 


320 




17 


43 


21 


Ohio 


292 




12 


54 


17 


Massachusetts 


233 




11 


19 


20 


Michigan 


255 




15 


26 


7 


New Jersey 


201 




21 


9 


11 


ffi sconsin 


186 




4 


23 


19 


Texas 


165 




2 


26 


2 


Connecticut 


147 




4 


12 


5 


Missouri 


140 




14 


22 


3 


Mi nne so ta 


108 




3 


15 


13 


Maryland 


84 




2 


13 


8 


Washington 


75 




2 


14 


7 


Colorado 


54 




3 


8 


4 


Iowa 


. 52 • 




3 


4 


6 


Nebraska 


44 




2 


9 


3 


Other States: 












(4) 75 - 100 












(10) 50 ~ 74 












(15) 25 - 49 












( 2) 24 or less 












Total 


1,258 




TO 


204 


18 


TOTAL 


9,861 




400 


735 


410 



1/ Among unusable questionnaires were those in which it was claimed 
no Eur Manufacturing was done . 

2/ Usable, in whole or in part. 



135L-E 



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- 5 - 

TABLE III 

NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF CRAFT 
70EKERS COVERED 3Y QDSSTIONNAIEE REPLIES 



Craft Number 



Cut tor 355 

Operator 42^6 

Nailer 198 

Finisher 355 

General 159 



Percentage 


18. 


,4 


21. 


.5 


10. 


,0 


43. 


.1 


7, 


,0 



Total 1,933 100.0 



TABLE IV 

NUMBER All PERCENTAGE OE WORKERS 

COVERED BE QUESTIONNAIRE REPLIES III AND 

OUTSIEE NEW YORE CITY, BY CRAFTS 



Crafts 



Cutter 

Operator 
Nailer 
Finisher 
General 



Total 





l~x niber 






Percentage 




New York 


Outside 




New York 


Outside 




City 


New York 


To tal 


City 




New York 


Total 




City 








Ci i'/ 




122 


243 


365 


33.4 




66.6 


100.0 


238 


188 


426 


55.3 




44.1 


100.0 


112 


85 


198 


56.6 




43.4 


100.0 


199 


S5J: 


855 


23.3 




76.7 


100.00 


r\rr 
</0 


116 


139 


16.5 




83.5 


100.0 


694 


1,289 


1,983 


35.0 




65.0 


100.0 



1351-B 



-6- 



II. STAGES 

Many or few generalizations may "be drawn from the wage data, de- 
pending upon the extent to which the material is deemed representative. 
For the present purpose it is sufficient to draw attention to a few major 
points. 

First, hourly earnings in this Industry are higher on the basis of 
the Commission, than of the Census, data. 

Second, hourly and weekly earnings during the season are consider- 
ably lower outside Hew York City than in Hew York City. 

Third, cutters tend to be the highest and finishers the lowest 
paid, with operators tending to fall next to cutters, and nailers just 
above or on a par with finishers. 

Fourth, a minimum rate of 40 cents an hour, as provided in many 
codes, would raise apparently between 10 per cent and 20 per cent of the 
workers outside Hew York City, and less than 10 per cent in Hew York City, 
although as between crafts the proportions vary. 

Hourly earnings for craft working during the week of September 24- 
29, 1934 averaged 87 cents with 50 per cent of the workers getting 80 
cents or less. On the basis of the Census data for a representative week 
in October, 1929, 1932 and 1933, the average hourly earnings were 69 cents, 
49 cents, and 54 cents, respectively. 

Weekly earnings on a full-time basis in September, 1934, averages 

$32.56 with 50 per cent of the workers getting $31.78 or less. Census 

averages for the years 1929, 1932 and 1933 were $32.60, $23.23, and 

$22.95, respectively. These and similar figures for individual crafts 
are given in Table V. 

Hot only are the average earnings higher but the general level of 
hourly earnings -is higher, on the basis of the Commission's data than is 
shown by the Census data for a representative week in October, 1932. The 
basis for this generalization is given in Table VI, and Chart I, by a cum- 
ulative percentage distribution of hourly earnings on a "less than" basis. 

A further analysis of Census Data, as shown by Tables VIII-A and 
VTII-T3 indicates that the general level of earnings in the retail branch 
of the industry is lower than in the wholesale. 

At least three differences may be noted in the circumstances sur- 
rounding the collection of these two sets of data. While the Commission's 
data cover a specific week in September, 1934, the Census data cover a 
representative week in three of the four immediately preceding years — 
1929, 1932 and 1933. Second, the Census years are pre-code years; Third, 
while both sets of data, cover retail or custom and wholesale establish- 
ments, the Census data are influenced more by retail establishments than 
are the Commission's data. With a total of 183 establishments and 1,005 
workers, 150 establishments and 792 workers are classed under the Retail 
Trade as shown by Table VII. 



1351-E 



-6-1- 



WLE V 
WtMlfcW OF CENTRAL TtNOtNCf AMD D\5Pt^5\ON 

AVERAGE HOURLY AND FULL-TWE WEEKLY EMMNG5 \N NM) OUT51DE NEW YORK 
C\TY SY CEAFT5 A!) 5UOVN W REPL\E!> 10 COMMl^OK-5 QUjgT\OHNA\RL 
AND F0£ AVERAGE HOURLY AND ACTUAL \JEEKLX E^N\UGS OF ALL 
FUR FACTORY \JORKER.b AS SHOUN BN CENSU5 DATA 




Questionnaire, Replies 01 






Census 




Cutler* 


Operators 


Nosers 


Finishers 


General 


Combined 


AW fur FacAoru 
Workers 




taw 


Out 


New 
Yo.k 


Out 


■taw 

y»<* 


Out 
•side 


New 


Out 
s.Je 


fit* 

Y.«v> 

l_.»- 


Out 


We w 
Yo'K 


Oott>>< 


Total 


iqss 


Wit 


«M 


Number o$ 


112. 


MJ 


238 


tee 


M2 


84 


t<J<J 


456 


« 


\I6 


694 


U89 


1383 


no 


lOi 


918 






Averaqe Hour\u Earnings tin eeMa) 


Averoae ^ 3 ^ 
(Arithmetic") 


154 


104 


1*4 


M 


lift 


46 


lit 


55 


lOS 


45 


1 23 


48 


8T* 


54 


4* 


41 


nedtan 


145 


l»4 


\10 


42, 


114 


bX 


no 


50 


114 


49 


1X0 


sr 


80 


- 


- 


— 


(5) 

Mode 


»45 


109 


129 


65 


IIJS 


65 


115 


45 


125 


35 


113 


45 


45-115 


- 


— 


— 


Roncje u) 
(Eot»r«) 


44-ne 


41-2 a 


69-200 


14-137 


86 1ft 


30 115 


34 200 


26-210 


41 115 


2S-2I0 


34-213 


29XI* 


X9-2I* 


— 


- 


- 


[Central SO 7.) 


1*0-1*5 


4o H' 


ie»-t45 


40-MO 


MJ-iM 


40-5* 


88 i27 


3T-T5 


80-130 


31 WO 


I00-JS4. 


St-JOS 


40- Kl 


- 


- 


— 






Av 


eraqe 


V/eeUu, Eaminajs (>n dc 
u\l Time- 


hilars) 




F 




Actual Time 


Averaqe {,i 
(Arithmetic) 























43.70 


2S.85 


32.96 


22.93 


23.25 


3244 


Median 




















42.28 


25 33 


31. T8 


— 


— 


— 


13 ) 

hodt 






















42.50 


11.50 


•n4 


— 


— 


— 


Ranqe <« 

(Ent.re) 






















i*.ee- 
1 ST. oo 


10-00- 
ltt-00 


ie.ee- 

1 IT 00 


- 


— 


— 


(Central 807.) 






















13.00- 

52.00 


14.00- 

4O-00 


I4.O0- 

Se.oo 


— 


— 


— 


(Foot no* 
1051-1 


es on $o\io*/mq oaqe) 

SpeooA Fur Comm'»»»on 
Oviston eft Research «4 rlonnina, 



- 7 u 

2AJBLE V (Continued) 
(Footnotes) . 



1. Establishments were requested to report wage data for week 
of September 24-29, 1934. 

2. Confidential Report of the Bureau of the Census and the 
national Recovery Administration: Far Manufacturing In- 
dustry, March 2, 1954. Data cover a representative week in 
October of 1929, 1952," and 1933. 

3. Averages of Census data computed from number of workers, 
total men-hours and total weekly earnings. 

Fur Commission's questionnaire requested that overtime 
hours and wages be reported separately. Omitting over- 
time, an average hourly earning or rate was computed for 
each worker. From a frequency distribution of these aver- 
ages, was computed the composite averages in this Table. 
Hence they are weighted averages of averages. Full-time 
weekly earnings for individual workers was obtained by 
multiplying the average hourly earnings by the regular time 
of the establishment. Outside New York City regular and 
actual time correspond quite closely, while in New York 
City there was considerable short time, probably accounted 
for in part by a minor Jewish holiday during the week 
covered. 

4. Median hourly and weekly earnings computed from original 
data in 1 cent and $5.00 intervals, respectively. 

5. Modal hourly and weekly earnings are mid-points of 10 cents 
and $5.00 intervals, respectively. 

6. Entire range of hourly and weekly earnings taken from origi- 
nal data with 1 cent and $1.00 intervals. 

7. Range for central 80 per cent cf cases taken from original 
data with 1 cent and $1.00 intervals. 



1351-E 



-8- 

There is a very pronounced and persistent tendency for earnings 
to be considerably lower outside New York City than in it. The average 
hourly earning in New York City, as shown by Table V, is $1.-23,- as again- 
st $.68 outside; the predominating earning in New York City of $1.15, as 
against $.45 outside, and 50 per cent of the workers in New York City re- 
ceive $1.20 or less while the same proportion outside receive $.57 or 
less. 

This tendency is further suggested by the Census data for 1929, 
1932 and 1933. Average hourly earnings based on these date have been 
computed and are shown in Table VIII. There it appears, for example, 
that in the Eastern States, which of course include New York City, the 
average hourly earnings of all factory workers in 1933 were $.78 and the 
next highest was $.63 in the Western States; Midwestern States averages 
$.54 and Southern States, $.47. 

With individual crafts the tendency continues as shown by Table V. 
For example, cutters in New York City had an average of $1.54 as against 
$1.04 outside; operators $1.24 as against $.63; nailers $1.18 and $.66; 
finishers $1.12 and $.55. 

It will also be noticed that in the four major crafts the average, 
median' and modal, fall within a range of from $.02 to $.10. Cutters in 
New York City have an average of $1.54, a median of $1.45 and a mode of 
$1.45 — the maximum difference being $.09, while outside New York City 
the respective figures are $1.04, $1,14 and $1.05 — a maximum difference 
of $.10. For operators in New York City the corresponding figures are 
$1.24, $1.20 and $1.20, while outside they are $.68, $.62 and $.65. For 
nailers, $1.15, $1.14 and $1.15 in New York City and $.66, $.62 and $.65 
outside. -For finishers, $1.12, $1.10 and $1.15 in New York City and 
$.55, $.50 and $.45 outside. 

In view of the pressure of time and the necessity for hand analy- 
sis of questionnaires it was deemed expedient to omit a similar analysis 
of weekly earnings. Moreover, the significance of full-time weekly earn- 
ings is rather doubtful unless full account can be taken of the differ- 
ences in regular or customary working time, and the total number of cases 
so available was too meager to give significant results. 

Not only do the several measures of -central tendency suggest sub- 
stantially different wage level in and ou.tside New York City, but an 
examination of the distribution of earnings confirms the observation. 

An analysis of the distribution of rates discloses first that the 
lowest and highest paid workers outside New York City get less than their 
corresponding groups in New York City. Outside rates go lower and do not 
rise as high as in New York City. Table V gives the entire rate of aver- 
age hourly earnings by crafts, and also the range for the central of 80 
per cent of the workers. If, for example, the lowest paid 10 per cent 
and the highest paid 10 per cent of the cutters are excluded, it appears 
that in New York City the central 80 per cent receive average hourly 
earnings running from $1.20 to $1.95 while outside the earnings run from 



1351-E 






-9- 



$.60 to $1.47. In New York City operators range from $1.00 to $1.43 and 
outside from $.40 to $1.00;- nailers from $1.13 to $1.34 in New York City 
and from $.40 to $.92 outside; finishers go from $.83 to $1.27 in New 
York City and from $.37 to $.75 outside. 

Furthermore, the entire level of hourly earnings is lower outside 
than in Hew York City. ; lhis is sho'vn by Charts il and III. Chart I gives 
the non-cumulative percentage distxitution and Chart II the cumulative 
percentage distribution, on a "less than" basis, of average hourly earn- 
ings by crafts and for the crafts combined. Tables IX-A, IX-B and IX-C 
give, in 10 cent intervals the number, no n- cumulative percentage and the 
cumulative percentage distribution respectively, of average hourly earn- 
ings while Tables X-A, X-B and X-C give similar information in 15 cent 
intervals. 

On the basis of Census data for the retail or custom wholesale 
branches of manufacturing, the general level is lower in the retail than 
in the wholesale branch. This is shown by Table XI, which gives the 
distribution of average hourly earnings in the retail branch by major 
sections of the country, and by cities in the wholesale branch. 

In forming codal provisions with respect to wages it is likely to 
be helpful to know the earnings of different proportions of the workers 
in a group. Table XII gives the decile distribution of average hourly 
earnings. According to this Table the lowest paid 10 per cent of the 
cutters in Hew York City received $1.14 or less; the lowest 20 per cent 
received $1.28 or less; the lowest 30 per cent received $1.43 or less, 
and so on. Outside Hew York City the lowest 10 per cent had averages 
of $.60 or less, the lowest 20 per cent had $.87 or less and the lowest 
30 per cent had $1.00 or less. 

Before passing to a consideration of weekly and yearly earnings 
a passing observation may be mode with respect to finishers. The gen- 
eral average for these workers was SG cents, with $1.12 in New York 
City and 55 cents outside. Further analysis indicates that female 
workers are relatively more numerous outside than in New York City and 
92 per cent outside. Table XIII shows the distinctly large difference 
in the wage level of these workers in and outside New York City. In 
the city the predominating hourly earning is $1.15 as compared with 
45 cents outside, or about 40 per cent less. Viewed a little different- 
ly, virtually all (99.5 per cent) of those outside received less than 
$1.00 an hour while only 40 per cent of those in the city received less 
than this. 

Kith weekly earnings the tendency is the same as with hourly 
earnings, despite variations in the hours worked per week. Table XIV 
shows that whereas 57 per cent of the workers outside New York City re- 
ceived less than $25.00, only 2 per cent in the city received less than 
this. Furthermore, while 95 per cent of those outside received less 
than $40.00 this was the case with only 55 per cent in the city. Chart 
IV shows this situation graphically by giving the cumulative percentage 
distributions of full-time weekly earnings. 



1351-E 



-10- 



The Commission made no attempt to collect information as to year- 
ly earnings. The only, available material appears to be that of the 
Census covering the retail and wholesale trade for the years from 1923 • 
to 1933» Averages have been computed from these data and are shown in 
Table XV. It appears that in retail establishments doing manufacturing 
work the yearly averages in 1533 run from $292 to $1,144 while in whole- 
sale establishments the earnings run from $277 to $2,102. Viewing 
these earnings for all the years there is a distinct tendency for the 
wholesale earnings to be higher than retail earnings. For example there 
is not a single instance of retail earnings averaging $2,000, while 
there are four such instances in the wholesale trade. 



1351-E 



- 11 - 

TABLE VI 

.„ «n vwdapt? -p-oirRT.Y Rk^ES FOE FACTORY 
DISTRIBUTION OF ™AG3 ROURL1 *U--£ 

rss£^»*^^^*%ir oou - 

UISSIOH DATA, 1BSE C7 SEPMSB 24.-29, W^- 















PER CEET 










NUMBER 














"^or— Cor.tu.lo. 


uiVG 


Cumulat 


Lve 
















(less 


than Taasisj 




Census ' 


Commission 


Census Commission 


Census 


Cor. 


mission 


Under 20<* 




47 


- 


4.7 


- 


4.7 




•Ml 


20-29.9 




101 


14 


10.0 


.7 


14.7 




.7 


30-39.9 




164 


131 


16.3 


6.6 


31.0 




7.3 


40-49.9 




153 


292 


15.2 


14.7 


46.2 




22.0 


50-59.9 




118 


222 


11.7 


11.2 


57.9 




33.2 


60-69.9 




53 


169 


5.3 


8.5 


63.2 




41.7 


70-79.9 




57 


165 


5.7 


8.3 


68.9 




50.0 


80-89.9 




40 


100 


4.0 


5.0 


72.9 




55.0 


90-99.9 




59 


51 


5.9 




78.3 




57.6 


100 and over 


213 


839 


21.2 


42.4 


100.0 




100. c 


TOTAL 




1005 


1,933 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 




100.0 



Source: Confidential Report for tho 
Bureau of the Census and the National 
Recovery Administration, March 2, 19,54. 






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- 13 - 

TABLE VIII 

AVERAGE HOURLY ALL WEEKLY SARl r IUGS FOR MALE, FEMALE 
4HD TO^AL FACTORY WORKERS U RETAIL FOR TRADE 3Y MA- 
JOR SECTIONS OF TILJ COLUTRY, 1929, 1932, « and 1533. 





Ho . of 
Estab 






— 







Avera£< 


i Hour] 


y_ Earnings 
1 

tal M 
.74 .97 


I' 1 


3 3 

Tc 

.63 




States 


1 

M 


9 


2 9 

To 


tal 


1 

M 


9 3 2 




F Tc 


tal 


Eastern 


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$ 


1.20 


.73 


.94 


.93 


.58 


.78 


Mid-West 


57 




.91 




.59 


.73 


.64 


.39 


.50 


.71 




.43 


.54 


Western 


15 




.52 




.73 


.70 


.50 


.60 


.60 


.67 




.bij 


.63 


Southern 


11 




.76 




.33 


.45 


.52 


.25 


.33 


.69 




.3b 


.47 


Combined 


136 




.93 




.62 


.77 


.72 


.45 


.56 


.SO 




.49 


.ol 



Average Weekly Earnings 



Eastern 53 

Mid-West 57 

Western 15 

Southern 11 

Combined 136 



$53.45 31.19 41.11 39.77 25.25 31.83 36.74 23.46 29.56 

46.28 25.93 33.82 30.89 18.53 23.59 30.77 18.23 22.92 

29.09 33.11 32.05 26.00 27.85 27.43 26.54 25.16 25.47 

41.65 17.67 24.27 27.18 12.90 17.09 25.59 15.51 18.76 

47.70 27.62 35.41 33.64 20.83 25.95 32.63 20.11 24.92 



Huraber of Workers 



Eastern 


53 


134 


167 


301 


101 


j — -^ 


223 


113 


133 


245 


Mid-West 


57 


183 


289 


472 


152 


219 


371 


153 


255 


409 


Western 


15 


22 


61 


83 


12 


41 


53 


13 


44 


57 


Southern 


11 


17 


45 


52 


17 


41 


53 


17 


41 


53 


Combined 


135 


355 


552 


918 


282 


423 


705 


295 


474 


770 



1351-E 



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• - 20 - • • 

TABLE XI-A 

DISTRIBUTION OF AVERAGE HOURLY RATES EOR FACTORY WORKERS IN 
THE .RETAIL AND WHOLESALE EUR TRADE BY SPECIE IED STATES 
CITIES FOR A REPRESENTATIVE WEEK IN OCTOBER, 1932. 







NUMBER OE 


FACTORY WORKERS 












RETAIL TRADE 




WHOLESALE 


TRADE 




Average 
Hourly 
Rate 
(in cents) 














co 






a 

. CD- 
-p 
co 


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co 
CD 

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I.Iinneapoli 
St . Paul 


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to 

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Under 20(* 


- 


13 


21 


13 


47 










20-29.9 


16 


57 


5 


18 


96 






5 


: 5 


30-39.9 


40 


91- 


-11 


21 


163 




1 


- 


1 


40-49.9 


49 


79 


14 


2 


144 




8 


1 


9 


50-59.9 


24 


69 


8 


2 


103 


2 


7 


6 


15 


60-69.9 


16 


25 


4 


-' 


45 


- 


1 


7 


8 


70-79.9 


16 


24 


1 


4 


45 


9 


3 


- 


L2 


80-89.9 


14 


13 


2 


2 


31 


9 


- 


- 


9 


90-99.9 


24 


10 


- 


1 


35 


24 


- 


- 


24 


100 and over ' 


•52 


•26 ■ 


■ '3 • 


2 


• 83 


130 


- 


- 


130 


TOTAL 


251 


407 


69 


65 


792 


174 


20 


19 


213 


No. of 




















Establish- , 


62 


67 


13 


13 


160 


16 


3 


4 


23 


ments 





















Source: Confidential Report for 
the Bureau of the Census and the 
National Recovery Administration, 
March 2, 1934. 



1351-E 



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-22- 
TABLE XII 



PERCENTAGE OF CRAFT T "'0RKSRS RECEIVING SPECIFIED 
AVERAGE HOURLY RATES OR LESS. 



per Cent Cutter Operator Mailer Finisher General Total 
Of Total 

Workers. NYC Oat- NYC Out- FTC Out- NYC Out- NYC Out- NYC Out- 
side side side side side side 

Lor/cst 10$ ,A,14 .60 1.00 .40 1.00 .40 .87 .37 .43 .30 1.00 .37 

11 20$ 1.28 .07 1.06 .43 1.03 .47 1.00 .40 .86 .35 1.06 .42 

" 30$ 1.43 1.00 1.14 .53 1.14 .55 1.05 .45 .69 .37 1.10 .46 

40$ 1.43 1.05 1.19 .60 1.14 .57 1.10 .46 1.00 .41 1.14 .51 

50$ 1.45 1.14 1.20 .62 1.14 .62 1.10 .50 1.14 .49 1.20 .57 

60$ 1.51 1.28 1.20 .67 1.14 .67 1.10 .53 1.25 .57 1.20 .65 

70$ 1.57 1.43 1.28 .75 1.20 .71 1.14 .60 1.26 .67 1.28 .75 

80$ 1.71 1.49 1.34 .32 1.28 ..79 1.20 .67 1.2C .87 1.43 .87 

90$ 1.85 1.62 1.43 1.00 1.34 .03 1.27 .75 1.28 1.00 1.56 1.04 



Total No. 

of workers 122 243 233 188 112 86 190 656 23 116 694 1289 



1351-E 



-23- 

IABLE XIII 
DISTRIBUTION OF AVERAGE HOURLY RATES FOR 
FEMALE FINISHERS IN AND OUTSIDE FEW YORK CITY, 
SEFT1.13ZR ::•:-:. :9, 1934. 











^Percentages 




Average 
Hourly 
Rate 


N.Y. 
City 


Number 

- Out- 
side 


Hon— Oumul atiye 
* - 

N.Y. Out- 
City side 


Cumulative 

(less than! 


(in cents) 


N.Y. 
City 


Out- 
Side 


Under 20^ 




2 




• 3 




.3 


20-29.9 




17 


■•j 


2,8 




3,1 


30-39 , 9 


1 


35 


1.1 


14.2 


1.1 


17.3 


40-49.9 




169 




t:8 ,2 


1.1 


45.5 


50-59,9 


1 


139 


1*1 


23.2 


2,2 


68.7 


60-69.9 


1 


78 


1.1 


13.0 


3.3 


81.7 


70-79.9 


3 


77 


3.2 


12.8 


6.5 


94,5 


80-89.9 


13 


24 


13.6 


4.0 


83,1 


99.5 


90-99.9 


4 


4 


4.2 


.7 


24.3 


99.2 


100-109.9 


15 


5 


15.7 


.8 


40.0 


100.0 


110-119.9 


45 




45.2 




85.2 




120-129.9 


12 




13.6 




97.8 




130 and over 2 




2.2 




100.0 




TOTAL 


95 


600 


100.0 


loo.o 







1351-8 



- 24 - 

TABLE XIV 

DISTRIBUTION OP FULL TIME WEEKLY WAGES FOR CRAFT WORKERS III 
FUR MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY, SEPTEMBER 24-29, 1934. 



Weekly 

Wage s 

(in dollars) 



$10.00-14.99 
15.00-19.99 
20.00-24.99 
25.00-29.99 
30.00-34.99 
35.00-39.99 
40.00-44.99 
45.00-49.99 
50.00-54.99 
55.00-59.99 
60.00-64.99 
65.00-69.99 
70.00-74.99 
75.00 and over 

TOTAL 



NUMBER 



PERCENTAGE 

Cumulative 



1 Jo n- Cumula t i ve 



(less than basis) 



New 

York 

City 

9 

4 

2 

. 15 

, 53 

.172 

208 

102 

. 94 

32 

. 13 

5 

9 

9 



Out- To- New Cut- To- New Out- To- 

side ts.1 York side tal York side tal 

NYC City NYC City NYC. 



112 121 1.24 9.29 6.26 1.24 9.29 6.26 

331 335 .55 27.44 17.33 1.79 35.73 23.59 

240 242 .28 19.90 12.52 2.07 56.63 36.11 

191 .203 2.06 15.84 10.56 4.13 72.47 46.77 

121 174 7.29 10.03 9.00 11.42 82.50 55.77 

81 253 23.65 6.72 13.08 35.07 89.22 68.85 

64 272 28.51 5.31 14.07 63.68 94.53 82.92 

18 120 14.03 1.49 6.21 77.71 96.02 89.13 

21 115 12.93 1.74 5.95 90.54 97.76 95.08 

14 .46 4.40 1.16 2.38 95.04 98.92 97.46 

2 15 1.79 .17 .78 96.83 99.09 98.24 
8 13 .69 .66 .67 97.52 99.75 98.91 

3 12 1.24 .25 .62 98.76 100.00 99.53 

9 1.24 — .47 100.00 100.00 



727 1205 1933 100.0 100.0 100.0 



1351-E 






TABLE XV 

AVERAGE YEARLY 1/ EARNINGS FOR FACTORY 

WORKERS IN WHOLESALE AND RETAIL ESTABLISHMENTS, 

BY STATES OR CITIES, 1929-1933 INCLUSIVE 



States 


Number 


Number 












of 


of 


Retail Fur 


Trade 




or 


Identical 
Establish- 


Factory 
Wo rker s 










Cities 


ments 


2/ 


1929 1930 


1931 


1932 


1933 


(States) 


1 


1 


$ 720 


548 


416 


292 


Eastern 


2 


3-6 • 




375 


547 


567 




9 


18-31 






1,077 


1,192 


Mid- 


1 


3-10 


1,879 


1,159 


900 


1,043 


Western 


5 


10-15 




1,130 


1,185 


935 




7 


17-41 






1,191 


1,123 


Western 


1 


2-12 


519 


1,417 


1,386 


976 




1 


1-14 




341 


319 


319 




1 


1-2 






1,111 


1,144 


Southern 


1 


2-6 


1,245 


1,549 


1,196 


964 






Wholesale Fur Trade 








New York 


7 


56-165 


1,623 1,267 


1,055 


1,500 


1,553 




1 


5-20 


2,109 


2,280 




1,588 




6 


27-51 






2,228 


2,102 




6 


14-64 








1,472 


Minneapolis 












St. Paul 


1 
1 


4 
14 






971 


880 
896 



Mi scellaneous 3 



9-15 



255 



232 



230 



328 



277 



1/ Yearly Earnings based on "Total wages paid" and "Average number «f 
Factjry wage earners." For 1929, 1930 and 1931 the dates are given 
on yearly basis; for 1932 and 1933 on quarterly basis. In the lat- 
ter years the average yearly earnings are a total of the weighted 
quarterly earnings. 

2/ Number of factory workers is the lowest and highest average number 
given yearly in 1929, 1930 and 1931 for identical establishments; 
while in 1932 and 1933 it is the lowest and highest quarterly aver- 
age during the period 1932-33. 

SOURCE: Computed from "Confidential Report for the Bureau of the Census 
and the N.R.A.; Ear Manufacturing Industry; 11 March 2, 1934. 



1351-S 



-sa- 
in HOURS 



In H.Y.C. 35 hours is the -predominating work week, as reported 
to the commission, and it is also found in some establishments, es- 
pecially wholesale, outside the city. For the most part establish- 
ments outside the city have a 40 hour week, with some 44 and in some 
cases more. 

From Table XVI it appears that about 95$ of the establishments 
in H.Y.C. have a 35 hour week as against 50% outside. A 40 hour week 
was reported by only 5$ of the H.Y.C. establishments as cormared with 
$ of those outside. 



Viewed from the standpoint of workers, rather than establishments, 
the actual time for 59$ of the I T .Y.C. workers and 39$ of those outside 
was 35 hours, while only 3$ of those in H.Y.C. as compared with 42$ 
outside worked 40 hours. 

The prominence of short time in H.Y.C. may be accounted for, at 
least in part, by minor holidays. The survey was postponed several 
weeks to avoid major Jewish Holidays and it would have been extended 
several more weeks if all such holidays were to be avoided. 

Census data, as shown in Table XVII shows a persistent tendency 
for average hours to be lower in the Eastern states than in the other ( 
groups of states. Thus in 1933 Eastern states averaged 37.7 hours as 
against 42.7, 40.2 and 40.3 for Mid-western, Western and Southern states 
respectively. 

From this table it also appears that a reduction in hours occurred 
between 1932 and 1933. As between 1929 and 1932 hours remained sub- 
stantially the same, but for the industry as a whole the average fell 
from 46 in 1929 and 1932 to about 41 in 1933. ■ 



1351-E 



-27- 



TABLE XVI 



DISTRUBUTION OF WORKING TIME PSR WEEK HI AND OUTSIDE NEW 
YORK CITY BY 1IUMEER OF ESTAHLISHMsHTS AND BY NUMBER OF GRAFT WORKERS 

SEPTEMBER 24-29, 1954. 





Pred 
of E 

Numb 

w 

rk 

ty 


jminating Time 
s t ab 1 i shm en t s__ 

er Perce 






Actual T 
Craft Wo 


.me oi 
rkers 




Hours 
per 


ai tape 


Numb 

New 

York 

City, 


er 


Out 
side 

NYC 

27 


Percent< 

New 

York 

..g.jty 

12.1 


2££ 


Week 

Ne 
Yo 
Ci 


Out New 
side York 
NYC City 


Out ' 

side 

NYC 


Out 
side 

_NYC 


Under 20 




. . 87 




1.9 


20-24,3 








29 




26 


4.0 


1.8 


25-29.9 








76 




13 


10.5 


1.3 


30-34,9 








74 




34 


10.3 


2.4 


35-35.9 


70 


51 94.6 


29.5 


426 




554 


59.2 


38.7 


36-37.9 




2 


1.1 






14 


j 


1.0 


38-39.9 








3 




5 


.4 


.3 


40-40.9 


4' 


"103 5.4 


i 59 . 6 


24 


- 


601 


3. '3 


41.9 


41-42.9 




4 


2.3 






38 




2.6 


43-44. 9 




11 


6,4 


' " • 1 




73 


.1 


5.1 


45-46.9 








i 




5 




.3 


47-48.9 




2 


1*1 ■ 






31 




2.2 


49-50-9 












3 




.2 


51 and over 




'• • 


■ . • 1 




4 


.1 


.3 


TOTAI 


74 


173 100.0 


100.0 


721 




1434 


100.0 


100.0 



1351 -E 



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-29- 



IV. SIZE OF ESTABLISHMENTS 



Viewed from the standpoint of the number of workers, the industry 
is predominately small scale both in and outside 1I.Y.C. Table -VIII 
indicates that for the industry as a whole 40> of the establishments 
have 5 or less workers and 70^ have 7 or less. Only about 3w °* «j£ 
establishments have 20 or more. These proportions tend to hold ooth in 
and outside H.T.O. The similarity between the size of establishments in 
and outside 1T.Y.C. is shown graphically in Chart V. 

The si^e of establishments as shown by Census data covering the 
retail trade is approximately that disclosed by the Conxion's inquiry. 
The Commission found the average size of establishments to *« 7.4 work 
ers as compared with 5.6 shown by the Census survey. Table ^ Sives 
the averages computed from Census data for major sections of the country 
in a representative week of October 1929, 1932 and 1933. 

This same tendency to smallness is shown by an analysis of the • 
dollar volume of for manufacturing, although here establishments outside 
ff.Y.C. show a tendency to be smaller than those reported in N.Y.C. The 
cumulative percentage distribution in Table XX shows that while 15-,o oi 
^establishments in 1T.Y.C. did less than $6,000 worth of manufacturing 
in 1933, this was the case with 30f, of those outside. In the city 23j 
did less than $10,000 as compared with 47?, of the establishment sous iae, 
as while half of those in the city did less than £30,000 about 82* of t 
those outside did less than this amount. 



1351-E 



- so - 

TABLE XVIII 

SIZE OP PUB MAiroiA-CiUEING ESTABLISHMENTS BY NUMBER 
OP CBAPT WOHEBBS 
September 24-29, 1934 





imber 




Nun 
Number 


iber and 


Percer 


itage of 


Establishments 




m 






Percents 


ige 






of 


Craft 










Non- 




Cumulative 


Wo i 


*ker s 


lew 


Out- 




Cumulative 




(Less Than) 




new 


Out- 




Hew 


Out- 








York 


side 


Total 


York 


side- 


To tal 


York 


side Total 






City 


NYC 




City 


NYC 




City 


NYC 




1 




8 


31 


39 


7.14 


17.22 


13.35 


7.1 


17.2 


13.4 


2 




13 


24 


40 


14.28 


13.33 


13.70 


21.4 


30.5 


27.1 


3 




23 


16 


39 


20; 54 


8.89 


13.35 


42.0 


39.4 


40.4 


4 




7 


17 


24 


6.25 


9.44 


3.22 


48.2 


48.9 


48.6 


5 




5 


9 


14 


4.46 


5.00 


4.79 


52.7 


53.9 


53.4 


6 




11 


16 


27 


9.82 


8.89 


9.25 


62.5 


62.8 


62.7 


7 




8 


12 


20 


7.14 


6.67 


6.85 


69.6 


59.4 


69.5 


8 




6 


2 


8 


5.36 


1.11 


2.74 


75.0 


70.6 


72.3 


y 




6 


5 


11 


5.36 


2.78 


3.77 


80.4 


73.3 


76.0 


10- 


-14 


14 


24 


33 


12 . 50 


13.33 


13.01 


92.9 


86.7 


89.1 


15- 


•19 


4 


12 


15 


3.57 


6.67 


5.43 


96.4 


03.3 


94.5 


20- 


■24 


2 


'5 


3 


1.79 


3.33 


2.74 


98.2 


96.7 


97,3 


25-49 


2 


3 


5 


1.79 


1.S7 


1.71 


100.0 


98.3 


99.0 


50- 


•74 


•— ■ 


2 




— 


1.11 


0.58 


mm 


99.4 


99.7 


75- 


•99 


— 


M 


w 


_ 


mm 


mm 


_ 


_ 


^» 



100 and over - 1 1-0.56 0.34 - 100.0 100.0 

Total 112 180 292 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 



1351-E 



-CI- 
TABLE XIX 

AVERAGE NUMBER OF MALE, FEMALE, AND TOTAL FACTORY WORKERS IN 
THE RETAIL FUR TRADE BY MAJOR SECTION OF TIE COUNTRY, 1929, 

1932 and 1933. 



AVERAGE NUMBER OF WORKERS 

Section No. of 

Estal). 1929 ' 1932 1933 

M^le_Female_ Total Male Female, Total, Male Female Total, 

Eastern 53 2,5 ' 3,2" \" '5,7 1,9' 2.3 4.2 2.1 2.5 4.6 

Mid-West 57 3.2 5.1 8.3 2.7 3.8 6.5 2.7 4.5 7.2 

Western 15 1.5 4.1 ' ' 5', 5' .'0.8' 2.7 ' 3.5 0.9 2.9 3.8 











NUMBER 0? 


WORKERS 










Section No. 


of 


















Estab* 




1929 




1932 






1933 








Male 


Female 


Total Male 


Female 
122 


Total 
223 


Male 
113 


Female 
133 


Total 


Eastern 53 




134 


167 


501 101 


246 


Mid- West 57 




183 


289 


472 152 


219 


371 


153 


256 


409 


Western 15 




22 


61 


83 12 


41 


53 


13 


44 


57 


Southern 11 




17 


45 


C2 17 


41 


58 


17 


41 


58 


TOTAL 136 




356 


562 


918 282 


423 


705 


296 


474 


770 



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~34~ 

SECTI01I B 
LIST OF PETITIONERS I0R EXEMPTION 



The Commission lias cons'icL'ered the petitions for exemptions sub- 
mitted "by the following firms,:-. . 

State 

California 



Uame of Firm 


City 
3evei v 


or Town 


L . S . Spiegel 


Ly Hills 


Blenner Siegel 


Los Angeles 


Gene Geft 




ii 


Ben Cohen 




ii 


T. V. Smith 




ii 


Herbert J. Stern 




it 


Karl Smahel 


■ 


n 


Walter Beake 




ii 


Martin Robert 




ii 


Frederick 1 s Fur Shop 




ii 


Leslie Soo's 




:i 


Stout & Dennis, Inc. 




n 


Frank Hoffmor Co. 




ii 


Rose Ann Sitkin 




it 


Max Kaufman 




it 


Pendl & Sons 




ii 


George M. pauli 




it 


Aldene E. Ethier 




ii 


Lillian Orr 




ii 


Harry Stenn 




ii 


Matyko ' s 




ii 


A. C. Fischer 




ii 


Ray A. Ramos 




n 


Oxford Furrier 




ii 


Willard E. George, Ltd. 




ii 


3. Gal. Retail Fur Merchants 






Association 




ii 


Simpson Furs 




n 


Bullwinkels 1 


Oakland 


F. IT. Harry 


Long 


Beach • 


J. L. Lockwood 


ii 


ii 


Mary R. Confar 


San Diego 


Joceph Hoonan 


ii 


ii 


C-r ■'.!' ' s Furs 


n 


ii 


M. Harris Corp. 


San 


Francisco 


Louis Gassner, Inc. 


ii 


n 


Parisian Fur Reblending 






and. Dyeing Company 


ii 


ii 


Beetz Bros, and Co., Inc. 


ii 


n 


(see also financial 






statement) 






San Francisco Retail Fur 






Merchants' Association 


n 


ii 



1351-E 



-55- 



Ilame of Firm 



City or Town 



Simpson Furs 


San 


Francisco 


J * Sal zman 


n 




A. H. Allgoewer 


ii 




Schneider Bros., Inc. 


ii 




William Pinker s 


ii 




Begun Purs 


ii 




Julius Garfinkel and Co. 


Wasl 


lington 


James A. Joseph 


Chicago 


Sioux City Fur and Trim- 






ming Co. 


Sioux City 


August Williges 


n 


it 


Pelletetiers' Fine Furs 


ii 


n 


The Dikel Par Co. 


ii 


n 


Rhomb erg Fur Co. 


Dubuque 


The Royal Furrier 


Watej 


."loo 


Charles Greehberg 


Cedaj 


• Rapids 


I.J. Fox 


Boston 


George Griffin & Son Co. 


ii 




Boston Fur Club 


n 




L. C. Pazolt Co. 


n 




Hall, Haddison & Levin 






Inc. 


n 




E. Sundlcvist & Co. 


St. Paul 


S. P. Glemaker, Inc. 


ii 


n 


B. T7. Harris Mfg. Co. 


n 


n 


(Zero King) 






H. Harris Co. 


!! 


ii 


E. Albrecht & Son 


il 


ii 


Gordin & Ferguson -Co. 


II 


- n 


Joseph Get zing Furs 


'1 


ii 


Gershow 


II 


1! 


Soroshow Furs, Tnc-. 


II 


II 


Tatkin Fur Co. 


II 


II 


A. M. Miller Co. 


II 


1! 


Hope Furs, Inc. 


II 


II 


E. Victor Ekholm 


II 


II 


Franckowrac Co. ■'•• - 


II. . 


II 


C. Forsman 1 s 


II 


II 


R. P. Who 


11 


II 


Harris Mfg. Co. 


It 


II 


Uational Furriers' Guild 






Inc. 


II 


II 


Harry Rosenberg 


Minneapolis 


Frank C. Janicke 


i 


1 



State 



District of Columbia 
Illinois 

Iowa 



Massachusetts 



Minnesota 



1351-E 



-35- 



Name of Firm 

Schwartz Bros. Mfg. Co. 

Independent Fur Co. 

Jans Fur Mfg. Co. 

D. L en she Mfg. Co. 

Powers Mercantile Co. 

Furriers' Mfg. Co., Inc. 

The Dayton Co. 

Brown Bros. , Inc. 

Hoy E. Bjorkman, Inc. 

Gould Furs 

Raleigh's Armand Gero Fur Co. 

Berglund Co. 

Geo. E. Young Co., Inc. 

The Loring Fur Co. 

Kersten Furs 

Conrad Fur Co., Inc. 

Master Furriers' Guild 

Newton Annis Furs - 



City or Town 

Minneapolis 
ii 

ii 

it 

it 

ii 

ii 

ii 

ii 

ii 

ii 

ii 

n 

ii 
Rochester 
T/ir.cna 
Duluth 

Detroit 



State 
Minnesota 



Aulahaugh Fur Co. Omaha 

Cadwallader Fur Mfg. Co. Lincoln 

Peter T. Travers, Inc. Omaha 

Henry E. Thompson Omaha 
Assoc, of Furriers of the 9th 

Federal Reserve District & the 

States of Iowa and Nebraska 

Belt Fur Co. Boundbrook 

Joseph Birhbaum Flemington 

Halpern & Friednan, attorneys Buffalo 
Buffalo Fur Merchants' Assoc, 

Inc. » 

Retail Furriers' in the City of 



Buffalo 

M. D. Spiegel Fur Corp. 
Retail Mfg. Furriers Assoc. 

State Fur Co. 

Wermuth Fur Co. 
Eilers' Furriers 

Joseph C. Bisha 

Artie Fur Co. 



315 7th Ave., IT. Y. C, 
IT. Y. 

Bi smarck 

Sioux Falls 

Huron 

La Crosse 
Tacoma 



Michigan 
Nebraska 



N. J. 



N. Y. 



(Nat'l Assoc.) 

N. D. 

S. D. 
n n 

Wi sc . 
Washington 



1551-E 



-57- 



ifome of Firm City or Town State 



Hudson Bay Far Co. Seattle Washington 

Baker Fur Co. " 

Arctic Far Co. " 

Wash. Retail Furriers' Assoc. " 

Spokane Fur Merchants 1 Assoc. Spokane 

lev ley Bros. " 



1351-E 



OFFICE OF THE NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION 
THE DIVISION OF REVIEW 

THE WORK OF THE DIVISION OF REVIEW 

Executive Order No. 7075, dated June 15, 1935, established the Division of Review of the 
national Recovery Administration. The pertinent part of the Executive Order reads thus: 

The Division of Review shall assemble, analyze, and report upon the statistical 
information and records of experience of the operations of the various trades and 
industries heretofore subject to codes of fair competition, shall study the ef- 
fects of such codes upon trade, industrial and labor conditions in general, and 
othe. - related matters, shall make available for the protection and promotion of 
the public interest an adequate review of the effects of the Administration of 
Title I of the National Ind- strial Recovery Act, and the principles and policies 
put into effect thereunder, and shall otherwise aid the President in carrying out 
his functions under the said Title. 

The study sections set up in the Division of Review covered these areas: industry 
studies, foreign trade studies, labor studies, trade practice studies, statistical studies, 
legal studies, administration studies, miscellaneous studies, and the writing of code his- 
tories. The materials which were produced by these sections are indicated below. 

Except for the Code Histories, all items mentioned below are scheduled to be in mimeo- 
graphed form by April 1, 1936. 

THE CODE HISTORIES 

The Code Histories are documented accounts of the formation and administration of the 
codes. They contain the definition of the industry and the principal products thereof: the 
classes of members in the industry; the history of code formation including an account of the 
sponso:ing organizations, the conferences, negotiations and hearings which were held, and 
the activities in connection with obtaining approval of the code; the history of the ad- 
ministration of the code, covering the organization and operation of the code authority, 
the difficulties encountered in administration, the extent of compliance or non-compliance, 
and the general success or lack of success of the code; and an analysis of the operation of 
code provisions dealing with wages, hours, trade practices, and other provisions. These 
and other matters are canvassed not only in terms of the materials to be found in the files, 
but also in terms f the experiences of the deputies and others concerned with code formation 
and administration. 

The Code Histories, (including histories of certain NRA units or agencies) are not 
mimeographed. They are to be turned over to the Department of Commerce in typewritten form. 
All told, approximately eight hundred and fifty (850) histories will be completed. This 
number includes all of the approved codes and some of the unapproved codes. (In Work Mate- 
rials No 18 . C ontents of Code H istories , will be found the outline which governed the 
preparation of Code Histories.) 

(In the case of all approved codes and also in the case of some codes not carried to 
final approval, there are in NRA files further materials on industries. Particularly worthy 
of mention are the Volumes I, II and III which c nstitute the material officially submitted 
to the President in support of the recommendation for approval of each code. These volumes 
9675—1 . 



- ii - 

set forth the origination of the code, the sponsoring group, the evidence advanced to sup- 
port the proposal, the report of the Division of Research and Planning on the industry, the 
recommendations of the various Advisory Boards, certain types of official correspondence, 
the transcript of the formal hearing, and other pertinent matter. There is also much offi- 
cial information relating to amendments, interpretations, exemptions, and other rulings. The 
materials mentioned in this paragraph were of course not a part of the work of the Division 
of Review. ) 

THE WORK MATERIALS SERIES 

In the work jf the Division of Review a considerable number of studies and compilation! 
of data (other than those noted below in the Evidence Studies Series and the Statistical 
Materials Series) have been made. These are listed below, grouped according to the char- 
acter of the material. (In lork M ateri als No_ U, Te ntative Outlines and , Summaries %£ 
S tudies in P rocess . these materials are fully described). 

Indust ry Studies 

Automobile Industry, An Economic Survey of 

Bituminous Coal Industry under Free Competition and Code Regulation, Economic Survey of 

Construction Industry and NRA Construction Codes, the 

Electrical Manufacturing Industry, The 

Fertilizer Industry, The 

Fishery Industry and the Fishery Codes 

Fishermen and Fishing Craft, Earnings of 

Foreign Trade under the National Industrial Recovery Act 

Part A - Competitive Position of the United States in International Trade 1927-29 through 

1934. 
Part B - Section 3 (e) of NIRA and its administration, 
part C - Imports and Importing under NRA Codes. 
Part D - Exports and Exporting under NRA Codes. 

Forest Products Industries, Foreign Trade Study of the 

Iron and Steel Industry, The 

Knitting Industries, The 

Leather and Shoe Industries, The 

Lumber and Timber Products Industry, Economic Problems of the 
Men's Clothing Industry, The 
Millinery Industry, The 
Motion Picture Industry, The 

Migration of Industry, The: The Shift of Twenty-Five Needle Trades From New York State, 
1926 to 1934 

National Income, A study of. 
Paper Industry, The 

Production, Prices, Employment and Payrolls in Industry, Agriculture and Railway Trans- 
portation, January 1923, to date 
Retail Trades Study, The 
Rubber Industry Study, The 
Statistical Background of NRA 

Textile Industry in the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, and Japan 
Textile Yarns and Fabrics 
Tobacco Industry, The 
Wholesale Trades Study, The 
9675. 



- iii - 

Women's Apparel Industry, Some Aspects of the 

Tra de P ractic e Studies 

Commodities, Information Concerning: A Study of NRA and Related Experiences in Control 
Distribution, Manufacturers' Control of: A Study of Trade Practice Provisions in Selected 

NRA Codes 
Design Piracy: The Problem and Its Treatment Under NRA Codes 
Electrical Mfg. Industry: Price Filing Study 
Fertilizer Industry: Price Filing Study 

Geographical Price Relations Under Codes of Fair Competition, Control of 
Minimum Price Regulation Under Codes of Fair Competition 
Multiple Basing Point System in the Lime Industry: Operation of the 
Price Control in the Coffee Industry 
Price Filing Under NRA Codes 

Production Control Under NRA Codes, Some Aspects of. 
Resale Price Maintenance Legislation in the United States 

Retail Price Cutting, Restriction of, with special Emphasis on The Drug Industry. 
Trade Practice Rules of The Federal Trade Commission (1914-1936): A classification foi 

comparison with Trade Practice Provisions of NRA Codes. 

Labor Studies 

Employment, Payrolls, Hours, and Wages in 115 Selected Code Industries 1933-1935 

Hours and Wages in American Industry 

Labor Program Under the National Industrial Recovery Act, The 

Part A. Introduction 

Part B. Control of Hours and Reemployment 

Part C. Control of Wages 

Part D. Control of Other Conditions of Employment 

Part E. Section 7(a) of the Recovery Act 
PRA Census of Employment, June, October, 1933 
Puerto Rico Needlework, Homeworkers Survey 

Administrativ e Studies 

Administrative and Legal Aspects of Stays, Exemptions and Exceptions, Code Amendments, Con- 
ditional Orders of Approval 

Administrative Interpretations of NRA Codes 

Administrative Law and Procedure under the NIRA 

Agreements Under Sections 4(a) and 7(b) of the NIRA 

Approved Codes in Industry Groups, Classification of 

Basic Code, the — (Administrative Order X-61) 

Code Authorities and Their Part in the Administration of the NIRA 
Part A. Introduction 

Part B. Nature, Composition and Organization of Code Authorities 
Part C. Activities of the Code Authorities 
Part D. Code Authority Finances 
Part C. Summary and Evaluation 

9675. 



- iv - 

Code Compliance Activities of the NRA 

Code Making Program of the NRA in the Territories, The 

Code Provi ions and Related Subjects, Policy Statements Concerning 

Content of N1RA Administrative Legislation 

Part A. Executive and Administrative Orders 

Part B. Labo • Provisions in the Codes 

Part C. Trade Practice Provisions in the Codes 

Part D. Administrative Provisions in the Codes 

Part E. Agreements under Sections 4(a) and 7(b) 

Part F. A Type Case: The Cotton Textile Code 
Labels Under NRA, A Study of 

Model Code and Model Provisions for Codes, Development of 
National Recovery Administration, The: A Review and Evaluation of its Organization and 

Activities 
NRA Insignia 

President's Reemployment Agreement, Tha 

President's Reemployment Agreement, Substitutions in Connection with the 
Prison Labor Problem under NRA and the Prison Compact, The 
Problems of Administration in the Overlapping of Code Definitions of Industries and Trades, 

Multiple Code Coverage, Classifying Individual Members of Industries and Trades 
Relationship jf NRA to Government Contracts and Contracts Involving the Use of Government 

Funds 
Relationship of NRA with other Federal Agencies 
Relationship of NRA with States and Muncipalities 
Sheltered Workshops Under NRA 
Uncodified Industries: A Study of Factors Limiting the Code Making Program 

Legal Studies 

Anti-Trust Laws and Unfair Competiti n 

Collective Bargaining Agreements, the Right of Individual Employees to Enforce Provisions of 

ommerce Clause, Possible Federal Regulation of the Employer-Employee Relationship Under the 

Delegation of Power, Certain Phases of the Principle of, with Reference to Federal Industrial 
Regulatory Legislation 

Enforcement, Extra-Judicial Methods of 

Federal Regulation through the Joint Employment of the Power of Taxation aid the Spending 
Power 

Government Contract Provisions as a Means of Establishing Proper Econ mic Standards, Legal 
Memorandum on P ssibility of 

Intrastate Activities Which so Affect Interstate Commerce as to Bring them Under the Com- 
merce Clause, Cases on 

Legislative Possibilities of the State Constitutions 

Post Office and Post Road Power — Can it be Used as a Means of Federal Industrial Regula- 
tion? 

State Recovery Legislation in Aid of Federal Recovery Legislation History and Analysis 

Tariff Rates to Secure Proper Standards of Wages and Hours, the Possibility of Variation in 

irade Practices and the Anti-Trust Laws 

Treaty Making Power of the United States 

War Power, Can it be Used as a Means of Federal Regulation of Child Labor? 

9675. 



THE EV IDENCE STUD IES SERIES 

Tbe Evidence Studies were originally undertaken to gather material for pending court 
cases. Aftei the Schechter decision the project was continued in order to assemble data for 
use in connection with the studies of the Division of Review. The data are particularly 
concerned with the nature, size and operations of the industry; and with the relation of the 
irdustry to interstate commerce. The industries covered by the Evidence Studies account for 
mora than one-half of the total number of workers under codes. The list of these studies 
follows: 



Automobile Manufacturing Industry 
Automotive Parts and Equipment Industry 
Baking Industry 

Boot and Shoe Manufacturing Industry 
Bottled Soft Drink Industry 
Builders' Supplies Industry 
Canning Industry 
Chemical Manufacturing Industry 
Cigar Manufacturing Industry 
Coat and Suit Industry 
Construction Industry 
Cotton Garment Industry 
Dress Manufacturing Industry 
Electrical Contracting Industry 
Electrical Manufacturing Industry 
Fabricated Metal Products Mfg. Industry and 
Metal Finishing and Metal Coating Industry 
Fishery Industry- 
Furniture Manufacturing Industry 
General Contractors Industry 
General Contractors Industry 
Graphic Arts Industry 
Graphic Arts Industry 
Gray Iron Foundry Industry 
Hosiery Industry 

Infant's and Children's Wear Industry 
Iron and Steel Industry 



Leather Industry 

Lumbar and Timber Products Industry 
Mason Contractors Industry 
Men's Clothing Industry 
Motion Picture Industry 
Motor Vehicle Retailing Trade 
Needlework Industry of Puerto Rico 
Painting and Paperhanging Industry 
Photo Engraving Industry 
Plumbing Contracting Industry 
Retail Lumber Industry 
Retail Trade Industry 
Retail Tire and Battery Trade Industry 
Rubber Manufacturing Industry 
Rubber Tire Manufacturing Industry 
Shipbuilding Industry 
Silk Textile Industry 
Structural Clay Products Industry 
Throwing Industry 
Trucking Industry 
Waste Materials Industry 
Wholesale and Retail Food Industry 
Waste Materials Industry 
Wholesale and Retail Food Industry 
Wholesale Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Indus- 
try 
Wool Textile Industry 



THE STATISTICAL MATERIALS SERIES 



This series is supplementary to the Evidence Studies Series. The reports include data 
on establishments, firms, employment, payrolls, wages, hours, production capacities, ship- 
ments, sales, consumption, stocks, prices, material costs, failures, exports and import3. 
They also include notes on the principal qualifications that should be observed in using the 
data, the technical methods employed, and the applicability of the material to the study of 
the industries concerned. The following numbers appear in the series: 
9675. 



- vi - 



Asphalt Shingle and Roofing Industry 

Business Furniture 

Candy Manufacturing Industry 

Carpet and Rug Industry 

Cement Industry 

Cleaning and Dyeing Trade 

Coffee Industry 

Copper and Brass Mill Products Industry 

Cotton Textile Industry 

Electrical Manufacturing Industry 

9675. 



Fertilizer Industry 

Funeral Supply Industry 

Glass Container Industry 

Ice Manufacturing Industry 

Knitted Outerwear Industry 

Paint, Varnish, and Lacquer, Mfg. Industry 

Plumbing Fixtures Industry 

Rayon and Synthetic Yarn Producing Industry 

Salt Producing Industry