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BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



BLIC LIBRARY 

, , II I II 1 1 M / '/ 

3 9999 06317 358 5 



OFFICE OF NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION 
DIVISION OF REVIEW 






A CASE IN CODE AUTHORITY INFORMATION GATHERING 



WORK MATERIALS NO. ELEVEN 



MARCH, 1936 



0F7ICE 0? HATIOML RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION 
DIVISIOIT 0? REYIET7 



A CASE IF CODE AUTHORITY IITOEMATIOl! GATHERING 



I.1ARCH, 1936 
9799 



FOREWORD 



A large number of code authorities made remarkable progress 
in the gathering and dissemination of information concerning their in- 
dustries. It is appropriate to mimeograph in the Work Materials Series 
one illustration of such activities by code authorities. The Cotton 
Garment Code Authority is chosen for this purpose "because as that or- 
ganization itself has said, "This industry was nearly bankrupt in sta- 
tistical information prior to the code. " 

In order to illustrate the progress made by the Cotton Gar- 
ment Code Authority in information gathering, two documents are pre- 
sented. The first of these is entitled, "'The First Four Months under 
the Cotton Garment Code (with Fact-Findings on the Eleven Incomplete 
Provisions)". This document was presented by the industry at the ERA 
hearing on the proposed thirty-si:: hour week in the Cotton Garment 
Industry, June 18, 1934. The second is entitled "Cotton Garment Em- 
ployment, Wages and Hours - July, 1929 to April, 1935". 

Such mobilisations of facts and figures by the statistical 
division of the Code Authority, occurring as they did for the first 
time in the industry, involved the compilation of a mailing list 
covering 3300 factories located in 900 towns in 42 states; the edu- 
cating of manufacturers on consistent statistical reporting; and the 
preparation of monthly statistical analyses covering data from the 
largest of the apparel industries, employing 200,000 workers. 

The achievements of this Code Authority are an interesting 
illustration of the services that an industry may render its members. 

At the back of this report will be found a statement of 
the studies undertaken by the Division of Review. 



L. C. Liar shall 
Director, Division of Review 



March 14, 1934 



9799 

— ii- 



THE FIRST FOUR MONTHS UNDER THE COTTON GARMENT CODE 
(with Fact-Findings on the Eleven Incomplete provisions) 

T ABLE OF CONTENTS Page 

Introduction 2 

a. Gains by Workers Under Code 2 

b. Most Widely Decentralized Industry 3 

c. Types of Questionnaire Submitted to Manufacturers 3 

d. Obstacles in Obtaining Statistical Information 4 

e. Effect on Significant Comparisons by Plants not Reporting .... 4 

1. Forty Hour Week and Re-employment 5 

a. Number employed 5 

b. Shorter Hours 6 

c. Higher Earnings Per Hour 6 

d. Weekly Wages 6 

e. Production 7 

f . Productivity of Workers 8 

g. Plants Working Maximum Hoars Before the Code 8 

2. Hours for Cutters 10 

3. Hours and Employment in the Sheep-lined and Leather Garment 

Industry 10 

4. Maximum Hours for Non-Manufacturing Employees 11 

5. Learners 12 

a. Wage Hate 13 

b. Number Permitted 13 

c. Six Week Period 14 

6. Privileged Employees 14 

7. North - South Wage Differential 15 

a. Disparity in Wage Rates 15 

b. Living Costs 16 

c. Gain in Productivity of Southern Workers 16 

8. Effect of Minim-am Wage on price of Work Clothing and. Work Shirts.. 18 

a. Prices and Wages 18 

b. Productivity , 19 

c. Production and Shipments 19 

9. Wage Scale for Cutters 20 

a. Hourly Earnings 20 

b . Weekly Wage s 21 

10. Wages Paid to Employees above the Minimum Rate 22 

a. Operators 22 

b. Cutters 22 

c. Non-manufacturing and Office Employees 22 

11 . Homework 23 

Synopsis of Eleven Incomplete Provisions 25 

Conclusion 27 

a. Comparisons of 1934 with 1929 27 

b. Accuracy of Results 27 

c. Re-employment 27 

Index of Tables 38 

Index of Char t s 39 

9799 

-in- 



TEE PI2ST FOUR HOTTHS ULT3EH THE OOTIDS GA^'EZT CODE 
(rrith Fact-Findings o-l the Eleven Incomplete Provisions) 



9799 



-2-> 

THE FIRST FOUR I.IOKTHS UNDER THE COTTON GARMENT CODE 

INTRODUCTION 

(a) Gains by Workers 

The Cotton Garment Code has lifted hourly vases of its 200,000 
workers to levels never before approached even in 1929. Child labor, 
prison labor, and the sweatshop are speedily being relegated to the 
unpleasant past. The forgotten woman of industry, the sewing machine 
operator, now is able to spend the contents of a weekly pay envelope 
which is 48fj larger than only one year ago. 

Only 3?o of all employees are being paid below the minimum wage 
according to payroll reports submitted "by 2,500 manufacturers cover- 
ing 175,000 workers for the month of March. One year ago, 90$ of 
the operators who comprised two-thirds of the workers and are the 
group whose lives have benefited most by the protection of the Code, 
were paid less than the present minimum wage. Even though the pres- 
ent percentage of wage violations is double 3$, allowing for false 
statement and firms not reporting, the record of improvements in the 
welfare of labor is a challenge for other industries to match. 

The three most significant facts to be noted are that from 
February, 1933 to February, 1934, earnings of all workers rose from 
23 to 37 cents an hour, average weekly hours worked fell from 41 to 
32, and the biggest boost to purchasing po-rer was the rise from 
$9.40 to $12.07 in the average weekly wages of all employees. These 
facts are a tribute to the Cotton Garment Code only when it is real- 
ized that for decades the Cotton Garment Industry has paid the 
lowest wages of any manufacturing ^roup reporting to the Government, 
and has outdone all industries in employment of child labor and 
prison labor. 

Although this industry is closest to the consumer, one hundred 
million Americans daily wearing Shirts, Overalls, House Dresses, or 
a dozcm other Cotton Garments, seldom realized the tragic exploita- 
tion of labor which lay behind a bargain counter garment, even in the 
prosperous years before the depression. Because wages represent a 
larger proportion of the wholesale price of cotton garments than do 
labor costs in almost any other industry, therefore, it has been pos- 
sible for some producers always to undersell their competitors by 
chiselling a few cents more from their underpaid workers. The chaos 
of wage cutting reached its worst in the depth of the depression in 
the Spring of 1933 as exemplified "oy a widely publicized Shirt industry 
survey by the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. In certain Pennsylvania 
factories, the struggle for existence foi-ced some plants to pay opera- 
tors $2.00 to $7.00 a week and even managers and proprietors $10,00 
to $15.00 a week. 

Now the consumer is protected by the Cotton Garment label, 
160,000,000 of which have already been distributed, and which certi- 
fies that the manufacturer has a clear record in obeying the wage 
standards of the Code. 



9799 



-3~ 

Since almost revolutionary changes in wages and hours have occured 
in less than a year, graphs are generously used to picture vividly 
striking changes in the welfare of labor, 

(b) Lost widely decentralized industry. 

Over 3,000 Cotton Garment plants in 42 states are located by re- 
gions in Chart 1. This map lists 3,818 establishments, although when 
sales offices, and central offices are eliminated, the actual number of 
factories is about 3,000. These plants are widely scattered in more 
than 900 towns ranging from Hew York City to tiny villages, almost in 
the manner of a handicraft trade with about ore factory for every 35,000 
people. 

Chart 2 shows a remarkable similarity between the location of Cotton 
Garment plants and the distribution of total U. S. urban population. 
However, the upper circle in this group shows that plants employing the 
most workers are situated in small towns. Here is one striking individu- 
ality of the Cotton Garment Industry contrasted to other apparel trades. 
While 80)1 of employees in the Dress Industry and likewise 80$ of the 
manufacturing workers in the Women's Coat and Suit Industry are situated 
in the 'New York metropolitan area, only l'fa of Cotton Garment laborers 
are located in New York City. Pour-fifths of Hen's Clothing workers 
are enroloyed in ten large cities, while on the contrary 26^ of Cotton 
Garment workers are in towns of less than 10,000 population. 

Another basic difference is that 80$ of Cotton Garment workers are 
women, the majority less than 25 years of age, while workers in other 
apparel trades consist largely of skilled men. 

This wide decentralization of the industry obviously is a handicap 
to the collection of statistical data. Factories in 42 States include 
illiterate immigrant contractors in slums of Eastern cities, homeworkers 
in San Francisco's Chinatown, plants" epa-vting in prisons, sheltered 
shops behind the walls of philanthropic institutions and some competing 
plants in Puerto Rico outside the requirements of the Code. 

(c) Types of questionnaire submitted to manufacturers. 

This industry was nea-rly bankrupt in statistical information prior 
to the Code. Government agencies collected monthly reports on Only 
Shirts and Work Clothing, The remaining dozen Cotton Garment products 
were completely neglected, and in 1933, the TJ. S. Census of Manufactures 
for the first time gave the Cotton Garment Industry a unified classifica- 
tion, 

'Hie principal questionnaires dispatched to manufacturers by the 
Cotton Garment Code Authority in addition to regular monthly payroll re- 
ports are: 

Preliminary Report on Machine Equipment 

Production and Shipment Reports for February, July, and December, 

1933 and January, 1934 
Homework Questionnaire 
I. A. G, LI. Inquiry on Cost Increases (to members only) 

Q7QQ 



—4- 

I. A. G. LI « Questionnaire on Urban and Rural Differentials (to n em- 
bers only) 

National Association of Sheep Lined and Leather Garment Manufac- 
turers' inquiry on Wages and Hours (to this industry only) 

Machine Capacity, Employment and Payrolls, 1929, 1933, and 1934 

Monthly Production Records. 

These are the "basic sources for factual data on the Eleven Incom- 
plete Provisions in the Code. Perhaps 500 of the 3,000 plants have not 
submitted payroll reports, but these are mainly small establishments 
whose employment is likely to be less than. 10^o of the industry's total. 

(d) Obstacles in Obtaining Statistical Data. 

Some Cotton Garment Manufacturers had never read a questionnaire 
on production and employment before the adoption of this Code, A few 
have probably not yet read one, despite the dispatch of dozens of 
letters by the Code Authority and the personal calls of its field in- 
vestigators. 

The Cotton Garment Industry has been a haven for fly-by-night 
concerns and in and out failures remaining in business not even long 
enough to be tabulated by the biennial Census of Manufactures, which 
was the Government's only attempt to cover all producers. A Cotton 
Garment factory can be established on almost a shoe-string capitaliza- 
tion, renting second-hand sewing machines, locating in a tenement house, 
and employing child labor or even homeworkers, or in a country town by 
conveying farm girls in trucks to the factory. Fnen deliveries are 
made on a few sizable orders, the plant is liable to shut down for many 
months or to reappear later with a different name in a new locality. 
This type of producer, although in the minority will require a slow 
process of education before becoming capable of submitting accurate 
statistical information. 

Chart 3 distributes 147,344 sewing machines among 1,376 plants. 
The place of the small producer, particularly the contractor remains 
entrenched in this industry more so than in almost any other line of 
manufacturing, as plants with less than 100 sewing machines report 31$ 
of the total machinesa 

(e) Effect on Significant Comparisons of Plants Hot Henorting. 

The 500 plants not submitting regular monthly payroll reports 
probably would pay lower wages than reporting companies.- As for all the 
special questionnaires, particularly 1933 payroll and production figures 
prior to the Code, replies are limited to several hundred concerns. 
These are the higher type factories, since they possess records lacking 
conspicuous errors. Although such companies are not typically represen- 
tative, particularly as their wage rates are higher than the average, 
nevertheless, these are the only figures available and a careful inter- 
preter must recognize the deficiencies due to plants not submitting data. 

The chief comparisons in this review of the Cotton Garment Indus- 
try concern wage, hour, employment, and production data classified by 



9790 



~5~ 



i ; of garments manufactured by occupations, by geographical regions, 
or contrasts between 193o and 1934. 

Table 1 summarizes significant changes for 63,234 employees in 672 
plants recorded for ootn lebruary, 1933 and February, 1934, representing 
a cross section of one-third of the entire Cotton Garment Industry. 
As expected, the 319 -plants reporting earlier made a slightly better 
showing in wages and employment than the 353 plants later reporting. 
Since totals are reasonably consistent, results should not be very 
seriously altered by plants not submitting information. , 

1. "Determine whether or not the 40 hour week Provision of this Section 
is resulting in increased Employment" - Article III (a), 

(a) Number Employed. 

The net change in employment from February, 1935 to February, 1934 
in 67? plants is zero, despite compliance with the 40 hour reek pro- 
vision in the Code for over 99/> of the workers reported. Table 2 
summarizes these changes in rages, hours, and employment for each 
product group, noting that hours were reduced sharply for each sub- 
divisional industry, but this factor. bore no relationship to increased 
employment in Overalls, Pants and viork Shirt factories due to declines 
in numbers of employees in Shirt, Blouse, and Pajama plants. 

Chart 4 shows that the Pork Clothing groups were the only sections 
of the Cotton Garment Industry to register gains in employment. The 
sharp increase of 53$ in Work Shirts was due to abolition of prison 
labor by three large establishments since February, 1933 and the 
substitution of free workers. This is one positive Denefit of the 
KRA for if the reports of tnese tnree former prison labor plants were 
not included, an actual decline of Zfo in employment in the Cotton 
Garment Industry would be recorded. 

At this point it should be noted in fairness that unemployment 
prior to the NKA probably existed in a relatively small degree in the 
Cotton Garment Industry. The U. S. Census oi Manufactures reported the 
same number of Cotton Garment wage earners in 1931 as in the supposedly 
normal year 1927, and showed a decline in emplovment of less than 10% 
from the boom period oi 1929. Technological improvements have been 
slight in this industry and its products are consumer necessities. 
Employment figures .in 1932 or in the first quarter of 1933 at the 
bottom of the depression are not available from Government sources. 

Table 3 summarizes wage,, hour, and employment changes by occupa- 
tions and Cnart 5 pictures a small decline in numDer of operators and 
office employees, a slight gain in cutters, and a sharp advance of 
19% in employment of non-manufacturing wage-earners, ^hich increase 
will later be snown to be spurious due to erroneous grouping of certain 
unclassified manufacturing employees. 

9799 



-6- 



(b) Shorter Hours. 

All Cotton Garment workers averaged 41.4 hours per week one year 
ago compared to 32,5 hours in February of this year. Chart 6 shows a 
marked decrease in hours worked in every single product group. More 
significant is the distribution of weekly hours of the 63,000 individual 
employees shown in Chart 7. V.hereas 14% of the employees worked above 
50 hours a week one year ago and another 38% from 40 to 50 hours in 
1933, now only 2% are employed above the 40 hour week maximum and only 
35% are working the full 40 hour week permitted by the Code. 

weekly hours classified by the different occupations in Chart 8 
show as expected that the manufacturing employees (cutters, operators, 
and learners) felt the greatest reduction in number of hours worked, " 
but even non-manufacturing and office employees averaged several 
hours loss per week in 1934, 

Comparison of weekly hours in four leading occupations is presented 
in Chart 9. Cutters and office employees cling rather closely to the 40 
hour week. Non-manufacturing employees mostly between 35 and 48 hours, 
while operators as expected, vary widely in the number of hours worked 
per week in accordance with slack or active business in the plant, 

(c) Higher Earrings Per Hour. 

It is a commonplace fact that the increase in hourly earnings of 
Cotton Garment workers under the NRA not only excels all otxier industries, 
but it is hard to match such a rapid rise in the records of American 
business. 

Chart 10 shows the substantial gain in hourly earnings of workers, 
which occurred in every branch of the Cotton Garment Industry, par- 
ticularly in the manufacture of Work Shirts and Work Pants. 

Chart 11 present changes in hourly wage rates by occupations. 
Although the average for all workers increased from 23p to 2>7<* an 
hour, sewing machine operators gained from 20r* to 35^ an hour. Office 
and non- manufacturing employees recorded only slight increases, 
although the hourly wages of cutters rose 24 an hour, 

(d) Weekly Wages. 

The weekly pay check has always been the standard gauge of the 
workers' satisfaction and as heretofore stated, the Cotton Garment 
Industry has contributed to an increase of 28% in weekly ^ages of its 
employees. Chart 18 shows that this advance occurred in every product 
group in the Cotton Garment Industry. However, this same graph notes 
that the advance in weekly wages was particularly due to the gain by 
the lowest paid and most populous group - sewing machine operators - 
who achieved a rise of 48% in weekly wages. Non-manufacturing and 
office employees advanced very slight in weekly wpges, hardly sufficient 
to compensate for the rise in living costs, while cutters alone recorded 
a slight loss. 

9799 



-7- 



Chart 13 distributes the weekly wages of operators in 672 plants 
in jt'eoruai',7, 19o4 showing a strong tendency of uniformity toward the 
$10,00 to $12.50 wage class. This makes a better showing than appears 
at first sight, considering that operators averaged only 32 hours a 
week in February, 1934, 

(e) Production. 

Re-employment in the Cotton Garment Industry is inseparably related 
to increased production of garments. Noting the unparalleled increase 
of hourly earnings, a sharp reduction in weekly hours, and a substantial 
rise in weekly wages, still no change in employment was recorded in this 
same period. Table 4 summarizes production in 300 Cotton Garment plants 
for February, 1933 and February, 1934. Although this sample is small, it 
is the first monthly production and value survey attempted for all types 
of Cotton Garments, as the U. S. Census figures cover only Work Clothing 
and Sheep Lined and Leather Garments. The average wholesale price of 
all Cotton Garments rose approximately 38$> from February, 1933 to 
February, 1934. 

Chart 14 notes an increase of only 3.5$ in February, 1934 in dozens 
of garments cut over the deep depression period of February, 1933, This 
Advance occurred almost entirely in the 7/ork Clothing groups as the 
graph notes a sharp decline in Wash Dress production and in several less 
important products as Blouses, Pajamas, and Nurses and Maids' Uniforms. 
Chart 15 pictures composite changes in production, shipments and value 
of 52 manufacturers of Men's Tress Shirts. 

Table 5 compares monthly changes in production and average value 
of Cotton Garments in 226 plants for February, July, and December, 1933 
and January and February, 1934. December is chosen as the oase month, 
since it was the first month under the Code. The July figures note the 
peak of production in the period just before the commencement of the 
NBA in order to speed up production at the lower costs then prevailing. 
The volume of production has risen from the four types of garments 
listed in Chart 16 and for all products as well from December to February, 
since the Code went into operation. The graph likewise shows that while 
average value of each of these products was considerably higher in . 
February, 1934 than a year ago, nevertheless, for all garments, except 
\«ash Dresses, the overage value per dozen has declined from December, 
1933 to February, 1934. During the first three months' operation of the 
Code, the average wholesale price of Cotton Garments has declined 7fo» 

The true relationship between sales value and earnings .of labor 
is presented in Chart 17. In no product did employment increase with- 
out expansion of roroduction. It is also significant that the sharp 
increase in wages in Work 'Shirt and Pants (mostly V.ork Pants) factories 
did not deter the marked advance in production of these garments. The 
hourly earnings of labor for every product increased at a greater rate 
than the wholesale price in these 2S6 plants. The intimate dependence 
of employment on production can be further observed in Chart 18, where 
a rise in employment occurred, in each particular product in the first 
three months under the Code from December to February following to a 
lesser extent the advance in production. 

9799 



-8- 



The heart 01 the re- employment problem simply is - can results 
be achieved by shortening Lours or by increasing production? Chart 19 
plainly shows that while average hours worked fell almost uniformly 
for every one of the eight products listed, on the other hand, employ- 
ment and production moved in the same direction for six of these 
products and in no subidivision of the Cotton Garment Industry did 
employment rise witnout an increase in production. The reason why 
the great increase in labor costs and crice rise have no deterred the 
production of Overalls, Work Fants, and Work Shirts can probably be 
explained that those are idoot man's garments, which group of people 
has benefited most by increased purchasing power under the IOA. This 
is especially significant in vie^ of a decline of 4$ in the production 
of all Cotton Garments, excluding Work Clothing, and a corresponding 
decrease in employment of 7y for the combined total of the Shirt, Blouse, 
Pajama, Sheep Lined and Leather and Wash Dress Industries. 

(f) Productivity of Workers. 

To put three simple facts together, since production and employment 
remained almost the same as a ye^r ago, ^hile weekly hours of wage 
earners declined about 28 r «, why were not more jobs automatically created 
by the shorter working week? A plausible answer fortified by statistical 
evidence, is the record of Z7 e /o increase in efficiency of operators 
depicted in Chart £0, so that the same number of garments could be pro- 
duced in the much shorter working week. This marked increase in the 
productivity of operators corresponding to the increase in hourly earnings 
aoove a year ago, can be due to several other factors beside the 
natural stimulation of employees by a higher wage ; second, manufacturers 
were compelled to reduce the amount of idle time in which seriiig machine 
operators waited for bundles of cut goods; third, more efficient methods 
of plant operation were installed; fourth ODsolescent machines have 
been renovated; fifth, slow workers were replaced by efficient operators 
able to earn the Code wage scale. 

Chart 21 shows that the majority in a sample of £30 plants submitting 
reasonably correct information succeeded in increasing the productivity 
of their onerators in the past year by more than 50 c /o. To a lesser degree, 
productivity of cutters increased in response to higher hourly wage 
rates as shown bv the lbfo advance in garments cut per hour in Chart 2?. 
However, cutters were far more highly paid and also more efficient than 
operators one year ago, so their productivity could not be increased to 
the same extent and the result was a small gain of 5;a in the number of 
cutters employed. The clue to the problem of re-employment and the 
shorter working '"eek in the Cotton Garment Industry is the marked gain 
in number of garments produced per hour, particularly by operators and 
also bv cutters, advancing in about the same percentage as the working 
hours per week declined, 

(g) Flants Vorking Maximum Hours Before the Code, 

of the 672 plants reporting pre-code data in 1955, over one-fourth of 
these plants averaged above 40 hours per week in that month. Since these 
concerns are now obeying the Code, one might expect that an increase in 

9799 



-9- 



employment would occur in these particular plants. However, Chart 23 
demonstrates that 174 plants working from 41 to 60 hours per week one 
year ago averaged declines of 9-> in employment in February, 1934 
compared with the same month last year, while 508 plants working 40 
hours or less per week a year ago have now advanced 3 6 ,o in number of 
employees. 

A more detailed analysis in Chart 24 demonstrates that plants 
working the longest hjurs were also paying the lowest wages. The 
factories working over 50 hours a week a year ago paid their operators 
only 16^ per hour, the 45 to 50 hoxir group paid operators 16^ per 
h?ur, 40 to 45 hour group paid operators 20 A , whereas plants working 
40 hours or less per week in February 1933, paid their operators 
22f£ per hour. At that time, these manufacturers working maximum 
hours and paying minimum wages one year ago were required tu increase 
their payrolls the most under the Code, sj in order to remain in 
business, theywere compelled to increase the efiiciency of plant 
operators to such an extent that a loss in employment was unavoidable. 

The graph readily shows that productivity and' earnings rose 
together, while employment and hours fell simultaneously, so that 
the extreme group jf 25 plants working above 50 hours one year ago and 
paying only 16^ an hour to operators, actually recorded an increase 
in productivity of 75$ and a decline in employment of 16$. 

To recapitulate on the 40 hour week and re- employment, a slight 
percentage reduction in the number of hours per week does not auto- 
matically create the same percentage increase in the number of Cotton 
Garment workers employed, because three factors, volume of production, 
higher wages, and corresponding greater productivity of employees, 
enter into the results. 

Increased employment occurred only in those oranches of the 
industry favored by an expansion of production. Total volume of Cotton 
Garments produced in February, 1934 rose only 4 c /o above the same month 
in the last year and the marked reduction jf 2870 in average hours worked, 
"'as of no avail in increasing employment. While the earnings of labor 
rose sharply, productivity of workers stimulated by higner pay advanced 
37% cancelling" entirely the intended, effect of the shorter working week. 



9799 



^TTV 



2. "Ascertain whether the 40 hour week Frovision of this article as to 
Cutters unduly handicaps factory operations and whether or not 
overtime should he recommended as to Cutters" - Article III (a). 

The cutter of garments provides work for 27 other em-oloyees. He is 
the power valve on whose efforts operators depend for work or else must 
wait for the next "bundle of cut garments to be delivered. Thus, if the 
40 hour week succeeds in employing a few more cutters, hut paralyzes the 
work of other manufacturing employees, it lies missed its aim. 

Chart 25 presents the distribution of hours worked hy cutters in 
405 plants in February, 1934 showing 51 c /0 of the plants clustered about 
the 40 hour week average, while 10$ of the plants exceeded the maximum. 
The average hours worked by cutters and operators under the first four 
months of the Code follows: 



CUTTER 



OPERATOR 



December, 
January, 
February, 
Llarch- 



1933 
1934 
1934 
1954 



32.5 hours 
36.8 " 
36.4 " 
37. S " 



28.0 hours 
31.5 " 
32.0 « 
37.2 ■ 



Hours for cutters in February, 1934 averaged 36.4 compared with 44*3 
hours per week one year ago. 

Chart 9 earlier compared weekly hours of cutters with other employees 
showing a distinct tendency for cutters to work a uniform 40 hour week as 
do office employees and not a varying number of hours more or less, such 
as operators and non-manufacturing employees. Since a considerable number 
of cutters are paid on a weekly basis, their work is more regularized from 
month to month than other manufacturing employees paid an hourly rate* 
Hence, the difference between operators and cutters in a slack month like 
December fades in a busy month such as March, Of 61 requests for 
exceptions by manufacturers to the 40 hour week, only 16 such referred 
specifically to cutters. 

The heart of the matter as to permission for overtime to cutters simply 
is - what hours will cutters be required to work when operators are employed 
nearly 40 hours a week? Of 672 plants studies in February, 1934, approxi- 
mately one-iourth, or 173, averaged above 35 hours p. week for operators. 
Hours for cutters in these same 173. plants are shown in Chart 26, TTherea.s 
cutters averaged 36 hours per week in all plants, in these busiest plants 
cutters worked only 38 hours per week. The differential between cutter 
hours and operator hours sharply diminishes when the latter are fully 
occupied, probably due to the greater regularity of a substantial number 
of plants in working cutters 40 hours per week, both in dull and active 
seasons, 

3, "Result of the tfoximum Hours in the Sneep Lined and Leather Garment 
Industry" - Article III (b). 



A ;lance at Chart 27 readily aroves that the four winter months are 
the least fair period to test results in the Sheep Lined and Leather Garment 
Industry* Although production of Sheep Lined and Leather Garments rose to 
the highest level in February and March in many years for the same months, 



-li- 
ne verthe less, the volume of manufactures in the winter months is normally 
less than one-third as great as in the Autumn* 

Even though the majority of Sheep Lined and Leather Garment manufact- 
urers also produce other Cotton Garments, Chart 28 particularly contrasts 
their wage ra'i;es and average value of products. When the sharp seasonal 
nature of the Sheep Lined and Leather Garment Industry is added, a clear 
introduction is available as to the marked difference in its nroblem from 
the rest of the Cotton Garment Industry. Average hours of operators 
compared as follows for Sheep Lined and Leather Garments and Cotton 
Garments. 

Feb. 1953 Dec. 1933 Jan. 1934 Feb. 1951 

Sheep Lined and Leather 17.7 21.7 15.7 20.3 
Cotton Garments 38.3 27.9 29.5 32.0 

Although hours of other workers, particularly non-manufacturing and 
office employees tend to be longer than operator hours during the slack 
months, nevertheless Chart 29 demonstrated that more than two-thirds of 
Sheep Lined and Leather Garment workers have teen employed less than the 
maximum 40 hour week from December to March. The contrary situation pre- 
vails in the rush season according to replies to a questionnaire of the 
National Association of Sheep Lined and Leather Garment Manufacturers, as 
38 among 45 producers stated they were unable to secure sufficient trained 
workers during the peak, months. 

The real oo-ordination of production and employment in 24 plants fabri- 
cating Sheep Lined and Leather garments exclusively is presented in Chart 30. 
Employment of operators neither rose nor fell to the extent of fluctuations 
in production during these five months selected principally due to changes 
in hours worked per week. 

Thus, the 40 hour week is almost meaningless during these early montbe 
under the Code, since most Sheep Lined and Leather garment machines are nor- 
mally idle in this season. The true test of re-employm ; :nt will occur in the 
busy Autumn months ahead, but any fair adjustment of the working hours per 
week must recognize this sharply seasonal nature of the Sheep Lined and 
Leather Garment industry. Both the manufacturer and the worker must fits© 
the fact that nature dictates the time for wearing winter clothing. A 
rational adjustment between production and employment in Sheep Lined and 
Leather garments appears to depend on a flexible number of hours Der week 
to help stabilize work throughout the year. 

4. "Recommendation as to hours for all Non-Manufacturing Employees 
(except Office Employees)" - Article III (d). 

Some non-manufacturing employees, as watchmen, sweepers, and shipping 
employees, have been accustomed for years to work on a 56, 60 or even 72 hour 
week. However, the average work week for non-manufacturing employees was 
45.3 hours in February, 1933 and 40.2 hours in February, 1934. The reason 
for the drop is not clear, unless it be due to greater efficiency in plant 
management, since there was no maximum L;o'imt regulation under the Code and 
shipments of garments rose 22^5 aboije a yt-ar ago. Chart 9 compared hours 
of non-manufacturing employees with hours for other occupations. The 



9799 



-12- 

distribution of non-manufacturing employees by hours worked for the slack 

month of December and the somewhat more active month of February folio* -s: 

Under 20-29 30-39 Over 

20 Hours Hours Hour 3 40 Hours 40 Hours 



December, 1933 8$ 8$ 16$ 55$ 13$ 

February, 1934 3' 7 34 35 21 

Chart 51 demonstrates that the large majority of plants have succeeded 
in regulating hours of non-manufacturing employees to suit the 40 hour week 
required for other workers. However, there was s startling advance of 19$ 
in the number of n on- manufacturing employees in February, 1934 over one year 
ago contrasted to no change in employment for all occupations among the 
entire sample of 672 plants. This increase occurred almost entirely in the 
Work Clothing and Work Shirt groups and particularly in nine large plants 
where the number of non-manufacturing employees more than doubled by rising 
from 163 to 359. Some increase was to be expected in non-manufacturing 
employees due to the rise of 41$ in shipments of Tifork Clothes and 66$ in 
shipments of TJbrk Shirts above a year ago as presented earlier in Table 4. 
However, these same nine plants reported a decline from 426 to 302 in the 
combined number of trimmers, examiners, and unclassified manufacturing 
employees. Although the facts indicate these few concerns are circumventing 
the maximum 40 hour week limitation in the Code, this practice is confined 
to a small minority of plants. 

The principal interest is the probable hours for non-manufacturiii ; 
emplojrecs during the rush season, when sewing machine operators approximate 
40 hours per week. Of 600 reporting plants, in 173 or over one-fourth of 
the total, operators worked longer than 35 hours a week in February, 1934, 
In Chart 26, earlier presented, the same analysis was applied to cutters, 
while non— manufacturing employees in all reporting concerns averaged 40 .' •' 
hours per week in February, 1934, in these most active plants, the average 
weekly hours of non-manufacturing employees were 'likewise 40, 

5. "Determine whether or not the provisions of Section C (as to Learners) 
shall be changed" - Article IV (d). 

Every year the Cotton Garment Industry roust train many thousands of 
beginners to operate sewing machines, largely to replace girls leaving 
factories for married life. Since 95$ of operators are women and half of 
these are less than 25 years of age, the turnover in employment must be 
among the highest in major industries, 

A summary of 300 replies by producers to a questionnaire of the 
International Association of Garment Manufacturers elicited the fact that 
21$ of factory operatives work less than one year with the same employer, 
while the average length of service is only four years. Even though these 
same operators may continue in the Cotton Garment Industry at some other 
factory, nevertheless, it is at conservative estimate that 25,000 employees 
among the total 200,000 must be annually replaced. Learners are the source 
of ne-sv blood for the industry, the -primary channel through which any 
program of reemployment in the Cotton Garment Industry must flov. 



9799 



-13- 

3y permitting plants to employ 10$ of their entire number of 
workers as learners and to train a new group of learners every six 
weeks, the Code theoretically allows replacement of the entire Cotton 
Garmen personnel within a year. However, manufacturers mu@t train 
learners in the busy seasons, not during any average month, so three 
vital questions arise. 

1. Is a learner sufficiently productive to he worth three-fourths 
of the minimum wage? 

2. Docs the lCfo learner quota hamper plant operations during the 
busy months of the year? 

3. Can the average learner be trained within six weeks? 

It is significant that among 313 concerns, which have officially 
petitioned from December to May for exemptions from some provisions 
of the Cotton Garment Code, 143 or almost half of such requests, con- 
cerned learners. This number is not only more than one-third of the 
total petitions, but is more than double that of the next most pro- 
vocative clause, the minimum wage. Of these 148 requests, 

27 applied for a lower wage to learners, 
102 petitioned for a higher percent of learners, 
19 requested a longer learning period. 

(a) Wage Rate. 

Chart 32 shows that learners in February averaged 24^ an hour 
compared to 36<fi for regular operators and worked 30 hours per week con- 
trasted to 32 hours for operators. Last year learners averaged 40 
hours a week compared to 58 for regular operators. Although learners 
are being paid pretty close to the rate of three-fourths of the mini- 
mum allowed, one year ago learner— operators averaged only 10^ an hour, 
so have gained by far the most in earnings of any group under the Code. 
The substance of the matter indicates that the minimum hourly wage 
rate for learners is also the average rate, and this figure is more 
than double their wage a year ago. Perhaps this high rate for learners 
accounts for their much sharper decline in weekly hours worked than 
operators during the past year. 

(b) Number Permitted. 

As to the second main question aroused by the Code concerning 
learners, in the slack month of December only 3$ of the total number of 
operators were learners, whereas in the relatively more active month 
of February, learners constituted 5$ of all operators. However, the 
real problem can be gleaned from Chart 33, which indicates the pro- 
portion of learners for the busiest third of all plants, in which 
operators averaged about 25 hours a week. In these factories, more 
active than the average, 8$ of the total operators are learners. 

Chart 34 distributes 489 plants by the proportion of learner 
operators they employ. While 293 plants report no learners, 51 plants 



9799 



-14- 

or about one-tenth of the total reporting, employ over l&fo of their 
total operators as learners. Such a condition indicates that in 
busier months than February, when average working hours approach 40, 
the need to give employment to a greater number of learners than 
permitted at present by the Code may be urgent. Finally, a sample of 
only 50 identical plants which reported learner operators both in 
February, 1933 and in February, 1934, registered a decline of 45% in 
the number of learners employed. 

(c) Six Week Period 

The third controversial issue is the period needed to train a 
learner to become a regular sewing machine operator. A questionnaire 
submitted to all members of the International Association of Garment 
Manufacturers in February evoked replies to this question from 271 
manufacturers. Eighteen weeks was the average estimated time to train 
a learner. 

Chart 35 is a frequency distribution on the learning period re- 
quired in each of these 271 plants.' The mode appears to be around the 
four month period. Eleven per cent of these Concerns even estimated 
that over six months is required, while only 13$ of these manufacturers 
replied that learners can be trained within the six week period allowed 
by the Code. 

The three regulations on learners have not only aroused more pe- 
titions for exemptions than airy other Code provision, but appear from 
results in a limited sample of several hundred plants to be defeating 
the objective of reemployment. The minimum wage for learners has be- 
come the average, unlike the situation in any other occupational group; 
the proportion of learners has sharply declined from a. year ago; while 
the learning period is very widely considered as too short to train 
beginners. Unfortunately, these provisions have restricted the free 
flow of recruits so essential to rejuvenate the personnel in this 
industry which loses tens of thousands of its workers yearly. 

6. "Report as to the effect of the operation of this provision (as 
to incapacitated employees) both generally and in cases of in- 
dividual hardship»Articlc IV (f). 

The Cotton Garment Industry normally furnishes a livelihood for 
ten thousand handicapped workers. Older women and younger ones af- 
flicted by physical defects have for years earned a living at sewing 
machines. It is to the great credit of Cotton Garment Manufacturers 
that privileged employees as shown in Chart 32 average approximately 
three-fourths of the minimum hourly wage rate and are working 31 hours 
per week compared to 32 hours for regular operators. Of 318 exceptions 
to the Code requested between December and May, only sixteen such 
petitions by manufacturers concerned privileged employees. 

Five per cent of a.ll operators were privileged in February, 1934. 
Even among the third of the plants which averaged longer than 35 hours 
per week, Chart 33 shows that privileged operators constituted only 
&p of the total number, thus indicating no attempt by the busy plants 



9799 



-15- 
on the whole to take advantage of the privileged classification. 

Chart 34 distributes the number of privileged operators among 
489 plants. The majority of plants report no privileged operators, 
while on the other hand, 73 concerns or 15$ of the total average above 
1(7'; of all operators as privileged. Host of these plants are not 
violating the Code, since a concern may "employ one-tenth of all its 
workers as privileged, not merely lOo of the operators, who generally 
make up the bulk of the handicapped class. 

As the privileged workers constitute only 3?o of the entire in- 
dustry and are being paid three-fourths of the minimum wage, this pro- 
vision in the Code permitting such handicapped workers to earn their 
livelihood appears to have operated thus far with minor difficulties. 

7. "The effect of the operation of Section (g) on Northern and , 
Southern Differentials" - Article IV (h). 

(a) Disparity in Waie Rates. 

The fears of Southern manufacturers that a revolutionary $12.00 
a week minimum wage would bring ruin upon them have oroved groundless 
under the operation of the Code. Chart 36 gives a composite picture 
of wages, hours, earnings, and employment in the North and South and 
most significant is the 4$ decline in employment in Northern factories 
contrasted to a 14$ increase in the South from February, 1933 to 
February, 1934. Although a part of this substantial gain in the 
South was due to the abolition of prison labor by two large plants, 
nevertheless, if this factor were eliminated, the net increase in the 
number of Southern workers would be 6$ contrasted to a decline of 3p 
in the Forth. Southern manufacturers have been compelled to increase 
hourly wages much more substantially under the Code than Northern pro- 
ducers, as shown in the following table: 

Feb. 1333 Dec. 1933 Jan. 1934 Feb. 1934 March 34. 1934 

North 24^ 39{* 40^ 39$£ 37{* 
South 19^ 33^ 3'5<p 32<* 31 <* 

Chart 37 compares products and occupations by Forth and South, 
noting that the margin between wage's in these two sections is at least 
double the 8$ differential 'permitted by the Code in every group. Half 
of. the 64 plants requesting exceptions to the Code minimum wage are 
Southern concerns. 

The variation in hourly wage rates of sewing machine operators by 
States is presented in the map, Chart 33. In only one Southern state, 
average hourly wages rose above 35^ an hour, while only three Northern 
states reported average wages below that figure. Wages 3f operators 
only were selected because any other comparisons might be unfavorable 
to the South, due to the prevalence of cutters and office employees in 
the North. Another factor which generally biases Northern wages up- 
wards, is the location of most large cities in Northern states. 



9799 



-16- 



Table 6 classifies the hourly earnings 01 operators in February, 
1934 by Forth and South in to- ns of the same population. Even when 
communities of similar size are chosen, Northern '"orders are still 
paid 15 to 20'y higher hourly earrings. A final comparison between 
Northern and Southern -ages is shown in Chart 39, namely, hourly rates 
for sewing machine operators in Doth Northern and. Southern nlants '-'hich 
are owned by the same concerns. Even the identity of ownership of 
plants still leaves a difference of 3^ per hour in favor of the Northern 
,:r orker. 

(b) Living Costs. 

Although Southern factories have gained in employment despite the 
necessity of a more marked, rise in rages, two general principles have 
been strenuously advocated, bv Southern -producers in favor of the lower 
wage. x<ir£t, the declaration is ireruently made that living costs are 
lower m the South. Any apparent ciiferential ir. living costs can 
generally be ascribed to the location of certain metropolitan cities 
'in tne Forth and the prevalence oi negroes in tne South. Obviously, 
living costs are higher in a white family in Fhiladelrnia, than for 
the negro worker in rural Alabama, Hoy ever, this is no criterion of 
living costs for Cotton 5t inent employees. Less than 5;o of sewing 
machiner operators in either Forth or South are negroes, so wage 
standards in this industry need not be clouded Dy the color cuestion. 

Two graphs are presented based on United States Census material 
shoving that rents of white families and retail wages oi white workers 
prior to the depression were almost tne same in both the Forth and. 
South, where com -rarities ox similar size were chosen for comparison. 

Chart 40 shows the very slight ciiference in rents of -hite lamilies 
between Forth and South in each ^.toup of cities of tne sane ^o-oulation. 
hile retail wp r ;es '"ere lb* lo'"er in the South in 1929, as shown in 
Chart <±1 , after negro 'orke : r? were eliminated arc co i: rarities of ap- 
proximately the same population selected, then tne actual difference 
between Northern and Southern retail wages disappeared entirely. only 
the inclusion o.f metropolitan cities of over half a million neople bias 
I orthern '"ages upward and tat prevalence oi negroes in the South sharnlv 
reduces wppe r»tes there. These to granhs on rents and retail "? P ^es 
simply show that tne popular version oi lc-er costs and ttand'rds of 
living belo"' the r;af;on-Di:vOn lire, or tne 3: th parallel, is largely a. 
cuestion of the color line and ••■ small to'-n - lar.^e city problem. The 
former condition is of minor consequence to the Cotton Garment Industry 
'■hile the ur oar-ru: al situation is not confined to Forth and south. 

(c) Gain in Productivity of Southern ' orkers. 

A second frtnaent objection of the oouthern manufacturer is that 
their -orkers are much less productive, altnou h such facts lor any one 
period arc- difficult to measure. r>e?;arr'less of tne eificiency of the 
underpaid worker in the oast, there is no doubt that productivity of 
southern employees has increased much more rnarply t.nan Northern workers 
as sho'"n in Chart 4?. 'hereas the seeing machint operator in Northern 
plants registered an increase of 2i',.-> in the number of garments made per 
hour from February, ly33 to February, 1934, the SOvtnern vorker has re- 
corded a gain of 68 f ,o in productivity under the Cede. 



-17- 

The warmly disputed North-South problem has had none of the 
tragic consequences so ill-foreboded almost a year ago. Although 
Southern workers are still paid almost 20$ less than in the ITorth, . 'J.\ 
Southern factories increased wages by a more substantial margin and 
havo gained in employment. She Southern garment worker located in 
towns of the same size as in the Forth, has no particular advantage 
in living costs and Southern operators have recorded an unusual gain 
in -productivity. 



9799 



-18- 

8. "The effect of the minimum wage scale of this Article and other 
economic factors upon 'the sale price of Work Clothing and Work 
Shirts" - Article 17 (j). 

a. Prices and Wages. 

At the commencement of the IT.H.A. producers of Work Clothing and 
Work Shirts feared that their business would he jeopardized by the high 
wage scale for their workers, However, it appears that these manufactur- 
ers have "been helped by the 1T.R.A. with its improvement in purchasing- 
power for other wage-earners and also by the betterment in the farmer's 
lot due partly to A. A. A. Overalls and Work Shirts have a very high pro- 
portion of labor cost to the value added by manufacture. Since the con- 
sumers of Overalls, Pants, and Work Shirts are the laboring men and farmers, 
who -/eight costs in terms of nickels and dimes for their clothing expenses, 
this section of the Cotton Garment Industry took a considerable risk as 
to its economic welfare under the Code. However, results have been sur- 
prising because Work Clothing production advanced 20£> and Work Shirts rose 
6$ in February, 1934, above the sane month one year ago compared to a 
decline of 4f s for all other Cotton Garments. Table 7 is a summary of 
principal changes in the Work Clothing and Work Shirt industries in the 
past year. 

The increases in hourly earnings of Work Clothing and Work Shirt 
laborers have been very substantial, rising from 23f to 36^ per hour in 
Overall factories and from 18(* to 34 v - -aer hour in Work Shirt plants. 
Employment gains have also been recorded by Work Shirt producers. 

The prices of Overalls and Work Shirts listed by the United States 
Bureau of Labor Statistics s.re too high to be representative of the in- 
dustry as a whole. The U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics index of Overall 
prices was $12,99 per dozen in June, 1933, prior to the IT.R.A. and $16.66 
in February, 1934. The average price reported by manufacturers to the 
Cotton Garment Code Authority was only $11.40 in February, 1934. Like- 
wise the Code Authority figure for Work Shirts was $6.09 per dozen in this 
month contrasted to $8.58 according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. 
The price of Work Clothing rose 42$, Work Shirts 44^ from February, 1933 
to Februar;/, 1934, as reported oi' 214 producers of Work Clothing and 47 
manufacturers of Work Shirts. This compares with an increa.se in price of 
38fo for the rest of the Cotton Garment Industry. However, Wash Dresses 
gained 58-^ in price during this same period. It is also significant that 
Work Clothing prices have declined approximately 5$ from December, 1933 
to February, 1934. 

However, the limited number of firms reporting to the Bureau of Labor 
Statistics have always been consistently higher than the average of the 
industry as a whole. For example, the U. S. Census of Manufactures em- 
bracing virtually all producers of Work Clothing and Work Shirts, recorded 
prices 41$ lower for Work Clothing and 36$ lower for Work Shirts in the 
year 1931, than the prices of the Bureau of Labor Statistics. 

Chart 43 shows changes in the price and costs of Overalls as reported 
by 17 producers to the International Asrociation of Garment Manufacturers. 
Their figures show ar. increase of material costs much greater than labor 

9799 



-19- 

costs fron February, 1933 to February, 1934 and even wholesale prices 
rose to a higher degree than did labor costs in the same year. Chart 44 
shows- the -relative -oroportion of la'bor, material, and overhead costs wliicl 
make up the wholesale price of Overalls, and also notes the much greater 
increase in material costs than in other factors from ITebruary, 1933 to 
February, 1934. 

b. Productivity, 

A very vital factor pernitting the manufacturers of Uorh Clothing 
and Work Shirts to sell more garments despite a great advance in hourly 
wages has been the marked increase in the productivit; r of workers corres- 
ponding to a higher wage. 

Chart 45 demonstrates the increase in the number of garments made 
per operator hours in 76 Work Clothing plants, more than compensating for 
the decline in weekly hours and offsetting to a great extent the increase 
in hourly wages. 

c. Production and Shipments. 

According to the monthly census reports, the production of Work 
Clothing. increased each year in the depression after 1930. Daring hard 
times, many individuals wear Uorl; Clothing for dress uses and since the 
modest business revival of the last year has been marked by a sharp 
advance in retail prices of clothing, no doubt many consumers have con- 
tinued to purchase Uorl: Clothing. 

The 1TA has benefitted unskilled labor in many fields of manufacture 
although to a lesser extent than in the Cotton Garment Industry. These 
customers for Work Clothing and Work Shirts, although the poorest classes 
economi call;' - , received an increase in wages more than enough to offset 
the sharp advance in Work Clothing prices caused partly by higher labor 
costs. 

Although hourly wages rose very substantially in Work Clothing and 
Work Shirt plants, the advance in material costs and the rise of 42^ in 
wholesale price more than offset the higher labor costs. Production of 
Work Clothing and Work Shirts advanced sharply due partly to increased 
productivit: r of workers, but largely to the enhanced economic welfare of 
the customers of these garments. 



9799 



Weekly Wage 


$23.82 


$21.03 


Hourly Earnings 


.54 


.65 


Wee] civ Hours 


44.3 


32.6 



-20- 

"Investigate the wage scale for Cutters, to determine whether the 
wages paid said cutters tend to effectuate the purposes of the 
National Industrial Recovery Act" - Article IV (L). 

Feb. 1933 Dec. 1953 J an. 19 31 Feb. 1934 Marchl954 

$23.76 $22.64 $24.67 
.65 .62 .64 
36.8 36.5 37.8 

The Cutter has "been the aristocrat of labor in the Cotton Garment 
Industry as 90$ of the cutters were paid above the present minimum wage in 
the depth of the depression in February, 1934. Thus cutters, as a group, 
have been affected only ~oy the maximum 40 hour week stipulation in the Code. 
The figures listed above tell briefly the whole matter. Cutters have 
gained in hourly earnings, but lost in weekly wages. Lower pay checks dur- 
ing a period of rising 1 iving costs have been only partial!;' offset by an 
increase of 3fo in the number of cutters employed between February, 1933 
and February, 1934. 

(a) Hourly Earnings. 

Wage rates paid to substantial groups of cutters vary all the way 
from the Code minimum to $1 25 per hour and higher, contrasted to opera- 
tors who cluster very largely in the group ten cents above the minimum 
wage. Dae to individual degrees of skill required in cutting higher priced 
garments, plant averages en wages paid cutters may conceal these wide 
differences. Therefore, Table 8 records the hourly earnings of each of 
2,460 cutters instead of being based on plant averages. The difficulty 
of generalizing on so-called average wage rates to cutters is readiljr 
seen in this table and in Chart 46, since no ten cent wage class even 
includes one— fifth of the cutters. Hourly earnings of cutters based on 
plant averages are presented in Chart 47. 

The average wage of 64^- an hour is widely diverged from in that cut- 
ters of Work Shirts, Pants, and Women's Undergarments are paid less than 
55^, whereas cutters of Shirts, Blouses, Oiled Cotton Garments, and Maids 1 
Uniforms average above 73(# per hour. Work Clothing and Wash Dress cutters 
receive pretty close to the average for the entire industry, while the 
cutters of Sheep Lined and Leather Garments are excluded from the totals, 
since they are protected by a 75;* wage scale in the Code. 

The selection of an average wage rate for Cutters is further complicat- 
ed by a marked difference between an average Northern rate of 67^ per hour 
contrasted to 51r< in the South. Chart 48 shows that Southern cutters aver- 
aged approximately 20fo lower earnings in almost every product group; how- 
ever, northern wage rates are partly biased upward oy the inclusion of 249 
New York City cutters, averaging 79/' an hour. It was previously noted 
that while several other apparel industries are concentrated in New York 
City, only Zfo of all Cotton Garment workers are employed there. However, 
many manufacturers have garments cut in New York City, while sewing is 
done at some small town factor"'-. Consequently, 10$ of the cutters are 
located in New York City. If these cutters are excluded from the Northern 
totals, then the average in Northern states falls from 67rf to 64^ per hour, 

9799 



-21- 

(b) Weekly Wages. 

Table 9 distributes in detail the weekly wages of cutters in 
March, and Chart 49 pictures the -proportion of cutters in each $10.00 
wage class. Although the average weekly '"age is $24.67 only about 
one-third of the cutters fall within the R20.00 to $30.00 a week 
group, again errohasizing the wide variations in weekly wages. Chart 
50 by -plotting wages of cutters on the basis of plant averages rather 
than individual cutters' wages, conceals rmrt of this large s-oread. 

Chart 51 contrasts wages of cutters in the Worth and South, 
noting Soutnern wages are lower in most -oroducts, but the difference 
is not so marked as in hourly earnings since cxitters in the South 
average longer hours. More significant is the decline in weekly 
wages paid to cutters from February, 1937' to February, 1934, noted 
in Chart 53. This dron was due largely to the reduced weekly hours 
of Wash Dress cutters on account of decreased nroduction of this 
garment. 

Chart 53 pictures the marked difference in both hourly earnings 
and weekly wages of cutters in the North, South, and Hew York City. 
Due to these very wide variations in hourly earnings among individuals 
by -oroduct grouns and between localities, it aiyoears of very doubtful 
value to consider a single average wage rate for cutters. 

One of the -primary purposes of the HRA is to increase -purchasing 
-power and cutters have a much more -personal interest in the size of 
their weekly nay checks in a -period of rising -prices than in balancing 
wage rates against reduced hours. 

To summarize in a few words: 

1. Hourly earnings of cutters vary too widely by locality, by 
■product, and -particularly by individual skill to substantiate a 
uniform national wage rate. 

2. Weekly pay checks of cutters fell 5*5 from February, 1933 to 
February, 1934, despite a rise in hourly earnings and because of the 
shorter working week. This reduction in -purchasing -power has been 
only partially offset by an increase of 3% in the number of cutters 
employed. 



9799 



-22- 

10. "Differentials in wages paid to other employees receiving *.bove the 
minimum to determine whether such differentials permit -unfair com- 
petition in the Cotton Garment Industry" - Article IV (L). 

(a) Operators 

Since over two-thirds of oil Cotton Garment workers and the great bulk 
of sewing machine operators received less than the present minimum wage 
one year ago, the pecuniary welfare of the skilled employee can be easily 
lost sight of by simply referring to a 28fa average rise in weekly pay 
checks of all employees. 

Operator:' comprise about two- thirds of all workers and are the lowest 
paid group. The minimum wage is by no means the average nor the maximum 
in t e vast majority of plants as readily shown in Chart,. 54 for February 
1934. Although the graph indicates that violations are more frequent in 
the North, 25$ of the plants reported averages above 4Q<f; per hours' for 
sewing machine operators in the North, contrasted to only 3p of the plant 
averages above 40^ in the South. Furthermore, in the South, no plants 
average above i?0f- ( on hour for operators. There is thus a tendency for 
employees in the South to cluster rather closely to the minimum, while 
in the North the piece rate basis still measures a marked variety in skill 
of workers. 

Since even for the lowest paid occupation, operators, the minimum 
wage has not become a national leveling standard, the real interest lives 
in the effect on the weekly wages of that minority of skilled employees 
who were paid above $13.00 per week a year ago in February, 1933. 

Table 10 presents complete figures on changes in weekly wages and 
hourly earnings of skilled employees. 

Chert 55 readily shows that operators, who were paid from $13.00 
to $15.00 per week (or $12.00 to $15.00 per week in the South) one year 
ago have gained very slightly in weekly wages, not sufficiently to 
compensate for the rise in living costs. Operators paid $15.00 and over 
one year ago have sustained a sharp reduction in their weekly pay checks. 
These conditions are due entirely to a decline in weekly hours and occured 
despite a rise in hourly earnings. Wheras only 10$ of the operators did 
not need Code protection, 90$ of the cutters were unaffected by a. minimum 
wage. 

( b) Cutterr:. 



Chart 36 represents changes in wages, hours, and earnings of cutters 
from 1933 to 1334. It is readily observed that cutters paid from $13.00 
to $20.00 a week succeeded in increasing their weekly pay checks, whereas al 
groups of cutters averaging above $20.00 a week one year ago have suffered 
financially Cv.c to the 40 hour week and in spite of Boosts in their hourly 
rates of pay* 

(c) Non-Manufi cturing and Offid Emplo < s. 

Charts C7 and 58 analyze the same materials for non-manufacturing and 






-23- 

office employees. Likewise, workers in the se two groups paid between 
$13.00 and : 20.00 per week have enlarged the contents of their pry en- 
velope, but non-manufacturing employees receiving from $20.00 to #35.00 
per week one year ago have suffered reductions in weekly wages, some- 
what dissimilar from the case of skilled operators and cutters. Reduc- 
tion in wages of non-manufactTU-ing and office employees was partly 
due also to a decrease in hourly rates of pay, hut largely was caused 
by a decline in the working hours per week. It should not be assumed 
that the reduction in the hourly rates of non-manufacturing and office 
employees, who were paid from $25.00 to $35.00 a week one year ago, was 
due to the necessity of manufacturers to enlarge their payrolls sub- 
stantially to meet the minimum wage rates. It is easy to recall that in 
the period following the bank holiday in March, 1933, many concerns 
throughout the country reduced salaries of skilled, and clerical employ- 
ees and a considerable number of such wage cuts have not been restored. 

One favorable feature as to the influence of the Cotton Garment 
Code on the wages of skilled employees, is that the minimumvage for 
sewing machine operators is neither the average nor the maximum, at least 
in the vast majority of Northern plants. However, of much greater signi- 
ficance in regard to purchasing power, is the boomerang of the 40 hour 
week in causing marked reductions in weekly pay checks of operators re- 
ceiving above $15.00 per week a year ago and of cutters, non-manufacturing 
and office employees formerly paid above $20.00 per week a year ago. 

Despite the great wage benefits to the average worker under the 
Cotton Garment Code, a valuable minority of skilled employees is losing 
economically during a period of rising living costs. 

11. "Homework Problem" - Article VII (a) 

One of the very few measures of praise that can be allotted to the 
pre-code record of the Cotton Garment Industry, is that only about 1 J$ 
of its 200,000 employees were homeworkers even in July, 1933, prior 
to the Code. The plight of the needle and thread homeworker for a century 
has been pictured in prose and. poetry as so ghastly that the sweatshop.^ 
appears humane in comparison. Seme other needle trades have employed 
tens of thousands of homeworkers. 

Chart 59 classifies 1,856 homeworkers employed in July by 80 concerns 
among 1,500 reporting plants, which sample represents at least three- fourths 
of the total workers in the industry. The same graph also records 1,216 
homeworkers in April, 1934, or a decline of more than one- third under the 
Code. Hand embroiderers arid collar and cuff turners, both occupations 
permitted by the Code, registered declines between July, 1935 and April, 
1934. These two classes of homeworkers averaged 27 hours per week and 
earned 35^ per hour in December, 1933 

Sewing machine operators in homes, prohibited!, by the Code, fell sharp- 
ly from 649 to 106. Twenty- three out of 53 concerns dropped sewing 
machine homework entirely. One hundred and six sewing machine operators 
in hemes although the number might be somewhat increased by non- reporting 
firms, is still a small fraction of one percent of the total number of 
operators in the industry. 



9799 



-24- 

Homeworkers are markedly older than factory workers as demonstrated 
in Chart 60, While the majority of sewing machine operators in factor- 
ies are girls less than 25 years old, 80fj of the homeworkers are 
from 35 to 65 years of rye. 

Chart 61 contrasts the length of service for homev/orkers and 
factory workers. Twenty-one percent of the factory operators have 
worked for less than a year in the reporting plant, while only 4Jj 
of the homev/orkers have heen employed for less than one year. 

The principal reason given by manufacturers for the need to employ 
homeworkers is that the operator is unable to come to the factory 
due to care for children, housework, -physical disability, or old age. 
A minor reason is that the plant has insufficient space for machines. 
Have these homeworkers or others in their place been given jobs in 
factories? The plants abolishing homework under the Code have not in- 
creased factory employment due perhaps to the inability to obtain 
the same workers, to pay the required wage scale or to install machines 
in the plant. However, their production probably was shifted to other 
manufacturers who thus increased employment. 

The typical homeworker is an older, woman, unable to leave the 
household and with a record of several years of service for the 
same employer. Less than one per cent of Cotton Garment employees 
are had embroiderers and collar and cuff turners, while the number of 
sewing machine operators in homes is a negligible fraction. 



9799 



-25- 

SYNCPSIS OF FINDINGS ON T T ^ F,LSVF:~ I?TCO'!PL" :? T'P PROVISIONS. 

!3ased on Reports to the Cotton G? rment Code Authority. 

1. Desnite a reduction of 22'^ in average weekly hours worked and a 
very slight increase in -production, the net change in enroloyment from 
February, 1973 to February, 19T4 is zero. Spurred forward by a rise 
from 20<t to 35-* an hour in average earnings of operators, both managers 
and workers have increased efficiency, so that the decrease in h^urs 
worked has been more than offset by the increase in oroductivity. 

2. Cutters averaged only two hours more a week in the most active -plants, 
where operators worked above 35 hours, than in all -plants which were 
operating on an average of only 32 hours a week. 

3. Less than a third of the enrol oyees of the Sheen Lined and Leather 
Garment Industry have worked a maximum 40 hour week under the Code, 
since the four winter months are completely off season in this industry 
and do not represent the average number of oeo-ple employed during the 
year. A flexible number of hours per week to fit the peak and. slack 
months in production appears to be needed in the Sheen Lined and Leather 
Garment Industry to heln stabilize enroloyment. 

4. Hours of non-manufacturing enrol oyees nave fallen from 45 to 40 a 
week and four-fifths of the individual plants are on a 40 hour basis or 
lower. Busy olants now working longer than 35 hours a week for operators, 
average only 40 hours a week for non-manufacturing enroloyees, about the 
same as plants working operators fewer hours. 

5. The three Code reouirements on learners have aroused almost half the 
total number of reouests for exceptions: (a) The minimum wage rate for 
learners is more than double that a year ago and tends to become the 
maximum rate. A sanrole of identical nlants showed a decline of almost 
50^ in number of learners from s year ago. (b) Only 5^ of all operators 
are learners, but the nrooortion increases sharply n s -nlants become 
busier. Also, the percentage is higher in -nlants working regular employ- 
ees longer hours. (c) It is the overwhelming concensus of manufacturers' 
opinions that six weeks is much too short a training -period. Unfortunate- 
ly, the wage rate for learners, the 10^ limitation and the six week 
period provision in the Code are cartially defeating the -oumose of re- 
employment. 

6. Privileged employees constitute only half the -percentage allowed in 
the Code and on the average are being paid three-fourths the minimum 
wage . 

7. The South gained 14S in enroloyment desnite the necessity of raising 
wages by a much wider margin from 1933 to 1934 in order to meet the Code 
minimum. Wage rates in the South still average almost 20^ lower than 

in the North, and there his been a much greater increase in the -productiv- 
ity of Southern workers. 



9799 



-£0- 



8. Both the wholesale price and. the material cost of ^ork Clothing have 
risen higher than labor cost. The sham advance in wages h-^s not de- 
terred a marked extension in production of Work Clothing and ^ork Shirts 
and the productivity of the operators has greatly increased. 

9. The large majority of Northern employees are paid above the minimum 
mte, although there is a tendency in numerous Southern slants for the 
minimum to be also the maximum. Higher mid groups of skilled employees 
in 1933 have mostly averaged reductions in weekly -"ages in 1934, princip- 
ally due to the shorter working week. 

10. Increased hourly earnings of cutters have been more than offset by 
declines in hours worked, so the weekly wages of cutters have slightly 
decreased. 

11. ^omeworkers engaged in hand, embroidery and turning collars and cuffs 
constitute about l'l of all Cotton Garment employees while seeing machine 
operators in the home have been reduced to a neslieible fraction. 



9799 



-27- 

Conclusion 

a. Comparisons of 1334 with 1929. 

A lone ran e view of the Cotton Garment Industry is readily 
observable in Cliart 62, showing trends in 830 plants iron July, 
1929 to March, 1934. Although the employment and hour figures 
aro not so significant since different calendar months were reported 
for these two periods, nevertheless, the increase in ^ages from 29^ 
an hour in the halcyon days of 1929 to 35ff an nour under tne Code, 
is unmatcher in the annuals of American "business. 

Table II is a summary on changes in machine capacity, employ- 
ment, and payrolls for these 830 plants which remained in business 
throughout the entire degression and Table 12 gives figures for 
Larch 24, 1934 on 1,228 plants, one of the largest samples on which 
statistical data has ever been mobilized in the Cotton Garment In- 
dustry. 

Chart 63 pictures the rise in -yu.rchasin to power of Cotton Gar- 
ment workers from 1929 to 1934. 'Jeekly ra^cs were the same at both 
dates despite a reduction in living costs of 20y? during the depression, 
while both weekly and hourly wages in the South have risen to heights 
scarcely dreamed of in -Tro-snerous years. 

b. Accuracy of Results. 

The principal challenge to the accuracy of results in this study 
is simply — are the 672 plants reporting for 1933 and 1934 representative 
of the entire three thousand plants of the Cotton Garment Industry? 

Chart 64 presents the leading wage, hour, and employment comparisons 
of the first 319 and the later 333 reporting plants. It is noticeable 
that the concerns making earlier reports recorded a slightly better 
showing in botn wages and ermloyment. However, the principal compari- 
son among the various products between occupations and by North and 
South were substantially uniform in both studies. If another 1,000 
plants could report 1933 data, the entire picture of the industry 
might be slightly changed in a downward direction so far as wages and 
employment are concerned but the consistency of results between the 
first and second groups of reporting plants is the best proof that this 
sample fairly represented the Cotton Garmant Industry. 

c. Reemployment. 

The labor objectives of the Cotton Garment Code were to create 
employment and improve the welfare of workers. It is fortunate that 
the latter succeeded insofar as the two -rurooses cros-ed each other's 
paths. The Code deliverately -ironosed to reduce drastically prison 
labor, child labor, homework, and above all, the legion of sweated, 
undemaid workers. To register these big gains within four months, 
it was necessary to remove thousands of these substandard workers. 
They have been replaced by fewer, but far higher paid and more pro- 
ductive wage earners. Surely i"t is no tragedy that concerns operating 

9799 



-28- 



54 hours a week and payin c less tlian 10$! an hour one year ago have 
recorded losses in employment. Under 'the necessity of trebling 
wages, these plants were compelled to replace obsolescent mach- 
ines, sub-marginal workers, and inefficient practices by more 
modernized and productive methods of doing business. 

This Code is systematically succeedin in stamping out the 
chiseller, whose only advantage in producing garments was the ability 
to undersell a few cents on each dozen garments by forcing wages still 
lower. 

The wage, hour, child labor, and prison labor provisions 
in the Code discouraged types of undesirable employment existing 
for many years. The depression gave further opportunity for a 
class of sweatshop producers to start factories on a shoe-string 
basis in whatever locality a cheap supply of labor was available. 
Certainly, the achievement of living wage standards is a greater 
goal than the continuation of the type of enroloynent so disgrace- 
ful in the past; 

The normal method of increasing employment since time immemor- 
ial is to expand production. While avera. e hours worked declined 
substantially in every product group within the Cotton Garment In- 
dustry, employment increased only in those groups where ;orodtiction 
expanded. It is folly to assert that production cannot be ex- 
panded when it is realized that only three dress shirts even in 
1929 were sold for each man and boy above fifteen years of age. 

Lost significant is a decline of 4 r /> in the total production 
of all Cotton Garments exclusive of Work Clothing and Work Shirts 
from February, 1933 to 1934, despite the general business revival 
in the intervening period. The decline in production of these Cot- 
ton Garments, higher -Triced than Work Clothing, indicates a lack 
of consumer purchasing power, particularly in middle class groups. 
It was noted that the shorter working week lias resulted in hard- 
ships to skilled employees not protected by the Cotton Garment Code. 
The U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics notes the same failure of 
white collar and skilled workers' wages to rise in practically all 
types of business during this period of increased livin b costs. 
Thus, reemployment may be somewhat beyond the power of the Cotton 
Garment Industry. Ho doubt, it is closely linked to the sales of 
clothing by retail strres. With the exception of two months, the 
unit volume of department store sales in the last year has been 
consistently lower than in the spme months of the previous year. 

Despite the failure to achieve reemployment in the Cotton Garment 
Industry, the Code may be productive in creating employment in other 
industries. The 28p increase in weekly payrolls has given 1 
a reservoir of purchasing power to many small towns in the South and 
Middle West. No doubt the increased volume of sales of chain stores 
and mail order houses in such communities can be directly traced to 
the wage benefits under the Cotton Garment Code. 



9799 



-29- 



Chart 65 is a "bird's-eye view of the variety of changes set in 
motion by the Cotton Garment Cole in payrolls, profit, price, produc- 
tion, hours, material costs, productivity, and employment, all of 
which play a vital role in the lives of two hundred thousand workers 
and a hundred million American consumers of Shirts, Overalls, or 
House Presses. 



9799 



-30- 



COTTQH GAPJ.EMT ELfPLCYLCLTT, WAGES, AND HOURS 
JULY, 1929 to APRIL, 1935 



9799 



-31— 

APPEHDIX 

EXHIBIT A 1/ 

COTTON GARMENT EMPLOYMENT , WAGES AND HOURS 
July 1929 to April 1935 

Alfred Cahen, PH. D. 
Statistician, Cotton Garment Industry 

602 principal companies, including 916 plants, reported 154,927 workers for the 
second week in April, with a payroll of $2,107,459 representing approximately 
three-fourths of the employment in the Cotton Garment Industry. 

1. Employment Index 



April 1935 


100.0 


April 1934 


100.2 


March 1935 


99.2 


July 1933 


102.2 


February 1935 


93.5 


March 1933 


86.7 


January 1935 


84.0 


July 1929 


84.8 



Chart 1 shows that employment in April 1935 remained almost constant compared 
to the preceding month, March 1935, and also compared to the same month one 
year ago r April 1934, However, the number of Cotton Garment workers in April 
1935 exceeds by 18 per cent the July 1929 employment. 

2. Weekly Wages 



April 1935 


$13.52 


April 1934 


$12.39 


March 1935 


13.25 


July 1933 


9.38 


February 1935 


12.97 


March 1933 


8.58 


January 1935 


11.90 


July 1929 


13.25 



During the past year, Cotton Garment weekly wages rose $1.13 per worker over 
April 1954, or an increase of 9.2 per cent compared to a rise of 6.1 per cent 
in living costs by the index of the National Industrial Conference Board. Week 
ly wages advanced in all of the 17 product subdivisions during the past year. 
The weekly pay check of the worker is 27 cents higher than in July 1929 pro- 
viding employee purchasing power due to a fall of 17 per cent in living costs:. 

3 . Weekly Hours 



April 1935 


32.3 


April 1934 


33.9 


March 1935 


31.8 


July 1933 


45.6 


February- 1935 


31.1 


March 1933 


44.4 


January 1935 


29.6 


July 1929 


46.7 



Despite a 10 loer cent legal reduction in hours from April 1934 to April 1935, 
average working hours fell only 4.7 per -cent. 252 of the 602 large companies 
were working longer than 36 hours per week in April 1934 and these concerns 
would be most directly affected in spreading employment under the 36-hour week. 
However, Chart 2 shows that their employment increased only 1,8 per cent though 
their average hours declined 11,8 per cent. 



1/ This Exhibit is presented as prepared by the Code Authority. 
9799 • ' 



4. North, South, and Border Stat es 

In the past year from April 1334 to April 1935, Chart 3 records a slight in- 
crease in employment in the Worth, a small decline in the border states of 
Maryland, District of Columbia, West Virginia, Kentucky, and Southern Missouri, 
and a marked decrease in the southern states. Higher wages in the North cor- 
respond to increases in employment, and sections of the country where lower 
wages were paid one year ago have now lost in employment. 

5. Hourly Earnings 



April 1935 
March 1935 
February 1935 
January 1935 



41.8 cents 


Aoril 1934 


36.4 cents 


41.7 


July 1933 


20.5 


41.6 


March 1933 


19.3 


40.0 


July 1929 


23.4 



Hourly earnings of labor in the Cctton Garment Industry, excluding Sheep lined 
and Leather concerns, remained practically the same as in the preceding month, 
but gained 14.8 per cent over the, same month one year ago exceeding the man- 
datory 11.1 per cent increase required under the 36-hour week. A very sig- 
nificant tendency is shown in Chart 4 that companies paying barely above the 
minimum in April 1934 have lost workers, while concerns averaging considerably 
above the minimum wage one year ago have now gained in employment. Hourly rat' 
of nay increased in all of the 17 product groups between April 1934 and April 
1935. 



6 . First Three Months Under the 36-Hour Week 

February, March and April 1935 under the 36-hour week compared with identical 
months one year ago raider the 40-hour week record declines in weekly hours in 
all three months considerably less than 10 per cent. Increases in average 
hourly earnings in all three months. were greater than 11.1 per cent. No change 
in employment were reported in March and April 1935 compared with the same 
months one year ago. February 1935 was the only month under the 36-hour week 
to record increased employment, namely, 9.5 per cent, over February 1934. Thr 
result is not due to spreading work by shorter hours since average working 
hours have declined only 3.7 per cent from February 1934 to February 1935. The 
expected rise in retail prices of Cotton Garments due to increased labor costs 
from 11.1 per cent advance in wages and increased overhead owing to the 36- 
hour week did not occur according to price indexes of the National Industrial 
Conference Board, the U. S. Bureau of Agricultural Economics, and the Fear- 
child Publications. Cost increases under the 36-hour week were compensated by 
decline in price of cotton cloth so that the consumer of Cotton Garments has 
not experienced rising prices in the past year. Although the 36-hour week 
contemplated no change in weekly wages of workers, nevertheless, the past 
3 months have all recorded fair increases above one year ago in the weekly pay 
checks of Cotton Garment Employees. 



Per Cent 
change s 

Weekly Wage 
Weekly Hours 
Hourly Earnings 
Employment 



April to April 
1934 1955 

+9.2 per cent 
-4.7 
+14.8 
-0.2 



Mar ofa to March 
1934 1935 

+5.8 per cent 
-7.6 
+14.5 
+0.3 



Feb. to Feb. 
1954 1955 . 

+10.6 per cent 
-3.7 
+14.8 

+9.5 



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-38- 
I EDEX 0? TABLES 

Page 

Table 1 - Summary of Wages, Hours, and Employment in 672 Cotton 

Garment Plants 43 

Table 2 - Changes in Hours, 'Wages,' and Employment "for '672 Plants 

From February, 1933 to February, 1934 44 

Table 3 - Wages - , Hours, and -Employment in .672 , Cotton Garment' Plants 
(Excluding Sheep Lined and Leather Wage Data) February, 
1933 and February, 1934 45 

Table 4 - Production in 300 'plants - February, 1933' and 

February, 1934 46 

Table 5 - Percentage- Monthly Changes in Garments Cut and Average 
Value Reported by 226 Plant's for February', July, 
December, 1933 and January, February, 1934 47 

Table 6 - Hours", Wage's," Earnings/ and Employment of 25,242 Operators 
in 406 Plants February, 1933 and February, 1934. Classi- 
fied by Population of Town and by North and South 48 

Table 7 - Composite Changes in Work Clothing aild Work Shirt Plants 

Prior to and Under the Code 49 

Table 8 - Total U. 'S. - Distribution of Hourly Earnings of 2,462 

Cutters in 741 Plants March, 1934 50 

Table 9 - Total U. S. - Distribution of Weekly Wages of 2,462 

Cutters in 741 Plants March, 1934 51 

Table 10 -Weekly Wages, Weekly Hours, and Hourly Earnings of 

Employees in February, 1934 Who Received Above $13.00 

Per Week in February, 1933 52 

Table 11- Changes in Machine Capacity, Employment, and Payrolls 

in 830 Plants, 1929 - 1933 - 1934 53 

Table 12- Machine Capacity, Employment, and Payrolls - Marcn 24, 1934 . . 54 



9799 



-»39- 

INDEX (frff CHARTS 

Number Page 

1. Cotton Garment Code Authority. Geographic Regions and Dis- 

tribution of Plants. May, 1934 55 

2. Distribution of Cotton Garment Plants, Number of Employees, and 

of Total U.S. Urban Population Classified By Size of City ... 56 

: 3. Percentage Distribution of 147,344 Sewing Machines, Ranged Ao- 

cording to Size of 1,376 plants 57 

4. -Percentage Changes in Number of Employees for 672 Plants. 

February, 1933 to February , 1934 58 

5. Percentage Changes in Employment in 672 Cotton Garment Plants, 

February, 1933 to February, 1934 59 

6. Average Weekly Hours in o72 Cotton Garment Plants, February, 

1933 and February, 1S34 60 

7. Distribution of "". eekly Hours in 672 Cotton Garment plants, 

February, 1933 and February, 1934 61 

8. Weekly Hours by Occupations in 672 Cotton Garment Plants, 

February, 1933 and February, 193** 62 

9. Average Weekly Hours Worked by Cutters, Operators, Non-Manufac- 

turing, and Office Employees in 672 Plants. February, 1934... 63 

10. Average Hourly "age Rates in 672 Cotton Garment Plants, 

February, 1933 and February, 1934 64 

11. Hourly Wage Rates by Occupations, February, 1933 and February, 

.1934, 572 -Plants 65 

12. Changes in Weekly Wages by Product and Occupation in 672 Plants, 

February , 1933 to February , 1934 66 

13. Average Weekly Earnings' of Operators in 672 Plants, February, 

1934 67 

14. Production of Cotton Garments in 300 Plants, February, 1933 and 

February , 1934 68 

15. Production, Shipments, and Value Reported by 52 Shirt Plants in 

February , 1933 and February , 1934 69 

16. Percentage Monthly Changes in Production and Average Value of 

Garments in 226 plants. February, July, December, 1933 and 
January, February, 1934 Relative to December, 1933 70 

17. Percentage Changes in Production, Employment, Hourly Earnings 

and Average Value of Garments in 300 Plants. February, 

1933 to February, 1934 71 

9799 



-40- 

IEDEX OF CHARTS 
Number Page 

18. Percentage Changes in Employment and Production for 226 Iden- 
tical Plants in the First Three Months under the Code. Decem- 
ber, 1933 - 100 72 

IS. Changes in Production, Employment anu Average Hours Worked in 
300 Plants classified by Products, February , 1933 to 
February, 1934 73 

20. Changes in Total Garments Cut and Earnings, Hours, Productivity 

and Employment of Operators in 300 Plants from February, 1933 

to February , 1934 74 

21. Changes in Dozens of Garments Cut Per Hour in 230 Plants from 

February, 1933 to January, 1S34 75 

22. Changes in Total Garments Cut and in Earnings, Hours, productiv- 

ity and Employment of Gatters in 300 Plants from February, 

1933 to February, 1934 76 

23. Changes in Employment of Operators in February, 1934 in 672 

Cotton Garment plants Classified by Average Hours Worked in 
February, 1933 77 

24. Changes in Employment and Productivity of Operators in February, 

1934 for 672 Plants '. 78 

25. Average Weekly Hours of Cutters in 405 Plants, February, 1934.. 79 

26. '" r eekly Hours of Gatters and IJon-Lienuf acturing Employees, 

February, 1934 80 

27. Inde:: of Monthly Protraction of Sheep Lined and Leather 

Garment s 81 

28. Production and Labor Comparisons of Cotton Garments with 

Sheep Lined and Leather Garments, February, 1934 82 

29. Percentage Distribution of 1,164 Sheep Lined and Leather Garment 

Employees by Hours Worked in 22 Plants 83 

30. Monthly Changes in Production and Employment in 24 Sheep Lined 

and Leather Garment Plants 84 

31. Percentage Distribution of Kon-Manuf acturing Employees, Classi- 

fied by Average Hours Worked in 405 Plants, 'February, 1934.. 85 

32. Average Weekly Hours and Wage Rates of Operators, Regular, 

Learners and Privileged in 500 Plants., February, 1934 86 

33. proportions of Learner and Privileged Operators Employed in 

February , 1934 87 

34. Percentage Distribution of 489 Cotton Garment Plants Employing 

Learner and privileged Operators, February, 1934 88 

35. Number of Weeks for Learners to Become Regular Operators as 

Estimated by 271 luanufacturers 89 



9799 



-41- 
INDEX OF CHARTS 

Number Page 

36. Comp .site Changes in Brployraent , Weekly Hours, and Weekly and 
Hourly Wages in 5f;7 northern and 115 Southern Plants. 

February, 1935 to February, 1934 90 

37. Hourly Wage Hates in 557 northern Plants and 115 Southern 

Plants "by Products and by Occupations. February, 1934 91 

38. Hourly Wage Rates of Sewing Machine Operators, Second Week 

in December, 1933 92 

39. Hourly Earnings and Weekly Hours of Sewing Machine Operators in 
Northern and Southern Factories Owned by the Sane Concerns. ... 93 

40. Monthly Rentals of White Families in the North and in the 

South. By Size of City, Excluding Suburbs, 1930 94 

41. Ratio of Retail Wages in the South to Retail Wages in the North 95 

42. Changes in Weekly Hours and Productivity of Operators in 212 
Northern and 49 Southern Plants from February, 1933 to 

February, 1934 96 

43. Changes in Wholesale Price and in Material, Labor, and Overhead 

Cost of Overalls, February, 1933 to February, 1934 97 

44. Proportion of Labor, Material, and Overhead Costs to the 
Wholesale Price of Overalls, February, 1933 and Percentage 
Increases, February, 1934 98 

45. Changes in Operator Hours Per Week, Earnings Per Hour, Garments 
Cut Per Hour, and Labor Cost to Value of Product in 76 Work 
Clothing Plants from February, 1933 to February, 1934 99 

46. Hourly Earnings of 2,479 Cutters in 790 Plants, March, 1934 ... 100 

47. Average Hourly Earnings of Cutters in 405 Plants, February, 1934 101 

48. Hourly Earnings of 2,072 Cutters in the North and 407 Cutters 

in the South Classified by Product. March, 1934 102 

49. Percentage Distribution of Cutter's by Weekly Wages in 790 

Plants, March, 1934 103 

50. Average Weekly Wages of Cutters in 405 Plants, February, 1934 . 104 

51. Weekly Wages of 1,731 Cutters in the North and 454 Cutters in 

the South, Classified by Product. March, 1934 105 

52. Weekly Wages of Cutters in 405 Cotton C-arment Plants, 

February, 1933 and February, 1934 106 

53. Average Weekly Wages and Hourly Earnings of 1,130 Cutters in 

358 Plants, March, 1934 107 

9799 



-42- 
IHEBX OF CHARTS 
Number Page 

54. Distribution of Hourly Earnings of Operators in 470 Plants, 

February, 1934 108 

55. Weekly Wages, Weekly Hours, and Hourly Earnings in February, 

1934 of Operators, Grouped by Their Average Weekly Wages 

in February, 1933 , 109 

56. Weekly Wages, Weekly Hours, and Hourly Earnings in February, 

1934 of Cutters, Grouped by Their Average Weekly Wages 

in February, 1933 110 • 

57. Weekly Wages, Weekly Hours, and Hourly Earnings in February, 

1934 of Eon-Manufacturing Employees, Grouped by Their 

Average Weekly Wages in February, 1933 Ill 

58. Weekly Wages, Weekly Hours, and Hourly Earnings in February, 

1934 of Office Employees, Grouped by Their Average 

Weekly Wages in February, 1933 112 

59. Number of Homeworkers Employed by 8C Establishments Among 

1500 Reporting Plants 113 

60. Age Distribution of Homevrorkers Compared to Factory Workers.. 114 

61. Length of Service of Homeworkers Compared to Factory Workers, 

February, 1934 ' 115 

62. Percentage Changes in Em-oloyment, Wages, Payrolls, and Hours 

for 830 Plants, July, 1929 to March, 1934 116 

63. Hourly Earnings and Weekly Wages of Employees in 830 Plants 

on July 1 , 1929 and March 24, 1934". 117 

64. Wages, Hours, and Employment in the First Reporting 319 Plants 

and in the IText Re-porting 353 Plants for Loth February, 

1933 and February," 1934 118 

65. Principal Changes in the Cotton Garment Industry, February, 

1933 to February, 1934 119 



9799 



% ite 1 
sic:,,:"; cm w.^es, il.s and eiployimmtt 

III o72 COTTON G-iiillMi 1 PLANTS. 

FEE. 1933 FEE . 193U Cb CHANGE 

TOTAL EMPLOYEES 63. 359 jt.23 1 ! - 00.2 

First 319 Reporting Plants 26,538 

Next 353 Reporting Plants 36,321 

WEEKLY WAGE $9.40 

First 319 Reporting Plants 9.67 

Next 353 Reporting Plants 9*21 

WEEKLY HOURS Ul.U 

First 319 Reporting Plants 1+0.0 

Next 353 Reporting plants k2.k 

HOURLY EARNINGS 22. Id 

First 319 Reporting Plants 24. 1 

Next 353 Reporting Plants 22.0 

PROPORTION OF EMPLOYEES AT H-0 to 

50 HOURS PER WEEK 38. VS 

First 319 Reporting Plants kk.l 

Next 353 Reporting Plants 3U.O 

PROPORTION OF EMPLOYEES AT Uo 

HOURS PER WEEK 5U.6^ 

First 319 Reporting Plants 39.7 

Next 353 Reporting Plants 30.8 

PROPORTION OF EMPLOYEES OVER 50 

HOURS PER WEEK 13. 6'? 

First 319 Reporting Plants 10.2 

Next 353 Reporting Plants l6.0 

PROPORTION OF EMPLOYEES OFER HO 

HOURS PER WEEK 2.1# 

First 319 Reporting Plants _ 2.2 

Next 353 Reporting Plants 2.0 

(WAGE TOTALS EXCLUDE SHEEP LINED AND LEATHER GARMENT PLANTS) 



27,065 
36,169 


/ 2.0 

- 1.8 


312.07 
12.30 
11.90 


/ 28. k 
/ 27.2 
/ 29.3 


32.5 
32.6 


- 21.5 

- 18.6 


32. k 


- 23. b 


31-1 

36.7 


/ 63.4 
/ 56.U 
/ 67.O 







9799 



-44- 



TABLE 2 
CHANGES III nOIT.S, WAC-ES MD EllFLOYMSiTT SXH £~[2 PLANTS 

zro;. zjbeuahy, 1933 to reaaiiisr, 193U 

weekly Ejoims hourly earnings yyyyly wages fi o t :-^ki ht 

1933 133*1- 1933 193^ I9"ii 1S3J+ s;u/loy:zi'T 

Shirts 39.3 30.3' 21. kf 31 -5<P $S.Ul 11.57 - 6.0J5 

Work Shirts 'lU.3 33. 1 17.9' 33-6 8,00 11.79 /51-8 

Pants 3S-5 32.3 20.2 37-9 7'7S 12. 2k / 7.S 

Boys' Blouses kk.5 30»0 21.9 36-3 9-72 10. SS -lU.5 

Pajamas H5.I 35. 1 21.7 32-9 9-77 13 -6U -17-0 

Sheep-lined & 35.5 2S-2 jjl.4 UlcG 11,12 12. lU -9*7 
Leather 

Miscellaneous 1+1.6 3^.5 26.7 42.2 11.11 lU.56 /I3.U 

Overalls 39o5 33.1 23,5 36=3 3.29 12.01 / 6.U 

Wash Dresses kk.k 33-9 23.3 37-5 10,35 12. 65 - 9.0 



ALL PBODUCTS Ul.4 12.5 22.7$* 37-lf-' 0:'' k ° 12,07 ~00.2;S 
The total for all products excludes Shecp-lineu and Leather Garments. 



9799 



-45- 



TABLE 3 

WAGES, H0U113, AI1D EMPLOYMENT IN 672 COTTON C-ARIiENT PLANTS 
(EXCLUDING SHEEP LINED AND LEATHER I7AG2 DATA) 

3TDRUARY, 1933 and FEBRUARY, 1334 

CLASSIFIED 3Y OCCUPATION 



WEEKLY HOURS 



WEEKLY WAGES 



HOURLY EARNINGS 



CUTTERS 








1933 


44.3 


$23.82 


53-7^ 


193^ 


36.5 


22. 64 


61.9 


-% Change in Employment 


/ 2.6 






OPERATORS 








1933 


38. 3 


$ 7. £2 


19.9* 


1934 


32.0 


II.30 


35.2 


fo Change in Employment 


- 3.3 






NON-MANUFACTURING EMPLOYEES 








1933 


U5.3 


$15.QO 


35-0^ 


1934 


4o.2 


16.91 


42.0 


$ Change in Employment 


/19.9 






OFFICE EMPLOYEES 








1933 


42.5 


$16.78 


39.1+0 


1934 


39-7 


18.01 


45.3 


fo Change in Employment 


- 3-3 






LEARNER-OPERATORS 








1933 


39- 8 


$ 4.i4 


10.4^ 


193^ 


30.0 


7.4i 


24.5 



Proportion to Operators Feb. 1934 4.8$ 

PRI VI LEGED-OPERATORS 

1934 31.0 

Proportion to operators Feb. 1934 5-0$ 

9799 



$ 7.61 



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TABLE 6 

HOURS, WAGES, EARNINGS, AMD EMPLOYMENT OF 25,242 OPERATORS 
IN 406 PLANTS, FEBRUARY, 1935 and FEBRUARY, 1934, CLASSIFIED BY 
POPULATION OF TOWN AND BY NORTH AND SOUTH. 















J6 Change 
















in Em- 






Weekly Hours 


Weekly Wages 


Hourly 


Earnings ployment 


No. of 


POPULATION 


1933 


1934 


1933 1934 


1933 


'1934 


1933-1934 


Plants 


Over 250,000 
















North. 


36.5 


32.8 


$8.89 $12.57 


24.30 


38.30 


-6.6$ 


146 


South 


35.8 


33.2 


6.16 11.60 


18.5 


35.0 


fA.l 


37 


U. S. 


36.4 


32.9 


8.38 12.34 


23.0 


37.5 


-4.2 


183 


100,000 to 250,000 














North 


37.9 


31.7 


$7.15 $11.75 


18.8^ 


37.10 


J-1.& 


36 


South 


28.5 


31.6 


4.41 10.38 


15.5 


32.8 


/•8.9 


9 


u. s. 


36.0 


31.7 


6.59 11.46 


18.3 


36.2 


7^2.8 


45 


50,000 to 100, 


000 














North 


37.2 


32.6 


$8.23 $11.40 


22. If* 


35.00 


-14.9$ 


31 


South 


46.0 


32.9 


10.33 9.15 


22.5 


27.8' 


-12.7 


4 


U. S. 


39.6 


32.7 


8.81 10.80 


22.2 


33.1 


-14.7 


35 


25,000 to 50,000 














North 


35.8 


29.7 


$8.99 $11.77 


25.1^ 


"9.60 


- 5.6$ 


20 


South 


41.3 


31.9 


6.08 10.52 


14.7 


32.9 


/•ll.l 


6 


U. S. 


38.0 


30.7 


7.84 11.24 


20.7 


36.7 


- 0.1 


26 


10,000 to 25,000 














North 


38.9 


30.2 


$7.23 $11.07 


18.60 


36.70 


-14.9$ 


36 


South 


31.7 


30.9 


5.57 9.89 


17.6 


32.0 


/•46.6 


7 


U. S. 


37.7 


30.4 


6.96 10.78 


18.5 


35.5 


- 5.7 


43 


5,000 to 10,000 














North 


43.2 


oo • 


&8.03 $11.99 


18.60 


35.80 


- 1.5$ 


21 


South 


47.7 


30.5 


7.26 9.79 


15.2 


32.1 


- 5.3 


5 


u. s. 


44.0 


33.0 


7.88 11.59 


17.9 


35.2 


— 2 p 


26 


2,500 to 5,000 
















North 


32.8 


31.9 


$7.79 $11.10 


23.80 


34.80 


^21.6$ 


16 


South 


39.0 


32.9 


5.92 10.06 


15.2 


31.1 


- C.l 


8 


U. S. 


36.0 


32.1 


6.81 10.65 


18.9 


33.2 


/• 4.1 


24 


1,000 to 2,500 
















North 


42.2 


33.3 


$7.21 $11.80 


17.10 


35.50 


— 8 . 1)j 


12 


South 


50.0 


32.9 


0.36 10.13 


16.7 


30.8 


/•ll.l 


1 


U. S. 


43.2 


33.2 


7.37 11.11 


17.0 


34.8 


_ R n 


13 


Jndcr 1,000 
















North 


35.5 


24.0 


$8.32 $ 8.43 


23.40 


34.00 


/^113.3$ 


6 


South 


42.9 


31.6 


7.93 9.35 


18.5 


29.5 


/- 33.1 
/• 51.5 


5 


U. S. 


40.6 


28.6 


8.05 8.95 


19.8 


31.2 


11 


TOTAL - North 


38.0 


32.1 


$8.14 $11.85 


21.40 


37.00 


- 5.6 


324 


South 


39.2 


32.2 


6.87 10.39 


17.5 


32.3 


/■ 4.9 


82 


GRAND TOTAL - 


38.3 


32.1 


7.82 11.47 


20.3 


35.7 


- 3.3 


406 


U. S. 
















q^qq 

















-49- 



R-45 



TABLE 7 



COUPOSITE CHAEGES II" WORE CLOTHING AND NOHK SHIRTS 
PLANTS PRIOR TO AND USHER THE CODE. 

■ PE3PJJAPY 1933 « 100 (BASE IIONTH) 



EMPLOYMENT 

WEEKLY HOPES 

HOURLY EARNINGS 

WEEKLY T7AGES 

WHOLESALE PRICE 

COST 0? MATERIAL 

OVERHEAD COST AND 100 
PROI'IT 

PROPORTIOi: OP LABOR 100 
TO VALUE OP PRODUCT 

GARMENTS CUT 100 

CARMEETS SHIPPED 100 

VALUE OP SHIPMENTS 100 

OPEPATOR HOURS PER 100 
WEEK 

OPEPATOR EARITINGS 100 

PEP, HOUR 



PEB.19 


JO 


JULY 1933 


DSC. ] 


933 


JAP. 1934 


PEP. 1334 


100 




126 


94 




119 


120 


100 




113 


67 




71 


83 


100 




94 


149 




159 


157 


100 




107 


101 




113 


131 


100 




114 


155 




155 


155 


100 




117 


168 




169 


171 


100 




110 


139 




137 


134 



PRODUCTIVITY OP 
OPERATORS 



100 



83 



97 



94 



108 



165 



104 



73 



166 



141 



QA 



155 


72 


110 


117 


185 


71 


124 


151 


214 


104 


169 


180 


120 


65 


76 


88 



167 



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-52- ; . . 

TABLE 10 
WEEKLY WAGES, WEEKLY HOURS, AND HOURLY EAHNINGS OF EMPLOYEES 
IK FEBRUARY, 1934 WHO RECEIVED ABOVE $13 PER WEEK 117 FEBRUARY, 1933 

(Sample drawn from 672 Plants) 







PLA1IT AVERAGES 








• 




cutt: 


as 








Actual Weekly Wages 


Weekly 


Wages 


Weekly 


Hours 


Hourly 


Earnings 


February, 1933 


1933 - 


1934 


1933 - 


1934 


1933 - 


1934 


$13 - 14 


$13.65 


$20.43 


41.0 


39.8 


34. 0^ 


51.0?? 


15 - 19 


17.10 


20.32 


46.0 


35.8 


37.7 


57.0 


20 - 24 


21. '76 


20.54 


47.7 


35.6 


45.6 


57.5 


25 - 29 


26.54 


24.00 


45.3 


39.0 


58.4 


61.2 


30 - 34 


31.21 


25.43 


46.7 


37.3 


66.9 


68.2 


35 - .39 


37.43 


25.00 


46.4 


31.1 


80.5 


80.3 


40 - over 


45.54 


43.65 


43.3 


39.9 


94.0 


109.2 






OPERATORS 








$13 - 14 


$13.21 


13.32 


40.0' 


35.3rf 


32. 3<p 


37.6(# 


15 - over 


16.83 


13.20 


43.7 


31.9' 


36.7 


41.3. 




NON 


-IIA1TUFACTURI1IG EMPLOYEES 






$13 - 14 


$13.72 


14.90 


45.2 


38.6 


30.4(2* 


38. 6^ 


15 - 19 


16.18 


17.75 


47.1 


. 42.0 


34.4 


42.3 


20 - 241 


21.76 


19.49 


44.8 


40.0 


48.5 


48.8 


25-35 


29.11 


19.12 


48.1 


40.2 


60.5 


47.6 


• 




OFFICE 


EMPLOYEES 






$13 - 14 


$13.86 


15.85 


44.3 


43.0 


31.3^ 


36.8(£ 


15-19 


16.43 


17.25 


41.2 


38.4 


39.9 


44.9 


20 - 24 


20.93 


20.53 


47.1 


39.4 


44.5 


52.1 


25 - 35 


27.41 


22.23 


43.2 


38.7 


63.5 


57.2 



(In Southern plants the lowest wage class selected was $12 - $14.) 



9799 



-DA- 
TABLE 11 

CHANGES IN MACHINE CAPACITY, EMPLOYMENT AND PAY3DLLS III 83<) PLANTS 

l r J29 - 1933 - 1934 



July 1, 
1929 


March 1, 
1933 


July 1, 
1933 


March. 24, 
1934 


14,893 


107,899 
/ 13.7$ 


110,906 
4- 16. 9) 


114,552 
/ 20.7/, 


72,880 


71,199 


81,733 


79,419 


76.9 


66.0 


73.7 


69.3 


97,139 


94,432 
-2. 8;, j 


110,272 
-/- 13.5$ 


106,390 
-/-9.5$ 



No. of Sewing Machines 
Change since 1929 

Ho. of Sewing Machines 
actually in operation 
',o Capacity 

Total Ho. of Employees 
Change since 1929 

Total Weekly Payroll $1,305,271 $841,426 $1, 075,528 $1,428,934 

Average Weekly Wages $13.44 $8.91 $9.75 $13.43 

Total Machine Hours 3,393,998 3,125,721 3,679,486 3,013,452 

Average Hoxirs worked 47.0 44.0 45.1 37.9 

per week 

Total Man Hours 4,526,795 4,147,314 4,978,521 4,033,718 

Average Hourly Earnings 23. 8f? 20.3^ 22. Lj* 35.4 



9799 



-54- 
TA2LE 12 

MACHINE CAPACITY, EMPLOYMENT AND PAYROLLS - MARCH 24, 1934. 



No. of Sewing Machines 

No. of Sewing Machines 
actually in operation 
Jo Capacity 

Total No. of Employees 

Total Weekly payroll 
Average Weekly Wages 

Machine Hours 

Average Hours v/orked 
per week 

Man Hours 

Average hourly earnings 



U.S. 




1228 PI 


ants 


150, 


505 


103, 


690 


68 


M 



NORTH SOUTH 
968 Plants 260 Plants 



138,553 



$1,852,239 
$13.36 



3,911,516 
37.8 

5,244,267 
35. 3$ 



111,359 

74,432 

66 . 8> 

101,274 

$1,398,182 
$15. j1 



^7.6 



39,146 

29,258 

74. 7 1 

37,284 

$454,057 
$12.18 



2,798,957 1,112,559 



38.0 



3,829,825 1,414,442 
36.5^ 32. If* 



1,111 Plants reporting for "both March 1, 1933 and March 24, 1934 and 
registered an increase of 13.0$ in number of Employees. 

875 Plants in the North reported r.n increase of 15.3$. 

236 Plants in the South reported en increase of 7.0':>. 






9799 



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9799 



CHART J _gr,_ 

PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF 147.344 SEWING 

MACHINES 



RANGED ACCORDING TO SIZE OF 1376 PLANTS 



Percent of 
Sewin& Machines 



Percent of 
Sewing Machines 




o »° 

Sou x- c t •. Pre 1 1 mi warj Re jsovr *, 

9799 



20 30 40 50 40 70 go 90 100 

Percfntof Hants Statistical Pw is ion 

Cotton Garment Cope Authority 
June 8. 193*. 



-58- 







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c 7* 














u 




o 



^ NO 



Uj 






o en 












$ $ ? 

© £ ^ 



^ 








z ? 

a 

o 

<0 



9799 






-62- 



LsJ 



O 



»- 









•3 

-t- 



o 
-t— 



o 




I 



[ 









<9 



«M 



n 4- 



ID 



I 



5-i 



5 

<6 






* 

*: 





9799 



-63- 






UJ 




9799 






-54- 






< 

UJ 



w 



£ 



CO 



8 

U_ 

& - Q 
< oo 

5 UJ 



3 

22 
< 



5 CD 
CC I. i 




9799 



-65- 






00 

O 

| 

o 
o 
o 

- CD 



2 LU 



s 



o 










v. 

«* ^ »> 



4 

IS 
Q 



M 



+. 
« 






t>2 

*» o 
t «k 

O 



9799 



o « 




C J ♦ 

> « ■» 

C 4 " 

o 
^ ^» > 

■9 •» 

it* 



3 



? * 



2 J 

1 
a 



9799 



0£ 



V) 

cr 
o 

< 

a: 

LU 

a. 
o 






a: 
< 

UJ 



UJ 



UJ 
O 
< 

cn 

UJ 



9799 










u 






a 



o 



a 
n 



a 






£* 



>-, 


o 


In 


<y 


a 


<■» 



3 

A 



-68- 



CHART l<t 



PRODUCTION OF COTTON GARMENTS IN 300 
PLANTS, FEBRUARY, 1933 AND FEBRUARY, 1934 



<0000«| 



joo\oao 



+00,000- 



JOOOoO 



Joo.o»o 



/ooooo 



Dozens of Gar»ntnt"S 
Cvt Feb »»*t 

f 600^009 




TOO.OOO 



+oo,oo« 



Joaooo 



2 O0,ooo 



100,000 



io« fct: ProJ»'-t\ori R«»o»fS 

9799 



JTVjy'f. <9J* 



CHART 15 



-69- 



PRODUCTION, SHIPMENTS, AND VALUE REPORTED BY 52 SHIRT PLANTS 
IN FEBRUARY, 1933 AND FEBRUARY, 1934 



GARMENTS CUT 



GARMENTS SHIPPED 



VAiJUE OF SHIPMENTS 



FEB. 
1933 



37)22 



B 



B 



a 



a Be 



B ia 
n f] e 



1 



a Ha 

13 Ie 



SI a 
E 



feb. 

1934 



96,523 



13^ 
3 



B Na 
aid 

E 



FEB. 
1933 



6L425 




e 




s= 



EL 



FEB. 
1934 



79^537 



w 



el 



ID- 





m 




FEB. 
1933 



1322,78ft 



1573,800 



Source : Production Reports 

9799 



EACH 



^ 10,000 DOZEN SHIRTS CUT 



EACH =•=*=« = 10,000 DOZEN SHIRTS SHFVED 



EACH 



= 50,000 DOLLARS 



Statistical Division 
Cotton Garment Code Authority 
AW I IJ3+ 



CHART /6 



-70- 



PERCENTAGE MONTHLY CHANGES IN PRODUC- 
TION AND AVERAGE VALUE OF GARMENTS IN 

226 PLANTS, 

FEB. JULY. DEC J933 AND JAN. FEB., 1934 RaATfVE TO 



Per Cent of 
December 1933 
ioo T 



♦o 



3co 



2C& 



/oo 



too 



6o- 
I9S\ 



DECEMBER, 1933 

GrtRwENTS Gut 



Sh«af>i»n«d8 LeaTK 



_Wo>>< Clothtr^ 

..Gil Products 

S/myJs 

_WosK D>€SS«S 



300 



5oo 




Per Cent of 
December 1933 

T-SOO 



400 



Shet fib htd^i Leaf i\ 

*6rV ClotKmj 

....ail Products 

Sh>rt% 



*<to 



July 
/933 



Oec. 
(933 



Jan. 
193+ 



Teb. 
/93f 



, 99 



S?ot)sticul Diu/ston 
CoMon Got rnent(od« (Jothot&u 

June ^ \9M- 



CHART 17 -71- 



PERCENTAGE CHANGES IN PRODUCTION, 
EMPLOYMEN T, HOURLY EARNINGS. AND 
AVERAGE VALUE OF GARMENTS IN 300 
PLANTS, FEBRUARY, 1933 TO FEBRUARY.I934 



•/o CH^N&t 



-Jo 

l_ 



-10 

— L_ 



-10 

■ 



10 20 



PRODUCTION 



EMPLOYMENT In 

ICHA 




ALL 
PRODUCTS 



*/a INCREASE. 

IO JO OO HO SO CO I© 40 SO IOO 
' ■ I II I I I I I 



VALUE 





wm 




F 1 



» 



o 'p 3,0 JiB y s,o y T 




. 



SHIRTS 



BLOUSES 



PAJAMAS 



OVERALLS 



SHEEP-LINED 
AND LEATHER 



WASH 
DRESSES 



WORK 
SHIRTS 

PANTS 



EARNINGS 
PER HOUR 







9799 



STATISTICAL DIVISION 
COTTON &ARMCNT COt>t AUTHORJTV 
JUNE 5,>^3H 



-72- 



IHAftT 1 6 



200 



ISO 



PERCENTAGE CHANGES IN EMPLOYMENT 
AND PRODUCTION FOR 226 IDENTICAL 
PLANTS IN THE FIRST THREE MONTHS 

UNDER THE CODE 

DECEMBER 1933 * 100 (BASE MONTH) 

ALL PRODUCTS 



(OO 
300 

iso- 



/oo 
goo- 

iso- 



too- 

JOOt 



ISO ■■ 



too 



aoo T 



200- 



/oo 

/JOT 

too 



Dec emb«r 
1933 

rrot/t/chon fle^offi 
9799 



Pro otic now 

EnPLOVMENT 



Work ClorHiN6 



PRODUCTION 
EMPLOYMENT 



k/ASH 0WES5fcS 



Production 

EMPLOYMfNT 



JlHIRTS 



EMPLOYMENT 



PftNTS Production 



Employment 



SHEfcPliWEO fl»D (.t/ITHfR 



PRODUCTION 



JOhfQYC/ 

I93t 



s ISC 



(0 



PRODUCTION ..(jc 



m 



tJcc 



• JOC 




IOC 



Jc 



Statistical Owisio" , 
Colton tinmen* Co J 9 a«tho»' ,y 
June (9 34- 



-73- 



\ 
\ 



X 




9799 







< 



O 



</> 



CO 



1 



CO 
CO 



< 
q: 

CO 
UJ 



9799 




-75- 



o 



en 

CL 



o 




CO 


CO 




Ok 


£ 




•- 

> 


LlJ 

2 


CO 


CL 

< 


t— 




cr 


2 


Z 
-< 


< 


< 




CL 
O 


o 

CO 
CO 




co 




CO 


CM 


>*~ 


2 


Z 


< 


ISI 


— 


cr 


c 




CO 
LU 


o 




U. 


2: 




2 
O 








.c^ 






UJ 






O 







o 




o « 






c 

Q 



O 



c 



£ 



9799 



=1* 

• . •j 

<J o 

a 

o 

vn 



-76- 



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UJ 



o y> 



Q 

o 

Ql co 



<£- L-J T=? 
< 

CO 
UJ 

O 



o 




C a 



e 



11 

v/5 



-77- 



00 



ex. 

< 



UJ 

6 



< 

UJ 




-7 O Q 

Z E x 

oo R 

< r^ 







* 



* $ 






"- Q 




1— LlJ 


12 


z £ 




UJ cr 




2 Q 




Q£ ^ 




< 




O SQ 




(T 





s< 


*• 












>- 



3 




£ > "> 

** o *» 



«0 









■u 

K 

M 

ft 

<S 
+• 

•H 

o 



f\l 



S 



I 






9799 






o 

• « 

a 









-78- 




o 






o 



9799 



cwAflr 25 



-79- 



AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS OF CUTTERS 
IN 405 PLANTS, FEBRUARY, 1934 




9799 



Stohsticql Division 
Cotton Gorment'Cod* dcMortty 
TftQ\f25 /93-f 



-80- 



o 

I 



2 CO 
Q 2 



- en 

ii 



UJ 




o 



Br X 

• 









K 
I 



■2 O 
«1 



V 

5 



<* 



* 
* 



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XL 

UJ 
UJ 



CO 



UJ 



«0 







1 

I 



i, 
•a 



4i 
u 

s. 



9799 



CHART 27 _ 



81- 



INDEX OF MONTHLY PRODUCTION OF SHEEP- 
LINED AND LEATHER GARMENTS 



Pevcentof Dot ma I 

ISO T 



it€> ■■ ■ 



m> •• 



120 -■ 



100 



&o ■■ 



60 ■■ 



10 



20 




Pevcentof formal 

no 



• - 160 



lft?8rol»* TOo^t^ flueruge/ Production ~ IOO \ 



. . /*0 



■- no 



• /oo 



• SO 



I.. 



■• 40 



--_ / 



■ * 1 » 11 1 1 i i 1 i+ 



60 



20 



9799 



Jin. f€b. m»n.h Qf+\ flby June Ji/t^ (li^. SepT, Oct. Jlov Oec. 

5tqt/st"'ca2 Dli/'S/on 
Cotton 6cirnic«J' (We llt/thont 



Source: V> Cfcns^S, fflonthty 

Prod (/<: I ic n D ecor</s 



< 

o 

o 

o 
u 

o 

00 



"a: 

o 
o 

cr 
o 

CD 

< 

< 



CO 

a: 
< 

a: 

GO 

LU 
Ll. 

00 



O UJ 



< 

o 

a: 

UJ 



< 

UJ 



*2 3 




IS 

on 



Dl 



P 

z 

z 

z 
o 

0- 
O 

-I 



x 

J 
a 
z 
< 

o 

UJ 

z 
3 
a. 

u 

Ui 




Q 

LU 




g 

i— 

Q 
O 

cr 
a. 



a. 

LU 
LU 

00 




9799 



a: oo 

LU 



-83- 



LU 



CL 



Q 


CNJ 


Z 


CN 


< 




Q 


z: 


UJ 




2: 


Q 


1 


LU 


CL 


*1 


UJ 


a: 


LU 





X 
00 


£ 


*<* 

<v r 


00 


1— 


Z) 


< U_ 


O 


6 O 




O 


> 

CD 


1— 




3 


00 


en 


LU 


(T 


LU 


\— 


> 


00 


O 


n 


_l 




CL 


LU 


2 





LU 


< 




h- 


1— 


V 


^: 


LU 


LU 


O 


> 


cn 


QC 


LU 


< 


Q_ 


O 




a 



u 



z 

3 



>- 

< 

C* 
CO 
U 
Ll 



X 

u 

< 

Z 



9799 



-84- 




9799 



CHART 31 



-85- 



PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF NON -MANUFACTURING 

EMPLOYEES, CLASSIFIED BY AVERAGE HOURS WORKED 

IN 405 PLANTS, FEBRUARY, 1934 




Per lent of J)Qn-f)\ahutQ<tvttny krn^/oyces 
Source :Puuroll f?e/aorts 



9799 



StytisiXul DlH^/Or] 
Cotton Current Co«J< (U'tliori/y 







Si' 

«« • 



^ 






o 



4 
► 
o 



9799 



-87- 



O 



ro 



<& 









Q CO 







«= a 
Q 



c 



o 

CO 

O 

Q= 
O 

O 

a! 




o 



9799 






a) 

H 

i 

4 



<S) 



-88- 







CO 



8 



< 

en 
o 

Q 
UJ 

O 



■c 



OS 
O Q 



CD 

a: 

i— 
to 

Q 
UJ 



a: 

UJ 

o 



oQ 




0-» 



o v is? 

sz -J *n 

"1 f ■.! Q 

• * — 

•*" 

••• . 

• • • ■ 
•* * ' 

• •• 

• •• ~~" 






> 

<3 




3< I 

•o z o 






-2: 

a- 














Si 



-2 

0. 



v. 
o <a 

61 Z 



- f- r- 

9 M 

*- s 



o 



Cte 



4 
•J 

S 
O 



9799 




t- 
5 
o 

X 
t- 

*:* 

Z "i 

St 



V v 

- V 

•Sv 




V- 



n 



2*5 

3 * 

of' 



wtf£ 





S -<H2"|0 




o o ^ 



•*- 








~ i> 


w> 






5 


5 






^ J 






^ 




M 


4* 


*» 


k 


^ 


«*> 






•s 


2 *-» 






*X 


►■ ^ 


< 


k 




ik 

5 


0: 
<•> 


<o 




«o 




-t 








k 


-4 




«0 


> 


5 


> 


T 




"^ 


k 








<0 


^» 


5 




k 


k 







Q 

* 
^ 



k 



. k" 
*£ 



la 

*£ 

O k 

k ;» 
►- r 

o 

2^ 




-91- 



OS 

<c 

X 



8 



o 



o 

•J 



o 



o 

H 



I 



I 



[ 




is; 

211 



CO CD 

Si 

^ LU 






ID 





QC 
O 




o * r 



i 

"SI 



4 



I 

SJ 

I 



42 

*1 



? 

5 






-S 



3 



ft 
^ 

?•£ 
25 5 

X. 

s. 
o 



V. 

o 
<s 



o 

4 



a, 

I. 







St 






979c 



-92- 










9799 



-93- 



TO 



31 




- fi £ 
♦3 ? 

o 



a: s 
O o 
2 co 



ID 



-^ o E 



o 

CO 



9799 



-94- 




9799 



-95- 




9799 



-96- 






8 



-4 ♦- 



O 
r4 

-4— 



2 

-+- 



f 



o 
o 
cr: 
o. 




o 

7 



* * 



QO 






k. CO 



6 



UJ 
O 



O 






ro 



i £ 



3 
O 



Of 



Dl 



£4 — 

— Ul. 

CTuZ 



^ O 






<9 

O 




o 



' e 



<5 

go. 



H 

-« m o 



o 






3- 










o 
or 



§ 



O 
I 



o 
<v 
t 



8 

I 



f 



5£ o= 
► 2 

O 



9799 



-97- 



CHART I- 3 



CHANGES IN WHOLESALE PRICE AND IN 
MATERIAL, LABOR, AND OVERHEAD COST OF 
OVERALLS, FEBRUARY, I933 TO FEBRUARY, I934 



Percentage of 
Feb. 1933 



Percentage of 
re b 1933 



no 



160 



150 



140 



130 



IZO 



I/O 



I0O 




Feb 



IZO 



■ no 



/933 



Source Re pi /es of '7 Overall rlanthcturers 
to IACM Questionnaire on Cost 
g79 g Tncrefies, February , 2/ 1934 



, ■ ■ l/oo 

X>ecl Feb 

1934 

Stdtisticd/ Service Bureau 
395 Brort**,. NYC 
3 2Z-34 



-88- 




9799 



CHART 4-5 



-99- 



CHANGES IN OPERATOR HOURS PER WEEK, 
EARNINGS PER HOUR, GARMENTS CUT PER 
HOUR, AND LABOR COST TO VALUE OF PRO- 
UCT IN 76 WORK CLOTHING PLANTS FROM 
FEBRUARY 1933 TO FEBRUARY 1934 



*oo 



tSQ ' 



/oo 




T 20O 



ISO 



so 



Labor Prop 
Value of Pfiooucr 



NWoorsPea/ 



Feb. 
1933 



—» — 
Jvly 
1933 



+ 



ioo 



+So 



6ource : PauroU o*d 



9799 



Dec, Jan. Ftb. 
1933 19 Jt »9M- 

Siqfcisi'icql DiViiicrt 

Cotton Guvmfe»>"t Ccdt lit/ then fr\i 

Ji/neJ I93t 



o k. jf 



o 
o 



< 

Q. 
O 



J- 



-100- 

8 

I 



8 

rv 

-4- 



8 





CO 






cr 






UJ 






jz 


<*- 




-^> 


co 


\s 


o 


o> 


^~ 




■^■* 


c 
< 
X 








CM 


cr 
< 




U. 


2 




o 






00 






o 






2 






Z 






cr 






< 








3 



o 



c — 

5 



a 



9799 






r 



T 



* s 

vj O 






a Li «vj 

P 

o 



-O 



e£ 

K O 

31 



8 



C/7 
< 

a! 

m 
o 



a: 
o 



CO 
UJ 



o 



-101- 






<4* 
O 

k 
5. 



5 

^ 



u- § 




?o - [ 




I| I' 




— — "" ") 




S ct: 




Q£ aD 




$ K 




> 








a! 




~^ 




o 




^ 




LU 




o 




< 




CL 


"^ 


UJ 


O 


> 


t 


< 






ft 


9799 


^ 




o 









4* 

* ** 

Ck ^ -» 



"J 
<0 

••O 



41 
c 
«l 

6 

v. 
« 









•0 






-0 

a. 



o 

^ 






O 
V) 



o 



CO 









O ^ 
Q ^ 

^ AC 



Q. 



t y 

CM < 

8° 



CO O 

J3 oo 



2£ 

S 5 



or 



8 




2 ^2 



*2* 

c 

♦3 
o 






9799 



-103- 






I 




(J 



g 



ii 



o 

o 



I 



9799 



-104- 

Ch&rt JO 



AVERAGE WEEKLY WAGES OF CUTTERS IN 
405 PLANTS, FEBRUARY, 1934 



Hmmber of Pltnt* 
tor 



to.. 



7«-- 



to- 



■So-- 



n>-- 



jo.. 



U- 



10' • 



Hunitr if Hint* 
1>» 



-■00 



. .?» 



. .<« 



• ft 



• fc 



..$t> 



'It 



. .10 



Vnitr ho ho - *ie flS -^iO ho - hs hs •**> *ao- hs *3S - ■ffO Ho - HS '+S- fo Ovr <» 

Ooll*.r-j pmr W*oK 



Source: fajro/l and 

Pro JvcttOT) ftaports 



9799 



Stttisttcil Division 

Cotton (rdi-meat Coolt Authority 

n*j z, nit 



-105- 
CHART.T/ 



WEEKLY WAGES OF 1731 CUTTERS IN THE 
NORTH AND 454 CUTTERS IN THE SOUTH 
CLASSIFIED BY PRODUCT MARCH, 1934 



NORTH 

] South 




/o is 

Dpi l AffS PER WEEK 



9799 



Statistical Division 
Cotton 6qrmet\t Code Clvtho-nty 
7T]<Jy U, /93 + 



CHART 62 -106- 

WEEKLY WAGES OF CUTTERS IN 405 COTTON GARMENT 
PLANTS, FEBRUARY, 1933 AND FEBRUARY, 1934 

K 

1914- 1 3 

DOLLARS PER. WEEK 
IF lb 17 16 I? 20 £1 11 13 2H iS 21 LI 28 29 ZO 31 31 33 34 3S 

l — i — i — n — i i i — i r i i i i t i i i ii i r 




. 




B 



ALL PLANTS 
(EXCLUim SHEEP 

LINED MP LEATHER) 



SHIRTS 



RAJ A fl AS 



OVERALLS 



WORK SHIRTS 



SHEEP LINED 
AND LEATHER 



SOURCE-. PAYROLL AND 
PRODUCTION REPORTS 



PANTS 

HASH DRESSES 




MISCELLANEOUS 



STATISTICAL DIVISION 

COTTON GARMENT 
COPE AUTHORITY 
WAY /+, 193 f 



9799 






CHART 53 



-107- 



AVERAGE WEEKLY WAGES AND HOURLY EARNINGS OF 
1130 CUTTERS IN 358 PLANTS. MARCH, 1934 



NORTH 

(EXCLUDING NEW YORK CITY) 



SOUTH 




WEEKLY 
WAGES 



HOURLY 
EARNINGS 




WEEKLY 
WAGES 



HOURLY 
EARNINGS 






$2015 



48<t 




9799 



STATISTICAL DIVISION 
COTTON GARMENT CODE AUTHORITY 
MAY 24 1934 



-108- 






(X. 

x 



CO 
O 






CO 



q: 
< 

cr 

CO 
00 





97 19 



-109- 






8 



i»5 






or 
O 



3 
o 



o 



0> 



5f 



o 
CO 



s 






o w 

— c o 



<•> 



s 



o 



tr 

> 
o 
X 



> 



ft $ 


r 
i 


o 

3- 
i 


to o 


J! 








-X 








3 
















o 










a y 


< 




JO 






. 


^ r— 


i ^ 
m 

T 











5 ^ 



Cj» C*. 



2 
5 



n 



p 



5 * 
^ u 



i * 

»■ c 

o — 

a. *~ 

s 2 



9739 



-110- 





o 



c 
o 



a « - 



*- £ 

C 
o 

4— > 

o 



™> ^ * rjs 

~ « Q ^ 



^ <* U* 

?8 " 



"> T "T 

U or) Vi 

1 







A* 



02 u 



5 £ 

ji 






-111- 




970G 



-112- 



< 
X 




•» * 

M 

o 
o 



•9 

€* 



3 



O Q 



a 
2 



(0 O 



> * 



?2 

a: <r 
© o 



o r 



f 



3 

4) O 

e 






CHAflT S9 _ li3 _ 

NUMBER OF HOMEWORKERS EMPLOYED BY 
80 ESTABUSHMENTS AMONG 1500 REPORTNG 

PLANTS 



Ji/<.y, /933 



February, /9.3 V- 
/lib Home workers 



\/s\ COLLAR A/VO ^UFF TURNER! 



Jlurce HomvuJork Peparti 




C ot ton 6a r mtnf- C ado Authority 
HO Worth S4r**+, A/.y.L. 
Apr,/ /93Y 



9799 



-114- 





Q 






LJ 






a: 






< 






CL 






2 






o 






o 


oo 




oo 


a: 




cc 


UJ 




UJ 


*: 


^ 


x: 


cr 


N3 


(Z 


o 




o 


£ 


n: 


UJ 

2 


ct 




o 


o 



99 

i— 

oo 
Q 



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HOURLY EARNINGS AND WEEKLY WAGES OF EMPLOYEES IN 830 
PLANTS ON JULY I. 1929 AND MARCH 24. 1934 




SOURCE QUESTIONNAIRE ON 
MACHME CAPACITY. 

EMPLOYMENT. AND PAYROLLS 
9799 



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COTTON GARMENT CODE AUTHORITY 
JUNE I 1934 



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OFFICE OF THE NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION 
THE DIVISION OF REVIEW 

THE WORK OF THE DIVISION OF REVIEW 

Executive Order No. 7075, dated June 15, 1935, established the Division of Review of the 
National Recovery Administration. The pertinent part of the Executive Order reads thus: 

The Division of Review shall assemble, analyze, and report upon the statistical 
information and records of experience of the operations of the various trades and 
industries heretofore subject to codes of fair competition, shall study the ef- 
fects of such codes upon trade, industrial and labor conditions in general, and 
other related matters, shall make available for the protection and promotion of 
the public interest an adequate review of the effects of the Administration of 
Title I of the National Industrial Recovery Act, and the principles and policies 
put into effect thereunder, and shall otherwise aid the President in carrying out 
his functions under the said Title. I hereby appoint Leon C. Marshall, Director of 
the Division of Review. 

The study sections set up in the Division of Review covered these areas: industry 
studies, foreign trade studies, labor studies, trade practice studies, statistical studies, 
legal studies, administration studies, miscellaneous studies, and the writing of code his- 
tories. The materials which were produced by these sections are indicated below. 

Except for the Code Histories, all items mentioned below are scheduled to be in mimeo- 
graphed form by April 1, 1936. 

THE CODE HISTORIES 

The Code Histories are documented accounts of the formation and administration of the 
codes. They contain the definition of the industry and the principal products thereof; the 
classes of members in the industry; the history of code formation including an account of the 
sponsoring organizations, the conferences, negotiations and hearings which were held, and 
the activities in connection with obtaining approval of the code; the history of the ad- 
ministration of the code, covering the organization and operation of the code authority, 
the difficulties encountered in administration, the extent of compliance or non-compliance, 
and the general success or lack of success of the code; and an analysis of the operation of 
code provisions dealing with wages, hours, trade practices, and other provisions. These 
and other matters are canvassed not only in terms of the materials to be found in the files, 
dux also in terms of the experiences of the deputies and others concerned with code formation 
and administration. 

The Code Histories, (including histories of certain NRA units or agencies) are not 
mimeographed. They are to be turned over to the Department of Commerce in typewritten form. 
All told, approximately eight hundred and fifty (850) histories will be completed. This 
number includes all of the approved codes and some of the unapproved codes. (In W ork 
Material s No 1J3, Content s of Code Histries, will be found the outline which governed 
the preparation of Code Histories.) 

(In the case of all approved codes and also in the case of some codes not carried to 
final approval, there are in NRA files further materials on industries. Particularly worthy 
of mention are the Volumes I, II and III which constitute the material officially submitted 
to the President in support of the recommendation for approval of each code. These volumes 
9768—1. 



set forth the origination of the code, the sponsoring group, the evidence advanced to sup- 
port the proposal, the report of the Division of Research and Planning on the industry, the 
recommendations of the various Advisory Boards, certain types of official correspondence, 
the transcript of the formal hearing, and other pertinent matter. There is also much offi- 
cial information relating to amendments, interpretations, exemptions, and other ruling3. The 
materials mentioned in this paragraph were of course not a part of the work of the Division 
of Review. ) 

THE WORK MATERIALS SERIES 

In the work of the Division of Review a considerable number of studies and compilations 
of data (other than those noted below in the Evidence Studies Series and the Statistical 
Material Series) have been made. These are listed below, grouped according to the char- 
acter of the material. (In Work M aterials Njj. 17, Tentati ve Outlines and Summaries of 
Studies in P rocess , these materials are fully described). 

I ndustry Studi es 

Automobile Industry, An Economic Survey of 

Bituminous Coal Industry under Free Competition and Code Regulation, Economic Survey of 

Electrical Manufacturing Industry, The 

Fertilizer Industry, The 

Fishery Industry and the Fishery Codes 

Fishermen and Fishing Craft, Earnings of 

Foreign Trade under the National Industrial Recover., Act 

Part A - Competitive Position of the United States in International Trade 1927-29 through 
1934. 

Part B - Section 3 (e) of NIRA and its administration. 

Part C - Imports and Importing under NRA Codes. 

Part L - Exports and Exporting under NRA Codes. 
Forest Products Industries, Foreign Trade Study of the 
Iron and Steel Industry, The 
Knit Ling Industries, The 
Leather and Shoe Industries, The 

Lumber and Timber Products Industry, Economic Problems cf the 
Men's Clothing Industry, The 
Millinery Industry, The 
Motion Picture Industry, The 
Migration of Industry, The: The Shift of Twenty-Five Needle Trades From New York State, 

1926 to 1934 

National Labor Income by Months, 1929-35 

Paper Industry, The 

Production, Prices, Employment and Payrolls in Industry, Agriculture and Railway Trans- 
portation, January 1923, to date 

Retail Trades Study, The 

Rubber Industry Study, The 

Textile Industry in the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, and Japan 

Textile Yarns and Fabrics 

Tobacco Industry, The 

Wholesale Trades Study, The 

Women's Neckwear and Sc?rf Industry, Financial and Labor Data on 

9758—2 



- Ill - 

Women's Apparel Industry, Some Aspects of the 

T rade P ractic e Stu dies 

Commodities, Information Concerning: A Study of NRA and Related Experiences in Control 
Distribution, Manufacturers' Control of: Trade Practice Provisions in Selected NRA Codes 
Distributive Relations in the Asbestos Industry 
Design Piracy: The Problem and Its Treatment Under NRA Codes 
Electrical Mfg. Industry: Price Filing Study 
Fertilizer Industry: Price Filing Study 

Geographical Price Relations Under Codes of Fair Competition, Control of 
Minimum Price Regulation Under Codes of Fair Competition 
Multiple Basing Point System in the Lime Industry: Operation of the 
Price Control in the Coffee Industry 
Price Filing Under NRA Codes 
Production Control in the Ice Industry 
Production Control, Case Studies in 

Resale Price Maintenance Legislation in the United States 

Retail Price Cutting, Restriction of, with special Emphasis on The Drug Industry. 
Trade Practice Rules of The Federal Trade Commission (1914-1936) : A classification for 
comparison with Trade Practice Provisions of NRA Codes. 

Labor Studies 

Cap and Cloth Hat Industry, Commission Report on Wage Differentials in 

Earnings in Selected Manufacturing Industries, by States, 1933-35 

Employment, Payrolls, Hours, and Wages in 115 Selected Code Industries 1933-35 

Fur Manufacturing, Commission Report on Wages and Hours in 

Hours and Wages in American Industry 

Labor Program Under the National Industrial Recovery Act, The 

Part A. Introduction 

Part B, Control of Hours and Reemployment 

Part C. Control of Wages 

Part D. Control of Other Conditions of Employment 

Part E. Section 7(a) of the Recovery Act 
Materials in the Field of Industrial Relations 
PRA Census of Employment, June, October, 1933 
Puerto Rico Needlework, Homeworkers Survey 

A dministrativ e Studi es 

Administrative and Legal Aspects of Stays, Exemptions and Exceptions, Code Amendments, Con- 
ditional Orders of Approval 

Administrative Interpretations of NRA Codes 

Administrative Law and Procedure under the NIRA 

Agreements Under Sections 4(a) and 7(b) of the NIRA 

Approve Codes in Industry Groups, Classification of 

Basic Code, the — (Administrative Order X-61) 

Code Authorities and Their Part in the Administration of the NIRA 
Part A. Introduction 
Part B. Nature, Composition and Organization of Code Authorities 

9768—2. 



Part C. Activities of the Code Authorities 

Part D. Code Authority Finances 

Part E. Summary and Evaluation 
Code Compliance Activities of the NRA 
Code Making Program of the NRA in the Territories, The 
Code Provisions and Related Subjects, Policy Statements Concerning 
Content of NIRA Administrative Legislation 

Part A. Executive and Administrative Orders 

Part B. Labor Provisions in the Codes 

Part C. Trade Practice Provisions in the Codes 

Part D. Administrative Provisions in the Codes 

Part E. Agreements under Sections 4(a) and 7(b) 

Part F. A Type Case: The Cotton Textile Code 
Labels Under NRA, A Study of 

Model Code and Model Provisions for Codes, Development of 

National Recovery Administration, The: A Review of its Organization and Activities 
NRA Insignia 

President's Reemployment Agreement, The 

President's Reemployment Agreement, Substitutions in Connection with the 
Prison Labor Problem under NRA and the Prison Compact, The 
Problems of Administration in the Overlapping of Code Definitions of Industries and Trades, 

Multiple Code Coverage, Classifying Individual Members of Industries and Trades 
Relationship of NRA to Government Contracts and Contracts Involving the Use of Government 

Funds 
Relationship of NRA with States and Municipalities 
Sheltered Workshops Under NRA 
Uncodified Industries: A Study of Factors Limiting the Code Making Program 

Lsga.1 Studies 

Anti-Trust Laws and Unfair Competition 

Collective Bargaining Agreements, the Right of Individual Employees to Enforce 

Commerce Clause, Federal Regulation of the Employer-Employee Relationship Under the 

Delegation of Power, Certain Phases of the Principle of, with Reference to Federal Industrial 
Regulatory Legislation 

Enforcement, Extra-Judicial Methods of 

Federal Regulation through the Joint Employment of the Power of Taxation and the Spending 
Power 

Government Contract Provisions as a Means :f Establishing Proper Economic Standards, Legal 
Memorandum on Possibility of 

Industrial Relations in Australia, Regulation of 

Intrastate Activities Which so Affect Interstate Commerce as to Bring them Under the Com- 
merce Clause, Cases on 

Legislative Possibilities of the State Constitutions 

Post Office and Post Road Power — Can it be Used as a Means of Federal Industrial Regula- 
tion? 

State Recovery Legislation in Aid of Federal Recovery Legislation History and Analysis 

Tariff Rates to Secure Proper Standards of Wages and Hours, the Possibility of Variation in 

Trade Practices and the Anti-Trust Laws 

Treaty Making Power of the United States 

War Power, Can it be Used as a Means of Federal Regulation of Child Labor? 

9768—4. 



- V - 

THE E VIDENCE STUDIES SERIES 

The Evidence Studies were originally undertaken to gather material for pending court 
cases. After the Schechter decision the project was continued in order to assemble data for 
use in connection with the studies of the Division of Review. The data are particularly 
concerned with the nature, size and operations of the industry; and with the relation of the 
industry to interstate commerce. The industries covered by the Evidence Studies account for 
more than one-half of the total number of workers under codes. The list of those studies 
follows: 



Automobile Manufacturing Industry 
Automotive Parts and Equipment Industry 
Baking Industry 

Boot and Shoe Manufacturing Industry 
Bottled Soft Drink Industry 
Builders' Supplies Industry 
Canning Industry 
Chemical Manufacturing Industry 
Cigar Manufacturing Industry 
Coat and Suit Industry 
Construction Industry 
Cotton Garment Industry 
Dress Manufacturing Industry 
Electrical Contracting Industry 
Electrical Manufacturing Industry 
Fabricated Metal Products Mfg. and Metal Fin- 
ishing and Metal Coating Industry 
Fishery Industry 

Furniture Manufacturing Industry- 
General Contractors Industry 
Graphic Arts Industry 
Gray Iron Foundry Industry 
Hosiery Industry 

Infant's and Children's Wear Industry 
Iron and Steel Industry 



Leather Industry 

Lumber and Timber Products Industry 
Mason Contractors Industry 
Men's Clothing Industry 
Motion Picture Industry 
Motor Vehicle Retailing Trade 
Needlework Industry of Puerto Rico 
Painting and Paperhanging Industry 
Photo Engraving Industry 
Plumbing Contracting Industry 
Retail Lumber Industry 
Retail Trade Industry 
Retail Tire and Battery Trade Industry 
Rubber Manufacturing Industry 
Rubber Tire Manufacturing Industry 
Shipbuilding Industry 
Silk Textile Industry 
Structural Clay Products Industry 
Throwing Industry 
Trucking Industry 
Waste Materials Industry 
Wholesale and Retail Food Industry 
Wholesale Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Indus- 
try 
Wool Textile Industry 



THE STATISTICAL MATERIALS SERIES 



This series is supplementary to the Evidence Studies Series. The reports include data 
on establishments, firms, dmployment. Payrolls, wages, hours, production capacities, ship- 
ments, sales, consumption, stocks, prices, material costs, failures, exports and imports. 
They also include notes on the principal qualifications that should be observed in using the 
data the technical methods employed, and the applicability of the material to the study of 
the industries concerned. The following numbers appear in the series: 
9768—5. 



- Ti - 

Asphalt Shingle and Roofing Industry Fertilizer Industry 

Business Furniture Funeral Supply Industry 

Candy Manufacturing Industry Glass Container Industry 

Carpet and Rug Industry Ice Manufacturing Industry 

Cement Industry Knitted Outerwear Industry 

Cleaning and Dyeing Trade Paint, Varnish, and Lacquer, Mfg. Industry 

Coffee Industry Plumbing Fixtures Industry 

Copper and Brass Mill Products Industry Rayon and Synthetic Yarn Producing Industry 

Cotton Textile Industry Salt Producing Industry 

Electrical Manufacturing Industry 

THE COVERAGE 

The original, and approved, plan of the Division of Review contemplated resources suf- 
ficient (a) to prepare some 1200 histories of codes and NRA units or agencies, (b) to con- 
solidate and index the NRA files containing some 40,000,000 pieces, (c) to engage in ex- 
tensile field work, (d) to secure much aid from established statistical agencies of govern- 
ment, (e) to assemble a considerable number of experts in various fields, (f) to conduct 
approximately 25J more studies than are listed above, and (g) to prepare a comprehensive 
summary report. 

Because of reductions made in personnel and in use of outside experts, limitation of 
access to field work and research agencies, and lack of jurisdiction over files, the pro- 
jected plan was necessarily curtailed. The most serious curtailments were the omission of 
the comprehensive summary report; the dropping of certain studies and the reduction in the 
coverage of other studies; and the abandonment of the consolidation and indexing of the 
files. Fortunately, there is reason to hope that the files may yet be cared for under other 
auspices. 

Notwithstanding these limitations, if the files are ultimately consolidated and in- 
dexed the exploration of the NRA materials will have been sufficient to make them accessible 
and highly useful. They constitute the largest and richest single body of information 
concerning the problems and operations of industry ever assembled in any nation. 

L. C. Marshall, 
Director. Division of Review. 
9768—6. 



"