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BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 9999 06542 013 3 



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IIATIONAI P^COVEHY Aa.IIlIISTEATIOH 
Division OF REVIEW 



THE EIGHT OF IlIDIVIDUAL EI.IPLOlllSS TO ENFORCE 
PROVISIONS OF COLLECTIVE Bi\RGAINING AGREELIENTS 

BY 
Richard C, Marshall 



work: liATElilALS NO. 2: 




Lahor Studies Section 
Decenber, 1955 



9360 



C 1\I F I D E IT T I A L 

LIELIOH/li;DUl,! TO: SECTION HEADS December 30, 

19 3 5 
SUBJECT: V;02i: ivlATEHIALS NO. 23 

TEE RIGHT OE INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYEES TO EUPOSCE 
PROVISIONS OF COLLECTIVE EARGiUNING AGREEI^/IENTS 

03.11 r preliminary draft the TKS RIGHT OF INDIVIDUAL 
ELiPLOYEES TO ENFORCE PROVISIONS OF COLLECTIVE BARGAINING 
AGREEI-IENTS "oy Richard C, Marshall is made available for 
confidentio.l use Vi/ithin the Division of Reviev/ because 
of its usefulness in connection v/ith other studies. 

It is a preliminary draft — an erzploration of the 
field as a. basis for further vrork. Not gJ.1 material in 
it has as yet ''oQQn verified and checked, nor does it 
present a full3/- ro-andod treatment of the subject. 



L. C, Marshall 
Director, Division of Revieu 



9360 



13 My 35 g 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

Boston Public Library 



http://www.archive.org/details/workmaterials23unit 



-1„ 

THE EIGHT CF INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYEES TO EM'ORCE DROVISIONG OP 
COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AGREEiuENTS 

The importance of "i;:)ermitting the individual emrloyee to enforce -orovi*? 
sions of collective "bargaining agreements in beyond question. Yet, until 
a little over a decade ago, the individual employee was virtually powerless 
to enforce such provisions even for his "benefit in the courts. It mattered 
not thot his union and his employer had solemnly signed the most formidatlP 
appearing document their lawyers could create, the courts, with "but few ex- 
ceptions, refused the individual employee the pov/er to enforce its provisions. 
Often the individual employee was refused recovery even though the court 
agreed tha.t the contract was perfectly valid. Since 1920, however, a marked 
reverse in this attitude has taken place until today recovery is permitted 
in over seventy-five percent (75^) of the States that have considered the 
question, pjid often the individual employee is permitted to recovery accord- 
ing to the terms of the agreement even though the court say the agreement it- 
self is not a valid contract. 

Thus, we have a situation where one state court v/ill deny the individual 
employee a recovery when the contract is perfectly valid and "binding as "be- 
tween the employer and the union while the neigh'boring state court will hold 
the contract a mere scrap of paper and yet permit the individual employee to 
recover according to its terms. 

The union and the employer enter into an agreement which nearly alv/ays 
sets forth the wages of the employees and the hours that they shall work, and 
often contains other provisions, such as the right to a hearing "before "being 
discharged. If an employee has not "been treated in the way this agreement 
provides that he shall "be treati^d, common sense would seem to dictate that 
the courts would lend their power to compel the employer tn a'bide hy it. 

Despite the earlier hostile attitude, the present trend is very definite- 
ly in favor of permitting enforcemeiit "by the individual and some courts have 
gone so fa<,r as virtually to reverse themselves and now permit recovery where 
it was formerly denied. 

A striking example of this trend is shown "by the decisions of the Starts 
of Arkansr;,s in the case of the St. L/'uis Railway Co. v. Matthews , 64 Ark, 
398, 42 S. V^', 9C;2 and Moody v. Model T7indow Glass Comp any, 145 Ark. 197, 224 
S. W, 436, The Matthews case was decided in 1397, the Moody case in 1920, 
In the Matthews case, the plaintiff belom' sought enforcement of the provisions 
of a contract "between the railroad company, the defendant "below, and the 
la.hor union, of which he was a memher, which provided that no employer should 
"be .discharged "by the railroad company without having first "been given a hear- 
ing on the reasons for his discharge and an opportunity to show that the 
reasons were untrue. The railroad company reserved the right for final deci- 
sion in all cases. The court, in its opinion, stated that since Mattherrs had 
not agreed to work for any length of time and could quit v/henever he decided, 
that the railroad company was at li"berty to discharge him at will, and con- 
sequently was not o"bliged to give him the hearing. Thus, the court decided 
tha.t the contract was without consideration and void. In the Moody case, the 
def endixnt wrote the plaintiff, who lived some distance away, and asked him 
to come to the defendant's plaxt and that work would "be available for him, 

9360 



-2- 

The plaintiff v^rote in reply that ho would come. Upon the plaintiff *s 
arrival rt the plaint he was informed that no work was available. The plain~ 
tiff sued on a provision in a contract "between the union, of which he was 
a member, .DZid the defendant which provided that in such cases the defendant 
should be ;oaid at the rate of twenty dollars ($20,00) per week until \vork 
was available or defray the expenses incurred by the TDrospective employee. 
Nothing in the correspondence between the plaintiff and the defendant con- 
tained any reference to the collective bargaining agreement although both 
parties kne?/ of its existence. Upon the Dlaintiff's arrival the agent of 
the defend^ant told the plaintiff that he would pay the plaintiff the twenty 
dollars ($20,00) per week as provided in the collective bargaining agreement 
and actually did pay the sum for tv;o weeks. The Court, in its opinion, 
said "The correspondence * * * v^arrajited apnellants in believing, under the 
circums truces of the case, that they would be given employment, or be paid 
in accordajice ?/ith the provisions of the national agreement, with reference 
to which the parties must be held to have contracted," Thus the Court square* 
ly hold that the correspondence was sufficient to include the collective 
bargaining agreement even though nothing in the correspondence even remotely 
referred to it. The only oossible interpretation of the facts from which it 
could be inferred that the parties had contracted with reference to the 
collective bargaining agreement was that both knew of its existence and both 
assumed that they were contracting in accordance with its terms. 

Illustrations could be given of other staies which have done an about 
face and novr permit the individual employee to recover on the collective 
bargaining r'greement. 

In permitting recovery the courts have adopted various theories. iO.1 
of these theories are legal fictions resorted to by the courts apparently 
in an effort to mote out Justice. Professor Williston, in his work on con- 
tracts, states that "so far as possible the lav/ should enforce reasonable 
business agreements seriously made", (*) with little regard to technical 

(*y Williston "Contracts" Section 114 

questions of consideration. Certainly a collective bargaining agreement 
is one of the most serious and well considered documents that the average 
businessman signs. It is often reached after bitter strife and contains the 
terms under which peace is restored betw^een the employer and his employees. 
It would seem that in this enlightened age that the courts would be -oerfectly 
justified in cutting through technical questions of consideration and the 
like and enforce the terras which the loarties have settled and accepted as 
binding between themselves. As had already been stated, however, the courts 
have retained their ancient theories and in cases where recovery has been per- 
mitted have adopted various fictions to reach the desired result. Those 
fictions may be divided into three general classes; first, custom and usage; 
second, agency; third, third party beneficiary, 

None of the three fictions are satisfactory for all purposes and if a 
state ado"ots one theory to the exclusion of the other two, circumstances are 
likely to arise where injustice will be done. Perhaps a discussion of the 
three fictions w.ould be enlightening. 



9360 



-3- 

First, Custom and Usag:e . In this situation the court says in effect that 
there is really no binding contract het^-^een the em-oloyer and the labor union 
in which the employee can claim a vested interest as benef iciarj^, but the ex- 
istence of the alleged contract gives rise to an understanding bet\7een the 
employer and the employee that, in the absence of an expression to the con- 
trary, the treaty between the union and the employer shall govern the terms 
of the erar^loyment , This is oft^n expressed as it vas in the Moody case, supra, 
thr-t the parties impliedly contracted in accordance with the terms of the 
collective bargaining agreement. This theory has many advantages. It permits 
recovery in states which still refuse recovery on ordinary third party bene- 
ficiary contracts; it obviates any questions which might arise in connection 
with the technical validity of the contract between the labor union and the 
employer; and the benefits of the treaty between the exaroloyer and the union 
extend to members and non-members of the union alike. On the other hano. the 
employee obtains no vested rights under the collective bargaining agreement 
and the employer is at liberty at any time to a.p;oroach any or all individual 
employees and terminate the contract. Thus, there is no binding or continu- 
ing assurance that the employer will continue paying the wages provided in 
the collective bargaining agreement. 

Second, Agency . On this theory the courts say in effect that the labor 
union is the agent for each one of its members and that the collective bar- 
gainin-j agreement is binding upon the employers just as though a separate 
contract had been signed by each employee. This theory has not been very 
widely adopted for the reason that there are technical disadvantages in es- 
tablishing a principal and agent relationshro bet'jeen the employee end. the 
labor union. Thus, an employee might become a member of the union after the 
collective bargaining agreement had been entered into and it certainly v/ould 
be questionable whether the union could be the agent of persons who became 
members at a future date, es'oecially if there were no express provisions in 
the agreement covering such a situation. Also, a question would a.rise in 
cases where the aggrieved employee was not a, member of the union, for it could 
hardly be said that an employee, not a member of the union, had appointed the 
union his agent to enter into contracts governing the conditions of his em- 
ploy.ient. 

Third, Third Party Beneficiary Contract. Until 1931, no court of last 
resort had a.dopted this theory (*) bp.t recently the trend in this direction 

(*) Sc^e William Corham Rice, Jr., "Collective Labor Agreements", 44 
Harvard Law Review 572 at pages 595-597, 

has been very marked. The theory is that the employer and the union enter in- 
to a contract ■diich vests in the employees, as beneficiaries under the con- 
tra,ct, certain rights upon which they are entitled to recover. The disadvan- 
tage of this theory is that many states do not permit recovery by the third 
party on contracts even for the benefit of third parties, and in addition all 
of the technical requirem.ents of contracts, such as consideratian, must be 
complied with. 

So far as a careful examination ha,s disclosed, there have been adjudica- 
tions on this point in fourteen different states and in ti-'O Federal courts. 
The Federal courts and the States of Indiana, Texas, and West Virginia hold 
that the individual employee cannot under any theorj?- enforce the provisions 
of collective bargaining agreements. The following states hold on one theory 

9560 



_4- 

or mother that the provisions of collective bargaining agreements can "be en- 
forced; Arlcansas, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Mississipoi, Missouri, Nebraska, 
New York, Ohio, Oregon, South Carolina, and Tennessee, In the following states 
no cases have been brought up for adjudication; Alabama, Arizona, California, 
Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, lo'.m, 
Kansas, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nevada, New 
Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oklahoma, 
Penns3^1vfjnia, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, 
Wisconsin, and Yfyoming. Attached to this report is a table of the States 
where adjudications have been made giving the State and a brief s^mopsis of 
the nature of the case and the theory upon which it was decided. It v.dll be 
noted that none of the cases were adjudicated before 1920. This does not mean 
that there were no adjudications before 1920, but strangely enough wherever 
there was an adjudication before 1920, a subsequent case has come up which has 
either overruled on clarified the original case, making it unnecessary to set 
forth any cases prior to 1920, 

It v/ill be noted that under existing law recovery on this type of con- 
tract is deniecl the individual employee in tv;enty-five ;oercent of the states 
where the question has been definitely adjudicated. 

The ligislators of the several states, -'lith the possible exception of the 
State of 'Vashington, have not seen fit to regulate this situation by statute, 
and, indeed, in many states this would be impossible ov/ing to stringent pro~ 
visions of state constitutions with reference to statutory regulation of con- 
tracts. 

The State of Washington, this year, passed a statute authorizing the 
municipally owned public utilities of that State to enter into collective bar- 
gaining agreements. This does not necessarily mean that the individual em- 
ployee will be permitted to recover on sjiy contract entered into in purs'ariice 
of the stetute, yet it is an indication of the present trend. 

As has been shown from the explanation of the three theories upon which 
recovery is permitted, the validity of the collective bargaining agreement as 
betv/een the employer and labor union is not a criterion of whether the indi- 
vidual employee can recover on agreements, for even though the contract be 
valid as between the labor union and the eraplo^^er, the right to recover by 
the employee might be barred because third party beneficiaries are not granted 
recovery in the particular state; while on the other hand, although the con- 
tr^ict between the employer and the labor union might be invalid, yet the in- 
dividual employee might be permitted to recover on the theory that the con- 
tract established a custom or usage v;hich would be binding upon the employer 
in the absence of a specific expression to the contrary, 

Respectfully submitted, 



9360 



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